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Full text of "Natural history of the animal kingdom for the use of young people : in three parts, comprising I. Mammalia : II. Birds : Part III. Reptiles, amphibia, fishes, insects, worms, molluscs, zoophytes, &c. : with 91 coloured plates, including about 850 figures, and numerous additional illustrations in the text"


'-- yauHHiMfiBMHriaMBiMMtta 



Frontispiece. 




1. European. 2. Nubian. 3. Dra vidian. 4. Malay. S. Mongolian. 6. American. 7 Esquimaux. 
8. Australian 9. Nejro. lO. Kaffir, il. Hottentot. 12. Papuan 



NATURAL HISTORY 



ANIMAL KINGDOM, 



FOR 



The Use of Young People. 



/JV THREE PARTS, 

COMPRISING: 



I— Mammalia. II.— Birds. 

Ill— Reptiles, Amphibia, Fishes, Insects, 
Worms, Molluscs, Zoophytes, &c., 

WITH 91 COLOURED PLATES. INCLUDING ABOUT 850 FIGURES, 

AND NUMEROUS ADDITIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT. 
ADAPTED FROM THE GERMAN OF PROFESSOR VON SCHUBERT 



W. F. KIR BY, F.E.S., 

I 
AUTHOR OF "EUROPEAN BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS," &c. 



•Warns 

PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OP COLt FrT 

THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION APPOINTED BV l/^ 



THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE. 



297 "{O*^ 



LONDON : 

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, 

NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, CHARING CROSS, W.C. ; 

43. QUEEN VICTORIA STREET E.C. 

BRIGHTON : 135, North Street. 
New York: E. & J. B. YOUNG and Co. 

1889. 

iPKINTED BV J F bCHKElBER, BSSLINGEN, GERMANY.) 



J^-^^ 

.]^' 



y..*^- 



Systematic AFrangement 



of the 



Classes and Orders of the Animal Kingdom 



as adopted in the present work. 



Man. 



Subkingdom I. Vertebrata. 



a) With warm red blood. 

Class I. Mammalia. 

Order 1. Primates (Apes and Lemurs). 

2. Dt'nitoptcra (Flying Lemurs). 

3. Chiroptera (Bats). 

4. Insectivora (Insect-Eaters). 

5. Carnivora (Flesh-Eaters). 

6. Pinnepedia (Seals). 

7. Rodcutia (Gnawing Animais). 

8. Pioboscidea (Elephants). 

9. Pcrissodactyla (Rhinoceros, Horse &c.). 
10. Artiodactyla (Pigs and Hippopotamus). 
IL Riuiimantia (Ruminating Animals). 

12. Sirenia (Manatees and Dugongs). 

13. Cetacea (Whales and Dolphins). 

14. Edentata (Toothless Animals). 
1.5. Marsupialia (Pouched Animals). 

1 6. Monotremata (Duck-Bill &Spiny Anteater). 

Class II. Aves. 

a) Insessores. 
Order 1. Accipitres (Birds of Prey). 

2. Scansores (Climbing Birds). 

3. Syndactylcr (Hornbills and Kingfishers). 

4. Passeres (Singing Birds). 

5. ColumbcB (Pigeons). 

b) Autophagi. 

Order 6. Gallincr (Poultry and Game J^irds). 

7. Citrsoirs (Running Birds). 

8. (jrallatores (Wading Birds). 

9. Palmipedes (Swimming Birds). 



b) With cold red blood. 

Class III. Reptilia. 

Order 1. Ophidia (Snakes). 

2. Crocodilia (Crocodiles). 

3. Lacertilia (Lizards). 

4. Chelonia (Tortoises). 



Order 1. 
2 
3. 
4. 



Order 1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 



Order 1. 
2. 
3. 

4. 



Class I\'. Amphibia. 

Anojira (Frogs and Toads) 
Urodela (Newts). 
hhthyoidea (Sirens). 
Apoda. 

Class V. Pisces. 

Subclass I. Dipnoi. 

Subclass II. Teleostel. 

Acan thopterygii. 

Pharyngognathi. 

Anacanthiiii. 

Physostojiii. 

Plectognathi. 

Lophobra)ichi. 



Subclass 111. 

Ganoidei. 
Selac/iii. 
Cyclostomi. 
Leptocardii. 



Chondropterygil. 



Subkingdom II. Articulata, 



Qass I. Insecta. 

a) With perfect metamorphoses. 

Order 1. Coleoptera (Beetles). 

2. Hymcnoptera (Bees and Wasps). 

3. Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths). 

4. Diptera (Flies). 

5. Neiiroptcra (Dragonflies &c.). 



b) With imperfect metamorphoses. 
Order 6. Orthoptera (Crickets &c.). 
7. Hemiptera (Bugs). 

Class II. Arachnida. 

Order 1. Arthrogastra (Scorpions). 
2. Arancida (Spiders), 
3 Acarina (Mites), 



Class III. Myriopoda. 

Order 1. Cliilopoda (Centipedes). 
2. Ckilognatha (Millepedes). 

Class IV. Crustacea. 

Seclion I. Malacostraca. 
Order 1. Thoracostraca (Crabs). 



Order 2. Arthosiraca (Wood-lice &c.). 

Section II. Entomostraca. 

Order 1. Branchiopoda. 

2. Ostracoda. 

3. Copcpoda. 

4. Cirripedia (Barnacles). 



Subkingdom III. Mollusca. 

Group I. Tunicata. 



Class I. Thaliacea. | Class II. Ascidise 

Group n. Mollusca (typical). 
Class I. Cephalopoda (Cuttle-Fishes). 
II. Heteropoda. 
III. Pteropoda. 

Group III. MoUuscoidea. 

Class I. Brachiopoda. | Class II. Bryozoa. 

Subkingdom IV. Vermes. 

Class I. Rotatoria (Wheel Animalcules). Class IV. Nemathelminthia 



Class I\'. Gastropoda (Snails &c.). 
Order 1. Braiicl/iala. 
2. Pithiioiiata. 

Class V, Lamellibranchiata (Bivalves). 



11. Annelida. 

Order 1. CJurtopoda (Worms). 
2. Ilirudinei (Leeshes). 

Class III. Gephyrea. 



Order 1. Ncmatoda (Thread-Worms). 
2. Acantoccphali. 

Class \'. Plathelminthia. 

Order 1. TnrbcUaria. 

2. Trciiiadota. 

3. Ccstoda (Tape-worms). 



Order 1. Echiiioidea (Sea-Urchiiis) 
2. Astcroidea (Starfishes). 



Subkingdom V. Echlnodermata 



Order 3. Criiioidca. 

4. Holothitriidcr (Sea-Cucumbers). 



Class I. Ctenophora. 
II. Polypomedusae 



Order 1. Acalcpha (Jelly-fishes). 

2. Siphonopliora. 

3, Hydroida (Fresh-water Polypes). 



Subkingdom VI. Coelenterata. 

Class III. Anthozoa (Corals). 

Order 1. Octactinia. 
2. Hcxactinia. 

Class IV. Porifera (Sponges). 
Order 1. Ccvaospoiigia. 



2. Halichondria. 

3. Calcispougia. 



Subkingdom VII. Protozoa. 

Class 1. Infusoria (Animalculapj. 
II. Rhizopoda, 

Order 1. Radiolaria. 

2. Fo}-aminifera, 



-^3®C=~- 



GENERAL-INDEX 

OF ENGLISH NAMES TO THE TRHEE PARTS OF THE WORK. 



Name Part Pnge Plale Fii^ 

Adder Ill 3 lib 

Adjutant ... . II 17 

Agouti 114 XIII a 

Ailanthus Silk - worm 

Moth 11127 

Albatross II lOXXVIIId 

Alexandrine Parrakeet II 6 VI e 

Alligator, Mississippi III 4 IV a 

Alpine Chough . .119 X e 

American Blight ... Ill 41 XXV nn 

— Lion ... no VIII b 

— Ostrich . II IG XXIV d 

Anchovy III13 XVI g 

Animalculai . . . . Ill 65 

— , Bell ... Ill 65 

— , Wheel . Ill 65 
Anteater, Great ... 122 XV a 

— , Spiny ... 124 

— , Temminck's 

Scaly . . . 123 XV c 

Antelopes 1 19 

Ant-Lion Ill 36 XXIV n 

Ants Ill 22 

Ape-, Barbary ..... 16 II h 

Apollo Butterfly ... 1 25 XXV s 

Apteryx II 16 

Arctic Fox 1 11 

Argali 121 XXVc 

Argus Pheasant ... II 15 XXIII c 

Ariel Toucan .... II 6 VII c 

Armadillo, Bristly . 122 XV d 
Army-worm ... .Ill 32 

Ass I16XXVIIb 

Auk, Great II 21 XXX e 

Aurochs II 9, 20 

Axolotl Ill 8 

Baboon 16 II c 

Bacon Beetle Ill 19 

Bactrian Camel ... 118 XVIII b 

Badger 113 XII b 

Barbary Ape 16 II f 

Barbel Ill 14 XVIII g 

Barnacles Ill 45, 48 

Barn Owl 11 5 Vd 

Basilisk Ill 5 V e 

Bats 17 

Beadlet Ill 63 XXX o 

Bean Goose II 20 XXIX a 

Bear, Black 112 XI a 

— , Brown 112 XI b 

— , Polar .... 112 XI c 
Bearded Vulture . . II 3 Id 

Beaver 115 XIV d 

Bed-Bug Ill 40 XXV aa 



Namp Part Page Plain Fig. 

Bedeguar Gall .... Ill 22 

Beech Marten I 12 Ve 

Bee-eater II 7 Vllle 

— Louse Ill 34 

Bees 11123 

Beetles Ill 17 

Belemnites Ill 50 

Bell Animalculre . . . Ill 65 

Bezoar Goat 120 XXV a 

Bird-killing Spiders . Ill 42, 43 

Bird-Lice Ill 38, 42 

Bird of Paradise ... II 9 XI b 

Bittern II 17 XXVI c 

— , Little .... II 17 XXVI b 

Bivalves Ill 53 

Black-backed Gull . . II 19 XXVI f 
Black-backed Sea 

Snake Ill 3 IIIc 

Black Bear 112 XI a 

Blackbird II 10 XIII e 

~ , Crow ... II 9 XI e 

Blackcap II 10 XVII c 

Black Goby Ill 10 XIV i 

— Grouse .... II 15 XXII b 

— Guillemot ... II 21 XXX d 
Black-headed Gull. . II 19 XXVII e 
Black Howler .... I 6 lie 

— Rat I 15 

— Stork II 17 XXVc 

— Woodpecker . II 6 VII d 

Bleak Ill 14 XVIIIa 

Blindworm Ill 5 III d 

Blister Beetle Ill 20 XXIV u 

Blotched Emerald Moth III 29 

Blue-Bottle 11134 XXIII i 

Blue-throated Warbler II 10 XVII b 

Blue Thrush II 10 XIII d 

— Titmouse ... II 11 XIX b 
Boa Constrictor . . Ill 2 la 

Boar, Wild 117 XVII d 

Bohemian Wax-wing II 10 XIII f 

Bombadier Ill 7 

Bombadier Beetle . . Ill 18 

Book Scorpion . . . Ill 42 XXIII e 

Bot-flies Ill 33 

Bream Ill 13 XVII a 

Brent Goose II 20 XXIX b 

Brimstone Butterfly . 11125 XXVI c 

Brine Shrimp ... Ill 48 XXVII t 

Bristly Armadillo . 1 22 XV d 

Brown Bear 112 XI b 

— Hairstreak . . Ill 24 XXV p 

— Owl ... . . II 5 Vc 

— Rat 115 Xlllh 

Buffalo 120 XXIVa 



Name Part Page Plate Fig. 

Buff-tip Moth . . .11128 XXVI h 

Bugs Ill 40 

Bullfinch II 12 XIV c 

Bullhead 11112 XIV b 

Bunting, Cirl II 12 XV a 

— " , Common. . II 12 XVI f 

— , Snow .... II 12 XV b 
Burnet Moth, Six-spot III 26 XXVI v 
Burying Beetle .... Ill 19 XXIV k 
Bustard, Great .... II 16 XXIV a 

Butterflies Ill 24 

Buzzard, Common . . II 4 III b 

Cabbage Butterfly . . Ill 25 XXVI a 

— Moth .... Ill 28 XXVI n 

Cachalot 122 XXIX b 

Caddis-flies Ill 35 

Calcareous Sponges . Ill 64 

Camberwell Beauty . Ill 24 XXV f 

Camel 117 XVIIIa 

— , Bactrian . . 117 XVIII b 

Canary II 13 XVI b 

Candle Flies Ill 41 

Capercaillie II 15 XXII c 

Capuchin Monkey . . I 6 II a. Ill b 
Cardinal Beetle . . . Ill 20 

Carp Ill 13 XVI h 

— , Crucian ... Ill 13 XVII c 

— Louse III48XXVIIW 

Carrion Crow .... II 8 IX g 
Cashmere Goat ... 120 XXV b 

Cassowary II 16 XXIVb 

Cat no VIII e 

— , Wild no Vllld 

Cattle I20XXIlIa,b 

Centipedes Ill 44 

Chafers III19 

Chaffinch II 12 XV d 

Chamaeleon ..... Ill 5 V a 

Chamois 119 XXII b 

Chanting Falcon ... II 5 IV e 

Cheese Mite Ill 44 XXIII m 

Chigoe Ill 35 XXIUo 

Chimney Swallow . . II 13 XIX a 

Chimpanzee 15 la 

Chough II 9 X f 

— , Alpine ... II 9 Xe 

Chub III14 XVII f 

Cirl Bunting II 12 XV a 

Citril Finch II 13 XVI e 

Civet Cat no 

Clam Ill 54 XXI a 

Click Beetles Ill 20 

Clifden Nonpareil . . Ill 29 XXVI q 

Climbing Perch . . . IIIll XIV h 



II 



Nanie Part Page Plate Fig. 


Clothes Moths .... 


Ill 30 


Clouded Yellow 




Butterfly, Pale . . . 


III 25 XXVI b 


Cobra-di-Capello . . . 


III 3 II a 


Cochineal Insect . . . 


III 41 XXV pp 


Cock 


II If) XXII h 


Cockatoo, Sir Joseph 




Bank's . . 


II 6 VI f 


— , Yellow-crested 


II 6 VII b 


Cockchafer 


III 19 XXIV f 


Cockle 


III rA XXII b 


Cock of the Rock . 


II 11 XI c 


Cockroach 


111 38 XXIV b 


Cod 


III 12 XIII d 


Cole Titmouse . . . 


nil XIX c 


Colorado Potato-Beetlt 


;in21 




— Bunting . . 


II 12 XVI f 


— Cuttle-fish . 


III .50 XX c 


— Sea Urchin 


m 58 XXIX a 


— Shieldrakc . 


II 20 XXIX g 


— Snake . . . 


in 2 II c 


— Wasp . . . 


HI 23 XXV q 


Condor 


11 3 Ic 


CopperButterfly.Scarcelll 24 XXV e 


Coquette, Tufted . . 


11 8 IXc 


Coral Reefs 


III 63 


Corals 


in 62 


Corncrake 


ni8 xxviic 


Cowries 


HI 52 


Crab, Edible 


in 46 XX VII h 


— , Hermit . . 


11146 XXVIlf 


— , Land 


III 46 XXVllt,r 


- - , Spider 


ni46 xxviii 


Crane 


n 17 XXVI d 


— Flies 


in 31 


Cray-fish 


in 46 XXVllc 



Crested 
Cricket, 



Lark 
Titmouse 
Field . 
House 
Mole . . 



Crocodile .... 
Crossbill .... 
Crow Blackbird 

— , Carrion . 

— , Hooded 
Crowned Pigeon 
Crucian Carp 

Cuckoo 

Cuckoo-spit 



II 9 

nil 

III .39 
ni39 
in 39 
III 4 

n 11 

II 9 
II 8 
II 8 
II 14 

III 13 
II 7 

III 41 



XII c 
XIX d 

XXIV g 
XXIV f 
XXIV e 

IV b 

XIV a 

XI e 

IX g 

Xa 

XXI f 

XVII c 

XI g 

XXV kk 



Cuttle-fish Ill 50 



Dace 

Damsel-Fly 

Dead Man's Fingers . 
Death's Head Hawk- 
moth 

Death- Watch .... 

Deer 

Devil's Coach-Horse . 

Dipper 

Dog 

Dog-Tick 

Dolphin 

Dormice 

Dorse 

Dove, Rock 

— , Stock 

— , Turtle 



in 14 XVIIh 
ni3(i XXIV j 
in 62 XXX e 



ni 26 

III 20 
118 

III 18 
II 9 
I 11 

III 44 
122 
114 

III 12 
1114 
II 14 
II 14 



XXVI n 
XXIV s 



xne 

IX c, d 

xxni n 

XXX b 

xnif 

XX a 
XXI a 
XXI e 



Name Part Page 

Dragonflies . . .Ill 36 

Dragon, Flying . . Ill 5 

— , S'ea .'■. . . Ill 15 

Drill 16 

Dromedary 117 

Duck-bill ' I 24 

Duck, Eider II 20 

- - , Harlequin 1120 

- , Pintail .... II 20 

- , Wild II 20 

Dugong 121 

Dung-Beetle Ill 19 



Plate Fig. 

Vf 
Xlld 



XV b 

XXIX c 

XXIX d 
XXIX h 
XXIX f 

XXIV b 



Eagle, Golden .... II 3 II a 

— , Harpey .... II 4 

Owl .' II 5 Va 

Ray . . . in 16 Xa 

, Serpent .... II 4 lie 

, White-tailed . II 3 lib 

Eared Owl II 5 Vb 

Ear-shell Ill 51 XXI 

Earth-worm ... Ill .55 X.XVIIIi 

Earwig Ill 38 XXIVd 

Edible Crab IlI46XXVnh 

— Frog Ill 7 Vnd 

— Snail . . . . in 52 XXI s 
Eel III13 XII f 

— , Electric Ill 63 XII e 

— Pout Ill 12 XIII h 

Egyptian Vulture .113 la 

Eider Duck II 20 XXIX c 

Electric Eel Ill 13 XII e 

Elephant 115 XVI b 

— Hawk-moth III 25 XXVI i 

Elk 118 XIXc 

Emerald Moth, Blot- 
ched Ill 29 

Emperor Moth, Tau IH 27 XXVI d 

Ermine 112 

Eyed Hawkmoth , . Ill 25 XXVI f 



Name 

Fox 

— , Arctic .... 

Fresh-water Mussels 
Polype 



Falcon, Chanting 

— , Peregrine 
Fallow Deer . 
Fan-tail Pigeon 
Fer-de-Lance 
Ferret .... 
Field Cricket 
Fieldfare . . . 
Field-Mouse . 

— Long 
Fire-crested W 
Fishes .... 
Fish-hawk . . 
Fishing Frog . 
Flamingo . . . 
Flat-fishes 

Flea 

Flies 

Flower Flies . 
Fluke, Liver . 
Flying Dogs . 

— Dragon 

— Fish . 

— Foxes 

— Gurnard 

— Lemur 
Forest P'ly . . 
Fowl, domestic 



tailed 



II 5 
II 5 

I IS 
1114 

in 4 

112 

in 39 

II 10 

115 

115 

nil 

III 9 
II 4 

in 10 

ni9 

in 12 

ni 35 XXIII n 

insi 

III 34 

ni57XXVIIIn 
I 8 



IV e 

IV a 

XXI a 

XX e 

Vic 
XXIV g 

xnib 
xni f 
xnii 



Illc 

XI b 

XXV a 



ni 5 
in 12 

I 8 

ini2 

I 7 

III 34 

II 15 



V f 
XVI e 

XIV 1 
IV f 

XXII h 



Part, Page 

111 
111 

11153 
111 61 
III 47 
111 64 



— Shrimp . 

-— Sponge . 

Fritillary, Queen of 

Spain . . Ill 24 
— , Silver-washed 11124 

Frog, Edible Ill 7 

— , Tree Ill 7 

Fruit-eating Bat ... IS 



PI .-1(0 Fig. 

Xb 



XXX d 

xxvno 



XXV c 

XXV b 

VII d 

VII e 



Gad-Flies Ill 32 

Gail-Flies HI 22 

Gall-Gnats HI 31 

Gamma Moth .... Ill 28 XX.VI p 

Garden Slug . Ill 52 XXI p 

— .Spider III 43 XXllI i 

— Warbler ... II 10 XVII e 

Garfish Ill 12 XIX i 

Gazelle 119 XXII c 

Genet 110 Va 

Ghost Moth Ill 26 XXVI a 

Gibbon, Whitc-haniled 15 Ic 

Gipsy Moth in 28 XXVI i 

Giraffe 119 XXII a 

Glacier Flea Ill 38 

Glow-worm Ill 20 XXIV t 

Glutton 113 XII a 

Gnat Ill 31 XXni a 

Goatsucker 11 13 XIX d 

Goby, Black HI 10 XIV i 

Gold Beetle III18 XXIV 1 

— Fish nii3 xvnii 

Golden Apple Beetles III 21 

— Crested Wren II 11 XVHIb 

— Eagle II 3 Ua 

— Oriole . ■ . II 9 XI d 

— Pheasant ... II 15 XXHIb 

Goldfinch n 12 XVI a 

Goosander II 20 XXX a 

Goose, Bean . ... B 20 XXIX a 

— , Bill Ill .54 XXll 1 

— , Brent .... II 20 XXIX b 

— , Grey n 20XXVlllh 

Gorilla 15 

Goshawk 11 4 III e 

Gossamer Spiders . . Ill 43 
Grasshoppers HI 39 

Grass Moths HI 30 

Grass Parrakeet ... H 6 

Grayling HI 14 XI Xe 

Great Anteater . . . 122 XV a 

- Auk II 21 XXXe 

— Bird of Paradise II 9 XI b 

— Black - backed 

Gull II 19 xxvn f 

-^ Bustard. . . . H 16 XXIV a 

-- Crested Grebe H 20 XXX b 

— Green Grass- 
hopper . . . . 11139 XXIVd 

— Grey Shrike . n 13 Via 

— Horse-shoe Bat 18 IV e 

— Kalong .... 18 IV a 
Nothern Diver II 20 XXX c 

— Peacock Moth 11127 XXVI c 

— Pipefish .... ni 15 Xnb 

— Reed Warbler 1111 XVIHe 

— Scarlet Macaw II 6 VI d 



Ill 



Great Spotted Wood- 
pecker .... 11 

— Titmouse ... II 

— Water-Beetle . Ill 

— Water Newt . Ill 
Grebe, Great Crested II 
Greek Partridge ... II 

Greenfinch II 

Green Monkey .... I 

— Oak-Tortrix . . Ill 
Silver-linesAIoth, 

III 

III 

III 

II 

II 

III 

I 

III 



Part Page Plate Fig. 



7 
11 

18 
8 
20 
15 
12 
6 
30 



Vllf 

XIX a 

XXIV p 

VI b 

XXX b 

XXII f 

XIV d 

lib 



Scarce 

— Tiger Beetle 

— Turtle . . . . 

— Woodpecker 
Grey Goose . . 

■ — Gurnard . 

Greyhound 

Grey Mullet 



30 XXVI t 

18 XXIV n 

6 VIII b 

6 VII e 

20XXVnih 



Parrot II 

Griffin Vulture . .II 

Grosbeak, Pine II 

Ground Mites . Ill 

— Beetles . Ill 

Grouse, Black . . II 

Gudgeon Ill 

Guillemot, Black . . II 
Guinea Fowl . .II 

- Pig ... I 

— Worm .... Ill 
Gull, Black-headed . II 

— , Great Black- 

backed ... II 

— , Herring II 
Gurnard, Flying . . Ill 

— , Grey ... Ill 



12 
11 
11 
G 
o 
11 
43 
18 
15 
14 
21 
16 
14 



XIV k 

iXc 

XV i 

Vila 

lb 

XI Vb 



XXII b 
XVIIIf 
XXX d 
XXII g 
XII f 
56XXVIlIq 
19 XXVII e 



19 XXVIlf 
19 XXVII g 

12 XIV 1 
12 XIV k 



Haddock Ill 12 XIII e 

Hair-streak Butterfly, 

Brown 11124 XX p 

Hake Ill 12 XIII b 

Halibut Ill 12 XV c 

Hammer-headed Shark IIi;i6 IX b 

Hamster 114 XIII b 

Hanuman Monkey . . I 5, 6 

Hare 115 XlVa 

— , Alpine . . 115 XIV b 
Harlequin Duck . . . II 20 XXIX d 

Harp Shell Ill 52 XX s 

Harpy Eagle II 4 

Harrier, Montogu's II 4 Ilia 

Harvest Man Ill 42 

Hawfinch II 12 XIV e 

Hawk-Moths . ... Ill 25 

Hawk's Bill Turtle . Ill 6 VIII c 

Heart-Urchin Ill 58 

Hedgehog IB Xc 

— , Sea. . . . 11115 Xlg 

Hercules Beetle . . . Ill 19 

Hermit Crab Ill 46 XXVIlf 

Heron II 17 XXVe 

— , Night II 17 XXVI a 

— , Purple .... II 17 XXV f 
Herring . Ill 13 XVI f 

— Gull II19XXVIIg 

Hessian Fly Ill 31 

Hill Mina II 9 XI f 

Hind 118 

Hinnies 116 

Hippopotomus .... 117 XVII b 



Name Part Page Plate Fig. 

Hobby II 5 IV b 

Honey Bee Ill 23 XXV s 

Hooded Crow ... II 8 Xa 

Hoopoe II 7 VIII f 

Hornbill, Two-horned II 7, 8 

Horned Trunk-Fish . Ill 15 XI f 

Hornet Ill 23 XXVr 

— Fly Ill .32 

Horny Sponges ... Ill 64 

Horrid Rattlesnake . Ill 3 lb 

Horse 116 XXVII a 

— Leech .... III56XXVIIIm 
Horse-shoe Bats ... 18 
House Cricket .... Ill 39 XXIV f 

— Fly Ill 34 XXIII k 

- Martin .... II 13 XIX b 

Sparrow ... II 12 XV c 

— Spiders . . . Ill 43 
Howling Monkeys . . 16 
Humble Bees .' . , . Ill 23 
Humming-bird Hawk- 
moth 11126 X.XVIo 

Humming Bird, Little II 8 IX b 
Hunting Spiders ... HI 42 

Hysena, Spotted . . I 10 IX b 

— , Striped . . II L\a 

Ibex 120 XXIVd 

Ibis, Sacred II 18 XXVIe 

Ichneumon 110 

— ■, Swamp . 1 10 Vb 

— Flies . . 11122 
Ictcrine Warbler. . . II 10 XVII g 

Iguana Ill 5 Yd 

Impeyan Pheasant. . II 15 .XXIII e 

Insect Mites Ill 43 

Insects Ill 17 

Itch Mites Ill 44 

Jacana 11 18 XXVIId 

Jackal Ill Xa 

Jackdaw II 8 Xb 

Jaguar 110 VII d 

Jav II 8 Xc 

Jellyfish Ill 60, 61 

Jerfalcon II 5 Hid 

Jersey Tiger moth .11128 XXVI 1 

John Dory Hill XV a 

Jumping Spiders ... Ill 43 

Kalong, Great .... 18 IVa 

Kangaroo 123 Xlla 

Kestrel II 5 IV c 

King Crab HI 45 XXVII b 

Kingfisher II 7 Vllld 

Kite II 4 II d 

Klippspringer 119 XXI d 



Lace-winged Fly . . HI 36 

Lackey Moth .... Ill 27 

Lady-Bird, Seven-spot HI 21 

Lammergeyer .... II 3 

Lampern Ill 16 

— , Small . . . in 16 
Lamprey Ill 16 

— , Mud . . Ill 16 

Lamp Shells 11154 

Lancelot HI 16 

Land Crab HI 46 

— Tortoise ... HI 5 



XXIV m 

XXVI f 

XXIV z 

Id 

Xe 

Xf 

Xd 

Xg 



XXVII g 
VHIb 



Name 


Part Page 


Plate Fig. 


Lantern Fly . . . 


HI 41 


XXV gg 


Lappet Moth ... 


III 27 


XXVIe 


Lapwing 


II 18 


XXVI h 


Large Tortoise -shel 






Butterfly 


HI 24 


XXV g 


Lark, Crested . 


II 9 


XHc 


- , Sky . . 


II 9 


XHa 


— , Wood . , . 


II 9 


XII b 


Laugher Pigeon . . 


II 14 


XXI d 


Lazuline Sabre-wing 


II 8 


IX d 


Leech 


HI 56 XXVIII 1 


Lemur, Flying . . . 


I 7 


IV f 


Leopard 


I 9 


VIHa 


Lesser Grey Shrike 


II 13 


Vic 


— Spotted Wood 






pecker 


II 7 


VII g 


Lice 


HI 41 




— , Bird 


HI 38, 


42 


Lilac Beauty .... 


HI 29 


XXVI u 


Limpet 


HI 51 


XX i 


Ling 


HI 12 

ni3 


XHIc 


Linnet 


XVI c 


Lion 


I 9 
110 


Vila 


— , American . . . 


VHIb 


— Tamarin .... 


I 7 


Hid 


Lioness 


I 9 


VHb 


Little Bittern .... 


ni7 


XXVI b 


— Humming Bird 


II 8 


IX b 


— Owl 


II 5 


Ve 


Liver Fluke . . 


HI57XXVIIIU 


Lizard, Sand 


in 5 


Vb 


— , Wall ... . 


HI 5 


Vc 


Llama 


118 


XIX a 


Loach 


IH13 


XVI a 


Lobster 


IH46XXVnd 


— , Spiny .... 


HI 46 XXVII e 


Locusts 


HI 39 




Loir 


114 


XHIe 


Long-eared Bat . . . 


I 8 


IV d 


Long-horned Beetle . 


HI 21 




Long-horn Moth . . . 


HI 30 




Long-tailedFieldMouse 1 15 


XHIi 


— Titmouse 


Hll 




Loris, Slender .... 


I 7 




Lugworm 


IH55XXVIIIg 


Lump Fish 


HI 10 


XI a 


Lynx 


110 


VIHc 



Macaw, Great Scarlet 

Mackerel 

Madrepores 

Magpie 

— Moth .... 

Maki 

Man 

Manatee 

Mandrill 

Marabou Stork . . . 
Marbled White Butterfly 

Marmoset 

Marmot 

Marsh Titmouse . 
Marten, Beech .... 

— , Pine ..... 
Martin, House .... 

— , Sand 

Mayfly 

Meadow Brown But- 
terfly 

Mealworm Beetle . . 



II 6 
Hill 
HI 63 

II 8 
m29 

I 7 



VI d 
XIV e 



Xg 
XXVI w 

nie 

I 3(Frontisp.) 
I21XXVIIIe 
I 6 lid 

II 17 XXV d 
in 24 XXV k 
I 7 
114 

nil 

112 
112 

ni3 
ni3 

HI 36 



in 24 

III 20 



XIII c 
XIX e 
Ve 
Vd 
XIX b 
XIX c 

XXIV k 

XXV m 
XXIV o 



IV 



Name 

Merino Sheep .... 
MiddleSpoltedWood- 

pecker 

Migratory Locust . . 

Millepedes 

Minnow 

Missel Thrush .... 
Mississippi Alligator . 

Mites 

Mitre shell 

Mole 

— Cricket 

— Rat 

Monitor, Nile 

Monkey, Green . . . 

— , Hanuman . 
Montagu's Harrier . . 

Moths 

Mouflon 

Mountain Finch . . . 

Mouse . . , 

Mudfish 

Mud Lamprey . . . . 
Mulberry Silkworm 

Moth 

Mules 

Mullet, Grey 

— , Red 

Mungoose 

Mushroom Corals . . 
Musk Deer 

— Ox 

Musquash 

Mussel 

— , Fresh-water . 

— , Pearl 

Mute Swan 

Narwhal 

Natterjack Toad . , . 
Nautilus, Paper . . . 
— , Pearly . . . 
Newt, Great Water . 
Nicobar Pigeon . . . 

Night Heron 

Nightingale 

Nile Monitor ...'.. 
Noah's Ark Shell . . 

Noctule 

Nutcracker 

Nuthatch 

Nut-weevil 



r.irt P.ige ri.i(e Fig. 

. 121 XXVI d 



II 7 
III 40 
III 44 
III 14 

II 10 

III 4 

III 4:! 

Ill 52 

I U 

Iii:i9 

11.5 

III 4 

I G 



I 

II 



III 25 

121 

II 12 

114 

III 10 

iiiif; 



villa 
XXIV h 

XVIII c 

XIII a 

IV a 

XX t 

XXIV e 
XIII k 

Jib 
6 

Ilia 

XXVI a 
XV e 
Xlllg 

Xg 



N.ime 



Owl, Eared 

— , Little 

Oxen . . . 

Oyster . . 



Pait Tnge rialc Fig. 

, II 5 

, II 5 

119 

, III 53 



Vb 

Ve 

XXI d 



III 27 
1 16 

mil 

mil 

no 

III 6.-? 

IIS 

120 

115 

III 53 

III 53 

111.53 



XV i 
XV g 



XIX b 

XXIII c 

XIV e 

XXI h 

XXI e 
II 20 XXVIII f 



122 

III 7 

111.50 

III 50 

III S 

II 14 

II17 

II 10 



III 

III 

I 

II 
II 



4 
■)3 

8 

8 
7 



XXX a 

VII b 
XX e 

XX a, b 

VI b 

XX f 

XXVI a 

XVII a 

XXI g 
IVc 
Xd 

VIII c 



Pale Clouded Yellow 

Butterfly 

Panther 

Paper Nautilus .... 
Parrakeet, Alexandrine 

— , Grass . . . 

Parrot, Grey 

Partridge 

— , Greek . . . 

— , Red-legged 
Passenger Pigeon . . 
Patagonian Penguin . 
Peacock 

Butterfly . . 

— Moth, Great 

Pea-Weevil 

Pearl Mussel 

Pearly Nautilus . . . 

Pelican, 

Penguin, Patagonian . 
Pepper and Salt Moth 
Perch 

— , Climbing . . . 

— , Pike .'.... 
Peregrine Falcon 
Petrel, Stormy . . - 
Pheasant 

— , Argus . . , 

— , Golden . . 

— , Impeyan . . 

— , Silver . . 

Piddock 

Pig 

Pigeon, Crowned . . 

, Fan-tail . . . 
. Laugher . . 
, Nicobar . . 

— , Passenger . . 

— , Pouter . . . . 

— , Tern 

— , Trumpeter . 

— , Tumbler . . 



Pnrt Page Dale Fit:. 

Ill 2(1 XXVI 1 
XXVI a 
VI c 



III 28 

III 8 

II 14 



III 25 



I 
III 
II 
II 
II 



II 15 

II 15 

II 15 

II 14 

1121 

1115 

11124 

III 27 

11121 

III .53 

III 50 



XXVI b 

Villa 

XXe 

Vie 

Vila 

XXII d 

XXII f 

XXII e 

XXI c 

XXX g 

XXlIId 

XXV e 

XXVI c 

XXI e 
XX a, b 



IllOXXVIIIe 



1121 
III 29 
III 10 

mil 
mil 

II 5 



Oak-apple 

Oil Beetle 

Oleander Hawk-moth 

Onion Fly 

Opelet 

Opossum 

Orang-utan 

Oriole, Golden . . . 

Ortolan 

Osprey 

Ostrich 

— , American . . 
Otter 

— , Sea 

Owl, Barn 

— , Brown 



Eagle 



III 21 

11122 
11120 
11125 

lli:)4 
m 62 

123 

I 5 
II 9 
II 12 
II 4 
1116 
II 16 

113 
113 

II 5 
II 5 
II 5 



XXIV 
XXVI 



XXX n 

XII c 

lb 

XI d 

XIV g 

IIIc 

XXIV c 

XXIV d 

VI f 

VI g 

Vd 

Vc 

Va 



— Perch ..... 

Pill Beetles 

Pine Grosbeak . . . . 

— Marten 

Pintail Duck 

Pipefish, Great . . . . 

Plaice 

Plant-lice 

Plume-Moth, Twenty 

— , White . 

Pointer 

Polar Bear 

Polecat 

Polj'pe, Fresh water 
Pomerine Skua . . . 
Poplar Hawk-Moth . 

Porcupine 

PortugueseMan-of-\V 
Poultry Louse . . . 
Pouter Pigeon . . . 

Prawn 

i Praying Insects . . 



XXX g 

XVd 
XIV h 
XV e 
IV a 
II 19 XXVII c 
II 15 

XXIII c 

XXlIIb 

XXIII e 

XXIlIa 

XXII g 

XVII c 

XXI f 

XX e 

XXI d 

XX f 

XXI c 

XXI b 

XX d 

XX b 

X.Kc 

XIX h 

XV e 



1115 
II 15 
II 15 

II 15 
11154 

I 17 

II 14 
1114 
II 14 
II 14 
II 14 
1114 
11 14 
11 11 
11 14 

m 15 

III 11 

m 19 
nil 

112 
II 20 

III 15 
111 12 
11141 
Ul.jn 
11130 

111 

112 

112 

11161 



XlVb 

Vd 

XXIX h 

XII b 

XV b 



Privet Hawk-Moth . 
Processionary Moth 

Proteus 

Ptarmigan II 14 XXlIa 

Puffin II 21 XXX r 

Puma Ill VIII b 

Purple Emperor But- 
terfly Ill 24 XXV i 

— Heron ... II 17 X.XV f 
Python Ill 2 

Quagga inXXVlId 

Quail II 14 XXI g 

Oueen of .Spain Fri- 

"tiUary 11124 XXV c 



Rabbit 

Raccoon 

Rat, Black 

— , Brown 

Rattlesnake 

Raven 

Ray, Eagle 

Razor-Shell 

Red Admiral Butterfly 
Red-backed .Shrike 
Red Coral 

— Deer 

— Howler 

--- Legged Partridge 

— Mullet 

— Scorpion fish . . 

— Slug 

Redstart 

Red Underw'ing Moth 

Reeve 

Reindeer 

Reptiles 

Rhea 

Rhinoceros 

— Beetle . . 

Ring Ou^el 

River Horse 

— Tortoise .... 

Roach 

Robin 

Rock Dove 

— Shell 

— Snake 

Roe Deer 

Roller Bird 

Rook 

Rose Chafer 

Rove Beetles 

Ruby-tail Flies . . . . 

Rudd 

Ruft" 

Ruffe 



IX d 

XI c 

Vf 

XXX d 



II19XXVIIIb 
III 25 XXVI g 
XII e 
XXIX t 



114 

irn!61 

IU42 

II 14 

III 46 

, 11139 



XXI b 



Sable 

Sacred Beetle . . . 

— Ibis 

St. Mark's Fly .... 
Salamander, Spotted 
Salmon 11114 

— Trout . . 

Sandflies 

Sand Lizard . . . 

Sand-Martin II13 

Sawfish .... 



115 


XIVc 


112 


XI d 


115 




115 


Xlllh 


III 3 


lb 


II 8 


IX e 


III 16 


Xa 


11154 


XXII f 


III 24 


XXV d 


1113 


VI b 


m(;2 


XXX k 


118 


XX b 


I 6 


Ilia 


II 15 


XXII e 


mil 


XVl; 


mil 


XIV d 


111.52 


XXI o 


1110 


XVllId 


11129 


XXVI r 


11 IS 




lis 


XX a 


III 1 




11 16 


XXIV d 


116 


XVI a 


III 19 


XXIV a 


IIIO 


Xlllc 


1 17 


XVl lb 


111 li 


VIII d 


11114 


XvKe 


II 10 


XVlli.i 


1114 


XX a 


III 52 


XXI a 


III 2 




119 


XXI b, c 


II 9 


XI a 


II 8 


IX f 


11120 


XXIV h 


111 18 




III 22 




11114 


XVll d 


11 IS XX VII a 


mil 


XV f 


I 12 


VI d 


11119 


XXIV d 


Ills 


XXVI e 


III 32 




111 8 


Via 


11114 


XVlllk 


11114 


XIX a 


III 32 




III 5 


Vb 


1113 


XIX c 


niiG 


IX c 



V 



Kaino Tart Page Tlato Fig. 

Saw-flies Ill 22 

Scale Insects Ill 41 

Scallop Ill 53 XXI b 

Scaly Anteater, Tem- 

minck's 123 XV c 

Scarce Copper But- 
terfly .... Ill 24 XXV o 
— Green Silver- 
lines Moth . Ill 30 XXVI t 
Swallow - tail 
Butterfly . . . Ill 25 XXV r 

Scorpion III42 XXIII d 

— , Book . . Ill 42 XXIII e 

Scorpion-fish, Red . Ill 1 1 XIV d 
Scorpion Flies .... Ill 35 

ScotchArgusButtcrllv HI 24 XXVI 

Scoter, Velvet . . . '. 1120 XXIX e 
Sea Anemones .... Ill 62 

— Bear IlSXXVlllb 

— Cow I21XXVIIIe 

— Cucumbers ... Ill 59 

— Dragon III15 XII d 

— Hare Ill 51 XX h 

— Hedgehog .... Ill 15 XI g 

— Horse 11115 Xll c 

Seal IiaXXVIlIa 

Sea Lion I13XXVIIIc 

— Mouse III55XXVIIIb 

Pen Ill 62 XXX f 

Snakes Ill 3 

- Urchins Ill 58 

Secretary Bird .... II 3 le 

Serpent Eagle .... II 4 lie 

Seven-spot Lady-bird 11121 XXIV z 

Shark III16 IX a 

— , Hammer-headed III 16 IX b 
Sheep 121 XXVI b, 

— Fly Ill 33 [c, d 

— Tick Ill 34 

Shieldrake, Common . II 20 XXIX g 

Ship-worm Ill 54 XXII h 

Shrew-mouse IS X d 

Shrike, Great Grey . II 13 Via 

— , Lesser Grey II 1 3 VI c 

— , Red-backed . II 13 VI b 
Shrimp Ill 46 

— , Brine .... Ill 4S XXVlIt 

— , Fresh- water III 47 XXVIlo 

Siamang 15 Id 

Siliceous Sponges . . Ill 64 
Silk-worm Moth, Ai- 

lanthus Ill 27 

Silk-worm Moth, Mul- 
berry Ill 27 

Silver Pheasant ... II 15 XXIIIa 

— Fish Ill 38 

Silver- washed Fritillary III 24 XX V b 
Silver Y Moth ... 11128 XXVI p 

Siren Ill 8 VI d 

Sir Joseph Banks' 

Cockatoo II 6 VI f 

Siskin II 13 XVId 

Six-spot Burnet Moth III 26 XXVI v 
Skate, Thornback . . Ill 16 Xc 

Skippers Ill 25 

Skunk 112 Vie 

Sky-lark II 9 XII a 

Slender Loris .... 17 

Sloth, Three-toed . . 122 XV e 

Slugs Ill 52 



Name 

Small Lampern . . . 

— Skipper . . . . 
Small Tortoise - shell 

Butterfly. . . . 

Smelt 

Snake, Black -backed 
Sea 

— , Common . . . 

— , Hooded . . . 

— , Rock 

-- , Spectacle . . . 
~ , Whip 

Snake-Flies 

Snakes 

Snipe 

Snow Bunting . . . 

— Finch 

— VVhitethroat 

Song Thrush 

Sparrow 

— Hawk .... 
Speckled Yellow Moth 

Spider Crab 

Spiders 

Spiny Ant-eater . . . 

— Lobster .... 

Sponges 

Spotted Salamander . 

Spring-tails 

Spurge Hawk-moth . 

Squirrel 

Squirrel-Monkey . . . 

Stag 

Stag-Beetle 

Starfishes 

Star-gazer 

Starling 

Sterlet 

Stick Insects 

Stickleback 

Stoat 

Stock Dove 

Stone-flies 

Stork 

— , Black 

— , Marabou . . . 
Stormy Petrel .... 

Sturgeon 

Sucking Fish 

Sunfish 

Surinam Toad .... 
Swallow 

— Mite 

— , Sea 

Swallow-Tail Butterfly 

— , Scarce . 
Swallow-tail Moth . . 
Swan, Mute 

— , Wild 

Swine 

Sword-fish 

Taguan 

Tamarin, Lion .... 

Tape-worms 

Tapir 

Tau Emperor Moth . 

Tench 

Termites, orWhiteAnts 
Tern, Common . . . 



Pait Page 

III 16 
III 25 

III 24 
III 14 



3 
2 
3 
2 
3 
3 



III 

III 

III 
III 
III 
III 

III 35 
III 2 

II 18 

II 12 

II 12 

1110 

II 10 

II 12 

II 5 
11129 

11146 XXVIIe 
III 42 

124 
III 46 XXVII e 
III 63 

III 8 Via 
III 38 
III 25 

114 

I 6 

118 
III 19 



III'c 
lie 
Ilia 

Ilia 



XXVI g 

XVb 

XV f 

XVII f 

XII f 

XV c 

IV d 



XXVI k 

Xllld 

Illc 

XX b 

XXIV i 



Ticks 

Tiger 

— Beetle, Green 

— Moth .... 
- , Jersey .... 

Titmouse, Blue . . . 

— , Cole. . . . 

— . CresteJ . . 
, Great . . . 

, Long-tailed 
. Marsh . . 



11158,59 

mil 

11 9 
III 16 
III 39 

mil 

112 

II 14 
III 36 
II 17 
1117 
II 17 



Xlc 

XIV c 

XII a 

VII c 

XIX a 



11115 

mil 

III 15 
III 7 

II 13 
III 44 

II19XXVIIIa 
III 25 XXV q 
III 25 XXV r 
11129 

lI20XXVIIIf 

ir20XXVIIIa 
117 XVII c 



riate Fig. Name Part Pag> 

Xf Tern Pigeon II 14 

XXVI d Theban Goat .... 120 
Thornback Skate . . 11116 
XXV h Thread-worms .... Ill 56 
XIX g Three-toed Sloth . . 122 

Thursh, Blue II 10 

— , Missel .... II 10 
Song .... II 10 

Ill 44 

19 

III 18 
III 28 
III 28 

nil 
nil 

111! 

nil 
nil 
nil 

Toad Ill 7 

— , Natterjack ... Ill 7 

— , Surinam .... Ill 7 
Toilet Sponge .... Ill 64 

Torpedo Ill 16 

Tortoise, Land .... Ill 5 

— , River ... Ill 6 
Tortoise-shell Butter- 
fly, Large 11124 

Tortoise-shell Butter- 
fly, Small Ill 24 

Touean, Ariel .... II 6 
Trap-door Spiders . . Ill 42 

Tree-creeper II 7 

Tree Frog Ill 7 

Trepang Ill 59 

Trilobites Ill 45 

Trout Ill 14 

— , Lake Ill 14 

— , Salmon .... Ill 14 
Trumpeter Pigeon . . II 14 
Tufted Coquette ... II 8 
Tumbler Pigeon ... II 14 

Tunny Hill 

Turkey II 16 

Turtle Dove II 14 

Turtle, Green .... Ill 6 

— , Hawk's Bill . Ill 6 
Twenty-plume Moth . Ill 30 
Two-horned Hornbill 



XIII a 

Xlld 

XI e 



XIV g 

VI b 

XXI a 

XXV b 
XXV c 
XXV d 



II19XXV111C 



mil 



XII: 



123 

I 7 
III 57, 

116 

III 27 

III 13 

III 37 

II 19 XX Villa 



Hid 
58 

XVII a 

XXVI d 

XVI i 



' Pla(c ?\z 

XX d 

XXV d 

Xc 

XV e 
XlHd 
XIII a 

XII f 

VHc 

XXIV n 
XXVI k 

XXVI 1 
XIX b 
XIX c 
XIX d 
XIX a 

XIX e 
Vila 
VHb 
VHc 

Xb 
VIHb 
VIII d 

XXV g 

XXV h 

VHc 

IX a 
VHe 



XVIII 1 

XIX c 
XIX a 

XX b 
IX c 

XX c 

XIV f 

XXIII f 

XXI e 

vnia 

VIII c 



II 7, 8 



Unicorn Hawk - moth HI 26 XXVI m 



I 8 IVb 
II 20 XXIX e 



Vampire Bat ... 
Velvet Scoter . . 

Vine Aphis HI 41 XXVoo 

Vinegar Eel Ill 57 

Venus's Fan HI 62 XXX i 

— Flower Basket HI 64 XXX t 

Viper HI 3 lib 

Voles 115 

Vulture, Bearded ,. II 3 Id 

— . Egyptian . . II 3 la 

— , Griffin . . . n 3 lb 

Wall Lizard HI 5 Vc 

Walrus I13XXVIIId 

Warbler, Blue-throated HIO XVII b 

— , Garden ... HIO XVII c 

— , Great Reed . Hll XVIllo 

— , Icterine , . , HIO XVII g 
^ , White-throated II 10 XVHd 



VI 



Name 

Wasps 

Water-Beetles . . . 

— Boatman . 

— Flea ... 

— Hen . . 

— Mites . . 

— Scorpion 

— Shrew . 

— Snail . 

— Spider 

— Wagtail . 

Weasel 

Weevils 

Wentle-Traps 
Whale, Greenland . 

— Louse . . . 

— , Sperm . . . 
Wheel Animalcul.L- 

— Bugs . . , 

Whinchat 

Whip Snake . . . . 
Whirligig Beetles . 



Part Page Plale Fig 

III 23 
11118 

III 40 XXV ce 
III 48 XXVllv 
IllSXXVIIb 
III 43 
III 40 XXV dd 

I 'J Xe 

Iliry2 XXI k 
III 43 
III! 

112 Via 

11121 
III ry2 XXp, q 

122 XXIX a 
11147 XXVII n 

122 XXIX b 
III 85 

III 40 XXVbb 
nil XVlllf 
III 3 
III 18 



or 



Ter- 



Name 

White Ants, 

mites 

White-handed Gibbon 
White Plume Moth 
White-tailed Eagle 
White-throat . ." . . 
:— , Snow 

White Wagtail . . . 
Wild Boar ... 

^ Cat 

— Duck 
Swan . 
Winter Moth . 
Wire-worms 
Wolf . . . 
Woir-Fish . 
Wolverine 
Wood Ant 
Woodcock 
Woodlark 
Wood-Leopard Moth 
Wood-Lice 



Part Page Plate Fig. 



Ill 
I 

III 

II 

II 

11 

II 

I 

I 

II 

II 

III 

III 

I 

III 

I 

III 

II 

II 

111 

III 



5 
30 



Ic 



!Ib 
XVll d 
XVIIf 
XVIlIg 
XVII d 
VIII d 
XXIX f 
20XXVIIIg 
30 XXVI X 
20 

1 1 IX e 

XII h 
XII a 

XXV o 

XXVI f 
XII b 

XXVI b 



Name Part Page 

Woodpecker, Black . II 6 

— , Great Spotted II 7 

— , Green ... II 6 

— , Lesser Spotted II 7 
-- , Middle Spotted II 7 

Wood Wasps . Ill 22 

Woolly Bear . . Ill 28 

Worms III 54 

Wrasse . 11112 

Wren II 11 

— , Pire-crested . II 11 

— , Golden-crested II 11 
Wryneck II 7 

Yellow-crested Cocka- 
too II 6 

Yellow Hammer ... II 12 

— Underwing Moth 11128 

— Wagtail .... nil 



Plate Fig. 

VII d 

VII f 
vile 
VII g 
Villa 



XV h 
XVIlIe 

XVIII b 
VIII b 



VII b 

XIV f 

XXVI s 

XVIII h 



Zebra 
Zebu 



117 XXVlIc 
120 XXIII d 



-^^% 



■:3:^- 



GENERAL INDEX OF LATIN NAMES TO THE THREE PARTS OF THE WORK. 



Abramis blicca . . . . Ill 14 

— ■ brama III 13 

— ■ vunba . . . Ill 14 

Abraxas grossulariata 111 29 

— ulmata . . . Ill 29 

Acalepha IIIGl 

Acantha'-tauriis pur- 

purascens Ill (ili 

Acanthocephali .... Ill 57 

Acanthocinus iudilis . 11121 

Acanthopterygii . . . Ill 10 

Acarina Ill 43 

Accipiter Nisus ... II 5 

Accipitres II 3 

Acerina ccrnua . . . Ill 1 1 

Acherontia atropos . Ill 2(i 

Acipenserid^e Ill 15 

Acipenser huso. . . . Ill 15 

— ruthenus . Ill 16 

— sturio . . . Ill 15 
Acrocephalus arundi- 

naceus II 1 1 

Acrocladia mamillata 11158 

Actinaria Ill 62 

Actinia mesembryan- 

themum 1111)3 

Adela Dcgeerella. Ill 30 

/Cgeria apilormis . . Ill 20 

y^geriidse lU 26 

yEschna cyanea ... Ill 37 

Aglia Tan Ill 27 

Aglossida; Ill 7 

Agrion puella .... Ill 36 

Agriotes segetis ... Ill 20 

Alauda arborea ... II 9 



XVllI h 


Alauda arvensis 


. . II 9 


Xlla 


XVll a 


— cristata 


. . II 9 


Xllc 


XVIII d 


Alaudidae .... 


. . II 9 




XXVI w 


Alca iuipennis . 


. . 1121 


XXX e 




Alcedinidae . . . 


. . 11 7 






Alcedo hispida . 


. . II 7 


VIII d 




Alces malchis 


. . 118 


XIX c 


XXII V 


Alcidae 


. . 1121 






Alcyonium palma 


tum III 62 


XXX e 


XXlVw 


Alligator lucius 


. . Ill 4 


IV a 




Alucitae 


. . Ill 30 






Alucita hexadact} 


/la . Ill 30 




IV d 


Amara communis 


. . Ill 18 






Amblystomidas . 


. . Ill 8 




XV f 


Annnoctctes brach 


ialis III 16 


-^^' 


XXVI n 


Annnophila sabu 


losa III 22 


XXVI 




Amueba princeps 


. , III 66 


XXII zb 


XI d 


Ampelis garrula 


. . II 10 


XIII r 


XI e 


Amphibia .... 


. Ill 6 




XI c 


Amphidasis betul 


nia III 29 






Amphipoda . . . 


, III 47 




XVIIlc- 


Anabas scandens 


. . Hill 


XIV h 


XXIX b 


Anacanthini . . 


. . HI 12 






Anarrhichas lupiii 


. . HI 12 


XII h 




Anas acuta . . . 


. . II 20 


XXIX h 


XXX o 


— boschas . 


. . II 20 


XXIX f 




Androctonus occi 


ta- 




XXVI p 


nicus 


. 11142 


XXIII d 




Anguilla fluviatili." 


, . Ill 13 


XII f 




Anguillula aceti 


. . 11157 




XXVI d 


— tritici 


. . HI 57 






Anguis fragilis . 


. . HI 5 


III d 




Annelida .... 


. . I II .55 






Anobiidffi ... 


. . . 11120 




XII b 


Anobium pcrtina; 


>c . . HI 20 


XXVI s 



Anodonta anatina . Ill 53 XXI i 
Anumalon circumilex. Ill 22 XXVe 

Anoplura Ill 41 

Anoura HI 6 

Anser cinereus . . . II20XXVHIh 
Anser segetum . . . II 20 XXIX a 

Anseres II 19 

Anthea cereus .... HI 62 XXX n 
Anthomyia brassica' . HI 34 

— ceparum . HI 34 
floralis . . Ill 34 

Anthomyiina^ HI 34 

Anthozoa HI 62 

Anthrax morio ... HI 33 
Anthrocera carniolic.i HI 26 XXVI s 

— filipcndukne HI 26 XXVI r 
Anthrocerida' .... HI 26 

Anthropoidea 14 

Apatura Iris Ill 24 XXV i 

Ajihaniptera HI 35 

Aphida Ill 41 

Aphis rosa; IlUlXXVmm 

Aphodius fimetarius . HI 19 XXIV e 
Aphrodite aculeata . III55XXVIIIb 
Aphrophora spumaria HI 41 XXVkk 

Apida? Ill 23 

Apis mellifica .... HI 23 XXV s 
Aplysia dcpilans . . . Ill 51 XX h 

Apoda HI 8, 59 

Aptenodytespatagonica II 21 XXX g 

Apterygida 1116 

Apteryx australis 11 16 

Apus cancriformis . IlI48XXVIIu 
Aquila chryaetos . . II 3 II a 

Ara macao II 6 VI d 



VII 



Nanio 

Aiacbnida 

Araneida 

Area Noi\' . . 
Arctia Caja . . 

Arctiida; 

Arctiodactyla 
Arctomyida' . . 

Arctoniys mannotta 
Aidea cinerea . , 
— purpurea . 

Ardeida: 

Ardetta minuta . . 
Arenicola piscatorum 
Argonauta argo . 
Argulus foliaceus . 
Argus giganteus . . . 
Argynnis Lathonia 
— Paiihia . 
Argyroneta aquatica . 

Arion rufus 

Armadillo 

Artemia salina . . 

Arthrogastra 

Artlirostraca 

Articulata 

Arvicola arvalis . 
Arvicolida." ... 

Ascalaphidtu 

Ascaris lumbricoides 

Ascidia 

Asellus aquaticus 

Asilida' 

Asilus crabronifoniiis 

Astacidfu 

Astacus fluviatilis . . 
Asterias aurantiaca 

Asteriida.' 

Asteroidea 

Asthena luteata , 
Astur palumbarius 
Athene noctua . . 

Atlanta Peronii 
Attacus Cyntliia , 
Auchenia Llama 
Aulacostomum gulo . 

Autophagi 

Aves 

Axinella polypoides . 



Pail Pago Plalc Fig. ' 

11142 

III 42 

III 53 XXI g 

11128 XXVI k 

III 28 

117 

I 14 

114 XIIlc 
II 17 XXV e 
II 17 XXV t 
1117 

1117 XXVI b 

iiir)5xxviiig 

IIIoO XX e 
III 4.S XXVIIw 
Ilia XXIII c 
III 24 XXVc 
III 24 XXV b 
III 4:'. 

11152 XXI o 
III 47 

III 48 XXVIl t 
III 42 
III47 
III 17 

1 15 XIII f 
115 

III 36 

III 56 XX VIII r 

III 4!) 

I1I47 

III 32 

III 32 

III 45 

III 46 XX VII c 

III 59 XXIX d 

III 5<) 

III 59 

III 29 

II 4 Ille 

II 5 Ve 

III 51 XXI u 
III 27 

118 XIX a 
llIoHXXVlllm 

II 14 

II 1 
11164 XXX s 



Bala^na niysticetus . . 

Bala;nida^ 

Balanida? 

Balanus tintinnabulum 
Balaninus nucum 
Barbus vulgaris . 
Basiliscus vulgaris 
Belone vulgaris . 
Beroe ovata . . 
Bibionidai . 
Bibic) marci . 
Biloculina ringens 
Bison europa:us . 
Blatta orientalis 

Blattida' 

Blenniida' 

Blennius viviparus 
Boa constrictor . 
Bombinatorida; . . 
Bombinator igneus 
Bombus lapidarius . 



122 
121 
III 49 
III 49 
11121 
11114 
III 5 
III 12 
III 60 
III 32 
1II32 
III 66 
119. 
III38 
III 38 
III 12 
III 12 
III 2 
III 7 
III 7 
III 23 



XXIX a 



XXllIq 

XVIII g 

Vc 

XIX i 

XXIX k 



XXII z, a 
20 
XXIV b 



XIV a 
la 



XXV I 



Name 

Bombus terrestris 
Bombycida' .... 
Bombyliid;L' . . . 
Bombylius majf)r . . 
Bombyx mori 
Bon-ellia viridis . . 

Bopyrida; 

Bos indicus . . 

— longifrons . , . 

— moscliatus . . . 

— primigenius . . 

— taurus 

Bostryclnis typo- 

graphus 

Botaurus stcllaris 
Bothrioccplialu.; latu^ 
Bothrops lanceolatus 
Bourgainvillia ramos.-i 

Bovidit: 

Brachiiius crci)itnns 
I'Srachiiipoda ... 

Brachycera 

Brachyura 

Braconida* 
Bradypodida; ... 
Bradypus tridactyius 

Branchiata 

Branchiopoda ... 
Branchiostoma lan- 

ceolatum . 
Branchiiira 
Branta bcrnicla . . 
Braula cix'ca ... 

Braulida; 

Brucbus pisi . 

Bryozoa 

Bubalus vulgaris . 
Bubo maximus . . 
Buceros bicornis . 
Bucerotidas . . 

Butonid;i3 

Bufo calamita . 

— vulgaris . . 
Bulimina pupoides . 
Bulimus decollatus 

BuprestidjE 

Buteo vulgaris 
Byrrhidse . . . 
Byrrhus piluia . 

Cacatua galerita . . 
Caccabis rubra . . . 

— saxatilis . . 

Calcispongia , . 
Calirhinus ursiniis . 
Calliniorpha Hera . 
Calliphora vomitoria 
Callithrix sciurea . 
Calopteryx virgo . 
Calosoma inquisitor 

sycophanta 
Calyfitorrhynchus 

Banksii 

Cameleopardalis giraii'a 

Camelida; 

Camelus bactrianus . 
dromedarius 
Camponotus hercu- 

leanus 

Campylopterus lazulus 



*art Page Plate Fit;. 

Ill 23 

III 27 

III 33 

III 33 XXIII c 

III 27 

llI56XXVIIIn 

III 47 

120 XXIII d 

120 

120 XXIII c 

1 20 

I20XXIlIa,b 



1112! XXIV i 
II 17 XXVI c 

1II5SXXVIII7Z 

III 3, 4 

III 61 XXX c 

119 
11118 
III 54 
III 32 
III 46 
III 22 

122 

122 
III 51 
III4S 



XV e 



III l(i 
III4S 

1120 XXIX b 
III;-i4 
III 34 
III 21 
111 54 
120 

II 5 

117,8 

II 7 
HI 7 
111 7 
III 7 
III 66 
III 52 
III 20 

II 4 
111 19 
111 19 



XXIVa 
Va 



VII b 

Vila 

XXII V 

XXI r 

Illb 



Kame 

Cancer pagurus 

Canidio 

Canis aureus . . 

— domesticus 

— lupus . . 
Cantharida: . . . 
Cantharis vcsicatoria 
Capra ibex 
Caprelia spinosissima 
Caprellida- . . . 
Caprcolus caprea 
Caprimulgida; . 
Caprimulgus europani 
Caprovis argali . . 

Carabida- 

Carabus auratus . . 

— nenioralis . 
Carassius auratus . 

— carassius 
Carcharias vulgaris 
Carcliariidic . . 
Cardiuni costatum 
Caretta imbricata 
Caridinidae .... 

Carnivora 

Cassis tuberosa . 
Castor fiber . . . 
Castoridae . . 
Casuarida; ... 
Casuarius galeatus 
Cataclysta leninata 
Catarrhini .... 
Catocala tVaxini . 

— nupta 
Cavia cobaya . . . 
Caviida.' . . . . 

Cebida; 

Cebus Apella . 

— capucinus 



Cecidomyia destructor III 31, 32 



II i; VII b 
1115 XXII e 
1115 XXII f 

11164 
I13XXVIlIb 

I1I2S XXVIl 

XXIII i 
IIIc 

XXIV j 
XXIVm 



III 34 
I 7 
III:!6 
111 18 
III 18 



II 6 
119 
117 

118 
117 

III 23 

II 8 



VI f 
XXII a 

XVIIIb 
XVII a 



IX d 



CecidomyidaR 
Centrotus cornutus 
Cephalopoda .... 
Cephea jiapuensis . 
Cerambycida ... 
Ceramby.x heros . 
Ceraocrana papuana 
Ceraospongia ... 

Ceratodus 

Ceratothoa trigono- 

cephala 

Cercopida' .... 
Cercopis sanguinolcnta III 41 
Cercopithecida' 
Cercopilhecus sahxus 
Certhia fainiliaris 
Certhiida . . 
Cervida; . . 
Cervus elaphus 

Cestoda 

Cestum Veneris 

Cetacea 

Cetochilus . . . 
Cetonia aurata 
Chajtopoda . . 
Chalcophora mariana III 20 



Part Page Plate Fig 

III 46 XXVIl h 

no 



111 
111 
111 

III 20 

III 20 

120 



Xa 

IXc,d 

IX e 



XXIV u 

XXIV d 

11147XXVlIm 

11147 

119 XXI b, c 

1113 

XIX d 
XXVc 



11 13 

121 

11118 

III 18 

III 18 

III 13 

111 13 

III 16 

III 16 

III 54 

III 6 

III 46 

I 9 

III 52 

115 

115 

II 16 

1116 

III 30 

I 4 

III 29 

III 29 

114 

114 

I 6 

I 6 

I 6 



XXIV 1 

XVllI i 

XVII c 

IX a 

XXII b 
VIII c 



XXI f 
XIV d 



XXIV b 



XXVI q 

XXVI r 

XII f 



Ila 
Illb 



III 31 

III 41 XXV ii 

III 50 

III 61 XXIX ]) 

11121 

III21 

III 39 

III 64 

III 1(1 



III47 XXVIIr 
III 41 



XXV 



I 5 

I 6 

II 7 

II 7 

I 18 

118 

11157 

III 60 

121 

III 48 

III 20 

III .55 



lib 
IX a 



XX b 
XXIX 1 

XXIV 1> 

Va 



j Chaniioleo vulgaris . Ill 5 
Charadrida ..".... II 18 

{Cheimatobia brumata 11130 XXVI x 
Chelidon urbica ... 11 13 XIX b 



VIII 



Name Part Pn{;r 

Chelifcr cancroides . Ill 42 

Chelonia Ill 5 

— midas . . Ill 6 
Chilognatha ... .11144 

Chilopoda Ill 44 

Chiroptera 17 

Chiton .squamosus . . Ill 51 

Chloropina; Ill 34 

Chjerocampa Elpenor 11125 
Chondroptcrygii . . . Ill 15 
Chondrostoma nasus HI 14 

Chrysidid.t Ill 22 

Chrysis ignata ... 11122 
Chrysomelidae . . 11121 
Chrysopa perla . . . I[I.'!6 
Chrysophanu.s viigau- 

rea: ! . . III24 

Cicada orni Ill 41 

Cicadid.T Ill 41 

Cicindela campestris . Ill 18 

Cicindelidie 11118 

Ciconia alba . . II 17 

— nigra II 17 

Cimex lectularius . . Ill 40 

Cimicidix; Ill 40 

Cinclus aquaticus . . II 9 
Circaetu.s gallicus . . II 4 
Circus pygargus ... II 4 

Cirripedia Ill 48 

Citrigradse . . . Ill 42 

Cladocera Ill 48 

Cleridae 11120 

Clerus formicarius . . Ill 20 

Clio borealis 11151 

Clisiocampa neustria 11127 

Clupeida; Ill 13 

Clupea harengns . . Ill 13 

Clypeastridea 11158 

Cnethocampa proccs- 

sionca Ill 28 

Cobitis tienia Ill 13 

Coccid;E Ill 41 

Coccinellidje Ill 21 

Coccinella septcni- 

punctata 11121 

Coccothraustes cliloris II 12 
— vulgaris II 12 

Coccus Cacti Ill 41 

Coelenterata 1II5'J 

Coenurus cerebralis . 11158 
Coleophora laricclla . Ill 30 

Coleoptera Ill 17 

Colias Hyale ... .11125 

Collembola .11138 

Coiossendus gigas . . Ill 45 
Coluber /Esculapii . . HI 2 

— austriacus . . Ill 3 

— riavescens . Ill 2 

ColuH'bio II 13 

Columba livia .... II 14 



PInfp Fie 

XXIII e 
Villa 



XX k 

XXVI i 
XVIII b 
XXV k 
XXIVni 
XXV o 

XXIV n 

XXV b 
XXV c 
XXVaa 

XII e 

lie 

III a 



Name Part 

Copepoda parasita . Ill 
Copris lunaris .... Ill 
Coracias garrula ... II 
Corallum rubrum . . Ill 
Coregonus waitmanni III 

Coreidffi Ill 

Coronula balaenaris . Ill 

CorvidjE II 

Corvus corax . . .II 

— cornix . .II 
corone .... II 

— frugilegus . . II 
-- monedula . . II 

Corymorpha nutans . Ill 

Cotile ri[)aria ... II 

Cottus gobio Ill 

Coturnix communis . II 



Plate Fig. 



Pagi 

48 
19 

9 
62 
14 
40 
49XXIIIn,2 

8 



XXIV c 

XI a 

XXX k 

XIX f 



Crambus margaritellus III 
Crangon vulgaris . . Ill 
Cricetus frumentarius I 

Crinoidea Ill 

Crioceris merdigera . Ill 

Crocodilia Ill 

Crocodilus vulgaris . Ill 
Crocuta maculata . . I 
Crossopus fodiens . . I 
Crotalus durissus . Ill 
— horridus . . Ill 

Crustacea Ill 

Ctenophora Ill 

Cuculidae II 

Cuculus canorus . . II 
Culex pipiens .... Ill 

Culicidae Ill 

Cumacea Ill 

Curculionidc-E Ill 

XVI t'l Cursores II 

] Cyamidse Ill 

Cyamus ceti Ill 

XXVI g ' Cyanecula suecica . II 
XVI c Cyclas cornea . Ill 

Cyclops Ill 

Cyclopterus lumpus . Ill 

Cyclostomi 

Cydippe pileus . . 

Cygnus musicus . . 

— olor .... 



IX e 

Xa 

IX g 

IX f 

Xb 

XXX b 

XIX c 

XIV b 

XXI g 



XX f I 

XXVI f 



8 
61 
1,3 
12 
14 
30 
46 

14 Xlllb 
59 

21 XXIV V 
4 

4 IV b 
10 IX b 
9 Xe 

3 

3 lb 

44 
60 
7 

7 XI g 
31 XXIII a 
31 
47 
21 
16 
47 

47 XXVII n 
10 XVIIb 
54 XXII c 
48 

10 XI a 

16 

60 XXIX m 
20XXVIIIg 
20 XXVIlff 

Cymothoidae Ill 47 

22 
22 
(i 
49 
52 
52 
13 

13 XVI h 
48XXV11X 
57, 58 



III 

nil 
II; 
II; 



XXIV z 
XIV d 
XIV e 

XXV pp 
Cynipidse Ill 

XXVlIIz Cynips scutellaris . Ill 

1 Cynocephalus Babuin I 

Cynthia ramus ... Ill 

XXVI b Cypaera moneta . . Ill 
— tigris .... Ill 

XXVII a Cyprinida; Ill 

II d j Cyprinus carpio . . Ill 
lllajCypris fuscus .... Ill 
III b I Cysticerciis Ill 



XXV h 
lie 

XXII o 
XXI d 
XXI c 



— Nicobarica 
— ■ onnas . . 

— risoria . 
Co!ymbid;e .... 
Colymbus glacialis 

Comatula 

Conus ammiralis . 
Copepoda ... 

— ■ natantia 



II 14 

1114 

II14 

II 20 

II 20 

1115!) 

Ill 52 

III48 

III 48 



XX a-e; 

XXI b 

XX f 

XXI a 

XXI d 

XXX c 

XXI b 



Dactyloptenis volitans 
Dama vulgaris . 
Daphnia pulex . 
Daphnis Nerii 
Dasypodida; . . . 
Dasyprocta aguti 
Dasyproctida; . . 
Dasypus setosus . 
Daulias luscinia . 
Decapoda .... 
Deilephila Euphorbise 



III J2 

118 

III 48 

III 25 

122 

114 

114 

122 

II 10 

III 46 

III 25 



XIV 1 

XXI a 

XXVII V 

XXVI h 

XIII a 

XV d 
XVIIa 

XXVI k 



Name 


Pare Pag( 


Plato Fig. 


Delphinidy. 


122 




Delphinus delphis . . 


122 


XXX b 


Dentalium vulgarc . . 


III 52 


XXII i 


Dentirostres ... 


II 13 




Dermanyssus hirun- 






dinis 


III 44 




Dermatophilidffi . . . 


I1I44 




Dermestes lardarius 


III 19 




Dermestidae 


III 19 




Dermodex hominis . 


III 44 




Dermoptera 


I 7 




Dibranchiata 


III 50 




Dietyophora europasa 


III41 


XXV f f 


Didelphida; 


123 




Didelphys virginiana 


123 


XII c 


Dioctrina oclandica . 


11132 




Diodon hystrix .... 


III 15 


XI g 


Diomedea exulans . . 


IllUXXVIIId 


Diphyes gracilis . . 


III61 


XXIX s 


Diploconus fasces . 


III 66 


XXII w 


Dipnoi 


III 10 




Diptera 


III 31 




Dolium galea . ... 


III 52 


XXI g 


Dryocopus martins . 


II 6 


vnd 


Draco volans 


in 5 


Vf 


Dynastes Hercules . 


in 19 




Dytiscidas . . ... 


11118 




Dytiseus marginalis . 


mis 




Echidna hystri.x . . . 


124 




Echineis naucrates 


mil 


XIV c 


— remora . . . 


mil 




Echinodermata .... 


III 58 




Echinoidea 


ni58 




Echinomyia ferox . . 


in 33 




Echinopora gemmacea 


III 63 


XXX r 


Echinorrhvnehus gigas III57XXVIIls 


Echinus sphana . . . 


III 58 


XXIX a 


Ectopistes migratorius 


II 14 


XXI c 


Edentata 


122 




Elasipoda 


in 59 




Elaterida'. 


III 20 




Elater niger 


in 20 


XXIV q 


Elephantidfi! 


115 




Elephas indicus . . . 


115 


XVI b 


Emberiza cirlus . . . 


II 12 


XV a 


— citrinella . . 


ni2 


XIV f 


— hortulana . 


II 12 


XIV g 


miliaria . . 


ni2 


XVI f 


Empidffi 


in 32 




Empis tessellata . . . 


in 32, 


33 


Emydidfe 


III 6 




Emys europeea . . . 


III () 


vnid 


Engraulis encrasicholusIII 1 3 


XVI g 


Enhvdra lutris .... 


113 


VI g 


Ennomos ainiaria . . 


in 29 




Entomostraca ... 


m47 




Eolidia coerulescens . 


ni5i 


XX g 


Epeira diadema . . . 


in 43 


XXIII i 


Ephemera vuigata . . 


in 36 


XXIV k 


EphemeridfR 


III 36 




Epinephile Janira . . 


11124 


XXV m 


Epione apiciaria . . . 


III 29 




Equida; 


116 




Equus asinus .... 


1 16 XXVII b 


— caballus . . . 


116 


XX VI la 


— quagga .... 


117 


KXVIId 


— Zebra ..... 


117 


xxvnc 


Erebia Medea .... 


III 24 


XXVI 


Erinaceidse 


I 8 





IX 



Namo 


Tart Page 


rlalc Fit;. 


Name 


Part Pa^'C 


Plate Fig. 


Erinaceus europseus 


. I 8 


Xc 


Gastropnchaquercifol 


iaIII27 


XXVI e 


Erynnis Alceae . . . 


. 1112:-) 


XXVI e 


Ga.strophilu.s cqui . 


. HI 33 




Erythica rubecula 


. 1110 


XVI 11 a 


Gastropoda 


HI 51 




Eschara cervicornis 


. HI 54 


XX 11m 


Gaura coronata . 


. II 14 


XXI f 


Esocidae 


III 14 
. HI 14 


XIX h 


Gaviae 


. HIS 
119 




Esox lucius .... 


Gazella dorcas . 


XXII c 


Eiicyrtidium cranoidcs HI ()(> 


XXII u 


Gecarcinus ruricola 


III46XXV110- 


Euplectella aspcrfjilluni III til 


XXX t 


Gecinus viridis . . . 


II () 


Vile 


Eiiplocamus anthraci 






Genetta vulgaris . . 


no 


Va 


nalis . 


. Ill 30 




Geometrae 


III 29 




Euplocanius nycthe- 






Geotrupes stercorariu 


sIII19 


XXIV b 


merus 


II 15 


XXIlla 


Gephyrea 


1115(1 




Eiirydema ornatum 


1114(1 




Girafnda; 


119 




Exococtus volitans 


III 12 


XVI e 


Glis vulgaris .... 
Globigerina cons^'lome 


114 


Xllle 


Falconidae 


11 3 




rata 


II! (iC. 


XXII z 


Falco peregrinus . . 


II 5 


IV a 


Glomeridae . . . 


HI 44 




— subbuteo . . 


II 5 


IV b 


Glomeris limbata . 


HI 44 


XXIIIc 


■ — tinnunculus . 


11 5 


IV c 


Gobiidte 


lino 




Fasciola hepatica . 


IIl57.\.\VIIIu 


Gobio vulgaris . . 


mil 


XVlll f 


P'elida) 


1 ii 




Gobius niger .... 


lino 


XIV i 


Felis Catus 


110 


Vllld 


Gonepteryx Rhamni 


III 25 


XXVI c 


— concolor . 


IK) 


VIII b 


Goniodes falcicornis 


HI 38 




— domestica . . 


110 


VIII e 


Gordius aquaticus . 


HI 5(3 




— leo 


I 9 


Vlla,b 


Gorgonia flabellum . 


HI 62 


XXX i 


— Lynx 


110 


VIllc 


Gorgonocephalus ar- 






— onca 


no 


Vlld 


borescens ... 


HI 59 


XXIX f 


— pardus .... 


I 9 


Villa 


Gracula religiosa . . 


II 9 


XI f 


— tigns 


I i) 


VII c 


Grallatores 


111(3 




Feionia metallica . 


HI 18 




Graphosoma lineatum 


HI 40 


XXV u 


Fiber Zibethicus 


115 


XIV e 


Grus cinerea . . . 


1117 


XXVI d 


Filaria medinensis . 


III5(lXXVIllq| 


Gryllidic 


HI 39 




Fissirostres 


1113 




Gryllotalpa vulgaris . 


III 39 


XXIV e 


Foraminifera ... 


III(i(i 




Gryllus campestris . 


HI 39 


XXIV g 


Forficula auricularia 


III3S 


XXIV a 


— domesticus . 


III 39 


XXIV f 


Forficulidae 


III. 'is 




Gulo luscus .... 


113 


XII a 


Formica rufa .... 


1112:! 


XXV o 


Gymnodontidae . . . . 


HI 15 




Formicidse 


Ill 22 




Gymnotidae 


III13 




Fratercula arctica . 


II 21 


XXX f 


Gymnotus electricus 


III 13 


XII e 


Fregilus graculus 


11 «l 


Xf 


Gypaetus barbatus 


II 3 


Id 


Fringilla cannabina 


1113 


XVI c 


Gyps fulvus 


II 3 


lb 


— carduelis . 


II 12 


XVI a 


Gyrinid;o 


III 18 




— citrinella . 


II 13 


XVI e 


Gyrinus natator . 


HI 18 




— coeleb.s . . 


II 12 


XV d 








— montifringilk 


I II12 


XV e 


Hajinatopa pluvialis 


HI 32 


XXllId 


— spinus . . 


II 13 


XVI d 


Haliaetus albicilla . 


II 3 


lib 


Fringillidiu 


1111 




lialichondria .... 


III 64 




Fulgora laternaria . 


1II4I 


XXV gg 


Halicore dugong . . 


121 




Fulgoridie 


11141 




Halicoridte 


121 




Fulicida) 


HIS 




Haliotis Iris .... 


III 51 


XXI 


Fuligula histrionica 


II 20 


XXIX d 


Hapale 


I 7 




Fungia scutaria . . 


HI G3 


XXX q 


Hapalidse ..... 


I 7 










Harpa ventricosa . 


HI 52 


XX s 


Gadidse 


HI 12 




Hectocotylus .... 


HI .50 




Gadus seglefinus . . 


HI 12 


XIII e 


Helix nemoralis . . 


HI 52 


XXI t 


— callarias . . . 


HI 12 


XllI f 


— pomatia . . . 


HI .52 


XXI s 


— minutus . . . 


HI 12 


XHIg 


Hemerobiidae ... 


III 36 




— morrhua . . 


HI 12 


XHId 


Hemiptera 


HI 40 




Galeopithecidx . . . 


I 7 




HcpialidK 


III 26 




Galeopithecus volaii 


s I 7 


IV f 


Hepialus hunuili . . 


HI 26 


XXVI a 


Gallina' 


. II 14 




Herpestes galera . . 


no 


Vb 


Gallinula chIoropu.s 


. lI18XXVHb 


— Ichneumor 


no 




Gallus bankiva var. 


II 15 


XXII h 


— lavanicus 


no 


Vc 


Gamasida' 


HI 43 




Hesperiidae . . 


ni 25 




Gamasus Coleoptera 






Heterocera 


HI 25 




torum 


. Ill 44 


XXHI 1 


Heteropoda .... 


m5i 




Gammarus pulex . 


HI 47 


XXVHo 


Heterop*^era .... 


HI 40 




Ganoidei 


HI 15 




Hexactinia 


III 62 




Garrulus glandarius 


11 8 


Xc 


Hibernia defoliaria . 


nr29 


XXVI V 


Gasterosteus aculeatu 


sIHll 


XIV g 


Hierofalco candicans 


II 5 


Hid 



Name Part P.ijij pia-e Fij. 

Hippobosca equina . 11134 
Hippoboscidro .... Ill 34 
Hippocampus antiquo- 

rum I1I15 XII c 

Hippoglossus vulgaris III 12 XV c 
Hippopotamidre . . 117 
Hippopotamus amphi- 

bius 117 XVIIb 

Tj- ,,^|XXlVb,c 

liircus icgagrus . . . 120 x-\-i/ 
^ ^ 1 XXV a 

— laniger . . . 120 XXV b 
-~ thebaicus . 120 XXV d 

Hirudinei 11156 

Hirudo medicinalis 111 5(5 X.XVIII 1 

Hirundinidae .... II l.i 

Hirundo rustica . . . 1113 XlXa 

Histerida; Ill 19 

Mister unicolor HI 19 

Holothuria tubulosa . 11159 XXIX h 

1 lolothuroidea . Ill 59 

Homarus vulgaris . . 11146 X.WIId 

Homo sapiens . . . I 3(Froiilisp) 

Homoptera HI 41 

Hy;ena striata ... 110 IX a 

HyzEnid;^; I 10 

Hydrachnageographicalll 43 XXlHk 

Hvdrachnida' .'.... Ill 43 

Hydra viridis .... HI 61 XXX d 

Hydroida HI 61 

Hydrometra paludum 11140 .XXV cc 

Hydrometndie . . HI 40 

Hydrophilida; .... HI 18 

Hydrophilus piceus . HI 18 XXIV p 

Hyla arborea HI 7 Vile 

Hylobates Lar .... 15 I c 

— syndactylus 15 Id 

Hylophila bicolorana HI 30 XXVI t 

Hylotoma rosa .... 11122 XXV a 

Hymenoptera .... 11122 

— Aculeata 11122 

— TerebrantiaIII22 
Hypoderma Bovis 11133 XXllIg 
Hypolais icterina . . 1110 XVII g 

Hystricidae 114 

Hystrix cristata ... 114 Xlle 

Ibis religiosa 1118 XXVI e 

Ichneumonidii' ... Ill 22 

Ichthyoidea Ill 8 

Iguana tuberculata . HI 5 IV d 

Impennes H 20 

Infusoria Ill 6o 

Insecta HI 17 

Insectivora 18 

Insessores II 3 

Inuus ecaudatus ... 16 II f 

Isopoda HI 47 

Isotoma saltans . . . Ill 38 

Ixodes ricinus .... 11144 XXIIl n 

Ixodidae HI 44 

Julidae HI 44 

Julis mediterranea . . 11112 XV h 
Julus terrestris .... HI 44 

Labridje III12 

Labyrinthidae Ill 11 

Lacerta agilis .... HI 5 Vb 

— muralis ... HI 5 Vc 
Lacerti'.ia HI 4 



X 



Name Part Page Flak- Fig. 

Lachniis punctatus . 11141 

Lagopus inutus ... 1114 XXII a 

Lagria hirta Ill 20 

Lagriidio Ill 20 

Lamellibranchiata . . II! 53 

Lampyris splendidula IH'jIO XXI\' t 

Laniida 11 K^ 

Lanius colluiio . . . III-! VI b 

— excubitor . . II l.i Via 

— minor .... IIlo VI c 
Laridfe II18 

Larus argentatus . . 11 19 XXVII g 

Larus inarinu.s .... II 19 XXVII f 

— ridibundus .. II 19 XXVIIe 

Lasiocampidae .... 11127 

Lemuroidea . . 17 

Lemur macaco ... 17 Illc 

Lepas anatifera . . . 11148 XXIII p 

Lepidoptera Ill 24 

Lepidosiren paradoxa III 10 

Lepisma saccharina . III3S 

LepismatidiL' ..... Ill 38 

Leporidae 115 

Leptinotarsa decem- 

lineata 11121 

Leptocardii Ill 16 

Leptodora hyalina . . Ill 4S 
Leptoptilus crumenit'er 1117 XXV d 

— dubius . . 1117 

Lepus cuniculus ... 115 XIV c 

— timidus .... 115 XIV a 

— variabilis ... 115 XIV b 
Lernwa branchialis . Ill 4H XXVII y 

Lernaeid;c Ill 48 

Lestris pomarina . . II 19XX\'IIIb 

Leuciscu-s alburnus . Ill 14 .Wllla 

— cephalus . . . . Ill 14 XVII f 

— erythrophthahmis 111 14 XVII d 

— idus Ill 14 XVII g 

— phoximi.s ... Ill 14 XVllIc 

— rufus Ill 14 XVII b 

— rutilus Ill 14 XVII e 

— vulgaris .... Ill 14 XVII h 
Libellula depressa . . Ill 37 

Libellulidae Ill 36 

Limax hortensLs . . . 11152 XXI p 
Limnsea stagnalis . . 11152 XXI k 
Limnoria terebrans . Ill 47 
Limulus Polyphemus III 45 XXVII b 
I.ingula anatina . . . Ill 54 XXII 1 
Linyphia montana . . Ill 43 XXIII g 

Liparida: 11128 

Lithobius forficatus . Ill 44 XXlIIb 
Locusta migratoria . Ill 40 XXIV h 

Locustida: Ill 39 

Loligo Brogniarti . . Ill 50 

— vulgaris . . . Ill 50 
Lophius piscatorius . Ill 10 XI b 
Lophobranchi . . . . Ill 15 
Lophophf)rus im])ey- 

anus II 15 XXIIle 

Lophornis ornatus . II S IX c 

Lophyrus pini .... Ill 22 XXV b 

Loricata Ill 46 

Loris gracilis .... 17 

Lota vulgaris . . . Ill 12 XIll h 

Loxia curvirostris . . II 11 XIV a 

Lucanidse Ill 19 

Lucanus cervus . . . III19 XXIV i 

Lucioperca Sandra . Til 11 XV e 



Name Pait Page Plate Fig. 

