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Full text of "The natural history of British insects : explaining them in their several states, with the periods of their transformations, their food, oeconomy, &c. together with the history of such minute insects as require investigation by the microscope : the whole illustrated by coloured figures, designed and executed from living specimens"

THE 

NATURAL HISTORY 

O F 

BRITISH INSECTS; 

EXPLAINING THEM 

IN THEIR SEVERAL STATES, 

WITH THE PERIODS OF THEIR TRANSFORMATIONS, 
THEIR FOOD, CECONOMY, &c. 

TOGETHER WITH THE 

HISTORY OF SUCH MINUTE INSECTS 

AS REQUIRE INVESTIGATION BY THE MICROSCOPE. 
THE WHOLE ILLUSTRATED BY 

COLOURED FIGURES, 

DESIGNED AND EXECUTED FROM LIVING SPECIMENS. 



By E. DONOVAN. 



min!it %m''^>!nssmsns'.g^fm>w fwvtTtT~ 



VOL. I< 



LONDON: 

Printed vok the Author, 
And for F, and C. Rivington, N° 62, St, Paul's Church-Yard, 

MDCCXCH, 



.7 




13764S 



SLIGHT SKETCH 



OF THE 



ANIMAL SYSTEM. 



Lin 



NiEUS divided the Animal Syftem into, fix clafTes. 



Clafs I. Mammalia. Suckle their young. 

II. AvEs. (Birds) covered w^ith feathers. 

III. Amphibia. Lungs arbitrary. 

IV. Pisces. (Fifties) breath by gills not arbitrarily, 
V. Insecta, (Infects) two antennae, or feelers *. 

VI. Vermes. No head. 

W^e therefore fee that Infeils compofe the fifth Clafs in the Syftem^ 
and are divided into feven Orders. 

Order I. Coleoptera. Wings two, covered by two (hells divided 
by a longitudinal future. 
II. Hemiptera. Shells or covers of the wings, fomewhat 

foft, and incumbent on each other. 
III. Lepidoptera. Wings four, imbricated with minute 
fcales. 

* Thofe feelers are the two horns that are affixed to the head, 

B 2 IV. N£V< 



PLATE I. 

IV. Neuroptera. Wings four, naked, tranfparent, reticu- 
lated, with veins or nerves. Tail without fting. 
V. Hymenoptera. Wings four. Membraneous ; tail of the 

female armed with a fting. 
VI. DiPTERA. Wings two. 
VII. Aptera, No wings. 



Transformations of Insects. 

Many of our readers are no doubt acquainted with the fingular 
transformations Infeils undergo, but we truft thofe will pardon a 
digreiTion which may be ufeful to thofe who have not that knowledge ; 
and without premifmg farther we proceed to inform them, that Infeds 
in general undergo a material change in their form at ftated periods 
of their lives ; there are fome, though fevi^, which burft forth from 
the egg perfectly formed, as Spiders^ &c. but the greater part exift 
in four feveral ftates : the firft that of the egg, whence the Larva, or 
Caterpillar is produced ; it is at firft very minute, but in this ftate it 
feeds, fome kinds on one or two plants only, others promifcuoufly on 
many, they therefore continue to increafe in fize^ moulting feveral 
times the outer fkin, until the deftined period of their dormant ftate 
approaches ; they- then fpin a web more or lefs ftrong according to the 
fpecies, and are converted into the aurella, or chryfalis j and laftly 
they burft forth in due feafon with all their accomplifhments perfeft. 
It is under this form they propagate a future race, and themfelves 
perifti, as they rarely furvive the inclemencies of the winter. 

The antient naturalifts held fuppofitions very imperfe£l: and erro- 
neous relative to thofe transformations, but Malpighi and Sivammer-' 
dam proved by many accurate examinations clearly, that thofe changes 
were not fuddenly efFe£ted, but gradual j and that under the form of 
the Caterpillar they could diftinguifh the future changes the Infed 
would undergo. 

PLATE 



P L A T E I. 

PHALiENA PAVONIA, 

Emperor Moth. 

Lepidoptera. 

Infe£ls of the Lepidoptera Order are divided into three Genera, 
Papilio, Sphinx, and Phal^na, Butterjiies^ Ha-ivk Moths^ and 
Moths. The charaders of the two former hereafter : thofe of the 
Phaiaena ar e 

Generic Character. 

The antennae fetaceous, decreafing in fize from the bafe to the 
apex. The wings, when at reft, are generally defleded. They fly 



in the night, 



Specific Character. 



Antennae feathered. No trunk. Wings expanded, horizontal, 
rounded, entire, with a large eye in the center of each ; the firft red- 
brown waved ; the fecond orange. The antennae of the male are 
broader, and the wings of the female larger, waved with black and 
white and bordered with yellow. Caterpillar green or yellow, fpinous, 
©n thorns and brambles. Length of the moth one inch. — Berken. Out. 



The conformity and likenefs which prevails between the male and 
female throughout the greater part of the animal fyftcm, cannot how- 
ever in infedts be implicitly depended on ; the difference in many is 
fuch as even to miflead fome very accurate entomologifts, the 
illuftrious Linnaeus not excepted. Li this fpccies it is not fo great as 

in 



P L A T E I. _ 7 

in many, but fuch as entitles it to a figure in a future plate ; the W'ant 
of room determining us to defer it for the prefeut. Our figure is tliat 
of the male, 

Albin, {Plate 25, Suhjtcf 37,) has given a figure of the male and 
female on the fame plate, and defer ibes a male to have changed to tlie 
aurelia ftate as in our plate reprefented July 16, and March 18 fol- 
lowing to have produced the Fly. But the time of their appearance de- 
pends on the proportion of heat aiid cold ; what the author mentions 
was preferved from the feverit\- of winter, in a warm room ; the ufu;il 
time to find them in the caterpillar ftate is Augull, and in April the fly. 

The fingular pro\'inon which nature makes for the protei^ion of 
this Fly defen'^es particular notice ; when the time of its continuation 
in the caterpillar ftate is expired, like all others, it refufes to eat ; it 
then, by much labour, forms a kind of bag or purfe, of a very tough 
fubftance ; this it fixes againft the trunks of trees, 5cc. by a number 
of hairs or filaments, which remain on the external furface. It lines 
the outer cafe by one oi a finer texture, the top of which is clofed by 
feveral briftles tliat unite in the center, exactly reprelenting a cap, and 
excludes ahnoft the poflibility of its receiving an injury during this 
defencelefs ftate. In this bag it paiTes to the aurelia, and remains until 
the birth of the perfect infecl. — Our figure reprefents the chr}-falis o;* 
aurelia in the bagj part appears torn away to exhibit its fituatio^l. 
therein. 

Were we to unite the feveral accounts of authors refpeiling its food 
it would appear a general feeder; it will however live o\\ the rofe, tlie 
elm, and the willows and on thorns and brambles particularly. 



PLATE 



PLATE II. 
FIG. I. 

MONOCULUS QUADRICORNIS. 

Aptera. 

Apterous infeds are diftinguifhed chiefly by having no wings iii 
cither male or female. 

Generic Character. 

The feet are formed for fwimming. The body Is covered with a 
cruftaceous cafe or fliell. The eyes fixed in the Ihell very near each 
other. 

Specific Character. 

Grey brown. One eye. Antennas four. Body diminifhes towards 
the tail, which is long and bifid, with three or four ftrong hairs on 
each fide. A bag of eggs on each fide of the tail. Length half a 
line. — Berk. Out, 



Although this infeft may have been noticed by many fwimming, or 
rather darting fwiftly in various directions in water; its minutenefs is 
fuch, that the moft attentive could never have comprehended precifely 
its component parts; but the microfcope difcovers it to be an animal 
of fuch fmgular formation as highly to deferve the attention of the 
naturalift. It is covered by a firm cruftaceous fubftance, divided into 
annulations, and armed in feveral parts with fpines and briftles ; not- 

withftandino; 




■ \ 

\ ) 



2 . €-H 



4 '-», 



-. ^ 



P L A T E II. 9 

withftanding which, this (hell is fo tranfparent that the whole motion 
of the inteftines is very vifible by a good magnifier. 

It muft be granted that, but for the microfcope, the wonders of 
the minute creation would be to us entirely unknown;, our ideas could 
never fuppofe the exiftence of thofe animated forms which occupy 
the immeafurable fpace between an apparent atom and nothing. The 
myriads of animations, thoufands of times fmaller than a mite, muft 
evade our cognizance, and be an a6lual conviction of their non- 
exiftence. 

