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1. This fixtrenMniuUuvM af i&Kcti .. •• 1 

2. 'Wbctliw iiUBCt* rrapirp, and wbuUier Umj h«*fl)ik>«l ■• .. B 

3. The bodica cf mnuuu * 

4. htet ■ >. S 

6. Tbe order di^IiiTed in the vorka of bee* .. it. 

6. Tlic numnin^ of (lie kntu commacu, pUMMFM, ttoi) prapoU* .. S 

7. Thii miTiaDing of oiithno?, ttiDitursca. ur i;er>utlioi 7 

8. WliD.t flnwcrs arc used bf ihv beni ui their walk A. 

9. Penoiu who have niartc ben their stuJj ., .. ,, .. >. I 

10, The tiumIs in wbicli buu vork • .. ■• »k 

11. Drouw " .. .. 10 

il. 'Ilic qunUliM of bonojr II 

15. Where iha best liousy it pnxluMil 12 

14. TbA kind* nThoney peculiar to Tarions pUoGi ik. 

lA. Ilovr hoDcvie tcttcd. Ericieani. 'i'tuiiJix, or linniBl .. .. II 

16. The rcjiriMiuttiaii of htv-* ,. ,. ,. 16 

17. Thu modi.' Lif gtiveriimi'iit <if thw hi^n IS 

13. Happy omcus mnwiiinci aifunivd by a nrtrm of boa . . .. IV 

ig. The Tarioua Icinda of bsM SO 

20. Tho diteftBoof bem 31 

21. Thing* tint tu« noxioiu U bCM 22 

22. How to lce«p b«aii to th« hiv« 33 

23. Method* of reniiwiitK the iwami iK 

24. Wane and homcti : oniindj vhich ftppropriate whal hclongt to 

OttMM _ . . . . U 

25. Tlic bombyi of Assytitt M 

36. Tlio l>nria of th* ■iLk-womii^irho Snt inTcntcd BQk cloth* . . <^^. 

27. Tbo Bilk-vonn of Cob— how Uw Conn TeauacBta m mad* .. 20 
36. Spidim ; tho ktiula thut uuilui webi ; llu miMrkli oacd by them 

in ao doio;; 27 


Cirir. Page 

72. 'ihb lun^ : in vthtit nninuli thcf ore the liu^et, nnd io whnt 

thu «Tuu!l«sl. AuiRials wliicli liuvu notliin? but lung* In Uiu 
inUriiir ul' tliu liuilj. Ouuiut wbicli |uuuuK ciUKurdiuuTy 
swidiieu in snimAl* .. 67 

73. Ttia liv<:ir -, iu what imimuU, uid in v.-Uu |iun tlivie am two 

liven found lift. 

71. Tho g>Il . yhtm iiitiiAt<?, iinil in what aaimula it is double. Ani- 
niulu trhiuh bBve m- j^aU, and ulbora ia wlilcli it i« not »ittuitc 
in thr livt-r 68 

7^. IIlo propurliiie of Ib^ gall A9 

76. In yiitat antualf the liror incrvosu and dccrcaici vith ttii: dkxiu. 
OluiirTatiuna on. the uiupicm reltttiTe thereto, and renmrkabla 
prodigie* 70 

77- The (liuibragm. Tliniuitiin^tif laiii)(;tilor «. .. i4. 

7S. Thtj bum : animals vliivti haw nu b»U>-. Wliicb are t^ie only 

anlmuLt djiit Yuiiiii 71 

79. 'Phs smnU giit«, the front intaHtinoa, tbo onus, thu colon. Tbe 

CaliMis of tUt iiiaiLtiiitc vonicily of CLiituiu iLriirmilft ., ,. ,. i&. 

80. Tke uuieutuui : thv s{ile«i) ; iiiiimal* nrLitli are wtlliout it . . 7S 
&l. 'VLr. kidnej^ : aiLiiunJi. wLicb. lijcvo four Lidurys. Anifflnlii wliiGti 

have iKiue ii. 

6S. Tbu bruut : the ribs 7i 

K:j. Ttie bladder: animuls wUirb lim'c no bh'IdLT ii. 

Hi. Tlie womb : the ■womb of tlit sow : tlio lual* 74 

Ha. Anirad.1 whidi Liaim ouct : aniiuiiis wliirli iLo not grow fat , . ii. 

HQ. The manow ; uninuda wliii^h laxe mi mnmtw 76 

[>7. BotiMnnd Hsh-hoDot: aniitids nLiL'h bitYc ncilfan'. L'utikgci 77 

88. ThL' Btrves ; uuinjula wkti-h hnvc noau i'5, 

89. The arConnn; the veins: auimoit wit.hout artariet ot vein*. The 

bluuil uiid tliu «iVL-al 78 

90. Aalmuls, tbo bbioiuf which coa^IatM with the i^catcet rJ]Hdity: 

citlicti' aitiinnlj, tbc blood o( whir^h dnc« not c>flrigulnti^ Afiimak 
wltich hnvu the thicktal blood ; tiione the blQud uf which ia tbe 
thinneat : aDitauki w}ginh knvn no bland {&. 

91 . Animula whic}] ure without hluod At cvrtulji [H-rJods of tlie yetir . . 79 

92. Wljulber iliH hii.od i« till) piifldjilfof life 80 

93. I'ho hide of BjiiniaU ii. 

94. The bttirond tbe coTering of the 6kin .. .. 81 

96. TliQ pujis: birds whicli hate |iitpi. HcmurkihlD fiLi:ta ooimcctvd 

«-it}i the dug! i>r aainmls 82 

90. The milk: the bivsdug*. CUcnsi;: of what milk choD^i; eiULUut 

bcinada. Itannct; tbc Teti'iuiu kiiiila of aliiiiuut in luilk .. HX 

97, Tsri.ius kiiidfi of r.hecae .. .. 8.5 

9R. iJilTercuccii of tlm inembere of man from tliosL- of othtr uniniidi . . h6 
■9&. The Bn^'^nii the umis ii, 

100. Resemmnct) of the itpo to iDan .. .. .. i). 

101. Tbeaiiit) 87 

102. ThP kniM and the ham* U. 

103. Parte of tbe human body ta which cailftia lellgioiu idcasiue 

attathod SA 



tjnxr. Fm» 

lot. Tfirinxin TEim .^ M 

IDG. 'fha rail, Ibc foot, tbclt:^ 88 

11*6. Ilwift A. 

107. Thefe«torbinb M 

108. Tlio focC or animalii, from tliote liarinf; two feet to U)OM «ltb m 
tundrcd — Dwnrf = 91 

10?. The Mxual ptru. -llmnaphrotlitc* A 

110. TttetutM. — Hie Llirec doMM of euBUchs 91 

111. Thetaihof snimiU A. 

112. Tbe different ToEcM <if aniniak M 

1)3. SupGrfluoui limbs ftS 

114. Siiiuof Titality utid af ibft moml dijpAaliAD <tf Buo, from iha 

Urabt . . 98 

lis. HesptTBtioii and nutrimnnt 97 

Hi. Animult wtiioh when tod upon poison do not die, and the IWt 

of which ii poieonouK 98 

117. RfflAOTis for indigeflLion. R«m«diu luromdity iA. 

118. From whiit atus«» corpiilento Bri»e*; how it mny be rwllftol .. rtt 
lit). Wluit things, Ity increty tiBtiag of liicm, iills.]r hunf^r aad (hint 99 



1. Tlie honoTinibV pltico occuptMl by bees in tlie sysiom of natim 101 

2. The early histoiT of Iree§ 102 

3. Exotic tre^iia. When the plane-tree first appeared in Italy, Bail 

wlimco it uame , 103 

4. Tb0 natiira of the plane-tree 104 

6. ItemnilEnble tVietamnDCRi^d with tliopknc-trco ii. 

e. The ctiamieplutaniLs. Who irac tha Gnt to dip gnea ahniha . . 106 

7. Hnw the citTon i« plnlitcd ,, .. .. ,. .. .. .. .. it, 

8. TtBtreesufluilrii 107 

5. When ebony vuaHntiviautRoaii;. TbQTariuu«]uiidsofcU>Qy lUO 

10. Tho IndioD thorn it. 

11. The Indian fig .. i*. 

12. Thepahi; the fruit ctillfil arinnri 110 

13. Indian trees, i.he» of nbiob nre unkaown. Indiui tre(« 

which hfw fliti Ill 

14. The peppei-trao.— Tho Tarioua kiuils of pepper— bregma — lia- 

gibcTi, (IT zimpircbi ib. 

15. CaryspfiylloQ, lycion, and Ihe Ckiromnn pyucanthni ., .. 113 
10. Mncir .. ,. 114 

17. Su^ ii. 

18. Treca of AriBna, Ccdroai™, nad Hyrcania .. .. US 

19. IVets of BuotnanA, bdellium, or oniehon, ofhtrwisr mnlufho, or 
RiBldacon, EeoTiliiHtuiii. ddu.lteruI.ionB nseil in all apicvt and 
iiruinatics; the taiiouB tests of thcni NudLh«ir rvspoctive Taluos lA. 

2rt. Tietr«ofPer*iB 117 

21. Trees of tho iAkndsof tho Fenimi Sen. The oottoatrea.. .. i6. 


Cmtv. PaC* 

72. The lungs : in what aniflULli tbcj art tbe lnrg««t, and in whnt 

ibe Kmiillaiil. Auinitilii wliloli have uutkiti^ but luu};t in tl:e 
iiit«ri'al of the body, Ciiuits whkli prwluco plLniunlinary 
•wiflucM in auicuuli • CT 

73, Tha liver; in what animals, and tu what part Ihnro aro two 

Urcn fmuitd i6. 

?■(. Tha R&tl , whvre Mluiitij, tmil in whtit miimuk h is double. Ani- 
miils wlueli liiivu ae gull, uud u-Lhcn iti wLicii U Li nut Hltuite 

intliclivei 68 

7*. Thcprnpi.Tticiof thcgftll Gi 

78. In wtiut auiiuuU tlic Uwr iii>i:n-jut:> anil dt-'vri^niwB irilli the mouii. 
Ubiertations on tha aiusptoea rektive tkuralo, aai i«markablo 
prvdi]^u« 70 

77. The diauhrBpm. Tlie nBture of Uugliter ti. 

78. Thn holiy : iuiiinftU which hnvo no hnUy. Wliioli ore Uio only 

aniiuala that vumit 71 

79. Thi; sninll ||[^iits, thi- Iront intcatinr^ tha nuii», tlii.- colati. 'the 

ci>use« of the iiiMiLiutv ruracily uf crrtuiu ^luiinuU id. 

80. Tha uiticntum : Lbue^iliMiii ; fl.iiijiial& -niiich nri: without it ., 73 

81. Xbs kidneys : animiiui whicli have lnvr Liliuiiytt. Aumml« irhioh 

liiive Dune iJ. 

82. riiebroajil: IbB rih» 74 

83. ThK hlnililrr: fiQimuU wliioh bavu no blaiLiliir it. 

84. Thci^vvmli: thu wuEuti of lliosow: tho touts 7$ 

85. Animali which lijivo suet ; anininU which da not grow fat , . (ft. 
Kti. Thi) mariiiw ; nibLmuU wliidi liavu ii-ii mitrrow 70 

67. Hone* and fisli. bone* : miimalB nliidi liave unitber. Curtilage* 77 

68. The nerres ; niLiiiiiiti. wLin^h btive Donui . . . . ii. 

89. The iirterii's ; ilu' vtiuti : iLuiiuuIs wiUivut urtuiiii or vtiLu^. The 

blood and the sweat 78 

90. Aeintolif the lilixid nC which ri)af^ilatc9ivilh thi!gT4:ate«t rapiiiity : 

oths7 uiimal*, the bluud uf wiiieli dvv* nut coiiaiilnt«. Animals 
wliiuU huvu the thiukert blood : OiQ»e llio blut^of whitsU is the 
thiancai : aaimala whidi bava no hlood id, 

91. AnimnU whicli nro nithi:>ut blood at orrtnin pcriodii of tlia year. . 79 

92. Whether the bluud is liit pmiciiilj; of life HO 

93. 1^ hiiii; of animali it. 

01. The hair and ihi euvmng of tbe tkin 81 

V5. Tbe paps : birds whi*;!! havti papa, Renisrk&blo fauta connected 

with cbe dugH ot'animali .. , HS 

Sfi, The milk: the bieatioKe. CWae: of what milk cbibHso cuuuot 

hi: oiKilo. I6^^nct; thit vnrioux kindn of nliment iu milk .. 83 

97, Variutu kiodt of ohe^iiu .. ,, 85 

98. IlilTuruiucs of ibu membars o( mau from those of other anintola . . bii 
9B. The iinffeta, the amis iS. 

100. itei«iiio1iinco of the ape la man »i. 

101. Tbeniiib 87 

103. 1'hp knnee and the hams ii. 

103. Paru uf tile human body to whieb certuin roU^oiu idoai«re 

oUochfld S8 


3. UUpflnoR, in«ginii ; (lie mode of totinit oimiiuatJ I( 

4. The ctucMM Ui which luiurf ha* run in iingueiiU ,. .. . . Is7 
fl, Whvn liDgurnU wcra Gnt uacil b/ thi;Buiujuu 168 

6. Tlic pRliu-lroa 189 

7. i'liu nature of thnpilm-trce 170 

8. How thn puhu-lrt-H is plmiteil ITS 

9. The iiiff«r*nt vnricUpe uf puJm-treM, Hue! tlicir chanwlrraiica .. 17$ 

10. Tito trci'i vt Syriit : lUu pittuoiui Lbs volttuiu, ibc dmuUMCDa, autl 

the myxa 178 

1 1 . Tbo cedar. Ticos which bkTO ob thorn the frtut of thnc jeacs at 

ouve a. 

12. The mu'biutli 179 

13. Tilt BUmocli-treo ii. 

14. Tlie trcts ofEgypl.- The flg-tree of Alemiidm 180 

15. Tlic i3g-lreL> ofOrprUB 181 

1ft. The csrob-tren A. 

17. The Puntijui tree. Id wliat trees tlia Aruits gvrtninaw (ht one 

below tho other 182 

IB. Thocucus 183 

19. Tho Ke;)'ptian tbuiu « .. .. H. 

20. Nine kinds of gum. Thu laruuculla 184 

SI, Tb^papvTus; thu uaa ufpaptr: wbeii it wiu fint isTenteil .. 186 

22. Thu Dioui.' ofninkici^pApcr IBfl 

23. The nine difftrcntkuida of pap(T ,. 187 

24. The nitiiSo of testing the gi'iAlnuss of paper 189 

ili. The p»H,:iiliur defects in pii|)pc IM 

26. Th^ pafito used in tL« pivparaiion of paper 191 

27. Tho hooks of Nimw . . t*. 

28. The trecw of jEtMopia , . . . 193 

'29. The trees of Mount Atlns. Th« citnis, and th« tshles made «f 

ihe wood tbereuf I9l 

30. Tbo points that sxu dusirablo or otbcrwiso in these tsbks s , , . 196 

81. The dtren-trc* 198 

32. ThalotuB ij, 

83. The trtcs of CyrcQaica, The puiiuriu 200 

34. Nine Vttrietios of thu I'uuio upplu. Bulauftium iJ, 

35. The Uvix of .Asia und Gii,'Qce; Ihu cpipuutLS, the viloa. Urn 

Cntdian ^raiu or Ctiyracleuii, p];rosiicfau«L, crLuttron.ur cncoron. . 201 

38, Tho tragioB: trngncniitho cS. 

37. Tlic tiflguB or acurpio ; tlio mjrica or hiya ; the oslrys . , 208 

38. Tbe eiiouymoa , , ., 203 

39. 'Itiie truQ ddlcd euQ , ii. 

40. The andrachlo .. .. 2M 

*1. The coMygiiii the aphjiroo {&. 

4'2, Tliu ftrulii ii, 

43. The thspsiii 20tf 

44. The ouppiiris or cynosbaten, o^orwiMopluostapliyLe 206 

4o. TliBsitripha. 207 

4B. The royal ihom ii. 

47. The cytUiM 208 

C0»Tlf*CT8. U 

CnUk ?atP> 

48. The tnw* and abrubs of the M<icIiUtTan«an. The phfcoR, pra^on, 

ortotttr 209 

49. Thnncii hrjon .. , 210 

50. Plonto of the Rod S«» 211 

51. Plsnta of tho ItiiliinSen .. .. ., it. 

G2. The planu of the Troj^bJyCtc Sea ; the hair of fiij : tbc Clurito- 

bluptiatoa 212 



1 flitil 3. Tlie nstiMc of the vine, It« m™Ip of frudiQi-ation .. .. 215 

3. The niitum »f tint grape, end tlic cultivaltun uf tlin vitm ,. ,. SIS 

4. Ninoty-one vaTictici of tUp Tinn ,. . . 2JJ 

6. RumuTlublu tiui\t wtuiixKe^ wilb tlie culture uf tbo vino . . .. S3S 
C. Tho most iitiejsnt ninoc ,, 23S 

7. Till' nntnro t-f witn-it ,, ., ,, .. .. 23S 

5. >"ifly kiinisof j^rnerouii win« .. .. 339 

6. Thirly-vi^ht vari(li<.« olforcl^ wiiie .. .. 246 

10. StTf^n kiudaof «altiHl winea 247 

11. Eighteen raricCicsofa-Hect nine. Raititi-wioeflud hepMnu .. 348 

12. Tliree vorietieM of iiFticiiiiI-ratH wine 2£1 

13. Ac wbdc perioj gLiLoroua wjqcs weiv ficst commonly maJe in 

luly 351 

H, The inspodion of win* crd<T«i by King Komulua .. .. ,, 'iS'S 
15. Wines drunk liy the Buciniit Itiimniia .. '.. .. ., ,. 2&9 

Id, Some renmrkj:iljlu I'liL'ts uunuecteJ wiUi winn-loJl*. Thu OpLiuiuti 

wine 2-f 4 

17. At wb»t prmd rmirkinilA nrwinn werefintt tHirved at tdhla .. tb. 

18. Tht u«ra of thu wild vine. What juluea aro catitnlly the caldest 

ofalt .. 2fi6 

19. Biilv-aiK Tarirtics i)f iirtiticial wiue 256 

30. HyJromtli, qr mdiuntton .. .. .. ,. .. 2S1 

2). Oiyineli it. 

23. Twelve Itinda of wind with miniruloa«jiTep«rtif« 263 

23. What wiiiw it IB noLlawful to use in the sncred rilei 2B3 

24. Qnw iQUst is QBUnlly prqmieii .. .. .. ,. ., ., ., i/r. 

23. l*i|.oh auii resin , 261 

26. Viucgar^t'iaofiriiie 26B 

S7. Winc-vtdael*— wine-coliftni iJ. 

28. llfunkeuocss .. ., 370 

29. Liquon with tha stnngth of wine aiad« (tool vniet and oorn . . S74 



1. Tbeolitt",— HowlungitMinleiJin Greece only.— At what parioil it 

wj« flnit Latroiiuueil into Itnly, Spnia, and Aiiita 277 

2. The Qaturc of tltu ulifti, uodof uew oUvE oil 27ft 



CMjkP. Ta^ 

3. OHtc ^lil ^ the conatria in lihith it U prodnecd, and iU Torioaa 

<)uiiIiUet 379 

4. Fifteen TBii«tl« of lh4 oUn .. 181 

A. The tutura of oUtd oil 9H 

9. Tbe Qu]lurc oftho oliro: itn modaof prMcmlion. Tlu BuMbod 

nrmukiti^ulivf* oil .. .. .. SU 

7. forty-ei^ht varieticii nf STtifiaiuloiU. Tbv ticiu-trct oi aatoa, 

or >ili, or ((.'nitnum SM 

& Amuroa 30t 

9. Tho Tnrimiit kiiiJ«orfTnit-CrM«ond thfiirnMuru. Four TsrictiM 

ufpiu^nuia .. .■ .. 39S 

10, Tho quiuco. Fout kiiuU of ojdonio, and fuui rtiii«ti«* of Uie 

IlIuthcA A. 

11. Sis varieties of the pfiBch 2ttt 

la. Twilve kind* of pl(im» Mi 

13. The pcatli , 2M 

14. Tlitrt; iliiToront kinds of ptimpK. At wlinl period foreign fruita 

w(<i« firat iatroJuccil inUi Ituly, and wht-nM- - 297 

15. Tho fruilA tinvobci'ii raoat rcccutlj'iiitruduucil H, 

16. Forty-uue TuneliL's iiftlii' p.'ftr _.. .• 300 

17. Variutut metliuiia of Kraflin)( tri'UR. Eipiattont for lightning .. 90S 

18. Tlie mods of kpL'pin); rimiiiiE fruiU and grup«» 30S 

10. Tweuir-mue t^urittiuBoftiiv llff .. .. 347 

20. Ei<h>n<!ul anecdotes codudcUiiI with ibu fig 30B 

21. Caprifluation .. .. 311 

22. lliree TsrietLM of the ni^BT 314 

23. Four vnrivticf of tliu in>rl> .. ,, ii. 

St. KtUB varittitiR of tho nut 3ll 

25. Ei^htaen TArictics of tbo chMnat •• .. 318 

26. TUetarub 31ft 

27. The flpsbv Ihiiu. The mullwrrp' ii. 

S8. Tbefc-uit'orthv-urbutuj 3a6 

29. TburektiT^Datun^i^riiprry frullj 821 

30. Niceynricticflof the thcrry S38 

81. Tho cornel. The knlijik 338 

32. TiilrLGcn dlHWeot davuiu't of juicos i^ 

93. The colour and Bmetl of jui€tiS .. 33$ 

34. The vnrioui natures of fruit 324 

33. ThemjTlle ., S28 

S6. Historical iLTiccdoti^ rflatiTo to the mprtile 338 

37. Keven variutifs of Lhc myrtle 380 

33, The myrtle used at Eomo in ovutioDS 3}| 

89. TbuUurc^t; thirteen varietiGS of it 332 

10. Histoiiiial aneedotes connect^ Titli the iBuiol 334 



1. CountriM tkil have Eo tracs S.T3 

2. Wouden connected with trees in the notheni region* .. .. 340 

^^^ COHTLSTS. n 

CT!*». P*go 

3. Tbo aeoni Oflk. Tbc eivic cnnm 341 

4. The ong^iu ii[ tbe |>rcMTiiUitioii of Crowns Silt 

&. fenoDi |ir»ifint^ witli H crown of Emtm .. ,. S4S 

6. TliirUwu Tura-tiii* otlht ■i.sTit .. .. 345 

7. The beech .. .. 34S 

8. The other acorria — ■wmod for fiicl *$. 

9. The ^aU-nut 3fiO 

10. Othfir priKliutions oD tbuei trtieabaidn the iwoni ii. 

It. Ciobrys 351 

12. The kennca beny 3M 

13. Agiuio 0. 

14. Ti'ttm uF whkb th«i bsrlciiiued 364 

15. ShingU .. SSS 

1«. Tbe[jlno i&. 

17. Th« piniutflr 3M 

18. Thft pitch.trco ; the fir it. 

19. The larth : the tortH-trea 341 

20. Tlinyi.w 3B0 

81. HeclJoiiaof iniikiajr Utc— low ceiriiiin is mini* 3ftl 

22. Mrthoiln b)r which thick )>ib:h i« pr?[iur<.il iB. 

S3. How the TitBitL cuUcd zojiisaa is prepared 363 

24. Trtra the nood i>r whiah ia highly vsluetd. Four nriotiM of 

UiPiish .. 804 

25. Tno varit^tics of the liudQB'tna 3ttS 

26. Ten Turiclice of tha mapla 347 

27. Bruicura; mnjJIunmra ; the lUphylodendron 868 

28. Three vsrietiefl of the boi-tioo ,. .. iR. 

2&. Four Toriodta of tbo clia . .. .. .. 870 

30. The uatun-^a of tlie varioui trees eacordine to their locnlttiee : tbe 

nif^untaia trcM, and thotrcp* of Iho plain H. 

31. Tf»M wliich grow OIL a dry soil : thi)«o which oro ioand in Wet 

liiralitica . thnEe nhtch nm (ounil in bolh iaditfiirMitt; ., .. 372 

32. Divisioit of tro^s lutu vanoiu apeoiw ., ,, 373 

33. Trovs whitib do Dot lose chciii folinBU. Thetliododeiidron. Tni« 

whidli do not b.^e the wbule of tb«ir foliogv. PIftces in wbioh 

thcT<^ firs no tfcc4 ii. 

34. The DuLuro of tbu leaves which wither and full 874 

35. Tree* wliicli have l^aTce of vuioos coloora ; tren with IsRVee of 

^ariouB ihapts. ThrooTumtiee of the poplar 375 

36. Leaves whiuh tum round erery year 376 

37. The «are bestowed on the leares of tlie palm, and thu i«ei to 

which ttie^ nro applied 877 

3S. Bsnmri^able facts coni!«icted with Innroe , ,. ,, ii, 

39. The aatiiral order of thu pruduL'tiun of plants 379 

40. TrooB which novcrbloeaom. The juniper 38U 

41. ThefufiiiaiJiitinnortruBa. Gcrniuiition : Ihtittppearancoof thefniit 381 

42. 1q what order thu trees blos^iom 383 

43. At what poriod coch tree bean fruit. Th<) comnt 384 

44. Treet which beat the wkole 3'c-ikr. Ttqcb wiuuhhave oathem 

the iruit of three years iS5 



CniP. Va)t» 

Ai. Trees m>iicl) bear no fruit ■ trw* looked upon as iH-omcned . . 3iio 

4('. Tioes wbicli lose Hwir lr«iit oi flowers mual readily SS" 

47. 'rn'eE vrbidi are unpruduclive in cvrUiui pluoe* 3S7 

4S, Tbc modo in nlikh ticcE hi;ar .. ..US, 

49. Treusin wliiidi tlio fi-iiit uppciirs bcfure the 1«utc« ij, 

CO. Trees which bBHr two crops in n yiiar. Trees wliicU boUT three 

crMps 389 

CI. TTaiL'h tr««B bccomo old with, the greiitGEt'ruiiidity, iiud wliluki 

mostElrhwly .. .1R9 

(!2. Tr«.'ce wbkb bear variou.4 pi'dducts. CTat^^m 390 

63. UdfeTDCJCc'H in Kcas in rt'spect a( the trDut;.s and branuhes . . . . 391 

SI. TbobiiiiKjhvBoi'Uc'CB S91 

£u. Tbo bark of trci^e 309 

6<i, The roots uT [.ruts >. .. &. 

67. Trees whidi hMvegromi 6 pon tan eon sly (rmti the gmund ,. , . 394 
6S, How trues grow spunUnenuNly — divcmtiiis in tlieir iiuture, the 

Miue tr«ee no: growing everywhere S95 

fiS. Plants that nil! iiul ffuw iuvortuiiiplm^dH 8&6 

GO. ThucyprcM 397 

Gl. Tliat the earth often bciiTi prodactiont which, il has iinrrr boriLQ 

before SBB 

63. The ivy— twentyrarietinBofit .. «'S. 

Oa. TltB sinilox 403 

6-1. Water phnta: theruab: trenty-eipht Tflrietifi* of the rccd .. 303 
BA. Reeds usrd for airon-a, and for t.he purpose of triitiitg- ,, . , 404 
86, l''lut« reeds : (he leiJ of OrDhomunus ; leedt used for fowling 

&ndfifibiug 406 

6T. The vino-dresHPT'H reed ,. ., 408 

as. Thewilbw: eight vanctit^ of it , 408 

69. Trem, in addition to the witluw, which are of usa In mating 

witheti 410 

70. Bushes: cendle-nuhea: rushes fur thatcbiog 411 

71. Theelder; the hrftmhio .. .. ti, 

72. Tlio JQicea of treea 41!I 

7S. The veins and fibres of trees 413 

74. Th* ftUiiig of iru™ 415 

75. The «piuii>n of CnLu on tbo felling of timber 41B 

76. Tbu BLEE <jf tiesB : the nature uf wood ; the sappincLS 417 

77. Methods of obttiinini; tire from wood .. 421 

7(t, Treei which are proof against decuv : trees which never iplit .. 442 

79. llistnrtciil fucts coanoctcd with the durability of wood ,, ,. 4^3 

80. VMieties uf the Urodu 426 

81. The wuodii u»Gd iji building 426 

82. Cnrpenttra' wci.Mi!! 427 

8 IS. "Woods iinitod with gltie «6. 

84. Veneering , 428 

85. The apo of tr^es, A tree that woa planted by tbe finit Seipio 

Afhcnnus. A trco at Rome fi»-a hundred yt-ata old .. .. 429 

86. Trees ae old as the City i-W 

67. Xieea in the aubuibaa district* older than the City ilr. 





BOOK xr. 





1. The wtreBi«siiu!lnMx of iniwcu .. 

2. Vbtther iiueota rvtpin, uid •rbetlicr tbef bntv blood .■ . 

3. Tbe bodies of innixu 

4. B«s 

5. Th« ordn- difpUjwd in tb« works of bcca . 

S. Tb« mn&ing of lh« Urmi commoau, piaiocinai, uid ikropvli* . 

7. Tbomuningflf eritbuie, usduatn, or nriotlioB 

B. Wbit ftuKen an luod br tho bcM in tbcir work m, 

9. TcrMit}* who liuve muilcWHtbeir stud/ .. S 

10. Tbe intHlu in wbkb beM iTork I'iy 

IL DroD«is 10 

12. Tlmqunlitiuof hontjr 11 

13. WbcTo the b«t hcntjh pntdwed li 

14. Tb« bimla iifbdney pMutinr to Tfttious places if. 

15. How boner is tMted. tjicicum. Tetnlix, gr Bnnim .. ., U 

16. Tb* rqwoauetiou of beta ,. is 

17. Tb{iinod«of B«nniiiwiitof UiofcoM IK 

18. llftppy omcM MiBtdrau ifbidtd bjr i awam of boca . . . . 19 

19. Tbo Tsrioas kindd of becd 20 

20. Tba ciUoaws of boca 31 

21. Tbiuga Utaiara noiioTu tc bees , 23 

23. How to koqi ben to tlvo biro 23 

53, llettioda of renffwinj; theovurm ii. 

54. Warn and bomck: oniiiiaU which spproprbte what helong* to 

othcfa , 24 

33. Tliobombys of Amrio. JS 

M. Tbo brvat of tbo Huk-irona— wbn Wm invented liUc riolhs . . -A. 

B7. The siUi-wonn of Co*— how tho Coan uMmt-nUi nro made . . 2(> 
28. SpidAMi Ibe kin>i« Ihut unlit wxiba; Uia matutkU luml lir tiirm 

in K dvisj; .'. , , 



Chap. Figa 
30. Traniplsntiii^ operations as distributed throaghont the TuiouB 

seasons of tbe year 487 

3t. The cleaning and baring of the roota, and moatding them . . . . 491 

32. Willow-beda 192 

33. lieod-beds 493 

34. Other plants that ore cut for poles and stakes 494 

3fi, The ctUtore of the vine and tbe varioos ihrulu which support it , . 495 

36. How grapes are protected bom the rsTSges of insects . . .. 617 

37. The fisoases of trees tS. 

38. Prodigies connected with trees 526 

39. IVeatment of the diseases of trees 528 

40. Uethods of irrigation 529 

41. Remarkable foots connected with irrigation H. 

42. Incisions made in trees 530 

43. Other remedies for the diseases of trees ii. 

44. Gaprification, and particulars connected with the fig 531 

45. EiTors that may be committed in proning ib. 

46. The proper mode of manuriitg trees 532 

47. Medicaments for trees it. 

Cair. Past 

Vi. Tlic luD^ : tn wliut tainuds thcjr an the lar^^t, tind la wkM 
ih« emaUeet. Animals wbioh luive naUiimz but inagt in Ui« 
interior of the bodr. Cituwtt whkli proiliii:': cxtraonliiuiry 
BvifLDCM in Bfiimala* .. ., .. .. $7 

73. Tbo liinr ; in whit luiimiils, and in wluit |inrC tbcre are tare 

liven found A. 

It. The gall ; wl»nu liiiude, aai iu what aiumuk h is jaublo. Aiii- 
mali whioli lutve no ^1, and wthcra ui wlii<ili li i* uot aituaU 
in th« liTcr 68 

7d. Hie nrcipertJM of ttia ^ 6'i 

70. In ivliat anuunla the bvei inGr«a««s and docrcawa nilh the moon. 
ObwrvaliaaK ou tlm aniipicci relutiro tbcicto, and rsnuukulilo 
prodi^tv 70 

77. Tibp diitiihra^. Tlionatureof Uagktor lA. 

78. Till! Iietly : uiitiuub which hava no beUy. Wliich are the only 

auiinau ttiiit vuinlt , .. ., 71 

79. Tho suiJl tfuu, tho (runt inittUuGe, Ihu autu, llie colcm. The 

ULUK« of lliv iusadiiUi Tunuritf of certain animuU ii. 

80. Tba orai^Rluro : thceathMsn; animals nhich uc uitliout it ..73 

81. Tbu kiiiurjs : auiniolj whL'h bavL- fuur kiilut-jB. Auimul* which 

havo uunit , H, 

82. Tli.i hroasl : thfl fiU 74 

S3. Thu bloiltlvr 1 lUiiuiuU which have no bloJdar ih. 

St. Tho womb : the womb of tito euw : tlie uata 75 

So. .Inimnls which ha* o sitct ; tutitnnjg wbicb do not grow fat . . i^. 

8G. The aiarruw : aniuaU v\ik)x bav<: no iiiurruw 1$ 

67. BoufiB oiidQab-boQcs: uaiiuiils which have luiither. CarUiagea 77 

88. TheaariB: animnLs whii'h havl.^nl^nlt ii. 

90. 'the artcriM; the vdnii -. uuiiudji wilhunt arteriM or veins. The 

blood and Ui» NWMt . . . . 78 

90. AntmaU, the blood of wbicb ooai;ulalci with tb«greateat rapidity r 
Dlbar tmiaialji, tlie hluudof wiiicli dons uut connilala. AfumaU 
whicli have tlic tliicktot blood : thu«L' the bluud of wbiob ii the 

thinncat : aiiiin<iU which haro no blood it. 

01. AnimaU whidi an: wilhniit btnod at cfttnin period* af the year . . 79 

92. Whethar tha hluod in Uie principlEiof lite 80 

93. Thti bidv of aoimali ii. 

9i. lliu hair and Ibo coTcring nf (lie akin Rl 

M. Tho jiapR : binJs whiuh hare papk Kcmorliablo TaLtB CADn«ct<il 

wjib Ihc dug» of Biiimala 82 

UA. Tlio uiilL: the bicitiags. Cheeto: of what milk clieeae cannot 

be mad-e. Keouvl; the varioiukind* uralimotil in milk .. 8S 

97. Varioui kiudaof vhouje .. .. ,. hi 

QS. Ditfenmcas of tha mcmbtrs of blou from thino of other animals . . fcti 

99, The liiiBi^rs, tbo itmi* , i6. 