Lumbricus terrestris III 55 XXVIII i 

Lutra vulgaris .... 113 VI f 

Lyccena Icarus .... Ill 24 XXV n 

Lycii'nidae Ill 24 

Lycosa tarantula . . Ill 42 

Lygseidae Ill 40 

Lygjeus equestris . . 



Id 



XXIII f 
XXV z 



Machetes pugnax . . 
Macrocephalus albinus 
Macroglossa stella- 

tarum 

iMacropodida; 

Macropus major . . . 

Macrura 

Madreporaria 

Madrepora verrucosa 
Maia squinado .... 
Malachius oeneus . . 

Malacostraca 

Malleus vulgaris . . . 

Mallophaga 

Mamestra brassicie . 
— pisi .... 

Mammalia 

Manatida' 

Manatus australis . . 

Manida' 

Manis Temminckii 

MantidiL' 

Mantis religiosa . . . 

Marsupialia 

Martcs Zibellina . . . 
Medusa aurita . . . . 

Medusa' 

Melanargia Galathea . 

Meleagrida; 

Meleagrina margariti- 

fera 

Meleagris galiopavo . 
Meles vulgaris . . 
Melierax musicus . . 
Melisuga minima 
Mclitn'a cynthia . . . 
Muloe proscarabasus . 
Mclolontha fullo . . . 
vulgaris . 
Melophagus ovinus . 
Melopsittacus undu- 

latus 

Mcmbracidae 

Menops pallidum 
Mephitis chinga . . . 
Mergus merganser . . 
Merlucius vulgaris . . 

Meropida; 

Merops apiaster . . . 
Microgaster glomeratu 
Midas rosalia . . . . 

Milvus rufus 

Mitra episcopalis . . 

MoUusca 

Molluscoidea . . 
Molva vulgaris . . . . 
Molytes coronatus . . 
Monitor niloticus . . 
Monodon monoceros 

Monotremata 

Montifringilla nivalis . 
Mordella t'asciata . . 



11 18 XXVII 
11121 



11126 
1 2.3 

I 2.3 
11146 
111 6:! 

Ill i;:! 

Ill 46 
III 20 
III 45 
III 53 
III 38 
III 28 
III 28 

I 4 
121 
121 
1 2.3 
123 

III 39 
III 39 
123 
112 
11161 
IIKiO 
III 24 

II 16 

11153 

II 16 

113 

II 5 

II 8 

III 24 

III 20 

111 19 

111 19 

11134 

II i; 

11141 

III 42 

I 12 

II 20 

III 12 

11 7 

II 7 

sill 22 

I 7 

II 4 

11152 

III 49 

III 54 
HI 12 
11121 
III 4 

122 
124 

II 12 
1U20 



XXVI o 
XII d 



XXX p 
XXVII i 



XXII a 

XXVI n 
XXVI o 



XXVlIIe 
XV c 

XXIV c 

VI d 
XXIX n 

XXV k 



XXI e 

XXIII f 
XII b 

IV e 

IX b 

XXV a 

XXIV v 

XXIV g 

XXIV f 



Naiiio Part Page Plate Fig 

Mordellida: Ill 20 



Vie 


XXX a 


XIII b 


VIII e 


XXV g 


Hid 


Ild 


XX t 


XIII c 


XXIV r 


XXX a 


XV f 



Moschus moschiferus 
Motacilla alba . . 

— flava . . 

— Yarrellii 
JNIugil cephalus . . 

Mugilida' 

JMullus barbatus . 
Murxna Helena . 
Mursenida; .... 
Murex trunculus . 

Murida' 

]\Ius decunianus . 

— musculus . . 

— rattus .... 

— sylvaticus . . 
Musca domestica 
Muscidec . 
MusciiitX' . . 
Mustela erminca 

— foina . . 

— - martes . 

— vulgaris . 
Mustelidse .... 
Mycetes niger . . 

— seniculus 
Mycetophilid:u . . 
Myliobates a(]uila 
Myoxinida' .... 
]\Iyriopoda .... 
Myrmecophaga jubat 
Myrmecophagida' 
Myrmeleon formica 
Myrmeleonida.^ . . 
Mytilus edulis . . 
Myxinida' .... 



Nais proboscidea 
Naja tripudians 

Nauplius 

Nautilus pompilius 
Nefcra lucifuga 
Necrophorus vespillo 
Nemachilus barbatulu 

— fossilis 

Nemathelminthia . 
Nematocera . . . 
Nematoda .... 



Nemertina . . . 
Neophron percnopte 
Nepa cinerea . . . 

Nepidiu 

Nereis margaritace 
Nerita exuvia . . 
Neuroptera .... 
Nitidula ocnea . . 
Nitidulida' .... 
Noctiluca miliaris 

NoctujL' 

Notodontidii' . . . 
Notonecta glauca 
Notonectida^ . . . 
Nucifraga caryoca- 

tactes 

Numida meleagris 
Nycteribiida> . . . 
Nycticorax europa 
Nymphalida; . . . 

Ocneria dispar . . 
Octactinia .... 



118 
11 11 
11 11 

II 11 
111 11 
HI 11 

mil 

III 13 

III 13 

III 52 

I 14 

115 

114 

115 

I 15 

III 34 

III 33 
III 34 

112 

112 

112 

I 12 

I 12 

I 6 

I 6 

III 32 

HI 16 

I 14 

III 44 

122 

1 22 

sill 36 

111 36 

III 53 

III 16 



XIX b 

XVlIIg 
XVlIIh 

XV i 

XV g 

XII g 

XXI a 

Xlllh 
XIII g 

XIII i 
XXIIlk 



VI b 
Ve 
Vd 
Via 

lie 
Hla 

Xa 



XV a 



XXIV n 



XXI h 



llI55XXVlIIk 



Hla 

XX a, b 

XXIX i 

XXIV k 

XVI a 

XVI b 



III 3 
HI 47 
III 50 
III 59 
III19 
slIIlS 
11113 
11156 
III 31 
HI 56 . 
HI 57 

; II 3 la 

HI 40 XXV dd 
11140 
III55XXVllld 



HI 52 
HI 35 
111 l!t 
111 19 
HI 65 
III 28 
III 27 
11140 
HI 40 

II 8 
II 16 

III 34 
II 17 

HI 24 

HI 28 
III 62 



XX o 

XXII t 

XXV ee 

Xd 

XXII g 

XXVI a 
XXVI i 



XI 



Name Part 

Octopus vulgaris . . Ill 
Ocypus olens .... Ill 
Odynerus parietuni . HI 
Qidipoda striduluui . Ill 

Qione lucida Ill 

CEstridae Ill 

CEstrus ovis . Ill 

Oidemia fu.sca II 

Oligochteta; III 

Oniscidae Ill 

Oniscus murarius III 

Opercularia nutan.s III 

Ophidia Ill 

Ophiura lacertosa ill 

Ophiurid.-e Ill 

Orbitelaiia; Ill 

Oreotragus saltatiix . I 

Oiiolida- II 

Oriolus galbula ... II 
OrnithorhyncluLS para- 
doxus I 

Orthagoriscus uiola . Ill 

Orthoptera Ill 

Ortygometra crex . . II 
Oryctes nasicornis . Ill 

Oscinis frit Ill 

Osmerus eperlanus . Ill 
Osnioderma eremita . Ill 
Ostracion cornutus . Ill 

Ostracoda Ill 

Ostrea edulis Ill 

Otaria jubata I 

Otariida; I 

Otidse II 

Otiorhynchus unicolor III 

Otis tarda II 

Otus vulgaris .... II 
Ovis aries I 

— musimon . I 

Oxibelis fulgidus . . Ill 
Oxyuris vermicularis III 



Page 

oO 

18 

2:5 

40 



Plate Fig. 

XX d 



XXV p 
XXIV 1 
55XXVIIIe 
33 
33 
20 
55 
47 
47 
65 
2 

59 
59 
43 
19 

9 

[\ 



XXIX e 



XXVIIp 
XXII q 

XXIX e 



XXI d 



Name Part Page Plnle Fig. 

Parus palustris . . . II 11 XIX e 

Passer doniesticu^ II 12 XV c 

Passeres II 7 

Patella granatina . Ill 51 XX i 

Pavo cristatus ... II 15 XXIII d 

Pecten maximus ... Ill 53 XXI b 

Pedata Ill 59 

Pediculata HI 10 



XI d 



XV b 
XII a 



24 
15 
38 

18 XXVII c 

19 XXIV a 
:!4 



XIX a 



XI f 



14 

20 

15 

48 

53 XXI d 

13 XXVIIIc 

13 

16 

21 

16 



D 



XXIV a 

Vb 

21 XXVI b, 

c, d 

21 XXVI a 

3 
56 



Pachyrrhina pratensis 

Paguridae 

Pagurus Bernhardus 
Pala^mon serratus . 
Paheornis Alexandri 
Palingenia horaria . 
Palinurus vulgaris . 
Palmipedes .... 
Pandion Haliaetus 
Panolis piniperda 
Panorpa communis 

Panorpida; 

Papilio machaon . 

podalirius . 
Papilionidje .... 
Papio leucophicus . 

— Maimon . . 
Paradisea apoda . 
Paradiseida; .... 

Paridae 

Parnassius Apollo . 
Parra Jacana . . 
Parus ater .... 

— caudatus , . 

— cteruleus . . 

— cristatus . . 

— major .... 



Ill 31 

III 46 

III 46 

III 46 

II 6 

III 36 

III 46 

II 18 

II 4 

III 28 

III 35 

III 35 

III 25 

III 25 

III 24 

I 6 

I 6 

II 9 

II 9 

nil 

III 25 
II 18 

nil 
nil 
nil 
nil 
nil 



XXIII b 
XXVITf 

vie 
XXVII e 

nic 

XXVI m 

XXIV o 

XXV q 
XXV r 



nd 

XI b 



XXV s 

XXVII d 
XIX c 

XIX b 
XIX d 
XIX a 



III 42 
in 15 
1II61 
111 3 



XII d 
XXIX o 
IIIc 
II 19.XXVIlle 

II 3 lib 

XXX f 

X.XIXg 
XXV w 
40 

III 9, 10 XV d 

III 10 

n 15 XXII d 

III 29 XXVI u 
116 

III 36 



Xe 
Xd 

Xf,g 



Pediculus capitis . . . 
Pegarus draco .... 
Pelagia panopyra . . 
Pelamis bicolor . . 
Pelecanus onocrotahis 

Pelias berus 

Peltogaster HI 49 

Pennatiila phosphorea HI 62 
Pentacrinus caput Me- 
dusa Ill 59 

Pentatoma baccanim 11140 

Pentatomida' 11140 

Perca fluviatilis . 

Percida; 

Perdi.x cinerea . . 
Pericallia syringana 
Perissodactyla . . 
Perla bicaudata 

Perlida: 11136 

Petaurista taguanoides I 23 

Petromyzidse Ill 16 

Petromyzon fluviatilis HI 16 
marinus . HI 16 
Planeri . HI 16 

Phalangiidc-e HI 42 

Phalangistidae 1 23 

Phalangium opilio . Ill 42 
Phalera Bucephala . HI 28 
Pharyngoguathi ... HI 12 
Phasgonura viridissima HI 39 X.XIV d 
Phasgonuridse .... Ill 39 

Phasianidae II 15 

Phasianus colchicus . II 15 

Phasmida; Ill 39 

Phoca vitulina I13XXVIIIa 

Phocidie 113 

Phoenicopterus roseus II 19 

Phoenicura roticilla 

Pholas dactylus . 

Phora incrassata 

Phorids 

Phorodesma bajularia III 29 

Phronima sedentaria . Ill 47 XXVII 1 

Phronimidfe Ill 47 

Phryganea grandis . . Ill 35 XXIV I 

Phryganidre Ill 35 

Phyllium siccifolium . Ill 39 

Phyllopoda Ill 48 

Phylloxera vastatrix . Ill 41 XXV oo 

Phylophloidte Ill 38 

Physalia arethusa . . Ill 61 
Physeter macrocepha- 

lus 122 

Physophora disticha . Ill 61 
Physostomi Ill 13 



XXV h 



II 10 
HI 54 
in 34 
III 34 



XXV a 
XVIIId 

XXII g 
XXIII m 



XXIX t 

XXIX b 
XXX a 



II 
II 

Picus major II 



Pica caudata 
Picidaj 



— medius 

— minor . . , 
Pieris brassica; . . 
Pimpla manifestator 



II 
II 



Name 

Pinna nobilis . . 
Pinnepedia . . . 
Pinnotheres . . 
Pipa americana 
Pisces 



Part Page 

III 53 
. 113 

1H46 
. HI 7 
. HI 9 



Plaie Fif;. 

XXI f 



VII 



Planaria alba IIl57XXVllIt 

Planaria? HI 57 

Planorbis carmatus HI 52 



in25 
HI 22 



Xg 

VII r 
vnia 

VHg 

XXVI a 

XXV f 



— corncus . HI 52 
Plathelminthia .... HI 57 
Platyparea preciloptcra HI 34 

Platyrrhini 16 

Plecotus auritus . . I 8 
Plectognathi . . . Ill 15 

Plectrophanes nivalis II 12 
Pleuroncctes platessa III 12 
Pleuronectidae 
Plumatella . . 
Plusia gamma ... 
Podiceps cristatus . 
Podura villosa . . . 
Podurid.'{> 
Poccilopoda . 

Polycha;t£e 

Polynoe impatiens . 
Polypomedus:e . . . 
Polystomella strigilat 

Pompilida; 

Pompilus viaticus . 
PorccUio scaber . . 

Porifera 

Pratincola rubetra 

Primates 

Prionus coriarius . 
Pristis antiquorum 
Proboscidea . . 
Procellariida' 
Procyonida' . . 
Procyon lotor . . 
Proteus anguinus 



nil 

I 4 

HI 21 

I1I16 

115 

II 19 

112 

112 

III S 

Protopterus anncctens HI 10 



XXI m 
XXI 1 



IV d 

XV b 
XV b 

HI 1-. 

III54 

HI 28 XXVI p 

n20 XXX b 

in 38 

HI 38 

III 45 

HI 55 

in 55 XXVIIIc 

III 60 
a HI 66 XXII X 

HI 22 

HI 22 XXV n 

Hl47XXVHq 

HI 63 

XVIll f 

XXIV X 
IX c 



Protozoa 

Pseudoscorpionidx- 
Psittacida' . . . 
Psittacus erithacus 
Psocidfe .... 
Psocus lineatus 
Psyche unicolor 
Psychid;e .... 
PterophoridiL' . . . 
Pterophorus penta- 

dactylus .... 
Pteropidte . 
Pteropoda 
Pteropus edulis 
Pulex irritans . . 

Pulicida' 

Pulmonata . . 

Pupa uva . ... 

Pupipara 

Putorius foctidus 

— furo . , 
Pycnogonidse . 

Pyrales 

Pyrameis Atalanta 
Pyrochroa rubens 
Pyrochroidfc . . 
Pyrosoma atlanticum 
Pyrrhocorax alpinu 
Pyrrhocoridie . 



HI 64 
111 42 
II 6 
11 6 
HI 37 
III 37 
11126 
HI 26 
111 30 

HI 30 

I 8 
III 51 

I 8 

mas 

HI 35 

in 52 

III 52 
III 34 
112 
112 
11145 
111.50 
11124 
III 20 
HI 20 
II149 

II 9 
11140 



XI d 
Vic 



VII ; 



TV 



XXI 



XXI q 

Vf 
Vic 



XXV d 



XXI! p 
Xe 



XII 



Namp Part Pago Plate Fig. 

Pyrrhocoris apterus . Ill 40 XXV y 
Pyrrhula enucleator . II 11 XIV b 

— vulgaris . . II 12 XIV c 
Python molurus ... Ill 2 

Quadiumana 14 

Quiscalus vercicolor . II 9 XI e 

Radiolaria Ill 65 

Kaia clavata Illlli Xc 

Raiid:e Ill 10 

Ramphastidiu II (J 

Ramphastos Ariel ..116 VII c 

Rana escuknta . . Ill 7 VII d 

Ranidaj . Ill 7 

Raphidia opliiopsi.s . 1113.") XXIV p 

Raphidiid;t> Ill •'>.") 

Rcduviid;e Ill 40 

Reduvius pcrsonatus 11140 XXV bb 

Regularia 1II5S 

Regulus cristatus . . 1111 XVlllb 

— ignicapillus . 1111 
Renilla violacca . . . Ill 02 XXX h 

Reptilia HI 1 

Retitelariio I1I4.'5 

Rhea Americana ... II 10 XXIV d 

Rheida II 16 

Rhinoceros indicus . I l(i XVI a 

Rhinocerotidte .... 110 
Rhinolophus ferrum- 

equinum 18 IV e 

Rhizocephala Ill 49 

Rhizopoda IHO") 

Rhizo.stoma Aidro- 

vandi Ill 01 XXIX q 

Rhodeu.s amariis . . . Ill 13 XVIII e 

Rhodites rosic .... Ill 22 XXV i 

Rhopalocera 11124 

Rhynchites betake. . Ill 21 

Rodentia 114 

Rosalia alpina .... Ill 21 

Rotatoria Ill fjf) 

Rotifer vulgaris . . . Ill OnXXVIIIa 

Ruminantia 117 

Rupicapra tragus . . 119 XXII b 

Rupicola crocea ... II 9 XI c 

Riipicolidai II 9 

Sacculina carcini ... Ill 49 XXIII s 

Sagartia rosea .... Ill 62 XXX m 

Salamandra maculosa III S VI a 

Salamandrida; .... Ill 7 

Salmo tario Ill 14 XVIII 1 

— hucho Ill 14 XIX b 

— lacustris . . . Ill 14 XIX c 

— salar . ... Ill 11 XVIII k 

— salvelinus . . . Ill 14 XIX d 

— trutta Ill 14 XIX a 

Salmonidas ..... Ill 14 

Salpa zonaria .... Ill 49 XXII n 

Salticus scenicus ... Ill 43 

Saltigrada; Ill 43 

Sarcophaga carnaria . 11134 XXIII h 

Sarcophagina; .... Ill 34 

Sarcopsylla penetrans III 35 XXlIIo 

Sarcoptcs hominis . . Ill 44 

Sarcoptidie Ill 44 

Sarcorhaniphus 

gryphus 113 I c 

Saturnia pyri ... 11127 XXVI c 



Scalaria communis 
pretiosa . 



Name Part P.ige 

Saturniidffi 11127 

III 52 

111 52 

Scandra ciliata . . . 11104 

Scarabaeidse Ill 19 

Scarabreus sacer . . . Ill 19 

Scarabus imbrium . . Ill 52 

Scansores II G 

Schizoneura lanigera III 41 

Schizopoda Ill 46 

Sciara militaris . . . Ill 32 

Sciuridffi 1 14 

Sciurus vulgaris ... 114 

Sclerodermida: . . . . Ill 15 

Scolopacidte II 18 

Scolopa.x gallinago . II 18 

— rusticata . II 18 

Scolopendramorsitans III 44 

Scolytus pruni .... 11121 

Scomber scomber . . Hill 

Scombresocida; . . . HI 12 

t Scombrida^ HI 11 

jScorpiena scorpio . . Hill 

Scorpionida? 11142 

Scuttella hexapora . HI 58 

Selachii HI 10 

Selenia illustraria . . HI 29 
Semnopithecuseutellus 15, 



Sepia officinalis 
Serinus canarius . . 
Serpentarius secre- 

tarius 

Serpula contortupli- 

cata 

Sialida; . , 

Sialis lutarius . . . 
Silpha thoracica . . 



11150 
II 13 

II 3 



Plate Fig. 

XX q 

XX p 



XXIV d 
XXI n 

XXVnn 



Xllld 



XXVI g 
XXVI f 
XXllIa 

XIV e 



XIV d 



XXIX c 



XX c 
XVI b 

le 



HI55XXVIIIh 
HI 35 
HI 35 
HI 19 



HI 13 

HI 13 

I 5 

I 4 



XVI d 
lb 



Silphida; Ill 18 

Siluridre 

Silurus glanis . . 
Simia Satyrus . . 

Simiidse 

Simulia columbac- 

censis Ill 32 

Simuliida: Ill 32 

Siphonophora .... HI 61 
Siphonops annulata . HI 8 
Siphostoma diplo- 

cha^tos III55XXVIlIf 

Sipunculus Bernhardus HI 50XXVIIIo 
Siredon pisciformis . HI 8 

Sirenia 121 

Siren lacertina .... Ill 8 VI d 

Siiex gigas IH22 XXV d 

Siricida; HI 22 



II 7 
HI 25 



HI 54 

II 20 

I 8 



Sitta europ;ea .... 

Smerinthus ocellatus 

— Populi . . 

Solen vagina 

Somateria mollissima 
Sorex vulgaris .... 

Soricida: 18 

Spalacidae 115 

Spalax typhkis ... 115 

Spatangidea Ill 58 

Sphegidic HI 22 

Sphingid;E HI 25 

Sphinx Convolvuli . . Ill 20 

— Ligustri . . 11126 

Spondylus gaedaropus III 53 



VHIc 
XXVI f 



HI 25 XXVI g 



XXII f 
XXIX c 

Xd 



XIII k 



XXVlm 

XXVI 1 

XXI c 



Name 

Spongia usitatissima 
Spongilla fiuviatilis 
Squilla mantis . . . 
Staphylinida^ ... 
Steganopodes . . . 
Sterna hirundo . . 
Stomatapoda .... 
Stomoxys calcitrans 
Stratiomydic .... 
Stratiomys chama'leo 
Strigida* 



Strix flammea . . . 
Strombus auris Uian; 
— pugilis . 

Struthio Camelus . 
Strulhionida' .... 

Sturnid;r 

Sturnus vulgaris . . 
Stylonichia m\tilus 

Suidw 

Sus scrota 

Sylvia atricapiila . . 

— cinerea . . 

— curruca . . . 

— hortensis . . 

Synapta 

Syndactyla; . . 
Syngnathus acus . 



Part. 

Ill 

HI 

HI 

III 

II 

II 

HI 

HI 

HI 

nlll 

II 

II 

HI 

HI 

II 

II 



Syromastesmarginatus HI 



Syrphidae 
Syrphus pyrastri 

Tabanidae 

Tabanus bovinus . 
Tachininje .... 
Tacua speciosa 
Tadorna vulpanser 
Tsenia saginata . . 

— solium . . 

Talpa europiea . . 

Talpidtu 

Tapirida; 

Tapirus americanus 
Tarandus rangifer . 
Tegenaria domestica 

Teleostei 

Telephoridffi .... 
Telephorus fuscus . 
Tellina virgata . . . 
Tenebrio molitor 
Tenebrionida- . . . 
Tenthredinidas . . . 
Terebratula vitrea . 
Teredo navalis . . . 
Termes angustatus 

— bellicosus . 

Termitidce 

TerritcUariae .... 
Testudiiiida' .... 
Testudo gra'ca . . 
Tctrabraiichiata . . 

Tetraonidic 

Tctrao tetrix .... 

— • urogallus . . 
Tetrodon stellatus . 
Thalassidroma pelagic 

Thaliacea 

Thaumalea picta . 
Thecla Bctulas . . 



11 

HI 

I 

I 

II 
II 
II 
II 
HI 
H 
HI 



HI 
HI 



Page Plate Fig, 

04 

04 

47 XX VI Ik 

18 

19 

19XXVHIa 

47 

34 XXIII 1 

33 

33 

5 

5 
52 
52 
10 
16 

•I 

9 
65 
17 
17 
10 
10 
10 
10 
59 

7 
15 
40 
33 
33 



Vd 

XXI h 

XXI i 

XXIV c 



XII d 
XXHs 

XVll d 
XVII c 
XVII d 
XVII f 
XVII c 



XIII) 
XXV X 



HI 32 
HI 32 
HI 33 
IH41 
1120 
HI 58 
III 58 

I 9 
I 9 
116 
116 
118 
HI 43 
III 10 
HI 20 
HI 20 
11154 
11120 
HI 20 
11122 
HI 54 
HI 54 
11137 
HI 37 
HI 37 
HI 42 
HI 5 
HI 5 
HI 50 

11 14 
II15 

11 15 
HI 15 
, II 19 
HI 49 

II 15 
III 24 



XXIII c 

XXV hh 

XXIX g 

XXVIIIx 

XXVIII 

[w, y 

Xg 



XVII a 

XX a 

XXIII h 



XXll d 
XXIV o 



XXII k 

XXII h 

XXIV q 

XXIV r 



XXII b 

XXHc 

XI h 

XXVIIlc 

XXlll b 
XXV p 



XIII 



Name Tart Page Plate Fig. 

Theraphosa avicularia III 42, 43 

Thoracica Ill 48 

Thoracostraca .... Ill 45 

Thrasaetiis destructor II 4 

Thripidfe Ill 37 

Thrips cerealium . Ill 38 

— vulgatissima . Ill 37 

Thymallus vulgaris . Ill 14 XIX e 

Thymelicus thaumas III 25 XXVI d 

Thynnus thynnus . . Ill 1 1 XIV f 

Thysanoptera .... Ill 37 

Thysanura Ill 38 

Tinea vulgaris .... Ill 13 XVI i 

Tinea granclla ... Ill 30 XX VI zz 

— pellionella . . Ill 30 XXVI z 

— .sarcitella . . . Ill 30 XXVI y 

Tinete Ill 30 

Tipula oleracea . . . Ill 31 

Tipulidai Ill 31 

Tomicidae Ill 21 

Torpedo marmorata . Ill Hi Xb 

Tortrices HI 30 

Tortrix heparana . . Ill 30 

— viridana . . . Ill 30 

Tragulidse 118 

Trematoda . . . .11157 

Trichcchidje 1 13 

Trichecus rosmarus . 1 13XXVIIId 

Trichina spiralis . . . IlIoGXXVIIIp 

Trichiosoma betuleti . Ill 22 XXV c 

Trichius fasciatus . . Ill 20 

Trichodes apiarius . . Ill 20 

Trid.icna gigas . . . Ill 54 XXI a 

Trigla Gurnardus . . Ill 12 XIV k 

Triglida: Ill 11 

Triphaena Pronuba . HI 28 XXVI s 
Tristomum coccincum III57XXVIIIv 

Triton cristatus ... Ill 8 VI b 

Tritonida: HI 8 

Tritonium nodiferuni III 52 XXI e 



Name 

Trochilidse 

Trochilium formicje 

forme 

Trochus marmoratus 
Troglodytes gorilla 

— niger . 

— vulgaris 
Troglodytida; . . . 
Trombidiidae .... 
Trombidium holose- 

riceum 

Tropicoris rufipes . 
Tropidonotus natrix 
Trypeta signata . . 

Trypetinae 

Trypoxylon tigulus 
Tubipora purpurea 
Tubiteiarire . . . 
Tunicata .... 
Turbellaria . . . 
Turbo olearius . 
Turdidre .... 
Turdus cyaneus 

— inerula . 

— musicus 

— pilaris . 

— torquatus 

— viscivorus 
Turtur vulgaris . 
Tyroglyphidas . . 
Tyroglyphus siro 



Ulula aluco . . . 
Umbellula encrinus 

Ungulata 

Unio margaritifera 

— pictorum . . 

Upupa epops . . 

Upupidas 

Uranoscopus scaber 



Part Page Plate Fig. 

II 7 
m2() XXVI q 



III 52 
I 5 
I 5 

nil 
nil 

III 43 

III 43 

III 40 

HI 2 

HI 34 

ni34 

11122 

HI 62 

HI 43 

III 49 

III 57 

III .52 

II !» 

II 10 

II 10 

nio 

IIIO 
II 10 
IIIO 
II 14 
in 44 
III 44 

II 5 

HI 62 
117 

HI 53 

HI 53 
II 7 
II 7 

Hill 



XX m 

la 
XVIHc 



XXV V 
He 



XXV m 
XXXI 



XX n 

XHId 
XIII c 
Xllf 
XIII b 
XHI c 
Xllla 

XXI e 

XXIII m 

Vc 
XXX g 



XXI k 

vnif 

Xllla 



Nail 



Urapteryx sambuearia HI 29 



Part Page Plate Fig. 



Uria gryllc . . . 

Urodela 

Ursida3 

Ursus americanu.s 

— arctos . . . 

— maritimus . 



Vampyrus spectrum 
Vanellus cristatus . 
Vanessa Antiopa 

lo 

— Polychloros 

— urticse . . . 
Velella scraphidea . 
Venilia inaculata 
Venus verrucosa 

Vermes 

Vespa crabro . . . 

— vulgaris . . . 
Vespertilionida; . . 
Vesperugo noctula 

Vespid.'B 

Volucella bombylans 
Voluta lethiopica 
Vorticella inicrostom 
Vulpes lagopus 

— vulgaris 
Viverridae . 
Vulturida; . . 



Xiphias gladius 
Xiphiidae ... 



Yunx torquilla . 

Zeus faber . . . 
Zeuzera aesculi . 
Zeuzeridje . . . 

Zoea 

Zygicna malleus 



II 21 
HI 7 
111 
112 
112 
112 

I 8 
HIS 

11124 

HI 24 

HI 24 

HI 24 

IH61 

HI 29 

III 54 

III 54 

HI 23 

HI 23 

I 8 

I 8 

HI 23 

11133 

11152 

111 65 

111 

111 

110 

II 3 

mil 
mil 



XXX d 



XI a 
XI b 
XI c 

IV b 

XXVI h 

XXV f 

XXV e 

XXV g 

XXV ii 

XXIX r 

XXII e 

XXV r 
XXV p 

IV c 

XXIII f 
XX r 

XXII r 

Xb 



XII i 



II 7 vnib 



Hill 
HI 26 
III 26 
HUG 

mi6 



XVa 
XXVI b 



IX b 



INTRODUCTION. 




;HE MAMMALIA stand at the head of the 
whole Animal Kingdom. They form the 
first Class in the highest group of animals, 
the Subkingdom VERTEBRATA.- 
The body of all vertebrate animals is symmetri- 
cal, or similarly formed on both sides. The many 




Skeleton of Man. 

a. Head. b. c. Vertebral Column, d. Sbouldcr 
i. Pelvis, k. Thigh. 1. Knee-joint, m. Leg 

jointed skeleton forms a bony framework for the 
attachment of the soft muscles, which are covered 
by a continuous skin. The main divisions of the 
body consist of the head, the trunk, and, in most 
cases, of two pairs of limbs. Part of the bones of 
the head compose the skull, which forms a 
hollow case containing the brain, which is 
the main source of perception and motion. 
At the back, the brain is connected with 
the spinal marrow, which lies in a continuous 
cavity in the centre of the vertebrse , or 
bones which form the spine. Beneath the 
spine (or rather, before it in man) and partly 
enclosed by the ribs, we find the lungs, or 
organs of respiration (breathing); the heart, 
the central organ which regulates the circu- 
lation of the blood ; the liver, the pancreas, 
the stomach, the intestines and other organs connected 
with the digestion and assimilation of food. The 

Mainmalia. 



most important organs of sense are in the head. In 
the veins flows red blood. 

The subkingdom Vertebrata is divided into 
five principal classes; Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, 
Amphibia, and Fishes. The general characters of 
the Mammalia may be briefly summed up as follows: 

The Mamma- 
lia are vertebrate 
animals with warm 
red blood, and their 
skin is generally 
clothed with hair. 
They bring fortli 
living young, which 
they suckle. 

We can easily 
acquaint ourselves 
with the general 
structure of the Ver- 
tebrata by examin- 
ing our own bodies. 
In fact, naturalists in- 
clude man in the 
system of nature, 
and place him at 
the head of the ani- 
mal kingdom All 
the organs which 
man possesses are 
found in other mam- 
mals under more or less varying forms. We may 
convince ourselves of this fact if we compare their 



Skeleton of Horse, with outline. 

e. Upper Arm. f. Elbow joint, g. Fore Arm. h. Wrisl. 
n. Ankle, o. Fingers or Toes. \v. Withers (of Horse). 




Internal Anatomy of Dog. 

b. Breastbone, d. Gut. g. Braiji. h. Heart, k. Larynx. 

Ir. Trachea, lu. Lungs, ma. Stomach, rnu. Mouth, na. Nostrils. 

ni. Kidney, r. Spinal Cord. sp. Gullet, u. Bladder. 

skeletons. The other organs of man and animals 
correspond in a similar manner. The organs of sense 

1 



occupy the same positions, and have tlie same functions. 
This is also the case witli tlic internal organs, 
the positions of which may be seen in the accom- 
panying figure. 

The liabits of Mammah'a show tliat they possess 
a certain amount of intelhgence, which may be arti- 
ficially stimulated by man, but which also increases 
with the age and experience of animals. Many 
possess constructive faculties, which they employ in 
making nests or burrows for themselves. Some ani- 
mals have a strong tendency towards migration, which 
is probably increased by scarcity of food. Other 
species hibernate, or sleep through the winter, during 
which time they take no food, their breathing be- 
comes very slow, and the temperature of the blood 
sinks nearly to freezing-point. 

There are no venomous species among mammals, 
but some are dangerous to man from their size and 
strength, while others are destructive to useful crops, 
as well as to the products of human industry. But 
many kinds are useful to man either alive or dead, 
and others are preserved as domestic animals. 

There are about 3000 species of Mammalia 
existing on the earth at present. Besides these, the 
petrified remains of many other species have been dis- 
covered , which throw great light on the former 
history of our earth, and on the present distribution 
and condition of the animal world. 

The organs of animals are all adapted to their 
manner of life. This is especially the case with the 
teeth, and with the organs of motion, which are con- 
sequently of the greatest importance in the classi- 
fication of Mammalia. 

The Teeth of Mammalia. 

The jaws of Mammalia usually contain a scries 

of teeth in separate sockets. A perfectly developed 

tooth is divided into the crown, which is the exposed 

portion; the neck, or the part covered ^^ 

by the gum ; and the roots or fangs, K( 

which are fixed in the jaw. The 

hard portion of the tooth is composed 

of a substance called dentine , or 

ivory, and this encloses a hollow 

called the pulp-cavity, which is filled 

up with nerves and blood-vessels. ^S,*^''°" ?^ ?J°'''''^ 
^ Tooth in Man 

The crown is encompassed by a hard ^ cernent d Dcn- 
substance called enamel , and the ti'ie. e. Enamel 
r 1 1 L 1 , f Fang, k Crown 

fangs are surrounded by a bony crust, jj jjeck p. Pulp- 
known as the cement. cavity. 

According to their shape and position, teeth are 
divided into incisors (cutting-teeth, or front-teeth), 
canines (dog-teeth, or eye-teeth), and molars (back- 
teeth, double teeth, or grinding-teeth). 

The latter are of very different forms, according 
to the food of the animal , and we shall frequently 
have occasion to refer to them. 

The teeth are not always fully developed, accor 
ding to the description which we have given. Thus 





the enamel may be absent (as in the Sloths) or it 
may be absent on one side (as in the incisors of the 
Rodentia). Sometimes, too, the fangs are absent, 
and in this case, the tooth continues to grow during 
the whole life of the animal (as in the incisors of 
the Elephant, and of the Rodentia). On the other 
hand, the enamel may 
penetrate into the den- 
tine, and form several 
layers, which become 
visible on the upper 
surface of the tooth (as Teeth of the left upper jaw in man. 

^ s Incisors, e. Canine lootn. 

in the molars of the b Molars (2 small and i large). 

Rodentia, horses and Ruminating animals). When 
these folds completely cover the divisions of the den- 
tine, we have a compound tooth (Elephant; molars). 
The number of teeth is indicated by a special 

formula. In man this is ^~ ~. ~,~^ or more briefly, 
2-1 — 5 5 — 1 — 4 — 1—5 _ •' ' 

„_j_^ . This means that man possesses on each side 

of each jaw 2 incisors, i canine and 5 molars. The 

first set of teeth, which fall out soon after birth, are 

called milk-teeth. They are only lost a short time, 

and are then replaced by permanent teeth. The 

hinder molars are not found in the set of milk-teeth, 

and therefore are never changed, when once developed. 

The full formula of the milk-teeth in man is as 

,,, 2-1 — 4 — 1 — 2 

follows: a-i„4_i-2 - 

Structure of the Feet in Mammalia. 

If we examine the hands and feet in the ske- 
leton of a man, vi'e shall find that they are composed 
of a considerable number of bones. There are eight 
small bones of about equal size in the wrist, which 
are arranged in two rows. The ankle is composed 
of seven bones , which differ much in size , and the 
largest projects in such a manner as to form the heel. 

The middle of the hand and foot each contain 
five bones. These are jointed to the five fingers 
and toes, each of which is composed of three joints, 
except the thumb and the great toe , which have 
only two. The thumb can be opposed to the fingers. 




Bonos of arm or fore feet of various Mammalia. 

r. Radius, u Ulna a. b c. d. e f. g h. I3ones of Wrist 

1—5 Digits. I Man. II. Dog. Ill Pig. IV Ox V. Tapir. VI Horse. 

and some animals have the power of placing the 

great toe in a similar position, though the foot is 

not thereby converted into a perfect hand. The 

great toe is partially opposible among certain races 

of savages, who sometimes row with their feet; and 



DSt 



3 



instances have occasionally occurred among white 
races, of armless men writing and drawing with 
their toes. When the great toes are oppo ible in 
animals, the feet are termed grasping feet (or more 
usually hands), as in the case of those of apes. 

But the extremities of the limbs of Mammalia 
are not always provided with five moveable toes. 
There may be 4, 3, 2 and even only one toe pre- 
sent, the others being absent or rudimentary. Some 
of these cases are illustrated in the accompanying 
figures. 

The bones of the hands and feet are difterently 
formed in different groups of mammals, and are used 
for various purposes, such as running, leaping, climb- 
ing, digging, flying, swimming, seizing prey, &c. 



The last joints are rarely provided with flat nails, 
as in man. They are more frequently furnished with 
claws (as in beasts of prey), or with a shoe-like hoof 
covering the last joints. Sometimes the last joints 
are unarmed. The feet are also classified according 
to the manner in which animals walk. Either the 
entire surface of the foot touches the ground, as in 
the bear, or only the toes touch the ground, as in 
the cats , while in the horse only the last joint 
touches it. 

Man is frequently regarded as forming the first 
Order of Mammalia. But it will be more convenient 
for us to treat man as forming a separate section in 
the present work. 



MAN. 



(Front 

Man occupies the highest position in nature. 
His reason and power of speech place him far above 
all animals. It is true that some animals are superior 
to him in physical strength , size , and activity , and 
in the keenness of their senses , or in some other 
particulars, but no animal is so symmetrically formed, 
or possesses such a wonderfully constructed hand; no 
animal is fitted to develop its powers in so many 
different directions, and no animal walks upright, 
like man. 

We may enumerate many points in which the 
structure of man differs from that of the other Mam- 
malia. The skull, and the brain which it contains 
form the largest part of the head , the jaws project 
very slightly, if at all, though the nose and chin are 
distinctly prominent ; the forehead is high , and like 
the greater part of the body, is free from hair, while 
the upright position and the strong legs allow the 
hands and arms full liberty of motion. The position 
of the body corresponds with the form of the verte- 



ispiece.) 

brse. The teeth stand close together in a row of 
equal height , and are not separated by any gaps. 
The human body can adapt itself to the most diffe- 
rent climates of the earth, although some races of 
men are better fitted to endure extremes of heat or 
cold than others. 

The human race is scattered over the earth to 
the number of perhaps nearly 1,400,000,000; and we 
meet with such considerable differences among the 
inhabitants of different countries, that we are obliged 
to recognise the existence of several species of man, 
or as we usually prefer to say, of several distinct races. 

The older naturalists classified the races of men 
chiefly by their colour. Thus Blumenbach divided 
men into five races : Caucasians, Mongolians, Ethio- 
pians, Americans and Malays. Cuvier joined the last 
two with the Mongolians , and reduced the number 
to three: White Races, Coloured Races and Black 
Races. Muller, taking language partly into consider- 
ation, admitted twelve races: 



I. Straight -haired Races. 



a) Soft -haired Races (Europe, North- Africa, 
Western Asia). 

1. Mediterranean Race. 

2. Nubian Race. 

3. Dravidian Race (Ceylon and I'urther 
India), 



b) Stiff-haired Races. 

4. Malay Race. 

5. Mongolian Race. 

6. American Race. 

7. Arctic Race (Esquimaux). 

8. Australian Race. 



c) Fleecy-haired Races. 

9. Negroes. 
10. Kaffirs. 



II. Woolly-haired Races. 

d) Bushy-haired Races. 

11. Hottentots. 

12. Papuans. 



Types of these twelve races are shown in 
our Frontispiece 

Recent writers have recognised the extreme 
difficulty of separating mankind into distinct and well- 
defined races, and usually prefer to treat of the in- 
habitants of different parts of the world, or belong- 
ing to well-defined races, separately , rather than to 
attempt a hard-and-fast classification. 

The shape of the skull differs much in different 
races and individuals. When the skull is long in 
proportion to its breadth , it is termed dolichoce- 



phalic , or long-headed ; and when it is short and 
broad, it is called brachycephalic, or short-headed. 
In many of the black races, the jaws project more, 
and the forehead recedes more than in ordinary Eu- 
ropeans, showing a lower grade of development. 

We shall here restrict ourselves to some general 
remarks on the characteristics of the various races, 
according to colour. 

The White Races (fig. i) are of a pale flesh- 
colour, usually termed white, with blonde or dark 
hair, often curly, a large beard, an oval face, a high 



forehead, and a more or less rounded skull. They 
are now met with in every country, and the greater 
part of the world is subject to their power. They, 
however, principally inhabit Europe, North-Africa, 
Arabia and South-Westcrn Asia, as far as India. 

The Coloured Races include the Mongolians, 
Malays, Esquimaux, and native Americans. They 
differ much in colour, some being almost as light as 
Europeans, others reddish (as the Americans) and 
others very dark (as the Malays). The most typical 
Mongolians, the Chinese and Japanese, have a yel- 
lowish skin, oblique eyes, high cheek-bones, straight 
black hair, and a scanty beard. The Coloured Races 
inhabit the whole of Asia , except the south-west ; 
the Malay Islands , the Arctic Regions and America. 
They are also met with, more or less mixed, in many 
parts of Northern and Eastern Europe. Several types 
arc represented in our figures 4 — 7. 

The Black and Brown Races inhabit Africa, 
Australia, New Guinea, Polynesia, and some portions 
of Southern Asia. They differ very much in the form 
of their features , in the character of their hair , and 
in the amount of beard. The most typical African 
Negroes have thick lips, woolly hair, and little or no 
beard ; but in many parts of Africa these characters 



are more or less modified. This is doubtless due, 
at least in part, to admixture with distinct races, as 
for instance, with Arabs. Again, some black races of 
Southern Africa, the Hottentots, Bushmen, Kaffirs, &c., 
differ much from the negroes of tropical, and espe- 
cially Western Africa. 

The Australians have well-developed beards, while 
the hair of the Papuans forms a great mop. 

Illustrations of several of the principal brown 
and black races are given in our figures 2, 3, 8 — 12. 

The great difficulty in arriving at any satis- 
factory classification of the races of men, arises from 
their having become so greatly mixed. Our histories 
tell us much of the immigrations , conquests and 
blendings of various races within the last few cen- 
turies ; but these records are but the latest of a long 
series of similar events. And unless man dwelt iso- 
lated, a race would with difficulty be kept pure ; for 
it is demonstrable by the simplest arithmetical cal- 
culation, and making every allowance for intermarriages, 
that every person now living must have had a great 
number of ancestors living at one time, but a very 
few generations back, all of whom would not be 
likely to belong to the same unmixed race. 



Class MAMMALIA. 



The Class Mammalia is divided into a numbc^ 
of groups, called Orders, which are again divided into 
smaller sections, called Families. 

Animals cannot, however, be arranged in a regu- 
lar series which expresses all their affinities, nor are 
naturalists agreed on the relative importance of all 
the characters by which they are classified. All our 
systems, therefore, must be more or less artificial, 
though many groups , large and small , are perfectly 
natural and circumscribed within themselves. 

The arrangement of Orders which we have 
adopted in the present work, is as follows: 

Order I. Primates (Apes, Monkeys, and Lemurs). 
II. Dcniioptera (Flying Lemurs). 



III. Chiroptcra (Bats). 

IV. Inscctivora (Insect-Eaters). 
V. Carnivora (Flesli-Eaters). 

VI. Pinnepedia (Seals). 

VII. Rodentia (Gnawing Animals). 

VIII. Proboscidca (Elephants). 

IX. Perissodatycla (Rhinoceros, Horse, &c.). 

X. Artiodactyla (Pigs and Hippopotamus). 

XI. Rnininantia (Ruminating Animals). 

XII. Sireuia (Manatees and Dugongs). 

XIII. Cetacea (Whales and Dolphins). 

XIV. Edentata (Toothless Animals). 
XV. Marsupialia (Pouched Animals). 

XVI. Monotremata (O r n i t h o r h y n c h u s and 
Echidna). 



Order I. Primates. 



The apes have either four hands , or feet on 
their front legs and hands on their hind legs. They 
have a full set of teeth, as in man, but not close to- 
gether, their eyes are parallel, and near together, and 
the teats are situated on the breast. They can raise 
themselves upright on their hind legs, like man, and 



walk, though clumsily, but they far surpass man 
and most other mammals in springing and climbing. 
They live chiefly on fruits, but will also eat maggots, 
eggs, and small birds. 

Apes are frequently called Quadriiiunna , or 
Four-handed Animals, from the structure of their limbs. 



Sub-order I. Antliropoidea (Apes and Monkeys). 
Section I. Catarrhini. 



This section includes the apes and monkeys 
of the Old World, which resemble man in having the 
nostrils near together, whereas in all the American 
monkeys, the nostrils are wide apart. 

A few species placed at the head of this division, 
such as the Gorilla , Chimpanzee , Orang-utan and 
Gibbons, arc often called Anthropoid Apes, from their 
general resemblance to man. 



Family SimiidaB. 
(Plate I.) 

The Simiida: arc unprovided with the tail and 
the check-pouches which are found in most other apes 
and monkeys. Their head is round, and though their eyes 
and ears are small, they are formed in the same manner 
as those of man , and the face and breast are bare. 
Their size resembles that of a fairly well grown man. 



The largest and strongest of the Anthropoid 
Apes is the Gorilla {Troglodytes gorilla). Although 
Hanno, the Carthaginian navigator, brought skins to 
Carthage more than 2,000 years ago, which may have 
belonged either to the Gorilla or to the Chimpanzee, 
the Gorilla was quite unknown to modern naturalists 
until 1847, when it was discovered on the west coast 
of tropical Africa. If the Gorilla stood upright, he 
would measure nearly six feet in height. He has a 
long skull, and small cars; and his arms are so long 
that they reach below the knees. He generally goes 
on all fours, or climbs trees, though his short fingers 
are not so well adapted to this purpose as those of 
some other apes. Although the strength and ferocity 
of the Gorilla may have been somewhat exaggerated 
in the earlier accounts, yet he is nevertheless a most 
formidable ani- 
mal , who fears 
neither man nor 
the large beasts 
of prey. When 
young, he lives 
in company, but 
when old in soli- 
tude, and is said 
to construct a 
kind of nest in 
trees. His food 
consists chiefly of 
roots, fruits, and 
the leaves of trees. 

The Chim- 
panzee (Troglody- 
tes niger) is re- 
presented onPlate 
I. fig. a. He is 
noted for his so- 
ciable disposition, 
and for the great 
quickness which 
he exhibits in 
learning to imi- 
tate various hu- 
man actions. He 
grows to the 
height of rather 
less than four feet. 
His body is cover- 
ed with long black 
hair except on 
the face and the 
palms and backs 
of the hands ; the 
lower part of the 

body is also some- Gorilla 

what bare. The Chimpanzee lives in companies 
in the great forests of Upper and Lower Guinea, 
where he is both more widely distributed, and much 
commoner than the Gorilla. He feeds on roots and 
fruits. He passes the day on the ground, but at 
night retires to a nest which he forms in the trees 
at the height of twenty or thirty feet from the ground, 
and which is constructed of interlaced branches. 

The Orang-utan (Simla Satyrus) or Wild Man 
of the Woods, is represented on plate I fig. b. He 
inhabits the marshy forests of the islands of Borneo 
and Sumatra, and lives in the trees. He is about as 
large as a Chimpanzee, but may easily be distinguished 
by his reddish colour, the much longer arms, which 
reach to the ankles, the more raised head, and the 
much more prominent muzzle. 




The Gibbons are distinguished from all the other 
apes, except the Orang-utan, by their very long arms, 
which reach to the ankles when they stand. Only a 
few species are known, which inhabit the East Indies. 
Their man-like faces , and small callosities show 
their affinity to the Orang-utan and Chimpanzee; 
but they are considerably smaller and weaker. The 
long fore limbs and strong hind limbs are preeminently 
adapted for climbing. The chest is broad and prominent. 
The White-handed Gibbon (Hylobates Lar) is 
represented on Plate I fig. c. It is a native of the 
Malay Peninsula, and is one of the most active of 
the whole family, and can easily pass over a space 
of thirty or forty feet in leaping from one tree to 
another. It is very variable in colour. 

The Siamang {Hylobates syiidactybis), represented 

on Plate I. fig, 4 
is the largest and 
stoutest of the 
genus, but is near- 
ly as active as the 
other species. It 
inhabits the fo- 
rests of Sumatra in 
large companies, 
leaping from tree 
to tree, and mak- 
ing the woods 
resound with its 
cries at sunrise 
and sunset. 

Family 

Cercopithecidae. 

(Plate II.) 
The monkeys 
belonging to this 
and the following 
families are no 
longer dignified 
with the title of 
Anthropoid Apes. 
The Cercopithcci- 
dif have a slen- 
der form , long 
limbs, a long tail, 
a short snout, 
small callosities, 
and no cheek- 
pouches. They 
live in troops in 
the forests of 
Southern Asia, 
and feed on 
leaves and fruits. 
One of the most beautiful species is the Hanuman 
Monkey (Scmnopitheais eutellus), which is held sacred 
by the Indians. The original Hanuman is said to have 
been one of the principal heroes in the army of the 
demigod Rama, when he invaded Ceylon at the head 
of an army of bears and monkeys, to make war ui)on 
the giant Ravana , who had carried off Sita , the 
beautiful wife of Rama. 

The Hanuman Monkey is exceedingly intelligent 
and sociable when young, but as it grows older, it 
loses many of its good qualities. Its jaws project, its 
forehead flattens, and it becomes heavy and stupid. 
Similar changes take place, with increasing age, in 
many other monkeys. (Figured on p. 6.) 

The species of Cercopithecus somewhat resemble 
cats in their outward appearance. Their long tail, large 



b' 



cheek-pouches, and large callosities show that they are 
far inferior in structure to the apes represented on 
Plate I. But they are not inferior to them in intelli- 
gence, and theii acti\ ity and clc\ ci ness in many respects 




H u uii] 11 \li iikej 
are truly surprrsmg. They mhabit Africa, where they 
live in large troops under the leadership of an old male. 
They wander through the woods and fields, and commit 
great depredations in the plantations of the natives. 

One of the species most frequently seen in 
Europe is the Green Monkey (Ccrcopitliccus sabaiis) 
figured on Plate II. fig. b. It has often been known 
to breed in captivity, when well taken care of. It 
is a native of Western Africa. 

The species of the genus Macacus and its 
allies form a small group inhabiting Southern Asia 
and Africa. The snout is much more prominent than 
in Ccrcopithccus, and the tail is long in some species, 
and short, or even almost wanting in others. The 



only Ouadrumanous animal which now inhabits Eu- 
rope in a wild state , is the Barbary Ape (Iiiuns 
ccandaUis) figured on Plate II. fig. f. A colony of 
this animal (whether originally introduced, or actually 
wild is not certainly known) inhabits the almost in- 
accessible cliffs of the Rock of Gibraltar, where they 
are strictly preserved by the authorities. They 
are much more abundant in the rocky districts of 
North Africa , where they climb about searching for 
worms and insects ; but they will also feed on fruits. 

The Baboons are the largest Quadrumana ex- 
cept the Anthropoid Apes. They have a compactly- 
formed body, their limbs are short, strong, and ex- 
tremely muscular , and their callosities are hideous. 
Their long snout has some resemblance to that of a 
dog ; and hence they are called Cynocephali , or 
"Dog-headed" Baboons. But they have no resem- 
blance to dogs in their character , for though they 
are very intelligent , they display all the worst ten- 
dencies of mankind in a distorted and exaggerated 
form. They live in large companies in the moun- 
tains of Northern and Southern Africa, where they 
feed on the roots , fruits , worms and insects, which 
they find among the rocks. 

The Baboon (Cynoccplialus Bahuin) figured on 
Plate 11. fig. c. is a short-haired animal with a long 
tail. It is found in company with other species in 
great abundance in Abyssinia , Kordofan , and other 
countries of Central Africa. They live among the 
rocks , and seldom climb trees. Full-grown males 
attain the size of a large dog, and display great 
strength and courage in their encounters with other 
animals. The Baboon is an intelligent creature, and 
can easily be taught a variety of tricks. 

The Mandrill (Papio Maimon) figured on Plate II. 
fig. d., and its near ally the Drill (I-\ Ieucoph(Ftis) are 
remarkable for their short stumpy tails. They live 
in troops on the Gold Coast, and inhabit forests in 
mountainous regions, where they seek for food among 
the trees and rocks. The face and rump are adorned 
with red and blue., but this only adds to the hideous 
appearance of these animals. They are fairly tract- 
able when young, but as they grow older, they be- 
come vicious and ferocious, and their great strength 
renders them dangerous even to their keepers, and 
much more so to strangers. But it is never prudent 
to go very near the cages and dens in menageries 
and Zoolo"ical Gardens 



Section II. 

This section includes the Monkeys of the New 
World. Their nostrils are wide apart, and they have 
four molar teeth more than man. They differ much 
from the apes of the Old World. They are usually 
of small size , and of slender proportions , and their 
long prehensile tail is used to assist them in climbing. 
None of them possess a projecting snout, cheek- 
pouches, or callosities. They inhabit the great forests 
of South America, and are only to be found where 
water is plentiful. 

Family Cebidas. 

(Plates II. III.) 

The Black and Red Howling Monkeys (Mycctcs 
niger, Plate II. fig. e. ; and M. scnicidns , Plate III. 
fig. a.) are very similar in size, shape and habits. 
They measure about a foot and a half in length, 
without reckoning the tail. Their body is compact, 
their head large , and the face ornamented with 
a large beard, especially in the males. But they arc 



Platyrrhini. 

more especially remarkable for a drum-like enlarge- 
ment of the bone of the tongue, and for the expansion 
of the larynx into six cavities, which receive the air 
when they cry out; and this produces a continuous 
howl which can be heard for more than a mile away. 
The Howling Monkeys feed on the leaves of trees, 
and rarely descend to the ground. If they wish to 
pass from one tree to another , they often suspend 
themselves by the tail , and swing themselves back- 
wards and forwards till they can grasp another branch. 
They do not make long leaps. 

The Capuchin Monkeys form another group. 
Among these are Ccbus Apdla, Plate II. fig. a. and 
C. capucinns , Plate III. fig. b. , which are so often 
brought to Europe, to be exhibited in Menageries, 
or carried about by Italian organ-grinders, that they 
must be well known to everybody. They are natur- 
ally gentle, and attached to their keepers, and are 
by no means deficient in intelligence. 

The Squirrel-Monkeys are lively little animals. 



distinguished by their slender bodies and limbs, and 
by their long slender tail. The best known species 
is Callithrix schirea, Plate III. fig. c, which lives in 
trees in Guiana. It is perhaps the prettiest of all 
the American monkeys, and much resembles a squirrel 
in its habits and movements. It passes the day in 
the trees, in large companies, especially frequenting 
the summits, where it is very active. 

Family Hapalidae. 

(Plate III.) 
The Marmosets have claws instead of nails on 
the toes of all their feet, except on the great toes of 
the hind feet , which resemble hands more than their 



fore feet. They live in the summits of trees , and 
are very timid animals. The two principal genera 
are Hapak and Midas. The first is provided with 
tufts of hair in the ears, and the second has long hair 
round the face instead. 

The Lion Tamarin (Midas rosalia , Plate III. 
fig. d.) is one of the prettiest and most elegant ani- 
mals which inhabit the forests of Brazil and Guiana. 
These Tamarins have a reddish-yellow mane , with 
a golden lustre at the ends of the hairs. They 
leap about from tree to tree like squirrels and lay 
themselves flat against the branches in the same 
manner. Their beauty and confiding ways render 
them very attractive in captivity. 



Sub-order 11. 



The Lemurs are 
nocturnal animals which 
inhabit Africa (especially 
Madagascar) and the larger 
Asiatic islands. Their form 
is somewhat interme-, 
diate between monkt \ s ' 
and cats. They are sma 
slender animals 



Lemuroidea. 

(Plate III.) 



(Lemurs.) 



and the Vs 



head resembles that of a ^• 
fox. The great toe is^fe'' 
opposible both on the fou ^'^ 
and hind limbs , and 



the toes, except the seconi 
toe of the hind foot, . 
provided with flat nails 

The best known_ 
genus is Lemur. We^ 
have figured the Maki fe^^^S-' ^^5, » 
(Lamirmacaco) on PlatcIII. f^m^^^ 
fig. e., which is a slender l^uii.^.jf\^ 
animal, about the size of ~ 

a cat, with fine woolly fur, 
and a bushy tail. Durmg 
the day it hides in hollow 
trees , but comes out 
about sunset, and wanders 
through the woods in 




Slender Loris. 



troops of about thirty or 
forty. It feeds on fruits, 
small birds, eggs &c., and 
inhabits Madagascar. 

Another species, the 
Slender Loris {Loris gra- 
cilis) is represented in the 
accompanying woodcut. 
It is scarcely as large as 
a squirrel, and has slender 
limbs, no tail, very large 
eyes, and long silky fur, 
which is dull reddish grey 
and yellowish brown above, 
but is greyish and pale 
yellowish on the under- 
surface. This charming 
little animal inhabits the 
forests of Southern India 
and Ceylon, and Blanford 
states that the eyes are a 
favourite prescription with 
the Tamil doctors for dis- 
eases of the eyes. It sleeps 
in hollo w trees by day, com- 
ing out in the evening to 
feed on leaves, fruits, in- 
sects &c. 



Order II. Dermoptera. (Flying Lemurs.j 



(Plate IV.) 



This Order contains only the Galcopithccida:, 
animals which have been regarded by various authors 
as allied to the Lemurs, the Bats, and the Insectivora. 
They are slender creatures about the size of a cat, 
with a pointed muzzle, teeth irregularly arranged, and 
a w'ide membrane which encompasses the whole ani- 
mal, including the limbs and tail. This skin is covered 
with hair on both sides , and does not form an ar- 
rangement for flight, as in the bats, but serves rather 
as a parachute. 



The Flying Lemur (Gakopit/iccns volans, Plate 
IV. fig. f ) inhabits Malacca, the Philippines, the Ma- 
layan and Sunda Islands &c. These animals vary 
much in size and colour, and it is still uncertain 
whether there are several species, or only one. They 
begin to grow active at night , like bats , when they 
crawl slowly to the tops of the trees, with the aid 
of their long claws , in search of fruit and insects. 
Large specimens attain the length of nearly two feet. 



Order III. Chiroptera. (Bats.) 



(Plate IV.) 



The Bats are frequently placed near the Apes, 
an account of their resemblance to them in general 
form , notwithstanding the difference in their organs 
of locomotion. Like the Apes, also, they have two 
teats placed on the breast. Bats do not fly like birds, 



by mea^s of feathers, and air-channels in the bones, 
but owe their extreme swiftness of flight to a skin 
which spreads between the enormously-lengthened 
fingers of their front limbs, and extends between their 
front and hind extremities , and between the latter 



8 



and the tail. The Bats have a perfectly regular set 
of teeth of the three usual kinds . resembling the 
teeth of the Insectivora. They have all large ears, 
furnished with various kinds of appendages Many 
species are provided with similar excrescences on 
the nose. The neck is short and thick , the mouth 
wide , and the large muscles of the chest are enor- 
mously developed. All their senses are very acute, 
especially that of touch 

At the "approach of twilight , they come forth 
from their hiding-places, some earlier and some later, 
to perform their rapid evolutions in the air ; and 
they devour immense quantities of insects during the 
night. A few species only feed on fruits. When 
cold weather sets in , some migrate southwards, but 
most of our indigenous species pass the winter in 
caves and clefts, where they may sometimes be seen 
hanging by hundreds together in a state of torpor. 

The Bats have been divided into many families, 
several of which are represented on our plate. 

The Fruit-eating Bats (Pteropidce) are found in 
Eastern Africa and Southern Asia. They fly about 
at night , and feed on sweet and juicy fruits , often 
doing much damage. By day they sleep suspended 
to the branches of trees by their hind limbs. They 
are generally called Flying Foxes or Flying Dogs, 
from the resemblance of their heads to those of these 
animals. 

The largest of all the Bats is the Great Kalong 
(Pteropus edulis, Plate IV. fig. a.) which measures more 
than a foot in length , and four feet or more across 
the wings. The muzzle is pointed , and resembles 
that of a dog. The membrane is deeply concave 
between the hind legs , whereas in the common 
Bats it forms a kind of pocket. The tail is 
entirely wanting. It is very abundant in the Indian 
islands, and very destructive to orchards. 

Some American bats are in the habit of sucking 
blood from animals which they find sleeping by night ; 
and this habit is generally attributed to the Brazilian 
Vampire Bat {Vampynis spectrum) figured on Plate IV. 



fig. b., as a representative of the family /"////oj/yw/rtft?-. 
It hides in clefts and caverns by day, but by night it 
flies round trees in search of insects and fruits. It 
is said to attack birds and beasts , and to suck 
their blood from a small wound. Whether it really 
possesses this habit , or whether the injury inflicted 
by other Bats which certainly indulge in it, has been 
erroneously attributed to this species , as the largest 
found in the country , is perhaps still uncertain. It 
measures six inches in length, and two feet or more 
across the wings. 

The Great Horse-Shoe Bat (Rhinoloplnts fcrnim- 
cquinuiu, Plate IV, fig. e.), our representative of the 
Rliiiiolophida, is tolerably common in Europe. It is 
remarkable for the curious projection on the nose, 
in which a horse-shoe proper, besides a longitudinal 
ridge and a lanceolate point may be traced. This 
species measures two inches and a half in length, 
and the wings expand upwards of a foot. The Horse- 
Shoe Bats are the nearest European representatives 
of the Brazilian Vampire. On account of their short 
wing-membrane, their flight is less rapid than that of 
other Bats. 

The Vi'spciiilionidcr have no excrescence on 
the nose , but there is a raised leaf-like expansion 
on the inside of the ears, which in some species are 
connected together. Their senses of hearing and 
touch are very highly developed ; and their flight is 
rapid and well-sustained. They feed entirely on in- 
sects. Most European bats belong to this family. 

The Noctule (Vcspcriigo noctiila, Plate IV. fig. c.) 
is very widely distributed over Europe , Asia and 
Africa , except in the high north. It is a common 
species in England, and measures about three inches 
in length. 

The Long-eared Bat (Plccotns anritiis, Plate IV. 
fig. d.) is common in England , and may easily be 
recognised by its enormously long ears, with an inner 
tongue-like fold. It does not appear till rather late 
at night, and flics high, but not so rapidly and easily 
as the last species mentioned. It is also rather smaller. 



Order IV. Insectivora. (Insect-Eaters.) 



(Plate 
The Insect-eating Mammals arc small animals, 
of a compact and comparatively robust shape. 
The snout is frequently produced into a sort of 
proboscis, and the teeth are always regular, and 
extremely sharp. The limbs are short, but the tail 
is often long They are not remarkable for their 
intelligence. They live a retired life in holes and 
other hiding places , but some frequent the water, 
while others again are found on trees. In cold and 
temperate climates they generally sleep through the 
winter, but in warmer climates they are always active. 
They are very useful animals, which destroy immense 
numbers of insects, snails &c., and they should there- 
fore to be encouraged and protected. 

The Hedgehogs (Erinaccidw) are stout slow- 
moving animals with strong teeth, very short legs, 
an obtuse tail, and a skin on which the hairs are 
more or less converted into stiff spines. They are 
able to roll themselves up into a ball when alarmed, 
by means of strong muscles. They feed by night 
on insects and small birds, as well as on fruits and 
roots, but they sleep by day, and through the winter. 
The Hedgehog (lirinaccus cnropmns , Plate X. 
fig. c) is an inofTcnsive animal mcasuriiftr about ten 



X.) 

inches in length. The female is rather larger and 
stronger than the male. It has a small head with 
a long snout, and short, broad ears, a defensive suit 
of armour formed of strong sharp spines, covering 
the whole body except on the belly, and short legs, 
with five toes armed with sharp claws. It is very 
timid , and rarely emerges from its hiding place till 
late in the evening. It generally takes up its abode 
cither in thick bushes , in a hole , or in the cleft of 
a rock. It relics chiefly on its senses of smell and 
hearing in its search for the insects, mice, birds &c. 
on which it feeds, ft)r its sight is weak, and its sense 
of feeling remarkably dull. 

In the Soricidoc , or Shrew Mice , the head is 
long, the teeth are regular and sharply-pointed, the 
body is slender, and the tail long. They are found 
in all parts of the world, and burrow, run, climb or 
swim well , according to the requirements of their 
mode of life. They feed on insects and other small 
animals. Although they much resemble mice in size 
and shape , they have no real relationship to them, 
as the true mice belong to the Rodentia , a very 
different Order of mammals. 

The Shrew-mouse (Sorer vulgaris, Plate X. 



9 



fitj. f.) is the smallest of all known mammals, measuring 
only about two inches and a half in length, including 
the tail, which is one-third of the length of the body. 
But it is not inferior to the other Shrew-mice in 
courage and voracity. It is found in all the coun- 
tries which are washed by the Adriatic Sea. 

The Water-Shrew (Crossopiis fodiens , Plate X. 
fig. e) is remarkable for its great activity and its 
elegant movements both in the water and on land. 
It is three inches in length without the tail, which is nearly 
as long as the body. Its soft fur is black above and 
white beneath. The undersurface of its toes is fur- 
nished with long stiff hairs, which spread out in the 
water, and greatly assist it in swimming. 

The Jalpidic, or Moles have a head produced 
into a long snout, and not separated from the body 
by a narrower neck. The tail is either very short, 



or wholly absent. The legs are short, and the fore 
legs are specially adapted for digging. Their eyes 
and external ears are extremely small, but their hear- 
ing is good, and their senses of touch and smell still 
better. They dig galleries in the earth in search of 
worms and insects, and cast up small hillocks in the 
process. 

The common Mole (Talpa atropcra, Plate X. 
fig. g.) is an extremely quarrelsome and voracious 
creature, which cannot even tolerate the presence of 
the female except during the pairing season. It has 
always been a disputed point as to whether the mole 
was an injurious or a beneficial animal, and in some 
countries it is protected , and in others persecuted. 
The Mole is common in most parts of Europe , but 
it is somewhat strange that it should be absent from 
Ireland. 



Order V. Carnivora. (Flesh-Eaters.) 



No order of animals exhibits so perfect an 
adaptation of structure to habits as the Carnivora. 
They all possess symmetrical bodies, a powerful set 
of pointed and cutting teeth , and four or five toes 
on each foot, furnished with strong claws. In most 
cases, all the organs of sense are equally well deve- 
loped, but sometimes one sense surpasses the others 
in acuteness. The Carnivora are strong and intelli- 
gent, and feed chiefly on other animals, which they 
overcome by their combined strength, craft and cunning. 
They also feed occasionally on vegetable matters. 

Family Felida. (Cats.) 
(Plates VII. VIII.) 

This family is the most typical and highly de- 
veloped of the whole Order ; and all the animals 
which are included in it exhibit a structure similar 
to that of the common cat. The head is large, and 
the eyes oblique , with a long pupil , which widens 
with ihe increase of darkness. The projecting upper 
lip is provided with a fringe of strong bristles, called 
vibrissse (or, more popularly, whiskers) connected 
with fine nerves which render them delicate organs 
of touch. The teeth are strong and sharp, especially 
the canines. The body is long, and the skin, which 
lies very loosely over the body, is clothed with soft 
hair ; some species are provided with a mane. The 
legs are very powerful , and the feet are armed 
with retractile claws. The tail is long , and some- 
times tufted. Their tread is light and inaudible. They 
feed chiefly on birds and mammals. Their senses are 
all well developed, especially sight and hearing. They 
are di.stributed over the Old and New Worlds ; but 
all Cats like warmth. 

The Lion and Lioness (Fclis Ico) are represented 
on Plate VII. figs. a. and b. The Lion, though not 
quite so large as the largest Tigers , is a majestic 
animal , and his mane makes him appear larger 
than he really is. However, the mane ditiers 
considerably in length in different individuals. The 
largest lions measure nine or ten feet in length from 
the snout to the end of the tail , and stand nearly 
four feet high. The body is compact, the chest full 
and broad , and the legs very strong. The colour 
is tawny, and the long flowing mane which extends 
over the neck, shoulders and chest, is blackish. The 
end of the tail is also ornamented with a blackish 
tuft. The lioness is rather smaller, and is ma.icless ; 
and very young lions exhibit traces of spots. 



The Lion reigns supreme throughout the con- 
tinent of Africa , where his imposing presence and 
terrible roar strike terror into all animals. In Asia, 
he is confined to the south-west, and extends as far 
as India , where he is rare. He inhabited Greece 
during historic times ; and there is little doubt that 
he must have been common in the greater part 
of Central and Southern Europe at a somewhat earliei 
period. 

The Tiger (Fc/is tigris , Plate VII. fig. c.) is 
more slenderly formed than the lion, but fully equals 
him in size. In fact, very large specimens have been 
stated to measure twelve feet in length. He is much 
more savage and dangerous than the lion, and equally 
strong. Many more human beings fall victims to 
tigers than to lions, especially to those which happen 
to have acquired a taste for human flesh , and seek 
it habitually as their favourite food. Such tigers are 
called "man-eaters", and are the pests of the 
neighbourhood which they infest, until they are hunted 
down and killed. The tiger inhabits the greater pari 
of Southern Asia , and the islands of Java and Su- 
matra. His range extends to the north in Eastern 
Asia as far as the river Amoor, on the fron- 
tiers of China and Russia. The winter in this region 
is very severe , and the tigers which are there met 
with are more thickly furred than those of Southern 
Asia. 

The skin of the tiger is soft and loose , and 
the colour is reddish, with black stripes; the under 
parts are white. The head is round, and the checks 
are ornamented with a greyish-white beard, which is 
more developed in the male than in the female. The 
tail is not tufted. Notwithstanding the conspicuous 
character of the colours of the tiger , they are said 
to harmonise so well with the prevailing hues and 
lights and shadows of the jungles which he inhabits, 
that he is sufficiently well concealed from his prey. 

One of the most beautiful cats of the Old 
World is the Leopard, or jianthcr (Fiiis pardiis, 
Plate VIII. fig. a). He is common throughout Africa, 
Southern Asia, Ceylon, Java &c. The ground-colour 
is a fine reddish or yello-wish, shading into white 
beneath, marked all over with black rings. His shape 
is elegant , and his movements are extremely light 
and graceful. He is one of the most crafty ani- 
malsof the catkind. Black leopards arc occasionally 
met with, in which the spots are almost lost in the 
dark ground colour ; they are most common in Java, 



10 



The leopard varies considerably in size , but large 
specimens do not exceed 7 or 8 feet in length. He 
is a tree-climbing animal , and feeds on birds , mon- 
keys &c. 

The largest and most formidable of the American 
Fclidce is the Jaguar (Felis onca, Plate VII. fig. d). 
He inhabits the whole of South America, except 
])crhaps the extreme south; as well as Mexico, and 
some of the bordering districts of North America. 
He prefers thick forests, especially in the neighbour- 
hood of rivers, where he feeds on animals which 
come to drink. He much resembles the Leopard in 
his markings , but considerably exceeds him in size. 
He is a very destructive animal, and is much dreaded 
by the inhabitants in neighbourhoods where he is 
common. 

The Puma (Fclis concolor, Plate VIII. fig. b) 
is sometimes called the American Lion on account 
of his tawny colour , but he is white beneath , and 
has no mane. He is a sleek slenderly-formed animal, 
with a comparatively small head witli greyish mark- 
ings, strong paws also varied with white, and a slender 
tail, without a tuft. He is a much smaller and weaker 
animal than the Jaguar, which is sometimes not much 
inferior in size to the Tiger of the Old World. I le 
feeds chiefly on small animals, but is very destructive 
to sheep , of which he will destroy a large number 
in a single night. 

The Lynxes, which some writers consider to 
form a separate genus, are distinguished from the 
other Cats by their short tail, and the peculiar tufts 
on their ears. They are found in many parts of the 
world , but in Europe they are now restricted to 
thinly-jxipulated and mountainous regions. 

The European lynx (Felis lynx, Plate VIII. 
fig. c) inhabits the greater part of Europe and Northern 
and Central Asia , as far as the Himalayas. Its fur 
is soft and thick, and it varies very much in colour, 
but is usually of a more or less reddish grey, with 
darker spots ; the undersurface of the body is generally 
white. The head is surrounded with thick greyish- 
brown hair, varied with white , and the ear-tufts are 
black. It hides itself in woods among the trees and 
rocks, and feeds on small animals and birds. When 
it attacks a flock of sheep or goats , it is often as 
destructive as the American Puma. 

The true Cats are the smallest of the family 
Fclida.', to which they have given their name. Their 
ears are not tufted. They are not found in America 
or Australia. 

The Wild Cat {Fclis cattis , Plate VIII. fig. d) 
is distinguished from the domestic cat by its generally 
larger size (about three feet from the tip of the nose 
to the end of the tail); its thicker fur, and especially 
by its short thick tail. The male is grey, and the 
female yellowish. A black stripe runs down the back, 
from which dark stripes descend on the sides and 
tail. The undersurface of the body is paler ; and the 
throat is yellowish white. 

The Wild Cat is a fierce and untameable ani- 
mal, which inhabits forests throughout Europe and 
Northern Asia; in Southern Asia it is replaced by 
other allied species. It feeds on small animals and 
birds. In the British Isles it is very nearly extinct ; 
for though the Common Cat often runs wild , it is 
not the same species as the indigenous Wild Cat. 

The Common Cat (Fclis donicstica, Plate VIII. 
fig. e) is too well known to need description, and 
varies very much in size and colour. Some specimens 
equal if not exceed the Wild Cat in size. The Cat 
is a very sociable and intelligent animal, and is com- 



monly supposed to be more attached to its abode 
than to the family with whom it resides. 

Eamily Hyaetlidae. (Hyaenas.) 

(Plate IX.) 

The Hya;nas have a large head and thick neck, 
oblique eyes , and a bristly body , with a stiff mane 
on the back. The front legs are longer than the 
hind ones ; and this causes the body to slope from 
front to back. All these peculiarities combined render 
the Hyaena a peculiarly repulsive-looking animal. 
There are three very similar species , which inhabit 
Asia and Africa. They are cowardly, skulking crea- 
tures , but very greedy, and they feed on the flesh 
of animals which they find dead, as well as on those 
which they are able to kill for themselves. 

The commonest species is the Striped Hyaena 
(Hycrna striata , Plate IX. fig. a). It is common in 
Northern Africa, and throughout South-Western Asia 
to India. It measures about five feet in length , ot 
which the tail occupies 18 inches. It is of a yellowish 
white or grey colour with dark transverse stripes ; 
its ears are naked and erect. It lives chiefly on 
carrion, and when it attacks living animals, it always 
avails itself of the darkness of night. 

The Spotted Hyaena (Crocuta iiiacnlata, Plate IX. 
fig. b) is a larger and stronger animal than the last, 
and when pressed by hunger , far more dangerous, 
although carrion forms its ordinary food. The colour 
of its bristly hide is a dirty yellowish grey, with 
brown spots on the sides and legs. This animal 
is abundant throughout Southern and Eastern Africa. 

Family Viverridse. (Civets.) 
(Plate V.) 

The Civet Cats and Ichneumons are all com- 
paratively small animals, differing from the true Cats 
in their shorter legs, longer body, and more pointed 
muzzle. 

The Common Genet (Plate V. fig. a) is a yellowish 
grey animal, with dark patches, which is domesticated 
in Southern Europe like a cat to destroy rats and 
mice &c. It measures 18 inches in length, without 
the tail. 

The Ichneumon (Hcrpcstcs Ichneumon) was one 
of the sacred animals of the ancient Egyptians. It 
preys upon small mammals and birds, but also de- 
stroys snakes and crocodile's eggs. Its dark colour 
harmonises well with that of dry reeds and grass. 
It measures upwards of three feet in length, including 
the tail. We have figured a similar but rather larger 
species, Ic//ncuiiion j^alcra, the Swamp) Ichneumon 
(Plate V. fig. b) which is also a native of Africa. 

Several species of Ichneumon are. found in India 
and the adjacent islands , where they are generally 
termed iMungooses. They are considerably smaller 
than the African species, but render equal service to 
man by destroying rats, snakes and other vermin, 
and are easily tamed. They are said to derive their 
name from a jilant called "Mungo", which they seek 
out as an antidote when bitten by snakes ; but this 
story is now generally regarded as a fable. One 
species of Mungoose , Hcrpcstcs javanictis , a native 
of Java, is figured on Plate V. fig. c. 

Family Canidae. (Dogs.) 

(Plates IX. X.) 

]\Iost dogs have a rather small head, a pointed 

snout, a slender body, contracteii at the loins, slender 

legs, and small paws , the fore paws furnished with 



11 



five blunt claws, and tlic hind paws with fuur. The 
claws are not retractile, and the tail is genesaliy 
rather short and sometimes bushy. Their senses are 
highly developed, especially those of smell and hear- 
ing. They e.xcel in burrowing, coursing and swim- 
ming, and they are highly intelligent. They are not 
confined to a flesh diet, like the cats, but will some- 
times feed on vegetable matters, and the tame dog 
will eat anything. They are found all over the world. 
Dogs and wolves have a long skull, a project- 
ing muzzle, and the pupils of their eyes are round. 
Their sense of smell is very acute, and by this they 
track their prey. They feed on the flesh of mammals, 
birds and fish, and appear to have a strong taste for 
carrion. They have all a great liking for company, 
and the wild species assemble in large packs. The 
dogs, unlike the hyaenas, usually hunt their prey by 
daylight. 

The Dog (Cam's domcsticiis) is the type of the 
family. To this species all our tame dogs, however 
different in size, .shape and character belong. They 
all resemble each other in their affection for man, 
and their liking for his society. They were among 
the first animals which man succeeded in taming, 
and have been in constant companionship with him 
fromtimesloncf 
anterior to the 
dawn of his- 
tory. They 
are among the 
most highly 
intelligent of 
all animals, be- 
ing gifted with 
quick percep- 
tion , and a 
considerable 
amount of un- 
derstanding. 
Their bodily 
powers are 
likewise con- 
siderable; their 
swiftness is 
only equalled 
by their en- 
durance , and 
their strength 
by their sagacity , and thus they are able to make 
themselves very useful to their masters. In the East, 
where the dog is not taken into companionship, large 
troops wander about the towns, and join the vultures 
in acting the part of scavengers. 

The Greyhound (Plate IX. fig. c) is only valued 
for hunting, especially in grassy places. His form is 
well adapted for speed, and he may easily be recog- 
nised by his long slender body and legs , his long 
pointed muzzle, his large chest, and narrow loins. His 
sight and hearing are very acute , but his sense of 
smell is not so highly developed as in some of the 
other dogs. The different varieties of Greyhounds 
vary much in size. The tail is carried curved up at 
the extremity. 

The Pointer (Plate IX. fig. d) is a strongly- 
built dog of moderate size ; the skull is arched , the 
ears long and drooping, and the tail long and broad. 
The colour differs much. These dogs are trained to 
track birds, and to call their master's attention to 
them by bending one of their fore legs. 

The Wolf (Canis Lupus , Plate IX. fig. e) has 
a bushy drooping tail . whereas a dog often carries 




Arctic Fox. 



his tail upright or curled, generally towards the left 
side. The wolf's head is broad and thick, his eyes 
are oblique, and his short ears are erect. His lithe 
body is slenderer at the loins. He measures about 
four feet and a half to the end of the tail, and stands 
considerably over two feet in height. His colour is 
a mi.xture of yellow , grey and brownish red Not- 
withstanding his great strength, he is a cowardly 
creature, and never risks his life unless pressed by 
extreme hunger. His voice is a frightful howl. He 
inhabits thick forests or desolate wastes , and is 
found throughout Europe, North Africa, and Northern 
and Central Asia. He has been extinct in the British 
Islands, where he formerly abounded, for nearly two 
centuries. 

The Jackal (Canis aureus, Plate X. fig. a) much 
resembles a dog with a bushy tail tipped with long 
hair , and measures about three feet and a half in 
length, including the tail. The head is intermediate 
in form between that of the dog and the wolf, and 
the tail hangs down nearly to the ground. The 
colour is greyish yellow, varied with black on the 
back, and the undersurface is reddish yellow. The 
Jackal is more of a nocturnal animal than the wolf, 
and in this , he resembles the fo.x , whose place he 

fills in Eastern 
countries. He 
inhabitsSouth- 
Eastern Euro- 
pe, North Af- 
rica and South- 
western Asia 
as far as Cey- 
lon. He is 
distinguished 
iom the fox 
:.y his long 
slender snout, 
the long ob- 
lique pupils of 
his eyes, and 
his longer tail, 
w'ith longer 

and more 
bushy hair. 

The Fox 
(Vulpcs vul- 
garis, Plate X. 
fig. b) has been proverbial for his slyness , cunning 
and audacity, from the earliest times. He is found 
throughout the northern parts of the world. He is 
not particular about his food , but will eat anything 
he can get. He generally spends the day in a burrow 
which he has either dug for himself or appropriated, 
and does not set out on his predatory e.xcursions 
till dusk. 

The Arctic Fox (Vulpcs lagopus) is found in 
the regions near the North Pole. He is grey in 
summer , and white in winter. He lives in troops, 
like the wolf and jackal, and thus differs from our 
Common Fox, who prefers a solitary life. He is rather 
smaller than the Common Fox. 

Family Ursidse. (Bears.) 
(Plate XI.) 
The Bears have a large head , a rather broad 
muzzle, short ears, and small eyes. Their thick hair 
makes them look larger than they really are. Their 
feet are armed with five strong claw's , which are 
not retractile. Their canine teeth are large, and the 
molars are furnished with blunt protuberances. This 



12 



shows that the Bears are not confined to an exclu- 
sively carnivorous diet. Their senses of smell and 
hearing are well developed. 

The Bears generally live singly, but are some- 
times met with in small companies. They are found 
in Europe, Asia, and North America. 

The Black Bear (Urstcs amcricanns, Plate XI. 
fig. a.,) inhabits the thick forests of North America, 
especially near the banks of rivers. He is generally 
looked upon as a harmless creature , and as much 
less formidable than the Brown Bear of Europe, 
although he equals him in size. The American Bear 
is shining black, with only a little yellow skin on 
the sides of his muzzle. His head is more pointed, 
and the soles of his feet are shorter than in the 
European Bear. 

The Brown Bear (Ursus arctos, Plate XI, fig. b) 
measures upwards of five feet in length, and three 
in height. His muzzle is conical, and clothed with 
shorter hair than the rest of his body. He is covered 
with long shaggy brown hair , but his colour varies 
a little according to age and locality. When young, 
he feeds chiefly on vegetable food, but as he grows 
older, he becomes dangerous to wild and tame ani- 
mals of all kinds, and makes himself a pest to the neigh- 
bourhood. Bear-hunting is dangerous, but very profit- 
able, for the flesh is considered a dainty and the 
hide is also valuable. At present the Bear is rarely 
met with in Europe except among high mountains. 
In Roman times, British bears were much prized in 
the amphitheatre for their strength and ferocity ; but 
they became extinct in England about the time of 
the Norman Conquest. 

The Polar Bear {Ursus viaritinins , Plate XI. 
fig. c) may be distinguished by his long body, coni- 
cal head, and the web between the toes of his great 
broad feet. He is while in colour, and a fullgrown 
animal is much larger and heavier than the largest 
Brown Bear. 

The Polar Bear only inhabits the icy coasts 
of the Arctic Ocean, but is often drifted far to the 
south on floating icebergs. Although he looks so 
bulky, he can run very fast, and is an excellent 
swimmer. He is a bold animal , and his strength 
renders him regardless of danger. He feeds on 
everything which the sea and coast will furnish. 

Family PrOCyOtlitlae. (Raccoons). 
(Plate XI.) 

The type of this family is the well known 
Raccoon {Frocyon lotor, Plate XI. fig. d) a common 
animal in North-America. Its broad head projects 
into a short muzzle , its body resembles that of a 
badger, and it has a broad bushy tail. The animal 
is about two feet long, exclusive of the tail. It 
generally spends the day in a hollow tree, and does 
not go in search of food till nightfall. When it is 
not hungry, it has the peculiar habit of washing all 
its food with its fore paws before eating it. 

Family Mustelidae. (Weasels.) 
(Plates V VI XII.) 

The Mnstelidcc or Weasels are found in all 
parts of the world , except Australia. They are 
generally small or moderate-sized animals , with a 
tmall head, a long slender body, short legs, very 
sharp teeth, and non-retractile claws. Their fur is 
close and fine. There are glands near the tail which 
emit a very offensive odour. They are found in 
lonely forests, as well as in the neighbourhood of 



human dwellings. They are very active arfd grace- 
ful in their movements, and generally swim with ease. 

The Pine Marten (Mitstc/a viarUs , Plate V. 
fig. d) is found throughout Europe, as well as in 
some parts of Northern Asia and America. It fre- 
quents thick woods and forests , where it makes its 
abode in hollow trees, squirrels' nests &c. It leaps, , 
climbs, and swims well, and is a very cunning and 
audacious robber, from which no weaker animal is 
secure. Including the tail, the Pine Marten measures 
fully two feet and a quarter in length. Its fine soft 
fur is dark brown above and yellowish on the back 
and sides. 

