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Full text of "The natural history of North-Carolina. With an account of the trade, manners, and customs of the Christian and Indian inhabitants. Illustrated with copper-plates, whereon are curiously engraved the map of the country, several strange beasts, birds, fishes, snakes, insects, trees, and plants, &c"

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University of California. 





THE Natural History of North Carolina, writ- 
ten by John Brickell, a physician who lived and 
practiced medicine in Edenton, N. C, about 1731, 
is the most interesting of the early histories of the State. 
Copies of this book are now very rare and difficult to obtain. 
Within the past few months a student of the State's history 
considered himself fortunate in securing one from abroad, at 
a cost of more than $40. 

As the growing interest in the State's history in the past 
few years makes it desirable to place this book within the 
reach of readers, the trustees of the State Library have 
authorized its republication. 

Dr. Brickell's history is the best description we have of 
the natural, social, and economic conditions in the Colony of 
North Carolina, but its merits have been obscured and its 
value largely depreciated by careless and unjust reviewers. 

Jared Sparks and others charged him with plagiarizing 
Lawson. Of this, Dr. Stephen B. Weeks says : 

''These statements are only partially correct, and do grave 
injustice to Brickell. He acknowledges in his preface that 
his work is 'a compendious collection of most things yet 
known in that part of the world.' But it is a good deal more 
than a mere slavish reprint of Lawson. It is further in- 
creased almost one-half in bulk. The reprint of Lc",v"son 
made in 18G0 contains 390 pages, with about 27C words 
to the page. Of this space, 106 pages are taken i:p with his 
'Journal of a Thousand Miles Travel.' Thi? part is not 
used by Brickell. The edition of his work published in 
1737 contains 408 pages, about 340 words tc the page. 

"Brickell took the book of Lawson, rewoiked it in his own 
fashion, extended or curtailed, and brought it to his time. 
The effect of his professional training is seen everywhere. 


for there is hardly a description of a plant or animal which 
does not have some medical use attached to it. His work 
is fuller, more systematic, and seems more like that of a 
student; Lawson's work seems more like that of a traveler 
and observer. There is, besides, much more relating to the 
social condition of the Colony in Brickell, who has a sec- 
tion on 'The religion, houses, raiment, diet, liquors, firing, 
diversions, commodities, languages, diseases, curiosities, cat- 
tle, etc.,' while Lawson sticks close to the natural, economic, 
and Indian history of the Province." 

Of Dr. Brickell little is known. Major John W. Moore 
says that Dr. John Brickell, ''the naturalist, physician, and 
historian," and his brother, the Eev. Matthias Brickell, came 
with Governor Burrington to Carolina. Dr. Brickell re- 
mained at Edenton, while his brother became the first rector 
of St. Johns in Bertie County, ^Svhich for years was the 
only house of worship west of the Chowan Biver."^ 

Dr. Brickell appears as a member of the grand jury of 
the whole Province, in 1731, and signed a congratulatory 
address^ to the King upon the purchase of the Colony by the 
Crown from the Lords Proprietors. 

While in J^orth Carolina, Dr. Brickell probably rendered 
^the Colony some service in a friendly mission to the Chero- 
te Indians, and penetrated far into the territory now in- 
cli^d in the State of Tennessee. His description of this 
iouri.i^' is most interesting, and though overdrawn, is a dis- 
tinct cori^f'^i^^i<^^^ ^o our history of the habits of the Xorth 
Carolina h\iji^i«- We have no record of Dr. l^rickell's 
career after h\h'^' \orth Carolina. 

The Kev. .althias Brickell is said to have luvn a man 
of |)ow('r aii<l illnciicc in the ('oloiiy, and his son. Col. Mat- 
thias Bri«'k<'ll, \vr a soldiei- in the devolution. 

•MoonVs History of N. t Vol. I. page 4'.). 
»Col. Ui'C. Vol. ill. 1)1). i:v':i5. 


Several of the family have been members of the General 
Assembly, and thongh the name is now extinct, numerous 
descendants still live in the State. 

In reprinting Brickell's Xatural History of North Caro- 
lina, the original text is followed as closely as possible. The 
original editions do not contain an index, but a copy in the 
possession of the writer has been carefully indexed in such 
a painstaking, accurate hand, as to appear almost like copper- 
plate, and that index is added to this reprint. 

J. Bryan Grimes. 

NOV 23 1911 


Reprinted by Authority 


Trustees of the Public Libraries. 

The Natural 


O F 

ISorth - Carolina. 



O F T H E 

Trade, Manners, and Cuftoms of the 

Christian and Indian Inhabitants^ II- 
luftrated with Copper -Flatesy whereon are 
curioufly Engraved the Map of the Country, 
feveral ftrarige Bea/ist Birdsy F^Jbesy Snakes^ 
InfeUsy Trees y and Tlams, &c. 

t—ii^— ^^^■— — ■— — ^— I I —————— i—— —I 

3j)! J O H N B R I C K E L Lj M. D. 

No/lra no's in urhe peregrinamur* Cic. 

D V B L I N : 

PrintedbyjAMEs Carson, in CoghiWs-CoHrty Dams' 
fireet^ oppbfire to the CaJlU-Mark^t. For the A u th o R, 












T will not he to my purpose to enquire whether 
America was known to the Antients, there 
being various Opinions about it, yet ivith 
more Curiosity than certainty, whence this 
Xew World ivas Peopled; some assigning 
that the Hesperides (so called from Hesperus King of 
Spain) and the Continent of America ivere Peopled by the 
Spaniards. Others affirm that the Americans are the Race of 
Jews carried into captivity by Salamanazer and placed in 
Country s till then not Inhabited, after a progress of 18 
Months. Many believe they were People carried by Storm, 
being Chinesses sailing on the Pacifick South Sea, or other 
Northern People (allowing the possibility of each Opinion) 

I will 


iv Preface. 

I ivill not pretend to take upon me to decide the Controversy, 
being altogether a stranger to the certainty of the Fact. 

The Writings of many Learned Men may he seen on this 
Head, ivho after having searched all the Records of Antiquity, 
shew much Erudiction, hut nothing of certainty, concerning 
the Antient Affairs of America. I know the Memory of a 
Deluge is preserved amongst these People, hut whether it is 
to he understood of the universal Flood, or the Inundation 
of some particular Provinces, I leave it to others to dis- 
course upon, for I am luilling to lay aside all manner of 
Conjectures of this Nature, having enough of Truth to treat 

The several Climates of the World have influenced the 
People with Natures very different from each other, and 
even their different Speeches hear some proportion of 
Analogic with their Natures, as is to he seen amongst the 
Whites, Indians, and Blacks, that are to he met with in this 
part of the World. 

But luaveing these Discourses, we here present the Woj^ld 
with a Natural-History of North-Carolina, it heing a com- 
pendious Collection, of most things yet known in that part 
of the World; wherein I have laid down every thing with 
Impartiality and Truth, in the most plain and easie Terms, 
which indeed is the Duty of every Writer, and preferable 
to a more eloquent Stile, accompariied with many Falsities. 

I have therefore endeavour d in the following Sheets to 
give as faitltful and exact Account of Carolina, as discoveries 


Preface. v 

yet viade will Authorize, and if any take offence at what 
is said about the Indians and their wanton and lascivious 
manner of living, I hope they will Judge of every Passage 
with due deference to good Authority of the most knowing 
and substantial Planters in those Parts. And consider that 
the nature of the Work recjuired my being somewhat par- 
ticular, in order to shew the good and bad Qualities of these 
poor Creatures, who at present have no' light or benefit of 
the Gospel. 

And had we- been as careful as the Spaniards and French, 
in sending over proper Missionaries to Instruct these Tniser- 
able People, we shoud never have had occasion to give this 
Relation of them. Besides if these Methods had been put in 
practice, we undoubtedly had been better informed and ac- 
quainted with the many hidden Secrets in this part of the 
World, which these People are ivell aquainted with, and 
which they never will make known to us till they are In- 
structed in the Christian Faith, and have intirely abolished 
the many Idolatrous Customs and Practices still prevailing 
amongst them. 

I have viewed not only most part of the Lands Inhabited 
by the Christians, but likewise vast spacious Tracts lying 
betwee7i them and the Mountains, from whence our noblest 
Rivers have their rise, running for several hundreds of Miles 
towards the Ocean, while they water and adorn as pleasant 
and fertil a Country as any in Europe, the greatest part 
vjhereof is only inhabited by Savage Indians, who covet a 


vi Preface. 

Christian Neighbourhood for tJic advantage of Trade. But 
not to amuse the Reader any longer iritJi Encomiums on 
Carolina, / refer them to my Description of that Country, 
and it's Inhabitants, which they will find in the following 
I^atural History, in which I have been very exact; and for 
Methods sake, have ranged each Species of Animals, Vege- 
tables, etc. under distinct and proper Heads. 

A Collectio7i of the Natural Curiosities of this spacious 
part of the ^Vorld, ivill, I hope, not only give Satisfaction 
and Pleasure to each Reader, but likewise Profit, to all that 
are inclined to live in those Parts. 

If these my Endeavours meet with this good success, I 
am thoroughly satisfied, having nothing more at Heart than 
to be in any Degree serviseable to the Publick ; this being 
the principal Motive that induced me to undertake any M^ork 
of this Nature, {the Task being not only Laborious but Dif- 
ficult) dnd not out of any Praise I expected from it. 

To conclude. Whatever Defects may be found in this 
Undertaking, we hope in time they will be supplied by the 
Labours and Industry of such as shall come after; and this 
we are made to expect chiefly from those of our own Nation; 
and that their laudable Attempts may meet with just En- 
couragement, shall be my constant Wish and Desire. 





THE Honourable Capt. Richard Allen. 
Stephen Allen, M. D. 
Mr. Pat. Archbold. 
Mr. John Archbold. 
Mr. Richard Armstrong. 


"rpDward Bond, Esq; 

^^ Worsopp Bush, Esq; 

Edmond Barry, M. D. 

Mr. Michael Barry, Attorney. 

Mr. Peter Brandon. 

Mr. James Brickell. 

Mr. George Brickell. 

Mr. William Brickell. 

Mr. Robert Bijar. 

Mr. Jos. Burry, Attorney. 

Mr. Thomas Brennan. 

Mr. Stearne Brock, Bookseller. 

viii Subscribers. 

Mr. Alexander Brown. 

Mr. David Bush, of Philadelphia, Merchant. 

Mr. Henry Barton, Apothecary ; 

Mr. John Brenan, 

Mr. Kichard Baxter. 

Mr. Benjamin Brickenden. 

Mr. Martin Bourke. 

Mr. Arthur Brerton. 

Mr. Benjamin Bardon, Apothecary. 


THE Honourable Thomas Coote, Esq; 
The Revd. Charles Carthy, A. M. 
William Clements, A. M. F. T. C. D. 
Edmond Castello, Esq; 
John Curry. M. D. 
Mr. John Clinch. 
Mr. Patrick Connor. 
Mr. James Connor. 
Mr. Patrick Cassidy, Attorney. 
Mr. Call. McCarty. 
Mr. Patrick Carrick. 
Mr. John Carson, of Rathmullin. 
Mr. Nathanial Carson, of Killough. 
Mr. William Connor. 
Mr. Samuel Card. 
Mr. William Carlile. 
Mr. John Common. 
Mr. Edmond Cumerford. 
Mr. Samuel Clea])em, Chirurgion. 
Mr. Robert Calderwood. 
Mr. Thomas Coote. 

Subscribers. ix 


npHE Revd. Patrick Delany, D. D. 

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Sam Davey. 
Joseph Davey, Esq; 
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Mr. Henry Delamain. 
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Mr. George Dogherty. 
Mr. Walter Durham. 
Mr. William Dane. 


"lY yi" R. Valentine Egan. 

-*-^-^ Mr. James English. 

Mr. William Edwards, Apothecary. 

Mr. James Easdell, Saddler. 


O IR William Fowns, Bart. 
^ Lewis Falliott, Esq; 
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John Fergus, M. D. 
Captain Samuel Farra. 
Captain Matthew Fitzgerald. 
Mr. Charles Franck. 


Mr. William Floyd. 
]\lr. Peter Fitch. 
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Mr. Robert F inlay. 
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"ly^ R. James Glasco. 
-^^-'- Miss Sophia Gordon. 
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MR. Obadiah Hill. 
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Subscribers. xi 


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THE Rt. Revd. Dr. Charles Cobbe, Bishop of Kildare. 
Mr. William Keating, Chirurgion. 
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'T^HE Revd. Edward Ledwich, A. M. 

-■- Mr. Joseph Lamb. 
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Mr. William Lamb. 
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T> ATRICK Mitchell, Esq; 
■*■ Topham Mitchell, Esq; 
Thomas Morse, Esq; 
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xii Subscribers. 

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JOSEPH :N'elson, A. M. 
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C0L0:N'EL Thomas Pollocxsen. 
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Subscribers. xiii 


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xiv Subscribers. 


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HE Province of North Carolina is separated 
from Virginia by a due West Line from Cur- 
rituck Inlet, in 36 Degrees and 30 Minutes 
of Northern Latitude, extending Indefinitely 
Westward, and from thence to the Southward, 
including South Carolina, as far as 29 Degrees Xorth. 

The Eastern Parts of this Country are hemmed in with a 
great number of Islands and Sand Banks, which defend it 
from the violence of the Atla7itick Ocean ; by which Barrier, 
a vast Sound is formed, and inclosed, which fronts the Mouths 
of the most pleasant and navigable Rivers, in this spacious 
and delightful Country. There are vast numbers of Creeks 
on the sides of these Rivers, and most of them Navigable 
for small Crofts, and abundance for Vessels of larger Bur- 

A Between 


The Natural History 

Between these Islands and Sand Banks, are Inlets of sev- 
eral depths of Water, some admitting only of Sloops, Scoon- 
ers, Brigantines, and Vessels of small Burthen, and such are 
Currituck Inlet, New Inlet, Roanoke, Gun Inlet, Hatieras, 
New Inlet, Huntitigton-quarter Inlet, Drum Inlet, Bogus 
Inlet, Bear Inlet, Browns Inlet, Little Inlet, New River 
Inlet, Stumpy Inlet, Sandy Inlet, Rich Inlet, Barren Inlet, 
Broad Inlet, Sliole Inlet, Cabbage Inlet, Wachestau Inlet, 
T^a/iacaw Inlet, and North Inlet: many of these being only 
!N'avigable for Periaugers and small Crofts, by reason of 
their many Shoals which are continually shifting by the 
violence of Storms, and particularly, ^orth East Winds, to 
which they are mostly exposed. Others are large and deep, 
and receive Ships of Burthen, such are Ocacok, Beaufort, or 
Topsail Inlet, and Cape Fear. 

I will here give an Account of the most considerable Inlets 
and Havens of this Country. And first, Currituck Inlet, it 
being the Northermost of this Province, it lyes in the Lati- 
tude of 36 Degi'ees and 30 Minutes, and the Course over it is 
S. W. by W. having not above seven or eight Foot Water on 
the Barr, though a good Harbour when you are over, where 
you may ride safe and deep enough. But this part of the 
Sound is so full of Shoals, continually shifting, and Oyster 
Banks, as not to suffer any thing except Periaugers to Trade 
through it to Vessels that ride near the Inlet, it not being 
!N"avigable or safe for any Croft that draws above four or 
five Foot at most, to pass through it, which renders it very 
incommodious for Trade. 

Roanoke Inlet, lyes in the Latitude of 35 Degrees and 
50 Minutes, and has about ten Foot and a half Water upon 
the Barr ; the Course over it is almost West, which brings 
you through the best of the Channel. This Barr, as well 


of North Carolina. 

Currituck, often shifts by the violence of the N. E. Storms ; 
both these Inlets lying exposed to the said Winds. Not- 
withstanding a considerable Trade is carried on by the As- 
sistance of Pilots, this part of the Country being very Fer- 
tile, and the Planters Rich. 

Hatteras Inlet lyes in the Latitude of 35 Degrees and 20 
Minutes, it lyes to the Westward of the Cape, round which is 
an excellent Harbour, when the Wind blows hard a N. or 
N. E. If you keep a small League from the Cape Point, you 
will have three, four, or five Eathom Water, the outermost 
Shoals lying about seven or eight Leagues from the Shoar. 
As you come into the Inlet, keep close to the South Breakers, 
till you are over, whereon you may have tw^o Eathom at low 
Water. You may come to an Anchor at two Eathom and a 
half; when you are over, then steer close aboard the TvTorth 
Shoar, where is four Eathom close to a Point of Marsh; 
then steer uj) the Sound a long League, till you bring the 
A^rth Cape of the Inlet to S. S. E. half E. then steer W. 
N. W. the last Point of the Bluff Land at Hutteras, bearing 
E. N. E. the Southermost large Hamoch, towards Ocacock, 
bearing S. S. W. half S. then you are in the Sound, over 
the Barr of Sand, whereon is but six Eoot Water, then your 
Course to Pamticoe is almost West. 

It flows on these three Barrs S. E. by E. % E. about Eight 
of the Clock, unless there is a very hard Gale of Wind at 
1^. E. which will make it flow two Hours longer, but as soon 
as the Winds are down, the Tides will have their natural 
Course. A hard Gale at ]^. I^. W. will make the Waters 
Ebb sometimes 24 Hours, but still the Tides wdll Ebb and 
Flow, though not seen by the turning thereof, but may be ob- 
serv'd by the rising of the Waters, and falling of the same at 
the Shears. 

A 2 Ocacock 

The Natural Historic 

Ocacock Inlet lyes in the Latitude of 35 Degrees 8 Min- 
utes. It is one of the best Inlets in this Country, having thir- 
teen Foot at low Water upon the Barr. There are two Chan- 
nels, One is but narrow, and lyes close aboard the South 
Cape; the Other in the middle, viz. Between the middle 
Ground and the South Shoar, and is above half a Mile wide. 
The Barr itself is but half a Cables length over ; then you are 
in 7 or 8 Fathom Water, and an excellent good Harbour. 
The Course into the Sound is IST. E". W. at High Water, and 
l^eip Tides here is 18 Foot Water. It lies S. W. from Hat- 
teras Inlet. 

Port Beaufort, or Topsail Inlet, lyes in the latitude 34 
Degrees and 44 Minutes, and is above two Leagues to the 
Westward of Cape Look-out, where you have a fair Channel 
over the Barr, and two Fathom Water thereon, and a good 
Harbour, in five or six Fathom, to come to an Anchor. Your 
Course over this Barr is almost N. W. 

Cape Fear Inlet lyes in the Latitude of 33 Degrees 53 
Minutes ; it is the best in all North Carolina, where you have 
7 Fathom Water at the Barr. You have likewise a fine Har- 
bour, and can come with safety to an Anchor 5 or 6 Leagues 
up the Biver. 

And notwithstanding it is so commodious for IN'avigation, 
yet few or no Planters settled here till within these few 
Years, but now in all Appearance, it seems to be the most 
rising Part of all this Province ; there being now many Sub- 
stantial Planters settled there, and are become very Rich 
within the space of 'Nine or Ten Years, it being little fre- 
quented or inhabited before that Time, viz. in the Year 1723. 

Most of the other Inlets that I have already mentioned, are 
so very incommodious for Trade, that they are little fre- 

of North Carolina. 

quented or resorted to, except it be by small Crofts and Peri- 
augers. I shall therefore omit giving any further Account 
of them. 

North Caroliiia has some considerable Promontories or 
Capes in it : That Cape called Hatteras, is the most Northern 
of this Province, it lyes in the Latitude of 35 Degrees and 
20 Minutes, Longitude 75. Cape Look-out, is the largest in 
this Province, extending a great way into the Main Ocean, 
and is about two Leagues to the Northward or Mouth of Top- 
sail Inlet, in the Latitude of 34 Degrees and 46 Minutes, 
Longitude 75, 50. Cape Fear lyes at the Mouth of the Inlet 
in the Latitude of 33 Degrees and 53 Minutes, Longitude 77, 
20. Cape Carterett is part of South Carolina, and is the 
Northermost Promontorie in that Province, lying to the 
Southward of Santee Kiver in Latitude 32 of Degrees, and 
50 Minutes, Longitude 77, 55. Within these Capes is a very 
large Sound, with abundance of Islands of several Sizes, 
abounding with various kinds of Timber Trees, many whereof 
are fine Cedar, with variety of Wild Beasts, especially Deer, 
and great Quantities of Birds, according to the Seasons of 
the Year, but there are scarce any of them inhabited by Chris- 
tian Planters at present. 

I shall in the next Place proceed to give an Account of the 
Rivers that are to be met with in this Province; many 
whereof are very considerable and large, running for several 
hundred Miles, and taking their Rise for the most part in 
or near the Mountains, others are but small in comparison 
with the former, as may be seen by the Map. 

I shall therefore begin with the most Northerly, and so pro- 
ceed to the most Southerly. And first, Blach-Water, or North 
River, which falls into Currituck Sound, North River, Pas- 


The Natural History 

quotanck River, Little River, Pequimans River, and Yaupin 
River, all these Water and Adorn the Southern Parts of Vir- 
ginia, and J^orthern Parts of this Province, which are very 
Fertile. Most of these Rivers being Navigable for Sloops, 
Brigantines, and other Vessels of Burthen. 

Choivan River likewise Waters the JSTorth Parts of this 
Province, and part of Virginia, and is very considerable in 
these Parts; the Inhabitants on its Banks are very Rich by 
its Fertility, and being so commodious for Trade, it is the 
fifth large and considerable River in this Province; it falls 
into Albemarle Sound. 

Keja River is likewise to the ^N'orthward of this Province, 
but is not very Considerable. 

Roanoke River is the largest in this Province, taking its 
noble Rise from the Charokee or Appelapeau Mountains, and 
Watering several Parts of Virginia, as it crosses the due 
West Line that separates it from Virginia, it is very commo- 
dious for Trade, being l^avigable for a vast way up the Coun- 
try, most of the former Rivers empty themselves into this 
Albemarle or Currituck Sound. 

Maca Punga River, is a ISTorth Branch of Pamticoe River, 
and admits of Sloops, Brigantines, and other Vessels of 

Pamticoe River is the fourth considerable River in these 
Parts, taking its Rise near or from the Mountains, and falls 
into Pamticoe Sound, with a vorv large ^louth, several Miles 
in Breadth, and is not inferior to any of the other large Riv- 
ers, for the goodness of its Navigation, as is manifest by the 
many Rich Inhabitants dwelling upon its delightful and fer- 
tile Banks. 

Bay River is not very considerable, being small, yet its 
Trade is not despisable. 


of North Carolina. 

Neus River is the Third large Eiver in this Province, but 
is not so good as Pamticoe, for Navigation, notwithstanding 
its Rise is near the Mountains. 

Trent Eiver is a South Branch of Neus River, which falls 
into Pamticoe Sound. 

North River lyes to the Southward of Neus, and empties 
itself into Cour Sound ; as do likewise Newport River, Wee- 
tock River, and New River; but are not very considerable, 
being only Navigable for Sloops and small Crofts. 

Black, or Swampy River, is but small, and lyes to the 
Northward of Cape Fear River. 

Cape Fear River is the Second considerable and large 
River, and is one of the best for Navigation in these Parts : 
There is a large River which is the Northeast Branch of Cape 
Fear River, but is distinguished or called by no proper Name 
that I know^ of at present. 

Waggomau River is a Northeast Branch of Pedee River, 
and is large, taking its Ri^e from a great Lake to the North- 
ward of the said River. 

Little Pedee River is a North Branch of the following, and 
is not large. 

Pedee River is the Third large and considerable River in 
North Carolina. 

Black River, and Santee River are the two Southermost 
in those Parts, being part of South Carolina. 

One thing worthy of Observation is. That the Current of 
all the Rivers in this large Country, are scarce to be perceived, 
'till you travel several Hundred Miles, or near their Heads, 
which is chief! V owing; to their beins; so larc:e, and the Coun- 
try so very level. 

In many of these noble and spacious Rivers, are alnind- 
ance of Creeks, several whereof are verv connnodious for 
Trade, being Navigable for several Miles; there are likewise 


8 The Natural Historg 

many considerable Islands in these Eivers, abounding with 
several sorts of Trees, Wild Beasts, especially Deer, and 
various kinds of Fowl ; they are Inhabited by few or no Chris- 
tians at present. In several parts of these Rivers are like- 
wise to be seen great number of decayed Cypress and other 
large Trees, standing at a gTcat distance in the Water, the 
Earth being entirely washed away from them in the series of 
many Ages. 

The next thing to be considered, is the Towns and their 
beautiful Situation. And first, Edentown is the largest, con- 
sisting of about Sixty Houses, and has been the Seat of the 
Governors for many Years, and is pleasantly seated on a 
Creek on the ]S[orth-side of Roanoche River; where you have 
a delightful Prospect of the said River. 

Bath Town, is the Second considerable Town in this Prov- 
ince, and is most delightfully seated on a Creek on the l^orth- 
side of Pamticoe River, with the same beautiful Advantages 
of the former : It's E'avigation is much better, being the most 
considerable and commodious for Trade in this Province, ex- 
cept Cape Fear. 

Newhern is situated on the South-side of Neus River, with 
a pleasant Prospect of that River : This Town has but a few 
Houses or Inhabitants in it at present. 

Handcoch Town is seated on a North West Branch of Neus 
River, being above two Hundred Miles from the Mouth of 
that River, and is scarce worth taking l^otice of, only for its 
being formerly an Indian Town, and where they had a Port 
in time of War. 

Beaufort Town stands on the IsTorth-side of Newport Rivej, 
it's prospect being as pleasant as any of the former : It is 
small, and thinly inhabited. 

Brunswick Town is most delightfully seated, on the South- 
side of that IToble River Cape Fear; and no doubt but it will 
be very considerable in a short time, by it's great Trade, the 


of North Carolina. 

Number of Mercliaiils, and rich Plauters, that are settled 
upon it's Banks, within these few Years. 

The Streets in these Towns are as level as a Bowling- 
Green, there being no manner of Pavement to be met with 
over all this Province. 

The first Settlement of this Country was made in Queen 
Elizabeth's time, by Sir Walter Raleigh and others, at Roan- 
oke, in Albemarle County; but continued not long, either by 
Sickness or other Misfortunes, or by the Barbarity of the 
Indians, who were very numerous and powerful in those 
Days, but are now very f ew^, being for the most part destroyed 
by their continual Wars with each other, and European Dis- 
tempers, brought in amongst them, and especially the Small- 
Pox, which prov'd fatal to most of the Indians that were seized 
with it. This Distemper, and many others unknown to these 
Savages, before the arrival of the Christians amongst them 
in those Parts. I hope it will not be unpleasing to the Header 
to insert here a pleasant Story which still prevails amongst 
them; and is attested by the most substantial and credible 
Planters of this Place, which is, ^'That the Ship that brought 
^^the first Colonies, does often appear to them (in Albemarle 
"Sound near Roanohe) under Sail, in a most gallant posture." 
Which they call Sir Walter Raleiglis Ship. 

The second Settlement was made in King Charles the Sec- 
onds Time, chiefly in Chowan and Barty Precincts, in Albe- 
marl County, by several Persons from Virginia, and other 
Northern Colonies, who finding the Soil so very good and fer- 
tile, settled here, and are become very Numerous and Eich; 
for the Lands here produce every thing Planted in them in 
great abundance ; Horses, Cows, Sheep, and Swine, breeding 
in vast Numbers, the Winter, being very short, and that so 

B mild 

10 The Natural Historic 

mild, the Planters are at little or no Labour or Expence in 
providing Fodder for their Stocks, to what other Northerly 
Countries are. For in the Winter they only fell large Trees, 
whereon gi'ow long Moss, which the Horses and Cows feed 
upon, and makes them both fat and strong ; the Cows will pro- 
duce Milk, with this kind of Fodder, all the Winter Season, in 
great plenty. As for Hay, I never observed any made in the 
Country, tho' they have such plenty of Grass, that they are 
obliged to burn it off the Ground every lOth of March, by 
vertue of a Law made in the Country for that purpose. 

These Inducements encouraged them to Settle here, though 
but a handful of People, seated at great distance one from 
another, amidst such vast N^umbers of Savage Indians, of dif- 
ferent JSTations, who w^ere then in Carolina to be met withal. 

The Fame of this Province soon spread itself to the Neigh- 
bouring Colonies, and in a few Years drew considerable num- 
bers of Families, not only from them, but likewise from sev- 
eral Parts of Europe, who all found Land enough to settle 
themselves in, had they been many Thousands more, both for 
Pleasure and Profit; which makes the Planters in a great 
measure live after a most luxurious manner, and void of Care, 
to what other more ISTortherly Climates are obliged to, by pro- 
viding Necessaries for the Winter. So that it may properly 
be said, that Nature produces every thing here for the Pleas- 
ure and Profit of the Inhabitants. 

Most of the Plantations naturally have a very noble and 
beautiful Prospect of large and spacious Rivers or Creeks, 
abounding with variety of Fish and Wildfowl ; as also, pleas- 
ant and delightful Savannas or Meddows, with their Grean 
Liveries, interwoven with various kinds of beautiful and most 


of North Carolina. 11 

glorious Colours, and fragrant Odours, which the several Sea- 
sons afford, and fenced in with pleasant Groves of the fine 
Tulip Tree, Laurel and Bays, equalizing the Oak in bigness 
and growth, likewise the Myrtle, Jessamine, Wood-bines, 
Honeysuckles, and several other odoriferous Plants, the most 
beautiful Vines and Ever-greens, shadow and interwave 
themselves with the most lofty Timber, yielding a very pleas- 
ant and delightful Prospect, to those that travel through the 
Woods of Carolina; that, turn your Eyes, which way you 
will, you have nothing but pleasing and diverting Objects, 
and the more to be admired, being the Work of Nature, and 
not of Art. 

The Lands being thus richly adorn' d, and the Planters en- 
joying all these Blessings, are as hospitable People as any in 
the World, to all that come to visit them, there being few 
House-keepers, but what live decently, and give away more 
Provisions to Coasters and Guests, that come to see them, 
than they expend amongst their own Eamilies. 

The Lands in Carolina lie indifferently low and level, no 
Rocks, or even small Stones are to be found, till you come 
near the Mountains, and the Heads of the great Rivers, where 
the best Lands are generally to be met with, abounding with 
all sorts of Clover, in gi-eat Plenty, but is at present only in- 
habited by Savage Indians, of different E^ations, or the Habi- 
tation of Wild Beasts ; and is more healthful to live in, than 
where the Plantations are already established. 

Here are in several Places large Savannas, beautiful to 
behold, which at certain Seasons, appear at a distance like so 
many Pleasure Gardens, being intermixt with variety of 
Spontaneous Elowers of various Colours, such as the Tulip, 
Trumpet-flower, Princess-feather, and several others, with 

B 2 great 

12 The Natural Historg 

great quantities of Grass on them, but of a coarser and 
stronger ISTature than up the Eivers, where there is mostly 
Clover to be met with, notwithstanding Horses, and other 
Cattle feed very well on the former, and are fat, strong, and 
fit for Labour, most Seasons of the Year. 

There are likewise Perhosons and Swamps, which are good 
Pasturage for Cattle ; so that by the richness of the Soil, and 
the many other Advantages and Blessings that attend the 
Planters, they live after a lazy and indolent Manner, to what 
those in New England do, and other Northerly Countries are, 
by providing Necessaries for Winter. 

Lands are so very Cheap, that (after you have taken out 
your Patten for Six Hundred and forty Acres, which will 
cost three or four Pounds Sterl. or the Value in Carolina 
Money) you pay at the dearest, for the said Number of Acres, 
Six Shillings and Six pence Sterl. Yearly, and at the lowest 
three Shillings and three Pence, free from all Taxes at pres- 
ent: So that with moderate Industry may be acquired all 
manner of Necessarys for the Support of a Family, though 
never so Numerous, nothing being wanting there but a suf- 
ficient Number of Hands, and Industry, to make it as fine a 
Country as any in the World. 

They Plant or Sow all their Corn by one Plough, or the 
Hoe, and several Plantations have produced Indian Corn, or 
some other Grain every Year, since the Settlement of the 
Christians in those Parts, without any Manure, and yet seems 
not to be the least Impoverished, producing continually a 
good Crop, imless a bad Season prevents, which seldome hap- 
pens in Carolina. ^ 

And, I am satisfied, that there cannot be one gi-eater Argu- 
ment in the World, to prove the goodness and fertiltie of the 


of North Carolina. 13 

Lands than this, which is one of the greatest Blessings that 
can attend a Country where there are so few Hands to Manu- 
facture the Lands after that laborious Manner, which is cus- 
tomary with us, which every Farmer in Ireland is well ac- 
quainted with, who is at continual Expence for Servants, 
Horses, and many other Necessaries to improve his Lands to 
the best Advantage. 

The Lands of Carolina consist of different Sorts of com- 
post, in several Places, some Stiff, others Light, some Marie, 
others a rich Black Mold, some Sandy, one Part Pieny, 
another large Timber Trees, others Savannas, with variety 
of beautiful Flowers and long Grass, a rich black Earth, 
where scarce any Tree will grow, yet produces the best Wheat 
and Eice of any Land in these Parts, as has been experienced 
by the Planters. 

I have seen several of these Savannas some Miles in length 
and breadth, but ai-e little regarded or made use of by the 
Planters, by reason that they are at some distance from their 
Plantations, some being two, three, or four Miles from the 
Water side, and are only Pasturage for Cattle. The Reader 
must understand, that all the Inland in this Province lyes 
waste at present. 

Other Lands in this Province are Perhosons, where large 
Cypress Trees grow, others Swamps, where hollow Canes, 
Myrtle Trees and several sorts of Vines grow, and produce 
good Pasturage for Cattle, but are generally the Habitation 
of wild Beasts ; both these being very wet and low Lands, and 
so full of Canes and Underwood, that there is no passing 
through them, many of which are several Miles in length. 
The Indians in their Hunting Matches set these Places on 
Fire at certain Seasons of the Year, by which Means they 
drive out the Game, and kill vast Numbers of them. 


14 The Natural Historg 

The Planters for the most part live by the Water side, few 
or none living in the In-land parts of the Country at present, 
though the Lands are as good and fertile as any that are yet 
inhabited ; but not so commodious for Carriage as by the 
Water, for most part of the Plantations run but a Mile back- 
ward into the Woods, so that betwixt every River you shall 
see vast Tracts of Land lying waste, or inhabited only by 
wild Beasts : What is worthy of Observation is. That almost 
every Planter may have a convenient Dock upon his Planta- 
tion, and a sufficient Quantity of good Timber to build Ships 
and Boats withal. 



THE Wheat of this Province is very good and fair, the 
Plour very White, but the Grain is not altogether so 
large as ours, yet it seldom yields less than thirty ]\Ieas- 
ures for one sown ; not but that there has been Sixty Increase 
for one sown in Piney Land, which is accounted the worst Soil 
in the Country, and I have been credibly inform'd, that the 
Wheat which was Planted in the Savannas, and such like rich 
Soil, has produced a Hundred for one Measure Sown. These 
considerable Increases prevent the Planters to make strict and 
nice Observations of the Nature and Goodness of the Soil ; 
for I never saw one Acre of Land managed as it ought to be, 
and were they as Negligent in their Husbandry in Europe, 
as they are in North Carolina, their Land would jiroduce 


of North Carolina. 15 

nothing but Weeds. And I must confess, when some of the 
Planters enquired of me how we managed the Land in Ire- 
land, and what Labour and Expence we were at in ordering 
them to the best Advantage, it seemed very surprising to 
them how we could live, and especially when I told him, that 
we paid from three Shillings to four or five Pounds per Acre 
(besides many heavy Taxes) which Relation they could by no 
means give Credit to, but looked upon what I said as meer 
Romances or Tales, to impose upon their Credulity. 

The Rye thrives very well here, but they having such 
Plenty of Maiz, in this Province, they little regard or value 
it, and especially by Reason of the Blackness of the Bread it 

The Barley does much better here than may reasonable be 
expected from their Management of it, that Grain requiring 
the Ground to be well Wrought, with repeated Blowings to 
make it Mellow, which their general Way of breaking with 
Koes will never perform; though I have seen extraordinary 
Barley produced in North Carolina, after that manner, or 
with one Plowing only. 

Oats does well here, but the vast Plenty of other Grain 
prevents their propagating of it in many Places, so that it is 
not common in these Parts of America at present. 

The Rice, whereof there are several Sorts, some Bearded, 
others not, beside the White and the Red, but the White is 
best. The Rice of Carolina is esteemed as good as any 
brought to Europe, and is of a prodigious Increase, yielding 
from eight Hundred to a Thousand for one Measure that is 
sown. It grows best in their Wet and wild Land, that hath 
not been cultivated or broken up before. The Indian-Corn 
or Maize is most commonly Planted with the Hoe, and proves 


16 The Natural History 

the most useful Grain in these Parts, being in great Plenty 
all over this Province ; it is very nourishing in Bread Sodden 
or otherwise, as appears by those that continually feed upon 
it, making them strong, able, and fit for hard Labour. It 
grows in all manner of Ground except Barren Sands; but 
when Planted in good Ground, produces for one Measure, 
Seven or eight Hundred, at the lowest Computation that can 
be made. Pigs and Poultery fed with this Grain, eat the 
sweetest of all others. 

The Millet does very well here, especially in light and loose 
Ground, they sow it in April and May, and prospers best in 
moist and rainey Weather: The Plenty of other Grain, pre- 
vents the Planters from sowing much of it, being only made 
Use of in Carolina to fatten their Poultry with. 

There are two Crops of Corn in the Year, viz. the Euro- 
pean Wheat is generally cut down first, and in their Barns 
the beginning of June, then they immediately Plow, Sow, or 
Plant the same Ground with Buck-Wheat, or Indian Corn, 
which wonderfully increases, and is ready to be brought home 
in September, Octoher, or November, with which they gener- 
ally feed their Horses, Hogs, and Poultry. 

The Guinea Wheat thrives likewise very well here, and 
serves for the Uses of the former. 

There are several sorts of Pulse in this Province ; and first, 
the Bushel Bean, so called from producing a Bushel of Beans 
or more from one that is Planted ; they are a Spontanious 
product in Carolina, and are Set in the Spring round Ar- 
bours, or near long Poles set in the Ground for that purpose, 
where they make a good Shade to sit under in the extrea.nity 
of hot Weather; they continue Budding, Flowing, and Pipon- 
ing all the Summer, until the approach of Frost, Avhich pre- 

of North Carolina. 17 

vents their farther Growth, and so dye ; they climb prodigious 
high, and their Stalk is about the thickness of a Man's 
Thumb, the Pod grows like the Kidney Bean, but the Bean 
is flat, white, or mottled, with a purple Colour: They are 
extraordinary good, and well relished Pulse, either by them- 
selves or with Meat. 

The Indian Rouncival, or Miraculous Pea, so called from 
their long Pods and great Increase. These are a late Pea, 
and require a pretty long Summer to ripen and bring them to 
Perfection, they are a good Pulse, and in great plenty all 
over this Province with Christians and Indians. 

The Bonavis is another kind of Pulse, and yields a great 
Increase, it doth not require so long a Summer to ripen as 
the former, they grow like Kidney-Beans, and are very plenty 
in this Province. 

The Calivances are another kind of Pulse, resembling the 
former, but are not so flat, they are in great plenty in most 
of the Plantations amongst the Indian Corn. These and the 
Bonavis, afford two Crops in the Year, and are generally ripe 
and in full perfection in six Weeks time. 

The Nanticoachs are another kind of Pulse, and resemble 
the Calivances, and are in great plenty all over this Province. 

There are several other kinds of Pulse in this Province 
that we have no J^ame for, which are well known amongst 
the Indians, and are excellent Pood. 

The Kidney-Bean, is likewise here in great plenty, grow- 
ing for the most part in every Corn-Pield. The Indians had 
these four Sorts of pidse, viz. the Bonavis, Calivances, Nan- 
ticoachs, and Kidney-Beans, and several other sorts, long 
before the Arrival of the Europeans amongst them; which 
Report I have had affirmed several times, not only from the 
Christians, but likewise from the Indians in these Parts. 

2 C The 

18 The Natural Histoid 

The large European-Beaii, will in two or three Years de- 
generate into a dwarfish Kind, if not prevented by a new Sup- 
ply of Foreign Seed, as I have experienced during my stay 
in those Parts ; yet these Dwarfish sort become sweeter, and 
better relish'd, than any Bean of the same Sort in Europe; 
but these kind of Beans are very little regarded or made use 
of, and therefore seldom Planted, by reason the other Pulse 
are in such Plenty all over this Province. 

I have observed several sorts of European-Pease in this 
Province come to as great Perfection, as in most Parts of 
Europe, particularly the white and gray Rouncival, the Ilot- 
Spur, the Dwarf, the Field and the Sickle-Pease; and there 
is no doubt but that all other kinds of European-Pease would 
thrive well here had any tryal been made. 

The Garden Roots that thrive here are Parsnips, Carrots, 
Skirrets, Turnips, Gvound-Artichoakes, Garden-Radishes, 
Horse-Radishes, Potatoes of several sorts, and very large, 
some whereof weigh four Pounds; Leeks, Onions in great 
plenty, and excellent good Shallots, Cives, Garlicky and wild 
Onions, Beets, and most other Roots that are to be met with 
in Europe. 

The Ballads are the curl'd Cahhage, Savoy, Lettice, round 
prickly Spinage, the sweet and common Fennel, Endive, 
Succory, Mint, the Dock or Wild Rhuharh, Cresses of several 
sorts, as Winter, Garden, Indian, Sciatica, Wafer-Cresses, 
and many more; French and English Sorrel, Pur slain two 
sorts, viz. the Tame and the Wild ; which are so plenty, that 
they are common Weeds in their Gardens, the Leaf is not as 
large as the Tame, but as good ; the Planters boil it with their 
Salt Meat for Greens, this is never to be met with in the 
Indian Plantations ; and is supposed to be produced from 
the Cow-Dung, which Beast the Indians keep not amongst 


of North Carolina. 19 

Samphire, is in very great Plenty along the Marshes near 
the Sea and Salt Water, and is very good. 

Mushrooms, good and in great Plenty all over the Fields. 

Asparagus, thrives in this Province to a miracle, without 
the assistance or benefit of Hot-Beds, Dung, or other Manure, 
being only produced from the natural goodness of the Soil, 
and it is found in Plenty in most Gardens in this Province, 
and as good as any in Europe. As likewise Selery and Clary. 

Parsley, two Sorts, the White-Cabbage, from European 
Seeds thrive well here, but the planters seldom or never take 
Care or Pains to preserve good Seed of their own ; so that by 
their iSTegligence, it is not so common as otherwise it might. 
The Colly-Flower does not thrive well here, by what tryals 
I have seen made during my abode in those Parts ; but the 
plain and curled Coleworth^ ilourisheth. 

The Artichoah I have observed but in two Places in this 
Province, which is tollerable good, here are likewise great 
quantities of excellent good Water-MeUo7is of several sorts, 
Musk-Mellons, very good and of several sorts, as the Golden, 
Green, Guinea, and Orange. Cucumbers, long, short, and 
prickly, and all produced from the natural Ground with great 
Increase, without any help of Dung, or reflection from 

Ponipions, yellow and very large Burmillions, Cashaws, 
which is an excellent Fruit when boyl'd. Squashes, Symnals, 
Horns and Gourds, besides variety of other Speces of less 
value, such as the Poke, which is a kind of Mechoacan, and 
grows in every Field, the tender Tops whereof may be boiled 
and made use of as other Greens with all the safety immagi- 
nable, and are very good and nourishing, but the Roots 
(which are as thick as a Man's Leg) are not to be medled 


20 The Natural History 

with, being in their Nature violent Purgers, and occasion 
those that eat of them to be frantick for some time, though 
I have never heard of any farther Mischief done by them. 
Lamhs-Quarter, and various kinds of Salleting, too tedious 
to mention. 

The Pot-Herbs, and others which are useful in Physick 
are common here, and are as follows, Angelica, two sorts, 
viz. the Wild and the Tame, Balm, Bugloss, Borrage, Bur- 
net, Marygold, Pennyroyal, Rue, Marjoram, two sorts, Sum- 
mer and Winter Savory, Thyme, Rosemary, Lavender, Hys- 
sop, Avhich grows very large. Sweet Bazil, Groundsel, Derg, 
red and white, Nep or Cat-mint, Mallows several sorts. Tan- 
say, Columbine, Dandelion, Wormwood, Southernwood, Bas- 
tard Saffron; and several sorts of Mustard. 

The more Physical Plants are Anis, Asarahacca, growing 
in most Places in the Woods; Cardv^, Benedicius, Caraway, 
Cu7nmin, Coriander, Scurvy -Grass, two sorts; the one from 
Europe, and the other Spontaneous. 

In these Parts Tobacco of many sorts. Dill, all the Euro- 
pean sorts of Plantain, and two Spontaneous, Elecampain, 
Archangel, or Dead-Nettie, the Stinging-Nettle, the Seed 
being brought from Europe, there being none found growing 
Spontaneous in North Carolina — Comfery, Monhs-Rhuharh, 
Burdock, Featherfew, Wormfeed, Garden-Poppies, none yet 
being discover'd growing Wild in this Province. Ground- 
Ivy is Spontaneous, but much smaller than the European; 
Pcrewinhle growing in great plenty in most parts of the 
Woods; Golden-Rod, several sorts of Horchound, Melilot, 
Bastard-Lovage. The Rattle-Snahe-Hoot, whereof there are 
three sorts, and is so called, because it alone euros the Bite 
of the Raitle-Snahe ; it is very plenty in all the Savannas 
and Woods. Snake-Root, four sorts in Carolina: Purging 
Bindweed or Scamony, growing in most ])nrts of this Prov- 


of North Carolina. 21 

The I'pecacuana grows likewise in great Plenty in this 
Province, which I frequently made Use of during my stay 
in that Country, with as good Success as any I have ever 
met with in Europe. This Herb bringeth forth one or more 
Stalks, which are Quadrangular, about a Foot high, whereon 
grow Leaves confusedly set at certain distance one from the 
other, unless at the Top, where they grow one opposite to the 
other, something like Pur slain, but more sharp, and of a 
dark green colour, with a red circle about the Edges, and 
divided with Threads or Sinews in the middle, which perish 
in Winter. I am not certain whether it beareth Flowers 
or Seed; the Koot is so well known in every Apothecary's 
Shop, that it would be needless to trouble the Eeader with 
a farther Description about it. This and the Scamony grow^ 
in high Sandy Ground, in many Places in Carolina. Oak 
of Jerusalem, Indian-purger, Sioallow-wort, Palma-Christi, 
several sorts of Mint, Red-Doch, Jamestown-Weed, so called 
from its being so very plenty in Virginia, especially on both 
sides of James's River: The Seed it bears is exactly like that 
of an Onion, but it's Leaves are very coarse and large, and 
indented about the Edges ; it is excellent good in asswaging 
all manner of Inflammations, and curing Burns, by applying 
it outwardly, with which the Indians are well acquainted, 
but if it be taken Inwardly, it immediately occasions a Gid- 
diness and Madness, so that you shall see those that take it 
(which most commonly happens to Children) run up and 
down the Fields in a most distracted manner, during its 
Operation, but does no further Mischief. 

There is another Weed, vulgarly called the Siuamp-Lillie, 
which grows in the Marshes and low Grounds, and is some- 
thing like our Doch in its Leaves, and hath the same Effect, 


22 The Natural History 

and possesses the Party with Fear and Watchings; though 
few have had the Tryal, or felt the Effects of these intoxica- 
ting Plants, except Boys and Children ; it is likewise used 
with good Success in Inflammations and Burns, as the former. 

Camomil thrives well here, but it must be Planted under 
a Shade, otherwise it comes to little or no Perfection. 

The Red-Root, the Leaves whereof are like those of Spear- 
mint, is used with good Success for Thrushes, and sore 

Vervine is very common here, being Spontaneous. House 
Leek, being first brought from Europe. Night-shade of sev- 
eral kinds, Yarrow and Mullein, in plenty, both being Spon- 
taneous. Harts-Tongue, Polypodium of the Oak ; the greater 
Centaury, in great plenty ; but I never observed any of 
the Lesser growing in this Province. Prickly Blnd-Weed, 
Larks-Spur, Hops, Flax and Hemp, the best and finest in 
the known AVorld groweth in North Carolina. 

Tisinaw, or Bastard China-Root, these grow in great Clus- 
ters, together, and have a stalk like a Brier, whereon grow 
small Black-Berries, the Indians boil these Roots and eat 
them, and sometimes make them into Bread. 

Sarsaparilla, White Hellehor, several sorts of Thistles. 
Fern, Male and Female, Liquorice, Oris, Water-liUies, Peony, 
Male and Female, Solomons-Seal, Agarick, Coloquintida,- 
Guinea-Pepper, Water-Flag, Flower de Luce, Betony, Shep- 
herds-Purse, Chervil; Coffee, whereof they begin to plant 
much, within these few Years; Jessamine, Pellitory of 
Spain, Cloud Herh, by the Indians calFd Yaughtli. Straw- 
berries are in such Plenty in the Season, that they are Feed- 
ing for TTogs; Narcissus, Daffodil, Suoin-Drops, Wall- 
Floivers, Bloodwort, the white and red Lillie, Sfargrass. 
which is used with good Success in most Fevers in this Coun- 
try ; Hushrs of several sorts; the TTerb Mastick, hidlnn-all- 


of North Carolina. 23 

heal, Cinquefoil, or five leav'd Grass, Rib-wort^ which is a 
kind of Plantain; FelUiory of the Wall, this Herb grows 
very plentiful on the Ground, there being no Rocks or Stone 
Walls for it to grow upon; Shepherds-Needle, Rosa-Solis, 
or Sun-dew; several sorts of Sage being first brought from 
Europe; Misseltoe of the Oah, in great Plenty all over this 
Province, whereof good Birdlime is made. 

There are several sorts of Beautiful Tulips growing Spon- 
taneous in this Province: The Trumpet-Flower, so call'd 
from its resembling the Form of that Instrument, and is of 
a beautiful Orange colour. 

The May-Apple, so call'd from its having Apples in the 
Month of May; it grows upon one Stalk like the Wood- 
Sorrel, about half a Poot high, and has Leaves like it, but 
very near as large as a Man's Hand, underneath which grow 
one Apple on each Stalk, about the big-ness of a Musket Ball : 
This Plant is of a very strong Purging nature, and is fre- 
quently made use of in these Parts for several Disorders 
with good Success. 

The Sun-Floiver, the Indian-Figg, or Prichly-Pear, the 
Fruit of this Vegetable is frequently eaten, and is very sweet 
and luscious, but occasions such a high Tincture in the Urine, 
that it seems like pure Blood ; by which means several Per- 
sons that have been unacquainted with its Effects, have been 
so surprized, that they expected nothing but immediate 
Death; yet it does no manner of harm, and as soon as its 
Operation is over, which is in less than tw^enty-four Hours, 
the Urine resumes its natural Colour, and the Patient, tho' 
almost out of his Senses, becomes easy and well. There are 
various Kinds of Physical Plants growing in their Gardens, 
the Seed being brought from Europe and other Parts. 

Thus have I given an Account of some of the Plants grow- 
ing in this Country, yet not of the hundredth Part of what 

remains : 

24 The Natural History 

remains; a (Jatalogue of which, would be a Work of many 
Years, and more than the Age of one Man to perfect, or bring 
into a regular Classes, this Country being so very large, and 
different in its Situation and Soil; so that what one Place 
plentifully produces, another is altogether a Stranger to: 
Yet it is generally to be observed, that the greatest Variety 
is to be found in the low Grounds and Savannas. 

The Pleasure Gardens of North Carolina, are not yet 
arrived to any great Perfection, or Adorned with many beau- 
tiful fragTant Flowers; there being only some few Rose- 
Trees, Bead-Trees, Orange-Trees, Clove Gilly-Flower, Pinks 
of several sorts, Sweet-William, Cowslips, Lavender- Spike, 
and Lavender-Coiton, Violets, Princess-Feather, Tres-Col- 
ores, and such like: But their Kitchen Gardens are very 
good, abounding with most sorts of Xecessaries for that Use. 

I will give an Account of the Climate, and so proceed to 
the Present State of North Carolina. 

This Climate is very Healthful, and is not so Hot in the 
Summer as other Countries to the Eastward, in the same 
Parallels of Latitude ; neither is the Country subject to Earth- 
quakes, as Italy, and many other Hot Coimtries are:. The 
Sky is generally very serene and clear, and the Air very thin 
and pure ; and though we have but little Pain, yet the con- 
stant Dews that fall in the Night, sufficiently refresh the 
Ground, and supply the Plants w^ith Moisture. 

The IN^orth West Winds in the Winter, occasion very sharp 
and piercing Weather, the North East Winds blowing in 
the Winter, bring with them thick Weather, and in Spring 
some times Blight the Corn and Emits of the Earth, hut they 
very seldom continue long, being carried off by Westerly 
Winds, which are the most pleasant and healthful we have 
in these Parts of the World. And tliniio-1i these Nortliorly 


of North Carolina. 25 

Winds cool the Air in Summer and are very pearcing in the 
AVintcr, yet they are of no Continuance. 

Southerly Winds cause very hot and nnwholsom Weather, 
and often occasion Eevers, and other Disorders in these 
Parts. The Spring and Fall are the most delightful and 
pleasant Seasons of the Year, being neither too Hot or too 
Cold; and though these Seasons are very pearcing, yet the 
Cold is of no Duration, and are in a great Measure owing to 
the Winds shifting from one Point to the other; for South- 
erly Winds will occasion it to be warm in the midst of Winter, 
as with ns in April^ and the Xorth East W^inds will on the 
contrary, make it cool in the midst of Summer. 

The Weather is generally pretty moderate till after Christ- 
mas ; then the Winter comes on apace, and continues variable 
'till the midle of February, according to the Winds, some- 
times w^arm and pleasant, at other times Rain, Snow, or 
Frost, but the Ice is seldom so strong as to bear a Man's 

In the Year 1730, we had the most agreeable and pleasant 
Summer that has been known for many Years, and the Win- 
ter most severe. 

In the Months of August and September we frequently 
have very great Storms and Squals of Wind, and it is remark- 
able for two or three Days before they break forth, that the 
Clouds seem to hang down very thick and pressing towards 
the Earth, and scarce a breath of Wind to be perceived for 
the said time; they are sometimes so very violent, that they 
make Lanes through the Woods by tearing np Trees by the 

These Storms are generally attended with most violent 
Claps of Thunder and Lightning, and pouring with Rain all 
the time they continue, which are very dreadful whilst they 

D last ; 


The Natural Historic 

last; and 1 have seen old decayed Trees, and especially the 
Pitch-Pine, frequently set on Fire by these violent claps of 
Thunder and Lightning, and sometime Trees in their Bloom 
tore and split in Pieces, yet I have seldom known or heard 
of any farther Dammage. 

There are prodigious Water-Spouts to be seen in this Coun- 
try, which are the forerunners and certain Signs of Storms 
and bad Weather, which quickly follow after them: These 
Water-spouts are vast exhalations of Water running out of 
the Clouds like little Rivers, and are generally to be met with 
at Sea and near the Shores, but seldom or never at Land ; 
and are to be seen at a great distance, resembling all the 
colours in the Rainbow; it is said they are dangerous to be 
met with at Sea, for fear of falling upon their Vessels, for 
which reason when they espie them near at Hand, they fre- 
quently fire their great Guns to break them in the Air, be- 
fore they come near the surface of the Water, as I have been 
credibly informed by several Masters of Ships; for I have 
never seen them otherwise than at a great distance. There 
are no regular Tides in Carolina, but wdiat are occasioned 
for the most part by the Winds shifting from one Point to 


of North Carolina. 





THIS Province, and South Carolina, were granted by 
King Charles II. March the 24:th in the Fifteenth Year 
of his Eeigii, and Confirmed by Letters Patents bearing 
Date, June the loth, in the 17th. Year of his said Majesty's 
Reign, to the following Lords Proprietors, (viz,) Edward. 
Earl of Clarendon; George, Duke of Alhemarlj William, 
Earl of Craven; John, J^ovd Berkeley ; Anthony , liOrd Ashley ; 
Sir George Carterett, Knight, and Baronet ; Sir John Colleton, 
Knight, and Baronet; and Sir William Berkeley; who pos- 
sessed them until the Year 1729 : At which time King 
George 11. Purchased them from all the said Proprietors, 
excepting the Lord Carterett, who still retains his Eighth 
Part. Whilst it remained in the Hands of the Proprietors, 



28 The Natural Historg 

they had a Governor who acted for them until the Year 
1731, at which Time his Majesty sent over Governor Bur- 
rington, who was the first Governor after the King had made 
the Purchase, and with him came most of the Superior 
Officers; such as Secretary of the Province, Chief Justice, 
Attorney General, Provost-Marshal, and Xaval Officers, the 
rest were at his arrival in the Country, but Xominated by 
the King, such as Surveyor General, Judge of the Admiralty, 
Comptrollers and Collectors. 

They have two Houses, which resemble the two Houses 
of Parliament with us. The first or Upper-House consists 
of twelve Members and the Governor; in this House are 
heard all Chancery Suits, and other Causes that cannot be 
decided in the Inferior Courts ; from whence there can be no 
Appeal, except to England. 

The Lower-House consists of thirty five Members, being 
the most knowing, discreet and substantial Planters, chose 
out of each Precinct and Borough. In this and the Upper- 
House, are made all manner of Laws for the Safety and 
better Government of this Province. But whatever Laws 
are here made must be conformable to the Laws of England, 
and in no wise repugnant thereto. And such Laws as are 
made in these two Houses by the Governor, Coimcil and 
Burgesses, are all recorded, and are as authentick and bind- 
ing there, as our Acts of Parliament are with us. 

There are likewise two other Courts in this Province, viz. 
the Precinct-Court, which is held in every Precinct of this 
Province, being much of the same Nature of our Court- 
Leets, or Court-Barons. The other is called the Gensral- 
Court, which is held twice every Year, as the former is four 
times. This is much the same as our Assizes, where all 


of North Carolina. 29 

Causes relating to Life and Death are heard, where the Chief 
Justice sits as Judge, and determines all Causes within the 
Jurisdiction of this Court. In the Precinct-Court, the Jus- 
tices of the Peace sit on the Bench, and decide all Contro- 
versies brought before them. This Court upon any Griev- 
ance can Appeal to the General Court for Justice, and 
the General to Chancery. The Governor by the Power in- 
vested in him, Commissions all Justices of the Peace, and 
all Officers in the Militia, who upon any Occasion may call 
his Council, to advise with them, upon any Emergency that 
is necessary, or expedient, for the good and safety of the 

There are abundance of Attorneys in this Province, who 
are Licenced by the Governor, yet all Law-Suits are quickly 
decided in Carolina, to prevent the Planters ruining each 
other, as is too frequent to be met with amongst us. 

These, and many other good Laws, that are to be met with 
in this Province, make it one of the best and mildest Govern- 
ments to live under in all America. Whoever consider the 
Latitude and convenient Situation of Carolina, may easily 
inform themselves, that it is a most delightful and fertil 
Country, being placed in the same Latitude or part of the 
World which produces Wine, Oil, Fruit, Grain and Silk, 
with many other rich Commodities, besides a sweet moderate 
and healthful Climate to live in with all manner of Plenty, 
which are as great blessings as can attend any People upon 
Earth, which the Planters of Carolina at this Day enjoy, 
being subject to no vexatious Taxes, or Packing Landlords, 
to give them the least uneasiness or discontent. 


30 The Natural Historg 

The Planters by the richness of the Soil, live after the 
most easie and pleasant Manner of any People I have ever 
met with ; for you shall seldom hear them Repine at any 
Misfortunes in life, except the loss of Friends, there being 
plenty of all I^ecessaries convenient for Life: Poverty being 
an entire Stranger here, and the Planters the most hospi- 
table People that are to be met with, not only to Strangers 
but likewise to those who by any Misfortune have lost the use 
of their Limbs or are incapable to Work, and have no visible 
way to support themselves ; to such Objects as these, the 
Country allows Fifty Pounds 'per Annum for their Support. 
So there are no Beggars or Vagabonds to be met with Strowl- 
ing from place to place as is too common amongst us. 

The Country in general is adorned with large and Beauti- 
ful Rivers and Creeks, and the Woods with lofty Timber, 
which afford most delightful and pleasant Seats to the Plant- 
ers, and the Lands very convenient and easie to be fenced in, 
to secure their Stocks of Cattle to more strict Bounderies, 
whereby with small trouble of Fencing, almost every Man 
may enjoy to himself an intire Plantation. 

These with many other Advantages, such as the cheapness 
and fertility of the Lands, plenty of Fish, W^ild-fowl, Veni- 
son, and other necessaries that this Country naturally pro- 
duces, has induced a great many Families to leave the more 
T^ortherly Plantations, and come and settle in one of the 
mildest Governments in the World, in a Countrv that with 
moderate Industry may be acquir'd all Necessaries conveni- 
ent for life ; so that Yearly we have abundance of Strangers 
that come amongst us from Europe, New-England, Peasil- 
vania, Maryland, and from many of the Islands, such as 


of North Carolina. 31 

Antegua, Barbados, and many others, to settle here; many 
of whom with small Beginnings, are become very Rich in a 
few Years. 

The Europians, or Christians of North-Carolina, are a 
streight, tall, well-limb'd and active People; their Children 
being seldom or never troubled with Rickets, and many other 
Distempers that the Europians are afflicted with, and you 
shall seldom see any of them deformed in Body. 

The Men who frequent the Woods, and labour out of 
Doors, or use the Waters, the vicinity of the Sun makes Im- 
pressions on them ; but as for the Women that do not expose 
themselves to Weather, they are often very fair, and well 
featur'd, as you shall meet with any where, and have very 
Brisk and Charming Eyes; and as well and finely shaped, 
as any Women in the World. And I have seldom observed 
any Red-hair'd Women, or Men, born in this Country. 

They marry generally very young, some at Thirteen or 
Fourteen; and she that continues unmarried, until Twenty, 
is reckoned a stale Maid, which is a very indifferent Char- 
acter in that Country. These Marriages for want of an 
Orthodox Clergyman, is performed by the Governor, or the 
next Justice of the Peace ; who reads the Matrimonial Cere- 
mony, which is as binding there as if done by the best divine 
in Europe. The Women are very fruitful, most Houses 
being full of Little Ones, and many Women from other 
Places who have been long Married and without Children, 
have remov'd to Carolina, and become joyful Mothers, as has 
been often observed. It very seldom happens they miscarry, 
and they have very easie Travail in their Child-bearing. 

The Children at nine Months old are able to walk and 
run about the House, and are very Docile and apt to learn 


32 The Natural Historic 

any thing, as any Children in Europe; and those that have 
the advantage to be Educated, Write good Hands, and prove 
good Aceomptants, which is very much coveted, and most 
necessary in these parts. The young Men are generally of 
a bashful, sober Behaviour, few proving Prodigals, to spend 
what the Parents with Care and Industry have left them, 
but commonly Improve it. 

The Girls are most commonly handsome and well Fea- 
tur'd, but have pale or swarthy Complexions, and are gener- 
ally more forward than the Boys, notwithstanding the Women 
are very Shy, in their Discourses, till they are acquainted. 
The Girls are not only bred to the Xeedle and Spinning, but 
to the Dairy and domestick Affairs, which many of them 
manage with a great deal of prudence and conduct, though 
they are very young. 

Both Sexes are very dexterous in paddling and managing 
their Canoes, both Men, Women, Boys, and Girls, being bred 
to it from their Infancy. The Women are the most Indus- 
trious in these Parts, and many of them by their good House- 
wifery make a great deal of Cloath of their own Cotton, 
Wool, and Flax, and some of them weave their own Cloath 
with which they decently Apparel their whole Family though 
large. Others are so Ingenious that they make up all the 
wearing Apparel both for Husband, Sons and Daughters. 
Others are very ready to help and assist their Husbands in 
any Servile Work, as planting when the Season of the Year 
requires expedition: Pride seldom banishing Housewifery. 
Both sexes are most commonly spare of Body and not Chol- 
erick, nor easily cast down at Disapointments and LooSes, 


of North Carolina. 33 

and scldome immoderately grieving at Misfortunes in Life, 
excepting it be the loss of their nearest Relations. 

By the Fruitfnlness of the Women in North Carolina, and 
the great lumbers of Men, Women, and Children, that are 
daily Transported from Europe, they are now become so pow- 
erful, in this and most of the other Provinces in the Hands of 
the English, that they are able to resist for the future any 
attempts the Indians may make on them. Add to this, the 
several Indian Kings that at present are in the Christian In- 
terest, who pay some small Tribute as an Acknowledgment of 
their Subjection, and are ready upon all occasions to assist 
them when ever they are required so to do; therefore they 
live at present without any dread or fear of those Savages to 
what they formerly did. 

The Men are very ingenious in several Handycraft Busi- 
nesses, and in building their Canoes and Houses ; though by 
the richness of the Soil, they live for the most part after an 
indolent and luxurious Manner; yet some are laborious, and 
equalize with the Negro's in hard Labour, and others quite 
the Reverse; for I have frequently seen them come to the 
Towns, and there remain Drinking Rum, Punch, and other 
Liqnors for Eight or Ten Days successively, and after they 
have committed this Excess, will not drink any Spirituous 
Liquor, 'till such time as they take the next Frolich, as they 
call it, which is generally in two or three Months. These 
Excesses are the occasions of many Diseases amongst them. 
But amongst the better Sort, or those of good OEconomy, it is 
qnite otherwise, who seldom frequent the Taverns, having 
plenty of Wine, Rum, and other Liquors at their own Houses, 
which they generously make use of amongst their Friends 

3 E and 


The Natural Historic 

and Acquaintance, after a most decent and discreet Manner, 
and are not so subject to Disorders as those who Debauch 
themselves in such a Beastly Manner. The former some- 
times bring their Wives with them to be pertakers of these 
Frolicks, which very often is not commendable or decent to 


of North Carolina. 35 


Religion, Houses, Raiment, Diet, Liquors, Fir- 
ing, Diversions, Commodities, Language, 
Diseases, Curiosities, Cattle, &c. of 


THE Eeligion by Law established, is the Protestant, as 
it is professed in England; and tho' thej seldom have 
Orthodox Clergymen among them, yet there are not 
only Glebe Lands laid out for that Use, commodious to each 
Town, but likewise conyenient for building Churches. The 
want of these Protestant Clergy, is generally supply' d by 
some School-Masters, who read the Lithurgy, and then a 
Sermon out of Doctor TiUitson, or some good practical 
Diyine, every Sunday. These are the most numerous, and 
are dispersed through the whole Province. 

I shall treat of the other Religions as they are to be re- 
garded according to their lumbers; and first of the Quahers: 
These People enjoy the same Privileges as with us in Ireland, 
and live for the most part in Albemarle County, wherein 
they have a decent Meeting-House. 

E^ The 

36 The Natural History 

The Presbyterians succeed next, aud have had a ^lin- 
ister of their own Order for many Years past ; they are 
chiefly settled in and abont the River Neus. 

Boman-Catholick's are the next considerable, and are set- 
tled in many Parts of the Country, but mostly in and about 
Bath-Town, they have likewise a Clergyman of their own 
Order among them at present. 

l^ext succeed the Anabaptists, who live mostly in Albe- 
marle County. 

There are likewise many Sectaries in Carolina, who have 
little or no appearance of Religion, except some few Forms 
of Prayers. This I take to be intirely owing to our want of 
Orthodox Divines, to instruct them in the true Notions of 
God, and right method of Worshiping, according to the tenor 
of revealed Religion. It is common to see here numbers of 
Men, AVomen, and Children, Baptized all together, when a 
Clergyman arrives in those Parts, and I have actually seen 
the Grandfather, his Son, and Grandson, receive this Sacra- 
ment at one time. There are numbers who never require 
Baptism, and consequently never covet to be made Christians, 
yet use some few Forms of Prayer. 

By what I have already urged, my Readers will naturally 
observe, that there is Liberty of Conscience allowed in the 
w^hole Province ; hoAvever, the Planters live in the greatest 
Harmony imaginable, no Disputes or Controversies are over 
observed to arrise among them about their Religious Princi- 
ples. They always treat each other with Friondshi]) and 
Hospitality, and never dispute over their Liquor, wliich is a 
Custom too frequent and too much indulged witli vis, aud 
from whence dangerous Consequences have arisen : By this 
Unity of Affection, the Prosperity of the Province has iu- 
creased from its first rise, to this Day. But tliouali thoy are 


of North Carolina. 37 

thus remarkable for their Friendship, Harmony and Hospi- 
tality, yet in regard to Morals, they have their share of the 
Corruptions of the Age, for as they live in the greatest Ease 
and Plenty, Luxury of Consequence predominates, which is 
never without its attendant Vices. Can it be admired, that 
the generality of them live after a loose and lacivious Man- 
ner, when according to my former Observation, they have no 
Clergy to instruct them, and recommend the Duties necessary 
belonging to a Christian ; and is it not natural to believe that 
Impiety and Imorality, when a People are void of those 
Benefits, must sway the major part of them. I would not be 
understood here, as if I designed to advance these imputa- 
tions of Vice against the whole Body of the People: ^o, 
there are certainly Persons of both Sexes Temperate, Frugal, 
Good Oeconemists, remarkably kind to Strangers, and those 
in Distress, and zealous in the practice of Christanity. 

Their Houses are built after two different Ways ; viz. the 
most substantial Planters generally use Brick, and Lime, 
which is made of Oyster-shells, for there are no Stones to be 
found proper for that purpose, but near the Mountains ; the 
meaner Sort erect with Timber, the outside with Clap- 
Boards, the Roofs of both Sorts of Houses are made with 
Shingles, and they generally have Sash Windows, and affect 
large and decent Booms with good Closets, as they do a most 
beautiful Prospect by some noble Biver or Creek. 

Their Furniture, as with us, consists of Pewter, Brass, 
Tables, Chairs, which are imported here commonly from 
England: The better sort have tollerable Quantities of Plate, 
with other convenient, ornamental, and valuable Furniture. 


38 The Natural Historg 

The Cloathings used by the ]\Ieii are English Cloaths, 
Druggets, Durois, Green Linnen, &c. The Woraen have 
their Silks, Calicoes, Stamp-Linen, Calimanchoes and all 
kind of Stuffs, some Avhereof are Manufactured in the Prov- 
ince. They make few Hats, tho' they have the best Furrs in 
plenty, but with this Article, they are commonly supplied 
from Neiv-England, and sometimes from Europe. 

Their Diet consists chiefly of Beef, Mutton, Pork, Venison 
in Abundance, Wild and Tame Fowl, Fish of several delicate 
Sorts; Roots, Fruit, several kinds of Sallads, good Bread, 
Butter, Milk, Cheese, Rice, Indian Corn, both which they 
concoct like a H asty -Pudding : But as I shall treat more 
particularly of the Productions of the Country in the suc- 
ceeding Pages, I shall now proceed to their Liquors. 

The Liquors that are common in Carolina at present, and 
chiefly made use of, are. Rum, Brandy, Mault Drink; these 
they import. The following are made in Country, viz. Cyder, 
Persimon-Beer, made of the Fruit of that Tree, Ceder- 
Beer, made of Ceder-Berries ; they also make Beer of the 
green Stalks of Indian-Corn, which they bruise and boyle: 
They likewise make Beer of Mollosses, or common Treacle, 
in the following manner, they take a Gallon of Mollosses, a 
Peck of Wheaten Bran, a Pound of Hops, and a Barrel of 
Fountain Water, all which they boile together, and work up 
with Yest, as we do our Malt Liquors ; this is their common 
Small-Beer, and seems to me to be the pleasantest Drink, I 
ever tasted, either in the Indies or Europe, and I am satisfied 
more wholsom. This is made stronger in proportion, as 
People fancy. 

It is necessary to observe that though there is plenty of 
Barly and Oats in this Province, yet there is no Malt Drink 


of North Carolina. 39 

made, notwithstanding all kind of Malt Liquors bear a good 
Price, nor have any of the Planters ever yet attempted it. 

Chocolate, Teas, and Coffee, are as common in Carolina 
as with us in Ireland, particularly the last, which of late 
Years they have industriously raised, and is now very cheap : 
These are sober Liquors, and take off the better Sort from 
Drinking what are hot and spirituous, who are not so ad- 
dicted to Kum and Brandy as the inferior Sort, Caslena or 
Yaupan, an Indian Tea, which grows here in Abundance is 
indifferently used by Planters and Indians. 

The Fireing they use is Wood, and especially Hickery, 
though we discovered Pit-Coal in our Journies towards the 
Mountains, yet it is not worth their while to be at the ex- 
pence of bringing it, Timber being so plenty. 

The chiefest Diversions here are Pishing, Fowling; and 
Hunting, Wild Beasts, such as Deer, Bears, Kacoons, Hares, 
Wild Turkies, with several other sorts, needless to treat of 
here, 'till we come to describe each particular Specie. 

Horse-Racing they are fond of, for which they have Kace- 
Paths, near each Town, and in many parts of the Country. 
Those Paths, seldom exceed a Quarter of a Mile in length, 
and only two Horses start at a time, each Horse has his 
peculiar Path, which if he quits, and runs into the other, 
looses the Race. This is agreed on to avoid Jockying. These 
Courses being so very short, they use no manner of Art, but 
push on with all the speed imaginable ; many of these Horses 
are very fleet. 

It is common for People to come and go from this Prov- 
ince to Virginia, to these publick Diversions. 

They are much addicted to Gaining, especially at Cards 
and Dice, Hazard and All-fours, being the common Games 
they use ; at which they play very high, nay to such a pitch, 


40 The Natural Historg 

that 1 have seen several hundred Pounds "won and lost in a 
short time. 

Coch-Fighting they greatly admire, which Birds they en- 
deavor to procure from England and Ireland, and to that 
intent, employ Masters of Ships, and other Trading Persons 
to supply them. 

Wreslling, Leaping, and such Activities are much used by 
them; yet I never observed any Foot Paces. 

Dancing they are all fond of, especially Avhen they can get 
a Fiddle, or Bag-pipe; at this they will continue Hours 
together, nay, so attach'd are they to this darling Amuse- 
ment, that if they can't procure Musick, they Avill sing for 
themselves. Musick, and Musical Instruments being very 
scarce in Carolina. 

These are the most material Observations I have made in 
respect of their usual Diversions. 

But they have a particular Season, which is only at their 
Wheat-Harvest, not to be omitted ; this they celebrate with 
great Solemnity, it is in the beginning of June, at which 
time "the Planters notify to each other, that they design to 
reap the aforesaid Grain, on a certain Day, some send their 
Negroes to assist, others only go to partake of the great Feasts, 
&c. Some will frequently come twenty, nay thirty Miles on 
this Occasion, the Entertainments are great, and the whole 
Scene pleasant and diverting; but if they can get ^lusick to 
indulge this Mirth, it greatly adds to the Pleasure of the 
Feast. It must be confest, that this annual Pevelling is 
very expensive to the Planters, but as its customary, few 
omit it, nor have they ever those ])ublick DiNcrsious at the 
reaping any other Grain but the European Wheat. 

I am sensible that many Persons, who by (licir ^lisbe- 
haviour in lliis Country, were obliged to (piit it, ]ia\t' uin- 


of North Carolina. 41 

liciously endeavoured to represent, not only the Province, but 
its Inhabitants, in a wrong Light; but as they intirely take 
the Opportunity to talk either before those who were never 
there, or before Persons incapable of judging, it is to be 
hoped, that the scandalous reports of such, will not be re- 
garded. Several of those trifling Nusances have to my knowl- 
edge, scarcely been out of the Town or Port where they first 
arrived, during their Residence there : How therefore cou'd 
they be acquainted with the Fertilty of the Country, the Con- 
stitution, and Temper of the Inhabitants ; before the learn'd, 
by whom they can be convicted, they dare not appear ? And 
if the credulous and ignorant wdll be amused, all the Argu- 
ments Man can produce will not avail. 

The People live to as gTeat Ages as most Europeans, they 
are entire Strangers to Consumj)tions, a Distemper fatal to 
us; but they are much addicted to aguish Disorders, which 
is incident to all Strangers, for they generally have their Sea- 
sonings at their first Arrival, or soon after, though it seldom 
proves mortal, and is easily carried off by Emeticks, and 
other Medicines properly given. 

This Colony boasts more Advantages than several others 
on this Continent, both for Pleasure, Ease, and Profit : Were 
the Inhabitants as industrious as the Soil is bountiful, they 
might supply themselves with all the Necessaries of Life. 
With little Industry they may have Wines, Oil, Silk, Fruits, 
and many sorts of Drugs, Dyes, &c. Here the Curious may 
have a large Field to satisfie and divert their Curiosity ; here 
they may collect strange Beasts, Birds, Fishes, Insects, Rep- 
tiles, Shells, Mines, Herbs, Flowers, Plants, Shrubs, Trees, 
Gums, Tears, Rosin, Stones, and several other things that 

F yield 

42 The Natural Historic 

yield both Profit and Satisfaction : If the plenty and cheap- 
ness of Provisions, and the low rate of Lands, may tempt 
People to this delightful Country, sure those who have but 
small Beginnings, with moderate industry, may here live 
more comfortably, and provide for their Families better than 
in any place I have yet seen in Europe. 

The llivers are very beautiful, pleasant, profitable, large 
and Navigable for several Leagues up the Country: They 
rise for the most part in or near the Mountains, and abound 
not only with great Quantities of delicate Fish, but likewise 
with Wild-Fowl of different kinds. In many of these Rivers 
are to be seen large and delightful Islands, where is excellent 
Pasturage and some of them afford large Stocks of Cattle 
and Deer, but scarce any Wild Beasts, and few Beasts of 
Prey. In these Islands frequently grow vast quantities of 
Cedar with several other kinds of valuable Timber Trees, as 
I have already mentioned. 

The civilized Indians are very serviceable to the Planters 
in many Cases, particularly in making Weares to catch Fish ; 
this they do for a small consideration, and it proves very ad- 
vantagious to large Families, because they not only take 
great Quantities of different Sorts, but moreover what are 
very good and nourishing; these Weares are made after a 
method peculiar to the Indians only. Others Hunt and Fowl 
for them at very reasonable rates, this Country being as 
plentifully provided with all sorts of Game as any in Amer- 
ica; the Indians sometimes assist the poorer sort of Planters 
in planting their Corn for small Trifflcs, when expedition is 

The Mountains that are the most considerable are the 
CharoJcee, or Appelapean Mountains, they take tliolr rise 


of North Carolina. 43 

from the Xorth-west part of South Carolina, and so continue 
in one Ridge to the JSTorthward for several hundred Miles, 
being in most places five or six hundred Miles from the Sea ; 
they are vastly high, and abound with Trees, various kinds of 
Plants, and Stones of several different Xatures. Beyond 
these Mountains you have a prospect only of large Woods, 
Savannas, dismal Swamps and Forrests, being as is supposed, 
the Habitation of Savage Indians, and wild Beasts of various 

The Commodities convenient to bring to this Province 
from Europe, are as follows ; Guns, Powder, Ball, Shot, 
Flints, Linnens of all Sorts, but chiefly Blues; Brown and 
Stampt Linnens, Oznabrigs, Men and Women's Apparel 
ready made up ; some few Broad-Cloaths, Blew and Bed 
Stuff's, Callimancoes, Druggets, Kersies, Camblets, all light 
Stuffs for Men and Women's Summer Wear, Habberdashers 
Wares, Stockings of all sorts, some few Gloves, thin Wigs, 
Linnen Caps, Silk-thread, common Thread of all Sorts, Nee- 
dles, Pins, Tobacco Pipes, Glass for Sashwindows, Looking 
Glasses, all sorts of hard Ware, such as Knives, Forks, 
Sizers, Saws, Hatchets, Chisels, Bills, Hoes, Spades, Shovels, 
Grubing Hoes, Wedges, Xails, and all manner of Tools for 
Carpenters, Shoemakers, Coopers Shave Locks, Locks for 
Doors, Traps of all Sorts, and especially for Beavers, what 
we commonly call Fox-Traps, Grindle-Stones, all manner of 
Whet-Stones, Paper, Ink, Saddles, Bridles, Fish-hooks of all 
Sorts, several Toys, as Fans, l^ecklaces. Beads, Ribbons, 
Tape, Thimbles, Shoe-buckles, and the like; Tradesmen of 
all sorts. Honest Servants and j^egroes. 

The produce of this Country for Exportation to Europe 
and the Islands, are Beef, Porke, Tallow, Hides, Deer-Skins, 
Furs, Wheat, Indian-Corn, Pease, Potatoes, Rice, Honey, 


44 The Natural Historg 

Bees-wax, Myrtle-wax, Tobacco, Snake-root, Turpeutine, Tar, 
Pitch, Masts for Ships, Staves, Planks and Boards of most 
sorts of Timber, Cotton, and several sorts of Gnms, Tears, 
with some medicinal Drugs ; Bricks and Tiles are made here, 
likewise several useful Earths, such as Bole, Fullers-Earth, 
Tobacco Pipe Clay, and Oaker, in great Plenty, excellent 
good Earth for the Potters Trade, and fine Sand for the 
Glassmakers. They export abundance of Horses to the Isl- 
ands of Antegua, Barhadoes, &c. 

Lead, Copper, Sulphure and Antimony, have been found 
here, but for want of good Encouragement, few or no endeav- 
ours have been made to discover these subterraneous Pro- 
ductions ; here is likewise found in gTeat Plenty the true 
BloodrStone, near the Mountains, as also a very fine Earth, 
the same with Bruxels Sand, which the Goldsmiths use to 
cast with, which bears a good Price in several parts of 
Europe. We have likewise Chaliheat Waters, of several 
Tastes, and difi'erent Qualities, some Purging and others 
working by the Emun<:tories ; there are several Waters also 
amongst the Inhabitants that outwardly cure Ulcers, Tettars, 
and Sores (disorders they are very subject to in this Coun- 
try) by washing themselves in it; neither do they want very 
good Springs of fresh Water ; as for Pump-water, 'tis to be 
had in most places in this Province. 

We have an Account from the Indians, that there are hot 
Baths near the Hilly Country, where a great likelihood ap- 
pears of making Salt-petere, because the Earth in many 
places is strongly mixed and impregnated with a Xitrous 
Salt, whicli is much coveted by the Beasts of this Country, i 
who come at certain Seasons of the Year in great Numlx^rs, 
and by their licking this Earth, make great Holes in those 


of North Carolina. 45 

Banks, which sometimes lye at the Heads of great Precipices, 
where they often tumble down and are dash'd in pieces. 

It is very certain that the most Sweet and healthful Part 
of this Country is inhabited only by the Savage Indians at 
present; and a great deal thereof has no other Inhabitants 
but the wild Beasts. For the Indians are not inclinable to 
settle in the richest Lands, because the Timbers are too large 
for them to cut down to make Plantations of: A farther 
confirmation of the healthfulness of the Hilly parts of this 
Country, is very apparent, in the large Stature and gray 
Heads so common to be met w^ith amongst the Savages that 
dwell near the Mountains. 

The Christians or Planters of North Carolina, Barter the 
Commodities that are produced in the Country for Rum, 
Sugar, Mollosses, XegToes, and the like. 

The current Coin of this Country is at present only made 
of Paper Bills, which pass throughout all this Province ; not 
but that the Gold and Silver Coin of all ^N'ations pass here, 
according to their Weight or intrinsick Value, which the 
Planters carefully preserve to buy Xegroes with in the Islands 
and other Places. The Contents of the Bills in this Province 
are as follows, viz. This Bill of ten Pounds shall he current 
in all Payments in N'orth Carolina, according to an Act of 
Assembly made Xovember 9th. 1729. This is the greatest 
Bill, and twelve Pence the smallest, which is wrote after the 
same manner of the former. The Assembly nominate five 
of their Members, who sign all these Bills with different Ink ; 
all these Bills are numbered in figures at the top, in the na- 
ture of Bank-Bills, and Seals fixt to each of them ; there is 
about thirty or forty thousand Pounds of this kind of Money 
in North Carolina. 

There is a Treasury Office kept wherein all the Bills are 
changed, and new ones given for those that are old and 

torn ; 

46 The Natural Historg 

torn; jet notwithstanding all the Care that is taken, these 
Bills are counterfeited, and the piiblick very often imposed 
upon. The Money of North Carolina is in value five Shil- 
lings for one Sterling; and in South Carolina, the difference 
is Seven to One Sterling; with these Bills they purchase 
Lands, and all Necessaries. 

It is admirable to observe the Prosperity of several Ad- 
venturers to Carolina, in the memory of Man ; and how many 
from the most despicable beginnings in a short time, by Gods 
blessing and their own industry, are arrived to as splendid 
Fortunes, as any have in other British Provinces on this 
Continent. All manner of Game is here very plenty, neither 
are there any Laws here to bind their Priviledges^ as it is 
with us in Ireland, for the meanest Planter may, with as 
much Freedom, destroy all manner of Game, as he that is the 
most Wealthy, or highest in Dignity. So that the poorest 
Planter has as much Eight to the delicaceies of this Country, 
as the richest ; nay the very Labourer is intituled to the same 

The Language principally made use of in this Province is 
the English; notwithstanding there are Planters settled here 
from France, Germany, Holland, and many other parts of 
Europe, who have all learn'd and speak the English Tongue, 
many of the Indians also use it, and especially the three civil- 
ized Kings, and those that Trade and Converse with the 
English; there are many of the Planters that understand and 
speak the Indian Language well. 

The Diseases that are most common in Carolina are, Agues, 
or intermittent Fevers, Cachexia, Diarrhoea, Dysenteria, the 
Clap and French Pox, the Yaws, Chollichs, Cholera-Morhus, 
Convulsions, II oo ping-Cough, Cutaneous Disorders, such as 
Tetters, Ring-worms, Rashes, prirHey-ITcals, and tlio If eh. 


of North Carolina. 47 

The Agues or intermittent Fevers, do generally admit of 
the same method of Cure as with us in h^eland, so that it 
would be needless to repeat it here, which almost every old 
Woman pretends to have an infalible Cure for. 

The Cachexy, or ill habit of Body, is a very common Dis- 
temper in these Parts ; 'tis very stubborn in its ^N^ature, and 
tedious and difficult to be cured. In this disorder, the Face 
is very pale and discolor'd, and the Body big and swoln ; this 
Distemper is principally owing to their eating gTcat quantities 
of Fruit that this Country produces, and to a sedentary way 
of living, and their eating Clay and Dirt, which the Children, 
both Whites and Blacks, and some of the old People are very 
subject to; by wdiich means the whole Humours of the Body 
are corrupted and vitiated to that degree (through surfeits 
and ill digestion) that they will hardly admit of a Cure. 
Steel'd Wines, and other Preparations of filings and rust of 
Iron, strong Purgers, and Exercises, are the only Methods to 
perfect the Cure of this Distemper. 

The C holer a-Morhus, is a vehement Perturbation of the 
whole Body and Bowels, from a deprav'd Motion of the 
Ventricle and Guts, whereby bilious, sharp, or corrupt Hu- 
mours, are plentifully and violently discharged upwards and 
downwards. This disorder is happily carried off by giving 
proper Doses of the Ipecauucana, that grows plentifully in 
Carolina, which I have already made mention of. 