But with all the utility that the microfcope can boaft, no inftru- 
ment is fo likely to miflead the moft accurate obferver, particularly 
if not in the habit of ufmg it ; the variations of light, the powers of 
magnification, or the damage the glafles may meet with by accident, 
fuch as requires every one to examine with the greateft care ; one 
degree of light may bring an obje6l to viev/, whilft another may en- 
tirely blend it with the fluid it exifts in ; or one glafs may difcover 
fpines on an obje£l:, another glafs might have reprefented perfeilly 
fmooth ; it is therefore neceflary to begin with a fmall power, in pro- 
portion to the fize of the object, and to proceed to deeper mag- 
nifiers after. 

There is feme difFerence in our figure and thofe either of Barbut, or 
of Baker, which appears chiefly from our ufing a fingle lens nearly 
of the deepeft power convenient to ufe. Our glafl'es were the 20th 
and 30th of an inch focus. 

We very attentively examined the eyes, and found, not one, but 
two, placed near each other, on a fcale or plate of a black colour ; 
hence arifes the appearance of a fingle eye by a fmall magnifying 
power. 

The tail prefents a forked appearance by a deep power, and the 
eggs are contained in two bags, one on each fide the tail. The co- 
lour varies probably in proportion to the nature of its food, to pale 
green, more or lefs of a red, or of a grey brown colour. 



Fig. 



io P L A T E IL 

F I G. II. 

This minute animalcula is frequent in ftagnant water, or in 
infuHons of vegetables, and is one fpecies of thofe whofe exiftence 
can only be difcovered by a good microfcope. It is very difficult, 
confidering the power thofe creatures have to diftort their true form 
at pleafure, to fix their diflinguifhing character : therefore where the 
definition appears dubious, we prefer being filent rather than hazard 
an error. 

Fig. 2. Reprefents them [magnified) as they fometimes feem to 
follow the leader in herds ^ but perhaps it is only the fcent of the prey 
that induces each to follow the foremoft, as they frequently fwim or 
whirl in the water feparately, with great fwiftnefs, devouring the 
(mailer kinds of animalculas. 

Fig. 3. Two, magnified by a deep power, when they appear to 
have feet or fins. 

Fig. 4. Shews the ftrange form it afllimes to depofit its eggs.. 

Fig. 5. The Eggs deeper magnified. 



PLATE 



'«* 



PLATE III, 

PHAL^NA BUCEPHALA, 

Buff-tip Moth. 

Lepidoptera. 

GENERIC CHARACTER, 

Antennae taper from the bafe to the apex, and are fetaceous. 
Wings in general deflcvSted when at reft. Fly by night. No Trunk, 
Wings reverfed, i. e. firft Wings horizontal and fecond ere£l. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Antennae feathered. Firft Wings grey, with two double tranfverfe 
brown waves, and a large yellowifti brown fpot at the extrenie angle. 
Second Wings plain, light yellow, length fcarce one inch. Cater- 
pillar hairy, yellow with black fpots. On Oaks, Afh, &c. — Berken- 
kout. 



The delicate affemblage of beautiful down which cloath the upper 
wings of the Buft-tip Moth is its chief recommendation i the hiftory 
affords but little for obfervation, it is hatched from the egg in Augujiy 
and in June following the fly is perfedt. 

Its beauty avails not the race of birds who purfue them from 
neceffity, or from an innate defire of cruelty and devaflation; and 

- whilft 



12 PLATE IIL 

whilft happy in its apparent fecurity, ranging the plain to experience 
the pleafures of liberty, to banquet in the ne(3:areous profufion of the 
vegetable kingdom, or catch the dew-drop from the humid air, to 
infpirit and refrefh his parched fyftem from the mid-day heat, he be* 
comes a dupe to his happinefs, his pleafures at once fully, and he falls 
g,n unrefifting vidim into the devouring jaws of death. 



P L A T E IV. 

PHAL^NA GROSSULARIATA. 

Magpye, or Currant-Moth* 

Generic Character, 

The antennae fetaceous, decreafing in fize from the bafe to the point. 
The Wings, when at reft, generally defleded. Fly by night. 

Antenrtse taper, like briftles. 

Specific Character, 

Antennae and Legs black. Body yellow, with black fpots. Wings 
white, with many black patches, and a tranfverfe yellow wave on the 
firft pair. Caterpillar white, v/ith black fpots -on the Back ; Belly 
yellow. Berk. Out. 



The Magpye-Moth is one of the geometry; and feeds on Goofberry 
and Currant-bufhes, as it's name indicates. The Caterpillar is found 
in May ; and in July^ the Fly. 

The Caterpillar, previous to its change to the Chryfalis ftate, fpins 
a web of a very flight and delicate texture, by which it is fufpended 
horizontally againft the branches of trees, &c, as in our Plate re- 
prefented. 



PLATE V. 

F I G. I. 

MONOCULUS CONCH ACEUS. 

Aptera. 

Without wings. 

Generic Character. 

Body covered with a cruft or fliell. Feet made for fwimming. 

Specific Character. 

Inclofed in a bivalve, afh-coloured fhell, from the aperture of 
which it puts forth a number of capillary antennas, which it retrads 
when taken out of the water. 



To acquire a proper knowledge of the formation of this minute in- 
feft, it is neceflary to ufe a microfcope with a glafs ftage for objedls, 
or rather fuch as admit of nicely adjufting a talc as occafion may re- 
quire : the infe£l to be taken from the water with a camel-hair pencil, 
and carefully placed on the talc ; after which it may be examined by a 
magnifier of i of an inch focus ; but in proceeding to a deeper power, 
let the talc be turned the upper furface with the infeft in the drop of 
the fluid from the lens, and thereby the lens may approach the obje£l 
to its proper focus ; without this caution the lens would be frequently 
immerged in the water, and entirely obftrud the fight. 

In the adult ftate, the opacity of the bivalve fhell, its external co- 
vering, fo entirely obfcures the internal motion, that nothing, except 
the filaments it throws from the aperture or opening, is vifible by the 
microfcope. 

It breaks from the egg perfectly formed, but very minute and tranf- 
parent; this is therefore the beft time to difeover its ftruclure, and 
from one in this ftate we have taken our figure. 

S By 



2 PLATE V. 

By the antennae it dire£ls its courfe, as does the Monoculus ^adrt" 
cornis -, and hke it alfo it hath two eyes fixed in the fhell, but it can com- 
pletely envelop its head in its bivalve covering ; its mouth is beneath, 
but the numerous filaments it darts forth, caufes fiich a violent motion 
in the water, that the minuter infects are unrefiftingly drawn between 
them, and fijrced to the mouth. 

The motion of its lungs is very vifible, as are alfo the vefTels rami- 
fying thence. Its food is carried to, and digefted in the deep-coloured 
tube, or inteftine, and the refufe is difcharged by a fudden jerk from 
the extremity of the tube, or anus. 

Thus it exifts, a life of rapine and deftrucStion, enjoyed at the ex- 
pence of the lives of thoufands ; and as the obje<5ls of its ravenous dif- 
pofition are defencelefs, fo are they the fport of their conqueror : the 
few moments of intermiflion its craving appetite grants them, is occu- 
pied equally in the fpoil, firft preffing them to death, and then toffing 
them undevoured into the fluid. 

But fhould a more pov/erful infe£l oppofe him, he immediately con- 
trafts his parts, and nothing more than the external covering is open to 
his antagonift's violence, and he will fooner die ignobly than olFer the 
leaft oppofition. 



FIG. II. 

This animalcule is very minute, and appears like a fine membrane 
without inteftines before the microfcope ; from the appearance of its 
v/inged fides, it is fuppofed to refemble a bird. It is called Biirfaria 
Hirundiriella. 



F I G. III. 

The back and fide view of an animalcule found in ditch-water on 
duck-weed, very pellucid, and fingularly marked in the inteftines ; 
tail moveable, and thereby it directs its courfe. 



PLATE VI. 

SPHINX FILIPENDULiE. 

Burnet Moth, 
Generic Character. 

Sphinx^ Antennae thickeft in the middle. Wings, when at reft, 
deflexed. Fly flow, morning and evening only. 

Specific Character. 

Antennae, Legs, and Body black. Second Wings red, with a greenifli 
border. Firft Wings bluifh green, with fix red fpots, in pairs, length 
eight lines. Caterpillar yellow, with black fpots. Birk^ Out, 



The female has but five red fpots on the upper Wing, the two fpots 
at their bafe being placed fo near each other as only to form one 
large fpot. 