The Beech Marten (Miistcia foiua PI. V. fig. e) 
is smaller ; the head is longer and the chestnut-brown 
fur is shorter. The neck and chest are white. The 
Beech Marten likes to make its abode in old walls 
and barns, and is therefore more often found near 
human dwellings than the Pine Marten. It can be 
tamed when taken young , but is less frequently 
kept in confinement than the Ferret. 

The Weasel {Mustcla vulgaris, Plate VI. fig. a) 
is brown above, and white beneath. It is not much 
larger than a rat, but it is a very courageous ani- 
mal, and will not only attack animals of its own 
size , but very much larger ones, with the greatest 
audacity. Its small lithe body enables it to make 
its way not only among the woods and fields, but 
to creep through any hole or crevice in outhouses 
and farm-yards. 

The Stoat or P>mine (Mjistcla criniiica, PI. VI. 
fig. b) is nearly twice as large as the Weasel, but 
much resembles it in its habits. It is brown in 
summer, but in the cold winters of Northern Europe 
and Asia, it becomes pure white in a few days, 
except the tip of the tail, which always remains black. 
The Stoat climbs and swims well, and will even 
cross running water. 

The Sable (Mark's zibdlina, Plate VI. fig. d) 
much resembles the Beech Marten , but the head is 
more pointed, the ears longer, and the tail shorter. 
It is met with throughout Northern Asia, but is now 
getting scarce, owing to the value set ujaon its soft 
shining fur. This is prized in proportion to its uni- 
formity of colouring , the finest specimens being 
blackish on the back, with the undcrsurface of the 
body reddish brown. 

The Pole-cat { Pit tori us futidus, Plate V. fig. f) 
is smaller than the martens, but far more destructive 
to game and poultry, as it will kill much more food 
than it can eat. It is not so slender as the Martens, 
and its outer fur is darker than the inner. \Vhen 
alarmed or wounded, it emits an exceedingly offen- 
sive odour. 

The F-errct (Putoritts furo, Plate VI. fig, c) 
is very similar to the Pole-cat, and is by many 
writers considered to be only a variety of it. It is an 
inhabitant of North Africa, but is employed in luirope 
to pursue rats and rabbits in their burrows. It is 
generally of a white or pale yellow colour , with 
red eyes. 

The most formidable of all the weasel tribe is 
the Skunk (Mephitis chinga, Plate VI fig. e). It is 
about a foot and a half long, not including the tail, 
which is not much shorter than the rest of the body, 
and very bushy. The fur is black, sprinkled with 
white, long and shining, and of some commercial 
value. Although not so slender as the other weasels, 
and less active, it is a very pretty animal, but has 
the peculiarity of defending itself when attacked or 
alarmed, by ejecting an unsuffcrably fetid secretion 



13 



over its pursuers ; an odour which it is scarcely- 
possible either to endure or to eradicate. Nor is 
this all, for the fluid is said to produce blindness 
if it comes in contact with the eyes, while the bite 
of a skunk produces a disease very similar to hydro- 
phobia. This inoffensive-looking, but highly dangerous 
animal is common in North America. 

The Glutton or Wolverine (Gido Inscus, PI. XII. 
fig. a) much resembles a small bear in appearance, 
but is really a large bulky marten, with a large 
broad short neck, compact body, an arching back, 
and short strong legs. The feet have five toes 
armed with strong claws, .and the tail is short and 
bushy. It measures upwards of three feet in length, 
including the tail. It inhabits the northern parts of 
Europe, Asia and North America, where it not only 
feeds on small mammals and birds, such as the lem- 
ming and ptarmigan, but destroys large animals like 
the elk and reindeer, leaping on them from the 
branches of a tree. Its shaggy fur is valuable. 

The Badger (Rhics vulgaris, Plate XII. fig. b) 
has a long pointed head, with small eyes and ears. 
It is smaller than the Glutton. The Badger is a 
sluggish morose animal , and lives a solitary life 
in a burrow in the ground, except during the pairing 
season, about the beginning of December. Here it 
sleeps through the winter, with some interruptions, 
and here too it passes most of the day during the 



summer, but at night it sallies forth to the woods 
and fields in search of its food, which consists of all 
kinds of small animals, in addition to vegetable 
substances. The Badger inhabits Europe, and a 
large part of Northern Asia. 

The Otters are long-bodied animals with short 
legs, and smooth shining fur, a broad flattened head, 
short tail, and webbed feet. 

The Common Otter (Lutra vulgaris, Plate VI. 
fig. f) is common throughout Europe, and a con- 
siderable portion of Northern and Central Asia. It 
measures two feet in length, without the tail, which 
is half as long again. It is very fond of trout- 
streams and rivers flowing through woods, and is 
an excellent swimmer and diver. It feeds chiefly 
on fish, of which it destroys large quantities. When 
taken young, it is easily tamed and shows itself to 
be an intelligent animal. 

The Sea-Otter {Enhydra hitris, Plate VI. fig. g) 
has a cylindrical body, a short thick neck, and a 
round obtuse head. In external appearance it is not 
unlike a seal. The toes and webs are less developed 
on the fore feet than on the hind feet. The tail 
is short, clothed with thick fur, and trails along the 
ground. The Sea-Otter grows to twice the size of 
the common Otter. It is found on the coasts and 
islands about Behring's Straits, but its fur is so much 
prized that the animal is now becoming very scarce 



Order VI. Pinnepedia. (Seals.) 



(Plate 

The Seals are the marine representatives of the 
Carnivora, and are often regarded as a mere section 
of that Order. They are large animals, with cylindri- 
cal bodies , and their limbs and tail are more or 
less shortened, and are adapted for swimming, being 
provided with but few joints. Their carnivorous teeth, 
large eyes , and the occasional presence of external 
ears, as well as their intelligence, show them to be 
comparatively highly-developed mammals, notwith- 
standing the shortness and peculiar form of their 
limbs, which are intended to be used _as paddles. 
Their proper abodes are the waters of the sea and 
the mouths of rivers, but they are helpless animals 
on land , which they only visit to sleep and sun 
themselves, or to rear their young. 

The Seals are gregarious animals, and congre- 
gate in large numbers. They are found in most coasts, 
but are most numerous on the coasts and uninhabited 
islands of the Polar Seas, but are far less abundant 
than formerly , owing to the constant persecution 
which they have suffered. 

The Common Seal (Fhoca vituliiia, Plate XXVIII. 
fig. a) may be taken as the representative of the 
Phocidm , or true Seals. It has a rounded head, 
with a dog-like muzzle, with bristles round the mouth, 
a short neck , a cylindrical body, and nails on its 
toes, which latter are connected together by a folded 
web. It measures 5 or 6 feet in length. The 
smooth furry hide is of a greyish brown sprinkled 
with yellowish brown, and dirty white beneath. This 
animal inhabits the seas and coasts of the North of 
Europe, including the Baltic. 

The Trichcchidiv or Walruses are remarkable 
for the structure of their teeth. Full-grown animals 
have six molar teeth in the upper and lower jaws, 
two small canine teeth in the lower jaw, and two very 
large ones in the upper jaw, which have crowded 



XXVIII.) 

out the incisors originally present, and project from 
the mouth as long tusks. They are sometimes more 
than two feet long, and the animal uses them to stir 
up the ground, as well as to drag along its unwieldy 
body on the ice, by using them as grapnels. 

The Walrus (Trichccus rosmanis, Plate XXVIII. 
fig. d) inhabits the Arctic Ocean, and lives in herds. 
The head is rounded, and comparatively small, though 
armed with formidable tusks. The neck is as thick 
as the head, and the body is thickest in the middle 
The legs are converted into large flippers. The skin 
is extremely thick, and is at first covered with dark 
hairs, but in older animals is naked, and greyish 
white. When the Walrus is not interfered with , it 
is a lazy and sluggish animal , but it will boldly 
defend itself and its young when attacked. All parts 
of this animal are useful ; the hide, the flesh, the 
fat (or blubber, as it is called) and especially the 
ivory tusks. 

The OtariidiiV are distinguished from the true 
Seals by possessing short external ears. 

The Sea Bear {Calirhiiiiis nrsiinis, PI. XXVIII. 
fig. b) has a longer neck than the common seal, 
and the limbs stand out further Irom the body. It 
grows to the length of seven or eight feet. It is 
covered, except on the flippers, with long coarse 
hair, blackish above, and yellowish-grey beneath. The 
front part of its body somewhat resembles that ol 
a bear in appearance. 

The Sea Lion (Otaria jubata, Plate XXV'IU. 
fig. c) well deserves his name, for his rounded head, 
thick lips, and long whiskers, combined with the 
yellowish colour of his fur, and the long black hair 
on the mane of the neck of the male , give him 
considerable resemblance to the king of beasts. In 
other respects he is very like the Sea Bear, but is 



14 



much larger , sometimes nearly as large again , his 
front limbs are longer in proportion, and the hair, 
with the exception of the mane, is considerably 
shorter. Both these animals inhabit the shores of 



Behring's Straits, and were iormerly very abundant 
on Behring's Island ; but the Sea Lion is now 
getting scarce, though the Sea Bear is still common 
there. 



Order VII. Rodentia. (Gnawing Animals.) 



(Plates XII— XIV.) 



The most remarkable peculiarities of the Rodents, 
or Gnawing Animals, consist in the two large curved 
incisors in the upper and lower jaws, and in the gaps 
between these and the molars. The head is planted 
on a short thick neck, the large eyes are very pro- 
minent, and the fleshy lips are furnished with whiskers, 
and are cleft in front. The senses of these animals 
are usually well-developed, but they are not generally 
remarkable for intelligence. 

The HystricidiC, or Porcupines, are rather large 
Rodents, furnished with strong spines, which are 
differently arranged in different species. They inhabit 
the warm and temperate parts of both the Old and 
the New Worlds. Some have short tails and dig 
burrows in the ground , and others have short tails 
ind live in trees. All the Porcupines are nocturnal 
animals, and feed on fruits and roots. 

The Common Porcupine (Hystrix cristata, 
Plate XII. fig. e) is about three feet long, and stands 
1 foot high without the spines. It has a long mane 
of stiff bristles on the back of the neck , and the 
back and sides are covered with spines, mixed with 
bristles. It is found in North Africa , Greece , and 
Southern Italy. It conceals itself in its burrow by 
day, but comes forth at night to search for the roots 
on which it feeds. 

The Caviidcc have comparatively large ears , a 
stumpy tail , and broad hoof-like claws. They are 
found in South and Central America, some species 
being exclusively land animals and others frequenting 
the neighbourhood of water. 

The Guinea Pig (Cavia cobaya, Plate XII. fig. f ) 
docs not come from Africa, but from South America, 
and is domesticated in Europe. It has not yet been 
positively ascertained, from which of several closely- 
allied wild species it was originally derived. 

The type of the family Dasyproctidcr is the Agouti 
{Dasyprocta agiiti, Plate XIII. fig. a). It is very like 
a hare, but differs from it by its long pointed muzzle, 
short ears, and the structure of the legs. The front 
legs are short, and have four toes, but the hind legs 
are twice as long, and are provided with three toes. 
The claws are long, thick, and almost hoof-like. The 
rough shining hair is of a reddish yellow, intermixed 
with dark brown. The Agouti is common in many 
parts of South America , and is very shy, wary and 
active. It feeds on fruits, roots, leaves &c. 

The Arctoniytdcr, or Marmots, are stout-bodied 
short-tailed Rodents of moderate size. They dig 
burrows and chambers in the ground , which they 
store with grains and roots, and they sleep through 
the greater part of the winter. During the warmer 
months, they play about their burrows in company, 
and feed on worms and insects, as well as on vege- 
table substances. They are shy and wary in a state 
of nature, but arc easily tamed. They are found in 
Central Europe , Northern Asia and North America. 
The Marmot (Aixtoviys niarniotta, Plate XIII. 
fig. c) is found in the high mountains of Europe such 
as the Alps, Pyrenees and Carpathians, close to the 
limit of perpetual snow. In summer it is watched 



and in 
flesh is 



winter it is dug 
delicate , and the 



out 
fur 



of its 
is soft 



the most 

body is 

are very 

and very 

and are 



for , and shot , 
burrows. The 
and warm. 

The Sciiiridw, or squirrels are among 
active and elegant of the Rodents. The 
slender , the eyes are large and the ears 
variously formed. The tail is rather long 
bushy , and the hind legs have five toes , 
longer than the fore legs, which have only four toes. 
Squirrels may generally be seen in the daytime, but 
a few are nocturnal in their habits. They either 
frequent trees, or live in burrows in the ground. 

The Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris, Plate XIII. fig. d) 
is an ornament to the woods and forests of Europe, 
and of some portions of Northern and Central Asia. 
The tufts on the ears , and the bushy tail give this 
animal a very pretty appearance. When he sits on 
his hind legs, he holds his tail raised over his back. 
He is as good a climber as a monkey , and leaps 
from tree to tree , balancing himself with his tail. 
Squirrel's nests resemble those of magpies, and are built 
in hollow trees. Here the animal sleeps at night 
and on rainy days , as well as through the greater 
part of the winter , for which , however , like the 
marmots, he lays in a store of provisions beforehand. 
The Myoxidw, or Dormice offer a great contrast 
to the lively squirrels, for they are nocturnal animals. 
They hide themselves by day in hollow trees and 
in the clefts of rocks , and feed at night on seeds 
and fruits. They all inhabit the Old World, chiefly 
in temperate climates. 

The Loir (Glis vulgaris, Plate XIII. fig. e) is 
not uncommon in Southern and Eastern Europe, and 
prefers dry oak and beech woods. It measures nine 
inches in length, of which the tail forms nearly one- 
half This animal is ashy grey, with the sides paler, 
and the undersurface white. The tail is rather bushy, 
and the hairs are arranged in a double row. 

The Rats and Mice belong to the family Muridce. 
They have a pointed muzzle, large eyes, and broad 
ears , and some are furnished with cheek-pouches. 
The body is generally long, and clothed with smooth 
hair, and the tail is long or short, hairy or naked in 
different species. The legs are slender , furnished 
with five toes, and armed with sharp claws. 

Mice are found in all parts of the world. They 
are cunning and comparatively intelligent animals. 

The Hamster (Cricctus frumentariiis, Plate XIII. 
fig. b) is like a mouse with a rather stout body, and 
a short tail sparingly clothed with hair. It is about 
a foot long. It is of a brownish yellow colour above, 
and black below, yellow before and behind the front 
legs, and the feet white. It inhabits level country 
in Northern Europe and Asia where much corn is 
grown, and makes complicated burrftws undtrground, 
where it lays up a store for itself which is fre(]iK'ntly 
found to contain nearly from fifty to a hundred pounds' 
weight of grain &c. at the beginning of winter. 

The Mouse (Mus irmsculus , Plate XIII. fig. gl 
is known to everyone as a timid and very active 
little creature. 



15 



The Brown Rat (Mus dccuinaniis , Plate XIII. 
fig. h) sometimes measures nearly a foot in length, 
without the tail. It is greyish brown above , and 
greyish white beneath. It is an Asiatic animal, which 
has migrated to Europe, and nearly exterminated the 
indigenous Black Rat (Mus rattiis). Rats and mice 
are very prolific, animals , which feed on everything 
which serves for food for man, and penetrate every- 
where into our dwellings and storehouses. 

The long-tailed Field-Mouse (Mus sylvaticiis, 
Plate XIII. fig. i) not only lives in woods and thickets, 
but also likes to visit human dwellings. In the 
country it feeds on nuts, seeds, insects and even on 
small birds. It is brownish yellow above, and white 
below, and measures seven inches in length. 

The Arvicolidcc, or Voles, are sometimes classed 
with the true mice, but may be distinguished from them 
by their large incisors, stouter body, large head, and 
short ears and tail. They inhabit the northern parts 
of both hemispheres, and live in burrews in the 
ground. 

The Field-Mouse (Aii'icola arvalis , Plate XIII. 
fig. f) is yellowish grey above, and dirty white 
beneath ; it is rather smaller than the common mouse. 
It lives in fields, where it makes galleries and cham- 
bers in the ground , and lays up a store of grain, 
nuts &c. for the winter. But it sometimes ventures 
into houses too. 

The Spalacidtr or Mole-Rats are ugly animals 
with cylindrical bodies, small, hardly perceptible eyes, 
and paws formed for digging. They are very 
mischievous , because they burrow in the ground in 
all directions. They feed on the roots and bulbs 
of plants. 

The Mole-Rat (Spalax typhlns, Plate XIII. fig. k) 
has a large head , without visible eyes or ears, 
which seems to pass immediately into the body, 
owing to the shortness of the neck. There is no tail, 
and the legs are furnished with broad paws and 
strong claws. The Mole Rat is really blind , for its 
eyes are very small, and covered by the skin. It is 
found in Hungary, Russia and part of Western Asia, 
and is a vicious unsociable animal. 

The Lcporidcc or Hares are easily known by 
their prominent head, large eyes and ears, long slender 
body, disproportionately long hind legs and short tail. 
The Hares are the only Rodents which have two 
small rudimentary teeth in each jaw behind the two 
incisors. 

Hares are found in all parts of the world ex- 
cept Australia , and feed on juicy herbs and roots. 
They are active and graceful animals, and seem never 
wearied with running. They generally live gregariously, 
and multiply very rapidly. 

The Common Hare (Lcpits tiinidus, Plate XIV. 



fig. a) IS nearly of the colour of the ground, and 
consequently the animal can easily be overlooked 
when it crouches down. It inhabits Central Europe, 
and part of Central Asia. 

The Alpine Hare (Lcpus variahilis, Plate XIV. 
fig. b) is rather smaller than the common hare, the 
head is rounder, the ears longer, the hind legs longer 
and the soles of the feet more hairy. When the 
first snow falls, the black tips of the ears turn white, 
but in the spring they gradually return to their usual 
colour. It is found m the mountainous parts of 
Continental Europe, and in Scotland and Ireland. 

The Rabbit (Lcpus cuniculns, Plate XIV. fig. c) 
is smaller and more slender than the hare , and has 
a shorter head and shorter ears. The hind legs, too, 
are shorter. The skin is usually greyish brown, and 
the tail is black above and white below. The do- 
mesticated varieties, however, vary much in colour. 
The Rabbit is very gregarious, and prefers bushy 
sandy places, where it digs burrows in the ground. 
It is more active in the evening or morning than in 
the heat of the day. 

The Beaver (Castor Fiber, Plate XIV. fig. d) 
is the type of the family Castoridw. It is between 
three and four feet in length. The rather stout body 
is broader behind than before; the legs are short 
and strong , and the hind feet are webbed to the 
claws. The colour of the soft silky skin is chestnut- 
brown above , and lighter below. The flat , broad 
tail is only hairy for the first third of its length ; 
the rest is naked, and is furnished with small furrows. 
The Beaver is much sought after for its fur, and for 
the odoriferous substance called castoreum, which is 
secreted in two glands near the tail. The Beaver is 
an amphibious animal , and generally rests in the 
reeds on the banks of streams or lakes. It builds 
its habitations which are often several feet high , in 
the water, and protects them by a dam. It feeds 
chiefly on the bark of trees which grow near the 
water. It is found in Europe, Asia and North America; 
but is now very scarce and local in Europe , and it 
has been so much persecuted that it is everywhere 
far less common than formerly. 

The Musquash (Fiber Zibcthicus , Plate XIV. 
fig. e) is an inhabitant of North America. Its whole 
appearance is stout and stunted , the head is short 
and round, and the neck thick. The tail is laterally 
compressed, cultriform towards the end, and covered 
with small scales. The feet and toes are webbed at 
the sides; there are four toes on the fore feet and 
five on the hind feet. The full-grown animal mea- 
sures two feet in length, including the tail. It re- 
sembles the beaver in its very fine fur , which is 
brown above and grey beneath. The skin is valu- 
able, but always retains a strong smell of musk. 



Order VIII. Proboscidea. (Elephants.) 



(Plate 

This Order only includes the family Elcphantidcc. 
They are very large and bulky animals; with a thick 
hide sparingly clothed with hair, a short body, and 
long thick legs like pillars , with five toes provided 
with small hoofs The nose is produced into a long 
trunk , with a finger-like process at the end , which 
serves as an organ of prehension. These animals 
have a very short neck, but use the trunk to grasp 
their food, and likewise for drinking, for they fill it 
with water, which they then squirt do\.n their throats. 



XVI.) 

The structure of the teeth is remarkable. The in- 
cisors are wanting in the lower jaw, and arc repre- 
sented by two large teeth in the upper, which have 
no fangs, and grow continually. There are only two 
existing species. 

The Indian Elephant (Ehphas indicus, Plate XVI. 
fig. b) is rather smaller than the African Elephant, 
from which it is distinguished by the more raised 
head, the smaller, moveable ears, and the shorter 
tusks. The hide is slate-colour, with blackish bristles. 



16 



This species rarely exceeds nine feet in height, when 
it measures about twelve feet in length ; the trunk 
is six or seven feet long: and the tail four feet. The 
full-grown animal weighs 400 or 500 pounds. It is 
found in India and Ceylon in herds which may num- 
ber one hundred individuals. It feeds on the leaves 
and branches of trees, which it breaks off with its 



trunk. When not roused to fury, it is a quiet, harm- 
less animal , and has been domesticated for many 
centuries, when it exhibits a sagacity and intelligence 
equal to that of the dog. 

It lives to the age of seventy years, and some 
individuals are .said to have lived considerably more 
than a century. 



Order IX. Perissodactyla. (Rhinoceroses, Tapirs and Horses.) 



(Plates XVI, 
The Rhinoccrotidcv arc inferior in size to the 
Elephants, but are far more ugly and clumsy. They 
have neither tusks nor trunk , but possess strong 
canines, and true incisors. Their hide is thick, 
wrinkled and almost naked. These animals are indo- 
lent, and very deficient in intelligence ; they feed on 
water-plants, grass and the leaves and branches of 
trees. Water is indispensable to them , and they 
swim and dive well. They are found in Central and 
Southern Africa, and also in Southern Asia, but 
always in the neighbourhood of rivers , lakes or 
marshes. 

The Indian Rhinoceros {Rhinoceros indicus, 
Plate XVI. fig. b) is about ten feet in length , and 
stands nearly five feet high at the shoulder. The 
head is rather long when seen in profile, and there 
is a long horn curved backwards, on the nose. It 
is fi.xed to the bone, though it actually consists 
simply of a mass of modified and compressed hair. 
The eyes are small, and the ears erect and like those 
of a pig. The thick short curved feet have four 
toes with hoofs. The tail is short , and tufted 
beyond the middle. The Rhinoceros lives in pairs, 
and inhabits different parts of India. The lazy crea- 
ture will lie in a pool for hours , or saunter quietly 
on his way, but a trifle will rouse him to mak^a 
headlong charge at anything , in ungovernable fury. 

The other species of Rliinoccros resemble Rhi- 
noceros indieits in form and habits , but some have 
two horns on the nose instead of one. 

The Tapiridcr , or Tapirs are small in com- 
parison to the species of Rhinoceros and less un- 
wieldy in appearance , though their bodies are also 
stout. The long tapering head has short ears, small 
eyes , and the upper lip is produced into a short 
trunk. The neck is slender, the body like that of 
a pig, and the legs are short and thick, with four 
toes with hoofs on the fore feet, and three on the 
hind feet. The skin of the Tapirs is thick, and 
clothed with smooth hair. They have strong teeth, 
all three kinds being present. They pass the day in 
thick forests, preferring the neighbourhood of rivers 
and swamps, in which they like to wallow. On the 
approach of darkness, they roam about to seek their 
food, which consists of the leaves of trees, and marsh- 
loving plants ; but they will also work havoc in cul- 
tivated fields. 

The American Tapir (Tapirns ainerieanns, 
Plate XVII. fig. a) is of a dark brown colour, paler 
on the sides of the head and neck, and on the breast. 
There is a short stiff mane on the back. The Tapir 
is a quiet harmless animal , which rushes into the 
bushes at the approach of danger, but when it is 
attacked in the water , it immediately dives , and 
swims for some distance under the surface. It re- 
sembles a pig in the greediness with which it feeds 
on all sorts of food. 



XVII. XXVII.) 

The Eqnidir or Horses are long-legged, slenderly 
formed animals , and the existing species have only 
one toe with a large hoof. There are always six 
incisors in each jaw, and a considerable gap on each 
side between these and the molars. When the bones 
of the legs are examined, the comparative shortness 
of the upper bones is remarkable , while the bones 
of the foot corresponding to the middle toe are very 
strongly developed, and form, with the three toe- 
joints, the last of which bears the hoof, the sole 
support of the body. The head is pyramidal and 
flattened, the ears erect and pointed, and the mus- 
cular and rather long neck is adorned with a long 
flowing mane on the back. The body is shapely, 
the legs slender, and the short tail very hairy, either 
from the base, or towards the extremity. In general, 
the hair is short and smooth, and the colour, espe- 
cially in the domesticated species, very variable. All 
the senses are well developed in horses, and they 
are gifted with considerable intelligence. In the w'ild 
state these animals are gregarious, and live together 
in large herds. When danger threatens, they not 
only use their hoofs for flight, but also for defence. 
They chiefly inhabit plains and plateaus, but arc also 
found in the mountains , where they climb the nar- 
rowest paths with surefooted agility. 

Plate XXVII. fg. a represents the Arabian 
variety of the Horse (Eqitiis caballiis). The true 
Horses are among the largest and handsomest of the 
family. They are distinguished from their allies by 
the short pointed ears, flowing mane, and the tail, 
which is clothed from the root with long and strong 
hair. These are the general characteristics of the 
horse, but there are great differences between the 
races in different countries. All are fine, intelligent 
animals and greatly valued by men , but one of the 
finest and handsomest races is the Arabian. There are 
enormous herds of wild horses in some parts of America, 
which are said to have originated from those intro- 
duced by the Spaniards. There are, however, herds 
of undoubtedly wild horses in Asiatic Russia. Their 
heads are large, and their appearance is far less hand- 
some than that of the tame horse, thor.gh they may 
excel in speed and endurance. 

The Ass {Ecpius asiniis, Plate XXVII. fig. b) 
is properly speaking a Southern animal. In the South 
it is a beautiful and graceful creature, much larger, 
smoother, and more spirited than the asses seen in 
the North. The finest are met with in Egypt and 
Persia, but beautiful animals, worth almost as much 
as a horse, may also be seen in Spain and Southern 
Italy. The Ass has a longer head and longer ears 
than the Horse, the mane is short , and the tail is 
only provided with long hairs towards the tip. Hy- 
brids between the horse and the ass are common. 
Those between a horse and a she-ass are called 
Hinnies, and those between a he-ass and a mare 
Mules. 



17 



The Zebra (Equus zebra , Plate XXVII, fit^. c) 
and the Quagga {Equiis qnagga, Plate XXVIl. fig. d) 
are striped horses which inhabit the plains of Southern 
Africa in large troops. They are intenncdiate be- 
tween the horse and the ass in form , and are of 
about the size of a large ass. 

The true Zebra, which is now almost extinct, 



is striped over the whole body, and has most resem- 
blance to an ass, especially as the tail has long hairs 
only at the end. The Quagga is not striped on the 
legs, the tail is hairy from the root , and the ears 
are shorter. In general appearance it shows a much 
closer resemblance to the Horse than does the 
Zebra. 



Order X. Arctiodactyla. (Swine and Hippopotami.) 



(Plate 
By many writers , the Ruminating Animals are 
placed with this group, as a section of the Ungiilata, 
or Hoofed Animals, in which the Pcrissodactyla, Pio- 
boscidca, &c. are also included as subordinate groups. 
But in the present work, we have preferred to treat 
them separately. The restricted Order Arctiodactyla 
agrees with the Rnminantia in the structure of the 
feet, which have an even number of toes, and in the 
molar teeth being covered with ridges of enamel. 

The Sitidcf, or Swine are found in all parts of 
the world except Australia. The head is conical, 
with small eyes, moderate-sized ears, a proboscis-like, 
truncated snout, and the jaws furnished with all three 
kinds of teeth, among which the projecting canines, 
which are larger in the males than in the females, 
are very conspicuous. The body is laterally com- 
pressed, the tail thin and ringed, the legs moderately 
long, slender, and furnished with four hoofs. They 
are the most voracious of all animals. 

The only wild pig found in Europe is the Wild 
Boar (Sus scro/a, Plate XVII. fig^. d) from which 
our domestic animal (Plate XVII. fig. c) is probably 
derived. The Wild Boar has been extinct in England 
for at least two centuries, but is still found wild in 
many parts of Europe, Asia and North Africa. He 
is a strong and comparatively active animal, and is 



XVII.) 

larger than the ordinary domesticated varieties ; the 
legs are thicker, the head larger , the snout more 
pointed, and the tusks longer and sharper, especially 
in the males. The colour is dark blackish brown. 
These animals inhabit thickets and marshes in small 
herds, and generally avoid men, but when they are 
enraged, they will attack any enemy boldly, and 
can inflict fearful wounds with their tusks. They are 
frequently very destructive to crops. When killed, 
all parts f)f their bodies are valuable. 

The Hippopotamus or River Horse {Hippopo- 
tamns ampkihins, Plate XVII. fig. b), the represen- 
tative of the family Hippopotaviidce, has an enormous 
head, a small brain, and a huge face, which is almost 
square. The teeth are hidden by the bulky muzzle. 
The great body rests on legs which are only two 
feet long, and are provided with four toes on each 
foot. The hide is naked, except that there are a 
few stiff br'istles towards the end of the slender tail. 
The colour is dark brown, shading into a paler cop- 
pery hue beneath. The Hippopotamus is found in 
the rivers and lakes of a great part of Africa in 
herds of perhaps fifty individuals, but wanders out 
on the banks at night, where it often commits great 
devastation in the plantations of the natives. It is 
a very dangerous animal to attack. 



Order XI Ruminantia. (Ruminating Animals.) 



The Rummants form a rather large section of 
mammals. All have a comparatively small head, in 
which the face is much larger than the part con- 
taining the brain. The jaws are very prominent, and 
the dentition generally uniform. With the exception 
of a few families , there are 6 or 8 incisors in the 
lower jaw only, the canines are usually absent , and 
there are generally six molars on each side above 
and below, provided with enamel. The frontal bone 
is often decorated with peculiar outgrowths and bony 
projections, which are called horns or antlers. The 
feet are always provided with two separated hoof- 
bearing toes. 

But the most characteristic feature of this Order 
is the division of the stomach into 3 or 4 compart- 
ments , an arrangement which allows the animals to 
throw up the undigested food which they have 
swallowed, and to chew it thoroughly, at their ease, 
mixing it with the secretions of various glands. This 
is called "chewing the cud". 

Family Camelidae. (Camels and Llamas.) 

(Plates XVIII. XIX.) 

These animals form the first section of the 
Rnminantia, the Tylopoda. They are large animals 
with long necks, slender loins, padded feet and long 
shaggy hair. The upper jaw has only two incisors, 

Maiinualia. 



but the lower jaw has six, and both jaws are fur- 
nished with canine teeth as well as incisors. This 
small group includes only the Camels and Llamas. 
The former are found in North Africa and Central 
Asia, and the latter in the west of South America. 

The genus Citwclits has an extremely long neck, 
and one or two large humps of fat on the back. 
The division of the hoofs is only visible above , for 
they are united beneath into a broad sole. This 
enables the animal to pass rapidly over a sandy sur- 
face without sinking in. 

The Camels are indispensable to the nomad 
tribes of the desert, both for riding, and for beasts 
of burden. But their usefulness and endurance are 
the only good qualities which they possess. 

TheArabian Camel (Camclns dromcdariiis Plate 
XVIII. fig. a) has only one hump , which increases 
or diminishes in size according to whether the ani- 
mal is well fed or the contrary. It stands six feet 
high, and attains a length of about nine feet from 
the tip of the muzzle to the end of the tail. It is 
not known in the wild state, but is probably a native 
of Arabia and North Africa, from whence it has been 
introduced into Tuscany, .South Spain, Mexico, &c., 
where it thrives well under favourable conditions. 
The strong breeds used for carrying burdens are 
called camels, and the lighter and swifter breeds used 
for riding are called dromedaries. 



]« 



The Bactrian, or Two-humped Camel (Camclus 
Bactrianus, Plate XVlll. fiy. b) is enabled by the 
thickness of its hair to endure a low temperature, 
and replaces the Arabian Camel in Central Asia, 
where it is still found wild in some retired spots. 
Its gait is slow and heavy, and therefore it is not 
much used for riding, but is of great value in trans- 
porting merchandise across the steppes. It is indis- 
pensable to the Kirghises and other nomadic tribes, 
who obtam from it meat, milk, wool, hair, and in 
fact most of the necessaries of life. 

In the Llamas, the soles are not united, the 
hoofs being widely cleft ; the back is humpless, the 
hair long and silky, the head comparatively larger 
than in the Camels, and the muzzle more pointed. 

They inhabit the Cordilleras of South America, 
and being mountain animals, can only be employed 
at a certain height above the level of the sea. They 
are valuable for their flesh and wool, and the 
tame species are also employed as beasts of burden. 

The Llama {Auclicnia L/aiiia, Plate XIX. fig. a) 
will easily and safely carry a load of one hundred 
pounds, and will feed on the mountain plants which 
it finds on the way. The full-grown animal measures 
four feet in height; and its colour, as is usually 
the case with domestic animals, is very variable. 
The flesh is said to be delicate , and the wool is 
woven into fabrics. 

Family Tragulidae. (Musk Deer.) 
(Plate XIX,) 

The second section of Ruminants, the Tragnlina, 
likewise contains only one family, the Tragulidtc, or 
Musk-Deer. They are swift animals , somewhat like 
antelopes , without antlers or tear-channels , and the 
males have long canine teeth in the upper jaw. They 
are very shy and active creatures, which inhabit the 
high grounds of Central Asia and the forests of the 
Sunda Islands. They are hunted for their flesh and 
skin, and some of them on account of a pouch con- 
taining musk, which is found in the male animal. 

The Musk Deer (Mosclms moschifcriLS, Plate XIX. 
fig. b) has a short head and slender legs , with two 
widely-cleft hoofs , with claws behind. The skin is 
thick and clothed with long reddish brown hair, especially 
on the sides of the body. It is one of the smaller 
Ruminants, not much exceeding two feet in height. 
It inhabits Northern India. 

Family Cervidse. (Deer.) 
(Plates XIX. XX. XXI.) 

The remaining Ruminants are placed together 
in the group Fccora , and form several families , of 
which the first is the Cervidii' , or Deer. They are 
distinguished by the presence of tear-channels, and of 
antlers, which rise from two horn-cores on the fore- 
head, and arc variously branched. The horns are 
generally peculiar to the males, and are shed at cer- 
tain seasons. The head is long , narrowed towards 
the muzzle ; the neck is long, the body slender, con- 
tracted at the loins , and covered with hair , more 
thickly in some species than in others ; the legs are 
long and slender, and there are two small hoofs on 
the feet, furnished with claws behind. Deer are found 
in most parts of the world except in Australia, and 
in a great part fif Africa. They live in herds, some 
species in the jjlains and others in the mountains, 
but always in the neighbourhood of water , which is 
necessary to their existence. Their senses are keen, 



and their intelligence considerable. They are valued 
for their hide and flesh , and are ranked among the 
principal beasts of the chase. 

The Elk (Alci's Malchis, Plate XIX. fig. c) is 
one of the largest of the deer tribe. It is a strange 
and imposing animal, which hardly seems to belong 
to the present age. It is unfortunately disappearing 
from most parts of Europe, and is now only to be 
met with in Sweden, Norway, and the Northern half of 
the Russian Empire , and is everywhere preserved. 
In Northern Asia it is still rather common, especially 
in the great forests on the banks of the rivers of 
Siberia. It is also found in North America, where it 
is called the Moose. A full-grown Elk stands 6 or 7 
feet high at the shoulder. The head is rather ugly, 
the muzzle is ,broad and long, the eyes are small, 
and the ears are long, like those of a donkey. The 
neck is thick and strong, the body stout, and the 
legs strong, and of equal height. The full-grown 
male bears large shovel-shaped, jagged antlers. The 
hair is long and thick, the mane along the back is 
thicker in the male, and the colour is dark reddish 
brown. The hide is very durable, and the animal is 
hunted for this, as well as for its flesh. 

The Reindeer (Taraudus rangifcr, Plate XX. 
fig. a) is smaller and swifter than the elk, and has 
broad hoofs, almost like those of a cow, with claws 
behind, and both sexes are horned. The Reindeer 
is about as long as a large stag, but is stouter, and 
does not stand so high. The tame Reindeer, which 
are kept in large herds, are among the most useful 
animals known. While they live, they are employed 
to draw sledges and to carry loads, and to furnish 
milk ; and when they are slaughtered, their flesh is 
good for food, their hide for clothing, their sinews 
for cord, and their bones for spoons, &c. The 
Reindeer is found in the most northern parts of 
Europe, Asia and America, where its broad hoofs 
enable it to run rapidly and easily across swamps 
and snowfields. It feeds on all kinds of alpine plants, 
and even on mosses and lichens, which it scratches 
in winter from under the snow. 

The Stag or Red Deer (CcrvHS claphns , Plate 
XX. fig. b) is one of the finest of the European 
deer. It may measure seven feet long, and stand 
over four feet high at the shoulder, but varies much 
in size. Its body and legs are slender, and its head 
is finely formed, and adorned with splendid antlers. 
The branches are round, and as in other deer, in- 
crease in number with age. The body is thickly 
clothed with hair, which is reddish brown in summer, 
but more greyish in winter and it is often of considerable 
length on the front half of the body. The tear- 
channels are strongly marked, and discharge a greasy 
secretion, which is exuded when the animal rubs 
itself against trees. The Stag is found in the greater 
part of Europe, and in a large part of Asia, except 
in the extreme north. The female is called a Hind. 

The Fallow Deer (Daiiia vu/i^'-ans , Plate XXI. 
fig. a) is distinguished from the Red Deer by its 
smaller size , more slender body , shorter legs and 
longer tail, and also by the antlers, which are round 
below, but shovel-shaped and dentated above , and 
therefore more like those of the Elk and Reindeer. 
The colour of the skin is reddish brown above with 
white spots, and whitish beneath in summer; and 
dark grey above, and paler beneath in winter; but 
the colour varies much according to age. The finest 
of these animals, which are almost as great an adorn- 
ment to parks and forests as the Red Deer, are 
ticciiicnlly pun- white. 



19 



The Roe Deer (Capreoliis caprea , Plate XXI. 
fig. b. c) is a beautiful animal, with very expressive 
eyes. It has very small tear-channels, and the horns 
of the buck are short and forked. It stands rather 
more than two feet hiyh at the shoulder. The thick 
smooth hair is short in summer, and of a dark rusty- 
red colour on the back and sides ; but in winter it 
is lon^ and brownish grey. The Roe Deer lives in 
smaller herds than the other deer , and generally in 
families , which are headed , and when needful , de- 
fended , by the Id Roebuck. The flesh , the skin 
and the horns are used in various ways. 

Family Giraffidae. (Giraffes.) 
(Plate XXII.) 
There is only one species of this family , the 
Giraffe (Caiiuicopaidalis Giraffa , Plate XXII. fig. a). It 
is the tallest of all existing Mammalia , sometimes 
measuring nearly twenty feet in height. This is due 
to the unusual length of its neck and legs , for its 
body, though stout, is not long in proportion, and 
slopes from 

front to 
back. The 
head is long 
and finely 

shaped, 
somewhat 
resembling 
that of a 
horse , and 
the eyes are 
large and • 
expressive. 
The fore- 
head is a- 
dorned with 

two pro- 
tuberances, 
overgrown 
with skin. 
This harm- "~ 
less and ti- 
mid animal 

inhabits 
Central and 

Southern 

Africa 

in larger or 

smaller -~ '' 

herds , and 
feeds on the 

leaves of the Mimosa and olhei trees- h has a peculiar 
shuffling gait, but can run with great speed when alarmed. 

Family Bovidae. 

The large family Bovidtc includes several distinct 
groups, such as the Antelopes, Oxen, Goats and 
Sheep, which it will be best to treat separately. 

Antelopes. 
(Plates XXI. XXII.) 

The Antelopes are active and elegant animals, 
which feed on grass, leaves, buds &c. They are 
most numerous in Africa, but several species inhabit 
different parts of Europe and Asia. 

The Klippspringer (Orcotragns saltatrix , Plate 
XXI. fig. d) is found in the mountains of Southern 
and Eastern Africa. It feeds on aromatic mountain- 
herbs, like the chamois, and likewise resembles this 
animal m leaping with the greatest ease and safety 



Bison or Auiocns 

model 
lar<'e 



at a giddy height from rock to rock. In colour i1 
is not unlike the Roebuck. The hair is thick , the 
body moderately stout , the legs are short and 
strong , and the hoofs are furnished with claws be- 
hind. The buck is ornainentcd with short straight 
horns, which rise perpendicularly from the head. 

The Chamois (Rupicapra tragus, Plate XXII 
fig. b) is remarkable for the shape of its horns, which 
are at first straight , and then curved backwards a1 
the tips. It has some resemblance to a goat ir 
general appearance, but its body is stronger and more 
compact, and the legs are longer and stronger. Il 
stands about two feet high at the shoulder, and the 
bucks are rather larger than the docs, and have longei 
horns. In summer the general colour is dull reddish 
brown above, and rather paler below ; and in wintei 
dark brown, with the head, feet and belly white. 
There is also a dark stripe on each side of the face. 
Notwithstanding the keenness of their senses, their 
great shyness and intelligence and their unparalleled 
agility in leaping aiid climbing, their numbers are 

becoiTiing 
greatly re- 
duced by 
the perse- 
cution ol 

hunters. 
The cha- 
mois is met 
with inmost 
of the high 
mountains 
of Southern 
and Eastern 

Europe, 
where its 
pursuit can 
only be at- 
tempted 
by trained 

moun- 
taineers. 

One of the 
best known 
antelopes is 
the Gazelle 
(Gaze 11 a 
donas, 
Plate XXII. 
^ fig. c) which 

the Arabs 
regard as a 
of natural beauty. The head is adorned with 
anguishing eyes, and lyre-shaped horns in both 
sexes. The neck is long and slender, and the 
rounded body is supported by slender pinewy legs, 
with very delicate hoofs. The reddish-yellow colour- 
ing of the upper surface is separated from the white 
undersurface by a brownish black stripe running 
along the sides of the body. The Gazelles are found 
in large herds in the deserts of Northern Africa and 
Arabia. 

Oxen. 

(Plates XXIII. XXIV.) 

The Oxen have large heads and bodies, rounded, 
hollow horns, and a naked, damj) nuizzle. The tail 
reaches nearly to the ground and is tufted at the 
extremity. There are no tear-channels. They are 
gregarious animals, not very active or graceful in 
their movements. They feed on ill sorts of plants. 




:^r^^. 



20 



but chiefly on grass. They arc by far the most 
useful of all ruminants, both living and dead. 

The domestic cattle (Plate XXllI. fig. a, b) 
are spread over the whole world, and there are many 
varieties. They are believed to be derived from the 
crossing of at least three originally wild species : 
Bos tauriis, Bos primigcuiiis, and Bos longifrons. 

The Zebu (Bos indicus, Plate XXIII, fig. d) 
one of the sacred animals of the Hindus, is remark- 
able for the large hump above the shoulder, and 
for the very short flattened horns. It is a quiet, inof- 
fensive animal, but more active than our domestic cattle. 

The Musk Ox (Ovihos woscliatiis, Plate XXIII. 
fig. c) has as much the appearance of a sheep as of an 
ox. The large broad head has a hairy , narrow 
muzzle, the boc'y is long, the legs very short, and 
the tail shorter than in the true oxen. The 
horns which are curved first downwards and then 
upwards, are ponderous and dangerous weapons. The 
Musk Ox inhabits Greenland and the extreme north 
of North America, and is clothed with long thick 
brown hair, which is shorter on the legs. It prefers 
swampy but rocky neighbourhoods, where it feeds 
in summer on grass and marsh-plants, and in winter 
on moss and licheiis. If it is attacked , it defends 
itself with great strenght and courage. 

The Buffalo (Bnbalns vulgaris, Plate XXIV. 
fig. a) inliabits Southern Europe, and the adjacent parts 
of Africa and Asia as far as India. Its body is stout 
and rounded, the neck short, with no dewlap, and 
the short, broad head is armed with very large and 
strongly curving horns. The legs are of moderate 
length, but very strong, and the tail is rather long. 
The hair is dark brown, and is rather thin except 
on the shoulders, the front of the head, and the tuft of 
the tail. The Buffalo has a formidable and imposing 
appearance, and is not to be despised as an anta- 
gonist, even by the tiger. But the tame buffalo can 
easily be managed, even by a child , and will yield 
good milk and excellent meat on very pour food. 
Both wild and tame buffaloes delight to bathe in 
swamps and rivers. 

The Aurochs (Bison europceus) is the largest 
and fiercest of the European ruminants. Its horns 
are short, but very strong, and its colour is dark 
brown. In winter the hair is longer, thicker and 
darker. The eyes are wild and restless. The Aur- 
ochs was formerly common in most parts of Europe, 
but is now found only in Lithuania (where it is strictly 
preserved) and in the Caucasus. It is fierce and un- 
tamable, but tloes not generally attack man, though 
it will give place to no one , especially in winter. 
A little thing, however , will rouse its fury, when it 
will charge upon the offending object with red, rolling 
eyes, and upraised tail. It has been thought that 
this animal, which stands six feet high at the shoulder, 
was the Urus which Cajsar saw in the forests of Southern 
Germany, and which he describes as being nearly as 
large as an elephant. But it is nov; believed that 
Ca?sar's Urus was Bos primigcniiis , a very large 
e.xtinct species, which was one of the ancestral stocks 
of our domestic cattle. The Aurochs is closely allied 
to the North American Bison; (generally, but im- 
properly called the Buffalo); and the latter animal, 
like its European representative, is now nearly extinct 
in a wild state. The Aurochs is represented on p. 19. 

Goats. 
(Plates XXIV. XXV.) 
Goats are mountain-loving animals. The body 
is strong and compact rather than elegant in form. 



the legs are rather short and strong, the neck short, 
and the head broad and rather obtuse. Both sexes 
have strong smooth sickle-shaped horns curved back- 
wards, and a beard under the chin. They climb and 
leap well ; their senses are acute, and their intelligence 
is considerable. 

The Ibex (Capra Ibex, Plate XXIV. fig. d) is 
the wild goat of the Alps. An old buck measures 
more than foor feet long, stands three feet high, and 
may weigh nearly two hundred pounds. Both sexes 
have large crescent-shaijed horns, curving backwards, 
bearing strong ridges. The buck is larger than the 
doe, has a small beard , and his horns attain the 
length of three feet. The hair is short and reddish 
grey in summer, but in winter it is paler, longer and 
thicker. The Ibex surpasses the Chamois in wariness 
and boldness, but although once common in the 
Alps, has lately become restricted to a few localities. 

The Bezoar Goat (Hircns Acgagnis, Plate XXV. 
fig. a) is very like an Ibex in size, and in the length 
of the horns, but the horns are differently shaped. 
They curve backwards in a similar manner, but then 
turn inwards. The horn has two longitudinal ridges, 
and the transverse ridges are much wider apart than 
in the Ijjex. They vary much in colour, and the 
male has a long beard. The usual colour is reddish 
grey, above, which is separated from the white undcr- 
surface by a black lateral streak ; there is a dark 
longitudinal streak on the back, and the neck and 
breast are black. It inhabits the steep mountains of 
Western and Central Asia, lives in small flocks, 
like the Ibex, and is equally dificult to approach. 

This species is considered to he one of the 
principal wild stocks from which the tame Goat 
(Plate XXIV. fig. b. c) is descended. The Goat is 
now reared in all countries for the sake of its 
milk, skin, hair, and flesh. It is fond of the 
bark of young trees, and is very destructive in 
plantations. 

The Cashmere Goat (Hircns Latiigcr, Plate 
XXV. fig. b) is reared for the sake of the long 
silky hair and wool which covers the whole body, 
except the face and ears, and which is almost as 
fine and lustrous as silk. It is an animal of moderate 
size, measuring four feet in length, and standing rather 
more than two feet high. The colour is variable. 
It may be yellowish white, brown or black, but the 
silvery white animals are the most valuable. The 
Cashmere Goat is reared everywhere in Thibet, 
Bokhara, &c. 

Plate XXV. fig. d) represents the Theban Goat 
(Hircns thcbaicas) which is rather smaller than the 
domesticated goat , but has longer legs and shorter 
hair, and more resembles a sheep. The head is 
uglier than in most other goats, for the horns and 
beard are almost absent, and the back of the nose 
is so much raised, especially in the buck , that the 
upper lip is drawn back, and the lower incisors are 
exposed. This goat is a native of Upper Egypt. 

Sheep. 
(Plate XXV. XXVI.) 

The Sheep are distinguished from the Goats 
by their ridged, three-sided, and generally s|)iral 
horns, the large tear-channels, the glands between 
the hoofs, and the absence of a beard. The head 
is much narrowed in front, the body slender, and 
thickly clothed with hair or wool, the legs are long 
and slender, and the tail is short, or moderately long. 
Wild sheep inhabit the mountain regions of the 



21 



Northern Hemisphere, and tame sheep are reared in 
all parts of the world. 

The Argali {Caprovis Argali, Plate XXV. fig. c) 
is a very large and powerful wild sheep inhabiting 
the mountains of Siberia. It measures six feet in 
length, and nearly four feet in height. The horns of 
the ram are three or four feet long, and weigh fifty 
pounds ; they arc first curved downwards , and then 
upwards ; those of the ewe are much shorter and 
lighter, and nearly straight. The long thick fleece 
is greyish brown in summer, and reddish brown 
in winter, but the snout, the thighs and the tail are 
always white. The Argali lives in flocks of eleven 
or twelve individuals, and always remains in the same 
district ; it is very wary, and if alarmed, escapes with 
prodigious bounds from rock to rock. " 

The Mouflon (Ovis innsinioii, Plate XXVI fig. a) 
is much smaller than the Argali, but is nevertheless 
of considerable size, measuring foor feet in length, 
including the tail, and standing two feet and a half 
high. The horns, too, which are usually met with 



only in the ram, are smaller and lighter than in the 
Argali, and never exceed two feet and a half in length. 
The hair is short and thick, the colour is reddish tawny, 
with a dark stripe on the back, and the undersurface 
is white. The Mouflon lives in flocks of forty or 
fifty individuals under the leadership of a strong ram, 
and is still found in con,siderable numbers in the 
rocky mountains of Corsica and Sardinia. 

The common Sheep {Ovis aru's, Plate XXVI. 
fig. b. c) has long curly wool, a long tail, and short 
horns, only present in the ram. The wild sheep 
is active, lively, and possessed of a certain amount of 
intelligence, but the tame sheep is a sluggish creature, 
quite incapable of self-defence, and ready to rush 
headlong into any danger, unless restrained and 
protected by the shepherd and his faithful dog. The 
value of the fleece, the skin, and the flesh of the 
sheep is great ; and the wool is particularly fine and 
soft in the Merino (Plate XXVI. fig. d) a moderate- 
sized, robust animal, with a large head, a convex 
snout, and large hbrns in the ram. 



Order XII. Sirenia. (Manatees and Dugongs.) 



(Plate XXVlll.) 



The Sirciiia are aquatic animals with fish-like 
bodies like the whales. They resemble them also in 
the form of the head, which is always furnished with 
molar teeth at least ; the mobility of the seven cer- 
vical vertebra: ; and the structure of the limbs. The 
front limbs are cover-^=^:^^e-2^s^aerTsgtM}gj 

ed with hide and con =^!^^=?^^5n:t ^ ' 7 
verted into fins, and _^;— v*^ -^ '/ 

the hind limbs and^^ \ 

tail are united to^ 
form a rudder. ^S^i 

The 5m'«/(r are \ ^^\ ^w'i 
sluggish animals, *'';;i^p^j\/? 
which feed on water 
plants, and rarely 
venture on land, 
where they are al- 
most helpless. They 
are found in ba\ s • 
estuaries and lai.^i *■ 
lakes, through which 
rivers flow. There 
are but two families. 




gradually increases in thickness from the neck to the 
middle, beyond which it narrows again. The tail-fin 
forms a somewhat crescent-shaped flapper. The long 
truncated upper lip forms a movable snout. The 
senses are not very acute, and the animal's food 

consists entirely of 
seaweed. 

The genus Ma- 
iiatHS has a perpen- 
dicular, rounded tail- 
fin. These animals 
have a fishlike body, 
thinly clothed with 
hair, and when fuU- 
rown , they only 
possess molar teeth. 
__ The Sea-Cow 

.^iiij^or Manatee {Maua- 
'^'(> ^tus australis, Plate 
^ XXVIII. fig. e) at- 
tains a length of nine 



HaUcoridiE and Majiatidiv , each containing a single 
existing species. 

The Dugong (Ha/icorc Dti,i^oiig) inhabits the 
shores of the Indian Ocean, and attains a length of 
from nine to fifteen feet. The short thick neck is 
distinctly separated from the head , but passes im- 
mediately into the body, which is rotund, and 



feet, and a weight of 
Dugong. 600 or 700 lbs., and 

possesses a movable snout-like upper lip. It inhabits 
the coasts and bays of the Atlantic Ocean, especially 
in the West Indies, and on the Northern coast of South 
America. Although associated with seals and icebergs 
on our plate, it would be a mistake to imagine that 
it has any connection with either. It is much 
hunted for the sake of its hide and flesh. 



Order XIII. Cetacea. (Whales and Dolphins.) 



(Plates XXIX 

The Whales are exclusively marine animals- 
and some of them attain to an immense size and 
bulk. The large flattened head is not separated from 
the body by a narrower neck ; the jaws are enormous, 
the eyes are very small , and there are no external 
ears over the small auditory openings. The body 
is long, stout and fishlike, and terminates in a hori- 
zontal fin, in which no trace of hind limbs or tail is visible. 



XXX.) 

The whole body is covered with a thick layer 
of fat , or "blubber", which renders these animals 
valuable. All the Whales swim well and with great 
rapidity, but as they breathe with lungs, they are 
obliged to come to the surface at intervals. 

The Bahcnidce, or Whalebone Whales have no 
teeth in their jaws, but there is a channel on each 
side in the gums, which is filled with perpendicular 



22 



layers of a horny substance , which form a kind of 
sieve to collect the small marine animals on which 
these Whales feed. The head is enormous, the 
throat verry narrow, and the tongue immovably fixed 
in the mouth. Whales are generally met with singly, 
or in small shoals, and are most abundant in the 
Arctic Ocean. 

The Right Whale, or Greenland Whale (Pialuna 
mysticctns , Plate XXIX. fig. a) grows to the length 
of about sixty feet, of which the head occupies one- 
third. The nostrils , which are called "blow-holes", 
are situated on the toj) of the head, the eyes are 
very small, and the openings of the ears hardly visible. 
The immense jaws are furnished with from 310 
to 350 layers of whalebone on each side. This and 
the blubber make a large whale worth about £, 750. 

Tlie Cachalot or Sperm Whale {Physctcr iiiacrocc- 
plialiix , Plate XXIX. fig. b) the type of the family 
Physctcridtr, is intermediate between the true Whales 
and the Dol|)hins. It resembles the former in its 
large size, and the latter in the possession of conical 
teeth , which are considerably larger in the lower 
than in the upper Jaw. The head forms one-third 
of the total length.. The blow-holes are situated in 
front of the nearly vertical snout. The body is 
of equal breadth to beyond the middle , and 
then grows narrower, terminating in a deeply exca- 
vated tail-fin. The Cachalot is found in many 
seas, but is commonest in the Antarctic Ocean. 

The Narwhal [Monodoii vioiioceros, Plate XXX. 



fig. a) which is generally included with the true Dol- 
phins in the family Ddphinidcr, is a swift and active 
animal, remarkable for a long spiral tusk on the left 
side of the upper jaw of the male , which is about 
nine feet long, and as hard as ivory. The right tusk is 
rarely developed, and the tusk or tusks are generally, 
but not always , rudimentary in the female. The 
male grows to the length of about fifteen feet, but 
the female is smaller. The head is small , the neck 
short and thick, the body spindleshaped, and the 
tail-fin very large. 

The Dolphins are small or moderate sized whales 
with small and often long and pointed heads, nume- 
rous teeth, uniform in size and shape, in both jaws, 
and a moderately stout body with small fins on the 
back and at the tail. They swim and dive very 
we'l , live in shoals , and actively pursue the 
marine creatures on which they feed. They are found 
in the seas of all parts of the world, but sometimes 
swim up into rivers and lakes. 

The Common Dolphin (Delpkinus dclphis, Plate 
XXX. fig. b) measures about seven or eight feet in 
length. This species sometimes plays about a ship 
in sheals of from six to ten individuals , for hours 
together, and amuses the sailors by its agile move- 
ments in pursuit of the flying fish. Although it looks 
so harmless , it is really one of the most predacious 
of marine animals. It has curved and (jointed fins 
on the back and sides , and a crescent-shaped tail- 
fin. The colour is dark grey above and lighter below. 



Order XIV. Edentata. (Sloths, Anteaters, Armadilloes &c.) 



(Plate XV. 



The Edentata, or Toothless Animals, derive 
their name from the very imperfect development of 
the teeth , which are either wholly or in great part 
absent. Their claws , however , which they employ 
either for climbing, or for scraping and digging, are 
very large. All the animals which belong to this 
Order are inhabitants of warm countries. 

In the Sloths , or Ih-adypodidir , the head is 
short und rounded, without external ears , and with 
lustreless eyes; the neck is long, the body stout, 
without a tail, and covered with long hair, which 
looks like hay. The front legs are longer than 
the hind ones , and the toes are armed with 
long sicklcshaped claws. The Sloths are very slug- 
gish animals on the ground, but they are more active 
among the branches of the trees. They are found 
in the thick primeval forests of South America, 
especially Brazil. 

The Three-toed Sloth {BradypJis tridaciyhis, 
Plate XV. fig. e) measures about three feet in length 
when full grown. The front claws are six inches 
long, and the hind ones a little shorter. With these the 
animal can cling so tightly to a branch that three 
men can hardly drag it away. The hide is ashy 
grey or greyish brown, and there is a broad brownish 
streak on each side of the back, running to the ex- 
tremity of the body 

The Armadilloes (Dasypodidcr) are stout ani- 
mals , with long heads , rather large upright ears , a 
long and thick tail, and short legs, armed with strong 
claws for burrowing. But they are most remarkable 
for the coat of armour which covers the upper sur- 
face of the body, and the tail. They are nocturnal 
animals, which sleep in their holes by day, and come 



forth at the approach of darkness to feed on all 
sorts of insects. They inhabit South America. 

The Bristly Armadillo (Dasypus sctosns , Plate 
XV. fig. d) has six and often seven movable rows 
of plates on the middle of the back. The parts of 
the creature's body that are not clothed with armour, 
are clothed by a wrinkled skin , covered with many 
flat warts. Behind the neck , and behind the belts 
of armour, as well as behind each separate row of 
jilates on the back , and behind the plates on the 
tail are several stiff bristles. The animal is two feet 
long and a foot high. 

The MyrmccophagidiF , or Anteaters have a long 
body supported by short strong legs. There are 
from two to four toes on the fore feet, and four or 
five on the hind feet, which are furnished with strong 
claws, which the animal employs to turn up the ground. 
The head is long, the tail cylindrical the mouth very 
small, and the tongue long and extensile, like that of 
a woodpecker. The tail is long or short, smooth or 
bushy. The Anteaters inhabit the woods and plains 
of South and Central Africa and of a large part of 
South America. 

The Great Ant-eater (MyriiiecopJiaga jiibata, 
Plate XV. fig. a) is rather abundantly clothed with 
hair ; a mane runs along the back, and the tail is 
bushy. The head is a long pointed cone, the eyes 
and ears are small, and the mouth is a small cleft. 
The tongue is three inches broad, and sticky, and 
can be stretched out of the mouth for a distance of 
more than a foot. There are four toes on the fore 
legs, armed with strong curved claws, and there are 
five toes on the hind legs, armed with weaker and 
straighter claws. The fullgrown animal measures 
nearly five feet to the root of the tail, and the tail, 



23 



including the hair , is three feet long. It is very 
useful in South America, where it roots up the nests 
and galleries of ants and termites, and then devours 
the insects. 

In the Manidcc the whole body except the 
throat, the belly, and the inside of the legs, is clothed 
with large flat horry scales, which overlap each other 
like the scales of a fir-cone. The body and tail are 
long , and the legs short , and armed with strong 
claws. The head is small, the snout conical , the 
jaws toothless, and the tongue rather long and ex- 



tensile. These animals, which are useful , like the 
Ant-eaters, by destroying the nests of ants and ter- 
mites, inhabit the woods and forests of Central Africa 
and Southern Asia. 

Temminck's Scaly Anteater (Manis Tcmniinckii, 
Plate XV. fig. c) is a native of Southern Africa. 
The head is short and thick, the body oval and the 
tail, which is as long as the body, is suddenly trun- 
cated at the tip. The large scales are pale yellowish 
brown, and paler at the extremity. A full-grown 
male measures about four feet in length. 



Order XV. Marsupialia. (Pouched Animals.) 



(Plate XII.) 



The Marsupialia or Pouched Animals differ 
very much in form; some resemble dogs and martens; 
some arQ more like hares and other Rodents , while 
others, again, resemble Shrew-Mice. Their habits are 
equally various. Some feed on small animals, and 
others on vegetable 
matters only. Some 
are nocturnal animals, 
and extremely sensitive 
to light, while others 
only roam abroad by 
day. They are distin- 
guished from other ani- 
mals by the female 
possessing a pouch on 
the belly, in which the 
helpless young are car- 
ried for some time 
after birth. 

We have given 
illustrations of three of 
the families included 
in this Order. 

The DidcIphidcE, 
or Opossums include 
various species, distri- 
buted over America 
Here they live in woods 
and thickets , coming 
forth at night to feed 
on small animals and 
birds , as their large 
canine teeth would in- \ 
dicate. % 

The Opossum ' " 
(Didclphys virginiana, 
Plate XII. fig. c) is about as large as a 
body is rather stout, the neck is short and thick, and 
the long head gradually narrows to a pointed snout. 
The great toe of the hind feet can be opposed to 
the others ; and the naked tail serves as an organ 
of prehension. The Opossum gives birth to its 
young after 14 days, when it places them in the 
poucii , where it suckles them for thirty days, when 
they are pretty well developed, but they still re- 
main in the pouch for some time, and only leave 
it occasionally. 

The PJialangistidcr have a hairy web between 
the limbs, which serves them as a parach^.ce. 



<j^^p5. ^^.^sc; 




cat. 



Taguan 
The 



The Taguan (Petaurisla taguanoidcs) is a native 
of Australia. '^ It has a small head and short tail, 
very large eyes and broad and very hairy ears. The 
feet are armed with strong curved claws. The fin- 
is long and soft, and the tail is bushy. The colour 

varies considerably. 
The upper surface is 

generally brownish- 
black , the parachute 
sprinkled with whitish, 
the undersurface white, 
the muzzle , chin and 
paws black. This ani- 
mal sleeps by day in 
hollow trees, and seeks 
its food, which consists 
of leaves and the young 
shoots of trees , only 
at night. 

The Macropodid(C 
or Kangaroos have the 
hinder part of the body, 
as well as the hind 
limbs and tail, greatly 
developed , while the 
head, neck, chest and 
fore limbs are com- 
paratively small and 
weak. These animals 
are found in Australia, 
and generally frequent 
grassy or bushy ]ilaccs, 
but a few species in- 
habit rocky districts, 
and others may be met 
with in trees. Only some 



of the smaller species are nocturnal in their habits. 
The larger ones feed on grass and leaves during 
the day, and if disturbed, endeavour to escape by 
making prodigious leaps with the aid of their hind 
legs and tail. As they eat the grass which is required 
for the sheep, the colonists hunt them down, and they 
are now much less abuixlant than formerly. 

The Kangaroo (Macropiis major, Plate XII. fig. d) 
is the largest of the family. An old male in a sitting 
posture is nearly as tall as a man, and measures, 
including the tail, above seven feet in length. It is 
hunted for its soft fine fur and delicate flesh, and is 
now disappearing from the more settled parts of 
Australia, though still common in the interior. 



24 



Order XVI. Monotremata. (Duek-Bill and Spiny Anteater.) 



In this Order, the muzzle is prolonged into a 
of beak , without fleshy lips or bony teeth. 
Dirds and reptiles in having a dry 
jaws, a cloaca (or common opening 



kind 

They resemble 
covering for the 
for the urine and 

excrements) 
and two mandi- 
bles. They also 
resemble Mar- 
supials in pos- 
sessing marsu- 
pial bones, and 
a pouch on the 
belly, which is 
sometimes con- 
spicuous. But 
the most remark 
able thing about 
these animals is 
that they lay 
eggs with parch- 
ment-like shells, 
similar to those 
of reptiles, and 
incubate them 
in the pouch on 
the belly. There 
are only two or 



bpmy Ant-eater, 

three species of these very curious animals, which in- 
habit Australia and New Guinea. 

The Duck -Bill (Ornithorhynchiis paradoxus, 
Plate XV. fig. b) is a foot and a half in length, 
including the tail. It has a flattened , beaver-like 
body, with thick brown fur. The legs are short. 



(Plate XV.) 

and there are five strongly webbed toes on each foot. 
The tail is broad and smooth. The small head is 
furnished with a broad toothless beak like that of a 
duck, and the tongue has a proiection behind which 
, , / -, . converts the 

,11^ ^rW'' ^ whole cavity of 
the mouth into 
a closed weir. 
This curious ani- 
mal is found in 
Australia, espe- 
cially in the 
eastern parts, 
where it digs 
itself long bur- 
rows in the 
banks of rivers 
and ponds, and 
swims about in 
muddy places 
in search of the 
insects on which 
it feeds. 

The Spiny 
Anteater (Echi i- 

na hystrix) 
has spines like 
a hedgehog, a 
very small opening for a mouth, like an ant- 
eater , and a worm-like tongue. It lives in Lilly 
districts , and seeks for its prey by night. It 
feeds chiefly on ants, which it seizes with its tongue. 
When alarmed it rolls itself into a ball, like a 




hedgehog. 



Anthropoid Apes. 




a) Chimpanzee. 
Troglodytes niger. 



b) Orang-utan. 
Simia Satynis. 



c) White-handed Gibbon. 
Hylobates Lar. 



d) Siamang. 
Hylobates syndactytus. 



Monkeys and Baboons. 




a) Gipuchin Monkey. 
Cebus Apella. 



b) Green Monkey. 
Cercopilhecus saiaeus. 



c) Baboon. 
Cynocepka/us Babuin. 



d) MandriU. 
Papio Maimon, 



e) Black Howler. 
Mycelcs niger. 



f) Barbary Ape. 
Inuus ecaudatus. 



Monkeys and Lemurs. 




a) Red Howler. 
Mycetes seniculus. 



b) Capuchin Monkey. 
Cebus capucinus. 



c) Squirrel Monkey. 
Callithrix sciurea. 



d) Lion Tamarin. 
Midas rosalia. 



e) Maki. 
Ltmur Macaco. 



Flying Lemurs and Bats. 




a) Great Kalong. 
Pteropus edulis. 



b) Vampire Bat. 
Vampyrus spectrum. 



c) Noctule. 
Vesperugo noctula. 



d) Long-eared Bat 
Plecotus auritus. 



e) Great Horse-Shoe Bat 
Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum- 



f) Flying Lemur. 
Gakopithecus volans 



Ichneumons, Weasels &c. 




a) Genetto. 
Genetta vulgaris. 



b) Swamp Ichneumon. 
Iclincumon galcra. 



c) Mungoose. 
Herpestt-s javanicus. 



cl) Pine Marten. 
Mustcla math's. 



e) Beech Marten. 
Mustcla foina. 



f) Polecat 
Putorius fotlidus 



Weasels and Otters. 




■i) Weasel. 
MusU'la vulgaris. 



^ Stout. 
Mustela crminea. 



c) Ferret 
f'ulorius furo. 



d) Sable. 
Marks zibetlina. 



<-■) Skunk. 
Mephitis ClUnga. 



f) Otter. 
Lutra vulgaris. 



g) Sea Otter. 
Eultydra tutris. 



Lions and Tigers. 




a) Lion. 
Fetis ieo. 



b) Lioness. 
Felts Ieo. 



c) Tiger. 
Feiis tigrh- 



d) Jaguar. 
Felis onca 



Cats &c. 




a) Leopard. 
Felis pardus 



b) Puma. 
Pelis concohr. 



c) Lynx. 
Felis lynx. 



A) Wild Cat 
Felis catus. 



e) Cat 
Felis domeslica. 



\ 



Hyaenas, Dogs and Wolves. 




a) Striped Hyaena. 
Hyaena striata. 



b) Spotted Hyaena. 
Crocata macutata. 



c) Greyhound. 
Canis tiomgsticus, var. 



d) Pointer. 
Canis domesticus. 



e) Wolf. 
Canis lupus. 



Foxes, Jackals and Insect-Eaters. 




a) Jackal. 
Canis aureus. 



h) Fox. 
I'tilpcs vulgaris. 



c) Hedgehog. 
Erinaceus eumfai-us. 



<1) Shrew-mouse. 
Sorcx vulgaris. 



e) Water Shrew. 
Grossopus fodicns 



f) Tuscan Shrew-mousf. 
Pachyura ctnisca. 



g) Mole. 
Talpa t-uroparn. 



Bears and Raccoons. 




aj Black Bear. 
Ursas aniericaiius. 



b) Brown Bear. 
(Jrsus arctos. 



c) Polar Bear. 
Ursus marithnus- 



d) Raccoon. 
Procyon lotor. 



A 



Badgers, Kangaroos, Gnawing Aninnals &c. 




a) Glutton. 
Ouh tuscus. 



b) Badger. 
Meks vulgaris. 



c) Opossum. 
Didelphys virginiana 



d) Kangaroo. 
Macropus major. 



e) Porcupine. 
Hystrix cristata. 



f) Guinea Pig. 
Cavia cobaya. 



Gnawing Animals 




a) Agouti. 
Dasyprocta aguti. 



b) Hamster. 
CriutHS frumentaritis . 



c) Marmot 
Arctomys mantiotta. 



d) Squirrel. 
Sciurus vulgaris. 



i) Long-tailed Field-Mouse. 
Mus sylvaticus. 



e) Loir. 
Otis vulgaris. 

k) Mole Rat 
Spalax typhlus. 



t) Short-tailed Field-Mouse. 
Arvicola analis. 



g) Mouse. 
Mus musculus. 



h) Brown Rat. 
Mus dccumanus. 



Gnawing Animals 




a) Hare. 
Lepus timidui. 



Ii) Alpine Hare. 
Lcpus variabilis. 



c) Rabbit 
Lepus cuniculus. 



d) Beaver. 
Castor fiber. 



e) Miisquasli. 
Fiber Zibethicus. 



Toothless Animals and Duck-B 




aj (..njiii Ant-uatcr. 
Mynnecophaga jubata. 



b) Duck-Bill. 
Ornilliorliynchus paradoxus. 



^) Scaly Ant-eater. 
Manis Temmiuckii. 



d) Bristly Armadillo. 

Dasypus setosus. 



e) Three-toed Sloth. 
Bradypus tiidactylus. 



Elephant and Rhinoceros 




a) Indian Elephant, 
Elephas indkus. 



b) Ono-horJK-J Khiiiotcr' 
Rhinoceros indicus. 



Tapirs, Pjgs &o 







a) American Tapir. 
Tafims americanm. 



b) Hippopotamus. 
Hippopotamus amphihius 



C) Pig. 
Sus scrofa. 



d) Wild Boar. 
Sus scrofa. 



Camels. 



XTIII. 




a) Camel. 
Cttmdus dromedarius. 



b) Baclrian Camel. 
Camclus Bactrianus. 



Llama and Deer 




'•>■) Llama. 
Auckenia Llama. 



b) Musk Deer. 
Moschus mosckifcrus. 



c) EUc. 
Akes Malchis. 



Deer. 




a) Reindeer. 
Tarandus rangifer. 



b) Sla?. 
Cervus elaphus 



Deer and Antelopes. 




aj Fallow Deer. 
Dama vulgaris. 



b) c) Roe Deer. 
Capreolus caprea. 



d) Klippspringer. 
Oreotragvs sallatrix- 



Antelopes and Giraffes. 




.1) fiirafiV, 
Ciimflcoparditlis Girnffa 



li) Chamois. 
Kupicapra tragus 



c) da/ollc. 
Gnsttla donas. 



Cattle. 




ii) b) Bull and Cow. 
Bos tauriis- 



Oz'ibus mosclialus. 



Bos indictts. 



Buffalo and Goats. 



xm 




a) Buffalo. 
Bubaltts vulgaris. 



b) c) Goat 
Hircus acgagrits, var. 



d) Ibex. 
Ca/ira Ibex. 



Sheep and Goats. 



xxv; 




a) Bezoar Goal. 
Hircus aegagrus 



1)) Cashmere GoaL 
Hmus aegagrus, var. 



c) Argali. 
Caprovis argali. 



d) Theban GoaL 
Hircus thebaicus. 



Sheep. 



XXM. 




a) Mouflon. 
Ot'is musimon. 






b) c) Sheep. 



Of/i 



d) Merino Sheep. 
Ovis aries, var. 



Horses 




a) Arabian Horse. 
BquHs caballus. 



b) Ass. 
Equus asinus. 



c) Zebra. 
Equus Zebra. 



Equus quaggn. 



Seals and Manatee. 




aj Common Seal. 
Plwca vitulina- 



b) Sea Bear. 
Otaria ursina 



c) Sea Lion. 
Otaria juhata 



d) Walrus. 
Trickecus rosmarus. 



e) Manatee. 
MaiMtus aiislralis. 



Whales. 



XXK 




a) Right Whale. 
Balaena mysticetus. 



b) Cachalot. 
Physetus macrocephalus 



Dolphins. 



\x\ 




a) Narwhal. 
Monodon monoceros. 



h) Dolphin. 
Dclfhinus delphis- 



INTRODUCTION. 




TIE BIRDS constitute the Second Class 
i)f Vertebrate Animals. They resemble 
Mammalia in having warm red blood, 
and a complete system of circulation, for 
their heart, like that of Mammalia, contains four 
chambers , two auricles and two ventricles. But in- 
stead of bringing forth living young, birds lay eggs, 
which they hatch in more or less neatly constructed 
nests. The number of cervical vertebrae is not 
limited to seven, as is almost invariably the case in 
Mammals , but increases in proportion to the length 
of the neck. But the most immediately obvious 
characteristics of birds are the conversion of the front 
limbs into organs of flight, and the feathery covering 
of the whole body, which replaces the hairy coating 
of mammals. 

These feathers are gradually thrown off, and 
are replaced by new ones , at least once a year. 
This generally takes place in autumn , and is calk-d 
moulting. 

A fully developed 
feather consists of the 
quill, the s h a ft and 
the vane. The vane 
consists of many thin 
layers , called barbs, 
which are linked to- 
gether by fine hooked 
processes. The feathers 

arc not found upon all 

portions of the skin, 

but on definite spaces, 

which are called Pterylae 

or feather-tracts. The 

head is usually covered 

with feathers. One 

feather - tract extends 

on the lower side of 

the neck to the breast. 

There the feather-tracts 

fork. A similar feather- Skeleton of Bearded Vullure 

tract commences behind the head, and extends over 

the whole back to the tail. The feathers are so 

arranged, that, although placed on definite tracts, they 

form a protective covering to the whole body. 




The bare or downy spaces (Apteria) , are very 
service; ble to the bird , for they enable it to move 
its head and neck in all directions, and to cover its 
head when it sleeps. 

The wings , or fore limbs of birds are con- 
structed on the same model as the fore limbs of 
mammals. They consist of arm, forearm, and hand. 
The wings are furnished with a series of long and 
strong feathers (quills) , which serve for flight. 
The hand is composed of a thumb and two fingers 
only, and the thumb with its clothing of feathers is 
called the Alula or bastard-wing. The direction in 
flight is chiefly guided by the tail-feathers. 

Wing-bones of Bird. 

nw e 5 




c. Humerus or arm. Iiw. C^aipus or wrist, 

s. Radiusi f d. Pollex or tliumb. 

c. Ulna J '°''® ^''""- mh. iMetacarpus. 

f. Digits or fingers. 

Arrangement of Wing-feathers. 




li. Primaries. sd. Scapulars, 

a. SecoMilaries. 1. Alula or Bastard-Wing 

w. Wing-coverts. 

On examining the legs, we find that the femur 
and the tibio -fibula are clothed partly with flesh, 
and partly with feathers. The slender tarso -meta- 
tarsus is covered with horny scales, and terminates 

1 



in four toes with curved claws. Tiiree toes are 
usually directed forwards, and one backwards. 

Life is motion, and this is particularly the case 
with birds , which never rest , except when sleeping. 
Birds can run, hop, climb and swim, but their most 
characteristic movement is flight. Many birds are 
remarkable for not remaining always in the same 
locality. These are called birds of passage. Some 
visit warmer regions during winter, while others are 
only seen in our climate during the cold part of the 
year. Birds are driven to migrate through scarcity 
of food, and different species feed on diflerent animal 
and vegetable substances. 

The senses of sight, hearing and smell are ex- 
ceedingly acute in most birds. Their senses of touch 
and taste are less remarkable , and are only well- 
developed in certain groups. But their perception 
of locality is most wonderful, for it enables them to 
find their way across sea and land to their breeding- 
places. 



The construction of their nests, the case with 
which they accustom themselves to the presense of 
man, and their behaviour in captivity, exhibits an 
amount of intelligence only surpassed by that which 
we find among the highest mammals. Birds are 
found in all countries, and their feathery covering is 
especially adapted to their habits and surroundings. 

There are about 12,000 species of birds at 
present known. The Orders of Wading and Swim- 
ming Birds are the most numerous. 

Birds may be divided into two great groups. 
In the first group , or Insessores , the young birds 
remain helpless in the nest for some time after they 
are hatched, and arc fed by the parents. In the second 
group {Aiitopkac^i) the young birds leave the nest soon 
after they are hatched, and seek their own food under 
the guidance of the parent birds. The Insessores excel 
in flying and the Autophagi in running or swimming. 

Birds are divided into seven Orders, according 
to the structure of the beak and toes. 



Sketch of Orders of Birds. 



A. Insessores. 



Order I. Accipitrcs (Birds of Prey). Beak curved. The upper mandible is clothed with a wax-like 

skin or cere at the base, and curves over the lower mandible at the tip. The claws form 

curving hooks. 
„ II. Scansorcs (Climbing Birds). Beak except in the parrots without cere. Feet with sharp claws 

and adapted for climbing. 
„ III. Syndactylcc (Hornbills and Kingfishers). Beak ridged and very long. Feet fitted for walking. 
„ IV. Passcres (Singing Birds). Beak tube-like or conical. Feet with sharp claws and fitted for 

walking or hopping. 
„ V. Colnmba: (Pigeons). Beak straight. Nostrils surrounded by a soft skin. Toes divided to 

the base. 



B. Autophagi. 



,, VI. Galliiicr (Poultry and Game-Birds). Upper mandible of the beak overlapping the lower one 
at the tip and sides. Four toes, the three front ones slightly connected at the base and the 
hind toe placed rather higher than the others. 

,, VII. Cursorcs (Running Birds). Wings short, unfitted for flying. Legs long and strong and adapted 
for running 

„ VIII. Grallatorcs (Wadmg Birds). Legs very long. Toes webbed. 

,, IX. Palmipedes (Swimming Birds). Toes webbed or provided with membranous appendages. 



A. INSESSORES. 

Order I. Accipitres. (Birds of Prey.) 



The Birds of Prey have great powers of flight, 
and their senses are hkeuise highly developed. 
Though not brightly coloured, they are powerful and 
handsome birds, and have always attracted much 
interest. They feed on the flesh ol vertebrate ani- 
mals which they capture and kill, but some will also 
devour carrion, and a few of the smaller species 
will eat insects. The head is large and rounded, 
and the upper mandible of the beak is covered with 
a wax-like membrane, or cere, at the base, and is 
strongly hooked at the tip The body is robust, 
the wings long and pointed , the legs strong, and 
the toes armed with sharp curving claws They 
generally live in pairs , and some species pursue 
their prey by day, and others only at night. 

Family 1. Vulturidae (Vultures) 
(Plate I.) 

In the Vultures, the beak is only curved at 
the tip, the head and neck are bare, or only covered 
with a short down, and the feet are armed with strong, 
but rather blunt claws. They inhabit warm countries, 
where they are very useful in devouring carrion. 
Their senses are acute , and the birds fly well, 
except when gorged. 

Fig. a. The Egyptian Vulture (Neophron pcrc- 
noptcrus) is one of the best-known representatives 
of the group. Its dirty white and always untidy 
plumage, its naked, saffron-yellow head, and its filthy 
odour render it peculiarly disgusting. 

Fig. b. The Griffin Vulture {Gyps fulviis) is 
reddish-brown, with black wings and tail; the short 
down on the head and neck is light grey. It is a 
large bird, the male measuring nine feet in expanse 
of wing, and the female, which as in most birds of 
prey is larger, somewhat more. Like the last species, 
it is found in the greater part of Africa, Southern 
Asia, and Southern Europe. 

Fig. c. The Condor (Sarcorhaiiipliiis gijphns) 
is found in the Andes oi South America and is the 
largest of all living birds of prey, measuring when 
full-grown twelve feet in expanse of wing. This 
bird flies at a vast height; travellers have seen it 
flying above the lofty peaks of the Cordilleias, 
and then suddenly swooping down with amazing 
rapidity. It is not a very handsome bird. The 
head and a portion of the neck are entirely bare. 
There are curious folds of skin above the beak and 
on the throat, and there is a peculiar greyish-white 
downy ruff on the lower part ol the neck. 

Family II. FaiCOtlidae. (Eagles, Falcons and I lawks.) 
(Plate I) 
The Eagles and Falcons are the noblest of 
the Birds of Prey. Their head and neck are covered 
with feathers, their beak is curved from the base, and 
the upper mandible is notched ; the wings are long and 
pointed, and the claws extremely sharp. They feed 
exclusively on freshly-killed, and preferably on warm- 
blooded prey. The Eagle is often ranked as the 



King of Birds, as the Eion is called the King of 
Beasts. The Eagles have a crest of pointed feathers 
on their head , and their strong arching beak is 
curved downwards from the middle. 

Fig. d. The Pearded Vulture or Lammergeyer 
(Gypaetus barbatus) resembles the eagles in its 
feathered head and neck , and in its preference 
for living prey , while it is more like the 
vultures in the shape of the beak, and in the 
shortness of its talons. The belly is orange-coloured, 
and the back and wings are brown , with white 
blotches, and the beard ol bristly feathers at the 
base of the lower mandible is black. It is the 
largest bird of prey which inhabits the temperate 
zones, for its wings expand over nine feet ; and thus 
it is not much inferior to the Condor in size. It 
inhabits the mountains of Southern Europe as far 
as the Alps, and is likewise found- in the Himalayas. 
It is very destructive to small or weakly animals, 
and is said sometimes to attack children 

Fig. e The Secretary Bird (Scrpciitarius secre- 
tarius) inhabits the dry sandy regions of Africa, and 
feeds on snakes and other vermin, which it destroys 
with the aid of its strong scaly legs The feathered 
neck, an'd black crest on the back of the neck, and 
the long legs give it so remarkable an appearance that 
it could not be confounded with any other bird of prey. 

(Plate II.) 

Fig. a. The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysactos) 
inhabits mountainous districts in Europe, Asia and 
North America, where it builds its nests either among 
precipitous rocks, or on old and lofty trees. It 
generally rears only two young ones , and cannot 
therefore increase very rapidly. It feeds on animals 




Egg ol Golden Eagle. 

from the size of the roebuck and the swan down to 
marmots and partridges. Its plumage is reddish 
yellow, varied with dark brown, and when full grown 
it measures nearly three feet in length, and its wings 
expand seven feet. 

Fig. b. The White-tailed Eagle (Haliactus 
albicilla) has the basal portion of the tarsus feathered. 
It may be recognised afar off by its dark-brown 
plumage, shading into yellowish white on the head 



and neck , and its white tail. This species occurs 
throughout the greater part of Europe and Asia, 
and is very destructive to lambs and other small 
animals. 

The Ilarpy Eagle (T/irasactiis destructor) is the 
finest of the eagles which inhabit Central and South 
America. The body is very robust, the head large, 
and the legs thicker than in any other birds of 
prey. The head and neck are grey, the back, the 
wings, the upper part of the breast, and the tail are 
black; the lower part of the breast is white. This 
bird is remarkable lor continuing to moult throughout 
the whole year. The Harpy Eagle is a most formidable 
enemy to the Howling Monkeys, deer, and even 
children. It also feeds on sloths, and tears them 
away in fragments from the branches to which 
they cling. 

Fig. c. The Serpent Eeagle (Circactiis gallicns) 
feeds chiefly on Ampliibia, but will also eat snails 
and worms. The beak is 
clothed with a wax-like 
cere, the feet are blue, the 
back brown, the belly white, 
with light brown spots, and 
the tail marked with three 
dark transverse bands. It 
inhabits Southern Europe, 
Western Asia , and North 
Africa. 

The Kites CM/Z7/JJ are 
slender birds, of moderate 
size. Their beak is much 
curved towards the tip, and 
ends in a strong hook. The 
short toes are armed with 
claws which are only slightly 
curved and the wings are 
long and pointed. But their 
most remarl<able character 
is the long forked tail. 

Fig.d. The Kite (71///- 
vus riifus) is of a prevail- 
ing rosty-red colour , the 
beak bluish , and the cere 
and feet yellow. It is found 
throughout Europe, as well 
as in Northern Asia and 
Africa, and is rendered con- 
spicuous by its deeply-forked 
tail , and by its sailing, 
though not rapid flight. In 

England it is now very scarce. It feeds on small 
mammals, birds, snakes, toads, insects, &c., as well 
as on refuse of all kinds. 

(Plate III.) 

The Harriers (Circus) have long narrow wings, 
adapted for very rapid flight, and speed backwards 
and forwards in the evening twilight at a moderate 
elevation over level ground, and pounce upon mice 
and other small animals and birds. They build their 
nests on the ground. The beak is small, the legs 
have long slender shanks with rather short toes, 
and but slightly curved claws. 