IDO. KcdanTilHQCt: uf the ape to ntaa %i. 

101. Thenails ,, .. , 87 

102. Till! kiti«t luid iliu hams f&. 

103. I'arta of the banian body to which ontftln rcUgiau idcoavK 

attached bi 


Cm«». Pupa 

ICI'4. VuricoK veins -.i .1. .. SH 

mS. The gait, the lect, ttplrgs .. .. '. .. .. 89 

l(i6. llgofi I*. 

aO?. Thafeetofbiida UO 

IDS. Tho feet of animnh, from those huving tiro reel to thoM tritli a 

huniirtil. — Llnnrfs ill 

109. The BEiiiul parts. — Uenn up ib. 

110. The l^KtcB.^l'liu three cluses of euDDchi 02 

lit. Tkc tails of uuliunls ib. 

U2. The diifiirciiit. unices nfanimala . . .. 9^ 

113. fiiipcrfluous liii]bs 95 

114. Signs of vitalitF anil of tlie moral diipoattion of ntati, bum the 

Umbs .. ., 9* 

llfi. Rceptration nnd Dutriiii«Tit _. 97 

116. Animals wliich -when ftd upon powon do not dio, and the fiejli 

of ivhit'b i^ poiBunci'iis ., 9S 

Rpttsons for inJigeBtiufi. BcfineiUes for crudity , rf. 

From whnt causes conrnlBHtp nrises ; h^w it may }>b rc^^ticeil . . 4b. 

WLut thiugfr, by mcrolr tasting- of tiieni, ulluy bua^or and tbiiet 99 



1. The hanmiinblc phcc ocQupicd by treeaia thoayati'm of nature 101 

2. The eiftil y histuiy of trees 10? 

3. Exotlo ITOOB. Whui the pluue-lrtv Hiet appciLrcil in Italy, and 

wbencii it camo .. LOS 

4. Tho iiQtiir« of Iho pkTi(<-tree 104 

5. ILemsrk.'tble fiiuta conneried with ttiP planp-trco it. 

fi. The cliHiuepplfttauui. Who nns the nrst ta clipgreeiiBhrubs .• 106 

7. ll'»w thu cLtruii is plimtetl ii. 

8. Tliu treoBM" ladia 107 

9. "W>i(riieh<>tiy waft first seen ot Rome. ThoTftriounkindBofcbouy IDS 

10. The Itiilian tliom H. 

11. The Indian fig .. , i*. 

11, Thepulu: thafruit'eallddiirieiia , 110 

18. Intliau trees, the uamoB of 'wliicb are uiiluiuwn. Indlsn trees 

whroh beiu- flioL , Ill 

H. ThiJ pepper- Ir CO.— The vuriuufl liiidn uf pepper— bregma— sin- 

gibcri, or limpiTf^bi ,. .. ifc 

15. Ciuyophyllaiii lyciun, ud ibu Cliiraniaii pyumantUui ,. .. 113 

10. Madr .. .. ,. 114 

17. Snpir f*. 

13. Trees of Ariana, Gedrosin, aEii HiTE^ania 115 

19. Treei of Kuctrinna, bdtUiuni, or brovhun, othenriao malai^ha, or 

ntalducon, scordQatum, AditlltTutiuns used lu nil apices Eind 
iironiiiticn; the various (eBtsoftbcm andtheir r^spcctiroTsIuca 1^, 

2(1. Tmm of IVrsis .. .. 117 

2 U Tnci of the ibionda of the P«niiLn Bca. The cotton tiM. . .. ii. 




oa&p. 1. [1.) — TBx KmLEKx sBULurzis or urszcn. 

"We shall naw proceed to a dcflcription &f the innocfa, a 
ftubject replete with cnclloM difficulties ;' for, in fact, ihani 
are some authors wh'j havo raainlaint'd that tbiy do not respire, 
andthitttlu^yaredtatitutoof blouti. The iiifleotsarc ilUIn^?rou^ 
and torni many it^>ii>uicR, and thoir mode of life is like tint of 
the t4>rrcEtntLl animaU and the birde. 'Some of iiitrta are fur- 
nished with wingB, heta f«r iustuucc ; oliivre tire divided Juto 
thusu kinds *hii;h huvo wiiigs, uid lho«c which are without 
them, BUch be aota ; while otliers, ngain, are destitut*- uf both 
irings and foft. All UiL'se animals havB ixjvn very jiropcrly 
called " iDsi-cts,"' from Iho inciMuics or ditisions which sepa- 
rate the body, somctimea at the neck, and Bomctimes at tho 
corselet, and so diridc it into niprabers or sc-gmenta, only 
UQJted to umih other by a Bleiifier tubo, In aome inaecte, how- 
ever, tlus division is not complele, aa it is Hurmmiikd by 
iffl'inkled Jolds ; uud thus thti flexible vcrttbrni of the tii'euluri', 
whether situate at the ubdomeu, or whethei only ut the upper 
part of the body, are prottcted by layers, overlapping eucli 
otlier ; indeud, iu no one of her works has Nature more fully 
displayed by eihaustleBs ingenuity. 

(2.) In large animals, on the other hand, or, at all ^rento, 

' "Ijnnwnaeftulitilitati*." As Cuvitr rcmnrks, Iho tracicnts liavc coni- 
miUed more erroi'i in ii-fercnce to the iii^ei'bi, Lbiin to any uthnr porliim n-l* 
t)ic unimul world. Tliu ilinroverjr of tho microicopo tuu seived m-uie lliua 
ftnytliiiig to correot theeo ericiueous noliyus. 

i "liiauuta," "iirticulflltd," 



raiKT'8 y\TVUA.h HI8T0BT. [Bouk XI. 

in the very largest among them, she found hor task easy uid 
her materials ready anJ pliahlo; but in thcBe minute creaturc8, 
80 nearly akin Q& they are to nou-enlity, how Buipassing the 
inteliigcTJee, how raet the resoarces, and how ineffable tlie 
perfection which she huB displayed. Where is it that she haa 
unitfid Bomany Si'nst'-aaaiii thi;^ gnat ?-^iiot to spi^ak ofcrfatim-a 
that might be mentioned of still smaller sizt — Where, I say, 
' htts Bhe found room to place in it the organs of sight ? "Where 
haa she centred the sense of taste? Where has she inserted 
the power of smell ? And whcTC, too, has she implanted that 
sharp shrill voice nf the creatiire, ao ntl*rly dJHprnporlioTied to 
the smjillntBH of its body? With what aBtonishing Biibtlety 
has she unittid Uie wings to the trunk, elongated the joints 
of tlicf legs, fraiiifd thfit loEg^ craving concavity far a belly, and 
then indamod tlie animal with an insatiate thirst for bloud, 
that ol'iiinnmoTi! especially! What tngeniiity has she display I'd 
in providing it with a sting:,* ho well adapted for piercing tho 
6kin! And then too, just as though she had had the most 
extenavo field for the excrciec of her eliill, although ihn 
weapon ie so minute that it can hardly be seen, she haa fomicd 
it wilh a twofold mcchaniRm, providing it witli a point for the 
purpoBe of pieroing, and at the same moment making it hollow, 
to adapt it for suction. 

What teeth, too, haa she inserted in the teredo,* to adapt It 
for piercing oak even with a sound ■which fully attest* their 
destriietivt! powt;r ! ivhile at thu same time she has madt* wood 
its principal ntttrinicnt. We give all our admiiation to the 
shoulders of the elephnnt as it supporta the tiitrct, to the 
fltnlwartneck of the bull, and the might with which it harla 
aloft whatever comea in its way, to the onslaught of the tiger, 
or to tlie mane of the lion ; while, at the same time, Nitture ia 
nowhere to be seen to greater perfection than in tho very 
smallest of her works. For this reason theji, 1 must beg of 
my readers, notwithstanding Hie contempt they feel for many 
of these objects, not to feel a similar disdain for the informii- 
ticai 1 am about to give relative thereto, seizing that, in the 

' The tmnt of the gnat, Cuvier jays, oontainB fivo silken wad pointed 
thrcada, which togrthi^r Imve tlio efTect of a stiiij. 

* Tiiti Tpttilo iiavitlis cf LJnniL'uji, aotrni insect, but oaoof ttornoUuskfl, 
TliiKJ* tliHimii-crr!itm*o t)i:!it it itientwiifil in B. xvi.c. 80; hut thu t spoken 
of in B, y'lii. v. 74, uiuai Lave bi.->ju u kuij inswi- 


^^^^^^ cosTLSTi. ^m^^m ue 

Cur. Paga 
4& Th« ttttca Slid sIiratM aC the M edikgmtaean. The phfcoi, pnuco, 

or zaat«r ., MO 

•19. Ttir^MabnoB 310 

40. Plants of tboErd Sea 811 

ol. I'lnntii of tho Indian Sta A, 

i'L Tbe planu of ths TroglodyticSaa ; lh« ttair of laia : Ihu CLuito- 

U^lutrciii 312 

BOOK xi\r. 


1 and 2. The imluTfl of the vino. Id mode f>r IViutiflcstioin ., .. 2lfi 

3. The DSturo vf llie srrape. sud the culliTatiuQ or the vino .. .. 2E8 

4. MiiUP^-ODc Tohctiu ar t1i« viui! 22? 

A. B^iftrksble dcta connected with tbsonltnTo oi Ike vine .. .. 23S 

8. The iDMt BDciml winra 2M 

7. Tb« nature uf wine* 33S 

5. fifty kinds gfgvDcnniswiim 239 

9. Tttirly-r^ight vnmt.imof forci^ iriii« .. 245 

10. Si>vci) luud« ofiuiltuil winca 247 

11. GightotfQTariiTtifR afawKct nine. BaJttn-irinv uid )i«ptcinK .. 248 

12. ThruD Toriittiet of Mcond-TaU) wine 25L 

13. At wh&t period guneroiu winu were trtt caDimoiily miuloiii 

Italy aSl 

IL The inipectJon of vino ord'-rrd hy King Ilamului 2&i 

U. Viiwt OTunk bj thu Mici^itt Ituniiiiii 25S 

16. Some nmark&tile facts aoaacctod witli wjno-loni. Tb« C^union 

wino , 254 

17. At what pmod ruurkindA of wino vittf first atarei at taMe .. i&. 

18. Th« liKs iif th« wild vine What juioct arc cntumlly tho ooldnt 

cfttl! 2a« 

1$. Sixty-six TQiiuties of anifidol wiat. .. , 256 

SO. H^dTomdi, or mcliotatoti 261 

21. Oiymtli a, 

22. TwrIvo kiuda of will)? with luiriiciiluuB prapflrtint 2€S 

23. WtiJit nioM it IK nut kutfiil U uHiin the>acr<id rites 263 

^. How mu»l ii uitmljy prcpirud , it. 

ii. Pitdi and reein 244 

36. Vintgur— l«!f ot'wino .. 268 

27. Wiue-v»wU — wiut-ciiliirs ii. 

i8. Dniukenucw .. . ,. .. 370 

20. Liquuia wilb the sti:«n;{lb of wiue luailv from water and oum . . 27i 


THS «ATtmAi niiTOHT OP ■TOE rswiT-'nania. 

1. Th«olivp.— How long itoxiiteil in Gr«eco only.— At what period It 

vufint iotrodiiucd intn Italy. Spuin, uiid Africa 277 

2. The aUaro of tha olin, ani otnoir oli?e oil 27& 

PtrST 8 BATPail, EI8T0ET. 

of Uioso EcDBcs) of the powers of licariug, Biiiftlling, and tast- 
ing, 08 well us those oiIilt precioutj gitU of future, address, 
courage, and Bkilfulness ? That these creatures have no WqcmI" 
I am really to admit, jiist as all the terreBtrial animnls an not 
posaessod of it ; bnt then, ttey liaA'e som^Lliing sdmilar, by way 
of equivalent. Just as in the Bra, the sospia" has a black 
liquid in place of blood, and the varioiia kinds of purples, those 
juicea which we use for the purposes of dyeinj; ; ao, too, ie eveiy 
insect po3seB3*-d of ita own vital humour, which, whatever it 
is, is blood to it. ^Vhile I leave it ta others to Ibrra what 
opinion they pleaao on this subject, it is my purpoau to aet 
forlh the oj>yriit.iou3 ofNaLiirtiin tho cleurwat possible light, 
and not to enter upon ths di&cus&iou of points that utn top letu 
with doubt. 

CBAr. 3. (40 — TiTE BODiea of isaitcra. 

InsMts, BIO fnr aa I find myself able to ascertain, seem to 
have neither sinowfi,"* bnnofi, spines, corlilnges, fat, nor flesh ; 
nor yet bo mnch as a frail shell, llkt some of the marine ani- 
mola, nor even anything that can ivith any propiiety bo 
termed skiu ; but they have ii body which in of a kind yf inter- 
meiliate nature hotweun all these, of an arid Biibatance, eofter 
than musclp, and in ol.ber respects of a nature that may, in 
eti'iutncss, be rather pronouncfld yielding," than hard. Huoh, 
then, is all that they arc, ajid nuthint; niorc : " in the inside 
of their bodies there is nothing, except in eome few, which 
have an intestine arranged in folds. Hence it is, that cv(?n 
when cut aaundcr, they are remarkable for thpir tenacity of 
life, nnd the palpitations wbieh ave to be seen in each of their 
part^. For every portion of them is possessed of its own 
vital principle^ which is ecntred in no limb In partiGular, but 

** Cuvier romnrkit, thnt rbcrHnrca Doiirisliing IIai<I, whioh ia of a Trhits 

eatoar, an<I ocU in phca c>f bload. 

* 'i'So ilyi' nf i«:i'pia, t'livitr retoMltH, is notblooil, nor does it not as suth, 
bcine an L'xcremviiiiiioud IJqaJiL U )iii« la ndditiua a blui^b, Uansparvut, 
bloofi. Thcsume nim wiiti the juices of lh<! piirplo. 

'" "Ntrros." Utivicr stiya that alLinfi^ctshavea bma, uaort of Bfimil 
niaTrow, and hctvgi. 

" "Tutiii!!." 

'* InsL'C'ls tftvo no fut, Curier soys, except when in tie ehryaalis state ; 
btit tboy have ii llhrnuit dcsh of ii wbiiuli colir>iir. They bavo aiao visaeitia, 
traobco, nuvca, anil a most cooipliGatvd orgiuiixuUon, 

Cliap. 5.] 


in QYGty part of tho body ; Icust of oil, however, in the bt-itd, 
which (doDO is subject to do movemcDtBuuletts torn off together 
with the corselet. Ho kind of animal haa more f^ot than tbs 
in^-ub* hav4.>, uiid those lununj; them which have the most, tire 
tilt; longest when cut MftunrU-r, an we S(« in th(> case of the Molo- 
pondra. Th^y have eyes, and the aeusca as well of touch rmd 
taste ; Bome of thorn horc also the sense of Bmelliug, aocl eomc 
few that of bearing. 


But among them nil, tlic fint rank, and our especial admi- 
ration, oug^bt, in justice, to heaccordud to bec«, which alone, 
of tUl tho insectif, have K-ea creatwl for Hw benefit ol" man. 
They extract honey and coUfict it, ajuicysubetanco remarkabia 
for its extreme eweetncss, lightncM, and whok-somcnesa, Thcj* 
form their comhs and oollc-fit wax, nn artiole that is naeful for 
a thousand ptirposes of life ; they are patirat of fatigue, toil at 
their labours, form ihemafclvca into poliiitial comtnunitiea, hold 
councils tiigelhur in private, elect (j)iii.-r:4 in common, cmd, a thing 
that is ttic niDHt remarkable of all, huve tht'ir own code of morals. 
In S'tMiUun to this, biding as Uifv aru, aoilhcr tamo nor wild, 
BO all-pou-erfui is ifuturt', that, from u crcuture »<i miuute as to 
he Dotning more hardly than the blmdow of an animul, fhe ha* 
created a marvel beyond all comparison. What miii*ciilw 
power, what exertion of strcnglli are wo (o pot in comparison 
with 5uch Tiist eucrfj;y and such industry as thcire ? What dis- 
play of human genius, in a word, shriU we compare with the 
rcafioning powers moiiifostod hy thpm ? In fltis they hnrc. at 
all events, tho ailviuifjigL- of us — they know of iiMliinghut whiit 
is for the cooimou benefit of all. Away, thin, with ali qucstionB 
whether they rcn>tre or no, uad let ue be ready to agree on 
the question of their blood ; aad yet, how little of it can pon- 
Bibly cxt^t in bodies ro minute as thctnt.^And now let lu 
form eome idea of the iustinct Uiey disijluy. 


Bees keep within the hi™ during the winter — for whence 
arc lliej- to derive the strength requisite to withgluucl froflt.3 
and unoWR, and Dm uorlhem blaats: Tlie same, in fact, is 
done by all inaecta, but not to so late a period; aa thoe« 


niNT'B skrvTUJii nrsTonr. 

which coDceal themselres in the walls of our houses, are much 
sooner BBTiBiblc of tVie rohirairg waniiUi. With rofrrdico i/> 
heea, cither aoftsons and climates havfi coDaideiaWy changed, or 
eise former writers have been greatly mistaken. They retire 
for tho winter at Ihe setting of this Ver^Jite, nnd remiiin shut 
lip till att«r tho rising of that coQHtplIatioa, and not till only 
tho bcgianiog of spring, us Home authors havo stated ; nor, in- 
deed, does any one m Italy ever think of then openiag the hivts. 
They do not come forth to ply their hibtiura uotiL the bean 
blossoms ; and then not a day do they lose in inufltivity, while 
tUs weather la favourable for their piirsatte. 

^"irst of all, they aet fthout con etruc ting their combs, and 
forming the vox, or, in other words, making their dweliinga 
and cells ; after this they produce their youug, and then make 
honey and wax from HowecB, and extract bee-glue'- from tho 
tears of those trees which distil glutinous BubBtnnccs, tJio 
juicBB, guiDB, and reeinB,, namely, of tho willow, tho fllm, and 
ihe rted. With these substancos, as wen as others of n muris 
hitter nature, they first linu the whole ini^ide of the hive, as a 
«'jrt of protection ogiiinet tho greedy propensities of other small 
inseuts, as they are well aware that tbey are about to form 
that which will prove an object of attraction to tliem. Having 
done this, they employ similar eubstauces in uoiTowiog thu 
enlrance to the hive, if otherwise too wide. 


The persons who understand this Bubject, call tho substancn 
which iorma the first foundatiou of their combs, cornmosia,'^ tiiu 
next, _;;'ss<'o«'tf«," and the third ji^riyw^w;'* which Last is placed 
between the other layers and the wax, and is remarkuble for 
it-8 utilitv in Medicine.'" The commusis forms the first crust 
or layer, and has a bitter tasto ; and upon it is laid the pisso- 
ceros, a kind of thin wax, which acts as a sort of vamiah. 
The propolis is produced from the sweet gum of the vine or 

11 " Mulli^." For further infonaotioB oB tbift subject conanlt Bemn 
aa the Honey Bee, 

" Or "eonuiiii," " gummy matter.'* 
"^ PiUh-wai. 

'* A ItinJ of 1«b-kIub ; tlie origin of the nnmo dnfi not serftn to bg 
knowD, Restiiuur tiiivs ihat Uicy uru nil Ulilcxuiit viirieCii-s of bsti-glue. 
'• Sea B. uii. v. 60. 

Chap, ai BEES. 

the poplar, ami is of a {Imspr conwHtenoy, the juicca of flowew 
bring added to it. Hliil, huwevvr, it cannot Lo properly U-rmod 
vox., but roUi<ir the fuuuduUoti of tins boney-cuiubs ; hy mcaaa 
of it all inlets are 6toi>p«d up, vrhich mi^rut. ollicrwise, 8orr< 
for the admiHsion of cold or other injurious ioiluenccs; it 
lOso a strong odour, eo mucli SO, indeed, that maoy people 
it instead or g^banum. 


In addition to this, the beee form collections of trithaet or 
1>ee*lpn<iid, which some penuns call " muidurucw," '" and otbBn 
"cennthus." Thin is to fu>rve ns the food of the iRt-s irhUo 
they are at work, and is often found stowt'd oway in the cavi* 
ties of thii cells, bc-ing of a bittt-r tlavour also. It is produced . 
from iho fipriog dffws and tlio gummy jnioes of trtca, bdntt^-j 
leas almndant yfhWv. the south-wcat wind is blm*-ing, anal 
blackened by thu prcvalenco of a Bouth wind. (>n the othor 
band, again, it is of a reddish colour and bi^coruos iui])rovt-d by 
the norUi-east wind; it ia fonnd in the grcati-st abundance upon 
tho nut tix-es in Gret>ce. Mcnt-crutcs euvb, that it la a flower, 
which givts indicatiuns uf ihc uuturo of the coming horveat; 
but no one says so, with tho uJtcc^tioa of him. 

CHAP. 8. (8.) ^yrZlLT FLOWXES ARB wed BT the sees IK 7II2IB 

IVoA form vax" from the blossoma of all trees and phuib^ 
TTitb thfi sole exception of the Jtimex" and the cchinopode*,*^ 
both being kinds of herbs. It is by mistake, however, that 
Bpartnm i* excepted ;" for many varictien of honey that como 
&om 8]iain, and have been niitde in Lhc plantations of it, hare 
a Btraug tasU; uf tliat plant. I am ul upiuian, also, tliat it is 
without any flufficieut rc-u^n tlmtthe olive bits been excepted, 
seeing that it is a well-Ioioa-n fact, that where olives uru in 
lire gcuatoist abundance, tlio Bwaruis of bees are the mobt nu- 
merous. Beos are not injurious to fruit of any kind ; they will 

'^ PtffewBt combinationi of tlie pollen of flowmt on wlitcli booi food, 
'* It it fiirninil frcim thn linncy tlmt tha trac Iifik digcji^briJ. 
'* SoricI, or monl'e rliuburU. "• A Idnii of broum. 

>' SjiaTiiAli tirooai, iks tilipa lanocisaimit uf LinnnriiB. Ropes were made 
of it C»«e fi. xix. c. 7. 

pLnnr'a wa-titbal hibtoet. [BootXl. 

never aottle on a dcail liuwer, much Iobb n dead carcase. They 
■piireue their labours witliiii tliree-Boore paces of Uieir hives; 
and wlieri the flowers in their vicinity are exhansted, thoy 
send out nccmta from time to time, to discover pLices for forage 
at (t gfiJiuter distance. Wlien ovcrlafcen by night in their ex- 
pp-ditionB, thpy watch till the inorDing, lying on their backs, 
iu order to protect Ibeir wiuga from the action of thti di5W. 


It la not Burprising that there have been pfirsofla who haro 
TOflde htCB their exclusive study ; Aiidtomachue of Soli, for 
ioBtanca, who for a period of iifty-eight ycjirs did nothing clae i 
PhiliaouB of TliiiBos, also, aitrnamcd Agrius," who pasaird his 
lifo in desert spots, ttiuding Rwarraa of btujs. Eolli uf tli^sQ 
have wrlttcQ vorka on Ihia subjoot. 


llio manner in which hdoa cany on their work is oa follows. 
Id the day time a guaiil ia uttitiuu-ed ut the entrance of the 
hive, liko tho sentrien in a camp. At night they ttiko their 
rest until tho morning, when one of them awakes the rest with 
a hunuuiug noise, repeated iwicu or thrice, juet aa though it wi?re 
Aoundiug a. trumpet. They then take their lllglit in a body, 
if tlie day is Ukcly to turn out fine ; for they have the gfiil; of 
foreknowing wind and rain, and in siich vsi»ii will keep close 
within thcirdwi'llings. On theorhe-j'hQHd, when the weather i» 
fine — and thia, too, they have the power of fomknowing — the 
swarm issues forth, and at once sipplies itself to its work, aomfl 
loading their legs from the IIowitb, while othfjra fill their 
mouths with water, and charge tho downy surface of their 
todies with drops of Uquid. Thone among them, that arc 
young^ go forth to their labours, and coUtct the mat(;iriab 
already mentioned, whilo those thut are more ag«d stay withia 
the hives and work. The hi-es whoso business it is to carry 
th« ilowerB.wilh thuir fore feet loadthtii- Ihighs, whichNature 
haa made rough for the purpo^^', and with their trunks load 

" Or, tie "wTldman." 

" llubei' lias ilifituTerrd tlint Lhwre are two Isinds of bepaof iumtra) *ei, 
or, as hp calls tliem, unprDlifle f'piaiilFs, the workoiB, wliiuU pj out, lUid 
lUo iLuraca, whivli urn suiulWr, and itajr in tlia hivu Co tetid tho lorvm. 






thcLr fore feet : bending: beneath their load, they tfaea return 
to th« hire, where ih^n are three or four hues n-aily to receire 
them and uid in diacliar^g Ihcir burdens. I'or, within tho 
hire as well, tbty hiive their nllotlftl duticii to perform : some 
arc ragagcd in building, others in smoot)'.in^, the combs, while 
oihcrs again are occu[)iiMl in passing on tlic matfrialu, snd 
others in propering footP' fh>m the provison which hna bwn 
hmught : thnt tticro may \»'. no uni.tjual (iivisiun, thither in their 
bjljour, their food, or iho dimxihuiiou of tliur time, ihuy do not 
even feed Hpuralelj". 

Commencing at tho vaulted roof of the hire, tbey bcgia 
the coDslructioQ of thtJr cells, nod, just as we do in the manu- 
ticturc of & web, thi-y confilnn.'t their cells from top to bott'^m, 
taking cart- to Iwi^c two piwwiges around i-uch compartuicul, 
for thb entrance of some and tlio exit of others. The coiuhs, 
which ai-o fastened to tlic hive ia llic upper part, and in a 
slight dcgTX-e olso at the wdt-s, adhere to each oiher^ and arc- 
thua suspended altogether, Thc-y do not touch the- floor of tho 
hire, and are cither angular or round, according to itB shape ; 
sometimes, in fuct, th<;y an: both angular uiid round at once, 
when two swarms are living in utitHon, but hnTc dttuiniilur 
modes of operation. They pmp up the eombs that arc likely 
to full, by menna of arehed pilbtr^ at interrats springing from 
tho floor, 80 aa to leave iheio a pasjiagu for the purpose of 
eflbcting repiiii-s. Tho fint ihrei' muks of their cells are gene- 
lally left empty when constructed, that there may he nothing 
exposed to view which may invite theft ; nnd it is Uie tasl 
ones, more especinlly, tlmt iire tilled with honey : henco 
it is that the combs ai-e elways taken out at the buck of tlie 

The hcca thot aro tnnployed in cnrrying-lookoutfornfaronr- 
ahlc breezii, and if a gale should happen to spnng up, Ibt-y 
poise themselves in the air with little stones, by way of bal- 
likit ; wime writers, indeLvl, ^aJ that tliey place them upon their 
rfiouldera. Whea tlie wind is cotitniry, they fly clo*e to llie 
ground, taking earc. however, io keep cle»r of the brambles. 
It is wonderfiil what strict watch ib kept upon their work : all 
in&ttmece of idleness are carefully reniurktAl, iho uffcuderg ore 

" From the lione)- found in tha coroltte of Bomn. This, after being 
pn.-fur4:J In tbe fint ttomach of tlic bcc, is (Jcpwited in Uio cotl wbioh i$ 
lunncd far its reception. 


[Bool: XI. 

cliaatlscd, antl nn a repetition of 1he fault, punished with death. 
Their sense of ckanlinesB, txio, is quite extraordiimry ; every- 
thing is remoTcd that might be in tll<^ way, and no fiith la 
tiUowcd to remnin in the midst of thtir ■work. The ordure 
f!VOtl of those that are at work within, that thoy may nothavB' 
to rt^tlro to any diBtanco, is all c-oUectcd in uno sput, and oa 
stormy days, when they ore obliged to cea&e their ordinary 
labours, they employ themiielviiB in carrying it out. ^Vlifen 
it grows towardg evening', the buzzing io the tive bectimes 
gradiuiliy li'ss and less, until at 5:ist o-ue of tLc-ir nuraber is to 
he aeen dying about the hive w-ith the same loud humming 
noise with which they were oroua^d in the morring, thpte- 
by giving the siginal, as it were, to retire to ksI : in ^is, too, 
they iaiitat* the usage of the camp. The moment the signal 
is heard, all ia f^ileiit. 

(II.) They firnt conBtruot the dwellingeof the cornmonalty, 
and then, those of the king-bee. If thty have reason to cspcut 
an abiLudant ^ season, ttfy add nliodes also for tlie fliones : 
these arc cell^ of a sinull<:r size, thongh the drones thcmsclvca 
ftre larger tlion the beea. 

CHAP. 11.— nnoKES. 

The drones have no sting.'* and would seem to be a kind of 
imperfect bee, formed the very last of all ; the expiring effort, 
afiit were, of Tvorn-ont and exhausted old age, a late and tardy 
©ffipring, and doomed, in a measure, to be the slaves of the 
genuine bees. Hence it is that the hefla exerciBa over tlieni a 
rigTjroua authority, compel them to take tlio foremost rank ia 
their latoura, aud if they show imy sluggisliness, punifih them" 
without mercy. And not only in tlieir labours do the drones 
give thetu their assistance, but in the propagation of their spe- 
cies as well, the very multitude of tliera contributing greatly 
to the warmth of the hive. At all evienta, it ia a welbknown 
fact, that the greater^ the multitude of the drones, the more 

"* Cuncr BBia thai the t.hreo kitids of kHs are ubsolntelj ceceisiiry, and 
llittt tbey do not Jupmil eta tlio greultr or Ilbb nL>uiid:iiicij. The i-itit) of 
tlif undcnte ia wLut vm know as the ;ri'»in boo, wliichieimprej^tcd by tUu 
drnnes or malts. 

" This is Ihe fact, btit not lo tlieir imfKrftet state. 

w Ttmv do nnt worli, bul niercly iin]irejfiiBle tliB queen ; aRar wliitch 
tboy are iriven fiTin the hive, and |«risli (if cold EtiJ stantation. 

^ It Eip^care, as Cuvicr Euys, thai the luiciL-ate had «i>m« nvlvjvi thai th9 
iwartn woa multiplied by tho aid of tlm dronea. 

Chip. 13.] qri.ttTfE9 or iiotcet. It 

aumerons is sure to be the progCEy of the swann. AVhvn tbu 
honey U banning to oome to maturity, the bees drive away 
the drum's, and wtlinf; upon each in grvat nmnbers, put th»in 
all to death. It ii* only in tbv Kpring fhut the droDex nre 
ever to bo seen. If you deprive a drone of its winga, and then 
replace it in tbo hire, it will pull off da wings of the other 

ctUT. 12.— nnt arALims or noircr. 

In (ho lower piirt of Uie hJTO tht-y construct for their ftiture 
BOvcreijjpi a palatini aboile,** tpaciouH and grand, separated from 
tho rest, and surmounted hy a Hort of dome : if thii promi- 
nenee Rhould hnpnen to be flattened, all hopes of prngcny arc 
lost. All t}io cells nrc hexagonal, each foot*^ having formed 
its own BidD. No part of this work, however, ia done at any 
Btatod time, as the be>03 ^i^e every opporttmitj' for the pcrfonu' 
ance of their task when the days arc fine ; ia one or two 
days, at most, they fill their cells witli honey. 

(12.) Thi« siibstunw is engendered finm the air,*' mostly «t 
tho rising of the conateUation n, and more especially whpn 
Sirius is shining ; never, however, before the rising of the 
Vergilitt, and trien just before day-break. Hence it i«, that at 
early dntm the leaves of the trofis are found eovered with a 
kind of honey-like thw, and those who po into the open nir at 
an enrly hour in the morning, ftnd their clothes oovcred, and 
their hair matted, with a Bort of iinctTimiH liquid. ^^Tietlier 
it is that this liquid is tlio sweat of the heavvue. or whether 
u saliva emiuiating fi:tim tho stars, or a juico exuding from tliii 
air while purifying itwlf, would that it had been, when it 
comes to us, pure, limpid, nnd genuine, a» il was, when firH 
it took its downwanl deseent. Put a* it ia, falling frnm »n 
vast a height, attracting comiption in its passage, and tainted 
by the exhalations of the earth an it meets them, suekod, too, 
us it is from off the trees and the herbage of tho fields, end 
accumalated in tie stomachs of the bees — for they cast it up 

» CoTier Mjt tlial llie cell Tot the fiitiirc ouwn t* difTprent from the 
otbeK, Btid Diuc:)] Urnr. Tbu Im-n Hko supgiLj llieijui-aij lurva luucli luuri) 
abundoutly willi ('•oa, and of mnro ilolicnte Quality. 

"' t.'uvicT enyi ibat tiiU ct>iui;iJiii«o wich tiiu miinhor of tho IcRS is qujta 
■ccidrntal, us it is with the mauCh chac the iLnimol constraclfl ta>B cdti. 

*i Ttw buii of it is Tualljr derived Irum Lhi; (.'idii ut catoUa. o( (Loiiftt, 

ag!tin through the raouth^-KJeteri orated bpsiiiea hy the juices 
of flowers, nn-i tliDn steepL-d within thij Kivoa and subji^cted to 
such repeated changes — etill, in spitn of all this, it uiFordB us 
by its flavour a most «xc[iiif5iU; pleaflure, the resiilt, no doubt, 
of it< icthcr«al nature and origin. 


The honoy in always best in thoRe (ioimtri<;s where it ia to 
be found dcpositod in the calix of the most cxfLuieito flowcra, 
Biitih, ftir instance, as the districts of Hymtttu& and Hyhla. 
in Attica and Sicily i-eapoctively, and ftft.or them the island of 
Calydna.''-' Xt first, honey iB thin, liku walor, after which it 
efforvesces fur some duys, and purities itself like must. On 
tlie tw^entielh day it begins to thiclten, and soon after becomes 
covered with a thin memlirane, which gradually iacreusci 
through the scum which is throi,™ np by the heat.. The 
honey of the very fineat flavour, and the least tainted by the 
leaves of trees, is that gathered from tho tbliago of the oak 
and Uie linden, and IJ-om reeds. 


