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Full text of "Natural history of Victoria. Prodromus of the zoology of Victoria; or, Figures and descriptions of the living species of all classes of the Victorian indigenous animals.."

MARY D. ROGICK 



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Natural ^ifitorji ^f ^ittirria* 




PRODROMUS 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTOEIA; 



FIGORES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



DECADS XVI. 



FEEDERICK McCOY, C.M.G.,M.A.,Sc.D. Cantab. J.E.S., 

BONOIUBT UEUBER OP THE CAUBKtDGE PHILOSOPHICAL 80CIETT ; HONORARY ACTIVE MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL 80CIETT 

OP NATURALISTS OF MOSCOW ; CORRESPONDING MESIBER OP THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON ; 

BONORABT MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SODTH WALES ; HONORARY FELLOW OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF EDINBDRGH ; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF MANCHESTER, 

ETC., ETC., ETC. 

ADTBOR OF " SYNOPSIS OF THE CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE FOSSILS OF IRELAND ; " '* SYNOPSIS OF THE SILDRIAN FOSSILS OF 

IRELAND;" "contributions TO BRITISH PAUEONTOLOGY ; " ONE OF THE AUTHORS OF SEDGWICK AND MCCOY'S 

"BEITlSa PALEOZOIC ROCKS AND FOSSILS;" " PRODROMUS OF THE PALAEONTOLOGY OF VICTORIA," ETC. 

PHOFESSOR OF NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE MELBOURNE UNIVEKSITT. 
GOVERNMENT PALAEONTOLOGIST, AND DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OP MELBOURNE, ETC. 




MELBOURNE : 

BY AUTHORITY : HOBT. 8. BRAIN, GOVERNMENT PBINTER. 

LONDON ; 
TBiJBNEE AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATE UILL. 

UDCCCLXXXVIII. 




ADVERTISEMENT. 



It having been considered desirable to ascertain accurately the 
natural productions of the Colony of Victoria, and to publish works 
descriptive of them, on the plan of those issued by the Governments 
of the different States of America, investigations were undertaken, 
by order of the Victorian Government, to determine the Geology, 
Botany, and Zoology of the Colony, to form collections illustrative of 
each for the public use, and to make the necessary preparations for 
such systematic publications on the subject as might be useful and 
interesting to the general pubhc, and contribute to the advancement 
of science. 

As the geological and botanical investigations have already 
approached completion, and their publication is far advanced, it 
has been decided now to commence the publication of the third 
branch completing the subject, namely, that of the Zoology or 
indigenous members of the thfferent classes of the animal kingdom. 

The Fauna not being so well known as the Flora, it was a necessary 
prehminary to the publication to have a large number of di-a wings 
made, as opportunity arose, fi'om the living or fi-esh examples of 
many species of reptiles, fish, and the lower animals, which lose their 
natural appearance shortly after death, and the true characters of 
many of which were consequently as yet unknown, as they had 
only been described from preserved specimens. A Prodromus, or 
preliminary issue, in the form' of Decades, or numbers of ten plates, 
each with its complete descriptive letterpress, will be pubUshed, of 
such illustrations as are ready, without systematic order or waiting 
for the completion of any one branch. The many good observers 
in the country will thus have the means of accurately identifying 
various natural objects, their observations on which, if recorded and 
sent to the National Museum, where the originals of all the figures 
and descriptions are preserved, will be duly acknowledged, and 
will materially help in the preparation of the final systematic volume 
to be published for each class when it approaches completion. 



Natural gistarn af Wutam. 



PRODROMUS 



ZOOLOGY OF YICTORIA; 



FIGURES AND DESCEIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



DECADE XVI. 



FEEDERICK McCOY, C.M.G., M.A.,Sc. D.Cantab., F.R.S., 

HONORARY MEHIBER OF THE CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETT ; HONORAKY ACTIVE MEMBER OP THE IMPERIAL SOCIETY 

OF NATURALISTS OF MOSCOW; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETT OF LOiNDON ; 

HONORARY MESIBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES; HONORARY FELLOW OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETT 

OF EDINBURGH ; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF MANCHESTER, 

ETC., ETC., ETC. 

AtrrnoR of " synopsis of the carboniferous limestonk fossils of Ireland ; " " synopsis of the selurian fossils of 

IRELAND;" "contributions TO BRITISH PALEONTOLOGY;" ONE OF THE AUTHORS OF SEDGWICK AND MCCOY'S ^ 

"BRITISH PAL.ff:oZ01C ROCKS AND FOSSILS;" " PRODROMUS OF THE PALEONTOLOGY OF VICTORIA," KTC. 

PROFESSOR OP NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY. 
GOVERNMENT PALEONTOLOGIST, AND DIRECTOR OP THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OP MELBOURNE, ETC. 




MELBOURlSrE : 

BY AUTHORITY : EOBT. S. BRAIN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 

LONDON : 

TRDBNER AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATEH LL. 
M DCCC LXXXVUI. 



PEEFACE. 



This sixteenth Decade gives an illustration, of the natural colors 
of life, of the beautiful species of Monitor Lizard, M. Gouldi, 
from the warmer latitudes of the colony, allied to the large 
Lace Lizard, or so-called Iguana, Hydrosaurus varnis, figured 
on our Plate 41, of the districts neai'er the Southern coast. 

The next two plates illustrate two genera {Pygojyus and 
Debna) of those extraordinary Snake-shaped Lizards without 
feet, popularly supposed, both by the aborigines and settlers, 
to be highly poisonous snakes, although perfectly harmless. 

Plate 154 gives a figm-e from the recent specimen, of the 
natural colors, of the rare gigantic Mackerel, the Cyhium 
Commersoni, of which only one example has been found on our 
coast. 

The next plate illustrates another fine species of large, food 
fish, one of the Pelamyds^ nearly allied to one from Japan, 
but which I have named Pelamys Schlegeli, to recall that fact, 
and on account of differences which I have published. 

The next three plates illustrate rare and interesting Polyzoa 
from our coast, the specimens and descriptions of which Mr. 
MacGillivray has given for the Museum and this work. 

Plate 159 illustrates the common Sydney Craw-fish, Palinurus 
Hiic/eli, showing the colors of life for the first time ; one of the 
rarest Crustacea of our coast. This is replaced in Victoria by the 
Southern Spiny Lobster or " Common Melbourne Craw-fish," 



PREFACE. 



Palinurus Lalandi, figured in our fifteenth Decade, which, I have 
no doubt, is identical with the species of the Cape of Good Hope 
and New Zealand, but not recorded from New South Wales or 
any place much north of Victoria. By comparison with South 
African specimens, I have confirmed my previously published 
opinion of the identity of the South African and Victorian sptecies. 

The last plate illustrates, what I believe to be, a local variety 
of the " Murray Spiny Lobster " or large Murray Cray-fish, 
Astacopsis serratus^ found abundantly in the Yarra and the 
streams flowing into it. I have given the name Yarraensis to 
this variety, which, from its small size and bright blue color, is 
very unlike the large northern Murray form, the illustration being 
desirable, as the majority of the fishes and otlier inhabitants of the 
Murray are different from those found in the rivers running south- 
wards, as the Yarra does. 

The succeeding Decades will illustrate as many different genera 
as possible, and will deal first, usually, with species of some special 
interest, and of which good figures do not exist, or are not easily 
accessible. 

Frederick McCoy. 
22nd June, 1888.* 



* Pressure of other business at the Government Printing- Office, and the removal to new building, have 
delayed the publication of this Decade. • 



Fl./dy 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 



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DTWiUitlciUlh. 



PrifM^CyHrtJ* 



SUam, Utiw. ticYt,frtniuy OflfUe 



Zoologt,.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. iBeptiks. 



Plate 151. 

MONITOR GOULDI (Gray). 

Gould's Monitor Lizard. 

[Genus MONITOR (Gray). (Sub-kingdom Vertebrata. Class Reptilia. Order Sauria. 
Section Squamata. Sub-order Leptoglossa;. Tribe Cyclosaura. FamOy Monitorida;.) 

Gen. Char. — Body fusiform, covered with small, quadrate scales in small, transverse bands 
on back and belly, tubercular, each on upper surface surrounded with rows of small granules ; 
one small, transverse fold at base of neck, in front of shoulders ; tail long, tapering, com- 
pressed, with whorls of small scales, and a double scaly keel above. Head moderate, covered 
with very small, polygonal plates ; tongue very long, narrow, slender, flattened, deeply forked, 
with two horny, cylindrical tips at distal end, and lodged in a cylindrical sheath at base ; eyes 
diurnal, pupil circular, with two valvular eye-lids ; scales over the eye equal ; ear-drums large, 
with simple edges; legs strong, for walking; toes, five on each foot, elongate, unequal, com- 
pressed, strong, with large curved claws ; thighs without pores ; no preanal pores ; nostrils about 
half-way between tip of snout and front edge of eye. Teeth compressed, pointed, distant, 
smooth, anchylosed to inner edge of jaw-bones by outer surface.] 

Description. — Body elono'ate, ovate, slightly depressed; neck long, cylindrical. 
Head ovate, flattened and subtriang-ular above; sides in front of eye flattened, 
vertical, nearly at rig-ht angles with upper surface, tapering with straight sides 
to narrow rounded muzzle. Nostrils longitudinally triangular, hind edge slightlv 
nearer to tip of snout than to eye ; plates on eye-lids, sides, and top of head, very 
small, sub-equal, polygonal, smooth ; vertex plate* rounded, about three times the 
length of adjacent plates. Tail about one-third longer than the body, moderately 
compressed laterally ; double keel formed of two rows of triangular scales, commencing 
nearly at base, greatest height at about one-fourth the length of the tail from the 
base, each scale a little longer than its vertical, highest posterior end, and having 
other scales on the sides, gradually passing into the size and shape of the ordinary 
scales of the sides of the tail. Teeth small, smooth, compressed, the sharp anterior 
and posterior edges nearly smooth, moderately arched backwards, far apart, about 
six in upper and about four or five in lower jaw. Scales of upper surface of 
neck, body, and limbs formed of a convex, longitudinally oval, tubercle in middle, 
surrounded by several rows of small grantdes ; more elongate, keeled, and triangular 
on tail, with the rows of granules chiefly towards the distal end; on belly, flat, 
oblong, a little longer than wide, with about one row of small granules round each. 
Color: Above, brownish-black, with seventeen or eighteen transverse rows of 
irregular, rounded or quadrate, pale-yellow spots, about from three to ten scales long, 
ocellated or with black centres over shoulders and on sides, plain on middle of back, 
more definite and rounded on upper sides of limbs. About 23 narrow, transverse, 
yellow bands on tail, from one to three scales wide, the black intervals from five to 
ten scales wide, terminal fourth of tail plain pale-yellow ; under-side of neck, belly, 
tail, and limbs pale-yellow, with small, scattered, quadrate, black spots ; throat 
clouded with pale-blue, without black spots; top of head plain brownish-black; 
sides of head mottled, yellow and black ; yellow on upper eye-lid extending back- 
wards as a distinct narrow streak beyond and above the ear; yellow of lower eye-lid 
extending as a broader, distinct, narrow streak over top of ear nearly to shoulder ; 

* Probably indicating the position of the " Pineal Eye." 
Vol. it.— Decadb XVI.— 23. [ 195 ] 



Zoology.'] 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



{_Reptilet. 



nape black, slig^litlj'' freckled with small yellow spots. Iris orange. Tono;ue duU- 
blackisb-blue or lead-color; sheath and base cream-color, like interior of mouth. 
Toes strong', the scales arrang-ed in transverse, angular, prominent ridges below; 
soles with small, g'ranular scales irregularly disposed; claws very large, strong, 
curved downwards, pointed. 



Measdbbments or Ayebaqb Specimen. 

Total length 
Length of tail 

,, of head ... 

„ of gape ... 

„ from tip of muzzle to anterior edge of nostril 

„ from tip of muzzle to anterior edge of orbit ... 

„ from tip of muzzle to ear ... 
Diameter of orbit 
Width of forehead between eyes 
Length from tip of snout to shoulder 

„ of inner toe of anterior foot 

„ of claw of ditto ... 

„ of second toe 

„ of claw of ditto ... 

„ of third toe 

„ of claw of ditto ... 

„ of fourth toe 

„ of claw of ditto ... 

„ of fifth toe 

„ of claw of ditto ... 

„ from shoulder to base of third claw 
Girth of body 
Length from tip of snout to hind leg 

„ of hind leg to base of third claw 

„ of inner toe of hind foot ... 

,, of claw of ditto ... 

„ of second toe 

„ of claw of ditto ... 

„ of third toe 

„ of claw of ditto ... 

„ of fourth, or longest, toe ... 

„ of claw of ditto ... 

„ of outer or hind toe 

„ of claw of ditto ... 

„ of largest teeth, about middle of jaw 
Height of scales of keels on back of tail 
Granular scales in middle of back in longitudinal space of 6 lines 

„ „ „ transverse „ 

Flat scales in middle of belly in longitudinal space of 6 lines 
„ „ „ transverse „ 



Feet 


, Im. Une«. 


3 


1 


I 


10 





2 6 





1 11 





5^ 





1 34 


u 


2 5 





(1 5 





1 





6 6 





5 





6 





6 





6 





11 9 





6 





10 





5 





6 





5 





3 9 





11 


1 


2 6 





4 8. 





5 





5 





7 





(1 6 





11 





6 





1 4 





6 





6 





55 





1^, 





1 


• ... 


Nine 


... 


Eight 


... 


Six 


... 


Nine 



Reference. — Gray, Cat., p. 12; = Hydrosaurus Gouldi (Gray), Ann. Nat. 
Hist., i., p. 394; and in Grey, Travels, v. 2,'p. 422; and Er. and Ter. Rept., t 3. 

This is a smaller, much more beautiful, and rarer Lizard than 
the Lace Lizard, or so-called Iguana or Coast Lizard (figured on 
our Plate 41), and is only found in the north-west part of the 
colony, in the hot mallee-scrub country, where it is common, far 
away from water, running swiftly about the herbage, and sheltering 
in holes in the ground. When kept in confinement it does not 

[ 196] 



Zoology.'] NATUEAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IReptiles. 

attempt to bite, but hisses loudly wlieu much vexed ; at other 
times giving a geutle snuffling soi't of cough, such as babies emit 
before they are weaned. Like many other Lizards, the skin forms 
longitudinal wrinkles along the sides when quiet, but when irritated 
it inflates the skin of the body, swelling to a considerably larger 
size than before, and then the wnukles disappear. 

In habits this Lizard is much less arboreal, as Mr. Kershaw 
informs me, than the Hydrosaicrus varius, or Lace Lizard, the 
latter always endeavouring to escape up a tree when alarmed, 
while the present species keeps on the ground and escapes into 
holes in the earth. The Hych'osaurus is a good swimmer, but this 
Monitor is most common in waterless districts. It is much less 
timid or inclined to escape, and is much less vicious in the use of 
its teeth than the Lace Lizard. M. Boulanger merges the sub- 
genera Hydrosaurus and Monitor in Varanus, but the difference in 
habit seems to give additional importance to the small structural 
differences, and I therefore prefer to retain them for the present. 

The specimen figured is from Kewell, north of Murtoa, near 
Horsham, one of several obtained through the good offices of 
Mr. Jos. Hill, of that district. 

Explanation of Fioubbs. 

Plate 151. — Fig. 1, average specimen, half natural size. Fig. la, top view of head, 
natural size, showing the small, rounded vertex plate, small plates of crown of head, and still 
smaller ones over orbit. Fig. \b. side view of head, natural size. Fig, Ic, under-side of anterior 
foot, natural size, to show granular palm, and prominent, transverse ridges of scales on toes. 
Fig. \d, tongue, natural size, with sheath at base. Fig. le, scales of belly, magnified four 
diameters. Fig. 1/, scales of back, magnified four diameters. Fig. Ig, scales of tail, magnified 
four diameters. Fig l/», teeth, magnified five diameters. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[197 ] 



/^^ 



F1152 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 




HT WdJ, d<U,>bhtK 



Steam Iii^ Oiryt- PrtnitTia Office 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. {Reptiles. 



Plate 152, and Plate 153 Fig. 2. 

PYGOPUS LEPIDOPUS (Lacep. sp.). 

The Pygopus. 

[Genus PYGOPUS (Pitzinger) = BIPES (Cut.) = HYSTEROPUS (Ddm. and Bib.). 
(Sub-kingdom Vertebrata. Class EeptUia. Order Sauria. Sub-order Leptoglossse. Tribe 
Geissosaura. Family Pygopidas.) 

Gen. Char. — Body sn.ike-like, long, slender, cylindrical, tapering. Anterior legs none ; 
posterior legs represented by a flat, elong.ate, ovate, scaly appendage on each side of base of 
tail, not divided into toes externally, but containing four rows of toe-bones. Pre-anal pores 
distinct, large, numerous. Head short, truncate, rounded. Plates : of head large ; rostral 
plate large. Nostrils lateral, circular, in lower angle of transverse baud-like nasjil plate ; two 
or more pairs of supra-nns.al or fronto-nasal plates, like the nasals, over them ; inter-nasal or 
pre-frontal plate large, with elongate frontal pl.ate behind it ; two large parietal plates and 
one small occipit.al plate behind the posterior ends of the parietal plates ; two or three supra- 
ocular, or temporal, plates on each side. Ears : drums exposed, ovate, distinct, oblique. Pupil 
nearly circular, very broad, oval, erect. Eye-lids circular, rudimentary, scaly, immovable. 
Teeth conical, pleurodont, simple in jaws, none on palate, whicli has a wide longitudinal furrow. 
Tongue broad, flat, thin, scaly in front, velvety behind, rounded and notched at tip. Scales of 
back sub-hexagonal, keeled ; ventral shields hexagonal, broad, two middle rows broadest ; sub- 
caudal plates broad, in tliree rows, the middle one broadest. Scales of throat small.' Parietal 
bones separate, premaxillary single, produced backwards between the nasals. Orbit separated 
from frontal by junction of pre- and post-orbitals. Australia.] 

Description. — Head sub-trigonal, narrow and rounded in front; eye a little 
nearer tip of snout than ear; canthus rostralis obtuse ; rostral plate large, about 
twice and a half as wide as long, varying from pentagonal, where the middle of 
the upper edge is raised in an angle between the nasals, to quadrangular where 
the upper edge is straight; two transversely oblong nasal plates and two pairs 
of nearly similar supra-nasal plate.s over them; nostrils round, in lower outer 
angle of nasals, surrounded by first labial, nasal, and freno-nasal; two or three rows 
of irregular polygonal plates on frenal region between nostril and eye; one (or two) 
small fronto-nasal plates on each side in front of temporal plate; temporal, or supra- 
ocular, plates three, the anterior largest, and posterior smallest; inter-nasal or anterior 
frontal large, heptagonal, a little wider than long, and wider than the frontal, with 
which its posterior edge forms a transverse suture, length about equal to the two 
supra-nasals; frontal sub-pentagonal, widest in front, sides indented by the temporal 
plates, about two-thirds the width of anterior fi-ontal, and about one-third longer 
than wide ; parietal plates forming nearly an equilateral triangle, notched in front 
for posterior end of frontal, and behind for a very small occipital. (Sometimes a 
narrow, posterior pair of parietal-like plates, as in Plate 153, Fig. 2b.) Chin-plate 
large, as wide as the rostral ; seven sub-equal, oblong upper labial plates (separated 
from orbit by a row of small plates), the first (Plate 153, Fig. 2a), or first and second 
(Plate 152, Fig. \h), extending downwards on side of chin. Eye-lids with two 
rows of very small scales. Pre-anal pores sub-tubular, usually six (five to seven) on 
each side of a triangle in front of five to ten large, irregular unequal, pre-anal, plates. 
Scales of back flat, sub-hexagonal, each with a very narrow, sharply defined, thread- 

[199] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_ReptiUt. 

like keel, about one-seventli the width of the scale, in twelve rows at middle of 
body, keeled, and eleven rows without keels on sides and belly; keels of body 
continuous, of tail alternate; number of abdominal plates from throat to vent 
usually about ?8 or 80. Posterior le^'-lobes broad, rounded at tip, with four rows of 
scales on outer side, the length about four-fifths the length of head in males, or equal 
to nearly five of the scales of the sides in front ; twice as long as wide ; only as long 
as from tip of snout to anterior edge of eye in females. Colors: Very variable; ground 
color whitish below, lavender-blue above, with a brown tinge often on the outer 
skin; some specimens (as our Plate 153, Pig. 2) have only a few, irregular, dark 
specks or none on the sides and upper surface, and the under-side plain-yellowish- 
white; while others (as our Plate 152, Fig. 1) have a long, divided, black, white-edged 
patch on the top of the head, continued along midline of back as a series of oblong, 
black spots with narrow white edges, and one or two lines of similar, oblong, quad- 
rangular, black, white-edged spots on each side, and the whole under surface netted 
or marbled with the lavender-blue of the back. I have one specimen with the former 
coloring on the anterior half of the body and the rows of white-edged black spots 
on the hinder half, and there are many subordinate variations of each, showing 
clearly that the specimens, apparently so diiferent in this respect, do not diflfer in 
any other. A black vertical spot from the eye across both lips is the most constant. 
Measurements: From tip of snovit to base of tail, 6 ins. 6 lines; from base of tail to 
tip of tail, ] ft. 4 ins. C lines ; length of head from tip of snout to ear, 8 lines ; 
length of leg-flap, 5^ lines, width, 2 lines. 

Reference. =i?i;;es lepidojjodus, Laceji. Annal. du Muse. d'Hist. Nat., v. 4, t. 
45, f. 1; =^ Pygopus lepidopui, Merrem. Tent., p. 11; = Hysteropus Novce 
Hollandice, Dum. et Bib. Erpt. Gen., v. 5, p. 828, t. b5+Pygopics aquamiceps, 
Gray Cat. Liz., p. 68, Er. and Ter. t. 8, Fig. 3. 

These curious creatures are more like snakes than lizards in 
appearance, from the form of the body, absence of true feet, 
and having scales above, and larger abdominal and sub-caudal 
shields below. The resemblance to snakes rather than to lizards is 
anatomically suggested by the simplicity of the lower jaw bones on 
each side ; the angular, supra-angular, and articular bones being 
anchylosed. The transverse row of pre-anal pores is like that in 
the Amphisbence. The two sides of the lower jaw being fixed in 
front, the external ears, eye-lids, and other structural characters 
show that they have no affinity with snakes, but are true lizards. 

The spotted specimens often agree in coloring and marking 
with Dr. Gray's illustration of Lialis B^irtoni, and the plainer ones 
agree with his P. squamiceps and Dumeril's figure in coloring ; 
but there are many intermediate specimens, clearly proving the 
character to be of no specific value ; in some specimens, several of 
the oblong spots are confluent, forming short streaks. 

[ 200 ] 



Zoologt/.-i NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Reptiles. 

The scales and plates of the head are so variable that I have no 
doubt Dr. Gitnther is right in uniting Dr. Gray's P. squamiceps 
to P. lepidopus. I have several specimens with one small plate 
between the inner ends of the posterior supra-nasals, as in our 
Plate 152, Fig. la, and some in which there are two, one between 
the anterior supra-nasals and one between the posterior supra-nasals ; 
and one specimen with three in a median row, from one being 
between the nasals also ; and in another the supra-nasal plates are 
each doubled ; while the greater number of specimens have no 
intercalated plates in midline, and only the normal number of plates, 
as in our figure, Plate 153, Fig. 2h. In one specimen there are 
two, small inter-parietal plates between the anterior ends of the 
parietals ; in another of the var. squamiceios there are two fronto- 
nasals on each side, as well as three pairs of supra-nasals and four 
intercalary plates in midline between the inner ends of them and 
the nasals. 

The original figure of Lacepede in the Annals du Museum 
shows the leg-flaps nearly in the middle of the length, and Gray's 
P. squamiceps has the tail only half the length of the anterior 
■ part, while in Dumeril and Bibron's figure the tail is twice and a 
half as long as the part before the flaps, as in our figure, Plate 152, 
Fig. 1. This latter is the correct proportion of the perfect animal, 
but, like the English Slow-worm, it is so fragile during life that 
it easily loses a portion of the hinder part of the body ; which lost 
part is reproduced quickly, but in such a way that the cautious 
observer can easily see when he is dealing with an individual 
specimen to which such a common accident has happened, by 
noting some slight difi^erence in color and the texture of the 
scales, accompanied by a greater or less diminution of size from 
the true proportion. This may be clearly seen in Lac^pede's 
figure (although he does not seem to have noticed it), in which the 
engraver has suddenly stopped the lines representing the keels of 
the scales at a point where, no doubt, the fracture took place, and 
beyond which the tail is a re-grown one of less than the original 
length. Similarly, the lithographer in Gray's figure of the very 
short-tailed P. squamicejys, clearly shows, by the difference of treat- 
ment, where the new growth has reproduced the tail so much too 

[ 201 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Reptiles. 

short — again not noticed by the author. Our figure of tlie plain- 
colored variety on Plate 153, Fig. 2, also shows a slight difference 
of color and characters of the scales where a fracture during life 
and reproduction gives apparently yet another proportional length 
of tail. 

Common, particularly in the warmer northern part of the 
colony. 

Explanation op Figures. 

Plate 152. — Fig. 1, fine, perfect, male average specimen, n.atural size. Fig. la, top of head, 
magnified tveo diameters, to show the form and proportion of cephalic plates (with one 
abnormal median plate between the inner ends of the posterior supra-n.asals). Fig. \h, side 
view of head, magnified two diameters, showing the side plates of head, the ear, and the keeled 
scales of the upper surfiice, and smooth scales of lowtr side. Fig. Ic, under-side of head, magni- 
fied two diameters. Fig. Id, side view of snout, magnified four diameters, to show more clearly 
the relative position of nostril and surrounding plates. Fig. le, front view of head, niiignified 
two diameters, showing the rostral and mental plates. Fig. If, scaly eye-lid and plates about 
orbit, magnified four diameters. Fig. It/, Sub-caudal scales of middle and adjacent rows, 
magnified three diameters. Fig. lA, scales of back, to show the narrow, definite, thread-like 
keel, magnified three diameters. Fig. li, under-side of end of abdomen and base of tail, 
magnified two diameters, to show pre-anal pores .and adj.acent scales. Fig. I^, side view of same 
part, magnified two diameters, to show scaling of posterior feet. Fig. 1/, under-side of extremity 
of tail, magnified two diameters. 

Flate 163. — Fig. 2, female, variety, with plain coloring, natural size (the shortness of the tail 
being due to its having been reproduced after fracture). Fig. 2a, side view of head, magnified 
two diameters. Fig. 24, top of head, showing some irregular variations in size and shape of 
plates, magnified two diameters. Fig. 2c, front view of head, magnified two diameters. 
Fig. 2(1, side of snout, magnified four diameters. Fig. 2e, scaly eye-lid and adjacent pliites, 
magnified four diameters. Fig. 2/, pre-anal pores, with shorter foot-flaps and adjacent scales, 
magnified two diameters. Fig. 2(i, .sub-caudal scales, magnified three diameters. Fig. 2/i, 
dorsal scales, with narrow, definite, thread-like keel, magnified three diameters. 



Frederick McCoy. 



[ 202 ] 



Pl.153 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

f Reptiles^ 





jy'WUJ-rUl.^ldK 



fl-of if^Oy lij-ex' 



St&ojn, hOw Gevv. Prmti/w Oflu 



Zoology.} NATUEAL HISTORY OF VICTOEIA. IBeptiUs. 



Plate 153, Fig. 1. 

DELMA FRAZERI (Gray). 

Frazer's Delma. 

[Genus DELMA (Gray). (Sub-kingdom Vertebrata. Class Eeptilia. Order Sauria. 
Sub-order LeptoglossEe. Tribe Geissosaura. Family Pygopidse.) 

Gen. Char. — Body long, slender, tapering, snake-Uke ; anterior limbs none ; posterior 
limbs formed of small, flat, scaly, undivided flaps, one on each side of base of tail ; pre-anal 
pores none ; head small, orate, with large symmetrical plates ; rostral plate large ; nostril in hind 
outer corner of transversely oblong nasal plate on each side ; two pairs of transversely oblong 
supra-nasal, or fronto-nasal, plates, like the nasals; inter-nasal, or pre-frontal, plate large, 
heptagonal ; frontal moderate, heptagonal, pointed behind ; a pair of large parietal plates behind 
the frontal, and a small occipital between their posterior ends. Ears ovate, open, distinct, with 
simple edges. Scales hexagonal, smooth, unkeeled, small above ; two rows, wider, along belly, 
one row of wider ones under middle of taU ; eyes round, with circular, scaly, imperfect, 
immovable eye-lids ; pupil nearly circular, broad-oval, erect. Parietal bones separate. 
Australia.] 

Description. — Body and tail sub-cylindrical, very slig-htly flattened below, 
gradually tapering to a slender posterior point. Head semi-oval or sub-trigonal, 
sides nearly straight, converging to a bluntly-rounded, narrow muzzle, the tip of 
which measures to front edge of eye about as much as from posterior edge of eye to 
anterior edge of ear; rostral plate large, pentagonal, twice as wide as high; nasals 
small, transverse, quadrate, oblong, their inner ends touch, the outer end pierced 
by the large nostril, which is surrounded also by the first upper labial and the 
freno-nasal plate; naso-rostral plates transverselj^ quadrate, inner ends touching, 
smaller than the nasals ; fronto-nasals large, pentagonal, touching along inner edge, 
having freno-nasal and naso-rostral along longest front edge ; inner posterior edge 
touching front edge on each side of inter-nasal; posterior outer edge touching a 
large ant-ocular or loreal plate in front of the two temporal plates ; smallest outer 
edge touching the first of the three small frenal plates extending over the labials from 
the fi-eno-nasal to a group of three or four small plates in front of the eye; inter-nasal 
or pre-frontal plate large, heptagonal, about as broad as long ; frontal heptagonal, a 
little narrower and shorter than the pre-frontal, about one-third longer than wide, hind 
angle between parietals ; two parietal plates, small, sub-pentagonal, inner edges in 
contact; straight, pointed posterior ends with a very small occipital plate between 
them; a large plate-like scale usually on each side of posterior lateral edge of 
parietal; upper labials five, fourth, under the eye, longest; lower labials four, 
first meeting under the chin behind the large trigonal mental plate; second very 
large, nearly meeting under throat, others small. Ear large, longitudinally-oval, 
slightly oblique, open, simple edged. Eye-lids covered with three rows of minute 
scales. Hind leg-flap small, as long as four scales of back at base, or equal to^ space 
from snout to orbit in males, shorter in females, covered with three rows of small 
scales, four in the middle row, placed at a distance from the ear of 65 rows of back 
scales. Scales of back small, sub-hexagonal, as broad as long, in fourteen to sixteen 
rows ; belly, with two rows of from 50 to 60 pairs of larger hexagonal plates in 
middle, about twice as wide as long; three large pre-anal plates in a transverse 
row, middle one smallest ; plates of under-side of tail in three rows of transversely 
hexagonal scales, middle row largest, nearly twice as wide as long near base, 
gradually becoming smaller, less transverse and irregularly arranged towards the 

Vol. II.— Decadb XVI.-2A. [ 203 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IReptiles. 

posterior end of tail. Color: Some specimens uniform lioht-greyisli-brown, paler 
below; others have black, transverse patches on the snout, the middle of head 
coming down as a narrow, triangular mark through the eye on each cheek, and 
others have, in addition, a very variable number of fainter, triangular spots extend- 
ing along the side where the back and belly scales meet, for a greater or less 
distance. Measurements: Tip of snout to base of leg-flaps, 3 in. 10 lines; tail, 
12 in. 9 lines; tip of snout to ear, 5 lines; diameter at middle of body, 85 lines; 
number of scales on middle of back in half-an-inch, 10. 

Reference. — Gray, in Grey Trav. Anstral., v. 2, p. 427, t. 4, f. 3; = Delma 
Grayi, Smith 111. Zool. S. Africa Rept., t. 76, f. 2 ; ? = D. Molleri Liitken Vidensk. 
Meddel 1862, p. 296, 1. 1. f. 2. 

This genus maiuly differs from Pygopus in the smooth, unkeeled 
scales of the body, and in the absence of the transverse row of 
pre-anal pores. The £aps representing the hind hmbs are smaller 
than in that genus. 

The original figure by Dr. Gray in Capt. Grey's Travels is 
much too short, the individual figured ha\'ing obviously been 
broken during life, and the tail end re-grown of smaller dimensions 
than natural, as is very commonly seen ; the apparently excessive 
length of Smith's figure being due to the specimen having escaped 
mutilation. I have no doubt that Dr Giinther is quite correct in 
suggesting the specific identity of Gray's and Smith's species, the 
latter being really an Australian, and not an African, form. The. 
greater number of the specimens found near Melbourne are of the 
plain uniform coloring of our figure, but I have a few with dark 
markings on the head and sides of neck depicted by Gray and 
Smith, diftering in no other respect fi'om the plain ones. One 
specimen in the Museum; from Newington station, in the Wimmera 
district, presented by Mr. Forster, of Stawell, has grown two tails, 
forking out fi-om the place of previous fracture. 

EXPLAKATION OF FiGUKES. 

Plate 153. — Fig. 1, average specimen of plain colored variety, natural size. Fig. la, top 
of head, magnified two diameters, to show form of plates (large scale outside parietals divided 
on one side). Fig. \h, side view of head and neck, showing ear, magnified two diameters. 
Fig. Ic, portion of side view of head, magnified four diameters, to show more clearly the scaly 
eye-lid, the large fourth lahi.al, under the eye, the large loreal or ant-ocular plate, and other plates 
on the side of the head more clearly. Fig. \d, front view of head, m.agnified two diameters, to 
show the rostral and mental plates, and the downward prolongation of the first and second 
lower labials. Fig. le, pUates of under-side of belly, magnified two diameters, showing the two 
njedian rows wider than the two lateral ones. Fig. I/, scales of back, magnified two diameters. 
Fig. Ig. side view of posterior end of body and anterior end of tail, to show leg-flaps, magnified 
two diameters. Fig. \h, same part of body, magnified two di.ameters, viewed from below, 
showing the pre-aual plates with four rows of abdominal and three rows of sub-caudal plates, 
with their relative sizes, magnified two diameters. 

FjlEDEEICK McCOT. 

[ 204 ] 



PI. 154 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(Fislies) 




AJarl/toianiBH del tt Ltk. 



hfifH^Oj^ dirta*- 



Sltm^. hOw (itn'Pnnivw Of^ 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 



Plate ]54. 

CYBIUM COMMERSONI (Lacep. sp.). 

Commeeson's Mackerel. 

[Genus CYBIUM (Cutier). (Sub-kingdom Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Order Acan- 
thopterygii. Family Scomberidse.J 

Gen. CAar.— Body elongate, fusiform, moderately slender ; cleft of the- mouth wide 
First dorsal long, with rather feebly developed spines, reaching nearly to the second dorsal ; 
seven or more tinlets be'liind the dorsal ; anal fin resembling the second dorsal in size, shape, and 
position, and with a similar number of tinlets behind it ; caudal iin moderate, forked, a strong 
prominent keel on each side the base of tail. Greater portion of body naked, or with very small 
scales, not forming distinct corselet. Teeth large, compressed, with cutting edges, lancet- 
shaped, on edge of both jaws, small villiform teeth on the vomer and palatine bones, similar 
patch on tongue. Seven branchiostegal rays. An air bladder. Indian and Atlantic Oceans.] 

D. 16 + D. 1 -H6 + X.; p. 24; V. 1 + 5 ; A. 1 + 16 + IX.; C|f ; L.l. 265. 

Description. — Height of the body at end of spinous dor.'^al 6| times in total 
length, excluding- caudal. Length of the head five times in total length, excluding 
caudal. Greatest depth of head rather more than three-fifths of its length. 
Diameter of eye rather more than one-seventh the length of the head, nearer to the 
snout than to hind edge of operculum. Profile of upper part of head nearly straight, 
eloping, surface slightly convex and smooth. Snout pointed in front, lower jaw 
less acute, but slightly longer, than the upper. Cleft of mouth extending to vertical 
of hind edge of eye. Twenty-seven sub-equal, slightly irregular, triangular teeth 
on each side in upper jaw, a little longer than wide. About 16, much larger and 
longer, in lower jaw. A few rows of scales above the pectoral, behind the bead, 
and along the base of the first and second dorsals. Pectoral fin narrow, falcate, 
pointed, one-eighth the total length, excluding caudal. Ventral one-thiid the 
length of the pectoral, of one spinous and five branched rays. First dorsal com- 
mencing over base of pectoral, and extending to within a short space of the second 
dorsal. Second dorsal twice as high as the first, falcate, little longer than high. 
Anal nearly equal in size and shape to the second dorsal, its front edge a little in 
front of verticar from middle of second dorsal. Ten finlets behind second dorsal, 
and nine similar ones behind anal. Lobes of the caudal nearly equal, long and 
narrow. Lateral line from bead slightly undulated to vertical from bind end of 
second dorsal, suddenly descending from thence and re.^uming the longitudinal 
direction from vertical of second finlet nearly in the middle of the body to the large 
prominent median keel at base of tail ; two small curved ridges, one above and one 
below median keel. Color: Upper part of back purplish-blue, fading into silvery- 
white on lower part of sides and belly. The sides and belly marked with numerous 
irregular, nearly vertical, stripes and spots of a dark brownish-purple. Anterior 
dorsal purplish. Venti-als whitish. Pectoral, second dorsal, anal, and caudal fins 
bluish-black with a brown tinge. Base of pectoral whitish. Lis golden-bronze. 

[ 205 ] 



Zoology.'] 



NATUEAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



l^Fishea. 



Ft. 


ins. 


lines 


3 


4 


3 





8 








7 


2 





1 


9 





8 


6 





10 


2 





3 


7 





1 


10 





5 


9 





2 






Mejisukements. 

Totallength, excludiug caudal ... ... ... 

Length from tip of snout to posterior edge of operculum 

Greatest depth at vent 

Height of first dorsal 

Length from tip of snout to origin of first dorsal 

Length of first dorsal 

Height of second dorsal 

Length of first ray of Tentrals 

„ of lobes of caudal ... 

„ of base of same 

Reference. — Scomber Commersoni LacepMe, Shaw Zool. Fish, v. 4, t. 85 
= Cybiuni, id., Cuv. and Val. Poiss., v. 8, p. 165. 

The specimen figured is the only example of this fine fish which 
has been observed on our coast ; it was caught near QueensclifF 
in March, 1887. The example was quite fresh when our drawing 
was made, and the vertical stripes and spots were as distinct as 
shown, but Dr. Day in his " Fishes of Malabar " says they only 
appear after death. The body seems smooth and naked, the scales 
ai'e so very minute (about ten in space of one line). I have 
counted the mucous pores as scales along the lateral line. The 
two or three rows of larger scales above the base of the pectoral 
fin behind the head are very conspicuous, but do not form a corse- 
let. The villiform teeth forming patches on the vomer, palatines, 
and tongue are very minute. 

Explanation of FiGTrRES. 

Plate 154. — Fig. 1, side view, one-fifth natural size. Fig. la, mouth, one-half natural 
size, showing the large teeth on edge of jaws and patches of minute teeth on vomer and palatine 
bones above and on the tongue below. Figs. 16 and le, scales from lateral line, about the 
middle of length, magnified four diameters. Fig. i.d, form of section behind pectoral. Fig. le, 
sectional origin of caudal fin, to show lateral keels, 

Frederick McCot. 



[ 206 ] 



^ 



n.i55 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 




AJari^lomsn- del, d luk- 



hnt M^ Cay dirac^ 



Steam. luJw Otn^'fraduui U'lUx 



Zoology.'] 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [_Fishu. 



Plate 155. 

PELAMYS SCHLEGELI (McCoy). 
The Melbourne Pelamyd. 

Genus PELAMYS (Cnv.). (Sub-kingdom Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Sub-class Teleostea. 
Order Acanthopterygia. Family Scomberidas.) 

Gen. Char.— Body elongate, ovate; cleft of mouth large; teeth large, compressed, 
irregular on jaws, smaller rows on palatine bones, none on Tomer. First dorsal continuous, 
with moderately small spines reaching to the second dorsal, which is small ; anal small, 
resembling the second dorsal ; seven to nine dorsal finlets, and six or more anal finlets ; caudal 
deeply forked ; pectoral pointed ; ventrals small. Thoracic scales forming a distinct corselet ; 
a prominent longitudinal keel on each side of tail. Seven branchiostegal rays. No air bladder. 
Pyloric appendages branched.] 

D. 19 + D. 2 + 12 -f VIII; A. 2 + 11+ VI; V. 1 + 5; P. 25; C.^? 

Description. — Greatest height of body about ih in the leng-th of body 

without caudal fin, or five times, including it. Length of head one-fourth of total_ 

length. Diameter of eye twice in length of muzzle, and three times to edge of 

operculum behind; slightly less than one-sixth the length of the head. The 

posterior end of maxillary does not quite reach the vertical of posterior edge of eye. 

Nine compressed, slightly inarched teeth on dentary bone, and two large ones on each 

side of front of lower jaw. The row of small palatine teeth, about fourteen on each 

side. Teeth of upper jaw much smaller than those of lower jaw. Pre-operculum 

with numerous thick, wavy longitudinal ridges ; corselet not exceeding the tip of 

the pectoral in length. Lateral line with an upward, angular flexure under the 

sixth ray of dorsal, thence with slight undulations, largest under anal, to keel at 

middle of side of tail. Pectoral triangular, moderately pointed, rather less than 

one-eighth the length of the body, reaching as far as eighth spine of dorsal. 

Ventrals small, with a pointed scale at inner base of each. First dorsal commencing 

over anterior base of pectoral, second and third rays longest, gradually decreasing 

to anterior base of second dorsal. The last ray of the dorsal as counted above 

resembles one of the succeeding pinnides. Color : Back purplisb-lavender-grey, 

becoming paler and silvery on sides of head; body, and belly, with about eleven 

longitudinal dark streaks running nearly lengthwise; five under second dorsal and 

dorsal finlets, turning upwards obliquely to dorsal edge. Fms with blackish 

membranes and lighter rays ; the edges of the second dorsal, anal, and tips of the 

caudal lobes slightly yellowish. Iris pale-yellow. Measurements: Total length 

from tip of snout to end of body, excluding caudal fin, 1 ft. 8 in. Proportional 

measurements to length as 100 : Depth of body, -^ ; from tip of snout to end of 

operculirm, -^ ; to anterior edge of orbit, ^^0 > to posterior edge of orbit, j^^% ; 

to end of maxillary, -^-§1 ; to base of first dorsal, f-^-g ; to base of ventral, -^j^g ; 

to base of pectoral, 1%% ; to end of corselet, f'xnr 5 ^° ^°^^ ^^' tW ! to second 

dorsal, -1%% ; highest spine of first dorsal, ~^j; ; length of pectoral, j^yu > longest 

ventral ray, y^^; longest ray of second dorsal, yf^; longest ray of anal, ^-§5 ; 

longest ray of caudal lobes, ■^. Twelve scales in three lines under middle of first 

dorsal. 

[ 207 ] 



Zoology.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [KsAm. 

The Pelamyds differ from the Tunnies chiefly in their larger 
teeth. The beautiful species here figured does not agree exactly 
with any of those previously known. Its fin-rays are fewer .than 
in P. sarda, and the color streaks are less oblique and more over 
the sides and belly, and the pectoral fin is larger. The P. orientalis 
of Japan, which approaches it in many respects, has, according to 
Schlegel's figure, a more flexuous lateral line and smaller pectoral 
(its length going about eight and a half in length of body, instead 
of considerably less than one-eighth, as in our example). The 
figure agi'ees with ours in having six anal pinnules, instead of 
eight, as described. (Dr. Giiuther gives nine, I suppose, by error, 
as he does not seem to have a specimen.) The longitudinal streaks 
in ours are more numerous, and extend more over belly, and do not 
conform so nearly to line of back. In all other respects, except 
one more ray in the first dorsal, the coincidence is so near that 
I think it may possibly be a vaiiety ; but as the species of Pelamys 
and Thynnus are so nearly allied, I think it best to give a separate 
specific name. The P. Australis of Mr. Macleay, as described, 
differs in its longer snout as compared with diameter of eye, the 
greater backward extension of the maxillary, and fewer longitudinal 
streaks, as well as fewer anal fin rays. 

The only specimen seen of this fish was caught in Port Phillip 
Bay on 19th of January, 1877. 

Explanation or Fiotoes. 

Plate 155. — Fig. 1, side view, about one-third natural size. Fig. la, side view of mouth, 
natural size, showing approximate number and size of teeth in upper and lower jaw. Fig. IJ, 
one side of lower jaw, viewed from above, natural size. Fig. Ic, one side of upper jaw, viewed 
from below, showing the small teeth on edge, the row on palatine bone, and two minute teeth, 
directed forwards, on vomer, natural size. Fig. 1(/, the two vomerine teeth, magnified. Fig. le, 
scales from above lateral line near middle of fish, natural size Fig. 1/, ditto, magnified four 
diameters. Fig. Ig, section at base of tail, to show lateral ridges. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 208 ] 



PL 156 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 
fPohrxoa) 




■" R Mac CiilivTi^ del 



Prof H'Oy diraf 



S^tant luJuj.Ctr/t'.Pr-uUvt^ 0/fu» 



ZooJog!/.-\ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPolyzoa. 

Plate 156, Figs. 1 and 2. 

LAGENIPORA TUBERCULATA (McG.)- 

[Genus LAGENIPORA (Hincks). (Sub-kingdom MoUusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family Celleporidse.) 

Gen. Char, — Zoarium encrusting ; zooecia flask-shaped ; mouth sub-circular, without a 
sinus.] 

Description. — Zooecia large, flask-shaped, erect or semi-erect, surface studded 
with large, hollow, pointed, entire, or perforated tubercles ; mouth rounded or oval, 
with a thickened projecting, peristome. 

Reference.— P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., July 1882. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

In this species tlie zooecia are very large and covered with 
numerous raised tubercles, which are entire and pointed, or not so 
prominent and perforated. These perforations do not seem to be, 
as I at first supposed, caused by attrition, as in some cases the 
margins are unequal, thick, and lip-like. The peristome is much 
produced, cylindrical, rough, with small granulations, and the 
circular or oval mouth has a thickened margin. I have not seen 
avicularia or ooecia. 

Explanation op Figures. 

Plate 156. — Fig. 1, three zocecia, showing pointed entire tubercles, and others open, less 
prominent, and almost pore-like. Fig. 2, a single zooecium viewed laterally, to show the 
peristome. 



Plate 156, Fig. 3. 
LAGENIPORA NITENS (McG.). 

Description.- — Zooecia oblique or decumbent at the edge of the zoarium, more 
erect towards the centre, smooth ; mouth in the marginal zooecia with a tubular 
peristome, separated by a narrow, constricting collar; orifice with a spinous process 
on each side, between which is a small avicularium, carried in a semi-spiral tube, 
widened above and ending in a clavate projection ; mouths of other zooecia circular 
or sub-circular, with a small oval avicularium on one side ; vicarious avicularia 
broadly spatulate. 

Reference.— P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict, Nov. 1886. 

[ 209 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. Bracebridge Wilson. 

Of this interesting species I have only seen the minute 
specimen figured, and other examples are much to be desired 
for more complete examination. In the simplest zooecia there 
is no peristome, and there is a small avicularium at one side of 
the mouth. The marginal zooecia have a projecting cylindrical 
peristome, produced to a point at each side, and having between 
these a minute avicularium on a semi-spiral tube, as is found in 
Lehjthopora hystrix. In the absence of other specimens, it is 
difficult to say whether the avicularium of the simple mouth is 
carried up on the peristome of the others or whether the marginal 
zooecia with the constricted peristomes are not rather comparable 
to the young zooecia of some of the smaller Cellej^orce, and the 
simpler zooecia in reality older. It undoubtedly belongs to the 
same genus as Mr. Hincks' Madeiran Phylactella lucida, after- 
wards referred to Lagenipora, and his L. spinulosa from Queen 
Charlotte Island.* It is, I think, probable that L. tuherculata 
and L. nitens will require to be referred to different genera. 

Explanation op ricuBES. 

Plate 156. — Pig. 3, zooecia, showing the tubular constricted peristomes, with the semi- 
spiral aviculifcrous tubes. Fig. .3n, zooecia without peristome, but with an avicularium at the 
side of the mouth. Fig. 36, vicarious avicularium. 



Plate 156, Figs. 4-10. 
LEKYTHOPORA HYSTRIX (McG.). 

[Genus LEKYTnOPORA (McG.). (Sub-kingdom MoUusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family CellcporidaB.) 

Gen. Char. — Zocecia flask-shaped or elongated, oblique or erect, crowded ; primary mouth 
with a notch in the lower lip and a small avicularium at one side ; secondary mouth with the 
peristome produced into a long, tubular orifice, on one side of the margin of which is the 
avicularium, connected with its original position by a minute semi-spiral tube ; ooecia projecting 
from the front of the zooecia below the mouth, covered by a chitinous or sub-calcareous 
plate.] 

Description. — The same as tltat of the genus. 

Reference.— P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., Oct. 1882. 

• Ann. and Mag. Nat. History, Jan. 1884. 

[210] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Polyxoa. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

This species is not uncommon at Port Phillip Heads, and is 
found growing on Adeonella and allied polyzoa. The zoai'ium 
attains a height of three-fourths of an inch, and is simple or more 
usually branched. The zooecia are very much confused, flask- 
shaped, oblique or erect, the surface smooth, rough or pitted. 
It is extremely difficult to see the primary mouth, owing to the 
rapid development of the peristome. It is lofty, with a sinus in 
the lower \\^. The peristome is produced into a long, nearly 
cylindrical tube, carrying a horizontal avicularium on one side, 
situated on the summit of a minute semi-spiral tube. The 
avicularium seems to be originally situated at the sides of the 
primary mouth immediately after the commencement of the 
development of the peristome, and, as the peristome grows, it is 
carried upwards in a semi-spiral manner. This oral avicularium 
is frequently absent. In some specimens there are numerous 
large, spatulate, vicarious avicularia. The ooecium is very 
peculiar, being situated below the mouth, and the front being 
deficient in calcareous matter and closed by a convex, lens- 
shaped, thick, chitinous membrane. This membrane is smooth 
or faintly perforated or, when older, occasionally sub-calcareous 
and cribriform. 

EXFLA.NATION OF FlQURES. 

Plate 156. — Fig. 4, branch of an Adeonella with several zoaria of Lehythopora growing on 
it, natural size. Fig. 5, another zoariura, natural size. Fig. 5a, portion of the same, magnified, 
showing zooecia with peristomes and ooecia. Fig. 5b, lateral view of single zooecium from the 
same, showing the peristome, semi-spiral aviculiferous tube, and profile of ocecium. Fig. 5c, 
another zooecium, to show the shape of the membranous front of the ooecium. Fig. 6, orifice of 
peristome from another specimen, with the oral avicularium. Fig. 7, primary mouth, seen 
vertically. Fig. 8, outline of a peristome, with avicularium and top of tube. Fig. 9, to show 
the commencement of formation of an ocecium. Fig. 10, an operculum. 



Plate 156, Figs. 11-13. 

PCECILOPORA ANOMOLA (McG.). 

[Genus PCECILOPORA (McG.). (Sub-kingdom Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infuudibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family Celleporida;.) 

Ge)i. Char. — Zoarium erect, bilaminate, branched. Zooecia indistinct ; primary month 
with a sinus in lower lip ; peristome commencing as an elevated point with a small avicularium 
on the summit, finally becoming a tumid, sub-circular ring. Ooecia immersed, covered by a 
perforated plate.] 

Vol. II.-DBOiDB XVI.-21. [ 211 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Poli/zoa. 

Description. — That of the genus. 

Reference.— P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., Nov. 1886. 

Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. Bracebridge Wilson. 

Of this very curious species I have only one good specimen, 
for which I am indebted to Mr. Wilson, and two or three 
imperfect fragments. The zoarium is small, branched, bilaminate. 
The youngest zooecia, and those at the margins of the branches, 
have one side produced into a long point, with a small avicularium 
on the inner surface at the summit. As growth advances, the 
summit disappears, and the mouth becomes svirrounded by a tumid 
peristome, with the avicularium usually on the outer part of the 
ring. The pointed process, with its surmounting avicularium, 
seems to be formed befoi-e the operculum, as in the zooecia 
sho^ving these parts it cannot be detected. In a few older zooecia, 
where the peristome is developed into a thick, circular ring, the 
internal mouth can be seen with a sinus on its superioi- lip, that 
is, towards the uppe7- end of the branches. On the basal side of 
the mouth is a perforated plate, covering the ooecium. In young 
zooecia the ooecium appears first as a cupped elevation, which 
becomes covered by a perforated plate, and gradually sinks into 
the substance of the zooecium. The most curious circumstance 
is that, although the ooecium appears to be below the mouth, it 
is really above it, owing to the peculiar reversal of the mouth. 

Pcecilopora is allied to Leki/thopora, but differs in the absence 
of the long, tubular peristome, and in the mature ooecia being 
immersed. 

Explanation op Fiquhes. 

Plate 156. — Fig. 11, specimen, natural size. Fig. 11a, portion from tiie growing edge, 
magnified. Fig. Hj, portion from the extremity of a brancli, magnified, one of tlie zooecia 
allowing tlie internal or primary mouth. Fig. lie, another portion, showing the growth of the 
ocecium. 



I am indebted to Mr. MacGillivray for the specimens and 
descriptions of the above Polyzoa. 

Frederick McCoy. 

[ 212 ] 



4 /57 



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ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 



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Plate 157, Fia. 1. ' 
FASCICULIPORA GRACILIS (McG.). 

[Genus FASCICULIPORA (D'Orbignt). (Sub-kingdom Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. 
Order Infundibulata. Sub-order Cyclostomata. Family Frondiporidae.) 

Gen. Char. — Zoarium erect, simple or branched or lobate. Zooecia opening only at the 
extremities of the branches or also (in F. bellis) in one or more regular series below the ex- 
tremity.] 

Description. — Zoarium small. Zooecia in somewhat flattened bundles, very 
.long, slender, usually distinct and free at the extremity, surface thickly punctate, 
except the part immediately below the mouth, which is smooth or transversely 
wrinkled. 

Reference.— P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., Dec. 1882. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

A small species, consisting of simple or divided bundles of long, 
slender zooecia of a glassy appearance. The extremities usually 
project and are free, and the mouth is circular. The zooecia at 
the surface of the bundles are separated by distinct grooves, and 
are thickly marked, except immediately below the mouth, with 
small, raised, white puncta. The ooecia in this, as in the other 
species of the genus, are unknown. 

Explanation of Fiqukes. 
Plate 157. — Fig. 1, specimen, natural size. Fig. la, the same, magnified. 



Plate 157, Fig. 2. 
FASCICULIPORA BELLIS (McG.).. 

Description. — Zooecia in small, erect bundles, mostly opening at the summit 
by prismatic orifices; one or two series opening lower down, the upper of these 
frequently separated, and their orifices reaching to the same level as those of the 
chief mass of the bundles ; surface minutely punctate. 

Reference.— P, H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., Dec. 1883. 

C 213 ] 



Zoologi/.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

A small and very beautiful species, of whicli I have only seen 
one specimen. In this there are six or seven bundles of zooecia 
spread over a small calcareous nodule and connected by a cal- 
careous punctate or perforated crust. When viewed vertically, 
they suggest a resemblance to a composite flower on the end of its 
pedicle. 

Explanation of Figubes. 

Plate 157. — Fig, 2, specimen, natural size. Fig. 2(i, bundle, Tiewed sideways, magnified. 
Fig. 2b, upper extremity of same, seen vertically. 



Plate 15?, Fio. 3. 
FASCICULIPORA FRUTICOSA (McG.). 

Description. — Zoarium branched, the main branches mostly horizontal, with 
numerous short branches turned upwards, the scondary branches consisting' of 
bundles of zooecia, all opening by closely packed prismatic orifices ; surface punctate, 
faintly sulcate longitudinally and (especially in older parts and on the back) 
transversely corrugated. 

Reference. — P. H. MaQGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., Dec. 1883. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

Distinguished from F. o'amosa by the much smaller number of 
zooecia in the narrower Ijranches. Some of my specimens form 
dense, shrub-like tufts an inch in diameter. 

Explanation op FioubSs. 
Plaib 157.— Fig. 8, specimen, natural size. Fig. 8a, portion of the saroe, magnified. 

[214] 



Zoologi/.'\ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polt/zoa. 



Plate 157, Fig. 4. 
FASCICULIPORA RAMOSA (D'Orbigny). 

Description. — Of this I have only seen the portion figured, which is perhaps 
not sufficient for certain identification. It consists of a short, thick, obscurely 
bilobed, densely packed bundle of zooecia, all opening- on the summit. The zocecia 
■ are not separated on the surface, which is closely transversely rugose and thickly 
punctate. The zocecia open on the surface by prismatic orifices, none of which are 
produced. 

Reference. — Busk, Cat. Pol. Brit. Mas., pt. iii., p. 37, pi. xxxiii., fig. 2. 
Portland ; Mr. Maplestone. 

Explanation of Figurbs. 
Plate 157. — Fig. 4, specimen, natural size. Fig. 4a, the same, magnified. 



Mr. MacGillivray has contributed the specimens and descriptions 
of the Fasciculijoorce on this plate. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[215] 



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ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 
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Plate 158, Fig. 1. 
FAECIMINARIA ACULEATA (Busk). 

[Genus FARCIMINARIA (BnsK). (Sub-kingdom Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family Farciminariidae.) 

Gen. CAar.— Zooeoia oblong, elongated, closely contiguous, depressed in front, with raised 
margins ; mouth close to the summit. Avicularia, when present, sessile or sub-immersed at the 
bottom or on the front of the zooecia. Ooecia prominent, superior.] 

Description. — Zooecia very much elongated, narrow, separated by distinct, 
raised margins ; a close series of single or furcate aculeate spines, directed upwards 
and inwards, along the margin. Ooecia large, galeate, with several large, aculeate 
spines. No avicularia. 

Reference. — Busk, Cat. Mar. Pol. Brit. Mus., pt. i., p. 33, pi. Ixiv., figs. 4, 5j 
pi. ixv. (bis), fig. 6. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

Distinguished from the other species by the long, narrow, 
zooecia, the marginal aculeate spines, and the aculeate spines on 
the ooecium. 

Explanation of Figfees. 
Plaib 158. — Fig, 1, specimen, natural size. Fig. la, portion of same, magnified. 



Plate 158, Figs. 2-4. 
FARCIMINARIA UNCINATA (Hincks). 

Description. — Zooecia elongated, wide and rounded above, contracting 
inferiorly, separated by slightly raised margins; frequently a small, incurved, 
uncinate spine towards the base ; an uncinate process from the front of the 
zooecium on each side, below or opposite the mouth. Ooecia large, unarmed. 

Reference. — Hincks, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Oct. 1884. 

[ 217 ] 



Zoologi,.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

In this species the zocecia are much wider above, contracting 
below. There is frequently, but not always, an incurved spine 
on each side towards the lower part. The front of the zooecium 
is obscurely divided into three parts : the central, the same width 
as the mouth, is faintly lined transversely at its upper part ; the 
two lateral, immediately below or opposite the mouth, give origin 
to a process terminating in a chitinous spine. 

I "have examined only a few dried specimens, and from these 
it is impossible to say whether there is any real division of the 
body-cavity. Mr. Hincks describes and figures the oral uncinate 
spines as arising from sack-like structures, but the appearance is 
probably owing to his having examined old, dried and shrivelled 
specimens. The minute disks on the fi'ont of the zooecia mentioned 
by him also only occur in old specimens, and are similar to the 
markings seen under similar circumstances in many other polyzoa. 

Explanation of Figtiees. 

Plate 158. — Fig. 2, specimen natural size. Fig. 2a, portion of same, magnified. Fig. 3, 
portion of branch of another specimen. Fig. 4, two zooecia, the upper surmounted by an 
ooBcium. 



Plate 158, Fia. 5. 
FARCIMINARIA SIMPLEX (McG.). 

Description. — Zooecia much elongated, narrow, but wider above, separated by 
raised, slightly crenulated, or smooth margins ; no spines nor avicularia. Ooecia very 
large. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. See. Vict., Nov. 1885. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

This species differs from the others in the absence of avicularia 
and of spines or processes of any sort on the separating margins 
of the zooecia. The ooecium is of great size. It is smooth, 

[ 218 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [_Polyzoa. 

globular, but when dried becomes wrinkled and has a depression 
round the upper edge and sides, omng to the shrivelling of the 
delicate outer envelope, M'hich seems to be separated by some 
distance from the inner part. 

In the Challenger Poljzoa, Mr. Busk describes eight species 
of Farciminaria, and sajs that "the genus may be regarded 
emphatically as abyssal ; the mean depth at which the species 
hei-e enumerated occurred being not less than 1,500 to 1,600 
fathoms, or fi*om 450 to 2,750 fathoms." F. Brasiliensis was, 
however, found at from 32 to 400 fathoms. The three species 
here recorded were dredged from a depth of 10 to 15 fathoms, so 
that the genus cannot by any means be considered as abyssal, a 
fact which Mr. Busk would no doubt have ascertained if the 
dredgiugs of the Challengei^ had not been almost exclusively 
confined to deeper waters. 

Explanation of Figubes, 

Plate 158. — Fig. 5, branch of specimen, natural size. Fig. 5a, portion of same, magnified, 
showing a shrunken ooecium. Fig. 5a, another portion, in outline. 



Plate 158, Figs. 6-8. 
BRACEBRIDGIA PYRIFORMIS (Busk, sp.). 

[Genus BRACEBRIDGIA (McG.). (Sub-kingdom MoUusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibiilata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family Escharidse.) 

Gen. CAar.— Zoarium encrusting, or erect and bilaminate. Zooecia distinct, entire ; mouth 
sub-circular, with an internal denticle ; peristome raised, thick, vicarious avicularia on the free 
margins of the branches, the triangular mandibles with a projecting articular process at each 
lower angle.] 

Description. — Zoarium usually consisting- of flat bilaminate branches with 
lateral lobes, the branches more or less twisted on themselves. Zooecia .pyriform, 
separated by deep grooves ; mouth sub-circular, with a broad denticle internally, and 
occasionally a small apiculate process on the lower lip ; an elevated ridge round the 
mouth, the two sides meeting- below the lower lip and continuing- down the zooecium 
as a central elevation ; surface smooth or minutely granular. On the free edge ot 
the lobate branches is a single row of aviculiferous cells. 

Reference. — Mucronella pyriformis, Busk, Challenger Polyzoa, pt. i., p. 155, 
pi. XX., fig. 5; Bracehridgia pyriformis, MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict, Nov. 
looo. 

Vol. II.— Decade XVI.— 2*. [ 219 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPoli/zoa. 

This seemingly common species, whicli I have dedicated 
generically to my friend Mr. J. Bracehridge Wilson, was first 
described by Mr. Busk and doubtfully referred to Mucronella. It 
attains a height of one or two inches. In the younger parts of the 
zoarium the zooecia are veiy distinct, but, as age advances, the 
divisions between them become much fainter, the zooecia them- 
selves are squarer, and the mouth appears as a circular opening 
surrounded by a tumid border. Many of the zooecia are then also 
closed. On the free edges of the lobate branches, in most speci- 
mens, there is a single row of avicularian cells, the triangular 
mandibles of the avicularia having projecting articular processes 
at the lower angles One very young specimen (Fig. 7) rises as a 
small bifid lobe from an encrusting base. Towards the edge of 
the encrusting part many of the zooecia are closed or not properly 
formed, while, both external and internal to these, are some in 
which the mouths have clear, narrowly elevated margins, with an 
apiculate mucro below and, in a few, a broadly elliptical avicularium 
across the front of the lower lip. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 158. — Fig. 6, specimen, natural size. Fig. 6a, portion towards the periphery, 
showing normal zooecia. Fig. 66, two aTicularian cells from the margin of a lobe. Fig. 6c, 
older zooecia towards the base of the specimen, two completely closed. Fig. 7, young specimen, 
growing from an encrusting base, natural size. Fig. 7a, two zooecia from encrusting part, 
showing apiculate process and oral avicularium. Fig. 8, opercula and mandible of avicularium 
from edge of a lobe. 



Mr. MacGillivray has kindly contributed the specimens and 
descriptions of the above species of the genera Farciminaria and 
Bracehi'idgia. 

Frederick McCot, 



[ 220 ] 



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PI. 153 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 
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Zoology.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [_Crustacea. 



Plate 159. 

PALINURUS HUGELI (Heller). 

Sydney Craw-eish, or Spiny Lobster. 

Genus PALINURUS (Fab.). (First section, with rostrum.) (Sub-kingdom Articulata. 
Class Crustacea. Order Decapoda. Section lilacrura. Tribe Astacidea. Family Palinuridae.) 

Gen. Char. — Carapace sub-cylindrical, broadly rounded on sides, with a small rostrum. 
Antennary segment very narrow above. Antenna; without basal scales, nearly in contact at 
base, covering the inner antennae ; basal joints long, sub-cylindrical ; flagella of inner antennae 
very short ; anterior legs monodactyle ; sternum trigonal. 

Description. — Carapace semi-fusiform, narrowed in front, convex above; upper 
surface and upper half of sides covered with large sub-cylindrical tubercles, directed 
forwards and upwards, and each terminated with a small sharp spine ; a wide, smooth, 
transverse sulcus a little in advance of the hind margin, behind which the one or 
two rows of spines are smaller; rostrum strong, conical, sharp-pointed, slightly 
compressed, smooth, extending forwards more than half its length in advance of 
front; upper edge straight, horizontal, or very slightly inclined upwards; a small 
compressed spine in front of orbit on each side of base of rostrum ; supra-ocular 
spines large, shorter than rostrum, smooth, compressed, sharp-pointed, diverging 
forwards, upwards and outwards ; infra-ocular spine on lower front edge of carapace 
from hepatic region, rather smaller than the rostrum ; the spinose tubercles cease at 
a line extending from the anterior lateral angle of the carapace to the posterior 
lateral angle, and below this level the sides of the carapace are smooth or with 
microscopic granules. Anterior legs slender, penultimate joint with one small spine, 
at one-third its length from base on inner side ; third joint compressed to inner 
ridge, which has one strong spine near anterior edge, and one smaller a little in 
front of posterior edge ; upper or dorsal ridge of all the legs ending in a short spine 
in front, and with a smaller one at outer fi-ont edge ; legs otherwise nearly smooth. 
Abdominal segments nearly uniformly arched and convex, nearly smooth, with very 
fine, irregular granules and puncta, the posterior edge of sixth segment fringed 
with small spinous tubercles directed backwards, lateral spinose ends of all-iut first 
segment with seven or eight serratures gradually diminishing in size on hinder edge ; 
telson oblong, rounded at end, with longitudinal rows of spinose tubercles, lateral 
lobes of tail with rows of very much smaller spines on outer basal half Color: 
Upper surface of carapace and abdomen dark olive-brown ; smooth sides of thorax 
and lateral spines of abdomen rich reddish-chestnut, with few small, scattered, cream- 
colored spots ; a very conspicuous, cream-colored, narrow line extends from the 
anterior to the posterior lateral angle of carapace, a little below the level at which 
the spinous tuberculation of back ceases, and a similar one, at right angles to its 
anterior third, joins similarly colored lower edge; spines, terminating tubercles of 
back, and antennae, black, with cream-color bases ; antennae and legs reddish-chestnut- 
brown, legs sparingly flecked with cream-color ; five lobes of tail rich dull-brownish- 
orange in middle, with blackish borders. Measurements: Total length from tip of 

[ 221 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Crustacea. 

snout to end of tail-flap, 1 ft. Proportional measurements to total length as 100: 
Length of thorax from tip of rostrum, -^■^^■, length of abdomen to penultinaate joint 
of abdomen, ^^^ ; greatest width of thorax behind middle, y%\ ; width of anterior 
third, -i%V ; depth of thorax, -^^-^ ; greatest width of abdomen, y%% ; length of telson, 
To^j greatest width of telson at anterior end, ■^^■, greatest width of telson near 
posterior end, -^^^ ; length of first three joints of outer antennae, -1%"^ ; width of 
ditto, xDiy; length of flagella of outer antennae, yV^ 5 length of rostrum, y-gj- ; length 
of supra-orbital spines, y-^^; length of first joint of inner antennae, y W ; second 
joint, yf ^ ; third joint, yj^ ; flagella, y^^^^^j ; length of first pair of legs, ^^j^ ; second 
pair, iVjr ; third pair, yVij ; fourth pair, y-*|j\ ; fifth pair, -^^ ; greatest width of first 
leg- (behind middle of penultimate joint), y^^y. 

Reference. — Heller, Sitzungsbericht der Wiener Akad. der Wissenschaften, 
V. 45, p. 393, and Reise der Novara Crust., p. 96, t. viii. ; ? = P. tumidus (Kirk), 
Tr. N.Z. S., V. xii., p. 314. 

This species, which is the Common Sydney Craw-fish, is easily 
distinguished fi-om the southern one, the P. Lalandi* which is the 
Common Melbourne Craw-fish, by its nearly smooth abdomen, 
larger rostrum, smaller anterior legs, and different colors. It has 
not been figured of the colors of life before. It is so rare south of 
N. S. Wales that I have only seen one (now in the Museum and 
figui'ed on our plate), and heard of another, caught on the Victorian 
coast, near Port Phillip Heads ; and I have a single specimen from 
Tasmania, where, as in Victoria, the P. Lalandi abounds, whUe 
this is extremely rare. I have little doubt the gigantic specimen 
described by Mr. Kirk, from the west coast of the North Island of 
New Zealand, under the name P. tumidus.^ is only a very old and 
full-grown example of the same species, the size being double that 



•Note. — Since the publication of the figures and description of P. Lalandi in our Decade XV., I have received 
several speciuieus from the Cape of Good Hope through the kindness of Mr. Trinien, of the South African Museum, 
Cape Town, fully bearing out the remarks I have made as to the identity of our Melbourne Craw-flsh and the S. African 
one. Some of tlie specimens are very old and large, equalling our largest e.KampIes, and in these there is great 
Irregularity in the tumidity of the branchial regions and consequent width of middle of carapace: the most extreme 
case of this was owing to a diseased condition due to the growth of multitudes of Mussel shells {MijlUus) on the gills. 
The healtliy ones had the same proportion as I have figured for our common Melbourne species, which also varies In 
this respect. I should have dj'awn attention to the fact that, although in most specimens the color of the abdomen ia 
almost uniform, yet in many examples there are whitish, irregular, dendritic, oblique markings on the lateral portions 
of each segment, and five, diverging, longitudinal ones on tail-flaps. These are rather more distinct on the Cape 
specimens ; but perfectly idendicai markings are to be found on many of the Melbourne ones, as well as occasional 
whitish rings on the antenute, irregularly varying in position and width. 

Since the foregoing portion of this note was in type, I have received a copy from my friend, Professor Parker, of 
his paper from the Transactions of the N.Z. Institute, Vol. XIX., on the identity of the specimens referred to P. Lalandi 
from New Zeabuul by Hutton, and by Miers, with those referred by the saniQ authors to Hutton's second species 
(/•. Eilieardsi) from the same locality, and it is satisfactory to find that we have Independently made nearly similar 
observations. Professor Parker, having also got specimens from the Cape of Good Hope of the true P. Lalandi, thinks 
he llnds a cliaracter to distinguish them from our Southern Australasian species, to which he provisionally continues 
the name /*. Ediriirdsi. This is a couple of rows of tubercles on the anterior portion of the first abdominal segment, in 
front of the transverse furrow. I have never seen this extraordinary character in our Victorian specimens; but, on the 
otlii-r band, one of our Cape specimens is almosl without litem, and Protessor Parker notes one or two tubercles in this position 
in one of his New Zealand specimens. So, clearly, this character cannot separate the species. The second difference 
relied on by Professor Parker is the third abdominal segment having only one row of tubercles behind the transverse 
groove. In the New Zealand specimens, but two or three rows in his Cape ones. One of my Cape specimens fias only 
one row, as In our ordinary Uobson's Bay examples, and I find our species occasionally exhibiting as many rows of 
tubercles in f^out of the groove as the Cape ones, 

[ 222 ] 



Zoologt/.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. ICrustacea. 

of our examples, accounting for the greater development of the 
spines on the inner edge of the second, third, and fifth joints of the 
first pair of legs in his figure. 



Explanation of Figures 

lorsal 

front leg, half natural size. 

Frederick McCoy 



Plate 159. — Fig. 1, dorsal view of Immature specimen, half the natural size. Fig. la, 
half of third abdominal segment, natural size. Fig. 16, straight rostrum, natural size. Fig. Ic, 
t leer, half natural size. 



[ 223 ] 



R160. 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

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Zoologt/.'i NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. {_Crustacea. 



Plate 160. 

ASTACOPSIS SERRATUS (Shaw sp.), 
VAR. YARRAENSIS (McCoy). 

The Yarra Spiny Cray-fish. 

[Genus ASTACOPSIS (Hnx.). (Sub-kingdom Articulata. Class Crustacea. Order 
Decapoda. Section Macrura. Tribe Astacidea. Family Astacidae. Sub-family Farastacinse.) 

Gen. Char. — Epistome long, flat. Antennoe with base fixed by edge of carapace ; scale 
small ; thoracic sterna narrow from the approximation of the large basal joints of the legs ; 
twenty-OQe gills and one rudiment. Podobranchi« six, destitute of upper posterior lamellae 
and without dilatation of stem, and on first jaw-foot an epipodite with rudimentary branchial fila- 
ments ; no podobranchioe on last pair of thoracic legs ; six anterior arthrobranchise on arthrodial 
membrane of second jaw-foot to penultimate leg ; five posterinr arthrobranchiaj on arthrodial 
membrane from third jaw-foot to penultimate pair of legs ; four pleurobranchise on epimera of 
four last thoracic joints. Australia.] 

Six months after I published in the Second Decade the illustra- 
tion of the Murray Cray-fish (A. serrahis), and about a month 
after I published in the Third Decade the account of the Yabber 
Cray-fish (A. bicarinatus), there was published the number of the 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London containing 
Professor Huxley's remai'kable paper on the classification and 
distribution of the Cray-fish, and I gladly recognise the internal 
anatomical peculiarity of the Australian Cray-fishes which he has 
pointed out, characterising his family ParastacidcB, peculiar to the 
Southern Hemisphere, and differing from those of the other half of 
the world in the podobranchiaj having no lamina, and in the first 
joint of the abdomen being destitute of appendages in both sexes. 
In these the anterior edge of the carapace overlaps and fixes the 
basal joint of the antennge, and the posterior thoracic sterna are 
very narrow ; the coxopodites of the posterior thoracic legs are 
large and approximate in the midline, and the rostrum and anten- 
nary scale short, and the telson, or last joint of the abdomen, is 
never divided by a transverse joint ; the podobranchise of the first 
jaw-foot or maxillipede is like an epipodite, but has some branchial 
filaments not present in the Potamobiidce. The branchial filaments 
of the podobranchia and the coxopoditic set£e have hooked tips 
generally, not found in the northern family. 

{: 225 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. lOrustacea. 

The two Cray-fisli, A. serratus and A. hicarinatus^ which I have 
figured in this work, differ from the Madagascar genus, Astacoides, 
to which I, with all the best continental writers, had referred them, 
in the larger number of the gills (Astacopsis having twenty- 
one and a rudiment, Astacoides only twelve fully developed). 
Placing A. serratus in the genus Astacopsis, which Professor 
Huxley has proposed, and which is entirely peculiar to Austraha, 
the A. hicarinatus may be referred to a" section of Astacopsis 
forming the sub-genus Chceraps of Erickson (if he be assumed to 
be wrong in saying the fifth legs have no gills), as, in our speci- 
mens, the gills in number, structure, and position are, as Huxley 
pointed out, like Astacopsis., but the podobranchias diflfering in 
having the inner anterior edge of the stem widened into an ala, 
covered with branchial filaments. 

The old family, AstacidcB., is divided from Professor Huxley's 
observation into two groups, one inhabiting the Northern Hemi- 
sphere, for which the name Potamobiidce has been suggested, 
including the genera Astacus and Camhai-us, in which the gUls 
from the first joint, or coxfe, of the five thoracic legs on each side 
have the upper part of the stem dilated posterioi-ly into a broad 
double, plaited lamina, and that of the adjacent jaw-foot is reduced 
to an epipodite without branchial filaments, none of the branchial 
filaments or setfe ending in hooks ; the first abdominal segment 
always with appendages in the male, or in both sexes ; those of the 
four following joints small ; the telson, or middle piece of the tail- 
fin, divided transversely by a more or less perfect joint. 

The second group, named Parastacidce, confined to the Southern 
Hemisphere, containing the genera Astacoides, Astacopsis, ChcBvaps, 
EngiBus, and Parastacus, is distinguished by the absence of the 
upper posterior laminae to the podobranchiae : having branchial 
filaments on the epipodite of the hind jaw-foot. The filaments of 
the podobranchiaj mostly end in hooked spines, as well as the 
setsB at their base and stems ; the telson is not divided by a trans- 
verse sutm-e ; the first abdominal segment has no appendages in 
either sex, and those of the four following segments are large. 

[ 226 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Crustacea. 

Our plate 160 illustrates a remarkable variety of the typical 
A. serratus of tlie MiuTay, common iu the Yarra and its numerous 
affluents flowing southwards into the sea of the south coast of the 
colony ; and as very few of the inhabitants of these river systems 
are identical (most of the species and many of the genera being 
dissimilar), this form is worthy of special note. It is usually less 
than half the size of the Murray individuals, being usually only 
five inches and rarely six inches long ; it further differs in the 
whole thorax and abdomen above being of an intense Prussian- 
blue color, the spines, chelfe, and under surface ivory-white, with 
the membrane of the joints red. All the proportions and the 
nimiber and disposition of the spines seem to me to agree so 
closely with the large pale Murray form, that, although so unlike 
at first glance, I have no doubt the southern race is merely a 
variety, which, for convenience of reference, may be distinguished 
by the name of the river in which it is chiefly found, fi'om its 
mouth at Melbourne to its highest branches. The colors of those 
from the Watts River are particularly intense. 

Explanation of Fioitees. 

Plate 160. — Fig. 1, male specimen, yiewed from above, natural size. Fig la, same, riewed 
from below, showing the male openings in the base of the bind pair of legs, and the absence of 
appendages to the first abdominal segment. Fig. 16, side view of same. Fig. le, top of head, 
magnified two diameters, to show details of rostrum. Fig. \d, side view of portion of head, 
magnified two diameters, to show proportional dimensions of rostrum, antennary scale, and 
basal joints of antennae. Fig. Ic, one of the abdominal appendages, magnified three diameters. 

Note.— The color of the under surface, and chelse and spines of upper surface, are rather too dark, and should be oJ 
an Ivory-white with a slighter Drown tinge. ^ 



Frederick McCoy. 



YOL. 11.— DzciDl XVI.— 2! [ 227 ] 



CONTEOTS OF DECADES. 



N.B. — The originals of all the Figures are in the National Museum, Melbourne. 



DECADE I. 



Plate 1. — The Black Snake (Pseudechys porphyriacus, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 2. — The Copper-head Snake (Hoplocephalus superhus, Giinth.). 

Plate 3. — The Tiger Snake (Hoplocephalus curtus, Schl. sp.). 

Plate 4. — The Australian Bream (Chrysophrys Australis, Giinth.). 

Plate 5. — The Spiny-sided Butterfly-Gurnard (Lepidotrigla Vanessa, Rich. sp.). 

Plate 6. — The Kuniu Gurnard (Trigla Kumu, Lesson and Garn.). 

Plate 7. — The Australian Giant Earth-worm (Megascolides Australis, McCoy). 

Plate 8. — Lewin's Day-moth (Agarista Lewini, Boisd-.). 

The Loranthus Day-moth (Agarista Casuarinae, Scott). 

The Vine Day-moth (Agarista Glycine, Lewin sp.). 
Plate 9. — Pieris (Thyca) Harpalyce (Don. sp.). 
Plate 10. — Pieris (Thyca) Aganippe (Don. sp.). 



DECADE II. 

Plate 11. — The Little Whip Snake (Hoplocephalus flagellum, McCoy). The White-lipped Snake 

(Hoplocephalus corouoides, Giinth.). 
Plate 12. — The Death Adder (Acanthophis Antarctica, Shaw sp.). 
Plate 13. — The Carpet Sn.ake (Morelia variegata. Gray). 
Plate 14. — The Gippsland Perch (L.ates colonorum, Giinth.). 
Plate 15. — The Murray Lobster (Astacopsis serratus, Shaw sp.). 
Plate 16. — The Salmon Arripis (Arripis truttaceus, Cuv. sp.). Adult. 
Plate 1 7. — Ditto of the younger forms and coloring. 
Plate 18. — The Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 19. — The Small-scaled Rock Cod (Lotclla call.arias, Giinth.). 
Plate 20. — The Australian Rock Cod (Pseudophysis barbatus, Giinth.). 



DECADE III. 

Plate 21. — The Sea-Leopard Seal (Stenorhynchus leptonys, de Blainv. sp.). 

Plate 22. — The Yellow-sided Dolphin (Delphinus Novaj Zealandife, Quoy and Gaim.). 

Plate 23. — The Common Brown Snake (Diemenia superciliosa, Fisch.). 

The Small-scaled Brown Snake (Diemenia microlepidota, McCoy). 
The Shield-fronted Brown Snake (Diemenia aspidorhyncha, McCoy). 

Plate 24. — Catenicella margiiritacea (Busk). — C. plagiostoma (Busk). — C. ventricosa (Busk). — 
C. hastata(Busk.)— C. rufa (McG.). — C. cribraria (Busk).— C. .alata (Wyv. Thomson). — 
C. lorica (Busk). — C. formosa (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk). — C. perforata (Busk). — 
C. Buskii (Wyv. Thomson). — C. Hannafordi (McG.). — C. crystallina (Wyy. Thomson). — 
C. carin.ata (Busk). — C. aurita (Busk). — C. geminata (Wyr. Thomson). — C. cornuta 
(Busk).— C. intermedia (McG.) 

Plate 25. — Membranipora menibrauacea (Linn. sp.). — M. perforata (McG.). — M. ciliata (McG.). — 
M. mamillaris (McG.). — M. umbonata (Busk). — M. pilosa (Linn. sp.). — M. cervicornis 
(Busk). 

Plate 26. — Membr.inipora dispar (McG.). — M. Woodsii (McG.).— M. lineata (Linn, sp.).— M. Rosselii 
(Audouin sp.). — M. Lacroixii (Savigny sp.). 

Plate 27. — The Australian Rockling (Genypterus Austr.alis, Cast.). 
The Yarra Blackfish (Gadopsis gracilis, McCoy). 

Plate 28. — The Southern Mackerel (Scomber pneumatophorus, De la Roche). 

Plate 29. — The Yabber Crayfish (Astacopsis bicarinatus, Gray sp.). 

Plate 30.— The Large Wattle Goat-Moth (Zeuzera Eucalypti, Boisd. Herr.-Schaet.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE IV. 

Plate 31. — The Australian Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal (Euotaria cinerea, Peron sp.). 