It feeds on the Genijla Anglica^ needle furze j on the Vlex Europceus^ 
common furze ; and on the filipendula. ' 

The Caterpillars of moft of the infers of this genus are armed with 
a fpine or horn above the anus, in which particular this differs. It is 
in the Caterpillar ftate in May^ and jnne, and in July the Sphinx, 




-^.^ 




C 19 ] 



PLATE 



CHRYSIS IGNITA. 

Hymenoptera. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

The abdomen hath three annulations exclufive of the anus, the 
antennae hath twelve ai ticulations, exclufive of the firft joint vv^'hich is 
longer than the reft. The body fiiines like poliilied metal. A kind 
of cui'ar is very diftmdl in this genus. The anus is dentated, having 
one, two, or more teeth. 

SPECIFIC CHJRJCTER. 

The antennae are black, the thorax a fine mazarine blue, having in 
fome poutions a greeniili caft, the abdomen a fine gold colour with 
fhades of crimfon and yellow green; the anus hath four teeth or 
denticulations. — Harris Inf. 



Exotic Infedls, or at leaft thofe of the Eaft, and Weft Indies, for 
the effulgence, and beauty, of their colouring in general, claim a 
fuperiority over the natives of this climate ; but the appearance of this 
Chryfis -before the Ipeculum of an opake microfcope, may vie v/ith 
piany of the moft favourite foreigners hitherto difcovered; the richnefs 

. D of 



no - PLATE VII. 

of changeable colours blending into each other, according to the vari- • 
ations of the light refie6ted on the furface, is fuch that we freely con- 
fefs our inability, or even the inability of art, to equal, though we 
truft our figure will give fome idea of the delightful appearance of the 
original. 

The Fly of the natural fize is given on the fore ground, the mag-^ 

Iiified figure above. 

It Is found againfl; decayed trees or walls, in the hotteft fun-fhine 
of Summer, 



PLATE 



C ^-i ] 



PLATE VIIL 

VORTICELLA LUNARIS. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

A worm capable of contrafting or extending itfelf, naked, with 
rotatory cilia* 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, 
Simple, hemifpherical, with a twifled pedicle, 

^^ ujim-f jlfr«tfm MjiM. 



" The fnaall head of this animalculum is crater-form, the margin 
*' of the orifice protuberant, ciliated on both fides, the hairs undula- 
*' ting, the pedicle eight or ten times the length of the body. As 
" often as the mouth is opened, the pedicle extends itfelf; when it is 
" fhut, this is twifted up fpirally, and their motions are often reite- 
*' rated in a fhort fpace. 

" Fig. I. the head, expanded. Fig. 2. when fliut.-~ — Fig. 3. 

" the undulated edge." 

Adamses Ejfays on the Mkrofcope, 



Fig. 4. found in infufions of hay; and is called Trichoda Uvula. 

D2 PLATE 



[ ^^ ] 

PLATE 

P H A L ^ N A E V O N Y M E L L A. 

Small Ee-mine Moth. 
Lepidoptera. 

GENERIC CHARACTER, ■ 

Antennas taper like briftles. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Firft wings filver-white, with fifty fmall black fpots in rows. 
Second wings lead-colour. 



Phalaena Evonymella fee<ds on the white-thorn, black-thorn, and on 
fruit-trees ; in May the caterpillars are hatched, and as they live in 
focieties of hundreds, or even thoufands, by their united induftry they 
fl'in a vv-eb fpacious enough to contain the family, and therein they 
alTunie their feveral forms ; early in June they become chryfalides, 
and in about fourteen days the Flies are perfe(5l. 

The caterpillars of the Pha. Padella and Evonymella are ever 

tour.d in the fame fociety, and many circumftances may be advanced 

4 to 



PLATE IX. 



23 



to prove them either varieties of each other, or difFerence of fex only, 
although Linnseus confidered them as diftincSl fpecies. They differ in 
colour, the caterpillars of one being light yellow brown, the other 
black, and the upper wings of the Evonymella are lefs of a lead colour 
than thofe of the Padella. 

To gain information on this fubje£l:, we, this feafon, put the eggs 
of feveral females into different glaffes ; the eggs of each female pro- 
duced both kinds of caterpillars, they became chryfalides, and a num- 
ber of each fort of the Flies came forth. 



PLATE 



C 24 ] 

PLATE X. 

PHAL^NA CHRYSORRHOEA, 

Yellow Tail Moth. 

' Lepidoptera. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 
No trunk. Wings depreffed, deflexed. Back fmooth. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Antennae feathered. Entirely white, except the extremity of the 
abdomen, which is yellow. Caterpillar black and red, hairy. — 
Berk, Out, 



Linnaeus in the Byjlema Naturce^ has confounded the Telloiv Tail^ 
with the Brown Tail^ Moth^ nor was it generally confidered as an 
error till fome time after j but the immenfe increafe of the caterpillars 
of the Brown Tail Moth in the year 1780, afforded an opportunity 
of determining them to be diftindt fpecies. 

Though foreign to our purpofe, and properly under the hiftory of the 
Brown Tail Moth, we cannot pafs over fuch remarkable circumftances 
as attended the uncommon increafe of this fpecies in the above winter. 

The 



10 




P L A T E X. 25 

The fears of the public muft have been great Indeed, when prayers 
were offered to avert the famine fuppofed to be threatened by the ap- 
pearance of thofe infects in the ftate of the caterpillar. 

In July the Caterpillar is found feeding on the white-thorn, fallow, 
apple-trees, and on fruit-trees in general, about the latter end of the 
fame month it fpins a web of a tough texture againft the branches 
of trees, &c, becomes an aurelia, and in Auguil the Fly comes forth. 



C 27 ] 

PLATE XL 

ACARUS COLEOPTRATORUM. 

Beetle-Tick. 

Aptera. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 
Legs eight. Eyes two, lateral. Tentaculse two, jointed. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Tawny. Anus whitiih. 

"■ ■ w.'ai^iwt^^^itwiiii II Mill 



This Tick is one of thofe deteftable race of animals whofe minutenefs 
fecures it from danger, while it draws nutriment from the blood, and 
frequently from the vitals of larger infe6ts. Every animal is tormented 
by thofe cruel and blood-thirfty beings, varying in uze, in fhape, and 
in colour, but whether they be diftinguifhed by the name cf lice, 
bugs, fleas, or mites, they fall under one point of view, when con- 
fidered as a peft to the focieties of other animals. 

Beetles are in general infefted and feverely injured by thofe verm.in. 
I found about a month fmce one of the Scarahisus Ste7-cora7'ius, Com- 

E man 



28 PLATE XL 

mon Dor^ or Clocks almcPc devoured alive by them ; little except his 
fhell remaining ; yet, in this ftate it lived feveral days. There were 
a number of (mall brown bags affixed by pedicles to its breaft, thighs, 
and even feet; the microfcope difcovered thofe to contain each an 
embryo, and the pedicle, no doubt, anfivered the part of an umbilical 
chord, to extract nourifhment ft'om the living creature. I per- 
ceived on further infpedion their bafe penetrated the fliell, or entered 
the apertures. 

Fig. I. Natural fize of the Tick and Embryo. 

Fig, 2. The upper fide, and Fig. 3= under fide, magnified. 

Gk'adUAL, from thefe what numerous kinds defcend, 

Evading even tbe microfcopic eye ! 

All Nature fwarms with life ; one wond'rcus mafs 

Of Animals or Atoms organized, 

Waiting the vital breath, when Parent Heaven 

Shall bid his Spirit blow. — — - — ■ 

— .. Thefe, conceal'd 

By the kind art of forming Heaven, efcape 
The groffer eye of man : for, if the worlds 
In worlds inclos'd, {l;)ould on his fenfes burft, 
From cates ambrofial, and the neflar'd bowl 
He would abhorrent turn j and in dead night 
When filence fieeps o'er all, be flunn'd with noife. 

Thomson's Seasons. 



PLATE 



12 




C ^-9 ] 



PLATE XII. 

f 

CICINDELA CAMPESTRIS. 

Sparkler, 
coleoptera. 

GENERIC CHJRJCTER. 

Antennse taper. Jaws prominent, denticulated. Eyes prominent, 
Thorax margined. Five joints in each foot. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Above green-gold. Beneath copper tinged. Eyes large. Thorax 
angular and narrower than the head. Six fpots on each ftiell. An 
oval fubftance at the bafe of each thigh. Legs long and flender. 



This beautiful infeit varies fomething in fize and colour, the fpots 
on the elytra are generally white, but are often found with fpots of 
yellow ; they fly or run quick, are carnivorous, and live in dry fandy 
places. In the fprlng its larva is found, which refembles a long, foft, 
whitifli worm, with fix legs and a brown fcaly head ; it perforates 
9 ' the 



30 PLATE XII. 

the fand perpendicularly, and refts near the furface to enfnare fmaller 

infefls. 