The Cramp or Convulsions, is a Motion whereby the Mus- 
cles or Membranes are contracted and remitted, without the 
Will. This Disorder is common in these Parts, and espe- 
cially amongst the Negroes or Blacks, whereof many die, 
either for want, or before proper Medicines can be admin- 
ister'd ; it admits of the same method of Cure as with us in 


48 The Natural Historg 

The White and Bloody-Flax are common Distempers in 
Carolina, and so are the Clap and French Pox; these are 
cured after the same manner as with us. 

The Yaws, are a Disorder not well known in Europe, but 
very common and familiar here ; it is like the Lues venerea, 
having most of the Symptoms that attend the Pox, such as 
JSfocturnal Pains, Botches, foul Erruptions, and Ulcers in 
several parts of the Body, and is acquired after the same man- 
ner as the Pox is, viz. by Copulation, &c. but is never attended 
with a Gonorrhcea in the beginning. This Distemper was 
brought hither by the Negroes from Guinea, where it is a 
common Distemper amongst them, and is communicated to 
several of the Europeans or Christians, by their cohabiting 
with the Blacks, by which means it is hereditary in many 
Families in Carolina, and by it some have lost their Palates 
and Xoses. 

This Distemper, though of a venereal kind, is seldom cured 
by Mercurials, as I have often experienced, for I have known 
some undergo the Course of three Salavations to no purpose, 
the virulency still continuing as bad as ever: AVhorefore I 
judge it not amiss to set forth the most effectual method for 
curing it, which I have often experienc'd, and never without 
good success (during my residence in those parts) though the 
Distemper was of ever so violent a nature, or long continu- 
ance ; it is as follows : 

Take four Ounces of the Earl- of the Spanisli Oak, tiro 
Ounces of the middle Barl- of the Pine Tree, two Ounces of 
the Root of the Sumack, that hears the Berries, of these In- 
gredients make a strong Decoction, ^('hereof let the Ptth'cnt 
drill/,- a full Pint milk-warm and half a Pint cold, this gives 
a strong Vonii/, hi/ irliirli ahiindancr of fil/lii/ MaUrr is dis- 

of North Carolina. 49 

charged. This is what is to be done the first Day. Theii lei 
Ike Falienl drink half a Pint three times a Day, viz. in the 
Morning, at one o' Clock in the Afternoon, and at Night, for 
six Weeks; and if there be any outivard Sores, wash them 
clean five or six times a-Day with part of the same Decoction, 
'till they are all healed up, and the Patient hecoynes well. 

The Patient must abstain from all sorts of flesh Meat, and 
Strong Liquors during the said Course, his principal Diet 
must be Broth, Gruel, Penseda, and the like. They may boil 
the above quantity of Ingredients four times, if more, it will 
be too weak; this Method effectually cures the Yaws in the 
said time, and the Patient becomes as strong and healthy as 
ever. I have here given the true method of the Cure of this 
Distemper, it being little kno\\Ti in Europe. 

The Cholick, or Dry Belly-ach, is another common Distem- 
per in this Country, and is often attended with such violent 
Convulsions, that frequently the Limbs are so contracted 
(and especially the Hands) that for want of Care and good 
Advice, they have continued so all their life time ; though I 
have known some of them die in these Pits, which are at- 
tended with such a violent constipation of the Bowels, that 
they cannot void any thing either upwards or downwards. 
Strong Vomits, Purges, Clysters, and Oyntments, for the 
contracted Limbs, are the most effectual Methods to carry off 
this Disorder. 

Rashes and Prikley-heat, are common Disorders here; in 
the extremity of the hot Weather, which suddenly comes 
after cold, they are attended with extream Itchings all over 
the Body, especially the Legs, which if scratched immedi- 
ately, inflame, and become inveterate Sores and Ulcers; to 

4 Gr prevent 

50 The Natural Historg 

prevent which, Spirit of Wine and Camphir or any other 
8i)irit, is of excellent use, by a])plying it to the Parts. 

Tetters and Ring-iuorms, are common in this Province, 
and are easily cur'd by several Plants in this Country, and 
especially by the Juice of the Sheep-Sorrel, by applying it to 
the Part infected. 

The Hooping-C ougli , at my arrival in Carolina, was an uni- 
versal Disorder among-st young and old, whereof several Ne- 
groes died. It continued in this Province for seven or eight 
Months successively, beginning in September, and ending in 
June; after Bleeding and Vomiting, I found the Jesuite 
Bark to be of excellent use in this disorder. I was assured 
by many in Carolina, that they never knew this Distemper in 
these Parts before that time. 

The Children are much afflicted with the ^Yorms, which 
is owing to their eating vast quantities of Fruit, this excess 
sometimes occasions Fevers amongst them, yet they are cured 
after the same manner as with us, likewise with many Plants 
growing here. 

As for Cutaneous Disorders they are seldom at a loss for a 
speedy Cure, not only from the Plants, but likewise the 
Waters. Thus have I given an Account of the most common 
Disorders amongst the Christian Inhabitants. 

The Curiosities here are, variety of strange wild Beasts, 
and several kinds of Birds, Fishes, Snakes, Insects, Reptiles, 
Herbs, Plants, Shrubs, Trees, and Fruits: many whereof 
are not to be met with in Europe, which the Beader will find 
inserted in their proper Places, when I come to treat on those 
heads. There is a large Cave on the to]) of the Mountains, 
that will hold a hundred Men and more to sit in, but whether 
it 1)0 natural or artificial, is not known l)y any tlint have seen 

it ; 

of North Carolina. 51 

it; but i am of Opinion that it is natural, the Indiauj^ having 
had no Tools to work in Wood or Stone, at the first arrival 
of the Europeans^ so that it cannot be reasonably imagined 
that a Work of this nature could be perfected without proper 
Instruments for that purpose. 

As all Grain and Pulse thrive here to admiration, so do 
the Stocks of Cattle, Horses, and Swine multiply surpriz- 
ingly, there being as great numbers of each Species, as in any 
Province possessed by the English in America. 

The Veal is very good and white, but they seldom kill any 
for the Market, being fond to preserve their Calves to a larger 
growth. The Planters make Penfolds adjacent to their Hab- 
itations, wherein they milk their Cows every Morning and 
Evening ; after which, they turn them into the Woods, where 
they remain feeding all Day; when they return at Xight, 
they carefully shut up their Calves with some few of the 
Cows, in those Penfolds, which protects them from the 
Wolves, or any other voracious wild Beasts : In the Mornings 
and Evenings the Cows return from the AVoods to be milked, 
and are turned out as usual ; the Calves are turned into the 
Inclosures where they remain feeding and safe all the Day, 
no wild Beast ever appearing near their Plantations in that 
space of time. I have seen one hundred Calves together in 
one of these Penfolds, being all the Property of one Planter. 
The Calves generally suck their Dams all the time they are 
milking, otherwise the Cows would not suffer any one to 
touch them. The Milk is very pleasant and rich. 

Their Heifers bring forth Calves at eighteen or twenty 
Months old; this early production makes such a wonderful 
increase, that many of the Planters, from mean beginnings, 
are Masters now of such large Stocks of Cattle, that you may 

0== buv 

52 The Natural Historg 

buy hundreds in the Season: Their method of killing, is 
generally to shoot them in the Fields, or in the Penfolds ; 
then they cut off the Head and Feet, and take out the Intrails, 
which they throw away as useless, except the Fat, (which 
they carefully preserve.) After this manner they continue 
killing all the Year, as they have Occasion. 

If the Cattle be suffered to live to a proper Age, their 
Beef proves as large and fat as any in the neighbouring 
Colonies. They kill vast Quantities of Beeves in October, 
and the other cool Months, especially when they intend them 
for Salting and Exportation, for at those Seasons they are in 
their prime of Flesh, and best preserved. The Exportation 
of this Commodity is one of the greatest Branches of their 

It may perhaps seem very strange to some Europeans, how 
the Planters can have such large Stocks of Cattle, where 
there are such Numbers of Wolves, Tygers, Panthers, and 
other Beasts of Prey ; but I can assure them that they give 
themselves no further trouble than what I have already ob- 
served, few or no wild Beasts ever daring or attempting to 
kill either Calves or Foles, fearing their Dams, who vigor- 
ously defend them. When a Cow hath once espied a Wolf or 
any other voracious Beast near, she gives a Signal by bellow- 
ing and roaring, upon which all tlic Black Cattle within her 
hearing will run to her assistance, and most resolutely de- 
fend their own Species. 

There are great Numbers of those Cattle wild, which con- 
tinually breed in the Woods, (so are there of Horses and 
Mares) here you shall see great Droves feeding promiscously 
in the Savannas amongst the Deer, fifty or Sixty "Miles dis- 
tant from any Inhabitants. This sociable Disposition 
amongst Beasts of different kinds we observed in our Travel- 

of North Carolina. 53 

ing up towards the Mountains, which, together with the 
Beauty of the Country gave us no small Satisfaction. 

The Horses are well shaped, swift, and generally about 
thirteen or fourteen Hands high, they are durable and will 
travel incredible Journies. They are never shod, partly by 
reason of the softness of the Ground, which is covered over 
with Grass, without any Gravel or Stones ; they have few or 
no distempers amongst them as in European Countries, such 
as Spavin, Splint, Ringhones, and the like ; they are seldom or 
never blind, and generally live twenty Years or more, most 
commonly dying of old Age. If there were but good Stallions 
and Mares sent here from England, or any other Parts, we 
could not fail of a good Breed in a short time ; the Country 
and Pasturage being so proper for that end. 

The Planters are the worst Horse-masters I have ever met 
with, for few or none allow Corn to their Horses after long 
Journies, for they frequently tye them to a Tree for Hours 
together, and sometimes for a Day or two without any manner 
of subsistance, from whence it sometimes happens that they 
break loose, and take into Woods, where they remain for 
Weeks together, with the Saddles on their Backs, before they 
are found out, and had not they been such good Drudges as 
they are, there would be but few in this Province, with the 
bad usage they give them. 

The Horses which they keep within the Inclosures, and 
some times feed with Indian-Corn, are rendered very durable 
for Journies and Hunting in the Woods. I hope it will not 
be improper here to give the Reader an Account how they 
take the Wild Horses in the Woods, which is as follows. 
The Planters generally, two or more hunt on Horseback in 
the Woods together, and as soon as they espie a wild Horse, 


54 The Natural Histoid 

they pursue him, and their iiorses are so well train'd to this 
way of llimting, that they will neither hurt themselves nor 
the Riders against a Tree, though you ride them in full 
Speed, they will perform this for Hours together, 'till such 
time as the wild Horse stands still ; then one of the Hunters 
alights and claps a Bridle into his Mouth, and a Saddle on 
his Back (tho' ten or fifteen Years old) and rides him to their 
own, or tlie next Plantation, Avhere they feed him with 
Indian-Corn and Salt, which feeding, in a little time, makes 
him as tame and domestick, as any in their Plantation, and 
lit to pursue his wild Species in the Woods at the next Hunt- 
ing match, or any other use they have occasion to make of 

The Sheep thrive well, having two or three Lanihs at one 
Yeaning; they are never suffered to ramble in the Woods (as 
the other Cattle are) but are kept in Inclosures in the Planta- 
tions, from whence they will come every Evening to the Plan- 
ters Houses^ having no Defence against the wild Beasts (and 
especially the Wolves, their mortal Enemy) at Xight they are 
put up in their Penfolds made of Timber, which every Plan- 
ter has for that Purpose to defend them from all manner of 
wild Beasts, but it sometimes happens, through Xegligence, 
that if they are not Inclosed, they become a Prey to the 
Wolues, who never fail to search and watch for them at 
Night. The Mutton is generally exceeding Fat, and as well 
relish'd as any I have met with in Europe. Their Wool is 
fine, and a good Commodity here. They seldom kill any of 
their Lambs for the Market, but generally preserve them to a 
greater Age; neither are the native Planters so fond of Mut- 
ton (which is of a middling Size) as the Europeans gener- 
ally are. 


of North Carolina. 55 

Of Goats, they have but very few in Carolina, and yet 
they would thrive very well there ; but they are so mischiev- 
ous to Gardens, Orchards, and other Trees, that the Native 
Planters are not fond of keeping or preserving gTeat num- 
bers of them, though their Flesh is fat and well relish'd, as 
any in Europe, and their skins are as good. 

The Swine are more numerous here than in any of the 
English Provinces ; and the Pork exceeds any in Europe for 
Goodness. The plenty of Acorns, Xuts, and other Fruits, 
which the Woods naturally aiford, make their Flesh of an 
excellent Taste, and produces great quantities of them ; some 
Planters possess several hundreds, and vast numbers are to 
be met with in the Woods, which are every persons Property 
that can kill them ; for no one claims them as his own, except 
they bear his own Mark or Brand, and it is so with Horses 
and Cows, that are wild in the Woods. The Planters export 
vast quantities of Pork to the Islands in the West Indies, 
such as Barhadoes, Antegua, and several other places where 
Provisions are scarce, for such Commodities as they have 
occasion for. 

They have plenty of all manner of Domestick Fowl, such 
as Geese, common Ducks, Muscovy Ducks, Turkeys, Cocks 
and Hens, Pigeons, and the like^ to be purchased at cheaper 
Pates, than in any part of Europe. 

j^ot withstanding North Carolina yields to no Country in 
point of Fertility, especially for Cattle, Venison, Fish and 
Flesh, yet amongst all this Plenty, there is a scarcity of suffi- 
cient Hands to cultivate this noble and fertile Soil. It is ca- 
pable of producing as good Hemp and Flax, as grow in most 
parts of Europe, and Limien might here be brought to great 



The Natural History 

This Country likewise produces as good Tobacco, as any to 
be met with in Virginia, Maryland, or any other ]^eighbour- 
ing Province in the Hands of the English: But the Planters 
having so many other valuable Commodities proper for Ex- 
portation, they little regard or improve it at present, in pro- 
portion to what they do in other Provinces. 


of North Carolina. 57 




THE Spontaneous Shrubs of this Country are the 
Larli's-lieel Tree; four sorts of Honey-suckle Tree, or 
Woodbind, the first always grows in low moist 
Grounds, the other in clear dry Lands, the Flowers of which 
are more cut and lacerated; these grow about two or three 
Feet high; the third, which is of the same height, is one of 
the most beautiful Flowers of its Colour that is to be met 
with, and is found growing for the most part by the sides 
of Swamps, or on the Banks of the Kivers, but never near 
the Salt Water. The Flowers of these are of a whitish 
colour, but the last is the most beautiful, growing in 
great bunches out of one Stem, and is commonly the 
bigness of a large Turnip. In April and May, nothing 
can be more beautiful, being at that time in their gi-eatest 
splendor, which affords not only a pleassant sight, but a most 
grateful and fragrant Smell to those that pass through the 
Woods. There is another Honeysuckle that grows in the 
Forrest, and is about a Foot high, bearing it's Flowers 
on small Stems, the main Stock being no thicker than a 
Wheat Straw; all these sorts differ very little from ours, 
only with this variation, that those here are larger. 

H Princes- 

58 The Natural Histoid 

Princes-feather, are very large and beautiful, not only in 
the Gardens, but in several parts of the Woods. Tres colores. 
Branched Sun-Flower, Double Poppies, Lupines of several 
sorts, and all Spontaneous. The sensible Plant, (as I have 
been informed) grows near the Mountains, which I did not 
see during my stay in those Parts. 

The Bastard Saffron is plenty in this Province, and I do 
not doubt but that the true Saffron of England would thrive 
well here if Planted, and the same care taken. 

The Cotton Plant being so very profitable, I will give a 
Description of, which is as follows : It hath small Stalks about 
three Feet high, and sometimes higher, divided into several 
small Branches, w^herein are many broad Leaves, cut for the 
most part into three Sections, and sometimes more, indented 
about the Edges, not imlike the Leaves of the common Mal- 
lows, but lesser, softer, and of a grayish Colour, among which 
come forth the Flowers, the Edges Avhereof are of a Yellow- 
ish Colour, and the middle part Purple ; after which appears 
large Burs or Husks, wherein the Seed and Cotton is con- 
tained, as soon as it is ripe it opens into four Parts or Divis- 
ions, if Care be not taken, it casteth forth its Seed and Cot- 
ton upon the Ground. This Plant beareth but for one Season, 
and as soon as the Seeds are ripe it immediately perisheth, as 
many other Plants do; so that the Planters are obliged to 
sow the Seed every Spring, which is ripe in the Autumn, and 
they cut it down at that time as we do Corn. It groweth in 
great Plenty in several Parts of this Country, and is a bene- 
ficial Commodity to the Planters. 

The Yellow Jessamine grows wild iu several parts of the 
Woods, afl^ording a most pleasant and grateful Smell. 

Ever-Greens are to be mot with all over this Province, of 
several curious sorts, of a very (]uick Growlli, niTordiiii;- pleas- 

of North Carolina. 59 

ant and refreshing Shades in the extremity of hot Weather: 
And such are the lofty Cypress or White Cedar, the Red 
Cedar, the Pitcli Pine, the Yellow Pine, the White Pine with 
long Leaves, and the smaller Almond-Pine: Hornbeam, Holly 
two sorts, Bay-Tree, two sorts of Myrtle, two sorts of Ever- 
green Oaks, Misseltoe of the Oak, G ullh err y -Tree, Privet, 
Sacine, Yaupan, or Cassemi, whereof the Tea is made, so 
very much in request amonst both the Indians, and Chris- 
tians, with many other Ever-greens. 

I shall in the next Place treat of the Timber that this 
Country produces, viz. 

The Chestnut Oak, is a very lofty Tree and clear of 
Boughs and Limbs, for fifty or sixty Feet high, and is com- 
monly four or five Feet Diameter, they are the largest Oaks 
w^e have, and yield the fairest Planks. These kind of Oaks 
grow chiefly in low" Land that is stiif and rich ; some of them 
are so high that a good Gun will hardly kill a Turkey on the 
top of them, though with Sw^an Shot. They are called the 
Chesnut Oak from the sw^eetness and largeness of the Acorns ; 
the Leaves and Bark of this and all the following Oaks are of 
a very Binding Mature, and may successfuly be used to stop 
all kind of Fluxes, the Salt is Diuretick, and the Wood of 
some are of the same Uses and Virtues with Guajacum ; as is 
manifest in its cure of the Yaws and other Disorders. In 
most of all the Oaks, gTOw^s a long Moss, whereof the Cattle 
and Deer are very fond, wdiich I have already mentioned. 

The White Scaly Bark Oak; this is used as the former in 
building Sloops, Brigantines, Ships, and other Vessells of 
Burthen. And though it bears a larger Acorn, yet it never 
grows to the bulk and height of the former. This kind of 
Oak is found generally growling on dry stiif Lands and is so 

H 2 called 

60 The Natural Historg 

called from the Scaly broken White Bark which covers the 
Tree. This and the former produce good Mast for Swine to 
feed on. 

The Red Oak sometimes grows very large and lofty in 
good Land, but it is not used as the former in building of 
Vessels, being a very Porous Timber, and not durable, yet it 
is sometimes used for Pipe Staves, and makes good Fences 
and Clap-Boards, which are the only use made of it in this 
Country; it is so called from the redness of its Wood. It 
produces good Mast for Swine. 

The Spanish Oak has a whitish smooth Bark, grows pretty 
large in wet low Ground, and is very free from Limbs or 
Boughs ; it is durable W^ood, and very easy to split, therefore 
some use to build Vessels with it, it affords good Plank, 
Clap-Boards, Pails, for Fences, and also excellent good Mast 
for Swine ; the Bark of this Tree is used for the Cure of the 
Ya irs. 

The Bastard-Spaiiish-Oak is betwixt the Red and Spanish- 
Oak, it is not as durable as the former, but makes good Rails 
for Fencing, and Clap-Boards, and is very good Wood for the 
Fire, this being all the LTse that is made of it at present ; it 
likewise bears a very good IVfast for Sioine to feed on. 

The Black-Oak grows large, and is durable Wood under 
Water; it is seldom made use of in building Ships, but is 
sometimes used in House- Work ; it bears as good Mast as any 
of the former for Swi?ie. 

The White-Iron, or Ring-Oak, is so called from the dura- 
bility and lasting quality of the Wood ; this Wood is found 
to be one of the best Oaks we have in this Country, or in 
America, for Pipe-staves and Building of all kind of Ships; 
it is as large as the former, grows on dry Lands, and sold(^m 
fails of producing a good Croj) of Acorns. 


of North Carolina. 61 

The Turh'cy-Oak, so called, from the small Acorns it bears, 
which are sweet, and eat like the Acorns of the Chestnut-Oak, 
on which the Wild Turkles feed, and are very fat in the Sea- 
son ; this Wood is only used for Firing and Fences, not being 
so durable as the former are. 

The Live-Oak, so called, from its being Green all the Year, 
it grows on dry sandy Ground, and is the most durable Oak 
in all America, but it is short, and will not afford Plank of 
any considerable Length, therefore unfit to build Ships with. 
There are some few Trees that will afford a Stock of twelve 
Feet, but it being so very firm and weighty, they never make 
use of it upon these Occasions, moreover the Wood being so 
very hard, the Sawyers seldom attempt the cutting of it : It 
is observable, that a ^N'ail being once driven into it, it is next 
to an impossibility to draw it out again; the Limbs thereof 
are so cured, that they serve for excellent Timbers, and 
Knees and makes the best Trunnels of any Oak in the AVorld 
for Ships and Vessels of any sort; the Acorns thereof are 
as sweet as any Chesnuts, and the Indians draw an Oil 
from them as sweet and palatable as that from the Olive, 
though of an Amber Colour; with these Acorns some have 
counterfeited and made Chocolate not to be distinguished by 
a good Palate ; this Wood makes excellent Window Frames, 
Mallats, and Pins for Blocks. Thev are of an indifferent 
quick gTowth; there are two sorts of this Oak, and Swine 
that feed on its Acorns, are excellent fine Pork. 

The Fresh Water Oak, grows in Ponds of fresh Water, in 
Swamps by the River sides, and in low Grounds over-flo^vn 
with Water, they continue Green all the Year ; there is little 
or no use made of it, except for Fire or Fences. 


62 The Natural Histoid 

The Cypress is not an Ever-green in Carolina, and is there- 
fore called the Bald Cypress, because the Leaves during the 
Winter Season turn Ked, and do not recover their verdure 
till the S])ring. These Trees are the tallest and thickest of 
any we have in this Part of the World ; some of them being 
above thirty Six Feet in circumference ; the Xuts which these 
Trees bear yield a most odoriferous Balsam, that most effectu- 
ally cures all new and green Wounds, Gonorrhoea s, and old 
Gleets, and being drank with Alicant, stop all kinds of Fluxes 
of Blood, and consolidate Ulcers in stubborn Bodies, and dry 
up excessive Moistures, and cure Ruptures, Polypus, Car- 
buncles, and many other disorders. The Planters and In- 
dians most commonly make their Periaugers and Canoes of 
this Wood, with which they pass over large Creeks and Bays, 
to Transport their Lumber from one River to another ; some 
of these Periaugers are so large that they will carry thirty 
or forty Barrels of Pitch or Tar in them, though of one en- 
tire Piece of Timber ; some trade in them to Virginia and 
other Places along the Coast, with Pork and other Produc- 
tions of the Country: Of these Trees are likewise made 
curious Boats for Pleasure and other Necessary Crafts ; this 
Wood is very lasting and free from the Pot by the Worms 
in the Water, which often ruin many Vessels and Boats 
made of Oak and other Wood, which I shall describe in its 
proper Place, when I treat of those insects: It is reported 
that no ^foth or other Vermine will abide in a Chest made of 
this Wood. 

The Pine-Tree, whereof there are four sorts, if not more. 
The Pitch-Pine is a very large fair Tree, free from Boughs 
or Branches, 'till you come near the top, and continues green 
all the year like the Fir-Tree, it's Tind)er is imicli redder 
flinii the former, and it's Leaves narrowiM", shorter and mori' 


of North Carolina. 63 

sharp pointed like the Puw ; tlieir Fruit is iScalij, the Jjark 
of the Tree is blacker, tougher, and more flexible than that of 
the Fir-Tree. The Wood of this Tree being so full of Bilu- 
meri, or T urpentine , and is so durable, that it seems to suffer 
no decay, though exposed to all Weathers, or lying upon the 
Ground or in the Water for many Ages ; and is used in many 
domesticks Affairs. This Tree affords four excellent Com- 
modities, viz. T ur pentine , Tar, Pitch, and Bosin, how they 
are made, I shall treat of in another Place. 

The White and Yeltow-Pine, otow to be verv laro-e Trees 
much after the same form with the former, but it's Leaves 
are larger, and the Wood is not so full of Turpentine, there- 
fore more easy to be sawed, it affords excellent good Plank 
for Building, and several other uses, they make Masts, Yards, 
and several other Xecessaries of this Pi^ie, being the most 
useful Tree in the Woods. 

The Almond-Pine, this last bears Kernels in the Apple, 
tasting much like Almonds; for which Reason it is so call'd, 
it much resembles the former in bigness and groweth, is used 
for Masts, Boards, Piles, Fences, and several other things. 

The Dwarf -Pine, seldom exceeds above Seventeen Feet 
high, and is therefore of little or no use, except for shew, 
being an Ever-green, as all the rest are. There are many 
Virtues ascribed to the Produce of these Trees (which they 
rightly deserve) not only in external, but internal Disorders, 
which are well known amongst us. 

The Cedar, whereof there are two sorts, the Red and the 
^Vhite. The Red Cedar is encompassed with a vast number 
of Branches, which grow gTadually lesser and shorter, as they 
approach the top of the Tree, so that it grows exactly in the 
Form of a Pyramid. The Leaves are small and round like 
those of the Pine Tree, but shorter and not so sharp pointed ; 


64 The Natural Historg 

it beareth Berries all times of the Year, which are sweet and 
pleasant to cat; it is a most beautiful Ever-green, and is here 
in great Plenty. Those near the Salts grow generally on 
Sand Banks, and that in the Freshes is found in the Swamps 
and low wxt Grounds. It is a soft Wood like Firr, and of a 
reddish Colour, but hardens in process of time ; of this Wood, 
Tables, Wainscot, and other Xecessaries are made, 'tis es- 
teemed for its sweet scent, and it is as durable and lasting 
a v/ood as any we have in Carolina; it is much used in Posts 
for Houses and Sills, as also to build Sloops, Boats, &c. by 
reason the Worms will not touch it, though it remain in the 
Water, or upon Land, for several Years. Of this Cedar, 
Ship loads may be exported, and it was formerly so very 
plentiful and common in this Province, that they have fenced 
large Plantations with it ; the Coffins for the Dead are fre- 
quently made of it, by reason of its lasting Quality, the Wood 
of this Tree is profitable against the French Pox, and an 
infusion in Vinegar helps Scabs and other cutaneous Dis- 

The White Cedar, so called, because it nearly a]>proaches 
the other Cedar in Smell, Bark, and Leaves, only this grows 
taller, is exceeding streight, very light, and free to split : 
It is tough and durable, and make th good Yards, Top-masts, 
Boms, and Boltsprits, the best Shingles for Houses, Pails, 
and other Vessels, necessary for several uses, are made of it's 
Wood ; with the Bark and the Red Cedar, the Indians most 
commonly use to make their Cabbins of, which proves firm, 
and resists all Weather. 

The Tulip Trees, which are called by tlie Planters Popliirs, 
as being nearest in grain to that Wood. These Trees grow 
exceeding large and tall, some being found Twenty one Foot 
and more in circumference as I liave frequently seen in numy 


of North Carolina. 65 

places in this Province. And I have been informed, that 
some are found ten Feet Diameter; several of these Trees 
bear a white Tulip, and others a party-colour'd one: The 
Wood makes handsome Wainscot Tables, Shingles for Houses, 
and Planks for several uses; it is very durable and lasting 
under Ground, and in the Water. The Planters frequently 
make an Oyntment of the Buds, which is excellent good to 
cure all manner of Inflamations, Scalds and Burns; The 
Cattle are fond of its Buds, which gives a very odd taste to 
the iMilk. 

The Aspen Trees are the same here as in Europe, but are 
scarcely to be found in this Province; the Bark is used in- 
wardly in the Sciatica, and other Rheumatich Disorders, and 
in the Strangury, but the Leaves being taken inwardly, are 
said to cause Barreness. 

The Ash Tree, whereof we have two sorts; the first is only 
like the European in the Grain of the Wood, for it differs 
from ours in the Leaves and the Bark, and Keys, it bears 
none ; the Wood is very tough, but there is little use made of 
it at present. The second sort is what they call in these Parts 
by the ^ame of the Water-Ash, and differs from the former 
by only being brittel and the Bark is food for the Beavers, 
both these sorts of Ash grow in wet low Swampy Grounds, 
and on the Banks of the Rivers. 

The Sycamore Tree grows in low and Swampy Land, and 
by River sides; the Bark is quite different from ours, but 
very beautiful, being mottled and clouded with several Col- 
ours, as White, Blue, (&c. The Leaves of this Tree are ex- 
actly of the form and shape with those in Europe; Keys it 
bears none, but a Bur like the sweet Gum, or the Chesnut, but 
its Grain is fine and beautifully mottled with variety of 

5 I Colours, 

66 The Natural Historg 

Colours, and is made use of for several domestick Xecessa- 
ries, such as Wainscot, Tables, Chairs, Trenchers, Dishes, 
Stocks for Guns, and the like. The Buds of this Tree boiled 
and appljed, help the hardness of the Spleen, and other hard 
swellings; the Fruit loosens the Belly and the Tears that 
issue out of the Tree in Spring, the biting of Serpents. 

The Beech Tree is frequently to be met with very large, 
whereof there are two sorts ; the first is much the same as in 
Europe, and is in plenty all over this Province, but is little 
regarded or made use of, only for Fire-wood, not being dura- 
ble Timber, yet affords plenty of Sweet Mast for Swine, 
which makes the Pork very oily, except it be hardened with 
Indian Corn before it is killed or made use of. 

There is another sort of Beech found here in several places 
called Buch-Beech, and differs little from the former, only 
in the Bark and Leaf there is some small difference, and the 
Tree is generally not so large. The Leaves applied, help 
Swellings, Blisters, and Excoriations of the Skin; the Juice 
that comes out of the Tree bored, is excellent against Scruffs, 
Tetters, Ring-worms, Scabs, and sore Mouths ; the Kernel of 
the Nut helps the Gravel and Stone in the Kidneys, so doth 
the Ashes. 

The Elm Tree, whereof are two sorts, the first grows on 
high Lands, and is like the European Elm. The Indians 
take the Bark of the Root of this Tree, and beat it to a Pulp 
whilst fresh, and then dry it in the Chimney, with which they 
heal a Cut or green Wound, very speedily. The other kind 
of Elm grows in wet or low Grounds, and differs but little 
from the former, only the Bark is so very tough, tluit ''he 
Europeans and Indians make Ropes of it for several uses, 
which they strip of in April or May, when the Sap begins to 
run, this they can do with the greatest ease imaginable at 


of North Carolina. 67 

that time, there being such plenty of other valuable Timber, 
there is little or no other use made of it at present. The 
Decoction of the Bark and Leaves of the Elm is of a cleans- 
ing, drying, and binding Quality, and therefore good in 
Wounds and broken Bones ; the Liquor that issueth out of the 
Tree takes away Scruff, Pimples, Spots and Freckles from the 
Face ; one Ounce of the inner-Bark in Wine, Purges FlegTu. 

The Mulberry Tree, whereof there are three sorts here, 
beside the different bigness of some Trees Fruit. The first 
is the common red Mulberry, whose Fruit is long and taper 
at the Ends, and is the earliest in this Province (except the 
Strawberries) they are sweet and luscious, the Planters make 
use of their Fruit (which is above an Inch long) instead of 
Raisons and Currans, for several Dishes; they yield a trans- 
parent Crimson Liquor, which I do not doubt would make 
good Wine, if the Planters Inclination tended that way : The 
Paraheetoes and other Fowl feed upon the Fruit in the Sea- 
son, and likewise the Hogs, as they drop from the Trees. 
These Trees grow to be very large, and make the most de- 
lightful and pleasant Shades to sit under in the Summer, of 
any in these Parts of America, by their large Boughs spread- 
ing at great distances, and growing as round as any I have 
ever seen; you shall see in most of their Plantations, and 
especially near their Dwelling Houses, these pleasant Ar- 

The other two sorts bear a smooth Leaf fit for the Silk- 
work; the first of these bear a white Mulberry, which is com- 
mon: The second bears a Fruit like a small Blackberry 
which is very sweet; the Wood of these Trees are very dura- 
ble and tough, and when the Indians can't get the Locust 
Tree, they use this, to make their Bows with. These Trees 
grow extraordinary round, and pleasant to the Eye, as any 

1 2 in 

68 The Natural Historic 

in these Parts, the Fruit, Leaves, and Barke are used in 
Gargarisms for sore Throats and the Tooth-ach. 

The Ilickery Trees are of the Walbiut kind, and bears a 
Xut as they do, whereof there are three sorts, viz. the Com- 
mon white, the red, and the flying Bark'd. 

The common or white Ilickery grows tollerably large, but 
is not a durable Wood, for if it be cut down and exposed to 
the Weather, it will be quite rotten and spoiled in three 
Years (as will likewise the Beech of this Country) but it is 
very tough, easy to split, and maketh the best Hoops I have 
seen. It bears a JSTut much like the Wall-nut of this Country, 
with a Husk about it, but of an Oval Form ; the Kernels are 
sweet, good to eat, and make Oil; the Hogs feed plentifully 
on them in the Season, by which means they become Fat, and 
make excellent Pork. 

The Indians gather great Quantities of these iSTuts, and 
the Black Wall-nuts (being ripe in Autumn) which they pre- 
serve and lay up in Stores for the Winter Season, whereof 
they make several Dishes and Banquets; this is generally 
done after the following Manner, they take these Nuts and 
break them very small between two Stones, until the Shells 
and Kernels are indifferent small, and this Powder they pre- 
sent to Strangers upon little Wooden Dishes, the Kernel dis- 
solves in the Mouth, the Shell is spit out, and tastes as well as 
Almonds. They likewise thicken their Venison Broath with 
this Powder, whilst the Shell precipitates and remains at the 
bottom, making it very rich and agreeable in Taste ; these 
Nuts have much the same Virtues with the Wall-nuts. 

The Red Ilickery, is so called, from the Heart thereof 
being red, firm, and durable, whereof are made walking- 
sticks. Mortars, Pestils, and several other fine Turners Ware. 


of NoHh Carolina. 69 

Both these sorts are plenty in this Province, and are the 
best Fire-wood they have. 

The third sort is called the Flying Barh'd Hichery, from 
its britle and scaly Bark : It bears a Nut with a bitter Ker- 
nel, and a soft Shell ; of this Wood they make Coggs for 
Mills, and several other Necessaries : The Leaves of all these 
sorts of Hichery have a fragrant smell, and are much like our 
Wall-nut in Europe. 

The Black Wall-nut Trees are plenty and large in this 
Province, and the Wood firm and durable, whereof beautiful 
Wainscot Tables, Chests of Drawers, and several other Nec- 
essaries are made. Some of this Wood is very Knotty, but 
fine Grain'd, and partly of the Colour of the Yew Treo; it is 
so durable, that some have bottom'd Ships with it, it is like- 
wise reported that it is never eaten by Worms bred in the salt 
Water. The Kernels of these Nuts are good to eat, but after 
some time they grow rank and oily. It grows exactly in the 
shape of the European Wall-nut^ but the shell is much thicker 
and harder, as most of the native Nuts of America are. This 
Fruit is very agreeable and pleasant to eat ; when it begins to 
grow ripe and hath its yellow Husk or Coat on, it looks ex- 
actly like a Lemon. The old Hogs feed plentifully on these 
Nuts, which make them fat, and good Pork, but the young 
Swine are not able to crack them, so that great quantities 
lye under the Trees. It is called the Black Wall-nut from its 
Black Barck, to distinguish it I suppose from the other 
Hickery^ whereof it is a Species. 

The Ches-nut Tree in this Province grows mostly toward 
the Heads of the Rivers, and hilly parts of the Country ; it is 
large and durable Wood, and is useful in building of Houses 
and many other Conveniences. The Nut of the CJies-nut 
Tree is smaller than the European, but much sweeter and 


70 The Natural Hlstorg 

better relish'd ; they have the Virtues of Almonds and Hazle- 
nuts, but more nourishing, the Leaves or Bark of the Tree 
boiled in Wine are good against the Bloody Flux, and all 
other kind of Eluxes. 

The Sweet-Gum Tree, so called, from the sweet and fra- 
grant Gum it yields in the Spring, by making an Incision in 
the Bark and AVood. It cures the Herps, Tettars, Inflama- 
tions, Morphew, and many other cutaneous Disorders : It is 
likewise a soveraign Balsam for several internal Disorders, 
as I have often experienced; it bears a Leaf partly like the 
Aspen Tree, a round Bur, with a kind of Prickle like the 
Horse Chesnut, wherein is contained the Seed ; scarce any 
Wood has a finer or better Grain, being very durable, and is 
frequently made use of for Tables, Drawers, &c. 

The Black Gum Tree, whereof there are two sorts ; the 
first bears a black Berry well tasted, which the Indians com- 
monly mix with their Pulse, and the kind of Soups they make, 
to which it gives a pretty flavour, and Scarlet Colour : The 
Bears crop these Trees for their Pruit, of which they are very 
fond, yet if they are kill'd at that Season, they eat unsavoury, 
which no doubt is occasioned by their eating those Berries, 
for at other times, when they feed on Beech and other ^fast, 
their Flesh is well tasted and good Food. 

The second sort bears a Berry in shape like the former, but 
bitter and ill tasted. This Tree the Indians report is never 
hurt or wounded by Lightning, as other Trees generally are. 
It has no certain Grain, and it is almost impossible to split 
it for Use; from whence I am persuaded the Indians took 
this INTotion, that it is never hurt as above, from its being 
so very difficult to split. 

The White Gum Tree bears a sort of long bunched Flowers, 
and is a Ix'autiful knotted and curled Wood, and makotl) 


of North Carolina. 71 

curious Furniture of several kinds, if wrought by skillful 

The Locust Tree bears a Leaf like the Liquorish Plant, and 
has large and long Prickles (like the Hawthorn Tree, but as 
long as the Quills of a Porcupine) in the Boughs and Body 
of the Tree : It is the most durable Wood we have, and is 
made choice of for all sorts of work that is exposed to the 
Weather; it grows pretty tall and large, there are two sorts 
of it, the White and the Yellow^, it bears Cods like Kidney- 
Beans, but much larger, wherein are contained some few^ 
Seeds, and a certain Juice or Substance as thick and sweet as 
Honey, but of a dark brownish Colour. Of this Tree the 
Indians make their choisest Bows, being tough and flexible ; 
the Fruit of this Tree is much of the same Virtues and Uses 
with Honey. 

The Honey Tree is so like the Locust, that there is scarce 
any Difference between them, only the Honey Tree is more 
prickley than the former; and are a Species of the Locust 
though call'd by different ISTames ; it bears long Cods like the 
former wherein is contained the Seeds and the Honey. This 
Tree grows as large as the Locust, and will bear in five Years 
from the time of Planting; they were first brought here by 
the Indian Traders, and propogated by their Seed, but from 
what part of America is not known : These Trees, if planted, 
would make the best of Hedges, being very prickley, and of 
quick growth; I have seen Orchards of these Trees in Vir- 
ginia, where excellent Metheglin is made of their Fruit, 
they sometimes boil it to the consistance of Honey, and use it 
after the same manner. 

The Service Tree groweth to be very large, and bearetli 
long Leaves like those of the Ash Tree ; the Flowers grow in 
great Clusters, and are of a whitish Colour, after which come 


72 The Natural Historg 

forth small Berries, somewhat long, which are unpleasant to 
the Taste, 'till they have lain by for some time, then they be- 
come soft and mellow; they are in taste and operation like 
the Medlar, but seldom made use of but by the Indians, the 
Planters not regarding them: The Leaves are astringent, 
and stop Fluxes, and the Fruit is cooling, drying, and bind- 
ing, (especially when they arc hard, and not altogether ripe) 
they stop Fluxes in the Belly, and all other kind of Fluxes ; 
they Strengthen the Stomach, stop vomiting, and outwardly 
heal Wounds, being dry'd and made into Powder. 

The Birch Tree is plentiful in this Province, but gen- 
erally towards the Freshes on the Banks and Heads of the 
Rivers, but never near the Salt Water; it differs something 
in the Bark from the European Birch, and the Leaves are 
sharper and smaller; it buds in April, and the Paraheetoes 
come from all Parts to feed on them at that Season. Where 
this Wood grows there are no Plantations ; the Leaves are 
cleansing, disolve and purge watry Humours, help Dropsies 
and Stone in the Bladder, the Ashes of the Bark is effectual 
to heal sore Mouths, and take away Scabs. The Mushrooms 
are binding and cure the Piles, the Tears are pleasant to 
drink and quench Thirst. 

The Alder Tree grows in wet low Grounds near the Freshes 
and heads of the Rivers, but is not common amongst the Plan- 
ters, or near the Salt-Water; this Tree is so well known 
amongst us, that it would be needless to describe it. The 
Bark and Twigs are much used by the Planters in dying Wool 
and Cloatli black ; the Wood is soft, but durable and lasting 
in the Ground or Water, makes good Piles, and other Neces- 
saries, the Leaves and Bark are cooling and binding, and used 
in hot Swellings or Ulcers in the Body. 


of North Carolina. 73 

The Laurel Tree is plenty all over this Province, and grows 
in low and swampy Ground, in height and bigness equalizing 
the lofty Oaks; the Planters dye a yellow Colour with the 
Leaves and Berries of this Tree, the Wood is not durable in 
the Weather, yet serves for several Uses when kept dry, its 
Virtues are doubtful, yet it is said to provoke Vomit, and 
bring down the Menses. 

The Ascojjo is a Tree, so called by the Indians, very like 
the Laurel in its Leaves, the Bark is of a hot spicy Mature, 
much like the Cassa Lignea; I never saw this Tree growing, 
but the Indian who procured me a Branch of it assured me, 
that they are plentifully to be met w^ith at the Heads of the 
Rivers, and near the Mountains, and that they grow^ pretty 

The Bay Tree delights to grow in the same Ground with 
the Laurel, it is a beautiful Ever-green, the Wood of this as 
well as the Laurel, are of little use only for Fire, and is 
plenty all over this Province; the Berries yield a Wax 
whereof they make Candles, which in burning afford a pleas- 
ing smell, besides it is useful in Chirurgery, the Leaves are of 
a bitter astringent l^ature, but grateful to the Stomach, and 
resists Vomiting; when made into a Pulse, help all Inflama- 
tions, the stinging of Bees, and other venemous Beasts, the 
Bark of the Boot in Rhenish Wine provokes Urine, opens 
Obstructions, cures Dropsies and Jaundice, but kills the 
Foetus; the Berries expel Wind and ease all manner of Pains 
proceeding from Cold, therefore good in the Cholick, Palsies, 
Convulsions, Epilepsies, and many other Disorders ; some 
have the Leaves tun'd up with Beer, which makes it pleasant 
and grateful to the Stomach. 

The Bay Tulip Tree is another beautiful Ever-green, is 
very common, and grows in the same Ground with the former ; 
its Virtues are uncertain, neither have I known any use 
made of it. 

K The 

74 The Natural History 

The Horn-beam Tree, grows in some places in this Prov- 
ince both plentiful and large, the Leaves are like those of the 
Elm or Witch Hazel, but tenderer; the Timber of the Tree 
becomes so strong, durable, and hard, in process of time, that 
it may rather be compared to a Horn than Wood, from whence 
it took the Name Horn-beam, or Hard-beam; it is excellent 
for making Arrows, Pullies, Shafts for Mills, and many 
other Xecessaries; yet is little regarded, or made use of, by 
reason of the great plenty of other Wood in those parts ; there 
may be an Oil drawn from it, which is of excellent use in the 
cure of the French Pox. 

The Maple Tree, of which there are two sorts, the first 
has an exceeding white Grain, and generally gTOWs in the 
plain and champion Country; the second has a much harder 
and more curled Grain, and grows in the Hilly and Moun- 
tainous parts ; both these sorts are large, with a smooth Bark, 
great Boughs, and Leaves much like those of the Vine, hang- 
ing by long reddish Stalks, which make delightful and re- 
freshing Shades to sit under from the Heat of the Sun : The 
Flowers which are of a whitish-gTeen Colour, hang in Clus- 
ters, after which come forth long Fruit resembling the Wings 
of Grass-hoppers, with white and little Kernels in them : Of 
this Wood is made Wainscots, Tables, Trenchers, Dishes, 
Spinning-wheels, and the like; the Leaves and Roots are 
Astringent, stop all sorts of Fluxes, and the Root helps Pains 
of the sides and Liver. 

The Persimon Tree agrees with all Lands and Soil^, tlicy 
are common on all Plantations, the Fruit when ripe is nearest 
to our Medlar, it is one of the greatest Astringents T have 
ever met Avith, for if eaten, or chew'd before it is ripe, it 
draws the Mouth up like a Purse. The Fruit when ripe, be- 
ing apply'd to a Foul wound, presently cleanses it, but cnusea 


of North Carolina. 75 

exquisite Pain: The Fruit soon rots after it is ripe, and 
contains four flat Stones, resembling those of the Tamarinds. 
The Planters make Beer of its Fruit, which they call Per- 
simon Beer. There are two sorts of this Fruit, the one ripe 
in Summer, and the other not before the Frost visits those 
Parts; these Trees sometimes grow to two Feet diameter, 
some make use of the Bark, instead of the Cortex peruviana, 
or Jesuits Bark, for Agues, and it is reported that that Bark is 
from the Persimon Tree in Neiv-Spain. 

The Holly Tree, whereof there are two sorts, one with a 
large Leaf, and the other with a smaller, thev generally are 
to be met with in low wet Grounds ; both sorts are in plenty, 
and grow tollerably large, yet I have seldom seen any use 
made of their Wood, there being such plenty of much better. 
Their Berries are said to be good in the Choliclc, for ten or 
twelve being taken inwardly, purge strongly by Stool. The 
Birdlime which is made of the Bark, being applied Plaster- 
wise, consolidates Wounds, eases all manner of Pains, and 
strengthens the I^erves, but if taken inwardly, it is mortal, for 
it glues the Intrails together, so that the passages of the Excre- 
ments are intirely shut up. 

The Chinkapin Tree is a kind of a Chesnut, and very plen- 
tiful, they bear great quantities of ^N'uts which are less than 
a Hazle-nut, and of a Piramedial Form, they are in Taste 
like a Chesnut, but sweeter: It's jN'ut has a Husk or Bur 
about it like the former, which opens when it is ripe, so that 
the Fruit falls to the Ground, which is good feeding for 
Hogs, making them fat and excellent Pork. The Grain of 
the Wood and the Leaves on the Trees are very like the 
Chesnut, but the Timber is not so large, yet it is used to Tim- 
ber Boats, Shallops, (&c. and makes anything that is to endure 

K ^- the 

76 The Natural Historg 

the Weather; this and the Hichery are very tough Rods to 
whip Horses with, yet this Wood is in Substance very brittle. 
This Tree the Vine delights to twist about, it is good Fire- 
wood, but very sparkling as well as the Sassafras; the Xut or 
Kernel of this Tree has much the same Virtues with those of 
the Chesnut, but more binding, and are of excellent use to 
stop Fluxes. 

The Sassafras is very common, and grows large, its Wood 
being sometimes above two Feet over, 'tis durable and lasting 
for Bowls, Timber Posts for Houses, and other things that 
require standing in the Ground, notwithstanding it is very 
brittle and light, it hath a pleasant smell. The Leaves are 
of two sorts, some long and smooth, the others indented about 
the edges (especially those growing at the top of the 
Branches) sometimes like those of the Fig-tree, it bears a 
small white Flower, which is cleansing to the Blood, if eaten 
in the Spring with other Salating; it likewise bears a small 
Berry, which when ripe, is black and very oily. Carminative, 
and extremely prevalent in Coughs: The Bark and Root 
help most Diseases proceeding from Obstructions, and of 
singular use in Diets for the French Pox, it strengthens the 
whole Body, cures Barrenness, and is a Specifick to those 
afflicted with the Gripes, or defluctions of Rheum; the same 
in Powder, and strong lotions being made thereof, is much 
used by the Savage Indians, to mundify old Ulcers, and sev- 
eral other uses ; it is a beautiful and odoriferous Ever-green, 
makes a delightful and fragrant Fire, but very sparkling. 

The Willow Tree differs from the European, both in Bark 
and Leaves, but the Grain is not to be distinguished from the 
former, and is commonly to be met with growing on the River 
sides, and Banks of fresh Water, as the Birch does. 


of North Carolina. 77 

The Black ^Nild Cherry Tree, grows common in the Woods 
in several places, and especially on light Lands, to be very 
large, the Leaves and Grain are like those of the European 
Black Cherry, in May they are in their Bloom of Flowers, at 
which time they appear all over as white as a Sheet ; it bears 
small black Cherries, in prodigious Quantities, which are ripe 
in June, the Parakeeto's, Wild Turkies, Swine, and several 
other Beast and Birds feed upon them at that time. These 
Cherries are very sweet and well tasted, and are better for 
making of Cherry Brandy than any I have ever met with in 
Europe, yielding a fine Colour, and most grateful Flavour to 
the Brandy, and have the same Virtues with the European 

The Red Cherry Tree, is very scarce, and rarely to be met 
with, it's Virtues and Uses are much the same of those 
with us. 

The Wild Plum Tree, whereof there are two sorts, if not 
more, one is much sooner ripe than the other, and differ in 
the Bark, one being very Scaley like the American Birch, and 
the other smooth, these Trees are in great plenty in these 
Parts, and especially amongst the Indians, who are very fond 
of them. These Trees when they are in Blossom, smell as 
sweet as any Jessamine, and look as white as a Sheet, but are 
something Prickly, you may make them grow to what Shape 
you please ; they are very Ornamental about a House, and 
make a pleasant sight in the Spring with their beautiful 
white Liverys: Their Fruit is red, and very cooling and 
palatable to the sick; they are of a very quick growth, and 
bear in five Years from the Stone. The English large Black 
Plumh, thrives well, as does the Cherry, being grafted 
thereon ; this Fruit is in great Request amongst the Indians, 
which they sometimes dry and preserve for the Winter. 


78 The Natural History 

There is another sort of Plum, about the bigness of a Dam- 
son, the Tree is but small, and seldom exceeds ten Inches in 
thickness, the Plum has a very physical taste, what may be its 
Virtues is doubtful, but this I am sensible of, that when it is 
chew'd in the Mouth, it is apt to make that part sore; the 
Wood is something porous, but exceeds the Box for it's fine 
yellow Colour. 

The Damson Tree, whereof there are two sorts, the black 
and the white, and are about the bigness of our European 
Damsons, they grow any where if planted from the Stone or 
Slip, they bear a whitish Blossom, and are a good Fruit, they 
are found gTOwing in gTeat plenty on the Sand-Banks, and 
all along the Coast, they never grow large, but are plentiful 
Bearers. The Fruit of this and the Plum Trees are very 
cooling and good in Fevers. 

The Fig Tree, is to be met with growing wild in some parts 
of this Province, and especially near the Mountains, the Fruit 
of this is but small, notwithstanding the Tree gi'ows to be 
very large. The Leaves and Fruit are good to dissolve and 
waste all hard Kernels and scrophulous Tumors. 

The Hawthorn, or white Thorn Tree, of these there are 
two sorts, the first is exactly the same with ours in Ireland, 
and grows commonly near the Freshes and heads of Rivers, 
but never near the Salt Waters. The second sort grows plen- 
tifully in some parts of this Province, the Fruit, or Haws, 
are quite different from those with us being considerably 
larger and longer, and of a very agi'eeable taste. These Trees 
are near as large as the European, but have few or no 
Prickles: There is no use made of the Timber, neithei do 
they plant this or the other in Hedges, because Timber is so 
plenty at present. The Leaves, Flowers, and Haws, are very 
binding, therefore good to stop all kinds of Fluxes ; the Pow- 

of North Carolina. 79 

der of the Stone dranlv in Ehenish Wine, is of very great serv- 
ice in the Stone, Gravel, and Dropsie. 

The Black Thorn, or Sloe Tree grows plentifully in sev- 
eral parts of this Province, (and is a Slender Tree about the 
bigness of our Hazel) but is quite different from our Sloe 
Tree in Ireland, the Fruit being generally twice as large and 
as long as ours ; this is of a more astringent or binding !N^a- 
ture than the former. The Bark of this Tree being dryed 
and made into a fine Powder, and apply'd to inveterate old 
Sores (and especially in the Legs) very speedily cleanses 
and drys them up, and is one of the best Pemedies on those 
occasions, I have ever met with. 

The Dog-wood Tree, grows very plentifully in this Prov- 
ince, on light and rich Grounds, the Trunk or Body whereof, 
is covered with a rough Bark of a russet Colour with some 
Pith in the middle, like that of Elder. It flowers the first in 
the Woods, of any Tree in this Province, making the Porrest 
very beautiful at that Season ; it bears a white Blossom in the 
Months of Fehriiary and March, much like the wild Rose. 
The Leaves are full of jN'erves or Sinews, in form like those 
of Plantain, of a loathsome smell and bitter taste. Some of 
these Trees are ten or twelve Inches diameter, and have a 
very fine and beautiful Grain, and serves for several uses 
within Doors, but is not durable, being exposed to the 
Weather. The Bark of the Poot of this Tree, is frequently 
made use of by way of Infusion, and given to Children to 
kill the Worms ;• these being the only use made of it at present. 

The Sugar Tree grows very beautiful and high, with a 
smooth Bark and large spreading Branches, which make an 
excellent Shade to sit under in the extremity of hot Weather. 
The Leaves are very large and broad like those of the Vine, 


80 The Natural Histonj 

but I never observed any Flowers or Fruit growing on it, so 
can't satisfie the Reader as to that Point. It is of a very tedi- 
ous gi'owth, and is commonly to be met with at the heads of 
Eivers, and near the Mountains, but no where else. The 
Indians, tap it at certain Seasons of the Year, and place 
Gourds to it to receive the Liquor, and when they have got a 
sufficient quantity of Juice, they boil it to the consistence of 
Sugar, which is as sweet, and serves for the same use, but 
what other Virtues, or Uses, it may be indued with, I am a 
stranger to. 

The Hazel-nut Tree is so well known, that it would be 
needless to say much on that head, it grows plentifully in some 
parts of this Province, and especially near the Mountains 
and heads of Pi vers, but its N^ut is not as good as the Euro- 
pean, having a much thicker and harder Shell, and so have 
most of the Fruits in America that I have seen. The Hazel- 
nuts before they are thoroughly ripe are an excellent Astrin- 
gent, and stop Fluxes of all sorts, a Decoction of the inner 
Pind of the Tree, drank for some Days together, is good 
against the Strangury and kill Worms. 

The PajMU Tree is not large, being only about eight or 
ten Inches diameter, but has the broadest Leaves of any 
Trees I ever saw in the Woods of Carolina; it bears an Apple, 
about the bigness of a Hens Egg, which contains a large 
Stone in it, when it is ripe it is of a beautiful yellow colour, 
and as soft and sweet as any Fruit can be. The planters 
make Puddings, Tarts, and many other Dishes of the Fruit 
of this Tree. 

The Bed-hud Tree, so called from its red Buds; it b3ars 
a beautiful purple LarJc-heel Flower, and makes the most 
agreeable and best Sallad of any Flowers I have ever met 
with ; its Fruit is ripe in April and Maij, these Trees are 


of North Carolina. 81 

not large, seldom being above ten or twelve Inches through. 
The Flowers and Fruit are very cooling, and of an astringent 

The Sorrel, or Sower-iuood Tree, so called from it's Leaves, 
that taste exactly like Sorrel. I have never known any uses 
made of these Trees, which, are but small, being not quite as 
large as the former. 

The Pellitory is a small Tree that grows in this Province, 
especially near the Salts, Sand-banks, and Islands. The 
Planters use it frequently to cure the Tooth-ach, by putting 
a piece of the Bark in the Mouth, which is very hot, and 
causeth much Rheum and Spittle to flow from thence ; and as 
I am credibly inform'd, is one of the Ingredients that the 
Indians use when they Husquenaw their young Men and 
Boys, whereof I shall treat in it's proper Place, when I come 
to describe the Customs of those People. 

The Myrtle Tree, whereof are two sorts, different in Leaf 
and Berry. These Trees grow in great plenty in wet swampy 
Grounds, about ten or twelve Feet high, and bear small white 
Berries in gTeat quantities, which the Planter's Wives and 
Children pull in the Months of October and November, at 
which time they are ripe, and boil them in Water in large 
Pans, and so skim off the Wax it produces, which is of a 
greenish colour (but in process of time becomes white) and 
yields a most fragTant and oderiferous smell. This they 
strain and make into Cakes or Candles, which are not only 
very lasting, but grateful and pleasant for Ladies to burn in 
their Chambers. Some mix half Tallow with them to make 
Candles, others without any mixture at all, and are more dura- 
ble in burning than Tallow or Bees-wax ; and the best in the 
World to burn in Binnacles in Ships that pass the Equinoc- 
tial Line, and all excessive hot Countries, because they will 

6 L not 

82 The Natural Historg 

not melt with the extreamity of the heat, so readily as the 
former. A Decoction of these Berries cure the falling out of 
the Womb, Tettars, and Scald Heads, by fomenting the Parts, 
and their Syrup is good in Coughs, and the like disorders in 
the Breast. 

The Sumach Tree grows about nine or ten Feet high, and 
has tough and pliant Stalks, and Branches full of Twigs (like 
Oziers) of a brownish colour, whereon grow Leaves that are 
soft and hairy, having a red sinew or ridge gi'owing through 
the midst of them, and indented all about the edges. The 
Flowers which come forth in July are of a greenish yellow 
colour, and grow with the Leaves upon long and red Stalks 
in clusters, after which follow small reddish Seeds in bunches 
like Grapes, which are ripe in Autumn. This Plant is in 
very great plenty all over this Province, but little or no use 
is made of it at present. Yet it is of great value and use in 
Europe in dressing Skins, and especially the Spanish Leather. 
There are small Birds that feed on it and the Myrtle Berries 
in the Winter. This is one of the Ingredients used in the 
cure of the Yaws. The Leaves and Seeds stop all kind of 
Fluxes, and help the Hoemorrhoides, all Issues of Blood and 
weakness of the Stomach and Intestines; outwardly they 
resist putrefaction; drie up running Sores, heal old Ulcers, 
Gangrens, &c. the Gum put into the Teeth eases the Pains 

The Indico Tree (which is a kind of Woad, such as Dyers 
use to dye Cloth) grows plentifully in this Province, but I 
have never known any uses made of it. 

The Indian-Nut Tree grows to be very tall, large, aid 
smooth, and free from Branches 'till you come near the top, 
whereon grow Leaves like those of the Date, but broad and 
sharp at the point as Thorns, whereof the Indiaiis nudvc 
Needles, Bodkins, and many other Instrumouts for tlioir 


of North Carolina. 83 

uses, among these Leaves come forth clusters of Flowers like 
those of the Ches-nut Tree, from whence are produced large 
Fruit of an oval Form : In that end next the Tree, are two 
Holes, and sometimes three quite through the Fruit ; the 
outside of this Fruit is covered with a substance not unlike 
Hemp, or Flax, before it be beaten soft: In the middle 
whereof is contained a gTeat Nut, with a very hard shell, of 
a brown colour, wherein is contained a white Kernel, firm and 
solid, which tastes like an Ahnond; and within the Cavity 
or hollowing thereof is found a most beautiful Liquor like 
Milk, and of a pleasant Taste. This Tree continues green all 
the Year, the Timber, though large, is very spungy within 
and hard without. The Indians tie Ropes about these Trees 
for more ease in gathering the Fruit, and they sometimes cut 
off tender Twigs and Branches towards the Evening, at the 
ends whereof they tye Gourds to receive the Liquor that dis- 
tills from the Branches thereof, wdiich they drink as Euro- 
peans do Wine, and very much cools and refreshes their 
wearied Spirits. They sometimes make Canoes of this Tree, 
and of the Hemp that grows on the outside of the Fruit, 
Ropes for several uses ; from the Kernel likewise is produced 
a most precious Oil, wherew^ith the Indians anoint their 
feeble Limbs after long Journies, which not only refreshes 
them, but likewise mitigates all manner of Pains and Aches. 
The Christians sometimes distil this Liquor, from whence is 
produced a strong and pleasant Spirit like our Aquavitce, and 
is used as a great Cordial for many Diseases in these parts. 

The Palmeto Tree, the Leaves whereof grow in great Clus- 
ters, only on the tops of the Trees are long stalks, exactly 
in the shape of a Fan. This Tree when it is at its utmost 
growth is about forty or fifty Feet in height, and about two 
Feet diameter; and it is observable that the gTOwth of this 

L 2 Vefi^etable 

84 The Natural Historg 

Vegetable is so very slow, that it is scarce perceivable in the 
age of Man, the Experiment having been often try'd in several 
places where it grows. The Wood of it is very porous and 
stringey, like some Canes, with the Leaves of this Tree the 
Berniudians make fine Hats for Women, Baskets, and many 
pretty Boxes for several uses, which are transported to the 
[N^orthern parts of America, where this Tree does not grow, 
and to Great-Britain and Ireland. In North Carolina, this 
Tree is a Dwarfish kind, and the Planters make of the Fans 
of this Tree, Brooms to sweep their Houses with, which is 
all the use I have seen them make of it. 

The Hollow-Canes, or Reeds, such as Angling Rods are 
made of, and Weavers use for their Reeds, grow in great 
plenty in many places in this Province, especially in wet low 
and Swampy Grounds, though there is none to be met with 
to the northward of James's River in Virginia. They con- 
tinue green all the year, and are extraordinary good Pastur- 
age for Cattle and Horses in the Winter, and in the Month of 
March, when the Planters are obliged by the Laws of the 
Country to burn off the old Grass in their Fields and Woods, 
as the Heath is burnt off the Mountains in Ireland, by the 
Farmers in those Places. They are so very large towards the 
Heads of the Rivers that one joint will hold a Pint of any 
Liquor. When they grow old they bear an Ear like Oats, 
wherein is contain'd their Seeds, exactly like the Grains of 
Rye (which being boiled is good Meat, and often made use of 
by the Indians) soon after which they decay both Root and 
Branch, but the Seeds never fail to grow again. These hol- 
low Canes are Lodges for vast Numbers of Wild Bcists, 
which the Indians frequently set on fire to drive them out, 
by which means they kill vast Numbers of them, and you 
shall henr these Canes during the time that thoy are buruiu<r 


of North Carolina. 85 

at a great distance cracking and making a Aoise like two 
Armies engaged, and firing at each other, which has deceived 
many, supposing it to be the Indians coming to War upon 

The ArrowA\ood, so called from the Indians making use 
of it for Arrows for their Bows, and Rammers for their Guns. 
It grows very streight, of several sizes, and is tough and 
pliable, as the smallest Canes, of which it is a kind, and grows 
in great plenty on the Banks and River-sides. It is A^ery 
strange to see how the Indians will harden the Points of their 
Arrows, and how artfully they can fij^ sharp Flint Stones to 
them, by which means they kill Deer, Turkies, and several 
other Beasts and Birds. 

The Prichley-Ash, is so called from some resemblance it 
has to the Ash-Tree in its Leaves : It grows up like a Pole, 
whereof the Europeans and Indians make Poles to set their 
Canoes along the Shallow AVaters, it is very light and full of 
Pith like the Elder, but is full of prickles and Thorns like 
the Sweet Bryar, but larger. It bears Berries of a purple 
colour in large Clusters like the Alder Tree. The Root of 
this Tree is Catliartich and Emetick, and is frequently made 
use of in Cachexies, with good success. 

There is a kind of Prim, or Privet, that grows in this 
Province on dry barren and sandy Banks, by the Sound side, 
it differs little from ours, only this bears a smaller sort, and 
grows into a round Bush, and is beautiful to behold, when 
it's Flowers are full blown. The Leaves and Flowers are 
cooling and good in all Inflammations and soreness of the 
Eyes, Ulcers in the Mouth and Throat, looseness of the Gums, 
and to stop Fluxes. 

The GaUherry Tree is a little Shrub, so called from its 
bearing a BlacJc-Gall or Berry, with which the Women dye 


86 The Natural History 

their Cloth and Yarn. It is a beautiful Ever-green, growing 
plentifully in Swamps, low Grounds, and Ponds of fresh 
Water ; and sometimes on the Banks of the Rivers. 

The Savine, is a low Shrub, and is plentifully to be met 
with in this Province, especially in dry Ground and Banks 
on the River sides. It beareth Leaves and Berries much 
like those of the Cedar, it is a beautiful Ever-gTeen, but is 
not as prickley, neither has it such a strong smell as the Bar- 
ren Savine that grows in our Gardens. The Virtues of this 
Plant are so well known, that it would be needless to repeat 

The Misseltoe, or Missteltoe, that grows upon the Oak, was 
formerly held in great veneration amongst the Pagans in 
their Sacrifices; and it is much to be admired to see such a 
Dwarfish Shrub gTOw without any visible Root, on so tall, 
noble, and lofty Trees, as it does, and of a quite different 
IN^ature to them. Various are the Opinions amongst AVriters 
how this Plant is produced. Some assign it's growth to a 
certain Moisture and Substance gathered together upon the 
Boughs and Joints of Trees through the Bark, whereof this 
vaporous moisture produceth and bringeth forth the Missel- 
toe. Others assign it's produce from the Dung of Wood- 
Quests, Black-Birds, and several other Birds that feed upon 
it's Seeds, which they discharge upon several Branches and 
Barks of Trees, and that the Seed will not grow without suf- 
fering a change in these Birds Bodies. But which of these 
Opinions may approach nearest Truth, I will not take u])on 
me to decide. But this I am certain of, that set the Seed 
after what manner you will, it will never grow. It grows 
in this Province in as great plenty as in any part of the 
World, especially upon all the species of Oaks, and several 
other Trees. It seldom exceeds above two Feet in luMizlit, 


of North Carolina. 87 

and there are two sorts of it. The first beareth Seed, and is 
full of green Branches all the Year. The second is barren 
and fruitless, and sheddeth its Leaves in the Winter, which 
it doth not recover 'till Spring: The Leaves of this Shrub 
is of a very bitterish Taste, and the Berries are so transpar- 
ent, that one may see thro' them, and within is a small black 
Seed or Kernel. The Leaves and Berries are of a viscous 
and clammy nature, whereof the best Bird-lime is made, far 
exceeding that which is made of the Holly Barh. The Deer 
and Sheep are very fond of it's Leaves, croping them wher- 
ever they can reach, which makes them very fat. It's Uses 
in Physick are too well known, to be inserted here. 

The Indian-Tea Tree, which in their Language is called 
Yaupan, and Cassena, grows in gTeat plenty in this Prov- 
ince, especially on the Sand Banks and Islands, bordering on 
the Sea, none to be met with near the Freshes or heads of 
Rivers, that I ever could learn. This Yaupan is a Shrub, 
whereof there are three sorts. The first is a Bush of about 
twelve Feet high, and groweth in rich low Grounds. The 
second is about four or ^ve Feet high, and grows on the Sand 
Banks. The third seldom grows to be a Foot high, and is 
found both on the rich low Ground and on the Sand Banks. 
It gTows the most like Box of any Vegetable I know, being 
very like it in Leaf, only dented about the edges like Tea, 
but the Leaf somewhat flatter. It bears a small whitish 
Flower, which continues not long, after comes small Berries 
about the bigness of a gi'ain of Pepper, which are at fi.rst of 
a reddish colour, but in the Month of December, when they 
are ripe, they become brown. All these sorts differ very 
little from each other in taste, when the infusion is made, 
neither is there any ' difference in the Leaves, that I could 
ever perceive, only those that grow in the low and ricli 


88 The Natural History 

Ground, are of a deeper Green, and larger than those grow- 
ing on the Sand Banks, and this may be occasioned by the 
richness that attends the low Grounds, thus situated. The 
Cattle, Sheej), and Deer are very fond of these Plants, and 
crop them wherever they can reach or find them. The Wood 
is very brittle, and its Bark of a light ^5/1-colour. The 
Planters frequently make use of it with Physick, by reason 
of it's safe and speedy passage through the Bowels and Ure- 
ters, which I have often experienced, and is of excellent use 
in the Stone and Gravel, by it's diuretick Quality. It is 
likewise used as Tea, and in making Punch. What request 
it is of amongst the Indians, and how they cure it, I shall in- 
form the Reader when I come to treat of these People. 

The Piemento, or All-spice Tree, gTows commonly in wet 
and low Grounds, about eight or ten Feet high, though I have 
known some transplanted to high Land, where it thrives very 
well. It bears a Berry different in shape from those in the 
East Indies, being longer and taper, yet not inferior to any 
of that sort. The Leaves of this Tree are much like the 
Hurts, and so is the Bark. 

The Hurts, Huckle-Berries, Bill-Berries, or Blues, of this 
Country, whereof there are four sorts that we are well ac- 
quainted with. The first sort is the sanje Blue or Bill-Berry 
which grows plentifully in the Mountains in Ireland, and 
many other places. The Juice of these Berries are of a very 
binding and cooling Nature, therefore good in Fluxes and 
Fevers, they cool and comfort the Stomach, and stop Vom- 

The second sort grow on small Bushes in tlio Savannas 
and Woods, their Leaves are of a dark Green colour, unieh 
like the former, but larger, amongst which come little hollow 
Flowers, which turn into Berries, and arc longer than the 


of North Carolina. 89 

The third sort grow on one single Stem, about three or four 
Feet high, in low rich Lands, and on the Banks of the Rivers ; 
their Fruit are as large and good as the former, and are very 
plenty in many places of this Province. 

The fourth sort grow on Trees about ten or twelve Feet 
high, and about the thickness of the small of a Man's Leg; 
are very pleasant, and bear wonderfully: These grow plen- 
tifully in wet low Grounds, in many places in this Province ; 
the Planters gather great Quantities of them in the Season, 
dry them in the Sun, and make use of them for Puddings, 
Minc'd Pyes, and many other Uses as we do Currans and 
Raisons: All these sorts ripen gTadually one after another. 
The Indians get many Bushells of them, which they likewise 
dry on their Matts in the Sun, and preserve and keep all the 
Winter, whereof they make Bread mix'd with Indian-Corn- 
Meal, like our Plum-Cahes, and several other Eatables, which 
are pleasant enough. 

^Willow-Oak is a kind of Water-Oak, so call'd from its 
Leaves, which very much resemble those of the Willow. It 
grows in low Grounds and ponds of Water, and is used for 
Fire, Fences, &c. 

April-Currans, so call'd, from their being ripe in that 
Month, grow on the Banks of the Rivers, or where Clay has 
been thrown up ; the Fruit when ripe, is red, and very soon 
gone. They are tollerable good Fruit whilst they last, and 
the Tree (for it is not a Bush they grow upon) is a pleasant 

Bermudas-Currans, so call'd, from their growing plenti- 
fully in that Island, are very common in the Woods of Caro- 

M Una 

♦This Tree by Omission, hatli not been inserted in its proper Place, 
viz. amongst tlie Oahs, whereof it is a Species. 

90 The Natural History 

Una on a Bush, much like the European Currans, but not so 
agTeeable to tlie Taste, being but an indifferent Fruit, though 
frequently eaten by the Planters. 

Winter-Curran, so call'd, by reason it bears Fruit which 
are only rij^e in October ; it grows on a Bush about seven or 
eight Feet high, and the Fruit is like our Bill-berry ; the 
Planters make the same uses of it as we do of Raisons and 
Currans, for Puddings, Minc'd-Pyes, &c. This Bush is very 
beautiful to behold, growing round, and is a plentiful Bearer. 
All these sorts of Gurrans are of a very cooling and binding 
Mature, therefore good in Fevers and Fluxes. 

The Brier-Rose, or Hip-Tree, is to be met with in some 
places, especially on dry Lands, but is generally of a Dwarf- 
ish kind, but its Fruit is as good as ours. The Pulp is cool- 
ing and agreeable to the Stomach, good in Fevers or violent 
Heats, and is of excellent use in the Fluxes of this Country. 

The Rasberries are of a purple Colour when ripe, very 
agreeable in Taste, but are not as rich Fruit as the European. 
They grow on a Stalk more like the Bramble than the Rass- 
berry-Busli, and are in many parts of this Province, and its 
a difficult matter to root them out, when once planted ; they 
have much the same Virtues with the European Rassberry, 
but are more binding. 

The European Rassberry thrives and bears in Carolina io 
admiration, and is as grateful and pleasant Fruit in it's kind, 
as any in the World ; and are to be met with growing in most 
of tlieir Gardens. This Fruit has much the same Virtues 
with the Black-Berry, but is more Cordial and less Binding. 

The Black-Berry grows after the same manner as those 
with us, but their Brambles or Stalks are not so tliick or long, 
and their Fruit is not to be compared with ours, being ill 


of North Carolina. 91 

tasted and bitter, but has much the same Virtues, viz. cooling 
and astringent ; the Juice, with Honey, Allum, and red Wine, 
fastens loose Teeth. 

The Dew-Berry s grow on small Brambles or Stalks about 
two or three Feet long exactly like the Blach-herry. This 
Fruit is sweet and good to eat, and like our Blach-herry in 
shape, but is as red as a Ras-herry when ripe, and has much 
the same Virtues with the former. 

I will in this place give an account of the Straw-herry 
though it be not a Shrub. The Straw-herrys in this Province 
are not only large, sweet, and good, but in as great plenty as 
in any part of the World, growing almost every where, and 
are the first Fruit the Hogs feed upon in the Spring. The 
Planters in their Canoes go to the Islands (which are to be 
met with in several parts of the Rivers) and pull what quan- 
tities they please, bringing generally home their Canoes full 
of this pleasant Fruit, from those parts where the Hogs can't 
come to feed. They quench thirst, help inflammations of 
the Stomach, comfort the Heart, and revive the Spirits, help 
diseases of the Spleen, and Reins, provoke Urine, are good 
against the Stone and Gravel, and are usefull in Fevers, by 
cooling and comforting the inward parts. 

The Honey-Suckles or Wood-hind (whereof there are four 
Sorts I have already given an account of) are very plenty in 
this Province, and are much the same as those with us, but 
do not grow so large. The Leaves and Flowers are pectoral 
and Diuretick, and cure Asthmas and Coughs, outwardly 
they are Cosmetick, and take away Scabs and Pimples in the 
Face, the juice is vulnerary, eases wounds in the Head, 
strengthens the ISTerves, and makes an excellent gargle for 
sore and dry mouths. 

The Yellow- Jessamine is to be met with here in several 
parts of the Woods, and not only affords in the Summer-time, 

M 2 when 

92 The Natural History 

when it is in it's splendor a most delightful prospect, but 
likewise a pleasant shade and a grateful and fragi-ant smell 
to those that pass through the Woods. The Flowers are an 
excellent perfume, an Oil made of them with Oil of Olive is 
of excellent use in Convulsions, Cramps, and Stitches in the 
side. The Flowers are of the nature of Camomile, and are 
good in all hard and cold swellings, in Clysters, help the 
Collick and pains of the Womb, and cure the Schirrus 
thereof, help delivery, Coughs, shortness of breath, Pleuri- 
sies, pain of the Stomach and Bowels. 

I shall in the next Place give an account of the Vines that 
this Country produces ; and first the European Vines, which 
thrive well, and their produce are extraordinary great, the 
Lands of Carolina being as proper for Vines as any in the 
AVorld, yet there are but few Vineyards planted in this Col- 
ony at present, for I have seen but one small one at Bath- 
Tow^, and another at Neus, of the white Grape, the same 
with the Madera, I have drank of the Wine it produced, 
which was exceeding good. Though of late they have got 
Slips of several Sorts of curious Vines, which no doubt will 
soon come to perfection, there being nothing Avanting but 
industry to make this as fine a Wine and Oil Country, as 
any in Europe, as may appear from the few Tryals that have 
been already made. Ripe Grapes eaten largely, often cause 
Diarrhea* s, yet the Stones stop vomiting and Fluxes, being 
dried and given in Powder. When they are dried in the 
Sun, they are good against Coughs, Asthmas, Colds, Obstruc- 
tions, Ulcers in the Mouth, Lungs, Kidneys, and many other 
parts; outwardly, they ripen Tumors, help Gouts, Gangrenes 
and Mortifications. 

The Vines that are Spontaneous and ju-oduce Grapo^; in 
Carolina, arc of six Kinds, and are as follows. The Fo.r- 


of North Carolina. 93 

grape, whereof there are four sorts, two of which are call'd 
the Summer-F ox-grape, because they are ripe in July. 

The other two are call'd the Winter Fox-grape, because 
they are not ripe till September or October. 

The Summer Fox-grapes do not grow in clusters or great 
bunches as the European do, there being only five or six upon 
one stalk, and are as big as a large Damson. The Black sort 
are very common and plentiful all over this Province, but 
the White are very scarce and seldom to be met with. These 
Vines always grow^ in Swamps and wet low^ Lands, running 
sometimes very high according to the growth of the Timber 
which they meet and twine about for their support. They 
have the largest Leaves of any Vine I ever saw, therefore 
wou'd make delightful and Shady Arbours to sit under in 
the extremity of the hot Weather. This Fruit always ripens 
in the Shade, and has a pretty Vinous taste, but is not so 
juicy as the European Grape, having a much thicker Skin, 
and is of a more glutinous J^ature, yet pleasant to eat. 

Winter-Fox Grapes are much of the same bigness with the 
former, and are very plenty in most parts, refusing neither 
Swampy, Dry, Hilly, or Sandy Grounds to grow in, and are 
greater producers than the former, and when thorow ripe, 
have a Vinous Flavour and eat well, but are as Glutinous, 
have as thick Skins, and the Leaves as large as the other sort. 

The White are very clear and transparent, and have indif- 
ferent small Stones. They make very pleasant Shades in all 
parts of the Woods where they grow; and if they are trans- 
planted, thrive wonderfully. I have seen Stems of these 
kind of Vines, that were thicker than a Man's Thigh. 

The small BlacJc Grapes grow plentifully in Carolina, and 
have large Clusters or Bunches growing together like the 


94 The Natural Historg 

European. These Grapes, though very small, are well rel- 
ish'd, and plentiful Bearers, they have a thick Skin and 
large Stone, which makes them yield little Juice, which is 
of a Crimson Colour, and hath a Vinous Flavour. The 
Black Grapes and the following, are not ripe until Autumn. 

There is another Black Grape, exactly resembling the other 
small Black Grape, only the Juice is of a lighter Colour, but 
as well relished as the former. 

The small White Grape is to be met Avith in this Province, 
but is very scarce, growing in few parts of the Woods, yet 
its Bunches or Clusters are as well knit together, and as well 
relish'd, as any of the former; all these Kinds of Grapes 
might be indifferently used in Physick, as the European s 

The Planters pull and eat some of these Grapes when they 
are ripe, and frequently juice them, whereof they make Vin- 
egar, which is all the use I have seen made of them, as also 
of all the other Spontaneous sorts growing in Carolina. 
What remain in the Woods are devoured by several Beasts 
(that climb high Trees) and the Birds. 

I shall in the next place give an Account of several other 
sdrts of Vines (growing in this Province) that produce no 
Grapes, some whereof are most beautiful Ever-Greens, others 
affording most pleasant Shades and fragrant FloAvers, and are 
as follows. 

First, the Scarlet Trumpet Vine, so called, from the glo- 
rious red Flowers like a Bell or Trumpet, which it bears, and 
makes a fine Shade in the Woods where it grows, inferior to 
none I ever saw. It loses its Leaves (which are large) in tin 
Winter, and remains naked until the Spring. It boars a 
lareje Cod that holds its Seed, but I never saw any use made 
of its Bark, Leaves, Flowers, or Seeds, in Physick or other- 


of North Carolina. 95 

There is another sort of Vine which I know no IN^ame for, 
but it is a beautiful Ever-Green, with Leaves like the Jessa- 
mine, but larger and of a harder Nature, this grows to be a 
large Vine, and twines itself round the Trees ; it gTows near, 
and makes a fine Shade. It bears a Black Berry which is 
not ripe till Winter. It is a very Ornamental Plant, and 
worth transplanting; for I never saw any thing make a more 
pleasant and delightful Shade to sit under in the extreamity 
of the Heat in the Summer, and likewise from the Rain and 
severity of Weather in the Winter. But what Virtues it may 
be endued with, is uncertain. 

The May-Coch, is a Vine so called, from an Apple which 
it bears, and is ripe in that Month, it has a beautiful Flower, 
and the Fruit is of an agreeable sweetness, mixt with an acid 
Taste. It is a Summer-Vine, and is naked all the Winter 
'till Spring, at w^hich time it buds, and in the Summer Season 
is very Ornamental. The Fruit of this Vine is cooling and 
quenches Thirst. 

The Oak-Vine is no Tree, but so called, from a Burr it 
bears like the Oak, and generally runs up those Trees, it's 
Stalk or Stem is so very porous, that you may suck Liquors 
through it at a length of two or three Feet ; I know no other 
use it is for, never having seen it made use of amongst either 
Chrisiians or Indians, in any manner of Disorder. 

The Poysonous Vine, so called, by reason it colours the 
Hands of those that handle it, of a yellow^ish Colour, but 
what Uses or Virtues it hath, is uncertain, no Experiment as 
yet having been made of it. The Juice of it stains Linnen, 
never to be wash'd out by any Art. It dyes a blackish blue 
Colour, this is done by breaking a bit of the Vine, and press- 
ing with it's End what Mark you think proper. It runs up 
any Tree it meets with, and clasps round it. The Leaves of 


96 The Natural Historic 

this Vine are shaped like Hemlock, and fall off in the Winter. 

The Small Bamboo is another kind of Vine, grows in wet 
low Grounds, and is seldom thicker than a Man's Finger; 
the Stem is like the Sweet-brier, full of Prickles and Joints, 
but very rough. These Vines bear small Black-berries, their 
Root is like a round Ball, which the Indians boil (as we do 
any Garden Root) and eat, which they say is good and nour- 
ishing. When these Roots have been out of the Ground for 
some time, they become exceeding hard, and make Heads 
for Canes, on which several Figures may be cut. I know of 
no other uses made of them at present. 

Prickley Bind-weed, or Sarsaparilla, is a kind of Prickley 
Vine, not unlike the former, it groweth plentifully in several 
Places, but especially on dry Lands, or the Banks of Rivers. 
It has many Branches set full of sharp prickles with certain 
clasping Tendrels (like several of the other Vines) with 
which it taketh hold upon Shrubs, or whatever is next to it. 
One single Leaf groweth at each Joint, like that of Ivij, fre- 
quently mark'd with little white Spots, and guarded or bor- 
dered about the Edges with crooked sharp Prickles. The 
Flowers are of a whitish colour, and fragrant smell. The 
Berries are like those of the wild Vine, green at first, and red 
when they are ripe, and of a biting Taste, wherein is con- 
tain'd a black Seed, like Hemp, the Roots are long, and gi'ow 
deep in the Ground. It is good against Catharrs, all manner 
of Defluctions, Gout, and Pox, being of a Sudorifick Nature. 

The Indian Figg-Tree, commonly call'd the Prickley-Pear. 
This strange and admirable Plant, call'd Ficus Indica, grows 
in great plenty, especially on the Sandbanks and dry Land, 
and seems to be nothing but a multiplicity of Leaves; that is, 
a Tree made of Leaves, without Body or Boughs, for tlie 


of North Carolina. 97 

Leaves set in the Ground, do in a short Time take Hoot 
and produce otlier Leaves, that grow one above another, 'till 
such time as they are pretty tall like a Tree, their Leaves 
spreading out like Boughs, sometimes more or less according 
to the difference of the Soil it grows in, adding one Leaf 
above another, whereby it spreads over a gTcat piece of 
Ground. These Leaves are long, broad, and thicker than a 
Man's Hand, of a deep green colour, set full of long sharp 
and slender Prickles. On the tops of these Leaves come 
forth long Flowers, not unlike those of the Pomgranate-Tvee, 
and of a yellow colour, after which is produced the Fruit, 
like the common Fig, or small Pear, in shape. The outside 
of this is Fruit of a greenish Colour, but within it is full of 
red Pulp or Juice, staining the Hands of those that touch it 
with a sanguine or bloody colour. The tops of these Figs 
are invironed with certain scaly Leaves like a Crown, wherein 
are contain'd small Grains that are the Seeds, which being 
sown, bring forth Plants round bodied like the Trunk of 
other Trees, with Leaves placed thereon like the former, 
which being planted in the Ground, bring forth Trees of 
Leaves also. The Fruit of this Plant is luscious and sweet, 
and frequently eaten, but must be well cleansed from the 
Prickles, otherwise wherever they enter, it's a hard matter 
to get them out, and frequently leave Knobs in the Skin. 
Upon this Plant gTow certain Excrescences, which in contin- 
uance of time become Insects, which are the Coclienele, so 
much valued, for dying the best and richest Scarlet Colours. 
I have already made mention of it's changing the colour of 
the L^rine like Blood, whereby many at first sight doubted of 
their Recovery, imagining what they voided to be pure Blood, 
being altogether Strangers to its Effects upon tlie Urine; 

7 N whereas 

98 The Natural Historic 

whereas it only gives this high Tincture, without any Pain, 
as I have frequently experienced. We have no certain Ac- 
count, from the Antients, of the temperature or virtues of 
this Plant; yet I am very certain, that it is indowed with 
many excellent Qualities, and that the Juice of it's Leaves 
are good against Ulcers of long continuance. Burnings, and 
Inflammations in several parts of the Body. 

Thus having given you the most exact Account that I 
could learn of the Trees, Shrubs, and Vines, that this Coun- 
try naturally produces (But undoubtedly there are many 
other Species that are not yet kno^vn, which time and en- 
quiery must discover) I shall therefore proceed to give an 
Account of the European Fruit-trees that are to be met with 
here, most of which thrive well. And first of the Apples, and 
their different Si^ecies. 

The Golden-Russet is an excellent Fruit, and thrives well ; 
this Apple, and the following sorts, are soon ripe, and have 
great produce. 

The Red-sirak' d gi'ow well, whereof they make Cyder in 
many places: But for the most part, these and the other 
Fruits are only Food for the Hogs, there being such plenty 
of most kinds, that they are little made use of or regarded. 

The Summer and Winter Pearmains are apt to speck and 
taint on the Trees, especially the South-side of the Fruit, and 
the Trees are frequently damaged by small Worms, that breed 
in several parts of the Bark, which cut Circles about the 
Branches, and sometimes round the Body of the Trees, and 
destroy the Bark that it soon dies (especially alx)ve those 
Circles) for want of a sufficient quantity of Juice or "NToui- 
ishment from the Boots, to produce Leaves and Fruit, this 
frequently happens in the heat of the Weather, when the 
Trees are loden with Fruit. 


of North Carolina. 99 

The Winter-Queening thrives well, and produces excellent 
and durable Fruit, of which the Planters make good Cyder, 
and is seldom prejudiced by the Worms. 