Plate 32. — The Two-hooded Furiua-Snake, Furina bicucullata (McCoy). 

Plate 33. — The Banded Eed Gurnet-Perch (Sebastes percoides, Solander sp.). 

Plate 34. — The Angel-fish (Rhina squatina, Lin. sp.). 

Plate 35. — Lepralia circinata (McG.). — L. Cecilii (And.). — L. diaphana (McG.). — L. marsupium 

(McG.). — L. subimmersa (McG.). — L. anceps (McG.). — L. Maplestonei (McG.). 
Plate 36. — Lepralia vittata (McG.). — Membranipora perforata. Lepralia Brogniartii (And.). — 

L. elegans (McG.). — L. pertusa (Esper. sp.). — L. Malusii (And. sp.). — L. lunata (McG.). 
Plate 37. — Lepralia ciliata (Linn. sp.). — L. trifolium (McG.). — L. cheilodon (McG.).— L. canaliculata 

(McG.).— L. larvalis (McG,).— L. diadema (McG.).— L. papillifera (McG.).— L. EUerii 

(McG.). 
Plate 38. — Lepralia monoceros (Busk). — L. excavata (McG.). — L. vitrea (McG.). — L. megasoma 

(McG.).— L. Schizostoma (McG.).— L. Botryoides (McG.).— L. ferox (McG.).— L. pellu- 

cida (McG.). 
Plate 39. — Crisia Edwardsiana (D'Orb. sp.). — C. biciliata (McG.).-^C. acropora (Busk). — C. setosa 

(McG.).— C. tenuis (McG.). 
Plate 40. — Saunders' Case-Moth (Metura elongata, Saunders sp.). 
The Lictor Case-Moth (Entometa ignobilis, Walk.). 



DECADE V. 

Plate 41. — The Lace Lizard (Hydrosaurus varius, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 42. — The Spotted Marsh-Frog (Limnodynastes Tasmaniensis, GUnth.). — The Common Sand- 
Frog (Limnodynastes dorsalis, Gray). 
Plate 43. — The Carpet Shark (Crossorhinus barbatus, Lin. sp.). — The Seven-gilled Shark (Notidanus 

[Heptanchus] Indicus, Cuv.). 
Plate 44. — The Barracouta (Thersites atun, Cut.). — The Tunny (Thynnus Thynnus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 45. — Flustra denticulata (Busk). — Carbasea episcopalis (Busk). — C. dissimilis (Busk). — 

C. indivisa (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk).— C. pisciformis (Busk). 
Plate 46. — Spiralaria florea (Busk). — Diachoris Magellanica (Busk). — D. spinigera (P. McGil.). — 

Dimetopia spicata (Busk). — D. cornuta (Busk). — Didymia simplex (Busk). — Calwellia 

bicornis (Wyr. Thomson). 
Plate 47. — Dictyopora cellulosa (P. MoGil.). 
Plate 48. — Eschara obliqua (P. McGil.). — E. dispar (P. McGil ).— E. gracilis (Lamx.). — E. platalea 

(Busk). — E. quadrata (P. McGil.) — E. mucronata (P. McGil.). — Caleschara denticulata 

(P. McGil.). 
Plate 49. — Cellaria flstulosa (Linn.). — C. hirsuta (P. McGil.). — C. tenuirostris (Busk.). — C. gracilis 

(Busk). — Nellia oculata (Busk). — Tubucellaria hirsuta (Busk). 
Plate 50. — The Great Black, or Manna Cicada (Cicada moerens, Germ.). — The Great Green Cicada 

(Cyclochila Australasiae, DonoT. sp.). 



DECADE VI. 

Plate 51. — The Victorian Rhodona (Rhodona Officeri, McCoy). 

Plate 52. — The Black and White Ringed Snake (Vermicella annulata, Gray). 

Plate 53.— The Green and Golden Bell-Frog (l{.auoidea aurea, Less. sp.). 

Plates 54-55. — The Australian Aulopus (Aulopus purpurisatus, Rich.). 

Plate 56. — The Hammer-beaded Shark (Zyga;na malleus, Shaw). — The Common Australian Saw- 
Fish (Pristiophorus nudipinnis, GUnth.). 

Plate 57. — Biflustra perfragilis (McGil.). — B. dc4icatula (Busk). 

Plate 58. — Cellularia cuspidata (Busk).— Menipea crystallina (Gray sp.).— M. cyathus (Wyv. Thom- 
son).— M. cervicornis (McGil.) — M. tricellata (Busk). — M. Buskii (Wyv. Thomson). 

Plate 59 — Bicellaria tuba (Busk). — B. grandis (Busk). — B. ciliata (Linn). — B. turbinata (McGil.). — 
Stirparia .annulata (Map.).— Bugula neritiua (Linn.). 

Flatb 60, — Steganoporella magnilabris (Busk. sp.). — Petraha undata (McGil.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE VII. 

Plate 61. — The Tuberculated Argonaut (Argonauta oryzata, Meusch.). 

Plate 62. — The same seated in its so-called shell or Paper-Nautilus. 

Plate 63. — The Blue-spotted Eagle-Ray (Myliobatis Australis, Macleay). 

Plate 64.— The Long-toothed Bull-Shark (Odontaspis taurus, Kaf.).— The Australian Tope Shark 

(Galeus Australis, Macleay). 
Plate 65.— The Leafy Sea-Dragon (Phyllopteryx foliatus, Shaw sp.). — The Short-headed Sea-horse 

(Hippocampus breviceps, Pet.) 
Plate 66.— Dictyopora grisea (Lamx. sp.). — D. albida (Kirch.)— (Var. aTlcularis, P. McGill.) 
Plate 67.— 1). Wilsoni (P. McGill.). 

Plate 68. — Idmonea Milneana (d'Orb.). — I. contorta (P. McGill.).— I. radians (Lamk.). 
Plates 69-70.— The Violet-shouldered Phasma (Tropidoderus iodomus, McCoy).— The Red-shouldered 

Phasma (Tropidoderus rhodomus, McCoy). 



DECADE VIII. 

Plate 71. — The Australian Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal (Euotaria cinerea, Peron sp.). 

Plate 72. — The Northern Blue-tongued Lizard (Cyclodus gigas, Bodd. sp.). 

Plate 73. — The Ludrick (Girella simplex, Rich. sp.). 

Plate 74. — The White Shark (Carcharodon Rondeletii, Miill. and Hen.). 

Plate 75. — The Picked Dog-Pish (Acanthias vulgaris, Linn. sp.). 

Plates 76-77.— The Austrahan Tooth-cupped Cuttlefish (Sepioteuthis Australis, Quoy and Gaim.). 

Plate 78.— Bugula robusta (P. McGil.).— B. cucullata (Busk).— B. dentata (Lamx.).— B. avicularia 

(PaU.). 
Plate 79. — The Violet-winged Phasma (Acrophylla violascens. Leach sp.). 
Plate 80. — The Large Pink winged Phasma (Podacanthus typhon, Gray). 



DECADE IX. 

Plate 81. — The Gippsland Water Lizard (Physignathus Lesueri, Gray)— (Var. Howitti, McCoy). 

Plates 82-83. — The Murray Tortoise (Chelymys Macquaria, Cut. sp.). 

Plate 84. — The Murray Golden Perch (Ctenolates ambiguus, Rich. sp.). 

Plates 85-86. — The Murray Cod-Perch (Oligorus Macquariensis, Cut. and Val. sp.). 

Plate 87. — The Australian Smooth-Hound (Mustelus Antarcticus, Giinth.). 

Plate 88. — The Thresher, or Long-tailed Shark (Alopecias Tulpes^ Linn. sp.). 

Plate 89.— Catenicella intermedia (P. McG.).— C. amphora (Busk).— C. Wilsoni (P. McG.).— C pul- 

chella (Map.).— C. utriculus (P. McG.). 
Plate 90.— Catenicella fusca (P. McG.).— C. \imbonata (Busk).— C. cornuta (Busk). 



DECADE X. 

Plate 91. — Gymnobelideus Leadbeateri (McCoy). 

Plates 92-93.— The Long-necked RiTer Tortoise (Chelodina longicollis, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 94. — Opercula of Hetepora. 

Plate 95.— Retepora porcellana (P. McGil.). — E. aTicuIaris (P. McGil.). — R. fissa (P. McGil.) 

Plate 96. — Retepora monilifera (P. McGil.) 



J. ±Ja.i.tu tf\j. Alt tC^JWiap UlUlllllJ.^Ldf y_A , J.IA»JVJll. J. 

Plate 97.— Retepora monilifera (P. McGil.).— R. fonnosa (P. McGil.).— R. carinata (P. McGil.). 
Plate 98.— Retepora Phoenicea (Busk).— R. aurantiaca (P. McGil.). 

■D, .™n„ T3.. ulata (P. McGil.).— R. tessellata (Hincks).— R. ser 

tubaria (Lam.). 

The/oregoing ten Decades form Vol. I. 



Plate 99.— Retepora granulata (P. McGil.). — R. tessellata (Hincks).— R. serrata (P. McGil.). 
Plate 100. — Goniocidaris tubaria (Lam.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE XI. 

Plate 101. — The Luth, or Leathery Turtle (Sphargis coriacea, Linn. sp.). 

Plate 102. — The Rugged Stump-tail, or Shingle-bacli, Lizard (Trachydosaurus rugosus, Gray). 

Plate 103. — The Blaclcish Australian Worm-Snake (Typhlops nigrescens, Gray sp.). 

Plate 104.^The Basking Shark (Cetorhinus maximus, Linu. sp.). 

Plate 105. — Cellaria rigida (JIcG.). — Tubucellaria cereoides (Ellis and Solander). — Urceolipora 

dentata (McG.)— U. nana (McG.). 
Plate 106. — Amphiblestrum punctigerum (Hincks). — A. Flemingii (Busk). — A. permunitum 

(Hincks). — Pyripora crassa (McG.). — P. catenularia (Jameson). — P. polita (Hincks). — 

Electra flagellum (McG.). — Bathypora porcellana (McG.). — Biflustra papulifera 

(McG.).~B. bimamillata (McG.). 
Plate 107. — Cateuicellopsis pusilla (J. B. Wilson). — C. delicatula (J. B. Wilson). — Calpidium 

ponderosum (Goldstein sp.). 
Plate 108. — Calpidium oruatum (Busk). — Chlidonia dsedala (Wyv. Thomson). 
Plate 109. — The Great Green Gum-tree Grasshopper (Locusta vigentissima, Serv.). 
Plate 110. — The Australian Yellovv-winged Locust (CEdipoda musica, Fab. sp.). 



Plate 


111. 


Plate 


112, 


Plate 


113. 


Plate 


114. 


Plate 


115. 


Plate 


116 


Plate 


117. 


Plate 


118. 


Plate 


119, 


Plate 


120. 



DECADE XII. 

-The Blood-sucker (Grammatophora muricata, Shaw, sp.). 

-The Southern Chimajra (Callorhynchus antarcticus, Lacep. sp.). 

-The Port Jackson Shark, or Bull-dog Sh.ark (Heterodontus Phillipi, Lacep. sp.). 

-The Australian Kough Fish (Trachichthys Australis, Shaw). 

-The Skip-jack Pike (Lanioperca mordax, GUnth.). 

-Beania mirabilis (Johnst.). — Mucnmella tricuspis (Hincks). — M. Isris (P. McG.). — 

M. Tultur (Hincks). — Cyclicopora longipora (P. McG.). 
-Beania decumbens (P. McG.). — B. costata (Busk sp.). — B. Crotali (Busk sp.). — 

B. radicifera (Hincks .sp.). — Amphiblestrum patellarium (Moll sp.). 
-Hornera foliacea (P. McG.).— H. robusta (P. McG.). 
-The Smaller Green Gum-tree Grasshopper (Phaneroptera valida, Walk.). 
-The Thirty-two Spotted Grasshopper (Phaneroptera [Ephippitytha] trigintiduoguttata, 

Serv.). 



Plate 


121. 


Plate 


122. 


Plate 


123. 


Plate 


124. 


Plate 


125. 


Plate 


126. 


Plate 


127. 


Plate 


128, 


Plate 


129. 


Plate 


130. 



DECADE XIII. 

-The Bearded Lizard (Grammatophora barbata, Kaup). 

-The Southern Silver .Ribbon-fish (Trachypterus toeuia, Bloch). 

-The Two-pronged Toad-fish (Chironcctcs bifurcatus, McCoy). 

-Brown's Tooth-brush Leather- jacket (Monacanthus Browni, Rich, sp.). 

-The Horse-shoe-marked Leatlier-jacket (Monacanthus hippocrepis, Quoy and Gaim., sp.). 

-Maplestonia cirrata (P. McG.). — Scrupocellaria cyclostoma (Busk). — S. obtecta (Haswell). 
— S. cervicornis ^Busk). — S. scrupea (Busk). — S. ornithorhynchus (Wyv. Thorn.). 

-Membranipora pyrula (Hincks). — M. corbula (Hincks). — M. inarmata (Hincks). — M. 
pectinata (P. McG.). — M. serrata (P. McG.). — M. ciliata (P. McG.). — Amphiblestrum 
albispinum (P. McG ). — Membranipora spinosa (Quoy and Gaim.). 

-Cellepora speciosa (P. McG.). — C. serratirostris (P. McG.). — C. tridenticulata (Busk). 

-The Netted Acripeza (Acripeza reticulata, Guerin). 

-The Broad-Btyled Mantis (Mantis latistylus, Serv.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE XIV. 

Plate 131. — The Southern, or Blotched, Blue-tongued Lizard (Cyclodus nigroluteus, Quoy and 
Gaim. sp.). 

Plate 132. — The Thick-tailed Gecko (Phyllurus Miliusii, Bory). — The Marbled Gecko (Diplodactylus 
marmoratus, Gray). 

Plate 133. — Ray's Sea Bream (Brama Rayi, Bloch). 

Plate 134. — Bleeker's Parrot-fish (Labrichthys Bleekeri, Cast.). 

Plate 135. — The Black-firmed Half-beak, or Sea Gar-fish (Hemiramphua intermedius, Cant.). — The 
Saury Pike (Scomberesox saurus, Bloch, sp. ; var. Forsteri, Cur. and Val.). 

Plate 136. — Caberea rudis (Busk). — C. grandis (Hincks). — Canda arachnoides (Lamx.). — C. tenuis 
(P. McG.). 

Plate 137. — Caberea Darwinii (Busk). — C. glabra (P. McG.) — ^tea dilatata (Busk). — ^. anguina 
(Linn. sp.). 

Plate 138. — Schizoporella punctigera (P. McG.). — S. lata (P. McG.). — S. triangula (Hincks). — 
S. da;dala (P. McG.).— S. subsinuata (Hincks).— S. Ridleyi (P. McG.).— S. arach- 
noides (P. McG.). — S. cryptostoma (P. McG.). — Gemellipora striatula (Smitt). 

Plate 139. — The Dusky Flat-borned Locust (Opsomala sordida, Aud. Serv.). The Pedestrian Mid- 
Eyed Locust (Mesops pedestris, Erichson). 

Platb 140. — The Cinnamon Keel-backed Locust (Tropinotus Australis, Leach). 



DECADE XV. 

Plate 141. — The Spiny-ridged Lizard (Egernia Cunningham!, Gray). 

Plate 142. — The Brown Pseudechys (Pseudechys Australis, Gray). 

Plate 143. — Peron's Leatherjacket (Monacanthus Peronii, HoUard). 

Plate 144. — The Spinous Shark (Echinorhinus spinosus, Lin. sp.). 

Plate 145. — Banks' Oar-Fish (Regalecus Banksi, Cuv. sp.) 

Plate 146. — Catenicella gemella (McG.). — C. urnula (McG.). — C. gracilenta (McG.).— C. renusta 

(McG.). — Claviporella pulchra (McG.). — C. imperforata (McG.). 
Plate 147. — Diastopora cristata (McG.).— D. capitata (McG.). — D. bicolor (McG.). — D. sarniensia 

(Gorman). — D. patina (Lara. sp.). 
Plate 148. — Cellepora meg.asoma (McG.). — C. costata (McG.). — C. rota (McG.). — C. costazei, var. 

(Audouin). — C. platalea (McG.). — C. glomerata (McG.). — C. vitrea (McG.). — C. tiara 

(McG.).— C. benemunita (McG.). 
Plates 149, 160.— Southern Spiny Lobster, Melbourne Craw-fish (Palinurus Lalandi, Lam. MSS.). 



DECADE XVI. 

Plate 161. — Gould's Monitor Lizard (Monitor Gouldi, Gray). 

Plates 152, 163. — The Pygopus (Pygopus lepidopus, Lacep. sp.). — Frazer's Delma (Delma Frazeri, 

Gray). 
Plate 154. — Commerson's Mackerel (Cybium Commersoni, Lacep, sp.). 
Plate 155. — The Melbourne Pelamyde (Pelamys Schlegeli, McCoy). 
Plate 156. — Lagenipora tuberculata (McG.). — "L. nitens (McG.). — Lekythopora hystrix (McG.). — 

Poecilopora anomala (McG.) 
Plate 157. — Fasciculipora gracilis (McG.). — F. bellis (McG.). — F. fruticosa (McG.). — F. ramosa 

(D'Orbigny). 
Plate 158. — Farciminaria aculeata (Busk). — F. uncinata (Hincks). — F. simplex (McG.). — Brace- 

bridgia pyriformis (Busk sp.), 
Plate 159. — Sydney Craw-fish or Spiny Lobster (Pahnurus HUgeli, Heller). 
Plate 160. — The Yarra Spiny Cray-fish (Astacopsis serratus, Shaw sp.). var. Yarraensis (McCov.), 



^ 

Jl 



CONTENTS OF DECADE XYL 



N.B, — The originals o{ all the Figures are In the National Museum, Melbourne. 



Plate 151. — Gould's Monitor Lizard (Monitor Gouldi, Gray), 

Plates 1.'j2, 1.53. — The Pygopus (Pygopus lepidopus, Lacep, sp.). — Frazer's Delma (Delma Frazeri, 
Gray). 

Plate 154. — Commerson's Mackerel (Cybium Commersoni, Lacep, sp.). 

Plate 155. — The Melbourne Pelaymd (Pelamys Schlegeli, McCoy). 

,Plate 156.— Lagenipora tuberculata (McG.).— L. nitens (McG.).— Lekypothora hystrix (MoG.). 
Poecilopora anomala (McG.). 

Plate 157.— Fasciculipora gracilis (McG.).— F. bellis (McG.).— F. fruticosa (McG.).— F. ramosa 
(d'Orbigny). 

Plate 158. — Farciminaria aculeata (Busk). — F. uncinata (Hiucks). — F. simplex (McG.). — Brace- 
bridgia pyriformis (Busk sp.). 

Plate 159. — Sydney Craw-fish or Spiny Lobster (Palinurna Hiigeli, Heller). 

Plate 160. — The Yarra Spiny Cray -fish (Astacopsis aerratus, Shaw sp.) Tar. Yarraensis (McCoy). 



^1'/ ROGIC'< 




^atttral listorg sf Wittavm. 



PRODROMUS 



ZOOLOGY OF YICTORIA; 



FIGURES AND DESCEIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



DECADE ZVII. 



FREDERICK McCOY, C.M.(l.,M.A.,Sc.D. Cantab., F.R.S, 

HONOBART MEMBER OF THE CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPHICAI, SOCIETY; HONORART ACTIVE MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL 80CIETT 

OF NATI'RALISTS OF MOSCOW ; COBRESPOSIDING MEMBER OF THE ZOOLOGICAI, 80CIETT OF LONDON : 

BONORART MEMBER OF THE ROIAL 80CIETI OF NEW SODTH WALES; BONOiURT MEMBER OF THE NEW ZEALAND 

INSTITUTE ; HONORARY FELLOW OP THE GEOLOOICAL SOCIETI OF EDISBCROH ; HONORAKT MEMBER OP THE 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF JIANCHESTER, 

^^ ETC., ETC., ETC. 

ABTBOR OF "SYNOPSIS OP THE CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE FOSSILS OP IRELAND;" "SYNOPSIS OF THE SILURIAN FOSSILS OP 

IRELAND ; CONTRIBUTIONS TO BRITISH PALEONTOLOGY ; " ONE OF THE AUTHORS OP BEDOWICK AND MCCOY'S 

BEIIISB PALEOZOIC ROCKS AND FOSSILS ; " " PRODROMUS OP THE PA1«<)ST0L0GY OF VICTORU," ETC 

PROFESSOR OF NATURAL SCIESOE IN THE MELBOCIiXE CNIVERSITT. 
GOTEBNMENI PAI,«)NTOLOGIST, AND DIEECTOR 01' THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF MELBOURNE, ETC. 




MELBOURNE : 

BT AUTHORITT : EOBT. 8. BRAIN, OOYEBNMENT PRINTER. 

LONDON ; 
TBCBNEB AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATE HILL. 



M DOCC Lxzxvni. 



3^^ 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



It having been considered desirable to ascertain accurately the 
natural productions of the Colony of Victoria, and to publish works 
descriptive of them, on the plan of those issued by the Governments 
of the different States of America, investigations were undertaken, 
by order of the Victorian Government, to determine the Geology, 
Botany, and Zoology of the Colony, to form collections illustrative of 
each for the public use, and to make the necessary preparations for 
such systematic publications on the subject as might be useful and 
interesting to the general pubUc, and contribute to the advancement 
of science. 

As the geological and botanical investigations have already 
approached completion, and their publication is far advanced, it 
has been decided now to commence the publication of the third 
branch completing the subject, namely, that of the Zoology or 
indigenous members of the different classes of the animal kingdom. 

The Fauna not being so well known as the Flora, it was a necessary 
preliminary to the publication to have a large number of drawings 
made, as opportunity arose, from the living or fresh examples of 
many species of reptiles, fish, and the lower animals, which lose their 
natiiral appearance shortly after death, and the true characters of 
many of which were consequently as yet unknown, as they had 
only been described fi'om preserved specimens. A Prodromus, or 
preliminary issue, in the form of Decades, or numbers of ten plates, 
each with its complete descriptive letterpress, will be published, of 
such illustrations as are ready, without systematic order or waiting 
for the comj)letion of any one branch. The many good observers 
in the country will thus have the means of accm-ately identifying 
various natural objects, their observations on which, if recorded and 
sent to the National Museum, where the originals of all the figures 
and descriptions are preserved, will be duly acknowledged, and 
will materially help in the preparation of the final systematic volume 
to be published for each class when it approaches completion. 



^attird Mhtm% 4 ^utmin. 



PRODROMUS 



ZOOLOGY OF YICTORIA; 



FIGUEES AND DESCEIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



DECADE ZVII. 



FEEDERICK McCOY, C.M.G.,M.A.,Sc.D. Cantab., F.E.S., 

HONORAST MEMBER OF THE CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCtETT ; HONORARY ACTITE MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL SOCIETY 

OF NATURALISTS OF MOSCOW ; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON ; 

BOMORARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SODTH WALES; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE NEW ZEALAND 

institute; honorary fellow of THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE 

GEOLOGICAL 80CIETT OF MANCHESTER, 

ETC., ETC., ETC. 

AUTHOR OF "SYNOPSIS OF THE CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE FOSSILS OF IRELAND;" "SYNOPSIS OF THE SILURIAN FOSSILS OF 

IRELAND ; " " CONTRIBUTIONS TO BRITISH PAUEONTOLOGY ; " ONE OF THE AUTHORS OF SEDGWICK AND UCCOY'S 

" BHITISH PALEOZOIC ROCKS AND FOSSILS;" " PROD ROM US OF THE PALEONTOLOGY OF VICTORU," ETC. 

PROFESSOR OF NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY. 
GOVERNMENT PALAEONTOLOGIST, AND DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF MELBOURNE, ETC. 




ArELBOLTRNE : 

BT AUTHORITY : ROBT. S. BRAIN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 

LONDON ; 

TRUBNER AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATE HILL. 

MbCCCLXXXVIlI. 



PEEFACE. 



In the first and second plates of this Seventeenth Decade, detailed 
figui-es, of the colours of life, are given for the first time of 
species of three more genera, Lialis, Ajirasia, and Pseiulodehna, 
of the snake-like group of Lizards so singularly abundant in 
Australia. 

The third plate gives figures of the colours of life, also for the 
first time, of one of the magnificently coloured " Parrot Fishes " 
of our coasts, the Labrichthys laticlavius. 

The fourth plate figures for the first time of the living 
colours a most beautiful new species of that splendidly coloured 
group of fishes popularly called " Wrasses " in England, the 
Heteroscarus Macleayi (McCoy). 

The four following plates illustrate the details of further 
species of the genus Cellepora^ so important to the geologist 
investigating om- Tertiary rocks, as well as to the zoologist, from 
the specimens and descriptions presented by Mr. MacgUlivray. 

Plates 169 and 170 give detailed figures of a new species 
of Squid, or Cuttlefish (0. Goiddi, McCoy), of the interesting 
genus Ommastrephes^ having a cone at the end of its internal 
dorsal pen. 



PREFACE. 



The succeeding Decades will illusti-ate as many diflFerent genera 
as possible, and will deal first, usually, with species of some 
special interest and of which good figures do not exist, or are 
not easily accessible. 

Frederick McCoy. 
10th October, 1888. 



PllGl 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(Reptiles J 













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Zoology.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. ' [Reptiles. 



Plate 161. 

LIALIS BURTONI (Gray). 

Burton's Lialis. 



[Genus LIALIS (Gray). (Sub-kingdom Vertebrata. Class Reptilia. Order Sauria. 
Sub-order LeptoglossK. Tribe Geissosaura. Family Pygopidae.) 

Oen. Char. — Body snake-like, very long, cylindrical, tapering. Head pointed, parietal 
bones united into a single one ; teeth sharp, directed backwards, swollen at base ; top of head 
covered with small, scale-like plates ; external ear-opening obliquely oval ; tongue elongate, 
tapering, bifid 5 scale-like rudiments of hind limbs very small. Scales soft, smooth, imbricating ; 
two median abdominal rows and one median sub-caudal row larger than the others. Preanal 
pores few. Australia and Islands to N.E.] 

Description. — Body and tail sub-cylindrical, very gradually tapering'; tail, 
when perfect, exceeding the head and body in length. Head long, tapering, with 
straight sides, to a narrow, obtusely rounded tip; from tip of snout to anterior 
margin of eye equal to distance from anterior margin of eye to ear in some 
specimens, but only equals from posterior margin of eye to ear in others ; a narrow, 
projecting angular ridge from nostril over eye to a little beyond ear, separating the 
flattened top of the head from the slightly concave cheeks; two rows of scales on 
prominent margin of lower lip continued some variable distance along sides of body, 
forming a perceptible ridge ; approximate half of scales of each row usually coloured 
white with a dark outline, giving the erroneous appearance of two rows of scales 
smaller than the adjacent ones. Numerous small plates of top of head variable in 
size, shape and number ; rostral plate bent under, so that the mouth opens behind 
front edge of snout, about four times wider than high ; about 17 small upper labials. 
Nostril large, in posterior edge of a swollen nasal plate, with one or two post-nasal 
plates ; loreal plates of cheek, between nostril and eye, very small, numerous, scale- 
like; eye small, separated from labials by two or three rows of loreal scales, with a 
narrow, circular, immovable eyelid, with one or two rows of minute scales ; chin 
plate very large, sub-pentagonal ; a row of seven or eight large, paddle-shaped 
plates, each with an abruptly narrowed posterior extension, separated from the lower 
labials by a row of very small, longitudinally oblong scales. Nineteen or twenty- 
one rows of scales round middle of body. Hind limbs extremely small, apparently 
covered by two or three scales, scarcely difiering from the lateral ones of the body, 
which they follow. Preanal pores two on each side, large, notching posterior edge 
of the scales; about eighty pairs of enlarged median abdominal plates. Colour: 
Some specimens (as our figure 1) pale greyish-brown, lighter above, darker below, 
darkest on the cheeks, with a narrow white band from lower lip a variable distance 
along sides of body, usually edged with a very fine dark line; a similar white 
streak from nostril, running along angle over eye and ear a short distance along 
neck, and with a small, dark dot in centre of each scale of back (var. L. punctulata) ; 
others of richer brown, darker below, with about eight rows of large white spots on 
under side, and five or seven narrow, dark streaks along back, the middle one opening 
out into two on head, uniting again on snout (var. L. Burtoni) ; other specimens 
have dark, vertical markings on cheeks, and larger and darker triangular patches on 

Vol. II.— Decade XVII.— 2 m. [ 229 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. lUeptiles. 

sides of lower jaws; some (as our fig-ure 2) have the back plain, dotted, without 
streaks, as in the type L. punctulata, but with the large, white spots below, as in 
the typical L. Burtoni. Measurements : Tip of snout to base of leg-flaps, 6 in,; 
tail, 6 in. 6 lines; tip of snout to anterior edge of eye, 4 lines; tip of snout to 
ear, 85 lines ; diameter of middle of body, 3^ lines. 

References. — Lialis Burtoni, Gray, Cat. B. M. Lizards, p. 69 ; Ereb. and Ter., 
p. 5, t. 8, f. 2 ; Grey's Trav. Austr., v. 2, p. 437, t. 3, f. 1 + L. hicatenata, Gray 
I.e. + L. punctulata, Gray I.e. + L. leptorhyncha, Peters, Monatsberichte der 
Koniglichen Preuss. Akad. der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1873, p. 605. 

The genus Lialis I think, with Mr. Boulanger, contains only 
one species at present known, varying greatly in colour and slightly 
in the proportional length of the snout, which characters have been 
relied on by Gray and Peters in naming the supposed different 
species indicated in the synonyms. These lizards are even more 
like snakes than the Pt/gojyus, from the almost imperceptible 
smallness of the rudiments of the hind limbs, scarcely larger or 
longer than an ordinary adjacent scale, and the immovable eyelids. 
The external open ear, however, and fleshy tongue indicate at a 
glance the true afiinity to be with the lizards and not the snakes. 
The curious character of the single (coalesced pair) parietal bone 
in the skull, and also the sharp recurved teeth with swollen base, 
so different from others of the Pygopidce^ almost warrant the 
adoption of Gray's family Lialisidw for the genus, which apjiroaches 
the Varanidce in this and in the premaxillary being single and 
produced backwards between the nasals. Our figure 1 gives the 
typical colouring of the variety named L. punctulata by Gray, in 
which a very distinct white labial band extends along the lower 
lip, and runs a vai'iable length along each side of the body, 
separating a darker greyish brown under side from a much lightex', 
greyish brown upper side, and with a shorter narrow white band 
from nostril over eye beyond the ear ; the cheek between these 
lines darker than any other part of the surface ; most of the scales 
of the back with a small dai'k dot near middle. Our figure 2 
shows the colouring half-way between that species and L. Burtoni, 
from Trinity Bay, having longitudinal dark streaks on top of head, 
and the large conspicuous Avhite spots on dark greyish-brown 
under side, and vertical dark patches on side of cheeks and lower 
jaw, as in L. Burtoni, but with the lighter, plain, unstreaked upper 

[ 230 ] 



Zoology.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. llieptiles. 

side, with a small dot in centre of each scale, as in L. punctulata. 
Other specimens in the Museum Collection have the five longi- 
tucUnal brown streaks and rows of dark and light spots on whole 
of upper surface, as in the typical L. Burtoni, with rows of con- 
spicuous white spots on darker under surface. All the varieties 
have the curious and most unusual colouring of the dai'ker surface 
being below, instead of above, as usual. 

The specimens found in Victoria, measured above, are smaller 
than those generally of warmer latitudes ; but I have a specimen 
in the Museum from Duke of York Island, of the size, shape, and 
colouring of our figure 1. 

Not very uncommon in the Mallee Scrub and other warmer 
parts of Victoria. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 161. — Fig. 1, plain coloured .specimen of the variety named L. jninctulata, waXuraX 
size. Fig. la, under side of head, magnified three diameters, to show the large chin plate and 
lateral rows of paddle-shaped plates. Fig. 16, top of head, magnified three diameters, showing 
plates of head. Fig. Ic, side view of head, magnified three diameters, showing large nasal 
plate, very numerous scale-plates of loreal region, eye with scaly lid, and ear. Fig. \d, front 
view of tip of snout, magnified five diameters, showing wide rostral, inflected below, and edge 
of chin plate. Fig. l6, side view of snout, magnified five diameters, showing large nasal with 
two post-nasal plates. Fig. 1/, posterior end of body and anterior end of tail, magnified three 
diameters, showing two rows of large abdominal and one row of large sub-caudal plates, four 
preanal pores, and the minute leg-flaps. Fig. Ir/, side view of middle of body, magnified two 
diameters, showing upper dotted and lower plain scales. Fig. \h, lower surface of body, 
magnified two diameters, showing proportion of two median rows of larger plates. Fig. li, 
scales of back, magnified two diameters. Fig. 2, variety, with conspicuous white spots, as in 
the type L. Burtoni, but without back streaks, natural size. Fig. 2a, lower side of head and 
part of body, to show disposition of large white and some dark spots, magnified three diameters. 
Fig. 2b, top of head, magnified three diameters, showing dark marks, longitudinal streaks (not 
found farther back on this specimen). Fig. 2c, side view of head, magnified three diameters, 
showing vertical dark marks and traces of longitudinal dark streaks. Fig. 2d, tip of snout, 
front view, magnified five diameters. Fig. 2e, side view of snout, magnified five diameters, 
showing nasal plates, with only one post-nasal. Fig. 2/, view of preanal pores and small leg flaps, 
magnified three diameters. Fig. 2g, scales of back unstreaked and dotted, as in L. punctidata, 
magnified three diameters. Fig. 2%, side view, magnified three diameters, showing relation of 
upper and under scales, with leg-fiaps and preanal pores. 

Feederick McCoy. 



[231 ] 



tul^ 



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ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(Reptdes) 




1^ \ 




V^JJWiUMtt hjOu 



Prof M^ Ccv diretrf 



^eam, hiha Get- Fnniir^ Offux 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Reptiles. 



Plate 162, Fig. 1. 

APRASIA PULCHELLA (Gray). 
The Lined Aprasia. 

[Genus APRASIA (Grat). (Sub-kingdom Vertebrata. Class ReptiUa. Order Sauria. 
Sub-order Leptoglossae. Tribe Geissosaura. Family Pygopidae.) 

Gen. Char. — Body and tail long and slender, cylindrical, tapering, vermiform ; destitute of 
anterior limbs, posterior ones forming a very minute flap on each side of base of tail ; covered 
with smooth, hexagonal scales, those below only slightly wider than those above. Head small, 
semi-elliptically rounded in front, cheeks vertical, muzzle projecting beyond lower jaw in front; 
one pair of large, quadrate nasal plates ; one pair of freno-nasal large shields, covering the 
cheeks ; one large, hexagonal vertex plate or pre-frontal ; a pair of small superciliary plates on 
each side ; rostral plate large ; labial plates large, few ; nostrils very small, near suture, between 
the tip of the front upper labial and the square nasal plate ; vertex plate large, hexagonal ; no 
parietal shields ; eyes with a circular eyelid of a marginal series of small scales ; pupil round; 
external ears none, the aperture being covered by the scales. Tongue rounded and slightly 
notched at tip. Parietal bones separate. Teeth small, blunt, with cylindrical base, pleurodont. 
Preanal pores none. Australia.] 

Description. — Head scarcely wider than neck, semi-elliptical, pointed in 
front; rostral plate long-, narrow, lower two-thirds nearly parallel-.sided ; the 
pointed upper-third end bent over to appear on upper surface of head, between the 
nasal plates, separating- them nearly to their posterior margin ; nasals larg-e, quad- 
rate, joining- by a small portion of posterior inner edge above, with the nostrils 
pierced in the anterior outer angle, close to suture of first upper labial plate, which 
is small and quadrate; second labial plate about as long- as the first, but rising- 
higher to join the outer side of the freno-nasal ; third upper labial smaller than 
second and indented above by the eye; fourth labial rising- to nearly middle of eye 
behind. Prefrontal or freno-nasals hexagonal, larger than the nasals, joining- in 
mid-line above, joining- by one of their anterior edges to posterior edg-e of the nasal, 
joining- vertex by inner posterior side, and joining- temporal plate by middle posterior 
edge, joining small frenal or antocular plate by outer posterior side. Vertical pre- 
orbital or frenal plate in front of eye, three times higher than long. Vertex or 
fi'ontal plate very large, hexagonal ; no parietal nor occipital plates. Supra-orbital 
plates large, extending- fi-om long side of vertex plate to eye-lid outside, and 
prefrontal in front, and body scale behind. Mental plate large; first lower labials 
very large, reaching- from mental to vertical from middle of eye, bent under the chin, 
and separate b}' a small hexagonal plate behind the mental. Scales of throat small, 
hexagonal. Twelve rows of hexagonal, smooth scales round the body, two middle 
belly rows larger and wider than the others. Three large preanal scales, with very 
minute rudimentary leg-flaps on each side, covered with two rows of three minute 
scales each, and slightly exceeding one of the back scales in length ; circular eje-lid 
of one row of scales. Colour : Dull brownish yellow above, paler below, with six to 
nine longitudinal, narrow, dark-brown streaks, sometimes forming dots on the outer 
row on each side, the next inner streak strongest and going through the eye ; rarely, 
a ninth, central, small, dotted streak on back. Length of head, 3 lines ; from tip of 
snout to base of tail, 4 inches ; diameter of middle of body, 2 lines. 

[ 233 ] 



Zoobgy.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Reptiles. 

Reference. — Gray, Grey Jour. Exp. Aust., v. 2, p. 438, t. 4, f. 2 = 
A. octolineata, (Peters) Monatsberichte der Konigliclien Preuss. Akad. der Wissen- 
schaften zu Berlin, 1863, p. 233. 

This beautiful little creature has the shark-shaped head of the 
Blind Worms or Worm Snakes, the front of the snout and curved 
rostral plate projecting in front of the mouth, probably to facilitate 
burrowing in the ground. In the situation of the hind leg-flaps of 
Pijgoptis and Delma there is a ver}'' minute triangular group of 
about three scales, much smaller than the others, and resting in 
a depression, no doubt representing the leg-flaps of those genera, 
and which has been overlooked • by the older writers, although 
noticed by Mr. Boulanger. The absence of the external ear 
aperture also shows an approach to the Worm Snakes. The 
eyelids, however, and fixed jaws indicate their true afiinities with 
the Lizards, from which, however, they depart more than any other 
form known. I have no doubt that Dr. Giinther is correct in 
refering the A. octolineata of Professor Peters to this same species, 
as I find the streaks vary from six to nine, and the normal number 
of rows of scales for the present species is twelve. 

The first Victorian specimen I have seen was presented to the 
Museum by my former pupil. Dr. E. Hearn, from Lake Wallace, 
where it had been turned up by the plough in a field. Subse- 
quently I received another from Mr. Goldstein, who found it at 
Portland in April 1879. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 162. — Fig. 1, average specimen, natural size, but the tail shorter than its proper 
proportion, from haTing been lost and re-grown. Fig. la, top of head and neck, magnified five 
diameters, to show plates of top of head ; showing also the unusual middle streak for a short 
distance in tliis specimen. Fig. li, side view of head, magnified five diameters, to show the scaly 
eyelid, pre-ocular or frenal plate, edge of supra-ocular plate, freno-nasal, nasal and labials. 
Fig. Ic, under side, to show large chin plate and post-mental plate, and enlarged first labial. 
Fig. \d, front view of snout, to show relation of rostral to adjacent plates. Fig. le, top of 
middle of body. Fig. 1/, side view of b>ase of tail, showing dorsal and ventral scales and minute 
leg-flaps, magnified five diameters. Fig. Iq, same, viewed from below, showing large preanal 
scales. Fig. \h, leg-flap, more highly magnified. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[234] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IReptiles. 

Plate 162, Fig. 2. 

PSEUDODELMA IMPAR (Fischer). 

Fischer's False Deljia. 

[Genus PSEUDODELMA (Fischer). Sub-kiugdom Vertebrata. Class Reptilia. Order 
Sauria. Sub-order Leptoglossae. Tribe Geissosaura. Family Pygopidse.) 

Oen. Char, — Body and tail very slender, gradually tapering. Head moderate, tapering to 
bluntly rounded snout. Gape wide. Only one pair of plates, meeting In middle, between nas.als 
and prefrontal plate. Nostrils large, near anterior edge of nasals, which meet above ; ear- 
opening oblique, moderately large. Eye with rudimentary scaly eyelid. Teeth very smiill, 
numerous, blunt. Scales of body in longitudinal rows, until a little beyond base of tail, beyond 
which the lateral rows extend abruptly, obliquely upwards and backwards from middle sub- 
caudal row. No preanal pores ; two or three enlarged preanal scales. Posterior leg-flaps 
very small, of two rows of scales. Australia.] 

Description. — Head narrow, semi-oval, bluntly rounded in front. Teeth very 
numerous, very minute, blunt. Tong-ue flat, scaly, deeply notched at tip. Rostral 
large, pentagonal or nearly triangular, about twice as wide as high, separating the 
nasal plates, except at their posterior superior angles. Nasal plates large, sub- 
trigonal or tetragonal, with a large nostril pierced near middle, meeting on the 
mid-line above, behind the apex of the rostral plate, and .prolonged bnckwards nearly 
as far as posterior edge of first labial below. Fronto-nasal plates large, quad- 
rangular, meeting by longest side in middle of top of head, acutely pointed in front, 
obtusely pointed behind, a narrow portion bent down on cheek, touching the first 
of a series of six small plates over the second, third, and fourth labials, extending 
from the nasal to the eye. One large, quadrate, antocular plate joining posterior 
edge of naso-rostral on each side. Pre-frontal or inter-nasal plate large, heptagonal, 
nearly as broad as long. Frontal plate heptagonal, longer than wide, acutely pointed 
behind. Parietals large, with a band-like plate on outer posterior side of each, 
with or without a small occipital plate between their posterior ends. Two rows of 
minute scales round the orbit, and three vertical rows of slightly larger vertical 
scales in front of it. Three supra-ocular plates joining two large temporal plates 
by their upper edges. Upper labials seven, the fourth longer, but less deep, than 
the others, underlying the eye, from which it is separated by a row of four or five 
small scales, the anterior one of which supports the posterior two out of the three 
vertical rows of small scales in front of the orbit. Chin plate moderate, rhombic. 
Lower labials three, the first meeting below, behind the chin plate; second largest 
also prolonged under sides of jaw, but not meeting in the middle; third twice the 
length, but only one-fourth the depth of the other two. Body scales hexagonal, 
imbricating, very smooth and glossy; two middle ventral rows wider than long; 
length and width of the others more nearly equal ; fourteen or fifteen rows of scales 
round the middle of body (the middle row, when fifteen appear, being frequently 
absent for 'distances of sis or seven scales long, and re-appearing; when absent, 
leaving only fourteen rows round the body). Leg-flaps covered with two rows of 
three scales each, the whole being double the length of the enlarged preanal scales, 
or nearly as long as three of the lateral scales. Scales on back of base of tail in 
longitudinal rows as far as about the twelfth scale, beyond which the lateral rows 
extend obliquely upwards and backwards, from the three larger inferior shields to 
the one or two irregular dorsal rows in middle of tail; about fifty-one pairs of large 
abdominal scales from hinder part of throat to vent, and about one hundred and 
twenty-six transversely enlarged, hexagonal plates in median row beneath tail. 

[235] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Reptiles. 

Colour: Above g-reyish-olive, fading- to g-reyish-wliite below; top of head dark- 
brown; two or three scales wide of middle of back and tail plain; on each side, 
three narrow white lines, with dark-brown bands of transverse spots between 
them, forming- three or four longitudinal lines of narrow lig'ht, and dark broad, 
stripes on each side, running straight from head, longitudinally, as far as twelve 
scales beyond the vent, where they turn abruptly, obliquely upwards and backwards 
in accord with the change of direction at this point of the lateral caudal scales. 
Measureinents : Snout to base of tail, 3 in.; tail, 6 in.; diameter of body at middle, 
3 lines; length of leg-flap, 1^ lines ; snout to ear, 4 lines; snout to eye, \\ lines. 

Reference. — Archiv. fiir Naturgeschicte 1882, p. 287. 

This genus differs from Delma in the more simply plated head, 
arising from only one pair, instead of two pairs, of large plates 
intervening between the nasals and iuter-nasal or pre-frontal ; 
and, further, by the singular, oblique direction of the lateral rows 
of scales on the sides of the tail. The instability of the median 
dorsal row of scales, which I have noted, is a curious character, 
giving in some parts an odd number of rows of body scales, and, 
in the other adjacent parts, an even nvimber. Fischer's figure in 
the Archiv. fiir Naturgeschicte, of the natural size, is very inexact, 
and, especially, the leg-flap's are represented as far too long. He 
is also certainly in error in supposing the teeth to be absent, as 
I find they are very numerous and blunt, but, of course, very 
minute and not easy to see. 

Not very uncommon near Melbourne. 

The specimen figured was presented by D. Kei'shaw, who found 
it under stones, near junction of Yarra and Merri Creek. 

Explanation of Figubes. 

Plate 162. — Fig. 2, aver.age specimen, natural size. Fig. 'la, under side of head and neck, 
magnified three diameters, showing large labials, small throat scales, and suddenly enlarging 
two rows of scales of belly. Fig. 26, side view of head and necli, enlarged thi'ee times, showing 
characteristic plates. Fig. 2c, top of head and neck, magnified three diameters, sliowing head 
plates, and tlie median dorsal row of scales following occipital scale, tlien absent, then re- 
appearing for three scales, and then being absent for hinder portion as far as figured. Fig. 2(/, 
front view of snout, magnified tliree diameters, sliowing form of rostral and mental plates. 
Fig. 2f. three preanal scales and minute leg-flaps, natural size, from below. Fig. 2/", side view 
of leg-flap and adjacent scales, magnified three diameters. Fig. 2.(/. leg-flap, magnified. Fig. 2/t, 
under side of last abdominal, enlarged preanal scales and sub-caudal scales, magnified three 
diameters. Fig. 2i, upper side of middle of back. Fig. 2,1', side view of anterior part of tail, 
showing change from longitudinal to oblique rows of scales, magnified three diameters. Fig. 21, 
upper side of middle of tail, magnified three diameters. 



Frederick McCoy. 



[ 236 ] 



/(.I? 



Pl.163 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(IishesJ 




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Zoology.} NATURAL HISTORY OK VICTORIA. IFishea. 



Plate 163. 

LABRICHTHYS LATICLAVIUS (Rich, sp.). 
The Broad-striped, or Senator, Parrot-eish. 

[Genus LABRICHTHYS (Blebkee). (Sub-kingdom Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Sub-class 
Teleostea. Order Acanthopterygii. Sub- order Pharyngognathi. Family Labrid*,) 

Gen. Char. — Body moderately compressed, oblong ; snout narrow, projecting ; scales large ; 
operculum scaly, cheeks more or less scaly ; preoperculum not serrated. Lateral line con- 
tinuous. Teeth sharp, conical, in one or two rows in upper jaw, usually 1 or 2 large canine 
teeth on each side in front, and often a large, conical, posterior canine tooth at angle of mouth 
in upper jaw. Fins, 9 spinous and 11 branched rays in dorsal, and 3 spinous and 10 branched 
in anal. Pacific and Indian Archipelago.] 

D. 9 -f 11 ; V. 1 + 5j P. 12; A. 3 + 10; L. lat. 26^. 

Description. — Body moderately slender, depth about 3£ in total length, 
including- caudal. Head with convex profile, small, about one-fourth of total leng-th, 
including caudal ; top of head and cheeks set with coarse, perforated granules, 
scattered above, but running into nearly vertical, branched ridges below; a sub- 
vertical row of 6 or 7 large scales, rather nearer the edge of the preoperculum than 
the ej-e, extending from about the level of top of e3'e, curving forward below to about 
level of corner of mouth ; a row of 13 rapidly decreasing, conical teeth in upper jaw, 
the first (or canines) twice as large as the next; a conical canine, nearly as large as 
the front one, projecting outwards and forwards from corner of mouth ; a second 
row of smaller and more numerous teeth within the outer row ; a similar row of 
eleven decreasing from the large front canine in lower jaw ; two vertical rows of 
large, rounded scales on anterior part of operculum, with one or two forming an 
imperfect third row; posterior membranous margin of operculum forming a nariow, 
rounded, smooth lobe, forming two sides of an isosceles triangle from upper junction ; 
gill-opening large, curved. Scales of body large, rounded, thin-edged, with fine, 
granular, flexous, radiating strice, strongest at middle; those of lateral line with 
from 4 to 8 flexuous, dicbotomous, branching tubes, set with porous granules, the five 
last running to middle of tail from level of last dorsal ray, one scale's width lower 
than anterior ones; 26 scales along lateral line, 3 above and 10 below.; no scales on 
dorsal fin. Fins'.- Spinous part of dorsal of 9 spines, slightly less elevated than the 
posterior portion, of 11 branched rays; ventral rhomboidal, acuteW pointed, from 
second branched ray being longest, 1 spinous and 5 branched rays ; pectoral obtusely 
rounded, of 12 rays; anal of 3 short spinous, and 10 longer, branched, rays slightly 
increasing, so that the last is longest; caudal sub-truncate, obtusely rounded. 
Colour: Body, back and cheeks rich sap-green, with 3 broad, bright, purplish, chestnut 
madder bands, one from temple behind the eye to the end of the caudal ; a second, 
wider, from angle of operculum joins the upper one about 3 rays from vertical of end 
of dorsal; and a third, broadest, occupies the lower part of body over anal and 
low^er portion of tail, connected with the middle one by a large blotch of same colour 
at anterior portion of anal ; each of these stripes is edged by a narrow interrupted 
line of ultramarine-blue. Throat and belly in front of anal purplish-white, with 
longitudinal, broken, flexuous lines of pale yellow and blue; head with long, flexuous 

Vol. II.— Decade XVII.— 2)i. [ 237 ] 



Zoology.'] NATUEAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Fishti. 

blue lines radiating from the eye, the intervening spaces varying irregularly, either the 
green or purple of the body in different specimens; dorsal fin sap-green at base, irregu- 
larly clouded with reddish and pale blue; a definite, narrow, continuous edging of bright 
blue, and numerous, ultramarine-blue, round spots on membrane of hinder part of 
dorsal in most specimens, in some specimens pale purple with narrow blue edge, 
without spots, but clouded with blue in front, and dull red behind ; anal sap-green 
at base with a blue basal line, the marginal half dark-purplish with a narrow blue 
line between it and the green, and a bright blue, nan-ow edge and numerous round, 
blue spots on membranes ; caudal with green of body extending along upper edge 
and middle, as narrow bands ; rest of membrane of the purplish tint of body stripes, 
with a broad, darker band at posterior third; rays and round spots on membrane 
bright blue (in some specimens these blue spots extend over lower, body purplish, 
stripe to anterior end of anal fin) ; pectoral fin bluish-green at base, the rest of the 
membrane colourless, but the rays dark-greenish, except a broad margin of ends of 
branched rays, red; ventral nearly colourless, tinged with pale purplish and bluish. 
Iris with orange, round pupil, with blue and green circles in middle, and outer orange 
circle. Length, 11 in. 7 lines; snout to orbit, 10 .ines; snout to end of operculum, 
2 in. 10 lines; snout to front of dorsal, 3 in.; depth of body, 3 in.; height of middle 
of dorsal, 1 in. ; length of ventral, 1 in. 5 lines. 

Reference.— Zool. Proc. 1840 : Er. and Ter., Fish, p. 128, t. 56, f 3-6. 

This is one of the most beautiful of all the Wrasses, called 
Parrot-fishes in Australia, and varies considerably in the extent 
of the blue spotting of the fins and in the intensity and extent 
of the body colours. I have not seen any vermilion line indicated 
in some of the second-hand, published descriptions of the colom'ing, 
and think the parts so named are always blue. 

Not very uncommon in Hobson's Bay. Our specimens were 
got in February, August, and September. It has not been figured 
of the natural colours before. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 163. — Fig. 1, average specimen, two-thirds of natural size. Fig. la, outline, to show 
granules, row of scales on cheek, and two rows with imperfect third row of large scales of oper- 
culum. Fig. 16, teeth of upper and lower jaws, twice natural size, showing .anterior large canines, 
and the posterior canines of upper jaw. Fig \c, inner row of teeth in upper jaw, four times the 
natural size. Fig. Id, scale from above lateral line, twice the natural size. Fig. le, scale from 
lateral line, twice the natural size. Fig. 2, dorsal fin of another specimen. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 238 J 



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Pl.i64 



;OOLOCY OF VICTORIA 

(Fishes) 




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Zoohgy.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. ^Fishes. 



Plate 164. 

HETEROSCARUS MACLEAYI (McCoy). 

Macleay's Wrasse. 

[Genus HETEROSCARUS (Castlenau.) (Sub-kingdom Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Sub- 
class Teleostei. Order Acanthopterygii. Sub-order Pharyngognathi. Family Labridas.) 

Oen. Cliar. — Upper jaw longer than the lower ; teeth united together, forming a sharp 
cutting edge on both sides, with a distinct median suture in upper jaw ; indistinct or none in 
lower jaw. Scales large ; 14 to 16 spinous rays in dorsal ; head without scales, granular and 
porous ; cheeks with imbedded, impressed non-imbricating scales ; large scales on operculum ; 
lateral line continuous. Australia.] 

D. 16 -f 8; A. 2 + 13; C. 14; P. 13; V. 1 -l- 4; L. lat. 33^^. 

Description. — Body oblong', compressed, heig'ht twice and two-thirds in total 
length (without caudal); length of head nearly three times in same length; thickness 
twice and a half in depth. Head semi-oval ; upper pair of anchylosed sets of teeth 
overlapping; the under pair ; angle of mouth not reaching' level of anterior edge 
of orbit. Three rows of large scales on the operculum; edge of operculum mem- 
branous and smooth, except at angle, which is striated ; anterior part granular and 
porous ; margin of preoperculura striated, edge serrated ; all the pieces of the head 
with irregular, coarse granules ; forehead between the eyes very slightly convex. 
Fins : Dorsal commencing at back of head, of 16 spinous and 8 jointed, branched 
ra3's, first four rays longest and terminating in long, very slender, flexuous filaments; 
jointed rays longer than immediately preceding spinous rays. Anal commencing 
under about the tenth dorsal ray, of 2 spinous and 13 jointed branched rays, termi- 
nating slightly behind the dorsal; caudal of 14 ray.s (shape uncertain). Ventrals 
ovate, of 1 spine and 4 branched rays. Pectoral large, ovate, of 13 raj-s. Scales: 
Large, rhombic, with concentric wrinkles of growth and very fine, longitudinal, rough 
flexuous striae, serrating the posterior edge ; 33 along lateral line ; 5 above lateral 
line at middle of body and 10 below. Colour: Head clouded with indian-red and 
olive-green, passing to yellow ochre on throat ; one narrow band of ultramarine-blue, 
edged with blackish-blue, extends with an uj)ward curve from middle of lip, touching- 
bottom of orbit, and extending straight towards upper base of pectoral, but not 
extending beyond the granular part of head on to the scales of operculum, which 
are dull indian-red ; another, similar, blue streak goes from angle of mouth, a little 
beyond vertical of posterior edge of orbit, with a few, irregular, broken streaks or 
spots, to beyond edge of preoperculum ; a third, similar streak extends backwards 
from middle of posterior edge of orbit to end of granular surface ; one or two 
elongate, similar spots between this upper and the middle streak. Body with three 
broad, longitudinal stripes of rich indian-yellow, the spaces between which, and also 
the back, of a rich, reddish, purple, bfown, madder colour (like lees of red wine), 
these three lateral stripes broken into spots at their posterior end, clouded on the 
back, and spotted with green ; belly and end of tail sap green ; all the fin rays 
green, except the pectoral, which has them orange-yellow with colourless membrane; 
ventrals greenish at base and margin, with a broad intermediate band of dark green 
beyond middle, edged with narrow margins of opal blue, like streaks of head ; anal 
green at base, then dull orange, which is also at margin ; a broad intermediate band 

[ 239 ] 



ns. 


lines 


9 


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2 


6 


2 


5 


3 


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6 





9 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 

of dull reddish colour of body, edg-ed above and below with narrow peach-blossom 
colour, breaking into some small spots at posterior end. Anterior part of dorsal dull 
orang-e-yellow at margin, pinkish and purple below, with a narrow band of peach- 
blossom colour edged with purple below the margin ; posterior portion greenish at 
base, irregularly blotched with dark red; all the rays dull green. Iris dull orange. 

Measurements. . 

Length from tip of snout to base of caudal ... 

anterior edge of orbit ... 
end of operculum 
base of pectoral 
first dorsal spine 
base of ventral 
first spine of anal 
last ray of dorsal 
Depth of body 
Length of 1st dorsal spine 

„ filaments beyond ditto ... 
„ last ray of dorsal 
„ pectoral 
„ ventral 
„ first spine of anal 
„ last ray of anal ... 
Diameter of eye ... 
Space between eyes 
Three scales in a space of six lines at middle of body. 

The Heteroscari are among the rarest and most beautiful of the 
Victorian " Wrasses," as somewhat similar fishes are popularly 
called in England. The present species, like the H. filamentosus 
(Cast.), has very long flexible filaments terminating the four first 
dorsal spines, but it differs from it and the other known species, in 
the number of the fin rays, number of the scales, and in the 
colouring. The lower jaw group of anchylosed teeth is not so 
distinctly divided as the upper, but still has a distinct suture near 
the margin, although becoming a mere shallow groove towards the 
base. 

The form of the posterior edge of tail is uncertain from having 
been broken in the figured specimen, but was probably slightly 
notched like the other species. 

I have only seen one specimen, the one figured, from Portland. 

Explanation op Figures. 

Plate 164. — Fig. I, side view, three-fourths natural size. Fig. In, outline of head, to show 
pitting and grjinulation of anterior part, the strialion and serration of margin of preoporculum, 
and the rows of large scales on posterior part of operculum, natural size. Fig. l/<. front view 
of head, showing anchylosed teeth, ii.itural size (the lower suture sTioukl be a little longer). 
Fig. \c, inside view of front edge of upper jaws, showing the ancliylosed teeth united into two 
pieces, divided by the median suture, magnified two diameters. Fig. 1(/, scale from base of anal 
fin, twice the natural size. Fig. \e, scale from above lateral line, twice the natural size. Fig. 
1/, scale from lateral line, twice the natural size. 



Frederick McCoy. 



[ 240 ] 






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ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

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Zoohgt/.l NATUBAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPoli/zoa. 



Plate 165, Fig. 1. 
CELLEPORA SIMPLEX (McG.). 

[Genus CELLEPORA (Fabricids). (Sub-kingdom Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family Celleporidse.) 

Gen. Char. — Zoarlum crustaceous, adnate or gloraerulous, or foliaceous and partly free, or 
massive or ramose. Zooecia erect and confused in the central parts, decumbent at the growing 
edges ; lower lip straight or nearly so and entire ; one or more rostral processes, usually bearing 
avicularia, in the neighbourhood of the mouth, but sometimes absent ; usually numerous vicarious 
avicularia of various forms, frequently raised on calcareous elevations.*] 

Description. — Zoarium encrusting' or adnate. Zocscia large, nearly vertical, 
slightly projecting; mouth very large, semi-circular above, with a wide, very slightly 
arched lower lip; occasionally a slightly elevated, broad mucro below the mouth, 
with a small triangular avicularium having a smooth or serrated beak, or replaced 
by a large, broad avicularium ; in some young zooecia, a short, articulated spine on 
each side of the mouth. Vicarious avicularia with moderate sized, broadly ligulate 
mandibles. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

The specimen from which the figures have been taken is re- 
cumbent, measures A^ by 3 in., and numerous layers have been 
superposed on the upper surface until at one part the thickness 
is nearly half an inch. Below the mouth is sometimes a mucro 
with a small avicularium, or an avicularium of much larger size 
without a mucro, as m the figure. The colour is brown. 

Explanation op Figures. 

Plate 165. — Fig. 1, showing zooecia with large avicularia below the mouth, and vicarious 
avicularia. Fig. la, single zooecium near growing edge, showing mucro and articulated spines. 
Plate 168. — Fig. 7, Chitinous parts. 



Plate 165, Fig. 2. 

CELLEPORA DIADEMA (McG.). 

Description. — Zoarium small, adnate, yellow. Zooecia short, nearly horizontal 
at the growing edge, more vertical internally ; mouth sub-circular; in many of the 
younger zooecia a sub-oral columnar mucro, carrying on its apex a small avicularium 

* The genus Cellepora has been diyided into the sections kotostomata and schizostomata, the first with the lower 
lip entire, and the inferior edge of the operculum straight, the second with the lip fit-sured, and the operculum with a 
corresponding rounded or tongue-shaped prucess. It seems to me that these distinctions ought to be considered generic, 
as In other similar groups; and I would retain the name of Cellepora for the former and propose that of Sckismopora 
for the latter. The Cellejmrce are usually of large size, massive, decumbent or erect, or bilarainate and variously 
branched. The Schismoporce, on the contrary, are mostly of smalt size, although occasionally large, as S. megasoma 
and S, (Cellepora) EytomiisU (Busk), and are frequently glomerular. 

[241 ] 



Zoology.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Poli/zoa. 

with a serrated beak ; older zocecia, especially the fertile, with the peristome of the 
lower lip produced forwards and frequently with a short columnar process, sur- 
mounted by an oval avicularium. Ooecia g-lobular, reclinate, with a semi-circular 
area in front, bounded by a narrow raised line, along- the margin of which is a series 
of short, concentric, triangular marks. Scattered vicarious avicularia with spatulate 
mandibles. 

Port Phillip Heads, a single specimen, Mr. J. Bracebridge 
Wilson. 

The aviculiferous process iu the young marginal zooBcia has 
considerable resemblance to the semi-spiral tube in Lagenipora 
nitens, which possibly ought to be referred to this genus. 

Explanation of Fiqdres. 

Plate 165. — Fig. 2, specimen, natural size. Fig. 2a, young zooecia. Fig. 2b, older zooecia 
and ooecia. Fig. 2c, ooecium and vicarious avicularium. 



Plate 165, Fig. 3. 
CELLEPORA SPICATA (McG.). 

Description. — Zoarium forming bilaminate folds. Zocecia at the growing 
margin nearly horizontal, oval or bariel-shaped, smooth or very minutely and 
sparsely granular; mouth semi-circular, nearly straight below j a long, sharply 
conical rostrum projecting from one side of the lower lip, with a small avicularium 
overhanging a notch at the base. In older parts the zooecia nearly vertical, very 
much confused; a short pre-oral rostrum with basal avicularium; sometimes a long, 
trumpet-shaped rostrum, surmounted by an avicularium, from the side of the mouth ; 
occasionally more than one rostrum and sometimes the mouth unarmed, semicircular 
or oval, and with the part below the lower lip thin and projecting. Ooecia cucullate, 
sub-immersed, smooth, a conical rostrum rising from a thickened base on the anterior 
surface over the middle of the marginal lip, with a small avicularium (frequently 
absent) at the base. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

Explanation or Fiodrbs. 

pLATK 165. — Fig. .3, zooecia from growing edge. Figs. 3a and 5b, zooecia and ooecia from 
the central parts. Fig. 3c, vicarious avicularium. 

Plate 168. — Fig. 8, opercula. 

C 242 ] 



I 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. {_PoIyzoa. 

Plate 165, Fig. 4. 

CELLEPORA CIDARIS (McG.). 

Description. — Zoarium adnate. ZocBcia ovate, very irregularly arranged; 
surface finely granular; mouth straight below; below the mouth, at one side, a 
horizontal elevation, at the inner extremity of which is an avicularium with a small 
semicircular mandible and serrated beak. At the front of or between the zooecia 
are numerous tall, stout, hollow, erect, acuminate or blunt processes, thickly and 
strongly granular or tubercular on the surface. Ocecia of moderate size, globular, 
sub-immersed. 

Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. Bracebridge Wilson. 

Explanation op Figorks. 

Plate 165. — Fig. 4, portion magnified, sliowing the large processes, several of which have 
been broken across. Fig. 4rt, single young zooecium. 



Plate 165, Fig. 5. 
CELLEPORA BISPINATA (Busk). 

Description. — Zoarium encrusting. Zooecia long, distinct at the growing 
edge, irregularly heaped and confused in other parts, ovate, granular; mouth at 
first with a straight lower lip, beneath which is subsequently developed a small or, 
occasionally, a large blunt mucro, on the inner surface of which is situated a small 
avicularium with the rounded mandible pointed downwards; a long, stout, articulated 
spine on each side of the mouth above. Ocecia sub-globular, granular. 

Reference. — Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat., Mar. Pol., pt. ii., p. 87, pi. czx., 
figs. 1, 2. 

Port Phillip Heads ; Portland, Mr. Maplestone ; Warruambool, 
Mr. Watts. 

There can, I think, be no doubt that this is the species 
described by Busk, and that it has no connection with the 
Discopora alhirostris of Smitt, as supposed by that author, from 
which it is readily distinguished by the oral spines being distinctly 
articulated, and by the rostrum being short and blunt. 

Explanation of Fiouees. 

Plate 165. — Fig. 5, specimen, natural size. Fig. 5a, portion from growing edge of same, 
magnified. Fig. 56, portion from older part, showing also a commencing and fully formed 
ooecium. 

Plate 168.— Fig. 9, operculum, 

[243] 



PUf>6 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTO R lA 

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Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPolyzoa. 



Plate 166, Fig. 1. 

CELLEPORA VERRUCOSA (McG.). 

Description. — Zoarium expanded, adherent or partially free; surface nodulated, 
and covered with narrowish verrucose elevations ; colour brown. Marginal zooecia 
recumbent, elongated, smooth, distinct at the extreme margin, farther back with the 
edges fused together ; primary mouth arched above, straight below, with two short, 
stout, rigid spines ; subsequently the sub-oral portion of the zooecium largely pro- 
jecting, and a long thin pre-oral rostrum becoming developed to one side of the lower 
lip, having a deep notch at its base, with an avicularium with oval mandible mostly 
turned inwards; in older parts of the zoarium the zooecia more vertical and confused, 
the lower lip with a row of serrated denticles internally. Ooecia globose, not very 
prominent. Vicarious avicularia on stout, columnar elevations, with large spatulate 
mandibles and usually serrated beaks. 

Portland, Mr. Maplestone. 

The only specimen I have seen measures 5^ by 3 mches, and 
is of a light brown colour. It is thick, from the superposition 
of several layers. The surface is covered with verrucose ridges 
and separate verrucose or mamilliform elevations. The mouth 
of the fully formed zooecium is usually smooth and slightly 
hollowed below, and there is internally a row of simple or serrated 
denticles, usually obscured by the peristome. The oral rostrum 
fi'equently has a serrated projection about half-way towards the 
summit, probably concealing an avicularium. The vicarious 
avicularia are of large size, usually elevated on thick columns, 
with long, broadly ligulate or spatulate mandibles closing on 
strongly serrated beaks. The ooecia are rounded and occasionally 
have a conical spine, with or without an avicularium at its base, 
on the anterior surface. 

An inspection of the figures, from different parts of the same 
specimen, well illustrates the protean characters which may be 
found in a single species of this difficult genus. The serrated 
denticles inside the lower lip are usually concealed by the growth 

VOI..II.— Decade XVII.— 2 0. [ 245 ] 



Zoology.2 NATURAL HISTORY OP VICTORIA. [Po/j/zoa. 

of tlie peristome, and tlius seem to be absent. Of the large 
vicarious avicularia, also, some have the beaks smooth, while 
others have them strongly serrated. 

Explanation op Figukes. 

Plate 166. — Fig. 1, zocBCia at growing edge. Fig. la, a portion farther back, showing oral 
processes and a yicarious avicularium with strongly serrated beak. Figs. 16 and Ic, other 
portions showing denticulate mouths of zooecia and ooecia. Fig. Id, two ooecia with anterior 
rostra. Figs, le and If, vicarious avicularia with smooth rostra. 

Plate 168. — Fig. 15, chitinous parts. 



Plate 166, Fig. 2, 

CELLEPOEA FOLIATA (McG.). 

Description. — Zoarium large, base broad and loosely adnate, raised into 
irregular, thick, erect, bilaminate lobes, anastomosing and frequently perforated at 
the base ; edges irregular and surface verrucose or irregularly mamillated. Marginal 
zooecia nearly horizontal, rather short; older zooecia vertical, confused, close; mouth 
deep, straight or slightly hollowed below; operculum light coloured; pre-oral 
rostrum, on younger zooecia, with a small, overhanging avicularium with denticulate 
beak, produced into a moderate sized conical process. Vicarious avicularia with 
ligulate or long triangular mandibles, and usually uncinate and denticulate beaks ; 
occasionally an avicularium with a very narrow mandible situated on the summit of 
a tall, thick column. 

Portland, Mr. Maplestone. 

The specimen I have measures 7 inches by 4, and the height 
of the highest foliations is 3 inches. It is of an ashy-grey 
colour. The base is broad and almost entirely covered by the 
thick, erect lobes which run in a sub-parallel direction across 
the zoarium. These are more numerous and of much greater 
size and thickness than in C. prolifera, from which also it differs 
somewhat in the structure of the operculum. 

Explanation of Figukes. 

Plate 166. — Fig. 2, young marginal zooecia. Fig. 2a, zooecia from older part of same 
specimen, showing also growing ooecia, sessile vicarious avicularia, and small avicularium on thick 
column. 

Plate 168.— Fig. 10, operculum. 

[246] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Peli/zod. 

Plate 166, Fig. 3. 

CELLEPORA INTERMEDIA (McG.). 

Description. — Zoarium loosely adnate or partly free. Zooecia large, confused, 
oblique or nearly horizontal, faintly g-ranular; mouth large, straight below; rostrum 
usually wanting, but in some zooecia existing as a small elevation below the mouth, 
with a conspicuous avicularium on the side. Ooecia small, globular, sub-immersed, 
faintly granular. Vicarious avicularia scattered irregularly, with large spoon-shaped 
mandibles. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., 1868. 
QueensclifF. 

Explanation of Figures. 
Plate 166. — Fig. 3, specimen, natural size. Fig. 3a, portion magnified. 



Plate 166, Fm. 4. 
CELLEPORA PROLIFERA (McG.). 

Description. — Zoarium expanded, loosely adnate, surface verrucosa and raised 
into thin, bilaminate, ligulate or wider ridges expanding upwards. Marginal zooecia 
horizontal, barrel-shaped; central zooecia confused, immersed; mouth nearly straight 
below; pre-oral rostrum with a small avicularium at one side of a sinus of the 
peristome, and a very short, conical process ; this process frequently absent, and the 
avicularium then situated on one side of the oral sinus. Ooecia globular, smooth or 
finely granular. 

Portland, Mr. Maplestone. 

Of a reddish or yellowish-brown colour. The largest speci- 
men I have examined measures 6 by 4i inches in diameter. It 
occurs as a comparatively thin, loosely adnate crust, covered 
with rounded mamillary projections. These projections usually 
expand upwards, the sides anastomosing with others so as fre- 
quently to leave spaces bridged over by their junction. 

Explanation or Figukes. 

Plate 166. — Fig. 4, growing edge, magnified. Figs. 4a and 46, other portions of the same 
specimen. 

Plate 168. — Fig. 11, opercula. 

C 247 ] 



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Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. iPolyzoa. 



Plate 167, Fig. 1. 
CELLEPORA ALBIROSTRIS (Smitt). 

Description. — Zoarium encrusting', or adnate, or partly free, of a white or 
greyish-brown colour. Marginal zooecia horizontal^ ovate, distinct, smooth ; mouth 
lofty, arched above, straight below ; at first plain, but subsequently a transverse 
process originating from one side below the mouth, carrying a small avicularium at 
its inner end, external to which it gives rise to a conical spine which is at first short, 
but with growth attaining a considerable height, and frequently with the adjacent 
part of the zooecium enlarged ; older zooecia more erect and confused, but with the 
same structure. Ooecia sub-globose. Vicarious avicularia on calcareous elevations, 
with large, broadly ligulate mandibles closing on serrated beaks. 

References. — Discopora albirostris, Smitt, Floridan Bryozoa, pt. ii., p. 70, 
pi. xii., figs. 234-239 = Gellepora albirostris, Busk, Challenger Polyzoa, pt. i., 
p. 193, pi. xxxiv., fig. 7, and pi. xxxv., fig. 3. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

I have considerable doubt whether this is identical with Smitt's 
and Busk's species. All my specimens are encrusting or fixed to 
roots of LaminaricB. None of them show the two long, slender, 
rigid, oral spines figured by Smitt and Busk, but the former 
remarks that they are sometimes wanting. The pre-oral rostra 
are also thicker. The opercula are usually, as mentioned by these 
authors, of a dark colour, and contrast strongly with that of the 
zoarium. The shape, however, differs from Busk's figures. 

Explanation op Figures. 

Plate 167. — Fig. 1, specimen, natural size. Fig. la, zooecia, from the growing margin, 
magnified. Fig, \b, two zooecia and small vicarious avicularium. Fig. Ic, vicarious avicu- 
larium, mouth of zocecium, and several pre-oral rostra from others. Fig. Id, zooecia and 
ooecium, from central part. 

Plate 168. — Fig. 12, operculum. 



Plate 167, Fig 2. 
CELLEPORA FUSCA (Busk). 



Description. — Zoarium, very much lobed, the lobe bilaminate, narrowed at the 
base and wider above. Marginal zooecia ovate, distinct, smooth; primary mouth 
entire, but becoming notched fi:om the growth of a transverse process having a 

[ 249 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

small avicularium, with a rounded mandible and serrated beak overlooking the 
notch, and a conical rostrum posteriorly. Vicarious avicularia large, on the side of 
thick calcareous elevations ; mandible large, broadly ligulate, and closing on strongly 
serrated beaks. 

Reference. — Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat., Mar. Pol., pt. ii., p. 88, pi. cxix., ^g. 2, and 
pi. cxx., fig. 6. 

Portland, Mr. Maplestone. 

The specimen figured forms a laminated mass, 1^ by 2 inches, 
and is growing on a branch of a slender dark alga. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 167. — Fig. 2, portion from the growing edge. Fig. 2a, more central portion, showing 
also two large aricularia. 

Plate 16S. — Fig. 16, chitinous parts. 



Plate 167, Fig 3. 

CELLEPORA LIE AT A (McG.). 

Description. — Zoarium flat and adherent, or loosely adnate, or encircling stems 
of algse or zoophytes, raised into usually regular sharp ridges, with deep furrows 
between ; the extreme summits of the ridges forming* a sort of crimped edge. Zooecia 
towards the summits of the ridges elongated ; mouth elongated, two spines (usually 
absent) above, a rostrum on each side, one very large and produced into a long, 
tapering process, and having towards its base an overhanging avicularium ; the other 
rostrum (frequently absent) smaller, and usually with a similar avicularium; zooecia 
in the furrows confused, nearly vertical, thicker, and having usually only one rostrum, 
with an overhanging avicularium. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

This species is usually readily distinguished by the manner in 
which the zooecia are disposed in sharp ridges, separated by deep 
furrows. In some specimens, however, especially those not 
encircling other objects, but flat and adherent or adnate, the ridges 
are short, interrupted, not so high, and more resembling the eleva- 
tions of C. mamillata. The extreme summits are produced into a 
thin, frilled, sharp edge, as occurs in Densipora cornigata, to 
which the mode of growth in many specimens is remarkably 
similar. It is allied to C. albirostris. 

Explanation of Figures. 
Plate 167. — Fig. 3, specimen, natural size. Fig. 3a, side view of the edge of one of the 
ridges, magnified. Fig. 3ft, zooecia, from a furrow. 
Plate 168. — Fig. 14, operculum. 

[ 250 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \^Polyzoa. 

Plate 167, Fio. 4. 
CELLEPORA MAGNIROSTRIS (McG.). 

Description. — Zoarium small, encrusting, or partially free. Zoeecia large, ovate, 
distinct, separated by deep grooves, surface granular; mouth straight or slightly 
sinuous below; immediately below the lip an irregular thickened band, with a small 
elevation in the middle (possibly an aborted avicularium) ; a long, articulated spine 
(frequently absent) on each side of the mouth. Ocecia globose, smooth. Numerous 
scattered, vicarious, much raised avicularia, the rostrum with a smooth or serrated 
margin, and the mandible crossed by a triangular chitinous band. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

Evidently allied to C. hispinata, but differing in the absence of 
distinct rostrum with avicularium, and the structure of the large 
vicarious avicularia. In the figured specimen the ooecium is 
smooth, and surrounded by a distinct rim ; in other and probably 
older specimens there is no rim. 

Explanation of Figukes. 

Plate 167. — Fig. 4, specimen, natural size. Fig. 4a, portion magnified, allowing zooecia, 
ooecium, and large avicularium. The avicularia are usually broader below the sharper point, so 
as to have a hastate shape. 

Plate 168. — Fig. 17, operculum. 



My friend Mr. MacGUlivray has presented all the type specimens 
and descriptions of the species of the very important and difficult 
genus Cellepora., represented on plates 165 to 168, and made the 
drawings for the lithographer, so as to insure the accuracy which 
can scarcely be got by the aid of the most skilful artist other than 
the naturalist actually defining the species ; and the Museum and 
this work are very greatly indebted to him for the complete 
illustrations of those Polyzoa, which could not otherwise have been 
presented to the public. 

Frederick McCot. 



[251] 



PI.J68 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTO R lA 

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Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Po/yzoo, 



Plate 168. 

CHITINOUS PARTS OF SPECIES OF CELLEPORA. 

Fig. 1, C. "GLOMERATA. 

2, C. PLATALEA. 

3, C. COSTATA. 

4, C. MEGASOMA. 

5, C. viTREA. (The specimen from which these 

chitinous parts were taken differs in some 
respects from that figm'ed.) 

6, C. TIARA. 

The foregoing sjDecies heloug to the proposed new genus 
Schismopora. 

Fig. 7, C. simplex. 

8,- C. SPICATA. 
9, C. BISPINATA. 

10, C. FOLIATA. 

11, C. PROLIFERA. 

12, C. ALBIROSTRIS. 

13, C. SERRATIROSTRIS. 

14, C. LIRATA. 

15, C. VERRUCOSA. 

16, C. FUSCA. 

17, C. MAGNIROSTRIS. 

Vol. II.— Decade XVII.-2fi. [ 253 ] 



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ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 
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ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

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Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. iMoUusca. 



Plates 1G9 and 170. 



OMMASTREPHES GOULDI (McCoy). 
Gould's Squid. 

[Genus OMMASTREPHES (D'Okb.). (Sub-kingdom Mollusca. Class Cephalopoda. 
Sub-class Antipedla, Order Sepliinia. Family Onychoteuthidae.) 

Oen. Char. —Head short, depressed, cylindrical, suddenly narrowed behind the eyes ; eyes 
large, lateral, without skin covering, with a transversely oval external opening, having a large 
sinus in upper edge; buccal membrane large, 7-Iobed, without suckers. Body elongate, cylin- 
drical, tapering abruptly behind, truncated in front ; cartilages on base of siphon contracted, and 
with a tubercle on each side below, forming a triangle, with a narrow internal cavity above, and 
a wide transverse one below, into which corresponding hard tubercles from inner sides of mantle 
fit, and extending into a transverse ridge towards each other; two longitudinal ridges on nape, 
with concavity between, on a hard oblong plate, fitting into corresponding parts on inside of 
mantle ; three longitudinal keels on each side of narrowed posterior portion of head, one con- 
taining the opening of the e.ar. Two large aquiferous openings, bei ween the 3rd and 4tb pair 
of sessile arms, outside the tentacular long arms ; four buccal cavities, two between the 1st 
and 2nd pair of sessile arms, and two between the 3rd and 4th pairs. Two anal cavities, one 
on each side of base of siphon. Siphon lodged in hollow in he.ad, with a valve, and supported 
by four ligaments, two inner ones thin, two outer thicker. Suckers pedunculated, with very 
oblique, toothed, corneous margins ; two rows on sessile arms, with toeth on upper edge, and 
four rows on distal end of long pair, with teetli all round larger ones. Long tentacular arms 
not retractile, only moderately dilated towards distal end, with a small membranous crest on 
midline of back, and a membranous margin outside the four rows of suckers ; the two inner 
rows of suckers very large, two outer rows very small. A connecting membrane between the 
3rd and 4th pair of arms only. Fins terminal, rliorahoidal. Internal dorsal pen narrow, 
sliglitly widened in front, narrowing gradually towards posterior end, which slightly dilates and 
ends in a simple conical cavity ; the margins and midline are thickened ridges.] 

Description. — Body long-, cylindrical for half its length, or nearly to origin of 
fin, and thence rapidly and abruptly tapering to posterior end. Fin slightly obtuse; 
lateral angles 100°, about |ths the length of body to edge of mantle. Sessile arms, 
2nd pair equalling the 3rd, 1st pair equalling the 4th ; dorsal and ventral pairs equal, 
and smaller than the second and third pairs, which are equal to each other ; third pair 
compressed, triangular in section, wider and more compressed than the others, with 
a membranous border (three lines wide) on ventral edge, and one-half the width on 
the other edge ; the other arms without membranous borders. Suckers in two rows, 
with 9 to 11 teeth on higher part of oblique edge, lower part of edge smooth. Two 
tentacular arms as long as body, lanceolate and slightly dilated towards distal end, 
tapering to extremity, with a prominent membranous keel on back of distal portion ; 
suckers of two large, middle rows, with 15 teeth all round each; small suckers of two 
outer rows with HO teeth, smaller on lower edge ; apical inch and half with ■! rows 
of small, sub-equal suckers, then 3 inches on which the 8 suckers of each middle 
row are very much larger than the rest, and then for 2 inches the suckers are small, 
sub-equal, and in two rows only. Internal pen as long as mantle, acutely angular 
(at 50') at widest anterior end, which, in figured specimen, is 6 lines wide, gradually 
tapering to 1 line wide at 9 inches from tip; then widening again in middle of 

[ 255 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IMoUusca. 

posterior two inches, tapering to posterior end, where sides join to form posterior 
hollow cone, 6 lines long. A supplementarj' piece of same consistence as pen, and 
of the same size and shape at anterior end, is attached to anterior end of pen, 
graduallj' tapering thence to a narrow posterior end at 1 in. 9 Hnes long ; mid-rib 
and lateral ribs as in pen. Colour: General line of back pale purplish-red from 
minute chromatophore spots of two sizes ; a narrow, definite, dark-purplish band 
along middle of whole length of body, a wide triangular patch of same colour on each 
side of head, the base at edge of eye; and a narrow band of same colour along back 
of each sessile arm; underside similarly dotted with redder and paler spots; suckers 
and siphon white. Besides the dots, the whole body gleams with the most beautiful, 
iridescent, opaline, delicate tints of blue, green, and pink ; the same colours being 
stronger round the eye, the centre of which is dark-brown. 3Ieasurements : Length 
from base of sessile arms to posterior tip, 13 ins. Proportional measurements to 
this, a.s 100 : Width of body at middle, ^^V ; at upper edge of fin, ly,; ; at middle of 
fin, -Z^; width from lateral angle of one fin to the other, -[^; length of tentacular 
arms, t^; length of sessile arms, 1st dorsal pair ^-^j^, 2nd pair yV^, 3rd pair -^^ 
to -^^, 4th or ventral pair -pfoj width of head, ^^; greatest longitudinal extent of 
fin, yYo; length of body from edge of mantle to posterior end, -y^. 

