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Full text of "Natural history of Victoria. Prodromus of the zoology of Victoria; or, Figures and descriptions of the living species of all classes of the Victorian indigenous animals.."

D„ ROGICK 



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ROGICK COLLcCTlOM 



Mary dora rogick 

l5«PROSPECT STREET, A?T. I-K 
NEW ROCHEUE, NEW YORK 



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PRODROMUS 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA; 



OR, 



FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



DECADE VZ. 



}5Y 



HONORARY FELLOW OF THE CAMBIilDGE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY ; HO^ORART ACTIVE MEMBER OF TQE IMPERIAL SOCIETY 

OP NATDHALISTS OF MOSCOW ; CORKESPO>DING MESIBER OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON ; 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OP NEW SOUTH WALES; HONORARY MEMBER OF SEVERAL OTHER 

SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES, ETC. 

PBOPESSOR OF NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE MELBOURNE ONIVERSITY. 

DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL MDSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND GEOLOGY OF MELBOURNE, ETC. 





MELBOURNE : 

BY AUTHORITY : JOHN FERRES, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 
PUBLISHED BY GEORGE ROBERTSON, LITTLE COLLINS STREET. 

LONDON : TROBNER AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATE HILL ; AND GEORGE ROBERTSON, 

17 WARWICK SQUARE. 



M DCCCLXXXI. 




llatitnti gfet0rg of tttctmiit* 



PRODROMUS 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTOEIA; 



OR, 



rieURES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



■ VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



DECiiSE VI. 



BY 



HONORARY FELLOW OF THE CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY ; HONORARY ACTIVE MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL SOCIETY 

OF NATDHALISTS OF MOSCOW ; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OP LONDON ; 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES ; HONOKARY MEMBER OF SEVERAL OTHER 

SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES, ETC. 

PROFESSOR OF NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY. 

DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY AND GEOLOGY OF MELBOURNE, ETC. 




MELBOURNE : 

BT AUTHORITY : JOHN FERRES, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 

PUBLISHED BY GEORGE ROBERTSON, LITTLE COLLINS STREET. 

LONDON : TRUBNER AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATE HILL ; AND GEORGE ROBERTSON, 

17 WARWICK SQUARE. 



MDCCCLXXXI. 



PREFACE. 



It having been considered desirable to ascertain accurately the 
natural productions of the Colony of Victoria, and to publish works 
descriptive of them, on the plan of those issued by the Governments 
of the different States of America, investigations were undertaken, 
by order of the Victorian Government, to determine the Geology, 
Botany, and Zoology of the Colony, to form collections illustrative of 
each for the public use, and to make the necessary preparations for 
such systematic publications on the subject as might be useful and 
interesting to the general public, and contribute to the advancement 
of science. 

As the geological and botanical investigations have already 
approached completion, and their publication is far advanced, 
it has been decided to now commence the publication of the 
third branch completing the subject, namely, that of the Zoology 
or indigenous members of the different classes of the animal kingdom. 

As the Fauna is not so well known as the Flora, it was a necessary 
preliminary to the publication to have a large number of drawings 
made, as opportunity arose, from the living or fresh examjjles of 
many species of reptiles, fish, and the lower animals, which lose their 
natural appearance shortly after death, and the true characters of 
many of which were consequently as yet unknown, as they had 
only been described from preserved specimens. A Prodromus, or 
preliminary issue, in the form of Decades, or numbers of ten plates, 
each with its complete descriptive letterpress, will be published, of 
such illustrations as are ready, without systematic order or waiting 

[ 3] 



PREFACE. 



for the completion of any one branch. The many good observers 
in the country will thus have the means of accurately identifying 
various natural objects, their observations on which, if recorded and 
sent to the National IMuseum, where the originals of all the figures 
and descriptions are preserved, will be duly acknowledged, and 
will materially help in the preparation of the final systematic volume 
to be published for each class when it approaches completion. 

This sixth Decade gives figures and descriptions in the first 
plate of a new species of one of those curious Lizards which 
deceive the popular judgment by assuming the form of Snakes so 
nearly as to be often mistaken for them. 

The second plate figures another of our rarer poisonous Snakes, 
too small to be dangerous to man, but of a most striking style of 
coloring disposed in black and white rings, quite unlike any other 
Australian land Snake, but like some of the Sea-Snakes in this 
respect, and in this and other characters reminding us of some 
types peculiar to South America. 

The third plate shows the characters of our beautiful green and 
gold Frog, with the various stages of its metamorphosis from the 
Tadpole aquatic state, by gradually acquiring legs and losing its 
tail, to the tail-less terrestrial air-breathing form, with four powerful 
limbs. 

The fourth and fifth plates show the characters of the dissimilar 
male and female of one of the most gorgeously colored Fishes of 
our seas, the Aulopus^ especially remarkable for showing the small 
ray-less adipose dorsal fin near the tail, considered until lately to 
characterise the Salmonidce^ all of which, whether Trout or Salmon, 
possess it. 

The sixth plate gives evidence of the identity of Victorian 
specimens of that extraordinary Fish, the Hammer-headed Shark, 
with the European type ; and figures for the first time another 
anomalous Shark, our common Saw-Fish {Prhtiopliorus). 

[4] 



PREFACE. 



The four following plates continue the illustrations of our 
wonderfully rich Polyzoan Fauna contributed by Dr. MacGillivray 
to the National Museum and this work, in which many of them 
are figured for the first time. 

The succeeding Decades will illustrate as many different genera 
as possible, and will deal first usually with species of some special 
interest, and of which good figures do not exist, or are not easily 
accessible. 



Frederick McCoy. 



25th August 1881. 



[5] 



Fl.SI 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

I Reptiles) 




1*- 



ji. BcLrtKolorrwi* oLeLtt luJv 



hofM'^Coy dUrvui' 



Steam, lUho, Govt, Fruiting OffvcA- 



Zoologif.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Eeptiles. 



Plate 51. 

EHODONA OFFICERI (McCoy). 
The Victorian Rhodona. 

[Genus RHODONA (Gray) = BRACHYSTOPUS (Dum. & Bib.) = RONIA (Gray). 
(Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Reptilia. Order Sauria. Sub-ord. Leptoglossae. Tribe Geisso- 
saura. Fam. Sciucida;.) 

Gen. Char. — Body and tail cylindrical, elongate ; tail conical, pointed, with 3 or 5 rows 
of large scales on under side. Legs 4, rudimentary, far apart ; anterior ones very small, 
tapering to a point, simple, not divided into toes ; hind pair larger, divided into two cylindrical 
toes with claws, the outer toe about twice the length of the inner one. Head semiconical, 
depressed, convex above, subcuneiform at tip ; rostral plate depressed, sharp-edged, very wide, 
triangular, rounded in front ; 2 fronto-parietal plates ; nasal plates large, triangular, converging 
in front, each with the superior lateral nostril in the middle ; no supra-nasals. Tongue flat, 
granular, notched at tip ; palate with a short posterior groove, and no teeth ; teeth on jaws 
conic, blunt ; ear a minute, depressed point ; eyes small, lower eyelid transparent ; surface of 
body smooth, glossy. Scales smooth, not keeled. (Dr. Giinther describes i?. fragilis, from Peak 
Downs, as having the anterior as well as posterior legs with three fingers each, in the Journal 
des Museum, Godeffroy Heft., xii., p. 4.5 ; and he describes R. Gerrardi as having 1 toe on one 
side and 2 on the other of the anterior limb.)] 

Description. — Head obtusely pointed in front, moderately depressed, a little 
wider behind than the neck, from which the body tapers g-radually to tip of tail ; 
back and belly of body slig-htly flattened, tail circular in section. Plates : 6 labials, 
the fourth forming- lower edge of orbit, the upper two-thirds of orbit bordered by 
1 to 3 rows of small scaly plates ; rostral large, pentagonal, obtuse-angled above ; 
nasals large, joining with only small suture ; 1 loreal and '2 anterior ocular small 
plates between eye and nasal ; fronto-nasal, or prefrontal, transverse, nearly twice as 
wide as long, rounded behind, length equalling frontal and suture of contact of nasals ; 
next central plate, or frontal, subpentagonal or nearly triangular, length equalling 
from tip of snout to its front edge ; next median plate, or occipital, small, subrhombic, 
slightly less than half the length of the preceding frontal; 3 smaller plates extend 
on each side from it to the superior ocular ; a large parietal plate on each side about 
equalling the frontal and half of the prefrontal in length. Scales: about 18 rows 
round middle of body, those of belly smaller than back ; 26 from gape of mouth to 
to base of front leg ; from tlience 4o base of hind leg, 87 ; middle row under tail 
rather larger than those of sides or back of tail ; 2 large pre-anal scales. Anterior 
limb as long as four and a half of the adjacent scales, about half the length of the 
gape, ending in a small conical point, and lodged in a channel. Hind limb with 
two toes, the outer rather more than twice the length of inner one, each with a 
minute conical claw. Ear-opening a very small depressed pore surrounded by a 
patch of smaller scales on each side. Color : head above the labials and dorsal half 
of body rich hazel-brown ; labial plates, throat, and lower half of sides and belly 
very pale yellow-ochre ; lower half of tail very pale lilac, irregularly flecked with 
dark-brown, and a slight tinge of the same on dorsal half, rendering the tail darker 
than the body ; 8 to 10 longitudinal rows of black spots, produced by a corre- 
sponding number of the transverse rows of scales above, having each an irregular, 
vertical, lunate, jagged blotch of black a little behind its middle, those of tail larger 
than on body. The labials and plates of head each with a brown blotch near posterior 

[ 7 ] 



Zoology.-] NATUEAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Reptiles. 

edge ; anterior limb all yellowish, posterior limb yellowish below, closely freckled 
with brown above. Total length, 7| inches, of which the tail is one-half. Length 
of g-ape, 4 lines ; greatest width of head, 3| lines ; length of anterior limb, 2 lines, 
of posterior limb, 6 lines. 

This is one of several most interesting little Lizards resembling 
Snakes so completely in external appearance as to deceive the 
popular observers, who frequently send me the more common 
kinds with the enquiry as to whether they are poisonous Snakes or 
not. Like even the most snake-like Lizards the jaws in this are 
not dihitable as those of all Snakes are, and it has distinct, though 
very small, external ears, looking like impressed pores, which no 
Snakes have. No Snakes have movable eyelids, while they are 
not only present in this little creature, but exhibit a curious pro- 
vision for preventing the sand, into which it likes to burrow, from 
damaging the eye, and at the same time allows sufficient vision, 
owing to the perfect transparency of the middle of the eyelid. 
When the fierce north wind raises the clouds of summer dust into 
a " brickfielder," we might feel inclined to envy the Rhodona and 
wish we could shut our eyes and have a transparent spot in the 
lid to look through with impunity. 

The limbs lodge in hollows so as not to project beyond the 
surface when retracted, thus offering no resistance while burrowing. 

The specimen figured, which is the only one seen as yet, was 
given to me alive by Mr. Charles Officer, M.P., and was kept in a 
bottle of sand for some weeks. If brought to the surface, it arched 
the anterior part of the body, and, plunging the narrow wedge- 
shaped front of snout into the sand, quickly burrowed out of sight ; 
the highly polished surface of the scaled body, as smooth as glass, 
obviously suiting this habit to perfection. I could not induce it to 
feed in confinement, nor would it eat flies for Mr. Officer, who kept 
it a week or two before I saw it ; but perhaps, like its near ally, 
the English Slow- worm, or Blind- worm {Anguis fragilis)^ it may 
eat slugs and worms when at liberty. 

In the proportional length of the anterior limb this new species 
is intermediate between R. punctata (Gray)* = Ronia catenulata 



• An. Nat. Hist., li., 335. 

[8] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [lieptiles. 

(Gray),* and the R. Gerr<irdi (Glinth.)f of Swan River, the R. 
jiunctata having it as long only as one scale of the sides of the 
body, R. Gerrardi has it as long as six scales, while in the present 
one it is equal to four and a half of the adjoining scales. 

Locality : rare in the loose sandy soil of tlie plains on the banks 
of the Murray. The type specimen was found about one mile from 
the river and two miles from Swan Hill. 

Explanation of Figurks. 

Plate 51. — Fig. 1, dorsal view, natural size. Fig. la, side view, enlarged four diameters, 
of anterior portion of body, to show the disposition of the colors, the relative positions of nostril, 
eye, and car (the place of the latter marked by a dotted line), and the form, relative size, and 
scaling of the simple anterior limb. Fig. \b, hind limb and part of body, magnified four 
diameters. Fig. \c, anal and subcaudal scales, with place of base of hind limbs, magnified four 
diameters. Fig. \d, side view of middle of tail to show color and markings. Fig. le, under 
view of head, magnified four times. Fig. \f, upper view of head, magnified four times. Fig. 1^, 
rostral, nasal, and following plate, magnified four times. Fig. \h, under side of tail, magnified 
four diameters. Fig. le, eye, showing the transparent lid half closed, magnified. Fig. \k, eye, 
with eyelid open, magnified. 

Frederick McCoy. 



* Grey, Journal of Two Expeditions of Discovery in Australia, v. 2, p. 487. 
t An. Kat. Hist. v. 20 July 1867, p. 46. 



Dec. VI. [ 9 ] ^ 



Fl.SZ 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

( Reptdes) 




A BarOwLorruM djiJUtliliihy 



frof.M.'^OsydixtxiL 



Steairv IWio.Govt'J'rinUng Office- 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Reptiles. 



Plate 52. 

VERMICELLA ANNULATA (Gray). 

The Black and White Ringed Snake. 

[Genus VERMICELLA (Gray). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata Class Rcptilia. Order 
Ophidia. Earn. Elapsidse.) 

Gen. Char. — Body elongate, cylindrical ; head thick, blunt, rounded, little wider than the 
neck ; rostral plate moderate, rounded ; nasal large, with the small nostril pierced near the 
middle ; one large anterior ocular plate, and two small posterior ocular plates. Scales subequal 
(vertebral line not larger than the others), smooth, imbricated, about fifteen rows ; anal and 
sub-caudal plates in two rows. Tail very small, conical. One minute, grooved fang, and no 
other teeth in jaw. Australia.] 

Description. — Form: body long", slender, cylindiical ; tail slender, conical, 
ending- in an obtuse conical point, covered by a polisbed conical scale ; head no wider 
than the neck, only slightly flattened, obtusely rounded in front. ^Scales: moderate, 
rhombic, smooth, 15 rows across middle of body ; abdominal plates moderately wide, 
varying from 212 to 229; subcaudal plates varying from 24 to 19 pairs. Plates: 
rostral shield large, obtusely rounded, obtuse angled or rounded behind, nasal plate 
large, touching the posterior frontal, anterior ocular large, a little shorter than the 
nasal ; 2 posterior oculars, small, scarcely equalling the diameter of the eye in 
length ; anterior frontals small, twice as wide as long ; posterior frontals about twice 
as long as anterior one, a little wider than long ; vertex plate, subpentagonal, 
subtruncate and broadest in front, about one-third longer than wide, occipitals rather 
narrow, subtrigonal ; six upper labials, the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th labials touch the eye ; 
anterior temporal large, two posterior temporals together shorter than anterior, in 
contact with the upper or lower posterior ocular. Color: yellowish white, with 
about 32 to 42 transverse brownish-black rings, about six scales wide on back, 
separated by white intervals about 3 scales wide, more nearly equal below, where 
each color occupies about 3 or 4 scales wide ; throat white ; rostral and anterior 
frontal plates and anterior half of nasal plate black ; labial plates, anterior ocular, 
and posterior frontals white ; superciliary, vertex, and occipital plates black. Teeth: 
one small poison fang on each side, no other teeth in jaws, two rows of about 5 small 
teeth on palate. Length usually about 2 feet, of which the tail is 1 inch 5 lines, 
cleft of mouth 6 lines, greatest width of body, 6 lines. 

Reference. — Snake No. 2. White Journal. New South Wales, Ap. p. 259. 
Giinther, Cat. Col. Sn. B. M., p. 236. 

This is one of the rarer Snakes of Victoria, and does not occur 
much further south than Sandhurst. It is impossible to confound 
it with any other land Snake from its striking colors arranged in 
numerous, nearly regular, alternate black and white l^ands. These 
colors are nearly pure when the skin lias been newly changed, but 

[ H ] 



Zoology.'] 



NATUKAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



{^Reptiles. 



the white gets a slight yellow tinge, and the hlack a brown coat, 
when the skin is old ; the pattern varies a little on the head, and 
the figured specimen differs from all the others in having the l)lack 
bands mde and including a white patch, below. The curious 
peculiar character of having no teeth behind the fang in the upper 
jaw is quite clear in all the specimens examined. The size of the 
ocular plates varies in the different specimens ; and in the one 
figured the fourth la])ial plate is divided so as to give an erroneous 
appearance of a third posterior ocular, which does not exist in the 
other specimens. 

The following table gives the number of scales and measure- 
ments of four of the specimens in the National Museum 
collection : — 





Scales of Back. 


Lower Plates. 


Length. 


Color 


Specimens. 


Across 
midfllc. 


Over base 
of Tail. 


Abdomen. 


Tail 
(pairs). 


Total. 


Tail. 


Rings. 


Figured specimen 


15 


14 


2-23 


23 


ins. lines. 
20 


in.s. lines. 
1 3 


35 


2nd, from Lake Cooper 


15 


15 


229 


19 


25 


1 5 


42 


3rd, „ „ 


15 


15 


217 


24 


19 


1 5 


40 


4tli 


15 


15 


212 


24 


16 6 


1 3 


32 



Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 52. — Fig. 1, average specimen, natural size. Fig. la, profile of head, enlarged tiirec 
diameters. Fig. li, top view of head, magnified three times to show tlie form and disposition of 
the plates. Fig. Ic, lower side of head, magnified three diameter.s. Fig. Id, under side of tip of 
tail, magnified four diameters. Fig. le, under side of tail, showing the two rows of sub-caudal 
phites and a few of the abdominal plates ; natural size. Fig. 1/, interior of mouth, magnified 
to show the two fangs and two rows of palatine teeth. 



Frederick McCoy. 



[ 12] 



PI 53 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA. 



r, 1 




ProPU^Goy Dvexti. 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. ^Reptiles. 



Plate 53. 
RANOIDEA AUREA (Less. sp.). 
The Green and Golden Bell-Frog. 

[Genus RANOIDEA (Tschddi). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Reptilia. Order Batrachia. 
Sub-ord. Anoura. Section Opisthoglossa. Fam. Hylidae.) 

Gen. Char. — Vomerine teeth forming two small groups between the inner nostrils. Tongue 
rounded, about one-third or less of its length free, very slightly notched behind. Ear-drum 
large, distinct. Eustachian tubes large ; fingers and toes depressed, each terminated by a small 
oval disc, toes webbed, fingers not webbed. A subgular vocal sac in the male. Abdomen and 
under side of thighs glandulous ; ends of transverse processes of sacral vertebra? not dilated. 
Australia.] 

Description. — Form: body broad, ovate, depressed; head semielliptical, longer 
than broad, flattened above in front, concave between the very prominent eyes, which 
are less than the diameter of orbits apart; nostrils small, a little nearer the front edge 
of snout than edge of eye ; ear-drum large, oval, nearly as long as the diameter of 
iris ; about one-fifth of the length of the tongue free, very slightly notched behind. 
Legs stout, well developed ; fingers with a slight membranous border, depressed, 
free from web ; terminal discs small, suboval ; a conspicuous glandular tubercle under 
each joint; 3rd finger longest, inner one shortest, swollen, and with a large trans- 
verse soft tubercle at base, palm of the hand crowded with coarse glandular tubercles ; 
soles of hind feet smooth, toes slender, with small terminal discs, smaller than 
those of the fingers, and a smaller tubercle under each joint, a larger oblique tubercle 
at base of inner toe ; webs extending to the terminal tubercles of all the toes except 
the 4th or longest one, which is only webbed to the penultimate joint; a narrow 
membranous ridge extends along the inner lower edge of the tarsus ; sides, abdomen, 
under side of arms, tarsus, and hinder part of thighs on under side closely covered 
with small, crowded, glandular tubercles ; front of head, cheeks, and midline of 
back smooth, about 4 irregular lines of large tubercles on each side of back, varying 
in size, shape, and disposition ; a thick, tubercular, glandular ridge of a yellow color 
along each side of the body, extending from the middle of the snout over each eye 
and ear-drum, converging again a,t posterior end of bo'dy ; smaller one from angle 
of mouth to shoulder. There are about 30 minute teeth in a single row on each 
side of upper jaw, and about 6 vomerine teeth in a little transverse group on each 
side, very slightly separated in the middle, and extending close to inner edge of the 
internal nostrils. Color: usually a brilliant verdigris- or pea-green above, and 
pearly-, purplish-, or brownish-white below; the soles of the feet and palms of the 
hands purplish-grey ; hinder part of thighs and hind legs rust3'^-orange, with lighter 
glandular granules ; a black streak extends from the nostril to the eye, and extend- 
ing from behind the eye over the ear-drum, a variable way down the side, under the 
glandular ^-ellow lateral streak, sending off a branch towards back of shoulder ; 
above this constant black streak is an equally constant yellow one, the two lateral 
ones beginning at one point near middle of front e^i'^e of snout, diverging thence 
over the eye and extending along the sides of back, with thickened i)rominences, 
converging towards hind end of body; a similar yellow streak extends to angle of 
mouth, along upper lip, from about the vertical of the nostril ; l)esides this lateral 

[ 13 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Reptiles. 

streak the rows of tubercles on the back are sometimes dark and sometimes g-olden- 
yellow (often with metallic g-olden- bronze lustre) ; the arms and legs mottled with 
irregular bands and patches of" bluish-green and rusty -yellow. Hind part of the 
thig-hs and leg-s of a more bluish-g-reen than the other parts of the body. Iris g-olden- 
bronze, with a black longitudinal streak on each side of the pupil ; hands, feet, toes, 
and webs brownish g-olden-yellow. 

Measurements of averag-e specimen: — Length of head, 1 inch; g-reatest width, 1 
inch 3 hues ; depth, 7 lines ; total leng-th from tip of snout to posterior end of body, 
3 inches 3 lines ; greatest width of middle, 1 inch 8 lines ; depth, 1 inch at middle ; 
length, 1 inch 5 lines ; leg-, from knee to ankle, 1 inch 5 lines ; from ankle to tip of 
longest or 4th toe, 2 inches 2 lines ; length of inner or shortest toe, 6 lines ; 2nd, 
8 lines ; 3rd, 1 inch ; 4th, 1 inch 4 lines ; 5th, 1 inch ; length of arm from shoulder 
to elbow, 8 lines ; from elbow to tip of 3rd or longest finger, 1 inch 6 Imes ; length 
of ear-drum, 3 lines; diameter of eye, 3| lines. 

Reference. — == Rana aurea (Less.), Voy. Coq. Zool., t. 7, f. 2 (1830) ; 
^^Banoidea JacJi.soniensis, Tschudi, Mem. Soc. Sc. Nat. N., v. 2 (1838);==^y/a 
Jaclisoniensis, Dum. & Bib. Erpt. gen., v. 8, p. 602 (1841). 



This is one of the most beautifully colored Frogs known, but varies 
greatly ; in early summer it is usually of the richest verdigris-, or 
pea-, green, with the rows of tubercles and spots and streaks of 
rich yellow, shining with bright golden-bronze metallic lustre in 
various parts. Other specimens agree with the above, but have a 
variable number of spots and streaks of dark-purple on the green 
of the back and sides ; while some few are dark-brown or almost 
black on the head, back, and sides, where the green color is usually 
seen ; and these often have the spots and streaks with a strong 
metallic lustre of golden-bronze, the green only seen on the thighs 
and legs, where it has a bluer hue than on other parts of the body. 
These extremes of brio:ht-o:reen and blackish-brown chano-e one 

CO o 

into the other at different times in one individual. For instance, 
the brown specimen, fig. 2 on our plate, turned green before the 
drawing was quite finished ; and the beautiful green specimen, fig. 
1«, escaped after the drawing was colored, and could not be found 
for some days, when, finding something soft under my foot, I picked 
up what I thought was an old brown kid glove, and found it was 
my sitter for the portrait, and put him again into his glass, where 
he died next day, first changing into his former vi\nd pea-green. In 
spring they are often entirely blackish above and wliite below, with 
bluish-green only on the thighs ; and a specimen, entirely green 
above (tubercles and all), turned in a day to the uniform dark 
color above. 

[ i-i ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Heptiles. 

So completely like the comoiou green edible Frog of Europe 
(Rana viridis) is this iu form and habits, that I cannot agree with 
the majority of modern writers, who refer it to the genus Hyla^ and 
I willingly adopt rather for it the genus Ranoidea of Tschudi, 
leaving it in the family Hi/lidce. The discs at the tips of the fingers 
and toes are so much smaller than in Hyla^ or the true Tree-Frogs, 
that they are almost useless for climbing, although they adhere 
tenaciously to the fingers when the living creature is held ; and 
this species, unlike the Tree-Frogs, is not found on trees or bushes, 
but in the neighborhood of water, ponds or pools of any kind, into 
which they, like the true Frogs (Rana), plunge on the least alarm, 
instead of shunning it as the Trea-Frogs {Hyla) do. The note of 
the male also approaches that of various true Frogs (Rana), and is 
quite unlike that of the Tree-Frogs (Hyla). The general sound is 
a hoarse, prolonged croak, varied by a loud " clunk " monotonously 
repeated at intervals, very much like the sound of the mallet and 
chisel of a number of stonemasons. So like is this that when a 
portion of the University was being built, and a number of masons 
were working on the hard sonorous basalt (called bluestone by the 
colonists) a hundred yards from my house, a newly arrived servant, 
writing home an account of the busy scene, mentioned that the 
masons could be heard at work the whole of the moonlight nights — 
so completely alike was the sound of these Bell-Frogs in an adjoining 
pond at night to the noise of the men by day. In summer the note 
often resembles so exactly the short " clunk " of the cattle-bells 
that people seeking their cows or horses at dusk in the bush can 
scarcely tell one from the other. 

The transverse processes of the sacral vertebrae are, as a rule, 
dilated at their ends in the Hylce^ but in the present Frog they are 
as narrow and nearly cylindrical as in the true Frogs {Rana) ; and 
it is curious that Dr. Glinther, in describing the skeleton, does not 
notice this point. They keep on the margins of pools or under 
water during the day, but at night they wander about anywhere 
over the ground and gardens, seeking slugs, insects, worms, &c., 
for food. They are eaten by the natives, who, taking a torch 
by night, thrust a sharpened stick through as many of them as 
they choose to make a meal of, and using it like a spit, roast 

[ 15] 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Reptiles. 

the collection to their taste ; and no doubt they are as good as the 
epicures in France find the Rana viridis. 

A Greek scholar who had enjoyed at home the " batpaxoi " of 
Aristophanes, and noted the ludicrous exactness with which the 
author imitates the sound of the European Frogs' chorus in a 
marsh by his opening words of the chorus — 

fipEKEKEICe^ KOClE, KOc'l^ " 

would fancy the Frogs of Greece had come out to bear him com- 
pany, so accurately does the sound of the daily summer chorus of 
the present species in the like situation accord with that of the true 
Rana of Europe. The Australian youth, who might fimcy that the 
coincidence was not so exact, from detecting a difference between 
the sound of the words as uttered in the schools and by the Frogs 
in the neighboring water, will find the discrepancy disappear, and 
at the same time the similarity of the European true Frogs and our 
representative, in this respect, vindicated by the following observa- 
tion of Frere, in his translation of this play.* He begins the 
chorus with '■''Brekeke-kesh^ koash, koash,'^ and says in a preliminary 
note, " The spelling of the words of the chorus is accommodated to 
the actual pronunciation of the Frogs, which, it is presumed, has 
remained unaltered. The B in Brekeke-kesh is very soft, and 
assimilates to the v. The e in kesh is pronounced like ei in leisure, 
and the last syllable prolonged and accented with a higher tone. 
The word as commonly pronounced by scholars (with the ictus or 
English accent on the third syllable) bears no resemblance to the 
sound which it is meant to imitate ; which has, on the contrary, a 
slight ictus on the first syllable." This F sound of the B^ or /3, makes 
the wording of Aristophanes as exact an imitation of our present 
Fros: as Frere makes it for the Greek one. I have been much 
amused in listening to the " Frosche Cantata " of the German com- 
poser Hennig, which is sometimes capitally sung by our Melbourne 
Liedertafel, in which the bass voice takes the part of a mature 
German Frog, giving the occasional loud croak of our species with 
all the additional exactness which a careful composer's music could 

• The Works of the Eight Honorable John Hookham Frere, edited by W. E. Frere, vol. 3, p. 249. 

[ 16 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. ^Reptiles. 

add to the imitation. I fancy tliat difference of age of the 
individuals may account for some of the difference of the notes, 
and that not only the occasional very loud croak but also the 
metallic " bell " sound may only be uttered by old males. 

This species occurs in abundance over the whole colony, wher- 
ever stagnant water is to be found. It has not been figured of the 
correct colors of life before. 

Explanation of Figuees. 

Plate 53. — Fig. 1, ordinary green specimen, vdewed from abore, natural size. Fig. la, one 
with fewer dorsal yellow tubercles viewed sideways (toes shortened by perspective). Fig. \b, 
outline profile of head. Fig. \c, same specimen as fig. 1, viewed from below. Fig. Id, inside of 
mouth, showing two groups of vomerine teeth between the inner nostrils, also the Eustachian 
tubes and slightly notched tongue, natural size. Fig. le, underside of hand showing discs of 
fingers and swollen base of thumb, natural size. Fig. \f, underside of foot, showing webs and 
discs of toes, natural size. Fig. 2, brown emaciated smaller specimen, natural size. Fig. 3, 
early stage of tadpole state, with gill opening, no front legs, and only slight trace of hind 
pair of legs, natural size. Fig. 4^ more advanced stage of tadpole growth, with the hind limbs 
more developed, but still useless and not free, the anterior limbs not yet begun, natural size. 
Fig. 5, much more developed stage, with all four limbs well developed and capable of supporting 
the body, the tail beginning to shrivel, and the gill-openings closed as breathing by the lungs 
has commenced, natural size. Fig. ba, front view of mouth of last specimen, natural size. 



Frederick McCoy. 



Dec.yt. [ 17 ] 



TI.S4 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

f IisJves ] 




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ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

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Zoology.^ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 



Plates 54 and .05. 

AULOPUS PURPURISATUS (Rich.). 

The Australian Aulopus. 

[Genus AULOPUS (Cuv.). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Sub-class Teleostei. 
Order Physostomi. Fam. Scopelidae.) 

Gen. Char. — Head and body moderately elongate, fusiform, slightly compressed ; scales of 
moderate size ; mouth deeply cleft, composed of the intermaxillaries ; the maxillaries widely 
dilated behind ; teeth small, in cardiform bands on the jaws, vomer, pharyngeal and pterygoid 
bones and tongue ; eyes moderate ; pectoral fins moderate ; ventrals large (nine rays) just 
behind the pectorals, under the anterior dorsal ray ; dorsal fin long, of fifteen or more rays, on 
middle of back ; a snuiU adipose dorsal fin between the dorsal and caudal ; anal moderate ; 
caudal forked : gill-opening very wide, branchiostegals numerous ; pseudo-branchiae well 
developed. Pyloric appendages few. Air bladder none.] 

Description. — Female. Form : elongate, fusiform ; depth of body in front of 
dorsal fin one-fifth the total length, excluding caudal fin ; head about one-fourth of 
total length to tip of caudal, tetragonal, deeply hollowed between the eyes, rugose 
and slightly spinulose, cheeks nearly vertical, depressed towards snout, lower jaw a 
little longer than upper one 5 eye nearly seven times in length of head, and two 
and a half diameters from tip of snout. Scales : rounded, not ciliated, those on 
cheeks about as large as on anterior part of body, those on operculum much larger ; 
about 56 (54 to 56) along lateral line, 5 to 7 above and 8 to 11 below under front of 
dorsal. Fins : dorsal rays, 20 or 21, first or simple spinous one, about two-thirds 
the length of ninth, which is shortest, the other rays branched and slightly increasing 
in length towards posterior end, where they exceed the interval to the adipose fin ; 
caudal slightly forked, of about 20 rays, and a few short ones above and below ; 
anal large, of 14 rays, the first ray simple and shortest ; ventral large, of 9 rays, 
first four rays very thick, the first simple, the next three bifid and longest ; the rest 
shorter and much branched; pectoral moderate, pointed, of 11 rays. Color : head 
and back purple, with the edge of the scales and a few spots on top of head 
vermilion, with a tinge of carmine, with several large irregular spots and transverse 
bands, two or three scales wide, of the same scarlet carmine red, with darker edges 
to the scales ; the red patches do not reach the midline of the abdomen ; below the 
lateral line the purple becomes lighter to pearly white on belly ; ventral, dorsal, 
pectoral, and caudal fins yellowish^ with transverse bands of crimson-red blotches; 
scaly adipose fin, purple below, yellow in middle, and red at tip ; anal white with 
orange bands. Teeth : 3 rows in front and 2 behind on jaws ; 2 rows of about 20 
on palate bones ; 6 or 8 on vomer, and a small patch on tongue. Branchiostegal 
rays, 14. 

Reference. — Richardson, Icones Piscium, p. 6, t. 2, f. 3. = A. Milesi, Cuv. and 
Val., Hist, des Poiss., v. 22, p. 519, t. 650. 

This ma2:nificentlv colored Fish belon2:s to the restricted 2:eniis 
Aulopus., founded hy Cuvier for a Mediterranean species, supposed 
to be a kind of Salmon by Bloch, who referred it to the genus 
Salmo^ from its possessing the small adipose dorsal fin of all tlie 

[ 19] 



Zoology.'] 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



IFishes. 



Salmomdce. In Sydney it is popularly called the "Sergeant 
Baker." The males have much more elongate anterior rays to the 
dorsal fin and have much duller colors in less distinct patches, the 
top of the head brownish and rich dark-purple, fading gradually to 
whitish on l)clly ; cheeks, operculum, and some round spots on top 
of head vermilion and carmine, and indistinct rosy blotches on 
sides ; caudal purple, with 3 rows of reddish blotches ; pectoral 
dark-grey with 3 or 4 transverse bands of darker spots ; ventrals 
purplish with 3 rows in front and 5 rows behind of darker puri)le 
and lighter spots on the rays ; anal light-grey, with 5 or 6 rows of 
lighter ol)long spots in front, becoming darker purple behind ; front 
of dorsal orange, hind part of dorsal grey with mimerous darker 
blotches on the membranes of purple, front rays of dorsal red. 

The hollowed top of the head and the character of the rays of 
the ventral fin, as well as the coloring, resembles the ScorpcBncB, in 

which such simple large unarticulated rays occur in the pectoral. 

The extraordinarily large number of the branchiostegal rays 

separates it from the other famihes completely. 

The first ray of the dorsal in both sexes is spinous, simple and 

shortest. The second ray bifid and longest, but only slightly 

exceeding the third and fourth much-branched rays in the female ; 

while in the male the anterior filament is prolongued to a length 

about equalling the distance from its base to the adipose dorsal, 

while the posterior filament ends at little more than half its length ; 

the first filament or branch of the third ray is rather less than 

half the length of the second ray. 

The following are the detailed measurements of two of the 

specimens in the Museum : — 



Measurements. 



Length from snout to distal end of middle of caudal 

„ of caudal to middle 

„ of caudal to end of lobes 

„ from snout to anterior edge of orbit 

„ of orbit 

„ of head from snout to end of operculum 

„ from snout to anal (measured along ventral edge) 

„ from front of anal to cud of middle of caudal ... 

„ from snout to base of pectoral 

„ from snout to origin of 1st dorsal 



Male. 


ins. 


lines. 


21 


3 


1 


3 


2 


11? 


1 


7 





It) 


5 


1 


13 





8 


3 


b 


fi 


6 


9 



Female. 

ins. lines. 

18 

1 1 

3 2 

1 .5 

10 

5 

11 9 



6 





[ 20 ] 



Zoology.'] 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



[^Fishes. 



Measurements — continued. 



Measurements. 



Length from snout to origin of small scaly 2nd adipose dorsal 

„ from snout to origin of ventral fin 

„ of 1st dorsal 

„ of pectoral 
Height of (simple) ray of 1st dorsal 

„ of 2nd (bifid) ray of 1st dorsal 

„ of loth ray 

„ of penultimate ray 

„ of adipose dorsal 

Length of anal... 

Depth of anal (1st ray, simple) 

Depth of anal (middle rays) 

Length from base to tip of ventral fin (4th ray) ... 

Width between eyes 

Depth of body in front of ventral, about 

Thickness of body in front of dorsal, about 

Length of largest intermaxillary teeth 

Scales 3 to 4 in 1 inch about middle of body at lateral line 




Female. 



ins. lines. 
14 



6 
5 
2 
1 
2 
1 
2 

2 
1 
1 
3 




7 
6 
3 
5 
9 
3 
6 
5 
4 
4 
9 



IH 
3 6 
3 3 
1 



* Tip Imperfect. 

Rare in Hobson's Bay. The specimens in the Museum were 
caught in January, February, and June. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 54. — Fig. 1, male, one-third natural size. Fig. la, teeth on upper and lower jaws, 
palate bones, vomer, and tongue, natural size. Fig. 2, top of head of another specimen, to show 
the spotting, one-third natural size. Fig. 3, abnormal development of third ray of dorsal, from 
another specimen. Plate 55. — Fig. 1, female, one-third natural size. Fig. la, scales of middle 
of body, natural size. Fig. 16, scale from under adipose fin. Fig. Ic, scale from under third ray 
of dorsal fin. Fig. Id, dentition, two-thirds natural size. Fig. le, section behind pectoral, half 
natural size. Fig. If, section in front of anal fin, half natural size. Fig. Ig, front view of head, 
one-half natural size. 



Frederick McCoy. 



[21 ] 



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MIE M (ID mas ©IF TIEIIE MILi S lEI] M 



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ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 



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Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. {Fishes. 



Plate 56, Fig. 1. 

ZYG^NA MALLEUS (Shaw). 
The Hammer-headed Shark. 

[Genus ZYG-^NA (Cuv.). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Order Plagiostomata. 
Sub-ord. Selachoidea. Fam. Carchariidse.) 

Gen. Char. — Body fusiform, gradually tapering to end of tail ; an anal and two dorsal fins ; 
1st dorsal fin without spines, opposite the space between the pectoral and ventral fins ; caudal 
fin with a notch and a pit at its commencement ; head broad, flattened, and elongate laterally 
with two oblong lobes, at the outer edge of which the eyes are placed, with a nictitating membrane. 
Nostrils on front edge of head ; no spiracles ; mouth semicircular, inferior ; teeth of both jaws 
similar, oblique, with notch on outer side between pointed central cusp and base, smooth when 
young, serrated when old]. 

Description. — Ends of the transverse hammer-head nearly as wide as their 
posterior margins ; nostrils near the eyes on anterior edge of head, prolonged in 
groove along greater part of front margin. Color : ashy brownish-grey above, 
whitish below ; iris yellowish-white. 

Reference. — Squalus zygceyia (Lin.), Syst. Nat., p. 399 ; Zygcena malleus 
(Shaw), Nat. Misc., t. 267. 

Our Australian specimens of this most singularly shaped Shark 
are perfectly identical with those of the Mediterranean and English 
coast. The old Greek writers who describe the Fish named it 
Zygcena from the resemblance of the head to their balance, and 
they give the most exaggerated accounts of its ferocity. Oppian 
and ^lian refer to it as a source of danger to mariners, although 
curiously enough Pliny omits to mention it at all. The small size of 
the mouth and teeth prevents it really doing any very serious harm 
to large anunals, and although active and fierce in habits "the 
monstrous balance-fish of ugly shape " is not very formidable. 

The follomng are the dimensions of an averge sized sj)ecimen : — 

Measurements. 
Total length 
Length from front to origin of dorsal 

„ of base of dorsal 
Height of dorsal ... 
Length from front to anterior base of 2nd dorsal 

„ of base of 2nd dorsal 
Height of anterior part of 2nd dorsal 

„ of posterior lobe 
Length from anterior origin of base of caudal fin to tip 
Depth of lower lobe of caudal 

[ 23 ] 



ft. 


ins. 


lines. 


5 


8 





1 


7 








6 








7 





3 


7 


6 





1 


9 





I 


6 





3 


6 


1 


5 








6 






Zoology.^ 



NATUEAL HISTORY OF VICTOKIA. [Fishes. 



Measurements. 
Length from front to origin of pectoral 
of base of pectoral ... 
", of anterior margin of pectoral 

from front to anterior base of ventral 
',', of base of ventral ... 

of anterior margin of ventral 
" of posterior margin of ventral ... • 

from front to anterior edge of base of anal fin 
„ of base of anal 
„ of anterior margin ... 
„ of posterior margin... 
Width of head 
Length of lateral ends 
Width across posterior angles of mouth 

„ of mouth ... 
Length of largest teeth 
Diameter of orbit ... 
Length of middle gill-openings 



ft. 


ins. 


lines. 


... 1 


1 





... 


3 


3 





7 


6 


... 2 


6 


6 


... 


2 








2 


3 


... 


4 





... 3 


5 


6 


... 


2 





... 


2 


6 





3 





1 


5 


6 


... 


4 


6 


... 


.5 


6 


... 


4 


6 








3 


... 


1 





... 


2 






Explanation of Figuees. 

Plate 56 -Fig 1, lateral view, greatly reduced. Fig. la underside of head to show 
proportion of lateral lobes and position of nostrils near eye on front edge. Fig. U, tooth of 
upper jaw, natural size. Fig. Ic, tooth of lower jaw, natural size. 



Plate 56, Fig. 2. 

PRISTIOPHORUS NUDIPINNIS (Gunth.). 
The Common Australian Saw-Fish. 

TGenus PRISTIOPHORUS (MiJLL. and Henle). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Pisces. 
Order Plao-iostomata. Sub-ord. Selachoidea. Fam. Pristiophoridae.) w .u 

GenChar.-^nout produced into a long, flat lamina, having a row of very unequal teeth 
nroiectino- in one plane f^om the lateral edge. Body elongate, slender, fusiform; pectoral fins 
Fari wUh free margins, much behind head ; gill-openings lateral, n front of pectoral ; spiracles 
w[de behhid the eye. No nictitatmg membrane ; nostrils inferior ; a pair of long tentacles 
7rom unde?s de of snout ; teeth of mouth very small, in many close rows, with small cusp from 
broad base Dorsal fins without spines, first in front of the ventrals, second behind them ; no 
anal fin ; caudal fin notched. Japan and Australia.] 

Description.— Yellowish-brown, paler beneath; lateral teeth of snout very 
unequal, from 1 to 4 small ones irregularly between each pair of larger a row ol 
smaller more equal teeth hooked backwards on the underside of the outer edo^e ; 
nostrils' considerably farther from first g-ill-opening- than from tentacles ; scales 
minute, nearly smooth, 3 or 5 shg-ht ridges at base, the middle one faintly extended 
as a keel ; 35 rows of teeth at edge of up])er jaw. 

Reference.— Gunther, Cat. Fish. Bnt. Mus. v. 8, p. 43^. 

[24] 



2 4 9 

2 6 

3 

2 6 

2 9 

ventrals ... 1 11 

2 3 

2 6 

2 

ior edge of nostril 2 6 



Zoohgtf.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 

The following- are the dimensions of an average sized specimen : — 

Measurements. ft. ins. lines. 

Length from tip of tail to end of saw ... ... ... 3 6 

„ from tip of saw to mouth ... ... ... 9 

„ from tip of saw to base of tentacles ... ... 5 3 

„ of tentacles ... ... ... ... ... 2 6 

„ from nostril to corner of mouth ... ... ... 2 

DLameter of orbit ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Length of spiracle ... ... ... ... ... 9 

„ from tip of snout to front edge of orbit ... ... 8 

„ from posterior edge of orbit to upper end of spiracle 3 
„ from tip of snout to front edge of pectoral ... 1 1 

„ to edge of 1st dorsal ... ... ... ... 1 7 

„ to front edge of 2nd dorsal 
„ of base of 1st dorsal 
Greatest height 
Length of base of 2nd dorsal 
Height of 2nd dorsal ... 
Length from tip of snout to front edge of 
„ of base of ventrals 
„ of front edge of ventrals 
„ of posterior edge of ventrals 
„ from hind base of tentacle to ante 
„ from anterior edge of nostril to anterior edge of 

anterior gill-opening ... ... ... 3 6 

Teeth of mouth in 3 or 4 rows with broad oval base, and vertical, conical, 

central cusp about equalling the length of the base in height. 
About 19 scales in a space of 3 lines about middle of body. 
The ridging of the scales varies in different parts of the body ; very 
generally the margin is smooth, not reached by any of the ridges, the 
centre one is often longest, like a keel, and the other two, four or more 
at base, much shorter, but sometimes they are all nearly equally 
developed. 

The naked, or scaleless, portion of the fins, from which the 
specific name is derived, varies in different individuals, and is not, 
I think, a true character, as most of my specimens have the dorsal 
and pectorals completely covered with scales, as in other Sharks. 
There is a narrow ridge on each side of the ventral surface of the 
tail from half-way between ventral and second dorsal converging 
to anterior margin of lower lobe of caudal fin. 

This Saw-Fish is very common in Hobson's Bay, but it is now 
figured for the first time. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 56. — Fig. 2, side view, greatly reduced. Fig. 2a, under view of snout, less reduced, 
to show the character of the lateral teeth, the crescentic mouth, and the relative position of the 
tentacles and nostrils. Fig. 2b, lower scales, natural size and magnified. Fig. 2c, teeth of jaw, 
magnified. Fig. 2d, upper scales, natural size and magnified. 



Dec. VI. 



Frederick McCoy. 



[ 25 ] D 



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Zoology.'] NATUKAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPohjzoa. 



Plate 57, Fig. 1. 
BIFLUSTRA PERFRAGILIS (P. MacGil.). 

[Genus BIFLUSTRA (D'Orbignt). (Sub-kingd. Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order Infun- 
dibulata. Sub-ord. Cheilostomata. Fam. Membraniporidae.) 

Gen. Char. — Polyzoary usually consisting of two layers of horizontal cells placed back to 
back and easily separable, occasionally of a single adnate layer ; cells large, more or less 
quadrate, with rigid raised margins, and the front partly occupied by a broad, usually granular 
lamina.] 

Description. — Cells much elongated, slightly arched above, raised margins 
minutely granular ; the lamina smooth or finely granular, occupying about the lower 
third of the front of the cell, and extending as a narrow rim a short distance up the 
sides, leaving an oval or elliptical aperture. 

Eeference. — B.fragilis, P. H. MacGillivray, Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., 1868. 

King's Island, Bass's Straits ; Port Phillip Heads. 

This species is usually found in two layers of cells, the resulting 
lamina being variously twisted and united so as to form an ex- 
tremely delicate cavernous polyzoary. This double arrangement is, 
however, not constant, and I have a specuuen of Eschara mucronata 
on the surface of which a single layer has extended from a mass of 
the ordinary double form. The cells are elongated, usually about 
three times as long as broad ; the raised margins and lamina are 
nearly smooth or very finely granular. In some specimens, how- 
ever, the cells are shorter, the ridges and lamina stronger, and the 
granulations coarser, approximating to the structure in the next 
species. 

Explanation op Figures. 

Plate 57. — Fig. 1, specimen, natural size. Fig. la, portion, magnified. Fig. \b, single 
cell from same specimen, more highly magnified. Fig. Ic, two cells from another specimen, 
with the membrane filUng the aperture entire, and showing the mouth at the upper part. Fig. 
\d, section, showing the sides of the cells. Fig. le, section, showing the ends of the cells. 

* In different descriptions "zoarium" Is used for "polyzoary," "zooecium" is used for "cell," and " ooeciuin " Is used 

instead of " ovicell." 



[27 ] 



Zonlo(/i/.'\ 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa, 



Plate 57, Fig. 2. 
BIFLUSTRA DELICATULA (Busk). 

Description.— Cells quadrate, usually not more than twice as long as broad; 
maro-in very thick and regularly granular or tubercular ; lamina thick, granular on 
the surface and edges, leaving a broadly elliptical aperture. 

Reference.— Busk, Crag Polyzoa, p. 72, pi. i., fig. 1. 

QueensclifF. 

Like the last, B. delicatula usually occurs in two layers, forming 
a cavernous mass ; and of this condition I have fine specimens 
from Port Curtis, in Queensland. The cells are broader than in 
B. frngilis ; the septa and lamina much thicker and more strongly 
granular ; the markings extending almost as short transverse 
ridges. The only Victorian specimen I have seen occurs in a 
Memhrariipora form as a single layer creeping over a narrow sea- 
weed. In it the cells are much smaller, but do not otherwise differ 
fi-om those of the Port Curtis specimens. The serrated denticle at 
the bottom of the aperture exists only in two or three of the cells 
of the Queenscliff specimen, and is altogether absent in those from 
Queensland, but, with, that exception, they agree precisely with 
Busk's description and figure. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 57.— Fig. 2, portion, magnified, of a specimen from Port Cnrtis, in which the cells 
were arranged in a double layer, the polyzoary being twisted and cavernous as in fig. 1. Fig. 
2a, end view of cells from the same specimen, showing the dovetailed arrangement which 
frequently, but not always, exists in this species. Fig. 3, specimen occurring in a single layer, 
encrusting a narrow seaweed. Fig. 3a, portion of the same specimen, magnified to the same 
extent as fig. 2. Fig. 36, a small group of cells from the same, more highly magnified ; the two 
large cells show the broad serrated denticle at the bottom of the aperture. 



The genus Biflustra was proposed by D'Orbigny for a large 
iuiml)er of forms, mostly fossil, characterised by having cells similar 
to tliose of Memhraiiipora^ but disposed in two layers placed back 
to V)ack and easily separable. All the species figured in the 

[ 28 ] 



Zoology.'] NATUEAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPolyzoa. 

PaUontologie Frangaise are either subcylindrical or compressed and 
ramose. In the Crag Polyzoa, Busk adopts the genus and describes 
and figures B. delicatula from fossil specimens from the Crag, and 
recent ones from Australia. I believe the genus to be a good 
one, excluding, however, many forms referred to it by D'Orbigny. 
Lamarck's Eschara chartacea is probably one or both of the species 
here described. 



The specunens and descriptions of the above species are from 
Mr. MacGilUvray. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[29] 



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Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Poli/zoa. 



Plate 58, Fig. 1. 

CELLULARIA CUSPIDATA (Busk). 

l^Genus CELLULARIA (Pallas). (Sub-kinffd. Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order Infun- 
dibulata. Sub-ord. Cheilostomata. Fam. Ccllulariidic.) 

Gen. Char. — Cells bi-triserial, oblong or rhomboidal, contiguous, usually perforated behind. 
Without avicularia or vibracula.] 

Description. — Cells oblong- ; aperture with the margin thickened and nearly 
smooth ; outer angle of the cells and the summit of the median cell at a bifurcation, 
produced into a short sharp spine. A single perforation behind. 

Eeferknce. — Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat. Mar. Polyzoa, p. 19, pi. xxvii., figs. 1, 2. 

QueensclifF and other places ; common. 

Forms whitish, curling tufts, from J inch high upwards, attached 
to algae and zoophytes. It is at once distinguished by the pointed 
process on the upper and outer angle of the cells and by the similar 
strong cusp on the summit of the median cell at a bifurcation. In 
old or worn specimens the single posterior perforation cannot 
usually be distinguished. I have not seen the ovicell, l)ut accord- 
ing to Busk it is smooth. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 58. — Fig. I, specimen, natural size. Fig. la, front view of the same, magnified. 
Fi^. 16, view of back, magnified ; in two cells the posterior perforation is shown. 



Plate 58, Fig. 2. 

MENIPEA CRYSTALLINA (Gray sp.). 

[Genus MENIPEA (Lamx.). (Sub-kingd. Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order Infundibulata. 
Sub-ord. Cheilostomata. Fam. Cellulariida!.) 

Gen. Char. — Cells oblong, abbreviated or elongated and narrowed downwards ; imperforate 
behind ; a sessile lateral avicularium (frequently absent) and one or two sessile avicularia (also 
frequently absent) on the front of the cell. Ovicell globular, immersed in the internode.] 

* In different descriptions " zoarium " is used for " polyzoary," " zooecium " is used for " cell," and " ooecium " is used 

Instead of " ovicell." 

[31 ] 



Zoology.'\ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

Description. — A pair of cells in an internode, with three at a bifurcation ; 
connecting- tubes short and double ; aperture nearly circular, largely filled in by a 
tubercular calcareous plate, usually broader below and leaving- a subtrianguiar 
opening- ; 3 or 4 long- slender spines articulated to the upper and outer marg-in of 
the aperture. Avicularium, when present, with the mandible opposite the calcareous 
plate filling- in the lower part of the aperture. Ovicell dpe])ly immersed. 

Reference. — Gray, DiefFenbach, New Zealand, ii. 293; Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat. 
Mar. Pol., p. 28, pi. xl. 

Queenscliff and other places. 

Forms small curling tufts attached to algae and polyzoa. The 
avicularia are frequently wanting in all the cells of a specimen. 
When present they are small and situated so that the mandible opens 
opposite the lower edge of the aperture. When ovicells are present 
there are three cells in an internode, the ovicell being globular and 
deeply immersed in the upper cell, which is situated to one side and 
not mesially, as in the tricellular internode of a bifurcation. In 
this species, as in M. cervicornis, in addition to the usual bifurcating 
branches, one occasionally springs from the front of a cell. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 58. — Fig. 2, specimen, natural size. Fig. 2a, portion, magnified. Fig. 2A, two inter- 
nodes, more highly magnified ; a deeply immersed ovicell is shown in the ujtper cell of the 
upper internode, and the lateral avicularium is seen in the left-hand cell of the lower. 



I follow Wyville Thomson, whose generic character I have 
given, in uniting Em7na with Menipea as I cannot see that there 
is any sufficient distinction between the two genera. Emma is 
distinguished from Menipea by the aperture being contracted by 
a more or less granular plate, and by the lateral avicularia being 
situated below the level of the opening. All the species here 
described certainly lielong to the same genus. In M. cijathus the 
granular plate is replaced by a slightly thickened rim, occasionally 
wider at the lower part ; and the situation of the avicularium varies 
from opening opposite the upper third, as in M. Baskii^ to opposite 
the lower edge of the aperture, as in M. crystallina. 



• [32] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPohjzoa. 



Plate 58, Fig. 3. 

MENIPEA CYATHUS (Wyv. Thomson). 

Description. — A pair of cells in an internode, with three at a bifurcation ; 
connecting' tube single ; aperture of cell oval, oblique ; 3 to 6 long- spines, several 
of which are pod-like, articulated to the upper and outer margin ; opercular spine 
springing from the upper and inner margin of the aperture and pointed downwards, 
divided into two or more processes. Avicularium opening opposite the upper third 
of the opening. 

Reference. — Wyville Thomson, Dublin Natural History Review, vol. v. 
(1858), p. 143, pi. XV., figs. 10, 10a. 

QueensclifF. 

M. cyathus differs from the other species here described in the 
connecting tubes being long and single. The cells project con- 
siderably ; the aperture is oval or elliptical ; the calcareous plate 
is reduced to a simple marginal ring. From the vipper cell there 
are usually 6 spines and from the lower 4, but the number is not 
constant. Several are usually very large and pod-like. The 
opercular spine is directed downwards and outwards from the 
upper and inner part of the margin ; in the upper of the two cells 
of an ordinary internode and in the median one at a bifurcation it 
is usually simply bifid, and in the others each branch generally 
again divides so as to form four points. The avicularium is of 
consideral)le size, and opens opposite the junction of the middle and 
upper thirds of the aperture. Besides the lateral avicularia there 
is occasionally a sessile avicularium in front between the cell 
apertures. In the lower part of the front of the upper of two cells 
of an internode, there is constantly a round mark with an annular 
margin ft'om which a radicle tube occasionally springs. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 58. — Fig. 3, specimen, natural size. Fig. 3a, small portion, magnified ; small sessile 
avicularia are shown on the front of three of the internodes, aud in the internode of bifurcation 
a radicle tube is also seen. Fig. 36, single internode, more highly magnified ; in addition to the 
constant round mark there is in this specimen another similar mark immediately below the 
anterior sessile avicularium. 

Dec. VI. [ 33 ] E 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 



Plate 58, Fig. 4. 

MENIPEA CERVICORNIS (P. MacGil.). 

Description. — A pair of cells in an internode, with three at a bifurcation ; 
connecting- tubes double ; aperture oblique, partly filled in by a faintly g-ranular 
calcareous plate ; 4 to 6 hollow spines, of which several are g-enerally larg-er and 
pod-like, articulated to the outer margin. Opercular spine s])ring-ing- from the 
inner and lower part of the aperture, enlarged and branched at the extremity. 
Avicularia large, opening nearly opposite the lower edge of the aperture. 

Reference. — Emma cervicornis, P. H. MacGiliivray, Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., 
1868. 

Queeuscliff. 

The brauclied opercular spine, springing fi'om the inner and 
lower part of the aperture, readily distinguishes this from the 
other two-celled species. In addition to the branches of bifur- 
cation others frequently rise from the front of a cell, usually the 
lower in an internode. The openings of these face the cells from 
which they rise. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 58. — Fig. 4, specimen, natural size. Fig. 4a, portion, magnified, showing, in 
addition to the details of the cells, also two branches originating from the front of the upper 
internodes. Fig. 46, three-celled internode at a bifurcation, more highly magnified. 



Plate 58, Fig. 6. 
MENIPEA TRICELLATA (Busk). 