The Harvy-Apple, likewise thrives well, whereof they make 

The Leather-coats, both Apple and Tree stand well, have 
as great produce, and thrive as well as any in this Province. 

The Jenneting is an early Fruit, thrives well, but is soon 
gone, in this warm Climate. 

The Coddling looks as fine and fair to the Eye as any 
Fruit in the World, yet the Tree suffers after the same man- 
ner as the Pearmains do, or rather worse, for they commonly 
dye before they come to their full Growth. The Planters 
make the first of their Coddling Cyder against the Reaping 
of the Wheat, which is in the beginning of June, as I have 
already made mention. 

The Long-stalk, is the same here as in Europe, it thrives 
well, and makes good Cyder. 

The Lady-Finger, or Long-Apple, is the same as in Europe, 
and full as good. There are several other sorts of Apples in 
this Country called by different ^ames, according to Peo- 
ples fancies, and most of them good for Cyder. All these 
Fruits are very cooling, therefore good in Inflammations and 
Fevers, they gently loosen the Belly, and are of excellent 
use in all Burnings, Scaldings, (&c. and take away the Heat 
of St. Anthony's Fire. 

I never met with the Wilding or Crah Tree growing in 
this Province, or any other part of America that I have 
been in. 

There are several sorts of Pears in this Country, all which 
thrive well, and are as good as any in Europe, such as the 
Katherine, Sugar, Warden, Burgomot, Jenneting, Quince 
Pears, and many others, which are as well relished as any I 

;N^ 2 have 

100 The Natural Historg 

have met with, but all these Fruits are of short continuance, 
being soon ripe and almost as soon gone. 

The Quince-Tree thrives well, and is in plenty, and it's 
Fruit is as well relished as in any part of the World. The 
Fruit eaten raw, is pleasant, of which the Planters make a 
Wine or Liquor Avhich they call Quince-drink, and is the 
best Drink that Country affords at present, though they have 
plenty of Cyder, and some Perry made there. They like- 
wise draw a Spirit from this Fruit, Apples, and Peaches, 
which is as pleasant and grateful as any Brandy I have ever 
tasted. This Quince-drink, most commonly purges those that 
make use of it, and cleanses the Body, which is a contrary 
Effect to what it hath in Europe, being of an astringent Na- 
ture there ; which contrary Effect must certainly be owing to 
the difference of the Climates. The least slip of this Tree 
stuck in the Ground, comes to perfection, and will bear in 
three Years. 

The Peach, whereof there are several sorts (these Trees do 
not differ in Shape, but in their Fruit only) viz. the Queen s, 
the Nutmeg, the Newington, and the grand Cariiaiion Peach; 
the Black, the White, the Roman, and the Indian Peach, and 
many other sorts, called by different Names, according to 
Peoples fancies, are all standing Trees like the Apple or Pear, 
with us; for the Reader is to understand, that there is no 
such thing as Wall-Fruit in this Province, there being Heat 
enough, therefore do not require it. These Fruits thrive to 
admiration, coming to Perfection without any Pains or 
trouble, for the Ground in these parts is so natural for these 
sorts of Fruit, that a Peach-stone being Planted, or falling 
on the Ground, will grow and bring forth a Peach-tree that 
will bear in three Years, or sooner. And it is to be observed, 


of North Carolina. 101 

that in their Peach Orchards, and many other places where 
the Stones fall, they grow so thick, that they become a perfect 
Wilderness of Trees, that the Planters are obliged to pull 
them out of the Ground, as we do Weeds out of our Gardens. 
They generally bear in such plenty, that the weight of the 
Fruit frequently break off great Limbs of the Trees. The 
Planters sometimes take out the Stones and dry the Fruit 
in the Sun, which they preserve for the Winter; they are 
gi'ateful to the Stomach, and cause a good Appetite: They 
also make a Liquor of them which is very cooling, and good 
in Fevers. The Flowers loosen the Belly, kill Worms in 
Children, and open Obstructions. 

The Indian-Peach Tree, is a kind of Peach common 
amongst the Indians, which they claim as their own, and 
affirm that they had it growing amongst them before any 
Europeans came to America. This Tree grows as large as 
any Apple Tree, the Flowers are of a reddish Colour, the 
Fruit is generally larger than the common yellow Peach, and 
more downy, it is an extraordinary good Fruit, very soft and 
full of Juice, will freely part from the Stone, which is much 
thicker than any of the former. These Peaches are common 
amongst the Indians, and those that live remote from the 
Christians, haveing no other sort: They are a hardy Fruit, 
and seldom damaged by the jSTorth-East Winds, as the other 
are. Of this sort there is made Vinegar, therefore some call 
them Vinegar Peaches; though this may seem to be a Spon- 
taneous Fruit of America, yet in those parts already inhab- 
ited by the Europeans, I never cou'd learn that any of these 
Peach-Trees were ever found growing wild in the Woods. 
The Indians have plenty of this sort of Peach, but scarce any 
other is to be found amongst them. They have much the 
same Virtues with the former. 


102 The Natural Historg 

The Nectarines, whereof we have two sorts, which are very 
fair and large, viz. the Red, which clings to the Stones, and 
the Yellow which parts from them. I see no foreign Fruit 
like these for thriving in all sorts of Lands, and bearing to 
admiration. The Planters raise them from the Stone, which 
never fails to produce the same sort the Stone came from ; for 
I never observed much Pains taken in either Inoculating or 
Pruning their Fruit Trees, as is customary in Europe, not- 
withstanding they bear in as great plenty. This Fruit has 
much the same Virtues with the former. 

The Apricoch-TrQQ grows to be very large, exceeding most 
Apple Trees. They are great Bearers, if the Season proves 
favourable, but it often happens in an early Spring, and when 
the Trees are full blo^vn, that the I^orth-East Winds which 
happen in the latter end of February or beginning of March, 
blast and destroy most part of it's Fruit. The Flowers are 
of a whitish Colour, and the Fruit round like a Peach, Yel- 
low within and without, wherein is contain' d brown smooth 
Stones, less than those of the Peach, having a sweet Kernel. 
These Trees are generally raised from the Stone, and never 
fail to produce as good Fruit as the Stone came from. The 
Fruit is cooling and pleasing to the Stomach, but apt to sur- 
feit ; an Oil made of the Kernel is much of the same Nature 
with the Oil of Sweet Almonds. 

The Medlar Tree, I never observed growing in North 
Carolina, but do not doubt it would thrive as Avell as any 
other Tree from Europe. 

The European WaU-nnts are very large Trees, and thrive 
as well here as in any part of the World. There are two of 
these Trees growing at Bath-Town, which Avere produced 
from the Nut, and are exceeding great bearers, and the 
most beautiful and fragrant, when in their prime, of any 


of North Carolina. 103 

Trees of that 8ort, 1 ever saw. These Trees, arrive sooner 
to Perfection here than in any part of France or Spain, are 
excellent good Fruit (when ripe) and used in several Dis- 
orders of the Body, such as malignant Fevers, (£*c. 

The Cherry Tree. The common red and black Cherry 
bear exceedingly well from the Stone, but would do much 
better had they been grafted in the Indian Plum Tree Stocks, 
because these admit of no Succors or Scions to grow round 
the Tree, which the Cherry Tree is subject to, and proves 
very prejudicial to the Trees and Fruit. Cherry Trees are 
not only liable to this, but several Apple Trees and other 
Fruit-Trees, which might be soon remedied by a skilful Gar- 
dener, or careful Planter, whose Genius tends that way. 
The Cherries are ripe here a Month sooner than those grow- 
ing in Virginia. The Fruit of the Black Cherry is good in 
Epilepsies, Convulsions, Apoplexies, Palsies, and many other 
Disorders; the red is cooling, quenches Thirst, and good in 
Fevers, d^c. 

The large round Black-Plums, thrive well, and become 
large Trees, if planted in stiff Grounds ; but they will not 
answer if planted in light sandy Ground, where they are sub- 
ject to be torne up by the Storms and Squals of Wind, that 
are frequent in this Country. The same misfortune attends 
both Forest and Fruit Trees, gTOwing in these kinds of 
Grounds. There are several other kinds of these Trees that 
bear Fruit of various Colour, FigTire, Magnitude, and Taste, 
bnt have much the same Virtues with the Cherries^ being of a 
cooling Mature. 

The Damson Tree thrives well, and the Planter's Wives 
and Daughters make good Dishes of it's Fruit. The Leaves 
of these Trees are used with Rhenish-Wine for Defluctions 
and swellings in the Jaws and Throat. 


104 The Natural Historg 

The Figg-Tree, of which there are two sorts, viz. the greater 
and the lesser. The large Figg Tree hath many Branches full 
of Pith within, like Elder, and large Leaves of a dark green 
Colour, divided into several Divisions. The Fruit conies out 
of the Branches without any appearance of Flowers, that I 
could perceive, which is in shape like Pears. This Tree, not- 
withstanding it grows to be very large, yet beareth the lesser 
Fruit, which it produceth in abundance, especially if planted 
in light Lands, for it thrives no where better than on the 
Sand Banks, and near the Sea-shoar. This Fruit being 
broken before it is ripe, yieldeth a white glutinous Liquor, 
but when the Figs are ripe, the Juice of it is like Honey, and 
as sweet. 

The lesser or smaller Fig Tree, is like the former in it's 
Leaves and Fruit, but seldom exceeds seven or eight Feet in 
height, growing more like a Bush than a Tree. The Fruit 
is ripe in July, very sweet and luscious, and considerably 
larger than the former. If the Frost proves severe in Winter, 
the Tops of this Shrub decay and dye. As soon as the Spring 
approaches, it sprouts and bears vast quantities of Fruit. I 
could never observe any Flowers it has, for it comes out of 
the Branches, like the former. The Leaves of these Trees 
are sharp, opening, and vulnerary; and being applied with 
the Roots of Marsh-mallows, waste away the King's Evil and 
all hard Tumors ; the Fruit is likewise used with good success 
in the same Disorders, the Juice or Milk is Cosmetick, and 
with Barley -meal and Lard, help the Gout and Piles, &c. 

The Filherd-Tree being planted here, in a few Years de- 
generates into a small Dwarfish Nut, no bigger tlian the 
FTazle, yet it's Fruit is as good as any in Europe, but few are 
either so industrious or curious to ])lant these Trees, there 
being such quantities of spontaneous Fruit 


of North Carolina. 105 

The Orange-Tree groweth to be as large as a small Pear 
Tree, having many thorny Boughs or Branches; the Leaves 
are partly like those of the Bay-tree, these, and their Flowers 
(which are of a beautiful colour) yield a most fragrant 
smell. The Christian Inhabitants have planted many of 
these Trees of late, which thrive toUerably well, especially 
near the Sea-Coast and light Ground, where they chiefly de- 
light to grow. The Flowers are of great Use in Perfumes ; a 
Water made of them is Pectoral, and helps Fevers, the out- 
w^ard Bind is very hot, dry, and of thin parts; it expells 
Wind, and comforts a cold Stomach. 

The Bead-TveQy so called from it's Fruit resembling Glass- 
Beads at a distance. It bears Flowers (much like those of 
the Olive) which smell sweet. It grows in a round Bunch 
about four or five Feet high, and is to be met with in many 
of their Gardens ; their Fruit are as large as Peas, and hard 
when ripe, but easily drill'd, whereof are made Bracelets, and 
several other Toys. It is ornamental in Gardens, and the 
Flowers are good for Obstructions in the Head. The Decoc- 
tion of the Bark with Fumitory and Myrohalans, help Agues. 
The Leaves and Wood are accounted deadly to Beasts, and the 
Fruit is very dangerous, if not poysonous. 

The Gooseherry-TrQQ, or Bush, does not thrive here, though 
I have frequently met with it in their Gardens, but of a 
dwarfish Kind to what we have in Ireland, and other parts 
of Europe, but I am perswaded that if it had been planted in 
their swamps or moist low Grounds, it would thrive and bear 

The Red and White Currans thrive much better here than 
the former, and bear tollerably w^ell when planted near a 
shade, or in moist low Grounds. The Fruit is cooling and 
grateful to the Stomach. 

O The 

106 The Natural Historic 

The Barherry-Tree, or Bush, whereof we have two sorts 
which thrive well, viz. one with, and the other without Stones, 
wherein consists the difference; the colour and the taste of 
the Fruit beinej the same. The Flowers are of a yellow 
colour, and gTow in clusters upon long Steins, after which 
are produced long slender red Berries, when they are ripe. 
The Leaves spring forth in March, and the Flowers in Au- 
gust. The Bark and Leaves open Obstructions, and are of 
singular Use in the Jau7idice. The Fruit is very cooling in 
Fevers, grateful to the Stomach, and causeth a good Appetite. 

The Rose-Tree, and it's Kinds. There are none to be met 
with growing Spontaneous in this Province. These Trees 
have been brought from Europe, and other Parts, and are to 
be met with in most Planters Gardens, especially the common 
white and red Rose, but few of the other sorts. 

The Rosemary is not a Spontaneous Shrub in Carolina, as 
in France, Spain, and many other parts of Europe, in the 
same Latitude; but is to be met with in most of their Gar- 
dens, and thrives well. 

There are many other Fruits in this Country, that I am a 
Stranger to, which are beneficial and advantagious to the 
Planters, not only for their own Use, but likewise in feeding 
their Swine, and makeing them exceeding fat, and as well 
tasted as any in the World. 


he pollll Ml 

Flyins -<1 1*^*****^^ 

of North Carolina. 



THE Buffelo, or wild Beef, is one of the largest wild 
Beasts that is yet known in these parts of America; it 
hath a Bunch upon it's Back, and thick short Horns, 
bending forward. Pliny reporteth in the eleventh Book of his 
Natural History, that the Horns of one Bujfelo's Head were so 
large that they contain'd or held two Measures, call'd Urnce, 
which is about eight Gallons. This Monster of the Woods sel- 
dom appears amongst the European Inhabitants, it's chiefest 
haunts being in the Savan7ias near the Mountains, or Heads of 
the great Rivers. Their Flesh is very course, and nothing to 
be compared with our Beef, but their Calves are said to be ex- 
cellent good Meat, as in all probability they are : And it is 
conjectur'd that these Bujfelo's being mix'd, and breeding with 
our tame Cattle, would much improve the Species for large- 
ness and Milk; for these Monsters (as I have been inform'd) 

O 2 weiffh 


108 The Natural Histoid 

weigh from IGOO to 2400 pounds Weight. They are a very 
fierce Creature, and much larger than an Ox. The Indians 
cut their Skins into Quarters, for the ease of Transportation 
or Carriage, and frequently make Beds of them to lie on ; they 
likewise spin their Hair into Garters, Girdles, Sashes, and the 
like, being long and curled, and frequently of a black or red 
Chesnut colour. Of these Skins and the Wild Bull's the best 
Buff is made. Their Horns wou'd serve for several uses, 
such as drinking Cups, Powder-horns, Lanterns, and many 
other JSTecessaries, being transparent when wrought; Rings 
made of them are said to help the Cramp, and the Liver the 
Spleen; the other Parts have much the same Virtues with 
the Ox. There were two of the Calves of this Creature taken 
alive in the Year 1730, by some of the Planters living near 
Neus River, but whether they transported them to Europe, 
or what other uses they made of them, I know not, having 
occasion to leave that Country soon after. 

The Elk is a monstrous, large, strong and swift Beast, in 
shape exactly like a Deer, but bigger than a Horse, and is re- 
ported to be fearful, and subject to the Epilepsy or Falling 
sickness. They have two large Horns, which exceed in weight 
all Creatures that are yet known in the New World. Their 
Neck is short and thick, but the Ears and Back very long: 
Their Colour is like a Harts, and sometimes all White. 
Their Flesh is not near so sweet as the Fallow-Deer, being 
much courser and stronger. These Creatures may be made 
Domestick, and it is said, that they are so swift, that they 
will run more Miles in one Day than a Horse can in two. 
Some take the Elk for the Red Deer of Ainerica, but I aia 
credibly informed, that they are of two different kinds, and 
that they will never breed together. Their Horns generally 


of North Carolina. 109 

weigh twelve or fourteen Pounds. These Beasts are plenti- 
fully to be met with in the Savannas near the Mountains, and 
Heads of Rivers : It is reported that some of them are seven- 
teen Hands high. Several parts of this Animal are used with 
good Success in Physick, and especially the Hoofs of the 
Male's hinder Feet, which have a pleasant scent when they 
are burnt. 

The Stags are swift in Motion, and are said to be a long- 
liv'd Creature, they are plentifully to be met with in or near 
the Mountains, but are not so large as those in Europe, yet 
much larger than any Fallow-Deer. They are fat all Seasons 
of the Year, and it is said, that some Deer on the Mountains 
afford the Occidental Bezoar, and not produced from the 
Goat, as some have reported. The Flesh nourishes almost like 
Beef, but breeds much more melancholy Juice. The Tallow 
makes incomparable fine Candles, and their Horns and Skins 
are a good Commodity. There are many valuable Virtues 
ascribed to the several Parts of this Deer, and all the other 
sorts, and not undeservedly, which are so well known, that it 
would be needless to insert them here. 

The Fallow-Deer are taller and longer Legg'd in Carolina, 
than those that are to be met with in Europe, but neither run 
so fast, nor are so well Haunched. Their Shingles are like- 
wise much longer, and their Horns stand forward as the other 
incline backwards. Towards the Salts, they are not com- 
monly so fat and good as those on the Hills, and near the 
Heads of the Rivers : They are in great plenty all over this 
Province. Their Xostrils and Throats are frequently found 
full of Bots or Maggots in the Spring, which make them very 
poor at that time ; but as the Summer approaches these Bots 
become the most beautiful Butter-flies immaginable, being 
large, having black, white, red, and yellow stripes in their 


1 10 The Natural History 

The Fawns are beautifully mottled with rows or stripes of 
white and bro^\Ti, which only continue 'till they are one Year 
old. Deer-skins are one of the best Commodities that North 
Carolina affords, which the Planters export in great Quanti- 
ties for England and other parts. 

The Lyon, and Jack-all, arc supposed to be in Carolina, 
from an Account the Indians give us, who report that near a 
Lake of Water, towards the Head of Neus River, there is a 
Creature that haunts those parts, and frightens them from 
Hunting. They say that it is partly in colour like a Panther, 
and that the only way they have to avoid it is by climbing 
up Trees, which it cannot do. They likewise say, that there 
is a swift Creature which remains with, and attends it, much 
like the English Man's Dog: This Account I had from sev- 
eral of the Indians : but whether or no there be any such 
Beasts in these parts, I cannot affirm the certainty thereof, 
for I never saw either them or their Skins. 

The Bears are very common in this Province, though not 
quite so large as in more Xortherly Climates, such as Green- 
land and Bussia. Their Flesh is good and nourishing, not 
inferior to the best Pork in taste, and is betwixt Beef and 
Pork: The young Cubs are a most delicious Dish, as most of 
the Planters testifie, who prefer their Flesh before Beef, 
Pork, Veal or Mutton, and it looks as well as it eats, their 
Fat being as white as Snow, and the sweetest of any Creature 
in the World ; for, if any Person drinks a Quart of it melted, 
it never rises in the Stomach, as other Oils and Fats are sub- 
ject to do, and is preferr'd above all things for frying Fish, 
(&C. Those that are Strangers to it may judge otherwise, as 
it happened to me not long after my arrival in Ameinca, who 
could not be prevail'd upon to eat Bear's Flesh; but travel- 
ling in the Coimtry with some other Company, wo were in- 

of North Carolina. Ill 

vited to Dine at a Planter's House, who entertaind us with a 
large Loyn of a roasted Bear. I imagin'd it to be a Loyn of 
Porh, and eat as heartily of it, which seem'd to me to be the 
most delicious Meat of that kind I ever tasted ; that I could 
not forbear all that Day to extol the goodness of it, still sup- 
posing it to be Porh, tho' the Company knew the contrary, 
but did not undeceive me. The next Day w^e were invited to 
another Planter's House, who told us he had the finest piece 
of Bear that could be, just roasted and ready for the Table. 
The Company very readily accepted of his Invitation, but as 
for my part, I could not be prevail'd upon for some time to 
eat; the Company said, they were much surpriz'd because I 
prais'd it so much the Day before. For I never knew 'till 
then but that it had been Porh. I only mention this to shew 
what power Prejudice has over us. 

But to return. The Bacon made thereof is extraordinary 
good, but must be well saved, otherwise it w411 rust. I have 
seen very good Hams (not inferior to the best Westphalia) 
made of these Bear's-^esh, These Beasts feed upon all man- 
ner of wild Fruits, and are great devourers of several sort of 
Fish, especially Herrings, which they catch at the Brooks 
side in the Months of March and April. The Flesh of those 
Bears that feed upon them is not good that Season, and eats 
filthily; neither are they good w^hen they feed upon Gum- 
Berries. They are great devourers of Sivine, that they take 
in the Woods, especially when they are hungry and can get no 
other Food, which is the only Flesh-meat they are fond of. 
They sometimes get into the Indian Corn-fields^ or Maze, 
where they generally spoil ten times more than they eat. 
They are so fond of the Potatoes, of this Country, that they 
seldom fail to destroy and root out all clean whenever they 
chance to come where they are. 


112 The Natural History 

And notwithstanding they seem to be such a clumsy Crea- 
ture, yet they will very nimbly climb Trees (when pursued 
by Hunters and Dogs) where they generally remain till shot; 
and it is strange to see with what agility they will go up and 
down the Trees, and in coming down they always run tail 
foremost. They are likewise very dexterous and expert in 
Fishing, catching vast Quantities of several sorts of Fish, as 
they run up the narrow Creeks and shallow Waters to Spawn. 
There you shall see these Beasts sit, and take up Fish as fast 
as it is possible for them to dip their Paws into the Water. 
There is one thing very strange and remarkable of this Crea- 
ture, which is, that no Man, either Christian or Indian, ever 
killed a She-Bear with Young; for it is supposed, that after 
Conception (which is in the Winter) the She-Bears hide 
themselves in the most secret places 'till they bring forth their 
Young, which according to Pliny is in thirty Days. But 
Elianus affirmeth not 'till three Months, which is the most 
likely and credible, because all large Creatures bear their 
Burthens longer than such as are small; when they Couple 
together, the Female lieth on her Back, and the Male coupleth 
with her, which few other Beasts are known to do. They 
have commonly three or five Cubs at a time, which seem to be 
at first a lump of white Flesh, void of Form, without Hair or 
Eyes, only there is some appearance of Claws. This rude 
Lump they fashion by degrees, by their constant licking. It 
is likewise reported that after conception they will Sleep so 
soundly for fourteen Days that it is not possible by any means 
to awaken them, and tliat during their abode in those secret 
Places, they never appear abroad for Food, but only suck 
their Paws, which is all they subsist upon during that time. 


of North Carolina. 113 

It is most certain, that they hide themselves in the most 
Secret Places, otherwise the Indians, who constantly hunt in 
the Woods, and kill thousands of He ones, would at some time 
or other have found them. Bear-hunting is a very gi'eat 
Diversion amongst the Christians and Indians, the former 
have a Breed of Dogs fit for that kind of Sport, about the 
size of Farmers Curs ; these by practice become acquainted 
with the Scent of the Bears, which as soon as they have found 
they run him by the Nose 'till they come up with him, and 
then bark and snap at him 'till he Trees. By the Noise of 
the Dogs the Huntsmen repair to the place, and find the Bear 
in a large Tree, where they generally shoot one after another, 
'till they kill him : And though they are not naturally vora- 
cious, yet are they very fierce, and will fight most desperately 
when wounded, for wdiich reason there are three or four of 
these Huntsmen together with Guns ready, for fear the first 
shot should miss, or not quite kill him. 

If any of these Dogs should fasten on a Bear, the Hunts- 
man looks upon him as not good, for the best Dog in Europe 
is nothing in their Paws, for when ever they get a Dog in 
their Clutches they either tear him in pieces, or blow the Skin 
from the Flesh like a Bladder, and sometimes kill him ; but if 
he recovers, he never is good for any thing afterwards. As 
the Paws are accounted the best Morsel of this Creature, so 
is the Head esteemed the worst, and is therefore cast away, 
for the Brain is said to be Poisonous. They are not near so 
plenty now as they were some Years ago in this Province, 
where the Planters have kill'd four or five Hundred in one 
Season; the reason is because they are so very easily kill'd, 
for the least Dog will make them Tree, where they most com- 
monly remain 'till shot, for the Dog continues barking about 
the Tree 'till the Planters come to their Assistance. The 

8 P Parts 

114 The Natural History 

Parts of this Beast are good in several Disorders. The Oil 
is used in many Cases, and especially by the Indians to paint 
their Bodies withal. The fine Fiirr at the bottom of their 
Bellies is used in making Hats, and the Skins for several 
Uses, such as Hammer-Cloths for Coaches, Furniture for 
Saddles, &c. and the black Cub's Skins for Muffs. 

The Tyger is in shape somewhat like a Lioness, but has a 
short ISTeck. His Skin is most beautifully mottled with sev- 
eral kinds of sj)ots resembling the Panther, only the former 
are not so round, nor have such different Colours. They are 
large, strong and swift Beasts, "but are never to be met with 
in the Settlements, being more to the Westward, viz. on this 
and the other side of the Mountains, but are very scarce and 
seldom to be found in this Province, by what I could learn 
from the Indians; and in our Journy up towards the Moun- 
tains we saw but one. They have a great many young Ones 
at a time, and are very fierce and bold Creatures, and will 
spare neither Man nor Beast to satisfie their Hunger, as I 
have been informed by the Indians and some of the Planters 
who have seen and kill'd them. Pliny reporteth that the 
young Ones are carried off in the following manner in India, 
viz. The Hunters lie in wait to espy when the Tygress is 
abroad, that they may have an opportunity to carry off the 
whole Litter of Whelps at once, upon very swift Horses pre- 
pared for that End. But when the Tygress returneth and 
findeth her young ones gone, she pursueth most swiftly those 
that carried them away, by the Scent. But as soon as they 
perceive the Tygress approaching near them, they let fall one 
of the Cuhs, which she taketh in her Mouth, and runneth bad 
to her Den with it, and immediately pursueth again in (juost 
of the rest of her Whelps, thus she runneth to and from her 
Den, until such time as the TTi inters have an Opportunity to 


of North Carolina. 115 

embark and get off with part of the young Ones. The Flesh 
of this Beast is eaten by the Savage Indians, who say it is as 
sweet and good as Beef. The Tygei- is much larger than a 
Gray-liound, with shining Eyes, crooked Nails, sharp Teeth, 
and Feet having many Toes ; they love their young extreamly, 
which may be tam'd by giving them Opium, as it is reported ; 
the Fat is good against Palsies, &c. 

The Panther is of the species or kind of Cats, is near as 
large as the Tyger, and much of the same shape, the Skin is 
of a reddish or whitish Colour, finely mottled with small 
round black Spots, and the Hair is short and mossy. It is 
said, all four-footed Beasts are wonderfully delighted and en- 
ticed by the smell of the Panther, but that their frightful 
Countenances soon scareth them away, wherefore they hide 
their Heads 'till they come within reach of their Prey, which 
they leap upon and quickly devour. They climb Trees with 
the greatest agility imaginable : They are very strong limb'd, 
and will catch and take a piece of Meat from any Creature 
they strike at. Their Tails are exceeding long, and their 
Eyes are large and of a grayish colour, yet look very fierce 
and sparkling. They are very destructive to the Planters, 
being a swift Beast of Prey, devouring Swine, Deer, or any 
other Creature they can Master. No Creatures are so nice 
and cleanly as these in their Food, and when they have got 
their Prey, they fill their Bellies with the slaughter, and care- 
fully lay up the remainder, covering it very neatly with 
Leaves and Boughs of Trees, which if any other Creature 
happens to touch, they will never eat any more of it. They 
pur like a Cat, and such is the wildness of their Nature, that 
altho' taken young, they are never to be tamed. They will 
hollow in the Woods like a Man, by which means many have 
been deceived, supposing it to be some of their Acquaintance 

P 2 that 

116 The Natural History 

that hollowed, yet I never hear'd of any Body being hurt by 
them ; and the smallest Dogs will make them take up into a 
Tree, where they generally remain 'till they are shot by the 
Huntsmen, and if it happens that they don't kill them out- 
right, these and the Bears are a very dangerous Enemy when 
they are wounded, to the Huntsmen ; but more especially to 
the Dogs that ajoproach too near them. Their Flesh looks as 
well as any Shambles-meat whatever, and abundance of Peo- 
ple eat them as choice Food. The Indians make warm cov- 
ering for themselves in Winter of the Skins, though it is not 
esteemed amongst the choice Furs. Their Skins dressed, 
make Upper-leather for Shoes, or Gloves for Men and Women. 
The Fat is hot, dry, and cosmatick, and helps the Vertigo, 
Palsie, Scabs, Ring-worms, and Varices (or swelling of the 
Veins.) The Gall being drank, presently kills, for it burns 
the Humours by its violent heat, causing Co7ivulsions, vomit- 
ing of Green Cholor, and Death. It is reported that some 
Poyson their Arrows therewith, that they may kill the sooner. 
The Mountain-cat, so called from it's living in the Moun- 
tainous parts of America, seldom appeareth or approacheth 
near the Settlements. This is likewise a Beast of Prey, as 
the Panther is, and is nearest to him in bigness and l^ature. 
They seldom do any Mischief to the Planters, because they 
are so remote from them, their continual haunts being in and 
near the Mountains, otherwise they are most destructive and 
fierce Creatures. They will nimbly climb Trees when pur- 
sued by Huntsmen and Dogs, where they remain till they 
are shot, but if only slightly wounded, will fight most desper- 
ately, tearing the Dogs in pieces that they chance to meet 
with, which seldom happens, by reason so many hunt in a 
Body together, who are always well armed, and ready for 


of North Carolina. 117 

such Encounters, otherwise these Beasts would be dangerous 
Enemies to meet with thus wounded, in the solitary parts 
of the Woods. What uses are made of these Beasts are uncer- 
tain, because they seldom or never appear or are kill'd by 
the Planters near the Plantations, and what use the Indians 
make of them we know nothing of at present. 

The Wild-cat is likewise another Beast of Prey, and is 
quite different from those in Europe, being more fierce, nim- 
ble, and large; they have a very large Head, yet their Tails 
do not exceed four Inches in length. They are of a fine Tabby 
colour, and as large as a Fox. They make an odd and fright- 
ful sort of Cry in the Woods at Night. They are dextrous 
in climbing of Trees, which they do with the greatest Agility 
imaginable, and Prey as the Pa7ithers do, being great de- 
stroyers of young Swine. They take most of their Prey by 
surprize, for they get up into the Trees and kill Deer as they 
feed or pass by near them, by leaping directly upon them, 
and so fasten their Teeth into their Shoulders, and thus suck 
their Blood ^till they die, as a Weesel does a Rabhet with us, 
so that you shall see the Deer run through the Woods in this 
manner, 'till at length for want of Strength he falls to the 
Ground, and becomes a prey to his Enemy. Thus they take 
every thing by surprize, not being able to catch any thing by 
running. They destroy Hares, Birds, and every thing they 
meet that they are able to conquer. The Purr is made use of 
in Stomachers for weak and cold Stomachs, in lining of Muffs 
and Coats in cold Countries. Their chiefest haunts are in 
Swamps, Perhorsans, and amongst the Hollow-Canes. They 
are not near so numerous now as they were some years ago, 
the Planters continually meeting and killing them as they 


118 772^ Natural Historg 

hunt in the Woods. Their Fat is externally iis'd for several 
Pains, and Aches, for which it is good. 

The Pol-cats (bj some called Scunks) of America, are 
different from those in Europe, being much thicker, larger, 
and of various Colours ; not all alike, but each differing from 
another in their particular Colours. They smell like the 
European Fox, but if jDossible, ten times stronger, and more 
offensive : When a Dog encounters them, thej piss on their 
Tails and sprinkle it on him, by which means he shall smell 
a Month or more, so that he is not to be suffered to come into 
the Houses; and if it should happen to touch ones Cloths, 
the smell by no means can ever be discharged, except they be 
buried in the Ground for some time, which Method ends gen- 
erally in the loss of the whole Suit. 

The Indians love to eat their flesh, which has no manner 
of ill smell when the Bladder is out. They feed in the Woods 
on Rats, Mice, Birds, and sometimes Fish. They are easily 
made tame (and frequently come about the Planters Houses 
at Night) yet few covet to entertain Guests so offensive in 
their smell. There is another sort of Pol-cat in most respects 
like those in Europe, and I have been informed, that there 
are white ones to be met Avith in and near the Mountains : I 
know no use made of their Furs, or any part of them in 

The Minx is a small Animal, much like the English Filli- 
mart or Pol-cat, being long, slender, and every way like him. 
The haunts of these Beasts are chiefly in the Marshes by the 
Sea-side and Salt-water, where they live on Fish, Fowl, Mice, 
and Insects. They are very bold Thieves, and will steal Fish 
or Fowl from you in the Night, and will venture to take it 
even from under your Head when you are asleep. They are 
likewise found a great way up the Rivers, in whose Banks 


of North Carolina. 119 

they make Holes and live, which is known by the great quan- 
tities of fresh Water MiLSsel-sheUsj that lye at the mouth of 
their Holes. They are great Enemies to the Tortoise and 
Terehens, whose Eggs they find and scratch out of the Holes 
in the Sand, which they quickly devour, as the Raccoons and 
Croius do. 

These Beasts may be made tame, and are the greatest de- 
stroyers of Eats and Mice in the World, and were it not for 
their paying unseasonable Visits now and then to the Poultry, 
they would be in great esteem amongst the Planters. Their 
Skins are good and valuable, provided they are kill'd in the 
Season ; I never knew any use made of this Animal in 
Physick, except the Fat for Pains and Aches. 

The Wolf, is the Dog of the Woods, for it is reported that 
the Indians had no other Curs before the arrival of the Chris- 
tians amongst them. These Wolves may be made domestick, 
but they are not so large or fierce as those in Europe, they are 
no Man-slayers, neither are there any Creaturs in Carolina 
(except they be wounded) will attack Man, Horse, or Dogs. 
They go in great Companies together in the Evenings and at 
E'ight (especially in the Winter-time) and will hunt down a 
Deer in full Cry, as well as the best Pack of Hounds, one of 
them will hunt down a Deer, but they are frequently so very 
poor that they can hardly run or pursue their Prey. When 
they are very hungry, and can take no Game, it is reported, 
they go to the Siuamps and fill their Bellies full of Mud, and 
if afterwards they chance to get any Flesh, or stinking Fish, 
they will readily discharge the Mud, and eat the other. They 
make a most hideous noise when they are in pursuit of their 
Prey, and will follow the Indians in great droves through the 
Woods, who only kill the Deer and other Beasts for their 
Skins and generally leave most part of the dead Carcass be- 

120 The Natural History 

hind them, on which the Wolves feed, this being what induces 
them to follow the Indians after that manner. Formerly there 
was a Reward (in this Province) for all those that kilFd them, 
which made the Indians so active, that they brought in such 
vast quantities of their Heads, that in a short time it became 
too burthensome to the Country, so that it is now laid quite 
aside, and the Indians will not kill them. The Planters 
formerly made Holes or Pits in the Earth to take them in, 
where they killed great ^N^umbers, but their dogs being led to 
those Places by the Scent of the Baits that were laid for the 
Wolves, most of them were destroyed, so that this method is 
entirely neglected, and they are become as numerous as ever, 
being as great Breeders as our Dogs and Bitches. They are 
but small, many being no bigger than midling Dogs, they are 
very crafty, but fearful Creatures, for they seldom or never 
attack or kill either Poles or Calves, but are very destructive 
to Sheep, if they are not carefully put up in their Penfolds at 
Night, and especially if it prove stormy Weather, at which 
time they will come about the Planters Houses, and strive to 
devour their Sheep, but in good Weather they never dare 
appear so near their Dwellings, which if they had done, the 
Dogs would soon chase them away, so sensible and crafty are 
they to come when the Dogs are all under some Cover to pro- 
tect them from the violence of the Weather, and they gener- 
ally kill all before they begin to eat, as many have testified. 
It is the Opinion of the most judicious Hunters in these 
Parts, that if they did not die for Hunger, or some secret un- 
known way, which they have for destroying one another, they 
would be the most, numerous Beasts in America, being such 
prodigious Breeders. Their Skins drest to Parclmu'iit make 
the best Drum Heads, and if Tau'd, good Shoes for Snmmcr 


of North Carolina. 121 

Countries, and being laid on Beds, are said to banish Fleas, 
Bugs, and all other kind of Verniine from thence. The Skin 
worn about the Belly is good in the Chollck, and all cold Dis- 
orders. The Flesh being boiled helps the Gout, and many 
other Disorders. The Fat is much of the same nature and 
uses with that of a Dog, being externally used in all kinds 
of Aches, Palsies, Luxations, and Fractures. The Dung and 
Blood are excellent good to expedite the Birth, and after- 

The Beavers are amphibious Animals, like the Otter, living 
both on Land and Water, yet they never go into the Sea, their 
Haunts being altogether in the Freshes. They are very nu- 
merous in Carolina, there being abundance of their Dams in 
most parts of the Country where I have travelled. They are 
like an Otter, but larger, and have broad flat Tails, in shape 
like a Soal, and covered with a Skin like the Scales of a Fish, 
upon which they carry the Mud and Earth, with which they 
make their Dams. Their Heads are short, and the Ears are 
very small and round, and the Teeth so long and Sharp, that 
they will cut down Trees gTowing by the River sides, as if it 
were done with an Ax or Chizel. Their Fore-feet are like a 
Dogs, and their hinder Webbed like a Water-Fowl, and they 
are one of the most industrious Beasts in the World. They 
are very subtil, and cut down Trees in the Night (for they 
are scarce to be seen in the Day) with which they make their 
Dams. The Food which they chiefly feed on are Fish, and 
the Barks of several sorts of Trees and Shrubs, such as Sassa- 
frass. Sweet-gum, Ash, Birch, and many others. If they are 
taken young, they become tame and domestick, but are very 
mischievous in spoiling Orchards, by barking the Trees, and 
blocking up the Planter's Doors in the l^ight with the Sticks 
and Wood they bring thither. If they eat any thing that is 

Q Salt 

122 The Natural Historg 

Salt, it presently kills them. Their Flesh is very sweet Food, 
and especially their Tails, which is held as a great Dainty. 
They have such a Jargon amongst them when they are at 
Work, that one would immagine them Discoursing, or in 
a grand Debate about their Building, wherein it is said, they 
have such an orderly Government, that each knows his proper 
Business and Station, and that the Overseers beat the Young 
ones that loiter in their Business, and will make them cry, 
and work stoutly. It is very surprizing to behold with what 
Pains and Labour they make their Dams, and how artificially 
they build their Houses, one Appartment above another, until 
they lie dry. They are sometimes shot, but are taken most 
commonlv after the followinc; manner. The Planters break 
down part of their Dams, and lay Traps in those places, 
which the Beavers attempting to repair and mend at Xight, 
are caught in them. Their Furr, which is of a brownish 
colour, is softer and finer than any Plume or Down of Feath- 
ers, and a good staple Commodity in this Country. Their 
Skins being dress'd, make thick Leather, fit for Shoes, and 
wears well, it is likewise used in Mittens for Iledgers, and 
several other ways. From this Beast comes the Castoreum, 
which is it's Stojies, the Virtues whereof are so well known 
that it would be needless to insert them. 

The Otters are plentifully to be met with near tlie Heads 
of the Rivers, and live on the same prey in Europe, viz. on 
Fish, and sometimes Fowl, and are the same in most respects 
as those with us : Yet there have been seen some Otters to the 
Westward of this Province, which were of a whitish gray 
Colour, a little inclining to Yellow. Their Furr, if Black, 
is valuable to make Hats, Muffs, and several other Necessa- 
ries. Although the Flesh be cold and ill-scented, yet some 
eat it, the Blood mixed with Vinegar, helps swellings of the 

of North Carolina. 123 

Sinews; their Skins worn about the Body, help Palsies, and 
other cold Disorders; the Testicles are good in the Epilepsy 
and Fits of the Mother, and have much the same Virtues with 
the Castoreum. 

The Raccoon (which I take to be a Species of the Monkey) 
is of a dark grey Colour, and in shape and bigness it partly re- 
sembles a Fox, but has large black Eyes, with great Whiskers 
like a Cat, the ISTose like a Pig, and the Feet are form'd like 
a Hand, or those of a Monkey. If these Animals are taken 
Young, they are easily made tame and familiar like a Dog, 
yet they are very Apish, and the drunkenest Creatures in the 
World, if they can come at Liquors that are strong and sweet ; 
and, if possible, are more mischievous and unlucky than a 
Monkey ; they are very subtile and crafty in taking their 
Prey. Those that live near the Salt-Waters feed much upon 
Oysters, which they are fond of. These Beasts watch the 
Oyster when it opens, and nimbly put in their Paw, and 
pluck out the Fish, yet it sometimes happens that the Oyster 
shuts and holds fast their Paw 'till the Tide comes in, by 
which means they are frequently drown'd notwithstanding 
they swim very well. This animal is very fond of Crahs, 
which are plenty in this Province, and the way they take 
them is very remarkable and diverting, for when he intends 
to make a Prey of this Fish, he goes to the Marshes on the 
Water side, and standing on the Land he lets his Tail hang 
down in the Water, which the Crah takes for a Bait, and 
fastens his Claws therein, as soon as the Raccoon perceives it, 
he of a sudden springs forwards a considerable way on the 
Land, and brings the Crah with him ; as soon as the Crah finds 
himself out of his Element, he immediately lets go his Hold, 
and then the Raccoon encounters him, by getting him cross- 
ways in his Mouth, and so devours him. There is a sort of 

Q 2 Land-Crabs 

124 The Natural Historg 

Land-Crabs in Carolina, which are commonly called Fiddlers, 
these live all along the Sea-shoar, and have Holes in the Sand, 
into which they run when pursued by any kind of thing. 
These Crabs the Raccoon takes by putting his fore Foot into 
their Hole and pulling them out, which is very diverting with 
a tame one. The chief of his other Food is wild and tame 
Fowl, all manner of Fruits, Green Corn, and the like. This 
Beast and the Possum, are much of a bigness. They are very 
dexterous in climbing of Trees, and often make unseasonable 
Visits among the Poultry. The Indians and Negroes fre- 
quently eat them, and esteem them very much. The Furr 
makes good Hats, and Linings for Coats in cold Countries, 
and the Skins dress'd make fine upper-Leather for Women's 
Shoes, and Gloves for Men. The parts of this Beast are 
much of the same ]^ature and Virtues with those of the 
Otter, and may be indifferently used after the same manner. 
The Foxes are as large as those in Europe, but generally of 
a gray Colour, they have redish Hair about their Ears and 
are most commonly fat, yet I have never known any Person 
eat them, notwithstanding they have not that strong smell 
that the Foxes in Ireland, and other parts have ; yet they are 
as mischievous in their Nature. When they are Hunted, 
they run up the first bending Tree they meet with for Secu- 
rity from the Dogs, where they generally remain 'till forced 
down or shot by the Huntsmen, but whether they Burrow in 
the Ground, I cannot inform the Reader, (for I never met 
any Fox-Holes in the Country) They are never to be made 
tame or familiar as the Raccoons and other Beasts in that 
Country are. The Furr of this Animal, if taken in the Sea- 
son, is very good, and is used for Muffs, and many other 
Ornaments. Their Food is chiefly Birds, Fowls, Babbets, 
and such like small Prey. The Fat or Oil liclps Nodes, con- 

of North Carolina. 125 

traded Sinews, Pains of the Joints, Gout, Palsie, and many 
other Disorders. 

The Possum is to be met with no where hut in America, 
that I could ever learn, and is the wonder of all Land Ani- 
mals ; it is near as large as a Badger, and partly of that col- 
our, but lighter. The Males Pisel is retrogade, and in time 
of Coition differs from most other Animals, turning tail to 
tail as Dog and Bitch when tied together. The Female no 
doubt breeds her young ones at her Teats, for I have fre- 
quently seen them stick fast thereto, when they have been no 
bigger than the end of a Childs little Finger, and seemingly 
to move and be alive. The She one has a false Belly or 
Pouch, which covers her Teats, and wherein she carries her 
Young ; in the middle of which is a Hole where the young ones 
creej) in and out, for the Female will lye down upon a Bank, 
and the young come out to sun themselves, and return in at 
Pleasure, yet the Female will contract this Pouch so secure 
and close together, that she will swim over large Ponds and 
Creeks of Water with her Young, without any danger of their 
being drowned. They have about five or six young ones at 
a Time, which remain sporting in and out of this false Belly, 
till they are able to fend for themselves. They have long 
Tails without Hair, like a Pat, but as thick as a Man's 
Thumb; and appear as if they were Scaly, which they will 
readily twine about your Finger or Cane, in which Posture 
you may carry them where you please. They are a very 
stupid Creature, being altogether negligent of their ovm 
Safety, and never strive to flie from their Enemies, as it is 
natural for all other wild Beasts to do. In shape, they are 
most like Rats of any thing, and have very wide Mouths and 
sharp Teeth. They are hard to kill, for I have known their 
Sculls mashed and broken in pieces, so that they seemed to be 


126 The Natural Historic 

quite dead, yet in a few Hours they will recover and creep 
about again; and it is a common saying in Carolina, that if 
a Cat has nine Lives, a Possum has nineteen. Their Feet 
are very white, soft, smooth, and without Hair, and have five 
Toes upon each Foot, but the hinder Feet more resemble a 
Man's Hand, with a Thumb and four Fingers, than the fore- 
Feet do. Their Flesh is generally fat, white, and well tasted, 
several Persons eat of them, especially the Indians and Ne- 
groes, who prefer them before Pork, but their ugly Tails are 
enough to put one out of Conceit with them. They climb 
Trees as the Racoons do, and feed on Flesh, Poultry, Roots, 
and most kinds of Fruits. Their Furr is not esteemed, and 
therefore made very little use of, only that the Indians spin 
it into Girdles and Garters. The Fat of this Beast is much 
of the same E'ature of that of Hogs. The Testicles given 
with Honey stir up Lust and cause Conception. 

That Animal which the People of Carolina call a Hare, is 
nothing but a Hedge-Coney, for I never met with or heard 
of any of the Species of the European Hares being in this 
Province. The Hedge-Conies never Burrow in the Ground, 
but continually frequent the Woods and Thickets, and if you 
start one of them and pursue it, it generally runs up as far 
as it can into a hollow Tree, in which case the Hunters make 
a Fire and smoke the Tree, which brings it down, and most 
commonly smothers it; though I have frequently seen them 
pursued and taken by Hogs, yet I never observed any taken 
after that manner, but their Bladders were ready to burst, 
which the People in that Country would perswade me was a 
Distemper amongst tliem, whereof they frequently die. Thej 
hide their Young in some secret place from the discovery of 
the Bucks, as the European Rahhets do, and arc of the same 


of North Carolina. 127 

Size and Colour. At certain Seasons of the Year, gTeat Bots 
or Maggots breed betwixt the Skin and the Flesh, which turns 
into most beautiful Butterflies, like those in the Deer. They 
eat much after the same manner as those in Europe do, but 
I never observed any of them so fat. The Planters fre- 
quently fire the Marshes and Thickets, by which means they 
kill abundance of them. The Flesh of these nourishes more 
than that of the Hare. 

Those of the European Species of Coneys or Rahhets are 
very scarce in this Province, and are to be met with but in 
few places, so that it is thought that they are not natives of 
this Country, but that they have been brought from Europe, 
to these parts. They Burrow in the Ground (but in two 
places that I know of) like those with us. These as well as 
the former breed Maggots in their Testicles and other parts 
of the Body, which become most beautiful Butter-flies ; they 
eat after the same manner as those with us, and their Furr 
is for the same uses, and the parts of this Animal have the 
same virtues in Physick with the former. 

The Squirrels whereof there are four sorts in this Prov- 
ince, viz. The Fox-Squirrel, the Gran-Squirrel, the Flying- 
Squirrel, and the Ground-Squirrel. 

iThe Fox-Squirrel, so call'd, from its being the largest, and 
smelling like a Fox. It is most commonly larger than a 
Rahhet and of a gray colour, yet I have seen several Pyed 
ones, and some white, red and Black. Their chiefest haunts 
are in Piney Lands where the Almond-pine grows. They 
feed on pine ]^uts and all other sorts of jSTuts, and Fruits, of 
which they lay up a sufficient store in hollow Trees for the 
Winter, during which Season they never appear abroad. 
They may be made tame, and are very plenty, and good Meat 
in this Province, but very distructive and pernicious in Corn 


128 The Natural History 

Fields. The flesh is sweet and good like that of Goats or 

The small Gray-Squirrel is much of the same nature and 
bigness with those in England, there being only some small 
difference in the colour. They feed like the former on Corn 
and iSTuts, &c. and like the Bear, are never found with Young, 
neither are they to be met with in Winter, but lie in the 
hollow Trees during that Season: Their Flesh eats rather 
better than the former. The Fat of these Squirrels is Emol- 
lient, and good against Pains in the Ears, and the Teeth, are 
said to be used by Magicians in foretelling things to come. 

The Flying- Squirrel is of a light dun Colour, or Gray, like 
the former, but much smaller than any of the other two. It 
has no Wings (like a Bird or Bat) only a fine thin Skin cov- 
ered with Hair, as the rest of the Parts are. This is from 
the Fore-feet to the Hinder-feet, which they puff full of 
Wind at pleasure ; and this buoys them up, that they will fly 
with incredible swiftness, and at greater Distances than any 
other kinds of Squirrels do, by their jumping or springing. 
They lay in a sufficient Store of Provisions for the Winter, 
which are generally ISTuts, Corn, and several sorts of Fruits. 
They are a tender Creature, lie very warm in their Nests 
(which are made of fine Down) not appearing all the ^V inter, 
being unable to beai* the Cold and severit}^ of the Weather, 
and generally half a dozen or more lie together in one Nest, 
which is always in a hollow Tree, and have their Stores of 
Provisions near them, whereon they feed during the cold 
Weather. They are easily made tame, but Enc mies to Corn- 
fields (as all the other Squirrels are) and only eat the germi- 
nating Eye or Bud of the Grain, which is very sweet. The 
Flesh of this Squirrel is as good as any of the former. 


of North Carolina. 129 

The Ground 8qi(irr<?l, ^o calletl, because they sehlom de- 
light in running up Trees, or leaping from Branch to Branch, 
as the other Squirrels do. They are the smallest of all Squir- 
rels, being not much bigger than a large Mou^e, and their 
Tails are not so long or bushy as the former, but more flattish. 
They are of a reddish colour, and finely striped down each 
side with black Rows like the young Fawns, which make 
them very beautiful ; they may be kept tame in a little Box 
with Cotton in it, because these as well as the Flying-Squir- 
rels never stir or appear abroad in the Winter, being a very 
tender Animal, and not able to bear the Cold. These have 
much the same Virtues and Uses with the other sorts of 

The Weesel is likewise to be met with here, but not so com- 
mon as in some parts of Europe; I see no manner of differ- 
ence between them in shape, colour, or bigness. It is very 
strange what some Writers have said of the Generation and 
Conception of this Animal, who confidently assure us, that 
they Ingender at the Ear, and bring forth their Young at the 
Mouth. Pliny reporteth, that when they encounter and fight 
with Rats, they use Rue as a preservative against their Bite. 
The Parts of this Animal are good in Fevers, Gouts, and 
Pains of the Joints, Head-aches, Falling-sickness, Epilepsies, 
and many other Disorders. 

There are four sorts of Rats in this Province, viz. the 
Mush, the Marsh, the Water, and the House-Rat. 

The Mush-Rat is partly of the colour of a Rahhet, and is 
in all things shaped like our 'Water-Rat, only something 
larger, and has Hair or Down upon it's Tail, longer than the 
former. It frequents the Marshes near the Eresh-Water 
Streams (as the Beavers do) and no where else, and builds 
in the Marshes, having three lodging Rooms, one higher than 
the other, very neat and finely daubed within, where it lies 

9 R drv 

130 The Natural Historg 

dry and secure from the violence of the Weather. It has a 
Cod of Musk that is very valuable, so is it's fine Furr. It is 
the Opinion of many in these parts, that this Animal lives 
mostly on Fish. 

The Marsh-Rat, so called from its frequenting the Marshes ; 
it differs from the former, being less and of a darker colour, 
but is more Hairy and larger than the common House-Rat. 
It is a very destructive and mischievous Animal, especially 
to Corn, and all manner of Fruits ; of vrhat use it may be in 
Physick, is uncertain. 

The Water-Rat is found here the same as in England, and 
other parts of Europe, the Water-Snahes frequently devour 
these Rats, for I have killed several of these Snakes and 
found these Rats in their Bellies ; they feed upon little small 
Fish and Water-Insects that they meet with in Rivers and 
Ponds of fresh Waters. 

The House-Rats are the same here as in Europe, and in 
great plenty all over this Province, and as mischievous in 
these parts, as in any part of the World, destroying Corn, 
Fruit, and many other things. The Tail of this Animal is 
Poysonous, and frequently kills Cats that eat it: The Urin 
falling upon the bare Skin, causeth the Flesh to rot even to 
the Bones, if there be not good care taken to prevent it, by a 
speedy Cure, yet the Fat is of excellent use against the 

The Moles in this Province are of the same sort as those 
to be met with in England and other Places, but are not 
plenty here, being destroyed by Snakes, and several other 
kinds of Vermine, which this Country produces in gToat 
abundance. Many are the Virtues ascribed to this little 
Animal, such as curing the King's-Evil, Gout, Leprosic, and 
Fistulas, the Ashes being outwardly apjilied, and inwardly 
drank in Wine for several days. Th(» fresli Blood put on 


of North Carolina. 131 

bald places causeth the Hair to grow, and the Liver being 
applied, is said to waste away Wens, and the Powder of the 
Heart to cure Ruptures. They are most effectual in May. 

The Mice, whereof there are four sorts, viz. The House- 
mice, the Shrew-mice, the Dor-mice, and the Bat, or Rear- 

The House-mice are the same here as those with us, and 
these and all other kinds of Mice are scarce here (except the 
Rear-mouse) which may reasonably be supposed from the 
great quantity of Yermine that continually destroy them, such 
as HaiuJcs, Owls, Rattle-Snakes, Black-Snakes, and the like. 
It is a short-liv'd letcherous Creature, and breeds often in 
the Year. The Flesh being applied, helps the biting of Ser- 
pents; the Fat is good against the Scirrhus and Baldness. 
The whole Mouse being calcined, helps Tetters, Ringworms, 
Piles, Epilepsies, and many other Disorders; the Gall with 
Vinegar, dropt into the Ears, bring out living Creatures got 
in ; the Urine corrodeth after the same manner as the Rat. 

The Shrew-mouse, or Poysonous-mou^e, so called, from 
poysoning Cats after they have eat of them; it is very like 
the former, but is a Field-mouse, for it never resorts or comes 
near the dwelling Houses. It is said, if it go over the Back 
of any Beast he shall become lame in the Chine, and if it 
bite, he swelleth to the Heart and dieth. This Animal being 
burnt to Ashes, and applied with Goose-grease, helps all 
Swellings in the Fundament, Felons and Tumors behind the 
Ears. Their biting is cured by the application of their own 
Flesh bruised, as also, oxymel Cupping Glasses, Scarifica- 
tion, Wormwood, Vinegar, Garlick, Cummin Seed, Ver- 
vain, &c. 

The Dor-mouse is of the same kind here as in Europe; 
these Animals are but scarce in this Province, and it is said, 

R 2 they 

132 The Natural Historg 

thej will sleep a Month or two in Winter, and can hardly be 
revived 'till just the time of their going abroad. The Body 
being roasted with Oil and Salt, and eaten, helps wonder- 
fully Ulcers in the Lungs ; the Fat dropt into the Ear, helps 
Deafness. The Body burnt to Ashes, mixt with Honey, and 
eaten every Morning, clears the Eye-sight; and with Oil, 
helps burnings. 

The Bat, or Rear-mouse, w^hereof there are two sorts, viz. 
one a large sort with long Ears, and particularly long strag- 
ling Hairs. The other is of the same kind here as with us in 
Europe, only something larger, and is plentiful all over this 
Province, yet it never appears all the Winter. The Bat alone, 
of all Creatures that fly, brings forth its young alive, and 
suckleth them with Paps, and giveth Milh ; it likewise will 
convey or carry them from one place to another as it flies. 
I have put this Animal amongst the Beasts, tho' it partakes 
of both ^NTatures, of the Bird and Mouse kinds. The Flesh 
is abominable Food, yet some eat it, and it is frequently 
Roasted, and given to Children that eat Dirt (which is very 
common amongst the Christians and Negroes in this Prov- 
ince) and is held as an infallible Medicine for that purpose. 
The Blood causes the Hair to fall off, the Gall helps the biting 
of the Slireiu-mou^e, and dimness of Sight. 

Having thus given an Account of the Terrestrial, or Land- 
Animals, which arc to be met with in Carolina, and are 
already kno\^Ti to us ; I shall in the next place proceed to 
describe the Reptiles and Insects. Not that I pretend to give 
an ample Account of all the different Species, (which would 
require a larger Volume than is here designed) they being 
very numerous ; my Purpose is to discribe such only as I can 
perfectly remember, and whose Qualities are best known; 
there being too great a diversity of various kinds, many 
whereof arc not yet thoroughly discovered, and others have 


of North Carolina. 133 

slipt my Memory; besides what the Mountainous parts of 
this Land may hereafter lay open to our View ; for whoever 
consider what a small part of this large Province is inhab- 
ited at present, canH imagine but there will still be gi*eater 
Discoveries made, by Time and Industry, when the back 
parts of this Country, and near the Mountains are once set- 
tled; for the farther we Travel Westward, we meet greater 
Differences in the Soil, Air, Weather, growth of Vegetables, 
and several Animals, which we at present are intire Strangers 
to ; only what little Account we have from the Indians, so 
that no doubt every Age will make new Discoveries. 

The Alligators are Amphibious Creatures, living both upon 
Land and Water, and by the best Description I can learn con- 
cerning the Crocodile, I see little or no difference between 
them, only in the Name ; this being the receiv'd Opinion of 
the I^aturalists, that it is no other than a Crocodile not ar- 
rivM to it's full growth. They are a large Creature with 
four Feet, which are like a Bears, except that they are covered 
with Scales, instead of Hair, the Claws are sharp and the 
Tail long, with Fins upon it. They have a large broad Head 
and wide Mouth, the Snout is like a Swines, and the Teeth, 
which are exceeding sharp, meet within each other like the 
Edges of two Saws. The Tails of these Animals are near as 
long as the whole Body, and the same is very rough and 
armed with a hard Skin. Their haunts are chiefly between 
the Freshes and Salt Waters. They make their Dwellings in 
the Banks on the Eiver-sides, a great way under Ground, the 
entrance whereof is generally two or three Foot under Water, 
which rises gradually as they burrow under Ground, 'till it 
rises considerably above the surface of the Water, where they 
lie dry all the Winter, at which Season they never appear 
abroad, but as it is supposed, sleep all that time without any 


134 The Natural Historg 

manner of Provision, which some report to be the space of 
threescore Days. In Spring they come forth from their 
Holes or Caves, and continually sv^^im up and down the Riv- 
ers and Creeks in the Day time, but at Kight they are to be 
met with in the Woods and Marshy low Grounds. They 
always breed near the fresh Water streams, or clear Foun- 
tains, yet seek their Prey in brackish and Salt-waters, not 
near the open Shoar, but in the Rivers and Creeks. They 
are never known to devour Men in Carolina, but on the con- 
trary, always strive to avoid them, as much as possibly they 
can. Yet they frequently kill Swine and Dogs, the former 
as they come to feed in the Marshes and at the sides of the 
Rivers and Creeks, and the latter as they are swiming over 

The Alligator lays Eggs as Ducks do, only they are longer 
shap'd, and have a larger and thicker Shell than they have ; 
but how long they are in Hatching their Eggs I never could 
be satisfied, or rightly informed, for the Indians with whom 
I conversed, say, it is most part of the Summer, and only by 
the heat of the Sun ; but some of the Christians assured me, 
this was performed in sixty Days, or thereabouts: Their 
young ones are shaped exactly like a Lizard, Asker, or Effit, 
and they have short flat and large Tongues. I saw one of 
the young ones taken and brought to a Planters House who 
had a Pond of Water before his Door (out of which he dug 
Clay for Building) wherein he put the young Alligator, it 
remained there for half a Year, feeding on Guts of Fowl and 
other Flesh-meat and Frogs that ha])pcud to come into the 
Pond. It grew so very domestick, that it would frequently 
come into the Dwelling House, and return again to the Pond : 
But at length it stole away to the Creek before the Planters 
Dwelling House, as was supposed, for it never could be seen 
or heard of afterwards. But to return to their Breeding 






of North Carolina. 135 

their young ones. The old ones throw up Banks of Mold in 
the wet Swamps, in form of a Sugar-Loaf, near the sides of 
the fresh Water-Rivers and Creeks, whereon they lay twenty 
or thirty Eggs, if not more, in the Season, where they remain 
'till such time as they are Hatched, and then they tumble into 
the Waters, and fend for themselves in the like manner as the 
young Frogs do : I am perswaded they are one of the largest 
Creatures in the World to be produced out of so small a Be- 
ginning as an Egg not so large as a Goose s, for they some- 
times exceed eighteen Foot in length, they have Sixty Teeth, 
Sixty turning Joints, and are said to live no longer than 
Sixty Years. They are very crafty and subtile in taking 
their Prey in Waters, whereon they float as if dead, or like 
a log of Wood, 'till they come within reach of their Prey, 
which they will most nimbly seize by leaping upon them, and 
then dive under Water with it, which they quickly devour. 
They are likewise very destructive and mischievous to Wairs 
made for catching Fish, into which they come to prey on the 
Fish caught in them, from whence they cannot readily dis- 
charge themselves, so break the Wairs in pieces, being a Crea- 
ture very large, and of great Strength. It is almost impos- 
sible to kill them with a Gun, except you chance to hit them 
in or about the Eyes, or under the Belly, that part being softer 
than any part of the Body ; the rest of the Skin being so hard, 
that it will resist a Bullet like Armour. They are very easily 
avoided upon Land, being a very slow Creature, by reason of 
the shortness of their Legs, and they cannot readily turn 
themselves, for their Bodies are so stiff and hard, that they 
are obliged to go streight forward, so that they may be avoided 
by the least turning out of their way, but they are very nimble 
and active in leaping either upon Land or Water. Some of 
these Creatures afford a great deal of Mush, and when their 


136 The Natural Historg 

Tails are cut off, thej look very fair and white, seemingly 
like the best of Vail, and some People eat thereof, and saj 
it is most delicious Meat, when they are not Musky. Their 
Teeth are as white as Ivory, whereof I have seen Chargers 
for Guns of several sizes, Snnff-Boxes, and many other Toys 
jnade. The ujDper Jaw of this ]\Ionster is movable, and not 
the under, and it is doubtful whether they have any Passage 
for their Excrements, except the Mouth. After the Tail is 
cut off from the Body of this Creature, it will freely move for 
four or five Days, as if it had been alive, and still joined with 
the other parts. I saw two of them killed during my stay 
in that Country, in the Bellies whereof (after they were 
opened) were found several sorts of Snakes, knots of Light- 
wood, and particularly one of them with a large solid Stone, 
that weighed about four Pound weight. 

These Monsters roar and make a most hideous Xoise 
against bad Weather, and before they come out of their Dens 
in the Spring. I was very much frighted by one of them 
in a Creek near Bath-Tow7i, where these Animals are very 
plenty, which happened after this Manner: As I was walk- 
ing near the Creek side one Evening, not long after my 
arrival in those parts, on a sudden this Monster began to roar 
after such a dreadful manner, that the very Earth seemed to 
tremble where I stood. I am not able to express the con- 
sternation I was in ; for I am satisfied it gave me the greatest 
dread and surprize I was ever in, never having heard so terri- 
fying a Noise before ; it continued thus roaring for eight or 
ten times, like a Bittern, but if possible, a hundred times 
louder, which at first I imagined to be some diabolical Spirit 
breaking through the Bowels of the Earth, for in the fright 
I was in, T could think or imagine nothing else. I made all 


of North Carolina. 137 

the haste I could to a Planters House, where I had lain the 
Night before, who soon undeceived me, and told me what it 
was, and that in a few Days I should see the Creature that 
made that hellish Xoise in the Creek before his Door, which 
happened in a Day or two after. Their Flesh if not Musky, 
is accounted good Meat, and helps those that are afflicted 
with the Gout and Ehumatick Pains. The Blood clears the 
Eyes, and the Fat is prevalent against all manner of Pains, 
Aches, Ulcers, and Cancers, by Unction. The Gall is of 
excellent use in taking away the Cataract and Web, gTOwing 
in the Eyes; the Teeth of the right Jaw bound about the 
Arm, are said to provoke Venery. The Skin calcined, and 
mixed with Lees of Oil, is said to stupefie the Parts so much, 
that they cannot feel, though cut. I have ranked the Alli- 
gator and the Tortoise among the Insects, because they lay 

The Tortoise, vulgarly called the Turtle, whereof there are 
three sorts. The first is the Green Tortoise, which is not 
common, but is sometime found on these Coasts ; it lives both 
on Land and Water, and. has a large strong Shell on it's 
Back, which defends it from it's Enemies. The Lean of 
this Tortoise looks and tastes like Veal, without any fishy 
savour, and the Fat is as green as Grass, yet very sweet ; 
some are so large, that they weigh four hundred Weight. 

The second is the Hawhs-Bill, which is common here, the 
Flesh of these two sorts are incomparably good Food, being 
inferior to none, and is useful in several Disorders, such as 
the Gout, Hectichs, Epilepsy, sore Eyes, and is said to be 
an Antidote against Poyson. 

The third is called the Logger-Head, which scarce any one 
covets to eat, except it be the Negroes and Indians, yet the 
Eggs of this and all the other sorts (which are covered with 

S a 

138 The Natural Historg 

a Skin and not a Shell) are extraordinary good Food and 
nourish very much, yet none of these sorts of Creatures Eggs 
will admit in boiling the White to be harder than a Jelly, 
notwithstanding the Yolk with boiling becomes as hard as 
any other Egg. They make Holes in the dry Sandy-Land, 
and on the River sides, where they lay above an hundred 
Eggs in the Season as large as Pullet's, afterwards they cover 
them carefully with Mould, which they beat hard and smooth 
with their Breasts, where they remain till they are Hatched, 
and they lay Eggs two or three times a Year, which causeth 
a prodigious Increase. The common way of taking these 
Turtles is, to turn them on their Backs, in which Posture 
they cannot dive under the Water, so that those that Fish 
for them tye a Rope about them, and hawl them into their 
Boats, or tow them to Land, and it is reported, that they will 
shed Tears when they are taken ; and though they have large 
Lungs within their Scales, yet according to Pliny, they are 
without Blood. They are commonly found floating upon the 
Water, and sometimes fast asleep, at which time they will 
snort very loud. They have neither Tongue nor Teeth, but 
a very sharp Bill, which serves them instead of Teeth; they 
feed on Cockles, Muscles, and other Sea-shel Fish, for their 
Bills are so hard and strong that they will readily break 
those Fishes and eat them. 

The Terehins, whereof there are divers sorts, which I 
shall comprehend under the distinction of Land and Water 

The Land Terehins are of several Sizes, but generally 
round mouthed, and not Haivhs-hill, as some of the other 
sorts are, they are exactly in shape like the Turtles, and 
move very slowly, and if any thing touches them, tliey 
readily flrnw their Head and Feet within their Shells; (beinj>- 


of North Carolina. 139 

speckled with reddish spots, which are hard and strong) that 
scarce any thing can hurt them. The Indians eat them, and 
most of them are good Food, except the very large ones, and 
those that are Musky. These, as well as the Tortoises, make 
Holes in the Sand-Banks above High-water-mark, where they 
lay vast quantities of Eggs in the Season, which are hatched 
by the heat of the Sun, and the young Ones, as soon as they 
are out of the Shell, crawl back to the Water, where they 
seek their Living. They are mortal Enemys to the Rattle- 
Snahes, killing them wherever they meet, which they do by 
catching the Snake a little below the Neck, and so draw his 
Head into their Shell, wdiich makes the Snake beat his Tail, 
and twist about with all the strength and violence imaginable 
to get away, but the Terehin soon dispatches him, by press- 
ing him to Death between his Shells, and there leaves him. 
In Europe they are called the Land-tortois, and are plenty up 
and down the Woods of Carolina; they feed on Snails, Tad- 
pools, or young Frogs, Grass, Mushrooms, and Dew and slime 
of the Earth and Ponds. Their Eggs are very nourishing, 
and exceeding good Food. They never appear in Winter, 
but lie all that Season in Holes in the Earth, without any 
manner of apparent Provision. 

The ^Vater-Terehins have a Shell on their Backs and an- 
other underneath, like the former; they are but small, con- 
taining about as much Meat as a Pullet, and are extraordinary 
good Food in May and June, at which time they make Holes 
in the Earth, where they lay vast quantities of Eggs, which 
are hatched by the heat of the Sun and Sands, as the former 
are. They come out about the bigness of a small Cliesnut, 
and seek their own living: It is incredible what quantities 
of Eggs, these as well as the others will lay in the Season, 
but they have so many Enemies that find them out (espe- 

S 2 ciallv 

140 The Natural Historic 

cially Hog^s, Racoons, and Crows, Sc.) that the hundredth 
part never come to perfection. For during the time they 
are laying, you will see the Hogs and Racoons hunting all 
along the Water sides till they find their Eggs, which they 
root out of the Earth, and so devour them ; this is the reason 
they are not so plenty in this Province as formerly they were, 
though they are still numerous enough. I have frequently 
eat of them, which are as delicious a Morsel as ever I tasted, 
if well dress'd. Their Virtues and Uses are much the same 
with the Tortoise. 

The Frogs, whereof there are several sorts, but none so 
remarkable as the Bull-Frogs, so called, from their bellowing 
like a Bull, which makes Strangers wonder (when by the 
side of a Marsh) what's the matter, for they hear the Frogs 
bellow, and can see no Cattle : They are the largest that are 
knowTi in America, being generally as big as a Rabbet, I have 
known no Use made of them in Physick. 

The Green Frog, so called from it's Colour, it is one of 
the smallest sort I ever met with ; these climb up Trees, and 
sing or make a noise much like the Grass-ho'pper , but much 
louder. The French eat the hinder Quarters of them. 

The common Land-Frog is like a Toad, only it leaps and 
is not poysonous. These Frogs are gi'eat devourers of Ants, 
and the Snakes devour them. These Animals baked and 
beat to Powder, are taken with Orrice-Yxooi, to cure the 
Tympany, and many other Disorders. 

There are several other coloured small Frogs in tht^se 
parts; and what is worthy of Observation is, that they in 
general liave such variety of l^otes from the S])ring to the 
Fall, that it is very strange to hear them, representing as it 
were all the Crys, Calls, and Notes of Beasts and Birds in 
these Parts. 


of North Carolina. 141 

The Scorpion-Lizard, but why so called I know not, for it 
is not like a Scorpion in any respect: It is of the Lizard 
kind, but much bigger than any I ever saw in Europe. Its 
Back if of a dark Copper-colour, and the Belly of an Orange. 
It is very nimble in running up Trees, or upon Land, and 
is accounted very Poysonous. This Animal hath the most 
Sets of Teeth in the Mouth and Throat of any I have seen, 
but what they prey or feed upon, I am an intire stranger to, 
and likewise their Use in Physick. 

The Green-Lizards, in this Province are as large as those 
to be met with in Europe, and are very harmless and beauti- 
ful, they frequently resort to the Walls of the dwelling Houses 
(especially in the Siimmrr season, for in Winter they are 
not to be seen) and stand gazing on the Inhabitants, without 
any dread or fear, being very tame : They are of a most 
beautiful Green colour and have a little Bladder under their 
Throat, which they fill .with Wind, and evacuate at pleasure. 

There are several other sorts of Lizards of various and 
changable Colours, but none so beautiful as the Green ones. 
These Lizards are mortal Enemies to the Spiders and Toads, 
yet their Flesh eaten is hurtful, causing Inflammations, 
Tumours, and Blindness ; the Head being outwardly applied 
with Salt, draws out Darts, Thorns, and things sticking in 
the Flesh, it likewise wasteth Wens, and other hard Swellings. 
The Gall causeth the Hair to fall off, and their Eggs kill 
speedily, except a sudden Remedy be exhibited made of Fal- 
con s Dung and Wine. If they bite, they leave their Teeth 
behind them, which causeth continual Pain, until they are 
taken out. The Gray-Lizards are very common, and the 
Snakes feed upon them; for I have taken several of them 
out of the Bellies of the Snakes. 


142 The Natural History 

In the Month of J iine, 1730, as I was travelliug in the 
Woods together with other Company, we found an Insect 
sunning itself at the Hoot of a large Pine Tree, about the 
thickness of a Man's Finger, and three Inches long, it was 
beautifully striped with Circles of Black and White. The 
Mouth was partly like the Mouth of a Frog, but not so large, 
it had four short Feet, but no Tail ; it was very soft, but the 
Skin exceeding tough, and it moved very slowly. Xot one 
of the Company could give me an Account what it was, nei- 
ther could I ever learn from any I conversed with, or shewed 
it to, having preserved it a considerable time in Sj)irits ; but 
I take it to be a Species of the Lizards^ and have therefore 
ranked it amongst them, not knowing by what other JSTame 
to distinguish it. 

Having thus given an Account of the Frogs and Lizards, 
I shall in the next place proceed to give an Account of the 
SNAKES that this Country produces, beginning with the 
most poysonous, and concluding with those that have none. 
And first, 

The Rattle-Snake, so called from the Rattles at the End 
of their Tails, which is a connexion of Joints (and seem as 
if decayed) with a thin covering of an excrementitious Mat- 
ter, between the substance of a l^ail and a Horn; Xature 
undoubtedly designing these on purpose to give Warning 
of such an approaching Danger, as the venemous Bite of these 
Snakes are. Some of them grow very large, as six or seven 
foot in length, and about the thickness of the small of a Man's 
Legg. They give Notice to such as approach their Danger, 
by rattling their Tails, which may be heard at a great Dis- 
tance; they are sharp sighted, and quickly discover any thing 


of North Carolina. 143 

approaching them a gi'eat way off. Their Skins are all over 
full of thin tender Scales, with a Kidge through the middle 
of them, of an Orange-tawny, and blackish colour, beauti- 
fully mottled on their Backs, and their Bellys an Ash colour, 
inclining to Lead. The Male is easily distinguished from 
the Female, by a Spot on his Head of a black Velvet colour, 
and his Head is smaller shaped and longer. Their Bite is 
very venemous if not speedily remedied, and especially if it 
happens in a Vein, Nerve, Tendon, or Sinew, where it is 
difficult to be cured. The Wound grows black, or of a livid 
colour, causing a swelling in the Parts ; dimness of the Eyes, 
paleness of the Face, Swooning, and Death, if a Cure be not 
applied in time. They are a majestick sort of Creature, 
and will seldom or never bite (except they are provoked) 
which they cannot do until they gather themselves into a 
Quoil or Circle, and then will spring at a good distance to 
bite whatever provokes or injures them, otherwise they are 
most peaceable Creatures, and never attack or molest any one. 
The Indians pretend to charm them, so that they can take 
them up in their Hands, without any danger of being bit ; 
but how far they may be expert in this kind of Practice, is 
still a Secret among them, but this I am certain of, that they 
are famous in curing the Bite of these and most other sorts 
of venemous Creatures in these parts. They have of late 
communicated the Method how to cure the Bite of the Rattle- 
Snake to the Christians, which almost every Planter is very 
well acquainted with. This Cure is perfected by chewing in 
the Mouth the Root of an Herb that beareth Tuffts or But- 
tons at the top like Scahions, but not of that Colour ; this 
Root is as hot in the Mouth as Ginger, and about the same 
thickness, it is called the Rattle-Snake-Root, from its curing 


144 The Natural Historg 

the venomous Bite of that Snake ; there are three sorts of it 
to be found almost every where, this (as I said before) they 
chew in their Mouths, swallow some part of the Juice, and 
apply the rest to the Wound, which perfectly cures those 
that are bit in a few moments. It is surprizing to observe 
how these Snakes will allure and charm Squirrels, Hedge- 
Conneys^ Partridges, and many other small Beasts and Birds 
to them, which they quickly devour. The Sympathy is so 
strong between these, that you shall see the Squirrel or Par- 
tridge (after they have espied this Snake) leap or fly from 
Bough to Bough, until at last they run or leap directly into 
it's Mouth, not having power to avoid their Enemy, who never 
stirs out of the Posture or Quoil until he obtains his Prey. 
It is reported, they have a Rattle for every Year they are 
old, which does not begin to grow until they are three Years 
old, which I am apt to believe, for the young ones have 
none, and I have seen and killed several of these Snakes, with 
thirteen, and fifteen, and one with thirty Rattles. They 
have several small Teeth, of which I cannot see they make 
any Use, for they swallow every thing whole, but the Teeth 
which poyson, are only four, two on each side of their upper 
Jaws; these are bent like a Sickle and hang loose, as if by 
a Joint. Towards the setting on of these, there is in each 
Tooth a little Hole wherein you may just get in the point of 
a small Needle ; here it is that the Poyson comes out (which 
is as green as Grass) and follows the Wound made by the 
point of the Teeth. Their Bite is not always of the same 
force, but more or less venemous according to the Season of 
the Year, for the hotter the Weather, the more poysonous thev 
are, especially in June, JuJi/, nu<l August. In Winter they 
never appear, but lie hid in some secret Places in the Earth, 
as all tlie other Snakes do, not boiuir able to endure the cold 


of North Carolina. 145 

Weather; for you shall see several sorts of them lying dead, 
at the approach of the Winter, not being able to reach or 
crawl into their Holes. jSTeither can we suppose that they 
can renew their Poison as soon, or as often as they please, 
for we have known Instances to the contrary of two that 
were bit in the Leg by one Rattle-Snahe, as they were trav- 
elling in the Woods. The first was very painful some Days, 
not having an opportunity to get the Rattle-Snake Root, in 
some Hours after he was bit. The other received no more 
harm by that Bite than if he had been bit by a Mouse, or any 
other Creature not venemous ; so that w^e may reasonably 
conjecture from this Observation, that their Poyson is not 
always of the same efficacy. I enquired of the first Person, 
what he felt when the Snake first bit him ; he said, it seemed 
as if a flash of Fire had run through his Body. The Indians 
frequently pull out their Teeth, so that they never after- 
wards can do any Mischief by biting; this may be easily 
done, by tying a bit of red Wollen Cloth to the upper end of 
a long hollow Cane, and so provoking the Rattle-Snalce to 
bite, and suddenly pulling it away from him, by which means 
the Teeth stick fast in the Cloath, which are plainly to be 
seen by those present. They have two I^ostrils on each side 
of their ]^ose, which is not common in many of the other 
sorts of Snakes. They are so venemous that they frequently 
bite and poyson themselves : For, oftentimes when we have 
found out where they are (which is easily known by their 
continual Rattling with their Tails, which they shake and 
shiver with wonderful nimbleness when they are any way 
disturbed) we cut down long Poles or Reeds and make the 
tops thereof sharp, wherewith we tickle their sides, and pro- 
voke them, that at length they become so enraged, they bite 
themselves, and dye in a short time. 

10 T I 

146 The Natural Historg 

I hope it will not be unpleasing to the Reader to insert 
the following Account in relation to a Eattle-Snake and a 
Dog, as it hai^pened during my residence there, viz. A 
Planter having taken a Rattle-snake in a ]S^oose, put it into a 
Barrel, and brought it to Edentown, and told the Inhabitants, 
that if they would make him drink, lie would shew them 
some Diversion ; that he had a living Rattle-snake, and a Dog 
that would fight it, who had killed several in his time; the 
proposal Avas readily consented to by all that were present. 
The Planter immediately turned out the Snake (which was 
very large) whilst another held the Dog, as we generally do 
our Bull-Dogs. A large Ring was instantly made and every 
one cry'd out for fair Play, viz. That the Snake should 
have time to gather itself into a Quoil, or posture of Defence, 
which it very quickly did, and immediately began to Rattle 
it's Tail: Every thing being ready, the Dog was let loose, 
and attacked the Snake ; his usual way of killing them, was, 
to shake them at full length out of their Quoil, in which Post- 
ure they can neither leap nor bite; but this Snake being so 
large, the Dog had not strength enough to do it In the first 
encounter he only bit it, which the Snake as readily returned, 
biting the Dog by the Ear, which made him cry and quit his 
hold, and seemed to be stun'd, or like one in a MegTim. But 
the Company encouraged the Dog, and set him on again: In 
the second encounter it bit the Dog by the Lip, and imme- 
diately after bit itself, the Dog in a little time began to cry 
and reel about as if drunk or in a Megrim, grew regardless of 
his Master's calling him, and in half an Hour dyed, and the 
Snake in about a Quarter. I had not related this, had I 
not been an Eye-witness to the whole proceeding. The Poy- 
son both of Viper and Mad-dog (I conceive) kill, by thick- 

of North Carolina. 147 

uing of the Blood after the manner that Runnet congeals 
^lilk when they make Cheese. 

These Snakes cast their Skins every Year, and commonly 
remain near the Place where the old Skin lies, these cast 
Skins are frequently pulverised, and given with good success 
in Fevers, so is the Gall mixed w4th Clay, made up in Pills, 
and given in pestilential Fevers and the Small Pox, for which 
it is accounted a noble Remedy, and a great Arcanum, which 
only some few pretend to know, and to have had the first 
Knowledge and Experience of for many Years; so are the 
Rattles good to expediate the Birth, and no doubt but it has 
all those excellent Virtues that the Vipei- is indued with. 

The Ground Rattlesnake , but why so improperly called, 
I know no Reason for, because it has no Rattles, and only 
resembles the Rattle-snake a little in colour, but is darker, 
and not so large, seldom exceeding a Foot or sixteen Inches 
in length, and is reckoned one of the most poysonous and 
worst of Snakes, and is said to be the latest Snake we have 
that returns to it's Hole in the fall of the Leaf. It's Uses 
and Virtues are unknown to any in these Parts, except the 

The Horn-snakes, so called, from a Horn growing in their 
Tail like a Cock's Spur, with which they strike and kill 
whatever they wound with it, except a speedy Remedy be 
applied. They are like the Rattle-snake in colour, but a 
little lighter. They hiss exactly like a Goose when any thing 
approaches them. This Horn in their Tail is all the Weapon 
they have with which they strike and destroy their Enemy, 
for they never bite as the Rattle-snake and other Snakes do. 
They give warning to such as approach their Danger by Hiss- 
ing. They are a very venemous Snake, hardly admitting 
of a cure from the Indians : yet the most effectual Method 

T^ to 

148 The Natural Historic 

to perfect this Cure is by the Rattle-snake Root, cupping 
Glasses and Scarification, or cutting off the Flesh to the 
Bone, and lastly by Amputation of the Parts. These Snakes 
are near as long as the Rattle-snake, but are not plenty in 
this Province, and I have been credibly informed by several 
of the Planters, that they have seen them strike their Horns 
into Trees, and particularly into the Pine and Locust, which 
in a few Hours decayed and died, though before that it was 
in it's full Bloom. But be that as it will, I am certain of 
this, that it is a dangerous Snake, and it's Wounds very 
difficult and tedious to be cured. 

The Water-snakes, whereof there are four sorts. The 
first is of the Horn-snake Colour, but not so large, and is as 
poysonous as any of the other sorts. The second is a long 
Snake, and differs from the other in colour, being more dark. 
These Snakes will frequently swim over large Rivers, and 
often hang upon the Boughs of Birch, and several other Trees 
by the Water side, and sometimes drop into the Cannoes as 
they are passing by, they are also very poysonous. The third 
is of an English Adder colour, but always frequents the Salts, 
and lies generally under the drift Sea-weed, where they are 
in abundance, and are accounted very mischievous when they 
bite. The fourth is of a sooty black Colour, and frequents 
Ponds and Ditches, and is as Poysonous as any of the former. 
When these Snakes bite (if a Remedy be not speedily applied) 
there ensueth great Pain, Inflammation, blackness in the 
Wound, the Vertigo, and Death within three Days; for the 
Poyson is so malignant, that it forthwith disperses through 
the whole Body, which Avhen it comes to the Heart, the 
Creature immediately falls down dead. These and all the 
other Snakes lay Eggs, except the Viper. The Cure for the 


of North Carolina. 149 

bite of these, is much tlie same witli that of the Ilorii-snake, 
and their Virtues and Uses the same with the Yi-per. 

The Swani'p-snakes, whereof there are three sorts, and are 
very like the Water-snakes, and may properly be ranked 
amongst them. The first is of a dirt Brown colour on his 
Back, and the Belly is of a Carnation or Pink colour, and 
is large, but not venemous. The second is large, and the 
back is of the colour of the former, but the Belly is of a 
tawny and light Copper colour, beautifully mottled ; these 
always abide in Swamps and Marshes, and are poysonous. 
The third is mottled, with a dark brown Colour on the Back, 
and the Belly of a livid and Orange colour. They are very 
poysonous, and remain likewise in Swamps and Ponds, and 
have prodigious wide Mouths, they are commonly as thick 
as the Calf of a Man's Leg, though they are not very long, 
they feed on Water-rats, Mice, and several sorts of Insects. 
The cure of these is much the same with the former, and 
may indifferently be used after the same manner. 