The present species agrees with the Loligo (Ominastrephes) 
equipoda of Ruppel in having the sessile arms of two sizes only, 
hut has larger fins. It nearly resembles the 0. insignis of Gould 
in shape, hut the relative lengths of the sessile arms distinguish it, 
as well as the obtuse angles of the fins, &c. I suppose the pen 
described and figured by Gould for 0. insignis must be imperfect 
behind and must have lost its generic cone ; also the replacement 
of the suckers by tubercles on liases of two of the arms in some 
specimens is, I suppose, accidental. The 0. Sloani (Gray) is stated 
to have the sessile arms compressed, the third pair acutely finned, 
with a narrow-rayed membrane on inner edge only of ventral side ; 
the seventh pair of central series of suckers on tentacular arms 
largest, in which respect it diifers from the present species. 

The Cuttlefishes forming the genus Ommastrephes are distin- 
guished from the Loligo., vdih which they were formerly confounded, 
by the eyes not being covered by skin ; by the lachrymal sinus in 
upper edge of eyelid ; by the four, instead of six, Ijuccal cavities ; 
the hollow in head for siphon, and its having four, instead of two, 
suspenders ; the tentacular arms not being retractile, &c., and the 
narrow pen with conical cup at posterior end; the want of suckers 
on buccal membrane ; and the lateral openings on base of siphon. 
They are all gregarious, inhabiting the mid-ocean, where they form 
the food of whales, porpoises, albatross, petrels, &c. 

[ 256 ] 



Zoohgi/.'i NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Molhtsca. 

Explanation of Fiqukes. 

Plate 169. — Fig. 1, Tentral view, half natural size. Fig. la, one of tlie long arms, 
natural size. Fig. 16, smaller external pedunculated cups of outer rows of long arm, magnified 
two diameters, side view. Fig. Ic. ditto, front Tiew. Fig. Irf, larger cup of long arm, front view, 
magnified two diameters. Fig. le, outer side view of ditto, with two small cups, to show relative 
size, magnified two diameters. Figs. 1/and 1;/, front and side view of suckers of ordinary arms, 
magnified two diameters. Fig, \h, section of one of ventr.al pair of arms, about middle, natural 
size. Fig. li, section of club of long arms, natural size. Fig. Ik, section of broad arms, natural 
size. Fig. U, section of next pair, from near middle, natural size. Fig. Ira, section of middle 
of dorsal pair, natural size. Fig. Ik, ear, magnified two diameters. 

PL.iTE 170. — Fig. 1, dorsal view, half natural size. Fig. la, mouth, half natural size. 
Fig. 16, siphonal tube with valve, seen from above, half natural size. Fig. Ic, ditto, side view, 
showing ligament and button. Fig. Id, dorsal fastening, natural size. Fig. le, eye, natural size. 
Fig. 1/, pen, half natural size. Fig. Ig, ditto, posterior cone, natural size. Fig. }h, ditto, side 
view. Fig. li, piece opposed to upper end of pen, half natural size. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[257 J 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



N.B. — The originals of all the Figures are in the National Museum, Melbourne. 



DECADE I. 



Plate 1. — The Black Snake (Pseud 3chys porphyriacus, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 2. — The Copper-head Snake (Hoplocephalus superbus, Gunth.). 

I'late 3. — The Tiger Snake (Hoplocephalus curtus, Schl. sp.). 

Plate 4. — The Australian Bream (C'hrysophrys Australis, Giinth.). 

Plate 5. — The Spiny-sided Butterfly-Gurnard (Lepidotrigla Vanessa, Rich. sp.). 

Plate 6. — The Kumu Gurnard (Trivia Kumu, Lesson and Gam.). 

Plate 7. — The Australian Giant Earth-worm (Megascolides Australis, McCoy). 

Plate 8. — Lewin's Day-moth (Agarista Lewini, Boisd.). 

The Loranthus Day-moth (Agarista Casuarins, Scott). 

The Vine Day-moth (Agarista Glycine, Lewin sp.). 
Plate 9. — Pieris (Thyca) Harpalyce (Don. sp.). 
Plate 10. — Pieris (Thyca) Aganippe (Don. sp.). 



DECADE II. 

Plate 11. — The Little Whip Snake (Hoplocephalus flagellum, McCoy). The White-lipped Snake 

(Hoplocephalus coronoides, Giinth.). 
Plate 12. — The Death Adder (Acanthophis Anttirctica, Shaw sp.). 
Plate 13. — The Carpet Snake (Morelia variegata. Gray). 
Plate 14. — The Gippsland Perch (Lates colonorum, Giinth.). 
Plate 15. — The Murray Lobster (Astacopsis serratus, Shaw sp.). 
Plate 16. — The Salmon Arripis (Arripis truttaceus. Cuv. sp.). Adult. 
Plate 1 7. — Ditto of the younger forms and coloring. 
Plate 18. — The Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 19. — The Small-scaled Rock Cod (Lotella callarias, Giinth.). 
Plate 20. — The Australian Rock Cod (Pseudophysis barbatus, Giinth.). 



DECADE III. 

Plate 21. — The Sea-Leopard Seal (Stenorhynchus leptonyx, de Blainr. sp.). 

Plate 22. — The Yellow-sided Dolphin (Delphinus Novae Zealandise, Quoy and Gaim.). 

Plate 23. — The Common Brown Snake (Diemenia supercilios.a, Pisch.). 

The Small-scaled Brown Snake (Diemenia microlepidota, McCoy). 
The Shield-fronted Brown Snake (Diemenia aspidorbyncha, McCoy). 

Plate 24. — Catenicella margaritacea (Busk). — C. plagiostoma (Busk), — C. ventricosa (Busk). — 
C. hastata (Busk.) — C. rufa (McG.). — C. cribraria (Busk). — C. alata (Wyv. Thomson). — 
C. lorica (Busk). — C. formosa (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk). — C. perforata (Busk). — 
C. Buskii (Wyv. Thomson). — C. Hannafordi (McG.).— C. crystallina (Wyv. Thomson). — 
C. carinata (Busk).- — C. aurita (Busk). — C. geminata (Wyv. Thomson). — C. cornuta 
(Busk). — C. intermedia (McG.) 

Plate 25. — Membranipora membranacea (Linn. sp.). — M. perforata (McG.). — M. ciliata (McG.). — 
M. mamillaris (McG.). — M. umbonata (Busk). — M. pilosa (Linn. sp.). — M. cervicornis 
(Busk). 

Plate 26. — Membranipora dispar (McG.). — M. Woodsii (McG.). — M. lineata (Linn. sp.). — M. Rosselii 
(Audouin sp.). — M. Lacroixii (Savigny sp.). 

Plate 27. — The Australian Rockling (Genypterus Australis, Cast.). 
The Yarra Blackfish (Gadopsis gracilis, McCoy). 

Plate 28. — The Southern Mackerel (Scomber pneumatophorus, De la Roche). 

Plate 29. — The Yabber Crayfish (Astacopsis bicarinatus, Gray sp.). 

Plate 30. — The Large Wattle Goat-Moth (Zeuzera Eucalypti, Boisd. Herr.-Schaet.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE IV. 

Plate 31. — The Australian Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal (Euotaria cinerea, Peron sp.). 

Plate 32. — The Two-hooded Furma-Snake, Furina bicucuUata (McCoy). 

Plate 33. — The Banded Red Gurnet-Perch (Sebastes percoides, Solander sp.). 

Plate 34. — The Angel-fish (Rhina squatina, Lin. sp.). 

Plate 35. — Lepralia circinata (McG.). — L. Cecilii (And.). — L. diaphana (McG.). — L. marsupium 

(McG.). — L. subimmersa (McG.). — L. anceps (McG.). — L. Maplestonei (McG.). 
Plate 36. — Lepralia vittata (McG.). — Membranipora perforata. Lepralia Brogniartii (Aud.). — 

L. elegans (McG.). — L. pertusa (Esper. sp.). — L. Malusii (Aud. sp.). — L. lunata (McG.). 
Plate 37. — Lepralia ciliata (Linn. sp.). — L. trifolium (McG.). — L. cheilodon (McG.). — L. canaliculata 

(McG.).— L. larvalis (McG.).— L. diadema (McG.).— L. papillifera (McG.).— L. Ellerii 

(McG.). 
Plate 38. — Lepralia monoceros (Busk). — L. escavata (McG.). — L. vitrea (McG.). — L. megasoma 

(McG.).— L. Schizostoma (McG.).— L. Botryoides (McG.).— L. ferox (McG.).— L.pellu- 

clda (McG.). 
Plate 39. — Crisia Edwardsiana (D'Orb. sp.). — C. biciliata (McG.). — C. acropora (Busk). — C. setosa 

(McG.).— C. tenuis (McG.). 
Plate 40. — Saunders' Case-Moth (Metura elongata, Saunders sp.). 
The Lictor Case-Moth (Entometa ignobilis, Walk.). 



DECADE V. 

Plate 41. — The Lace Lizard (Hydrosaurus rarius, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 42. — The Spotted Marsh-Frog (Limnodynastes Tasmaniensis, Giinth.). — The Common Sand- 
Frog (Limnodynastes dorsalis, Gray). 
Plate 43. — The Carpet Shark (Crossorhinus barbatus, Lin. sp.). — The Seven-gilled Shark (Notidanus 

[Heptanchus] Indicus, Cuv.). 
Plate 44. — The Barracouta (Thersites atun, Cuv.).— The Tunny (Thynnus Thynnus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 45. — Flustra denticulata (Busk). — Carbasea episcopalis (Busk). — C". dissimilis (Busk). — 

C. indivisa (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk).— C. pisciformis (Busk). 
Plate 46. — Spiralaria florea (Busk). — Diachoris Magellanica (Busk). — D. spinigera (P. MoGil.). — 

Dimetopia spicata (Busk). — D. cornuta (Busk). — Didymia simplex (Busk). — CalweUia 

bicornis (Wyv. Thomson). 
Plate 47. — Dictyopora cellulosa (P. McGil.). 
Plate 48. — Eschara obliqua (P. McGil.). — E. dispar (P. McGil ). — E. gracilis (Lamx.).— E. platalea 

(Busk). — E. quadrata (P. McGil.) — E. mucronata (P. McGU.). — Caleschara denticulata 

(P. McGil.). 
Plate 49.- Cellaria fistulosa (Linn.).— C. hirsuta (P. McGil.).— C. tenuirostris (Busk.).— C. gracilis 

(Busk). — Nellia oculata (Busk). — Tubucellaria hirsuta (Busk). 
Plate 50.— The Great Black, or Manna Cicada (Cicada moerens, Germ.).— The Great Green Cicada 

(Cyclochila Australasise, Donov. sp.). 



DECADE VI. 

Plate 51. — The Victorian Ehodona (Rhodona OiBceri, McCoy). 

Plate 52. — The Black and White Ringed Snake (Vcrmicella annulata. Gray). 

Plate 53. — The Green and Golden Bell-Frog (Rauoidea aurea, Less. sp.). 

Plates 64-55. — The Australian Aulopus (Aulopus purpurisatus, Rich.). 

Plate 56. — The Hammer-headed Shark (Zyga^na malleus, Shaw). — The Common Australian Saw- 
Fish (Pristiophorus nudipinnis, Giinth.). 

Plate 57. — Biflustra perfragilis (McGil.). — B. delicatula (Busk). 

Plate 58. — Cellularia cuspidata (Busk). — Menipea crystallina (Gr.ny sp.). — M. cyathus (Wyv. Thom- 
son). — M. cervicornis (McGil.) — M. trieellata (Busk). — M. Buskii (Wyv. Thomson). 

Plate 59 — Bicellaria tuba (Busk). — B. grandis (Busk). — B. ciliata (Linn). — B. turbinata (McGil.). — 
Stirparia annulata (Map.).— Bugula ncritina (Linn.). 

Plate 60. — Steganoporella magnilabris (Busk. sp.). — Petralia undata (McGil.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE VII. 

Plate 61. — The Tuberculated Argonaut (Argonauta oryzata, Meusch.). 

Plate 62. — The same seated ih its so-called shell or Paper-Nautilus. 

Plate 63. — The Blue-spotted Eagle-Ray (Myliobatls Australis, Macleay). 

Plate 64. — The Long-toothed Bull-Shark (Odontaspis taurus, Raf.). — The Australian Tope Shark 

(Galeus Australis, Macleay). 
Plate 65. — The Leafy Sea-Dragon (Phyilopteryx foliatus, Shaw sp.). — The Short-headed Sea-horse 

(Hippocampus breviceps, Pet.) 
Plate 66. — Dictyopora grisea (Lamx. sp.). — D. albida (Kirch.) — (Var. avicularis, P. McGill.). 
Plate 67.— D. Wilsoni (P. McGiU.). 

Plate 68. — Idmonea Milneana (d'Orb.). — I. contorta (P. McGill.). — L radians (Lamk.). 
Plates 69-70. — The Violet-shouldered Phasma (Tropidoderus iodomus, McCoy).— The Red-shouldered 

Phasma (Tropidoderus rhodomus, McCoy). 



DECADE VIII. 

Plate 71. — The Australian Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal (Euotaria cinerea, Peron sp.). 

Plate 72. — The Northern Blue-tongued Lizard (Cyclodus gigas, Bodd. sp.). 

Plate 73. — The Ludrick (Girella simplex, Rich. sp.). 

Plate 74. — The White Shark (Carcharodon Rondeletii, Mull, and Hen.). 

Plate 75. — The Picked Dog-Fish (Acanthias vulgaris, Linn. sp.). 

Plates 76-77. — The Australian Tooth-cupped Cuttlefish (Sepioteuthis Australis, Quoy and Gaim.). 

Plate 78. — Bugula robusta (P. McGil.). — B. cucuUata (Busk). — B. dentata (Lamx.). — B. avicularia 

(PaU.). 
Plate 79. — The Violet-winged Phasma (Acrophylla violascens. Leach sp.). 
Plate 80. — The Large Pink winged Phasma (Podacanthus typhon, Gray). 



DECADE IX. 

Plate 81. — The Gippsland Water Lizard (Physignathus Lesueri, Gray) — (Var. Howitti, McCoy). 

Plates 82-83. — The Murray Tortoise (Chelymys Macquaria, Cut. sp.). 

Plate 84. — The Murray Golden Perch (Ctenolates ambiguus. Rich. sp.). 

Plates 85-86. — The Murray Cod-Perch (Oligorus Macquariensis, Cuv. and Val. sp.). 

Plate 87. — The Australian Smooth-Hound (Mustelus Antarcticus, Giinth.). 

Plate 88. — The Thresher, or Long-tailed Shark (Alopecias rulpes, Linn. sp.). 

Plate 89. — Catenicella intermedia (P. McG.). — C. amphora (Busk). — C. Wilsoni (P. McG.). — C. pul- 

chella (Map.).— C. utriculus (P. McG.). 
Plate 90. — Catenicella fusca (P. McG.). — C. umbonata (Busk). — C. cornuta (Busk). 



DECADE X. 

Plate 91. — Gymnobelideus Leadbeateri (McCoy). 

Plates 92-93. — The Long-necked River Tortoise (Chelodina longicollis, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 94. — Opercula of Retepora. 

Plate 95. — Retepora porcellana (P. McGil.). — R. avicularis (P. McGil.). — R. fissa (P. McGil). 

Plate 96. — Retepora monilifera (P. McGil.). 

Plate 97.— Retepora monilifera (P. McGil.). — R. formosa (P. McGil.). — R. earinata (P. McGil.). 

Plate 98. — Retepora Phoenicea (Busk). — R. aurantiaca (P. McGil.). 

Plate 99. — Retepora granulata (P. JIcGil.). — R. tessellata (Hincks). — R. serrata (P. McGil.). 

Plate 100. — Goniocidaris tubaria (Lam.). 

The foregoing ten Decades form Vol. 1. 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE XI. 

Plate 101. — The Luth, or Leathery Turtle (Sphargis coriacea, Linn. sp.). 

Plate 102. — The Rugged Stump-tail, or Shingle-back, Lizard (Trachydosaurus rugosus, Gray). 

Plate 103. — The Blackish Australian Worm-Snake (Typhlops nigrescens, Gray sp.). 

Plate 104. — The Basking Shark (Cetorhinus niaximus, Linn. sp,). 

Plate 105. — Cellaria rigida (McG.). — Tubucellaria cereoides (Ellis and Solander). — Urceolipora 

dentata (McG.) — U. nana (McG.). 
Plate 106. — Amphiblestrum punctigerum (Hinoks). — A. -Flemingii (Busk). — A. permunitum 

(Hineks). — Pyripora crassa (McG.). — P. catenularia (Jameson). — P. polita (Hincks). — 

Electra flagellum (McG.). — Bathypora porcellaua (McG.). — Biflustra papulifera 

(McG.).— B. bimamillata (McG.). 
Platb 107. — Cateuicellopsis pusilla (J. B. Wilson). — C. delicatula (J. B. Wilson). — Calpidium 

ponderosum (Goldstein sp.). 
Plate 108. — Calpidium ornatum (Busk).— Chlidouia dfedala (Wyv. Thomson). 
Plate 109. — The Great Green Gum-tree Grasshopper (Locusta vigentissima, Sery.). 
Plate 110. — The Australian Yellow- winged Locust (ffidipoda musica, Fab. sp.). 



DECADE XII. 

Plate 111. — The Blood-sucker (Grammatophora muricata, Shaw, sp.). 

Plate 112. — The Southern Chimasra (Callorhynchus antarcticus, Lacep. sp.). 

Plate 113. — The Port Jackson Shark, or Bull-dog Shark (Heterodontns Phillipi, Lacep. sp.). 

Plate 114. — The Australian Rough Fish (Trachichthys Australis, Shaw). 

Plate 115. — The Skip-jack Pike (Lanioperca mordax, Giiuth.). 

Plate 116. — Beania mirabilis (Johnst.). — Mucronella tricuspis (Hincks). — M. Isevis (P. McG.). — 

M. vultur (Hincks). — Cyclicopora longipora (P. McG.). 
Plate 117. — Beania decumbens (P. McG.). — B. costata (Busk sp.). — B. Crotali (Busk sp.). — 

B. radicifera (Hincks sp.). — Amphiblestrum patellarium (Moll sp.). 
Plate 118.— Hornera foliacea (P. McG.).— H. robusta (P. McG.). 
Plate 119. — The Smaller Green Gum-tree Grasshopper (Phaneroptera valida, Walk.). 
Plate 120. — The Thirty-two Spotted Grasshopper (Phaneroptera [Ephippitytha] trigintiduoguttata, 

Serv.). 



DECADE XIII. 

Plate 121. — The Bearded Lizard (Grammatophora barbata, Kaup). 

Plate 122. — The Southern Silyer Ribbon-iish (Trachypterus toenia, Bloch). 

Plate 123. — The Two-pronged Toad-fish (Chironectes bifurcatus, McCoy). 

Plate 124. — Brown's Tooth-brush Leather-jacket (Monacanthus Browni, Rich, sp.). 

Plate 125. — The Horse-shoe-m.arked Leather-jacket (Monacanthus hippocrepis, Quoy and Galm., sp.). 

Plate 126. — Maplestonia cirr.ata (P. McG.). — Scrupocellaria cyclostoma (Busk). — S. obtecta (Haswell). 
— S. cervicornis (Busk). — S. scrupea (Busk). — S. ornithorhynchus (Wyv. Thom.). 

Plate 127. — Membranipora pyrula (Hincks). — il. corbula (Hincks). — M. inarmata (Hincks). — M. 
peetinata (P. McG.).— M. serrata (P. McG).— M. ciliata (P. McG.).— Amphiblestrum 
albispinum (P. McO). — Membranipora spinpsa (Quoy and Gaim.). 

Plate 128. — Cellepora speciosa (P. McG.).— C. serratirostris (P. McG.). — C. tridenticulata (Busk). 

Plate 129. — The Netted Acripcza (Acripeza reticulata, Gucrin). 

Plate 13U. — The Broad-styled Mantis (Mantis latistylus, Serv.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE XIV. 

Plate 131. — The Southern, or Blotched, Blue-tongued Lizard (Cyclodus nigroluteus, Quoy and 
Gaim. sp.). 

Plate 132.— The Thick-tailed Gecko (Phyllurus Miliusii, Bory).— The Marbled Gecko (Diplodactylus 
marmoratus, Gray). 

Plate 133.— Ray's Sea Bream (Brama Kayi, Bloch). 

Plate 134.— Bleeker's Parrot-fish (Labrichthys Bleekeri, Cast.). 

Plate 135.— The Black-finned Half-beak, or Sea Gar-'fish (Hemiramphus intermedins, Cant.). — The 
Saury Pike (Scomberesox saurus, Bloch, sp. ; var. Forsteri, Cur. and Val). 

Plate 136.— Caberea rudis (Busk).— C. grandis (Hincks). — Cauda arachnoides (Lamx.).— C. tenuis 
(P. McG.). 

Plate 137.— Caberea Darwinii (Busk).— C. glabra (P. McG.)— ^tea dilatata (Busk).— ^. anguina 
(Linn. sp.). 

Plate 138.— Schizoporella punctigera (P. McG.). — S. lata (P. McG.).— S. triangula (Hincks). — 
S. daidala (P. McG.).— S. subsinuata (Hincks).— S. Ridleyi (P. McG.).— S. arach- 
noides (P. McG.).— S. cryptostoma (P. McG.).— Gemellipora striatula (Smitt). 

Plate 139.— The Dusky Flat-horned Locust (Opsomala sordida. And. Serv.). The Pedestrian Mid- 
Eyed Locust (Mesops pedestris, Erichson). 

Plate 140. — The Cinnamon Keel-backed Locust (Tropinotus Australis, Leach). 



DECADE XV. 

Plate 141. — The Spiny-ridged Lizard (Egernia Cunninghami, Gray). 

Plate 142. — The Brown Pseudechys (Pseudechys Australis, Gray). 

Plate 143. — Peron's Leatherjacket (Monacanthus Peronii, Hollard). 

Plate 144. — The Spinous Shark (Echinorhinus spinosus, Lin. sp.). 

Plate 145. — Banks' Oar -Fish (Regalecus Banksi, Cut. sp.) 

Plate 146. — Catenicella gemella (McG.). — C. urnula (McG.). — C. gracilenta (McG.).— C. venusta 

(McG.). — Claviporella pulchra (McG.). — C. imperforata (McG.). 
Plate 147. — ^Diastopora eristata (McG.).— D. capitata (McG.). — D. bicolor (McG.). — D. sarniensis 

(Norman). — D. patina (Lam. sp.). 
Plate 148. — Cellepora megasoma (McG.). — C. costata (McG.).— C. rota (McG.). — C. costazei, var. 

(Audouin). — C. platalea (McG.). — C. glomerata (McG.). — C. Titrea (McG.). — C. tiara 

(McG.).— C. beuemunita (McG.). 
Plates 149, 150.— Southern Spiny Lobster, Melbourne Craw-flsh (Palinurus Lalandi, Lam. MSS.). 



DECADE XVI. 

Plate 151. — Gould's Monitor Lizard (Monitor Gouldi, Gray). 

Plates 152, 153. — The Pygopus (Pygopus lepidopus, Lacep. sp.). — Frazer's Delma CDelma Frazeri, 

Gray). 
Plate 154. — Commerson's Mackerel (Cybium Commersoni, Lacep. sp.). 
Plate 155. — The Melbourne Pelamyde (Pelarays Schlegeli, McCoy). 
Plate 156.— Lagenipora tuberculata (McG.).— L. nitens (McG.).— Lekythopora hystrix (McG.). — 

Pcecilopora anomala (JIcG.) 
Plate 157.— Fasciculipora gracilis (McG.).— F. bellis (McG.).— F. fruticosa (McG.).— F. ramosa 

(D'Orbigny). 
Plate 158. — Farciminaria aculeata (Busk).— F. uncinata (Hincks).— F. simplex (McG.).— Brace- 

bridgia pyriformis (Busk sp.). 
Plate 159. — Sydney Craw-fish or Spiny Lobster (Palinurus Hiigeli, Heller). 
Plate 160.— The Yarra Spiny Cray-fish (Astacopsis serratus, Shaw sp.). var. Tarraensis (McCoy.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE XVII. 

Plate 161. — Burton's Lialis (Lialis Burtoni, Gray). 

Plate 162. — The Lined Aprasia (Aprasia pulchella, Gray), Fischer's False Delma (Pseudodelma 

impar, Fischer). 
Plate 163. — The Broad-striped or Senator Parrot-fish (Labrichthys laticlavius, Ricji, sp.). 
Plate 164. — Macleay's Wrasse (Heteroscarus Macleayi, McC'jy). 
Plate 165.— Cellopora simplex (McG.). — C. diadema (McG.). — C. spicata (McG.). — C. cidaris 

(McG.). — C. bispinata (Busk). 
Plate 166. — Cellepora verrucosa (McG.). — C. foliata (McG.). — C. intermedia (McG.). — C. prolifera 

(McG.). 
Plate 167. — C. albirostris (Sinitt). — C. fusca (McG.). — C. lirata (McG.).— C. mslgmrostris (McG.). 
Plate 168. — Chitinous parts of opercula of Cellepora and Schismopora: C. glomerata, C. platalea, 

C. costata, C. megasoma, C. vitrea, C. tiara, C. simplex, C. spicata, C. bispinata, C. foliata, 

C. prolifera, C. albirostris, C. serratirostris, C. lirata, C. verrucosa, C. fusca, C. magni- 

rostris. 
Plates 169, 170. — Gould's Sijuid (Ommastrephes Gouldi, McCoy). 



CONTENTS OF DECADE XYIL 



N.B. — The origiiMila of all tlic Figures are in the National Museum, Melbourne. 



Plate 161. — Burton's Lialis (Lialis Burtoni, Gray). 

Plate 162. — The Liued Aprasia (Aprasia pulchella, Gray), Fischer's False Delma (Pseudodelma 
impar, Fisclier). 

Plate 163. — The Broad-striped or Senator Parrot-flsh (Labrichthys laticlarins, Kidi, sp.). 

Plate 164. — Macleay's Wrasse (Heteroscarus Macleayi, McCoy). 

/^ Plate 165.— Cellepora simplex (McG.).— C. diadema (McG.), — C. spicata (M(5G.).— C. cidaris 
(McG.). — C. bispinata (Busk). 

Plate 166. — Cellepora Terrucosa (McG.). — G. foliata (McG.). — C. intermedia (McG.). — C. proUfera 
(McG.). 

'.Plate 167. — C. albirostris (Smitt).— C. fusca (McG.).— C. lirata (McG.).— C. magnirostris (McG.). 

Plate 168. — Chitinous parts of opercula of Cellepora and Schismopora: C. glomerata, C. platalea, 
C. costata, C. megasoma, C. vitrea, C. tiara, C. simplex, C. spicata, C'. bispinata, C. foliata, 
C. prolifera, C. albirostris, C. serratirostris, C. lirata, C. verrucosa, 0. fusca, C. magni- 
rostris. 

Plates 169, 170. — Gould's Squid (Ommastreplics Gouldi, McCoy). 



q. 



^^ — ' yj—c/ -c /I 





PRODROMUS 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA; 



FIGUEES AND DESCEIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



DECADE XVIII. 



FEEDERICK McCOY, C.M.G., M.A.,Sc. D.Cantab., F.R.S., 

HONOBART MEMBER OF THE CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY; HONORARY ACTIVE MEMBER OP THE UIPERIAL SOCIETY 

OF NATCRALISTS OF MOSCOW; CORRESPOKDING MEMBER OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON; 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES; HONORARY MESIBER OF THE NEW ZEALAND 

INSTITUTE ; HONORARY FELLOW OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH ; HONORARY MEMBER OF THB 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF MANCHESTER, 

ETC., ETC., ETC. 

ADTHOH OP "SYNOPSIS OF THE CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONK FOSSILS OF IRELAND;" "SYNOPSIS OF THE SILURIAN FOSSILS OF 

IBELAND ; " " CONTRIBUTIONS TO BRITISH PALAEONTOLOGY ; " ONE OF THE AUTHORS OF SEDGWICK AND JIcCOY'S 

" BRITISH PALAEOZOIC ROCKB AND FOSSILS ; " " PRODROMUS OF THE PALEONTOLOGY OF VICTORIA," ETC. 

PROFESSOR OF NATURAL SCIENCJE IN THE MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY. 
GOVERNMENT PALEONTOLOGIST, AND DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF MELBOURNE, ETC, 




MELBOURNE : 

BT AUTHORITY : ROBT. S. BRAIN, GOVKRNMEUT PRINTER. 

LONDON . 
TJt'cBNEB AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATE HILL. 

UDCGCLXXXIX. 




rP ^- - -^ 



ij 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



It having been considered desirable to ascertain accurately the 
natural productions of the Colony of Victoria, and to publish works 
descriptive of them, on the plan of those issued by the Governments 
of the different States of America, investigations were undertaken, 
by order of the Victorian Government, to determine the Geology, 
Botany, and Zoology of the Colony, to form collections illustrative of 
each for the public use, and to make the necessary preparations for 
such systematic publications on the subject as might be useful and 
interesting to the general pubhc, and contribute to the advancement 
of science. 

As the geological and botanical investigations have already 
approached completion, and their publication is far advanced, it 
has been decided now to commence the pubhcation of the third 
branch completing the subject, namely, that of the Zoology or 
indigenous members of the different classes of the animal kingdom. 

The Fauna not being so well known as the Flora, it was a necessary 
preHminary to the publication to have a large number of drawings 
made, as opportunity arose, from the living or fresh examples of 
many species of reptiles, fish, and the lower animals, which lose their 
natural appearance shortly after death, and the true characters of 
many of which were consequently as yet unknown, as they had 
only been described from preserved specimens. A Prodromus, or 
preliminary issue, in the form of Decades, or numbers of ten plates, 
each with its complete descriptive letterpress, will be pubhshed, of 
such illustrations as are ready, without systematic order or waiting 
for the completion of any one branch. The many good observers 
in the country will thus have the means of accui-atelj^ identifying 
various natural objects, their observations on which, if recorded and 
sent to the National Museum, where the originals of all the figui-es 
and descriptions are preserved, will be duly acknowledged, and 
will materially help in the preparation of the final systematic volume 
to be published for each class when it approaches completion. 



4 
i 



Ilatitral Sifitorn 4 §ittijriH. 



PRODROMUS 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA; 



FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



DECADE ZVIII. 



FEEDERICK McCOY. C.M.G., M.A., ScD. Cantab, F.R.S., 

UONORARY MEMBER OF THE CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY; HONORART AC'n\'B MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL SOCIETY 

OF NATURALISTS OF MOSCOW ; CORRESPONTUNG MEMBER OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON ; 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES ; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE NEW ZEALAND 

INSTITUTE ; HONORARY FELLOW OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH ; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF MANCHESTER, 

ETC., ETC., ETC, 

AUTHOR OF "SYNOPSIS OF THE CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE FOSSILS OF IRELAND;" "SYNOPSIS OF THE SILURIAN FOSSILS OP 

IRELAND;" "CONTRIBUTIONS TO BRITISH PALJ^ONTOLOGY ; " ONE OF THE AUTHORS OF SEDGWICK AND McCOY'S 

"BRITISH PALEOZOIC ROCKS AND FOSSILS;" "PRODROMUS OF THE PALAEONTOLOGY OF VICTORIA," ETC. 

PROFESSOR OF NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY. 
GOVERNMENT PALAEONTOLOGIST, AND DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF MELBOURNE, ETC, 




MELBOURNE : 

BY AUTHORITY : ROBT. S. BRAIN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 

LONDON : 

TRUBNER AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATE HILL. 
M DCCC LXXXIX. 



PEEFACE. 



The first plate in this Eighteenth Decade represents a newly- 
discovered, third species of Blue-tongued Lizard, Cyclodus 
occipitalis, very rare in Victoria, the only examples I have seen 
being from the North-Western District ; remarkable for the 
great number and size of the occipital plates on the back part 
of the head. 

The second plate shows one of the largest and most con- 
spicuously coloured of our food fishes, the true Yellow-Tail, 
Seriola Lalandi. 

The third and fourth plates show two ot the many varieties 
of another of our large and often beautifully-coloured food 
fishes, the Chilodactylus carponemus, not figured of the natviral 
tints before. 

The next four plates continue our illustrations of Victorian 
Polyzoa, through the kindness of Mr. MacGillivray, whose ex- 
tensive collection is given with the descriptions for the National 
Museum and this work. 



PREFACE. 



Plates 179 and 180 give for the first time complete figures 
of the living colours, of both sexes, of the Great Red King- 
Crab of the Colonists, Pseudocarcinus gigas, which greatly 
exceeds in size and brilliancy of colour any other species of 
the family Canceridce. 

The succeeding Decades mil illustrate as many different 
genera as possible, and deal first, usually, with species of some 
special interest and of which good figures do not exist or are 
not easily accessible, 

Frederick McCoy. 
25th May, 1889. 



'-Tf 



pini 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

('Peptilfs} 




D'JJV/iUdjtleb btk, 



Frt>rM'C<r/ ihmrl 



Steajn ItJjw tiiv'Aw&y O^Tia 



Zoohgy.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Bepliles. 



Plate 171. 

CYCLODUS OCCIPITALIS (Peters). 
The Broad-Banded or Occipital Blue-Tongue Lizard. 

[Genus CYCLODUS (Waglek). (Sub-kingdom Vertebrata. Class Reptilia. Order 
Sauria. Sub-order Leptoglossse. Tribe Geissosaura. Family Scincidse.) 

Gen. Char. — Form moderately thick, elongate, fusiform. Head large, thick, sub-trigonal, 
obtusely pointed in front. Neck short, thick. Head shields thick, rather rugose ; nasal plates 
near the tip of snout, touching (or nearly) each other aboye, ovato-trigonal ; nostril in centre 
of nasal plate, with a curved furrow bordering its posterior edge ; internasal or prefrontal 
plate rhombic ; no supranasals ; frontonasals two, moderate, touching ; frontal large, broad 
obtuse-angled in front, narrow behind ; two moderately large fronto-parietal plates ; parietals 
large ; interparietal resembling the frontal, and nearly as long, but much narrower, acute- 
angled in front ; four superciliary plates over tach eye, the second largest ; about five rows of 
temporal plates between the eye and the ear ; polygonal occipital shields in one or more trans- 
verse rows ; orbit surrounded by a row of small plates ; two or more frenal plates between the 
nasal plate and the orbit ; lower eyelid scaly. Ear-opening large. Scales of back and sides 
bony, large, convex, subhexagonal, rugose, with obscure, diverging grooves ; scales of belly 
thinner and smoother. Legs four, nearly equal, small, short, strong ; feet small, each with five, 
short, cylindrical, subequal toes ; subdigital plates undivided ; claws short, thick. Tail short, 
slightly less than half of the total length, subcylindrical, very slightly compressed laterally, 
tapering, with rather thicker scales than the back of the body, and a central row of large, broad 
scales below. Tongue short, flat, scaly, slightly notched at the point. Teeth on edge of jaws, 
bluntly rounded ; palate without teeth, with a triangular notch behind, extending forwards as 
far as middle of eye ; palatine bones meeting in midline of palate.] 

DESCRIPTION. — Head acutely ano-iilar, tip of snout obtusely rounded. Cephalic 
plates : Rostral hexagonal, separating' nasals above, touching the heptagonal inter- 
nasal or prefrontal (which does not touch the frontal, being separated from it by 
the junction of the two large frontonasals, which join by their inner edge), by 
anterior edge, second frenal plate by outer edge, first supraciliary by hind external 
edge, and frontal by hind internal edge; five superciliary plates, two middle ones 
narrowest and over ej'e ; two large supra-ocular plates, anterior largest, subtrigonal 
or pentagonal, touching first three superciliary plates by outer edges, second supra- 
ocular and frontonasal by middle and inner hind edges, and frontal by inner edge ; 
some specimens have a very small third supra-ocular wedged between the third and 
fourth superciliary plates, the second supra-ocular, and the parietal ; hinder supra- 
ocular touches third and fourth superciliaries by outer edges, parietals by hind edge, 
and frontoparietals by inner edge : frontal large, tetragonal, width between anterior 
lateral angles equal to length from its anterior angle to anterior edge of inter- 
nasal or prefrontal; length varying from equal to length from anterior angle 
to tip of snout at middle of rostral, to from same point to anterior edge of 
internasal; long lateral sides converging to posterior angle between the fronto- 
parietals; frontoparietals small, subquadrate or pentagonal, touching each other 
in midline, frontal with inner anterior edge, anterior supra-ocular with anterior 
outer edge, posterior supra-ocular with posterior outer edge, interparietal with 
inner posterior edge, and parietal with outer posterior edge ; parietals large, 
much longer and wider than frontoparietals; interparietal narrow, hexagonal, 
Dointed behind (so that there is no azygous occipital plate); three or four 
transverse rows of pairs of occipital plates behind the interparietal, the first being 

Vol. II.— Dkcabe XVIII.— 2j. [ 259 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Reptiles. 

about four-fifths the length of the interparietal, the anterior temporals only slightly 
smaller than the second row; earopenino: with three or four large lobe scales pro- 
jecting from anterior margin. Scales subhexagonal, or with posterior edge rounded 
on belly, smooth below, nearly smooth on back, in some specimens distinctly marked 
with from three to eight irregular longitudinal ridges, which are either straight and 
simple, or branching and anastomosing ; forty round middle of body, those of the 
sides slightly smaller than those of the back and belly : ten supralabial plates, the 
fifth larger than the fourth or sixth, ninth very large : infralabials, eleven ; chin plate 
transversely oblong, twice as wide as deep, width equalling three succeeding inira- 
labials ; three large lateral gular plates on each side, with one azygous gular behind 
the chin plate in front. Colour : Above light brown, with four or five, broad, trans- 
verse, blackish-brown bands, nine or ten scales wide (in some specimens these 
transverse bands are broken up irregularly by some lighter scales), with narrower, 
lighter intervals between, five or six scales wide, and three or four dark bands on 
tail, separated by slif^htly wider light spaces; top of the head dark brown, with a 
broad, brownish-black, ovate patch, extending from eye to upper part of ear; limbs 
and under-side of throat, belly and tail brownish-white, the distal part of limbs 
darker above; rough warty plates of soles of the feet and transverse subdigital 
plates brownish-black ; iris dark brown; tongue bright Prussian blue ; interior of 
mouth pink. 

Measurements. 

Total length of average specimen 

Length of head from snout to anterior edge of ear 

Width of head 

Length of iuternasal plate ... 

Width of „ „ ... 

Length of frontal plate 

Greatest width of frontal plate 

Length of interparietal 

Greatest width of interparietal 

Length of middle pair of first row of oocipitals 

Length of second „ „ „ 

Length of third „ „ ,, 

Height of rostral plate 

Diameter of ear 

From tip of snout to anterior edge of shoulder 

Length of anterior limb to tip of longest claw 

„ of longest toe and claw 

„ from anterior edge of shoulder to anterior edge of thigh 

„ of hind limb to e.xtremity of longest claw 

„ of tail 
Girth round middle of body 
Six transverse and seven longitudinal rows of scales in space of one inch on 
middle of back. 

Reference. — Peters, Monatsberichte, Berlin Akad., 1863, p. 231 = C.fasciatus, 
Liitken Vidensk. Meddel, 1862, p. 292, t. 1, f 1. 

This species is readily distinguished from the other two of the 
genus (figui-ed in our pkites 73 and 131) by the great number and 
size of the rows of occipital plates behind the inter-parietal. The 
head is also more pointed, and the colouring, which more nearly 
resembles that of C. gigas than C. nigroluteus, is distinguished by 
the smaller number and greater width of the transverse bands 

[ 260 ] 



Ft. 


Ins. 


lines. 


1 


4 


6 





•2 








1 


9 








U 








5 








6 








5 








5 








2 








4 








3 








n 








n 








4 





3 


4 





2 


1 








4 





6 


10 





2 


2 





5 


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5 


9 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Reptile3. 

marking tlie upper surfiice. This species is very rare in Victoria, 
only one or two specimens having been seen in the Western 
District, near Horsham ; it is, however, moi'e common in South 
and West AustraHa. The specimen figured was presented to the 
Museum by Mr. Le Suoef, who had it alive in the Zoological 
Gardens in the Eoyal Park. 

Explanation op Figures. 

Plate 171. — Fig. 1, average specimen, two-thirds the natural size. Fig. I«, top view of 
head, showing three rows of pairs of large occipital plates behind interparietal, natural size. 
Fig. 16, under view of head, showing chin and infralabial plates, with large median and lateral 
gular plates below them. Fig. Ic, side view of head, showing labial plates ami temporal plates 
of specimen with four lobed scales in front of ear. Fig. Irf, eye, showing surrounding scaly 
plates and five superciliary plates, magnified. Fig. le, front view, showing rostral and chin plates. 
Fig. ]/, magnified view of infralabial and gular plates. Fig. Ig, nasal plate pierced by nostril, 
with curved sulcus behind, magnified. Fig. Ih, scales of belly, magnified. Fig. H, scales of 
back, magnified. Fig. li, hind foot, showing tuberculated sole and transverse infradigital 
plates, magnified. Fig. 11, same view of anterior foot, magnified. 



Frederick McCoy. 



[ 261 



\1^ 



Pint 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(IisKes) 




A-BarOujUman* Jet tl hA^ 



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Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 



Plate 172. 

SERIOLA LALANDI (Cuv. and Val.). 

The Yellow- Tail. 

[Genus SERIOLA (Ctrv.) (Sub-kingdom Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Sub-class Teleostei. 
Order Acanthopterygii. Family Carangidas.) 

Oen. Char.— Body oblong, elongate, ovate, moderately compressed ; profile of head 
moderately convex, slightly convex thence to origin of second dorsal, nearly straight thence to 
depression near base of caudal ; profile of belly gently convex to origin of anal, nearly straight 
thence to a slight depression near origin of caudal; abdomen rounded, not sharp-edged. Scales 
very small, irregularly arranged. Cleft of the mouth moderate. First dorsal with small spines 
connected by membrane, nearly joining the very long falcate second dorsal ; anal falcate, with 
two sm.all spines, separate from the others in front ; no finlets behind dorsal nor anal ; caudal 
large, forkeii ; pectoral and thoracic ventrals moderate. Lateral line undulated in anterior half, 
straight on posterior half, not armed by peculiar scales. Preoperculum very finely serrated by 
minute radiating striae. Teeth forming broad, villiform bands on the jaws, the vomer and the 
palatine bones. Branchiostegal rays seven. Air-bladder large. Pyloric appendages many. 
Tropical and temperate seas.] 

D. 7'l/34; A. 2-1/31; C. |±i|; P. 20 ; V. 1. 5; L. lat. 203|f. 

Description. — Body elongate, ovate, greatest depth at origin of second dorsal, 
about equal to from snout to middle of base of pectoral ; about 4 J times in total length 
to end of caudal fin ; snout about twice the diameter of the eye in length ; maxillary 
very broad, as wide as diameter of eye behind, with supplementary bone above, 
reaching a little beyond anterior margin of orbit ; ventrals 2^ in distance between 
their origin and origin of anal. Teeth: A broad band of minute villiform teeth on 
each jaw ; a broad, ovate patch on each palatine, behind which are larger groups of 
small clusters of minute teeth ; vomer with a large patch, broad and rhombic in 
front, with a narrow posterior prolongation ; a large rhomboidal patch on tongue, 
with numerous small clusters on sides. Scales : Very small, rounded, irregularly 
arranged ; with an imperfect fan of few rays behind, and the concentric lines ot 
growth slightly undulated, but not enough to serrate the posterior edge; those on 
cheeks about the same size as those on body ; those of tubular lateral line narrow, 
elongate, oblong. The posterior and inferior edges of the preoperculum marked with 
very fine, radiating stride, about 14 in three lines, giving a very minute, almost imper- 
ceptible serration to the edge (too coarse in our plate). Lateral line slightly and 
irregularly undulated to vertical of origin of anal, thence straight to middle of tail, 
raised into a distinct keel on the middle of pedicle. Fitis : Spines of anterior dorsal 
thick but short, first spine one-third the length of the second; second dorsal falcate, 
the first ray simple, less than half the length of the second, all the rest largely 
branched ; the second, third and fourth longest, rapidly diminishing to the fourteenth, 
after which they are nearly equal to the last two, which are larger than the preceding 
ones. Anal : The two short anterior spines, without membrane, are about the length 
of the second one, distant from the rest of the anal fin ; first spine of continuous anal 
about one-third the length of the succeeding branched ray, which is longest ; the 
length rapidly diminishing to the eighth, after which the length is nearly uniform 
to the last two, which are longer. Caudal large, deeply forked, the middle nearly 
straight. Pectoral and ventral fins moderately pointed. 

[ 263 ] 



Zoology.'] 



NATUEAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



[^Fishes 





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11 



Measceembnts. 

Total length from tip of snout to end of upper lobe of caudal, of small 
„ „ „ anterior edge of orbit 

,, „ „ posterior edge of orbit 

„ ,, „ end of maxillary 

„ „ „ edge of operculum 

„ „ „ base of pectoral ... 

„ „ „ first dorsal spine 

„ ,, „ first branched ray of dorsal 

„ ,, „ base of last ray of dorsal ... 

„ „ „ base of ventral ... 

„ „ ., first spine of anal 

„ „ ,, last ray of anal ... 

„ „ „ origin of caudal ... 

Greatest length of pectoral 
„ ., ventral 

Height of first dorsal spine 
„ second dorsal spine 
,, first branched ray 
„ twelfth branched r,ay ... 
„ first anal spine 
„ second an.al spine 
„ third anal spine 
„ first branched ray 
„ eighth branched ray ... 
Length of lobes of caudal 
Depth of head ... 

Greatest depth of body, opposite origin of branched dorsal ... 
Space between eyes 
Diameter of orbit 
Seven or eight scales in six lines about middle of body. 

Colour: Caudal fin bright g'ambog-e yellow, with darker base and narrow whitish 
posterior edge. Dorsal fin yellowish-olive, with brighter yellowish edge. Ventral 
and anal with pale purplish menibrane, yellow rays and narrow whitish tips. Pec- 
toral very pale yellowish, purplish at the base. A dull yellowi.sh bronze band, about 
the width of the eye, extends from posterior edge of eye to upper lialf of base of tail, 
a little wider about middle of body, where its lower edge is slightly above the middle 
of the depth ; back and sides, above yellowish band, dark purplish blue, darkest and 
with an olive tint on top of head, gradually becoming lighter over cheeks to throat; 
lips dull yellowish ; sides, below yellowish band, and the belly pale purplish pearly 
white. Iris yellow. 

Reference. — Cuv. and Val., Hist. Nat. des Poiss., v. 9, p. 208 = 5. axireo- 
vittata, Schlegel, F. Jap. Poiss., t. 62, f. 1 = <S. grandis, Cast., Proc. Zool. Soc. Vict., 
V. J, p. 115. 

There can be no doubt tliat tbis fish, so very conspicuous by its 
size and colouring in the fish shops in summer, is perfectly identi- 
cal with Schlegel's Japan Seriola cmi-eo-vittata, and I should have 
preferred to use this name if Dr. Giinther had not satisfied himself 
that it was a synonym of Cuvier and Valencienne's Brazilian 
>S. Lalandi, which he traced by specimens across the Atlantic at 
St. Helena and the Cape of Good Hope. It is certain also that 
Count Castlenau's S. grandis of the Melbourne fish shops is the 

[ 264 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 

same species, the difference he gives in numliev of the rays of the 
dorsal and aual fins lieing simply inexpHcable. The numbers of 
the tin rays and spines, as I give them, have been tested on great 
numbers of specuiieus. The bright yellow of the tail, as in our 
figure, is generally very conspicuous, and as I give it ; but in 
many specimens the base is of a darker brownish hue, and some- 
times, although rarely, the fin assumes a brownish olive tint. The 
bright gamboge yellow is, however, the striking, usual, charac- 
teristic colour. The yellow band passing through the eye along 
the sides to the tail, although generally very conspicuous, is 
occasionally duller or more obscure in some specimens. About 
three feet long is the average size ; but specimens occasionally 
occur four feet in length, and I have heard of some weighing 
90lbs. The air bladder is large, with two small lateral lobes in 
front. 

Explanation of FiGtiBES. 

Plate 172. — Fig. 1, arerage specimen, one-fourth the natural size. Fig. la, head (striation 
and serration of preoperculum much too coarse). Fig. 16, teeth of jaws, vomer and palatine, 
three-fifths the natm'al size. Fig. \c, teeth on upper jaw and tongue. Fig. \d, scale of sides, 
magnified four diameters (the concentric lines and margin on the posterior portion should be 
slightly more undulated). Fig. le. scale from lateral line, magnified four diameters. Fig. 1/, 
section of pedicle of tail, to show the keels. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 265 ] 



ri m 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(FisTits) 




ASarAalamti^ del et luk- 



hofii'^Cav Oirarf 



Au/%. luAe um'fnniiy O^Hcm 



PL 174-. 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(lishes) 




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Stian UAa iJw^hvUa^ Of/ia 



Zooloyv.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Finhet. 



Plates 173 and 174. 

CHILODACTYLUS CARPONEMUS (Cuv. and Val.). 
The Long-fingered Chilodactylus. 

[Genus CHILODACTYLUS (Cdv.). (Sub kingdom Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Sub-class 
Teleostca. Order Acanthoptcrygii. Family Cirrliitidae). 

Geu. Char. — Oval, compressed ; moutli small. One dorsal fin, with 16 to 10 spines ; anal fin 
of moderate length ; ventrals under about the middle of pectorals ; caudal forked ; lower rays 
of pectoral unbrauched, one or more prolonged beyond the membrane. Teeth in villiform bands 
on the jaws, outer row largest, but no canines ; no teeth on the vomer or palatine bones. Pre- 
orbital and ])reoporculum entire. Scales of moderate size, cycloid. Cheeks and opercular pieces 
scaly. Five or si.x branchiostegal rays. Air-bladder usually with many lobes. Temperate 
regions of Pacific and ludiau Oceans.] 

B. 6*; D. 17 + 32t; C. 17; A. 3 + 19; V. 1 + 5; P. 15; L. 1. GG}^. 

Description. — Ovate, dorsal and ventral lines moderately convex, tapering 
rapidh' to near ba.se of tail ; seven lower rays of pectoral simple, also the upper two ; 
sixth pectoral ray from bottom longest, reaching horizontally to posterior edge of 
row of scales running to eleventh ray of anal ; fifth ray from bottom also elongate, 
but not reaching beyond the row of scales which forms anterior side of anus. Length 
of head 4^ in total length including lower lobe of caudal ; greatest dejith 3^ in 
same total length. Diameter of eye half the length of snout, 4^ in length of head. 
Outer row of teeth strong and blunt, inner rows more slender and arched. Fifth and 
sixth dorsal rays longest; first dorsal moderatel}- arched, outline only slightly rising 
to second dorsal, the rays of which are more nearly equal. First ray of anal half the 
length of second or third; all of them rather slender, second thickest. Scales on 
plates of head small, about three rows of very small scales on edges of channel into 
which the dorsal fins may be depressed. Colour.- Bluish slate gre}', fading to 
white on lower edge of jaw and, belly, and brighter blue on top of head and snout. 
Numerous narrow, flexuous, bright yellow lines radiate from the upper three-fourths 
of the orbit, branching as they pass over the front ; three of the branches running 
as narrow yellow lines below the base of dorsal. All the fin rays of the slate colour 
of the body, those of the pectoral palest, nearly white, and the branched rays of the 
dorsal with three rows of yellow spots ; membrane greyish, almost colourless, except 
the caudal, which is nearly as dark as the body. Iris orange-yellow; lips pink. 
Measurements : Length from tip of snout to base of caudal, 2 ft. 4 ins. Proportional 
measurements to length of body, as 100: Tip of snout to edge of operculum, -i%V; 
to anterior edge of orbit, -[-5%; diameter of orbit, -,;,-„ ; longest (third) branched ray 
of pectoral, ,%'jj; longest simple ray of pectoral, ^^j'^; next below, ■f^)^; next below, 
iVV; greatest length of ventral, j/ij; greatest height of spinous dorsal, -j-J^; 
greatest height of branched dorsal, -yfj,^; length of upper lobe of caudal, -i^^; lower 
lobe of caudal, ,-g"^; depth of body, -^'jP^. (I think the shortness of the u{)per lobe 
of the tail in this specimen, the figured one, must be an accidental individual 
peculiarity). 

Reference. — Hist. Poiss., v. 5, p. 3G2, t. 128. 

* Five long and a short anterior one. t Last two with one base. 

Vet. II.-Decade .\VIII.-2r. [ 267 ] 



Zoolngy.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IFIshes. 

This lar^e and beautiful food-fish has not been figured of the 
colours of life before, and I find the markings variable in difix?rent 
individuals ; they disappear in spirit and stuffed specimens 
completely. 

Rare in Hobson's Bay or at the Heads ; the specimen figured 
was caught in July, 1874. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 173. — Fig. 1, specimen, with lineated back, and with probably Injured upper lobe of 
tail, about one-third of natural size. Fig. la, teeth of upper jaw, natural size. Fig. 1ft, teeth 
of lower jaw, natural size. Fig. Ic, scale from middle of body, twice the natural size. Fig. Id, 
scale from lateral line, twice the natural size. Fig. le, form of section of middle of body. Fig. 
If, section of pedicle of tail. 



Plate 174. 
CHILODACTYLUS CARPONEMUS (Cuv. and Yal.) var. 

D. 17 + 33; P. 15; V. 1 +5; A. 3 + 18; C. f, L. 1. 62x\ (5 large, 3 small). 

Description. — Sixth pectoral ray from bottom reaching- horizontally to posterior 
edge of row of scales runuing to eighth ray of anal. First anal spine about half the 
length of the second, which is considerably thicker; third spine about as long as the 
second. Colotir: Cheeks and sides of upper half of back pale purplish-grey, with 
yellowish-brown bronze reflections, and with the edges of the scales bright blue, 
fading to white on lower half of body and belly. Front of head from snout to dorsal 
fin bright ultramarine blue and rich opaline purple, with numerous greenish-j'ellow 
undulating bands radiating in pairs from upper three-fourths of eye, widening as 
they cross over the front; binder ones only reaching edge of preoperculum (in 
another specimen they reach to edge of operculum), interrupted between the eyes. 
Middle of cheeks greenish ; throat purplish ; lower portion of opercular pieces and 
cbin whitish; fin rays blue, those of the branched dorsal with two rows of yellow 
spots. Membrane of spinous dorsal, pectoral, and ventral, pale-purplish, nearly 
colourless. Membrane of branched dorsal, and anal, pale-greenish, obscurelj' clouded 
with blue, orange, and yellow; rays blue; a bright hlue band at base on both rays 
and membrane; a pair of broad yellow lines (united posteriorly) run along base of 
branched dorsal. Membrane of caudal yellowish-olive, the upper and lower rays 
bright blue, a duller hlue on middle rays and narrow posterior edge. Iris yellow. 
Lips pink; inside of mouth black. Measurements : Length from tip of snout to base 
of caudal, 2 ft. 2| ins. Proportional measurements to length of bodj', as 100 : Tip 
of snout to edge of operculum, -^{^ ; to anterior edge of orbit, -^^^^^ ; diameter of 
orbit, Tojj; longest (third) branched ray of pectoral, -j"/^ ; longest simple ray of 
pectoral, x^-^; next ditto, ■!%";; next below, -iVtt ; greatest length of ventral, iVV ! 
greatest height of spinous dorsal, -j-J,,; greatest height of branched dorsal, xhsi 
length of upper lobe of caudal, xi^) lower lobe of caudal, -^-tj\; depth of body, ■^^. 

[ 268 ] 



Zoology.^ NATUBAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IFishes. 

I believe the fish figured on this plate to be only a variety of 
that represented on Plate 173. The specimen figured was caught 
at Port Phillip Heads in December, 1884. 

Explanation of Figdres. 
Plate 174. — Fig. 1, specimen, with plain back, and form of perfect caudal, about one-third 
the natural size. Fig. la, top of head to show pattern of the lineations. Fig. 16, teeth of upper 
and lower jaws. Fig. Ic, scale from below lateral line, magnified two diameters. Fig. Irf, tubular 
scale from lateral line, magnified two diameters. Fig, Ic, scale from above lateral line, magnified 
two diameters. 



Frederick McCoy. 



[ 269 ] 



Fl .175 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

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Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Po/yiofl. 



Plate 175, Fig. 1. 

TESSARADOMA MAGNIROSTRIS (McG.). 

[Genus TESSARADOMA (Norman). (Sub-kingdom Moliusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family Microporellidse.) 

Gen. Char. — Zoarium encrusting, or foliaceous and unilaminate, or erect and ramose. 
ZocEcium with the peristome produced and turned forwards in a tubular or subtubular manner; 
a median, tubular, zooecial pore.] 

Description. — Zoarium hemescharine, laro;e, thick. Zooecia large, indistinct, 
smooth when the thick epitheca is entire, with larg'e perforations when this is 
removed ; zooecial pore rounded, elevated, hetween the mouth and the middle of the 
zoceciura ; mouth larg-e, nearly straight below, arched above, peristome raised. 
On each side of the zooecium, below the mouth, a large avicularium with the long, 
pointed mandible directed transversely outwards. 

References. — Lepralia magnirostris, P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., 
July, 1882 ; Porina magnirostris, Hincks, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., October, 1884. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

Forms a thick hemescharine zoarium, the layers being occa- 
sionally folded and united back to back. The zocecia are large 
and very indistinct. The whole surface is covered by a thick 
epitheca on which the only mark seen is the tubular opening of 
the zooecial pore. When the epitheca is removed, the surface is 
seen to be covered with large perforations. In old specimens 
these may be filled in, or even become tubercular from the heaping 
up of calcareous matter. I have not seen ooecia. 

I have elsewhere shown that the name Porina, originally pro- 
posed by D'Orbigny (Paleontologie Francaise, v. 432) to include, 
amongst living forms, P. Africana (D'Orb. ) and. Eschara gracilis 
(Milne-Edwards), ought to be retained for those agreeing with 
Milne-Edwards' species in the possession of an external or 
adventitious pore formed by the growth of the peristome and, 
therefore, opening externally to the true mouth. Tessaradoma 
proposed by Norman for another species previously described by 
Busk as Onchopora horealis and by Sars as Qvadricellaria, clearly 

[ 271 ] 



Zoology.^ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPolyzoa. 

belongs to those species agreeing with his type and the present in 
having, among other characters, a true zooecial pore. 

Explanation of Figubes. 

Plate 175. — Fig. 1, specimen, natural size. Fig. la, two zooecia covered by the epitheca. 
Fig. 1 6, zooecium denuded of the epitheca. 



Plate 175, Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5. 
MICROPORELLA DIADEM A (McG.). 

VARIETIES LUNIPUNCTA, LONGISPINA, LATA, AND CANALICULATA. 

[Genus MICKOPORELLA (IIincks). (Sub-kingdom MoUusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. .Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family MicroporellidEe.) 

Gen. Char. — Mouth arched above, straight below, peristome not raised ; a single zooecial 
pore or a perforated plate below the mouth. Ooecia external. ] 

The ordinary form of this common and beautiful species has 
been already figured in Plate 37, fig. 6, and described. It is sub- 
ject to considerable variation, principally in the markings of the 
surfece, the size and form of the zocecial pore, as well as the spines 
and ooecium. Lepralia lunata (Plate 36, fig. 8) is also referable 
to the same species. Mr. Waters considers M. diadema as a form 
of the fossil Eschara decorata of Reuss, a determination with 
which I cannot agi'ee. 

The following varieties are worthy of distinction : — 
Variety hiiu'jntncta (McG.). Zooecia broad, smooth and slightly 
grooved at the edge. Zooecial pore a narrow lunate slit, equalling 
the mouth in width. Avicularia large, below the pore, with the 
mandible pointed upwards and outwards. Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., 
Nov. 1884. 

Variety longispina (McG.). Zooecia broad, slightly calcareous, 
grooved at the edges ; oral spines large, long, the lower on one or 
both sides of enormous length, antenniform, and articulated out- 
side the peristome. Zooecial pore round, oval or semicircular, of 
moderate or ratlier small size. Avicularia opposite the pore, 
pointing downwards and outwards. Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., Nov. 

1884. 

[ 272 ] 



Zoology.'\ NATUKAX, HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Polyzoa. 

Variety lata (McG.). Zooecia broad, flat, smooth except faint 
ffroovins: at the eda-es. Zooecial pore of moderate size, semilunar. 
Avicidaria generally situated above the level of the pore, sometimes 
by the side of the mouth, the long slender mandible mostly directed 
downwards. Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., Nov. 1884. 

Variety canalicidata (McG.). Zooecia very calcareous, edges 
deeply grooved, the intervening divisions and margins very cal- 
careous ; the grooves converging towards the central part, which 
is mai-ked otf by a heaped-up calcareous ridge. Zooecial pore ot 
moderate size, circular. Avicularia large, usually on one side 
only of the pore, with the mandible directed outwards. In the 
ooecia the band is smooth and a series of deep grooves, separated 
by calcareous ridges, converge to the centre, which is raised. In 
young specimens, the deposition of calcareous matter is very much 
smaller and the markings proportionately less distinct, but the 
form as figm*ed is very soon assumed. It is that which I previously 
described as Lepralia canalicidata, (Plate 37, fig. 4), but an 
examination of numerous specimens has satisfied me that, however 
distinct in appearance at first sight, it ought properly to be ranked 
merely as a variety of M. diadema. Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., Nov. 
1884. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 175. — Fig, 2. Microporella diadema, variety lunipuncta. Fig. 3, variety longispina. 
Fig. 4, variety lata. Fig. 5, variety canalicidata. 



Plate 175, Fig. 6. 
MICROPORELLA RENIPUNCTA (McG.). 

Description. — Zooecia ovate, distinct, smooth or faintly areolated at the 
margins; mouth straig-ht below, arched above, with three or four spines; a laro-e 
reniform, punctate plate, covering a zooecial pore below the mouth. An avicularium, 
with sharp pointed mandible, situated transversely between the pore and the mouth. 
Ocecia large, prominent, traversed by a thickened ridge separating an inferior area 
which is smooth or marked with radiating lines. 

Reference.— P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., July, 1882. 

[ 273 ] 



Zoologt/.-\ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

Readilj distinguished by the reniform, usually bulging plate 
covering the zooecial pore, the transverse avicularium (occasionally 
wanting), and the structure of the zooecium. In a variety of 
M. ciliata from California the round zooecial pore is closed by a 
finely cribriform plate. 

Explanation or Figure. 
Plate 175. — Fig 6, portion of specimen, magnified. 



Plate 176, Fig. 7. 
MICROPORELLA SCANDENS (McG.). 

Description. — Zocscia pyiiform, smooth ; mouth straight below, arched above; 
four or six long', articulated oral spines; zooecial pore small and lunate. Ooecia 
larg-e, rounded, upper edge, where adpressed to the zocecium above, slightly dentate. 

Reference.— P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., Nov. 1884. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

I have only seen a single small specimen, consisting of a chain 
of eight zocecia, four surmounted by ooecia, running up a twig 
of Biccllaria grandis. The habit of growth is not likely to be 
constant, but it seems to lie a distinct species from any other 
described form. 

Explanation of Figure. 
Plate 175. — Fig. 7, portion of specimen, magnified. 



Plate 175, Figs. 8 and 9. 
MICROPORELLA CILIATA (Linn. sp.). 

VARIETIES SPICATA AND PERSONATA. 

The cosmopolitan Micropo7-ella ciliata, already figured in 
Plate 37, fig. 1, is a very variable species, but can always be 
distinguished by the form of the mouth, the suboral pore, and 
lateral avicularia. These last vary much. In Australian specimens 

[ 274 ] 



Zoology.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. XPolyzoa. 

they have usually the rostrum very small, and a very long, 
vibraculoid, setiform mandible, but in others the avicularium is 
large, the mandible being broad, short and triangular. 

The following varieties are figured : — 

Variety spicata (McG.). Zooecia finely granular, a stout 
conical process from the front of the zooecium, below the pore 
which it conceals, directed upwards ; avicularium Avith long 
vibraculoid mandible. Ooecia prominent, granular. This resembles 
a figure given by Hincks as var. Californica., but Busk (Q. J. Mic. 
Sc, iv. 310) does not describe the peculiar process in his 
L. californica which undoubtedly is also a variety of M. ciliata. 

Variety p)^'>'sonata (Busk). An extension of the sides of the 
ooecium across the lower lip of the fertile zooecia. The zooecial 
pore seems to be sometimes external to this hood or pouch and 
sometimes enclosed within it. Avicularian mandible Ions: and 
vibraculoid. It has been described by Busk (Brit. Mus. Cat., Mar. 
Pol., pt. ii., p. 74, pi. xc, fi^s. 2, 3, 4 ; and Cliallenger Pol., pt. i., 
p. 137) as a distinct species, in consequence of the peculiar growth 
of the ooecium, a structui'e which occurs in several other species, 
not only of this genus. Hincks has rightly (Brit. Mar. Pol.) 
described it as a variety. 

Explanation of FienRES. 
Plate 1 75. — Fig. 8, Microporella ciliata, variety spicata. Fig. 9, variety personata. 



Plate 175, Figs. 10 and 11. 
MICROPORELLA MALUSII (Audouin sp.). 

VARIETIES PERSONATA AND THYREOPHOEA. 

This species has been already figured (PI. 36, fig. 7) and 
described, but the following varieties require notice : — 

Variety personata (McG.). Zooecia elongated, smooth, with 
very few stellate pvincta ; zooecial pore large, transverse, Ooecia 

Vol. ii.- Decade XVIII.— 2s. [ 275 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

large, granular, with a hooded extension across lower lip of fertile 
zooecium, the lower part frequently obscuring the pore which is 
external to it. 

Variety thyreophora (Busk). Zooecium with a scutiform area 
of variable size marked off in front, usually a row of stellate puncta 
on each side of this area and a transverse row immediately below 
the lower lip ; occasionally a double row on each side of the area ; 
the lower part of the zooecium without puncta. Ocecia usually 
large and entire, but at other times of moderate size and dentate, 
as in the figure. It. is described as a distinct species by Busk 
(Quart. Journ. Mic. Science, v. 172, pi. xv., figs. 4, 5) and as a 
variety by Hincks (Brit. Mar. Pol., p. 212). 

Explanation of Figures. 
Plate 175. — Fig. 10, Microporella Malusii, yarietj personata. Fig. II, variety thyreophora. 



Plate 175, Fio. 12. 
ESCHARIPORA STELLATA (Smitt). 

[Genus ESCHARIPORA (Smitt). (Sub-kingdom Mollusca Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family Microporellidse.) 

Gen. Char, — Zoarium encrusting. Mouth arched above, straiglit below ; several stellate 
zooecial pores on the front of the zooecia. Avicularian mandibles without projecting articular 
processes.] 

Description. — Zoarium encrusting. Zooecia distinct, broadly oval; surface 
with numerous stellate zocecial pores; mouth nearly straight below, thickened and 
arched above. A sessile avicularium at each angle of the mouth, the mandible 
directed upwards and inwards ; usually a third avicularium above the mouth with 
the mandible directed downwards. 

References. — Escharipora stellata, Smitt, Floridan Bryozoa, pt. ii., p. 26., 
pi. vi., fig. 130-133; Microporella stellata, P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., 
July, 1880. 

Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. Bracebridge Wilson. 

Forms very pretty silvery zoaria. The pores in youug specimens 
pierce the centres of thin rounded eminences. As age advances 
the pores become depressed owing to the deposition of calcareous 
matter between them. The supra-oral avicularium is not always 
present. I have not seen ooecia. 

[ 276 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

Smitt first proposed the genus Escharipora for species of 
CrihrUina (Gray) which he again referred back to that genus in 
the Floridan Bryozoa. He there retains Escharipora for the 
present and another species, E. mucronata^ which he doubtfully 
phaces with it, referring also to the same genus Eschara lichenoides 
(Busk, not M. Edwards) and E. distoma. At present, at any rate, 
I think it is better to keep this species under Escharipora, of 
which it may be taken as the type. It forms the transition between 
31icroporeUa and Adeona and AdeoneUopsis (McG.). The avicu- 
larian mandibles have no projecting articular processes as are found 
in Adeonellopsis, but not, so for as I am aware, in the true Micro- 
porellcB. These processes are not, however, as Busk supposed, 
confined to the Adeona group. I cannot agree with those authors 
who would unite Adeona and Adeonellopsis with Microporella for 
the sole reason of the jiresence of zooecial pores, as, besides the 
multiple or simple presence of these pores, there are other important 
differences which will be discussed when describing Ad,eonellopsis. 

Explanation of Figure. 

Plate 175. — Fig. 12, Group of zocEcia before calcification -has so far advanced as to cause 
depression of tbe zooecia. 



The specimens and descriptions of the species figured in this 
plate have been contributed by Mr. MacGillivray. 



Frederick McCoy. 



[ 277 ] 



HI. .176 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTO fi :A 






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Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Polyzoa. 



Plate 176, Fig. 1. 
STOMATOPORA GEMINATA (McG.). 

[Genus STOMATOPORA (Bronn). (Sub-kingdom MoUusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Cyclostomata. Family Tubuliporidae.) 

Oen. Char. — Zoarium adnata, simple or irregularly branched ; branches linear or ligulate. 
ZocEcia in single series or in more or less regular transverse rows.] 

Description. — Zoarium branched ; branches obscurely concentrically rug'ose ; 
surface with numerous small, brown, white-bordered puncta or pores. Zocecia 
separated by shallow sulci, opening in pairs or triplets; mouths projecting', turned 
rectangularly forwards, and closely united together laterally throughout their length. 

Pt. Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., March 1886. 

Explanation of FiGnsE. 
Plate 176. — Fig. 1, specimen magnified. , 



Plate 176, Fig. 2. 

FLOSCULIPORA PYGM^A (McG.). 

[Genus FLOSCULIPORA (McG.). (Sub-kingdom Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Cyclostomata. Family Discoporellidje.) 

Gen. Char. — Zoarium small, pedunculate, the peduncle consisting of smooth tubes or ridges, 
with interrening cancelli towards the upper part. Zooecia opening on the expanded summit, the 
peristome produced, dimidiate or lacerated, with numerous intermediate cancelli.] 

Description. — Peduncle composed of polished tubes, close together below, 
but separated above by intervening cancelli. Zocecia in distinct series at the margin, 
but confused towards the centre ; peristome of the external produced, dimidiate, 
bifid or lacerated, of the internal very little developed and frequently represented 
by a small spinous process. Cancelli between the rows of zocecia, externally large, 
towards the centre small and much resembling the zocecia. 

Reference.— P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict, July 1886. 

Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. Bracebridge Wilson. . 

This exquisite little species forms tufts about ^V of ^i mch high, 
and resembles a microscopic bouquet of flowers. It is attached to 
the zocecia of Catenicella. The external zooecia are very distinct, 
those on the outside continuous with the outer tubes of the stem. 
No doubt the whole peduncle is composed of the lower tubular 
parts of the zooecia. 

Explanation of Figures. 
Plate 176. — Fig. '2, specimen, natural size. Fig. 2a, the same, magnified. 

[ 279 ] 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Potyzoa. 



Plate 176, Fig. 3. 
LICHENOPORA MAGNIFICA (McG.). 

[Genus LICHENOPORA (Depranc). (Sub-kingdom Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Cyclostomata. Family DiscoporellidEe.) 

Oen. Char. — Zoarium adnate or partially free, frequently discoid or cupped, usually growing 
on a basal lamina, with a thin external margin. Zooecia partially free, disposed irregularly or 
in radiating series, with the intermediate surface cancellated, the cancelli, however, sometimes 
very obscure or almost wanting ; peristome usually lacerated or pointed to one side.] 

Description. — Zoarium encrusting, thick, raised into irregular mounds. 
Zooecia frequently closed by a membrane a short way down, either entire or with a 
circular aperture in the centre ; orifice very irreg'ular in size, usually oval, with the 
peristome produced on one side into a thick, spout-like, nearly erect projection, or 
sometimes divided. The zooecia in many parts arrang'ed on slightly elevated ridg-es, 
radiating- from a depressed central portion; in the lower and intervening- zooecia the 
peristome slig-htly developed, althoug-h often divided into two or three narrow 
processes ; those on the ridg-es with the spout-like peristome entire or with small 
secondary processes on the sides, always pointing- towards the central depression. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., July 1886. 

Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. B. Wilson. 

The largest specimen I have seen spreads as an encrusting layer 
over a calcareous mass, composed of Cellepores and other polyzoa, 
and covers an extent of upwards of six inches. The whole is 
covered with large, irregular elevations, which are again nodulated. 
These large elevations are in part caused by the elevation of the 
calcareous zoophytal mass on which it grows, but several of the 
nodules, having a diameter of a quarter of an inch or more, are 
entirely of this species, and in parts the continuous layer is of an 
equal thickness. As in other species, the zoarium extends by a 
basis or lamina, on which the cells are developed. The zooecia are 
allied to those of L. (Discoporella) j^^'istis, of Avhich it may 
possibly prove to be a variety. The zooecia between the rays and 
generally over the zoariiun have the peristome not pz'oduced, or 
but slightly, and divided into two or three sharp processes. Those 
on the ridges have it produced on one side into a stout, spout-like 
process directed towards the centre of the elevation. 

Explanation op Figures. 

Plate 176. — Fig. 3, portion, natural size, showing groups of radiating ridges. Fig. 3o, 
small portion, magnified, showing two ridges and the iuterveaing depressed portion. 

[ 280 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [_Polyzoa. 

Plate 176, Fig. 4. 
LICHENOPORA BULL ATA (McG.). 

Description. — Zoarium encrusting-, thick, irregular. Zooecia irregular in shape 
and size, prismatic, with rounded angles ; walls thick, with numerous internal, 
minute, sharp spines. The zooecia at the edges of the ooecia with an elongated 
peristome on one side, spout-like or divided, directed towards the elevation. Ooecia 
scattered over the zoarium, large, buUate, minutely punctate or perforated, the 
zooecia underneath closed by a minutely punctate membrane or plate. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., July 1886. 

Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. B. Wilson ; Warruambool, Mr. 
Watts ; Portland, Mr. Maplestone. 

In these two species the cancelli are very obscure or absent ; 
there are smaller apertures of which it is difficult to say whether 
they are really cancelli or aborted zooecia. This subject, as well 
as the relations and differences between the Tubuliporidte and 
Discoporellidie, will be recurred to when describing the other 
species. 

The generic name Lichenopora, having priority over that of 
Discoporella, ought to be retained. 

EXTLANATION OF FlGtTRES. 

Plate 176. — Fig. 4, specimen, natural size. Fig. 4a, portion magnified, showing an ooecium 
which has been opened to expose the orifices of the subjacent zooecia. Fig. 46 and 4c, zooecia 
from other parts of the same. 



The specimens figured on this plate have been presented to 
the National Museum, and the descriptions to this work, by Mr. 
MacGillivray. 

Frkderick McCoy. 



[281 ] 






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PI. 177 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

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Zoology.^ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Pohjtoa. 

Plate 177, Figs. 1 and 2. 
CRASPEDOZOUM LIGULATUM (McG.). 

[Genus CRASPEDOZOUM (McG.). (Sub-kingdom Mollussa. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family Flustridae.) 

Gen. Char. — Zoarium erect, in ligulate divisions, uni- or bi-Iaminate, each branch bordered 
throughout its whole extent by a bundle of r.adical fibres springing from the bases of the lateral 
zooecia. Zooecia quadrate, aperture partly filled in by a thickened lamina. Ooecia external.] 

Description. — Zoarium unilaminate, erect, dichotomously divided into narrow 
ligulate lobes. Zooecia ovate, aperture partly filled in by a finely granulated 
thickened lamina ; a sharp spine on each .side above. A sing-le avicularium on an 
eminence at the ba.se of the zooecia. Posteriori}' the outlines of the zocecia irregu- 
larly rhomboidal. Ooecia mitriform, thickened at the upper margin, leaving a 
depressed area in front. 

Reference.— P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., Nov. 1885. 
Port Phillip Heads. 

Explanation of Figukes. 

Plate 177. — Fig. 1, specimen, natural size. Fig. la, anterior surface of portion of a branch 
of the same, magnified. Fig. li, posterior surface of the same. Fig. 2, small portion of another 
specimen showing the ooscia. 



Plate 177, Fig. 3. 
CRASPEDOZOUM SPICATUM (McG.). 

Description. — Zoarium unilaminate, erect, dichotomously divided into narrow 
ligulate lobes. Zocecia ovate, margins granular and lower part of aperture filled in 
by a thickened granular lamina; an erect spine at each side superiorly, and in the 
marginal zooecia an additional longer spine below the usual one at the outer angle. 
A sessile avicularium on an umbonate eminence frequently at one side of the base 
of the zooecia, but often absent. Ocecia mitriform, produced upwards into a 
prominent apiculate spine ; anterior area very small. Posteriorly the zocecia elon- 
gated, straight above, constricted in the middle. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., Nov. 1885. 
Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. Bracebridge Wilson. 

Explanation op Figures. 
Pl.\te 177. — Fig. 3, specimen, natural size. Fig. 3a, portion of same, magnified, anterior 
view. Fig. 3ft, posterior view. 

Vol.. II.— Dkade XVIII.— 2(. [ 283 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Polyzoa. 

Plate 177, Figs. 4 and 5. 

CRASPEDOZOUM ROBORATUM (Hincks, sp.). 

Description. — Zoarium bilaminate, divided into flat, broadly-ligulate lobes. 
Zooecia quadrate ; aperture occupying' greater part of the front, the sides and base 
part!}' filled in by a sloping, thickened, granular lamina; a single erect spine on 
each side above. On each side at the base of the zooecia, except the marginal, a 
sessile avicularium on a rounded elevation, with the mandible directed obliquely 
outwards ; the marginal cells with only a single avicularium. Ooecia somewhat 
mitriform, the upper rim thickened, leaving a depressed area inferiorly. 

References. — Membranipora rohorata, Hincks, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
Aug. 1881; Flustra menihraniporides, Busk, " CfiaUenger" Polyzoa, pt. i, p. 54, 
pi. xxxii., fig. 7. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

These three forms constitute a well marked group, for which 
1 have proposed the name Cras2}edozoum. It is allied to Flustra 
and Membra^iijMra, or more projDerly to Biflustra, in the structure 
of the zooecia, and to the first named in the lobulate and erect 
habit of growth. 

C. roboratum and C. Ugulatum are much allied, and farther 
observation may show that they ought to be ranked as varieties of 
one species. In C. Ugulatum the lobes, besides being unilaminate 
are much narrower, the zooecia are narrower, and there is usually 
only a single avicularium at the base of each, while in C. roboratum 
the lobes are broader, with about double the series of zooecia, and 
there are two avicularia on the zooecia, except in the marginal 
where there is only one. C. spicatum is quite distinct ; the zooecia 
are not so calcareous, there is a larger filling in of the aperture, there 
is a single, frequently lateral aviculai'ium similar to that of Cauda, 
a second larger spine at the outer angle of the marginal zooecia, 
and the posterior aspect of the zooecia is of an entirely different 
shape. The ooecia also differ markedly in being produced upwards 
into a sharp apiculate point or spike, and the anterior depressed 
area is very small. 

Explanation of Figures. 
Plate 177. — Fig. 4, portion of specimen, natural size. Fig. 5, another specimen, natural 
size. Fig. 6a, portion of same, magnified. 

[ 284 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPolyzoa. 

Plate 177, Fig. 6. 
MENIPEA FUNICULATA (McG.). 

[Genus MENIPEA (Lasix.). (Sub-kingdom MoUusca. Class Polyzoa. Order Infun- 
dibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family Cellularidse.) 

Gen. Char. — Zoarium articulate or (in one species) continuous. Zooecia bi-raultiserial, 
oblong, imperforate behind. A sessile, lateral avicularium (frequently absent), and one or two 
sessile avicularia (also frequently absent) on the front of the zooecia. No vibracula.J 

Description. — Zoarium continuous, dichotomously branched; branches narrow, 
bordered by radical fibres springing- from the lower part of the back of the cells. 
Zooecia multiserial, elongated, aperture large, elliptical, with a slightly thickened 
margin, and overlapped by a large sacculated fornix ; the marginal zooecia with three 
spines at the outer angle and one at the inner; the central with a single spine at 
each side. A sessile avicularium (usually al)sent) attached to the upper and outer 
angle of the lateral zooecia ; a sessile avicularium on the front of each zooecium, 
except the marginal, usually close to the peduncle of the fornix of the adjoining 
zooecium. Zooecia posteriorly quadrate, smooth or faintly longitudinally sulcate. 
Ocecia prominent, rounded, smooth. 

Reference.— P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict, Nov. 1885; ? M. bene- 
munita, Busk, Challenger, Pol., pt. i., p. 19, pi. iv., fig. 4. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

DiiFers from the other species of Menipea in the zoarium being 
continuous and in the margin of radical fibres. 

Explanation of Fioures. 

Plate 177. — Fig. 6, specimen, natural size. Fig. 6a, anterior view of portion of same. 
Fig. 66, posterior view, showing attachment of radical fibres. 



I am indebted for the specimens and descriptions of the Polyzoa 
on this plate to Mr. MacGillivray. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 285 ] 



■in 






PU78 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(Folyioa^) 




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Zoology.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Potyzoa. 

Plate 178, Fig. 1. 

tETEA recta (Hincks). 

[Genus jETEA (Xamx.). (Sub-kingdom MoUusca. Class Polyzoa. Order Infundibulata. 
Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family JEteidse.) 

Gen. Char. — Zocecia arising from a creeping or partially free stolon which is dilated at 
intervals, tubular, with a subterminal membranous aperture. No avicularia or ooecia.] 

Description. — ZocBcia rising from large inflations of a creeping stolon, erect, 
truncated, upper portion straight and not enlarged; aperture long, lateral; lower 
part of zooecium finely ringed, the rings ceasing immediately above the commence- 
ment of the aperture, the upper part being finely punctate. 

Reference. — Hincks, Brit. Mar. Polyzoa, p. 6, pi. i., figs. 6 and 7. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

Readily distinguished from the other species by the erect, 
straight habit, the truncated extremity, the upper part being 
scarcely if at all dilated, and the length of the aperture, which is 
about a third of that of the whole zooecium. I see no reason for 
considering this as a variety of ^. anguina, as has been done by 
some writers. 

Explanation of Figure. 
Plate 178. — Fig. 1, specimen, magnified, showing stolon and zocecia. 



Plate 178, Figs. 2 and 3. 

SCRUPARIA CHELATA (Linn. sp.). 

[Genus SCRUPARIA (Oken). (Sub-kingdom Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order Infun- 
dibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family Eucrateida;.) 

Gen. Char. — Zoarium composed of tufts springing from a creeping, adherent base ; branches 
originating from the front of a zooecium, below the aperture. Each zocBcium arising from the 
preceding by an articulated tube at the upper and posterior part.] 

Description — Zocecia glassy, horn-shaped, very narrow below and widened 
above, aperture very Lirge, oblique, truncated above, with a distinct raised, smooth 
margin, usually an aborted zooecium below the aperture. 