Description. — Cells three in an internode, narrowed downwards, elongated; 
connecting tubes short and double ; aperture small, with a granular thickened 
margin ; 4 or 5 long slender spines articulated to the upper and outer margin ; 
opercular spine simple, springing from the inner margin. Avicularia opening nearly 
opposite the lower edge or middle of the aperture. 

Reference. — Busk, Voy. liattlcshake, i., 373 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. Mar. Polyz., 
p. 28, pi. xli. 

[ 34 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTOEY OF VICTOEIA. ^Polyzoa. 

QueensclifF. 

This species is easily distinguished from M. Buskii by the simple 
opercular spine, as well as by the cells being much more elongated 
and narrow. The avicularia are frequently absent. 

Explanation op Figures. 

Plate 58. — Fig. 5, specimen, natural size. Fig. 5a, portion, magnified. Fig. 5i, internode 
(of bifurcation), more higiily magnified. 



Plate 68, Fig. 6. 
MENIPEA BUSKII (Wyv. Thomson). 

Description. — Cells three in an internode ; connecting- tubes short and double ; 
cells short and wide j aperture round, with a thickened, g-ranular, calcareous margin, 
straightened below ; usually 4 spines at the upper margin, of which the second or 
second and third from the outer edg-e are much larg-er and thicker, and there is 
frequently another smaller one on the inside. Opercular spine attached to the inner 
and lower part of the aperture, clavate. Avicularium opening- opposite the middle 
or upper third of the aperture. 

Reference. — Wyville Thomson, Dublin Nat. Hist. Review, vol. v., p. 144, 
plate xii., fig. 1. 

Queenscliff. 

Forms small tufts adhering to algse and zoophytes. Readily 
distinguished by the three cells in an internode and the peculiar 
clavate opercular spine. I have not seen ovicells, but they are 
described by Thomson as being " spherical, with a richly granular 
surface, imbedded among tha cells, on the cavity of two of which 
it encroaches. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 58. — Fig. 6, specimen, natural size. Fig. 6a, portion, magnified. Fig. 6i, internode, 
more highly magnified. 



I am indebted to Mr. MacGillivray for the specimens and de- 
scriptions illustrated l\y this plate. 

Frederick McCoy. 

[ '35 ] 



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ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

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Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa* 



Plate 59, Fig. 1. 

BICELLARIA TUBA (Busk). 

[Genus BICELLARIA (Blainville). (Sub-kingd. Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order In- 
fundibulata. Sub-ord. Cheilostomata. Fam. Bicellariidae.) 

Gen. Char. — Branches continuously celluliferous ; cells biserial, turbinate, more or less 
free above, aperture directed upwards and forwards, with several marginal or submarginal 
spines.] 

Description. — Cells elongated, considerably narrowed downwards ; aperture 
nearly round, looking obliquely upwards and forwards j 3 or 4 long- submarginal 
spines, and one short thick process at the anterior and outer part, with 3-6 long 
spines articulated to its summit. Avicularium very long and trumpet-shaped, with 
a minute mandible on the summit. Ovicell globular, placed at the summit of a 
cell. 

Reference. — Busk, Voy. Ratt., i., 373 ; Cat. Mar. Pol. Brit. Mus., p. 42, 
pi. xxxi. 

QueensclifF ; Western Port ; Portland, Mr. Maplestone. 

This species forms large, handsome dense tufts, sometimes 5 or 
6 inches high. It is usually of a delicate pink color, but sometimes 
of a silvery grey ; the cells in the latter being rather smaller and 
more slender, but not otherwise differing. It is readily distinguished 
by the peculiar thick process, springing from below and behind the 
anterior and ou.ter part of the margin, to the outer extremity of 
which 3-5 long processes are articulated. The avicularia are very 
peculiar. They are trumpet-shaped, very narrow, considerably 
longer than the cells, to the back of which, a little below the 
margin, they are articulated ; a minute mandible is situated in a 
transverse cup-shaped hollow on the summit. One of the spines 
is frequently lower down the back than the others. A branch 
sometimes rises by a spirally twisted stem. 

Explanation of Figukes. 

Plate 59. — Fig. 1, fragment, natural size. Fig. la, front view, magnified, showang the thick 
process with its digitiform spines and several long trumpet-shaped avicularia. Fig. \b, back of 
portion of same. Fig. Ic, ovicell. Fig. Id, portion of a branch originating by a spirally 
twisted stem ; shows also an avicularium with its small mandible. 

* In difEerent descriptions " zoarium " is used for " polyzoary," " zooecium " is used for " cell," and " ocecium " is used 

instead of " ovicell." 

[37] 



Zoology,'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 



Plate 69, Figs. 2 and 3. 
BICELLARIA GRANDIS (Busk). 

Description. — Cells large, much expanded above, spreading outwards, with 
a large nearly horizontal aperture. A variable number of spines from the outer 
edge. 

Reference. — Busk, Voy. Ratt., i., 374 ; Cat. Mar. Pol. Brit. Mus., p. 42, 
pi. xliv. 

QueensclifF ; Cape Otway, Mr. J. Payter. 

B. grandis differs from the other species in the large size of the 
cells, iu their being very narrow below and expanded widely above, 
and in the large, nearly horizontal, elliptical opening. There 
are two marked varieties. In the one there are several spines 
rising separately immediately Ijehind and below the aperture, some 
of which occasionally originate together from a wide prolongation 
of the cell. In this form there is constantly a separate spine about 
half-way down the back of the cell. The aperture is frequently 
pointed at its inner end. I have not seen the avicularia. This is 
the form described and figured by Busk. In the other, the cell 
is prolonged immechately below the outer margin into a broad 
process, to the end of which all the spines are attached. There is 
no posterior spine. The avicularia are similar to those of B. tuba^ 
but are shorter and stouter. I was at first inclined to consider 
them as distinct species, but as in the first variety the spines 
frequently spring from a production of the outer part of the cell, 
and in our ignorance of the structure of the avicularia the only 
constant difference is in the presence of the posterior spine, I 
think it is better, for the present at least, to unite them. The 
second form may be called var. producta. 

Explanation of Figures. 

1'late 59. — riij. 2, fragment, natural size. Fig. 'la, portion of typical form, magnified. 
Fig. \lb, l)iU'k of same, sliowin;; tlie posterior spines. Fig. 3, fi'ont view of portion of var. piodiicl.a, 
magnified, showing the hroad spiuiferous extension of the cell and an avicularium. Fig. 3a, back 
of the same. 

[ 38 ] 



Zoology. 1 NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polt/zoa. 



Plate 59, Fig. 4. 

BICELLARIA CILIATA (Linn.). 

Description. — Cells very small ; outer margin with about 6 long slender 
spines ; a small spine on the front of the cell immediately below the aperture, and 
another a short distance down the back. Avicularia small, capitate, attached to the 
outer part of a cell. Ovicells small, round, on the inner margin of the aperture. 

Reference. — Busk, Cat. Mar. Pol. Brit. Mus., p. 41, pi. xxxiv. 

QueensclifF ; Portland, Mr. Maplestone. 

Of the form now described I have only seen two or three small 
fragments ; in all of them the spine in front is simple, and I can see 
no difference between it and the European B. ciliata. Busk's B. 
gracilis differs in the form of the cells, and in the presence of a 
fine double spine in front. I had specimens with a double sj3ine 
which I referred to it, but they have unfortunately been lost, and I 
have no description or figure. 

Explanation of Figitres. 

Plate 59. — Fig. 4, specimen, natural size. Fig. 4a, front yiew, magnified. Fig. 46, back of 
same. Fig. 4c, a single cell, more highly magnified, showing a small capitate avicularium. 



Plate 59, Fig. 5. 
BICELLARIA TURBINATA (P. MacGil.). 

Description. — Cells turbinate, elongated, much contracted below, upper part 
scarcely free ; aperture nearly circular, with 3 or 4 long submarginal spines from 
the upper and outer margin. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., 1869. 

Queenscliff. 

[ 39 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

Of this species, I have ouly a single tuft. It is quite distinct, 
and easily recognisable by the long, slightly expanded, turbinate 
cells, the nearly cu'cular aperture, and the 3 or 4 submarginal 
spines. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 59. — Fig. 5, portion, natural size. Fig. 5a, front view, magnified. Fig. 56, back 
view. 



Plate 59, Fig. 6. 

STIRPARIA ANNULATA (Maplestone). 

[Genus STIRPARIA (Goldstein). (Sub-kingd. Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order Infun- 
dibulata. Sub-ord. Cheilostomata. Fam. Bicellariidfe.) 

Gen. Char. — Celluliferous branches attached in regular tufts to a bare, annulated, corneous 
common stem. Cells biserial, turbinate, aperture looking upwards and forwards and with 
marginal spines.] 

Description. — This species forms beautiful tufts about three inches hig'h. 
Each branch is formed of a soft corneous stem, narrowed at intervals of about an 
eighth of an inch. The narrow parts are regularly and distinctly annulated, but not 
articulated ; the annulations extend, especially in the older portions, to a greater or 
less extent on the swollen fusiform parts, more prominently at their bases. The 
lower parts of the stems have no cell-bearing branches. These are attached regu- 
larly, one on each side at the summit of a spindle-shaped portion, by a short annu- 
lated stem, which swells at the top and bifurcates, the divisions again rapidly bifur- 
cating, so as to form beautiful fan-shaped tufts. The cells are turbinate. The 
aperture is large, opening upwards and forwards. There are usually 4 very long, 
incurved spines articulated closely together to the outer edge, a separate spine from 
the inner part of the aperture passing behind the cell above, and another separate 
spine on the front of the cell below the aperture. The cells are distinct behind, 
and each has a peculiar bifurcate mark on the back. The ovicells are cucullate, 
attached to the outer edge of the margin of the aperture. 

Reference. — Bicellaria annulata, Maplestone, Journ. Microp. Soc. Vict. 1879. 

Cape Otway, Mrs. George Caldwell ; Portland, Mr. Maplestone. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 59. — Fig. 6, branch, natural size. Fig. 6a, front view, magnified, showing the 
arrangement of the spines and ovicells. Fig. Gi, back view, showing the peculiar bifurcate 
mark. Fig. 6c, portion of the common stem, magnified. 

[ 40 ] 



Zoologi/.-\ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Pnlyzoa. 



Plate 59, Fig. 7. 

BUGULA NERITINA (Linn.). 

[Genus BUGULA (Oken), (Sub-kingd. MoUusca. Class Polyzoa. Order Infundibulata. 
Sub-ord. Cheilostomata. Fam. BicellariidEe.) 

Ge?i. Char. — Cells bi-multiserial, closely contiguous, aperture very large, directed forwards, 
the margins not at all or very slightly thickened.] 

Description. — Cells biserial, elong-ated, upper edge straig-ht, with the ang-les 
projecting- J aperture larg-e, occupying" nearly the whole front. No avicularia. Ovi- 
cells large, situated at the upper and inner ang-les of the cells. 

Reference. — Busk, Cat. Mar. Polyz. Brit. Mus., p. 44, pi. xliii. 

Hobson's Bay ; Queenscliff ; Warrnambool, Mr. Watts. 

Bugula neritina is readily distinguished from the other Victorian 
species. It forms small tufts of a brownish color. The cells are 
straight above, each angle projecting as a short spine ; the aperture 
is very large, the margin very slightly thickened. I have never 
seen avicularia. The ovicells are large, rounded, situated at the 
upper and inner angles of the cells. They are pearly white (in 
dried specimens) and are very conspicuous against the brown of 
the rest of the polyzoary. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 59. — Fig. 7, portion, natural size. Fig. 7a, cells, magnified, front view. Fig. 7b, cells 
magnified, back view. Fig. 7c, small portion to shew ovicells, magnified. Fig. 7c?, single cell, 
viewed from the outside, showing attachment and opening of an ovicell. 



The specimens and descriptions of the above Bicellariidce were 
presented by Mr. MacGillivray. 

Frederick McCoy. 



Dec. VI. [ 41 ] 



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ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

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Zoology.1 NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA, IPolyzoa: 



Plate QO, Fig. 1. 

STEGANOPORELLA MAGNILABRIS (Busk sp.). 

[Genus STEGANOPORELLA (Smitt). (Sub-kingd. Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-ord, Cheilostomata. Fam. Steganoporellidae.) 

Gen. CAar.— Polyzoary expanded, formed of a single layer of cells, or of two united back to 
back ; cells witb calcareous raised margins ; a membranous layer stretched across the front of 
each cell and separated from the receding calcareous layer, so as to leave a space or chamber 
between the two ; operculum of outer wall very large, orifice of inner nearly circular.] 

Description. — Polyzoary ri^^id, expanded, usually sub-erect j cells quadrate, 
arranged in linear and alternate series, in a sing-le layer or in two placed back to 
back ; marg-ins raised, calcareous. A separate membranous layer, stretched tig'htly 
across the front of" the cell ; operculum very large, attached on each side to a pro- 
jecting- process of the cell-margin and strengthened by a narrow corneous band. 
Inner wall a calcareous, punctured lamina, extending forwards and downwards so 
as to leave a chamber between it and the outer membrane ; it opens by a nearly 
circular mouth, with projecting margin, behind which a broad square plate, with the 
sides turned down and united to the lamina, rises to the articulating base of the 
operculum. 

Reference. — 3femhranipora inagnilahris, Busk, Cat. Mar. Pol. Brit. Mus., 
p. 62, pi. Ixv., fig. 4 =r Steganoporella elegans, Smitt, Floridan Polyzoa, Part ii., 
p. 15, pi. iv., figs. 96-101. 

Portland, attached to piles, Mr. Maplestone ; QueenselifF. 

I have only seen dried specimens of this very peculiar species, 
the structure of which it is to be hoped will ere long be examined 
in the living state. It seems to be identical with Smitt's S. elegans 
described from the Gulf of Florida, and no doul)t Smitt is correct in 
considering Busk's Meynbranipora inagnilahris as the membranipora 
form of the same species. The only difference I can detect in the 
Australian specimens is that the ordinary cells are more quadrate, 
and that the large rounded opercula are usually denticulate on 
the margin. The fossil Escliara elegans of Milne Edwards is 
considered by Smitt to be the same species, but I think that 
determination doubtful, and I have therefore adopted Busk's specific 
name. 

It is found as a single layer encrusting other objects, or partly 
free and foliaceous ; at other times it consists of two layers united 

* In different descriptions " zoarium " is used for " polyzoary," " zooecium " is used for " cell," and " ooecium " is used 

instead of " ovicell." 

[ 43 ] 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

back to back. Tlie specimens are sometimes of considerable size, 
and one presented to the Museum by Mr. Goldstein forms an 
irregular foliaceous mass measuring about 13 inches long by 9 
inches wide and 6 inches liifj;li. 

The cells are large, mostly quadrate, the margins thick and 
raised, and with the external memljrane tightly stretched across the 
aperture. The movable lip is very large, occupying about half 
the aperture, and is of two forms. Most of the cells are quadrate 
at the anterior extremity, and in these the square operculum is 
strengthened by a fine band at a little distance from and nearly 
parallel to the margin. Other cells, usually of a larger size, and 
frequently situated at the bifurcation of a series, are rounded in 
front ; in these the operculum is strengthened by two bands, which 
converge from the base in an arched form, and when close to the 
margin slightly diverge again, becoming blended with the marginal 
corneous rim. This form of operculum is generally finely denti- 
culate at the margin. When the outer membrane is removed, the 
margins of the cells are seen to be thick, calcareous, the portion 
behind the attachment of the operculum bevelled inwards, the 
bevelled surface being finely granular ; the part corresponding to 
the margin of the operculum forms a smooth, deeply vaulted arch, 
the posterior angles of which are produced into a tul^ercle on each 
side for the attachment of the corners of the lip. The inner wall 
is a thin calcareous lamina, pierced by numerous white-bordered 
pores ; it recedes downwards and forwards, the anterior part being 
very abrupt, and opens by a nearly circular sloping mouth, with 
raised cylindrical margins. Immediately behind this opening a 
square plate extends upwards and backwards to the articulating 
base of the operculum, its lateral edges being turned down and 
united to the lamina so as to form a sort of recess or pouch. The 
posterior part of the raised inner orifice is united to this plate. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 60. — Figr. 1, specimen, natural size. Fig. la, portion, magnified, showing membranous 
layer, two sorts of cells, the one quadrate with smooth-edged opereula, strengthened by a 
square-shaped horny band, parallel to and at a little distance from the margin, the other rounded 
anteriorly, with rounded denticulate opercula and different sliaped strengtlioning bands. Fig. 
l/>, portion denuded of membrane, magnified. Fig. \c, two quadrate cells from the same, more 
highly magnified, showing the raised bevelled edges, the receding perforated calcareous wall, the 
internal mouth and the plate to the articulating base of the operculum with its edges turned 
down and continuous with the front of the lamina. 

[ 44] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPolyzoa. 



Plate 60, Fig. 2. 
PETRALIA UNDATA (P. MacGil.). 

[Genus PETRALIA (P. MacGil.). Sub-kingd. Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order Infun- 
dibulata. Sub-ord. Cheilostomata. Fam. Escharidfe.) 

Gen. Char. — Polyzoary stony, expanded, erect, fenestrate, formed of a single layer of cells 
placed horizontally side by side and distinct throughout the whole thickness of the polyzoary.] 

Description. — Fenestras broadly elliptical, marg-ins tubercular, and with one or 
two larg-e avicularia at the base of each in front. Cells quadrate, expanded above, 
slig-htly narrowed at the middle and below, separated by narrow raised lines ; front 
tubercular and perforated ; mouth circular, with a short broad transverse avicularium 
immediately below the lower lip. Behind, the cells are quadrate, deeply areolated 
and separated by channels, at the bottom of which is a narrow elevated ridg-e. 
Ovicells larg-e, g-lobular, closely punctate ; frequently one or more immovable pro- 
cesses, surmounted by sessile avicularia, rise from various parts of the ovicell. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGiilivray^ Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., 1868. 

Portland, Miss F. Birkett ; QueensclifF. 

The polyzoary forms an expanded wavy frond, probably of 
considerable size, as all the specimens I have seen are broken on 
the edges. The avicnlaria occur in three different forms. Imme- 
diately below the mouth of each cell is a short transverse sessile 
avicularium, and at the lower edge of each foramen one or two 
large sessile avicularia take the place of ordinary cells. In addition 
to these the ovicells have usually one or more calcareous processes 
on various parts of the surface, each surmounted by a small sessile 
avicularium. The ovicells are crowded in patches, frequently united 
to each other, and on the cells supporting them are immerous 
sessile avicularia, usually on raised calcareous bases and generally 
arranged along the margins and round the mouths. 

The only other genus of JEscharidce with a foraminate polyzoary, 
the cells of which are disposed in one plane, is Retepora. The 
arrangement of the cells, however, is very different in the two 
genera. In Retepora they are oljlique and rest on a common cal- 
careous basis, while in Petralia there is no such basis, but the cells 
are horizontal and as distinct on the back of the polyzoary as in 
the front. 

[ 45 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPohjzoa. 



Explanation of Figdees. 

Plate 60. — Fig. 2, front view of sfecimen, natural size. Fig. 2a, back view of same. 
Fig. 2i, portion of front, magnified, showing a foramen witli tubercular margins ; at the base 
are seen two large avicularia replacing cells. Fig. 2c, portion of bacli, magnified, showing the 
distinct areolated cells, separated by raised ridges at tlie bottom of channels. Fig. 2(/, small 
portion, magnified, showing three ovicells, one of which is studded witli avicularia ; numerous 
sessile avicularia, mostly on calcareous bases, are seen on the cells with which the ovicells are 
connected. Fig. 2e, fractured edge of polyzoary, to show the cells distinct throughout the 
whole thickness ; the fracture was obliquely across the cells. 



I am indebted to my friend Mr. MacGillivray for the specimens 
and descriptions of the two Polyzoa on this ]^late. 

Frederick McCoy. 



By Authority: John Fkkues, Government Printer. 

[46] 



CONTENTS OP DECADES. 



N.E. — The originals of all the Figures are in the National Museum, Melbourne. 



DECADE I. 



Plate 1. — The Black Snake (Pseudechys porphyriacus, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 2. — The Copper-head Snake (Hoplocephalus superbus, Gunth.). 

Plate 3. — The Tiger Snake (Hoplocephalus curtus, Schl. sp.). 

Plate 4. — The Australian Bream (Chrysophrys Australis, Giinth.). 

Plate 5. — The Spiny-sided Butterfly-Gurnard (Lepidotrigla Vanessa, Rich. sp.). 

Plate 6. — The Kumu Gurnard (Trigla Kumu, Lesson and Garn.). 

Plate 7. — The Australian Giant Earth-worm (Megascolides Australis, McCoy). 

Plate 8. — Lewin's Day-moth (Agarista Lewini, Boisd.). 

The Loranthus Day-moth (Agarista Casuarinae, Scott). 

The Vine Day-moth (Agarista Glycine, Lewin sp.). 
Plate 9. — Pieris (Thyca) Harpalyce (Don. sp.). 
Plate 10. — Pieris (Thyca) Aganippe (Don. sp.). 



DECADE II. 

Plate 11. — The Little Whip Snake (Hoplocephalus flagellum, McCoy). The White-lipped Snake 

(Hoplocephalus coronoides, Giinth.). 
Plate 12. — The Death Adder (Acanthophis Antarctica, Shaw sp.), 
Plate 13. — The Carpet Snake (Morelia variegata, Gray). 
Plate 14. — The Gippsland Perch (Lates colonorum, Giinth.). 
Plate 15. — The Murray Lobster (Astacoides serratus, Shaw sp.). 
Plate 16. — The Salmon Arripis (Arripis truttaceus, Cuv. sp.). Adult. 
Plate 17. — Ditto of the younger forms and coloring. 
Plate 18. — The Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 19. — The Small-scaled Rock Cod (Lotella callarias, Giinth.). 
Plate 20. — The Australian Rock Cod (Pseudophysis barbatus, Giinth.). 



DECADE III. 

Plate 21. — The Sea-Leopard Seal (Stenorhynchus leptonyx, de Blainv. sp.). 

Plate 22. — The Yellow-sided Dolphin (Delphinus Novsb Zealandife, Quoy and Gaim.). 

Plate 23. — The Common Brown Snake (Diemeuia superciliosa, Fisch.). 

The Small-scaled Brown Snake (Diemenia microlepidota, McCoy). 
The Shield-fronted Brown Snake (Diemenia aspidorhyncha, McCoy). 

Plate 24. — Catenicella margaritacea (Busk). — C. plagiostoma (Busk). — C. ventricosa (Busk). — 
C. hastata (Busk.) — C. rufa (McG.). — C. cribraria (Busk). — C. alata (Wyv. Thomson). — 
C. lorica (Busk). — C. formosa (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk). — C. perforata (Busk). — 
C. Buskii (Wyv. Thomson). — C. Hannafordi (McG.). — C. crystallina (Wyv. Thomson). — 
C. carinata (Busk). — C. aurita (Busk). — C. geminata (Wyv. Thomson). — C. cornuta 
(Busk).— C. intermedia (McG.) 

Plate 25. — Membranipora membranacea (Linn. sp.). — M. perforata (McG.). — M. ciliata (McG.). — 
M. mamillaris (McG.). — M. umbonata (Busk). — M. pilosa (Linn. sp.). — M. cervicornis 
(Busk). 

Plate 26. — Membranipora dispar (McG.). — M. Woodsii (McG.).— M. lineata (Linn. sp.). — M. Rosselii 
(Audouin sp.). — M. Lacroixii (Savigny sp.). 

Plate 27. — The Australian Rockling (Genypterus Australis, Cast.). 
The Yarra Blackfish (Gadopsis gracilis, McCoy). 

Plate 28. — The Southern Mackerel (Scomber pneumatophorus, De la Roche). 

Plate 29. — The Yabber Crayfish (Astacoides bicarinatus. Gray sp.). 

Plate 30.— The Large Wattle Goat-Moth (Zeuzera Eucalypti, Boisd. Herr.-Schaef.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE IV. 

Plate 31. — The Australian Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal (Euotaria cinerea, Peron sp.). 

Plate 32. — The Two-hooded Furina-Snake, Furina bicucullata (McCoy). 

Plate 33. — The Banded Red Gurnet- Perch (Sebastes percoides, Solander sp.). 

Plate 34. — The Angel-fish (Khina squatina, Lin. sp.). 

Plate 35. — Lepralia circinata (McG.). — L. Cecilii (Aud.). — L. diaphana (McG.). — L. marsupium 

(McG.). — L. subiramersa (McG.). — L. anceps (McG.). — L. Maplestonei (McG.). 
Plate 36. — Lepralia vittata (McG.). — Membranipora perforata. Lepralia Brogniartii (Aud.). — 

L. elegans (McG.). — L. pertusa (Esper. sp.). — L. Malusii (Aud. sp.). — L. lunata (McG.). 
Plate 37. — Lepralia ciliata (Linn. sp.). — L. trifolium (McG.). — L. cheilodon (McG.). — L. canaliculata 

(McG.).— L. larvalis (McG.).— L. diadema (McG.).— L. papillifera (McG.).— L. Ellerii 

(McG.). 
Plate 38. — Lepralia monoceros (Busk). — L. excavata (McG.). — L. vitrea (McG.). — L. megasoma 

(McG.).— L. Schizostoma (McG.).— L. Botryoides (McG.).— L. ferox (McG.).— L. pellu- 

cida (McG.). 
Plate 39. — Crisia Edwardsiana (D'Orb. sp.). — C. biciliata (McG.). — C. acropora (Busk). — C. sctosa 

(McG.).— C. tenuis (McG.). 
Plate 40, — Saunders' Case-Moth (Metura elongata, Saunders sp.). 
The Lictor Case-Moth (Entometa ignobilis, Walk.), 



DECADE V. 

Plate 41, — The Lace Lizard (Hydrosaurus varius, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 42. — The Spotted Marsh-Frog (Limnodynastes Tasmaniensis, Giinth.). — The Common Sand- 
Frog (Limnodynastes dorsalis, Gray). 
Plate 43. — The Carpet Shark (Crossorhinus barbatus, Lin. sp.). — The Seven-gilled Shark (Notidanus 

[Heptanchus] Indicus, Cuv.). 
Plate 44. — The Barracouta (Thersites atun, Cuv.). — The Tunny (Thynnus Thynnus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 45. — Flustra deuticulata (Busk). — Carbasea episcopalis (Busk). — C. dissimilis (Busk). — 

C. indivisa (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk). — C. pisciformis (Busk). 
Plate 46. — Spiralaria florea (Busk). — Diachoris Magellanica (Busk). — D. spinigera (P. McGil.). — 

Dimetopia spicata (Busk). — D. cornuta (Busk). — Didymia simplex (Busk). — Calwellia 

bicoruis (Wyv. Thomson). 
Plate 47. — Dictyopora cellulosa (P. McGil.). 
Plate 48. — Eschara obliqua (P. McGil.).— E. dispar (P. McGil ).— E. gracilis (Lamx.).— E. platalea 

(Busk).— E. quadrata (P. McGil.) — E. mucronata (P. McGil.). — Caleschara denticulata 

(P. McGil.). 
Plate 49. — Cellaria fistulosa (Linn.). — C. hirsuta (P, McGil.). — C. tenuirostris (Busk.). — C. gracilis 

(Busk). — Nellia oculata (Busk). — Tubucellaria hirsuta (Busk). 
Plate 50. — The Great Black, or Manna Cicada (Cicada moerens, Germ.). — The Great Green Cicada 

(Cyclocliila Australasiae, Donov. sp.). 



OF DECADE VI. 



N.B.— The originals of all the Figures are In the National Museum, Melbourne. 



Platk 51. — The Victorian Rhodona (Khodona Officer!, McCoy). 

Plate 52. — The Black and White Ringed Snake (Vermicella annulata, Gray). 

Plate 53. — The Green and Golden Bell-Frog (Ranoidea aurea, Less. sp.). 

Plates 54-55. — The Australian Aulopus (Aulopiis purpurisatus, Rich.). 

Plate 56 —The Hammer-headed Shark (Zygwna malleus, Sh.aw).— The Common Austnilian Saw- 
Fish (Pristiophorus uudipinnis, Gunth.). 

Plate 57.— Biflustra perfragilis (McGil.). — B. delicatula (Busk). 

Plate 58. — Cellularia cuspidata (Busk). — Menipea crystallina (Gray sp.). — M, cyathus (Wy v. Tliom- 
son). — M. cervicornis (McGil.) — M. tricellata (Busk). — M. Buskii (Wyv. Thomson). 

Plate 59. — Bicellaria tuba (Busk).— B. graudis (Busk).— B. ciliata (Linn.). — B. turbinata (McGil.)— 
Stirparia annulata (Map.). — Bugula neritiua (Linn.). 

Plate 60. — Steganoporella magnilahris (Busk sp.). — Petralia undata (McGil.). 




pateral listorg 4 Wutmin. 



1 



PRODROMUS 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTOEIA; 



FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



OF 



VICTORIAN mDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



DECASX: VXI. 



BY 



HONORAny FELLOW OF TUE CA3IBRIDGE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY ; IIONORART ACTIVE .MEMBER OF TUB IMPERIAL SOCIETT 

OF NATURALISTS OF MOSCOW ; CORRESPOXDING MEMBER OF THE ZOOLOUICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON ; 

HONORAET MEMBER OP THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOOTH WALES; HONOIIARY MEMBER OF SEVERAL OTHER 

SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES, ETC. 

PROFESSOR OF NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY. 

DISECIOR OF THE NATIONAI. MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND GEOLOGY OP MELBOURNE, ETC. 




MELBOURNE : 

BY AUTHOKITV : JOHN FEKRES, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 

PUBLISHED BY GEORGE ROBERTSON, LITTLE COLLINS STREET. 

LONDON : TRLBNER AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATE HILL ; AND GEORGE ROBERTSON,* 

17 WARWICK SQUARE. 



H DCCC LXXX1I. 





^atornl gfetorg 4 ^ktoiiu 



PRODROMUS 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA; 



OB, 



FIGDKES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



DECADE VIZ. 



BT 



HONORAHY FELLOW OF THE CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPBICAL SOCIETY ; HONORARY ACTIVE MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL SOCIETY 

OF NATURALISTS OF MOSCOW ; CORRESPQiJDING MEMBER OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON ; 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES ; HONORARY MEMBER OF SEVERAL OTHER 

SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES, ETC. 

PROFESSOR OP NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY. 

DIRECTOR Of THE NATIONAL MUSEUM Of NATURAL HISTORY AND GEOLOGY OF MELBOURNE, ETC. 




MELBOUENE : 

BT ADTHORIXr : JOHN FERRES, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 

PUBLISHED BT GEORGE ROBERTSON, LITTLE COLLINS STREET. 

LONDON : TRUBXEU AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATE HILL ; AND GEORGE ROBERTSON, 

17 WARWICK SQUARE. 



M DCCC LXXXII. 



PEEFACE. 



It having been considered desirable to ascertain accurately the 
natural productions of the Colony of Victoria, and to publish works 
descriptive of them, on the plan of those issued by the Governments 
of the different States of America, investigations were undertaken, 
by order of the Victorian Government, to determine the Geology, 
Botany, and Zoology of the Colony, to form collections illustrative of 
each for the public use, and to make the necessary preparations for 
such systematic publications on the subject as might be useful and 
interesting to the general public, and contribute to the advancement 
of science. 

As the geological and botanical investigations have already 
approached completion, and their publication is far advanced, 
it has been decided to commence the publication of the third 
branch completing the subject, namely, that of the Zoology or 
indigenous members of the different classes of the animal kingdom. 

As the Fauna is not so well known as the Flora, it was a necessary 
preliminary to the publication to have a large number of drawings 
made, as opportunity arose, from the living or fresh examples of 
many species of reptiles, fish, and the lower animals, which lose their 
natural appearance shortly after death, and the true characters of 
many of which were consequently as yet unknown, as they had 
only been described from preserved specimens. A Prodromus, or 
preliminary issue, in the form of Decades, or numbers of ten plates, 

[3] 



PREFACE. 



each with its complete descriptive letterpress, will be published, of 
such illustrations as are ready, without systematic order or waiting 
for the completion of any one branch. The many good observers 
in the country will thus have the means of accurately identifying 
various natural ol)jects, their observations on which, if recorded and 
sent to the National ]\Iuseum, where the originals of all the figures 
and descriptions are preserved, will be duly acknowledged, and 
vdW materially help in the preparation of the final systematic volimie 
to be published for each class when it approaches completion. 

This seventh Decade gives detailed figures and descriptions in 
the first two plates of those most interesting molluscs, the Argo- 
nauts, as represented by one of the species occurring in some 
sunmiers not uncommonly in our bay, and in which the rare chance 
of finding the Cuttlefish in its so-called Paper-Nautilus Shell has 
been taken advantage of to give details which will be welcome to 
scientific men at home as well as here. 

The third plate shows the characters of the new Australian 
blue-spotted Eagle-Ray, or Sting-Ray, not figured before. 

The fourth plate illustrates one of the large and formidable 
Sharks ( Odontaspis)^ the terror of bathers, not uncoiumon in our 
bay, and also the new Australian Tope, a smaller Shark, or Dogfishj 
formerly confounded with the English Tope, and not figured before. 

The fifth plate illustrates one of those curious forms intermediate 
between Pipe-fishes and the Sea-horses, named Phyllopteryx^ or 
Leafy Sea-di'agons ; also our commonest httle species of Sea-horse, 
not fio;ured before. 

The next three plates continue the illustrations of om' native 
Polyzoa, for the contribution of which to the National Museum and 
this work I am indebted to Dr. MacGillivray. 

The ninth and tenth plates give figures for the first time of two 
magnificent new species of those gigantic Insects of the Phasma 
group, in which Australia is so rich, and the resemblance of which, 

[ 4 ] 



PREFACE. 



when at rest, to leaves and twigs of the trees they frequent is such 
a curious subject of speculation. 

The succeeding Decades T\dll illustrate as many different genera 
as possible, and will deal first usually with species of some special 
interest, and of which good figures do not exist, or are not easily 
accessible. 

Frederick McCoy. 
11th November 1881. 

iP.S. — The recent fire at the Government Printing Office has 
caused a delay in the issue of this Decade, the revise of which 
bore the above date, but which is only now published. — F. McC, 

12/9/82. 



[5] 



Ft 61 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

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Zoohg!/.'\ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IMollusca. 



Plates 61 and 62. 

ARGONAUTA ORYZATA (Meusch.). 

The Tuberculated Argonaut, or Paper-Nautilus. 

[Genus ARGONAUTA (Lin.) = OCYTHOE (Rafinesque). (Sub-kingd. Mollusca. Class 
Cephalopoda. Order Acetabulifera. Sub-order Octopoda. Family Argonautidae.) 

Gen. Char. — Three anterior or inferior pairs of arms subulate, gradually tapering from base 
to apex. Superior or posterior pair forming two very broad expansions, by the recurving of the 
terminal portion backwards in a broad curve, connected by a thick flat expansion with the 
middle portion ; the two rows of suckers, like those of the other arms, bordering the edge. Two 
rows of large cylindrical or sub-pedunculated suckers on each arm ; a broad membranous keel 
on back of lower and upper pairs of arms ; the two middle pairs not keeled. Two aquiferous 
openings at upper posterior edge of eye. Ears small, behind the eyes, under the cervical band. 
A projecting button on inside of mantle fits in a groove at base of funnel on each side. Cervical 
band moderate. Eyes very large, globose, covered by the colored skin of the body, except over 
the pupil. Shell very thin, white, flexible when wet, equilateral, spirally involute in one plane, 
radiatingly plicated or tuberculated on the flattened sides, with a bicariuate, shallow channel on 
the narrow periphery ; aperture very wide behind, triangular ; no chambers or septa. Nucleus 
Tery large, hemispherical.] 

Description. — Female: — body ovoid, convex in front, concave behind, obtusely 
pointed below. Arms : — three anterior pairs long- and slender ; 1st longest, 2nd, 3rd, 
and 4th* successively shorter, measuring from mouth between the rows of suckers to 
the tip ; 1st or posterior dilated pair strongly keeled on back, with a broad mem- 
branous web; suckers of outer row longer than those of inner row; 2nd and 3rd 
pairs of arms not keeled, simply rounded on backf; 4th or anterior pair, with a very 
prominent membranous keel on back. Color : whole skin of surface thin, with 
close-set minute round spots forming purple circular clusters (about 2 or 3 in a space 
of 3 lines) as big as a small pin's head, with paler and smaller dots between. Beaks 
black, not compressed. The inside of the palmated expansion of the 1st or posterior 
pair of arms is whitish without the chromatic, or color glands, of the general outer 
surface. 

About 80 pairs of suckers on the large palmated arm, but becoming- very small 
and alternate so as to look like one irregular line towards the recurved extremity. 
About 75 pairs on 2nd arm ; about 64 pairs on 3rd arm ; about 80 pairs on 4th or 
anterior arm. The suckers towards the thread-like tip of each arm almost too small 
to count, but a little over 2 lines in diameter at base, elevated on thick cylindrical 
peduncles of about the same diameter as the discs. The outer row of suckers on 
each palmated arm long-er than those of inner row, and connected with each other 
by a slight web; rows on the other arms equal. The anterior (or 4th) pair of arms 
are connected together at base by a web about 4 lines high crossing over the funnel, 
and they have an extension of the membranous keel of the outer mid-line, forming' 
at the base a triangular, vertical, suspensory ligament for the funnel on each side. 

* Dr. Gray states the order of their length as 1, 2, 4, 3. 

t Ur. Gray, in his Cephalopoda Antepedia, page 32, says " the 2nd and 3rd pairs keeled on the outer side," I suppose 
by mistake, as they are destitute of the prominent keel of the 1st and 4th pairs, and are simply rounded. 

[ 7 ] 



Ins. 


lines. 


3 





2 





5 


9 


6 


3 


8 


9 


10 


6 


5 


7 





3 





3 





9 





7 


ate ; 


sides with 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. {MoUusca. 

There is a transparent web, about 3 lines hig-h, between the base of the 4th and 8rd 
pair of arms, but none between the bases of the 3rd and 2nd ; between the 2nd and 
]st or palmated arms the transparent web is about 3 lines hig-h. 

Measurements. 
Length of body from base of head ... 
Greatest width, about 
Length of anterior arm 

„ next arm 

,> nexu arm *•* ••• ... ... • 

„ sucker line of posterior or palmated arm ... 

„ posterior arm to distal part of curve 
Width of membranous keel on outside of posterior arm 
Depth of arms near base ... 
Diameter of eye ... 
Width of cervical ligament 

Shell : moderately compressed ; periphery narrow, bituberculate ; 
narrow, transverse, radiating", arched ridg-es, occasionally branching-, and with shorter 
intercalated ones as they radiate towards the periphery, rising- into long-itudinal, ovate 
tubercles, like grains of rice. Antero-posterior diameter of moderate specimen, 5 in. 
6 lines ; width of periphery from tip of one tuberculated keel to the other, 9 lines ; 
greatest transverse width of aperture (near middle), 2 in. 3 lines; near margin, 5 
ridges in space of one inch ; 4 tubercles along each ridge in space of one inch. 

Reference. — (Shell) = Argonauta oryzata (Meusch.) Mus. Geversianum = A. 
nodosa (Solander) Portland Catal. = A. tuberculata (Shaw) Nat. Mis. v. 28, t. 995 
= A. tuberculosa (Schumacher) Lam. Anim. s. Vert. 2nd edit. (Animal) = 
Octopus raricyathus (Blainv.) =: Ocythoe raricyathus (Gray) Cat. B.M. Ceph. 
Anteped. Pt. 1, p. 32. 

The beautiful objects popularly miscalled Paper-Nautili should 
not really be compared with true shells, like that of the Nautilus., 
to which the inhabitant is fixed by organic attachments, without 
tearing which or destroying the life of the Cuttle-fish it would be 
impossible to separate them. The Argonaut, or Paper-Nautilus, is 
always excessively thin, white, imperfectly calcified, so as to be 
slightly flexible when fresh, and totally unconnected with the 
Octopus inhabiting it ; so that tlie so-called shell may be dropped if 
the Cuttle-fish be frightened, without injuring any of the soft parts 
of the animal. This want of connection lietween the Argonaut 
and its inhabitant was known even to Aristotle. The animal, which 
was called Ocythoe by Rafinesque, inhabiting the Argonaut shell is 
shaped to fit in the inrolled spire by a peculiarity of form in the 
body not found in any other of the Acetabulifera., namely, the 
profile of the back being concave, while the front is convex ; 
this recui'ving of the posterior end according in shajie with the 
cavity of the so-called shell, which is retained in its place by the 
pair of enlarged, racket-shaped posterior arms bent backwards and 
closely embracing it, 

[ 8 ] 



Zoology.] NATUEAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IMollusca. 

All the shells, with their inhabitants, are females, and I have not 
yet succeeded in finding the male ; which in this genus has all the 
arms tapering, is very much smaller than the female, and without 
shell. The Mediterranean shelled Argonauts usually have a 
curious, swollen, detached arm of the male adhering to them, like a 
parasitic worm, obviously having functions connected with the 
fertilisation of the eggs, but formed into a supposed genus of 
parasites, named Hectocotyle^ by Cuvier ; and these too have escaped 
notice in the Australian examples. 

Like most of the eight-armed Cuttle-fishes, the Argonauts have 
a short, thick, round body, without fins, and without any internal 
hard parts, such as the so-called Cuttle-fish bone, or pen, of the 
higher, ten-armed families. The eyes, as usual in this group, are 
fixed immovably, and covered by the colored general skin, except 
in front of the pupil. 

No one now beUeves the old idea that the shell, floating like a 
boat on the surface of the sea, is rowed along by the dependent 
slender arms, while the pair of broad arms are held up like sails 
to propel it by catching a favorable wind, like an ancient galley. 
The progress through the water is only eflfected by backward 
starts, produced by ejecting water violently through the funnel, 
the 3 anterior pairs of arms streaming out in a group in front, 
while the shell, covered over by the expansion of the posterior or 
superior pair, cleaves the water. 

Like all the Octopoda the Argonauts are generally nocturnal, 
and inhabit the high seas, feeding on various floating small animals ; 
rarely coming near the surface by day, except in calm weather. 
The females only approach the shallow waters of the coast in 
summer time, when the eggs are developed. It is in the hottest 
months of summer (January, February, and March), especially in 
the last few years, that they appear on the shores of Hobson's Bay, 
near Brighton, where several specimens of the animal and shell 
together have been obtained. The individual figured was given to 
me alive by a young friend (who requested that his name should not 
be mentioned), and was kept alive in a large tub of sea- water for a 
considerable time. Nothing could be more ludicrously interesting 

Dec. VII. [ 9 ] B 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IMoUusca. 

tliau the vigilant look-out which the creatiu'e maintained, watching 
suspiciously, with its large perfect eyes just peeping over the edge 
of the shell in which it nestled, as represented in our plate, 
with the arms often curled inside along with the body when at 
rest ; at other times they hung outside or streamed in a close 
group in front, when the animal and shell darted backwards by 
shooting water out of the funnel in front of the head. Occasionally 
it crawled about on the bottom, head downwards, with the shell 
covering over its upper part. When greatly frightened it abandoned 
the shell and darted ji way with great velocity, but got 1)ack into it 
again when left alone. The colors varied in a few seconds from 
the palest pink to rich madder purple, according apparently to the 
will or temper of the creature. This coloring of the surface of the 
body, like naked Cuttle-fishes, is another reason for believing that 
the shell is not a permanent habitation, but a temporary egg-case ; 
which, moreover, does not accurately fit the body, as if moulded 
on it, but is undoubtedly secreted by the inner side of the large 
expanded posterior pair of arms. For this reason also the greater 
number of perfect shells found are empty. 

The specimens figured are from rocky parts near Brighton, but 
the so-called shells are found occasionally on all parts of the coast 
of the colony. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 61. — Fig. 1, side view of animal, withdrawn from the shell, showing the recurved 
form of the posterior part of body, the broad nuchal or cervical ligament, the eyes, mouth, 
beaks, and funnel, with the membranous keels on the anterior pair of slender arms and the broad 
posterior pair of dilated, shell-bearing ones, natural size. Fig. la, view of arms of one side of 
the same, natural size, viewed from above, showing the relative length of the arms, the broad 
ligamentous web between the anterior pair of arms in front crossing above the funnel, the 
small webs between the bases of the 1st and 2nd pair and of the 3rd and 4th pairs, and their absence 
between the bases of the 2nd and 3rd pairs. Fig. l6, section of 1st pair of arms, showing the 
keel on back. Fig. Ic, section showing form of rounded unkeeled back of 2nd and 3rd pairs of 
arms. Fig. Irf, section of hind pair of dilated arms, showing the greater projections of outer 
row of suckers, and the broad webbed keel on back. 

Plate 62. — Fig. 1, animal seated in the shell, embracing and supporting the hinder part 
with the dilated posterior pair of arms, natural size. Fig. la, side view of portion of base ol 
posterior arms, showing the broad, membranous keel on back, and the small web between the 
suckers, magnified. Fig. 16, one of the suckers, viewed from above, showing the retractile 
centre by wliich the adhesion to other bodies is caused, magnified, 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 10] 



t^l ■: 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA. 

{fishes. J 




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Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 



Plate 63. 
MYLIOBATIS AUSTRALIS (Macleay). 
The Blue-spotted Eagle-Ray. 

[Genus MYLIOBATIS (Cuv.). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Order Plagios- 
toraata. Sub-order Batoidei. Family Myliobatidae.) 

Gen. Char. — Head rounded, much elevated, with a flattened, rounded, fleshy expansion in 
front, distinct from the disc, which is formed by the lateral development of the pectoral fins. 
Nasal valves coalescing to form a broad, transverse, median, oblong flap, with a concave, fringed, 
posterior margin. Mouth with rectilinear edges, the lower not extending in front of the upper. 
Teeth hexagonal, flat, the middle row much wider than long, those of the lateral rows having the 
length and width nearly equal. Tail long, slender, with a dorsal fin near its base, and a small 
serrated spine behind the dorsal fin.* Eyes directed laterally, each with a very large spiracle 
close behind it ; no upper eyelid.] 

Description. — Body : Smooth, rhomboidal ; pectoral fins moderately acute and 
falcate at the tips ; anterior edge nearly straig'ht, very slightly convex except near 
the tip, posterior margin sigmoid, slightly convex near posterior Jtcute angle, and 
gently concave towards the apex ; anterior margin in front of head obtuse, semi- 
elliptically rounded, the rounded angular junction with the anterior border of the 
pectoral disc being in about a line connecting the middle of the eyes ; an obtuse 
ridge over each orbit converging to back part of head, leaving a. deep concave 
median hollow. Disc from tip to tip of pectorals less than twice the length to 
posterior base of ventral fins, more nearly twice from anterior edge of snout to 
posterior edge of pectoral fin. Ventrals subquadrate. Dorsal fin more than the 
length of its base behind the posterior root of the ventrals, or its middle about over 
the posterior edge of the ventrals. Spine a rather less distance behind the posterior 
edge of dorsal. Tail beyond the spine suddenly reduced in diameter, forming a long 
slender termination (imperfect in our specimen, and therefore its length cannot be 
given). Teeth : Median teeth of upper jaw 7^ times wider than long (or 7^ in a 
space equal to the width of one) j length and width of the lateral teeth nearly 
equal. Color: Uniform yellowish olive-brown above, with about 26 or 28 large 
light-blue rounded spots, irregular in shape and distribution, over the disc ; under- 
side white in the centre, becoming pinkish-brown and yellowish towards the margins 
of the pectoral. 

Measurements. 
Length from anterior edge of snout to base of tail at posterior 

root of ventrals 
Width from tip to tip of pectorals 
Antero-posterior diameter of eyes 

„ „ spiracles 

Distance between the eyes 
Rounded projection in front of head 
From tip of snout to posterior base of pectorals 
Width of posterior margin of ventrals 



Ft, 


Ids. 


lines 


2 


5 





4 


1 








1 


3 





2 


3 





5 


9 





2 





2 


1 








6 


6 



» Dr. Gunther states that in young individuals the tail is much longer than in old ones, and that the median teeth 
re regularly hexagonal and of the same size as the lateral ones. 

[ 11 ] 



Ft. 


ins. 


lines. 





3 








5 








2 


3 





2 


7 





1 








2 








I 


5 








3 





4 


9 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IFishes. 

f Measurements. 

Length of inner margin 

From posterior edge of ventral to anterior edge of dorsal fin 

Length of dorsal 

Greatest height of dorsal 

From posterior edge of dorsal to spine ... 

Length of exposed part of spine 

Width at base... 

Greatest width of nasal flap 

Width of middle and 3 lateral rows of teeth on each side, 

taken together ... ... ... ... ... 2 5 

Eeference. — Macleay, Des. Cat. Aust. Fish, vol. 2, p. 316. 

Mr. Macleay has very properly separated this as a distinct 
species ; as it is easily distinguished from the M. Nieuhqfi by its 
more obtuse pectorals, less width of disc, and the much greater 
number of median teeth in a space equal to their width (only 3 or 
3^ in M. Nieuhoji)., more rounded and much shorter muzzle, as 
well as by the spotted instead of striped disposition of the blue 
color. 

The only specimen I have seen of this species I obtained many 
years ago at QueensclifF, and presented to the National Museum, 
no other example having since occurred. 

This handsome Eagle-ray has not been figured before. 

Explanation or Figtjbes. 

Plate 63. — Fig. 1, upper side, one-tenth natural size. Fig. la, under side, one-tenth natural 
size. Fig. 16, profile view, one-tenth natural size. Fig. \c, view of nasal flap, nostrils, and 
teeth of upper jaw. Fig. \d, teeth of lower jaw, one-half the natural size. Fig. \e, flattened 
antero-posterior surface of dental series. Fig. \f, teeth of upper jaw, half the natural size. 
Fig. \g, more curved antero-posterior surface of upper dental series. Fig. \h, side view of spine 
and attached portion of tail, natural size. Fig. \i, dorsal view of spine, natural size. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 12 ] 



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ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 
(Fishes) 



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Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IFishea. 



Plate 64, Fig. 1. 

ODONTASPIS TAURUS (Rafin.). 

The Long-toothed Bull- Shark, or Shovel-nosed Shark. 

[Genus ODONTASPIS (Agass.). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Order Plagios- 
tomata. Sub-order Selachoidae. Fam. Odontaspidae.) 

Gen. Char. — Teeth alike in both jaws, with smooth margins, triangular, central cusp thick, 
twisted, very acutely pointed, with a much smaller pointed cusp at each side of the deeply 
notched base ; no median tooth. Spiracles very minute. Nostrils very large with large 
triangular valve. Second dorsal fin large, in front of anal, over the space between the large 
anal and the ventral fins. Branchial slits large, all in front of base of pectoral fins. Tail-pits 
very small or none ; no keel on sides of tail. Caudal fin with a small lower lobe and a notch 
near end of slender upper lobe. No nictitating membrane,] 

Description. — General form rounded, moderately tapering ; tail moderate. 
Posterior border of 1st dorsal nearly over the origin of the ventrals (less than 
one-fourth the length of its base in front). Snout flat, moderately pointed, 
the portion in front of the eyes forming nearly an equilateral triangle with a 
transverse line drawn in front of eyes ; the part in front of mouth nearly equalling^ 
one-half the width of the mouth in length. Spiracle a very small pore about 
midway between angle of mouth and top of orbit, and half the length of a line 
connecting them, behind. A moderate tooth on each side of midline, 2nd and 
3rd a little larger j 4th and 5th teeth on each side in upper jaw much smaller 
than the adjoining ones. Pectorals nearly twice as long as wide. 1st dorsal ending 
over origin of ventrals, little larger than 2nd dorsal, which is about the size of 
the anal, and terminates nearly over its origin. Scales small, posterior margin 
rounded, each with three small keels. Color : Plain, muddy, yellowish grey 
above, lighter below; border of fins darker. Upper jaw: 13 teeth; length of 1st, 
9 lines; 2nd and 3rd, 8 lines; 4th, 4 lines; 5th, 3 lines; 6th, 7\ lines (gradually 
diminishing to end). Lower jaw : 17 teeth ; length of 1st, 7 lines ; 2nd, 1 inch ; 
3rd, 1 inch 1 line ; 4th, 1 inch 1 line ; 5th, 6^ lines ; 6th, 6| lines ; 7th, b\ lines 
(thence regularly diminishing). 14 scales in 3 lines, each with 3 longitudinal 
keels. 

Measurements. Ft. Ins. lines. 

Length from tip of snout to tip of tail ... ... ... 9 11 

„ „ „ anterior edge of orbit ... 7 

1st dorsal ... 4 4 6 



» M n 

>• » » 

>» >» J> 

M n » 

» ft » 

w it » 



2nd dorsal ... 6 3 6 

1st gill-opening 18 

pectoral ... 2 7 

ventral ... 5 4 

anal ... 7 6 



" » » '» n A n 

,, nostril ... ... ... 4 



caudal ... 7 II 

4 

1 4 



» » » 

„ of pectoral 
Width of ditto ... ... ... — ... 9 9 

13 

4 4 



Length of nostril 

Girth of body behind pectorals ... 

[ 13 ] 



Zoology.'] 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



\^Fishe8. 



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a 



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H 



a 

03 

a 

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a 



Ft. 


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lines. 





6 


6 





6 


3 





9 








8 








10 





1 


10 


6 





1 








7 








11 








2 






Measurements. 
Length of base of 1st dorsal 
Height of ditto 
Length of base of ventral ... ... 

Height of ditto 

Depth of first lobe of candal fin 

Length from anterior edge of 1st lobe to 

notch of caudal 
Diameter of eye 

Width between middle of eyes ... 
Length from tip of snout to spiracle 

„ of projection of snout ... 

REFERENCE.=^Carc/<am<s taurus (Rafinesque), Caratt. 
p. 10, t. 14., f. 1 ; Odontaspis id (Miiller and Henle), 
Plagiostom. p. 73, t. 30. 

This is one of tlie largest and most ferocious 
of our Sharks, and so common as to be an 
o1)ject of great terror to bathers, who occa- 
sionally suffer grievous lacerations when caught 
swimming even near the shore, towards which 
this species approaches into unusually shallow 
water. 

The common name of Shovel-nosed Shark 
is given by the bay fishermen often to this 
species from the outline of the head, seen from 
above, being like the point of an unworn 
American or paddocking shovel in size and 
shape. 

Enormous jaws of this species may often be 
seen in the fishermen's huts along the shore 
from Picnic Point to Mordialloc, and are easily 
known by the length and sleuderness of the 
teeth, which are very numerous, about an inch 
long, and set in three or four rows on the under 
jaw, and two rows on the upper one, making a 
fearful armature of spikes, the lacerated wound 
produced by which is almost always fatal. One 
or two small teeth are remarkable as inter- 
vening between the third and fourth large ones 
on each side. 

It is a very active and voracious species, 
driving shoals of fish before it in terror as it 

[ 14 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Fishes. 

dashes along ; and it is one of those which will occasionally dart 
out of the water at a piece of meat, or the oar of a boat, or a man's 
arm or leg. 

The great quantity of fish fit for the table devoured by this 
species induced the Government a few years ago to place large 
sums on the estimates to prevent its increase, by oflfering a reward 
to the fishermen for each one killed according to its size ; and for 
want of authentic figures of the different species to refer to, the 
authorities were ludicrously imposed upon by the fishermen bringing 
myriads of the harmless little blunt-toothed Dog-fish and other 
small species of Sharks, which they gravely presented as the young 
of this gigantic one, and got paid for, at so much a foot, to the 
amount of many hundreds of pounds. 

Its geographical range is very great, extending to the Cape of 
Good Hope and to the American coast, where individuals are often 
found to have remains of men and clothing in them when cut up ; 
and it is the commonest of the large sharks seen swimming round 
our bathing enclosures in Hobson's Bay. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 64, — Fig. 1, side view of female, reduced. Fig. la, snout and mouth, viewed from 
below. Fig. \b, side view of tooth, natural size, to show the double curvature. Fig. Ic, front 
view of same, to show basal cusps. 



Plate 64, Fig. 2. 

GALEUS AUSTRALIS (Macleat). 
Australian Tope Shark. 

[Genus GALEUS (Cut.). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Order Plagiostomata. 
Sub-order Selachoidea. Fam. Galeidae.) 

Gen. CAar.— Head flattened, muzzle pointed, rounded ; eye with nictitating membrane, 
pupil round above, pointed below ; nostrils with small triangular valve ; a slit and fold of skin 
round angle of mouth. Tail moderately short, without pit at the base, or keel on the sides ; 
upper lobe of caudal fin with a notch near tip. Anterior dorsal over interval between pectorals 
and ventrals, twice the size of secoad dorsal, which equals the anal in size, and is a little in front 
of it. Scales minute, with three shght keels. Teeth in both jaws flattened, triangular, notched 
behind, obliquely inclined backwards and outwards, inner edge smooth, sometimes with one 
denticle at base, middle cusp acutely angular, pointed, posterior or outer edge denticulated ; teeth 
of middle of front of mouth as large as the lateral ones, but straight, with a denticle at each side of 
base. Spiracles behind the eye, longitudinal, oval, small. Intestinal valve spiral. Cosmopolitan.] 

[ 15 ] 



Zoology."] 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



[Fishes. 