The Red-hack Snakes (so called from their Red-backs) 
are long slender Snakes, they are rare to be met with, and 
are very poysonous ; it is reported that the Indians themselves 
cannot cure the venemous bite of them: I never knew any 
one bit by them, and I saw but one during my abode in those 

The Vijjers whereof there are two sorts. The first is of 
a grayish colour like the Italian Viper, the other black and 
short. Both these sorts are venemous, and spread their 
Heads flat when they are provoked. They lie hid in the 
Ground all the Winter Season, and are generally about a 
Foot and a half, or two Feet in Length. Their Heads are 
very broad compared with the Body, and the ^eck much 
narrower than the Head. Their Tails are small sharp, and 


150 The Natural History 

curled at the end. The Teeth upon the upper Chop are very 
long and crooked like a Sickle, and upon either side it hath 
four; those upon the lower Chop, are so small that they can 
scarce be observed by the naked Eye, neither can the length 
of the Teeth be seen excejDt you take away the little Bladder 
in which they lie concealed, in this Bladder it carries Poy- 
son, which it infuseth into the Wounds it makes with its 
Teeth. The Scales of a Viper are more sharp than a Snake's; 
it lies for the most part Quoiled up like a Raitle-Snake. 
In the Viper there is nothing venemous but the Head and 
Gall, which are cast away as useless. It is a sharp sighted, 
crafty, and venemous Creature, biting those that suddenly 
pass by it. The Viper is said to conceive Eggs within her, 
which she does not lay after the manner of other Serpents; 
but in her Body they are hatched into living Vipers. For as 
Pliny reporteth, that of all Creatures that want Hair, the 
Viper and the Dolphin only bring forth their Young with 
Life. It is likewise reported, that after they have ingen- 
dered, the Female destroys the Male, and feeds on him ; and 
that the Young Ones eat their way out of their Female's 
Belly, when she is ready to bring them forth, and feed on her 
'till they are able to fend for themselves. But how true this 
may be, I will not take upon me to determine; but this I 
am certain of, that I have killed several of them and after 
having opened them, have found fifteen or more young ones 
alive in the Female's Belly. The bitting of the Viper is 
mortal, and kills within three Days at farthest, if not speed- 
ily cured; the Poyson is universal, as if the Body were set 
on Fire with violent Convulsions, Weakness, cold Sweats, 
Vomiting, and then Death. At first the Poyson may be 
sucked out by applying the Anus of a Hen to the part after 
Scarification, or else a Plaster of Garlick, Onions, and Ven- 

of North Carolina. 151 

ice-Treacle, drinking French Wine, Garlich Broth, with 
Mithridate, Bazoar-mineral, Myrrh, and the Rattlesnake 
Root. The Virtues of the Vipers are so well known, that it 
would be needless to trouble the Reader with them, only that 
they are more valuable than any of the other Snakes. 

The Red-belly-snakes, these frequent the Land, and are so 
called, from their Red-bellies, which inclines to an Orange 
colour : They are not very venemous, for I have known sev- 
eral Persons bit by them, some whereof were not much hurt, 
and others have suffered much by them. But I am per- 
swaded that there are two different sorts of these Snakes, but 
so like each other, that there has been no difference made be- 
tween them at present; otherw^ise their bites would not pro- 
duce such contrary effects, as they are known to do. 

The Chicken-snake, or Egg-snake, so called, from it's fre- 
quenting about Hen-yards, and devouring Eggs and Chickens. 
They are commonly of a dusky soot colour, though I have 
seen some of them dark, yellow, and mottled. They are 
about four Foot long, and the thickness of a Man's Wrist, 
they frequently climb up large Pine Trees, will rowl them- 
selves round, and stick to the side of it, where there seems to 
be no manner of hold, above twenty or thirty Feet high; 
there sun themselves, and sleep in the heat of the Day. I can- 
not find that they are venemous, but are mischievous about 
Houses, and will imitate exactly the call and cry of Chickens, 
and allure and decoy them, which' they will quickly seize and 

The Brimstone-snake, so called, from it's being almost of 
that colour. They might as well have called it, the Glass, or 
brittle-Snake, for it is as brittle as Glass, or a Tobacco-Pipe, 
for give it the least touch with a small Twig it immediately 


152 77?^ Natural History 

breaks, or rather disjojTits into several pieces ; and several in 
these parts confidently affirm, that if they remain in the same 
place imtouch'd, they will joyn together again. What harm 
there may be in this brittle-ware, I cannot tell, for I never 
knew any Person hurt by them. 

The King-snalx'G is the longest of all other Snakes in these 
parts, but are not common; the Indians make Girdles and 
Sashes of their Skins, and it is reported by them, that they 
are not very venemous, and that no other Snake will meddle 
with them, which I suppose is the Reason that they are so 
fond of wearing their Skins about their Bodies as they do. 

The Corn-snahe, so called, from it's being met with in 
Corn-fields, and scarce any where else. They are not vene- 
mous, neither do they gather themselves into a Quoil like the 
Viper or Rattle-snake. They are near a Yard long, and of 
a Brown colour, mixt with TawTiv. 

The Green-snahes are very small, and are so called, from 
their beautiful green Colour (if any Beauty may be allowed 
to Snakes) the Planters make themselves very familiar with 
them, and will frequently put them in their Bosoms, without 
any dread or fear, because there is no manner of harm in 

The Blach-truncheon-snahe might have very well been 
numbered amongst the Water-snakes : they are so called, from 
their shape, being the thickest and shortest kind of Snakes I 
ever saw; they lie on the Banks, and at the Roots of Trees 
by the Water sides, and when any thing disturbs them, they 
dart themselves into the Salt-water like an Arrow out of a 
Bow. Wliat good or harm there is in them T know not, some 
of these Water-snakes will swallow a black-land Snake, half 
as long again as themselves, as I observed in one of them that 
T shot. 


of North Carolina. 153 

The long Blaclc-siiahe is very common, and generally six 
Feet in length, it frequents the Land altogether, and is the 
nimblest Creature living, it has no manner of Venom in it's 
bite, but the part sometimes swells and turns to a running 
Sore. These Snakes are the best Mousers that can be, for 
wherever they frequent, they destroy Lizards, Frogs, Rats, 
and Mice, leaving not one of those Vermine alive. They are 
very mischievous about Dairies and amongst Eggs, skimming 
the Cream of the former, and swallowing the latter. They 
will sometimes swallow all the Eggs from under the lien that 
sits, and Quoil themselves under her in the Xcst, where they 
are often found by the House-wife : They kill the Battle- 
snake where-ever they find him, by twisting their Head about 
his ]^eck, and so whip him to death with their Tails ; and 
notwithstanding the Agility of this Snake, yet it is so brittle, 
that w^hen it is pursued, and gets it's Head into the hole of a 
Tree or Wall, if any one gets hold of it at the other end, it 
will twist it self in pieces. One of these Snakes, whose Xeck 
seems to be no thicker than a Woman's little Finger, will swal- 
low a Squirrel or Rat, which I have taken out of their Bellies ; 
so much does that part stretch in all those Creatures. It like- 
wise feeds on small Insects and Flies, taking them betwixt 
the forks of its Tongue. 

The Eel-snahe, though improperly so called, because it is 
nothing but a kind of Leech that sucks and cannot bite, as 
other Snakes do, but is very large, being commonly eighteen 
or ninteen Inches long, and has all the Properties that other 
Leeches have, and lives in Ponds as they do. There is like- 
wise a Leech in this Province, of the same bigness of those 
with us in Europe. 

Having given as large an Account as is yet known of the 
Snakes in these Parts ; I will in the next Place proceed to 

U treat 

154 The Natural History 

treat of some of the smaller Reptiles or Insects that are most 
remarkable, and to be met with in this Country ; but to give a 
large Description of all the different Species that this Coun- 
try produces, would require too large a Volum, wdiich is not 
my intention at present. Besides the Indians give us many 
strange and uncouth ISTames for various kinds of Beasts, 
Birds, Eishes, Snakes, and Insects, that we are intire Stran- 
gers to ; for the greatest part of this spacious and large Coun- 
try lies waste at present, and undoubtedly there will be many 
curious and considerable Discoveries made, when once this 
Country is well settled and inhabited by the Christians, for 
the Indians whilst they remain in their Idolatrous Practices, 
never will be brought over to cultivate this rich and noble 
Country, or even to make Discoveries of what they know of 
it already. But to proceed to the Reptiles and Insects. 

The Bees are in great Plenty, not only in Hives, in the 
Planter's Gardens, but are likewise to be met with in several 
parts of the Woods in hollow Trees, wherein are frequently 
found vast quantities of Honey, and Wax. The Uses and 
Profits of these noble Insects, are so well known amongst us 
in Europe, that it would be needless to trouble the Reader 
about them. Their Bee-hives are generally made of some 
piece of hollow Tree, and especially the sweet Gum Tree, 
which they cut at proper lengths for that purpose, with a 
Board at the top for a Covering ; these are all the sorts of Bee- 
hives made use of in this Country, some whereof are larger 
than our Barrel. The Ilumhle-hees are of the same sort in 
this Province as those with us in Ireland, and other parts of 


of North Carolina. 155 

The 8ilk-worms: In several of our Joiirnies in this Prov- 
ince, we found great numbers of them, with quantities of 
Silk as large as our ordinary Vlall-nui. And no doubt these 
profitable Insects might be brought to great Perfection in 
Carolina, as in any part of Europe, if the same Care were 
taken there as is in France, Spain and many other Places, 
since this Country doth naturally produce them. In process 
of time, they leave off Spinning, and receive Wings like But- 
terflies, and after three or four Days Copulation, the Male 
presently dies, and the Female having lay'd many Eggs, dies 
also. The whole Worms dried, powder'd and laid to the 
Crown of the Head are good in Megrims, Virtigoes and Con- 
vulsions, and the Ashes of the Silk cleanseth Wounds, &c. 

The Butte7^-flies are produced from small Eggs as the Silk- 
worms are, and are very plenty all over this Province, and of 
several sorts : some large, and others small, and most beauti- 
fully Mottled with variety of fine Colours. They generate in 
May, June and July, and lay vast quantities of Eggs in the 
Season, from whence they are produced. There are some of 
them larger in this Province than any I have met with in 
Europe, for you shall frequently see them chace the Hum- 
ming-hirds away from the Elowers on which they feed. It is 
a long lived Insect, after the Head is off; for I pulled off 
the Head from one of them in the middle of Summer, that 
lived about thirty five Days, and could flie all that time. This 
any one that pleases may try and prove the Truth of it. The 
Powder of these Insects taken inwardly, provokes Urine, and 
have much the same Virtues with the Silk-worm, 

The Grass-lioppers are very plenty, whereof there are two 
Sorts ; the first are of a much larger size than any I have met 

U a with 

156 The Natural History 

with in Europe. The second are much of the same bigness 
as those with us. Both these sorts seem to be more lazy and 
dull Insects than those in Europe, for they are seldom heard 
singing, but commonly are groveling in the Dust. They are 
likewise bad sighted, for they will scarce stir 'till you almost 
tread upon them. Of all Creatures that are known to live, 
the Grass-hoppers alone have no Mouth, only a sharp Pipe 
in their Breasts, wherewith they suck in the Dew, on which 
they live. Their Breasts are full of small sharp Pipes, with 
which they make that ringing Noise we hear, and their Bel- 
lies, for the most part, are found empty. They engender 
with their Bellies upward, and have a roughness on their 
Backs, which is sharp, and it is with this that they make Holes 
in the Earth, where they lay their Eggs, and breed. When 
these Eggs are hatched (which is by the heat of the Sun) there 
appear first little Worms or Maggots, which in process of 
time become Grass-hoppers. The Males are only said to sing, 
and the Females to be always silent. They are never to be 
met in these parts in the ^Y^nter Season. The Powder of them 
dried and given with Pepper, helps the Cholick, difficulty of 
Urine, and the Ashes with Rhenish Wine the Gravel. 

Sows, or Hog-lice, breed in most places, especially under 
Stones and rotten Wood, whereof there are two sorts in this 
Province, but not so plenty as with us, by reason that the 
Wood-peckers, and several other Birds and Creatures con- 
tinually devour them. When they are touched, they gather 
themselves up as round as a Pea. The whole Insect is thin, 
and of volatile Parts, digesting, cleansing, opening, nud n 
great disolver of all tartarous Matter, therefore good in ali 
Obstructions, Jaundice, Cholick, King's Evil, old sordid and 
rebellious Ulcers, Con\ailsions, Stone and Gravel, Rickets in 


of North Carolina. 157 

Children, dimness of Sight, French Pox, and many other 
stubborn and lingring Disorders. 

The Fire-fiy. (I would not have the Readers be mistaken, 
and take these Insects for the Fyrales or Fire-flies that are 
represented by Pliny in his Natural History, as bred and liv- 
ing in the Fire). These live in the open Air, and are so called, 
from their appearing at Xight like so many shining Sparks 
of Fire. They are as long as the Drones amongst the Bees, 
but much thicker, and are of a brownish colour. Their Light 
is under their Wings, which appears frightful to Strangers 
at first sight, although they have no manner of harm in them. 
I have frequently taken them and broke off their Wings, 
that they could not fly away, and placed them on a Book in a 
dark Room, and whatever way they went, I could plainly see 
and distinguish each Letter. They appear in May, and re- 
main most part of the Summer, and are at sometimes in such 
plenty, that the Woods seem to be altogether Sparks of Fire ; 
they are never to be seen in the Day, but fly all the !N^ight. 
What Virtues they may be indued with, are uncertain ; for I 
never knew any use made of them in this Country. 
\ The Crickets are winged Insects like the Locusts, or Grass- 
hoppers, and are plentifully to be met with in this Province. 
They seldom frequent the dwelling Houses as those with us 
in Ireland do, but are often heard and seen in the Woods and 
Corn-fields (especially in the Summer) where they Sing 
almost continually, in Winter they approach near the Houses 
and other warm places, they are very mischievous, for they 
frequently cut large holes in Linnen and Woollen, and are 
j likewise gTeat devourers of Corn and all kinds of gi'ain. The 
Powder of them is said to provoke Urine, and strengthen the 


158 The Natural Historic 

Sight, their Juice has the same effect, and their Ashes excel- 
lent against Fluxes and the Gravel. 

The Lady Bird is a beautiful small Insect (with red Wings 
and black spots thereon) which the Children in Ireland fre- 
quently play with ; it is to be met with in Carolina in the 
Summer time, and is a wonderful Cordial, curing all Fevers 
how poysonous or malignant soever, by its sudorifick quality. 
The Powder of its Body is of a deep Purple colour, and 
emits its Tincture into Water and Spirits of Wine, being not 
inferior to Saffron. 

The Cantliarides or Spanish-flies, are here likewise to be 
met with in the Summer time. These Insects are produced 
from small Worms like the Catter-pillar in Fig-Trees, Pcar- 
Trees, Wild-Pmes or Pitch-Trees and the Eglantine--S?'2er; 
Their uses and virtues are so well known, that it wou'd be 
needless to trouble the reader about them. 

The Pismire or A^it, is a small, but industrious and wise 
insect, gathering its food in the Summer in the full Moons 
and resting in the new ones : They are like a common wealth, 
and gather Corn for their Winter provisions, which they dry 
and bite at both ends that it may not grow : They wear away 
Stones by their assiduity and make beaten Road ways; they 
help one another in drawing their Burthens ; dam out Water 
and bury their Dead. The greater lead the way, and lesser 
drag the Corn ; and when dirty, they cleanse themselves before 
they enter into their habitations. They teach their young to 
Labour, but expel the Idle, and when they carry their grain, 
it is said to be a sign of fowl Weather. They cast up the 
Earth over the Mouths of their Caves (that the Water may 
not enter in) wherein they have three Cells ; in the one they 
live, in another they breed and bury their Dead, and in third 
they keep their Corn. They generate in Winter, and bring 


of North Carolina. 159 

forth Eggs, which in Spring are Ants; when old tliey grow 
winged, then suddenly after die. The Ants are of a hot and 
dry Xature, excite lust, and wonderfully refresh the Spirits, 
their Eggs help deafness, and many other excellent virtues are 
atributed to them. 

The Spider is a poysonous Insect, which hurts by stinging. 
There are divers sorts of these Insects in xlmerica, but the 
most remarkable is the Mountain-Spider , so called, for its 
being found commonly in the Woods near the Mountains, 
and scarce any where else. It is the most poysonous and 
largest of all Spiders that are yet known in America. Sev- 
eral sorts of these Spiders make their Webs or nets so strong 
that they often take small Birds in them. Those that have 
the Misfortune to be stung by these insects, are afflicted with 
different disorders, according to the Xature of the Spiders, 
which have communicated the poyson. For you shall some- 
time find them afflicted with violent pains at the heart, short- 
ness of Breath, heats and colds all over the Body, tumors. 
Inflammations, tremblings, cold sweats, vomiting, singing, 
laughing, talking, sleeping, starting, and sometimes fear, 
frenzy, and madness, with many other griveous symptoms, 
which often eud in Death, without a speedy remedy be ap- 
plied. The cure is done by bathing with decoction of stink- 
ing Trefoil and Oil ; fomenting the part with Spunges dipt in 
Vinegar, by application of the mullet, lees of Wine and Juice 
of Ivy ; giving inwardly an electuary made of Tamarisk, Mitli- 
ridate, and sometimes Musicl: The Indians cure it by suck- 
ing the part with their Mouths, and continually spitting out 
the venom. These Insects being made into a Plaster and ap- 
plied to the wrists and Temples, cure Agues. 

The Ear-ivig is to be met with in this Province in the Sum- 
mer time, and is the same as in Europe; these Insects being 


160 The Natural Historg 

boiled in Oil and apjjlied to the iVrteries of the Temples and 
Wrists, are said to cure Convulsions, by causing a Fever. 
Their Powder mixt with Hare's piss, and so put into the 
Ears Evening and Morning, cure Deafness. 

The common Small-black -flies are plenty in these parts, 
and are more troublesome here than in France or Spain, espe- 
cially about the Legs, and no where else, for they will pierce 
through a pair of Stockings, and bite like the Clegs or Gad- 
flies in Ireland. 

The large Blach-mackrel-fiies are also plenty, especially in 
the Summer time, and are the same as those with us in 
Europe. The powder of these Insects and their Juice cures 

The Ox, or Gad-flies, are so called, from their tormenting 
the Cattle in the Summer time ; they are of various colours, 
but mostly yellow and green, and are plenty in this Province 
in the Months of July and August, at which time they are 
troublesome to Horses, especially about the Ears and head, 
and no where else ; for which reason you shall see those that 
ride in the Woods, fix green boughs on the Horses heads, to 
defend them from these mischievous Insects. 

The Moth is there likewise, and differs in nothing from 
those in Europe, being as mischievous and destructive to 
Woollen Cloths and Books as those with us. An Oil made of 
them is said to cure Deafness, Warts and the Leprosy, and 
being mixed with Tar, to be good in all sorts of rebellious 
Ulcers, Botches, Scabs, Whittles, &c. 

The Weevil, is a little small Worm, not much bigger than a 
Mite, and is very distructive to Trees, but more especially 
to Corn, for I have seen Barrels full of Indian Wheat or Maiz 
intirely ruined by these Insects, when there lias not pro])er 
care been taken, to prevent their doing mischief. Tlu^v never 


of North Carolina. 161 

meddle with aiiv grain (exposed in the weather j but when 
it is put up in elose places, such as barrels and the like, 
yet this may be easily remedied by shaking a little Salt at 
the bottom and top of those vessels the Corn is in. 

The Chinch Wall-louse, or Buggs; these are flat, red, and 
in shape and bigness like the Sheep-louse, they have an offen- 
sive smell w^hen they are killed, they haunt Beds, suck Men's 
Blood very gi'eedily, especially about the Xeck and Face, 
which in many appeareth for a Day or two, as if stung w4th 
Settles, and are as numerous in this Province as in France or 
Spain. Pliny saith, they are good against all Poysons and 
biting of Serpents. Marcellus saith, that the Powder of them 
cures all Fevers, their Scent, the Fits of the Mother, and that 
they are successful to force away the Birth, and x\fter-birth. 

The Coch-roch, is a kind of Beetle, something larger than 
a Crichet, and of a dark brown Colour; they frequent the 
Houses, and are very mischievous among Books and Linnen, 
by eating innumerable Holes in them, if there be not care 
taken to sweep and keep those places clean where those things 
are laid up. AYhen they are killed, they stink like Buggs; 
their Uses in Physick are uncertain. 

The Tumhle-turds, are a Species of the Beetles, and so 
called, from their constant rowling the Horse-dung (whereon 
they feed) from one place to another, 'till it is no bigger than 
a small Bullet. They are one of the strongest Insects, of the 
same Size I have ever seen ; they frequently fly into Houses, 
and I have seen one of them move a Brass Candlestick from 
one place to another upon a Table, which seem'd very strange 
to me at first ; for not long after my arrival, being one Xight 
at a Planter's House, who had secretly conveyed two of these 

11 X Insects 

162 The Natural Historg 

Insects under two dilierent Candle-sticks ; amongst other Dis- 
courses, he told me, he would made the Candle-sticks move 
about the Table by a certain Spell, as he pretended : He had 
all this time kept the Candle-sticks in his Hands on the Table. 
I was very desirous to see this performance ; he immediately 
takes his Hands from the Candle-sticks, and struck three 
times under the Table, and seemed to mutter some few Words 
(as Juglers are known to do) which he had no sooner ended, 
but the Candlesticks began to move backwards and forwards, 
to my great surprize, for I could imagine nothing else but that 
it had been some secret Charm he had got from the Indians, 
who are great Conjurers. After the Company had sufficiently 
diverted themselves at my surprize, and hoAv desirous I was 
to have this Charm communicated to me, one of the Company 
takes up the Candlesticks and discovers these Insects, which 
are of the same Shape, but something larger than the common 
Beetles, that are to be met with in Ireland, which feed on the 
Cow-dung, and make Holes in the Ground. There are several 
other different Species of Beetles here, but none so remarkable 
as these, or so beautiful, with a variety of Colours, such as 
Red, Green, Black, Yellow, (&c. (except the Horned-Beetle, 
Bull-Fly, or Flying-stag.) These Beetles seem to be infected 
with little small Insects of a light brownish Colour, which are 
commonly called the Lice of the Beetles. Their Powder is 
used against the falling out of the Fundament, to expel Urine, 
and cure the bite of a Mad-dog. The Juice cures Wounds, 
and in Plasters Buboes and pestilential Carbuncles. 

The Muskeetoes (in the Indian Language called Toquani) 
whereof there are two sorts. The first is small, hut jiernicioiia 
and troublesome, of a dark colour, and are so mischievous, 
and plentiful in some places on this Continent (and espe- 


of North Carolina. 163 

cially on the Marshes and low Grounds) that scarce any one 
can live there, except the Indians, whom they do not bite or 
molest; this I am perswaded is owing in a great measure to 
their so frequently anointing themselves with Bears-grease, 
and many other Ointments, which they make and daub their 
Bodies with. 

The second sort are exactly the same in shape and size with 
the former, but are of a whitish Colour ; these are not trouble- 
some to the Inhabitants, neither do they bite like the former, 
they are generally brought here by Southerly Winds in July 
and August, in such vast quantities, that it is strange to be- 
hold them, they either die suddenly, or are carried away with 
the Winds, shifting from the South. What Virtues they may 
be indued with is uncertain. 

The Muskeetoe-Hawhs, are Insects, so called, from their 
continually hunting after Musheetoes, and killing and eating 
them; they are a large Flie, with a long Body, great Head, 
and Wings, resembling the Dragon-flie, whereof they are a 
Species. They are very plenty all over this Province, espe- 
cially in the latter end of Summer. They seldom appear in 
the Day-time, but hunt the Musheetoes all night long. I know 
no other use they are good for than in destroying those In- 
sects, so pernicious and mischievous to Mankind ; so that the 
Planters seldom kill them. 

The Horned Beetle, Bull-flie, or Stag, are to be met with 
in several parts of Carolina. These Insects have no Stings, 
but a large pair of Horns on their Head, exactly resembling 
the Horns of a Deer, for which reason they are called the 
Flying-stag, these Horns they can at pleasure bring together 
and bite withal. These Beetles are hung as an Amulet about 
Children's !N'ecks for several Disorders. 

X= The 

164 The Natural Historic 

The Sand-fiie, so called, from their breeding, and always 
being found in the Sand-banks, and near the Rivers, they are 
very small, not much larger than a Gnat, and are almost as 
pernicious and troublesom as the Muskeetoes, especially 
about the Face and no where else. 

The Wasps are very plenty in this Province, they build 
their ^NTests in Trees, the substance whereof seems like Cob- 
webs, or a kind of brown Paper, and it is said they ingender 
in Autumn, but never in the Spring, and are bred out of the 
softer parts of Horse-flesh, they live upon Flesh, and several 
sorts of Insects, which they hunt after and kill for their Pro- 
visions. The Wasps, like manj^ other Insects, are not to be 
seen all the Winter, but lie in Holes or hollow Trees all that 
Season, and they live not above two Years. They seldom are 
mischievous, or do any harm, except you provoke them, or 
approach too near their ^JTests, which the Planters frequently 
set fire to, by shooting at them with Gun-powder. (This is 
commonly done late in the Evening, or early in the Morning) 
and then they run away as fast as possibly they can, to avoid 
being stung, for when they are provoked, they will pursue in 
great J^umbers those that have molested them. Their Sting 
is worse than that of the Bees, and is cured by application of 
Cow-dung mixed with Barly-meal, or Leaven mixed with 
Oil and Vinegar. The Powder of them is good to open Ob- 
structions of the Reins and Bladder, some use them in all 
Cases where 8oivs or Hog-lice are used, and with the same 

The Hornets are in great plenty in this Province ; they 
build their ISJ'ests in Caves and Holes in the Earth, much lika 
the former, and are said to be produced out of the harder 
parts of Horse-flesh, as the other is out of the softer. Their 
Decoction, or distilled Water, if touched on the Skin, makes 
the place swell as if there was a Dropsie, or the Parts had 


of North Carolina. 165 

been poysoned, yet without pain. The Cure for this, and 
their Sting is Venice-treacle taken inwardly, and applying 
outwardly Coiv-dung, fasting Spittle, Barley-meal, Oil and 
Vinegar, &c. 

The Labourers, are a Specie of Hornets, and are so called, 
from the pains and labour which they take in building their 
Nests with a kind of yellow Clay, they make Rooms or Cells 
wherein they breed their young, which is wrought so close, 
and after such a manner, that it is hard to break it when dry, 
to get the young ones out. They are near as large as a Hor- 
net, and of the same shape and colour, they have long Legs, 
and always breed their young ones in the Summer time. 
They are more mild than the Hornets, and seldom or never 
sting; I have often observed these Flies to scrape the Sand 
by the River sides and moist places, where they make deep 
Holes and are buried under Ground before they can come 
at the yellow Clay. Some of them have Stings, yet they do 
little harm, only they are very troublesome in the Houses by 
fixing Clay to the Ceiling, if there is not proper Care taken 
to prevent them. Their uses in Physick are unknown. 

The Fleas are very plenty in some parts of this Province, 
especially in those places where the Indians dress their Deer 
Skins, they have no Physical Virtues yet known, but are cer- 
tainly most troublesome Guests. They are generated by Dust, 
as also of putrefied Sweat, and are destroyed by Decoctions 
made of Coloquintida. 

The Louse is not plenty in this Province. They are eaten 
by Rusticks for the Jaundice, and Consumption, and to pro- 
voke Urine. 

The TicJc is a filthy Creature, or kind of Louse that troubles 
Oxen, Horses, Deer, Goats, Sheep, Dogs, and sometimes Men. 


166 The Natural Historg 

These Verinine are plenty iu this Country, whereof there are 
two Sorts, viz. the Dog, or large Tide, and the small or Sea 

The large or Dog tick, is the same as with us in Ireland, 
only it has a brown Spot on the Back, which disappears as it 
grows large. It's Food is the Blood of several Animals, 
which it most greedily sucks, yet it hath no passage to void 
the excrements by, and generally sucks till it falls of, being 
so full, and in process of time bursts and dies. The juice of 
the Dog-tick is a Depilatory, kills Ring- Worms, the Erysipe- 
las, and Itch. These vermine are destroy'd by the Powder or 
decoction of Coloquintida. 

The Sea Ticks are so call'd from their being so plentiful in 
the marshes on the water sides, they are so small that they are 
scarce as large as a small pins head, and are very troublesome 
to those that travel in the Woods and near the sides of the 
Rivers, for they stick so fast in the Skin, that it is impossi- 
ble to pluck them out, and are apt to occasion Inflammations, 
Fevers, or inveterate Sores, by scratching the part : And not- 
withstanding they are so troublesome, yet they are easily de- 
stroyed by washing the parts in the Rivers, or by a decoction 
of the leaves of Tobacco or Coloquintida. Those that travel 
the Woods in their Boots are never pester'd with these ver- 
mine, or if they anoint their limbs with Bears-grease, as the 
Indians do, who are never troubled with them. They seldom 
appear till the Month of May. and continue till August; 
and are supposed to be the spawn of the former, which I 
am apt to believe, for I have frequently found the large Ticks 
(after they have bursted) with vast quantities of young onei. 
in them. 

Tlio. Locust, is an Insect or fly with a head like a Horse, 
six Legs and as many Wing-s, and are of divers colours. They 
lay Eggs in Autumn, wliich lie all M^ inter in the Ground, 


of North Carolina. 167 

but in the latter end of Spring they are hatched, and in S)U)n- 
mer become Locusts. These Insects burn Corn, Grass, and 
most kinds of plants by touching, and devour the residue ; 
and it is reported that in India, there be of them three Foot 
in length, which the People of that Country do eat and use 
their Legs and thighs for Saws when they are thoroughly 
dry : St. John the Baptist fed upon them in the Wilderness. 
They are often carried over great Seas, and continue their 
flight for several Days together, in such vast Numbers that 
they are said to darken the very Sun as they flie, and to be 
certain prognostications of a Plague or famine, in whatever 
Country they settle, and burn and destroy every thing before 
them, and 'tis likewise said, that they will kill Serpents; yet 
these pernicious and distructive Insects are not very common 
in Carolina. Their Eggs given in Rhenish Wine, help the 
Dropsie, and the fume of the fly helps stoppage of Urine in 

The Caterpillar, Palmer or Canher-worm, is the same in 
Carolina as is to be met with in Ireland, and many other parts 
of Europe. These Insects are very destructive to Herbs and 
Corn, if there be not care taken to prevent them, which is done 
by the fume of Brimstone. They change like Silk-worms, 
and in process of time become Butter-flies. Their Ashes put 
into the Nostrils, stop Bleeding. A powder made of them is 
said to be good in the Epilepsy, and their Web is said to stop 
the Flux of Women's courses. 

The Gally-ivorm is a short kind of Scolopender, exceeding 
in Number of Feet all other Insects. Some of them are 
smooth, others hairy all over, they are about the thick- 
ness of a ]\Ian's little Finger, and near two Inches long. 
They are not plenty in this Province, having several enemies 
that destroy them. Their Ashes wonderfully provoke Urine, 


168 The Natural History 

the Blood with the Juice of Hog-lice, take away white Spots 
in the Eye. 

The Tohacco-worm; I am not certain whether it is call'd 
by any other J^ame, but I have call'd it so from its feeding on 
the Tobacco-Leaves, it is exactly shaped like the Gally-worm, 
but is something larger, and not hairy, and has two sharp 
horns on its Head, the Body is white and Black, with as many 
Feet as the former. This Insect I take to be another Species 
of the Scolopenders and is destructive and pernicious in the 
Tobacco Plantations, if there be not care taken to Search for 
and kill them, which is a business that the IsTegroes are very 
much employed in during the Tobacco Season. I don't find 
that they are any way Poysonous, for I have known some of 
the Planters make their ISTegroes eat them by way of punish- 
ment, when they have been negligent in their Tobacco Fields, 
and have not carefully gathered them from amongst the To- 
bacco Leaves: what physical virtues they may be indued 
with is uncertain. 

The Glow-worm has Wings, and it shines in the dark like 
Fire ; their light is under their Wings, and they are generated 
of Dew, they are most commonly to be met with in Swamps, 
and wet low Grounds, where they are plenty they shine at a 
great distance like a Fire, which has deceiv'd many in the 
dark Nights. They are Anodyne, and are given with good 
Success in the Gravel, being made into Troches, with Giu)) 
Tragacanth, and Oil of Almonds. 

The Land-wood-ivorms are of a shining Copper colour, and 
never exceed four or five Inches in length, and scarce as thick 
as a Man's little Finger. They are so called from being founo 
in old rotten Trees, and accoimted venomous in case they 
bite ; yet I have never known any one hurt by them. 


of North Carolina. 169 

There are many other diiferent sorts of Worms found, not 
only in rotten Trees, but likewise in several Trees in their 
Bloom, and especially the Apple Trees, which I have already 
made mention of. 

The Teredines or Water-wood-worms, so call'd from their 
breeding in Ships and other Timber lying in the Salt-Waters. 
They have small soft white Bodies and large, hard Black- 
heads ; I have frequently seen some of them no thicker than a 
Horse-hair, and others the size of a Childs finger. These ver- 
mine are only mischievous in the extreme heat of the Sum- 
mer, and the fresh Water is an utter Enemy to them, wherein 
they perish and die. They are very destructive to Ships and 
Timber, especially if they lie in the Mud or Sands, but whilst 
they float they never come to any damage by them. I have 
seen several planks taken out of Ships and Boats, that have 
been eaten by these Worms like a Honey-comb in six Weeks 
time, by the negligence of the Masters to whom they belonged, 
that suffered them to lie in the Mud and Sands all that time, 
and notwithstanding they cut such large Holes within side 
of the Plank, yet the Holes on the out side are scarce to be 
seen, and no larger than for the point of a small Keedle to 
enter. The Ashes mix'd with an equal weight of Anniseeds, 
and a little Oil, are good against all sorts of Ulcers and 

The Earth-worms, whereof there are several sorts, and are 
the same here as with us in Ireland. This Insect is a great 
Diuretick, Sudorifick, and Anodyne; it discusses, mollifies, 
increases Milk, opens obstructions, and cures Wounds, princi- 
pally of the Sinews and Ligaments, and many other disor- 
ders, being both externally and internally made use of. 

The Snails are here likewise, but not so plenty as with us 
in Europe : having many Enemies that continually destroy 

Y them, 

170 The Natural Historg 

them, such as Birds, Snakes, Frogs, d'v;. The tlesh cools, 
thickens, consolidates, is pectoral, and Strengthens the 
J^erves, cures Coughs, Asthma's, spitting of Blood, and Con- 
sumptions. Outwardly they Ripen Tumors, Imposthumes, 
and Carbuncles, especially if mix'd Avith Ox-gall, they heal 
wounds of the l^erves and Ulcers of the Legs, cure Ruptures 
and stop Bleeding at the Nose, and many other Disorders too 
tedious to IN'ame. 

Having thus given an Account of some of the most re- 
markable INSECTS that are to be met with here, I shall in 
the next place proceed to give a Description of the BIRDS, 
and FOWLS that this Country produces, many whereof are 
not known, or to be met with in EUROPE. 



' j Turtle 


of North Carolina. 



THE EAGLES being accounted the King of the Birds, 
i shall therefore begin with them. Of these there are 
three Sorts, viz. the Bald^ the Blach, and the Gray 
Eagle. The Bald Eagle is the largest, and is so called, because 
his Head to the middle of the Neck is covered with a white 
sort of downy Feathers, whereby it looks very bald, and the 
Tail is as white as Snow, the rest of the Body being of a dark 
brown colour. These Birds are very great breeders most part 
of the Year, and always build their jSTests in old decay'd 
Cyprus, or Pine-trees near the River's side, where they gener- 
ally lay two Eggs, and sometimes three, but they seldom have 
four ; as soon as they are hatched, and the young Eagles have 
down on them, with white woolly Feathers, the Hen Eagles 
lay again, which Eggs are hatched by the warmth of the young 
ones in the Nest, so that the flight of one makes room for the 

Y « others 

172 The Natural Historg 

others that are just hatched ; thus thej continue breeding most 
part of the Year. They not only prey upon Birds, Beasts, and 
Fishes, but upon any thing they are able to destroy. They are 
very destructive to Poultry, Lambs, young Fawns, and Pigs, 
which they frequently carry Squalling into the Air, and so 
bring them with ease to their young ones. They can fly from 
Morning till Night, and that very high, notwithstanding they 
are heavy of flight, and cannot get their food by swiftness, to 
help which, there is a Fishing-Hawh, that catches Fish, which 
it suffers the Eagle to take from it, notwithstanding it is a 
large and swift Fowl, and can make far better way than the 
Eagle can, and it is very pleasant to behold the flight of these 
two Birds, which sometimes continues for above half an Hour, 
at length it lets fall the Fish which the Eagle frequently 
catches before it touches the Earth or Water. These Bald 
Eagles will likewise attend the Hunts-men, in the Winter time 
for several Hours together (but at a great distance) till they 
shoot some game, which they frequently flie away with, dead 
or wounded. Their I^ests are made of Twigs, Sticks, and 
several kinds of Pubbish, and generally so large that it is 
enough to fill a handsome Cart's Body, and commonly so full 
of nasty Bones and Carcasses that it smells most offensively. 
It is the opinion of most People in those parts that these 
Eagles are not Bald till they are two or three Years old. 
They are the strongest Birds of prey that are yet known in 
these parts of Artierica. 

The Black-Eagles are much the same sort as are to be met 
with in Ireland, but not altogether so large as the former, yet 
in all other respects as mischievous, and build Nests after the 
same manner in old Trees naked of Boughs, and nigh the 
River side, from whence as I suppose, they may have a pros- 
pect of the Fishing-Hawhs, for when they see the Fishing- 

of North Carolina. 173 

HawJv strike a Fish, immediately they take Wing and pursue 
Her. The Fishing-Hawk as soon as she perceives herself pur- 
sued, will Scream and make a most terrible Xoise, till at 
length she lets fall the Fish, to make her own escape. 

The Gray Eagle, is much of the colour of our Kite or 
Glead, it is not quite as large as the former, but Builds and 
preys after the same manner, and is frequently to be met 
with all over this Province. All these sorts of Eagles are 
very sharp sighted, view their prey at great distances, and have 
the best smell of all living Creatures. They are very bold 
Thieves, and live to be very old, and die not for Age nor any 
Sickness, but of meer hunger, by reason that the upper Beak 
of their Bill is so far over grown, and turneth inward so much, 
that they are not able to open it, to feed themselves. They 
seldom seek their prey in the Forenoon, for they are found 
sitting Idle and perched upon Trees all the Morning. It is 
reported that the Quills or Feathers of Eagles laid amongst 
those of other Fowls, will rot and consume them, which I have 
not faith to believe. The Flesh, tho' scarce fit to be eaten, is 
medicinal against the Gout ; the Bones of the Skull, in pow- 
der, are good against the Megrim ; the Brain drank in Wine, 
helps the Jaundice, and the Gall is of excellent use in most 
disorders of the Eyes, and applied helps the bitings of Ser- 
pents and Scorpions, &c. The Dung opens obstructions, and 
applied outwardly, ripens Tumors and pestilential Buboes. 

The Fishing-Hawl's, are so called, from their continual 
catching of Fishes on which they live. They may likewise 
be called the Eagles Jach-all; for commonly after they have 
taken their prey (as I have already observ'd,) they will flie 
at a gTeat height in the Air, and cry and make a noise till 
such time as the Eagle comes, and then they will let the Fish 


174 The Natural Historic 

fall from them, which the Eagle immediately carries off. 
They are a large and strong Bird, being above two thirds as 
big as the Eagle, they build their Xests after the same manner 
as the Eagles do, and that generally by the sides of Rivers 
and Creeks, and the Eagles and these Birds are seldom or 
never known to sit upon any living Tree. They are of a Gray 
Pyed colour, and the most dexterous Fowl in N^ature at catch- 
ing of Fish, for they never eat any Flesh-meat. They are 
a quick and sharp sighted Fowl, will fly at a good height, 
hover above in the Air, and watch their prey, which as soon as 
they have discovered, they will dart themselves like an Arrow 
out of a Bow into the Waters, and breaking the force thereof 
with their Breasts, quickly catch up the Fish and flie away. 
But it sometimes happens that they strike their Tallons so 
fast in a large Fish which they are not able to carry, that the 
fish suddenly takes them under the Water (before they can 
discharge themselves) and so drowns them. This I have been 
Eye-witness to, and in an Hour after it happened, got both 
the Fish (which was a large Drum) and the Fisliing-Hawh. 
Their virtues and uses are much the same with the Eagles. 

The Turhey-Buzzard, is a kind of small Vulture, which 
lives on all manner of dead Carcasses. Their Head and red 
Gills resemble very much those of a Tui^hey, from whence it 
has it's !Name. They are near as big as an Eagle, and their 
Feathers are of a sooty brown Colour. They are in great 
plenty here, and in the ISTorthern Provinces, and have the 
most offensive and nasty Smell of any Fowl I have ever met 
with. They are a clear and sharp sighted Bird, and their 
Flight is like that of our Kites; they soar at a great height iii 
the Air, for Hours together over the Carrion, 'till such time as 
thoY find an Opportunity to prey on it. They smell at vast 


of North Carolina. 175 

Distances, and will very readily find out where the Carrion or 
Prey is, if it be even under the Leaves, or Boughs of Trees, 
or slightly buried in the Earth by wild Beasts or Dogs. They 
are said to be utter Enemies to all manner of Snakes, killing 
all they meet with, for which reason the Planters seldom or 
never destroy them or their Eggs. They do no manner of 
Harm, feeding for the most part on dead Carcasses, which I 
suppose is the cause that they are the stinkingest of any Birds 
in these Parts. The Fat of this Fowl made into an Oil, is 
recommended against old Aches, and Sciatica Pains. 

The Kites are much the same here as those with us in 
Ireland, but not commonly so large. These Birds most com- 
monly frequent the ;N"orthern parts of the Country, there 
being but few to be met with in this Province ; and in South 
Carolina they are seldom to be seen. It is said that they are 
mortal Enemies to the Snakes, for which reason the Planters 
seldom kill them, or destroy their Eggs. Their Flesh, though 
it be of gross ^Nourishment, yet it is eaten by the poorer sort 
of People in several parts of Europe. They are a very bold 
Bird, and a great destroyer of young Poultry, and it is re- 
markable when they see a young Duck, Chicken, cCc. far from 
shelter, and lying exposed, hoAV they will fly round it for sev- 
eral times, marking it, then of a sudden they dart down as 
swift as Lightning, and catch it up before it is aware. A 
Powder made of them eases the Gout, and helps the Epilepsy ; 
the Grease is Effectual to the same Intention, and the Gall is 
an excellent Remedy in most Disorders of the Eyes. 

The Snake-Haivh, or Herringtailed-Hawk, so called, from 
it's beautiful forked Tail (like a Swallow) and it's killing 
and feeding on Snakes, which it will do with the largest in 
these parts, with a great deal of dexterity and ease. It is 


176 The Natural Historic 

about the bigness of a Falcon, but a much longer Bird. They 
are a beautiful Fowl, of a delicate Aurora Colour, the Pin- 
ions of their Wings, and ends of their Tails, are of a jet 
Black. They never appear abroad in this Province but in 
Summer, and what becomes of them in Winter is unknown. 
They are in the greatest Request amongst the Planters (who 
will not suffer them to be killed) by Reason of their destroy- 
ing those pernicious Insects, so hurtful to Mankind. They 
are a tame and familiar Fowl, will fly near one, and take 
their Prey, which is both diverting and pleasing to the Euro- 
peans especially ; as for the Indians they do not regard them. 
It is strange to see how they are brought to those places where 
the Snakes are, about which they will flie for Hours together, 
'till they have an Opportunity of killing some of them; and 
it is always a certain sign of Snakes being near those places 
where ever you meet them thus flyng. I have observed, when 
they take a Snake, that they always seize it in their Tallons 
near the Head, and flie or drag it some distance before they 
prey upon it, which they do by tearing it in pieces. It's 
Virtues and Uses are unknown to any in those Parts. 

The Goss-HawJcs are very plenty here, but do not appear 
to be as large as those from the Northern parts of Europe, 
yet seem to be a very bold, swift and active Bird in pursuing 
and taking their Prey, which is Geese, Ducks, Cranes, Hares, 
Rabbets, and the like. The Flesh is fat and sweet, may be 
used as Food and Hath much the same Virtues with that of 
the Kite. The Dung is exceeding hot, and being drank fast- 
ing in Wine, is said to cause Conception. 

The Falcons are much the same as in Europe, but s(om to 
be not altogether so large, yet they are a brave, brisk, and 


of North Carolina. 177 

quick-sighted Birds ; 1 have fre(iuently seen them kill Fari- 
ridges, Farakeeiocs, and the like. These Hawks are most com- 
monly to be seen in Evenings, iiying to the Westward, having, 
as it is supposed, their abode and j^ests in or near the Moun- 
tains, where we may reasonably expect to find them, and sev- 
eral other Species that we are intire Strangers to at present. 

The Merlin, is a small Bird in Europe, but much smaller 
in America; yet it, as well as the other Species of Hawks, is a 
bold, ravenous, and quick-sighted Bird, and nimbly kills sev- 
eral sorts of small Fowl, and sometimes Partridges. It is a 
most beautiful Bird, and would be a gTcat Rarity, if it could 
be caught alive, or their Young ones found, but they never 
breed near the Settlements, but as is supposed in the Moun- 

The Sparrow-Hawl' is not as big as a Field fear, it some- 
times flies at, and kills small Birds ; but it's chiefest Food 
is Reptiles, such as Grass-hoppers, Butter-flies, Beetles, and 
such like small Insects. This Hawk is exactly the same 
Colour of the Sparrow-Hawk in Ireland, only it has a Black- 
hood by it's Eyes. 

The Hobhies, are a Species of the Hawks, something less 
than the European Sparrow-Hawks, and much of the same 
size and colour with them; yet there are but few of these 
kinds of Hawks to be met with in these Parts of America. 

The Ringtailed-Hawl; , so called, from it's round Tail, is 
another small Species of Hawks, with very short Wings. 
They are frequently to be met with in several parts of the 
Woods: they prey chiefly on Mice, Rats, and such like Ver- 
mine, that are to be met with in the Marshes near Rivers and 
Creek's side. 

The Owls, whereof there are three sorts, viz. the White, the 
Brown, the Barn, and the small Scree ch-Owl. 

12 Z The 

178 The Natural Historg 

The first is the great large Owl, which is as big as a mid- 
dling Goose, and has a prodigious large Head: It is a deli- 
cate Feathered Bird, all the Feathers upon the Back and 
Breast being Snow-white, and tiped with a punctal of Jet- 
black. Thej are a bold and ravenous Bird, especially in the 
l^ight, at which time thej make such a fearful howling, like 
a Man, that they have often deceived Strangers, and made 
them loose their way in the Woods, as I have been credibly 
informed by many in those Parts. 

The second is of a Brown, or dark Ash Colour, and is as 
large as the former. These two build their ISTests in hollow 
Trees, where they lie concealed all the Day, but at ISTight flie 
up and down the Woods, where they seek their Prey ; yet they 
sometimes approach near the Planter's Dwelling Houses, and 
kill Hens, and other Poultry. 

The third is the common Barn-Owl, about the bigness of a 
Pigeon. This Bird has a beautiful Circle or Wreath of 
white, soft, downy Feathers, encompassed with yellow ones, 
passing round the Eyes, and under the Chin, so that the Eyes 
appear sunk in the Head. The Breast, Belly, and inside of 
the Wings are white, marked with a few dark Spots; being 
the most elegantly coloured of all ISTight-birds. 

The fourth is the small 8creech-0wl, and is the same as 
those in Europe. These Owls and the former, are frequently 
attacked by other Birds, when they find them abroad in the 
Day-time; and when they find themselves overpowered, it is 
pleasant to see how they will place themselves on their Backs, 
where scarce any thing is to be seen but their Beaks and 
Tallons, in which posture they will fight, and defend them- 
selves. The Flesh of these Birds is eaten by the Indians and 
Negroes. It is accounted good in Palsies and Melancholly. 


of North Carolina. 1 79 

The Grease and Gall is good against Spots in the Eyes, and 
to strengthen the Eye-sight. The whole Bird, not plucked, 
calcined, and taken into the Throat, opens the Imposthums 
of the Quinsie to a wonder, and the Brain, eaten, helps the 

'^^heParakeetoeSj are for the most part of a line Green 
colour, only their Head, and part of their Wings, are of a 
beautiful Oran2:e colour. Thev have thick Beaks or Bills, 
exactly like those of the Hawks. They j^re a Species of theN 
Parrots, and generally about the bigness of a small Pigeon. 
In April they feed on the Birch-huds, and seldom come down 
amongst the Planters until the Mull-herries are ripe, which 
they eat, and are extreamly fond of. They are likewise very 
mischievous to Orchards, and peck the Apples to eat the 
Kernels, so that the Emit quickly rots and perishes. They 
build their Xests in hollow Trees, in low swampy Grounds. 
They lie hidden in the Winter, when the Weather is extream 
hard and frosty, and never appear all that time. There are 
none of these Birds or Alligators to be met with to the North- 
ward of this Province, by the best Information I could learn, 
during my Residence in those parts. They are often taken 
alive with Traps, Bird-lime, d'C. and will become tame and 
familiar in two or three Days time ; yet they are not so docile 
or apt to learn to speak as Parrots generally are. They are 
most commonly very fat in the MuUherry and Fruit time, and 
are excellent good Food, preferable to any Pigeon. 

The Cuchow of Carolina is a Bird of the same bigness and 
Feather with these in Europe, and sucks the small Birds Eggs 
as they do, yet it is never known to cry or sing CucJcoiv in the 
Summer time like the former, neither are these Birds to be 
seen in the Winter, at which time they hide themselves in 

Z 2 hollow 

180 The Natural History 

hollow Trees, and their Eeathers come off, and they are 
Scabby, they usually lay but one Egg, and that in the Xest 
of the Hedge Sparrow; like those in Europe. Their Flesh 
is sweet and good Food, and eaten by many in these Parts. 
Their Ashes are good against the Stone and Epilepsy. The 
Dung given in Canary is good against the biting of a Mad 

The Rail, Jackdaw, and Magpy, are not to be met with in 
Carolina or any of the other E^eighboring Provinces as far as 
I cou'd be informed. 

The Ravens are very scarce to be met with in these Parts, 
yet they are the same sort as those with us in Ireland, and 
other parts of Europe, they are said to live to a gTeat Age, 
and lay about ^yq or six Eggs (before they begin to Sit) 
which are of a Pale Greenish Blew colour, and full of Black 
Spots. The Flesh is unwholsom, because they feed upon 
dead Bodies, yet the Ashes given for two or three Days to- 
gether, cures the Epilepsy and Gout. The Brain performs 
the same thing, the Grease, Blood and Eggs, make the Hair 
Black. The Eggs help the Spleen, but cause Abortion. 

The Rooks are less in Carolina than in Europe. They are 
good Food when Young (because they never feed on Carrion) 
but their Skins are tough, Black and bitter. They a\'e very 
great Enemies to Corn Fields, if there be not care taken to 
prevent them. They build their ISTests after the same manner 
as the Rooks with us do, but differ much in their Cry or 
ISTotes, which are more like the barking of a Dog, than that 
of Rooks. And it is said that when Books build, one of the 
Pair always sit to watch the !Nest until it be finished ; other- 
wise if both go abroad, and leave the unfinished Nest, the 
other Rooks rob it, and carry the Sticks away to their own; 
hence perhaps the Word Rooking is used for Cheating. 


of North Carolina. 181 

The Black small-Crows, whereof there are two sorts. The 
first is bigger than our Elack-bird, and exactly of that Colour, 
but different in it's Notes. These Crows are the most hurtful 
and pernicious Vermine (especially to Com) in all America. 
They flie sometimes in such vast Flocks, that they destroy 
every thing before them. Their Flesh is white and excellent 

The second are bigger than the former, and that part of 
the Head next the Bill and the Pinions of their Wings, are 
of an Orange and most beautiful Crimson Colour; and the 
rest of the Body Black. These are as good Meat as the for- 
mer, though very few trouble themselves to kill or dress them, 
where large Fowl are so plenty. Both these kinds continue 
here all the Year, are generally fat, and excellent good Meat, 
and I have frequently eat of them. They build their Nest 
in hollow Trees as the Parakeetoes do ; I look on them to be 
a sort of Sterling, for they cry something like them, but do 
not sing, and are about the same bigness. 

The Turkeys are here w^ild, in great plenty, and exceeding 
large ; I have shot some of them which weighed forty pounds, 
and I have been credibly informed, that some of them 
weighed sixty. You shall see five hundred or more of them 
in a Flock together ; sometimes the wild Breed with the tame, 
which they account makes them very hardy. I am satisfied 
it does, for the Indians frequently find their Nests, and bring 
their Eggs to the Christians, which are hatched under Hens, 
Ducks, tame Turkies, &c. As soon as they are out of the 
Shell, they will fend for themselves, and are more easilv 
brought up than a Chicken with us. Notwithstanding they 
are thus hatched, and familiarly bred up, yet they still retain 
a wild Nature, and commonly, when they are a Year and a 
half old, and grown large, run wild into the Woods, and can 


182 The Natural Historic 

never be brought into the House to Roost, but perch on some 
high Tree near it, and are always observed to seperate them- 
selves from the tame sort, although (at the same time) they 
Tred and breed together. There is no manner of difference 
that I can see between the wild Turkeys and the tame, either 
in their Shape, Gobling, Call, or Notes, only the Feathers 
of the wild are always of a blackish shining dark Gray, that 
in the Sun, shine like a Duck's Neck, very specious, and they 
have thicker and larger Legs. They are a sharp sighted 
Fowl, and excelent good Food. They feed on Acorns, Huckle- 
berries, and several other Berries and Fruits that the Coun- 
try produces, which makes them exceeding fat. I have been 
credibly informed, that if one take these wild Turkey Eggs, 
just when on the point of being hatched, and dip them (for 
some small time) in a Bowl of Milk, or warm Water, that it 
will take off their wild Nature, and make them as tame and 
domestick as the others. But how true this may be, I know 
not, never having made an Experiment that way ; neither can 
I see any Reason to believe it ; yet I thought fit to insert it, 
that others may try. The Indians have frequently these wild 
Breed hatched at home, to be a Decoy to bring those that are 
wild near their Houses, by which means they shoot many. 
They are seldom to be met with but in the Morning and 
Evening, for at Sun-rise they go off to feed, and at Sun-set 
they return and perch on high Trees, and so continue all 
Night. At any other time of the Day you shall scarce find 
one, except it be when they are Breeding, or in Snowy 
Weather, and then they are to be seen in great Flocks to- 
gether. They are a wary Fowl, and seldom shot but whils": 
they are perching on the Trees. They may be heard call or 
gobble, at a great distance (Morning and Evening, but at no 


of North Carolina. 183 

other time) which brings the Huntsmen to those places where 
they are. They are a heavy Fowl, and cannot flie far, but 
will run exceeding fast, for if you should chance to break 
one of their Wings in Shooting, Avithout a Dog, you seldom 
catch them. Their Uses in Physick are the same with the 
tame Turkey. 

The Pheasants are something less, and differ some small 
matter in their Feathers from those in Ireland, but are no 
ways inferior in delicacy, but rather better and finer Meat. 
They are very plenty, but their chiefest Haunts are back- 
wards in the Woods, and near the Mountains ; for they are 
seldome to be found near the Inhabitants. The Pheasant is 
accounted better Meat than almost all other Fowl, because it 
is of a most delicate Taste, and yields such excellent :N'our- 
ishment. They feed on Acorns, Berries, Grain, and several 
sorts of Seeds of Plants. Their Flesh is good in hectick 
Fevers, the Gall sharpens the Sight, and the Blood resists 

The Wood-cochs are not near as large in these parts of 
America, as those in Europe; they differ nothing in shape 
and Feather, only their Breasts are of a Carnation colour, 
and they make a J^oise (when on the Wing) like the Bells 
about a Hawk's Legs. They breed and continue here all 
the Year, and though they are not as plenty here as they are 
in the Northern parts of Europe, yet they are as fine and 
delicate Meat as any of that kind in the World. They are 
to be met with in most parts of this Country, but especially 
in the low Grounds, Springs, Swamps, and Percoarsons. 
Their Flesh is best in Winter being then fattest. It and all 
it's Parts have the Virtues of Partridges. 

The Snipes are plenty in several parts of this Province, 
and are the only wild Bird that are not different from the 
same species in Europe. They frequent the same Places as 


184 The Natural Historic 

those with us do, viz. Springs, Wet Ground, &c. Their 
Flesh is tender, sweet, and of excellent Nourishment. 

The Tut-cockSj are a Species of Snipes in these parts, and 
are almost like the former in Size and Feather; they are 
plenty in several Places of this Province, and nothing inferior 
to the former in the delicacy of their Meat; but these, as 
well as most other small Birds, are little regarded or made 
use of at present, w^here large Fowl are so numerous. 

The Curliew, whereof there are three sorts, and vast Num- 
bers of each : They have all long Bills, and differ neither in 
Colour or shape, only in size, from those in Europe. The 
largest being as big as a good Hen, and the smallest as large 
as a small Wood-cock, and those sorts are excellent Meat, and 
nourish very much. 

The Sea-Pie, or Gray Curlieiv. This Bird is about the 
bigness of a large Wood-coch, and has a long Bill as the other 
Curlieivs have, which is of a yellowish colour, and so are it's 
Legs. It frequents the Sand-banks on the Sea-side. When 
killed, is inferior to no Fowl I have seen or eat of ; It's Flesh 
being tender, well relished, and nourishing. 

The Will-Whillet, is a Bird so called, from it's Cry, for 
it exactly repeats, or calls Will-willet, as it flies. The Bill 
is like a Curlieivs or Wood-cocJcs, and has much such a Body 
as the other, but not so tall ; it is good Meat, being nourish- 
ing and well tasted. They are plenty along the Shore, and 
the sides of Rivers, and are much of the same Nature and 
Virtues with the Curlieivs. 

The Lapwing or Green-Plover: These Fowl are very 
plenty in several parts of this Province, especially in the 
Savannas, and near the Mountains. Their Cry is pretty 
much like those with us, they differ little or nothing in the 
Feathers, but are not near so large, yet not inferior to any 


of North Carolina. 185 

of that Species, in the delicacy and goodness of their Meat. 
Their Ashes drank in Wine, is good against the Cliolick, and 
a Cataplasm thereof, helps the biting of Mad Dogs. 

The Greij, or Whistling-Flover. These Fowl are very 
scarce, and seldom to be met with near the Settlements, but 
there are gTeat Numbers of them in the Vallies and Savan- 
nas near the Mountains, and Heads of Rivers, where they 
are to be met with in gTeat Flocks. They differ little from 
ours, either in Feather or Size, as far as I could discern, and 
eat as well as any of the same sort in Europe; the Flesh is 
pleasant, and much better o^ourishment than the Green- 

The Partridges are not as large as those in Ireland, being 
not much bigger than our Quail. They frequently perch 
upon Trees, and have a kind of Whistle or Call quite differ- 
ent from those with us; but the same Feathers, only the 
Cock has a half Circle over each Eye, instead of the Horse- 
shoe. They are a beautiful Bird, but gTeat destroyers of 
Pease, Wheat, and Indian Corn, in the Plantations, where 
the Boys set Traps and catch vast numbers of them; I have 
frequently bought a Dozen of them for less than a twelve 
penny Bill. They are generally exceeding fat, and are a 
far more delicious Morsel than ours. Sed de gustihiis non est 
disputandum. They might be easily transported from one 
Place to another, because they take to feeding immediately 
after they are caught. The Rattle-Snahe frequently destroys 
them, however they are in great Plenty in this Province, and 
resort in Covies as ours do. It is a very libidinous Bird, 
for they will seem to couple with their own Image in a Glass : 
they lay ten or fifteen Eggs, and sit twice in a Year, and 
are said to live about fifteen or sixteen Years. The Blood 

A a helps 

186 The Natural Historg 

helps the Eyes, wounded or Blood-shot, and the Gall is one 
of the most eminent things in the World for defects in the 

The Turtle-Doves are very plenty in these parts of 
America, and breed and remain here all the Year ; they are 
something less than a common Pigeon, the head and back are 
of a duskish bine, or ash Colour; they have a more melan- 
cholly Tone or J^ote, than any of the other Species of Doves, 
that are to be heard up and down in the Woods, as you travel 
through them. They live eight Years, are destructive to 
Corn-fields and Pease, for which reason the Planters make 
Traps, and catch great Numbers of them. I have frequently 
eat of them, and they are a most delicious Morsel. Their 
Elesh has the same Virtues with the Pigeoii, but is peculiarly 
good against the Bloody Flux. 

The Wild Pigeons are like the Wood-quest, or Stock-dove, 
only they have longer Tails. They seldom or never appear 
amongst the Planters, or near their Settlements, but in the 
Winter (as Wood-cochs do with us) they come down in large 
Elocks, that it is surprising to behold them. xVfter Sun- 
rise I have seen them fly, one Elock after another, for above 
a quarter of an Hour together. They come at this Season 
of the Year in quest of a small sort of Acorn, that is called 
the Turhy-Acorn, which groweth on the Turl'y-Oak, where- 
of I have already made mention. It is common in these 
Parts, and thereon these Wild-Pigeons feed in that Season, 
and are very fat. It is observable, that wherever they settle, 
or roost at Night, they frequently break large limbs of Trees, 
in several places in the Woods. When they come in these 
numerous Flocks, they generally clear all before them, scarce 
leaving one Acorn on the Ground. It is said they breed in 
the Mountains (and I am persuaded, considerably to the 
Northward of us, because they never appear here but in tlie 


of North Carolina. 187 

extremity of the VJinier, when it is hard Frosty or Snowy 
Weather) but whether they make their N'ests in the Rocks, 
or in Trees, is not known, by any that ever I conversed with. 
I should rather think they made them in Trees, because of 
their frequent sitting and roosting on them at Xight. Their 
Dung will lie above half a Foot thick about those Trees, 
which kills Shrubs, Grass, and everything that grows near 
where it falls. Notwithstanding these Flocks are so numer- 
ous, yet they are not to be mentioned in comparison with the 
gi-eat and infinite number of those Fowls that are to be met 
with to the Westward of those Places, where the Christians 
at present live (especially on this and the other side of the 
Mountains) many of which Species we are little acquainted 
with, because they seldom appear or come where we are 
already settled. The Flesh is very nutritive and excellent 
Food. The Blood helps disorders in the Eyes, the Coats of 
the Stomach in Powder, cures bloody Fluxes. The Dung is 
the hottest of all Fowls, and is wonderful attractive, yet 
accompanied with an Anodyne force, and helps the Head- 
ach. Megrim, pain in the Side and Stomach, Pleurisy, Chol- 
ick, Apoplexy, Lethargy, and many other Disorders. 

The Moor-hen. I never saw any in this Country, yet I 
am credibly informed, that they are to be met with in the 
Mountains, and high Country, for they never appear in any 
part of the Settlements. 

The ^Yood-pecher^ whereof we have ^yq sorts, if not more. 
The first is as big as a large Pigeon, of a dark brown Colour, 
with a w^hite Cross on the Back, and a white Circle round the 
Eyes, and on it's Head stands a Tuft of beautiful Scarlet 
Feathers. Their Cry is to be heard at a great Distance, and 
they fly from one rotten Tree to another to get Grubs and 
Worms, which is what they live on. 

Aa = The 

188 The Natural Historic 

The second sort are of an Olive colour, striped Avith Yel- 
low. They are about the bigness of those in England. They 
feed after the same manner with the former, on Grubs and 

The third sort is about the same bigness with the second, 
and is pied or mottled, with black and white, and it's Head 
is of a beautiful Vermilion colour, but hath no Topping on 
it ; they are destructive to Corn and Fruit, especially Apples. 
They likewise open the Covering of the young Corn, so that 
the Rain gets in and rots it. 

The fourth sort are finely speckled or mottled, with beau- 
tiful white and black Feathers, the finest I ever saw. The 
Cock has a beautiful red Head, but not near as big as the 
former. Their Food is Grubs and other creeping Insects, 
and Corn. They are not wild, for they will let one come near 
them, but then they hop and shift themselves on the other 
side of the Tree from your sight, and this they will do for 
a considerable time; yet it is very diflicult to shoot one of 
them by their shifting so often from you, notwithstanding 
they will scarce leave the Tree. These are about the bigness 
of our Larh. 

The fifth sort is about the bigness of a Jay. The top of 
the Head is of a Crimson or Vermilion Colour, spoted with 
Black, round each Eye is a circle of Black, and on each side 
is a Vermilion spot. The Throat, Breast, Belly, and Wings, 
are of a Pale Green, the Rump of pale YelloAv, or Straw 
Colour. Its Tongue is of a great length, with which it 
strikes Ants, and other Insects. The Bills of all these sorts 
are so sharp, hard, and strong, that you shall hear the stroke 
of them sound like a Chizzel against a Tree. They are well 
acquainted in what Trees Worms are bred in by the Sound. 
They Climb Trees upright, after the manner that Cats do, 
and bond their head and look backwards on those thnt ap- 


of North Carolina. 189 

proach near them. They make Holes in Trees where they 
build their Nests, and it is reported that if these Holes were 
stopt up ever so secure with a Wedge or Pin of Wood, that 
they will soon take it out again, so dextrous are they to work in 
Wood with their Bills. The Flesh of these Birds is not 
good for Meat, being harsh and hard of Digestion, outwardly 
it helps Inflammations, and the Gall with Honey and Juice 
of Kue is used in disorders of the Eyes. There is a Tradi- 
tion amongst them, that the Tongue of one of these Wood- 
Pechers dryed, will make the Teeth drop out if pricked 
therewith, and cure the Tooth-ach (though I believe little 
of it, but look on it as ridiculous) yet I thought fit to hint 
it, that others may try the Experiment; for sometimes such 
odd Stories refer to some particular Virtues, though all that 
is said of them be not true. 

The Cat-Birds so called, from their crying or making a 
]N'oise exactly like the Young Cats, for I never could discover 
or hear any other K'ote amongst them. They have a blackish 
Head, and an Ash-coloured Body. They are about the big- 
ness of our Lark, wdll fight a Crow, and many other Birds 
much larger than themselves. They are pretty good eating, 
but what Physical Virtues they may be endued with, are 

The Moching-Birds, so called, from their mocking all other 
Birds in their singing, for they have such diversity of ISTotes, 
that there is scarce a Bird in these parts, that they hear, but 
what they will imitate; and they certainly are one of the 
finest singing Birds in the World. There are two sorts of 
these Birds. The first has Feathers much of the Colour of 
our Green-Plover, with White in the Wings, like a Magpye's. 
This has a more melodious and soft I^ote than the latter, and 
is generally about the bigness of our Thrush. They are held 


190 The Natural History 

to be the Choristers amongst the Birds of America, as indeed 
they are, for they will sing with the greatest diversity of 
J^otes that is possible for any Bird to change. They are 
fond of our Dwellings, and frequently resort thither; being 
bold and brisk Birds, yet seem to be of an extraordinary 
tender Constitution ; for they neither sing in the Winter, nor 
in the midst of Summer, and it is with great difficulty that 
any of them that are brought over, will live in England or 
Ireland. They may be bred up tame, and will sing in Cages ; 
yet the Planters seldom take them or their Young ones 
(except it be to sell to those trading to Europe) notwithstand- 
ing they make their Nests, and breed most commonly in the 
Orchards, and other places near the Dwelling Houses, be- 
cause they have their Company as much as if in Cages, for 
they frequently sit on their Houses in the Summer, and sing- 
all the Evening, and most part of the Night. They feed on 
Mulberries, and several other Berries and Fruit, especially 
the Medio acan-herry which grows plentifully in these Parts. 

The second sort is called the Ground-moching-Bird, and is 
of a light Cinnamon colour, about the same bigness of the 
former. This Bird sings excellently well, but is not so com- 
mon amongst us as the other, neither does it frequent or 
resort our dwellings, but delights to live amongst the Myrtle 
Trees (being of a wilder Nature than the first) where it 
breeds it's young Ones ; and like the former, is never known 
to sing in Winter. Both these sorts of Birds continue here 
all the Year and are in great request amongst the Planters. 

The Red-birds, so called from their beautiful Red colour, 
whereof there are two sorts, the Cocks of both sorts are of a 
pure Scarlet, and the Hens of a duskish Red. I distinguish 
theni into two sorts ; for the one has a fine Tuft or Topping 
of Scarlet Feathers on the Head, and the other is smooth 


of North Carolina. 191 

Feathered. I never saw a Tufted Cock with a smooth- 
headed lien; they generally resort Cock and Hen together, 
and always play in or near a Thicket, where the Boys set 
their Traps and catch, and sell them to Persons trading to 
Europe. They have strong and thick Bills, and are near as 
big as our Black-Birds in Europe. They are very hardy, 
and continue here all the Year. They Whistle and Sing like 
a Thrush, but are more melodious. They are good for turn- 
ing Cages with Bells, and if taught like the Bull-Finch, and 
other Birds, I do not doubt would prove very docile; 'tis 
})leasant to behold this Bird seeing it's own Image in a Look- 
ing-Glass, because it hath so many diverting and strange 
Gesticulations, either making a hissing [N'oise, or lowering 
it's Crest, setting up it's Tail, shaking it's Wings, striking 
at the Glass with it's Bill, with many more too tedious to 
IN'ame. If they are taken at any time they will feed and 
become tame; yet it has been observed, that when they are 
shut up in Cages for some Years, they become Milk-white, 
and so stupid that they scarce know how to feed themselves, 
which is never known to happen whilst they are in the Woods 
and free from Confinement. They feed on Indian Corn 
and several sorts of Berries and Seeds, produced in this 
Country. These Birds and the former, eat much like our 

The Field- fair, is much like those with us in Ireland, but 
are never to be seen in this Province but in Winter, they are 
then very fat, and excellent Food. 

The Thrushes are the same in those parts of America, as 
with us, only they are Eed under their Wing-s. They never 
appear amongst the Planters but in hard frosty Weather, 
and quickly leave us again; 'tis supposed they go to the 
Northward where they breed. They are fat in that Season, 
and the Flesh is of good Nourishment. 


192 The Natural History 

The Throstles are of the same bigness and Feather with 
those in Europe, but are not to be admired for their warbling 
J^otes, as ours are, for I have seldom heard them sing. These 
Birds are very fat in the Winter, and are good eating. Being 
roasted with Myrtle-henies, they help most sorts of Fluxes. 
The Throstle is called in Latin, Berhiacenfis, from Berhia- 
cum, a Village near Verona in Italy, being there first seen at 
the Battle between Otho and Yitelus, where the former was 

The WJiipoo-will, is a Bird so called, from it's frequent 
and exact repeating those !Notes or Words. These Birds are 
about the bigness of a Thrush, and are hard to be seen, 
although they be heard never so plain, for they constantly 
run under Thickets and Bushes where they hide themselves, 
and call their Xotes. They are scarce in this Province, and 
seldom to be met with to the Southward of it; but in Vir- 
ginia and other Provinces to the ]S[orthward, they are very 
plenty in most of the Plantations, and are tolerable good 

The Jays are here very common, but more beautiful and 
finer Feathered than those in Europe, for these are Blue, 
where ours are Brown, and not above half as large, but have 
the same Cry, and sudden jetting Motion. They are mis- 
chievous in devouring the Fruits of the Country, and com- 
monly spoil more than they eat. The Flesh of these Birds 
are much better Nourishment than any of the same sort in 
Europe, where they are commonly eaten by the poorer sort 
of People, and especially in France, but are seldom made use 
of in these parts of America, where large Fowl are so plenty. 

The Kill-Deer, is a Bird in these parts, so called, from it's 
frequent repeating those Words. It is about the bigness of 
our Redshank, and of the same colour, and frequents the 
Banks and River sides, as the former. These Birds continue 


of North Carolina. 193 

here all the Year, are generally fat, excellent good Meat, and 
easily shot; but l)eing a small Bird, are little regarded, or 
made use of. 

The Sand-Birds, so called from their being always on the 
Sand-banks, and scarce any where else. They are about the 
bigness of a Lark, and of a gray and brown Colour. They 
are generally fat, and numerous in these Parts; they are a 
most delicious Morsel to eat, yet few spend their Time or 
Amunition to kill them. 

The Runners, are Birds so called, from their continual 
running and feeding along the Sands. They will suffer 
one to run after them a long time, and even to throw a Stick 
at them, before they will get up or fly aw^ay ; so that they are 
often driven together in great iSTumbers, and shot. They 
are about the bigness of a small Snipe , partly of that colour, 
and excellent good to eat. 

The Lark is heeled, and coloured as those with us are, but 
the Breast is of a glittering fine Lemon colour, in shape like 
a Half Moon. These Birds frequent the Savannas, or Nat- 
ural Meads, and green Marshes, and are as large as a Field- 
fare, and they have a soft Xote. They breed twice a year, 
and are said to be troubled with the Epilepsy. They nourish 
very much, and are excellent good Meat. The Blood drank 
fresh, with Vinegar, helps the Stone in the Bladder. 

The Bunting-Larks, whereof there are two sorts, though 
the Heels of these Birds are not so long as those in Europe. 
The first have an Orange colour on the tops of their Wings, 
and are good Meat. They frequently accompany the Black- 
bird, and sing as the Bunting-Larks do in Europe, differing 
very little in their ^N^otes, and have much the same Virtues 
with them. 

The second Sort is something less than the former, of a 
lighter colour, and differ nothing in Feathers or bigness from 

13 Bb those 

194 The Natural Historic 

those with the Tuft or Crest on their Heads, that are com- 
monly to be met with in Ireland, and many other parts of 
Europe, and their Flesh is good to eat. 

The Blue-Bird, so called, from it's being all of a beautiful 
fine Blue-colour, except the Breast of the Cock, which is Red 
like the Rohin Red-hrest. They have an odd kind of Cry, 
or Whistle, very different from the former. These Birds 
hide themselves in the Winter, so that they are not to be seen 
all that Season, but are plenty in the Summer. They are 
but a small Bird, not so large as our Buntings, but are excel- 
lent good Meat. 

The Bull-finches in these parts of America, are of the same 
size and bigness of those with us, but differ some small mat- 
ter in their Feathers, from those in Europe; those in Caro- 
lina being more beautiful. But whether they are so docil 
as those with us, I cannot tell, never having seen any of them 
bred up in Cages. The Flesh of these are much the same 
with that of the Sparrow. 

The Nightingals differ something in their Feathers from 
those in Europe, but have much the same l^otes : They are 
as big as a Goldfinch, and always frequent low Grounds, 
especially amongst the Myrtle-berries, where they generally 
sing very prettily all Night; but in the Winter (like the 
Sivalloiv) are neither to be heard or seen. They breed in 
May, and generally lay about four or five Eggs in a Xest, near 
which they seldom sing, for fear of being discovered. The 
Flesh is sweet and good Food, helping the Cachexia, and 
strengthning the Brain. The Gall mixed with Honey, helps 
Disorders in the Eyes. 

The Sparrows differ in Feather from those in Europe, and 
are never known to resort or build their I^ests in the Eaves 
of Houses, as ours do. There are several sorts of Birds 
called Sparrows, from their being so plenty all over this 

Province ; 

of North Carolina. 195 

Province; one kind of these jSparrows exactly resembles the 
Bird we call the Corinthian Sparrow. All the Species of 
Sparrows are extraordinary good Meat, and the Boys catch 
great numbers of them in Traps, especially in ^y inter. 

The H edge-Sparrows are here, though there are few 
Hedges, but what are made of Timber. They differ little 
in either Plume or Bigness ; yet I never heard them Whistle 
as those in Europe do, and especially after Rain. These 
and the other Sparrows are nourishing, and prevalent in the 
decay of j^ature. 

The Red-Sparrow, so called^ from the great resemblance it 
has to a Sparrow in it's Size and Bill, and being one of the 
most common small Birds in these Parts. They are striped 
with a brown, red, and Cinanion colour, and the Tail and 
Wings incline to black. 

The Titmouse, or Tom-tit, is the very same as with us in 
Europe, differing in neither shape, size, or feather. These 
small Birds are in plenty all over this Pro^'ince. They are 
found for the most part about Trees, and live chiefly upon 
Insects which they find there. 

The Snow-Birds, (I take to be same with our H edge- 
Sparrow) are so called, from the vast numbers of them that 
come into those Parts in hard Weather, and especially when 
there is any Snow, but are seldom or never to be met with at 
any other time. For the Weather no sooner changes, than 
they are gone to the more IN^ortherly parts of America, where 
they are most numerous. They are a small Bird, about the 
bigness of the Wheatear. The Boys catch great quantities 
of them in Traps, during their abode in these parts. They 
are fat, nourishing, and good eating. 

The Yellow-icings are small Birds, so called, from their 
beautiful yellow Wings. They are of the colour of a Linnet 
on the Back and Breast, but in size less, with Wings yellow 


196 The Natural Historic 

as Gold. They frequent high up the fresh Water Rivers 
and Creek sides, where they breed. They hide themselves in 
the thick Bushes, and are very difficult to be seen in the 
Spring, but in Summer they appear and sing all the Season. 
What other properties they may bo indued Avith, is uncertain. 

The Weet Birds are about the bigness of a Sparrow, and 
of a greyish Colour, and are so called, from their Weeting 
or cry before Rain. These Birds frequent near the sides of 
Rivers and Ponds of fresh W^ater, where they Breed. What 
physical Uses they may have is not known. 

The Goldfinches. There are a sort of Birds like these to 
be met with here, variegated with Orange and Yellow Feath- 
ers, very specious and beautiful to behold ; yet I never heard 
them sing, as those in Europe are known to do. 

The Baltimore Birds, so called from my Lord Baltimore, 
being Proprietor of all Mary-La7id; in which Province they 
are very plenty. They are about the bigness of a Linnet, 
with yellow Wings and variety of other beautifull Colours. 
They appear most commonly in this Province in the Winter 
Season, at which time they are fat and good eating. 

The East India Bats, or Musheetoe Haivhs, are so called 
from their killing and feeding on Musheetoes, and because 
the same sort of Birds are found in the East Indies. They 
are as large as a Cuchoiv, and much of the same Colour, but 
have short Legs, not discernible when they flie. They appear 
here only in the heat of the Summer, and at the approach of 
cold Weather, leave us again. They are never seen in the 
Day time, but are scudding all Night, like our Night Raven, 
in pursuit of Musheetoes, Gnats, and other Insects, on whlcii 
they feed. And though it is called a Bat, I see no reason for 
it, because it bears no manner of Resemblance to the Euro- 

of North Carolina. 197 

pean Bat, the East India Bat being a Fowl with Feathers, 
and the otlier bodied like a Mouse, with Leather Wings. I 
never knew any use made of these Birds, for the Planters 
never kill them ; because they destroy those pernicious Insects 
the Muskeetoes. 

The Bats, whereof there are two sorts, which I have already 
given a Description of amongst the Beasts, it bearing the 
greatest resemblance to that Species ; for though it flies, yet 
it hath no Affinity to Birds, not so much as a flying Serpent, 
and notwithstanding it be not properly a Quadruped, it hath 
Claws in the Wings, which answer to fore Legs. These Bats 
are plenty in this Province, and differ only in being larger 
than those in Europe. 

The Swallows are very plenty in the Summer, and differ 
nothing from those in Europe. The flesh of these Birds 
is no good Nourishment, yet often eaten, is said to help Dim- 
ness of sight, the falling-sickness, and many other Disorders. 
The Nest outwardly applied, is of excellent use in Quinsies, 
redness of the Eyes, c&c. These Birds feed on Flies, Worms, 
and many other kinds of small Insects. 

The Siuift, or Diveling, has a great Head and Wide Mouth, 
but a small Bill. The colour of the Feathers of the whole 
Body is black, only under the Chin, is a Spot of white or 
Ash-colour ; the Legs are short, but thick, and the Feet small. 
These Birds feed as the Swallows do, and have much the 
same Virtues. 

The Martin, or Martinet, whereof there are two sorts. 

The first is exactly the same as with us in feather and size, 
and have the same uses and virtues ; but what becomes of 
these and some other Birds in the Winter, whether they flie 
into other Countries, or sleep in hollow Trees, Rocks, or other 


198 The Natural History 

secret Places, Natural Historians are not agreed, nor can they 
certainly determine. They constantly come to these parts 
in the beginning of March, and one or two are generally seen 
hovering in the Air for a Day or two before any large Flocks 
of them appear. 

The second sort is near as large as our Black-hird, they 
have white Throats and Breasts, black Beaks and Wings. 
The Planters are very fond of preserving them, and fre- 
quently tye a number of Gourds on long standing Poles near 
their Dwellings, on purpose for them to breed in, because 
they are a warlike Bird, and beat the Crows, and many other 
kinds of Birds much larger than themselves from their Plan- 
tations. One morning, very early, I espied a Snake crawl- 
ing up one of these Poles, with a design to destroy the 
Young ones or Eggs in these Gourds, and it was surprizing 
to see with what eagerness the Martins fought with the 
Snake, which still approached nearer the Gourds. Seeing 
the Birds in this Distracted manner endeavouring to preserve 
their Species, I had the Curiosity to come near the Pole, 
where I observed the approaches the Snake still made to 
procure it's Prey. I immediately got a long hollow Reed 
and killed the Snake (which was one of the Chicken-Snal'es, 
wdiereof I have already made mention) and placed it near the 
Pole, which the Martins still attacked, and would not be 
pacified 'till it was conveyed from the Place. 

The Wren is scarce, and seldom to be met with, but is the 
same in size, Feathers and ^otes, as in Europe. This small 
Bird builds it's E'est in the Moss on Trees, it lays ^ine or 
Ten, and sometimes more Eggs at a sitting : It is wonderfi.l 
strange, that a Bird with so small a Body, should cover such 
a 'N'umber of Eggs, or that it should feed so many Yoimg, 
and not miss one of them. The Flesh is said to help the 
stoppage of Urine, and to have the same Virtues witli the 


of North Carolina. 199 

The llumming Bird is the least of all iiirds, yet well 
known in the World, and may properly be said to be the 
miracle of all Winged Animals, for it is Feather'd like a 
Bird and gets its living as the Bee does, by sucking the 
Honey from each Flower. They are of different Colours, 
but the Cocks are more beautiful than the Hens, with variety 
of Colours, such as Bed, Green, Aurora, and several other 
beautiful Colours, which being exposed to the Sun Beams 
shines admirably. They have long Bills and Tails, consid- 
ering their bigness, w^hich is scarce equal to a Spanish Olive. 
In some of the larger sort of Flowers they very often bury 
themselves, so that they are quite covered, to suck the bottom 
of them, by which means the Children commonly catch them 
whilst they are thus feeding; and I have seen of them nour- 
ished and kept alive in Cages for six Weeks, on Honey. 
They fly very nimbly (but more like Insects than Birds) from 
Flower to Flower, to seek their Food and make a humming 
noise like a Hornet or Bee, hence it took it's ^ame in English 
of Humming-hird. They remain and breed here during the 
heat of the Summer, but wdiat becomes of them in the V^ in- 
ter is not knowm, for they never appear at that time, viz. from 
October 'till April. They are so very small that I have fre- 
quently seen the Butter-flies chace them away from the 
Flowers. Their Xests are a great Curiosity, and may prop- 
erly be said to be one of the gTeatest pieces of Workmanship 
the whole species of winged Animals can shew, for it com- 
monly hangs on a single Bryer most artificially Woven like 
a round Ball, with a small Hole to go in and out, where it 
lays and Hatches its Eggs, which are very White, of an Oval 
figure, and for the most part but two in Xumber which are 
no bigger than a Small Pea. What virtues these small Birds 
may be indued with, is unknown. 


200 The Natural Historg 

The Blue-Peters, or Water-Hens, are very plenty, and dif- 
fer from ours neither in size or Feathers, but are seldom or 
never eaten (except it be by the Indiaiis and Negroes) being 
very hard of Digesting and ill tasted. 

The Marsh-Hen is much the same as with us in Europe in 
size and Feathers, but has a more different and shrill ^ote. 
Their Flesh is seldom made use of except it be by the Indians 
and Negroes, being Black and ill tasted. 

The Bitterns, whereof there are three sorts. The first is 
the very same as with us in its size, Feathers, and ^otes. 

The second sort is of a dark brown Colour, with a Yellow- 
ish white Throat and Breast, with a large Crest or Topping 
of Feathers on its Head, but is not quite so large as the 

The third sort is no bigger than a Wood-coch, of the same 
Colour with the first, and is accounted by many to be fine 
eating, yet the Flesh of the former is of the nature of the 
Stork and Hero7i, of no good nutriment. The Skin and 
Feathers calcined, stop Bleeding. The Grease eases pains 
of the Gout, helps Deafness, clears the sight, and is excellent 
bait to catch Fish with. 

The Herons^ of these there are three sorts. The first or 
common Heron is from the tip of the Bill to the end of the 
Claws four Feet long to the end of the Tail about thirty eight 
Inches. It hath a black Crest on the Head four Inches high, 
and is in size. Colour and all other respects, exactly the same 
as is to be met with in Ireland. 

The second is larger than the former and is Feather'd much 
like the Spanish-Goose. 

The third is not near as large as any of the former, but is 
of the same shape, and of a most beautiful white Colour, with 
red Legs. These Birds are only to be met Avith in Summer, 
and are the finest of that kind I have ever seen, and many in 


of North Carolina. 201 

these Parts would perswade me, that they become the same 
Colour with the common Heron, when they are a Year old, 
which I am not apt to believe, but look upon them as a dis- 
tinct Species from any of the former. All these sorts are 
plenty in these part of America, and have the same slow flight 
as those with us. They feed on Fish, Frogs, &c., and 
like the Rooks, build their Xests in high Trees, and gen- 
erally many together. Their Flesh is better than that of 
the Crane, but best when young, and eaten by many. The 
Bill in Powder, causeth Sleep, the Grease is Anodyne, eases 
Pains, and has much the same Properties with the Bitterns. 

The Crane is a large bodied Fowl, weighing sometimes 
above ten Pounds. It's Xeck and Legs are long, being five 
Foot high when extended. The Head is black, with a fine 
crimson Spot on the CroT\Ti of it, the rest of the Body is of 
a Cream colour; they frequent the Savannas, Marshes, and 
low Grounds, and though they are Water-fowl, yet it is 
thought that they do not feed on Fish, but only on Herbs, 
Grain, and several sorts of Seeds and Insects. They are 
easily bred up tame, and are good in Gardens to destroy 
Frogs, Worms, and other Yermine. The Inhabitants boil 
their Flesh, which is tough and hard of Digestion, but makes 
good Broath. Their Quills make good Pens, and the Feath- 
ers serve for other uses. The Indians eat their Eggs, which 
have a strong smell, are hard of Digestion, and of an unpleas- 
ant taste. The Gall is good against Palsies, Consumptions, 
Blindness and Deafness. The Fat or Grease helps all hard- 
ness, being of the l^ature of Goose-grease. They flie with 
the Wind, make a great x^oise, run fast, and are said to live 
about forty Years. 

The Storlces are a larger Fowl than the former, and of the 
same Shape, only their ^ecks are thicker and shorter, and 

Cc are 

202 The Natural Histoid 

are of a dark grey Colour. They are frequently to be met 
with amongst the Cranes, they make a clattering i^oise with 
their Bills, by the quick and frequent striking one Chap 
against the other. It is reported by several Persons whom I 
have conversed with, that they are to be found in no part of 
America but in this Province. They feed on Frogs, Snails, 
and many other sorts of Insects. The Plesh nourishes as 
that of the Herons and Bitterns, and the other Parts of this 
Fowl have the same Virtues with them. 