Reference. — Scruparia chelata, Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat., Mar. Pol., pt. i., p. 29, 
pi. xvii., fig. 2 ; Eucralea chelata, Hincks, Brit. Mar. Pol., p. 14, pi. i., fig. 3 ; pi. ii., 
figs. 4-8; pi. iii., figs. 9-12. 

[ 287 ] 



Zoology/.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPolyzoa. 

Port Phillip Heads, on algge and zoophytes. 

The branches of this elegant little species usually spring fi-om 
dilatations of a slender creeping stolon very similar to that of 
^tea ; at other times, instead of dilatations, there are decumbent 
zooecia connected by a creeping annulated tube, a branch rising 
from below the aperture. They also sometimes arise directly 
from the primary cell which is short, circular, and with a rounded 
aperture occupying the whole of the contracted summit. The 
zooecia are much elongated, attenuated below, each giving origin 
by its summit to another connected by a short annulated tube. 
The secondary branches are few and originate from the front of 
the zooecia just below the aperture. When there are no branches 
there is usually an aborted stem of a zoojcium. I have not seen 
the ooecia, Mr. Hincks describes them as mitriform, somewhat 
pointed above, with a keel down the centre, borne below the 
aperture on an imperfectly developed cell. 

Explanation of Figdrbs. 

Plate 178. — ^Fig. 2, portion of a branch, magnified. Fig. 2a, portion of creeping stolon of 
same. Fig. 3, portion of another specimen, seen from above. 



Plate 178, Figs. 4 and 5. 
RHABDOZOUM WILSONI (Hincks). 

[Genus RHABDOZOUM (Hincks). (Sub-kingdom Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Cheilostoraata. Family Rhabdozoida;.) 

Gen. Char. — Zoarium phytoid, erect, consisting of celliferous, cylindrical, bifid or trifid 
shoots, attached by numerous radical fibres springing from the sides ; straight hollow chitinous 
rods springing from the sides of the primary shoots and supporting on their summits other 
celliferous branches. Zooecia pyriform, with a consider.able oblique aperture, arranged in 
longitudinal series round an imaginary axis. Avicularia sessile.] 

Description. — Zoarium consisting- of brandies supported on transparent, 
hollow cbitinous rods, spring-ing from the sides of celliferous shoots attached by 
bundles of radical fibres ; each rod spirally twisted, slightly at its commencement 
and more strongly at its upper extremitj' where it is enlarged into a disc or sort of 
calyx, surmounted bj' a circle of long, spreading and incurved glassy spines; each 
calyx giving origin to a short branch which immediatel}' divides into usually three. 
Zooecia pj'riform, slightly turned forwards above, each connected with the preceding 
immediately behind its upper extremity, arranged in parallel longitudinal series 
round the axis ; immediately below the aperture a transverse row of two or three 

[ 288 ] 



Zoology.-] NATDliAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Polyzoa. 

long^, glassy, hollow spines, articulated to bulbous processes, spreading- outwards and 
curving upwards ; in many zooecia a sessile avicularium in the place of these spines, 
with tlae sharp beak and triangular mandible directed forwards. Ooecia rounded, 
terminal. 

Reference. — Hincks, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Aug. 1882. 

Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. Bracebridge Wilson. 

This cui-iovis and beautifid species forms small, phytoid, 
branching tufts, attaining a height of an inch or upwards. The 
basal shoots consist of cylinders of zooecia and are bi- or tri- 
furcate. They are attached by a mass of radical fibres springing 
fi'om the surface of the zooecia. Besides these radical fibres, a few 
(2 to 7) hollow, chitinous rods arise from the sides of the shoots 
and are directed upwards. They are beautifully transparent, 
glassy, and strongly convoluted towards the summit. The summit 
is expanded into a small disc fringed by a row of long, hollow, 
articulated spines. Above the expansion a short celliferous branch 
rises, almost immediately dividing into three, one or more of which 
may again bifurcate. The zooecia are arranged in linear series 
round the axis in such a manner that their apertures form a spiral. 
The zooecia immediately succeeding the rods have usually a larger 
number (3 or 4) of spines than the others. The rods are of 
considerable length, sometunes more than half as long as the 
supported branches. The radical fibres proper are of the usual 
brownish appearance, waving and forming bundles, they are fixed 
to the supporting body by rosettes. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 178. — Fipr. 4, specimen, natural size. Fig. 4a, portion of same, magnified ; this was 
not very perfect and does not properly sliow the expanded upper parts of the rods. Fig. 5a, 
portion of a branch more higlily magnified, showing zooecia with their spines and avicularia. 
Fig. 5, small portion from another specimen, to show the ooecia. 



Plate 178, Fig. 6. 
FARCIMIA APPENDICULATA (Hincks). 

[Genus FARCIMIA (Pourtales). (Sub-kingdom Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order In- 
fundibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata Family Cellulariidae.) 

Gen. Char. — Zoarium calcareous, erect, branching ; stems and branches composed of 
segments united by corneous joints. Zooecia arranged in series round an imaginary axis, with 
elevated margins and depressed area, which is more or less covered in with membrane.] , 

[ 289 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORLA.. \_Polyzoa. 

Description. — Zoarium dichotomously branched, the internodes short and 
connected by double tubes. Zocecia arranged round the axis in four series, three or 
four in each series, alternate, elliptical or ovate, with the sides raised into a thin 
margin ; aperture occupied by a thin membrane which is thickened for a small space 
inferiorly. A subimmersed avicularium on either side of the zocecia, those of the 
adjacent series occupying- a separate tract; the anterior surface bounded by a 
thickened margin, the intermediate part being occupied by a membrane ; at the 
summit a small beak, with sharp, curved point, the mandible pointing outwards. 

Reference. — Hincks, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., March 1883. 

Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. Bracebridge Wilson. 

The structure of the zooecia of Farcimia undoubtedly places 
it among the Cellulariidce. The avicularia are comparable, as 
pointed out by Mr. Hincks, to those of Scrupoc€lla7'ia, from which 
they differ in having the free side occupied by a membrane and 
bounded by a thickened band ; the beak and mandible are very 
small. Frequently a peculiar narrow, membranous appendage, 
terminating in a hard, sharp point, springs from the side of the 
avicularium. 

Explanation op Figures. 

Plate 178. — Fig. 6, portion of specimen, natural size. Fig. 6a, internode, magnified. 
Fig. 66, appendage of avicularium. 



Plate 178, Fig. 7. 
CATENICELLA RINGENS (Busk). 

[Genus CATENICELLA (Blainville). (Sub-kingdom MoUusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infuudibulata. Sub-order Chellostomata. Family CateuicelUdEe.) 

Gen. C/iar.— -Branches originating from the summits of eacli of a geminate pair, or rarely 
from the sides of ordinary zooecia. Zooecia in single series, but at a bifurcation geminate, or 
each internode consisting of a geminate pair ; mouth with simple margins, straight or hollowed 
and entire below, or with a small rounded notch.] 

Description. — Zoarium dichotomously branched. Zooecia broadly ovate, 
smooth and shining; a broad anterior vitta on each side extending from the base to 
near the level of the mouth ; a large, lateral process, slightly turned forwards, on 
each side, with a widely gaping avicularium and a round mark at the base; mouth 
lofty, slightly hollowed below. Posterior surface smooth. 

Reference. — Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat., Mar. Pol., pt. i., p. 10, pi. viii., figs. 3 
and 4. 

[ 290 ] 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

Po)t Phillip Heads, seemingly very rare. 

Easily distinguislied by the smooth zooecia, the anterior vittte 
and the large gaping avicularia. The lateral process on one side 
is frequently larger. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate ITS. — Fig. 7, anterior surface of portion of branch. Fig. 7a, posterior surface of 
ame. 



Plate 178, Fig. 8. 
DIMETOPIA HIRTA (McG.). 

[Genus DIMETOPIA (Busk). (Sub-kingdom MoUusca. Class Polyzoa. Order Infun- 
dibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family Eucrateida;.) 

Gen. Char. — Zooecia arranged in pairs united back to back, each pair looking at right angles 
to that below ; at a bifurcation the zooecia of a pair disjunct, and each giving rise to the first 
pair of a branch.] 

Description. — Zooecia with the aperture very oblique, narrowed below, slightly 
arched above, marg-in thickened ; 3 to 5 stiif spines articulated above, 3 or 4 very 
long, submarginal on each side, the uppermost generally a little farther back and 
directed more posteriorly, usually 2 spines below. Ooecia globular, surmounting 
the zooecia. 

Reference.— P. H. McGillivruy, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., Nov. 1885. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

Nearly allied to D. cornuta, from which it is distinguished by 
the diffei'ence in numlier and arrangement of the spines. Of these 
there are usually 3 short and straight, directed upwards ; on each 
side there are 3 or 4 very long, articulated immechately beyond 
the margin, the uppermost being situated a little posteriorly and 
directed more backwards ; there is a single one or occasionally 
two below. The ocecium is globular, surmounting a zooecium, and 
in the specimen figured it is embraced by two long spines, one on 
each side. I am not certain that this arrangement is constant. 

Explanation of Figure. 
Plate 178. — Fig. 8, portion of branch, magnified. 



The specimens and descriptions of the interesting Polyzoa on 
this plate are from Mr. McGillivray. 

Frederick McCoy. 

Vol. II.— Decade XTIII.-2i(. [091 ] 



PL.n9 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTOR lA 

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ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

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Zoology.^ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Crustacea, 



Plates 179 and 180. 

PSEUDOCARCINUS GIGAS (Lam. sp.). 

The Great Red King-Crab. 

[Genus PSEUDOCARCINUS (Milne-Edwards). (Sub-kingdom Articulata. Class 
Crustacea. Section Podophthalmata. Order Decapoda. Tribe Bracliyura. Family CanceridEe.) 

Oen. Char. — Carapace gently arched in front half, narrowed and truncated behind ; wider 
than long, moderately depressed, the various regions and subregions elevated and embossed ; 
front nearly horizontal, lateral anterior margins moderately curved, armed with projections or 
teeth ; posterior lateral margins straight, converging ; hind margin narrow, straight ; basal 
joint of the external antennse very small ; second joint scarcely reaching the front ; third joint 
lodged in the orbital hiatus, but not filling it, so that the antennary fossa is not completely 
separated from the orbit ; prelabial space not channelled ; first pair of legs, especially in the 
male, forming very large pincers, the fingers of which are equally rounded and obtuse to the 
tip, unequal, and armed with very large, bluntly rounded tubercles, fewer and of greater size on 
the right claw,* which greatly exceeds the left in size. Hinder feet moderately long, simply 
pointed ; abdomen of the male and female divided into seven distinct segments. Indian Ocean.] 

Description. — Carapace slightly convex, anterior half tumid, posterior halt 
more flattened, and bent downwards at an angle of about 145° from the anterior 
half ; the protogastric, epibranchial, and metagastric regions tumid and bounded by 
broad deep furrows ; the cardiac region is bounded by two furrows deeper and 
more angular than the rest, extending nearly to the hind margin ; upper surface 
smooth as far as posterior margin of epibranchial and metagastric regions, behind 
which the surfaces of the cardiac and mesobranchial and metabranchial regions are 
rough with scattered conical tubercles of very irregular size. Fiont between the 
orbits forming four projecting lobes, between which the middle sinus is smaller than 
the other two ; posterior superior external margin of each orbit incised by two deep 
parallel fissures ; fir.st joint of outer antennae very small ; second joint reaching 
lower edge of orbit ; fourth, half the length of third joint and reaching edge of 
front ; flagellum little larger than anterior lateral portion of the carapace, with 
about eleven irregular, conical tubercles and divided into four lobes by small 
indentations on upper surface, but long narrow slits below, each lobe with two 
or three of the spines. Anterior legs or chelee very large, the right much larger 
than the leftf; movable finger (dactylopodite) rounded, moderately compressed, 
abruptly incurved at the obtuse tip ; a little shorter than the fixed finger, with 
three elongate, large, slightly compressed teeth on the basal half of the inner 
margin, the anterior smallest, posterior largest, a very slight angular projection at 
about one-fourth the length from the tip ; fixed finger slightly longer than the 
movable one, a little broader and more compressed, but similarly abruptly incurved 
at the blunt apex ; inner margin with three very large, rounded tubercles on basal 
half, the middle one largest, and a slight compressed one about one-third from the 
tip ; hand (propodite) very broad, rounded externally, moderately convex on inner 
and outer sides; carpus (carpopodite) with two strong spines on upper inner margin, 
which has also three or four slight blunt tubercles near its base ; next joint (mero- 
podite) trigonal, with the upper, sharp, angular margin with an irregular row of 
nine or ten blunt tubercles ; four posterior pairs of legs, with the terminal joints 

• Reversed in our plate. t Reversed in the lithographing of our plate. 

[ 293 ] 



Zoology. 1 NATURAL fflSTORY OF VICTORIA. lOrustacea. 

(dactylopodites) simply pointed, villous ; the next two joints (propodites and carpo- 
dites) also villous, the pile forming a close covering- on upper margin, but forming a 
netting to bare spaces on the sides; next joints (meropodites, ischiopodites, basipodites, 
and coxapodites) nearly naked, but with a row of five to seven irregular, conical 
tubercles on upper angle, and with one smaller tubercle at middle of upper distal 
margin, vi'ith a few minute tubercles on each side of meropodites. Colour: All the 
underside of body, three basal joints of chelfe, and underside, outerside, and most 
of innerside of chelas, including base of pincers, and four hind legs, yellowish cream 
colour ; upper surface of carapace scarlet ; upper surface of carpus scarlet, mottled on 
the sides, with the ground cream colour; upper portion and variable portion of sides 
of hand mottled scarlet, and the ground cream colour ; velvety, close, pilose covering 
of last joint, and upper edge of the penultimate and antepenultimate joints and the 
netted pattern on their sides formed by villous lines on the four posterior pairs of legs, 
of rich dark brown. Two fingers of chelte rich purplish black. Measurements of Male : 
Width ot'carapace, 11 ins. 6 lines; length from front to posterior edge, 9 ins.; greatest 
depth, 5 ins. ; length of abdomen, 1 in. 8 lines; greatest width at third segment, 9 lines; 
length of basal joint (coxa or coxapodite) of chelae, 1 in.; second joint (or basipodite), 
7 lines; third joint (ischium orischiopodite), 2 ins.; fourth joint (merus or meropodite), 
4 ins. 6 lines; fifth joint, carpus (carpodite), 3 ins. 9 lines long, 3 ins. 7 lines wide at 
distal end; sixth joint (propodos or propodite), 1 ft. 3 ins. from base to tip of fixed 
finger, 5 ins. 6 lines to base of movable finger, 5 ins. 41ines wide at distal end, and 3 ins. 
thick ; seventh joint or movable finger (dactylopodite), 10 ins. ; width at base, 2 ins. 
3 lines; terminal joint (dactylopodite) of first pair of legs, 2 ins. 9 lines ; penultimate 
joint (propodite), 2 ins. 6 lines ; antepenultimate (carpodite), 2 ins. 3 lines ; pre- 
ceding joint (meropodite), 4 ins. 6 lines ; next joint (ischiopodite), 1 in. ; basal joint 
(coxapodite), 1 in. Female: Much smaller than male, and with all the regions of 
the carapace set with irregularly sized and spaced conical tubercles about their 
middles, the boundaries of each region and subregion being smooth. Anterior 
chela? very much smaller than in the male, and more nearly equal to each other, and 
the fingers of the pincers much shorter and tuberculated from base nearly to apex. 
In addition to the spines on the carpus and other portions of the legs, as in the 
male, the hand has three or four large conical spines near base of upper rounded 
margin, and an irregularly scattered and sized series of smaller conical tubercles 
thence to base of movable finger (dactylopodite). About five large blunt tubercles 
on inner edge of movable finger, extending from base nearly to the tip, and four 
rather larger on corresponding intervals of fixed finger on right hand. On left, or 
smaller, chelte the fixed finger is much more compressed on inner edge, and the 
four or five tubercles still more compressed and less prominent than on the right. 
Inner edge of fixed finger much more compressed and with proportionately much 
smaller, more compressed, and less prominent tubercles than on right side. Abdo- 
men enormously large, of seven very distinct segments. Measurements: Length of 
carapace from front to posterior margin, 8 ins. 6 lines; greatest width, 10 ins. 6 lines; 
length of abdomen, 8 ins. ; greatest width (at sixth segment), 4 ins. 2 lines ; length 
of right hand from carpus to tip of fixed finger, 6 ins. 6 lines ; length of movable 
finger, 3 ins. 2 lines ; greatest width of hand at base of movable finger, 3 ins. 

Reference. — r=Cancer gigas, Lam., Hist, des An. sans vert, v. 5, p. 272; 
Milne-Ed. Hist. Nat. des Crust., v. 1, p. 409. 

This gigantic and beautifully coloured crab is now figured entire 
and of the colours of life for the first time. It is not uncommon at 
the western extremity of the coast-line of the colony, particularly 

[ 294 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. ICrustacea. 

about Portland, from whence examples are often brought to the 
fish-market. The small female with the much smaller claws seems 
more common than the great male with its immense powerful 
pincers. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 179. — Fig. 1, female, about one third natural size. Fig la, abdomen of female, one- 
third the natural size. Fig. li,antennules, or inner antennae, movable portion without great fixed 
base, twice the natural size. Fig Ic, antennae, or outer antenna, without the small basal joint, 
twice the natural size. Fig. Ig, mandible and first and second maxillipedes, natural size. Fig. 
Id, third or external maxillipede, natural size. Fig. 2, abdomen of male, one-third natural size. 

Plate 180 — Fig. 1, male, about one-third natural size. (^For abdomen, see pi. 179, f. 2). 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 295 ] 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



N.B.— The originals of all the Figures aie in the National Museum, Melbourne. 



DECADE I, 



Plate 1. — The Black Snake (Pseudechys porphyriacus, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 2. — The Copper-head Snake (Hoplocephalus superbus, Gunth.). 

Plate 3. — The Tiger Snake (Hoplocephalus curtus, Schl. sp.). 

Platb 4. — The Australian Bream (Chrysophrys Australls, Giinth.). 

Plate 5. — The Spiny-sided Butterfly-Gurnard (Lepidotrigla Vanessa, Rich. sp.). 

Plate 6. — The Kumu Gurnard (Trigla Kumu, Lesson and Garn.). 

Plate 7. — The Australian Giant Earth-worm (Megascolides Australis, McCoy). 

Plate 8. — Lewin's Day-moth (Agarista Lewini, Boisd.). 

The Loranthus Day-moth (Agarista Casuarins, Scott). 

The Vine Day-moth (Agarista Glycine, Lewin sp.). 
Plate 9. — Pieris (Thyca) Harpalyce (Don. sp.). 
Plate 10. — Pieris (Thyca) Aganippe (Don. sp.). 



DECADE II. 

Plate 11. — The Little Whip Snake (Hoplocephalus flagellum, McCoy). The White-lipped Snake 

(Hoplocephalus coronoides, Giinth.). 
Plate 12. — The Death Adder (Acanthophis Antarctica, Shaw sp.). 
Plate 13. — The Carpet Snake (Morelia variegata, Gray). 
Plate 14. — The Gippsland Perch (Lates colonorum, Giinth.). 
Plate 15. — The Murray Lobster (Astacopsis serratus. Shaw sp.). 
Plate 16. — The Salmon Arripis (Arripis truttaceus, Cut. sp.). Adult. 
Plate 17. — Ditto of the younger forms and coloring. 
Plate 18. — The Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 19. — The Small-scaled Rock Cod (Lotella callarias, Giinth.). 
Plate 20. — The Australian Rock Cod (Pseudophysis barbatus, Giinth.). 



DECADE III. 

Plate 21. — The Sea-Leopard Seal (Stenorhynchus leptonyx, de Blainv. sp.). 

Plate 22. — The Yellow-sided Dolphin (Delphinus Novae Zealandise, Quoy and Gaim.). 

Plate 23. — The Common Brown Snake (Diemenia superciliosa, Fisch.). 

The Small-scaled Brown Snake (Diemenia microlepidota, McCoy). 
The Shield-fronted Brown Snake (Diemenia aspidorhyncha, McCoy). 

Plate 24. — Catenicella margaritacea (Busk). — C. plagiostoma (Busk). — C. ventricosa (Busk). — 
C. hastata(Busk.) — C. rufa (McG.). — C. cribraria (Busk). — C. alata (Wyv. Thomson). — 
C. lorica (Busk). — C. formosa (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk). — C. perforata (Busk). — 
C. Buskii (Wyv. Thomson).— -C. Hannafordi (McG.). — C. crystallina (Wyv. Thomson). — 
C. carinata (Busk). — C. aurita (Busk). — C. geminata (Wyv. Thomson). — C. cornuta 
(Busk). — C. intermedia (McG.) 

Plate 25. — Membranipora membranacea (Linn. sp.). — M. perforata (McG.). — M. ciliata (McG.). — 
M. mamillaris (McG.). — M. umbonata (Busk). — M. pilosa (Linn. sp.). — M. cervicornis 
(Busk). 

Plate 26. — Membranipora dispar (McG.). — M. Woodsii (McG.).— M. lineata (Linn. sp.). — M. Rosselii 
(Audouin sp.). — M. Lacroixii (Savigny sp.). 

Plate 27. — The Australian Rockling (Genypterus Australis, Cast.). 
The Yarra Blackfish (Gadopsis gracilis, McCoy). 

Plate 28. — The Southern Mackerel (Scomber pneumatophorus, De la Roche). 

Plate 29. — The Yabber Crayfish (Astacopsis bicarinatus. Gray sp.). 

Plate 30.— The Large Wattle Goat-Moth (Zeuzera Eucalypti, Boisd. Herr.-Schsef.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE IV. 

Plate 31. — The Australian Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal (Euotaria cinerea, Peron sp.). 

Plate 32. — The Two-hooded Furina-Snake, Furina bicucuUata (McCoy). 

Plate 33. — The Banded Red Gurnet- Perch (Sebastes percoides, Solander sp.). 

Plate 34. — The Angel-fish (Rhina squatina, Lin. sp.). 

Plate 35. — Lepralia circinata (McG.). — L. Cecilii (Aud.). — L. diaphana (McG.). — L. marsupium 

(McG.). — L. subimmersa (McG.). — L. anceps (McG.). — L. M.apIestonei (McG.). 
Plate 36. — Lepralia vittata (McG.). — Membranipora perforata. Lepralia Broguiartii (Aud.). — 

L. elegans (McG.). — L. pertusa (Esper. sp.). — L. Malusii (Aud. sp,). — L. lunata (McG.). 
Plate 37. — Lepralia ciliata (Linn. sp.). — L. trifolium (McG.). — L. cheilodon (McG.). — L. canaliculata 

(McG.).— L. larvalis (McG.).— L. diadema (McG.).— L. papillifera (McG.).— L. Ellerii 

(McG.). 
Plate 38. — Lepralia monoceros (Busk). — L. excavata (McG.). — L. yitrea (McG.). — L. megasoma 

(McG.)— L. Schizostoma (McG.).— L. Botryoides (McG.).— L. ferox (McG.).— L. pellu- 

cida (McG.). 
Plate 39. — Crisia Edwardsiana (D'Orb. sp.). — C. biciliata (McG.). — C. acropora (Busk). — C. setosa 

(McG.).— C, tenuis (McG.). 
Plate 40. — Saunders' Case-Moth (Metura elongata, Saunders sp.). 
The Lictor Case-Moth (Entometa ignobilis, Walk.). 



DECADE V. 

Plate 41. — The Lace Lizard (Hydrosaurus varius, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 42. — The Spotted Marsh-Frog (Limnodynastes Tasmaniensis, Giinth,). — The Common Sand- 
Frog (Limnodynastes dorsalis, Gray). 
Plate 43. — The Carpet Shark (Crossorhinus barbatus, Lin. sp.). — The Seven-gilled Shark (Notidanus 

[Heptanchus] Indicus, Cuv.). 
Plate 44. — The Barracouta (Thersites atun, Cut.). — The Tunny (Thynnus Thynnus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 45. — Flustra denticulata (Busk). — Carbasea episcopalis (Busk). — C. dissimilis (Busk). — 

C. indivisa (Busk).^C. elegans (Busk).— C. pisciformis (Busk). 
Plate 46. — Spiralaria florea (Busk). — Diachoris Magellanica (Busk). — D. spinigera (P. McGil.). — 

Dimetopia spicata (Busk). — D. cornuta (Busk). — Didymia simplex (Busk). — CalweUia 

bicornis (Wyv. Thomson). 
Plate 47. — Dictyopora cellulosa (P. McGil.). 
Plate 48. — Eschara obliqua (P. McGil.). — E. dispar (P. McGil ). — E. gracilis (Lamx.). — E. platalea 

(Busk). — E. quadrata (P. McGil.) — E. mucronata (P. McGil.). — Caleschara denticulata 

(P. McGil.). 
Plate 49. — Cellaria fistulosa (Linn.). — C. hirsuta (P. McGil.). — C. tenuirostris (Busk.). — C. gracilis 

(Busk). — Nellia oculata (Busk). — Tubucellaria hirsuta (Busk). 
Plate 50. — The Great Black, or Manna Cicada (Cicada moerens, Germ.). — The Great Green Cicada 

(Cyclochila Australasise, Donov. sp.). 



DECADE VI. 

Plate 51. — The Victorian Rhodona (Rhodona Officer!, McCoy). 

Plate 52. — The Black and White Ringed Snake (Verraicella annulata, Gray). 

Plate 53. — The Green and Golden Bell-Frog (Rauoidea aurea, Less. sp.). 

Plates 54-55. — The Australian Aulopus (Aiilopus purpurisatus. Rich.). 

Plate 56. — The Hammer-headed Shark (Zygtena malleus, Shaw). — The Common Australian Saw- 
Fish (Pristiophorus nudipinnis, Giinth.). 

Plate 57.— Biflustra perfragilis (McGil.). — B. delicatula (Busk). 

Plate 58. — Cellularia cuspidata (Busk).— Mcnipea crystallina (Gray sp.).— M. cyathus (Wyv. Thom- 
son). — M. ceryicornis (McGil.) — M. triccUata (Busk). — M. Buskii (Wyv. Thomson). 

Plvte 59 — Bicellaria tuba (Busk). — B. grandis (Busk), — B. ciliata (Linn). — B. turbinata (McGil.). — 
Stirparia annulata (Map.),— Bugula neritina (Linn.). 

Plate 60. — Steganoporella magnilabris (Busk. sp.). — Petraha undata (McGil.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE VII. 

Plate 61. — The Tuberculated Argonaut (Argonauta oryzata, Meuseh.). 

Plate 62. — The same seated in its so-called shell or Paper-Nautilus. 

Plate 63. — The Blue-spotted Eagle- Ray (Myliobatis Australis, Macleay). 

Plate 64. — The Long-toothed Bull-Shark (Odontaspis taurus, Raf.). — The Australian Tope Shark 

(Galeus Australis, Jiacleay). 
Plate 65. — The Leafy Sea-Bragon (Phyllopteryx foliatus, Shaw sp.). — The Short-headed Sea-horse 

(Hippocampus breviceps, Pet.) 
Plate 66. — Dictyopora grisea (Lamx. sp.). — D. albida (Kirch.) — (Var. avicularis, P. McGill.). 
Plate 67.— 1). Wilsoni (P. McGill.). 

Plate 68. — Idmonea Milneana (d'Orb.). — X. contorta (P. McGill.). — I. radians (Lamk.). 
Plates 69-70. — The Violet-shouldered Phasma (Tropidoderus iodomus, McCoy).— The Red-shouldered 

Phasma (Tropidoderus rhodomus, McCoy). 



DECADE VIII. 

Plate 71. — The Australian Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal (Euotaria cinerea, Peron sp.). 

Plate 72. — The Northern Blue-tongued Lizard (Cyclodus gigas, Bodd. sp.). 

Plate 73. — The Ludrick (Girella simplex, Rich. sp.). 

Plate 74. — The White Shark (Carcharodon Rondeletii, Miill. and Hen.). 

Plate 75. — The Picked Dog-Fish (Acanthias vulgaris, Linn. sp.). 

Plates 76-77. — The Australian Tooth-cupped Cuttlefish (Sepioteuthis Australis, Quoy and Gaim.). 

Plate 78. — Bugula robusta (P. McGil.). — B. cucullata (Busk). — B. dentata (Lamx.). — B. avicularia 

(Pall.). 
Plate 79. — The Violet-winged Phasma (Acrophylla violascens, Leach sp.). 
Plate 80. — The Large Pink winged Phasma (Podacanthus typhon. Gray). 



DECADE IX. 

Plate 81. — The Gippsland Water Lizard (Physignathus Lesueri, Gray) — (Var. Howitti, McCoy). 

Plates 82-83. — The Murray Tortoise (Chelymys Macquaria, Cuv. sp.). 

Plate 84. — The Murray Golden Perch (Ctenolates anibiguus. Rich. sp.). 

Plates 85-86. — The Murray Cod-Perch (t)ligorus Macquariensis, Cut. and Val. sp.). 

Plate 87. — The Australian Sniooth-Houud (Mustelus Antarcticus, Giiuth.). 

Plate 88. — The Thresher, or Long-tailed Shark (Alopecias vulpes, Linn. sp.). 

Plate 89.— Catenicella intermedia (P. McG.) — C. amphora (Busk). — C. Wilsoni (P. McG.). — C. pul- 

chella (Map.),— C. utriculus (P. McG.). 
Plate 90.— Catenicella fusca (P. McG.).— C. umbonata (Busk).— C. cornuta (Busk). 



DECADE X. 

Plate 91.— Gymnohelideus Leadbeateri (McCoy). 

Plates 92-93 — The Long-necked River Tortoise (Chelodina longicoUis, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 94. — Opercula of Hetepora. 

Plate 95.— Retepora porcellana (P. McGil.).— R. avicularis (P. McGil.).— R. fissa (P. McGil.). 

Plate 96. — Retepora monilifera (P. McGil.). 

Plate 97.— Retepora monilifera (P. McGil.).— R. formosa (P. McGil.).— R. carinata (P. McGil.). 

Plate 98. — Retepora Phoenicea (Busk). — R. aurantiaca (P. McGll.). 

Plate 99.— Retepora granulata (P. McGil). — R. tessellata (Hincks).— R. serrata (P. McGil.). 

Plate 100. — Goniocidaris tubaria (Lam.). 

The foregoing ten Decades form Vol. J. 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE XI. 

Plate 101. — The Luth, or Leathery Turtle (Sphargis coriacea, Linn. sp.). 

Plate 102. — The Rugged Stump-tail, or Shingle-back, Lizard (Trachydosaurus rugosus, Gray). 

Plate 103. — The Blackish Australian Worm-Snake (Typhlops nigrescens, Gray sp.). 

Plate 104. — The Basking Shark (Cetorhinus niaximus, Linn. sp.). 

Plate 105. — Cellaria rigida (McG.). — Tubucellaria cereoides (Ellis and Solander). — Urceolipord 

dentata (McG.)— U. nana (McG.). 
Plate 106. — Amphiblestrum punctigerum (Hincks). — A. Flemingil (Busk). — A. permunitum 

(Hincks). — Pyripora crassa (McG.). — P. oatenularia (Jameson). — P. polita (Hincks). — 

Electra flagellum (McG.). — Bathypora porcellana (McG.). — Biflustra papuliiera 

(McG.).— B. bimamillata (McG.). 
Plate 107. — Catenicellopsis pusilla (J. B. Wilson). — C. delicatula (J. B. Wilson). — Calpidium 

ponderosum (Goldstein sp.). 
Plate 108. — Calpidium ornatum (Busk). — Chlidonia dasdala (Wyy. Thomson). 
Plate 109. — The Great Green Gum-tree Grasshopper (Locusta vigentissima, Serr.). 
Plate 110. — The Australian Yellow- winged Locust (CEdipoda musica, Fab. sp.). 



DECADE XII. 

Plate 111. — The Blood-sucker (Grammatophora muricata, Shaw, sp.). 

Plate 112. — The Southern Chimajra (C.illorhynchus antarcticus, Lacep. sp.). 

Plate 113. — The Port Jackson Shark, or Bull-dog Shiirk (Heterodontus Phillipi, Lacep. sp.). 

Plate 114. — The Australian Hough Fish (Trachichthys Australis, Shaw). 

Plate 115. — The Skip-jack Pike (Lanioperca mordax, Giinth.). 

Plate 116. — Beania mirabilis (Johnst.). — Mucronella tricuspis (Hincks). — M. Isevis (P. McG.). — 

M. vultur (Hincks). — Cyclicopora longipora (P. McG.). 
Plate 117. — Beania decumbens (P. McG.). — B. eostiita (Busk sp.). — B. Crotali (Busk sp.). — 

B. radicifera (Hincks sp.). — Amphiblestrum patellarium (Moll sp.). 
Plate 118.— Hornera foliacea (P. McG.).— H. robusta (P. McG.). 
Plate 119. — The Smaller Green Gum-tree Grasshopper (Phaneroptcra valida. Walk.). 
Plate 120. — The Thirty-two Spotted Grasshopper (Pliaueroptera [Ephippitytha] trigintiduoguttata, 

Serv.). 



DECADE XIII. 

Plate 121. — The Bearded Lizard (Grjimmatophora barbat,a, Kaup). 

Plate 122, — The Southern Silver Ribbon-fish (Trachvpterus toenia, Bloch). 

Plate 123. — The Two-pronged Toad-fish (Chironectcs blfurc.atus, McCoy). 

Plate 124. — Brown's Tooth-brush Leather-jacket (Monacanthus Browni, Rich, sp.). 

Plate 125. — The Horse-shoe-marked Leather-jacket (Monacanthus hippocrepis, Quoy and Gaim., sp.). 

Plate 126. — Maplestoniacirriita(P.McG.). — Scrupocellaria cyclostoma(Busk). — S. obtecta(Haswell). 
— S. cervicornis i^Busk). — S. scrupea (Busk). — S. ornithorhynchus (Wyv. Thom.). 

Plate 127. — Membranipora pyrula (Hincks). — M. corbula (Hincks). — M. inarmata (Hincks). — M. 
pectinata (P. McG.).— M. serrata (P. McG.).— M. cili.ata (P. McG.). — Amphiblestrum 
albispinum (P. McG ). — Membranipora spinosa (Quoy and Gaim.). 

Plate 128.— Cellepora spcciosa (P. McG.).— C. serriitirostris (P. McG.).— C. tridenticulata (Busk). 

Plate 129. — The Netted Acripcza (Acripeza reticulata, Guerin). 

Plate 130. — The Broad-styled Mantis (Mantis latistylus, Serr.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE XIV. 

Plate 131. — The Southern, or Blotched, Blue-tongued Lizard (Cyclodus nigroluteus, Quoy and 
Gaim. sp.) 

Plate 132.— The Thick-tailed Gecko (Phyllurus Miliusii, Bory).— The Marbled Gecko (Diplodactylus 
marmoratus, Gray). 

Plate 133.— Ray's Sea Bream (BramaRayi, Bloch). 

Plate 134. — Bleeker's Parrot-fish (Labrichtliys Bleekeri, Cast.). 

Plate 135. — The Black-fiuued Half-beak, or Sea Gar-fish (Hemlramphus intermedius, Cant.). — The 
Saury Pike (Scomberesox saurus, Bloch, sp. ; var. Forsteri, Cut. and Val). 

Plate 136. — Caberea rudis (Busk). — C. grandis (Hincks). — Canda arachnoides (Lamx.). — C. tenuis 
(P. McG.). 

Plate 137. — Caberea Darwinii (Busk). — C. glabra (P. McG.) — ^^tea dilatata (Busk). — JE. anguina 
(Linn. sp.). 

Plate 138. — Schizoporella punctigera (P. McG.). — S. lata (P. McG.). — S. triangula (Hincks). — 
S. dajdala (P. McG.).— S. subsinuata (Hincks).- S. IJidleyi (P. McG.).— S. arach- 
noides (P. McG.). — S. cryptostoma (P. McG.). — Gemellipora striatula (Smitt). 

Plate 139. — The Dusky Flat-horned Locust (Opsomala sordida, Aud. Serv.). The Pedestrian Mid- 
Eyed Locust (Mesops pedestris, Erichson). 

Platb 140. — The Cinnamon Keel-backed Locust (Tropinotus Australis, Leach). 



DECADE XV. 

Plate 141. — The Spiny-ridged Lizard (Egernia Cunninghami, Gray). 

Plate 142. — The Brown Pseudechys (Pseudechys Australis, Gray). 

Plate 143. — Peron's Leatherjacket (Monacanthus Peronii, HoUard). 

Plate 144. — The Spinous Shark (Echinorhinus spinosus, Lin. sp.). 

Plate 145. — Banks' Oar-Fish (Kegalecus Banksi, Cuv. sp.) 

Plate 146. — Catenicella geraella (McG.). — C. urnula (McG.).— C. gracilenta (McG.).— C. venusta 

(McG.). — Claviporella pulchra (McG.). — C. imperforata (McG.). 
Plate 147. — Diastopora cristata (McG.).— D. capitata (McG.). — D. bicolor (McG.). — D. sarniensis 

(Norman). — D. patina (Lam. sp.). 
Plate 148. — Cellepora megasoma (McG.). — C. costata (McG.).-C. rota (McG.). — C. costazei, var. 

(Audouin). — C. platalea (McG.). — C. glomerata (McG.). — C. vitrea (McG.). — C. tiara 

(McG.).— C. benemunita (McG.). 
Plates 149, 150.— Southern Spiny Lobster, Melbourne Craw-flsh (Pallnurus Lalandi, Lam. MSS.). 



DECADE XVI. 

Plate 151. — Gould's Monitor Lizard (Monitor Gouldi, Gray). 

Plates 152, 153. — The Pygopus (Pygopus lepidopus, Lacep. sp.). — Frazer's Delma (Delma Frazeri, 

Gray). 
Plate 154. — Commerson's Mackerel (Cybium Commersoni, Lacep. sp.). 
Plate 155. — The Melbourne Pelamyde (Pelamys Schlegeli, McCoy). 
Plate 156. — Lagenipora tuberculata (McG.). — L. nitens (McG.). — Lekythopora hystrix (McG.). — 

Poecilopora anomala (McG.) 
Plate 157. — Fasciculipora gracilis (McG.). — F. bellis (McG.). — F. fruticoaa (McG.). — F. ramos* 

(D'Orbigny). 
Plate 158. — Farciminaria aculeata (Busk). — F. uncinata (Hincks). — F. simplex (McG.). — Brace- 

bridgia pyriformis (Busk sp.), 
Plate 159. — Sydney Craw-fish or Spiny Lobster (Palinurus Hiigeli, Heller). 
Plate 160. — The Yarra Spiny Cray-fish (Astacopsis serratus, Shaw sp.). var. Yarraensis (McCoy.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE XVII. 

Plate 161. — * Burton's Lialis (Lialis Burtoni, Gray). 

Plate 162.— The Lined Aprasia (Aprasia pulchella, Gray), Fischer's False Delma (Pseudodelma 
impar, Fischer). 

Plate 163. — The Broad-striped or Senator Parrot-fish (Labrichthys laticlavius, Rich, sp.). 

Plate 164, — Macleay's Wrasse (Heteroscarus Macleayi, McCoy). 

Plate 16,5. — Cellepora simplex (McG.). — C. diadema (McG.). — C. spicata (McG.).— C. cidaris 
(McG.).— C. bispinata (Busk). 

Plate 166. — Cellepora verrucosa (McG.I. — C. foliata (McG.).— C. intermedia (McG.). — C. prolifera 
(McG.). 

Plate 167.— C. albirostris (Smitt).— C. fusca (McG.).— C. lirata (McG.).— C. magnirostris (McG.). 

Pl.ite 168. — Chitinous parts of opercula of Cellepora and Schismopora : C. glomerata, C. platalea, 
C. costata, C. megasoma, C. vitrea, C. tiara, C. simplex, C. spicata, C. bispinata, C. foliata, 
C. prolifera, C. albirostris, C. serratirostris, C. lirata, C. verrucosa, C. fusca, C. magni- 
rostris. 

Plates 169, 170. — Gould's Squid (Ommastrephes Gouldi, McCoy). 

* The numbers at corner of Plates 161 and 162 have been accidently transposed. 



DECADE XVIII. 

Plate 171. — The Broad-Banded or Occipital Blue-Tongue Lizard (Cyclodus occipitalis, Peters). 

Plate 172.— The Yellow-Tail (Seriola Lalandi, Cuv. and Val.). 

Plate 17.3. — The Long-Fingered Chilotlactylus (Chilodactylus carponemus, Cuv. and VaL). 

Plate 174. — The Long-Fingered Chilodactylus (Chilodactylus carponemus. Cuv. and Val). — Var. 

Plate 175. — Tessaradoma magnirostris (McG.). — Microporella liiadema (McG). — Vars. lunipuncta, 

longispina, lata, canaliculata. — M. renipuncta (McG.). — M. scandens (McG.). — M. ciliata 

(Linn. sp.). — Vars. spicata, personata. — M. Malusii (Audouin, sp.). — Vars. personata, 

thyreophora. — Escharipora stellata (Smitt). 
Plate 176. — Stomatopora geminata (McG.).— FloscuUpora pygmaea (McG.). — Lichenopora magniflca 

(McG.).— L. bullata (McG.). 
Plate 177.— Craspedozoum ligulatum (McG.). — C. spicatum (McG.).— C. roboratum (Hincks, sp.). — 

Menipea funiculata (McG.). 
Plate 178.— ^tea recta (Hincks) —Scruparia chelata (Linn. sp.). — Khsibdozoum Wilsoni (Hincks). — 

Farcimia appendiculata (Ilincks). — Catenicella ringens (Busk). — Uimetopia hirta 

(McG.). 
Plate 179. — The Great Red King-Crab (Pseudocarcinus gigas. Lam. sp.). — Female and details of 

mouth, &c. 
Plate 180. — The Great Red King-Crab (Pseudocarcinus gigas. Lam. sp.). — Male. 



CONTENTS OF DECADE XYIIL 



N.r..— The oriyinatfi of all the Figures are in thd National Mu«cuin, Melbounic. 



Plate 171. — The Broad-Bandetl or Occipital Blue-Tongue Lizard (Cyclodus occipitalis, Peters). 

Plate 172.— The Yellow -Tail (Seriola Lalandi, Cuv. and Val.). 

Plate 173. — The Long-Fingered Chilodactylus (Chilodactylus carpouemus, Cuv. ami Val.). 

Platk 174. — The Long-Fingered Chilodactylus (Chilodactylus carponemus, Ciiv. and Val.). — Var. 

-Plate 175. — Tessaradoma magnirostris (McG.). — Microporella diadema (McG.). — Vars. lunipnncta, 
Inngispina, lata, canaliculata. — M. renipuiicta (McG.). — M. scandens (McG.). — M. ciliata 
(Linn. sp.). — Vars. spicata, jiersonata. — M. Malusii (Audouiu, sp.). — Vars. personata, 
thyreophora. — Escharipora stellata (Smitt). 

Plate 176. — Stomatopora geniinata (McG.) — Flosculipora pygmsea (McG.). — Lichenopora magnifica 
(McG ).— L. bullala (McG.). 

• 1'l.\te 177. — Craspedozoum ligulatum (McG.). — t. .'•picatum (McG.). — C. roboratum (Hincks, sp.) — 
Menipea fuiiiculala (McG.). 

V Plate 178. — ^tca recta (Ilincks) — Rcruparia <-holata (Linn. sp.). — K'liahdozoum Wilsoni (Hincks). — 
,, ■ Farcimia iippeiuiiculata (Iliucks;. — Catenicella ringeiis (Busk). — Dimctopia liirta 

(McG.). 

Plate 179. — The Great Red King-Crab (Pseudocarcimis gigas, Lam. sp.). — Female and details of 
inoutli, &c. 

Plate 180. — The (ireat Red King-Crab (Pseudocarcinus gigas, Lam. sp.). — Male. 



I 



Rf^P^- pncrC' 



■^ 



Itatural Si^t^rn af firtoriE. 



PRODROMUS 



ZOOLOGY OF YICTOEIA; 



FIGUEES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



DECADE ZIZ. 



FEEDEEICK McCOY, C.M.G., M.A., Sc. D. Cantab, r.E.S., 

UONORART IIKMBGR OF TUE CAUBRIDOE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIBTT ; BOKORART ACTIVE MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL SOCIETY 

OF NATI'RALISTS OF MOSCOW; CORRBSPOSDING MEMBER OF THF, ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON; 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF SEW SOl'TH WALES ; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE NEW ZEALAND 

INSTITUTE ; HONORARY FELLOW OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH ; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF MANCHESTER, 

ETC., ETC., ETC. 

AUTHOR OP "SYNOPSIS OF THE CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE FOSSILS OF IRELAND;" "SYNOPSIS OF THE SILURIAN FOSSILS OF 

IRELAND;" "CONTRIBUTIONS TO BRITISH PALEONTOLOGY;" ONE OF THE AUTHORS OF SEDGWICK AND McCOY'S 

"BRITISH PALEOZOIC ROCKS AND FOSSILS;" "PRODROMUS OF THE PALEONTOLOGY OF "VICTORIA," ETC. 

PBOFESSOR OF NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY. 
GOVERNMENT PALi:OKTOLOGIST, AND DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF MELBOURNB, ETC. 




MELBOURNE: 

BY AUTHORITY : ROBT. S. BRAIN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 

LONDON : 

TRIJBNER AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATE HILL. 



H DCCC LXXXIX. 




ADVERTISEMENT. 



It having been considered desiral)le to ascertain accurately the 
natural productions of the Colony of Victoria, and to publish works 
descriptive of them, on the plan of those issued by the Governments 
of the different States of America, investigations were undertaken, 
by order of the Victorian Government, to determine the Geology, 
Botany, and Zoology of the Colony, to form collections illustrative of 
each for the public use, and to make the necessary preparations for 
such systematic publications on the subject as might be useful and 
interesting to the general public, and contribute to the advancement 
of science. 

As the geological and botanical investigations have already 
approached completion, and their publication is far advanced, it 
has been decided now to commence the publication of the thii-d 
branch completing the subject, namely, that of the Zoology or 
indigenous members of the different classes of the animal kingdom. 

The Fauna not being so well knoAvn as the Flora, it was a necessary 
preliminary to the publication to have a large number of di'awings 
made, as opportunity arose, fi-oni the living or fresh examples of 
many species of reptiles, fish, and tlie lower animals, which lose their 
natural appearance shortly after death, and the true characters of 
many of which were consequently as yet unknown, as they had 
only been described from preserved specimens. A Frodromus, or 
preliminary issue, in the form of Decades, or immbers of ten plates, 
each with its complete descriptive letterpress, will be published, of 
such illustrations as are ready, without systematic order or waiting 
for the completion of any one branch. The many good observers 
in the country will thus have the means of accurately identifying 
various natural objects, their observations on which, if recorded and 
sent to the National Museum, where the originals of aU the figures 
and descriptions are preserved, will be duly acknowledged, and 
will materially help in the preparation of the final systematic volume 
to be published for each class when it approaches completion. 



patunil gistary of f ictoriir. 



I 



PRODROMUS 



ZOOLOGY OF YICTORIi; 



FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



DECADE XIX. 



FREDERICK IcCOY, C.M.G., M.A., Sc. D. Cantab., F.R.S., 

HONORARY MKMBER OF THE CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPHICAI, SOCIETY; HONORARY ACTIVE MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL SOCIETY 

OF NATURALISTS OF MOSCOW ; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON ; 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE NEW ZEALAND 

INSTITUTE ; UUNURARY FELLOW OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH ; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF MANCHESTER, 

ETC., ETC., ETC. 

AUTHOR OF "SYNOPSIS OF TDE CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE FOSSILS OF IRELAND;" "SYNOPSIS OF THE SILURIAN FOSSILS OF 

IREL.AND;" "CONTRIBUTIONS TO BRITISH PALEONTOLOGY;" ONE OF THE AUTHORS OF SEDGWICK AND MlCOY'S 

"BRITISH PALAEOZOIC ROCKS AND FOSSILS;" " PRODROMUS OF THE PALEONTOLOGY OF VICTORIA," ETC. 

PROFESSOR OP NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY. 
GOVERNMENT PALAEONTOLOGIST, AND DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OP MELBOURNE, ETC. 




MELBOURNE: 

BT AUTHORITY : ROET. S. BRAIN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 

LONDON : 

TRUBNER AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDO \.TE HILL. 
H DCCC LXXXIX. 



Ibi>1 



PEEFACE. 



The first plate in this Nineteenth Decade represents one of the 
most cimous of the small Lizards of the Colony, remarkable 
for the entire absence of external ear-drums, the Tympano- 
cryptis lineata. 

The second plate figures for the first time the natural colours 
of life of one of the largest of the so-called Whiting, amongst 
our best food fishes, the Sillago ciliata. 

The third plate represents the Skipjack of all English-speaking- 
fishermen, the Temnodon saltator, remarkable for its almost 
world-wide distribution, and which is common in our Bay and 
fish shops most months of the year. 

The fourth plate represents, for the first time of the natural 
colours, another of our very common food fishes, popularly called 
Roughy, the Arripis Georgianus. 

The next three plates are devoted to illustrations of Mr. 
MacGillivray's contributions of specimens to the Museum, and 
descriptions of our Victorian Polyzoa. 

Plate 188 represents, the so-called Cuttle-fish bone of our 
commonest species of Sepia, not, however, figured before, the 
Sepia apama. 



PREFACE. 



And the last two plates represent, of the colours of life, the 
details of the soft parts of the Cuttle-fish from which the bone, 
figured on plate 188, was extracted, also uufigured before. 

The succeeding Decades will illustrate as many different genera 
as possible, and deal first, usually, with species of some special 
interest, and of which good figures do not exist, or are not 
easily accessible. 

Frederick McCoy. 

2nd July, 1889. 



/'' 



TLISI 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

I ReptiLes) 




JJ' if'UJ. IclUilk 



ITE-.U.-Ctr' iK\ 



c asx'/l ii&w I Ji'^PriJUui^ Orfitr 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [ReptiUs. 



Plate 181. 

TYMPANOCRYPTIS LINE AT A (Peters). 

The White-streaked Earless Lizard. 

[Genus TYMPANOCRYPTIS (Peters). (Sub-kingdom Vertebrata. Class ReptiUa. 
Order Sauria. Sub-order Pachyglossa». Tribe Strobilosaura. Family Agamidje.) 

Gen. Char. — Head short, rounded ; no external ear drum. Body broad, depressed ; tail 
long, tapering, round. Scales of back irregularly flat, scale-shaped, or spinose; no dorsal crest. 
No gular sack ; a strong transverse gular fold ; one preanal pore on each side, sometimes absent 
in female ; no femoral pores. Australia.] 

Description. — Body short, thick, fusiform ; tail little long-er than the head 
and body. When the hind leg is drawn forward along' the side, the longest toe 
reaches the shoulder. Hea'd short, lilunt, semioval, with a convex profile arched 
downwards from the occiput; nostril in a large nasal plate, a little nearer to the 
eye than to the tip of the snout. Scales of head irregular in size and shape, very 
strongly keeled ; those of back strongly keeled, chiefly small and rhombic, but with 
numerous larger, conical, compressed, arched, spinose scales, very irregularly 
scattered, not forming distinct continuous keels, except one from end of mouth to 
shoulder, and a shorter and less distinct one over its hinder half; a strong ridge- 
like fold from axil to thigh on each side ; scales of throat, belly, and underside of 
thighs rhombic, posterior angle prominent and middle slightly convex but not dis- 
tinctly keeled ; scales of upper and under sides of tail very strongly keeled, forming 
continuous ridges. Colour : Pale brown above, ashy white below ; head, two rows 
of large quadrate spots along back, and transverse bands on upper surface of legs 
and thighs and across the tail, of dark rich chocolate-brown, becoming paler on 
posterior half of tail, and forming ashy brown, irregular, transverse bands on sides; 
five narrow white lines, one in middle of back from occiput to base of tail, one on 
each side (often interrupted) from head to anterior third of tail, and one on each 
side, coinciding with the prominent lateral fold from axil to thigh ; a conspicuous, 
narrow, whitish, open chevron mark crosses the head from a little behind middle of 
each eye, with a round white spot in front of it, and one smaller near tip of snout 
and one on each side ; a few irregular whitish marks on sides and back of head. 
Throat strongly mottled with broad, irregularly flexuous, longitudinal, bla'ckish bands; 
belly more faintly mottled or plain ashy white. Measurements: Total length, 
4 in. 8 lines ; length of head, 6^ lines ; width of head, 6 lines ; width of body, 
7 lines; length of body, 1 in. 8 lines; length of tail, 2 in. 5^ lines; length of fore 
limb, 11 lines; length of hind limb, 1 in. 3 lines; from axil to thigh, 1 in. 1 line. 

Reference. — Peters Monats Bericht. Berlin Akad., 1863, p. 230. 

The species of Tympanocryptis are remarkably distinguislied 
from all of the genus Grammatophora or Amp)Mholurus by the ear- 
openings being absent or entirely concealed by being covered over 
by the ordinary scales of the adjacent parts of the head. The 

Vol, II.— Decade Xl.y.— 2b. ' [ 297 ] 



Zoology.] NATtTRAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Beptiles. 

present species, at first glance, resembles the young of the G. muri- 
c'ata or "Blood-sucker" of colonists, figured on our plate 111, so 
much as to be easily mistaken for it. The absence of the large 
distinct external tympanum easily distinguishes it, however, as 
well as the shorter blunter head ; the large pointed scales being 
irregularly scattered instead of forming distinct median and lateral 
keels, and the absence of femoral poi*es on the underside of the thigh 
are also ready distinctions. Most specimens have no pre'anal pores, 
but occasionally there is one large, prominent preanal pore on each 
side, as in the genus Diporophora (which, however, has distinct 
external ear-drums)-. 

The habits of this little Lizard are entirely different from those 
of the G. muricata, never ascending trees or bushes like that 
creature, but inhabiting stony plains and ^retreating into small 
holes, like those of the " Trap-door Spider," in the ground when 
alarmed. 

Not very uncommon at Essendon and plains near Sunbury, &c., 
to the north of Melbourne. 

This interesting rejitile has not been figured before. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 181. — Fip;. 1, avprage specimen, natural size, side view. Fip;. la, head, viewed from 
top, magnified two diameters. Fig. li, liead and neck, side view, showinf; absence of ears, 
magnified two diameters. Fig. Ic, front view, showing large chin plate, raagnilied two 
diameters. Figs. \d, Ic, underside of foot, magnified two diameters. Fig. ]/. preanal pores, 
magnified three diameters. Fig. 1;/, scales of neck, magnified three diameters to show spines. 
Fig. lA, spinose scales of dorsal portion of side and sniootli scales of ventral portion of side, 
magnified three diameters. Fig 2, another specimen, viewed from above. Fig. 3, young, short- 
tailed specimen, about entering hole. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 398 ] 



%i^ 



Pl.Vil 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

[Fishes) 




A JiitrOiolon-x^ 4fh et Uh 



hr\i' M' Cffjf eUrta' 



SteOfin. biko Om^hvHuut OfKot 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 



Plate 182. 

SILL AGO CILIATA (Cuv. and Val.). 
The Plain Whiting. 

[Genus SILLAGO (Covier). (Sub -kingdom Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Sub-class 
Teleostea. Order Acauthopterygii. Family Tracbinidse.) 

Gen. Char. — Body elongate, subcylindrical, moderately compressed ; bead conical ; moutb 
small, with tbick lips ; upper jaw a little longer than the lower, protrusile ; eyes lateral and a 
little upwards ; teeth in cardiforra patches on jaws (outer row sometimes longer) and vomer, 
none on palatines. Operculum witli a sharp posterior spine ; preopercula serrated, approaching 
each other below. Br.anchiostegal riiys six. Scales of moderate size, ctenoid. Two contiguous 
dors.als, the first high, of nine to twelve slender spines, the liinder longer but lower. Fectonals 
moderate ; ventrals thoracic, of one spine and five rays ; anal like second dorsal. Bones of 
head with wide muciferous ducts. Fseudobranchia;. Air-bladder simple. Pyloric csca few. 
Red Sea to S. Australia.] 

D. 11 -1- 1/17 ; A. 2 -h 16 ; P. 15 ; V. 1 -I- 5 ; C. 19 ; L.l. 70 ^% (about fourteen 
rows of additional minute scales on caudal fin). 

Description. — Greatest depth over middle of pectoral in front of dorsal; 
declining- thence with slight convexity to the thick compressed pedicle of tail; more 
convexly arched to eye, from whence the profile of the conical compressed head is 
nearly straight in its downward slope to the very small protrusile mouth, with thick 
tieshj' lips ; smooth portion of head from eye to maxillary on side with wide shallow 
muciferous openings and channels; space on top of head nearly flat, very slightly 
convex, covered with large scales nearly half-way from eye to snout; cheeks, 
operculum, and preoperculum covered with scales larg-er than on top of head; 
posterior vertical and horizontal edge of preoperculum serrated ; operculum with 
one, angular, flat spine a little above base of pectoral. Teeth.- About twelve rows of 
minute, within the outer row of larger, ones on jaws. Fins : First dorsal hig'h, of 
eleven slender spines, second longest ; interval between dorsals less than between 
spines of first dorsal ; second dorsal lower than the first, declining gradually from 
the first branched ray, which is longer than the spine, to the posterior end ; caudal 
concave, with thick branched rays ; anal similar in shape to second dorsal, but 
shorter and less deep; pectoral moderate, triangular; ventrals a little behind base 
of pectorals. A row of small, oblong, transverse scales behind each spine and ray of 
dorsal and anal fins. Colour : Back dark brownish-olive with bluish and green 
reflections, brighest on nape ; pale-brownish on sides, fading into pearly- white along 
belly and underside of tail; head purplish-brownish; iris white, with yellow border; 
caudal fin dark brownish-olive, rays lighter, membrane spotted with black, posterior 
edge and lower edge darkest ; first dorsal nearly colourless, with faint blackish 
clouds ; second dorsal with six to nine rows of narrow, transverse (fore and aft), 
oblong, brown marks, with rather wider pale intervals on the membranes ; pectoral 
pale-yellowish, nearly colourless, with a large purplish-black spot at its base. Ventral 
and anal fins bright rich kings-yellow. Measiirements : Length of figured specimen, 
1 ft. 6 in. 6 Hnes. Comparative measurements to length, as 100 : — Tip of snout 
(protruded) to anterior edge of eye, •^^■, to posterior edge of eye, xws'j to ^''^t ray 
of dorsal, y^j^^ ; to edge of operculum, Y\yis '■, to first ray of second dorsal, /j-j ; to 
base of pectoral, ii^; to first ray of ventral, xVtt j ^^ fi''st ray of anal, Z/^; to last 

[ 299 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. iFishes. 

ray of dorsal, tVo? 'o list ray of anal, y,;V; space between eyes, xrjy; leng'th of 
caudal fin, ~i^q; greatest height of first dorsid, Vifo j greatest height .of second 
dorsal, iJ},5 ; greatest depth of anal, , Ju ; first ray of ventral, ,Vi; ; length of 
pectoral, I'iro- Five scales in length of 1 inch at middle of body ; four in same 
space vertically. 

Reference. — Cuv. and Val., Hist. Nat. des Poiss., v. 3, p. 415. 

This is a rare fish in Victoria, sometimes named " Sydney 
Whiting" by fish dealers, who call all the species of Sillago 
" Whiting," not from any identity of the external characters, but 
from the similarity of the delicate white flesh, which is so good as 
to be welcome at the best tables. The popular name of " Plain 
Whiting " is appropriate, as it has none of the spots or stripes of 
the other species. iSJot figured before. 

Explanation of Figores. 

Plate 182. — Fig 1, side view, about half the natural size. Fig. la, upper jaw, outer row 
of conical teeth and inner row.s of minute cardiforni teeth on sides of jaw, and patch of cardiform 
teeth on vomer. Fig. 16, teelli of lower jaw. Fig. Ic, spine and two rays of second dorsiil, to 
show the row of small si^ales behind each, natural size. Fig. It/, scale from above lateral line, 
twice tlie natural size. Fig. le, scale of later.il line, twice the natural size. Fig. 1/, scale from 
back of rays of dorsal fin, magnified four diameters. Fig. Ig, section of pedicle of tail. Fig. \h, 
section behind pectoral. 



Frederick McCoy. 



[ 800 ] 



% 



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Pi 183 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTOR lA 




A£arOu}iom£?'i d/t <l UtK 



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Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. iFishes. 



Plate 183. 

TEMNODON SALTATOR (Lin. sp.). 
The Skipjack. 

[Genus TEMNODON (Gov.). (Sub-kingdom Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Sub-class 
Teleostea. Order Acanthopterygii. Pamily Caraugidas.) 

Oen. Char. — Body oblong, moderately compressed ; tail without keel or armature ; pre- 
operculum striated and serrated at lower edge. .Taws with a row of strong, lancet-shaped 
cutting teeth in front, and large bands of minute cardiform teeth on the palatine bones, vomer, 
.and tongue. First dorsal fin of seven or eight slender spines with delicate membrane, capable 
of being hid in a groove at base ; second dorsal and anal fins long, triangular, covered with a 
thick, slightly scaly skin ; two minute spines, often hid in skin, in front of base of anal ; no 
finlets ; ventrals thoracic; br.anchiostcgals seven ; a simple swim-bladder; pyloric .appendages 
numerous ; scales moderate, subquadrate, ciliated and granulated posteriorly, with a faintly 
marked fan of about five nays in front, extending over the operculum and cheeks ; the 
suboperculura, interoperculum, lower part of preoperculum, snout, .and round eye bare.] 

D. 8 -f 1.23; P. 15; V. 1 -|- 5 ; A. (0, or 1, or 2) -|- 1.24; C. 20I-; 
L.I. 85-90 ^-A^. 

Description. — Elong-ate ovate, depth nearly 44 in total leng-th, including- caudal 
fin ; abruptly narrowed behind dorsal and anal fins ; head with profile descending 
with slig-ht convexity ; end of maxillary reaching' nearly to vertical of posterior 
margin of eye; lower jaw protruding in front of upper one; preoperculum striated 
and distinctly serrated on lower edge; operculum with a deep notch, Laving two, 
I'ounded, sub-angular lobes above base of pectoral ; first dorsal rounded, fourth ray 
longest, eighth ra}' shortest; second dor.sal triangular, third ray longest; anal like 
the second dorsal, and both covered with a thick, slightly scaly skin ; the two minute 
spines in front of anal distinct in some small specimens, scarcely perceptible to the 
touch in most adults, and only one in some specimens ; ventrals slightly behind the 
pectorals, united at base; caudal of two pointed lobes with a deep angular indentation 
in the middle. Teeth: About eleven on each side of lower jaw and nine on each side 
of upper jaw of the large teeth, standing about their length apart; a row of very 
small, simple, conical teeth behind the large ones in front of upper jaw ; a large 
triangular patch of minute cardiform teeth en the vomer, and an elongate patch of 
similar ones on each palatine bone, and a smaller oblong patch on each side of the 
base of the tongue. Lateral line nearly coinciding with the line of the back, and at 
about one-fourth the depth from it, with simple distinct tubes of about ninety scales ; 
scales spinulose and serrated on posterior edge ; eight above and twenty below the 
lateral line. Colour : Blackish-grey or lead colour above, with purplish and steel-blue 
and green reflections in large specimens, blighter blue in young individuals; smooth 
part of top of head blackish-purple ; cheeks and sides of body lighter than back, with 
the reflections from the scales producing a longitudinally striped effect ; throat and 
belly pearly-white; pectoral fin with dusky membrane, blackish at base, and with first 
simple ray black; the spotted rays greyish, speckled with black, membrane dull 

[3U1 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORT OF VICTORIA. IFishes. 

yellowish near base, colourless or smoky beyond ; first dorsal with the rays blackish, 
membrane colourless, except at triang-ular blackish patch in front of the base of each 
ray ; second dorsal dull blackish-olive, minutely crossed with lines of minute black 
specks ; anal like the dorsal but a little Ijo-hter ; caudal blackish-oHve, darkest at 
upper, lower and posterior margins ; iris yellowish. Total length from tip of snout 
to tip of caudal, 1 ft. 7 in. Proportional measurements to length (taken as 100): — 
Length of head from snout to end of operculum, -f/j ; from tip of snout to anterior 
margin of orbit, y^^ ; length of orbit, x^o 5 tip of snout to base of pectoral, j%% ; 
length of pectoral, -rVV 5 greatest depth of body, -fy-^ ; greatest thickness of body, 
•jij^; tip of snout to base of ventrals, ^^; length of ventrals, i^^; tip of snout to 
front of anterior dorsal, xVo! greatest height of first dorsal, yoii! space between 
dorsals, -pjfjj ; length of second dorsal, xVu > greatest height, xf^ ; length of 
caudal at ends, x\/*^; length of caudal in middle, i^^j; length of anal, x'(7w j 
greatest height of first branched rays, ^ws- Number of scales in ^ in. near middle 
of side, three. 



References. — = Gasterosteus saltatrix, Lin. Syst. Nat., p. 421 ; =^Chilodipterus 
heptacaiithus, Lacep 3, p. 542, t. 21, f. 3 ; = Temnodon hepiacanthus, Quoy and Gaim. 
Vdv. Freyc, Zool., t. 61, f 2, p. 400 ; = Scomber- plunibeus, Mitchel, L. and P. S. 
N.'York, V. 1, p. 424, t. 4, fig. 1 ; De Kay, Fish, F., N. York, p. 130, t. 26, f 81. 

This is certainly identical with the " Skipjack " of English- 
speaking fishermen in Carolina and S. Africa, as well as various 
parts of Australia, and is the famous " Blue Fish " of the coasts of 
New York. Like De Kay, several observers have not found the 
eighth ray spoken of by Cuvier in the first dorsal, probably 
from looking at the wrong end ; it is very minute and behind the 
last spine. The two minute spines concealed in the skin in front 
of the anal fin are ceitaiuly absent in most specimens but very 
distinct in young ones, and perhaps may be a sexual character. 
It is by some oversight, I suppose, that Dr. Guntber and Sir 
W. Macleay in their Catalogues state the scales to be cycloid ; 
they are certainly ctenoid. I only find seven rays to dorsal in 
most large specimens such as that here figured, not eight as 
in Gunther's and Macleay's woi-ks, agreeing thus with Quoy and 
Gaimard and with De Kay; but in small specimens the eighth may 
usually be found, as in our figure 3. The row of small conical teeth 
inside the outer row of large ones in the upper jaw I find constant, 
but they seem to have been overlooked by most observers, except 
Quoy and Gaimard and Cuvier and Valenciennes. 

One of the commonest of the food fishes supplied to the market 
of Melbourne from all the neighbouring coasts, usually about a 

[ 3oa J 



Zoohgii.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 

foot long, but occasionally more than double that size, and I 
have seen one caught in June, 1888, 3 ft. 2^ in. long. It is 
moderately good for the table. 

Explanation or PiotrHES. 

Plate 183. — Fig. 1, average specimen, half the natural size ; eighth dorsal spine is absent. 
Fig. lo, mouth, natural size, showing outer row of conical teeth, smaller inner I'ow on upper 
jaw, with cardiform patches on hinder edges of upper jaw, pabitine bones, vomer, and base of 
tongue. Fig. lb. scale, twice the natural size, from below lateral line. Fig. Ic, scale from 
lateral line, twice the natural size. Fig. Id, scale from above lateral line, twice the natural 
size. Fig. le, section behind pectoral. Fig. 1/, section of pedicle of tail. Fig. 2, anal from 
another specimen, showing two additional short spines in front. Fig. 3, first dorsal fin, showing 
eight rays, from another specimen. 



Frederick McCoy. 



C 303] 



^^ 



PI 184f 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(Iishesj 




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Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 



Plate 184. 

ARRIPIS GEORGIANUS (Cuv. and Val.). 
The Roughy. 

[Genus ARRIPIS (.Tentns). .(Sub-kingdom Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Sub-class 
Teleostea. Order Acanthoptervgii. Family Fercidie.) 

Oen. Char. — Form moderately elongate, fusiform. Branchiostegal rays seven. Gill open- 
ings Large. All the teeth villifcirm ; numerous rows of teeth on the palatine bones and on the 
vomer. Tongue smooth. One dorsal fin, witli nine slender spines and several branched rays ; 
anal fin with three spines and sever.al branched rays ; caudal fin deeply forked ; pectoral small ; 
Tentrals a little behind base of pectorals. Operculum with one or two spines at upper posterior 
edge. Freoperculura denticulated on basal and ascending edge. Infraorbital bone slightly 
denticulated. JIaxillary bone with scales. Scales very finely ciliated at posterior edge ; 
anterior fan of diverging ridges nearly or quite obsolete, replaced by fine close striae, parallel 
to the anterior truncated margin. Air-bladder simple. Pyloric appendages numerous. Confined 
to Australia.] 

D. 9.14; A. 3.10; V. 1.5; P. IG; C. 18; L.l. 54t«V (seven or eight rows of 
small scales, beyond those fifty-four of lateral line, on tail). 

Description. — General form of the body fusiform, moderately compressed, the 
curve of the back much less convex than that of the ventral outline. Height of body 
from 4 (at base of ventrals) to 3,^ (at greatest depth, opposite eighth spine) in large, 
or 4i in small specimens, in total lengtb, including caudal fin ; thickness rather less 
than half the depth; length of head about 5 to 5i in total length; diameter of eye 
about one-quarter the length of head in largest specimens, one-third in small ones. 
Fourth dorsal spine longest. The two spines of the operculum are very visible in 
small specimens of the ordinary dimensions of 9 inches, both standing out as smooth 
angular projections, the lower a little more acute than the upper; but the upper 
one is scarcely visible in the very large specimen measured below, being in it, and all 
approaching it in size, broad, longitudinally ridged, and so obtuse as to lose the 
spine-like character of the young. One to two rows of scales on maxillary bone; 
lower and ascending edge of preoperculum distinctly- serrated in the small specimens; 
but almost smooth in the very large. Lower edge of suborbital bone from anterior 
half of lower edge of orbit to snout with coarse sulci extending downwards and 
backwards, rougbly serrating the lower edge, especially in small specimens. Snout 
short, obtuse; the lower jaw very slightly longer than tbe upper. Scales very 
finely serrated on posterior margin; the anterior portion marked with vertical lines 
of growth, and quite without raiiiating fan-like ridges. Lateral line about one- 
quarter of depth of body below dorsal profile. Colour: Top of head dark-olive 
to level of eye, with a paler extension round the eye. Top of snout of both 
jaws, blackish. Back dark olive -grey' with bronze and steel-blue reflections. 
Sides gradually getting lighter to ventral edge; rather more than one-third of 
each scale in the longitudinal rows darker and more olive than the lighter 
greyer interval, forming sixteen or seventeen longitudinal stripes, fainter towards 
the belly. Cheeks pearly, with bronze reflections on operculum, the upper 
posterior edge and a spot about middle of anterior edge, darker; throat and 
maxillar}' white; iris bronze, j'ellowish, and green. Fins: Light-grey, speckled with 
black ; dorsal and anal flecked with blackish; an imperfect, narrow, blackish edge to 
dorsal; ventral nearly colourless; caudal darkest, blackish-olive, with the posterior 
margin and tips black; pectoral dark, but less so than caudal. Measurements: Very 

Vol. II.— Decate XIX.— 2«. [ 305 ] 

P.S. — By a mishap plate IS4 has been spoiled at the last moment. The belly of the fish 
should be white, with a slight pearly-purple tinge. The latter color has been printed full 
strength, unfortunately, but the reader must suppose it to be absent, like lower part of tail. 



Zoologi/.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [_Fhhes. 

large specimen: 1 foot 4 in. 3 lines from snout to tip of caudal fin. Proportional 
measurements to this length, as 100: length of head, y^'V? snout to eye, xsu; 
diameter of eye, -y^; space between eyes, ygij; greatest depth of body, yVui snout 
to origin of dorsal, yV^j; length of dorsal, j*/^^; height of fourth spine, -^^-^jj ; length 
of caudal lobes, ~^^j^; ditto in middle, yg^; length of pectoral, y'/jj; snnut to ventral, 
y^ij, snout to anal, y%%; length of ventral, ~^% ; length of third anal spine, y^^; 
first anal branched ray, yjf%; length of base of anal, y^^-. Average-sized specimen: 
from snout to tip of caudal fin, 9 in. 3 lines. Proportional rneasurements to this 
length, as 100: length of head, y-^"ij; snout to eye, y^,, ; diameter of eye, y^jj; space 
between eyes, yj^; greatest depth of body, -yo%j snout to origin of dorsal, j-,fjy; 
length of dorsal, y^^^y; height of fourth spine, yy\j; length of caudal lobes, y^g ; 
ditto in middle, tJ^-; length of pectoral, y tni" ! snout to ventral, y-j/'j,-; snout to anal. 
y'^f^; length of ventral, y^^; length of third anal spine, y^jj; first anal branched 
ray, y^; length of base of anal, y^g-^. 

References. — Rich., E. and T., p. 117, t. 54, f. 3 to Q; zzC'entropr isles 
Georgianus, C. and V., Hist. Nat. des Poiss. v. 7., p. 451. 

The uame Rougliy is popularly given in Victoria to this fish 
from the remarkable roughness to the -touch which the serration of 
the posterior edge of each of the very lai'ge scales gives the sui'fiice, 
although it is really as fine as I figure it. It is somewhat like the 
Skipjack in usual size, shape, and colour, although the two fish may 
be distinguished at a glance by the continuity of the spinous 
and branched rays of the dorsal in the Rougli}^, and the two 
portions forming distinct fins in the Skipjack, in which also the 
large teeth of the jaw show the generic difl^erence at once. 

The outer rows of teeth are I'ather smaller than the others in 
the Roughy or A . Georgianus. 

The very large specimen figured has (as usual) the head and 
eye smaller in proportion than in the small, usual size, and in it the 
two spines on posterior edge of operculum are much less marked, 
the upper one much broader and divided by ridges, and the 
serration of the preoperculum obsolete. 

Not figured of the colours of life before. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 184. — Fig. 1, very large specimen (over 16 inclies long), about one-half n.atural size. 
Fig. la, mouth, natural size, showing cardifornj teeth on jaws, vomer, and palatine bones, and 
sniootli tongue. Fig, lA, scale from lateral line, m.agnified two diameters. Fig. \c. scale from 
below lateral line, magnified two diameters, showing serrated posterior edge, and absence of fan 
on anterior covered portion. Fig. 1(/, scales from middle of body, one and a half times the natural 
size, to show colouring. Fig. le, scales from nape, twice the natural size, to show colouring. 
Fig. 1/, section behind pectoral. Fig. 1^, section of pedicle of tail. Fig. 2, head of smaller 
specimen (9 inches long), natural size, to show the two distinct spines on operculum at that 
size. 

Frederick McCoy. 
[ 306 ] 






li 



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n.is5 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(Tolyzocb) 




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Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Pohjzoa. 



Plate 185, Fig. 1. 
AMATHIA BICORNIS (Tenison- Woods). 

[Genus AMATHIA (Lamouroux) = SEKIALARIA (Lamakck). (Sub-kingdom Mollusca. 
Class Polyzoa. Order Iiifundibulata. Sub-order Ctenostomata. Family Vesiculariidas. ) 

Gen. Char. — Zoarinm radicate, erect or creeping, with free filiform dichotomous branches. 
Zooecia sub-tubular, connate, in two parallel rows, continuous or in distinct groups which are 
placed on one or two sides of the branches or wound spirally, partially or wholly, round them.] 

Description. — Zooecia of moderate height, deeply hollowed above (when dry), 
with a long- hollow process on each side at the summit, arranged in close spiral 
clusters of about two whirls, the basal clear parts of the internodes being- about the 
same length as the clusters. 

References. — Serialaria spiralis, Tenison-Woods, Trans. Roy. Soc. N. S. 
Wales, 1877, p. 84; Amathia bicornis, Tenison-Woods, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., June, 
1879. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

Forms dense masses of a brownish colour, the largest I have 
being about an inch and a half in each direction. The close 
double spiral clusters, separated by clear portions of the branches 
of about the same length, with the peculiar hollow processes from 
the summits of the zooecia, are sufficiently distinctive. 

Explanation of FiGtrKEs. 

.Plate 185. — Fig. 1, part of specimen, natural size. Fig. la, small portion of same, 
magnified. Fig. 26, two zooecia, more highly magnified. 



Plate 185, Fig. 2. 

AMATHIA SPIRALIS (Lamx). 

Description. — Zoaiium formiag large tufts of dichotomously divided branches. 
Zooecia very long and narrow, arranged in a continuous spiral round the branches, 
interrupted only at the bifurcations. 

Reference. — Lamouroux, Hist, des Polyp. Corall. Flex., p. 161, pi. iv., fig. 2. 

[ 307 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPoli/soa. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

This species occurs in tufts several- inches in height. The 
zooecia form a continuous spiral round the branches, interrupted 
only at the bifurcations. They are separated by deep grooves, 
but in dried specimens, as in that figured, they become depressed 
and the partitions appear as prominent ridges. The united 
separating walls of contiguous zocecia project upwards as blunt 
points (more prominent when dried). It is at once distinguished 
from the other species, by its stoutness, the uniform length of 
the zooecia and the closeness of the spiral entirely concealing 
the branches except at the bifurcations. There can be no doubt 
that this is Lamouroux's species. That described and figured by 
Busk as A. spiralis in the " Cliallenger" Polyzoa is quite different. 

Explanation of Figures. 
Plate 185. — Fig, 2, branch, natural size. Fig. 2a, portion of same (dried), magnified. 



Plate 185, Fm. 3. 
AMATHIA TORTUOSA (Tenison-Woods). 

Description. — Zoarium slender, stragg-ling, of a dull olive colour; branches 
clear and glassy. Zocecia slender, of moderate height, arranged in long spiral 
clusters extending from two-thirds to more than a complete turn round the axis, and 
leaving a clear space at the base of the internode. 

References. — A. tortuosa, Tenison-Woods, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., 1879. 
A. connexa, Busk, '^Challenger" Polyzoa, pt. ii., p. 36, pi. vi., fig 3. 

Port Phillip Heads ; Sealers' Cove, Baron von Mueller. 

I believe that this is the species intended by Mr. Woods, 
although it does not quite agree with his figure and description. 
Mr. Busk, however, was doubtful as to the identification and 
named this A. connexa, considering another allied species, which he 
describes and figures, to be the true A. tortuosa. 

[ 308 ] 



ZooIogy.-\ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Po/^joa. 

The branches are coloui-less, very clear, and glassy. The 
zooecia are of moderate height, of nearly uniform size, although 
usually rather shorter distally, and are arranged in an open spiral 
forming a nearly complete turn. The figure, taken from a dried 
specimen, does not show the characters so satisfactorily as one 
preserved in spirit, and I shall therefore give a fresh one when 
figuring the remaining species of the genus. 

* Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 185. — Fig. 3, portion of specimen, natural size. Fig. 3a, portion of same, magnified. 



Plate 185, Fig. 4. 
AMATHIA INARMATA (McG.). 

Description. — Zooecia arranged in unilateral biserial g^roups of 4-9 pairs, 
occupying- nearly the whole leng-th of the internodes which are slightly arcuate, of 
moderate heig;ht, slightly diminishing; towards the distal extremity. 

Reference,— P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., Nov., 1886. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

This is considered by Kirkpatrick (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
July, 1888) to be the A. biseriata of Krauss. I have not seen 
Krauss's work (Corallinen und Zoophyten der Sudsee), and 
therefore cannot say whether this identification is correct. South 
African specimens, however, which I have received from Dr. 
Pergens as A. biseriata are certainly diflferent. 

The extent of internode occupied by the clusters varies, these 
sometimes extending almost the whole length, at other times a 
considerable portion at the base being bare. 

Explanation of FionKES. 
Plate 185. — Fig. 4, portion of specimen, natural size. Fig. 4a, part of same, magnified. 

[ 309 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPolyzoa. 



Plate 185, Fig. 5. 
AMATHIA AUSTRALIS (Tenison- Woods). 

Description. — Zooecia arrang-ed in stmigbt unilateral clusters of 5-7 sub- 
alternate pairs, of nearly uniform thickness, diminishing' in heig'ht from the proximal 
to the distal; the terminal clusters having beyond the distal zocEcia a pair of large, 
confervoid, and frequently branched processes; a similar process often replacing- a 
branch at a bifurcation. 

References. — Serialaria Australis, Tenison- Woods., Proc. Roy. Soc. N. S. 
Wales, 1877; Amathia Australis, T.-Woods, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., 1879. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

Occurs iu loose tufts several inches in height. The zooecia 
usually diminish iu height fi'om the proximal to the distal, but 
are occasionally nearly equal throughout the clusters. At a 
bifurcation one branch is frequently represented by a confervoid 
filament similar to those at the extremities of the terminal clusters. 

This species is probably the A. cornuta of Lamouroux. His 
figure, however, represents the zooecia as increasing in height from 
the proxuiial to the distal, and as there is, therefore, some doubt 
about the determination, it is better to adopt Mr. Tenison- AVoods' 
name. 

Explanation of Figures. 
Plate 185. — Fig. 5, portion of specimen, natural size. Fig. 5a, part of same, magnified. 



The specimens and descriptions illustrated by this plate are 
from Mr. MacGilhvray. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 310 ] 



PLJ86 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(Tolyzocu) 







hvfM'Cc) dira<- 



Sban. Uihe Cm^rnnby OfKa 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [_Polyzoa. 



Plate 186, Fig. 1. 
SCHIZOPORELLA ROSTRATA (McG.) 

[Genus SCHIZOPORELLA (Hinck.s). (Sub-kingdom Jlollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Cbeilostoniata. Family Escharidse). 

Gen. Char. — Zoarium encrusting, or erect .ind fnliaceous. or columnar and hranobed. Zooecia 
closely adherent to each other ; lower lip with a distinct notch or sinus ; no true peristome ] 

Deschiption. — Zoarium encrusting. Zooecia rhoraboidal, separated by narrow, 
.sharply-raised marg-ins, very slightly convex or nearly flat, silvery, with numerous 
faintly-bordered pores; mouth with a wide shallow sinus in the lower lip and a 
minute denticle on each side internally; an elevated process immediately below the 
lower lip, on the inner aspect of which is an avicidarium with the triang-ular 
mandible pointed upwards. Ooecia large, globular, surface punctate or obscurely 
perforated. 

Reference.— P. H. MacGillivray, Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., Nov., 1886. 
Port Phillip Heads, Mi\ J. Bracebridge Wilson. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 186. — Fig. I, two young zooecia. Fig. la, another portion from same specimen, 
showing older zooecia and ooecia. 



Plate 186, Fig. 2. 
SCHIZOPORELLA WOOSTERI (McG.). 

Description. — Zocecia broad, subquadrate, separated by distinct raised margins, 
surface granulated; mouth subcircujar, with a wide rounded sintis below. An 
avicularium, with semicircular mandible, on each side of the mouth at the upper 
angles of the zooecia. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., July, 18S6. 
QueensclifF, Mr, Wooster. 

Explanation op FionEE. 
Plate 186. — Fig. 2, small portion of specimen, magnified. 