Thepeculiarescellenee of honey (Ippends, as already stated," 
on the country in which it is produced; the modea, too, of 
tBtiinating its quality aru numerous. In some couBtries we find 
the honey -comh remiirkable lor the goodness of the wax, as in 
Sicily, for instance, and the country of the Peligni ; in other 
ploeee the honey itself is found in greater abundanco, ns in 
Crete, Cyprna, and Africa; and in otherR, again, the comb ia 
remarkable for ita size ; the nortliem cHniat*?9, for instsnee, 
for in. Germany a comb bus butn known to be aa mueli as eight 
feet in length, and quil-e blatk oa the concave eurface. 

Butwhutevfir Ihe eountryin whieh it may happen to have been 

Cdueed, tbere are three different Mnda of honey. — Spring 
ley** is that made in a comb which haa been conatrtictcd of 
flowers, IWim which ciroumstonec it lias retieived the nunie of «n- 
thinutn. There are bume perEonis^ who Bay that this bhoold not 
bu touched, beeauao tb,o mora abundant the nutriment, tils' 

« ftfe B. ir. c. 24. » In the lost Chaptar. 

» Or " F)oiiret.!)«iiisy." 

Oiap. 14.] 






stranger will he the coining nwann ; while othnrs, again, Intro 
lew of this huncj tbou of auy ollitr for llic bece, ou tlie ^ruuutl 
tiuit there is sure to be a vbt^t nbuodancc ttt the ri^iDg of tho 
greater coQrtellationH, as well as at the BUtnmer solstice, when 
the thyme and llio vine? bigiu to Wo^wm, for l\nm Ihey ure 
sure tti find aliimdaut matfriitls for tlif^ir crlls. 

In tftking the combs the greatcat can? is alwap rcqiiiaite, Amt 
when ibcj ore etinted for food the bi^^cs bceonn.' dcspcmte, nnd. 
either pine to death, or chc winf^ their flight tn other places : 
bat on the other hand, oviir-abimrlonr-e will entail idleness, 
and then they will (Led upon tJiu lioin-y, und not the I»'i;-brtud. 
Hence it i» tliut the most cftreftil breedere tjjke cure to Iiiure 
the bees & fifteenth part of this gathering. There ts a certaiu 
day for Kpgintiing the honvy-gathvnDg, fixed, a» it were, by a 
law of Nature, il' men woidd only undvrstnnd or obserre it, 
being the Uiirti«tli day nftf r the bees have swarmed and come 
forth. Tliia gathering mostly take* place heforc the end of 

The secnnd kind of honey ia "stimmer honey," whieh, from 
th« cirt!iimotan(;B of its being produeud m the most fiivoufttble 
BcaaoQ, hoa received the Greek name of fi(»'aten .■* it is gene- 
rally made during tho next thirty dap iiflfT the polertico, while 
SiriuH in shining in all its briiliuucy. Nuturo has revculnl in 
this substaucu must remarkable properties to mortal*, wvre it 
Dot that the fraudulent propensitiea of man are apt to foisiry 
and corrupt everjthing. For, ufler tlie rining of each constel- 
lation, and those of the highest nutk inurL- parliciiliirly, gr after 
tho appear!infie of the rainbow, if a shcvcr dues not ensue, 
but the dew bemmes warmed by the sun's rays, a niedi^-iimeiit, 
and not mal honey, js produced ; a gift acnt from hoaven for 
the cure of disoitsca of the oye3, ulcerH, und nmladics of tho 
internal viscera. Il* this ia taken at the ri-ting of J^iriuB, and 
the rising of VcnuS, JupittT, or Morcury should happen to fall 
on thit flame day, as often in the ease, thti aweetJiesR of this 
subfltancc, and the virtue which it poaaessea of reHtoriug men 
to Ufe, are not inferior to those attributed to the nectar ef the 

* ScuoTi^homy, 


[Book XI. 

CHAP. 15. (15.)^-H0W HOITET Ts TRStED. RlLKLSflTU. tBTEA- 

iix, OR sisutnu. 

The crop of honey i» moat abundajit if gathered at fuU 
mooQ, and it is richest when tho weather is fine. In all 
honey, thut which flows of itself, like must or oil, has receivied 
from us the name of aceittm.^ The auniracT htfaoy is t!io moit 
esLuemcd of nil, froin tho fact of its being made when the 
weather is driest : it is looked upon as liic! most serviceable 
when niftdf firum thymo ;" it is then of a golden eolonr, and 
of a most deltcioua flavour. The honey tliat we see formed 
in the calix of flowers ib of a rich and unctuous natiirc ; that 
which ia made from rosemary in thick, while that whicih is 
candied h little esttemed. Thyitie honey does not coagulate, 
nnd oa iKnng touched will draw out into thin viscous threaiia, 
a thing which is the principal proof of its htidvineas. "When 
lioney shows na tenacity, and the drops immediately part 
J'roni iiaa another, it is looked upon as a sign of its worthloas- 
uess. The other proofs of itB goodness are the line aroma of 
it« smell, it£ being of a RwcetncEK tliat doBcly borders oa the 
B(iui"," and being glutinous and pclluwid. 

Casains Dionysiua ia of opinion that in thcamnmergatherias 
the tenth part of the honey ought to be kit for the bees if th« 
hives should happen to be well hlk-d, and even il' not, still in 
the same proportioQ ; wliilr, on tho other hand, if there is but 
little in thom, he reconimeiids that it should not bo toiiched 
ataU. The people of Atlicu have fisfld the period for oota- 
mi'Ecing this gathering at the first ripening of the wild fig; 
uthtTs'" huvt! made it the day that ia sacrod to Vulcan.'"' 

(16.) The third kind of lumey, which is tho least eeteemed 
of all, is the wild huuej, known by thu uame of ericesvm}' It 
i» collocted by the Isees after the first showers of autumn, 
when the heather" alone is blooming in tlie woods, &om whit^h 
circumstance it daives its sandy appearance. It is mostly pro- 

"* " Vinesar " U tlio onliuory meaniwe. 

*' Sillig rHrriJirU ihiit Ih: wljulu of iliis passage is corrupt. 

>■ Ileitcp, perhaps, iu nttrat uf "iicewni." 

»" Thi! people nl Ilflly. 

*o Tlie lOtli r,r tlie ciilends of SnphTnbcr, or 23rd AttfriwL 

•' Or " bontli-liimry." In tho north of .England lUeiives are pwrpoioly 
tulea lo tin; moors. 

*- '■ Kriw," "heathoi." Bwras in ha a prflfaraWo roading to "mjriec," 
" taruannk," nLiuh h uJopttd b; Sillig. 

Cbap. 1«.] 








duced at the rising of ATotiini8» beginning At the day** before 
the ides of S(.'pt.cmbcr. Some persons delay the gathmng of 
the snmmer honi^y unlil \he rising cl' Arctuni!^, becauw troni 
then till the aatuitinal uijuiiiux tlicrv iin.< fuurtwa d^ys k'lX, 
niul it is from the vquinox till the Betting of the VLTgiiia>, a ih;- 
riod of forty-eight days, th tit the heatli<?r is in the greatest abuD- 
dance. ITie Athenians call this plant by the name of Utraitx," 
and the Eubicans iMirurn, antl they louk upon it asatTortling 
great iileasiim to the bees to hrowse upon, probaldy because 
there arc no other tlovrtrs for them to rtsort to. IIuk gathiT- 
ing termjnat«5 at ilic end of the vintage and the wtting of 
the "Vergiliap, moatly about the ides of \fivembrr." Kxpc- 
rience teaches us that we ought to h-avo for the bees two- 
thirds of this crap, and always that part of the eombs m well, 
which contains the bee-bread. 

From the winter soUtu* to the rising of ArelnruB the bees 
arobiuieO in «loep for sixty days, and Live wilhaut rtiiy nourish- 
ment. Between the rising of An'turus and the vemal Hjuinox, 
they awake in the warmi-r tlirautfts, but even then they still 
]icep unlliin the hirofi, and have reconrso to the provieion^ 
kept in reserve for this period. lu Tlalr, however, they do 
this immediately after the rising of the Vcrgiliie, up to which 
period they ore nelcep. Some perftons, when they take the 
honey, weigh the hive and all, and rpmove jiwt as much aa 
they leave : a duo sense of equity should alwajTs be stringently 
c1)6ervcd in dealing with them, and it it gcuerully Etuted thul 
if imposed upon in this division, the swarm will die of griuf. 
It is particularly rfcommended also that the person who takes 
the honey ulionld be well wnshi'd and ch'an : bees have a pur- 
ticular aversion, too, toathicf andamcnatruons woman, 'ftiien 
the honey is taken, it is the best plan to drive away the heca 
by means of eraoke, Icat they shDuld become irritated, or else 
devour the honey themselves. By often applying Binokc, too. 
thej' art! aroused bam their idleness to work ; hut if they have 
not duly ineubated iu the eomb, it is apt to becuini) of a 
livid colour. On the other band, if they are smoked too 0'fu>n, 
they will beoomo tainted ; the Jioney, too, a subatance whieh 
turns sour at the very nHghtt-st contact wiUi dew, will vvry 

*• " Tetrsticcm " mccii preferable to " tanuncem." 
« I3th SwYcnilior. 

rmtl*» KiTUlUI. HiaTOBT. 

[Book SI. 

quickly TweiTie injury from thp taint thus contracted : hcnco 
ic is thut among the various kinds of honey which «ro prc- 
scrred, there is one which is known bj the name of neapnon,*' 

0H17. 16. — TBe BKPKODUCriOK^ OF BF.tS. 

How bcCB generate thvir young has been a subject of great 
and subtle reseornli among the leamed ; seeing that no one has 
over witnessed" any sexual intercourse among tliew iiis«;t8. 
Many pt-rsons have oxpresst-d on opinion that they must be 
produced irum flowers, aptly and artistic-illy aiTanged hy 
Katute; ■while others, again, mippose Uiat they aro produced 
from an intercourse with the one which ia to be found in. every 
Bwarm, mA is usnally called the king. This oni-, they say, u 
the only malo'^ in the hive, and ia endowed with such ex- 
truotxlinjuy proportions, that it may not beeome exhausted 
in the perfurmanne of ila duties. Heneu it is, that no off- 
spring can bo produced without it, all tho other hee.t being 
females," and atttnduig it in. its capacity of a male, and not 
as their leader. This opinion, however, which is otherwise 
not improbable, is sufficiently refuted by tlie generation of the 
drones. For on what grounds could it possibly happen that 
the same inttTcoiirse should produce an offspring part of which 
is perfect, and part in an impcrfi.'ct atatti ? The first surmise 
■which I have mentioned would appear, indeed, to be muc^h 
nearer the truth, were it not the case that here another diffi- 
culty meeta ua — the circuinBtanec that Bometimcs, at the ex- 
tremity of the corahs, there are produced bees of a larger size, 
ivhith put the others to flight. This noxious bee beam tho 
oamc of anirits,'" and how Jb it possible that it should ever be 
produced, if it is the fact tbat tho bcca tbtniselveB form their 
progeny ?*^ 

A fact, however, thtit i« well ascertained, is, that bees st," 
like the domestic fowl, that which is batched by them at 

** " [ingmnked '■ howy. 

*' It tiilirs pliice while they nrc on the wing. 

*• The only prolific _/njWc, in rcniity, 

*» Some auproliflr fcniflltjs and Bnnie amies, in rcaTity. 

** Cuviec ihinkii that eillicr homcw, or elae tlie drones, mart he allmdad 
to. Virpil, GcoTs;. B. iv, 1. 197, ei Ktq., i* one «f Ibrjse who %Unk thit 
bc« arc proilticril from flower*. 

*' /. f. fruiii Howei«. 

*^ Tbcy amuigc IIlq egga in the cidU, bat lUcy eimnot be eaul to lit. 

and adliering so toimciouslj- to the wax as to iie»:m to lio pitrt of it. 
The luiig, however, from the uarlivft roorapnt, h uf ihe colour 
of honuy, juat o» tliough he wuro madu uf Uiu choicest Huwurv, 
ut>c hiu tic [iC atiy timo the fonu of a griit), but from the very 
first ia provided with ft'ingi." The ruet of the bees, as soon 
as th«j- bepii to asautne a shape, hai-e the mimi; of wym/iAtf," 
while the <ipt>iic« imt callud ti'rtnfs, or tepkciut. If a per- 
son takes off the head of either kind before the wisgs aro 
formed, the rc»t of the body is conaidercd a most choice morsel 
by the pjirc-nts. In process of time the parent bees instil 
utitrimcnl into th<^tn, anil lut upon thomj muking on thi.i occa- 
sion 0. loud hmnmiug uoiso, for thu purjiosu, it is generally 
supposed, of generating that warmth which ia so requisite for 
hiLtchiug the yguLg. At length the membrane in wliieh. euch 
of them is enveloped, 08 though it lay in uu egg, bursts Mundor, 
aod the whole swarm comes to light. 

This circumstance was witneseetl at the suburban retrcat of 
6. man of ^onsnlnr dignity near lt«me, whose hires were mads 
of transpuront lantern horn : the young were found Xa be deve- 
loped in the space of forty-fivo daj-s. fn eonii! eomba, iJicre is 
found what is known hy the name of " nuil" wtut ;'* it is hitter 
and hard, aud i& only met witli when Uie bee? have failinl to 
tuitcb their young, either from dieeusu or u naturul isterility, 
it is the abortion, in fact, of the Iteea. The joung one^, the 
moment they are butuhcd, commence working with their 
paR-nts, us though in u course of training, imiJ the newly-born 
- king is aficompanied by a miiltitmle of his own. age. 

That tbe supply may not run short, each swui-m rears bctc- 
ral tings; but aftcrwardB, when this progeny bcging to arrive 
ill a inalure age, with one nceord** they put to diiath the in- 
feriur ones, lest tliey slumld ereute diMJord ia the awimu.*' 
There are two wrls of king beta ; tboBO ot a reddi»h i-olour are 
butter than tbe black and mottled ones. The kioge hare 

s' Thix 11 not llie fuel. Tho imtmt hea etiTnKip'aff* w a larva, iitd that 
tli0 Urta cf a woikin;; beo, Curier says, wbicli, yWx-'i in u lar^i^i oell, 
H,n4 Rurlumi ia a liitfcj-tmL maiiDcT, ilcvubpct iu tax auJ beoomw Uik ([uocn 
of thencTT Bwairn. 

*• Thnv MP thbc ID the chrjMlit & 

•* " Ciiviii." 

M It is ths Ont 1iBtcli«(l ^wmh that puts the ot^urs to death. 

" Ia GCOM^ucaai, nniU|, of tbcir jircjfiiiuLCf. 

TOl. HI. C 



[Book XI. 

always n peculiar form of their own, and are i^ohHo the size 
of any of tijo rt'st ; their ■nitigs aro shorter** thnn those of the 
othcra, their legs are strnight, their walk more upright, arnJ 
they have a white npot on the forelioarl, which bciirs eotnc re- 
flemblanct! to ti diadem : they differ, too, very much from the 
roBtof tlio ootnmujiity, in, their bnght tind shining appearance. 


Let tt mun employ hinuwlf, forsooth, in the enquiry whether 
thera has been only one Rfirciik-a, how many fcithcra Lilver 
there have been, aiid all the other ([nepiii5iis which are buri{.-<l 
(ieiip in the mould of juitiijiiity ! Here behold a tiny object, 
ono to be nut with at moet of our country retreats, and uum- 
ben of which arv aJwayn at baud, and yet, ii,i\vt all, it ie not 
Agreed among iiuthore wbether or not tho king"" is the only ono 
amoug Ihfin that is provided with no sting, and is pos^ussed 
of no other arms than Ihofto aflhrded him by his mujeBtic office, 
ot whether Nature has granted him a sting, and has only denied 
him the power of moHnp iiso of it; it being a. well-known 
(act, thut the ruling boo novor does use a slitig. The obedi- 
eneo which his eubjects manifest in his proaeuee is ^uite sur- 
prising. When ho goes forth, the wliole Bwarm atkmds him, 
throngB about him, surrounds him, proteotB him, luid will not 
ediviv him to be fiueii. At other limes, when tho awnrm ijt tit 
work within, the Iitng is seen to visit the works, uiid nppcats 
to be giving bis- encouragement, being himself the only nn« 
that is exempt i'rom work : around biiii are certain olhpr lieea 
which not «» body-gunnU and iiotors, the oai'uiul jfiuitiJiiuia of 
hiA anthority. The king ntver tjiiits the hive except when the 
Birarm is about to depiirt ; a thing which nuiy be known a long 
time beforehand, oh tor some diiyn a peculiar buzzing noiso 
ia to ho heard witliin, which ttenotes that the bc«s are wailing 
for a lavourable day, uud making all duy preparations for their 
depnrtnre. On such an occutiiou. if care id xakuti to deprive the 
king of one of lus wingB, thoewarm will cot tly away. When 
they are ou the wing, every one is anxions to bo near him, and 
Ijiltex a pleasure ia being Been in the perforniauce of its diit)-. 
When he is weary, they sapport him oa their shouhlera ; and 

" The greater size at thu ftlj(]rtiuiMi radkcs tlie wingiv look shovtar. 
** The (Liicon has a atiiig^, like tLe wurking bees, but uses it lew ftc- 



nrhen heUqnitetired, ttieycanyhimoutright. If one of tbem 
ta.\\» in tho roar Irom wc(irin<**rt, or hR|>p<;ii« to go astray, it it 
ahle to IbUow the oihcrs by the aid of its Acutcnoiut of tiin«II. 
TSTicreTer the kinff 1k>*; huppcns to scttk, that becomea the 
eDcampniont of nil. 



our. IB. — DAprr oxexs mvcrtsiEs AmnvEa vr x swakk 
oir Bin:!!. 

Anil then, ton, it is that Uii-y afibrd prcsa^ both of prirate 
and |iublie inturcat, ulusteriog, sa Husy do, Uko a bunch of 
houses or temples ; presages, in fact, that are oftc'B 
for by great cventc. Decs settled upon the lips of 
Plato ^hc-n still ati iufnnt ovtm, aniiouacioK Uivn<by tho sweot- 
nt'sa of tliat persuasive pIot|upiicft for whi{.-li he n"s.s no notrtl. 
Bees settkd, too, in the canii> of tliL' ehielliin IJruMis when 
Iw gnined the hrilUoDt victory at Arbula;"' a proof, indoMl, 
that the conjectures of soothsaTore are TKTt by nnjr meana in- 
fallihlo, seeing thu.t they are af opinion that Uiia ia alvaya of 
evil aagury. AVTiim tiieir leiwla- i« wiUilidd fmm thum, Uie 
swarm can always be (Iottdii«d ; and when luet. it will di&pcrw 
aad take itt depiirture to find other kings. Without a king, 
in fact, tbvy caanoi exiet, tind ll ie wiUi the grttatwt niluct- 
anco that they put ihtm to death wbi>u ihccc are scvL-nil ; thty 
prefer, too, to destroy the wUs of the young ones, if they ilad 
lesfoQ to despair of providinp food ; in suth esse they thee 
rxpel th« drones. And yet, wiUi rei;ard to the Imt, 1 &nd thxt 
Mine doabu am cntertiuncd ; and thut thert; are aome authors 
Tfho arc of opinion that they form a peculiar species, like that 
bte, the Tcry ltirp;*Bt lunong them all, whieh i« known by ihc 
name of the '• thief/'" bocnuiie it ftirtively dcvoure the houey : 
it ia diBlingui&hcd by its hla«k colour anu the largenetrs uf ito 
body. It is a wdi-known fact, howuvLT. Uiut the huts uiv ia 
the habit of killing tliu drones. Thtse la»t hare- no king of 
their own ; hut how it is that they are produced without a 
sting, is a matter still uadolcnulned. 

Xu a Tpet spring tlic ywnng swarms are more numerous ; iu 
a dry one the honey is most almndant. If food happens to 

" A place in Gemuuiy, where Vrusut, tlie limlher of Tiboriua, gsjoed 
a rictorv o»tr Ihc Gormuna ; the I'tuidiW is uolmown. 
« "Fur." A Tiritn, probably, of ihe drone 



PLlSl'a HATPKAri UISTOnr. [Boi.fc XI. 

fnil Oie inli:)hitaTits of any particular hivo, the swarm mftkes 
a (loncerted attaclf upon a nt:ighbouriDg one, wir.h ttio view of 
plundering it. Tho ewarra that is thiia attacked, at ono6 
ranges itself in liattlo array, iind if the bce-koeper shcmld. 
))ii[>p(;a to ho preacnt, that Eido wiiieh p'er(:eivc& itself ravourod 
by him will reli-uin ft'om attacking him. Tbey oUen Bglit, 
too, for other ivasonB as well, and the two generals are to be 
seea drawing lip thc-ir roTiks in battle array against their op- 
pifnt-uts. TliB disjiute generally arises in culling from the 
ilowera, when each, the moment that it is iudunger. suTDiiions 
ita companions to its aid. Tho buttle, however, is immediately 
put an end to by throwing dust"'' among Ihom, or raiaing a 
smokQ ; and if milk or tioin?y mixed witli water ia ptucod be- 
fore tbem, they speedily become rcooucUed. 


There arc field beea also, and wild bees, ungainly in appear- 
ftncc, and mueh more ira&cihle than the others, hut remarkable 
far their laborionsnesa and the esoellence of their work. Of 
domestic beea thoro are two eorta ; the bcBt arc those with 
abort boditiB, speckled ull ov^Fj and of a compact round shape. 
Those that are long, and resemble the wasp in appearance, 
are an inferior kind ; and of thcao last, tho very worst of all 
are those whiub hnv^ the body oorered with hair. In Pontaa 
there is a kind of wliito hee, which makes honey twice a 
month. On the banks of the river Thcrmoilon thi-re are 
two kinds found, one of which makoa honey in the treea, tlm 
other under gronnd : tbcy form a triple tow of comha, and 
produce honey in tlie grentesE abundance. 

Nature iiaa provided hefiB with a Rting, which ia inserf-cd in 
the uhdomcu of tlio inaccL There aro somo who think that 
at tho first Wow which they inftiet with tliia weapon tl;ey will 
instantly die,** whilo others, ngdn, are of opinion that such is 
not the cnsp, nnlrss thi^ aninial drivra it 80 d«ep as to cause 
a portion of the inteaticeB to follow; and they usaert, alsw, 
that after they have thue lost Uieii- sting tliey become drones,** 

" 6a Tirgil aayn — 

■ ■ " Ilarc ccrtamina tanU 
PulvBris «sifiiii jarlii comprrMa qiiieacent." — (horg. \v. 87. 
** If it tB loft in till? wcumd, tho insert di*«, boing tora OBuader. 
'* Of C0IUB6 tbia \& fubuluui, ju tlia dromnt uro mitles. 

Chop. 20.] 


And make no honey, being thun castrated, m to say, and 
cqunllr intnpablc of inflicting injur}', and of niokitif; ihcmAclTcB 
UBei'iil by iheir labours. We have inataiiccs stated of horses 
being killed by bees. 

Thuy buve u great aTeraioQ to bad Bmelbi, and fly away 
&om tbem ; a dislike which ext^^ndt) to artiflciiU perfumes 
eren. HcncC it is lliat Lhey will Httack pi.'rB«nB who smell 
ftf unguents. They theinstlves, also, are cxiiosr-d to the 
atlacks of wasps and hornets, which bcLong to the same class, 
bat arc of a degenerate* nature : these wogc^ continual warfare 
agnitiHt them, as also does a species of gnat, which is known 
by the namu of " roulio;"** BwaUowe, loo, ond various othor 
birds pi'cy upon them. Frogs lie in wait far them when in 
quest of waliT, which, in fact, is tlii?ir principal occupation 
at the time Ihey are iT'-.'mDg their young. And it i« not only 
the trog that frequents ponds and streams that is thus injuri- 
ous to ihem, but the LramUe-frog as well, which will come 
to the hivfs even in erar<^h of them, and, <;rawling np to the 
entrance, breathe through the apertures ; upon hearing which, a 
bc« flii-stu the opot, and is t^uapped up in an iufltimt. it is 
geueraUy stated ttiat frog» ore proof against the «ting of the 
bee. Sheep, too, arc peculiarly dangtiroua to thoio, us they 
liaru tlta greatest difficulty iu cxtrieutiug tiiemsclves from 
the fleecp. Tlio amell of crabs," if they happen to be cooked to 
their vicinity, ia fatal to Uiem. 

CHAT. 20,^^TnB diseases of sees. 

Bees are also by nature liabki to certain ih.'K'.ases of their 
own. The Blgn that they are di$eu»ed, Is a kind of torpid, 
moping Badness : on such ocuafiions, Lhey are to be seen briug- 
isg out those that are sick before the hives, and placing them 
in the warm sun, while others, again, are providing tfiem with 
food. Those thnt ttro dead they curry away from the hive, 
and attend the bodies, pajdng their lust duties, as it were, in 
fhneral procession. If the king should happen to be carried 
off by the pestilence, the swarm remains plunged in grief and 
listless inacUTity ; it cullocls no more food, and ceases to issue 

*> Tlioaf^hbelonginK to the same clou, tluj are not of dcgcncnitAkiadi. 

« 'Hill '•inulwpmtr 

^ See Virgil, lieatg. B. iv. 1. 27. 

PLnrr's iiatcr.ii. histoht. [Book XI. 

fortJi frctn its abodii ; t!ie nnly thing that it docs is to gtilhcr 
arotinf] the body, and to emit a luclanclioly humming noise. 
Upon such occEiflions, the ueual pinn m to disperse tlie Bwarm 
nnd take away the body ; tV»r otlirTwiee tlioj would contiunii 
lieUeBsly gating' tipou it, and so prolong thuir priei". Intludd, 
if due earu is not taken to tioiae tx> Uitir aid, they will die of 
leuiiget. It is IJroni their chctTtTjlneBS, in fact, and their 
bright and Bleek nptiearaitce that we usually form an estimate 
as to their hetdth. 

(19) There are ccrtaia ma^adieB, aJeo, which affect their 
produetionH ; when they do not fill tJifnr combs, ttie disfflSC 
under which they am labouring i» known hy tho nnrnt: of 
dairo*,*' and if they foil to rear their yonng, thoy are suffering 
from the etfeotB of that known aa hhpsigonia.^ 

cuxr. 21. — rnisas tqit abs Rgxions to bbeb. 

Echo, or thu uoiso made by the tevethumlion of the air. 
ift also injiiriouK to beei-, as it dismays them hy its redoubled 
liounds ; fogs, also, ai-e noxious to thvm. Spiders, too, aro espi'- 
ciallyhoeHlo toboce; whenthey have gone so tar lik to hiiild their 
webs within Dim hive, tht- death of the whole awarm is the result. 
The common and ignoble moth,'* too, that is to be seen flattering 
about a burning candle, is deadly to thi'ni, and that in more 
ways than one. It devours Xhc. was, and leaves its ordure 
behind it, from which the mag^got known to us as the " teredo " 
JB produced; bcitidcn which, wherever it goes, it d rope the 
down from off its %ving», and thereby thicken? the threndB of 
ttiG cohweba. I'ho tiTedo is also engendered in the wooil of 
tho hive, and then it proves cepcdally dcBtmctive to the wax. 
Beea are the victims, also, of their own greediness, for when 
thej" glut themselves ovenouoh with the juices of the flowers, in 
tliH Mpring season more particularly, they are troubled with 
Uux and looseness. OUvo oil is fetid" to not only bees, bat 
all other insects as well, and more eepecially if they are placed 

*■ The iiMiiling aeMn* dotihtful, nnd tlio ffl«timiigr i» probfllily imku^wn. 

•• *' rajniy of Ihe Touug^," 

™ Thor« .ire l.wn kmJs of tive-mnth — the Phaloiiia tinea inellnnella of 
Linnniue, and (lio Fliali<niii tortrii ai^rnma. It ik'ikuelta tu [iirra in lialm 
which it; wiaVm in the wax. 

'■ In cniiii^i]'m<ie of closing thn &tif;inata, and so imp^din^ their rc»pi- 
mtioB. Tlienaiiiiiii result, ao ilouhC, is pruiluiieiL by tbe limtey wliea gmeued 
over tkeiT bodies. ' 

Chap. S3.] 

in the Min, alWr tlie iwiid \ia» lKt;ii immcrwd iii it. Some- 
times, too, thoy thi^insclvfA aro the cause of thciir own de- 
struction ; ns, for iostanc-c, wlicn ihej see prcpiiration* herns 
made for talking' tlieir honey, and ioiniediut^ty Jail to de- 
vuuriug it n'itb tlio grcatetit uriditjr. 1 u ut]ii:f n'jipi:i:lB th<>y ura 
KQJui'kuble lur lliL-ir ubttlemioiuiic-KS, and tbvy will vxyvl 
those tliut aro incliDi^ to he {irodigal aud Toracious, no lcs« than 
lho«] n^iat nru ithigg^lsh aaii idlu. Their owii houcy evvn tDay 
be productive of injury to liitm ; for it" tLty «i-e Kiuc;>lt^ with 
it on the fore-part of the body, it is fatal to tbem. Such tiru 
ttic enemies, so numtTuus arv thu accidfuts-^jind Iiow smidl a 
porlion of them have I hew c-nnmeraled !■ — to whiph a crcn- 
ture tliat proves ho bountiful to ua i^ t'xpoaed. In tin- appro- 
]iriiiu,' phiut;'" wi) will trt'at of th« proper nmedies ; for the 
prt-SL-ut the nature of thciii is our sulji-ct. 

CHAT. 22. (20.) BOW 10 KKRP BKKt TO THK RIVB. 

The clapping of tlie haiidKand of bntxs afford 
bees great delight, and it h by tli«se me:iuit that tbr-y ntv 
brought together; a stronp proof, in &iet, llial tltey aro poa- 
seaaed of the aemc of hearing. Whon their Tirork is com- 
pleted, their offspring brought forth, and all tlieir dulics ful« 
illled, tley still huvt certain formal exercises to perform, ranging 
abroad thrcnighout the country, and muring aloft in the air, 
wheeling round and rouod as they fiy, lujd then, when thu 
hour (or taking their fuud has cume, riiturriing home. Tlie 
•-■xtrcme periud of their Ui'c, sujtpuKiug tUut they (.«cape ucn'i' 
dent and the attacks of their enenjies, i» tvuly seven years ; 
11 liiTe, it i» said, never lasts more than ten.'' There are eomc 
pLiraons, who think Unit, wlieu dead, if they an* prt'surved 
in the hou^e tliroughout the winter, and then expowi-d to thw 
wurmth of ihe spring sun, and kept hot all day iu the aa^es 
of 6g-(ree wood, they will ooinc to life uguin. 

CBAP. 23. — jrei'BonH of kksewiico the swask. 
Thene persons s-.iy also, thitt if the swarm is entirely lost, it 
may be replaced by the aid of the belly" of nn wx newly killed, 

" K «1. c. 42. 

" Curicr Kivt that a hire Itiu been kiiu-mi Ui lnvtirnvvtbnn thirty vran: 
Iiiit it i* <]iiubt(iil if buM vver liri> se long n« Um, or, vxirapt the quevu, 
Utile mora than on?. 

" Thaufli Xiigil trll* the rnimp stfiry, in B. iv. of tlin GcargiM, ta reli- 
lius lo lite dbepbsrd Ajiit^aud, all IbU u cutiii^ly fiibuloua. 

a PLtST 8 ITATCHAl. HiaTOKT. [Boofe ST. 

id over with (lung. Tiigil also says'* tiiat lliis may be done 
fbe body of a young biilf, in the same way that the car- 
caso of the iiorao praducoa wosps aud hornets, and that of the 
iiSB ljccLlt'3, Nutiire liei'self effectbig those clmngi'B of oup buI)- 
ntance into anotlier. But in Jill theEie last, eexuul intercourse 
is to bi,' perceived as well, lliimgh the charactcnstica of the 
ofi^prizig ary pretty much tlie siime as tlioee oi tUe beo. 

CHAF. 24. (21.)— Wasps ajtd noMTETs : AsncAia ■which app&o- 


"Wasps biiild tlieir nests of mud in lofty places," and make 
wax tlic-rein: hornets, on tb-e other hand, build in holes or 
under ground. With these two kinds the cells aro also hex* 
ngonEil, but, in other respet-ts, though made of the btirk of trees, 
tticy strongly resomble the substflnco of a spidor's woh. Their 
young also are fiiund at irregular intemilH, snd are of un- 
Bhnpdy appenranpt^ wliile one is able to fly, another is sritl a 
mere pupn, and a third only in the mn^^^ut stale. It ia in 
the uutumn, too, and not in the spring, that all tlieir young are 
produced; and tliey grow during the full moon more par- 
ticularly. The wasp whieh is Unown as the ichncnmou," u 
sninller kind than the others, kills one kind of spider in pajti- 
tuiar, known sb the phalHugium ; iifl«r which it curries the 
body to it8 iii:8t, coTcrB it otct with a sort of glufy HobBtauce, 
and then sits imd hatches from it its young.'* In addi- 
tion to this, they are all of them carnivorous, while on the 
(([.her hand heea will toueh no animii,! Buhstanee whatever. 
Wa3p9 more particularly purau-e the lender flies, and after 
eatehiag thum cut off the head and carry away the remaining 
portion of the body. 

Wild hornets lire in the holes of trees, and in winter, like 
other insects, keep themselves concealed; their life does not 
exceed two years in length. It is not unfrequently that tbwr 
Rting is productivG of an attack of fever, and thtre are aufhorft 
Tiho 6oy that thrice nine stings will suffice to kiU a man. Of 

'* Gcorg, B- iv. 1. 284, rf srq. 

^ TTcidtT rooCt, and sumetiDieBia thegrousi]! : horaets buiM in tlic holla«« 
of trs P8 

" CiitleJ " Sphiux " by LinaicnB. 

" Thfl mie vnraion is. that ofter kUling tbe insect llicy bm7 it inib their 
«gg» ns load for their faitiru yiMuig. 

Cbtp. 34.] 

TnB 8IT,X-W0BM. 


the olhctr hornets, whicii eeem not to be so tioxiouB, there ore two 
kiuds : tho working oou-s, which are Bniiillrr in »izp »nd die in 
the winter; and the puntit humi'ts, wlikh livn two years; 

^ these last, itrdeed, are quit* harmless.'"' la spring thvy build 
lheirnt!«t8, wliich have generally four eatmnces, iiud here it ia 
tllfttthc working hornetsi are produced; after these have bc«D 
StCehed they form other nrfita of Inrgir fizp, in n-hich Ui bring 
forth the parents of the future gprnnition. Fwm this time 
the working hornets be^in to follow tlieir vocation, and apply 
themselves t^ supplying tlio others with food. The piireut 
hornets ans of larger aizo than the othcm, and it is very doubt- 
ful wlielhiir thi:y liiivis u atliig. a» it is never U> bfl seen 
protruded. Theae raccH, too, have their dron{.'8. Hotuc iivnious 
ore of opinion thut ciU Ull'su insects luso their stings in the 
winter. Heither liorni)t« nor wasps iiuv« a king, nwr do they 
ever congregate in awarmfl ; but thuir numbers are recruited by 
[* ii-esh oE&pTiug from time to tinie. 