The Sivans, whereof there are two sorts. The first are 
called the Trumpeters, from a trumpeting sort of noise they 
make, and are the largest sort of Siuan>s in these parts. They 
come here in the Winter, and remain with us 'till February, 
in such great Flocks, that I never saw more of any Water- 
fowl in all my Travels than of them, for at that Season, 
they are in such vast Numbers on each side of the fresh 
Water Rivers and Creeks, that at a distance it seems to be 
Land covered with Snow. About Christmas they are fre- 
quently so fat, that some of them are scarce able to fly. In 
Spring they go to the Northern Lakes to breed. I have sev- 
eral times eat of them, and do prefer them before any Goose, 
for the goodness and delicacy of their Meat, and especially 
a Cyg7iet, or last years Sivan. These Swans are larger than 
any I have seen in Europe. Their Quills and Feathers are 
in great request amongst the Planters. As to their Flesh 
and Parts, they have the same Virtues with that of the Geese. 

The Hoopers are a second sort of Siuans, and are so called, 
from a hooping IN^oise they make. This sort are as numerous 
as the former, and come to these parts, and go at the sam^ 
time that they do ; yet the latter abide more in the Salt Water 


of North Carolina. 203 

than the former, are not so large, but their Flesh and Feath- 
ers are as valuable. And it is observable, that neither these 
nor the other have the black piece of horny Flesh down the 
Head and Bill as those in Europe have. The Grease or Fat 
cleanses the Face from M or phew, and other Vices, and their 
Oil helps the Gout. 

The Wild Geese, whereof there are three Sorts, but differ 
very little from each other, only in their Size, having black 
Heads and K^ecks. They are plenty here all the Winter, 
come and go with the Swans, and commonly feed with them ; 
they eat as well as those in Europe, being nourishing, though 
hard of digestion, and are apt to breed Agiies in cold weakly 
Constitutions; The Oil or Grease is exceeding hot, and of 
thin Parts, piercing and disolving. It cures Baldness, helps 
Deafness, pain and noise in the Ears, is good against Palsies, 
Lameness, i^umbness. Cramps, pains and contractions of the 
Sinews, and many other Disorders. The Dung is used Avith 
success in the Jaundice, Scurvy, Dropsy, and Gout. The 
green Dung gathered in the Spring, and gently dried, is best. 

The Grey Barnets, or Barnacles, are in shape like the Wild 
Geese, of an Ash and dark grey colour, something less than 
the common Goose, with which they agi'ee in Mature and 
Virtues. They are very plenty in this Province all the 
Winter, at which time they are fat and eat extraordinary 
well ; there is no difference between them and the Barnacles 
in Europe. Some writers assure us, that they breed unnat- 
urally of the Leaves or Apples of certain Trees in the Islands 
in Scotland; others, on the contrary affirm, that they are pro- 
duced from Eggs hatched after the same manner as Geese 
Eggs are, which we are intire Strangers to here, because they 

Cc 2 are 

204 The Natural History 

are never to be seen in these Parts of America but in the Win- 
ter time, for they generally come and go with the Swans and 

The White Brants, are something larger than the former, 
with which they agTee in I^ature and Virtues, and are very 
plenty in the Winter Season. These Birds are as white as 
Snow, excej^t the tips of their Wings, which are Black. They 
feed on the Roots of Sedge and Grass in the Savannas and 
Marshes, which they tear and root up like Hogs. The Plan- 
ters frequently set Fire to these Savannas and Marshes, and 
as soon as the Grass is burnt off, these Powl will come in 
great Flocks to eat the Roots, by which means they shoot vast 
J^umbers of them. They are as good Meat as the other, but 
their Feathers are stubbed and good for nothing. 

The gTeat Grey- Gulls are as large as a Duclc, and very 
plenty in these parts, and accounted good Food. They lay 
Eggs as large as a House-Hen, which are found in great Quan- 
tities in the Months of June and July, on the Islands, in the 
Sounds, and near the Shoar. These and the Young ones, 
which are call'd Squabs, are good Food, and prove relief to 
Travellers by Water, that have spent their Provisions. The 
Grease of these, and the other Gulls, is good against the Gout, 
and hard swellings, strengthens the E^erves, and eases Pains 
in several parts of the Body. 

The gi'eat Pied-Gulls, are also plenty here ; they are a large 
Fowl with black and white Feathers, and their Heads beauti- 
fully adorned with a black-hood. They lay large Eggs, which 
are good to eat, so are their Squahs or Young ones in the 
Season; they are of the same Xature and Virtues with the 


of North Carolina. 205 

The little Grey-UuUs are likewise numerous near the Sea 
Shoar. They are of a curious grey Colour, about the bigness 
of a grey or Whistling Plover, and good Food, bcang nourish- 
ing and well tasted. Their Mature and Virtues are much the 
same with the former. 

The Old- wives, but why so called, I know not, for they are 
a black and white pyed Gull, with extraordinary long Wings, 
their Feet and Bill of a fine Golden Colour. They make a 
strange and dismal Xoise as they flie, and are frequently dip- 
ping their Bills in the Salt-Water, and are larger than the 
former, but seldom eaten, only by the Indians and Negroes, 
their Flesh being black, hard of digestion, and tastes Fishy. 

The Sea-Cock, so called from it's Crowing at break of Day, 
and in the Morning, exactly like a Dunghill-Cock; it is an- 
other sort of Gull, of a light grey and w^hite Colour. They 
are to be met with in great lumbers near the Sea-Shoar, and 
are larger than the former : Their Cry being so Domestick, 
hath deceived many, supposing some Inhabitants to be near 
them ; yet it is very pleasant, especially to Europeans, in those 
wild and uninhabited places. Their Flesh is not good, there- 
fore seldom or never made use of, except it be by the Negroes 
and Indians. 

The Gull, or Sea-mew (this Bird is also called Sea-coh) is 
the same as in Europe. This Fowl is little regarded, because 
the Flesh is of an ill scent, and odious to be eaten ; yet it is 
said to help the falling sickness ; and the Ashes of the whole 
Bird, the Gravel in the Bladder and Kidnys. 

The Tropick Bird, so called, being in great plenty under 
the Tropicks and thereabouts, but are scarce any where else. 


206 The Natural History 

They are a white Mew, with a forked Tail. They are a swift 
Fowl, and continually flying like the Swallow. \Miat uses or 
virtues they may be indued with, is uncertain, because they 
are seldom or never taken. 

The Duck and Mallard are exactly of the same size and 
Feather with those in Europe, they are very numerous, espe- 
cially in Winter, but their Meat is not to be compared to our 
tame Ducks for goodness, and are accounted one of the coursest 
sort of Water-fowl in all this Province, so that they are little 
regarded and seldom made use of except by the Indians and 

The Black-Duck, so called, from it's black colour, is full 
as large as the former, and is good Meat. It stays here all 
the Sumtner, and breeds. They are pretty numerous, and 
the Planters take their Eggs, and have them hatched at their 
dwelling Houses, and they prove extraordinary good domes- 
tick Fowl. 

The Summer-Ducks, so called, from their continuing here 
all that Season. They have a large Crest or Topping of 
Feathers on their Head, are of a beautiful pied white and 
black Colour, and are very plenty in these Parts. They 
generally build their Xests contrary to most web-footed Fowl, 
in the Holes that Wood peckers make in large Trees, very 
often sixty or seventy Foot from the Ground, where they 
hatch their Eggs ; they are an extraordinary good Fowl, and 
eat well. 

The Whistling Duck, so called, from it's Whistling when 
it flies and feeds. They are of a pretty white and black 
Colour, but not so large as our Wild Duck. They are to be 
met with in great Flocks in several places of this Country, 
and especially near the Mountains, and Hilly parts thereof, 
where 'tis thought they breed ; they are good Fowl, and excel- 
lent eating. 


of North Carolina. 207 

The ^Yhistlers, are another Species of Ducks, and are so 
called, from the Whistling Xoise they make as they fly. They 
are less than our wild Ducks, and very different in their 
Feathers from the Whistling-Ducks, and have a greater va- 
riety of beautiful Colours than the former. They are like- 
wise good to eat. 

The Scarlet Eyed Duck, so called, from their red Eyes, 
and a red Circle of Flesh for their Eye-lids. They are of 
various beautiful Colours, and are to be met with in several 
Places, but especially near the Mountains, and the Heads of 
Rivers. They are also good Meat. 

The Shell-Drakes, are the same as in Europe, in Feather 
and Size. They are in gTcat plenty here, and are very good 

The Bull-Necks, so called from their thick Xecks. They 
are a Species of Ducks, but as large as Barnacles, of a whitish 
Colour ; and have the thickest Xecks of any Fowl I have ever 
seen, of the same bigness. They come here about Christmas 
in sTeat Flocks to the Creeks and Rivers. They are good 
Meat, but hard to kill, being a very wary Fowl ; will dive as 
soon as vou can shoot, and endure a great deal of Shot before 
they are kill'd. 

The ^yater Pheasant; but for what reason so improperly 
call'd, I know not, for it has no manner of Resemblance of 
that Bird. It is a Species of Ducks, having a Crest or Top- 
ping of pretty Feathers on it's Head, which is very Ornamen- 
tal. They are about the size of our V>^ild Ducks, of a light 
brown colour, they are in gTeat Plenty, and fine eating. 

The Shovellers, are another kind of Ducks, so called, from 
their broad and flat Bills. They are Grey, with black Heads, 
and something larger than our Wild Ducks. They are plenty 
in several parts, and are good ]Meat. 


208 The Natural Historg 

The Blue-Wings, are another Species of Ducks, and are 
so called, from their beautiful Blue-Wings. They are less 
than a Wild Duck, but excellent good Meat. These are the 
first Fowl that appear to us in the fall of the Leaf, at which 
time they come in large Flocks, as is supposed from Canada, 
and other great Lakes that lie to the Northward of us. 

The Red-heads, are another Species of Ducks, so called 
from their Hed-heads, and are less than the Bull-necks. They 
are very plenty in the Rivers and Creeks, are sweet Food, 
and very nourishing. 

The Swaddle-Bills, are another Species of Ducks, of an 
Ash colour, and are so called, from their extraordinary broad 
Bills. They are excellent good Meat, but not so plenty in 
these parts, as the other Species of Ducks are. 

The Fishermen, so called, from their Dexterity in Fishing. 
They are like a Duck, only they have narrow Bills, with sets 
of Teeth. They feed on small Fish and Fry, which they 
catch as they swim. They eat Fishy, therefore not in much 
request amongst the Planters. The best way in ordering them 
is, to take out their Fat and Guts, then bury them under 
Ground for five or six Hours, which will make them eat well, 
and take away their strong and fishy taste; as I have been 
credibly informed by many in these Parts. 

The Raft-Foivl, includes several sorts of Ducks, viz. Di- 
vers, Teals, Wigeons, and various other Kinds, that go in 
Rafts, or great Flocks along the Shoar, which we know no 
^NTames for at present. 

The Divers, whereof there are two sorts. The first are of 
a Grey Colour, the other Pied, White, and Black. They are 
both good Fowl, and eat well, but hard to shoot, because of 


of North Carolina. 209 

their dexterity in diving under Water, which they will do as 
quick as any one can shoot. 

The Wigeo7is are the same as in Europe, and in great plenty 
in the Winter Season. They eat exceedingly well. 

The Teal, whereof there are two sorts. The first is exactly 
the same as in Europe, and as good Eating, being more deli- 
cious than either Divers or Wigeon. 

The second sort frequent the fresh Waters, and are always 
observed to be nodding their Heads wdien they are in the 
Water. These sorts are smaller than the former, but finer 
and more delicious. They are both very plenty here in the 
Winter Season. 

The Dipper, or Fisher; these are small Birds about the 
bigness of a Teal, and much the same as those that are to be 
met with in the Islands of Scilly, and many other Islands in 
Europe. They are of a black and white Colour, and are so 
called, from their dexterity in Fishing and catching small 
Fish, on which they feed. They eat fishy, for which reason 
they are not in much Request amongst the Planters. 

The Black Fluster er s ; some call these Old ^Yives; they are 
jet black, only the Cocks have white Faces, like the Bald- 
Coots. They always remain in the middle of the Rivers, and 
feed on Drift, Grass, Carvels, or Sea ISTettle. They are the 
fattest Fowl in these Parts, and are sometimes so heavy that 
they cannot rise out of the Water. They make an odd sort of 
a ^oise when they fly, and are something larger than a Duck ; 
some call them the great Bald Coot. Their Flesh is not much 
admired, being of a strong and fishy taste, and hard of Diges- 
tion, but their Eggs (which are as large as those of Hens) are 
good Nourishment. 

14 Dd The 

210 The Natural Historic 

The Bald-Faces, or White-Faces, are almost as big as a 
Duck, and are an extraordinary Fowl and eat well. These 
Birds cannot Dive, and therefore are easy to be Shot. 

The Water-Witch, or Ware-Coots, are a very strange Fowl, 
having all over them Down, and no Feathers, and neither fly 
nor go, but are so dexterous in Diving, that scarce any Fowler 
can hit or shoot them. They often get into the Fish-Wares, 
and are taken, because they cannot fly or get over the Rods or 
Poles, whereof the Fish-Wares are made. They are not much 
coveted or esteemed, by reason they eat fishy and are hard of 

The King's-Fisher, whereof there are two Sorts. The first 
is something larger than a Jay, with a long Bill, and large 
Crop, much of the shape and colour of the latter, though not 
altogether so curiously Feathered : These Birds most com- 
monly frequent the Rivers, prey on small Fish, and build 
their IS^ests on the Shoar. 

The second is much the same as with us in Europe; being 
a fine Bird, with red Feet, long Bill, and about the bigness 
of our Bunting. The Chin is white with a certain mixture 
of Red, and the upper part of the Belly is of the same Colour. 
The lower Belly imder the Tail is of a deep red, so are the 
sides and Feathers under the Wings. The Breast is red, the 
utmost Borders of the Feathers being of a beautiful bleuish 
Green: From the l^eck through the middle of the Back 
to the Tail is of a most lovely bright Purple or pale Blue, 
which by its splendour is apt to hurt the Eyes of those that 
look long and stedfastly upon it. These Birds, like the 
former, frequent the Rivers, and build their ISTests on the 
Shoar. The Flesh roasted and eaten, is good in Convulsions 


of North Carolina. 211 

and Epilepsies, the Heart is sometimes dryed and hnng about 
the jS^eck of Children for the same Disorders. 

The Pelican in Carolina is a large Water-Fowl, being five 
Feet in length, from the point of the Bill to the end of the 
Tail, and almost equal in bigness to a Swan. It has a long 
thick Neck and Beak, and a great natural Wen or Pouch 
under the Throat, in which it keeps it's Prey of Fish, which 
it lives upon. This Pouch it will sometimes contract and 
draw up to the Bill, that it is scarce to be seen. It is a Web- 
footed Fowl, like a Goose, but shaped more like a Duck, and 
of a light grey Colour. The Flesh is seldom eaten, having a 
strong fishy taste, and hard of digestion; but being well 
boiled, maketh good Broth, and the Planters make handsom 
Tobacco-Pouches of it's ]\Iaw. They are plentifully to be met 
with in the Wintei^ Season, especially near the Sounds and 
Sea Shoars. In Spring they go into the Woods to breed, and 
return again in Autumn. They have an odd kind of Xote, 
much like the Braying of an Ass, and are reported to live to 
a great Age, viz. sixty Years or upwards. They are said to 
be white in Guinea, and St. Jerom saith, that there are two 
sorts of them in Egypt, viz. the Land and Water Pelican. 
The Gall of this Bird cleanses Silver. 

The Cormorants are the same as in Europe, only those of 
this Province are larger. They are as numerous all over 
these Parts of America, as in any part of the World, espe- 
cially at the run of the Herrings, which is in March and 
April; at which time they are seen sitting upon the Sand 
Banks, or Logs of Wood in the Rivers, and catch vast quanti- 
ties of Fish, which is their only Food, and whereof they are 
very ravenous and gTeedy. They lay their Eggs in the begin- 
ning of the Spring, in the Islands, in the Sound, and near the 


212 The Natural Historg 

Sea Slioar in the Banks, and sometimes on high Trees, as the 
Shags do ; they are very strengthning to the Stomach, and 
cure the Bloody Fhix. The Flesh is black, and hard of diges- 
tion, therefore seldom made use of. 

The Shag is somewhat like the Cormorant, but mnch less ; 
it differs in the colour of the Belly, which in this is blackish, 
in the other white. It swims in the Sea with its Head erect, 
and it's Body almost covered in the Water. It is so dextrous 
in diving, that when a Gun is discharged at it, as soon as it 
sees the Fire flash, immediately it pops under Water, so that 
it is a hard matter to shoot them. I have never known or 
heard of any Webb-footed Birds but this, and the Sumtner- 
Ducks that sit upon Trees, and build their ^ests in them. 
The Flesh is black, ill-tasted, and hard of digestion, being 
much of the same N^ature with the Cormorant. 

The Gannet is a very large white Fowl, having one part of 
it's Wings black. It lives on Fish, as the Pelican and Cormo- 
rant do ; it is reported, that their Fat or Grease (which is as 
yellow as Saffron) is the best thing known to preserve Fire- 
Arms from Rust. The Flesh is of a bad Taste, and scarcely 
good for Food or Physick. 

The Shear-Water, is a longer Fowl than a Dud', but has a 
much smaller Body. They are of a brownish Colour, and for 
the most part upon the Wing, like the Swallow: There are 
vast Quantities of them on several parts of these Sea Coasts 
(whilst others range the Seas all over) for they are some- 
times met with five hundred Leagues from Land. I have 
frequently observed them to strike down u]^on a Sea-rack, or 
Weed that grows in the Gulf of Florida, which is plentifully 
to be met with in these Seas. It hath many winding Stalks, 


of North Carolina. 213 

which appear like Coral, whereon grow short Branches, set 
thick with narrow Leaves, amongst which are many round 
Berries, without either Seeds or Grains in them. I have 
often taken up of this Sea-wreck (which is a kind of narrow 
leafd Sea-lentil) Avherein I found several sorts of small Shell- 
fish, which I am persuaded these Birds catch, and live upon. 
And it is the Opinion of many in these Parts, that these 
Birds never drink any Fresh Water, because they are never 
seen any where near the Freshes, or Rivers. Their Flesh is 
of an ill Scent, therefore not good to be eaten. 

Thus have I finished the most exact Account that is yet 
known of the BIRDS that are to be met with in North Caro- 
lina; though doubtless there are many more different species 
of them, that we are entire Strangers to at present, which is 
chiefly owing to the want of Encouragement to a select num- 
ber of travelling Gentlemen, whose Observations might tend 
to the Improvement of Natural Knowledge. For want of this, 
we are rendered incapable of being so well acquainted with 
this part of the World as the French and Spaniards are with 
theirs, who generally send abroad in Company with the Mis- 
sionaries some of their young Gentlemen, with handsome 
Pensions for their support, who soon become acquainted with 
the Savages of America, and their Languages. These Gentle- 
men are likewise obliged to keep a strict Journal of all their 
Passages, whereby many considerable Discoveries have been 
made in a few Years. Such laudable Encouragements as 
these, would undoubtedly breed an honorable Emulation 
amongst the Gentlemen of our own Xation, to outdo one an- 
other even in all manner of Fatigues and Dangers, to be 
servicable to their King and Country. That Attempts of this 



The Natural Historic 

i^ature may always be encouraged, I sincerely wish, for the 
Honour and Grandure of the British Throne. 

I shall in the next place proceed to give an Account of the 
Inhabitants of the watry Elements, which at present can be 
but very imperfectly treated of, for want of Fishermen, and 
the fishing Trade going on in these Parts to perfection. Yet 
I am willing to satisfie the Curious with the best Account 
that is in my power, and leave the rest to Time (which per- 
fects all Things) to discover. The Fishes in the salt and 
fresh Waters of Carolina, are as follows. 


;' \5 

e a 


of North Carolina. 





THE V^liales differ from the Fin-Fish in their Fins. 
The Fin-Fish having a large Fin on the Back, where 
the Whale has none, but he has two behind his Eyes, 
covered with a thick black Skin, finely Marbled, with white 
Stroaks, and the representation of Houses, Trees, c&c. With 
these two Fins and his Tail he swims and steers himself like a 
Boat with Oars. The Head of this Monster is somewhat flat, 
and slopes downwards like the Ridge of a House to the under 
Lip, which is broader than any part of his Body, and broadest 
in the middle behind the Bump, for between that and the Fins 


216 The Natural Historic 

are his Eves, which are not much bigger than those of a Bul- 
lock, with Eye-lids and Hair like Men's. The Chrystal of the 
Eye is not much bigger than a Pea, which in some is clear 
and transparent, and in others of a white or yellowish Colour. 
The Eyes lie low, almost at the end of the upper Lip. The 
Head is the third part of the Fish, and in some more. Their 
Lips are plain, somewhat bending like an S. and underneath 
the Eyes, before the two Fins, they are smooth, jet black, and 
round like the quarter of a Circle, but when they draw them 
together, they lock in one another. Within the uppermost Lip 
is contained the Whalebone, (and not in the Fins, as some 
have imagined) which is of a brownish black and yellow 
Colour, with streaks of several other Colours, but the Whale- 
hone of the young ones, is generally Blue. The Whalebone 
hangs down on both sides within the Mouth, all hairy like a 
Horses Tail, and in some it is bended like a 8cymeter, and in 
others like a half Moon. In one side, in a Row, there are 
generally Two hundred and fifty Pieces of Whalebone, and as 
many on the other, besides the small Bone, which is not re- 
garded, because they cannot well come at it to cut it out. The 
middlemost is the greatest, and is sometimes eighteen or nin- 
teen Foot long. It lies in a flat row, one Piece by another, 
and is broadest at the top, where it sticks to the upper Lip, 
towards the Root it is covered with white Sinews, which when 
boiled, smell pleasantly. There grows small Whalebone at 
the Root of the greater, whereof they make Boxes, Handles 
for Knives, walking Sticks, and the like. 

The Tongue lies amongst the Whalebone, and is close fixed 
to the upper Chop, which is very large and white, with black 
Spots at the edges. It has a soft spungy Fat, and cannot be 
easily cut, so that it is generally flung away, though it would 


of North Carolina. 217 

yield seven or eight Barrels of train Oil. Upon his Head 
there is a Bump, and before his Eyes and Fins at the top of 
this Bump on each side, thc^re is a spout hole, bended like an S. 
out of which he blows the Water so fiercely, that it roars like 
a great Wind. Just before in the under Lip, there is a Cavity 
or Hole, which fits the upper as exactly as a sheath does a 
Knife, and through this hole he draws the Water he spouts 
out ; when he is wounded, his blowing resembles the roaring 
of the Sea in a great Storm. N^either does he hear when he 
spouts the Water, and is easiest struck at that time. The 
Belly and Back are quite Red in some, but under the Belly 
they are sometimes White, and some of them Coal Black. 
They look very beautiful when the Sun shines on them, and 
the small clear Waves over them, glitter like Silver. The 
outward Skin is thin like Parchment, and easily pulled off 
when the Fish grows hot, which they frequently do by swim- 
ing, and then they stink. 

The Yard is a strong Sinew, and from six to eight Feet 
long, and where the Yard is fixed, the Skin is doubled, so that 
it lies like a Knife in a Sheath. The Pudenda of the Female 
is shaped like that of a large four footed Beast. They have 
Breasts, with IN^ipples at the sides of it, like those of a Cow. 
When they couple together, they stand upright, with their 
Heads out of the Water, but how long they carry their Young, 
is uncertain. Xeither are they ever observed to have more 
than two young ones at a time. When they are brought forth, 
they are as big as an Hogshead ; they suck their Dams, wdiose 
Milk is very white and sweet, but tastes Fishy. The Sperm, 
when fresh smells like wheaten Flower boild in Water, and 
may be drawn out in Threads like hot Sealing Wax or Glew ; 
when cold, it turns to a ^lusk colour, smells strong, and is to 

Ee be 

218 The Natural Historg 

be kept sweet by no means. At certain Seasons there may be 
whole Pails full of it taken out of the Water, for it swims 
upon the Sea like Fat, as does that of the Sea-Horses and 
Seals, the Sailors frequently make twisted Whips of the 
Sinews of the Yard. The Bones are hard like those of a great 
four-footed Beast, but porous like a Spunge, and filled with 
Marrow, but w^hen that is consumed, the Holes are as large 
as those of a Honey-Comb. They have two large strong Bones 
which hold up the under Lip, and they lie opposite to each 
other in form of an half Moon, some of which are twenty 
Feet long of a side. The Flesh is course and hard, like that 
of a Bull, mixed with many Sinews, and is very dry and lean 
when boiled, because their Fat lies v^dloly betwixt the Flesh 
and the Skin. When the Sailors have a mind to eat of it, they 
cut great pieces off before the Tail, w^hich is tenderest, and 
boil it. Others report the Tongue to be good Food, and when- 
ever they kill any of them eat part of it ; some of the Flesh 
looks gTeen and blue like powdered Beef. The Fat is mixed 
with Sinews, which hold the Oil, as a Spunge does Water: 
The other strong Sinews are chiefly about the Tail, with which 
he turns and winds himself, as a Rudder does a Ship. He 
swims as swift as a Bird flies, and makes a track in the Sea 
like a large Ship under sail. Their Tails do not stand up as 
the Tails of most other Fishes do, but lie horizontally as those 
of the Dolphin, and are from three to four Fathom broad. 

The middling Whales are about fifty or sixty Feet long, and 
commonly yield seventy, eighty, or ninty Barrels of Fat or 
Oil. Besides the uppermost thin Skin, there is likewise an- 
other about an Inch thick, and of the same colour with the 
other, but both are so brittle, when dry that they are of no 
value ; and the softness of the Skin is reckoned to be the cause 


of North Carolina. 219 

why the V^liale, though the strongest and biggest of Fishes in 
the Water, cannot make much use of his strength. The Guts 
are of a flesh Colour, and the Dung within them yellow : Their 
Food is chiefly Sea-Snails, Herrings, and other small Fish ; 
when they see a Man or a Long Boat, they dive and run away ; 
but if they are wounded, or in danger, they value a Man no 
more than a Straw, and frequently beat the Long-Boat in 
pieces, but great Ships are too many for them, for when they 
strike against them with their Tails, they generally receive 
more Damage than they give. They sometimes run away 
with some thousand fathom of Eope-line (after they are 
struck with the Harpoon or Sharp-Iron, that is fixed to a 
Stick, and resembles a Dart) a gi-eat deal swifter than a Ship 
can sail, or a Bird flie, by which means the Lines are some- 
times set on fire, when there is not proper Care taken to pre- 
vent them, by constantly throwing Water on them as they run 
out. They shift their Quarters, as is supposed, according to 
the Seasons. They have Ailments as well as other Beasts, and 
are strangely afflicted with Lice; they will sometimes leap 
out of the Water, as if they were in an Agony. Before a Tem- 
pest they beat the Water about with their Tails like Dust. 
They are observed to have the gi-eatest Strength when they 
strike side-ways. If they escape, their Wounds are quickly 
healed up, because of their Fat ; but the Wound always leaves 
a white Scar behind it. 

These Monsters are very numerous on the Coasts of North- 
Carolina, and the Bone and Oil would be a great Advantage 
to the Inhabitants that live on the Sand-Banks along the 
Ocean, if they were as dexterous and industrious in Fishing 
for them as they are ^N'orthwards ; but as I observed before, 
the People in these parts are not very much given to Industry, 
but wait upon Providence to throw^ those dead Monsters on 

Ee 2 Shoar, 

220 The Natural History 

Shoar, which frequently happens to their great advantage and 
Profit. For which Reason abundance of Inhabitants dwell 
upon the Banks near the Sea for that Intent, and the benefit 
of AVrecks of Vessels which are sometimes driven in upon 
these Coasts. IS^ot many Years ago there were two Boats that 
came from the Northward to Ocacock Island, to fish, and car- 
ried away that Season Three Hundred and Forty Barrels of 
Oil, beside the Bone, but these Fishermen going away with- 
out paying the Tenths to the Governor, they never appeared 
to fish on these Coasts afterwards, or any other that I ever 
could hear of. I only mention this to shew with what Ad- 
vantage the Fishing for Whales might be carried on here, 
when only one Tryal carried off so rich and valuable a Cargoe. 

There are four sorts of Whales in these parts : The first 
is the Sperma-Ceti Whale, from whence the Spei^ma-Ceti is 
taken, and is the most choice for its rich and valuable Com- 
modities. These sort are sometimes found on this Coast, and 
are a rich Prize to those that are so fortunate as to find them. 
The other sorts are of a prodigious large size, and it is of these 
the Bone and Oil are made, the Oil being only the Blubber 
or Oily Flesh or Fat of this Fish boiled. These differ not 
only in Colour, some being all White, others pied, and others 
not, but likewise very much in Shape, one being called the 
Bottle-Nose, and the other the Shovel-Nose, which is as dif- 
ferent as a Salmon from a Sturgeon. 

These Fish are never found dead or floating to the Shear 
with their Tongues in their Heads, for it is the opinion of 
many in these parts, that the Thrashers and Sword-Fish, 
(which are mortal Enemies to the Whales where ever they 
meet them) eat the Tongue out of their Head, as soon as they 


of North Carolina. 221 

have killed him; but whether this is done by the Fish above 
mentioned, or by others of the same voracious Nature, I will 
not take upon me to determine, but leave it to the determina- 
tion of every judicious Reader. 

There is another sort of these V^liales, or great Fishes, 
though not commonly found on these Coasts, and are con- 
trary to all the others in shape, that were ever found in these 
Parts, being about Sixty Feet in length, and not above four 
Feet and a half Diameter; I never saw but one of them. 
It is reported that some Indians in America will go out to 
Sea and get on the Whales Back, and peg, and plug up his 
Spouts, and so kill him, which I can scarce believe, except 
they have some secret Spell to make them stupid, to treat 
them after that manner. It is very strange to see how they 
will throw up the Water w4th their Spouts, by which means 
they are seen or discovered at great distances. They cannot 
abide long under Water for want of Air, which is common to 
most large Fishes; so that they are frequently seen to rise 
with their Heads and Backs above the surface of the Water, 
and spouting it in the Air, after which it is said, they draw- 
in a sufficient quantity of Air necessary for their supporting 
of Life. 

The Crampois, is another large Fish, about twenty five or 
thirty Feet long, and is accounted by many to be a young 
Whale, by reason it has Spouts as the Whale has and pro- 
duces as good Oil as the former. 

The Bottle-Noses, are another Species of large Fishes, be- 
tween the Crampois and the Porpoise. They are to be met 
with for the most part near the Soundings, and are never ob- 
served to Swim leisurely, as sometimes other Fishes do, but 
are continually in pursuit of their Prey, in great Shoals, like 


222 The Natural Historg 

wild Horses, leaping now and then above the Water. Some 
make use of them^ and especially the French^ who esteem them 
good Food, and eat them both fresh and salt. These as well 
as the Porpoise, are often heard to puff and blow very strong, 
as they are Swimming. 

I hope it will not be unpleasing to the Reader, to give an 
Account what I saw done by these Fishes, viz. In our Pass- 
age through Painticoe Sound, we had very good Diversion 
with them, which were in gTeat I^umbers about the Ship ; 
one of our Company shot amongst them, with a Brace of 
Balls, and happened to wound one of them, which we could 
plainly discover from some of it's Blood in the Water, the 
Weather being very calm ; which was no sooner done, but all 
the rest left us in pursuit of the one that was wounded, and 
w^e could often see it leaping above the Water, for near half an 
Hour, still striving to avoid the rest, 'till at last it was quite 
Silent, (as we supposed) for we could not perceive it any 
longer leaping out of the Water. The Master of the Vessel 
assured me, that the rest devoured it, which they always do 
with those Avounded, still pursuing the Blood, like a Pack of 
Dogs after a Deer. They are very fat and produce good Oil. 

The Porpoise, or Sea-hog, is large, being above four Feet 
long and two and a half thick, the Figure is somewhat long 
and round, continually tapering towards the Tail. It is cov- 
ered with a slender thin Skin, of a blackish colour, and has 
only three Fins like the Dolphin. It has a large Head, small 
Eyes, and a forked Tail. They are frequently to be met with 
all over the Ocean and Rivers that are salt. We have a fresh- 
water Lake in the great Sound of North Carolina, tliat has 
Porpoises in it, Avith several other sorts of unknown Fish (as 
the Indians report) that we are intire Strangers to. As to the 


of North Carolina. 223 

Porpoises, they are generally very fat, and make good Oil. 
They prey on other Fish, such as Drums and Mullets, yet are 
seldom or never knomi to take the Bait, so as to be catched 
with a Hook. Some call these Herring Hogs, from their 
feeding on those Fish, and their Flesh being so very fat, like 
Pork. They are much fatter than a Dolphin, but not so good ; 
the Gentry bake it as Venison, but it is not pleasant Food. 
They are always approaching the Shears in great [N'umbers 
before Storms. 

The Thrashers are likewise large, as I have been informed, 
and one of the mortal Enemies that pursue and kill the 
Whale, as I said before. They make good Oil, but are seldom 
found in these Parts. 

The Sivord-Fish, or Saw-Fish, has a long broad Bone fLxed 
to his :N'ose, with sharp Teeth like a Saw, on each side of it. 
It has two Fins on the Back, that next the Tail is hollow like 
a Sickle. He has four underneath his Belly, viz. two on each 
side. The Tail is like a piece of Board, painted behind and 
underneath, but not divided, his Shape from Top to Tail, is 
like a Man's Arm. His Eyes stand high out of his Head ; his 
A'ostrils are oblong, and his Mouth is directly under his Eyes. 
They are from tAvelve to twenty Feet long, and are generally 
very fat on the Back, almost like a Hog. They are mortal 
Enemies to the Whale, about which they gather in great Xum- 
bers, and when they kill him, only eat out his Tongue, as is 
supposed, and then the Whale floats to Shear, which is an ex- 
traordinary Prize to those that find him. They likewise joyn 
with the Thrashers, to kill them, and it is reported that they 
will singly attack a Whale. In calm Weather, the Fishers 
lye by till they kill the Whale, and upon the approach of the. 
Boats, the S word-Fish being frighted, retires. The Flesh is 


224 The Natural Historic 

dry and solid, but it is said to nourish much, and as good as a 

The D evil-Fish, so called, from the large pair of Horns it 
has upon its Head, and as near as I could be informed ; it is 
shaped like a Scate or Stingray. It is of a monstrous large 
Size and Strength, for it hath been known to weigh a Sloop's 
Anchor, and run aAvay with the Vessel for a League or two, 
and to bring her back again almost to the same Place, against 
the Tide. This I have been informed of bv several of the 
most credible and substantial Planters in these parts ; and 
that this strange and wonderful Adventure has happened more 
than once. They are in most of our Inlets, but I never heard 
of any of them being killed or taken, therefore cannot inform 
the Reader what Uses they are of, but doubtless they would 
make good Oil as well as other large Fishes, if they could be 
taken to make the Experiment. 

The Sharhy whereof there are two sorts. The first is called 
the Paracoda-Noses, the other the Shovel-Noses: Both these 
are very large, bold, voracious and dangerous Fishes, espe- 
cially to those that have the misfortune to fall over board. 
It is reported, that they will follow Ships for Hours together, 
and if either Man or Dog, or any other living Animal happen 
to fall into the Water, they immediately seize and snap in 
tw^o, having exceeding sharp, and several Rows of Teeth in 
their Heads : Some of them are so large, that they are said to 
weigh about four thousand Weight. They are easily caught 
with a Bait, but can never take their Prey 'till they turn them- 
selves on their Backs, wdierefore some Negroes and others that 
can swim and dive well, go naked into the Waters witk. a 
Knife in their Hands, and fight them, and commonly kill, or 
wound him, so that he turns Tail and runs away. Their 
Flesh is eaten in time of scarcity, but is not very palatable, 


of North Carolina. 225 

having a strong fishy taste. Their Liver makes good Oil to 
dress Leather with, and the Bones found in their Head, are 
said to hasten the Birth, and ease the Stone, by bringing it 
away. Their Back-bone is of one entire thickness, having 
many Joints in it, whereof I have known Buttons made by 
the Sailors and others that live in those remote Places. Gil- 
lius says, that the People of Marseilles told him, that they 
had caught one of them, in which they found a ^lan armed 
with a Coat of Mail. 

The following Relation, will in some measure corroborate 
the former Account of the Negroes killing them: August 
1730, a Sloop sailed from North Carolina, bound to the 
Island in the ^Yest Indies, and after four Days sailing from 
the Bar, was most unfortunately overset, and all the Crew, ex- 
cept the Master, two Sailors, and one Negroe, were drowned, 
these being upon Deck at the time when this misfortune hap- 
pened, and had the good providence to get upon the Keel of the 
Vessel, where they remained twenty one Days, and then were 
taken up by a Vessel trading to Europe; having neither Water 
or any other Is"ecessaries to support Nature, but by Gods Prov- 
idence, the Negroe killed a Shark, whereon they lived, and was 
the only support they had during the said time, which was 
confirmed by the Master in his Letter from London, to his 
Friends in North Carolina. 

The Pilot-Fish is of a deep Blue, and the Belly of a lighter 
Colour than the Back or Sides. The Scales ai'e smooth like a 
Tench. It's Back is speckled like a Seal-shin. When it is 
swimming, it appears much like a Mackarel, and looks as if 
it were painted Blue and White, like a Barhers Pole. It is 
reported, that the Shark is always attended by one or two of 
these Fishes, which he will not devour, though never so hun- 

15 Ff gry, 

226 The Natural Historic 

gry, because they find out the Prey for him. They are reck- 
oned exceeding good to eat. 

The Dolplmi, is a large Fish, not much unlike a Porpoise. 
It has two strong Fins, which like the Arms of a Man, are 
joined to the Shoulder-blades, and is said to be of that swift- 
ness, that it will easily overtake a Ship in full sail before the 
Wind. They generate like rational Animals, bringing forth 
their Young alive, not from Spawn but Seed, and have but one 
or two at a time. They go with young ten Months, breed only 
in the Summer, and are said to live two or three hundred 
Years. They sometimes swim in Shoals, and at other times 
only the Male and Female together. It is reported that when 
they are taken, they are observed to deplore their Condition 
by Groans, Lamentations, and a flood of Tears. It is also said 
to be a certain sign of a Storm shortly to follow, when they 
are seen sporting, and frequently moving their Bodies in the 
Water. They have a groaning Voice, sharp Sight, and are 
said to be lovers of Musick and Men. There are great num- 
bers of them to be met with in these Seas, and are said to live 
out of the Water for two or three Days. They are much de- 
ceived who imagine Dolphins to be of the Figaire they are 
usually represented on Signs ; that Error being more owing 
to Painters, than any such thing in Fact, for they are straight 
and not crooked. Their Flesh is eaten by the Dutch, and is of 
good Account amongst the French; though according to the 
Accounts of some, it yields no very grateful Taste. The 
Liver is of a tender Substance, and very nourishing, so is the 
Tongue. The Bowels smell and taste like Violets, and help 
the Spleen. The Ashes of the whole Fish applied with Water, 
is good against the Tettars, Ring-worms, Scruff and Leprosie. 


of North Carolina. 227 

The Flying-fish is slender and long, the Eyes large, and the 
Tail forked. The Body is in shape like a Seal's, and in 
colour like one of our Mullets. It has two large Fins near 
the Head, which resembles a pair of Wings, one on the Back, 
and two underneath the Belly, with these Fins, it flies near a 
Gun-shot before it touches the Water, and when it hath wet 
it's Wings it will mount up again. They are constantly 
chased by the Dolphins, which swim so fast, that they are 
often catched by them as they drop into the Water. There are 
vast Shoals of them in these Seas, and when they rise out of 
the Water, at a distance, appear like a large flock of small 

The Dog-fish, is a small sort of the Shark kind, but seldom 
exceeds twenty Pounds. They are frequently caught with 
the Flook and Line when they fish for Drum. They have a 
long tapering Body without Scales, but covered with a sharp 
hard Skin, that is made use of to polish fine Wood. Their 
Snout is a little long and round at the point, the Flesh is 
white, of easy concoction, but of no pleasant Taste, and is 
therefore best eaten w^ith Mustard or some sharp Sauce. 
They are very numerous in these Parts, but little regarded or 
made use of, where there are so many delicate sorts to be had 
in such plenty. The Fat of these Fish, and the Shark, have 
much the same Virtues with the Alligator. 

The Spanish Mackarel, they are in shape and colour like 
the common Mackarel, only these are much thicker, and gener- 
ally about two Feet long; there are vast numbers of them in 
these Seas. They are caught with Hook and Line in the 
Inlets, and sometimes a small distance out at Sea, being a 
voracious Fish, greedily swallowing either Beat or Fish that 
comes in their way. They are a very fine hard Fish, and of 
good Taste. The Liver eaten, helps Obstruction of the Liver 
and Jaundice. 

Ff ^ The 

228 The Natural History 

The Cavallies are about the bigness of a Mackarel, the 
Fins and Tail are partly like a Dolphins. They have large 
Eyes, and are of a brownish colour on their Backs, and their 
Bellies white; they have exceeding small Scales, and a very 
thick Skin. They are taken in the same places w4th the 
S'panish-Macharel, and are one of the firmest Fishes known 
in these parts, and will therefore keep sweet (in the extremity 
of the hot Weather) two or three Days without Salt, when 
others will Stink in half a Day, if not Salted. Those that 
catch them, immediately take off their Scales, otherwise you 
must pull off the Skin and Scales when boiled ; the Skin being 
the choicest part of the Fish. Their Meat is exceeding White, 
and very relishing when it is well Drest. 

The Boneto's are very fine and palatable Fishes, and gen- 
erally about a Yard long. They most commonly frequent 
the Inlets and Waters near the Ocean, and are kill'd with the 
Harpoon and Fish-gig, but seldom or never with the Hook 
and Line, though they are very plenty in several places on 
this Coast. 

The Blue-Fish, so call'd, from their being of that colour, 
they are accounted one of the best sort of Fishes in these 
parts, being very fat. They have a forked Tail, and are 
partly shaped like a Dolphin. They are as large and as long 
as a Salmon, and as good. They come to these Coasts in the 
fall of the Year, and after there has been one black Frost, in 
great Shoals, so that the Indians and others who wade into the 
Waters strike and kill vast Numbers of them with their Fish- 
gigs. Sometimes many Cart loads of them are found dead 
and left dry on the Sea Shore; which is occasioned for the 
most part by their eager pursuit after the small Fish ; by 
which means they and several other Fishes run themselves on 
Shoar, and the Tides leaving them on the dry Sands they 


of North Carolina. 229 

cannot recover the Wat^r again and so dye ; wherefore those 
that are disposed to get up early before the Fowl come to 
prey, may get what quantities they please of several sorts of 
Fishes all along these coasts. And notwithstanding these 
Blue-fish are accounted so extraordinary good, yet they some- 
times occasion Sickness after eating them, viz. violent heats all 
over the Body with Shiverings, Head-ach, and the like, which 
is chiefly owing to the Gall being broke in some of them, 
which is very hurtful, as I found by giving it to a Dog. 

The Drum-fish, whereof there are two sorts, viz. the Red 
and the Black. The Red is a large scaly Fish, much bigger 
than the Blue-fish, some of them beins: above four Feet lons' ; 
the Body is excellent firm Meat, and extraordinary good 
nourishment ; their Heads exceed in goodness all the Fish in 
these parts, being the most delicious Dish I ever met with. 
There are greater numbers of them to be met with in Caro- 
lina, than any other sort of Fish. Those that are disposed to 
fish for them, especially every new Flood, catch as many Bar- 
rels full as they please, with Hook and Line, for at that time 
they will catch them as fast as they can throw their Bait into 
the Water, which is generally a soft Crab, and so Salt them 
up and Transport them to other parts that are scarce of Pro- 

The Black-Drums are a thicker made Fish, and much fat- 
ter than the former ; they are an excellent good Fish, but not 
so common here, as they are in the more Northerly parts of 
this Continent, they are taken after the same manner with the 
former, viz. with Hook and Line. 

The Angel-fish, so called from it's beautiful Golden Colour, 
that shines all about it's Head and Belly; it is in shape ex- 
actly like the Bream, and is verv s^ood to eat. The same sort 


230 The Natural Historg 

of Fish is plentifully to be met with all along the Coast of 
Bevmudas, and is very much esteemed by the Inhabitants of 
that Island. 

The Bass, or Rock-fish, are to be met with both in the salt 
and fresh Water; when they are young they very much re- 
semble a Grey-Ling, but they grow to the size of the large 
Cod-fish. They are a good, firm, and well tasted Fish, and 
are in great plenty in these parts ; they are good Food, espe- 
cially the Heads of the large ones soused, make a choice Dish. 

The Mullets are the same as with us in size and goodness, 
and are in greater plenty here, than in most parts of Europe, 
especially where the Waters are salt and brackish. They are 
killed by striking them with the Fish-gig, or caught in Nets, 
for they seldom or never take the Bait. I have frequently 
known them at l^ight-time, to leap into the Cannoes, and 
likewise vast numbers of them to be found dead on the dry 
Sands or Shoars. They are much of the ISTature of the Pike. 
They strengthen the Stomach, and are good against the Chol- 
ick, &c. 

The Sheeps-head, is a Fish, so called, from it's having 
Teeth in it's Head like a Sheep. It is much about the bigness 
of the Angel-fish, and partly shaped like him, being flat. It 
has the vogue of being one of the choicest Fishes in this Prov- 
ince : Most certainly it is a delicate Fish, and well relished, 
yet I think there are many others as good. It is taken with 
the Hook and Line as the Drum. They are plenty in all our 
Salt-water Rivers and Inlets, and generally weigh two to 
three Pounds, and sometimes more. 

The Plaice are here very large and plenty, being the same 
as with us in Europe, they are of good nourishment, but more 
watry than Soals. The best Plaice have the blackest Spots, 
as the best Flounders have the reddest. 


of North Carolina. 231 

The &oals are found here, but not in such plenty as gener- 
ally other Fish are, but are as good and as sweet here, as in 
any part of Europe. They are of the nature of the Plaice and 
Flounder, but a much better Fish, being more firm and solid, 
and afford more plenty of nourishment. The Indians and 
others kill vast quantities of these two sorts, and the Flound- 
ers, with their Fish-gigs, especially in the dark Nights, when 
the Weather is calm, with Lights. 

The Shads are the same here as in Europe; they are pleas- 
ant, sweet, and nourishing, but are full of Bones, that it is 
dangerous to eat them w^ithout gTeat care. They are to be 
met with in gTeat plenty at some Seasons. They are said to 
be something Hypnotick in their i^ature. 

The Fat-hacks, are so called, from being one of the fattest 
Fishes ever yet known, for when they are fryed in a Pan, 
they neither use Oil or Butter for that purpose. They are 
like the Mullet, but not so large, they are an excellent sweet 
Fish, eat well, and are very nourishing. 

The Guar, or Gu/ird-fish, whereof there are two sorts, viz. 
the White and the Green. The White is shaped almost like 
a Pike, but more slender. It's Mouth has a long small Bill, 
set with very sharp Teeth w4th wdiich it catches it's prey 
which are several sorts of fry and small Fishes. They have 
strong large Scales so firmly knit together, that it is a hard 
matter to pierce through them with the sharpest Knife. 
When they dress them, they slit the Belly, where the Scales 
are not so strong or Armor-like, and take off their Skin, 
which they throw away as useless. The Meat is white and 
firm, and looks rather like Flesh than Fish. It is but very 
indifferent and course Food, therefore not much coveted by 
the Planters, though the Indians are very fond of them. The 


232 The Natural Historg 

Gall is very Green, and a most violent Cathartich if taken 

The Gi'eenrguard, is shaped in all respects like the other, 
only it is not so large, and it's Scales are Finer. The npper 
Jaw is the same as in the Alligator, moveable. It's Bones 
when fry'd or broyFd, remain as green as Grass, though the 
Meat be of a white colour, and is but indifferent Food. The 
same sort of Fish is generally to be met with on the Coasts of 
Ireland, before the Season of the Macharel, and seldom after- 

The Scate, or Stingre, is altogether of the nature of the 
Thornbach, but stronger. They are the same here as are to 
be met with in several parts of Europe, and are very common ; 
but the great plenty of other good Fish makes them little re- 
garded, for few or none eat them in this Province (except the 
Negroes and Indians) though they are at every Planter's 
Door, as far as the salt Waters are. The Skin is used to pol- 
ish Ivory, and fine Wood ; it is said that they couple with the 
Thornbach, and grow till they weigh One hundred and Sixty 
Pounds. The Oil of the Liver is good in hard Swellings, and 
the Ashes of the Skin help running Ulcers of the Head and 

The Tliornhacli's are the same here as in Europe, but not 
so plenty as the Bcate and Whip-Rays. Their Flesh is moist, 
nourishes much, and restores in long and deep Consumptions, 
the Liver is sweet, and has the same virtues. The Gall cures 
Diseases of the Ears and Itch. 

The Conger, or great Sea-Eel, always remains in the Salt 
Waters, it is white, fat, and sweet Flesh, which nourishes to 
excess, and is dangerous because of Surfeits : They are best 
when first boiled in Water, Salt, Sweet-Herbs, and Spices, 
then Broiled, or Collared, and then they are exceeding good 


of North Carolina. 233 

Meat. These kind of Eish are better known to the North' 
ward of America, than in this Province. 

The Lamprey, or Lampron, is not common in these Parts 
but plenty to the Northward. They are best in March and 
April, being then fattest; in Summer they are harder and 
leaner. They are about a Yard long, live in the Sea in 
Rocky places, and in the Mouths of Kivers, and weigh about 
twelve pound Weight: They eat Flesh, and when taken, are 
said to fly at the Fishers, and to be an Enemy to the Conger. 
They are sometimes taken in the Fish Wairs, but the Indians 
cannot endure them, neither will they eat them, though they 
are fond of most other sorts of Fish found in these Parts. 
Pliny reporteth, that they Spawn at all times of the Year, 
whereas all other Fish have certain Seasons. The Flesh is 
sweet and of good ISTourishment, yet it is apt to cause Surfeits 
like the former, with which it agTees in Mature and Virtues. 

The Eels are plenty in all our Rivers, and eat as well as in 
any part of the World. Their Flesh is very sweet, and yields 
much iSTourishment, but apt to surfeit if much eaten. The 
Fat is good against blow^s and discolouring of the Skin, dropt 
into the Ears, helps old Pains and Deafness. The Gall is 
excellent against Suffusions of the Eyes, and the Blood warm 
wdth Wine helps the Cholich. 

The Sun-Fish is very fat and rounder than a Bream, it's 
hinder part is invironed with a Circular Fin, which serves 
instead of a Tail, so that it may seem to be but the Head of a 
Fish, or a Fish in part rather than a whole one. They are 
plenty in these parts of America, and sometimes weigh a hun- 
dred Weight ; they are commonly two or three Feet in length, 
they have no Scales, but are covered with a hard thick and 

Qg sharp 

234 The Natural Historg 

sharp Skin, the colour whereof on the Back is black, and on 
the Belly a light silver grey. They are extreamly well tasted, 
therefore in great Esteem amongst the Inhabitants. 

The Toad-Fish, or rather the Sea Urchin, because they are 
nothing but a Skin full of Prickles, and very few Bones. 
They are as ugly as a Toad, and of no manner of Use only 
to be preserved and hung up in Grottos to look at. Their 
manner of swimming is to rowl and tumble round like a Ball. 

The 8ea Tench is of a blackish colour, but exactly in shape 
like a Tench, except in the back Fins, which are like those of 
a Perch. They are as good if not better than the fresh-water 
Tench; they are taken by Angling with Hook and Line as the 
Drum and Pearch, near the Inlets, or a small distance out at 
Sea, where they are in great Plenty. 

The Salt-Water Trouts, commonly called the White Trouts, 
are exactly shaped like the Troids with us, only these have 
blackish and not Bed Spots. They are in great plenty in the 
Sounds, near the Inlets, and Salt Waters ; but they are not 
red within like some Trouts. They are excellent good, but 
so tender, that if they are in or near the fresh Waters, and a 
sudden Frost come on, they are so benumb'd, that they float 
as dead on the surface of the Water, at which Season they 
take Cannoes full of them, yet notwithstanding they are thus 
benumb'd they will recover again by the heat of the Sun, or 
put them into warm Water they will become brisk and lively. 
They are taken with the Bait, in or near the Salt Waters. 

The Crocus, so called, from the croaking JSToise it makes in 
ones Hand when it is taken with the Hook and Bait. They 
are in shape like a Perch, and in taste like a Whitei7ig, and 
are very plenty. 


of North Carolina. 235 

The Smelts, are the same here as I have observed in several 
parts of Europe. They are about eight or nine Inches long, 
and one broad ; they smell like Violets, and are of the finest, 
lightest, softest, and best Juice, of most other Fish, especially 
in the Winter^ and when full of Spawn. They lye down a 
great way in the Sound towards the Ocean, where they are 
very plenty, and vast numbers of them are taken at certain 
Seasons of the Year. 

The Sea-Bream is thin, broad, and flat, exactly resembling 
our Fresh-water Bream; though there hath not been any such 
Fish discovered yet in the fresh Waters of Carolina, that I 
could ever learn. Their Flesh is white and solid, of good 
Juice and ^N'ourishment, and easy of Digestion. They are 
very plenty in the Sound and Salt-Water. 

The Taylor is about the bigness of a middling Trout, but 
of a blueish and green Colour, with a forked Tail like a 
Macharel. They are excellent fine and delicious, Fishes, 
very plenty in the salt and brackish Waters, where they are 
caught with the Bait. 

The Herrings are not quite so large as those with us in 
Ireland, and other parts of Europe. They come in such great 
Shoals to Spawn in the Months of March and April, that I 
have seen the Christian Inhabitants catch as many Barrels 
full as they pleased, or as long as their Salt lasted to preserve 
them, with Sieves and Shovels, instead of jSTets; for at that 
Season they run up the Creeks and small Rivulets of Water 
in such N^umbers, that the Bears take them out of the Water, 
as I have observed elsewhere. When they are fresh their 
Flesh is very white and more delicious than the Herrhig with 
us in Europe, but when they are Salted they become red, and 
if drest with Oil and Vinegar resemble an Anchovy very 

Gg 2 much. 

236 The Natural Historic 

much, being far beyond any I have ever met with in Europe, 
when well Pickled, but if those Fish are eaten too greedily 
whilst fresh, are apt to breed Feavers. The Planters export 
several Barrels from hence to the Islands in the West-Indies 
and other parts that are scarce of Provisions. 

THUS I have given you the most exact and Impartial ac- 
count of the Salt-water Fish that came to my knowledge dur- 
ing my stay in those parts, though I have eat of several other 
sorts of Fish which I have omitted by reason that they are 
not distinguished by any certain English ISTames, that I couM 
learn, yet the Indians are well acquainted with them and 
have very uncouth ISTames for, which no doubt the Christians 
in time will discover, especially when this Colony is better 
inhabited and the Fishing Trade is well carry'd on. I shall 
therefore proceed to give an account of the FISH that are to 
be met with in the fresh Waters. 

The Sturgeon is the first of these whereof we have great 
plenty, all the fresh parts of our Kivers being well stored 
with them. The upper parts of this fish are of a sordid Olive 
Colour, or betwixt a grey and a black : The Belly of a Silver 
Colour. They have a midling Head; very small Eyes, for 
the bulk of the Fish. The Snout is long, broad and sharp, 
and the Mouth without Teeth, they have no Chops, from 
whence it appears that they feed by sucking. They are a 
large Fish with a long Body, sixteen Fins and five rows of 
Scales; two on each side, and one on the back: The Scales 
of the upper row which are in the middle of the Back, being 
greater than the rest, rise higher; of these there are no cer- 
tain E'umber ; for it has been observed that some have Eleven 
some Twelve and others Thirteen ; this row is extended from 


of North Carolina. 237 

the Head to the fin of the Back near the Tail. The Kows 
on the sides extend from the Head to the very Tail; made 
up with about thirty sharp Thorns or Prickles. The lower 
row which begin at the first pair of the Fins and end at the 
second, are each made up of Eleven, Twelve or Thirteen ; all 
the Scales of the rows in general, have on their Tops strong 
sharp Prickles bending backwards. Besides these five rows, 
they have only two Scales in the middle of the Belly, the 
rest of the Belly being smooth. They have a large forked 
Tail like that of the Shark's, the upper part whereof shoots 
out beyond the lower a considerable way. These Fishes 
sometimes frequent the Salt Waters like the Salmon, but 
come to their gTeatest perfection in the Rivers, where they 
are found twelve or fourteen Feet long, but those in the Sea 
seldom exceed above a Foot and a half. They always are 
observed to swim fastest against the Stream, and grow till 
they weigh above two hundred pound Weight. In the Month 
of May (at which time they are best in Season especially the 
Females) they run up towards the Heads of the Rivers to 
Spawn, where you shall see vast quantities of them in a Day 
and especially before Rain, leaping at a great height out of 
the Water. The Indians kill great ISTumbers of them with 
their Fish-gigs and Xets, which they make and fix at the 
ends of long Poles ; for they are seldom or never taken with 
Hooks. The Indians that live up towards the Heads of the 
Rivers are fond of them, and frequently eat them, but those 
near the salts and Christians will not make any use of them. 
Their Bones serve indifferently for Rasps or Graters to grate 
Nut-megs, Bread, and the like withall. The Sturgeon is an 
excellent Fish when in Season, being strengthning, and is 
esteemed as good as Yeal, if not better; of their Eggs or 
Spawn is made the Caviary so much esteemed amongst the 


238 The Natural History 

Quality. The Liver is so sweet, that without some of the 
Gall, it causeth loathiug. The Flesh is good against hoars- 
ness and clears the Voice, the Fat cures the Kibes, and the 
Bones help the running Gout. 

The Jach, Pike, or Pickerel, of these we have two sorts 
(one living in the fresh, and the other in the Salt Water) 
and are exactly of the same shape with those in Europe, but 
differ very much in size, for they are seldom found in these 
parts of America, above two Foot long, as far as I have yet 
seen. They are very plenty with us in this Province, all the 
fresh Water Rivers and Creeks abounding with them, and 
vast quantities are frequently taken in their Wairs at a time. 
The Flesh of this Fish is whiter and more excellent than that 
of the Carp, and is so harmless that it may be given to sick 
Persons. The Spawn or Row provoke both Vomit and Stool, 
and several other virtues are ascribed to them. Those of 
the Sea are a more delicate and better Fish than those of the 
fresh Water. They are said to live above two hundred Years, 
and that from their greediness of eating, they will often dis- 
gorge their Stomach of those Fishes they had taken in., and 
that they will sometimes swallow a Fish near as large as 
themselves, taking the Head in formost, the Tail hanging 
out of the Mouth, and so draw it in by little and little, till 
they compass the whole. 

The Trouts are the same in Carolina as with us; but are 
not to be met with till you come up to the Heads of the 
Rivers, and where the Streams are swift and have Stony 
and gravelly Bottoms. These Fishes are equal in goodness 
to any Fish that live in the fresh Waters. The fat is very 
good for the Hoemorrhoids and clefts in the Fundament. 

The Gudgeons, there are the same sorts found here, as in 
several parts of Europe, they are of the nature of the Perch, 


of North Carolina. 239 

and the whitest is the best, they are good pleasant food 
and of easy digestion, nourishing much, and increasing good 
Blood, and are good against the Cholick arising from cold or 
Tartarous humours, they help the Bloody flux, and other 
fluxes of the Belly, and being applied help the biting of Mad- 
dogs and Serpents. 

The Perch whereof we have five sorts in Carolina. The 
first is the same as is to be met with in Europe, but is not 
quite so large. They are an excellent Fish and very whol- 
som, and good against Fevers, and the Stones in their Heads 
near the Back bone are accounted good against the Stone in 
the Reins. 

The second sort of Perch is call'd the white Perch because 
it is of a Silver colour otherwise it is like the former or 
English Perch in shape and size. These are in very great 
plenty and preferable to the red ones in goodness. 

The third sort which are commonly call'd Welch-men, are 
of a Brown colour and are the largest sort of Perches we 
have in these parts, some growing to be larger than any Carp, 
and are a very firm white and sweet Fish, and are very plenty 
in the Bivers and Creeks. 

The fourth sort are vulgarly calFd Irish-men, these are a 
more flat Fish than any of the former, and much resembling 
a Bream, being all over freckled or mottled with Black and 
Blue spots, they are a very good Fish and are never taken 
any where but in the fresh Waters where they are very plenty. 

The fifth sort are distingiiished by the Xame of round 
Robins and are the least sort of all, they are flat and very 
round shaped like a Roach, are beautifully mottled with red 
spots, and are as good Meat as any of the former, they are 
very easily taken with a Bait, as all the rest of the Perches 
are and are very numerous, each Creek and Biver of fresh 
Water abounding with them. 


240 The Natural Historg 

The Roach is here Likewise but is not as large as those in 
Europe. It is a good Fish but its being so full of small 
Bones makes it dangerous and Little regarded. It is re- 
ported to be a healthful Fish and not Subject to any diseases, 
whence comes the Proverb as sound as a Roach. The Flesh 
is said to excite Lust and cure Fevers. 

The Carp is the same as in Europe but is not quite so large. 
It has a short Head without either Teeth or Tongue, but 
instead thereof a fleshy Palate that it may relish its food. 
The Fins are broad, the Tail forked and the Body covered 
with very large strong Scales. Its flesh is fat, soft, sweet, 
and nourishes very much, and is best in March, the Male be- 
ing better than the Female, and the White than the Yellow. 
The fat cures diseases of the l^erves, the Stones about the Eyes 
are said to be good against the heat of Fevers, and likewise 
for the falling Sickness, and the Gall helps dimness of sight. 

The Dace is the same here as in Europe, but is not so large 
or plentiful as with us. The flesh is soft, sweet in taste, and 
of good nourishment; and when pickled like Anchovies after 
the Italian manner, is Stomachical. They are best in Feb- 
ruary, March and April, and are excellent good food roasted 
and seasoned with Salt and Pepper. The fat helps pains in 
the Ears. The Gall mixt with the fat or Oil is good against 
Dimness of the Sight. 

The Flounders are here in very great plenty and as large 
and good as any in Europe. Some of these Fish have Yel- 
lowish spots both on the Back and fins, and taste very much 
like a Plaise. The Indians and others kill vast quantities 
of them not only with the Bait but likewise with their Fisn- 
gigs, especially with Lights at Night. They are an excellent 
Fish and of good Nourishment, strengthen the Stomach, 
cause Appetite and help the Spleen. 


of North Carolina. 241 

The Loche is the same here as in Europe. The Flesh is 
very light and excellent nourishment, delicate in taste, whol- 
some, and good for Women with Child. 

The Sucking-Fish are nearest in taste to a Barbie, only 
they have no Barhs, they are about a Foot and a half long, 
and are a very soft and flabby Fish, and therefore are seldom 
or never made use of except by the Negroes and Indians, they 
are generally taken v^ith the Bait and are very plenty in our 
Rivers and Creeks. 

The Cat-Fish, so call'd, from the Whiskers or small fins 
they have about their Mouths. They are nearest in taste to 
Eels of any Fish I have ever met with. They are generally 
boild and made into Soop or Broath, which is the best way 
of dressing them. They are an excellent good Fish and 
nourish very much. There is another kind of Cat-fish which 
frequents the Salt W^aters exactly like the former, both these 
sorts are very plenty in these parts, and are taken by angling 
with a Bait. They are a round blackish Fish with a great 
flat Head and wide Mouth, and like the Eels have no Scales. 

The Grindal, are a long scaled Fish with small Eyes, and 
frequent Ponds, Lakes, and slow running Creeks and Swamps, 
but a very indiffrent soft fish, therefore not much coveted 
or made use of except by the Negroes or Indians, though 
some eat them, and report they are good Fish. 

The Old-wives, these are bright scaly Fish which frequent 
the Swamps and fresh runs of Water, they have very small 
Mouths and large Eyes, with a great Fin on their Back, they 
seem to be between an European Roach and a Bream, and 
eat much like the latter, they are in great plenty up the 
Freshes. The Indians take abundance of these Fish and 
Barhahue them till they are Crisp, and so Transport them 
on wooden Hurdles to their Towns and Quarters. 

16 Hh The 

242 The Natural Historg 

The Fountain-fish, so call'd, from its frequenting the 
Fountains and clear running Streams of Water, where they 
breed and are to be met with and no where else. They are 
of a whitish colour and as large as a midling Trout, and by 
the clearness of the Water are very difficult to be taken, there- 
fore I can't inform you how good they are, having never 
tasted any of them, but the Indiana say they are a fine fish. 

The Barhouts, or Miller s-Tliumh, are the very same here 
as those in England and other parts of Europe. They are 
about three or four Inches long, have no Scales, and the Back 
is Yellowish with a few little black Spots. The head is 
large, and the Mouth wide and round. Out of the Fins grow 
several sharp prickles or Thornes, especially in those near 
the Head. These fish are very plenty in Rivers and Creeks 
near the Sea Shear where they feed on watry Insects. 

This is the best Account I can give, or is yet known of the 
FISHES in the fresh Waters, few more being discovered, 
though I am satisfied, and may with Justice and safety say, 
that there is not one third part of them yet discovered, or 
made known to us, therefore shall omit many strange and 
uncouth shapes and sort of Fishes which we are told by the 
Indians, are to be found in the Rivers and Lakes, whereof I 
can give no certain Information to my Readers, having no 
farther account of them than only hearsay from those Peo- 
ple, so shall proceed to treat of the Shell-fish which are found 
in the Salt Waters, as far as they are yet discovered. 

The OYSTERS, whereof there are two Sorts, the great 
and the small, both these are in greater plenty here than 


of North Carolina. 243 

in most parts of the known World, for great Numbers of 
them are to be found in almost every Creek and Gut of Salt 
Water, and frequently hanging upon Boughs of Trees, as 
they bend into the Water, so that when the Tide is out you 
shall see them suspended in the Air, Avhich would be a very 
uncommon sight in Ireland, to see Fish growing upon Trees. 
In the sound in several places there are such quantities of 
large Oyster-hayiks, that they are very troublesome to Vessels 
trading to these parts which happen to come in amongst them. 
They are of a different shape, from those with us, for those 
in Carolina are very long and large, and not round as ours 
are. They are excellent good, and nourish as much as any 
Fish whatever, and that without any manner of danger of 
Surfeiting. They strengthen the Stomach, cause an Appe- 
tite, and breed good Juices, being light and easy of digestion, 
and are good in Consumptions and several other disorders. 

These Oysters, pickled, are well relished, excellent good 
for a Cold raw and squasy Stomach. The Shells in Powder 
cure Heartburnings, are good in Feavers and the like, and 
are the only Lime we have for building in this Country. 

The Spanish-Oysters, are so call'd, from their great plenty 
in the Spanish West-Indies; they have a very thin Shell, and 
rough on the outside. They are excellent good Shell-fish, 
and so large that half a Dozen are sufficient to satisfie a hun- 
gry Stomach. From these Oysters come the Pearls that are 
so useful in Physick and so Ornamental. 

The Cockles, whereof there are two sorts, the larger and 
the smaller, and first, the large Cockles are so very biff that 
one of them is as large as five or six of those in Ireland. 
They are so very plenty in several parts, that they are often 
thrown upon the Sands on the sound side, where the Gulls 

Hh 2 and 

244 The Natural History 

and other Birds are always ready to open and eat them. 
These as well as the former are great Strengtheuers of the 
Stomach, and increase a good Appetite, provoke Urine, help 
the Cholick, restore in Consumptions, and in all decays of 
nature are very good. 

The Small Cockles are about the bigness of our largest 
Cockle, and differ in nothing from them except in the Shells 
which are striped cross-ways, as well as long-ways, they are 
as good, and have the same virtues with the former. 

The Clams are a kind of Cockles, only differing in the 
Shells, which are thicker, and not streaked or ribbed as the 
Cockles are. They are plenty in several places along the 
Sound-side, and Salt-water Ponds. They are very good 
Pickled, and their Meat tastes like other Cockles; they make 
excellent strong Broth, which strengthens the Stomach, is 
nourishing, breeds good Juices, is a Restorative in Consump- 
tions, and other natural Decays. 

The Conclis, some of these are very large, but the lesser 
sort are the best Meat ; and that, in my Opinion, not extraor- 
dinary, notwithstanding several in these parts are fond of 
them, and extol them very much: The Fish within their 
Shells is shaped exactly like a Horse's Yard; of this Shell 
the Indians make their Peak, or Wam'pum, which is the rich- 
est, and most valuable Commodity they have amongst them. 
They breed in a kind of Substance shaped like a Snake, 
which contains a sort of Joints, in the hollowness whereof 
are thousands of small Conclis, no bigger than small Grains 
of Pepper. They are plenty along the sides of the Sounds 
and Salt-waters, but are not as large here as those found in 
the Islands in the West-Indies. 

The Musics are much larger than those with us, their Shells 
being thicker, larger, and striped with Dents: they grow 


of North Carolina. 245 

by the sides of Ponds, and Creeks of Salt-waters, where may- 
be had what quantity they please. They are very apt to 
give Surfeits, yet there are those who are fond of them, and 
prefer them to Oysters. Some boyl them, whereof they make 
Broth (which is the best way of dressing them) which is 
nourishing and purgeth the Reins, therefore good for those 
that have the Dropsie, Jaundice, Stone or Gout. They also 
eat well when they are Pickled. 

The Whale-Louse. Their Head is like that of a Louse, 
with four Horns; the two short ones that stand out before 
have Knobs like the Sticks of Kettle-Drums. They have six 
plates on their Backs, and their Scales as hard as Prauns. 
Their foremost Legs are in shape like a half Moon, with 
sharp points, by which they fasten in the Skin of the Whale, 
and then bite pieces out of them. The ^Yhales are mostly 
annoyed with them in warm Weather, and frequently at that 
time leap to some height out of the Waters in a rage. 

There is a little small Fish in the fresh Waters in Ireland, 
something like the former, but has no Scales, which is very 
troublesome to the Pihe, but whether it molests any other 
Pish, I cannot inform the Reader; but I have known the 
Pike to leap out of the Water upon dry Land with one of 
these sticking fast to his Belly; I have also been assured 
by those that fish, and dwell near the Rivers, that one of 
these will kill the largest Pihe, by cutting a hole in his Belly. 

The Crabs whereof there are two sorts, viz, the large stone 
Crah and the small flat Crab. The large stone Crabs are the 
same in Carolina as with us in Ireland, having black tips on 
the ends of their Claws, these sorts are plentifully to be met 
with near Ceder-Island, Core Sound and the south parts of 
this Province. The whole Crab is excellent against all sorts 


246 The Natural Historg 

of Fevers, Consumptions, Hecticks, Asthmas, the Stone in 
the Keins and Bladder, pains and Stopage of Urine, and 
many other disorders. 

The smaller or flat Crab, in North Carolina is one of the 
sweetest and best relished of any of that species I ever met 
with in any part of Europe, when they are boyled their flesh 
is very red and preferable in goodness to any Lobster, they 
are as large as a Man's Hand, or rather larger. These are 
innumerable, lying in great quantities all over the Salts; I 
have known the little Boys take Bushels full of them in a few 
Hours. They are taken, not only to be eaten, but are one of 
the best Baits for all manner of Fish that take the Hook. 
They are very mischievous to those that set Night Hooks to 
catch Fish, for they generally take away all the Bait; both 
these sorts cast their Shells every Year, at which time they 
make Holes in the Sand, and cover themselves, or those with 
hard Shells lye on them 'till their Shells harden, otherwise 
they would be destroyed by other Fish. These sort have the 
same Virtues with the former. 

The Fiddlers^ are a sort of small Crab that lie in Holes in 
low, wet, and marshy Ground. The Racoons are very fond 
of them, hunt for them in those places, and eat them. I 
never knew any of them eat by the Christians, so cannot 
inform you whether they are good or no. 

The Runners or Spirits, so called, because they are apt to 
pinch and bite Peoples Legs in the Night, as they walk near 
the Shoar, and likewise from their running so fast. They 
are a kind of a whitish Crab, and though they are so small, 
they will run as fast as a Man; and are good for nothing buv. 
to look at. They live chiefly on the Sand Breaches, where 
they have their Holes. But will frequently run into the Sea 


of North Carolina. 247 

when pursued. I take this to be the Hippoee, or Ilippeis, 
represented by Pliny. 

The Soldier, is a kind of Shell-fish, so called, but for what 
reason I know not, except it be for their often changing their 
Houses, or Quarters, from one hollow Conch shell to another ; 
for they are observed to be still changing their Habitations 
as they gi'ow larger, having no Shell of their own. They 
have Claws like a Crah, and may be reckoned a Species of 
them, but of the smallest kind. They are good when well 
dressed, very nourishing, and create a good Appetite. 

The Wilks, or Periivinhle, are not so large as they are in 
many parts of Europe, but as sweet and good, or rather bet- 
ter, being good Food and Nourishment; they are restorative 
in Consumptions and Hecticks, being sodden in their own 
Sea-water, or boiled in Milk. 

The Shallops are pretty good, if well dressed, but if only 
roasted, without any other Addition, are too luscious to be 
made use of, and are apt to surfeit, but otherwise they are 
nourishing, and comfortable to the Stomach. 

The Man of Noses are Shell-fish, commonly found in these 
parts, and are much valued and esteemed for increasing- 
vigour in Men, and preventing barreness in Women, which is 
a thing seldom attends the Females here ; for generally they 
are fruitful enough, without the benefit of these Fishes. But 
most certain it is, that they are very nourishing, and create 
good Juice in the Blood. 

The Flatings so called from their flat shape. They are 
inclosed in a broad thin Shell, the whole fish being flat. They 
are a very good and delicious Fish and inferior to no Shell- 
fish this Country affords. 

The Sea Snail Horn is exactly shaped like as other Snail 
Horns are. They are a large and very good Shell-Fish and 


248 The Natural Historic 

their Meat is very nourishing and communicates good Juices 
to the Blood. 

The Finger- fish, so called, from their beiug about the 
length of a Man's Finger, they are very plenty in this Prov- 
ince, but generally lye at the bottom of the Waters about one 
or two feet deep, and are an extraordinary good Shell-Fish. 

The Shrimps are very plentiful in North Carolina, and 
vast quantities of them are taken by the Boys and Girls with 
a small bow ^et. They are very restorative and good in 
Consumptions, Hecticks and Asthmas, and are an excellent 
good Bait to catch Mullets, Pikes, and several other sorts of 
Fish that are caught by angling with the Bait. 

The Sea-Nettles (by some called Carvels) whereof there 
are great plenty in the Western-Seas and Salt Waters on the 
coast of America. They seem to be nothing else but Slime, 
or a lump of Jelly, with a cast of red, blue and green colours 
in it, they Swim like a Bladder above the Water, but down- 
wards there are long Fibrous Strings, some of which are near 
half a Yard long; some will have this Jelly to be a sort of 
Sea-plant, and the Strings its roots growing in the Sea as 
Duck-weed does in Ponds, but the Query is, if they be not a 
certain Species of Spawn for when they are taken out of the 
Water, or any thing touches them (thougli they scarce seem 
to have Life) yet they will very suddenly change their col- 
ours, which they quickly recover again. They may be reck- 
oned amongst Potential Cauteries, because they are apt to 
blister the Hands or any other part of the Skin (like Nettles) 
where ever they touch. I am persuaded that they are of 
so venemous a Nature that few Fish prey upon them, other- 
wise they wou'd not be so numerous as they are, notwithstand- 
ing T have known some of them taken out of the Guts of the 


of North Carolina. 249 

Hawhs-hllled Turtle. They are called Sea-Nettles, from the 
stinging and blistering quality they have like Nettles, occa- 
sioning burning Pains to whatever part of the Skin they 
happen to touch. 

The fresh-water Shell-fish are the Mussels and Craw-fish. 
The Mussels are here plenty in several parts of the Freshes, 
and are much the same as in Europe; they are only made use 
of by the Indians, who eat them after five or six Hours boil- 
ing to make them tender ; there are valuable Pearls found in 
some of them, the whitest are the best, being the wholsomest. 
The Broth is opening, and therefore good in the Dropsie, 
Jaundice, and Gout. 

The Craiv-fish are very plenty in the Brooks and small 
Rivers of Water amongst the Indians, and at the heads of the 
Rivers near the Mountains; they are as delicious and good 
here as in any part of the World. They are shaped like a 
Scorpion, and the Stones in the Head are accounted good 
against the Jaundice and Stone in the Reins. The Black 
are much better than the White ; they nourish and strengthen 
the Body, and the Soop made of them is in very great Value 
and Esteem amongst the Quality. 

Having thus given a Description of several Species, or 
Kinds of Fishes that are to be met with, and already known 
in North Carolina; I shall in the next place proceed to what 
remains of the Present State, having already accounted for 
the Animals and Vegetables, as far as this Volume would 
allow of, and whatever remains may be easily guessed at by 
any ingenious Man who considers what Latitude Carolina 
lies in, which reaches from 29 to 36 Degrees 30 Minutes of 
North Latitude, as I have already observed: Most part of 

li this 


The Natural Historg 

this spacious Country being waste and uninhabited, at pres- 
ent, except by wild Beasts and Savage Indians, from whom 
we can have but very imperfect Accounts, they being a People 
of little or no Speculation, nor any way Curious. 

of North Carolina. 






AS to the Air, I don't know what fault it has, except 
what I have said before of it's being sometimes ex- 
treamly hot, at other times subtile, and piercing ; and I 
am persuaded, it enters a Man's Body easier than that in Ire- 
land; yet I think that much of the Mortality that happens 
among Strangers, is owing in a great measure to the ill govern- 
ment of themselves, for they eat but little, having destroyed 
their Stomachs by Surfeits of Fruit, or excessive Drinking hot 
Spirituous Liquours; and if any rather chuse the cold, his 
Stomach is chilled, and he is immediately in danger of a Flux, 
or extream Looseness. There is another thing to be observed. 
Men guard themselves less from the Air here, than in most 

li « other 

252 The Natural Historg 

other Place, trusting to the heat of the Climate, and receive 
the cool of the Evenings with only a Shirt. I think that the 
Air, though not so cold, is much more subtle and piercing 
here than in Ireland, it corrodes Iron much more, not by 
Moisture, for it is not so moist ; and besides it does it in the 
dry Weather. 

J^otwithstanding this Country is as fertil and pleasant as 
any in the World (in the same Latitude) for the produce of 
Minerals, Fruit, Grain, Wine, and several other rich Com- 
modities, that are frequently to be met with in it. All the 
Experiments that have been already made of the Fertility 
and natural Advantages of the Country, have answered be- 
yond expectation, as affording some Commodities, which 
other Places in the same Latitude do not. 

As for Minerals, they being subterraneous Products, so 
in all E'ew Countries, they are the last Species that are gen- 
erally discovered, and will most certainly be so, where the 
Indians never look for any thing lower than the superficies 
of the Earth, being a race of Men, the least addicted to search 
into the Bowels of the Earth, of any in the World, that in- 
habit so fine a Country as Carolina; and I am satisfied, that 
there are as good and rich Mines here, that lie full to the 
Westward of us, as any the Spaniards possess in America. 
The Lands near the Heads of the Rivers being Mountainous, 
and no doubt, have as rich Minerals in them as any of those 
parts that are already discovered to be so rich. 

I shall say no more on this Subject at present, but give you 
some general Observations concerning N ortli-C arolina ; which 
are. That it lies as convenient for Trade as any Province in 
America, abounding with several rich and valuable Commod- 
ities, such as Tar, Turpentine, Pitch, Rosin, Masts, Yards, 
Planhs, Boards, Staves, Lumber, Timber of many sorts, fit 


of North Carolina. 253 

for any uses ; Skins of Beers, Beeves, Buffelo's, Elks, Bears, 
Panthers, and several other Beasts. The Furrs of Beavers, 
Racoons, and many other wild Beasts, which are in great 
Plenty here ; as also Rice, Wheat, Indian Corn, Barley, Oats, 
Buck-wheat, and sundry sorts of Pulse, Potatoes, and variety 
of fine Fruits, Flax, Beef, Pork, Tallow, Hides, Horses, 
Whale-hone, Oil, Bees-ivax, Myrtle-wax^ Honey, Cheese, But- 
ter, Cotton, Tobacco, Indico, Coffee, and no doubt would 
produce good Silk, Oil, and Wine, the Soil of this Country 
being as proper as any in the World for that purpose. 

This Country is likewise adorned with pleasant Savannas 
or Meadows, Rivers, Mountains, Vallies, Hills, and rich 
Pastures for Cattle, and blessed with a wholsome pure Air, 
especially a little backwards from the Sea, where only wild 
Beasts inhabit at present, few of which are so voracious as 
to kill Men, Horses or Cows, for there cannot be a richer 
Soil, no place abounding more in Flesh and Fowl, both wild 
and tame, besides vast numbers of excellent Fish, Grain, 
Cyder, and many other pleasant Liquors, together with most 
IN'ecessaries convenient for Life, that are daily found out, 
to the great Benefit and Advantage of those that are already 
settled here. 

The Stone or Gout seldom or never afflict the Christian 
Inhabitants, and the Europeans that have been afflicted with 
the Stone and Gravel, find present Ease, by drinking Yau- 
pan Tea. 

The Consumption we are entire Strangers to, no Country 
affording a better Bemedy for that Distemper than the pure- 
ness of the Air; neither has the small Pox ever visited this 
Country but once, and that in the late Indian War, which 
destroyed most of those Savages that were seized with it. 


254 The Natural Historg 

As for Trade, we lie so near Virginia, that we might have 
the advantage of their Convoys, if there were occasion for 
them, as also Letters from thence in two or three Days, and 
from some places in a few Hours. The great numbers of 
ships that come to New-England, New-York, Pensilvania, 
Mary-Land, and Virginia, make the Provisions scarce in 
those Places, so that they are frequently obliged to North- 
Car olhia for those Necessaries, where Provisions and Naval 
Stores never fail of a good Market. Besides where these are 
produced and raised in such plenty, there appears good 
House-keeping, and plenty of all manner of delicate Eata- 

The Porhe is excellent good, from their Hogs feeding on 
Straw-herries, Wall-nuts, Peaches, Maiz, and several other 
sorts of delicate Fruits, which, are the natural produce of 
this Country, and make them the sweetest Meat the World 
can afford ; as is well known to all Strangers that have been 
in that Country. And as for their Beef, it proves extraor- 
dinary good, being fat and well relished. We have not only 
Provisions very plenty, but Cloaths of our own Manufac- 
ture, which are made and daily increase in these parts ; such 
as Cotton, Wool, Hemp and Flax, being all the growth of 
this Country. But the women do not over burthen them- 
selves with care and Industry; otherwise there would not 
be such continual calls for those necessarys from Europe. 
But this Climate being visited with so mild and short Winters, 
save abundance of Cloaths. We likewise can go out with 
our Commodities to any part of the West-Indeas, or else- 
where in the depth of Winter, whereas those in New-Eng- 
land, New-York, and Pensilvania, and those Colonies to the 
Northward of us, cannot stir for Ice, but are fast locked into 
their Harbours all that Season. 


of North Carolina. 255 

We have no frontier Towti in North-Carolina, which is an 
advantage in not being so continually alarm'd by the Enemy, 
and what has been accounted a detriment to us, proves one 
of the greatest advantages any People cou'd wish or desire. 
This Country being Fenced with a Sound near ten Leagues 
over in some Places, through which, although there be Water 
enough for as large Ships to come in at, as any part hitherto 
seated in both Carolinas; yet the difficulty of that Sound to 
Strangers hinders them from Hostilities against us, so that 
this natural Bull-work proves very advantagious to us in 
securing us from our Enemies. 

Our distance from the Sea likewise rids us from two 
curses or Plagues which attend most other parts of America, 
viz. the Muslceto's, and the water Wood-worms, that eat Ships 
bottoms. Whereas at Bath and Eden-town, there is no such 
thing known, and as for Musketo's we are very little troubled 
with them, except it be in low Marshes, and near the Salt- 
waters, which are only habitations for wild Beasts, Birds, 
and Snakes of various kinds. The vast quantities likewise 
of Fish that this great Sound or W^ater supplies us with, 
when ever we take the pains to Fish for them, is another 
considerable advantage not to be met with so commodiously in 
any part of America as in this Province. 

As for the Climate (as I observed) we generally enjoy a 
very wholesome and serene Sky, and a pure and thin Air, the 
Wether seldom proving so overcast or Cloudy but we have 
the blessing of the warm Sun, except it be in Winter, and 
then as soon as the South and West-winds begin to blow, the 
Horizon immediately clears up and restores the light of the 
Sun. The Weather in Suynmer is very pleasant, being con- 
tinually refreshed with cool reviving Breezes from all Quar- 
ters except the South, which is very sultry. 


256 The Natural Historic 

The Spring here is as pleasant and as beautiful as in any 
place I have ever been in, and the Winter generally proves 
so mild that it is rather like an Autumn, except the Winds 
blow ]Srorth-V7est, at which time it is peircing and cold, but 
proper enough for our constitutions, and very wholesome, 
freeing these parts from many dangerous distempers that a 
continual Summer afflicts them with, nothing being wanting 
as to the natural Ornaments or blessings of a Country to the 
making reasonable Men happy. 

As for the Constitution of this Government, it is so mild 
and easy in all respects, to the Liberties and Properties of 
the Subject, that it is the best established Government in the 
World, and a Place where a Man may peaceably enjoy his 
own without being invaded by another ; rank and superiority 
always giving place to Justice and Equity, which is the 
foundation that every government ought to be built upon, 
and regulated by. 

Besides this Province has been settled and continued the 
most free from the insults and barbarities of the Indians of 
any Colony in America, which was one of the greatest bless- 
ings that cou'd attend such a small number of People as 
they were, and how Iregularly settled first, and at what dis- 
tance they are from each other, and yet how undisturbed 
they have remained and free from any Poreign danger or 
loss, to what most of the other Colonys have been exposed to, 
not only by the Indians, but their own Slaves the Negroes. 
And what may well deserve Admiration is, that their Prisons 
are never crowded with Malefactors or Debtors; as to Male- 
factors I never knew but one that was guilty of death, for 
Murder, which happened as follows ; two Persons well kno^vn 
to each other, being at the Tavern, one of them was falling 


of North Carolina. 257 

asleep, his Friend importuned him to go home along with 
him, which the other refusing to do, his Friend told him, 
that he would leave him, which he had no sooner said, but 
the other Stab'd him with his Knife, whereof he instantly 
died; the Murderer was immediately apprehended, tried, 
and condemned to die, he confest that before he left Europe 
he had murdered two, and notwithstanding his Condemna- 
tion, he found means to make his escape out of Prison some 
few Days before the Execution. 

As for Debtors, few or none are confinM in Prison above 
four and twenty Hours, for the Sherriff generally takes 
them Home to his House, or takes their Word for their 
Appearance at the next Court, to be held, in any of their 
precincts or Barronies, where they Judge him a Servant to the 
Creditor for as long time as they imagine the Debt deserves, 
but if the Person has been a Planter and by misfortunes has 
contracted Debts, or an aged Person they frequently at these 
Courts make a Collection amongst themselves, by which 
means they discharge the Debt, or satisfie the Creditor; so 
that by these methods none are kept in confinement. 