Description. — Fusiform, slender j snout long-, semielliptically rounded; nape 
of nostril long- and slender; teeth, about 19 on each side above and below ; central 
cusp of teeth narrow, pointed, very obliquely inclined, with four to six serratures 
on posterior base ; middle tooth straig'ht, with one small cusp on each side of base. 
Small specimens have upper teeth less acute, and no serratures on the lower teeth. 
Second dorsal less than half the size of the first, commencing* about one-third of 
the length of its base in front of front edg-e of anal ; anterior edge of anal nearer to 
the anterior edge of caudal lobe than to posterior edge of base of ventral ; pectorals 
broad, nearly rectangular at base, narrow towards tip ; anterior edge of base 
vertically under posterior edge of penultimate gill-opening. Scales very minute, 
20 in 3 lines about middle of body. Fold at angle of mouth continued above to 
under middle of eye; a fold on upper eyelid. Color: Back and upper half of side 
slate color ; fins darker; lower side of snout, body, and tail white ; iris yellow. 

Measurements. 
Length from tip of snout to end of tail ... 

,, ,, nostril 

„ „ front of mouth 

„ „ • angle of mouth 

„ ,, front edge of eye 

„ „ first gill-opening 

„ „ anterior base of pectoral 

„ „ posterior base of pectoral 

„ „ anterior base of 1st dorsal ... 

„ „ posterior edge of base of 1st 

dorsal 

„ „ anterior base of ventrals 

„ „ anterior base of 2nd dorsal ... 

„ „ anterior base of anal... 

„ „ anterior base of lower lobe of 

caudal ... 

„ „ middle of notch of caudal 

Longitudinal diameter of eye ... 
Posterior edge of eye to spiracle 
Length of spiracle 
Length of front edge of pectoral 

„ hind edge of pectoral 
Greatest width of pectoral 
Anterior edge of 1 st dorsal 
Posterior edge of 1st dorsal 
Upper margin of 1st dorsal 
Length of base of 1st dorsal 
Anterior edge of ventral 
End margin of ventral ... 

Posterior margin of ventral 
Length of base of vential 
Anterior margin of 2nd dorsal ... 
Length of base of 2nd dorsal ... 
Posterior lobe of 2nd dorsal 
End margin of 2nd dorsal 
Anterior margin of anal 
Length of base of anal 
Posterior lobe of anal ... 
End margin of anal 
Anterior lobe of caudal 
Length of caudal 
Width of mouth 
Length of nostril 
Length of middle gill-opening ... 

„ base of upper teeth at middle of jaws ... 
Height of principal cusp 

Reference. — Macleay, Desc. Cat. Aust. Fish, vol. 2, p. 290. 

[ 16 ] 



Ft. 


ins. 


lines. 


5 











3 


3 





4 


6 





7 








5 








10 


6 


1 


1 


6 


1 


4 





1 


8 


3 


2 


1 





2 


7 





3 


4 





3 


4 


7 


3 


11 





4 


.5 


6 





1 


3 








10 








2 





8 


3 





2 


9 





4 


9 





5 


3 





1 


6 





4 


6 





4 


9 





2 


6 





2 


9 





I 


7 





2 


7 





1 


10 





3 








1 


5 





2 


3 





1 


6 





2 








1 


3 





2 


1 





6 





1 











5 











9 





I 


6 








3i 








3 



Zoology."] 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



[^Fishes. 



In size, general character, and coloring, this is closely related to 
the English Tope, Galeus canis^ in which, as in the present species, 
I find, on comparing examples of the Australian and English fish, 
that the two hinder gill-openings are behind the anterior margin of 
the pectoral. The pectoral is much longer, broader, more falcate, 
and placed farther back in the English G. cards than in the 
Australian Tojdo. The 1st dorsal of the Australian fish is more 
near to the pectoral, and the pectoral and hind lobe of the caudal 
and the 1st dorsal are smaller, and the 2nd dorsal and anal in the 
Australian fish are not so close to the caudal ; the caudal being 
much larger in the English species than in its Australian represen- 
tative. To render some of these comparative differences more 
clear, I give the relations in a tabular form of some of the measure- 
ments of the two species, taking the total length in each case as 
100. The length of B was 5 feet ; it had lower and upper teeth 
serrated. The smaller male noted below, marked C, was 4 feet 7 in. 
9 lines long ; serratures on lower teeth. D, a female, 4 feet 5 in. 
6 lines long : — 



Proportional Measurements of one English and three 


A. 


B. 


c. 


D. 


Australian Topes. 












English G. canis. 


Australian G. Australis. 




Young Female. 


LargeFemale. 


Small Male. 


Small 
Female. 


Total length from tip of snout to tip of tail 


100 


100 


100 


100 


From tip of snout to anterior base of pectoral ... 


27 


22 


18 


17 


,, „ posterior base of pectoral... 


34 


26 


23 


21 


Length of pectoral ... 


19 


14 


13 


12 


Greatest width of pectoral ... 


8 


7 


7 


7 


From tip of snout to anterior base of 1st dorsal... 


35 


33 


32 


33 


„ „ hind edge of base of 1 st dorsal 


41 


42 


41 


42 


Anterior edge of 1st dorsal ... 


12 


8 


9 


8 


Length of base of 1st dorsal ... 


9 


8 


8 


8 


From tip of snout to anterior base of ventrals ... 


54 


51 


51 


47 


„ „ base of 2nd dorsal 


62 


66 


67 


68 


„ „ base of anal 


62 


67 


71 


70 


„ „ base of lower lobe of caudal 


71 


77 


81 


83 


Length of caudal 


27 


20 


17 


17 



This is a common Dog-fish in Hobson's Bay, usually from four 
to five feet long, of a graceful tapering form, with a long, semiellip- 
tical snout, small fins, except the upper lobe of the caudal, which 
is large, and with a distinct notch on its under margin. It is one of 

Dec. VII. [ 17 ] C 



Zoology.l NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. ^Fishes. 

those having a transversely moving or winking eyelid, rising over 
two-thirds of the eye-hall from the inner corner of the oval eye. 

The young when hrought forth are ahout 1 foot long, from thirty 
to fifty heing found in a single female. At this size the unahsorhed 
j^ortion of the egg, 1 inch in diameter, hangs from them. It is a 
very interesting sight to see, in summer, the whole hand of twenty 
or thirty little ones swimming ahout after, and generally under the 
parent, with an ohvious display of mutual affection which is not 
looked for in fish which are not viviparous like this. 

Like the English Tope (which has thirty or forty young twice a 
year), this is a most prolific Dog-fish, and is so ahundant and so 
voracious for its size as to seriously affect the supply of the smaller 
sorts of fish, and is much hated by the fishermen accordingly. It 
is exceedingly active, and has the same habit as its European 
representative of swiftly rolling the line round its body when 
hooked, coming thus to the surface. It is more frequently caught 
by persons fishing with a line from the end of the piers for Flat- 
heads than the latter. 

This species has not been figured before. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 64. — Fig. 2, profile view of female, reduced. Fig. 2a, under side of head to show 
form of snout, mouth, and nostrils. Fig. 26, upper lateral tooth, natural size (most of the teeth 
in old specimens have the cusp longer and narrower, with a more marked notch between it and 
the serrated base than in the figured example). Fig. 2c, lower lateral tooth, natural size. 

Frederick McCoy. 



C 18] 



6^ 



JMIJMlDmS m JEf, MliJ\^iK(UM 



P1.G3 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 




Ludwig Becker, dd d- lith . 



I'rot'. )l' t'oif.diiiJ 



Huniel dc C'imp 



Zoology.-] NATUKAL HISTOKY OF VICTOEIA. [FwAca. 



Plate 65, Fig. 1. 

PHYLLOPTERYX FOLIATUS (Shaw sp.). 
The Leafy Sea-Dkagon. 

[Genus PHYLLOPTERYX (Swainson). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Order 
Lophobranchiata. Fam. Syngnathidse.) 

Gen. Char. — Body elongate, fusiform, much compressed, the back convexly arched to 
opposite anal, and then forming a second dorsal convexity on tail from base of dorsal fin ; the 
belly slightly concave ; neck-like, anterior portion long and slender ; head with a high com- 
pressed occiput suddenly narrowing to the large orbit, beyond which is a long, more slender, 
tubular snout, with the small jaws at the extremity directed obliquely upwards and forwards ; 
tail long, slender, gradually tapering to a pointed posterior end, which is not prehensile. Pectoral 
fin short, rounded ; anal fin very minute ; no caudal fin ; dorsal fin moderate. Flat spinulose 
bones, bearing flat, ovate, leaf-like skinny appendages, arise from occiput nape, a pair from 
middle of belly, and pairs at intervals on back of tail. Australia.] 

Description. — Head about 4^ to 4| in the total length -, from bind edg-e of oper- 
culum to posterior edge of orbit one-fourth the length from hind edge of operculum 
to tip of snout; height of head at occiput about Sg in total length of head; depth of 
tubular snout two-thirds the diameter of orbit ; two strong spines diverge upwards, 
outwards, and backwards from posterior half of upper edge of orbit, and one directed 
outwards on each side in front of orbit; two minute spines on upper edge of snout, 
considerably nearer to the eye than the tip, and two slender filaments (often united) 
on under opposite side. Surface of operculum and preoperculum with fine radiating 
ridges ; pectoral region behind operculum swollen conically, and with a lateral spine 
on each side and several smaller ones below. Vertical skin-plates, 18 on body and 
36 on tail, each with small spinulose tubercles at upper and lower ends, except the 
upper ends of the 6th to the 17th, which are obtusely rounded and covered with 
spinous granules ; body rings with a nearly median lateral row of small, conical 
tubercles running into the lower caudal line at origin of tail ; a similar median row 
begins on penultimate body segment, and continues on those of tail rather above 
the middle to end of dorsal fin, when it forms the upper caudal row. The leaf- 
bearing long spinulose bones are one short one on occiput, one twice as long on nape, a 
pair still larger on 11th body ring, and from the 11th, 17th, 23rd, and a single one 
on the 27th segment of tail ; and from the ventral edge of the 9th body segment a 
short pair with leafy appendages like those above ; a much shorter and broader 
pair without leafy appendages, but ending in several small spines, on dorsal 
edge of the 1st caudal segment, and a similar pair on abdominal edge of penultimate 
body segment. Coloi^ : (of figured specimen) of a greyish orange-fawn color, with 
minute round yellowish-white spots (most conspicuous on head) ; head and snout 
darker. The 9 first body segment have each a broad, vertical, ovate blue patch, 
extending from above the middle to the ventral edge, the remaining body rings 
having much smaller ones close to ventral edge ; iris silvery-white or yellow ; leafy 
appendages dark olive-brown, with blue patches and reflections. Fin-rays : dorsal, 
32 ; anal, 4 ; pectoral, 21 (the dorsal stands on last body plate, and six first caudal 
plates). Length, 14 inches; from tip of snout to front edge of orbit, 2 inches 1 line ; 
diameter of orbit, 4 lines ; from tip of snout to hind edge of operculum, 3 inches ; 
to middle of base of pectoral, 3 inches 6 lines ; to base of tail, 7 inches 7 lines ; 
greatest depth of body, 1 inch 4 lines ; greatest depth in front of midcile of snout, 
2 lines; at base of tail, 8 lines; from tip of snout to origin of dorsal fin, 7 inches 
5 lines ; length of dorsal, 1 inch 7 lines ; greatest length about middle of dorsal, 
5 lines. 

[ 19] 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IFishes. 

Reference. — Syngnathus foliatus (Shaw), Gen. Zool., vol. 5, 1. 180; = S. tcBui- 
olatus (Lacep.), Ann. du Mus., v. 4, t. 58, f. 3. Phyllopteryx foliatus (Swains.), 
Nat. Hist. Fish., v. 2, p. 332. 

This most singular-looking Fish must have struck the aborigines 
with some superstitious feeling, as I have seen a native drawing of 
a ghost, manifestly inspired by its strange form. The leafy appen- 
dages resemble bits of brown seaweed, and vary slightly, frequently 
showing a rich blue color. The above dull colors are those I 
have seen in one living specimen, and several just dead and 
quite fresh. Tlie brilliantly colored fish represented in the 
Zoological Proceedings for 1865, plate 14, and in Mrs. Meredith's 
" Tasmanian Friends and Foes," plate 7, with yellow, crimson, and 
purple hues, is really a distinct species, for which I propose the 
name F. altus^ because the greatest height or depth of the body 
exceeds the length of the snout from anterior edge of orbit, and 
equals about ten of the posterior body segments, or mid-row of 
spines in front of anal, while the greatest depth of the body in 
our common Victorian dull-colored species, as here figured, and as 
also in Shaw's original figure of the species, is scarcely jth the 
length of the snout, and only measures about 7 of the lateral 
spines of the hinder body segments in front of the anal. 

Like the Pipe-fishes, the males of this fish carry the eggs in a soft 
membrane on the lower side of the tail, without, however, having a 
distinct pouch like the males of the true Pipe-fishes. Dr. Kaup, 
who has carefully examined all the specimens of this fish in the 
Paris Museum, is able to state that none of these have the snout 
so short as in Lacepede's figure above quoted, which is therefore 
simply incorrect in this particular. I do not think the end of the 
tail is prehensile ; at least in newly dead specimens it is not spirally 
inrolled as in Hippocampus. 

The Sea-dragons s\^am horizontally, like ordinary fish, and not 
in a vertical position, like the Sea-horses. 

Common at Western Port, not very uncommon in Hobson's 
Bay, and Geelong and Portland, from all of which localities 
specunens are in the National Museum. 

Explanation of Figures. 
Plate 65. — Fig. 1, moderate specimen, natural size (tip of tail broken). Fig. la, jaws at 
end of snout, magnified 2 J times. Fig. \b, one of ventral bony leaf-bearers, magnified 2 J 
diameters. 

[ 20] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Fishes. 



Plate 65, Fig. 2. 

HIPPOCAMPUS BREVICEPS (Peters). 

Short-headed Sea-Horse. 

[Genus HIPPOCAMPUS (Leach). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Order Lopho- 
branchiata. Fam. Syngnathidffi.) 

Gen. Char. — Head and body shaped like head and neck of a horse ; tail abruptly narrowed, 
slender, spirally inroUed at tip, prehensile and without caudal fin. Head compressed, broad 
behind, the upper posterior angle raised with a spinose knob or coronet ; orbits large, spiny ; 
snout abruptly narrowed beyond the orbit, witli very small, terminal, nearly vertical jaws ; body 
heptagonal, of 10 to 12 bony shields, with spinose tubercles. Pectoral and dorsal fins moderate, 
anal fin present in female, very small. Males carry the eggs in a pouch at base of tail. All 
temperate and tropical seas.] 

Description. — Head short, snout 1^ times diameter of orbit, or from tip to front 
edge of orbit equal in length to space from posterior edge of orbit to the bind edge 
of operculum, or from tip to hind edge of orbit equal to from same point to base of 
pectoral j spine over each orbit large, triangular, nearly vertical, incHning slightly 
outward, with a short filament at apex ; a filament in front of base of coronet ; 
height of coronet equal depth of middle of snout, or two-thirds the diameter of 
orbit, having 5 conical tubercles at apex, with small filaments ; one large tri- 
angular spine on middle of throat vertically under hind edge of orbit, with a 
smaller one on each side on ridges diverging backwards from it, on lower edge of 
gill-cover, a little in front of hind edge of operculum ; operculum radiatingly ridged. 
Body rings, 11, the upper tubercles of the 1st, 3rd, and 6th larger and with a fila- 
ment on each side, the three last elevated into a convex base for dorsal fin ; midline 
of body tubercles (1st, 3rd, 5th, 8th, 9th and 10th, most prominent) continuous 
with lower ridge of tail ; tail quadrangular, of about 39 rings, the itb, 7th, and 
10th more prominent above than the others. Dorsal fin on three last rings of body 
and between one and two first of tail, of 20 raysj pectoral rounded, of 14 rays, 
anal in female of 4 rays. Color: ashy yellowish-grey, with bluish reflections, minutely 
dotted with dark-red; body with numerous, minute, dark-edged, round, white spots; 
operculum and snout spotted with brown, and rays of same color round eye; iris 
yellow ; tail ringed with brown and yellow. Height at penultimate body rings 
equalling the length of the nine last body rings together. Length, about 2^ inches, 
of which the tail is one-half. 

Reference. — Monatsbericht Akad. Wissensch., Berlin, 1869, p. 710. 

The extraordinary resemblance to a horse's head and neck has 
suggested the popular name of Sea-horse for these beautiful little 
fishes in all European countries ; the common South of Europe 
species being the 'l-KiroKa^nroQ of .^^^lian. 

They are the most lovely and interesting objects in an aquarium. 
In swimming they maintain an erect position, very unlike other 
fish. Fixing themselves to a stem of svraying seaweed by 

[ 21 ] 



Zoology. '^ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IFishea. 

their inrolled prehensile tails, they maintain an upright watchful 
attitude, balancing themselves by their pectoral fins, and 
rolling their bright, prominent, yellow eyes about in all directions, 
one often directed forwards and the other backwards, like the 
chameleon. 

Like all the family Syngnathidce^ or Pipe-fishes, the males 
carry the eggs about for a period in a sac along the under 
surface of the tail — a marsupial habit " with a difference," as 
far as the sex is concerned, of a curiously suggestive kind, as to 
why the males should not in other creatures have the trouble of 
protecting the young instead of the almost universal arrangement 
of leaving it to the females. 

This little species is common in Hobson's Bay, but has not been 
figured before. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 65. — Fig. 2, large specimen, natural size. Fig. 2a, tip of snout, magnified 3 diameters, 
to show the little terminal jaws. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[22] 



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Zoolog;/.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 



Plate m, Fig. 1. 
DICTYOPORA GRISEA (Lamx.). 

[Genus DICTYOPORA (P. McG.). (Sub-kingd. Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order 
Infundibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Fam. EscharidEe.) 

Gen. Char. — Polyzoary, stony, expanded, foliaceous, fenestrate, articulated by a flexible 
stem ; cells horizontal, opening on both sides ; a special pore on the front of each, close to 
which is an avicularium.] 

Description. — Polyzoary fan-shaped, flat, occasionally proliferous ; fenestras 
large, nearly circular, the marginal rim divided into distinct pitted nodules ; cells 
rounded above, attenuated below ; mouth rather small, circular or nearly so, the 
margin somewhat thickened ; a wart-like projection below and to one side of the 
mouth ; surface, except on the summit of the elevation, pitted ; a round pore 
near the middle of the cell, close to which is an avicularium of moderate size, the 
triangular mandible turned obliquely outwards to the side opposite the wart-like 
projection. 

Keferences. — Adeona grisea, Lamouroux, Exposition Methodique, p. 40, t. 70, 
fig. 5 ; Kirchenpauer, Ueber die Bryozoen-Gattung Adeona, p. 9, t. I., fig. 8, 8cf. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

Of this species I have examined two perfect specimens, the one 
figm-ed, dredged by Mr. Wilson, and the other by myself, in about 
12 fathoms. In both the frond or plate is quite flat, not being 
twisted or contorted in any way, and extends more to one side of 
the stem. In the figured specimen it is 3|^ by 2f inches, and in 
the other 4 by 3. The flexible stem in one is 1 inch by fths at 
the widest part, in the other about IJ by Jth. In both it termi- 
nates in a number of small radicles presenting the same structure 
as the main stem, by which they are fixed to the calcareous 
nodules on which they are growing. Raised branching processes 
or ribs extend for a considerable distance up the plate. The 
fenestrse are regularly placed, nearly circular or elliptical, 2-3 mm. 
in diameter, the intervening spaces 3-5 mm. The margins of the 
fenestrse, as in D. cellulosa, are divided into nodules resembling 
abortive cells. 

D. grisea may be distinguished fi'om D. cellulosa., to which in 
the structure of the cells it is closely allied, by the simple flabellate 
frond (said by Kirchenpauer to be sometimes proliferous), by the 
avicularium being shorter and directed obliquely across the front 

[ 23 ] 



Zoology.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. lPol?/zoa. 

of the cell, not, as in the latter, extending upwards beyond the 
level of the mouth, and by the wart-like elevation which is 
especially marked in incinerated specimens. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Fig. 1, specimen, natural size. Fig. la, group of cells, magnified. Fig. lb, margin of 
fenestra, magnified. Fig. Ic. three cells, more highly magnified. Fig. Ic?, two cells, to show the 
pattern after incineration. Fig. le, two cells of D. cellulosa, similarly treated. 



Plate 66, Fio. 2. 

DICTYOPORA ALBIDA (Kirchenpauer). 

Yar. avicularis (P. McGiL.). 

Description. — Polyzoary expanded, proliferous and cavernous; fenestrse 
regular, nearly circular, margin forming a continuous punctate rim ; cells expanded 
and arched above, narrowed below, surface pitted, the pits forming a regular row 
just inside the margin ; surface raised round the mouth, which is nearly circular; a 
round pore a short distance below, to the side of which is frequently attached a 
minute, triangular avicularium, with the mandible pointed obliquely upwards ; 
several large avicularia, replacing cells, situated round the margins of the fenestrse. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., 1881. 

Port Phillip Heads, first found by Mr. J. B. Wilson. 

This, I believe, to be a form of Dr. Kirchenpauer's Z). albida. 
It attains a very large size, one specimen, dredged in 15 fathoms, 
measuring over 30 inches in circumference. The plate is proliferous, 
and united in various ways so as to form chambers or caverns like 
those of D. cellulosa, but usually of larger size. On one specimen 
a broad, white, irregular rib extends up the plate. The color is 
ash-grey ; the margins of the fenestra) white. The fenestrse are 
about 2mm in diameter, and the interspaces about 3mm wide. 
The cells resemble those of Z). Wil.soni, but they are broader and 
more regularly trapezoid ; the special pore is also smaller, the 
sui'face is not so much raised on each side, and the puncturation is 
deeper and larger. These characters are more i)rominently shown 

[ 24 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

in incinerated specimens. It also differs in the cavernous arrange- 
ment of the plate, in its lighter color and greater thickness. This 
and D. Wilsoni are at once distinguished from D. cellulosa and 
grisea by the small size of the avicularium and the smooth margins 
of fenestrse. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Fig. 2,— specimen, natural size. Fig. 2a, margin of fenestra and group of cells, with three 
large cell-replacing avicularia, magnified. Fig. 26, cells from same group, more highly 
magnified, showing three with avicularia, one with simple pore, and a large cell-replacing 
avicularium. Fig. 2c, group of cells and large avicularium, incinerated. 



The specimens were presented by Mr. J. B. Wilson, and the 
descriptions by Mr. MacGillivray. 

Frederick McCoy. 



Dec. VII. [ 25 ] 



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Plate Q7, 

DICTYOPORA WILSONI (P. McGil.). 

Description. — Poljzoary tbin, fan-shaped, somewhat contorted, simple or 
proliferous ; fenestras variable in size, circular or elliptical, the marginal rim nearly 
plain and not divided into nodules ; cells broad and more or less rounded above, 
much attenuated below ; surface obscurely pitted and raised on each side of the 
avicularian pore (frequently more so on one side) and towards the sides of the 
mouth ; mouth circular or nearly so ; about the middle of the cell there is a round 
pore with a small avicularium (frequently absent) with the triangular mandible 
directed obliquely upwards. 

Reference'. — P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., 1881. 

Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. B. Wilson. 

I have only seen one specimen of this species. It consists of a 
tuft of four separate plates, the stems arising from the same basis. 
The plates are thin, fan-shaped, somewhat contorted, about 4 
inches high and the broadest about the same width. The separate 
flexible stems are up to 1 inch long, and from ^ to a J inch wide. 
To one of the plates there is a secondary plate attached at an acute 
angle, and in another there are several plates so arranged as to 
form two compartments, one very small, the other 2 inches deep, 
J inch mde in one direction and 1\ in the other at the orifice. 
In all, slightly raised ridges extend, dividing from the stem to a 
variable distance up the plate. The fenestrse are from 1 to 3 mm 
mde, the intervening spaces, about 4 mm. The cells resemble those 
of Kirchenpauer's Adeona arborescens^ which I have not seen. That 
species, however, seems to be sufficiently distinguished by the 
thick, prominent ridges or ^ ribs which extend regularly for a long 
distance on the plate, while in D. Wilsoni they are short and very 
slightly elevated. 

Explanation of Figuees. 

Plate 67. — Fig. 1, specimen, natural size. Fig. la, margin of fenestra, with contiguous 
cells, magnified. Fig. \b, three cells, more highly magnified. Fig. \c, group of cells incinerated. 



The figured specimens of Dictyopora were presented by 
Mr. J. Bracebridge Wilson ; for the description I am indebted 

to Mr. MacGillivray. 

Frederick McCoy. 
[ 27 ] 



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Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Polyzoa. 



Plate 68, Fig. 1. 

IDMONEA MILNEANA (D'Orbigny). 

[Genus IDMONEA (Lamx.). (Sub-kingd. Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order Infundibulata. 
Sub-order Cyclostomata. Fam. Idmoneidae.) 

Gen. Char. — Polyzoary erect, branched. Cells tubular, arranged in parallel transverse or 
oblique rows on each side of the mesial line of the front of the branches.] 

Description". — Polyzoary spreading- more or less horizontally, branches broad, 
flat, dividing- dichotomously ; cells usually four in a series, the outer the long-est, 
surface closely punctate ; back of branches longitudinally grooved, finely punctate 
or perforated, and marked with transverse concentric ridges of growth. 

Reference. — Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat., pt. iii., p. 12, Plate xi. 

Port Phillip Heads, 10-15 fatlioms. 

The largest specimen I have seen is the one figured. The 
polyzoary is green, 1 inch in one diameter by f in the other. 
It springs from the surface of a Retepora and immediately 
branches horizontally and dichotomously. These branches send 
down from the back numerous calcareous radiciform processes 
which become attached to the Retepore. The branches are 
broad and flat behind. The cells are usually four in a series, the 
inner the least prominent, the others gradually increasing in 
length to the outer which projects very much. They are united 
side to side throughout almost their whole length, so as to form 
regular walls rising up and projecting far beyond the edges of the 
branches. They are distinct on the front of the branches and are 
minutely and closely punctate. The back of the branches is 
longitudinally sulcate, thickly covered with punctations which are 
usually opened and form small pores, and it is closely marked by 
nearly transverse, arched, concentric lines of growth. From 
various parts of the back of the branches calcareous radiciform 
processes project downwards, and are united to the body from 
which it grows ; these processes are sulcate and punctate, and in 
section are seen to be composed of a number of prismatic tubes. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 68. — Fig. 1, specimen, natural size. Fig. la, portion of front of same, magnified. 
Fig. 16, portion of back, magnified, showing the longitudinal sulci, punctations, and transverse 
ridges. 

[ 29 ] 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Pclyzoa. 



Plate 68, Fig. 2. 
IDMONEA AUSTRALIS (P. McGil.). 

Description. — Polyzoary dichotomously branched, branches spreading' irregu- 
larly, contorted, and twisted on themselves ; 4-6 cells in a series, the inner the 
longest, surface punctate ; back of" branches longitudinally sulcate, the intervening 
ridges punctate. 

Port Phillip Heads, 10-15 fathoms. 

The only specimen I have with a distinct point of attachment is 
J inch high by f across. Numerous others, evidently broken off 
close to their origin, are about the same size. The polyzoary is of 
a dirty-white color, dichotomously irregularly branched ; the 
branches angular in front, slender, frequently spreading in various 
directions and slightly twisted on themselves, occasionally a third 
of a revolution or even more. There are about 4-6 cells in a 
series, the inner the longest, the outer little projecting. The 
surface is finely punctured and obscurely granular. The back of 
the branches is rounded, deeply sulcate longitudinally, the ridges 
between the sulci punctate. 

This species may prove to be a form of /. Atlantica^ but at 
present I think it better to describe it as a distinct species. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 86. — Fig. 2, specimen, natural size. Fig. 2a, front of a branch, magnified. Fig. 26, 
back, magnified. 



Plate 68, Fio. 3. 
IDMONEA RADIANS (Lamk.). 

Description. — Polyzoary rising from a narrow base ; branches narrow in front, 
dichotomous, spreading in a radiating manner ; cells 1-4 in a series, the inner very 
much projecting, smooth, mouth bilabiate ; back of branches ridged longitudinally, 
with the intervening sulci pierced by a single row of round or oval pores ; ovicells 
anterior, situated immediately below a bifurcation, and embracing the cells on both 
sides for about 5 series, divided by elevated ridges, and with the intermediate surface 
pitted. 

Reference. — Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat., pt. iii., p. 11., pi. vii., fig. 1-4. 

[ 30 J 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polt/zoa. 

Williamstown ; Queenscliffe ; Portland, Mr. Maplestone. 

This beautiful species forms small masses up to f inch in 
diameter. It is fixed to narrow algse and other zoophytes l)y a 
small calcareous attachment usually encircling the stem. There 
are generally several primary branches which at once divide 
dichotomously and more or less horizontally, the bifurcations 
being repeated three or four times. The divisions of each 
primary branch are arranged in a fan-shape, and in fine 
specimens the whole polyzoary assumes a nearly circular outline. 
The branches are much narrowed in front, the proximal parts of 
the cells forming a prominent ridge. The number of cells in a 
series varies from 1 to 4. When more than one, the inner is very 
much longer, and when viewed in front may obscure the others (as 
in the figure). The mouth, in perfect specimens, is usually bilabiate. 
The back of the branches is deeply sulcate longitudinally, the 
spaces between the sulci forming continuous, rounded, smooth 
ridges. In the sulci there is a single series of roundish or oval 
foramina, placed at short distances and regular intervals. The 
ovicells are situated on the front of a branch immediately below a 
bifurcation. They are very large, embracing the cells of 4 or 5 
series on each side, project forwards, and are traversed by 
reticulating slightly elevated ridges, the surface between which is 
deeply pitted. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 68. — Fig. 3, specimen, natural size. Fig. 3a, front of portion magnified, showing also 
two ovicells. Fig. 3b, portion of back, magnified. 



Mr. MacGillivray has presented all the type specimens figured 
on this plate, and the descriptions for the Museum and this work. 



Frederick McCoy 



[ 31 ] 



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Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [/naecte. 



Plates 69 and 70, Figs. 2 and 3. 

TROPIDODERUS lODOMUS (McCoy). 

The Violet-shouldered Phasma. 

[Genus TROPIDODERUS (G. Gray). (Sub-kingd. Articulata. Class Insecta. Order 
Orthoptera. Sec. Ambulatoria. Fam. PhasmidaB.) 

Gen. Char. — Body large. Head flat, oblong, and subconvex bebind in female. No ocelli. 
Antennae 24-jointed and as long as entire thorax in males ; 26-jointed and about as long as 
the mesothorax in female. Mesothorax in male slender, cylindrical, more tban twice as long 
as prothorax, sides finely serrated ; in females about twice as long as prothorax, subtriangular, 
keeled along the middle, sides sloping downwards and outwards to a prominent, flat, serrated 
margin ; mesothorax similarly keeled in middle, and serrated at sides. Tegmina elongate, 
ovate, extending nearly to middle of first segment of abdomen in male, to middle of abdomen 
in female ; median carina, moderately elevated in both sexes. Wings very large in both 
sexes, reaching nearly to end of abdomen, those of males narrower. Legs short; simple; 
basal joint of all the tarsi short ; four posterior femora in male slender, strongly serrated 
on all the angles ; in the female the fore margin dilated and dentated. Abdomen of male slender, 
cylindrical ; of females broad, gradually tapering to tip ; ovipositor large, boat-shaped, extending 
slightly beyond abdomen ; anal styles are moderately long in both sexes.] 

Description. — Female: Color: Tegmina and costal area of under wing-s bright 
pea-green above and below, except the base of the under-wings which are rich 
intense violet on upper and under sides ; sides and lower surface of abdomen, head, 
thorax above and below, and femora a slightly duller green ; tibiae and tarsi and 
anal styles brownish ; upper surface of abdomen pale-greenish yellow ; veins of 
posterior part of lower wings pale-green ; the hyaline membrane nearly colorless, 
or with a slight greenish hue. Serratures of sides of thorax and femora of two 
hinder pairs of legs reddish. Prothorax and mesothorax closely and irregularly 
granular above, the metathorax granulated like the othei's below, as well as lower 
side of abdomen; antennae equalling the prothorax and mesothorax in length. 
Length from 4 inches 9 lines to 5 inches 3 lines: proportional measurements to 
length, taken as 100, length of head, j-f^ ; of antenna?, -^^^ of prothorax, jfo ; 
mesothorax, ^L ; metathorax, -^^ ; abdomen, -f-^jj ; width, -^-^jj ; ovipositor, ^Vo 5 
anal styles, y^ ; length of tegmina, -^Vo ; width of tegmina, -^-^ ; length of wing, 
T^ ; greatest width of wing, y^^ ; width of costal area, -^ ; length of anterior 
femora, -^-^-^ ; width, y{^ ; length of 2nd femora, -^-^^ ; width, yfo ; length of hind 
femora, y^^j, width, y^o- 

This splendid Phasma is an example of the gigantic insects 
pecuhar to Australasia constituting the genus Tropidoderus^ and it 
is a good type of the whole family of the FhasmidoR^ popularly 
called Spectres, Walking-sticks, and Walking-leaf Insects, from 
so closely resembling twigs ^nd foliage of plants frequented 
by them. 

The 5 -jointed tarsi, the longitudinally folded wings, and no 
pincer at end of abdomen, separate the Phasmidce from the Earwigs 
{Forjiculidce) ; the small prothorax, from Cockroaches {Blaftidce) ; 
the simple fore legs, from the raptorial Mantidce; and the hind 

Dec. VII. [ 33 ] E 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Insects. 

legs not being thickened for leaping, from the saltatory Grass- 
hoppers and Locusts (Locustidw)^ the Crickets {Aclietidce) and 
Grijllidce. 

They are confined to warm latitudes ; the Indian Archipelago 
being their great centre. They are all harmless, plant-eating 
creatures. The males are smaller, and with longer and more 
slender legs and antenn<e than the females. In some the males 
have large wings, and the females only imperfectly deyeloped ones 
or none, while in others both sexes have fully-deyeloped wings, 
and in many others the adults of both sexes are apterous. The 
legs when lost are gradually restored in successive moults ; but 
these renewed legs are generally smaller than before, and may be 
recognised by this difference from the corresponding one on the 
other side. The relative proportion of different parts of the legs 
and parts of the thorax afford specific characters ; and the three 
terminal segments of the abdomen containing genital parts are also 
used for discriminating species. In the male the three last joints 
on the ventral side are smaller than the rest, and swollen ; in the 
females the 7th on the under side forms a boat-shaped ovipositor or 
operculum protecting the genital appendages of the two terminal 
joints, sometimes forming long, exserted styles or plates. In both 
sexes the under-side of the ninth dorsal segment has two, generally 
filiform, very short, setose styles, greatly developed in the 
Australian species into two long flattend appendages. The relative 
size of the two divisions of the metathorax above aflfords sjDecific 
characters. 

The family Phasmidce is divided into the following sections, 
which are only temporary, as Bacillce of the 1st may hereafter be 
found to have winged males. A difficulty also arises in the 
inmiature stages of development of the tegmina and wings of 
species, having them large when adult. The texture sometimes 
enabling one to distinguish small wdngs in adults, from innnature 
small stage of large-winged species. The main vein of the costal 
area of the wing is simple in the male and forked in the female, 
or forked in both sexes. The ocelli are not even of sexual import- 
ance, some individuals having three, and others of the same sex and 

sjiecies not having any. 

[ 34 ] 



Zoology.'] NATUEAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Insects. 

§ 1. Apterophasmina. Tegmina and mngs absent in adults of 
both sexes. 

§ 2. Pferophasmina. Tegmina and wings developed in both sexes, 
or in males only. Tegmina (except in Phy Ilium) too small to 
cover the vrings, the anterior costal area of w^hich is hard coriaceus, 
thick and colored, and with parallel, immovable veins, the hinder 
membranous part of the wing folding up longitucUnally under it 
when at rest, from its movable radiating veins. 

This beautiful species differs from T. Childreni in the less width 
of the tegmina, and the longitudinal veins in front of the median 
one being so small as scarcely to strike the eye, and in the less width 
of the costal area, and of the dilated middle of posterior femora. 

One of the specimens figured was presented to the Museum by 
Prof Halford, from Beaconsfield, on the Dandenong Range, the 
others are from near Melbourne. Although varying half an inch 
in absolute size, the proportional measurements given above are 
the same in all. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plates 69 & 70. — Fig. 2, female with -wings extended, natural size. Fig. 3, another 
specimen with wings closed, in the resting position, on a twig of Eucalyptus, to show the 
resemblance between the leaves and the hard parts of the wings when at rest. 



Plates 69-70, Fig. 1. 

TROPIDODERUS RHODOMUS (McCoy). 
The Red-shouldered Phasma. 

Description. — General form of T. iodormis but with longer wing-s, and with 
broader teg-mina, having the veins on the anterior half or side of the mid-line nearly 
as strong as those below or on posterior side of it ; and the antennae are much 
shorter and thicker ; and the serrated dilations of the two hinder pairs of femora 
are much wider. Color: head, thorax, tegmina, femora and distal fths of costal 
area, above, bright pea-green,- basal fths of costal area scarlet vermilion; h3^aline 
wings pale-green with stronger green veins ; whole of under side of costal area 
scarlet vermilion with pale-green veins ; tibiae and tarsi brownish ; upper surface 
of abdomen yellowish ; sides and ovipositor green. Length from anterior part of 

[ 35] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Insects. 

head to end of abdomen 6 inches 2 lines. Proportional measurements in fractions 
of the leng-th, taken as 100: leng^th of head, y^^ ; of antennae, y^o ; of protborax, xoir 5 
of mesothorax, -j-f^ ; of metatborax, -^^^ ; of abdomen, ^^ ; of ovipositor, -^^^ ; of 
anal styles, -^^ ; of teg-mina, -^^^ ; width of teg-mina, yV^ ; length of costal area of 
wing, -^-^-Q ; width of costal area, yVo ; width of wing-, y*^^^ ; leng-th of anterior 
femora, ^^j^; width of femora, j§^; length of 2nd pair of femora, j^"^ ; width, i^-q'. 
length of hind femora, ^%% ; width, y§^. 

This is apparently the insect referred to by Prof. Westwood (Cat. 
Orth. In., p. 166) as the Adelaide variety of T. Childreni with 
rose-color under side of costal area and tegmina and basal portion of 
costal area above, and showing as a variability a greater expanse 
of wing. I do not find any perceptible or important variation ; and 
therefore the wings are longer and less broad than in that species, 
the antennae are shorter, and the perfectly constant, vermilion scarlet 
of the upper half of the costal area, and the under-side of the 
tegmina and costal area being of the same striking red, contrasts 
strongly with the green under-side of the tegmina and costal area 
and purple base of the wings of T. Childreni. The present species 
is distinguished from the T. iodomus by the red instead of violet 
base of wing above, and the splendid scarlet vermilion of the under- 
side of nearly the whole of the costal area and tegmina ; it likewise 
differs in the much stronger veins above and below the mid-vein of 
the tegmina, the much shorter antennae, and the wider, dilated 
femora of the 2nd and 3rd pairs of legs. 

When seen flying against the sun, the red of the under-side of 
the costal area of the wings overpowers the green of the distal 
portion of the upper surface, shining through, so as to appear of 
strikingly vivid scarlet vermilion, which disappears hke magic when 
the creature alights, suddenly folds its great wings in a narrow 
green layer over the abdomen concealed by the costal area, the red 
base of which is exactly covered over and hid by the green tegmina, 
so that the whole agrees so nearly with the foliage of the Eucalypti 
on which it rests that the sharpest eye would miss it, especially if 
looking for the splendid scarlet flying creature of an instant before. 

I might mention that the whitish and yellowish head, thorax, 
veins, and patches on the tegmina and the costal area seen in 
cabinet specimens of this and many described allied kinds of green 
Phasma are only post mortem bleachings, arising from the moisture 

[36] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. ^Insects. 

of slightly decomposing soft parts, and in the living insects are 
leaf-green like the other green parts. 

A rare species, occurring in the warmer northern parts of Vic- 
toria. The specimen figured is from Inglewood, and was procured 
for the National Museum from Mr. Plant, who found it. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plates 69 & 70. — Fig. 1, female, with wings extended as in flight, natural size, seen from 
below, to show the great extent of the scarlet on the under-side. Fig. la, upper surface of 
same specimen, to show the small extent of the red capable of being entirely covered and 
concealed by the upper tegmina when at rest. Fig. lb, head, prothorax, and base of antennae, 
magnified. Fig. Ic, terminal joints of body, showing styles and ovipositor, magnified. 

Frederick McCoy. 



By Authority : John Ferres, Government Printer. 

[37] 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



N.B. — The originals of all the Figures are in the National Museum, Melbourne. 



DECADE I. 

Plate 1. — The Black Snake (Pseudechys porphyriacus, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 2. — The Copper-head Snake (Hoplocephalus superbus, Giinth.). 

Plate 3. — The Tiger Snake (Hoplocephalus curtus, Schl. sp.). 

Plate 4. — The Australian Bream (Chrysophrys Australis, Giinth.). 

Plate 5. — The Spiny-sided Butterfly-Gurnard (Lepidotrigla Vanessa, Rich. sp.). 

Plate 6. — The Kumu Gurnard (Trigla Kumu, Lesson and Garn.). 

Plate 7. — The Australian Giant Earth-worm (Megascolides Australis, McCoy). 

Plate 8. — Lewin's Day-moth (Agarista Lewini, Boisd.). 

The Loranthus Day-moth (Agarista Casuarinae, Scott). 

The Vine Day-moth (Agarista Glycine, Lewin sp.). 
Plate 9. — Pieris (Thyca) Harpalyce (Don. sp.). 
Plate 10. — Pieris (Thyca) Aganippe (Don. sp.). 



DECADE II. 

Plate 11. — The Little Whip Snake (Hoplocephalus flagellum, McCoy). The White-lipped Snake 

(Hoplocephalus coronoides, Giinth.). 
Plate 12. — The Death Adder (Acanthophis Antarctica, Shaw sp.). 
Plate 13. — The Carpet Snake (Morelia variegata, Gray). 
Plate 14. — The Gippsland Perch (Lates colonorum, Giinth.). 
Plate 15. — The Murray Lobster (Astacoides serratus. Shaw sp.). 
Plate 16. — The Salmon Arripis (Arripis truttaceus, Cuv. sp.). Adult. 
Plate 1 7. — Ditto of the younger forms and coloring. 
Plate 18. — The Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 19. — The Small-scaled Rock Cod (Lotella callarias, Giinth.). 
Plate 20. — The Australian Rock Cod (Pseudophysis barbatus, Giinth.). 



DECADE III. 

Plate 21. — The Sea-Leopard Seal (Stenorhynchus leptonyx, de Blainv. sp.). 

Plate 22. — The Yellow-sided Dolphin (Delphiuus Nova Zealandia;, Quoy and Gaim.). 

Plate 23. — The Common Brown Snake (Diemenia superciliosa, Fisch.). 

The Small-scaled Brown Snake (Diemenia microlepidota, McCoy). 
The Shield-fronted Brown Snake (Diemenia aspidorhyncha, McCoy). 

Plate 24. — Catenicella margaritacea (Busk). — C. plagiostoma (Busk) — C. ventricosa (Busk). — 
C. hastata(Busk.)— C. rufa (McG.). — C. cribraria (Busk). — C. alata (Wyv. Thomson). — 
C. lorica (Busk). — C. formosa (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk). — C. perforata (Busk). — 
C. Buskii (Wyv. Thomson). — C. Hannafordi (McG.). — C. crystallina (Wyv. Thomson). — 
C. carinata (Busk). — C. aurita (Busk). — C. geminata (Wyv. Thomson). — C. cornuta 
(Busk).— C. intermedia (McG.) 

Plate 25. — Membranipora membranacea (Linn. sp.). — M. perforata (McG.).— M. ciliata (McG.). — 
M. mamillaris (McG.). — M. umbonata (Busk). — M. pilosa (Linn. sp.). — M. cervicornis 
(Busk). 

Plate 26. — Membranipora dispar (McG.). — M. Woodsii (McG.).— M. lineata (Linn. sp.). — M. Eosselii 
(Audouin sp.). — M. Lacroixii (Savigny sp.). 

Plate 27. — The Australian Rockling (Genypterus Australis, Cast.). 
The Yarra Blackfish (Gadopsis gracilis, McCoy). 

Plate 28. — The Southern Mackerel (Scomber pneumatophorus, De la Roche). 

Plate 29. — The Yabber Crayfish (Astacoides bicarinatus. Gray sp.). 

Plate 30.— The Large Wattle Goat-Moth (Zeuzera Eucalypti, Boisd. Herr.-Schaef.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE IV. 

Plate 31. — The Anstralian Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal (Euotaria cinerea, Poron sp.). 

Plate 32. — The Two-hooded Furina-Snake, Furina bicucullata (McCoy). 

Plate 33. — The Banded Red Gurnet- Perch (Sebastcs percuides, Solander sp.). 

Plate 34. — The Angel-fish (PJiina squatina, Lin. sp.). 

Plate 35. — Lepralia circinata (McG.). — L. Cccilii (Aud.). — L. diaphana (McG.). — L. marsupium 

(McG.). — L. subimmersa (McG.). — L. anceps (McG.). — L. Maplestonei (McG.). 
Plate 36. — Lepralia vittata (McG.). — Membranipora perforata. Lepralia Brogniartii (Aud.). — 

L. elcgans (McG.). — L. pertusa (Esper. sp.). — L. Malusii (A.ud. sp.). — L. lunata (McG.). 
Plate 37. — Lepralia ciliata (Linn. sp.). — L. trifolium (McG.). — L. cheilodon (McG.). — L. canaliculata 

(McG.).— L. larvalis (McG.).— L. diadema (McG.).— L. papillifera (McG.).— L. EUerii 

(McG.). 
Plate 38. — Lepralia monoceros (Busk). — L. excavata (McG.). — L. vitrea (McG.). — L. megasoma 

(McG.). — L. Schizostoma (McG.). — L. Botryoides (McG.). — L. ferox (McG.). — L. pellu- 

cida (McG.). 
Plate 39. — Crisia P'.dwardsiana (D'Orb. sp.). — C. biciliata (McG.). — C. acropora (Busk). — C. setosa 

(McG.).— C. tenuis (McG.). 
Plate 40. — Saunders' Case-Moth (Metura elongata, Saunders sp.). 
The Lictor Case-Moth (Entometa ignobilis, Walk.). 



DECADE V. 

Plate 41. — The Lace Lizard (Hydrosaurus varius, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 42. — The Spotted Marsh-Frog (Limnodynastes Tasmaniensis, Giinth.). — The Common Sand- 
Frog (Limnodynastes dorsalis, Gray). 
Plate 43. — The Carpet Shark (Crossorhinus barbatus, Lin. sp.). — The Seven-gilled Shark (Notidanus 

[Ileptanchus] Indicus, Cuv.). 
Plate 44. — The Barracouta (Thersites atun, Cuv.). — The Tunny (Thynnus Thynnus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 45. — Flustra donticulata (Busk). — Carbasea episcopalis (Busk). — C. dissimilis (Busk). — 

C. indivisa (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk). — C. pisciformis (Busk). 
Plate 46. — Spiralaria florea (Busk). — Diachoris Magellanica (Busk). — D. spinigera (P. McGil.). — 

Dimetopia spicata (Busk). — D. cornuta (Busk). — Didymia simplex (Busk). — Calwellia 

bicornis (Wyv. Thomson). 
Plate 47. — Dictyopora cellulosa (P. McGil.). 
Plate 48. — Eschara obliqua (P. McGil.). — E. dispar (P. McGil ). — E. gracilis (Lamx.). — E. platalea 

(Busk). — E. quadrata (P. McGil.) — E. mucronata (P. McGil.). — Caleschara denticulata 

(P. McGil.). 
Plate 49. — Cell.aria fistulosa (Linn.). — C. hirsuta (P. McGil.). — C. tenuirostris (Busk.). — C. gracilis 

(Busk). — Nellia oculata (Busk). — Tubucellaria hirsuta (Busk). 
Plate 50. — The Great Black, or Manna Cicada (Cicada moerens, Germ.). — The Great Green Cicada 

(Cyclochila Australasias, Donov. sp.). 



DECADE VI. 

Plate 51. — The Victorian Ehodona (Rhodona (Mceri, McCoy). 

Plate 52. — The Black and White Ringed Snake (Vcrmicella annulata. Gray). 

Plate 53. — The Green and Golden Bell-Frog (Kauoidea aurea, Less. sp.). 

Plates 54-55. — The Australian Aulopus (Aulopus purpurisatus, Rich.). 

Plate 56. — The Hammer-headed Shark (Zyga;na malleus, Shaw). — The Common Australian Saw- 
Fish (Pristiophorus nudipinnis, Giinth.). 

Plate 57. — Biflustra perfragilis (McGil.). — B. delicatula (Busk). 

Plate 58. — Cellularia cuspidata (Busk). — Menipea crystallina (Gray sp.). — M. cyathus (Wyv. Thom- 
son). — M. cervicornis (McGil.) — M. tricellata (Busk). — M. Buskii (Wyv, Thomson). 

Plate 59. — Bicellaria tuba (Busk). — B. grandis (Busk) — B. ciliata (Linn). — B. turbinata (McGil.). — 
Stirparia annulata (Map.).-— Bugula neritina (Linn.). 

Plate 60. — Steganoporella magnilabris (Busk. sp.). — Petralia undata (McGil.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADE VII. 



K.B.— The originals of all the Figures are in the National Museum, Melbourne. 



Plate 61. — The Tuberculated Argonaut (Argonauta oryzata, Meusch.). 

Plate 62. — The same seated in its so-called shell or Paper-Nautilus. 

Plate 63. — The Blue-spotted Eagle-E,ay (Myliobatis Australis, Macleay). 

Plate 64. — The Long-toothed Bull-Shark (Odontaspis taurus, Raf.).— The Australian Tope Shark 
(Galeus Australis, Macleay). 

Plate 65. — The Leafy Sea-Dragon (Phyllopteryx foliatus, Shaw sp.). — The Short-headed Sea-horse 
(Hippocampus breviceps, Pet.) 

^ Plate 66. — Dictyopora grisea (Lamx. sp.). — D. albida (Kirch.) — (Var. avicularis, P. McGill.)- 

•^ Plate 67.— 1). Wilsoni (P. McGill). 

Plate 68. — Idmonea Milneana (d'Orb.). — I. contorta (P. McGill.).— I, radians (Lamk.). 

Plates 69-70. — The Violet-shouldered Phasma (Tropidoderus iodomus, McCoy).— The Red-shouldered 
Phasma (Tropidoderus rhodomus, McCoy). 



. MARY D. ROGICK 







PRODROMUS 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA; 



OR, 



FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



OP TEE 



VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



DECABX: VIXZ, 



BY 



HONORARY FELLOW OP THE CAMBltlDGE PUILOSOI'HIOAL SOCIETY ; HONORARY ACTIVE MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL SOCIETT 

OF NATURALISTS OF MOSCOW ; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON ; 

nONORABY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES ; HONORARY MEMBER OF SEVERAL OTHER 

SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES, ETC. 

PROFESSOR OF NATURAL SCIENCE IN TUB MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY. 

Dl.'lLCloR OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND GEOLOGY OF MELBOU.l.SE, ETC. 





MELBOURNE : 

BY AUTHOKITY : JOHN FEKKES, GOVERNMENT PltlNTER. 

PUBLISHED BY GEORGE ROBERTSON, LITTLE COLLIKS STREET. 

LONDON: TRUBNER AND CO., 57 AND 59 LDDGATE HILL ; AND GEORGE ROBERTSON, 

17 WARWICK SQUARE. 



J^ataral Ifetorg tff WuWm. 



PRODROMUS 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA; 



OR, 



FIGURES AND DESCEIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OE ALL CLASSES 



OF THE 



VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



DECADE VIII. 



BT 

FREDEI^ICK IMcCOY, F.I^.S., 

HONORARY FELLOW OF THE CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY ; HONORARY ACTIVE MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL SOCIETI 

OF NATURALISTS OF MOSCOW ; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON ; 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES ; HONORARY MEMBER OF SEVERAL OTHER 

SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES, ETC. 

PROFESSOR OF NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY. 

DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND OEOLOGT OF MELBOURNE, ETC. 




MELBOURNE : 

BY AUTHORITY : JOHN FERRES, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 
PUBLISHED BT GEORGE ROBERTSON, LITTLE COLLINS STREET. 

LONDON : TRUBNEB AND CO,, 57 AND 59 LUDGATE HILL ; AND GEORGE ROBERTSON, 

17 WARWICK SQUARE. 



M DCCC L&xxm. 



PREFACE. 



It having been considered desirable to ascertain accurately the 
natural productions of the Colony of Victoria, and to publish works 
descriptive of them, on the plan of those issued by the Governments 
of the different States of America, investigations were undertaken, 
by order of the Victorian Government, to determine the Geology, 
Botany, and Zoology of the Colony, to form collections illustrative of 
each for the public use, and to make the necessary preparations for 
such systematic publications on the subject as might be useful and 
interesting to the general public, and contribute to the advancement 
of science. 

As the geological and botanical investigations have already 
approached completion, and their publication is far advanced, it 
has been decided now to commence the publication of the third 
branch completing the subject, namely, that of the Zoology or 
indigenous members of the different classes of the animal kingdom. 

As the Fauna is not so well known as the Flora, it was a necessary 
preliminary to the publication to have a large number of drawings 
made, as opportunity arose, from the living or fresh examples of 
many species of reptiles, fish, and the lower animals, which lose their 
natural appearance shortly after death, and the true characters of 
many of which were consequently as yet unknown, as they had 
only been described from preserved specimens. A Prodromus, or 

[3] 



PREFACE. 



preliminary issue, in the form of Decades, or numbers of ten plates, 
each with its complete descriptive letterpress, will be published, of 
such illustrations as are ready, without systematic order or waiting 
for the completion of any one branch. The many good observers 
in the country will thus have the means of accurately identifying 
various natural objects, their observations on which, if recorded and 
sent to the National Museum, where the originals of all the figures 
and descriptions are preserved, will be duly acknowledged, and 
will materially help in the preparation of the final systematic volume 
to be published for each class when it approaches completion. 

This eighth Decade gives figures in the first plate of the 
Victorian Sea-Bear, or Eared, or Fur Seal, of which an unusually 
grey female in the swimming position was figured in an earlier 
Decade. The adcUtional representations here given show the 
adult male Tvdth its peculiar profile and slight mane, and the 
female, both of tlie more common lirown colour. The present 
figures show the peculiar attitudes assumed on land, where the 
limbs are used like legs, raising the body from the ground as in 
ordinary quadrupeds, and totally unlike the more common ear-less 
Seals, in which the hind legs are fixed in the backward direction 
with the tail. The dark young is also shown. This plate is the 
first I have the pleasure of j^resenting by Dr. Wild, the famous 
artist of the Challenger Expedition. 

The second plate figures one of our peculiar genera of Australian 
Lizards, Cyclodus^ familiar to observers in the bush from its dull, 
sluggish habits and bright-blue tongue ; from which characteristics 
its popular names are derived. 

The third plate shows the natural colours for the first time 
of the best of our brackish-water fishes for the table, namely the 
thick-skinned " Ludric " of the Gippsland Lakes. 

The fourth plate represents a specimen from Ho])Son's Ray of 
the most terrible of all Sharks, " The White Shark," the dread of 

[ 4 ] 



PREFACE. 



sailors in warm and temperate seas, but of which no good figure 
from hfe has been given before. 

The fifth plate shows our common Picked Dogfish to be identical 
with the Em'opean Acanthias vulgaris. 

The sixth and seventh plates give figures of the Sepioteuthis 
Australis^ one of our large species of the ten-armed group of 
Cuttlefishes, having a row of horny spines round the edge of 
each of the suckers ; and having a transparent internal horny 
"pen," popularly mistaken for an approach to the backbone of 
the vertebrate animals by rash upholders of the "progressive 
development " theory. 

The eighth plate gives illustrations of the Victorian species of 
Bugula^ contributed by Dr. MacGillivray to the National Museum 
and this work. 

The ninth plate represents the character of one of the curious 
twig-like PhasmoB of the genus Acrophylla^ showing the striking 
sexual diflferences. 

The tenth plate figures the female of the greatest of our 
gigantic Fhasmoi^ the large pink-winged Phasma of the genus 
Podacanthus^ showing the colours of life for the first time. 

The succeeding Decades will illustrate as many diflferent genera 
as possible, and will deal first usually with species of some special 
interest, and of which good' figures do not exist, or are not easily 
accessible. 

Frederick McCoy. 
16th August, 1882. 



[5] 



I'l 7/ 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

f M(urun-aljMy) 




S^JJ WiltC atttcat- Utii' 



frofW^Coy dirtx^ 



.SieAm/ huhxi Gwi^, FrmUn^ Offxee. 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. {Mammalia. 



Plate 71. 

EUOTARIA CINEREA (Peron sp.). 

The Australian Sea-Bear or Fur- Seal. 

[Genus EUOTARIA (Gray). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Mammalia. Order Ferae, 
Section Pinnipedia. Fam. Phocidas. Sub-fam. Otarinse.) 

Q Q 

Gen. Char. — Incisors, ; upper outer ones very large, like canines ; four middle ones 

small, and with cutting edges doubled by a transverse groove ; lower ones small, sub-equal, 

simple. Canines, ; large, conic. Molars, ; triangular, pointed, compressed, with a 

1 — 1 5 — 5 

small cusp at base, behind or before, or both ; sixth or hind molar entirely behind the hind 
margin of front of zygomatic arch, with anterior branch of fang arched, diverging to front ; the 
fangs of fourth and fifth imperfectly divided by a sulcus. Skull depressed ; of males, broad, 
with the occipital portion elevated and becoming crested with age ; that of females narrower, 
not so elevated behind, and with- little or no occipital crest ; palate extending to middle of 
zygoma. Head blunt. Anterior limbs falcate, with four or five rudimentary nails ; hind hmbs 
bent forwards when resting or walking, with long nails on three middle toes, and very small 
ones on the two outer toes. Body tapering, tail short. Males larger and with proportionately 
larger limbs than the females. Hair rather coarse, with scanty or no under-fur at base.] 