A fourth class of thin kind" of inspct is the hombrx," which 
in a native of Assyria, and is of larger size than any of those 
which hare been previously mentioned. They eonatnict their 
nests of a kind of mud which has the appeanuict! of salt, and 
then fasten Iheni to a stone, where they becomo so liiurd, that 
-it is BCartioly posnibk' to iitnetraUi IhLin with a dart evoo. 
In these seste they make wax. in larger ciuantilies than beea, 
and the grub which they then produce is larger. 


There is another clasa also of these inscots produced iu quite 
a different munnor, Thcao last spring from a grub of larger 
size, with two liomH of very peculiar appeuraiice. The 
larva then becomca a eat-urpillur, ufler which it a&.sunics the 
!«lato in whieh it is known an bomhfUi, then that called nrey- 
Halut, and afttir that, in sir months, it bt^cowes u silk-worm." 

" Cnvior UTt that it i8tl)einiilt.>g, and unt the fmitileii, (lint have noting. 
** Wtut modem nalumiirta cull Ibi; " }ij'ni<.'ni)pl«ra." 
*' Sonne kind of vani. or, a£ Ciivior sayit, probably cli^ iniuon boe. 
I* Calkii "itombyx nlwi; tliniigh, la, Uuvicr rcnurki, of a kitid al< 
together different &om \hi precediag one. 




ruin a h&tccal hi&xobt. 

[Hook XI. 

TSiGae insects i^'cn-ve wcIjs similar to those of the spider, the 
rnab:rial of which is used for ruiikiug the more costly and 
luxurious garments of females, knovrn as " bombycina." Pam- 
phile, a womjin of 009,*° the daughtc-r of Plutea, waa the ftret** 
poreon wlio tliBcovered of iinravtlliHg thuBo webs and 
Epiuiiiiig u tifisue theretrom ; inde&di bIju oiig-ht iiot tu U? du- 
prived wf thti glyry of having Uiscovarud liio art of luuking 
vc-stmeiits whicii, while thvy uovur a womtui, ut the same mo- 
lueot teyuuL hm' na^ed charus. 

cn*p. 27. (23.) — thk silk-woru of cos — how tes coak 


The silk-worm, too, ia said tx) be a lulive of the iale of Cos, 
whiTG the rapwizra of tlie earUt give new life U> the flowcra 

of the cypress, the tereliinth, the lish, and the oak which hsve 
hoen bf-Hten down by the bKowpts. At first they iiasume tlie 
appeamnce of small buttorfliiifl 'B'ith naked liodies, but bouu 
liter, being utiablci to endure tho euU, they throw out briacly 
h^iirs, and nssuitie quite a thick Duat againut Uie wintor^ by 
rubbing off the dowa that covers the leaves, by the aid of 
tho rouglmess of their i'eet. Tiiie they comprcsB into ball8 
hy curding it witli Ihcir eluws, and then di^avF it uut aud 
l]uag it boCweca tiio hruuches of the trees, making it tlse 
hy combing it out as it were ; last of all, they take and roll it 
round tlieir body, ihuB forming a. nest in which they are enve- 
loped. It is io iJiis shite thnt they are taken ; iiftor which 
they fire placed in eartlien vessela iu a warm place, and fed 
upon brnn. A pocnliar sort of down soon sboota forth upon 
the body, on being clothed with, which they are sent to work 
upon anotlier ta.'ik. The cocoona*" which they have begun to 
ibrm uro t'Liidured soft and pliable by tlie aid of water, und 
are then dmwu out iuto threads by raeaas of a spindle made of 
,a reed. !Nor, in fact, have the men even felt ashumed to make 
'liae** of garmentE formed of this material, m eoneequeuce of 

** The flrat kinde of aillc dicfsos wnm by the Floinan Lidios Trore from 
thi» i»lftii<l, onil, as Pliaj siijs, wrrn kiwna hj t.hi- nurae of Cwt iwteM. 
T)i4-iH< (IrsEiug WBitt »o hue an to ha tniii spuria nt, anitwern Home I inn's dyed 
pur|ilo, and enriclitil nilJi iitripcs ut' gold. Ilicy ijrt'bnbly had tbcir tuutia 
frum tlio vurly ngiutaiiun n'Liuli Cc» .icquireil by lU- mimufuuturua of silk. 

** Tliia account it (ierivod irom AriaWCfc, Hist. Anim. B, v. *, 19, 

»* "Unifitiu," 

•« EiiHy in th« reign of TibFrriiu, as ve leim hota Tauitue, tha wmata 

tb«ir extreme Iif$htncee to Bummor : for, bo grpuUj- hare miui* 
nera dcgKUcnit£4 iu our day, tUut, no far l^m weuhag a cuinis^, 
II {{BTiDeat eveti is fou&d to be too hea^*)'. Thv prodnoe of the 
AjBjrian sUk-worm, however, we hiive till now Ivil to (ho 
women onlj. 

cnju*. 28. (34.) — MPTDEBe; Tae koob that hake webs; thr 
matkuuu uskd by thku i>' >«o Doixn. 

It U by no meam an Rb^nrdity to append to the mlk-worni 
as aocount of tfae spider, a oretiturQ which is worthy of oar 
«8pccial udmirutioQ. Tht-re (ir«> iiunu-roiK kiiiils of [$pid«i8, how- 
fver, which it will not be nect-Ksary Wrv to mention, frum ttie 
fact of their being so well known. Those that bear the name 
of pfial miff turn are of small size, with bodies Kpottod and run- 
ning ta a point ; their bite i^ vmomonft, and they Irap an thoy 
more from pluco to place, AiioUier kind, again, is hluclt. and 
tbt) fore-legs src rvmnrkubtb for thvir l«-ngth. Thi-}' have oil of 
lliom ^ree joints in the legs. The smaller kind of wolf-spider^ 
i'jes not make a Wfb, bul the larger om-s muke thuir holes in 
tbu varth, and sprtiiil their nt- Is at the quitow eatrunoo tberuof, 
A third kind, Bgain, in remarkable tor the skill which it dis- 
plays in it« operations. These spin a large web, and the ab- 
iloioen siiffiffs to supply the owtcrial for so extensive a work, 
whether it is that, at stated periods the exerenienia are largely 
d in lihc abdomt'H, us Dumocritua thinks, or that tho 
iture hos in itself a certfiiQ faculty of wcn'ting* a jirnuliar 
sort of woolly Hiihstance. How aleadily (loo.'s il work with ita 
claws, how hiniulifiilly rounded imd how equal are tbu ihreuds 
Its it forma its web, while it employa the weight of its body as 
an equipoise ! It beRins at the middle to weave its web, and 
then exten<:lH it by adding the threads in rings nroiiud, like n 
warp upon the woof: forming the meshes at equal interrals, 
htit continnally enlarging them as the web tncreafit-a in breadth, 
it finally onitcs them all by an indissoliible knot. With whiit 
ma art does it conceal the snarea thnt lie in wait 

i'ilB prey in ibi checkered nettings ! Haw little, too, would 
it seem that there Is any such trap laid in Ibo coiiipai:lriess of 

Miwted "ncnatinScrica viroi firJarpf — "Tliiil TDm«)irruld noLdrSliB 
tluuineli-os bj wesring [;arincinU oF till:," Ana. 11. ii. C S3. 

* The .Vnuiuii Lupiu of LinnwiB. 

>* As Curier obEatrm, ho hu tivro guou^ at ttc truth. 


sis PLDT's WATTJHAI. HI8T0BT. B&olc XI. 

its web anii' the tfUQciotis textnre of the woof, which would 
appear of itaolf to be finiRhed and arranged by the cxercifle of 
the very higheflt urt ! ]iow looae, ton, i» the body of Ihc web 
ns it yields to Ihe hiaata, iind how n?adily docB it catch all ohjfTts 
which coaiG in its way ! Yob would fancy that it had kfl, 
quite Gxhuu-sltid, the thrume of the upper portiou of its iii:t 
iinilnisiied where they are sj>read acroBs ; it is wiih tlie great- 
est difficulty that they nre to he perceived, aod yet the mumeut 
that ail object touchfeB therrij like the Uoee of the hunter's net, 
they throw it into the body of the web. With wliat archi- 
tectural skin, too, ia it« hole arched over, and how well do- 
fended by a nap of extra thickness agninnt the cold! How 
carefully, too, it retires into a corner, wntl appears intent upon 
nnything but what it really is, all the while thut it ia ao care- 
fully shut lip from view, that it is impo^ible to perceive whe- 
Uicr there is anything within or ugt '. And then too, how px- 
traoi-diniiry the Btri'nyth of the wob ! When ia the wind ever 
known to break it, or what accumulation of dust b able to 
Weigh it down? 

The spicier often spreads its web right aerosa between two 
trpcs, when plying its art and learning how to spin ; and then, 
as to ita length, the thread extends from the very lop of the 
tree to the ground, while the insect springs up again in an 
instant from the earth, and travels aloft by the vorj- self-same 
thread, thua mounting at thi^ same moment and s]iiDning 
its threads. When ita prey falls into its net, how on the alert 
it ia, and with what readines'S it ruus to seize it! Even 
though it should be adliering to the very edge of its wob, tiio 
insect always rima instantly to the middle, as it is by theae 
Cleans that it cnn most effectually abate the web, and so suc- 
cesflfiiUy entangle its prey. When the web is torn, the 
Bpidcr immediately seta about repairing it, and that bo neatly, 
that nothing like patching can evrr he Been. The spider lies 
in wait even for the young of the lizard, and after enveloping 
the head of the animal, bitLs its lips; a sight by no raeana 
unwortliy of the aniiphithetitiio itself, when it is one's good for- 
tune to witness it. Presages also are drawn from tho spider; 
for when a river is about to bwcII, it will suspend its web 
higher than uauuJ. In talm weather these insects do not spin, 
but when it is cloudy they do, and hence it is, that a great 
number of cobwebs is a Bure sign of ahowcry weather. It ia 






^^eoerally supposed that it is llie fomnli^ itpider that ^pina, 
ftnd th(! miil« tliat lies in wait fur prey, thus making an equal 
diriaian of their dudes. 

caar. 29. — the oekekatio:! of spidrbi*. 

Spiders couple* lindtwards. end produce maggots like ^eg$ • 
for I ought not tn fJcfcr mnking some mention of this subject, 
Braing, in ftict, that of most ineectB there is bardly aiiyUiiiig 
elae to bo said. All thcau cjjgs Uil-v luy iu their wul^, hut 
scattered about, aa ihcy leap from plact- to plnco while layiug 
them. The phaluugium is the ouly epider that lays a con- 
eiderablo namher of th<.-m, in a hull- : iind «« eoun us «vur 
tbtj pivigeny is hstehud it devoiira ila inolhpr, and very often 
the malfi parent as wdl, for that, too, aid* in the process of 
incubation. These lost produce as many as three hundred 
eggs, the othera a smaUfrnambcr. Spiders take three days 
to hatch thpir f^ga. They come to their full growth ia 
twenty-eight duye. 

CHAP. 30. (25.)— scoETioira. 

In a similar manncT to the si>ider, ihulnnd Brorpion also pro- 
dnccs maggots*' similar to eggs, nnd dies in a similar manntr. 
This onioKd is a dang-c-rous scourge, and has a venom like Umt 
of the serpent; with the exception that its effects are far 
more" painful, iis the person who ib eturig wiU linger for 
three days Iwforo death eriBueB. The eting is iuvariably 
fUtol to ^'irgins. und nearly aLwuys go to mntrous. It is so 
to men also, in Iba morniog, when the aniniitl has issued from 
its bole in u fasting et^te, nnd has not yt't hsppcnt^d to dis- 
charge its poison by any ucciilmtul strolse. The tail is always 
ready to atrikc, and ceaaes not for an instant to menace, so 
that no opportunity may possibly be missed. The animal 
strikee b>o with a sidelong blow, or else by turning the tail 

"■ TheT enpolalo In n mnnnrr diMimilnr in thnt of wny other ioj.(ict»-— 
ll« mult ViciimifiiiiN Ow famalu by ibc iiid of ft-tlort, wliicli lie intnulucps 
into the Tulva of llie Icnulc situuto bcatiatb the anterior pan of ibo 

"* CuTter romarVs, tlint the (corpiirin ii riiipnTmi*; but the yoanff ire 
white trheii bom, nnd ivx«|>|>ej up in na utuI niiiss, iur wbicb nsiuon tlioy 
aiar euQy bo taken fr>r tnnggnu or grnhf. 

" Thin murt be uuderstwoiL of the MurpLun of Eglfit, Liliya, nriil Syria. 
Tlu sting of that of the loittb of Eurufc is not gtiacrally da'ngeioiu. 


upwards. ApoUwloniB LDformB lis, that the poiBon which 
they BixTCte is of a wliite colour, and he has divided th^m into 
nine clii99t>S, diatingaishpd mostly by thfip colours— to Vyry 
liltle paqioae, however, for it ia impossible to undoratand 
which aiLong these it is thnt he has pronounced to he tho 
least dangcroua. Ho says, also, that aorao of them hiive a 
double ating. and tliat tbe males — ibr bo !U^st:rtjs that they ar» 
eiLgendored by tin' union of llie hcscb — are Uit most dungorous. 
ThesQ muy eaj?ily be kni>wn, lie says, by thfir eleniler fona 
ftiid gro&ter length. Me Btutce, also, that they ull of them haTB 
venom in the miiJdlo of the day, wlien they harti bpeii warmed 
by the heat of the sim, as, itlso, when they lue thirsty — their 
thirst, indeed, can newT be quenched. It is an iiactrtained 
fafX, that those which have seven joinfc* in the tail ftre the 
most** deadly; tTie greater port, howeror, have but eix. 

For this peat of Africa, the soiithem winds hnvts provided 
raoELiiB of flight m tvell, fur as ihu breeze bi'iira theiu along, 
they extend th^iir arms and ply thcra like so many oure ia 
their flight; the same ApoUodorus, however, wsserts that tUcr« 
are ^me which really havt^ wings." The I'sylli, who ibr ttieir 
own profit have been in the habit of importing the polaoa« of 
other lands among U8, and hare thus filled Italy with the posts 
"whieb belong to other regions, have iTiadc ut.t'i;mpts to import 
the flpng acorpLcm as well, but it hag been found that it 
cannot livo further north th.^n tho latitude of Sicily. How- 
ever, they" are somelimea to be Been in (tiily, hut are quit© 
harmlesa there ; they arc- f&undf also, in maay other places, tlic 
vi«iuity of Pharos, in Egypt, for instance. In EScythiu, tlie 
ecorpiou is able to kill tho swine even with its -sting, an animsl 
which, in generaU is proof agninet poisons of tliis kind in n 
remarkablH degree. When elung, those swine whiRhati! black 
die more speoiiily than oUiers, inid more particularly if thoy 
happen to tlirow themselves into the water. When a person 
has been stung, it ia generally supposed that he m«y bp. cured 
by drinking the ashes of the. scorpion" mixed with wine. It 

« Cnvier s*eins to regard thi« aa faitniful : ho aajs tliot tlic inatancca dt 
letin* joint* aw but runly to be met with, 

** TieiB are no wingwi scorpionB. Cuvier tliiDli:^ thnt he may possihly 
nUtidu lo tiie pnaorpis, oi sDorpkm-flv, Ihe Dhilomttn at wliicU tunciuntce 
iu u rorvi'pK. wliiuh rustmMw the taiC ol the soorpiua, 

" i'robably Hie pnnorpia, 

» S«« B. Mil, e. 'i!t 

Clwp. 3i.} 



ift the bolii;f also Ihat tlirr* is nothing more baneful to the 
scorpion flnd the stcllio," than to dip thorn in oil This liut 
animal in ftlao dangiTvnis to all other cro»tHrf«, pxoept thow 
which, liltp itiwif, aro destitute of Wood : in figure il stronglj- 
r(!scaiblc» the mnnmnn lizard. For thu must part, aUv, 
the soorpiuii docs uo injury lo any animal which is bloodies*. 
Some writcnt, too, are of opinion that the scorpion devoura iu 
ofiapring, and that the one amonR the young which i» the nioi«l 
adroit urails itseLf ol'ite solo nmdc of csnipw, by pkoing itself 
on the back of thu motlier, and thiift finding a place where it 
is in aafely from the tii! and tJie sting. Tlic one Ihat tbns 
escapes, they say, becomes lie nn-ngcr of the rest, and at U^t, 
taking advantage of its ek-Tfttcd position, puta its pareaits lu 
death. The scorpion prodncf» cloven at a birth. 

cnxp. 31. (26.)*-Tira arritLtlo. 

The stftllio*' has in some measure the same nfltiur ns the 
rhanipleon, iw it Uvea tipon nothing but dew, and audi apidpTs** 
OE it may happen to find. 

CRAP. 32. — mt oB-tMnoT-m: nuT rr iris nxttbes xotrrn 
BOE omw rott yooi). 

The cicada** also lives in a similar manner, nnd is dividt-d 
into two kinds. Tho smaller kind arc bum tho firitt and die 
;he last, and an: without nvoioe. Tlteolhem are of the flying 
kinr], and have u note,- tht^ru are two surtfi, Uiu&<: known af 
aehettt. and the smaller ones calltd ttUigmiia : Lheso liutt huvu 
the loudest voice. In both of these laai-mentioued kinds, it is 
the mall* tbut sings, while tbu female is silent. There are na- 
tions in tlie tmal U).'il, (vi-A upon theso insects, thu rarthiaos 

* The starred or »potl«d liinTil. 

^ Tho iikllio «r llic itnmnns in tbo " RicsiliLb'M " or " utalnhnti^ " nf 
the Crocks, tlie lutard int« uliidi Afrwilnljus wa« ptiunjprd by Ccrw ; §co 
Orid, McL B. 7. L 4S4. ft itq. Iliuy iiUo mcnliciiiG Va\s in B. nix. c. A, 
ihongh tie spratu or soini; dill'ei) tice in llicir n[>j>i ikranci^. It \a n anecicn 
nf cuvVo. the iBrcnlolj of Itnij', the t«r>jiit'? of I'cuvrrn-e, and tht (»ec](utljL 
pn>bablf, of LHCFptMe. Tiio gi'uico, Cuvit-r ui^t, !■ not TPitocnoiu, but it 
«uu*eii *nmll bUsKTs to aa» oa tho «kin '•hca ic wulks ov«r It, tb« retult, 
prctublT, a{ tliu vsln-mfl iliRTpnw* at itt iiniln. 

•• Scr c. 28 (if lliis Hook, and B. liii. c. ItJi; B. «j. c. 27. 

'* A gcm/rnl imnn' fnr ttic ^aMbtpjio'. fuvicrr rcniai-kk, that Pliny is 
Ins cirar on Lliis auhjecl tliitti .AmUille, ibn uibtlmr r[i,in.i wlium liu lins 

a, ■wfittlthy and aiBiicnt aa they nro. Tliey priifor the 
beforo it hus hud 8l>s.uu1 lutii'rcout'tjc, tmd tbti lemule 
aftt^r; and they tako' tUeirufga, wliivh aru white. Tliej ea- 
geiititr wiLh the liolly upwards. Upon the back they have 
a sharp-edged instraineat,^ by meuos of which tliey excavate 
a hole- to breed in, in the gtoiiud. Tlic yoimg ia, at first, 
a smaD maggot in apponrance, al'ter which the larva assumes 
tho form in which it ia known as tlie MliffDweira.' It bursts 
its shell nbout the time of the summer anlatice, and thrn takes 
to flight, which always happens in the night. Tho insiict, 
at first, is black and hard. 

This is the ou]y Living orcatiUQ that Hob no mouth ; though 
it has something iustead whicii hears a &traug rusemblunce to 
the tongues of thoso iusocts wliich «arry a sting iji the mouth : 
this organ is situatu in the hiTast' of the aniuinl, and is em- 
ployed by jt in sucking up the dcw. The coraeiet itsL4f forms a 
kind of pi[ie ; and it is by miSaiis of this that the achetiP utter 
their note, as nlrendy mtntioned. Beyond this, they have 
no viscera lpl thfl abdomen. When BHrprised, they spring 
upwnrdS) iind ejtut a kind of liquid, wliiuh, indeed, ia nor 
only proof that th«y live upon dew. This, also, is the oaly 
animul that haa no outlet tor tho evacuations of the body. 
Their poffura of sight are m had, thutif a person eontracts 
his fiuger, and thea suddenly extends it close to thoin, they 
will come upon it just as though it were a leaf. Some HUthors 
divide thvse ajiimala into two kinds, the "surcularia/'* which 
is the largf;at, and the " framentaria,"^ by many kuown aa the 
" avunnria;"' this lost makes ita appearance jiwt as the com is 
turning dry in the ear. 

(27.) The grasshopper ia not anntivcof eonntries that are haro 
of trees — heuco it m that there are none in the vicinity of the 
city <ti CjTeuti — nor, in &vt, ia it prodac&d in champai^^ couu- 

■ "CarrEptb" BoaniB a preforablD roodinz to "vwrupti," that adopind 

' The fnmnle hi» this, aatl empioyi it for piercing dead branchcB in which 
to depoiil tt« <^^- 

* The '' mutiier of the prtushopper." 

* Tin; tnini o! ih'i rniR«h«])|H!r, OuvitT aays, is situatfl bo low down, that 
it sflonis to bfi attachtd w the breast. WitU ittheiuscotoitruotathejtiicLsi 
of l<iiiV(!s U.U1I stjilka. 

* Or '■ twig-gruBfhiHpper." ■ Or " eom-gtaesbop^er." 
' Or " uut-gcuisboppet." 

Cliap- 34.] 



trisK, or in cool and ehatly thiokcls. They trill take'to mmu 
[)Uicc8iDiithmocoro»dUy Ihtui oth^irs. lu the district of IGlotns 
they lire ouly to be found iu sutae fuw spote ; and iu Ccpliul- 
leuia, tliere is a nvnr which roiiB ihroogh tho couotry, on one 
side of Thjch ttiey are not to be found, while on Ihe oth*'r 
tJiey exis.t in vast numbers. In the territorj' of Ittivgiuni, 
again, none of the grasshoppt-ra \m\v any note, -while be- 
yond the rirer, in the territoiy of J/wri," thi-y sing aloud. 
Their winga are formed wmitarly to those of hcca, but aro 
larger, in proportion to the body. 

ODAJ. 33. (28.) — TILE wraas op wpects.* 

There are some inst-ets -n-hich Imvc two wings, flies, for 
inat«nr-ej olherfl, aguin, have four, Ulte the hce. The winga 
of ih-G graBshop.pcr lire membranous. TIiobl' inaceta wUicli are 
armed vrith a atiug in the abdouieu, have four v'ings. Moue 
of those which have a sting in the raoutb, bare more than, 
two inogs. Tlio former have rcceired the Eting for the pur- 
pose of defending tliemselvies, the Iatt«r for the supplying of 
their wiints. H" pulled from off the body, the winga of an. 
insect will not grow again; no insect which has a sting in- 
Berted in its body, has two wings only. 

CBAV. 34.~-TaK :b£BTL£. tick OtOW-WOEK. OTHSR EinnB OP 

Some insects, for the preBorTation of their winge, arc covered 
with ft cru-st;" the beetle, for inBtanot', the wing of which ia 
peeulifirly fine and frail. To thcso insects a sting has been 
denied by Jfuturc ; but ia one large kind" we find faoTDx of a 
remurkaSlo Icngtb, two-pronged at the extremities, and forming 
pincers, which the animal closoa when it is ita intention to 

• The rivor Cflwinm. Sec B. tii, c. \5. This ri»er ia by Strabo, B. n, 
i. 260, iNilJcii the Ali^i. JPAihci liu the story that the Locrian gTBMhop- 
j>eTB become nlcnt ia cho l<.'nitory <if Rhtg^um. an<l ttOiit: at Itli^um u 
tha Uirritory of Locri, tliereby implj ing iW tlity eacU lum a nolo ia iU 
owa nfpecUve eountrj. 

* CMTi^ir aafs thut tno ob&erTtitioris in this Cbapter, derived from Arls- 
toUe, Km KMnarlcable Tor tlteir oiartQc«a, nad sbow tbal lliaC plulotopbtr 
bad atudied iiittcts with the gn-nL^l attvatinn. 

■■' Or ihenth ; tiie Colaifptytu uf tha n at lira lit U. 

^^ Tile flyiag itfg-bmtli, tbc Lucanus cervm uf lannnu*. 

tot, III. » 

puht's katubal history. inauTtXL 

bits. Theso beotlea aro suBpendod from tho nock of infanta ty 

way of remedy fifi:!iin5t certain tnalndios: Xigidiiis calls them 
"liicnui." ThtTO ia nnothLT kind" of boetlo, agam> which, 
as it gone hackwarils witli it3 feut, roUa tbo dung iuto largo 
(jcUulij, uud tlieu <Ic-EJO«Jts ia tltcia the maggots wliich tunu ita 
yoiLiig, as iQ a sort of nest, to protect tliom against the rigours 
ofwintpr. Some, agaiu, fly with n loud buzzing or a drony 
noi*>, while orhei-s" burrow nameroiis holes in the tt-arlhB 
and out in the ficlJa, and their Khrill chimip is to be beard at 

The glow-worm, by the ai(i of tho colour of its eridoa'* and 
hatmchca, aonds forth at night a light which poaemhloa that of 
fite; being niBpleudynt, iit one inomtinl., as it expands its 
wings,'* and then thrown into tho ahadu the instant it ban 
shut tliem. These insects are dotit to bo seen before tbcgrasia 
of tho pftfitares hus eomo to muturity, nor yet alW the hay haa 
been cut. Ua the otiier hand, it is the nature of the blsck 
beetle'* to 6eek dark CEirniirs, and to avoid the light : it is 
inofltly found in baths, being produced from the humid yapours 
which arise therefrom. There are aome heetlea nlso, belon^ng 
to the ftiime species, of a golden ■colour and vory large sizOf which 
burrow " ia dry ground, and conBtniot small combs of a porou? 
iiaturo, and v«ry likoB^iongc; thttee th-py fill with a poisonous 
kind of honey. lu 'J'hrace, nuar Olyuthus, tboro ia a small 
locality, Hw only onu in which tjiie animal cannot exist; 
from which uii'cuuKtuucc it bos received the u;iuio of "C'lui- 
thandelrhus," "* 

The wings of all inMscta are formed without^* any flirision in 

" Tho dunz-bceUa. tho Scaraliajus pilukriiM of Luibibub. 

'* Various Itiaiin iif crlr.iciilA. 

" CuviiT suys tiiiil it ba on tlia Iwo sides of tlio ftMomcti lltnt t>ii* nialu 
currinit its tig-iit, wliitr thu whnlo post.crjnr part nl' fhc fcnialo is shining, 

" In lliu gtow-WJi'iii of FrancB. tliu I^nipyris nuuLilui-'u of LidiiiGiia, (iio 
fL-mulu ia vithoiit wing«. vrliilu the miilu girou but littk li^ht. in ihut 
of Itilr, the LrernpjTi* Ititlion, liolli m-jics tiri) wing-Lil. 

'* "■ BlattB." Sec B. liii. c, S'j, wliura throe tiiiils ai'c spocilleil, 

" lltM l>i'et]e B]ii"'riT« to iic iinknuwii. Cuvier siiigiMU tliJit tLy Sonrit- 
^(18 uaaiuunti^ of LLJma.'ii«, M'1iii.'h liuuutti ilcud bui-k:, or tiie Suunibnua 
luirutujt amy bo tlio iiui-ct rofurrvd to. 

■* " I'atal to tlie heetift." 

'" Ciivicr rcmitrks that tbianiiBRtion, borrcwcd from AriitoOe, Ia incor- 
crmt. The wiug^ uf raiiiij; of tlic t'nlooptam are (ir lieu I nit J iu tb« miJiIJc, 
aud so doiiliU', wuD pmt oa Lli-s utiiar, lu chut tlui sUuittL- 

Cbsp. 35.] 



them, and they none of tht-m liavo n tail," witii the wcrption 
of the nwr^iinn ; thin, tna, ir thi; nnlv one among tht-m thathafl 
arm»," togclhcr with n slins in the tail. As to Uio rtat of thu 
in!>ects, some of them hare the sting tn the mouth, the gad-fly 
for inetanee, or the " tabanue," ns some persona chooBe to call 
it: Uie Mime i« the case, too, with Ui« (ni;"t imd w>m<' lumis of 
fliea. All Ihpae iiM«>ct» have Ihrtr fltinga situate in the month 
instead** of a tonf^o ; but in soitk^ the atin* is not potntvd, 
heing formed not for pricking, but for the pnrpoftc of surtion : 
this in tho case more pspociailr wiih flies, in which it is clenr 
thnt the tongui;'* is uothing mon.' ihtm a tnbe. Tlink.- itiscet?, 
too, have no teeth. Others, again, have Httlo horns pro- 
trudio'^ in front of the eyes, but *without any powtr in them ; 
the butterfly, for iiiHtiUice. Some iu»e"t8 are detlitut« of vinga, 
RLch us the fioolopendra, for inntiiice." 


Those imtdcta which hnv© feet, move «idvways. Somf of 
them hare the Itind fi«t longt^r than tlie fore onE«, and curving 
ontwarde, the locust, for wmufile. 

(29.) These crealnr<'S lny llM-ir egp in hir;;o inawex, in llie 
nutrnnn, thrusting Lhe end of Uio liiil into jioW which th<^ 
form in tlie ground. These oggn remain nndt-rgrounu 
throughout the winter, and in the ensuing year, at the eloee 
of spriug, email locuistE iseac from th(>ni, of u hlnrlt colour, iind 
crafl-ling along without Icjp.'* and wiujfs- lUnire it in that u 
wet spring destroj-s their eggs, while, if it 'i» dry, (hey nml- 
tiply in great ahundunc-o Some persons nuiintain that they 
brefrd twicfi a yi ;u, ami die tho ciune niimhi r dC finu-s; that 
ihcy bring forth at tho rising" of the Vergilife, and die at 
the rising of the Dog-star," after which others spring up in 

" CorifT rinorVs. Unit tli* pitnnmii liu n dH Trry like thnt of tlip seor- 
pion ; iind thnt the r;>h<:^rrn, tlie icliui>uiaoni anil othrtt, haTl^ taiU nhn, 
Arut/itle, tu the curri^fitiiiiHiig |ihtcc, OTily *ay« that tbe iuKvl* do uol uie 
tho lai! lo dirocl. thm flisht, 

1" TliM'j arc nienly ibt* fwlon of tlnijiiw. 
" Xnt iDBieud of, but in nddidon to, the loosne, by the aid of which 
they uncle. 
" Ewideulljr nitiiDirriT the traolc. 
■» See H. xxix. c. 39. 
^ It U not tnie that tbe youag locuitd aro dce>titiite of feet. 
» Jib May. " ISOi Jiily. 


Uwir plaooa: according to soma, it is at the sottiag** of 
AxctuxuB that the second litter is produced. That tbe moUicra 
die tiie moment they have hrought forth., in a well-known fact, 
for » littla ■worm iniiin'dintcly g^ws ahoiit the Ihroal, which 
r.Lokes them : at the same tiioe, too, the tualta perish aa weU. 
This insect, which thua dies throu^'h a tiituse apparently to 
triftingi iB ahle to liill ft Bcr[i('nt by ilEclf. when it pleases, by 
Mtixiug its jnwB with its teeth.™ Locusts are only jipoduced in 
chHinpaign pLofiDS, that aro full of ohinka and crannies. In 
Indin, it is B!iid thtit tliey attiiiri th« length of tlireo*" feet, and 
that the people diy the legs and thighs, and ubo them for eaWB. 
There is auother mode, also, in which tlicee croatures pcribh ; 
the wiada carry them off in vast Bwnrms, upon which they IJdl 
into the sea or standing waters, and not, as the aacienta sup- 
posed, because tlieir wiugs have been drenched by the damp. 
seas of the night. The sumb authors have alao stated, thjit 
they are unable to 3y during tho night, in conseq^nonce of thn 
cold, being ignorunt of thi^ fact, that thry travel oyia: lengthened 
tracts of eea, for many daya together, a things the more to be won- 
dored at, aa thoy h!i<re to cmdure hungtT all tlie time as well, for 
this it is which causes them to bo thus sceldiig pastures in other 
lands. This is Looked upon as a plague^' iodiuted by the anger 
of the goda ; for aa they fly they appear to be larger than they 
r»ally are, while they make such a loud noise with their wing«, 
that they might be readily suppospd to ho winged creatiirr-s of 
qiiitii another species. Their numbera, too., are so vast, that they 
quitft dtirlvcn th« sun; while the people below sre anxiously 
fdlo^ring them with the eye, to ssg if they are about to make 
a descent, and bo cover their landa. Afteir all, they have 
the reqniBite energies for their flight ; and, us though it had 
bi&eu but a trifling matter to pass, over the seas, they cross im- 
mense tracts of country, and cever the^m in clouds which bode 
de8tm<;tion to the harvests. Scorching nuracroust objects by 
their very contact, they eat away everything with Ihuir teelh, 
the very doois of the bousea even. 

M nth May. 

■* Cuviei truati this story aa purely irnaginarf. 

*" Cuvier says that some havu bijun knows niuii'I}' a footlnng, but not 

" Ua aUudm to th« la.vitjrca comnnLtUid by tlit swiirtns of Ltic migratory 
looutt, Orlllui mignitoriiu of Liiinjeus. 

Cbkp. 3Q.] JUTTfl. 