It is likewise enacted by the Laws of the Country, that 
no Person shall be liable to pay above forty Shillings of their 
Country Money for any publick-House Scores for Liquors, 
let the Persons that keep such Houses trust them what they 
please, yet by Law they can recover no more : This is done 
chiefly to prevent People, if possible, running in Debt, or 
spending their Time idly after that manner, especially in a 
Country where Industry is so much wanting. ISTotwithstand- 
ing this Law, some will owe above One hundred Pounds at 
these Taverns, or publick Houses, which they will justly and 

1'^ Kk honestly 

258 The Natural Histoid 

honestly pay, looking upon it as the greatest Scandal in I^a- 
ture to make use of this Law; neither would the Country 
much regard them afterwards if they did. Yet there are 
some that are not so scrupulous, or so strictly bound up to 
Principles of Justice, that have taken the advantage of this 
Law, to defraud their Creditors, when they had an Oppor- 

There are several other good Laws in this Province,, and 
particularly, that no Vagabond, or inferiour Person is suf- 
fered to travel through the Country without a Pass from the 
Governor, or some of the Justices of the Peace, this is done 
to prevent Transports from Europe running away from their 

They have no Frontier Towns, as I before observed, 
neither have they any Army, except their Militia, which are 
both of Horse and Foot, having proper Officers, who are 
Commissioned, or IN'ominated by the Governor, although 
they are seldom obliged to Muster (as they are in most of the 
other English Provinces in Aifnerica) except it be to appre- 
hend Offenders that will not submit themselves to the Law, 
or be taken by the Authority of their Justices of Peace's 
Warrant; in such cases, they generally raise the Posse or 
Militia^ to seize and bring them to Justice; Yet instances 
of this jN^ature are but seldom, for I never knew but two 
whilst I was in the Country. 

But to return to the Subject in Hand, there are made 
throughout this Settlement, as good Bricks as any I have 
ever met with in Europe: All sorts of Handy-crafts, such as 
Carpenters, Joyners, Coopers, Brichlayers, Plaisterers, Shoe- 
makers, Tanners, Curriers, Taylors, Weavers, and most other 
sorts of Tradesmen, may with small Beginnings, and good 
Industry, soon thrive well in this Place, and provide good 
Estates, and all manner of N^ecessaries for their Families, 


of North Carolina. 259 

Lauds being sold at a cheaper rate here than in most parts 
of America. 

The Farmers that go thither (for which sort of People it 
is a very thriving place) shou'd bring with them several 
sorts of Seeds of Grass, as Trefoil, Clover-Grass, all sorts of 
Sanfoin, and common Grass, and especially those that have 
arose and sprung in a warm Climate, that will endure the 
heat of the Sun; likewise several Garden-Seeds, and choice 
Fruit-Trees, and European-grain, for increase and hardness, 
and especially Olive-Trees and several sorts of European- 
Grapes. The necessarys for Husbandry I need not acquaint 
the Husbandman withal, but Hoes, of all sorts, and Axes 
must be had, Saws, Wedges, Augurs, Nails, Hammers, and 
what other things may be necessary to build with Timber 
and Brick. For whoever reads this Treatise with attention, 
must needs be acquainted with the nature of the Country, 
and therefore cannot but be Judges what will be chiefly 
wanting in it. 

Whoever goes to this Province need not complain for want 
of Lands for taking up, even in places most delightfully 
seated on navigable Rivers and Creeks, without being driven 
to remote parts of the Country for settlements, as at present 
they are forced to do in New-England, and several other 
English provinces in America, which are already become so 
populous, that a new comer cannot get a beneficial and com- 
odious seat, unless he purchases it at a very dear rate. 

Another great advantage here is, that there is liberty of 
Conscience (as I said before) allowed to all. These things 
being duly weighed, any rational Man that has a mind to 
purchase Lands for a Settlement for himself and Family, 
will soon discover the advantages that attend the settlers and 
purchasers of Lands here above all the other Provinces in 

Kk ^ the 

260 772^ Natural History 

the English Dominions in America^ for Ease, Pleasure, Sat- 
isfaction, and all necessaries of Life. 

And as several parts of Europe may be admired for its 
artificial, so may Carolina for its natural Beauty; for the 
Country in general is level, except some Hills near the Cher- 
okee and Appelapean Mountains, and most agreeably diversi- 
fied with fine arable Lands, producing vast increase, and two 
Crops in one Season, with large and spacious Savannes or 
Meadows, most beautifully adorn'd with variety of Odorifer- 
ous and fine Flowers, intermixt with plenty of good Grass for 
Pasture for Cattle. The large Woods and Forests with their 
Lofty Trees and spreading Vines of various sorts, affording 
not only refreshing, but most pleasant shades to sit under in 
the extremity of the hot Weather, and likewise abounding 
with various kinds of wild Beasts and Birds, which are pre- 
served in them, not only for diversion of Hunting, but like- 
wise convenient and profitable for the support of Man. 

And Lastly, the large and ITavigable Bivers and Creeks 
that are to be met with watring and adorning this Country, 
well stored with vast quantities of Pish and Water-Fowl. 
These ornaments and many advantages which it enjoys, 
makes it one of the pleasantest places in the World to live in, 
Sed, Nescio qua natale solum dulcedine capto ducit & Im- 
memores non sinit esse sui. They make very necessary Ves- 
sels for carriage of their Commodities by Water, which are 
called in these parts Periaugers and Canoes, which are the 
Boats made use of in this Country, and are generally made 
out of one peice of large Timber, and that most commonly 
of the Cypress kind, which they make hollow and shaped 
like a Boat, with Masts, Oars, and Padles, according to their 
size and bigness. Some of these Periaugers, are so large 
that they are capable of carrying forty or fifty Barrels of 


of North Carolina. 261 

Pitch or Tar. In these Vessels likewise they carry Goods, 
Horses, and other Cattle from one Plantation to another 
over large and spacious Eivers; they frequently trade in 
them to Virginia and other places on this continent, no Ves- 
sel of the same Burthen made after the European manner is 
able to out Sail one of these Periaugers. 

The Canoes are of less Burthen than the former, some will 
carry two or three Horses over these large Kivers, and others 
so small that they will carry only two or three Men. These 
are more ticklish than Boats, but no Boat in the World is 
capable to be rowed as fast as they are, and when they are 
full of Water they will not sink, and not only the Indians 
but even the Christians are very dexterous in managing of 

Before the arrival of the Christians in these parts (as I 
have been credibly inform'd) the Indians had no other 
Method in making these Periaugers and Canoes, but by 
Fire, burning them hollow with Gums and Eosins and 
scraping them with sharp Stones or Shells, prepared for that 
use, according to the shape and size they proposed to make 
them, having neither Handsaws, Axes, Adds, Chizel, or any 
other Instruments made of Iron or Steel, wherewith to fash- 
ion or make them; but at present they have all manner of 
Instruments proper for such uses, which they have purchased 
from the Christians. It is most certain, that no People in 
the World are more handy and dexterous in managing their 
Periaugers, and Canoes, with either Sail, Oar, or Paddle, 
than they are; and when ever it happens that their Canoes 
are full of Water, they will very nimbly leap out, and hold- 
ing the Canoe with one Hand, throw out the Water with a 
Gourd with the other, and so proceed on their intended Voy- 
age. They likewise very often set their Periaugers and 
Canoes, along the Shear with long Poles. 


262 The Natural Historic 

The Land Carriages are much after the same manner as 
those with us; there being not only plenty of Horses, but 
likewise of Carts and Waggons, and several other Necessa- 
ries convenient for Carrying all manner of Commodities by 
Land from one place to another. 

The Eoads are as good as in most parts of the World, and 
the travelling as pleasant, especially the Road from Eden- 
town to Virginia, being made broad and convenient, for all 
sorts of Carriages, such as Coaches, Chaises, Waggons and 
Carts, and especially for Horsemen, these Lands lying so 
level, and the beautiful and delightful Objects they are en- 
tertained with in their Journey, render it both amusing and 
diverting. What is remarkable is, that traveling from Eden- 
town to Virginia, there is a Post set up in the Division be- 
tween those two Provinces, with North Carolina on the 
South, and Virginia on the I^orth, in large Capital Letters, 
to shew to all Travellers the Bounds between those two 

In other parts the Roads are more like Paths than any 
publick Road, only that they are made broad enough for 
Coach, Chaises, and all manner of Carriages. But this is 
a general Rule to be observed throughout all America, that 
wherever you meet any of those Paths like Roads, with the 
Trees marked or notched on each side, it is a sure sign that 
it is the publick Road from one Christian Town to another. 
^Notwithstanding there are several Paths of Horses, Cows, 
and other Beasts in the Woods, as large as the former, which 
are to be avoided, by reason that the Trees are not marked as 
above ; neither do the Indians ever use this Method in making 
their Roads, having some secret Knowledge to guide them 
through these large Woods, which we are entire Strangers 
to; so that several Christians not knowing, or regardless of 
these Marks, have been for several Days lost in the Woods, 


of North Carolina. 263 

before they could come to any Planters House, or meet with 
any Person to inform them which way to go; yet I never 
heard of any perish for want of Provisions, under these mis- 
fortunes, there being not only great Plenty of several good 
Fruits to be met with, all over the Woods most parts of the 
year, but likewise variety of Birds and Beasts, necessary for 
the support of Life; but I have known some lost for eight, 
others for fourteen Days, before they could meet with any 
human Creature to inform them what part of the Province 
they were in. 

The Negroes sometimes make use of these Advantages in 
the Woods, where they will stay for Months together before 
they can be found out by their Masters, or any other Person ; 
and great E'umbers of them would act after the same man- 
ner (which would be detrimental to the Planters) were they 
not so much afraid of the Indians, who have such a natural 
aversion to the Blacks, that they commonly shoot them when 
ever they find them in the Woods or solitary parts of the 

There are no Wind-Mills in this Province at present, and 
not above two or three W^ater-Mills, which are for the most 
part continually grinding their Wheat; for the small Sloops 
and Periaugers are continually coming and going with Corn 
and Flower : But the common method that the Planters use 
to grind their Corn is with Hand-Mills, which almost every 
one of them has. The Stones for these Mills are got up the 
Kiver Neiis, which are very soft when dug out of the Earth, 
but grow exceeding hard and durable after they are some 
time in the Air, and are serviceable upon these occasions. 
These Stones seem more like a parcel of Oyster-shells petri- 
fied, than any natural Stone, for through the whole Grain of 
this Stone there is no other appearance, but the exact shape 


264 The Natural Histoid 

of the Oystershells. Of this kind of Stone there are several 
Quarries and Rocks to be met with towards the Heads of the 
Rivers; notwithstanding there is plenty of Free-Stone near 
the Mountains, and most kinds of Greet proper to make 
Millstones, yet the former being so easily acquired, are only 
made use of at present, except some few brought from Eng- 
laiid, for their Water-Mills. The Proprietors of these Mills 
take most commonly every other Barrel as Toll, for grinding ; 
but the Laws of the Country allow only every sixth. 

There are abundance of excellent good Springs to be met 
with in several parts of this Province, abounding with as 
sweet and fresh Waters as any in Europe, and especially 
near the Mountains, in which there can be none better. The 
Lands near these parts being for the most part very rich, 
with an extraordinary black Mold, some of a Copper colour, 
and both very good. Here are likewise great quantities of 
Iron Mine, several sorts of Stone, divers kinds of Spaws, 
and chaliheat Springs, the Water whereof being drank, make 
the Excrements as black as Ink by its chaliheat Quality. 

It is very remarkable, at certain seasons of the Year, but 
especially in Winter, as Persons travel up near the Moun- 
tains, they hear at E'ight the most hideous and strange Noise, 
that ever pierced mortals Ear, which at first was very fright- 
ful to us, 'till such time as we were informed by our Indian 
Guides, that this !N^oise is customary in those parts there 
being innumerable numbers of Panthers, Tygers, Wolves, 
and other Beasts of Prey, going in whole droves to hunt the 
Deer, making this frightful N'oise all the Night, until Day 
appears, or that a Shot or two is fired, then all will be still 
and quiet. There are several large Swamps to be met with 
here, which are the Habitation of those wild Beasts, where 


of North Carolina. 265 

they make their abode in the Day, at which time they are 
not to be seen or heard in the Woods. 

But these kind of wild Beasts are not very plenty (except 
the Wolves) near the Settlements, the Planters continually 
destroying them as they hunt and travel in the Woods, and 
in process of time will be lessened as this Country begins to 
be better Inhabited. This Country affords many and large 
Swamps, which are generally overflowed or under Water in 
the Winter, yet I never met with any Bogs, but plenty of 
good Pit Coal in many places, of which they make no man- 
ner of use at present, all kind of Timber being so plenty, and 
proper for fireing; so that all other kinds of Fuel are dis- 
regarded and made no use of by the Inhabitants of this 

It will not be improper, in this place, to give an account 
how the Turpentine, Tar, Pitch, and Rosin are made, being 
all the produce of one Tree, and a very good Stable Commod- 
ity in these parts. The Planters make their Servants or 
Negroes cut large Cavities on each side of the Pitch-Pine 
Tree (which they term Boxing of the Tree) wherein the 
Turpentine runs, and the Negroes with Ladles take it out 
and put it into Barrels : These Trees continue thus running 
most commonly for three Years, and then decay, but in proc- 
ess of time fall to the Ground, which is what they call 
Light-Wood, of which their Pitch and Tar is made, (viz.) 

The Planters at certain Seasons of the Year, and espe- 
cially in Winter, make their Negroes gather great quantities 
of this Light-ivood, which they split about the thickness of the 
small of a Man's Leg, and two or three Feet in length ; when 
they have got a sufficient quantity of it in readiness, they set 
their Kilns on some rising Ground or Earth thro'svn up for 
that purpose, in the center whereof they make a hollow 

LI place. 

266 The Natural Histoid 

place, from whence they draw a Funnel some distance from 
the Kiln. Then they take the Light-wood which they pile 
up with the ends of each, placed slanting towards the center 
of the Kiln, which is generally made taper from the Ground, 
afterwards they cover it very secure with Clay, Earth, or 
Sods, to keep in the Flames, after this is done they set it on 
fire at the Top, the Weather permitting, which must be 
neither too dry nor too wet. By this means the Tar runs 
into the center, and from thence into the Funnel, where they 
attend Night and Day (with Ladles to put it into Barrels 
prepared for that purpose) till the Kiln is quite burnt out, 
which is generally in eight and forty Hours or less, accord- 
ing to the dimensions of the Kiln. It sometimes happens 
through ill management, and especially in too dry Weather, 
that these Kilns are blown up as if a train of Gun-powder 
had been laid under them by which Accident their Negroes 
have been very much burnt or scalded. The Planters gener- 
ally know very near what quantity of Tar each of their 
Kilns will produce, according to their dimensions, for which 
reason they are always provided with a sufficient ^NTumber 
of Barrels for that end. 

The Pitch is made of the Tar, which is done in the follow- 
ing manner. They have large Furnaces made in several 
parts, and more now than ever, by reason of a late act of 
Parliament made in the Reign of his present Majesty, which 
obliges every Person or Persons that burn Tar-hilns in his 
Majesties dominions in America to make half of the first 
running into Tar, and the other half into Pitch, the penalty 
being a forfeture of the whole. With this second runnirg 
they fill their furnaces, and so place a fire underneath it till 
such time as it begins to boyl, then they set it on fire and 
burn it to the consistence of Pitch. 


of North Carolina. 267 

The Rosin is very scarce in these parts, few giving them- 
selves the trouble; but when made, it is done after the follow- 
ing manner, viz. Take Turpentine, as much as you think 
proper, put it into an Alemhick or a Copper Vesica, with four 
times its weight of fair Water, and distil it, which will pro- 
duce a thin and clear Oil like Water, and at the bottom of the 
Vessel will remain the Rosin. The Indians never make 
either Pitch, Tar or Turpentine, ranging and hunting con- 
tinually through the Woods, being all the Industry they are 
given to, except they plant some small quantity of Indian 
Corn or Maiz, and dress their Deer-Skins, being as well satis- 
fied with this way of living as any among us, who by his 
Industry has acquired immense Treasure. 

I will in the next place give an account of those that are 
Transported to these parts from Europe, and the many ad- 
vantages that attend them in this Province, according to 
their good behaviour. These are indented for such a limita- 
tion of time, as appears by each of their Indentures, and are 
disposed and made Servants of during that time, each of 
them being more or less regarded according to their good or 
bad behaviour, and the reason of their being Transported. 
N^either can any Servant give a second Indenture on himself 
before he is out of his Apprentiship, and a Free-man in the 
Country ; then he is at his Liberty to make what bargain he 
pleases, but before that time all contracts made by him are 
void and of no effect. For by only applying to any of their 
Courts, he is immediately discharged and set free, notwith- 
standing he has received a gratuity (from the Planter who 
claims him) for so doing. This being an established law of 
the Country to prevent Masters taking advantage of their 
Servants before they have obtained their freedom. As soon 

LI 2 as 

268 The Natural History 

as they have fullfill'd the Obligation of their Indentures, 
and are become Free-men, their Masters are obliged on their 
parts to give each Man Servant a new Suit of Cloaths, a Gun, 
Powder, Shot, Ball and ten Bushels of Indian Corn, and by 
the Laws of the Country, they are entitled to fifty Acres of 
Land, which they seldom take up, but dispose of for Trifles, 
this quantity of Land being too small for large Stocks of 
Cattle (which most Planters here are possessed of) or to 
make Pitch and Tar on, which is another Staple of this 
Country, so that an Instance of this !N'ature is not to be met 
with in this Province. 

Thus they appear after they have served their time and 
have obtained their freedom, having no other visible For- 
tune to depend upon or support them except their Industry. 
The Question then may be reasonably asked, how it is possi- 
ble for them to live, or make Fortunes from such small and 
despicable beginnings ? Concerning which Objection, I shall 
thus endeavour to satisfie the Header. 

Those that are thus made Free-men, their former JMasters 
generally give a Character of them, according to their good 
or bad behaviour during their Apprentiship, and those that 
have acted with prudence, care, and good conduct, whilst 
they were Servants never are at a loss to meet with the best 
usage from their Masters, who recommend them to other 
planters (if they have no Imployment for them) to be their 
Stewards, or overseers of their Plantations (several of the 
Planters of this Country having many) wherein are gener- 
ally great Stocks of Cattle, Horses, and Swine. 

The overseer being thus employed, his business is to mar\ 
all the Calves, Foles, and young Pigs, with the Planters 
Mark or Brand, every Planter having his Brand or Mark 
recorded in proper Books, kept for that purpose in each Pre- 

of North Carolina. 269 

cinct or Barony throughout this Province. This is done to 
prevent the Planters having any disputes about any of these 
Beasts, each Planter claiming by these marks nothing but 
what is justly his own, and if there be any Negroes, to see 
them perform whatever Work the Planter requires to be 
done; this being chiefly what the Overseer is employed in, 
for which Service he is allowed every seventh Calf, seventh 
Fole, and half of all the young Hogs that are bred during 
his Stewardship, and likewise the seventh part of all sorts of 
Grain and Tobacco that is produced on the said Plantation. 
Whatever quantity of Corn, Rice or Tobacco he plants by 
his own Industry, is all his own Property, the Master hav- 
ing nothing to do with it. Thus in three or four Years time, 
with good management, he has a sufficient Stock of Cattle, 
Grain, Money, and all other E'ecessaries proper to purchase 
a Plantation, by which means many are become as wealthy 
and substantial Planters, as any in the Government. But I 
must confess, that few are such good Proficients in this way 
of Industry, notwithstanding there are such considerable ad- 
vantages to be acquired thereby. But on the contrary, those 
of ill behaviour, and such as have been negligent in their 
Apprentiship, are not thus recommended, but generally get 
their livelyhood by the sweat of their Brow, yet live after a 
very loose and indolent manner; for if they work two Days 
in the Week, they generally drink and are idle all the rest 
(Provisions and Liquors being so very cheap) and are rather 
greater Slaves when made free, than they were during their 
Apprentiship, never making any advantage of their Time. 
Thus, I hope I have satisfied the Reader as to this Point. 

I shall only mention one particular in regard to these Ser- 
vants or Transports, which I had like to have omitted; 
which is, that they run away from their Masters, to prevent 


270 The Natural Historic 

which there is a Law made in this Country, whereby those 
that run away are obliged (if apprehended and taken, as 
they generally are) to serve double the time they are absent 
from their Masters; this they are obliged to perform after 
the expiration of their Indentures, which is done to prevent 
their running away before they have served their time, 
which so deters them, that they are not so guilty of this kind 
of Practice of late, as formerly. 

Few Masters of Ships will venture to carry on board their 
Vessels any of these Servants or Debtors from this, or any 
other of the Provinces, without their giving sufficient secu- 
rity that they are not in Debt, and Preemen, or publish an 
Advertisement sometime before their departure out of the 
Province; wherein they require all Person that they are 
indebted to. To come, and they will 'pay them what they can 
make appear to he justly due. And likewise. That all Per- 
sons indebted to them, are desired to come and pay them 
before they quit the Country, in such or such a Ship. This 
being the Substance of this Advertisement, which is fixed on 
their Court-House Door, for all Persons to peruse. These 
Obligations being thus performed, they are at their Liberty 
to go where they please, and the Masters liable to no Pen- 
alty; but if they should act contrary to the Laws (and they 
be discovered) both their Persons and Ships are liable to be 
arrested, and subject to pay whatever the Creditors can make 
appear due to them, or any other Losses they have sustained 
thereby. E'otwithstanding all these Laws, some of them run 
away, and when they are taken, like the Negroes, have [N'eck- 
yoaks put on them, which they constantly wear, 'till they 
give sufficient Testimonies of their good behaviour to the 
contrary. Several Instances of this Nature I have been 
Eye-witness to during my stay in that Country. 


of North Carolina. 271 

There is an Office here which is worth our JSotice, viz. 
the Gimpowder-Office, which hath continued ever since the 
last War with the Indians, at which time there was a Law 
made, by which all Vessels trading to those Parts were liable 
to pay three Shillings and four Pence, Carolina Money per 
Ton, or the Value in Gun Powder, except the said Vessel 
was built in the Country, or that the Merchant had a Planta- 
tion there, then the Vessels were liable to pay half Pees, or 
one Shilling and eight Pence per Ton to the Powder-Office. 
The lessening of these Fees was to encourage Merchants to 
build and settle in this Country. They nominated at their 
General Assemblies such Persons as they judged proper in 
each County to receive the said Pees, which were to be laid 
out in a sufficient Magazine or Store of Gunpowder, which 
was to be always in readiness for the use of the Christians 
against the Indians, whenever they made any Attempts, 
which there is no danger of their ever doing for the future ; 
yet this Office continued 'till the Year 1733, being about that 
time laid aside as unnecessary, as I have been informed 
since my return from those parts. 

The Planters are very Hospitable and Charitable to each 
other, and especially if any have had the misfortune to have 
their Houses burnt, or any other grievous Affliction befall 
them. On these occasions they readily contribute to make 
up the loss of the Sufferers, whereby they generally become 
more wealthy than they were before this misfortune hap- 

Thus have I given an Account of the Advantages and Dis- 
advantages that attend the Christian Inhabitants of this 
Pro\dnce ; having nothing more in view than to satisfie my 
Readers with the best Account I could learn (during my 
Residence there) I shall proceed to give a short Account of 


272 The Natural History 

the Negroes or Blacks, together with a Description of the 
Indians, and the Laws and Customs now in force and use 
amongst them. 

The NEGROES are sold on the Coast of Guinea, to Mer- 
chants trading to those Parts, are brought from thence to 
Carolina, Virginia, and other Provinces in the hands of the 
English, are daily increasing in this Country, and generally 
afford a good Price, viz. more or less according to their Good- 
ness and Age, and are always sure Commodities for Gold 
or Silver, most other things being purchased with their 
Paper Money. Some of them are sold at sixteen, twenty five, 
or twenty six Pounds sterl. each, and are looked upon as the 
greatest Piches in these Parts. There are great Numbers 
of them born here, which prove more industrious, honest, 
and better Slaves than any brought from Guinea; this is 
particularly owing to their Education amongst the Chris- 
tians, which very much polishes and refines them from their 
barbarous and stubborn Natures that they are most com- 
monly endued with. I have frequently seen them whipt to 
that degree, that large pieces of their Skin have been hanging 
down their Backs ; yet I never observed one of them shed a 
Tear, which plainly shews them to be a People of very harsh 
and stubborn Dispositions. 

There are several Laws made against them in this Prov- 
ince to keep them in Subjection, and particularly one, viz. 
That if a Negroe cut or wound his Master or a Christian 
with any unlawful Weapon, such as a ^Sword, Scymiter, or 
even a Knife, and there is Blood-shed, if it is known amoi.gst 
the Planters, they immediately meet and order him to be 
hanged, which is always performed by another Negroe, and 
generally the Planters bring most of their Negroes with them 


of North Carolina. 273 

to behold their fellow iX^e^roe suffer, to deter them from the 
like vile Practice. This Law may seem to be too harsh 
amongst us, to put a Man to death for Blood-shed only, yet 
if the severest Laws were not strictly put in execution against 
these People, they would soon overcome the Christians in 
this and most of the other Provinces in the Hands of the 

jSTotwithstanding the many severe Laws in force against 
them, yet they sometimes rise and Eebel against their Mas- 
ters and Planters, and do a great deal of mischief, being 
both treacherous and cruel in their ]^atures, so that mild 
Laws would be of no use against them when any favourable 
Opportunity offered of executing their barbarities upon the 
Christians, as hath been too well experienced in Virginia, 
and other Places, where they have rebelled and destroyed 
many Families. 

When thev have been sTiiltv of these barbarous and dis- 
obedient Proceedings, they generally fly to the Woods, but 
as soon as the Indians have ^N'otice from the Christians of 
their being there, they disperse them; killing some, others 
flying for Mercy to the Christians (whom they have injured) 
rather than fall into the others Hands, who have a natural 
aversion to the Blacks, and put them to death with the most 
exquisite Tortures they can invent, whenever they catch 

When any of these Negroes are put to death by the Laws of 
the Country, the Planters suffer little or nothing by it, for 
the Province is obliged to pay the full value they judge 
them worth to the Owner; this is the common Custom or 
Law in this Province, to prevent the Planters being ruined 
by the loss of their Slaves, whom they have purchased at so 
dear a rate ; neither is this too burthensom, for I never knew 
but one put to death here for wounding, and after attempting 

18 Mm to 

274 The Natural Historg 

to kill his Master, who used all Means he could to save his 
Life, but to no purpose, for the Country insisted on having 
the Law put in execution against him. 

The Negroes that most commonly rebel, are those brought 
from Guinea, who have been inured to War and Hardship 
all their lives ; few born here, or in the other Provinces have 
been guilty of these vile Practices, except over-persuaded by 
the former, whose Designs they have sometimes discovered to 
the Christians; some of whom have been rewarded with 
their Freedom for their good Services ; but the Peader must 
observe, that they are not allowed to be Witnesses in any 
Cases whatever, only against one another. 

There are some Christians so charitable as to have the 
Negroes born in the Country, baptized and instructed in the 
Christian Faith in their Infancy, which gives them an ab- 
horance of the Temper and Practice of those who are brought 
from Guinea, This Freedom does not in the least exempt 
them from their Master's Servitude, whatever others may 
imagine to the contrary, who believe them to be at their own 
Liberty as soon as they have received Baptism. The Plan- 
ters call these Negroes thus Baptized, by any whimsical 
Name their Fancy suggests, as Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Diana, 
Strawberry, Violet, Drunkard, Beaddy Money, Piper, Fid- 
ler, &c. 

Their Marriages are generally performed amongst them- 
selves, there being very little ceremony used upon that Head ; 
for the Man makes the Woman a Present, such as a Brass 
Bing or some other Toy, which if she accepts of, becomes his 
Wife; but if ever they part frOm each other, which fre- 
quently happens, upon any little Disgust, she returns his 
Present: These kind of Contracts no longer binding them, 
than the Woman keeps the Pledge given her. It frequently 


of North Carolina. 275 

happens, when these Women have no Children by the first 
Husband, after being a Year or two cohabiting together, the 
Planters oblige them to take a second, third, fourth, fifth, or 
more Husbands or Bedfellows; a fruitful Woman amongst 
them being very much valued by the Planters, and a numer- 
ous Issue esteemed the greatest Riches in this Country. The 
Children all go with the Mother, and are the Property of the 
Planter to w^hom she belongs. And though they have no 
other Ceremony in their Marriages than what I have repre- 
sented, yet they seem to be Jealously inclined, and fight 
most desperately amongst themselves when they Rival each 
other, w^hich they commonly do. 

Their Children are carefully brought up, and provided 
for by the Planters, 'till they are able to work in the Planta- 
tions, where they have convenient Houses built for them, 
and they are allowed to plant a sufficient quantity of Tobacco 
for their own use, a part of which they sell, and likewise on 
Sundays, they gather Snake-Root, otherwise it would be ex- 
cessive dear if the Christians were to gather it ; with this and 
the Tobacco they buy Hats, and other Necessaries for them- 
selves, as Linnen, Bracelets, Ribbons, and several other Toys 
for their Wives and Mistresses. 

There are abundance of them given to Theft, and fre- 
quently steal from each other, and sometimes from the Chris- 
tians, especially Rum, with which they entertain their Wives 
and Mistresses at E'ight, but are often detected and punished 
for it. 

There are several Blacks born here that can Read and 
Write, others that are bred to Trades, and prove good Artists 
in many of them. Others are bred to no Trades, but are 
very industrious and laborious in improving their Planta- 
tions, planting abundance of Corn, Rice and Tobacco, and 

Mm 2 making 


The Natural Historg 

making vast Quantities of Turpentine, Tar, and Pitch, be- 
ing better able to undergo fatigues in the extremity of the 
hot Weather than any Europeans. 

The Children of both Sexes wear little or no Cloaths, ex- 
cept in the Winter, and many of the young Men and Women 
work stark naked in the Plantations in the hot Season, ex- 
cept a piece of Cloath (out of decency) to cover their ISTaked- 
ness ; upon which Account they are not very expensive to the 
Planters for their Cloathing. The Planters at their Death 
used to make some of their favourite Negroes free, but there 
is now an established Law (especially in Virginia) that if 
they do not quit the Province in about Eleven Days after 
their Freedom, whoever takes them they become his Prop- 
erty; but before the expiration of that time they either go 
to another Province, or sell themselves to the Christians. 
The Planters seeing the Inconveniencies that might attend 
these kind of Priviledges to the Negroes, have this and all 
other Laws against them continually put in practice, to pre- 
vent all Opportunities they might lay hold of to make them- 
selves formidable. 


of North Carolina. 





THE Indians, it's well known were the Natives and In- 
habitants of America before the Spaniards and Euro- 
peans made any discoveries of several parts of that 
Country. Amongst whom are several different Nations and 
Kings to this Day. What is very surprizing and strange is, 
that scarce any two N^ations to be met with, spake the same 
Language, though they live ever so near to each other, this be- 
ing a common thing all over this new World, as far as ever I 
cou'd be Informed. What shou'd occasion such a Diversity 
of Languages or Speeches amongst the Savages, is what most 
writers can hardly account for. But to return, the Indians 
of North-Carolina, are a well shaped clean made People, of 


278 The Natural Historic 

different Statures as the Europeans are, but chiefly inclined 
to be tall, are very streight and neat limb'd as are to be met 
with in any part of the World, they never bend forwards or 
stoop in the Shoulders, except they are much over powered 
with old Age, as for their Legs and Feet they are as well 
proportioned and as handsome, as any in the World. They 
are of a strong hale Constitution, and their Bodies very 
streight, but a little flat, which is occasioned by their being 
laced or tyed hard down upon a board in their Infancy, this 
being all their Cradle, which I shall describe in another 

Their Eyes are full and Manly, and of a black or dark 
Hazel colour, the White marbled with Red Strakes, which is 
always common amongst these People, unless they have 
either a white Father or Mother. 

Their Colour is Tawny, which wou'd not be so dark did 
they not daub themselves so often with Bears-Oil, and a 
Colour like Burnt-Corh, which they practice from their In- 
fancy, and continue so to do most part of their lives, it fills 
up the pores, and enables them the better to endure the 
Weather, and prevents most sorts of Insects and Vermin to 
be any wise troublesome to them. They are never to be met 
with Heads bald, though very Old, which I am perswaded is 
occasioned by their Heads being always uncovered, and 
greasing their Hair and other Parts so often as the do with 
Bears-fat, which undoubtedly is a great nourisher of the 
Hair, and causeth it to grow so very fast. Amongst the 
Bears Oil (when they intend to be fine) they mix a certain 
red Powder that is produced from a kind of Scarlet Root ihat 
they get in the Hilly Country, near the foot of the great 
ridge of Mountains, and as it is reported by them, is no 
where else to be found. They have this Scarlet Root in great 
Esteem, and sell it at a great Price one to another, and the 


of North Carolina. 279 

Eeason of it's being so very valuable is, because they not only 
go a great way for it, but are likewise in great Danger of the 
Vinegars, or Iroquois, who are mortal Enemies to all our 
civilized Indians, and are very often by them or others before 
their return from this Voyage, made their Captives or killed. 
The Tuskeruros and other Indians, have frequently brought 
the Seeds of this Plant from the Mountains, but it would 
never grow in our Land, delighting no where but in the Hilly 
and Mountainous parts ; with this and the Bears-grease they 
anoint their Heads and Temples, which is esteemed as Orna- 
mental as Oil and sweet Powder, or any other thing we can 
use to our Hair; besides it has the Virtues to kill Lice, and 
suffer none to abide in their Heads. For want of this Eoot, 
they sometimes use a Root called Pecoon, which is of a Crim- 
son colour, but apt to die the Hair of an ugly Hue, they like- 
wise make use of an Herb called Wasehur, and small Roots 
called Chappacor, and the Bark of a Tree called Tango- 
mockonominge; all these are Dyes for several sorts of Eeds, 
which the Indians use to paint their Faces, Matts and Bas- 
kets with, but whether they would prove good in Cloath, is 
not yet known. This, I am certain of, that one of our civil- 
ized Indians brought me a handful of dryed Flowers and de- 
sired me to put them in a large Sausepan filled with Water, 
and boil them with a piece of Linnen Cloath, which made it 
have such a deep Purple Colour, that the same could not be 
discharged by any Method used, but the oftner it was washed, 
the more beautiful and lively it appeared; the Indian would 
by no means discover the plants the said Flower grew upon, 
but assured me, that he would procure any Person what 
quantity they pleased, if they would but satisfie him for his 
Trouble. They not only paint themselves Red, but with 


280 The Natural History 

many other Colours, such as Black, Green, Blue, and White, 
by which they represent all the Affairs in Life, such as War, 
Peace, Feasts, Death, and the like. 

They generally let the Hair on their Heads grow very 
long, which is lank, thick, and the strongest of any People 
I have ever met with, and as black as Jet. They always 
travel bare-headed, having neither Hats, or any artificial 
Covering for those Parts, except it be their civilized Kings 
and War Captains, who of late wear Hats, especially when 
they visit the Christians. Those who have represented the 
Savages as rough as Beasts, have never had the Opportunity 
of seeing them, for they have naturally but little or no 
Beards, or Hairs on their Faces, and very seldonie under 
their Arm-pits, which 'tis said they continually pluck out by 
the Root as it begins to grow. !N^either have they any upon 
their Privities, except some few that wear Brieeches or Tail- 
clouts, however, though these People are generally smooth 
and free from Hair, yet I have known some that were old, 
hairy down their Backs, and those Hairs very long : It is to 
be observed, that the Head of the Penis is covered through- 
out the whole E'ations of the Indians that I ever saw; I am 
credibly informed, that this is common with all, both old 
and younng in America. They have extraordinary good 
Teeth, but generally of a yellowish Colour, occasioned by 
their smoaking Tobacco, which they are very much addicted 
to ; this Plant they report to have had, many ages before the 
arrival of the Christians amongst them. 

They never cut or pair their I^ails, but let them grow 
very long, saying, that that is the use they were made for, 
and laugh at the Europeans for pairing theirs, long [N'ails 
being always esteemed amongst them as a Beauty, Avhich the 
Dancers at their Feasts generally have, who rather represent 


of North Carolina. 281 

the tigure of Harpies than Men, with these kiud of (Jrua- 
ments. They have long and taper Fingers as any People 
whatsoever, and it is to be admired how dexterous and steady 
they are in their Hands and Feet, for they will walk over 
deep Brooks and Creeks on the smallest Poles, and that with- 
out any Fear or Concern, which no People in these Parts 
can perform but themselves. I have seen an Indian walk on 
the ridge of a House without any manner of fear, and look 
from off the Gable, and spit do^vn as unconcerned as if he 
had been walking on Terra Firnia; as for Running, Leaping, 
or any such like Exercise, their Legs seldom fail or miscarry, 
so as to give them a fall; as for letting any thing fall out of 
their Hands, I never knew an Example. Their Gate is very 
upright and majestick, neither are they ever seen to walk 
backwards and forwards as we do, or contemplate on the 
Affairs of Loss and Gain, and many other things which daily 
perplex us. It is this steadiness in their Limbs (which are 
as well proportioned and as handsom as any in the World) 
that makes them so dexterous at the Gun, for it is remarkable 
that these People generally shoot and kill their Game with 
one single Ball, and the Boys with their Bows and Arrows 
are so well experienced in that kind of Exercise, that they 
will kill a Bird flying, or a Deer running, with as much cer- 
tainty, as others with a Gun, of which I have been an Eye- 

They have no manner of Musical Instruments, such as 
Pipe, Fiddle, or any other Arts, Sciences, or Trades, worth 
mentioning, amongst them, which may be owing to their 
careless way of living, taking little or no Pains to provide 
for the Necessaries of Life, as the Europeans do. They will 
learn any thing very soon, and seem to be indued with very 
good Genius's, for I have seen several Guns Stocked by 

Xn them. 

282 The Natural Historg 

them, better than most of our Joyners, having no Instrmnent 
or Tool to work with only a short Knife : I have likewise 
known several of them that were taken Prisoners in the last 
War, and made Slaves to the English, learn handycraft 
Trades well and speedily. 

I never saw a Dwarf amongst them, and only one that was 
Hump-back'd. Though the Indians are a tall People, yet 
they are not of so robust and strong Bodies as to lift great 
Burthens, to endure hard Labour, or slavish Work, as the 
Europeans do, yet some that are Slaves prove very indus- 
trious and laborious. Amongst themselves they never work, 
taking little or no care or pains, but what is absolutely neces- 
sary to support Life, the Grandure and Riches of this 
World being utterly despised by them. 

The Indians in North Carolina that live near the Planters, 
are but few (as I observed before) not exceeding Fifteen or 
Sixteen hundred Men, Women and Children, and those in 
good harmony with the English, with whom they constantly 
trade ; yet near the Mountains they are very numerous and 
powerful, but have little or no fire Arms amongst them, so 
that the three following King's are not so much in dread or 
fear of those near the Mountains as they formerly were, 
since they have furnished themselves with Fire- Arms from 
the Europeans, because they can kill at greater distances with 
their Guns, than the other can with their Bows and Arrows. 

They have three Paricossi/s, or Indian Kings in this Prov- 
ince, who are civilized, viz. King Blunt, King Durant, and 
King Highter; but they may rather be compared to Heads 
of Clans than Kings, according to their Appearances. I 
have frequently seen and conversed with these three Kings, 
whose Dresses were as follows: 


of North Carolina. 283 

King- Bluni appeared before the Governour to pay his Tril^ 
lite, which he, as well as the rest, generally do once or twice 
every Year; and this Tribute is a quantity of Deer-Skins, 
dressed after the Indian manner. 

Complements being passed between him and the Gov- 
ernour (which I shall describe in another place) they were 
desired to sit down and dine with his Excellency, which all 
of them generally do, whenever they come to Town, where 
the Governour is: Several Discourses past between them, 
and amongst other things, that they were afraid of the 
Sinagars, or Irequois Indians (who are not in subjection to 
the English) coming to invade them, and desiring the Assist- 
ance of the Governour, if there should be any Occasion, 
which he assured them of. Dinner being ended, the Glass 
went round very merrily, and whenever they drank to the 
Governour, they always stiled him by the 'Name of Brother. 
These three Kings speak English tolerably well, and are very 
wary and cunning in their Discourses, and you would be sur- 
prised to hear what subtile and witty Answers they made 
to each Question proposed to them, notwithstanding they are 
in general Illiterate People, having no Letters or Learning 
to improve them. 

King Blunt being the most powerful of these I have men- 
tioned, had a Suit of English Broadcloth on, and a pair of 
Women's Stockings, of a blue Colour, with white Clocks, a 
tolerable good Shirt, Cravat, Shoes, Hat, (&c. 

King Durant had on an old Blue Livery, the Wastecoat 
having some remains of Silver Lace, with all other Neces- 
saries fit for wearing Apparel such as Shirt, Stockings, 
Shoes, &c. made after the English manner. 

King Highter had on a Soldiers red Coat, Wastecoat, and 
Breeches, with all other conveniences for wearing Apparel, 


284 The Natural History 

like the former: And it is to be observed, that after their 
return home to their Towns, that they never wear these 
Cloaths till they make the next State Visit amongst the 

After this manner appeared the three civilized Kings, 
with each of them his Queen, Children, Physician, Captains 
of War, and his Guards. After Dinner was over, the Gov- 
ernour ordered Bum for the Queens, and the rest of the Ret- 
inue, who remained at some distance from the Governours 
House during the time the Kings were in Company with 
him. In a few Hours after they all withdrew from the 
Governours House, and went into Town to dispose of their 
Deer-Shins that were remaining, for Blankets, Guns, Pow- 
der, Shot, Ball, and other ^N^ecessaries they had occasion for, 
and especially Bum, whereof they are very fond. 

What is worthy of Observation amongst the whole Het- 
inue, is this. That you shall not see two but what have some 
Mark to distinguish them from each other; sometimes very 
long black Hair, with several bits of Stuff, such as Gr^een, 
Blue, Bed, White, and Yellow, tied in it; others with their 
Hair cut close, only a Circle left on the Head, the Hair 
whereof is about half an Inch longer than the rest. Others 
with several Marks in different parts of their Bodies and 
Faces, as if they had been marked with Gun-Powder, so that 
if you see an hundred of them, you shall always observe some 
difference in each of them, either in their Painting, Tonsure 
of their Hair, or the marks made in their Skins. All these 
Guards were well Armed, with each Man a Gun, good store 
of Powder and Ball, and a Tamahawh by his side, which Is 
a kind of small Hatchet. It is likewise to be observed, that 
scarce any of the whole Retinue, except the War Captains, 
had any Cloathing, only Tail-Clouts (for decency) to cover 


of North Carolina. 285 

their Nakedness, and some few with a Blanket, or some such 
like piece of Cloth about their Shoulders. 

As soon as they have sold their Deer-Skins for those 
Necessaries they had occasion for, and had drank what quan- 
tity of Rum they were allowed, or thought fit to make use 
of, they came out into the Street, to act the Indian War, 
which to any one bred in Europe, seemed rather like a Scene 
of Madness, than a Warlike Exercise, for one while they 
were Hooping and Hollowing, another while stamping alto- 
gether like Madmen, another time creeping, as if they were 
surprizing their Enemies, and many other antick Postures 
and Gestures, too tedious to name. Though these Kings 
may seem despicable and meane to us, yet are they most 
absolute, putting to death those they judge worthy of it; 
therefore it may not be amiss to give some Instances, because 
they seem cruel and barbarous, if compared with our Laws 
for punishing Offenders, as may appear by the following 
Account, viz. 

An Indian came to a Planters House in this Province, 
and finding no body at home but a Servant Maid, he at- 
tempted to lie with her, but she not complying with his 
Desires, he was so provoked, that to be revenged, he shot 
the Planters Dog as he was going away. The Planter com- 
plained to the Governour of the injury the Indian had done 
him, in order to have him punished for the offence. A Mes- 
senger is immediately dispatched to their King to demand 
Satisfaction for the trespass the Inaian had been guilty of. 
The Messenger coming late that Evening to the Indian- 
town the King courteously received him and prevailed u])on 
him to stay all Night, and that the next Day when the Sun 
was up, at such a height (as he expressed it) he would de- 
liver him the Offender. Accordingly he remained there all 


286 The Natural Historg 

Night, in hopes to have the Indian brought before the Gov- 
ernour, in order to be punished according to the English 
Law; but at the time appointed, the King desired the Mes- 
senger to walk with him into the Plantation, where to his 
great astonishment, he found the Indian dead, and hang- 
ing upon a Tree. The Messenger complained to the King, 
of the rashness and cruelty of this Proceeding, adding, that 
he did not deserve Death, and that he was sorry he had been 
the Messenger, or occasion to have a Person put to death, 
for so small a Crime, which only deserved Whipping, or 
some such kind of Punishment; that he only came in order 
to have him brought before the Governour, to have him 
punished. But the King replied. That he might then take 
him where he pleased, but he had put it out of his power 
ever afterwards to be guilty of doing any roguish Tricks. 
But to return: Their Queens, Sons, and Daughters, are 
never permitted to dine at the Governour's Table with the 
Kings, but remain with their Children and Guards at 
some distance from the House. 

The first of these Queens was drest with a Peticoat made 
after the European manner, and had her Hair, which is 
generally long, thick, and Black, tyed full of bits of Stuff, 
such as Red, Green, Yellow, and variety of other Colours, 
so that to an European she rather seemed like a Woman out 
of Bedlam, than a Queen. She likewise had a large Belt 
about her full of their Peach, or wampum, which is their 
Money, and what they value above Gold or Silver, but to 
me it seem'd no better than our common Snails, or other 
ordinary Shells; the other parts of the Body from the Waste 
upwards were all naked. The other two Queens were drest 
much after the same manner, but none like the first, having 
not such rich Belts of Money about their Bodies, which 
to us in Europe woud not be worth one Farthing. 


of North Carolina. 287 

The Indian Women, as well as the Men, are swarthy, but 
their features are very agreeable and fine as any People you 
shall meet with, and few have better and sharper Eyes than 
they have. Neither did I ever see but one Blind Man 
amongst them, and they never would give me any account 
how he became blind, though I importun'd them to know 
the reason. This blind Man was led about with a Boy or 
Girl by a string, so they put what burthens they pleas'd on 
his Back, and made him serviceable after that manner upon 
several Occasions. 

The firing they chiefly burn is Pich-Pine, that does not 
only strengthen the Eyes, but preserves them, which I do not 
doubt but it does, because the Smoak never offends the Eyes 
though you should hold your Eace over a great Eire thereof, 
which is occasioned by the Volatile parts of the Turpentine, 
which rises with the Smoak, being of so friendly and Bal- 
samick nature to them, that they are much relieved thereby, 
for the Ashes of the Pine-tree afford little or no fij?:t Salt. 

The Indians in general are great Smoakers of Tobacco 
(in their Language Uppowoc) which they tell us they had 
before the Europeans made any discoveries of that Country. 
It differs in Leaf from the sweet scented and Oroonoho, 
which are the plants we raise and cultivate in America. 
Theirs likewise differs very much in the smell when it is 
Green from our Tobacco before it is cured, neither do they 
use the same method in curing it as we do, therefore the 
difference must be very considerable in taste and smell, for 
all Men (that know Tobacco) must allow, that it is the 
ordering thereof that gives a hogo to the Weed, rather than 
any natural relish it possesses when Green. They make 
the heads of their Pipes very large, which are generally 
cut out of Stones, the Shanks whereof are made of hollow 
Cane, and although they are great Smoakers, yet they are 


288 The Natural History 

never known to chew, or make it into Snuff, but will very 
freely take a pinch of Snuif out of an Europeans Box. 

The Indians are Strangers to such delicacies as are in 
vogue amongst yet they have plenty of several kinds of 
Food, as Buffeloes, Venison, and Fawns in the Bags of the 
Does Bellys, Bears, Beavers, Panthers, Pole-Cats, Wild- 
Cats, Raccoons, Possums, Hares, Squirrels, roasted with 
their Guts in, wild Bull's Beef, Mutton, and Porh, which 
two latter they have from the Christians. The Deer, which 
is so highly esteemed in European Countries, for the deli- 
cacie of It's Flesh, is little valued amongst these Savages, 
only for the plunder of his Skin. All manner of wild 
Fowl that are eatable, viz. Swans, Geese, Brants, Ducks, 
Turheys, Pigeons, and several other sorts of Fowl that are 
to be met with in Carolina. 

Fishes of all sorts, both in the fresh and salt Waters, and 
all manner of shell-fish, as Tortoises, Terehins, Oysters, 
Clams ^ and the Sting-ray, or Scale, dryed and most other sort 
of Fishes that are known in these parts, except the Conger, 
Lamprey-Eel, and Sturgeon, our civilized Indians that live 
near the Salt- Water will not touch, though those up the 
Freshes eat them. And as for Snakes, they scarce either 
kill or eat them, yet some of the Savages near the Mountains 
are said to do both. All manner of Wild Fruits that are 
palatable, some of which they dry and keep against the 
Winter, such as HucMe Berries, and several other sorts 
of Berries^ Wall-nuts, Chesnuts, Hazel-Nuts, Chinkapins, 
Acorns, and many other Fruits, as Peaches which they dry 
and make Quidonies and Cakes of, that are very pleasant, 
grateful, and cooling, but a little Tartish. 

Rockahomine-Meal, which is made of their Maze, or 
Indian-Corn parched or pounded, and made into several 


of North Carolina. 289 

sorts of Bread, Ears of Corn roasted in the Summer, and 
preserved against Winter. Ground-Nuts, or Wild Potatoes, 
Oil of Acorns and Wild Pigeons, which they make use of 
as we do Butter, and several other things that are to be met 
with in great plenty amongst them. They eat young Wasps 
when they are white in the Combs, before they can fly, which 
is esteemed a very great dainty amongst them, as likewise 
Gourds, Meltons, Cucumbers, Squashes, Semhlens, and 
Pulse of all sorts. Tho' their Grounds be very fertile and 
able to produce much more than they do; yet they are con- 
tented to live upon a little, and what small quantity of 
Indian-Corn they have is brought forth by the Industry of 
their Wives, who instead of Ploughs (of which they have 
none, nor Creatures fit for tillage) cultivate and dig the 
Ground with Wooden Spades and Hoes made after their 
own Fashion, the Men's minds being wholly taken up in 
Hunting, especially till they are about 50 Years of Age. 

The Yictvxils are common throughout the whole kindred 
and relations, and often to the whole Town, and especially 
when they are in their Hunting Quarters, then they all fare 
alike, there being little or no distinction observed amongst 
them in their eating. It is very strange to see in all the 
Places where they have been formerly settled, or had their 
Towns near the Salt Waters, what vast quantities of Oyster- 
shells are to be met with on the Banks of the Rivers, in such 
heaps, that it is surprizing to behold them: One might 
reasonably imagine (by such great quantities as are there) 
that they scarce lived upon any thing else, or that they must 
have been settled many hundred Years in one Place, which 
is not common amongst them, being a People always shift- 
ing from one place to another, as their Fancies lead them. 

19 Oo These 

290 772^ Natural History 

These Savages live in Wigwams, or Cabins, built with 
Poles and the Bark of Trees; their Houses are made oval, 
or round like an Oven, to prevent any Damage bj hard gales 
of Wind, which are common in this Country. They make 
the Fire in the middle of the House, and have a Hole at 
the top of the Roof, right above the Fire, to let out the 
Smoak. These Dwellings are as hot as Stoves, where they 
sweat and sleep all J^ight; the Floors are never paved or 
swept, so that the Earth is always loose, much resembling 
the poor Cabbins that are to be met with in several parts of 
Ir eland y only the Indians having such plenty of Wood, make 
no earthen Walls to theirs. The Bark they generally make 
their Cabbins with is Cypress, or red or white Cedar; some- 
times when they are a great way distant from any of the 
Woods, they make use of the Pine Barh, which is the worst 
sort to cover their Houses with. In building these Houses 
they get long Poles of Pine, Cedar, Ash, HicJcery, or any 
Wood that will bend; these Poles are generally about the 
thickness of a Man's Leg at the thickest end, stript of the 
Bark, and well warmed in the Fire, which makes them tough 
and pliable. Then they make sharp points on the thickest 
ends, and stick them fast in the Ground, about two yards 
asunder, in a circular Form, the distance they design the 
Cabin, then they bend the tops and bring them together, 
after which they bind their Ends with Bark of Trees, that 
is proper for that use, such as Elm, or the long black Moss 
that grows on Trees, which seldom rots; then they brace 
them with other Poles to make them strong and firm ; lastly, 
they cover them all over with Barks of Trees (except a h)le 
to let out the Smoak) that they are warm and tight, and will 
keep firm against Wind and Weather. These are all the 
kind of Dwellings that are to be met with throughout all 


of North Carolina. 291 

the Nations of the Indians, in these parts of America, except 
the civilized Kings, who of late have Houses fashioned and 
built after the manner that the Christians build theirs. 

These Dwclling-IIouses have Benches all round, except 
where the Door stands, whereon they lay Beasts Skins and 
Mats made of Rushes, on which they sleep and loll, having 
no other Beds but these. In one of these Houses several 
Families commonly live together, all related to one another, 
for these Savages do not seem so very careful of their Fe- 
males as the Europeans, having no Bars or Partitions to 
keep the Men at a distance from the Women. They have 
other sorts of Cabins made without Windows or Holes at 
the top, which are their Granaries, where they keep their 
Corn and Fruit for Winter, or Store-Houses for their Deer or 
Bever Skins, and all other kind of Merchandize that they deal 
in. They have Cabbins of another kind made like a Shead, 
being only covered over head, the rest left open to the Air ; 
these have Heed Hurdles like Tables to lie and sit on in 
Summer, and serve for pleasant Banqueting Houses in the 
extremity of the hot Weather. 

As for Liquors they have little or none made amongst 
them, neither were they acquainted with any kind of intoxi- 
cating Liquors before the arrival of the Christians; content- 
ing themselves with the pure Element, but they are now 
become very great Drinkers of Rum, and will part with any 
thing they have to purchase it ; when they are a little mellow, 
they are the most impatient Creatures living, 'till they have 
enough to make them quite drunk, and then they are often 
the most miserable Spectacles in Nature, frequently tumb- 
ling into the Fire, and burning their Arms and Legs to that 
degree, that the Sinews are contracted, and they become 
Cripples all their Lives after; besides several other misfor- 

Oo 2 tunes 

292 The Natural Historic 

tunes which attend them during their Drunkenness, as break- 
ing their Bones and Joints, with many other melancholly 
Accidents, jet none sufficient to deter them from this Prac- 
tice. Drunkenness is a Vice so common amongst them (if 
they can obtain strong Liquors) that they drop down and 
lie quite naked, in such brutish Postures as are not fit to be 
named. These base Dispositions are principally owing to the 
meanness of their Education, being strangers to all Arts and 
Sciences, and the Knowledge of other Countries, which ren- 
ders them insensible of that Virtue and Decency which other 
^Nations value at so high a Rate. 

The chief and only Liquor they admire is Rum, which 
they generally drink without any mixture; this the Euro- 
peans bring in amongst them, and buy Deer-Shins, Furrs, 
and other Commodities with; they will freely sell or part 
with any thing they have in the World (except their Wives 
and Children) rather than not accomplish their Designs. 
They sometimes commit such brutalities and enormous Vices, 
as are not fit to be mentioned ; yet there are some few amongst 
them that will not drink any strong Liquors. 

In the Year 1708, the Governour summoned all the In- 
dian Kings and Rulers in North-Carolina to meet, in order 
to make a firm and lasting Peace between the Christians 
and Indians: At which publick Meeting, the Indian Kings 
and Rulers desired, that in the conclusion of this Peace, it 
might be enacted that no Rum shou'd be Sold to them, which 
was accordingly granted, and a Law made by the English, 
which inflicted a penalty on any white Men that sold Rum 
to the Indians. But this Law was never strictly observed or 
put in force, because the young Indians were so disgusted at 
that Article, that they threatn'd to kill the Indians that had 
a Hand in making it, unless it were speedily laid aside, and 


of North Carolina. 293 

that they might have Rum sold them as usual when they 
went to the Christians Houses to buy it. 

They likewise often times in their Drunken frolicks cut 
off their Hair and sell it to the Christians, which is looked 
upon amongst them as the greatest disgrace imaginable ; and 
the only affront that can be offered them is to desire them to 
sell their Hair, when they are sober and free from Liquors. 

The Indians are very revengful, notwithstanding they 
always conceal their resentments, but never forget an injury 
done, till they have received Satisfaction; yet they are the 
freest People from Heats and passions (which so frequently 
possess the Europeans) of any People I have ever seen or 
heard of. They never call any one to an Account for what 
they do when they are Drunk, but say it was the Drink that 
caused his misbehaviour, therefore he ought to be forgiven: 
Neither will they frequent any Christians House that is given 
to Passion, nor will ever buy or sell with him, if they can 
get the same commodities they have occasion for from any 
other Person; for they say such kind of People are mad 
Wolves and no Men. They seldom or never fight with one 
another, unless when they are Drunk, nor shall you ever 
hear any Scolding amongst them. For they say the Euro- 
peans are always rangling and uneasy with each other, and 
wonder they do not go out of this World, since they are so 
uneasy and discontented in it. E'either do they shew the 
least sign of being dejected or cast down at the greatest 
calamities that can attend them, except it be the loss of 
Friends. For it is remarkable, that all other losses and mis- 
fortunes end in Laughter, for if their Cabbins should take 
Fire, and all their Goods be burnt therein (notwithstanding 
all will strive to save what they can whilst there is any possi- 
bility, and prevent any farther damage) yet such a misfor- 

294 The Natural History 

tune generally ends in a hearty fit of Langliter. But if any 
of their kinsfolks have lost their Lives in the Flames, it is 
then the Case is altered, and they become very pensive and 
mourn for a considerable time, which always bears Propor- 
tion to the dignity of the Person deceased, and the number 
of Relations he had near him, who make a horrid howling 
during that time. 

The Indian Women are never known to scold, and it is a 
thing impossible to hear them make use of that unruly Mem- 
ber the Tongue, with such Rage and Malice as our European 
Dames are subject to, whom I could wish would set these 
Indians for a Pattern, by which means there would be more 
Quietness and better Harmony in most Families, than at 
present is to be met with. Eor when these Indian Women 
are provoked or affronted by their Plusbands, or any other 
Persons, they resent the IndigTiity offered them in Silence, 
Tears, or by refusing their Meat; these being always cer- 
tain Signs that they have been injured and Affronted. 

l^either are the Men Passionate, or over hasty to act any 
Affair with too much haste or impetuosity, never determin- 
ing any Business of Moment without the greatest Delibera- 
tion and Wariness imaginable, being more content with com- 
mon Accidents and Misfortunes incident to human ^Nature 
(such as Losses, contrary Winds, bad Weather, Poverty and 
the like) than People of more civilized ]^ations. I never 
felt any ill or unsavoury smell in their Cabins, whereas 
should we live in our Houses as they do, we should be poi- 
soned with our own J^astiness ; which confirms these Indians 
to be, as they certainly are, some of the sweetest People in 
the World. 

Their Women when they are young, and at Maturity, are 
fine shaped Creatures (take them in general) as any in the 
Universe ; and though they are of a tawny Complexion 


of North Carolina. 295 

(which is very much occasioned by their being so much ex- 
posed to the Weather, and their continual daubing and paint- 
ing themselves with Bears Oil, and other IngTedients mixed 
with it) yet their Features are very good, their Eyes Black 
and Amorous, and their Smiles afford the finest composure 
a Face can possess. 

Their Hands are of the finest make, with small long taper 
Fingers, and as soft as their Cheeks, the whole Body being 
of a smooth Nature, with Limbs of the most exquisite shape. 
They are Mercenary, except the Married Women, who some- 
times bestow their Favours on whom they like best, in their 
Husbands absence, for which they never take any Reward : 
As for the report that some might have heard of them, that 
they are never found inconstant like the Euroj^ean Women^ 
it is intirely false ; for were the old World and the 'New, put 
into a pair of Scales (in point of Constancy and Chastity) it 
would be a hard matter to descern which was the heavier. 
As for the Trading Girls, which are those designed to get 
Money by Prostitution, these are easily known, by a particu- 
lar Tonsure, or cut of their Hair, differing from all others 
of that i^ation, who are not of their Profession; which 
Method is to prevent Mistakes, for these Savages are desir- 
ous (if possible) to keep their Wives to themselves, as well 
as those in other Parts of the World. 

When any Addresses are made to one of these Girls, she 
immediately acquaints her Parents therewith, and they tell 
the King of it (provided he that courts her for a Bedfellow 
be a stranger) his Majesty being most commonly principle 
Baud of the l^ation he rules over, there being seldom any 
of these Love-bargains made or concluded without his Royal 
Assent. He likewise advises her what Bargain to make with 
her Gallant, who shews some Toys he has to present her 
with : But if it happens to be an Indian Trader, that wants 


296 The Natural Historic 

one of them for a Bedfellow, and has got Bum to sell, he 
always fees the King with a large Dram, to confirm the 

When any such Question is proposed to these Savages, 
they will debate the Matter amongst themselves with all the 
sobriety and seriousness imaginable, every one of the Girls 
Relations arguing the Advantage or Disadvantage that may 
ensue from such a ISTights Encounter, all which is done with 
as much steadiness and reality, as if it were the greatest 
Concern in the World, not so much as one Person shall be 
seen to smile so long as the Debate lasts, making no manner 
of difference betwixt an Agreement of this Nature, and any 
other Bargain. If they comply with the Men's desire, then a 
particular Bed is provided for them either in a Cabin by 
themselves, or else all the young People turn out to another 
Lodging, that they might not spoil sport betwixt these Lovers, 
and if the old People are in the same Cabin along with them 
all E^ight, they lye as unconcerned as if they w^ere so many 
Statues or logs of Wood, in nowise offering to disturb them, 
and that the Man may have the Satisfaction of his new pur- 
chase, which pleasure is sometimes bought at too dear a rate. 
If it be an Indian of their own Town or INTeighbourhood that 
wants a Mistress, he comes to none but the Girl who receives 
what presents she thinks fit to ask, and so lyes with him all 
Night without the knowledge or previous consent of her 
Parents or Relations. This familiarity so kindles lust, that 
the young Men will likewise go in the Night time from one 
House to another to visit the young Women, after which 
rambling manner they frequently spend the whole NigLt. 
In their adresses they find no delays, for if she is willing 
to entertain the Man, she gives him encouragement, and 
grants him admittance, otherwise she withdraws her Face 


of North Carolina. 297 

from him and says, / cannot see you, either you or I must 
leave this Cabin and sleep some where else this Nighl. This 
repulse makes him immediately withdraw, and address him- 
self to some more kind Mistress, that will accept of his 
favours. Neither doth it displease the Parents, that their 
Daughters are thus acquainted, knowing by these Means that 
they can command the young Men to help them in any Work 
or Business they have occasion to use them in. 

They set apart the youngest and prittiest Faces for trad- 
ing Girls, who are remarkably known by a particular Ton- 
sure in their Hair (as I said before) which distinguishes 
them from those engaged to Husbands ; for what is accounted 
amongst us as most Criminal, are taken for slender Tres- 
passes amongst them ; for if a young Man can get a Favour 
of his Neighbour's Daughter, it is looked upon as a slight 
Offence, because they are not permitted to Marry without 
the King's Approbation, which is seldom before they are 
twenty Years of age. 

These Girls are generally very Mercenary, and whoever 
make use of them, engages them with some gTatuity or other, 
the principal part whereof is for the King's use, exercising 
his prerogative over all the Stews of his Nation, his own 
Cabbin being very often the chief Brothel House. As they 
grow in Years, the hot assaults of Love grow cooler, and then 
they become more staid and constant to their Husbands, if 
engaged ; many of them after their Engagement or Marriage, 
are so reserved, that they will admit of no other to their Em- 
braces but their Husbands. 

These trading Girls, after they have led that course of Life 
several Years, in which time they scarce ever have a Child, 
for it is supposed that they have some particular Secret, or 

Pp Method 

298 The Natural Historg 

Method (with Herbs) by which they prevent Conception, 
'till they are married, and then never fail to be fruitful. 
But if it should happen, that she brings forth a Child whilst 
she follows this lewd course of Life, she is not only accounted 
a Fool, but her Reputation is very much lessened thereby, at 
last they grow weary of the Address of so many Men, and 
betake themselves to a married State, or to the Company of 
one Man ; neither does their having been common to so many, 
occasion any Blemish in their Reputation, or hinderance to a 
Husband, but rather a Promotion; for they say. That a 
Woman living otherwise, is not worth a Mans acceptance, 
and never makes a good Wife. 

The Men are never to boast of Intrigues with the Women, if 
they do, none of the Girls will admit of their Company to their 
Beds, or have any regard for them afterwards. This is not 
out of any tender Regard they have for their Reputations, 
for there is no such thing (on that Account) known amongst 
them; although we may reckon them the greatest Libertines 
in the pursuit of their Pleasures, and most extravagant in 
their Embraces, yet they retain and possess a modesty that 
requires those Passions never to be revailed, or made known 
to the World. 

The Woman is not punished for Adultery (this and For- 
nication being not so much as looked upon as a Sin amongst 
them) but the Gallant is obliged to make the injured Hus- 
band Satisfaction, which is the Law of Nations, and prac- 
ticed amongst all the Indians; the Gallant that strives to 
evade such Satisfaction as the Husband demands, lives daily 
in danger of his Life: But when those Reparations are 
made him, that he is satisfied, with all Animosities cease, 
and he is laughed at by the whole Nation, for carrying on 


of North Carolina, 299 

his Intrigue with no better Conduct, than to be discovered, 
and pay so dear for his Pleasure. 

The Indians say, that a Woman is a weak Creature, and 
easily drawn away by the Man's persuasion; for which rea- 
son they seldom or never lay any blame on the Woman, but 
the Man (that ought to be Master of his Passions) for per- 
suading her to it. 

They are of very hale sound Constitutions, and their 
Breath as sweet as the Air they breath in : The Women are 
of so tender a Composition, that they seem rather designed 
for the Bed than Bondage; yet their Love is never of that 
extensive force or continuance, that any of them run mad 
or make away with themselves on that score. They never 
love beyond retrieving their first indifferency, and when 
slighted, are as ready to untie the Knot at one end, as you 
are at the other. 

I knew an European Man that lived many Years amongst 
the Indians, and had a Child by one of their Women, having 
bought her as they do their Wives, and afterwards married a 
Christian. Sometimes after he came to the Indian Town, 
not only to buy Deer-Skins, but likewise to pass away a l^ight 
with his former Mistress as usual, but she made answer, 
That she then had forgot that she ever hneiv him, and that 
she never lay with another Woman s Hushand; so fell a cry- 
ing, took up the Child she had by him, and went out of the 
Cabin in great Disorder, although he used all possible means 
to pacifie her, by offering her Presents of several Toi/s and 
Rum, but all to no purpose, for she would never see him 
afterwards, or be reconciled. 

There are several Europeans and other Traders which 
travel and abide amongst them for a long space of Time, 
sometimes a Year, two or three, and those Men commonly 
have their Indian Wives or Mistresses, whereby they soon 

Pp 2 learn 

300 The Natural Historic 

learn the Indian Tongue, and keep in good Friendship with 
them, besides the satisfaction they have of a Bedfellow, they 
find these Girls very serviceable to them upon several occa- 
sions; especially in dressing their Victuals, and instructing 
them in the Affairs and Customs of the Country; moreover 
they get a great Trade amongst them ; but the Person that is 
reserved, and doth not thus converse with their Women, it is 
difficult for him to accomplish his Designs amongst the ISTa- 

One great misfortune that generally attend the Christians 
that converse with these Women as Husbands, is, that they 
get Children by them, which are seldom otherwise brought 
up or educated than in the wretched state of Infidelity ; for 
it is a certain Rule and Custom amongst all the Savages in 
America (as far as I could learn) to let all the Children fall 
to the Woman's Lot; for it frequently happens, that two 
Indians, that have lived together as Man and Wife for many 
Years, in which time they have had several Children, if they 
part, and another takes her to be his Wife, all the Children go 
along with the Mother ; and therefore on this Account it is a 
difficult matter for the Christians ever to get the Children they 
have had by these Indian Women away from them, to bring 
them up in the Knowledge of the true God, and the Principles 
of the Christian Faith, that they live in a miserable state of 
Darkness and Infidelity all the Days of their lives. It is very 
surprizing, that several Christians that are accustomed to the 
Conversation of these Women and their way of living, have 
been so infatuated and allured with that careless sort of life, 
as to continue with their Indian Wife, and her Relations so 
long as they lived, without ever desiring to return again 
among the Christians, though they had several Opportuni- 

of North Carolina. 301 

ties, and considerable Advantages offered them. Of these 
lost and unfortunate sort of People (as I may properly term 
them) there are some living amongst the Savage Indians of 
Carolina to this Day, with whom I have frequently con- 
versed, and exhorted them to return to the Christians, from 
the Indians, and their abominable Practices, and likewise 
reminding them of what our Saviour Jesus Christ said, 
That where two or three are gathered together in his Name, 
he will grant their Request, which they would not accept, but 
voluntary remained amongst them. I likewise urged many 
other Keasons and Texts of Scripture, but all to no purpose, 
neither could I have any satisfactory Answer from them for 
their obstinate and dangerous way of living. 

The Indians being of several ]^ations, have as different 
Customs amongst them, and he that is the greatest Warrior, 
or the best Hunter, is sure to be the greatest favorite amongst 
the Women. The prettiest Girls are always bestowed upon 
the chief Men, and ugliest upon the lazy and useless Lubbers, 
as to the Ceremony of Marriage they have none amongst 
them, for the Girls at Twelve or Fourteen years of Age, or as 
soon as ligature prompts them, freely bestow their favours on 
some Youth about the same Age, and so continues them to 
whom she likes best, changing her Mate as often as she 
pleases; for few or none of them are constant to one, 'till 
the greater number of Years has made her capable of man- 
aging her Domestick Affairs ; and that she hath try'd the vig- 
our of most of the ITation she belongs to ; for the multiplicity 
of Gallants beforehand are no objection or stain to a Females 
Eeputation, or hindrance to her advancement, for the more 
she hath followed that course of Life, the more she is valued 
and respected, and coveted by those of the first Eank amongst 


302 772^ Natural Historg 

them to make a Wife of : So tliat a Virgin, so much esteemed 
and coveted by the Europeans, is in little value or request 
amongst them. 

When a Man or Woman is arrived at a certain age of Ma- 
turity, and has passed the Ceremonies practiced by their 
Juration, and other Graduations and Qualifications amongst 
them, and are allowed to be Housekeei)ers, it is then he makes 
his Addresses to one or other of these for a Wife : When he 
has obtained her consent, the Parents of both Parties (with 
the consent of the King), agree about the matter, making a 
promise of their Daughter to the Man that requires her for a 
Wife; and it often happens that they converse and travel 
together several Moons before they are acknowledged as 
Man and Wife, or the Marriage published openly, these 
being Customs allowed amongst them in all parts. After 
this, the Man upon the least disgust or dislike may turn 
her away, and take another: But if she should disapprove 
of his Company, a Price is set upon her, and whoever takes 
her, is obliged to pay the Fine to the former Husband, then 
she becomes free from him, and is the latters Wife. 

Sometimes their Captains of War and gTeat Men keep 
three or four of these Girls for their own use, when at the 
same time they are so impotent and old as to be incapable to 
make use of one of them, but these will always have their 
Due, if there be either European or Indian that will accept 
of their Favours. 

The Husband is never so displeas'd or enrag'd with the 
Adulteress, as to put her to Death, or even to inflict any 
grievous punishments on her, though she be caught in tne 
very fact. But the rival becomes Debtor to the cornuted 
Husband in some few trifles of little value amongst the Euro- 
peans (yet much esteemed amongst them) which when paid, 


of North Carolina. 303 

all aiiiiiiosities cease, and are laid aside between the Husband 
and the Wife's gallant, otherwise they are a treacherous gen- 
eration when thus injurd. 

They will even sometimes let out their Wives for a Night 
or two for a gratuity, and sometimes to oblige their Neigh- 
bours or intimate Friends, especially their great Men, nor 
do they reckon their Wives Whores for lying with those that 
are as good or better then themselves, and sometimes to grati- 
fie their Wives Inclinations. A custom much like this we 
read of amongst the Briiains, which was a Society of Wives 
among certain Numbers, and by common consent. Every 
Man married a single Woman, who was always after, and 
alone, esteem'd his Wife. But it was usual for 5. 6. 10. 12. 
or more either Brothers or Friends as they coud agree to 
have all their Wives in common, so that encounters happened 
amongst them as they were invited by desire, or favoured by 
opportunity. Yet every Woman's Children was attributed 
to him that had Married her, but all had a share in the care 
and defence of the whole Society, since no Man knew which 
were his own. Such were the People and the customs of the 
Britons when the Romans invaded their Island under the 
Ensignes of Julius Coesar. 

But to return, when a young Indian has a mind for such 
a Girl for his Wife, he, or some one for him goes (as I before 
observed) to the young Woman's Father or Mother, if living, 
if not, to the nearest Relations, where he or they make offers 
of the Match betwixt them; the Relations reply, they ivill 
consider of it: This serves for a sufficient Answer, 'till there 
be a second meeting about it, where they seriously debate the 
Affair amongst themselves, the King being commonly pres- 
ent, and most of the great Men, who all give their Opin- 
ion about it, which if they agree upon, the Woman is imme- 

304 The Natural Historg 

diately called to know how she approves of the Man (for as 
it is reported, they never give their Children in Marriage 
without their consent) for a Husband; if she approves and 
is satisfied, the Man pays so much for his Wife, and the 
handsomer she is, bears the greater price. It sometimes 
happens that the Man has not Effects enough to pay the Pur- 
chase for her ; but if he be known to be a good Hunter, that 
he can raise and pay the Fine agreed upon in so many Moons, 
or such a limited Time as they propose, she is obliged to go 
along with him as betrothed, but he is not to have carnal 
Knowledge of her 'till all the Obligation or Payment is dis- 
charged. This is punctually observed, and then she is his 

Thus they live together under one covering for several 
Months (till the obligation is fulfiU'd) and the Woman re- 
mains the same as she was when she first came to him, as I 
have been informed by the Indians themselves. I am per- 
swaded that there are but few of the Europeans but what 
wou'd break through these customs, if they had the same 
opportunities and Liberties allowed them. But the Indians 
are not so vigorous and impetient in the pursuit of Love, 
and gratifying their desires as the Europeans are, yet 
the Women are quite contrary; and those Indian Girls that 
have frequently conversed with the Europeans, never much 
care for the conversation of their own Country-men after- 
wards. They never marry so near as a first Cousin, yet they 
are allowed to marry two Sisters, or his Brothers Wife ; and 
although there is nothing more coveted amongst them than 
to marry a Woman of their own tribe or Nation, which con- 
sists of very few People, so that they are all of them related 
to one another, yet they are obliged to look out for Hus- 
bands and Wives amongst strangers and People of another 
Nation. If an Indian should lie with his OAvn Sister (and 


of North Carolina. 305 

that she proves with Child, or it is otherwise known) or any 
other near Relations, his Body is immediately Burnt, and 
the Ashes thereof thrown into the River, as unworthey to re- 
main upon the Earth. Neither is Sodomy, that Beastly Ac- 
tion known amongst them, nor have they a Xame for that 
abominable Sin in all their Languages. 

These Marriages amongst them are no longer binding than 
the Man and Woman agree together, for either have liberty 
to leave each other upon any frivolous excuse. Both Men 
and Women commonly marry four or five times before they 
can settle to their Content; for when they thus marry, they 
do not intend to bind themselves for as long time as they 
shall live, but for as long only as they shall agree together 
and love each other: If they gTow w^eary or discontented 
with each other, they may separate, which is equally allowed 
to both Parties. Thus they part without any clamour or 
noise, and perfectly indifferent to each other afterwards, and 
take no more jSTotice when they meet, than if they had never 
seen one another, and wonder that the Europeans do not fol- 
low the same course: But whoever takes the Woman that 
was another Man's before, and bought by him (as they all 
are) must certainly pay to her former Husband Avhatsoever 
he gave for her: But if he sends her away without any 
Cause, she keeps the Presents given her before Marriage : 
If she be a Widow^, and her Husband died in Debt, whoever 
takes her to be his Wife, pays all her late Husband's Obliga- 
tions, be they never so many ; for the Woman is not required 
or obliged to pay any thing (unless she is willing so to do) 
that was owing from her Husband, so long as she lives single. 
But if a Man courts her for a ISTights Lodging, and obtains 
it, if the Creditors have knowledge of it, they will make him 

20 Qq pay 

306 The Natural Historg 

pay the Husband's Debts, then he may if he pleases, take 
her to be his Wife, or sell her to another for his own or a less 

There are several of these kind of Bargains made in a Day 
amongst them (the Women never living the worse for this 
kind of Traffick) for the Men will sell their Wives at their 
publick Meetings, as Men do Horses and other Cattle at a 
Fair or Market with us : A Man is not only allowed to 
change as often as he pleases, but likewise to have as many 
Wives as he is able to maintain, though they are seldom 
kno^vn to live with more than one at a time, except it be their 
great Men, such as Wa7'-Captains, &c. The Women have 
very easy travail with their Children; sometime they bring 
forth Twins, and are frequently brought to Bed by them- 
selves, when taken at a disadvantage ; not but that they have 
Midwives as well as Doctors amongst them, who make it 
their Profession (for Gain) to assist and deliver Women: 
Some of these Midwives are very knowing in several Mede- 
cins that the Country naturally produces, which most cer- 
tainly expedite and make easy Births, besides they are un- 
acquainted with those severe Pains that follow the Birth in 
European Women. Their Eemedies are a gTeat cause of this 
easiness in that state, for the Women will run up and down 
their Plantations the same Day they are delivered, without 
any sign of Pain or Sickness ; yet they look very meager 
and thin, not but that we must allow a great deal to be owing 
to the Climate, and the natural Constitution of the Women, 
whose Courses of Nature never visit them in such quantities 
as the European Women have; although they always have 
plenty of Milk, I never saw an Indian Woman have large 
Breasts, which is common amongst the Blacks or Negroe 
Women, they having the largest and ugliest of any that are 


of North Carolina. 307 

to be met with ; neither does the youngest Wife amongst the 
Iiidiwns ever fail of proving so good a Nurse, as to bring up 
her Child free from the Richets, and disasters that proceed 
from the Teeth, with many other Distempers which are fre- 
quent amongst the Children in Europe. 

They let their Children (amongst whom are many Olive 
Beauties) suck 'till they are well grown, unless they prove 
big with Child sooner than usual. They always nurse their 
own Children themselves, unless Sickness or Death prevents 
them. I only once saw a Nurse hired to give Suck to an 
Indian Woman's Child, the Mother happening to have a fit 
of sickness not long after her delivery ; by wdiich not only her 
Strength was much impaired, but likewise the Milk in her 
Breasts. As soon as the Child is born, they wash it in cold 
Water in the next Stream or Kiver, then anoint or bedaub it 
all over with Bears Grease and other Ingredients, as I have 
before observed; after their Delivery they wash themselves 
in the Waters, and absent themselves from the Company of 
Men for forty Days. The Husband takes care to provide a 
Cradle, which is soon made, consisting only of a piece of flat 
Wood that they hew with their Hatchets to the likeness of a 
Board, about two Feet long and a Foot broad, to this they 
brace and tie the Child very close, having near the middle a 
Stick fastned about two Inches from the Board, for the 
Child's Breech to rest on, under this they put a Wad of Moss 
that receives the Child's Excrements, by which means they 
can very readily shift the Moss, and keep all clean and sweet. 
They are apt to have the Bodies and Heads of their Children 
flat, which is owing to these kind of Cradles, yet they are the 
most portable things that can be invented, there being a 
String from one corner of the Board to the other, whereby 

Qq 2 the 

308 The Natural History 

the Mother slings the Child on her Back, so that the Infant's 
Back is towards hers, and it's Face to the Sky; if it rains, 
she throws her Leather or Woolen Match-coat over her Head, 
which covers her all over, and secures her and the Child 
from the injury of the Weather. These being the only kind 
of Cradles that are common throughout all America. 

The Women quit all manner of Company, neither do they 
dress their own Victuals during their Purgation ; after they 
have had several Children, they grow strangely out of Shape 
in their Bodies ; as for Barreness it is seldom or never known 
amongst them, their Women most commonly proving very 
fruitful, especially after Marriage, every Cahin being full of 
Children, who are taught as soon as they grow up to Fish, 
and Hunt in the Woods, and to do what is necessary about 
their Houses, viz. to beat Indian Corn, and the like, for they 
do not take the least Care of their Education, being strangers 
to all Arts and Sciences, so that they lead a very idle Life. 

They name their Children according to their o^vn Fancies, 
which is quite different to either the Father or Mother's 
!N^ame. This !N^ame they keep (if a Boy) 'till they arrive to 
the Age of a Hunter, or a Warrior, which is commonly at 
sixteen or seventeen Years, then they take a Xame to them- 
selves as they think proper, some being called Eagle, Tyger, 
Panther, Alligator, or some such wild Creature, esteeming 
nothing on Earth worthy to give them a Name, but such kind 
of Wildfowl or Beasts. Some likewise take the Names of 
some Fish, which they keep as long as they live. 

They number their Age by Moons or Winters, and say a 
Woman or a Man is so many Moons or Winters old, and so 
they do with all memorable Actions in life, accounting it to 


of North Carolina. 309 

be so many Moons or Winters since such or such a thing hap- 
pened. They likewise can guess tollerably well at the time 
of the Day by the height of the 8un. Though they have no 
different iS^ames for Sun or Moon, yet they understand the 
latters Age, having no other Computation of Time but after 
this manner. 

They have no Sahhath, or certain Days of Rest appointed 
for Devotion amongst them, that I ever could observe, except 
we will allow of their Feasts to be their festival Days, set 
appart for that purpose. However those that are frequently 
amongst the Christians, and speak the English Tongue, know 
very well when it is Sunday, or the English Mans Gods Day, 
as they term it. In these Parts they have likewise a particu- 
lar and distinct l^ame for Christmas, which they call Winick- 
heshuse, or the English-Man s Gods Moon. 

They name the Months according to what mostly is pro- 
duced or taken in each of them, as one is called Herring- 
month, which is March, another the Strawherry-month, 
which is April, another the Mulberry -month, or May ; others 
name them by Trees that bud or blossom at particular Sea- 
sons of the Year, such as the Dogwood-tree, Tulip-tree, and 
many others. Others again make out their Seasons from 
the flight of Birds, such as Swans, and many other Fowl, 
and some from the Gobling of Turhey Cochs, which is in 
March, and April; for when they are out in their Hunting 
matches they say they will returne Home when the Turkey 
Cock begin to Gobble. 

The Indians are not Jealous like the Spaniards and other 
European ISTations, neither do they know what Jealousy is, 
because they never think their Wives unconstant unless they 
are Eye witnesses thereof. They are generally bashful, 
especially the young Maids, who when they come into a 


310 The Natural Historic 

strange Cabin where they are not acquainted, never ask for 
any thing, though they be ever so Hungry or Thirsty, but 
sit down without speaking a Word, till some of the House 
ask them some Questions, or fall into discourse with the 

The Women (as I observ'd before) never Scold with each 
other, and no People in the World more tender and Indul- 
gent of their Children, so that they seldom or never correct 
or chastise them, which I am perswaded is a very great rea- 
son that they are not given to Scold (like the Europeans) 
when they come to Men and Women's Estate. 

They have few or no complements amongst them, except 
shaking of Hands, and scratching on the shoulder, which are 
the greatest marks of affection and sincerity that can be 
shewed amongst them, not only to Strangers but to each 
other. And it is worthy of observation, to see when the War 
Captains (who are Men of the greatest esteem amongst them, 
next the King) come to the Cabins of the inferior Indians, 
that at his departure they scratch his shoulder, which is 
look'd upon amongst them, as the greatest honour. Comple- 
ment, or marke of distinction they can confer on so great a 

They do not express Fare you well, but when they leave 
the House or Company will say, / go straight away, which 
is to intimate their departure, and if the Man of the House 
has any Message to send by the Person going he may acquaint 
them therewith. I^either does their Language allow them 
to say, Sir, I am your Servant, because they have little or 
no Degrees of Quality or Titles for Man, only King, War 
Captain, Old-man, or Young-Man, which respect the stations 
and Circumstances, that Men are employed in or arrived to, 
and not Ceremony. Neither is the Name of Master so much 
as known amongst them. And as for Servant, they have no 


of North Carolina. 311 

such thing, except SLive, for their Do(js, Cats, Wild and Do- 
mestick Beasts and Birds are call'd by the same Xanio, for 
the Indian-word for Slave includes them all; so when an 
Indian tells you, he has got a Slave for you, it may (in gen- 
eral terms as they use) be a young Eagle, a Dog, Possam, 
Ottor, or any other thing of that Nature, which is obsequi- 
ously to depend on the Master for its Sustenance. 

When the Europeans come in amongst them to their 
Towns, though perhaps the Indians are w^ell acquainted with 
some of them, yet not one of them will speak to them, till the 
King pays the first complement, which is shaking of Hands, 
and biding them welcome, after him the War Captains, Doc- 
tors or Priests so on eraduallv from hi^-h to low, not one of 
all these speaking to the European till his superior has ended 
his Salutation. After all this Ceremony is over then every 
Indian has liberty to speak and converse w^ith his European 
acquaintance, this being an honour due to the King and his 
great Men, which is most strictly observed amongst them. 

It is common amongst the European traders who trafick 
with the Indians, if they find no Body at Home, to make 
use of their Huts, or Cabins and other necessaries that they 
find in them, such as Indian Corn, Peas, Beans, Chinkapin, 
Nuts, Wall-nuts, and several other Nuts, and Fruits, Pig- 
eons,-Oil, Barbacud Venison, Peaches, and Peach-Bread, 
these Peaches are likewise made into a Quiddony, and then 
into Loaves like Barley Cakes, which cut into thin Slices 
and disolved in Water, make a very greatful and cooling 
Drink, all which they allow the Christian Traders to do, in 
lieu whereof they most commonly leave some small gratuity 
such as Tobacco, Beads, or some other Trifles of this Nature, 
(which are kindly received and acknowledged by them) and 
then proceed on their intended Journey. 


312 The Natural History 

The AVomen's clress in severe and cold Weather are Peti- 
coats, Blankets, or Tail-clouts (which of late they have pur- 
chased from the Europeans) or a Hairy Match-coat made in 
the nature of a PI ad of the Skins of several wild Beasts, 
Avhich keeps out the Cold, and (as I said before) defends 
their Children from the prejudices of the Weather, at other 
times they have only a kind of flap or Apron containing two 
Yards in length, and better than half a Yard deep, to cover 
the Privities, which is done only for decency, both Men and 
AVomen being accustomed from their infancy to an entire 
J^akedness, for they go with their Peet, Body, and Head 
bear, all seasons of the Year. Others wear Blue or Red 
Plaps made of Bays and Plains, which they buy from the 
Europeans, both of which they tuck in at the Corners, to 
fasten that kind of Garment, and at other times they make 
it fast with a Belt: Sometimes they wear Meggizons or 
Indian Shoes made of Deer-Shins, after the manner as the 
Men's are. Some of them likewise have in Winter Blue or 
Bed Stuff fastned about their Legs instead of StocMns. 