It is very diiHcult, if at all poilible, to breed thofe infe£ls and ob-^ 
ferve their metamorphofes ; we have tried various methods, but have 
not yet been fo fortunate as to fucceed. 



i3 




C 31 ] 



PLATE XIIL 

LUCANUS CERVUS, 

Stag Beetle, 
coleoptera. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

Antennae clavated, comprefled, pefiinato-fiffile. Maxillae extended 
fo as to refemble horns. Five joints in each foot. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Head and Thorax black. Shells dark brown. Horns refembling 
thofe of a Stag, forked at the end, a fmall branch near the middle on 
the infide, moveable. Shells plain. 



The Stag-Beetle is the largeft coleopterous infe£l we pofTefs, but its 
fize is infignificant, when compared with thofe of the fame kind that 
inhabit hot countries or woodlands, as inftanced in the Scarabcsus 
Hereules^ &c. 



32 PLATE XIII. 

It is fufficiently dlftinguiflied in this country by the moveable maxil- 
lae, or jaws, that projeft from the head; they are of a dark red co- 
lour, and though brighter in fome fpecimens, are rarely of the beau- 
tiful coral appearance Barhut and other authors have defcribed. 

Coleopterous infects in general are endov/ed with amazing ftrengthj 
and their arms are equally ferviceable for the affault or defence. The 
antlers of this Beetle are carefully to be avoided by fuch as attempt to 
deprive it of liberty; with them it ftrips off the bark of oak trees, and 
attaches itfelf firmly to the trunk, thence extradling the liquor that 
cozes with its tongue. 

They are plentiful in June and July, in Kent and ElTex, and in many 
other parts of Britain. 

The females are known by their maxillae being much fliorter than 
thofe of the males ; they depofit their eggs under the, bark of old trees, 
either oak or aOi, and the food of the larvae, or grubs, is the internal 
fubftance of the trunk, firft reduced to a fine powder; they undergo 
transformation in this cell, and force a paflage through the bark wheri 
perfe£l beetles. 



PLAT E 



14 





C 33 ] 

« 

PLATE XIV. 

TRICHODA POCILLUM. 

Trichoda. 
An invifible, pellucid, hairy worm. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, 

Oblong trichoda, the fore-part truncated and hairy, the tail articu- 
lated, and divided into two briftles. 



This invifible animalculum is common in marfliy places, particu- 
larly in the fwamps near the banks of the river Thames. 

When magnified, the body is pellucid, and appears as two feparate 
bodies, one enclofmg the other; the interior part is filled with mole- 
cules, and the exterior is membranaceous : they are capable of exten- 
fion or dilation, and of folding in various directions. At the extre- 
mity of the interior part is a mufcular orbicular membrane, which is 
opened or ftiut at pleafure, and forms the mouth. 

Fig. I. The interior part protruded with the mouth open. 
Fig. 2. The jaws ftiut. 

F 2 PLATE 



15 




C 35 ] 



PLATE XV. 

PHALJENA CAJA, 

Great Tyger Moth, 
Lepidoptera. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

Antennas taper from the bafe. No trunk. Wings depreffed, de^ 
Pexed. Back fmooth. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Antennse feathered. Firft wings whitifh, with large irregular dark 
fjrown fpots. Abdomen and fecond wings orange, with black fpots. 



The fuperior wings in feme of this fpecies have fmaller brown 
ipots, and more of the cream colour ; in others the fpots are larger/and 
frequently two are united to form one. The inferior wings alfo admit 
pf equal variety; the fpots near the thorax are often united, and the 
fmall black ftripes on the back are fewer in the prefent fpecimen than 
are common to the Moth, 



The 



36 PLATE XV. 

The caterpillars feed on lettucesj or nettles. When he is appre- 
benfive of danger, he rolis himfelf up like a hedge-hog. He be- 
comes a chryfalis in May; and the latter end of June, or early 'm 
July, it produces the Moth, 



PLATE 



ie 




[ 37 1 

PLATE XVL 

PHAL^NA ANTI Q^U A, 

White Spot Tussock Moth, 

o R 

Vapourer. ■ 

Lepidoptera. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

Antennae taper from the bafe. No trunk. Wings deprefled. Back 
h^airy. 

SPECIFIC CHARACrER, 

Antennas feathered. Firft wings cloudy, orange, waved and fpot- 
ted with brown, and a white fpot on the poilerior angle. Femal® 
without wings. 



n»MfciM%MyMSJi^,;yr..w.t;KrAnf'«ww'rf^'tu».>ii. 



The female Vapourer Moth at firft fight perfetStly refembles an ap- 
terous infe£l j but on infpeilion, very fmaJl wings are feen at the ex- 
tremity of the Thorax, and the antennae determine it to be a phalsena. 
It creeps in a fluggifh manner, and lays an abundance of eggs. 

Fig. I. the Female. Fig. 2. the Male, 

The 



38^ PLATE XVL 

The Caterpillars feed on white thorn, and on trees in general. It 
has been known to live on the deadly night-fhade, and other poifonous 
plants. The Caterpillars are found in July, and the Moth in Sep« 
tember. 



^^s 



'A-~ ''^ 






'^'d^ 



\ ' 



ps* 






C 39 ] 
PLATE XVII. 

VORTICELLA URCEOLARIS. 

GENERIC CHJRJCTER. 

A fmall animal, with a vafcular cup; the mouth is at one end 
filiated, and capable of being contra£led ; the ftem fixed, 

SPECIFIC CHJRJCTER, 
Single, with a fhort tail, and toothed mouthi 



This Animalcum is but perceptible to the naked eye, appearing as 
a fmall white fpeck; the microfcope dlfcovers the external covering to 
be fo tranfparent, that all the motions of the animal within are per- 
fectly diftin£l. It hath a double rotatory inftrument, which, however, 
it can conceal or fliew at pleafure ; and it hath power to protrude the 
head and tail as at Fig. i. or to contract them within the external coat 
or covering, as at Fig. 2. — When the animal intends to difplay its 
rotatory inftrument, it forces its tail through the hole at the extremity 
of the outer coat, and affixes it to whatever fubftance is near ; but 
when it fwims, it moves its tail backwards and forwards to afiift it. 

They are found in river, or ftagnant, water. 



B FIG 



40 PLATE XVII, 

FIG, III. 

T R I C H O B A V E R M I C U L A R I S, 

GENERIC CHARACTER, - 
An Jnvifible, pellucid, hairy worm. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, 
Long cylindrical trichoda, with a {hort neck, the apex hairy. 



Is found in river water, and can ftfTume various forms, as in OMt 
|i2;ure fhewn. 



P I. A T E 



18 





[41 ]• 



L A T E 



NEPA CINEREA, j 

Wa TEHSCORPION, J 

Hemiptera. 

GENERIC CHARACTER, 

Antennae, or fore legs^ chelifprm, wings crofled and complicated i 
fore part coriaceous. 

* SPECIFIC CHARACTER, 

Black brown. Head fmall. Antennae cheliform. Thorax almoft 
fquare. Target large, brown. Shells large. One joint in each foot. 
Length near an inch. In the female the abdomen terminates in tWQ 
l©ng appendices. Four legs only. 



There ate three fpecies only of this genus common to our waters, 
though the waters of hot countries abound with various kinds, fome 
conliderably exceeding in fize even our Sphinx Atropos, 

The Infeft finks its eggs into the cavity of a rufh, or other aquatic 

plant, whence the larvse are hatched. The perfect infe<3: is found in 

4 J^ne> 



42 PLATE XVIII. 

June, and thence to September or later; they are voracious, and feed 
on other aquatic animals, grafping their prey between their fore feet,^ 
and tearing them to pieces with their fliarp roftrum. — They fly in the 
evening, and thus remove in herds from one pool to another when 
danger approaches^ 

It is fuppofed by fome authors, that the fore feet of the nepa are the 
antennae, and if this be admitted, the Infect hath only four feet j but 
if eonfidered deflitute of its antennae, it hath Uxo 



^3 





■ [ 43 ] 

P L A T E XIX. 

C H R Y S I S B I D E N T A T A, 

H Y M E N O P T ERA. 

GENERIC CHARJCTER. 

Thorax joined to the abdomen by a fhor" pedicle. Abdomen divided 
into three fegments. Sting fimple. V/ings not folded. Antennae fili- 
form of one long and eleven fliori: joints each. 

SPECIFIC CEIAP.AcrER. 