Fig. a. One of the best known species is 
Montagu's Harrier (Circus pyf^argus). The adult 
male is brownish grey on the head, neck and back; 
the belly and the upper tail-coverts are white. The 
adult female is similarly coloured, but the feathers 
are rather less varied with grey. This bird inhabits 




Southern and Central Europe, and is more mischievous 
than beneficial, for it destroys many useful little birds. 
The Buzzards (BtUeo) on the other hand are 
to be regarded as useful birds, for the>» feed prin- 
cipally on field-mice, hamsters, &c. , and will also 
eat insects. They frequent mountains and plains, but 
prefer small woods surrounded with fields. Their fliglit 
is slow, sailing, and long-sustained, and they dart down 
in a slanting direction when they perceive their prey. 
Their beak is small, weak, and not dentated , their 
legs and toes are short , and their claws of mode- 
rate size. 

Fig. b. The Common Buzzard (Butco vulgaris) 
is a voracious bird, and destroys great numbers 
of mice and similar vermin, though it does not de- 
spise a hare, a partridge, on a singing bird occasion- 
ally. The prevailing colour is a paler or darker 
brownish grey, the breast is white, with long pale 
streaks, the cere and feet are yellow, and the claws, 

which are rather long and 
sharp, are black. It is found 
throughout the temperate 
parts of the Northern Hemi- 
sphere. 

In the Ospreys or Fish- 
hawks, the body is compara- 
tively small , but strongly 
made, the head is of mo- 
derate size, the wings broad 
and long, the beak strong, 
terminating in a long hook, 
and the large feet are armed 
with strong toes, which are 
rough and rasplike beneath, 
and are armed with very 
long and sharp claws. 

Fig. c) represents the 
Osprcy (Pandion Hcdiaetns). 
The beak is black, the cere 
and feet are light blue, the 
crown of the head, and the 
undersurface of the body 
white, with scattered brown 
spots ; and the back and the 
tail brown , the latter with 
six broad brown transverse 
stripes A broad brown stripe 
runs down from the eyes to 
the sides of the neck. It 
roosts on high trees in the 
neighbourhood of rivers, and 
common in many countries 



Harpy Eagle (Thrasaelus destructorj 

preys upon fisli. 
of both hemi- 
spheres. 

The Gos- 
hawks (jlstur) 
may be known 
by their strong 
and distinctly 
toothed beak, 
which is curved 
from the base, 
the compara- 
tively long legs 
with long toes 
and sharp 



It 




Egg of Osprey. 
claws, and the short, but rather pointed wings. 

I'"ig. e. The Goshawk (.Ist/ir palunihariiis) is 
a formidable enemy to poultry-yards. It is a bold 
marauder in woods and fields, and as it does not 
despise small b'rds, it creates a [lanic among thcni 



wherever it appears. It is found throughout the 
greater part of the Northern Hemisphere. 

The true Falcons, formerly so much prized for 
the sport called Falconry, are much bolder and 
swifter birds', with far greater powers of endurance. 
The short strong beak is provided with one sharp 
tooth, and the legs are short, with very long toes, 
and curved, sharply-ridged claws ; the wings are long 
and narrow. Their food consists of birds , which 
their rushing flight enables them to seize upon the 
wing , and they are consequently among the most 
destructive birds of prey. They fly most in the 
morning and evening. They build their nests in 
crevices among steep rocks, or on the summits of 
the loftiest forest-trees. 

Fig. d. In the Jerfalcon (Hicrofaico candicaus) 
the prevailing colour is white, with darker longitudinal 
and transverse markings. It inhabits the extreme 
north of Europe , Asia and America , and makes its 
nests among steep rocks, especially near the sea. 

Plate IV. 

Fig. a. The Peregrine Falcon (Falco pcirgriiuts) 
is much more widely distributed than the Jerfalcon, 
and is found in nearly all parts of the world, either 
as a resident, or as a casual visitor. 

Fig. b. The Hobby (Falco snbbittco) is one of 
the swiftest of the birds of 
prey. It feeds on small birds, 
especially larks. The adult 
male is dark brown above 
and white beneath, with 
blackish longitudinal streaks ; 
on the cheeks is a sharply- 
defined black streack. It is 
common in most parts of 
Europe and the adjacent 
countries. 

The Kestrels are distinguished from the true 
Falcons by their shorter toes and softer feathers. 

Fig. c. The Kestrel (Falco tiiiniiucnhis) is ashy 
grey on the head and tail 
in the adult male , and the 
back and wings are cinna- 
mon-colour with black lance- 
olate spots , the throat is 
white , and the rest of the 
imdersurface of the body 
reddish yellow. It is com- 
mon in many parts of the 
Old World , migrating to- 
wards the south in winter, 
birds and insects. 

Fig. d. Our figure of the Sparrow Hawk 
(Accipiter Nisns) is taken from an old male ; the 
female is larger, and of a lighter colour. It is ex- 
ceedingly daring in its pursuit of the sparrows and 
other small birds on which it feeds. It is common 
throughout the greater part of Europe and Asia. 

Fig. e. The Chanting Falcon (Mclicrax iiiiisi- 
cns) is distinguished from the hawks by its more 
slender form, weaker beak, and longer and stronger 
legs, with shorter toes and claws. It is a sluggish 
bird , which feeds on insects and other small game. 
This bird is noted for its power of singing, an 
uncommon accomplishment among birds of prey. 




Egg of Hobby. 




Egg of Kestrel. 
It feeds on mice , small 



whose usual voice is a harsh scream ; but its cajia- 
cities as a songster appear to have been much 
exaggerated. It is a native of South Africa. 

Family III. Strigidae. (Owls.) 
(Plate V.) 

The Owls have soft and very flossy plumage, 
which makes them look much larger than they really 
are. They have a large round head, a short sharp- 
pointed beak , very large eyes , surrounded with a 
ruff of feathers , wide ears , closing by a flap, short, 
feathered legs , and strong and very sharp claws. 
They fly about at twilight, or on clear nights, hunting 
for mice and other small animals which they may 
happen to meet with , either asleep or active. 
They make their nests in old walls, in the clefts of 
rocks, or in hollow trees. 

The Owls are divided into several genera, chiefly 
by the structure of their ears. 

In the Eagle Owls the ear is an oval cavity, 
which occupies only half of the hollow in the skull. 
There are two large tufts of feathers on the head, 
which are popularly called ears. 

Fig. a. The Eagle Owl (Bubo viaxhnus) is the 
largest European species , and will attack even 
young fawns. It makes its nest in the clefts of rocks. 

In the genus Otiis, the ear is large and round, 
with a pointed flap , and these Owls have also two 
moveable tufts of feathers on the forehead. 

Fig. b. The Eared Owl (Otus vulgaris) is 
common in thick woods throughout Europe and the 
Ncjrthern parts of Asia and Africa. It feeds chiefly 
on mice, and should consequently be encouraged and 
protected. 

The genus Ulula resembles Bubo in the struc- 
ture of its ears , but has no tufts of feathers on 
the head. 

Fig. c. The Brown Owl (Ulula aluco) likewise 
inhabits large woods, from whence it makes nightly 
excursions in pursuit of mice, moles &c. It is re- 
markable for its large broad cat-like head , but the 
body is much smaller than its loose plumage would 
lead one to suppose. 

In the genus Strix, the ears resemble those of 
Otus, but the flaps are more complete, and the tufts 
on the head are wanting. The beak is only curved 
at the tip. 

Fig. d. The Barn Owl (Strix fanniica) 
handsomest and most 
familiar of our European 
Owls. The white ruff of 
feathers round the eyes 
is very conspicuous. It 
is found in nearly all parts 
of the world , except the 
extreme North, makes its 
nest in old walls and ruins, 
and feeds chiefly on mice. ^gg of Barn Owl 

The genus Athene has also sr 
rather small ears. 

Fig. e. The Little Owl (Atlicuc noctua) is com- 
mon in "many parts of Europe. It frequents human 
dwellings, and is found in church-towers, old build- 
ings and hollow trees. Superstitious people regard 
it.s" cry as a death-omen. This harmless bird teeds 
chiefly on mice, and is sometimes seen flying by day, 
pursued by a mob of wag-tails, swallows &c. 



the 




small tufts and 



Order II. Scansores. (Climbing Birds.) 



Tlie peculiarity of this Order consists in the 
structure of the toes. In most species two toes are 
directed forwards , and two backwards , so that the 
birds are not only enabli^d to perch securely on 
branches &c., but also to climb easily up and down 
the trunks of trees. 

Family I. Psittacidae. (Parrots.) 
(Plate VI. j 

The Parrots are true denizens of the tropics, 
and many of them are remarkable for their beautiful 
colours, and their great power of initating the human 
voice, &c. Most of the species feed on roots and 
seeds and their strongly curved, and hooked beak, both 
mandibles of which are movable, is not only useful 
to crack hard shells, but is of great assistance to 
them in climbing from branch to branch. Different 
kinds are known as pairots, parrakeets, niacaws, kries, 
cockatoos, &c. 

In the Macaws (^4r<r) the beak is very large, 
with the ridge broad and flattened, the cheeks broad 
and naked , the wings long and pointed , and 
the tail longer than the body. 

Fig. d. The Great Scarlet Macaw (Ara vtacao) 
is a large bird, measuring two feet in length, 
it inhabits prineval forests in the east of South 
America, far removed from human dwellings. Its 
plumage shines with the most brilliant colours, of 
which red is the most extended , and the naked 
cheeks, which look as if they had been powdered, 
are ornamented with small pencils of red feathers. 

In the Parrakeets the body is slender, the tail 
pointed, as long as the body, and the plumage usu- 
ally of brilliant colours. 

The Grass Parrakeet (Mclopsittiiciis iiiidnlatiis) 
figured on the accompanying woodcut , is one of 




cages m 



.^4^.Wr:/^^fe^ .tVO>A; - 



The Grass Parakeet. 

the smaller parrots. It is of a yellowish grass-green, 
with waved blackish transverse lines. The forehead 
and cheeks are sulphur-yellow, and there are four 
tufts of blue feathers on the cheeks. In the female 
the cere is of a greyish green, instead of purple, as 
in the male. This species inhabits the grassy plains 



of Australia in Hocks. It is often kept 
Europe, and breeds readily in captivity. 

P'ig. e. The Alexandrine Parrakeet (Pahromis 
Alcxandri) is said to have been first brought to 
Europe from India by Alexander the Great. It is 
grass-green, with a rosy-red beak and collar. 

In the genus Calyptorliynclius the beak is short 
and crescent-shaped, the lower mandible very broad, 
the wings short and broad, the tail long, and the 
crest smaller than in the more typical Cockatoos. 

Fig. f. Sir Joseph Bank's Cockatoo (Calypto- 
rliyuchus Baiiksii) is a rather scarce species found in 
New South Wales. It feeds on seeds, caterpillars &c. 
The colour of the male is greenish black, with a red 
transverse band across the tail. 

(Plate VII.) 

In the genus Fsi/tacns , the beak is strong, 
moderately long, and curved almost in a half circle. 
The legs arc short; and the toes long. The feathers 
are broad, and the eye is often surrounded with a bare 
space. 

Fig. a. The Grey Parrot (Psittacus crithacits) 
is an inhabitant of Africa. Its colours are not re- 
markable, but it is one of the most intelligent species, 
and is often seen in cages. 

In the Cockatoos (Cacatua) the colour is gener- 
ally white, sometimes rosy, with an upright divided 
crest on the head. 

Fig. b. The yellow-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua 
galcrita) abounds in Australia, where it may be seen 
in flocks of hundreds. It is very docile, and easily 
taught. 

Family II. Ramphastidae. (Toucans.) 
(Plate VII.) 

The Toucans are found in South America, and 
are remarkable for their disproportionately large 
beak , which is gradually curved , serrated at the 
edges and very light in proportion to its bulk. The 
liright colours of the beak observable in that of the 
living bird soon fade after death. 

Fig. c. The Ariel Toucan {Raiiipliastos Arid) 
is as large as a crow. It is black, varied with red and 
\cllow, and feeds on fruits and insects. 

Fannly III. Picidae. (Woodpeckers.) 
(Plate VII,) 

The Woodpeckers are the chief representatives 
of the Climbing Birds in Europe. They climb about 
the trunks and branches of trees , hammering at 
every loose scrap of bark in order to get at the 
insects which may be hidden beneath. Their toes, 
which are arranged in pairs, give them a firm support, 
which is increased by the stiff tail ; their beak is 
sharp and very strong, and their tongue is long, 
and can be darted out rapidly. 

Fig. d. The Black Woodpecker (Dryocopus 
iiiartius) is found throughout Europe , Asia , and 
North Africa. It is most common in extensive mount- 
ain forests. The bird is black , with the crown of 
the head and the back of the neck red in the male ; in 
the female this colouring is only found on the neck. 

Fig. e. The Green Woodpecker (Gccimis viri- 
dis) is smaller than the last species. The red mark- 
ings on the head are less extended in the female 
than in the male. It is common in many parts of 
Europe. 



I 



Fig. f. The Great Spotted Woodpecker (Picus 
major), and 

Fig. g. The Lesser Spotted Woodpecker (Picus 
minor), are likewise common European birds ; the 
latter is not larger than a house-sparrow. 

The Woodpeckers are among the handsomest 
and most active of our native birds, and any injury 
which they may be supposed to cause to trees is 
doubtless far more than compensated for by their 
services in destroying insects. 

(Plate VIII.) 

Fig. a. The Middle Spotted Woodpecker (Picus 
ntcdius) is another species very similar to the two 
last. Its beak is rather small, and sharp. This bird 
frequents forests. 

Fig. c. The Nuthatch (Sitta curopcra) forms a 
transition to the Finches. The legs are short , and 
three toes extend forwards, and one, which consists 
of a single joint, backwards. The beak is hard, 
straiglit, and sharp, and the tail is short, and serves to 
support the bird when climbing. It is rather a pretty 
bird, and very active. It is common in most parts 
of Europe, and is often seen near houses. 




Fig. b. The Wryneck (Ynnx torquilla) has a 
short conical beak, and loose , very soft plumage. 
It resembles the woodpeckers in the 
structure of the tongue and in the 
position of the toes. The Wryneck 
is not an uncommon bird in Europe 
during the summer. It is of the 
size of a lark, and the general colour Egg of Wryneck 
is grey, with brown transverse lines. It attracts 
attention by the peculiar twisted movements of its 
body, and does good service in destroying injurious 
insects. 

Family IV. Cuculidae. (Cuckoos). 
(Plate XI.) 
Fig. g. The Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) lays its 
eggs in the nests of other birds, and especially in 
those of small in- 
sectivorous birds. 
Its eggs are small 
in comparison with 
the size of the bird, 
and are of various 

colours. The Eggs of Cuckoo. 

Cuckoo inhabits woods, where it feeds on insects, 
and especially on the caterpillors which destroy 
forest trees. In the autumn it migrates southwards. 




Order III. Syndactylae. 



In this small Order the outer toe is partly con- 
nected with the middle toe. 

Family I. Bucerotidae. (Hornbills.) 
These birds have some resemblance to the 
Toucans , and are remarkable for the horny excres- 
cence on their beak. The Two-horned Hornbill 
(Buccros bicornis) which is represented on the wood- 
cut on page 8, is a native of India. Its prevailing 
hues are black and white. 

Family II. AlCedJnidae. (Kingfishers.) 
(Plate VIII.) 
The Kingfishers have a curious truncated ap- 



pearance. The head is large, and the beak is straight, 
large and strong. The feet and toes are small, and 
three toes are directed forwards , and one back- 
wards, but the outer toes are connected with 
the middle one. The Kingfishers live on the banks 
of streams and lakes , and feed on small fishes and 
insects. 

Fig. d. The Common Kingfisher (Alcedo his- 
pida) is one of our most beautifully-coloured native 
birds. It makes its nest in burrows which it forms 
in clay banks, and lays from five to eight eggs on 
a layer of fish-bones. 



Order IV. Passeres. (Singing Birds.) 



The birds of this Order possess a peculiar 
structure of the larynx , which forms a singing 
apparatus , though they are not all able to sing. 
They are found in all parts of the world, and some 
feed on seeds , artd some on insects ; and a few, 
even among the smaller species, feed on small mam- 
mals and birds. 

Family I. Upupidse. (Hoopoes.) 
(Plate VIII.) 
Fig. f. The Hoopoe (Upiipa cpops) is remark- 
able for its long sharp bill, and large crest. It is 
found in many parts of Europe , Asia , and North 
Africa , being a summer visitant in Central Europe. 
It feeds on grubs, worms &c. 

Family II. Meropidae. (Bee-Eaters.) 

(^Plate VIII.) 

Fig. e. The Bee-Eater (Mcrops apiastcr) is 
another handsome bird. It has a very light and 
elegant flight, and pursues bees and other insects of 



all kinds on the wing. It is a migratory bird, com- 
ing to Central Europe from the shores of the Medi- 
terranean and Black Seas, and is sometimes seen in 
large flocks. 

Family III. Certhiidae. (Creepers). 
(Plate IX.) 
Fig. a. The Tree-Creeper (Ccrthia faniiliaris) 
is a little bird hardly larger than a wren, which has 
a long narrow tongue like that of a woodpecker, a 
stiff tail, and toes with long claws, with which it can 
cling tightly to the trees when climbing. It is very 
active , often running about the lower side of the 
branches. It is found throughout Europe and 
Northern Asia. 

Family IV. Trochiliidae. (Humming Birds.) 

(Plate IX.) 

These beautiful little birds are only found in 
America, and the smaller species scarcely exceed a 



large Ilumble-Bee in size. The bill is long and 
slender, either straight or curved, and the two man- 
dibles form a regular tube, in which the tongue, 
which is cleft to the root, works like a double piston. 
They suck the honey of flowers , and also feed on 
small insects , hovering while they ply their long 
pointed wings with lightning-like velocity. On the 
wing they sometimes cannot be distinguished from 
moths of the same size, which hover over flowers 
in a similar manner. Many species are very brightly 
coloured, some of them shining like jewels. They 
form a delicate nest of about the size of a large 
apricot, which they build in the forks of slender twigs. 
We have figured the three following species : 

Fig. b. The Little Humming Bird (Mclisitga 
viinima) a native of Jamaica and St. Domingo; 

Fig. c. The Tufted Coquette [Lopliornis ornatus) 
one of the commonest 
and most widely-dis- 
tributed of the South 
American species; and 

Fig. d. The La- 
zuline Sabre - wing 
(Campylopter'us la Zu- 
lus) likewise common 
in Venezuela, and the 
neighbouring parts of 
South America. 

Family V. Corvidae. 

(Crowsj. 
(Plate IX.) 

In these birds 
the beak is strong, 
conical, laterally com- 
pressed , and gene- 
rally longer than the 
head. The rounded 
nostrils are covered 
with small satiny or 
bristly feathers. They 
are very intelligent 
birds , and though 
most of them do not 
sing, they have a 
rather broad tongue, 
and some of them 
can be taught to ar- 
ticulate words distinct- 
ly. They are found 
in all parts of the 
world , and eat all 
kinds of food. 

Fig. e. The 
Raven [Corviis corax) one of the largest of the 
family, is a bold and handsome bird. It is of a 
shining black colour, with a greenish blue metallic 
lustre. The beak is strongly arched, and the claws 
very powerful, so that it is enabled to attack both 
large and small animals, like a bird of prey. When 
captured yoimg, it becomes very tame. 

Fig- g. The Carrion Crow (Corviis coroiic) is 
considerably smaller and weaker than the Raven. 
Both birds are widely distributed over the Northern 
hemisphere. The Crow is frequently met with in 
large numbers in Southern and Central Europe, and 
destroys great quantities of mice and other small 
animals. 

Pig. f. The R(.ok (Corvns fniif/'/cg/is) has a 
longer an<l more jioinled beak than the Crow, and 



its plumage has a more metallic lustre. It is more 
omnivorous than the Crow and Raven, feeding on 
vegetable matters as well as on worms and insects. 
It is a very gregarious bird, nesting in large numbers 
on the same clump of trees. It is one of the com- 
monest species of the family throughout Central 
Europe. 

(Plate X.) 

Fig. a. The Hooded Crow (Corvns comix) 
much resembles the Carrion Crow in size, the struc- 
ture of the beak, and habits. It is found in many 
parts of Europe and Asia, and is sometimes very 
abundant. 

Fig. b. The Jackdaw (Corvns inoncdnla) is a 
gregarious and very active bird, which may be seen 
flying by hundreds round the high trees and tall old 

buildings where it 
makes its nests. It 
feeds chiefly on in- 
sects, worms &c. It 
is rather smaller than 
the rook ; the crown of 
the head is black, the 
cheeks and upper parts 
of the head are ashy- 
grey, there is a 
shining greyish-white 
s[)ot on each side of 
the base of the neck, 
and the breast and 
belly are ashy-grey. 
The rest of the body 
is black. The Jack- 
daw is common 
throughout Europe. 

Fig. g. The 
Magpie (Pica caudata) 
differs from the Crows 
and Rooks by its long 
tail. The prevailing 
colours of the bird 
are black and white, 
but the tail has a beau- 
tiful metallic lustre. 
It is a very cunning 
thief, and its nest, 
which it builds of 
thorns and twigs on 
lofty trees , is an al- 
most impregnable for- 
tress. The Magpie 
lives throughout the 




Two-horned Honibill (Bncei-os bicornisj. 



and is 



year m pau's. It 
likes the neighbour- 
common in all parts of 



hood of houses 
Europe. 

The Jays (Garrnlns) differ from the Crows in 
the form of the beak, the points of which are curved 
together, the rounded tail, and the hopping gait. 

Fig. c. The Jay (Garrnlns glaiidarius) is one 
of the prettiest and best-known of our woodland 
birds. The wings are large, banded w'ith black and 
white , and the wing-coverts are blue. The rest of 
the body is reddish-grey. The Jay feeds on insects, 
worms, berries and hard-shelled fruits, as well as on 
birds' eggs and young birds, w'hich causes it to be 
regarded as a destructive bird. 

Fig. d. The Nutcracker (Nncifraga caryo- 
catactcs) is dark-brown with scattered white spots. 
It is smaller than the Jay, and less conunon in most 



;) 



parts of Europe. It is a bold and thievish bird. It 
feeds on insects, berries and nuts, but will also kill 
small and even moderate-sized birds, attacking their 
heads. 

The genus Pyrrhocorax has a rather long 
slender , curved beak , long wings , black plumage, 
and pale legs. 

Fig. e. The Alpine Chough (Pyrrhocorax al- 
pinus) inhabits the highest mountains of Europe, and 
is also found in Siberia , Persia and Egypt. It is 
gregarious , and makes its nest in the crevices of 
rocks, often in inaccessible places. 

Eig. f. The Chough [Frcgilus graadns) much 
resembles the last bird , but is more widely distri- 
buted in Europe; in Britain, it is frequently met with 
on rocky coasts, as well as inland. It is a shy, un- 
sociable bird, and not easily tamed. 

(Plate XI.) 

Fig. a. The Roller-Bird (Coracias garriila) has 
a strong sharp beak, some bristles at the corners of 
the mouth, short legs, and brightly-coloured plumage. 
It is as large as a Jackdaw, but is of a bluish green 
colour, with the back cinnamon, and the legs yellow. 
It feeds on insects, worms and small frogs. It is a 
migratory bird , and is only seen in Europe during 
the summer months. 

Family VI Paradiseidse. (Birds of Paradise.) 
(Plate XI.) 

The Birds of Paradise, notwithstanding their 
magnificent plumage, are really closely allied to the 
Crows. The strong beak is straight or slightly curved 
at the tip , and covered with satiny feathers at the 
base. They are found in New Guinea and the 
Moluccas , and feed on insects, which they capture 
on the wing. 

Fig. b. The Great Bird of Paradise (Paradisen 
apoda) is not much bigger than a starling , but its 
long tail-feathers make it look much larger. There 
are from forty to fifty delicately-fringed feathers on 
each side of the body, which meet on the back, and 
surround the tail like a sort of feathery flower. 

Family \TI. Rupicolidae. (Cocks of the Rock.) 
(Plate XI.) 

Fig. c. The Cock of the Rock (Riipicola crocca) 
is the representative of a small genus of brightly- 
coloured birds which inhabit various districts in South 



\' 



America. It is about the size of a ring-dove. The 
\Tiale is bright orange-yellow, and has a large crown 
i,onsisting of a double row of feathers, which gives 
it^i head a superficial resemblance to that of a cock; 
the female is darker , and the hood is smaller. It 
forms its nest in the clefts of rocks , and feeds on 
seeds and insects, in search of which it scratches up 
the ground like a fowl. 

Family VIII. Stumidae. (Starlings.) 
(Plate XI.) 

The Grackles (Gracula) have a knife-like beak, 
naked behind , a fleshy tongue , and legs fitted for 
walking. 

Fig. f. The Hill Mina (Gracula rcligiosa) is an 
Indian bird, as large as a jackdaw. The plumage is 
blackish, with a violet lu.stre, the beak and legs are 
yellow, and a yellow lappet of ^kin surrounds the 
back of the head. It is a very favourite bird in 
India, as it is much more talkative than a parrot, 
and is readily taught to pronounce many words. 



Fig. 



e. The Crow Blackbird (Qniscalus ver- 
sicolor) is smaller than the last species. The male 
is black , with a purple lustre , and the female uni- 
form brown. This bird is very destructive to the 
fields of maize in America. 



Fie 



(Plate XII.) 
The Starling (Stmnit^ 



strong straight beak almost 



\'iilgaris) has a 



in a line with the tijp 




E'.'g of StailiuL'. 




of the head. The legs are used 
for running on the ground, 
and not for hopping. It is a 
very lively bird , and easily 
learns to imitate various sounds 
and tunes both in the fields, 
and in captivity. It feeds on 
insects, seeds and berries. The 
Starling is abundant in many 
parts of Asia and Africa as well as in Europe. 

Family IX. Oriolidse. (Orioles.) 
(Plate Xr.) 
P"ig. d. The Golden Oriole {Oriolns galbida) 
is the type of this family. The 
male is shining gold - colour 
and black, and the female and 
young bird greenish. It is 
common in many parts of 
Europe , and has a melodious 

of Golden Oriole, 
""■■fa- 
Family X. Alaudidae. (Larks.) 
(Plate XII.) 

The Larks have a long awl-shaped siiur on the 
hinder toe. They make their nests on the ground, 
run instead of hop , and feed on seeds and insects. 
Their song is very melodious. 

Fig. a. The Sky-lark (Alanda arvcnsis) begins 
to sing very early in the year, 
while most other songbirds are 
still silent or absent. Its colours 
are plain. It is greyish brown 
above, with paler and darker 
stripes , and yellowish white be- 
neath. It feeds on tender ])lants, as well as on seeds 
and insects. It is found in all parts of the Old World. 

Fig. b. The Woodlark (Alanda arborea) not- 
withstaiiding its name, is generally seen on the ground, 
and but rarely on trees. It prefers clearings in woods, 
which are overgrown with heath, fern &c. It is 
smaller and less abundant than the Skylark, and its 
beak is more slender. 

Fig. c. The Crested Lark (Alaiuia cristata) 
is distinguished by a pointed tuft of feathers on the 
head. The lower wing-coverts are of a fine rusty- 
red. These birdj are fond of the neighbourhood 
of houses, but never perch on a high elevation. 
They build their nests on the ground, among 
vegetables, &c. 

Family XI. Turdidae. (Thrushes.) 
(Plate XI 1.) 

The first genus, Cinclns, has a narrow 
with nostrils which can be closed at pleasure 
wings and tail , and long and 
strong legs. 

Fig. e. The Dipper (Cinclus 
ccgiiatictis) is an admirable swimmer 
and diver, and is almost always to 
be found in or near water, where 
it feeds on water-insects and their 
larva;, and on small Crustacea , the fry of fish, &c. 




Egg of Skylark. 



beak, 
short 




Egg of Dipper. 



10 



Its thick coating of feathers protects it both from 
the water and the cold. It is common throughout 
Northern and Central Europe and Asia. 

In the Thrushes (Tiird/is) the nostrils do not 
close as in the Dipper, the wings and tail are longer; 
and the borders of the eyelids and the corners of 
the beak become yellow in the pairing-season. 

The Thrushes are distinguished from all the 
other singing birds by then- legs being covered with 
a horny plate before and behmd. The beak is 
moderately long, and ends in a curved point. The 
feet and toes are large. Their song is strong and 
melodious. 

Fig. f The Song Thrush 
( Tardus musicHs) is olive-brown 
above, and yellowish white be- 
neath , with brown spots. It 
feeds on insects and berries, 
and makes its nest in 
bushes. It is a very common 
bird, and is seen throughout 




Egg of Song Trush. 
the year. 



(Plate XIII) 

Fig. a. The Missel Thrush (Turdiis viscivorus) 
is very like the last species, but larger. It is found 
in all parts of Europe, and prefers pine forests. It 
is very voracious, feeding on snails , worms, insects 
and berries , especially those of the mistletoe , from 
which it derives its name. In some countries it is 
esteemed as a dainty, as is also the next species. 

Fig. b. The Fieldfare {Tiirdns pilaris) is a 
winter visitor with us. It is abundant in the more 
northern parts of Europe, where it bteeds. It is 
very fond of the berries of the juniper. 

Fig. c. The Ring Ouzel (Ttirdus torqnatus) is 
one of the larger thrushes. Its plumage is black, 
and its feathers are bordered with whitish. On the 
upper part of the breast is a broad crescent-shaped 
white band. It is a very shy and retiring bird, and 
is found in wooded and mountainous districts in many 
parts of Europe. Its song is not remarkable. 

Fig. d. The Blue Thrush (Turdus cjianctcs) 
inhabits the mountains of Southern Europe. The 
male is dark slate-blue, suffused with bright sky-blue, 
and the wings and tail-feathers are black, bordered 
with blue. 

Fig. e. The Blackbird (Turdns incrnla) is one 
o;' our commonest English birds. Tlie male is black, 
with a yellow beak, and the female is daik brown. 
It is found throughout Europe, and lives in woods 
and thickets ; and like most other thrushes , comes 
close to houses, and is frequently seen in gardens, 
even close to large towns. It begins to sing in 
March, but remains with us throughout the year. 

Fig. f. The Bohemian Wax-wing (Aiiipclis 
garrnla) has a short beak, compressed from above 
downwards , and strongly toothed. The plumage 
is soft and silky and the legs are short and strong. 
This bird is remarkable for the curious red sealing- 
wa.x-like appendages on some of the wing-feathers, 
and occasionally in the tail also. It makes its nest 
in the dark pine-forests of the extreme North of 
Europe, and only migrates to more temperate climates 
in very severe winters. It is a harmless indolent bird, 
and feeds on insects and berries. 

(Plate XVII.) 

The Nightingales hop on the ground, moving 
their tail up and down. The legs arc rather long, 
giving the birds an upright posture, and the straight 
slender beak has exposed no:;trils. They are small 



and active birds, with slender beaks, and generally 
rather uniform plumage, though they are the most 
charming songsters among our native birds. They 
live on insects, seeds and berries. Most of them 
are true birds of passage, and only visit us during 
the .summer months 

Fig. a. The Nightingale (Daulias liiscinia) is 
brown above, with a reddish lustre, and beneath pale 
grey and dirty white ; it is about the size of a 
sparrow. Its northern range in Europe extends to 
Central Sweden; in England it is most frequently 
met with in woods and gardens in the Eastern and 
Southern counties. 

Fig. b. The Blue-Throated Warbler (Cyane- 
citla siiccica) is generally found among low brush- 
wood near water. Its colour and voice are equally 
charming. It appears in Central Europe in April, 
hatches four or five eggs in an artistically constructed 
nest, and migrates to the south in August or September. 

(Plate XVIII.) 

Fig. a. The Robin (Erytliica rtibccitla) has an 
olive-brown tail and wings, and a red breast. Its song 
is very melodious , but has a somewhat melancholy 
tone, especially in the evening, when the other birds 
are silent. It is found in all parts of Europe. 

The Warblers (Sylvia) are distinguished from 
the Nightingales by their short strong legs , rather 
large beak, and more stooping posture. They glide 
actively among the bushes, but are awkward in their 
movements on the "round. 



atricapitla) is 




(Plate XVII.) 

Fig. c. The Blackcap (Sylvia 
another melodious songster, which, 
like the Nightingale, exhibits nothing 
striking in its colours. It is dark 
grey above, and much paler below. 
The crown of the head is black in 
the male, and brown in the female. Egf of Blackcap. 

Fig. d. The White-Throat (Sylvia cinerca) is 
brownish grey above, and dirty yellowish or reddish 
white beneath. It is a slender, lively and industrious 
little bird, which is found throughout Europe. 

Fig. e. The Garden Warbler (Sylvia l/ortcnsis) 
is olive-grey above, and dirty yellowish-white beneath, 
and is common in the warmer and temperate parts 
of Europe, where it is common in gardens , and 
makes itself useful by destroying insects. Its song 
is the most charming of any bird of the genus. 

Fig. f. The Snow Whitethroat (Sylvia curruca) 
much resembles the last species, but is smaller. It 
inhabits Central Europe in summer, where it is seen 
hopping about in gardens and among bushes. 

(Plate XVIII.) 
Fig. d. The Redstart (Phocnicura rtiticilla) is 
a brightly-coloured, active bird. The back is ashy- 
grey, the throat black, the breast and tail rusty-red, 
and the wings brown. It enlivens the fields and 
gardens with its cheerful song throughout the summer. 

(Plate XVII.) 

The species uf Hypolais have a long pointed 
head, and slender beak and feet. They hop about 
trees, and move clumsily on the ground. 

Fig. g. The Icterine Warbler (Hypolais ictcrina) 
is greenish grey above , and pale sulphur-yellow be- 
neath. It is found in Central Europe in bushy 
gardens and small woods , and is met with as far 
north as Central Sweden. It has a varied and me- 
lodious song. 



11 




Family XII. Troglodytidae, (Wrens.) 
(Plate XVIII.) 

The birds belonginji to the genus Rcgulns are 
very small and active creatures , with a straight 
pointed beak, on which the nostrils arc covered with 
a small conib-Iike feather. 

V\g. b. The Golden- Crested Wren (Kcgii/iis 
cristatns) and its near ally, the Fire-Crested Wren 
(Rcgulus ignicapilhis) are among the smallest of 
Kuropean birds ; measuring not much more than three 
inches in length. The Golden-Crested Wren may be 
seen darting about trees and hedges throughout the 
day in search of insects. 

Fig. c. The Wren (Troglodytes vulgaris) is a 
little larger than the last-mentioned birBs. Its colour 
is rusty brown , with dark transverse ^^ 
stripes. Its tail is rounded. It is a very 
lively and cheerful little bird, which utters 
its loud shrill song even during the winter. Egg of Wren. 
The Wren is common throughout Europe, and fre- 
quents bushy places near water. 

The genus Pratincola is distinguished by its 
long legs , short tail , and the peculiar shape of the 
iieak , which is broad at the base , and somewhat 
truncated in front. 

Fig. f. The Whinchat (Pratincola riibctra) in- 
habits Southern und Western Europe , and is found 
in meadows among low herbage and clumps of trees. 
The genus Motacilla has a rather long, straight, 
slender beak, long legs, and a long tail , which it is 
always wagging. 

Fig. g. The White Wagtail (Motacilla alba) 
has a plain colouring of grey, white and black. It 
is common throughout Europe, and 
is a very lively bird, always running 
about, especially near water, where 
it builds a simple nest in holes in 
the ground , under bridges &c. A 
very similar bird, the Water Wag- 
tail (M. Yarrcllii) is common in 
England. 

Fig. h. The Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flava) 
is a handsomer bird than the last species. The head 
is bluish green, the back olive-green, the whole 
under-surface of the body bright yellow, and the 
tail brownish black , except the two outermost 
feathers, which are white. The long claw on the 
hinder toe shows it to belong to the running 
birds, and in fact it generally lives on the ground, 
where it makes its nest among roots , the stems of 
reeds, &c. It is a migratory bird , and is found 
throughout Europe, even to the extreme north. 

The genus Acroccphalns has a long fiat fore- 
head, strong legs, and a stooping posture. The 
species live near the water among reeds and bushes, 
and climb about the stalks of the reeds with great 
celerity. 

Fig. e. The Great Reed- Warbler (Acroccphalns 
antiidiitaccHs) was formerly considered to be a 
Thrush , on account of its size (it measures eight 
inches in length). It is of a yellowish grey above, 
and greyish white beneath. It builds a large basket- 
like nest at a height of two feet above the water, 
which it attaches to three or more reed-stems. 

Family XIII. Paridae. (Titmice.) 
(Plate XIX left side). 

This family contains small , but active and in- 
telligent birds. They are chiefly insect-eaters , but 
their short strong beak is likewise adapted for break- 




Egg of White 
Wagtail. 




Egg of Blue 
Tilmouse. 



ing open hard-shelled seeds, which they hold steady 
between their toes for the purpose. Their legs are 
short and strong, and they climb easily with their 
strongly curved claws. Their plumage is soft and 
long, and in some species is prettily coloured. 

Fig. a. The Great Titmouse (Parus major) is 
one of the best-known , as it visits our gardens in 
winter. At other times it lives in the woods , and 
is also met with at a considerable elevation in the 
mountains. It destroys great numbers of insects. 

Fig. b. The Blue Titmouse 
(Parus cccruleus) is olive-green above, 
and yellow beneath , with the wings 
and tail blue. It is a very lively bird. 
It inhabits all Europe , except the far 
North. 

Fig. c. The Cole Titmouse (Parus atcr) has 
a black head and neck, the cheeks and a longitudinal 
stripe on the back of the neck are white , the back 
is ashy grey, and the belly whitish. It is found 
through Europe , Asia and America in woods , and 
most often in pine woods, where it makes its nest 
on the ground in hollow stumps &c. 

Fig. d. The Crested Titmouse (Parus cristatns) 
has a pointed tuft of black and white feathers on 
the head ; the throat and a stripe over the eyes black, 
the back greyish brown , and the belly whitish. It 
feeds on insects, and frequents pine-forests, like the 
last species. 

Fig. e. The Marsh Titmouse (Parus palustris) 
is the most lively of all the Titmice, and surpasses 
the rest in climbing. It is found in woods in most 
parts of Europe. 

The Long-tailed Titmouse (Parus caudatus) is 
white on the top of the head, and on the under-surface 
of the body, and the whole of the upper-surface is black, 
with the shoulders reddish brown, the hinder wing- 
feathers are broadly bordered with white on the 
outer side, and the two outer tail-feathers are white 
on the outer side and at the end. It lives in pine- 
forests and builds a purse-shaped nest among the 
stalks of the reeds. 

Family XIV. Fringillidae. (Finches.) 
(Plate XIV.) 

The Finches are small prettily-coloured birds, 
with a short strong conical beak , which in some 
species is curiously hooked and crossed at the tip, 
with which the birds crack tho grains and seeds on 
which they feed. 

The genus Loxia is easily known by the 
large head and strong beak, the tips of which are 
curved and crossed. They are hardy birds, which 
live in pine forests, and feed on pine and fir-cones, 
and begin to breed very early in the year. 

F^g. a. The Crossbill (Loxia curoirostris) is 
six or seven inches in length. The full-grown male 
is of a nearly uniform carmine-red , and the female 
and young birds greyish or yellowish green. It in- 
habits Northern and Central Europe. 

The genus Fyrrhnla has a short thick beak, 
rounded on the sides, and short legs , which unlike 
those of the Crossbill, are not adapted for climbing. 
They feed on buds and seeds. 

Fig. b. The Pine Grosbeak (Pyrrhula cnu- 
cleator) is a handsome bird, coloured something like 
the Crossbill. The old birds are for the most part 
carmine-red, with two white stripes on the wings, 
and the females and young are ochre-yclIow and 
grey. The beak is strongly hooked, but not crossed. 



12 




Fig. c. Tlic Bullfinch (Pyrrlntln vulgaris) is 
better known than the last species, and is met with 
throughout Europe, as far north as Central Sweden. 
It is found in woods , and in the more northern 
parts of Europe, is only a summer visitant. 

The species of Coccothraiistcs have the largest 
and most powerful beaks of all the Finches. The 
lower mandible is furnished with a protuberance in 
order to shell hard seeds^ 

Fig. d. The Greenfinch (Coccothraiistcs chloris) 
is a strongly-built bird, with a large head and a short 
tail. It is found in Europe , North Africa , and 
Northern Asia , and is generally to be seen on the 
edges of woods , near meadows where poplars and 
willows grow, on which it likes to build its nest. It 
is a migratory bird in some parts of the Continent, 
though a permanent resident in England. It feeds 
chiefly on oily seeds. 

Fig. c. The Hawfinch (Cc- 
cotJiraitstcs vulgaris) has a bcavy, 
clumsy appearance, but flies well, 
and climbs actively about the 
trees. It is common in many 
parts of Europe. Egg of HawlMich. 

In the genus Enibcriza, the beak, as in Cocco- 
Ihraustcs, is adapted to the food of the birds. They 
Iced on insects and seeds , which they pick up from 
the ground, and the upper mandible of their beak is 
provided with a knob on the palate for cracking seeds. 
Fig. f. The Yellow Hammer (Embcriza citrin- 
clla) is the most familiar species of this genus. In 
winter it comes near houses, and in sumrner it is to 
be seen everywhere in the woods and fields. It 
makes its nest twice a year in low bushes and 
hedges, and during this time the silvery note of the 
male is constantly to be beard. The male is more 
brightly coloured than the female, in which the 
colour inclines towards greyish brown, varied with 
olive-green. 

F'i?- L'- The Ortolan (Embcriza hortnlatia) is 
smaller than the Yellow Hammer, and less brightly 
coloured. The yellow on the throat and upper" part 
ofthe breast is of a light sulphur-colour. The upper part 
of the head and the neck are ashy grey , the belly 
and the lower tail-coverts are rusty-yellow, and the 
back and shoulders are rust-coloured. The Ortolan 
inhabits Central and Southern Europe, and is 
esteemed a great delicacy. 

(Plate XV.) 
Fig. a. The Cirl Bunting (Enibcriza cirl'us) is 
a native of Southern Europe, i)ut migrates into Cen- 
tral Europe, where it is rather a scarce bird, though 
it sometimes breeds in hedges. It is one of the 
handsomest birds of the genus ; the head , the back 
of the neck, and the brea.st are olive-green, the 
cheeks are yellow, and the chin and borders of the 
cheeks of a fine brownish black , the rump dirty 
olive-green, and the back and wings rusty-red. 

(Plate XVI.) 
Fig. f. The Common Bunting (Embcriza mi- 
liaria) is the largest of the genus, "and is generally 
to be seen upon the ground. It is found throughout 
Europe, and remains with us throughout the "year, 
but m colder regions it migrates southward during 
the winter months. 

(Plate XV.) 

Fig. b. T'he Snow Bunting (Fhctrophancs 
nivalis) exhibits a transition to the" larks. It has a 




Egg of House 
Sparrow. 



I spur on the hind toe, long narrow wings, and a 
I short tail, and is generally seen upon the ground. 
It inhabits Northern Europe, Asia and America, and 
migrates to the south in great flocks during winter. 
The younger birds are of a dark greyish brown on 
the head, back and wings , and dirty white beneath, 
suffused with rusty brown. As they grow older, 
the pure white of the under-surface of the body con- 
trasts much more strongly with the deeper brownish 
black of the upper-surface. 

The genus Fringilla and its allies include some 
of the best singers and most favourite cage birds 
among the Pinches. They are finely formed , and 
some of them are very prettily coloured. They have 
a conical pointed beak, which varies in length and 
breadth in different species. 

Fig. c. The House Sparrow (Passer ilomcsticus) 
is by far the commonest and most ubiquitous of ail 
our birds, forcing itself under our notice everywhere, 
even in the heart of London. It feeds on almost 
everything, and naturalists are by no 
means agreed as to whether the ser- 
vice which it renders in destroying 
insects is greater or less than the 
damage which it undoubtedly inflicts 
upon many of our field and garden 
crops. It was introduced into North 
America in the hope that it would destroy injurious in- 
sects, but instead of this, it is now regarded in that 
country as a most troublesome pest. 

Fig. d. The Chaffinch (Fringilla coelcbs) is a 
very common bird in many places, and is much 
admired for its handsome colours and cheerful sung, 
which includes several tones. The 
male is very handsome in his bridal 
dress ; the front of the head is black, 
the back of the neck slaty-blue, the 
back reddish brown above, and the 
sides brown , the throat and breast Egg of Chafnnch. 
reddish brown, with white and yellowish white bands 
across the wings. This bird is found through Europe, 
and in many parts of Africa and Asia. 

Fig. e. The Mountain Finch (Fringilla monti- 
fringilla) is found in the north of Europe, and mi- 
grates to the south in immense flocks. It is quite 
as handsomely coloured as the last species, especially 
in autumn, when the male acquires his shining blue- 
black back and head, with brownish borders to the 
feathers , and his beautiful orange-coloured breast. 
Like the last species, they build very, skilfully-woven 
nests in the thick branches of birch and pinetrees. 
In summer, they nourish themselves and their young 
with insects , and in autumn and winter they feed 
on oily seeds , especially beech-mast , of which they 
are extremely fond. They are very quarrelsome 
birds. 

V\g. f. The Snow P'inch (Montifringilla nivalis) 
inhabits mountainous regions, on the borders of the 
eternal snow. Here it lives in large flocks, feeding 
on insects and seeds , and making its nest in the 
clefts of the rocks. The head and neck of the male 
are ashy grey , the back and shoulders are brow'n, 
the chin whitish, the throat black in summer, the 
breast greyish white , and the wing-feathers black, 
except those in the middle , which are snow-white, 
while the tail is black in the middle , and white on 
the sides. 

(Plate XVI.) 

Fig. a. The Goldfinch (Fringilla cardnelis) is 
the most beautiful of all our smaller birds. It is 




i: 




common tliroughout Europe, and a great part of Asia. 
In addition to its beauty, it is a 
lively little bird, and has a f)leasant 
song. It often makes its elegant nest 
in fruit-trees near houses. 

Fig. c. The Linnet {Fringilla ^"'^ 
cannabina) is one of the commonest 
of the seed-eating finches ; its song ^88 °'' Gokifmch. 
is clear, strong and flute-like. In spring the crown of the 
head, and the upper part of the breast of the male 
are adorned with fine carmine-red, and the rest of the 
plumage is brown and grey, which are the ordinary 
colours of the female and the young. The Linnet 
is found in woods and fields in all parts of Europe. 

Fig. d. The Siskin (Fringilla spiiuis) attracts 
attention by its lively ways, and well-sustained, though 
not remarkable song. It is common throughout Eu- 
rope, and is always seen in large flocks. It feeds on 
the seeds of pines, firs, birch and alder, and makes 
its nest among these trees and bushes. The male 
has a black crown and black throat, and the rest of 
the plumage is of a fine yellowish green ; in the 
female it is more grey. 

Fig. e. The Citril Finch (Fringilla citrinella) 
is yellowish green, but the neck is ashy grey on the 
back and sides. The bird is rather longer than the 
Siskin, and its beak is more obtuse. It is confined 
to the southern parts of Europe. 

Fig. b. The Canary (Seriniis canariiis) which 
was first brought from the Canary Islands three 
hundred years ago , is now completely acclimatised 
in Europe. It is now dispersed throughout the world 
as a favourite cage-bird. It is very tame and intelli- 
gent, and the male is a charming singer. 

Tribe V. Fissirostres. 

(Plate XIX.) 

These birds are distinguished by their deeply- 
cleft beak, which is rather curved at the tip, and by 
the unusually wide gape, which opens to behind the 
eyes. Their legs are weak, and their toes small, 
but their powers of flight are immensely developed. 
Want of food compels them to migrate to tropical 
countries in autumn, and they return in spring, often 
making their nests in the same spot as before. 

Family I. Hirundinidae. (Swallows.) 
The Swallows and Martins have a short 
beak, weak legs, pointed wings, and in most cases 
a forked tail. 

Fig. a. The Chimney Swallow (Hirundo rustica) 
is shining black above, with the forehead and throat 
brownish-red, and the rest of the under-surface of the 
body yellowish-white. It makes its nest under the 
eaves of houses , and sometimes in outhouses and 
stables, confiding in protection, and willingly making 
itself a domestic animal. Its arrival is welcomed 
everywhere as a sign of spring. 

Fig. b. The House Martin (Cluiidon ttrbica) 
is black above, with the throat and under-surface of 
the body white. It does not fly so rapidly as the 




swallow, and builds its nests, often in considerable 

numbers together, on the outside of 

houses. It arrives in England in spring 

a few days later than the Swallow, and 

assembles in flocks on roofs &c. , in ""^l^^l^ 

the autumn , before departing for the Egg of House 

South. " Martin. 

Fig. c. The Sand-Martin (Cotilc riparia) is 
mouse-coloured above, and white beneath, with a grey 
transverse band on the head. It is one of the 
smallest of the European swallows. It is generally 
seen near rivers and streams, and it makes its nest 
in burrow's in the banks. 

Family II. CapHmulgidae. (Goatsuckers). 
(Plate XIX.) 

The Goatsuckers have a much wider gape than 
the Swallows , which is surrounded by stiff bristles. 
The beak is small, the hind toe movable, and the 
plumage very soft. 

Fig. d. The Goatsucker (Capiiiiinlgns ciiroptnis) 
has brownish-grey ]ilumage, speckled with black and 
white. It is a night-flying bird, and is not uncommon 
in the woods of Central and Southern Europe. A 
strange idea was long prevalent that this bird was 
in the habit of sucking milk from goats. 

Tribe VI. Dentirostres. 

(Plate VI.) 

These birds have a slightly curved beak, like 
that of a bird of prey , with a tooth in the upper 
mandible , and feed on small mammals and birds, 
as well as on insects. But their song , which they 
can modify to imitate the voices of very different 
kinds of birds , indicates them as belonging to the 
singing birds. Their colouring is rather monotonous, 
and all our indigenous species are marked with a 
black streak near the eyes. 

Family Laniidse. (Shrikes, or Butchcr-Birds.) 

Fig. a. The Great Grey Shrike (Lanius cxcii- 
bitor) is nine or ten inches long, and fifteen inches 
in expanse of wing. Notwith- 
standing its comparatively small 
size, it feeds on birds as large as 
thrushes, and even partridges, as 
well as on young birds and mice. 
It is found in all parts of Europe, 
and is in very ill repute , on ac- 
count of its destroying useful birds. 

Fig. b. The Red-backed Shrike (Lauiits colhtrio) 
is the smallest and prettiest of the European species. 
Its song is excellent, but is always composed of 
snatches of the songs of other birds. It arrives in 
May, and leaves in August. It is met with in Europe, 
Asia' Africa, and North America, and prefers well- 
wooded districts. 

Fig. c. The Lesser Grey Shrike (Lanius minor) 
inhabits Central and Southern Europe. It is found 
chiefly in woods , where it makes its nest on thick 
branches, using odoriferous plants for the purpose. 




Egg of Great Grey 
Shrike 



Order V. Columbae. (Pigeons.) 



The Pigeons form a small Order of birds which 
are very uniform in character. The beak is soft and 
slender at the base , and slightly curved at the tip, 
and the nostrils are placed on a raised cartilage. 
Their long pointed wings are fitted for very rapid 



flight, the legs arc short, and the hind toe is per- 
fectly developed , and placed at the same level as 
the others. They live in pairs, and build neatly 
constructed nests in the clefts of rocks, in trees, or 



among shrubs. 



14 



(Plate XX.) 

Fig. a. The Rock Dove (Coluviba livia) which 
is found wild in many parts of Europe , is believed 
to be the original stock from whence all our nume- 
rous varieties of tame pigeons are derived. The 
prevailing colour is a paler or darker bluish-grey, 
the neck shines with blue and purple shades , and 
there are two black transverse bands on the wings. 
Fig. b. The Trumpeter is remarkable for its 
peculiar long-sustained and resounding coo. The 
legs and feet are covered with very long feathers. 

Fig. c. The Tumbler has short, naked fect> 
a small round head, and large pearl-coloured eyes- 
It is remarkable for a swift and rapid flight, during 
which it turns over and over in the air. 

Fig. d. The Tern Pigeon is a small breed with 
an unusually small beak, and several rows of raised 
feathers running from the middle of the throat over 
the breast, which form a distinct ruff. 

Fig. e. The P'an-tail is a little smaller than 

the Rock-dove, and has a large tail of from 28 to 
32 feathers, which it can spread like a peacock 

P'ig. f The Nicobar Pigeon (Cohiinba nicobarica \ 

is more like a domestic 

fowl than a pigeon, both 

in form and habits. It has 

long feathers hanging 

down on the sides of 

the neck. It lives mostly 

on the ground , and 

makes its nest under 

bushes. It inhabits the Egg of Slock Dove, 

Nicobar Islands, the Malay Islands, and the Moluccas. 




(Plate XXI.) 

Fig. a. The Stock Dove [Coliimba anas) may 
be distinguished from the Rock Dove by the absence 
of the black bands on the wings ; the white colour 
beneath the wings and on the back; the reddish- 
yellow beak, and the more slender form. It is com- 
mon in Europe, but is only seen in summer in the 
colder districts. It inhabits woods. 

Fig. b. The Pouter is another of the strange 
domesticated varieties of the Rock Dove. It can 
inflate the skin of its neck to an amazing extent, 
and its voice is a dull hollow coo. 

Fig. c. The Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistcs vii- 
gratorius) has a long pointed tail of twelve feathers, 
and long pointed wings, adapted for rapid and long- 
sustained flight. It inhabits North America , and 
migrates in vast flocks for hundreds of miles from 
one spot to another. 

Fig. d. The Laugher Pigeon (Colniuha risoria) 
came originally from Africa, but has long been 
domesticated in Europe. 

Fig. e. The Turtle-Dove (Turhir vulgaris) is 
bluish-grey on the head and neck, and the breast 
is purplish. The sides of the neck are ornamented 
with scattered ring-like series of feathers. It is a 
very pretty dove, and very easily tamed. 

Fig. f. The Crowned Pigeon (Gaura coronata) 
is one of the largest of the family, and is not much 
smaller than a hen turkey. It is of a slaty-blue 
colour above, with reddish-brown white -striped 
wing-coverts, and has a beautiful crest on the head. 
It is found in New Guinea. 



B. AUTOPHAGI. 

Order VI. Gallinae. (Game Birds.) 



The strong beak is hard to the root ; the head 
is always ornamented with bare spaces, or spongy 
excrescenses (called the comb and wattles); the 
wings are generally short, and the flight heavy, the 
tail consists of stiff feathers, which can be raised and 
expanded like a fan in many species ; the legs are 
strong, the toes are furnished with blunt claws for 
scratching up the ground, and the hind toe is placed 
higher than the others, and is generally rudimentary. 
The male is generally provided with a sharp spur above 
the hind toe, as a defensive weapon. They are found 
on heaths, and in meadows and woods, and generally 
feed on grains and seeds which they pick up from 
the ground. Many species are reared for their flesh 
and eggs. 

Family I. Tetraonidae. (Partridges.; 

/Plate XXI.) 

The Quails have a small and somewhat raised 
beak, a short tail, entirely concealed beneath the 
feathers of the rump, and no spurs on the legs. 
They are found in cornficldi; , and live a very se- 
cluded life. 

■^'S- §• The Quail {CoUiruix coiiivinnis) is not 
much more than half the size of a partridge, 
which it resembles in habits and appearance. It is 



common in many parts of Europe, where its short 
sharp cry is frequently heard in the fields. 

(Plate XXII.) 

The Grouse have a short thick sharply-ridged 
beak, upon which the nostrils are surrounded by a 
thickly-feathered membrane. There is a red crescent- 
shaped naked skin over the bare eyelids. The 
forehead and the throat are feathered. The short 
strong legs are feathered either to the toes or to 
the shanks. They mostly frequent wooded districts 
in mountainous countries, and none of the species 
are migratory. 

Fig. a. The Ptarmigan [Lagipits iiiiitns) in- 
habits mountains in the 
northern parts of Europe 
and Asia, and is fur- 
nished with a covering 
of hair-like feathers , to 
the toes. It is mottled with 
darker in the summer, 
and becomes white in 
winter. It feeds on the 
buds and leaves of low- 
growing Alpine plants, ^gg of Ptarmigan, 
and never perches on trees, but digs long galleries 




15 



in the snow in winter with its Iohl,' shovel-like claws. 
Its flesh is much esteemed for the table. 

Fig. b. The Black Grouse {Tctrao tctrix) is 
as large as a moderate-sized cock, and is a beautiful 
bird. The cock has black plumage, shading into 
blue on the head, a white band on the wings, and 
a curved and forked tail. The female is rusty-brown, 
and her tail is not forked. It is an extremely shy 
and wary bird, and is more common in Northern 
than in Central Europe. It feeds on tender shoots 
and leaves. The young are hatched in a rough 
nest among heath, and feed at first on insects, ant's 
eggs, &c. They vary from six to fifteen in number. 
Fig. c. The Capercaillie (Tctrao nrogalhis) is 
considerably larger than the last species, and is one of 
the hantlsomest birds which inhabit the forests of 
Europe. Our figure represents the cock bird, who 
is adorned with a black tuft of feathers under the 
chin. The female is much smaller, and almost uni- 
form reddish brown. The Cafiercaillie is found in 
all the mountainous parts of Northern Europe and 
Siberia , where it feeds on berries, pine-needles, fir- 
cones , &c. It has lately been reintroduced into 
Scotland, (where it had become extinct,) from Nor- 
way. It is in season in March and April. 

In the Partridges , the head is clothed with 
feathers above the eyebrows , and there is a small 
bare triangular space behind the eyes. The short, 
moderately arched beak is only slightly hooked, and 
the nostrils are free from feathers. The moderately 
long legs are not feathered, and the wings are short. 
They feed more on grubs and insects than on corn, 
and frequent the open fields, where they run better 
than they fly. 

Fig. d. The Partridge (Pcrdix cinerca) has 
greyish feathers with dark brown stripes and blotches, 
and the male has a brown 
horse-shoe shaped mark on 
the breast. The bird looks 
like a clod of earth at a 
little distance, and this serves 
as a great protection against 
its numero\is enemies. It 
rises from the ground with 
a heavy flight and loud chat- 
tering cry, but then skims 
away with great swiftness at a moderate height from 
the ground. In England it is generally sought for 
in stubble-fields, but on the Continent it likewise 
frequents vineyards. 

Fig. e. The Red-legged Partridge (Caccabis 
rubra) is rather larger than the last species ; the 
cheeks and throat are white, bordered outside by a 
broad black band ; the back of the head and neck 
are reddish brown, the back is reddish grey, the 
breast and sides ashy grey, with black white and 
rusty transverse bands, the belly yellowish red, the 
four middle tail-feathers reddish grey, and the other 
twelve rusty red. The beak and legs are bright 
red. It is found in the south of Europe, and in 
the adjacent parts of Asia and Africa. 

Fig. f. The Greek Partridge (Caccabis saxa- 
lilis) may be distinguished from the last species by 
the sharply-defined black band which surrounds the 
white throat, and by the bluish-green feathers on 
the sides, which are marked with a rusty-yellow 
transverse stripe between two black ones before the 
dark reddish brown tips. This bird inhabits the 
mountains of Southern Europe and Asia , and 
Northern Africa. 




Egg of Partridge. 



Family 11. Phasianidae. (Pheasants.) 

(Plate XXII.) 

The domestic Fowl and its allies have a raised 
comb on the top of the head, two wattles, or bare 
folds of skin under the throat, and a tail composed 
of fourteen feathers, in which the large tail-coverts 
are considerably lengthened in the cock , when he 
has attained two-thirds of his growth. In the wild 
hen the comb and wattles are replaced by feathers. 

Fig. h. The Cock (Galhts baitkiva, var.) There 
are a great number of breeds of domestic fowl, 
varying very much in size, colour, and even habits. 
We have figured one of those which resemble the 
original Jungle Fowl ((ial/tis baiikiva) of Java, from 
which our domestic breeds are believed to have been 
derived. 

(Plate XXllI.) 

The Pheasants are the most beautiful birds fit 
their Order. They are generally of considerable 
size, and the plumage of many species, at least in 
the male birds, is magnificent. The tail frequently 
attains an extraordinary development, and in some 
species can be spread out like a fan. 

The Pheasant [PJiasianus colchiciis) is a native 
of Western Asia, but has long been acclimatised in 
Europe. It is reddish-brown, with the head and 
neck greenish blue. 

Fig. a. In the Silver Pheasant (Eitplocamns 
uycthcvicnis) the male is silvery white and bluish 
black, and the female is yellowish brown and dirty 
white. It is a native of China, but is often seen in 
menageries, and sometimes in large poultry-yards. 

Fig. b. The Golden Pheasant (Thaumalca picta) 
is also a Chinese bird ; and is generally to be seen 
in Europe in company with the last. 

Fig. c. The Argus Pheasant (Argus gigantciis) 
is nearly as larger as a peacock, measuring five feet 
in total lenght; the female is much smaller than the 
male. It inhabits Sumatra, Malacca, &c. where its 
colours assimilate so well with the surrounding woods 
that it is almost impossible to catch a sight of the 
bird itself. 

In the genus Pavo there is a crest of long 
feathers on the head. There are eighteen tail- 
feathers, which are curved inwards, and overlapped 
by the long tail-coverts, which are extremely deve- 
loped in the male, and most beautifully coloured, 
and can be raised like a fan with the aid of the 
tail-feathers. The Peafowl inhabits the East Indies^ 

Fig. d. The Peacock [Pavo cristatns) was 
brought" to Greece from India by Alexander the 
Great, and has since spread over Europe, where it 
is justly admired as the largest and most beautiful 
of our domesticated birds. The Peacock has his 
drawbacks, however. He is fond of perching on 
trees and roofs, and uttering his shrill unmusical 
cry. He is a savage bird, and at times dangerous. 
A white variety of the Peacock is sometimes reared. 

Fig. e. The Impeyan Pheasant [Lophophoriis 
impeyanus) is another very beautiful bird, classed by 
some authors with the Peafowl. The female is in- 
conspicuously coloured, with brown, greyand yellowish 
markings, but the male has the head, neck, and back 
magnificently shining with metallic green, red and 
yelfow. The hinder part of the back is white , the 
tail reddish brown, and the belly l)lack. It is found 
in the mountains of Northern India. 



IG 



(Plate XXII.) 

In the genus Numida the head and neck are 
bare, and there is a naked fold of skin on each side 
of the upper mandible , and a very short tail , con- 
cealed beneath the tail-coverts. 

Fig. g. The Guinea Fowl (Numida meleagris) 
inhabits swampy regions in Africa, where it lives in 
flocks of two or three hundred together, and roosts 
at night on trees. The bare head, ornamented with 
a brownish horn-like protuberance, gives it a peculiar 
ajipearancc. The colour of the feathers is pretty, 
especially the pearly white spots on a bluish-grey 
ground. The Guinea Fowl is a quarrelsome bird, 
and has a very disagreable cry. Its flesh is deli- 
cate, and its eggs , of which a hen will lay sixty or 
seventy in the course of a summer, are also much 
esteemed. 



Family III. Meleagi'idae. (Turkeys.) 
(Plate XXIII.) 

In the Turkeys the head and upper part of the 
neck are bare, and covered with warts. There is a 
pendant fleshy protuberance on the forehead. The 
tail, which consists of i8 feathers, is rounded, and is 
often spread out like a fan by the male. 

Fig. f. The Turkey (Meleagris gaUo[)avo) is a 
native of America , but derives its name from its 
having been erroneously supposed to be a native of 
the East. The wild Turkey of the United States is 
a much larger and handsomer bird than the tame 
ones, measuring four feet in length. The head and 
neck are of a rich blue, and the dark brown plumage 
shines with beautiful coppery, purplish-red, and green 
metallic hues. Turkeys are reared for the sake of 
their eggs and flesh ; but the Turkey Cock, like the 
males of most of the Game-Birds, is very easily irritated. 



Order VII. Cursores. (Running Birds.) 



(Plate 

This Order, which includes the largest existing 
birds , may be known by the imperfectly developed 
wings, and the smooth, convex breastbone, which is 
not provided with a ridge. On the other hand the 
legs are greatly developed. They have either two 
or three toes , with expanded soles and flattened 
claws. A hind toe is entirely absent. 

The beak is short and flattened, and the head 
and neck are cither naked or clothed with short 
down. In most cases the tail consists only of a tuft 
of flossy feathers. 

Family I. Struihionidae. (Ostriches.) 

Fig. c. The Ostrich (Struthio Caiiieltis) , the 
largest living bird, exceeds seven feet in height when 
full-grown , and weighs two hundred pounds. Its 
general colour is black , but the large drooping 
feathers of the wings and tail are white, and form a 
valuable article of commerce. Its speed and powers 
of endurance are great , and it can easily distance 
a horse. Ostriches are found in large flocks in the 
sandy deserts of Africa and the adjoining parts of 
Asia. Their eggs, which weigh three pounds, are 
hatched by the females in rough nests formed in 
the sand. 

Family II. Rheidae. (Rhcas.) 
Fig. d. The Rhea, or American Ostrich (Rhea 
aviericana) is smaller than the African bird , which 
has only two toes, while the American bird has three. 



XXIV.) 

In the Rhea, the fine plumes of the tail are absent, 
and the general colour is grey, the wings being paler ; 
and there are black streaks on the neck of the male. 
They inhabit the great plains of the southern districts 
of South America. 

Family III. Casuaridae. (Cassowaries.) 

Fig. b. The Cassowary (Casuarius galeatus) 
is a native of the Moluccas. It measures five feet in 
height, and is a stouter bird than the Ostrich or the 
Rhea. The Cassowaries have a raised horny or bony 
helmet on the head, hairlike feathers, and three toes 
on the feet. The plumage in the species figured is 
black, and the bare skin and wattles on the head 
and neck are blue and red. 

Family IV. Apterygidse. 

These birds have three large toes in front, and 
a very short toe behind. The beak is long and 
slender, and the plumage hair-like, without wing- 
plumes or tail-feathers. 

The Apteryx (Apteryx auslralis) hides itself 
among the roots of large trees during the day, and 
sallies forth in search of food at night. It feeds on 
insects, worms and seeds. Although it has no wings, 
their absence is compensated for by the bird's great 
swiftness of foot. The few known species of Apteryx 
are very similar, and are all found in New Zealand. 
They are comparatively small birds, hardly reaching 
two feet in height. 



Order VIII. Grallatores. (Wading Birds.) 



In tlicse birds, the beak is generally longer 
than the head , the neck is long and slender , and 
the wings and power of flight are well developed. 
The legs are very long, and are generally feathered 
only to half the length of the tibia. The toes 
are long , and are either free , or connected to- 
gether by a web. The birds are generally seen 
on the banks of rivers , or in swamps and 
marshes , wh(M'e they feed on worms and insects, 
and on various small animals which they find in 
the water. 



Family I. Otidae. (Bustards.) 
(Plate XXIV.) 

The Bustards have a conical beak like a fowl, 
very strong 4egs, and only the three front toes, which 
are very broad. They have large wings and a short 
broad tail composed of twenty feathers. The birds 
are shy, but do not fly well, as their bodies are 
rather bulky. 

Fig. a. The Great Bustartl (Otis tarda) is a 
magnificent bird, and the male attains the size of a 



17 



large turkey-cock. He has a movable beard hang- 
ing down from the corners of his beak , which con- 
sists of two rows of pale grey feathers. The head 
and neck are light grey, the upper part of the body 
is rusty yellow with brownish black transverse bands, 




Egg of Great Bustard. 

and the belly is white. The tail, which is composed 
of twenty feathers, is mostly white, and can be spread 
out like a fan. The Great Bustard inhabits the plains 
of Central and Southern Europe, but is now extinct 
in England. 

Family II. Ardeidae. (Herons.) 
(Plate XXV.) 

The Herons have a long hard pointed beak, 
which is sometimes spoon-shaped , or otherwise of 
unusual form ; a long neck , long slender legs , and 
powerful wings. They feed on fish , amphibia , and 
reptiles, and generally make their nests on trees. 

In the genus Ciconia the front of the head is 
flat, the long straight beak sharply pointed, the skin 
of the throat naked and extensile, and the legs very 
long, with short toes connected by a small web. 
The wings are large and broad, and the tail , which 
is composed of twelve feathers, is short and rounded. 
They make their nests either on high trees , or on 
houses. 

Fig. b. The Stork {Ciconia alba) is white, 
with black wings, and red beak and legs. It builds 
its nest on church towers and other buildings, often 
in large towns. It is a favourite with country people, 
too, for it destroys large numbers of frogs, snakes, 
and mice. During flight, it stretches out its neck 
and legs horizontally. It is a migratory bird in 
Central Europe , which it quits for warmer climates 
in August, but returns to its old nest in March. 

Fig. c. The Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) is 
brownish black with a metallic lustre ; the breast, 
belly and thighs are white. The feet and beak are 
green in the young bird , and afterwards turn red. 
Contrary to the habit of the White Stork , it shuns 
the abodes of man, and lives in flat wooded districts 
near lakes and rivers , and makes its nest in large 
and thick forest trees. It is much scarcer in Europe 
than the White Stork. 

Fig. d. The Marabou Stork (Lcptoptilus cru- 
vicnifer) of Africa , and the closely-allied Indian 
Adjutant (L. diibius) are much larger than the Eu- 
ropean Storks , and are remarkable for the nearly 
naked head and neck, only covered with a scanty 
down, and for the singular excrescence on the neck. 

The true Herons have a long compressed and 
pointed beak, the slender neck is generally clothed 

Birds. 



and there are twelve 




Ege of Heron. 



with very short feathers; 
feathers in the tail. 

Fig. e. The Heron (Ardea cincrea) is ashy 
grey above and white below, and is ornamented with 
large tufts of 
feathers on the 
back of the 
headandunder 
the throat. He- 
rons frequent 
the banks of 

rivers and 
lakes , where 
they feed on 
fish. But they 
are ravenous 
birds, and will 
also devour 
frogs , water- 
insects, field-mice, or any other small animals which 
chance to come in their way. The Herons generally 
make their nests in colonies on large trees. Such 
colonies are called heronries. The heron is very shy 
and wary. In flying it bends its head and neck over 
its back, and stretches out its legs horizontally. 

Fig. f. The Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) 
is dark ashy-grey, varied with rusty brown above, 
and pure rusty-red beneath ; the top of the head is 
black. It inhabits Southern and South-Eastern Eu- 
rope from April to September. 

(Plate XXVI.) 

Fig. a. The Night Heron (Nycticorax eiiropcEzis) 
has grey wings, a white neck and belly, and a black 
head and neck. The head is adorned with three 
long narrow feathers. It is a common bird in the 
warmer parts of the Northern Hemisphere , but be- 
comes scarce in Central Europe. It builds its nest 
in low trees and bushes. 

Fig. b. The Little 
Bittern {Ardctta viinuta) is 
a native of South-Eastern 
Europe. The full-grown 
male has the neck , throat, 
and wing-feathers of a bright 
rusty-yellow ; the belly is 
yellowish white with brown 
streaks, and the head, back 
and tail are black. 

Fig. c. The Bittern (Botaiirus stcllaj'is)'\s not 
rare in many parts of Europe , but hides itself in 
thick swamps , among reeds and rushes. It is not 
much bigger than a raven in reality, but its loose 
feathers make it look much larger. It is rusty-yellow 
with brownish black spots, the head is brownish 
black , and the throat white. The cry of the male 
sounds like the bellowing of an ox. 

In the Cranes the beak is of moderate length, 
and straight, somewhat like that of a common fowl ; 
the neck is slender, the legs strong and very long, 
and the small hind-toe placed high. The wings are 
large and broad, and the tail, which is composed of 
twelve feathers, is short and rounded. 

Fig. d. The Crane (Griis cinerea) is ashy grey, 
with a bare crescent-shaped red spot at the back of 
the head. The three hinder wing-feathers are sickle- 
shaped and flossy. It is rather larger than the stork. 
The Crane is found in the greater part of the Old 
World, except the extreme North, and is a summer 
visitor in Europe. It frequents both marshes and 
meadows. 




Egg of Little nittern. 



18 



In the Ibises the face and chin are naked, tlie 
long sickle-shaped beak is curved downwards; the 
upper mandible bears a furrow from the nostrils to the 
tip, and the lower jaw is furrowed for half its length. 
The legs are bare far abo\-e the feet, and the wings 
are large and broad. They live in warm countries, and 
frequent the banks of rivers, and lakes and marshes. 

Fig. e. The Sacred Ibis (Ibis rcUgiosa) is a 
bird of ^historic interest. It was highly venerated 
by the ancient Egyptians, perhaps partly on 
account of the service which it renders in destroy- 
ing frogs, small snakes &c. after the inundations of 
the Nile. The beak, the naked part of the head 
and neck , the wing-plumes , the tail and the legs 
are black, and the rest of the body white. It is 
about the size of a common fowl , if the long legs 
are left out of consideration. 

Family III. Charadridae. (Lapwings.) 
(Plate XXVI.) 

The legs are long and slfender , and the hind 
toe is rudimentary. The birds frequent sandy shores, 
and yve on molluscs, worms and insects. 

In the genus Vancllus the hind toe is small, 
but fully developed, and the head is either tufted, 
or has bare folds of skin on the sides. 

Fig. h. The Lap- 
\Ning (Vancllus crista- 
tus) is about as large 
as a pigeon , and the 
back of its head is 
ornamented with a tuft 
of narrow feathers. 
The back is metallic 
green with a purple 
lustre, the throat and breast are 
white , and the legs red. It is 
many parts of Europe. 

Family IV. Scolopacidge. (Snipes.) 
(Plate XXVI.) 
The head is laterally compressed, the forehead 
high and long, and the 
eyes placed rather high and 
back. The beak is ex- 
tremely long and narrow, 
with a soft tip , serving 
as an organ of taste. 
The legs are comparativrely \ .' 
short, the wings broad, 
and moderately long, and 
the tail short and broad. 
The females are generally 
rather larger than the 
males. The birds are fond of damp woods and marshy 




Egg of Lapwing. 

black , the belly 
very common in 



.^#^-^^ 




Egg of Woodcock. 



places, where they feed on worms and insects. They 
are found in northern countries, and migrate south- 
wards in autumn. 

Fig. f. The Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) has 
an inconspicuous greyish-brown plumage, which ren- 
ders the bird difficult to see upon the ground. It 
is generally a migratory bird in Central Europe. 

Fig. g. The Common Snipe (Scolopax gallinago) 
is abQut the size of a blackbird , and its beak is 
flattened at the tip. All the Snipes have very similar 
habits, and are much sought after bj' sportsmen. 

(Plate XXVII.) 
Fig. a. The Ruft" (Machetes piigiiax) belongs 
to the Snipes, as is shown by its soft beak, which 
is obtusely rounded in front. The male is one-third 
larger than the female, which is called a Reeve; 
and in spring he is adorned with a large collar of 
stiff feathers, and with small yellow warts on the face. 
At this time, the males, like many other birds during 
the pairing season, fight together furiously. 

F"amily V.' Fulicldae. (Water Hens.) 
(Plate XXVII.) 
The birds of this family have short legs and 
beak, slightly developed wings, and large legs 
like those of fowls. The strong toes are often very 
long, and in some species are entirely surrounded 
with folds of skin, which enables them both to swim 
well, and to run easily and rapidly over the water- 
plants in the swamps and marshes which they inhabit. 
Fig. b. The Water Hen (Gallinula chloropus) 
is very common in the neighbourhood of streams and 
ponds in many parts of Europe. The back is olive- 
grey, and the belly slate-colour ; there is a red pro- 
tuberance on the forehead , and the legs are green. 



F'ig. c. The Corncrake 



1^ 



ry / . . • .• ^»>.^ f% 

e ^- > .**»♦; ,♦;*«■ 



(Ortygomctra crex) is met 

with in large meadows and /'^■ 

fields , where the harsh cry 

of the male is to be hearc 

everywhere in summer-time. 

It is common throughout ""■•^fev.i:i**^i^ili^ 

Central Europe and Asia. 

In the genus Parra Egg of Corncrake 

the beak is long and slender, and the legs are also 
\ery long. The toes are slender , and the claws 
extremely long; the wings are narrow and pointed, 
and the tail is short. They inhabit tropical countries 
and walk about o\er the large-leaxed plants which 
grow there in the marshes. 

Fig. d. The Jacana (Paira 'Jacaiia) is common 
in the swamps of South America wherever water- 
lilies grow. Our figure represents the bird of about 
two-thirds of the natural size. 



Order IX. Palmipedes. (Swimming Birds.) 

Section 1. Gavi?e. 



These birds are distinguished from all others 
by a thick stifif plumage , which is constantly lubri- 
cated with oil from the well-developed oil-gland, and 
the body is thus kept raised above the water. The 
beak is either flattened, or convex, and generally 
toothed, in order to hold the water-animals on which 
these birds feed. The power of flight is better 
developed in some of these birds than others , but 
the legs show more resemblance than the wings, 
always being feathered to the shank , and either 
wholly or partly webbed between the toes. 



Family I. Laridae. (Sea-Gulls.) 

(Plate XXVII.) 

The Gulls, Petrels and Albatrosses have pointed 
wings, and rarely come to land except to breed. 

In the Gulls, the beak is compressed, and larger 

in some species than in others, the legs are furnished 

with three webbed toes , and a hinder toe. The_\' 

i feed on fish, which they pounce upon in the water. 



19 




They live in large flocks , and arc most numerous 
in the Northern seas. 

Fig. e. The Black-headed Gull (Lams ridi- 
hnndtis) is about as large as a pigeon. It is one 
of the commonest 
species, and is found 
on the coasts and 
inland seas of all 
Europe , and of a 
great part of Asia 
and Africa. The 
head is brown in 
summer and white 
in winter, the back 
ashy grey, the tips ^gg of lilack-braae,! Gull. 

of the wings black and the rest of the body snow- 
white. The beak and legs are blood-red. 

Fig. f. The Great Black-backed Gull (Lants 
marimts) is found in northern and central Europe. 
It is nearly as large as a goose, and is a bold and 
voracious bird which will even rob other sea-birds 
of their prey. It is an excellent flyer and swimmer, 
and does not shun the most tempestuous waters. 

Fig. g. The Herring Gull (Lants argcutatns) 
which is the size of a raven, is also met with on 
the coasts of the northern seas , and is sometimes 
seen about inland lakes. Its plumage is pure white, 
e.xcept the two first wing-feathers and the tips of 
the others, which are black. 

(Plate XXVIII.) 

Fig. a. The Common Tern (Sterna Innindo) is 
smaller than the true Sea-Gulls and has a forked 
tail , long pointed wings 
and a very swift flight, 
and is therefore often 
called the sea-swallow. 
The three front toes are 
connected by short webs, 
and the hinder toe, which 
is smaller and placed 
rather higher, is free. It 
is common on the coasts 
of Europe as well as on large lakes and rivers. It 
makes its nest in hollows on shingle, and feeds on 
fish and other aquatic animals. 

F"ig. b. The Pomarine Skua (Lcstris pomarina) 
differs from the Tern in the form of the beak, which 
is strongly hooked at the tip. The lower mandible 
is provided with a projecting notch. The wings are 
long and pointed, the tail rounded, and the claws sharp 
and very strongly curved. These birds do not dive 
so well as the true gulls, which they rob of their 
prey during flight , and they also feed on the eggs 
and young of other birds. The present species is a 
dark greyish-brown bird as large as a raven. It in- 
habits the northern seas. 

Family II. Procellariidae. (Petrels and Albatrosses.) 
(Plate XXVIII.) 

These birds are characterised by the absence 
of the hinder toe and by the form of the nostrils, 
which rise in a double tube on the back of the 
beak. These birds resemble the sea-gulls in their 
form and habits, but prefer the open sea. 

In the Petrels (Tlialassidroiiia) the small beak 
is hooked at the tip, the nostrils form a divided 
tube and the hinder toe is but slightly developed. 

Fig. c. The Stormy Petrel (Thalassidroina 
pclagica) is about si.x inches long and is of a sooty- 
black colour, with a white rump and a white trans- 




Egg ot Coninioii Tern. 



verse stripe on the wings. It is constantly on the 
wing, and is met with on the open ocean between 
Europe and America. Sailors usually regard it as 
a signal of bad weather, for it is often seen during 
storms, half flying and half running over the 
waves in pursuit of fish, Medusae and other small 
animals. 

In the Albatrosses (Dioiucdca) the beak is long, 
straight and sharp, the nostrils form separate tubes, 
the wings are very long and narrow , and the tail 
is rounded. 

Fig. d. The Albatross (Diontcdca exiilansj is 
a majestic bird, measuring over four feet in length, 
and twelve feet in expanse of wing. It is found in 
all seas, and makes its nest on the most lonely islands. 
It feeds on fish, molluscs and carrion. 

Section U. Stegauopodes. 

In these birds the feet are webbed and very 
large. The beak is straight and slender, and is 
generally very long, like the neck. Some species 
have an enlarged crop or a bag-like skin on the 
lower jaw. Their wings are long and pointed and 
adapted for swift and well-sustained flight. 

In the genus Pdecanus the beak is very broad 
and long, and the two bony supports of the lower 
jaw are connected by a broad expansible throat-pouch. 

Fig. e. The Pelican (Pclccanns oiiocrotahis) is 
a native of South Eastern Europe and the adjacent 
parts of Asia and Africa. It frequents shallow bays 
and large lakes and makes its nest among reeds in 
inaccessible places. It feeds on fish , which are 
usually stored in the throat-pouch before being 
swallowed. Although this large bird weighs from 
20 to 25 pounds, it has a high and rapid flight, and 
is also an excellent swimmer and diver. 

Section III. Anseres. 

(Plate XXV.) 

These birds are characterised by the form of 
the beak which is usually broad and flat (rarely 
narrow), with the tip curved and the sides covered 
with a soft skin, which is transversely wrinkled. 
The edges of the beak are toothed in transverse 
layers, and form a kind of sieve with the tongue 
which is dentated at the edge. The feet are pro- 
vided with three webbed toes in front, and a rudi- 
mentary hind toe. The plumage is generally soft 
and glossy , and the flesh excellent , although most 
other waterbirds have a strong fishy taste , which 
renders them unfit for food. 

In the genus Pliocnicoptcrns the beak is ab- 
ruptly cur\ed , and the neck and legs very slender. 
They inhabit the warmer parts of the world. 

Fig. a. The Flamingo (Phocnicopterus roscus) 
is a beautiful bird, especially when fuUgrown. The 
plumage is white, suffused with rose -red, and the 
wings are bright red. They are fond of brackish 
water and especially lagunes. They fly and swim 
well , and when seeking for food , turn their heads 
so far round that the upper mandible is often 
undermost. 

In the Swans (Cfgiius) the neck is long and 
slender , the beak is equally broad throughout , and 
there is a broad bare space between the beak and 
the eyes. The legs are short and placed far 
back , and therefore these birds walk clumsily, 
but they swim very gracefully, and their flight 
is strong. 



20 



(Plate XXVIII.) 

Fig. f. The Mute Swan {Cygnus olor) is a native 
of Northern Europe , but is now seen in a semi- 
domesticated state on all rivers and ornamental waters. 
It is a very fine bird, measuring nearly five feet in 
length , and weighing over twenty pounds. Its plu- 
mage is pure white, the beak bright red, the nostrils, 
the lower part of the beak, the protuberances before 
the forehead, and the legs are black. 

F'ig. g. The Wild Swan (Cygnus vnisictis) 
resembles the last species in size and form, but the 
beak is yellow, without protuberances, and the bare 
space between the beak and eyes is also yellow. It 
is sometimes called the Whistling Swan on account 
of the noise produced by the wings during flight, 
and the trumpet -like tone emitted from the wind- 
pipe , which forms several convolutions behind the 
breastbone. It is a native of the North of Europe, 
and migrates southwards during the winter. 

In the Geese (Anscr) the beak is higher than 
broad, and ends above and below in a convex point 
with sharp edges. The neck is moderately long and 
slender, the plumage soft and the legs strong. They 
migrate southwards during severe weather. 

Fig. h. The Grey Goose (Anscr cincrciis) is 
considered to be the wild species from which our 
domestic goose is derived. The beak is orange, the 
naked eyelids and the legs flesh-coloured, and the 
plumage always grey, with the back brown, varied 
with pale grey. It inhabits the temperate parts of 
Europe and Asia. 

(Plate XXIX.) 

Fig. a. The Bean Goose (Anscr scgctnni) has 
a black beak , orange-coloured in the middle , and 
long wings, extending beyond the tip of the tail. It 
is found in the north of Europe , Asia and North 
America, and migrates to the south in vast flocks 
on the approach of cold weather. 

Fig. b. The Brent Goose (Branta bcrnicia) is 
as large as a common duck. It prefers the neigh- 
bourhood of the sea , and only visits fresh water 
during its migrations. The legs are longer than in 
the other geese, and the plumage is dark ashy grey, 
with the exception of the white belly, and a white 
crescent-shaped mark on each side of the neck ; the 
head, neck and throat are black. 

In the Ducks (Anas) the* beak is broad and 
notched , the wings of moderate size , the tail short 
and rounded , and the legs placed far backward, 
which makes their gait clumsy and waddling, though 
they swim, dive, and fly well. They are much valued 
for their flesh and feathers. 

Fig. c. The Eider Duck (Soniatcria moUissima) 
has the softest plumage of all, and the elastic down 
is much used for bedding. The full - grown male 
(fig. c , a) is white and l3lack , in large masses of 
colour, but the female (fig. c , b) is dark brownish 
black. It is almost exclusively confined to the ex- 
treme north of Europe , Asia , and North America, 
and is only found on the shores of the sea. 

Fig. d. The Harlequin Duck ( Fidigula histrionica) 
is very beautifully coloured. The male is violet- 
black, spotted with white, and has two white bands 
on the neck, while the female is of a rusty red. It 
is found in many parts of the northern hemisphere. 

Fig. e. The Velvet Scoter (Oidcmia ftisca) is 
also an inhabitant of the circumpolar regions , but 
migrates southwards in winter , as far as the Swiss 
lakes. Its plumage is plainly coloured, but is a'.niost 
as soft and valuable as eider-down. 