The Hair of their Head is made into a long Boll like a 
Horses-tail, and adorned or bound round with Bonoah or 
Procelan, a kind of Beads they make of Conk-shells, which 
is the Money the Indians make use of in these parts. Others 
that have not this, make a Leather string or some pieces of 
Green or Red Stuff serve, others adorne their Hair with 
Beautiful Flowers and Peathers of several Birds: After 
this manner they make their appearance, when they come 
along with their Husbands amongst the Christians. 

The Men have Match-coats of Hair, Furs, Feathers, or 
Cloth, and their Hair rolled upon each Ear as the Women's, 
only much shorter, and frequently a Roll on the Crown of 
their Head and Temples, as they fancy, there being no great 


of North Carolina. 313 

nicety or strictness in their Dress. They make their Stock- 
ins of pieces of Blue or Red Cloath, which they fasten about 
their Legs with small Splinters made of bits of the Pitch 
pine-wood, or any other Wood. Others fasten them on with 
Strings on the out side of the Leg like Bushins. Sometimes 
they wear gTeat Bobs in their Ears, others in the holes thereof 
put Eagles and other Birds Feathers for a Trophy ; when they 
kill any Fowl, they commonly pluck of the dowTiy Feathers 
and stick them all over their Heads, which make them appear 
more frightful than Ornamental, and more like People dis- 
tracted than in their Senses: At other times both Men and 
Women wear great Belts and Xecklaces of their Money made 
of Conk-shells, and often times Bracelets made of Brass and 
Iron-wire, and several other Toys which they purchase from 
the Christians. 

Others have their Hair made up in long rolls, wherein 
are tied several bits of Stuff of various colours, such as Yel- 
low, Green, and Red, and the like, as the Women do. Be- 
twixt their Legs comes a piece of Cloth that is tnck'd in like 
a Belt both before and behind ; this is contrived to hide 
their Xakedness, of which Decency they are strict observers, 
though never practiced before the Christians came amongst 
them. Some wear Shoes of Biich or Bear Bhins, which they 
will tan in an Hour or two with the Bark of Trees boiled, 
wherein they put the Leather whilst hot, and let it remain 
a short time, whereby it becomes so qualified, as to endure 
Water and Dirt without gTOwing hard. These Moggizons 
or Shoes have no Heels, but are made as fit for the Feet, as 
a Glove for the Hand, and easie to travel in when one is a 
little used to them. 

The Feather Match-coats are exceedingly pretty, some of 
which are beautifully wrought with variety of Colours and 

Br Fio^ures, 

314 The Natural Historic 

Figures, which seem at a distance like a fine flowred Silh- 
sliag, when new and fresh, they serve a Bed instead of a 
Quilt. Some Match-coats are made of Hair^ as Racoons, 
Beavers, or ScjuirrelVs Skins, which are very warm. Others 
again are made of the gTeen part of the Skin of the Mallards 
head, and other Fowds which they stitch or sow perfectly well 
together, their Thread being either the Sinews of a Deer 
divided very small, or Silk-grass, when these are finished 
they look most beautifuly, though they must needs be very 
troublesome and tedious to make. But those that have plenty 
of Deer Shms frequently buy the English made Coats, Blan- 
kets, &Q. yet few are ever known to buy or wear Breeches 
(except their Kings and gTeat Men) saying they are too 
much confined in them, and prevents their speed in running, 
leaping, and other exercises. 

There was formerly a Nation of Indians called the Pas- 
quotank Indians, who kept Cattle and made Butter, but at 
present there is no such thing to be found amongst them or 
any other Nation in these Parts ; had these inclinations in 
those poor Savages met with that encouragement (from the 
English and other Europeans settled in North-Carolina) 
which in justice. Piety and Virtue (ought to be the practice 
of every Christian) I do not doubt but that they wou'd soon 
be converted, and with joy embrace the Christian-faith , and 
belive us to be a more worthy race of People than them- 
selves, by our good Actions and Morals. But on the con- 
trary, they have been formerly defrauded of the Lands al- 
lotted them, which was the occasion of a long and vexatious 
War to the Christians, and it frequently happens (at this 
Day) that the Europeans (which I am sorry I have occasion 
to mention) meet those poor Indians in the Woods, and not 
only beat and abuse them, but commonly rob them of their 


of North Carolina. 315 

Furs, Deer Skins, and other commodities which they have 
acquired with so much pains and fatigue. I have known 
several complaints to the Governor of such usage during my 
abode in that Country, which shews the greatest ingratitude 
in Nature, when we consider how ready these poor Creatures 
are to serve and oblige us, in what ever assistance we want 
from them. And that in most of the Colonies already 
well PeopFd with Christians, it would be impossible for 
them to live (for their own Slaves the Negroes wou'd destroy 
them) only for them who upon all occasions are ready to 
suppress them w^hen they Rebel against their Masters, which 
they frequently do in Virginia and many other parts of 
America belonging to the Crown of Eiigland. 

Their dresses are as different as the Nations to whom they 
belong, so that it is impossible to recount all the whimsical 
Figures that they commonly make by their Antick dresses. 
Besides Carolina is a warm Country, and very mild in its 
Winters to what Mary -Land, Pensilvania, New-York, the 
Jersies, or New-England are, wherefore our Indian Habits 
differ very much from the dresses that are used by the Sav- 
ages that inliabit those cold Countries ; in regard their chief- 
est cloathing for the Winter Season is made of the Furs of 
Bevers, Raccoons, and other N orthr en-Furs, as the Monack- 
Moor, Marten, Black-Fox, and many other Beasts that are to 
be met with to the Northward, that we are unacquainted 
with here. 

Their dress in Peace and War are quite different from 
some Nations before they go to War, the Women comb out 
their Hair and anoint it with Bears-grease, and the Red 
Root, and likewise adorn it with Feathers of various beau- 
tiful colours, besides Copper, Iron Rings, and sometimes 
Wampum or Peak in their Ears. Moreover they buy red 
Colours of the Indian Traders, wherewith they Paint their 

Rr 2 Faces 

316 The Natural Historg 

Faces all over as red as Vermillion, and commonly make a 
circle of Black about one Eye, and another circle of White 
about the others, whilst other bedaub their Faces with To- 
bacco pijje Clay, Lamp hlach. Black Lead, and divers others 
colours, such as Green, Blue, and the like, these they make 
with several sorts of Herbs, Minerals, and Earths, that they 
get in different parts of the Country where they Hunt and 
Travel. When these People are thus Painted they make the 
most frightful Figures that can be imitated by Men, and 
seem more like Devils out of Hell than any human Creature 
upon Earth, the reason why they thus Paint themselves is 
because they believe it adds to their Courage and strikes a 
terror in their Enemies. 

It is worthy of Observation, that whenever you meet them 
thus disguis'd or Painted, you may be sure that they are 
about some mischief or other, for in all Hostilities that have 
ever been acted against the Christians at any time in sev- 
eral of the Plantations of America, these Savages always 
appear'd in these disguises, whereby they might never after 
be discovered or known by the Christians that shoud happen 
to see them after they had made their escape ; for it is impos- 
sible ever to know an Indian under these Colours, although 
he had been ever so often at your House, and you were most 
intimatly acquainted with him before he put on this dis- 

As for the Women, they seldom or never use any Paint 
on their Faces, except Bears-Grease, or Lamp-black, when 
they mourn for their dead; neither do they carry their 
Women along with them into the Field of Battle, or when 
they intend any Expedition (as they do in many parts of 
the Eastren Country) but always leave them at home with 
the old Men and Children, to provide all manner of N"eees- 
saries for them. By their different way of Painting, they 


of North Carolina. 317 

represent most of the Actions in Life, such as War, Peace, 
Feasts, Death, and the like, using diiferent Colours or Paint- 
ings suitable to each occasion. When they are thus Painted, 
they go to Battle in the following manner : Each Man takes 
his Gun, and a sufficient quantity of Powder and Ball, or 
if he has not these, his Bow (which is about an Ell long) 
and arrow^s, about eighteen Inches, made of small Canes, 
some of them are very artificially headed with sharp Stones, 
Shells, Teeth of Fish, or hardned after their manner, the 
other End being Feathered with two Eeathers, and tied with 
the Guts of some Beast when green and moist ; each of them 
has likewise a Tamahawlc or small Hatchet, and Cutlashes, 
when they can get them purchased by any means from the 
Europeans. They also use Clubs or long Poles (in the ends 
whereof they fasten very artificially sharp Stones, or the 
Horns of Beasts) and wooden Swords, hardened after their 
manner ; sometimes they have wooden Breast-plates for their 
defence; these being all the Weapons that are made use of 
amongst the civilized, and Savage Indians in these parts. 

The way of waging War is so harsh, that one must have a 
Body of Steel to bear the Fatigues they are obliged to un- 
dergo. They give but little Quarters, and if they are taken 
Prisoners, they are never exchanged: When one Xation is 
engaged in War with another, there is little Valour used, 
though they accomplish notable Exploits by Craft and Strat- 
agem, for they do not attack each other by open Force, but 
dividing themselves into small Parties, twenty five or thirty 
Men lie in Ambush near the Village they design to attack, 
'till ]^ight, then they set upon the Huts that lie dispersed in 
the open Country, if they meet with any aged Men they kill 
them, cut off their Heads, Hands, and Feet, nay, if they 


318 The Natural Historic 

have time, cut them all into small pieces, that every one may 
take along with him a part, as a signal of his Bravery : But 
if the Enemy are alarmed, they are glad to be contented with 
the Head alone, or perhaps a Lock of the Hair, which they 
carry home in triumph, as an undoubted sign of their Bra- 
very. When they intend to do a bold Exploit, they enter a 
Village at Xight, force open a House, kill all they meet with, 
and then betake themselves to their Heels, for fear of being 
pursued by their Enemies. If they engage in the open 
Eield, their chief Design is to draw one another into an 
Ambush ; but the death of one or two Men commonly decides 
the Quarrel, that Party which has lost them, returning im- 

When they go to War, they carry their Idol with them, 
of whom they tell incredible Stories, and ask Council, as the 
Antients were wont to do with the Oracle of Apollo, and then 
proceed upon their intended Expedition, with their Kings 
or Wa7' Captains, who march first, with a Cluh in one Hand, 
and a Bow in the other, with a Quiver full of Arrows, all the 
rest follow him towards the Battle, with such Weapons 
as they can conveniently get, singing Songs instead of Drums 
and Trumpets, and whilst they fight, there is nothing to be 
heard but Skreeches and Cries amongst them, and it is ac- 
counted a great Battle amongst them where three or four are 
killed, or made Captives. 

They are a People that never forget Injuries done by their 
Enemies, and seldom cease 'till they have Satisfaction, but 
before they go upon any Expedition, they often assemble in 
Council together, and there debate the Matter in hand, and 
take those Resolutions that they judge most advisable to be 
done, being a People never over hasty in what they do. 


of North Carolina. 319 

The J make gTeat Feasts after they have obtained a \'ic- 
tory over their Enemies, for several Days together, where 
they drink great quantities of Yaupan Tea, and whatever 
Trophies they obtain in Battle, they carefully bring home 
to their Towns, and place them all together, round which 
they Dance for several Hours, shewing all the signs of Joy 
imaginable, their young Men and Wives singing Songs of 
Praise to their War Captains and great Men, for their late 
Conquest over their Enemies ; they likewise make the most 
antient Women of the Country Dance, holding the Hair of 
their Enemies in their Hands. 

Their manner of War amongst themselves, is either by 
suddenly surprizing each other, which is most commonly 
done about the dawning of the Day, Moon-light, or by Am- 
bushes; set Battles being very rare, except it be where there 
are many Trees, to have a place of Refuge or Defence after 
every Shot, or the delivery of their Arrows, by leaping be- 
hind them, or some other shelter. 

When they go to War or their Hunting Mat<ihes, the 
Victuals which they generally carry w4th them is Bread, 
Indian Corn, dried Fruits, of several sorts. Honey, and Meal 
made of Maiz parched in the Fire, this they can preserve for 
a long time without receiving any damage ; they likewise 
carry dried Fish upon these occasions, and these are most 
commonly all the Provisions they take with them. 

The Cruelty they use to their Prisoners of War, is scarce 
to be paralel'd, because they strive to invent the most inhu- 
man and barbarous Butcheries for these miserable Wretches 
that happen in their power, that is possible for themselves 
or Devils to invent. These Savages esteem Death to be no 
Punishment, but an advancement to him that is taken out 
of the World into another; therefore they inflict on them 


320 The Natural Histoid 

these cruel Torments, in prolonging Life in that miserable 
state, as long as they can, and never miss Sculping of these 
Wretches (as they call it) which is to cut off the Skin from 
the Temples, and take the whole Head of Hair along with 
it from the Scull, like a Cap ; this they hang at their Belts, 
and carry to their Towns for their Wives and Children to be 
spectators of. They sometimes take the top of the Scull 
along with it, all which they preserve and carefully keep by 
them to shew their Conquest, and Victory over their Ene- 
mies. Some of them keep their Enemies Teeth, which are 
taken in War; whilst others split the PHch-Pine and stick 
the Prisoners Bodies (whilst alive) full of them, which they 
set fire to, and burn like so many Toarches : In this manner 
they make him dance round a great Fire, every one buffeting 
and deriding him 'till he expires ; then every one present 
strive to get a Bone or some other Relick of this unfortunate 
Captive. Whatever Weapons they kill or wound their Ene- 
mies with, they let the Blood remain on it as a Trophy of 
their Victory. 

It is remarkable, that if any of the young Fellows who 
have been at the Wars, and had the fortune to take a Cap- 
tive, returns the proudest Creature upon Earth, and sets 
such a Value on himself, that he scarce knows how to contain 
in his Senses. In all their Wars they never destroy the 
Women or Children that they make Captives, but carefully 
preserve them. 

The Iroquois^ or Sannagers, and Cherolcees, are the most 
powerful and warlike Indiana that we know of in these Parts, 
being always at War, and not to be persuaded from that way 
of living by any Arguments or Persuasions whatsoever. 
They live near the Mountains, and there has been several 
^Methods used by the Christians to perswade them to live 


of North Carolina. 321 

peaceably with the Tuskeruros (who are one of the Civilized 
Xations, amongst the English that live near the Sea) not- 
withstanding these huLians very much desire to make Peace, 
and woud submit to the former, yet their answer is, that 
they cannot live without War, which they have ever been 
accustomed to, and that if peace be made with them or any 
other Xation they War withal, they must find out some oth- 
ers to wage War against. But for them to live in peace is 
to live out of their element, War, Conquest, and Murder, 
being what they always delight in, and value themselves for. 
Yet they have not molested the Tuskeruros, of late Years, 
and it is supposed that they are now at War with the Indians 
on the other side of the Mountains, and though they may 
seem such a Barbarous People, yet they are very fond of the 
Christians, and use them with all manner of civility when 
they meet them in the Mountains where they constantly trade 
with each other. 

When they take a Prisoner, and intend to keep him as a 
Slave to Work in their Fields, they flea the Skin from the 
setting on of his Toes to the middle of his Foot, cut of one 
half of his Feet, wraping the Skin over the Wounds and 
then healing them. By this cruel and Barbarous method 
the Indian captive is hindred from making his escape, for 
he can neither run fast or go any where but his feet or 
Stumps are more easily traced and discovered, yet I have 
seen some that made their escape from their Enemies though 
they were disabled after this manner. 

The Indians ground their Wars chiefly on Enmity, not on 
Interest, as the Europeans generally do, for the loss of the 
meanest Person in the Nation, they will go to War and lay 
all at Stake, and prosecute their design to the utmost, till 

21 Ss the 

322 The Natural Historic 

the ISTation they were injured by be wholly destroyed, or 
make them that satisfaction which they demand. 

They maintain continual Wars one E^ation against another, 
which sometimes hold for Ages, killing and making captive 
all they can, till they become so weak that they are often 
forced to make peace for want of a sufficient number of 
Recruits to supply their Wars ; so that by these continual 
Wars, and the art they have and often practice of Poysoning 
one another, which they do with a large white Spongy Root 
that grows in their fresh Marshes, many numerous and form- 
idable [N^ations are dwindled away to a handful of Men in 
comparison to what they were sixty Years ago, and it's 
strange to imagine how many hundred Miles they come to 
make War on each other ; without any visible view of Inter- 
est in Lands, or Riches, which are the chief motives of all 
European Princes^ w^aging War against each other. 

They are very Politick in waging and carrying on their 
War, first by advising with all the antient Men of conduct 
and reason that belong to their JSTation ; such as superanuated 
War Captains, and those that have been Counsellors amongst 
them for many Years, whose Advice has succeeded well. 
They have likewise their Field Counsellors, who are accus- 
tomed to Ambuscades and Surprizes, which methods are 
commonly used by them in these parts, for you shall seldom 
Lear of a Field or set Battle fought amongst them. 

Yet before they undertake any enterprizes, they meet 
several Mornings together in their State-Houses, where the 
King repaireth, and is placed on a seat Avhich is generally 
higher than any of his Retinue's, where all of them saiute 
him; as soon as the Salutation is over, every one sits down 
according to their Degrees or Seniority, and if there be any 
thing to be debated, the King calls his Priests and the most 


of North Carolina. 323 

antient j\ieii of liis Nation and asks tlioir Advice. After- 
wards he commands Cassena to be brought, and when he has 
drank a Cup full of the Liquor (which holds about a Pint 
and a half) they all, one after another drink the same pro- 
portion out of the same Cup. 

This drink is in such great request amongst them, that no 
Man is permitted to taste thereof in this publick Assembly 
imless he has signalized himself in the Wars against his Ene- 
mies; Valour being highly esteeme4 amongst them: They 
drink this Tea very warm, which makes them sweat plenti- 
fully, and has the virtue to take away Hunger and Thirst 
for twenty four Hours. 

These Indians exercise their young Men very much in 
Shooting with their Bows, and Arrows, the Strings whereof 
are made of the Guts of the Stag, or of a Stag's Skin, which 
they know how to dress as well as any People in Europe, 
and with as different sorts of Colours ; there being plenty of 
several beautiful Dies in this Country, which they are well 
acquainted with, they likewise take great pleasure in Hunt- 
ing and Fishing, wherein they are very expert. 

I will give you some few Instances of their Politicks and 
Expeditions, which are worth mentioning. The first was 
thus, two Xations were at War with each other, and both 
Parties were in the Woods or Forrest ranging to see what 
Enemies they coud take or destroy. The lesser i^umber 
found they were discovered by the greater, and that they 
cou'd not well get over a River (that lay betwixt them and 
their Home) without engaging the other party, whose !N'um- 
bers were much superior, they immediately called a Council, 
which being met, and having weighed and debated their pres- 
ent circumstances, with many arguments for a considerable 
time, and found their Enemies advantage, and that they 

Ss 2 could 

324 The Natural History 

could not possibly expect any success in engaging such an 
imequal dumber. They at last concluded on this Strata- 
gem, Avhich in my opinion carried a great deal of policy 
along with it. It was, that the same ^N'ight they should 
make a great Fire, which they were certain would be discov- 
er'd by the adverse party, and there dress up Logs of Wood 
in their Cloaths, and make them exactly seem like Indians 
that were fast asleep by the Fire-side (which is their way 
when they are Hunting or otherwise in the Woods) so said 
they, our Enemies will fire upon these Images, supposing 
them to be Men, while we lye in Ambuscade, and after their 
Guns are unloaded we shall deal well enough with them. 

This result was immediately put in execution, and the 
Tire was made by the side of a Yally where they lay perdue, 
very advantageously all Xight. Thus a little before 
break of Day they came down to the Fire, and at once fired 
in upon these Logs in the Indian Cloaths and run up to them 
expecting they had kilFd every Man dead upon the Spot, 
but they soon found themselves to be mistaken, for then the 
other Indians who had lain all the Night stark-naked, at- 
tacked them with their loaded Pieces, which so surpriz'd 
them, that every Man was taken Prisoner and brought in 
bound to their Town, some of whom were sold to the English 
for Slaves. 

There was another extraordinary Instance of this Nature 
that happened betwixt the Machapunga Indians and the 
Coranines, living on the Sand-banks near Machapunga Biver, 
which carries a great deal of Treachery and Barbarity in it, 
and is as follows. The Machapungas were invited to a feast 
by the Coranines (which two Nations had been a long time 
at War together, but had lately concluded a Peace) there- 
upon the Machapunga Indians took the advantage of coming 


of North Carolina. 325 

to the Corallines feast, and to avoid all suspicion, and that 
there was a good harmony and understanding now amongst 
them ; the Machapunga King who though of a Savage nature, 
was a great Politician, and very stout, ordered all his Men 
to carry their Tamahawks along with them under their 
Match-coats, which they did, and being acquainted when to 
fall on, by the Word given, they all (upon this design) set 
forward for the feast, and came to the C oranine-town, who 
made them welcome, and had gotten Victuals, Fruit, and 
such things as make an Indian Entertainment ; having pro- 
vided all things necessary to make their new Guests wel- 
come, after Dinner towards the Evening (as it is customary 
amongst them) they went to Dancing all-together; when the 
Machapunga King saw the best opportunity offer, he gave 
the Word, and immediately his Men pulled out their Tama- 
hawks, or Hatchets from under their Match-coats, killed sev- 
eral, and took the rest of them Prisoners, except some few 
that were not at the Feast, and about four or five that made 
their escape ; some of these they sold as Slaves to the English. 
At the time this was done, these Indians had nothing but 
Bows and Arrows, being intire strangers to Guns and their 
uses ; neither are any of the two former IsTations to be met 
with (at this Day) living near Machapunga River, which 
place is well inhabited by Christians. 

Their Dances are of different IN'atures, and for every sort 
they have a different Song or Tune, which is allotted for each 
Dance. Upon these occasions they will continue dancing 
for several Xights together, with the greatest briskness im- 
aginable, their Wind never failing them: In a ^Var-Dance 
they have Warlike Songs, wherein they express with all the 
passion and vehemency imaginable what they intend to do 
with their Enemies ; how they will kill, roast, sculp, beat, 


326 The Natural Historic 

and make Captives such and such numbers of them, and 
how many they have destroyed already : A^Hiatever Trophies 
they have gained in War are set up for all those present to 
behold, round v^hich they Feast and Dance with the greatest 
extasie of Joy that can be exprest or she^vn by them. 

All the Songs are made new for every Feast, neither is 
one and the same Song sung at two several Festivals; some 
one of the IN^ation (who hath the best gift of expressing their 
Designs) is appointed by their King and ITar Captains 
to make these Songs; these Persons or Poets being in great 
request with the King, and ^JsTation to whom they belongs. 

Their Peace Dances are generally made at their Feasts, 
and are of another l^ature; as when several Towns, and 
sometimes different J^ations have made Peace with one 
another, then it suits both ^NTations, and relates how the bad 
Spirit made them go to War and destroy one another, that 
it shall never be so again, but that their Sons and Daughters 
shall marry together, and the two ^N^ations love each other, 
and become as one united People. 

They have a third sort of Feast and Dances which are 
when the Harvest of Corn is ended, and in the Spring; the 
one to return Thanks to the good Spirit for the Fruits of the 
Earth, the other to beg the same Blessings for the succeeding 
Year. They plant their Maze or Indian Corn twice a Year, 
viz. in March and June, all in the same Soil, for as soon as- 
one Crop is ripe, which is in three Months, they immediately 
gather it and plant the same Grounds over again. Before 
the Europeans arrived in these Parts, they used to dig their 
Grounds with an Instrument made of Wood, which was 
fashioned like a broad Matock, but at present they have Hoes 
from the Christians, and commonly plant two or three Grains 

together : 

of North Carolina. 327 

together: They never Dung their Land, but set Fire to the 
Weeds, which makes very good Maruire; when the Land is 
to be planted, the King commands one of the Men to assem- 
ble his Subjects every Day to Labour, and when the Maze is 
gathered, it is all carried into a common Store-House, where 
it is distributed to every one as there is occasion; they sel- 
dom sow more than what will serve them for six Months, 
and that very sparingly; for during the Winter they retire 
into the Woods to hunt, or fish, where they have plenty of 
various kinds of wild Beasts, Birds and Fishes. To en- 
courage the young Men to labour in planting their Maze and 
Pulse, they place a kind of Idol in the Field, dressed up 
exactly like an Indian, with a great quantity of Wampum, 
or Money that is made of Conk-Shells, hanging about his 
Xeck. This Image none of the young Men dare presume to 
approach, the old ones will not suffer them, but tell them 
that it is some famous Warrior that died many Ages ago, 
and now is come among them, to see if they work well, which 
if they do, he will go to the good Spirit, and speak to him 
to send them plenty of Corn, and to make them expert Hunt- 
ers, and mighty Wariors ; and many other incredible Stories, 
with which they amuse their Youth. All this while the 
King and the old Men sit round the Image, and seemingly 
pay the most profound Respect and Veneration imaginable 
to the same. One great help to them in carrying on these 
Cheats, and inducing their Youth to do what they please is, 
the uninterrupted Silence which is ever kept and observed 
amongst them. 

At these Feasts, which are set out with all the Magnificence 
imaginable, or that their Fare will allow of, the Masquerade 
begins always at Night. There is a Fire commonly made in 
the middle of the largest House in the Town, which frequently 


328 The Natural Histon; 

happens to be that of their King or ^Yar Captain, or a House 
made for that purpose, where two Men are placed on a Mat 
on the Ground, the one with a Rattle made of a Gourd, 
with some Indian Corn or Beans in it ; the other with a Drum 
made of an Earthen Pot, covered with a dressed Deer Shin, 
with one Stick in his Hand to beat thereon ; thus they begin 
the Song appointed for that purpose, at the same time the 
one Drums, and the other Rattles; this is all the artificial 
Musick of their own making that I ever saw amongst them. 
To these two Instruments they sing, which may be supposed 
to make but indifferent Musick, for Europeans, and yet the 
Cadencies and raising of their Voices are formed with that 
equality and exactness, that to us it seems very strange and 
admirable how they should continue these Songs without 
once missing to agree with each others IN^ote and Tune. 

As for their Dancing, were there Masters of that Profes- 
sion amongst them, as there are in Europe, I am certain they 
would dearly earn their Money; for these People take the 
most Pains that Men are able to endure : I have seen thirty 
dancing together, and every one with the Sweat dropping 
doAvn, as if Water were powred on their Backs. 

They bring up their Youth in many laborious Exercises, 
to make them able to endure Patigues, and improve their 
Wind, which is indeed very long and durable, being a hard 
matter in any Exercise to dispossess them of it, there being 
several Games amongst them that is .won by him that hath 
the longest Breath. In traveling and hunting they are most 
indefatigable, being bred up after that manner from their 
Youth, to which they have a double inducement, as it car:ies 
both Pleasure and Profit with it. I have known some of 
them very strong, and particularly remarkable for their run- 
ning and leaping: The agility of both Men and Women are 


of North Carolina. 329 

siicii, that they will very readily swim over great Rivers, and 
sometimes carry their Children; they likewise very nimbly 
climb the highest Trees in the Country. 

These People (as I said before) have solemn Feasts upon 
several occasions, such as for War, Peace, the Fruits of 
the Earth, and the like, at these Festivals they have great 
plenty of provisions, such as Venison, Birds, Fishes, and 
several sorts of Fruits and Roots. Their firing is made of 
Wood, which they kindle by strenuously rubbing one stick 
against another (the Sticks being of different kinds) and 
so roast their flesh Meat on wooden Spits, or Boyl it in 
Earthen Pots, of their own make, and sometimes broil it on 
the Embers. 

They are for the most part very gentle, loving and faith- 
ful, void of Guile or Treachery (except they are highly 
injured) and live after the manner of the Golden Age, for 
they only take care how to defend themselves from the Cold 
in their short ^Y inters, and to feed themselves with such 
Victuals as the Soil produceth. They sometimes have plenty 
of Rum at these Entertainments, which they purchase from 
the Europeans, but the common drink they make use of to 
quench their thirst is Water, and it is to be admired that 
they never yet found out the method of making Wines in 
these parts, where several sorts of Grapes are so plenty, and 
these People in general being extreamly fond of strong- 

At Night their Revels begin, which is commonly in a House 
made for that purpose being the largest amongst their dwell- 
ings, this House is built in form of a Pyramid wherein are 
made handsome white Benches artificially of fine Canes, 
joining along the Walls, and the Door or entrance very low. 
In these State-Houses are transacted all publick and private 

Tt business 

330 The Natural Historg 

business relating to the Affairs of the Government, and the 
audience of Foreign Ambassadors from other Indian Kings; 
likewise their consultations for wageing and making of War, 
Proposals of Trade with their ^Neighbouring Indians or 
Europeans, who happen to come amongst them, and there 
determine what may be most convenient for them to act, and 
what to omit, old Age being always held in as great venera- 
tion amongst them, as any People you shall find in any part 
of the World. 

It is to be observed, that during their consultations no 
manner of interruption is given to the Speaker, who gets up 
and declares to the Auditors what he thinks most advisable 
to be done in the Affair then depending; as soon as he has 
finished what he thinks proper to say on that Subject, he sits 
down and then the second proceeds after the same method, 
and so all the rest in their turns, and lastly their King, not 
one Word to be heard, or even a whisper during their whole 
conference but from him that stands up. The whole As- 
sembly giving a gTeat deal of attention to what each Person 
relates on that head, a profound silence and exact decorum 
being used during the Oration. 

And it is even remarkable amongst them in their common 
Discourse, that they never interrupt each other, none offer- 
ing to open his Mouth till the other has finished what he has 
to say on the Subject. This practice I am perswaded wou'd 
be of great use and advantage to the Europeans, who are so 
subject to interrupt each other, before they can utter their 
intentions, frequently judging from a few Words spoken, the 
whole Cause before they have heard the Merits of it. 

These People are naturally very subtile and sharp witted, 
and ready to conceive our meaning by Signs, and to make 
answers to be understood again. If they have not seen the 


of North Carolina. 331 

thine: Avhereof you ask tliem, thev will wink or cover their 
Eyes with their Hand to intimate thereby that it hath been 
hid from their sight, and if they understand not those things 
whereof you enquire, they will stop their Ears, and by many 
other such like signs, easie to be understood, they are apt to 
learn any thing of us, and are very willing to teach us the 
Names of each thing in their Language we demand of them. 

All their dwelling Houses are covered with the Barks of 
Trees, But this Senate-House differs very much from them, 
being artificially Thatch'd with Sedge and Rushes; at the 
buildiufi: whereof every one assists till it is finished, and as 
soon as it is compleatly finished, the King places some one 
of his chiefest Men to dwell therein, charging him with a 
diligent preservation thereof, in like manner as European 
Princes commit the charge and Government of Forts and 
Castles to some favorite subject they judge worthy of so great 
Honours and Trust. 

They frequently send Ambassadors to each other, who 
make very odd and strange Figures at their Arrival, having 
their Faces and Hair painted all over as red as Vermillion, 
a Fusee or Bow and Arrows in their Hands, and a Cutlash or 
Tamaliawh stuck in their Girdle. As soon as they arrive 
they are brought to the Kings House, from thence are con- 
ducted to the State-House, where they take the place that is 
assigned them, and there treat of those important Affairs 
with which they are commission' d from their Kings and 
i^ations to Avhom they belong. 

I have frequently made use of the word Civilized Indians, 
and for the better information of my Readers they are those 
that assisted the Christians against the other Savages of that 
Country in the late War when the Hon. Colonel Barnwell in- 
tirely defeated them in Bath County, Anno Dom. 1712. 

Tt ^ But 

332 The Natural Historic 

But to returne to their Feasts, in these State-Houses, the 
King being come, and seated invites the Europeans, if there 
be any amongst them at that time, who are always placed 
next the King, with his War Captains on each side; being 
thus seated, there is a circular Fire made of split Canes in 
the middle of the House, which otherwise would be as dark 
as a Dungeon, and is as hot as a Dutch Stove. One Man is 
constantly employed to supply split Canes as the others are 
consumed. The Guests being all seated on Benches or Mats 
on the Ground, they bring in several pieces of Bears-flesh 
and Venison, roasted and boiled ; Wild Turkeys in great 
plenty, dressed after their manner; various kinds of other 
Wild Beasts and Fowl, Fish, and several kinds of Medlies 
made of Maiz, stewed Peaches, dried Peaches, and variety 
of other Fruits. Every one of the Indians bringing some- 
thing with him, to enlarge their Banquet, according to their 
Degree and Quality. 

When all their Dainties are brought in, the first Enter- 
tainment begins with kicking out the Dogs, which are like 
the Wolves in these parts ; for it is supposed that they are a 
Species of them, made tame by beating and starving. They 
are the worst Dog-masters in the World, for you shall never 
see an Indian Dog that is fat amongst them; neither do I 
find that they make any use of them, for they never bring 
them to their Hunting-matches. 

They are of a quite contrary Disposition to their Horses, 
to whom they are the best of Masters, for they are continually 
feeding them with Maze, or whatever he will eat, until ho is 
as fat as a Hog, yet they never ride or make any manner of 
use of him, except only to carry a Deer home that they have 
killed near the Plantations ; or Firewood for their Houses. 


of North Carolina. 333 

As soon as the Dogs are discharged, the Company are sum- 
moned by beat of Drum and the Kattle ; Avhich two Instru- 
ments I have already mentioned, and whilst the one rattled 
the other in Consort beat the Drum, others at the same time 
sung mournful Ditties, the burthen of their Songs being in 
remembrance of their former greatness and numbers of their 
Nation, the famous Exploits of their renowned Ancestors, 
and all Actions of moment that had been performed by their 
forefathers in former Days. 

i!^o sooner does this kind of Consort begin to play and sing, 
but presently come in some Indians finely dressed up with 
Feathers, their Faces covered with Vizards made of Gourds; 
round their Ancles and Knees are hung Bells of several sorts, 
having wooden Falcions in their Hands, such as our Gladia- 
tors commonly use upon the Stage; in this Dress they dance 
about an Hour or more, shewing many strange Gestures, 
brandishing their Weapons as if they were going to fight 
each other, oftentimes w^alking round the Room with so 
much dexterity and nimbleness, that you may not hear their 
Bells make the least noise, which is very strange to see them 
perform, turning their Bodies, Arms and Legs, into such 
strange and frightful Postures, that to an European they 
would seem like a parcel of Bedlamites, void of Sense or 
Reason; after they have cut two or three high Capers, they 
immediately leave the Room. As soon as they disappear, 
come in a parcel of Women and Girles, each taking place 
according to their degree in Stature, the tallest leading the 
Dance, and the least of all placed last. They then form 
themselves into a Ring, representing the Fire they dance 
about. Several of them having Bells about their Legs, dressed 
with Flowers and Feathers like the Men, others with small 
Bells about their Xecks, though their way of Dancing is 


334 The Natural Historic 

nothing but a sort of stamping, which they continue for 
several Hours together, till they are all of them in as gTeat 
a sweat as if thej had been dipped in the Eiver. 

During these Dances the Spectators do not neglect to fill 
their Bellies with the Provisions that are there, more or less 
of them being continually eating: When the Dancing is 
ended, every Youth that is so disposed, takes hold of the Girl 
he fancies to be his Bedfellow for that Xight, few Ceremonies 
being used upon that head amongst them. 

At these Festivals and publick Assemblies they give a tradi- 
tional Relation of what happened amongst them for many 
Years past, to their young Men; having no other Method to 
record what their Ancestors have done, or known only by 
Tradition from Father to Son, and their Hierogliphichs, 
being entire Strangers to Letters or Learning. 

They have another sort of Feast where their Priests or 
Conjurers pretend to converse familiarly, and demand divers 
strange things from Spirits by their Invocations, and the 
Magical Charms which they make use of. This Peast they 
celebrate in the open Fields, where a large Circle is made ; 
all the Indians that come to it are variously painted and 
adorned with rich Feathers of divers Colours; they have 
singing and dancing at this as at the others : After they have 
sung and danced for a quarter of an Hour, and turned about 
three times, they run like distracted Men into the Woods ; then 
the Women continue the rest of the Day in Tears, and as 
melancholy as possible, then in a Rage they cut the Arms of 
the young Girls with sharp Shells of Fishes, 'till the Blood 
follows, which they cast into the Air, with loud Shreeks and 


of North Carolina. 335 

Those that begin this Feast (which is always in the Morn- 
ing) are their Priests or Conjurers, to whom they give great 
credit and belief, not only because they are very subtile and 
crafty Magicians, and hnd out things lost, but likewise be- 
cause they heal Diseases by their Charms and Knowledge in 
Plants. They first run to the Woods, from whence they re- 
turn in two Days, and then begin to Sing and Dance in the 
middle of the Circle (which the Women sweep and make 
very clean against their return) and are very chearful and 
merry with the old Indian Fathers that stay'd behind, by 
reason of their natural Indispositions and feebleness : When 
all these Ceremonies are ended, they begin to eat with such 
greediness, that they seem rather to devour their Meat than 
eat it, because they neither eat nor drink during their two 
Days continuance in the Woods. 

At these Feasts most of all the Xations that are in Peace 
w4th each other meet, though seventy or eighty Miles distant 
from each other, where they sell and buy several Commodi- 
ties as we do at our Fairs and Markets. 

They are very much given to Gaming at these publick 
Meetings, and often strip one another of all they have in the 
World; and what's more to be admired is, that they fre- 
quently play themselves away, and remain the Winners Ser- 
vants 'till their Relations or themselves pay the Money to 
redeem them; and it is observable, that the Looser is never 
dejected or cast down at his misfortune, but seems contented 
and as chearful as if he had been the Winner. They never 
differ at Gaming, neither did I ever see a Dispute about the 
legality thereof so much as arise amongst them. 

The chief Game is a kind of Aritlimeticl\ which is man- 
aged or played with a parcel of small split Reeds about the 
thickness of a small Bent; these are made very nicely, that 


336 The Natural Historic 

they part and are tractable in their Hands. They are fifty 
one in I^umber, and their length about seven Inches; when 
they play they throw part to their Antagonist, the Art in 
this kind of Game is to discover upon sight how many you 
have, and what you throw to him that plays with you ; some 
are so expert in guessing the J^umbers they gave, and what 
they have remaining, that they will not miss once in ten 
times ; they are so taken with this particular Game, that sev- 
eral of them have lost large Indian Estates. A good Set of 
these Reeds to play with, are generally valued and sold for a 
dressed Doe-Skm. 

They have several other Games and Plays wherewith they 
frequently divert themselves, as with the Kernels or Stones 
of the Fruit of the Persimon Tree, which are in effect the 
same as our Dice, because winning or loosing depend on 
which side appears uppermost, and how they happen to fall 

Their manner of playing Ball is after this manner, viz. 
they place a square Mat made of Reeds or Bullrushes at the 
top of a Tree eight or nine Fathom from the Ground, and 
whoever hitteth the Mat in playing thereat, winneth the 

They have another Game which is managed with a Bai- 
toon, and very much resembles our Trap-Ball ; as the l^ations 
differ so do their Games and Pastimes, having several pe- 
culiar to themselves which are not practiced by others ; yet 
these I have mentioned are the chief that I have observed 
amongst them. 

They are charitable and kind to each other, especially to 
those of their own Nation ; for if any one of them has suffered 
loss by Eire or otherwise, they order him to make a Feast 
(their Victuals being in common) and to invite them all to 


of North Carolina. 337 

it: On tlie Day appoiuted they all coint', and after every 
Aiau's Victuals is dealt to him, oue of their Speakers, or 
grave old Men makes an Harangue, to the Company to this 
effect, that Thai Mans House hath been destroyed, together 
ivith all his Goods. That he and his Family very narrowly 
escaped. That he is every Mans Friend in that Company, 
and that it is all their Duties to help him, as he would do any 

of them, had the like Misfortune befallen them. In 

such like Speeches he accosts all that are present, to a charita- 
ble compliance in behalf of the distressed Person. After this 
Oration is over, every Man according to his Quality and 
Ability, throws down upon the Ground some Present, which 
is commonly Beads, Ronoah, Peak, Shiyis, or Furs, which 
often amounts to treble the loss he has sustained. The same 
assistance they give to any Man that wants to build a Cabin 
or make a Canoe, or any other Convenience that he is not 
able to perform, and stands in need of: For, they say, it is 
every Man^s Duty so to do, there being several Works that 
one Man camiot effect, therefore they must give him their 
help, otherwise the Society would soon fall, and they should 
be deprived of those urgent E^ecessaries which Life requires. 
Their Charity is no less extensive towards Widows, for it 
often happens that a Woman is destitute of a Husband, either 
by Wars or otherwise, and hath a great many Children to 
maintain, such a Person they always help, and make their 
young Men Plant, Reap, and do every thing she is not capa- 
ble of doing herself; yet they will not allow any one to be 
idle (especially in the Harvest time) but employ themselves 
in some Work or other. As they are unacquainted with the 
value of Gold, or Silver, they prefer their Indian^Money be- 
fore it, which is of different Sorts, but all made of Shells, 
that are found on the Coast of Carolina, and especially the 

22 Uu Conch-shells; 

338 The Natural History 

ConcJc-shells; these are very large and hard and difficult to 
be cut, yet some European Smiths have tried to drill these 
Shells, thinking to get an advantage by them, but it proved 
so hard and tedious in the v^orking, that nothing could be 
gained thereby, that they have intirely laid it aside for the 
Indians to manage, who never value their Time, so that they 
can make them according to their Fancy. 

They frequently make of these Shells several sorts of Fig- 
ures, in imitation of Gorges, Crosses, Stars, or any other 
odd kind of Figure that their imagination suggests, these 
they wear about their Necks and Arms tied with a String; 
there are some of these Gorges that will sell for three or four 
Buch Shins ready drest, whilst others are only valued and 
sold for one Doe Shin. But the general and currant Species 
amongst all the Indians of Carolina, and I believe all over 
the Continent as far as the Bay of Mexico, that which we call 
Peah and Ronoah, but Peah more especially. This is that 
which they call Wampmn at New Yorh, and has been made 
use of as current Coin for many Years amongst the Euro- 
peans settled in that Province. This is what many Writers 
call Proclean and was formerly made at New Yorh in great 
quantities, and with us in some Measure. Four Cubits of 
this purchase a dressed Doe Shin, and six or seven are the 
purchases of a dressed Buch Shin: An European could not 
afford to make so much of this Wampum for five times the 
Value ; for it is made out of a verv laro-e Shell of which that 
Country affords plenty. 

This Shell they grind smaller than the small End of a 
Tobacco Pipe, or a large Wheat Straw; four or five of thase 
are about an Inch in length, and every one drilled through, 
polished and made as smooth as Glass, yet they are as strong 
as Beads. A Cubit of the Indian Measure contains as much 


of North Carolina. 339 

in length as will reach from the Elbow to the end of the little 
Finger. They never regard or stand to question whether he 
is a tall or short Man that measures it; but if this Wampum 
or Peak be of a black or purple Colour, as some part of the 
Shell, then it is twice the Value. 

They grind these Shells upon Stones and other things, 'till 
they make them current, but the Drilling is the most difficult 
to the Europeans, which the Indians do with a ISTail stuck in 
a Cane or Reed, but whether they have any Method in soft- 
ning these Shells, is uncertain. They rowl it continually on 
their Thighs with the right Hand, and hold the bit of Shell 
with their left; thus by degTees they drill a hole through it, 
which is a tedious Work, but especially in making their 
Ronoah, four of which will scarce make one length of Wam- 

The Indians in general are a People (as I observed) that 
set very little value on their Time, and need never be under 
any apprehension or fear that the Christians will take the 
Trade out of their hands. This is. the Money with which 
you may buy Shins, Furs, Slaves, or any thing they have ex- 
cept their Children, it being their Mammon (as our Money 
is to us) that persuades and intices them to do any thing. 
With this they will buy off Murders, or whatever a Man can 
do that is 111, and be his Crime of never so black a Nature, 
this Money is sufficient to purge him of it, and have it buried 
in Oblivion for ever, such an influence hath this Almighty 
Gain over them, that the most inhuman practices shall ap- 
pear innocent and laudable, and engage them in the most 
scandalous and barbarous Actions, without once reflecting or 
condemning themselves in the least for it. 

Uu 2 Formerlv 

340 The Natural Historg 

Formerly in their hunting Matches they used to dress 
themselves very artfuelly in Deer Skins, by which counterfet 
they would come as near the Deer as they pleased^ by mimick- 
ing each Gesture of that Beast as they approached, by which 
means they killed vast numbers of them, but some of them- 
selves being shot in this disguise, it is now intirely laid aside 
and that practice disallowed of by the express Orders of their 

They have particular Methods by which they can preserve 
the Eyes of Beasts as if they were still living, this they will 
by no means discover to the Christians; they have many other 
curious things that the Europeans are desirous to know and 
learn from them, but they will by no means discover or make 
known to them, being a People that are secret, crafty, and 
subtile in all their Affairs, though of ever so small a moment. 

Although these Indians, in respect of us, are a poor People, 
and their want of Skill and Judgment in the Knowledge and 
use of the Sciences, generally esteem Trifles to things of real 
value, not having the advantages of improving themselves as 
the Europeans ; yet in their own manner and way of Think- 
ing, they seem to be ingenious, and shew excellency of Wit, 
notwithstanding the many inconveniencies they labour under, 
and their want of Tools and Instruments to assist them in anv 
of their Undertakings, for I have, during my continuance 
amongst them, seen many useful Instruments made for sev- 
eral uses, with nothing but an indifferent Knife. 

They commonly barbecu or dry their Yenison on Mats or 
Hurdles in the Sun, first salting it with their Salt, which is 
made of the Ashes of the Hichery Wood; this Venison so 
cured, they keep and make use of in time of scarcity, and bad 
Weather, which they tear to pieces with their Hands and 
Teeth (for want of Knives) and then put it into a Morter 


of North Carolina. 341 

and ijoimd it very Hue, adding tlie Powder of the Hickery 
Nuts or Wall-nuts and other ingredients, whereof they make 
a savory Dish. 

Their Kings, as they are most absolute, put to death any 
of their Subjects that have committed those Crimes that they 
think worthy of so great a Punishment ; which is strictly ob- 
served, and put in execution by the War Captains after dif- 
ferent and barbarous Methods, according to the King's Will 
and Pleasure. 

Their Sculping and sticking them full of Splinters of 
Light-wood, and setting these Wretches on Fire, their fleaing 
and cutting their Feet at the Instep, I have already made 
mention of; during which time they never cease feasting, 
dancing, singing and playing a thousand antick Tricks, espe- 
cially if it be one of their Enemies; at other times they rip 
open the Bellys of these wretches, fasten their Bowels to a 
Tree, and force them round 'till such time as their Intrails are 
out, or their Strength is intirely spent, that they can shew no 
more Diversion to the Spectators, who delight in such in- 
human Actions : It is incredible to see with what Courage and 
Bravery these Wretches behave in the midst of these Tortures 
and agonies of Death, not once seeming to bemoan themselves, 
believing and imagining their Enemies will have the same 
Fate when they fall into the Hands of those belonging to their 

There was an Indian put to death whilst I was in the 
Country by the Kings Order, for cleaving the Scull of one of 
his own [N'ation with a Tamahawk, of which Wound he in- 
stantly died. The Offender was immediately brought forth, 
and two other Indians were ordered to get a couple of Ropes 
tyed up in the nature of IsTooses, with which they strangled 
the Offender, one pulling one way and the other the contrary, 


342 The Natural Historg 

'till he was dead ; the nearest Relations of the deceased strik- 
ing him on the Head with great Clubs. These are the most 
common Methods that are yet kno^vn amongst them, by which 
they torture and put one another to death; but doubtless 
there are many other barbarous Methods that they make use 
of, which as yet we are strangers to. 

The King most commonly gives orders to put the offender 
to Death, yet the punishment due to the offender is very 
often left to the nearest Relation of the deceas'd, who prose- 
cutes him with all the rage and fury imaginable, being both 
Judge and Executioner till he is fully satisfied; yet this re- 
venge is oftentimes bought of with their wampum. Beads, 
Tobacco, and such like commodities, whereof they are very 
fond, and are useful amongst them, though the crimes were 
of the highest Mature, Villany, or Barbarity that cou'd be 
acted by Mankind, yet these trifles make a sufficient attone- 
ment for all. 

They have a strange custom or Ceremony amongst them, 
to call to mind the persecutions and death of the Kings their 
Ancestors slain by their Enemies, at certain Seasons, and 
particularly when the Savages have been at War with any 
i^ation, and return from their Country without bringing 
home some Prisoners of War, or the Heads of their Enemies. 
The King causes as a perpetual remembrance of all his pred- 
ecessors to beat and wound the best beloved of all his Chil- 
dren with the same Weapons wherewith they had been kill'd 
in former times, to the end that by renewing the Wound, their 
Death should be lamented a fresh. 

The King and his Nation being assembled on these Occa- 
sions, a Feast is prepared, and the Indian who is authorized 
to wound the Kings Son, runs about the House like a dis- 
tracted Person crying and making n most hid ions noise nil 
the time with the Weapon in his Hand, wlierewith he wounds 


of North Carolina. 343 

the Kings Son, this he performs three several times, during 
which interval he presents the King with Victuals or C'as- 
sena, and it is very strange to see the Indian that is thus 
struck never offers to stir till he is wounded the third time, 
after which he falls down backwards streaching out his Arms 
and Legs as if he had been ready to expire, then the rest of 
the Kings Sons and Daughters, together with the Mother and 
vast Numbers of Women and Girls fall at his Feet and La- 
ment and Cry most bitterly; during this time the King and 
his retinue are Feasting, yet with such profound silence for 
some Hours, that not one Word, or even a Whisper is to be 
heard amongst them, after this manner they continue till 
Xight, which ends in Singing, Dancing, and the greatest joy 

The Sapona Indians live at the West branch of Cape Fear, 
or Clarendon River, which is very beautiful, and has good 
Land about it ; it is five or six Days Journey over the Moun- 
tains to go to the South-Sea. These Mountains are very Bar- 
ren, with abundance of Rocks and Marble, but no Fowl or 
Water are to be found in these Parts. The Indians residing 
here are very powerfull, but seldom make visits amongst us 
except it be their Traders who bring us Skins and Furs. 

The Toteras are neighbouring Indians to the Saponas, and 
live West-ivard in the Mountains ; I have been informed by 
some of them that Trade amongst the Europeans, that they 
have Bazoar-stone, but I never saw any of it whilst I was in 
those parts. 

The Keyaivees live likewise on a Branch of Cape Fear 
River which lies to the North-west. The Lands here are very 
Fertile and in many places abounding with Rocks of several 
sorts of Stones, such as Lime-stone, Marble, and the like. 

I have 

344 The Natural Historg 

I have frequently convers'd with their Doctors, who are in 
great request and esteem amongst them, they told me of many 
great cures that they have performed, but woud never dis- 
cover any thing of what they knew, or by what Herbs or 
plants they perfected them, notwithstanding I importun'd 
them and even offered rewards. These Savages in general 
being a very wary People, seldom or never revealing any of 
their secrets to the Europeans, yet are willing to assist them 
in any Indian disorder that should afflict them, as in the 
biting of Snakes or any other misfortune of that Xature 
wherein they have any Knowledge, but as to European Dis- 
orders they are entire Strangers, which most commonly prove 
fatal amongst them. 

The Indians in Carolina have no Fences to part each others 
Lots in their Corn-Fields, but every Man knows his o^^^l pro-, 
portion, and it scarce ever happens that they rob one another 
of so much as an Ear of Corn; which if any is found to do, 
he is sentenced by the Elders to Work and plant for him that 
was Itobb'd, till he is fully recompenc'd for all the damage 
or loss he has sustained in his Corn-Field; this is very punctu- 
ally performed, and the Thief held in disgrace that steals 
from any of his Friends or the Kation he belongs to. 

When these Savages live near the Waters they frequent the 
Rivers in Summer-time very much where both Men and 
Women often in a Day go in naked to wash themselves, not 
both Sexes together, yet this is not out of any point of modesty 
that being a virtue or qualification that is very little regarded 
or make use of amongst these People. 

These Indians generally are the best marks Men with Guns 
that are to be met with in most parts of the World, niid com- 
monly kill Avhat they Shoot at with a single Ball : tliis is ])rin- 

ci pally 

of North Carolina. 345 

cipally owing to the steadiness in their Limhs and the shar}) 
Sight with which they are endued. They take a great deal of 
pains when they buy a Gun first, to find out if it has any 
fault in the Barrel, which they generally take out of the 
stock and cut a ^N'otch in a Tree where they make it streight, 
if there be occasion, and after shoot several times at markes, 
that they may be acquainted with its faults and perfections, 
this they do before they go to kill Deer, or any other kind of 
Game that is to be met with as they hunt in Woods. It is 
remarkable in them that they will seldom stir or go abroad 
into the Woods to Hunt before the Sun is an Hour or two 
heigh, and hath exhaled most part of the Dew from the 
Earth, then are they indefatigable in walking from Morn- 
ing till Xight in pursuit of their Game. When they are 
Traveling in the Woods together, they always keep a con- 
stant Pace, neither will they stride over a Tree that lyes 
across a path in their way, but always go round it, which is a 
quite contrary custom to the Europeans, but for what reason 
the Indians use this Ceremony I never cou'd learn, though I 
have frequently importuned them on that Head. And what 
is worthy of Observation is, that none of the Indians in 
North-Carolina are to be met with Left Handed; whether 
this be owing to their method of Cursing, or otherwise, I 
cannot account for. When ever they cut wdth a Knife, they 
always turn the Edge towards themselves, whereas the Euro- 
peans cut and Whittle from them. 

Before the Arrival of the Europeans in these parts of 
America, these Savages not knowing the use of Steel and 
Flints, they got their fire from Sticks, which by vehement 
collision or rubbing together kindle and take fire. This 
method they will sometimes practice even now when it has 
happened through rainy Weather, or some other accident, 

Xx that 

346 The Natural History 

tliat they liave wet their Spunh, or Touch-wood, which is a 
sort of soft Corkey substance, generally of a Cinamon colour, 
and grows in the Concave or hollow part of an Oah, Hickory, 
and several other sorts of Wood, which they dig out with an 
Ax as they have occasion. It is in great plenty in Carolina, 
and is always kept by the Europeans and Indians instead of 
Touch-wood and Tender, both which it exceeds. 

It is very surprizing to find so many different Langaiages 
amongst them as there are, there being few ISTations that un- 
derstand each other. But I believe the principal reason of 
this great difference and confusion of Langaiages as are to be 
met with amongst them, is owing to these People seldom or 
never conversing with any Nation but their own. And I 
have often observed several of the Indians with whom I have 
been acquainted and freely conversed with at Bath and Eden- 
town, that when I chanc'd to meet them in the Woods, they 
wou'd not speak one Word of English (which they could do 
tolerably well) but would either answer me in their oa^ti 
Language or by signs; the reason whereof I coud never un- 
derstand, though I made all the strict enquiry I could. 
These differences in their Languages cause Jealousies and 
fears amongst them, which often occasion Wars, wherein 
they destroy each other ; otherwise the Christians had not in 
all probability settled themselves so easily as they have done, 
had these tribes of Savages united themselves into one Peo- 
ple, or general interest, or were they so but every hundred 
^liles together. In short, they are a strange sort of People 
under their present Circumstances, and have such odd and 
uncouth ways in their management and course of living, that 
it seems a miracle to us how they bring about their designs 
as they do, when their ways are commonly quite contrary to 
ours. I am perswaded that were it not for tho continual 


of North Carolina. 347 

Wars they have amongst themselves, they wou'd enjoy the 
happiest state in this World of all Mankind, being neither 
Slaves to Eiches or Grandure, which bewitches the greatest 
part of the World, and occasions daily care and trouble in 
those that arc thus in Love with it, which these Savages are 
entirely free from. 

Drunkeness and several other Vices were intirely un- 
known to them before the Arrival of the Christians amongst 
them, and Swearing, their Lang-uage cannot express, yet 
those that learn English soon learn that fashionable vice of 
Swearing, and it is generally the first thing they can talk, 
hearing those vile and abominable expressions so often re- 
peated by the Europeans. The many Vices they see and 
hear daily practiced by the Christians, have in a great meas- 
ure perverted these miserable Creatures, that they never 
desire to be instructed in the light of the Gospel, but rather 
look upon us as a more unworthy race of People than them- 
selves ; that at this very Day they are no nearer Christianity 
(in all appearance) than they were at the first discovery 
made by the Christians of this part of the World. Yet it is 
most certain, that they have several abominable vices 
amongst them, which no doubt they might be brought off, if 
the Europeans woud show those good examples of Virtue, 
Piety, and Morality, which are essentially necessary for 
every Christian to do and practice. They have likewise 
several good Qualities amongst them, and are very Hospita- 
ble and fond of the Europeans, who generally look upon them 
with all the disdain immaginable, and very often return ill 
Offices for their gratitude. 

They have a strange and odd Custom amongst them in 
making offerings of their first Pruits, and likewise throwing 
the first Bit or Spoonful of every Meal they sit down to, into 

Xx 2 the 

348 The Natural History 

the Ashes near the Fire, and all the reason they give for so 
doing is, that it is the same to them as the pulling of our 
Hats and talking when we go to Victuals is to us. The 
Indians in Carolina call Rum and Physick by the same 
Name, and the reason they give is, because Rum makes Peo- 
ple sick, as if they had taken any Physical or Poysonous 
Plant, notwithstanding they cannot forbear drinking it to 
excess, when they can by any means purchase it or any other 
Spiritous Liquor. 

They are a craving People, and if you give them any 
thing by way of Present, they imagine that it obliges you to 
give them another, and so on, until you have given them all 
you have; so insatiable and unreasonable are they in their 
Demands, that they have no bounds to them. If they give 
any thing as a Present, it is with a View to receive twice the 
Value, for they have no consideration that you shall want or 
have any occasion for those things you give them; for their 
way of Living is so contrary to ours, that neither we nor they 
can fathom one anothers Designs or Methods. 

They set the least value upon Time of any People in the 
World, for if they are going out to Hunt, Pish, or any other 
indifferent Business, you may keep them as long as you 
please provided you entertain them in Discourse, and seem 
pleased with their Company ; yet no People are more expedi- 
tious and safer Messengers than they, when any extraordi- 
nary Business that they are sent about requires it. 

The Indian Women s Work in this Province is generally 
to dress their Victuals for the whole Family, and make 
Mats, Baskets, Girdles of Possiinis Hair, and such like 
things, which they commonly sell to the Europeans. The 
Mats thoy mak^o are of Rushes, about five Feet broad, and 
two Fathom long, sowed double, whereby they become very 


of North Carolina. 349 

commodious to lay under our Beds, or to sleep upon in the 
Summer Season in the 13ay, and for our Slaves at Night. 
There are other Mats made of Flags, which the Tusheruro 
Indians make and sell to the Planters. The Baskets our 
neighbouring Indiana make are all of a very fine sort of 
Bullrushes, and sometimes of Silk-grass, which they work 
with the figures of Beasts, Birds, Fishes, and the like; in 
these they carry several sorts of Fruits, Flowers, and many 
other things of that nature, which they either sell or make 
Presents of to the Christians. The Savage lyidians who live 
a great way from the Christians, make both their Baskets or 
Mats of split Reeds, which are exceedingly neat and hand- 
some, being made only of the outward shining part of the 
Cane; with these I have seen Mats, Baskets and Dressing 
Boxes, very artificially done, they sell these to the Planters 
when they come dowm amongst them to dispose of their Deer- 
Skins, Furs, and other Commodities. 

The Indians t\\2it live near the Christians frequently Buy 
or rather Barter Deer-Skins and other Commodities for 
Rum, which they carry to the Indians that live Westivard 
on this and the other side of the Mountains, who never knew 
what it was 'till within these few Years : This Liquor they 
carry in Rundlets for many hundred Miles, but some- 
times they cannot forbear breaking their Cargo in their Jour- 
nies, and sit down in the Woods and drink it all up; then 
they begin to Hollow and Shout after such a manner, that 
the most distracted Persons can scarce be compared to them. 
When they happen to carry it safe (which they seldom do 
without drinking some part of it, which they supply by filling 
up the Vessel with Water) and come amongst the Indian 
Towns; those that buy the Rum of them have so many Mouth- 
fulls for a Deer-Skin, they never use or have any other kind 


350 The Natural Historg 

of Measure at present: for this purpose the Buyer always 
makes choice of his Man who hath generally the widest 
Mouth, whom he brings with him to the Place where it is 
to be disposed of, with a Bowl to put it in. 

The Indian Merchant, or Seller, looks very narrowly to 
the Man's Mouth that measures it, for fear he should swal- 
low any down, either through wilfulness, or otherwise, which 
if he should happen to do, the Merchant or some of his Party 
do not scruple immediately to knock the fellow down, ex- 
claiming at the same time against him for false Measure, so 
that the Buyer is obliged to get another Mouth Piece to meas- 
ure it by; most certain it is, that the Indians have not such 
puny Palates (as many of the Europeans have) otherwise 
they would find out some decent Method or other to measure 
their Liquor. This way of Trading must not only seem 
strange but very diverting, to the European Spectators, to 
see so much Quarreling and Controversy, as frequently hap- 
pens in this new and uncommon way of Dealing or measur- 
ing Rum. 

The Indian King is the Buler of the I^ation he belongs 
to, and has others under him to assist him, as his War Cap- 
tains and Counsellors, who are chosen out of the most ancient 
and wise Men of his Nation. These he consults in all gen- 
eral Debates, concerning War or Peace, Trade, Hunting, and 
all the Adventures and Accidents of human Affairs, that 
appear or come within their Jurisdiction, where all these 
Matters are discoursed of and argued pro and con very delib- 
erately (without making any Parties or Divisions) with 
the greatest Conduct and Prudence immaginable, having noth- 
ing more at Heart than what may be intirely for the publick 
Good and safety of their ^N^ation, always valuing that before 
their own private Interest. After every IMan has given his 


of North Carolina. 351 

Opiuiou frc'oly as lie thinks proper, yet lie that has the most 
Voices, or in summing up what hath been offered, and is 
found to be the most reasonable, that they make use of with- 
out Jars or Wrangling, and put it in execution the first 
Opporttunity that offers; these being People that discharge 
their Duty with all the integrity and justice immaginable; 
every to\ATi amongst them has a Ruler or Governor over it, 
yet the King is absolute over his whole ]N^ation. 

The Succession falls not directly to the King's Son, but 
to his Sisters, which is a sure way to prevent Impostures in 
the Succession. They sometimes poyson the Heir that they 
do not approve of, or judge incapable not to govern them. 
The King himself is commonly the chief Person concerned 
in this wicked and abominable Practice. The Indians are so 
well acquainted with the Poysons that this Country produces, 
that they have been kno^vn to poyson whole Families, and 
most part of the Town ; and it is certain, that they can poyson 
a running Spring or Fountain of Water, that whoever drinks 
thereof, will soon after infallibly dye. When the Offender 
is discovered, his own Relations urge for his being put to 
death, whom nothing will appease but the most cruel Tor- 
tures Imagination can invent, and these executed in the most 
public manner that is possible for such a Tragical Scene to 
be acted, so gi-eat is their abhorrence of such wicked Prac- 
tices. All the ^N'ations to whom the Offender belongs, and 
the other ISJ'ations in Peace with them within a hundred 
Miles or more (if it be possible to acquaint them) are sum- 
moned to come and appear at such a Time and Place, to see 
and rejoyce at the Torments and Death of such a Person, 
who is the common and professed Enemy to all the friendly 
Indians thereabouts, who now lies under the Condemnation 


352 The Natural Historic 

of the whole I^ation, and accordingly is to be put to Death 
at such a time as they prefix. 

Upon this Summons or J^otice, all that are able to appear 
from all the adjacent parts, with all the Joy imaginable, as 
if they were going to celebrate some Play or other Diversion 
for the Entertainment of the whole Company. At this Meet- 
ing they generally have a Feast prepared before they begin 
the Execution of the Criminal, which they perform in the 
manner following: They bring the Prisoner to the place 
appointed for his Execution, where he is set down upon the 
Ground, all the Company get about him, and there is not one 
sorrowful or dejected Countenance to be seen amongst them: 
Every thing being thus prepared, the Person appointed to be 
chief Executioner takes a Knife, and bids the Criminal hold 
out his Hands, which he does, then another cuts the Skin 
round the Wrist, which is dra\vn off like a Glove, and flead 
off at the Eingers end, break his Joints and Bones with great 
Clubs, and buffet and torment him, 'till some violent Blow 
puts an end to his wretched Life : They burn him to Ashes, 
which they carefully gather and throw down the Bivers, as 
unworthy that the Earth should contain them. 

As soon as this tragical Scene is over, they begin their 
Eeast, and eat and drink chearfully, repeating all the Ac- 
tions of the Tormenters, with the Prisoners behaviour during 
his Tortures ; thus they spend the Night in one continued 
Scene of Mirth and Jollity, in having put to Death the com- 
mon Enemy of their iNTation, and all the others in Friendship 
with them. 

These Accusations are often wrongfully laid against lr\r 
dian Heroes, or a great Man they have a mind to get rid of, 
that has more Courage and Conduct than his ^Neighbouring 
Kings, or War Captaitis; it is then they alledge the Practice 


of North Carolina. 353 

of Poysoning Indians against him, and make a rehearsal of 
every Person that died for a Year or two, and give out they 
were poysoned by such an Indian; this Keport being once 
spread abroad, stirs up all the Relations of the deceased 
against the said Person; by such means they take an advan- 
tage against him, and he is presently put to death. 

They are very reserved and politick in these Affairs, and 
will attend a long time with a great deal of Patience to bring 
about their designs, these People being never impatient or 
over hasty in executing any of their designs of revenge ; yet 
they never forget injuries done by their Enemies, but always 
take a proper time to accomplish them, for they will endure 
a gTeat many Misfortunes, Losses, and Disappointments 
without ever showing themselves vexed or uneasy at them. 

If at any time they go by Water, and there happens a 
Head or contrary Wind, they never fret, or make themselves 
uneasy as the Europeans are most subject to do ; and let what 
troubles or misfortunes so ever attend them they never seem 
to relent, but carry it off with as much resolution as any 
People upon Earth. I^either are they guilty of that vice 
so common amongst the Europeans of envying each others 
happiness, because their station is not equal or above their 
Neighbours : Of this Sin I never knew an example amongst 
them, though they are a People that set as great a value upon 
themselves as any sort of Men in the World, upon wdiich 
account they find something valuable in themselves above 
Riches or Grandure. 

Thus he that is a good Warriour is the proudest creature 
living, and he that is an expert Hunter is esteemed very much 
by the People and himself; yet all these are natural virtues 
or Gifts and not Riches, which are as often in the possession 

23 Yy of 

354 The Natural History 

of a Fool as a wise Man. Several of them are possess'd of 
great Quantities of Deer, and Bever Shins^ Wampum, Am- 
wiition, and many other things which are esteemed Riches 
amongst them, jet such an Indian is no more esteemed or 
regarded by them than any ordinary Fellow, provided he 
has no Personal Endowments, which are the only Ornaments 
and Perfections that must gain him credit and esteem 
amongst these People, for a great dealer amongst them is no 
otherwise valued or respected, than a Man that strains his 
Wits, and fatigues himself to furnish others with necessaries 
of Life. 

There is something surprizingiy undaunted in their Beha- 
viour when they are taken Captives, and expect to die after 
the most miserable and tormenting manner that Savages can 
invent against such unfortunate Creatures, as happen to be 
their Prisoners; for at the very approach of Death they are 
observed to sing, and shew the greatest resolution and bravery 
of any People in the World ; having no dread or fear to die ; 
for they know by instinct of i^ature, and daily Experience, 
that all things living are subject to Death, wherefore they 
have that great and noble gift to submit to every thing that 
happens, with the greatest resignation imaginable, and value 
nothing that attacks them in this Life. 

They are never fearful in the N^ight, neither do the 
thoughts or dread of Spirits ever give them the least trouble, 
such as the Hobgoblins and Bug-bears, the Apprehensions 
of which we suck in our infancy from [N^urses and Servants, 
who sugest to us, strange and Idle Tales of Fairies and 
Witches, which make such impressions on us in our tender 
Years, that at maturity we are most commonly afraid of our 
own Shaddows, and carry Pigmie-souls in Giant-bodies ever 
after, by which means we are so much deprived of reason and 


of North Carolina. 355 

unman'd, that we are never afterwards able to be Madters of 
half the Courage and Bravery nature designed for us, whilst 
we remain in this World. Several instances whereof are 
daily to be met with amongst us, which I omit as being For- 
eign to what we treat of. l^ot but that the Indians have as 
many lying Stories of Spirits and Conjurers as any People ; 
but they never tell them with that disadvantage, or after that 
frightful manner, that the Europeans are subject to inform 
their Children. The old Men amongst them bring them- 
selves into very great esteem by making the others believe 
their familiarity with Devils and Spirits, and what great 
advantage they have thereby, which if it once gain credit 
amongst them, they are ever afterwards held in the gTcatest 
respect and veneration imaginable ; and whatever they im- 
pose upon these People for the future is received as certain 

Some of them are so very poor, that they have no manner 
of Cloaths, only a Belt and wad of Moss, to cover their 
ISTakedness; these are such as are lazy, or will not Work or 
Hunt, and are given to Gaming and Drunkenness ; yet these 
get Victuals as well as the rest, because that is in common 
amongst them all: If they are caught in Theft amongst 
themselves, the Offender is made a Slave until such time as 
he makes full satisfaction to the Injured Person ; but to steal 
from the Christians they reckon no Crime, nor think any 
harm in so doing; notwithstanding they are seldom guilty 
of this Vice amongst themselves or the Christians. 

The Indians (as I observed before) are indefatigable and 
expert Travellers in the Woods, and though they have not 
the use of our artificial Compass to guide them, yet they are 
never at a loss to find their way, and let them be in never so 
great a Wilderness, they understand the North Point per- 

Yy 2 f ectly 

356 The Natural History 

fectly well, the principle Guide they have to instruct them, 
being altogether Natural, which is a short Moss that grows 
on some Trees exactly on the North side thereof. 

They have likewise JSTames for eight of the thirty two 
Points, and call the Winds by their several Xames as we 
do, but indeed more properly; for the NortliAYest Wind 
they call the cold Wind, the North-East, the wet Wind, the 
South, the warm Wind, and so agreeably of the rest, accord- 
ing to what Weather is produced by each of them. 

It frequently happens that they have large Rivers or 
Lakes to pass over, and if the Weather be so foggy, as it 
sometimes happens, especially in the Spring and fall of the 
Leaf, that they cannot see what Course to steer, in this case 
they being on one side of the River or Lake, they know what 
course such a Place (which they intend for) bears from 
them : Their Method in such cases is this, they get a gTeat 
many Sticks and Chunks of Wood in their Canoe, and set 
off directly for their intended Port, and as they proceed, 
they keep throwing over Board a piece of Wood, which di- 
rects them; for by seeing how the Stick bears from the 
Sterne of the Canoe, they observe to keep right aft; this is 
their Compass, by which they will go over a Water of ten 
or twenty Leagues abroad. 

They know the Head of any River, though ^ve, six, or 
seven hundred Miles off, although they were never there 
before, as is often proved by their appointing to meet on the 
Head of such or such a River, where perhaps not one of 
them ever had been, yet they shall rendezvous there exactly 
at the time prefixed. If they meet with any Obstructions 
in their Journey, they leave certain Marks in the way, that 
those who come after them will understand how many have 
passed before them, and which way they are gone. It is not 


of North Carolina. 357 

to be imagined iiow they will trace and find out each other 
in these solitary and desolate Woods and Desarts, where 
there are no Roads to guide, or any humane Creature to tell 
the way. They are also very expeditious in finding out the 
Negroes that frequently run away from their Masters into 
the Woods, where they commit many outrages against the 
Christians, as it happened in Virginia not long since, where 
above three Hundred joined together, and did a great deal 
of Mischief in that Province before they were suppressed. 
The Indian Kings are sent for on these Occasions, who soon 
find out their Haunts, and commonly kill many of them 
whenever they are sent in pursuit after them, for they never 
cease pursuing 'till they destroy or hunt them out of the 
Woods : this they will do in the tenth part of the Time that 
the Europeans could do. These Negroes whenever they find 
the Indians in pursuit of them, they return, and chuse rather 
to submit to the Christians, whom they have injured, than 
fall into the Hands of the others, who have a natural aver- 
sion to the Negroes, and take Pleasure in putting them to 
the most exquisite Torments, when ever they find them thus 
in the Woods, being allowed so to do by the Christians. 

I saw four and twenty of these Negroes hanged in Vir- 
ginia, for conspiring against their Masters, who had taken 
Sanctuary in the Woods for some time before they were 
discovered, or hunted out by the Indians, who are very ser- 
viceable to the Christians in those Parts, and many other 
Provinces in the hands of the English. 

Another Instance of this ISTature happened not many Years 
ago in this Province; some of our neighbouring Indians 
made their Complaint to the Governor, that two Indians 
from the Mountains came to their Town when they were 
abroad, and had taken one of their Wives by surprize, and 


358 The Natural History 

carried her awaj; the Governor desired them immediately 
to pursue them, and if it were possible to recover the Woman, 
which two of them accordingly did: In travelling some 
Days, they brought back the Woman, and the Skins of the 
Heads of their Enemies; though they had been three Days 
gone off with the Woman before the others pursued them; 
how they could discover which way they went, in those 
Yv^oods, and Desarts, is not a little surprizing, and few or 
none can account for but themselves. 

In their War Expeditions they have certain Hieroglyph- 
icks, whereby each Party inform the other of the success or 
losses they have met with ; all of which is so exactly per- 
formed by their Sylvan Marks and Characters, that they 
are never at a loss to understand one another, yet there never 
were found any Letters among the People in this Province, 
and I am persuaded that there are neither Letters or Learn- 
ing to be met with amongst any of the Natives in all 

It is admirable to see how exactly they will draw Maps 
of all the Pivers, Towns, Mountains, and Poads, or what 
you shall enquire of them, which may be drawn by their 
Directions, and come to a small matter of Latitude, reckon- 
ing by the Daj'S Journies. These Maps they will draw 
in the Ashes of the Eire, and sometimes on a Mat or piece 
of Bark. 

I have likewise seen a Pen put into one of their Hands, 
wherewith he has not only drawn the Pivers, Bays, and other 
parts of this Country, but likewise has imitated the Hand 
Writing of those in Company very nicely, but whenever .hey 
make these Discoveries to us, we must be very much in their 
Favour, otherwise they will not show you any thing they do 
or know. 


of North Carolina. 359 

There are several sorts of rich Mines in this Country, 
some of which the Indians are well acquainted with, and 
particularly one, whereof they make Bullets for their Guns 
to shoot Deer and other Game: I have seen some of this 
Oar with them, which is Lead, and of the richest sort, but 
they will not discover to us where they get it, especially if 
it be near their hunting Quarters; for, they say, it is this 
Metal the Europeans so much covet (as they do their Peak 
and Ronoak) which if they should discover to the Christians, 
they would settle near them, and so deprive them of the best 
hunting Matches they have, as they have already done where 
they are settled or inhabited; so that by that Means they 
shall be driven out of their Country to some unknown parts 
to live, hunt, and get their Bread in. 

These are the Keasons that they give for not discovering 
what they know of this Mature. But amongst the Chris- 
tians there have been few or no Enquiries made at present, 
but what were discovered by Chance ; yet I am satisfied that 
the Mines and Minerals that this Country produces are 
extraordinary good and valuable, several Pieces whereof are 
daily to be seen amongst them, who make no other use of it 
than what I have already mentioned. 

The principal Reason of our want of Knowledge in the 
Mines and Minerals, and many other valuable Secrets in 
JSTature that are produced in this part of the World (as the 
Spaniards are with theirs) is for want of Encouragement 
amongst us ; for I am certain were such an Affair managed 
and carried on by a Company of Wealthy Members, they 
would not only find their Account in so advantageous an Un- 
dertaking, but likewise be a great Means to enrich the British 
Monarchy. This I testifie from the Knowledge and Dis- 

360 The Natural Historic 

coverj of some Mines that were made kIlo^^^l to me during 
my stay in that Country, which I shall be ready to discover 
when ever there is just Encouragement given. Such a 
beneficial Undertaking might be carried on very cheap in 
this Country, where there is not only the benefit of a fine 
healthful Climate, and all maimer of Necessaries for Life 
in great plenty, but likewise all other Conveniences proper 
for carrying on such an Affair, to be had in \x. I coud say 
a great deal more on this Head, having travelled in several 
parts of this Province to make the best discoverys I possibly 
cou'd of the valuable produce of the Country. 

As for Iron-Mine, it is no where better and in gTeater 
plenty, yet there is none of it Manufactured at present. I 
will just mention one thing more about the Mines, which I 
had like to have forgot: ]^ot many Years ago an Indian 
came privately to some of the Planters in this Province, 
and told them he wou'd discover a Mine for some small 
gratuity, but at the same time conjured them to Secrecy, for 
if it were known to his I^ation, they woud put him to Death, 
and likewise that he never durst come amongst them the 
Second time for fear of being discovered by his Country- 
men. Things being agreed upon, the Indian brings them to 
the Mine, and desired that they wou'd take particular care 
to remember and find out the place again, and immediately 
left them, and retired into the Woods ; with transports of 
Joy they returne home, bringing some of the Oar with 
them, which was a very rich Copper-Mine, for I have 
seen both the Oar and some of it that was Smelted, but when 
they had prepared all things necessary to dig and search for 
it, yet they cou'd never find out the place again, or meet with 
the Indian afterwards. 


of North Carolina. 361 

When they are disposed to hunt in the Woods, they gen- 
erally go out in great lumbers together, and several Days 
Journies from home. They always begin these Hunting 
matches at the approach of Winter, when the Leaves, are 
fallen from the Trees, and become dry, or when Skins and 
Furs are best in Season. It is then they burn the Woods, 
by setting fire to the wither'd Leaves, Bent and dry Grass, 
which they do with matches made of the Black Moss that 
hangs on the Trees, which is sometimes above six Feet 
long. This Moss when dead becomes black (though of an 
Ash colour before) and will then hold Fire as well as the 
best Match in Europe. In places where this Moss is not to 
be found (as towards the Mountains and Heads of the Riv- 
ers) they make Lentels of the Bark of Cypress, which serves 
as well. 

Thus they frequently leave their Houses and retire into 
the Woods for four or five Months together, viz. November, 
December, January, February, and March, at which time 
the Skins are in Season, and set Fire to the Woods for many 
Miles together to drive out the Deer and other Game into 
small Xecks of Lands, and other places where they fix their 
Guards, by which means they kill and destroy what they 
please, especially such as strive to escape the Fire and get 
through the passes they have made for that purpose. 

In these Hunting matches they bring their Wives and 
Mistresses along with them, where they eat several kinds of 
Fruits which that Country produces, and live in all the 
Mirth and Jolity that it is possible for such People to enter- 
tain themselves with. It is in these Hunting matches they 
get their complement of Deer-Skins, Furs, and many other 
commodities to trade with the Christians, the Deer-Sl'ins 
being in Season here in ^Yinte1', which is contrary in Eng- 

Zz land 

362 The Natural History 

land and Ireland; most of all their small Game they kill 
with their Bows and Arrows, such as Geese, Turkeys^ Duchs, 
and various kinds of wild Beasts, as Raccoons, Possuins, 
Squirrels, and several other sorts of Vermine, judging it not 
worth throwing Powder and Shot after them. 

The wild Turkeys being very plenty in N orth-C arolinay 
especially in the Oak Lands, as most of it is that lies any 
distance backwards ; some of these they Boast or Boyl, others 
they Barbecue and eat with Bears-grease, this is accounted 
amongst them a good Dish, and indeed I do not doubt but it 
is, for the Bears-grease (as I said before) is the sweetest and 
least offensive to the Stomach of any Fat of Animals yet 
known in America; and I am very certain that the Turkeys 
are Fat, and exceeding good eating, if well dress'd. 

The Men never beat their Corn to make Bread, that is the 
Women's Work, and especially the Girls, where you shall 
see four of them beating with long Pestils in a narrow 
wooden Mortar, and every one keeping her stroke so exactly, 
that it is worthy of admiration, and curious to behold them 
when they are thus at Work ; for these Indians have no man- 
ner of Mills, or any other way to make their Meal but with 

Their Cookery continues from Morning till Night, dress- 
ing their Venison after different Methods, according to each 
one's Fancy, this being the Women's business : The Hunt- 
ing makes them Hungry, and they are a People that eat 
very often, and frequently get up at Midnight, and other 
unseasonable Hours to eat and satisfie their craving Appe- 
tites, notwithstanding you shall never see any of them Cor- 
pulent or Fat. 

They plant several sorts of Pulse, part of which they eat 
green in the Summer, keeping sufficient quantities for their 
Winter Provision ; this they carry with them to eat in their 


of North Carolina. 363 

Hunting Matches. The small lied Pease are very common 
with them, and several other sorts, which they boyle with 
their Meat, or with Pigeon s or Bears Fat ; this Food makes 
them break Wind backwards, which the Men frequently do, 
seem well pleased, and laugh heartily, being accounted no 
111 Manners amongst them; but the Women are seldom 
known to be guilty of that indecent Custom. 

At their setting out either for War or Peace, or upon any 
other extraordinary Expedition, there are several Formali- 
ties amongst them, and they whose Business it is to attend 
their hunting Camp, are generally those that are not good 
or expert Hunters, therefore are employed to carry Bur- 
thens, to get Bark for their Cabins, and all other servile 
Work, likewise to go too and fro to their Towns, and bring 
'News to the old People (whom they leave behind) of their 
Success and Welfare. 

The Women are likewise obliged to carry their Loads of 
Grain and other Provisions with them to these randezvous, 
and provide Firewood to dress Victuals; for a good Hunter 
or Warrior, in these Expeditions is employed in no other 
Business than the Affairs of Game or Battle. The great 
quantities of Fruit that they dry in the Summer over Fires 
and Hurdles, and in the Sun, are at these times brought into 
the Field ; as are also the Cahes and Quiddonies of Peaches; 
with this Fruit and the Bill-herries dried, they stew and 
make fruit Bread and Cakes, and have variety of other sorts 
of Fruits preserved, which are brought out upon these occa- 

In some parts of this Province, especially near the Moun- 
tains, and amongst the Indians in those Places, they have 
several hundred Gallons of Pigeons Oil or Fat, which they 
preserve for their Winter Stores, using it with their Pidse, 
Roots, and Bread, as we do Butter: These Fowl are so 

Zz 2 plenty. 

364 The Natural History 

plenty, that Millions of them are seen in Flocks in a Day, 
they sometimes break large Boughs of the Pine, and other 
Trees whereon they perch or roost at E^ight, making the 
Ground as white as Snow with their Dung, and destroying 
every Herb or small Plant where it falls, being in some 
Places above half a Foot deep. The Indians take a Light 
of Pitch-Pine in one Hand, a long Pole in the other, and 
go into the Woods at ^Night where they are, and kill thou- 
sands of them by knocking them off the Trees ; this is always 
done in the Winter, at which time they appear in Flocks. 

Thus they remain in these hunting Camps all the Win- 
ter, and part of the Spring, 'till such time as the Season ap- 
proaches for planting their Maze, Pulse, and other Fruits. 
In these Quarters at spare Hours, they make Baskets and 
Mats to lie upon, and those that are not extraordinary Hunt- 
ers, make Bowls, Dishes and Spoons, of Gum-Wood and 
Tulip-Tree. Others where they find a Vein of White Clay 
fit for their Purpose, make Tobacco Pipes, and several other 
things, which are often transported and bartered with other 
Indians that have plenty of Deer Skins, or such Commodi- 
ties as they have occasion for. They buy with these Manu- 
factures, their Raw Skins with the Hair on, which our 
ISTeighbouring Indians bring to their To^vns, and in the 
Summer make their Slaves and bad Hunters dress them; 
the Winter Sun being not strong enough to dry them; those 
that are dried in their Cabins are black with the Light- 
wood Smoak, which they commonly burn. 

Their way of dressing their Skins is by soaking them in 
Water; they get the Hair off with an Instrument made of 
the Bone of a Deers Foot (some use a sort of Iron Draiving 
Knife, which they purchase from the Europeans) after the 
Hair is take oft', they dissolve Deers Brains (which they 


of North Carolina. 365 

have made into Cakes and baked in the Embers) in a Bowl 
of Water, where they soak and rub the Skins 'till they have 
sucked up all the Water, then they dry them gently, and 
keep continually working them with an Oyster-shell, or some 
such thing to scrape withal 'till they are dry, by which means 
they become soft and pliable. The Skins dressed after this 
manner, will not endure Wet, but become hard ; they there- 
fore Cure them in the Smoak, or Tan them with the Bark 
of Trees: When they have not the Brains to dress their 
Skins, they use the young' Indian Corn beaten to Pulp, 
which hath the same Effect as the former, for they are never 
at a loss for one or the other to Cure them, but whether they 
have any other Method is unknown to the Christians, which 
I am apt to believe they have; for I have seen abundance 
of them drest, which would endure the AVater, and were as 
pliable as any in Europe, and would wash as well. 

They are not only good and expert Hunters of the Wild 
Beasts and Game of the Forest, but likewise very dextrous 
in taking the Fish in the Eivers and Waters near which 
they inhabit, and are acquainted with. Thus they that live 
a gTeat way up the Kivers practice striking Sturgeon, Roch- 
fish or Bass, and several other sorts of fish with lights, that 
come up the Kivers and Creeks to Spawn. 

They have Fish-gigs that are made of the Keeds or Hollow 
Canes, these they cut and make very sharp, with two 
Beards, and taper at the Point like a Harpoon; being thus 
provided, they either wade into the Water, or go into their 
Canoes, and paddle about the Edges of the Rivers or Creeks, 
striking all the Fish they meet with in the depth of five or 
six Feet of Water, or as far as they can see them ; this they 
commonly do in dark calm Nights, and whilst one attends 


366 The Natural Historg 

with a Light made of the Pitcli-'pine, the other with his 
Fish-gig strikes and kills the Fish: It is diverting to see 
them fish after this manner, which thej sometimes do in the 
Day; how dexterous they are in striking, is admirable, and 
the great quantities they kill by this Method. 

They likewise kill vast quantities of Sturgeon, which they 
take in Snares as we do Pihe and Trout in Europe. The 
Herrings in March and April run a great way up the Rivers 
and fresh Streams to Spawn, where they make large Wears 
with Hedges of long Poles or Hollow Canes, that hinder 
their passage only in the middle, where an artificial pond is 
made to take them in, so that they cannot return. These 
Wears are common all over the Rivers, and fresh Water 
Streams in these parts, where they take vast quantities of 
Herrings, Trouts, Pikes, and several other sorts of Fish that 
are plentifully to be met with in them. 