Head and lafi: fegment of the body, i]:y blue, changeable. Thorax, 
and two firll: annulations of tlie abdomen, crimfon with gold fpots. 
Thorax with two teeth. 



The Chryfis Bidentata is fcarcely fo large, and by no means fo 
common as the Chryns Ignita, (not exceeding one-third of an inch in 
length) but is equal, if not fuperior in beauty and richnefs of colour. The 
head, but more particularly the laft fegment of the body, appears in 
one direction of light, blue, in another gteen, in another purple, &c. 
and the thorax, and two firft fegments of the abdomen are far more 
enriched with a golden appearance \ the ground colour is deep crimfon, 
but the metallic appearance on the lighter parts, and the number of 
fmall gold fpots which befprinkle it, greatly diminifn the ftrength of 
colour, and renders it, even before it is magnified, a fuperb little 
infedl. 

It is found in May or June in fome parts of Kent and Effex. 

. H PLATE 



'2D 




\M 




C 45 ] 

PLATE XX. 

F I G. L 

PHAL/ENA CHRISTIERNANA. 
Lepidoptera. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

Pyralis. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Firft wings yellow, with rofe-coloured marks. Under wings flofTvj 
brownifti grey. 



The nataral hiftory of this Phalaena is fo little known, that we 
freely confefs our inability to fhew its transformations ; and al- 
though a deviation from our firft intention, we trail the fcarcity of 
th« Fly will plead our excufe. We fhall occafionally introduce figures 
of fome rare and non-defcript fubjedfs, which we hope will be 
highly fatisfa6i:ory to many of our fubfcribers. 

Our fpecimen was taken at Feverfham ; they are ibmetimes met 
with about Darnwood in June or July. 



F I G' 



46 PLATE XX, 

F I G. 11. 

HIMANTOPUS LUDIO. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 
A pellucid, invifiblcj cirrated worm. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Curled Himantopus j the upper part hairy, the tail extended up^ 

wards. 



PLATE 



Zl 





[ 47 ] 



PLATE XXI. 

F H A L .^ N A P R U N A R I A- 

Orange Moth. 

Lepidoptera. 

GENERIC CHJRACTER. 
Geometrae- Antennse feathered. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Wings orange, fprlnkled with brown, and a femi -lunar fpot on the 
iirft pair. Female paler than the male. Caterpillar yellow brown, 
with two fpines before and two behind. 



The caterpillars of this Moth feed on fruit-trees, or on thorns, in 
the month of May ; the Chryfalis is commonly found, rolled up in a 
decayed leaf, inwardly protected by the web, in June ; and in July 
the Moth, 

The prefent figure is of the male. , 



PLATE 



22 




C 49 ] 

PLATE XXII. 

TIPULA PLUMOSA, 
SeaTipula. ^ 

DiPTERA. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 
Head long. Palpi four, curved. Trunk very fliort. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Brown. Thorax greenifti. Eyes black. Fore legs longeft. Wings 
Shorter than the abdomen. 



Is found In the month of April near marfties, and has been fre- 
quently miftaken for the common Gnat. 



Z3 




C 51 ] 
PLATE XXIIL 

SILPHA VESPILLO. 

COLEOPTERA* 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

Antenns ckvated, foliated. Head prominent. Thorax margined, 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Margin of the thorax broad. Shells abbreviated, black, with two 
orange belts. Thigh of the hind legs large, with a fpine near theix 
origin i length one inch. 



.■M««M«t.JwyiluJ«»t;.»i.. 



This fpecies, like moft of the Coleopterous Infeftsj delights in filth 
and putrefcence, and are rarely found except in the dung, or dead bodies 
of larger animals, whofe entrails they devour ; they prey on the larvas 
of fmaller infe£ts beneath the furface of the earth, or they will deftroy 
each other. Their Grubs are fecreted in perforations made In th$ 
earth by the female, and therein they change to their laft or perfedt 
ftate in June or July ; thofe Grubs are to be found by following the 
track of a plough. 

They fly well with the tranfparent wings, which are concealed be- 
neath the Elytra or upper Shells. The male is rather fmaller than the 
female, and the orange belts are of a deeper hue : though both male 
and female vary in the ftrength of colour when alive, and yet more 
when prefcrved in cabinets, as they fometimes become almoft brown. 
All infeds are fubje(3: to this change, whatever may be the care of the 
^oUedor. 

I PLATE 



:a 




C S3 ] 



PLATE XXIV. 

LIBELLULA DEPRESS A, 

Dragqn Fly. 

Neuroptera. 

Wiijgs four, naked, tranfparent, reticulated with veins or nerves. 
Tail without a fting. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

Mouth with two long lateral jaws. Antennae very fhort. Tail of 
the male forked. Wings extended. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Eyes brown. Thorax greenifh, with two yellow tranfverfe bands. 
A large black fpot at the bafe of each Wing, and a fmall dark mark 
OJi their exterior margin. Body deprefled, lance-fhaped. 



All the fpecies of Libellula, but particularly the larger kinds, are 
confidered by many rather as obje6ls of terror, than fubje£ts worthy in- 
fpe6lion ; and the vulgar denomination of Horfe-Jilnger^ contributes to 
this abhorrence : although it hath no power over animals of fuch mag- 
nitude, it is perfecftly a Vulture among lepidopterous, or other defencelefs 
Infects, deftroying more for its fport than for its voracious appetite. 

The Fly is on the wing in May, and June, in almoft every marfliy 
fltuation ; the female lays her eggs near the roots of Ofiers on the 
banks of ditches, or fmks them into the ftalks of Ruflies in the water ; 
jhey hatch, aad an ugly apterous infeftj of a brown colour, comes 

forth ; 



54 P L A t E XXIV. 

forth ; it hath a long body like the Fly, fix Legs, and a forked Head, a 
Iharp fpine at the extremity of the abdomen, and a row of fpines on 
each fide, one at every joint; it plunges into the water, and imme- 
diately devours fuch of the inhabitants, or their eggs, as comes within 
its reach, and it continues this life of depredation until its next 
change. They are to be taken with a, fmall hand-net. 

All tranfparent obje6b, in a certain dIretSlion before a microfcope^ 
reflecSt the colours of the prifm. The Tipula Pluynoja exhibits, in 
this fituation, an efiFuIgence of colouring, which its natural fize con- 
veys but fmall veftiges of 3 and the colours on the wing of this Libellula 
appears far more vivid when magnified. 

The body of the male is bluifh greys the prefent fpecimen is the 
female. 



PLATE 



2*5 




C 55 3 
PLATE XXV. 

SPHINX API-FORMIS. 

Bee Hornet Sphinx. 

GENERIC CHARACTER.^ 

Antennae thickeft In the middle. Wings, when at reft, deilexed. 
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Wings tranfparent, with brown veins. Abdomen yellow, the firft 
and fourth divifion from the thorax dark, purplifh. Thorax brown, 
with two yellow patches in front. Head yellow. Antennae dark brown. 
Linn. Sy/}. Nat. 



The Caterpillar of the Sphinx Api-formls is an internal feeder, and 
found only by making an incifion into the innermoft fubftance of the 
Poplar, the only tree the female commonly depofits her Eggs on ; it 
is to us unknown, as is alfo the time of contmuing within the trunk 
of the tree; but in June, early in the morning, or in the evening, 
the Chryfalis is feen i/Tiiing through the bark, from a perforation in the 
trunk, which the Caterpillar had formed previous to its change, gene- 
rally to the depth of fix or 'eight inches, or more. Nature has 
furniihed every fegment of the Chryfalis with a double rov/ of (harp 
teeth, or fpines, therewith it firmly attaches itfelf to the fides of the 
cavity, and, by repeated exertions to break from its prifon, gradually 
comes forth ; thus, when it hath extricated itfelf from the tree, and the 
Chryfalis is fupported as in our Plate reprefented, the upper parts burft 
afunder with violence, and the infed rufhes forth to enjoy " the tem- 
perature of the fummer feafon." It is rarely found except in Efiex. 

K There 



56 PLATE XXV. 

There Is another Sphinx^ which differs in fo few particulars, that 

it hath been miflaken for the prefent fubje£l; notwithftanding, it may 
be eafily diftinguifhed by a crefcent of yellow in the fore part of the 
thorax, and thence entitled the Lunar Hornet Sphinx ^ a Drawing 
of which Infecl:, with the larva, has been prefented to the Linmean 
Society. This larva is nearly the fize of the Buff-tip Caterpillar, and 
of an obfcure brown colour; probably the larva of the Sp, Api-formh 
may much refemble it. 