Fig. f The Wild Duck (Anas bosclias'j re- 
sembles the tame duck in form and colour, but is 
smaller and more slender. The male assumes his 
finest plumage between November and May. The 
head and neck are greenish-black with a metallic 
lustre, the breast, belly and thighs are light grey, 
the upper part of the back dark brown , and the j 
wings grey, marked with bright blue. The female ' 
is of a rusty yellowish-brown colour , with blackish- 
brown spots, and likewise exhibits the blue mark 
on the wings. The wild duck is a shy and wary bird. 

Fig. g. The Common Shieldrake [Tadorna 
vulpanscr) is larger than the tame duck and has 
rather longer legs. In the male the head and neck- 
are shining black , with a large mark on the wings 
which is green in front and rusty-red behind; the 
beak is red , the legs flesh-coloured and the greater 
part of the rest of the body is brown and black 
above, and white beneath. The female is similarly 
coloured but duller. It frequents the sea-coasts in 
the temperate parts of Europe and Asia, and gener- 
ally makes its nest in burrows in the ground, some- 
times utilizing those of the fox and badger. 

Fig. h. The Pintail Duck (Anas acuta) is fre- 
quently seen on ornamental waters. The male in 
full plumage is black and white above , and white 
beneath , the head is dark brown , the mark on the 
wings coppery-red , bordered by rusty red bands, 
and the middle tail-feathers are black and very long. 
The female is smaller and inconspicuously coloured. 
This bird inhabits the northern parts of Europe, 
Asia and America, but also breeds in Central Europe. 

(Plate XXX.) 

In the genus Mei-gus the beak is very narrow 
and raised ; it is hooked , and furnished with sharp 
notches on the edges. These birds inhabit the 
northern parts of both hemispheres, but migrate south- 
wards in winter. 

Fig. a. The Goosander (Mcrgns merganser) is 
an excellent swimmer and diver. The male in full 
plumage has the head , the upper part of the neck, 
and the shoulders black with a green metallic lustre, 
and a bushy crest of the same colour on the head. 
The mark on the wings is white, and the rest of the 
body is white, slightly suffused with reddish yellow. 

Section TV. Impeniies. 

In this section the wings are short , and the 
legs are placed so far back that the birds can only 
walk with difficulty, and with the body in an upright 
position. 

Family I. Colymbidae. (Divers). 

The Divers are better fitted for swimming and 
diving than for walking and flying. The hard beak 
is generally provided with contractile nostrils , the 
body is clothed with compact feathers , the short 
legs are placed far back , and the tail is short or 
absent. They inhabit the northern and temperate 
zones, and are almost always found on the water, 
where they breed in a floating nest. 

Fig. b. The Great Crested Grebe (Podiccps 
cristaUis) is as large as a wild duck. The male is 
blackish-brown above and shining white beneath, and 
is adorned with a black crest of feathers on the head, 
and a rusty-red collar on the neck, bordered with 
black. It is found on the sea-coasts of Europe, Asia, 
North Africa and North America. 

Fig, c. The Great Northern Diver (Colyvibus 
glacialis) is quite as large as a goose, and weighs 



21 



twelve pounds. It is found on the sea-coasts of the 
extreme North. 

Family II. Alcidae. (Auks.) 

The wings are short and most often useless for 
flight, but are fully provided with feathers. The legs 
are placed far back, the three front toes are fully 
webbed, and the hind toe is completely absent. The 
short beak is generally narrow and laterally com- 
pressed. The birds live in flocks in the north polar 
seas , and are useful to the inhabitants of those in- 
clement regions for their eggs and oil. 

In the genus Uria the head is small, the neck 
thick, the body oval, the beak moderately long and 
tapering to a point , the wings small , and the tail 
short and rounded, and composed of twelve feathers. 
They dive well, fly heavily, and live in pairs in the 
bird - colonies 
of the northern 
seas. 

Fig.d. The 
Black Guille- 
mot {Uria 
grylle) is very 
common in the 
northern seas. 
These birds 
live in pairs, 
and are very 
much attached 
to one another. 

In the genus Alca the beak is very high and 
narrow , with transverse furrows on the sides , and 
a small protuberance at the base of the upper man- 
dible. The short legs are concealed beneath the 
skin of the belly almost to the feet , the wings are 
small and narrow, and the short tail is conical. 

Fig. e. The Great Auk {Alca impennis) is 




Egg of Black Guillemot. 



rather smaller than a goose. It is black above, with 
the exception of a white oval spot near the eye, 
and is white beneath. It formerly inhabited the 
rocky coasts of the extreme north, and though in- 
capable of flight , used to climb about with great 
activity. It is new believed to be extinct. 

In the genus Fratcrcula the beak is smooth 
and furrowed in front, and when seen from the side 
appears triangular , being very high and narrow. 
There is a soft, elastic space of skin at the angle of 
the mouth. The legs are short, with three com- 
pletely webbed toes ; the wings are small and narrow, 
but adapted for swift whirring flight ; and the tail is 
short and narrow, and composed of sixteen feathers. 

Fig. i. The Puffln {Fratercula arctica) is an- 
other bird , which makes its nest on small islands 
and rocky places in the northern seas in immense 
flocks. 

In the genus Aptenodytes and its allies the head 
is small, and the beak is long with sharp edges, and 
is compressed at the sides and curved in front. The 
slender neck is placed on an almost cylindrical body 
which is clothed with thick, smooth feathers, and is 
supported in a completely upright position by short 
webbed feet, which are provided with three front 
toes and a free hind toe, which is rudimentary and 
curved forwards. However, the most characteristic 
feature in the penguins is to be found in the long, 
narrow wing-flaps, which are only clothed with short, 
scale-like feathers , and are quite useless for flight. 
The Penguins inhabit the colder seas and coasts of 
the southern hemisphere , swim and dive well , and 
the females incubate their eggs between their thighs. 

Fig. g. The Patagonian Penguin {Aptenodytes 
patagonica) is entirely black above, except two white 
spots over the eyes; the lower part of the body is 
white. The beak is transversely furrowed. It in- 
habits the most southerly parts of South America. 



-©5$^- 



Accipitres. Vultures and Secretary Bird. 




a) Egyptian Vulture 
Neophron pmnopUnis. 



b) Griffin Vulture. 
Gyps fulvus. 



c) Condor. 
Sarcorhamphus gryphus. 



d) Bearded Vulture. 
Gypaetus barbatus. 



e) Secretary' Bird. 
ScrpCNtarius secretarius. 



Accipitres. Eagles and Kite. 




aj Golden Eagle. 
Aquila chrysaetos. 



b) White-tailed Eagle. 
Haliaetus albicilla. 



(■) Serpent Eagle. 
Circaetus gaUicus. 



d) Kite. 
Milvus rufus. 



Accipitres. Osprey, Goshawk &c. 




a) Montagu's Harrier. 
Circus fygargtis. 



b) Buzzari 
Butco vulgaris. 



c) Osprey. 
PandioH Haliai'tus. 



d) Jerfalcon. 
Hicrofalco candicans. 



e) Goshawk. 
Astur falumbarius. 



Acclpitres. Falcons and Hawks. 




a) Peregrine Falcon. 
Fako peregriiius. 



b) Hobby. 
Falco subbuteo. 



c) Kestrel 
Falco tinnunculus. 



cl) Sparrow-Hawk. 
Accipiter Nisus. 



e) Chanting Falcon. 
Melierax musicus. 



Accipitres. Owls. 




a) Eagle Owl. 
Bubo maximus. 



b) Eared Owl. 
Otus vulgaris. 



c) Brown Owl. 
Ulula aluco. 



d) Barn Owl. 
Strix fiammea. 



e) Little OwL 
Athene nocttia. 



Passeres. Scansores. Shrikes and Parrots. 




aj flrcat Grey Shrike. 
Lanius excubitor. 



bj Red-backed Shrike. 
Lanius collurio. 



e; Lesser (jrey .Shrike. 
Lanius minor. 



0) Great Scarlet Macaw. e) Alexandrine Parrakeet f) Sir Joseph Bank.^ Cockatoo. 

Ara macao. Palaeomis Alexandri. Calyptorhynchus banks,,. 



Scansores. Parrots, Woodpeckers &c. 




-i^.^. "' 't~:i^^^^^-- ^ ^:f Toucan. d, B.ac. Woodpecker 

Rhamplmstos Ariel. Dryocofu, martins. 



•catna galerita. 



e) Green Woodpecker. f) Great Spotted Woodpecker g) Lesser Spotted Woodpecker. 
Gecinus viridis. Picus major. P'"" "'""''■ 



Scansores. Syndactylae. Passeres. Woodpecker, Kingfisher &c. 



"vnr. 




a) Middle Spotted Woodpecker. 
Picus medius. 



b) Wryneck. 
Yiinx torquilla. 



c) Nuthatch. 
Sitta europaea. 



d) Kingfisher. 
Akedo hispida. 



e) Bee Eater. 
Merops apiaster. 



f) Hoopoe. 
Upupa epops. 



Passeres. Humming. Birds, Crows &c. 




ri''%''r^'' ^^ '-'"'' Humming-Bird. c) Tufted Coquette. 



d) Lazuline Sabre-wing. 
Campylopterus lasutus. 



e) Raven. R°°'^- 

Corvus corax. Corvus frugilegus. 



g) Carrion Crow. 
Corvus coroHt. 



Passeres. Crows Ac. 




a) Hooded Crow. 
Corvus comix. 



b) Jackdaw. 
Corvus monedula. 



c) Jay. 
Garrulus glandarius. 



d) Nutcracker. 
Nucifraga caryocatactes. 



e) Alpine Chough. 
Pyrrhocorax alpinus. 



f) Chough. 
FregUus graculus. 



g) Magpie. 
Pica caudata. 



Passeres. Cuckoo. Bird of Paradise &c. 




a) Roller Bird. 
Coracias gami/a 



b) Great Bird of Paradise. 
Paratiisea apoda. 



c) Cock of the Rock. 
Rtipicola crocea. 



^ Golden Oriole. 
Orioliis galbula. 



e) Crow Blackbird. 
Quiscalus versicolor. 



f) Hill Mina. 
Gracula religiosa. 



g) Cuckoo. 
Ciiculus mnorus. 



Passeres. Larks &c. 




aj Sk)lark. 
Atauda arvensis. 



b) Woodlark. 
Alauda arborea. 



c) Crested Lark. 
Alauda crislata. 



d) Starling. 
Sturnus vtilgaris. 



e) Dipper. 

Cinclus aquaticus. 



f) Song Thrush. 
Turdus musicus. 



Passeres. Thrushes. 




a) Missel Thrush. 
Turdus viscworus. 



b) Fieldfare. 
Turdtu pilaris. 



c) Ring Ouzel. 
Turdus torguatus. 



d) Blue Thrush. 
Turdus cyaneus. 



e) Blackbird. 
Turdus merula. 



f) Bohemian Wax-wing. 
Ampelis garrula. 



Passeres. Finches. 




a) Cross-bill. 
Loxia cun/irostri. 



b) Pine Grosbeak. 
Pyrrhula enuckator. 



c) BuUfinch. 
Pyrrhula vulgaris. 



d) Greenfinch. 
CoccothrausUs chloris. 



e) Hawfinch. 
Coccothraustes vulgaris. 



f) Yellow Hammer. 
Emberiza citrinella. 



g) Ortolan. 
Emberiza kortulana. 



Passeres. Finches. 




a) Cirl Bunting. 
Emberisa cir/iis. 



b) Snow Bunting. 
Pkctropkams mnalis. 



c) House Sparrow. 
Passer domcstUtis. 



d) Chaffinch. 
Fringilla coeUbs. 



e) Mountain Finch. 
Fringilla montifringilla. 



f) Snow Finch. 
Montifringilla nivalis. 



Passeres. Finches. 




a) Goldfinch. 
Fringilla cardudis. 



hj Canary. 
Serinus canarius, var. 



c] Linnet. 
I'ringiUa cannahUia. 



d) Siskin. 
I'ringiUa spitius. 



e) Citril Finch. 
Fringilla citrinella. 



f) Common Bunting. \ 

Emberiza miliaria. \ 



Passeres. Warblers. 



xvn. 




a) Nightingale. 
Daulias luscinia 



b) Blue-throoted Warbler. 
Cyatucitla t'ucoica. 



c) Blackcap. 
Sylvia titricitla. 



d) White-lhroat. 
Sylvia cincrea. 



e) Garden Warbler. 
Sylvia hortensis. 



f) Snow White-throat 
Sylvia curruca. 



jj) Icterine Warbler. 



Passeres. Wrens, Wagtails &c. 



xviir. 




aj Robin. 
Erjithka rubcaila 



L>1 Golden-crested Wren, 
liegutus cristalus. 



i-j Wren. 
Tioglodylis vulgaris. 



dj Redstart 
/ liociiicHia niticilla. 



e) Great Reed-Warbler. 
^croccphalus amndinauus. 



f) Whinchat 
Pratincola ruictra. 



g) White Wagtail. 
MolaciUa alia. 



h) Yellow Wagtail 
MotaciUa flava. 



Passeres. Titmice and Swallows. 



m 



T^VivlM 







a) Great Titmouse. 
Pans major. 



b) Blue Titmouse. c) Cole T.tmouse. 

Pams coeruUus. p^^„^ ^,^^ 

e) Marsh Titmouse. 
Parus retatus. 



dj Cre-sted Titmouse. 
Parus cristatus. 



iij Chimney Swallow. 
Hirundo rustica. 



b) House Martin. 
Chelidon urbica. 



c) Sand Martin. 
Cotik riparia. 



dj (ioatsucker. 
Caprimulgus curopaeus. 



Columbae. Pigeons 




a) Rock Dove. 
Columba livia. 



bj Trumpeter. 



c) Tumbler. 



d) Tern Pigeoa 



e) Fan-tail. 



f) Nicobar Pigeon. 
Columba nicobarica. 



Columbae. Gallinae. Pigeons and Quail. 




a) Stock Dove 
Columba oihik 



b) Pouter Pigeon 
Columba livia. var 



c) Passenger Pigeon. 
Ecopistes migratorius. 



d) Laugher Pigeon. 
Columba risoria. 



e) Turtle Dove. 
Turtur vulgaris. 



i) Crowned Pigeon. 
Gaura coronata. 



Cotumix communis. 



Gallinae. Game Birds. 



XXII 




a) Ptarmigan. 
LagopHi mutus. 



b) Black Grouse. 
Tilrao tetrix. 



c) Capercaillic. 
Tclrao urogallus. 



d) Partridge. 
Perdix cinerea. 



e) Red-le};ged Partridge. 
Caccabis rubra. 



f) Greek Partridge. 
Caccabis saxatitis. 



g) Guinea-fowl. 
Numida meiea^is. 



h) Cock. 
Callus bankiva, var. 



H 



Gallinae. Game Birds. 



xm. 




a) Silver Pheasant 
Eitplocamus nycthemcrtis. 



b) Golden Pheasant 
Thaiimalea picta. 



c) Argus Pheasant 
Arj^s gigante7is. 



d) Peacock. 
Pavo crislatus. 



e) Impeyan Pheasant 
Lophophorus impeyanus. 



f) Turkey. 
Meleagris gallopavo. 



Gallinae. Cursores. Grallatores. Bustard and Ostriches. 



mi. 




a) Greal Bustard. 
Otis tarda. 



b) Cassowary. 
Casuarius galeatus. 



c) Ostrich. 
Struthio camelus. 



d) Rhea. 
Rhea americana. 



Grallatores. Storks, Herons &c. 



xw 




aj Flamingo. 
PhoenicopUrus roseiis. 



b) White Stork. 
Ciconia alba. 



c) Black Stork. 

Ciconia nigra. 



d) Marabou Stork. 
Leptofililus crunicnifcr. 



e) Heron. 
Ardea. cinerea. 



f) Purple Heron. 
Ardea purpurea. 



Grallatores. Wading Birds. 



XXVI. 




•^j Night Heron, 
Nyctkorax europaeus. 



Ij) Little Bittern. 
Ardetta minuta. 



c) Bittern. 
Botaurus stellaris. 



d) Crane. 
Gnis ciiuna 



e) Sacred Ibis. f) Woodcock. 

His rdigiosa. Scolopax rustkola. 



g) Common Snijic. 
Scolopax gallinago- 



h) Lapwmg. 
VaneUus criilalns. 



Grallatores. Palmipedes. Warding and Swimming Birds. 



xxvn. 




a) Ruff. 
Machetes pit^^nax 



b) Water Hen. 
Gallinula Moropus. 



c) Corncrake. 
Ortygometra crex. 



d) Jacana. 
Parra jacana. 



e) Black-headed Gull. 
Larus ridibttudua. 



f) Great Black-backed Gull. 
Larus marinus. 



g) Herring (iull. 
Larus argcntatus. 



\ 



Palmipedes. Swimming Birds. 



.NXNTH. 




aj Common Tern. b) Pomarine Skua. c) Stormy Petrel. d) Albatross. 

:>tm,a h,rundo. Lestris pomarina. Thalassidro,,m pelagica. Diomedca cxulaKS. 



e) Pelecan. 
Pelecanus onocrotalus. 



f) Mute Swan. 
Cygftus olor. 



g) Wild Swan. 
Cygnlts mnsicin. 



h) Grey Goose. 
An.u-r citu-rats. 



Palmipedes. Swimming Birds. 



XXTX 




a) Bean Goose. 
Anser segilmn. 



b) Brent Goose. 
Erenta bemicla. 



c) Rider Duck. 
Somalcria molUssiina 
a. Male. b. Female. 



d) Harlequin Duck. 
J'uligula histrionica- 



«) Velvet Scoter, f) Wild Duck. 

Oidemia fusca. Anas boschas. 



g) Common Shieldrake. 
Tadorna vulpanscr. 



h) Pintail Duck. 
Anas acuta. 



Palmipedes. Swimming Birds. 



-XXX 




aj Goosander. 
Mergus merganser. 



b) Great Crested (jrebe. 
Podkeps cristatus. 



Great Northern Diver. 
Cotymbus glacialis. 



d) Black Guillemot 
Uria gryllc. 



e) Great Ank. 
Alca impenttis. 



f) Puffin. 
FraUrcula arctica 



g) Patagonian Penguin. 
Aptenodytes patagonica. 



Reptiles (Reptilia). 



INTRODUCTION. 




HE REPTILES form the third Class of 
Vertebratcd Animals. Whilst Mammals 
and Birds present such well-marked cha- 
racteristics that anyone would recognize 
a mammal or bird at once, this is not so easy in 
the small class of Reptiles, and it needed the pene- 
tration of true naturalists to arrange animals so 
different in shape and size in one Class. Of course 
this classification was not founded upon the external 
appearance of the animals but upon the characters 
of the internal organs. Thus all reptiles, whatever 
their form, are cold-blooded vertebrates, with lungs, 
but with the large and small circulatory systems im- 
perfectly separated. 

The Reptiles used formerly to be placed in 
one class with the Amphibia, partly on account of 
the similarity of their external appearance, and partly 
on account of their structure, although the latter is 
really very different. The skeleton shows transitions 
from a simple cartilaginous spinal column without ribs or 
limbs, to a complete bony vertebrate column with a 
larger or smaller number of long ribs, and strong and 
long extremities. The Reptiles, comprising the Tor- 
toises, Lizards, and Snakes, have only one articulation 
connecting the head with the first vertebra, but the 
Amphibia have two. 

The form of the body differs remarkably in 
different species. We meet with gradations from 
the long cylindrical Snakes, without, or with only 
rudimentary limbs, to the broad flattenned bodies and 
well-developed limbs of the Tortoises. 

Equally varied arc the appendages of the skin. 
The Lizards and Snakes are clothed with scales, but 

Reptiles are divided into four Orders : 



tortoises are encased in a coat of mail formed of 
plates of bone connected with the skeleton itself. 

The brain is small in comparison to the size 
of the body and of the spinal cord , and therefore 
the intelligence is rather limited, but the eyes, ears, 
and sense of smell are fairly well developed in most 
reptiles , though not always equally. Respiration 
is effected in all reptiles by means of large-celled 
lungs, in which the blood comes into far less com- 
plete contact with the air than in the case of mam- 
mals and birds. This is the cause of the lower 
temperature of their blood , which only rises a few 
degrees above that of the surrounding medium. It 
also explains the comparative sluggishness or muscu- 
lar inactivity of the whole Class. 

The heart consists of two separate auricles, 
with thin walls, and two larger ventricles, which arc 
usually imperfectly separated. 

Reptiles differ as much in their habits as in 
outward form. Some live partly on land and partly 
in the water, whilst others live always on the land. 
On the whole the benefits and injuries which man 
derives from reptiles are fairly balanced ; on the one 
hand many injurious or unpleasant animals are de- 
stroyed by reptiles but on the other hand they in- 
clude venomous snakes, boa constrictors, and croco- 
diles, which are themselves dangerous. 

The Eggs are covered by a calcareous parch- 
ment-like shell, and are generally buried in the 
ground, and left to be hatched by its warmth. Some 
snakes brood over their eggs with their body until 
the young emerge. In many cases the young 
emerge from the eggs directly after they are laid ; 
and a few reptiles are viviparous. 



Order I. Snakes. Ophidia. Body long and cylindrical without limbs. 

„ II. Crocodiles. Crocodilia. Body covered with thick bony plates ; toes clawed and webbed , and 

jaws provided with strong teeth. 
„ III. Lizards. Laccrtilia. Body covered with horny scales; limbs four, two, or absent ; toes clawed; 

jaws provided with sharp teeth. 
„ IV. Tortoises and Turtles. Chdonia. Body encased in a I>ackplate (carapace) and a breastplate 

(plastron); limbs four. Teeth replaced by a sharp horny covering over the jaws, like the 

beak of a bird. 



Auiphibi.1. 



Order I. Ophidia. (Snakes.) 




No animals arc so much dreaded as the snakes, 
although we have only one venomous kind in Eng- 
land, the Common Viper, or Adder. All snakes have 
a long cylindrical body, with a well-marked flattened 
head, but generally with no distinct division between 
the body and the tail. They have no limbs, and it 
is only in a few species such as the Pythons, that on 
careful dissection, we meet with two small bones, which 
can be recognised as the rudiments of the hind limbs. 
The so-called scales of snakes consist of a wrink- 
ledscaly skin, and 
a delicate epider- 
mis, covering the 
whole of it even 
to the eyes, and 
which is thrown 
off completely se- 
veral times ayear. 
The flattenned 
head is interest- 
ing with its widely 

cleft mouth, 

movable upper 

jaw, and loosely 

connected lower 

jaw ; an arrangement which enables the creature to 
swallow enormous mouthfuls. The teeth are curved 
backwards, and are only used for seizing prey, and are 
solid in harmless snakes, but have an outer groove in 
other species , or are perforated by a duct in 
venomous kinds , to convey the venom from the 
poison-gland. The forked tongue lies in a kind of 
sheath , and is a higlily movable organ of touch, 
which to some extent replaces the deficiences of the 
other senses. In spite of the absence of limbs, 

snakes move 
rapidly both on 
land and in the 
water, by rapid 

contractions 
of the vertebral 
column , and by 
supporting them- 
selves with the 
free ends of the 
ribs ; only a few 
species climb. 

All snakes 
feed on living ani- 
mals, which they 

kill either by 
crushing them, or 
by their bite ; and 

after satisfying their hunger, they fall into a long torpor. 
Snakes inhabit the whole of the tropical and 
temporate zones but they are far more numerous in 
hot countries than in cold. 

Section I. Non-venomous Snakes. 

In these, all the teeth are equally developed ; there 
are two parallel rows on each side in the upper jaw, 
and a close series of curved teeth in each division 
of the lower jaw. 

In the Boa the head is triangular and flattened 
and the jaws open very widely and are armed with 
strong teeth. The head is covered with plates, and 
the throat with scales. There is a horny claw on 
each side of the base of the tail containing the rudi- 
ments of the hinder extremities. The Boas inhabit 
Asia, Africa and South America. 



Plate I. fig. a. Boa constrictor inhabits tropical 
America and attains a length of twenty or thirty feet 
and the thickness of a stout man's thigh. The size 
and strength of the creature enable it to attack and 
destroy animals as large as a deer. It breaks the 
bones of its prey by coiling its gigantic body round 
it, and then slowly swallows it. After a meal the 
Boa sinks into a prolonged torpor, when it falls an 
easy victim to the natives, who value it for its 
flesh, and its thin variegated durable skin. 

In the Py- 
thons the head is 
well-marked, and 
:?«?wt==„._ covered with 

plates and there 

are teeth on the 

palate. There are 

two spurs at the 

base of the tail. 

The Rock 

Snake (Python 

11/olnrus) is found 

in most parts of 

India, and attains 

Skelelon of Snake. a length of ten or 

eleven feet. The head is greyish flesh-colour, and 




the back is adorned with a row of large, irregular 
brown blotches, which are darker at the edges, and 
varied with deep yellow in the middle. 

In the genus Tropidonotus the teeth are of nearly 
equal size. The eyes and nostrils are small and the pupil 
of the eye is round. The scales are ridged in the middle. 
Plate II. fig. c. The Common Snake (Tropi- 
donotus natrix) is frequently met with in England, 
and is quite harmless. It is easily recognized by its 

steel grey colour 
and the yellow 
blotches edged 
behind with black 
on each side of 
the neck. It some- 
times attains the 
length of three 
or four feet. It is 
a good swimmer 
and diver and 
feeds on frogs, in- 
sects &c. To- 
wards the end of 
the summer the 
female lays from 
twenty to thirty- 
six oval eggs in 
The common 

snake seldom bites, but defends itself by emitting a 
foul odour when alarmed. 

Plate II. fig. d. Coluber Aescniapii was sacred 
to Aesculapius in ancient times. It is still common 
in Southern Europe and is as large or larger than 
our common snake. It is of a shining brownish grey 
with greenish shading marked with white on the 
sides, and with the belly sulphur yellow. (In this 
and the ne.xt species , the scales are smooth and 
imridged.) 

Plate III. fig. b. Coluber flavesceiis is probably 
a variety of the last species , and may have been 
introduced into Germany by the Romans. It is found 
at Schlangenbad and Schwalbach in Nassau. It is 
brownish-grey above with two suffused yellow marks 



Rock Snake (Python molorus). 

a dunghill or some other warm place. 



on the back of the head , and the belly is cream- 
coloured. It feeds on mice and small birds , which 
it takes from the nest. 

Plate III. fig. a. In Cohibcr aitslriaciis the scales 
are not ridged. There is a large dark mark on the 
back of the head, and there are two rows of dark 
brown marks on the back. It is not unlike a viper 
in its general colour, but the absence of the zigzag 




Whip-Snake (Oxibelii /ul(iidu$). 

mark ; the broad scaly head and the much more 
slender form will at once distinguish it. It grows 
to the length of two or three feet, and inhabits south 
and east Germany in dry places. It lives on lizards and 

salamanders which 
it kills by constriction, 
like the boas. 

The Whip-Snakes 
have a pointed muzzle 
and whip-like body. 
They are all beauti- 
fully coloured , and 
inhabit tropical coun- 
tries. One of the 
prettiest species is 

Oxibelis fn/gidus, 
which is of a beauti- 
ful green with a pale 
longitudinal line, and 
measures about four 
feet in length. It lives 
in trees in South America and glides along with great 
swiftness. 

Section 11. Venomous Snakes. 

In the Sea-Snakes, the head is small and oval, 
and the body is thickest behind. They are very 



venomous and are generally about four or five feet 
in length. They are found in the the Indian Ocean, 
and frequently enter the mouths of rivers. They 
are perfectly adapted to a aquatic life, for the tail 
is laterally compressed to form a rudder, and their 
nostrils can be closed by valves. 

Plate III. fig. c. The Black-backed Sea-Snake 
(Pdaviis bicolor) is black and yellow. Its range extends 
to the coast of Tahiti , where it is a favourite dish 
with the natives. 

The Rattlesnakes have very large poison-fangs, 
and there is a depression on each side of the face 
near the nostril. At the end of the tail is a loosely 
connected rattle consisting of horny rings which in- 
crease in number every year. The most represen- 
tative species are all American. 

a e 




Skull of Ratlle-Snake. 

a) Brain-Cavity, b) Tipper Jaw. 



Poison-Apparatus of Rattle-Snake 

.1) Nostril, b) Poison-fang, c) Salivary glands 
'V) Temporal Muscle, e) Poison gland. 




Fer de Lance (Hothrops lanceolatus). 



c) Poison-fang, d) Lower Jaw. 

Plate I. fig. b. The Horrid Rattlesnake (Cro- 
taliis horridiis) reaches the length of four feet , and 
is as thick as a man's arm. It is of a yellowish-white 
and brown colour, with black markings. Its bite is very 
deadly, but the snake itself is sluggish, and never 
attacks man without provocation. It feeds on small 
mammals and birds and is found throughout South 
and Central America , and in some parts of North 
America , where , however , the common rattlesnake 
(C. dtirisstts) is more frequently met with. 

In the Cobras, the head is short and rounded, 
the poison-fangs short, immovable, and finely grooved 
on the convex side.- 

Plate III. fig. a. The Cobra-di-Capello (Naja 
tripiidians) is yellowish brown and red. It has been 
known and dreaded for thousands of years, far be- 
yond its Indian home. It grows to the length of 
five feet or more and is one of the most deadly 
snakes. When irritated it raises the fore part of 
its body and distends the mobile cervical ribs so as 
to form a large hood. Hence it is sometimes called 

the Hooded Snake ; 

or the Spectacle 
Snake, from the cu- 
rious markings on the 
hood. 

The Vipers have 
very wide jaws, and a 
curved movable poi- 
son-fang, with a closed 
or open channel for 
the venom on, each 
side of the upper jaw 
in front. 

Thehead is broad 
and obtuse, the body 
thick and the tail 
short. They arc not 






large snakes but very dangerous. 

Plate II. Fig. b. The Viper or Adder [Pclias 
herns') is our only venomous snake , though several 
others are found in Southern Europe. 

The male is generally pale greyish brown and 
the female reddish brown or more rarely quite black, 

1* 



4 



v.'hich has given rise to its sometimes being regarded 
as a distinct species. Its most characteristic marking 
is a dark zigzag Hne running along the back, which 
forms an X-shaped marking on the head. It is ge- 
nerally about two feet long, and frequents dry sunny 
places. It does not increase very rapidly; for it has 
numerous enemies, and the female, which is vivi- 
parous, only begins to produce from five to fourteen 
living young in its fourth year. It is common in 
nearly all Europe. 



The Fcr de Lance (Botkrops lanceolatiis) has 
a triangular plated head, and attains the length of 
seven or eight feet, and is very variable in colour, 
though usually of a more or less bright reddish 
yellow. It is one of the most dangerous of veno- 
mous snakes, and is common on the sugar plantations 
in Martinique and Santa Lucia. When this snake 
strikes, it opens its jaws widely, darts forward, and 
then coils itself to prepare for another attack. (Figured 
on pag. 3.) 



Order 11. Crocodilia. (Crocodiles.) 



In the Lizards and Crocodiles the difference 
between the head , body and tail is much better 
marked than in the snakes. The head is broad and 
flat and the jaws very long with two rows of teeth 
fixed in separate cavities. The nostrils and external 
cars can be closed by valves. The eyes arc well 
developed and provided with broad eye-lids. The 
tongue is large , flabby and quite immovable. The 
body terminates in a long tail and is supported on 
four short legs. There are five toes on the fore- 
feet, but only four , which are webbed , on the 



15 or 16 feet. The Alligators may be distinguished 
from the Crocodiles by their short broad snout, 
their only partially webbed hind feet and the ridges 
between the eyes. There is a hollow in the upper 
jaw for the reception of the fourth tooth of the 
lower jaw instead of a notch. The Alligator rarely 
attacks man, except in the water, but is often killed 
and eaten by the Indians, although its flesh smells 
strongly of musk. 

Plate IV. fig. b. The Conmion Crocodile (Cro- 
codilns vulgaris) is found in most African rivers, 




Skeleton of Crocodile. 



hind feet. The tail is long, laterally compressed, and 
very strong. The leathery skin is covered with horny 
plates. The Crdcodilia lay hard-shelled eggs, and 
arc found in warm climates. 

The Alligators, of which there are several 
species, inhabit America. 

Plate IV. fig. a. The Mississippi Alligator {Alli- 
gator Inciits) inhabits the southern United States, 
where it lives in marshes, and on the banks of the 
Mississippi. It feeds both on fish and on land-ani- 
mals, even attacking the jaguar when it comes to 
the river to drink. It grows to a length of about 



but is now becoming scarce on the Nile , although 
formerly very abundant. This formidable creature 
reaches a length of fifteen or sixteen feet. It grows 
very slowly and attains a great age. Its snout is 
more elongated than that of the Alligator and the 
upper mandible contains a notch for the fourth canine 
of the lower jaw.- The hind toes of the feet are 
completely webbed. The Crocodiles lie in wait for 
animals which come to the water to drink. The 
female lays eggs, about the size of those of a goose, 
in a hole in the sand, where they are hatched by 
the heat of the sun. 



Order 111. Lacertilia. (Lizards.) 



The body is long and cylindrical, and the head 
is flattened and triangular. The gape is wide, and the 
eyes are large, and generally provided with two com- 
[)lcte eye-lids. There is a distinct neck, the back is 
generally arched, and the tail is very long and taper- 
ing. The legs are generally well developed and the toes 
are armed with sharp claws, but the limbs are occasion- 
ally rudimentary or entirely wanting. The skin is cover- 
ed with scales, which are hexagonal on the belly. The 
tongue varies according to the family. Lizards are to be 
met with in all parts of the tropical and temperate zones. 

In the Monitors and Lizards the tongue is forked, 
narrow, and very extensile. The Nile Monitor (Mo- 
nitor iiiloticits) is greyish brown, spotted with white, 
and grows to the length of five feet or more. It 
destroys the eggs of the Crocodile. 




Nile Monitor fyfonilor nilolhui.) 



Fig. b. The Sand Lizard {Laccrta agilis) is a 
very active little creature measuring about a span 
in length. The female is greyish brown whilst the 
male is of a bright greenish colour on the sides. In 
the summer they feed on insects and in the winter they 
hibernate. They are easily tamed if well fed and will 
take their food out of the hand. The yellowish-white 
eggs arc covered with a parchment-like skin and are 
found in April or May among stones or sand in 
sunny jilaces. 

Fig. c. The Wall Lizard {Laccrta nniralis) is 
longer and more slender than the last species. Its 
back is spotted with green , brown and black and 
its belly is white or reddish. The muzzle is very 
pointed, the scales on the back are small and granular, 
and there is a small plate among the scales on the 
temples. It is common in Southern and in many parts 
of Central Europe , and is often seen about walls, 
where it hides in the crevices, and is extremely active. 

The Iguanas have a short, broad obtuse head, 
cylindrical body, and long tapering tail. The tongue 
is thick, short and fleshy, free only at the extremity, 
and not extensile. There is often a spiny crest running 
along the back, large throat-pouches, and other curious 
dermal appendages, which are sometimes supported 
by bones, and occasionally serve as a parachute. The 
legs are well developed, and the toes are long and 
slender, and armed with claws. The Iguanas feed 
on insects, and also on leaves and fruits. Some are 
found in rocky places, whilst others live on trees. 
They inhabit both the Old World and America. 

Fig. d. The Iguana (Iguana tnberculata) is an 
inhabitant of tropical America, where its flesh and 
eggs are regarded as a delicacy. It is a large lizard, 
measuring from three to five feet in length. The 
whole body is covered with small scales the colour 
of which varies from bluish green to yellow. An 
upright spiny crest runs along the back, and there 
is a spiny pouch on the throat. 

Fig. c. The Basilisk (Basilisciis vn/garis) is a 
harmless animal , which was regarded as extremely 
venomous by the early naturalists, and indeed 
this lizard which is twelve inches long, looks very 
uncanny. Its colour is bluish grey varied with white 
spots. Behind the head is a protuberance which can 
be inflated, and somewhat resembles a monk's cowl. 
There is a crest on the back and on a great part 
of the tail , and there is also a pouch beneath the 



throat. It is found in South America, especially in 
dry, stony places where it feeds on insects, worms &c. 
It can also climb trees, and swims well. 

Fig. f. The Flying Dragon (Draco volans) not- 
withstanding its resemblance in form to the dragons of 
the old story-books, is only a small East Indian lizard 
of about six inches in length, which feeds on insects, 
and is enabled to float from tree by a parachute- 
like expansion of skin, supported by prolongations 
of the ribs. 

The Chameleons are small lizards with a broad 
angular head, terminating behind in a kind of crest. 
They have a wide gape, and a long extensile and 
vermiform tongue, which they dart out at insects 
with lightning-like rapidity. The eyes are large and 
circular, each covered by only a single eye-lid. The 
body is laterally compressed , and the crest on the 
back is continued on the long prehensile tail. The 
legs are moderately long and slender, and the 
toes are opposible, as in climbing birds. The skin 
varies in colour according to the surroundings or 
emotions of the animal. 

Fig. a. The common Chamajleon (Cliaiiucko 
vulgaris) is a sluggish animal which creeps slowly 
from branch to branch on trees and shrubs in searcli 
of insects, which it catches with its slimy tongue. 
The eyes move quite independently, so that one may 
be looking upwards and the other downwards. The 
Chameleon inhabits South Europe, India and Africa. 

In the Blindworms, the body is rounded, the 
head is triangular and there is no distinct division 
between the head, body and tail. The upper surface 
of the head is covered with plates but the rest of the body 
is scaly. The tongue is free and slightly extensile. 
The eyelids are freely movable. The limbs are 
short and weak , or entirely undeveloped. These 
reptiles live under stones in dry sandy places , and 
feed on insects, worms &c. 

Plate III. Fig. d. The Blindworm (Angnis 
fragilis) was formerly regarded as a snake, but it is 
really a lizard, in spite of the absence of limbs. The 
body, which is cylindrical, and covered with shining 
brown scales, is as wide as the head, and the skull is 
shaped like that of a lizard. The Blindworm is about 
a foot in length. It prefers sunny places, and feeds 
on worms, insects and slugs. It is perfectly harm- 
less, and so brittle that the slightest injury suffices 
to break off the tail. 



Order IV. Chelonia. 



The animals included in this Order are very 
unlike any other Reptiles. The whole animal is 
clothed with an armour of bony plates covered with 
horn. This is composed of broad ribs fused with 
the vertebra; and with the breastbone. It contains 
the thoracic and abdominal organs, the bones of the 
shoulder and the pelvis, and the muscles acting on the 
upper part of the limbs. The only movable vertebras are 
those of the neck and tail. Teeth are replaced in the 
Cheloniansby ahard horny beak similar to that of birds. 
They also resemble birds in having a cloaca or common 
outlet for the contents of the bladder and mtestines, 
and for the generative products. Moreover they lay 
hard-shelled eggs, which they do not sit upon, but 
bury in the sand or earth. Their tenacity of life 
and the age wliich they sometimes attam arc extra- 
ordinary; and the length of time which they can 
exist without food is also remarkable. They live 



cither in the sea, in rivers and swamps, or on land, 
and feed on snails, worms, and small fish. Some, 
feed also on vegetable substances. They inhabit 
both hemispheres. 

In the Land Tortoises (Tcstiidiitidu") the back- 
plate or carapace is high and arched , with narrow 
openings before and behind to receive the head, 
limbs and tail. The head is short and the legs moder- 
ately long. The toes are united into a thick mass, 
and are armed with horny claws. They are found 
in woods and thickets in warm countries. 

Plate VIII. fig. b. The Common Land Tortoise 
(Tcstiido gnrca) is found on all the coasts of the 
Mediterranean. It is prettily coloured, the yellow 
plates are bordered with black, or the colours are 
reversed. It feeds on tender plants, insects, worms &c. 
In South Europe, where these animals are esteemed as 
an article of diet, they are often kept in gardens as pets. 



fi 



The Freshwater Tortoises (Emydidce) have 
more resemblance to marine turtles. The carapace 




Skeleton of Tortoise, 
(back-plate) and plastron (brcast-platc) are both flat- 
tened, but are generally ossified, though the head and 
legs are not retractile. The head is long, the legs 
short, and the toes distinct, though webbed. There 
are five on the fore feet, and four on the hind feet. 
The water-tortoises are active creatures, living in 
streams and swamps, and feeding on fish and plants. 



Fig. d. Tiie Common River Tortoise (Emyi. 
cuivptea) inhabits a great part of .Southern and Central 
Europe. Its carapace is oval and the colour is dark 
grey with yellowish-white streaks which radiate in 
all directions on each plate. Tortoises hibernate in 
winter in the mud. 

The Sea Turtles (Clicloniidic) are good swimmers 
and pass most of their lives in the water, except 
when they come to the shore to lay their eggs on 
sandy coasts. The carapace is small and pointed 
at the end , and only covers the body. The head 
is flat , the jaws sharp and beak-like and the neck 
short. The four legs end in undivided paddles. The 
toes are scarcely to be distinguished , and are often 
wholly without claws. The Turtles are of a large 
size , and feed on seaweeds and various marine 
animals. 

Plate VIII. fig. a. The Green Turtle (Chdonia 
Hildas) inhabits the tropical seas, and when full-grown 
it measures six feet in length and weighs 700 lbs. 
The muzzle is obtuse and the plates of the carapace 
do not overlap. The flesh and eggs are excellent, 
and form a regular article of trade. 

Fig. c. The Hawk's Bill Turtle (Carctta iiii- 
bricata) furnishes the best tortoiseshell. The horny 
scales of the carapace overlap like slates on a roof 
The tail is scaly and the upper jaw is notched and 
hooked. This species feeds on various marine 
animals, and not on seaweed like the Green Turtle 
and to this is ascribed the inferiority of its 
flesh. It inhabits the tropical seas of both hemi- 
siihercs. 



Class Amphibia. 



with small teeth, and they are without ribs. After 
the young have left the egg they undergo metamor- 
phoses which particularly aft'ect the respiratory organs. 
All the Amphibia are carnivorous in the perfect state, 
feeding on worms, insects, slugs, &c. 



The Amphibia are animals with cold red blood, 
imperfectly divided auricles, but only a single ven- 
tricle. Their skins whh few exceptions are naked 
or warty. The limbs are generally well developed', 
but the toes are not clawed. Their jaws are armed 
The Amphibia are divided as follows : 

Order I. Anoiira. Tail and gills lost in course of metamorphosis, 
,, II. Urodcla. Tail retained, but gills lost. 
,, 111. Ichthyoidea. Gills and tail retained, 
,, IV. Apoda. Limbs and tail absent. 



Order I. Anoura. (Frogs and Toads.) 



(Plate 

In adult animals the body is short, broad and 
tailless, with four limbs, of which the hind pair are 
the longest, being adapted for leaping and swim- 
ming, and the toes are generally webbed. The muzzle 
is rounded, and the gape wide. The tongue is gener- 
ally fixed in front and free behind, and is adapted 
to .seize insects. These are swallowed whole , for 
teeth, if present arc only used to hold them. The 
lungs are elastic air-cavities, and are usually connected 
in the male with a single vocal sac (or sometimes 
a pair) situated in the throat. They are good 
swinnners and divers, and move on land by leaping. 
At the beginning of winter they bury themselves in 



VII.) 

the mud, and remain there without eating or breath- 
ing. In the spring, when the spawning season begins, 
they emerge from 
theirhiding places 
and become very 
lively. The spawn 
is laid in shallow 
water either in 
strings (as in the 
toads) or in lumps 
(as in the frogs) Skeleton of Frog, 

and when the young, which are called tadpoles, 
are hatched, they undergo the changes shown in 




Figs, a b I. d. I — 4. and e. i. The little creature 
is at first legless, and has a tail and external 
gills, but as the lungs develop, the legs sprout, and 
the tail and gills disappear. These changes are ac- 
companied by a change from vegetable to animal 
food, and require a considerable time (about 100 days 
in the edible frog) and the animals do not attain 
their full growth for several years. 

In the typical Frogs (Ranidcc) the skin is gener- 
ally smooth , seldom warty. The upper jaw and 
generally the palate also are provided with teeth, 
but the lower jaw is seldom toothed. The tongue 
is either wholly fixed, or only attached in front to 
the lower jaw. The hind legs are much larger than 
the fore legs, and are adapted for leaping. 

Fig. d. The Edible Frog (Rana escttknta) is 
thus called because its hind legs are eaten in spring 
in France , where they are considered a delicacy. 
It is of a beautiful green colour on the back , with 
black and yellow stripec- , and the belly is white. 



In the Boiiibinatoyidcc the hind legs are long, 
with the toes webbed, the skin is warty and the 
tongue completely fixed. 

The Bombardier (Boiiibinator igucns) is found 
in marshes on the Continent. Its colour is greyish- 
brown above, and orange, spotted with black, below. 

In the Toads (Bufonidcr) the hind legs are 
rather long, the skin is warty, the parotid glands are 
large, and the teeth are absent. 

Fig. a. The Common Toad (Bnfo vii/garis) 
is uniform grey, or spotted with darker, above, and 
is dirty white beneath, with or without spots. It is 
a nocturnal animal, and lives in damp places in sum- 
mer and autumn. It only visits the water in the 
spring, when it deposits its spawn in two strings. It 
is a useful animal in gardens and should be encour- 
aged. It is perfectly harmless. 

Fig. b. The Natterjack Toad (Bnfo calaiiiita) is 
fond of cellars and other dark damp places. It is olive 
brown above, and paler below. The warts on the 




Bombadier {Boinbhiator ignci/s). 



It hibernates in the mud, emerging in March, . and 
spawning in June. Its favourite resorts are the 
grassy banks of ditches and ponds, into which it 
leaps with a great bound when alarmed. In the 
spawning season the frogs spend most of their time 
in the water, and the male croaks incessantly in the 
evening. In England this species is very local. 

Fig. e. The Green Tree Frog (Hyla arborca) 
is much smaller than the edible frog. The upper 
surface of the body is green, and the belly white. 
In the male the green colour is bordered with black 
on the sides, and the throat is brownish. But the 
tree frogs are most remarkable for the pads at the 
ends of the toes, which are used as suckers in climb- 
ing trees and shrubs. These frogs also hibernate in 
the mud. and spawn in May or June in stagnant 
water. They are not found in England, though 
common on the Continent. 



back are reddish brown, and there is a yellow streak 
along the back, which often takes the form of a cross. 
It is smaller than the common toad, its legs are 
shorter and stouter, and the hind toes are not webbed. 

In the Aglossidce or Tongueless Toads , the 
head is flattened and triangular, the body broad, 
the front feet provided with four free toes and the 
hind feet with five webbed toes. The tongue is 
wholly wanting, and the jaws are either toothless, or 
provided with small teeth in the upper jaw only. 

Fig. c. The Surinam Toad {Fipa anicricaiia) 
is much larger than oiu' European toads, measuring 
nearly a foot in length. It inhabits the swamps of 
South America. The skin is grey spotted with white, 
and the back is perforated by small pits in the fe- 
male, in which the eggs are placed after being laid, 
and where they are hatched, and the tadpoles reared 
to maturity. 



Order 11. Urodela. (Newts and Salamanders.) 



The long body ends in a tail of variable lengtii. 
There are four legs (rarely two) and the hind legs 
are scarcely longer than the others. Most species 
are aquatic, and use their laterally compressed tail 
as a paddle. The Salamanders, however, live on land, 
and have a cylindrical tail. They have teeth in both 
jaws, and sometimes on the palate too, which they 
use to seize their prey , for they are carnivorous 
animals. They all undergo a metamorphosis, and the 



external gills which they require during the aquatic 
stage of their life are replaced by lungs when they 
are fully developed. 

In the Satemanders and Newts , the gills are 
wanting in the full-grown animal , and the eyes are 
provided with well-developed lids. 

The Salamanders (Sa/aiiiaiidridcr) frequent damp 
places, and feed on worms and snails. They are 
viviparous, the young undergoing their development 



in the widened upper i)art of the oviduct. The 
tail is cylindrical, and there are large glands 
near the ear. 

Plate VI. fig', a. The Spotted Salamander (Sala- 
iiiaiidra waai/osa) is about six inches long, and is 
beautifully marked with l)lack and yellow. It is found 
in dark and damp (ilaces, in many parts of the Con- 
tinent of Europe. It is a rather sluggish creature. 
It was formerly supposed to be fire-proof and 
venomous. 

The Newts (Tritouidu) have the tail laterally 
compressed, and suited for a propeller. They live in 
stagnant water, and lay their eggs singly on the leaves 
of water-plants. They are very active in the water, 
but are obliged to come to the surface every two 
or three minutes to breathe. In the winter they 
hibernate on land. They have a wonderful power 
of reproducing their limbs, if lost by accident. 

Plate Vi. Fig. b The Great Water Newt 
(Triton cristatns) the largest species found in Britain, 
is five or si.x inches long. The skin is warty, and 
its colour is dark brown, spotted with black above, 
and orange with dark spots beneath. The sides are 
dotted with white. The male has a large jagged 
crest on the back in the breeding season. The va- 
rious stages of the development of the larva are re- 
presented at Fig. b. I to 5. 

The Axolotl (Sircdon piscifoniiis) the ty])e of 
the family A)iihlYsto)nidtr, is eight or ten inches long. 
The body is dark brown with black spots, and the 
tail has a greenish lustre and is marked with pale 
i.pots. There are four toes on the front feet, and 
five on the hind feet. It is found in the lakes of 
Mexico, and is frequently exhibited in our aquariums. 
The immature form with gills is by far the most 
common. 




Axolotl (Siredon •pisciformis). 



Order 111 Ichthyoidea. (Sirens.) 



The vertebrae are concave at the sides as in 
fishes. The head is flattened, and there are two or 
three branching tufts of gills at the sides of the neck. 
The body is long and narrow and the legs are weak. 
The eyes are either entirely hidden , or very small 
and without lids. The Sirens live in the water and 
arc found in both hemisi)heres. 

Plate VI. Fig. c. The Proteus (Frotais au_i;;i/- 
iiHs) is a queer eel-shaped creature with three promi- 
nent red tufts of gills on each side of the neck. It 
has four weak legs, the front feet having three toes, 
and the hind feet two. It is of a pale flesh-colour 
gradually passing into grey in the light. It is upwards 



of a foot in length. It inhabits the subterranean 
waters of Carniola, and does not require eyes, which 
are only represented as small points under the skin. 
Both jaws are provided with slender teeth, but large 
enough to seize its prey. 

Plate VI. fig. d. The Siren (Siren laccrtiiia) 
is an ugly creature about two feet long, which resem- 
bles an eel. It has only a front pair of legs, and 
there are three tufts of external gills on the neck, which 
sprout from separate gill-slits. The eyes and nostrils 
are small, and the colour of the body is dark grey. 
These remarkable creatures inhabit the great swamps 
of South Carolina &c. 



:;^X^VW;5 



Order IV. 

7 




Siphonops ainiulala. 



Apoda. 



These are worm-like animals with rings on the 
body, but without limbs or tail. One lung only is 
developed. They chiefly inhabit America, and attain 
a length of two or three feet. Siphoiiops aitniilata 
however, here figured, is a native of Ceylon. It is 
dirty grey in colour. There is r.ot much known 
about its habits , except that it burrows in the 
ground with considerable strength and agility. It is 
usually met with in damp places, about one or two 
feet below the surface. 



Class Pisces (Fishes). 



Fishes are Vertebrate Animals with cold red 
blood, living in water, and breathing by gills or 
branchiae. The heart has one auricle and one 
ventricle. The body is generally scaly ; in some 
instances it is covered with plates, but is very rarely 
naked. They move by means of fins, which are 
bony rays connected by skin. The fins are partly 
horizontal , or paired (i. e. placed symmetrically on 
each side of the body), and partly vertical, or un- 
paired. The former are divided into pectoral and 
ventral fins , and the latter into dorsal , anal , and 
caudal , according to their position. The i)ectoral 
and ventral fins represent the fore and hinder ex- 
tremities of the higher Vertebrata. The fins are 
i^livided according to their structure , into spinous 
fins, consisting of stiff unjointed rays ; soft fins, con- 
sisting of jointed and sometimes branched rays, and 
tatty fins, unsupported by rays. The tail-fin is the 
principal organ of locomotion. 

Most fishes, but 
not all , possess a 
curious air - bladder, 
consisting of a hollow 
sac filled with gas, 
which is connected in 
some species with the 
auditory organs , and 
in others with those 
of digestion. By its 
compression or ex- 
pansion the fish is 
enabled to rise or sink 
in the water. The form of fishes is generally rather 
long, and laterally compressed. The head is small, 
and the neck is wanting. The skeleton is either bony, 
or else more or less cartilaginous. The ribs are 
often very small , unconnected with a breastbone, 
and only enclose abdominal organs. 

The organs of sense are not highly developed. 
The brain- occupies a comparatively small por- 
tion of the cavity of the skull. The eye has 
usually no eyelids, a flat cornea, and a globular lens. 
The nostrils are only two blind cavities , and there 
are no external ears. The tongue is generally bony, 
and is often furnished with teeth. The teeth them- 
selves vary extremely in size and position , and are 
generally used to seize and hold prey ; rarely for 
mastication. 

The breathing-organs , or gills , are thin , deli- 
cate and extremely porous layers, presenting a large 
surface in a small compass, so that they can contain 




Skeleton of Perch. 

a Anterior ilorsal fin. b. Posterior dorsal fin. c. Cau'lai fiii. d. An.al fin 
c Ventrai fin. f. Pectwrai Fin. 



a large quantity of blood. They are cither situated 
in a gill-cavity into which the water can penetrate 
through the gill-o[)cning, which is closed by the gill- 
cover, and are then called internal gills, or in a few 
exceptional cases, they also project from the surface 
of the body into the surrounding water; and are 
then called external gills. Water, which contains 
air and oxygen, is taken in thrc.uigh the mouth, and 
when the mouth is closed, it passes into the gills, 
which lie on each side behind the head; and is after- 
wards discharged through the gill-openings. The 
fi.sh can only breathe with its gills as long as they 
remain moist, as when they grow dry, the layers 
adhere together, and the blood can no longer circu- 
late through them. 

Different species of fishes inhabit salt and fresh 

water ; and some can live in either. They are believed 

to be more numerous on the coasts than in open water. 

Most fishes are oviparous , but the number of 

' eggs which they lay is 
very variable. In the 
herring the roes con- 
tain 30,000 to 40,000 
eggs ; in the carp 
700,000, in the stur- 
geon 1,400,000, and in 
the cod as many as 
13,000,000. Neverthe- 
less the number of 
fishes tends rather to 
diminish than to in- 
crease , on account of 
the number of oth^r animals which prey upon 
them , including many species belonging to their 
own Class. 

In the spawning-season many fishes which usually 
inhabit the sea , enter rivers for that purpose ; and 
others, like the Herring, gather together in enormous 
shoals, and approach the coasts in search of suitable 
places to deposite their ova, when they are captured 
in enormous numbers. 

Fish are extremely important as an article of 
food among all races of men. The only injurious 
species are some of the large sharks &c., and a few 
smaller fishes, which ai'c poisonous. 

As a rule, fishes are carnivorous animals, com- 
paratively few, such as the Carps, feeding chiefly on 
vegetable substances. About 13,000 species are 
known at pi'esent ; and the small number which we 
can find room to mention in the present work, may 
be arranged according to the following system ; 



10 



Subclass I. Dipnoi. 
Subclass II. Teleostei. 



Order I. Acanthoptcrygii. 
,, II. Phaiyngoguathi. 
,, III. Auacaiitliini. 



Order IV. Physostomi. 
„ V. Flcctognathi. 
„ VI. Lopliobraiichi. 



Subclass III. Cliondropterygii. 



Order I. Ganoidei. 
„ II. Sclac/iii. 



Order III. Cydostomi. 
„ IV. Leptocardii. 



Subclass I. Dipnoi. 



Fishes which breathe with lungs and gills, and form a connecting link with 

Amphibia and Vertebrata. 



^^f^li^^ 



The body is long and clothed with horny scales. 
The head is broad , the snout obtusely triangular, 
the nostrils open into the cavity of the mouth, and 
the two lungs 
open as in the 
higher Vertebrata 
by a common 
passage into the 
front wall of the 
gullet. The jaws 
and skeleton are 
in part carti- 
laginous. 

Lepidosinn 
paradoxa , a very 
and its tributaries. 






mm 




Mud-Fish ('Prolopterus annectens). 



•are fish, inhabiting the Amazons 
is greyish brown , and attains a 



The Mudfish {Frotoptcrns annectens) is found 

in the rivers of tropical Africa. It feeds on 

vegetable substances, and passes the dry season 

. _ buried in caked 

mud. It grows 

to the length 

of five or six 

feet. 

These fish- 
es are allied to 
the genus Ceja- 
todiis^ which was 
supposed to be 
extinct, until 



iVT- 






L«> 




^nsjth of three or four feet. 



living species were obtained from the rivers of 
Oucensland. 



Subclass II. Teleostei. 

Fishes with a well-developed bony skeleton, and distinctly separated vertebrae, 

of the form of a hollow double cone. 

To this Subclass most existing species of fish belong. 

Order I. Acanthopterygii. 



The front rays of the dorsal fin are undivided, 
and mostly consist of simple spines; and there are 
also some stiff rays in the front part of the anal 
fin. The lower pharyngeal bones are separated. The 
air-bladder is often absent. 

Family I. GobJidse. These are usually small 
slender scaly fishes , in which the ventral fins are 
often united into a sucking disc. They are found 
at low water under stones. 

Plate XI. fig. a. Cycloptcrns Iniupiis, the Lump 
Fish, belongs to a section which possesses only three 
gills. It is found in shallow sea-water , and adheres 
very firmly to the rocks with its sucker. It is found 
in the North Sea, the Baltic, and in North America. 

Plate XIV. fig. i. Gobius niger, the Black Goby, 
is , like most of the family to which it belongs , a 
little fish found between tidemarks in shallow water, 
wliere it seeks the bottom, and feeds on worms, 
sjKuvn &c. 



Family II. Pediculata. A small group of ugly 
fishes with a naked or warty skin , and very mov- 
able pectoral fins, which are situated behind the 
small gill-openings. 

Plate XI. fig. b. I.opliiiis piscatoiins , the 
Fishing Frog, is common in the European seas, and 
attains a length of four or five feet. The head is 
very large, flattened and frog-like, the mouth wide, 
and armed with large teeth , adapted for seizing 
its prey. 

Family III. Percidae. The Perches are coarsely- 
scaled fishes with spiny fins, spines on the bones of 
the gill-covers, and one or two dorsal fins, of which 
only the first is usually spiny. They are all car- 
nivorous. 

Plate XV. fig. d. Ferca flnviatilis, the Perch, 
is comirion in fresh water all over Europe. The 
back IS of a gieenish colour with dark transverse 
bands , and the fins are red The Perch rarely 



11 



exceeds four or five pounds in weiLjht, but is much 
esteemed for the table. 

Plate XV. fig. e. Lnciopcrca Sandra, the Pike 
Perch, is a much larger fish, measuring three or four 
feet in length, which is common in the rivers and 
lakes of Eastern Europe, whore it prefers clear water 
with a sandy bottom. Its head resembles that of a 
pike. There are 22 rays in the hinder dorsal fin, 
while the common perch has only 16. 

Plate XV. fig. f. Accriiia ceriina, the Ruffe, is 
a small fish about six or eight inches long, fonnd in 
rivers and lakes with a sandy bottom. It has a 
large head, a slimy body, and the undivided dorsal 
fin is only spiny in front. 

Plate XV. fig. g. Mnllus barbattis , the Red 
Mullet, is a beautiful fish. The variety figured, 
which is scarce in England, is of a red colour, with 
yellow stripes and fins. Its flesh is very delicate, 
and it was highly prized in Roman times , when it 
was almost worth its weight in gold. The first 
dorsal fin is spiny , the scales are easily removed, 
and there are two long filaments beneath the lower 
jaw. It is common ir 
theEuropean seas, grow- 
ing to the length of 
about I S inches , and 
varying much in colour. 

Plate XIII. fig. a. 
Uranoscopns scabcr, the 
Star-gazer, is a curious 
fish rather less than a 
foot long, which is found 
in the Mediterranean 
The head is flat , the 
eyes quite on its summit, 
and the muzzle runs 
obliquely upwards. The 
small spiny dorsal fins, 
and the position of the 
ventral fin , which is 
placed just under tlii 
throat , are also re 
markable. 

Family IV. Mugil- 

idae. The (jrcy Mullets 
have a large head, largi 
scales over thegill-coveis 
and the whole bod\ , 
and a small spiny front 
dorsal fin , placed far 
from the hinder one, 




Stickleback and nest. 



which is not spiny. They are sea-fish. 

Plate XV. fig. i. Mui^il ccphahis is a species 
about a foot long, which does not extend very far 
north. It is fond of entering the mouths of rivers. 

Family V. Scombridsa. The Mackerels are 
carnivorous marine fishes, variable in form, but usu- 
ally with smooth bodies , and a spiny dorsal fin, 
behind which the hinder fin , which is often soft, 
runs to the tail. 

Plate XIV. fig. e. Scomber scomber, the Mackerel, 
resembles a herring in shape , but is much larger, 
and is one of the worst foes of the latter fish. It 
is met with on the coasts of Europe in immense shoals. 

Plate XIV. fig. f. Tliymuis thynnns, the Tunny, 
is the largest fish of this family , attaining a length of 
from four to eight feet, and weighing several hundred 
pounds. The back is steel-blue, the sides silvery, 
and the ventral fins yellowish. It is found in other 
European seas , but is most abundant in the Medi- 
terranean. 



Plate XIV. fig. c. Echincis iiaucratcs , the 
Sucking Fish , is about two or three feet long , and 
has a peculiar sucking apparatus on its head, con- 
sisting of 24 dentated bony transverse plates on the 
head and front of the body, formed of the modified 
dorsal fin. By this it can attach itself firmly to 
other fish, or to vessels, and thus travel from place 
to place. It is found in the Indian and Atlantic 
Oceans , and a smaller species (Echincis rcniora) in 
the British seas, as well as in the Mediterranean. 

Plate XV. fig. a. Zens faber, the John Dory, 
diftcrs from the mackerels in its short and laterally- 
compressed body. The back is dark-coloured and 
the sides gilded , and marked with a conspicuous 
grey spot. The spines of the dorsal fin are pro- 
duced into long filaments , and the mouth is tube- 
like and extensile. It is not an uncommon sea-fish, 
and is highly esteemed. It grows to the length of 
eighteen inches. 

Family VI. Labyrinthidse. Here we find the 
pharyngeal bones modified into a series of bony 
lamellae which serve as water-reservoirs , and conse- 
quently the fish are 
enabled to exisf'for a 
long time out of water. 
Plate XIV. fig. h. 
Anabas scandcns , the 
Climbing Perch, is com- 
mon in the East Indies, 
where it grows to the 
length of about 6 inches. 
It is said to climb trees 
by means of the spines 
on the ventral fins and 
on the gilt-covers. 
Family VII. Xiphiidae. 

The Sword - fishes are 
large fish , which are 
chiefly met with in the 
tropical seas, where they 
fiursue and impale other 
fish with the long sword- 
like upper jaw. There 
IS a large spiny dorsal 
fin , the ventral fins, 
w hen present, are sword- 
like , and the tailfin is 
strongly concave. 

Plate XII. fig. i. 
Xiphias gladins, is com- 
mon in the Mediter- 
ranean, where it is captured with harpoons, and eaten. 
It grows to the length of 11 or 12 feet, and the 
sword is 3 or 4 feet long. It is met with in the 
Atlantic Ocean, but less commonly than in the Me- 
diterranean. 

Family VIII. Triglidae. This family includes 
fishes remarkable for the mail-clad head. 

Plate XIV. fig. d. Scorpicna scorpio , the Red 
Scorpion-fish has a strangely -shaped head with 
jagged appendages, there is only one dorsalfin, and 
the ventral fin is placed below the large pectoral fins. 
It is found in the European seas, and rarely exceeds 
eighteen inches in length. 

Plate XIV. fig. g. Gasterostens acnlcatus. the 
Stickleback, is a voracious little fish, about two 
inches long , which abounds in rivers and streams. 
Its whole body is clothed in mail, and it has three 
spines in front of the dorsal fin, and another on the 
belly. It is one of the few fish which are known to 
protect their young. The male makes a nest anion 



12 



vvatLT-plnnls , in which the eggs , wliich he carefully 
watches over, are hatched. 

Plate XIV. fig. b. CoUhs Qobio , the Bullhead, 
i.s another little fish, about twice the size of a Stickle- 
back, which is abundant in clear pebbly brooks. It 
has a lari^^e head and scaleless body , mottled with 
black and brown above, and yellow beneath. It feeds, 
like the Sticklebacks, on insects, and on the roe 
and fry of fish. 

Plate XIV. fig. k. 'Jtig'tc Giiriiaid/is, the Grey 
Tiurnard, is a common marine fish about six inches 
long. It produces a grunting noise when captured, 
by forcing gas from the air-bladder. The head is 
plated, and there are three free sjjines in front of 
the dorsal fin. 

Plate XIV. fig. 1. Dactyloptcriis volilaus , the 



I'iying Gurnard, has very long pectoral fins, and 
when pursued, it can raise itself from the water and 
fly a distance of lOO paces. They abound in the 
Rlediterrancan. 

P'amily IX. Blenniidae. These fishes have a 
slimy skin, small belly-fins, and a large dorsal fin. 

Plate XII. fig. h. Aiiarrhiclias lupus, the Wolf- 
k'ish , is commoner in Northern than in Tem- 
perate climates , and grows to the length of seven 
feet and upwards. It has very powerfull teeth, and 
is e5:cccdingly voracious. 

Plate XIV. fig. a. Bkiniius viviparus is inte- 
resting on account of its producing living yoimg. It 
has two small filaments on the mouth, and the nostrils 
are tube-like. It inhabits tlie Norlli Sea and the 
Baltic, and grows to the length of ten inches. 



Order II. Pharyngognathi. 



This Order is distinguished by the lower ]iha- 
lyngeal bones being united. It includes, among 
others* the family Labridse. They are brightly- 
coloured fishes with thick lips, a protuberant snout, 
and strong teeth. The body is generally laterally 



compressed, with large smooth scales. — Plate XV. 
fig. h. Julis vicditcrranCiX is a pretty species of 
Wrasse which inhabits the European seas. It is blue 
with an orange-coloured band on the sides. It is about 
as long as a finger. 



Order III. Anacanthini. 



Fins with soft rays, and not spines; air-bladder 
without pneumatic duct. Ventral fins, when pre- 
sent, placed just below to the throat. 

Family I. Gadidx. The species frequent the 
northern seas, and very few are inhabitants of fresh 
water. They are long fishes, with a flattened head, 
a wide mouth, well provided with teeth, short ven- 
tral fins placed in front of the pectoral fins , and a 
long tail. They are carnivorous fishes, which 
abundant in the Northern seas, and are of great 
economical value. Many of them measure three 
or four feet in length. 

Plate XIII. fig. b. Mcrluciiis vulgaris, the 
Make, is common in the European and North Ame- 
rican seas. It has two dorsal fins , and the lower 
jaw projects like that of the pike. 

Plate XIII. fig. c. Molva vulgaris, the Ling, 
is a long and narrow fish , with a projecting upper 
jaw, and barbels on the lower jaw. 

Plate XIII. fig. d. Gadns iiiorrliua , the Cod, 
is the most valuable of the w hole family , and is 
particularly abundant on the Banks of Newfoundland. 
It is a most prolific fish , and though it is annually 
salted by millions, its numbers never appear to 
diminish. 

Plate XIII. fig. e. Gadtis crglcfinus, the Had- 
dock, is brown on the back, and silvery on the sides 
and belly, with a dark spot behind the pectoral fins. 
It is a rather smaller fish than those previously 
mentioned, not exceeding three feet in length. 

Plate XIII. fig. f Gad us callarias , the Dorse, 
is about the size of a Haddock , and is not found 
so far north as the other common species of Gadidu: 
It has 3 dorsal and 2 ventral fins, a barbel on the 
chin, and a waved lateral line running across the 
pectoral fins. Some authors regard this fish as only 
a young cod. 

Plate XIII. fig. g. Gadus miuutus is yellowish 
brown above , and only measures about si.x inches 
in length. Its appearance on our coasts heralds 
lh.it of the larger species. 



Plate XIII. fig. h. Lota vulgaris, the Eel Pout, 
is a remarkable freshwater-fish , common in the 
lakes and rivers of Europe and Northern Asia. 
It is a queer-looking fish , with a Irog-like head, 
barbels on the chin, and an eel-like body. It grows 
to the length of three feet. The flesh is best just 
before the spawning-season, in December. 

P'amily II. Pleuronectidae. The Flat-fishes have 
no air-bladder , and have an extremely high and 
narrow body. When swimming or at rest they lie 
on one side, and consequently only the upper side 
of the body is coloured , and both eyes are placed 
on the coloured side of the head. They generally 
rest on the bottom of the sea, but some species 
ascend rivers to a considerable distance. They feed 
on small fish, worms and Crustacea. 

Plate XV. fig. b. Plcuroiicctcs platcssa , the 
Plaice, swims with the right side uppermost. It is 
brown with red spots, and grows to the length of 
eighteen inches. It is an extremely common species. 

Plate XV fig. c. llippoglossus vulgaris, the 
Halibut, is one of the largest of the flat-fishes, at- 
taining a lenght of from five to seven feet , and 
weighing 200 or 300 pounds. The body is smooth, 
and the tail crescent-shaped. It is commoner in 
Northern luirope than on the British coasts. 

P\amily III. ScombresocJdse. The jaws are 
prolonged into a beak, and there is a double keel 
on the belly. These fishes are all marine. 

Plate XVI. fig. e. Exococtus volitans, the My- 
ing Fish, resembles a herring, but the pectoral fins 
are so long and so strong that the fish can fly for 
a hundred yards over the surface of the sea. The 
Flying Fish are common in the warmer seas; but 
the species figured is occasionally seen on our own 
coasts. 

Plate XIX. fig. i. Bclonc vulgaris, the Garfish, 
has both jaws prolonged into a sharp horny beak. 
It is a deep-water fish, but comes to the coasts to 
spawn. The spine is green. It attains a lenght oi 
upwards of two feet. 



13 



Order IV. Physostomi. 



These are fishes with soft jointed fin-rays , the 
air-bladder is almost always provided with a pneumatic 
duct, and the ventral fins, if present, are placed behind 
the pectoral fins. The pharyngeal bones are 
separated. 

In the first two families , the body is snake- 
like , slimy, and naked, and the ventral fins 
are absent. The gill-cavities are large, but the gill- 
openings small, thus enabling the fish to live for a 
long time out of water. They are carnivorous fishes, 
and are found both in the sea and in fresh water. 
Family 1. Gymnotidae. The gill-openings are 
placed laterally over the small pectoral fins. Vent 
placed below the throat; and behind it is the long 
anal fin. Dorsal and caudal fins absent or nearly so. 
Plate XII. fig. e. Gyiiinotus clcctriais , the 
Electric Eel, is common in the lakes and swamps 
of South America , where it grows to the length of 
six feet. Its electric discharge is sufficiently power- 
ful to kill small animals , and to disable large ones. 
The electric organs consists of two assemblages of 
prismatic cells filled with a jelly-like substance. 

Family II. Muraetlidae. In the Eels, the vent 
is placed far from the throat , and there is usually 
a long dorsal fin. 

Plate XII. fig. f. Angnilla JitiviatiUs, the Com- 
mon Eel, is dark green above with the sides paler, 
and the belly yellowish , with fine scales under the 
skin. It generally measures two or three feet in 
length, but sometimes attains a larger size. In warm 
weather they not unfrequently leave the water for 
a short time. 

Plate XII. fig. g. Mnrcrna Helena is spotted 
with brown and yellow, and has no pectoral fins. 
It grows to the length of three feet, and is common 
in the Mediterranean and Indian Oceans. This fish 
was greatly prized by the ancient Romans, and was 
reared by them in large fish-ponds, and fed on meat. 
In the remaining families of the Physostomi^ 
ventral fins are present, and are situated behind the 
pectorals. The majority of the species are found in 
fresh- water. 

Family I. Clupeidse. Body long, with thin 
scales which easily fl^ll off. Gape wide, air-bladder 
simple. They are marine fish which approach the 
coasts in vast shoals in the spawning season , and 
are caught by millions. 

Plate XVI. fig. f. Cliipea Jiareiigus , the Her- 
ring, inhabits the northern seas as far as (y"] degrees 
North ; and the shoals appear on our coasts in sum- 
mer to spawn. The back is blackish, and the body 
silvery. They are eaten both fresh and salted. 

Plate XVI. fig. g. Engraidis encrasicholits, 
the Anchovy, is smaller than the Herring, and may 
be recognised by its wide gape and projecting snout. 
It is common in the European seas, especially in 
the Mediterranean, from whence it is largely exported 
to all parts of the world. 

Family II. Siluridae. These are carnivorous 
freshwater-fishes, and are most abundant in the lakes 
and rivers of warm countries. The head is flat and 
broad, and always provided with barbels. In many 
species the first ray of the pectoral fins is converted 
into a strong spine. There is frequently an adipose 
fin on the back. The skin is either naked, or covered 
with bony plates. 

Plate XVI. fig. d. Silnrns g/ai/is, the only 
European species of the family, is also one of the 



largest of the European fresh-water fish, measuring 
upwards of six feet in lenght, and weighing 300 or 
400 pounds. There are two long barbels on the 
upper jaw, and four shorter ones on the lower jaw. 
It is greenish black above, and marbled with paler 
below ; and the whole body is spotted with black. 
It frequents still water with a muddy bottom , and 
is found in the rivers of Eastern Europe. 

Family III. Cyprinidse. The air-bladder has a 
transverse division. The mouth is small, and only 
the lower pharyngeal bones are provided with teeth, 
and the fishes are probably carnivorous as well as her 
bivorous. The body is more high than broad, and 
is usually scaly. They are common in rivers and 
ponds. 

Plate XVI. fig. a. Neiuac/iiliis barbatiilns, the 
Loach, is common in gravelly brooks, and lurks 
under stones. The skin is marbled with grey and 
white, and the mouth is furnished with six barbels 
It is about four inches long. 

Plate XVI. fig. b. Ncmachiliis fossilis is a 
larger fish about a foot long. It has ten barbels 
round the mouth, and is black above, with yellow 
longitudinal stripes on the sides, and the belly is 
dotted with orange and black. It is found in lakes 
and rivers with a muddy bottom, and has the curious 
habit of stirring up the mud before a storm. 

Plate XVI. fig. c. Cobitis tccuia is a small fish 
about three inches long, which is not common in 
England. The back is grey, spotted with yellow 
and black, and there is a spine under each eye. 

Plate XVI. fig. h. Cyprinns caifio, the carp, 
is common in the rivers and lakes of Europe and 
Asia. It has four barbels, and there are 5 pharyn- 
geal teeth arranged in three rows. The scales are 
large, and dark green on the back, yellowish on the 
sides, and white on the belly. It is said to live to 
the age of a century , and to attain the lenght of 
four or five feet, and a weight of upwards of forty 
pounds. 

Plate XVII. fig. c. Carassiiis carassins, the 
Crucian Carp measures a foot in lenght and half 
as much in breadth, amid favourable surroundings. 
It has an arched back, and large greenish-golden 
scales. It has no barbels, and its habits are that 
of the common carp. It is common in many parts 
of Europe. 

Plate XVIII. fig. i. Carassins aiiratns, the Gold 
I'^ish, is a native of China, but is now domesticated 
in all parts of the world for the sake of its beauti- 
ful golden-red colour, which is gradually devoloped, 
as it grows, from the dark grey hue which it at 
first exhibits. It becomes very tame when kept in 
glass globes, but does not grow so large as in ponds. 

Plate XVI. fig. i. Tinea v/i/garis , the Tench, 
is a slimy fish with very small scales found in 
muddy water. It has only two barbels, and weighs 
from one to two pounds. There is a golden variety 
of this fish also. 

Plate XVIII. fig. e. Rhodens aiuaiiis is a small 
fish about three inches long , found in some parts 
of Eastern and Central Europe in running water. 
There are no barbels, and the male and female differ 
in colour; the latter is provided with a long ovi- 
positor. 

Plate XVII. fig. a. Abraviis bratiia, the Bream, 
has a broad flat body, and no barbels, and attains 
a length of two or three feet, and a weight of from 



14 



ten to twenty pounds. The back is blackish, and 
the sides are yellow , white, and black. It is very 
common in rivers and large lakes. 

Plate XVIII. fig. h. Abramis blicca. This is 
a smaller species of bream , found in lakes and 
slowly flowing rivers with a sandy bottom. It grows 
to the length of nearly a foot. 

Plate XVIII. fig. d. Abraiiiis vimba has a pro- 
jecting upper jaw, and a rather long anal fin. It is 
found in the large inland seas of Europe, and enters 
the rivers to spawn. Unlike the other species of 
Bream, it is considered very good food. 

Plate XVII. fig. d. Lcuciscns crythrophthahiius. 
the Rudd, is found in lakes and rivers with a sandy 
bottom , and grows to the length of about a foot. 
The back is dark brownish grey, the sides and belly 
white, the latter ridged. The fins are red, and there 
is a yellowish red circle round the eye. The pha- 
ryngeal teeth arc arranged in two rows. 

Plate XVII. fig. e. Lcjiciscus rntilus , the 
Roach. The fins and rings round the eyes are 
brighter red than in the last species ; the dorsal fin 
is placed rather more forward, the snout is less oblique, 
and the pharyngeal teeth are arranged in one row. 
The belly is not ridged. It is commoner and better 
known in England than the last species. 

Plate XVII. fig. f Lcuciscns ceplialus , the 
Chub, grows to the length of upwards of two feet. 
It frequents lakes and rivers, but comes into smaller 
streams to spawn. The pharyngeal teeth are ar- 
ranged in a double row. The gape is wide, and the 
anal fins are convex. It is not considered worth 
eating. 

Plate XVII. fig. g. Lcticiscus idiis has a thick, 
truncated head, and bluish violet scales. It is found 
in swiftly-running waters in some parts of the Con- 
tinent. Its flesh turns yellowish when cooked. 

Plate XVII. fig. b. Leiiciscus orfus is only a 
golden variety of the last, reared in some places in 
fish-ponds for ornament , like the common Gold-fish. 

Plate XVII. fig. h. Lcuciscus vulgaris, the 
Dace, resembles the Chub , but the head and snout 
are smaller, and the anal fin concaxe. It grows to 
the length of eighteen inches. 

Plate XVIII. fig. c. Lcuciscus plioxiiius , the 
Minnow , is a little fish which s\\ ims about among 
the roots of water-plants near the edge of streams 
and ditches. 

Plate XVIII. fig. a. Lcuciscus albunius , the 
Bleak, is another small fish, about two inches in length, 
which is common in streams and lakes. The body 
is long, the snout oblique, the chin prominent, and 
the anal fin long. The friable silvery scales are 
used in the preparation of artificial pearls. 

Plate XVIII. fig. f. Gobio v?i/garis , the Gud- 
geon, is a little larger than the Bleak, and is found 
in streams with a clear sandy bottom, where it feeds 
on worms, small Crustacea, and the fry of fish. The 
body is round and spotted , and there is a small 
barbel at each corner of the mouth. 

Plate XVIII. fig. b. Clwndrostoma nasus de- 
rives its name from its prominent snout. It is not 
worth eating, bur attains a weight of two pounds. 

Plate XVIII. fig. g. Barbus vulgaris, the 
Barbel, much resembles a pike, except for the head, 
which is distinguished by the projecting upper jaw, 
and four barbels. The Barbel is found in running 
water, where it feeds on fish and worms, and spawns 
from May to July. It is rather a large fish , and 
sometimes weighs upwards of twelve pounds. 



Family IV. Salmonidae. The Salmons are 
slender tapering brightly coloured fish, with an adi- 
pose fin behind the dorsal fin. The air-bladder is 
simple. They are either toothless , or there are 
teeth on all the bones of the mouth. Most of the 
species are carnivorous, and live in clear fresh water, 
but others are marine , and only ascend the rivers 
to spawn. 

In the genus Salmo the mouth is well provided 
with teeth. 

Plate XVIII. fig. k. Salnio salar, the Salmon, 
may grow to a length of six feet , and weigh fifty 
pounds. The head and back are blackish, the sides 
bluish , and the belly silvery. They usually live in 
the sea , but enter rivers at the spawning-season, 
leaping over waterfalls, weirs, and other obstacles in 
their way, and spawning in clear gravelly streams, 
where they are captured in large numbers. 

Plate XVIII. fig. 1. Salmo fario, the Trout, 
does not generally exceed a foot in length and half 
a pound in weight. The upper part of the body is 
spotted with red , and the spots are often bordered 
with blue ; the lower jaw is rather prominent. It 
loves clear cool water, and feeds on fish, Crustacea, 
insects &c. It spawns at the beginning of winter. 

Plate XIX. fig. a. Salmo trutta , the Salmon 
Trout has blackish spots surrounded with a paler 
ring, and attains a weight of ten or twelve pounds. 
It ascends rivers from the sea, but not so high as 
the salmon. 

Plate XIX. fig. c. Salmo lacustris , the Lake 
Trout, is distinguished from the Salmon by its small 
scattered crescent-shaped spots. The flesh is yellowish. 
It is found in large lakes , and grows to the weight 
of fifty pounds. 

Plate XIX. fig. b. Saliuo liucho is found in the 
Danube and its southern affluents , where it grows 
to the length of six feet. The head is rather pointed, 
and the body and fins (e.xcept the pectorals) are 
covered with round brown spots. 

Plate XIX. fig. d. Salmo salvcliiius inhabits 
the lakes of Southern Germany and Austria , and 
may be recognised by the prominent upper jaw, and 
the orange-yellow spots, bordered with white , on 
the sides. It weighs from two to ten pounds. 

Plate XIX. fig. e. Thymallus vulgaris, the 
Grayling , resembles the Trout in form , and in its 
preference for clear cool mountain-streams, but it is 
a rather larger fish with a small gape , a broader 
belly, and ash-coloured sides. It spawns in April 
and May. 

Plate XIX. fig. f. Coregonus wartmanni is a 
representative of an almost toothless genus. The 
long body is blue above and on the sides , silvery 
beneath, and not spotted. It is found in the lakes 
of Southern Germany , where it is captured in as 
great abundance as the herring in the Northern seas. 
It attains a length of two feet , and spawns in 
December. 

Plate XIX. fig. g. Osmcrus cpcrla)ius , the 
Smelt, has a wide mouth, well furnished with teeth. 
Its head looks semitransparent , and it has a pro- 
jecting lower jaw. The back is grey, the sides 
greenish blue, and the belly reddish. It spawns in 
]\Iay, and is taken in large numbers in lakes and 
estuaries. 

Family V. Esocidae. These are voracious 
fishes , found only in fresh water , and confined to 
the North Temperate Zone. The head is compressed 
and beak-like, and the mouth is armed with formidable 
teeth. Air-bladder simple. Adipose fin absent. 



15 



Plate XIX. fig. h. Esox lucius, tlie Pike, preys 
on all the inhabitants of fresh water , and grows 
rapidly, sometimes attaining the length of six feet. 
The pike will even attack water-birds and small 



mammals. It is green when young , but afterwards 
grows darker above ; the sides are grey and yellow, 
and the belly white, dotted with grey. 



Order V. Plectognathi. 



Body short, either conical or laterally compressed. 
Head very large ; upper jaw with the bones coales- 
ced ; gill-openings small ; fins only slightly developed, 
but the dermal covering very solid, as the leathery 
skin is generally either scaly , spiny , or covered 
with angular bony plates. 

Family I. Sclerodermidae. Mouth small, armed 
with one row of oblique teeth. Body covered with 
horny plates. 

Plate XI. fig. f. Ostracion cornutus, the Horned 
Trunk-Fish , is about a foot in length , and is en- 
closed in an armour of hexagonal plates, which only 
allows it to move the head and tail. It is rendered 
still stranger in appearance by two long spines in 
front of the eyes, and two more before the tail. It 
is found in the tropical seas. 

Family 11. Gymnodontidae. The jaws form a 
sharply pointed beak , without teeth , but provided 



with a dental plate for crushing molluscs. Skin 
leathery, sometimes furnished with erect spines. 
There is a large air-bladder, and a pouch in the 
throat which can be inflated. 

Plate XI. fig. g. Diodon hystrix , the Sea- 
Hedgehog is completely covered with spines. When 
it inflates its body, it becomes perfectly round, and 
is then unassailable. It inhabits the tropical seas, 
and attains a length of at least two feet. 

Plate XI. fig. h. Tcirodon stcUatus is a native 
of the East Indian Seas, and can inflate itself to such 
an extent that even the head is no longer visible. 

Plate XII. fig. a. Orthagoriscus mola , the Sun- 
fish , has a short flattened tailless body , truncated 
behind. The skeleton consists of short filaments, 
and the skin is rough and granulated. The Sunfish 
has no air-bladder, and cannot inflate itself It is of 
occasional occurrence in the Atlantic and Mediter- 
ranean, and grows to the length of six or seven feet. 



Order VI. Lophobranchi. 



Small fishes, entirely covered with bony plates, 
mostly quadrangular , and a long tubular toothless 
snout, with a narrow mouth-cleft at the extremity. 
Gill-covers large ; gills lamellated. Fins usually im- 
perfectly developed , but the dorsal fin , which acts 
like the screw of a steamship , is always present. 
They live in the sea among tangle ; and the male 
(or in some genera the female) is provided with a 
pouch in which the eggs are carried about until the 
young are matured. 

Plate XII. fig. b. Sjnigiiat/iiis acits, the Great 
Pipefish, grows to the length of eighteen inches, and 
to the thickness of a swan-quill ; and is common in 
the Atlantic Ocean. The scales are heptagonal in 
front, pentagonal further back, and quadrangular on 
the tail. In spring, the male carries a pouch of eggs 
at the root of the tail, covered by two folds of skin 



Plate XII. fig. c. Hippocampus antiqnoniiii is 
a small fish about eight inches long, found in the 
European and Eastern seas. The fishes of this 
genus are called Sea-Horses from the curious resem- 
blance of the head to that of a horse, and this re- 
semblance is increased by their generally swinmiing 
in an upright position. The body is seven-sided, 
and at the base of the quadrangular tail, with which 
they like to cling to the sea-weed , is a pouch in 
the male for the reception of the eggs. 