Thinking it desirable to visit the actual locality in Western Port 
Bay, where the French voyagers with Quoy and Gaimard originally 
found the type specimen of this species, still in the Paris Musemn, 
I last year went out in a small steamer from Phillip Island to the 
smaller island on which these Seals abound in the breeding season. 
The coast is so rocky, and the surf so dangerous that it is only on 
rare occasional days that a landing can be safely made, and on this 
occasion it was quite impossible to do so. On looking with a good 
binocular, one could soon make out that the greater number of what 
looked like brown, bare, rounded rocks over the surface of the 
island were really Seals. On the steam whistle being blown they 
all started up, and, with the precise action of a flock of crowded 
sheep driven by a dog, they awkwardly galloped in a confused 
cluster, jumping up on those in front in their hurry to get down to 
the sea, into which most of them plunged ; a few old large males 
alone standing their ground, well raised up on their bent fin-like legs, 
as in our plate, with their broad breast to the foe, and head raised, 
threateningly showing their teeth, and erecting the hair of the 
neck angrily, like a short mane. After a little while, scores of the 
females and younger males came swimming out to our little vessel 

[ 7] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Mammalia. 

to look at us, raising their kind, intelligent, good-humored, dog- 
like heads, with beautiful large, brown, soft eyes, looking like large 
Retriever Dogs with the pleased and friendly expression they wear 
when approaching their masters. 

Making an arrangement with an old sealer living on Phillip 
Island, and greatly aided by Mounted Constable George Ardill, 
stationed on duty there, I ultimately got for the Melbourne 
Museum the fine old male, the adult female, and the young one, 
figured on our present plate in the attitudes of life when on land, 
as noted at the time, and now represented by Dr. Wild (the 
accomplished artist, formerly of the Challenge?- Expedition) from 
the preserved specimens set up with every attention to accuracy 
of form and position of the parts. These additional lithographs 
of this species, not figured by Mr. Gould, and which will soon 
become extinct on our shores, were desirable because our former 
figure, in Plate 31 (Decade IV.), was of an unusually grey 
specimen, and only gave the position of the limbs and body 
when swimming, which differs little fi^om other Seals ; while the 
attitudes assumed on land, shown in the present plate, are peculiar 
to the Seals having external ears. 

The task of procuring the required specimens was by no means 
an easy one, for not only is it diflScult to land, even in the calmest 
weather, but if a boat approached the island by day the Seals 
would take to the water, and not return so long as the men were 
to be seen. It was therefore determined to land on the first calm 
evening, and bring blankets and food for the night, to be passed in 
some of the caves found there, so that, as the Seals came back at 
night to rest, the sealers might quietly emerge before daybreak, 
and, selecting an adult old male and female, make sure of them 
^Adtli heavy rifles used for the jJurpose, and take chance of catching 
a young one in the confusion. This was at last successfiil, and I 
was enabled to get accurate drawings of the diverse profiles of the 
male and female, and of all the soft parts while yet in the flesh. 

During the breeding season the roaring of the old males may be 
heard half a mile ofl", high above the thunders of the surf, and they 
show great courage and ferocity in defending the females and 

[ 8 ] 



^oologi/.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_MammaUa. 

young when attacked by man. The young are very easily tamed, 
and one was going about the kitchen of the hotel at the time of my 
visit like a rather lame dog, following the housekeeper everywhere 
with affectionate pertinacity, and playing with a young kangaroo 
and some other tame animals about the house with all the fun of a 
kitten or young puppy. It would come when called like a dog, 
and obviously liked to have its head sti'oked with the hand. 

Having told my friends, Trooper Ardill and the sealer, Ross, 
that I should like to have their observations on the creature in 
writing for publication, the former furnished me with the following 
interesting account, which I give in his own words, conveying 
Ross's observations and his own : — 

Cowes Police Station, 12th March 1880. 

In reply to your enquiries relative to the Seals which frequent the Seal Rocks 
off Phillip Island: — The Seals come to the rocks about 1st October. The time of 
bring-ing- forth the pups is between 10th November and 10th December. They do 
not commence to breed until they are three years old. The male (or bull) during- the 
pupping season will ascend the rocks and stop for one or two months without food, 
and is extremely attentive to the female (or cow) and pups. When the females fig'ht 
and quarrel he restores order. The bull is very fat in the beg-inning- of the season, 
and yields from five to ten gallons of oil, and in three weeks after will hardly yield 
one gallon, the yield of course depending on the age and size of the bull. The 
cows are seldom killed, as they have very little fat. It is against the rule of sealers 
to kill a cow or the pups. 

They live on fish of various kinds. I have found the backbones of fish 2 feet in 
length. They eat leather-jackets, parrot fish, squid, &c. I found one backbone 
2 feet 4 inches long ; it may have been a barracuta or pike ; I don't think it was a 
shark. I have found a few joints of a shark's backbone. 

The bull is very furious at pupping season, and when disturbed will go into 
the water and return in a few minutes. Out of season they go to sea in the 
morning and return at night. Wh^n fighting they strike each other like the boar ; 
their teeth are about 1| inches long, and cut terribly. I have seen cuts from 1 to 
10 inches in length. 

The usual color is a yellowish-brown, although some have been seen that were 
spotted, and some a beautiful grey.* 

They generally select flat, inaccessible rocks, or, where they are not disturbed, 
they select the grassy patches. 

The cow generally brings forth one pup, sometimes two. They keep good 
watch, and care affectionately for their offspring. They circle round them in rough 
stormy weather, and keep them from any wash or sea that may come over the rocks. 
I have seen three pups washed off the rocks, and the cows have immediately 
followed and brought them on the rocks again in an astonishingly rapid manner. 
I have also seen them catch a pup in their mouth, and throw them 10 feet high, 
and never hurt them. 



* This is the variety figured in Decade IV., Plate 31. 
Dec. VIII. [ 9 ] 



Zoology.] 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



[Mammalia. 



The bull's voice or noise is j^uttural, and, when angry, sounds something- like 
" ooug-h oough ;" the noise is much heavier than any animal I know. When trying- 
to pacify tlie cows it sounds like '' yah yah," said quick and short. The noise of the 
cow is very much like a cow of the bovine species. The pup bleats like a lamb. 

Their sig-ht is not so g-ood, so it is g-enerally said. I think, myself, their sight 
g-ood enoug-h, but they not smelling- man don't think he will harm them ; when 
they g-et the least scent they are off like a shot. 

During- the pupping- season they keep up an incessant noise during- the nig-ht, 
and g-enerally keep quiet during the day. They look clumsy and awkward on the 
rocks, but they are very lively when on the move. 

I consider them as quick in their movements as any fish that swims. They 
strike at one another with the rapidity of lig'htning-. I have seen one bull prevent 
another from landing for several hours. They move along by drawing- the hinder 
part of the body forward and under, and then giving- a jump and push forward. 

If they are disturbed before they pup, they will leave the rock and go to another. 

The cow has six teats, I think, which they draw into the udder or body when 
not suckling their young. The milk is very white and strengthening. Should a 
cow die or be killed, her pup is suckled by the other cows. This I am told is the 
case, but I can't vouch for it. All I write is my experience on the Seal Rocks, off 
" The Nobbies," at Phillip Island, Victoria. 

I can't say whether they inhabit these rocks all the year or not, but don't think 
so. I have heard Ross say they do not. 

As regards their habits, lur, ears, &c., &c., the only diflFerence being in the colour; 
some are darker than others. 

They are found along- the coast, as far as I know, from Phillip Island to Wilson's 
Promontory. Nearly all the islands in Bass's Straits are inhabited by seals. 

I know of no other fur or eared seal ; in fact there is no other seal about here. 



(Signed) 



George Ardill, 
Mounted Constable. 



The large bull above referred to, although 7 ft. 9 ins. long, had 
tlie epiphyses of the liml) bones quite loose, as if young ; the 
skull bones were, however, much more powerfully crested than in 
those previously described in Decade IV. 



The following are the detailed measurements 



Length from tip of snout to extremity of tail 

„ from tip of snout to edge of lip 

„ from tip of snout to occiput 

„ from tip of snout to edge of front of pectoral 

„ between eyes across forehead 

„ from tip of snout to eye 

„ from tip of snout to ear 

„ of pectoral 

„ of ear 

), 01 tail ... ... ... ... 

„ of hind fin 
Greatest width of hind fin... 
Length of Whiskers 
Girth in front of shoulder ... 





Ft. 


ins. 




... 7 


9 







H 


... 


1 


2 




... 3 


9 







5i 







51 







11 




... 2 


u 







n 




... 


3 




... 1 


H 




1 


n 







u 




... 6 


10 



[ 1^> ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Mammalia. 

The bare portion of snout below 2 inches long, and 1 inch 10 lines 
in greatest width ; the width of portion between the nostrils being 
only half an inch, and 1 inch 3 lines long. The middle nail of hind 
foot is 1 inch long, but from its tip to edge of the cartilaginous fin 
is 3^ inches. Mr. Clark states (1. c, p. 662) that the corresponding 
nail in the New Zealand 0. Forsteri is only its own length from 
the edge, while suggesting that this distance may be a specific 
character. 

The nasal cartilage here figured from a young skull is more 
complex than that of 0. Forsteri figured by Mr. Clark (Zool. Jour. 
1875, p. 665). The upper fold [a) is, like it, wider in the centre, 

but has a shallow dividing furrow extend- 
ing from the middle of the lower side 
obliquely upwards and forwards. The 
lower fold {b) and the hinder one, or bulla, 
as Mr. Clark calls it (c), are both as flexible 
as the upper fold, and further differ in the 
fold {b) having a circinate or crozier-shaped 
backward defined prolongation on its upper 
anterior end. The ligament (d) is alike in 
both. In this young skull, 6 ins. long, the 
described cartilages are 1 inch 2^ lines long. 

The bare parts of the snout and flippers, in the living state, 
are black ; and the nostrils angulated. The general colour of the 
surface is yellowish grizzly brown ; ears lighter, with black tip ; 
middle of breast and belly darker brown ; under-fur light chestnut- 
brown, darkest on belly. 

The snout of the adult male is not nearly so slender, tapering, 
and obliquely truncated as in the New Zealand 0. Forsteri^ as 
figured by Mr. Clark and Dr. Hector (Zool. Jour., Dec. 7, 1875, 
pp. 660 and 663) ; and in the females and young the snout is more 
bluntly rounded, and the nostrils more nearly terminal than in the 
adult. The outline figures I give now are reduced from the life- 
sized drawings made from specimens before being skinned, and can 
be compared with the corresponding views given by Mr. Clark of 
the 0. Forsteri. Instead of the great concavity figured vertically 

[ 11 ] 




Zoology.'] 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



{^Mammalia. 



over the eye iu 0. Forsteri^ our species shows a great convexity 
there, the concavity in the male being at half-way between the eye 

and the tip of the snout, 
making the head much shorter 
and rounder in profile than in 
the N. Zealand species. The 
female and young have the 
head still shorter and rounder, 
and our figure shows that the 
nostrils are more nearly termi- 
nal in the young, on a blunt 
muzzle. 

The hair is moderately 
coarse, and about 1^ inches 
lono; on back of neck of male, 
and rather more than % of an 
inch on the l)ack, and about 
\ inch long on belly. The 
individual hairs on neck and 
back are mostly light-yellowish 
grey throughout, mixed with rather fewer of a blackish-brown 
colour, having tip and small part of base of a pale-yellowish 
colour ; the hairs below are uniform dark brown, except a small 
portion of base, which is nearly colourless. 

Explanation of Figures. 
Plate 71. — The left-hand figure is an adult female, with the lower rounded profile of the 
head found in that sex. The large upper middle figure is an adult male, showing the elevation 
of the forehead produced by the more prominent occipital crest of the skull, giving the 
characteristic profile of the old male ; also showing the longer hair of the neck and breast, 
constituting an imperfect mane, found only in this sex. The right-hand figure is a front view 
of an old male to show the narrow, elevated mesial ridge of the head. The middle lower figure 
represents the dark young in an attitude taken, like the others, from life. 

Frederick McCoy. 




[ 12] 



Fh 7Z 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 




'li 
""I 





(HqotzluiyJ 




D'^JJlTxld/ (ubTicU^lUhy 



TrofM^Ccj aUrex^ 



SteanutUho.GtrYt.PrinUn^ OffUt- 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Reptiles. 



Plate 72. 

CYCLODUS GIGAS (Bodd. sp.). 
The Northern Blue-tongued Lizard. 

[Genus CYCLODUS (Wagler). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Reptilia. Order Sauria. 
Sub-order Leptoglossae. Tribe Geissosauria. Family Scincid^.) 

Gen. Char. — Form moderately thick, elongate, fusiform. Head large, thick, subtrigonal. 
obtusely pointed in front. Neck short, thick ; head-shields thick, rather rugose ; nasal plates 
near the tip of snout touching (or nearly) each other above, ovato-trigonal ; nostril in centre 
of nasal plate, with a curved furrow bordering its posterior edge ; inter-nasal plate rhombic ; 
no supra-nasals ; fronto-nasals two, moderate, touching ; frontal large, broad, obtuse-angled in 
front, narrow behind ; two moderately large fronto-parietal plates ; parietals large ; inter- 
parietal resembling the frontal, and nearly as long but much narrower, acute-angled in front ; 
six superciliary plates over each eye, the second largest ; about five rows of temporal plates 
between the eye and the ear ; polygonal occipital shields in one or more transverse rows ; orbit 
surrounded by a row of small plates ; two frenal plates between the nasal plate and the orbit ; 
lower eye-lid scaly. Ear-opening large, partly hidden by a projecting row of three or four thin, 
rounded scales on front margin. Scales of back and sides bony, large, convex, subhexagonal, 
rugose, with obscure diverging grooves ; scales of belly thinner and smoother. Legs four, 
nearly equal, small, short, strong ; feet small, each with five short, cylindrical, sub-equal toes ; 
claws short, thick. Tail short, rather less than one-third of the total length, sub-cylindrical, 
very slightly compressed laterally, tapering, with rather thicker scales than the back of the 
body, and a central row of large, broad scales below! Tongue short, fiat, scaly, slightly notched 
at the point. Teeth on edge of jaws bluntly rounded ; palate without teeth, with a triangular 
notch behind.] 

Description. — Form elongate, rounded, moderately depressed j head obtusely- 
pointed in front, widening- behind to the ear, and moderately narrowed to the short 
thick neck. The four temporal plates immediately behind the row of ocular plates 
surrounding- the eye, and forming- the side of the cheek from the parietal plates above 
to the hindmost labial plates below, about twice the length of those temporal plates 
next following them posteriorly. ^ Rostral plate much wider than long. Nasal 
plates usually joining for a short space (but sometimes not joining-) above. Inter- 
nasal plate about one-fifth longer than wide. Width of anterior part of fi-ontal 
about three-fifths of the length. Inter-parietal plate very narrow behind, about 
twice as long as wide. Lower projecting scales on anterior edge of ear-drum largest. 
General colour yellowish very pale brown, greyer and lighter below, crossed by from 
14 to 20 transverse bands of rich dark-brown, varying from 3 to 6 scales wide on 
the back, with narrower intervening- light bands crossing from the neck to the tip of 
the tail, the two anterior transverse bands on the neck and shoulder much narrower 
than the others. One longitudinal very dark patch over the shoulder, extending- from 
near the ear, is nearly constant and darker than any other mark. A less dark patch 
over the middle temporal plates from behind the eye to nearly over the ear sometimes 
present and sometimes absent. Top of the head uniform very light brown, becoming- 
paler on the sides of the head and neck, and more distinctly yellow on the throat. 
The longitudinal rows of scales on the anterior part of the back are marked by 
narrow, indistinct, longitudinal dark-brown streaks at the lateral margins of each 
scale. On the sides there are usually three or four indistinct longitudinal lines on 

[ 13] 



Ft. 


ins. 


lines. 


1 


9 


9 





2 


4 








5 








6 





(» 


7 








H 








7 








4 








7 








3 








21 





4 








2 


6 








5 





7 


6 





2 


6 





8 








8 






Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. ^Reptiles. 

each side of triangular lig-ht-colour spots, continuing" the lines of the anterior brown 
streaks (but not constant). Under-side of body and tail irregularly flecked or 
reticulated with triangular brown spots, imperfectl}' continuing the transverse bands 
of the back and sides, but often absent. Legs with the margin of the scales dark- 
brown on the upper and hinder surface. Tongue bright Prussian blue, inside of 
mouth pink. 



Total length of rather large specimen 

Length of head from snout to anterior edge of ear 

Length of inter-nasal plate 

Width „ „ 

Length of frontal plate 

Greatest width of do. ... 

Length of inter-parietal 

Greatest width of do. ... 

Length of middle temporal plate 

Height of rostral plate 

Diameter of car 

From tip of snout to anterior edge of shoulder 

Length of anterior limb to tip of longest claw 

„ of longest toe and claw ... 

„ from anterior edge of shoulder to anterior edge of 
thigh 

„ of hind limb to extremity of longest claw ... 

„ of tail 
Girth round middle of body 
Four transverse and five longitudinal rows of scales in space 
of one inch on middle of back. 

Reference. — Scincns gigas (Boddaert), Nov. Act. Curios. Nat. Acad. v. 7, p. 5 
= Laeerta sincoides (White) J. Voy. N.S.W., t. 30 = Cyclodus Jlavigidaris 
(Wooster) Leon. Descript. Amphib. t. 6 = Cyclodus Boddaerti (Dum. and Bib.) 
Erp. Gen. v. 5, p. 752. 

There are two Lizards of the genus Cyclodus^ very nearly aUke, 
found in Victoria. The one figured, the C. gigas^ is very rare near 
Melbourne, becoming more common farther north into New South 
Wales. It is easily chstinguished from the more common species, 
the C. nigro-Iufeus^ by the four anterior temporal plates of the first 
row behind the eye being double the length of the next following, 
more posterior, row. The disposition of the colouring varies to the 
extent referred to above, but always shows tlie transverse dark and 
light bands, instead of the lateral rows of large light blotches of the 
second species, in which the anterior temporal plates are relatively 
only half the length, not equalling those of the next following, more 
posterior, row. Both have the startlingly bright-blue tongue, 
which the creature displays in its pink open mouth when touched. 
When taken in the hand it does not bite, nor make any other 
hostile demonstration. These Lizards are very sluggish, so that 

[ 14] 



Zoology.'\ NATUEAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. {Reptiles. 

the popular name "Sleepy Lizai^d" as well as "Blue-tongue" 
comes to be applied to both. 

The specimen figured is from near Melbourne. There has been 
no good figure of this creature hitherto published, with sufficient 
detail to be useful for accurate identification of the species. 

Explanation op Figukes. 

Plate 72, — Fig, 1, specimen one-half natural size. Fig, la, plates of side of head. 
Fig. \b, plates of top of head. Fig. \c, scales of back, natural size. Fig. \d, teeth, magnified two 
diameters. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[15] 



PL J3 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

f Fishes j 




A larthtUnef iti ti ]Hh, 



frof W Uj direx.' 



i}uam 'jiA: mvc Prmiijia Office/ 



Zoology.^ 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



\^Fishes. 



Plate 73. 

GIRELLA SIMPLEX (Rich. sp.). 

The Ludrick. 



[Genus GIRELLA (Gray) = MELANICHTHYS (Tem. and Sen.). Sub-kingd. Verte- 
brata. Class Pisces. Sub-class Teleostea. Order Acanthopterygii. Fam. Sparida3. Sub-fam. 
Cautharinaj.) 

Gen. Char. — One to three rows of large, flat, sharp-edged teeth, with tricuspid or straight, 
horizontal edges, on outer margins of each jaw, within which is a baud of numerous minute 
teeth ; no molars ; in some species a patch of small teeth on the vomer and palatine bones. 
Cheeks scaly. Operculum without scales, except on the upper angle. Dorsal spines fourteen 
or fifteen ; when depressed resting in a groove. Scales moderately large. Branchiostegals six. 
Pyloric caeca numerous. Swimming bladder bilobed behind.] 

Description. — Form: Ovate, moderately thick. Fin-rays: Dorsal 15 spined, 
12 soft, the last one double, 7th spine long-est, slightly exceeded by long-est (3rd) 
soft ray; caudal 20; anal 3 spined, 11 soft, last one double; pectoral 17; ventrals 
1 spined, 5 soft. Scales minutely serrated, 69 along- lateral line, and about 5 
beyond on the caudal fin; 12 above lateral line, and 17 large and 9 or 10 small 
below. Colour: Nearly uniform blackish-g-rey, with a purple tinge, darkest on back 
and soft dorsal, and on caudal and anal fins; sides of mouth and head below the eye 
from snout brig-ht king-'s yellow, gradually fading* on operculum ; pectoral fin pale- 
brownish yellow; chin, throat, belly, and ventral fins whitish ; iris silvery. Teeth: 
Three outer rows in each jaw large, incurved, with nearly straight, broad, cutting- 
edges; within them a band of very minute similar ones; a trigonal patch of minute 
teeth on the vomer, and an ovate similar patch on each palatine bone. 

Measurements of moderately large Specimen. 

Length from tip of snout to end of body 
„ of middle of caudal 
„ from tip of snout to corner of mouth 
„ „ „ anterior edge of orbit 

„ „ „ end of operculum 

„ „ „ base of pectoral 

„ „ „ base of ventrals 

„ „ „ first spine of dorsal 

„ „ „ last spine of dorsal 

„ „ „ last soft dorsal ray 

„ „ „ first spine of anal 

Greatest depth of body 

„ thickness of body 
Diameter of orbit 
Length of pectoral 

„ ventral spine 

„ 1st soft ray of ventral 

„ 1st dorsal spine 

„ 7tn „ 

„ 1st anal spine 

''nd 
„ oiCl ,, ... ... 

„ 2nd soft ray... 
Width of caudal 
Number of scales in one inch at middle of body, three. 

Reference. = Crenidens simplex (Richard.), Voy. Er. and Ter., Fishes, p. 120. 
Dec. VIII. [ 17 ] C 



Ft. 


ins. 


lines 


1 


4 


6 





2 


6 





1 


1 





1 


5 





4 








4 








5 


9 





5 


6 





11 





1 


2 








10 


9 





6 








1 


9 








8 





2 


7 





1 


5 





2 


7 








6^ 





I 


5 








7 





1 








1 


2 





1 


9 





5 


3 



Zoolog>/.-\ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 

This is one of tlie best fishes for the table found in Victoria, but 
is not well known to the public or the dealers, although abundant 
in the Gippsland Lakes. It is also not very uncommon in the sea 
outside as far as Hobson's Bay, where it is occasionally found 
at Mordialloc and Brighton, although it is there so unknown to the 
fishermen as to be brought to me as a rarity when they catch it. 
In the Gippsland district it goes by the native name of " Ludrick," 
and is greatly preferred even to the excellent Gippsland Perch 
(Lates colonorum^ see our Plate 14). It has a remarkably thick 
skin, by which the unscientific carver distinguishes it from its allies 
at table. The three outer rows of long, incurved teeth, having 
each a broad, nearly straight cutting edge, like a chisel, instead of 
the trilobed edge of the other s^^ecies of Girella., is the perfectly 
constant and easily observed character referred to in the specific 
name. The patches of small, crowded teeth on the vomer and on 
the palatine bones seem another dental peculiarity of the sjiecies. 
The disc of each scale is smooth, the remainder towards the margin 
mth rough, radiating, minute ridges, terminating in a very fine 
serration of the edge. 

The species is curiously like the G. tricuspidata^ or "Black 
Perch" of the fishermen, except in the simplicity of the edges of 
the teeth, almost suggesting the idea of this being a sexual instead 
of a specific character. 

It is rarely quite so large as the one measured above ; but one 
specimen in the Museum is 1 ft. 11 inches in total length. 

This fish has not been figured before. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 73. — Fig. 1, side view, reduced. Fig. la, inner view of upper portion of mouth, 
natural size, showing the large outer rows of teeth, and the more numerous rows of similar but 
much smaller teeth, as well us the patches of small teeth on the vomer and palatine bones. 
Fig. If, front view of large teeth, magnified. Fig. lb, same, viewed sideways. Fig. Id, teeth of 
lower jaw and the tongue, natural size. Fig. le, outer teeth, magnified. Fig. If, scale from 
lateral line, magnified. Fig. Ig, scale from above lateral line, showing the minute serration, 
magnified. Fig. Ik, patch of scales from middle of body, natural size. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 18] 



7 



Ph74 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

[IisheS) 




\^ 



•*->u. 



A . BeuiJwU>msw del si' luh- 



ProfJC^CcycUrui^ 



Jf^anv Ujtho. Ctrvi; Prinlin^ Ofhc»- 



Zoology.'] 



NATUEAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



[^Fishes. 



Plate 74. 

CARCHARODON RONDELETII (Mul. and Hen.). 

The White Shark. 



[Genus CARCHARODON (A. Smith). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Order 
Plagiostomata. Sub-order Selachoidea. Family Lamnidfe.) 

Gen. Char. — First dorsal fin over the space between the pectoral and ventral fins ; second 
dorsal and anal fins nearly equal and very small. A pit at upper and under side of base of 
caudal fin. Caudal fin crescentic, from having a large, pointed lower lobe two-thirds the length 
of the upper one. Sides of the tail keeled. No nictitating eyelid. Spiracles very small or 
absent. Teeth large, flat, triangular, equilateral, serrated on the edges, base hollow, without 
ridge, alike in both jaws, but those of lower jaw narrower ; no median tooth. Scales minute, 
with three keels. Gill-openings wide. Cosmopolitan.] 

Description. — Form: Elong-ate, fusiform; snout sub-triangular, rounded at 
the point; nostrils large, about midway between tip of snout and mouth, rather 
nearer to the eye. Spiracles a minute pore on each side, level with the general 
surface, a little below the eye and behind the mouth. Gill-openings very large. 
Anterior edge of 1st dorsal behind the posterior edge of pectoral; second dorsal 
very small, its posterior edge just over the anterior edge of equally small anal fin. 
A strong longitudinal keel on each side of tail, with a deep oval pit on midHne over 
their posterior third. Caudal large, crescentic, the lower lobe pointed like the upper 
lobe and almost equally large. Teeth: Very large, broad, triangular, with a thin- 
edged hollow base, coarsely serrated on the sides; third upper tooth on each side 
much smaller than the second or fourth, on each side above and below. Colour: 
Ashy brownish-grey above, paler below. 

Measurements. 

Total length to end of upper lobe of caudal 

„ „ middle of caudal 

Length from snout to origin of dorsal 

„ of base of dorsal 
Height of dorsal 
Length from snout to anterior base of 2nd dorsal . 

„ of base of 2nd dorsal 
Height of anterior part of 2nd dorsal 

„ posterior lobe 
Length of lateral tail ridge 
Length from anterior origin of base of caudal fin to tip of 

upper lobe ... 
Depth of lower lobe of caudal ... 
Length from snout to anterior base of pectoral 
of base of pectoral 
of anterior margin of pectoral 

from posterior base of 2nd dorsal to origin of caudal 
from posterior base of anal to origin of caudal 
from hind edge of ventral to anterior edge of anal ... 
„ pectoral to anterior edge of ventral 

of base of ventral 
of anterior margin of ventral 

[ 19] 



Ft. 


ins. 


lines 


16 


2 





15 








5 


6 





1 


4 





I 


11 





10 


."i 


6 





2 


6 





4 


6 





2 


3 


1 


8 





2 


10 





1 


6 





4 


3 





1 


2 





3 








1 


11 





1 


6 





1 


10 





3 


9 








9 








8 






Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 



Measurements- 


-continued. 




Ft. 


ins. 


lines. 


Length from snout to anterior edge of base of anal fin 




8 


9 





„ of base of anal 


• • . 


.• . •• • 







2 


6 


„ of anterior margin c 


)f anal 


• •• 







4 


6 


„ from tip of snout to 


' upper edge 


of nostril 







7 





» n >) 


anterior edge of orbit 







10 





» »> >> 


spiracle 






1 


8 


6 


„ of orbit 











1 


10 


,, of nostril 











2 


5 


Diameter of spiracle ... 














2 


Width of mouth 








1 


4 





Length of 1st tooth 











1 


5 


Width at base 











I 


3 


Length of 2nd tooth 











1 


7 


Width at base 











1 


5 


Length of 3rd tooth 











1 





Width at base 














10 


Length of 4th tooth 











1 


6 


Width at base 











1 


3 


Length from tip of snout to middle of front edge of mouth 





10 





„ of 1st gill-opening 








1 


.5 


G 


„ of 2nd gill-opening 








1 


7 


6 


Girth 








7 


6 





Length of 1st lower tooth 











1 


3 


Width at base 














10 



Serratures, about 10 in 6 lines, closer near point, slightly irregular. 

Reference. — (Miiller and Henle) Plag-iost. p. 70 = Carcharodon lamia 
(Bonap.) F. I. = Carcharias verus (Ag.) Poiss. Foss. vol. 3, p. 91, t. F. fig-. Sj ? = 
Carcharodon Capensis (Smith) Zool. S. Africa, Pisces t. 4.* 

This gigantic Shark is Ijy ftir the largest and most formidable of 
those approaching our shores, one specimen in the Museum being 
thirteen feet three inches long, and another between fifteen and 
sixteen feet long, and some having been killed upwards of thirty 
feet long. Our two specimens were caught, one in July, 1873, and 
one in April, 1877, in Hobson's Bay, near Brighton. The larger 
had been observed for several days swimming round the ladies' 
l)aths, looking in through the picket fence in such a disagreeal)le 
manner that the station master had a strong hook and iron chain 
made so as to keep the rope out of reach of his teeth, and this, 
being baited with a large piece of ^^ork, made to look as much like 
a piece of a lady as possible, was swallowed greedily ; and then, 
with the aid of a crowd of helpers, the monster was got on shore. 
On opening the stomach, amongst a load of partially digested 
objects, a large Newfoundland dog was found, with his collar on, 
identifying him as one lost the day before, no doubt swallowed 

* Dr. Smith's figarc of his C. Capensis must be b.aii, as it shows no an.il fin, and I am doubtful whether the other 
differences between his tl^urc and mine may be errors also, or whether, consequently, his species be a peculiar new one, 
or referable to this old one. 

[ 20] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. {Fishes. 

when enjoying a swim in the comparatively shallow water in which 
the Shark was repeatedly seen and at last caught. 

Dr. Giinther has suggested the name " Great Blue Shark " for 
the present species, but as its colour is not strikingly blue, l)ut 
rather whitish, the old English name of " White Shark " had 
perhaps better be adhered to, although no doubt, as Dumeril 
complains, more than one species seem to have been confounded 
by English writers, and sailors in many waters, under this name. 
The present fish, however, has the best claim to the name, and is 
probably also the Car-charias of the old Greek writers. There can 
be no doubt that our fish, here figured, is the same as the terrible 
" White Shark " sometimes found on the English coasts, and more 
common in the West Indies ; probably the most dreaded by sailors 
of all Sharks from its great size, strength, and ferocity. The fearful 
armature of the mouth with rows of great triangular serrated teeth 
renders any wound fatal ; and the size, even in our waters, is 
often so great that a man could be swallowed whole with ease, as 
Capt. King mentions in his Survey of Australia ; Blumenbach, 
the famous anatomist, who was a perfectly trustworthy authority, 
mentions a whole horse being found in one. When fishermen are 
drawing their nets full of fish, this Shark will swim along, giving 
every now and then a half-turn and biting out a large mouthful of 
fishes and net, and swallowing them together. It was from repre- 
sentations by fishermen and their friends of the damage done to 
them and the destruction of fish, as well as danger to bathers when 
these fish and the great Bull Shark or Shovel -nosed Shark 
( Odontaspis taurus) appeared, that the Government was induced to 
place large sums on the Estunates for their destruction ; paying by 
measurement for hundreds of the harmless blunt-toothed Smooth 
Hound, Picked Dog-fish, and other small Sharks, as the young of 
these monsters. 

This is the first recognisable figure of this famous Shark. 
Couch's figure has the lower lobe of the caudal fin too small, and 
the anal and second dorsal much too large and too far l)ack. 
Smith's figure gives the proper sliape of tail, but no anal fin. 
Yarrell's figures are not worthy of note ; and even the best of 

[21] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 

them all, that by the Prince of Canine (Fauna Italica), has the 
pectoral and dorsal fins larger and more deeply notched, and 
the lower lobe of the tail smaller than in our sketch carefully 
measured from life. 

Explanation op Figures. 

Plate 74. — Fig. 1, side view (the + and dotted line mark the small spiracle). Fig. la, under- 
side of head. Fig. 16, one of the teeth, natural size. Fig. \c, reduced view of the rows of teeth 
on one side of upper and lower jaws, the arrow marking the front middle point of each, which is 
without tooth. Fig. \d, reduced side view of outer row of teeth of upper jaw, to show the small 
relative size of the third one. Fig. le, corresponding view of lower row. Fig. 1/, serration of one 
side of tooth, magnified, to show its irregularity. Fig. 1^, pit at base of tail. Fig. 2, portion of 
tooth, broken, showing the hollow base. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[22] 



PL 15 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 




A. Baj-Uwlomert dei, et Utk, 



frof.2PCiy diraP 



Steam, Hlho GwUlBrmb/y Office 



2oobgj/.-\ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IFishes. 



Plate 75. 

ACANTHIAS VULGARIS (Linn. sp.). 
The Picked Dog-Fish. 



[Genus ACANTHIAS (Muller and Henle). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Pisces. 
Order Plagiostomata. Sub-order Selachoidea. Family Spinacidae.) 

Gen. Char. — Elongate, slender. Two dorsal fiius, each with a smooth, bony spine on front 
edge ; pectorals moderate ; ventral fins a little in front of posterior dorsal ; no anal fin ; caudal 
fin with a very wide, unnotched upper lobe, divided near the middle by the straight end of the 
body, which is not turned up ; lower lobe small, pointed ; mouth moderately arched, a long, 
straight, oblique groove on each side of mouth, but no labial fold ; teeth rather small, alike in 
both jaws, points so much bent backwards that the anterior side forms a straight, horizontal, 
upper and lower cutting edge ; no nictitating membrane ; spiracles very large, a little behind 
the eye ; gill-openmgs small, in front of base of pectoral ; a distinct keel on each side of tail. 
Cosmopolitan.] 

Description. — Slender, tapering*; snout moderately tapering-, narrow, rounded 
in front ; mouth small, moderately arched, width three-fourths of the distance from 
tip of snout to its middle; nostrils nearer to tip of snout than to mouth; eye larg-e ; 
antero-posterior diameter about half the distance from the anterior edge to tip of 
snout; spiracles very larg-e. Gill-opening's small, the last one over the anterior edg-e 
of the base of the pectoral. Pectoral fin short, broad ; anterior edge of first dorsal 
distinctly behind the vertical of the inner posterior angle of pectoral; posterior angle 
acutely pointed; second dorsal smaller, with posterior angle acutely prolonged. 
Spines of the two dorsals smooth, moderately arched, sharp at apex, moderately 
compressed, posterior one longer than the anterior, obtuse in front, hollowed behind, 
with two sharp, cutting, posterior lateral edges ; ventrals covering the vent, termi- 
nating a little in advance of the antei-ior edge of second dorsal ; caudal broad, upper 
lobe ovate, without notch, lower lobe short, pointed. Colour: Above ash-grey, with 
a few irregular white spots, most distinct in the young ; below white ; fins with a 
slight brownish tinge, and the dorsals and caudal with an indistinct blackish hue 
near tip ; eye pale-green. Teeth about 4 in six lines near middle of jaw, about 1 line 
high, each with a tri-lobed base, and the conical sharp-pointed apex directed so 
completely backwards that the anterior edge forms a nearly horizontal, slightly 
convex, sharp, cutting edge. 

Measurements. Male. Female. 

Total length to end of upper lobe of caudal ... 
Length from snout to origin of 1st dorsal 

„ of base of 1st dorsal... 
Height of 1st dorsal 
Length from snout to anterior base of 2nd dorsal 

„ of base of 2ud dorsal 
Height of anterior part of 2nd dorsal... 
Length of posterior lobe of 2nd dorsal 

„ from anterior origin of base of caudal fin 
to tip of upper lobe 
Depth of lower lobe of caudal 

[23] 



n. 


ins. 


lines, 




Ft. 


ins. 


lines, 


2 


3 


6 




3 











9 


3 




1 





3 





1 


9 







2 


.5 





1 


9 







2 


5 


1 


6 


6 




1 


11 








1 


3 







1 


9 





1 


1 







1 


9 





1 


3 







1 


7 





4 


7 







6 


3 





1 


10 







3 






Ft. 


ins. 


lines. 


Ft. 


ins. 


lines. 





5 


10 ... 





7 


6 





1 


3 ... 





2 








3 


... 





4 


6 





2 


5 ... 





3 


1 





3 


5 ... 





4 


3 





7 


4 ... 





9 


6 





1 


9 ... 





2 


2 





1 


5 ... 





2 


2 





1 


3 ... 





1 


6 





1 


9 ... 





2 


3 





2 


9 ... 





3 


8 








10 ... 





1 


1 








3 ... 








4 








4 ... 








4 





1 


8 ... 





2 


1 





2 


1 ... 





2 


9 








4 ... 








6 





7 


6 ... 


1 











1 


... 















2 ... 








2 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. ^Fishes. 

Measurements — continued. Male. Female. 

Length from snout to anterior base of pectoral... 

„ of base of pectoral... 

„ of anterior margin of pectoral 
Greatest girth of pectoral 

Length from posterior base of 2nd dorsal to 
origin of caudal ... 

„ of hind edge of pectoral to anterior edge 
of ventral 

„ of base of ventral ... 

„ of anterior margin of ventral... 

„ from tip of snout to upper edge of nostril 

„ „ „ anterior edge of orbit 

ff yy yy SUirtldC ••• ••• 

„ of orbit 
„ of nostril ... 
Diameter of spiracle 
Width of mouth 
Length from tip of snout to middle of front edge 

of mouth 
Lengtli of 1st gill-opening ... 
Girth 
Length of exposed portion of posterior dorsal 

spine 
Width at base 
Length of exposed portion of anterior dorsal 

spine ... ... ... ... ... — ... 1 

Size of scales about middle of body, nineteen in 3 lines. 

Reference. — = Squalus acanthias (Lin.), Syst. Nat. t. 1, p. 597; id. Blocb, 
t. Ixxxv. = Acanthias vulgaris, Bonaparte, Cat. Pesci Europ. p. 15. 

This little Dog-fisli, which rarely exceeds two feet in length, is 
easily distinguished hy the bony spines in front of the two dorsal 
fins, the absence of anal fin ; and the posterior termination of the 
tail in the same line as the body, instead of being al^ruptly turned 
up as in most sharks. As at home, it seems to In-ing forth its 
living young almost every day throughout all the warmer months 
of the year, each about 5 inches long, with a very large fig-shaped 
egg-bag hanging from it, IJ inches in diameter and upwards of 
2 inches long. Their spines are much dreaded by the fishermen, 
from the painful wounds they can inflict with them ; always painful 
and difficult to heal, and sometimes producing lockjaw. When 
hooked or tangled by the head in a net they bend the tail over the 
head, and, suddenly lashing out straight, cut the cords and escape, 
or tear open a man's hand touching their head, with the sharp 
lateral edges of the dorsal sjiines ; the larger spine of the 2nd dorsal 
on the more flexible tail being the more effective. 

I can find no difference between the English fish and ours 
on careful comparison of specimens, and I find the 1st dorsal as 

[24] 



Zoologi/.] NATUEAL HISTORY OF VICTOEIA. [Fish 



es. 



much behind the pectoral in a Cornish specimen as in those from 
Hohson's Bay ; but it is by no means so abundant here as in 
Cornwall, where twenty thousand were counted by Couch in one 
cast of the sea net. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 75. — Fig. 1, dorsal view of male, reduced. Fig. la, side view of same specimen. 
Fig. \h, uuder-side of head, to show the mouth and nostrils. Fig. Ic, nostril, with valve. Fig. \d, 
spiracle. Fig. le, eye. Fig. 1/, teeth of upper jaw. Fig. \g, teeth of lower jaw. Fig. \h, posterior 
spine, natural size. Fig. 1?, transverse section of spine. Fig. 1_;", section of body. Fig. \k, 
section of tail. 



Frederick McCoy. 



bee. viil. t 25 ] 



11% 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

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ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

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Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Mollusca. 



Plates 76 and 77. 

SEPIOTEUTHIS AUSTRALIS (Quoy and Gaim.). 

The Australian Tooth-cupped Cuttlefish. 

[Genus SEPIOTEUTHIS (FfiR.). (Sub-kingd. Mollusca. Class Cephalopoda. Sub- 
class Antipedia. Order Sephinia. Earn. Loligidae.) 

Gen. Char. — Body oblong, sub-cylindrical, moderately depressed ; fins extending nearly the 
length of the body on sides of back ; suspending cartilaginous buttons on ventral surface linear, 
cervical ridge linear ; head large ; buccal membrane with seven salient angles ; six buccal 
aquiferous openings ; external ear with a prominent transverse crest ; sessile arms conical, 
tapering, unequal, usually with narrow marginal fins ; suckers in two rows. Tentacular arms 
long, cylindrical, with a club-shaped distal end having four rows of suckers with a narrow 
membranous fin on each side, and one on the compressed back ; siphuncle supported by two 
dorsal triangular membranes at base. Shell, internal, horny, as long as the back, lanceolate, 
narrow in front, with a central keel.] 

Description. — Body sub-cylindrical, tapering', with very broad, thick, fleshy, 
ovato-rhombic fins extending- nearly the entire length of the mantle from beyond the 
posterior apex to within a short distance of the anterior edge, equalling* the width of 
the body in the middle ; anterior edge of mantle separated from the head all round, 
projecting in two rounded acute angles on the ventral aspect, corresponding- with 
the internal, cartilaginous ridges, and projecting in one central, rounded point on the 
nape ; funnel large, with a distinct valve and two strong, cartilaginous channels at 
ventral aspect of lateral base, with two triangular, suspensory membranes on dorsal 
side at base; sessile arms having the dorsal pair shortest, the next longer, the next 
longest, and the ventral pair equalling the second dorsal ones in length, each having 
two rows of pedunculated cups with horny, toothed margins; each arm connected by 
a very slight web at base about two lines wide ; the first or smallest dorsal arms 
rounded on the back without webs; second pair rounded on the back, with a web two 
lines wide on each side not reaching" to the base ; the third pair are largest, com- 
pressed, keeled, with narrow web bordering" the suckers; fourth or anterior pair 
rounded, with thick lateral webs, broader on outer side. Colour: Whole back, body 
and fins, vinous brownish-red with darker dots and small spots, the under-side of the 
body similarly coloured on the sides, but with paler smaller spots on the middle ; under- 
side of lateral fins milk-white; head and outer-side of arms spotted like the back, but 
lighter and browner than the back, not so vinous or reddish in tint; inner-side of the 
arms, cups, and buccal membrane, and parts about the mouth milk-white; the eyes have 
a silvery-white iris about four lines wide, surrounded by a band, one line wide, of rich 
bronze yellowish-brown, beyond which is five or six lines wide of rich brown dotting", 
darker than head. Length of bod}^, exclusive of head, 1 foot 3 inches; width across 
middle of body and lateral fins 1 1 inches ; length of tentacular arms 1 foot 4 inches 
from base to tip; the cupped distal expansion is 5 inches long* and 7 lines wide, stem 
4 lines wide; length of dorsal pair of arms 4 inches, next pair 5 inches, next pair 
6 inches 3 lines, fourth or anterior pair 5 inches ; eye 2 inches in diameter; diameter 
of cups on tentacular arms 3 lines. Internal shell (or pen) of the colour and consistence 
of a goose-quill, extending" the whole Ifength of mantle, total length 1 foot \\ inches; 
the anterior 5th forming a narrow parallel-sided stem 3 inches long- and 7 lines wide, 
with an obtusely-angular anterior end ; posterior ^ths oval, gradually widening to 

[27] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IMollusca, 

about the middle, and rather more rapidly taperino" to the posterior point; the inflexion 
forming' the medial keel 3 lines wide ; greatest width of pen 2 inches. 

Cups with slender peduncles, horny margins, with very numerous, close, acute 
teeth, all whitish ; the cups on the clubbed part of tentacular arms in four rows at 
the middle and three rows towards the end ; on eight sessile arms in two rows ; on 
the seven salient angles of the buccal membrane varying- from 3 to 5 small cups in 
one or two rows. 

Tentacular arms with a broad thin membranous band 5 lines wide, extending* 
about 2| inches from the base, and having- a thicker, narrower web on compressed 
keel on back of cupped expansion, and one on each side of the rows of cups. 

External ears with prominent fleshy crests. Beaks black. 

Reference. — Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrol. Zool. ii. 77, t. 4, f 1. 

The enormous eyes of tins Cuttlefish (as big as those of a calf 
in the specimen figured) roll about in their sockets in a way so 
suggestive of a vertebrate annual of the higher types, and give 
such an air of bright, energetic intelligence and activity to this 
fierce, predaceous creature, that it is difficult for an observer, 
unacquainted with its structure, to realise the fact of its belonging 
to so lowly a division of the animal kingdom as the Mollusca. It 
is one of the rarer Cuttlefishes of our Bay, the specimen descril^ed 
and figured having been obtained during the submarine blasting 
operations for removing rocks from the channels within the Heads, 
near Queenscliflf. The anterior end of the internal pen or shell is 
more angular, and the widening behind is more gradual or less 
abrupt, than in Quoy and Gaimard's outline ; the whole substance 
of the pen is thin and flexible, ^dtliout thickening at the edges, and 
even the keel or midrib is only an inflexion, rounded on one face 
and hollow on the other. 

Locality. — Not uncommon in Port Phillip Bay. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 76. — Fig. 1, view of under-side, reduced to one-third the natural size, showing the 
funnel, mouth, and huccal membrane. Fig. la, side view of funnel, showing internal valve, 
suspensary ligaments, and one of the lateral cartilaginous buttons for supporting the edge of the 
mantle, Fig. \b, internal dorsal pen, one-half the natural size (posterior end up). 

Platk 77. — Fig. 1, dorsal view, one-third the natural size. Fig. la, buccal membrane, one- 
half the natural size, showing the beaks in the middle, and the irregular cluslei's of small 
suckers at angles. Fig. lb, side view of end of one of the long tentacular arms, natural size, 
showing the toothed and pedunculate cups, and the dorsal and lateral fins or crests. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[28] 



Ph. 78 





\ 



t I': 




ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 



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Zoology.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Polyzoa. 



Plate 78, Fig. 1. 

BUGULA ROBUSTA (P. McGill.). 

[Genus BUGULA (Oken). (Sub-kingd. Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order Infundibulata. 
Sub-order Cheilostomata. Fam. Bicellariidae.) 

Gen. Char. — Cells bi-multiserial, closely contiguous ; aperture very large, directed forwards ; 
the margins not at all or very slightly thickened.] 

Description. — Cells biserial, contracted below, upper and outer ang-le produced 
into a short, hollow, conical process ; aperture oval, not extending- to the base; a 
larg'e, capitate avicularium on the lower part of the cell, below and to the outer side 
of the aperture. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Trans. Eoy. Soc. Victoria 1869. 

Western Port. 

The only specimen I have seen forms a tuft, of a greyish-brown 
color, nearly two inches high. It is readily distinguished by the 
large size of the cells, with the upper and outer angles produced 
into the stout, conical processes, as well as the situation of the 
large avicularia. 

Explanation op Figukes. 
Fig. 1, portion, natural size. Fig. la, small piece, magnified. Fig. \h, back, magnified. 



Plate 78, Fig. 2. 
BUGULA CUCULLATA (Busk). 

Description. — Polyzoary arranged in a spiral or turbinate form ; cells biserial, 
elong-ated ; upper and outer angle produced into a pointed spine, below which there 
is a smaller spine projecting" also upwards and outwards ; inner angle nearly square 
or prolonged into a minute spine ; aperture occupying- about two-thirds of the front 
of the cell J avicularia capitate, at the outer and lower part of the cell ; ovicell large, 
saucer-shaped (when dry). 

Reference. — Busk, Journal of Microscop. Science, 1867, p. 241. 

Queenscliff; Portland, Mr. Maplestone. 

Forms elegant tufts, two or three inches high. The cells are 
usually in small branches, forming fan-shaped tufts, spirally 

[29 ] 



Zoology.;\ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

arranged round the axis. The aperture occupies about two-thirds 
of the front, and the edge is prolonged into two short spines, the 
upper one at the extreme angle being the larger ; the inner angle 
is nearly square or produced into a slight spine. The ovicells are 
large, in dry specimens cucullate or saucer-shaped, but said by 
Mr. Maplestone to be globular when alive. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Fig. 2, specimen, natural size. Fig. 2a, front view of portion, magnified. Fig. 2b, single 
cell, more biglily magnified, showing ovicells and avicularium. Fig. 2c, back view of fragment, 
magnified. 



Plate 78, Fig. 3. 

BUGULA DENTATA (Lamx.). 

Description. — Cells biserial, elongated; three long, hollow spines at the 
upper and outer part of the aperture, and a single similar one at the inner angle ; 
aperture occupying rather more than half of" the front of the cell; avicularia large, 
articulated below and to the outside of the lower corner of the aperture. 

Reference. — Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat., Mar. Polyzoa, p. 46, pi. xxxv. 

QueensclifF ; Hobson's Bay. 

This species occurs in small tufts, of a dull-greenish or leaden 
colour, on piles, hulks, &c. It is at once recognised by the three 
long spines at and below the upper and outer angle of the 
aperture ; of these the lower is turned inwards, while the upper 
two project forwards or outwards. There is also a similar but 
smaller spine at the upper and inner angle. I have not seen the 
ovicells ; they are said to be blue. 

Lamouroux describes his B. dentata as having only two spines, 
but I think there can be no doubt it is the species here described. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Fig. 3, fragment, natural size. Fig. .3a, front view, magnified. Fig. Zb, side of cell, 
showing an avicularium. Fig. 3c, back view, magnified. 

[30] 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 



Plate 78, Fig. 4. 

BUGULA AVICULARIA (Pall.). 

Description. — Cells biserial, elongated, small; two spines at the upper and 
outer ang-le, and one at the inner ; aperture occupying the greater part of the anterior 
surface; avicularia small, capitate, situated on the outer side, close to the margin of 
the aperture, and at about its middle; ovicell surmounting a cell, rounded, rather 
contracted below. 

Reference. — Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat., Mar. Polyzoa, p. 45, pi. liii. 

Hobson's Bay, on piles and hulks. 

There can, I think, be no doubt of the identity of this with the 
well-known European species. It may be distinguished by the 
small size of the cells, the number and form of the spines, the 
shape of the ovicells, and the situation of the avicularia. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Fig. 4, fragment, natural size. Fig. 4a, front view of portion, magnified. Fig. 46, single cell, 
showing ovicell and avicularium, more highly magnified. Fig. 4c, side view of cell. 



I am indebted to Dr. MacGillivray for the typical specimens 
and descriptions of the species of Bugula on this plate. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 3i ] 



Ph. 19 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(InsecJs ) 




A.BartholaTnat dbeHeJU lUh 



Prof M" Cay iirvcP 



SteanvUlho GavtPruiimffOffiM 



Zoologtj.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Insects. 



Plate 79, Figs. 1 and 2. 

ACROPHYLLA VIOLASCENS (Leach sp.). 

The Violet-winged Phasma. 

[Genus ACROPHYLLA (Gray). Sub-kingd. Articulata. Class Insecta. Order Orthop- 
tera. Section Ambulatoria. Family Phasmidee. Sub-fam. Pterophasniina.) 

Gen. Char. — Body elongate, abdomen slender and cylindrical in tbe males, broader, 
fusiform and depressed in the females ; ovipositor of female boat-shaped, keeled below, not 
exceeding the end of the abdomen ; anal styles long, those of males often narrower than of 
females. Thorax long, cylindrical ; mesothorax about three times as long as the prothorax, 
usually spined ; metathorax shorter than the mesothorax. Head small, elongate, gibbous 
behind ; antennae long, setaceous, many jointed, pubescent in the males ; eyes globose, prominent ; 
three ocelli or none. Tegmina ovate, about half or one-third as long as the wings ; wings 
moderate in both sexes, longer in the males. Legs long, slender (longer in the males), 
dentated, anterior pair largest, simple ; femora narrow, not membranous, anterior pair notched 
on inner edge to fit head ; hind tibia not strongly dentate within. Tarsi with 1st joint much 
longer than the others, the three next gradually diminishing, 5th longer than the 4th ; claws 
strong, with large pad. Australia.] 

Description. — Male: Colour: DuU-g'reen, the anterior portion of teg'mina and 
anterior margin of costal area bright-gTeen ; posterior of tegmina and costal area, 
abdomen, and femora yellowish-brown ; membranous portion of hind wings violet- 
purple, with the veins of a strong-er shade of the same colour. Mesothorax above, and 
under-side of meso- and meta-thorax roug-h, with close small g-ranular tubercles. 
Anterior leg's simple, femora of middle pair with two denticulated lateral ridges, and 
a median granular keel below ; hind femora with two denticulate lateral ridges, the 
median angular ridge only slightly serrated, but with two large, slender, conical 
spines nearly as long as width of thigh, and dividing the length into thirds. First 
joint of tarsi nearly as long as all the others; antennae 21-jointed slightly pubescent, 
anal styles moderate, flat, narrow. Length from base of antennae to tip of abdomen 
(excluding anal styles) 3 inches 3 lines. Proportional measurements to length, taken 
as 100: — Length of head, j^ ; antennae, t^; prothorax, j-q-o ; mesothorax, -j^ ; 
metathorax, ^^ ; abdomen, -j^ ; width of abdomen, -j^ ; anal styles, y^u ; 
tegmina, ^^ ; width of tegmina, -f^o ; length of one wing-, ^-^ ; width of costal 
area, yot ; greatest width of wing, y-^^ ; length of anterior femora, j-^q ; of second 
pair, xVo ; of ^i^^d femora, xn% 5 width of hind femora, -j^. 

Female : Colour : Whole body, legs, tegmina, and costal area of wings bright 
pea-green, except the under-sides of the legs, which are dull reddish ; membrane of 
wings pale rose pink, veins more strongly tinted with the same colour ; a whitish or 
pinkish band along each side of mesothorax and metathorax below the keel of the 
wings ; mesothorax rough with small granules, and with a narrow median keel, 
narrow in front; under-side of meso- and meta-thorax granular; antennae short, 
21-jointed, smooth; abdomen large, broad in the middle, tapering, granular, 
carinated ; tegmina and costal area of wing broad ovate, wide in the middle, tapering 
to a distal point; anal styles moderately small; denticulation of two hind pairs of 
femora nearly as in the males, but smaller. Length from base of antennre to tip of 
abdomen (excluding anal styles) 3 inches 2 lines. Proportional measurements to length, 
taken as 100 : — Length of head, y^ ; antennae, -xq% ; prothorax, y^^ 5 mesothorax, ^^; 
metathorax, -lY^ ; abdomen, -^ ; width of abdomen, ji^ ; anal styles, -^^ ; 
Z>ec. vni. [ 33 ] E 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Insects. 

tegmina, y^^ ; width of tegmina, -]-§^ ; length of one wing, -^^ ; width of costal 
area, i'^"^ ; greatest width of wing, -f^^ ; length of anterior femora, -f%*jj ; second 
femora, f-^^ ; hind femora, -f^^ ; width of hind femora, -j-^q. 

Reference. — = Phasma violascens, Leach, Zool. Misc., v. 1, t. 9 (male) 
= Diura roseipennis, Gray, Ent. Aust., t. 7, f. 2 (female). 

Tlie Pliasmse of the genus Acropliylla generally have three 
ocelli on top of the head, but A. violascens has none ; the great 
length of the mesothorax, compared with the prothorax, is very 
remarkable in these insects. The anal styles vary much in length 
and width in the tropical species, but are only very moderate and 
nearly alike in both sexes in A. violascens. The deep violet colour 
of the under-wings in the males is so curiously different from the 
rosy pink of the same part in the females that no one would guess 
they were sexes of the same species if it had not been a matter of 
observation beyond doubt ; the carination of the mesothorax in the 
one sex and not in the other is a very unusual sexual difference. 
The yellow bases of the costal area and yellow stripes on abdomen 
of females, mentioned by Westwood, are only post-mortem appear- 
ances, not seen in life, or unless the tegmina after death be allowed 
to remain over the costal area, or the wings be allowed to rest for 
some time on the abdomen. 

Not very uncommon at Oakleigh, near Melbom'ne. 

A large variety, 3 inches 6 lines long (male), with stouter legs 
and paler wings, occurs at Warragul, and females found therewith 
have the wings colourless ; but they seem to be only local varieties. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 79. — Fig. 1, male specimen, flying, natural size. Fig. la, antennse, head, prothorax, 
and mesothorax, magnified. Fig. 16, hind leg, magnified, showing the large teeth. Fig. Ic, side 
view of posterior joints of abdomen, magnified. Fig. \d, one of anal styles, further magnified ; 
Fig. \e, view of posterior end of abdomen, magnified, view from above. Fig. 2, female, natural 
size. Fig. 2a, ditto, antenna;, head, prothorax, and keeled mesothorax, magnified. Fig. 26, ditto, 
hind leg, magnified. Fig. 2c, ditto, side view of hind segments of abdomen, magnified to show 
ovipositor. Fig. 3, Podacanthus Typhon, young specimen, with undeveloped wings, natural size ; 
the left hind leg is shorter than that of the other side, and has only four joints in the tarsus, 
from having been lost and being in progress of restoration. (See Plate 80 for adult.) 