It Is arranged in many cabinets under the title of Sphinx Vefpi- 
formi$\ but the Sp. P^efpiformis^ in the Linmean CoUeSfion^ now in 
the poffellion of Dr. Smithy fcarcely exceeds half the fize of this fub- 
je6f, and is probably unique. The Lunar Hornet-Sphinx had no 
place in that cabinet. 



PLATE 



26 






C 57 ] 
PLATE XXVL 



F I G. I. 
TRICHODA CO MET A. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

An invirible, pellucid, h'.iiry Worm. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Spherical, the fore part hairy, with an appendant globule, 

F I G, IL 

TRICHODA LONGICAUDA. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Cylindrical, the firft part truncated, and fet with hairs. The tail 
long, with two joints, and terminated by two briftles. 

F I G. III. 

VORTICELLA TROCHiFORMIS NIGRA. 

GENERIC CHARACTER, 

A Worm, capable of contradling or extending itfclf, naked, with 
rotatory cilia. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 
Top-fhaped black vorticella, 

K z This 



SS PLATE XXVL 

This fpecles of Vorticella appears, without the affiftance of a micro- 
fcope, as fmall black fpecks, fvvimming on the water, particularly in 
meadows which are inundated. They are conflrantly in motion ; and 
two fmall white hooks are perceptible by glafTes at i — i ; by the help 
of thofe it is fuppofed to fwimj or they may inclofe fome rotatory or- 
ffaoo The infect is opaque. 



PLATE 



^7 




C 59 ] 

PLATE XXVII. 

LEPTURA ARIETIS. 

Common Wasp Beetle, 
coleoptera. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

Antennas tapering to the end. Shells narrower at the apex. Thorax 
fomewhat cylindrical. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, 

Black. Anterior and pofterior margin of the Corflet yellow. Four 
yellow lines on each elytra or Shell. Lin. Syjl. Nat. 



They fly well, and are fometimes found on aquatic plants. They 
are exceedingly numerous in Kent, in the peafe and bean-fields, in 
May, or on the cwrrant-bufhes, and not unfrequently are taken on 
the fern. 



PLATE 



ZB 





C 6i ] 

PLATE XXyill. 

CHRYSOMELA ASPARAGL 

COLEOPTERA. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

Antennae knotted, enlarging towards the ends. Corflet margined^ 
and body oblong. Thorax narrow. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, 

Head, Antennae, and under fide of the Body black. Thorax red, 
with two black fpots. Shells dark green, with fix yellow fpots. Lengtii 
one line. Lin. Syji. Nat. 



This pretty Cloeopterous Infecl is found in June on the Afparagus, 
when in feed. Linnaeus calls it Jfparagi^ from the larvae feeding oa 
the leaves of that plant. It is a common infe£l, but forms a beautiful 
opaque obje<a for the microfcope. The natural fize is given at Fig. I. 
and the magnified appearance above. 



P L A T E 



29 



*%s%=~> 






fl'-' r" \^ 
i 



C 63 ] 

PLATE XXIX. 

F I G. I. » 

TRICHODA M ELI TEA. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 
An invifible, pellucid, hairy Worm. 
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Oblong ciliated trichoda, with a dilatable neck, the apex globular, 
and furrounded with hairs. Miiller^s Animalcula Infuforia, &c. 



Invifible to the naked eye, and rarely found except in falt-waters, 
although we have met with one fpecimea in the water of the Thames. 



FIG. II. 

VORTICELLA NASUTA. 

GENERIC CHARACTER, 

A Worm, capable of contracting or extending itfelf, naked, with 
rotatory cilia. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Cylindrical, with a prominent point in the middle of the cup. Miil- 
iers Anim. Infuf. 

Is invifible to the naked eye, and appears of an unequal fize before 
ttie microfcope is pellucid, with the fore part truncated and ciliated, 
and moves in the water with great alertncfs, by the afTiftance of the 
circle of hairs which encompafs the body. 

L FIG. 



64 PLATE XXIX. 

FIG. llh 
V^ RTICELLA VIRIDIS. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

A worm capable of contratSting or extending itfelf, naked, with 
rotatory cilia. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Cylindrical uniform, green, and opake. Muller's Anlm. Infuf^ 



The naked eye difcovers this fpecies as a mere point : when magnir- 
fied it is of a dark green colour, almoft opake, nearly cylindrical, 
obtufe at the extremities, and deftitute of limbs. It moves circularly, 
or in a ftrait direction, and caufes fuch an agitation of the water, that 
notwithftanding its appearance, fome rotatory inftrument muft be con- 
cealed within the body, which the infe6t can put forth at pleafure. 



PLATE 



30 




C 65 ] 
PLATE XXX. 

PHAL^NA SALICIS. 

White Sattin Moth. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

** No trunk, wings deprefled, deflexed, back fmooth. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Antennae feathered. Body and wings white. 
Caterpillar black, with red and white fpots. 



Are very numerous in the adjacent parts of London, and are found 
in the ftate of Caterpillar, Chryfalis and Moth, at the fame time, 
though commonly the Caterpillar changes to Chryfalis in June, and 
to a Fly in July. 

Ijt feeds on the WjUow, the Ozier, the Poplar, &c. 



31 




[ 6? ] 



PLATE XXXI. 

, F I G. I. 

MUSCA CHAMELEON. 

V 

DiPTERA. 

Two Wings. 
GENERIC CHJRACTER. 
Miifca^ a foft flexible Ti unk with lateral Lips at the end. No palpi; 
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Dark brown or black. Antennse taper, broken. Eyes targe. Ab* 
domen nearly circular, with three triangular yellow fpots on eadi Side, 
and one at the extremity. 



Linnaeus, in a former edition of the Fauna Sueclca gave this infecl 
the name of Oejirus Aquce^ but he afterwards difcovered it to be a 
Mufca, and called it Mufca Chamaeleon. It is one of the moft com- 
mon Dipterous, or two-Vv'inged Lifefts we have; yet though fo well 
known in its perfect Hate, few have attended fo minutely to iis changes 
as to difcover that ; they form the moft fingular part of its hiftory.— 
The female depofits her eggs in the hollow ftalks of aquatic plants, or 
broken reeds, or fo provides for them that they cannot, but by fome 
unforefeen accident, be carried away. The egg, in due time ripening, 
produces a Larva, no way refembling the Parent, but rather a Worm 

M of 



6S PLATE XXXL 

of a mofl: fingular ftru6ture. This happens about the latter end of 
May^ or beginning of "June^ if the weather proves favourable ; they 
will then be found in fhallow^ Handing v^^aters, crawling on the grafs or 
plants which grow there, or they may be taken floating on the furface 
of the water. The Body confifts of twelve annular divifions, whereof 
the Head and Tail are two ; the Tail has a verge of hairs, which, 
when entirely expanded, fupport the creature on the furface, with its 
head downwards. If it wiflies to defcend, it contrafts the hairs in the 
form of a wine glafs, or entirely clofes them at the end ; and when 
again it is riling to the furface, it forces a bubble from a fmall aperture 
in the center, which immediately makes a paffage for its afcenfion. — 
It changes to the Pupa flate, and about the middle of July to the Fly. 
It fubfifts at this time on the nedar and other juices it extrafts fron* 
the bottom of the corolla in flowers. 



F I G; 



PLATE XXXI. 69 

F I a II. 

; MUSCAPENDULA. 

DiPTERA. 

MUSCA. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, 

Head black. Thorax yellow, with three longitudinal black lines. 
Abdomen yellow, with tranfverfe black marks. 



Its habits nearly correfpond with thofe of the Mufca Chamaleon» 
Like that Infeft it once wore the appearance of an Aquatic, and like 
it alfo in its laft or perfeft ftate, exifts by extradling with its Trunk 
the ne(3:ar from flowers. It is to be taken in June. 



F I G. IIL 

MUSCA LATERALIS. 

DiPTERA. 

MuscA. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

* Thorax black. Abdomen bright red or brown, with a line of 
black from the Thorax ; the laft fegment black, with hairs or fpines. 



Vifits flower gardens in the month of June, 

M 2 PLATE 



^ 





C 71 ] 



PLATE XXXII. 

F I Q. I. 

VIBRIO OLOR. 

GENERIC CHARACTER, 

An Invifible Worm, very fimple, round, and rather long. 
SPECIFIC CHARACTER, 

Elliptical, with a very long Neck, and a knob on the Apex.- 

Milkr's Anl. Inf. 



The Neck of this Creature is in continual motion, and the whole 
Body is dilatable. It is found in water, replete with decayed vege- 
tables. 



FIG. II. 
KOLPODA MILEAGRIS. 