The taking of Craw Fish is likewise very pleasant and 
diverting, for when they are disposed to get these Shell Fish, 
they take a piece of Venison and half Barhcue or Boast it, 
then they cut it into thin Slices, which they stick through 
with Reeds about six Inches distance betwixt each piece, 
the Reeds are made sharp at one end, and they strike a gi-eat 
many of them down in the Bottom of the Water (thus 
baited) in small running Brooks where the Craw fish con- 
stantly frequent. Thus they sit by and attend those baited 
Sticks, every now and then taking them up to see how many 
are at the Bait, where they generally find abundance, so take 
them off and put them in Baskets provided for that purpose, 
and then stick down the Reeds again, by this method in a 
little time they will catch several Bushels full, which are as 
good as any in Europe. 


of North Carolina. 367 

Those that live or frequent near the Salt Water take 
abundance of Fish of several sorts, some of them are very 
large, which to preserve, they first Barbecue, then pull them 
to pieces, and dry them in the Sun, and keep them for their 
Necessities ; as for Scate, Oysters, Cockles, and several other 
sorts of Shell-fish, they open and dry upon Hurdles, keeping 
a constant Fire under them; these Hurdles are made of 
Reeds or Hollow Canes, in shape of a Gridiron. Thus they 
dry several Bushels of them, and keep for their Provision 
in time of scarcety. 

At the time when they are on the Salts and Sea Coasts, 
they have another sort of Fishery for little Shell-fish, called 
in England, Blachmoors Teeth; these they catch by tying 
bits of Oysters to a long String, and lay it in such places as 
they know these Fishes haunt; they get hold of the Oysters 
and suck them in, that they pull them up by the Strings in 
gTeat Quantities ; they carry these a great way into the Main 
Land to trade with the remote Indians, where they are of 
great value, but never near the Sea, being common, and 
therefore not much esteemed by them that live near the 

It is an established Custom amongst all the Xatives in 
these Parts, that the young Hunters never eat of that Bucl', 
Bear, Fish, or any other sort of Game which happens to be 
the first they kill, because they believe if they should eat 
thereof, thev never would be afterwards fortunate in Hunt- 
ing. The like foolish Custom they hold when they make a 
Wear to take Fish in, if a Woman with Child eat of the first 
Dish caught therein, they say that Wear will never take 
much Fish in it afterwards. 

The Tobacco is in such great Esteem amongst some Xa- 
tions of the Indians, that they think their Gods are delighted 


368 The Natural Historg 

therewith, whereupon they make Fires and cast some of the 
Powder thereof into it for a Sacrifice, and being in a Storm 
upon the AVaters, to pacifie the Bad Spirit, they cast some 
up into the Air and the Water; likewise a Wear to take 
Fish, being newly made, they cast some thereon, and into 
the Air, as also for an escape from Danger. All this is per- 
formed with strange Ceremonies and Gestures, one while 
Stamping, Leaping, Dancing, clapping of Hands, and utter- 
ing of strange Words. 

As for killing of Snakes, most Indians avoid it, and if 
they even lye in their way, they will not molest them, but 
pass by on the other side, because their Opinion is, that if 
they should kill them, the Serpent's kindred w^ould destroy 
some of their Brethren, Friends, or Relations, in return. 
They have a thousand of these foolish Ceremonies and Cus- 
toms amongst them, which they stedfastly believe, and are 
strict observers of, but are too tedious to mention, and would 
be of little or no advantage to the Readers. 

There are some few of them that use the Jewish Custom 
of Circumcision, though this kind of Practice is but seldom 
used amongst them; I never knew but two Families in all 
the I^ations of Indians I have conversed with, that were so; 
the Reason whereof I could never learn, notwithstanding I 
was very intimate with them, and have often urged them to 
give me an account on that Head, but could get no manner 
of Answer, which with them is as much as to say, / ivill not 
tell you. They have many other strange Customs amongst 
them, that they will render no Reason for, or give any Ac- 
count of to the Europeans. 

The Savages in these parts are never known to be guilty 
of that abominable Sin called Sodomy, as many in the Phil- 
ippian Islands are said to l^e. Mr. Candish in his Travels 


of North Carolina. 369 

reporteth, ' That the Savages in Cap id, an Island near Mor 
' nila in the West Indies, have a very strange Custom amongst 
' them, which is this, every Man and Male Child hath a 
' j^ail of Tin thrust through the Head of his Private Mem- 
^ ber, being split and rivited at the lower End, this is done 
' whilst they are young, and the place groweth up again 
^ without any gTeat pain to the Child, this Xail they can 
^ take out and in as there is occasion,' And the same Author, 
as a Confirmation of the Truth hereof, says, ' We ourselves 
' have taken one of these Kails out of the Private Member 
^ of a King's Son, who was ten Years old.' This Custom 
he likewise says, was granted at the Request of the Women 
in that Country, who finding their Men to be given to 
Sodomy^ desired some Remedy against that Mischief, and 
obtained this of the Magistrates. 

They are very great Conjurer's, of whom there are several 
strange Stories related who perform their Exorcism, after 
the following Manner. The Sorcerer apparells himself in 
a clean dres'd Deer Skin; they make a large Fire in the 
middle of the Plantation, the Indians all sitting round it; 
the Conjurer is blindfolded very secure, and surrounds the 
Eire three times ; leaving the Company at the Fire, he went 
some distance into the Woods, where he stayed a short time, 
at his Return he surrounded the Fire as before, and leaving 
them a second time, he went into the Woods, where he re- 
mained about half an Hour, he performed this Exorcism 
the third time, after this he made a very strange and fright- 
ful Howling, which being finished, an Indian immediately 
caught hold of him, and led him to the Fire; by this time 
he was so feeble and weak that he could not stand alone, 
being all over in a Sweat, and as wet as if he had fallen into 

24 Aaa the 

370 The Natural History 

the River, after some little time he recovers his Strength, 
and gives them an Account of what they demand. 

It is reported by several Planters in those parts, that they 
raise great Storms of Wind, and that there are many fright- 
ful Apparitions that appear above the Fires during the time 
of their Co7ijuration, that large Swarms of very strange and 
uncommon sorts of Flies have been seen to hover over the 
Fire for some time and then to fall into it, where they were 
all visibly consum'd, and likewise the Appearance of several 
frightful sorts of Birds, and lastly a strong smell of Brwi- 
stone, whilst they are performing these Charms. 

I shall mention some of their practices, and so leave them 
to the Judgment of every Reader; these Conjurers are the 
Priests and Doctors of every ]^ation amongst the Indians, 
to whom the common People give great Credit and Respect, 
because they believe them to be great Magicians, that they 
frequently converse with the good and had Spirit. They 
likewise make the Orations at every Feast or publick Meet- 

These Conjurers likewise serve them instead of Physi- 
tians and Surgeons, who constantly attend the sick, and 
always carry about them a bag full of Herbs to cure their 
disorders, these make Harangues about the deceas'd, let his 
Death be occasioned after ever so different a manner, for 
if it shou'd be occasioned by Sickness, then he tells the Peo- 
ple that it is the had Spirit that occasioned his Death. But 
if it shoud happen that an Indian comes to an untimely 
Death by any accident, then the Doctor makes an Oration 
suitable to the Occasion. 

For it happened not many Years ago, that an Indian was 
kill'd by Lightning, and before the Interment, according to 
their Custom, every one had some hot Victuals or Yaupan- 
Tea given him, which he did with what he pleased. Then 


of North Carolina. 371 

the Doctor began to talk, and told the People what Ligkining 
was, that it kill'd every thing upon the Earth, that the very 
Fishes did not escape, for it often reach'd the Whales, Por- 
poises, and other Fishes, and destroyed them; that every- 
thing strove to shun it, except the Mice, who he said were 
the busiest in eating their Coi-n in the Fields when it 
Lightned and Thunderd the most. He likewise added, that 
no Wood or Tree cou'd withstand it, except the Blach-Gum, 
and that it wou'd run round that Tree a gTeat many times to 
enter therein, but cou'd not effect it. Xow" you must un- 
derstand that sort of Gum will not split or rive; therefore 
I suppose the Story might arise from thence. Lastly he 
began to tell ridiculous absurd lyes about Lightning, that 
cou'd be invented; as that an Indian of their Xation had 
once got Lightning in the likeness of a Partrige, that no 
other Lightning cou'd hurt him whilst he had that about 
him, that after he had kept it for several Years it got away 
from him, and that then he became as liable to be struck 
with Lightning as any other Man; thus they amuse the 
People with a Thousand such like ridiculous stories, which 
they receive for the most infallible Truths. 

They likewise deliver the hearers several traditional sto- 
ries of great Battles that were fought by their Ancestors, 
of strange Beasts and Birds that were to be met with many 
Years ago, and that a great Rattle Snake that lived in a 
Creek in North-Carolina kill'd abundance of Indians, but 
at last a Bald Eagle kill'd it, and they were rid of a Serpent 
that us'd to devour whole Canoes full of Indians at a time. 
So that you may see how easie these Wretches are to be im- 
pos'd upon by these old Cunting Knaves, who I am per- 
swaded understand a little better than to give credit to any 
such Fooleries. 

Aaa2 I 

372 The Natural Historic 

I will in the next place give some account of their Physick 
and Surgery. These Doctors or Conjurors are those (as I 
said before) that visit and attend the sick, who use many 
charms of Witchcraft, and to gain a greater esteem and 
credit amongst these People, they tell them that all their 
Destempers are the effects of the had or evil Spirit^, who has 
struck them with this or that malady. Therefore none of 
these Doctors undertake any distemper, but that he first 
comes to an Exorcism to effect the Cure, and acquaints the 
sick parties Friends or Relations, that he must converse with 
the good Spirit, to know whether the Patient will recover 
or not ; if so, then he will drive out the had Spirit, and then 
the sick Person will recover and become well. 

When an Indian is sick, if they think there is much dan- 
ger of Life, and that he is a great Man, or hath good Friends, 
their method or behaviour in curing is as follows. The 
Doctor is immediately sent for, and as soon as he comes into 
their Cabin, the sick Person is placed on a Mat or Skin 
stark naked, lying on his Back all uncover'd, except some 
small trifle that covers their nakedness when ripe, otherwise 
in Children, or young People there is nothing about them. 
In this manner the Patient lies when the Conjurer or Doctor 
appears, and generally the King of that l^ation comes to 
attend him with a Rattle made of a Gourd with Pease or 
Indian-Corn in it, which the King delivers into the Doctors 
Hands, whilst another brings a Bowl of Water and sets it 

Things being thus prepared, the Doctor then begins and 
utters some few Words softly; afterwards he smells to the 
Patients Navel, and sometimes Scarifies him a little with 
a Flint, or an Instrument made of Rattle-Snake's Teeth for 
that purpose, then he Sucks the part, and gets out a Mouth- 

of North Carolina. 373 

f ul of Blood and Serum, but Serum, chiefly, which he spits 
into the Bowl of Water, by which means he pretends to Suck 
out what occasions the Distemper. 

Then he begins to mutter and talk apace; and at last to 
cut Capers and clap his Hands on his Britch and sides till 
he is all over in a Sweat, which to an European woud not 
only seem a very odd and strange Sight, but likewise that he 
was running Mad, every now and then Sucking the Patient, 
till such time as he gets great quantities of Blood and ill 
colour'd Matter, out of the Belly, Armes, Breast, Forehead, 
Temples, Nech, and most other parts of the Body, still con- 
tinuing his Grimaces and Antick Postures, which to Euro- 
peans -svoud seem more like the Actions of Men in Bedlam 
than Doctors attending the Sick. 

At last you will see the Doctor all over in a Sweat, and so 
feeble, that he is scarce able to stand or utter one Word, 
having quite spent himself, then he will cease for a while to 
recruit his Spirits, and begin again, 'till he comes to the 
same pitch of raving and seeming Madness as before ; during 
all this time and these performances of the Doctor, the sick 
Person never so much as moves, although doubtless the Scar- 
ifying and Sucking must be a great punishment to him. 

But they are the most patient under the Misfortunes of 
Life, of any People I ever saw in all my Travels: Lastly, 
the Doctor makes an end, and tells the Patient's Friends 
whether the sick Person will Live or Dye, and then some 
one that waits at this Ceremony takes the Blood away (which 
remains in a Lump in the middle of the Water) and imme- 
diately Buries it very secretly in the Ground, the Place 
being unknown to any but he that inters it. 


374 The Natural Historic 

These People are great Inchanters, and use many Charms 
of Witchcraft, for when they are troubled with the Head- 
ach, they tye a great Stone with a String to a Stick or Pole, 
and with certain Prayers, or bewitching expressions, they 
lift up the Stone from the Ground to the top of the Pole, 
which sometimes with all a Man's strength they cannot stir 
from the place ; and at other times they lift as easy as a 
Feather ; by this 8pell and certain Ceremonious Words, they 
expect to have immediate ease and help for the Patient. I 
am thoroughly satisfied that these Conjuroi^s are very great 
Impostures, yet I have seldom or never known their Judg- 
ment fail in regard of the Patients living or dying, though 
I have seen them give their opinion after this manner sev- 
eral times : Some affirm that there is a smell of Brimstone 
in the Cabins whilst they are thus Conjuring, which I can- 
not contradict, nor will I take upon me to argue how it came 
there, but shall proceed to another relation of one of their 
Indian Kings being sick, and the method us'd by the Doctor 
for the recovery of his health, which is something like the 
former, viz. 

One of their Kings being sick, the Doctor was immedi- 
ately sent for, and as soon as he arriv'd, he orderd a Bowl 
of Water to be brought him and placed before the King, on 
whom he sprinkled some part out of his Mouth, then he took 
a string of Ronoak about too Feet long (which is like a string 
of small Beads) this he held at one end between his Fingers, 
and the other touched the Kings Stomach ; he began to mut- 
ter many expressions or Words, and to use many grimaces 
for sometime, at length the string of Beads that himg ihus 
perpendicular, turn'd up as an Eel woud do, and without 
any motion of his Hand came all up in a Lump under his 
Hand, and remained so for a considerable time, he never 


of North Carolina. 375 

closing his Hand all the while; at last they returned to their 
former shape and length; at which the European Spectators 
were much surprized, some of them confidently athrmed, 
that they heard something answer him whilst he muttered 
some Words, though there was nothing to be seen. The 
Doctor told the Company that the King would recover, and 
that his Disorder would remove into his Leg, that it would 
be much inflam'd and swell'd, which happened exactly as 
he foretold. 

They also conjure for stollen Goods, though Robbery and 
Theft are not common Vices amongst them, yet they are 
sometimes guilty of these Crimes; and steal Ronoak and 
Deer Skins from each other : when thev cannot discover the 
Thief, they immediately send for the Conjurer to find him 
out, and as soon as he appears, he begins after the following 
manner. First he orders three Fires to be made after a 
triangTilar Form, which is accordingly done ; he is then hood- 
winked very securly with a Deer Skin, doubled two or three 
times, over his Face ; when this is done, he is placed in the 
center of the three Fires: after he has made some Motions 
(as always these Conjurers do) he went directly out of one 
of the three gaps of the Fire, as directly as if he could see, 
muttering to himself, having a Stick in his Hand, with 
which, after some time, he gives two strokes very hard upon 
the Ground, and made thereon a kind of Cross, after which 
he told them the ^ame of the Person that had stolen the 
Goods, and said he would have a Mark like a Cross on his 
Back, which proved accordingly, for when he was taken and 
search'd, there appeared two great Wheals on his Back one 
cross the other. 

There are several other Stories of this IN'ature, which the 
most substantial and credible Planters in these parts affirm 
for Truth, and that they have been Eye-witnesses to. They 


376 The Natural Historic 

also report that they have seen one of these Conjurers take 
a Hollow Cane about two Feet long, in his Mouth, and stand 
by a Creek side, where he called with the Reed two or three 
times, at last opened his Arms, and flew over a Creek about 
a quarter of a Mile broad, as if he had been running upon 
Terra Firma. I shall urge no Man's belief in this, having 
never seen it done by any of them, and only give it as re- 
ported above ; but some of the former I have been a Witness 
to, therefore dare boldly assert as Fact. 

As to their Religion, it is impossible to give any true De- 
scription of it, for as they can neither read nor write, what- 
ever they have of this kind is founded meerly upon Tradi- 
tion. There are a great many Customs, or rather Absurd- 
ities amongst them, which they keep as the most profound 
Secret; that they never will acquaint any of the Christians 
with the Knowledge thereof, notwithstanding the many Meth- 
ods used, such as making them Drunk, the promise of Re- 
wards, (&c. but to no purpose, for so subtile and cunning are 
they, that it is next to an impossibility to make them discover 
it, or to fathom out their secret Designs, whether they do 
this because they are sensible of their own Weakness in 
practicing them, or any other Motive they may have to 
induce them so to do, is known to none but themselves, let 
other Writers pretend what they will to give a true l^otion 
of their Worship; you shall see them amongst their Idols 
and dead Kings in their Quiogoson or Charnel House, where 
the Bones of the deceased are laid (a Custom like this we 
read of practiced by the Indians in the Kingdom of Pegu in 
the East Indies) into which place the King, with the Cyn- 
jurers and some few old Men are admitted to go, but as for 
the young Men, and the chiefest ]N"umber of the Indians, 
they are kept as ignorant of what the Elders are as any 


of North Carolina. 377 

European, let liiin bo in ever so great Estcein and Friend- 
ship with the King or great Men; he is not admitted to enter 
the House at those times, or to have Knowledge of their 
Secrets or what they are doing. 

They are generally very ignorant of the first Creation of 
Man, or from whence they came, for some say they are de- 
scended from an old Man who came thither in a Boat, which 
they call a Canoe; but whether this was before or after the 
Flood, they can give little or no satisfactory Account. Oth- 
ers (with whom I have frequently conversed on that Head) 
believe that they are made out of the fine white Mould or 
Earth, and that the Blacks or Negroes are formed out of the 
black Dirt and swampy Earth ; this was all that I could ever 
learn from them on that subject. They all believe that the 
AVorld is round ; and that there are two Spirits, the one Good 
and the other Bad. The Good one they reckon to be the 
Author and Maker of all Things, and say that it is he that 
gives them the first Fruits of the Earth, and teaches them 
to Hunt, Fish, and be wise enough to overcome the Beasts 
of the Wilderness, and all other Creatures, that they may be 
assistant unto Man. To which they add, that the Qiiera, 
or Good Spirit has been very kind to the Europeans, in teach- 
ing them how to make Guns and Aniunition, besides a 
great many other Necessaries that are helpful to Man, all 
which they say will be delivered to them when the Good 
Spirit shall think fit: They also believe the Good Spirit 
does not punish any one in this World or that to come, but 
that he delights in doing good to Mankind, in giving them 
plenty of the Fruits of the Earth, instructing them to make 
many useful Things, and all the Advantages and Pleasures 
they enjoy. But as for the Bad Spirit (who lives separate 
from the Gx)od one) they say it is he that torments them 

Bbb with 

378 The Natural Historic 

with Sickness, Disappointments, Losses, Hunger, Cold, 
Travel, and all other Misfortunes that are incident to human 
Life, whom thej worship to appease his Wrath. As to what 
concerns their Treatment in the other World, I shall treat 
of it hereafter, when I come to make mention of their Xo- 
tions concerning Heaven and Hell. 

Though the Indians are very resolute, and die with a great 
deal of Courage and Bravery, in the Hands of their Enemies ; 
yet I have known them tremble, and be in the greatest fear 
and agony imaginable, when they had sentence of Death 
pronounced against them by the English, for Capital Crimes, 
whereof they have been sometimes guilty. Whether this 
Fear was owing to their not being put to death by their 
common Enemies, or being delivered up to the English by 
their own Nation, I cannot determine. I am certain they 
meet with more Favour from the Christians, than they do 
amongst themselves, who only hang them on Trees for their 
Offences. These Savages sometimes shew the greatest Re- 
luctance and Concern imaginable to deliver up these Offend- 
ers to the Europeans, especially if he was a great Warrior 
or Hunter amongst them ; yet for their own safety they will 
comply, and put the Offender into their Hands, to be dealt 
with according to their Laws. 

These Kings have been known to make offers to the Chris- 
tians by way of Exchange for an Innocent Person to die in 
the room of the Guilty: so fond are they to preserve their 
own Men if possibly they can ; but these being Requests con- 
trary to the Christian Principles, are never granted or com- 
plied with. 

When a Criminal is hanged, the King with the Relations 
of the deceased come and pull him by the Hand and say 
Words to this purpose: Thou ivilt never play any more 


of North Carolina. 379 

roguish Tricks in this Woi^ld, and ivhether art tliou gone now 
to play thy Tricks. When the Criminal is dead and taken 
down, they are perfectly easy, and free from all manner of 
Concern about him, though a few Days before so unwilling 
to deliver him up ; they generally end these Tragedies in 
Feasting and a fit of Laughter, which puts an end to their 
Mourning for the loss of their Friend, and never think of the 
deceas'd more. 

Their Burials are different from each other, every Nation 
having peculiar Methods of their own ; some of which I shall 
here give an account of, viz. They raise a Mole of Earth, 
the Mould whereof they take great pains to make smooth, 
and is higher or lower according to the Dignity of the Per- 
son deceas'd, whose Monument it is, over which there is a 
Shade or Umbrella, made Ridge-ways, like the Roof of a 
House, this is supported by nine Stakes or small Posts 
driven into the Ground, the Grave being about six or eight 
Feet in length, and near four Feet in breadth, about which 
they hang Gourds, Feathers, and such like Trophies placed 
by the dead Man's Relations, in respect to him in the Grave. 
The other parts of the Funeral Rights are thus : As soon as 
the Party is dead, they lay the Corps upon a piece of the 
Bark of a Tree in the Sun, seasoning or embalming it with 
a small Root beaten to Powder, which they have in plenty, 
but will never discover to the Europeans where it grows, it 
looks as red as Vermillion, which they mix with Bears-oil, to 
beautifie and preserve their Hair. After the Carcase has lain 
a Day or two in the Sun, they remove and lay it upon 
Crotches made for that purpose to support it from the Earth ; 
they anoint it all over with the above-mentioned Oyntment 
made of the Red Root and Bears-grease; when this is done, 
they cover it all over very exactly with the Barks of the 


380 The Natural History 

Fine, or Cypress Tree, to prevent the Rain falling upon it, 
and other injuries of the Weather; frequently sweeping the 
Ground very clean about it. Some of his nearest Relations 
bring all the Temporal Estate he was possest of at his Death, 
such as Guns, Bows and Arrows, Beads, Feathers, Deer 
Skills, Matclicoats, and the like, wherewith they adorn the 
Grave. The nearest Relation is the principal Mourner, be- 
ing clad in Moss (that grows upon Trees) after a very odd 
and strange manner, with a Stick in his Hand, keeping a 
mournful Ditty for three or four Days, his Face being made 
as black as a Negroe with the Smoak and Soot of the Fitch 
Fine, mingled with Bears-grease; during this time he tells 
all the Spectators that approach near him, or pass by, who 
the deceased was, and what great Feats he performed in his 
life time, all tending to the Praise of the defunct. 

When the Flesh grows Mellow, and cleaves from the Bones, 
they take it off and burn it, making the Bones very clean, 
and anoint them with Ointment, wrapping the Scull up very 
carefully in a Cloth artificially woven of Fossum's Hair or 
a dressed Deer Skin, which they every Year or oftner, 
cleanse and anoint with the Red Oyntment, by these Means 
they preserve them for many Ages ; they likewise carry them 
from place to place as they remove their Dwellings; that it 
is common to see an Indian in the Possession of the Bones of 
his Grandfather, Father, or some Relation of longer An- 

They have other sorts of Monuments or Tombs for the 
dead, as where one was slain, in that very Place they raise 
a heap of Stones, if any are to be met with in the Plact., if 
not, with Sticks, to his Memory ; that every one that passeth 
by that place augments the Heap in respect of the deceas'd. 
Some Nations of these Indians have great rojoycing and 
Feasts at their Burials. 


of North Carolina. 381 

There are other Nations who diifer from the former in 
burying their Dead : When one of them dies, the greater 
he was in Dignity, the more Expensive is his Funeral, and 
performed with the greater Ceremony: When a King dies, 
they bury him Avith a great deal of Solemnity; (according to 
their Method) upon his Grave they set the Cup wherein he 
used to drink out of, about the Grave they stick many Ar- 
rows, weep and fast three Days successively without ceasing ; 
all the Kings who were his Friends make the like Mourning, 
in token of the Love they had for him ; they cut off more than 
the one half of their Hair, the Women as well as the Men: 
During the space of six Moons (so some Nations reckon 
their months) there are certain Women appointed which 
lament the death of the King, crying with a loud Voice three 
time a Day, viz. Morning, Noon, and in the Evening. All 
the goods of the King are put into his House, and then they 
set it on Fire wherein they consume all. They likewise 
bury the Body of the Priests or Conjurers in their Houses, 
which they set on Fire with all the Goods. 

For it is to be observ'd, notwithstanding these People are 
so very illiterate and bred after such a Savage manner : Yet 
they have as gTeat regard and respect for their Kings and 
great Men, as any People to be met with. When any of 
these great Men dye, their methods in their Burials are dif- 
ferent from the former, for the first thing that is done is to 
place the nearest Eelations nigh the Corps, who Mourn and 
Weep very much, having their Hair hanging down their 
Shoulders in a very Forlorn manner. After the dead Per- 
son has lain a Day and a Night upon their Hurdles made of 
Canes, commonly in some out House prepared for that pur- 
pose. Those that Officiate about the Funeral go into the 
Town, and the first young Men they meet with that have 


382 The Natural Histoid 

Blankets or Match-coats on, whicli they think fit for their 
turn, they strip them from their Backs, who suffer them so 
to do without any manner of resistance; this being common 
amongst several of their I^ations; these they wrap the dead 
Bodies in, and cover them with two or three Mats, which the 
Indians make of Rushes, and last of all they have a long 
Web of woven Reeds or Hollow Canes, which is their Cojfin, 
and is brought round the Corps several times and tyed at 
both ends, which indeed looks very decent, and well amongst 
these Savages. 

Then the Corps is brought out of the House into their 
Orchard of Peach Trees, where another Hurdle is made to 
receive it, about which come all the Relations and JSTation 
that the dead Person belong'd to, besides several other IsTa- 
tions in alliance with them, they all sit down upon Mats on 
the Ground, spread for that purpose, every one seemingly 
dejected for the loss of their deceas'd Friend and Country- 
man, but more especially the Relations. 

Things being thus accomodated, their Priests or Conjur- 
ers appear, and after having commanded their Attention, and 
every one is silent, he pauses for some short time, then begins 
to give an Account who the deceased Person was, how stout 
a Man he approved himself, how many Enemies and Cap- 
tives he had kill'd and taken, how strong, tall, and nimble 
he was, that he was a great Hunter, a lover of his Country, 
and possessed of a great many beautiful Wives and Children ; 
which is esteemed the greatest of Blessings amongst them, in 
which they have a very true E'otion. Thus this Orator runs 
on highly extolling the dead Man for his Valour, Condact, 
Strength, Riches, good Humour, and even enumerating his 
Gnus, Slaves, and all he was possest of when liviug. After 


of North Carolina. 383 

this he addresses himself to the People of that Town or Na- 
tion to whom the deceased belonged, and bids them supply 
his Place by following his Steps, who he assures them is 
gone into a Country (which lies a great way oft' in this 
World, that the Sun visits in his ordinary Course) where he 
shall meet with all his Relations and Friends who are gone 
there before him, that he shall have the enjoyment of hand- 
some Women, great store of Deer to hunt, and never meet 
w^ith Hunger, Cold or Fatigue, but every thing to answer 
his Expectation and Desire. 

This is the Heaven which they propose to themselves, but 
on the contrary, for those Indians that are Lazy and Thievish 
amongst them, bad Hunters, and no Warriors, nor of much 
use to the Nation, to such they allot in the other World, or 
the Country that they are to go to. Hunger, Cold, Fatigue, 
Trouble, old Ugly Women for their Companions, Snakes, and 
all sorts of Nastiness for them constantly to feed upon ; after 
this manner they describe their Heaven and Hell. 

After all this Harangue, he amuses the People with some 
of their traditions, as when there was a violent hot Summer, 
or very hard Winter, when any notable distemper rag'd 
amongst them, when they were at War with such and such 
Nations, how victorious they were, what were the Names of 
the War Captains, and many other things of Antiquity ; and 
to prove the times more exactly, he produces the Records of 
the Country, which are a parcel of Reeds of different lengths, 
with variety of distinct markes, and Notches, known to none 
but themselves, (by which they seem to guess very exactly at 
accidents that happen'd many Years ago, nay two or three 
Ages or more). 


384 The Natural Historic 

They likewise give an Account that in the Year 1608, 
there was such a hard Winter in North-Carolina, that the 
great Sound was so Frozen, that the Wild Geese and other 
Fowl came into the Woods to eat Acorns, that they were so 
tame (I suppose through want) that they kilFd abundance 
in the Woods by knocking them on the Head with Sticks, 
and it is very strange how exactly one Nation will agree with 
another as to the time when these things happen'd, having 
no manner of Records to guide them but these bits of Sticks. 

But to returne to the dead Man, when this long Tale is 
ended by the Conjuror that spoke first; perhaps a second 
begins another long story, a third, and fourth, if there be so 
many of these Priests or Doctors present, which all tell 
partly one and the same thing, at last the Corps is brought 
away from the Hurdle to the Grave by four young Men, 
attended by the Relations, the King, old Men and most part 
of the I^ation. 

When they come to the Sepulchre which is about six Feet 
deep, and eight Feet long, having at each end (that is at 
Head and Feet) a Light-wood or Pitch Pine-forh driven 
close to the sides of the Grave, firmly into the Ground 
(these two Forks are to contain a Ridge Pole, as I shall pres- 
ently describe) before they lay the Corps into the Grave, 
the bottom is covered two or three times over with the Barks 
of Trees, then they let down the Corps (with two Belts, that 
the Indians carry their Burthens with) very leisurely on the 
said Bark, then they lay over a Pole of the same Wood into the 
two Forks, having a gTcat many Pieces of Pitch-Pine-logs 
about two Feet and a half long, they stick dovni one End of 
them in the sides of the Grave, and the other End lies on 
the Ridge-Pole, that they decline like the Roof of a House, 
being thus placed, they cover them (many double) with 


of North Carolina. 385 

Barks of Trees, and throw the Earth thereon that was taken 
out of the Grave, and beat it down very firm : By this means 
the dead Body lies as in a Vault, nothing touching it, which 
I esteem a very decent way amongst them, having seen sev- 
eral Christians buried without the tenth part of that Cere- 
mony and Decency. 

As soon as the Flesh begins to cleave from the Bones, they 
take up the Carcasses and scrape them clean, which they 
joint in the nature of a Skeleton; afterwards they dress them 
up in pure white Deer Skins, and deposite them amongst 
their Kings and Grandees in their Quiogozon, which is their 
Eoyal Tomb, or Burial Place of their Kings and War Cap- 
tains. This is a large and magnificent Cabin amongst them 
(according to their way or method of Building) raised at the 
publick Charge of the Xation, and maintained in due form 
and neatness. About seven Feet high is a Floor or Loft, 
whereon lye the Bones of all the Princes and Great Men that 
have died for several hundred Years past, attired in the 
Dressed Deer Ski7is, as I have before Remarked. Xo Per- 
son is allowed to have his Bones lie in this Quiogozon or 
Charnel House, and to be thus dress'd, unless he gives a good 
Sum of their Money to the Eulers for Admittance. 

It is to be observed, that if they remove to any part of the 
Continent, they seldom fail to carry these Bones along with 
them, though the tediousness of their short daily Marches 
keep them never so long on their Journies. They reverence 
and adore this Quiogozon, with all the Veneration and Re- 
spect that is possible for such a People to discharge ; they had 
rather loose all they are possessed of than have any Violence 
or Injury offered thereto; by this we may see what a Respect 
they have for their deceased Ancestors. 

25 Ccc They 

386 The Natural Historg 

Tliey differ some small matter in their Burials from each 
other, some burying right upwards, and some otherwise, as 
I have before intimated ; yet for the most part they all agi-ee 
in their Method of Mourning, which is to appear every 
E'ight, or oftner, at the Sepulchre, and weep and howl after 
a dismal manner, having their Faces daubed over with Light- 
luood-Soot, and Bears-oil, which makes the Face as black as 
Oil and Lamp-hlach could do. In this black Figure they 
remain for a Year or longer, according to the Dignity of the 

If the deceas'd Person was a Grandee, such as a King or 
War Captain, and the like, to carry on the Funeral Ceremo- 
nies with greater Formality and Pomp, they hire People to 
cry and lament over the deceas'd : There are several Persons 
of both Sexes that practice this for a livelyhood, and are ex- 
pert at shedding abundance of Tears, and howling like a 
Parcel of Wolves, or distracted People in Bedlam; by this 
means they discharge their Office with abundance of Art, 
and great Applause from the Indians. These People regard- 
ing those kind of Performances or Ceremonies very respect- 
fully, looking upon them as Eights justly due to the de- 

Their Women are never accompanied Avith these Pomps 
or Ceremonies after Death; and to what World they allot 
that Sex, I could never learn, unless it be to wait on their 
deceas'd Husbands, or to be metamorphosed into those 
pretty and ugly Women in the other World or Country where 
the Indian Men expect to go after death, which I have before 
made mention of. Yet these Women have more AVit ^han 
some of the Eastern l^ations (as we are informed) who sacri- 
fice themselves to accompany their Husbands in the otlier 
World, which the former never do. It is the deceased Per- 
son's Relations by Blood, as his Sons, Daughters, Brothers, 


of North Carolina. 387 

Sisters, Uncles, Cousins, that mourn in earnest; the Wives 
thinking their Duty discharged, and that they are become 
free when their Husbands are Dead, all their Care being to 
look out as fast as they can for another to supply his Place. 

Thus I have given the most exact Account of the Indians 
of Carolina Conjuring over the Sick, stolen Goods, and the 
Nature and Manner of burvins; their dead. I shall therefore 
make a small Degression, to inform my Readers with the 
manner of our Travelling up to the Charokee Mountains, 
having already set forth the many and different Observa- 
tions we made in this spacious Country, and then proceed to 
the Indian Distempers; some of which I have been Eye- 
witness to. 

The latter end of February, Anno. Dom. 1Y30, we set out 
on our intended Journey, being in Xumber Ten White Men, 
and Two Indians, who served for our Huntsmen and Inter- 
preters. Having provided a sufficient quantity of Fire- 
Ar7ns, Amunition, Horses, two Mariners Compasses, Rum, 
Salt, Pepper, Indian Corn, and other ITecessaries, we began 
our Journey; and after we had past the Christian Planta- 
tions, our Accommodations were as follows : All the Day we 
were diverted with variety of beautiful and strange Objects ; 
in the Evening we encamped an Hour before Sunset, tyed our 
Horses to Trees near us, which we made the Indians climb 
up to procure a sufficient quantity of Moss for their Food, 
and to make Beds for us to lie upon, which was generally 
under the shade of some large Tree : Our next Business was 
to send the Indians to Hunt ; our Care in the meantime was 
to make a large Eire of the broken pieces of Timber which 
we found in plenty lying dispersed up and down the Woods ; 

Ccc2 this 

388 The Natural History 

this we piled up in order to continue burning all Night, which 
prevented all manner of Wild Beasts and pernicious Insects 
being troublesome^ or approaching us or our Horses. 

As soon as our Indians had discharged one or two shots, 
and given us a signal of their Success by Holloiving, we im- 
mediately dispatched some of our Party to their assistance, 
to bring home the Game they had killed ; for they seldom 
return'd without more than a sufficient quantity of Venison, 
wild Turhies, and other Game for the support of all our 
Company, during our whole Journey. Being thus provided 
with Provisions, our next business was to perform our Cook- 
ery, which consisted chiefly in Roasting and Broiling, accord- 
ing as each Person was disposed. When Supper was ready, 
and a sufficient quantity of Indian Corn roasted, which we 
made use of instead of Bread, we sat down upon the Ground, 
and generally eat with a good Appetite,- the Air being no 
where better or purer than near the Mountains. In this man- 
ner we supped each Night, our Kitchen Furniture being a 
Wooden Spit, and our Table, Dishes and Trenchers the Barks 
of Trees. Supper being ended, we made our Punch (the 
Bowl being a large Gourd) which we distributed equally to 
each Person a good Harmony being observed amongst us dur- 
ing the whole Journey. At Night when our Company were 
disposed to rest, we made our Beds of Moss near the fire, 
where we slept comfortably, keeping a constant Watch by 
turns every four Hours. Thus we enjoyed ourselves 'till our 
arrival at the Mountains, and what continually rendered our 
Journey more agreeable was the beautiful Prospect of the 
Country, being adorned with Woods, Savannas, spacious 
Rivers, together with various kinds of Beasts, Birds, Fishes, 


It would not be proper to trouble the Peader with the Ad- 
ventures of each Dav, and the nuuiv Observations we made 


of North Carolina. 389 

therein, these being sufficiently set forth already : Let it 
suffice to inform them, that after hfteen Days Journey, we 
arrived at the foot of the Mountains, having met with no 
Human Specie all the way. It seems upon our first arival 
we were discovered by a Party of the Iroquois Indians, who, 
as I said before, are very powerful, and continually at War, 
wandering all over the Continent betwixt the two Bays of 
Mexico and St. Lawrence. As soon as they had discovered us 
they disappeared, (as we were afterwards informed) and 
gave ISTotice thereof to their King, who sent immediately an 
Ambassador, or one of his Attendants, painted as red as Ver- 
million, together with a strong Party of his Men, armed with 
Bows and Arrows. 

When they appeared the second time, the Retinue halted 
at about half a Mile distant from us and the Ambassador 
attended with one Person, came to the place where we were 
(which was in a large Savanna) with a green Bough in his 
Hand, and gave us to understand that he was sent to us by 
Order of his King, who desired to know whether we came for 
Peace or War, or what other Business had brought us to 
those Parts; In such like Speeches he accosted us. We as- 
sured him by our Indian Interpreters, that we were come in 
a friendly manner, with no other Design than a Curiosity of 
viewing the Mountains. When we had thus satisfied him he 
sat down with us, and dispatched the other Person that 
attended him, to acquaint the King with the Reasons of our 

During his Absence, we entertained the Ambassador with 
Punch, and made him a Present of some few Toys, which he 
accepted of, and was highly pleased therewith. About four 
Hours after the Messenger returned, whom the Ambassador 
received at a little distance from us, where they discoursed for 


390 The Natural Historg 

some time, and at his return told us, that the Message from 
the King was, to desire us to make him a Visit, assuring us 
at the same time of his Friendship. This Message occasioned 
several Debates to arise amongst us, concerning the conse- 
quence that might attend it ; we seemed unwilling to go, 
which he perceiving, assured us in the strongest Terms of 
our safety, and the Sincerity and Friendship of the King. 
At length, rather than incur his Displeasure (notwithstand- 
ing we were determined to sell our Lives at the dearest rate, if 
we met with any opposition) we complied, and arrived about 
six o'clock at the Indian Town (attended with the Guards 
that came with the Ambassador, who marched at some dis- 
tance from us) and were conducted to the State House, 
where the King was seated with his War Captains and Coun- 
cellors, who got up and placed us next to him ; after we had 
paid our due acknowledgements to him, and made him some 
Presents, he then began to enquire the Reasons of our com- 
ing thither, and among other things, Hoiv his Brother did, 
meaning the Governor; and many other such like Speeches 
passed between us. After we had satisfied him in each par- 
ticular that he demanded, he bid us welcome, shaking Hands 
with each of us ; assuring us of his Friendship, and the gi*eat 
Regard he had for those of our E'ation. The few Presents 
we gave (which were Knives, Glass Beads, Punch, and the 
like) had made so favourable an Impression in the Breast of 
his Majesty, and all his Councellors, in our behalf, that the 
King's Orders were issued out immediately, strictly charg- 
ing all his Subjects to treat us in the most friendly manner, 
and supply us with whatever we had occasion for during our 
Pleasure to stay amongst them. After all these Speeches 
were ended, towards Night we were dismissed, and conducted 
to one of the King's Houses (being an Apartment prepared 


of North Carolina. 391 

for us) where we lay upon Benches, with the Skins of Beasts 
for our Covering; and this was the best Lodging we met 
with since our departure from the Christians. They took 
particular Care of our Horses, and treated us with all the 
good Nature possibly to be expected from them, supplying 
us with sufficient quantities of Provision, such as Venison, 
Wildfowl, Fish, and various Kinds of dried Fruits, Pulse, 
and Water, no stronger Liquors are to be met with amongst 
these People. 

The King's Houses are partley in the Center of the Town, 
the rest of the Buildings being erected in a confused Order, 
no regular Streets, Shops, or even Handy-craft Trades, are 
to be met with amongst them. 

The news of our arrival brought prodigious l^umbers of 
Men and Women to us, as also Boys and Girls, who were 
stark Naked; these would come and touch our Cloaths, and 
view us with admiration, having I am satisfied, never had an 
opportunity to behold any thing of this Nature before. The 
King diverted us every Day with Men and Women Dancing, 
shooting with Bows and Arrows, their Warlik Exercise, and 
several other kinds of Diversions, wherein he imagined we 
took any Pleasure. Finding our selves thus in favour with 
the King, the first request we made was, that we might have 
leave to see the Quiogozon, or Charnel House, which was the 
largest of that Nature we had ever beheld: He easily com- 
plied with our Request, but with a strict Charge, that we 
should do no hurt, either to the Bones, or any other thing 
that we should observe there. 

Two Days after our Arrival, we requested the King to have 
Liberty to depart, in order to view the Mountains, which 
he seemed very unwilling to comply with, pressing us to con- 
tinue longer with him, urging many Arguments to persuade 


392 The Natural History 

us ; and that we liad not as yet sufficiently refreshed ourselves 
after our late Fatigue. But we assured him that our Gov- 
ernor had given us strict Orders at our Departure, to be as 
expeditious as possibly we could in our return home. These 
Considerations at length moved him to a compliance sooner 
than he intended. But the chief Reason of our departing so 
soon was, that if we had remained there much longer, we 
should be deprived of all our Rum, which was a great sup- 
2)ort to us in this long and tedious Journey. The King then 
offered us a Party of his Men to guard us in the Mountains, 
least we should be molested by any Indians that might be 
Hunting in them, during our stay there. We most gTatefully 
returned him our due Acknowledgments for his kind offer, 
and the many Favours he had already conferred upon us, 
and most humbly beg'd to be excused, which he readily 
granted us. 

Having thus obtained our License of Departure, we made 
him a Present of a Bottle of Rum, in lieu whereof he gave 
us Indian Corn, Venison, and some dried Fruits, for our 
support in the Mountains, where Provisions are scarce. All 
things being prepared as usual, we set out the next Morning 
about six o' Clock, continuing our Journey still Westicard: 
The King and his Guards conducted us about half a Mile, 
wishing us Health, and intreating us at the same time, to 
make him a Visit at our Return, which we did not, taking a 
Tour another way. 

About the Evening we approached to the top of one of 
these Mountains, where we refreshed, being all in perfect 
Health. Here we had the greatest difficulty to be supplied 
with Moss for Provision for our Horses, but after some time 
searching, we found what was sufficient for them ; then mak- 
ing a great Fire, and our Beds for that Night of \hv AvithcTcd 


of North Carolina. 393 

Leaves of the Trees, which we gathered for that Purpose. 
The next Morning very early having refreshed ourselves, we 
set forward, and in the Evening got on the other side of the 
first Ridge of Mountains into a most beautiful Valley, adorn- 
ed with Woods, Savannas, and a very rich Soil, here we en- 
camped this [N^ight, being the longest Days Journey we made 
from our first setting out, by reason that we were destitute 
of Water in these barren places, for our selves and Horses, 
only what we met with by chance in the hollow parts of tiie 
Rocks, which our Horses would hardly drink. 

The next Morning we set forward with a great deal of 
Chearfulness, having plenty of Water, and all manner of 
Provisions. In this Days Journey we discovered an Indian 
in the solitary parts of the Woods, but as soon as he espyed us, 
he fled, notwithstanding we made sigTis to him to come to us, 
but in vain, for he quickly vanished out of our sight, that we 
could not learn what Xation he belonged to, or whether there 
were any more with him in those Parts. x\fter two Days 
Journey we arrived at another Ridge of rocky Mountains, 
with large Trees in several Places, but little or no Pasture 
like the former, but much higher, having a beautiful Pros- 
pect of large Woods and Porrests, as far as our sight would 
permit. From this Mountain we returned, making our Jour- 
ney Eastward ; meeting with nothing w^orthy of Observation, 
but what we have already made mention of; and in thirty 
two Days, to our great Satisfaction, arrived amongst the 
Christians, our Company being all in perfect Health, having 
had no Misfortune all the way, but the loss of one of our 

As there are in this Country many poysonous Herbs and 
Creatures, so the Indian People have excellent Skill in ap- 

Ddd - ptyiiig 

394 The Natural Historic 

plying effectual Antidotes to them; for Medicinal Herbs are 
here found in great Plenty, the Woods and Savannas being 
their Apothecary' s Shops, from whence they fetch Herbs, 
Leaves, Barks of Trees, with which they make all their 
Medicines, and perform notable Cures ; of which it may not 
be amiss to give some Instances, because they seem strange, 
if compared with our Method of curing Distempers. They 
have a certain Method in poysoning their Arrows, and they 
will temper them so as to work slow or swift as they please ; 
they can make it so strong, that no Kiat can save the Person 
or Beast that is wounded with them, except it be by their 
Kings and Conjurers, their young Men being ignorant of it. 

They use Sweating very much, especially if violent Pains 
seize the Limbs, or any other part of the Body, which is 
performed by certain Vegetables which they are well ac- 
quainted with; for as soon as they are afflicted with these 
kind of Disorders, they take Peeds or small Wands and bend 
them, with these they make little Huts, covering them with 
Deer Shins, Blankets, or their Matchcoats, and the like ; they 
have other Sweating Houses built in shape like large Ovens ; 
they have Fires made not far from these Sweating Houses, 
wherein they heat Stones, or (where these are wanting) the 
Bark of Trees, putting them into these Stones, which occa- 
sion an extraordinary Heat, by the help of which, and the 
Herbs which are boiled in a Pot, they sweat very plentifully. 
They likewise use Bathing often in the Waters for the like 

They never miss curing most kinds of Cutaneous Erup- 
tions by the Plants that are produced in this Country : Tney 
infallibly cure Scald Heads, which they chiefly perform with 
Oil of Acorns, but from which Oak I never could be rightly 
informed, they being very secret in what they know. They 


of North Carolina. 395 

cure Burns beyond Credit; I have seen of these Wretches 
burnt in their Drunkenness after such a miserable man- 
ner, that in all Appearance they could not live; yet I have 
seen them cured in a very short time, contrary to all expecta- 
tion; that they have been capable of going abroad in ten or 
twelve Days. I have known others to be miserably burnt 
with Gun Powder, which they have cured in a short time; 
but by what Ingi-edients they perform these speedy and won- 
derful Cures is known to none but themselves. They seldom 
or never make known any Secrets of this ISTature to the 
Europeans, but are very ready to serve them upon such Occa- 
sions, if required, for a small Gratuity. 

What is worthy of Observation is, that amongst all these 
Indians there are no running inveterate Ulcers to be met 
with, neither do their Wounds turn to a Gangrene, and they 
are very expert in healing all manner of green Wounds and 
Dislocations, which they perform so speedily, that I dare 
boldly say, that they are the greatest Artists in these kind of 
Performances of any People in the known World. 

There was a Planter in North Carolina who had a griev- 
ous Ulcer in his Leg for many Years, which was deemed 
incurable by all those that beheld it; and- many attempts 
were made by the best Christian Artists in that Country to 
perfect the Cure, but all to no purpose, for his Leg still gi'ew 
worse and worse; at last he was prevailed upon to apply 
himself to one of those Indian Doctors, who performed the 
Cure in a very short time for the value of three Shillings 
Sterling, though it had cost him above one hundred Pounds 
before to little or no Purpose. 

The Indian Doctor performed this Cure after the follow- 
ing manner ; first he made a strong Decoction of the Bark of 

Ddd^ the 

396 The Natural Historg 

the Root of ' Sassafras, in which he bathed the Patients Leg 
very well, then he took the rotten Grains of the Maiz, or 
Indian Corn, well dried and beaten to Powder, and the soft 
Down that grows upon the Turkeys Rump, with this he 
quickly dried up the filthy Ulcer, and made a perfect Cure, 
of what was thought incurable, to the great Joy and satis- 
faction of the Planter, who had so long laboured under it. 
This I had affirmed to me by the Planter himself, and several 
others that were Eye-witnesses to the whole Affair. 

The Pox is to be met with amongst some Nations of these 
Indians, being as it is Reported communicated to them by 
the Europeans, it being a Distemper intirely unknown to 
them before their Arrival. By this Disorder, some of them 
have lost their looses, and particularly one of their great- 
est Conjurers, whom I have seen and conversed with; but 
whether or no this Distemper was known to them before the 
Christians came amongst them, I will not take upon me to 
decide it, being in no way material to my present Design, 
which is only to satisfie my Readers with the Advantages 
and Disadvantages that are to be met with in this Spacious 
part of the World. 

These Savages of late cure this Distemper with certain 
Berries (that grow in this Province) which Salivate like 
Mercury, notwithstanding they use Sweating and strong De- 
coctions with it, as they do almost upon every Occasion, and 
when they are in the greatest Extreamity of Heat, leap into 
the Rivers or Ponds of Water, by which Practice many have 
lost their Lives, yet at present it is not sufficient to deter 
them from this kind of Practice. 

The Yaws, is a Venerial Disorder (as I said before) in 
all respects like the Pox, only it is not attended with a Gonor- 


of North Carolina. 397 

rlicea in the beginning, but having all the other Symptoms 
that attend that Disorder, such as Cutaneous Eruptions, 
Nocturnal Pains, &c. This Distemper of late has been com- 
municated to the Indians by the Christian Traders, and 
though it is not very common amongst them, yet some few 
have lost their !N^oses by it, and others are become most miser- 
able Spectacles by neglecting it's Cure; at last they make a 
shift to cure or patch themselves up, and live for many 
Years after; such Men commonly turn Doctors amongst 
them, and some of these No-Nose Doctors are in very great 
Esteem amongst them. The Juice of the Tulip Tree is used 
by the Indians as a proper Remedy for this Distemper. 

The Small Pox proved very fatal amongst them in the late 
War with the Christians, few or none ever escaping Death 
that Tvere seized with it. This Distemper was intirely un- 
known to them before the arrival of the Europeans amongst 
them. Their Method in this, as in all other Fevers, is to run 
directly into the Water in the extremity of the Disease, 
which strikes it in and kills most that use that Method. 

They use Scarification in most Distempers ; their chief 
Instruments are the Teeth of the Rattle- Snal^e, which they 
poyson with upon occasion. They take out the Teeth of the 
Snahe, and suck out the Yenome with their Mouth, which 
they spit on the Ground, and receive no damage thereby ; it 
is of a greenish Colour, as I have frequently observed. These 
Teeth they keep for the uses above-mentioned, having no Xo- 
tion of Lancets, or other Instrument proper in those Opera- 

The Spleen is a common Distemper with the Indians in 
this Province, which they cure by burning on the Belly with 
a Reed or Hollow Cane, after the following- manner : They 
take the Cane and put the End into the Eire where they burn 


398 The Natural Historg 

it Hill it is red hot, then they lay the Patient on his Back, 
and place a piece of thin Leather on his Belly, between the 
Pit of the Stomach and the Xavel, so press the hot Reed on 
the Leather, which burns the Patient to that degree, that 
they ever after have the Impression of the Reed wherever it 
was laid : This Method is sometimes used amongst them for 
the Belly Ach. 

The Plague was never kno^ni amongst the Indians that I 
could ever learn; yet the Small Pox, their continual AVars 
with each other, their poysoning, and several other Distem- 
pers and Methods amongst them, and particularly their 
drinking Rum to excess, have made such gTcat destruction 
amongst them, that I am well informed, that there is not 
the tenth Indian in number, to what there was sixty Years 

They have a kind of Rheumatism, which generally afflicts 
their Legs with grievous Pains, and violent Heats; whilst 
they are thus tortured, they employ the young People contin- 
ually to power cold Water upon the part aggTived, 'till such 
time as the Pains are abated, and they become perfectly 
easy, using no other Method for this kind of Disorder. 

They are never troubled with the Scurvy, neither are they 
afflicted with the Dropsy, Diabetes, Gout, Stone, PthisicJc, 
Consumption, Asthma, or Palsie, which Distempers are too 
well known amongst us, and frequently attended with most 
fatal Consequences. Neither is the Struma to be met with 
amongst them, and many other European Distempers too 
tedious to name. 

They have several Pemcdies which thoy use for the Too^- 
ach, which frequently carries oif the Pain; but if all their 
Endeavours should fail, they have recourse to punching out 
the Tooth, which is done with a small Cane placed against it, 


of North Carolina. 399 

on a bit of Leather, then they strike the Reed and push out 
the Tooth, this they perform with a great deal of Dexterity, 
and never endanger the Jaw, which other Instruments are 
apt to do. 

They seldom make use of Amputation, except it be to the 
Captives that they take in War, when they cut off the Feet, 
which I have mentioned in another Place. But in any im- 
moderate defluctions of Blood, or any other Humour from 
any part of the Body, they are never at a loss for a speedy 

I never observed any of them to practice Anatomy, neither 
do I believe that they have any Knowledge therein, unless as 
I observed before, that they make Skelitons of their Kings 
and great Men's Bones. They can colour the Hair Black, 
though of a Reddish Colour, or any other Colour, which they 
do with a certain Seed or a Plant that grows in their Planta- 
tions. They make use of no Minerals in Physick, and very 
little of Animals, but chiefly depend on Vegetables, for all 
Disorders amongst them. They are well acquainted with 
the Spontaneous Plants that are produced in these Parts of 
the World ; and a Flux of Blood seldom or never follows any 
of their Operations. 

They are scarce ever known to make use of any Gums or 
Rosins in their Physick; as for Catharticks and Emeticks, 
so much in fashion in Europe, they do not esteem or make 
use of, unless it be immoderate Drinking such vast quanti- 
ties of their Yaiipan Tea, and vomiting it up again, this they 
continue every Morning, or oftner, where they can have this 
Plant, from which they receive great Benefit, not only in dis- 
charging and cleansing the Stomach from the peccant Hu- 
mours there lodged, but likewise by its great Diuretick 
quality which carries off those Humours by the Ureters, that 


400 The Natural Historg 

might be prejudicial to their Health, and occasion Fevers, 
Agues, and many other Distempers, which they are not so 
subject to as the Europeans; which I am satisfied is owing 
in a great measure to their constant use of this Plant, which 
takes away both Hunger and Thirst for four and twenty 

There is no Plant in these Parts in greater Veneration 
and Esteem amongst them than this is, and they frequently 
carry it to the Westwa7^d Indians, who give Deer Skins, and 
other J^ecessaries they want for it. They take the Leaves 
and small Twigs, bruise them in Wooden Mortars, 'till they 
become of a blackish Colour, and wholly defaced : Then they 
take and put them into Earthen Pots, over the Fire, till they 
Smoak, stirring them all the time 'till they are cured : Oth- 
ers take them thus bruised, and put them into Earthen Bowls, 
under which they put live Coals and cover them with You- 
pan Leaves, 'till they have done Smoaking, often turning 
them over, then they spread them on Mats and dry them in 
the Sun or Shade for use. 

They commonly in most of their Disorders make use of 
the Juices of Plants, not out of any Foppery or Fashion, as 
many Europeans and other Nations are often fond of, but 
purely to relieve and free E^ature of the Oppression and 
Burthen that she labours under. 

They neither use Unguents or Fats in any external Appli- 
cation for AVounds or Ulcers, but they sometimes use the Fat 
of Animals to render their Limbs more pliable, and when 
they are weary to relieve the Joints. 

The Bark of the Root of the Sassafrass Tree is very nrich 
used by them, which they generally Torrefy in the Embers, 
and strip off the Bark from the Root, beating it into a Paste, 
or a Consistance fit to spread, so apply it to the grieved 


of North Carolina. 401 

parts, which not only cleanses a fowl Ulcer, but after Scarifi- 
cation, being api3lied to the Contusion or Swelling, carries 
off the Pain, and assAvages the Tumor. Yet these People in 
general are very careless and negligent of their Health. 

In some Places these Savages Boyl and Roast their Meat 
extraordinary wtII, and eat abundance of Broath except those 
Savages whom we call the ^N'aked Indians, who never make 
use of any Soup. These travel from the Banks of the Mes- 
sisippi to War against the Sinagars or Iroquois Indians, 
and are commonly too hard for them except they are over 
power'd by unequal Xumbers. These naked Indiana will 
lye and sleep in the Woods without any Fire or covering, 
being inur'd thereto from their Infancy. They are the most 
hardy of all Indians that are known, and run so fast that 
they are never taken by any other Indians that pursue them. 
Their Enemies say that their Nimbleness and long Wind 
proceeds from their never making use of any Broath. 

The Salts that the Indians in these parts make use of in 
their Meat, Bread, and Soup, to give them a gTateful relish 
are Alkalies, viz, Ashes made of the Wood of Hickery and 
calcin'd Bones of Deers and other Animals. They never 
eat any Sail ads, and as for Pepper, and Mustard, they imag- 
ine us to be no better than Madmen to make use of them at 
our Victuals. 

The Vessels that our N'eighbouring Indians make use of 
and most other Xations are, Earthen-Pots of several sizes. 
Their Dishes and Wooden Platters are made of the sweet 
Gum Tree, Poplar, Sy com ore, and the like. 

Thus I have releated their manner in curing several Dis- 
tempers ; I shall now only mention one strange Account more, 
which was attested by the Planter himself, and several other 
credible Persons in those Parts. 

26 Eee There 

402 The Natural Historic 

There was an honest and substantial Planter in those 
Parts who was afflicted with a strange and lingering distem- 
per, not usual amongst the Christians, under which he ema- 
ciated and grew every Month worse and worse ; this Disorder 
continued for some Years, during which time he had made 
use of the best and ablest Doctors and Surgeons in those 
parts, but all to no purpose, for the Disorder still persever'd. 
In the beginning of this Distemper the Patient was very 
wealthy, and had several Slaves which he was obliged to sell 
to satisfie the Doctors. But one Day it happen'd, as he and 
his Wife were comiserating his miserable Condition, and 
that in all appearance he could not expect to recover, and 
that Death must speedily put a period to his Days, and then 
in what misery he should leave his poor Wife and Family, 
since all his Negroes were already gone and dispos'd off. 
Whilst he and his Wife were thus debating the Misfortunes 
that in all probability might attend the Family after his 
Death. An Indian happen'd to come into the House, who 
was well acquainted in the Family, and hearing their Dis- 
course (and having a very great regard and value for the 
Sick-man from whom he received many Favours) made this 
Reply to what he had heard them talk off, Brother, you have 
had a long fit of sickness, you have given away your Slaves 
to the English Doctors, what made you do so, and now be- 
come Poor ? They do not know how to cure you, for it is an 
Indian Distemper that troubles you, and they know not the 
^Nature of it. If it had been a Distemper known in their 
Country, probably they cou'd have cured you. But had you 
employ'd me at first, I coud have cur'd you for a small mat- 
ter without taking your Slaves from you that provided Corn 
and other ISTecessaries for you, and your Family's support. 
And yet if you will give me a Blanket to keep me warm and 


of North Carolina. 403 

some Powder and Shot, to kill Deer with, I will do my beat 
still to recover your Health. 

The Poor-man being very much dejected with the Mis- 
fortunes that he had already met with, made the Indian this 
reply. I know my Distemper is now past the power of Man 
to cure, and if our English Doctor s cou'd not cure it, I am 
throughly perswaded that the Indians cannot. 

But his Wife accosted him in the most endearing and 
mild terms and told him, he did not know but God might be 
pleas'd to give a gTeater blessing to the Indians undertaking 
than he had done to the English, and likewise said, if it 
shou'd please God that you shou'd dye, I cannot be much 
more miserable by giving that small trifle to the Indian 
which he demands. Therefore I beg of you to take my ad- 
vice and try him. 

At length by the many perswasions and Importunities of 
his Wife and Family he consented. And when the bargain 
was concluded, the Indian went into the Woods and brought 
with him several kinds of Roots and Herbs, whereof he made 
a strong Decoction and gave it to the Patient to drink, and 
immediately orderd him to go to Bed, adding that it would 
not be long before he wou'd return again to visit him. The 
Patient punctually performed every thing as he was ordered 
by the Indian, and had not been long in Bed before the Po- 
tion that was administer'd made him Sweat after the most 
violent manner that could be, and during its operation he 
smelPd so offensively to himself and all those that were near 
him, that scarce any one cou'd bear to go into the House or 
Room where he lay. 

Late in the Evening the Indian comes to visit the Patient 
with a great Rattle-Snake alive (which terrified the Family 
almost out of .their Senses) and told the Sick-man that he 


404 The Natural History 

must take it to Bed with him, at which the Patient was in 
the greatest consternation in the World, and told the Indian 
that he might as well dje of the Distemper he had, as to be 
kill'd with the Bite of the Rattle-Snake. To which the 
Indian reply'd he cou'd not bite him nor do him any harm, 
for he had already taken our his Poyson and Teeth, and 
shewed him by opening and putting his Tinger into the 
Snakes Mouth, that they all were gone. At last by many 
perswasions and Intreaties of all that were present, he ad- 
mitted of the Snakes company, which the Indian put about 
the Patients middle and order'd no Body to take it away, or 
even to meddle with it upon any account, which was strictly 
observed, altho' the Snake girded him as hard for a great 
while as if he had been drawn in by a Belt. At last he 
found the pressure grow weaker and weaker, till by degrees 
he felt it not; and opening the Bed the Snake was found 
dead, and the Patient thought himself grown much better. 
The Indian returned the next Morning to visit his Patient, 
and finding the Snake dead, was very much transported, and 
told the Sick-man the distemper was dead along with the 
Snake, which proved as he said, for the Man very speed- 
ily afterwards recovered his Health, and became perfect well, 
and lived for many years after this strange and wonderful 

And what is remarkable in many parts of this Province 
as you travel up towards the Mountains and through the 
Woods, when ever you come to any places where the Indians 
formerly dwelt and had To^vns, you shall find abundance of 
Flowers with variety of beautiful Colours, of several sori;s, 
and divers Qualities, and Use ; some being Physical others 
Poysonous, others for Ornament and sweet Odor, which at a 
distance have a fine prospect, and look like a beautiful 
Flower Garden, the uses whereof the Indians are well ac- 

of North Carolina. 405 

quainted with. I am perswaded that the reason why they 
took all these j)ains in planting these Simples was owing to 
their Doctor s Care, that upon all Occasions they might be 
provided with those Vegetables that were proper for the 
Indian Distempers, or any other use they might have occa- 
sion to make of them. 

These Savages have one of the most diabolical Customs 
amongst them, that is to be met w^ith in any part of the known 
World, which they call Husquenawing their young Men and 
Girls. Once a Year, or at farthest, once in two years, these 
Savages take up so many of them as they think are able to 
undergo this rigid Discipline, and Husquenaugh them, which 
they say is make them obedient and respective to their Supe- 
rours and inures them to all manner of Fatigues and Hard- 
ships, and without it they never wou'd be fit to be their 
War-Captains, or Capable to act in their Councils; by this 
Method they say their Children have the same benefit as the 
European Children have at their Schools, where they are 
taught good breeding and Letters. Besides it carries off 
those Weak and Infirm Bodies that wou'd have been a Bur- 
then and disgrace to their Nation. 

This House of Correction, or where they undergo this 
rigid Discipline, is a large strong Cahin, made on purpose 
for the reception of these young Men and Girles that have not 
already pass'd these Graduations. The Season of the Year 
wherein they Husquenaugh their youth is always about 
Christmas, at this time they are brought into this House, 
which is made as dark as any Dungeon, and almost starved 
during the time they remain there. Besides they give them 
Pellito7^y, and several intoxicating Plants that make them go 
raving Mad, they make the most dismal and hidious cries 
and bowlings that human Creatures are capable of express- 
ing, all which continues about five or six Weeks, and the 


406 The Natural Historic 

little Meat tliej are allowed to eat is the nastiest loathsome 
stuff imaginable. After the time is expired they are brought 
out of the Cabin, which is not in the Town, but at some dis- 
tance from it, and is guarded by an Indian or two, nominated 
for that purpose, who Watch by turns. When they appear 
or first come abroad, they are as poor and Meager as it is 
possible for any Creatures to be, resembling rather Skeletons 
than living Men; several of them dying under this Diaboli- 
cal discipline. Moreover they either really are or pretend to 
be Dumb, and do not spake for a Month after they are out of 
their Confinement. It is likewise said that after this Disci- 
pline is over, they have intirely forgot all the Actions of 
their past Lives. 

These Savages are described in their proper Colours but 
by very few, for those that generally write Histories of this 
New World are such as Interest, Preferment, or Merchan- 
dize draw thither, who know no more of the People or Coun- 
try, than I do of the Laplanders. If we will make just Re- 
marks, how near such Relations approach Truth, we shall find 
few worthy of Entertainment, and many parts of their Works 
stuft with Invectives against the Government they liv'd un- 
der, on which Stage is commonly acted greater Barbarities in 
murdering worthy Men's Reputations, than all the Savages 
of the New World are capable of equalizing, or even imitating. 
These Authors likewise pretend to various and strange ac- 
counts, about them, but their -Relations seem much fitter to 
fill a Novel than a History. I must therefore beg leave of the 
Gay Part of the World, who seem infinitely pleased with such 
Relations in not gratifying them with the Particulars, which 
they themselves will give less Credit to every Day as their 
Judgment ripens. 


of North Carolina. 


Lastly, I shall mention some few Words of the Indian Lan- 
guage, together with the English, and so conclude this 






















Yau Ooner. 
















Nau-haush-sh o o . 










A Blanket. 




A Coat. 









The Fire. 




A Gun. 




A Hat. 








A Knife. 
















A Wife. 





408 The Natural Historic of North Carolina. 

To enlarge any more ujDon this Indian Jargon, would be 
altogether needless, and troublesome to the Reader; thej 
have such a strange way of abbreviating their Speech when 
they are Debating in their grand Councils, that the young 
Men do not understand what they say or treat of. It is to be 
admir'd, what hath occasioned so many different Speeches as 
they have ; for the three Xations whose Languages I have now 
mentioned, are but a small distance from each other. These 
Differences in their Speech frequently occasion Jealousies 
and Fears amongst them, and are often the Motives of their 
continual Wars with each other; and were it not for these 
continual Feuds and Animosities amongst themselves, they 
would be as happy a People, as to this Life, as any upon the 



[The .-uithor of this Index is not known. It wms not in-int<Hl with 
the bool<, hut is a manuscript inserted in the (•oi)y of the history 
from which this rei)rint is made.] 


Bat, 132, 197. 
Bear, 110. 
Beaver, 121. 
Buffalo, 107. 
Cat, mountain, IIG. 

wild, 117. 
Deer, 109. 
Elk, 108. 
Foxes, 124. 
Goat, 55. 
Hare, 126. 
Hogs, 55. 
Horses, 53. 
Jackal], 110. 
Lion, 110. 
Mice, 131. 

Alligator, 133. 
Frog, 140. 
Lizard, 141. 
T/Ortoise, 137. 

Ant, 158. 
Bees, 154. 

Beetle, Horned, 163. 
Bots, 109, 127. 
Bugs, 161. 
Butterflies, 155. 
Cantharides, 158. 
Catei-pillar, 167. 
Cockroach, 161. 
Crickets, 157. 
Earwigs, 159. 
Flea, 165. 
Flies, 160. 

fire, 157. 

gad, 160. 

sand, 164. 

Minx, 118. 
Mole, 130. 
Opossum, 124, 12.j. 
Otters, 122. 
Panther, 115. 
Polecat, 118. 
Rabit, 127. 
Racoon, 123. 
Rat, 129. 
Sheep, 54. 
Squirrel, 127. 
Stags, 109. 
Tiger, 114. 
Weesel, 329. 
Wolf, 119. 


Tarapin, 1.38. 
Snakes, 142, 151, 397. 
Vipers, 149. 


Grasshoppers, 155. 
Hornets, llU. 
Lice, beetle, 162. 

hog or sow, 156. 
Lice, 165. 
Ladybird, 158. 
Locust, 166. 
:Moth, 16t). 
Musquetos. 162. 

Scolopenda or gaily worm. 167. 
Snail, 169. 

Sows or hog lice. 156. 
Spider. 159. 
Teredines or water woodworms, 

Tick, 165. 



Tumbleturd, 161. 
Wasps, 164. 
Weavil, 160. • 
Worms, earth, 169. 

gaily or scolopenda, 167. 

glow, 168. 

silk, 155. 

tobacco, 168. 

woodland, 168. 

water or Teredines, 169. 


Baltimore bird, 196. 
Barnacles, 203. 
Barnets, gray, 203. 
Bittei-ns, 200. 
Black flusterers, 209. 
Bluebird, 194. 

wings, 208. 
Brants, wbite, 204. 
Bullfinch, 194. 
Bull necks, 207. 
Buzzard, turkey, 174. 
Baldfaces or white faces, 210. 
Cat bird, 189. 
Coot, bald, 209. 

ware or water witch, 210. 
Cormorants, 211. 
Crane, 201. 
Crow, 181. 

Cuckoo of Carolina, 179. 
Curlew, 184. 

grey or seapye, 184. 
Dipper or Fisher, 209. 
Divers, 208. 
Duck, 206. 
Eagles, 171. 
Falcon, 176. 
Fieldfare, 191. 
Fisher or Dipper, 209. 
Fisherman, 208. 
Gannet, 212. 
Geese, wild, 203. 
Goldfinch, 196. 
Gull or seamew, 205. 

grey, 204, 205. 

pied, 204. 
Hawk, 175, 177. 

Musqueto, 163, 196. 

Hens, marsh, 200. 

water, or Blue Peter, 200. 
Herons, 200. 
Hobbies, 177. 
Hoopers, 202. 
Humming, 199. 
Jackdaw, ISO. 
Jay, 192. 
Kill Dear, 192. 
Kingsfisher, 210. 
Kites, 175. 

Lapwing or green plover, 184. 
Lark, 193. 

Bunting, 193. 
Magpye, 180. 
Mallard, 206. 
Merlin, 177. 
Mocking, 189. 
Moorhen, 187. 
Nightengale, 194. 
Old-Wives, 205, 209. 
Owls, 177. 
Parokeets, 179. 
Partridges, 185. 
Peter blue or water hen, 200. 
Pelican, 211. 
Pheasant, water, 207. 
Pheasant, 183. 
Pigeons, wild, 186, 363. 
Plover, grey or whistling, 185 

green or lapwing, 184. 
Plover, whistling or grey, 185. 
Poultry, 55. 
Raft foul, 208. 
Rail, 180. 
Raven, 180. 
Redbird, 190. 



Redhead. 208. 
Rook. 18(j. 
Runiior. 193. 
Sandbird, 103. 
Sea cob, 205. 

cock, 205. 

mew or gull, pye or grey 
curlew, 204, 205. 
Shag, 212. 
Shear-Water, 212. 
Shell drakes, 207. 
Shovellers, 207. 
Snipe, 183. 
Snowbird. 195. 
Span'ow. 194. 
Storks. 201. 
Swallows, 19G. 
Swans, 202. 
Swaddle bills, 208. 

Barbots, 242. 

Bass or rockfish, 230. 

Bottlenoses. 221. 

Bonetoes, 228. 

Carp, 240. 

Carvels or Sea Nettle, 248. 

Cava Hies, 228. 

Cockles. 243. 

Conch, 244. 

Conger, 232. 

Crabs. 245. 

Crocus, 234. 

Dace, 240. 

Dolphin, 22G. 

Eels, 233. 

Fatbacks, 231. 

Fiddler.'^, 240. 

Fish, angel, 220. 

blue, 228. 

cat, 241. 

craw, 249. 

devil, 224. 

dog, 227. 

Drum, 229. 

Throstles, 192. 

Thrushes, 191. 

Titmouse or Tomtit, 105. 

Tomtit or TitmoiLse, 105. 

Tropic bird, 205. 

Turkey, 181. 

Turtle doves, ISO. 

Tutcock, 184. 

Water witch or ware Coot, 210. 

Weets, 190. 

Whipiwrwill, 192. 

White faces or bald faces, 210. 

Wigeons, 209. 

Will Willet, 184. 

Woodcocke, 183. 

Wood pec-ker, 187. 

Wren, 198. 

Yellow wings, 195. 


Fish, Finger. 248. 

flying, 227. 

fountain. 242. 

gaurd, 231. 

Pilot, 225. 

rock or Bass, 230. 

saw or su'ord, 223. 

sucking. 241. 

Sun. 233. 

Sword or saw, 223. 

toad or sea urchin. 234. 
Flatingg, 247. 
Flomiders. 240. 
Grampus, 221. 
Grindell, 241. 
Gudgeons, 238. 

Herring hogs or porpoise. 222. 
Herrings, 235. 

Jack or Pike or Pickrell, 238, 245. 
Lamprey, 233. 
Loche, 241. 

Mackarel, Spanish. 227. 
Man of noses, 247. 
Mullet. 230. 



Muscles, 244, 249. 
Oldwives, 241. 
Oysters, 242. 

trees, 243. 
Perch, 239. 
Peri\Yinkle, 247. 
Pickerell or Pike or Jack, 238, 
Pike or Jack, 238, 245. 
Plaice, 230. 
Porpoise or Sea Hog, 222, 

or herring hog, 222. 
Roach, 240. 
Runner, 246. 
Sea Bream, 235. 

hogs or porpoise, 235. 

nettle or Carvels, 248. 

urchin or toadfish, 234. 

Shad, 231. 

Shallops, 247. 


Shark, 224. 
Shrimps, 248. 
Sheepshead, 230. 
Skaite, 232. 
Snailhorn, 247. 
Smelts, 235. 
245. Soldier, 247. 
Soles, 231. 
Sturgeon, 236. 
Taylor, 235. 
Tench, Sea, 234. 
Tliornback, 232. 
Thrashers, 223. 
Trout, 238. 

Salt Water, 234. 
Whales, 215, 245. 

louse, 245. 
Wilks, 247. 


Alder, 72. 

Allspice or Pomento, 88. 

Apples, 98. 

Apricot, 102. 

Arrowwood, 85. 

Ascopo, 73. 

Ash, 65. 

Prickly, 85. 
Aspen, 65. 
Barley, 15. 
Bamboo, small, 96. 
Barberry, 106. 
Bay, 73. 

Tulip, 73. 
Bead, 105. 
Beech, 66, 68. 

Buck, 66. 
Bindweed, prickly or sarsapa- 

rilla, 96. 
Birch, 72. 
Bilberries, 88. 
Blackberry, 90. 
Briar rose, 90. 
Cassena or Indian tea tree, 87. 

Cedar, red, 63. 

white, 64. 
Cherries, 77 103. 
Chesnut, 69. 
Chinquapin, 75. 
Cotton plant, 58. 
Currant, 105. 

April, 89. 

Bermuda, 89. 

Winter, 89. 
Cypress, 62. 
Damson, 78, 103. 
Dewberrj', 91. 
Dogwood, 79. 
Elm, 66. 
Fig, 78, 104. 
Filbert, 1(^. 
Gall berry, 85. 
Gooseberry, 105. 
Grain, 14, 15. 

Gum, black, 70, 371. 
sweet, 70. 
white, 70. 



Ha\^i:llorll or Whitotlioni, 7S. 
Hazelnut, 80. 
Herbs, \^t, 19, 20. 

physical, 20. 
Hiccoi-y, 68. 
Hip, 90. 
Holly, 75. 
Honey locust, 71. 

suckle, or Woodbine, 91. 
Hornbeam. 74. 
Huckleberries, 88. 
Jamestown weed, 21. 
Jassmine, yellow, 91. 
Indian corn, 15, 16. 
nut. 82. 
lig tree or prickly pear, 

23, 96. 
tea tree or yaupan or cas- 
senn. 87. 
Indigo, 82. 
Ipecacuana, 21. 
Ivy, 96. 
Laurel, 73. 
Locust. j1. 
Maple, 74. 
May apple. 23. 
Medlar, 102. 
Millet. 16. 
Misletoe, 23, 86. 
Mulberry. 67. 
Myrtle, 81. 
Nectarines, 102. 
Oak, black. 60. 

Cbesuut, 59. 

fresh water, 61. 

live, 61. 

red, 60. 

ring or white iron, 60. 

Spanish Bastard, 60. 

turkey. 61. 

white iron, -60. 

scaly bark, 60. 

willow, 89. 
Orange, 105. 

I'Mlnietto, 8:j. 
Papaw, 80. 
Peach, KX), 101. 
Pear, 99. 

prickly, or Indian fig tree. 
23, 96. 
PellitoiT, 23, 81. 
Persinmion, 74. 
Pomento or All spice, 88. 

almond, 63. 

dwarf, as. 

pitch, 62. 

white, 63. 

yellow, 63. 
Plum, 77, 78, 103. 
Poke, 19. 
Privet, 85. 
Pulse, 16. 
Quine, 100. 
Rasberrj', 90. 
Red bud, 80. 
Reeds, 84. 
Rice. 15. 
Rose, 106. 
Rosemarj', 106. 
Rye, 15. 
Sallads, 18. 
Sarsaparilla or prickly bindweed, 

Savine, 86. 
Sassafras, 76. 
Scamony, 21. 
Service, 71. 
Sloe or Blkthorn, 79. 
Sorrell or Sourwood, 81. 
Sounvood or Sorrell, 81. 
Strawberry, 91. 
Sugar, 79. 
Siuuach. 82. 
Sycamore, 65. 
Thorn, black, or Sloe, 79. 

white or Hawthorn, 78. 
Tobacco, 280, 287. 



Tulip tree, 64. 
Vines, 92. 
Walnut, 69, 102. 
Wheat, 14, 16. 

buck, 16. 

guinea, 16. 
Willow, 76. 

Woodbine, or Honey suclvle, 01. 
Yaupan or Cassena or Indian tea 
tree, 87. 

Vegetables, 14 to 24, 55, 57, to 

Plants, 11. 
degenerate, 18. 
roots, 18. 

are larger, 57. 
Grass burn, 10, 13. 
grapes wbich skin, 93. 
fertility, 13, 14, 51. 
bear in 3 years, 100. 


I. Climate, 24 to 26, 255. 
II. Savannas, 10, 11. 
Swamps, 12, 13. 
Perkosons, 12, 13. 
land, 11, 13. 
II. 42. 

Oave in, 50. 
III. Rivers, 5, 42. 

little current in, 7. 
Inlets, 2. 
Capes, 4. 

springs, mineral, 44, 264, 
IV. food of, 12. 

winter food, 10. 
manners, 51. 
join in defence, 51. 
taming of horses, 53. 
tiger, 115. 
V. Timber, 59. 
VI. 44, 359, 360. 

stone for mills, 263. 
VII. 33. 
VII. 32. 
VII. o. 31. 

r. 37, 258. 
u. 38. 

spirits, 100. 
k. 39. 

N. Car., situation, 1. 

history, 27. 

towns, 8. 

settlement of, 9. 

beggars, none, 30. 

emigrants, 267. 

overseers, 268. 
Negroes, 272, 12, 13, 14. 29, 41, 
254, 255, 258. 

labor of 2 days support, 7,269. 

9, 45. 
Currency, 46. 

69, 31. 

78, 260. 

85, 39, 265. 

93, 256. 

r 121 in Negroes, 272. 

A 35. 

© 28. 

b. 28. 

A 29, 257. 

H articles, 43, 252. 

Injured by laws, 266. 

h, 43. 


:§ 254, 263. 

toll of mills, 264. 
VI I. h. h., 262. 



VIII. 38, 254. 
113, 41, 44, 4G, 253. 

Travelling, 387. 

VII. K. hunters entice brants by 

buniing the grass, 204. 
S. Car. Cm-cy., 4G. 
Author left N. Car. about 1730, 

French more attentive to knowl- 
edge than the English. 213. 
2 r Black Alder, 72; Gall- 
berry, 85; Vine, 0.">. 
r Lime from Oyster Shells, 

V Treacle Beer, 38. 
To dress Congers Eel, 232. 
To take away the fishy taste 

of Ducks, 208. 
To make Tar, 2(15. 
Turpentine, 205. 

To make IMtch, 2()(;. 

Uosin, 2«;7. 
To destroy Caterpillars. p;7. 

Fleas, lf>5. 

Hornets, 1G4. 

Ticks, 100. 

\Vasi)S, 104. 

Weevils, 1(51. 
To cure burns, 21, 22. 
Fevers, star grass, 22. 

Inflammations, 21, 22. 

Prickley Heat, 49. 

Iling worms, 50. 

Sore Mouth, 22. 

Stone and Gravel, 253. 

Thrush, 22. 

Waspbite, 104. 

Yaws, 48. 

described, 48. 

The medicinal qualities of Vegetables and Animals are stated under 
each individual. 


Bears, coition, 129. 

opossum, penis, 125. 

Weesil, coition, 129. 

grasshoppers, do., 150. 

Coots ware only down, no feath- 
ers, 210. 

Partridges libidinous ; will seem 
to couple wdth their own image 
in a glass, 185. 

Redbird loves its image in a glass. 

Confinement is sd to make 

them white and stupid. 191. 

Snipes the only wild bird same 
as Europeans, 183. 

Swallows (Martens) a w\arlike 
bird, 198. 

Swans not the black piece of 
horny flesh, down head and 
I bill, as those in Europe, 203. 

Turkies retain wild habits wn 

mix wth tame, 182. 
Dolphins sport before storms, 

Fish unwholesome, why, 229. 

guard upper jaw moves as 
Alligator bones ; wn 
dressed are green, 232. 
Flounders, best have red spots, 

Plaice, do. black spots, 230. 
Porpess before storms approach 

shore, 223. 
Roach very healthy fish, hence 

as sound as a roach. 
Whales before storms beat the 

water about with their tales, 





IV. have not, 18, 288. 
dogs, 332. 
Oyster shells, 280. 
\\ They had, 17, 280. 
Indian nut, 83. 
Tobacco, 287, 367. 
VI. Metals, 359. 
VII. h 1, 335. 

I. travelling, 345, 355. 356. 
K. hunting, 340, 345, 351. 
K. 285, 325, 328, 333, 335. 
M. 278. 312, 315, 333. 
N. more decent since Euro- 
peans there, 313. 
N. before war, 315. 
N. 284, 312, 313, 314, 315. 
O. 277, 282, 287, 294. 
104, 280. 
203, 278. 

hair, 278, 280, 293. 
58, 282. 
313, 322, 324. 
R. 290. 

301, 202, 290. 
U. 284, 291, 311, 323, 329. 
Yaupan tea, 39, 59, 87, 

Rum, 349. 

prohibited by their 

desire, 292. 
why it is physic, 348. 
is weak, 299. 
449, 299, 309. 
i 348, 362, 363. 
belong to, 300. 
many, 308. 
indulged, 310. 
307, 394. 
Sodomy unknown, 305. 




403, 345, 356. 

convey, 334, 383. 

they help, 340, 344, 358, 376, 
394, 333, 331. 

stopped by English, 314. 
405 tame the wolf, 119. 

411 182. 

412 317, 323, 324, 340. 
Envious not, 353. 

469, 294. 

484 353, 354. 

501 336. 

509 319, 341. 

514 281, 354, 341. 

516 not 309. 

523 344, 355. 

533 222, 318. 

528 352. 

539 298, 344. 

542 338, 340, 348. 353, 372. 

548 318, 353. 

563. ideas on, 298, 301. 

cool, not passionate. 293. 
601. respect, 310. 

at meals. 347. 

childbearing, 307. 

good sense, 293. 

449, 329, 347. 
Indian life has charms to whit 

what they value, 353. 

get all they can, 348. 

excel Europeans, 330, 335, 

347, 350, 353, 356. 
Em'opeans corrupt them, 314, 34". 

check improvement, 314. 

treat them ill, 314, 347. 


Iroquois, 279. 
Keyawees, 343. 
Pasquotaiiks, 314. 

Sapona, 343. 
Toteras, 343 
Sinegars, 279. 





Indians cn'.iit, '.V.-j'S. 

Teak, 388. 

Porcolan, 3:58. 

lloanoko or Ronoak, 338. 
r c 30t>. 
d 307. 
d 281. 
A d 345. 
H e 378. 
II. 283. 310, 330. 

capacities great, 281. 
% 283, 330, 34G, 407. 
names of months, 309. 

winds, 356. 

persons, 308. 
hieroglyphics. 317, 334, 358. 
speak English, 46, 283, 346. 
r 45. 

8. feed, 310. 

9. 244, 337. 

25, 326, 329, 332, 334, 342. 
32. 317, 363. 

going to, 315. 

301, 321. 
VII. K dance, 325. 
93, 321. 

34. scalping, 320. 
34, 339, 341, 352, 378. 
Husquenaugh, 405. 
for adultery, 298, 302. 

incest, 305. 

scalping, 320. 
51 Cyprians, 295 to 305, 334. 
59 282, 341, 342, 350. 

VII. n 283. 
57 2&1. 

63 335, 369, 381. 
69 301. to 306. 
70. 376, 379. 
Quiozoson, 376, 385. 
76. 287, 289. 326, 401. 

measure. 349. 

cradles, .307. 

fish gigs, .3<;r>. 
77. Physicians, 344. 
81. 68, 70, 84, 89, 96, 288, 311, 332. 

340, 362, 363, 401. 
85. 287. 
A 376. 

superstition, 327. 
circumcision, 368. 
God, 318, 377. 
death, 319, 382. 
Councils, 322, 329, .334. 
VII. ha, 329, 331. 
H 349. 
II. a 326, 333. 

masic, 328. 

maps, 358. 
!§ checked by Europeans, 314. 

mechanics, &.Q., 42, 66, 67, 71, 
83, 85, 108, 281, 313, 330, 
348, 364, 365. 
r dyes, 279. 
tanning, 364. 
agriculture, 289, 327. 
firing woods, cause, 361. 
i 22, 362. 
t. 319, 329, 362, 367. 

making a fire, 329, 345, 361. 
V of meat, 401, 340. 
r a 284, 317, 323. 
a mode of reckoning time, 308. 
b compass to stear by, 356. 
9. 393. 

poison, 322. 

for arrows, 116, 394. 
art of, 351. 

inflammations, 21. 

Ulcers, 76, 395. 

Womids, 66. 

Yaws, 396. 



The Natural History of North Carolina 1 

The corn of North Carolina 14 

The present state of do 27 

The religion, houses, raiment, diet, liquor, firing, diversions, com- 
modities, language, diseases, curiosities, cattle, etc., of North 

Carolina 35 

The vegetables 57 

Beasts, Reptiles, Insects 107 

Birds 171 

Fish 215 

Advantages and disadvantages of N, Carolina 251 

Indians 277 



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