Frederick McCoy. 



[34] 



Ph. 80 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 




A Bartholomew ebeletUOu 



Prof WCcy iirexP 



StRajrv lUho Co vV. PrvnJOit^ Office. 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. {Insects. 



Plate 80. 

PODACANTHUS TYPHON (Gray). 
The Large Pink-winged Phasma. 

[Genus PODACANTHUS (Gray). (Sub-kingd. Articulata. Class Insecta. Order 
Orthoptera. Section Ambulatoria. Family Phasmidae. Sub-fam. Pteropbasmina.) 

Gen. Char. — Body large, abdomen cylindrical, slender, truncated at tip, and biimcinate 
below in males ; very thick, tapering to tip in females. Ovipositor large, boat-shaped, carinated 
below, pointed behind ; styles very long, slender in both sexes, exceeding the length of the ovi- 
positor in females. Head small, oblong, flat above, a little gibbous behind ; eyes globular ; three 
distinct ocelli on top of head. Antennae long, filiform, 26-jointed and smooth in female, and 
one-third longer, pilose and of 23 joints in male. Mesothorax short, scarcely twice the length 
of the prothorax, narrow, rounded, spinose ; metathorax longer than mesothorax, broad, oblong. 
Legs simple, of moderate length, thighs not membranous nor dilated, the two posterior pairs 
spinous below ; the anterior pair notched on inner side for head, smooth ; tarsal joints 
diminishing to the fourth, fifth long, claws large with large pad. Tegmiua elongate, ovate, 
half length of wings in females, one-third length in males, reaching to about half the length of 
the abdomen ; posterior wings very large, as long as abdomen, broadly rounded. Australia.] 

Description. — Female: Teg-mina, and distal half of costal area of under-wings, 
bright pea-o'reen above; rather less than basal half of costal area above brig-ht rosy- 
carmine ; on the under-side the carmine extends along- the anterior portion nearly 
three-fourths of the length from the base towards the tip, gradually fading into the 
bright pea-green of the lower and distal remainder of the area. Anterior basal 
portion of tegmina on the under-side pale-carmine, the remainder of the surface pea- 
green. Head, thorax, legs and abdomen pea-green, tinged with yellowish and 
pinkish on upper surface of abdomen, the tarsi, and tubercles of the mesothorax. 
Veins of the posterior part of lower wings rosy-carmine, with the membrane a paler 
shade of the same colour. Serratures of side of thorax and two posterior pairs of 
femora reddish. Tubercles of mesothorax irregular, conical. Head and prothorax 
and metathorax nearly smooth above; mesothorax and metathorax with a row of 
larger, more acutely pointed, tubercular spines. Two rows of small, sharp, subequal 
spines on the femora of the two posterior pairs of legs ; anterior legs without spines. 
The midrib of the tegmina scarcely larger than the adjoining ones. Length from 
base of antennse to end of abdomen, excluding the anal styles, 4 inches 6 lines to 
5 inches 1 line. Proportional measurements to length, taken as 100 (in five speci- 
mens) : — Length of head, ^; antennae, ^; prothorax, ^~^ ; mesothorax, -=^; meta- 
thorax, ^^^; abdomen, ^; width of abdomen, ^^^; length of ovipositor, ^; anal 
styles, ~; tegmina, —-, width of tegmina, ~; length of one wing from base, -y^io-; 
greatest width of wing, ^•, width of costal area, ^; length of anterior femora, j^^; 
width, ^; length of 2nd femora, ^^=^; width, ^; length of hind femora, ~. 
^idth, f^. 

Reference. — Gray, Ent. Aust. t. 2, f. 1. 

[ 35 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. ^Insects. 

This most beautiful Phasma is readily distinguished from the 
other two large species found near Melbourne, the Tropidoderus 
rhodomus and T. iodomus^ figured in our Plates 69-70, by the 
beautiful rosy-pink colour of the membrane of the lower wings, 
with the briglit rosy-carmine veins, and the same colour occupying 
as much of the basal portion of the costal area as can be covered 
over by the tegmina when at rest. It is also easily distinguished 
by the generic characters which separate the Podacanthi from 
the Tropidoderi, particularly the great length of the anal styles, 
the unkeeled tuberculated mesothorax, the three ocelli on the top 
of the head, and the undilated femora. 

M. Serville, in his " Histoire Naturelle des Insectes, Orthopteres," 
p. 230, says that the antennae of the females are longer than the 
thorax ; l)ut in our specimens they but slightly exceed the meta- 
thorax and mesothorax taken together, without the prothorax. 
If the basal joint be counted, there are 27 joints in the antennae, 
instead of 26, as given by Professor Westwood. 

The number of spines on the hind legs varies, but is usually 
about a dozen. 

I have not seen the males as yet, nor can I account for their 
apparent rarity. 

Specimens are in the collection from the Richmond Paddock 
and other localities near Melbourne. 



Explanation op Figures. 

Plate 80. — Fig. 1, female, natural size, in flying position. Fig. la, ditto, antennae, head 
with the three ocelli, prothorax, and mesothorax, magnified. Fig. lb, ditto, side view of leg. 
Fig. Ic, ditto, side view of hind joints of ahdomen, to show ovipositor. 

(N.B. — The young, with imperfectly developed wings, is figured in the resting position on 
Plate 79, fig. 3, and in it the ocelli are not visible.) 

Frederick McCoy. 



By Authority : John Ferres, Government Printer, Melbourne. 

[ 36] 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



N.B. — The originals of all the Figures are In the National Museum, Melbourne. 



DECADE I. 



Plate 1. — The Black Snake (Pseudechys porphyriacus, Shaw sp.). 

Platk 2. — The Copper-head Snake (Hoplocephalus superbus, Giinth.). 

Plate 3. — The Tiger Snake (Hoplocephalus curtus, Schl. sp.). 

Plate 4. — The Australian Bream (Chrysophrys Australis, Giinth.). 

Plate 5. — The Spiny-sided Butterfly-Gurnard (Lepidotrigla Vanessa, Rich. sp.). 

Plate 6. — The Kumu Gurnard (Trigla Kumu, Lesson and Gam.). 

Plate 7. — The Australian Giant Earth-worm (Megascolides Australis, McCoy). 

Plate 8. — Lewin's Day-moth (Agarista Lewini, Boisd.). 

The Loranthus Day -moth (Agarista Casuarinae, Scott). 

The Vine Day-moth (Agarista Glycine, Lewin sp.). 
Plate 9. — Pieris (Thyca) Harpalyce (Don. sp.). 
Plate 10, — Pieris (Thyca) Aganippe (Don. sp.). 



DECADE II. 

Plate 11. — The Little Whip Snake (Hoplocephalus flagellum, McCoy). The White-lipped Snake 

(Hoplocephalus coronoides, Giinth.). 
Plate 12. — The Death Adder (Acanthophis Antarctica, Shaw sp.). 
Plate 13. — The Carpet Snake (Morelia variegata, Gray). 
Plate 14. — The Gippsland Perch (Lates colonorum, Giinth.). 
Plate 15.— The Murray Lobster (Astacoides serratus, Shaw sp.). 
Plate 16. — The Salmon Arripis (Arripis truttaceus, Cuv. sp.). Adult. 
Plate 17. — Ditto of the younger forms and coloring. 
Plate 18. — The Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 19. — The Small-scaled Rock Cod (Lotella callarias, Giinth.). 
Plate 20. — The Australian Rock Cod (Pseudophysis barbatus, Giinth.). 



DECADE III. 

Plate 21. — The Sea-Leopard Seal (Stenorhynqhus leptonyx, de Blainv. sp.). 

Plate 22. — The Yellow-sided Dolphin (Delphinus Novae Zealandiaj, Quoy and Galm.). 

Plate 23. — The Common Brown Snake (Diemenia superciliosa, Fisch.). 

The Small-scaled Brown Snake (Diemenia microlepidota, McCoy). 
The Shield-fronted Brown Snake (Diemenia aspidorhyncha, McCoy). 

Plate 24. — Catenicella margaritacea (Busk). — C. plagiostoma (Busk) — C. ventricosa (Busk). — 
C. hastata(Busk.)— C. rufa (McG.). — C. cribraria (Busk). — C. alata (Wyv. Thomson). — 
C. lorica (Busk). — C. foi-mosa- (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk). — C. perforata (Busk). — 
C. Buskii (Wyv. Thomson).— C. Hannafordi (McG.).— C. crystallina (Wyv. Thomson).— 
C. carinata (Busk). — C. aurita (Busk). — C. geminata (Wyv. Thomson). — C. cornuta 
(Busk).— C.- intermedia (McG.) 

Plate 25, — Membranipora membranacea (Linn. sp.). — M. perforata (McG.). — M. ciliata (McG.). — 
M. mamillaris (McG.). — M. umbonata (Busk). — M. pilosa (Linn. sp.). — M, cervicornis 
(Busk). 

Plate 26. — Membranipora dispar (McG.). — M. Woodsii (McG.). — M. lineata (Linn. sp.). — M. Rosselii 
(Audouin sp.). — M. Lacroixii (Savigny sp.). 

Plate 27. — The Australian Rockling (Genypterus Australis, Cast.). 
The Yarra Blackfish (Gadopsis gracilis, McCoy). 

Plate 28. — The Southern Mackerel (Scomber pneumatophorus, De la Roche). 

Plate 29. — The Yabber Crayfish (Astacoides bicarinatus, Gray sp.). 

Plate 30.— The Large Wattle Goat-Moth (Zeuzera Eucalypti, Boisd. Herr.-Schaef.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE IV. 

Plate 31. — The Australian Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal (Euotaria cinerea, Peron sp.). 

Plate 32. — The Two-hooded Furiua-Snake, Furina hicucullata (McCoy). 

Plate 33. — The Banded Red Gurnet-Perch (Sebastes percoides, Solandcr sp.), 

Plate 34. — The Angel-fish (Khina squatina, Lin. sp.). 

Plate 35. — Lepralia circinata (McG.). — L. Cecilii (Aud.). — L. diaphana (McG.). — L. marsupium 

(McG.). — L. subinimersa (McG.). — L. anceps (McG.). — L. Maplestonei (McG.). 
Plate 36. — Lepralia vlttata (McG.). — Membranipora perforata. Lepralia Brogniartii (Aud.). — 

L. elegans (McG.). — L. pertusa (Esper. sp.). — L. Malusii (Aud. sp.). — L. lunata (McG.). 
Plate 37. — Lepralia ciliata (Linn. sp.). — L. trifolium (McG.). — L. cheilodon (McG.).— L. canaliculata 

(McG.).— L. larvalis (McG.).— L. diadema (McG.).— L. papillifera (McG.).— L. Ellerii 

(McG.). 
Plate 38. — Lepralia monoceros (Busk). — L. excavata (McG.). — L. vitrea (McG.). — L. megasoma 

(McG.). — L. Schizostoma (McG.). — L. Botryoides (McG.). — L. ferox (McG.).— L. pellu- 

cida (McG.). 
Plate 39. — Crisia Edwardsiana (D'Orb. sp.). — C. biciliata (McG.). — C. acropora (Busk). — C. setosa 

(McG.).— C. tenuis (McG.). 
Plate 40. — Saunders' Case-Moth (Metura elongata, Saunders sp.). 
The Lictor Case-Moth (Entometa ignobilis, Walk.). 



DECADE V. 

Plate 4L — The Lace Lizard (Hydrosaurus varius, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 42. — The Spotted Marsh-Frog (Lininodynastes Tasmaniensis, Giiuth,). — The Common Sand- 
Frog (Limnodynastes dorsalis, Gray). 
Plate 43. — The Carpet Shark (Crossorhinus barbatus, Lin. sp.). — The Seven-gilled Shark (Notidanus 

[Heptanchus] Indicus, Cuv.). 
Plate 44. — The Barracouta (Thersites atun, Cuv.). — The Tunny (Thyunus Thynnus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 45. — Flustra denticulata (Busk). — Carbasea episcopalis (Busk). — C. dissimilis (Busk). — 

C. indivisa (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk). — C. pisciformis (Busk). 
Plate 46. — Spiralaria florea (Busk). — Diachoris Magellanica (Busk). — D. spiuigera (P. McGil.). — 

Dimetopia spicata (Busk). — D. cornuta (Busk). — Didymia simplex (Busk). — Calwellia 

bicoruis (Wyv. Thomson). 
Plate 47. — Dictyopora cellulosa (P. McGil.). 
Plate 48. — Eschara obliqua (P. McGil.). — E. dispar (P. McGil ). — E. gracilis (Lamx.). — E. platalea 

(Busky — E. quadrata (P. McGil.) — E. mucronata (P. McGil.). — Caleschara denticulata 

(P. McGil.). 
Plate 40. — Cellaria fistulosa (Linn.). — C. hirsuta (P. McGil.). — C. tenuirostris (Busk.). — C. gracilis 

(Busk). — Nellia oculata (Busk). — Tubucellaria hirsuta (Busk). 
Plate 50. — The Great Black, or Manna Cicada (Cicada moerens, Germ.).— The Great Green Cicada 

(Cyclochila Australasias, Donov. sp.). 



DECADE VI. 

Plate 51. — The Victorian Rhodona (Rhodona OfBceri, McCoy). 

Plate 52. — The Black and White Ringed Snake (Vermicella annulata. Gray). 

Plate 53. — The Green and Golden Bell-Frog (Kanoidea aurea, Less. sp.). 

Plates 54-55. — The Australian Aulopus (Aulopus purpurisatus, Rich.). 

Plate 56. — The Hammer-headed Shark (Zyga^na malleus, Shaw). — The Common Australian Saw- 
Fish (Pristiophorus nudipinnis, Giinth.). 

Plate 57.— Biflustra perfragilis (McGil.). — B. delicatula (Busk). 

Plate 58. — Cellularia cuspidata (Busk).— Menipea crystallina (Gray sp.).— M. cyathus (Wyv. Thom- 
son). — M. cervicornis (McGil.) — M. tricellata (Busk). — M. Bu.skii (Wyv. Thomson). 

Plate 59. — Bicellaria tuba (Busk). — B. grandis (Busk). — B. ciliata (Linn). — B. turbinata (McGil.). — 
Stirparia annulata (Map.).— Bugula neritina (Linn.). 

Plate 60. — Steganoporella magnilabris (Busk. sp.). — Petraha undata (McGil.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE VII. 

Plate 61. — The Tuberculated Argonaut (Argonauta oryzata, Meusch.). 

Plate 62. — The same seated in its so-called shell or Paper-Nautilus. 

Plate 63. — The Blue-spotted Eagle-Ray (Myliobatis Australis, Macleay). 

Plate 64. — The Long-toothed Bull-Shark (Odontaspis taurus, Raf.). — The Australian Tope Shark 

(Galeus Australis, Macleay). 
Plate 65. — The Leafy Sea-Dragon (Phyllopteryx foliatus, Shaw sp.). — The Short-headed Sea-horse 

(Hippocampus breviceps, Pet.) 
Plate 66. — Dictyopora grisea (Lamx. sp.). — D. albida (Kirch.) — (Var. avicularis, P. McGill.). 
Plate 67.— D. Wilsoni (P. McGill.). 

Plate 68. — Idmonea Milueana (d'Orb.). — I. contorta (P. McGill.). — I. radians (Lamk.). 
Plates 69-70, — The Violet-shouldered Phasma (Tropidoderus iodomus, McCoy).— The Red-shouldered 

Phasma (Tropidoderus rhodomus, McCoy). 



CONTENTS OF DECADE VIII. 



K.B. — The originals of all tliu Figures arc in the Xatioual Museum, Melbourne. 



Plate 71. — The Australian Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal (Euotaria cinerea, Peron sp.). 

Plati: 72.— The Northern Blue-tongued Lizard (Cyclodus gigas, Bodd. sp.). 

Plaxk 73. — The Ludrick (Girella simplex, Rich. sp.). 

Platio 74. — The AVhite Shark (Carcharodon Kundelelii, Miill. and Hen.). 

Plate 75. — Tlie Picked J)og-l''ish (Acaothias vulgaris, Linn. sp.). 

Platks 7G-77. — The Australian Tooth-cupped Cuttlefish (Sepioteuthis Australis, Quoy and Gaini.). 

^I'l.ATB 78. — Bugula ro!>usta (P. M( Cil). — IJ. cucullata (Busk). — B. dentata (Lanix.). — B. avicularia 
(I'all.). 

Platk 79. — The Violet-winged Phasiua (Acrophylla viohiscens, Leach sp.). 

Plate 80. — The Large Pink winged Pliasma (Podacantlius typhon. Gray). 



MARY r . ROGICK 




T^ 



r-^"- 



Natural M^tow '4 MctOYk, 



"% 




■^4 

PROBRokuS 



' OF TUE 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA; 



OK, 



FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



SECADE i: 



BT 

FI^]Er)EI^ICK imcCOY, f.r.s., 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY; HONORARY ACTIVE MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL SOCIETY 

OF NATURALISTS OF MOSCOW ; CORRESPONDING MEMBEfi OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON ; 

BONORAIIY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY Of NEW SOUTH WALES; llONOKAUY FELLOW OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF .EDINBURGH ; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF MANCHESTER, 

^ ETC., ETC., ETC. 

AUTUOR OF " SYNOPSIS OF THE CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE FOSSILS OF IRELAND ; " " SYNOPSIS OF THE SILURIAN FOSSILS OF 

IRELAND ; " " CONTRIBUTIONS TO BRITISH PAL/EONTOLOGV ; " ONE OF THE AUTHORS OF SED(iWlCK AND McCOY'S 

" BRITISH PAL/KOZOIC ROCKS AND FOSSILS ; " " PRODIiOMUS OF THE PALEONTOLOGY OF VICTORIA," ETC. 

PROFESSOR OF NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY. 

GOVERNMENT PALiEONIOLOGIST, AND DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF MELBOURNE, ETC. 




MELBOURNE : 

BY AUTHORITY : JOHN FKRHES, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 
PUBLISHED BT GEORGE ROBERTSON, LITTLE COLLINS STREET. 

LONDON : TRUBNER AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATE HILL ; AND GEORGE ROBERTSON, 

17 WARWICK SQUARE. 



MDCCCLXXXIV, 



^. 




Uatimil SiJitirra of Wutmln, 



PRODROMUS 



OF THE 



ZOOLOGY OF YICTORIA; 



OB, 



riGUEES AND DESCEIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SPECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



OF TOE 



YICTOPJAN mDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



BSCABS XX, 



BT 

FI^EDEI^ICK ]M[cCOY, F.I^.S., 

HONORARY MEJIBER OF THE CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETT ; HONORART ACTIVE MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL SOCIETY 

OF NATURALISTS OF MOSCOW; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETT OF LONDON; 

aONOBARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SODTH WALES ; HONORARY FELLOW OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF EDINBURGH ; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF MANCHESTER, 

"ETC., ETC., ETC. 

ACTnOR OF "SYNOPSIS OF THE CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE FOSSILS OF IRELAND;" "SYNOPSIS OP THE SILURIAN FOSSILS OF 

IRELAND ; " " CONTRIBUTIONS TO BRITISH PALEONTOLOGY ; " ONE OF THE AUTHORS OF SEDGWICK AND McCOY'S 

" BRITISH PALEOZOIC ROCKS AND FOSSILS ; " " PRODROMUS OF THE PALiliONTOLOGY OF VICXORLA," ETC. 

PROFESSOR OF NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY. 

GOVEENUENT PALEONTOLOGIST, AND DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF MELBOURNE, ETC. 




MELBOURNE : 

BY AUTHORITY : JOHN FEKRES, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 
PUBLISHED BY GEORGE ROBERTSON, LITTLE COLLINS STREET. 

LONDON : TRUBNER AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATE HILL ; AND GEORGE ROBERTSON, 

17 WARWICK SQUARE. 



UDCCCLSXSIV 



PREFACE. 



It having been considered desirable to ascertain accurately tlie 
natural productions of the Colony of Victoria, and to publish works 
descriptive of them, on the plan of those issued by the Governments 
of the different States of America, investigations were undertaken, 
by order of the Victorian Government, to determine the Geology, 
Botany, and Zoology of the Colony, to form collections illustrative of 
each for the public use, and to make the necessary preparations for 
such systematic publications on the subject as might be useful and 
interesting to the general public, and contribute to the advancement 
of science. 

As the geological and botanical investigations have already 
approached comjjletion, and their publication is far advanced, it 
has been decided to now commence the publication of the third 
branch completing the subject, namely, that of the Zoology or 
indigenous members of the different classes of the animal kingdom. 

As the Fauna is not so well known as the Flora, it was a necessary 
preliminary to the pul)lication to have a large number of drawings 
made, as opportunity arose, from the living or fresh examples of 
many species of reptiles, fish, and the lower animals, which lose their 
natural appearance shortly after death, and the true characters of 
many of which were consequently as yet unknown, as they had 

[3] 



PREFACE. 



only been described from preserved specimens. A Prodromiis, or 
preliminary issue, in the form of Decades, or numbers of ten plates, 
each with its complete descriptive letterpress, will be published, of 
such illustrations as are ready, without systematic order or waiting 
for the completion of any one branch. The many good observers 
in the country will thus have the means of accurately identifying 
various natural objects, their o])servations on which, if recorded and 
sent to the National Museum, where the originals of all the figures 
and descriptions are preserved, will ])e duly acknowledged, and 
will materially help in the preparation of the final systematic volume 
to be published for each class when it approaches completion. 

This ninth Decade gives figures and descriptions in the first 
plate of an interesting Lizard, a variety of the Physigriathus 
Lesueri, from the Gippsland Rivers, for specimens of which I am 
indebted to that indefatigable man of science, Mr. Warden Howitt. 
It is this rarely-seen creature w4iich has given rise to the rumor 
that Crocodiles inhabited the almost inaccessible rivers in w^hich 
it is found. 

The second and third plates figure one of our River Tortoises, 
generally called the Murray Turtle. 

The fourth plate shows the beautiful Murray Golden Perch of 
its natural colors for the first time. 

The fifth and sixth plates give the chief varieties and details of 
natural coloring for the first time of our famous Murray Cod- 
Perch. 

The seventh plate gives the colored representation for the first 
time of our commonest Dog-fish, the Australian Smooth-Hound. 

The eighth plate represents the strange form of the Thresher, 
or Long-tailed, or Fox, Shark, obviously identical with the 
European examples, and one of rare occurrence amongst the 
Sharks of our seas. 

[4] 



PREFACE. 



The two following plates continue the illustrations of our 
Polyzoa contributed by Dr. MacGillivray to the National Museum 
and this work. 

The succeeding Decades will illustrate as many different genera 
as possible, and will deal first usually with species of some special 
interest, and of which good figures do not exist, or are not easily 
accessible. 

Frederick McCoy. 
11th December 1882, 



[ 5 ] 



n.8i 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 




A BarOwhrnjoii del et, hOu 



ProfM^Co)! diret>'' 



^teaiw lUJic Govt'PrmUjy Office 



Zoologi/.} NATUKAL HISTOEY OF VICTORIA. [Beptiles. 



Plate 81. 

PHYSIGNATHUS LESUERI (Gray), 

Var. HOWITTI (McCoy). 

The Gippsland Water Lizard. 



[Genus PHYSIGNATHUS (Cuvier). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Reptilia. Order 
Sauria. Sub-order Pachyglossaj. Tribe Strobilosaura. Family Agamidaj.) 

Gen. Char. — Head pyramidal, quadrangular, greatly swollen at tbe parotid sides of the 
angle of the jaws ; covered with very small, subequal, polygonal, keeled plates ; rostral angle 
raised into a superciliary ridge ; nostrils lateral, near tip of snout ; ear-drum large, on a level 
with the surface. Four incisors and six longer, arched, pointed, laniary teeth on each side in 
upper jaw, with thirteen shorter, triangular molars. Tongue wide, thick, spongy, slightly 
narrow and notched at tip ; skin of throat extended to form a small dew-lap ; a V-shaped trans- 
verse fold between the neck and the chest. Neck, body, and tail compressed and with a crest of 
erect, compressed scales as far as middle of tail, which is two-thirds of the total length. Scales 
of the body rhomboidal, scarcely imbricated, in transverse rows, of very unequal sizes. Toes 
widened by a border of broad scales on each side, projecting horizontally. Femoral pores 
distinct.] 

Description. — Form elongate, tapering- ; neck and body moderately com- 
pressed, angular along the back ; tail very much compressed ; serrated crest of 
moderately arched, triangular scales along mid-line of back from nape to near middle 
of tail, beyond which there are two smaller parallel crests with a narrow hollow 
between them to the tip ; head with small, polygonal, elongate, obtusely keeled or 
angulated plates on top, those near tip of snout a little larger than those behind ; 
an ovate space over each eye, bounded internally by an arched line of erect scales, 
larger than the others of the head, is covered by minute hexagonal scales about half 
the size of those on the middle of the top of the head ; a nearly vertical arched 
ridge of strong scales over each eye at angle of head ; eyelids covered with very 
small plates; each lip with 12 large marginal, flat, smooth plates; a few rows of large 
smooth scales extending from the chin nearly to the ear ; chin plate pentagonal or 
nearly triangular; rostral plate hexagonal, about twice as wide as high; an irregular 
row of large conical tubercular plates on side of cheek, and about 9 vertical irregular 
rows extending from the dorsal crest nearly to the belly, each about as wide as 3 of 
the adjacent plates ; occiput with numerous small conical polygonal tubercles, and 
one small flat oval occipital plate. Ear large, round. Tail strong at base, strongly 
compressed and tapering to a very slender posterior extremity, the single dorsal 
crest extending to rather less than half of its length, after which the crest is doubled. 
Scales under the chin smooth, convex, rhomboidal ; those on the pouch and under 
the neck strongly keeled, the keel ending in a point directed backwards ; ventral 

C 7] 



Zoologi/.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Reptiles. 

scales quadrate, with a slight keel, obsolete on many of them ; over the neck small 
conical tubercles with compressed summit ; scales on sides of neck keeled, rhomboidal, 
with posterior ang-le forming- a straight spine ; scales of sides of body and upper part 
of tail in vertical bands of little quadrate tubercles, each with a keel, most prominent 
at the posterior angle; not imbricated; amongst these the irregular vertical rows of 
three-sided spinous tubercles with wide rounded base ; scales of legs strongly keeled, 
except on under-side of thighs and legs, where they are smooth, large on front of 
thighs, small behind, moderate elsewhere; a few much larger, rhomboidal, more 
strongly keeled plates among the others; scales of sides of tail in vertical bands, and 
so strongly keeled as to form conspicuous longitudinal ridges. Color; — Entire 
upper surface and sides of head, body, and toes dark-olive (sometimes with a 
brownish u})per skin, below which the dark color is seen), with a row of 20 large 
rounded jet-black spots along the dorsal crest, those of tail extending downwards 
as dark-olive bands separated by narrow, much lighter bands; a dark band from e3'e 
to ear, which it encloses with a jet-black patch, another round black s})Ot over the 
shoulder ; pouch irregularly marked with broad longitudinal bands of dark indigo- 
blue and the richest cadmium yellow; breast and belly blackish in figured specimen, 
but dirty yellow with occasional small black flecks in other individuals ; sides of 
head light-olive ; a few irregular black spots on head and back and sides. 





Measurements 


• 




















Queensland 


GiPPSLAND 


GlPPSLAXD 








Specimen. 


Speclmen. 


Specuien. 








Ft. 


ins. 


lines. 


Ft. ins. 1 


ines. 


Ft. ins. lines, 


Length from snout to end of tail 


• • • 




3 


1 


... 


2 


5 


. 


.. 2 


5 6 


„ „ nostril 


,,. 










4 








4 . 





4 


„ „ anterior edge 


of orbit 







1 


... 








11 


.. 


11 


)> » j> » 


ear 







2 


3 





2 


1 





2 


Diameter of ear-drum ... 


■ • • 










3 ... 








3 





3 


Length from snout to anterior limh 


• ■ • 







4 


9 





4 








3 10 


„ „ posterior limb 


• • • 







10 








8 


. 





8 2 


Length of body 


••• 







11 


... 





9 





.. 


9 3 


„ tail 


••• 




2 


2 





I 


8 


. 


.. 1 


9 3 


„ head 


••. 







2 


9 





3 


. 





2 10 


Width across superciliary ridges 


••• 







1 








1 


2 


.. 


1 2 


Length of anterior limb from shoulder to end 




















longest toe 


• ■* 







4 


9 





3 


5 ., 


.. 


3 9 


„ posterior limb to end of longest toe 







8 


3 ... 





G 


9 





G 10 


„ free portion of inner anter 


ior toe aud claw 








8 ... 








6 . 


.. 


6i 


„ „ second „ 


» 










11 ... 








10 





10 


„ „ third 


J) 







1 


O 





1 


1 





1 


„ „ fourth „ 


>i 







1 


4 





1 


li ., 





1 


„ „ outer 


)) 




() 





11 








9 





9 


„ anterior toe and claw of hind foot 


.. ■ 





1 


3 ... 








6 





6 


,, second „ 


» 


... 





1 


2 








10 ., 





11 


„ third „ 


» 


... 





1 


7 ... . 





1 


4 





1 3 


„ fourth „ 


»» 


... 





2 


... 





2 


4 


,. 


1 8 


„ posterior toe and claw of hind foot 


... 





I 


4 ... 





1 


2 





1 2 


Greatest depth of body 


•■• 


... 





2 


9 ... 





2 


2 


.. 


2 


„ width „ 


•»• 


... 





2 


C ... 





2 


3 .. 


,. 


2 3 


Depth of base of tail ... 


• • • 


... 





1 


6 ... 





1 


3 


. 


1 5 


Width „ 


• ■ • 


... 





1 


4 ... 





1 


1 





1 2 


Depth at middle of tail 


••• 


• . * 








8 ... 








8 


. 


9 


Width „ 


•• • 


... 








6 ... 








5 


. 


4 


Depth at end of tail ... 


• •• 


.. . 








IJ ... 








\\ .. 





1^ 


Width 


• •> 


• • . 








1 








1 





1 


Height of highest scales of dorsal crest on nape 


... 








3 ... 








3 





3 


f> jy 


at base of tail 








3 ... 








2 





H 


yy yy 


at middle of tail 








2i ... 








2 





2 




where doubled 








1 








1 


. 


Oi 



[ 8 ] 









3 


• • • 








3 


••• 








2i 








3 


• • • 








3 


• • • 








3 








H 


• •• 








2 


■•• 








2 








4 


• • • 








H 


... 








H 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [lieptiles. 

Measurements— con<j«Merf. 

Queensland Gippsland Gippsland 

Speclmen. Specdien. Specimen. 

Ft. ins. lines. Ft. in. lines. Ft.ins. lines. 

Diameter of large spinose scales ou sides of body IJ ... o 1^ ... o o 1 
Number of rows of scales in 3 lines at middle of body Five ... Five ... Six 

Number of scales in 3 lines at anterior part of top 

of the head lengthwise Five ...Three to four Three & a half 
» }> ill the supraorbital ) Ten lengthwise, Six lengthwise, Seven lengthwise, 

patches ( fourteen across ten across ten across 

)» )) between SUpraorbitali Eight lengthwise, Four lengthwise, Five lengthwise, 

patches ) eleven across eight across eight across 

„ ,, in middle of belly ... Three ... Five ... Five 

Length of chin plate ... 
Width of same at upper base 
Height of rostral plate 
* Width of same 

Reference. — Lophura Lesueri (Gray), Syn. Rept. in Griffith ed. of Cuv. Anim. 
Kino-d. V. 9, p. 60 = Istlurus id. (Dumeril and Bibron), Erpt. Gen. v. 4, p. 384, t. 40 
= Physignathus id. (Gray), Cat. Liz. B. M. = Amphibolurics heterurus (Peters), 
Monatsbericlite der Konig-lich Preuss. Akad. der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1866, p. 86. 

The bladder-like inflation of the hinder part of the head near the 
hind angle of the jaws, from which the genus derives its name, is 
very striking in these aquatic Lizards, which inhabit rivers, in which 
they swim well, from the wide expansion or horizontal fringe of 
scales on the sides of the long stout toes. 

The larger conoidal scales form irregular rows on the sides of 
the head and vertically across the sides of the body and base of 
tail, amongst the greatly more numerous ordinary small ones. 

The only difference I observe between this and the typical 
P. Lesueri of Queensland is the greater width in proportion to the 
height of the rostral plate in the Queensland one ; and the super- 
ocular group of scales being about one-half the size of the others 
on the anterior part of the top of the head, instead of being only 
J or J- the size, as Peters states ;f and as it is improbable that 
such creatures would have so great a geographical range as to 
be common to Gippsland and Queensland, with such an enormous 
space between the rivers, I name the variety or probable species 
after that excellent geologist, magistrate, and bushman, my accom- 
plished friend Mr. A. Howitt, who, with his multifarious and 
laborious duties, in so difficult a country to traverse, is always ready 

* These measurements are, in c.ich of the three specimens, t.ikcn across, the points of the compass touching each 
lateral suture ; if measured in two halves from centre to each lateral suture along the curved surface, the Queensland 
one measures five lines and the two Victorian four lines each. 

t " Die Supraorbitalschuppen sind auffallcnd klein, 3 bis 4 Mai kleiner als die Schuppen des Vorderkopfes." 

Dec. IX, [91 B 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [neptiles. 

and willing to aid in any scientific investigation of the natural 
products of Gippsland, and who with infinite diflftculty succeeded 
in procuring three specimens for me of this River-Lizard. The 
proverb that "Cows far oft' have long horns" is ludicrously exem- 
plified in the case of this Lizard, Avliich has apparently given rise to 
the rumors of Crocodiles having been seen in Gippsland ; a country 
so rugged and overgrown with forests and almost impenetrable 
scrub that it is an extremely rare occurrence for a white man to 
reach the habitat in which the PIti/signafhus is found, in the upper 
reaches of the Buclian River. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 81. — Fig. 1, side view, oiic-luilf natural size. Fig. la, sitle view of head, natural size. 
Fig. lb, top view of head, natural size (the scales of the supraorbital patches too small). Fig. 
Ic, scales of belly, twice natural size. Fig. Id, scales of sides of body, magnified twice. Fig. 
le, scales of side of tail, magnified two diameters. Fig. If, hind foot, natural size, to show 
projecting scales of edge of toes. Fig. 19. section of tail before doubling of dorsal crest. 
Fig. lA, section of tail after doubling of dorsal crest. Fig. 1/. scales of throat, magnified two 
diameters. Fig. \k, rostral and chin plates, natural size. Fig. 2, rostral and chin jjlates of 
Queensland specimen to show the difference of proportion of the rostral. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 10] 



Th.82 



ZO LOGY OF VI CT R I A 

Reptiles) 




y^.: -^ 4 



DrjJWdd^dtlebUth 



PrafM^Oydirtx.'' 



Steamr Utko . Omk Pratm^ Of ha 



c^ ■ 



1183 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 
f Reptde<s) 




Xrjj?m^ddyei>luh. 



ProfJP'Cay dxraf 



J team/ Utho, Govt/. 'Prmtoy Offioi 



Zoologi/.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Reptiles- 



Plates 82 and 83. 

CHELYMYS MACQUARIA (Cuv. sr.). 

The Murray Tortoise. 

[Genus CHELYMYS (Gray). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Reptilia. Section Cata- 
phracta. Order Chelonia. Sub-ord. Pleuroderes. Fam. Chelydidce. Sub-fani. Hydraspidinae.) 

Gen. Char. — Carapace moderately convex, solid, ovate, wide behind, side edges slightly 
turned up ; nuchal shield distinct ; internal cavity contracted in front to half the width of the 
outer opening by two internal diverging septa ; vertebra sharply keeled within ; sternum solid, 
narrow, anterior and posterior ends bent slightly upwards, with broad sides reflected upwards at 
an obtuse angle, and a wide angular notch behind between the anal plates ; intergular plate 
marginal. Head moderate, flat, covered by a thin, smooth skin, reticulated so as to form small 
irregular plates on the temples ; no zygomatic arch ; ear-drum large, round ; jaws naked, horny, 
strong ; neck long, with a granular skin ; two small conical barbels under the chin. Feet with 
wide web between the toes ; claws long, acute, five on the anterior feet, four on the posterior 
feet, the hiud posterior toe having no claw, Australia.] 

Description. — Shell ovate, moderately convex, with a slig-ht longitudinal, very 
narrow sulcus along- the middle of the 2nd, 3rd, and ith vertebral shields,* interrupted 
at their edges; 1st vertebral plate equal to the 5th, but shorter than the others, 
larg-e, four-sided, narrowed and concave behind, touching- the nuchal, first marginal, 
and half of second marg-inal plates, in front, outer sides slightly convex ; 2nd, 3rd and 
4th obscurely hexag-onal, with waving- lateral marg-ins, the 2nd plate longest ; 5tli plate 
widest behind, where it touches the caudal and half the last lateral plate on each side; 
nuchal plate narrow, oblong-, one-third long-er than wide; all the other marginal 
plates g-radually widening- towards the posterior end from the 4th, which is smallest, 
very slig-htly inclined upwards, forming- a shallow concavity outside the convexity of 
the sides of the carapace behind the anterior limbs to the caudal plates, which are 
nearly on a level with the nuchal one, all the intervening- lateral plates being- a 
little below their level ; the five posterior ones with a slig-ht notch in the middle of 
each, and sometimes at the suture along- the edg-e. Vertebral, costal, and marg-inal 
plates rugged, with narrow, irregularly reticulating, vermiform, impressed grooves, 
chiefly longitudinal in direction. Plastron or sternum narrow, semi-oval, and wider 
in front than behind, the sides slq)ing- upwards at an obtuse angle ; gular plates 
triangular, smaller than the intergular plate which separates them on the margin. 
Reticulation of the skin forming polygonal plate-like spaces on the temples; top of 
the head covered with thin smooth skin; jaws naked; skin of anterior legs with the 
granules between the reticidations of the skin larger and more plate-like than on the 
neck, A row of long, arched, narrow, transverse scales on the anterior edge of the 
leg, and a row of seven or eight not transversely elongated on the posterior edge. 
Posterior limb with more regularly-plated granulation than the anterior, with a 
distinct row of 6 or 8 large transversely enlongated plates on the posterior margin. 
Color: — The whole of the upper surface dark brownish-olive; whole of the under 
surface dull brownish and greenish yellow, irregularly netted with impressed 
grooves, but without dark margins or spots. Skin of neck moderately granular, 
reticulated, of a blackish-olive tint, a pale-yellow streak extending- from the edges 
of the jaws across the lower edge of the ear a variable distance along each side of 
the neck. 

« The diagrams ou Plate 83, figures 2 and 3, identify the different shields and plates referred to. 

[ 11 ] 



Zoology.'] 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



[^Reptiles, 



Measurements. 





Largest 


More 
















Blale, 




Female, 


convex, 


Female, 


Smaller 




"i'Olinf^ 


from 




from 


from 


from 


sp.. 


Wah- 


AV 




junct. of 




Junct. 


Goul- 


Wah- 


Wah- 


guuyali. 


I'll 11 ^''iii 


Jlurray 




M. 1 


ii 1). 


buru. 


guuyali. 


gunyali. 




^Ull 


• 


and 


























Darling. 




in. 


lines 


in. 


lines 


in. 


lines 


in. 


lines 


in. lines 


in. 


lines 


in. lines 


Length of carapace 


11 


3 


10 





9 


G 


8 


10 


7 G 


5 


1 


9 6 


Greatest width ... 


9 







9 


7 


8 


7 


4 


6 6 


4 


4 


7 


Deptli from middle of steruum to middle of 


























carajiace 


3 


9 


3 


4 


4 





3 





2 6 


1 


6 


3 3 


LeiiRth of nuchal plate ... 





9 





8 





7 





7 


8 





6 


9 


Width „ „ 





6 





5 





4 





3 


3 





2 


3J 


Outer margin of 1st lateral plate 


1 








11 





11 





9 


9 





5 


1 


„ '2nd 


1 


3 


1 




1 


1 





10 


11 





6 


1 


„ 3rd „ 


1 


3 


1 







11 





11 


9 





H 


1 


„ 4th „ 


1 


4 ' 


1 




1 


*> 


1 





9 





6 


1 


„ 5th „ 


1 


3 


1 




1 


1 


1 





9 





6 


1 1 


„ 6th 


1 


3 


1 




1 


2 


1 


1 


10 





6 


1 1 


„ 7th „ 


1 


5 


1 


2 


1 


3 


1 


3 


11 





7 


1 2 


„ 8th 


1 


5 


1 


2 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1 





7i 


1 2 


„ 9th „ 


1 


6 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1 





9 


1 2 


„ 10th „ 


1 


5 


1 


3 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 





9 


1 1 


nth „ 


1 


4 


1 


2 


1 





1 


1 


10 





9 


1 1 


„ caudal plates 


1 


3 


1 


2 


1 





1 


1 


11 





8 


1 2 


Length of 1st vertebral plate 


1 


9 


1 


7 


1 


8 


1 


3 


1 1 





8 


1 5 


Greatest width at front ... 


2 


9 


2 


4 


2 


1 


1 


8 


1 10 


1 


2 


2 1 


Width behind ... 


1 


8 


1 


5 


1 


3 


1 


1 


1 1 





9 


1 4 


Length of 2ad vertebral plate 


2 


5 


2 





2 





1 


8 


1 5 





11 


I 11 


Greatest width at middle 


2 


10 


2 





1 


10 


1 


8 


2 1 


1 


8 


2 1 


Length of 3rd vertebral plate 


1 


11 


1 


8 


1 


9 


1 


6 


1 6 





9 


1 9 


Greatest width ... 


2 


9 


2 


1 


2 





1 


10 


2 1 


1 


9 


2 4 


Length of 4th vertebral plate 


2 





1 


10 


1 


8 


1 


6 


1 3 





10 


1 6 


Greatest width ... 


2 


7 


1 


11 


1 


9 


1 


11 


1 10 


1 


■ 7 


2 


Length of 5th vertebral plate 


1 


9 


1 


8 


1 


5 


1 


7 


1 3 





11 


1 8 


Greatest width behind ... 


o 


8 


2 


5 


2 


3 


2 


1 


1 7 


1 


2 


2 1 


Width of front margin ... 


1 


1 





8 





9 





9 


9 





7 


9 


Length of neck from front edge of carapace 


























to occiput 


2 


9 


1 


6 


1 


8 


1 


6 


1 G 


1 


4 


2 1 


Diameter at middle 


1 


5 


1 


4 


1 


4 


1 


2 


1 1 





7 


1 2 


Length of head 


2 


1 


1 


10 


2 





1 


6 


1 6 


1 





1 10 


Greatest width at hind margin of ear 


1 


5 


1 


3 


1 


6 


1 


1 


1 1 





9 


1 3 


Greatest depth ... 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 





10 





7 


1 


Length of anterior limb ... 


3 


3 


2 


10 


1 


6 


1 


7 


I 9 


1 





2 9 


„ longest toe without claw 


1 


1 





10 





9 





11 


8 





5 


1 1 


„ claw... 





7 





5 





5 





3 


4 





3 


4 


„ posterior limb 


4 


7 


3 


2 


2 


6 


2 


10 


2 6 


1 


7 


3 5 


„ ongest toe without claw 


1 


6 


1 


3 


1 


5 


1 


1 


11 





8 


1 4 


„ claw... 





8 





6 





6 





6 


6 





3 


6 


„ tail from posterior end of plastron 


2 


10 


1 


10 


2 


3 


2 


5 


2 1 





10 


3 9 


„ intergular plate 


1 


5 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 





1 1 





9 


I 3 


Greatest width „ 


1 


1 





10 





7 





9 


6 





4 


8 


Width at margin „ 





6 





6 





61 





6 


3 





2h 


3i 


Gular plates at outer margin 


1 


3 


1 


1 





11 





11 


11 





6 


11 


Outer margin of humeral plate ... 


1 


5 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 





10 





6 


1 2 


Length of anal plates at outer margin 


1 


4 


1 


2 


1 





1 


1 


1 





8 


1 


Width of plastron across ends of caudal plates 


2 


1 


1 


10 


1 


4 


1 


5 


1 2 





9 


1 7 


,x „ „ posterior outer angles 


























of gular plates ... 


2 


9 


2 


5 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 9 


1 


1 


2 



Referen ce. — Enu/s Macqiiaria, (Cuv. ), R. A., v. 2, p. 1 1 = Hi/draspis Australis, 
(Gra}-), in Grey Jour. Exped. N.W. and W. Australia, v. 2, p. 445, t. G = Platemys 
Macquaria, (Dura, et Bib.), Erp. Gen., v. 2, p. 438. 

[ 12] 



Zoologij.l NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Reptiles. 

Altliougli popularly called the Murray Turtle by the colonists, 
the structure of the feet is that proper to the walking Tortoises, 
and not the exclusively swimming paddles of the true Turtles. 

This species varies very much in the rugosity of the upper 
plates and in the depth of the shell ; some of the same age and sex 
being much smoother and flatter than others. The males usually 
are narrower and deeper or more convex, thicker and more rugose, 
than the females, and with larger tails. The young are more 
nearly orlDicular, and with the notches in the posterior marginal plates 
very much deeper and more conspicuous than in the adults, and 
with, of course, the shields covering the shell very much thinner. 
The above series of measurements of specimens shows that the 
proportion of length to width of the vertebral plates also varies 
greatly in specimens otherwise perfectly alike, the 4tli vertebral 
plate being sometimes as long as wide, and sometimes nearly twice 
as wide as long. The upper surface of the carapace is uniformly of a 
very dark-brownish or blackish-olive ; the marbling with grey which 
is mentioned by older writers only appearing in dried specimens ; the 
under-side of the sternum is always of a nearly uniform yellow- 
ochre tint, becoming of a more greenish or brownish hue towards 
the marginal plates, but without dark margins or spots ; the skin 
is uniform blackish, except the edges of the jaws and the streak 
from them along the sides of the neck and touching the lower edge 
of the ear-drum, which is yellow. 

The size of the granules on the skin of the neck varies con- 
sideralDly also, irrespective of other characters. The so-called 
beards or barbels are two minute, soft, retractile, conical tubercles 
or papillae, very likely to be overlooked, as when retracted they 
only leave a smooth oval spot. The presence or absence of this 
so-called beard cannot be taken as a character of generic value 
with advantage, as it varies so much, like the other appendages of 
the skin. 

These Mud-Tortoises can scarcely be said to differ generically 
fi'om the South American Platemys and Hydraspis^ the two barbels 
under the chin being really present in all the specimens if carefully 
looked for, and the slightly more distinct plating of the temples 

C 13 ] 



Zoologt/.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. llieptiles. 

with small polygonal shields constituting a very slight ground for 
generic distinction. 

The eggs have a strong white calcareous shell, of a slightly 
ovate form, very little wider at one end than the other, bluntly 
rounded at each end ; about 1 in. 7 lines long and 1 in. 1 line in 
greatest diameter ; another specimen is 1 in. 8 lines long and 
1 in. 1 line in diameter, being a little longer and proportionately 
narrower. 

Very conmion in the River Murray and its branches, the 
Darling, Goulburn, &c., from which a great number of specimens 
of various ages and sizes are in the Museum. It is not found in 
the rivers flowing south into the sea on the Victorian coast. The 
specimen figured is one of average size from the Goulburn. 

Although so common, no recognisable figure has been published 
before. 

Explanation op Figures. 

Plate 82. — Side view, one-half natural size. 

Plate 83. — Fig. 1, ventral view, one-third natural size. Fig. la, same specimen, dorsal view. 
Fig. 2, diagram of i)lates of carapace; 1 to 5, vertebral plates; 10, nuchal plate ; 11, caudal 
plates ; 12 to 22, marginal plates. Fig. 3, diagram of plates of plastron or sternum ; 1, gular 
plates ; la, iutergular ; 2, humeral ; 3, pectoral ; 4, abdominal ; 5, femoral ; 6, anal plates. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ H] 



Fl.64^ 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 
( /lj- k-ts ) 




^iiiiitfe 








V 






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V 




A itrtholtmoK det'CtUlh, 



Irof M^Qrj cUrex'' 



SteamlU}io.Covi/,Triniina Office, 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 



Plate 84. 

CTENOLATES AMBIGUUS (Pacn. sp.). 

The Murray Golden Perch. 

[Genus CTENOLATES (Gunth.). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Sub-class 
TeleostiL Order Acanthopterygii. Fam. Percidae.) 

Gen. Char. — Spinous dorsal of ten rays, continuous with the soft dorsal. Branchiostegals, 
seven ; pseudobranchiae distinct. Teeth villiform, in bands on the jaws and palate bones and 
vomer. Tongue smooth. Preoperculum finely serrated on straight posterior edge, with larger 
and less regular denticles directed slightly forwards in groups on undulated inferior edge. 
Lower edge of preorbital finely serrated. Scales of moderate size, finely serrated on posterior 
edge. Australia.] 

Description. — Ovate j greatest depth under anterior part of dorsal, about twice 
and a half in the total leng-th of the fish, excluding* the caudal fin. Head cavernous, 
a row of 6 or 8 large mucous pits extending- on each side of lower jaw and preoper- 
culum, a few also larg-er ones above the preorbital plate. Leng-th of the head slightly 
less than one-third of the total leng-th, without caudal fin. Thickness about half the 
depth. Dorsal profile very convex from dorsal fin to occiput, concave from thence 
to end of snout, the concavity of profile greatest in large specimens, and above the 
occiput. Lower jaw slightly longer than upper, the maxillary reaching, when the 
mouth is closed, to a little behind the vertical from the anterior part of the orbit. 
Diameter of the eye one-half of the length of the snout, and one-fourth to one-fifth 
of the post-orbital length of the head, according to the age, Ujiper part of the head 
smooth and naked; cheeks covered with small scales, about half the size of those on 
the operculum. Denticles on lower edge of preoperculum in three or four rounded 
groups, directed forwards. Operculum with one strong triangular spine, little 
behind tip of soft posterior angle, with a second one a little in front of it on upper 
edge, sometimes broken into several little denticles, and a third, smaller one, about 
half way between angle and upper base. Spines of dorsal thick, strong-, the 5th 
and 6th longest; 1st branched ray of dorsal exceeding- last spinous ray by about 
one-half of its length ; last branched ray about one-fourth more than the length of 
the last spine. The basal third of the dorsals covered with small scales. Caudal 
and pectoral rounded. 1st ventral ray lengthened. Three anal spines, very thick, 
the 1st little more than half the leng-th of the 2nd. Fin-rays: Dorsal, 10 spinous, 
11 branched; pectoral, 17; ventral, 1 spinous, 6 branched; anal, 3 spinous, 8 
branched (last two with one base); caudal, 15 to 17, with 3 or 4 short rays above 
and below. Scales: Along the lateral line, about 82; above, 14 to 16; below, 29 
to 32. The posterior edge of the coracoid {a) above the base of the pectoral, and 
of the suprascapular {b) above operculum, finely denticulated. Color; Purplish on 
top of head; sides of head with mixtures of green, purple, and yellow; back, rich 
yellowish bronze-green ; sides, golden-yellow, fading into whitish on lower margin; 
scales of back and sides minutely speckled with black ; spinous dorsal fin pale- 
purplish, the rays tawny-yellow, minutely dotted with black ; soft dorsal, blackish 
towards edge; pectorals yellowish, the rays minutely dotted with black, membrane 
nearly colorless; ventral fins, membrane yellowish, rays orange; caudal, with the 

[ 15 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. ^Fishes. 

membrane brownish-purple, minutely dotted with black ; anal, membrane purplish, 
rays dull orang-e, the hinder portion blackish towards margin. Iris g-o] den-yellow, 
with an inner pearly-white ring", with reddish and purplish marks outside. 

Measurements of Two Specimens. 

Total length to end of caudal 
Length of head to end of operculum 

„ from tip of snout to anterior edge of orbit , 
Diameter of orbit 

Length from tip of snout to end of preoperculum 
„ „ base of pectoral 

„ „ „ ventral 

„ „ first anal spine 

Greatest depth ... 

„ thickness 
Length of pectoral 

„ spine of ventral 

„ 1st soft ray 

„ 2nd „ 

„ 1st anal spine ... 

„ 2nd „ 

„ 3rd 

„ 1st branched ray 

„ 1st dorsal spine 

„ 2nd „ 

„ 5th „ 

„ 10th „ 

„ 1st branched ray 

„ caudal fin 
Number of scales in one inch, about middle 

Reference. — = Datnia (?) amhigiia, Rich., Voy. Ereb. and Ter., t. 19 = 
Dulcs aurafus, Castlenau, P.Z.S. Vict., vol. 1, p. 55 = Ctenolatcs Macquariensis, 
Gunth., P.Z.S. 1871, t. 33. 

The largest specimens are deeper in proportion to the length 
than the smaller, and have a more concave profile ; and the eye, as 
usual, is smaller in proportion than in the younger ones. 

This beautiful fish is much esteemed for the table, and is com- 
monly about 31bs. or 41bs. weight. An enormous specimen, of 
which the dimensions are given in the first column, weighed 8|lbs. 

Dr. Richardson counts only six branchiostegal rays in his dried 
specimens, but there are seven in the fresh fish ; and I think there 
can be no doubt of the correctness of the synonyms above quoted. 
The last anal ray by some may be counted as two, being divided 
to the base ; and the number of scales counted along the lateral 
line depends very much on where you cease to count the small 
posterior ones ; so these differences, which induced Count Castlenau 
to propose a new specific name, I think unimportant. 

[ IG ] 



Ft. ins. lines. 


Ft. 


ins. 


lines. 


1 11 ... 


1 


10 





6 0... 





5 


6 


16... 





1 


6 


8... 








8 


3 9... 





3 


6 


6 0... 





5 


10 


6 9... 





6 


4 


12 0... 





11 


5 


8 0... 





6 


8 


3 10 ... 





3 


4 


3 3... 





3 


1 


1 9 ... 





1 


5 


3 7... 





3 


2 


2 7.. 





2 


6 


11 ... 








10 


18... 





1 


9 


15... 





1 


6 


2 4 ... 




— 




5... 








8 


10 ... 





1 


3 


1 10 ... 





2 





12... 





1 


3 


1 11 ... 




— 




2 4... 





2 


4 


Four 


Five 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 

The gullet is wide ; the stomach with a wide blunt cpecuni ; the 
pyloric appendages about eleven in number, and I of an inch long ; 
the intestines with two turns. The swim-bladder is excessively 
thin, club-shaped, and about 1\ inches wide. Liver bilobed. 

The general hue, like the fashionable color " old gold," is a most 
striking and beautiful characteristic of this fish, when fresh, distin- 
guishing it from the many other Murray-River fish with which it 
comes plentifully to the market, and well warranting its popular 
name amongst the colonists of "Golden Perch.'' It has not been 
figured of its natural colors before. 

Common in the River Murray and its branches, but not found 
in any river of Victoria flomng southwards to the sea. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 84. — Fig. 1, side view, one-half the natural size. Fig. la, head, natural size of 
average specimen, to show the serratures of the hind edge of the preoperculum, preocular 
plate, and the groups of denticles directed forwards on the lower margin of the preoperculum, 
and large mucous pits on side of snout. Fig. \l>, portion of one side of under jaw to show the 
large mucous pits, natural size. Fig. Ic, inner view of mouth, natural size, showing the 
smooth tongue and the crowded rows of small teeth on the jaws, palatine bones, and vomer. 
Fig. \d, olive scales near hack, above lateral fin, natural size, to show coloring. Fig. le, 
yellow scales of sides below lateral line, natural size. 

Frederick McCoy. 



Dec. IX. [ 17 ] 



^ 



MIEMdDIIMS 'ID IF TTIHIiE MiUSEiUI^ 



?85 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(' 1-LSlt CS } 




Liulifi^ Bech'cr lid A' tltk. 



Prot ■ M'Caif.diruj-': 



Hutiu:J.AC''i'na. 



Ft 86 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(lishts) 




A. B ari/wLomBH i^tbUih' 



FrofM^fUy dxraf' 



Stavm,kJJw.Ctr/t,J'nntuuj OfficA. 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. {Fishes. 



Plates 85 and 86. 
OLIGORUS MACQUARIENSIS (Cuv. and Val. sp.). 

The Murray Cod -Perch. 



[Genus OLIGORUS (Gunthek). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Sub class 
Teleostii. Order Acanthopterygii. Fam. Percidae.) 

Gen. Chur. — Branchiostegal rays seven. Teeth in villiform bands on the jaws, vomer, and 
palathie bones. No canines. Tongue smooth. One dorsal fin, with eleven spinous rays in 
front of the branched ones. Anal fin with three spines in front. Operculum with one point ; 
sub-operculum with a smooth or obtusely denticulated edge. Scales very small. Pyloric caeca 
few. Australian rivers.] 

Description. — Form-. Regular elong-ate ovate, moderately compressed; greatest 
depth of body 4| times in total leng-th to end of caudal fin in snjall specimens (a 
foot and a half long), but only 3|- times in larg-e individuals ; thickness of body f ths 
of the depth. Edges of operculum, preoperculum, and suboperculum nearly smooth. 
One obscure spine a little within the marg-in and rounded posterior point of the 
operculum. Edge of the preoperculum with a slight undulation or imperfect denta- 
tion on the posterior margin and angle (perceptible only when dry). Fin Rays: 
Dorsal, 11 spinous and 15 branched; anal, 3 spinous and usually 12 or very rarely 
13 branched; pectoral, 18 to 20 (usually 19), branched; ventral, 1 spinous and 5 
branched, the anterior part of first branched ray considerably longer than the others ; 
caudal, 20 (9 above and 11 below the middle). Scales: Along lateral line, 106 to 180; 
above lateral line at middle of body," 23 to 35 ; below lateral line, 38 to 70. Color: 
Ground color a yellowish-olive, becoming whitish on belly, and blackish on top of 
head and back, more grey in large old specimens ; covered, except on belly, with 
dusky variable spots, very small, extremely numerous, and nearly equal in large old 
fish, much larger, fewer, and grouped in irregular angular cloudy clusters about 
half an inch or so long in smaller young examples ; fins dark-olive with a purplish 
tinge and often red at the margins, except the ventrals, which are nearly white ; 
anterior part of top of head blackish, without spots. Pancreatic caeca of pylorus, 
about 3. 