TUo»o from Africa nro tbo ones whidi cLk-flv dcTasUt* 
Italy ; aad more tfaao (moc the Romao people bave iief d obliged 
to }uivo recourse to Iho Sibylliue Books, to learn what remvcliea 
to employ under tlu-ir existing a]iprehenMu&x of impending 
famine. In the tcrritoiy of Cyrcnaica" there is a law, vhich 
cTea comp'els the people to muko war, three tunes o year, 
a^net the locusti, first, by cruahing thcjir eggs, next by kill- 
ing the young, utid Inst ol' all hy killing tlio«u uf full gri>wtb ; 
and ho who fails to do bo, inuupfl the penalty of buing trtated 
Hs a deeerter. In the iitland of LeiunoB dso, there is a certain 
measure fixed by law, which euch individuul is bound to fill 
with locusts whiuh Iw hux killed, tmd tlit;u briug it to the 
mitgialrat^ft. It is lor thin reason, too, that they pay such reapect 
to the jack-daw, which flics to meet ibe lociiBti, and kills them 
in great numbers. In Syria, also, the people are plitci-d under 
nmrtiHl law, and compelled to kill lh(>m: la so many oountrica 
does tHia drt'iidfiil pL-et prevail. The Parthians louk upou 
them as a choicti food," and the grasshopper us well. The Toice 
of the locust appcoTB to protoed fruiii the bavk pmt of the head. 
It is Rcnerally believed Unit iu tliia place, wliere the Bhouldcra 
join en to the body, tliey have, aa it were, a kind of teeth, and 
that it ia by giicding these against each other that they pro- 
duce the liarsli uoise which Ihey make. It is nioru e!>peeiully 
about the two Cfiuinos'ps that they are to be heard, iu the 
samo war that we hear the chirrup of the grasshoppor about 
the aammcr flotstiec. The eeupling of Io<!uitta is similar u> 
that of all other inflects that couitlc, the female trapporting 
the male, and tuniiiig back the eslremity of the tail towards 
him; it is (jnly ufter a conBiderable time that they separaU-. 
In ail theec kinds of ioaects the male ia of smaller size than 
tbo fumale. 

OBAP. 36. (30.) — ASTB. 


The greater part of the inHecta proilncntimnggot. Ants also 
prodoco one in spring, which ia similiu' to an egg,** and they 

" Joldis Obnqiirai i;icukB uf a peitilcnco (b«rc, crenttil hj tho dead 
bodies of tho loeaiCa, which cauwd ibu dcutb i>r 8UD0 p«reoQ&. 

» Sen ftUo B. vi. c. S^. 

»* TSTiot nir. cummuiUy callpd aatfl* pgg*, dm iu reality llieir larm and 
Sf mpfae- EuvplnrxH in ■ >urt uF tunic, tboe bat, (hiTicr tvjw, are lilte 
jrrafni of com, luia Ccom this probably has luison the itory itut the; lay 


:incommoDfHkel)WR; biitwhpreiiatlielast make ttieir food, 
r lormer only store " it away. If ii puibuu only comparLn tbo 
't)urdens ivhieli the imt3 turiy with th.y eijte of thtir bodies, he 
must confess thai there in no anmial whicli, in proportion, is 
possc'gscci of a greater degree of »trongtli. Tlieso burdens they 
carry with the moulh, bat iviien it 13 too large to ftdmit o{ 
that, tiey turn tln;ir backs to it, nnd push it onwardavith 
thci r fcot, while they use their utmost piiorgics with thoirehotil- 
dcia. Thtae intwcta, also, have a political coiBiniimty among 
thcmaclpefl, and are posBBSspd of Ijt>th nicinaiy and foreBight. 
Thpy gnaw eauh griiia before they lay it by, for fear lest it 
ahould Ehoot whilu under ground; those grtdns, uguiu, which 
Hro two lar^e for uduuEsion, thuy divide at the entrvico gf thoix 
holes; aud iIiuhi^ which h^ve become saali^ed hy the rain, they 
bring out and dry," They work. Loo, by night, during the 
full moon ; but when there is no moon, Ihey ceaso working. 
Aid then, too, in their lahours, what ardour they diBplay, 
what wondrous carofulnesa! Becaase they collect their atorca 
from difl'tTont quarters, ia ig^iorance of tlie proceedings of ono 
aauther, th^y have liETtata days set apart for holding a kind of 
market, oa which they moettog-cthcr and take stock.'' What vast 
throngs are then to be Been hurrying together, what anxious 
enqairies appear to be made, and what earnest pailoyft" BIO 
going on jtmong (hum as they mett ! Wq see even the very 
atoiit'S worn, away by their ibotstcps, and roods bcnten down 
by being iho scene of thrir Ifihours. Let no one be in doubt, 
then, how mncih assiduity and application, even in the very 
humbleet of objects, cnn wpon every oecaaion effwit I Ants aiu 
the oidy living hinugg, hceideB nmn, that bestow burial on the 
dead. In Sicily thL-ro arc no winged ants to bo found. 

(31.) The hfjrns of mi Lidion imt, suspend'cd in the tempio 

up ^tiins HgnlnBt (tie vinter, a period thmngU Tihich in rcolitjr they do 
not cat. 

^ Th^ sbiv aiTAT bite of meat ani1 detacliod portionsoF fruit, tanouHsli 
iKeii lar^^ willi tlitfir juices. 

** It, ia in renlity tht'ir Int'S'iE that lliey thus tring ant to dry. The 
workiiiic tints, or ntnii-iils, are the oute ou whitrb tlitso lubours dovolvo ; 
the maita nad fi^males are 'winrRd, the workiug nuts arc without wing*. 

" " fld rL'.iiJSTiilJfitifm miituBin." 

■" Some modern iSTileni e-iprca* on opinion that wItph they raect, they 
COCVcrK.' and cacauragQ oua aiiolhtc by the medium of touub imd EmeU, 

CiMp. S7.1 




of HeronleR, at Erythna," hiire been looki-d upon as qidts 
miTEUiulous fur Uic-ir tiza. This uut cxcitvalvt! t^utd J'rujuholM, 
in a cotmtry in tlie uorlh of Indiu, tb? inhabitants of which urv 
kao<im OS the DardEe. It has the colour of a cut, und is in 
size as large us an Bg^'ptisn woll'.'^ This f^ld, which it px- 
tructs in the winter, is Ittlun by tht Indiana during the hc--iit!i 
oftmrutaer, whib the ants aro compcHtd, by tho cxceaaivo 
irannth, to hide themsolvps in their liolot). Slill, howcrcr, 
on bii-ing ftronwd by catching the ecent of tiie Indiand. they 
Bftlly forth, and frequently tear Ihcm to j>icow, though pro- 
^■ided wiUi t!ie HwilUst cumels fur the purpose of Hight; so 
is ihcir dcctness, combined with iheu: I'enwity nud tbt-ir 
BioQ for gold I 

ClUP. 37. (32.) — THB caBisja.18. 

Many iaioetBf however, on: ougL-uderi'd in a difTfront man- 
ner; and ftome more cspociolly from dew. This den* e«tUcs 
Ufion the radish" Icufiu the i-url>* d»y» of spring r but wh(?D it 
has boon liuckeaud by thu in:Ui>u of Uii- buk, it becomes re- 
duced to the size of a grain of millet. Prom tliis a email (n*"!) 
iiftferwarda arises, tthi<:h, at the ilid of thrie days, heconit-^ 
transformed into a cidrrplllar. I'ur st^vrnil Hiccvfsiru days 
it Bliil iDcn-a^oa iu size, but remainn inotii)ulirM>, and con'vrod 
with a hard husk. It moves only wlic-n touched, and is 
covered with u WL-b like thnt of thi- ispidiT. In this eutoit 
is colled & chryButiH, but uiWr the husk is brokca, It Hies forth 
in the ahape of a bullvrflr. 

a See B. ». c. 31. 

*^ U. Je Vchadin ilunlit that by tliia U rmillr mcsnt th« Ciaia tutut, 
the small fax of India, but thut by lomo misUltG it ku repiiMi^tnl by 
Irurellors u ciD ant, It it nn't tni]i'rDliulili!, Cuvirr *ayf, thatiomQ quudru- 
[nii, in ni»kmgliulej in [hi^gfuiiii'l, muThnTK OL-tusioimll/ [brown up xonie 
];niini of tb? jiri-cioiii im^lijl. 'I'lii^ sliirjr ii ilrrinil froai th* narrnLivct 
uf Cl'OareLw and MfptMlniiti. Anotlipr inwpri-tmi Jii of llit« Harv bad 
^A> beco sng'gett/'d. Wc linJ imm e^tiio rt.-miuki uf Kr. WiUon, fii tli'^ 
TivMoetiotu ef Uu jlaialit! ^Muti/, on tht Slaliiibliiiriit.a. u l^uuicril jioom, 
Uiit vuriuua irIbctOD tlin iiK'iiiii.iiiiii Man and MnuJarti (*uppuMil Ui lia 
)>nn«cll IlindiitUn uud Til^tl) ust:J (u sdt ^uius uf golil, uliicli tbuf 
i:tiici paippHtita, or "nnt-piltt," wbivh, liiey taM. ""aailitywii up by unu, 
in Sanscrit ti«llud y<>piVaA-a. In lruvi;IUiij> ivutitwiiiJ, Oib ftory, jji )t«i<lf, 
Dd thiubt, ucurne, niAy vgry prababljr Iluyu Ih:iji autguiLKd to its {•mviit 

V- Curiet obMrre*, that ^ia ii t Tcrj currtict account uf the cabhi^ 

Hfiali butUitSj, tUo Papibo Liusica! ui I'spilio njiliani of Limiieui. 


4S PLnrt'fl SATOBAl. HIBTOBT. [Book IT. 

CHIP. 3S. (33.) — AsauLm weice bkssd ITT irooi). 

In tbc aruQQ mntincr, also, eomo aniinols ure generated in 
Hio curtli from rain, and some, o^atn, ia wood. And aot only 
wixjj-worina" uru pruJuetid ia wood, but gad-fiies also anil 
other insects issue from it, -wheneTer there U an exceaa of 
UKjistiirQ ; just as in man, tape-worms" are Bometitnes found, 
as mucL as three huadrcd feet or more in length. 

GHjir. 89, — ^waECra teat aie parasttm op man. whicr is 


Then, too, ia dead carrion there are certain animals pro- 
ducGi), and in the hair, too, of living men. It was through 
such vermin as this that the Dictator Sylla," and AlcDmn, 
one of tlio moat famous of the Greciau poete, met their deaths.. 
These iasecU ioletit htrd^ taa, and are apt to kill the pheasant, 
unless it takes care to batho itself in the dust. Of tlio aaimala 
that are covered with hair, it is aapposed that the ass and tho 
sheep are the only ones that aro exempt from these vermin. 
They are produced, also, in certain kinds of cloth, and mora 
parlifiiUttrly those made of the wool of sheep which have beea 
killed by the wolf. I find it stated, also, hy author?, that 
some kinds of wnter" which we use for bathing aro more pro- 
ductivG of these parasites thau others. Even wax is found to 
produee laitca, whieh are supposed to ho tho verj- amallest of 

Iall living erealurts. Other insects, again, are engendered 
from filth, acted upon hy the rays of the Bun — these fieaa aro 
Callod '* petaurielffi,"" from tho activity which they display 
in their hind legs. Others, again, ure produced with wings, 
from the moifit dost that ia foimd lying in holes and comers. 

cn<ip. 40. (34.) — Air A^msis, wnicn: nis iro Pi^sAGE Fos thb 


ThcTQ is an animal,'" al^o, that is generated in the summer, 

^> Cosit, S« B. sm. (!. 3V, " TreaiB. 

^ lis uUudcfl to the Morhus podicnilosaiii. 

** AriitoUe tiija, in the corrrspondinj; pnsiingc, Hiit, Aninl. B. T. C. SB, 
Ihat tho auimata whiclii are uSkjttd by IJte, are murt.- particularly eipoioij 
to tbcm whiui they ijhango tlie wutci in whicli tbey wash. 

** Or "Jeupere" 

*' lie alludes to do^-ticke and oa-ticka, the Acants liciaiu of iiniuBU, 
and tht Acarus rcduvius cf Sclmiik. 

Ch*p. 41.] 

iioraa, btc. 


nhick lias its bead alwavB btuicci deep iu Hie fikio [of u beaet], 
aad eo, living ou its bluud, swcUa to a liirgo tizc. This la 
the only living creature tbat has no oQUet" for its ibod; 
hence, whea It has overgurgod iUi^It', it bursts aeDndor, and thus 
its «-ery alim(?nt is madu the caiisd <t{ ltd deatb. This inatrct 
never breeds oa beasts of barden, but is rciy commonly 
sera on oxen, imd somctimc-B on dogn, which, indeed, are eub- 
jcct to cverj' epouied of vemiiti. With ehcep and goabs, it 
IS the only parasite. Tbo tbiret, too, for blood dispUyed by 
locchi?3, which we find in marshy waters, is bo Icrs Biagulur; 
for thet^e will thrust the euiirc head into the flesh in quest of 
it. There is & winged ineeot*'' which poculiorly iufvaln dogs, 
and more especially attacks tlu-ui with ils sting about the 
eara, where they lU^ uiiablo to defend tliemselvea with tiicir 


Dust, too, 13 productive of worms" in wools and cloths, and 
this more cspeeially if a spider should hapjien to bo enclosed 
in them : fur, being soisihlc of Ihirst, it sucks up all the mois- 
taro, and thereby iucrc-ases the drj-ntsa of the raaterifll. These 
will brceil in paper also. There in one kind wliith carries 
with it its husk, iu Llic game maimer us Ukj enoil, only th&t 
the feet are to be seeu. K deprived of it, it does not eun-ive ; 
and when it is fully developed, the insect becoineB a chrisali*. 
The wild fig-tree produces gnats," kiicwii as "ficarii;" and 
the little grubs of the fig- tret-, th«? pear-tree, the pine, tho 
wild rose, and the common ro&o prodncc cantharidcs," when 
fully developed. Those insects, which are venomous, carry 
with them their nintidotc; for tb«ir wings are useful in 

'^ In c. 33 lie bai uid tht tune of tlie gruvhoppcr, in rplatinti to ita 
•• A rarif'ty of tlie Tpips of Linna-us, irbieh ia rast nnmtMn will 

lOIDctimi-s wlln-[l» to tlir- ' Jl* nf (lntr'. 

•" TlicM Bje rKsHy Lliu larrte u( titbit t-motha. Hi» nccoimt hero >• 
punlv ttnagtiuTy. 

" lie ^Mttke of (he C>iiiFU peenen of LlnaKiu, vtdcli breads on the 
blMtofn of ttic 6s:-trtc. and aids in iu fecuniJuion. 6oo B. zv. c. 21. 

« He alliiiii-i it) viiriim» olcupti-rouB in»eeta, which ere not in'- 
■moDK Ihe CantharidL's uf Iliu modvru Datnra]iU|^^hcy aic firat 
Ibra a Uttb. Ibcn a ajni[i!iii, and Oten fiia i%ff///fQ^rtiopti. 



TLnrr^s vxtcujo. HtsTonT. 

LBool XL 

medipiac,'" irhilo ths rest of the body is deadly, AgiLin, 
lirjiiids turnod swur ivill produce otlicr kinds of gnats, and 
white gruhs arL' tu he. found in enow that liiw l!\in long on tho 
ground, wiulc thoso iha: lie above ar« of a rtidJlsh^' colour — 
iudecd, the enow itself bt-cumLfi rtJ alter it has liiiu some 
time on the grouad. Thusc gruba tac uovorud witti a sort u£ 
bair, are of a ntlter large size, and ia a. state of torpor. 

CHAP. 42. (36.) — AM A!rni,iL FOtrxD i\" tihe — the ptraixis 


That uU'Uii!nt, Jilao, whitili is so destructive to matter, pro. 
duces certain auimals; for in." the coiiper-smeltiiijj foruacL's of 
Cyprus, in. the very midst of the lire, Uictq is to be seen flying 
aLout a (bur-footod animtd with wing*^, tlio size of a, large fly: 
this creaturt! is called tliti " pjTallis," and by some the *'7iy- 
r>wsta." Bo long as it remains in the fire it will live, but il' it 
o<imea out and flics a UlUc distance from it, it will instantly 

CHAr. 43. — rntt asiu-il calied nEsriniOBios. 

Tho Hypanis, n river of Puntus, liringa down in ita ■wnlers, 
about thti time cf the Bummtr solsliee, BUmll membranoua por- 
ticles, like n grupe-stono in appeanuicc ; I'mni whjf.h l:hiTo iesuPfl 
aa animaP with four logo and with wiuj?, similar to the one 
j list uiuntiosed. It does not, Iiowcvlt, Uvq more thtiu a eiiighi 
day, &om whioh circumetaDce it has obtained tho uauau of 
" hemerobion."™ The life of other iiiAucts of a similar aature 
is nigulattid from it« bt'ginnins ^'^ 't? tnd by inultipk'S of 
eeven. Thrice " etivcn daj-a is the dLiration of tho life of llu) 
gnat and of tho maggot, while those that are viviparoufl live 
ibar times ac von days, utid tlieir vuriotis elmrgPB and iranaforma- 
tionfi take place in pt'rioda of lhr«fl or four days. The other 
iuSL'utii of this kijui that arc wingoil, generally dio in Iho 

<•'' See B. xxix. c. 30. 

" The ri'dncK sffraftimM ohsnn'fd on tbc btiow rif Ihe Aljis anJ the 
PjIcuoM, is iuppiiwi hj De Lamnrck Lu In; proiiui-cJ liy juiiuiulfulw : 
cillier usturuliiLa, UuMiiver, Hujipoie it to aristi Irora. vcguUbJy or uiiowral 

" Cuvit-r Lhinlu tint lio alluJ^t to a variety of the cphpniLTa or the phrjr- 
gutea of Linnmue, tha caac-irin^ tlica, i:ini)y oi vlimli tire particiikrljr 
aborl-livi^d. 'thi-te iri! by notucaiM r'-'Ouhar U> Iketivut Bog or UvpoiuB. 

•• "Living f« a day." 

Omp. <*.] ASIKAIS WaiCB ttATX TVrtS xyD CKESTB. 





autmnn, the gad-fly becoming quite bliatl" cvt-n before it die*. 
Flics Thieh have bt^t-n drowuvd iu vuUt, if thoy are covertHl 
with ashea,' will return to life. 


In addition to whnt is olready stated, fl-e will add an ac- 
count of every part of the Imiiy of an nnimul, iukcn limb by linib. 

All thoac whiuh huvu blood, bttve a 'head us wpU. A smiUl 
number of animnla, and tliosi; only among tho birds, hare 
tofts of rarious kinds upon the ticad. Thu pbu>nix.** bns a 
long row of futttluirs on it, frvui tb« miriiUu of wliich iiriaes 
another row ; peuvo^ks havt- a liitiry tufl, rps<?mbling a bushy 
Bhnih; the styniphalis*' lias a sort of pointed crest, imd tie 
pbfOAant, again, small horns. Added to these, there in the larlr, 
a little htri, which, from the appearnnrfl of its tuft, yrm 
foruiiiriy called " giilcrita,*' but has ancc rfceivi-d the 
Gallic name of " nlauda,"" a name which it has trnnsfcrred to 
one of otir legiotie.*^ ^^'e have already made mention, alfrO, 
of one bird" to which JiuturL' li;t8 givt-ii a crest, which it cnn 
fold or unfold at pleasure : thi.' hiriu of the coot kind** haro 
also received from htr a cre^t, which tak<^ its rise ftt the 
bt:ak, and rtin» along thu middlo of tb« head ; wliilo tb^ pie 
<rf iTars, and tJie Biilcaric crane, nro fiirnijiliwl with pointed 
tufts. But the moat rcmarliablo featurr; of all, in the crest 
which we see atttmhc-il to the hcoda of our domcBtic fowls, 
eulistantial and indented like a, saw ; wo cannot, in fact, 
ttriutly cull it llcsh, nor can wc pronounce it to bo cartilage 
or ft CoUosity, but must admit that it is something of a nature 
peculiar to itself. As to the crests of dragons, there is no ono 
to be found who ever eaw one. 

*> Tbpy only oipM* to be lo, from (lie pt-t-uliat rtrcak* oo tlw rjM. 
Ijiunnuit haa facnuc cnlloil otiei %ari«ty, thn T^hiiiuL' I'tKutieiu, 

^ Or wttUiKiuiidiKl vbalk or wbiteuiit):. J^Iiun udiU, "iftliey are placed 
iDlheann/'whieh sppcnn ncbcsanrr for the fulIsnMMsor tlie cijiumrnt. 
lifeappftanifdheBiHnGndMlintuch ate* liimprrioiluf flUr|hruiii{(lLiigtL 

^ I'rabAbly ihv gt'lili'ti plio&saut, s* idreadv mciitiuaciL 

*" Soma kinfl uf Vtou or cnrin, Ctivaur tliinks. 

** The Alauda critUtfl at LiaaeuB, to called from "gdaa," a pointed 
cu likt a bclmot. 

*• The fifth legion. *> TTm hiwipo*, It. x. c, 4*. 

•• Saiint}- MU C'uidor take tii* to be tho Atuea Tiigo of Linnsni, a 
itatire of Kuniidia. 



[Boot XI. 


lUli:! AOX MOTLAi)L£. 

Horns, too, of various fonoB have been granted to miuiy 
nniiDala of the aij^uatic, marine, and reptile kind, but those 
which are more properly undurstood under that iiami) belong 
to tlie quudiuptjda only ; for I look upon tlio tales of Actseou 
and of Ci[jpii5 even, in Latio story, as nothing more nor less than 
fablee." And, indued, in uo department of bcr works has 
Uature disjjlajvd a greater capricioasuess. In providing^ ani- 
mals with these weapons, she has made mserrj at their ex- 
pense ; tor some she has spread them out in branches, the 
stag, for instance ; to others she has given them in a more 
8im|ile form, as in the " eubulo," m culled from the resem- 
blance of its horns to a " Bubuia,""" or fiboemaktr's awl. In 
othors, a;;uin, sho Ima fiiLtLc^ned them in tiie shape of a man's 
band, with the &]gcrs cxtcadcd, from which QircuisBtance tlie 
animiiL has received the name of " platyceros."'^ To tbo roe- 
buck sho has given branching horns, but amiiU, aad has nuidu 
thtfui SI) as not to full olf ^ud be east each yctar ; while (o tljo 
ram she has given them of a contorted and spiral form, aa 
tliough she wero pronding it with a cicstuB for offence. The 
horns of tKe bull, (igaiu, nrc uprigbtaiid tlLrccLteniug. In this 
laat kind, thts females, too, are provided with Ihcm, while in 
most it is only thfi males. The chamoifi. has them, curring 
backwards; wbil& in the fallow deur'* tliey bend forward. 
The fitr^Jiiaiceroe,*" which in Africa hears the name of nddax, hua 
horns erect and spiral, grooved and tapering to a sharp point, 
su muck so, that yuu would almost lake them to bo the siiks 
of u lyrc.'^" hi tlie oxen of Thrj^giaj the horna are muToablo,"" 

<" The euildemitat. (if t.hoir nppr^arauce, cu douHt, wa& fulitilaDs ; but vn 
tiuvQ wvlL-tiutlii!iiti<:uU'il taat.'t iii iLiii-'iit timi.'s uf lyubBtauvoB growing; uu tUo 
bumaa bciadi Lu oil uppi^arituco rcscmbliag burus, and arkiog frum u lik- 
ordured acccelion of tliu bair, Wilaeaa the cusu (if Mary Davi^, a iih 
cAlIud liorn froBi whitao hpad is preatrved in the AfilnraKlcon MuseuTn nt 
Oiford, Tbo stary of Ocnuciue Cippus, the Romau pnetur, is told by 
Ovid, Mit. B. s». L 585, vt iu'<i. 

'* A Bpitlcr, or socond yoftrgtag, iicuordiiig to Cuvior. 

■' "liruud-hi-nii^l." Tho ("orms dama .if Linniciis. 

" " DHiiia," Tlie Anldopc rudunca of LiniiBcQ*, Cuvicr tliinka. 

*■ SaiJovibt nlunil ofaiit«Iu|je. 

*"■ "Lyra*" Menwprefftr.-iblw ti>"lir!w," 

"'*' Thcra ara several YiiricliM gf uitfii, la whkli Uiu lioinB adhero to tba 
•kin, and n^it to tho oniQium, 

Cksp. 4£.3 

TARiors En>'iHt or hoiikb. 



like Iho curs ; tad among tbe cattlo of tho Troglodyto, Uivy 
arc poiaU'd dowowurdfr to the gruuuil, j'or which rcai>on it is 
tbut they are ol)lig«l to feed with the head oa one Hide. 
Olhvr snimals, agtua, Iiutc h nnj^le horn, and tbat situate in 
the miijdle of the head, or cbu on the now, as already 

Then, agahi, in some smtnals the horns are adapted for 
butting, and in others for goring ; with ttomu thi'y are carved 
inwards, with others oiifivards, nnd with others, ngftin, they 
are fitted for tosaing : all which ohjerls are cff&cited in vari- 
0113 ways, thi! homa cither lyiiig backwunls, ttiniiiig from, or 
dee towards C4ich other, and in oil cases ruDoing tu a idiLirj) 
point. Id one kind, also, the hoims me ust'd lor the purpoau 
of scralching the bui^y, Uii^UMid of tiiwdis. 

Ill MiaiU the horns hti: Heshy, anil are thus adapted for the 
purpaie of fifeling Ihe way, wbich baltiathe cft«i willi the ce- 
rftflttn ;™ some rtptilt-s, again, huve only one horn, thouj^h the 
!DaiI h»s always lu'o, tuit^d for protinjijing and withdruwing. 
The harbarouB nations of the north drink Itoin the homa ot' tlie 
urns," u pair of which will hold a couple of nraaj :'* other 
tribes, aeaiOt point Uieir spt^urs with ihom. With iis they are 
cut into laroiriEe, ution whit'h they beeome tnmBparent ; indeed, 
the raya of a light [danpd witliin them may be seen to a much 
greater distauce than without. They are used also forvarimis 
appliancfjs of luaury, tithet coloured or Titmifihed, or elso 
Tur those kind^ of paintings which are known aa " ccstrutu,"^* 
or h«ni-picttires. The horaa of all aoimaU are hollow withiu, 
it being only at the tip that they are solid : the only uxoep- 
tioa in the stag, the horn of wbieh is solid thronphont, and 
M cast CTery year. When the hoofs of oxen are worn to ths 
quick, the husbandmen have a mtlhod of curing them, by 
unointing the horns of the animal witli grease. The suhstonco 
of the homa ia eo ductile, that even while upon the body of 
the living animal, they can be bent by huing steeped iu boil- 
lag wax, aad if they ure sidit down when ihcy are first shoot- 
ing, they may be twisted diifcrcut ways, and bo appear tu ho 

" B. viii.ccOT— 31. 

™ Tbo Ooliifipr iwrasCpi of Linneeua. Seo B. »iii. c, 35. 

''* The (Jriakuig-liuxijs ot oue Suoa oncuituri arc well (tDOwn to iht 

" The " Tima " wns half an " ampliorn," or nearlj- tliroc gallona. 

1> SeeB.UEr. c. 41. 


[Book XL 

four in Qumlwr upoa oao hcnd. In fotuaks the honu: are gcno- 
rally tlimucT tbati in tho miid's, a« is the cose, al&g, with most 
kinds of wool-bparing animuls. 

No mdiritlniili', IifJWidTL'r, amnag sheep, or hinds, nor yet 
any that liavc the feet divided into toee, ot Ibjit Imvp sulid 
hoofs, are famished with horns: with tbe sole cxceptioa of 
tho Indian (Lss," which is nrmcd ■with a fiingle horn. To tho 
hcBBts thrtt BW clorea-fook'd Nature has. granted twn horns, 
bit to those that have fbre-U'sitli in thii upper jaw, she has 
givon none. Those [jereoiiB whu eaterUtiii the notion that the 
aubstnuoo of these ttt'th is expended in the furmation of tho 
horiiP, are easily to hv rt-futt'd, if wo only consider tho caec of 
the hiud, whit;]! has no more teeth than the niiUe, and yet 
in witlioot horns altt>gether. In the atug the horn is only 
imbedded in. the sluD, but in the other" animals it sdhercs to 
'the bone. 

ooAr. 46. — tUB atJkDs of asiuaxb. tuob£ wincn bate sqsp. 

The head of the fish is very largr in proportion to the rr-st 
of Mid body, prolmhly, to faoilitatis its diving urder water. 
AniintiLs of the oystt-r and the sp)nf;e kind hfiTe no held, 
which is tho cuso, aim, with moat of the other kinds, whoso 
only sense is that of touch. Home, again, Lava tho hood 
blcndod with thu body, the ci'ab, for iustaitco. 

' CHAC. 47.— TBE BAIR. 

Of all animak man has the longest hair npon the head ; ivhiuh 
IB tht! easG more uspe^jiully witli tliose laatioiiB where the men and 
women in conimoa leave th\> hair to Rrow, and do not cut it. 
Indeed, it is from this fiict, the inhahiljtnts of the Aljjs 
have obtained from ns the nnme of " CiipLHutl,""* as ulso tho^e 
of Ofllliij, " Cornata."'* Thero is, however, a gredt diffeteni;e 
in this respwt aeeorHing to tho mrioiis cmmtries. In the 
inland of Wyromis,-'' the people are horn witbnnt hair, ju5t 
as at Caunit» tho inliabitants are aHIieted with the splcea 

w Tho rhtmiacroa. See B. liij. c. 3fl. 

" lIoBnrely tmiBl oxccpi thft Plbtygian oxen with tho movaable honu, 
wliicb hp linn pri-vioiisly nKnliornid, 
T» nf "lun;t.liniri;i.l. Bee 11, iti. c, 7. 
'• Sob B. it a, :il. *" See B. iv. a. 22. 

Chap. 49] 

ran Biuni. 




from their birth." Then) aro some aoimda, ilw, that aro natu- 
raliy buld, such as Uic mUicfa, for iastaDce, aad the aquutic 
ravuu, which lust has tbenoe derived it* Grcult" name. It is 
but rarely that the hair 0iU» off in womi-n, Hnd in eunuvha 
such in niivet known to l-c- the wish ; nor yftt doc« any p«non 
Lose it ix-fon; having known iiexnal intcrcoumc'^ The hair 
does not fall oH" below tho hrain, nor yet beneath tho ctown of 
tho head, or around tbo euro and the teniplfit. Man is tho 
only animnl that bfKiompH haM, with ihu i-xctflion, of cotine, 
ot'surh animnU a5 aro iinlnrully ko. ilan imd thit hone aro 
Uio only i'rcutun« ivhuso liair turns grey ; 1>ul with numthttiia 
always the caiso, drst iu the fore-port of tbo head, aiid then Id 
the hinder part. 

CHAP. 48. — TQB OQXBa OP TllK mUD. 

Some few persons only are doubk-orowncd. The bones of 
the hffld are flat, thin, devoid of marrow, arid nnltol with su- 
tures ini1t°jitfd likfi a comh. Whtu brakt^n amindrr they can- 
not bu uiiitu), but the oxtnwtion uf u smull jjorUon is not ne- 
ccstuinly inuil, tin a flcahy elcalri.x f;>n»B, aad ^o miLkfa^uod 
tho losB, ■ Wo have alripjidy mentiotieil, in thi^ir reppL-ttivc'* 
places, that Uic skull of tho UoiT is tliu woaki^t of all, ouil 
that of the pu'rot the hurdfit. 

CHAP. 49. — Ton Biunf. 

The brain pxiils in nil animnlB which have blood, ond in 
those M>u [iiiimul^ lis wtill, which wo hare already mentioned 
us nuillunlts allhoiigh thi-y ai-tr lifstituUr of hluod, the poly- 
piui, for instance. Man, however, han, in proportion tu hitt 
body, the most voIuminotiB bnun of all. Thin, too, is. xhc. 
most humid, and tlio ci^d(!i<t of all the viKoera, and is cqtc- 
lo|)cd above and below with two moiaiirnuoiia intogumcnta, 
for either of whiuh to bo bruktu i^ futul. In addition to these 
facts, vc may remark ihftt the braiu a larger in iai;a than in 

•I Sec Jt. V. e. W. 

•* lie bonnH-» tbii from .lri«liitl«. 

** R. viii. 0. l>i, aa'l B. x. c. S4. TUc skull of llm Ir'af is not ihinncr 
or vcaker than tlul uf other anitimli of its own sW.a : biic tho «kuil of ibe 
|VTul, ID proportioii X/j tlioM of other birJ*, it remiitkulilj liurd. 




women. lu msn Lhe bniin is destitute of bloodand veins, uud 
in other animals it hiiano Iht. Tlinsu wIjo are well inlbrmeiJ 
on the FTibjoot, toll its that the bruin is qiiile a diiSTEiit 
Bubstance Ironi the marrow, Heeing tlint on ht-'wg bciiied it 
only becomes liurilcr. In the vei-y midcilii of tbe brain of 
every auiniB.! Uiero ore smaU hones, found. Man is tho only uii- 
mal in which it is kuown to polpittite'^ during infancy ; and 
it does not g;nn lU proper con&istency until after the obild haa 
made iU first attcinpt to speak, The braia is the most ele- 
vated of all the vjsu<?r!i, and the nearest to the mof of tlio 
head; it ia ■rqnallydi^void of flesh, blood, and excretions. The 
aeneea hold ihis orgun as their citadel; it is in this thut 
aro ccntreid all the veins which spring Irom the heart ; it is 
here that they tt-niiinate ; this is tho very cidminating point of 
alt, the r(!};uIator of the understanding. With ull imimulB it 
ifl advan<red to the fore-part of the heiul, from the fact tJiat 
tSie senses have a tendeney to the direetiou in which we look. 
!From the brain piocetds sleep, and its return it is that cauBeB 
thehead tonod. Thoae tTejitures, in fact, wbit-h have no brain, 
DCTcr elecp. It is said Ibut alags»* have in the hewd certain 
Rmall maggoii, twenty in iinraber: they ore situate in. the 
empty space that lies beneath the tongue, and around tbe joints 
by which the head in united to the body. 

COAT. &i. — ISE XiJl& 


OB t.mB.rvuBa. 

Mnn is the oTily animal the ears of which are ininioreable. 
It ia from tlie uaturul tiuceidity of the oar, l.hat the BTrrnanie 
of Flaccm is derived. There is no part of the body that 
creates a more enoriaons expense for our women, in tho 
pearls which iiro Biisjiended irom them. In the East, too, it 
IB thought highly beciiming i'at tho men, even, to wear gold 
rings in their cars. Some onimala hnvo lai^e, and otbfra 
small ears. The stag alone has them cut and divided, as it 
were ; in the field-mouBo thoy have a vijlvft surface. All tho 
animaln that are ^-iviparoiia have ears of Bomo kind or other, 
vitk th'B sqIb exception of the Bea-calf, the dolphin, tho fishes 

•« Sec Tl. rii, t. 1, 

** Cutiur sajB Ifaat t^f hb are tie larnB af the laitfos, which are deposited 
m the lip« vf qiuulriip<id«, u&d to moke tiLeit vtmy tg vonouji cnnttu. 