[ 311 J 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

Plate 186, Fig. 3. 
SCHIZOPORELLA PULCHERRIMA (McG.). 

Description. — Zooecia separated by narrow raised lines, broad and nearly flat, 
surface liyaline, traversed by faint lines converg-ing from minute pores or depressions 
at the marg-ins ; mouth very wide, edg-e thickened, contracted towards the base, and 
the lower lip forming a shallow sinus or nearly straigiit. A broadly elliptical 
avicularium placed obliquely on each side of the mouth. 

Reference —P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., Nov., 1885. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

The only specimen I have seen is in the hemeschara form. It 
is not complete, measures three-eighths of an inch across, and is 
remarkable for the small amount of calcareous matter, being very 
thin and translucent. 

Explanation op Figtire. 

Plate 186. — Fig. 3, portion of specimen, magnified. The middle zooecium is probably 
formed by the fusion of two. 



Plate 186, Fig. 4. 
SCHIZOPORELLA LATISINUATA (Hincks). 

Description. — Zoarium encrusting. Zooecia large, broad, ."separated by raised 
thickened margins, surface ])unctate and perforated — when recent, covered by a delicate 
epitheca; mouth arched above, with a wide notch beneath, not contracted at its 
opening; edge of mouth slightly thickened. Ooecia large, globose, granular, or 
perforated, frequently personate. 

Reference. — Hincks, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Aug^., 1882. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

The form of the mouth in the figured specimen diflfers some- 
what from that given by Mr. Hiucks, the sinus in the lower lip 
being narrower and deeper, and the border of the mouth thinner. 

[312] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. ^Polyzoa. 

In other specimens, liowever, it is much shallower and scarcely 
distinguishable. The separating margins at their junctions with 
the sides of the mouth occasionally rise to form an acute angle 
projecting forwards.* 

Explanation of FionRE. 
Plate 186. — Fig. i, portion of specimen, magnified. 



Plate 186, Fig. 5. 
SCHIZOPORELLA BITURRITA (Hincks). 

Description. — Zoarium thick, encrusting" alg-ae. Zooecia confused, indistinct, 
laro-e, oblong-; surface granular and perforated; mouth very large, with a deep, 
wide, rather pointed sinus in the lower lip. A large triangular avicularium on the 
inner side of a thick calcareous process on either side of the mouth. Ooecia large, 
conical, surmounted by a thick, prominent umbo ; surface strongly granular and 
perforated. 

Reference. — Hincks, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Oct., 1884. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

This very peculiar and striking species is readily distinguished. 
It forms thick, calcareous layers, usually surrounding the stems of 
small dark algfe. The zooecia are very indistinct, little prominent 
except unmediately below the mouth. The surface is covered with 
granulations and pores. The mouth is very large aud wide, with 
a broad sinus in the lower lip. On each side of the mouth is a 
stout, calcareous process, on the inner aspect of which is a large, 
triangular avicularium with the mandible pointed upwards. The 
upper part of this process is mamilliform and nearly smooth, the 
lower part granular. The ooecia are very large, mamilliform, 
sui'mounted by a nearly smooth, blunt umbo ; the remainder 
covered with large granulations aud round jjores. These granu- 
lations and pores are arranged in more or less radiating and 
concentric series. 

Explanation of Figukes. 

Plate 186. — Fig. 5, specimen, natural .size. Fig. 5a, two zooecia and ooecia, magnified. 
Fig. fib, ooecium and oral avicularium seen in profile. 

"Since the above was printed I have received specimens precisely agreeing with Hincks' figure and description, 
and differing a good deal in tlie moutli from those previously examined by me. I will give a figure, with description, 
in another plate. It may be doubted whether the present shoxild not be considered a distinct species. 

Vol. II.— Dbcade XIX.-2!/.' [ 313 ] 



Zooloyy.l NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 



Plate 186, Fig. 6. 
SCHIZOPORELLA PACHNOIDES (McG.) 

Description. — Zoariiim encnistin"-. Zooeoia elongated, irreg-iilar in shape, 
separated bj' distinct g'l-ooves with an elevated line at the bottom ; surface covered 
with small elevations, or, from the opening of these, white-bordered pores ; mouth 
lofty, horse-shoe shaped, with a wide, deep sinus in the lower lip ; margin thickened, 
especially below; upper border becoming thickened and raised with age. An 
avicularium, with the triangular mandible pointed straight or obliquely downward's, 
on a slight elevation below the mouth. Ooecia of moderate size, rounded, finely 
granular. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict, Nov., 1886. 
Port Phillip Heads. 

Explanation of Fiouees. 
Plate 186. — Fig. 6, group of zooecia, maguified. Fig. 6a, single zooecium. 



Plate 186, Figs. 7-9. 
SCHIZOPORELLA HYALINA (Linn. sp.). 

Description. — Zoarium thin and silvery. Zooecia in more or less radiating 
lines, closely united or separated by punctures, elongated, smooth, or transversely 
rugose; mouth subcircular, lower lip entire or with a sinus. Ooecia large, globose, 
smooth, vertically carinate, or umbouate, or granular, or perforated. 

References. — ScJiizoporella hyalina, Hincks, Brit. Mar. Pol., p. 271, jil. xviii., 
figs. 8-10; pi. xlv., fig. 2. Lepralia hyalina, Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat. Mar. Pol. 
pt. ii., p. 84 ; pis. Ixxsii., xcv., ci. 

On algae, sliells, and stones, common. 

This cosmopolitan species usnally occurs in small circular 
colonies on algaj or shells. The zooecia are thin and hyaline, 
arranged in irregularly radiating lines, either closely united or 
separated by intervening perforated spaces, the parts between the 
perforations being hollow or tubular. They are generally much 

[314 J 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Poh/zoa. 

elongated and transversely I'ugose. Sometimes, however, they 
are quite smooth. The mouth varies considerably, being either 
subcircular and entire or with a sinus in the lower lip. The part 
immediately below the mouth is frequently produced upwards and 
forwards into a transverse umbo obscuring the lower lip. The 
ooecia also vary very much. They are crowded towards the 
centre of the zoarium where they frequently present somewhat 
the appearance of a Cellepore. The ovicelligerous zocecia, as 
pointed out by Mr Hincks, are mostly small and aborted. 

The following varieties have been distinguished : — 

Var. o: cornuta. — A stout tubular process on each side of the mouth. 

Var. j3: incrassata. — Walls thickened and opaque. 

Var. y : tuberculata. — A number of tubercles on the front of the zooecia, and 

often a strongly developed umbo below the orifice. 
Var. S: pellucida. — Described and figured in Plate 38, fig. 9, of the present 

work as Lepralia pellucida. Zooecia very thin and pellucid, mouth small . 

and sinuated. Ooecia smooth and carinate. 

There is some difference of opinion as to the generic position 
of the species, it presenting several of the characters of Cliorizo- 
2)ora. Schizoporella, however, seems to be its proper place. 

Explanation op Figures. 
Plate 186. — Fig. 7, single zooecium. showing a sinus in the lower lip. Fig. 8, group of 
zooecia from another colony. Fig. 9, part of a colony, showing zooecia with the lower lip entire 
or sinuated, anH ooecia variously smooth, umhouate, and perforate. 



I am indebted to my friend Mr. MacGillivray for the specimens 
and descriptions of the Polyzoa on this plate. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 315 ] 



ly. 



9, 7 






Pl.lSl 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTO RIA 
{Tolyzoa^) 




1 R Mayillixro) ill 
J Sifper hlk- 



T^nTH'Ca) dira-^ 



Stavn Jufu Im^hvdaw Offix 



Zoology.-} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



Plate 187, Figs. 1-3. 
MEMBRANIPORELLA DLSTANS (McG.). 

[Genus MEMBRANIPORELLA (Smitt). (Sub-kingdom MoUusca. Class Polyzoa. Older 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family CribrilinidEe.) 

Gen. Char. — Zoarium adnate or foliaceous. Zooecia coDtiguous or disjunct ; front closed 
by a series of flattened, more or less consolidated, calcareous ribs.] 

Description. — Zocecia contiguous or separated, oval or elongated; ribs 8-11 • 
on each side, a thin raised line down the centre marking- the suture of the opposite 
ribs; mouth with 2-6 thick, articulated spines. Oojcia rounded, with a depressed 
area separated by a thick margin. 

E.EFERENCE. — P. H. MacGilllvraj, Trans. Roy. See. Vict., July, 1882. 

Port Phillip Heads ; Warrnambool, Mr. H. Watts. 

In young specimens the ribs are seen to bifurcate at the inner 
extremities. At first they are separated by considerable intervals, 
but, as growth and calcification advance, they become almost 
contiguous. The oral spines are thick and occasionally almost 
pod-like, the first pair frequently lai'ger. The ocecium has a large 
depressed area in front bounded by a thickened ridge. The 
ovicelligerous ceils have one pair of spines. In the first specimen 
described the zooecia are separated by considerable distances, but 
in others they are closely adjunct, although with a tendency to 
spread at the edges of the zoarium. It is allied to the European 
M. nitida,, from which it diflfers in the stouter spines and, especially, 
in the structure of the ooecia. There ai'e no avicularia in my 
specimens. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate IS". — Figs, 1 and 1«. zooecia from the disjunct form, young. Fig. 2, zooecia and 
ooecia from an older and more calcified specimen. Fig. 2a, single ooecium. 



Plate 187, Figs. 3 and 4. 
CRIBRILINA RADIATA (Moll. sp.). 

[Genus CRIBRILINA (Hincks). (Sub-kingdom MoUusca. Class Polyzoa. Order Infun- 
dibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Familj- CribriUnidae.) 

Qen. Char. — Zoarium encrusting, or adnate, or erect. Front of zooecia with radiating 
furrows occupied by regular series of perforations, or irregularly pierced by lai'ge, more or less 
rounded foramina ; mouth semicircular or subcircular, entire below.] 

[317 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Polyzoa. 

Description. — Zoarium crustaceous. Zooecia closely adjunct or slightly 
separated and connected by an intervening- hasis, rounded or ovate ; front occupied 
by 6-10 ribs on each side radiating from a smooth or ridged central spot or line, the 
intervening sulci jiiercod by a row of small round foramina; a triangular smooth 
space below the mouth usually bounded by a raised margin and with a small per- 
foration at the lower part; mouth semicircular, with 4-0 spines on the upper 
margin and frequently a thin setiform spine on each side below the angle. Ofccia 
globular, smooth, with a vertical ridge or umbo. 

Referencb. — C. rndinla (including vnnominata), Hincks, Brit. Marine Polyzoa, 
p. 185, pi. xxxvi., figs. 1-9. 

Port Pliillip Heads, on shells and calcareous nodules. 

This beautiful species is suliject to considerable variation. The 
zoa'cia are usually ovate or nearly round, sometimes they are 
narrower and ])roduced below, or they may be very broad. The 
centre is usually raised into a ridge or keel, terminating above 
in an unil)o ; sometimes, however, it is smooth. The aperture in 
the triangular smooth space below the mouth is by no meang 
constant and the bounding ridge is frequently absent, as are also 
the setiform spines. The extent and prominence of the ooecial 
ridge varies. Avicularia are rarely (in Australian specimens) 
developed between the zoa?cia. 

There is no doubt that Mr. Hincks is right in uniting C. radiata 
and innominata. 

Explanation of Figures. 
Plate 187. — Fig. 3, small group of zouniii, with (lie ribs very prominont and showing the 
setiform .spines. Fig. 4, three zoteeia, from another s])ccimcn, sliglitly separated from eiich 
other. 



Plate 187, Fig. 5. 
CRIBMLTNA SETIROSTRIS (McG.). 

Description. — Zoarium crustaceous. Zooocia distinct, elongated, surface with 
numerous round or ])yriform ibraminii, frequently arranged in irregular single or 
double transverse rows; mouth arched above, straight below, margin thickened and 

[318] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Polyzoa. 

frequently produced into a slinr[) point at the centre of tiio lower lip. An avicularium 
at the base of the zocccium, with a very long setiform mandible directed up one side 
of the cell. 

Reference.— P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc, Vict., Oct., 188'3, 

Port Phillip Heads. 

This species may be at once recognised by the peculiar avicu- 
laria with the long setiform mandibles. 

ExrLANATioN Or Figure. 

Plate 1S7. — Fig. 5, {jroup of zou>cia. In all the lower lij) is smootli, but the peristome is 
very frequently produced into a short, sharp, central process. 



Plate 187, Fia. 6. 
CRIBRILINA MONOCEROS (Busk). 

Description. — Zoarium adherent or hemescharine. Zooocia with larj^e for- 
amina, the Hiarn'ins of which are thickened; mouth large, the peristome of tlie lower 
lip raised into a central jwinted process; occasionally two or three thin and furcate 
spines on the upper margin of the nioutii ; a thick oral spine on one side of the 
mouth, within the peristome. Otccia subimmersed, smooth, or with slight radiating 
ridges, and frequently with two or more avicularia on elevations. Avicularia absent, 
or numerous and very variable ; in some specimens scattered and usually close to the 
sides of the zocccia, with sharp or blunt mandibles; in others very large, with large 
acute or spatulato mandibles ; they are also found sessile on eminences round the 
mouth, and one occasionally surmounts the inucronate elevation of the lower lip. 

References. — Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat., Mar. Pol. pt. ii., p. 72, pi. xciii., 
figs. 5, 0; MacGillivray, Prd. Zool. Vict., pi. xxxv. 

Port Phillip Heads ; Portland, Mr. Maplestone ; Warrnambool, 
Mr. Watts. 

Two distinct species seem to have been confounded under this 
name, and I therefore give an amended description and an 
additional figure of the true C. monoceros — that of Busk in the 
British Museum Catalogue and myself in this work. 

Explanation of Figtjkb. 
Plate; 1S7. — Fig. 6, zocecia and ocecia, showing the intra-peristoinial spine. 

[ 319] 



Zoology.1 NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPohjzoa. 

Plate 187, Fig. 7. 

CRIBRILINA ACANTHOCEROS (McG.)- 

Description. — Zoarium adherent. Zocecia with large foramina; mouth large, 
lower lip straight, without mucro; a large spine, very long, and with sharp secondary 
spines or prickles directed upwards, immediately below the lip and to one side. 
Oa3cia subimmersed, usually with a small mitriform smooth space below, and several 
large perforations round the upper margin. Frequently a large avicularium, with 
triangular mandible, at each side of the mouth towards the angle. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict, July, 1886. 
Port Phillip Heads ; Portland, Mr. Maplestone. 

This differs from C. monoceros in the follomng points : — The 
lower lip is straight and the peristome is not developed into a 
mucro ; the ocecium is somewhat different ; and especially the 
situation of the azygos oral spine is different. In C. monoceros 
it is always situated at one side of the mou.th, close to the margin 
above the angle and is enclosed within the peristome when 
that is developed. In C. acanthoceros the spine, besides being 
very long and furnished with the peculiar armature, is situated 
below the lower lip, and if a peristome should be developed, which 
I have never seen, would be outside it. 

Explanation of FionRE. 
Plate 187. — Fig. 7, two zocecia, showing oral spines and avicularia. 



Plate 187, Figs. 8 and 0. 
HIPPOTHOA DIVARICATA (Busk). 



[Genus HIPPOTHOA (LAMOURonx). (Sub-kingdom llollusca. 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Clieilostomata. Family Esch.arida;.) 



Class Polyzoa. Order 



Gtn. Char. — Zoarium aduate. Zocecia distant, connected by creeping tubes so as to form 
linear series, or partly clustered in small patches; mouth with a sinus in the lower lip.] 

Description. — Zocecia connected by short thick tubes, pyriform, usually 
carinate, smooth or finely striated, or transversely annulated or corrugated ; mouth 
with a slight notch in tlie lower lip. Oa-cium surmounting a zooecium, rounded, 
smooth, or slightly carinate, or with a rounded umbo. 

[ 320 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

References. — H. divaricala. Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat. Mar. Pol., pt. i., p. 30, 
pi. xviii., fij^s. 3, 4- ; Hincks, Brit. Mar. Pol., p. 288, pi. xliv., fig's. 1-4 ; and pi. i., 
fig. 2 ; //. palagonica, Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat. Slar. Pol., pt. i., p. 30, pi. xvii., fig-. 1. 

Hobson's Bay and Port Phillip Heads, on algse, shells, and 
zoophytes. Usually occurs in slender, silvery, dendritic colonies, 
the zooecia being connected by short, rather thick fibres, originating 
from the summits or sides of the zooecia in irresrular numbers 
(usually one or two) and occasionally branching from other tubes. 
The tubes or fibres are smooth or annulated. Their lena:th varies 
very much, Ijeing sometimes considerably longer than the zooecia, . 
at other times shoi-t and scarcely apparent, the result being in 
the so-called variety conferta almost as close an aggregation as 
in a Lepralia^ but with a tendency to branch off at the edges. The 
mouth is expanded above, narrowed below, and has usually a 
shallow sinus in the lower lip. The ooecium is round or globular, 
the zooecium which it surmounts usually smaller than the normal, 
and frequently originating directly from the side of another. The 
ooecium also frequently has a round boss or umbo in front. The 
roughly annulated form is Busk's H. patagonica. 

Explanation of Figdkes. 

Plate 18T. — Fig. 8, portion of a specimen with the zooecia transversely striated and 
carinate. Fig. 8a, zooecium and ocecium from the same. Fig. 9, portion of another specimen, 
with zooecia mostly annulated and those bearing ooecia arising from the sides of ordinary zooecia, 
connecting fibres of considerable length. 



Plate 187, Figs. 10-13. 
HIPPOTHOA DISTANS (McG.). 

Description. — Zooecia connected by very long, slender threads, small, 
elongated, smooth, finely striated, or faintly annulated; anterior surface rounded 
or carinate; mouth subcircular, or wider above and narrowing downward^ into a 
shallow sinu.t, peristome distinctly thickened. Ooecia globular, terminal, smooth, 
or umbonate. 

References. — H. distans, P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., 1868; 
H.jiageUum, Hincks, Brit. Mar. Pol., p. 293, pi. xliv., figs. 5—7; Busk, Chall. 
Pol., pt. i., p. 4, pi. xxxiii., fig. 7. 

Yoii. II.— Dbcadb XIS.-2Z. [ 321 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPolyzoa. 

Hobson's Bay and Port Phillip Heads, on algfe shells and 
zoophytes, probably common in other localities also. Differs from 
H. divaricata in the zooecia beina; much smaller and narrower and 
the connecting tulies being very long and slender. The zooecia are 
usually much elongated, narrow, and smooth, or very fiiiutly 
striated, and are frequently carinate. The anterior extremity of 
the zooecium sometimes projects slightly forwards. The mouth is 
small, narrowed below into an inconspicuous sinus and has a 
narrow peristome. In addition to the fibres from the end, very 
frequently one arises from each side of a zooecium. 

This species and H. divaricata are very closely allied, differing 
chiefly in the zooecia of the present species being much smaller, 
narrower, and more elongated, and in the connecting tubes being 
very long and thin. The ooecium is similar to that of //. divari- 
cata^ except that it is smaller. 

There can be no doubt that H. flagellum of Manzoni, Hincks in 
British Marine Polyzoa, and Busk in the " Challenger " Polyzoa, is 
the same as the present species, an identification which has already 
been made by Hincks. Both Hincks and Busk describe and figure 
the zooecia as smooth and destitute of carina, but in Mauzoni's 
figure of H. flagellum they are distinctly carinate. 

Explanation of FionRES. 

Plate 187. — Fig. 10, portion of specimen on shell. Figs. 11, 12, and 13, zooecia from 
another specimen on an alga. One zocecium is very sharply carinate, another strongly annulate, 
whilst the ovicelligerous one is nearly smooth. 



Plate 187, Fio. 14. 
ELECTRA AMPLECTENS (Hincks sr.). 

[Genus ELECTRA (Lamouroux). (Sub-ldngdom Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. OrJer In- 
fundibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family MenibraniporidiB.) 

Gen. Char. — Zoarium encrusting, or filiform and erect, or foliaccous. Zooecia elongated, 
narrow below, closely adherent together, lower part convex ; area oval or rounded, occupying 
the whole width of the zooecium above, deep, with thiclcened margins ; one or more large, whip- 
lilce spines (occasionally replaced by an avicularium) below tlic margin of the area, and a 
variable number of short, sharp .spines on its circumference.] 

[ 322 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

Description. — Zoaiium encrusting-. Zooecia arranged in single, bifurcating 
series, pj-riform, with smooth surface ; aperture oval, occupying more than half the 
front of the zooecium and with a slightly thickened margin, covered with a thin 
membrane; two thin spines above at the upper extremity of the zooecium and two, 
or usually three, short, sharp spines on each side of the aperture ; a long, flexible 
spine immediately below the lower edge of the aperture. Ooecia situated above a 
zooecium at the bifurcation of a branch, oval, the front surface covered by a series 
of slender, converging ribs connected by a thin membrane and bounded by a narrow 
calcareous line, beyond which is a smooth part. 

Reference. — Membranipoi-a aniplectens, Hincks, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, 
Aug., 1881. 

Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. Bracebridge Wilson. 

I have only seen one not very good specimen on a piece of alga, 
covered also with Schizoporella liualina. It is allied to E. joilosa-, 
but is veiy much smaller. The ooecium is very peculiar. The 
front wall is covered by a series of slender, white ribs converging 
to a short line in the lower part. The ribs are bounded externally 
by a narrow calcareous rim and are connected by a thin membrane 
which is frequently slightly deficient at the margin. Beyond the 
ribbed part is a narrow smooth portion. 

EXPLASATIOX OF FlGUKES. 

Plate IS". — Fig. 14, small portion of a, specimen. The zooecium of the commencing 
branch at one side of the bifurcation below the ouecium is deficient. Fig. 14a, another portion 
of tlie same specimen, showing three zooecia and an oa>cium, more highly magnified to show the 
structure of the latter. 



Mr. MacGrillivray has contributed the specimens and descriptions 
for this plate. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 323 ] 



PL188 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

( MoV.u sea ) 




B'-WxU.iJ.lUih, 



Frct~ M^Ccy. dzrar* 



Shitun.luheGm'-PruUin^ 00: 



1 



/■& 



7 



PUS 9 



ZOOLOCr OF VICTORIA 

(MoUii,sca) 




S' urOidtliheA 



PI 190 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(MoXl\i,sca,) 




S'^Wtld (UlLhih. 



PmfJfCy.iira' 



•tAjm UOu. ij<n\rru' ■ 



Zoology.-] ■ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_MoUusca. 



Plates 188, 189, and 190. 

SEPIA APAMA (Gray). 

The Large Melbourne Sepia or Cuttle-fish. 

[Genus SEPIA (Lin., restricted). (Sulb-liingdom MoUusca. Class Cephalopoda. Sub-class 
Antepedia. Order Sephinia. Family Sepiadas.) 

Gen. Char. — Body sliort, ovate or oblong, depressed, obtusely rounded behind ; front dorsal 
edge of mantle with rounded angular projection forw.irds ; fins narrow,- along whole length of 
sides of body, disconnected behind. Ventral inner surface of mantle with an oblique oblong 
tubercle fitting corresponding hollow in sides of siphon ; cervical part, under front edge of 
intern.al shell, with longitudinal central ridge fitting into groove on back. Head very large, 
wider than long, without crests or cervical plaits. Eyes very large, lateral, with thick promi- 
nent under-eyelid ; a lachrymal opening in front of folds of eyelid. Ear opening behind lower 
part of globe of eye ; no auricular ridges ; buccal openings six, between bases of arms and lips ; 
buccal membrane with seven lobes, tlie two ventral smaller. Sessile arms short, strong ; third 
and fourth with crests or membranous fins on back. Sucker cups in four rows, subequal, 
minutely fringed or toothed, spheroidal, obliquely pedunculated ; protecting membranes of cups 
very short ; a web between bases of arras, nearly obsolete between bases of ventral pair. Ten- 
tacular arms long, slender, retractile, with large termmal club, having an external fin and 
several rows of suckers, the horny rings of vvliich are convex in middle of outer face, contrsicted 
above and below, and upper edge usually divided into minute, blunt, fringe-like teeth. Siphon 
large, with large internal valve, without suspensory band of attachment to head. Internal shell 
calcareous, depressed, thick, oblong or oval, as long as back of mantle in which it is imbedded ; 
back convex, hard, rugose, with horny tbin edge, and acute, often spinose, posterior end ; concave 
underface filled with very oblique, cellular, calcareous layers, sometimes with posterior, small, 
simple, conical cavity behind ; no siphuncle.] 

Description. — Body thick,, fleshy, moderately convex on back, more so on 
ventral side, smooth, broad-ovate, narrowed behind. Lateral fins rising- a little above 
the edge of mantle anteriorlj-, rounded at posterior end, leaving a small, angular, 
obtusely-rounded notch or space with slightly convex, intervening portion of body at 
posterior end. Sessile arms short, strong, moderately thick ; order of length — 
4, 3, 2 = 1, or 4, 2 = 1,3, or 4, 3 = 2 = 1 ; each with four rows of subequal 
suckers, the compressed horny rim of each of which is set with ver}' numerous, 
compressed, truncated, fringe-like, short teeth; fin between arms about one-third 
of their length to upper pairs of arms, and about half the length of ventral 
pair between them and next pair, but nearly obsolete between the bases of two 
ventral arms. Two tentacular arms reaching about twice the length of the club 
beyond end of body ; club dilated abruptly, auriculate, extended inwards when 
reflexed (outwards when directed forwards), and obtusely plicated transversely on 
back, with a short narrow fin on outer (when turned back, inner when turned 
forward) straight edge ; five rows of suckers, three outer rows smallest, inner row 
larger and median rows largest, all with numerous, minute, truncated, fringe-like 
teeth on compressed hornj'edge; seven or eight very large cups (counted' in the 
longitudinal direction), with about three smaller at base and five at apex of same 
row. Head large, transversely oblong, a little less than opening of mantle ; eyes 
very large, with very thick underlid ; a group of three to five caruncles over each 
eye, and two or three smaller ones below, behind middle ; anterior dorsal edge of 
mantle broadly semioval ; ventral moderately concave. Buccal membrane with 
seven lobes, one point between bases of dorsal arms, one on each side over bases of 
next pairs of arms, one on each side between bases of next pair of arms (or over base 

[ 325 ] 



Zoobgy.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_MoUusca. 

of tentacular arms), one on each side of base of ventral arms; lips witli numerous 
small wattles ; beak sharp, black. Colour: Dark-purple on back and upper surface 
of bead, paler at sides and base of fins, the narrow outer edg-es of which are 
darker; lower or ventral side paler; tentacular arms and inner face of sessile 
arms whitish. Measurements: Length from anterior dorsal edge of mantle to 
interval between fins behind, 8 inches; from ventral edge of ditto, 6 in. 7 lines; 
width of fins at middle, about 1 in. ; width of body without fins, about middle, 
4i in.; length of tentacular arms, 11 in. 6 lines; length of suckered club, 1 in. 
9 lines ; width of club, including- 3 lines of'inner fin, 1 in. ; leng-th of inner fin, 
9 in. 9 lines ; longest (ventral fourth) sessile arm, 6 in. 9 lines ; next (third) 
pair, 5 in. 6 to 8 (on two sides) lines ; next (second) pair, 5 in. 8 lines ; dorsal 
(first) pair, 5 in. 8 lines; depth of fin between dorsal pair; 1 in. 8 lines; next 
pair, 1 in. 6 lines; next pair, 2 in.; next pair, 2 in. 7 lines; ventral pair, 
2 lines. Width of head, 3 in. 6 lines; longitudinal diameter of eye, 2 in. 
Taking- length of dorsal surface of mantle as 100 : the proportional leng-th 
from ventral edge is i^-g-; width of fins at middle, -x^^; greatest width of body 
without fin, yVo ; length of suckered club of tentacular arms, -i%-^ ; width of club, 
including outer fin, tVo J longest sessile (fourth ventral) arm, y^; next (third) 
pair, -pfnr; next (second) pair, -1^^ ; dorsal, ^-^. Another specimen gives length 
of ventral arms to dorsal length of mantle as -f-^-^ (suckered portion, fW) ; next 
pair, -f'^f-jj. Internal Shell: Elongate-ovate, semioval anteriorly, narrower pos- 
teriorly, with slight concavity of sides about one-third from posterior end; anterior 
two-thirds of midline of back nearly straight, posterior third with a gentle parabolic 
curve downwards to edge ; spine thick, very short, curved downwards or towards 
ventral edge, not reaching beyond margin of shell ; below spine a triangular space, 
twice as wide as deep, filled with irregular, lacunose, spiny ])rojections of lamellae, 
edg-es radiating from under base of spine ; a middle space of upper surface rather 
more than one-third the width in front, rather less than one-eighth the width at 
one-fourth the leng-th from posterior edge, convex ; separated from lateral, slightly 
convex-shaped sides by two shallow, diverging impressions, disappearing- at posterior 
fourth of length ; middle of posterior fourth of leng-th covered with coarse, irregular, 
short, vermicular, tubercular ridges, the sides with strise arching forwards and 
outwards. Margins brown and horny at edge, calcareous further in, narrow in 
front and at .sides of anterior half, becoming wider and forming- steep sides 
posteriorly, united behind ; a thick pad at posterior edge of hollow on ventral 
surface, the portion of which marked with transverse undulating lines of cellular 
growth is abo\it four-sixths of total marginal length, flattened behind, slightly 
concave in middle, and convex at sides on front half; anterior two-sixths showing- 
greatest convexity or depth of the shell at its posterior edge. Leng-th from anterior 
to posterior edge, 5 in. 10 lines; greatest width (a little in front of middle), 2 in. 
5 lines, or fniT; gi'eatest depth, 7 lines, or -r"^; length of spine, 1^ lines, or tou ; 
adult shell about 11 in. long, rather wider behind the lateral concavities, and 
without spine, which is often absent in much smaller specimens (probably old 
dwarfs). Sixteen sutural spaces in 6 lines near middle of underside of shell. 

Reference.— Cat. Mol. B.M., Ceph. Ant. p. 103. 

This is the largest and commouest s^iecies of Sepia on our 
coasts, and its internal dorsal shell or " Cuttle-fish Boiie " is 
abundant on the shores everywhere in the Colony, although it has 
not been figured before. I think the character of the relative 
order of successive length of the sessile anus is not so satisfactory 

[ 326 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Molliisca. 

as might be supposed from its frequent use by authors, owing to 
the fact that in this species the right and left of one pair sometimes 
vary 3 lines or more in examples as large as that figured (half the 
natural size) ; so that some measurements would show three pairs of 
arms equal iu the present species. The nearest ally of this cuttle- 
fish is the Sepia latimanus (Quoy and Gaim. ) (including the Sepia 
Rappiana of Feruss.) in size, general shape, form of club, and colour, 
but differs in the short blunt spine of shell and corresponding- 
slight convexity of posterior middle part of body between the fins, 
which, in that species, is acuminate or projects in a long acute 
point, in accordance with the long acute spine of posterior end of 
the shell ; the shell of S. ajxima is also proportionately wider than 
thut of S. latimanus. The proportional greatest width to length 
from anterior to posterior margin is yW "^ D'Orbigny's figure, 
although said to be 31 in the text ; it is sensibly narrower than 
the bone of S. ajxtma, the proportional width of which is fVV- 

Explanation op Figures. 

Plate 18S. — Fig. 1, inlernal bone or shell, dorsal view, of large specimen, two-thirtls of 
natural size. Fig. lo, ditto, viewed from ventral aspect. Fig. 16, profile view. Fig. Ic, 
triangular space bene.ath posterior spine, magnified two diameters. Fig. Irf, posterior end, 
viewed from side, magnified two diameters. Fig. le, vermicular ridging of posterior [lortion of 
dors.al surface, magnified two diameters. Fig. I/, portion of sutural lines of cell growth from 
ventriil surface, magnified two diameters. Fig. 2, vertical section of smaller specimen, two- 
thirds the natural .size, to show relation of cell growths to transverse sutural lines on middle 
and posterior portion of ventral surface. Fig. 2a, posterior end of ditto, magnified, showing 
the pad and form of obsolete decurved spine. Fig. 2b, portion of cell structure, more highly 
magnified, showing the parallelism of the layers (on the right hand), with the smooth, anterior, 
ventral surface, and their cutting that surface (on the left hand) to form the undulating, trans- 
verse, imbricating strise of the middle and posterior portions of the ventral surface. ITig. 2c, 
portion of the same, magnified four diameters. 

Plate 189. — Fig. I, animal, soft'cxternal portion, one-half the natural size, viewed from 
the ventral side, showing siphon with the "buttons" for attachment of mantle to head, inner 
side of arms, with their suckers and connecting membranes ; buccal membrane and mouth with 
the black beaks (the long, retractile, tentacular arms are not extended to their full length). 
Fig. la, club of one of the long tent.acular arms, showing the suckers and fin on opposite side, 
natural size. Fig. 16, section of ventral pair of arms, natural size, showing small fin at inner 
edge of suckers, and the great compression of the back to form its broad fin. Fig. Ic, next pair 
of arms, showing smaller dorsal fin in section, natural size. Fig. Irf, ditto, next pair of arms. 
Fig. le, ditto, dorsal pair. Fig. \h, small cup on m.argin of club, magnified two diameters, viewed 
sideways. Fig. H, same, viewed from above. Fig. 1/, side view of average-sized cup on smaller 
arms, magnified two diameters. Fig.' Ig, same, viewed from above. Fig. lie. largest cup on club, 
viewed from side, magnified three diameters, to show fringing of horny ring. Fig. II, profile 
view of ditto, magnified two diameters. Fig. Im, portion of toothed edge of ditto, m.agnifled 
five diameters. Fig. In, same, viewed from above. 

Plate 190. — Fig. l,.same cuttle-fish, dors.al view, one-half n.atural size, showing the large 
eyes, with caruncles above. Fig. la, portion of club, to show r.adiated outer side and broad fin 
on back, natural size. Fig. 16, buccal membrane and be.aks, one-half natural size. 

Frederick McCoy. 
[ 327 ] 



CONTENTS OE DECADES. 



N.B.— The originals o£ aU the Figures are in the. National Museum, Melbourne. 



DECADE I. 



Plate 1.— The Black Snake (Pseudechys porphyriacus, Sliaw sp ) 

Plate 2.— The Copper-head Snake (Hoplocephaius superbus, Gunth ) 

1 LATE 3.— The Tiger Snake (Hoplocephaius curtus. Schl sp ) 

Plate 4.— The Australian Bream (Chrysophrys Australis, Gunth.) 

^LATE 5.— The Spiny-sided Butterfly-Gurnard (Lepidotri^la Vanessa, Eich. sp.). 

Plate 6.— The Kumu Gurnard (Trigla Kumu, Lesson and Garn ) 

Plate 7.— The Australian Giant Earth-worm (Megascolides Australis, McCoy) 

Plate 8.— Lewin s Day-moth (Agarista Le\yini, Boisd.). 

The Loranthus Day-moth (Agarista Casuarins, Scott). 

The Vine Day-moth (Agarista Glycine, Lewin sp.). 
Plate 9.— Pieris (Thyca) Harpalyce (Don. sp.). 
Plate 10.— Pieris (Thyca) Aganippe (Don. sp.). 



DECADE II. 

Plate 11. -The Little Whip Snake (Hoplocephaius flagellum, McCoy). The White-lipped Snake 

(Hoplocephaius coronoides, Gunth.). 
Plate 12.— The Death Adder (Acanthophis Antarctica, Shaw sp.). 
Plate 13.— The Carpet Snake (Jlorelia variegata. Gray). 
Plate 14.— The Gippsland Perch (Lates colonorum, Gunth.). 
l^LATE 1»— The Murray Lobster (Astacopsis serratus. Shaw sp.). 
1 late 16.— The Salmon Arripis (Arripis truttaceus, Cut. sp.). Adult. 
Plate 17. — Ditto of the younger forms and coloring 
Plate 18.— The Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, Lin. sp ) 
Plate 19.— The Small-scaled Rock Cod (Lotella callarias, Giinth.). 
Jr-LATE 20.— The Australian Rock Cod (Pseudophysis barbatus, Gimth ). 



DECADE III. 

Plate 21.— The Sea-Leopard Seal (Stenorhynchus leptonyx, de Blainv sp ) 

Plate 22.— The Yellow-sided Dolphin (Delphinus Nova; Zealandi*, Quoy and Gaim ) 

Jr-LATE 23.— rhe Common Brown Snake (Dienienia superciliosa, Fisch.). 

The Small-scaled Brown Snake (Diemenia microlepidota, McCoy). 

The Shield-fronted Brown Snake (Diemenia aspidorhyncha, McCoy) 

PLATE 24.-Catenicella margaritacea (Busk).-C. plagiostoma (Busk).-C. yentricosa (Busk) - 

C. hastata (Busk.)-C. rufa (McG.).-C. cribraria (Busk).-C. alata (Wyy. Thomson V- 

^- l°"f'?. fBusk)^C. formosa (Busk).-C. elegans (Busk).-C. perforata (Busk)- 

C. Buskii (Wyy. Thomson).-C. Hannafordi (McG.).-C. crystallina (Wyy. Thomson - 

pRnTf n ^^"'''^•rS,r;;'^ CBusk).-C. geminata (Wyy. Thomson).-C. cornnta 
(Busk;. — C. mtermedia (McG.) 

PLATE 25.— Membranipora membranacea (Linn, sp.).— M. perforata (McG.).— M. ciliata (McGI — 

■ ^LrkT "' ^^'^''^■^■-^^- umbonata (Busk).-M. pilosa (Linn. sp,).-M. ceryicornis 

Plate 26.-Membranipora dispar (McG.).-M. Woodsii (McG.).-M. lineata (Linn, sp.) -M Rosselii 

(Audoum sp.).— M. Lacroixii (Sayigny sp.). f j ■ 

Plate 27.— The Australian Eockling (Genypterus Australis, Cast.). 

The Yarra Blackfish (Gadopsis gracilis, McCoy). 
Plate 28.— The Southern Mackerel (Scomber pneumatophorus, De la Roche) 
Plate 29.— The Yabber Crayfish (Astacopsis bicarinatus. Gray sp ) 
Plate 30.— The Large Wattle Goat-Moth (Zeuzera Eucalypti, Boisd. Herr-Schsef ) 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE IV. 

Plate 31. — The Australian Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal (Euotaria cincrea, Peron sp.). 

Plate 32. — Tlie Two-hooded Furina-Snake, Furina bicucuUata (McCoy). 

Plate .33. — The Banded Red Gurnet- Perch (Sebastes percoides, Solauder sp.). 

Plate 34. — The Angel-fish (Hhina squatina, Lin. .sp.). 

Plate 35. — Lepralia circinata (McG.). — L. Cecilii (Aud.). — L. diaphana (McG.). — L. marsupium 

(McG ). — L. subinimersa (McG.). — L. anceps (McG.). — L. Maplestonei (.McG.). 
Plate 36. — Lepralia vittata (McG.). — Memhrauipora perforata. Lepralia Brogniartii (And.). — 

L. elegans (McG.). — L. pertusa (Esper. sp.). — L. Malusii (Aud. sp.). — L. lunata (McG.). 
Plate 37. — Lepralia ciliata (Linn. sp.). — L. trifolium (McG.). — L. cheilodon (McG.).— L. canaliculata 

(McG.).— L. larvalis (McG.).— L. diadema (McG.).— L. papillifera (McG.).— L. Ellerii 

(McG.). 
Plate 38.^Lepralia monoceros (Busk). — L. excavata (McG.). — L. vitrea (McG.). — L. niegasoma 

(McG.)— L. Schizostoma (McG.).— L. Botryoides (McG.).— L. ferox (McG.).— L. pellu- 

cida (McG.). 
Plate 39. — Crisia Edwardsiana (D'Orb. sp.). — C. biciliata (McG.). — C. acropora (Busk). — C. setosa 

(McG.).— C tenuis (McG.). 
Plate 40. — Saunders' Case-Moth (Metura elongata, Saunders sp.). 
The Lictor Case-Moth (Entometa ignobilis, Walk.). 



DECADE V. 

Plate 41. — The Lace Lizard (Hydrosaurus Tarius, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 42. — The Spotted Marsh-Frog (Limnodynastes Tasmaniensis, Giinth.). — The Common Sand- 
Frog (Limnodynastes dorsalis, Gray). 
Plate 43. — The Carpet Shark (Crossorhinus barbatus, Lin. sp.). — The Seven-gilled Shark (Notidanus 

[He[itanchus] Indicus, Cut.). 
Plate 44. — The Barracouta (Thersites atun, Cuv.).— The Tunny (Thynnus Thynnus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 45. — Flustra denticulata (Busk). — C.arbasea episcopalis (Busk). — C. dissimilis (Busk). — 

C. indivisa (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk).— C. pisciformis (Busk). 
Plate 46.. — Spiralai-ia florea (Busk). — Diachoris Magellanica (Busk). — D. spinigera (P. McGil.). — 

Dinietopia spicata (Busk). — D. cornuta (Busk). — Didymia simplex (Busk). — Calwellja 

bicornis (Wyv. Thomson). 
Plate 47. — Dictyopora cellulosa (P. McGil.). 
Plate 48. — Eschara obliqua (P. McGil.). — E. dispar (P. McGil ).— E. gracilis (Lamx.).— E. platalea 

(Busk").— E. quadrata (P. McGil.) — E. mucronata (P. McGil.). — Caleschara denticulata 

(P. McGil.). 
Plate 49. — Cellaria fistulosa (Linn.). — C. hirsuta (P. McGil.). — C. tcnuirostris (Busk.). — C. gracilis 

(Busk). — Nellia oculata (Busk). — Tubucellaria hirsuta (Busk). 
Plate 50. — The Great Black, or M.anna Cicada (Cicada moerens, Germ.). — The Great Green Cicada 

(Cyclochila Australasise, DonoT. sp.). 



DECADE VI. 

Plate 51. — The Victorian Ehodona (Rhodona Offlceri, McCoy). 

Plate 52. — The Black and White Ringed Snake (Vcrmicella annulata. Gray). 

Plate 53. — The Green and Golden Bell-Frog (Kanoidea aurea, Less. sp.). 

Plates 54-55.— The Australi.an Aulopus (AuUipus purpurisatus, Rich.). 

Plate 56. — The Hammer-headed Sh.ark (Zyga-na malleus, Shaw). — The Common Australian Saw- 
Fish (Prisliophorns nudipinnis, Giinth.). 

Plate 57.— Biflustra perfnigilis (McGil.). — B. delicatula (Busk). 

Plate 58. — Cellularia cuspidata (Busk).— Menipea crystallina ((iray sp.).— M. cyathus (Wyv. Thom- 
son). — M. cervicornis (McGil.) — M. triccllata (Busk). — M. Buskii (Wj'v. Thomson). 

Pi, VTE 59---BicelIaria tuba (Busk). — B. grandis (Busk) — B. ciliata (Linn).— B. turbiuata (McGil.). — 
Stirparia annulata (Map.), — Bugula neritina (Linn.). 

Platb 60. — Steganoporella magnilabris (Busk. sp.). — Petralia undata (McGil.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE VII. 

Plate 61. — The Tuberculated Argon.aut (Argonauta oryzata, Meusch.). 

Plate 62, — The same seated in its so-called shell or Paper-Nautilus. 

Plate 6.3. — The Blue-spotted Eagle-Ray (Myliohatis Australis, Macleay). 

Plate 64. — The Long-toothed Bull-Shark (Odontaspis taurus, Raf.). — The Australian Tope Shark 

(Galeus Australis, ilacleay). 
Plate 65. — The Leafy Sea-Dragon (Phyllopteryx foliatus, Shaw sp.). — The Short-headed Sea-horse 

(Hippocamims breviceps, Pet.) 
Plate 66. — Dictvopora grisea (Lamx. sp.). — D. albida (Kirch.) — (Var. avicularis, P. McGill.). 
Plate 67.— D. Wilsoni (P. McGill.). 

Plate 68. — Idmonea Milueana (d'Orb.). — I. contorta (P. McGill.). — L radians (Lamk.). 
Plates 69-70. — The Violet-shouldered Phasma (Tropidoderus iodomus, McCoy).— The Red-shouldered 

Phasma (Tropidoderus rhodomus, McCoy). 



DECADE VIM. 

Plate 71. — The Australian Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal (Euotaria cinerea, Peron sp.). 

Plate 72. — The Northern Blue-tongued Lizard (Cyclodus gigas, Bodd. sp.). 

Plate 73. — The Ludrick (Girella simplex, Rich. sp.). 

Plate 74. — The White Shark (Carch.arodon Rondeletii, Miill. and Hen.). 

Plate 75. — The Picked Dog-Fish (Acanthias Tulgaris, Linn. sp.). 

Plates 76-77. — The Australian Tooth-cupped Cuttlefish (Sepioteuthis Australis, Quoy and Gaira.). 

Plate 78. — Bugula robusta (P. McGil.). — B. cucullata (Busk). — B. dentata (Lamx.). — B. avicularia 

(Pall.). 
Plate 79. — The Violet-winged Phasma (Acrophylla violascens, Leach sp.). 
Plate 80. — The Large Pink-winged Phasma (Podacanthus typhon, Gray). 



DECADE IX. 

Plate 81. — The Gippsland Water Lizard (Physignathus Lesueri, Gray) — (Var. Howitti, McCoy). 

Plates 82-83. — The Murray Tortoise (Chelyniys Macquaria, Cuv. sp.). 

Plate 84. — The Murr-iy Golden Perch (Ctenolates ambiguus, Rich. sp.). 

Plates 85-86. — The Murray Cod-Perch ((Jligorus Macquariensis, Cut. and Val. sp.). 

Plate 87. — The Australian Smooth-Hound (Mustelus Antarcticus, Giinth.). 

Plate 88. — The Thresher, or Long-tailed Shark (Alopecias vulpes, Linn. sp.). 

Plate 89.— Catenicella intermedia (P. McG.) — C. amphora (Busk).— C. Wilsoni (P. McG.).— C. pul- 

chella (Map.).— C. utriculus (P. McG.). 
Plate 90. — Catenicella fusca (P. McG.). — C. umbonata (Busk). — C. cornuta (Busk). 



DECADE X. 

Plate 91.— Gymnobelideus Leadbeateri (McCoy). 

Plates 92-93 — The Long-necked River Tortoise (Chelodina longicollis, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 94. — Opercula of Ketepora. 

Plate 95.— Retepora porcellana (P. McGil.).— R. avicularis (P. McGil.).— R. fissa (P. McGil.). 

Pl.ate 96. — Retepora moniUfera (P. McGil.). 

Plate 97.— Retepora moniUfera (P. McGil.).— R. formosa (P. McGil.).— R. carinata (P. McGil.). 

Plate 98.— Retepora Phcenicea (Busk). — R. aurantiaca (P. McGil.). 

Plate 99.— Retepora granulata (P. McGil.).— R. tessellata (Hincks).— R. serrata (P. McGH.). 

Plate 100. — Goniocidaris tubaria (Lam.). 

The foregoing ten Decades form Vol. 1. 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE XI. 

Plate 101. — The Luth, or Leatlicry Turtle (Spbargis coriacea, Linn. sp.). 

Plate 102. — The Rugged Stump-tail, or Shingle-back, Lizard (Trachydosaurus rugosus, Gray). 

Plate 103. — The Blackish Austraiian Worm-Snake (Typhlops nigrescens, Gray sp.). 

Plate 104. — The Basking Shark (Cetorhinus maximus, Linn. sp.). 

Plate 105. — Cellaria rigida (McG.). — Tubucellaria cereoides (Ellis and Solander). — Urceolipora 

dentata (McG.)— U. nana (McG.). 
Plate- 106. — Amphiblestrum punctigerum (Hincks). — A. Flemingii (Busk). — A. permunitum 

(Hincks). — Pyripora crassa (McG.). — P. catenularia (Jameson). — P. polita (Hincks). — 

Electra flagellum (McG.). — Bathypora porcellana (McG.). — Bitlustra papulil'era 

(McG.).— B. bimamillata (McG.). 
Plate 107. — Catenicellopsis pusilla i^J. B. Wilson). — C. delicatula (J. B. Wilson). — Calpidium 

ponderosum (Goldstein sp.). 
Plate 108. — Calpidium ornatum (Busk). — Chlidonia dsedala (Wyv. Thomson). 
Plate 109. — The Great Green Gum-tree Grasshopper (Locusta vigentissima, Serv.). 
Plate 110. — The Australian Yellow-winged Locust (ffidipoda musica. Fab. sp.). 



DECADE XII. 

Plate 111. — The Blood-sucker (Grammatophora rauricata, Shaw, sp.). 

Plate 112. — The Southern Chimsera (Callorhynchus antarcticus, Lacep. sp.). 

Plate 113. — The Port Jackson Shark, or Bull-dog Sharlc (Heterodontus Phillipi, Lacep. sp.). 

Plate 114. — The Australian Kough Fish (Trachiehthys Australis, Shaw). 

Plate 115. — The Skip-jack Pike (Lanioperca mordax, Giinth.). 

Plate 116. — Beania rairabilis (Johnst.). — Mucnmella tricuspis (Hincks). — M. laevis (P. McG.). — 

M. vultur (Hincks). — Cyclicopora longipora (P. McG.). 
Plate 117. — Beania dccumbens (P. McG.). — B. costata (Busk sp.). — B. Crotali (Busk sp.). — 

B. radicifera (Hincks sp.). — Amphiblestrum patellarium (Moll sp.). 
Plate 118.— Hornera foliacea (P. McG.).— H. robusta (P. McG.). 

Plate 119. — The Smaller Green Gum-tree Grasshopper (Phaneroptera valida. Walk.). 
Plate 120. — The Thirty-two Spotted Grasshopper (Phaneroptera [Ephippitytha] trigintiduoguttata, 

Serv.). 



DECADE XIII. 

Plate 121. — The Bearded Lizard (Craniuiatophora harbata, Kaup). 

Plate 122. — The Southern Silver Ribbon-fish (Trach.vpterus tcenia, Bloch). 

Plate 123.— The Two-pronged Toad-fish (Chironcctcs hifurc.atus, McCoy). 

Plate 124. — Brown's Tooth-brush Leather-jacket (Monacanthus Browui, Rich, sp.). 

Plate 125. — The Horsc-shoe-niarked Leather-jacket (Monacanthus hippocrepis, Quoy and Gaim.,sp.). 

Plate 126. — Maplestonia cirrata(P.McG.).— Scrupoccllaria cyclostonia(Busk). — S. ()btccta(llas\vell;. 
— S. ccrvicornis ^Busk).— S. scrupea (Busk).— S. ornithorhynchus (Wyv. Thoni.). 

Plate 127. — Membranipora pyrula (Hincks).- M. corbula (Him-ks). — il. iuariuata (Hincks). — M. 
pcctinata (P. McG.).— M. serrata (P. McG.).— M. ciliata (P. McG.).— Amphiblestrum 
albispinuni (P. Mc(i ). — Menibranii)ora spinosa (Quoy and (iaini.). 

Plate 128.— Cellepora speciosa (P. McG.).— C. serratifostris (P. McG.).— C. tridenticulata (Busk). 

Plate 129.— The Netted Acripeza (Acripeza reticulata, Guerin). 

Plate 130. — The Broad-styled Mantis (Mantis latistylus, Serv.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE XIV. 

Plate 131. — The Southern, or Blotched, Blue-tongued Lizard (Cyclodus nigroluteus, Quoy and 
Gaim. sp,). 

Plate 132.— The Thick-tailed Gecko (Phyllurus Miliusii, Bory).— The Marbled Gecko (Diplodactylus 
marmoratus, Gray). 

Plate 133.— Ray's Sea Bream (Brama Rayi, Bloch). 

Plate 13-1.— Bleeker's I'arrot-fish (Labrichthys Bieekeri, Cast.). 

Plate 135. — The Black-finned Half-beak, or Sea Gar-fish (Hemiramphus Intermedius, Cant.). — The 
Saury Pike (Scomberesox saurus, Bloch, sp. ; var. Forsteri, Cur. and Val). 

Plate 136. — Caberea rudis (Busk). — C. grandis (Hincks). — Canda arachnoides (Lamx.). — C. tenuis 
(P. McG.). 

Plate 137. — Caberea Darwinii (Busk). — C. glabra (P. McG.)— iEtea dilatata (Busk). — ^. anguina 
(Linn. sp.). 

Plate 138. — Schizoporella punctigera (P. McG.). — S. lata (P. McG.). — S. triangula (Hincks). — 
S. dajdala (P. McG.).— S. subsiuuata (Hincks).— S. Kidleyi (P. McG.).— S. arach- 
noides (P. McG.). — S. cryptostoma (P. McG.). — Gemellipora striatula (Smitt). 

Plate 139. — The Dusky Flat-horned Locust (Opsomala sordida, Aud. Serv.). The Pedestrian Mid- 
Eyed Locust (Mesops pedestris, Erichson). 

Plate 140. — The Cinnamon Keel-backed Locust (Tropinotus Australis, Leach). 



DECADE XV. 

Plate 141.— The Spiuy-ridged Lizard (Egernia Cunninghami, Gray). 

Plate 142. — The Brown Pseudecliys (Pseudechys Australis, Gray). 

Plate 143. — Peron's Leatherjacket (Monacanthus Peronii, Hollard). 

Plate 144. — The Spinous Shark (Echinorhinus spinosus, Lin. sp.). 

Plate 145. — Banks' Oar-Fish (Kegalecus Banksi, Cuv. sp.) 

Plate 146. — Catenicella geraella (McG.). — C. urnula (McG.). — C. gracilenta (McG.).— C. venusta 

(McG.). — Clariporella pulchra (McG.). — C. imperforata (McG.). 
Plate 147. — Diastopora cristata (McG.).— D. capitata (McG.), — D. bicolor (McG.). — D. sarniensis 

(Norman). — D. patina (Lara. sp.). 
Plate 148. — Cellepora megasoma (McG.). — C. costata (McG ). ,C. rota (McG). — C. costazei, var. 

(Audouin). — C. platalea (McG.). — C. glomerata (McG.). — C. vitrea (McG.). — C. tiara 

(McG.).— C. benemunita (McG.). 
Plates 149, 150.— Southern Spiny Lobster, Melbourne Craw-fish (Palinurus Lalandi, Lam.MSS.). 



DECADE XVI. 

Plate 151. — Gould's Monitor Lizard (Monitor Gouldi, Gray). 

Plates 152, 153. — The Pygopus (Pygopus lepidopus, Lacep. sp.). — Frazer's Delma (Delma Frazeri, 

Gray). 
Plate 154, — Commerson's Mackerel (Cybium Commersoni, Lacep. sp.). 
Plate 155. — The Jlelbournr Pelamyde (Pclaniys Schlegeli, McCoy). 
Plate 156. — Lagenipora tuberculata (McG.). — L. nitens (McG.). — Lekythopora hystrix (McG.). — 

Pcecilopora anomala (McG.) 
Plate 157. — Fasciculipora gracilis (McG.). — F. bellis (McG.). — F. fruticosa (McG.). — F. ramosa 

(D'Orbigny). 
Plate 158. — Farciminaria aculeata (Busk). — F. uncinata (Hincks). — F. simplex (McG.). — Brace- 

bridgia pyriforniis (Busk sp.), 
Plate 159. — Sydney Craw-fish or Spiny Lobster (Palinurus Hiigeli,.Heller). 
Plate 160. — The Yarra Spiny Cray-fish (Astacopsis serratus, Shaw sp.). var. Yarraensis (McCoy.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE XVII. 

Plate 161. — * Bvirton's Lialis (Lialis Burtoni, Gray). 

Plate 162. — * The Lined Aprasia (Aprasia pulchella, Gray), Pischer's False Delma (Pseudodelma 
impar, Pischei). 

Plate 163. — The Broad-striped or Senator Parrot-fish (Labrichthys laticlavius, Rich, sp.'yi 

Plate 164, — Macleay's Wrasse (Heteroscarus Macleayi, McCoy). 

Plate IB.'). — Cellepora simplex (McG.). — C. diaderaa (McG.). — C. spicata (McG.).— C. cidaris 
(McG.).— C. bispinata (Busk). 

Plate 166. — Cellepora verrucosa (McG.V — C. foliata (McG.). — C. intermedia (McG.). — C. prolifera 
(McG.). 

Plate 167. — C. albirostris (Smitt). — C. fusca (McG.). — C. lirata (McG.). — C. magnirostris (McC). 

Plate 168. — Chitinous parts of opercula of Cellepora and Schismopora: C. glomerata, C. platalea, 
C. costata, C. megasoma, C. vitrea, C. tiara, C. simplex, C. spicata, C. bispinata, C. foliata, 
C. prolifera, C. albirostris, C. serratirostris, C. lirata, C. verrucosa, C. fusca, C. magni- 
rostris. 

Plates 169, 170. — Gould's Squid (Ommastrephes Gouldi, McCoy). 

* The numbers at corner of Plates 161 and 162 have been accidentally transposed. 



DECADE XVIII. 

Plate 171. — The Broad-Banded or Occipital Blue-Tongue Lizard (CycloduB occipitaUs, Peters). . 

Plate 172.— The Yellow-Tail (Seriola Lalandi, Cuv. and Val.). 

Plate 173. — The Long-Fingered Chilodactylus (Chilodactylus carponemus, Cuv. and Val.). 

Plate 174. — The Long-Fingered Chilodactylus (Chilodactylus carponemus, Cut. and Val). — Var. 

Plate 175. — Tessaradoma magnirostris (McG.). — Microporella diadenia (McG). — Vars. lunipuncta, 

longisplna, lata, canaliculata. — M. renipuucta (McG.). — M. scandeus (McG.). — M. ciliata 

(Linn. sp.). — Vars. spicala, personata. — M. Malusii (Audouin, sp.). — Vars. personata, 

thyreophora. — Escharipora stellata (Smitt). 
Plate 176. — Stomatopora geminata (McG.). — Flosculipora pygmaea (McG.). — Lichenopora magnifica 

(McG.).— L. bullata (McG.). 
Plate 177. — Craspedozoum ligulatum (McG.). — C. spicatum (McG.). — C. roboratum (Hincks, sp.). — 

Menipea funiculata (McG.). 
Plate 178. — .3itea recta (Hincks). — Scruparia chelata (Linn sp.). — Rhabdozoum Wilsoni (Hincks). — 

Farcimia appendiculata (Hincks). — Catenicella ringens (Busk).— Dimetopia hirta 

(McG.). 
Plaib 179. — The Great Red King-Crab (Pseudocarcinus gigas, Lam. sp.). — Female and details of 

mouth. &c. 
Plate 180. — The Great Red King-Crab (Pseudocarcinus gigas, Lam. sp.). — Male. 



DECADE XIX. 

Plate 181. — The White-Streaked Earless Lizard (Tympanocryptis lineata, Peters). i 

Plate 182. — The Plain Whiting (Sillago ciliata, Cuv. and Val.). 

Plate 183. — The Skipjack (Temnodon saltator, Linn. sp.). 

Plate 184. — The Koughy (Arripis (icorgianus, Cuv. and Val.). 

Plate 185. — Amathia bicornis (Tenison- Woods). — A. spiralis (Lamx). — A. tortuosa (Tenison- 

Woods). — A. inarmata (McG.). — A. Australia (Teuison-Woods). 
Plate 186. — Schizoporella rostrata (McG.). — S. Woosteri, (McG.). — S. pulcherrima (McG.). — 

S. latisinuata (Hincks). — S. biturrita (Hincks). — S. pachnoides (McG.). — S. hyalina 

(Linn. sp.). 
Plate 187. — Membraniporella distans (McG.). — Cribrilina radiata (Moll. sp.). — C. setirostris (McG.). — 

C. nionoceros (Busk). — C. acanthoceros (.\lcG.). — Hippothoa divaricata (Busk). — 

H. distans (McG.). — Kleclra amplectens (Hincks sp.). 
Plates 188, 189, 19u. — Tlie largo Melbourne Sepia or Cuttle-fish (Sepia apama, Gray). 



CONTENTS OF DECADE XIX. 



N.B.— The originals of all the Figures are in the National Museum, Melbourne. 



Plate 181. — The White-Streaked Earless Lizard (Tympanocryptis lineata, Peters). 

Plate 182.— The Plain Whiting (Sillago ciliata, Cuv. and Val.). 

Plate 183. — The Skipjack (Temnodon saltator, Linn. sp.). 

Plate 184. — The Roughy (Arripis Georgianus, Cuv. and Val.). 

^- Plate 185. — Amathia hicornis (Tenison-Woods). — A. spiralis (Lamx). — A. tortuosa (Tenison- 
f Woods). — A. inarmata (McG.). — A. Australis (Tenison-Woods). 

\ Plate 186. — Schizoporella rostrata (McG.). — S. Woosteri (McG.). — S. pulcherrima (McG.). — 
S. latisinuata (Hincks). — S. biturrita (Hincks). — S. pachnoides (McG.). — S. hyalina 
(Linn. sp.). 

Plate 187. — Membraniporella distans (McG.). — Cribrilina radiata (Moll. sp.). — C. setirostris (McG.). — 
C. monoceros (Busk). — C. acanthoceros (McG.). — Hippothoa divaricata (Busk). — 
H. distans (McG.). — Electra amplectens (Hincks sp.). 

Plates 188, 189, 190. — The large Melbourne Sepia or Cuttle-fish (Sepia apama, Gray). 



I 



^ - ROGJCK 



PRODROMUS 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA; 



FIGURES AND DESCEIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



DECADE XX. 



FEEDEEICI MCCOY, C.M.G, M.A, Sc. D. Caniab., F.E.S, 

OEOLOOICAL SOCIETY OF MANCHESTER, aEMBBB OF TUg 

ETC FTC ETC 
'"""m"Lxr-cLTjB".T,0^sTr^^^^^^^^ "-•-■O-B OF THE Sa„R,A.V FOSS,.S OF 

••BE.T,SH P.Z^OZO.C KOCHS ^. ^"s.^t^.^ro^VoM^S^VTVE^^JlZ"^^^^^^^^ 
„„„„ PROFESSOR OF NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE MELBOCRNK UNIVERSTTV 

GOVERNMENT PALEONTOLOGIST, AND DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL MUsZ OF MELBOCRNE, ETC. 




MELBOURNE: 

BY AUTHORITY : ROBT. S. BRAIN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 

LONDON : 

TRDBNER AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATE HILL. 
M DOCC XC. 



1:= 




ADVERTISEMENT. 



It having been considered desirable to ascertain accui-ately the 
natural productions of the Colony of Victoria, and to publish works 
descriptive of them, on the plan of those issued by the Governments 
of the different States of America, investigations were undertaken, 
by order of the Victorian Government, to determine the Geology, 
Botany, and Zoology of the Colony, to form collections illustrative of 
each for the public use, and to make the necessary preparations for 
such systematic publications on the subject as might be useful and 
interesting to the general pubhc, and contribute to the advancement 
of science. 

As the geological and botanical investigations have already 
approached completion, and their pubhcation is far advanced, it 
has been decided now to commence the publication of the thu*d 
branch completing the subject, namely, that of the Zoology or 
indigenous members of the different classes of the animal kingdom. 

The Fauna not being so well known as the Flora, it was a necessary 
prehminary to the publication to have a large number of drawings 
made, as opportunity arose, from the living or fresh examples of 
many species of reptiles, fish, and the lower animals, which lose their 
natural appearance shortly after death, and the true characters of 
many of which were consequently as yet unknown, as they had 
only been described from preserved specimens. A Prodi'omus, or 
preliminary issue, in the form of Decades, or numbers of ten plates, 
each with its complete descriptive letterpress, will be published, of 
such illustrations as are ready, without systematic order or waiting 
for the completion of any one branch. The many good observers 
in the country will thus have the means of accurately identifying 
various natural objects, their observations on which, if recorded and 
sent to the National Museum, where the originals of all the figui'es 
and descriptions are preserved, will be duly acknowledged, and 
will materially help in the preparation of the final systematic volume 
to be published for each class when it approaches completion. 



Batumi Si^t0ri| 4 Wutm'm. 



PRODROMUS 



ZOOLOGY OF YICTORIA; 



PIGUEES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OE ALL CLASSES 



VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



DECADE XK. 



FREDERICK McCOY, C.M.G., I.A., ScD. Cantab, F.R.S., 

UONORART MEMBER OF THE CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY; HONORART ACTU'E MEMBER OK THE IMPERIAL SOCIETY 

OF NATURALISTS OF MOSCOW; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON; 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY 0» NEW SOUTH WALES ; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE NEW ZEALAND 

INBTITUTE ; HONORART FELLOW OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH; HONORARY MEMBER OF THB 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF MANCHESTER, 

ETC., ETC., ETC. 

AUTHOR OF "SYNOPSIS OF THE CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE FOSSILS OF IRELAND;" "SYNOPSIS OF THE SILURIAN FOSSILS OP 

ERELAND ; " " CONTRIBUTIONS TO BRITISH PALAEONTOLOGY ; " ONE OF THE AUTHORS OF SEDGWICK AND McCOY'S 

"BRITISH PA1.*0Z0IC ROCKS AND FOSSILS;" " PRODROMUS OF THE PALEONTOLOGY OF VICTORIA," ETC. 

PROFESSOR OF NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY. 
GOVERNMENT PALEONTOLOGIST, AND DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL 'dUSEUM OF MELBOURNE, ETC. 




MELBOURNE : 

BY AUTHORITY : ROBT. S, BRAIN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 

LONDON : 

TRUBNER AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATE HILI. 



PEEFACE. 



This Twentieth Decade completes the Second Volume of the 
Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria. 

A systematic index is given of the contents of the first twenty 
Decades, comprising plates 1 to 200, combining the contents of 
the hrst and second volumes, according to which the plates with 
tlieu" corresponding letterpress may be bound in zoological order, 
all the illustrations of each class being put together by those 
who desire it. Those who prefer to bind the plates and corre- 
. spending letterpress in the order of their original appearance, and 
as the plates are consecutively numbered, can do so, bringing 
the prefaces together at the front. An alphabetical index is also 
given of the contents ; the generic, specific, and popular names 
being included, as well as the synonyms, M'hich latter are in 
italics. 

I am greatly indebted to Mr. Simons for the high intelligence 
and painstaking accuracy with which he did me the favour to 
prepare these Indices — a task so onerous that I feel very grateful 
for his friendly help in relieving me of it — and with such care 
that they materially increase the value of these volumes. 

The first plate in this Twentieth Decade represents two of 
the commonest of the beautiful small lizards constituting the 
genus Hinulia, with magnified details. 

The second plate gives for the first time the colours of life of 
a lovely species of Dragonet, as similar fishes are called in 
England, not uncommon in Hobson's Bay, the Callionymios 
calauropomus (Rich. ). 

The third plate figures for the first time a beautiful kind of 
Red Gurnet-Perch, the Neosebastes Scorpcenoides of Guichenot, 
not uncommon in the fish shops all the year round. 



PREFACE. 



The fourth plate shows the details of a new little Fish, the 
Trachinops caudimaculatus (McCoy), sent to me by the Com- 
missioner of Customs to determine whether it were, as the local 
fishermen assured him, the young of the Californian Salmon 
introduced by Sir Samuel Wilson ! — So little are the native Fishes 
known for want of figures for reference. 

The two following plates continue the illustrations of the 
valuable specimens and descriptions of the Polyzoa of our coast, 
given by Mr. MacGillivray. 

The seventh plate shows the two sexes of one of the largest 
and most elegantly coloured of Victorian Moths, with its larva, 
pupa and cocoon to illustrate its metamorphoses. 

The eighth plate shows both sexes of the imago, with their 
larvae and pupse, of two species of butterfly of the genus 
Pyrameis, which have caused great alarm by appearing, for the 
two or three weeks of the end of September and beginning of 
October this year, in countless myriads over a great extent of 
country, forming heaps on the seashore for miles where drowned 
and washed in by the tide. (They were accompanied by such 
clouds of a Moth, Agrotis spina, that the houses were filled and 
the lights put out by their numbers, and walking was unpleasant 
fi'om their multitudes in the air ; and the ships for some miles out 
at sea were blackened with them. ) One of these butterflies, 
the Pyi'ameis Kershawi (McCoy), has not been figured liefore, 
having been previously confounded with what was supposed to be 
the cosmopolitan P. cardui, or so-called Painted-lady Butterfiy, 
quoted in most books of Physical Geography and Distinbution 
of Animals as extending from England to Austraha, but which 
it replaces here. 

The ninth plate shows that curious Crab, the Ibacus Peronii. 

And the tenth plate is in illustration of three species of our 
most abundant Starfishes, not figured of the coloiu-s of life 
before. 

Feedekick McCoy. 
20th October, 1889. 



/-?/ 



PI. 131 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

' R. a tiles I 




.jo^^PrtMuij^ 0' ' 



Zoology^ NATUEAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



lUeptiles. 



Plate 191, Fig. 1. 

HINULIA WHITE! (Lac£p. sp.). 
White's Hiniilia Lizard. 

n [ g'^°"^ HINULIA (Gray) :<LYGOSOMA (Dum. and Bib). (Sub-kingdom Vertebrata 
Class Reptiha. Order Sauria. Sub-order Leptoglos8a>. Tribe oLsosaura My ScinS] 

in frn^?" ZlZ.VF'"^^ .^''^°T' ^^'l ^""'^ed, tapering. Head subquadrate, obtusely pointed 
nf r,=i T , "T' ^"'"'SnluT or hexagonal from truncation of the angles nostril in middle 
of nasal plate, without posterior groove ; no supranasal plates , frontal oblong hexagonal 
?±'' '°°!W'''' r'"' ''"'P triangular notch ; fronto-parietal plateL two, separate f' lower°eyel d 
nn .f h 7 , '?'",' ; ears small, lobed in front. Limbs moderate ; five simple, comprlssed toe^ 

two mL?P ,;rp '' °^ ^""^ ^°n ^r'^''"^ "'^"^ '°''' °^ •=°°'<=^1 g'^*°»'e^- Sea es smoo h tl in 
ti\o middle preanal ones, usually larger than the adjoining ones.] 

Description.— Profile of head flat from hind margin to hind edge of eye, thence 
abruptly arched to obtuse snout ; no groove behind nostril, but a sli-ht vertical 
groove from it to lower edge of nasal plate ; rostral hexagonal, vertical apex touchino- 
prefrontal or internasal plate separating the nasals; prefrontal transversely rhombic" 
wider than long, about equalling rostral in length, touching first of a row of four 
trenal plates by each lateral angle; fronto-nasals hexagonal, slightly shorter than 
prefrontal, he two lender edo-es of which they join, meeting in the middle, separat- 
ing the prefrontal by half Its length from the frontal; frontal quadrangular, obtuse- 
angled in front, tapering to a point behind, not twice as long as wide, a little longer 
than the fronto-parietals; parietals and interparietal of moderate size; four 
occipital plates the inner pair larger than the outer one, on each side, behind the 
parietals; fifth and parts of fourth and sixth labials below eye; three laro-e 
temporals; six supraoculars, third largest; eight to ten superciliary plates; four 
oreal plates Ear-opening a little smaller than eye. Scales of side a little smaller 
than those of back and belly, forty round middle of body, smooth, those of belly with 
three faint longitudinal striae; central preanal scales not perceptibly larger than the 
others. Limbs moderate, with slender toes, the hinder part of sole studded with 
blunt conical tubercles. Colour: Very pale yellowish-brown above and on under- 
side of tail and legs ; sides and belly bluish from side of head to base of tail; edg-es 
of eyelids and lobes on front edge of ear pure white; nape with five broad, black, and 
SIX whitish, longitudinal stripes; the middle black one disappears over the shoulder 
letting the two next whitish stripes coalesce to form a broad, distinct, light stripe 
down middle of back; the two next black stripes on each side coalesce to form two 
broad, very conspicuous, longitudinal stripes, one on each side of midline of back 
the intervening light streak on each side of nape continued as a row of round or 
kidney-shaped, light, very conspicuous spots in middle of broad black stripes (some- 
times double, and sometimes breaking into a short row of two or three small spots); 
the black bands of the back are continued on the tail as rows of irregular black spots 
farst seven, then, about halfway, three, and disappearing towards end of tail; a 
broad, distinct, whitish band, like median dorsal one, on each side boundino- the 
b ack one; and outside this on each side the marking is very variable, alw^ays a 
bluish-grey ground, with black markings either irregular marbling or defining- one 
or two rows of rounded light spots; chin, lips, and cheeks whitish with S few 
irregular, longitudinal dark markings on cheek, lips, and temple, and occasional 

Vol. II.— Dkcabe XX,-3ff. [ 309 I 



Zoology.l NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Reptiles. 

spots and dark edges to head plates; upper side of limbs with interrupted dark 
longitudinal dashes, or occasionally with round light spots irregularly edged with 
dark. Measurements of rather small specimen figured: — Total length, 6 inches; 
tail, 3 in. 3 lines; length of head, Q\ lines; width of head, 5 lines; width of middle 
of body, 5 lines; tip of snout to axil of fore limb, 1 inch; axil to front base of 
hind limb, 1 in. 5 lines; length of fore limb to tip of longest finger, 8 lines; length 
of hind limb to tip of longest toe,. 11^ lines; diameter of orbit, 1| lines. 

Reference. — ^Scincus Whitii, Lacepede, An. Mus., v. 4, p. 192; Quoy 
and Gaim, Uranie, t. 42, f. 2 ; = Hinulia id., Gray Zool. E. and T. Rept. ; = Tiliqua 
leueopsis, Gray An. N. H. 1838, p. 291 ;=:Lyffosoma niolinigera, Dum. and Bib. 
Erpt., V. 5, p. '736. 

This is one of tlie most elegantly marked, but most variable of 
the small Lizards common in Victoria. The two white spotted 
broad, black, longitudinal stripes on the back are the most constant 
of the markings, but the markings of the sides vary greatly, some- 
times presenting two or three rows of round whitish spots, margined 
irregularly with black ; more commonly the sides show only a 
number of black spots of very irregular size and shape. I have 
seen one specimen with four irregular rows of white, black-edged 
spots on each side of the dorsal pair, and extending faintly on to the 
throat. The two pairs of occipital or nuchal jilates are sometimes 
united into one pair, occupying the same space. 

This Lizard, like other species of Hinulia., does not climb trees 
or bushes like the so-called Bloodsucker { Gramma fojyhora), but 
keeps on the ground under logs and stones, darting rapidly through 
the herbage when disturbed. 

The specimen figured is rather less than the average size. From 
Prahran, near Melbourne. It occasionally reaches a length of 
1 ft. 2 in. 

Explanation op Figures. 

Plate 191. — Fig. 1, rather small specimen, natural size. Fig. la, top of head, to show form 
of cephalic plates, magnified two diameters (fronto-parictals irregularly divided into two on one 
Bide and three on the other). Fig. lb, underside, to show chin plates and abdominal scales, 
magnified two diameters. Fig. Ir, side view of head to eardrum, magnified two diameters. 
Fig. \rl, front view of head, showing form of rostral and adjacent plates. Fig. It, eye, magnified 
four diameters, showing scaly lower eyelid and superciliary plates. Fig I/, underside of hind 
foot, to show conical tubercles of sole or palm, magnified two diameters, i'ig. Ir/, underside of 
.anterior foot, showing tubercles of sole or palm, magnified two diameters. Fig. ! h, preanal scales, 
magnified two diameters. Fig. 1«. abdominal scales, to show faint stria;, magnified two diameters. 
Fig. U-, portion of back, to show distribution of colouring on median light stripe, and two broad 
iiarli oues, magnified two diameters. 

[ 330 ] - 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. lEeptiles. 

Plate 191, Fio. 2. 

HINULIA QUOYI (Dum. and Bib.). 

Quoy's Hinulia Lizard. 

Description. — Moderately slender ; back broad, flattened; head broad, triangu- 
lar, obtusel}' pointed ; tail compressed in middle portion, rounded above and below. 
Head plates: Nostril near lower edg'e of nasal, with slig'ht indication of vertical 
sulcus, not meeting above ; rostral hexagonal, moderate, curved round obtusely 
rounded tip of snout, joining' prefrontal or internasal by moderately broad suture, 
separating- nasals; prefrontal broader than long-, scarcely touching- anterior acute 
angle of frontal; frenonasals just touching- by points of inner ang-les, or nearly so; 
frontal quadrang-ular, acute-angled in front, posterior end very acute-angled, long-, 
narrow to hind apex, lateral sides touching- the first, second, and part of third supra- 
oculars, as long- as f'ronto-parietals and interparietal taken together; fourth supra- 
oculars larg-e, with a very small fifth posterior one ; nine supraciliaries, the sixth 
and seventh largest; three larg-e temporal plates on each outer side of parietals; 
a row of three pairs of nuchal or oceipital plates, long-er than wide, inner pair 
largest; parietals very larg-e, sometimes touching- behind end of interparietal ; 
seven upper labials, sixth and seventh largest, fifth and sixth under the eye ; five 
loreals; ear-opening- nearly as large as eye, with very slight indication of four 
lobules within anterior edg-e, smaller than adjacent scales. Legs rather long; 
longest hind toe, if di'awn up to side of body and fore leg- drawn down, reaches to 
wrist of fore leg; from tip of snout to shoulder about once and a half in space from 
axil of arm to groin on front edge of hind limbs. Tail about twice as long- as head 
and body (too short, from re-growth, in specimen figured). Scales: Forty round 
middle of body, ventral scales smooth and slightly larger than the dorsal ones, which 
are very faintly marked watli three or five longitudinal striee ; scales of sides much 
smaller than those of upper or undersides. Three pairs of large preanal scales, 
long-er than wide, middle much largest. Toes compressed, subdigital plates divided 
by longitudinal grooves, twenty-four under longest or fourth toe. Colour: Pale 
greenish olive-brown on upper surface; underside and end of tail yellowish-white; 
sides pale greyish-blue ; a broad band along- each side at turn of back of irregular, 
vertical, broad, dark-brown streaks, with zig-zag edges and irregularly connected ; 
upper side of limbs with numerous, irregular, transverse, zig-zag, dark-brown 
markings ; middle of back, top of head, and sides of tail with a lew small, quadrate, 
dark-brown specks ; sometimes a few dark specks on throat and belly, occasionally 
but rarely forming- lines of dark spots fi-om throat to preanal scales. Measurements : 
Length of head, 8 lines ; width of head, 6 lines ; length of head and body from tip 
of snout to end of preanal scales, 2 in. 8 lines ; width of middle of bodj', 6 lines ; 
length of anterior limb, 8 lines; length of posterior limb, 1 in. 1 line. 

References. — =^Lygosoma Quoyi, Dum. and Bib., Erpt. v. 5, p. 728; =Hinulia 
gastrosticta, GUnther, Ereb. and Ter. Rept., p. 11; Quoy and Gaim., Voy. Urainie, 
Zool., t. 42, fig. 1. 

This is a mucli broader Lizard, with wider back, than the 
H. tenuis or H. elegans., and has more numerous rows of scales 
round the middle of the body. 

[ 331 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IBeptites. 

It has the same habits as the Hinidia Whitei, running rapidly 
through the scanty herbage, and hiding under logs and stones. 
The specimen figured is from the Dandenong Ranges, near 
Melbourne ; common near Sunbury. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 191. — Fig. 2, rather small specimen, natural size (tail re-grown, shorter than projier 
length). Fig. 2a., top of head, magnified two diameters. Fig. 26, side view of head and neck, 
showing plates and slight trace of anterior lobules inside anterior edge of ear. Fig. 2c, throat, 
magnified two diameters, showing large gular plates. Fig. 2d, front view of head, mngnificd 
two diameters. Fig. 2e, eye, magnified four diameters, showing supra-oculars, superciliaries, 
scaly lower eyelid, and upper labials, in relation to eye. Fig. 2/', preanal scales and abdominal 
and subcaudal scales, magnified two diameters. Fig. 2;/, dorsal scales, magnified two diameters. 
Fig. 2h, lower side of fore foot, magnified two diameters. Fig. 2i, lower side of hind foot, 
magnified two diameters, to show granules on sole and subdigital scales. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 332 ") 



11 



1/ 



P119Z 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 




JS(uiJjjo1omit».cUlx.b^i 



J'ToCH'Coyim:^ 



SUanbOio Gay^hvdJAgOffioi, 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY' OF VICTORIA. {_Fishes. 



Plate 192. 

CALLIONYMUS CALAUROPOMUS (Rich.). 
The Crook-spined Dragonet. 

[Genus CALLIONYMUS (Lin.). (Sub-kingdom Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Sub-class 
Teleostea. Order Acantliopterygii. Family Gobiidas.) 

Gen. Char. — Head trigonal, depressed, cleft of mouth narrow, nearly horizontal, upper jaw 
very protractile ; eyes moderate, high on sides of head, directed outwards and upwards ; teeth 
small, forming villiform patches on premaxillaries and lower jaws, none on palate nor vomer; a 
very large cylindrical spine extending from angle of preoperculum. Anterior part of body 
depressed, middle and hinder part usually moderately compressed. Skin smooth, without 
conspicuous scales. Dorsal fins two, anterior small, with three or four flexible spines. Ventrals 
large, very wide apart, of one spine and five many-branched rays. Gill-opening very small, 
usually reduced to an oval hole at upper edge of operculum. Branchiostegals six. No air- 
bladder. Pseudobranchiae. A slit behind fourth gill.] 