Reference. — = Grystes Macquariensis {Cwv. and Val.), v. 3, p. 58 ; id., Rich., 
E. and T. Fish, p. 118, t. 53, f. 8, 9 ; = G. Peeli (Mitchell), Exp. Austr., t. 6, f. 1. 

This great Cod-Perch is well known under the popular name of 
" Murray Cod " from its great abundance in the Murray River, and 

[ 19 ] 



Zoology. '\ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IFishes. 

some fancied resemblance to a Cod, to wliicli it has no affinity and 
little likeness. It is by for the largest of all our fresh-water fish, 
and is in request for the table all the year round. It sometimes 
reaches lOOlbs. in weight, and examj^les of 401bs. are common. It 
feeds voraciously on fish and Crustacea ; twenty full-grown speci- 
mens of the smaller INIurray Crayfish (Astacopsis bicarinatus) were 
taken from the stomach of the specimen figured in our Plate 85, 
which measured three feet four and a half inches in length. The 
color varies consideral^ly, the very large specimens being greyish 
with a slight, dull, greenish tinge above, but whitish on the belly; 
the dusky spots l)eing very small and excessively numerous ; while 
in the smaller specimens the spots are always much larger, and 
frequently clustered in angular patches, as in our Plate 86 ; these 
smaller specimens are more decidedly yellowish-olive in the ground 
color. 

There is a very common opinion among the fish dealers and 
other observers that there are two distinct species confounded 
under the name of Murray Cod, the one with a narrow snout, 
and the other with a broadly-rounded blunt one, and it is easy 
to separate the two forms when a heap of the fish is sorted. 
I am convinced, however, that the difference is sexual, and 
that the two forms agree precisely in all the other proportions, 
the number of fin-rays, and in the num])er of scales along the 
lateral line and above and ])elow it, as well as in coloring. 
The depth of the body I find also varies from 3 J in the large 
to about J in the small examples in the total length. The length 
of the orbit in the moderately large sj^ecimen (No. 1 of table of 
measurements given below) is contained about 9 times in the 
length of the head ; in the next (No. 2) 8 times ; in the next 
(No. 3) 7J ; in the next (No. 4) 7 times ; in the smallest (No. 5) 
about 5 times ; and in the largest (No. 6) it is contained about 
lOiJ^ times ; bearing out the remark I have made, in relation 
to other fish, that the proportionate size of the eye is always 
larger in young or small individuals, and is gradually a less 
fraction of the length of the head or body in the older or larger 
individuals. 

[ 20] 



Zoology.'] 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



\_Fishes. 



I give below tlie detailed measurements of several specimens to 
show the differences between the large and small in various pro- 
portions : — 



Length from snout to distal eucl of 
middle of caudal ... 
„ of caudal to middle ... 
„ of snout to anterior edge of 
orbit 
Distance between orbits 
Length of orbit 

„ of head from snout to end of 

operculum 
„ from snout to anal (measured 

along ventral edge) 
„ from front of anal to end of 

middle of caudal ... 
„ from snout to base of pectoral 
„ „ to origin of dorsal 

„ „ to first branched ray 

of dorsal 
„ „ to origin of ventral 

fin 

Height of 1st ray of dorsal... 
„ 2nd „ 

„ 6th spine of dorsal 
Greatest height of soft rays of dorsal 
Length of pectoral 

„ longest ray of ventral 

)> -LUX ,, ,, ... 

Depth of anal 

Length of anal 

Depth of body in front of dorsal 

Thickness of bodv in front of dorsal... 

Scales in 1 inch at middle of body ... 
„ along lateral line 
„ above lateral line under front of 

dorsal 
„ below lateral line under front of 

dorsal 



No. L 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


Moderately 

large 
Male. 


Moderately 

large 

Female. 






Plate 85 








ft.ins.lines. 


ft.ins.lines. 


ft.ins.lines. 


3 4 6 


3 


2 


4 


4 10 


4 10 





3 6 


3 


2 3 





1 9 


2 6 


2 2J 





2 


1 3 


1 2 





1 


114 


9 9 





7 7 


2 3 


2 


1 


4 6 


1 4 


1 2 6 


I 


6 


1 7 


II 3 





7 9 


1 6 


1 I 6 





9 7 


2 1 


1 9 6 


1 


3 6 


9 9 


9 6 





7 9 


9 


9 




— 


1 4 


I 4 





10 


1 9 


2 





1 6 


4 


4 





3 


4 4 


4 





3 4 


3 10 


3 10 





3 6 


3 9 


3 6 





2 10 


3 6 


3 6 





3 


4 6 


3 10 





3 10 


116 


9 6 





7 3 


8 


6 





5 


No. 

- 6 

122 


No. 

n 

117 




No. 
6A 
115 


30 


32 




27 


51 


38 




45 



No. 4, 

Clouded, 

figured 

specimen. 

Plate 86. 



, ft.ins.lines. 

1 7 6 
2 5 

1 4 
1 5 

8^ 

5 6 

116 

9 3 
5 4 
6 9 

10 11 

5 3 
7 
II 
1 5 

2 

2 

2 



1 
2 



3 
4 
3 

No. 

10 

127 

30 

30 



No. 5. 

Small 
specimen. 



ft.ins.lines, 

1 3 

1 9 

9 

7 

6 

3 

6 9 

5 6 

3 4 

4 3 

6 9 



3 





8 



1 

1 
1 

I 
I 
I 
I 
2 

1 10 
No. 
15 
109 



53 



No. 6. 

Very large 

specimen, 

70 lbs. 

weight. 



ft.ins.lines. 

4 7 9 

5 9 

4 3 

4 

1 6 

1 3 9 

3 9 

1 II 6 

1 5 6 

1 9 

2 9 



5 
I 3 

I 7 



9 
2 
6 
9 
9 
8 



4 

5 

5 

4 

4 

6 

1 1 
9 

No. 

4 

186 

28 

70 



Very abundant in the IMurray and all the rivers flowing into it, 

but not found naturally in aii}^ of the rivers of Victoria flowing 

south. The Acclimatisation Society many years ago introduced it 

for the first time into the Yarra, where it is now established, but 

does not thrive, although its voracity has sensibly diminished 

the numbers of several of the native fishes of that river, 

[21 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Fishes. 

particularly tlie Blackfisli ( Gadopsis gracilis) arid tlio Yarra Herring 
or Australian Grayling {Profntrnctes marcenn)^ wliicli have now 
disappeared from the lower parts of" the Yarra altogether. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 85. — Fig. 1, moderately large spccinieu (3 feet 4| inches long) (the first branched 
ray of ventral not long enough); to show form and small spots of old fish. Fig. la, snout, 
viewed from above. Fig. \d, inner view of mouth, showing bands of villiform teeth on lower 
jaw, and smooth tongue. Fig. le, inner view of upper jaw, showing crowded small villiform 
teeth on jaw, vomer, and palatine bones. Fig. \f, (me of the teeth, natural size. Fig. \g, one 
of the teeth magnified. Figs. \h, \i, \k, \l, scales, natural size and magnified. 

Plate 86. — Fig. 1. small specimen, f the natural size (1 foot 7i inches in length), showing the 
angular patches of large spots of the young. Fig. 1«, top view of heiid of same broad-snouted 
specimen. Fig. 2, outline of top of head of narrow-snouted specimen of about same size. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 22] 



JTEM'DmS Of TMK MHISj^Ftf 



Yl^jl 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORI;-'. 

fFishe^) 



2 a 



vJ' ■.' 




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l'^ 



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la 

















f! ischoenfeld del&hlh 



Trd. WCoy diiexl 



RdUltL HcL^XTT.p. 



Zoology.'] 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



[Fishes. 



Plate 87. 

MUSTELUS ANTARCTICUS (Gunth). 
The Australian Smooth-Hound. 



[Genus MUSTELUS (Cuv.). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Order Plagio- 
stomata. Sub-order Selachoidea. Fam. Carcharidse. Sub-fam. Mustelinae.) 

Gen. Char. — Form tapering, moderately compressed. Five small gill-slits, tbe three 
anterior in front of pectoral. Two dorsals without spines, and moderate ventral and anal fins : 
caudal moderate, extremity of body scarcely elevated, a notch in distal lobe ; basal lobes 
moderate. Nostrils with a very long narrow triangular lobe from anterior edge, and a small 
lobe from posterior margin. Mouth moderately arched, with strong prominent cartilages and a 
deep fold about each angle. Teeth very numerous, small, rhomboidal, flat, like a tiled pave- 
ment, of many alternate rows ; the posterior rows in some species with a slight short median 
point, and one still smaller at one side. Spiracles moderate, a little behind and below the 
posterior corner of eye ; eye elongate. A nictitating membrane. No pit in front of caudal. 
Scales very small, triangular, tricarinate. Cosmopolitan.] 

Description. — Head semi-oval, -flattened, pre-oral portion about equal to the 
width of mouth. Eyes approximate, lengthened with a thick fold below, forming* 
the nictitating- lid, their anterior edges about as far from tip of snout as from each 
other. Spiracle a little behind the eye. First dorsal small, entirely behind the 
inner posterior lobe of pectoral, or very slightly in front of it, a little nearer to 
snout than to the second dorsal ; anterior and postei'ior bases of anal a little behind 
the corresponding parts of second dorsal ; space between doisals two and a half in 
length of the base of second dorsal. Tail very slightly elevated j notch in distal 
lobe of caudal fin deep and narrow. Color: Back and sides ashy-grey, with a 
slight pinkish-brown tinge on side of head and bod}' ; with, from nape to second 
dorsal, very small lighter spots on back and sides above lateral line ; lower lip, lower 
third of sides, whole under surface of body, and under side of pectorals and ventral s, 
milk-white j liind edge of dorsals and tip of caudal blackish; iris mottled green and 
brown bronze, darker above and below. Teeth in about seven rows, the inner angle 
slightly prominent as a very obtuse cusp on the inner rows. 

Measurements. small female. 

Ft. ins. lines. Ft. ins. lines. 

Total length to end of upper lobe of caudal ... ... 3 5 ... 1 11 

Length from snout to origin of 1st dorsal ... ... 1 1 ... 7 1 

„ of base of l.st dorsal ... ... ... ... 3 9 ... 2 6 

Height of 1st dorsal ... ... ... ... 4 ... 2 9 

Length of posterior lobe of 1st dorsal ... ... ... 1 7 ... 1 1 

„ from snout to anterior base of 2nd dorsal ... 2 3 ... 1 2 

„ of base of 2nd dorsal... ... ... ... 3 ... 2 

Height of anterior part of 2nd dorsal... ... ... 3 3 ... 2 2 

Length of posterior lobe of 2nd dorsal ... ... 1 2 ... 10 

„ from anterior origin of base of caudal fin to tip of 

upper lobe ... ... ... ... 6 4 ... 4 6 

„ from anterior base of 2nd dorsal to commence- 
ment of caudal ... ... ... ... 7 5 ... 4 9 

„ of anterior edge of lower lobe of caudal ... 210 ... 2 

„ from snout to anterior base of pectoral ... ... 8 9 ... 4 9 

„ of base of pectoral ... ... ... ... 2 ... 1 .5 

„ of anterior margin of pectoral ... ... 5 ... 3 2 

[ 23 ] 



Zoologi/.-\ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IFishes. 



Measurements — continued. 










Small Fe5iale. 






Ft. 


ins. lines. 


Ft. 


ins. lines. 


Greatest width of pectoral ... 


• •• 





4 


6 


... 


2 10 


Length of hind edge of pectoral to anterior edge 


of 












ventral 


■ ■ ■ 





10 


2 


... 


5 6 


„ of base of ventral ... 


■ • ■ 





2 


2 


... 


1 3 


„ of anterior margin of ventral 


■ ■ ■ 





2 


3 


... 


1 5 


„ from tip of snout to upper edge of nostril 


*>• 





1 


9 


... 


1 3 


„ „ anterior edge of orbit 


.. • 





2 


4 


... 


1 11 


spiracle ... 


• • ■ 





4 


3 


... 


2 10 


„ of orbit 


• •• 





1 


2 


... 


7 


„ of nostril ... 


• • • 








7 


... 


6 


Diameter of spiracle 


.- . 








3 


... 


3 


Width of mouth 


• • • 





2 


1 


... 


1 6 


Length from tip of snout to middle of front edge 


of 












mouth 


.. • 





2 


2 


... 


I 7 


„ of 1st gill-opening ... 


... 





1 


1 


... 


6 


Girth behind pectoral 


... 


1 


2 





... 


7 9 


Number of scales about middle of body in 1 line 


... 


Eight. 


Ten. 


Number of teeth in middle of jaw in 3 lines 


... 


I 


'"ive 


. 


Six. 



Reference. — Giinther, Cat. Fish. B. M. v. viii., p. 387. 

This fish is a close representative of the European " Smooth- 
Hound " or Ray-mouthed Dog-fish, as the species of this genus are 
well called, from the blunt pavement of small, close, flat teeth, like 
those of a Skate or Kay, and I have continued the epithet "smooth," 
as, like the European species, the skin is softer and smoother than 
in other Sharks or Dog-fish. On comparison with the English 
Mustelus vulgaris^ the Australian representative has a slightly 
smaller and more deeply notched 1st dorsal, which is also set 
much farther ])ack than in M. vulgaris., its anterior margin in M. 
A7itarcticus being clearly behind the inner posterior lobe of the 
pectoral in most specimens, but in a fi*esh female now before me it 
is slightly in front of it. A comparison of our figure with the 
similarly-sized Cornish one in "Couche's Fishes of British Islands," 
vol. 1, p. 47, will show these characteristic difierences clearly ; 
although the 1st dorsal is too large and not suflficiently notched, 
and there should be only one gill-opening behind the anterior edge 
of pectoral ; the English fish, I find on comparison of specimens, 
agreeing in these respects with the Australian one. In other 
respects they are singularly alike, and agree altogether in food 
and habits. 

This harmless little Dog-fish, feeding only on Zoophytes and 
Crustacea and small shell-fish, was among those for which the 
Victorian Government was induced to pay the fishermen, by mea- 
surement, for their destruction, some hundreds of pounds during 

[ 24 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Fishes. 

the years the vote appeared on the Estimates for the destruction 
of Sharks on our shores — this httle hkmt-toothed creature lieing 
accepted as the young of the gigantic AVhite and Shovel-nosed 
Sharks, whose sharp teeth made havoc with fish, nets and men. 
There were no figures of our fishes to guide the well-intentioned 
blunderers at the time. It is much less prolific than the Picked 
Dog-fish, and the viviparous young have no placenta. 

As usual in the genus, there is a small ridge from l)eliind the 
head to the 2nd dorsal, and in this species continued thence to the 
caudal, and a smaller ridge from the anal to the caudal fin ; there 
is no pit at hase of caudal. 

This fish is here fis-ured of its natural colors for the first time. 

Common in Hobson's Bay. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 87. — Fig. 1, side view of male, one-sixth of natural size (the lower acute lobe of 
first dorsal scarcely elongate enough). Figs, la and \b, teeth, twice natural size. Fig 2, side 
view of snout, one-seventh natural size. Fig. 2a, outline of under-side of head, one-third natural 
size, to show the form of snout, the valves of nostril, and the mouth. Fig. 26, mouth and teeth, 
natural size. Figs. \c and \d, teeth, magnified two diameters. 

Frederick McCoy. 



Dec. IX. [ 25 



fl.88 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 



fFisTies) 




A-SartXAhmmit djtl> eX> lUK 



yrgf M"^ Cay 3artx^ 



Ji&am hthe Gtr^tJ'rirUcn^ Ofnc*' 



Zoology.'] 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



\_Fishes, 



Plate 88. 

ALOPECIAS VULPES (Linn. sp.). 

The Thresher, or Long-tailed Shark. 

[Genus ALOPECIAS (Mull, and Hen.), (Sub-kiugd. Vertebrata. Class Pisces. Order 
Plagiostomata. Sub-order Selachoidea. Family Lamniidse.) 

Gen. Char. — First dorsal fin opposite to the space between the pectoral and ventral fins ; 
the second dorsal and anal fins very small ; the anal a little behind the second dorsal. Caudal 
fin of extraordinary length, with a pit at its base. No nictitating eyelid. Spiracles very 
minute, close behind the eye. Teeth nearly alike in both jaws, no middle tooth, the upper a 
little oblique, of moderate size, the third on each side in upper jaw much smaller than the 
adjoining ones, flat, triangular, with smooth edges. Gill-openings small or of moderate width, 
the two last very close together and over the base of the pectoral. Skin nearly smooth, with 
very minute scales, each with three slight keels.] 



Description. — Body cylindrical until near tail, when it is strong-ly compressed 
laterally. Snout obtusely pointed, its leng-tli sliohtly less than the distance apart of 
the orbits. Mouth small. Nostrils very small. Pectorals very long-, narrow, falcate, 
with a distinct posterior lobe at base. First dorsal high, triangular, with a projecting* 
posterior lobe at base. Ventrals moderate, with a very long, narrow posterior lobe 
at base. Second dorsal very small, a little in. front of the anal, which is similar in 
size and shape, each being- oblong- with a very long-, slender prolongation of the 
posterior terminal angle. Pit above at base of caudal, with a prominent ridg-e in 
front of it. Upper lobe of caudal excessively long-, much compressed, gradually 
tapering- to a narrow, rounded distal extremity, bordered below by a narrow fin, 
widened into a small lobe near the point. Lower lobe of caudal triangular, of 
moderate size. Gill-openings very small, the two hinder gill-openings behind the 
anterior edge of the pectorals. Color: Above, dull bluish-grey, fading- to whitish 
on the belly, with intermediate, irregular, grey, cloudy spots. 

^Measurements. 

Length from tip of snout to base of upper lobe of caudal 

„ of upper lobe of caudal ... 

„ of lower lobe of caudal ... 

„ from tij) of snout to anterior edge of orbit 
Diameter of orbit 

Length from posterior edge of orbit to spiracle ... 
Diameter of spiracle ... 
Length from tip of snout to nostril 

„ of nostril 

„ from tip of snout to anterior edge of mouth 

„ „ „ „ gill-opening 

„ „ „ base of pectoral 

„ „ „ „ 1st dorsal 

„ „ „ „ 2nd dorsal 

„ „ posterior edge of last gill-opening 

„ „ anterior base of ventral 

„ „ „ edge of anal fin 

Height of 1st gill-opening 
„ last gill-opening 

[ 27 ] 



Ft. 


ius. 


lines 


... 5 


1 





... 5 


1 





.. 


7 





... 


3 


5 





1 


3 


... 


2 











H 


... 


2 


6 








6 


... 


4 





1 








1 


4 


9 


2 


5 





... 4 


5 





ng 1 


6 


6 


... 3 


4 


9 


4 


8 








2 





... 


2 


6 



Ft. 


ins. 


lines. 





4 








4 








4 








7 


6 


1 


5 










6 





10 


■^ 























6 















2 







9 








7 








3A 


1 


1 











3 








3 








n 








n 



Zoologij.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Fislies. 

Measukements— con<mMe<f. 
Width of mouth 

„ between middle of upper edge of orbits 
Length fi-om tip of snout to line connecting middle of upper 
edge of orbits 

„ of base of pectoral 

„ anterior edge of pectoral 

„ base of 1st dorsal 

„ anterior edge of 1st dorsal 

,, base of 2nd dorsal 

„ anterior edge of 2nd dorsal 

„ posterior edge of 2nd dorsal ... 

„ base of anal 

„ anterior margin of anal 

„ posterior „ ,, 

Width of fiu bordering the middle of upper caudal lobe, ou 

lower edge 
Width of lobe of same at point 
Depth in front of 1st dorsal 

Length of upper tooth next middle from apex to middle of base 
Width „ „ „ „ 

Length of lower tooth „ „ „ 

Width „ „ „ „ 

Reference. — = Squalus vulpcs (Lin.), Syst. Nat. v. 1, p. 1496 = Alopecias 
id. (Miill. & Hen.) Plagiost., p. 74, t. 35, f. 1; Couch, F.B.L., v. 1, t. 7. 

This most curious Shark differs froui all others iu the inordinate 
length of the upper lobe of the tail, which varies a little, l)ut al^out 
equals the whole body in lengtli, or is usually a little over half the 
total length. 

The name " Thresher" arises from the strange habit this fish 
has of giving loud sounding IjIows to whales and other large bodies 
in the sea with its long slender tail as a thresher does with his flail. 
The Fox-Shark is a connnon name iu England for this species. It 
is one of the rarest Sharks of our seas, only two examples having 
occurred to my knowledge on the Victorian coasts ; of one of 
which a sketch was sent to me many years ago by a fisherman at 
Hastings, and the figured specimen from the same place is now 
in the Museum at Melbourne. It is perfectly identical in all 
respects with the European species, and thus is one of the few 
fishes having a perfectly world-Avide distribution. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 88. — Fig. 1, side view, reduced to 1-I5th natural size. Fig. la, under view of head 
to show form of mouth and position of nostrils. Fig. 1/;, nostril, natural size. Fig. Ic, form 
of section at hinder tliird of ho^Xy. Fig. \d, upper tooth, natural size. Fig. le, lower tooth, 
natural size. 

Frederick McCoy. 

[28] 



?1 

,jJjiyvXA^yQJlM.M^ 



Ph89 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

Folyxoou 




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.i^irS;^l 




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'J-IUpper dLeL eO hUJi^ 



FrofM^Cty cUraP 



J team' Titho, GtJVt.FrirvUnq Office^ 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPolyzoa. 



Plate 89, Fig. 1. 

CATENICELLA INTERMEDIA (P. McG.)- 

[Genus CATENICELLA (Blainv.). (Sub-kingd. Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order Infun- 
dibulata. Sub-ord. C'heilostomata. Fam. CateuicellidfE.) 

Gen. Char. — " Cells arising one from the upper and back, part of another by a short corneous 
tube, all facing the same way and forming dichotomously divided branches of an erect phytoid 
polyzoary ; cell at each bifurcation geminate ; each cell with two lateral processes, usually 
supporting an avicularium. Ovicells either subglobose and terminal, or galeriforni and placed 
below the opening of a cell in front."] 

Description. — Cells large, broad, rounded. Mouth lofty, narrow, arched above, 
lower lip slightly rounded upwards and forwards, and sometimes with a very 
minute sinus in the centre. Front with 5 hirg-e fenestra. Lateral processes very 
wide, forming- a wide cup above, and with a depression i'or a large avicularium on 
the outside. Back of cell smooth. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict. 1868. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

It may be distiiiguislied from C. plaf!;iosto7)ia by the nearly 
vertical mouth, the smaller fenestra^, and the al)sence of the 
peculiar enormous avicularia. The lateral process is usually 
absent or abortive on one side. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 89. — Fig. 1, fragment, natural size. Fig. la, front of cells, magnified. Fig. lb, back 
of cells, magnified. 



Plate 89, Fig. 2. 
CATENICELLA AMPHOPvA (Busk). 

Description. — Cells oval. Mouth arched above, nearlj^ straig-ht below. Front 
with a narrow, vertical, elliptical opening- below the mouth, and a series of 9 pyriform 
feriestrae radiating- to the circumference. Lateral {)rocesses of considerable size, 
occupying the upper ang-les, and produced into short points directed upwards, of 
neaily erpial size; on one or both, below the point, is a .smsill avicularian chamber. 
B:ick of cell smooth, with a broad, elevated, vertical band, g'iving- off on each side a 
narrower hand to the back of the avicularium. 

Reference. — Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat. Mar. Polyzoa, Pt. i. p. 8, pi. iv. f. 4, .5. 

Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. B. Wilson. 

[ 29 ] 



Zoology.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

The beautiful vase-like shape of the cells aud avicularian pro- 
cesses, with the anterior vertical slit and regular pyriform feiiestrse, 
are sufficiently characteristic of this sj^ecies. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 89. — Fig. 2, portion, natural size. Fig. 2a, front view of cells, magnified. Fig. 2b, 
back of cells, magnified. 



Plate 89, Fig. 3. 

CATENICELLA WILSONI (P. McG.)- 

Description. — Cells large, squared at both ends. Mouth deeply arched above, 
the lower lip straight and entire. A s))ace down the centre of the cell, of the same 
width as the mouth, occupied by a double row of (usually) 7 large, closely set, 
shallow fenestrne. The sides slope backwards from the margin of the fenestrate 
area, forming on each side a smooth, slightly hollowed space, nearly as wide as the 
central division, with an avicularian chamber at the upper angle. Back of cell 
with a prominent central band, extending the whole length, and, at about a third of 
the distance from the top, giving ofi' a similar transverse band on each side. Ovicell 
large, rounded, terminal. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Ti-ans. Roy. Soc. Vict. 1880. 

Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. B. Wilson. 

This handsome species cannot he confounded with any other. 
It is distinguished hy the size of the cells and the regular space 
down the front occupied by the close-set double row of foramina. 
This is in reality the true front of the cell, the sloping spaces at 
the sides corresponding to the lateral processes of other species. 
At the upper angle there is a minute avicularian chamber. The 
ovicell is of great size, terminal, thickly covered with large, 
rounded fenestra?. The cell which it surmounts springs from one 
of a geminate pair ; it differs ft'om the others in being short, wide, 
without lateral extensions, and, instead of the regular fenestrate 
area, having a variable number of 3-5 large fenestra? ; there is also 
usually a l)u]ging on each side of the lower lip, seemingly support- 
ing a horizontal avicularium. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 89. — Fig. 3, branch, natural size. Fig. Sr/, portion, showing front of cells and ovi- 
cell, magnified. Fig. 36, back of cells, magnified. 

[30] 



Zoology.^ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 



Plate 89, Fig. 4. 
CATENICELLA PULCHELLA (Maplestone). 

Description. — Cells elliptical, or, including- the wide lateral processes, vase- 
shaped. Mouth arched above ; lower lip nearly straight, with a deep rounded sinus. 
A close series of about 12 (5 or 6 on each side) rounded fenestrse arrang-ed along' the 
margin of the cell. The very wide lateral processes extending- the whole length of 
the cell, divided into two portions by a partition extending outwards and downwards 
from the top of the cell ; the upper part triangular, with the point directed upwards 
and outwards. In the outer edge, immediately below the partitioil, is a small 
avicularian cup. Back of cell minutely sulcate. Ovicell rounded, flat, situated on 
the front of a cell sessile on one of a geminate pair. 

Reference. — Maplestone, Journ. Mic, Soc. Vict., May 1880 = C. concinna, 
P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict. 1880. 

QiieensclifF, Mr. Maplestone ; Port Phillip Heads, Mr. J. B. 
Wilson. 

The only specimens I have examined are mounted in balsam by 
the carbolic acid process, which has made them excessively trans- 
parent. ]\Ir. Maplestone describes the cells as " with a row of 
small bosses or beads round the sides and lower portion of the 
cell," and the ovicell as "galeriform, ornamented with bosses and 
surmounted by two avicularia, geminate, not terminal." In my 
specimens the markings are certainly fenestrse, but in others they 
might be projections either from, in the young state, being covered 
by a bulging membrane, or being obscured by a calcareous over- 
growth. In the description of the ovicell, Mr. Maplestone has 
evidently not distinguished between the ovicell itself and the cell 
to the lower part of which it is adherent. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 89. — Fig. 4, natural size. Fig. 4a, portion, magnified to show the front of the cells. 
Fig. Aby back of cells, magnified. Fig. 4c, front of another portion, magnified, to show the 
ovicell. 



[ 31 ] 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. {Polyzoa. 



Plate 89, Fig. 5. 
CATENICELLA UTRICULUS (P. McG.). 

Description. — Cells conti'acted above and lielow. Mouth arclied abovp, lower 
lip with a wide shallow sinus. Front smooth, or very finely ])a])illose. A very 
narrow, entirely niarjiinal vitta the whole leno-th of" the cell on each side. Lateral 
processes triang'ulur, extending- forwards and outwards from eacli side of the mouth, 
with a small avicularium on the outer edge, and frequently a small pyriform mark 
(probably avicularian) at the base in front. Back of cell very finely sulcata. 

Warniambool, Mr. 11. Watts. 

I have only seen two niinnte fragments of this species, which 
were sent in a slide to the Musenm. The cells are ovate or 
pyriform, contracted above and below. The avicnlarian processes 
are triangular and ear-like, limited in extent to the depth of the 
mouth, from the sides of which they directly rise ; the superior 
margins above the mouth are closely contiguous, although not 
quite continuous. On the edge of the lateral process is usually a 
small avicularium, and at the junction of the lower angle with the 
cell is frequently a triangular mark, Avhicli may possibly indicate 
another avicularium. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 89. — Fig. 5, natural size. Fig. 5a, front of cells, magnified ; the very shallow sinus 
is not shown in the lower lip. Fig. 56, back of cells, magnified. 



The specimens and descriptions of the above Catenicellce are 
contributed by Mr. MacGillivray. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 32 ] 



10 



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ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 






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Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [rolyzoa. 



Plate 90, Fig. 1. 

CATENICELLA FUSCA (P. McG.). 

Description. — Cells elong-ated, narrow, bulging posteriorly. Mouth arched 
above, lower lip slightly hollowed. Surface smooth or slightly papillose. Vittae 
entirely lateral, extending the whole length of the cell. Lateral processes small, 
stout, conical, directed forwards, with a minute avicularium at the base of the 
external margin. Ovicell cemented to the front of the cell above, which is sessile 
on the ovicelligerous cell, front flat or slightly hollowed, with a beaded margin. 

Qiieenscliff. 

Forms large, handsome, greyisli-l)rown tufts, the large stalks 
chestnut-red. It is closely allied to C Buskii. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 90.— Fig, 1, natural size. Fig. la, front of branch, magnified. Fig. 16, back of 
small portion, magnified. Fig. Ic, profile view, to show the bulging of the back of the cells and 
the flat front of the ovicell. 



Plate 90, Fig. 2. 

CATENICELLA UMBONATA (Busk). 

Description. — Cells small, wide above, narrowed below, bulging forwards. 
Mouth arched above, lower lip hollowed. Surface minutely papillose. Vittae 
anterior, extending from the bas,e of the cell to the lower lip. Lateral processes 
with an avicularium in a deep cup beneath the upper angle. Posterior surface 
smooth, with a prominent umbo in the middle. Ovicell cemented to the cell above, 
which is sessile on the ovicelligerous cell, with a broad vertical ridge and a raised 
smooth or beaded margin. 

Reference. — Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat. Mar. Polyzoa, Pt. i., p. 11, pi. x., f. 4, 5. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

Forms small glassy tufts on other zoophytes. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 90. — Fig. 2, natural size. Fig. la, portion of branch to show the front, magnified. 
Fig. 26, back of geminate and oixlinary cell, magnified. Fig. 2c, cell in profile, to show the pro- 
jection of posterior umbo. 

-Dec. IX. [ 33 ] E 



Zoology.l NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 



Plate 90, Fig. 3. 

CATENICELLA CORNUTA (Busk). 

Description. — Cells elongated, papillose in front. Vittoe lateral, extending 
the wliole length of the cell. One or both lateral processes long, pointed and 
recurved, frequently with a small aperture at the base. Ovicell galeate, surmounting 
one of the cells of a geminate pair, terminal, with a sharp spine on the summit. 

Reference. — Busk, Voy. Rattl., i. 361 ; Cat. Mar. Pol. Brit. Mus., pt. i. p. 11, 
pi. 10, f. 1, 2, 3. 

QueensclifF. 

Forms small greyish tufts, 1 to 2 inches high. The only 
species with which it is likely to be confounded is C. jjerforata, 
from which it may be distinguished by the retrocedent, spinous, 
lateral processes, and by the spine on the summit of the ovicell. 
The long spine is frequently absent on one or both sides, and in its 
place is a lateral process with a wide, gaping hollow, in which is 
lodged an avicularium. 

Explanation of Figurks. 

Plate 90. — Fig. 3, natural size. Fig. 3a, front, magnified. Fig. 3i, another branch, show- 
ing an ovicell with its superior spine. Fig. 3f , back of cells, magnified. 



The typical specimens and descriptions of the above CatenicellcB 
are from Mr. MacGillivray. 

Frederick McCoy. 



By Authority : John Ferres, Government Printer, I\Iclbourne. 

[34] 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



N.B.— The originals of all the Figures are in the National Museum, Melbourne. 



DECADE I. 

Plate 1.— The Black Snake (Pseudechys porphyriacus, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 2.— The Copper-head Snake (Hoplocephalus superbus, Giinth.). 

Plate 3.— The Tiger Snake (Hoplocephalus curtus, Schl. sp.). 

Plate 4.— The Australian Bream (Chrysophrys Australis, Giinth.). 

Plate 5.— The Spiny-sided Butterfly-Gurnard (Lepidotrigla Vanessa, Rich. sp.). 

Plate 6.— The Kumu Gurnard (Trigla Kumu, Lesson and Garn.). 

Plate 7.— The Australian Giant Earth-worm (Megascolides Australis, McCoy). 

Plate 8.— Lewin's Day-moth (Agarista Lewini, Boisd.). 

The Loranthus Day-moth (Agarista Casuarinse, Scott). 

The Vine Day -moth (Agarista Glycine, Lewin sp.). 
Plate 9.— Pieris (Thyca) Harpalyce (Don. sp.). 
Plate 10.— Pieris (Thyca) Aganippe (Don. sp.). 



DECADE II. 

Plate 11.— The Little Whip Snake (Hoplocephalus flagellum, McCoy). The White-lipped Snake 

(Hoplocephalus coronoides, Giinth.). 
Plate 12.— The Death Adder (Acanthophis Antarctica, Shaw sp.). 
Plate 13. — The Carpet Snake (Morelia variegata, Gray). 
Plate 14. — The Gippsland Perch (Lates colonorum, Giinth.). 
Plate 15. — The Murray Lobster (Astacoides serratus, Shaw sp.). 
Plate 16. — The Salmon Arripis (Arripis truttaceus, Cuv. sp.). Adult. 
Plate 17. — Ditto of the younger forms and coloring. 

Plate 18. — The Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, Lin. sp.). , 

Plate 19.— The Small-scaled Rock Cod (Lotella callarias, Giinth.). 
Plate 20.— The Australian Rock Cod (Pseudophysis barbatus, Giinth.). 



DECADE III. 

Plate 21. — The Sea-Leopard Seal (Stenorhynchus leptonyx, de Blainv. sp.). 

Plate 22. — The Yellow-sided Dolphin (Delphinus Novs Zealandiee, Quoy and Gaim.). 

Plate 23. — The Common Brown Snake (Diemenia superciliosa, Fisch.). 

The Small-scaled Brown Snake (Diemenia microlepidota, McCoy). 
The Shield-fronted Brown Snake (Diemenia aspidorbyncha, McCoy). 

Plate 24. — Catenicella margaritacea (Busk). — C. plagiostoma (Busk). — C. ventricosa (Busk). — 
C. hastata (Busk.) — C. rufa (McG.). — C. cribraria (Busk). — C. alata (Wyv. Thomson). — 
C. lorica (Busk). — C. formosa (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk). — C. perforata (Busk). — 
C. Buskii (Wyv. Thomson). — C. Hannafordi (McG.). — C. crystallina (Wyv. Thomson). — 
C. carinata (Busk). — C. aurita (Busk). — C. geminata (Wyv. Thomson). — C. cornuta 
(Busk). — C. intermedia (McG.) 

Plate 25. — ^Membranipora membranacea (Linn. sp.). — M. perforata (McG.). — M. ciliata (McG.). — 
M. mamillaris (McG.). — M. umbonata (Busk). — M. pilosa (Linn. sp.). — M. cervicornis 
(Busk). 

Plate 26. — Membranipora dispar (McG.).— M. Woodsii (McG.).— M. lineata (Linn, sp.).— M. Rosselii 
(Audouin sp.). — M. Lacroixii (Savigny sp.). 

Plate 27. — The Australian Rockling (Genypterus Australis, Cast.). 
The Yarra Blackflsh (Gadopsis gracilis, McCoy). 

Plate 28. — The Southern Mackerel (Scomber pneumatophorus, De la Roche). 

Plate 29. — The Yabber Crayfish (Astacoides bicarinatus. Gray sp.). 

Plate 30.— The Large Wattle Goat-Moth (Zeuzera Eucalypti, Boisd. Herr.-Schaef,). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE IV. 

Plate 31. — The Australian Sca-Bear or Eur-Scal (Euotaria cincrea, Peron sp.). 

Platk 32. — The Two-hooded Fimna-Snake, Puriua bicuculluta (^McCoy). 

Plate 33. — The Banded Red Guruet-Pereh (Sebastes percoides, Solauder sp.). 

Plate 34. — The Angel-fish (Hhina squatiua, Liu. sp.). 

Plate 35, — Lcpralia clrcinata (McG.). — L. Cccilii (Aud.). — L. diaphaua (McG.). — L. uiarsupium 

(McG.). — L. subiiuuiersa (McG.). — L. auceps (McG.). — L. Maple.stouei (McG.). 
Plate 36. — Lepralia vittata (McG.). — Membranipora perforata. Lcjiralia Brogniartii (Aud.). — 

L. ek'gans (McG.). — L. pertusa (Espcr. sp.). — L. Malusii (Aud. sp.). — L. lunata (McG.). 
Plate 37. — Lepralia ciliata (Linn. sp.). — L. trifolium (McG.). — L. cheilodoii (McG.). — L. caualiculata 

(McG.).— L. larvalis (McG.).— L. diadema (McG.).— L. papillifera (McG.).— L. Ellerii 

(McG.). 
Plate 38. — Lepralia mouoccros (Busk). — L. excavata (McG.). — L. vitrca (McG.). — L. niegasoma 

(McG.).— L. Schizostoraa (McG.).— L. Botryoides (McG.).— L. ferox (McG.).— L. pellu- 

cida (]\IcG.). 
Plate 39. — Crisia Edwardsiaua (D'Orb. sp.). — C. biciliata (McG.). — C. acropora (Busk). — C. setosa 

(McG.).— C. tenuis (McG.). 
Plate 40. — Saunders' Casc-]\lotli (Metura elongata, Saunders sp.). 
The Lictor Case-Moth (Eutouicta ignobilis, Walk.). 



DECADE V. 

Plate 41. — The Lace Lizard (Ilydrosaurus varius, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 42. — The Spotted INIarsh-Frog (Limuodynastcs Tasnianiensis, Giiuth.). — The Common Sand- 
Frog (Lininodynastes dorsalis, Graj'). 
Plate 43. — The Carpet Shark (Crossorhinus barbatus, Lin. sp.). — The Seven-gilled Shark (Notidanus 

[Heptanchus] Indicus, Cuv.). 
Plate 44. — The Barracouta (Thersites atun, Cuv.).— The Tunny (Tlijninus Thynnus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 45. — Flustra dcnticulata (Busk). — Carbasoa episcopalis (Ikisk). — C. dissimilis (Busk). — 

C. indivisa (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk). — C- pisciformis (Busk). 
Plate 4G. — Spiralaria florea (Busk). — Diachoris Magellanica (Busk). — D. spinigera (P. McGil.). — 

Dimetopia spicata (Busk). — D. cornuta (Busk). — Didyniia sinii)lex (Busk). — Calwellia 

bicoruis (Wyv. Thomson). 
Plate 47. — Dictyopora cellulosa (P. McGil.). 
Plate 48. — Eschara obliqua (P. McGil.). — E. dispar (P. McGil ). — E. gracilis (Lamx.). — E. platalea 

(BuskV— E. quadrata (P. McGil.) — E. mucronata (P. McGil.). — Caleschara deuticulata 

(P. McGil.). 
Plate 40. — Cellaria fistulosa (Linn.). — C. hirsuta (P. McGil.). — C. tenuirostris (Busk.). — C. gracilis 

(Busk). — Nellia oculata (Busk). — Tubucellaria hirsuta (Busk). 
Plate 50. — The Great Black, or ISIanna Cicada (Cicada mccrens, Germ.). — The Great Green Cicada 

(Cyclochila Australasia;, Donov. sp.). 



DECADE VI. 

Plate 51. — The Victorian Ehodona (Rhodona Officer!, McCoy). 

Plate 52. — The Black and White Ringed Snake (Vermicella annulata, Gray). 

Plate 53. — The Green and Golden Bell-Frog (Ranoidea aurca, Less. sp.). 

Plates 54-55. — The Australian Aulopus (Aulopus purpurisatus, Rich.). 

Plate 56. — The Hammer-headed Shark (Zyga^ia malleus, Shaw). — The Common Australian Saw- 
Fish (Pristiopliorus nudipiunis, Giinth.). 

Plate 57.— Biflustra perfragilis (McGil.). — B. delieatula (Busk). 

Plate 68.— Cellularia cuspidata (Busk).— ]Menipea crystalliua (Gray sp.).— M. cyathus (Wyy. Thom- 
son). — M. cervicornis (McGil.) — M. tricellata (Busk). — M. Buskii (Wyv. Thomson). 

Plate 59. — Bicellaria tuba (Busk). — B. grandis (Busk). — B. ciliata (Liun). — B. turbiuata (McGil.). — 
Stirparia annulata (Map.).— Bugula neritina (Linn.). 

Plate 60. — Steganoporella magnilabris (Busk. sp.). — Petralia undata (McGil.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE VII. 

Plate 61. — The Tubcrculated Argonaut (Argonauta oryzata, Meusch.). 

Plate 62. — The same seated in its so-called shell or Paper-Nautilus. 

Plate 63. — The Blue-spotted Eagle-Ray (Myliobatis Australis, Maclcay). 

Plate 64. — The Long-toothed Bull-Shark (Odontaspis taurus, Raf.). — The Australian Tope Shark 

(Galeus Australis, Macleay). 
Plate 65. — The Leafy Sea-Dragon (Phyllopteryx foliatus, Shaw sp.). — The Short-headed Sea-horse 

(Hippocampus breviceps, Pet.) 
Plate 66. — Dictyopora grisea (Lamx. sp.). — D. albida (Kirch.) — (Var. avicularis, P. McGilL). 
Plate 67.— 1). Wilsoni (P. McGilL). 

Plate 68. — Idmonea Milneana (d'Orb.). — I. contorta (P. McGill.). — I. radians (Lamk.). 
Plates 69-70. — The Violet-shouldered Phasma (Tropidoderus iodomus, McCoy). — The Red-shouldered 

Phasma (Tropidoderus rhodomus, McCoy). 



DECADE VIM. 

Plate 71. — The Australian Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal (Euotaria cinerea, Peron sp.). 

Plate 72. — The Northern Blue-tongued Lizard (Cyclodus gigas, Bodd. sp.). 

Plate 73. — The Ludrick (Girella simplex, Rich. sp.). 

Plate 74, — The White Shark (Carcharodon Rondeletii, Miill. and Hen.). 

Plate 75. — The Picked Dog-Fish (Acanthias vulgaris, Linn. sp.). 

Plates 76-77. — The Australian Tooth-cupped Cuttlefish (Sepioteuthis Australis, Quoy and Gaim.). 

Plate 78. — Bugula robusta (P. McGil.). — B. cucullata (Busk). — B. dentata (Lamx.). — B. avicularia 

(Pall.). 
Plate 79. — The Violet-winged Phasma (Acrophylla violascens, Leach sp.). 
Plate 80. — The Large Pink winged Phasma (Podacanthus typhon, Gray). 



CONTENTS OF DECADE IX. 



X.B. — The originals of all the l-'igurcs arc in tl.c XaiiMuil Museum, Melbourne. 



( 



Plate 81. — The Gippsland Water Lizard (Physignatlius Lesueri, Gray) — (Var. Ilowitti, McCoy). 

Plates 82-83. — The Murray Tortoise (Clielyniys Macquaria, Cuv. sp.). 

Plate 84. — The Murray Golden Perch (Ctenolates anibiguus, Rich. sp.). 

Plates 85-86. — The Murray Cod-Perch (( )lin()rus Macquariensis, Cuv. and Val. sp.). 

Plate 87. — The Australian Smooth-lloimd (Mustelus Aiitarcticus, Gliuth.). 

Plate 88. — The Thresher, or Long-taileil ISiuirk (Ai(q)ecias vulpes, Linn. sp.). 

Plate 89. — Catenicella intermedia (P. McG.).— C. anipliura (Busk).— C. Wilsoni (P. :McG.).— C. pul- 
chella (^htp.).— C. utriculu.s (P. McG.). 

Plate 90. — Catenicella fusca (P. McG.). — C. unibonata (Busk). — C. comuta (Busk). 



MAR'' D. ROGICT 



f?^- 



^" 







atural Historu of 0ictori<i. 



PRODROMUS 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 



FIGUEES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE LIVING} SPECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



I 2Cii3S S X. 



HONORARY MEMBER OK THE CAMBltlDGE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY; HONORAKY ACTIVE SIEMIiEK Ol' THE IMPERIAL SOCIETY 

OF NATUIiAHSTS OF MOSCOW; CORRESroVD'.NG JIEJIBER OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIEIY OF LONDON; 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES; HONORARY FELLOW OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF EDINBURGH; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF MANCHESTER, 

ETC., ETC., ETC. 

AUTHOR OF "synopsis OF THE CAIIBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE FOSSILS OF IRELAND;" "SYNOPSIS OF THE SILURIAN FOSSILS OF 

IRELAND ; " " CONTRIBUTIONS TO BRITISH PALEONTOLOGY ; " ONE OF THE AUTHORS OP SEDGWICK AND McCOYS 

" BRITISH PALiEOZOIC ROCKS AND FOSSILS ; " " PRODROMUS OF THE PAL.KONTOLOGY OF VICTORIA," ETC. 

PROFESSOR OP NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY. 

GOVERNMENT PAL-tONTOLOGIST, AND DIBECTOl! OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF MELBOURNE, ETC, 




MELBOURNE : 

BY AUTIIOinXr : .JOHN FERRES, GOVERNMENT PRISTEE. 

LONDON ; 

TRUBXEU AND CO., 57 AND 59 LDDGATE HILL. 



M DCCC LXXXV. 



'is 



cf^; 






patiiral Ststijrg af Wutmin. 






PRODROMUS 



T A 




GY OF VICTORIA 



OK, 



FIGUEES AND DESCEIPTIONS OF THE LIVING SrECIES OF ALL CLASSES 



OF THE 



VICTORIAN INDIGENOUS ANIMALS. 



3>z:ciLX>s X. 



BT 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE CAMBRIDQE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETT ; H0NOHARY ACTIVE MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL 80CIETT 

OF NATURALISTS OF MOSCOW ; CORRESPOVDING MEMBER OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON ; 

UONOKARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOOTH WALES ; HONORARY FELLOW OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OP EDINBURGH ; HONORARY MEMBER OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF MANCHESTEK, 

ETC., ETC., ETC. 

AUTHOR OF " SYNOPSIS OP THE CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE FOSSILS OP IRELAND ; " " SYNOPSIS OF THE SILURIAN FOSSILS OF 

IRELAND ; " " CONTRIBUTIONS TO BRITISH PALAEONTOLOGY ; " ONE OF THE AUTHORS OF SEDGWICK AND McCOY'S 

" BBITI8H PALEOZOIC ROCKS AND FOSSILS;" " PRODROMUS OF THE PALAEONTOLOGY OF VICTORIA," ETC. 

PROFESSOR OF NATURAL SCIENCE IN THE MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY. 

aOVERKUENT PAL«;ONTOLOGIST, AND DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF MELBOURNE, ETC. 




MELBOUENE : 

BT AUTIIORIXr : JOHN FERRES, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 

LONDON : 

;rRUBNER AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDGATE HILL. 



M DCCC LXXXV. 



PEEFACE. 



It having been considered desirable to ascertain accnrately the 
natural productions of the Colony of Victoria, and to publish works 
descriptive of them, on the plan of those issued by the Governments 
of the different States of America, investigations were undertaken, 
by order of the Victorian Government, to determine the Geology, 
Botany, and Zoology of the Colony, to form collections illustrative of 
each for the public use, and to make the necessary preparations for 
such systematic publications on the subject as might be useful and 
interesting to the general public, and contribute to the advancement 
of science. 

As the geological and botanical investigations have already 
approached completion, and their publication is far advanced, it 
has been decided now to commence the publication of the third 
branch completing the subject, namely, that of the Zoology or 
indigenous members of the different classes of the animal kingdom. 

As the Fauna is not so well known as the Flora, it was a necessaiy 
preliminary to the publication to have a large number of drawings 
made, as opportunity arose, from the living or fresh examples of 
many species of reptiles, fish, and the lower animals, which lose their 
natural appearance shortly after death, and the true characters of 
many of which were consequently as yet unknown, as they had 

[ 3] 



PKEFACE. 



only been described from preserved specimens. A Prodromus, or 
preliminary issue, in the form of Decades, or numbers of ten plates, 
each with its complete descriptive letterpress, will be published, of 
such illustrations as are ready, without systematic order or waiting 
for the completion of any one branch. The many good observers 
in the country will thus have the means of accurately identifying 
various natural objects, their observations on which, if recorded and 
sent to the National Museum, where the originals of all the figures 
and descriptions are preserved, will be duly acknowledged, and 
will materially help in the preparation of the final systematic volume 
to be published for each class when it approaches completion. 

In the first plate (91) of this tenth Decade there is the first 
coloured representation of that most curious and rare Marsupial, 
the Gijmnohelideus Leadbeateri ; which, mth the form, feet, and 
dentition of the beautiful Marsupial so-called Flying Squirrels of 
Australia, constituting the genus Belideus^ is entii'ely destitute 
of the lateral expansion of skin forming the parachute which 
enables the Belidei, like the true Flying SquuTels of other 
countries, to almost fly, in their sustained jumps from one tree to 
another. 

The second and third plates show the natural colours for the 
first tune of a River Tortoise, the Chelodina longicollis^ which 
abounds in many of the rivers of Gi23psland, and more rarely in 
the Murray, where the Chelymys Macquaria (figured in our 
plates 82 and 83) is the common Tortoise — a species not known 
in the rivers flowing south into the sea. 

The six following plates illustrate a splendid series of 
Victorian species of Retepora^ contributed by Dr. MacGillivray 
to the National Museum and this work. 

The last plate gives full details of the fine Sea-Urchin, the 
Goniocidaris tuharia., with its extraordinary variety of spines j all 

[4] 



PREFACE. 



different, however, from tlie fossil spines of the same genus found 
in the Tertiary formations of our shores. 

The succeeding Decades will illustrate as many different genera 
as possible, and will deal first usually with species of some special 
interest, and of which good figures do not exist, or are not easily 
accessible. 

Feederick McCoy. 
16th September, 1883. 



[ 5] 



PL f)l 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

( MammaLs^ 




IfWOd^deletUth 



Prof M' Cay diruP 



St$am, hiho,G<rrt/ Printm/i Offu* 



Zoology.] NATUEAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IMammalia. 



Plate 91. 
GYMNOBELIDEUS LEADBEATERI (McCoy). 



[Geuus GYMNOBELIDEUS (McCoy). (Sub-kingd. Vertebrata. Class Mammalia. Order 
Marsupialia. Eam. Phalangistidse.) 

Gen. Char. — Teeth and general form of Belideus, but destitute of the lateral, cloak-like 
parachute or flank-membraue, and having on the fore feet the inner finger or thumb shortest, 
the second longer, the third longer than the second, the fourth longest, the fifth (or outer) toe 
shorter than the third, but longer than the second. On the hind feet the inner toe or thumb is 
succeeded by two of nearly equal size, more slender and shorter than the others, and united 
together as far as the base of the last joint. The thumbs of the hind feet are without nails, 
and the claws of all the other toes are small, and exceeded in length by the prominent wrinkled 
pads on the underside. The ears are large, semielhptical, and nearly naked towards the tips. 
Dental formula : — incisors f , canines I, premolars % molars \ = 40. Australia. ] 

Description. — Upper surface brownish grey, with a blackish, dusky streak 
from the top of the head along- the back to the sacrum ; there is a dark patch under 
the base of the ear, and a fainter one before and behind the eye. Under surface 
dull yellowish ; tail rather lig-hter than the back, and lightish at the tip. Head like 
that of Belideus breviceps, but with a slightly sharper snout. The tail has the fur 
no longer on the basal half than on the back, the apical third of the length being 
gradually more bushy, from the greater length of the hair. Ears brown. The fur 
of the body is soft and dense, the hairs grey at the base, and blackish and tipped 
with brownish white at the end; the fur of the tail is brownish throughout. 
Teeth : Anterior incisor above more than twice the length of the others, and rather 
broader near the edge than at the base ; second incisor shorter than the third, which 
is triangular; space between third incisor and canine equal to length of second 
incisor; canine conical, shorter than the first, but longer than the third incisor; 
space between canine and next premolar one-third the width of the canine ; second 
premolar half the length of the canine, first a little longer, both triangular and 
single-rooted ; third premolar as long as the canine, or one-third longer than the 
next molar, double-rooted, and triangular. First three molars quadrate, with two 
blunt tubercles on outer and two on inner edge; fourth or last molar smallest, 
triangular, with one tubercle behind and two in front. The molars and second 
and third premolars are in continuous contact. Lower jaw : All the teeth in con- 
tinuous series without interval; incisors long, nearly horizontal, sharp-pointed; 
first three premolars small, short, and obtuse, the antero-posterior extent of the 
first greatest; third least, but all of one height ; fourth premolar twice the height 
of the others, triangular, with a slight lobe at back of base ; first molar with anterior 
half forming a conical lobe nearly twice the height of the last premolar and of the 

[ 7] 



Zoology.'] 



NATUKAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



\_Mammalia. 



Ins. 


lines 


... 1 


8 


... 5 


4 


... 6 


5 


... 


9 


... 


9 


... 1 


0\ 


... 


6i 


... 


7 



rest of the molars j posterior half bituhercular, and only as hig-h as the others, which 
are all quadri tubercular, except the small hiud one, which is tritubercular. 

Length of bead 

„ from snout to base of tail 

„ of tail 

„ of ear 

„ of fore foot 

„ of bind foot 

„ of nasal bones 

„ of frontal bones 

Reference. — McCoy, Ann. and Mao-. Nat. Hist. 180?, vol. xx. p. 287. 

In general appearance this curious animal is intermediate 
between Belideus and Phascogale; but its nearest affinity is with 
the former, from which the absence of the flank-membrane and 
the different form of the feet distinguish it. There is only one 
species known, which occurs in the scrul) on the banks of the 
Bass River, in Victoria. I name it after the skilled taxidermist 
of our Public Museum, in which specimens of both sexes are 
preserved. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 91. — Fig. 1 represents the male, two-thirds the natural size. Figs, la, fore foot, 
and 16, hind foot, twice the natural size. Fig. \c, skull, side view, natural size. Fig. \d, 
same, viewed from above. Fig. le, teeth of upper jaw, magnified two diameters. Fig. If, 
teeth of lower jaw, twice natural size. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[8] 



TldZ 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 





3 ■ 





D'^y/iUieltLhiK 



J-rtf M^Ccydtrix" 



Steam, UjUui .GavkFrmbii^ Offia 



F193 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(RtptiLes) 




D^WiUd^ethth. 



TrofM^Oydu-txi'' 



Steam' htht. Gin/t/J'ruttat^ Offia 



Zoologi/.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Replilia. 



Plates 92 and 93. 

CHELODINA LONGICOLLIS (Shaw sp.). 
Long-necked River Tortoise. 

[Genus CHELODINA (Gray). (Sub-kingdom Vertebrata. Class Reptilia. Section 
Catapbracta. Order Cbelonia. Sub-order Pleuroderes. Family Clielydida3. Sub-family 
Ilydraspidina;.) 

Gen. Char. — Head long, flat ; covered witb tbin skin ; muzzle sbort ; mouth wide ; jaws 
narrow, weak, witbout notches ; no barbels under chin. Neck very long. Plastron wide, 
rounded in front, solidly fixed to the carapace ; sternal Avings very short ; 25 marginal plates 
to the carapace, and 13 to the i^lastron ; a nuchal plate ; intergular plate larger than the gulars. 
Four toes of the five claws ou each foot. Tail very short. Australia.] 