Chip. St] TUK ETM. 

vhich WO hnvfi ineDtioned" as cartilaginoas, and the viper. 
These animals have only oaviLieii inalPad of oard, with the ex. 
ception oi the cortilagtnous Ushvs imil the dolphin, which lust, 
however, it ia quite ek-arpoBSL-ssfiilho sense of hearing, for it is 
tlmriafd by Binpng. and is often taken while enraptured with 
the melody ; how it is that it does hear, is quit© maiTelloue. 
These animidts too, have not the slight^-st tnice «{ olfactory 
orguu, and yet they have a mo.«t dcutc fienEu> of smell. 

Amon^ the wiogod animals, only the homed owl jmd the long- 
tared owl huve feathcTS which iirojcct like cat*, the rest having 
only Cftvitios for the piirposo of hearing ; the snm*j is thr rase, 
also, vith the scaly animals nnd the w'rpciit''. Amoii^ horvea 
sad huiHta of ImnlL'U of till klods, it is tliu oars which iridicate 
the natural feelings ; when the animal is wear)', they are droep- 
iog and tlaccid; when it is startled, they quiver to and fro; 
when it is eurngod, they ore pricked up ; and when it lb ailing, 
they are pendant. 


Man is the only creature that has a face, the other an i mab 
liaving only a mnzzlv or a heuk. OthiT animalfi have a fon>- 
hvad us well, but it is only gu Uiu focehtad vf man that is 
d^otod sorrow, gladness, compassion, or st^verity. It is the 
for^ead that is tha index of the mind. Man ha* eyehrown, 
abfOj which nioTi; ((i(;tther or altGrnntely ; these, ton, serve in 
some measnre as indicatioca of the feelings. Do we deny or 
do we assent, it ia the cycbrowa, mostly, that indicate our 
iutcntionB. Feelings of pride may he generated elsewhere, 
hut it is herp that they have their principal ahode ; it is in the 
heart that they toko their rise, but it ir to thu eyebrows that 
Ihoy mount, and here they take up their pusitiou. In nu part 
of the body could they meet with a sjK>t more lofty and more 
j«ecipitous, in which to establish themselves free from all 

Below the forehead are the eyea, which form the most pre- 
cjons portion of the human body, and which, hy the enjoyment 
" B. ix. c. 40. 
VOL. 111. B 


PLcry a iTAXoaAL HlSTonv. 

[Boot xr. 

of the hlcsaings of eight, distingniah lifu iiom death. Kyw, 
howcyer, have not boon granted to all animals ; oyBtcra Iijitk 
none, but, with reference to some of the eliell-fiah, the quostioti 
IB Htill doubtfu]; for if wc movo tli« fingwa befbre r scallop 
huU'Dpci), it wiU immediulfly close its shell, appareatlj' from 
seeing tbem, while the seleii"" will attu't awuy from aa iron 
iiiBtFumeQt when placed n-ear it. Among q^uadrupeds thu 
inok'*" hag no sigbt, though it has something tliat hears a re- 
semblance to wyes, if we rfeinove thu membrano that is ex- 
tended in &ont of them. Among hirds alao, it is aaid UiJtt 
a species of heron, which is known as the " kucue,"*' in 
WRTitiTig of one eye: a bird of most cvct-Ucnt Rugurj', when 
it AIl's towards the south or tmrth, for it is »aid that it 
portends thereby that tliere is ubout to be a.n end of perils and 
atanus. Nij^idiuB says iUbo, that neither locustR nor grasfi- 
hoppers have eyes. In anaila,*' the twQ small horas with whieh 
they foel their way, jjerforra. the dutios of oyes, iNeithci' t}i« 
niawwonu" nor any other kind of worm has eyes. 


Tha eyes vary in colour in the htiruan rocn only ; in. all 
other animala they are of oue uniform colour peculiar to the 
kind, though there are aome horses that have eyos of an azure 
colour. But in man the varictiea and divcxBitics ttTu most 
numerous ; the eyes beipg eillier large, of middlinji; eizo. ri;- 
markabty amall, or remaikiihly prominent. Tlieso laet are 
generarlly snppoaed to ha very weak, while those which are 
tkep-seaLcd are considei^od the ho§t, aa ia the cane ulso with 
those whieb in colour resemble the eyes of the goat. 


In additioQ to this, there are some pereons who can see to a 

" Or riijii>r-aliratl]. 8flo li. X. c 88. 

■^ Aristoile wu* of this opiiii jn, liut Gftlen niaiQtaJn«Mj that tha molu cciit 
aco. Its ejB is extrumdy tiiiall. nm! Inrd on tho suifni-e. 

*• Ot " whita" tcjroij. As Cuvier rt;mai-ks, tbie is prolmbly a racru 
an (Oir's fable, 

" Jt is olmuat nccilliM to rciTifiirk, thftt both snoiLj, oA well lu luciuts tii'i\i-tp\n--rs, Ainc eye's. " 

•* LuniiiticuB, 

Omp. 64.] 

THE TSKonr or sight. 





Teiy gre&t <list*ncc, while there are otli«ri, aj^n, who can only 
dutin^iush objects when brought rjaite clu«e to tliom. The 
lision of masy stimds in need of the rays of the sun; Btich 
pOTHonB cannot m'e on a clonily <3ny, nor y«t after the sun has 
si'l. Others, aguin, huvo bod d^ht in the dny-ttino, but a 
sight Euporior to that ol' othi^rs by aiglit. (If persons having 
^nble pupiU, or the evil eyo, wc liavu ujjoady spoken" itt 
Biiffici«Dt length. Blite^ eyen are the btist for seeing in thu 

It i» said that Tibpriii* Ctesar, like no other haniiin bein^. 
wtm so endowed by Xuture, that on awokinjf iii tiie night"* h»-^ 
conld fnr a few moments disling^h objects just as well an 
in the clearest daylight, but thnt by dcgri:«3 ho would find 
bis sig'ht a^uin enveloped in darlci&'a. Thn Into Emperor 
Aagnatus hud uzure eyes like thuxu of tiuinci horeis, iht> white 
being lai^r than with other men; he iised to bo very uuf^y 
il' a person stored intently at thum Jbr this poculiarity. Claudiiti^ 
Useoar had at the comere of the uye« a white fioshy eubstance, 
covered with veins, whirh would uci'jiitionully bocoiuti doH'imfd 
with blood ; with the Emperor Caiua" they l^d a fixed, ste^y 
gaxc, while Nero r.oi]ld ace nothing distinctly without wink- 
ing, and having it brought cliisc to his eyo«. Tha Emperor 
Cains had twenty pairs of gladiators in his training-school, 
and of all these there were only two who did not wink the 
eyes when a menacing gf<jiture waflTaaflu riose to them : honct- 
it was that these men w>GrG iniineibte. f^o difficult a matter ig. 
it for a tn-Lm to k^p his eyes ft'om winlaug : indeed, to viak is 
BO natural to many, that they cannot desist from it ; such per- 
sons we gcii'?rally look upon as the most titnid. 

No penwns Imve the oyo all of one colour; that of the 
middle of the eye is always different from the white which 
enrroundfl it. In nil animals there is no part in the wholi; 
body that 13 a stronger exponent of the fet-Iinga, and in man 
more eflpeciaUy, for it ia from Iho espreBsioa of the eye that 
W8 detect el(?raency, moderatiim, compaeiiion, hatred, love. 
Badness, and joy. Prom tlic cj'os, too, the voriouE ehonuiterti 
of persons are judged of, uccordlug as they are ferooions, me- 

« B. Tii. c 2. ** *' CiB»ii." 

** The soma has been sold qIbo of Carilan, ttio bMpt Scalier, Thiwidow 
TkxM, ihe FrcTich pbj'ncinii Btairnn, ilu>I Ihc republican Cimiilk UcauauJiu. 

E 2 

PLtsr'8 SJJUBAi fflBTOBT. [Book XL 

iiacing, flparkllag, sedate, leprin^, askfmca, downcast, or lao* 
guisliing. Btyoiiil a doubt "il is in the eyes tliat the ttdnd ItHt 
itaaboiie: aonittimta the look in ardrnt, Bomeiimcs fixed and 
Ktcady, at othtir tiniM the eyes ore humid, nnd at others, ugain, 
tmlt'doBcd. From tlieee it is that the Irara of pity llow. and 
%FhEJi we kisK them we scera to be touching tlie vtry bouI. It 
i» the eyra that w€up, and from them procted thubo gtrcroms 
that Dioisteu dur i:LL'(.'k& as they trickle down. And what is 
this lii^d that is uhvays so ready uud in such abundance in 
our niomonts of' griefs nad wheru ie it k*ipt iu reservo at other 
times ? It is hy the aid of the miud that we see, -hy the aid 
uf the mind that wo enjoy pcrcoptjon ; while the eyes, like no 
many vessels, as it were, iveeive its viaunl fiiculties and trans- 
mit them. ITcnop it is thnt profound thought rendrrs n man 
blind for the timo, die pow<:i'B of sight being withdrawn fh>m 
tjstcmat ohjecta and thrown inwurd: bo, too, in epili^ayj the 
mind ia covered ivith dai'kness, whilo the eyosj thuugh ujieu, 
are uble to see notlung. In addition to this, it ia the fort 
that harois, as wuU as many humita beings, can sleep with 
the eyts open, a tiling which the (Jreeks ejcpnjBS by tlie tonn 
KOfv^a'D^K Niiture has composed the eyi" of numerous mem- 
biases gf remarkable thinness, covering them with a thick coat 
to ensure their protection wgainst hoat nnd cold. This coat she 
purifies from time to lime by the iachrj-mal humours, and sho 
has made the sorface lubricoua and slippery, to protect the eye 
against the efifecta of a sudden ehoiik, 



In the midst of the cornea of the eye Naturo has formed a 
window in the pupil, the «naIL dimonfiions of which do not 
permit thu sight to wander at hazard and with unccrtflintj', 
imt direct it as atraiyht as though it were through a tube, 
amd at tho aarat time ensure ita avoidance of all shocks com- 
mnniont^'d by foreign bodies. The puptla are surrounded by a 
black circle in some pcrsonFi, whilo it is of n yellowiah coat with 
othere, and ttKure again with others, By this happy combina- 
tion the light IB received hy tlio eye upon the white that lies 
around the pupil, and ita relkcUou boing: thus tt^mpered, It 
fails to impede or confuse the sight by its harehnesn. So 
complete a mirror, too, doc* the tyo I'onn, that the pupil, 


Cbip. 5$.] THE NATtTSr. OF TII£ PCITL. ^ 

sinuU OR it k, is able to reflect the entire image of a mau. 
Thii" is Uic reoBon why most birds, vhtra hM iu the baud 
of a penoit, will incir* pBtticiilarlj* peck at hii eyes ; for sttiog 
their own likeno-iw reflected in the pupils, thoy are attracted to 
it l>3ir wtuit seem to be the objects of thoir naturnl affection. 

It is only Bomo ftw bca^la nf burden that luts eabjivt to 
nolndicft of tbe cyen t/.)waF(!H Ihc incnxiw of tlic moon : but it 
is man (done thut is rrstrui^d from blindtiuts by thu discharge 
of thn humoure'* ihut haw miUL'd it, Maiiy purwus hare 
bad thdir tggbt melored alter beiog blind for tncuty yutix* ; 
vhilt- othei¥, again^ hare been deuiud this bleaKLOg lixim tlii:ir 
irery birth, n-iihout thf;re bcju^ uvy blvm Lsh in thu oyes. Itany 
pQTsonis, tigida, havu guiliK-uly lost th^ir nigbt frvn do apparunt 
«aQW, and without uiy preceiUitg injury. I'hu most wariHKl 
anthors vaf that there are reins which comnitiuicatc from tlie 
eye to the bruin, but 1 oin inclined to think tliat the communi- 
catioQ 18 TTith the Btomarb ; for it ib quite certain that a person 
never loees the ey^; without. fLi'linj^Hckucusul tbestomach. It 
i« an important and gultcJ duty, of Ittgh KfmctioQ uoong thu 
BonuUHt, to eUisc"* the eyis of the dead, imd then again to opcti 
t^m wbra tbe body is Uiid un tbu funeral pile, the usage 
having takrai its rifio iu the boLiou of its buiug iiujiroper that 
tho cycB of the dend tUouLd be beheld by man, wliilu it is an 
c-qually great Qtri>Doe to hide them from the view of heaven. 
Man i» the only lix-ing creature llie eyes uf which are subject 
to dfformiD<'ji, lirom which, in fact, arose tlie fiuiiily nuuie« of 
" Strabo" ' and '* pBctus." * The ancienta used to imll a mau 
who was bom with only one eye, "codc«," ond "oceUa,"'a 
person who&o eyes were reniaTltahly smtUl. " Luecinus" was 
the Bumamc ^ivun to one u'hu happeneil to hiivc logt ono e^t 
by on atuideul. 

The eyes of oniinalit that boc ut night in the dark, cats, for 
instance, are shining and radiant, so much so, that it is tmpu»- 
oible to look upon Uiem ; tliooe of the she-goat, too, and tiiv 
wolf are reapleurJvrit, anti emit a light like fin-. The eyes cif 
th« sea-calf and tlie h^ teua change euccei^sivuly to u thoucaad 

** Hardouin vit,h jurtiM donbta tb« utrndnua aT tfcii alli^ nuaa. 

" Ifc iilti]t]<.i>, iitrttinblfi to Roron mrtliitd uf curing cuturact; |Wi}iBp« 
•CriiMvliiit •imilar to ihut incntioimJ liy Uirn in H. xx. c. 2fl, 

" 'XluB urns rfono \iy tlip n<i«n:«L reln'.ixs. Thi* nuKC itUI nrc^uli m 
tVii Guuuiry, tLe eyelids buiaj prwwd duivu with pi«»* of goUf or silvtr, 

' Ot " sqainl-cjcd." * Or " Dw,'k-cyc<J. " 


[Book XI. 

oolourp; unci the eyes, when dried, of most of the fishes will 
give out lig-ht in thti dark, juat in the aiime way as the tJimk 
(sf the oak whi-'Q it has become rotttn with extrumi) old ago. 
Wti liuv;; idready meutioiieil^ the I'uct, thut aaiiuals which, turn, 
not the eyes but the tf^afl, for the purpose of looking round, 
are nev^r known to wink. It is said,' to«, that the chame- 
leon is ablo to roll tho eye-balla corapletelyronoii. Crabs lt)ok 
aidewaya, and hare tho eyes encloaed beneach a thin crust. 
Thoae of craw-fish and shrimps acL- very hunl and prominent, 
!ind lie in a great medaiire boncjilh n defence of a similar 
iiiiture. ThoHD animals. howBrer, the eyes of which are hard, 
Ijjtve worao sight than those of which tho eyes are formed of u 
humid 8uh»ta,n(i;e. It is Bttid tiiii.!; if the ttyca are taken away 
from tho young of aerpents and of tho bwoUow,* they will grow 
aguiu. In nil insects and in animals covered with r ehell, tho 
eyes niov« jost iu the wini-e way as the ears of quadrupede do ; 
those among th*rui which, hare a Ijrittle' covering have the 
L-yes hatd. All animaU of this nature, as ftcdl aa fishes and 
insects, are destitute of eye-lids, and their eyea hare no cover- 
ing; but in all there is a membrane that ia transparent like 
i;la^, spread over them. 



Man has lashes on the eye-lids on eitbeP side ; and Women 
^ven make it their daily care to stain then ;' so ardent are they 
in tho pursuit of beanty, that they mast even colour their 
very eyes. It was with another view, however, that Nature . 
liad provided 1,he hair of the eyelids — they were to have acted, 
so to Buy, as a kind of rampart for tho protection of the eight, 
and as an advanced bulwark against the approach of insects 
or other objects which might accidentally come in their way. 
Tt is not without some rL"n.3on that it is said that the eye- , 
Jashes* fall off with those persuns who are tea much given to 
venereal pleasures. Of the otlier auimalB, tho only ones that 
have eyelashes are those that have toir on the real of tho 
body as well ; hnt the q.uEuiru]:ieda have them on tho upper 

» B. viii. c, 4(5. * B. Tiii, o. 61. 

' See B. HIT. C. 60, • Or crustm^ous COTcriog. 

' KuUl ii ^till iLHiid in tbe Ga«t for tte muae paqioM. 

' Aiuiotle wys bo, Hist. Anim. B. iii. 0. 10. 

(Aap. 69.] THB VOtnilM. 

eyelid only, and tho birds on the lower 


the Buno ia the 
I which have it soft skJQ, nicb as the serpent, 
tuid thoee among the quadrupedn that arc oviparoue, the lizard, 
for rastaoce. The ostrich is the only one umoug the birdB 
that, like man, haa cj'elaahes on cithi^r eii^e. 

CBiv. 57. — ^AirniALB wmcH hate ko eteltds. 

All IJrds, JiowcTcr, have not eyolids: bene* il is, that' 
those which are vivipuroua have no nictation of the eye. 
The heavier kinds of birds shut this eye by mciuu of tho 
lower eyelid, and they w-itik by drawing forward a mpm- 
brnnc which lies in the conior of tlic eye, Pigwrnn, and other 
hirds of a fiirailaj nature, shut Iho two eyelids ; but tho quad- 
mpotls which ore oviparouR, snch, for inatancc, 8i> the tortoise 
and the crocodile, have only ihu lower eyelid morcable, and 
um'er wink, in coaseqiieuce of ttie hardntas of tlio rye. Th« 
udgv of the upper eyelid was by the atiucnta callnd *' ciHiim," 
from which come* our word " Buporcilia."' If the eyelid 
h^pens to be aevtred by n wound it will not reunito,'^ which 
ta the case also with some few oILlt porta of the human body. 

CEAF. 58. — THE CDBKX8* 

Below the eyes are the chefks, a feature which is found 
in niEm only. From the andenla thoy received tlic name of 
'■ gensp," and by iho laws of tlie Twelve Tuhles, women wem 
forhidclon to t«ar them." The cheoks oro tlie seat of 
bustifulnoss ; it is on them more purticukriy that blushes are 
to be seen. 

cbap. 69. — niK sosTEiia. 

"Within tho cheeks is the mouth, which gives such strong 
iiidicutiuns of the feelings of joyousneM and laughter; and 
shove it, but in miui only, is the uo^, which niodiru notions 
have etampcd bb i\w exponent of sarcasm and ridicule,'* la 
no other animal but man, ia the nose thna prominent; birds, 
»erpeiili, and fishes, have no nostrils, but apertures only for 
the purpose of smell. It is from the pccnliarity of the noM 

* " The eyebrows." 

■" Tbii i» n*t the fuel. 

" Wilh their naila wIiod movmiiig for the dead. 

^* UcBM tko woril "luuutuM," a kctieriieg, captioiu, or aarcailic man, 

ntSTfa Vi-TVJtAl. HISTOKT. [Bwlt SI. 

tliiiE arc derived the sumamps of " Simus" '* and "Silo." 
Children bom in the Bev<?utb montli often have the wira and 
the nostrils imperforate. 
CHIP. 60. — nrB motttb; the t.ips; the chiw ; axd the 


It is from tho "labia,*' i>i" lipS •'■^•'^t the Brotchi'* havft re- 
ceived the aumarao of Labco. AH imimala that are Tiviparoiis 
haTo a mouth that is cither well-formed, or har&hly defined, 
aa the case may bo. Instead of lipa and mouth, the birds 
have a beak that is horny and sharp at the end. With birda 
that live by rapine, the beak is hooked inwards, but with thoae 
which gather and puck only, it is straight : those animals, 
sgoiu, which root up grass ot puddle in tho mud, have tho 
muzzle broad, liko swine. The beasts of burden employ the 
mouth in place of hands in gathering thtir ibod, while those 
which live by rapine and slaughter liave it wider than the 
reet. No animal, with the exncption of man, has either chin 
or cheek-boaes, The crocodile is thi:- only animal that has the 
upper jnw-bone'* moTeablfi; among tho land quadrupeds it is 
the same as with other animals, except that they can move it 


^axtmam thet are sor on bivtb: smES op the hotttb : antmalu 
■wnrca: have oollow tef-th. 

Teeth are armnged in three different wayH, scrrnfed, in one 
continuous row, ot else protruding fl-om the mouth. When 
eerrnted they unite together, j ust like those of a combj in order 
that thoy may not be worn by rubbing against one nnother, as 
in serpentB, fiahea, and dogs,'* for instance. In eome oreatnres 
they uro set in one conttnuous ruw, man and the horse, 
for instanee; while in the wild boai'. the elephant, and tha 
hippopotamus, they protrude from the mouth." Among those 
Bol in one continuous row, the teeth which divide the food 
are broad uud ahaqj, while tlioso whiuh grind it arc double ; 
the teeth which lie between the incisive and the molar 
teeth, are tho&e known as the canine or dog-teeth; these 

" " Flut-noErd," and " snuh-noRpd." 

•* A RomrtQ fniri]y— the rRoding of this iroril Kema doubtAiL 

'* lu lonltty, tlia tiiiiliir one only. 

" He is iiiuiTrect in spnnkLng of lings ns haying 8errnlt>il tcoth, 

•' tu ttu dugong oleo, babiruiiBsu, raunljic, uml oQierB. 

Cbip. 620' 




dre hy tar the largest, in Lliosn imimiilB which hnvo scrnitcil 
teeth. 'i'hosR snimnl-i which have L-uiitiouauB rowH of teeth, 
have thetn citliiir Bitiuitu on both eidu» o£ lUc luuuth, as in 
tho horse, or cIbo Uavo uo fore-twth id the upper psirt of the 
mnuth. OS is the ease with oxen, sheep, ana all the animals 
that runiiiuit«. The nbe-j^ut htu no tipptr tw\h, vxvvpt the 
two Bnontones, No nniiimls which haTu sirniUfl t^-clh, hure 
tbem proLrudiiiK '" from the mouth ; oraciiig these, too, the fv 
male* ran-Jy have tharn ; and to thoau thitt do have tbexn, they 
areof no" use: hence it is, that while tho boikr strikes, the 
sow biles. Ko (i&iiQo] vith horns haa projecting teeth ; and 
all raoh teeth ore hollow. whiJp in otlier anima]« the teeth aro 
»Hd. All"* fish hnvo thi3 tectii ai^rraU.'d, with tlio oxcijption 
of thoBcarua,'" this hiiiing the only one among tho aquatiti 
animaU Umt. hus them leveL^ at the edgt-s. In addition to 
this", there arc maay fishes that have teeth upon tiui toaguo 
and over the whole of the rooulh, iu onk-r that, hy thu- mulU- 
tude of the bites which they inflict, they miiy aofLeu thowj 
artiulu8 of food which they could not possibly manage by 
Many animals, also, have totlh in the palute, and 
in the tail ; *■' in addition to which, some- hnvo thc-m in- 
clining to the inttrior i>f thn mouth, that tht- food m:iy not 
fall out, the animul itself having no other rocans of retaining 
it there. 

CBAT. 62.- 



The asp also, and otlmr serpents, have Eimilar teeth ; but in 
the upper j&w, on the rigbt uud lelt, thtiy have twu of estreniu 
leogth, witiich ai-B perfonttcd with a Bmall tube in the interior, 

•* The mone and (he tlugan;; are jnaUncrii tu tho contrary, 

^^ Tbu ftmilct uf ibc tlcphunt, iimri's tlii)ci.'iii;. clivt'riitiL, and munt.jnc 

tiavR thtm, and tbiy ue equnJly u uacftil ss wilii the main, only. pcTlm'p», 

not to itron?. 

* Thi« i* incoTTncl, unlrit hi; mtTnly nwaiM niiig«l in one continaou* 

line; and even tUca be le in error. 

" Sue It. JK, c. 29. This u colhd the pnrrot liKh, team ihc rcscmblnnce 

of itii npiter anil lowrT jntvs to Ihu boalc of n pairut. 

^ Thej prncQt ihit upjwaranco fiam biin^- worn iway at Ihc aurfac^ 
** Hon liclet waul i! venil " cula," the thmiit. This, ilmugki rrpmliiiW 

by Hardaain, is approved of oy Ciivipr,wh«juitlj' looks iijiun ttu oi'dinury 

reodlofUU BHunlity. Many fish, hu says, sad mors cfipcciiiliy tUe 

(Mae»iu on«a, lian tectri ia tht litorj-nx. 



PLm a iTATraAL HisroKT. 

[Book XI. 

just like tho sting of tho flrorpton. and it is throngh thrse that 
they eject their vMom. The writers who have made the most 
diligent eDnuirieB on the Rubjert, inform ub that tliia venom is 
ugtliicig: but tha goU of the sorpent, and thut it is cooveired 
to the mauth by certain mns which tim Lenejith the epiuu ; 
indeed, there are Bome who state that there is ealy one poison- 
fang, find that bting barbed at the end, it is hent backwards 
when tlie animal has iniiicted a tiit«. Other in-itt-rs, however, 
uffirm that on such an occasion the fang falls out, as it is very 
easily displaced, but that it soon growa" again; this tooth, 
they Ray, is thus wasting in tho serpents -n-hich we see 
haiidlod about hy persons.** It i& nlao stated that this fang 
exiBts in the tail of the ewrpion, and tlmt moat of these anirouJa 
have no less than ttroe. The teeth of the viper are conecakd 
in the gums : the animal, heing provided with a similur venom, 
exercises the pressure of Its fangs for tho purpose of inatiUiug 
the poison in its bite. 

No wingt'd creaturea have teeth, with the sole exception of 
the bat. The camel is the only one araong the animals with- 
out homs, that has no fore-tedh " in the upper jaw. None of 
tlie homed animals hare aerrated"' tueth. Snails, too, havo 
teeth ; a proof of wliieh are the vetfhcs which we find gnawed 
away by snaile of the very smallest size. To assert that among 
marine animalB, those that havG shoUs, and those that are 
cartilaginoiiB have fore-teeth, aad that the Beit-urchin has five 
teeth, I am very mccL surprised how Buch a uotion could have 
possibly^ arisen. With inaects this Bting supplies the phu;«of 
teeth ; tha ape bos tcctb just liko those in man.^ The elephant 

•* There in slwars one fang, &t least, readj to eiipply the place of the or» 
ia (rout, if Igst bv nny ucfidunt. 

*'■ Like tliG jiitr^I-uni of tbu £.1^1 nt llic pi«>«ciit day. But it is very 
dnubtfi)] iTh<;thLT iht pi>i«nii fuii^ is in ail iastanccs proviaiLjIy ^stnictca 
frum llie sci-pents nliicli thty handle. 

■'i llut Ihp c;imi:l, us wtll ni llie lama, liae an incisivo \yone, proTidpd 
witli an iDLiBivfi toutli oneanb iicio, uuil has (^nniuQ and Tnnlur tiKilli as wdl. 

^ If by till* \iitai lie miiuns ttutb Eeiiufuttd from each Dttiui', tbe os&dt- 
tion i« iritonrert. ae in tliMc animnls wo itud iLo molars soparatod fnom tlie 
lower intieivr* by n very eoBaidi-iiiljlii S[wio«. 

» Cuviiir says, a« far as llio atiii-urcUiii i» concoraed, verjiiniply, and 
memly ly lookiug at it, us its. Sro toetb aru very upparent. 

'" The ineiBi-m un; in nuinbtir, [uid vury many Ju appeamnoe, like thoeo 
nf maa. The canines aro dilfoTont in slmpe, tuoiigli similur in nombistf 
Wliat be uy^ about tbe (Ji^pliuuc, iu puouliar to tbu of India. , 

Chap. 63.] 






has in tbe interior of Uie moutli fourtittn teoth, aduptwl fnr 
chAving, in addition to thom which protrufie; in the male 
tL««e are curved inwards, but in the fomale they are rtraight, 
and project outwards. The aca-tnousc,^ a fish which goes b*- 
fora tho buheaa, hiis no k-(-th at nil, but in plnre of ttiem, thn 
interior of the inoiith is lined with )>riHtl(i», hh well as tlic tou^uii 
and piOat^'. Among the Bnialliir laiid quudrujiuds, thu two 
Ane-tecLh ia each jaw tiru Uw longest. 



The other aaimalB ere bom wilh^' teeth, whereM man 1ms 
tli«m only at the eert^nth" mouLh nttvr his biith. While 
other** auimals kvep their Iwtth to the lima of their death, 
man, the lion, the heimta of burden, the dog, and the rumi- 
nating animiils, nil change them ; the lion and lh.o dog, how- 
eTcr, change none** but the eanine twth. The canine tooth of 
the irolf, on the right Bide, is held in high estct-m oa an amulet.*' 
There is no animal that changes the maxillary teuth, which, 
fftand beyond ttie canino tt^eth. With man, the lost teeth, 
whieh are known as the " f^enuiTii," or cbeck teeth," como 
about the twentlL'tk year, and wiiii many men, and femolee aa 
well, 8o lute even as the eightletli ; hut this only iu tlio ease 
of thoBO who have not had them in their youth. It is a 
wcU-kaowB fact, that the teetli are soratlimes shed in old age, 
and replaced by others. Muciunns hau st«ted that he, hiiiis<H', 
nsw oneZoclcs, a native of Samolhrace, who had a new set of 
teeth when he was past his one hundred and fourth year. In 
addition to these faetit, in man males have more teeth than 
females," whieh is the cose eIbo in sht^^p, goats, and Bwine. 

w S«g B. ix. c. 88. 

*■ Very few other animulB are bom with teetb. In thett nalnral state. 
Ape*, doj^ and cats OJtn not horn ■with Irrth, 

" Frtim lh^^ fourth to Itio cighlU month in reality, durinjt whith tW 
four central iuoisora appeiu-. 

^ The only onot tliat Ui> aol abanga are Ihoie wliich tmva Ihnie teolan 
on neb nde of the jaw. 

^ Tbis is errnnoiiuk: lb«y chnago the Incifton snd molars u voU. 

» See B. uriii. c, 78. 

•" Hv us known »* tlio " wimiom '' tuelli, 

■* Tliii U Lot liie fact : tliey haie usunlly tho <nmo nnmbcr. hut thers 
an exceptione on botli aiilua. Jixv lumc U uUo iliu ulim witli ibodp, gauU, 


w SLtm a SJL.TVUXL meroiir. [Dorik xi. 

Timarchus, tht son ol'KicocIea the Pnpliian, liini a. doutili'** 
row of l<'ftli in his jaws : the sctmc person had a brother also 
who iioTCT chnngod his front teeth, and, consiquentJy, wore 
thpm to the very RtiimpR. Thejv is on instnTioe, also, of a man 
huviiig a tooth gi-owiug in iho palate.'" The cimine teeth," 
when lost by uuy (leeitlnit, ai"u never known to «omo agoJu. 
"While in all other animaJa the teeth grow of e. tawny colour 
with old Bgi?, with the hurse, and him oaly, they become whitor 
the older he grows. 



Tho ago, in beaBts of burden," is imiirataJ hy the teeth. In 
the horso thtT" are forty in number. At thirty mouths it 
losea the two fore-t«eth in either jaw, and in the following yenr 
the Bamo number next to theni, at the timt that the eye-teeth" 
come. At the beginning of the fifl-h yenr tho animal Iohpb two 
teeth, which grow again in the sixth, and in the seventh it hae 
all its tcoth, those which have replaced tlie others, uud thuw; 
■which have never boon changed. If a hoi'M is golded** before 
it chsngeB its teeth, it never ehcds (hum. Ib il eimilar manner, 
jilflo, tho ass I0808 four of its teeth in the thirtieth month, and 
the others &0D1. six months to six uiouths, If a Bhe-aag huii- 
pens not to have Ibalt-d hefore tlie last of thtine tt-eth ore shed, 
it is BUre to be barreii." Oxen change Ihieir teeth at two years 
old; with swine they nre nuver ch&Egod, ** When thesw 
several incjicationa of age have been lost in horses and othir 
heasts of burden, tho nge is nsccrtained by the projecting of 
the teeth, the greyness of the hair in tlie L>y«hrowa, and the 
hollow pits that form around them j at this period the animal 
issuppoBed to be about eixtuGu" years old. In the human 

" TliiB il not Tfefj uTiiiommon. 

*■ Not at all tin Qiicommon otcurreniie. 

*" 0/ the swoiiil Bul. 

*' It is only in ihn hane anJ the tas thnt tlicsv jjiiiicati«[iG van he re- 
lied upon. *3 ColumdlarGe. 

** lliiB Iloi no such effMt. 

*• Tlie fontmry i« the cmb : it will h« more prolific, 

*^ Knine vlmni^e thrm jtint i}ia niiim- as otbcir BnimsU, 

** By Dcrtain appeniancM in ttio iiivi^urs, the ag;e of a Lorae up to Its 
twffnty-lburtlj yi-ur, or uvcn lityoml, may be juJyed of; the othM si^'us 
caanQt be eo poaiiively Tclicd upon. 





teeth tlicre is a certain vpiiom ; fur if tlif y are plA(^ nncorcn^l 
Wore a jnirror, thtr will tarnish its hriglitiit-sfl, acrf thry will 
kill young pigeons while yot untlHlged. The other parti- 
(iiilant relative ta the teeth Irnvn bfcn already*' mt^Dtiim^d 
UDiIer th« head of tho generation of majj. When terlhing 
first commeiiL'cs, the bodies of iufunts urt' tttibject \o certain 
nsladies. Those animals which have serrated tec-th rn^ut thv 
most dangerous bites." 

CnXT. (J5.— THE TOKOtfB; AiaMAT,9 -VTHrcn HATl WO 

llio t«Dgu« i* not Mmiliuly fonned in uU uiimils. Ser* 
pents have a very thin tongue, and Lhtet-fQrktJ," wliit^h they 
vibrate to ond fro: it is of a hltick colour, and wliLn drawn 
from out of the itiouth, of catraortliiinry length, Tho tongue 
of the lizard ia two-fotkod, imd covered ivith hair.** That of 
the sea-calf also is twofultl,*' but with the HirnriitJ! it is of thu 
thtnnccB of a hair : tho other auiainla euiplo)' it tu tick the 
parts around the month. Fishes hare aearly the whole of the 
tongue ndlieriag to llie palate, white iu the crot-oditt- the whole 
of it does udhure tiicn-lo : but in the aijuutic Euiimuls ihc iiuhitv, 
which ii llLiihy, perfunus the duty of the tocgne as the organ 
of taat«. In lione, panh;, and all the auiraEds of that elan, 
and in cata as well, thu biiij^ue is e<«'eri'd with ui'jjfri ties,'^ 
which overlap each other, and hear a strong re*onibiatie<> to a 
r;tsp. Snch being its formation, if the animnl licks a man'a "ikin, 
it will wror it uwfiy by making it thinner and thinner; for 
which reason it in that thu saliva of even a perfectly tnmo 
untmid, being thusintrt'duced to tho close viirimty of ihii blood, 
iR apt to briiig oa mudnesa. Of thu tunguo of Uio purple wo 
havo made mention" alrcBdy. With the frog the end of tho 
touguc udheren to the month, while the inner part ia di*iJotned 
from (he sides of the gidlet ; nnil it is by this meaun that the 
males give uttwaucw to their croaking, nt ttie i*eti*ju si n-hleh 

*' B. riii. 0. 15. 