D. 4 -f 8; A. 7; C. 10; P. 20; V. 1 -f 5. L.l. 232. 

Description. — Head broad, trigonal, compressed in front of the eye, with the 
profile very tumid and arching- rapidly from middle of eye to edg-e of upper lip, the 
cleft of the mouth being horizontal when closed, but directed forwards and down- 
wards when protruded. Orbits ovate, longer than wide, wider behind than in front, 
and deeply notching- the forehead; the space between the eyes half the longitudinal 
diameter of orbit. Cheeks behind and below the eyes very tumid, arching outwards 
abruptly from the compressed rostral portion, and extending with lower edge of 
preoperculum into the very long- preopercular spine, which is bifid at the rounded 
posterior end; the posterior spine directed upwards, the other hooked forwards and 
upwards. Operculum depressed, with a narrow, rounded posterior lobe, above which 
is the large, oval, branchial opening, about half the vertical diameter of the eye in 
length. Body broader than deep; sides very tumid but arching- on upper side 
downwards into a deep wide sulcus, in which the dorsal fin is placed, and 
similarly arching- on under side upwards into a wide, deep channel, in which 
the anal fin is lodged. A longitudinal narrow depression along- the middle 
of sides. Wide space between pectorals and ventrals flat. First dorsal of four 
spines; the first about one-third longer than the second; second and third 
nearly equal; fourth a little shorter than the third; first branched ray one- 
third longer than the first spinous ray. Pectoral rhombic, obtusely pointed 
a little below middle, where the raj's are longest. Caudal large, ovate, with the 
four middle rays prolonged to double the length of the others ; the two branches of 
each uniting- beyond the membrane into a single filament. In the young- males 
figured these four rays are shorter, according- to age, and in the female their branches 
are not united into prolonged filaments, but the posterior edge of the caudal fin is 
broadly rounded. Teeth: Minute, sharp-pointed, in several rows on jaws. Lateral 
line crossing- the nape a little in front of the gill-openings, round which on each side 
it curves downwards abruptly to about level of middle of g-ill-opening-; thence arches 
with slight, irregular undulations to the hollow midline of sides under about the 
eighth branched ray of dorsal ; and bifurcating at the base of caudal fin, one branch 
running along the fifth and another along- the sixth ray. Skin: Naked, glossy, 

[ 333 ] 



Zoohgy.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 

without scales, conical papilla in front of anal opening- large. Colour: Male : Back 
and snout pale gTsenish-brown, faintly mottled with pale pink; sides of head 
pale purplish-carmine, with narrow branching- lines of yellow; sides of body 
from lateral line paler carmine than sides of head, with a few longitudinal 
narrow 3'ellow lines; a dark-purplish blotch at base of pectoral. Pectoral with 
nearly colourless membrane, yellowish above, and upper rays yellow and reddish- 
purple, spotted. First dorsal with orange-red rays and two large dark-purple 
blotches on membrane behind second and third rays; membrane behind first ray 
yellowish-orange. Second dorsal with rays and membrane clouded irregularly 
with greenish-yellow and purple, and, near the edge, with peach-blossom pink, 
and yellow longitudinal lines. Caudal with upper rays brown ; membrane 
pale greenish-yellow with definite, narrow, longitudinal lines of bright peach- 
blossom colour; lower one or two rays and membrane dark purplish-slate colour; 
a few oval spots of opaline bluish-purple at base of tail. Pectoral fin with posterior 
rays and membrane variegated with pinkish-purple and yellow, the purple becoming- 
dark purplish-slate colour near edge and on front two rays and membrane. Anal 
pale purplish slate grey. Underside of body pale purplish-white. Iris greenish- 
bronze. Female : dull bronzy-brown above, passing- into whitish on belly, throat, 
and lower part of cheeks, the white and brown joining by an irregular mottling- or 
network of the dark colour enclosing- spaces of the lighter along the sides of body and 
cheeks. First dorsal usually purplish, with a few pale pink spots on the rays. 
Ventrals pale brown, with purplish membranes towards margin. Pectorals nearly 
colourless, with brownish rays. Second dorsal and anal irregularly clouded with 
blackish-purple; the rays and membrane otherwise yellowish. Caudal brownish, 
with lighter rays, and a dark blackish-purple patch formed by the membranes of the 
three lower spaces. Measurements.- Length of rather large specimen from tip of 
snout to base of caudal, 8 in. 3 lines. Pi-oportional measurements to this, as 100: 
Tip of snout to anterior edge of orbit, -j^^; to posterior edge of orbit, yw^; to tip of 
preopercular spine, xViTj to posterior lobed edge of operculum, -fVwj 'o anterior 
edge of gill-opening-, ^y^ ; to base of pectoral, y/u; to base of ventral, -ycutj to first 
spine of dorsal, -nfu J to first dorsal branched ray, tVVJ to last ra}' of dorsal, ttmJ; 
to first ray of anal, -nfij; length of middle elongate rays of caudal, /(fl^; lateral rays 
of caudal, f^f^ ; longest pectoral ray, -f^ ; longest venti-al ray, -finj > ^''st spine of 
doi'sal, -jL^ ; first branched ray of dorsal, -j%% ; greatest width of head at base of 
preopercular spine, tyVj depth of head at same point, -niV> depth of body about 
middle of length, under sixth branched ray of dorsal, y\j% ; thickness, yVV- 

Reference. — Er. and Ter., Fish, t. 7, f. i and 5, p. 10. 

This extremely beautiful sjiecies of CaUionymus, or Dragonet, 
as such fishes are called in England, is very variable in the 
brilliant colouring of the male; the dull-coloured female being 
more uniform and devoid of the brilliant tints of the male. The 
female is easily distinguished by the dullness" of the colouring 
and the simple rounded posterior edge of the caudal fin, wanting 
the extreme elongation of the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh rays, 
Avhich in the old males are so conspicuous by the union of the 
branches into simple extended filaments. The anal papilla is verj^ 
short and inconspicuous in the female. The elongation of the 

[ 334 ] 



Zoology.-] NATIJEAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Fishes. 

anterior dorsal spines is not a marked sexual distinction in this 
species, and I feel sure that Dr. Giinther's suggestion that this 
species may be the female of C. altevelis (Schlegel), of Japan, is 
not correct. Our two figures are of immature males, intermediate 
in elongation of the middle caudal rays between the adult male 
described and the female. Not very imcommon in Hobson's Bay. 
Not figured of the colours of Ufe before. 

Explanation of Figuees. 

Plate 192. — Fig. 1, young male, two-thirds natural size. Fig. la, lower jaw and teeth, 
twice the natural size. Fig. 16, upper jaw and teeth, twice the natural size. Fig. \c, section of 
body in front of ventrals. Fig. Id, section of body behind dorsal. Fig. le, section of end of 
pedicle of tail. Fig. 2, younger male. 



Frederick McCoy. 



[ 335 3 



Pi 193 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

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Zoology.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [_Fishes. 



Plate 193. 

NEOSEBASTES SCORP^NOIDES (Guich.). 
The Spotted Red Gurnet-Perch. 

[Genus NEOSEBASTES (Guichenot). (Sub-kingdom Vetebrata. Class Pisces. Sub- 
class Teleostea. Order Acanthopterygii. Family Scorpsenidas.)' 

Oen. Char. — Resembling Sebastes, but no scales on vertical fins, and having lower rays of 
pectoral branched and not elongated. Head large, spinous, and tuberculated, but less so than 
in Scor2}(ena; head and body entirely covered with rough scales ; no fleshy filaments from head. 
One dorsal ; seven branchiostegal rays. Teeth in villiform bands on jaw, vomer, and palatines.] 

D. 13 + 8*; A. 3 + 6; V. 1 + 5; P. 22; C. lof. L.l. i8^% under third 
dorsal spine; ^ about middle of body under eighth dorsal spine. 

Description. — Form: Ovate, moderately elongate and compressed, profile of 
head sloping rapidly from second spine of dorsal (corresponding to the greatest 
depth) to snout, broken by the projection of nearly one-third the diameter of the 
very large oval eye; the ocular projections slope to a very deep, smooth channel 
between the eyes. Gape slightly oblique; lower jaw slightly projecting in front of 
upper when mouth closed, with a conspicuous Icnob under its symphysis, and a large 
rounded pore on each side. Nostrils large; a strong spine near inner margin of 
anterior one. Superciliary ridge with three, gradually increasing, compressed spines, 
the posterior one largest. A slight, transverse, smooth furrow behind the eyes. 
One long, ridge-Hke, compressed spine, increasing in height to posterior end on each 
side of nape, beginning in line with posterior edge of orbit; a similar spine, 
compressed, ridge-like, with two posterior points on stay from edge of orbit to 
edge of preoperculum ; two similar, compressed, spinous ridges in one line, each 
with two compressed spinous points, near posterior end, extending from anterior 
fourth of orbit longitudinally nearly to edge of preoperculum on suborbital; one-fifth 
the diameter of the orbit below its edge. Preoperculum extending in a large com- 
pressed spine, continuing its angle near to edge of operculum a little above base of 
pectoral; a smaller sharp spine below; and three broad, triangular, lobe-like spines 
at equidistant intervals extended to its lower edge. Operculum with a strong, ridged 
spine extending upwards and backwards along upper arched edge; a second, longer, 
ridged spine in a line from middle of eye, directed backwards, nearly reaching edge 
of operculum. The lachrymal bone or preorbital at lower edge has a broad, trisulcate, 
three-pointed spine in front overlapping the intermaxillary bone, and four sharp, 
conical spines behind directed downwards and backwards at upper edge of 
maxillary. Greatest depth between second and third spines of dorsal, equal to about 
one-third the length of the body without the caudal fin; thickness of the body about 
two-thirds the depth; length of the head about two and two-thirds in total length, 
excluding caudal fin; length of head about one-sixth more than the depth of the 
body ; profile of back sloping with slight convexity to end of dorsal, moderately 
constricted thence to caudal fin; ventral profile more convex to origin of anal, 

* It is, no doubt, by slip of the pen tbat M. Guichenot puts IS as the number of soft rays in the doisal. 
Vol. II.— Decade XX— 36. [ 337 ] 



Zoohgy.1 NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 

thence tapering in nearly straight line to base of caudal fin. Orbit very large, 
a little less than one-third the length of the head, and slightly less than its 
own diameter from tip of snout; space between middle of orbits less than the 
diameter of orbit. Upper edge of dorsal moderately arched for the first five spines, 
sloping straightly thence to the twelfth; thirteenth on front part of branched rays, 
double the length of the twelfth, half the length of the following branched ray; first 
spine of dorsal slightly sigmoid, two-thirds the length of the second, the third being- 
longest. Pectoral: Upper rays longest, reaching to base of anal; lower rays 
branched, the lowest one nearly or quite simple, border of fin convex posteriorly, 
base under third dorsal spine. Scales: Moderate, rounded, covering the whole of 
the head (except the interorbital groove and a small similar one in front of dorsal 
and transverse sulcus behind ej'es) to tip of snout, very rough to the touch, strongly 
ctenoid on posterior, semicircular margin, and covered with minute, spinulose 
granules. Lateral line arched and one-eighth of depth from dorsal edge from origin to 
about under eighth dorsal spine, thence nearly straight to middle of caudal; about 
one-fourtli the depth from dorsal edge about middle of body. Total length from tip 
of snout to end of caudal fin of large sjiecimen, 10 in. G lines. Proportional measure- 
ments to this, as 100: Tip of snout to front edge of orbit, yj,y; diameter of orbit, 
TBU; ^° snd of maxillary, -x^u) to end of preopercular spine, ^^a; to posterior edge 
of operculum, Yg'g; to upper base of pectoral, y-jj'ij ; to base of first dorsal spine, y-j^; 
to base of first branched dorsal spine, ,5^; to first anal spine, j^^jj ; length of second 
branched ray of dorsal, y\fij ; depth of body, YVo > thickness, y-jj% ; length of first 
dorsal spine, yV„ ; of second, y^^; of third, i-y^,, ; length of pectoral, y-o''oj length of 
caudal fin, y-^jjj; first anal spine, -[-J^j; second anal spine, iVV; third anal spine, 
-,\ny; second branched ray, i^V- Six scales in six lines at middle of body. Colour: 
Upper part of back and head rich purplish, fading into white on lower edge of belly, 
with several obscure, longitudinal rows of large, roundish, indefinite, rosy-red spots. 
Cheeks and lower part of head bright red; pectorals greenish in some, yellowish in 
others, with a dark, purplish posterior margin. Six or seven concentric rows of red 
spots on ra3'S with occasionally darker spots between them on membranes. Ventrals 
with rays red, membrane verj' pale purplish. Spinous portion of dorsal witii the 
membrane obliquely streaked with pale purplish and obscure, scattered, irregular 
cloudy spots; branched portion of dorsal with greenish membrane and five or six 
transverse rows of red spots on rays. Caudal fin with basal half yellowish on mem- 
brane, but distal half dark purphsh, with a narrow, lighter, posterior edge, the rays 
transversely banded with six or seven rows of dull red spots. Anal with nearly 
colourless, purplish membrane and irregular spots on the reddish rays. Iris yellow, 
with red imperfect circles. 

Reference. — Guichenot, Mem. de la Soc. Imper. des Sc. Nat. de Cherbourg, 
V. Vti ("Jnd ser., v. 3), p. 83. 

This very common fish in the Melbourne markets in M-inter is 
confounded by fishermen and dealers with the Banded Ked Gurnet- 
Perch (Sebastes percoides) — (figured on our plate 33, of the Fourth 
Decade) — under the name of Red Gurnet. It is easily distinguished 
by wanting the vertical or transverse dark bauds, and even 
generically by the lower rays of the pectoral fins being branched 
like the others, while in the Sebastes several of the lower rays are 
unbranched and extended beyond the membrane. 

[ 338 ] 



Zoology.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [_Fishes. 

Now figured foi' the first time, although so abundant on our 
coasts and in the markets. 

Explanation of Fighbes. 

Plate 193. — Fisr. 1, average specimen, about two-thirds natural size. Fig. la, upper view 
of head, about two-thirds the natural size. Fig. 16, teeth of upper jaw, vomer, and palate, 
natural size. Fis;. Ic, teeth of lower jaw, natui-al size. Fig. Id, scale above lateral line, 
magnified three diameters. Fig. le, scale of lateral line, magnified three diameters. Fig. If, 
section at base of pectoral. Fig. \ij, section of pedicle of tail. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 339 ] 



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ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 




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Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 

Plate 194. 

TRACHINOPS CAUDIMACULATUS (McCoy). 
The Blotch-tailed Trachinops. 

[Genus TRACHINOPS (Gunth.). ( Sub-kingdom Yertebrata. Class Pisces. Sub-class 
Teleostea. Order Acanthopterygii. Family Nanclidaj. Sub-family Plcsiopiua.) 

Ge?^. Char. — Body oblong, moderately compressed ; mouth obtusely rounded, not protractile; 
none of the plates of the head serrated. Teeth on jaws, vomer, and palatine bones. Tongue 
smooth; scales of moderate size, rounded, ctenoid .it margin,* lateral line interrupted near end 
of dorsal fin. Dors.al and anal fins long; fourteen spines in dorsal, three in anal ; ventral fins 
thoi'acic, with one spine and four branched rays, not elongate; caudal fin pointed, with the 
middle rays prolonged in fil.aments. Five brancliiostegals ; gills three and a half; pseudo- 
branchia}; gill-membrane not united below the throat; pyloric appendages few. Australia.] 

D. 14 + 17; A. 3 + IG; P. 16; V. I + i; C. 24; L.l. 45 + 12. 

Description. — Oblong, narrow, moderately compressed ; length of head slightly 
greater than the depth of the body, and slightly more than four times in total length, 
excluding caudal fin; the depth of the body diminishes little till beyond the dorsal 
and anal fins, greatest deptii near end of pectoral fin about one-fifth of total length, 
excluding caudal ; interorbital space convex, smooth, without scales, less than 
diameter of orbit, with a few rows of large, prominent pores; snout obtuse, about one- 
half diameter of orbit; cleft of mouth wide, oblique; maxillary extending a little 
beyond middle of eye ; lower jaw slightly longer than upper one. Teeth small, 
pointed along the jaws, three or four larger than the rest on each side near the 
front; two rows forming a long patch on each palate bone, and two rows forming a 
short, transverse, arched patch on the vomer, nearly joining ends of palatine patches. 
Gill-openings wide. Scales on cheeks and operculum moderate, tliose on nape 
between anterior ends of lateral lines and over lateral line at base of dorsal very small. 
Lateral line is in two disconnected portions, one of forty-five tubular scales, rising 
fi'om head to close below dorsal, extending to the thirty-fifth row of scales, where that 
fin ends; the posterior portion of twelve similar scales occupies the middle of the 
sides of the tail on the twelve posterior rows of scales; three rows of scales having 
both the overla])ping portions of the interrupted lateral line. Scales of body of 
moderate size, roundea, finely serrated at posterior edge; along lateral line about 
forty-seven, two small scales above and seventeen large below it at vertical of base 
of pectoral. Fins: Pectoral fin of sixteen branched rays, oval, about one-fifth shorter 
than head. Ventral of one spine and four branched rays, about one-fifth shorter than 
the pectoral, a little in front of which it arises. Dorsal of fourteen spines and seventeen 
jointed rays, low to end of spinous portion, then higher to near the end which is 
rounded by a shortening of the three last rays ; greatest depth of soft dorsal a little 
less than deptii of body at base ; spinous portion rather less than half the depth of 
body at base. Anal fin of three spines and sixteen soft rays, not so deep as soft 
dorsal. Caudal of twenty-four rays, angularly pointed behind, the three middle rays 
extending as filaments one-quarter longer than the rest of the fin. Colour: Back 
dark-brown, becoming lighter and purplish on sides ; scales minutely dotted with 
black; a large, blackish blotch at base of tail, from which five or six middle rays 

* See remarks further on. 

[341 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. ^Fishes. 

carry tlie blackish colour through the middle of the fin to the two extended filaments ; 
the rest of the fin and the soft dorsal pale orang-e; anterior part of dorsal, anal, 
pectoral, and ventral, as well as throat and hell}^, whitish; iris silver bluish-white. 
Length from snout to base of caudal (excluding fin) 2 in. 1 line; proportional 
length of head, y-/^; length of snout, ~[%^; diameter of orbit, ^gij; interorbital 
space, i^ij; length of pectoral, y>,",^; ventrals, ■^~^; snout to origin of dorsal, y-5%^; 
to end of dorsal, i",',-, ; length of caudal, without filaments, -{^^•, filaments, xlij; 
greatest depth of body about middle, ^i^^; depth of tail, jj-^; thickness of middle 
of body, tSj. 

This little fisli Created a great sensation by appearing in large 
numbers about the middle of October, 1884, at the piers at 
Williamstown, in Hobson's Bay, and, being reported to the Com- 
missioner of Customs as the young of the Californian Salmon, 
were sent to me as an important matter to be determined. Even 
the Acanthopterygious character of the dorsal fin, one might have 
supposed, would have prevented any one acquainted with fish from 
confounding this with any sort of Salmon. The Inspectors of 
Fisheries and others dealing officially mth the fishes of our waters 
are greatly retarded in their business for want of recognisable 
figures of most of the native sorts, many of which, like the present 
species, have never been figured. The illustrations of the natural 
colours of the living fishes which I expect to present in these 
Decades will, I hope, diminish the difficulty of recognising them 
in future, and enable observations on habits, migrations, and times 
and places of breeding of the different sorts to be attributed 
correctly to the definitely-named and classified species. 

This is the second species of Trachinops known, and is easily 
distinguished from the Sydney T. tceniatus (Giinth.) by the 
darkness of the back, without the light longitudinal band of that 
species ; which also has much more prolonged central filaments 
of the caudal fin, a much lower dorsal fin, and more numerous 
scales along the lateral line than in the present one. The 
lateral line rises from the upper end of the gill-opcniug to the 
anterior end of the dorsal ; the triangular space on nape between 
these deflected ends of the two lateral lines being covered with 
very much smaller scales than those of the body ; the lateral 
line, of strongly keeled tubular scales, runs along the base of 
the dorsal fin, separated from it by two rows only of the minute 
scales such as are above their anterior ends on the nape. 

[ 342 J 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fw/ifs. 

Dr. Glinther in establishing the genus Trachinops for the 
Sydney T. tccniatus gives " scales cycloid " as one of the generic 
characters ; but Prof Kner describing the same species (Reise 
der Novara ZooL, Theil, Fische, p. 216) says, "Die Schuppen 
sind von miissiger Grosse, weich, und am ganzen Vorderrumpfe 
glattrandig, gegen den Schwanz aber zeigen sie den Bau ctenoider 
Schuppen, am festsitzenden Eude eiuen Fiicher von 10-12 RacUen 
und gegen das freie Ende coucentrische Furchen und ein feiues 
Netz mit sich bildeuden Kurtzen Spitzen in mehreren Reihen, die 
am freien Rande zu langern wimpern-ahnlich Zahnchen werden," 
and these remarks apply so well, as far as the hinder portion of 
the body goes, that I have altered the generic character for both 
species to "scales ctenoid." In the present species, I think all 
the large scales are ctenoid. 

Found occasionally in abundance about the piers in Hobson's 
Bay. Not figm-ed before. 

Explanation of riGDKE. 

Plate 19-t. — Fijj. 1, side view, natural size, of adult specimen, of the natural colours. 
Fig. la, same, magnified three diameters (upper part of lateral line at base of dorsal somewhat 
obscured by the shading). Fig. li, top of head, magnified four diameters, to show scaleless 
interorbital portion, with large pores, and small scales on nape, and midline of back between 
ends of anterior portions of lateral line. Fig. Ic, side view of head, magnified four diameters, 
showing the relations of scales, pores, and origin of lateral line. Fig. Id, teeth of upper and 
lower jaws, vomer and palatine bones, and smooth tongue, magnified six diameters. Fig. le, 
side view of teeth of jaws, showing the increased size of some of thera near the anterior end, 
magnified six diameters. Fig. 1/, isthmus, lower jaws, gill rays, and pseudobranchia;, magnified 
three diameters. Fig. lij, portion of gills, side view, magnified seven diameters. Fig. l/i, front 
view of head, showing convexity of interorbital space, magnified four diameters. Fig. li. 
section of body behind base of pectorals, magnified three diameters. Fig. Ik; section of pedicle 
of tail, magnified three diameters. Fig. 11, scale from upper lateral line, magnified sLx diameters. 
Fig. Ira, scale from middle of body, magnified six diameters. Fig. In, scale fi-om nape of neck, 
magnified six diameters. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[343] 






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ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

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Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Po/^m«. 

Plate 195, Figs. 1 and 3. 
STIRPARIA GLABRA (Hincks). 

[Genus STIRPARIA (Goldstein). (Sub-kingdom Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Chcilostomata. Family liicclliiriidii!.) 

Gvii. Cliar. — Zoarium consisting of tufts of cclliferous branches attached to annulatod or 
segmented, articuhitud stems. Zooceia biscrial, turbinate; aperture opening upwards and 
forwards, and furnished with marginal or sub-marginal spines.] 

Description. — Zoarium erect, branched, branches calcareous, divided into 
usually alternately longer and shorter internodes, distinctly articulated together. 
Zooecia in flabellatcly branched clusters, articulated to one side of the upper extremity 
of an internode, commencing by a turbinate zooecium from which two others arise, 
giving' origin to dichotomously divitling branches; zocecia alternate, in two con- 
tinuous series", united .side to side, narrowed below and expnnded above, the outer 
angle frequently acuminate; aperture occupying rather less than the upper half of 
the front of the cell, the margin slightly thickened; three or four long, curved, 
hollow spines articulated below the margin posteriorly, and frequently a single spine 
anteriorly from the side of the aperture lower down. A minute capitate avicularium 
on the edge of the aperture below. 

References. — Stirparia glabra, Hincks, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, March, 
1883; Bicellaria glabra, Busk, Challenger Polyzoa, Part I., p. 35, pi. vi., fig. 1. 

Lome, a single specimea, Mr. Woostev. 

Forms tufts, two or three inches high, attached by slender 
radical fibres. The stem and branches are calcareous, divided into 
usually alternately longer and shorter portions distinctly articulated 
together, the internodes enlarged at their rounded extremities, and 
generally having a furrow caused by a deficiency of calcareous 
matter on two sides. The clusters of zooceia originate from the 
upper ends of the larger internodes. The first cell is turl)inate, 
with about six long spines, and is articulated to a hollow in the 
internode. Many of the shorter internodes are barren, but have a 
small opening similar to those to which the zooecial clusters are 
articulated. 

The figures and description are taken ft'om South Australian 
specimens, the only Victorian specimen I have seen being a small, 
unperfect fragment. It occurs also in Western Australia. 

Explanation of Fighres. 

Plate 195. — Fig. 1, specimen, natural size. Fig 2, portion of another specimen, magnified. 
Fig. 2a, basal part of zooecial tuft of same, more highly magnified. 

Vol. n.— Decade XX.— Sc. [ 345 ] 



Zoology.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPolyzoa. 

Plate 195, Fig. 3. 
BEANIA INTERMEDIA (Hincks, sp.). 

[Genus BEANIA (.Johnston). (Sub-kingdom MoUusca. Class Polyzoa. Order Infun-r 
dibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Taiuily Bicetlariida;.) 

Gen. Char. — Zoarium creeping or loosely adnate. Zooecia disjunct, connected by (usually) 
corneous tubes, erect or decumbent, ovate or boat-shaped, entirely open in front and filled in by a 
thin membrane. Usually a capitate, pedunculate avicularium, perfect, aborted, or altered in 
form, on one or both sides towards the upper extremity, in some species absent.] 

Description. — Zooecia much elongated, narrow, sub-erect, anterior extremity 
rounded, posterior narrow, two short spines or denticles above, and one longer on 
each side; a capitate avicularium on each side above the lower spine. Each 
zooeciiim connected with one in front bj- a considerable tube arising- from the back 
and with one on each side by a tube near the posterior extremity. Posterior surface 
smooth. 

Reference. — Diachoris intermedia, Hincks, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Aug., 

Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. Bracebridge Wilson. 

The ouly specimen I have examined is not in very good con- 
dition, but there can be no doubt of its identity with Hincks' 
species. The points of origin of the lateral connecting tubes seem 
to vary. In my specimen they are mostly near the posterior 
extremity, while Hincks describes them as being a little above the 
middle ; in one of the figured zooecia it will be seen that they are 
not opposite, one being much farther forward than the other. 

ExrLANATION OF FIGURES. 

Plate 195. — Fig. 3, anterior view of part of zoarium, magnified. Fig. 3o, lateral view of two 
zooecia. 



Plate 195, Fig. 4. 
BEANIA CONFERTA (McG.). 

Description. — Zooecia large, each connected with six others by very short 
tubes ; six large, articulated spines above, of which two from the summit project 
nearly directly forward, a similar jiair (one on each side) originating a little farther 
back point in the same direction, and the third pair, arising opposite the lower edge 
of the mouth, project upwards and forwards and are curved inwards at their bases ; on 
each side of the aperture a double row of long, stout spines, the outer directed forwards 

[ 346 ] 



Zoology.-] ' NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [^Polyzoa. 

and outwards, and the inner alternating- with these, arching- closely over the front 
of the cell and meeting- in the mesial line. Dorsal surface smooth, g-lassy ; in many, 
especially the marginal cells, a round mark on each side towards the base, probably 
indicating- the attachment of a radical fibre. No avicularia. 

Portland, Mr. Maplestone ; Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. Brace- 
bridge Wilson. 

This species is readily distinguished from the other Australian 
forms by the closeness of the cells, the six large spines at the 
anterior extremity, and the absence of avicularia. The peculiar 
arrangement of the marginal spines, directed alternately outwards 
and inwards, is not constant, but when present is very striking. 
It is closely allied to the form described, from Algiers, by 
Mr. Hincks (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Aug., 1881) as Diachoris 
hirtissima, var. robusta, from which it differs in having two instead 
of three superior spines and in the total absence of avicularia. 

Explanation op Figure. 
Plate 195. — Fig. 4, single zooecium, magnified. 



Plate 195, Fig. 5. 
BEANIA WILSONI (McG.). 

DESCRiPTiON.-^Zooecia connected with six others by long- corneous tubes, sub- 
erect; two or three short, straight, slender spine.s, and one or two sharp, incurved 
spines on the margin _ on each side. Posterior surface smooth. A large capitate 
avicularium articulated at the upper part of the zooecium on each side. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Tran. Roy. Soc. Vict., Nov., 1884, 

Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. Bracebridge Wilson. 

Evidently closely allied to the South African Diachoris distans 
of Hincks, fi'om which it differs in having avicularia on both sides, 
and in the absence of the round marks of the radical tubes 
posteriorly. 

Explanation of Figukes. 

Plate 195. — Fig. 5, group of zooecia, anterior view, magnified. Fig. 5a, posterior view of 
single zooecium'. 

[ 347 ] 



Zoohgy.l NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 



Plate 195, Figs. 6 and 7. 
VERRUCULARIA DICHOTOMA (Busk, sp.). 

[Genus VERRUCULARIA (von Sure). (Sub-kingdom Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
lufundibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family Farciminariidae.) 

Gen. Char. — Zooecia elliptical or rounded, convex, bordered by a narrow chitinous line, 
alternate in longitudinal series, separated laterally by an intercellular substance. Mouth a 
little below the summit. No avicularia.] 

. Description. — Zoarium membranous, consisting- of bi- or trichotomously divided 
branches. Zooecia arranged around an imaginary axis, alternate in longitudinal 
series separated by a smooth intercellular space, elliptical or ovate, separated from 
those of the same series by a narrow quadrate space ; each zooecium surrounded 
by a narrow chitinous rim, a similar line also on each side of the spaces joining 
those of a series; mouth above the middle of the zooecium, rounded, the lower 
lip forming a projecting membranous valve. 

References. — Farciminaria dichotoma, Busk. Quart. Journ. Mic. Sc, New 
Ser. i. 155. Flustrella dichotovia, Hincks, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., May, 1884. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

This species has a close affinity in its structure to Flustrella, but 
I cannot agree with Hincks in referring it to that ctenostomatous 
genus. It, however, undoubtedly forms a close connecting link 
between the two sub-orders. It seems to me that, notwithstanding 
the absence of avicularia and ooecia and the structure of the mouth, 
it ought more properly to be referred, as has been done by Busk, 
to a family of Cheilostomata along with Farciminaria. 

It occui's in tufts, one or two inches high, consisting of numerous 
di- or trichotomously divided cyUndrical branches. The zoojcia are 
arranged in usually six longitudinal series, separated from each 
other by a continuous intercellular substance ; each zooecium is 
surrounded by a narrow chitinous line, a similar line also bounding 
the space by which the cells of a series are sepai'ated from each 
other. They are convex ; the mouth 'projects, the lower lip 
forming a nearly quadi-ate flap with a narrow thickened chitinous 
rim. 

[ 348 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [_Polyzoa. 

Von Suhr, in founding the genus, placed it among the algae, but 
the eiToneous interpretation of its structure is no reason, as already 
stated by Busk, for not adopting his name. 

Explanation or Figures. 

Plate 195. — Fig. 6, specimen, natural size. Fig. 7, portion of branch of another specimen, 
magnified. Fig. 'a, single zooecium of same, more highly magnified. 



The specimens and descriptions of the Polyzoa illustrated by 
this plate ai'e from Mr. MacGillivray. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 349 ] 



P119G 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(Polyjoiv) 




J'&fiperlufv 



FrorSeCoyJiraf' 



Sieamb&oGovPPraiJviffOffvx 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPolyzoa. 

Plate 196, Fio. 1. 
THAIROPORA ARMATA (McG.). 

[Genus TIIAIROPoRA (McG.)- (Sub-kingdom MoUusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family Microporidae.) 

Gere. Char. — Zooecia calcareous, traversed by bands or transverse fissures and covered 
with a continuous epitheca ; mouth arched, higher than broad, lower margin of operculum 
hollowed : a stout, unarticulated, mamillate or buUate process in a separate tract on each side of 
the mouth. Avicularia at the base of or replacing zooecia, mandible strengthened by a stirrup- 
shaped thickened chitinous band.] 

Description. — Zooecia quadrate, alternate, of a'whitish colour, calcareous layer 
granular or perforate, with few indistinct lines; epitheca rather thin. Oral processes 
large, of equal size. Avicularian mandibles broadly lanceolate, directed upwards, 
strengthening band produced upwards from the junction of the lateral branches 
and with a broad membranous band on either side. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., Dec, 1881. 
Queenscliff. 

Explanation of Figure. 
Plate 196. — Fig. I, group of zoreoia magnified, showing two avicularia. 



Plate 196, Fig. 2, 
THAIROPORA MAMILLARIS (Lamx. sp.). 

Description. — Zooecia quadrate, alternate; calcareous lamina very thin, with 
few lines ; epitheca thick, brown or purple. Mouth with the oral processes of 
moderate size, equal or occasionally one larger. Avicularian mandibles elongated, 
branches of strengthening band meeting at an acute angle and produced into a 
vertical process, without membranous margins. 

Reference. — Prod. Zool. Vict., pi. 25, fig. 4. 

This species has ah-eady been described as Memhranvpora 
mamillaris and figiu'ed on plate .25, but a fresh figure is now 
given to better show the differences between it and T. armata, 
from which it is readily distinguished by its purplish or dark 
brown colour, the thicker epitheca, and especially by the different 
form of the stirrup-shaped support of the avicularian- mandible 
which has no membranous margin. 

Explanation op Figbee, 
Plate 196.— Fig. 2, Two zooecia and avicularium. 

[ 351 ] 



Zoologi/.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Po/yzoo. 



Plate 196, Fig. 3. 
THAIROPOKA JERVOISII (Hincks sp.). 

Description. — ZocBcia larg-e, alternate; calcareous lamina tliick, finely granular 
or punctate, usually traversed by two prominent raised lines crossing- the zocecia and 
connected in the centre by a similar vertical line, or by two from one side meeting' 
about the centre and continued as a single line across the remainder of the zooecium. 
Mouth large, lofty, oral processes large mamilliform. Avicularian mandible broadly 
triangular, the lateral branches 'not produced and with a very narrow membranous 
fringe. 

Reference. — Steganoporella Jervoisii, Hincks, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
1880; Thairopora Jervoisii, MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., July, 1886. 

Sorrento, Rev. Dr. Porter. 

Of this species I have only a single Victorian specimen, l)iit 
I have received several from South Australia. It differs from 
T. armata and mamillaris in the greater size of the zooecia, 
the strong hand on the calcareous lamina, and the different 
structure of the avicularian mandible. The avicularia seem to 
he very rare and are present on only one of my specimens 
which I unfortunately did not receive until after the plate was 
lithographed. As far as I can make out from an examination in 
situ there is an extremely narrow scarcely perceptible fringe. 
Almost all the specimens are destitute of the epitheca, but in 
one it appears in parts as a thin silvery layer. None of my 
specimens have the lateral foramina described and figured by 
Mr. Hincks, in consequence of which he referred it to the 
genus Steganoporella. although he subsequently (Ann. and Mag., 
1887) mentions it as a Micropora. 

The genus Thairopora as first proposed by me was differen- 
tiated from Memhranipora by the presence of a complete 
articulated operculum. Subsequent examination has shown, 
however, that the front wall is not membranous, but consists 
of a calcareous layer .covered by a *chitinous epitheca. The 
calcareous lamina is very thin in T. mamillaris^ but of considerable 
thickness in the others. In T. mamillaris, armata, and Jervoisii 

[ 352 ] 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Poli/zoa. 

it is also traversed by various tliickened lines or bands, much 
less prominent in the fii'st. In T. Woodsii and disjMr it is 
crossed, a little below the mouth, by a transverse or oblique 
fissure, the edges of which are finely denticulated. The true 
Micropor(s, to which the genus- is most nearly allied, agree in 
having a calcareous anterior wall covered by a thick epitheca, 
with the lower margin of the oral aperture thickened and the 
lip formed by a complete articulated flap. The form of the 
mouth, however, is quite different ; in Thairopora it is very 
much loftier and narrower and always has a thick, calcareous, 
sessile, mamilliform or bullate process in a separate space on 
each side, frequently differing in size ; while in Microjfora the 
mouth is wider than high, and there are either no oi'al processes 
or they are slender articulated spines. 

The peculiar dividing lines or fissures on the calcareous 
front walls are quite different fi'om anything seen in Micropora. 
I am not sure that it would not be advisable to separate the 
species Avith the transverse fissures as a distinct genus. A 
similar division exists also in Diploporella cincta, which also 
agrees in the form of the mouth and operculum and the 
pi'esence of the thick sessile oral pi'ocesses. The structure of 
the zooecium, however, is otherwise so distinct as to leave no 
doubt of the propriety of referring it to a distinct genus. 



Plate 196, Figs. 4, 5, and 6. 
MICROPORA CORIACEA (Esper. sp.). 

[Genus MICROPORA (Hincks). Sub-kingdom Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family Microporidse.) 

Oen. Char. — Zooecia with the front wall calcareous, covered with a thick epitheca; no 
transverse bands or fissures, but frequently several large perforations. Mouth with lower lip 
straight and thickened, wider than high ; lower edge of operculum straight ; oral spines either 
wanting or slender and articulated. Ooecia external. Avicularia at the base of zooecia.] 

Vol. II— Decade .XX.— 3(i. [ 353 1 



Zoology.'i NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Po/yzoa. 

Description. — Zocecia ovate or quadrate; separating margins thick and 
prominent, frequently raised into a clavate process on each side of the mouth ; 
surface smooth, g-ranular or punctate, frequently with a distinct round foramen on 
each side. Mouth arched above, lower lip thickened and usually finely crenulated. 
Ooecia large, convex, prominent or subiuimersed, smooth, or tubercular, or umbonate, 
or slightly carinate. Avicularia small, with triangular mandibles, situated on 
separate tracts at the bases of zocecia. 

References. — Memhranipora coriacea, Busk., Brit. ilus. Cat. Mar. PoL, ii., 67, 
pi. Ixxiii., figs. 4-5; Micropora coriacea, Hincks, Brit. Mar. Pol., p. 174, pi. xxiii, 
figs. 5-7. 

Common on shells aud stones. 

This species varies a good deal. The anterior surface is 
smooth or granular and frequently has a large round pore on 
each side, genei-ally toAvards the mouth. The separating margins 
are occasionally (in European specimens usually) raised into a 
small clavate boss on each side of the mouth. The ooecia are 
mostly subimmersed, but are sometimes quite prominent. 

A very marked variety which I have described (Trans. Roy. 
Soc. Vict., 1886) as angusta is not uncommon. The zooecia 
are very long and narrow, quach'ate ; the margins very prominent 
and crenulated ; the surface granular. There are no distinct 
foramina, but a depression in some cases gives an obscure appear- 
ance of such. The lower lip is thick and pouting. The ooecia 
are sub-immersed, usually without any elevation but occasionally 
with a slight knob or ridge. The whole zoarium is silvery and 
frec[uently only loosely adnate. Steganojjorella dongata (Hincks, 
Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Nov., 1880) fi*om Afi-ica very much 
resembles this form. Mr. Waters also (Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist., July, 1889) refers some specimens from Port Jackson to 
the same species as Micropora dongata, stating that in examin- 
ing a series there is little dift'ereuce between it and 31. coriacea. 
He also mentious that in some of the zooecia the marginal 
openings (opesiules of JuUien) are not to be seen while in others 
there are more than one on each side. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Platk 19G. — Fig. 4, group of zoa'cia friim a colony wiih the anterior surface nearly 
smooth, the lateral pores large, the margins not raised at the oral apertures and the ooecia 
prominent. Fig. 5, part of another colony, having the surface granular and punctate, the 
margins forming clavate knobs and the ootcia umbonate. Fig. (>. var. aixjiista, showing the 
elongated quadrate zooecia, the thick crenulated margins, the pouting mouth, aud subimmersed 
occcia. 

[354] 



Zoology.^ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Pul^zua. 

Plate 196, Figs. 7-10. 
RHYNCHOPORA BISPINOSA (Johnston sp.). 

[Genus RHTNCHOPORA (Hincks). (Sub-kingdom MoIIusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Family Escharidae.) 

Gen. Char. — Zoarium encrusting. Zooecia closely adherent to each other. Primary mouth 
transversely elongated, straight, or with a slight sinus in the lower lip ; secondary mouth with 
a prominent mucro on the lower margin, and an uncinate process immediately above it within 
the mouth.] 

Description. — Zoarium encrusting'. Zocecia when young' ovate or pyriform, 
distinct, and horizontal ; when older becoming' small, confused and indi.stinct; 
sometimes perforated at the marg-ins; surface usually smooth but occasionallj' rough 
or tubercular. Primary mouth transversely elliptical, ivith a very slight sinus in the 
lower lip and two straight, articulated spines (mostly absent) above. Secondary 
mouth rounded, with an uncinate process within towards one side; a transverse 
suboral avicularium, with pointed mandible on the anterior part of a mound-like 
elevation, or a prominent mucro. Other smaller avicularia on elevations on the front 
of the zooecia. Ooecia prominent in the younger parts, but becoming subimmersed 
or immersed in the older, with the orifice closed by a calcareous operculum. 

Reference. — Rhynchopora hisinnosa, Hincks, Brit. Marine Polj'zoa, p. 385; 
pi. xl., figs. 1-5. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

This peculiar species is exceedingly variable. The oral spines 
are very rarely present. As growth proceeds in the young cells 
an uncinate or anvil-shaped process is developed towards one side 
of the mouth and usually a smaller more erect process from the 
othei', the two frequently forming a complete or neai-ly closed 
round opening. Below or on the fi'ont of the uncinate process a 
large transverse avicularium is formed on a mound-like elevation, 
or in its place a prominent rostrum, or very rarely both. In many 
specimens no avicularia are found. In the usual condition of the 
older parts, the zooecia are smaller, indistinct, with the mouth large, 
roundish, and the lower edge with a large transverse avicularium 
obscuring the parts within. In many zooecia, especially the older, 
there are one or more smaller horizontal avicularia on large 
elevations. These, however, as well as the oral are not in- 
frequently altogether absent. The peristome may be produced 
into one or more processes on either side. The suboral rostrum 

[ 355 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Polyzoa. 

also varies very much, being of moderate size and smootli, or large 
and granular or tubercular. The zooecia are usually smooth, but 
may be covered with large granulations, and the margin has 
frequently a row of perforations. The ocecia are at first prominent, 
but become immersed with age. In the older ones the opening is 
closed by a thick operculum, which may be smooth or faintly 
granular or lined. When deeply immersed the operculum is 
nearly vertical. 

I have several specimens on shell from shallow water which I 
was at one time inclined to consider as a distinct species. It may 
be called var. delicatula. All the zooecia are horizontal. The 
uncinate and opposite oral processes unite or nearly so, and a 
roimd elevation is formed on the base of the former. Two glassy 
elevations first appear below the mouth followed by others over 
the surface of the older zooecia. There are few or no avicularia. 
The ooecia are prominent, smooth, or with a slight umbo, and the 
opening is small and has no apparent operculum. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 195. — Fig. 7, usual appearance of older colonies, showing confusion of cells and oral 
and zocecial aricularia. Fig. 8, group of young cells from growing edge of another colony. 
Fig. 9, marginiil zooecia from edge of specimen of var. drlicatula, showing primary mouth, 
uncinate and oral processes, uncinate process with rostral elevation, and two elevations on front 
of zocEcia. Fig. 10, single oral opening from another specimen. 



Plate 196, Figs. 11-14. 
RHYNCHOPORA LONGIROSTRIS (Hincks). 

Description. — Zoarium adherent. Zooecia wlien young, large, ovate or pyri- 
form, distinct, frequently separated by rows of pores, smooth at the extreme edg-es of 
the colony but becoming slightly granular farther back; primary mouth transversely 
elliptical, without sinus; when old indistinct, granular, mouth quadrate, an uncinate 
process to one side of the lower lip with the sharp point directed nearly across to the 
other side; below the uncinate process is a small avicularium with broadly triangular 
mandible on an elevation, which also is frequently developed into a mucro. Numerous 
large avicularia on the front of the zooecia with long, ligulate mandibles pointing 
downwards. Ooecia immersed, smooth or slightly granular, with a calcareous 
operculum. 

References. — Hincks, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Aug., 1881; Ji. profunda, 
MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., Oct., 1881. 

[ 356 ] 



Zoo/oyi/.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Puiyzoii. 

Port Phillip Heads ; Portland, Mr. Maplestone ; Wan*nambool, 
Mr. Watts. 

In many of the younger zooecia the oral avicvilaria are not 
developed. The extreme marginal zooecia, l^efore the formation of 
the uncinate processes, are smooth, those behind are granular. 
Tu the fully formed zooecia the surface is glistening and granular. 
The mouth is irregularly quadrate, the elevation on the upper side 
of which the avicularium is situated is sometimes scarcely apparent, 
at other times, as in the figure, it is of considerable size. It may 
rise into a mucro, in some specimens becoming developed to such 
an extent as to obscure every other part. The peristome may 
have one or more small pointed processes. The zooecial avicularia 
are usually as figured, but occasionally they are extremely narrow, 
or may be as small as in R. bispinosa. 

The form which I described as H. profunda, I now believe to 
be a mere variety of the present, in which the calcareous matter 
is so much developed that the mouth, with the large uncinate 
process, hes very deep, and the surface is vexy roughly granular 
or nodular. 

Explanation of Figdees. 

Plate 196. — Fig. 11, portion of a fully developed specimen. Fig. 12, two marginal zocEcia 
from another specimen. Fig. 13, young zooecia from var.yrq/irada, Fig. 13a, and 136, portion 
of same specimen, showing fully formed zooecia. Fig. 14, portion of specimen with excessive 
growth of mucros. 



Mr. MacGillivray has furnished the specimens and descriptions 
for this plate. 

Frederick McCot. 



[357] 



111 



PL197 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(InsacLs) 




JLB&rtko Icncw, d*i 



^rcfitrCay,(U.rfxt 



StetmU^ Guv^PriAitK^OFfijco 



Zooloff!/.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Insects. 

Plate 1'J7. 

CHELEPTERYX COLLESI (Gray). 

[Genus CHELEPTERYX (Gray) =r MEGETHNA (Walk.). (Sub-kingdom Articulata. 
Class Insecta. Order Lepidoptera. Section Heterocera. Tribe Bombyces. Family Liparidae.) 

Ge7i. Char. — Male: Body yery tliick. Antennae much longer than thorax, slender; 
bipectinate in both sexes ; the incurved pectens deflexed, of the male long, of the female much 
shorter. Proboscis or maxillEe obsolete. Palpi stout, short, porrect, hairy, and obtuse ; first 
joint very short, third joint minute, conical. Head, thorax, and abdomen and base of wings pilose, 
thickly clothed with long fine hairs, longest at tip of abdomen. Abdomen as long as hind wings, 
Wings long, broad, entire ; anterior ones subtriangular ; anterior margin much longer than the 
others, straight near base, gently convex on distal half ; outer margin oblique in males, concave 
in the middle ; in females nearly straight, inner angle much rounded, tips nearly rectangular, 
rounded ; posterior wings with anterior margin reaching considerably beyond the posterior 
portion of anterior wings, posterior edge rounded, but concave near falcate apex ; surface of 
wings covered with hairy scales, slightly diaphanous and with two clear spots near apex of 
anterior pair ; discoidal cell of posterior wings closed. Legs stout, femora densely furred, 
anterior tibise tufted below ; long slender spines at apex of four posterior tibiaa, two on second 
pair, four on hind pair. Female: Size much larger than male. Palpi more slender than in 
male, third joint elongate, about half the length of second. Antennse bipectinate, but pectens 
much shorter than in male. Larva with sixteen legs, and rows of tubercles set with long 
stinging hairs. Pupce in cocoon. Australia.] 

Description. — Male: Usual width of Victorian specimen from tip to tip of 
expanded wing-s, 5 inches 8 lines. Base, anterior margin, and posterior angie 
greyish brown, upper portion of outer margin dark brown, middle portion of wing 
reddish chesnut brown ; a branched pair of narrow, undulating, blackish-brown 
streaks uniting before reaching inner edge on basal third of wing, a broader less 
definite one crosses middle of reddish third, and a third narrower one scalloped 
between the veins forms outer boundary of reddish portion ; be3fond which is an 
irregular, broad, gre3'isb, scalloped band ; two oval, talc-like, white, translucent spots 
near apex in dark-brown outer border between the second, third, and fourth nerves; 
a small, light, roundish spot about middle of length and one-fourth of width from 
anterior edge; posterior wings very dark rich chocolate brown, with a broad, 
indefinite, lighter band beyond the middle, and an indistinct row of yellowish spots 
on the veins ; the dark colour scalloped between the veins and bordered by a rich 
brownish yellow, narrow line, be3'ond which a broad band of rich greyish brown 
forms the posterior margin. Body brown, darkest on front of thorax, lightest 
towards tip of abdomen. Underside of both wings rich, minutely speckled, brownish 
grey with two undulated, narrow, dark streaks crossing them a little outside the 
middle, within which is a large, rich blackish brown, triangular space within a light 
grey anterior margin, and containing a light angular spot near outer edge, and the 
median spot, which is more conspicuous than on upper side ; head, antennte and legs 
dark brown, tuft under anterior tibiae bright glossy brownish yellow ; under side of 
thorax and abdomen pale yellowish buff or fawn colour. Female: About 6 inches 
from tip to tip. Much duller and lighter than the male, with nearly similar 
markings of pale cold sepia brown and minutely speckled brownish ash}' grej'; the 
veins on posterior wings ochraceous near outer margin; median spot and two 
translucent talc spots near tips more conspicuous than in male; under"side marked 
like male but paler, and with the central and angular light spots near outer edge of 
dark triangular basal half more conspicuous. Larvm: about 4 to 5 inches long, 
covered with close set, glossy coating of fine depressed hair of a black colour, with 
narrow, transverse, whitish bands, and eight longitudinal rows of large yellow 
tubercles (the second and third segments having an additional pair in front of the 

[ 359 ] 



Zoology. 1 NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. {Insects. 

others), and the first segment having a raised yellow band across the back with a 
tubercle at each end, all set with very long stiif, rough, stinging bristles, the anterior 
and posterior ends have most of the black stinging bristles, and they are mixed with 
long white hairs there and over the legs; legs, head, and last segment and two 
raised bands between the legs, yellow. Pupa rich reddish chocolate brown ; about 
2 inches long and 8 lines wide, terminated with a bunch of short bristles at 
posterior end. Cocoon about 4 inches long, and 1 inch wide, fusiform, longi- 
tudinally furrowed, of dull brownish-white tough silk, set with the stinging hairs of 
the larva. 

References. — Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., v. 1, p. 122; = Saturnia Laplacei, 
Feisthamel Voy. de la Favorite, t. 8, 9; = Festra affabricata, Wallengren Eugenies 
Resa Omkring Jorden. 

Of all the Bombyces, or full-bodied Moths, this is the most 
striking from its great size and brilliant colouring. The Victorian 
specimens are a little smaller and duller than those of New South 
Wales, where it is eveii more abundant than with us. 

The larvae feed on the leaves of different so-called Gum-trees, 
or species of Eucalyptus, particularly young ones of 10 to 15 feet 
high, and not on the very large ones as a rule. They are common 
from October to the end of the year, reaching their adult length 
and assuming the pupa state towards the end of December, weaving 
the large, tough, silk cocoon in crevices of the bark or under the 
loose bark of Gum-trees. The stinging spines or bristles with 
which the larva is covered pierce the skin of the hands very readily, 
producing a very unpleasant irritation, and it weaves them into the 
outer surface of the cocoon at the end of its larval life, continuing 
this offensive and defensive provision to the cocoon for the pupa 
stage. 

The perfect insect or imago comes out in March and April. 

In Victoria this fine insect is chiefly found in Gippsland, where 
so many other New South Wales animals seem to extend south 
along the ranges ; it is common at Mordialloc and Brighton, near 
Melbourne, but Mr. Kershaw informs me that it has not occurred 
to him when collecting in any of the northern and western parts 
of the colony. 

Explanation of FicnKEs. 
Plate 1S)7. — Fig. 1, male, natural size. Fig. la, bipectiuatc antenna;, magnified. Fig. 2, 
female, natur.al size. Fig. 2a, bipectinate antcnu.-e, maguitied. Fig. ;{, larva;, natural size, side 
view. Fig. 3a, hind segments of larva;, viewed from above. Fig. 3i, head and anterior 
segments, viewed from above. Fig. 4, pupa, natural size. Fig. 5, cocoon, natural size. 

Frederick McCoy. 
[ 360 ] 



IfO 



P1188 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(Insects) 







hvfiPt'w Jtrgrt 



5<«ni Wno (m'l^iiiny Offu^ 



Zoology.-^ NATUllAI. HISTORY OF VICTORIA. {_Imects. 

Plate 198, Figs. 1-4. 

PYRAMEIS ITEA (Fabr.). 

Australian Admiral Butterfly. 

[Genus PYRAMEIS (IIubn.) :<CYNTHIA (Fabr.). (Sub-kingdom Articulata. Class 
Insecta. Order Lepidopteia. Section Rhopalocera. Family Nyinphaliiia;. Sub-family 
Nymphaliua;.) 

Gen. C/iar. — Head raodcratclj' broad, densely hairy; eyes olosely covered with fine short 
hairs; palpi long, converging at tips; second joint elongate, thickened beyond middle, with 
long hairs on upper and outer sides, scaly and with fine down below; terminal joint large, 
compressed, acuminate, .and slightly downy. Antenna; rather long, club .abrupt, flattened, 
elongate ovate, terminal joint minute, pointed. Tliofa.K large, densely hairy, especially on 
breast and back of mctathorax. Fore, innif.^ a little narrowed and produced at upper outer 
angle; costa only slightly arched ; outer margin sinuate, concave about middle ; inner margin 
nearly straight; costal nervure ending about middle of costa; first and second sub-costals 
rising close together, a little before end of discoidal cell ; third sub-costal arises about one-third 
from cell to apex, and ends at apex; upper disco-cellular nervure obsolete, middle one very 
sb.ort, and third or lower disco-cellul.ar nervule very long, nearly obsolete (replaced by a sulcus 
in the wing, indicated by dotted line in our pl.atc), ending on third median nervule near its 
origin, so Jhat discoid cell seems open or nearly so. Hind iihiujh bro.ad ; costal nervure slightly 
arched, prominent at base j hind margin dentate-sinuate, lobes on first and third median ncrvules 
larger than the rest ; ;vnal angle well marked ; inner margins meeting to form a deep groove to 
a little beyond end of abdomen, beyond which they .are notched and divergent; costal nervure 
extending to apex; discoidal cell very short, closing lower disco-cellular nervule, long, oblique 
(dotted in our plate), joining median nervure at origin of its second nervule ; internal nervure 
reaching end of inner marginal groove. Fore kqs of male very densely covered and fringed 
with hair, especially on tibia and tarsus ; of female simil.ar, but with five indistinct articulations, 
spinous beneath, and hairy, chiefly on basal portion. Middle and hind taifi long, stout, sciily ; 
tibia; with two inner and one outer row of spines, terminal spurs long; tarsi very spinosc at 
sides and below; terminal claws stout, curved. Abdomen short, thick. Larra elongate, with 
rows of rigid spines set with bristles; head and next segment without spines. Pnpa stout, 
angulated, tuberculated on back of abdomen ; head bluntly bifid ; surface gilt in spots and 
patches. Cosmopolitan.] 

Description. — UPPER SURFACE. — Head, palpi, thorax, -and abdomen 
blackish, covered with dense, dark, rich brown hairs. Antennae blackish-bi'own, 
tipped with tawny. Anterior loing: Basal portion of a rich, lig'ht, rusty yellowish- 
brown, bounded about midde of discoidal cell by a narrow black band concave 
outwardly, arching' from costa to origin of first or lower median nervule ; beyond 
this the wing-, obliquely crossed by a large oval spot of a rich cream colour, extending- 
from costa to sub-median nervure, and from origin of first median nervtile to origin 
of second median nervule ; beyond this to apex and inner margin black, with three 
white spots, the inner one largest, tinged with cream colour, divided by two nervules 
a little nearer large cream spot than tip of wing, and extending- from costa to second 
or lower discoidal nervule; secoud smallest, narrow, arched, nearer to tip than to first 
spot, traversed by one nervule ; third spot oblong, in space between third or upper 
median nervule and second or lower discoidal nervule, and half-way between first 
spot and margin ; fringe with small white lunules between nervules. Posterior wing .- 
Basal portion, as in anterior wing, rusty yellowish-brown, dense scales and long hairs, 
the hairs on channel f deflected inner edge very long- and of a lighter mouse-colour 
brown ; beyond this the disc, bright rusty chestnut, a broad anterior and narrower 
outer marginal space brownish-black, with a row of narrow white lunules in the 
fringe at edge between the nervules ; a curved row of four round black spots, with 
small blue centres within the black margin on the disc, and a narrow light lunate 

Vol. H.-Decad« XX.-3.-. [ 361 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Instcts. 

mark on edg'e of black margin at anal angle, narrowly edged above with blue. 
UNDER SURFACE. — Anterior iving : Base bright chestnut, with black mark and 
cream median spot, as on upper surface ; costal area, as far as large central cream- 
colour patch, black, with many transverse white lines; black apical portion as in upper 
surface, but brownish near tip ; first arched cream-colour spot larger than on upper 
sides, and with a large blue circle with black centre, on black between it and median 
cream patch ; second and third spots as on upper surface, but with two ocellated 
spots of black outlines and black dot in centre between them on brownish apical 
area ; two faint purplish-grey lines parallel to margin near edge. Posterior wing : 
Mottled with three shades of dark walnut- wood brown and dull purplish-grey lines ; 
five irregularly unequal circular ocellated spots under those of upper surface, but 
much larger, a dark outline and small centra' dark dot to each on brown ground ; 
beyond this a broad greyish margin to edges, including a dark narrow continuous 
undulating line in middle, parallel to edges ; near end of internal nervure, between 
it and hind edge, is a light-grey triangular patch with a conspicuous black round 
spot in its middle; two or three transverse oblong dark-brown patches on the 
discoidal cell, and three or four angular ones on the spaces above and below the 
basal half of the costal nervure, and first and second sub-costal nervules are narrowly 
edged with white. Measurements : Expanse of male from tip to tip, 2 inches ; of 
female, 2 inches 4 lines. Larva; Varying in colour, some black, with numerous 
transverse rows of minute white dots, greyish below, feet and spines blackish, with a 
conspicuous broad light-colour band on each side over the feet, and a more slender 
one over it on each side. Others pale-brownish on back, ilesh colour on sides and 
below, and with yellowish spines and feet. Length a little over 1 inch. Feeds on 
nettles. Picpa : Richly gilt, head bifid, with two acute conical lateral angles ; two 
rows of large conical spines along abdomen. Length 11 lines. 

Reference. — Fabr. Syst. Ent., p. 498; Sp. Ins., p. 82; Don. Ins. N. H., 
t. 26, f. 1. 

All the Butterflies of the family Nymplicdidw (comprising over 
four thousand distinct species, or about four times as many as any 
other family of diurnal Lepidoptera) agree in the peculiarity of 
having the anterior pair of legs too small to be used for walking 
or clinging in both sexes, but most defective in the males, without 
joints to the tarsus or claws, the female having the tarsus in- 
distinctly 5-jointed, but mthout claws ; while the genera like 
Pyrameis of the sub-family NymphalincB have the discoidal cell in 
the hind wings open (that is, not closed by the lowest disco-cellular 
nervule, which is absent). In the two species on om' Plate 198 
there is in its place a slight narrow groove or inflection of the 
surface in the position usually held by the lower disco-cellular 
nervule, Avliich casts a shadow, making it look like a ner\^ile and 
possibly leading to mistakes if the character be carelessly observed ; 
I have represented it with dotted lines on the outline plan of the 
nerves of the wings, Fig. Ih. 

[ 368 ] 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Insecls. 

lu the two species of Pyrameis on our plate tlie pupa is 
suspended head downwards by the tip of the tail only, as in others 
of the fomily Nymjjhalidce (hence sometimes called suspensi) and 
generally in those groups having the front pairs of legs aborted. 

Like all of the sub-family NymphaliiKe, the species of Pyrameis 
are remarkably robust and vigorous in habit, and have con- 
spicuously prominent scaly palpi projecting in front of the head ; 
long stout antennae ; stout spiny middle and hind legs ; and the 
unusually deep groove for the reception of the body formed by 
the inflection of the dilated inner margin of the hind wings. The 
males, as usual in Butterflies, are smaller than the females, with 
more slender, compressed abdomen and larger thorax. 

The Pyrameis Itea has received the popular name of Australian 
Admiral from English collectors in Australia, who recognise some 
relationship to the European species of the same genus, known as 
the " Red Admiral Butterfly," to which it has, however, only a 
generic affinity, the specific characters being totally unlike. The 
habits are like all of the genus, flying vigorously near the gi'oimd 
and to seven or eight feet high, frequenting gardens and resting on 
flowers, particularly Lantana. It is found nearly all the year 
round and has several broods in the year. 

Explanation of Figcres. 
Plate 19S. — Fig. 1. female, upper side, natural size. Fig. la, ditto, under side. Fig. \b. 
diagram of nervures and nervules of both wings (the groove or false disco-cellular nervulcs 
dotted). Fig. 1/, first leg with hairs sera, '3d off, to show anchyloses of tarsal joints (the two 
points at end are not claws but coarse hairs), magnified three diameters. Fig. \g, ditto, with 
its Iiairs seen in profile, magnified two diameters. Fig. \h, ditto, seen in front, magnified two 
diameters. Fig. \d, second pair of legs, magnified two diameters. Fig. le, third leg, magnified 
two diameters. Fig. \c, tarsus and claws of i^iri. leg, magnified fifteen diameters. Fig. 2, 
larva of black variety, natural size. Fig. 3, larva of light-colour variety, natural size. Fig 3fi, 
anterior portion of ditto, magnified three diameters, showing compound spines (absent from 
head and first following segment). Fig. 4, pupa, natural size. 



Plate 198, Figs. 5-8. 
PYRAMEIS KERSHAWI (McCoy). 
The Blue-spotted Painted-Lady Butterfly. 

Description. ^UPPER SURFACE. — Head, thorax, and abdomen covered with 
dense golden-brown hairs; antennae blackish-brown tipped with white. Anterior xoing: 
Basal portion dusky-black, covered with dense golden-brown scales and hairs; apical 
portion from apex to beyond middle of costal margin, including end of discoidal 
cell, black, the inner edge of the black forming two angular projections directed 

[ 363 ] 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. {Insects. 

« 

towards base, tlie upper one nearly rectangular, the lower one more obtuse and 
continuous, with a brownish-black outer margin to wing, and containing, nearer 
to inner edge than to apex, an arched white stripe from costa, divided into 
three by nervules, truncated below by fifth sub-costal nervure; beyond this a 
curved row, parallel to outer edge, of four white spots, the upper at costa largest 
and quadrate, the three lower rounded, upper one smallest, and lower one 
largest touching discoidal nervule ; one row of small lunulate markings parallel 
to and near hind margin, the upper ones white, two or three lower ones 
brownish ; fringe of edges checkered with white between nervules ; median 
portion of wing pale-reddish tawny, with triangular black spot about middle 
of discoidal cell, base at upper sub-costul nervure, apex nearly touching inner siile 
of a more acute triangular black mark, the base of which comes from near middle 
of lower boundary of discoidal cell, continuous below, with irregularly indented 
arched black mark extending partly along first, second, and third median nervules. 
Posterior wing : Costal and inner portions broadly margined with brownish-black, the 
latter coated with golden-brown scales and hairs, longest and silky on inflected inner 
edge ; beyond discoidal cell a broad triangular black mark extends from inner dark 
part, arching towards costal dark margin, but either verj' thin or more commonly 
interrupted between upper median nervule and discoidal nervule; beyond this an 
arched row, parallel to outer edge, of four round spots, the anterior one black, the 
three posterior bright cobalt-blue, with a narrow black outline ; beyond these a row 
of irregular oval black spots, the two next angle with their outer edges blue, and 
another row of black rounded or rhombic spots near edge on the nervules, with inter- 
mediate white fringe at edge. UNDER SURFACE. — Body and legs very ])ale-brown; 
palpi greyish-white. Anterior wing: Paler, but nearly like upper surface in colour 
and marking, but usually more distinctly bright pale-red near base, and a small 
single -black dot near base below costa ; space between costal and sub-costal nervures 
transversely striated with alternate blackish and whitish marks as far as black spot 
in discoidal cell and black of apical portion and base, replaced by pale wood-brown; 
a broad quadrate white band (tawny on upper surface) crosses costa and discoid cell 
beyond black angular marks at distal end of discoid cell ; other white marks 
corresponding with iq)])er side. Hind.wing: irregularlj' mottled with three shades 
of pale wood-brown and brownish white ; a conspioious large angular white spot at 
end of discoidal cell and three on costa; nervules white; two dark spots in discoid 
cell whjte-edged ; curved row of five round unequal ocellated spots between the 
nervules, with one or two' narrow dark outlines, within which brown with slight blue 
edge on basal half of three inner spots; vow of lunules be3'ond these round spots 
])ur])lish-brown, largest and darkest next angle, then a continuous whitish stripe, 
then a yellowish-brown one, edge with whitish lunules between brown s|)0ts on 
nervules. Measurements: Expanse of males, 1 inch C lines to 2 inches; of females, 
1 inch 11 lines to '2 inches 2 lines. Larva: Blackish-brown, with a broad yellowish- 
white band bordered with interrupted black streaks from third to last segment over 
bases of legs on each side, and two less distinct darker-yellowish streaks above on 
each side. All the segments, except the first and second, with branched yellowish- 
white spines, rather less in length than half the diameter of the body ; head 
blackish ; legs ochraceous brown, grej'ish below. Length about 1 inch. Feeds 
chiefly on foreign Comjwsita', particularly the introduced Cape Weed, Cryptostommon 
calendulacea, for which it abandons all native plants. Pupa : Pale yellowish-grey 
dotted with brown, with a ie.v! gilt patches; three rows of brightl3--gilt conical 
spines along back, the middle row smallest, and three rows much .smaller on each 
side; about 8 lines long; head bifid, with two blunt conical projections. 

Reference. — =Cynthia Kershaiui, McCov, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1868, 
p. 7U. 

C 3<34 ] 



Zoology.1 NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. llnsech. 

Of all Butterflies there is none more fixiiious than the Pyrameis 
Cardui (known to English-speaking collectors under the absurd 
popular name of "Painted-Lady Butterfly"), on account of its 
extraordinarily wide geographical range, having been quoted for 
very many years in most works on Physical Geography and the 
geographical distribution of animals as almost cosmopolitan ; not 
only abundant in eveiy country " from China to Peru " but from 
Britain to Australia, where it was said to be common. Of late 
years more accurate observations have shown that South 
Amei'ica does not contain really the true species, and more than 
twenty years ago (see above reference) I pointed out that the 
Australian representative of the P. Cardui might be easily dis- 
criminated from the European insect, with which it had been 
previously confounded, by the three lower round spots on the 
posterior wings being bright cobalt-blue in the centre, instead of 
black, a character, as I stated, first mentioned to me six or seven 
years before by my excellent friend, William Kershaw, the senior 
taxidermist at the Melbourne Museum, who made our singularly 
fine and extensive local collection of the Insects of Victoria, and 
whose unequalled knowledge of the habits and distribution of our 
Insects, and extraordinary zeal and devotion to his duties as my 
assistant in this Ijranch of the Museum, I acknowledge, with great 
pleasure, by dedicating the species to him. The particular 
character first noticed, I have, for neai'ly thirty years, and on the 
examination of literally thousands of specimens, found to have 
been quite invariable in all the Australian and New Zealand 
specimens of this our most abundant Butterfly all over the country 
in all kinds of habitats. It is also a distinctly smaller species than 
P. Cardui. The above measurements give the extremes I have 
noticed for both sexes, but in each sex the intermediate measure- 
ments are by far more common than the extremes set down, and 
show a very obviously smaller species. Of the male I have only 
seen one specimen of the smallest size set down, 1 inch 8 lines 
being the usual size. A few other points of constant difference 
will be found in the above description, with many curious 
coincidences, but on the whole I have no doubt of the specific 
distinctness of the Australian form. 

[ 365 ] 



Zoology?^ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. {^Imtcts. 

The larva and pupa resemble those of P. Cardui very nearly, 
but are of smaller size. The habits are very much alike ; our 
form, like the European one, being singularly robust and active, 
flying about even in windy weather, and found nearly all the year 
through, but most numerous in the hotter months from September 
to March, and more commonly than any other species, especially 
where the accidentally introduced Cape Weed {Crijptostemmon 
calendulacea) abounds, as for this it forsakes all other plants.* 
I note that that excellent observer, Mr. Trimen, does not record 
this amongst the plants eaten by the larvae of the true P. Cardui 
at Cape of Good Hope. 

In the latter end of September and beginning of October of last 
year this Butterfly appeared in extraordinary numbers for two or 
three Aveeks, accompanied by a day-flying Moth, Agrotis spina, 
almost darkening the sky with their general flight towards the 
south-east, covering the gear and decks of ships many miles out 
at sea, and filling the air on land from the northern parts of the 
colony down south to Melbourne. They poured into Gippsland in 
such quantities as to spread consternation amongst the settlers, 
who inundated me with letters inquiring whether their crops or 
orchards or vineyards would be destroyed b}^ the larvae expected 
to follow. I was glad to be able to assm-e them that the only 
likely damage would be to hated weeds. The newspapers 
mentioned the stoppage of ti'ains in the tunnel on the Castlemaine 
Railway, from the masses of bodies of these insects crushed 
lubricating the wheels to such an extent that they could not bite 
the rails as they turned, and came to a standstill until sufficient 
supplies of sand could be sent. 

They frequently rest on the gi'ound or plants for a short 
time, with the vrings expanded horizontally ; when sleeping or 
resting for a long tinie the wings are brought together erect, 
with the reddish part of the under surface of the anterior wings 
concealed by the over-lapping of the hind ones ; and when resting 



" This curious change of habit in Victorian Insects, abandoning' their native food for some introduced plant on 
which they thrive so much better as to become st'riltin;fly more abundant tlian before, has been remarlied upon in 
our account of the AijarUla^ so destructive to the vine, isee Decade I., Plats 8. 

[ 366 ] 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. llnsects. 

in this position on bare patclies of ground the mottled colouring 
of the under sides of the hind wiugs serves to conceal them to a 
surpi'isiug degree. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 198. — Fig. 5, female, upper side, natural size. Fig. 5a, ditto, under side of wings in 
erect position of prolonged rest. Fig. 6, male, n.atural size. Fig. 7, larva, natural size. Fig. 
7a, head and three following segments, magnified two diameters, to sliow absence of spines on 
head and next segment. Fig. 7b, three posterior segments, magnified two diameters. Fig. 8, 
pupa, natural size. 



Frederick McCoy. 



[367 ] 



nl 



PL.199 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

( Cni^tacfXb) 




D'JJWUJ^db hjA, 



hoTU'Ccj iimr' 



Zoology.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Crmtacea. 



Plate 199. 

IBACUS PERONII (Leach). 

Peron's Ibacus Crab. 

[Genus IBACUS (Lbach). (Sub-kingdom Articulata. Class Crustacea. Order Decapoda. 
Section ilacrura. Family Scyllaridae.) 

Gen. Char. — Carapace transverse, broader than long, depressed, with a very deep fissure on 
each side. Rostrum bilobate. Eyes inserted on anterior edge, far removed from the external 
angles ; peduncle thick, recurved, acuminated towards extremity. External antenna; not far 
anart. squamiform, four-jointed ; internal antennas three-jointed, terminated by two many- jointed 
setae. Branchife twenty-one. E.xternal pedipalps with two first joints externally crested, second 
joint with many fissures internally.] 

Description. — Broad, ovate, male more convex in front, from greater width of 
.second antennae, than female; greatest width, at otiter anterior angle of carapace, 
equal to length from inner angle of orbit to base of telson or last abdominal joint ; 
sides tapering from anterior lateral angles of carapace to penultimate abdominal seg- 
ment in nearl}' straight or very slightly convex lines ; space between orbits one-fifth 
the width of anterior edge of carapace; outer angle a large flat spine curving out- 
wards and slightly forwards from bottom of deep lateral fissure, posterior edge, and 
to less extent the anterior edge, more abruptly arched forwards and a little outwards; 
lateral fissure one-fourth the width of carapace at second lateral spine, narrow, 
parallel-sided, less transverse, or inclined obliquely more forward than anterior 
margin of carapace, both edges imperfectly crenulated with a row of minute tubercles, 
lower edge fringed with long hairs; six angular, gradually decreasing teeth or 
serratures on each side behind fissure, sometimes a smooth, most posterior, rudimen- 
tary one*; anterior edge of carapace irregularly serrated by numerous, small, unequal 
tubercles, arched forwards at outer angles; upper surface of carapace much flattened 
at the sides, thicker in the middle third, bounded by two lateral smooth keels 
arising in line with middle of orbits and diverging backwards, so that space between 
hinder ends is rather less than half the width of the carapace, while between the 
anterior ends it is less than one-third the width at same level ; middle keel divided 
into four long tubercles; surface nearly smooth, finely granular at margins; granu- 
lation coarser behind posterior sulcus and within lateral keels. Outer antennre, with 
first joint .small, scarcely extending beyond rostrum, second joint very wide, posterior 
edge smooth, outer edge with five teeth, anterior largest; anterior edge irregularly 
serrated with small, irregularly unequal, spinose tubercles, inner ones largest ; third 
or anterior joint with convex anterior edge with three large angular teeth; anterior 
edge of sinus, of carapace, and anterior outer and inner edges of outer antennae 
fringed with hair. Inner antennce with three, slender, long joints ; flagella many- 
jointed, the outer fringed with a large tuft of hair. Four anterior abdominal .seg- 
ments (after the first) each with a longitudinal tubercle in middle continuing the 
median keel of carapace ; sides serrated and fringed with hair ; all granulated ; fifth 
segment without median tubercle, but with two transverse rows of small granular 
spines on hind edge of terminal or coxal pieces, the outer forming an obscure point ; 
sixth joint with granulated hind edge. Telson and lateral flaps of tail. soft and 

* Although Leach says five, his figure shows six, as in our specimens, 
V»t. IL-DlCABB XX.— 3/. [ 369 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Crvstac ea 

membranous, crustaceous at base. Hind leg of male simple, of female feebly didactyle. 
Outer maxillipede with a row. of spines on outer edge of fourth joint, which is 
transversely ridged on convex lower surface ; thighs of two anterior pairs of legs 
abruptly thicker than the others. Sternum semi-oval, with a short spine at hind outer 
angle of last joint and more near middle of outer ends of other joints. Order of 
length of thighs, two, three, four, one, and five. Colour: Reddish, dull cinnamon- 
brown on upper surface, sides of carapace and outer antennas spotted with round, 
darker, unequal clouds of same colour, and a few irregular marks of dark V^andyke 
brown on telson and lateral tail flaps; underside of abdomen pale yellowish; under- 
side of carapace cinnamon-brown, with blackish-brown on basal portions of outer 
antennse and anterior spine of carapace, behind bases of legs and on swimmerets. 
Measurements: Length of average specimen from anterior edge of outer antennae to 
end of telson, 4 in. 7 lines. Proportional measurements to that length, as 100: 
greatest width in front of carapace, i-^o', depth of lateral sinus, V<nj j width of ditto, 
y?ny; space between inner angles of orbit, xo'sJ length of carapace, y,^s ; width of 
second abdominal segment, ytj'ij ; length of telson, or last abdominal segment, -j^o"^ ; 
length of first joint of outer antennae, ^-Jjy; width of ditto, y^oJ length of second 
joint, T%'^ ; width of ditto, -f^jj ; length of third joint, yf o J length of lamina, y'J'jj ; 
width of ditto, ^yjf ; length of first joint of inner antennse, y^^; width, ^-gij; length 
of second joint, -y^^; width, yj^; third joint, -j-g^Tj. 

Reference. — Zool. Misc., v. 2; t. 119. 

I retain Leach's name for this species, as the first pul)lished, and 
think it undesirable to use for it, as Mr. Spence Bate has done, 
P^ron's manuscript name /. incisiis in the Paris Museum, referred 
to but not used by Leach in his original description. 

One enormous specimen, 9 inches long and 5 in. 3 lines wide 
at front of carapace, presented by D. Best, Esq., from Phillip 
Island, is more roughly granular than usual and has seven 
distinct, large, angular teeth behind sinus. Not very uncommon 
in Hobson's Bay and on the shores outside Port Phillip. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 199. — Fig. 1, dorsal view of average specimen, natural size, male. Fig. la, under view 
of the same. Fig. 16, flagella of inner antennse, magnified to show tufts of hairs on outer 
branch. Fig. Ij-f, inner antenna;, natural size. Fig. Ic, one of the outer antenusB, viewed from 
below, natural size. Fig. \d, outer maxillipede, natural size, showing spinous crest on outer 
edge of fourth joint, and transverse sulcation of its lower surface. Fig. le, jaws, natural size. 
Figs. 1/, \(i, lA, \i, \k, five thoracic legs, natur.al size. Figs. \l, \7n, l«, lo, four swimmerets of 
abdominal segments, twice the natural size. Figs. 2, '2a, 26, 2c, swimmerets of female, twice the 
natural size. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 370 ] 



Pl.200 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

F.-'lunoderrnata) 




mfiUiAlUA 



FfafWrCg^du^i* 



SteamXttiw GavT-PtviUjt^ Offu* 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_EcUnodermata. 



Plate 200, Fig. 1. 

xlSTERINA CALCAR (Lam. restricted by Gray). 
The Eight-rayed Cushion Starfish. 

[Genus ASTERINA (Nardo). (Sub-kingdom Radiata. Class Echinodermata. Order 
Asteroidea. Family Asterinidae. Sub-family Asterininse.) 

Gen. Char. — Body tumid, with five to eight short blunt rays, back convex ; oral surface 
flat or concave. Ossicula of each surface with one or more mobile tapering spines ; edge sliarp, 
with very minute marginal plates. Each of the ossicula of upper surface cresent-shaped, with 
a marginal series of very short spines ; ambulacral spines in groups of two or five.] 

Description. — Very gibbous, with eight short, nearly parallel-sided rays 
abruptly bluntly rounded at the tip; taking- centre of mouth to tip of rays as 100, 
to middle of intervening margin, /A^. Adambulacral plates bordering ambulacral, 
each with two spines. Interambulacral plates between ambulacra on lower or oral 
side, each forming a broad slightly radiated base to a large, tapering, single spine. 
Plates of upper or dorsal surface thick, crescent-shaped, with from six to twenty 
minute spines fringing the convex edge of each in one or more rows. There are six 
long, slender, tapering spines to each of the large, interambulacral, trigonal oral 
plates, forming groups round the mouth ; the middle pair longest, the others 
gradually diminishing to outer ones. Madreporiform tubercle subtrigonal. Colour: 
Very irregularly varied in different individuals, with usually the rays dull purple, 
mottled with darker, and more or less of dull red towards maigin between the rays ; 
others have these positions of the red and purple reversed ; others are uniform rich 
purple above. Underside pale flesh-colour, with occasional pale purplish portions. 
Jlleasurements: Diameter of ordinary specimen from tip to tip of rays, 3 in. 6 lines; 
irom edge to opposite edge between rays, 1 in. 6 lines ; depth, 6 lines. 

•Reference. — ^ Asierias calcar, var. G. octogona, Lam. Anim. sans vert., 
V. 2, p. 557. 

This is the commonest of all the Starfishes on the coast ; 
adhering to stones below low-water mark. It is extremely 
variable in the extent and intensity of the purple on upper 
surface. The whitish central patch in the specimen figured is 
very unusual. It is easily distinguished from the almost equally 
common A. Gunni^ by having eight longer and more parallel- 
sided rays, and by having a single spine on each of the inter- 
ambulacral plates between the ambulacra below. 

[ 371 ] 



Zoology.'] NATUEAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Echinodermata. 

Some specimens are of the rare diameter from tip to tip, 
of three and a half inches ; and one specimen has only seven 
rays. On some specimens some of the plates of the row of 
adambulacral plates bordering the ambulacra seem to have only 
one spine, instead of the usual two ; this is however abnormal, 
and two spines to each base is neai'ly constant. 

The specimen figured is from Brighton Beach. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 200. — Fig. 1, average specimen, natural size, viewed from below, showing long- 
spined, interambulacral mouth plates and single-spined interambulacral plates. Fig. la, same, 
viewed from above, showing madreporiform tubercle and crescentic spinulose plates. Fig. 16, 
single-spined, large-based interambulacral plates of lower or oral side, magnified three diameters. 
Fig. Ic, madreporiform tubercle, magnitied four diameters. Fig. 1(^, portion of underside, 
magnified two diameters, showing two spines to each ambulacral plate, and the single spine of 
each interambulacral plate. 



Plate 200, Fia. 3. 

ASTERINA GUNNI (Gray). 

Gunn's Cushion Starfish. 

Description. — Moderately tumid, depressed, with six very slightly projecting- 
blunt rays and six slightly concave intervening sides; taking from centre of mouth 
to tip of raj' as 100, from same point to middle ot intervening margin, xVir- Inter- 
ambulacral plates on greater part of lower or oral side each with two divaricating, 
short spines ; one or two rows of plates next the ambulacra, each with one single, 
larger spine; adambulacral plates in some individuals with two, in others with three 
spines each. Thick crescentiform plates of upper surface each with very numerous, 
small spinules. Madreporiform tubercle large, subtrigonal. Ten or twelve slender 
spines on each of the trigonal interambulacral oral plates. Colour: Generally purple 
above, sometimes with reddish between the rays ; flesh colour below, with purplish 
along sides of ambulacra and round mouth. Measurements : Diameter of ordinary 
specimen, from tip to tip of rays, 3 in. 6 lines ; to opposite edges of intervening 
margin, '2 in. 6 lines. 

References. — Asierias calcar, var. b, Lamarck, Hist. Nat. A.S.V., vol. 2, 
p. 557; ^ Asterina Gunni, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1840, vol. 6, p. 289. 

[ 372 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTOKY OF VICTORIA. [Echinodermata. 

This species is rather larger, broader, and flatter than A. calcai\ 
with only six, less deflned rays, scarcely projecting beyond the only 
slightly indented or moderately concave intervening sides, and is 
fiu'ther easily distinguished by the two spines, instead of one, on 
all the midtUe interambulacral ossicles below. It inhabits the same 
parts of the shore as A. calcar, but is not quite so common. 

Explanation of Fiodres. 

Plate 200. — Fig. 2, ordinary specimen, riewed from above, natural size, showing spinulose 
crescentiform plates. Fig. 2a., portion of underside, natural size, showing the pair of diverging 
spines on all tlie middle interambulacral plates, and the marginal row next the adambulacral 
plates with single larger spine, and pairs of more slender adambulacral spines, and the groups of 
longer spines on the oral plates. Fig. 2b, madreporiform tubercle, magnified three diameters. 
Fig. 2c, median interambulacral plates, each with its pair of diverging spines, magnified three 
diameters. Fig. 2d, pairs of spines on adambulacral plates, magnified three diameters. Fig. 2e, 
group of ten spines on edge of one of the six interambulacral oral plates. 



Plate 200, Fig. 3. 

PENTAGONASTER (TOSIA) AURATA (Gray). 

The Twelve-plated Shield-Star. 

[Genus TOSIA (Gray). (Sub-kingdom Radiata. Class Echinodermata. Order Asteroidea 
Family Pentagonasteridae. Sub-family Pentagonasterinae.) 

Gen. Char. — Body flat, pentagonal, sides approximately rectiliaear, sUghtly concave between 
the blunt tips of the rays. Two rows of marginal plates, few, smooth, with one row of granules 
on edge ; abactinal or dorsal area and interambulacral plates below covered with rounded or 
polygonal smooth or granulated plates. Ambulacra margined by three or four rows of short 
spinules. Anal aperture very minute on right posterior edge of dorsocentral plate when madre- 
poi'ite is placed in upper right-hand interradium.] 

Description. — Sides gently concave. Dorsal plates flat, irregularly polyg-onal, 
rounded, close, each with one row of blunt granules round the edge ; three or five 
rows running- to the angles slightly larger and more regularly hexagonal than the 
intervening ones ; all diminishing towards the margins; closely touching, especially 
below ; four basilar ones near the middle larger than the rest, one opposite the 
middle of each side, but the fifth, near the madreporite, not conspicuous. Madre- 
poriform tubercle subtrigonal, the angles truncated, entirely covered with minute 

[ 373 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Echinodermata. 

vermicular and branched ridges, situated at about one third the distance from the 
centre to the margin. Marginal plates flattened, only slightly convex, with one row 
of granules round each; plates rather larger at middle of sides than at salient angles 
or tip of rays, twelve to fourteen above, and twelve to sixteen below from tip to tip 
of rays; one small odd plate in middle above. Oral actinal or under-plates closely 
touching, generally covered completely with granules, but some few with smooth 
central portion, with one, tvvo, or three rows of granules on margin; two rows of 
blunt spines and two rows of granules larger than the rest bordering the ambulacra 
on each side (two compressed blunt spines on inner face of each adambulacral plate, 
and two shorter behind them). The five triangular mouth plates are bordered with 
spines like those of the adambulacral plates, within which are thick prismatic 
granules. From mouth to tip of ray (R), taken as 100, from same point to middle of 
side (r), y^% to -Ytru; average diameter, '2 in. lines. Colour: Often rich yellowish 
orange ("old gold"), more commonly clouded more or less with dull purple. 