GENERIC CHARACTER, 

An invifible, very fimple, pellucid, flat, crooked Worm. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Changeable, with the fore part like a hook, the hind part folded 
n]p.-'-^Muiler' Am, Inf, 

F I G. 



72 PLATE XXXir. 

FIG. III. and FIG. IV. 
PROTEUS TENAX. 

GENERIC CHJRJCTER. 
An invifible, very fimple, pellucid Worm, of a variable form, 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, 
Running out into a fine point. — Miiller, 



A gelatinous pellucid body, ftored with black molecules ; it changes 
its form in a regular order, firft extending itfelf out in a ftrait lines 
the lower- part terminating in an acute bright point, without any in- 
teftines, and the globules being all collected Jn the upper part, it next 
draws the pointed end up towards the middle of the body, fv/elling it 
into a round form. The contra£l:ion goes on for fome time, after which 
the lower part is fwelled as in Fig. IV, The point is afterwards projected 
from this ventricofe part. It pafTes through five different forms before 
it arrives at that reprefented at Fig. IV. It fcarcely moves from one 
fpot, only bending about fideways. It Is to be found in river water-j 
where the Nitida gxoYfs,'-^Ada7ns on the Microjcope, 



PLATE 



C 73 ] 

PLATE- XXXIII. 

F I G. I. 

,V. PHALi^NA BATIS. 

Peach-blossom Moth. 

Lepidoptera. 

Phal-sma. 

GENEPs-IC CHARACTER. 

Antennse taper from their apex. Wings in. general contradieil 
when at left. Fly by night. 

*N0CTUAi 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Firft pair of Wings brown, with fi\>?. peach-coloured fpots on 
each. Second pair light brown. 



The Peach-bloiTom Moth at firft fight (o evidently diftinguifhes 
itfelf, that it can fcarcely be rdiftaken. The upper or firft pair of 
Wings have the ground of a brown colour, v/nich in fome direftions 
of light affume a golden appearance; and on each Wing are. five ele- 
gantly difpofed fpots of white, having each a center of the moft beau- 
tiful bloom, or bloifom colour, which blend into the white with the moft 
cxquifite foftnefs. The under Wings are of a fimple colour, and have 
only a tranfverfe fhade of a darker hue acrofs the middle of each Wing. 

Its iruly elegant appearance v/ould alone be fuiScient to claim our 

attention; but when we add that it is one of the rareft and moft 

2 valuable 



74 



PLATE XXXIII. 



valuable ipecimens of Britlfli entomology, it will be confidered as a 
compenfation for thofe more common fubjecf^s occafionally introduced - 
and which the nature of our plan cannot permit us to refufe. 

Our endeavours to procure the Caterpillar have hitherto been in- 
elFecSlual, although it is very probably to be taken early in the feafon, 
feeding on the bramble. It is defcribed to be a brown larva, naked, 
or without hairs, with a gibbofity or rifmg on the back, near the 
extremity. 

Qur Fly was taken in EfTex, July 14th. 



F I G. II. 

PHALiENA AMATORIO, 

Blood Vein, or Buff Argos Moth. ; 

Lepidoptera. 
Phal^na. 
** Antennae feathered. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. 

Wings angulated, buff, fprinkled with brown, and a red tranfverfe 
line acrofs each. Margin of each Wing edged with red. 



The Caterpillars of this Phalaena feed on the oak leaves. They 
are green, with yellow rings. The Fly is found in Eflex very com- 
monly in the month of July. 



34 




[. 75 ] 

PLATE XXXIV. 

FIG. I. 

CURCULIO BACHUS. 

COLEOPTERA. 

Wings two, covered by two Ihells, divided by a longitudinal future. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

Antennae clavated, elbowed in the middle, and fixed in the Snout, 
which is prominent and horny. Joints four to each foot. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.. 

Shells, and Thorax purple with gold fhades j fnout long, black. 
Linn. Syji. Nat. 2. 611. 38. Sckcsf. Icon. Tab. 37. Fig. 13. Geof, 
Inf. I. 270. 4. Sul. Hiji. Inf. Tab. 4. Fig. 4. 



Our figure reprefents the Curculio Bachus^ as it appears before th§S 
Speculum of an Opake Microfcope with a lens magnifying times. 

It is with this, as with many other fpecies of infecSts, and particu* 
larly thofe of the Coleopterous Order, that unlefs they are in fome 
meafure magnified, much of their beauty will remain hidden, and 
much of their ftrufture be enveloped in obfcurity. It is not perfedly 
agreeable to our plan, and may admit of fome blame from our fub* 
fcribers ; but when obje£ls fo diminutive in fize, and fo complex in co- 
lour, offer to our attention, and it is not poffible to reprefent them in 
their natural appearance, or in a manner fatisfa(5lory to ourfelves, we 
muft have recourfe to the Microfcope for afliftance. We confider 
the confidence at prefent repofed in our accuracy, and attention, to 
the natural fubje£ts, evident from the general patronage beftowed on 
our attempt ; it is a fpur to our exertions, and we will endeavour, as 
well by our future, ^s prefent correilnefs, to deferve a continuation of 

N tliat 



76 PLATE XXXIV. 

that efteem, and encouragement, fo liberally fliowered on our once 
arduous undertaking. 

C. Bachus is near in length, the Shells and Thorax 

appear of a deep glofly purple, with much inclination to gold ; a green 
and golden hue is feen on every part of the body as it moves in va- 
rious directions of light. The whole appears before the microfcope 
befprinkled, and fpotted with gold and purple i gold in thofe parts 
where the light ■ is moft powerful, and purple in the ftiadows. The 
Snout is black, or of a dark colour, as are alfo the Eyes ; and the 
fmo-ular ftruclure of the jointed Antennae, which are thereon, de- 
ferve particular notice. This beautifiil infe£t is as rare, as it is fu- 
perb, and the larva is fcarcely, if at all known. — Our fpeciraen was 
taken in the middle of Juncy in a field near Kent. 



F I G. II. 

CUCULIO GERMANUS. 

Black Curculio, 

;- CoLEOPTERA^baftmgfim aisaqos 

^ysxibliioiw r 

Curculio. ,^ ^o.^.j=qyj.. 

SPECIFIC CHJRACTfk, 

Snout long, black Head, Thorax, Shells and Body black. Two 
fmall fpots of yellowifh white on the fides of the Thorax. 

Linn. Syji. Nat. 2/613. 58. Scopol Ann, Hijl. Nat. 5. 91. 44. 
Frifch. Inf. 13. 28. Tab. 26. 



An Infedl found in abundance in Germany, and by no means un- 
common in this and every other part of Europe. It is generally taken 
m. 'June, i 

PLATE 



C 77 ] 



*T h« ; PLATE XXXV. 

^v;e .:..■:-..:;: -' ' ' . ' ■ 2Uoh 

.^T -^-:J.c^r>. FIG. I. i Iff-;? :;n" ...v,n-'>- 



j.^ avisl 



Shews the natural fize of the larva, of the y-gnii 

MUSCA CHAMiELEON, 

Defcribed in Plate XXXI of this work. 



F I G. II, 

As it appears magnified^ We have taken it fince that plate v»ras 
finifhed, or vt'e would haye introduced it with the Fly. Being unac- 
<|uainted with any perfe£t yeprefentation of this aquatic larva, we are 
J?appy to give it before the cprnpletipn pf $he firft volume. 

-.,... .....; ... ■ -H ±iM ^ . .^^^ 

xSiodT 7 lidv/ iftiwoH? , 



PLATE 



5(5- 





[ 79 ] 



PLATE XXXVI. 

FIG. I. 

LIBELLULA PUELLA. 

Neuroptera. 

Wings four, naked, tranfparent, reticulated. With Veins cr 
-J^Terves. Tail without a (ling. 

GENERIC CHARACTER, 

Mouth with two long lateral Jaws. Antenna very fhort, tail of the 
male forked. Wjngs extended. 

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, 

Body Saxon-greenifti blue, Eyes diftant, remote. Wings of equal 
length, with a cloud of brown in the middle, and without marginal 
fpot. Length two inches. 

Linn. SyJ}. Nat. 2. 904. 20. Fan. Sv. 1470. 



It is neither fo large as to infufe terror by its appearance, or fb 
beautiful as to claim the firft place in a collection of Britifh infeds 2 
Jiotwithftanding there are many inferior to it both in elegance, and co- 
lour. The whole of the body is a deep purplifh blue, which refleds 
on one part, a moft brilliant colour with a greenifh caft, and the clouds 
on the wings contribute much to its luftre. The Thorax and Head 
are nearly the fame, fome few {hades pf green excepted, 

♦ ' It 



So PLATE XXXVI. 