Plate XII. fig. d. Pegasus draco, the Sea- 
Dragon, is found in the Indian Ocean, and is about 
three inches in length. The mouth is placed beneath 
the long projecting snout , the pectoral fins expand 
like great wings, and tlie vential fins are reduced to 
mere threads. 



Subclass III. Chondropterygii. 

Fishes with a cartilaginous skeleton. 

Order I. Ganoidei. 



These form a transition to the fishes with a 
bony skeleton. Their skeleton is partly cartilaginous 
and partly osseous. The gills are free, and provided 
with gill covers. The body is generally covered with 
enamelled scales of various forms. Most fossil fishes 
belong to this Order. 

The Acipcnseridce are long fishes with a carti- 
laginous skeleton, and 5 longitudinal rows of enamel- 
led bony plates on the skin. The snout is prolonged 
into a iDeak , and the oblique mouth is toothless. 
They are found in the seas of both lu-mi.spheres, but 



ascend large rivers to spawn, and feed on other fish, 
notwithstanding their toothless jaws. 

Plate XI. fig. c. Acipciiser sturio, the Sturgeon, 
which is found in the European seas, usually attains 
a length of nine feet, and sometimes grows to twice 
that size, and weighs 800 poimds. The colour is 
bluish-green, varied with brown and blackish markings. 
It is an important object of trade in Russia, where its 
roe is made into caviare, and its air-bladder into isinglass 

Plate XI. fig. d. Acipciisci /niso which is found 
in the Black Sea and sometimes in the Mediterranean, 



16 



is larger still , and sometimes weighs upwards of a 
thousand pounds. In the spawning season, it ascends 
the Volga and other large rivers, where it is speared, 
or taken in strong, nets. 

Plate XI. fig^ e. Acipciiscr ruthcnus, the Sterlet, 



measures less than four feet in length, and does not 
exceed thirty pounds in weight. It is found in the 
seas and rivers of Eastern Europe, and is more 
highly esteemed than the larger species. 



Order II. Selachii. 



Cartilaginous fishes with large pectoral and 
ventral fins , usually with the mouth transversely 
opening below the projecting snout. Five gill-open- 
ings (rarely one) on each side, without gill-covers. 
They are marine fish, but arc sometimes seen in 
estuaries. 

Family I. Carchariidae. The Sharks have a 
long tapering body, erect dorsal fins , and a large 
fleshy tail. The eyes have well-formed lids, and 
the mouth is furnished with several rows of large 
sharp teeth. The larger species grow to the length 
of thirty feet. 

Plate IX. fig a. Carcharias vulgaris, the com- 
mon Shark, is found in all seas, and is an excellent 
swimmer, which will follow the swiftest vessel for 
days , feeding on any offal which may be thrown 
overboard , and not unfrequcntly devouring men, if 
they fall into the water. The skin is as rough as 
a file, from embedded calcareous particles, and is 
called shagreen. The liver yields excellent oil. 

Plate IX. fig. b. Zygcvna iiial/cus, the Hammer- 
headed Shark, is also a formidable creature, which 
grows to the length of nine feet or more, and is as 
voracious as a shark. Its head has two lateral ex- 
pansions , at the ends of which the eyes are fixed, 
and the snout is truncated. It is found in the 
Atlantic Ocean and in the Mediterranean. 

Plate IX. fig. c. Fristis antiqiiorum, the Saw- 
fish, is a still stranger-looking fish than the Hammer- 



head. It has a powerful weapon on the form of a 
long flattened saw-like extension of the upper jaw, 
with which the Saw-fish does not fear to attack the 
largest monsters of the deep. The Savv-fishes inha- 
bit tropical seas. 

Family II. Raiidae. In the Rays the body is very 
broad and depressed, with the eyes on the depressed 
surface, and the mouth and gill-opening beneath. The 
breadth of the body is increased by its expanding 
into the pectoral fins. The teeth are broad, obtuse, 
and arranged like paving-stones. These fish swim badly, 
and generally rest at the bottom of the sea. Some 
species can give an electric shock. 

Plate X. Fig. a. Myliobatis aquila, the Eagle 
Ray, has a long saw-like spine at the end of the tail. It 
is more common in the Southern Seas than in ours. 

Plate X. fig. c. Rata clavata, the Thornback 
Skate, is common in the Northern Seas. It derives 
its name from the numerous spines scattered over 
its body, and even between the eyes and the snout. 

Plate X. fig. b. Torpedo inarmoi-ata, the Tor- 
pedo, is commoner in the Mediterranean, and other 
warm seas, than in those of Northern Europe. The 
tail is short, the naked body nearly round, and the 
teeth are small and sharp. The electric organ is 
situated between the pectoral fins and the head, and 
consists of numerous vertical quadrangular or hexa- 
gonal prisms, filled with a sort of jelly, and traversed 
by large branching nerves. 



Order III. Cyclostomi. 



These are cartilaginous fishes of a very low grade, 
with cylindrical bodies, no pectoral nor ventral fins, 
a ring-like sucking mouth, and fixed gills, without 
gill-covers. They live in both salt and fresh water, 
and are in part parasitic on other fish, to which they 
fix themselves. 

Family I. Petromyzldae, The sucker-like mouth 
is formed either of a single round toothed lip, or of 
two unequal toothless lips. There are seven gill- 
openings on each side of tjje neck, which were for- 
merly supposed to be eyes. Most of the species live 
in clear streams under stones ; but a few are marine. 

Plate X. fig. d. Pctromyzon marimis, the Lam- 
prey, which sometimes measures three feet in length, 
is common on the coasts of Europe, but comes into 
rivers to spawn. It is green marbled with brown on 
Ihc back and sides, and the belly is white. It has 
a round toothed snout, with which it can fix itself 
very firmly to rocks. 



Plate X. fig. e. Pctromyzon flnviatilis, the Lam- 
pern is dark green on the back, with yellowish sides, 
and white beneath. It grows to the length of about 
eighteen inches, and is very common in rivers, w'here 
it spawns among stones in spring. 

Plate X. fig. f. Pctromyzon Flancri , the Small 
Lami)ern, is likewise a common river fish but is much 
smaller, hardly exceeding a foot in length. It is olive- 
green, and differs from the other species in the con- 
tinuous dorsal fin. 

Plate X. fig. g. The immature form of the last 
fish is known as the Mud Lamprey, and was formerly 
considered to belong to a distinct genus, being called 
AmmocLitcs bnxjicliialis. It is a wormlike creature, 
about six inches long, and likes to attach itself to 
the gills of other fish. It lives in muddy brooks, and 
fishermen sometimes use it for bait. 

Family II. Myxitlidae. These are small parasitic 
fish, without lips. 



Order IV. Leptocardii. 



The Lancclet (Pranchiostoma lanccolatnm) is a 
small creature about three inches long, without pec- 
toral or ventral fins, brain, skull, or heart, the place 
of the l.itter being supplied by pulsating vessels. Se- 



veral recent authors do not regard it as a fish at 
all, but place it in a class, by itself, or even as the 
type of a distinct subkingdom from the Vertebrata. 



17 



Subkingdom Articulata. Jointed Animals. 

In these- nninials , the symmetrical body is j consists of two cords, which run alonc^ the under 
divided into a series of rings called segments, surface of the body, and are connected by knots 
which are jointed together. There is no skeleton 



but its place is supplied by the skin, which is usually 
hard , and often covers the internal organs like a 
coat of mail, and serves as a support for the attach- 
ment of powerful muscles. The nervous system 



called ganglia. Above the mouth are two large 
ganglia with which the cords commence, and which 
form a kind of brain. Creatures of very different 
form and habits are included in the Articulata. 



Class Inseeta. 



Invertebrate animals, with the body composed 
of three diflerent divisions , the head , thorax , and 
abdomen. The head is provided with eyes, antennae, 
and mouth-organs adapted either for biting or for 
sucking; and the thorax bears the organs of loco- 
motion, which consist of three pairs of jointed legs, 
and in most cases, of two pairs of wings. 

Insects do not breathe by means of lungs or 
gills , but by trachea; , or air-tubes , which open on 
the sides of the body. Insects lay eggs, but pass 
through four stages of existence in which they differ 
more or less in appearance and habits ; namely, the 
egg, the larva or caterpillar, the pupa or chrysalis, 
and the imago or perfect insect. 



Insects are extremely numerous, both in species 
and individuals; and they are found everywhere on 
land and in fresh water , though very few true in- 
sects inhabit the sea , where their place is filled by 
the Crustacea. 260,000 species of insects are known 
at present, and thousands more remain to be dis- 
covered, while in England we have about 12,000 
species. They feed on all kinds of animal and vege- 
table substances, and there is no plant which is not 
liable to the attacks of \rarious species; and none 
more so than the oak, which provides food for 
several hundred different species of insects, many of 
which are never found on any other plant. 



Insects are divided into seven principal Orders, as follows : 

a) Insects with perfect metamorphoses: 



1. Coleoptera (Beetles). 

2. Hymenoptcra (Bees and Wasps). 

5. Neuroptcra (Dragonflies &c.). 

b) Insects with imperfect metamorphoses: 

6. Orthoptera (Grasshoppers and Crickets). 

7. Hemiptcra (Bugs). 



3. Lepidoptcra (Butterflies and Moths). 

4. Diptera (Two-winged Flies). 



Of these , Orders 1,2, 5 and 6 have biting 
jaws in the perfect state, and are called hisccta 
Mandibulata ; and Orders 3 , 4 and 7 have mouth- 



organs adapted for suction in the perfect state, and 
are called Inseeta Hanstellata, 



Order I. Coleoptera. (Beetles). 



Plate XXIV (left side). 



These arc mandibulate insects with perfect me- 
tamorphoses. The organs of the mouth consist 
chiefly of the upper and lower jaws, (mandibles and 
maxillae) an upper and lower lip (labrum and labium) 
and the chin (mentum). The maxillae are provided 
with one or two pairs of jointed organs, called maxil- 
lary palpi, and the labium with one pair, called labial 
palpi. The antennae differ in length in different 
species, but usually consist of 11 joints. The front 
wings are called elytra, or wing-cases, and arc hard 
and horny, and the hind wings, which are the true 
organs of flight, and which are generally colourless 

Amphihia. 



and transparent , are folded beneath them. The 
larva; are usually worm-like , with six legs , and 
a horny head. The pupa is motionless , but 
exhibits the ouflinc of the perfect insect. The 
accompanying figure represents the principal parts 
of the body of a cockchafer, a. Head with antennae i 
and projecting maxillary palpi, b. Prothorax, and 
first pair of legs. e. Mesothorax , with the middle 
legs, and elytra h. d. Metathorax , with the hind 
legs and wings e. g. shows how the wings are 
folded when not in use. /. Abdomen, consisting of 
9 segments. This structure is common to all 




insects ; though in some species the segments of 
the abdomen are soldered together, so that they are 
not all visible. 
Besides the nine 

principal seg- 
ments, there are 
one or two small- 
er and less con- 
spicuous terminal 
ones. The feet 
(or tarsi) in bee- 
tles may have 3, 
4, or 5 joints. 

There are more 
than 100,000 spe- 
cies of beetles 
known, of which 

3,000 inhabit 
England. We ^i 

have given illu- ^^jjS^ 
strations of se- ""^ 
veral of the prin- 
cipal European 
families. 

Fam. I. CicindelidSB. (Tiger-Beetles.) These arc 
carnivorous beetles, with sharp strong jaws, long slender 
legs, filiform antennae, and five-jointed tarsi. Their larvs; 
live among sand in burrows, and suck the juices of insects. 
Fig. n. The Green Tiger-Beetle {Cicindela 
campcstris) has green elytra with white markings, 
and the legs and undersurface of 
the body are coppery. It runs 
and flies very rapidly. An allied 
species (C. hybrlda) is brown, 
with a greenish lustre, and more 
extended white spots on the 
elytra. 

Fam. II. Carabidae, (Ground-Beetles). These 
resemble the Cicinddidce in structure but their legs 
are shorter, and they are less active. In the typical 
genus Carabus, the head is small, the elytra convex, 
and the wings absent. These beetles , like many 
others, generally discharge an acrid fluid when touched. 
Fig. 1. The Gold-Beetle (Carabus auratus) is 
bright golden-green, with reddish brown legs. It 'is 
a very predacious insect, 
and though common on 
the continent, is not indi- 
genous in England. There 
are however, several common 
British species of Carabus, 
one of which, C. ncmoralis, 
is of a bronzy colour, with 
the thorax and elytra border- 
ed with violet. The elytra 
are finely and longitudinally wrinkled. It is found 
at the edges of woods under moss and leaves , or 
running at the foot of walls. 

Calosoma sycopl/anta, 
which feeds on larva; and 
pupae more frequently than 
on perfect insects , is one of 
the handsomest of the Euro- 
pean ground-beetles , but " is 
very rare in England. It is 
metallic green, with the elytra 
varying in lustre. It is much 
broader than a Carabus, and 
has fully developed wings. 

Fig. m. A smaller species, 
not uncommon in oak-woods, is C. inquisitor, in 









(Carnivorous Water- 



which the body is broad and nearly quadrangular 
it is dark coppery above, and green beneath. 

The Bombadier 
Beetle (BracJiinus cre- 
pitans) has dark blue r^T^ 
elytra and a red thorax. ,. 
It is found under stones, ^'^ 
and when disturbed, it ^ ; 

emits a fluid, which .;^~t'-_ 

volatilises into smoke immediately, with a slight 
explosion. 

Many of the smaller Carabidcr , such as the 
species oi Feronia, are found under stones and among 
dead leaves and moss in damp shady 
places. F. mctallica, which is ge- 
nerally met with in mountainous 
districts, is coppery brown, with 
metallic green and very finely punc- 
tured elytra. The legs and palpi ) 
are reddish brown. 

Aniara is a very similar genus. The species are 
convex, with the thorax slightly narrowed in front. 
The legs are rather stout, and there 
is a spine at the end of the front 
tibiae. A. comnninis is bronzy, with 
brown legs. 

Family III. DytiscidsB. 
Beetles.) These beetles and 
their larvae live in water, and 
feed on insects , water-mol- 
luscs &c. , and even cause 
much destruction to young 
fish. One of the commonest 
species, Dytisciis marginalis, 
is greenish black , with the 
thorax and elytra bordered 
with yellow. 

Family III. Gyrinidae. 
(Whirligig Beetles.) These, 
though smaller than the species q{ Dytiscus, arc almost 
equally destructive , and may 
often be seen gyrating on the sur- 
face of the water. G. natator is 
blue-black, with the legs, and 
margins of the elytra rust-colour- 
ed. It is oval, and about a quarter 
of an inch long. It is represent- 
ed magnified, with its larva, in 
the accompanying woodcuts. 

Family V. The Hydrophilldae are another 
family of water-beetles, in which the body is smooth 
and oval , and the antennas are short and clavate. 
The larva: are carnivorous but the beetles feed 
chiefly on water-plants. 

Fig. p. The Great Water-Beetle (Hydrophilus 
piceus,) is shining black, with reddish-brown antennas. 
It lives in stagnant water , but flics about in the 
evening. It lays its eggs enclosed in a case on the 
underside of a leaf in the water, and its large grey 
larvae swim about in the water in June, just like fish. 

Fam. VI. Staphyllnidae (Rove-Beetles). 
These beetles have very short elytra, and 
turn up their abdomen if threatened with 
danger. Most of the species are of small 
or moderate size. One of the largest is 
the common black Devil's Coach-Horse 
(OcypHS olc'iis). 

Family VII. Silphidse. Body oval, the tip of tiie 
abdomen often projecting beyond the elytra ; antennae 
clavate. Both the beetles and their larvae are very active 
and feed on decaying animal and vegetable matters 






19 



Fig. k. The Burying Beetle (Nccrophonis vcspillo) 
is black with reddish-yellow transverse bands on the ely- 
tra, and red clubs to the antennje. The larva; live on 
carrion, and several beetles will assemble to dig away the 
earth under a dead mole, mouse or 
toad , till it sinks into the ground. 
They are often assisted in this work 
by beetles of the allied genus SilpJia, 
which are shorter and broader. vS'. 
thoracica , here figured, has black 
elytra and a red thorax. 

Family VIII. HJsteridae The body is broad 
and smooth, the head small, and partly overlapped 
by the thorax, and the antennae clavate. 
The beetles live on carrion, dung &c., 
and if alarmed , simulate death. Histcr 
itnicolor is black and shining , with six 
striae on the back of the elytra. 

Family IX. Nitidulidse. In the.se also the an- 
tennae are clavate , and the le"s short. The larv;u 






and perfect insects of many species are found in 
storehouses among rice, corn &c. Nitiditla ccnea is 
oval, the up- 
per side me- 
tallic green 
or blue, and 
the under- 
surfacel^lack. 
The legs are 

blackish. 
This beetle 
is found in 

abundance 
on the flowers 
of rape and 
turnip , and 
many other 
plants. After 

hibernating, 
they pair in 
May, and lay 
their eggs in 
the leaf-buds 
of the rape. 
Family X. 

Dermestidae. 

These are 

small and very destructive beetles, which are to be 
met with wherever animal substances are to be found ; 
in houses , larders , dovecots , under carrion , among 
furs, and in museums. One of the 
best known is the Bacon Beetle 
(Dc7'iin'stes lardarius) in which the 
front of the elytra is brown, and the 
hinder part black. When touched, 
it contracts its legs and antennje, and simulates death. 

Family XI. ByrrhidSB. (Pill-Beetles.) These are 
roundish beetles, found among mould 
and carrion. Byrrhus pihila is clothed 
with brown pubescence on the upper 
side , and the elytra are finely 
striped , and marked with dusky blotches. 




Hercules Beetle (Dynastcs Hercules). 



Ji'~f 





Family XII. Lucanidae. (Stag-Beetles.) This 
family includes large or moderate-sized beetles, the 
larva; of which feed on rotten wood. The maxillae 
of the male are often enormously developed. 

Fig. i. The Stag-beetle (Lucamcs cervus) is 
dark brown and the maxilljc of the male are pro- 
duced into long branching horns. The beetles are 
found in oak-woods in summer, and the larvae feed 
on rotten oak. 

Family XIII. Scarabaeidae. This large family 
which includes the Chafers &c., may be known 
by the fan-like structure of the club of the antennae. 
Their bodies are generally of an oval shape, and 
they feed on leaves or dung. 

Fig. b. The Dung-Beetle (Gcotnipcs stcrco- 
raritis) is blue-black , and hairy beneath. It feeds 
on horsedung, and flies wildly about in the evening. 
Fig. d. The Sacred Beetle of the Egyptians 
(Scarabtvus saccr) is black, and the head is strongly 
dentated in front. It is found in Egypt and Southern 
Europe , where it makes a ball of dung in which it 
deposits its eggs, and which it afterwards buries. 

Fig. c. Copris liiuaris is shining black, with 
striated elytra. The head is crescent-shaped, and 
armed with an erect horn in the male. The thorax 
has two depressions , and a sharp projection. It 
prefers cowdung. 

Fig. e. There are many smaller dung-beetles, 
such as Aphodius fimctarius, which is black, with 
red striated elytra, and red sides to the thorax. It 

feeds on cow- 
dung. 

Fig. a. 
The Europe- 
an Rhinoce- 
ros Beetle 
(Oryctcs na- 
sicornis) is 

chestnut- 
brown, and 
the upper 
part of the 
head of the 
male is arm- 
ed with a 
long curved 
hornjandthat 
of the female 
with a shorter 
spine. The 
larvae live in 
rotten wood, 
^^^iS^ and especial- 
ly in tan, in 
many parts 
of Europe , Britain excepted. 

The Hercules Beetle (Dynastcs Hercules) is one 
of the largest of the South American beetles. The 
male is armed with formidable weapons , and has 
greenish-grey elytra, marked v.-ith black blotches. 

Fig. f. The Cockchafer (Melolofitha vulgaris) 
is black, with brown wings, a hairy thorax , and a 
pointed abdomen. The larva is exceedingly injurious, 
as it destroys the roots of grass , and the beetle 
feeds with equal voracity on the leaves of trees. 

Fig. g. Mclolontha fullo is a larger species, 
common in many parts of the Continent, though 
not found in England. It is brown with white mark- 
ings, and the larvte feed on leaves, especially those 
of the fir. 

2* 



20 





Fig. h. The Rose Cliafer (Cclonia aiirata) is 
metallic green , with some white transverse dashes 
on the elytra. The larva; live in rotten, stumps, or 
in ant's nests , and the 
beetles are found on 
flowers in summer. 

Osmodervia crcmita 
is common on the Conti- 
nent, but is not a British 
species. It is a dark brown, 
metallic-shining beetle, 
which lives in hollow 
trees. There are two prominences at the back of 
the thorax in the male. 

Trichiiis fasciatiis is a very hairy 
beetle, which is yellow, with three black (■{'^SS^SIM'* 
spots on each side of the elytra. It 
is found on roses, thistles &c., creep- 
ing into the very interior of the 
flowers. 

Family XIV. Elateridse. (Click- 
Beetles). The body is comparatively long and narrow, 
and the antenna; short, and strongly serrated. There 
is a strong spine on the undersurface of the prothorax, 
which fits into a cavity in the mcsothorax , and 
enables the beetle to lca)i up when laid on its back. 
The larva; live on the roots of grass, or on rotten 
wood, and the beetles may be found among grass 
and flowers. 

Fig. g. Elatcr Jiiger, which is common in mea- 
dows, is black, with slightly striated elytra. 

Agriotcs scgctis is reddish-l)rown , with brown 
elytra, and is found throughout the summer, a ^ 
and also hibernates. Its larvae are called 
wire-worms, and grow very slowly, feeding 
on the roots of all kinds of plants. ''jW^ 

Fam. XV. Buprestidae. These beetles 
much resemble the Elatcridcr, but are destitute of 
the leaping apparatus , and their larvae are found 
under the bark of trees. They arc more numerous 
in tropical countries than in Europe, and are often 
adorned with brilliant metallic colours. 

Cliakophora mariana is one of the largest Euro- 
pean species, but is not found in 
England. It is shining coppery 
above , and golden beneath. The 
thorax and elytra are covered with 
irregular raised longitudinal lines. 
It is found in sandy places, where 
its larva; feed in the dead stumps 
of pine and fir trees. 

Fam. XVI. TelephoridaB. The 
body is long and soft, and the elytra 
are leathery rather than horny. The antenna; are 
simple or serrated. These beetles and their larvae 
are often carnivorous. 

Tclcphoriis fusciis which is common throughout 
Europe on the flowers of Umbelliferce, is 
clothed with fine grey hair. The thorax 
and belly are reddish yellow , and the 
elytra are greenish black. There is a black 
spot on the front of the thorax. 

MalacJiitis crncns is green, with the 
the head golden yellow. The front 
edges of the thorax, and the elytra, except 
a broad green stripe on the suture , arc 
brownish red. 

Fig. t. Laiiipyris splendid iila , a 
common Continental species much re- 
sembles the English Glow-worm. The 
winged male is brown , with the legs and the two 





front of 





fViyr';<j,-'^i 




Body oval , rather 



last segments of the abdomen yellow. The wingless 
female, which emits a stronger light than the male, 
is found among grass in summer , while the males 
fly about, looking like sparks in the evening. 

Family XVII. Cieridae. These are small bee- 
tles, which live among flowers and trees, and resemble 
other insects. The larvae of some species are found 
in the nests of bees. 

Clerns formicarins is an active little 
beetle, which is found on the trunks of fir- 
trees. The thorax is red, and the elytra ^ 
are black, with the base red, and two white trans- 
verse bands. 

Trichodcs apiarius is a shining blue-black bee- 
tle , with bright red bands on 
the elytra. It is found on 
flow&rs in May and June, and 
feeds on other insects. Its 
larvae live in the nests of bees. 
It is scarce in England, and is 
not considered to be indigenous. 
Family XVIII. Anobildae. 
soft ; elytra wholly or partially closed over the body. 
Antennae short , slightly serrated. The larvae and 
beetles are found in dry wood. 

Fig. s. The Death-Watch (Aiiobiiiiii poiiiiax) 
is a small dark brown beetle which is often found 
in old furniture, and makes a noise like the ticking 
of a watch by tapping its head against the wood. 
When touched it simulates death. 

Family XIX. TenebriOllidae. These are rather 
long beetles, which are active at night. The elytra 
are hard, and often grown together, and the antennae 
"are short and beadlike. In this and theTour follow- 
ing families , the first two pairs of tarsi are five- 
jointed, but the hind pair has only four joints. 

Fig. o. The Mealworm (Tcnebrio luolitor) is 
pitchy black above , and reddish brown below. Its 
larva is better known than the beetle. 

Family XX. Lagriidse. The body is 
long and downy. Lagria hiita is a soft 
brownish-yellow species , which is found on 
flowering shrubs. 

Family XXI. Pyrochroidae. Very like the last 
family in shape ; the elytra are widened V»cn/ 

towards the tips. The Cardinal Beetle 
[Fyrochroa rnbcns) is reddish-brown, with 
a slender ridge on the thorax. It is found 
under the bark of oaks, beeches, willows &c. 

Family XXII. Mordeilids. These are smal, 
hairy flower-loving beetles, with the elytra 
suddenly narrowed, and the abdomen 
produced into a cone behind. MordcUa 
fasciata is black, with silvery bands and 
spots on the elytra. 

Family XXIII. Cantharidae. Body 
long , head and thorax narrower than the elytra, 
which are soft , and sometimes rudimentary. An- 
tenna; serrated or pectinated. The larva; are parasitic 
on bees and humble-bees, and the beetles are formd 
on plants. 

Fig. u. The BlisterBeetle (Cantliaris vcsicatoria) 
is golden green and hairy. The beetle is found in 
trees in summer, in most parts of Europe, more or 
less commonly. 

Fig. V. The Oil Beetle {Mcloc proscarabinis) 
is bluish-back, and the male is much smaller than 
the female. When touched , it emits an acrid fluid 
from all parts of its body It is wingless, and even 
the elytra are very short. It is common among 
grass and herbage in spring. 






21 






are paler. 

l-nuts. 



The 



Family XXIV. Curciilionidoe. (Weevils.) A 
very largo group of plaiU-t'ecding beetles, with 
hard, elliptical bodies, and the head produced into 
a proboscis , on each side of which are y^laced the 
sharply-angulated antenna-. The tarsi are generally 
four-jointed in this and all the following families, 
except the last. 

The Pea-Weevil [Bi-hcIiks pisi) 
is dark grey, with patches of lighter T 
hair. The larva bores into the pods ^ 
and seeds of peas, where it becomes a 
])upa, and subsequently emerges as a 
beetle. It is sometimes very destructive. 

Rliyiicltitcs bctiiUr is a shin- 
ing black beetle, which gnaws the 
yoimg shoots of birch , beech, 
alder and poplar, and causes them 
to wither. It then forms a roll 
of the leaves, in which it depo- 
sits its eggs. 

Fig. r. Molvtcs coronaUis is a black oval spe- 
cies, with gilded depressed spots on the thorax and 
elytra. It is found 
imder stones, or 
crawling slowly 
about walls. 

The Nut- 
Weevil (Balani- 
iius nucnm) is 
l)lack , thickly 
clothed with grey 
or yellowish hair. 
The sides of the 
thorax, and some 

irregular markings on the elytra 
white larva is common in haze' 

Otiorhynchus unicolor is a 
shining black beetle , and the 
thorax is nearly as broad as long. 
The elytra are granulated and 
slightly striated. It is generally 
found in hilly districts. "^ 

Macr.occphalus alhinns is reddish brown with 
snow-whi'ce spots, and a broad pro- 
boscis. It feeds on rotten beeches 
and elms but is not often seen, as 
its colour resembles that of its sur- 
roundings. It is not found in 
England. 

Family XXV. Tomicidae. The 
body is long, flat and often rather narrow 
antcnn.u short, with a long jointed club. The beetles 
and their larva; are found beneath the bark of living trees. 

Fig.j. Bostrychiis' typographiis, although a small 
beetle , is a great destroyer of pine-forests , living 
beneath the bark of the trees, and there forming 
galleries which resemble Arabic letters. The older 
beetles are blackish, but those which live under the 
bark are brownish red before they enierge into the air. 

Scolytiis pruni is shini.ig black, with the 
borders of the thorax and the 
elytra brown. It is found be- 
neath the bark of plum-tree? , 
which it greatly injures. Both ' ' ' ' 

sexes are figured, considerably magnified. 

Family XXVI. Cerambycidae. (Long-horned 
Beetles.) These are moderate-sized or large beetles, 
with rather narrrow bodies and long antennae. The 
liead is often vertical, and the antennje are setiform, 
and smooth oi hairy. The thorax is often angulated 
at the sides. The elytra are generally long, but do 





and the 




its body. Its larva feeds for 





not close tightly, and are sometimes truncated. The 

larvee feed on 

wood , but the 

beetles are often 

met with on trees 

and bushes. They 

are far more 

abundant in warm 

countries than in 

cold. 

Ccranibyx 
hcros , which is 
black, with brown 
tips to the elytra, 
is one of the lar- 
gest of the Eu- 
ropean species, 
but is not British. 
Its antenna; are 
twice as long as 
or 4 years in 
the interior of 
old oak-trees. 

The beetle 
emerges from 
the pupa in July, but only flies about at 

Rosalia alpina is black, thickly 
clothed with pale ashy grey pubes- 
cence. It is a very handsome beetle, 
which is only found in the Alps, where 
the larva lives in dead beech trees. 

Fig. X. Frionns coriarins is 
brownish black, with a broad thorax 
armed with three short teeth on each 
side. It is found on old willows and poplars, and is 
much more abundant on the Continent than in England. 

Fig, w. Acantlwcinus crdilis is remarkable for 
its very long antenn;r , which in the male are four 
or five times as long as the body. It is found on 
fallen pine-trunks, and as the larva feeds on the 
wood , the beetle is sometimes met with in new 
houses. It is found in many parts of Northern and 
Central Europe, including Scotland. 

Family XXVII. Chrysomelidae. (Golden Apple 
Beetles.) Body oval, longer than the filiform antenna;. 
The larva; feed on the leaves of various plants. 

Fig. y. Crioccris vicrdigcra is black, with red 
thorax and elytra. It is fond of the white lily. 

The Colorado Potato-Beetle {Leptinotarsa decem- 
Uiicata) is reddish yellow , with the tips of the an- 
tenna; and the legs black. The 
elytra are yellow with black stripes, 
and the wings are red, a very un- 
usual character in a beetle. The beetle 
is indigenous in the Rocky Mountains 
of North America, where it feeds on 
wild Solanacccr, but of late years has 
attacked the potato, and spread over 
the whole of the United States. The 
larva feeds on the leaves of the potato, and after three 
weeks, buries itself in the ground to become a pupa. 

Family XXVIII. Coccinellidae (Lady-Birds). The 
body is round, convex above, and flattened l^eneath. 
The antenna; are short and filiform , and tl;e tarsi 
three-jointed. Both the beetles and their larva; feed 
on plant-lice (Ap/tidcs). 

Fig. 7.. The Seven-spot Lady-bird (Coccinella 
scptcinputictata) is abundant everywhere. It is black, 
and the elytra are red, with seven black spots. When 
touched, it emits a dark yellow fluid. Sometimes it 
migrates from place to place in vast sv>^arms. 




22 



Order 11. Hymenoptera. 



Plate XXV. 

Mandibulate insects, with complete metamor- | 
phoses , and two pairs of veined wings , differing in 
size. There are always five joints to the tarsi. There ! 
are three simple eyes (ocelli) placed in a triangle, 
on the top of the head. The three principal divisions 
of the body are usually connected together by slender 
stalks, and the female is either provided with an 
ovipositor , or with a sting communicating with a 
poison-gland. The Hymenoptera live on various ani- 
mal and vegetable substances, and lay colourless eggs. 
The larvae are generally footless and inactive, except 
in the Tenthredinidcr. Some species live in nests in large 
communities, and thus rear their young. The honey- 
bee has been domesticated from the earliest times. 

Section J. Hymenoptera Terebrautia. 

Boring Hymenoptera, 

In these , the female is provided with an ovi- 
positor which she employs to lay her eggs upon 
plants, or in the bodies of other insects. 

Family I. Tenthredinidae. The Saw-flies are 
sluggish insects, with a broad head, compressed body, 
with no marked division between the thorax and 
abdomen, and a straight or curved saw in a sheath 
beneath the extremity of the abdomen in the female. 
They feed on the leaves of various plants, and some 
produce galls on willows. Their larvje resemble 
caterpillars, but have from 1 8 to 22 legs; true cater- 
pillars have never more than sixteen. 

Fig. a. Hylotoma rasa; is a species which feeds 
on rose-leaves. The larvae are green with rows of 
black spots, and form double cocoons, in which they 
change to pupae. 

Fig. b. Lopliyriis pini. The male is black, 
and the female, which is larger, is yellowish. The 
green larva is very destructive in pine-forests. It 
passes the winter in a white cocoon. 

Fig. c. TricJiiosoma bettileti is one of the ! 
largest species. It is black , with reddish abdomen. 
The fullgrown larva is bright green, with white warts 
scattered irregularly over it, and a yellow head. It 
eats the leaves of the birch , and becomes a pupa 
in a brown barrel-shaped case, fixed to a branch. 

Family II. SiriCJdae. The Wood-wasps resem- 
ble the Ichneumons in the long ovipositor of the 
female , but their abdomen is continuous with the 
thorax, and not contracted at the base. 

Fig. d. Sirex gigas is black, with part of the 
abdomen yellow. It bores through the bark of the 
pine-tree with its ovipositor, and deposits an egg in 
the cleft. When the larva is hatched, it eats a gallery into 
the interior of the tree, and there becomes a pupa. 

Family III. Ichneumonidae. These insects differ 
much in form , but the females all possess a long 
ovipositor enclosed in a double sheath. With this, 
they lay their eggs in the larva; of other insects, or 
in their eggs or pupa;. They are very numerous in 
species, and many are adorned with brillant colours. 

F"ig. e. Anomalon circiimflexnm has a dark- 
coloured head and thorax , and a yellowish-red ab- 
domen, tipped with black. This species attacks and 
destroys the larva; and pup;B of the large pine-tree 
moth, Entricha pini. 

Fig. f. Pimpla manifestator is black , with 
reddish yellow legs. It seeks out larvae and pupa; 
in the most retired hiding-places. 



(left side). 

Family IV. BraCOnidae. These are distinguished 
from the Ichneumonidcr by their having fewer veins 
in the wings. 

Fig. g. Mierogastcr glomeratns is shining black, 
with the belly and the greater part of the legs reddish 
yellow. It is specially destructive to the caterpillars 
of the white butterflies. 

Family V. Cynipidse. The Gail-Flies are small 
hump-backed insects , with a short stalked oval or 
raised and laterally compressed abdomen , filiform 
antennas, and a rather prominent sheath, containing 
a long ovipositor. The wings are as long 01 
longer than the body, but are sometimes absent in 
the females. They are generally black or brown, 
and tolerably uniform in colour. The females lay 
their eggs under the cuticle of various leaves or 
stalks, which gives rise to galls, which are hard or 
spongy excrescences in which the larva; live either 
singly or in numbers. Some form their pupae in the 
galls, and others outside. Ink is prepared from some 
kinds of oak-galls found on the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean. The flies only live a short time, and take no food. 

Fig. h. Cynips scutellaris produces the round 
fleshy oak-apple found on the undersurface of oak- 
leaves. The fly has a shining black abdomen , and 
reddish brown head and legs. 

Fig. i. Rlioditcs roscc has a broad black head, 
and reddish brown legs and abdomen. The thorax 
is black. It produces the moss -like gall called 
bedeguar on dog-roses. 

Section 11. Hymenoptera Aculeata. 

Stinging Hymenoptera. 

The female is provided with a sharp sting. 

Family VI. Chrysldidse. The Ruby-tail Flies 
are small hump-backed insects which can roll them- 
selves into a ball by turning the abdomen beneath 
the breast. The antenna; are angulated , and the 
ovipositor short , but strong. The larva? live as 
parasites in the nests of wasps and bees. 

Fig. k. Chrysis ignita is one of the commonest 
species. The thorax and the first segment of the 
abdomen are bright metallic blue , and the rest of 
the abdomen shining golden. It lays its eggs in the 
nests of wall-bees, and fossorial wasps. 

Family VII. Sphegidae. These are slender 
wasps with a long stalked abdomen, and spiny hind 
tibia?. They lay their eggs in holes, along with a store 
of caterpillars or spiders, which they have disabled 
with their sting, to serve as food for the young larva;. 

Fig. 1. Ainmopliila sabnlosa is black, with a red 
ring round the abdomen, which is long and stalked, 
and the mouth is produced into a sort of proboscis. 

Fig. m. Trypoxylcn fisiulus is a slender black 
insect , which bores holes in wood , which it lines 
inside with clay. 

Family VIII. Pompilidae. These insects dig 
holes in the ground, and provision them with cater- 
pillars for their young. Sometimes, too, they store 
up flies and other insects instead. 

Fig. n. Fompiliis viaticns is usually met with 
on sunny pathways. The body and tips of the wings 
are black, and the abdomen red , with a black ring 
at the end of each segment. 

Family IX. Formicidae. The Ants have an- 
gulated antenna\ and a slender body, with the prin- 



23 




cipal divisions well marked. They are very active 
and eneri^'elic, and t^enerally live in large communities, 
consisting of males, females, and neuters, or imper- 
fectly-developed females. The neuters are always 
wingless and perform the work of the nest, and the 
males and females only retain their wings for a short 
time. They secrete a substance called formic acid, 
which serves them for purposes of defence. They 
are omnivorous, feeding on all kinds of animal and 
vegetable substances , and especially on the sweet 
substance called honey-dew , which is produced by 
Aphides. The so-called "ant's- 
eggs" used as food for birds, 
are the pup?e. In cold coun- 
tries ants hibernate , but in 
warmer climates many species 
lay up large stores of seeds or 
leaves in their nests. 

One of the largest Euro- 
pean ants is Caiiiponotiis hcr- 
ctileanus, which is common on 
the Continent, especially in hilly 
districts , where it makes its 
nests under old trees [a worker, 
b male, c female). 

Fig. o. Formica nifa. 
The Wood Ant makes large 
mound-like nests in woods, 
especially in fir-woods , and 
destroys large numbers of 
other insects. 

Family X. The Vespidse, or Wasps, are sting- 
ing insects, in which the fore wings are longitudinally 
folded when at rest , giving then the appearance of 
being narrower than they really are. They have a 
broad head, short antennaB, and strong jaws. During 
summer , they live in nests constructed of a paper- 
like fabric formed of comminuted wood, where they 
rear their larvaj , which they feed with honey or 
dead insects. They also feed on juicy fruit. The 
males, females and neuters are all winged. 

Fig. p. Odyncrus pariettim is black, with two 
yellowish red spots on the thorax, and four yellow 
stripes on the abdomen. It lays its eggs in a tube 
formed of earth and sand. 

Fig. q. V^espa vulgaris , the common wasp, 
forms its nest in the ground , and less frequently, 
in trees. Most of the wasps perish in autumn, but a 
few females survive the winter, and found new colonies. 

Fig. r. Vcspa crabro. The Hornet builds its 
nests in trees or under rafters. It is larger than the 
other European wasps, but lives in smaller communities. 

Family XI. Apidse. The bees may generally 
be recognised by their stout compact hairy bodies. 
They have short , strong legs , short antennae , and 
moderately long wings. They live on the honey of 
flowers , which some of them store in their nests. 
They live singly or in communities , and the intelli- 
gence of the social bees is not greatly inferior to 
that of the ants. Their sting is painful , like that 
of the ants and wasps. 

Fig. s. Apis incllifica. The Honey Bee has 
the first joint of the hind tarsi shovel-shaped , and 
furnished with a brush. This 
apparatus enables it to collect the 
pollen of flowers. It also collects 
the honey with its broad tongue, 
and on reaching the hive , dis- 
gorges it into the waxen cells pre- 
pared for its reception. Bees are 




Drone. 



reared in all parts of the world for the sake of their 




Queen bee. 



wax and honey , in receptacles called hives , where 
they build their nests. Each hive contains from 
12,000 to 30,000 bees. The nests consist of cells 
of wax, placed close together, and are divided into 
layers with passages between. These 
cells serve as nurseries for the young 
brood , and as receptacles for the 
honey. There is only one egg-laying 
female in each hive, which is called 
the queen. There are a few hundred 
males , or drones , which idle away 
the summer, but are all killed by the workers on 
the approach of winter. It is the workers which 
not only collect pollen , wax and honey , but also 
feed the larv;e and the queen. If the queen is lost, 
the whole hive is liable to perish. Every year, 
several queens are produced , when 
they fight until one is killed. At 
other times , one of them leads a 
colony from the hive, and establishes 
herself elsewhere ; and this is called 
swarming. In the winter the bees 
cease their work , and feed on their stores , close 
the hive except a small opening , and do not reap- 
pear till spring. 

The genus Bqinbus contains the Humble Bees, 
which are larger than the Hive Bees. They live in 
small communities , forming their nests in holes in 
the ground. There are large and small females, 
large workers, and small males among them. They 
collect honey and pollen , and work like bees. In 
autumn, they all die, except some of the large fe- 
males, which found next years' colonies. 

Fig t. Boinbus lapidarius is a black species, 
with the extremity of the body red. 




Worker. 




Boinbus terrestris is one of the commonest 
Humble Bees. It is banded with black and yellow, 
and the tip of the al)domen is whitish. The parent 
bee chooses a hole in the ground , perhaps that of 
a field-mouse , and hollows out a cavity where it 
forms cells in which it lays eggs which produce 
white maggots. These are fed by the mother with 
clear honey, and after passing through the pupa state, 
emerge as small females, and take their share in the 
work of the nest. 



24 



Order III. Lepidoptera. (Butterflies and Moths.) 



The Lepidoptera have a long body , a spiral 
tube through which they suck their food, and which 
is placed between the movable palpi, and four large 
wings , covered with scales , and of varied colours 
and markings. The antennre are moderately long, 
and of different shapes. The eyes are large, and 
ocelli , or simple eyes , are also frequently present. 
There are six legs, sometimes unequally developed. 
They feed chiefly on the honey of flowers. They 
only live a short time , and many are destroyed by 
birds and bats. 

Lepidoptera lay eggs, which produce caterpillars 
provided with from S to 8 pairs of legs. Caterpillars 
may be smooth, hairy, bristly, or spiny &c. They 
feed on leaves, and are often very destructive. The 
pupa is incapable of movement or feeding. 

Section 1. Rliopalocera. (Butterilies.) 

Butterflies have broad wings , generally of 
bright colours, and a knob at the end of the antenna;. 
They fly by day. The larv;e always have i6 legs, 
and the front legs of the perfect insect are frequent- 
ly shorter than the others. 

Plate XXV (right side). 

Family I. Nymphalidse. The butterflies of this 
group are of large or moderate size , and of rich 
dark colours. The first pair of legs is imperfectly 
developed. The pupa is suspended by the tail, and 
the caterpillars are either spiny, or provided with a 
forked tail. 

Fig. !. Erehia Medea, the Scotch Argus, is 
our commonest British representative of a genus of 
butterflies of very similar colours , which are more 
numerous on the Continent than with us. They 
are almost confined to mountainous regions, and no 
species are met with in the South of England. 

Fig. m. Epi)tip/iile Janira, the Meadow Brown, 
is one of our commonest butterflies in the fields at 
haymaking time. 

Fig. k. Melanargia GalatJiea , the Marbled 
White , on the other hand , though common where 
it occurs, is a local insect with us. The three butter- 
flies just mentioned have smooth caterpillars with 
forked ta'ls, which feed on grass. 

Fig. a. Melitcca Cynthia. The Fritillaries are 
reddish butterflies with black markings on the upjier 
surface, and pale chequered markings beneath. The 
species figured is remarkable for the white spots on 
the upper surface of the male; it is found in the 
Ali)S in June and July. 

Fig. b. Argynnis Faphia , the Silver-washed 
Fritillary, is one of our handsomest butterflies, and 
not uncommon in some places in woods in summer. 
The species of Argyiuiis differ from those of Meli- 
tira in having silvery markings on the undersurface 
of the wings ; and in A. Papliia the hind wings are 
adorned with three silvery stripes. 

F"ig. c. Argyiuiis Lathonia, the Queen of Spain 
Fritillary, is rare in the South of England in autumn. 
The hind wings are covered with large square silvery 
spots. In other spotted species of Argynnis the silver 
spots are round, and much smaller. The caterpillars of 
the Fritillaries are spiny , and feed on various low 
plants, especially violets. 

Fig d. Pyrameis Atalanta, the Red Admiral, is 
common in gardens in autumn. The caterpillar feeds 



on nettles, spinning some of the leaves together. The 
pupa is ash-coloured, with gilded spots. 

Fig. e. Vanessa lo , the Peacock Butterfly, is 
often found in lanes in summer, where the black 
caterpillar feeds on nettles. 

Fig. f. Vanessa Antiopa , the Camberwell 
Beauty, is rare in England, and is more in the habit 
of feeding on ripe fruit than the other species of 
Vanessa. The larva feeds on poplars and willows 

Fig. g. Vanessa Polyeliloros. The Large Tor- 
toise-shell Butterfly is met with in the South of 
England on the borders of woods ; the caterpillar 
feeds on willows, elms &c. 

Fig. h. Vanessa tirticcv. The Small Tortoise- 
shell is one of the commonest species of the genus 
in gardens, woods &c. , and the caterpillar feeds on 
nettle. The larvte ot Pyrameis and Vanessa are 
spiny, and the butterflies (except Pyrameis Atalanta, 
which is rarely seen before June at the earliest) 
hibernate, and are to be found throughout the fine 
part of the year. In fact, in very mild seasons, an 
occasional specimen of Vanessa tirticee may be 
noticed on the wing during almost every winter 
month. 

Fig. i. Apatura iris, the Purple Emperor, the 
largest of the British Nymplialidec , may be seen at 
Midsummer flying round the tops of trees (espe- 
cially oaks) in woods in the South of England. The 
caterpillar is green , with oblique yellow lines , and 
two horns on the head ; it feeds principally on 
sallow. 

Family II. Lycaetlitlae. These are small butter- 
flies, blue, copper-coloured or brown, with eye-like 
spots or white lines on the undersurface. The front 
legs are imperfectly developed in the males. The 
caterpillars are oval , somewhat resembling woodlice 
in shape, and the pupa is attached by the tail, and 
by a belt of silk round the body. 

Fig. n. Lyectna learns, the Common Blue, 
varies a little in size and colour, but may easily be 
recognised by the white fringes to the blue wings. The 
female is blue or dark brown, with a row of red spots on 
the margins of at least the hind wings. The under- 
side is brownish grey, bluish towards the base, and 
marked with several round black spots in w'lite rings. 
The larva feeds on clover. 

Fig. o. Chrysoplianus virgaurecF , the Scarce 
Copper, may be known by its intense copper-colour, 
and by one or two white markings on the under- 
surface of the hind wings, which no other European 
species of the genus exhibits. It is an extremely 
rare species in England , so rare , in fact , that it is 
hardly reckoned among our indigenous British butter- 
flies. The larva feeds on Golden Rod. 

Fig. p. Tlieela Fctuhc, the Brown Hairstreak, 
is found in autumn in the South of England and 
Ireland in woods and along hedges , but is not a 
very common species. The male is brown , hardly 
exhibiting a trace of the orange blotch on the fore 
wings shown in our figure of the female. The under- 
surface is dull orange, with a brownish band, edged 
on both sides with white lines. The caterpillar feeds 
on sloe. 

Family III. Papilionidae. These are white or 
yellow butterflies, of large or moderate size. They 
have six perfect legs, and the pupa is attached by 
the tail , and a belt round the body. In the first 
two genera , the inner margin of the hind wings is 



25 




concave, and the caterpillars have a retractile fork 
on the neck; in the others, the inner margin of the 
hind wings forms a kind of gutter to receive the 
abdomen, and the larva; have no fork on the neck. 

Fig. q. Papilio Machaon, the Swallow-Tail, is 
one of the largest of the European butterflies. Al- 
though common on the Continent, it is now only 
found in England in the feriny districts of the South- 
eastern countries. The green caterpillar with black 
bands and orange spots feeds on umbelliferous plants. 

Fig. r. Papilio Fodalirius, the Scarce Swallow- 
Tail, is a woodland insect, and its green, red spot- 
ted caterpillar feeds on sloe, and various other trees. 
This insect is now extinct in England. 

Fig. s. Parnassiiis Apollo is a common Al- 
pine butterfly , but is not British ; the caterpillar is 
black , dotted with blue and yellow , and feeds on 
saxifrages. 

Plate XXYl (left hand). 

Fig. a. Pieris brassicu, the Large White Cab- 
bage Butterfly, is 
common every- 
where , and its 
green caterpillar 
is very destructive 
to all kinds of cab- 
bage. The female 
butterfly differs 
from our figure of 
the male in having 
two black spots 
on the fore wings, 
and a streak on 
the inner margin. 

Fig. b. Colias Hyalc, the Pale Clouded Yellow 
is scarce in England, though one of the commonest 
of autumn butterflies on the Continent. We have 
figured a female ; the male is of a more sulphur- 
yellow colour. The green caterpillar feeds on clover. 

Fig. c. Goncptcryx Rliamni , the Brimstone 
Butterfly , is common in woods both in spring and 
autumn. The female is of a whitish-sulphur colour. 
The green caterpillar feeds on buckthorn. 

Family IV. Hesperiidas. The Skippers are 
small brown, black and white, or tawny butterflies, 
with si.x perfect legs, 
a large head, with the 
antennae , which are ^; 

generally hooked, 0T~<Z. 

placed widelyapart, and ^Cj 
short wings. The cater 
pillars change to pupze r-^ 
between leaves. "^ 

Fig. d. Thyntcli- 
CHS Tliauiuas, the Small 
Skipper, is tawny, with 
brown borders , and 
there is a black streak 
on the fore wings of the male. 
in meadows in July and August, and the green cater- 
pillar feeds on grass. 

Fig. e. Erynnis Alcca is a dull-coloured and 
rather variable butterfly , which is found in grassy 
])laces in many parts of the Continent, but not in 
England. Its grey caterpillar feeds on mallow. 

Section 11. Heterocera. (Moths.) 

The Moths vary much in structure and habits. 
The antennae are variously forjned, but are never 



Larva of Oleander Hawk-moth 



knobbed at the extremity, as in the butterflies ; and 
many of the species are of dull colours , and fly at 
dusk or at night. The larvae have from lo to l6 
legs ; and the front legs of the perfect insects are 
fully developed. The first four families are called 
Sphinges, and the following seven families are called 
Bombyces, but have fewer characters to justify their 
being classed together than the succeeding groups 
of Lcpidoptcra. 

Family I. Sphingidae. (Hawk-Moths.) These 
are large or moderate-sized moths with thick bodies, 
narrow wings , large eyes , and spindle-shaped , and 
frequently serrated, antennae. They hold their wings 
horizontally or sloping, and fly ra])idly at dusk, or 
at night, and a few species fly by day. The larvje 
are naked , or thinly haired , and are generally pro- 
vided with a fleshy horn at the extremity of the back. 
They feed on low plants, or on trees, and undergo their 
transformations in the ground, or in a slight cocoon 
on the surface. 

Fig. f. Sincrinthus ocellatns is a. very beautiful 

and not uncom- 
mon species. The 
caterpillar is blu- 
ish green with 
white dots and 
lines , and feeds 
on willow, apple, 
and other trees. 
The species of 
Sincrititlnis differ 
from the other 
Sphingidtc in hav- 
ing a short pro- 
boscis , d^ntated 



wings, and 



Fie. g. 




Larva of Sparge Havvk-motli. 



It '\£, common 



a very heavy flight. 
Smerinthiis Fopuli , the Poplar Hawk- 
moth , is perhaps the commonest of the larger 
SphingidiC. The green larva with yellow oblique 
lines is often met with on poplar. 

Fig h. Daphnis Ncrii , the Oleander Hawk- 
moth, is abundant in Africa and Southern Asia, but 
is only a rare and casual visitor in warm summers 
in Central and Northern Europe. The caterpillar js 
green , with a whitish stripe on the sides , and 
feeds on oleander and periwinkle. 

Fig. i. Chwrocaiiipa 
Elpcnor , the Elephant 
Hawk-moth, is a much 
commoner insect. It 
derives its name from 
the structure of the 
caterpillar, which has 
the front of the body 
narrowed and retractile 
(as has also that of 
Daphnis Nerii) which 
has been fancitully 
thought to give it some 
resemblance to an elephant's trunk. This caterpillar, 
which is either green or brown , feeds chiefly on 
willow-herb. 

Fig. k. Deilcphila Euphorbia; , the Spurge 
Hawk-moth, is common on the Continent, but very 
rare in England. The caterpillar, which generally 
feeds on spurge growing in exposed places, is very 
beautifully coloured. It is very dark green , witli 
white dots, and brigth red lines on the back and 
sides. There is a large yellow spot on each seg- 
ment, and a smaller white dot beneath it. It forms 
its pupa underground, or among leaves. 



26 



Fig. 1. sphinx Ligustri, the Privet Hawk-motli, 
is a very common species. The caterpillar is pale 
green, with seven oblique violet-blue stripes on 
each side , bordered with white below. When at 
rest, it sits up in a posture wliich ha.s been imagmed 
to resemble that of an Egyptian Sphinx , and this 
is the origin of the name now given to the 
whole family. Its favourite food is privet , but it is 
sometimes found on other trees. 

Fig. m. Sphinx Convolviili, the Unicorn Hawk- 
moth is an autumn insect , and is uncertain in ap- 
pearance, being much commoner in some years than 
in others. The caterpillar, which is brown or green, 
may be met with on the ground, hidden under bind- 
weed. When weeds were allowed to grow more 
freely, it used frequently to be found on bindweed 
growing among corn in England. The moth is re- 
markable for the great length of its proboscis. 

Fig. n. Achcrontia Atropos, the Death's Head 
Hawk-moth, is the largest moth found in England. 
It has derived its name from the curious markings 
on the back of the thorax, which have some resem- 
blance to a skull. The caterpillar is yellowish green, 
and feeds on various plants , but in England is 
generally found on potato. It is never common 
enough to do any real harm ; but the large dark 
reddish-brown pupa is often dug up in potato-fields 
in autumn. 

Fig. o. Macroglossa stci/atarnin , the Hum- 
ming-Bird Hawk-moth, flies very rapidly over flowers 
by day, in the manner of a humming-bird; it is 
remarkable for its luftcd abdomen. The green cater- 
]iillar feeds on bedstraw. In some allied species 
found in woods in spring, the wings are transparent, 
with reddish-brown bordcis. 

Fannly II. /EgeriJdae. These are small moths, 
with long tapering and generally tufted bodies, 
spindle-shaped antenna; , ending in a tuft of scales, 
transparent wings with opaque borders ; and 
yellow or red belts on the abdomen. They fly by 
day, and the larva; are white, naked, and maggot- 
like, and live in the wood or in the roots of trees 
and plants. 

Fig. p. ^-Egcria apiforniis is the largest specieS 
of this family, and may often be seen in early sum- 
mer sitting low down on the trunks of poplars, and 
looking very like a hornet. The larva feeds in the 
roots and trunks of poplars. 

Fig. q. Trochilitim formicccfornic is a smaller 
and scarcer species, which feeds on willows. 

Family 111. Anthroceridse. These are small 
brightly coloured moths , with thick spindle-shaped 
antennae, curved at the tip. The wings are sloping, 
and the fore wings are spotted. The larvae are 
cylindrical , and finely hairy ; they feed on low 
plants , and form narrow boat-shaped parchment- 
like cocoons attached to the stalks of grass &c. 
The moths fly by day. 

Fig. r. Anthroccra filipcndnhr , the Si.x-spot 
Burnet, is the commonest species in England. It is 
often to be found in meadows in abundance , flying 
over the tops of the herbage , or resting on grass 
and flowers ; perhaps several together on a large 
flower like a thistle. The caterpillar feeds on 
clover &c. 

Fig. s. Anthroccra cariiiolica, which is connnon 
in many places on the Continent , differs from any 
British species in having the spots bordered with 
white. The caterpillar feeds on milk vetch, and 
other low plants. 



Plate XXVI (right hand). 

Family IV. HepialJdae. The antennae are short, 
and the wings long , and widely separated at the 
base. The moths fly in meadows after sunset. 

Fig. a. Hcpialns httninii , the Ghost Moth. 
The nale is white above and brown beneath , but 
the female has yellowish fore wings with red mark- 
ings , and dull reddish hind wings. The caterpillar 
is yellowish white, with black warts, and a brown 
head. It feeds on the roots of hop, nettle &c. It 
forms an oval cocoon with particles of earth at the 
roots of plants , and after a few days , the moth 
emerges. It has a peculiar hovering flight, and is 
often abundant in June and July. 

Family V. Zeuzeridae. The i)roboscis is absent, 
the wings strong, and the 
female is provided with an 
ovipositor. The larv;e are 
smooth, with short scattered 
hairs. They feed in the 
wood of trees. 

Fig. b. Zcnzera irscu/i, 
the Wood Leopard Moth, is 
not very scarce in the sub- 
urbs of London. The cater- 
pillar is yellow , with small 
raised black dots, on which 
hairs are placed , and feeds 
in the young shoots and 
branches of trees, especially 
in young apple and pear- 
trees , which it sometimes 
destroys, though it is seldom 
sufficiently abundant in Eng- 
land to cause very serious 
injury. The larva lives in 
the trees for two years, when 
it emerges from the pupa, 
which projects from the bark, 
in July and August. 

Fannly VI. Psychidae. The males of these 
curious little moths have strongly pectinated antennae 
and hairy bodies, but the black or grey wings are 
only thinly clothed with scales. 
The females are apterous, with 
a small head and thorax, and 
a large, nearly naked abdomen. 
The larva; resemble those of 
caddisflies, for they live in a 
cylindrical tube, or in a case, 
which they construct im- 
mediately on quitting the egg, 
from fragments of grass, stalks, 
bark, particles of earth &c., 
and which they enlarge as 
they grow. The cases are 
found on trees , grass , or 
rocks , generally in jdaces 
sheltered from the wind. One 
of the largest European spe- 
cies is Psyche unicolor, which, 
however, is not found in Eng- 
land. It has black wings with 
white fringes, strongly pec- 
tinated antenna;, and the head, 
thorax and abdomen clothed 
with rough hair. The insect 
is represented of the natural 
size in its various stages in the 
accompanying figures, as follows: a male, b female, 




GCCOo 







27 



r female pupa, seen from beneath, d closed case of 
female, e case of male, showing larva, f pupa 
of male. 

Family VII. Saturniidae. Large broad-winged 
moths, with short, stout, hairy bodies, and with the 
antennae of the male strongly pectinated. In the 
middle of each wing is a large eye-like spot com- 
posed of rings and crescents of various colours, 
which is often replaced , in foreign species , by a 
round, triangular or crescent-shaped transparent spot. 

Fig. c. SaUirnia pyri, the Great Peacock Moth, 
is the largest of the European moths. On the under- 
surface, it is pale grey as far as the zigzag line, and 
then brown ; the markings are nearly the same as 
on the upper surface , but paler. The appearance 
of the larva changes at each moult , and the full- 
grown caterpillar is yellowish green with blue hair- 
bearing warts. This fine moth is found in the 
South of Europe, 
where the cater- 
pillar feeds chief- 
ly on fruit-trees, 
as far north as 
Paris and Vienna. 
A smaller but 
somewhat simi- 
lar insect , the 
Emperor Moth, 
is not uncommon 
in England. Its 
green larva with 

red tubercles 
feeds on heath. 
Fig. d. Afflia 
Tau , the Tau 
Emperor , may 
be known by the 
large round blue 
spot on each 
wing , with a 
whiteTlikemark 
in the middle. 
The female is 
larger and paler 
than the male, Ailanthus silk-wo™, 

which flies wildly about in woods in spring , and is 
very difficult to catch. The pale green caterpillar 
feeds on beech , birch and lime, and is adorned with 
stitT movable spines when young, which it casts off 
at the third moult. It changes in the ground under 
moss to a rough pupa , covered with little hooks, 
and enclosed in a rough cocoon. It is a common 
insect on the Continent, but is not British. 

Attacus Cyiitliia, the Ailanthus Silk-worm Moth, 
belongs to the same family. It has satiny olive-green 
wings, with pin^ and white stripes and bands , and 
a transparent lunule , partly bordered with yellow. 
There is also a small blue white-bordered eye-spot 
near the tip of the fore wings. The full-grown larva 
is green wirh fleshy tubercles. Its natural food is 
Ailanthus glandulosa , but it will eat other trees. 
The moth is a native of the East Indies , but is 
often reared in Europe. 

Family VIII. Lasiocampidse. These are large 
dark-coloured moths, with no eye-spot on the wings. 
The abdomen is thick, hairy, and rather long. The 
antenna; of the male are strongly pectinated , and 
the caterpillars are hairy. 

F'ig. e. Gastropacha qiiercijolia , the Lappet 
Moth, has some resemblance to a dead leaf When 
at rest , the fore wings are sloped over the body, 




and the zigzag border of the hind wings projects 
beyond their edges. The brown larva feeds on 
various trees in May, but only at night. It becomes 
a pupa in an oval dark grey cocoon covered with 
whitish dust. 

Fig. f. Clisiocampa naistria, the Lackey Moth, 
is one of the most destructive insects to fruit and 
forest-trees. It is pale ochre-yellow, or reddish, 
with two brown stripes on the fore wings. The 
female lays her eggs in a ring round a small 
branch. The caterpillars hatch in the spring, and 
live together for a long time in a silker nest, to 
which they resort at night, and which renders it easy 
to destroy them in this stage. When they are older, 
they separate , and then s|>in themselves a cocoon 
between leaves. 

Family IX. Bombycldae. The wings are emar- 
ginatc, and the antcnn;e of the male are pectinated. 

The larva is nak- 
ed, and provided 
with a horn, like 
a Sphinx. 

Boinbyx mori, 
the Mulberry 
Silkworm moth, 
is ofa dirty white, 
withdarkerlines. 
The female lays 
from 200 to 300 
eggs, and the 
caterpillars feed 

on mulberry 
leaves, until they 
form their co- 
coons , and 
change to pupa:. 
They make white 
or yellow co- 
coons ofa single 

thread which 
may measure as 
much as 600 feet 
in length. This 
is secreted by 
two long slender 



with cocoon and molh. 



cavities which open in a narrow tube at the mouth. 




Silkworm, with pupa, cocoon and motli. 
The liquid secretion hardens into a tkread as soor 



28 



as it is drawn out into the air. This forms a loose 
web at first , but gradually contracts into an oval 
case. The cocoons are prepared in the following 
manner: The cocoons are either put into an oven, 
or exposed to hot steam to kill the pupic. After 
the looser threads (the floss-silk) has been separated, 
the cocoons are thrown into boiling water. The 
inner silk is then loostened with a rod, and as soon 
as the end of a thread is caught, the rest can easily 
be reeled off. Afterwards the silk is spun and 
woven into threads. The natural colour of the silk 
is white, yellow, greenish, or isabcUine; and all 
others are dyed. A pountl of silk is worth about 
twenty-four shillings, and North Italy alone annually 
exports silk of the value of upwards of £ 4,000,000. 
The silk-worm is a nati\c of China , but 's now 
reared in all the warmer parts of the world. 

Family X. Notodontidae. The fore wings are 
longer and thicker than the hind wings. The ab- 
domen is stoul , and the legs are short and thick, 
and all of equal length. 

Fig. g. Cnctlwcampa proccssiouca derives its 
name from the habits of its larva, the Proccssionary 
Caterpillar. In some seasons, they increase s<^ much 
as to defoliate the oak-forests on the Continent, and 
to kill many of the trees. The bluish-black cater- 
pillars with long whitish hairs on the sides, pass the 
day in large nests of web, and march out in the 
evening to feed in pyramidal order. They are 
usually found only on oaks , but will also feed on 
other trees. They afterwards return to the nest in 
the same order , one larva heading the procession. 
They are not only injurious from their voracity, but 
by casting their hairs, which cause intolerable itching 
and painful swellings if they come in contact with 
the skin. The yellowish grey moth with darker 
markings is found in autumn, and lays about 200 eggs 
on the trunk of a tree. It is unknown in England. 

Fig. h. r/iakra Biiccp/iala, the Buff-tip Moth, 
is common and destructive in most parts of Europe. 
The hairy caterpillar is black with yellow longitudinal 
streaks interrupted by reddish belts, and is found on 
a great variety of trees from July to October; and 
the moth emerges early in the following summer. 

Family XI. Liparidae. These are white or 
brown moths with short, broad wings, short antenna\ 
pectinated in the male, and a tuft at the end of the 
abdomen in the female with which they cover their 
eggs. The larvae are hairy, and often injurious. 

Fig. i. Ocneria dispar, the Gipsy Moth, differs 
so much in the sexes that no one would imagine 
them to be the same. The male, which is repre- 
sented in our figure, is brown, with pectinated an- 
tenna;, and flies about in the sunshine. The female 
is much larger , and is white , with zigzag blackish 
lines, and a thick abdomen covered with yellowish- 
grey wool. The antennte are black, and but slightly 
pectinated. The moths appear in summer, and the 
female, which is generally seen sitting on the trunks 
of trees, lays from 300 to 500 eggs, which it covers 
with wool from its abdomen. In the spring, the 
caterpillars hatch, and are very destructive to the 
trees on which they feed. About Midsummer, they 
form their cocoons in a leaf. 

Family XII. Arctiidaa. These moths are 
generally adorned with bright colours; and the an- 
icnnre are more or less pectinated in the males. 
The caterpillars feed chiefly on low plants, and are 
very hairy. 

Fig. k. Arctia Caja, the Tiger Moth, is very 
common in gardens. The black hairy caterpillar is 



sometimes called the Woolly Bear. It creeps very 
fast, and if touched, rolls itself up like a hedgehog. 
It feeds on all sorts of low plants, and is not par- 
ticular about its food. 

Fig. 1. CaUiniorpha hcra, the Jersey Tiger, is 
another handsome species ; but though common on 
the Continent, it is very scarce in England. The 
caterpillar is greyish brown, with a yellow stripe on 
the back, pale yellowish-white lines on the sides, 
and yellow warts. It feeds on low plants and 
shrubs. 

The Noctuae , or nocturnal moths proper, have 
a thick body, pointed behind, broad and generally 
sloping wings , generally of dull colours , and the 
hind wings shorter, more slender, and often without 
markings ; the antenn;e are rarely pectinated , and 
the legs are long. The caterpillars are naked, or 
thinly clothed with hair, and have from 12 to 16 
legs. The pupa is naked and generally subterranean. 

Fig. m. Panolis pii/ipcrda is a handsome moth 
of moderate size which is sometimes injurious in 
pine and fir-forests. The caterpillar is green with 
3 white lines on the back , and a yellow one on 
the sides. 

Fig n. Maiiicstra brassicar, the Cabbage Moth, 
is a dark brown moth , with some white specks on 
the fore wings. Late in autumn , after the cater- 
pillars of the \yhite butterflies have disappeared from 
the cabbage-fields , holes are frequently seen in the 
leaves , but the caterpillars are not visible by day, 
as they hide themselves in the ground, and 
only feed at night. After moulting four times, they 
attain their full size in three or four weeks , when 
they eat their way deeper into the cabbages. Then 
they burrow in the ground, and presently change to 
puptc , in which state they pass the winter, and 
emerge as moths in May. The female lays her eggs 
which hatch in a fortnight, singly on the cabbages, 
and the moths from this brood appear at the end 
of the summer. 

Fig. o. MaiiiL'stra pisi is reddish brown, with 
dark transverse lines on the fore wings, and a white 
zigzag line towards the hind margin ; the hind wings 
are ashy grey. The moth is found in May and 
June, and is not rare. The larva is green or brown 
with yellow lines. It feeds on peas, beans, clover, 
and other garden-plants, and sometimes causes con- 
siderable damage. In autumn , it makes a slight 
cocoon in the ground, and the moth appears in the 
following May. 

Fig. s. Tripluviia Froiinba, the Yellow Under- 
wing, is another very common moth in gardens and 
hayficlds in June and July. The caterpillar is yel- 
lowish brown, with dark oblique dashes on the sides. 
It feeds on low plants at night , hiding itself under 
leaves during the day. 

Fig. p. Flitsia Ganinta, the Gamma Moth, is 
one of the commonest of all the European Noctiur, 
and in some seasons it is e.xcessively abundant. It 
may be seen at all hours of the day and night 
sucking honey from all kinds of flowers, and has a 
wild swift flight. The female lays her eggs on the 
upper surface of the leaves, and the caterpiflars hatch 
in about a fortnight. They feed on flax, hemp, peas, 
beans, cabbages, clover, and many other plants, 
devouring the leaves, flowers and young seeds indis- 
criminately. The fore wings are varied with violet- 
grey and brownish-grey, and are ornamented with a 
silvery white mark resembling ay, or more nearly, 
the Greek letter y, from which the moth derives its name. 
Sometimes, however, it is called the Silvery Moth, 



29 




i 



I 



J 



Fig. q. Catocala fraxiiii, the Clifden Nonpareil, 
is the largest of the European Noctiiic. The moth 
is found in autumn, and is a great rarity in England, 
though found in all parts of the country occasionally ; 
on the Continent, it is commoner, though never 
very abundant. The large grey caterpillar lives on 
poplar, aspen and ash from May to July, and forms 
its pupa in a cocoon between the leaves, or in a cleft 
of the bark. 

Fig. r. Catocala niiptci, the Red Underwing, 
is much commoner than the last species, and is found 
resting on walls or on the trunks of trees in July 
and August , though when the bright-coloured hind 
wings are covered by the fore wings , it is not al- 
ways easy to see the insect. The larva is brownisli 
grey with yellowish spots and interrupted streaks, 
and feeds on willows and poplars in May and June. 
The Geometrse have a slender body, broad 
wings , similarly coloured , and generally expanded 
when at rest, and simple (rarely pectinated) antenna'. 
The larviii have usually only lo legs, and they creep 
by bending their bodies. The pupa is most frequently 
naked. This group is less numerous than the Noc- 
titic , but contains a much larger proportion of 
brightly coloured ff=^-iJ3-;^. \ 
species. 

Uraptciyx 
sambucaria , the 

Swallow-tail 
Moth, is the larg- 
est species of the 
group. The wings 
are pale sulphur- 
yellow, with olive- 
brown transverse 
stripes. It is not 
scarce in June and 
July. The cater- 
pillar is brown 
with paler streaks, 
and is found in 
autumn on elder, 
lime, ivy &c. 

Epioiic apiciaria is yellow 
border , and is not scarce in 
summer and autumn. The larva 
is greyish brown with fine longi- 
tudinal lines , and is found on 
willows and poplars. 

Venilia macnlata , the Speckled Yellow , is 
golden yellow, with irregular 
black spots. It is common in 
woods in May and June. The 
larva is green, with a dark line 
on the back, and feeds on dead- 
nettle and other low plants in autumn. 

Selenia ilhistraria is flesh-coloured, varied with 
purplish-brown. It is 
found in May and July, 
but is not very abun- 
dant. The larva is of 
a colour resembling 
bark; it is grey, with 
paler and darker pro- 
minences. It is found 
in June and September on sloe, oak, birch, rose &c. 
Fig. u. Pcricallia syriiigaria, the I.iiac Beauty, 
has olive-grey wings, varied with violet-grey. The 
fore wings are tinged with rusty-yellow, and there 
is a large whitish mark on the costa. It is found 
in gardens in July, but is not generally very com- 




with 






mon The larva lives on elder, alder, bird- 
cherry &c. 

Ennomos alniaria is ochreous-yellow , dusted 
with brown. The 
fore wings are 
marked with two 
brown lines, and 
there is a dark 
brown spot in the 
middle of the fore 
wings. It appears 
in August and 
September, but is a 
The brown humpy 
and lime. 

Ampkidasis bctidaria, the Pepper and Salt Moth, 
is a stout-bodied hairy moth nearly two inches in 
expanse, whick looks more like one of the Bombyces 
than one of the (jcomctrtr. It has chalky-white wings 
speckled with black , and is common in May. The 




very scarce insect in England, 
larva feeds on alder, birch 






caterpillar is greyish brown with a pointed head, 
and feeds on various trees in autumn. When at 
rest, it resembles a dry twig, like the caterpillars 
of many other Geomctrar. 

Fliorcdcsvia bajnlaria , the P)lotched Emerald 
Moth, is green with a white mark at the hinder 
angle of the fore wings , and 
whitish crescent-shaped markings 
on the hind wings. The brown 
caterpillar lives under a covering 
of fragments of plants. It is found 
on oak in May and the moth ap- 
pears in July, but is not a very common insect. 

Astkcua Intcata is a small yellow moth with 
brown bands , which is not very «»^ \ J 
scarce in May and June. The pale 
yellowish-brown larva feeds on low 
plants. 

Fig. w. Abraxas grossiilariata , the Magpie 
Moth, is very common in gardens. The female lays 
her eggs in summer between leaf-stalks of the 
gooseberry and currant. The caterpillars are white, 
spotted with black, and appear in September, and 
pass the winter on the ground. Ne.xt year they 
attack the trees, and when they are full-grown, they 
suspend themselves to the branches by the tail, and 
surround themselves with a web. 

Abraxas ulinata resembles the last species, 
being white, with a row of round violet-grey spots, 
and with large rusty-brown 
blotches marked with blu- 
ish white towards the 
margins. The moth ap- 
pears in June, and is much 
less abundant than A. 
giossularinta. The bluish 
white caterpillar is found in August and Septemlicr, 
feeding on elm and vine. 

Fig. v. Hibcruia dcfoliaria is one of the winter- 
moths, in most of which the female is wingless. In 
October and November the male is often seen fly- 
ing in gardens, and the female climbs up the trunks 
of trees , where she lays her eggs. In April and 
May the caterpillars may be found on various 




30 




Hihcniia 



orchard and forest trees. They feed chiefly at night, 
and change to a brown pupa in the 
ground in July. The caterpillars are 
brown with a yellow line on the sides. 

Fig. X. Cheimatobia brumata is 
the commonest of the winter moths, 
and is very destructive to fruit-trees. 
The moths appear from October to De- 
cember, and the males fly about on fine 
autumn days, while the females creep up -' 
the trees, and lay about 250 eggs on the buds. As 
the leaves develop, the eggs hatch, and the cater- 
pillars spin leaves and flowers together , until their 
webs sometimes cover whole trees. The caterpillars 
continue to grow till the middle of June, when they 
let themselves down from the trees by slender threads, 
and form their pupae in the ground. The habits 
of the moths make it easy to protect the trees by 
placing belts of tar or lime round the trunks, which 
the females cannot pass. 

The Pyrales have long fore wings and broad 
hind wings, a spiral proboscis, simple antennse, long 
hind legs , and larvae with seven pairs of legs , and 
small warts and hairs. They form their pupae in the 
ground, or in a cocoon between leaves. 

Cataclysta kiuitata has white wings with brown 
markings , and is very common about 
ponds. Its brown larva feeds on 
duck-weed, or, according to some 
authors, on reeds. 

Crainbiis viargaritclliis is one of the Jjrass 
Moths , many species of which are 
common in meadows. It is ochreous- 
brown, with a broad silvery-white 
streak on the fore wings. 

The Tortrices are generally small moths, with 
the fore wings not much narrower than the fore 
wings, and cut off square at the ends. The antennae 
are simple. Their caterpillars often roll themselves 
up in leaves. 

Fig. t. Hylophila bicolorana, the Scarce Green 
Silver-lines, belongs to a small group of moths of 
uncertain position, which some authors place with 
the Tortrices. It is not quite so rare an insect 
as might by supposed from its name , which it de- 
rives from there being a commoner moth allied to 
it with 3 oblique instead of 2 straight lines on the 
fore wings. Its yellowish-green larva feeds on oak. 

Torlrix viridana , the Green Oak-Tortrix , has 






green fore wings bordered with yellowish in front, 
and brown hind wings bordered with white. The 





caterpillar is green, spotted with black, and feeds on 
oaks. It is a very abundant insect. 

Tortrix hcparana. which has brown fore wings 
and grey hind wings is common ( 

in summer. Its greyish-green cater- 
pillar lives in the rolled up leaves 
of trees. 

The Tineae have long slender antenna;, long 
narrow wings with long fringes , and naked larva;, 
often with imperfect legs. Some make themselves 
cases, and others mine in the stalks and leaves of 
plants. They form the most numerous group of the 
Lcpidoptcra , and notwithstanding their small size, 
many are injurious. 

Fig. y. Tinea sarcitclla is ashy grey, with a 
white dot on each side of the back. The larvte are 
very destructive to woollen fabrics. 

Fig. z. Tinea pellionclla is another equally 
destructive clothes-moth, which attacks furs. The 
moth has grey fore wings with a gilded lustre , and 
white hind wings. 

Fig. aa. Tinea granella has pale grey fore 
wings with dark brown and silvery white markings ; 
the hind wings are grey. The caterpillar feeds on 
corn, and is often very destructive. 

Enplocamus anthracinalis , one of the largest 
of the European Tinecc , is 
not found in England. It 
is black, with white spots 
on the fore wings , and is 
found in woods. The cater- 
pillar lives in the fungi 
which infest trees. 

Coleophora laricella is a little grey moth which 
sometimes flies in swarms in larch woods. The 
caterpillar lives in the larch-needles, and 
constructs itself a yellowish case , which 
it always carries with it. It feeds on the chlorophyll 
of the needles. ^ ^ '^ 

Adela Degecrella , the 
Long-horn Moth, is of a gol- 
den colour, with a white band 
on the fore wings ; it is found 
in woods. The caterpillar lives 
on the ground in a case formed 
of two fragments of leaf, and 
feeds on low plants. 

In the Pterophoridae , the fore wings are cleft 
into two feathers , and the hind wings into three. 
The legs and antennre are long and slender. The 
larvte are stout and hairy, and the pupa is naked. 
The commonest species is Pterophorus pentadactylns, 
the White Plume Moth, which is very common in gardens 
and weedy places ; it is a little over an inch in ex- 
panse. The pale green caterpillar has 16 legs, and 
feeds on convolvulus. 

In the Alucitae, the wings are each cleft into 
six feathers. The only British 
species , Aliicita hcxadaetyla, 
the Twenty-plume Moth, is a 
small yellowish - grey moth, 
which is common in gardens 
and woods , where its naked 
larva feeds in the buds of the 
honeysuckle , and changes to 
a pupa in a cocoon. 





7 \ 



Twenty-plume Moth 
(magiiilied). 



31 



Order IV. Diptera. (Flies.) 



Plate XXIII 

The Two-winged Flies are of moderate or small 
size, and their metamorphoses are complete. Their 
bodies are sometimes long and slender , and some- 
times short and broad. The head is divided from 
the thorax by a short stalk , and the thorax is fre- 
quently separated from the abdomen in the same 
manner. The antennae may be long and slender, 
and bare or plumose ; but they are more frequently 
short and only three-jointed , the last joint forming 
a scale to which a simple or tufted bristle is attached. 
They have large palpi, a proboscis adapted for suck- 
ing ; large eyes, and sometimes, but not always, ocelli. 
The legs are moderately long, or, especially the hind 
legs, very long. Only the fore wings are developed, 
the hind wings , which are called poiscrs , being 
rudimentary. 

The eggs are laid on decaying substances , or 
in water , or upon other animals , and soon become 
soft footless and often even headless maggots, which 
afterwards change into motionless pupa; , when the 
larva-skin is not thrown off, but contracts and 
thickens into the covering of the pupa. 




Metamorphoses of Gnat (Culcx pipiciis). 
The Diptera are extremely numerous, and are 
often of very small size. Some produce galls , and 
the larvae of many species live in water. 

Section I. Nematocera. 

The antennae are long, and have at least six 
joints. 

Family I. Culicidse. Slender flies with 4 jointed 
palpi, bushy or bristly antennas, and a long probos- 



(_lcft side). 

cis. They come into houses, and sing at night, 
when their blood-sucking propensities make them 
very troublesome. Their larvae live in water. 

In the genus Culcx , the proboscis is long, 
and armed with sharp bristles in the female. The 
antennae are generally plumose , and the body and 
legs are long. 

Fig. a. Cnlex pipiois , the Common Gnat , is 
pale brown with darker markings, and is about half 
an inch long. It is a great pest in damp neighbour- 
hoods , or in hot wet summers, but is not very 
abundant in dry places , or in dry summers. The 
mosquitoes which are so troublesome in hot coun- 
tries belong to the same genus. Volatile oils are 
useful to prevent their attacks, as long as the scent 
remains ; and if the bites are bathed immediately 
with sal ammoniac , the irritation is soothed , and 
swelling prevented. 

Family II. Tipulidse. The Crane Flies are 
slender insects with a retractile proboscis and droop- 
ing palpi. The antennie are bristly or filiform, many- 
jointed, and sometimes bushy. The legs are very 
long. The larvae live in damp earth. 

Fig. b. Fachyrrhiua pratensis has a shining 
black thorax, and the abdomen is black, with yellow 
spots on the sides. The larvae live in the soil of 
meadows, and do much mischief by destroying the 
roots of grass, and the flies are also found in mea- 
dows at the end of summer. 

The species of Tipida have long and slender legs, 
bodies and antennae, 
and prominent palpi. 
Tipida oh'racea, which 
is one of the commonest, 
has a grey thorax lined 
with brown, a reddish 
brown abdomen , and 
pale brownish wings 
with the front edge red- 
dish. The larvae live in 
the ground from autumn 
to spring, change to 
pupae in June , and 
emerge as flies in a 
few weeks , when the 
pupae push themselves 
half out of the ground. 
There are some larger 
species with brown 
blotches on the wings. 

Family III. Cecidomyidae. The Gall-gnats have 
a long slender body , and short , but comparatively 
broad wings, with but few nervures. The flies are 
usually small and very delicate , and the larvae of 
some species produce excrescences called galls on 
plants, and others injure them in different ways. 

Cccidomyia destructor, the Hessian Fly, was 
thus named in America, because it was supposed to 
have been introduced into America during the War 
of Indepcndance by the Hessian troops. Be this as 
it may, it has been known as a very destructive 
insect during certain seasons both in America and 
in many parts of Europe , for many years ; and its 
appearance in England has lately been ascertained, 
though many think that it has always been with us, 
but has not caused sufficient damage in this country 
to attract attention before. 




32 




About the middle of April we may notice a 
little black gnat, with the end of the tail red, laying 
its eggs on the stalks 
of wheat and rye. 
In a short time the 
larva; hatch , and 
ensconce themselves 

under the leaf- 
sheaths, where they 
remain until they 
become pupa; , and 
in August the flics 
appear. The stalks 
are so much weaken- 
ed that they cannot 
remain upright, and 
bend over. The 
winter brood lives 
chiefly in stubble- 
fields in the scattered fallen stalks, where they 
pass the winter without assuming the pupa state 
till the following spring. 

Family IV. Mycetophilidae. These are small 
flies which are often excessively numerous Their 
larva; feed on fungi. 

Sciara militaris, / < 
the Army-worm , de- 
rives its name from 
the curious habit of its 
larvse, which assemble 
previous to their meta- 
morphosis , and creep 
slowly forward in a 
douse column , three 
or four yards long, 
leaving a slimy trail 
Ijehind them. 

Family V. Simu- 
liidae. The Sandflies 
are small humpbacked 
tlies with broad wings 
tinged with brownish, 
spotted legs, and the males and females generally 
differing in colour. 

Siimdia coluvibacccnsis , which at times causes 
so much terror to man and animals on the lower 
Danube , is hardly larger than a flea. 
In the spring, they creep into the ears, 
nose and mouth of cattle in vast 
swarms, and torture them to death. In 
the case of men , they usually attack 
the corners of the eye, leaving a small 
hard swelling. 

Family VI. Bibionidae. Hairy flies, with bead 
like , g-jointed antennae , and brown or white black 
bordered wings. 

Bibio viarci , St. Mark's 
black hairy fly with a large 
head , and broad smoky wings, 
obtuse at the end, and bordered 
with black. They fly heavily, and 
when at rest, let th.eir wings and 
bodies droop. The female lays 
her eggs by hundreds in leaf- 
mould or cowdung. The maggots 
pasG the Viiintcr in company in 
loose mould , and in February 
change into humped pujKC about 
two-thirds of an inch long. The 
-ibout a fortnight. 




Army-worm (Sciara militaris') 




Fly, 



small 




flies appear in 



Section IT, Brachycef^a. 

The antennae are short, and only three-jointed. 
Family VII. Tabanidx. The Gad-Flies have 
a broad head, with large greenish eyes, and a short 
strong proboscis. The body is smooth, and the 
wingp are sloping when at rest. They fly well, and 
inflict a severe puncture with their proboscis , and 
even the smaller species often draw blood. The 
larva; live in the ground , and the pupse are hairy. 
Fig. c. Tabanns bovimis, the largest European 
species, is dark brown with a row of white triangular 
spots on the back. It is found in woods and pas- 
tures , and is very annoying to cattle. The larva 
resembles those of the Crancflies in form and habits, 
and lives in meadows. 

Fig. d. Hccrnaiopa phivialis is a smaller fly, 
with a slender dark brown body with grey markings. 
The wings are dark grey, marbled with paler. These 
flies are most troublesome during a shower or before 
a thunderstorm, and often settle in numbers under 
an open umbrella. 

Family VIII. Asilids. Slender flies, with a 
long body, short antennae, a prominent proboscis, 

and a tuft on the fore- 
head. The wings are 
generally more or less 
extended when at rest. 
Theyare very voracious 
flies, and devour other 
insects. 

Asiliis crabroni- 
foniiis, the Hornet Fly, 
has rusty yellow wings 
marked with a few 
dark spots. The head, 
thorax, and the greater 
part of the legs are 
yellow, and the ab- 
domen is black at the 
base , and yellow to- 
wards the extremity. 
The abdomen of the female ends in a horny point. 
These flies feed on other insects, especially craneflies, 
which they pierce with their 
proboscis , and then suck 
out their juices. 





Dioclrina cclandica. Asilus crahroniforniis. 

Dioctriiia alandica, though it derives its name 
from the island of Oeland on the coast of Sweden, 
is found in the greater part of Europe. It has black 
wings, a shining black body, and reddish-yellow legs. 
It feeds on flies as well as on spiders. 