Reference.— P.Z.S., 1847, p. SO; Gray, Synop. sp. St., t. l(i, f. 3. 

The genus Tosia of Gray, taken as a sub-genus of Penta- 
gonaster by Perrier, and merged into that genus by Sladen, is a 
convenient group or subdivision of the larger genus, which I think 
may advantageously be continued. 

The Shield- Stars, as the flattened pentagonal Starfishes with 
large marginal plates and no projecting rays are called, are common 
on our shores, two species of the present genus being abundant 
under stones a little below low-water mark in Hobson's Bay, and 
along the rocky outer shores, the present species being distin- 
guished from T. Australis, by its more numerous and flatter 
marginal plates (only six in T. Australis) and the greater number 
of plates below being covered with granules ; some specimens 
having all on the actinal side granulate, and others having few or 
many smooth in the middle, with one, two, or three rows of 
granules round the margin. There are usually twelve marginal 
plates above and below on each side between the points of the 
ambulacra, and where they are more numerous the additional 
plates near the apices, are much smaller than the others ; the plates 
towards the middle of the sides are always perceptibly larger than 
those near the angles. 

I note that M. Perrier in the "Annales des Sciences Naturelles" 
for 1885, finds the marginal plates varying from eight to fourteen 
in his Pentagonaster Gosselini and this agrees with my experience 
of this present species, showing that the character varies more 

[374] 



Zoology.'] ■ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. lEclanodermata. 

than bas usually been allowed for. In that species, Perrier counts 
usually ten. The usual number is of course a valuable character 
when combined with some other peculiarity. 

I have not observed any pedicellaria^ in this species. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 200. — Fig. 3, average specimen, dorsal or abactinal view, natural size. Fig. 3a, 
same, oral or actinal side. Fig. 3fi, madreporiform tubercle, magnified three diameters. Fig 3c, 
some plates from lower or oral side, showing at lower right-hand corner typical character of 
plates entirely covered with granules ; at upper left-hand corner smooth plate with one row of 
granules, ard the others showing two or three rows, magnified three diameters. 



Frederick McCoy. 



Ey Authority : Robt. S. Brain, Government Printer, Melbourne. 

[ 375 ] 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



N.B.-»'The originals of all the Figiirea are In the National Museum, Melbourne. 



DECADE I. 



Plate 1. — The Black Snake (Pseudechys porphyriacus, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 2. — The Copper-head Snake (Hoplocephalus superbus, GUnth.). 

Plate 3. — The Tiger Snake (Hoplocephalus ciirtus, Schl. sp.)- 

Plate 4. — The Australian Bream (Chrysophrys Australls, GUnth.). 

Plate 5. — The Spiny-sided Butterfly-Gurnard (Lepidotrigia Vanessa, Rich. sp.). 

Plate 6, — The Kumu Gurnard (Trigia Kumu, Lesson and Garn.). 

Plate 7. — The Australian Giant Earth-worm (Megascolides Australis, McCoy). 

Plate 8. — Lewin's Day-moth (Agarista Lewini, Boisd.). 

The Loranthus Day-moth (Agarista Casuarinae, Scott). 

The Vine Day-moth (Agarista Glycine, Lewiu sp.). 
Plate 9. — Pieris (Thyca) Harpalyce (Don. sp.). 
Plate 10. — Pieris (Thyca) Aganippe (Don. sp.). 



DECADE II. 

Plate 11. — The Little Whip Snake (Hoplocephalus flagellum, McCoy). The White-lipped Snake 

(Hoplocephalus coronoides, Giinth.). 
Plate 12. — The Death Adder (Acanthophis Antarctica, Shaw sp.). 
Plate 13, — The Carpet Snake (Morelia Tariegata, Gray). 
Plate 14. — The Gippsland Perch (Lates colonorum, Giinth.). 
Plate 15. — The Murray Lobster (Astacopsis serratus, Shaw sp.). 
Plate 16. — The Salmon Arripis (Arripis truttaceus. Cut. sp.). Adult. 
Plate 1 7. — Ditto of the younger forms and coloring. 
Plate 18. — The Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 19.— The Small-scaled Rock Cod (Lotella callarias, Giinth.). 
Plate 20. — The Australian Rock Cod (Pseudophysis barbatus, Giinth.) 



DECADE III. 

Plate 21. — The Sea-Leopard Seal (Stenorhynchus leptonyx, de Blainv. sp.). 

Plate 22. — The Yellow-sided Dolphin (Delphinus Novae Zealandise, Quoy and Gaim.). 

Plate 23. — The Common Brown Snake (Diemenia superciliosa, Fisch.). 

The Small-scaled Broi\-n Snake (Diemenia microlepidota, McCoy). 
The Shield-fronted Brown Snake (Diemenia aspidorhyncha, McCoy). 

Plate 24. — Catenicella margaritacea (Busk). — C. plagiostoma (Busk). — C. ventricosa (Busk). — 
C. hastata(Busk,)— C. rufa (McG.).— C. cribraria (Busk).— C. alata (Wyv. Thomson).— 
C!. lorica (Busk). — C. formosa (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk). — C. perforata (Busk). — 
C. Buskii (Wyv. Thomson). — C. Hannafordi (McG.).— C. crystallina (Wyv. Thomson). — 
C. carinata (Busk).- — C. aurita (Busk). — C. geminata (Wyv. Thomson). — C. comuta 
(Busk). — C. intermedia (McG.) 

Plate 25. — Membranipora membranacea (Linn. sp.). — M. perforata (McG.). — M. ciliata (McG.). — 
M. mamillaris (McG.). — M. umbonata (Busk). — M. pilosa (Linn. sp.). — M. cervicornis 
(Busk). 

Plate 26. — Membranipora dispar (McG.). — M. Woodsii (McG.).— M. lineata (Linn. sp.). — M. Rosselii 
(Audouin sp.). — M. Lacroixii (Savigny sp.). 

Plate 27. — The Australian B ckling (Genypterus Australis, Cast.). 
The Tarra Blackfish (Gadopsis gracilis, McCoy). 

Plate 28. — The Southern Mackerel (Scomber pneumatophorus, De la Roche). 

Plate 29. — The Yabber Crayfish (Astacopsis bicarinatus, Gray sp.). 

Plate 30.— The Large Wattle Goat-Moth (Zeuzera Eucalypti, Boisd. Herr.-Schsef.). 



~ CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE IV. 

Plate 31. — The Australian Sear-Bear or Fur-Seal (Euotaria cinerea, Peron sp.). 

Plate 32. — The Two-hooded Furina-Snake, Furina hicucuUata (McCoy). 

Plate 33. — The Banded Red Gurnet-Perch (Sehastes percoides, Solauder sp.). 

Plate 34. — The Angel-fish (Rhina squatina, Lin. sp.). 

Plate 35. — Lepralia circinata (McG.). — L. Cecilii (Aud.). — L. diaphana (McG.). — L. marsupium 

(McG.). — L. subimmersa (McG.). — L. anceps (McG.). — L. Maplestonei (McG.). 
Plate 36. — Lepralia vittata (McG.). — Membranipora perforata. Lepralia Brogniartii (Aud.). — 

L. elegans (McG.). — L. pertusa (Esper. sp.). — L. Mahisii (Aud. sp.). — L. lunata (McG.). 
Plate 37. — Lepralia ciliata (Linn. sp.). — L. trifoliura (McG.). — L. cheilodon (McG.). — L. canaliculata 

(McG.).— L. larvalis (McG.).— L. diadema (McG.).— L. papillifera (McG.).— L. EUerii 

(McG.). 
Plate 38. — Lepralia monoceros (Busk). — L. excavata (McG.). — L. vitrea (McG.). — L. megasoma 

(McG.).— L. Schizostoma (McG.).— L. Botryoides (McG.).— L. ferox (McG.).— L. pcllu- 

cida (McG.). 
Plate 39. — Crisia Edwardsiana (D'Orb. sp.). — C. biciliata (McG.). — C. acropora (Busk). — C. setosa 

(McG.).— C. tenuis (McG.). 
Plate 40. — Saunders' Case-Moth (Metura elongata, Saunders sp.). 
The Lictor Case-Moth (Entometa ignobilis, Walk.). 



DECADE V. 

Plate 41. — The Lace Lizard (Hydrosaurus varius, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 42. — The Spotted Marsh-Frog (Limnodynastes Tasraaniensis, Giinth.). — The Common Sand- 
Frog (Limnodynastes dorsalis, Gray). 
Plate 43. — The Carpet Shark (Crossorhinus barbatus, Lin. sp.). — The Seven-gillcd Shark (Notidanus 

[Heptanchus] Indicus, Cuv.). 
Plate 44. — The Barracouta (Thersites atun, Cuv.). — The Tunny (Thynmis Thynnus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 45. — Flustra denticulata (Busk). — Carbasea episcopalis (Busk). — C. dissimilis (Busk). — 

C. indivisa (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk). — C. pisciformis (Busk). 
Plate 46. — Spiralaria florea (Busk). — Diachoris Magellanica (Busk). — D. spinigera (P. McGil.). — 

Dimetopia spicata (Busk). — D. cornuta (Busk). — Didymia simplex (Busk). — Calwellia 

bicornis (Wyv. Thomson). 
Plate 47. — Dictyopora ccllulosa (P. McGil.). 
Plate 48. — Eschara obliqua (P. McGil.). — E. dispar (P. McGil ).— E. gracilis (Lamx.). — E. platalea 

(Busk). — E. quadrata (P. McGil.) — E. mucronata (P. McGil.). — Caleschara denticulata 

(P. McGil.). 
Plate 49. — Cellaria fistulosa (Linn.).^C. hirsuta (P. McGil.). — C. tenuirostris (Busk.). — C. gracilis 

(Busk). — Nellia oculata (Busk). — Tubucellaria hirsuta (Busk). 
Plate 50. — The Great Black, or Manna Cicada (Cicada moerens, Germ.).— The Great Green Cicada 

(Cyclocliila Australasise, Donov. sp.). 



DECADE VI. 

Plate 51. — The Victorian Ehodona (Rhodona Officeri, McCoy). 

Plate 52. — The Black and White Ringed Snake (Vermicella annulata, Gray). 

Plate 53. — The Green and Golden Bell-Frog (Rauoidea aurea, Less. sp.). 

Plates 54-55. — The Australian Aulopus (Aulopus purpurisatus, Rich.). 

Plate 56. — The Hammer-headed Shark (Zyga;na malleus, Shaw). — The Common Australian Saw- 
Fish (Pristiophorus nudipinnis, Gunth.). 

Plate 57. — Biflustra perfragilis (McGil.). — B. dclicatul.i (Busk). 

Plate 58. — Cellularia cuspidata (Busk).— Menipea crysiallina (Gray sp.).— M. cyathus (Wyv. Thom- 
son). — M. cervicornis (McGil.) — M. trictll.ata (Busk). — M. Buskii (Wyv. Thomson). 

Plate 59 — Bicellaria tuba (Busk). — B. grandis (Busk). — B. ciliata (Linn), — B. turbiuata (McGil.). — 
Stirparia annulata (Map.).— Bugula ncritina (Linn.). 

Platb 60. — Steganoporella magnilabris (Busk. sp.). — Pctralia undata (McGil.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE VII. 

Plate 61. — Tlie Tuberculated Argonaut (Argonauta oryzata, Meusch.). 

Plate 62. — The saiue seated in its so-called shell or Paper-Nautilus. 

Plate 63. — The Blue-spotted Eagle-Ray (Myliobatis Australis, Macleay). 

Plate 04. — The Long-toothed Bull-Shark (Odontaspis taurus, Kaf.). — The Australian Tope Shark 

(Galeus Australis, Macleay). 
Plate 65 — The Leafy Sea-Dragon (Phyllopteryx foliatus, Shaw sp.). — The Short-headed Sea-horse 

(Hippocampus bre?iceps, Pef.) 
Plate 66. — Dictyopora grisea (Lamx. sp.). — D. albida (Kirch.) — (Var. avicularis, P. McGUl.). 
Plate 67.— D. Wilsoni (P. McGiU.). 

Plate 68. — Idmonca Jlilneana (d'Orb.).— I. contorta (P. McGill.).— I. radians (Lamk.). 
Plates 69-70. — The Violet-shouldered Phasma (TropiJoderus iodomus, McCoy).— The Red-shouldered 

Phasma (Tropidoderus rhodomus, McCoy). 



DECADE VIII. 

Plate 71. — The Australian Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal (Euotaria cinerea, Peron sp.). 

Plate 72. — The Northern Blue-tongued Lizard (Cyclodus gigas, Bodd. sp.). 

Plate 73. — The Ludrick (Gireila simplex, Rich. sp.). 

Plate 74. — The White Shark (Carcbarodon Rondeletii, Miill. and Hen.). 

Plate 75. — The Picked Dog-Fish (Acanthias vulgaris, Linn. sp.). 

Plates 76-77. — The AustraUan Tooth-cupped Cuttlefish (Sepioteuthis Australis, Quoy and Gaim.). 

Plate 78. — Bugula robusta (P. McGil.). — B. cucuUata (Busk). — B. dentata (Lamx.). — B. avicularia 

(Pall,). 
Plate 79. — The Violet-winged Phasma (Acrophylla violascens, Leach sp.). 
Plate 80. — The Large Pink winged Phasma (Podacanthus typhon, Gray). 



DECADE IX. 

Plate 81. — The Gippsland Water Lizard (Physignathus Lesueri, Gray) — (Var. llowitti, McCoy). 

Plates 82-83. — The Murray Tortoise (Chelymys Macqu.aria, Cuv. sp.). 

Plate 84. — The Murray Golden Perch (Ctenolates .ambiguus, Rich. sp.). 

Plates 85-86. — The Murray Cod-Perch (Oligorus Macquarieusis, Cuv. and Val. sp.). 

Plate 87. — The Australian Smooth-Hound (Mustelus Antarcticus, Giinth.). 

Plate 88. — The Thresher, or Long-tailed Shark (Alopecias vulpes, Linn. sp.). 

Plate 89. — Catenicella intermedia (P. McG.). — C. amphora (Busk). — C. Wilsoni (P. McG.). — C. pul- 

chella (Map.).— C. utriculus (P. McG.). 
Plate 90. — Catenicella fusca (P. McG.). — C. umbonata (Busk). — C. cornuta (Busk). 



DECADE X. 

Plate 91. — Gymnobelideus Leadbeateri (McCoy). 

Plates 92-93. — The Long-necked River Tortoise (Chelodina longicollis, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 94. — Opercula of Ketepora. 

Plate 95.— Retepora porcellana (P. McGil.).- R. avicularis (P. McGil.).— R. fissa (P. McGil.). 

Plate 96. — Ketepora moniUfera (P. McGil.). 

Plate 97. — Retepora moniUfera (P. McGil.). — R. formosa (P. McGil.). — R. carinata (P. McGil.). 

Plate 98. — Retepora Phoenicea (Busk). — R. aurantiaca (P. McGil.). 

Plate 99. — Retepora granulata (P. McGil.). — R. tessellata (Hincks). — R. serrata (P. McGil.). 

Plate 100. — Goniocidaris tubaria (Lam.). 

The foregoing ten Decades form Vol. 1. 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE XI. 

Plate 101. — The Luth, or Leathery Turtle (Sphargis coriacc.a, Linn. sp.). 

Plate 102. — The Rugged Stump-tail, or Shingle-back, Lizard (Trachydosaurus rugosus, Gray). 

Plate 103. — The Blackish Australian Worm-Snake (Typhlops nigrescens, Gray sp.). 

Plate 104. — The Basking Shark (Cetorhinus niaximus, Linn. sp.). 

Plate 105. — Cellaria rigida (McG.). — Tubucellaria cereoides (Ellis and Solander). — Urccolipora 

dentata (McG.)— U. nana (McG.). 
Plate 106. — Amphiblestrum punctigerum (Hincks). — A. Flemingii (Busk). — A. permunituni 

(llincks). — Pyripora crassa (McG.). — P. catenuliiria (Jameson). — P. polita (Hincks). — 

Eleetra flagellum (McG.). — Bathypora porcellana (McG.). — Biflustra papulifera 

(McG.).— B. bimamillata (McG.). 
Platb 107. — Catenicellopsis pusilla (J. B. Wilson). — C. delicatula (J. B. Wilson). — Calpidium 

ponderosum (Goldstein sp.). 
Plate 108. — Calpidium ornatum (Busk). — Chlidonia dsedala (Wyv. Thomson). 
Plate 109. — The Great Green Gum-tree Grasshopper (Locusta vigentissima, Serv.). 
Plate 110. — The Australian Yellow-winged Locust (CEdipoda musica, Fab. sp.). 



DECADE XII. 

Plate 111. — The Blood-sucker (Gr.anunatophora muricata, Shaw, sp,). 

Plate 112. — The Southern Chiniiera (Callorhynchus antarcticus, Lacep. sp.). 

Plate 113. — The Port Jackson Shark, or Bull-dog Shark (Heterodontus Phillipi, Lacop. sp.). 

Plate '114. — The Australian Hough Fish (Trachichthys Australis, Shaw). 

Plate 115. — The Skip-i.ack Pike (Lanioperca mord.ax, Giinth.). 

Plate 116. — Beania mir.abilis (Johnst.). — Mucronella tricuspis (Hincks). — M. lajvis (P. McG.). — 

M. vultur (Hincks). — Cyclicopora longipora (P. McG.). 
Plate 117. — Beania decumbens (P. McG.). — B. costata (Busk sp.). — B. Crotali (Busk sp.). — 

B. radicifera (Hincks sp,). — Amphiblestrum p.atellarium (Moll sp.). 
Plate 118.— Hornera foliacea (P. McG.).— H. robusta (P. McG.). 
Plate 119. — The Smaller Green Gum-tree Grasshopper (Phancroptera valida, Walk.). 
Plate 120. — The Thirty-two Spotted Grasshopper (Phaneroptera [Ephippitytha] trigintiduoguttata, 

Serv.). 



DECADE XIII. 

Plate 121. — The Bearded Lizard (Granimatophora harbata, Kaup). 

Plate 122. — The Southern Silver Ribbon-flsh (Trachvpterus ta;uia, Bloch). 

Plate 123. — The Two-pronged Toad-fish (Chironcctcs bifurcatus. McCoy), 

Plate 124. — Brown's Tooth-brush Le.ather-jacket (Monacantbus lirowni, Rich, sp.). 

Plate 125. — The Ilorsc-shoe-nmrked Leather-jacket (Mon.acanthus hippocrepis, Quoy .and Gaiin,. sp.). 

Plate 126. — Maplestoniacirrata(P.McG.). — Scrupocellaria cyclostoma(Busk). — S. obtecta(Uaswell). 
— S. cervicornis (Busk).— S. scrupea (Busk). — S. ornithorhynchus (Wyv. Thorn.). 

Plate 127. — Membranipora pyrula (Hincks). — M. corbula (Hincks). — M. in.armata (Hincks). — M. 
pectinata (P. McG.).— M. serrata (P. McG.).— M. ciliata (P. McG.).— Amphiblestrum 
albispinura (P. McG). — Membranipora spinosa (Quoy and Gaim,). 

Plate 128.— CcUepora speciosa (P. McG.).— C. serratirostris (P. McG.).— C. tridenticulata (Busk). 

Plate 129. — The Netted Acripeza (Acripeza reticulata, Guerin). 

Plate 130. — The Broad-styled Mantis (Mantis latistylus, Serv.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE XIV. 

Plate 131. — The Soutbivn, or BlotcheJ, Bluc-tongued Lizard (Cyclodus uigroluteus, Quoy and 
Gaiiu. sp.). 

Plate 132.— The Thick-tailed Gecko (Phyllurus Miliusii, Bory).— The Marbled Gecko (Diplodactylus 

, marmoratus, Gray). 

Plate 133. — Ray's Sea Bream (Brama Rayi, Bloch). 

Plate 134. — Bleeker's Parrot-fi.sh (Labrichthys Bleekeri, Cast.). 

Pl.ite 135. — The Black-finned Half-beak, or Sea Gar-fish (Hemiramphus intermedins. Cant.). — The 
Saury Pike (Scomberesox saurus, Bloch, sp. ; var. Forsteri, Cuv. and Val.). 

Plate 136. — Caberea rudis (Busk). — C. grandis (Hincks). — Cauda arachnoides (Lamx.).— C. tenuis 
(P. McG.). 

Plate 137. — Caberea Darwinii (Busk). — C. glabra (P. McG.) — JEtea, dilatata (Busk). — M. anguina 
(Linn. sp.). 

Plate 138. — Schizoporella punctigera (P. McG.). — S. lata (P. McG.). — S. triangula (Hincks). — 
S. dajdala (P. McG.). — S. subsinuata (Hincks). — S. Kidleyi (P. McG.). — S. arach- 
noides (P. McG.). — S. cryptostoma (P. McG.). — Gemcllipora striatula (Smitt). 

Plate 131i. — The Dusky Flat-horned Locust (Opsomala sordida, Aud. Serv.). The Pedestrian Mid- 
Eyed Locust (Mesops pedestris, Erichson). 

Plate 140. — The Cinnamon Keel-backed Locust (Tropinotus Australis, Leach). 



DECADE XV. 

Plate 141. — The Spiny-ridged Lizard (Egcruia Cunninghami, Gray). 

Plate 142. — The Brown Pseudechys (Pseudechys Australis, Gray). 

Plate 14^. — Peron's Leatherjacket (Monacauthus Perouii, Hollard). 

Pl.4TE 144. — The Spinous Shark (Echinorhinus spinosus, Lin. sp.). 

Plate 145. — Banks' Oar-Fish (Kegalecus Banksi, Cuv. sp.) 

Plate 146. — Catenicella gemella (McG.). — C. urnula (AIcG.). — C. gracilenta (McG.). — C. veuusta 

(McG.). — Claviporella pulchra (McG.). — C. imperforata (McG.). 
Plate 147. — Diastopora cristata (McG.).— D. capitata (McG,). — D. bicolor (McG.). — D. sarniensis 

(Norman). — D. patina (Lam. sp.). 
Plate 148. — Cellepora megasoma (McG.). — C. costata (McG.). — C. rota (McG.). — C. costazei, var. 

(Audouin).— C. platalea (McG.). — C. glomerata (McG.). — C. vitrea (McG.). — C. tiara 

(McG.).— C. benemunita (McG.). 
Plates 149, 150.— Southern Spiny Lobster, Melbourne Craw-fish (Pallnurus Lalandi, Lam.MSS.). 



DECADE XVI. 

Plate 151. — Gould's Monitor Lizard (Monitor Gouldi, Gray), 

Plates 152, 153. — The Pygopus (Pygopus Icpidopus, Lacep. sp.). — Frazer's Delma (Delma Frazeri, 

Gray). 
Plate 154. — Commerson's Mackerel (Cybium Commersoni, Lacep. sp.). 
Plate 155. — The Melbourne Pelamyde (Pelamys Schlegeli, McCoy). 
Plate 156. — Lagenipora tuberculata (McG.). — L. nitens (McG.). — Lekythopora hystrix (McG.). — 

Poecilopora anomala (McG.) 
Plate 157. — Fasciculipora gracilis (McG.). — F, bellis (McG.). — F. fruticosa (McG.). — F. ramosa 

(D'Orbigny). 
Plate 158. — Farciminaria aculeata (Busk). — F. uncinata (Hincks). — F. simplex (McG.). — Brace- 

bridgia pyriformis (Busk sp.), 
Plate 159. — Sydney Craw-fish or Spiny Lobster (Palinurus Hiigeli, Heller). 
Plate 160. — The Yarra Spiny Cray-fish (Astacopsis serratus, Shaw sp. var. Yarraensis (McCoy.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE XVII. 

Plate 161. — * Burton's Lialis (Lialis Burtoni, Gray). 

Plate 162. — * The Lined Aprasia (Aprasia pulchella, Gray), Fischer's False Delma (Pseudodelma 
impar, Fischer). 

Plate 163. — The Broad-striped or Senator Parrot-fish (Lahrichthys laticlavius, Rich, sp.). 

Plate 164, — Macleay's Wrasse (Ileteroscarus Macleayi, McCoy). 

Plate 16.5. — Cellcpora simplex (McG.). — C. diadema (McG.). — C. spicata (McG.). — C. cidaris 
(McG.).— C. bispinata (Busk). 

Plate 166. — Cellepora verrucosa (McG.). — C. foliata (MoG.).— C. intermedia (McG.). — C. prolifera 
(McG.). 

Plate 167. — C. albirostris (Smitt). — C. fusca (McG.). — C. lirata (McG.).— C. magnirostris (McC). 

Plate 168. — Chitinous parts of opercula of Cellepora and Schismopora: C. glomerata, C. platalea, 
C. costata, C. megasoma, C. vitrea, C. tiara, C. simplex, C. spicata, C. bispinata, C. foliata, 
C. prolifera, C. albirostris, C. serratirostris, C. lirata, C. verrucosa, C. fusca, C. magni- 
rostris. 

Plates 169, 170. — Gould's Squid (Ommastrephes Gouldi, McCoy). 

' The numbers at corner ot Plates 161 and 162 have been accidentally transposed. 



DECADE XVIII. 

Plate 171. — The Broad-Banded or Occipital Blue-Tongue Lizard (Cyclodus occipitalis, Peters). 

Plate 172. — The Yellow-Tail (Scriola Lalandi, Cuv. and Val.). 

Plate 173. — The Long-Fingered Chilodactylus (Chilodactylus carponenius, Cuv. and Val.). 

Plate 174. — The Long-Fingered Chilodactylus (Chilodactylus carponenius, Cuv. and Val). — Var. 

Plate 175. — Tessaradoma magnirostris (McG.).. — Microporella diadema (McG.). — Vars. lunipuucta. 

lougispina, lata, canaliculata. — M. renipuncta (McG.). — M. scandens (McG.). — .\1. ciliata 

(Linn. sp. ). — Vars. spicata, personata. — M. Malusii (Audouin, sp.). — Vars. personata, 

thyreophora. — Escharipora stellata (Smitt). 
Plate 176. — Stomatopora geminata (Me({.). — Flosculipora pygnia.\a (McG.). — Lichenopora magnifica 

(McG.).— L.'buUata (McG.). 
Plate 177. — Craspedozoum ligulatum (McG.). — C. spicatum (McG.). — C. roboratum (Hincks, sp.). — 

Menipea funiculata (McG.). 
Plate 178. — JEtea recta (Hincks). — Scruparia chelata (Linn sp.). — Rhabdozoum Wilsoni (Hincks). — 

Farcimia appendiculata (Hincks). — Catenicella ringens (Busk). — Diuietopia hirta 

(McG.). 
Plate 179. — The Great Red King-Crab (Pseudocarcinus gigas. Lam. sp.). — Female and details of 

mouth, &c. 
Plate 180. — The Great Red King-Crab (Pseudocarcinus gigas. Lam. sp.). — Male. 



DECADE XIX. 

Plate 181. — The White-Streaked Earless Lizard (Tympanocryptis lineata, Peters). 

Plate 182.— The Plain Whiting (Sillago ciliata, Cuv. and Val.). 

Plate 183. — The Skip.iack (Temnodon saltator, Linn. sp.). 

Plate 184.— The Rougliy (Arripis (leorgianus, Cuv. and Val.). 

Plate 185. — Amathia hicornis (Tenison- Woods). — A. spir.alis (Lanix). — A. tortuosa (Tcnisou- 

Woods). — A. inarmata (McG.). — A. Australis (Tenisou-Woods). 
Plate 186. — Schizoporella rostrata (McG.).— S. Woosteri, (McG.).— S. puloherrima (McG.).— 

S. latisinuata (Hincks). — S. biturrita (Hincks). — S. pachnoidcs (McG.). — S. hyalina 

(Linn. sp.). 
Plate 187. — Meuibrauiporella distans (McG.).— Cribrilina radiata (Moll, sp.).— C. setirostris (McG.).— 

C. monoceros (Busk). — C. acanthoceros (McG.). — llippotlioa divaricata (Busk). — 

H. distans (McG.).— Elcctra aniplectons (Hincks sp.). 
Plates 188, 189, 190.— The large Melbourne Sepia or Cuttle-fish (Sepia apama, Gray). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE XX. 

Plate 191. — White's Hinulia Lizard (Himilia Whitei, Lacep. sp.). — Quoy's Hinulia Lizard (Hinulia 

Quoyi. Dum. and Bib.). 
Plate 192. — The Crook-spined Dragonet (Callionymus calauropomTis, Rich.). 
Plate 193. — The Spotted Red (iurnet-Percli (Neosebastes scorpfenoides, Guich.). 
Plate I'.U. — Tlie Blotch-tailed Tracliinops (Tvachinops caudiniaculatus, McCoy). 
Plate 105. — Stirparia glabra (Hiucks). — Bcania intermedia (Hincks sp.). — B. conferta (McG.). — 

B. Wilsoni (McG.). — Verrucularia dichotoma (Busk sp.). 
Plate 196. — Tliairopora armata (McG.). — T. mamillaris (Lamx. sp.). — T. Jervoisii (Hincks sp.). — 

Micropora coriacea (Esper. sp.).— Rbynchopora bispinosa (Johnstone sp.). — R. longi- 

rostris (Hincks). 
Plate 197. — Chelepteryx CoUesi (Gray). 
Plate 19S. — The Blue-spotted Painted-Lady Butterfly (Pyrameis Kershawi, McCoy). — Australian 

Admiral Butterfly (Pyrameis Itea, Fabr.). 
Plate 199. — Peron's Ibacus Crab (Ib.acus Peronii, Leach). 
Plate 200. — Tiie Eight-rayed Cushion Starfish (Asterina calcir. Lam., restricted by Gray). — Gunn's 

Cushion Starfish (Asterina Gunni, Gray). — The Twelve-plated Shield-Star (Pentago- 

naster (Tosia) aurata, Gray). 

The foregoing ten Decades form Vol. II. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX TO YOLS. I. AND 11. 



SUB-KINGDOI I.-VERTEBRATA. 



CLASS I.— MAMMALIA. 

OEDER— FER^. 

(Section — Pinnipedia.) 

Family — Phocid^. 

{Suh-family — Otarince. ) 



Exiotaria 

Stenorhynchus ... ' ... 

ORDER— CETACEA. 
F.\MiLY — Delphinid.^:. 
Delphinus 

ORDER— MARSUPIALIA. 
Family — Phalangistid^. 
Gymnobelideus 



Plates 

31, 71 

21 



91 



CLAvSS III.— REPTILIA. 

{Section — Squamata. ) 

ORDER— SAURIA. 

{Suh-order-^Leptoglossfs. ) 

( Tribe — Cyclosaura.) 
Family — Monitoeid^. 



Hydrosaiirus 
Monitor 



{Tribe — Geissosaura.) 
Family — Scincid^. 



Cyclodus 
Egernia .... 
Hinulia 
Rhodona 
Trachydosaurus 



72, 94, 131, 171 

141 

191 

51 

102 



Family — Pygopid^. 






Plates 


Aprasia 


... 162 


Delma 


... 15.3 


Lialis ... ... . 


... 161 


Pseudodelma 


... 162 


Pygopus 


152, 153 



( Sub-order — Pachyglossce.) 

(Tribe — Strobilosaura . ) 

Family — Agamid^. 



Grammatophora 
Physignathus 
Ty m panocry ptis 



111, 121 

81 

... 181 



( Tribe — Nyctisaura. ) 
Family — Geckotid^. 



Diplodactylus 
Phyllurus 



Morelia 



ORDER- OPHIDIA. 
Family — Pythonid^. 

Family — Elapsid^. 



(Tribe — Scolecophidia.) 
Family — Typhlopsid^. 



132 
132 



13 





Diemenia 






23 




Furina 






32 




Hoploceph'liis 






2, 3, 11 


41 


Pseudechys ... 






.. 1, 142 


51 


Vermicella ... 






52 




Family- 


-VlPERID^. 


(?) 






Acanthophis 






12 



Tj'phlopa 



103 



Systematic Index. 



( Section — Cataphracta.) 

ORDER— CHELONIA. 

( Sub-order — Pletiroderes.) 

Family — Chelydid^. 

( Sub-familij—Hydraspidin(s.) 



Chelodina 
Chelymys 



Plates 
. 92, 93 
. 82, 83 



( Sub-order— Oiacopodcs.) 
Fajiily— Sphakgid^. 

Spliavgis I'^l 

ORDEE^BATRACHIA. 

{Sub-order — Anoura) 

( Section — Opisthoglossa.) 

Family — Hylid^. 

Ranoidea 

Family — CystignathidtE. 
Limnodynastes 



CLASS IV.— PISCES. 

(^Sub-class — Palceichthyes.) 

ORDER-PLAGIOSTOMATA. 

( Sub-order — Selachoidea.) 

Family — Carchariid^. 



Galeus 

Mustelus 

Zygtcna 



Family — Lamniid^. 



Alopecias 

Carcharodon 

Cetorhinus 

Odontaspis 

Family — HpTERODONTiDiE. 

Heterodontus 

Family — NotidanidjE. 

Notidanus 



64 

87 
56 



74 

104 

64 



113 



Family — Scyllid^. 



Crossorhinus 

Family — Spinacid^. 

Acanthias 

Echinorhinus 



Plates 
43 



75 
144 



Family — Rhinid^. 

Rhina ^* 

Family — Pristiophorid^,. 

Pristiophorus • ^^' 

( Sub-order — Batoidei.) 

Family — MYLiOBATiDiE. 

Myliobatis ^3 

(^Sub-class — Elasmobranchia.) 

ORDER— HOLOCEPHALA. 

Family — CHiMiEBiD.*:. 

Callorhynchus H- 

(Sub-class — Teleost'ea.) 

ORDER- ACANTHOPTERYGIA. 

Family — Percid^. 



Arripis 
Ctenolates 
Lates 
Oligorus 



Family— Sparid^,. 



Chrysophrys. 
Girella 



16, 17, 184 

84 

14 

... 85, 86 



4 
73 



43 



Family — Nandid.*;. 

{Sub-family — Plesiopina.) 

Trachinops ... .•• ••• ••• '"* 



Family — ScORF^NiDiE. 



Neosebastes 
Sebastes 



.. 193 
.33 



Family — GoBiiDiE. 
CalUouymus... ... ••• •■ '"- 



Systematic Ixidex. 



Family — Tbichiurid^. 



Thersites 



Family — TeachinidjE . 



Sillago 



Family — CakangidjE. 



Seriola 

Tcmnodon 

Trachurus 



Plates 
44. 



182 



172 

183 

18 



Family^^Cibehitid^. 

Chilodactylus ... ... 173, 174 

Family — ScoMBEEiDiE. 

Cybium ... ... ... ... 154 

Pelamys ... ... ... ... 155 

Scomber ... ... ... ... 2S 

Thynnus ... ... ... ... 44 



(Sub-family— Coryphcenince.) 
Brama ... .., 

Family — Tbachyptebid^. 
Kegalecus 
Trachypterus 



Family — Triglid^. 



Lepidotrigla . 
Trigla 



133 



145 
122 



114 



115 



Family — Beeycid^. 
Trachichthys 

Family — Sphyb^nid^. 
Lanioperca ... 

{Sub-order — Pharyngognathi.) 
Family — Labrid^. 

Heteroscarus ... ... ...164 

Labrichthys ... ... ... 134, 163 

Family — Pediculati. 
Chironectes ... ... ... ... 123 



ORCEIN- ANACANTfllNI. 
Family — Gadopsid^. 



Gadopsis 



27 



Family — Gadid^. 



Lotella 
Pseudophysis 

Family — Ophidiid.e. 

Genypterus ... 

ORDER-PHYSOSTOMI. 
Family — Scopelid^. 
Aulopus 

Family — Scombeeosocid^. 

Hemuamphus 
Scomberesox... 



Plates 
19 
20 



27 



54,55 



135 
135 



ORDER -LOPHOBRANCHII. 
Family — Syngnathid.*;. 

Hippocampus 
Phyllopteryx 

ORDER— PLECTOGNATHI. 

Family — Scleeodeemi. 

Monacanthus 124, 125, 143 



65 
65 



SUB-KINGDOM II.-IOLLUSCA. 



GLASS— CEPHALOPODA. 

{Sub-class^Antipedia.) 
ORDER— ACETAJBULIFERA. 

(Sub-order — Octopoda.) 

Family — AegonautidjE. 

Argonauta ... • ... ... ... 61, 62 

{Sub-order — Decapoda.) 

Family — Loligid^. 

Sepioteuthis... ... ... ...76,77 

ORDER— SEPHINIA. 

Family — Onychotedthid^. 

Ommastrephes ... ... 169, 170 



Systematic Index. 



Familt — Sepiad^. 



Sepia 



Plates 
188, 189, 190 



( Section — Molluscoidea.) 

CLASS— POLYZOA. 

( Sub-class — Holobrahchia.) 

Group A. — Ectoprocta. 

( Sub-order — GJieilostomata. ) 
Family — ^teiu^. 



^tea 

Dimetopia ... 
Soruparia 



137, 178 

46, 178 

... 178 



Family — Rhabdozoid.®. 
Ehabdozoum ... ... ••■ 178 

Family — Chlidoniid^k. 

Chlidonia 108 

Family — Catenicellid^. 

Calpidium 107, 108 

Catenicella 24, 89, 90, 107, 146, 178 

Catenicellopsis ... ... •.- 10/ 

Claviporella 24, 146 

Family — Caldwelliid^. 
Caldwellia 46 



Family — BifaxariidjE. 
Urceolipora ... 

•Family — Cellulariid.e. 

Caberea 

Canda 

Cellularia 

Didyipla 

Farcimia 

Maplestonia ... 

Menipea 

Nellia 

Scrupoeellaria 



105 



Family — Salicornariid^e. 



Cell aria 



Plates 
49, 105 



Family — Tubucellariid^e. 
Tubucellaria... ... ... 49, 105 

Family — Bicellariid^. 



Beania 
Bicellaria 
Biigula 
Stirparia 



46, 116, 117, 195 
59 

59, 78 

59, 195 



Family — FLUSTRib^. 



Carbasea 

Craspedozoum 

Euthyris 

Flustra 

Spiralaria 



Family — Farciminariid^. 



Farciminaria... 
Verrucularia... 



45 

177 
45 
45 
46 



158 
195 



Family — Membraniporid.e. 

Amphiblestrum . . . 25,. 26, 37, 106, 1 17, 127 

Bathypora ... ... •.• ■•• 106 

Biflustra 57, 106 

Caleschara ... ... . ••• •■• ^° 

Electra ... ... ••• 25,106,187 

Membranipora ... .•• 25, 26, 12/ 

Pyripora ... ... ■• ••• 106 

Family — Microporid^. 

Micropora ... ... ' ••• 25, 36, 196 

Thairopora ... ... ••■ 25, 26, 196 



60 



136, 137 




... 136 


Family — 


58 
46 


Steganoporella 


... 178 
... 126 


Famil 


58, 177 


Cribrilina 


49 


Hiantopora ... 


... 126 


Membraniporella 



38, 187 

38 

... 187 



Systematic Index. 



Family — Mickoporellida;. 

Plates 
Adeona ... ... ... 47, 66, 67 

Adeonellopsis ... .■• .-. 48 

. Escharipora ... . ... ••• 175 

Microporella ... ... 36, 37, 175 

Tessaradoma... ... ... ... 175 



Family — Escharid^e. 
{Sub-family — Schizoporellince.) 
Gemellipora ... 



Hippothoa ... 
Parmularia ... 
Schizoporella 



... 138 

...■ 187 

48 

35, 38, 138, 186 



(Sub-family— ^Lepralirue.') 



Chorizopora 
Cyclicopora 
Lepralia 
Petralia 



36 

... 116 

35, 36, 37, 48 

60 



(Sub-family — Mucrotiellince.) 

Adeonella ... ... .■• ■■. 48 

Bracebridgia... ... ... ••• 158 

Mucronella 35, 37, 38, 116 

Porella 35, 37 

Porina 37,48 

Rhynchopora ... ... ... 196 

Familt-^Cellepoeid^. 
CeUepora 128, 165, 166, 167, 168 



Lagenipora .. 
Lekythopora.. 
Pcecilopora ... 
Schismopora 



... 156 

... 156 

... 156 

30, 148, 168 



Family — Retepoeid^. 
Retepora ... ... 94,95,96,97,98,99 

(Sub-order — Cyclostoma.) 

Family — Ceisiid^ . 

Crisia ... ... ... ... 39 



Family — Idmoneid^. 



Hornera 
Idmonea 



118 
68 



Family — Tubuliporid^. 



Diastopora ... 
Stoma topora... 



Plates 
... 147 
... 176 



Family — Discoporellid^. 

Flosculipora ... ... ... ... 176 

Fajuly — Frondiporid^. 
Fascieiilipora ... ... ... 157 

( Sub-order — Ctenostomaia.) 

Family — Vesici'LAriid.;E. 
Amathia ... ... ... ... 185 



SUB-KINGDOM IIL-AETICULATA. 



CLASS— CRUSTACEA. 

ORDEIU-DECAPODA. . 

( Section — Macrura.) 

Family — Astaoid^. 

( Sub-family — Parastacince.) 

Astacopsis ... 

( Tribe — A stacidea. ) 

Family — Palinurid^. 
PaliBimis 149, 150, 159 

Family — Scyllarid^. 
Ibacus 199 

( Section — Brachyura . ) 

Family — Cancerid^. 
Paeudocarcinus ... ... 179, 180 



Systematic Index. 



CLASS— INSECTA. 
ORDER— ORTHOPTERA. 
{Section — Ainhulatoria.) 

Family — Phasmid^e. 



Acrophylla .... ,.'. 

Podacanthus... 

Tropidoderus 

(^Section — Saltatoria.) 

Family — Gryllid^ . 

Acripeza 

Locusta 

Phaneroptera 



Plates 

79 

80 

... 69, 70 



... 129 
... 109 
119, 120 



Family — Locustid^e . 



CEdipoda 



Family — Acridid.^. 



Mesops 

Opsomala 

Tropinotus 



( Section — Rajitoria.) 
Family — Mantid^e. 



Mantis 



ORDER— LEPIDOPTERA. 

( Section — Rhopalocera.) 

Family — PAPiLLiONiD.a;, 

( Sub -family — Pieridce. ) 
Pieris (Thyca) 

Family — Nymphalid^. 

( Sub-family — Nymphalinm. ) 
Pyrameis ... 

( Section — Heterocera.) 

Family — Uraniid.®. 
Agarista 

Family — LiPARiD.iE. 
Chelepteryx 



110 



139 
139 
140 



130 



9, 10 



198 



Family — H epi alid^ . 
Zeuzera (Eudoxyla) 

Family — Psychid^. 



Entometa 
Metura 



Plates 
30 



40 
40 



ORDER— HEMIPTERA. 
{Tribe — Homoptera.) 
( Section — Trimera.) 
Family — Cicadid.*:. 



Cicada 
Cyclochila 



50 
50 



CLASS— ANNELIDA. 

ORDER— ABRANCHIATA. 

( Section — Terricola.) 

Family — Lumbricid^.* 
Megascolides 



SUB-KINGDOM IV.-EADIATA. 



CLASS— ECHINODERMATA. 

ORDER^ECHINOIDEA. 

{Sub-qrder — Desmosticha.) 

Family — Cidarid^. 
Goniocidaris 

ORDER— ASTEROIDEA. 

Family — Asterlnid^. 

{Sub-family — Asterininw.) 
Asterina 

Family — Pentagonasterid^. 
{Sub-family — Pentagoiiasterinai.) 



100 



200 



197 



Pentagonaster (Tosia) 



200 



See Addenda. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX TO VOLS. I. AND 11. 



(The vSynonyms are printed in Ilalkn. 



The Roman numerals refer to the volumes, the Arabic 
to the plates.) 



acanlhias, Squalus, I., 75; vide A. vulgaris. 
Acanthias \-ulgaris, I., 75. 
acanthoceros. Cribrilina, II., 1S7. 
Acanthophis Antarctica, I.. 12. 

,, Browni, I., 12; vide K. Antarctica. 

, , cerastinus, I., 12; vide A. Antarctica. 

,, Vipera, I., 12; vide Acanthophis 

Antarctica. 

ar.ifera, Membranipora, 11., 127 ; vide M. senata. 

Aoripeza, Netted, II., 129. 

,, reticulata, II., 129. 
Acrophylla ^aolascens, I. , 79. 
acropora, Crisia, I., 39. 
aculeata. Farciminaria, II., 158. 
acutirostris (var.), Retepora monilifera, form 

munita, I., 94, 96. 
Adder, Deaf, I., 12. 
Adder, Death, I. , 12. 

Adeona albida, var. avicularis, I. , 66 ; ride 
Dictyopora. 
,, cellulosa, I., 47 ; ride Dictyoponi . 
,, grisea, I.. 66 ; ride Diclyojjwa. 
,, Wilsoni, I., 67 ; ride Dictyopora. 
Adeonella dispar, I., 48 ; ride Eschara. 

,, platalea, I., 48 ; vide Efchara. 
Adeonellopsis mucronata, I., 48: ride Eirhara. 
Admiral Butterfly, Australian, 11., 198. 
.iEtea anguina, II., 137. 
,, dilatata, II., 137. 
,, recta, II., 178. 
offabrirata, Festra, II., 197; inde Chelepteryx 

CoUesi. 
Arjama JaeLsoiiienms, 11., Ill; ride Gramma- 

tophora muricata. 
Aganippe, Pieris (Thyca), I., 10. 
Agarista Casuarinse, I. , 8. 
,, Glycine, I., 8. 
,, Lewini, I., 8. 
alata, Catenicella, I., 24. 

albida, var. aricularis, Adeona, I., 66 ; ride 
Dictyojiora. 
,, ,, Diclyojiora, I., 66 ^ 

vide Adeona. 
albirostris, Cellepora, II., 167, 168. 

,, Discopora, II., 167, 168; ride Celle- 

pora. 
albispinum, Amphiblestrum, II., 127. 
Alenterixts Browni, II. , 124 ; vide Monacanthus. 
Aluterius variabilis, II., 125; vide Monacanthus 

hippocrepis. 
Alopecias i-ulpes, I. , 88. 
afta'eKs,.Thersites, I., 44 ; vide T. atun. 
altus, Phyllopteryx, I., 65. 
Amathia Australia, II., 185. 



Amathia bicomis, 11., 185. 

,, connexa, II., 185; vide A. tortuosat 
,, inarmata, II., 185. 
,, spiralis, II., 185. 
,, tortuosa, II., 185. 
ambigiia, Datnia (?), I., 84; vide Ctenolates 

ambiguus. 
ambiguus, Ctenolates, I., 84. 
Amphiblestrum albispinum, II., 127. 

,, bursarium, I., 26; vide Mem- 

branipora Eoixelii. 
, , cervicomis, I. , 25 ; vide Mem- 

branipora. 
„ ciliatum, .1., 25 ; II., 127 ; vide 

Membranipora ■eiliata. 
,, Flemingii, II., 106. 

,, patellarium, II., 117. 

,, permunitum, II., 106. 

• ,, punctigerum, II. , 106. 

,, trifolium, I., 37; ride Lepralia. 

,, umbonatum, I., 25; vide Mem- 

branipora umbonala. 
Amphibolurus heterurm, I., 81 ; ride Physig- 
nathus Lesueii, var. 
Howitti. 
,, vide Grammatophora. 

amphora, Catenicella, I., 89. 
amplectens, Electra, II., 187. 

,, Membranipora,II , 187; fj'de Electra. 
anceps, Lepralia, I., 35. 
Angel Fish, I., 34. 
anguina, .-Etea, II., 137. 
Ani/ios nigrescens, II.; 103 ; vide Typhlops. 
annulata, Bicellaria, I. , 59 ; vide Stirparia. 
,, Stirparia, I., 59. 
,, Vei'micella, I., 52. 
anomala, Poecilopora, II., 156. 
Antarctica, Acanthophis, I., 12. 

,, Boa, I., 12; 7'(rfe Acanthophis. 

Antarctica, Chimo'ra, II., 112; vide Callor- 

hynchus antarcticus. 
Antarcticus, Callorhynchus, II., 112. 
,, Lates, I., 14. 

,, Mustelus. I., 87. 

Antennarius ; ride Chironectes. 
apama. Sepia, II., 188. 189, 190. 
appendiculata, Farcimia. II., 178. 
appendiculatiis, Si/uabts, I., 43; vide Crossor- 

hinus barbatus. 
Aprasia Lizard, Lined, II., 162. 

,, octolineata, 11., 162; vide A. pulchella. 
pulchella, II., 162. 
arachnoides, Cauda, II., 136. 

,, Schizoporella, II., 138. 

Argonauta nodosa, I., 61, 62; i-ide A. oryzata. 
„ oryzata, I., 61, 62. 



Alphabetical Index. 



Argonauta tubereulata, I., 61, 62 ; ride A. ory- 
zata. 
„ tuberculosa, I., 61, 62; I'ide A. ory- 

zata. 
Argonaut, or Paper Nautilus, Tuberculated, I., 

61, 62. 
armata, Thairopora, II., 196. 
armatns, Antaeus, I., 15 ; vide Astacopsis ser- 

ratus. 
An-ipis Georgianus, II., 184. 
„ Salmon, I., 16, 17. 
,, truttaceus, I., 16, 17. 
aspidorhyncha, Diemenia, I., 23. 
Astacoides bicarlnatus, I., 29; vide Astacopsis. 
,, serratua, I., 15; wide Astacopsis. 

,, spinifer, I., 15; vide Astacopsis 

serratus. 
Astacopsis bicarinatus, I. , 29. 
,, serratus,!., 15. 

,, ,, var. Yarraensis, II., 160. 

Astacus armatus, I., 15; vide Astacopsis ser- 
ratus. 
,, bicarinatus, I., 29; inde Astacopsis. 
Anteria.i calcar, var. b., II., 200; vide Asterina 
Gunni. 
,, ,, var. O. octogona, II., 200; 

I'ide Asterina calcar. 
Asterina ,, II., 200. 
,, Gunni, II., 200. 

Atlantica, Dtrmochehjs, II., 101; vide Sphargis 

coriacea. 
atun, Thersites, I., 44. 
Aulopus, Australian, I., 54, 55. 

,, Milesi, I. , 54, 55 ; vide A. purpurisatus. 
,, purpurisatus, I., 54, 55. 
aurantiaca, Ketepora, I., 94, 98. 
aurata, Pentagonaster (Tosia), II., 200. 
auratiif!, Dulex, I., 84 ; vide Gteuolates ambiguus. 
aurea, Rana, I. , 53 ; vide Ranoitlea. 

,, Ranoitlea, I., 53. 
aureo-viflata, Seriola, II., 172; vide H. Lalandi. 
aurita, Cate71ice.Ua, I., 24 ; vide Claviporella. 
,, Claviporella, I., 24 ; vide Calenicella. 
Australasi;c, Cyclochila, I. , 50. 

,, Te.ltiijonia,l.,50; !>«/(> Cyclochila. 

Australian Admiral Butterfly, II., 198. 
,, Aulopus, I., 54, 55. 

,, Bream, I., 4. 

,, Fur-iSeal or Sea-Beai-, 

,, Giant Earth-worm, I. 

Rock Cod, I., 20. 
„ Uockling, I., 27. 

Rough Fish, II., 114. 
,, Saw-Fish, Common, I., 56. 

,, Seal, Sea-Bear, or Fur- I., 31, 

,, Smooth-Hound, I., 87.. 

,, Tooth-cupped Cuttlefish, I., 

„ Tope Shark, I., 64. 

,, Worm-Snake, Blackish, 

,, Yellow- winged Locust, 

Australis, Amathia, II., 185. 

,, Cellaria, I., 49; vide C. fiMidosa, var. 
Australis. 
AunlralU, Ohimtwa, II., 
hynchus Antarcticus. 
Australis, Chrysophrys, I., 
,, Galeus, I., 64. 



I., 31, 71. 



71. 

76, 7 

II., 103. 
II., 110. 



112: ride Callor- 



Australis, Genypterus, I., 27. 

,, Ori/llus, II., 140; j'Jrfe Tropinotus. 
,, (var.) Cellaria ^fixtulosa, I., 49; vide 
C. Australis. 
Australis, Hydraspis, I. , 82, 83 ; vide Chelyihys 

Macqiiaria. 
Australis, Idmonea, I., 68. 
,, Megascolides, I., 7. 

Myliobatis, I., 63. 
,, A^fy'o, II., 142 : cjrfe Pseudcchys. 
,, Pseudechys, II., 142. 
. ,, Sepioteuthis, I., 76, 77. 
,, Serialaria, II., 185; ride Amathia. 
„ Trachichthys, II., 114. 
Tropinotus, II., 140. 
avicularia, Bugula, I., 78. 

avicularis (var.), albida, Adeona, I., 66; vide 
Dictyopora. 
„ (var.) albida, Dictyopora, I., 66; 

I'ide Adeona. 
,, Retepora, I., 94, 95. 

B. 

Baker, Sergeant, I., 54, 55. 

Batistes hippocrepis, II., 125; i'ide Monacan- 

thus. 
Banded, or Occipital Blue-tongue Lizard, 

Broad-, II, 171. 
Banded Red Gurnet-Perch, I., 33. 
Banksi, Gymnetrus, II., 145; vide Regalecus. 
Banksi, Regalecus, II., 145. 
Banks' Oar-Fish, II., 145. 
barbata, Grammatophoia, II., 121. 
barbatus, Crossorhinus, I., 43. 
,, Pseudophysis, I., 20. 
,, S<iualns, I., 43 ; vide Crossorhinus. 
Barracouta, I., 44. 
Basking Shark, II., 104. 
Batliypora porcellana, II., 106 
Beania conferta, II., 195. 

,, costata, II., 117. 

,, Crotali, IL, 117. 

,, decumbens, II., 117. 

,, intermedia, II., 195. 

,, Magellanica, I. , 46 ; vide Diachoris. 

,, mirabilis, II., 116. 

,, radicifera, II., 117. 

,, spiuigera, I., 46 ; vide Diaelioris. 

„ Wilsoni, IL, 195. 
Bearded Lizard, II., 121. 
Bear, Sea-, or Fur-Seal, I., 31, 71. 
Bell-Frog, Green and Golden, I., 53. 
bellis, Fasciculipora, II., 157. 
benemunita, Cellcpora, II., 148; vide Schismo- 

pora. 
Ijenemunita. Menipea, IL, 177; vide M. funi- 

culata. 
lienemunita, Schismopora, II. , 148; vide Cette- 

pom. 
bicarinatus, Astacoides, I., 29; vide Astacopsis. 

,, ^staeHS, I., 29 ; ride AstacopsLs. 

bicatetiala, Lialis, II., 161; vide L. Burtoni. 
liiceUaria annulatji, I., 59; vide Stirptaria. 
Bicellaria ciliata, I. , 59. 
fiice/tono glabra, IL, 195; w'dc Stirparia. 
Bicellaria grandis, I. , 59. 



Alphabetical Index. 



Bicellaria tuba, I., 59. 

„ turbinata, I., 59. 
biciliata, Ciisia, I. , 39. 
bicolor, Diastopora, II., 147. 
bicornis, Ania'thia, II., 1S5. 
,, Cahvellia, I., 46. 
bicucuUata, Furiiia, I., 32. 
Biflustra bimamillata, II. , 106. 
,, delicatula, I., 57. 
,, frayiliii, I., 57 ; vide B. perfragilis. 
,, papulifeia, II., 106. 
,, perfragilis, I., 57. 
bifurcatus, Chironectes, II., 123. 
bimamillata, Biflustra, II., 106. 

,, 31e»ibrnnipora, II., 106 ; vide 

Biflustra. 
Bipes lepidopodus, II., 152,' 153; vide Pygopus 

lepidopus. 
bispinata, Cellepora, II., 165, 168. 
bispinosa, Rhynchopora, II., 196. 
biturrita, Sohizoporella, II., 186. 
Black-finned Half -beak, or Sea Gar-fish, II., 

135. 
Blackfish, Yarra, I., 27. 

,, Gibbose, I., 27. 
Blackish Australian Worm-Snake, II., 103. 
Black Snake, I., 1. 

Black, or JIanna Cicada, Great, I., 50. 
Black and White Ringed Snake, I., 52. 
blacodes (?), Geuypterus, I., 27; ride G. Aus- 

tralis. 
Bleekeri, Labrichthys, II., 134. 
Bleeker's Parrot-fisli, II., 134. 
Bloodsucker Lizard, II., 111. 
Blotched Blue-tongue Lizard, Southern, or, II., 

131. 
Blotch-tailed Trachinops, II., 194. 
Blue-spotted Eagle-R,ay, I., 63. 

Painted-Lady Butterfly, II, 198. 
Blue-tongue Lizard, Broad-banded, or Occi- 
pital, IL, 171. 
,, ,, Northern, I., 72. 

,, ,, Southern, or Blotched, 

IL, 131. 
Boa antarctica, I., 12 ; ride Acanthophis. 
Boddaerti, Cyclodus, I., 72; vide C. gigas. 
Botryoides, Lepralia; vide Schizoporella, I., 38. 
,, Schizoporella, I., 38 ; vide Lepralia. 
Bracebridgia pyriformis, II., 158. 
Brama Rayi, II. , 133. 
Bream, Australian, I., 4. 

,, Ray's Sea, IL, 133. 
breviceps, Hippocampus, I., 65. 
Broad-bandeil or Occipital Blue-tongue Lizard, 

IL, 171. 
Broad-striped or Senator Parrot-fish, II. , 163. 
Broad-styled Mantis, II. , 1.30. 
Brogniartii, Chorizopora, I., 36; vide Lepralia. 
,, Lepralia, I., SG; cirfe Chorizopora. 

Broifm, Acantiiophis, I.. 12; vide A antarctica. 
Browni, Aleuteriu-i, II. , 124; vide Monacanthus. 

,, Monacanthus, II. , 124. 
Brown Pseudechys Snake, IL, 142. 
,, Snake, Common, I., 23. 
,, ,, Shield-fronted, I., 23. 

,, Small-scaled, L, 23. 
Brown's Tooth-brush Leather-jacket, IL, 124. 



Brush, Tooth-, Leather-jacket, II. , 124. 
Bugula avicularia, I., 78. 

,, cucuUata, I., 78. 

,, dentata, I., 78. 

,, neritina, I., 59. 

,, robusta, I., 78. 
bullata, Lichenopora, II. , 176. 
Bull-dog Shark, II. , 113. 
Bull-Shark, Long-tootlied, I., 64. 
bursarium, Ampliiblestrum, I., 26; vide Mem- 

branipora Bosselii. 
Burtoni, Lialis, II. , 161. 
Burton's Lialis, II. , 161. 
Buskii, Cateuicella, I., 24. 

,, Menipea, I., 58. 
Butterfly, Australian Admiral, II. , 198. 

,, Blue-spotted Painted-Lady, II, 198. 

Butterfly-Gurnard, Spiny-sided, I., 5. 



c. 

Caberea Darwinii, II. , 137. 
„ glabra, II. , 137. 
,, grandis, II. , 136. 
rudis, II. , 136. 
calauropomus Callionymus, IL, 192. 
calcar, Astenas, var. b., II. , 200; vide Asterina 
Gunni. 
,, ,, var. C. octogona, II.,200; vide 

Asterina calcar. 
,, Asterina, IL, 200. 
Caleschara denticulata, I., 48. 
callarias, Lotella, I., 19. 
Callionymus calauropomus, II. , 192. 
Callorhynchus Antarcticus, II. , 112. 
callorhynchus, Chimcera, II., 112; vide Callor- 
hynchus Antarcticus. 
Callorhynchus Tasmaneus, II. , 112; vide C. 

Antarcticus. 
Callynrmophora lucida, II., 105 ; vide Urceolipora 

nana. 
Calpidium ornatum, 11. , 108. 

,, ponderosum, II. , 107. 
Calwellia bicornis, I. , 46. 
Camperi, Scomberesox, IL, 135; jjjde S. saurus, 

var. Forsteri. 
canaliculata, Lepralia, I., 37; IL, 175; vide 
Microporella diadema, var. cana- 
liculata. 
,, var. diadema, Microporella, I., 37; 

II. , 175; vide Lepralia canali- 
culata. 
Cancer gigas, II. , 179, 180; vide Pseudocarcinus. 

,, serratus, I., 15; vide Astaoopsis. 
Canda arachuoides, II. , 136. 

,, tenuis, IL, 1,36. 
Capemis, Carcharodon, I., 74 ; vide C. Rondeletii. 
capitata, Diastopora, II. , 147. 
Carajia; trachurus, I., 18; fide Trachurus. 
Carbasea cyathiformis, I., 45; vide C. indivisa. 
,, dissimilis, I., 45. 
,, elegans, I., 45. 

Carbasea episcopalis, I., 45; tide Euthyris. 
Carbasea indivisa, I., 45. 

,, pisciformis, I., 45. 
Carcharian taurus, I., 64; vide Odontaspis. 



Alphabetical Index. 



Carcharias verus, I. , 74; vide Carcharodon Ron 

deletii. 
Carcharodon Rondeletii, I., 74. 

„ Capensis, I., 74 ; vide C. Rondeletii. 

„ lamia, I., 74; vide C. Rondeletii. 

carinata, Catenicella, I., 24. 

,, Retepora, I., 94, 97. 
Carpet Shark, I., 43. 
,, Snake, I., 13. 
carponemus, Chilodactylus, II., 173, 174. 
var., II., 174. 
Case-Moth, Lictor, I., 40. 

,, SaundeiV, I., 40. 

Casuarina', Agarista, I., 8. 
Catenicella alata, I., 24. 

,, amphora, I., 89. 

Catenicella aurita, I., 24; vide Claviporella. 
Catenicella Buskii, I., 24. 
,, carinata, I., 24. 

,, conr.inna, I., 89; vide C. pulchella. 

,, cornuta, I., 24, 90. 

,, cribraria, I., 24. 

,, crystallina, I., 24. 

, , Dawsoni, I. , 24 ; vide C. elegans. 

,, elegans, I., 24. 

,, formosa, I., 24. 

,, fusca, I., 90. 

,, gemella, II., 146. 

Catenicella gerainata, I. , 24 ; vide Claviporella. 
Catenicella gracilenta, II., 146. 
,, Hanuafordi, I., 24. 

,, hastata, I., 24. 

,, intermedia, I., 24, 89. 

,, lorica, I., 24. 

,, margaritacea, I., 24. 

,, perforata, I., 24. 

• ,, plagiostoma, I., 24. 

,, ,, var. Isevis, I., 24. 

,, ,, var. setigera, I. , 24. 

Catenicella pcmderosa, II., 107; vide Calpidium 

ponderosum. 
Catenicella pulchella, I., 89. 
,, ringens, II., 178. 

,, rufa, I., 24. 

,, umbonata, I., 90. 

„ urnula, II., 146. 

,, utriculus, I., 89. ' 

,, ventricosa, I., 24. 

,, venusta, II., 146. 

Wilsoni, I., 89. 
delicatula, II., 107. 
Catenicellopsis pusilla, II., 107. 
catenularia, Hippolhoa, II., 106; vide Pyri- 
pora. 
,, Jl/^em6raKi;)ora, II. , 106; rideVyvi- 

pora. 
catenularia, Pyripora, II., 106. 
caudimaculatus, Trachinops, II., 194. 
Cecilii, Lepralia, I., 35; vide Schizoporella. 
,, Schizoporella, I., 35 ; ride Lepralia. 
Cellaria Australis, I., 49; vide C Jistidosa, va,r. 
Australia. 
,, fistuloi^a, var. Australia, I., 49; vide C. 

Australis. 
,, gracilis, I., 49. 
,, hirsuta, I., 49. 
,, rigida, II., 105. 



Cellaria tenuirostris, I. , 49. 

Celleporaalbirostris.il., 167, 168. 

Cellepora benemunita, II., 148, 168 ; vide 

Schisniopora. 
Cellepora bispiuata, II. , 165, 168. 

Chitinous, Parts of, II., 168. 
,, cidaris, II,, 165. 
Cellepora costata. II , 148. 168 ; xnde Schismopora. 
,, costazei, var., II., 148; I'jcie Schismo- 
pora. 
Cellepora diadema, II., 165. 
„ foliata, II., 166, 168. 
fusca, II., 167, 168. 
Cellepora glomerata, II. , 148, 168 ; ride Schismo- 
pora. 
,, Hassallii, II., 148; vide Schismopora 
costazei. 
Cellepora intemiedia, II., 166. 
,, lirata, II., 167, 168. 
,, magnirostris, II., 167, 168. 
Cellepora (Lepralia) megasoma, I., 38; II., 148, 
168; (vVZf Schismopora. 
,, platalea, II., 148, 168; ride Schismo- 
pora. 
Cellepora prolifera, II., 166, 168. 
Cellepora rota, II., 148; ride Schismopora. 
Cellepora serratirostris, II., 128, 168. 
,, suTiplex, II., 165, 168. 
,, speciosa, II., 128. 
,, spicata, II., 165, 168. 
CeMe;jora tiara, II. , 148,168; ?vde Schismopora. 
Cellepota tridenticulata, II., 128. 
,, verrucosa, II., 166, 168. 
Cellepora vitrea, I., 38; II., 148, 168; ride 

Schismopora. 
Cellularia cuspidata, I. , 58. 
cellulosa, Adeona, I. , 47 ; ride Dictyopora. 
,, Dictyopora, I., 47; ride Adeona. 
C«rfj-opmies Georgianus, II., 184; vide Arripls. 
,, solar. \., 16, 17; rirfe Arripis trut- 

taceus. 
,, Tanrttanicwt, I., 16, 17; vide Avvi-yis 

truttaceus. 
,, truttaceus, I., 16, 17; ride Arripis. 

cerastiniw, Acanthophis, I., 12 ; inde A. antarctica' 
cereoides, Tubucellaria, II., 105. 
cervicornis, Amphiblestrum, vide Membranipora 
I., 2.5. 
,, Emma, \., 58; i;V/e Menipea. 

„ Memhrauipora, I., 25; ri(/e Amphi- 

blestrum. 
,, Menipea, I., 58. 

,, Scrupocellaria, II., 126. 

Ceslntcion Phillipi, II., 113; iv'^/c Heterodontus. 
Cetorhinus Ounneri, II., 104; ride C. maximus. 
,, Homianus, II. , 104 ; ride C. maximus. 

,, maximus, II., 104. 

,, Sharianu^, II., 104 ; ride C. maximus. 

cheilodon, Lepralia, I., 37. 
chelata, Eucratea, II., 178; i-ide Scruparia. 

,, Scruparia, II., 178. 
Cheleptcryx CoUesi, II., 197. 
Chelodina longicollis, I. , 92, 93. 

Nora: lloUandi<r, I., 92, 93; vide C. 
longicollis. 
Chelymys Macquaria, I., 82, 83. 
Chilodactylus carponemus, II., 173, 174. 



Alphabetical Index. 



Chilodactylus carponemus, var., II., 174. 

„ Long- Fingered, II., 173, 174. 

Chilodipterm heptacanthus, II., 183; rule Tem- 

nodon saltator. 
Chimcera Aiitarclica, II. , 112; vide Callor- 
hynchus Ant.*cticus. 
,, Att-flrali.i, II., 112; vide Callorhyn- 

chiis Autarcticus. 
,, callorhj'uchus, II., 112; vide Callor- 

hynchus Autarcticus. 
Chimiera, .Southern, II., 112. 
Chironectes bif urcatus, II. , 123. 
Chlidonia Cordieri, II., 108; vide C. dtedala. 
dmla/a, II., 108; vide C. Cordieri. 
Chorizopora Broguiartii, I. , 36 ; vide Lepralia. 

,, vittata, I., 36; vide Lepralia. 

Chrysophrys Australia, I. , 4 
Cicada, Great Black, or Manna, I., 50. 
,, Great Green, I., 50. 
,, moerens, I., 50. 

,, olivacea, I., 50; I'ir/e Cyclochila Austral- 
asia. 
cidaris, Cellepora, II., 165. 
Cirfante tubaria, I. , 100; i'jrfe Gouiocidaris. 
ciliata, Bicellaria, I., 59. 

,, Lepralia, I., 37; II., 175; vide Micro- 
porella. 
ciliata, Membranipora, I., 25; II., 127; vide 

Amphiblestrum ciliatum. 
ciliata, Microporella, I., 37; II., 175; vide 
Lepralia. 
„ var. persouata, Microporella, I., 37; 

II., 175; vide Lepralia. 
„ var. spicata, Microporella, I., 37; H-i 

175 ; vide Lepralia. 
,, Sillago, II., 182. 
ciliatum, Amphiblestrum, I., 25; II., 127; vide 

Membranipora eiUata. 
cinerea, Euotaria, I., 31, 71. 

,, Olaria, I., 31, 71; vide Euotaria. 
cinnamonicm, Tropinotus, II., 140; vide T. 

Australia. 
Cinnamon Keel-backed Locust, II., 140. 
circinata, Lepralia, I., 35; vide Schizoporella. 
,, Sohizopoi-ella, I., 35; vide Lepralia. 
cirrata, Maplestonia, II., 126. 
ClaWporella aurita, I., 24; vide CaUnicella. 
,, geminata, I., 24; vide Gatenicella. 

„ imperforata, II., 146. 

,, pulchra, II., 146. 

Cod, Australian Rock, I., 20. 
,, Perch, Murray, I., 85, 86. 
,, Small-scaled Rock, I., 19. 
Collesi, Chelepteryx, II., 197. 
colonorum, Lates, I., 14. 
Cohiber porphyriacus, I. , 1 ; vide Pseudeohys. 
Commersoni, Cybium, II., 154. 

,, Seomber, II., 154; vide Cybium. 

Commerson's Mackerel, II., 154. 
Common Australian Saw-Fish, I., 56. 
,, Brown Snake, I., 23. 
,, Sand-Frog, I., 42. 
concinna Catenicella, I. , 89 ; ride C. pulchella. 
conferta, Beania, 11., 195. 
eonnexa, Amathia, II., 185 ; vide A. tortuosa. 
controversa, Schizoporella, II., 138; vide 
S. dasdala. 



Copper-head Snake, I., 2. 
corbula, Membranipora, II., 127. 
Cordieri, Chlidonia, II. , 108 ; ride C. dcfdala. 
„ Eucratea, II., 108; vide Chlidonia 
Cordieri. 
coriacea, Membranipora, II., 196; vide Micro- 
pora. 
,, Micropora, II., 196. 
,, Sphargis, II., 101. 
,, TeMudo, II., 101; iijcie Sphargis. 
comuta, Catenicella, I., 24, 90. 
,, Dimetopia, I., 46. 
,, var. Schizoporella, II., 186; vide S. 
hyalina. 
coronoides, Hoplocephalus, I., 11. 
costata, Beania, II., 117. 

,, Cellepora, II., 148, 168; vide Schismo- 

pora. 
,, Diachoris, II., 117; I'irfe Beania. 
,, Schismopora, II., 148, 168; ride Celle- 
pora. 
Costazei, \ ax., Cellepora, II., 148; vide Schismo- 
pora. 
„ ,, Schismopora, IL, 148; vide Celle- 
pora. 
Cothumicella dcedala, II., 108; vide Chlidona 

Cordieri. 
Crab, Great Red King-, IL, 179, 180. 

,, Peron's Ibacus, II., 199. 
Craspedozoum ligulatum, II. , 177. 
,, roboratum, II. , 177. 

,, spicatuni, II., 177. 

crassa, Hippothoa, II. , 106; vide Pyripoi-a. 

„ Pyripora, IL, 106. 
Craw-fish, Sydney, or Spiny Lobster, II. , 159. 

„ Melbourne, IL, 149, 150. 
Cray -fish, Murray, I., 15. 
Yabber, L, 29. 
Yabbie, I., 29. 
,, Yarra Spiny, II. , 160. 
Crenidens simplex, I., 73; vide Girella. 
cribraria, Catenicella, I., 24. 
Cribrilina acanthoceros, II. , 187. 

,, innominata, IL, 187; I'ide C. radiata. 
,, monoceros, I., 38; II. , 187; vide 

Lepralia. 
„ radiata, II. , 187. 
,, setirostris. II. , 187. 
Crisia acropora, I. , 39. 
,, biciliata, I., 39. 
,, Ed%vardsiana, I., 39. 
,, setosa, L, 39. 
„ tenuis, I., 39. 
Crisidia Edwardsiana, I. , 39 ; vide Crisia. 
cristata, Diastopora, II. , 147. 
Crook-spined Dragonet, II. , 192. 
Crossorliinus barbatus, I., 43. 
Crotali, Beania, II. , 117. 

,, Liaehorix, II. , 117; vide Beania. 
cryptostoma, Scliizoporella, II. , 138. 
crystallina, Catenicella, I., 24. 
rrystallina, Lepralia, I., 35; vide Schizoporella 

Cecilii. 
crystallina, Menipea, I., 58. 
Ctenolates ambiguus, I., 84. 

,, Macquariensis,\.,8i; vide C, ambi- 

guus. 



Alphabetical Index. 



cucuUata, Bugula, I., 78. 

Cunninghami, Egernia, II., 141. 

curta, Naja, I. , 3 ; vide Hoplooephalus curtus. 

curtus; Hoplocephalus, I., 3. 

Cushion Star-fish, Eight-rayed, 11. , 200. 

,, ,, Gunn's, II., 200. 

cuspidata, Cellularia, I., 58. 
Cuttlefish, Australian Tooth-cupped, I., 76, 77. 
Gould's Squid, II., 169, 170. 

,, Large Melbourne Sepia, or, II., 188, 

189, 190. 
cyathiformis, Carbasea, I., 45; vide C. indivisa. 
cyathus, Menipea, I., 58. 
Cybium Commersoni, II., 154. 
Cyclicopora longipora, II., 116. 

, , prcelonga, II. , 1 1 6 ; vide C. longipora. 

Cyelochila Australasite, I. , 50. 

, , olivacea, I. , 50 ; I'ide C. Australasise. 

Cyclodus Boddaerti, I. , 72 ; vide C. gigas. 

,, fasciatus, II., 171; vide C. occipitalis. 

,, flavitjularis, I., 72; itide C. gigas. 
gigas, I., 72. 

,, nigroluteus, II, 131. 

,, occipitalis, II., 171. 
cyclostoma, Scrupocellaria, II., 126. 
Cynthia Kershawi, II., 198; vide Pyrameis. 
CyatigiiatMis AovaaXis,!. , 42; vide Limnodynastes. 



dcedala, Chlidonia, II., 108; vide C. Cordieri. 

,, Cothurnicella, II., 108 ; vide C. Cordieri. 
daedala, Schizoporella, II., 138. 
Darwinii, Caberea, II., 137- 
Datnia (?) ambigua, I., 84; vide Ctenolates 

ambiguus. 
Daiosoni, Catenicella, I. , 24 ; vide C. elegans. 
Day-Moth, Lewin's, I., 8. 
,, Loranthus, I., 8. 

Vine, I., 8. 
Deaf Adder, I., 12. 
Death Adder, I., 12. 
decumbens, Beania, II., 117. 
delicatula, Biflustra, I., 57. 

,, Catenicella, II., 107; vide Cateni- 

ceilopsis. 
,, Ca/ejMceWopsis, II., 107; wirfe Cateni- 

cella. 
Delma Lizard, Fischer's False, II., 162. 
,, Frazeri, II., 153. 
,, Frazer's, II., 153. 
,, Grayi, II., 153; ride D. Frazeri. 
„ MiiUeri, II., 153; I'ide D. Frazeri. 
Delphinus Novae Zealaudise, I., 22. 
dentata, Bugula, I., 78. 

,, Urceolipora, II., 105. 
denticulata, Caleschara, I., 48. 

,, Eschara, I., 48; vide Caleschara. 

,, Flustra, I., 45. 

Dermatochelys jwrcaia, II., 101; vide Sphargis 

coriacea. 
Dermochetys Atlanlica, II., 101; vide Sphargis 

coriacea. 
despecla, Entometa, I., 40; mde E. iguobilis. 
Diachoris coatsita., II., 117; rirfe Beania. 
,, Crotali, II., 117; vide Beania. 
,, intermedia, II., 195; jn'rfe Beania. 



Diachoris Magellanica, I. , 46 ; vide Beania. 

,, pateUaria, II., 117; I'ide Amphi- 

blestrum patellarium. 
,, spinigera, I., 46; ride Beania. 
diadema, Cellepora, II., 165. 

,, Lepralia, 1., 37; II., 175; videMicro- 

porella canaliculata. 
,, Microporella, I., 37; II., 175; vide 

Lepn-alia. 
,, (var. canaliculata). Microporella, I., 37; 
II. , 175; vide Lepralia canalictdata. 
,, (var. lata), Microporella, I. ,37; II., 

175; I'ide Lepralia. 
,, (var. longispina), Microporella, I., 37; 

II., 175; vide Lepralia. 
,, (var. lunipuncta), Microporella, I., 37; 
II., 175; vide Lepralia. 
diaphana, Lepralia, I. , 35 ; i'ide Mucronella. 
,, Mucronella, I., 35; vide Lepralia. 
Diastopora bicolor, II., 147- 
,, capitata, II., 147. 

,, cristata, II., 147. 

,, patina, II., 147. 

,, Sarniensis, II., 147. 

dichotoma, Farciniinaria, II., 195; vide Ver- 
rucularia. 
,, Flustrella, II., 195; vide Verrucu- 

laria. 
„ Verrucularia, II., 195. 

Dictyopora albida, var. avicularis, I., 66; i'ide 
Adeona. 
,, cellulosa, I., 47; ?!i'de Adeona. 

, , grisea, I. , 66 ; vide Adeona. 

,, Wilsoni, I., 67; fjrfe Adeona. 

Didymia simplex, I., 46. 
Diemenia aspidorhyncha, I. , 23. 
,, microlepidota, I.. 23. 
,, superciliosa, I., 23. 
dilatata, .Btea, II., 137. 
Dimetopia cornuta, I. , 46. 
,, hirta, II., 178. 

,, spicata, I., 46. 

Dinolestes Mdlleri, II., 115; i'ide Lanioperca 

mordax. 
Diplodactylus uiarmoratus, II., 132. 
/)!Sfo;JO»"a. albirostris, II., 167; ride Cellepora. 
dispar, Adeonella, I. , 48 ; mde Eschara. 
„ Eschara, I., 48; vide Adeonella. 
,, Membranipora, I., 26; ride Thairopora. 
,, Tliairopora, I., 26; vide Membranipora. 
dissimilis, Carbasea, I., 45. 
distans, Hippothoa, II., 187. 

,, Membraniporella, 11., 187. 
Diura roseipennis, I., 79; vide Acrophylla vio- 

lascens. 
divaricata, Hippothoa. II., 187. , 

Dog-Fish, Picked, I., 75. 
Dolphin, Yellow-sided, I., 22. 
dorsalis, Cysllij7ialhiis, I., 42; vide Limnody- 
nastes. 
,, Limnodynastes, I., 42. 
Dragon, Leafy Sea-, I., 65. 
Dragonet, Crook-spined, II., 192. 
Dules aurahis, I. , 84 ; ride Ctenolates ambiguus. 
d'Urvilki,? Kudoxyla, I., 30; vide Zeuzera 

(Eudoxyla) Eucalypti. 
Dusky Flat-horned Locust, II., 139. 



Alphabetical Index. 



B. 

Earless Lizard, White-streaked, II., 181. 
Eagle-Ray, Blue-spotted, I., 63. 
Earth- Worm, Australian Giant, I., 7. 
Echiuorhinus obfsiis, II., 144; nde E. spinosus. 

,, spinosus, II., 144. 

Edwardsiana, Crisia, L, 39. 

,, Crisktia, I., 39; vide Crisia. 

Edicard.ii, Palinurus, II., 149, 150; vide 

P. Lalandi. 
Egernia Cunninghami, II., 141. 
Eight-rayed Cushion Star-tish, II., 200. 
Electra amplectens, II., 187. 
„ flagellum, II., 106. 
„ pilosa, I. . 25 ; vide Memhranipora. 
elegans, Carbasea, I., 45. 

,, Catenicella, I., 24. 
elegans, Eschara, I. , 48 ; vide Lepralia quadrata. 
elegans, Lepralia, I., 36. 
elegans, Steganoporella, I., 60; vide S. magni- 

labris. 
Elephant Fish, 11., 112. 
EUerii Lepralia, I., 37 ; vide Mucronella. 
„ Mucronella, I., 37; vide Lepralia. 
elongata, Jletura, I., 40. 

elongatns, Oiketicus, I., 40; vide Metura elongata. 
£'mma. cervicornis, I., 58; Ci'rfc Menipea id. 
. Emys Maequaria, I., 82, S3; vide Chelymys. 
Entometa despecta, I., 40; vide E. ignobilis. 

,, ignobilis, I., 40. 
Ephippitytha macidata, II., 120; vide Phane- 

roptera (Ephippitytha) trigintiduoguttata. 
(Ephippitytha) trigintiduoguttata, Phanerop- 

tera, IL, 120. 
episcopalis, Carbasea, I., 45; vide Euthyris. 
,, Euthyris, I., 45; vide Carbasea. 

Esehara denticulata, I., 48; vide Caleschara. 
,, dispar, I., 48; vide Adeouella. 
,, elegans, I., 48; vidt Lepralia quadrata. 
„ gracilis, I., 48; vide Porina. 
,, mucronata, I. , 48 ; cirfe Adeonellopsis. 
,, obliqua, I., 48; jvWc Parmularia. 
,, platalea, I. , 48 ; (v(/c Adeonella. 
,, quadrata, I., 48; vide Lepralia. 
Escharipora stellata, 11. , 175. 
Esox saurus, II., 135; vide Scomberesox saurus, 

var. Forsteri. ' 
eucalypti, Zeuzera (Eudoxyla), I., 30. 
Eiicratea chelata, 11., 178; vide Scruparia. 
„ Cordieri, II., 108; vide Chlidonia. 
Eudoxyla, d'Urvilki,? I., 30; vide Zeuzera (Eu- 
doxyla) EucaljTDti. 
(Eudo.xyla) Zeuzera Eucalypti, I., 30. 
Euotaria cinerea, I., 31, 71. 
Euthyris episcopalis, I., 45; vide Carbasea. 
excavata, Lepralia, I., 38; vide Mucronella. 
„ Mucronella, I., 38; vide Lepralia. 



F. 

False Delma Lizard,- Fischer's, II., 162. 
falx, Trachypterus, II., 122; vide T. ta;nia. 
Farcimia appendiculata, II. , 178. 
Farciminaria aculeata, II., 158. 
Farciminaria dichotoma, II., 195; vide Verru- 
cularia. 



Farciminaria simplex, II., 158. 
,, uncinata, II., 158. 

farciminoides, Salicoriiaria, I., 49 ; vide Cellaria 

(Jistulosa) Australis. 
fasciatus, Cyclodus, II., 171 ; vide C. occipitalis. 
Fasciculipora bellis, II., 157. 