It is feund in May and June^ fporting on, the waters, or among the 
bufhes which overgrow the fides of pools, or gently flowing ftreams j 
at nocm, or after a Ihower, when the fun breaks from its watery prifon, 
and penetrates the thickets, ^nd th? groves with inviting warmth, they 
are feen iffuing from the dark retreat, and^. overhanging flirubbery ; to 
bafk and wanton in its effulgent beams, and fan d^e gently rifing breeze 
with their lucid Wings. In many parts on tl^e l?anks of the Thames they 
heighten the fcene by the glow and richnefs of their colouring ; the 
green, the blue, and the red ; the yellovi', pi^rplcj and the brown, in 
their richeft teints, according to the fpecies ; and as they fly in various 
diredions, difplay themfelves in all their na.tive elegance and fplendor. 



F I G. II. 

LIBELLULA PUELLA, 

Neuroptera. 

LiBELLULA, 

SPECIFIC CHJRJCTER, 

Body red with yellow and black lines at each fegment; thqrajc 
green, with yellow Uripes. Wings clear, with marginal fppts. 



The body is red, with a yellow band and black mark at every feg- 
ment ; the Thorax green,, with longitudinal lines of yellpw j the 
Wings are perfectly tranfparent, except a marginal fpot on each. It 
is voracious, as are all the fpecies of Libellula, uTi^ther in the larva or 
the winged ftate ; it appears about the fame time as the preceding, and 
is the produce of an aquatic larva, 

PLAT? 



■ -'t ^v. ,»isi.,«' Siii / 






. j-'^iwoFi "^Ilnsg 10 






• , • q V '"^:?.sw ssJ! moil ^3?sJr-. 






>;!? frijxmsijif gniim.i 






. (i3cftfuirii gmgnfiriv^'.^^ r.i^ 


:;1J :noi:. 


■ :U Tilil 


vitsid §nxla^br»;g sffcn^ frv;: , 


WiJOM., 


« ilfid 


farii i^tRVi'XT arftlo gin 




' ibrii riJiw 


■'1^ £«flhjJolo3 lisrfi io. gjanno -; 




^ nsiJflgisri 


d 9ri3 fens -^^l--" ""-- 




J.. -..,^.., 


■ ^^R vir?* p:? ' 







\ 



nil h:mhuli^ttoi (^i\^' rn35»->.g 'xs^f^l\T odi 



INDEX 

' TO 

V O L. I. 

COLEOPTERA. 

First Order. 

Plate 

Ccrvus Lucanus. Stag Beetle - ~ * "* ^3 

Silpha Veipillio - - - - - - 23 

Chrylomela Afparagi -« - - . " 3^ 

Curculio Bachus - - - - - " 34« 

Curculio Germanus - - -* - - ib. 

Leptura Arietis. Common WsSp Beetle - - " ^f 

Cicindela Campeftris - - - . » 11 



'HEMIPTERA. 
Second Order. 
Nepa Cinerea, Water Scorpion - - «• * 18 

LEPIDOPTERA. 

Third Order. 

Sphinx Apiformis. . Hornet Sphinx - - * - 25 

Sphinx Filipendulae. Burnet Moth - - - - 6 

Phalaena Pavonia.' Emperor Moth - - " " ^ 

Phalffina Bucephala. Buff Tip Moth - - - 3 

Phalsna Caja. Great Tyger Moth • - • ^ 5 

Fhalsna 



INDEX. * 

Plate 

Phaljena Salicis. White Sattin Moth - - - 28 

Phalsena Chryforrhcea, Yellow-Tail Moth - .- - 10 

Phalsna Antiqua. White Spot Tuffock Moth - - 16 

Phalsena Amataria. Euff Argos Moth - - "33 

Phalsna Pranaria. Orange Moth - - - 21 

Phala;na Groffalariata. Currant Moth - - ~ 4 

Phalsna Batis. Peach BlolToni - - ' - * 33 

Phalaena Chriftiernana - - - - - 20 

Phalffina Evonymella. Ermine Moth - - "9 



NEUROPTERA. 

Fourth Order. 

Lihellula Deprefia. Dragon Fly - * - - 24. 

Libel! ula Virgo - - - - - ^ 3^ 

Libellula Puella - - - - - • - -26 



H Y M E N O P T E R A. 

Fifth Order. 

Chryfis Ignlta - - - - - "7 

Chryfis Eidentata - - - - - ^9 



D I P T E R A. 
Sixth Order. 



Tipula Plumofa - - - - - - 22 

Mufca Chamaileon *• - - -^ " 3^ 

Mufca Pendula - - - . - - • - ib. 

Alufca Laicralis - - ■- - ' - - ib. 



APTERA. 



INDEX. 

A P T E R A. 

Seventh Order. 

Plat© 

Acarus Coleoptratorum. Beetle Tick - - - ii 

Monculus Quadricornis - - - - - 2 

Monoculus Conchaceus - - - - - 5 

Proteus Tenax - - - - - " 3^ 

Vibro Olor - - - - - - ib. 

Kolpoda Mileagris - - - ~ - ib. 

Burfaria Hirundinella _ ■ _ _ _ - 5 

Trichoda Cometa - - - - - 26 

Trichoda Longicauda - - - _ - ib. 

Trichoda Melitea - - - - - 29 

Trichoda Pocillum - - - - - 14 

Trichoda Uvula - - - .- - - 8 

Trichoda Vermicularis - - - - - i? 

Himantopus Ludio ^ - - - - 20 

Vorticella Lunaris - - - > - 8 

Vorticella trochi formis Nigr^ ^ - - - 26 

Vorticella Nafuta - ^ - .. - 2q 

Vorticella Urceolaris ■» - > - - 17 

Vorticella Viridis - - - , - 20 



INDEX. 



SPECIFIC NAMES, 

ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED, 



T O 



VOL. I. 



Plate 

Amataria, Fhalaena - * - • - 33 

Antiqua, Phalsna - - - - - l6 

Api-formis, Sphinx - - - - - 25 

Arietis,^ Leptura - - - - - - 27 

Afparagi, Chryfomela - ... » -30 

Batis, Phalaena - - «. • «. '33 

Bidentata, Chryfis • •• • « - 19 

Bucephala, Phalasna • - - - - 2 

Caja, Phalaena - - - - - - 15 

Campeftrisj Cincindela - - - - • 12 ^ 

Chamaeleon, Mufca - - - - "3^ 

Chrifliernana, Phalzena - - - - - 20 

Chryrorrh(r.a, Phalsna - - » - - lO 

Cinerea, Nepa - - - - • - 18 

Coleoptratorum, Acarus - - - - - II 

Cometa, Trichoda - - -, » - 26 

Conchaceus, Monoculus - - • " " S 

Evonymella, Phalaena » - • - "9 

Filipendulse, Sphinx - -. - - - 6 

GrolTulariata, Fhalsna »- - - - - 4 

Ignita, Chryfis - - - - - "7 

Lateralis, Mufca - - - - - 3? 

X-ongicaudaj Trichoda - - - - - 26 

Lucanusj 



INDEX. 

Plate 

Lucanus, Cervus * - - - - 13 

Ludio, Himantopus - - - - - 20 

Lunaris, Vorticella - - - - - 8 

Melitea, Trichoda -» - ♦• - - 29 

Mileagrisj Kolpoda - .- - . - 3^ 

Nafuta, VorticelU « •• • - - 29 

Olor, Vibrio - f - « - '3^ 

Pavonia, Phalsena * - - - - i 

Pendula, Mufca - - - ., » - ^p 

Plumofa, Tipula -• - - m ^ - 22 

Pocillum, Trichoda ^ - - - - I4- 

Prunaria Phalaena • - ^ - -21' 

Quadricornis, Monoculus - - - - 2 

Salicis, Phalaena - - - - - - 28 

Tenax, Proteus - -r - - "<■ 3^ 

Trochiformis Nigra, Vorticella ^- - - ^ ■? 26 

Vermicularis, Trichoda - - -^ - " ^7 

Vefpiilio, Silpha - - - - f ~ ^3 

Viridis, Vorticella - - " " - ^9 

Urceolaris, Vorticella - - - - " ^7 

Vvula, Trichoda - ■«» • • * 8 
1 



ERRATA TO VOL. L 

PLATE XXXIV. for ynagnlfying times, read magnifying four times 
for 6. Bach us is near in length, read C. Backus 

is near four Lines in length 
FIG. II. for Cuculioy read Curcu/io