Description. — Form: Carapace oblono-, ovate, slig-htly narrowed in front, 
obtusely ang'ulate behind ; a variable convexity with a deep wide channel along- the 
2nd, 3rd, and 4tli vertebral plates, more marked in old specimens j nuchal plate 
between the margino-collar (12) -, the plates of the marg-in are less than half the 
width at the sides, as over the neck, limbs, and tail, and are abruptl}'' reflected or 
curled upwards, so that the outer edg-e is nearly in contact with the inner margin ; 
moderately arched over the thig-hs, and angularly elevated at inner margin of 
caudals ; profile of back g'ently arched, deepest behind the middle, falling' suddenly 
to the posterior end, more g-radually towards the front. Plates:^ Nuchal plate (10) 
larg-e, quadrilateral, varying* from one-third long'er than wide to twice as long' as 
wide, between the margino-collars (12), which are trapezoidal j marg-ino-brachials 
quadrangular, a little long-er than wide, the first pair (13) with the anterior margin 
wider than the posterior; second pair (14) with anterior margin wider than posterior; 
first marg'ino-laterals (15) smaller than the posterior marg'ino-brachial ; second 
marg'ino-lateral (16) rectangular; 3rd (17) and 4th (18) rhomboidal; 5th (19) 
oblong', wider behind than before; margino-femorals (20, 21, 22) quadrate; supra- 
caudals (11) trapezoidal. First vertebral plate (1) octag-onal, larger than the others, 
touching' the nuchal, the marg'ino-coUar, and the first marg'ino-brachial, posterior 
side concave; 2nd (2) and 3rd (3) hexagonal; 4th (4) hexagonal, anterior side 
wider than the posterior. The 5th vertebral plate (5) is an isoceles triangle with 
truncated apex, with five angles at base behind; the last costal plates (9) have 
nearly the same shape as the 5th vertebral, but are larger. All the plates of cara- 
pace with a few concentric lines at margin, and obtuse, irregular, nodular ridges 
and tubercles longitudinal on the vertebral plates, and transverse on the costal 
plates ; plates of plastron nearly smooth, finely netted in the middle. Plastron very 
wide, the width varying from wider in front than behind to narrower in front than 
behind, some equal ; rounded in front, and with a V-shaped notch behind, the angles 
of which are obtusely rounded ; the sternal wings are about one-fourth as wide as 
the plastron, and about one-third its length, bent up strongly towards the carapace ; 
intergular plate (la) very large, hexagonal, the two posterior sides longest and 
forming an acute angle posteriorly, surrounded by the three first pairs of sternal 
plates (1, 2, 3); gular plates (I) four-sided, wider than long, inner side shorter 
than outer margin ; humerals (2) trapezoidal, larger than the gulars, but half the 
size of the pectorals (3); pectorals pentagonal, two right angles behind, one in 

* The numbers designating the individual plates will be found on a diagram in our plate of Chdemys 
Macquaria, Plate 83. 

Dec. X. [ 9 ] B 



Zoology.'] 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



[^lieptilia. 



front; alxlominal plates (4) rectang-ulnr, transversely oblong-; femorals (6), 
trapezoidal or subtriang'ular with curved base and truncated apex ; anals (6) rliom- 
boidal, with two short and two longer sides. Head long-, much flattened behind, 
obtusely pointed, rounded in front, jaws feeble with simple edges; skin of front and 
a large, rhomboidal s])ace between the eyes smooth; temples and rest of head 
covered with small, ])olygonal or oval, juxtaposed scales. Neck slender, slightly 
depressed, covered above with convex, oval, flattened tubercles, and below with fine, 
longitudinal ridges on the throat, rarely tuberculated on the more jiosterior part of 
the underside ; four or five scale-like, transverse, chevron-shaped folds on the front 
of the arm, four or five larger, triangular plates on outer side of arm, and several 
similar ones cross the toes ; two rows (one of six, the other of three) of transverse, 
scale-like folds on hinder part of tarsus ; webs wide to base of claws with notched 
edges; claws long, compressed, moderately curved ; tail and posterior part of body 
covered with triangular, more or less flattened tubercles; tail very short, compi'essed, 
scarcely exceeding- end of carapace. Colour: Carapace very dark brown, or 
blackisli ; sternum and lower surface of marginal plates rich yellow ochre, with dark 
brown borders to the sutures, varying- in width, sometimes narrow, but sometimes so 
wide as almost to obliterate the yellow on the sternal and lower side of marginal 
plates ; throat and underside of neck, arms, and thighs whitish ; head and upper 
surface of limbs and rest of body blackish grey; lower jaw bright yellow; iris 
yellowish white. 

Measueements. 



Length of carapace 

Greatest ^yidth at last margino-Iateral plate (19) 

Depth from middle of sternum to middle of 

carapace 
Lengtli of nuchal plate (10) 
AVidth in front 
Outer margin of — 

1st marginal plate — anterior or margino- 

collar plate (12)... 



2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 
6th 
7th 
8th 
9 th 
10th 
11th 



margino-hrachial ( 1 3) 
margino-hrachial (14) 
margino-lateral (15) 
margino-lateral (16) 
margino-lateral (17) 
margino-lateral (18) 
margino-lateral (19) 
margino-femoral (20) 
margino-fcmoral (21) 
margino-femoral (22) 



Outer margin of each caudal i)late (11) 
Length of 1st vertebral plate (1) 
Greatest width at front ... 
Width behind 

Length of 2nd vertebral plate (2) 
Greatest width a little behind middle 
Length of 3rd vertebral plate (3) . 
Greatest width at middle ... 
Length of 4th vertebral plate (4) 
Greatest width about middle 



Female, 


Specimen 


from 


from 12 


junction of 


miles from 


M Ill-ray 


Maffra, 


and 


L 


ppor 


Darling. 


Gippslaml. 


Ins. lines. 


Ins. lines. 


8 6 


9 





6 5 


6 


3 


2 9 


2 


10 


1 





11 


7 





H 


1 H 




H 


1 1 




1 


9 




10 


10 




1 


in 







lOi 





uh 


1 1 




2 


1 2 




1 


1 





11 


11 





11 


8 





8 



Female 

with large 

ovary, 
June 1883. 



Ins. lines. 
7 
4 10 

2 3 
8 
5 



Male, from 
Gippsland, 
June 1883. 



Ins. lines. 
7 3 
4 10 






9 





11 


1 


8 


2 





2 


4 


2 


7 





11 




1 




5 




G 




4 




7 




3 




4 




3 




3 




3 




3 




1 




2 



1 








1 






1 

o 



1 

11 

8 

9 

8i 

8" 

7 



9 

9 

8 

9 

8 

1 



11 

1 I 



1 

1 
I 





5 

lOi 

1 

3* 
11 



3 
8 
5 



Young 
male, from 
Gippsland, 
nth June 

1883. 



Ins. lines. 
5 6 
4 1 

1 11 
7 
5i 






1 1 

11 

9 

10 

9 

8 

10 

lOi 

lo" 



10 



11 
2 
4 

n 

2 
1 

10 
















1 
1 



8 

9 

8 

8 

5 

6 

8 

8 

8 

8 

G 

Gi 

2" 

6 



10 

11 

1 
10 
11 








* Divided into two. 

[ 10] 



Zoology.'] 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



l_Iieptilia, 



Measurements — continued. 





Female, 


Specimen 














• 


from 

junction of 

JMurray 

and 


from 12 

miles from 

Maffra, 

Upper 


Female 
with large 

ovary, 
June 1883. 


Male, from 
Gippsland, 
June 1883. 


Young 

male, from 

Gippsland, 

llth June 

1883. 






Di 


rling. 


Gippsland. 












Ins 


. lines. 


Ins 


lines. 


Ins 


lines. 


Ins 


lines. 


Ins.l 


incB. 


Length of 5th vertebral plate (5) 


1 


7 


1 


9 


1 


3 


1 


5 


1 


3 


Greatest width behind 


1 


11 


I 


8 


1 


7 


1 


7 


1 


2 


Width at front margin 





6 





8 





6 





5 





6 


Length of neck from front edge of carapace to 






















occiput 


3 


5 


3 


6 


3 


5 


3 


7 


2 


4 


Diameter at middle 





11 


1 





1 








11 





10 


Length of head 


1 


6 


1 


9 


1 


6 


1 


5 


1 


4 


Greatest width at hind margin of ear 


1 


1 


1 


3 


1 


1 


1 








10^ 


Greatest width 





7 





9 





9 





8 





8i 


Diameter of ear ... 





4i 





5 





4 





H 





3 


Length of anterior limb, about 


2 


7 


3 





2 


6 


2 


4 


2 





„ „ longest toe, without claw... 





6 





5 





4 





5 





5 


„ „ claw ... 





5 





6 





3 





3 





3 


„ „ posterior limb, about 


3 


6 


3 


8 


3 





2 


8 


2 





„ „ ongest toe, without claw ... 





9 





6 





5 





5 





4 


„ „ claw 





5* 





7 





5 





H 





4 


„ „ tail, about 





9 





6 





G 





8 





7 


„. „ intergular plate ... 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 





1 


11 


1 


n 


Greatest width 


1 


8 


2 







1 


1 


5 


1 


0^ 


Width of gular plates (1) at outer margin, each 


1 


2 


1 


2 










11 





9 


Outer margin of humeral plate (2) ... 


1 


10 


2 


1 




4 


1 


7 


1 


H 


Length of anal plates (6) at outer margin 


1 


3 


1 


3 










10 





9 


Width of plastron across ends of caudal plates 


2 


11 


1 


6 




2 


1 


1 


1 





,, across middle of femoral plates (5) 


4 


2 


4 


5 


3 


5 


3 


2 


2 


9 


„ of plastron across ends of posterior outer 






















angles of humeral plates (2) 


4 


3 


4 


7 


3 


5 


3 


6 


2 


11 


Number of tubercles in 1 inch along middle of 






















back of neck, about 


Se 


ven 


Ten 


Seven 


N 


ine 


Sixteen 



Reference. — Testudo longicollis, Sbaw, Gen. Zool. v. 3, t. 6 ; = Chelodina 
Nov(B-HoUandice, Dum. & Bib. Erp. v. 2, p. M3, t. 21, p. 2. 

Tins liaudsome Tortoise is as common in the rivers of Southern 
Gippsland as the Chelemys Macquaria is in the Murray and its 
tributaries ; and although it also inhabits the more northern 
Australian rivers, the Chelemys has not yet been found in those 
flowing south. Although the yellow upturned sides of the cara- 
jiace are usually marked with square brown patches on the edges 
of the plates, and those below have usually broad brown edges, 
some rare examples have the brown so extended as almost to 
ol)literate the usual, yellow ground colour. The detailed measure- 
ments I have given show how the individual plates, as well as the 
general outline of carapace and plastron, vary ; in none of my 
specimens do the anterior edges of the 2nd and llth marginal 
plates coincide mth sutures of the costal plates, as mentioned in 

[ 11 ] 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IBeptiUa. 

Dr. Gray's examples. There are ccrtaiuly no barbels under the 
chin of this tortoise. 

The small young agree with the large adults in all respects of 
dorsal sulcus, rugosity of carapace, shape and colour, the only 
difference being the less reflexion of the middle lateral edges of 
the carapace. The only specimen I have of the C. sulcifera is 
from the Goulburn, and is about the same size as the smallest 
above measured, but has a very much wider carapace in proportion 
to its length ( C. longicollis yV^, C. sulcifera yV^)? ^^^ it has no 
dorsal sulcus, has radiating ridges on the plates of the carapace, 
and concentric lines forming a broad margin round the sutures ; 
the colouring is the same in both ; and whether they are distinct 
species or varieties I am unable to satisfy myself without examining 
more specimens of the C. sulcifera. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 92. — Fig. 1, dorsal view of carapace, to show markings and dorsal sulcus. Fig. 2, 
underside of another specimen in the attitude it assumes when turning from its back to the 
ordinary position, which it effects by pressing its beak against the ground. Fig. 3, diagram of 
plates of tlie plastron. Fig. 4, diagram of plates of carapace. These plates ai'e numbered to 
agree with the description. 

Plate 93. — Fig. 1, average specimen, half natural size. Fig. 2, egg, natural size. 

Frederick McCoy. 



[ 12] 



fy 



:\<rrc*-' 




PI. 31 



ZOOLOGY tF VlCTORI/k 

fPoliyxocu) 




4^ 



-. J ■ 









^ 





o 




^ 





( \ 





G) 



10 






^ I! 




IZ 










^ 4 




e 01 Inch 



^_J 





( )■ 



23 



!*■ 



It 



TEJC^OiU JXhik 



I^tf irCt] iraf 



St^arfL ht^M .^^ytPrmxas Offut 



Zoology.'] 



NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. 



[^Polyzoa. 



Plate 94. 



OPERCULA OF SPECIES OF RETEPORA, 



Fig. 1, R. monilifera. 



3 

4 

6, 



8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 



R. monilifera, var. sinuata. 

R. MONILIFERA, FORM MUNITA, VAR. LUNATA. 

R. MONILIFERA, FORM MUNITA, VAR. ACUTIROSTRIS. 

R. MONILIFERA, FORM UMBONATA. 

R. FORMOSA. 

R. AURANTIACA. 

R. rORCELLANA. 

R. RORCELLANA, VAR. LAXA. 

R. CARINATA. 

R. GRANULATA. 

R. SERRATA. 

R. PHCENICEA. 

R. TESSELLATA. 

R. FISSA. 

R. AVICULARIS. 



[ 13 ] 



7^^ 



J^-A.l-CA-' 



U~l 



Ph.ds 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

( PoJjy zoc 




% 










w '- 



^ 



Vv;; ■ 






4 



Sl^: 



?\ 




■f 



Mz^ 




f 



-grl 



I" Ein& k jKdeUj Tbffcr m, 



Traf M^Ccf ihrtc* 



Siaufv bJjw. Gtrt*J'rmit/y Offu& , 



Zoologtj.\ NATURAL HISTOKY OF VICTORIA. \_Polyzoa. 



Plate 96, Figs. 1-6. 

EETEPORA PORCELLANA (P. McG.). 

Description. — Polyzoaiy massive, expanded, convoluted, or calyculate _; 
fenestrce elongated; cells rliomboidal, separated by distinct raised lines, terminating' 
superiorly o])posite the lower part of" the mouth ; mouth arched above, straight or 
slightly hollowed below; lower lip entire, with (usually) an avicularium below it; 
a spine articulated on each side ; operculum rounded, wider than high ; an elliptical 
avicularium on the front of the cell, with a spatulate or linguiform mandible directed 
vertically or obliquely downwards ; ovicell rounded, smooth, or with a few ridges, 
much immersed, when young with a broad, short, vertical opening, which, as growth 
advances, becomes filled in, and in some cases forms a slightly prominent ridge ; 
dorsal surface obscurely granular or slightly areolated, traversed by numerous raised 
lines, and usually with one or more small oval avicularia on each part defined by 
those vibices. 

References.— P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., 1869 and 1882; 
R. robusta, Hincks, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., May 1878. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

Varies a good deal in appearance, according to age, old speci- 
mens being very massive, the fenestra? shorter and interspaces 
thicker than in yonnger individuals. The form of the lower lip 
varies. It is usually straight and entire, with a rounded avicu- 
larium immediately below. Sometimes there is a slight fissure in 
place of the avicularium, and occasionally there is a fissure towards 
one side, and on the wider part of the lip an avicularium. In young 
marginal cells there is no appearance of any sinus. Frequently 
the central part of the cell is depressed. A variety occurs which 
I have named laxa., presenting so marked a difference in its appear- 
ance that I was inclined to consider it as a distinct species. In it 
the fenestrse are very long, and are formed by the irregular division 
and anastomosis of l)road l)ranclies from a main stem. The cells 
are usually longer, the separating raised margins not so prominent, 
and many of the oral spines, of which in the marginal cells there 
are frequently four or five, are very long and jointed, as in R. 
monilifera^ but much more slender. An old dead specmien of this 

[ 15 ] 



Zooloyy.1 NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. iPoli/zoa. 

variety lias a very peculiar appearance, being divided into regular 
longitudinal ridges, the intervening hollows formed ]jy the mouths 
and depressed centres of the cells. 

Explanation of Figukes. 

Plate 95. — Figs. 1 and 2, specimens, natural size. Fig. 3, specimen of var. laxa, natural 
size. Fig. 4, small portion of fig. 1, magnified. Fig. 5, young marginal cells from another 
specimen. Figs. 5a, bb, 5c, other cells from same specimen. Fig. 6, cells from var. laxa, fig. 
3, magnified. 



Plate 95, Figs. 7-11. 

RETEPORA AYICULAIilS (P. McG.). 

Description. — Polyzoary expanded, convoluted ; fenestrte elong-ated, wider 
than the interspaces; cells elong-ated, separated by distinct margins ; mouth arcTied 
above ; lower lip with a central loop-shaped mark, frequently ])erforated below, on 
each side of which is a triangular projection ])ointing upwards; a long spine 
articulated on each side of the mouth ; operculum rounded ; numerous large 
avicularia, the rostrum elevated and with strong curved beak, the mandible 
triangular and pointed; ovicell rounded, prominent, smooth, and entire; dorsal 
surface smooth, vibicate, with scattered avicularia, with triangular mandibles. 

Reference.— P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., 1882. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

This elegant species attains a size of only about an inch high. 
It is very light and fragile. The lower lip Avith its two small 
triangular denticles, and the loop-shaped mark extending down- 
wards from between them, is very characteristic. This structure, 
Avitli the rounded, entire, smooth ovicell, sufficiently distinguishes 
it from our other species. 

PvXPLANATION OF FIGURES. 

Plate 95. — Figs. 7 and 8, specimens, natural size. Figs. '.) and <»«, portions of another 
specimen, magnified. Fig 9b, outline of aviculariura. Fig. 10, a single cell and ovicell. Fig. 1 1, 
dorsal surface, half as much magnified. 

[ IG ] 



Zooloyu.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPolyzoa. 



Plate 95, Figs. 12-16. 
RETEPORA FISSA (P. McG.). 

Description. — Polyzoary expanded, waved, or slightly convoluted j fenestree 
oval ; cells rbomboidal or elongated, separated by raised lines ; mouth rounded 
above, lower lip hollowed, entire, or with a slight sinus and loop-shaped mark or 
groove about the centre; operculum rounded, broader than high; an avicularium 
near the middle of the cell, with the triangular mandible directed downwards, or 
downwards and outwards ; ovicell large, rounded, prominent, with a vertical fissure, 
wider above, closed below ; posterior surface with numerous slightly prominent 
vibices and a few small avicularia. 

Reference.— P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., 1869, 1882, and 1883; 
R. marsupiata '?, Smith, Floridan Bryozoa. 

This species, which is probably not uncommon, varies consider- 
ably. In young specimens the interspaces are slender, with from 
1 to 3 or 4 rows of cells ; the fenestrse being large and wide, giving 
to the whole a more open appearance. Older specimens are much 
more calcareous, the fenestrse comparatively smaller, and the poly- 
zoary altogether more massive. In the most developed specmiens 
the mouth has the lower lip nearly straight or hollowed, entire, or 
with an obscure sinus ft'om which extends downwards a short 
groove. In more slender specimens the cells are longer and 
narrower ; the upper part of the cell is curved forwards, the 
mouth nearly circular, and oj^ening upwards. From the centre of 
the lower lip a shallow groove, with slightly raised edges, extends 
vertically downwards ; immediately below this, or slightly to one 
side, is usually an avicularium, with a bluntly triangular mandible 
directed downwards and tilted somewhat forwards. The lower 
lip on either side of the groove is smooth or sometimes serrated. 
The edges of the groove occasionally meet to form a tube 
extending its wdiole length, or confined to the lower end. The 
avicularium on the front of the cell is frequently situated on an 
elevation which is sometimes of enormous size ; the mandible is 
then much larger and more acutely pointed. Sometimes there are 
more than one avicularium on a cell. 

Bee. X. [ 17 ] c 



Zoologij.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPohjzoa. 

The cliaractcristic features are the loop-shaped mark or groove 
from the lower lip, the aviculariiim on the middle of the cell, and 
the permanent slit on the ovicell. 

It is allied to the European R. cellulosa, which does not occur 
in my collection. The specimens referred to that species by Busk, 
Hincks, and others, probably belong to the present. I think also 
that Smith's Floridan R. marsupiata is identical with the more 
slender form of our species. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 95. — Figs. 12 and 13, specimens, natural size. Fig. 14, portion of fig. 12, magnified. 
Fig. 15, portion of the more slender form (= vutrsvpiata, Sm. ?), magnified. Fig. IG, dorsal 
surface of another specimen of var. marsupiata, half as much magnified. 



[ 18] 



9C 



'\Art't^~^ 



Tl 9€ 



2O0L0GY OF VICTORIA 







/i 



'.■=a_ 



%!#' 



'i\ii 



j« 



d 








rt) 



t:' 





ton."" 






,m;'5,^# 



^^'^^ms^ 







^» 



>^' 













■1^' 



^^> 



^^)^^ ■ 



^f 



TEmC £ JAdelJ.Sipperhik. 



TrtflrCcf ira» 



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Ph. 31 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

(Totyi 



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Zoologij.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPohjzoa. 



Plates 96-7. 
RETEPORA MONILIFERA (P. McGil.). 

[Genus RETEPORA (Imperato). (Sub-kingd. Mollusca. Class Polyzoa. Order Infun- 
dibulata. Sub-order Cheilostomata. Earn. Escbaridje.) 

Gen. Char. — Polyzoary stony, reticulated. Cells opening on one surface only, immersed, 
indistinct posteriorly. Posterior surfaces vibicate.] 

Description. — Polyzoary foliaceous, variously convoluted ; fenestrje oval, 
narrower than the interspaces j cells separated by narrow, raised lines, convex, 
smooth or granular j primary orifice arched above, straight below, or hollowed, or 
with a minute sinus; secondary orifice with a sinus in the lower lip, permanently 
open, or becoming- closed, at one side of which is generally a small oval avicularium; 
operculum arched above, straight below ; usually an elliptical avicularium on the 
front of the cell, and others of various forms on different parts of the polyzoary ; 
ovicells prominent, rounded, or pyriform, with a beaded or granular band above the 
orifice from which extends upwards a similar vertical band ; dorsal surface vibicate, 
granular. 

References. — MacGillivra}^, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict. 1859 and 1883; Hincks, Ann. 
and Mag. Nat. Hist., May 1878. 

This abundant species presents several forms so marked that it 
may be doubtful whether they ought not to be considered as species. 
In all, however, the mouth has essentially the same structure, a 
fissure in the lower lip of the peristome with a small avicularium 
at one angle of the opening. This fissure is sometimes closed by 
the complete or partial coalescence of the opposite sides leaving 
only a loop-shaped mark, or the lower end remaining perforated 
l)y a round foramen. Th^e angle supporting the oral avicularium 
is frequently much produced forwards. The other avicularia are 
extremely various. There is generally an elliptical one on the 
front of the cell, and forms with semilunar mandil)les are common. 
On the inner edge of many of the fenestrse one or more are found 
with long narrow mandibles closing in a rostrum which has a sharp 
tooth on each side towards the point. These open horizontally 
inwards. In all, the ovicell is prominent and marked by a beaded 
line immediately above the orifice from the middle of which a 
branch extends vertically upwards. In sinuata the upper part of 
the vertical line frequently projects considerably forwards, in 

[ 19 ] 



Zoology.-\ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. iPohjzoa. 

munita it occasionally ends in a sharp spine, while in iimhonata it 
ends at the base of a large sharj:) umbo. All intermediate forms 
may be observed. The general form of the operculum is similar, 
although somewhat modified in the different forms. In the typical 
form it is thinner, and constantly presents a peculiar dendroid 
marking, which also occasionally occurs in sinuata, but not in the 
others. The peculiar large, jointed spines seem to be confined to 
the typical form (including var. sinuata) and umhonata; at least 
I have not seen them in the munita form. 

The difiPerent varieties may be all grouped under three Forms or 
Sub-species : — 

Form monilifera (P. McG.). 

Plate 96, Fig. 1-3. 

Description. — Polj-zoary expanded, foliaceous, closely plicated, usually much 
broader than liig-li ; fenestra? rounded or elliptical, much narrower than the inter- 
spaces ; mouth at first with the lower marj^-in entire or with a slig'ht notch ; as 
gTowth advances, the peristome of the lower lip is much produced, retaining- a narrow 
notcli, at one angle of which a small avicularium is situated; ovicells prominent, the 
beaded line broad, the extension upwards slightly clavate, and extending- nearly to 
the upper edg-e. 

Port Phillip Heads ; Portland, Mr. Maplestone ; Warrnambool, 
Mr. Watts. 

This common form is confined to shallow water. On the frame- 
work of the wooden pier at Queenscliflf it forms large masses, 
almost dry at low tide. The mode of growth is characteristic. 
The polyzoary is closely plicated, forming numerous, narrow calycles 
and cavities, expanding widely from its attachment and, sometimes, 
either from a single zoarium or the confluence of several, forming 
masses 6-9 inches wide and 2-4 or 5 high. In the youngest 
marginal cells the shape of the mouth varies, the lower <i(}i^(^ being 
straight, hollowed, with a small central sinus, or with a deep lateral 
one. As growth advances a narroAv central sinus is formed in the 
peristome. On one angle of this a small avicularium is usually 
developed. Occasionally this angle is much produced forwards, 
bearing the avicularium on its summit. Sometimes the angles of 
the sinus coalesce, leaving a rounded foramen, and occasionally this 

[20] 



Zoologi/.;\ NATUEAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Polt/zoa. 

also is obliterated. There is usually an elliptical avicularium on 
the front of the cell, towards the upper part, either vertical or 
oblique, sometimes nearly central, but oftener to one side. In 
some specimens numerous other avicularia are found, often on 
calcareous elevations. The mandibles are of various forms, pomted, 
sj^atulate, or semilunar, one of the last frequently situated above a 
fenestra. The iDcaded line of the ovicell is thick, the vertical part 
extending to its summit, where its clavate extremity is occasionally 
slightly elevated. Small oval or elliptical avicularia are scattered 
irregularly over the back, sometimes with triangular mandil3les, 
and occasionally one of the latter of a larger size is found at the 
base of a fenestra. 

In young cells there are frequently two long, hollow, jointed 
spines attached at the upper margin of the mouth. In older cells, 
and occasionally in younger ones, there is an enormous s^iine on 
one side articulated to an elevation of the peristome. These spines 
are of peculiar structure (first pointed out by Hincks), consisting 
of segments narrower at the base, expanding upwards, and each 
segment fitting into the one l)elow, somewhat like the joints of an 
Equisetum. 

A marked variety, which I have named sinuata., is usually 
found surrounchng the stems of black algse, and attains a size of 
a])out 2 inches by 1 to 1^. In this the polyzoary is much thicker 
and denser. The sinus in the lower lip is much wider and deeper, 
and the oral avicularium is larger. Tlie jointed spines, which are 
commonly present, are of great size ; the first joint is very long, 
the succeeding ones much shorter. The ovicells are broader, and 
the vertical beaded line is frequently elevated towards its upper 
extremity. The avicularia are usually very numerous, and are 
frequently raised on calcareous eminences. They vary much in 
shape, and the mandibles are often broadly spatulate. The back is 
densely granular, the vibices little prominent, and the avicularia 
very few. 



[ 21 ] 



Zoology.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \_Pohjzoa. 



Form munita (Hincks). 

Plate 96, Figs. 4-8. 

Description. — Polyzoary expanded, foliaceoiis, convoluted to form large 
cavernous or calyculate masses ; cells separated by narrow raised lines, surface 
g-ranular; peristome expanded forwards, with a loop-sbaped mark in the centre of 
the lower lip, closed or perforated below, on one side of which is an avicularium. 
Small oval avicularia on the front of the cells, and various others scattered in different 
parts. A very larg-e avicularium, with either a semilunar or a very long-, triangular, 
pointed mandible, above the upper ang-le of each fenestra; ovicells with the beaded 
line narrow; posterior surface g-ranular; vibices well marked; elliptical avicularia 
more abundant about the edg-es of the fenestrse. 



'o^ 



The largest S2:)ecimeu I have measures '2^ by 3 inches ; hut as 
all my others are incomplete, it probably attains a considerably 
greater size. The convolutions of the polyzoary form large cavities, 
and are not closely plicated as in the form mmiilifera. The peri- 
stome is usually much elevated forwards, with a loop-shaped mark, 
or occasionally a fissure, on one angle of which is a small avicu- 
larium. This avicularium is frequently, however, absent. It is 
also sometimes very much elevated on a production of the j^eri- 
stome. There is occasionally a thin spine at each side of the mouth 
above, but I have never seen the large jointed spines found in the 
other forms. 

Two varieties are distinguishable. In the one, kmata., the 
supra-fenestral avicularium has the maudil)le semilunar and very 
large, and the loop of the peristome is usually imperforate. In the 
other, acutirostris^ which is also usually altogether stouter, the 
same avicularium has an enormous, pointed mandible ; and the 
peristome is occasionally perforated. Occasionally both forms of 
large avicularia occur on the same specimen. 



[ 22] 



^oohgi/.'] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. \Polyzoa. 



Form umbonata (P. McG.). 

Plate 97, Figs. 1-3. 

Description. — Polyzoary foliaceous, expanded, or convoluted; fenestras elliptical, 
narrower than the intei'spaces ; cells quadrate or ovate, separated by much raised 
margins; surface granular, giassy; mouth sloping- obliquely backwards ; in young- 
cells lower lip nearly straight or hollowed, entire, thin ; in older with a loop-shaped 
notch, at one ang-le of which is an avicularium; this notch frequently bridged over, 
leaving- a small foramen, also sometimes obliterated, in the latter case the lip being- 
thickened, and at its junction with the lateral margins projecting- slightly, giving 
orig-in to slender, jointed spines; in many of the older cells these spines are very 
thick and telescopic in appearance, and frequently confined to one side; avicularia 
very varied, frequently a semilunar one above a fenestra, and also often one with 
a long-, narrow mandible closing- in a bidentate rostrum, opening- horizontally inwards 
on the edg-e of a fenestra ; ovicell prominent, the vertical band ending- in the base 
of a sharp, smooth, umbonate process ; posterior surface strongly vibicate, with 
numerous, small, round avicularia, especially about the edg-es of the fenestras. 

Port Phillip Pleads, 15 fathoms. 

This form, which is of comparatively small size, is distinguished 
by the much-raised margins of the cells and the peculiar umbonate 
process on the ovicell. These characters are usually so marked 
that it might seem necessary to constitute a distinct species. In 
some cases, however, the umbonate process scarcely exists, and the 
vertical band is little more raised than in sinuata. Young cells of 
munita also frequently have the margins much raised. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 96. — Fig. 1, specimen R. monilifera, normal form, natural size. Fig. 2, young 
marginal cells, from a similar specimen, magnified. Fig. 2a, other cells from the same specimen. 
Fig. 2i, older portion, showing ovicells and avicularia. Fig. 3, portion of var. sinuata, showing 
large sinus, oral avicularia, and spiues. Fig. 4, specimen of Jl. monilifera, form munita, natural 
size. Fig. 5, young cells of var. lunata. Fig. 5a, another portion of the same specimen, showing 
a large avicularium. Fig. bb, single cell and avicularium of same specimen. Fig. 6, small portion 
of another specimen, showing ovicells. Fig. 7, small portion of var. acutirostris, to show large 
avicularium and structure of the moiith. Fig. 8, small portion of another specimen, showing 
both semicircular and long-pointed avicularia. 

Plate 97. — Fig. 1, specimen of R. monilifera, form jtmbonata, natural size. Fig. 2, small 
portion, magnified. Fig. 2a, ovicell, partly in profile, to show prominence of umbo. Fig. 3, 
young cells. Fig. 3a, two cells of same specimen, showing the long, jointed spines. 



[23 ] 



Zooiocji/.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Poli/zoa. 



Plate 97, Figs. 4-6. 
EETEPORA FOEMOSA (P. McG.). 

Description. — Polyzoary expanded, foliaceous, convoluted so as to form large 
funnel-shajjed compartments j fenestrse rounded or oval, narrower than the inter- 
spaces; cells elong-ated, expanded above, separated by distinct raised lines; surface 
minutely granular ; moutb sloping- backwards, narrowed below, the thickened lateral 
marg'in uniting" at an acute ang-le with the raised cell-margin; the lower lip straight, 
with a minute sinus; operculum higher than broad, slig-htly contracted below; 
usually an elliptical avicularium on the front of the cell ; ovicell large, prominent, 
with a small beaded band on each side above the aperture meeting at an angle in 
the middle, and extending vertically upwards to end in a slightly clavate extremity; 
dorsal surface strongly vibicate, granular, and with numerous elliptical or rounded 
avicularia close to the edges of the fenestra. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., 1883. 

Port Phillip Heads, 10-18 fathoms. 

This beautiful species in appearance and size precisely resembles 
the munita form of R. moiiilifera. It is, however, at once distin- 
guished by the form of the mouth, which slopes backwards and is 
wide above and contracted below. The lower lip is straight, and 
has usually a minute rounded sinus, and is destitute of oral avicu- 
larium. The slightly thickened sides of the mouth unite at an 
acute angle with the elevated margins of the cells. The operculum 
is also of a very characteristic shape, in correspondence with the 
form of the mouth. Besides the avicularium on the front of the 
cells and those on the back of the polyzoary, there is fi'cquently 
one with a long pointed mandible opening horizontally inwards on 
the edge of the fenestrse. An avicularium with a semilunar 
mandible is also occasionally found above a fenestra in front. 



Exi'LANATION OF FIGURES. 

Plate 97. — Fig. 4, specimen, natural size. Fig. 5, portion of a specimen, showing tlie 
ovicella. Fig, 5a, dorsal surface, half as much magnified. Fig. 6, small i^ortion of another 
specimen. 



[24] 



Zoologi/.-\ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polj/zoa. 



Plate 97, Fig. 7. 

RETEPORA CARINATA (P. McG.)- 

Description. — Polyzoaiy expanded; fenestrse elongated, narrower than the 
interspaces J cells ovate, broad, separated by narrow raised margins; mouth (primary) 
with the lower lip entire, or (secondary) with a deep sinus at one side and a large 
avicularium towards the base of the prominent peristome; operculum rounded above, 
hollowed below, broader than high ; on the inner margin of" the fenestra several 
avicularia with long, pointed mandibles directed vertically from before backwards ; 
ovicell subimmersed, pyriform, with a vertical, sharp ridge slightly bulbous at its 
upper extremity; dorsal surface granular, traversed by slightly raised vibices, and 
with a few rounded avicularia about the edges of the fenestrse. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., 1883. 

The only specimen I have seen of this very distinct species was 
dredged at Port PhilHp Heads. It is perfect, and forms a waved, 
somewhat fan-shaped expansion, fths of an inch wide by about 
Jths deep. The cells are mostly broad, prominent, tubercular, and 
glistening. The mouth is broad, arched above, and in the youngest 
seems to be entire and straight below or slightly convex. The 
peristome is rapidly developed on the lower lip, projecting as a 
plate with a deep notch at the angle of the mouth on one side, and 
receding gradually from this to nearly the level of the opposite 
angle, but without any notch on that side. The margin is frequently 
finely serrated. There is a considerable prominent avicularium 
below the lower lip, with the broad mandible directed upwards, 
usually inclined to the angle formed by the sinus. There are also 
other round or elliptical avicularia scattered in various parts, and 
numerous avicularia with long narrow mandibles, closing in biden- 
tate rostra, close to the edges of the fenestrse. Similar avicularia 
occur in some other species ; but in these, so far as I have seen, 
they always open horizontally inwards, while in the present they 
are directed across the edge of the fenestrse. The vertical slit, the 
closure of which gives rise to the vertical ridge on the ovicell, is 
still in some instances slightly open towards the upper extremity. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 97.— Fig. 7, specimen, natural size. Fig. 7a, portion magnified. Fig. 7b, portion of 
dorsal surface, half as much enlarged. 

Dec. X. \^ 25 2 D 



Ph. 38 





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ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

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Zoologij.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Pottjzoa. 



Plate 98, Figs. 1-5. 
RETEPORA PHO^NICEA (Busk). 

Description. — Polyzoary expanded, foliaceous, convoluted ; fenestrce small, 
rounded, or elliptical, narrower than the interspaces ; cells enlarged upwards, sepa- 
rated by narrow, raised lines ; surface smooth or perforated by a few large foramina ; 
mouth rounded, projecting* forwards, in youngest cells with a fringe of short spinous 
processes or serratures and a sinus below, in older with an entire or slightly serrated 
margin, and usually a minute rounded sinus on the lower lip ; operculum broad, 
rounded, with the muscular impressions small, round, and at a distance from the 
margin ; a broad avicularium with sharply triangular mandible below the mouth ; 
ovicell rounded, sub-immersed, the lower part with a broad mesial plate curving 
downwards and backwards -, posterior surface nearly smooth or sub-granular, with 
numerous prominent vibices and a few minute avicularia. 

References. — Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat., Mar. Polyzoa ; Hincks, Ann. and Mag. 
Nat. Hist., May 1878. 

Port Phillip Heads ; Portlaud, Mr. Maplestone ; King's Island, 
Mr. McGowan. 

This species forms small, convoluted masses of a beautiful vivid 
red colour. The finest specimen I have seen is that figured. The 
cells, which are separated by narrow raised lines, are smooth or 
sub-granular, and have usually several rounded foramina towards 
the margins. These are commonly arranged in two pairs, one on 
the upper part near the mouth, the other towards the base. In a 
young specimen, ^tli of an inch in diameter, for which I am 
indebted to Mr. Wilson, the cells have the mouth nearly circular 
with a thick fringe of short processes, longest above, but not 
developed into distinct spines, connected by an intermediate cal- 
careous expansion. In old cells the peristome is smooth and little 
prominent, or projects more and is ol)Scurely serrated ; there is also 
usually, but not always, a small rounded sinus in the lower lip. 
In most cells there is a large avicularimn below the mouth, Avitli 
a broad, sharply triangular mandible directed upwards. The ovi- 
cells are very conspicuous. They are white, sub-immersed, and at 
the lower part have a broad mesial plate which curves downwards 
and backwards, leaving a rounded notch on each side. Their 

[27 ] 



Zoology.] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. IPoIi/zoa. 

siirftice is frequently marked Ijy uarrow raised lines wliicli in many 
cases seem to mark the lateral boundaries of the incurved plate. 
The dorsal surfjice is sub-granular, with numerous, sharply-raised 
viliices. The avicularia are very sparse, small, and with triangular 
mandibles. They are mostly situated close to the margins of the 
fenestrse. The operculum differs from that of all the other 
Victorian Ketepores in having the occlusor muscles attached to 
small round impressions at a distance from the margins. 

Explanation of Figures. 
Plate 98. — Fig. 1, specimen, natural size. Fig. 2, group of young marginal cells, from 
another, very small, growing specimen, magnified. Fig. 3, small group, showing partially 
developed ovicclls. Fig. 4, group with fully formed ovicells. Fig. .5, portion of the back of 
the polyzoary, magnified half the dimensions of the other enlarged views. 



Plate 98, Figs. (j-7. 
RETEPORA AURANTIACA (P. McG.). 

Description. — Polyzoary expanded, foliaceous, convoluted; fenestra elliptical 
or oval, about the same width as the interspaces ; cells quadrate, separated by 
narrow raised margins ; mouth rounded above, straig'ht below, with a deep narrow 
sinus, on one side of which is a rounded avicularium ; a long-, jointed spine articu- 
lated on each side of the mouth ; operculum larg-e, much wider than high, hollowed 
at the sides inferiorly ; usually a round avicularium on the front of the cell ; ovicell 
larg-e, pyriform, with a vertical, narrow fissure, wider above, and with thickened 
margins ; dorsal surface strongly vibicate, g-ranular, and with numerous small, 
rounded avicularia, especially abundant near the fenestrae. 

Reference. — P. H. MacGillivray, Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict, 1882. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

The largest complete specimen I have seen is three inches wide 
by about two in the other diameters. The l)ase of attachment is 
about an inch long. The avicularium on the front of the cell is 
by no means constant. The ovicells are abundant, and have a very 
distinctive appearance ; with growth the vertical slit is sometimes 
filled in, leaving a slightly prominent ridge. It is an exceedingly 
handsome species of a beautiful orange colour. 

Explanation of Figures, 
Plate 98. — Fig. 6, specimen, natural size. Fig. 7, cells near the margin, magnified. 
Fig. 7a, another portion of the same, showing the ovicells. Fig. 7b, portion of the dorsal 
surface, magnified to half the dimensions of the others. 

[28] 



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Ph. .39 



ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

{ Polyrocu) 




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Zoology.-] NATUKAL IIISTOEY OP VICTORIA. \_Pohjzoa. 



Plate 99, Fios. 1-3. 

RETEPOKA GRANULATA (P. McG.). 

Description. — Polyzoary massive, convoluted; fenestrce rounded, small, much 
narrower than the interspaces ; cells elongated, separated by narrow, raised lines ; 
mouth arched above, straight below, lower lip with a narrow vertical sinus, on one 
side of which is a rounded avicularium ; operculum much wider than high ; surface 
of cells granular or tuberculate; numerous small oval avicularia scattered over the 
cells, and a few larger situated on rounded elevations ; ovicell large, rounded, 
granular; dorsal surface granular, vibicate, with small, scattered, rounded avicularia. 

References. — P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy. Soc. Vict., 1869 and 1882; 
Hincks, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., May 1878. 

Port Phillip Heads. 

This is the most massive of our Australian species, and attains 
a large size, the specimen figured measuring four inches high by 
the same width. It is of a brownish colour. In addition to the 
usual granulations over the surface, in many cases there is a row 
forming small processes on the upper margin of the mouth. The 
young ovicell is fissured, the fissure becoming filled in as calcifi- 
cation advances. In some specimens there are numerous rounded 
avicularia scattered over the cells and ovicells, occasionally raised 
on small elevations. There are also other large avicularia with 
triangular mandibles on large mound-like elevations. 

Explanation of Eigures. 

Plate 99. — Eig. 1, specimen, natural size. Eig. 2, portion of another specimen, magnified. 
Fig. 3, portion to show the dorsal surface, magnified half as much. 



Plate 99, Figs. 4-8. 
RETEPORA TESSELLATA (IIincks). 

Description. — Polyzoary small, foliaceous, convoluted; fenestroe elongated, 
usually narrower than the interspaces ; cells oval or rhomboidal, separated by narrow, 
raised lines ; mouth higher than broad, with a projecting angle on each side, where 
the raised cell-margin originates, caused by abrupt sloping backwards ; lower lip 
deeply concave, entire, or with a minute rounded sinus ; operculum with a broad 
groove down the centre ; an avicularium on the front of the cell, with a long narrow 
mandible ; ovicell rounded, sub-immersed, excavated below ; dorsal surface smooth 

[29] 



Zoology.2 NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Polyzoa. 

or minutely tubercular, divided by numerous raised lines into irregular spaces, in 
each of wLich is usually situated a long- narrow avicularium similar to those on the 
front of the cells. 

Reference. — Hincks, Ann, and Mag-. Nat. Hist.; May 1878. 

Port Phillip Heads, 12-15 fathoms. 

The best specimens I have of this species are of small size, one 
measuring 1 by f inch, and another f l)y f . The fenestrse are 
large, much elongated, usually rather narrower than the interspaces. 
The cells are oval or irregularly rhomboidal ; they are separated 
by narrow raised lines which unite with the slightly thickened 
lateral margins of the mouth at about the middle, forming a con- 
spicuous angle on each side. The mouth is higher than wide, the 
lower lip hollowed, slightly thickened, entire, or with a small 
rounded sinus. Immediately above the junction of the separating 
lines of the cells the mouth recedes, and the angle here formed 
frequently gives rise to a jointed spine. In young, growing cells 
the mouth is nearly round, with a fringe-like upper edge to which 
are articulated several long, slender spines. A similar border and 
sjiines are also frequently present in the marginal cells of older 
parts. On the front of the cell is an avicularium, frequently situated 
on an eminence, with a long pointed mandible directed transversely, 
obliquely, or vertically downwards. The ovicell is rounded, deeply 
notched below. This notch, however, is probably ultimately filled 
in. The back of the polyzoary is mapped out into irregular areas 
l3y narrow raised vibices, in each of which is one or occasionally two 
avicularia similar to those found on the front of the cells. The 
operculmii is very peculiar. It is of small size, rounded above ; 
there is an inner mark, parallel to the free margin except that at 
about the middle on each side it is sharply inflected inwards ; 
down the centre is a wide groove, on each side of which, especially 
towards the base, the surface bulges forwards. 

Explanation of Figures. 

Plate 99. — Figs. 4 and 5, specimens, natural size. Fig. G, group of cells, magnified. 
Fig. 6a, dorsal surface, showing the small areas, Avith narrow avicularia. Fig. 7, young cells, 
magnified. Fig. 8, small group, showing an ovicell. 



[ 30] 



Zoolog^.;\ NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. lPol>/zoa, 



Plate 99, Fig. 9. 
RETEPORA SERRATA (P. McG.). 

Description. — Polyzoary expanded; fenestra about the same width as the 
interspaces, or slightly wider; cells much elongated, separated by raised lines; 
mouth nearly circular or oval, projecting forwards, with a small sinus below, and a 
fringe of about 12 short, pointed processes arranged round the margin ; operculum 
higher than wide, contracted at the base ; ovicell rounded, smooth ; a sessile avicu- 
larium, with a long, narrow, pointed mandible at the bottom of each fenestra, 
opening directly upwards ; dorsal surface obscurely tubercular, strongly vibicate. 

Reference.— P. H. MacGillivray, Tr. Roy, Soc. Vict., 1882. 

Port Phillip Heads, a single specimen. 

The only specimen I have seen is the very perfect one figured. 
It forms a small expansion f tlis of an inch in diameter, curved on 
itself on one side where it is attached to the calcareous tube of an 
annelid. The colour is leaden-grey. The cells are elongated, 
narrow, slightly expanded upwards, separated by narrow raised lines. 
In the youngest the mouth is smooth, the lower lip straight, slightly 
hollowed or with a slight sinus. The peristome is rapidly developed 
to form a serrated circle of small sharp teeth, projecting forwards ; 
at the lower part of this circle is a small sinus. At the bottom of 
each fenestra is a sessile avicularium, the rostrum with a tooth on 
each side behind the strong curved apex, the mandible long, 
narrow, curved, and pointed. There are a few other large avicu- 
laria, situated on mound-like elevations on the cells, and with 
spatulate or linguiform mandibles. The back is obscurely tuber- 
cular, glistening, divided into numerous angular spaces by narrow, 
sharply-raised vibices ; a few scattered, rounded avicularia are 
situated about the edges of the fenestrse. 

Explanation of Figures. 
Plate 99. — Fig. 9, specimen, natural size. Fig. 9a, portion, magnified. 



I am indebted to my friend Mr. MacGillivray for this valuable 
series of Reteporce, which he has contributed to the National 

Museum collections and this work. 

Frederick McCoy. 
[ 31 ] 



Fb. 100 




ZOOLOGY OF VICTORIA 

I EchuwderrruUcu ) 



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Zoologi/.} NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Echinodermata. 



Plate 100. 

GONIOCIDARIS TUBARIA (Lam. sp.). 

[Genus GONIOCIDARIS (Desors.). (Sub-kingdom Radiata. Class Echinodermata. 
Order Ecbinoidea. Sub-order Desmosticha. Family Cidaridae. Sub-family Goniocidarinte.) 

Gen. Char.— Test high, often higber tban broad ; coronal plates numerous ; primary 
tubercles perforated, with smooth base. Ambulacra narrower than in other genera of the 
family ; two porous bands nearly as broad as the intervening median ambulacral space ; middle 
of the ambulacral and inter-ambulacral spaces bare, sutural edges of the ambulacral and inter- 
ambulacral plates sunk, forming zigzag depressed lines and pits at the angles of the plates, in 
which large spherical-headed pedicellariae are lodged, one often to each pit. Spines cylindrical, 
often cupped at the tip, the sides tubercular or spinose, the thorny spinules often enlarged in 
whorls near tip of primary spines.] 

Description. — Test moderately depressed. Primary tubercles eleven * in each 
vertical row; serobicular space transversely oval; mammary boss small, not promi- 
nent; a row (or, in some parts, two rows) of secondary tubercles round the 
serobicular area, l to 6 rows of small miliary tubercles concentric with the row of 
secondary serobicular tubercles on inner end of each inter-ambulacral plate, but a 
wide smooth margin to each plate forms smooth sunk zigzag- line down middle of inter- 
ambulacrum ; a narrow band of 3 or 4 rows of miliaries, between primary tubercle and 
band of ambulacral pores. Primary spines thick with blunt swollen tips, more or less 
flattened, those of vertex funnel-shaped at tip ; the tip often with a radiating row 
of thorny spines ; others cylindrical or flattened, and variously terminated by a 
fringe of longitudinal lamilloe; the underside generally smoother and flatter than 
the upper; all with conical, thorny spines on upper side, while their lower side has 
irregular, longitudinal rows of blunt tubercles, or is quite smooth towards the mouth; 
small primary spines nearest the mouth flat and smooth above and below, both sides 
serrated with a row of spines, tip bluntly truncated ; secondary spines and papillse 
flat, smooth, with wide, flat truncated tip; all the spines show irregular, longi- 
tudinal, obtusely granular lines under the lens. Plates of vertex, or abactinal 
system, with broad, smooth, sutural margins, but covered with miliary granules in 
centre; genital plates with very small ovarian opening near middle of central patch 
of miliary granules; ocular pores very small, double; ambulacra with broad bands 
of pores and a sunken, middle portion bare along centre, with two or three irregular 
rows of miliary granules at sides," within the two rows of secondary tubercles which 
border the two bands of pores. Colour : Plates brownish ; primary spines yellowish 
or white-pinkish cream colour, with the tubei'cles and thorny spines red, chiefly on 
underside towards tips ; secondary spines and papillae rich cinabar red, yellowish at 
tip ; pedicillaria pale dull red. Measurements : Diameter of test of an average 
specimen, 2 inches 6 lines ; in proportion to diameter, taken as 100, depth of test 
^Q^^, diameter of oral aperture, or actinostom ^%^,j, diameter of abactinal system or 
group of plates on vertex ^^j, length of cupuliform spines round vertex j^^^, width 
of ditto at tip ^%, length of longest spines at middle jVo ^^ to^o> width of ditto 
^^, width of ambulacra at middle ^5_5__^ middle portion of ditto between the bands 
of pores Ywo) width of inter-ambulacra at middle -j%^, width of serobicular area at 
middle -^q, diameter of perforated primary tubercle at middle jfo^. 

Reference. — Cidarites tubaria (Lamk.) Anim. sans Vert. 

* Ales. Agassiz states the number to be elgbt (Rev. Ecli. p. 39T). 
Vec.TL. [ 33 ] E 



Zoology.-] NATURAL HISTORY OF VICTORIA. [Echinodcrmata. 

The beautiful specimens of tliis fine sea-urcliin figured on our 
plate were presented by Mr. Bracebridge Wilson, wlio dredged 
them near Port Phillip Heads. 

The diversity of the primary spines in different parts irregularly 
in a given specimen or in different specimens is wonderfully great. 
The general character of moderate depression, with long thorny 
spines on the edges, shorter conical thorns on the upper side, and 
blunt oval tubercles on the underside, is found in most of them ; 
the whorl of thorns round the tip, either radiating obliquely upwards 
and outwards round a cup-shaped tip, or inclining so little outwards 
as sometimes to form only a lamellar fringe round the tip. The 
irregularity in size and shape not being connected definitely with 
position. The longitudinal rows of tubercles and thorns on each 
spine ai'e irregular in number and in disposition. The five longi- 
tudinal irregular lines of blunt granules seen with a lens are not 
only on the surface between the tubercles and thorns, but encroach 
upon them a variable distance. The chief variations of these 
primary spines I have figured on the plate fi'om our specimens. 
The secondary spines are only finely marked with granular longi- 
tudinal striae, without thorns or tubercles ; and are nearly uniform, 
flattened, and truncated at the tip. 

The pedicillarise are in greater abundance than in any other 
species I have seen. They are, as usual, of two sorts, one short- 
stemmed, and globular, the other much longer in the stem, and 
having the three-valved head of an elongate inversely club-shaped 
figure. They appear in all the depressions at the angles of the 
plates, both of the am1)ulacral and inter-ambulacral series. 

This species is easily distinguished from the Goniocidaris 
geranioides^ which also occurs in our seas, by the greater depression 
of the test, more thorny and larger primary spines, and by the 
comparatively very small size of the ovarian openings, which are a 
considerable distance within the margins, in the midst of a patch of 
miliary granules, while in G. geranioides they are very large and 
touching the margin. The idea occurs to me that G. geranioides 
may be the female and G. tuharia the male of one species, fi'om 
the many points of resemblance, and the more striking difference 

[34] 



Zoology.-] NATUEAL HISTOEY OF VICTORIA. [_Echinodermata. 

of height and the very large ovarian openings being characters 
probably connected with development of the ovaries. The dissec- 
tion of numerous individuals would be interestina: as settling this 
point. The number of primary tubercles does not present the 
special difference thought hy M. Agassiz, as these are certainly the 
same in both supposed species in all my specimens. The ocular 
pores seem double. 

Not uncommon in Port Phillip and Western Port Bays on sandy 
bottoms, at about 40 fathoms. 

Explanation op Eiguees. 

Plate 100.— Fig. 1, full-sized specimen, natural size. Fig. 2, test, denuded of spines, to 
show the proportion of the ambulacra and inter-ambulacra, with the perforated primary 
tubercles, imperforate secondary and miliary tubercles, bare margins and pits at angle of the 
plates, natural size. Fig. 3, oral region, partly denuded of spines, showing the teeth and small 
curved spines bent over the mouth, natural size. Fig. 4, apical region, partly denuded of 
spines, showing the very small ovarian openings far in from the edge in the patch of miliary 
granules, the margins of the plates bare ; and the apparently double oculars, natural size. 
Fig. 5, portion of apical region with cup-tipped spines, natural size Fig. 6, portion of ambu- 
lacrum, showing the proportion of the two porous arese to the middle area and the pairs of pores, 
row of secondary tubercles and miliary granules on the ambuJacral plates, with the bare mar- 
gins, depressions at angles, miliary granules, and row of secondary tubercles of the inter- 
ambulacral plates bordering the ambulacra, twice the natural size. Fig. 7, inter-ambulacral 
plates, showing the scrobicular area with the perforated primary tubercle in centre, the circle 
of imperforate secondary tubercles round the scrobicular area, and the rows of miliary granules 
not extending to the margins, which are left smooth, twice the natural size. Fig. 8, upper view 
of large primary spine, showing the plated modification of summit, natural size. Fig. 8a, side 
view of same, showing the sharp spines on the upper surface replaced by blunt tubercles on 
the lower surface. Fig. 8b, end view from below of same, to show the convexity of the thorny 
upper surface and the comparative flatness of the tuberculated under surface. Fig 9, upper 
surface of one of the large primary spines, showing the obliquely radiated circle of long thorns 
round the funnel-shaped terminal cup. Fig. 10, smaller spine from oral region, natural size. 
Fig. IGrt, top view of ditto. Fig. 11, truncated cup-shaped spine from apical region, natural 
size. Fig. 11a, side view of same. Fig. 12, upper side of small, curved spines round the mouth, 
magnified two diameters. Fig. 12a, side view of same, showing curvature towards smooth oral 
surface. Fig. I2b, section of same. Fig. 13, upper surface of secondary spine, showing its 
truncated tip and nearly parallel sides, three times natural size. Fig. 13a, same, viewed side- 
ways. Fig. 13i, section. Fig. 14, the elongate form of pedicillaria from the edge of the 
ambulacra, magnified twenty diameters. Fig. 15, short globose sort of pedicillaria, magnified 
twenty diameters. 

Frederick McCoy. 



By Authority : John Fekkes, Government Printer, Melbourne. 

[35] 



PEEFACB TO VOL. I. 



It having been considered desirable to ascertain accurately the 
natural productions of the Colony of Victoria, and to publish works 
descriptive of them, on the plan of those issued by the Governments 
of the different States of America, investigations were undertaken, 
by order of the Victorian Government, to determine the Geology, 
Botany, and Zoology of the Colony, to form collections illustrative of 
each for the public use, and to make the necessary preparations for 
such systematic publications on the subject as might be useful and 
interesting to the general public, and contribute to the advancement 
of science. 

As the geological and botanical investigations have already 
approached completion, and their publication is far advanced, it 
has been decided now to commence the publication of the third 
branch completing the subject, namely, that of the Zoology or 
indigenous members of the different classes of the animal kingdom. 

As the Fauna is not so well known as the Flora, it was a necessary 
preliminary to the publication to have a large number of drawings 
made, as opportunity arose, from the living or fresh examples of 
many species of reptiles, fish, and the lower animals, which lose their 
natural appearance shortly after death, and the true characters of 
many of which were consequently as yet unknown, as they had 



PREFACE. 



only been described from preserved specimens. A Prodromus, or 
preliminary issue, in the form of Decades, or numbers of ten plates, 
each mth its complete descriptive letterpress, will be published, of 
such illustrations as are ready, without systematic order or waiting 
for the completion of any one branch. The many good observers 
in the country will thus have the means of accurately identifying 
various natural objects, their observations on which, if recorded and 
sent to the National Museum, where the originals of all the figures 
and descriptions are preserved, will be duly acknowledged, and 
^ill materially help in the preparation of the final systematic volume 
to be published for each class when it apj^roaches completion. 

The tenth Decade completes the first volume of the Prodromus 
of the Zoology of Victoria. A systematic index is given according 
to which the plates with their corresponding letterpress may be 
bound in zoological order, all the illustrations of each class being 
put together by those who desire it. Those who prefer to liind 
the plates and corresponding letterpress in the order of their 
original appearance, and as the plates are consecutively numbered, 
can do so, bringing the prefaces together at the front. An 
alphabetical index is also given of the contents ; the generic, 
specific, and popular names being included, as well as the 
synonyms, which are in italics. 

Frederick McCoy. 
12th January, 1885. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX TO VOL. I. 



-«"<SSO-«s- 



SUB-KINGDOM L-VEKTEBMTA. 



CLASS I.— MAMMALIA. 

ORDER— FER.^. 

(Section — PinnijJedia.) 

Family — Phocid^. 
(Sub-family — Otarince.) 



Euotaria ... 

Stenorhynclius 

ORDER— CETACEA. 
Family — DELPnmiDiE. 
Delphiuus 



Plates 

. 31, 71 
21 



CLASS III.— REPTILIA. 

(Section — Squamata.) 

ORDER— SAURIA. 