Family IX Empidae. The 
3-jointed antenna;, which are pro- 
minent , are near together at the 
base, and the tip is furnished with 
a pencil or bristle. The proboscis is 
prominent, and the palpi are erect. 
They dance in great swarms in the 
evening, and they feed on the 
honey of flowers, and on the juices of small insects 
which they seize and suck out like the Asilulu-. 




Empis tesselala. 



33 



Evtpis tesscllata is brownish grey, with three 
black stripes on the thorax, and pale brown wings. 
The abdomen has shining yellowish-brown spots. 

Family X. Bombyliidae. The antennae are pro- 
minent, 3-jointed, and near together. The proboscis 
is projecting , and often very long , and the wings 
are broad, always expanded, and generally coloured. 
The body is clothed with fine hair. The flies suck 
honey, but their larvae are parasitic on other insects. 

Anthrax viorio is black , with the base and 
sides of the abdomen clothed 
with red hair. The wings 
are black at the base, and . ^msa,' \\r 





transparent beyond. The fly 
is seen in summer on dry 
paths. It likes to rest in 
sunny places, and flies away 
swiftly when approached, but 
to no great distance. The larva is parasitic on caterpillars. 

Fig. e. Bombyliiis major has a smaller head 
than the last species, and a compact shape like that 
of a small humble-bee. The body is clothed with 
silky yellowish hair above , and with white hair be- 
low. The front of the wings is dark brown to the 
tip, and the rest is transparent. It flies with a rapid 
hovering flight from flower to flower , diving its 
long proboscis into them without resting. Its move- 
ments much resemble those of the Hawk-moths. 

Family XI. Stratiomydx. The prominent 
3-jointed antennae are near together at the base, 
the body is broad , and the proboscis long and 
retractile. The scutellum is usually spiny. The 
larvae live in the earth or water; in rotten wood &c. 

Stratiomys chaiiia-lcon is brown , with a black 
abdomen with yellow markings, and 
yellow legs. When at rest, the wings 
lie flat on the body. The larva lives 
in the water , and breathes through 
its tail, which it lifts above the sur- 
face. The flies fly noiselessly from 
flower to flower , but buzz loudly 
if held in the hand. 

Family XII. Syrphidae. The proboscis is bristly, 
but concealed, and the antennae are 3-jointed, with 
the third joint compressed , and furnished with a 
pencil at the end , or a bristle on the back. The 
larvte feed on plant-lice (Aphides). 

Syrphiis pyrastri is shining blue-black , with 
two white crescents on each segment. The legs are 
reddish yellow. In summer weather 
these flies dart about from place to 
place like an arrow , in the way 
characteristic of the hovering flies. 
They often stop suddenly in their 
flight , and remain hovering at one 
spot in the air, and then suddenly 
dart forward, and stop again as before 
larva feeds on aphides. 

Fig. f. Volucclla bonibylans may be known by 
its very downy body. It is black, with the thorax 
clothed with yellow hair , and black in the middle. 
The abdomen has yellow spots on the sides at the 
base , and yellow hair , but the tip is white. 
The larvae feed on the larvae and pupae of 
humble-bees. 

Family XIII. CEstridae. The bodies of the Bot- 
flies are covered with thick hair, and the proboscis 
is usually absent. The perfect insect only lives a 
short time, to propagate its species. The larvoe live 
under the skin , or in the frontal sinuses or in the 
intestinal canal of various animals, but thcpup;care free. 

Aiiipbil.ia i&c. 




The green 




GastropJiUus equi has the form of a bee. It 
has brown eyes, and a hmwii downy forehead; the 
body is cloth- 
ed with golden- ^. 
brown down. 
There is a grey 
band across 
the wings, and 
two spots at 
the tip. The 
female lays her 
eggs on the 
hairs of the 
horse, and the 
newly hatched 
larvae either 
creep to the 

lips them- 
selves or arc licked off the skin, 
into the stomach of the horse, 
completed its development , it 
dung, and becomes a pupa in 

^'g- K- Hypoderma Bovis 
rowed thorax, red before and 
abdomen is green at the base , 

The female is larger and brighter coloured than the 
male, and lays her eggs singly at different points on 
the hide of horned cattle, especially on the back. 
The maggots cause a swelling on the skin by their 
presence. When full-grown, they squeeze themselves 
out of the sore, which resembles a boil, and fall to 
the ground, where they change to pupse. 

CEstrus ovis, the Sheep-Fly , is quite hairless, 
and has a brown head , a green back , and a grey 
abdomen marbled with black. The female lays her 



LarvK of Rot-fly in stomacli of horse. 

and thus introduced 
When the larva has 
passes out with the 
the ground, 
is black, with a fur- 
black behind. The 
and yellow behind. 




eggs in the nostrils of sheep, from whence the larvtc 
creep up to the nasal sinuses, and feed on the mucus. 
When they are full-grown, they are sneezed out, and 
become pup;o in the ground. 

Family XV. Muscidae. The body is bristly, 
and the last joint of the antenntc is rather long, ob- 
tuse, and furnished with a pectinated bristle. This 
large family is divided into a number of minor groups. 

The Tachininw have the abdomen set with 
numerous stiff" raised bristles ; 
and are parasitic on other in- 
sects. The second joint of the 
antennas is the longest. 

Echinomyia fcrox is black, 
with a yellow face, and a yellow 
abdomen divided by a black 
longitudinal streak. The larva? infest 
chiefly those of Lchidoptcra, several at 




34 



The Sarcophagincr do not come much into the 
house, but are more often seen in the open air, 
where decaying animal and vegetable matters are to 
be found. Their form is compact, and they fly well. 

Fig. h. Saj-copkaga carnaria is grey with red 
eyes, and with square black spots on the abdomen. 
It is ovoviviparous , for it deposits living larvae on 
meat instead of eggs; i. e. the eggs are hatched 
within the body of the mother. 

The true Miiscincc resemble the last subfamily, 
but are more domestic in their habits. 

Fig. i. CaUiphora vomitoria, the Blue-bottle, 
has a black thorax, and a shining steel-blue abdomen, 
with black bands. It makes its presence known by 
its loud buzzing, and appears at once wherever there 
is any carrion. Here the female deposits her eggs, 
and the larvae feed greedily on even the most putrid 
carrion. 

Fig. k. Musca donicstica, the House Fly, is 
the most familiar of all the flies , and accompanies 
man all over the world. The whitish larva is found 
in dung and other refuse. Fig. k. represents the 
head of the fly, highly magnified. 

Fig. 1. Stomoxys cakitrans is a grey fly, with 
the abdomen spotted with black. It resembles the 
common fly, but is smaller, and when at rest, its 
wings remain expanded. It inflicts a severe punc- 
ture, and sucks blood. 

The Autiiomyiina: , or Flower Flies, are not 
unlike the Miisciucc, but their colours are more varied, 
and their antenna; are not hairy. 

Anthomyia brassiccs is greyish black 
and hairy; the head is white, and the 
two first segments of the abdomen are 
brownish red. The larvae live in the 
roots of cabbages &c. 

Anthomyia floralis. The larva of this species 
lives in the roots of radishes in July , making long 
galleries through them. They quit them when they 
are ready to become pupce, and burrow in the ground 





Anllwmyia floralis. Anthomyia ceparum, 

AntJwMiyia ceparjtm, the Onion Fly, lays its eggs 
on various kinds of onions, on which the larvae feed. 

The Trypetincc have the wings dark, or marked 
with delicate patterns. The 
female has a long jointed ovi- 
positor. The larv;e feed in seeds 
or on living plants. 

Platyparca pceciloptera has 
a shining reddish-brown head, 
a grey thorax, and a black ab- 
domen, ringed with grey. The 
legs are brown. The female lays her eggs between 






CItlorops ti€iiicpin. 



the scales of an asparagus head , where the larvae 
develope, and often devour the whole stalk. 

Trypcta signata is a little reddish fly with green 
eyes, and wings spotted and banded 
with brown. The female ''ays her 
eggs on unripe cherries in May and 
June. As the fruit ripens, the mag- 
gots also become full-grown , when 
they fall to the ground, where they 
become pupa;, and give birth to flies 
in spring. 

The Chloropituv are small flies, which are note- 
worthy for the numbers in 
which they appear, and the 
damage which they occasion 
to corn. 

Oscinis frit is a little 
black fly with transparent 
wings. It resembles the 
Hessian Fly in habits, and 
has been reared with it from the leaf-sheaths of barley. 
It also bores deep into the knots at the root. There 
is generally more than one brood in the year, which 
renders it still more destructive. 

Family XVI, Phoridae. These are small hump- 
backed flics which run actively about bushes , on 
windows &c. 

Fig. m. Fhora iiwrassata is shining black, 
with the abdomen dull grey. The wings are trans- 
parent, and traversed by four longitudinal nervures. 
It is a dangerous parasite of the honey-bee , and 
occasions what is called foul brood. The female 
lays her eggs under the skin of the half-grown larva 
of the bee, in which the larvae live till the last moult, 
when they quit the bee-larva, and it dies 

Section III. Pupipara, 

These are parasitic flies , sometimes wingless, 
and generally with long sprawling legs. 

Family XVII. Hippoboscidae. The thorax is 
leathery, and the proboscis is absent. The legs are 
thick , and the feet are armed with strong claws. 
They live parasitically, chiefly on warmblooded ani- 
mals, and bring forth their young in the pupa state. 

Hippobosca equina, the Forest Fly, is shining 
rusty-yellow, with the middle of the thorax chestnut- 
brown, and the legs black. The wings 
are brown, and longer than the body. 
They infest the bare parts of horses, 
especially on the belly, and under the 
tail. If anyone tries to seize them, they 
take a short flight , and settle on the 
horse again ; and if they are seized, 
they easily slip their tough bodies between the fingers. 
A similar insect with long narrow wings is found in 
swallow's nests. 

MclopJiagus ovinits, the Sheep-tick, belongs to 
this family. It is wingless, and runs among the wool 
of sheep. 

Family XVIII. Nycteribiidae. These insects are 
wingless, and resemble s[iiders in their outward ap- 
pearance. They have horny, flattened bodies, and a 
very moveable pitcher-shaped head. They are yellow, 
and of very small size. They are parasitic on diffe- 
rent kinds of bats. 

Family XIX. Braulidse somewhat resembles the 
Nyctcribiid(r. Braula cara, the Bee Louse, is blind 
and wingless, and is parasitic on bees. 




35 



Section IV. Aphaniptera. 

Family XX. Pulicidae. In the Fleas, the body 
is wingless and laterally compressed , the head is 
small and bent forwr ds , and the antennae are 
short, with from 2 to 4 joints. The thorax and ab- 
domen are not distinctly separated. The legs are 
long, and the hind legs are thick, and formed for 
leaping. They live parasltically on men and animals, 
and suck their blood, and the larva; live among de- 
caying substances, between the cracks of boards &c. 



Fig. n. Pidex irritans. The common Flea is 
an oval reddish brown insect. The small whitish 
larvffl change to pupae in a silken cocoon. 

Fig. o. Sarcopsylla penetrans , the Chigoe, is 
very small, and the proboscis is as long as the body. 
It lives in sandy places in South America, and bur- 
rows in the flesl. , often between the toes or under 
the nails, causing udngerous ulcers if neglected, both 
in man and beast. 



Order V. Neuroptera. 

Plate XXIV (right side). 



i9\ * V' 



The Neuroptera have a rather long body, four 
membraaous wings , which are usually of similar 
texture, and traversed by net-like, or else by longi- 
tudinal nervures. The jaws are usually formed for 
biting , and the insects are carnivorous in all their 
stages. The larva; live in the water, in dry ground, 
or on trees. 

The metamorphosis is complete or incomplete ; 
in the former case, the larva and pupa are dissimilar 
to the perfect insect, and the pupa is quiescent ; in 
the latter , the larva resembles the perfect insect, 
except that it is wingless when it quits the egg. 
As it grows it moults several times, and at the last 
moult before assuming the perfect state it acquires 
the rudiments of wings. It is then called a pupa, 
though it still continues to move and eat; and when 
it casts off this skin, the perfect insect appears. 

In the first families of Neuroptera , the meta- 
morphosis is 
complete ; and 
in the others 

incomplete. 
Those with in- 
complete me- 
tamorphoses 
are frequently 
included by 
modern wri- 
ters with the 
Orthoptera, 
though the 
propriety of 
this arrange- 
ment may be 
doubted. 

Family I. 

Phryganidae. 

(Caddis - flies.) 
These insects 
often resemble 
moths. They 

have long 
simple anten- 
n£e, two ocelli, 
the wings are frequently hairy instead of scaly, and the 
hind wings are folded, and shorter than the fore wings. 
The larva; construct cases for themselves of different 
materials, in which they creep about at the bottom of 
the water. Some are composed of fine grains of sand, 
others of very small shells, and others again of bits of 
wood or straw, which are arranged either crosswise or 
lengthwise. In these cases the larvte live and change 
to pupte, when they close the entrance with a lattice- 
work formed of thin layers of brown silk. 








Phryganca graiidis and larva 



Fig. 1. Phryganea grandis, the largest species, 
is by no means uncommon. It has ashy-grey fore 
wings with brown markings, and the hind wings are 
transparent, with yellowish brown nervures. The 
larva; live in standing or running water, and make 
themselves cases of the stalks of leaves. 

F'amily II. Sialidae. The wings are coloured, 
and the hind wings are broader at the base than the 
fore wings , but are not folded. The antennte are 
simple, and longer than the head, 
Sialis lutariiis has a dark 
brown body , and light brown 
wings with dark nervures. The 
perfect insect is carnivorous, and 
flies about heavily near .water. 
The larva lives in water, but when 
about to become a pupa, it creeps out on the bank. 
Family III. Raphiidse. (Snake-Flies.) The 

prothorax is 
long and nar- 
row, as is also 
the neck, which 
bears the small 
head. The 
carnivorous 
larvae frequent 
the bark of 
trees. 

Fig. p. 
Rapkidia opiii- 
opsis is dark 
brown , with 
yellow stripes 
on the ab- 
domen. It is 
usually found 
among trees 
and bushes, 
where the larva 
destroys num- 
bers of inju- 
rious insects. 
FamiK- IV. 

Panorpidae. 

(Scorpion-Flies.) The head is provided with a long 
beak , and the abdomen of the male terminates in 
a forceps. The wings have only a few veins , and 
are either of equal length , or the hind wings are 
the longest. 

Fig. o. Panorpa communis has a dark body, 
and dark brown bands and spots on the wings. The 
beak, and the forceps of the male are red. The 
flies are found about bushes and hedges, where thcv 
and their larvae prey on other insects. 



36 



Family V. Hemerobiidae. The body and wings 
are slender, the antenn;c long and simple, and the 
eyes round. The jaws are small. The perfect in- 
sects have a weak flight, and a disagreable smell. 
The larvre are found on leaves , where they feed on 
Aphides. 

Fig. m. CItiysopa pcrla, the Lace-winged Fly, 
has a greenish-yellow body and glassy iridescent 
wings with green nervures. It fixes its eggs to leaves 
singly , on long stalks. Tiie active larva is so 
voracious that it has been called the Lion of the 
Aphides. 

Family VI. Myrmeleonidae. The Ant-lions are 
very like the dragonflics in shape, but the abdomen 
is shorter in proportion, and the antennre are clubbed 
at the tip. The larvje which live in sand , take 
two years to attain their full growth. There are 
no British species of this or of the following family. 

Fig. n. Myymclcon formicarius has a dark grey 
body, with pale spots on the head and thorax. The 
segments of the abdomen are also bordered with 
paler behind. The wings are transparent, reticulated 
and spotted with brown. The perfect insect rests 
with sloping wings during the day, and does not fly 
about till sunset. The larva , the real Ant-lion , is 
short and thick, about three-quarters of an inch long, 
and digs itself a circular pitfall in the sand , from 
which only its jaws project in the middle. Here it 
lies in ambush , till an ant or some other insect 
falls into the pit , when it seizes it , and sucks out 
its juices. If the insect does not fall to the bottom, 
and tries to escape, the -ant-lion throws up showers 
of sand with its shovel-shaped head, until the prey 
falls to the bottom of the pit. When it has sucked 
the insect dry , it jerks the empty skin out of the 
pit in the same way. The species figured is com- 
mon in many parts of Central and Southern Europe 
during the summer. 

Family VII. Ascalaphidse. In these insects, 
the antennae are long, and clubbed at the end. The 
abdomen is oval , and the wings are broad. The 
hind wings are frequently blotched with black and 
yellow, which increases their resemblance to a butter- 
fly. The larvse resemble those of the Ant-lions, bijt 
construct no pitfalls. 

Family VIII. Perlidae. The Stone-flies have 




Perla hicaiiilala. 

reticulated wings, the hind wings being as long as 
the fore wings, and the abdomen is broad, and ter- 



minates in two short filaments. The antennae are 
moderately long. The metamorphosis is complete. 

Perla bicaudata has a brownish-yellow thorax 
bordered with darker, a reddish yellow head, and a 
brownish yellow abdomen. The wings are yellowish, 
but transparent, and the nervures are darker. They 
prefer the neighbourhood of running brooks. The 
female lays her eggs in the water , and the carni- 
vorous larva; hide under stones and in crevices. 

Family IX. Ephemeridae. The organs of the 
mouth are very imperfectly developed , the antennae 
are moderately long , and the fore wings are much 
longer than the hind wings. The abdomen is long 
and rather slender , with 2 or 3 long terminal fila- 
ments. The larva; and pupae live for several months, 
or perhaps a year or two, in the water, and have 
horny jaws. The perfect insects are seen flying over 
water , often in immense swarms , but only live a 
few hours. 

Fig. k. Ep/ictiicra vnlgata, the common May- 
fly, is one of the larger species. It is brown, and 
the body is dark yellow, with three 
rows of orange spots. The wings are 
transparent , pale brown , and spotted. 
The larvae are carnivorous, and live in 
crevices washed by the water. They 
only differ from the pups in wanting 
the rudiments of wings. When they 
have arrived at maturity, they quit the 1 
water, but it is very curious that after 
the perfect fly emerges, it moults again, 
even to the wing-coverings , which is 
not the case with any other insects. 
The Mayflies are most abundant at the 
end of May , and at the beginning 
of June. 

Palingciiia horaria is another species, which is 
not British , but is often seen in great abundance 
on the Continent in August. It 
is milkwhite , with the front of 
the head, the eyes and the front 
legs partly black , and the front 
edge of the fore wings grey. It 
often flies to lamps near the banks 
of rivers in countless thousands. 

Family X. Libellulidse. The Dragonflies have 
long slender bodies , and nctlikc wings , which are 
generally transparent. They have a large head and 
powerful javi's, but very short antenna;. The larvfE 
live in water and have a curiously constructed 
movable lower lip ; and the perfect insect is also 
generally found near water, though the larger species, 
which have a very powerful flight, are frequently met 
with at a considerable distance from it. The Dragon- 
flies feed voraciously on other insects in all their stages. 

Fig. j. Caloptoyx virgo , the Damsel-Fly, is 
very abundant flying over water. The male is blue, 
and the wings are transparent at the base and at 
the tip. The female has a metallic green body and 
brown wings. The larva lives in water, and changes 
to a pupa with the rudi- 
ments of wings, while still 
quite young and small, after 
which it continues to grow 5% 
considerably. ^„, 

Agrion piiclla is a much J|*" 
smaller insect, with trans- ^VsiX^ 
parent wings. The male is fe 
blue, spotted with bronze, %- 
and the female is bronze spotted with blue. It is 
very common about brooks throughout the summer. 






37 



j^shna cyanca is one of the commonest of 
the larger dragonflies. It is brown , with yellow 
markings on the thorax , and blue or yellow spots 
on the abdomen. The wings are transparent. 

Libclhtla deprcssa is another large species, but 
of a different shape to the last. The thorax is brown, 
and the abdomen, which is short, broad and flat, is 
blue in the male and yellow in the female. The 
wings are transparent, with the base brown. 

Family XI. Psocidae. These little insects are 
exclusively found on land. The wings are very long, 
with only a few veins, and 
slope over the oval body. 

Psocus lineahis has 
long black antenna , and 
a yellow body, with black 
rings on the abdomen. It 
is found on tree-trunks and 
planks. 

Family XII. Termitidae. The Termites, Hke 
the ants, live in large conmiunities in nests. They 




She is wingless, and is said to lay 8o,ooo eggs in a 
day. Besides the ordinary working larvae, there is 
a small number of another form , with larger heads 
and stronger jaws. They are called soldiers, for they 
do not work, but defend the nest. The termites' nest 
contains many rooms for eggs and provisions , be- 
sides galleries, bridges &c. When the Termites find 
their way to anything which they can eat, they de- 
stroy it in an amazingly short time, and will destroy 
whole chestsful of clothes, books &c. in a few hours. 
In the year 1814 they undermined the palace of the 
governor of Calcutta to such an extent that it fell 
in ; for they destroy all woodwork from the inside. 
These animals, destructive as they are, are useful 
in hot countries, where all refuse begins to putrefy 
immediately ; for this they destroy. Their numbers 
must be reckoned by millions. As soon as all the 
larva; and pupae have been transformed into winged 
insects , they fly up into the air in a swarm , and 
drop down in other places. At these times great 
numbers of animals and birds feed upon them, and 
they are frequently used even for human food. 




Lil>ju'u-a iii/'/cssa and pup;;. 

may be divided into the following classes : i) winged 
males and females, with a round head and moderately 
long abdomen ; 2) the fertilised female , with an 
enormously swollen abdomen , which lays eggs by 
the hundred thousand ; 3) wingless larvse^ which per- 
form the work of the nest ; 4) wingless and eyeless 
soldiers, with strong pointed jaws. The males and 
females soon cast their wings. 

The Termites inhabit warm countries , where 
they build large conical and pyramidal nests com- 
posed of clay and fragments of wood , which are 
often 15 or 20 yards in circumference , and 3 or 
4 yards high. They are so strong, that a man can 
stand upon them without their yielding ; and the 
most violent storms do not injure them. In the in- 
terior of the nest are two large chambers, containing 
a female and several males. When the female is 
ready to lay eggs , she attains an immense size. 



.Lsliiui cyaiiLii and pupa. 

Figs, q., r. We have figured the sexes of Tcrincs 
angustatns, a native of South Africa ; and also Teiuies 
billicosns (which inhabits West Africa) with its nest 

The following families are aberrant , and are' 
sometimes treated as separate Orders. Except the 
first , they are all wingless insects , which undergo 
no proper metamorphoses. 

Family XIII. Thrlpidae. These insects are 
sometimes placed with the Orthoptcra, or in an Order 
by themselves called Thysanoptcra. The body is 
small and narrow , the wings are narrow , and have 
long fringes , the legs are short , and the feet are 
very imperfectly developed. They live on leaves 
and flowers , feeding on the upper cuticle , and leap 
by bending the abdomen. 

The species figured , Thrips vulgatissima , is 
dark brown with white wings. It lives in the 
calyces of garden-flowers. (See next page.) 



38 



Thrips cerealinin is very destructive to corn. 
These little black insects may be seen 
resting on the ears of wheat, barley, and 
rye, in May and June, sometimes 30 or 
40 together. They suck the ears 
and stalks , and cause them to 
wither. The insects , which are at 
first apterons , hibernate and lay their 
eggs in spring. 

Family XIV. Phylophloidae. This is 
one of the families of Mallophaqa, or Bird 
Lice, which differ from the other lice in being man- 





scales, which is found in store houses , larder."? and 
crevices. 

Family XVI. Podu- 
ridae. The Colkvibola to 
which this family be- 
longs, have a shorter ab- Silver-Fish, 
domen than the Thysaimra, and their legs, antennse 
and leaping apparatus are 
also generally shorter. They 
live in damp places under ^^ 
fallen leaves, in rotten wood, 
in water, or even on ice or snow. One of the most 




^l'/''^^>'^_^^ 




^S^^S^^^^^-S^^'" 



Nest of Termes belhcorus. 



dibulate insects. We have figured Goniodes falci- 
cornis, a yellow species, spotted with brown 
on the sides, which infests the peacock. 




Family XV. Lepismatidae, The Spring- 
tails are typical of the Thysanura. They 
have a soft body, clothed with a fine dust, and the 
abdomen is provided with an apparatus for leaping. 

Lepisvia saccJiarina , the Silver Fish , is a 
slender active insect, covered with silvery white 



Winged male Workers. 

remarkable is Isotoiiia saltans, the Glacier Flea, a 
little black hairy 
insect , which 
abounds on the 
glaciers of the 
Alps. 

Podura villosa 
is a reddish-brown 
species with black 
bands , which is found under fallen leaves. 




Order VI. Orthoptera. 



Plate XXIV 

The Orthoptera have imperfect metamorphoses, 
and the pupa is active. The fore wings (or teg- 
mina) are much harder and narrower than the hind 
wings , and the hind legs are generally fitted for 
leaping. They are mandibuiate insects, and are mostly 
vegetable feeders. 

Family I. Forficulidae. In the Earwigs the 
body is long and provided with a forceps behind. 
The antennrc are filiform, and the wings are large, 
and folded inwards under the short wing-cases. 
They are very destructive to flowers and fruit. 

Fig. a. For_fic7tla auricularia is brown , and 
the forceps of the male is dentated. The insect 



(right side). • 

hides in crevices during the day, and is only active 
at night. 

Family II. Blattidae. The Cockroaches have 
a flattened body, a broad head, often concealed 
under the thorax, and long legs. The tegmina over- 
lap, and the wings are longitudinally folded. They 
run about actively in all their stages. The eggs are 
laid by the female in a single mass, which she car- 
ries about with her half-laid for some hours. 

Fig. b. Blatta oriciitalis, the Common Cock- 
roach is a very troublesome insect, which is abundant 
in kitchens and bake-houses, especially near the hearth, 
for it loves warmth. In the night, the Cockroaches 



39 



cmerae from their hiding-pl-ices , and devour any food 
which they may find lying about ; they will even gnaw 
wet shoes and woollen fabrics, but if anybody comes 
with a light, they scurry away to their hiding-places. 
They are about an inch long, and the female is wingless. 
Family III. Mantidae. In the Praying Insects 
the head is vertical, the prothorax is long and slender, 
and the front pair of legs are dentated, and used as 
prehensile organs , the other pairs being fitted for 
walking. 

Fig. c. Mantis religiosa is grass-green, and 
very variable in 
size ; it feeds on 
other insects. It 
is common in 
South Europe 
and in Africa 
and waits for 
prey on bushes, 
with its fore legs 
extended. 

Family IV. 

Phasmidae. The 

Stick Insects are 
very remarkable 
for the great 
length of their 
slender bodies. 
Their legs are 
all fitted for 
walking. They 
are chiefly na- 
tives of the tro- 
jiics , and live 
among bushes 
and underwood. 
They so much 
resemble their 

surroundings 
that they can 
hardly be no- 
ticed by their 
enemies when 
resting during 
the day, for they 
feed on vege- 
table food at 
night. 

One or two 
small species of 
PhasmidcE (ab- 
out three inches 
long) are found 
in Europe on 
the shores of the 
Mediterranean, 
but the tropical 
species are fat 
more remark- 
able. As a re- Ceraocrana Papuana. 
presentative we have figured Ceraocrana papitatia, 
which is found in New Guinea. « It has very short 
tegmina, but the wings are of enormous size. The 
legs are long, slender and strongly dntaact. 

Fhylliuin siccifolinm is a green insect, common 
in the East Indies , which is remarkable for its 
resemblance to a leaf. The wings are not so long 
as the abdomen. Several species of these Walking 
Leaves are found in Asia and Africa. 

Fam.V. Gryllidae. In the Crickets, the head is large 
and vertical, without ocelli, the hind legs are long and 




thick, and the tegmina are shorter than the wings. The 
male chirps by rubbing the tegmina together. 

Fig. f. Gryllns donusticiis, the House Cricket, 
is common in many houses, generally seeking shelter 
near the hearth, and only coming out at night. It 
is of a dull yellow colour. 

Fig. g. Grylliis campcstris , the Field Cricket, 
is much larger and darker coloured than the last 
species. It makes burrows in dry grassy places, and 
is very active, it is very scarce in England. 

Fio. e. Gryllotalpa vulgaris, the Mole Cricket, 

is rarely seen 
on the surface 
of the ground. 
It has Targe 
shovel - shaped 
front legs like 
a mole, which 
ituses to burrow 
in a similar man- 
ner ; and it is a 
very destructive 
insect, for it de- 
stroys the roots 
of grass and 
plants by bur- 
rowing , even 
though its food 
may partly con- 
sist of other in- 
sects &c. 

Family VI. 
PhasgonuridaB. 
In this family 
the head is verti- 
cal , and round 

or triangular, 
the antenme are 
long and slender 
and the jaws 

are powerful. 
The wings and 

tegmina are 
equally long. 
The hind legs 
are long and 
thick, and fitted 
for leaping, and 
the female has 
a long ovipo- 
sitor. 

F"ig.d. Flias- 
goniira viridis- 
siina, the Great 
Green Grass- 
hopper, is not 
uncommon in 
meadows and 
cornfields , but 
t'lixiinim sn'iijouum. is very likely to 

elude observation by its green colour, especially as 
it rarely uses its wings , but leaps from stalk to 
stalk. The males chirp. The female lays her eggs 
in the ground. 

Family VII. LocustidaB. The Grasshoppers and 
true Locusts are distinguished from the last family 
by their short antenna. The head is vertical, and 
the antennje are cylindrical. The wings and teg- 
mina are equally long, and the hind legs are adapted 
for leaping. The ovipositor of the female is shorter 
and broader than in the last family, and she digs a 



40 



hole in the ground in which she deposits her eggs. 
The males chirp loudly. 

Fig. h. Locnsta migratoria , the Migratory 
Locust, has grey tegmina spotted with brown , and 
the wings are greenish. The hind femora are dark 
green, and the tibiae brownish-red. They are only 
occasional visitors in England. The eggs , to the 
number of 150, are laid in hard clusters near the 
surface of the ground , and hatch in the following 



spring. The larvae moult five times, and are full- 
grown about Midsummer. They are most destructive 
in all their stages, for they eat down grass and corn to the 
roots, and destroy everything which comes in their way. 
Fig. i. Qidipoda striditliim is a conspicuous 
insect on the Continent by its red wings, but is not 
found in England. It flies with a grating sound in 
vineyards and dry slopes, and might be mistaken for 
a butterfly on the wing, from its bright colour. 



Order VII. Hemiptera. 




:tl thorax, b) coriuni. c) membrane, 
d) hind wing, e) Bcutellum. 



Plate XXV 

The Hemipte}-a have generally four wings, which 
are not scaly. They have a long proboscis , with 
which they suck the juices of plants, and sometimes 
of animals. They are divided into three large sections. 

Section I. Heteroptera. 

In the true Bugs, the antennae are of moderate 
length, and often angulated ; the body is compressed, 
and often broad, the scutel- 
lum is large, and the front 
wings are horny at the base, 
and membranous at the tip ; 
the hind wings are also 
membranous. A few species 
are apterous. Many of them 
exhale an unpleasant odour. 
Most species live on plants; 
those which are aquatic are 
carnivorous. 

Family I. Pentatotnidae. The body is generally 
short , broad and smooth , and the antennas are 
placed on each side of the head, with the base of 
the proboscis between them. The scutellum is very 
large, sometimes almost entirely covering the wings 
when they are closed. 

Fig. u. GrapJtosoma Uneatnm is striped with 
red and black above , and is red with black spots 
beneath. The antennae and legs are black. It is 
common on umbelliferous plants in Central and 
Southern Europe, but is not British. 

Fig. V. Tropicoris rufipcs is one of the com- 
monest species of the family on grass and bushes. 
It is dark brown , with reddish spots on the sides 
of the abdomen, and at the end of the scutellum, 
and lias red legs. The shoulders are very prominent. 

Fig. w. Pcntatoiiia baccanuii is reddish brown 
and is clothed with fine hair. It is fond of various kinds 
of berries, to which it imparts a disagreable flavour. 

E2irydema ornatum is found on Bitter-Cress, and 
lias a yellowish thorax spotted with black. The 
scutellum is red with a black spot , and the wings 
are very variable in colour, sometimes red and some- 
times black. 

Family II. Coreidse. These insects have a long 
body and a small head. The proboscis is provided 
with a long sheath, and the antennae are longer than 
the head. 

Fig. X. Syromastcs margiiiatus is yellowish 
brown speckled with black. It is found on bushes 
Ki all parts of Europe , and hibernates in the per- 
fect state. 

Family III. Pyrrhocoridae. The form is oval, 
and the head projects between the antennas in an 
obtusely-pointed triangle. The wings are imperfectly 
developed, and sometimes absent. 



(left side). 

Fig. y. Pyrrkocoris aptcrus is common at the 
foot of old lime trees and nut trees. The legs are black, 
and the body and wings are varied with red and black. 

Family IV. Lygaidae. These bugs, which much 
resemble those of the last family , are generally to 
be found under stones and moss. 

Fig. z. LygcEiis cqucstris is a red and black 
species which is sometimes found in great numbers 
in the rotten trunks of oak-trees. It is , however, 
very rare in England, if found at all. 

Family V. Cimicidae. The species are round 
or oval, and smooth , with a small head. The pro- 
boscis is enclosed in a short sheath, and the legs 
and antennae are of moderate length. The wings 
are frequently undeveloped. 

Fig. aa. Civiex Icctularius , the Bed-Bug , is 
reddish brown with short black hairs. It hides in 
crevices by day, and comes out at- night to suck 
blood. It emits a very disagreable odour. It is 
now found all over the world , but is probably ori- 
ginally a native of Africa. 

Family VI. Reduviidae. The Wheel-Bugs have 
the head long and narrow at the base like a neck, 
a short proboscis , and long slender antennae. The 
fore wings have only a few nervures , and the legs 
are usuallly long. 

Fig. bb. Redtivins personatiis feeds on other 
insects. It is greyish brown, with red legs. During 
the day it hides in crevices, or under bark or moss, 
and comes out at night in search of other insects, 
on which it preys. The larvae are very hairy , and 
live among rubbish. 

Family VII. Hydrometridae. The body is long, 
as well as the legs and antenna;, but the wings are 
generally rudimentary or absent. The fore wings are 
of a leathery texture throughout. 

Fig. cc. Hydroiiictra palndtiin is a dark brown 
species which runs and leaps with great agility on the 
surface of standing water, and feeds on other insects. 

Family VIII. Nepidae. The Water Scorpions 
have a small round head, and a strong curved pro- 
boscis. The legs are long and bare , and the front 
legs , which are used to seize prey , somewhat re- 
semble the pincers of a scorpion. 

Fig. dd. Nepa cinerea is a brown insect, with 
a red abdomen which is usually concealed by the 
wings. They creep^ slowly at the bottom of stag- 
nant water, and fly about at night. 

Family IX. Notonectidae. The Water Boatmen 
have a very short broad head, and the hind legs are 
long and fringed, and serve as oars. 

Fig. ee. Notonecta glaitca is black, with the 
head and thorax whitish. The wings are yellowish- 
brown with brown spots. The belly is smooth and 
hairy, and the back is boat-shaped. It is an excellent 
swimmer, and rows itself about very rapidly on its back. 



41 




Section II. Homopterae. 

In the Homoptcra , the wings are of uniform 
consistency throughout, and the fore and hind wings 
are generally similar. The antennas are usually short. 
Family X. CicadidSB. The Cicadidxr have a 
broad head with large eyes and a long proboscis. 
The fore wings are considerably longer than the hind 
wings. There are two cavities on the undersurface 
of the first segment of the abdomen, at the base of 
which a membrane is stretched, which is contracted 
by a strong muscle, by which the insects are able 
to produce a loud singing. 

Cicada orni is common in Southern Europe on 
the manna- 
yielding ash. ^, , . -> .^M»--^-ar^ • - —-. ^ 
It is yellowish ^^'f-::^^-':S^iw?^ -_- ^,Ot 
with the seg- 
ments of the 
abdomen 
bordered 

with red, and a row of black spots on the fore wings. 
Fig. hh. Taciia speciosa is a magnificent insect 
found in the East Indies, which makes a drumming 
which can be heard for a very long distance. 

Family XI. FulgoridSB. The Lantern and Candle 
Flies have a long head which is often produced in- 
to a spine or a bladder. The wings are generally 
coloured. The large species are natives of hot cli- 
mates, and are now believed not to be luminous, as 
was formerly asserted. 

Fig. gg. Fidgora laternaria, the largest species, 
is a native of South America, and is very remarkable 
for the immense protuberance on its head. The Indi- 
ans believe that it can inflict a dangerous wound 
with its proboscis. 

Fig. ff. Dictyophora cjiropcra is an illustration 
of a European species with a somewhat similar ex- 
crescense. 

Family XII. Membracidae. In these insects, the 
head is vertical, or even bent downwards and in- 
wards, and the prothorax is ornamented with large 
spines and protuberances. The fore wings are gene- 
rally membranous. 

Fig. ii. Centrotus conintus is found in woods 
on ferns and bushes, especially hazel. It is dull black, 
with white hairs, and is about a quarter of an inch 
long. The wings are brownish hyaline. 

Family XIII. Cercopidae. The body is gene- 
rally short, and the head horizontal. The larvae suck 
the juice of low plants, and then discharge it, so 
that they are entirely surrounded with froth. 

Fig. kk. Aphrophora spumaria is greyish brown 
with two yellow bands on the wings , and is very 
common, but it leaps so quickly that it is not easy 
to catch. Its froth-covered larva is called the 
Cuckoo-Spit, and is found everywhere on grass and 
bushes. 

P'ig. II. Ccrcopis sangninolcnta is a pretty little 
red and black insect which is likewise common upon 
flowers and bushes. It is about a quarter of an inch 
long, and leaps very well. 

Family XIV. Aphidae. The Plant-Iicc are small 
soft little insects with oval bodies, filiform antenna;, 
with from 5 to 7 joints , and generally two short 
tubes at the extremity of the abdomen, through 
which they discharge a sweet fluid, which is known 
as honey-dew. They are found on the leaves of 
various plants in great numbers in spring and sum- 




mer. These broods are wingless , and reproduce 
their kind asexually, and are much sought after by 
ants for the sake of the honey-dew. In the autumn, 
perfect males and females are developed, with deli- 
cate wings. The Aphides are very injurious to the 
plants which they inlest, but have many enemies, 
especially the Ladybirds and Lace-winged Flies. They 
are also liable to the attacks of parasites. 

Fig. mm. Aphis roscE is a dark green species 
with raised wings, which is often 
seen in great numbers on the 
young shoots of roses, when the 
leaves curl up. The figure repre- 
sents a wingless female. 

Lachmts pniictatus is an ashy 
grey insect, with a row of black satiny dots on the 
abdomen. It may be found in early spring on the 
shoots of the willow. 

Fig. nn. Schizoneiira /a>iigera , the American 
Blight, is one of the greatest pests to our apple- 
trees. The wingless females are covered with wool, 
and lay their eggs at the end of autumn, while some 
hibernate in the chinks of the bark. The young 
insects fix themselves to the branches, and drain the 
bark of the sap, especially in the case of the more 
delicate trees, in which the stems swell, the bark 
drops off, and the trees die. The colonies soon 
multiply a hundredfold , and cover the branfhes 
with their white wool. Many remedies have been 
suggested, some very simple (soap-suds, for instance). 
Fig. do. Phylloxera vastatrix, the Vine Aphis 
is also said to have been imported from America. 
It is a terrible pest, and destroys whole vineyards, 
and appears in two broods, one above and one beneath 
the ground. Other Aphides assume the winged 
form, and pair in autumn; but with this species 
it is different. Here the winged form is asexual, 
and gives birth to pup;c from which sexual 
forms are developed in autumn, which pair imme- 
diately, and lay eggs which do not hatch till the 
following spring. In April, the young Aphides chmb 
to the leaves, and form small galls, in which they 
lie hid till June. After several moults and several 
broods, large egg-laying individuals appear in autumn, 
either from the subterranean or from the aerial brood, 
which either lay their eggs above ground under bark, 
or hibernate at the roots. 

The Phylloxera: beneath the ground suck the 
roots, causing knotty excrescences, and they mul- 
tiply prodigiously through an indefinite number of 
generations if warmth and food do not fail them. 
It is very difficult to destroy them, as the winged 
forms carry the pest to other vineyards. 

Family XV. Coccidae. The Scale Insects have 
long antennae, and a short proboscis only present 
in the female. The two-winged male undergoes a 
perfect metamorphosis, while that of the wingless 
female is incomplete. They are inactive plant-feed- 
ing insects, and some of the southern species yield 
a brilliant red dye. 

Fig. pp. Coccus Cacti. We have figured the 
female of the Cochineal Insect. It is carefully reared 
in Mexico, South America, and the West Indies for 
the sake of the crimson dye which is obtained from it. 
The male is blood-red, with milk-white wings. 

Section III. Anoplura. 

The Lice are small insects with flat semitrans- 
parent bodies, in which there is no distinct division 



42 



between the thorax and abdomen. The antennae are 
short, the eyes small, and the mouth is furnished 
with a retractile proboscis. They are parasites on 
the bodies of men and other animals, and lay their 
eggs (called nits) on the hair. 

Fcdicn/iis capitis which lives in the hair of the 
human head, is pale grey. The female lays fifty 



eggs, which hatch in six days; and the young lay 
eggs themselves in eighteen days more. 

The Bird-Lice , as an example of /3ifc^. 
which we have figured Mcuops pallidiiin, ^ 
the Poultry Louse, belong to another section 
(Mallophaga), and are sometimes rather inappropriately 
placed among the Nairoptcra. 




Class Arachnida. 



Plate XXllI (right side). 



Wingless animals, without antennfc. The body 
is either separated into cephalothorax and abdomen, 
or is undivided. They breathe by means of lungs 
or trachea.'. The eyes are simple , but differ much 
in number und position. The skin is generally soft 
and leathery^ and there are four pairs of jointed legs. 



Most of the species live on land , though some art 
aquatic. Some feed on the juices of animals, and 
others are parasitic. Most of the species are vora- 
cious , and many are venomous. There is no 
metamorphosis , but they undergo a succession of 
moults. 



Order I. Arthrogastra. 



The abdomen is jointed, and fused with Ihc 
rest* of the body. The skin is hard, and the palpi 
resemble pincers or claws. The animals are carni- 
vorous, and generally prefer dark places. 

Family I. Scorpionidse. The cephalothorax is 
shield-like, and the abdomen is cylindrical, jointed, 
swollen at the end , and provided with a curved 
sting, which has an opening at the extremity com- 
municating with a poison-gland. The palpi are many- 
jointed, and terminate in pincers with which the animals 
seize their prey. They breathe through lungs, and 
produce their young alive. The largest and most 
venomous scorpions are found in hot countries, but 
there are a few small and comparatively harmless spe- 
cies in the South of Europe. One of these is 

Fig. d. Aiidroctonus occitanicus , which is 
brownish yellow, with the tip of the tail black. ,It 
is found on the shores of the Mediterranean , espe- 
cially in South b'rance and Spain. 

Fam. II. Pseudoscorpionidae. These are small noc- 
turnal animals, with a cylindrical, many-jointed abdomen 
and pincer-like palpi. They are found in dry places. 



Fig. e. C/iiiifir caiicroidcs is reddish-brown 
with a broad abdomen, and is found among herbaria, 
in old books, and in similar situations, where it feeds 
on mites &c., and often attaches itself by its claws 
to the legs of flies, which thus convey it from place 
to place. 

Family III. Phalangiidae. In the Harvest Men 
all the portions of the body are fused together. The 
abdomen is jointed, and the legs are very long and 
slender. They have only two eyes, and no spinning- 
glands. They are nocturnal animals. The legs are 
easily broken off, and continue to jerk for some little 
time afterwards. 

Plialangiiiin 
opilio has a body 
about the size of a 
pea, and very long 
and slender legs, 
conspicuous pincers, 
and filiform palpi. 
It is common everywhere, and feeds on small insects 




Order II. Araneida. 



In the Spiders, the jointed abdomen is separated 
from the cephalothorax. They have hooked upper 
jaws, no antennte, a pair of pedipalpi , four pairs 
of true legs, more than two eyes, and one or more 
pairs of spinnerets on the abdomen. They are covered 
with a soft but tough skin, and they breathe by means 
of lungs or tracheae. Spiders are to be found every- 
where, and spin their webs in every corner. They 
prey upon living animals, which they either capture 
openly , or ensnare in their nets. They lay eggs, 
which are often found enclosed in very artificially- 
constructed cases ; but the young spiders undergo 
no metamorphosis. They resemble the old ones, but 
grow very slowly. 

Family I. Territellahae. The Trap-door and 
Bird-eating Spiders have 4 spinnerets and 8 eyes. 
They are large and hairy, with large pedipalpi and 



palpi. They live in burrows in the ground, which 
they line with silk, and often close with a trap-door, 
or else they live in crevices. They seize their prey 
by leaping upon it. 

Tlicrapliosa aviciilaria is a very large South 
American spider, which hides in hollow trees, and 
sometimes feeds on small birds. The body is short 
and very hairy, and the legs are very long and strong. 

Family II. Citrigradae. The Hunting Spiders 
are of large size, and have 8 eyes and short hair. 
They live in holes, and leap upon their prey. 

Fig. f. Lycosa tarantula is a large hairy spider, 
common in Italy and on the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean generally, which was formerly much dreaded 
for its poisonous bite, which was supposed to pro- 
duce convulsive dancinfj. 



43 



Family III. Saltigradae. The Jumping Spiders 
leap upon tlu-ir pre}-, and drag them back to their nests. 




;^OOb 





surrounded with a silvery bubble of air , which 
is retained by the hairs of the body and a varnish- 



Salticus scenictis is foimd about walls ,and is 
often seen in sunny places very early in the spring. 

Family IV. Rctitclaricr. The Gossamer Spiders 
spin lose threads or net-like webs , and some of 
the species float about in them in autumn. 

Fig. g. Linvphia montana makes its nest on 
fences or in old houses, or among heath. 

Family V. Tubitelariae. The House Spiders 
have X eyes arranged in 2 rows. They spin webs 
with cylindrical cells in which they catch their prey. 

Fig. h. Tcgcnaria 
doiiicstica is greyish 
brown with two brown 
streaks on the cephalo- 
thorax. The belly is 
ash-coloured , spotted 
with black. The male 
is smaller than the fe- 
male. The web is purse- 
like , and is generally 
spun in a corner be- 
tween two wals. 

Argyro)icta aqiia- 
tica, the Water Spider, 
makes a silky nest in 
the water, in with it 
lives. The eyes in 
the middle are arranged 
in a triangle, and the 
lateral ones obliquely. 
It is found in stagnant 
or gently flowing water, 
where it makes it's nest 
among the water-plants. 
The nest is bell-shaped, 
of the size of half a 
pigeon's egg, with the 
opening downwards. 
The spider comes to the liird-killing Spider {Th. 

surface of the water to breathe, and when it climbs 
down again into the water along the plants, it is 





like covering. This bubble it sets free in its nest, 
which thus gradually becomes filled with air , so 

that the spider can live 
dry in the water. It feeds 
on small water-animals. 
Family VI. Orbi- 
teiarise. In the Garden 
Spiders, the abdomen 
is large , and is fur- 
nished with 6 spin- 
nerets. The nests are 
regularly formed of radi- 
atingand concentrically 
intersecting threads. 

Fig. i. Epcira 
diadevia, the Garden 
Spider, is a large rust- 
coloured spider , with 
a white cross bordered 
with black on the 
back ; but it sometimes 
varies in colour. It 
makes very ingenious- 
ly constructed webs. 
In fine 'weather, the 
spider sits in the middle 
of its web, and rushes 
out to seize any in- 
sect which may have 
been caught , when it 
n-apliosa avUi(laiia)\\ quickly entangles it in a 

few threads, and then sucks it dry. In bad weather and 
at night it retires to some hiding place near the web. 



Order III. Acarina. 



The Mites are small , and often microscopic 
animals. The body is not divided, and the abdomen 
is not jointed. The body is generally oval , and is 
often provided with bristles or other appendages. 
The palpi are free, and composed of several joints, 
and the number of eyes varies according to the 
species. There are mites with 3 or 4 pairs of 
legs , of which the front pair is used for grasping. 
The mites hide themselves under stones and in moss, 
or on plants, animals &c. Some are parasitic , and 
a few spin a w^eb. 

Family I. Trombidiidae. The Ground Mites are 
small red or yellow mites, with long slender legs 
Some have no eyes , others have 2 , 4 or 6, either 
sessile or stalked. They run rather fast. They are 



The young are generally 



found among moss &c. 
parasitic on insects. 

Family II. Hydrachnidae.. The 
Water Mites are very small , and 
are of aquatic habits. 

Fig. k. Hydraclina geoi^ra- 
phica is very prettily marked with 
red. When young , it generally 
lives attached to the legs of the 
Water Skorpion. 

Family III. Gamasidse. The 
Insekts Mites have a rater long 
body, and legs varying in length, 
with 4 claws at the ends. There are no eyes. They live 
parasitically on beetles, humble-bees, birds and reptiles. 




Tromhidium lioloseri- 

cciim (magnified 80 

diameters ) 



44 



Fig. 1. Gaiiiasits Coleopteratorum is an oval 
reddish brown mite , which is often found in con- 
siderable numbers on dung beetles and burying 
beetles. 

Dcriiiaityssiis hintndiuis, the Swallow Mite, lives 
ni swallow's nests, and sometimes also attacks caged 
birds, pigeons and fowls. They hide themselves by 
day in the crevices of the nest or cage , and only 
attack the birds at night. 

Family IV. TyroglyphidaB. These 
small and mostly microscopic mites, 
with oval bristly bodies. 

Fig. m. Tyroglyphus sii-o , the 
Cheese Mite , is white and brownish, 
and about one-twenty-fifth of an inch 
long. It swarms in old cheese. 

Family V. Sarcoptidse. The Itch 

Mites are parasitic in the skin of man ,, , ,,., 

J ,, ' . , ,. . , . Itch Mite (Sar- 

and other anmials, or live m decaymg ^^^^^^ nominis) 

animal and vegetable matters. u^gnif. 8 diameiers. 



are very 




Sarcoptes hominis bores in the skin of man, 
and thus occasions the disorder known as the itch. 

Family VI. Ixodidae. The Ticks are of com- 
paratively large size. The proboscis is large and 
prominent , and the skin of the abdomen is folded 
and e.xtensile. They suck the blood of any animals 
which come to their way. 

Fig. n. Ixodes ricimis, the Dog-Tick, is of a 
leaden grey, and as large as a hemp-seed. It lurks 
in grass and bushes, and when it attaches itself to 
the skin of a passing animal, it sucks the blood till it 
swells itself to the size of a small bean. It is easily 
got rid of by rubbing with oil. 

Family VII. Derma- 

tophilidae. These are micro- 
scopic animals , which are 
parasitic in the skin. 

Dcrmodcx hoiuinis lives 
ill the sebaceous cavites at 




Dcrmodcx hominis 
(magnitied 600 diameters). 



the roots of hairs on the ears and nose of man. 



Class Myriopoda. 



Plate XXIII ( 
These animals Jiave long bodies composed of 
many nearly similar joints, each of which is provided 
with one or two pairs of legs. There is no division 
between thorax and abdomen. The head is distinct, 
and there are two antenna. The eyes are rudimentary. 
They breathe by means of trachea;. On quitting the 
egg, the creatures are without legs , or have only 
3 pairs of legs, and increase the number of their 
segments and legs at each moult. They live chiefly 
in dark damp places, or under stones, and feed on 
decaying animal and vegetable matters. 

Section 1. Chilopoda. 

In the Centipedes , each segment bears only 
one pair of legs. The antennae are long. The bite 
of the larger species is venomous. 

Fig. a. Scolopcndra luorsitaus is brown , and 
the segments arc of nearly equal length , the last 
with 3 spines. It lives in Central America, and is 
often brought to Europe in ships. Its bite causes 
great pain for a long time afterwards. 

Fig. b. Lithobiiis forficatus is greyish-brown 
with a reddish lustre, and has 14 pairs of legs. The 
segments are of unequal size. It is found under 
stones and in the ground, and feeds on worms. 



right hand). 

Section 



U. Chilognatha. 



In the Millepedes the body is wormlike or 
much flattened, and every segment is provided with 
2 pairs of legs. The antenn;e are short, and "-jointed. 
They feed on plants at night, and are found in all 
parts of the world. In Europe they are of moderate 
size, but in hot countries they often attain the length 
of nearly a foot. 

Family I. Julidae. These roll themselves up 
into a spiral form, and hibernate in this position. 

Julus tcncstris is ringed with )ellow, and has 




99 pairs of legs. It is found among dead leaves or 
under stones. 

Family II Glomeridae. These have long oval 
bodies, arched above, and 17 pairs of legs. 

Fig. c. Glomeris linibata is of a shining 
blackish brown with yellow rings It is a common 
species, and lives singly or in company under stones 
and fallen leaves. 



Class Crustacea. 



(Plate XXVII.) 



Among the large numbers of existing animals 
we frequently meet with small groups which are ex- 
tremely interesting to everyone who tries to trace 



related to more than one sharply defined group. 
Some of these are perhaps related to extinct groups, 
and are placed by naturalists with one class or 



out the relationships between the various forms of | another, as their views of their affinities vary. 

because they appear to be ] We have now two such groups to consider. 



the animal kingdom 



45 



both of which exhibit affinities with the Crustacea 
and the Arachnida. 

The Fycnogouidcr or Spider Crabs are sluggish 
spiderlike marine animals with slender bodies and 
four pairs of long slender legs, into which run prolon- 
gations of the intestine in a most remarkable manner, 
Most of the species are small, but we have given 
a representation of Colosscndus g'igas at fig, a, which 
is a very large species, with a straw-like body more 
than half-a-yard long, which is found in the Atlantic 
Ocean at the depth of 3,000 fathems. 

The Poeciiopoda, or King Crabs are considered 



to be related to the extinct Trilobites. They are 
large animals with an arched shield covering the head 
and thorax , which is jointed to a nearly hexagonal 
plate covering the abdomen, which is followed by a 
long movable and pointed tail. The limbs consist 
of 6 pairs of footjaws terminating in pincers , and 
5 pairs of swimming and gill-feet. These animals 
inhabit the tropical seas, and are edible ; they are 
sometimes to be seen in aquariums. Limnbis Poly- 
p/ic)iius, represented at fig. b, is a dark green species 
about two feet long. — The more typical Crustacea 
may be arranged in the following series : 



Sketch of Orders 
Section I. Malacostraca. 

Order T. Thoracostraca. 

Suborder I. Decapoda. 
Tribe I. Macrura. 
Tribe II. Brachyura. 

Suborder II. Scliizopoda. 
Suborder III. Cumacea. 
Suborder IV. Stomatopoda. ' 

Order II. Arthrostraca. 

Suborder I. Aiitphipoda. 
Suborder II. Isopoda. 



It is impossible to give a general description 
which would apply to all the Crustacea, for although 
everyone is familiar with crabs, lobsters and shrimps, 
yet there are other groups like the fish-parasites and 
barnacles , which have much more outward resem- 
blance to worms or molluscs, and only betray their 
real relationship to the Crustacea in their meta- 
morphoses. The forms which have not retrograded 
by parasitism have more than 4 pairs of legs, which 
easily distinguishes them from the other Articulata, 
and two pairs of antennae, exhibiting great variations 
in form. They breathe by means of gills. Only 



of Crustacea: 

Section II. Entoiuostraca. 
Order I. Branchiopoda. 

Suborder I. Pliyllopoda. 
Suborder II. Cladoccra. 
Suborder III. Branchiura. 

Order II. Ostracoda. 

Order III. Copepoda. 

Suborder I. Copepoda natantia. 
Suborder II. Copepoda parasita. 

Order IV. Cirripedia. 

Suborder I. TJioracica. 
Suborder II. Rliizocephala. 



the Cirripedia (Barnacles) are hermaphrodite. When 
the young leave the egg, they seldom resemble the 
parents, but generally undergo a complicated meta- 
morphosis ; and in some cases , they are developed 
from unfertilised eggs. The three highest Orders, 
which show their close relationship in possessing the 
same number of segments in the abdomen , are 
classed together as Malacostraca. Many species are 
valuable as human food, and others play an im- 
portant part in the system of nature as food for 
fish and other marine animals. 



Section I. Malacostraca. 
Order I. Thoracostraca. 



The upper part of the body which consists of 
13 amalgamated segments, is covered wholly or 
partially by the carapace, a large shield covering the 
head and thorax. The abdomen is composed of 
7 segments , and the compound eyes are generally 
placed on moveable stalks. The different form and 
arrangement of the limbs in the various Orders forms 
a remarkable instance of the manysided developments 
which organs identical in origin may undergo in 
the course of development. The gills are appen- 
dages of the limbs, and are generally branching. If 
we dissect a crab or a crayfish, an easy and simple 
experiment, which will give us a good idea of the 



anatomy of an articulated animal, we must first open 
the back (contrary to the usual process in the case of 
a vertebrate animal), when we first arrive at a long 
vessel which represents the heart; below this lies 
another vessel, the digestive apparatus, which has a 
sac-like enlargement (the stomach), which is bordered 
at the sides , and partially embedded in extensive 
glands. When we have removed all this, as well as 
the muscles , we find , sharply defined on the dark 
chitinous armour, a white thread-like organ with 
knot-like expansions which throw out slender threads 
laterally. This is the nervous system, which is not 
unlike a rope-ladder in form. In the crabs, the body 



46 




Zoea (highly magnified). 



is foreshortened, and the nervous system Is highly 
concentrated. In a few cases only , such as in the 
crayfish, do the 
young ones re- 
semble the per- 
fect animal 
when they quit 
the egg. More 
frequently, the 
newly hatched 
Crustacea ex- 
hibit a larval 
form called a 
Zoea , which 
has only a few 
pairs of limbs, and does not possess all the thoracic 
segments, but is furnished with peculiar spines, and 
is of almost microscopic dimensions. 

Suborder I. Decapoda. 

The carapace completely covers the head and 
thora.x in one piece. 3 of the 8 pairs of thoracic 
legs are converted into foot-jaws , leaving 10 legs 
fitted for walking. There are two sharply defined 
sections, in one of which the abdomen is reduced 
to a mere plate, while in the other it is well deve- 
loped, and nearly as large as the rest of the body. 

Tribe I. Macrura. 
Fig. c. Astacns flnviatiUs, the Cray-fish, may 
be taken as the typical illustration of the section in 
which the abdomen is well developed. The accom- 
panying figure represents the undersurface. The last 
pair of abdominal legs is expanded into plates, and 
forms a kind of 
tail-fin (>j. The f- 
first pair of walk- 
ing legs is armed 
with large pin- d.. 
cers, and the se- 
cond and third e.. 
pairs have also 
pincer-like termi- 
nations, which is 
a character of the 
family Astaciihc, 
to which the cray- 
fish belongs. This 
wcllknown animal 
is of a dark brown 
colour , and is 
found everywhere 
in Europe on 
rivers and streams 
under stones and 
in holes on the Female Crayfisli (lower surface). 

banks, and feeds a) inner auteunse. b) Outer .intenniE. c) Eyes. 
nn Ttlimnl maf-- ''' Auditory organs, e) Foot-jaws, f) First pair of 
on anmiai mar .^g, g, pif^,, ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ Abdominal appen- 

tcrs. 1 he Calca- dages. J) Vent. i) Outer scale of tail-fin. 

reous masses called "crabs-eyes" are outgrowths from 
the surface of the stomach. The redness caused 
by cooking is due to the destruction of the brownish 
colouring matter of the shell , which developes a 
second layer of red colouring matter. 

Fig. d. Homarns vulgaris, the Lobster, is 
very like the Crayfish, but is much larger, and lives 
in the European seas; a nearly allied species is found 
on the coast of North America. The Lobster is 
caught in baskets, into which it creeps during the 
night. Its importance as an article of food may be 




estimated by the fact that about 13 millions are annu- 
ally consumed in Europe and in North America. 

Fig. e. Paliimrus vulgaris, the Spiny Lobster, 
represents the family Loricata, in which the five 
pairs of legs do not end in pincers. The outer an- 
tennae are longer than the body, and their basal 
joints are thick and spiny. It is common in the 
European seas, and sometimes attains a weight of 
si.x pounds. Its flesh is more esteemed on the coasts 
of the Mediterranean than in England. 

In the family Ca7-idinidcE , which includes the 
Shrimps and Prawns, the cephalothoracic shield is 

generally produced ^ 

into a large beak, 
and the first 2 or 
3 pairs of legs fre- 
quently end in small 
pincers. Enormous 
numbers of the com- ^^^^ 
mon shrimp (Craii- 
gon vulgaris) are 
swept up with nets 
on the sand in shal- 
low water, as well 



\ 



r 



Prawn. 

as Prawns {Palcrmoii scrratns) which are larger, and 
armed with a strong frontal spine. 

In the Hermit Crabs (Pagiiridce) the abdomen 
is extremely soft, and therefore the animals shelter 
themselves in shells, which they trail about after them. 
The first pair of legs ends in two pincers of unequal 
size. One of the commonest species is Paguriis 
Bernkardus (fig. f ) , which shelters itself in whelk- 
shells. 

Tribe II. Brachyura. 

In the Crabs the abdomen is short, and is 
curved under the hollowed undersurface of the shell, 
so that the body is often broader than long. The 
first pair of legs is provided with claws. Some crabs 
are able to live on land and climb trees, though most 
of them live in the sea. They run quickly, but 
always sideways. 

Fig. g. Gecarcinus ruricola, the Land Crab, 
may be taken as a representative of the crabs with 
a square shell. It is found in the West-Indian Islands, 
where it lives in holes some miles from the sea. 
It is about eight inches broad. 

Other genera of this section are marine. The 
species of Pinnotheres are found between the valves 
of different bivalve shells, especially Pinna. 

Fig. h. Cancer pagnriis, the Edible Crab, be- 
longs to another group, with a broad shell, rounded 
in front. It sometimes attains a breadth of fifteen 
inches and a weight of six pounds. 

Fig. i. Maia squinado, the Spider Crab, has 
a triangular pointed carapace, and is covered with 
spines and shaggy hair. It is very common in the 
European seas. 

Suborder IT. Schizopoda. 

In this group, the three first pairs of legs are 
not true footjaws, but are used for walking, and like 
the other legs, are biramous and bristly. The ab- 
dominal legs are generally rudimentary in the female, 
but are used for grasping organs in the male. The 
few species belonging to this group arc all inhabitants 
of the open sea, and some, as the genus Mysis, are 
parasitic on whales in all stages of their existence. 
They resemble shrimps in form. 



47 



Suborder lU. Oumacea. 

The chief character of his small group is that 
the last 4 or 5 thoracic segments are not covered 
by the carapace ; the abdomen is long, and the eyes 
are wanting, or reduced to a pair of mere rudiments. 
.\Iost of the species inhabit the Northern Seas. 

Suborder IV. Stomatopoda. 

This is a small but well-marked group, which 
exhibits a superficial resemblance in form to some 
Orthoptera. 



Fig. k. Squilla mantis, which inhabits the Me- 
diterranean, is one of the best known species. Its 
long body resembles that of the Decapoda, from 
which it is at once distinguished by the carapace, 
which leaves the four last thoracic segments exposed. 
No less than five pairs of legs are modified into foot- 
jaws for seizing and tearing prey , and the second 
pair is furnished with a powerful dentated hand for 
striking and grasping. The three other pairs of legs 
serve for walking , and are cleft , and the abdomen 
is furnished with swimming-legs. 



Order II. Arthrostraca. 



The species of this Order agree with those of 
the last in the number of segments (20) into which 
the body is divided, and of paired extremities (19), 
but they differ in the absence of a carapace. The 
eyes are not placed on stalks, but on the body itself. 
There is no metamorphosis , and the eggs are car- 
ried about by the female in cavities formed by appen- 
dages of the thoracic legs. They are small creatures, 
and many of them are land-animals. 

Suborder I. Ampliipoda. 

The body is laterally compressed , the front 
pairs of thoracic legs often end in grasping-claws, 
the three first pairs of abdominal legs are swimming 
feet, and the three next are penicillate. The species 
are very numerous. 

Fig. o. Gainntanis pulex , the Fresh-water 
Shrimp (which name is sometimes improperly applied 
to the larvae of the Dytiscidcr) is common in fresh 
water, and is frequently used as food for other ani- 
mals kept in aquariums. It is called /wA'.r, "the Flea" 
from its peculiar jerking movements. The allied 
species found on the sea-shore are called sand-hoppers. 

The P/nviiiinidcr are distinguished by their wide 
head, the great pincers on the fifth pair of legs, and 
their habits. They inhabit the bodies of Salpidcr, 
in which they swim swiftly about in the sea. One 
species, P. scdentaria, is represented at tig. 1. 

The Caprdlida: also exhibit very strange shapes. 
They are characterised by their very slender form, 
and by the rudimentary abdomen, which is reduced 
to a jointless protuberance. Caprella spinosissima, 
a very remarkable species from the Northern seas, 
and which is covered with spiny protuberances , is 
represented at fig. m. 

The Cyamidce resemble the Capicllida in the 
rudimentary abdomen, but are totally difterent in 



form and habits , being parasites on the skin of 
whales. Cyamus ceti, the Whale-Louse, is represented 
at fig. n. 

Suborder II. Isopoda. 

The body is vertically compressed , and the 
thoracic legs are uniformly adapted for walking or 
clinging. The organs of respiration are placed in 
delicate layers above the five terminal legs. 

The Oniscidcc , or Wood-Licc , are found on 
land in damp places , and the external plates of the 
abdominal legs form strong covers. The first pair of 
antennae is very small, and not visible from above. 
Two species are figured : Onisciis viiirarins, fig. p., 
and Porcellio scaber, fig. q. 

In the allied genus Armadillo, the species roll 
themselves up into a ball. Several species of Oiiis- 
cidcF are water-animals. Asellits aqnaticus is an in- 
habitant of fresh water, but most of the species are 
marine, including Liiimoria terebrans , which bores 
in timber. 

The CymothoidcE may be known by their short 
abdomen, grasping legs, and large size. They attach 
themselves by the sucking parts of their mouth to 
the skin or within the mouth of fishes. CeratotJioa 
trigonoeephala has been figured as a representative 
of this family (fig. r). 

The Bopyrida: are the first family to exhibit 
the influence of parasitism, which proceeds to such 
an extent as to obliterate all characters of its class 
in the mature animal, so that nothing but the course 
of its development indicates its Zoological position. 
At the same time the sexes differ greatly, as the 
very small unattached males preserve the appearance 
of woodlice. The large females which live parasitically 
in the gill-cavities of shrimps , or the body-cavities 
of crabs, lose their eyes and the segmentation of the 
body, and look like ugly swellings or tubes. 



Section II. Entomostraca. 



The lower groups of the Crustacea are placed 
together under this name, although there is no general 
character which will apply to all the very different 
forms which are included under it. They all agree, 
however, in their development, for they undergo 
metamorphoses, and quit the egg in the so-called 
Nauplius form , which is the same in all the Ento- 



mostraca, no matter how different may be the fully- 
developed animals. The freely swimming larvae called 
Nauplius, have an oval body, a single eye on the 
forehead, and three pairs of limbs. They pass 
through numerous changes of form before reaching 
ihc final stage of their development. 



48 



Order 1. Branchiopoda. 



The legs are provided with leaf-like gills, wliich 
serve for respiration. The eyes are sometimes simple 
and sometimes compound eye-points. There are 
great differences in other respects in tiieir form and 
structure , especially as one subdivision is parasitic, 
although most of the species of the order swim freely 
in the water. 

Suborder I. Phjllopoda. 

In the Phyllopoda the body is distinctly seg- 
mented. Among the interesting species which it in- 
cludes, is Artemia salina , the Brine Shrimp (fig. t). 
It is a small long shell-Icss creature with 1 1 pairs 
of leaf-like gill-feet , and a many-jointed abdomen, 
and is not found only in the sea , ' but also in arti- 
ficial salt-pits, and can adapt itself to the amount of 
salt in its surroundings to an amazing existent. 
Another species of this group , Aptis cancriformis 
(fig. u) is about 2 inches long, and has a flat curved shell, 
40 pairs of legs, and two long terminal threads on 
the abdomen. It lives in rivers and streams, and 
sometimes appears in great numbers after violent 
storms. When its residence is dried up, it disappears 
sometimes for years , and reappears quite suddenly. 



This is owing to the fact that its eggs are laid in 
the mud, and retain their vitality for many months. 

Suborder II. Cladocera. 

The few minute animals classed here have an 
unjointed body, generally enclosed in a bivalve shell, 
and their dancing movements are caused by large 
oar-like organs , as well as by their swimming-legs. 
These organs consist of the modified outer antennae. 

Fig. V. Daphuia pitlcx , the Common Water- 
flea, lives in standing water in such swarms in spring 
and summer as often to colour it red. In winter, 
the animals die,- leaving their eggs behind them. 
One very long species is Leptodora hyalina , which 
is completely transparent, and invisible in water. 

Suborder III. Brancliiura. 

A few fresh-water species are included in this 
division, one of which , Argiiliis foliacciis , the Carp 
Louse, is represented at fig. w. The four long cleft 
legs and large eyes show that this animal is not a 
permanent parasite , and it is now known to stray 
from one fish to another , where it fi.xes itself by 
its tube-like mouth, which is set with sharp teeth. 



Order 11. Ostracoda. 



The body of these small Crustacea is entirely 
enclosed in a bivalve shell. The antennae and the 
hinder pair of legs serve as swimming organs, and 
the animals dart about in the water with great 



agility. Species of the genus Cypris (C. fuscus is 
represented on fig. x) are nearly always to be found 
if looked for in summer. They are about the size 
of a pin's head. Other genera are found in the sea. 



Order III. Copepoda. 



This Order is divided into two sections, which 
it will be well to discuss separately. 

The free-swimming Copepoda natantia may be 
easily studied in the genus Cyclops, which is a com- 
mon inhabitant of fresh w-ater. They may be dis- 
tinguished from the Ostracoda , in whose company' 
they are met with, by the jointed shell-less body, 
and the females may be known by the two egg-sacs 
which arc appended to the abdomen. These pretty 
little animals are an important addition to the food 
of fish ; and their marine allies, Cetochihis, are met 
with in vast multitudes, and form the chief food of 
the whale. 

The creatures belonging to the second sub- 
order, Copepoda parasita , are very different indeed 
in appearance. Ugly as they are, they are interest- 
ing as furnishing a striking example of the adaptation 



and retrogression of disused organs. Even these 
parasites quit the egg as a Nanplius with an eye 
and limbs, and swim about, but as soon as the fe- 
male (which alone is parasitic) finds her way into 
the gills or other organs of a fish, she grows rapidly, 
and loses all her limbs. The eye and limbs have 
become useless, and retrograde ; the body loses its 
segmentation , becomes bag-like , and acquires all 
kinds of strange-looking excrescences. While the 
parasitic females grow large , and sink to a lower 
level in the animal kingdom, the males remain small, 
but retain their segmentation , limbs , and organs ot 
sense, and attach themselves parasitically to the body 
of the female. In the Leriuridcr , the female, even 
before the ovaries are developed, surpasses the male 
3000 times in bulk. One of these strange female 
forms, Lerncea branchialis, is represented at fig. y. 



Order IV. Cirripedia. 

Plate XXIII (left side^ 



Suborder I. Thoracica. 

Although most of the species belonging to this 
section are not parasitic, yet they e.xhibits little out- 
w-ard resemblance to the more typical Crustacea. 
Here also the young exhibit the true Nanplins-ioxxn, 
but the developed animals fix themselves to various 



objects by the head, and become surrounded by a 
shell consisting of one or several pieces. The body 
is not jointed , and the limbs are modified into 
branching organs to sweep the water into currents, 
and thus to draw food between the shells. These 
animals are hermaphrodite. They are called Barnacles. 
Fig. p. Lepas anatifcra is to be found every- 



49 



where in the sea, attached to all sorts of fixed or 
movable objects; rocks, ship keels &c. It used 
formerly to be imagined that the 
Barnacle Goose was developed from 
this creature. 

The species belonging to the 
BalanidiC are fixed without a stalk. 
BalanttstiiitinHabuIum, fig.q, is found 
in abundance attached to ships re- 
turning from the Southern Seas ; 
and Coronula balcenaris, both surfaces 
of the shell of which are represented at fig. r i & 2, 
is parasitic on the skin of the whale. 




N a u p 11 u s 

Larva of Lefas 

aiiatijera. 



Suborder U. Rhizocephala. 

These animals are degraded to the utmost by 
parasitism. Those of the genus Pcltogaster lose the 
si-gmentation of the body, the organs of sense, the 
limbs , and even the cavities of the mouth and the 
intestine, and become a mere tube attached to the 
abdomen of the Dccapoda , while they absorb its 
juices by root-like threads. Here , too , the initial 
NaHplins lorm indicates the real affinities of the 
animal. A creature of the degraded type just de- 
scribed is represented at Fig. s (Sacculina carciui). 



Subkingdom Mollusca. 

I. Tunica ta. 

Plate XXII (left side). 



These are marine animals of a bag-like or 
barrel-like shape. The leathery or cartilaginous and 
often transparent bag contains a second loosely 
suspended in it, with a thinner integument, containing 
the organs of the animal. At each of the two points 



where the inner bag is connected with the outer, 
there is an opening to admit of a current of water. 
These creatures are hermaphrodite , and often pass 
through a rather complicated metamorphosis. 



Class I. Thaliacea. 



Freely swimming species of baglike or barrel- 
like form, with a transparent outer covering. The 
two openings of the mantle are close together. Some 
are found swimming freely in the open sea , and 
others are found linked together in chains; and yet 
both forms belong to the same species. The chain- 
like animals produce young which swim freely about. 



Some reproduce their kind asexually by budding, 
and form new animals which remain linked together 
into chains; and then lay eggs again. This kind of 
reproduction is called alternation of generations. 
Such a chain is shown at Fig. n, which represents 
Salpa zoiiaria. 



Class II. Aseidia. 



Most of these animals are bag-like in form, 
and the two openings of the mantle lie close to- 
gether. Their development is very interesting , for 
they possess an organ, the spinal cord, which occurs 
elsewhere only in Vertebrata. 

Fig. o. Cynthia ramus is a species which often 
founds colonies, and becomes a compound ascidian. 
Sometimes the colonies become spongelike and over- 



grow foreign substances like a crust, and some ex- 
hibit the form of a hollow fir-cone , on the outside 
of which the separate animals are placed. 

Fig. p. Fyivsoina atlauticnm is one of the latter. 
It swims freely in the sea, emitting a beautiful light, 
and is one of the numerous animals which occasion 
the luminority of the sea. 



II. Mollusca (typical). 



In the numerous animals properly included 
under this heading, the body is unjointed, and there 
are no limbs. They are enabled to move by means 
of a powerful muscle on the abdominal surface of 
the body, called the foot. There is no movable 
skeleton , either external or internal , but there is 
generally a calcareous shell formed of one or tw'o 
parts, which quite encompasses the body. In the 
higher Mollusca the front part of the body forms a 
more or less distinct head , which in one class is 

Amphibia dc. 



surrounded by a fringe of arms. There is a nervous 
system, in addition to well-developed organs of sense. 
The intestine is divided into several sections , and 
there is a plate in the mouth-cavity set with delicate 
teeth. They generally breathe with gills. The sexes 
are sometimes separate, and sometimes the animals 
are hermaphrodite. The species are mostly aquatic 
(in general, marine) and even the land-moluscs prefer 
damp places. 

The Mollusca are divided as follows: 



50 



Class I. Cephalopoda. 

Order I. Tctrabranchiata. 
II. Dihraiicliiata. 

Class II. Heteropoda. 
Class III. Pteropoda. 



Class IV. Gastropoda. 

Order I. Braucliiata. 
II. Puhiiouata. 

Class V. Lamellibranchiata. 



Class I. Cephalopoda. 



Plate XX (left side). 



The Cuttle-fish l.ave a well-defined head , .sur- 
rounded with a series of sucker-bearing arms. They 
have eyes resembling those of vertebrate animals, 
which distinguish them at once from all other Mol- 
lusca. On the abdominal surface of the body is 
situated the funnel, through which ink is discharged 
in some species. The shell is often absent or con- 
cealed, and the mouth is armed with naked horny 



jaws, like the beak of a parrot reversed. The sexes 
are separate, and one arm of the male is modified 
into a copulatory organ, and is frequently so greatly 
modified that it preserves its power of motion for a 
long time, and was formerly supposed to be a distinct 
animal, and described under the name "Hectocotylus". 
The Cuttle-fish breathe by gills , of which there are 
either two or four. 



Order I. Tetrabranchiata. 



These Cuttle-fishes are provided with four gills 
and many movable tentacles on the head without 
suckers. They were a very important group in the 
former history of the world, and their petrified sliells 
are known everywhere under the name of Ammonites. 
They are represented now by a single genus. 

Fig. a & b. Natitihis pompilins , the Pearly 
Nautilus, is figured entire and in section. The section 
shows it to consist of separate divisions (chambers). 



The outermost is inhabited by the animal, and the 
others are filled with air, but they are all connected 
by a tube like process called the Siphon , which 
penetrates the walls of separation. The shells of 
the extinct ammonites are constructed in a similar 
manner, and in these lines of growth of the walls 
of separation with the shell often exhibit very 
delicate moss-like ramifications. 



Order II. Dibranchiata. 



These are now represented by a large number 
of living genera and species. Instead of tentacles, 
the head is surrounded 
by 8 or lo sucker-bear- 
ing arms. A few forms 
only possess a shell, 

which is generally 
covered with the mantle. 
Most of them are j)ro- 
vided with a horny or 
calcareous plate on the 
back , the cuttle-bone. 
They have the pecu- 
liarity of changing their 
colour, and pass rapidly 
through a whole series 
of changes ; red, blue, 
yellow and dusky. All 
the I>/6nmi///'ata are 
furnished with a peculiar 
organ called the ink-bag, 
which secretes a deep 
black fluid, from which 

the black pigment 
known as St'/ia is pre- 
pared. 

Fig. c, Sfpi'a officinalis, the Common Cuttle- 
fish, belongs to the group with lo arms, of which 




Loli-^o Brogniarti. 



two are considerably longer than the others. The 
allied genus Loligo is distinguished by its horny shell 
and long body. We have figured Loligo Brogniarti. 
Another species , Loligo vulgaris , is eaten by the 
lower classes in Italy. 

The species of Sepia and Loligo are mostly 
coast animals, though they can swim well ; but there 
are other Cuttle-fish, some of gigantic size, which 
inhabit the open sea. The fossils called "Belemnites" 
are the bones of extinct species of lo-armed Di- 
branchiata. There is another group on which the 
two long arms found in Sepia &c. are absent. They 
have only 8 strong sucker-bearing arms, with which 
they seize their prey , and they do not hesitate to 
attack and destroy animals such as lobsters, which 
would seem to be much stronger than themselves. 
They generally hide in clefts of the rock, and dart 
out like lightning to seize their prey. In swimming 
the hinder end of the animal is moved forwards. 

Fig. d. Octopus vulgaris is typical of the 
8-armed Cuttle-fishes. 

Fig. e. Argoiiauta argo , the Paper Nautilus, 
is one of the few Dibrattchiata which possesses a 
shell. This, however, is met with in tlie female only ; 
the male is smaller, and is without it. The animal 
itself is very handsome when it grasps the delicate 
paper-like shell with the fin-like expansions on the 
back of the arms. It inhabits the Mediterranean. 



51 



Class II. Heteropoda. 



This Class includes a few small species which 
inhabit the o])en sea. The foot is laterally com- 
piessed, and resembles a keel ; it is very movable, 
and serves as a rudder. Behind the keel , we find 
a sucker which the animal uses to attach itself to 
seaweed, and other floating objects. In front of the 
keel is the head, which projects like a muzzle, and 
is provided with strong teeth. The intestines are 
rolled into a coil. The sexes are separate. Some 



species are entirely destitute of a shell, and are quite 
transparent, so that the darker intestinal portion is 
all that is seen of the animal as it moves through 
the water ; and others have a thin shell into which 
they can retreat entirely, closing it with a lid attached 
to the tail-like extremity of the animal. 

Plate XXI. fig. u. Atlanta Pcroiiii is a small 
species which swims in shoals in the open Mediter- 
ranean Sea. 



Class III. Pteropoda. 



These are small animals found on the open 
sea, which are provided with two large wing-shaped 
fins. They are hermaphrodite ; the head is not dis- 
tinctly defined, and they have no well-developed 
organs of vision ; but the mouth is furnished with 
jaws and teeth , and is sometimes surrounded with 
tentacle-bearing suckers. Some are naked, and others 



provided with a shell, but they are all able to sink 
quickly to the bottom of the water by drawing in 
their fins. We have figured Clio borealis (Plate XX. 
fig. f) a common species in the Northern Seas, which 
largely contributes to form the food of the Green- 
land Whale. 



Class IV. Gastropoda. 



These are much more familiar animals than 
the Pteropoda. A snail "is at once recognised as 
possessing tentacles with eyes, a broad foot on which 
it creeps , and a shell. In the Slugs the shell is 
wanting. We may add that the shape and size of 
the foot is very variable, and that most of the 
species have a well-defined head. The form of the 
tongue and the different arrangement of the teeth 
are great aids to their classification. The larger 
divisions of Gastropoda are characterised by the 



structure and position of the organs of respiration, 
which are either gills or lungs. In some, the sexes 
are separate , and others are hermaphrodite. Only 
a few species are viviparous. Most of them lay eggs ; 
either laying a few large ones surrounded by a shell, or 
depositing spawn in gall-like clusters and strings. The 
majority are marine ; but many are found on land, 
or in fresh water. Their food is very various ; some 
feed on plants, others on dead animal matters, and 
others again are carnivorous. 



Order I. Branchiata. 



Plate XX 

This Order is divided into two sections ac- 
cording to the position of the gills, and other cha- 
racters. In one small group the gills open behind 
the heart. These animals are hermaphrodite , and 
usually shell-less. There are sometimes tufted appen- 
dages on the skin. We have figured two species of 
this section. 

Fig. g. Eolidia ca'rulcsccus is remarkable for 
its delicate colour. 

Fig. h. Aplysia dLpilans is called the Sea Hare, 
from the shape of the second pair of tentacles. The 
eyes are placed between the two pairs of feelers. 
The animal is common on the southern and western 
coasts of Europe, and discharges a dark violet fluid, 
which was regarded by the ancients as a poison. 

The greater part of the Branchiata belong to 
the second section, in which the gills are placed 
before the heart. They are all provided with a shell, 
and the sexes are separate. The eggs are often laid 
in capsules, w'hich are then fixed to foreign substances. 
The beautifully-coloured shells are much admired by 
collectors of curiosities, and large prices have often 
been paid for a single shell. It is perhaps only natural 
that more attention should have been paid to the 
form and colour of the shells, than to the anatomi- 
cal structure of the animals which inhabited them. 



(right side). 

The shell is a secretion from the outer integument 
of the body, the mantle, and consists of carbonate 
of lime. The opening of the shell is called the 
mouth and its circumference the lip, while its coil 
is called the whorl. Many water-snails have a horny 
or chalky lid on the back of the foot , with which 
they can completely close the shell ; and land-snails 
close their shells in a similar manner in winter. 

We have given two illustrations of the group 
in which the leaf-like gills are arranged in a circle. 

Fig. i. Patella graiiatina, one of the Limpets, 
is characterised by a smooth plate-like shell, which 
clings with wonderful firmness to rocks and stones. 
The eyes are placed at the base of the two pointed 
tentacles, and the gill-plume is spiral and very long. 

Fig. k. Chiton sqnaniosiis resembles a wood- 
louse in form, and as the shell consists of 8 jointed 
plates, it can roll itself into a ball like some of these 
animals. They resemble the Limpets in their habits, 
and cling to rocks in the same way. 

Many species e.xhibit comb-shaped gills. 

Fig. 1. Haliotis Iris, the Ear-shell, derives its 
name from its shape ; the inside is beautifully irides- 
cent. This shell is pierced with a number of holes, 
through which the animal protrudes thread-like appen- 



52 



dages of the foot. The head terminates in a short 
non-retractile muzzle , with long tentacles and short 
stalked eyes. The three following species belong to 
the same family. 

Fig. m. Trochiis viarnioratus ; fig. n. Turbo 
okarius, and fig. o. Ncrita cxuvia are three shells 
from the Eastern Seas which are very unlike in ap- 
pearance. Trochiis has a conical shell with a lozenge- 
shaped mouth, while Turbo has a round one. 

The Wentle-Traps (Scalaria prctiosa fig. p and 
S. coiiiiinniis fig. q) represent another large group, 
in which the shell is thick and spiral. The mouth 
is oval, and the outside is adorned with vertical 
ridges. The first species is European, and the second 
Indian. The animals have 4 long slender tentacles 
at the base of which the eyes are placed ; the tongue 
is armed with rows of numerous small teeth. 

There is a large group of shells distinguished 
by a long retractile proboscis. The animals are all 
carnivorous and some possess shells of beautiful 
shape and colour. 

Fig. r. Vohita athiopica is a thick shell with 
a short whorl, and a deep excavation for a tube (or 
siphon) leading to the gills. 

Fig. s. Harpa vcntrkosa, the Harp Shell, is 
an inflated ridged shell with a short whorl. 

Fig. t. Mitra cpiscopalis, the Mitre Shell, is a 
nati\e of the East Indies. 

Plate XXI (left side). 

Fig. a. Mitrex truncnliis, the Rock-shell, has 
at least three rows of swellings and spines. It is 
sometimes eaten , and its operculum was formerly 
used in medecine. The allied genus Fiirpura was 



once of far greater value, as the source of the costly 
Tyrian Purple dye ; but its use has now been re- 
placed by that of aniline dyes. 

Fig. b. Conns anuniralis represents another 
large genus of shells. The tongue is set with two 
rows of long hollow teeth, which can be darted out 
of the mouth like arrows. 

The Last group of the marine Brancliiata which 
we shall notice have a ribbon-shaped tongue, two 
tentacles, and spiral shells. In the Cowries {Cyprcra) 
the shell is oval , the mouth is long and deeply 
ridged on both sides, and the lips are recurved. 

Fig. c. Cypraa tigris is a fine showy species, 
but C vioncta (fig. d) is of greater importance, as 
it has been used throughout Africa as money from 
time immemorial. Whole caravan-londs are annually 
sent from Zanzibar into the interior of Africa, and 
on the West Coast a great trade is carried on with 
cowries, which are said to be worth about 700 to 
the shilling. 