,, fruticosa, II., 157. 

,, gracilis, II., 157. 

,, ramosa, II., 157. 

ferox, Hiaijtopora, I., 38; vide Lepralia. 
„ Lepralia, I., 38; vide Hiantopora. 
Fesfra affabricata, II., 197; vide Chelepteryx 

Collesi. 
Fischer's False Delma Lizard, IL, 162. 
Fish, Angel, I., 34. 

,, Australian Rough, II. , 114. 

,, Banks' Oar-, II. , 145. 

„ Bleeker's Parrot-, II. , 134. 

„ Craw-, Sydney, IL, 159. 

„ Craw-, Melbourne, IL, 149, 150. 

,, Cray-, Yabber or Yabbie, I., 29. 

,, ,, Yarra Spiny, IL, 160. 

,, Cuttle-, Australian Tooth-cupped, I., 76, 

77. 
,, ,, Gould's Squid, IL, 169, 170. 

i> ., Large Melbourne Sepia, or, XL, 

188, 189, 190. 
,, Dog-, Picked, I., 75. 
„ Elephant, IL, 112. 
,, Gar-, Black-finned Half-beak, or Sea, II. , 

135. 
,, Oar-, Banks', II. , 145. 
„ Parrot-, Bleeker's, IL, 134. 

)) „ Broad-striped, or Senator, IL, 163. 
,, Ribbon-, Southern Silver, II. , 122. 
,, Rough-, Australian, II. , 114. 
,, Saw-, Common Australian, I., 56. 
,, Star-, Eight-rayed Cushion, II. , 200. 
,, ,, Gunns Cushion, IL, 200. 
,, ,, Twelve-plated Shield, IL, 200. 
„ Toad-, Two-pronged, II. , 123. 
,, Yarra Spiny Cray-, II. , 160. 
fissa, Retepora, I., 94, 95. 
Jishdosa, var. Australis, Cellaria, I., 49; vide 

C. Australis. 
flagellum, Electra, II. , 106. 
flagellum, Hippothoa, II. , 187; vide H. distans. 
flagellum, Hoplocephalus, I., 11. 

,, Memhranipora, IL, 106 ; vide Electra. 
Flat-horned Locust, Dusky, II. , 139. 
flavigularis, Cyclodus, I., 72; vide C. gigas. 
Flemingii, Amphiblestrum, II. , 106. 
florea, Spiralaria, I., 46. 
Flosculipora pygma;a, II. , 176. 
Flustra denticulata, I., 45. 
Fluslra Lacroixii, I., 26; inde Membranipora. 
„ lineata, I., 26; IL, 127; vide Membra- 
nipora pyrula. 
„ membranacea, I. , 25 ; vide Membranipora. 
„ memhraniporides, II., m ; vide Cia,sj)e- 

dozoum roboratum. 
„ pilosa, I. , 25 ; vide Electra. 
Flustrella dichotoma, IL, 195 ; I'ide Verrucularia. 
foliacea, Hornera, II. , US. 

,, Retihornera, IL, 118; J>ide Hornera. 
foliata, Cellepora, II. , 166, 168. 
foliatus, Phyllopteryx, I., 65. 



Alphabetical Index. 



foliatus, Syngnathu.i, I., 65; ride Phyllopteryx. 
formosa, Catenicella, I., 24. 

„ Ketepora, I., 94,97. 
Forsteri, Scomberesox saurus, vai\, II., 135. 
fragilis, Biflustra, I., 57; I'ide B. perfragilis. 
Frazeri, Delma, II., 153. 
Frazer's Delma, II., 153. 
Frog, Common Sand-, I., 42. 

,, Green and Golden Bell-, I., 53. 

,, Spotted Marsh-, I., 42. 
fmticosa, Fasciculipora, II., 157. 
funiculata, Menipea, II., 177. 
Furina bicucuUata, I., 32. 
Fui-ina-Snake, Two-hooded, I., 32. 
Fur-Seal or Sea-Bear, I., 31, 71. 
fusca, Catenicella, I., 90. 

,, Cellepora, II., 167, 168. 

Gadopsis gibbosus, I. , 27. 

,, gracilis, I., 27. 
Galens Australis, I. , 64. 
Gar-Fish, Black-finned Half- beak, or Sea, II., 

135 
GasterosteAin saltairix, II., 183; vide Temnodon 

saltator. 
gastroslicta, HLnulia, II., 191; vide H. Quoyi. 
Gecko, Marbled, II., 132. 

,, Thick-tailed, II., 132. 
gemella, Catenicella, II., 146. 
Gemellipora sti'iatula, II., 13S. 
geminata, GateniceUa, I., 24; ride Claviporella. 
,, Claviporella, I., 24; vide Catenicella. 
,, .Stomatopora, II., 176. 
Genypterus Australis, I., 27. 

,, blacodes (?), I., 27; I'ide G. Australis. 

,, tigerinus, I., 27; i'ide G. Australis. 

Georgianus, Arripis, II., 184. 

,, Centropristes, II., 184; vide Arripis. 

Giant Earth-Worm, Australian, I., 7. 
Gibbose Blackfish, I., 27. 
gibbosus, Gadopsis, I., 27. 
gigas, Cancer, II., 179, 180 ; ride Pseudocarcinus. 
,, Cyclodus, I., 72. 
,, Pseudocarcinus, II., 179, 180. 
,, Scincus, I., 72; vide Cyclodus. 
Gippslandica, Perichseta, I., 7. 
Gippsland Perch, I., 14. 

,, Water-Lizard, I., 81. 
Girella simplex, I., 73. 
glabra, Bicellaria, II., 195; vide Stirparia. 
,, Caberea, II., 137- 
,, Stirparia, II., 195. 
Olesne, Regalecus, II., 145; vide R. Banksi. 
glomerata, Cellepora, II., 148, 168; vide Schis- 
mopora. 
,, Schismopora, II., 148, 168; vide Cel- 
lepora. 
glycine, Agarista, I. , 8. 

,, P/ialcenoides, I., 8; vide Agarista. 
Goat Moth, Large Wattle, I., 30. 
Golden Bell-Frog, Green and, I., 53. 

,, Perch, Murray, I., 84. 
Goniocidaris tubaria, I., 100. 
Gouldi, llydrosaurus, II., 151; n'rfe Monitor. 
,, Monitor, 11., 151. 



Gouldi, Ommastrephes, II., 169, 170. 
Gould's Monitor Lizard, II., 151. 

,, Squid, II., 169, 170. 
gracilenta, Catenicella, II., 146. 
gracilis, Cellaria, I., 49. 

,, Eschara, I., 48; vide Porina. 
,, Fasciculipora, II., 157. 
,, Gadopsis, I., 27. 
, , Porina, I. , 48 ; vide Eschara. 
, , Salicornaria, I. , 49 ; i'ide Cellaria. 
Grammatophora barbata, II., 121. 
,, muricata, II., 111. 

,, vide Aniphibolarus. 

grandis, Bicellaria, I., 59. 
,, Caberea, II., 136. 
grandis, Seriola, II., 172; vide S. Lalandi. 
granulata, Retepora, I., 94, 99. 
Grasshopper, Great Green Gum-tree, II., 109. 
,, Smaller Green Gum-tree. II., 119. 

Thii-ty-two Spotted, II., 120. 
Grayi, Debna, II., 153; vide D. Frazeri. 
Great Black, or Manna Cicada, I. , 50. 
, , Green Cicada, I. , 50. 
,, Green Gum-tree Grasshopper, II., 109. 
„ Red King-Crab, II., 179, 180. 
Green and Golden Bell-Frog, I., 53. 
,, Cicada, Great, I. 50. 
,, Cicada, .Great Black or Manna, I., 50. 
,, Gum-tree Grasshopper, Great, II., 109. 
,, Gum-tree Grasshopper, Smaller, U., 119. 
Grilli, Gymnelrus, II., 145; vide Regalecus 

Banksi. 
grisea, Adeona, I. , 66 ; vide Dictyopora. 
,, Dictyopora,!., 66; vide Adeona,. 
Gj-j/^^to- Australis, II., 140; iv'rfe Tropinotus. 
,, musicii.':, II., 110; ride (Edipoda musica. 
,, pictus, II., 110; vide ffidipoda musica. 
Orystes Macquariensis, I. , 85, 86 ; ride Oligorus. 
Peeli, I., 85, 86; vide Oligorus Mac- 
quariensis. 
Gum-tree Grasshopper, Great Green, II., 109. 

,, ,, Smaller Green, II., 119. 

(rjoijicn, Cetorhinus, II., 104; i-tde C. maximus. 
Gunni, Asterina, II., 200. 
Gunn's Cushion Star-fish, II., 200. 
Gui-nard, Spiny-sided Butterfly, I. , 5. 

,, Kumu, I., 6. 
Gurnet-Perch, Banded Red, I., 33. 

Spotted Red, II., 193. 
Oymnetrus Banksi, II., 145; vide Regalecus. 
,, Crilli,\l.,\i5; c/rfe Regalecus Banksi. 

,, Hawhnsi, II., 145; vide Regalecus 

Banksi. 
Gymuobelideus Leadbeateri, I., 91. 

H. 

Half-beak or Sea Garfish, Black-finned, II., 135. 

Hammer-lieaded Shark, I., 56. 

Hannafordi, Catenicella, I., 24. 

Harpalyce, Papilio, I., 9; vide Pieris (Thyca) 

Pieris (Thyca), I., 9. 
Hassallii, Cellepora, II., 148; vide Schismopora 

Costazei. 
hastata, Catenicella, I., 24. 
Hawkinsi, Oymnetrus, II., 145; vide Regalecus 

Banksi. 



Alphabetical Index. 



Hemiramphus intermedius, II., 135. 

„ melanochir, U., 135; vide H. in- 

termedius. 
heptacanlhiis, ChilocUpterus. II., 183; vide Tem- 
nodon saltator. 
Temnodon, II., 183; vide T. sal- 
tator. 
(Heptanchus) Notidanus Indicus, I., 43 
Heterodoutus Phillipi, 11., 113. 
Heteroscarus Macleayi, II., 164. 
heteruru.s, Amphiholurm, I., SI; vide Physig- 

nathus Lesueri, var. Howitti. 
Hiantopora ferox, I. , 38 ; vide Lepralia. 
Kmuha. gastrodicta, II., 191; videB.. Qiioyi. 
,, Lizard, Quoy's, II., 191. 
.> i> White's, 11., 191. 

Quoyi, II., 191. 
,, Whitei, II., 191. 
Hippocampus breviceps, I. , 65. 
hippocrepis, Ba/ls/es, II., 125; vide Monacanthus. 

,, Monacanthus, II., 125. 

Hippot/ioa ca,ten\ilaTia., II., 106; (•j'rfe Pyripora. 

,, crassa, II., 106,- vide Pyripora. 

Hippothoa distans, II., 187. 
,, divaricata, II., 187. 

flagellum, II., 187; vide H. distans. 
„ Patagonica, II., 187; vide H. divari- 

cata. 
hu-suta, Cellaria, I., 49. 

Onchopora, I. , 49 ; vide Tubucellaria. 
,., Sabcornaria,!., 4Q; nrfe Cellaria. 
,, Tubucellaria, I., 49. 
hirta, Dimetopia, II., 178. 
Homtanu.t, Cetorhinus, II., 104; vide C. maxi- 

mu3. 
Hooded Furina-Snake, Two-, I., 32. 
Hoplocephalus coronoides, I., 11. 
,1 curtus, I., 3. 

,, fiagellum, I., 11. 

,, superbus, I., 2. 

Hornera foliacea, II., 118. 
,, robusta, II., 118. 
Horse Mackerel, I., 18. 

Horse-shoe-marked Leather-Jacket, II l^s 
Horse, Sea-, Short-headed L, 65. 
Hound, Australian Smooth-, I., 87. 
Howitti, Physignathus Lesueri, va,v., I., 81 
Hugeli, Palinurus, IL, 159. 

hyalina, Lepralia, I., 38; IL, 186; rjrfe Schizo- 
porella hyalina, var. pellucida. 
,> var. pellucida, Schizoporella, I., 38; 
II., ISd; vide Lepralia hyalini),. 
Hydraspis Amtra/is, I., 82, 83; wrfe Chelymys 

Macquaria. 
Hydrosaurus Gouldi, II. , 151; vide Monitor. 
Hydrosaurus varius, I., 41. 
Hyla Jacksoniensis, L, 53; ride Ranoidea aurea 
Hysteropus Nova; HoUandiie,ll., 152, 153; vide 

Pygopus lepidopus. 
hyatrix, Lekythopora, II. , 156. 

I. 

Ibacus Crab, P^ron's, II. , 199. 

„ incistis, IL, 199; videl. Peronii. 

,, Peronii, IL, 199. 
Idmonea Auatralis, I., 68. 



Idraonea Milneana, I. , 68. 

,, radians, I., 68. 
ignobilis, Entometa, L, 40. 
Iguana, I., 41. 

impar, Pseudodelma, II. , 162. 
imperforata, Claviporella, II. , 146. 
iuarmata, Amathia, II. , 185. 

,, , Membranipora, IL, 127. 
indsus, Ibacus, II. , 199; inde I. Peronii. 
incrassata, var., Schizoporella, II. , 186; vide S. 

hyalina. 
Indicus, Notidanus (Heptanchus), I., 43. 
indivisa, Carbasea, I., 45. 

innominata, Cribrilina, II. , 187; vide C. radiata. 
mtermedia, Beania, II., 195. 

,, Catenicella, I., 24, 89. 

„ Cellepora, II. , 166. 

,, -D''«c/(oW.s, IL, 195; I'fWe Beania. 

mtermedius, Hemiramphus, IL, 135. 
iodomus, Tropidoderus, I., 69, 70. 
iris ij), Trachypterus, II. , 122; vide T. ta;nia. 
Lftiiirus Lesueri, I., 81; i-ide Physignathus 
Itea, Pyrameis, II. , 198. 



Jaeksoniensift, Agama, IL, 111 ; vide Grammato- 
phora muricata. 
• ' > Hyla, I. , 53 ; vide Ranoidea aurea. 

,, Ranoidea, I., 53; vide R. aurea. 

Jervoisu, Steganoporella, IL, 196; vide Thairo- 
pora. 
,, Thairopora, II., 196. 
Jew Lizard, II., 121. 



K. 

Keel -backed Locust, Cinnamon, II. , 140. 
Kershawi, Cynthia, II. , 198; vide Pyrameis. 

,, Pyrameis, IL, 198. 

King-Crab, Great Red, IL, 179, 180. 
Kumu Gurnard, I., 6. 
„ Trigla, L,6. 



L. 

Labrichthys Bleekeri, IL, 134. 

,, laticlavius, II., l63. 

Lace Lizard, I., 41. 

Lacerla muricata, IL, 111 ; vide Grammatophora. 
,, sincokles, I., 12; vide Cyclodus gigas. 
,, . I'ai-i'a, I., 41; mrfe Hydrosaurus varius. 
Lacroixu (?), Flustra, I., 26; vide Membrani- 
pora id.' 
,, Membranipora, I., 26. 
Isvis, Catenicella, var., I., 24; vide C. plagios- 
toma. 
,, Mucronella, IL, 116. 
Lagenipora nitens, II. , 156. 

,, tuberculata, II. , 156. 

Lalandi, Palinurus, II. , 149, 150. 

,, Seriola, II. , 172. 
lamia, Carcharodon, I., 74; vide C. Rondeletii 
Lanioperca mordax, II. , 115. 
Laplacei, Saiurnia, II. , 197; vide Chelepteryx 
Collesi. 



Alphabetical Index. 



Large Melbourne Sepia, or Cuttle -Fish, II., 188, 
189, 190. 
,, Pink-winged Phaama, I., 80. 
,, Wattle Goat-Moth, I., 30. 
larvalis, Lepralia, I., 37; vide Porina. 
,, Porina, I., 37; vide Lepralia. 
lata, var. diadema, Microporella, II., 175. 

,, Schizoporella, II., 138. 
Lates colonorum, I., 14. 
,, antarcticus, I., 14. 
laticlavius, Labrichthys, II., 163. 
latisinuata, Schizoporella, II., 186. 
latistylus, Mantis, II., 1.30. 
(laxa, var. ) Ketepora porccUana, I. , 94, 95. 
Leadbeateri, Gymnobelideus, I., 91. 
Leafy Sea-Dragon, I., G.'i. 

Leather- Jacket, Brown's Tooth-brush, II., 124. 
,, Horse-shoe-marked, II., 125. 

Pi^ron's, II., 143. 
Leathery Turtle, or Luth, II., 101. 
Lekythopora hystrix, II., 156. 
Leopard Seal, Sea-, I., 21. 
lepidopodiui, Bipes, II., 152, 153; vide Pygopus 

lepidopus. 
lepidopus, Pygopus, II., 152, 153. 
Lepidotrigla Vanessa, I. , 5. 
Lepralia anceps, I., 35. 

Lepralia Botryoides, I., 38; ride Schizoporella. 
,, Brogniartii, I , 36; ride Chorizopora. 
„ canaliculata, 1 , 37 ; II , 175; vide Micro- 
porella diadema, var. canaliculata. 
,, Cecilii, I. , 35; ci'rft Schizoporella. 
,, (CeWe^oj-a) megasoma, I., 38; II., 148, 

168; OT'rfe .Schisuiopora. 
„ „ tiara, II., 148, 168; vide 

Schismopora. 
vitrea, L, 38; IL, 148, 168; 
vide Schismopora. 
Lepralia, cheilodon, I., 37. 
Lepralia ciliata, I., 37; H., 175; vide Micro- 
porella. 
, , circinata, I. , 35 ; vide Schizoporella. 
,, cri/slalliiia, I., 35; vide Schizoporella 

Cecilii, I., 35. 
,, diadema, I., 37; IL, 175; vide Micro- 
porella. 
,, diaphana, I., 35; vide Mncronella. 
Lepralia elegans, I. , 36. 
Lepralia EUerii, I. , 37 ; vide Mucronella. 
„ excavata, I., 38 ; iv'rfe Mucronella. 
,, ferox, I., 38 ; ride Hiantopora. 
,, hyalina, I., 38; II. ,186: niV/p Schizo- 
porella hyalina, var. pellucida. 
,, larvalis, I., 37 ; vide I'orina. 
,, longipora, II., 116; )'((/e Cyclicopora. 
,, lunata, I., 36; II., 175; vide Micro- 
porella diadema. 
,, magnirostris, II. , 175; vide Tessara- 

doma. 
,, Malusii, I., 36; II., 175; vide Micro- 
porella. 
,, Maplestonci, I., 35; I'iV/e Schizoporella. 
„ marsupium, I., 35; vide Porella. 
,, monoceros, L, 38; IL, 187; vide 

Cribrilina. 
,, mucronata, I., 48; vide A deonellopais 
(Eschara). 



Lepralia Pallasiana, I., 36; vide L. pertu.ia. 
Lepralia papillifera, I. , 37 ; vide Porella. 

,, pellucida, I., 38; IL, 186; ci'de Schizo- 
porella hyalina, var. pellucida. 
Lepralia /ifWH.vn, I., ,36; vide L. Pallasiana. 

,, quadrata, I., 48; vide Enchara. 
Lepralia schizostoma, I , 38; mfe Schizoporella. 
,, striatula, II., 138; vide Gemellipora. 
,, subimmersa, I. , 35; t'fVfc Schizoporella. 
,, trifoliuni, I., 37 ; ride Amphiblestrum. 
,, vittata, I. 36; jv'rfe Chorizopora. 
leptonyx, Phoca, I., 21; vide Stenorhyhchus. 

,, Stenorhynchns, I., 21. 

leptorhyncha, Lialis, II. , 161 ; vide L. Burtoni. 
Lesueri, Physignathus, vai\ Howitti, I., 81. 
,, Ixfivruji, 1., Si; )7(/e Physignathus. 
,, Lo/ihnra, I., 81 ; vide Physignathus. 
lencop.v'.'i, 7'iliqua, II., 191; n'de Huiulia Whitei. 
Lewini, Agarista, I., 8. 
Lewin's Day-Moth, I.. 8. 
Lialis hicafviiata, II., 161 ; vide L. Burtoni. 
,, Burtoni, II., 161. 
,, Burton's, II., 161. 

,, ieptorhyncha, II., 161 ; vide L. Burtoni. 
,, Lizard, Burton's, II. , 161. 
,, punetulata. II., 161 ; vide L. Burtoni. 
Lichenopora buUata, II. , 176. 

,, niagnifica, II. , 176. 

Lictoi» Case- Moth. I., 40. 
ligulatum, Craspedozoum, II. , 177. 
Limnodynastes dorsalis, I. , 42. 

,, Tasmanieusis, I., 42. 

lineala Membranipora, I., 26; II. , 127; vide 
M. pyrula. 
„ Flnslra, I., 26; IL, 127; vide Mem- 
branipora pyrula. 
lineata, Tympauocryptis, II., 181. 
Ling, Australian Rock, I., 27. 
Lined Aprasia Lizard, II. , 162. 
liiHO-ipittatus, Monacantlms, IL, 124; vide M. 

Browni. 
lipped Snake, White-, I., U. 
lirata, Cellepora, II., 167, 168. 
Little Whip-Snake, L, 11. 
Lizard, Aprasia, Lined, II., 162. 
„ Bearded, II., 121. 
,, Blood-sucker, II. , 111. 
,, Blue-tongue, Sleepy or Northern, I., 72. 
,, ,, Southern or Blotched, II. , 

131. 
,, Broad-banded or Occipifcil Blue-tongue, 

II., 171. 
,, Burton's Lialis, II. , 161. 
,, Dclnia, Fischer's False, IL, 162. 
,, ,, Iguana, I., 41. 

,, Gippslanil Water Lizard, I., 81. 
,, Gould's Mouitor, II., 151. 
,, Hinulia, Quoy's, II., 191. 

White's, IL, 191. 
,, ,, Frazer's, IL, 153. 

,, Iguana, I., 41. 
„ Jew, IL, 121. 
,, Lace, I., 41. 
,, Lined Aprasia, II., 162. 
,, Monitor, Gould's, II., 151. 
,, Miiricaled, II. , 111; vide Blood-sucker. 
,, Northern Blue-tougued, I., 72. 



Alphabetical Index. 



Lizard, Pygopus, 11, 152,' 153. 
,, Quoy's Himilia, II., 191. 
„ Shmgle-back, Rugged Stump-tail, or, 

,, Sleepy, Northern Blue-tongue, or, I., 72. 
>• >> Southern Blotched Blue-tont^ue 

or, II., 1.31. ° ' 

„ Southern, or Blotched Blue-tonsue 
II., 1.31. * ' 

>> Spiny-ridged, II., 141. 
„ Stump-tail, Kugged, or Shingle Back, 

., Water-, Gippsland, I., 81. 
,, White's Hinulia Lizard, IL, 191. 
,, White-streaked Earless, II., 181 
hhatm, SqimliLs L, 43; vich Crossorhinus bar- 

batus. 
Lobster, Murray, I., 15. 

), Southern Rock, 11., 149, 150. 
„ Southern Spiny (Melbourne Craw-fish) 
IL, 149, 150. '' 

Sydney Spiny, or Sydney Craw-fish, 
IL, 159. 
Locust, Australian Yellow- winged, IL, 110. 
,, Cinnamon Keel-backed, II. , 140. 
,, Dusky Flat-horned, II. , 139. 
,, Pedestrian Mid-eyed, II. , 139. 
Locusta vigentissima, II. , 109. 
Long-fingered Chilodactylus, II., 173, 174 
longicoUis, Chelodina, I., 92, 93. 

Tcsludo, I., 92. 93 ; vide Chelodina. 
longipora, Cyclicopora, II. , 116. 

,, .-^<7''-«^«,n., 116; iw/e Cyclicopora. 
longirostris, Rhyuchopora, II. , 196. 
(longispina. var.), diadema, Microporella, II , 175 
Long-necked River Tortoise, I., 92 93 
Long-tailed Shark, Thresher or, I., 88 
Long-toothed Bull Shark, or Shovel-nosed 

Shark, L, 64. 
Lophura, Istiurm, I., 81; vide Physignathus 
Lesueri, var. Howitti. 
Lesueri, I., 81; vide Physignathus 
Lesueri, var. Howitti. 
Loranthus Day-Moth, I., 8. 
lorica, Cateuicella, L, 24. 
Lotella eallarias, I. 19. 
lucida, Callj/mmophom, II. , 105; vide Urceoli- 

pora nana. 
Ludrick, I., 7,3. 

lunata, Lepralia, I., 36; II. , 175; vide Micro- 
porella diadema. 

lunata (var. ), Retepora monilifera, form munita, 

!•, 94, 96. 
(lunipuncta, var.), diadema, Microporella, II 

1/5. ■' 

Luth, or Leathery Turtle, IL, 101. 
Lycjosoma molininera, IL, 191; vide Hinulia 
Whitei. 

„ Quoyi, IL, 191, OTcic Hinulia. 

lyra, Te.'iludo, II. , 101; vide Sphargis coriacea. 

M. 

Maccoyi Thynnus, L, 44; vide T. thynnus. 
Mackerel, Commerson's, IL, 154. 

,, Horse, I., 18. 

,, Southern, I., 28. 



Macquaria, Chelymys, I., 82, 83. 

Emy.H, I., 82, 83; ride Chelymys 

„ , •P''«<e'»2/*',L,S2, 83; ride Chelymys 
Marrjuariemi,, Ctenolales, I., 84; vide C. am- 

biguus. 
Macquariensis, Oligorus, I., 85, 86. 

M. 1 "■ Ti . ^''^'''s.!-. 85,86; ^iWe Oligorus. 

Macleayi, Heteroscarus, II. , 164. 

Macleay's Wrasse, II. , 164 ' 

maadata Ephippitytha, IL, 120; vide Phane- 

roptera (Ephippitytha) trigintiduoguttata. 
Magellamca, Beania, I., 46; vide Diaclioris. 
„ Diachoris, I., 46 ; ride Beania. 

magnifaca, Lichenopora, II., 176 
magnilabris, Membranipora, I., 60; vide Ste- 
ganoporella. 
,, Steganoporella, I., 60. 

magnirostris Cellepora, II. , 167, 168. 

Lepralia, II. , 175; vide Tessara- 

doma. 
Porina, II. , 1 75 ; vide Tesaaradoma. 
,, lessaradoma, IL, 175. 

malleus, Zyga?ua, I., 56. 

Malusii, Lepralia, I., 36; IL, 175; vide Micro- 
porella. 
Alicroporella, L, 36; II. , 175; vide 

Lepralia. 
var. personata, Microporella, II. , 175- 
vide Lepralia. ' 

„ var. thyreophora, Microporella, II. , 
175; ride Lepralia. 
mamillaris, Membranipora, I., 25; II. , 196- 
vide Thairopora. 
Thairopora, I., 25; IL, 196; vide 
Membranipora. 
Manna Cicada, Great Black or, I., 50 
Mantis, Broad-styled, IL, 1.30. 

,, latistylus, II. , 130. 
Maplestonia cirrata, II. , 126. 
Maplestonei, Lepralia, I., 35; wWe Schizoporella. 
HT 1.," , r, '^chizoporella, I., 35 ; vide Lepralia. 
Marbled Gecko, IL, 132. 
margaritacea, Catenicella, I., 24. 
marfjinata, Perca, I., 16, 17; vide Arripis trut- 

taceus. 
marmoratus, Diplodactylus, II. , 132 
Marsli-Frog, Spotted, I., 42. 
marsupiata, Retepora, I., 94, 95; vide R. fissa 
marsupmm, Lepralia, I., 35; vide Porella. 
Porella, I., 35; vide Lejwalia. 
marmpium, Schizoporella, IL, 138; vide S. 

Ridleyi. 
maxima, Selache, II. , 104; vide Cetorhinus 

maximus. 
maximus, Cetorhinus, II. , 104. 

,, 'S'<;mte.s, IL, 104; rirfe Cetorhinus. 
Megascolides Australia, I., 7. 
megaaoma, Cellepora (Lepralia), I., 38; II. , 
148, 168 ; vide Schismopora. 
,, Schismopora, L, 38; II. , 148, 168; 

ride Cellepora (Lejyralia). 
melanochir, Hemiramphus, II. , 135; vide H. 

intermedius. 
Melbourne Crawfish, IL, 149, 150. 
,, Pelamyd, II. , 155. 

,, Sepia or Cuttle-Fish, Large, IL, 188 

189, 190. 



Alphabetical Index. 



II., 106; vide. Pyri- 
I., 25; vide. Amphi- 



membranaoea, Fluxlra, I., 25; vide Membrani- 
pora. 
, , Mcmbranipora, I. , 25. 

Membranipora acifera, II., 127; vide M. 

serrata. 
Membranipora amplectens, II., 187; vide 
Electra. 
„ bimamillata, II., 106; vide Bi- 

flustra. 
,, cateuularia, 

pora. 
■,, cervicornis, 

blestruin. 

,, ciliata, I., 25; II., 127; vide 

Amphiblestrum oiliatum 
Membranipora corbula, II., 127. 
Membranipora coriacea, II., 196; vide Micro- 
pora. 
,, dispar, I., 26 ; vide Thairopora. 

,, flageUum, II., 106; (vWc Electra. 

Membranipora inarmata, II., 127. 
,, Lacroixii (?), I., 26. 

„ /ineala, I., 26; II., 127; vide 

M. pyniia. 
Membranipora niagnilabris, I., 60; vide Stegano- 
porolla. 
,, mamillaris, I., 25; II., 196 ; vide 

Tliairopora. 
Membranipora membranacea, I., 25. 
Membranipora niteus, II., 106 ; vide Bathypora 
(pornllnna) nitens. 
,, papulifera, II., 106; vide Bi- 

ilustra. 
,, patilhtria,l\.,\V] ; w'rfeAmphi- 

bk'stnnn pateUarium. 
Memln'anipora peetinata, II., 127. 
Membranipora perforata, I. , 25, 36 ; vide Micro- 
pora. 
,, permunita, II., 106; vide Amphi- 

blestrum penViunituiii. 
,, pilosa, I., 25 : riilc Electra. 

,, polita, II., 100; vide I'yripora. 

,, porri'l/iiiin, II., 106; ('/(/c Bathy- 

pora nitens. 
Membranipora pynila, I., 26 ; II., 127; vide M. 

liiieala. 
Membranipora raflicifcra, II., U7; vide Beania. 
,, robonita, II., 177; vide Craspe- 

<lozouin roboratnm. 
,, Honxflii, I., 26; vide Amphi- 

blestrum Inirsariuni. 
Membranipora serrata, II., 127. 
,, spinosa, II., 127. 

Membranipora umbonata, I., 26; ride Amplii- 
blcstrum iimbonatuni. 
,, Woodsii, I. , 2() ; ride Tliairopora. 

Membraniporella distans, 11., IS7. 
membraniporiile.i, Fluxtra, II., 177; vidr Craspe- 

do/.oiiiu rolKjratum. 
Mcnipea, henemnnila, (?) II., 177; ride W. funi- 
culata. 
Biiskii, I., 58. 
cervicornis, I., 58. 
crystallina, I., 58. 
cyathus, I., 58. 
funiculata, II., 177. 
triccllata, I. , 58. 



mercurialis, Sphargis, II., 101 ; vide S. coriacea. 
mercurii, Sphargis, II., 101; vide S. coriacea. 
Mcsops pedestris, II., 139. 
Metura elougata, I., 40. 
microlepidota, Diemenia, I., 23. 
Micropora coriacea, II., 196. 

,, perforata, I., 25, 36; vide Membrani- 
pora. 
Microporella canaliculata (var.), diadema, I., 37 ; 
II., 175; vide Lepralia canalicu- 
lata. 
,, ciliata, I., 37; II., 175; vide 

Lepralia. 
,, ,, var. personata, 11., 175. 

,, ,, ,, spicata, II., 175. 

,, diadema, I., 37; II., 175; vide Le- 

pralia. 
,, „ var. canaliculata, I., 37 ; 

II., 175; vide Le- 
pralia canalicu- 
lata. 
,, lata, II., 175. 
,, ,, ,, longispina, II., 175. 

,, ,, ,, lunipuncta, II., 175. 

,, lata (var.), diadema, II., 175. 

,, longispina (var.), diadema, II., 175. 

,, lunipuncta (var.), diadema, II., 175. 

,, Malusii, I., 36; II., 175; vide 

Lepralia. 
,, ,, var. personata, II., 175. 

,, ,, ,, tliyreophora, II., 175. 

,, renipuncta, II., 175. 

,, scandens, II., 175. 

^^icroporeUa stcWuta,, II., 175; I'/rfe Escharipora. 
Mid-eyed Locust, Pedestrian, II., 139. 
Mili.^i, Aulopus, I., ,'54, 55; ride A. purpurisatus. 
Miliusii, Phyllurus, II., 132. 
Milneana, Idmonea, I., 68. 
mirabilis, Beania, II., 116. 
nuvrcns. Cicada, I., !iO. 
moliuiijera, I^yijo.ioma, II., 191; ride Hinulia 

■\Vhitei. 
Mollia palellarin, II., 117; iv'de Amphiblestrum 

pati'llarium. 
Miilleri, Dolma, II., 153; vide D. Frazeri. 
Monacantlius Browni, II., 124. 

,, Hippocrepis, II., 125. 

,, lineoipillalii.i, II., 124 ; vide M. 

Browni. 
Peronii, II., 14.3. 
monilifera, Retepora, I., 94, 96, 97. 

,, ,, form niunita, var. acuti- 

rostris, I., 94, 96. 
,, ,, form munita, var. lunata, 

I., 94, 96. 
,, ,, var. sinuata, I., 94, 96. 

,, ,, form umbonata, I., 94.97. 

Monitor Couldi, II., 151. 
Monitor Lizard, (lould's, II., 151. 
nionoceros, Cribrilina, I., 38; II., 187; ride 
Lepralia. 
Lepralia, I., .38; II., 187; vide 
Cribrilina. 
mordax, Laniopcrca, II., 115. 
Morelia variegata, I., 13. 
Moth, Goat., Large Wattle, I., 30. 
,, Lewiu's Day-, I., 8. 



Alphabetical Index. 



Moth, Lictor Case-, I., 40. 
„ Lorautluis Day-, I., S. 
,, Saundeis' Case-, I., 40. 
,, Vine Day-, I., S. 
mueronata, Aileouellopsis, I., 4S; I'ide Eschara 
(Lepralla). 
„ Eschara (Ltpralia), I., 4S; vide 

Adeonellopsis. 
,, Lepi-a/ia, I., 48; vide Adeo- 

nellopsis {E>ichara). 
Mucronclla diaphana, I., 35; ride Lepralia. 
„ Ellerii, I., 37; vide Lepralia. 
,, excavata, I.. 38 ; vide Lepralia. 

lanis, II., UG. 
,, 7>iit>ula, II,, 116; tn'de M. tricuspis. 
Mucroneila pyrifovmis, II., 158; vide Brace- 

bridgia. 
Mucroneila tricuspis, 11., 116. 

„ vultur, II., 116. 

MiUleri, Ditiolestef, II., 115; vide Lanioperca 

mordax. 
multiradiata, Xeosphyrana, II., 115; ride 

Lanioperca mordax. 
mimita (form), Retepora monilifera, var. acuti 
rostris, I., 94, 96. 
,, (form), Retepora (monilifera, var. lunata) 
I., 94, 96. 
munita, Mucroneila, II., 116; vide M. tricuspis 
muricata, Grammatophora, II., 111. 

,, Lat-erta, II., Ill; tnde Grammato 
phora. 
Muricatcd Lizard, II., Ill; vide Grammato 

phora murica'ta. 
Murray Cod-Perch, I., 85, 86. 
„ Golden Perch, I., 84. 
,, Lobster, I., 15. 
,, Tortoise, I., 82, 83. 
musica, ffidipoda, II., 110. 
mu>iicu<:, Oryl/iDi, II., 110 ; vide Olldipoda 

musica. 
Mustelus Aiitarcticus. I., 87. 
Myliobatis Australis, I., 63. 



N. 

A'^o/o Australis, II., 142: ride Pseudechys. 

,, ciirta, I., 3 ; vide Hoploceplialus curtus. 
nana, Urceolipora, II., 105. 
Nautilus, Paper, or Tuberculated Argonaut, 

L, 61, 62. 
Nellia oculata, I., 49. 
Neosebastes scorpseuoides, II., 193. 
^ieosphijnriia miil/iradiala, II., 115; vide Lani- 
operca mordax. 
neritina, Bugula, I., 59. 
Netted Acripeza, 11., 129. 
nigrcscens, Ani/ios, II., 103; t'«<?e T)'phlops. 

Typhlops, II., 103. 
nigroluteus, Cyclodus, II., 131. 

,, iS^('h''h.<, IL, 131 ; I'ide Cyclo- 

dus. 
nitens, Bathypora, II., 106 ; i^ide Memhranipora 
niteus and Batliypora porcellana. 
,, Lagenipora, II., 156. 
nodosa, Argonauta, I., 61, 62 ; vide A. oryzata. 



Northern Blue-tongued Lizard, I., 72. 
Notidanus (Heptanchus) Indicus, I., 43. 
Nova;-HoUandia', Chelodiua, I., 92, 93; ride 

C. longicollis. 
„ Hysferopm, IL, 152, 153; 

vide Pygopus lepidopus. 
Novie-Zealandioe, Delphinus.I. , 22. 
nudipinnis. Pristiophorus, I., 56. 



Oar-Fish, Banks', II. , 145. 

obexti.t, Eehinorhinus, II. , 144 ; vide E. spinosus. 

obliqua, E.ieharn, I., 48; vide Parmularia. 

,, Parmularia. I., 48; ride Ene/iara. 
obtecta, Scrupocell.-iria, II., 126. 
Occipital Blue-Tongue Lizard, Broad-banded 

or, IL, 171. 
occipitalis, Cyclodus, II. , 171. 
oetoijona, Asterias, var., IL, 200 ; ride Asterina 

calcar. 
oi-toUneala, Aprasia, II. , 162; vide A. pulohella. 
Octopus raricyatkm, I., 61, 62; vide Argonauta 

oryzata. 
oculata, Nellia, I., 49. 
Ocylhoc rarkyathm, I., 61, 62; vide Argonauta 

oryzata. 
Odontaspis taurus, I., 64. 
O^dipoda musica, IL, 110. 
Ottioeri, Khodona, L, 51. 

Oikdicus c/oiiijatits. I. , 40 ; vide Metura elongata. 
,, Saunderxi,!., 40; ri'rfe Metura elougata. 
Oligorus Macquaricusis, I. , 85, 86. 
olivacea Cicada, I. , 50 ; vide Cyclochila Aus- 
tralasia;. 
,, Cyclochila, L, 50 ; ride C. Australasia;. 
Ommastrephes Gouldi, II. , 169, 170. 
Oncliopora liirsuta, I., 49 ; )•/(/(' Tubuccllaria. 
Opercula of Retepora aurantiaca, I. , 94. 
,, ,, avicularis, I., 94. 

,, ,, carinata, I., 94. 

,, ,, tissa, I. ,94. 

,, ,, formosa, I., 94. 

,, ,, granulata, I., 94. 

,, ,, monilifera, I., 94. 

,, ,, ,, form munita, 

var. acutiros- 
tris, I., 94. 
)> ,, ,, form munita, 

var. lunata, 
I., 94. 
,, ,, , ,, var. sinuata, 

L, 94. 
,, ,, ,, form umbonata, 

L,94. 
,, ,, Phcenicea, I., 94. 

,, ,, porcellana, I., 94. 

>, ,, ,, var. laxa, I.,94. 

,, ,, scrrata, L, 94. 

,, ,, tesscUata, L, 94. 

Opsomala sordida, II. , 1.30. 
ornatum, Calpidium, II., 108. 
ornithorhyuclnis, Scrupocellaria, II. , 126. 
oryzata, Argonauta, I., 61, 62. 
Otaria cinerea, I., 31, 71; vide Euotaria. 



Alphabetical Index. 



pachnoidea, Schizoporella, II., 186. 
Painted-Lady Butterfly, Blue-spotted, II., 198. 
Palinurus Edwardsi, II., 149, 150; vide P. 
Lalandi. 
„ Hugeli, II., 159. 

Lalandi, II., 149, 150. 
„ Paidensis, II., 149, 150; vide P. 

Lalandi. 
,, tumidiis, II., 1.59 ; vide P. Hiigeli. 

Pallasiana, Lepralla, I., 36 ; vide L. pertuna. 
Paper-Nautilus, Tuberculated Argonaut, or, 

L, 61, 62. 
Papilio Aganippe, I., 10; vide Pieris (Thyca). 
,, Harpalyce, I., 9; iride Pieris (Thyca). 
papillifera, Lepralia, I., 37; vide Porella. 
,, Porella, I., 37; vide Lepralia. 

papulifera, Biflustra, II., 106. 

,, Membranipora, II., 106; vide Bi- 
flustra. 
Parraularia obliqua, I., 48 ; vide Esckara. 
Parrot-fish, Bleeker's, II., 134. 

„ Broad-striped, or Senator, II., 163. 

Patagonica, Hippothoa, II. , 187 ; vide H. divari- 

cata. 
patellaria, DiacJioris, II., 117; vide Amphi- 
blestrum patellarium. 
,, Membraniporayn.jWJ ; CTdeAmphi- 

blestrum patellarium. 
, , Mollia, II. , 1 1 7 ; vide Amphiblestrum 

patellarium. 
patellarium, Amphiblestrum, II., 117. 
patina, Diastopora, II., 147. 
Paidensis, Palinurus, II., 149, 150; mde P. 

Lalandi. 
pectinata, Membranipora, II., 127. 
Pedestrian Mid-eyed Locust, II., 139. 
pedestris, Mesops, II., 139. 
Peeli, Grysles, I., 85, 86; vide Oligorus Mac- 

quariensis. 
Pelamyd, Melbourne, II., 155. 
Pelamys Schlegeli, II., 155. 
pellucida, hyalina var., Schi2oporeUa, I., 38; 
II., 186; I'j'de Lepralia. 
,, Lepralia, hyalina var., I., 38; II., 

186; vide Schizoporella. 
Pentagonaster (Tosia) aurata, II., 200. 
Perca marginata, I., 16, 17; vide Arripis 
truttaceus. 
„ trii-lla, I., 16, 17; cide Arripia truttaceus. 
Perch, Banded Red Gurnet-, I., 33. 
,, Gippsland, I., 14. 
„ Murray Cod-, L, 85,.86. 
,, ,, Golden, I., 84. 

„ Spotted Red Gurnet-, II., 193. 
percoides, Scorpcena, I. , 33 ; vide Sebastcs. 

,, Sebastes, I., 33. 

perforata, Catenicella, I., 24. 

, , Membranipora, I. , 25, 36 ; vide Micro- 

pora. 
,, Micropora, I., 25, 36; vide Mem- 

branipora id. 
perfragilis, Biflustra, I., 57. 
Perichasta Gippslandica, I. , 7. 
permunila, Membranipora,\\., 106; mde Amphi- 
blestrum permunftum. 



permunitum Amphiblestrum, II., 106. 
Perouii, Ibacus, II., 199. 

,, Monacanthus, II., 143. 
P^ron's Ibacus Crab, II., 199. 

,, Leather-jacket, II., 143. 
(personata, var.) Microporella ciliata, I., 37; 
IL, 175. 
,, ,, Microporella Malusii, II., 175; 

vide Lepralia. 
perlusa, Lepralia, I., 36; vide L. Pallasiana. 
Petralia undata, I., 60. 
Pha/anoides glycine, I. , 8 ; vide Agarista. 
Phaneroptera (Ephippitytha) trigintiduogut- 
tata, II., 120. 
,, valida, II., 119. 

Phasma, Red-shouldered, I., 69, 70. 
,, Large Pink-winged, I., 80. 
Phasma violascens, I., 79 ; vide Acrophylla. 
Phasma, Violet-shouldered, I., 69, 70. 

,, Violet- winged, I., 79. 
Phillipi, Ceslracioii, II., 113; vide Heterodontus. 
,, Heterodontus, II. , 113. 
,, Sijiialns, II. , 113; vide Heterodontus. 
Phoca leptonyx, I., 21 ; vide Stenorhynchus. 
Phojnicea, Retepora, I., 94, 98. 
Phylloptery.x altus, I., 65. 

,, foliatus, I., 65. 

Phyllurus Miliusii, II., 132. 
Physiguathus Lesueri, var. Howitti, I., 81. 
Picked Dog-Fish, L, 75. 

picfus, Gryllus, II., 110; i-ide ffidipoda musica. 
Pieris (Thyca) Aganippe, I., 10. 
,, ,, Harpalyce, I., 9. 

Pike, Saury, II., 135. 

,, Skipjack, II., 115. 
pilosa, Electra, I. , 25 ; vide Membranipora. 
,, Flmira, I., 25; vide Electra. 
,, Membranipora, I., 25; vide Electra. 
Pink-winged Phasma, Large, I., 80. 
pisciformis, Carbasea, I., 45. 
plagiostoma, Catenicella, I., 24. 

,, ,, var. lajvis, I., 24. • 

,, ,, var. setigera, I., 24. 

Plain Whiting, II. , 182. 
platalea, Adeonella, I., 48 ; vide Eschara. 

„ Cel/cpora, II., 148, 168; vide Schismo- 

pora. 
„ Eschara, I., 48; wde Adeonella. 
„ Schismopora, II., 148, 168; vide Cello- 
pora. 
Platemys, Macquaria, I., 82, 83; vide Chelymys. 
plumbeiis. Scomber, II., 183; vide Temnodon 

saltator. 
pneumatophorus, Scomber, I., 28. 
Podacauthus typhou, I., 80. 
Pivcilopora anomala, II. , 156. 
polita, Membranipora, II., 106; vide Fynpora. 

,, Pyripora, II., 106. 
■ponderosa, Catenicella, II., 107; vide Calpidium 

ponderosum. 
ponderoaum, Calpidium, II., 107. 
IMrcata, Dermatochtlijs, II., 101; vide Sphargia 

coriacea. 
porcellana, Bathypora, II., 106; vide B. nitens. 
,, Membranijiora, II., 106; OT'rfe Bathy- 

pora. 
porcellana Retepora, I., 94, 95. 



Alphabetical Index. 



porcellana, Retepora, var. laxa, I., 94, 95. 
Porella niaisupium, I., 35; vide Lejiralla. 
,, papilliiera, I., 37: vide Lepralia. 
Porina gracilis, I., 48; vide Eschara. 
„ larvalis, I., 37 ; vide Lepralia. 
Porina magniiostris, 11., 175; ride Tessai-a- 

doma. 
porphyriacus Coluber, I. , 1 ; mde Pseudechys. 

,, Pseudechys, I., 1. 

Port Jackson, orBuU-ilog Shark, II., 103. 
PotamobiiiJi serratus, I., 15; ride Astacopsis. 
lyralonga, Cyelicopora, II., 116; vide C. longi- 

pora. 
Prlstiophorus nudipinuis, I. , 56. 
profunda, Rhynchopora, II., 196; ride R. longi- 

rostris. 
prolifera, Cellepora, II., 166, 168. 
pronged Toad -fish. Two-, II., 123. 
Pseudechys Australis, II., 142. 

,, Snake, Brown, II., 142. 

,, porphyriacus, I., 1. 

Pseudocarcinus gigas, II., 179, 180. 
Pseudodelma impar, II. , 1 62. 
Psettdoelajis superciliosus, I., 23; vide Diemenia 

superciliosa. 
Pseudophysis barbatus, I. , 20. 
pulchella, Apratia, II., 162. 

,, Catenicella, I., 89. 
pulcherrima, Schizoporella, II., 186. 
pulchra, Claviporella, II., 146. 
punctigera, Schizoporella, II., 138. 
punctigerum, Amphiblestrum, II., 106. 
pnncfidala, Lialis, 11., 161; vide L. Burtoui. 
purpurisatus, Aulopus, I., 54, 55. 
pusilla, Catenicellopsis, II., 107. 
pygma;a, Flosculipora, II., 176. 
Pygopus lepidopus, II., 152, 153. 
„ Lizard, II., 152, 153. 

„ squamieeps, II., 152, 153; vide P. lepi- 
dopus. 
Pyrameis Kershawi, II. 198. 

Itea, II., 198. 
pyriformis, Bracebridgia, II., 158. 

,, Mueronella, II., 158; vide Brace- 
bridgia. 
Pyripora catenularia, II. , 106. 

,, craasa, II., 106. 

,, polita, II., 106. 
pyrula, Membranipora, I., 26; 11., 127; vide 

M. lineata. 

Q. 

quadrata, Eschara, I., 48; vide Lepralia. 
,, Lepralia, I., 48; vide Eschara. 
Quoy's Hinulia Lizard, II., 191. 
Quoyi, Hinulia, U., 191. 

,, Lygosoma, II., 191 ; vide llinulia. 



R. 

radians, Idmonea", I., 68. 
radiata, Cribrilina, II., 187. 
radicifera, Beania, II., 117. 

,, Memhranii>ora,l\., 117; wVZe Beania. 

ramosa, Fasciculipora, II., 157. 
Eana aurea, I. , 53 ; vide Ranoldea. 



Ranoidea aurea, I., 53. 

,, Jaeh-ioniensis, I., 53; ride R. aurea. 
raricyathtts. Octopus, I., 61, 62; vide Argonauta 
oryzata. 

,, Ocytlioc, I., 61, 62; vide Argonaut 

oryzata. 
Ray, Eagle-, Blue-spotted, I., 63. 
Rayi, Brama, II., 133. 
Ray's Sea-Bream, II., 133. 
recta, ^Etea, II., 178. 
Red fiumet-Perch, Banded, I., 33. 

,, Spotted, II., 19.3. 
Red King Crab, Great, II., 179, 180. 
Red-shouldered Phasma, I., 69, 70. 
Regalecus Banksi, II., 145. 

,, Glesne, II., 145; vide R. Banksi. 
renipuncta, Microporella, II., 175. 
Retepora aurantiaca, I., 94, 98. 

,, ^vicularis, I., 94, 95. 

,, carinata, I., 94, 97 .• 
fissa, I., 94, 95. 

,, formosa, I., 94, 97. 

,, granulata, I., 94, 99. 

,, laxa (var.), porcellana, I., 94, 95. 

,, mors!jy«a<a (?). I.,94, 95; wide R. fissa. 

„ monilifera, L, 94, 96, .97. 

„ ,, form munita, var. acuti- 

rostris, I., 94, 96. 

„ ,, form munita, var. lunata, 

L, 94,96. 

,, ,, var. sinuata, I., 94, 96. 

, , , , form umbonata, I. , 94, 97. 

,, Phcenicea, I., 94, 98. 

,, porcellana, I., 94, 95. 

,, ,, var. laxa, I., 94, 95. 

, , rohista, I. , 94, 95 ; inde R. porcellana. 

,, ,, I., 94,95; fide R. porcellana, 

var. laxa. . 

,, serrata, I., 94, 99. 

,, tessellata, I., 94, 99. 

,, {umbouata, form) monilifera, I., 94, 97. 
reticulata, Acripeza, II., 129. 
Retihorviera io\ia,ceei, II., 118; ),'i(/e Hornera. 
Rhabdozoum Wilsoni, II., 178. 
Rhina squatina, I., 34. 
rhodomus, Tropidoderus, I., 69, 70. 
Rhodona Officeri, I., 51. 

,, Victorian, I., 51. 
Rhynchopora bispinosa, II., 196. 
,, longirostris, II., 196. 

,, profunda, II., 196; vide'R. longi- 

rostris. 
Ribbon-fish, Southern Silver, II., 122. 
Ridleyi, Schizoporella, II., 138. 
rigida, Cellaria, II., 105. 
Ringed Snake, Black- and White-, I., 52. 
ringens, Catenicella, II., 178. 
River Tortoise, Long-necked, I., 92, 93. 
roborata, Membranipora, II., 177; vide Craspe- 

dozoum roboratum. 
roboratum, Crasi^edozoum, XL, 177; vide Mem- 
branipora roborata. 
robusta, Bugula, I, 78. 

„ Hornera, II., 118. 
robiusta, Retepora, I. , 94, 95 ; vide R. porceUaua, 

and var. laxa. 
Rock Cod, Australian, I., 20. 



Alphabetical Index. 



Rock Cod, Small-scaled, I. , 19. 

Rockling, Australiau, I., 27. 

Rock Lobster, Southern, II., 149, 150. 

Rondeletii, Carcharodon, I., 74. 

roseipemiiii, Diura, I., 79; vide Acrophylla vio- 

lascens. 
Rossdii, Membranipora, I., 26; vide Amphib- 

lestrum bursarium. 
rostrata, Schizoporella, II., 186. 
rota, Celkpora, II., 148; inde Schismopora. 
,, Schismopora, II., 148; vide CeHe2}(n-a. 
Rough Fish, Australian, II., 114. 
Roughy, II., 184. 
rudis, Caberea, II., 136. 
riifa, Catenicella, I., 24. 
Rugged Stump-tail, or Shingle-back Lizard, 

IL, 102. 
rugosus, Trachydosaurus, II. , 102. 
Rilppelli, Typhlops, II. , 103 ; vide T. uigresoens. 



s. 

salar, Centropristes, I., 16, 17; vide Arripis 

truttaceus. 
Salieoniaria farciminoides, I., 49; vide Cellaria 
(fishdosa) Australia. 
,, gracilis, I., 49; inde Cellaria. 

,, hirsuta, I., 49; vide Cellaria. 

,, simplex, II., 105; vide Cellaria 

rigida. 
, , tenuirostris, I. , 49 ; vide Cellaria. 

Salmon Arripis, I., 16, 17. 

Trout, L, 16, 17. 
saltator, Teranodon, II., 183. 
saltatrix, Gasterosteiis, II., 183; vide Temnodon 

saltator. 
Sand-Frog, Common, I., 42. 
Sarniensis, Diastopora, II., 147. 
Satiimia Laptacei, 11., 197; vide Chelepteryx 

CoUesi. 
Saunders' Case-Moth, I., 40. 
Saundersi, Oiketicus, I., 40; vide Metura elon- 

gata. 
saurus, Esox, II. , 135 ; vide Scomberesox saurus, 
var. Forsteri. 
,, Scomberesox, var. Forsteri, II., 135. 
Saury Pike, II., 135. 
Saw-Fish, Common Australian, I., 56. 
scandens, Microporella, II., 175. 
scaled. Small-, Rock Cod, I., 19. 
Schismopora benemunita, II., 148, 168; vide 
Cellepora. 
„ costata, II., 148, 168; vide Celle- 

pora. 
,, Costazei, var., II., 148; vide Celle- 

pora. 
,, glomerata, II., 148, 168; videCelle- 

pora. 
,, megasoma, I., 38; II., 148, 168; 

vide Cellepora. 
,, platalea, II. , 148, 168; vide Celle- 

pora. 
,, rota, II., 148; vide Cellepora. 

,, tiara, II., 148, 168; ^'ide Cellepora. 

vitrea, I., 38; II., 148, 168; vide 
Cellepora. 



Schizoporella arachnoides, II., 138. 
„ biturrita, II., 186. 

,, Botryoides, I., 38; vide Lepralia. 

,, Cecilii, I., 35; vide Lepralia. 

,, circinata, I., 35; mde Lepralia. 

,, controversa,!! ,\3S ; vide S.dseiaXa. 

,, cryptostoma, II. , 138. 

da;dala, II., 138. 
,, hyalina, var. pellucida, I., 38; 

II., 186; ride Lepralia 
hyalina. 
,, ,, var. cornuta, II., 186. 

,, ,, var. incrassata, II, 186. 

,, ,, tuberculata, II., 186. 

lata, IL, 138. 
,, latisinuata, II., 186. 

,, Maplestonei, I., 35; vide Lepralia. 

,, marmjnum, IL, 138 ; vide S. 

Ridleyi. 
,, pachnoides, II., 186. 

,, (pellucida, var.) hyalina, I., 38; 

IL, 186. 
,, pulcherrima, II. , 186. 

,, punctigera, II. , 138. 

Ridleyi, II. , 138. 
,, rostrata, II. , 186. 

,, schizostoma I. , 38 ; ride Lepralia. 

,, subimmersa, I. , 35 ; vide Lepralia. 

,, subsinuata, II., 138. 

,, triangula, II. , 138. 

,, Woosteri, II. , 186. 

schizostoma, Lepralia, I., 38; vide Schizo- 
porella. 
,, Schizoporella, I., 38; vide Ltjyralia. 

Schlegeli, Pelamys, II. , 155. 
Scijicus nigvolntens, II. , 131; rjrfe Cyclodus. 
,, gigas, I., 72; viile Cyclodus. 
Whifei, U. , 191 ; riile Binu\i-A. 
Sco7nber Commersoni, II. , 154; r-ide Cybium. 
Scomberesox Camperi, II. , 135; vide S. saurus, 
var. Forsteri. 
,, Forsteri (?), IL, 135 ; vide S. saurus, 

var. Forsteri. 
,, saurus, var. Forsteri, II., 135. 

Scomber plumhem, II. , 183; fide Temnodon 

saltator. 
Scomber pneumatophorus, I., 28. 
Scomber thynnus, I. , 44 ; ride Thynnus. 

,, trachurus, I., 18; vide Trachurus tra- 
churus. 
Scorpoena percoides, I. , 33 ; mde Sebastes id. 
scorpsenoides, Neosebastes, II. , 193. 
Scruparia chelata, II. , 178. 
scrupea, Scrupocellaria, IL, 126. 
Scrupocellaria cervicornis, II. , 126. 
,, cyclostoma, II. , 126. 

,, • obtecta, II. , 126. 
,, ornithorhynchus, II. , 126. 

,, scrupea, II. , 126. 

Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal, I., 31, 71. 
Sea Bream, Ray's, IL, 133. 
Sea-Bragon, Leafy, I., 65. 
Sea Oar-fish, Black-finned Half -beak, or, II. , 135. 
Sea-Horse, Short-headed, I., 65. 

,, Leopard Seal, L, 21. 
Seal, Fur-, Sea-Bear or, I., 31, 71. 
,, Sea-Leopard, I., 21. 



Alphabetical Index. 



Sebastes percoides, I. , 33. 

Selarhe maxima. 11., 104 ; fide Cetorhinus maximus 
Senator Parrot-fish, Broad-striped, or, II., 163. 
Sepia apama, II., ISS, 1S9, 190. 

,, or Cuttle-fish, Large Jlelbourne, II., 188, 
189, 190. 
Sepioteuthis Australis, I., 76, 77. 
Sergeant Baker, I., 54, 55. 
Serialaria Australis, II., 185; vide Amathia. 
„ xpirali-'i, II., 185; vide Amathia bi- 

comis. 
Seiiola, aureo-riftata, II., 172; vide S. Lalandi. 

,, grandis, II., 172 ; ri'rfe S. Lalandi. 

„ Lalandi, II., 172. 
serrata, Membranipora, II., 127. 

Retepora, I., 94, 99. 
serratirostris, Cellepora, II., 128, 168. 
serratus, Aslacoides, I., 15; vide Astacopsis. 
,, Astacopsis, var. Yarraensis, 11., 160. 
,, Cancer, I., 15; vide Astacopsis. 
„ Polamohim, I., 15; vide Astacopsis. 
setigera, CateuiceUa, var., I., 24; vide C. 

plagiostoma. 
setirostris, Cribrilina, II., 187. 
setosa, Crisia, I., 39. 
Seven-gilled Shark, L, 43. ' 
.Shark, Australian Tope, I., 64. 

„ Basking, II., 104. 

,, Bull-dog, or Port Jackson, II., 113. 

,, Bull-, Long-toothed, I., 64. 

„ Carpet, L, 43. 

,, Hammer-headed, I., 56. 

,, Long-tailed, or Thresher, I., 88. 

,, Port Jackson, or Bull-dog, II., 113. 

,, Seven-gilled, I., 43. 

„ Shovel-nosed Bull-, I., 64. 

,, Spinous, II., 144. 

,, Thresher, or Long- tailed, I., 88. 

,, Tope, Australian, I., 64. 

„ White, L, 74. 
Shaviatiii-i, Cetorhinus, II., 104 ; vide C. maximus. 
Shield-fronted Bro\\"n .Snake, I., 23. 
Shield Star, Twelve-plated, II., 200. 
Shingle-back, or Rugged Stump-tail, Lizard, 

IL, 102 
Short-headed Sea-Horse, I., 65. 
Shovel-nosed Shark, or Long- toothed Bull-Shark, 

L, 64. 
Sillago ciliata, II.. 182. 
Silver Ribbon-fish, Southern, II. , 122. 
simplex, CeUepora, II., 165, 168. 

,, Crenidenx, I., '7Z; cirfc Girella. 

,, Didymia, I. 46. 

„ Farciminaria, II., 158. 

„ Girella, I., 73. 
simplex, Salicornaria, II., 105; vide Cellaria 

rigida. 
sincoides, Lacerta, I. , 72 ; vide Cyclodus gigas. 
sinuata (var.), Retepora monUifera, I., 94, 96. 
Skipjack, II., 183. 
Skipjack Pike, II. , 115. 
Sleepy Lizard, Northern Blue-tongue, or, I. , 72. 

„ ,, Southern, or Blotched Blue- 

tongue, II. , 131. 
Smaller Green Gum-tree Grasshopper, II., 119. 
Small-scaled Brown Snake, I., 23. 
Rock Cod, I., 19. 



149, 150. 
II., 122. 
149, 150. 



lide S. coriacea. 



Smooth-Hound, Australian, I., 87. 
Snake, Black, I., 1. 

Black- and White-Ringed, I., 52. 
Blackish Australian Worm-, II. , 103. 
Brown, Common, I., 23. 

Shield-fronted, L, 23. 
Brown, Small-scaled, I., 23. 
Cai-pet, I., 13. 
Common Brown, I., 23. 
Copper-head, I., 2. 
Furina-, Two-hooded, I., 32. 
Little Whip-, I., 11. 
Pseudechj's, Brown, II., 142. 
Shield-fronted Brown, I.. 23. 
Small-scaled Brown, I., 23. 
Tiger, I., 3. 

Two-hooded Furina-, I., 32. 
Whip-, Little, L, 11. 
White-lipped, I., 11. 
Worm-, Blackish Australian, II., 103. 
sordida, Opsomala, II., 139. 
Southern, or Blotched, Blue-tongue Lizard, 
IL, 131. 
Chima>ra, IL, 112. 
„ Mackerel, L, 28. 

,, Rock Lobster, II., 

,, Silver Ribbon-fish, 

,, Spiny Lobster, II., 

speciosa, Cellepora, II. , 128. 
Sphargis coriacea, II. , 101. 
,, mercnriali-s, II. , 101 ; 
,, merctirii, II., 101 ; ride S. coriacea. 
,, tuberculata, II., 101; vide S. coriacea. 
spicata, Cellepora, II., 165, 168. 

,, Dimetopia, I., 46. 
(spicata, var.) ciliata. Microporella, I., 37; II. , 

175; vide Lepralia. 
spieatum, Craspedozoum, IL, 177. 
spinifer, Astacoides, I., 15; vide A. serratiis. 
spinigera, Beania, I. . 46 ; inde Diachori.s. 
„ Diachoris, I., 46; ride Beania. 
spinosa, Membranipora, II. , 127. 
spinosus, Echinorhinus, II. , 144. 

,, Squalii-^, II. , 144; fj'rfe Echinorhinus. 
Spinous Shark, IL, 144. 

,, Lobster, Southern, IL, 149, 150. 
Spiny Cray-fish, Yarra, II., 160. 

„ Lobster, Southern, or Melbourne Craw- 
fish, n., 149, 150. 
,, ,, Sydney (.Sydnej' Craw-fish), II. , 

159. 
,, Ridged Lizard, II., 141. 
,, Sided Butterfly-Gurnard, I., 5. 
Spiralaria florea, I., 46. 
spiralis, Amathia, II. , 185. 
spiralis, Serialaria, II., 185; vide Amathia bi- 

coniis. 
Spotted Eagle-Ray, Blue-, I., 63. 

,, Grasshopper, Thirty-two, II., 120. 
,, Marsh-Frog, I., 42. 
„ Painted-Lady Butterfly, Blue-, 11, 198. 
Red Gurnet-Perch, IL, 193. 
Squalus acanthias, I. , 75 ; vide Acanthias 
■\Tilgaris. 
,, appendiculaliis, I., 43; inde Crossor- 

hinus barbatus. 
,, barbatus, I., 43; vide Croseorhinus. 



Alphabetical Index. 



Squahts lohatus, I. , 43 ; inde Crossorhinus bar- 
batus. 
,, maximus, II., 104; mVie Cetorhinus. 

,, Phillipi, II., 113; vide Heterodontus. 
,, spinosus, II., 144; «j& Echinorhinus. 

, , squatina, I. , 34 ; vide Rhina. 

,, vulpes, I., 88 ; vide Alopecias. 

,, zyi/ana, I., 56 ; vide Zygsena malleus. 
sqnamiceps, Pygopus, II., 152, 153; -vide P. 

lepidopus. 
squatina, Rhina, I., 34. 

,, Sijualttn, I., 34 ; vide Rhina. 
Squid, Gould's, II., 169, 170. 
Star-fish, Eight-rayed Cusliion, II., 200. 
,, C4unn's Cusliion, II., 200. 

Twelve-plated Shield, II., 200. 
Steganoporella elerjans, I. , 60 ; vide S. magnila- 

bris. 
Sler/anoporeUa Jervoisii. 11., 196; vide Thairopora. 
Steganoporella niagnilabris, I., 60. 
stellata, Escharipora, II., 175. 

,, Microporella, II., 175; vide Escharipora. 
Stenorhynchus leptonyx, I., 21. 
Stirparia annulata, I. , 59. 
,, glabra, II., 195. 
Stomatopora geniinata, II., 176. 
Streaked Earless Lizard, White-, II., 181. 
striatula, (Jemellipora, II., 138. 

,, Lepralia, II., 138; i^irfe Gemellipora. 
Striped Parrot-fish, Broad-, or Senator, II., 163. 
Stump-tail, or Shingle-back Lizard, Rugged, 

II., 102. 
subimmersa, Lepralia, I. , 35 ; vide Schizoporella. 
,, Schizoporella, I., 35 ; ride Lepralia. 

subsinuata, Schizoporella, II., 138. 
superbus, Hoplocephalus, I., 2. 
superciliosa, Diemenia, I., 23. 
supercilioKux, Psetidoelaps, I. , 23 ; vide Diemenia 

superciliosa. 
Sydney Craw-fish or Spiny Lobster, II., 159. 
Syngnalhus foliatus, I., 65 ; vide Phyllopteryx. 
,, /(vitiolatiix, I., 65; vide Phyllop- 

teryx foliatus. 



tsnia, Trachypterus, II., 122. 
t^niolatus, Syngnathus, I. , 65 ; vide Phyllop- 
teryx foliatus. 
Tastnanicus, Centropri.ites, I., 16, 17; vide 

Arripis truttaceus. 
Tasmaneiix, Callorhynchus, II., 112; vide C. 

Antarcticus. 
Tasmaniensis, Liranodynastes, I., 42. 
taurus, Carcharian, I., 64; vide Odontaspis. 

,, Odontaspis, I., 64. 
Temnodon heptacanthtiji, II., 183 ; vide T. saltator. 

,, saltator, II., 183. 
tenuirostris, Cellaria, I., 49. 

,, Salieonmria, 1; 49 ; ride Cellaria. 

tenuis, Canda, II., 136. 

,, Crisia, I., 39. 
Tessaradoma maguirostris, II., 175. 
tessellata, Retepora, I., 94, 99. 
Teatvdo coriacea, II., 101 ; vide Sphargis. 



Tcstudo longicollis, I., 92, 93 ; vide Chelodina. 

,, Lyra, II., 101 ; vide Sphargis coi-iacea. 
TeUir/onia Australasiie, I., 50; vide Cyclochila. 
Thairopora armata, II., 196. 

, , dispar, I. , 26 ; vide Membranipora. 

„ Jervoisii, II., 196. 

,, mamillaris, I., 25; 11., 196; vide 

Membranipora. 
,, Woodsii, I., 26 ; vide Memhranipora, 

Thersites allivelis, I., 44; vide T. atun. 

,, atuu, I., 44. 
Thick-tailed Gecko, IL, 132. 
Thirty-two Spotted Grasshopper, II., 120. 
Thresher or Long- tailed Shark, I., 88. 
(Thyca) Pieris Aganippe, I., 10. 
,, ,, Harpalyce, I., 9. 

Thynnus Macroyi, I. , 44 ; vide T. thynnus. 
, , Scomber, I. , 44 ; vide Thynuus. 
,, thynnus, I., 44. 
,, vulgaris, I., 44; T. thynnus. 
{thyreophora, var.), Malusii, Microporella, II. , 

175 ; I'i'rfe Lepralia. 
tiara, Oellepora, II., 148. 168 ; vide Schiamopora. 
,, Schismopora, II., 148, 168; vide Cellepora. 
tiijerinu.^, Genypterus, I., 27 ; vide G. Australis. 
Tiger Snake, I., 3. 

Tiliijua leuropsi-i, II., 191 ; vide Hinulia Whitei. 
Toad-fish, Two-pronged, II. , 123. 
Tooth-brush Leather-jacket, Brown's, II., 124. 
Tooth-cupped Cuttlefish, I., 76, 77. 
Tope Shark, Australian, I., 64. 
Tortoise, Long-necked River, I., 92, 93. 

Murray, I. 82, 83. 
tortuosa, Amathia, II. , 185. 
(Tosia) Pent.agonaster aurata, II., 200. 
Traehichthys Australis, II., 114. 
Trachinops, Blotch-tailed, II., 194. 

,, caudimaculatus, II. , 194. 

trachurus, Caranx, I., 18; vide Trachurus 
trachurus. 
,, Scomber, I., 18; vide Trachurus 

trachurus. 
Trachurus trachurus, I., 18. 
Trachydosaurus rugosus, II., 102. 
Trachypterus /a/a-, II. , 122: ride T. tivnia. 
iria, (?) II., 122 ; vide T. tajnia. 
tajnia, II. , 122. 
triangula, Schizoporella, II., 138. 
tricellata, Menipca, I., 58. 
tricuspis, Mucronella, II., 116. 
tridenticulata, Cellepora, II., 128. 
trifolium, Amphiblestrum, I., 37; vide Lepralia. 
,, Lepralia, \ ,'i~; r/f/e Amphiblestrum. 

trigintiduoguttata, Phancroptera (Ephip- 

pitytha), II., 120. 
Trigla kumu, I., 6. 
Tropidoderus iodomus. I., 69, 70. 

,, rhodomus, I., 69, 70. 

Tropinotus Australis, II., 140. 

, , cimiamomcu-f, II. , 140 ; vide T. 

Australis. 
Trout, Salmon, I., 16, 17. 

Irulta, Perca, I., 16, 17 ; vide Arripis truttaceus. 
truttaceus, Arripis, I., 16, 17. 

,, Centroprisics, I. , 16, 17 ; vide Arripis. 

tuba, Bicellaria, I., 59. 
tubaria, Cidarites, I., 100; virfe Goniocidaris. 



Alphabetical Index. 



tubaria, Goniocidaris, I., 100. 

tuhercnlata, Argouauta, I., 61, 62; vide A. 

oryzata. 
tuberculata, Lageiiipora, 11., 156. 

„ var., Schizoporella, II., 186; vide 

S. hyaliiia. 
tuberculata, Sphargis, II,, 101 ; vide S. coriacea. 
Tuberculated Ai-gonaut, or Paper Nautilus, 

I., 61, 62. 
tiiheirulosa. Argonauta, I., 61, 62 ; vide A. oryzata. 
Tubucellaria cereoides, II. , 105. 

,, hirsuta, I.', 49. 

tumidus, Palinurus, II., 159; vide P. Hiigeli. 
Tuuny, I., 44. 
turbinata, Bicellaria, I., 59. 
Turtle, Leathery, or Luth, II., 101. 
Twelve-plated Sliield Star, II., 200. 
Two-hooded Furiua-Suake, I., 32. 
Two-pronged Toad-fish, II., 123. 
Tympanocryptis lineata, II., 181. 
Typhlops nigrescens, II., 103. 

, , RUppelli, II. , 103 ; vide T. nigrescens. 
typhon, Podacanthus, I., 80. 



U. 

umbonatiun, Amphiblestrum, I. , 25 ; vide Mem- 

branipora urn bonala. 
umbonata, Catenicella, I. , 90. 
umbotiata, Memliranipora, I., 25; vide Amphi- 
blestrum umbonatum. 

,, (form) Retepora monilifera, I., 94, 97. 
uncinata, Farciminaria, II., 158. 
undata, Petralia, I., 60. 
Urceolipora dentata, II. , 105. 

,; nana, II., 105. 

urnula, Catenicella, IL, 146. 
utriculus, Catenicella, I., 89. 



V. 

valida, Phaneroptera, II., 119. 

Vanessa, Lepidotrigla, I., 5. 

variabilis, Ainterius, II., 125; vide Monaoanthus 

hippocrepis. 
varia, Lacerta, I., 41 ; vide Hydrosaurus varius. 
variegata, Morelia, I., 13. 
varius, Hydrosaurus, I., 41. 

,, Yellow-sided Dolphin, I., 21. 
ventricosa, CateniceOa, I., 24. 
venusta, Catenicella, II., 146. 
Vermicella annulata, I., 52. 
verrucosa, Cellepora, II., 166, 168. 
Verrucularia dichotoma, II., 195. 
verus, Carchariaa, I., 74; vide Carcharodon 

Rondeletii. 
Victorian Rhodona, I., 51. 
vigentissima, Locusta, II., 109. 
Vine Day-Moth, I., 8. 
violascens, Acrophylla, I., 79. 



violascens, Phanma, I., 79; vide Acrophylla. 
Violet-sliouldered Phasnia, I., 69, 70. 
Violot-winged I'hasnia, I., 79. 
Vipera acaidkophi.-i, I., 12; vide Acanthophis 

autarctica. 
vitrea, Cellepora, I., 38; U., 148, 168; vide 
Schjsmopora. 
,, Schismopora, I., 38; II. , 148, 168; vide 
Cellepora. 
vittata, Chorizopora, I. , 36 ; vide Lepralia. 
,, Le^iralia, I., 36; wde Chorizopora. 
vulgaris, Acanthias, I., 75. 
vuii/aria, Thynnus, I., 44; vide T. thynuus. 
vulpes. Alopecias, I., 88. 

,, Sipmius, I., 88; vide Alopecias. 
vultur, Mucronella, II., 116. 

w. 

Water Lizard, Gippsland, I., 81. 

Wattle Goat- Moth, Large, I., 30. 

Whip-Snake, Little, I., 11. 

Whitei, Hinulia, IL, 191. 

Whitei Seincus, II. , 191 ; vide Hinulia. 

White-lipped Snake, I., 11. 

Wliite-rhiged Snake, Black and, I., 52. 

White Shark, I., 74. 

White's Hinulia Lizard, II. , 191. 

White-streaked Earless Lizard, IL, 181. 

Whiting, Plain, II., 182. 

Wilsoni, Adeona, I. , 67 ; vide Dictyopora. 

„ Beauia, II. , 195. 

,, Catenicella, I., 89. 

,, Dictyop/ora, I., 67; vide Adeona. 

,, Rhabdozoum, II. , 178. 
Woodsii, Mlembranipora, I., 26; vide Thairo- 
pora. 

,, Thairopora, I., 26; vide Memhrani- 
pora. 
Woosteri, Schizoporella, II. , 186. 
Worm, Earth-, Australian Giant, I., 7. 
Worm-Snake, Blackish Australian, II., 103. 
Wrasse, Macleay's, II. , 164. 



Yabbie or Yabber Crayfish, I. , 29. 

Yarra Blackfish, I., 27. 

Yarraensis, Astacopsis serratus, var., II., 160. 

Yarra Spiny Crayfish, II. , 160. 

Yellow-sided Dolphin, I., 22. 

Yellow-Tail, II. , 172. 

Yellow- winged Locust, Australian, II. , 110. 



z. 

Zealandias, Novse-, Delphinus, I., 22. 
Zeuzera (Eudoxyla) eucalypti, I., 30. 
Zygaana malleus, I., 56. 
zyycena, Sqitalua, I., 56; vide Zygsena malleus. 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 

Plate 7. — My friend Professor Spencer, in publishing a paper on the anatomy of Megascolides, says 
I have referred it to the wrong Family. As he did not state what was the right Family, 
I made inquiry and found he had taken Perrier's artificial divisions of Earth-worms 
(into those having the male genital openings in front of, upon, or behind the clitellum) 
for Families. Some of the Family Liimbficidce have these openings in one relative 
position and some in the other ; the one artificial character not outweighing the many 
structural characters indicating the Family. 

Plates 15, 29, 160. — For Aslacoides, read Astacopsis. 

Plates 16-17. — References: — For ? Perca trutta (Cuv. and Val.), Hist. Nat. des Poiss., v. 4, p. 54, 
read vol. 2; add Perca marginata (Cuv. and Val.), Hist. Nat. des Poiss., v. 2., p. 53. 

Plate 42. — For Lymnodynastes, read Limnodyimstes. 

Plate 51. — Rhodona Ojjiceri is referred to E. punctata vittatum (C4unth. ), of Queensland, by Mr. 
Boulenger, but the description in the Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist, for July, 1S67, diflfers 
in several particulars. 

Plate 87. — Explanation of Figures: — Fig. 2, side view of snout, &c., should be: side view of female, 
&c. Figs. Ic and Id should be Figs. 2c and 2d. 

Plate 109. — Footnote : — For large antennse, read inner antennae. 

Plate 112. — In last line of Reference: — For page 696, read page 174. 

Plate 122. — For Tfachypterus tcenia read T. Ueiiia. 

Plate 139. — {Mesojys pedestris). Add Reference : Erichson, Wiegmann Ai'chiv fiir Naturgeschicte, 
1842, p. 250, t. 5. f. 10. 

Plates 161-2. — The numbers at corners of these plates have been accidentally transposed. That 
marked 161 should be 162. 

Plate 187.— For Figs. 1-3 read Figs. 1-2. 



NOTE FROM MR. MACGILLIVRAY ON CHANGES IN NOMENCLATURE OF POLYZOA 
ADOPTED IN THE ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



It has become necessary to alter the generic positions of a considerable number of species, mostly 
described in the earlier Decades, in consequence of the dismemberment of the old genera Mtmbrani- 
pora, Lepralia, EscJiara, and one or two others. Definitions of the new genera, with some remarks 
on the characters which are now considered of chief importance in the systematic arrangement of the 
Polyzoa, will be found in my Catalogue, printed in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Victoria 
for 1886. 

The alterations indicated are : — Membranipora pilosa, to be included in Electra, Lamx. ; M. 
ciliaia, umhonata, cervicomis, and Lepralia trifolium in Amphihleslrum, Gray ; M. mamillaritt, dispar, 
and Woodsii, in Thairopora, McG. ; M. perforata in 3Hcropora, Hincks ; Lepralia monoceron in 
CribrUma, Gray ; L. ferox in Hiantopora, McG. ; L. JUahiaii, ciliata, diadema, and eanalkulata, in 
Microjwrella, Hincks, the last as a variety of diadema; Eschara mucronata in Adeone/lopsis, McG.; 
L. circinata, Cec'dii, subimmersa, Maplestonei, rilrea, schizostoma, botryoides, and pellucida, in Schizo- 
porel/a, Hincks, pellucida as a variety of hyalina; Eschara obliqua in Parmularla, Busk, MSS. ; 
Eschara quadrata in Lepralia; L. vUtata and Brogniartii in Chorizopora, Hincks ; L. marsiipimn and 
papi/lifera in Porella, Gray ; Eschara dispar and platalea in Adeoiiella, Busk ; L. larralis and Eschara 
gracilis in Porina, d'Orb. ; L. dlajihana, Ellerii, and excavala, in MucroneUa, Hincks. 

Besides these alterations, Catenicella aiirila and yeniinata are to be referred 'to Clanporella, 
McG. ; Caleiiicellopsis ddicalula to Catenicella; Diachoris magellanica and spinigera to Beania, as I 
cannot see any sutficient distinction between these genera. Carbasea ejiiscopalis is included in the 
genus Euthyris, Hincks. Dirty opora differs from Adeona only in the fenestration of the zoarium, a 
character which, although valid when the genus was proposed, cannot now be considered of sutMcient 
importance for the foundation of a genus ; the species must therefore go with Adeona. Celte/iora 
(Lepralia), mcgasoma, costata, rota, costazei, jilatalea, vitrea, henemunila, gloinerata, tiara, have been 
separated from CMepora to form the genus Schismopora, McG. • 

Chlidonia dcedala proves to be, as suggested in my description, in no way diffei-ent from the 
European C. Cordieri, Aud. sp. Cellaria Jtslulosa, var. AuMralis, must rank as a separate species. 
Membranipora lineata is not that species, but M. pyrula, Hincks ; so also M. Jiofsellli must be altered 
to Amphiblestrum hursarium, MoG. I doubt M. Lacroixii being identical with the European species. 
Lepralia pertuna should be L. Pallasiana, Moll. Retepora porcetlana, var. laxa, has since been 
described in the "Challenger" Memoir as R. producta. Busk. Bathypora porcellana was previously 
described by Hincks as Membranipora nUens, and bis specific name must consequently be adopted. 



By Authority : Robt. S. Brain, Oovernment Printer, Melbourne. 



CONTENTS OF DECADE XX. 



N.B.— The originals of all the Figures are in the National Museum, Melbourne. 



Plate 191.— White's Hinulia Lizard (Hinulia Whitei, Lacep. sp.). — Quoy's Hinulia lizard (Hinulia 
Quoyi, Dum. and Bib.). 

Plate 192. — The Crook-spined Dragonet (Callionynius calauropomus, Rich.). 

Plate 193. — The Spotted Red Gurnet-Perch (Neosebastes scorpeenoides, Gviich.). 

Plate 194. — The Blotch-tailed Trachinops (Trachinops caudimaculatus, McCoy). 

Plate 195. — Stirparia glabra (Hincks). — Beania intermedia (llincks sp.). — B. cooferta (McG.^n- 
B. Wilsoni (McG.). — Verrucularia dichotoma (Busk sp.). 

Plate 196. — Thairopora arniata (McG.). — T. mamillaris (Lamx. sp.).— T. Jerroisii (Hincks sp.).— 
Micropora coriacca (Esper. sp.). — Rhynchopora bispinosa (Johnstone sp.). — R. longl- 
rostris (Hincks). 

Plate 197. — Chelepteryx CoUesi (Gray). 

Plate 19S.— The Blue-spotted Painted-Lady Butterfly (Pyrameis Eersbawi, McCoy). — Australian 
Admiral Butterfly (Pyrameis Ilea, Fabr.). 

Plate 199. — Peron's Ibacus Crab (Ibacus Peronii, Leach). 

Plate 'JOO. — The Eight-rayed Cushion Starfish (Asterina calcar, Lam., restricted by Gray). — Gunn's 
Cushion Starfish (Asterina Gunni, Gray).— The Twelve-plated Shield-Star (Pentago- 
naster (Tosia) aurata, Gray). 



JM lyjjb 






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