(Sub-order — L ep tog lossce. ) 

( Tribe — Cyclosaurce. ) 

Family — Monitorid^. 
Hydrosaurus 

(Tribe — Geissosaura.) 
Family — Scincid^. 



Rhodona 
Cyclodus 



22 



ORDER— MARSUPIALIA. 

Family — Phalangistid^. 

Gymnobelideus 91 



41 



51 

... 72, 94 



(Sub-order — Pachyglossce.) 
(Tribe — Strobilosaiora.) 
Family — Agamid^. 
Physignathus 

ORDER— OPHIDIA. 
Family — Pythonid^. 
Morelia 



Plates 
81 



13 



Family — ELAPSiDiE. 

Diemenia 
Pseiidechys 
Fiirina ... 
Hoplocephalus ... 
Vermicella 

Family — Viperid^. (?) 
Acanthophis 



23 

1 

32 

2, 3, 11 

52 



12 



(Section — Cataphracta.) 

ORDER— CHELONIA. 

(Sub-order — Pleuroderes.) 

Family — Chelydid^e . 

(Sub-family — Hydraspidince.) 

Chelodiiia 92, 93 

Clielymys 82, 83 

ORDER— BATRACHIA. 

(Sub-order — Anou,ra.^ 

(Section — Opistlioglossa.') 

Family — Hylid^. 

Ranoidea 53 



Family — Cystignathid^. 
Limnodynastea ... 



42 



Systematic Index. 



CLASS IV.— PISCES. 
{Sub-class — Palceichthyes. ) 
ORDER— PLAGIOSTOMATA. 
{Siib-order — Selachoidea. ) 
Family — Carchariid^. 

Galeus 

Zygfena 

Mustelus 

Family — Lamniid^. 

Carcharodon 

Odontaspis 

Alopecias 

Family — Notidanid^. 
Notidanua 

Family — Scyllid^. 

Crossorliinus 



Plates 
64 
56 

87 



74 
64 
88 



Family — Spin acid^ . 



Acanthias 



43 



43 



75 



Family — Riiinid^. 
Rhina 34 

Family — Pristiophorid^. 
Pristiophorus 56 

(Suh-order — Batoidei.) 

Family — MYLioBATiciE. 

Myliobatis 63 

{Sub-class — Teleostea.^ 

ORDER— ACANTHOPTERYGIA. 

Family — Percid^. 

Lates ... ... ... 14 

Arripis 16, 17 

Oligorus 85, 86 

Ctenolates 84 



Family — Sparid^. 



Girella ... 
Chi'ysophrys 



Family — Scorp^nid^e. 



Sebastes 



• • • •• • 



Family — Triciiiurid^. 
Thersitea 

Family — C arangid^ . 

Tracliurus 

Family — Scomberid^. 

Scomber ... 

Thynmis... 

Family — Triglid^e . 

Trigla 

Lcpidotrigla 

ORDER- ANACANTHINI. 
Family — Gadopsid^. 
Gadopsis 

Family — Gadid.^ . 

Lotclla ... 
Pseudophysis ... 



Plates 

73 



S3 



44 



18 



28 
44 



27 



19 
20 



Family — Opiiidiid^. 
Genypterus 27 

ORDER-PHYSOSTOMI. 

Family — Scopelid^. 

Aulopus 54, 55 

ORDER— LOPHOBRANCHII. 
Family — SYNGNATniDiE. 
Phylloptcryx 



Hippocampus . . . 



65 
65 



Systematic Index. 
SUB-KINGDOM II.-IOLLUSCA. 



CLASS— CEPHALOPODA. 

{Sub-class — A ntipedia.) 

ORDER— ACETABULIFERA. 

{Suh-order — Octopoda.^ 
Family — Akgonautid^. 
Ai'gonauta 



Plates 
61, 62 



{Sub-order — Becapoda^ 

Family — LoLiGiDiE. 

Sepioteuthis 76, 77 



{Section — Mollicscoidea.) 

CLASS— POLYZOA. 

ORDER— INFUNDIBULATA. 

{Sub-order — Cheilostomata.) 

Family — Catenicellid^. 

Catenicella 24,^89, 90 



Family — CellulariiduE. 



Cellularia 
Emma 
Menipea .. 



49, 58 
58 
58 



Famly — Salicornariid^. 



Cellaria ... 
Nellia ... 
Tubucellaria 



49 
49 
49 



Family — BicELLARiiDiE. 



Bicellai'ia 
Bugula .. 
Stirparia.. 



Plates 

59 

59, 78 

59 



Family — Flustrid^. 



Flustra ... 
Carbasea . . . 
Diachoris 
Spiralaria 



45 
45 
46 
46 



Family — Gemellariid^. 



Didymia .., 

Dimetopia 

Calwellia 



46 
46 
46 



Family — Membraniporid^. 



Membranipoi'a ... 

Lepralia 

Biflustra 



25, 26, 36 
...35, 36, 37, 38 

• •• ••• 0/ 



Family — Steganoporellid^. 
Stegauoporella 60 



Family — Escharid^. 



Eschara ... 
Caleschara 
Retepora 
Dictyopora 
Petralia ... 



.. •>. ... 4o 

48 

94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 
47, 66, 67 

• • ••• •■• ou 



{Sub-order — C yclostomata.) 
Family — Crisiid^e. 



Crisia 



• «• 9j*J 



Family — Idmoneid^. 

Idmouea 68 



Systematic Index. 



SUB-KINGD. III.-ARTICULATA. 



Family — Psychid^. 



CLASS— CRUSTACEA. 

ORDER— DECAPODA. 
{Section — Macroura.) 
Family — Astacid^. 



Astacopsis 
Astacoides 



Plates 
... 15, 29 
... 15, 29 



CLASS— INSECTA. 
ORDER— ORTHOPTERA. 
{Section — A mbitlatoria.) 

Family — Phasmid^. 



Ti-opidoderus 

Acrophylla 

Podacanthus 

ORDER— LEPIDOPTERA. 

{Section — Ehojmlocera.) 

Family — Papillionid^. 

( Sub-family — Pieridce.) 

Piens(Thyca) 

{Section — Heterocera.) 
Family — Uraniid^ . 
Agarista ... 

Family — Hepi ALiD.a: . 
Zeuzera (Eudoxyla) 



69, 70 
79 
80 



9, 10 



Entometa 
Metura 



ORDER— HEMIPTERA. 
{Tribe — Homoptera.') 
{Section — Trhnera.) 
Family — Cicadid^. 



Cicada . . . 
Cyclochila 



CLASS— ANNELIDA. 
ORDER^ABRANCHIATA. 

{Section — Terricola.) 
Family — LuMBRiciDiE . 



Megascolides 



riiitos 
40 
40 



50 

50 



SUB-KINGDOM IV.-EADIATA. 



30 



CLASS— ECHINODEEMATA. 

ORDER— ECHINOIDEA. 

{Sub-order — Desmosticha.) 

Family — Cidarid^. 

Gouiocidaris 100 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



N.B. — The originals of all the Figures are in the National Museum, Melbourne. 



DECADE I. 

Plate 1. — The Black Snake (Pseudechys porphyriacus, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 2. — The Copper-head Snake (Hoplocephalus superbus, Giinth.). 

Plate 3. — The Tiger Snake (Hoplocephalus curtus, Schl. sp.)- 

Plate 4. — The Australian Bream (Chrysophrys Australis, Giinth.). 

Plate 5. — The Spiny-sided Butterfly-Gurnard (Lepidotrigla Vanessa, Rich. sp.). 

Plate 6. — The Kumu Gurnard (Trigla Kumu, Lesson and Garn.). 

Plate 7. — The Australian Giant Earth-worm (Megascolides Australis, McCoy). 

Plate 8. — Lewin's Day-moth (Agarista Lewini, Boisd.). 

The Loranthus Day-moth (Agarista Casuarinae, Scott). 

The Vine Day-moth (Agarista Glycine, Lewin sp.). 
Plate 9.— Pieris (Thyca) Harpalyce (Don. sp.). 
Plate 10, — Pieris (Thyca) Aganippe (Don. sp.). 



DECADE II. 

Plate 11. — The Little "Whip Snake (Hoplocephalus flagellum, McCoy). The White-lipped Snake 

(Hoplocephalus coronoides, Giinth.). 
Plate 12. — The Death Adder (Acanthophis Antarctica, Shaw sp.). 
Plate 13. — The Carpet Snake (Morelia variegata, Gray). 
Plate 14. — The Gippsland Perch (Dates colonorum, Giinth.). 
Plate 15. — The Murray Lobster (Astacoides serratus, Shaw sp.). 
Plate 16. — The Salmon Arripis (Arripis truttaceus, Cuv. sp.). Adult. 
Plate 17. — Ditto of the younger forms and coloring. 
Plate 18. — The Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 19. — The Small-scaled Rock Cod (Lotella callarias, Giinth.). 
Plate 20. — The Australian Rock Cod (Pseudophysis barbatus, Giinth.). 



DECADE III. 

Plate 21. — The Sea-Leopard Seal (Stenorhynchus leptonyx, de Blainv. sp.). 

Plate 22. — The Yellow-sided Dolphin (Delphinus Novas Zealandiaj, Quoy and Gaim.). 

Plate 23. — The Common Brown Snake"(Diemenia superciliosa, Fisch.). 

The Small-scaled Brown Snake (Diemenia microlepidota, McCoy). 
The Shield-fronted Brown Snake (Diemenia aspidorhyncha, McCoy). 

Plate 24.— Catenicella margaritacea (Busk). — C. plagiostoma (Busk). — C. ventrlcosa (Busk).— 
C. hastata(Busk.)— C. rufa (McG.).— C. cribraria (Busk).— C. alata (Wyv. Thomson).— 
C. lorica (Busk).— C. formosa (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk).— C. perforata (Busk).— 
C. Buskii (Wyv. Thomson). — C. Hannafordi (McG.).— C. crystallina (Wyv. Thomson). — 
C. carinata (Busk).— C. aurita (Busk).— C. geminata (Wyv. Thomson).— C. cornuta 
(Busk). — C. intermedia (McG.) 

Plate 25. — Membranipora membranacea (Linn. sp.). — M. perforata (McG.).— M. ciliata (McG.). — 
M. mamillaris (McG.).— M. umbonata (Busk).— M. pilosa (Linn, sp.).— M. cervicornis 
(Busk). 

Plate 26.— Membranipora dispar (McG.).— M. Woodsii (McG.).— M. lineata (Linn, sp.).— M. Rosselii 
(Audouin sp.). — M. Lacroixii (Savigny sp.). 

Plate 27. — The Australian Rockling (Genypterus Australis, Cast.), 
The Yarra Blackfish (Gadopsis gracilis, McCoy). 

Plate 28. — The Southern Mackerel (Scomber pneumatophorus, De la Roche), 

Plate 29. — The Yabber Crayfish (Astacoides bicarinatus. Gray sp.). 

Plate 30.— The Large Wattle Goat-Moth (Zeuzera Eucalypti, Boisd. Herr.-Schaef.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE IV. 

Plate 31. — The Australian Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal (Euotaria cincroa, Pcron sp.). 

Plate 32. — The Two-hooded Furiua-Snake, Furina hicuculhita (McCoy). 

Plate 33. — The Banded Red Gurnet-Perch (Sebastes percuides, Solauder sp.). 

Plate 34. — The Angel-fish (lihina squatina, Lin. sp.). 

Plate 35. — Lcpralia circinata (Mc(J.). — L. Cecilii (Aud.). — L. diaphana (McG.). — L. niarsupium 

(McG.). — L. subinnnersa (McG.). — L. anccps (McG.). — L. Maplestonei (McG.). 
Plate 3G. — Lepralia vittata (McG.). — Membranipora perforata. Lepralia Brogniartii (Aud.). — 

L. elegans (McG.). — L. pertusa (Esper. sp.). — L. Malusii (A.ud. sp.). — L. lunata (McG.). 
Plate 37. — Lepralia ciliata (Linn. sp.). — L. trifolium (McG.). — L. cheilodon (McG.).— L. canaliculata 

(McG.).— L. larvalis (McG.).— L. diadema (McG.).— L. papillifera (McG.).— L. Ellerii 

(McG.). 
Plate 38. — Lepralia monoceros (Busk). — L. excavata (McG.). — L. vitrea (McG.). — L. megasoma 

(McG.).— L. Schizostoma (McG.).— L. Botryoides (McG.).— L. ferox (McG.) — L. pellu- 

cida (McG.). 
Plate 39. — Crisia Edwardsiana (D'Orb. sp.).— C. biciliata (McG.). — C. acropora (Busk).— C. setosa 

(McG.).— C. tenuis (McG.). 
Plate 40. — Saunders' Case-Moth (Metura elongata, Saunders sp.). 
The Lictor Case-Moth (Entometa ignobilis, Walk.). 



DECADE V. 

Plate 41. — The Lace Lizard (Hydrosaurus varius, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 42. — The Spotted Marsh -Frog (Lininodynastes Tasmaniensis, Giinth,). — The Common Sand- 
Frog (Limnodynastes dorsalis, Gray). 
Plate 43.— The Carpet Shark (Crossorhinus barbatus, Lin. sp.). — The Seven-gilled Shark (Notidanus 

[Heptanchus] Indicus, Cuv.). 
Plate 44. — The Barracouta (Thersites atun, Cuv.).— The Tunny (Thynnus Thynnus, Lin. sp.). 
Plate 45.— Flustra denticulata (Busk). — Carbasea episcopalis (Busk). — C. dissimilis (Busk). — 

C. indivisa (Busk). — C. elegans (Busk).— C. pisciformis (Busk). 
Plate 46. — Spiralaria florea (Busk). — Diachoris Magellanica (Busk).— D. spiuigera (P. McGil.). — 

Dimetopia spicata (Busk). — D. cornuta (Busk). — Didymia simplex (Busk). — Calwellia 

bicornis (Wyv. Thomson). 
Plate 47. — Dictyopora cellulosa (P. McGil.). 
Plate 48. — Eschara obliqua (P. McGil.).— E. dispar (P. McGil ).— E. gracilis (Lamx.).— E. platalea 

(Busk). — E. quadrata (P. McGil.) — E. mucronata (P. McGil.). — Caleschara denticulata 

(P. McGil.). 
Plate 40.— Cellaria fistulosa (Linn.). — C. hirsuta (P. McGil.).— C. tenuirostris (Busk.). — C. gracilis 

(Busk). — Nellia oculata (Busk). — Tubuccllaria hirsuta (Busk). 
Plate 50. — The Great Black, or Manna Cicada (Cicada moerens, Germ.).— The Great Green Cicada 

(Cyclochila Australasiic, Donov. sp.). 



DECADE VI. 

Plate 51. — The Victorian Rhodona (Rhodona Officeri, McCoy). 

Plate 52. — The Black and White Ringed Snake (Vermicella aunulata, Gray). 

Plate 53.— The Green and Golden Bell-Frog (Rauoidea aurea, Less. sp.). 

Plates 54-55. — The Australian Aulopus (Aulopus i)urpurisatus, Rich.). 

Plate 56.— The Hammer-headed Shark (Zygajna malleus, Shaw).— Tlie Connnou Australian Saw- 
Fish (Pristiophorus nudipinnls, Giinth.). 

Plate 57.— Biflustra perfragilis (McGil.).— B. delicatula (Busk). 

Plate 58.— Cellularia cuspidata (Busk).— Mcnipca crystallina (Gray sp.).— M. cyathus (Wyv. Thom- 
son).— M. eervicornis (McGil.)— M. tricellata (Busk).— M. Buskii (Wyv. Thomson). 

Plate 59.— Bicellaria tuba (Busk).— B. grandis (Busk).— B. ciliata (Linn).- B. turbiuata (McGil.).— 
Stirparia annulata (Map.).— Bugula ucritiua (Linn.). 

Plate 60.— Steganoporella magnilabris (Busk. sp.). — Petraha undata (McGil.). 



CONTENTS OF DECADES. 



DECADE VII. 

Plate 61. — The Tubcrculated Argonaut (Argonauta oryzata, Meusch.). 

Plate 62. — The same seated in its so-called shell or Paper-Nautilus. 

Plate 63. — The Blue-spotted Eagle-Ray (Myliobatis Australis, Macleay). 

Plate 64. — The Long-toothed Bull-Shark (Odontaspis taurus, Raf.). — The Australian Tope Shark 

(Galeus Australis, Macleay). 
Plate 65. — The Leafy Sea-Dragon (Phyllopteryx foliatus, Shaw sp.). — The Short-headed Sea-horse 

(Hippocampus breviceps, Pet.) 
Plate 66. — Dictyopora grisea (Lamx. sp.). — D. albida (Kirch.) — (Var. ayicularis, P. McGill.)- 
Plate 67.— D. Wilsoni (P. McGiU.). 

Plate 68. — Idmonea Milneaua (d'Orb.). — I. contorta (P. McGill.). — I. radians (Lamk.). 
"Plates 69-70. — The Violet-shouldered Phasma (Tropidoderus iodomus, McCoy),— The Red-shouldered 

Phasma (Tropidoderus rhodomus, McCoy). 



Plate 


71.- 


Plate 


72.- 


Plate 


73.- 


Plate 


74.- 


Plate 


75.- 


Plates 76 


Plate 


78.- 


Plate 


79.- 


Plate 


80.- 



DECADE VIII. 

-The Australian Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal (Euotaria cinerea, Peron sp.). 

-The Northern Blue-tongued Lizard (Cyclodus gigas, Bodd. sp.). 

-The Ludrick (Girella simplex, Rich. sp.). 

-The White Shark (Carcharodon Rondeletii, Miill. and Hen.). 

-The Picked Dog-Pish (Acanthias vulgaris, Linn. sp.). 

-77. — The Australian Tooth-cupped Cuttlefish (Sepioteuthis Australis, Quoy and Gaim.). 

-Bugula robusta (P. McGil.).— B. cucullata (Busk). — B. dentata (Lamx.). — B. avicularia 

(Pall.). 
-The Violet-winged Phasma (Acrophylla violascens. Leach sp.). 
-The Large Pink-winged Phasma (Podacanthus typhon, Gray). 



DECADE IX. 

Plate 81. — The Gippsland Water Lizard (Physiguathus Lesueri, Gray)— (Var. Howitti, McCoy). 

Plates 82-83. — The Murray Tortoise (Chelymys Macquaria, Cuv. sp,). 

Plate 84. — The Murray Golden Perch (Ctenolates ambiguus. Rich. sp.). 

Plates 85-86.— The Murray Cod-Perch (Oligorus Macquariensis, Cuv. and Val. sp.). 

Plate 87. — The Australian Smooth-Hound (Mustelus Antarcticus, Giinth.), 

Plate 88. — The Thresher, or Long-tailed Shark (Alopecias vulpes, Linn. sp.). 

Plate 89.— Catenicella intermedia (P, McG.).— C. amphora (Busk).— C. Wilsoni (P. McG.).— C. pul- 

chella (Map.).— C. utricuUis (P. :\rcG.). 
Plate 90.— Catenicella fusca (P. McG.).— C. umbonata (Busk).— C. cornuta (Busk). 



DECADE X. 

Plate 91. — Gymnobelideus Leadbeateri (^IcCoy). 

Plates 92-93.— The Long-necked River Tortoise (Chelodina longicollis, Shaw sp.). 

Plate 94. — Opercula of Retepora. 

Plate 95.— Retepora porcellana (P. McGil.).— R. avicularis (P. McGil.).— R. fissa (P, McGil.). 

Plate 96. — Retepora monilifera (P. McGil.). 

Plate 97.— Retepora monilifera (P. McGil.).— R. formosa (P. McGil.).— R. carinata (P. McGil.). 

Plate 98. — Retepora Phoenicea (Busk). — R. aurantiaca (P. McGil.). 

Plate 99.- Retepora granulata (P. McGil.).— R. tessellata (Hincks).— R. serrata (P. McGlL), 

Plate 100. — Goniocidaris tubaria (Lam.). 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX TO VOL I. 



-oo<>- 



(The Synonyms are printed in Italics. The numerals refer to the plates.) 



A. 

Acanthias sqnakts, 75, 
Acanthias vulgaris, 75. 
Acantliophis Antarctica, 12. 
AcanthopMs Broivni, 12. 

,, cerastmus, 12. 

acantliophis, Vipera, 12. 
Acrophylla violascens, 79. 
acropora, Crisia, 39. 
acutirostris (var.), Retepora monilifera, form 

munita, 9J:, 96. 
Adder, Deaf, 12. 
Adder, Death, 12. 
Adeona gr'isea, 66. 
AganijDpe, Pieris (Thyca), 10. 
Agarista, Casuarina>, 8. 

,, Glycine, 8. 

,, Lewini, 8. 

alata, Catenicella, 24. 
albida (avicularis), Dictyopora, 66. 
Alopecias vulpes, 88. 
altevelis, Thersites, 44. 
ambigua, Datnia(?), 84. 
ambiguus, Ctenolates, 84. 
Amphibolurus heternrus, 81. 
amphora, Catenicella, 89. 
anceps, Lepralia, 35. 
Angel Fish, 34. 
unnulata, Bkellaria, 59. 
annnlata, Stirparia, 59. 

,, Vermicella, 52. 
Antarctica, Acantliophis, 12. 
Ayitarctica, Boa, 12. 
Antarcticus, Mustelus, 87. 
appendiculatus, Sqtialus, 43. 
Argonauta nodosa, 61, 62. 
Argonauta oryzata, 61, 62. 
Argonauta tuberculafa, 61, 62. 

,, tubercidosa, 61, 62. 

Argonaut, or Paper Nautilus, Tuberculated, 

61, 62. 
armatus, Astaciis, 15. 
Arripis, Salmon, 16, 17. 

,, truttaceus, 16, 17. 
aspidorhynclia, Diemenia, 23. 
Astacoides bicarmatus, 29. 

,, serratus, 15. 

Astacoides spinifer, 15. 
Astacopsis bicariuatus, 29. 

,, serratus, 15. 

Astacus armatus, 15. 

„ bicarinatus, 29. 
atun, Thersites, 44. 
Aulopus, Australian, 54, 55. 
Aulopns Milesi, 54, 55. 
Aulopus purpurisatus, 54, 55. 



aurantiaca, Retepora, 94, 98. 
auratus, Dules, 84. 
aurea, Bana, 53. 
aurea, Ranoidea, 53. 
aurita, Catenicella, 24, 
Australasice, Cyolochila, 50. 
Australasice, Tettigonia, 50. 
Australian Aulopus, 54, 55. 

,, Bream, 4. 

„ Giant Earth-Worm, 7. 

„ Rock Cod, 20. 

,, Rockling, 27. 

,, Saw-Fish, Common, 56. 

,, Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal, 31, 71. 

„ Smooth-Hound, 87. 

„ Tooth-cupped Cuttlefish, 76, 77. 

,, Tope Shark, 64. 

Australis, Chrysophrys, 4. 

5, Galeus, 64. 

,, Genyptei'us, 27. 
Australis, Hydrasjns, 82, 83. 
Australis, Idmonea, 68. 

,, Megascolides, 7. 

,, Myliobatis, 63; 

,, Sepioteuthis, 76, 77. 
avicularia, Bugula, 78. 
(avicularis), Dictyopora albida, 66. 
avicularis, Retepora, 94, 95. 

B. 

Banded Red Gurnet-Perch, 33. 
barbatus, Crossorhinus, 43. 

,, Pseudophysis, 20, 
barbatus, Sgualus, 43. 
Barracouta, 44. 
Bear, Fur-Seal or Sea-, 31, 71. 
Bell-Frog, Green and Golden, 53. 
bicarinatus, Astacopsis, 29. 
bicarinatus, Astacus, 29. 
Bicellarta annuJata, 59. 
Bicellaria ciliata, 59. 

,, gT'andis, 59. 

,, tuba, 59. 

,, turbinata, 59. 
biciliata, Crisia, 39. 
bicornis, Calwellia, 46. 
bicvicuUata, Furiua, 32. 
Bifiustra delicatula, 57. 
Biflustra fragiUs, 57. 
Bifiustra perfragilis, 57. 
Blackfish, Yarra, 27. 

,, Gibbose, 27. 
Black Snake, 1. 

Black or Manna Cicada, Great, 50. 
Black- and White-Ringed Snake, 52, 
blacodes (?), Genypterus, 27. 



Alphabetical Index. 



>> 

J) 



Blue-spotted Eagle-Ray, 63. 
Blue-tongued Lizard, Northern, 72. 
Boa Antarctica, 12. 
Boddaert'i, Cyclodus, 72. 
Botryoides, Lepralia, 38. 
Bream, Australian, 4. 
breviceps, Hippocampus, 65. 
Brogniartii, Lepralia, 36. 
Broivni, Acanthopis, 12, 
Bro-ttii Snake, Common, 23. 

,, Shield-fronted, 23. 

,, Small-scaled, 23. 

Bugula aviciilaria, 78. 

cucullata, 78. 

dentata, 78. 

neritina, 59. 

robiista, 78. 
Bull-Shark, Long-toothed, 64. 
Buskii, Catenicella, 24. 

,, Menipea, 58. 
Butterfly-Gurnard, Spiny-sided, 5. 

c. 

Caleschai'a dcnticulata, 48. 
callarias, Lotella, 19. 
Cahvellia bicornis, 4G. 
canaliculata, Lepralia, 37. 
Cancer serratus, 15. 
capensis, Carcharodon, 74. 
Caranx trachurux, 18. 
Carbasea, cyatlnfonms, 45. 
Carbasea dissimilis, 45. 
,, elegans, 45. 
,, episcopalis, 45. 
,, indivisa, 45. 
,, pisciformis, 45. 
Carcharias vents, 74. 
Carcharhis taurus, 64. 
Carcharodon Roudeletii, 74. 
Carcharodon Capensis, 74. 

,, lamia, 74. 

,, vents, 74. 

carinata, Catenicella, 24. 

,, Retepora, 94, 97. 
Carpet Shark, 43. 
,, Snake, 13. 
Case-Moth, Lictor, 40. 

,, Saundei's', 40. 

Casuarinfe, Agarista, 8. 
Catenicella alata, 24. 

,, amphora, 89. 

,, aurita, 24. 

,, Buskii, 24. 

,, carinata, 24. 

Catenicella concinna, 89. 
Catenicella comuta, 24, 90. 

,, cribraria, 24. 

,, ci-ystallina, 24. 

Catenicella Dawsoni, 24. 
Catenicella elegans, 24. 

,, formosa, 24. 

,, fusca, 90. 

,, geminata, 24. 

,, Hannafordi, 24. 

„ hastata, 24. 

„ intermedia, 24, 89 






Catenicella avis, var., 24. 
Catenicella lorica, 24. 

,, margaritacea, 24. 

,, perforata, 24. 

plagiostoma, 24. 
pulchella, 89. 
rufa, 24. 
Catenicella setigera, var., 24. 
Catenicella unibonata, 90. 
,, utriciilus, 89. 

,, ventricosa, 24. 

,, Wilson i, 89. 

Cecilii, Lepralia, 35. 
Cellaria fistulosa, 49. 
,, gracilis, 49. 
,, hirsuta, 49. 
,, tenuirostris, 49. 
Cellularia cuspidata, 58. 
cellulosa, Dictyopora, 47. 
Centropristes salar, 16, 17. 

,, Tasmanictis, 16, 17. 

,, fntftaceits, 16, 17- 

cerastinns, Acanthophis, 12. 
cervicornis, Emma, 58. 
cervicornis, Membranipora, 25. 

,, Menipea, 58. 

cheilodon, Lepralia, 37. 
Clielemys Macquaria, 82, 83. 
Chelodina longicollis, 92, 93. 
Chelodina Novce-Holktndia', 92, 93. 
Chrysophrys Australis, 4. 
Cicada, Great Black or Manna, 50. 
,, Great Green, 50. 
,, mserens, 50. 
Cicada olivacea, 50. 
Cidarites tubaria, 100. 
ciliata, Bicellaria, 59. 
,, Lepralia, 37. 
,, Membranipora, 25. 
cinex-ea, Euotaria, 31, 71. 
cincrea, Otarla, 31, 71. 
circLnata, Lepralia, 35. 
Cod, Austi'alian Rock, 20. 
,, Pei'ch, Murray, 85, 86. 
,, Small-scaled Rock, 19. 
colonorum, Lates, 14. 
Coluber p)orp)]iyriacits, 1. 
Common Australian Saw- Fish, 56. 
,, Brown Snake, 23. 
,, Sand-Frog, 42. 
concinna, Catenicella, 89. 
Copper-head Snake, 2. 
cornuta, Catenicella, 24, 90. 

,, Dimetopia, 46. 
corouoides, Hoplocephalus, 11. 
Crayfish, Murray, 15. 
,, Yabber, 29. 
,, Yabbie, 29. 
Crcnidens simpler, 73. 
cribraria, Catenicella, 24. 
Crisia acropora, 39. 
,, biciliata, 39. 
,, Edwardsiana, 39. 
,, setosa, 39. 
,, tenuis, 39. 
Crisidia Edwardsiana, 39. 
Crossorhinus barbatus, 43. 



Alpkahetical Index. 



crystallina, Catenicella, 24. 

crystaU'ina, LepraUa, 35. 

crystalliiia, Menipea, 58. 

Cteuolates ambiguus, 84. 

Ctenolates Macquariensis, 84. 

ciicuUata, Bugula, 78. 

curfa, Naja, 3. 

cin'tiis, Hoplocephalus, 3. 

cuspidata, Cellularia, 58. 

Cuttlefish, Aiisti'aliau Tooth-cupped, 76, 77. 

cyatkiformis, Garbasea, 45. 

cyathus, Menipea, 58. 

Cyclochila Austi'alasite, 50. 

Cyclochila olimcea, 50. 

Cyclodus Boddaerti, 72. 

,, Jiavigularis, 72. 
Cyclodus gigas, 72. 
C ystlrjnathus dorsalis, 42. 



D. 

Datnia (?) ambigua, 84. 
Dawsoni, Catenicella, 24. 
Day-Moth, Lewin's, 8. 
,, Lorauthus, 8. 

,, Vme, 8. 

Deaf Adder, 12. 
Death Adder, 12. 
delicatula, Biflustra, 57. 
Delpliinus Novte Zealandise, 22. 
dentata, Bugula, 78. 
denticulata, Galeschara, 48. 
denticulata, Eschara, 48. 
denticulata Flustra, 45. 
despecta, Entometa, 40. 
Diachoris costata, 46. 

,, Crotali, 46. 

,, Magellanica, 46. 

,, spinigei-a, 46. 
diadema, Lepralia, 37. 
diaphana, Lepralia, 35. 
Dictyopora albida (avicularis), 66. 
,, cellulosa, 47. 

,, grisea, 66. 

Wilsoni, 67. 
Didymia simplex, 46. 
Diemenia aspidorhyncha, 23. 

,, microlepidota, 23. 

,, superciliosa, 23. 
Dimetopia cornuta, 46. 

,, spicata, 46. 

dispar, Eschara, 48. 

,, Membranipora, 26. 
dissunilis, Carbasea, 45. 
Diura roseipennis, 79. 
Dog-Fish, Picked, 75. 
Dolphin, Yellow-sided, 22. 
dorsalis, Cystignathus, 42. 
dorsalis, Limnodynastes, 42. 
Dragon, Leafy Sea-, 65. 
Dales auratus, 84. 
d'Urvillei, Eudoxyla, 30. 



B. 

Eagle-Ray, Blue-spotted, 63. 
Earth-Worm, Australian Giant, 7. 



Edwardsiana, Crisia, 39. 
Edivardsiana, Crisidia, 39. 
elegans, Carbasea, 45. 

,, Catenicella, 24. 
elegans, Eschara, 48. 
elegans, Lepralia, 36. 
elegans, Steganoporella, 60. 
Ellerii, Lepralia, 37. 
elongata, Metura, 40. 
elongatus, Oiketicus, 40. 
Emma cervicornis, 58. 
Emys Maapiaria, 82, 83. 
Entometa despecta, 40. 
,, ignobilis, 40. 
episcopalis, Carbasea, 45. 
Eschara denticulata, 48. 
Eschara dispar, 48. 
Eschara, elegans, 48. 
Eschara gracilis, 48. 

,, mucronata, 48. 

,, obliqua, 48. 

,, platalea, 48. 

,, quadrata, 48. 
eucalypti, Zeuzera (Eudoxyla), 30. 
Eudoxyla d' Urvillei, 30. 
(Eudoxyla) eucalypti, Zeuzera, 30. 
Euotaria cinerea, 31, 71. 
excavata, Lepralia, 38. 

P. 

farciniinoides, Salicornaria, 49. 
ferox, Lepralia, 38. 
Fish, Angel, 34. 

,, Common Australian Saw-, 56. 

,, Picked Dog-, 75. 
fissa, Retepora, 94, 95. 
fistulosa, Cellaria, 49. 
flagellum, Hoplocephalus, 11. 
Jiavigularis, Cyclodus, 72, 
florea, Spiralaria, 46. 
Flustra denticulata, 45. 
Flustra Lacroixii, 26. 
,, lineata, 26. 
,, membranacea, 25. 
,, j:»i7oso, 25. 
foliatus, Phyllopteryx, 65. 
folia t us, Sygnafhus, 65. 
formosa, Catenicella, 24. 

,, Retepora, 94, 97. 
fragilis, Biflustra, 57. 
Frog, Common Sand-, 42. 

,, Green and Golden Bell-, 53. 

,, Spotted Marsh-, 42. 
Furina bicucuUata, 32. 
Furina-Snake, Two-hooded, 32. 
Fur-Seal or Sea-Bear, 31, 71. 
fusca, Catenicella, 90. 

G. 

Gadopsia gibbosus, 27. 

,, gracilis, 27. 
Galeus Australis, 64. 
Genypterus Australis, 27. 
Genypterus blacodes (? ), 27. 
,, iigerinics, 27. 



Alphabetical Index. 



geminata, CateniccUa, 1\. 
Giant Eartli-Worm, Australian, 7. 
Gibbose Blackfish, 27. 
gibbosus, Gadopsis, 27. 
gigas, Cyclodus, 72. 
gigas, Scincujs, 72. 
Gippslandica, I'ericliajta, 7. 
Gippsland Perch, 14. 

,, Water-Lizard, 81. 
Gii'ella simplex, 73. 
Glycine, Agarista, 8. 
Glycine, Phakeno'tdes, 8. 
Goat-Moth, Large Wattle, 30. 
Golden Bell-Frog, Green and, 53. 
Golden Perch, Murray, 84. 
Goniocidaris tubaria, 100. 
gracilis, Cellaria, 49. 

,, Eschara, 48. 

,, Gadopsis, 27. 
gracilis, Salicornaria, 49. 
grandis, Bicellaria, 59. 
granulata, Retepora, 94, 99. 
Great Black or Manna Cicada, 50. 

,, Green Cicada, 50. 
Green and Golden Bell -Frog, 53. 

,, Cicada, Great, 50. 
grisea, Adeona, 66. 
grisea, Dictyopora, 66. 
Grystes Macquariensis, 85, 86. 

„ Peeli, 85, 86. 
Gurnard, Spiny-sided, Butterfly-, 5. 

,, Kumu, 6. 
Gurnet-Perch, Banded Red, 33. 
Gyuuiobelideus Leadbeateri, 91. 

H. 

Hammer-headed Shark, 56. 
Hanuafordi, Cateuicella, 24. 
Harpcdyce, Papilio, 9. 
Harpalyce, Pieris (Thyca), 9. 
hastata, Catenicella, 24. 
(Heptanchus) Notidanus Lidicus, 43. 
heterurus, Amphiholurus, 81. 
Hippocampus breviceps, 65. 
hirsuta, Cellaria, 49. 
hirsuta, Onchopora, 49. 

,, Salicornaria, 49. 
liii'suta, Tubucellaria, 49. 
hooded Furma-Snake, Two-, 32. 
Hoplocephalus coronoides, 11. 

,, curtus, 3. 

,, flagellum, 11. 

,, superbixs, 2. 

Horse-Mackei'el, 18. 
Horse, Short-headed Sea-, 65. 
Hound, Australian Smooth-, 87. 
Howitti, Physignathus Lesueri, var., 81. 
Hydrafipis Australis, 82, 83. 
Hydrosaurus varius, 41. 
Hyla Jacksoniensis, 53. 

I. 

Idmonea Australis, 68. 
,, Milneana, 68. 
,, radians, 68. 



ignobilis, Eutometa, 40. 
Iguana, 41. 

Indicus, Notidanus (Heptanchus),! 
indivisa, Carbasea, 45. 
intermedia, Catenicella, 24, 89. 
iodomus, Tropidoderus, 69, 70. 
Intiurus Lesueri, 81. 

J. 

Jacksoniensis, TTyla, 53. 

,, liunotdea, 53. 



Kumu Gurnard, 6. 
„ Trigla, 6. 



K. 



L. 



Lace Lizard, 41. 
Lacerta sincoides, 72. 

,, varia, 41. 
Lacroixii, Flustra, 26. 
Lacroixii, Membranipora, 26. 
hvvis, Catenicella, var., 24. 
lamia, Carcliarodon, 74. 
Large Pink-winged Phasma, 80. 

„ Wattle Goat-Moth, 30. 
larvalis, Lepralia, 37. 
Lates Colonorum, 14. 
laxa, Retepora porcellana, var., 94, 95. 
Leadbeateri, Gymnobelidcus, 91. 
Leafy Sea-Dragon, 65. 
Leopard Seal, Sea-, 21. 
Lepidotrigla Vanessa, 5. 
Lepralia anceps, 35. 

,, Botryoides, 38. 

,, Brogniartii, 36. 

,, caualiculata, 37. 

,, Cecilii, 35. 

,, cheilodon, 37. 

,, ciliata, 37. 

,, circinata, 35. 
Lepralia, crystallina, 35. 
Lepralia diadcma, 37- 

,, diaphana, 35. 

,, elegans, 36. 

,, EUerii, 37. 

,, excavata, 38. 

,, fei'ox, 38. 

,, larvalis, 37. 

,, lunata, 36. 

,, Malusii, 36. 

,, Maplestoni, 35. 

,, marsupium, 35. 

,, megasoma, 38. 

,, mouoceros, 38. 
Lepralia viucronata, 48. 
Lepralia papillifera, 37. 

,, pellucida, 38. 

,, perforata, 36. 

,, pertusa, 36. 

,, Schizostoma, 38. 

„ subimmersa, 35. 

,, trifolium, 37. 

,, vitrea, 38. 

,, vittata, 37. 



Alphabetical Index. 



leptonyx, Phoca, 21. 
leptonyx, Stenorhynchns, 21. 
Lesueri var. Howitti, Pliysigiiathus, 81. 
Lesueri, Istiims, 81. 

,, Loijhura, 81. 
Lewlni, Agarista, 8. 
Lewiu's Day-Moth, 8. 
Lictor Case-Moth, 40. 
Limnodyuastes dorsalis, 42. 

,, Tasmaniensis, 42. 

lineata, Flustra, 26. 
lineata, Membraiiipora, 26. 
Ling, Australian Rock-, 27. 
lipped Snake, White-, 11, 
Little Whip-Snake, 11. 
Lizard, Gippsland Water, 81. 

,, Lace, 41. 

,, Northern Blue-tongiied, 72. 
lobatus, Squalus, 43. 
Lobster, Murray, 15. 
longicollis, Clielodina, 92, 93. 
longicoUis, Testudo, 92, 93. 
Long-necked River Tortoise, 92, 93. 
Long-tailed Shark, Threslier or, 88. 
Long-toothed Bull-Shark, or Shovel-nosed 

Shark, 64. 
Lophura Lesueri, 81. 

,, Satiurus, 81. 
Loranthus Day-Moth, 8. 
lorica, Catenicella, 24. 
Lotella callarias, 19. 
Ludrick, 73. 
lunata (var. ), Retepora monilifera, form niu- 

nita, 94, 96. 
lunulata, Lepralia, 36. 



M. 

Maccoyi, Thynnus, 44. 
Mackerel, Horse-, 18. 

,, Southern, 28. 

Macquaria, Emys, 82, 83. 
Macquaria, Clielymys, 82, 83. 
Macquaria, Platemys, 82, 83. 
Macquariensis, Gtenolates, 84. 
Macquariensis, Grystes, 85, 86. 
,, Oligorus, 85, 86. 

mserens, Cicada, 50. 
Magellanica, Diachoris, 46. 
magnilabris, Memhranipora, 60. 
magnilabris, Seganoporella, 60. 
malleus, Zygsena, 56. 
Malusii, Lepralia, 36. 
mamillaris, Membranipora, 25. 
Manna Cicada, Great Black or, 50 
Maplestoni, Lepralia, 35. 
margaritacea, Catenicella, 24. 
marginata, Perca, 16, 17. 
Marsh-Frog, spotted, 42. 
marsupiata, Retepora, 95. 
marsupium, Lepralia, 37. 
Megascolides Australis, 7. 
megasoma, Lepralia, 38. 
memhranacea, Flustra, 25. 
membranacea, Membranipora, 25. 
Membranipora cervicoruis, 25. 



9> 



)> 



Membranipora ciliata, 25. 
dispar, 26. 
Lacroixii, 26. 
lineata, 26. 
Membranipora magnilabris, 60. 
Membranipora mamillaris, 25. 

J, membranacea, 25. 

„ perforata, 25, 36. 

pilosa, 25. 
Roselii, 26. 
umbonata, 26. 
Woodsii, 26. 
Menipea Buskii, 58. 
,, cervicornis, 58. 
,, ci-ystallina, 58. 
,, cyathus, 58. 
,, tricellata, 58. 
Metura elongata, 40. 
microlepidota, Diemenia, 23. 
Milneana, Idmonea, 68. 
Milesi, Aidopus, 54, 55. 
monilifera, Retepora, 94, 95, 96. 

,, ,, form munita, var. acuti- 

rostris, 94, 96. 
,, ,, form munita, var. lu- 

nata, 94, 96. 
,, ,, form nmnita, var. sinu- 

ata, 94, 96. 
,, ,, form umbonata, 94, 97. 

monoceros, Lepralia, 38. 
Morelia variegata, 13. 
Moth, Large Wattle Goat-, 30. 
,, Lewiu's Day-, 8. 
,, Lictor Case-, 40. 
,, Loranthus Day-, 8: 
,, Saunders' Case-, 40. 
,, Vine Day-, 8. 
mucronata, Eschara, 48. 
mucronata, Lepralia, 48. 
munita (form), Retepora (monilifera var. 
acutirostris), 94, 96. 
,, (form), Retepora (monilifera var. 
lunata), 94, 96. 
Murray Cod-Perch, 85, 86. 
,, Golden Perch, 84. 
,, Lobster, 15. 
„ Tortoise, 82, 83. 
Mustelus Antarcticus, 87. 
Myliobatis Australis, 63. 



N. 

Naja curta, 3. 

Nautilus, Tuberculated Argonaut, or Paper-, 

61, 62. 
Nellia oculata, 49. 
neritina, Bugula, 59. 
nigroluteus, Cyclodus, 94. 
nodosa, Argonauta, 61, 62. 
Northern Blue-tongued Lizard, 72. 

,, or Blotched Blue-tongued Lizard, 
94. 
Notidanus (Heptanchus) Indicus, 43. 
Novce-HollandicB, Chelodina, 92, 93. 
Novie Zealandia?, Delphinus, 22. 
nudipiuuis, Pristiophorus, 56. 



Alphahetical Index. 
































9> 






5> 



>9 






o. 

obliqua, Eschara, 48. 
Octopus raricyathm, 61, 62. 
ociilata, Nellia, 49. 
Ocythoe raricyathus, 61, 62. 
Odontaspis taurus, 64. 
Officeri, Rhodona, 51. 
Oiketicus elongatus, 40. 
,, Saunderd, 40. 
Oligorus Macqiiariensis, 85, 86. 
olivacea, Cicada, 50. 

,, GyclocMla, 50. 
Onchojiora hirsiita, 49. 
Opercula of Retepora aurantiaca, 94. 
avicularis, 94. 
cariiiata, 94. 
fissa, 94. 
formosa, 94. 
graniilata, 94. 
monilifera, 94. 

, , form munita, 
var. acutu'os- 
tris, 94. 
, , form munita, 
var. lunata. 
var. siiiiiata. 
form iimbo- 
nata. 
„ Phccnicca, 94. 

,, porcellana, 94. 
,, ,, var. laxa, 94. 

,, serrata, 94. 
,, tcssellata, 94. 
oryzata, Argonauta, 61, 62. 
Otaria cinerea, 31, 71. 

P. 

Paper-Nautilus, Tuberculated Argonaut, or, 

61, 62. 
Papilio Harpalyce, 9. 
papillifera, Lepralia, 37. 
PeeU, Grystes, 85, 86. 
pellucida, Lepralia, 38. 
Perca margiuata, 16, 17. 
Perca trutta, 16, 17. 
Perch, Banded Red Gurnet-, 33, 

,, Gippsland, 14. 

„ Murray Cod-, 85, 86. 

,, ,, Golden, 84. 

percoides, Scorpcena, 33. 
percoides, Sebastes, 33. 
perforata, Catenicella, 24. 
,, Lepralia, 36. 
,, Membranipora. 25, 36. 
perfragilis, Bifiustra, 57. 
Perichseta Gippslandica, 7. 
pertusa, Lepralia, 36. 
Petralia undata, 60. 
Phakvnoides rjlycine, 8. 
Phasma, Red-shouldered, 69, 70. 
,, Large Pink-winged, 80. 
Phasma, violascens, 79. 
Phasma, Violet-shouldered, 69, 70. 

,, Violet- wuiged, 79. 
Phoca leptonyx, 21. 
Phceuicea, Retepora, 94, 98. 



Phyllopteryx foliatus, 65. 
Physignathus Lesueri, var. Howitti, 81. 
Picked Dog-Fish, 75. 
Pieris (Thyca) Aganippe, 10. 
,, ,, Hai-palyce, 9. 

pnlosa, Flustra, 25. 
pilosa, Membranipora, 25. 
Pmk-winged Phasma, Large, 80. 
pisciformis, Carbasea, 45. 
plagiostoma, Catenicella, 24. 
f)latalea, Eschara, 48. 
Platemys Macquaria, 82, 83. 
imeumatophorus. Scomber, 28. 
Podacanthus typhon, 80. 
porcellana, Retepora, 94, 95. 

,, var. laxa, Retepora, 94, 95. 

Xiorphyriacus, Coluber, 1. 
porphyriacus, Pseudechys, 1. 
Potamoblus serratus, 15. 
Pristiophorus nudipiimis, 56. 
Pseudechys porphyriacus, 1. 
Pseudoelaps supercUiosus, 23. 
Pseudophysis barbatus, 20. 
pulchella, Catenicella, 89. 
purpurisatus, Aulopus, 54, 55. 

Q. 

quadrata, Eschara, 48. 

R. 

radians, Idmonea, 68. 
Rana aurea, 53. 
Ranoidea aurea, 53. 
Ranoidea Jachsoniensis, 53. 
raricyathus, Octopus, 61, 62. 
,, Ocythoe, 61, 62. 

Pvay, Blue-spotted Eagle-, 63. 
Red Gurnet-Perch, Banded, 33. 
Red-shouldered Phasma, 69, 70. 
Retepora, aurantiaca, 94, 98. 
,, avicularis, 94, 95. 

,, carmata, 94, 96. 
,, fissa, 94, 95. 

,, formosa, 94, 97. 

,, granulata, 94, 99. 
,, laxa (var.), porcellana, 94, 95. 
,, monilifera, 94, 95, 96. 
,, ,, form munita, var. acuti- 

rosti'is, 94, 96. 
,, ,, form munita, var. lunata, 

94, 96. 
,, var. sinuata, 94, 96. 

,, form umbonata, 94, 97. 

Phccnicca, 94, 98. 
porcellana, 94, 95. 

,, var. laxa, 94. 

serrata, 94, 99. 
,, tcssellata, 94, 99. 
Rhina squatina, 34. 
rhodomus, Tropidoderus, 69, 70. 
Rhodona Officeri, 51. 

,, Victorian, 51. 
Rmged Snake, Black- and White-, 52. 
River Tortoise, Long-necked, 92, 93. 
robusta, Bugula, 78. 






Alphabetical Index. 



Rock Cod, Australian, 20. 

,, Small-scaled. 19. 

Rockliiig, Australian, 27. 
Rondeletii, Carcharodon, 74. 
roseipennis, Dhira, 79. 
Rosselii, Membrauipora, 26. 
rufa, Catenicella, 24. 

s. 

salar, Centropristes, 16, 17. 
Salicornaria farchninoides, 49. 
,, gracilis, 49. 

,, hirsuta, 49. 

,, temdrostris; 49. 

Salmon Arripis, 16, 17. 

„ Trout, 16, 17. 
Sand-Frog, Common, 42. 
Sathtrus Lesueri, 81. 
Saunders' Case-Moth, 40. 
Saiindersi, Oikctkiis, 40. 
Saw-Fish, Common Australian, 56. 
Schizostoma, Lepralia, 38. 
scincoides, Lacerta, 72. 
Scincus gigas, 72. 
Scomber pneumatophorus, 28. 
Scomber thynnus, 44. 

,, trachurus, 18. 
Scorpmia percoides, 33. 
Sea-Bear or Fur-Seal, 31, 71. 
Sea-Dragon, Leafy, 65. 
Sea-Horse, Short-headed, 65. 
Sea-Leopard Seal, 21. 
Seal, Sea-Bear or Fur-, 31, 71. 

,, Sea-Leopard, 21. 
Sebastes percoides, 33. 
Sepioteuthis Australis, 76, 77. 
Sergeant Baker, 74, 75. 
serrata, Retepoi'a, 94, 99. 
serratus, Astacoides, 15. 
serratus, Cancer, 15. 

,, Potamohius, 15. 
setigera, var. Catenicella, 24. 
setosa, Crisia, 39. 
Seven-Gilled Shark, 43. 
Shark, Australian Tope, 64. 

,, Carpet, 43. 

,, Hammer-headed, 56. 

, , Long-tailed, or Thresher, 88. - 

,, Long-toothed Bull-, or Shovel -nosed, 
64. 

„ Seven-Gilled, 43. 

,, Thresher, or Long-tailed, 88. 

,, Tope, 64. 

„ White, 74. 
Shield-fronted Brown Snake, 23. 
Short-headed Sea-Horse, 65. 
Shovel-nosed Shark, or Long-toothed Bull- 
Shark, 64. 
simplex, Crenidens, 73. 
simplex, Didymia, 46. 

,, Girella, 73. 
sincoides, Lacerta, 72. 
sinuata (var.), Retepora monilifera, 94. 
Small-scaled Brown Snake, 23. 

Rock Cod, 19. 
Smooth-Hound, Australian, 87. 



Snake, Black, 1. 

,, Black- and White-Ringed, 52. 

,, Brown, Common, 23. 

,, ,, Shield-fronted, 23. 

,, ,, Small-scaled, 23. 

,, Carpet, 13. 

,, Common Brown, 23. 

,, Copper-head, 2. 

,, Little Whip-, 11. 

,, Shield-fronted Brown, 23. 

,, Small-scaled Bro^wTi, 23. 

„ Tiger, 3. 

,, Two-hooded Furina-, 32. 

,, Whip-, Little, 11. 

,, White-lipped, 11. 
Southern, or Blotched Blue-tongued Lizard,94. 

,, Mackerel, 28. 
spicata, Dimetopia, 46. 
spinifer, Astacoides, 15. 
spinigera, Diachoris, 46. 
Spiny-sided Butterfly-Gurnard, 5. 
Spiralaria florea, 46. 
Spotted Eagle-Ray, Blue-, 63. 

,, Marsh-Frog, 42. 
Squalus acanthias, 75. 

,, apjiendiculatns, 43. 

,, harhatus, 43. 

,, lohatus, 43. 

,, sqitatina, 34. 

,, vulpcs, 88. 

,, zyga^na, 56. 
squatina, Rhina, 34. 
squatina, Squalus, 34. 
Steganoporella elegans, 60. 
Steganoporella maguilabris, 60. 
StenorhjTichus leptonyx, 21. 
Stirparia annulata, 59. 
subimmersa, Lepralia, 35. 
superbus, Hoplocephalus, 2. 
super ciliosa, Diemenia, 23. 
super cilios^is, Pseudoelaps, 23. 
Sygnatlius foliatus, 65. 
,, tceniolatiis, 65. 

T. 

Tasmanicus, Centropristes, 16, 17. 
Tasmaniensis, Linuiodynastes, 42. 
taunts, Carcharius, 64. 
taurus, Odontaspis, 64. 
tenuii'ostris, Cellaria, 49. 
tenuirosti-is, Salicornaria, 49. 
tenuis, Crisia, 39. 
tessellata, Retepora, 94, 99. 
Testudo longicollis, 92, 93. 
Tettigonia Anstralasice, 50. 
Thersites altivelis, 44. 
Thersites atun, 44. 
Thresher, or Long-tailed Shark, 88. 
(Tliyca) Pieris Aganippe, 10. 

,, ,, Harpalyce, 9. 

Thynnus Maccoyi, 44. 

,, Scomber, 44. 
Thynnus thynnus, 44. 
Tliynnus vulgaris, 44. 
tigerinus, Genypterus, 27. 
Tiger Snake, 3. 



Alphabetical Index. 



tceniolatus, Sygnathus, 65. 
Tooth-cupped Cuttlefish, 76, 77. 
Tope Shark, Australian, 64. 
Tortoise, Long-necked River, 92, 93. 

,, Murray, 82, 83. 
trachurus, Caranx, 18. 

,, Scomber, 18. 
Trachurus trachurus, 18. 
tricellata, Menipea, 58. 
trifolium, Lepralia, 37. 
Trigla Kumu, 6. 
Tropidoderus iodomus, 69, 70. 

,, rhodomus, 69, 70. 

Trout, Salmon, 16, 17. 
triitta, Perca, 16, 17. 
truttaceus, Arripis, 16, 17. 
truttaceus, Gentropr'istes, 16, 17. 
tuba, Bicellaria, 59. 
tuharia, Cidarites, 100. 
tubaria, Goniocidaris, 100. 
tuberculata, Argonatita, 61, 62. 
Tuberculated Argonaut, or Paper Nautilus, 

61, 62. 
tuberculosa, Argonauta, 61, 62. 
Tubucellaria hirsuta, 49. 
Tunny, 44. 

turbinata, Bicellaria, 59. 
Two-hooded Furina-Suake, 32. 
typhon, Podacanthus, 80. 

u. 

umbonata, Catenicella, 90. 

,, Membranipora, 25. 

,, (form), Reteporamonilifera, 94, 97. 

undata, Petralia, 60. 
iitriculus, Catenicella, 89. 



Vanessa, Lepidotrigla, 5. 
varia, Lacerta, 41. 
variegata, Morelia, 13. 



varius, Hydrosaurus, 41. 
ventricosa, Catenicella, 24. 
Vermicella annulata, 52. 
verus, Carcharias, 74. 

,, Garcharodon, 74. 
Victoi'ian Rhodona, 51. 
Vine Day-Moth, 8. 
violascens, Acrophylla, 79. 
violascens, Phasma, 79. 
Violet-shouldered Phasma, 69, 70. 
Violet-winged Phasma, 79. 
Vtpera acanthophis, 12. 
vitrea, Lepralia, 38. 
vittata, Lepralia, 37. 
vulgaris, Acanthias, 75. 
vidgaris, Thjpimm, 44. 
vulpes. Alopecias, 88. 
vulpes, Squalus, 88. 

w. 

Water Lizard, Gippsland, 81. 
Wattle Goat-Moth, Large, 30. 
Whip-Snake, Little, 11. 
White-lipped Snake, 11. 
White-Ringed Snake, Black- and, 52. 
White Shark, 74. 
Wilsoni, Catenicella, 89. 
Wilsoni, Dictyopora, 67. 
Woodsii, Membranipora, 26. 
Worm, Australian Giant Earth-, 7. 

Y. 

Yabber Crayfish, 29. 
Yabbie Crayfish, 29. 
Yarra Blackfish, 27. 
Yellow-sided Dolphin, 22. 

z. 

Zeuzera (Eudoxyla) eucalypti, 30. 
Zygpena malleus, 56. 
zygcena, S<pmlus, 56. 



CORRIGENDA ET ADDENDA. 

Letterpress of Plate 42, for Lymnodynastes, read Limnodynastes. 

Letterpress of Plates 16, 17— References, for ? Perca trutta (Cuv. & Val.), Hist. Nat. des 
Poiss., V. 4, p. 54, read vol. 2 ; add Perca marglnata (Cuv. & Val.), Hist. Nat. des Poiss., v. 2, 
p. 53. 



By Authority : John Ferres, Government Printer, Melbourne. 



CONTENTS OF DECADE X. 



K.B. — The originals o£ all the Tigiires are in the Natiunal Museum, Melbourne. 



Plate 91.~Gymnobeliileus Leadbeatcri (McCoy). 

Plates 92-93. — The Long-necked River Tortoise (Chelodiua longicoUis, Shaw sp.). 
/Plate 94. — Operculaof Retepora. 

I Plate 95. — Retepora porcellaua (P. McGil.).— R. avicularis (P, McGil.).— R. fissa (P. McGil.). 
^ Plate 96. — Retepora monilifera (P. McGil,). 
I Plate 97.— Retepora monilifera (P. McGil.).— R. furmosa (P. ?iTcGil.).— R. carinata (P. McGil.). 
t Plate 98.— Retepora Phoeuicea (Busk). — R. auriinliaca (P. McGil.). 
Plate 99.— Retepora granulata (P. McGil.).— R. tessellata (Hincks).— R. serrata (P. McGil.). 
Plate 100. — Gouiocidaris tubaria (Lam.). 



JAll 



iyt)5 






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