Fig. e. Tritoninni nodifcruni is a long shell 
with raised circular ridges. In old times it was 
used as a trumpet. 

Fig. f. Cassis tnbcrosa. In this species the 
whorl is short , the last curve of the wide shell is 
large, and the opening narrow. 

Fig. g. DoUnm galea , a native of the Medi- 
terranean, presents opiposite characters, for the shell 
is thin, and the mouth wide. 

Fig. h. Stronibns au)7s Dinner and fig. i. S. pngi/is 
have a pointed whorl, and the outer lip has a broad 
wing-shaped expansion. In the animals the foot is 
divided into two parts, opposed to each other, and 
thf animal is thus enabled to leap. 



Order 11. Pulmonata. 



These lung-breathing molluscs are inhabitants 
of the land and of fresh water. The trachea is con- 
nected with a network of vessels , and opens ex- 
ternally on the right side. The heart lies behind 
the lungs. They are all hermaphrodite , and most 
of them lay eggs. The eyes are situated either at 
the extremities of the tentacles, or at their base. 
The first group is illustrated by the 4 following species. 

Fig. k. LimncEa stagnalis, the Water-Snail, is 
a dull-coloured species which is very common in 
stagnant water. In some of the allied species found 
in the same localities , the whorl of the shell is 
shorter and the mouth is larger. The animals 
creep on plants, or swim on the surface of the water 
with the shell downwards , and the foot upwards. 
The white gall-like clusters of eggs are often to be 
seen fi.xed to water-plants. 

In the genus Planorbis, the shell is rolled into 
a flat disc. They are found in the same localities 
as the Water Snail. The commonest species is 
Planorbis corneus (fig. I). In a smaller kind (P. 
carinatiis, fig. m) the shell is ridged. 

Fig. n. Scarabns ivibrium has a thick shell, 
and lives in damp places, where it sometimes makes 
its appearance suddenly in large numbers. 

The Slugs have 4 retractile tentacles, the hinder 
pair of which are furnished with eyes at the tips. 
The shell is reduced to a small rudiment beneath 
the skin. They are land animals, and are found in 
damp places. We have figured two species, the Garden 
Slug (Limax hortcusis , fig. p) and the Red Slug 
{Arion rufits, fig. o). The latter is common in woods. 



The second division of the Pulmonata includes 
the shell-bearing snails. They have 4 tentacles with 
eyes at the tips, and large spiral shells in which the 
coiled intestines extend to the tip, and into which 
the animal can completely withdraw itself. 

Fig. q. Pupa uva belongs to the smaller spe- 
cies , in which the shell is cylindrical , and (in the 
species figured) ribbed. They are found under moss, 
and several species are viviparous. 

Fig. r. Bulivius dccollatns has rather a curious 
habit, for as the animal grows, it withdraws itself 
from the last coil of the whorl, and closes it by a 
partition, when the empty coil falls off, and leaves 
the shell sharply truncated. This species inhabits 
Southern Europe. 

Fig. s. Helix poniatia , the Edible Snail , re- 
presents the important genus Helix, in which the 
whorl of the shell is all but invariably turned to 
the right. In autumn the snails retire to their winter- 
quarters under moss , and close the shells for si.x 
months with a calcareous operculum. The snail is 
considered fit for food as long as it is closed, and 
is eaten in large quantities in many parts of Europe. 

Fig. t. Helix nenioralis is abundant in Eng- 
land, where the Edible Snail is scarce ; and although 
it is a very variable species , it may be recognised 
at once by its chestnut-brown lip. 

Plate XXII. fig. i. Dentalium vnlgare is a curious 
shell found on the coasts of Western Europe, which 
resembles an elephant's tusk. The shell is completely 
filled by the living animal, but is generally found 
empty, as the creature buries itself in the sand. 



53 



Class V. Lamellibranchiata, 



Plate XXI 

The Bivalves are distinguished from the Snails 
by possessing a shell formed of two valves which are 
smooth and iridescent on the inner surface. The outside 
consists of a dark brown horny integument. Between 
the two longitudinal layers lies a strong calcareous 
layer, composed of cells of lime placed close to- 
gether like those of a honeycomb. When we open a 
living mollusc, we first find a fold of integument lining 
the inside of each valve of the shell. This is tho 
mantle , which is followed by two layers or plates 
on each side, the gills. Between these again is the 
body of the animal, round which is folded the strong 
muscle called the foot, which is protruded from be- 
tween the shells for purposes of locomotion. No 
head is visible; the opening of the mouth is invisible; 
and as the animals feed only on microscopic orga- 
nisms , there is no need for either jaws or teeth. 
On each side of the mouth stands a pair of three- 
sided tentacles, which are set with microscopic cilia 
like the gills and the inner surface of the mantle, 
which give rise to currents which supply the animal 
with food. Among the other organs we may mention 
the liver, and intestine ; and the nervous and vas- 
cular systems &c. In most species , the sexes are 
separate , and they lay eggs which pass through a 
portion of their development between the gill-laminre. 
The valves are closed by one or two strong muscles, 
which leave their impressions upon them ; and are 
opened by the elastic ligament at the back of the 
shell, which also serves to bind the valves together. 
The valves are frequently connected by a system 
of teeth or notches fitting into corresponding depres- 
sions on the other side. As the ligament exists after 
the death of the animal, all dead shells gape. All 
the Bivalves are water-animals, and most of them 
are marine. A few swim , but most creep on the 
ground, or bury themselves partially in it. Many 
fix their shells on the rocks, and some attach it by 
a band of silk-like threads, which is called a byssus 
or beard. In many bivalves two projecting tubes 
called siphons rise from a peculiar elongation of the 
hinder portion of the mantle. The Bivalves are 
classified by the presence or absence of these, in 
conjunction with the number of clasping muscles, 
and their impressions on the inside of the valves. 

I. Bivalves without siphons. 

Fig. d. Ostrca cditlis, the Oyster, is familiar 
to everyone. The convex shell is fixed to the rock, 
and the flat shell covers it like a lid. There is no 
foot, for the animal is incapable of free motion. In 
the middle of the shell is the imprint of a single 
large clas[)ing muscle. The animals assemble in 
colonics called oyster-banks. The oyster was a 
favourite food in prehistoric times , and is so still, 
but at present it is rather a delicacy than a staple 
article of food for our nore numerous populations, 
although it has been artificially reared since Roman 
times. This is partly effected by artificially 
stocking bays with the young brood, and partly by 
removing oysters from the natural beds to so-called 
"oyster-parks", where they are fattened. The most 
esteemed oysters are the English "natives", and those 
of Normandy, Brittany, and liolstein , and m America, 
the closely-allied Virginian Oyster. They are not 
found in the Baltic Sea. The annual consumption 



(right side). 

of oysters ff)r human food must amount to many 
millions, and oysters are also preyed upon by many 
marine animals, such as star-fish, shells, sponges &c., 
which work great hover among the oyster-beds. 

Fig. b. The Scallop (Pecten maximus) is another 
well-known bivalve of delicate flavour, and its shells 
were formerly placed by pilgrims in their hats. The 
animals, which have only one clasping-muscle like 
the oysters, swim actively about by opening and 
closing their valves. 

Fig. c. Spondyliis gacdaropus is a Mediter- 
ranean species which differs from the Scallop by the 
long spines placed on the longitudinal ridges, and 
in its habits, as the right hand shell is never firmly 
closed. Thanks to the spines, the beautiful shell is 
frequently covered with a thick mass of dirt and Alga;. 
Fig. e. The Pearl Mussel {Meleagrina marga- 
ritifcra) is another valuable shell. It is chiefly found 
in the Indian Ocean and in the Persian Gulf, and is 
sought after for the precious excretions of the mantle 
called pearls. In China they attempt to accelerate 
the production of pearls by artificial injuries inflicted 
on the mantle. The inner layer of the shell, called 
mother-of-pcarl is also an article of trade. These 
animals have two clasping-muscles, but the first is 
so small that its impression in the shell is hardly 
visible. 

Plate XXII. fig. a. Malleus vulgaris is another 
East Indian shell. It is remarkable for its hammer- 
like form ; and is laminated like the shells of the 
oyster and the pearl-mussel. 

Plate XXI. fig. f. Pinna nobilis attaches its 
shell to a rock by a reddish-brown tuft of threads, 
or byssus. From this , the Italians manufacture 
gloves, purses &c. The shells are sharply trian- 
gular, and gape behind. There is the impression 
of a small muscle in front , and of a large one at 
the back. 

Fig. h. The Mussel (Mytiliis cdnlis) is found 
attached to wood and stone-work as well as to rocks 
in enormous masses in all the seas of Northern 
Europe. It is not so much eaten now as formerly, 
because it is sometimes poisonous. In this species 
also the impression of the front clasp-muscle is smal- 
ler than that of the hinder one. 

Fig. g. In the Noah's Ark Shell (Area Nocr) 
the clasp-muscles and their impressions on the shell 
are of equal size. The thick shell exhibits very 
complicated toothing on the margins. 

The Fresh-water Mussels form the last family 
of the bivalves without siphons. They are found in 
rivers , brooks and ponds , and generally rest with 
the front buried in the mud, or creep slowly at the 
bottom of the water. The shells are oval, and the 
valves are of similar size and shape, and are covered 
externally with a strong brown epidermis, and are 
lined within with mother-of-pearl. The shape of the 
shells varies extremely according to locality, and 
the two genera are distinguished by the structure 
of the hinder end of the shell. 

Ficr. i. Anodonta anatina has a thin brittle 
shell, and the edge is straight, and not toothed. 

Fig. k. Unio pictoriiin has a coarser shell, and 
ridge-like teeth on the edges. One of the commonest 
allied species is Unio inargaritifera, which grows to 
a large size, and sometimes contains pearls. 



54 



II. Bivalves with the edges of the mantle 

partly connected, and v^^ith tube-like 

siphons. 

Plate XXI. fig. a. Tridacna gigcxs, the Clam, 
is the largest shell known. The large ridged shell 
with undulating edges occasionally attains a length 
of four or five feet, and is sometimes placed in a 
church as a font. The impressions of the two large 
clasp-mussels are close together. The animal inhabits 
the Indian Ocean, and develops a byssus. 

Plate XXII (left side). 

The Cockles have a heart-shaped shell with 
strong marginal teeth. The animal project its foot, 
which is angulated, and ends in a point, through a 
crevice, and uses it for digging and leaping. In 
some places it is an important article of food. There 
are several closely allied species, and we have figured 
Cardium costatiun (fig. b). 

Fig. c. Cyclas cornea is a fresh-water mollusc 
which sometimes burrows and sometimes climbs 
among the water-plants. It has a convex horn- 
coloured shell and two clasp-mussels. 



Fig. d. TcIIiita virffata has an oval shell 
rounded in front, and the hinder end is somewhat 
folded over. 

Fig. e. Venus verrucosa belong to a large 
genus which is much admired for its elegant oval 
form and strong marginal teeth. The species 
figured inhabits the Mediteiranean. 

Fig. f. The Razor-Shell (Solcn vagina) is open 
at both ends. The animals burrow one or two feet 
deep in the sand and mud, and are sometimes eaten, 
but are not much esteemed. They are either dug 
up with a spade, or drawn from their bunows with 
a slender rod. 

Fig. g. The Piddock (P/iolas dactylus) is a 
shell which is covered with sharp points and teeth 
which serve it as a rasp, by which it bores itself a 
hole in the rock. It is also a luminous animal. 

F'ig. h. The Ship-worm (Teredo navalis) has 
a small thick strong shell which covers only the 
front of the body. It has a worm-like shape and 
two additional calcareous plates. It bores into even the 
hardest timber, and has sometimes caused immense 
damage to piers and harbours, as well as to ships 



III. Molluscoidea. 

Two groups of animals intermediate between I They resemble each other in the course of their de- 
thc Mollusca and the Worms are included in this group, velopment , but have very little external similarity. 

Class I. Braehiopoda. 

there are few living species of Terehiatnla, but they 
were very numerous at an earlier period of the 
world's history. 

Plate XXII. fig. 1. Liu.gnia analiiia, the Goose- 
Bill, represents the second section of the Bracldo- 
poda. The tongue-shaped shells are thin and horn- 
like ; there are no arms ; and the animal makes burrows 
for itself at the bottom of the sea with a long fleshy 
stalk. The genus is met with in the oldest geological 
formations. 



The Lamp-shells are bivalves like the Lamelli- 
hranchiata, but tliere is neither ligament, foot nor 
leaf-like gills. The shells are unequal in size, and 
in many species the convex lower shell has a per- 
forated beak-like process, through which protrudes 
a stalk by which they fix themselves. 

Plate XXII. fig. k. Terebratula vitrea has a 
-alcarcous shell, and at the base of the flattened 
dorsal shell rises a delicate veil-like calcareous' 
structure , which serves as a support for the respi- 
ratory organs , which are called arms. At present 



Class II. Bpyozoa. 



These are aquatic microscopic animals, which 
are always united to horny or calcareous supports, 
and were formerly classed with the corals. These 
frameworks are either arborescent or leaf-like, or form 
a crust over foreign substances, like tlie fresh-water 



FIninatella , in which the tentacles of the separate 
animals arc arranged in the form of a horse-shoe. 
In the marine forms they are arranged in a circle. 
Esehara cervicornis (fig. m) is an illustration of the 
calcareous skeleton of a marine species. 



Subkingdom Vermes. 



(Plate XXVIII.) 



The .Subkingdom of Worms is distinguished from 
that o{ Articnlata by the want of jointed limbs. In the 
highest forms we indeed meet with stumps on the 
segments of the body which serve as organs of loco- 
motion, but they are never divided into separate 
joints, like those of a crab, an insect, or a spider. 



The outer integument is always soft, and unprotected 
by either an internal or an external skeleton. Only 
a few forms construct tubes to dwell in. In siiapc 
they exhibit every transition from the long slender 
cylindrical thread-worm to the flattened tape-worm. 
In the hiiijicr forms the body is divided into separate 



55 



segments. There is a similar variety in the internal | salt or fresh water, but an equally large number are 

anatomy of the different divisions of worms , the I parasitic on other animals , among which are the 

lowest of which sink to a very degraded stage. best-known and most dangerous parasites of man. 

Many worms pass a free life in damp ground, or in | 

Class I. Rotatoria. 



Wc place the Wheel Aninialcukc first, because j 
they exhibit so many affinities to other Classes. 
They are almost microscopic organisms (the largest 
are ','50 of an inch in diameter) and are mostly in- 
habitants of fresh water. They have a ciliated appa- 
ratus on the upper part of the body which has the 
appearance of revolving wheels. The living animals 
are perfectly transparent, and are charming objects 
under the microscope, and very easy of observation. 
Some swim freely about, and others are sedentary 
in their habits. 



Fig. a. Rolifcr vulgaris has a crown of two 
ciliated wheels, and two eye-specks on the proboscis. 
At the back of the neck is a sucking-tube. The 
forked foot divides twice. The parts of the body 
indicated in the figures are as follows ; i ) Eye- 
specks ; 2) Wheels, exserted & retracted ; 3) Sucking- 
tube; 4) Jaws, almost always employed in mastication; 
5) Glands; 6) Stomach; 7) Termination of intestine; 
8) Cells surrounding the stomach (liver-cells) ; 9 and 
10) Eggs, one containing an embryo; ll) retractile 
foot. 



Class II. Annelida. 



These animals arc the highest of the worms, 
and arc characterised by their bodies being divided 
into a consecutive series of similar parts (rings or 
segments). They always possess blood-vessels and 
a nervous system , with organs of sense , but the 
development of special organs of respiration is only 
found in the most highly developed species ; other- 



wise they breathe , as is usual in the class of worms, 
with the whole surface of their bodies. A few of 
these animals are casual parasites, but most live free. 
According to their external appearance , they may 
be easily divided into two suborders , the Worms 
and the Leeches. 



Order I. Chaetopoda. 



These worms are provided with bristles on the 
various segments of their body , which differ in 
shape and size, and are sometimes so abundant that 
they cover the animal with a thick downy clothing, 
and give some of the marine species a metallic lustre 
comparable to that of birds and insects, though most 
of the Clurtopoda are dull and uniform enough in 
colour. 

Section 1. PolycliR'tfe. 

W^orms provided with tentacles, cirrhi, and gills. 
The numerous bristles are situated on the rudiments 
of legs. They undergo metamorphoses. 

Fig. b. Ap/iroditc aciih'ata, the Sea-mouse, is 
a common marine species thickly clothed with iri- 
descent hair. Like most of its allies, it is a decidedly 
rarnivorous animal. 

Fig. c. lolyiioc inipaticns is a similarly irides- 
cent species. 

Fig. d. Nereis viargaritacca is a slender species, 
capable of very rapid movement. It has several pairs 
of tentacles, and four eyes, as well as two strong 
pincerlike jaws, besides smaller teeth for tearing 
its prey. 

The large number of allied marine forms are 
classified by the structure of the mouth-parts, and 
the form and number of their bristles. We have 
figured two more species of this division, Qionc Incida 
(fig. e) and Sip/iostoma diplochcvtos (fig. f). 

Fig. g. The Lug-worm (Arenicola piscatoriun) 
varies a little in colour, and grows to the length of 
ten inches. Its body is divided into three sections, 
of which the middle one bears most appendages, 
and the hindmost none at all. The Lug-worm lives 
in the sand between tide-marks in the manner of 



earthworms, and is very abundant in many places. 
It is much used by fishermen for bait. 

With the Lug-worm wc commence the section 
of ChcTtopoda which construct a tube-like dwelling, 
partly from materials which they find on the sea-bed, 
and partly derived from their own organisms. Another 
illustration is the following : 

Fig. h. Scrpnla contortnplicata is a handsome 
species belonging to a large genus which covers any 
object which lies long in the sea with irregular tub- 
ing. They expand a beautiful crest of tentacles, but 
dart back into their tubes, the instant they are alarmed. 
These tentacles represent the gills, and between them 
rises a calcareous lid which closes the tube. The 
mouth exhibits neither proboscis nor teeth. 



Section H. 



OIigoch{ipta?. 



In these worms, tentacles, gills, mouth-armature 
and rudiments of legs are absent. The whole structure 
is inferior to that of the Polyc/nctir, and the bristles 
are small and scattered. The animals are herma- 
phrodite, and the eggs are laid in capsules, from 
which the young are developed without undergoing 
any metamorphosis. 

Fig. i. Lmnhricus tcrrcstris is one of the 
earth-worms which live in mould, feed on the rotting 
substances which it contains , and reject what they 
cannot digest. Darwin has demonstrated their great 
importance in the economy of nature. 

Fig. k. Nais proboscidca is a fresh-water worm 
with but few bristles. It is common in ditches and 
ponds, and is a transparent creature with a proboscis- 
like sucking-tube on the head , and two rows of 
hooked bristles on the belly , as well as a row of 
straight hairs on each side. 



56 



Order 11. Hirudinei. 



Fig. 1. Hirudo viedicinalis^ the Leech, is the 
best known representative of this Order. It has a 
flattened body with short rings but no distinct head, 
rudimentary legs, nor bristles. It is reared in large 
numbers in Southern and Eastern Europe for medi- 
cinal purposes, and its body is capable of great ex- 
pansion when distended with blood. The sucking- 



mouth is armed with 8o small movable teeth, ar- 
ranged in a half-circle. The animals are herma- 
phrodite, and lay their eggs in capsules. 

Fig. m. Aiilacostoiiiiini giilo, the Horse-Leech, 
is common in ponds and ditches. It is sometimes 
very annoying to horses and cattle , especially in 
Southern Europe and North Africa. 



Class III. Gephyrea. 



This Class includes a few marine genera of 
comparatively slight importance, although zoologi- 
cally interesting in some respects. They have all a re- 
tractile proboscis, an unjointed body, and a vascular 
system. The sexes are separate , and the young 
undergo metamorphoses. Fig. n. represents a dark 
green Mediterranean species , Boncllia viridis. 



The proboscis is divided in front, and the expanded 
body bears luo hooked bristles at the extremity. 
The female is here figured; the male is wormlikc, and 
extremely minute , and lives in the female like a 
parasite. The genus Sipiuiciiliis (S. Bcriihardiis is 
represented at fig. o) may be recognised by the 
absence of the hooked bristles. 



Class IV. Nemathelminthia. 



These animals are interesting both from a 
Zoological and from a practical point of view. They 
may be recognised by their round thread-like or tube- 
like unsegmented bodies , which are destitute both 
of rudimentary legs and bristles. They have neither 
blood-vessels nor dift'erentiated breathing-organs, but 
there is a nervous system, and sometimes organs of 
vision. They have special organs for offence and 
grasping, in the form of papilhe, teeth, hooks &c., 
at the front extremity of the body, which show them 



to be parasites on other animals. Most of them are 
such, either permanently, or at different stages of 
their life. The sexes are separate , and the young 
undergo metamorphoses, for these worms pass diffe- 
rent stages of their lives in different animals ; and 
as it is necessary for them to pass from one ani- 
mal to another in order to attain their full develop- 
ment, its coiu-se often becomes very difficult to trace. 
They are divided into two Orders according to the 
form of the body. 



Order I. Nematoda. 



The Thread-worms are characterised by their 
long cylindrical thread-like body. Some species are 
viviparous. Their development varies much. Some 
pass into an animal with the food, while others seek' 
out their host themselves ; and others again pass 
intervals of parasitism in alternation with a free life. 
Several species exhibit alternation of generations; 
i. e, the animal produces offspring wholly unlike the 
parents, while the latter in their turn reproduce the 
parent form, so that several generations are needful 
to complete a single life-cycle. 

One of the most famous of these worms is 
Tricliina spiralis. The male is '/ic of an inch in 
length, and the female twice that size; and they in- 
habit the intestines of various mammals. Thus, a 
female living freely in the intestines of a pig, pro- 
duces from 1500 to 1800 living young, which im- 
mediately perforate the walls of the intestine, and 
fix themselves in the nuiscles, where they roll them- 
selves together, gradually invest themselves with a 
calcareous covering, and may remain thus for years 
(as at fig. p). They require another animal for their 
further development, and if they do not obtain it, 
they gradually perish, but if they are introduced into 
another animal with the flesh (as into a man) the 
calcareous shell dissolves and the animals develop 
and produce young which again bore through the 
integuments to fix themselves in the muscles of their 
new host. The injury which they thus occasion 
causes the painful and dangerous disease called 



Trichinosis, but if they once fix themselves in the 
muscles without causing the death of their host, they 
are no longer incon\enient or dangerous. 

Fig. q. Filaria iiicdincnsis, the Guinea Worm, 
is a native of the tropics. The male is unknown, 
but the female, which grows to the length of several 
feet , inhabits the muscles of man. The parasite is 
extracted by opening the sore, and very carefully 
winding out the animal on a stick, for if it breaks, the 
millions of embryos in the body of the mother set up 
dangerous inflammation. Its life-history is not yet per- 
fectly understood, but it is known that the young worms 
live in minute Crustacea (a species of Cyclops) and 
are probably swallowed with drinking-water. 

Gordius aqnaticiis is a small thread-worm which 
lives parasitically in insects, but also li\es freely 
in water. Its history too is obscure. 

Oxynris vcniiiculai-is is one of the commonest 
human parasites. The female attains a length of 
two-filths of an inch, but the male does not grow 
to half that size. It is often found in the human 
intestines, especially in those of children. The eggs 
require no intermediary, but develop themselves at 
once into sexually mature animals , if they should 
again be introduced into the human body with food 
or drink. — I^'ig. r. Ascaris himbricoidcs is another 
disagreable parasite which is found in the small in- 
testines of man Here an intermediary is probably 
needful to its development. The female is estimated 
to produce fifty millions of eggs. 



57 



Some threadworms are found in plants, such 
as Aiiguillula tritici , a microscopic species which 
infests wheet. A nearly alh'ed non-parasitic iorm is 
Aiiguillula accti, the Vinegar Eel, which is found in 



acid liquids, feeding on the small fungi which are 
there produced. It is just visible to the naked eye, 
but now that vinegar is more carefully manufactured, 
it is much less frequently observed than formerly. 



Order II. Acanthocephali. 



These are tube-like worms without mouth or ' vertebrate animals, and develops itself if its host is 
intestine, but with a retractile proboscis bearing hooks, j eaten by a higher animal. They very rarely infest 
with which thefuUy-developedanimalsattachthemselves man; one species, Echiuorrhyiichus gigas (fig. s) is 



to the wall of the intestine in vertebrate animals 
The asexual larval form encysts itself in small in 



found in the pig, and its embryo form in the grub 
of the Cockchafer. 



Class V. Plathelminthia. 



This is a large division, including the lowest 
worms, and derives its name from the flattened form 
of the unsegmented body. Only the higher species 
possess blood-vessels and respiratory organs, and the 
digestive system is not only able to dispense with 



an excretory duct, but may be altogether absent. 
Most species are hermaphrodite, and they undergo a 
complicated series of metamorphoses, often combined 
with alternation of generations. Some are parasites, 
but many live in mud and under stones in the water. 



Order I. Turbeliaria. 



These are worms of an oval or ribbon-like form, 
with the surface of the body uniformly clothed with 
minute cilia. They are not parasitic, and have no 
grasping or sucking organs. Their development is 
frequently direct. 

The Ncmcrtiiia occupy the highest place, from 
their large size, more complicated structure, and the 
separation of their sexes. Only one small form is 
found in fresh water. Most of the species are marine, 
and often finely coloured. They are distinguished 
by possessing an extensile proboscis, which is armed 
in many species with a dagger-like weapon, used to 
impale other and smaller organisms. Portions of 
their body are easily lost, but they are extremely 



tenacious of life, and are gifted with great powers 
of reproduction. 

The FlfDiariic are of smaller size, and usually 
of oval form ; many species inhabit fresh water ; 
among which is Planaiia alba (fig. t). This and 
other species (generally black or brown) are found 
about stones and rushes in brooks, ponds and marshes. 
In spring they deposit small round or oval capsules 
of the size of a pin's head, and often stalked, con- 
taining 4 or 5 delicate eggs. Among the marine 
species, the eggs are often laid in strings. As may 
be seen in the transparent Flaiiaricc , the intestine 
is branching, a character common to all the Tur- 
bcllaria. 



Order II. Trematoda. 



These animals differ from the last in their para- 
sitic habits. They have no body-cavity, but the 
organs are embedded in a matrix of uniform con- 
sistence. They possess organs of suction, the num- 
ber of which serves to characterise the different groups. 

Fig. u. Fasciola hcpatica , the Liver Fluke, 
is one of the commonest and most dangerous para- 
sites. It lives in the gall-ducts of the sheep, sucks 
the juices of the liver, and frequently destroys large 



numliers of the animals. It passes its early stages in 
fresh-water snails, and therefore chiefly infestssheep 
which feed in swampy situations. 

On the other hand , all the Trematoda with 
more than two suckers have a direct development, 
without metamorphoses. 

Fig. V. Trisioiiiniii coccincuni represents a 
genus of parasites which infest the skin and gills of 
fishes. 



Order III. Cestoda. 



The tapeworms close the series of worms, and 
hideous as they are , their life-history is of much 
interest and importance. The fully-developed sexual 
animal has neither intestines, respiratory organs, nor 
organs of sense. It has a ribbon-like form , and 
consists of a number of joints (proglottides) increas- 
ing in thickness and breadth hindwards. It fi.xes 
itself with its head to the wall of the intestine of 
some vertebrate animal, and the whole chain hangs 
loose in the intestine. Every separate joint is fur- 
nished with sexual organs, and the last, which is 
always the most developed, becomes filled with eggs, 
drops off, and is discharged in the natural way. The 
minute embryos, which require another animal for 



their development , fix themselves everywhere , and 
if swallowed, make their way into the blood-vessels, 
and are thus carried into the liver, lungs, muscles, 
brain &c. , where they assume a bladder-like form 
containing fluid (Cysticercus). As in the Trichiiuv 
these sexless forms gradually perish, unless the flesh 
in which they are embedded is eaten , when they 
assume the form of a tapeworm in the intestines of 
their new host. It follows from this that the two 
forms must inhabit animals wh ch have a certain 
relationship to each other. Thus the Cysticercus 
of the tapeworm of the cat is found in the mouse. 
Although the tapeworm causes debility rather than 
actual disease, the presence of Cysticerci in large 



58 



numbers in certain organs may cause the death of 
the animal which they infest. 

Of the two tapeworms which infest man, Tcrnia 
solium (fig. w) has , in addition to four suckers , a 
circle of hooks in the middle of the head, which is 
wanting in the second species, T. saginata (fig. x). 
The latter may grow to the length of four yards, 
and is larger, stronger and more active than T. solium, 
which only attains the length of 6 or 8 feet; and 
its sexual organs are more ramified. The Cysticcrcus 
of T. solium (fig. y) lives in the pig, and that of 
T. saffinata in the ox. But a far more dangerous 
animal is a small tapeworm which lives in the dog. 
If by any chance one of the eggs should enter the 
body of a man , the embryo wanders into various 
organs, usually the liver, where it grows to a Cysti- 



ccrcus which is sometimes as large as a childs' head, 
and frequently causes death. The disease known as 
the Staggers in sheep is caused by Ccviiurus ccrebralis^ 
fig. z) which infests the brain ; and the corresponding 
tapeworm lives in the dog. 

Fig. zz. Bothrioccphalns latiis differs from the 
species of Tcenia by its flattened head , with two 
suckers, and by the sexual organs opening on the 
surface of the joints. It is generally found in regions 
where water and fish are abundant ; for its embryo 
form is found in ^he pike and probably in other fish. 
The sexual animal grows to the length of 24 feet in 
the human intestines , where it may remain for 
20 years ; but it is more easily got rid of than the 
species of Tivnia. 



Subkingdom Echinodermata. 



(Plate 

The animals of tliis Subkingdom are principally 
marine, and are usually characterised by the posses- 
sion of spines ; and the integument which covers 
the internal organs contains calcareous particles 
which are frequently large and numerous enough to 
form a strong external skeleton. The internal struc- 
ture is likewise remarkable, for the separate organs 
are arranged in fives. In addition to the nervous, 
digestive, and circulatory systems they possess a 
peculiar structure called the ambulacral system, which 
communicates with the surrounding sea-water. It 
consists of a ring of water-holding canals round the 

I. Echinoidea. 

a) Kigularia. 

b) Clypeastridca. 

c) Spatani^idca. 

II. Asteroidca. 

a) AstcriidcF. 

b) Ophiuiidcc. 



XXIX.) 

mouth , and offshoots penetrate through the pores 
and openings of the skin and the hard outer integu- 
ment, and appear in the form of sucker-feet, which 
effect the progession of the whole animal by suc- 
cessive adhesion. 

In most species, the sexes are separate, and 
eggs are laid ; a few are viviparous. They all creej) 
on the ground or over sea-weed, and only swim 
freely in their earliest stages. They are known, 
according to their forms, as sea-urchins, starfish and 
sea-cucumbers. 

III. Crinoidea. 

IV. Holothuroidea. 

a) Pedata. 

b) Apod a. 

c) Elasipoda. 



Order I. Echinoidea. 



In the Sea-Urchins, the body is enclosed in a 
firm immovable calcareous external skeleton, called 
the Shell. The openings for the sucker-feet are called 
ambulacra; and are arranged in rows, and are limited 
to certain plates of the skeleton. All the plates are 
furnished with round regularly-arranged elevations, 
on which are placed movable spines, beyond which, 
however, the sucker-feet always extend. The Sea- 
urchins are round or heart-shaped. They possess a 
curious calcareous masticatory apparatus. 

Fig. a. Echinus splurra , the Common Sea- 
Urchin, belongs to the family Rcgularia. The mouth 
and vent are placed opposite to each other, and the 
ambulacrsc run from one pole to the other. The 
spines are rather short, slender, and of a bluish 
colour. This species is eaten on the shores of the 
Mediterranean. 



P'ig. b. Acrocladia mamillata belongs to the 
same order, but differs in the large size of its varie- 
gated spines ; it is a native of the Pacific. 

The ClypeastridiT are shield-shaped , and so 
much flattened that the shell scarcely looks large 
enough to contain the organs of the body. The 
mouth is not placed opposite to the vent , and the 
ambulacra; do not run from one pole to another, 
but form a five-leaved rosetle. The spines are 
very small. 

P'ig. c. ScutcUa hcxapora is remarkable for 
the shell being indented with 6 incisions. 

The Spataiigidca , or Heart-Urchins, ha\e no 
masticatory apparatus. The body is heart-shaped, 
and the mouth and vent are placed near together, 
often on the lower surface. 



59 



Order 11. Asteroidea. 



In tlic Starfishes, the rows of sucker-feet are 
limited to the ventral surface. The dorsal surface 
is leathery , and beset with warts and spines. It 
likewise contains calcareous plates, though these do 
not form a skeleton, as in the Sea-Urchins. There 
are larger plates where the dorsal and ventral surface 
unite, which are often set with long spines. The 
shape of the body is always flat. 

In the typical AsUriidcc the body passes 
gradually into the arms , without there being any 
fixed boundary between them. This is likewise the 
case internally, for the intestines and sexual organs 
send offsiioots into the cavities of the five arms. 

Fig. d. Astcrias anrantiaca may serve to illu- 
strate this family. These Starfishes feed on mollusca. 



and are disliked by fishermen, as they often destroy 
their bait. If they lose an a. n, they have the power 
of reproducing it. 

The Ophiiiridce possess a flattened body from 
which the arms are sharply separated ; the internal 
organs are limited to the body, and do not pass 
into the arms. 

Fig. e. Ophiiira laccrtosa is a very active 
creature , and can force itself through the smallest 
crevice. Two of each of the chalky plates at the 
base of the arms are naked on the dorsal surface, 
and the others are covered with fine spines. 

Fig. f. Gorgonoccphalns ixrboresccns is a star- 
fish in which the arms continually subdivide into 
finer branches. 



Order 111. Crinoidea. 



This Order, though important in former epochs 
of the world's history, is now limited to a few genera 
and species. The body of the animal, which is called 
the calyx, is surrounded by ten jointed and often 
branching arms. There are fine rami on the separate 
joints, which give them the appearance of feathers. 
The calyx is usually fixed on a long stalk, consisting 
of a large number of movable pentagonal calcareous 
sections, which bear whods of cirri at regular intervals. 

Fig. g. FciitacriuHS caput [\Icduscc is found in 



the West Indies, and was formerly supposed to be 
the only living representative of the group, and was 
one of the rarest and costliest ornaments of museums. 
The animals are fixed on the sea-bed by the long 
stalk, on which the body sways, surrounded with 
its delicate arms. Other species are now known, 
which live at an immense depth in the sea. 

In the genus Coinatula, which inhabits the 
European seas, the animal is only fixed on a stalk 
when young, and afterwards swims freely about. 



Order IV. Holothuroidea. 



The Sea - Cucumbers have a leathery skin, 
wiihout spines, but only with microscopic calcareous 
particles, the form of which is characteristic of the 
various genera and species. A few types of the strange 
forms which the spicules assume are here figured. 




The sea-cucumbers live on the bed of the sea, where 
they absorb the mud , and nourish themselves with 
the organic matters contained in it. The form is 
long, and the mouth is placed at one end, sur- 
rounded by a cluster of tentacles; the vent is placed 
at the opposite end of the body. Some species are 
dried and eaten by the Chinese under the name of 
Trcpang. 

Family I. Peclata. 

These species have sucker-feet like the star- 



fishes and sea-urchins , a more or less cylindrica' 
form and a branching respiratory apparatus. 

Fig. h. Holothuria tiibulosa is a common 
species in the European seas , and grows to the 
length of a foot. The sucker-feet on the ventral 
surface are flat at the ends, and those on the dorsal 
surface conical. Numerous calcareous particles are 
embedded in the skin. 

F"amily II. Apoda. 

These animals have neither lungs nor sucker- 
feet. They are of small diameter, but wormlike, 
and many species grow to the length of several feet. 
To this group belongs the genus Synapta , which 
may be recognised by the calcareous particles being 
anchor-shaped. 

Family III. Elasipoda. 

This section lives exclusively at great depths, 
and has only recently been discovered. The belly 
is flat, and the sucker-feet are arranged m rows. 
The back is usually furnished with appendages of 
considerable length. The animals are of large size ; 
but lungs are absent. 

Fig. i. NciTva hicifuga is found at a depth of 
two thousand fathoms in the Atlantic Ocean, 



Subkingdom Coelenterata. 



Many of these animals resemble plants in the 
beauty of their colouring, and in their being fixed 
to one spot. Their organisation is usually very 
simple, consisting mainly of a cavity which supplies 
the place of a circulatory and digestive system. 



When the sexual organs arc mature, they generally 
appeaf first in the foyn of simple groups of cells, and 
not always in the same place. Many develop a chalky 
or horny skeleton, and others remain soft. In many 
species the substance of the body resembles jelly. 



60 



and is extremely impcivious to water 
species form stems of a 
more or less constant form 
by budding and branching, 
which are fixed to the grotind 
or to rocks. Others form 
single individuals , and are 
then in most cases capable 
of free motion. In addition 
to increase by budding, we 
meet with sexual repro- 
duction , in which the egg 
develops a microscopic larva, 
which swims freely about 
with the aid of cilia , and 
takes some time to develop 
into the mature animal. 
Alternation of generations is 
often met with, which com- 
bines the formation of stems 
with the alternation of sexual 
and asexual reproduction 
This makes the life-history 
of many Caiciitcmta very 
complicated. Sponges are 
used in our household eco- 
nomy ; but of far greater 
importance in Nature arc 
some of the corals, which 
build up whole mountains 
and islands. 




Urticaling Capsule. 

1) Thread rolled up; 2) ditto, half 

unfoldtd; 3) ditto, fully unrolled. 

(Highly magrified.) 



The Caiciitcrata are divided into four classes, 
the first three of which are remarkable for the pos- 
session of urticating organs. These are micr( scopic 
weapons consisting of an oval capsule filled with 
lluiel, containing a hollow spiral thread. The least 
touch bursts the capsule; when the thread darts out, 
unwinds, and fixes itself with the hairs and bristles 
which invest it, in the skin of the victim. The venom 
with which it is armed causes violent inflamma- 
tion, powerful enough to cripple small animals, and 
the more they struggle, the more poisoned arrows 
pierce them. The number of these microscopic 
weapons is enormous, for a single tentacle of Autlica 
corns has been estimated to contain 43 millions. 

All these animals arc marine , with a few un- 
important exceptions; and they are divided as follows: 

Class I. Ctenophora. 
Class II. Polypomedusae. 

Order I. AcalLpha. 

II. Siplionophoia. 
111. Uydroida. 

Class HI. Anthozoa. 

Order I. Octactinia. 
li. Hcxactinia. 
Suborder I. Actinaria. 

II. Madreporarix. 

Class W. Porifera. 

Older I. Ccraospongia. 
II. Halic/ioiidria. 
III. Calcispongla. 



Class 1. Ctenophora. 



Frecly-swimming animals of jelly-like consistence. 
The mouth , which is often surrounded by lobes 
and tentacles, leads to a body- cavity. There ara 
8 zones of plates, bearing cilia, which run from 
one pole of the body to the other, on the upper 
surface , and the animal moves by the combined 
action of the cilia, and by the contraction of its 
body. The animals are hermaphrodite, and there is 



no alternation of generations. They feed on other 
marine animals. — Three species are represented on 
Plate XXIX ; Fig. k. Bcroe ovata; fig. /. Cestuiu Veneris^ 
a ribbon-shaped transparent creature, which shines in 
the sun with the most beautiful colours when swimming 
in the sea; and fig. m. Cydippe pileits, a rounded 
species, with two long retractile filaments which it 
uses to catch its prey. 



Class II. Polypomedusae. 



Here we meet with an assemblage of creatures 
which do not seem to have the slightest resemblance 
between them , such as the jelly-fish and the sea- 
anemones. And yet these forms are so closely allied 
that it can only be supposed , that one has origi- 
nated from the other. Here, too, we meet with alter- 
nation of generations. The Medusa; , or Jelly-fish, 
are sexually-mature animals, but their eggs do not 
produce jelly-fish. The young animal fixes itself 
firmly, and grows to a branching tree, which is 
called a polyp or polypidum. Young Medusae are 
produced on the branches of this tree, which detach 



themselves, swim about, frequently grow much larger, 
and again reproduce themselves sexually. This is 
the rule, though we meet with exceptions in some 
subdivisions. Among the lowest forms, the Medusa: 
do not detach themselves from the polypidom, but 
produce eggs, so that they sink from the level of 
independent beings to that of mere organs. In the 
higher forms , the reverse is the case. Here the 
Medusa-stage is greatly developed , and the polyp- 
stage much reduced , for the polypidom does not 
branch , while the Medusae are detached by con- 
striction. 



61 



Order I. Acalepha. 



The Jelly-fish are the typical McdnscE, and are 
umbrella-like in form , the margin being usually set 
with threads. From the middle hangs a stalk which 

Development of Medusa aurita. 

a) First Stage. Freely 
swimming larva. 
f'/Y(///«A7-Stage.) 

b) Second Stage. Fi.\- 
ed Polyp (Hydra 
t!///a-S[age.) 

c)&d) Third ctFourlli 
Stages. The polyp 
develops tentacles 
and circular con- 
strictions, (Seyphi- 
j/t)/«(!-Stage.) 

e) Fifth Stage ('.W/v- 
^/Az- Stage). The 
tentacles disap- 
pear and tlie con- 
strictions tlirow off 
young freely swim- 
ming Mednsie. 

They are rather large animals' 
play of colours. They are 
extremely difficult to preserve or examine, except in 
the sea itself, on account of the large quantity of 




surrounds the mouth, 
and exhibit a beautifu 



water contained in their jelly-like substance. When 
removed from the water, tliey rapidly dissolve, leaving 
scarcely a trace behind. 

Plate XXIX. fig. n. Medusa aiirila is one of 
the commonest species. It is a gregarious animal, 
and the pale blue umbrellas oscillate at times by 
hundreds on the waves, or are driven in shoals into 
bays and harbours. The young do not form a poly- 
pidom , but a single stem , from which the Medusas 
detach themselves. The separate stages of the Me- 
dusae were formerly regarded as distinct animals, 
and described as such. 

Fig. o. Pclas.ia pauopyra is distinguished by 
its beautiful red colour, the length of its 8 marginal 
filaments, and its 4 slender oral tentacles. 

Fig. p. Ccplica papuensis is remarkable for 
having each rif the tentacles divided , so that the 
mouth is surrounded by 8 club-shaped appendages. 

Fig. q. Rhizostoina Aldrovandi represents a 
section of the Medus;e in which there is no mouth, 
but the 8 tentacles exhibit apertures for the reception 
of microscopic nourishment. The rythmical motion 
of the umbrella is very conspicuous ; and the urti- 
cating properties of this species render it very an- 
noying to bathers. 



Order II. Siphonophora. 



These organisms are remarkable as occupying an 
intermediate position between a compound animal and 
an individual. In other compound animals (corals for 
example) the individuals resemble each other in ap- 
pearance and in organisation, but in the Siphonophora 
the separate animals of the colony perform different 
functions, and likewise change their appearance, thus 
sinking to the level of mere organs. The Siphono- 
phora are swimming compound animals, generally 
with a longitudinal axis , provided v^'ith a bladdery 
expansion above, to keep the stem upright. On the 
sides are placed the individual animals, with their body- 
cavities communicating with the cavity in the longitu- 
dinal axis. Some of the animals are bell-shaped, and 
assist in swimming, others are feeding animals, which 
possess a long thread set with urticating organs; and 
others again are medusa-like animals, which secrete the 
sexual products, and can detach themselves. The 
entire stem differs much in appearance according to the 
form, number and arrangement of the separate polypi. 



Plate XXIX. fig. r. In Velclla scraphidca the 
longitudinal axis is compressed to a flattened disc, 
on the under surface of which the separate polypi live. 

Fig. s. Dipliycs gracilis is an elegant species 
with two large swimming-bells. Beneath them, at 
equal distances, hang the feeding polyps, with their 
long filaments, and the umbrella-shaped sexual polypi. 

Fig. t. Pliysalia arcthusa, the Portuguese Man- 
of-War, is one of the handsomest of the swimming 
polypi. The entire axis of the animal is expanded 
into a bulky horizontal bladder. The feeding polypi, 
which are situated on the bladder, have very long 
and strong filaments, covered with millions of urti- 
cating organs, which render the creature a very for- 
midable antagonist. 

Plate XXX. fig. a. Fhysophora disticha is fur- 
nished with a row of bell-shaped swimming polypi 
on each side, in addition to the bladder at the end 
of the longitudinal axis. 



Order III. Hydroida. 



In this Order the polyp-state predominates. 
The Medusae which are produced from the eggs, 
either do not detach themselves at all from the poly- 
pidom, or if they do so, reinain quite small. The 
stems are usually branched. 

Plate XXX. fig. b. Coryniorpha nutans has an 
unbranched stem , attached by root-like processes. 
The small free Medusas are bell-shaped, and pro- 
vided with a long marginal thread. Our figure shows 
how they are placed m a circle round the mouth of 
the pilyp, before they detach themselves. 

Fig. c. Bourgainvillia raniosa is a very deli- 
cate tree-like species The Medusae are placed like 
little buttons at the end of the twigs, from which 



they detach themselves , although in some very 
closely allied species they remain fixed. 

Fig. d. Hydra viridis, the Fresh-water Polype, 
is a representative of almost the only fresh-water 
genus of the Cwlenterata. The few species of tlydra 
arc generally fi.xed to floating objects, or to snail- 
shells. If a handful of duckweed is placed in a large 
glass, the little animals will soon be seen on the roots 
exjianding a circle of tentacles. Hydra is famous 
for its tenacity of life, for it may be cut to pieces, 
and each fragment will become a new animal ; or 
it may be turned inside-out like a glove without 
suffering any injury. It has no medusa form , but 
reproduces itself by fission or eggs. 



62 



Class III. Anthozoa. 



The Corals have always been among the most 
famous productions of the sea, but it was long be- 
fore it was known that the costly and beautiful red 
coral, as well as the numerous white corals which 
form great reefs in the tropical seas , were animal 
productions, and closely allied to the low forms of 
life, without a siceleton, called Sea Anemones. Both 
consist of a hollow cavity, but in the corals, this is 
divided into a number of vertical partitions by 
numerous walls of separation. 

The mouth, or opening to the body-cavity, is 
surrounded by tentacles , equal in number to the 
partition-walls ; and these tentacles are well provided 
with urticating organs. 

Alost of tlie coral animals form colonies of 
various forms by budding. Channels penetrating the 
mass in which the separate animals are embedded, 
unite all the animals of the colony , so that the 
nourishment taken by one animal feeds the common 



stock. The animals are called polyps, but the 
colony produced by the budding and branching of 
the animals, and on which they are fixed, is called 
the Polypidom or Polyparium. It rarely remains soft, 
but usually forms a skeleton of vary various form, 
which may be so massive as to form a firm rocky 
core, with only a thin layer of animal matter on the 
surface, or scattered through it. When the animals 
die, this substance, which is usually of a shining 
white colour, retains the exact form of the colony. 
In other cases the polyparium is horny, or contains 
but few calcareous layers. The coral-animals which 
form no colonies, are usually quite fleshy, and with 
out skeleton. The coral-animals multiply by eggs 
as well as by budding. From the eggs a freely- 
swimming larva is produced, which does not fix its- 
self for some time. All the corals are marine, and 
they are classified by the number of tentacles. 



Order I. Octactinia. 



These have 8 ciliated tentacles, and as many 
partition layers. The animals found colonies, which 
usually contain an axial skeleton of horny or cal- 
careous matter. The skeleton is often limited to a 
slight calcareous deposit in the integument of the 
colony. 

Plate XXX. fig. e. Alcyonhim palinatum, the 
Dead Man's Fingers , forms fixed colonies with no 
axial skeleton, of leathery consistence, and with slight 
calcareous deposits of a determinate form. 

Fig. f. Fennatiila phosphorca, the Sea-Pen, has 
a horny yielding axial skeleton , with the lower 
end fixed in the sand or mud at the sea-bottom. 
The colony has the shape of a feather , and the 
separate animals are placed on its side-branches. 
It is a luminous animal. 

Fig. g. Uinbclhda cncrimis is a species found 
at a great depth in the Northern Seas. It has a long 
stem , at the upper end of which the animals are 
arranged in such a manner that the whole has some- 
what of the appearance of a magnificent dandelion, 
swaying on a slender stalk. 

Fig. h. Renilla violacca is a small and incon- 
spicuous colony in comparison to the last , but the 
contrast between the blue kidney-shaped stem and 
the yellow animals planted on it give it a pretty 
appearance. 

Fig. i. Gorgonia Jlabellum is called from its 
shape Venus's F"an. We have figured only the 



skeleton, and not the animals. It comes from the 
West Indies. In this and the allied species, the 
horny or calcareous tree-like or fan-like skeleton is 
covered with a thin crust which is easily rubbed off. 

Fig. k. Corallntn rnbrum. The Red Coral has 
always been highly esteemed. The colonies form 
large branching stems with a red a.xis as hard as 
stone, which is covered with a red porous layer, 
easily removed, containing isolated calcareous par- 
ticles. The separate animals are all connected by 
the pores, and have the appearance of shining white 
stars on the red stem ; but as soon as they arc 
touched, they withdraw their tentacles, and disappear. 
The young animals are small wormlike ciliated crea- 
tures , which swim freely about for a time. The 
Red Coral is found only in the Mediterranean Sea 
The coral fishery, in which 300 vessels are annually 
engaged, and which yields a clear profit of upwards 
of A' 100,000, is carried on chiefly on the coasts of 
Algeria and Tunis. The corals, which live at the 
depth of from fifteen to eighty fathoms, are torn away 
and brought to the surface by specially constructed 
nets. The price of the raw material varies from 
ten shillings to S.\o per pound according to the size 
and colour. 

Fig. 1. Tubipora purpurea is found in the Red 
Sea, and has also a very solid red skeleton 1 lere, 
however, the separate individuals are arranged in 
parallel tubes connected by horizontal plates, so that 
the whole is not unlike the pipes of an organ. 



Orcler II. Hexactinia. 



In these animals, the tentacles are either six in 
number, or a multiple of six ; and in the latter case 
they are arranged in a scries of separate rows. 
They are divided into two sharply defined Suborders. 

Suborder I. Actinaria. 

In the Sea-Anemones there is no calcareous 
skeleton. They are generally separate animals of 
considerable size and bright colours, and can creep 
slowly from place to place by means of a retractile 
foot. Thc'y are richly provided with urticating cap- 



sules, and feed on small fish, Crustacea, &c In 
captivity they are fed with fragments of meat. The 
numerous tentacles which surround the mouth are 
reproduced if cut off, and if an animal is cut in two, 
two new ones are formed. 

Plate XXX. fig. m Sai^artia rosea has bright 
red tentacles spotted with white. 

Fig. n. Anthea cereiis, the Opelet, is remarkable 
for its beautiful green colour, and numerous tentacles 
(about 180), which are estimated to be armed with 
from 6,000 to 7,000 millions of urtirating cap .ules. 



63 



Fig. o. Actinia nicscinbryantltcimim, the Beadlet, 
is by far the commonest of the sea-anemones on our 
coasts. It varies much in colour, but may always 
be known by the row of blue beads at the base of 
the tentacles, from which it derives its name. 

, Suborder U. Madreporaria. 

The Madrepores possess a calcareous skeleton, 
which e.xactly reproduces the form of the animal, 
even in the species which live singly , for it is not 
only the outer wall which is solid , but as many 
vertical calcareous partitions project from the cup 
towards the middle, as there e.xist mesenterial folds 
and tentacles. 

Most madrepores form colonies , and they are 
very numerous in the tropical seas, where they form 
reefs and barriers at a moderate depth, which re- 
semble the most beautiful submarine gardens. 

In the Pacific Ocean, the coral reefs are most 
dangerous to ships; and they likewise form the 
foundation of innumerable islands, where the Cocoa- 
nut and bread-fruit tree establish themselves long 
before they are followed by man. Three kinds of 
coral-formations are distinguished The fringing reef s 
skirt the edge of the land. There is often a more 
or less broad channel between the land and the reef; 
and this formation is called a batrier-reef. The reef 
lies opposite the shore, and forms a strong barrier 
against the waves ; and the water in the lagoon 
generally offers a safe anchorage. These barrier- 



reefs are often of great extent; and that which 
fringes the coast of North Australia extends for a 
distance of 1250 miles. The third class of coral 
formation is the Coral Island, or Atoll. These are 
more or less broad coral-reefs which surround a sheet 
of water. There are channels through the reef, and 
in the middle of the ring there is often a mountain 
rising from the bottom of the sea. As soon as the 
summit of the reef reaches the surface, it collects a 
layer of soil on which seeds take root. These Atolls 
are generally found in clusters. Of course they must 
be founded where reef-corals rise from the bed of the 
sea to within a short distance of the surface. This 
process has been going on for ages, and many lands 
owe their foundation to the labours of the coral 
animals, often popularly, but incorrectly termed coral- 
insects. 

The skeletons of three reef-corals are figured 
on Plate XXX. 

Pig. p. Madrepora verrucosa forms a tree-like 
colony. 

Pig. q. Fnngia scutaria illustrates the mush- 
room corals, which form no colonies of large extent 
(the figure represents a single individual. The calyx 
is longitudinally contracted, and there is a cleft leading 
to the body-cavity of the animal. 

Mg. r. Echiiiopora genniiacea is one of the 
stony corals. Each star forms the dwelling of a 
separate animal, and by the complete petrifaction 
of thi central foundations, arises a massive colony 
in which the separate calyces are embedded. 



Class IV. Fori f era. 



The Sponges diher from the higher Caienterata 
in the want of urti 
eating organs , and \ v^J|„ 
the whole Class ' """ 
stands at a very low 
level. No Sponge 
possesses the power ^^' 
of voluntary motion, ^ ^ 
and most of them 
form colonies in 
which the individuals 
are all connected by 
channels. Deposits 
of horny, calcareous, 
or siliceous matter 
form a firm ground- 
work , overlaid by 
the animal substance 
Many species are 
met with, encrusting 
stones and shells on 
the bed of the sea, 
or are found in 
clusters adhering to 

rocks , like the 
sponges used for 
washing purposes. 
Others again form 
tree-like colonies; 
but there is no 
spontaneous motion 
of tentacles to reveal 
their animal nature 
to the naked eye. 
The sponges which 




do not form colonies are cylindrical hollow animals 

with no subdivision 
of the body-cavity. 
The sea water which 
enters through nu- 
merous microscopic 
openings intheframe- 
work of the animal, 
always contains 
microscopic orga- 
nisms which serve 
for food. A large 
opening at the ex- 
tremity of the longi- 
tudinal axis of the 
sponge serves to 
discharge the super- 
fluons water ; and 
the movement of 
the water in the 
required direction is 
due to cilia, with 
which the cells of the 
body of the sponge 
are covered. The 
openings by which 
the separate animals 
discharge water look 
like large craters on 
the colony of the 
sponge. 

Sponges ma) 
be divided according 
to the structure of 
ihe skeleton, without 



Spicules of Sponges. Those marked i/j are calcareous, and all the others siliceous. 



64 



the distinction being made too stringent, into horny, si- 
liceous, and calcareous sponges. The toilet-sponges 
belong to the first class. Tlie horny filaments are 
arranged in layers, and form a more or less dense 
network. In the calcareous and siliceous sponges 
spicules of lime or flint are embedded in the animal 
substance. These are often of a pure white, and of 
elegant forms, resembling needles, hooks, anchors, 
spiny balls, spades, walking-sticks, and many other 
figures, alternating with cross-bars, in the middle 



of which rises a small tree , with long clustered 
needles. 

These spiculae arc sometimes scattered through 
the animal substance, and they are sometimes united 
into a firm skeleton which forms a faithful outline 
of the sponge, after the animal life has departed. 
The sponges are almost e.xclusivey marine, and some- 
times produce eggs, which develop a larva whicli 
swims freely for a short time, and sometimes increase 
by budding. 



Order I. Ceraospongia. (Horny Sponges). 



The 



Toilet-Sponge (S/^oitgia iisitatiisiiiia) is 





Section of a liorny sponge, 
typical of this Order. Its skeleton consists ex- 



clusively of elastic horny filaments , which form a 
network, which sucks up water into its many empty 
channels. Sponges are used for different purposes 
according to the firmness of their tissues. The sponge- 
fishery is carried on chiefly on the coasts of Dalmatia 
and Turkey, partly by divers, and partly by up- 
rooting the sponges with tridents, from a boat. The 
sponges are first kneaded till all the slimy animal sub- 
stance which overlays and pervades them, is removed, 
when they are washed clean with water. Tlie sand which 
they usually contain afterwards is only a fraudulent 
addition to increase the weight. Latterly attempts 
have been successfully made to propagate sponge 
by artificial division. 



Order 11'. Halichondria. (Siliceous Sponges). 



In these, we find siliceous deposits of various 
forms, often intermixed with horny substance. 

Plate XXX. fig. s. Aximlla polypoidcs is one 
of the few forms which possess a fi.xed a.xis resembl- 
ing that of a colony of polyps. The number of 
separate individuals of which the colony consists is 
indicated in the figure. 

To the siliceous sponges belongs the Fresh- 
water Sponge (Spoil i(illa flnviatilis) which consists of 
a greyish-brown crust over old woodwork, &c., in 
water, which is easily rubbed oft". Its spicules under 



the microscope form fine slender spindles, sticking 
together, and forming a delicate network. 

Fig. t. Euplcctdla aspcrgilluiu, Venus's Flower- 
Basket, is one of the most beautiful of the Vitreous 
Sponges, in which the siliceous deposits form a firm 
skeleton. When the animal substance is removed, 
the skeleton forms a long tube of the purest white, 
about nine inches long, and latticed in at the top as 
well as at the sides. The lower end of the tube is 
fixed in the sand, and is surrounded by a long tuft 
of fine needles, which look like spun glass. It is a 
native of Japan. 



Order III. Calcispongia. (Calcareous Sponges). 



Here the skeleton consists entirely of cal- 
careous spicules , which are either simple , or 3- or 
4-armed. All the forms occur in the same species. 



Many calcareous s]ionges are single, 
as is Sea II (Ira cilia ta, here figured. 



Subkingdom Protozoa. 




The Protozoa occupy the lowest place in the 
Animal Kingdom , as the Vertebrata occupy the 
highest. As we descend the scale we meet with simpler 
and simpler organisms. We find organs which form 
an independent system in the bigger animals, such a^ 
the circulatory system, growing gradually simpler and 
less-distinct, till they unite at last with a wholly different 
system , as in the body-cavity of the CcelLiitcrata, 
which serves both for digestion and circulation. 
Complication of organisation corresponds to compli- 
cated conditions of life. In the higher animals, the 
function of reproduction is confined to the sexual 



organs ; but in the lower animals a new animal may 
arise from any part of the body by budding or fis- 
sion. Among the lower animals sexual repro- 
duction alternates irregularly with asexual , causing 
the naturalist nnich perplexity in following out the 
life-history of the animal. In the lowest animals 
sexual reproduction disappears altogether , and the 
Protozoa multiply by subdivision. But the chief 
feature in which they differ from other animals is in 
the simplicity of their structure. We seek in vain for 
any trace of separate organs, such as nerves, mus- 
cles, skin. &c. In all other animals, even in the 



65 



sponges, the microscope reveals certain elements 
called cells, which serve as a foundation for the 
structure; but we do not find even this in the Pro- 
tozoa. They are merely independent and freely- 
moving cells, and consist of protoplasm, a slimy 
jelly-like substance, which is recognised as organic, 
and which also exists in the cells of the highest 
animals. But there is no structure in the protoplasm 
of the Protozoa, and it concentrates in itself all the 
functions which are assigned to separate organs or 
systems of organs in the higher animals. The sim- 
l>licity of the Protozoa is sometimes varied by the 
relationship which the organic mass exhibits towards 
inorganic matter. We have already seen in other 
groups of animals, such as the Holothurise , the 
corals, and sponges, how inorganic matter such as 
lime or silex enters largely into the structure of the 
body in many animals; and this occurs likewise in 



the Protozoa. Many species possess a calcareous or 
siliceous skeleton of determinate form Thus arises 
a wonderful richness of genera and species among 
the Protozoa, which all exhibit the same protoplasmic 
structure to our perceptions, thougli their varied and 
delicate skeletons are the microscopist's delight. The 
Protozoa are likewise of great geological importance, 
for their microscopic shells, heaped together in untold 
millions , formed vast masses of rock in former 
ages, which have since been upheaved, forming a 
thick layer which covers thousands of square miles 
in many parts of the world. The Infusoria are nu- 
merous both in fresh water and in the sea, and their 
germs are found everywhere. Many species may 
be dried up, and revived under more favourable con- 
ditions, and are thus able to withstand all normal 
variations of heat and moisture. 



Class 1. Infusoria. 



Plate XXII. 

It was formerly supi)0sed that these microscopic 
organisms were produced by steeping dry sub- 
stances in fluids, but we now know that the germs are 
carried about by any puff of wind, and can thus 
reach any fluid, however well preserved, and revive. 
The Infusoria are the highest Protozoa, for their 
protoplasmic body is enclosed in a thin integument 
of determinate form, and is often provided with 
cilia in certain situations. The protoplasm contains 
darker spots or nuclei, as well as a clear bladder 
which contracts at regular intervals. 

Reproduction takes place as follows : Two indi- 
viduals fuse themselves together, and the new animal 
grows to a certain size, and then divides in two, 
and these continue to subdivide until they have 
reached the size at which they combine with another 
individual. The Infusoria feed on smaller examples 
of their own Order, or on the microscopic larv;e of 
higher animals ; or live as parasites in the intestines 
or other organs of various animals. 

Fig. q. Opercidaria nutans and fig. r. Vorticella 
microstoma are among the prettiest fresh-water species, 
and are common in streams and ponds. Both rest 
on stalks, and the mouth, at the end of the pitcher- 
shaped animal, is surrounded by a ring of constantly 



(right side). 

vibrating cilia. (The names of the plate should be 
corrected as above). The Bell AnimalcuL-e are con- 
stantly oscillating backwards and forwards, and at 
the least touch the stalk of Vorticella rolls itself instan- 
taneously into a spiral. 

Fig. s. Stylonichia niytiliis is a freely swimming 
Infusorium provided with a number of shorter or 
longer bristles. When a drop of water in which Algae 
grow is placed under the microscope, this animal 
will generally be seen in constant movement, some- 
times darting straight onwards, and sometimes re- 
volving on its own axis between the fronds of the 
Algae. 

Fie. t. Noctiluca miliaris is a marine form. 
It is found gregariously in many places, and when 
the conditions are favourable it rises to the surface 
in such multitudes that the sea becomes slimy, and 
emits a reddish light over a wide area. After sunset, 
and especially in the early morning hours, the whole 
surface shines with a magical bluish light. The 
luminority of the sea is due in great part to the 
presence of this little infusorium, though other and 
larger luminous animals are also present. This is, 
however, a phenomenon which is only seen at its 
best at uncertain intervals. 



Class II. Rhizopoda. 



These are animals without determinate form, 
and destitute of cilia. The skinless protoplasm throws 
out and retracts processes from any part of the body 
indifferently. Thus the animal changes its shape con- 
tinually, and these processes, or pseudopodia, serve 
both to effect the movements of the animal, and to 



take food, as they surround and absorb any organic 
substances, such as Alg.c. Although the proto- 
plasmic body itself is of no determinate shape, 
yet it is frequently accompanied by calcareous or 
siliceous skeletons of various fixed shapes. 



Order I. Radiolaria. 



The Radiolaria always possess a siliceous ske- j from which they radiate in different directions ; or of 
leton, consisting either of variously -formed needles i a connected skeleton variable in form, with numerous 
which unite in the midst of the protoplasmic mass, | openings through which the central protoplasmic body, 



66 



wliich is often coloured, throws out its threadlike 
jnocesses. The skeletons are of very delicate and 
varied forms, resembling helmets, bishop's mitres, 
baskets, or bundles of arrows. Every conceivable 
shape is found among the Radiolaria, and they form 
a charming study. 

At Fig. u. Eucyrtidinm craiioidcs, v. Acantha- 
stauras puipiirascens, and Fig. w. Diploconiis fasces 



three forms of skeleton are shown, with the accom- 
panying animal throwing out its radiating processes. 
It most not be forgotten that all these figjres are 
liighly magnified, and that the originals are of mi- 
croscopic dimensions 

The Radiolaria are marine animals, and their 
remains cover vast spaces of the bed of the ocean, 
frequently at an immense depth. 



Order II. Foraminifera. 



These must generally be distinguished by their 
skeleton being formed of carbonate of lime ; though 
some forms are without a skeleton. Here, too, the shells 
exhibit openings, through which the protoplasm of 
the animal protrudes. 

Fig. X. Folystoiiiclla strigilata is a living species, 
with a skeleton divided into chambers, and riddled 
with holes through which the protoplasmic threads 
project. 

Fig. y. BitHutiim piipoides fig z. Globigcriiia 
coiii^ioiiicrata and fig. za. Biloadina ringens are three 
more hiyhly magnified skeletons of Fonxminifiia, 
which form the chief constituant of common chalk. 
Thus these microscopic creatures play at least as 
great a part in the formation of the world as the 
coral animal themselves. And they still swim by 
myriads at a moderate depth in the sea, and their 
shells sink to the bottom in heaps in the "Globi- 



gerina Zone" of the Atlantic, to form the chalk de- 
posits of future ages. 

Fig. zb. Amoeba princep's has no skeleton and 
no fixed form, but is always changing its shape. 
These simple cells are formed in damp mud, and 
stand not only at the very lowest point in the animal 
kingdom, but at the actual limit between the animal 
and vegetable kingdoms, which are no longer se- 
parable in their lowest forms, so far as our present 
knowledge extends. Many low animals and plants, 
as well as many cells in the higher animals, exhibit 
the same characters as the Amoeba, in their earliest 
stage. Thus it is not only the first link in the 
long clain of animal organisms, but is also the 
foundation - stone on which the whole of organic 
nature is reared ; itself so varied in its innumerable 
forms, and yet possessing an indivisible unity. 



^^^^4^^ 




Ophidia 



Serpents. 




b) Horrid Rattlesnake 
Cratalus horridus. 



a) Boa Constrictor. 



Ophidia 



Serpents. 




a) Cobra-di-Capello, 
Naja tripudians. 



b) Viper. 
Petias berus. 



c) Common Snake. 
Tropidonotus natrix. 



d) Sequent of .ifcculapius. 
Coluber yEsculapii. 



Ophidia — Lacertilia 



Snakes — Lizards. 




a) Coluber austriacus. 



b) Coluber flavescens. 



c) Black-backed Sea-Snake. 
Pelamis bicolor. 



d) Blind Worm. 
Anguis fragiiis. 



Crocodilia. 



Crocodiles. 




a) Mississippi Alligator. 
Alligator lucius. 



b) Common Crocodile. 
Crocodilus vulgaris. 



Lacertilia 




a) Chamaeleon. 
Chamaleo vulgaris. 



b) Sand Lizard. 
Lacerta agilis. 



CI Wall Li/ard. 
Lacerta rnuraUs, 



*1) 'guana. 
'guana tuberculata. 



e) Basilisk. 
Basiliscus vulgaris. 



1) Flying Dragon. 
Draco volans. 



Urodela 



Newts &c. 




a) Spotted Salamander. 
Saiamandra maculosa. 



b) Great Water Newt 
Triton cristatus. 



c) t'roteus. 
Proteus anguinus. 



ui Siren. 
Siren lacertina. 



Amphibia. 



Frogs and Toads. 




a) Common Toa4 
Bufo vulgaris. 



b) Natterjack Toad. 
Bufo calamita. 



c) Surinam Toad. 
Pipa americana. 



cl) Edible Frog. 
Rana esculenta. 



ft) Green Tree-Frog. 
Hyla arborea. 



Chelonia 



Turtles and Tortoises. 




aj Green Turtle. 
Chelonia midas. 



b) Land lortoise. 
Testud^' gricca. 



c) Hawk's-bill lurtle. 
Carctlx imbricata. 



d) River Tortoise. 
Emys europaa. 



Carchariidae. 



Sharks. 




a) Shark. 
Carcharias vulgaris. 



^ Hammer-headed Shark. 
Zygiena malleus. 



c) Sawfish. 
Pristis aHtiquoniii 



Raiadae — Petromyzidae. 



Rays — Lampreys. 




a) Eagle Ray. 
Myliohatis aquila. 



b) Torpedo. 
Torpedo marmorata. 



c) Thomback Skate 
Rata clavata. 



d) Lamprey. 
Petromyzon marinus. 



^) Lampem. 
P'tromyioH fluviatilis. 



i) Small Lampern. 
Petromyeon Planeri. 



g) Mud Lamprey. 
Petromyzon Ftaneri (immature). 



Acanthopterygii; Plectognathi; Ganoidei 



Sturgeons Ac. 




a) 1-ump Fish. 
Cychpurus lumfus. 



b) FLshing Frog. 
Lophius piscatorius. 



c) Sturgeon. 
Acipsnser slurio. 



d) Acipeiiifr huso. 



e) Sterlet 
Acipemer ruthnms. 



Horned Trunk-fish. 
Ostraciou coruutus. 



g) Sea Hedgehog. 
Diodoii hystrtx. 



k) Tetrodoii stcUatu^; 



Teleostei. 



Sunfish, Eels Ac. 




a) Sunfish. 
OrthagoriscHS mola. 



b) Great Pipe-fish. 
SyngKathus acus. 



c) Sea Horse. 
Hippocampus antiquo 



dj Sea Dragon. 
Pegasus draco- 



«) Electric Eel. 
Gymnohts ekclricHs 



Eel. 
Anguilla fluviatilis. 



g) Mura-aa Helena. 



h) Wolf-fish. 
Anarrhichas lupus. 



i) Sword-fish. 
Xiphias gladms. 



Acanthopterygii, Pharyngognathi 



Star-gazer, Cod 




a) Star-gazer. 
Uranoscapus scabir. 



b) Hake. 
Meriucius vulgaris. 



c) Ling. 
Moha vulgaris. 



d) Cod. 
Gadus morrhua. 



e) Haddock, 
Gadus aglefinus. 



f) Dorse. 
Gadus callarias. 



g) Gadus minutus. 



h) Eel Pout 
Lota vulgaris. 



Teleoste 



Blenny, Mackarel &c. 




a) Blenny. 
Bttnnius viviparus. 



b) Bull-head. 
Cottus pobio. 



c) Sucking Fish. 
'*'"■ Echineis naucrates. 

i) Black Goby. k) Grey Gurnard. 

Gobius ttiger. Triela G«r«„rHu. 



d) Red Scorpion Fish, 
Scorpana scorpio. 



e) Mackarel. 
Scomber scomber. 



f) Tunny. 
Thynnus tkynnus. 

1) Flying Gurnard. 



g) Stickleback. 
Gasterosteus aculeatus. 



h) aimbing Perch. 
Anabas scandens. 






Teleostei. 



Fiat-Fish, Perches &c. 




a) John Dorj' 
2eus fabv. 



b) Plaice. 
Pkuronectes platessa. 



c) Holihut d) Perch. e) Pike Perch. 

llippoglossus vulgaris. Ferca fluviatilis. Luchperca Sandra. 



fj Ruffe. 
Acerina cernua. 



gj Red Mullet. 
MuUus barbatus. 



h^ Wra.sse. 
Julis miditerranea. 



i) Grey Mullet 
Mugil cephaius 



Anacanthini, Physostomi 



Loach, Herring, Carp &c. 




a} Loach. 
Nmackiltti barbaliUua. 



h Nemachilus fossiUs. 



<■) CoHtis tar„ia. d) S.lurus glanis. c) Flying Fish. t) Herring. g) Anchovy. h) Carp. i) Tench. 

Bxoca-tus volitans. Clupm harengtis. Engranlis encrasicholus. Cyprinus carpio. Tinea vulgaris. 



Physostomi. 



Bream, Roach &c. 



X\TI 




a) Bream. 
Abramis brama. 



b) LeuciscHs orjus. 



c) Crucian Carp. 
Carassius carassius. 



d) Rudd. 
I.euciscus erytkrophthalmus. 



Leuci. 



e) Roach. 



■scus rutilus. 



f) Chub. 
Leuciscui cephalus. 



g) Leuciscus idus. 



h) Dace. 
Leuciscus vulgaris. 



Physostomi. 



Minnow, Barbel, Salmon &c. 



XVffl. 




a) Bleak. 
Leuciscus albumus. 



6) Chondrostoma 



c) Minnow. 
Leuciscus phoxinus. 



d) Abramis viinba. 



k) Salmon. 



'> Xhodcu. a,nar„s. f) Gudgeon. g) Barbel. '') Gold Hsh. 

Cobio vulgaris. Barbus vulgaris. h) Abramis blicca. Carasstus auratus. 



ll Trn„t 



Physosfom 



Trout, Pike &c. 




a) Salmon Trout. 
Saimo trutta. 



b) Salmi) liucho. 



c) Lake Trout. 
Salmo lacuslris. 



d) Salmo salvt:Hnu.-i 



e) firayling. 
Ihymaltus vulf^aris. 

i) Gnrfish. 



f) Corcgonm Warlmanni. g) Smelt. h) Pike. 

Osmerui eperlanus. Esox Indus. 



Cephalopoda. Cuttlefishes 



pteropoda — Gastropoda. Univalve Shells. 




a, b) I'early Nautilus. 
Nautilus pompiliuE. 



c) Common Cuttlefish. 
Sepia officinalis. 



d) Common Octopus. 
Octopus vulgaris. 



. a.o borcali. g) EolMa cccrulcsccs. h) Sea Hare (Affy.ia icpilans). i) L.n,pet (Patella f'"'"';";^ "' %''lZZ]Z'a, 

e, Paper Nautilus. „ t„ SbeM UTaliotn rns). m) Trockus maninalus. n) Turb, pclMatus. o) Ncrita cxuv.a. p) Wenlle Trap (Scalar,a pr.t.o.ay 

Argonauta ArgO. q) Scalaria communis, r) Valuta txthiopica. s) Harp Shell {Harpa vtntrieosa). 



I Mitre Shell (Mitra episcopalis). 



Gastropoda. Univalve Shells and Slugs. 



Lamellibranchiata. Bivalve Shells. 



XXI. 




k) Wale, Snail a.„,,.a ,/»„.;,>;. ^^Pj„Ji"ZZs ^Tm 't"' '" *'""'*'" ""'" """'•'■ '> ^'^''"•'^' f^""- 
(f^«,ruM). P) Garden Slug ri.Ww.«,>J , /W „f T « r™''"' "> C'^^"'-''*'" '■»*"'"»;. o) Red Slag 
1) W,x mmoralis. u) ^«a„,a /Vm,V. '^ ' ^''''mar rfas/to„,. s) EaiWe Snail (Helix pomatia). 



^) Ojiln (Trtdacna gigas). h) i^cMop (Pecieti /imximus). c) Spondylus gitdaropus. d) Oyster (Ostrea edu/ij). e) Pearl 
Mussel (Meleagritia margarili/era). -^'""a nobilis. g) Noah's Ark Shell (Area Natt). h) Mussel (Mytilus edulis). 
i) Anodonta anatina. k) 6'>//<J pictorum. 



Mollusca-Molluscoldea. Bivalve Shells &c. 



Protozoa. Animalculae. 







xxn 






c 



'Wl' 






(Microscopic objects, highly ma^niliedj q) Epistytis Jlavicans. rl VarticcUa marina, s) Stylonichia mytilui. 
t) Noctiluca niiliaris. u) Eucyrtidium cranoides. v) Acauthaslaurus purpiirasccns. w) Diphcoims fasces, x) Polystomdla 
striiiUata. y) Bulimiiia pupoides. z) Globigcrim cmglomerata. z a) Hiloctilina riiigens. z b) /4»<i'^ii princcps. 



Cirripedia — Diptera. Barnacles — Flies. Arochnida. Myriopoda- Spiders, Centipedes &c. 



xxm. 




.-./^ "^-"- "^ Vic::i^ «v («... ..,„„.. a) ....... 



n) Flea fA.ix ,r..,Ji ' , rh A- '"'«""''='" '''^""■■' -i""-^.'^ 



, '0 Sarcophaf^a carnaria. i) Bluebottle 

'ca).^ I) 5>omo.v,j calcilram. m) /Vwra iucranala. 



a) Scolifciidra morsitans. b) Lilhabius forfuahn- c) Ghmtrii timbala. d) Scorpion (Aiidroctomis MCilaniais). e) Uook 
Scorpion (Chcll/tr cancraides). 1) Tarantula (Lyccsa Tarantula.) g) Liuyphia molilalia, b) House Spider (Tcsenaria domeslica). 
i) Garden Spider f^/^i/a diadcma). k) Water Mile {irydrachiia gcograpliica.) 1) Deelle Mile lUamams Colapleralarumj. 
m) Cbeese Mile (Tyroglyphus siro). n) Dog Tick (Ixodes ricinus). 



Coleoptera. Beetles. 



Orthoptera — Neuroptera. Grasshoppers, Dragonflies &c. 



xm. 




I^C"""- <-»^/ .) Staj Beetle ,i^.„„, JLZ i, t,, f ™ '"'^"'■"^ «' .>/.W»»/*» /-./fo. h) Rose Chafer 
DGddBeeUe (Ca.aiusZ.ra,.,) mT Ca 'TL v T n' W"^""'''"' ") "'"yinB Beetle fAVrr./W. ^..^^oJ- 
Beetle fW... „„/„^;. p) Gr a. Watf^t erte rj";;,„"^^'"" ''«^ f'^'""'"'^ .<.»/«/r,x/ o, MealCor« 

(Mclo, troscaraUu,,. „, i.„J, J .ji;"^': '^W..^./-.. u) BU»ter Beetle (Canlkaris vcsUa,aria). v) Oil B«ll. 



a) Earwig (Fcrfimta auricularia) b) Cockroach (Blalta orUnlalis). c) Praying Mantis (Mania rchg.om). A) Great 
Green Grasshopper (Phasgonura viridisnma). e) Mole Cricket (Gr/lMalpa vulgaris), t) House Cr.ckel (Gryllus damtslicus). 
g) Field Cricket (Grillns campcslris). h) Migratory Locust (L^cusla migraloria). i) ffi</./<.</^ slr,dulum. j) Dragonlly 
(CalopUryx vsrgo). k) MayHy (Epkemlra vulgala). 1) Caddis Fly (Pkrygunca grandis). m) Lace-wnged Fly (CHrys^pa pcrla). 
n) Ant Lion (Myrrukm formicar.us). o) Scorpion Fly (Pamrpa communis), p, Raphidia ophiopsis. q) White Ant (male). 
(TcrpKs angusiahis). r) While Anl (female) (Termis atigustatus). 



Hymenoptera - Hemiptera. Bees and Wasps; Bugs Ac. Lepidoptera. Rhopalocera. Butterflies. 




filus vmh^u! o) rJ 11 T/ • <"'ns.s tgmla). I| Sand Wasp iLnmoTlil. 111! '^f """"•"■•!)■ Bedesuar Gall-lly 
PUor,iruLlTZ p'al!" T ^^""' '> ««1-'"l«'l Humble- Hee X.4° Tr v '^ ^ ' "'" -'*''^")- Hornel (V„fa 
Ak^^Lj{? '?"■"" «) Water Boalma, 



Rcduviu, fcrtonaluu. cc)W,lerMe,„, ',";;■ '' ''-•.Taux <(„«.,/r,,. aalHed 
ail (A'o/ona/a f/a,,;.^, iri Din^lt l"y't>-'""'lra paludum). dd) Water 



AStiidt 'r ^>"""'' ") S,lver-«.a.l,ed Fr,t,lla,.y ,Ar^,...u Paplual c, gue«n o S>pa,„ Fr.W ary ( M^jn.Lalkon.a^^ 
iith^,"'' ^'°"-""" ''""^«"'/ e) i'.=acock Bullorily (Vanessa loj. t> Camberwell Beau., ( a„^sa AnU.pa). g) La ge 
■I?"' ^^'-^^ PolyCUoros h) S,.aM Tor.o.c.hell ^-.»«.. -"-'• ■) ''urp- Emperor f^J'^''^^^^^^^''^^^ 
It ' "f "-vj,-c^.„ ^.,_., , .. L '. . _ . . ' . _, »*„„j„,.- Hrrtwn fEfttH/filtiU Jatitrtt). Ill uommon Blue 



'W """•^"' ''"'-"•"■y i) Scotch Argus f £,,*,« ../.*«;. n,) Meadow Brow,, (f-'-f ''/;"•'" ' " f^Z Ta« 
''W, ,. ■" »' Scarce Copper ra.^.W-" >''>f«-'«> P) B'"^"" '""Tf '"""" '' " 



"-iWKj r) Scarce Swallnw T.,1 



nldaUrius). s) /'«'•/'«"'" ''/''"''■ 



Lepidoptera. 



Butterflies and Moths. 



xx\a. 




k) Sparge Hawk-n,olh /A/^//. Zt'*,^ ."rp* '^^^f 'f ""•"'■ '> Elephanl Hawk-molh fcLr.L™// £//».or), 
ccnvolvuh). n) Death's Head Hawk mnth r'j , ! . "^""•""''h f^-S>/"'« ligustril m) Unicorn Hawk-molh Ci^/irtx 
P) ^S"--" afi/^mt,. ,) Tr,chmSr^JrT ^I'^"'' °' Humming B.rd Hawk-moth a/atroy/wM stelhlarum). 



a) Ghos. M„.h W./../«.- /-»"/-> h) Wood Leopard Mo>h .^.».r. --'^,;),Sr' S°.t":'l;-S^"''gr^^^^^ 
d) Tau Emperor (Aglia Tau). e) Lappe. Molh 'C^.^Vr;^/^.^-*,^^^^/^) t 0."^ Milh fO««/,« -to/^r;, k) Tiger 
cessionary Moth (Oicllwcamfa proctnioiual. hi Buff Tip < '^•''''r'' °""f''"'f''l „1 Cahbage Molh (Mamlstra braaimj. 
Moth lAnl.a caja). I) Jersey Tiger Moth (CalUm,rpUa Htrah '"^^^'■"'i'y"/^'± tarMl T> Red Underwing (C^too/a 

SL^^ss:'^'s^»:^Moiif^::i.^^:%"io&Mj;ir?z^ a. ^ort L. ,.>,„...«.. 



Crustacea. 



Crabs. Lobsters, Shrimps &c. 



XXNTl. 




^W^a.,>;. 'f^lZj[^trTJJZ^;:'^^''^f'^ ^'^'^^"'h (As/a.u, fuviaWis). d) Lobster (m 



ruricola). 



. fomarus 
i) Spider Crah rat ■ '--^-''"^ Sernhardus). g) Land Crab (Gecarcinus 
) spider Crab (Afa^a sgmnad,). k) ^/V/a manlis. 



I) Phronima sedeutaria. 



m) C^;>«//a ./,„«mma. n) Whale Loose (Cyamm «W. o) Fresh-water SlTJmp (Gan,n.ar„, f'-l"' . V) Wood.|oa.e 
CO,w<r«T ««rarm.;. q) PorcMio scabcr. r) CrratoZ/wa /r,j.,««//M&. 1) Brine Shrimp (Arttmia sahna). u) Afm cancr,- 
Prmi,. s)^^K^tY\i,.(Daphmapukx). w) C«p Louse Mri-"'"^ Z"'"'"'"^- r) Cyfris fuHus. ^) Urmtci braHCh.ahs. 



Vermes. 



Worms. 



xx\Tn. 




d) Nereis margarilacea. e) (Eonc lucida. f) SiphoJn ""'J'" • ' ^"^^ 'aaa^t (Aphrodite acukala). c) Polyiioe impalicm. ,i) BontUia viriJis. o) Sipmculus litrnhardus. p) Trichina spiralis. q> Guinea Worm (Filaria medinemis). r) As- 

l^luplicala. AiiTM\-v,i,tm (Lumbricusierreslris) ^-^ J '"'"' .^^ ^"^'^""^ f'^''"""'''' f"<:i''<^"'»). h) Serpu/a cm- caris lambricaides. s) Echinorhyncliiu gigas. K) Planaria atha. a) Uvei TMe (/■'asciola liepa/ica): \) Ttiili'mtm cocci- 

(Aulaastomum gulo). ' ">' froioicidea. \) hKA (Hirudo medicinalis). m) Horse-Leech ncum. w) Tape-worm, a head, * joints ("TV/ziVi wZ/Km^. x) Tape-worm, a head, 4 joints r/''«'«a •ffma/a/ y) Txiiia solium 

fimmalure form), z) Qcnurus cerebralis. zz) liothriocephalus tatits (a head, /' joints). 



Echinodermata — Coelenterata. 



Starfishes, Jellyfishes &c. 



XXIX. 




a) Sea Urchin (EcUnm iplura) \,\ a , 



"""■nu^capulM.j,,,^. hjSea-Cucumberr^'WWs /»*»/««;: P) C./fea /a/„«,.,.. q) ;?/,«„/.,« ^/rf«,«,rf,. r) V,U7la scafMia: €) Diphs^s gracilis. I) Porlagaese'Ma„'of'wa"r 



/«<.-//,,ir,.. k) BcrM oi;ila. 1) &!/»« )-V«;^/>. m) Cyliffe films, n) .\rcdusa aurita. o) Pclag,^ panofyra 

. . q) Rkizostoma Aldrovandi. -^ "■-'-■"- -- ■ 

(f'kysalia Arll/msa). 



Corals, Sponges &c. 



Ccelenterata. 



XXX. 




1/L" ",v '"'.T (""y-""" f'"^L). Sea.'en r ' "r™"- '*' ^resl-vvaler Hydra (Ny^.a v.H^.s). 

) Coral (&,„//„„, ,„j,„„,^ ,) , ^^ ^^ _^^_^^ _^ ;^^.^ ^^^^^ 



*"o to/v«a,jl' "",,",?"■'''■ , °' Beadlet Mcftnia mescmirya>,l/icmum). p) Uaiircfora verrucosa, q) A«»f,a scularia. 
r ypo,Jcs. I) Venus' Flower Basket (Eupleclella asptrgitbm). 



s) .4x1- 




Illlljllllljllll 
3 9088 01506 6525"