" "Smv]Miniiidcntiliiiii,"iiMii« to be ■ pryfiTiiMc rending to " ssviMima 
ilmtiiinl.' •• Only two-forlte<l in nulity. 

•* II i* not covered with liiiir. 

*' It U wl hi I'll run lit. 

*" Th«c arc Iway. tcinioiil pHpi!I». tho wiminits of wliioh point boek- 
iijrd*. " SiB B. ix. c. 60. 


[Book XT. 

they ar* known as ololygones." This liapp(.iis at sbitcd periods 
of thb year, at which the mnlps invito the females for the 
purposes of propagation : letting down the lower lip to the 
surface of the water, ihey roceive b email portion of it in the 
mouth, and then, by quuvering with the l.oBgue, make a gur- 
gling noifliij from which tho eroaloDg is proilaced which wa 
hear. In making this uoise, the folds of tfife mouth. Let.'yiniiig 
distended, are quite transparent, and the eyes start from tbo 
h«ad sad burn again with the clfott. Tiiose insects which 
have a Bting in tho lower part of the body, have toeth, and u 
tongue as well ; with bt^cs it is of coneiderable length, and in 
the grasshopper it is very proTDinent, Those insects which have 
a fistulous ating in the mouth, hiive neither tongne nor teeth ; 
while others, agiun, have a tongue in the interior of the month, 
the ant, for instance. Tn the elephant tho tonyno ia remark- 
ably broad ; and while with all other animals, each according 
to its kind, it ia always perfectly at libertyf with man, anrl 
him alone, it ia often found so strongly tied down by cortain, 
vtiins, that it becomes necessary to cut them. "Wo find it 
stilted that tho pontifi' Melellua had a tongue eo iU adapted for 
articulation, that he in generally supposed to have voluntarily 
submitted to torture for many months, while preparing to 
pronounce the speech which be was afiout to moke on the de- 
dication of the temple of Opifera." In moat persona the 
tongue is able to articulate with distinetncw at about the 
seventh year ; and many know how to employ it with such re- 
markitble skill, as to be aljle to imitate the voices "■f variotis 
hirda and other animals with the greatest exactnosa. The oLbto" 
aoimals have the eenae of taste centred in the fore-part of tliu 
tongue ; but in man it is situate in the palate as well. 



In man there arc tonsils at the root of the tongue ; the;^ in 
gwine are called the gtandulea. Tho uvnla,'* which is suspended 
.between them at the extremity of the palate, in found only 
in mun. Beneath this Hea a amnUer tongiie, known by tho 

M "Criera." 

"* Ono oT the titles of tLe godJs^s Fortuna. 

" "Uva," or "gwipitf." 

Chap. 67.] 




name of " epiglosai^,"" bnl it in wanling in animnld thnt trs 
Qviparou*. Flw^od as it is between two posKifcs, the ftillctiaB» 
of tJie epiglottis arc of a twofold nature. The one of thece 
pAseagefl &at Iio« more inward is mlled the [Incheul] artery, 
and loads to the liingx and tlio ^i^urt : tltu epiglottis covers it 
during the action afouliiig, that the rlriuk or food may not go 
tlie wrong way. and so be productive of BuQiTing, as it is by 
this passage tJiat the breath uud tlii- ri>)<:e arc toDveyed. I'bo 
other or ejtlerior passuRu is called the "guk,"* and it ia by 
this puss«go tli»t Um victuals and drinlc pass : thii Uuds to the 
btJly, while the former one commiinicates with the cheat.** 
The epiglottis coTCis tho pharynx, in its turn, m-hen only the 
breath or the voioe is pamng, in order that the victuals may 
not inopportunely puntf upwardfl, and vo disturb tlie brtathing 
or artiiiuliilion. TIld tnuhi:^ aitery is compoftcd of cartilage 
and fle^h, while the gullet ia Xormed of a einvwy subetanoo 
united with ilcsh. 

coAP. 67. — rni jncs ; tkb TnitoAT; thr doibat, spiti. 

The neck is found to exiiit in no animal but tliose which 
have both these paaaages. AU tho others which ha^'e the 
gullet only, have nothiug hut a gi)rge or throiit. In thosQ 
which have n UDck, it. is formed of sereral ronndrd rertebne, 
and is flexible, and jointed together by riislinet articulations, to 
allow of the animal turning round the head to look. The 
lion, the wolf, and Ihc hyicna are the only uuimuls in which 
it ia formod of a single'" iigid bone. The ncek is anui:xed to 
the Kptuu, aud tho ^pice to the loins, The vertebral column 
ia ol a bony ffubHlance, but rounded, und pierced within, 
to afford a pitsHitge for Ibe ttjarrow to dos^end from the brain. 
It ia gemndly conclndi^d that the marrow is of the same nature 
a9 the brain, from the fact that if the mtnihrano of exceeding 
thinness which corere it \» pierced, death irruiit-diaUdy tnsacB." 
Those animalj which have long legs have a long throat aswcU, 

■* More geperally " cpiglotlU^" It u tavni iniomo kw niptOct. This 

** OuUet, or pluuynx. 
** StomacbaB. 

"• Alt thfsc animali, on llie cotitrarj", liave 6€»«n veiitbrte. 
*' Thia ia not thr fiict. Tho apiaal nisurow, croti, amy bo irouuiJeil, 
without imih bcinK li>ti iniuicdmte nsulL 




[Boftk xr. 

which 19 the cnsc nl^o witli aquatic birds, althoiigli they liave 
shorb legs, as well as with those which have hooked taluns, 

caAP. 68. — tEKiaaoAT; TnnroiiBr; thb stomach. 

Mhu ouly, and Hic swine, aro subjoct to swellings in thu 
tUroat, whicli aie mostly cuuaud by the noxious quality of the 
watei'^ which they diiiilt. The upper part of the gullet is called 
the fauces, the lower tht stomach.'* By this nam.c. is ondunitood 
a fleshy coacuvity, situate boliiad the traehi'ul artery, aad join- 
icg tlie vertebral oolauiii; it extends in length nud breadth 
liku B. sort of clitiBin."' Tboao animals which have no gullet 
HiTO no stomiich eittier, nor yet iiny neck or throat, fishes, for 
^erample ; and in all thuse the month communicatea immedi- 
ately with the belly. The sea-tor Loiao** lias neither tongue 
uor teeth ; it can hmak anything, howevtr, with the shurp 
edge of it« niuitzle. Alter the tracheal artery there is the 
cBBophagnia, wbioh is indented with hard aaperitiDs reBsmbiing 
bramble- tbuniB, for the purpoBB of luvigating: the food, the in- 
cisious^gmduaUy becoming Bnialler as they approach the belly. 
The roughness at the very extremity of this organ atrongly re- 
flomblcs that of a blaclcsmith'g filu 


In all other animals but man the heart U situate ia the 
middle of tiie hroast; in man alotie it is placnd Just below 
the pup on this left-hiiiid Ritie, the smaller end tenniiinting in 
tt point, uud bearing ouUvard. It ia among the fiah only that 
thia puint is turned towarda tlie mouth. It is aaaerted thftt 
t>ie heart ie the tir&t among the visytini that ia formed in the 
fcetiut, then Iha br,*in, and la!?tof all, theeyea: it ifl said, two, 
that the eyps are th« first orgiina that Jie, and tbe hpBii; the 
Tcry last of all. The hiiart nlso is tlie pfimcipal seat of the heat 
of the body ; it is constantly puJpitatiug, and movi.-8 as though 
it were one animal inclosed within another. It is ahso enve- 

•■' Suow-wflter, we Itniiw, is apt to proiliioo goitre, 

« "Stomii-jhuK," Mots prgporly, iIm oeaophaguf, w i-eatriclo. 

^ Or turilo. It has a trni^ufs and thoiiBh it haa to teetli, the jaws an 
pilgod witli a torny siilistancL- likt- ibc Ijilh of iHirds. 

*" " Cronis" i» read for "iitub:" othti-rwise thepaesBgoUnnintoUigibla: 
it i« Rtill miist probiLbly in a Qoi'rupt atato. 




loped ia a membnuio oquuUy supple uid Etrung, and b pro- 
teoted hy the bulwarks fonned oy thv hb« luiil tito booc of 
the breast, as Wing the primarr souroe and ori^n of life. It 
contains within itwif the pnmtiTj rt«(ipturle» for the spirit and 
the blood, in il« Rinnoni« cavity, which in the l.ii^-r utimnls in 
threefold," and in all twofold at least : hrre it is that the 
mind" hns its ahodc. From this source proceed two \axge. 
vans, which bmnch into the fore-port and thobnck of the body, 
and which, npreading out in a sorim of hranchi^ft, convc^y the 
vital Wood by olh^iT flinulk-r vv'ua over all parlB of lhL> Imdy. 
This is tbo only one*' aiuong the vi^cra that ie not alfcctcd by 
maladies, Dor is it Hubjcct to the ordinary penalties of butnan 
life; but when injured, it produws instuut death. While all 
thi' other vlwum om injured, vitality muy bUU rumain in tiie 

CHU>. 70. — TROflR AiriUiLB WHtCH HATS TUB LABaEn VftkltT, 

Thoeo aoimnhi »re look^l upon as stupid and laropiah which 
have a hard, rifpd heart, while tlio^ in which it is Birndl arn 
QOongcoUK, and those ar^ timid which have it very lar;;e. 
The heart is the largvsl, in proportion to the body, in tho 
moose, the hitre, the am, the stag, the panther, tho weaiKil, tlie 
hyseoR, and all thi; animals, in fnct, which arc timid, or dan- 
gerons only from the effects of ft'or. In I'ftphlngouia the par- 
tridco hsu a double heart. In thi? honrt of the horse Mid the 
ox there are boncH sometimes foiiuil. It is suid thut the heart 
inorcaiies every year in miiu, and that two draclmiBe in weight 
are added™ ytmly up to the fiftieth year, aAer which jjcriod 
it decreases yearly in a similar ratio ; and that it is for thie 
reason that niPn do not live beyond thvir hundredlh year, the 
heart then fuiliiiK tht-m : iJii* is the nolion entertium-d by tho 
E^yptiantf, whose cuKlum it ia to embalm the bodies of the 

" Among all the manuuifene nrnl the birila,, the hnort htA four onndBi, 
two on e4iih «id€. *" Mtns. 

** Thi* is ft mistake. The tictrt is anbjcct Co ctiBcoM, equally with other 

Iportt of the huAjt 
'<' In «pit<i Qt what Scbrnkiiu tay ia conSnnttioi] of Pliny, this i« 
Tcry iIoabtfiiL Of ouiirie it must intrdnsr from childhood, bui (he in- 
crciue sart]y doct nut voulinuu UU the dTUvih year, 
TOL. lU. F 

86 ILIST'h IfATDBAl niSTOBT. [Buck XI 

deR<l, fiiiid 30 pr^etMrve thom. It iii said that men have been 
born with tho heart covered with hair, and that such persona 
arc ipxceUed hy uoue in valour and t:ncrgy ; euoh, for inetonce, 
as Amtoraenes,*'^ the MtiBBeniiui, who elew three hiindred 
LfloefliEtnonians. Being covered with woiiads, oad tak-eo pri- 
soner, he, oa one ocuosion, coadti his escupo by u nanow hole 
which he diawvered'- iu the stone quarry where he was im- 
priewned, while in pureuit of a fox which had found Uidt 
mode of exit. Being again talten prLsuner, wliile his guards 
M'c-ro fast asleep hfl rolled himaelt' towards a fire close by, and, 
at the expense of hia hody, humt olF the cords by which he 
was bonn^. On bein^ t-aten n third time, the t-acediemonJanB 
opened his breast whito ho woa sdll bUtii, and his Ibeurt was 
found covtrrcd witli hair. 


On an examination of the entrails, to find a certain fatty 
part on the top of the heart, is looked upon as a fortunate 
prcsflge. Still, bowc-vtr the heart has not always been con- 
sidored as forming a part of tho entrails for this purpose. It 
was under Lucius Po9lumiii3 Alhiaus, the King of the Saori- 
fices," and alter the 12fiUi Olympiad, when King Pyrrhua had 
quitted Italy, ihiLt the aruspicen begun to examine the heart, 
as part of the consecrated entrails. Tho fii-ei day tliat tho 
DiLctalor Ciesai' appeared in public, d&thed in purple, and tit- 
ting on a seat of gohl, the heart was twice fuuBd waiting'* 
when he sacrificed. hVom this circumstance has risen a great 
qnestion among tliosc wbb discuss matters connected witli 
divination — whether it was possible for the victim to have 
lived without that or»an, or whether it had lost it at the very 
moment** of its deatb. It is asserted that the heart cannot ho 

" Snn nn nonount nf hira in the 'McsacniMa of Piiiisnitifl!, 

" In tills part of tliB itury maj' barn oritriiuiU-d tluit of the eennne of 
Sinilhnil tlin Smlur, vriiEii buried m thv vault witli tliu body of liis wife. — ' 
gte the •■ Aiabiaa Ntphts " 

•^ •' Rai Suptoruni. ' This was a priest elcctctl from tho riatrioians, on 
whfitn tlitt priestly duties dcvolvoHl, which had been oriKinuily pFrfnrmcil 
Ijv the kings of Rnmc. He rnjikL-d ntinva the Poatifei MiwiniLW, but win 
pLiiwoiKed uf little oi- no poliliuni iiiil lie rice, 

1' Ni> doiiM Xhutii wics triektry ia iLis, 

It By Eupcimiituul a^acy. 

» burnt of those pe^rfous who die nf the eardiac disease ; and the 
saam is Hoitl of Lboso who tlic by poisou. At all cvuou, therp 
U still ill exLst«;nco au omtioa ptoDouuced by Vitellius,'*' in 
which ho accuser PisQ of this crime, atid employs this alleged 
fact as one of hie proofs, openlf sflNvrtiii^ that llie heart of 
UenauiicuB Ceesur could not bo burnt at the f'tmcntl pilv, in 
eoasequoni2« of his having been poiHoned. On the other hand, 
the pecnliar nature^ of the dise-aao under ■which Gcnnanicus 
was labouring, was alleged in Piao's defence. 

CHIT. 72. — ntE LPKns: m tthat AinuAia tbkt aks thb lih- 


Beneath the heart ore the lungs, the laboratory in which 
the respiration is prepared. The use- of those, is to draw in the 
air and then expel it j fur which purpose (heir substaTu* is of 
a fipoEgy nature, and filled with cavcmoua holcn. Some few 
anioDg the aijumao animulR hiivc lung*, its wc have already 
stated ; ''^ and among tbc- rest of Uio^o Aviiich are ovipuruuH, thi^y 
are small, of a fuTigous nature, audconUiiniug do blood; hencu 
it is, that thenc animaLft do not expericiice thiiBt. It is forthB 
Bame reason also, tbsit fruga and s^ala arc able to remain no 
loag under water. The tortoise, tao, although it has Itmgs of 
remarkable size, and extending throughout the whole «f the 
shell, is also equally deBtitute of blood. The smaller the luugB 
lire in proportion to the bodj-, the greater is the swiftness of 
the amnial. It ia in the chamelct^n thut the lungs wre the 
largest in proportion to the body ; in which, in fiict, it has no 
other viscera at all." 

CBAP. 73. — THB uvbr: iu what abimals, asd is what TAar 


The liver is on the right side : in thia part is situate what 
has been called the "head of the entrails," and it ia eubjoct 

^ This wai P. VitclUtu, who ssrred andor GenninictiB in O^raieny. 
Hd iru oHA of the aMUMra of Cn. Ptso, who was chntgcd witli Lurjug 
puiMiiml (.icrmanicm. 

^ TUe cardiac diwiM. u allegn). '"^ B, ix. c- 6. 

'" Uui Ko il. riii. «. 61, u>d B. sxnii. c. 29. 

B 2 


to cotisiderabk rariations. Xo Urer'* at all woa found in a 
victim wliieh wns aaerificed by M, MarctllnB, about the period 
■when ho whf. killeil in buttle agaioBt Hanidhal ; whilo in a 
victim which was slain on tho following day, it douljle livor 
was found. It was wuntiug, also, in a victim eacriJiceci by C. 
Harius. at Utica, and in one which was offerod by the Emperor 
Caiua" upoa the calends ol' January,"' on the occasion of hiR en- 
tering the year of the consiilsbip in which ho wns slain : the 
eame thinfj hitppeiieil, also, to liis successor, Claudins, in. the 
month in which he was cut ofl'"^ by poison. When the lat* 
Emperor Augitstua was aacriticing at Bpoletum, upon tho first 
day of his entering on tho imperial dignity, in aix difFcrent 
victims the liver was found rollud over within itself, from tho 
vfij lowcBt lobe ; and tho answer that was given by t!ie diviners 
waa to the effect tbut, i» the course of thu yi!nr, he would gain 
a tft'ofoM flwuy. It is of evil omen to find an ineiBion in the 
heaiiofthe entraila, except oo. occasiong of disquietude o-iid 
ulurm; foi then it is signilicaiit of cutting' all etiree, and so 
jiiitting ail end to them. The Lart^s that are found in tho 
vicinity of Briletam ^^ and Thame, and in tho Oheraonnesiw 
on tho Propontis, have a double liver; but, what ia vory 
singuliir, if they are removed toimoUier place, they will lose 
one of them. 


In the liver is the gftU, which, however, doea not exist in 
every animal. At Chalcis, in Euhcea, none of the cattle hnro 
it, while in the cattl-e of the lele of Naxoa, it is of extrtioriii- 
nary hIzo, and dcmblL", bo thiit to a Btranger either of theBe ftuits 
would appear us (^uod ub a prodi^. The horec, the mule, tbo 
a«, the stag, the roe-buck, the wjl-d boar, tiie camel, and tho 
dolphin havo no gall, but eome kinds of rats and mice have it. 

" Plutnrch wirg Ihnt it was the "cnput," oi "hoad" of the IiTei that 
WM wnntin^, M.Muvellusnas slain wlulc tvcotmoitriug ilie CartLa^nma 
camp by uigiit. 

"' Cmlig^ulu. *i* lat of January. 

" Uy Ilia mere and vlk; Agrippina, tlit mcillifr uf Nero. 

*" See B. IT. c, II. TtiaMia duos nut teeni to be kaown. 0£ cout«, 
tbii story about the bari^H u IJibuluiJE, 


Somo few men are without it, and such ptmWBB enjoy robust 
health and a Ion;; Ufe. There are some autliunt wh'j say that 
tiie gall exists in llio hone, not in the liver, but in the paunch, 
and that in. the stag it is situato either in tbe tail or the 
intestines; and that honce it is, that thow jisrl^ arc eo bitter 
that dogs will not touch thrm. The g.all, in fact, is nothing 
elsfl but the worwl. part* of the blood purged off, and for thi* 
reason it ia Uial it is bo bitter: at all cTcnte, it is a well-known 
£ict, that no has a lirnr unless it has blood as well. 
The liver rcReivcs thu hlooil from tho heart, to which ic is 
united, and tlicn dii^perses it in Ihc veins. 

CHAP. 75. — Tiri: raorKitiiES or thb oall. 

TVlien the gall is black, it is productive of madneaa In man, 
and if it is wholly expelled death will onaue. Hence it is, too, 
that tho word *■ bile" ha« been eniijloyed by us to ehBracterize 
a barah, embittered disposition; bo powerhil ore the eiTects 
o£ this secretion, when it extends its iuEuenee to the mind. 
In addition to this, when it is dispt-rted over tho wliole of 
the body, it dejirivra the eyes, even, of their natural ci>lour: 
and when ejected, will tarnish copper vessels even, rendering 
everything black with which it comes in contact ; so that no 
on4 ouifht to he surpriiN!d that it is the gtill which conMitut'it 
tiie venom of serpenta. Those onimuls of Pontu.i which fei-d 
on wormwood have no gall ; in the raven, the quail, and the 

» pheasant, tho ^l-bladder is united to tho renal parts, and, on 
one side only, to the intestines. In many animals, again, it 
is united only to the tntesUnea, the pi^uon. the hawk, and the 
murena, fur example. In muus few birds it is situate in tlie 
Ii\'or ; but it is in serpents and fishes that it is the lar|f;e«t in 
proportion. With the greaterpartof birds, it extends all along 
throughout the intestines, us in thu hiiwk and the kite- Ju 
some other birdt, also, it is situnte in the bri.-a«t u.* well : the 
gall, too, of the sea<calf ia celebrated for its application to tminy 
purpoaea. From the gall of the bull a colour ia cxlracicd like 
that of gold. The anispieos have consccratt^ the gall to Nep- 
tune and the influence of wat^r. Tho Emperor Augnstus 
found a dotible gall in a victim which he was BOcrifieing uu 
the day of liis victory at Actium. 



[Book XL 


cuEASES mnrm the Hooy. OESEUTATioiia or the juii;sricK» 


It is Baid, that in the small Hv«r of l.he mousE the number 
of lobes corrf&pondB to the day of the ciooq, and that tliey are 
I'oimd to bo just as maay in number us eke is iayis. old ; in 
addition to Trliicb, it is said that Lt increaeos at the winter eol- 
stice. In the rabbits of Bffiticn, the liver is always foand to 
Lave a double lobe. Ante will not touch one lobe of the liver 
of the bramble-frog, in consequence of its poisouous nature, it 
is generally thought. The liver ia remarkuble for its powers 
of prpservation, and siege* have afforded us remarkable in- 
stances of ita being kept so long as a hiindred y^ars.^ 


The entrails of serpents and lizardsare of remarkable length. 
It is related that^a moat fortunate omen-^C?ecina of Volaterna 
beheld two dragotie arising from the entrails of the victim; 
and this will not be at all incredible, if we are ready to believe 
that while King P)TTha9 wns sacrificing, tho day upon which 
he died, the heads of the victiins, on being out oif, crawled 
along the ground and licked up their own blood. In man, the 
entrails are separated frain the lower part of the viscera by a 
certain membrane, whiehis called the *' prEecordia," ^ becanw 
it 13 extended in front of the heart ; the Greeks have given it 
the name of " phrcnes." All the principal viacem have been 
eneloeicd by Natiue, in her prudent foresight, in their own pe- 
culiarmombranes, jaathkBeoiaany Bhoatha, in fact. With re- 
ference to tho diaphragm, there was a peculiar reason for this 
wise provision of Nature, its proximity to the gate, and Uio 
ebauces that the food might possibly intercept the respiration. 
It is to thia organ that is attributed quipk and ready wit, and 
hence it ia that it has no flushy pnrta, but ia compoged of tine 
sinews and membranes. Tliis part ia also the tihief scat of 
gaiety of mind, a faot which is more portieulnrty proved by 
the titillation of tho arm-holee, to which the midi'ifT extends ; 

•• There must he some eomipt reading here ; For, as Billig remarks, 
ilw PTer hearj of a aiefje which lanted a hundred yearg f 
** Ordisiphraunj; froni "pne," "before," and "ow," the' 

le " howt." I 

Cl»p. 79.] 


.indeed, in no part of the body h t)ic tkiii mnrc fine ; for this 
nannn it iB, also, that wo oxporicnce euch pocuUar pleasure in 
Bcratt^hing the parts in itBvivLiuty. lienoj it is, thntin bnttlc* 
Had gladiatoriul cuiuliuU, niaijy pfii^oDS litive been known to 
be pivrecil Umtugli Ihu midnil', and tu diu iii thu ui;t of 

CEAT. 78. — niB DELir : AKtHAM imtca HATS KO BEUT. 

Tnthosofinimnlswbieb have aelflmdch, below tbo diapbrngra 
the belly is situate. In other flnimali it is mngle, but in 
those whidh ruminato it h double; in thoHO, nguin, whiuli 
are deBtitute of blood, tburti i» uu bflly, fi^r ibo intcstinul 
eanol commences in some of them at the raouth, and returns to 
that part, tis is the caso with the ea-pia und the polypus. In 
man it is counoctcd "w-ith the cxtreiuily vi the Btoiuatli, and 
the namw with the di>g. These are the only crpaturea that 
have the belly more narrow at tho lower part; honc^ it is, 
too, that they arc the only ones thai vomit, for on the hcUy 
being fillod, the narrowTicBs at its extremitv prtcludM the food 
^rom passing ; a thing that cannot possibly be the case with 
the animals in which the belly is more capacioos at the ex- 
Ucmity, and so leaves a free passage for the food to the lower 
parte of the body. 



After the belly we find in man and the sbetip the " laotce,"" 
tho plact) uf which in uthcr animal!) i» uuuupiud by the 
"hilhe:'"* it is through iLeeu oiguns that the food passts. 
We then find the largur Lntei>tine», which commtmioate with, 
the anus, and which in man coneist of extremely ginuous 
folds. Those animals which have thi^ longL^st intetttiunl canal, 
are the most voracious j and thoB« which have the bi-Uy the 
most loaded with fut, art> the IcmsI intelligent, Thcru are 
Koijie birds, also, which have two reeeptutles ; tJio one of 
which is the crop, in which they stow away tho food which. 

*" With S&rdiMiie iaiiglit«^ as Baidouui rcinarlu. 
^ " Or ooall guta. ^ Or front iatcstinGB. 

they huTo juat Bwallowt'd, while the other is the heWy, into 
which they disuhai-ge the food whtu it ia duly prcpanid 
and digested ; this is tho case with the domestic fowl, thu 
riog-dove, the pigeon, and the partridgG, The other bird* 
are in general dustitiitc of crop, but thdo they have a more ca- 
pacious gorge, tho jackdaw, tho roven, and the crow, for io- 
stance: some, again, are constituted in neither maimor, but 
ha7e the belly close to the gorgp,. those, for instance, which 
hare tho neck veiy long and narrow, such as the porphyrio,"* 
In tie Bolid-hoofttd ajiimala the htdly ia rough and hard, 
while in Bonie htud auiinids it is provided with rough usperi- 
tiffi like teeth,'"' aud in othcTs, again, it has a rfiticulated aur- 
fuce lik<! tliat of a, &[o. Thoso linimids which have not the 
teeth o-D both sides, n-nd do not niniinatc, digest the food iu 
the helly, fi'uin whence it desueuds to the lower intestiECK. 
There is an organ in kU aniuials attiiuhtd in the middte to 
the navel, and in mim similar in its lower port to that of the 
swine, the name given thereto hy the Onwka hoing " coloc,*'- 
a part of the body which is mibji^ct to excruciating pain*.*' 
In dogs thiagijt is extremtdy dontmeted, for which reason it is 
that thuy are uuable to ease it, exctfpt by great eil'orta, and not 
without coaeiderabic Buflering. Thoso animals with which tho 
food paseps at once from tlio bidly tiirough the stniight intfBtinc, 
are of inautitito appetite, as, for iustance, tho hind- w oil/* and 
among birds the diver. The eleplmat has fuui^ bellicB ; tlw 
leet of itB iotegtines are similar to those of the swine, and 
th« Inngs are four times aa large as those of the ox. Tlie belly 
in birds is fleshy, anci formt'd of a cidlmis substance, In that 
of young Bwallows there fact found little white or pink pt-bbles, 
known by the nnmo of " chelidoiiii," and aoid lo he employed 
in mngieal incantations. In the second belly of the heifi'r 
there ia u black tufa found, rornid like a hall," and of 550 
weight to apeak of: this, it is generally thought, is eingu* 

*• Tho(»ot, probnWy. 

"" lie alluiliK tu- Ihe papillBD of the inuccias glaad. 

w Tlifi colic. 

■8 '' Lapua cnrvaiiiig." Probnlily tbe lyni. 

•* Tha haily of tlie dcplinnl prosonr.? fi,vi} trromveTwil fold*, 

*• Sflo U. ix«ii, c, 77. Tliis aab^UmcD, known hy ilii,- imine of tgngwi- 
pil<>, connsta of TIil- hair trliii-h Ibc iinirnril iiiis swrill'mvrl wlitn liukingr 
hteif. It aisiuneft it round furni, in c«iuts{ueuue of ttie actioa ut' \iiv in- 

Clap. 81.] 


krly effleaciouR In laboriouu deliveries, if it happens not to 
bste touched Uie groun<l. 


The beUy and the intestines are corered with a caul known 
ss the " omeiitum," n^Dsisting of a fatty, thin membrane; 
exwpt in tbo case of thonu- iiaimul* which are oviparous. To 
this raembnuie is attaclictd the spleen, which lies on the left 
side, and oppositu the liver : sometimes, indeed, it chiuif[<.>s 
pkce with the livtr, biit Biich a oaae is looked upon u nothing 
IcM th&n a prodigy. Some persntift imagine thut a spleen of 
extrpmoly diminutive t>i»! ucists in the ovipsmus animoJs, 
us also in sLTpcnla ; at all eviiiils, it i& w \w dct^ptcd in the 
tortoiao, the crocodile, the liznrd, and the frog; though it 
is eqaally certain that, it does not exist in the bird known oa 
the " ffigocophalos,"** hot yet in thoise animalB which arc des- 
titute of bluod. The spleen 8omolniii.-8 viVvn n put-uliur impe- 
diutent in runuing, tut which i'e^»un tlie region of tbo spleen 
is cautenzpd"" in runners who are troubled with pains tJien.-. 
It » «aid also, that if the spleen is removed*' by an inoit^iou. 
■nimwlti may nurrive. 'Hiltc art' «oiiid persons who think 
tiiat with tlic xpleon mun losoii the power of luugliing, and 
that excessive laughttr is caus(?d by the overgn^wth of it. 
'Jihete is a territory of Asia, known ui Scepsis, "• in which it is 
Boid thut thi; spken of the cuttlu is reinarkahly snmU, and 
that from tlioncic it is that remedies for diseases of the spleen 
have been introduced. 


KKXH. axihals WUICH HATK houe. 

About Briletam and Tharnc*"* the utaga hrivo four kidneys : 
whiltv "^ ^^^' other hand, llioac animala which have wings and 
ioales have" uuuu. Tliu kidm-yis ndiicrci to the upper part of 

>* r«rhcip« th« giidnit, or ttone-plever, tlie Scelopox ngocepkola of 

* GeeaUoB. sxv i. e. R1. 

*' Tliii mity be doa« with rafiMy ia dugs or other unimnU. 

" S« B. T. 0, 32. ""' Sit p. G8, 

M Xliu u not Oie east. Birds bare kidnefs, but oi An irn'giiliiT fono. 



the loins. Among all animals, the kidney on the right side ia 
mure cleratad Ibaa the otbt^r, ksa Tut, tuid dnE>r. In both kid- 
neys there la a certain streak of fiit ruimiug trom the middle, 
witli the sole exception of those of the Bea-calf. it ie above 
the kidneys, also,, that animals are fatte^Bt, and the accunmla- 
tion of fat about th«ci ia often the canso of death in siiet^p. 
Small stones toe ftomelimea found in the kidneys. All finad- 
mpeds that are viviparous have kidTiejB, but of those which 
are oviparous the tortoise is the only one that has themj an 
animal which has all the other viacern, but, like man, has tlio 
kidneys compoBod, to all appearance, of several kidneys, similar 
to those of the ox. 

CHAP. 82. — THE beeabt: the mm. 

Nature has placed the hreast, or, in otlier words, certain 
bonps, uround the diaphragm and the organs of life, but not 
around the belly, for the expansion of which it was necessary 
that room should h« left. Indeed, there ia no animal that 
has any bones around the belly. STon is the only creature 
that hioB a broad breast ; in all others it ib of a cnrinat«d 
Bhape, in birds more piirticularly, and most of all, the aritmtio 
birds, The ribs of man are only eight in number ; swino 
have ten, the homed animals thirteen, and serpents thirtj*. 

CHAP. 83. — nra hlabdeu ; animals which have ho bladdkb. 

Ei?low the paunch, on the anterior sido, liea the bladder, 
which is never found in any oviparous animal, with the ex. 
eeption of the tortoise, nor yet in any anima! that has not 
lungs with blood, or in any one that ia destitute of feet, 
Between it and the paunch arc certain ai'tcrice, which extend 
to the pubes, and are known as the ^' ilia." la thu bUidder of 
the wolf there is fouad a sniaU atone, which ia colled " syritOB ;" 
and in the bladders of eome poraons ealcuU aro sometimeB 
found, which produce most excruciating pains; small hairs, 
like brisUea, are also occasionally found iu the bladder. This 
organ consists of a membrane, which, whea once wounded, dots 
not' cicatrize, just like those in which tiie bmin and the heart 
are enveloped : there arc many kinds of membnmee, in fact. 
' This ii a mistake. It dMs cicatriBe, 

CIup. 85.^ 


caxv. 84. — xbkwokb: thx womb or Tnx sow: xns tuts. 

Women haTe all the same organn, tscppt that iwyoining to 
the bladder there is one like a pcihU eac,' Iroin which oircum- 
etanuD it is called tii« " utenui." AnutLur nanio for Uiis part is 
" loci ;"' but in other omiuala it is known by thu maao of 
"vulTa." With the viper and other animals whict generate 
tlieir young within tiiemwlvep, Ihe womb is double ; while 
irith thoav wbiu^L are ovi^jiirous, it i« attached to the lUuphru^, 
In woman it has two concaritica, one on either Hide : when 
the matrix becomc-u displaced, itia productive of fatal tSccta, by 
causing BUflbcntion.* It is asserted that the cow, when preg- 
nant, carries her yonng only in thfl right concavity of the womb, 
and that this is the cu«c oven when shti produces twins. The 
womb of the i>ow is considc^red bLtter eating if shohus alipped hor 
yonng, than if ehe has duly brought forth : in the former caeo 
it is known by the name of "ejcctltia," in the latter it u 
calliHl " porcaria." The womb of a sow that has fanowed only 
once is the most esteemed, and that of t\n)»v whicil have 
eeBaed larrowing, the leant. After farrowing, unless the aui- 
mal is killed the same day, the womb is of a livid colour, and 
lean. ThiH piirt, however, is not esteemed in p. young sow, 
except ju«t nJFter the first farrowing : indeed, it te much more 
highly valued in an animal of a more mature age, so long as it 
is not post breeding, or has been killed two days before far- 
rowing, or two doya after, or upon the day on which it has 
tnlBoarried. The uuxt best after that of a &ow that has mis- 
curried, is that uf 000 that has btfen killed tlie day uiter far- 
rowing : indeed, the paps of this last, if the young have not 
begun to suck, arc excellent eating, while those of an animal 
that has miscarried are very inierinr. The ancient^ colled this 
part by the name of " abdomen," hpfore it grew hard, and 
were not in the habit of killing swine while in a stjite of 

CBAp. 85. — AsmiALS wntcn hate avvrc : isau^^ wiucb do sot 
onow PAT. 

Those among the homed animala which have teeth in one 

» Or hng. 

* "The (priccipa!) place." 

* Ajnunn ntniton tliii pEUMge: "Thfl DfTt^U nr« fatal itliOR this orgaa, 
booonuDg diffptaccid, nbeuibe ttie air." Tbu Uitl u prubnlily corrupt. 



jav only, and pastcni bones on the feet, produce tallow or 
suet, Thoae, on tho other hand, which ai'e flloven -footed, or 
have tiie feet divided into toes, and are with.i>ut boms, hare 
simplt! fat only. Thia fat beeomee hiud, and when qydts 
cold turns brittle, and ie always found at the cxtrpmity of the 
fitah ; while, on the other hand, the fat which Ues belween tha 
akia and the flesh forms a kind of hrj^iLid jnico. Some imimals 
naturally do not become fnt, auch aa the hare and the par. 
tridge, for iiiHtaiico. All fat aniiiiale, male ns well aa f4nna]e, 
are mostly barren ; and those which arc remoHcably fat become 
old the soonest. All animals have a certain degrcA of fatni^as 
in tho oyea. Tho fat in all animals is dwvoiii of Bcnsatiun, 
having neither arteries nor veins. With tho greater part of 
animaU, fatoeBB is productive of inBcniiibility ; bo much bd, 
indeed, that it has been said, tliut living swine have been 
gnawed even hy mice. " It haa beuii even asserted that the fat 
was drawn off irnm the body of a eon of L. Apronins, a man of 
consular rank, and that he was thus relieved of a burden which 
precluded him firom moving. 


The marrow eceraa also to be formi^d of a similar material ; 
in the young it is of a reddish colour, but it is white in tlio 
ogcd. It is only foimci in thoeo bones which are hollow, and 
not in the tibiae of horses or doga ; for which reaBon it is, that 
when the tibia is broken, tho bono will not runnitCj a process 
which ie effeoted* by the flow of the marrow. The marrow is 
of a greasy nature in thuae animals which have fat, and suetty 
in those with horns. It is full of nerves, and is found only in 
the vertebral column' in those animals which have no bones, 
fishes, for infitance. The bear has no muirow; and the 
lion haa a little only in some few bonea of the thigha and 
the hrachia, which are of such extraordinary hardness that 
Bporka may bo emitted therefrom, as though from a ilinc-stone. 

' TajTo, De £0 Uuet. S. ii. c 1, laje that ho saw an inBtanoe of tliia is 

• TUis is not the cBtA. 

^ Thfirn in no Rimilaril.r nlmLeviti hetween tho spian] marrow and that 
whiuU is fuuad in ihe olbei boaco. 


CUp. 8S.y TUB RKBTKa. 9f 

co&F. Sy'-^BOKKa A:ni riBa^poirBs: akixals which bath 
XUTUXR. CAJoriuaKs. 

Tbo boQos BTo liud, also, in those aaimoJB* whicli do not 
grow fat ; those of the aw arc iiwd by muKJcians lor makio^ 
flutes. I>ol[thins have bones, and uot onlinarj- flsb-tiones; for 
they »rc Tiviparou*, Sorjwints, oa tbe other hand, have booei 
like thoEie of li»b. Among aquatic animals, the motluaks 
have no bonea, but the body ia surrounded with circles of 
flcah, afi in tho MCpi« and the cuttle-flsh, for inalaiw*; insects, 
also, are said to be equally destitute of honca. Among aquatic 
animala, those vhich am isartila^nou^ )tavo marrow in tlic 
Ttrtebral colunin; thn sL-a-Piilf lias curtilages, and no bonea. 
Tbe eoTB obo, and tho nostrils in oU aoimats, when remarkably 
prominfint, aro made flexible by a rcmarkablu provisiou of 
iTature, in order that they may uot be broken. Whua cartilagw 
is oocw broken, it will not unit*! ; nor will bone, when cut, grow 
again, e.xoept in beasts of burdt-D, bvtwco) the hoof and tho 

ilojk iaetiMKM in height till hia twenty-firet year, after 
which he fills ont; but it in moxR partifiulurly wlicu ha first 
arrirea at the age of puherty that he seems to have untied a 
Hort of knot in his existence, and this especially when bu has 
been overtaken by iIlDe.e«. 

cnip. 83. — IBB seutb: aki^sals wmcn uaxk kovi. 

Tho nerves* take their rise at the heart, and even surround 
it in the ox ; they have the tame nature and prineiplc ne the 
marrow. In all animals thi-y arc fiistPiifd to tho hibriuoi'.8 
surbce of tbe bones, and no serve to faattn ibose kuuls in the 
body which ore known as arLiauhitious or joiut», t>ouii-timvd 
lying bcitwecD tliem, sumctimus t^urrounding th<.fni, and some- 
times running Erom one to another; in one place they are 
long and round, and in another broa<l, accardjug m thv ue- 
cosaity of eiich case may deinaiitl. When cut, tJiey will not 

* The ban and the [wrtrid^rf^, for iniliinoG. 

* Thero b couiiieoiblc doubt wlmt thr nnnptih rxAcrly incnnt \tij flie 
"nerri ;" and wlietlier, m bet, lli<7 hud aay ilcfmitd idtn at " iKrvL*,*' iti 
vaT accfptatJiTn of iIiq word. Pliny h'Tc rxjiTiinn tint npinintw vntnrtuimid 
hjArwtoilc. "'r«iidons,"n"ebii!W6|"nuuliliUuiu>taiipc'Utu ti« ihcprojiu 
trudation of tbs wonl. 


[Book XI 

reunite, and if ivouiided, it is wohdcrfai what excnicifltiiig 
pain they cau6c ; though, if completely cut asunder, they are 
productiTe of none -whaterer. Some animala are destitute of 
nervea, fish, for inatancc, tho bodit>9 of which are Tinited by 
arteriea, though even these are not tfl he found in tho mol- 
luskft. Whcrcvor thtire are nerves found, it is the iniier oucs 
tlmt contract the liiub, aud tho outer odgg that extend it. 

Among the nerves lie concealed the arterieB, which are 
BO many paegagos lur the spirit : aad upoa these float the vcine, 
as coaJuita for the blood. The pulsjition of the ai'teries a 
more especially perceptible on ttie surface of the limbs, and 
afford indications of nearly every disease, being citlier statio- 
nary, quickened, or retarded, conformably to certain mcnsurca 
and mctriBul laWB, which depend on tho a^o of the patient, and 
■which hare been described with remarkable eltill by Ilcro- 
philuH, who has been looked upon as a prophet in the wondrouB 
art of medicine. ThesB indieatione. liowever, havu been 
liithcrto R{!glcoted, in oonBequence of their remarUablo eubtilty 
and miuuloness, though, at the same time, it ie by the obscrva- 
tioa of the pulse, us being fast or slow, that the health of tliu 
body, as regulating life, is ascertained. 



The arteries are destitute of aenBation, for they are devoid of 
blood. Th-ey do not, all of thenij bowerer, contain the -vital 
spirit, and when ono of thom has betin cut^ it is only that part 
of the body that is reduced to a torpid state. Birds havo 
neither veins nor arteries, which is tho case also with Berpanta, 
tortoiscB, and lizai.'ds ; and they have but a very smaU {itopor- 
tiotl of blood. The veins, which are dispersed beneath the 
whoW Bkin in filnroenb* of citremfi thinneaB, ttrmiii^te with 
such rumarkablo haencsa, that the blood is able to penetrate no 
further, or, indeed, anj-lbing else, except an extremely subtto 
humour ■which oozes forth frfim the akin in innnmta-able small 
di'opg, and is known to us as " sweat." The knot, and place 
of union of thti veins, ia the naTel. 




jmcKSsn BLOOD : those tor hlooc of which is iok tms- 
hxst: ASJUAiB woiua sxvs so tUOOB. 

Tlioso animida in wtich the blond is more atundiint and of 
an unutuous nature, are iruscihlo ; it i» darker in miilee thiui 
ill fvisuios, and in Uie young tlma in ttie agud : tbci bluod uf tlio 
lower extremities is the tbi«k(?tit. There is great ritalit}', too. 
in the blood, and wSien it is di9cbnrp(>d from the body, it 
carri«B th« life with il : it ie not sonsilile, however, of touch. 
Thi>e« animals in which tlie blood is the ttiickest aru the itivKt 
caarageous, and tho.w in which it is the thinneat the iiiont 
intelligent; while thow, again, which have littJe or no blood ar« 
the most timorous of all. The hlood of the bull coagulati.>s and 
hardens the most speedily of oU, and hence it is na 
larly deadly '" whoa drutik. On the oUut huud, the blood of 
Ibe wild boar, the Sttag, the roe-bach, and oxen of ull kiuds, 
does not coagulate, blood ia of ttic nc!iC9t quality in the oes, 
and the pooreet in man. TboHo auimola which have mon* than 
four feet have no blood. In antmaU whipb aro very fut, the 
blood ia less abuucbLut than in others, being soaWd up by the 
fat. Mnn is the only creature from which the blood flows at 
tlie nostrilB ; eome persons bleed at one nostril only, some at 
both, while others again void bIoo<i by Ihe lower" parls. 
Many persuuB dischargft blood &om the moutli at stjited jifTiitds, 
snch, tor instance, as Macrinits Viacus, Eet«ly, a man of pr*e- 
torian dignity, and Volusius Satuminus," tlio Prefect of the 
City, who every year did the same, tmti yet livt-d to beyond 
ninety. The blood ia tho only eiibntance in the body that ia 
Benaible of any temporary increase, for a largt-r ifuanUty will 
come from the victima if they happen ti> bavu drunk just 
before thuy arc socriflcod. 

p. 91. — ksniALS WHICH are wiinour blood at CESTiiu 


Those animal!) which conceal themselren" at certain period* 
of the year, as olrL'ody mentioned^ have no blood at those times, 
with Chu exception, indeed, of some T<!ry smalt drops about tlio 

'" See B. nviit. e, 41. 

" lu alluclua, probubly, to liUimorrboUs, or pile*. 

'» 6oe B. yii. c I'i. '° Bean, donnico, eorp*" *■ 


(Book XT. 

heart. A marrellous diapecsation of Natiirf, ! and verj- simiki 
to that witnessed in man, where the blood is sensible of TBrioiu 
iQoditicatJona from the slightest causes j for not only, similarly 
to the bilct, does it rush upwiirdB to tha face, liut it serves alao 
to indiciLte the viirJouB tecdcncics of the mind, by depicting 
eiianjc, aogcr, and feaTf ia niuny wAys, either by the pideaces 
of the features or their unusual redness ; as, in fact, the red- 
ness of anger and the blush of modesty are quile different 
things. It is a ^ull-luiown fact, that ivhcn a man is in fear, 
the blood takes tw flight and disappears, and that many pcr- 
Boas have been pierced through the body without losing onu 
drop of blood; a thing, however, which 19 only the caae vith 
mun. But as to thoee animala -which we have already men- 
tioned as changing" co^lour, they dcrire that colour from the 
reflection'* of othur objects ; whilr, on the other hand, man ia 
iho only one that has the elemeiitti which eaiiBu these changes 
centred in himself. Ail disciiaes, ae well as death, tiud to 
absorb Ute blood. 

nau-V. 92. (39.)— wttEiHEK thtb blood is tub TsrsaVLE of 


ThcTO ore some persona who are of opinion thut the fioeneBB 
of the wit does not depend upon the thjuness of the bleed, but 
that animals arc more ui' less stupid in proportion to the skin 
or other coverings of the body, as the oyster and the tortoise, 
for instancu : that the hide of the ox and the bristles of the hog, 
in fact, offer a rrsistance to the fine and penetrating i>owfr8 of 
thfi air, and leave no passage for its tranamiasion in a pure 
and litiuid state. The same, they soy, is the case, too, with 
men, when the eltin is verj- thick or <;iilloue, and so exeludes 
the air. Juat as if, indti-d, the crocodile was not equally re- 
murk&ble f»r the hardneea of lis skin and it£ extreme eunnlag, 


The hide, too, of the hippopotamus is so thick, that lances," 
even, are turned fi"omit, and yet this animal has the intelligence 
to adminiBter oerljin medicaments to itself. The hide, too, of 

" Tho p-ylyiius and llie chameleon. 

" Seob.viii, CI.. 51, 52. 

" Walikiiig-iliukji uio still nintlu of it. 

CliAp. 64.] 



ibe elephant makM bucklvn that are quite impenetrabte, and 
y«t to it is ascribed a degree or intt-lligvncc ttiipurior to that uf 
any qtia<]riipcKl. The tOcin jt»f]f i» entirely diivoid ot sen- 
sation, and more particularly that of the hc«d; wherever it 
is found alone, and unflc«ompanied irith flesh, if wowndt'd, il 
wiU not unite, a6 in the check and on tlie eyelid," for 


Those animals which are TiTiparoua, hare hair ; those irhich 
are oriporous, have feaihfra, adalcB, or a abeU, Uku the tor- 
laius ; or uIbo a purple skin, Ukc tho serpent. Tho lover purt 
vf hII feathtrs is hollow ; if cut, they wiU not grow again, but if 
palled out, they will shoot afresh. lu«et.'l« fly by thu aid of a 
frail membntne ; thewiiiK«o[' tho fish "^ callifd thtt "nwaJlow" »ru 
tuoiftenvd iu thu sen, wliile thosi? of the bat which lre<{uenti« 
our house* are dry ; the winga of thin laat animal have certain 
articulations an well. The hairs that imuc from a thick skin 
are rough, while those on fenial4.-s are of a flntr quality. Tho^e 
found on the hors<:'s mane nre tnore abundant, which is tho 
case also with the shoulders of the lion. The dasjpua 1m» 
hair in the inside of the mouth even and under the itxi, twj 
featDfDS whicli Troguit has also attributed to the hare ; from 
which Uie same author concludes that huiry men are thu most 
prone to lust. The moel liairy uf all animuls is tlic barf. 
Man is the only creatui-e that hue hair HM the mark of pubertj' ; 
aud a person who is devoid of tiiis, whether male or female, 
is sure to be sterile. The hair of mun is tartly born with 
hini, and in part prwluced aft(?r his birth. The lust kiud of hair 
will not grow upon eunuclis, though tliat which hiia been bom 
with thciu doett not full olf; which is the cane iiUo with 
women, in a great deKieo. Still however, th«rc have bofn 
women known to be afflicted with fuUin^ ofF of the hair, just 
iiS some ore to be seen with a fini? diown on the face, after the 
eccsatioQ of the TTienstrual diacbarge. In some inBn the hair 
ihat mostly ahoot* forth after birih will not grow Bpoutune- 
liusly. Thu hair of quadrupeds coiner oif every year, and 

'* Ab already mentionBd, tbte is not Ihe faeL 
" Sco B. ix. 0. 43. 




[D.l0k XI. 

RTOWB fl^tun. That of the head in inaD grows tliG fasteatr and 
iK'xt to it Lhs Lair oftlie beard. Whtu cut, Ihc lijiira (dioot, 
iiot from the lAiicc wlierp tJioy liave Wen cut, lis is the caae 
ivilh grass, but at the root, 'fhii hoir groivB qiiiiiilj- in ci>r- 
liiin diflcaaea, phtbisie more parti duliirJy ; it prowe also with 
nipidity in old ngc, and on thu body iiIUt death, lu persDiis 
of a iibidiflous tendoncj' the hair 1biit is pioduved ui birth falls 
off nioix' apofdily, while thai which is ai'torwiunls prcidm.'uJ 
tcrows willi tlie greiitest niiiidity. lo (juadrujK'ds, the hitir 
grows thicker In old iigu: bul uu those with wool, it bocomi'S 
ibinuDr. Those (luadrnpsils which have thitlt hair on the 
lijiyk, hare the bflly i|uil(; stiiioyth. I'tocii the hide* of ox<^ii, 
iiiid thut of litti bull luure i-spcctally, glue is extracU^ b^ 

CHAP. 9S. — THE v\r»: birds that hatb pafs. kkuareahle 


Kan is tlie only mute among animals that has uippk?, all 
the rett having mere marled only ia plucie of Ihem. Amon^ 
f(.!iiiiilw intimals cvuu, tliu only ones that havy mniumce on tbi' 
brcLiet urc thorn.- whitih cuii nurLurf their young. Ki> wnparouB 
Mnimal has majumoe, and those only have milk 1hat are vivi- 
]iaroua; the hat bi'ing the only winged aiiimal that has it. As 
I'or the storiuB that they ttdl, about t.lie Hpri-ech-uwl cjectiDg milk 
from its t<-ats iipou the lips of infuiit?, 1 look upon it as utterly 
fabulous : frotii ancient times the uamo " stris,"'* I am aware, 
lias been employed in maU'dictiona, but I do not think it is 
Tvell a&uertaiHed wtiat bird ie realiy mennt by ttmt name. 

(40.) The fcmale asg is troubled with piiins in the teat.9 
aftisr it hua ibulod, and it is fur that: rcaBon that at the end of 
»\iL m'ouths it weans its young; v^hile the mare aucklcB iUs 
young for nearly the whole year. The iwlid-hoofed animuU 
do not be;-ir mure two yung anon at » time : they all of 
them have two p;ips, mid iiowhtru but between the liiiid le^s. " 
Aniiuuls with cloven I'net and with honia, tiiieh as the cow, for 
instance, have four j)iips, simihirly Bituate, alieep and goats two. 

■" h it not itnprt>liDi.bla ttiut, nndcr tliU iiaini% mme kinJ of large Tarn- 
pin! bnt was mount.; hut, a.'. I'liny *Jiy«, it i» impnftaiWe to amve ui nny 
cfrlnin l;ni>vTimlci' oil tie subjmt Tlic licsf. iwouiinl pivcit i-f tin"' *lm m 
timt in QviJ'i Fiuti, II. vi. Tbr nxm? WMs (nrivu upproUouilj^ Ui aujfposud 
witsbvE, tb« "/eul ood luidaig-lit liuj^" of Sbiik*p«tuc. 

Cbp. 96.] TKK MfLK. 63 

'niOM vhich pTodtico a more numeroiu progt'ny, nod Uiow 
wliich have toe* on Uie f«'t, ha.\-v » greater numlxT of [Mtps di«. 
tribuTcd in & donhtc row all along the 1)ellj, sDch aa tli« 
sow, for instant!© ; the l)cttcr sorts havo tTrtlrc, llic more 
common ones two lem; llic Mine is tho onre nlso with the 
femali- of the ilof . CMh<>r iinimaK ngiiin. hnvo four paps fdtimte 
ml he middle of the boUy, us tliu fi-uxulu mutlicr; olhurB, again, 
two only, ju> the lioin^s«. The fem&Ie eleptiattt has two oalj", 
situate betvt'een Uiu elioulden, and those not ia Uie breast, but 
without it, uiiU hi<lil(.'U in the onii-pits : jiorw of tho auiank 
which have toes have the i»ap» bi-twut-n tlie liind legs, 'J1»e sow 
presents the first teat to tlie fir«t-bom in each farrow, the first 
ti-at bfing the one that ia bitLifttc Dcur^hat to the throat Each 
pig. too, knows its own teat, npcor*ling to the order in ■whi<'h 
It vraa liom, aiii ilmwa its nouriahm&nt from that and no other : 
if ita own BMclditig, Uio, should huj>ifcn to be n-ilhdrawii t'nm 
my one of thi>in, the ]iap will imnn-diutoJy dr^' tip, and shrink 
jack within the belly: if thore should be only one pig Icit 
of all the farrow, thuL jmp ulune which has beuu nMigD<.<d for 
ita uutriiucTit ivhvu bom, ivJU conliuue to hang down for tlw 
jiurpou of giving suck. Tlie bbc-lK-ur hcift four roarnmw, thv 
dolphin only two, at the bottom of the belly ; thvy are not 
c&fitlT viniblt, (tiid hiive a Bomcwhat oMiiiue direction : this is 
ihf only niiinitil which gives huck while in niotioo. The balirna 
and sea-crtlf also Buuklc ihcir young by loata, 

CHAP. 90. (■11.) THE Ull-K ; Tll£ BIKSTI.^tiS. CHKI-^K ; O? WHAT 


'nie milk tliat is aecretxMl in a woman before her wrenth 
month is useless : but alter that mouth, so long na tho fcettis 
is healthy, tho milk ia whoh-domc: many women, indeed, 
nrc BO fnll of milk, that it will flow not only from the mnmmjc, 
but exudes at the arm-pits even.'" Cnin^pls continno in milk 
nntil they nrc pitgiiatit again. Their milk, raised in the pro- 
]iortiou of ono part to three of wutt-r, in eoiiBidered u verj" 
[ileosant beverage. The cow has no iiiilk htifore it bus ciilved, 
tmd that which immodiati'ly follows upon its bringing forth ie 
known us the " coloBUa : " "" if water is not mixed with it, it will 

" lliii iiBtoHioB ii borrowed frcim AiutoCtu, IlUt. Auini. B. vii. c. 14. 

" OrbiaUu^ 

G 2 


coagulate, and ofiBume the IifixdnDSB of pumice. Sbii-afisea. un 
60UU as tUey uru i)regu&ut, liavu milk in their Dilclure; wbuu 
the TJustuioge is rich, it is t'utul Co their yuuug to tttstc tlio 
iQutaer'B milk tile fiist two tlays after birth ; the kind ©i' 
uiulady by which thuy iiro attacked ia known by the thiiuo 
ol* " colostralion." Cheese cannot be toude from the milk of 
aoimals whith hare teeth on cither jutv, from the tircumatance 
that their niilk does uot coagulttie. The thtniLcat milk of ull 
ia that of the camel, and next to it that of the mare. Thamilk 
of the Hlie-aae ia tho richest of all, so much so, iudccd, that it is 
ufUa UHtid instuad of reuuet. Abbi^' milk ia tiko thought to 
be very ejfioacioua in wbiteoing the skiu uf females: at till 
vvvnts, I'wpprea,^ the wifw of iiomitiufr Nero, used ulways to 
huve with hci' livt: Luudred assiis with fu^, aud used to bath« 
tbu wholu of her body in their milk, thinking that it also can> 
ferted udditional sup^ilenoss. ou the tdciQ. All milk thickt^us 
Lr the action of fire, m.d. bc(!omcs serous when exposed to ooU. 
'riio milk of the cow produces more chociiQ thtm thtit of the 
gout : wheu mpul in quuiitity, it will produce uearly twioe the 
weight. Tbu milk of uuimols which hcvu more tEian four 
inaniinm dues not produce cheese ; mid tlmt i^ tli>i: hest wliioh is 
aiado of tlie milk of those that have but two. The reanet of 
thu lawn, tho htire> aud the kid is the mo».t esteemed, but the 
bent of iiU in that uf the daeypua : this lust iLcta as a specific 
for difirrlicea, that animal hcing the only one with teetii in 
both jiiws, the rennet of which has that property. Itia a re- 
morlutblc circumatimce, that tlie barbarous nations which sub- 
sist on milk hii%-e been for so many ageis either ignonint of the 
merits of thi-eee, or else have totally diBrtgajdod it; and y«t 
Ihi?}' understuud how ta thickun. milk and fura theR'frum an 
uerid kind of liquid with a pleusuut iluvour, aa weil us a ridl 
butter : thi& lust ia the foam*' of milk, and isof a thickiiT oon- 
8i8t*ncy than the part which isknuwn as tiie " sarum," "' We 
ou^ht not to omit thut butter hya vertoin of the properties of 
01 L, Httil that it ia used for an. ointment u-inong all hui'Larouti 
nations, and uuiong ourselvea un well, for infanta. 

1^ Bm B. xxTiii. e. 12. fuppiea Bubitin, first ihe imatreM, then Hiv vir?, 

'* " Spumii." Uc coUb it so, became il flouts ia ilie eiirfucw. Siw B. 
isviii. c. 36. Tlifl "actrr," ut acrid liquid, wliicti lio »pt'uki uf, U, no 
iiuubt, tiutlur-iuilt, " Ur wirnj'. 

chap. 97.1 



CRAr. 97. (43.) — tawoos kivw of cnBssiu 

The tdnilft of chewK that are most eat«eincd at Home, ■whfw 
the various good things of nil nations are to be iucJgttl of by 
comparison, uro thouc wliich come from the provincw of Ne- 
iDaaauB," and ntoro p.iperiiiUy t}ie villngi-s Ihcro of Leeuni 
aad Qabalis;'' but its uxcuUtnce Js only very &bnrt-IiTcd, imU 
it must be vatcQ while it is fresh. The pastures of the Alps 
mxiEDtDeDd tbemwlves by two wrta of che»]«e; the Dalmatic 
Alps send us the D«cU-«ti;in* cheew, aiid the OentroniMH* 
.VI[M tfie Vat 11.1 iuun. The kimls produced in the Apcnninea are 
more numerous; from Li;;uria wo have the thw-sft of Ceba,** 
which is mostly rnmlc from the milk of shrf-p; fWirn TTinhria 
w« have that of JEainn, and from Uie frnuiitrB of Kiruriu and 
Liguria those: of Luiio, ri'Riarkubli: for tht-ir v(i»t size, a ut)(;Iu 
chccBO weighing n» much as a tliou«ind pomid.'i. IJeacer the 
City, again, we have the chocBe of Vtvlinum, the best of this 
kind bcdug that which coiovs from the tj-rritory of VvAi' 
tium,** Oonta also pnxluoe a oheet>e whic:h has hi^n of laic 
held in the highest eati-^m, iU fluTour being htight>cui>d by 
unoking it. Thechccsc of this kind which is made at Borne 
is considered preferable to any othpr ; for that which is made 
in Oaul hui r ittriiiig taiite, like that of mcMJicino. Of thi- 
cheetea that are made beyond sea, that of Bithynift" is iimally 
considered the first iit quality. Thut nalt f-xi>>ta infnetun- 
latida is pretty evident, from the fact that all eliucau us it 
grows old coiilracts a saltish flavour, eviu where it does not 
a{^ar to any grvut cjiti'Uti** while at the same time it is 
equally well known that chee«e soaked in a mixture of thyni)* 
and vinegar will rt-gain its original frpoh flRTour. It is Miid 
that Zoroaster lived thirty ycum in the wihiemeiw «i>on chceae, 
preparM in such a peculiar manner, that he was inecnsihte to 
the advances of old ago. 

*' Numn. in Fmnrc, Ilanioiitn epenks nf p^fn-milk chenei in(td« in 
ill nciffhbuiirliudd, ntiJ knoirti UB/nnnuj7*» lit lUiui 

" ^vbably t^be roodani Lowrv c>nd GctsuiIjir. Sm It. it. g- 19. 

■■ For tbs DocWutii:, it'« B, iii. c. 26. 

** For tha C^catronca, sea B. iii. c. 24. He pci^api Nfan to UiB nodKm 
fnmag* dt Ittui. 

*° Tbe tnodo^ MorqiUBat de C^re, whtok ilill prodacM cxcoUcnl ohot«c. 

■' Sm It. lir. e. ft. 

** And more (api'oinllj at .Salniia in Diihynin. 

*> H £tiaiii nbi QttD vilctur major." I'Lu U prohab!)' (<omi[>l. 



[BwiL XI. 

ca.ip. 98. (43.) — DiFfc-jaiKKuB« of xuk siEJiaEaa of uxs from 

Of nil tlio terrestrin! onimiils, maa is the oaly biped : he la 
also till} only oiio tliat has a throat, and ahouldera, or " hti- 
nieri," parte ia other iniiuiuls knuwa by tli^ naaie uf " armi," 
Man, too, 19 the only animal thut baa the " ulna," or elbow. 
Thoae uniiaaU whiula iiro provided wilb handsj huve flesli 
only On thu interior oi ihnto, the ootcr part couvlBllng of eiueivii 
nitd skin. 

CHAP. 99. — THE rrKOT^RS, THE AttMS. 

8orao porBOBs have six fiugera on tha hands. "We read thut 
C. Horatius, a uDiin of paU'icifin rank, had two daughters, who 
Inr this reaaoii hud 1:he name of "Sedigitffi;" iind we find 
rtiC'Dtion riuitlo of Volcatiua Sedigitus,^' OA a famous poet. 
The fingera of man. havo thrco joints, the thumb only two, 
it bonding in an upE>03ite dirtJoLion. to all the other flngera. 
Vicwfd by itself, tbo movement of tlio thumb has a sidt-lonj; 
direction, und It is muvh tlticker thaa tbo rcat of tho fiugeni. 
The liltlu tiugvv is equal m It-nglb to the thumb, and. two others 
ttra also equiil in leaytb, tlie middle finger biing tii« longoBt 
of iiU. Tlioao q^tiadrapeds whii;h live by rapine have fiva toca 
on the fore feet, and four on the bindci' ones. The lion, tlie 
wo!f, and the dog, with some few othcjrs, hiive five claurs 
on the hind ft*t, one of which bangs down near the joint of the 
leg. The other animals, ulso, which are of smaller aize, ha^-e 
five toca. The two ano3 are not alwaye dijiial in kngth : it 
IR a well-known fact, thai, in Lho school of gkdiatora belong- 
ing to CaiiiB Cicear,'' tho Thracian Studioaua had the right 
arm longer than the left. Home animals tdao uee tlieir foro- 
paws to perform the duties of hands, and employ them in 
couvoying food to the mouth as thty sit, tho a^uirrel, for in- 

cn.ip. 100. {4i.)^aESRTiaixsi!B of titk apb m man. 

As to the various kinds of apes, they offer a porfi;ct ri^sem- 

** He WTOW a poem, in whith the piinuipal Latin Unimitriita are enome- 
rateci. in the ftrdcr of merit, A. Gtlkua, B. Tf. c. 24, biiA |<rw«:rvcd a por- 
lioq of it. 

^ Gunuanicut. 

llance to m»ii in the fucc, the uoBtrils, the vtir^, ami the ryo- 
Jtda ; being the only qimdniptds, io iiiot, tliut iiuvu c-yviuutii-a on 
the Lower tyeii'l. I'hcy have maramK also on the brvast, urms 
mi legs, which beii<l in opposiU- (lireotioDB, luiil nails upon 
t?ie hands and fingers, thu miiUlIe tingi-r bt'-iug th» luugi^t. 
Ttiey AiSvT wmu'whnt from nuin in the fret; U'hich, liku th« 
hands, are of remarkable knglh, niid havo u print similar ti» 
tlmt of tho pnlra of oar hand. ITiey hurc a thtimh also, ami 
orticulotious similnr to thnsp in man. The molis diflt-r l'r\>m 
man in ihf fipxnal part?! only, whilo nil Uik iutj.-nial risccrd 
t'XUcUy TLagmtde ihoao ofmuu. 

CUAP. 101. (45.) TB8 XArw. 

It is gonrnJIy supjiosttd Ihitt the niilU an- the trrminatjons 
oftheslnuw^. AU Animals wliich hare fingcnt liiivu Duib ua 
well. In the ape they are loii^j luul grtTlappiuy,** like a lilf, 
wliile in man they are bixjud : l-ht-y will ynnv even alter desth. 
Ill Uie beiiBts of yivy tht-y aro bunked, whilw in otbcrx, 8ucli 
the dog, for inatanc*>, thc?y an-- slmiRht, with tlie exception, 
;d, of ihe one which is attochod to thf h-g in most of 
I. All the nriim-ilN which hjive feet [and not IkhiI's], h»v« 

U well, excppt the elephant; he, ulao, n-oulil npiioar tu 

vre toes, five in number, but rudtly dtrcloptd, undirided, 
and hardly distinct from one another, beuring a nearer rcscra- 
lilftDco, ia faflt, to hoofs than to claws. In lh<? depbant tiiu 
fiire-feet are llie largest, and in iho hind-ttut Uieru are short 
jointa. Tim Qnimul is ubli'. also, to bend the huiLs imvanl 
like a THUD, while in all tho othei-s th« jointa of the iiiiidi'i' 
\fg» bend in a eontrarj' direction to thuso of the fore uiiw. 
Those animiJif which ar^ \-ivipartni» beud the foiL'-li-g forwardj 
while the joint of the hind-lug is directed l>iickward. 

rH.U'. 102. TKE KITEKS ASD TilE 0^1318. 

In man the knee and the clhonv bend contrary ways; th^ 
same ia the ciwe, too, with the bear and the ape, and it is for 
this reaaon that they are not so Bwiik of foot aa other ani- 
mals. Those quadriipeda wliiiih arc ovipamuH, Buch m the 
LTocoiltlo and the lizard, beuU iho knee of the fore-leg boek- 

1* Ttat teems to be the meaning of " imbricntua." 



■wards, and that of the hind-li'g forwanls; their thighs otl- 
pliic:(!d on them obliquely, in a similiir maunr-r to a man's 
thumb; whioh is the cano also with th(? multipede insecta, the 
hind-IrgB only excejttttl of such fia leup. Birdsj like i|uudru- 
jwcIh, have tbtj joiots of the wiags bunding forwarde, but thwit) 
of tho legs I)ackwurds, 



lo accordance with the uajigrs of vurious nations, eertJiin 
rr-ligiouB ideas have been uLUiuhcil ta the kniitis. It ia tho 
kneca that Buppliunts claap, and it ie to thctic that they extsod 
their hands; it ia th« kneea that they worship like bo many 
alturs, as itweru; perhaps, bocauso in thctn is eentrod the 
vilnl strength. Fur ia the joint of titlior knvc, the right 
ktut vaeli as the left, there is on the fore-sitle of each a certuiii 
empty apace, which bears a strong resemblance to a mouth, and 
through which, like the throat, if it is oiu'-e pierced, the vital 
p'>wer8 escnpe." There are filso certain religious ideas at- 
tached to other parts of ihe body, aa ia testified ia raising tlie 
Imek of tho right hand to the lips, and extending it as o. token 
of good ftiith. It wiia tlie tuatoin of the .uncient Greeks, when 
ill the act of aiipplicution, to touch the chin. The seat of the 
memory Lies in the lower part of tho oar, whioh we toutli 
when wo surainoa a witness to dopoee upon memory lo an 
arrest.^ Thf seat, too, of Nomusis'" lies behiud the right our, a 
giT'ddoes which has Qever yet found a Latin name, no, not in llic 
UapiU>l even. It is to this part that we apply the dnger noxt 
the? little finger, aOer touching the mouth with it, %vhen wb 
BJiently ask pardon of the gods for having let sUp an indiscnett 


Men only, in general, have vurii^oae veins in the logs, wu- 
mim but very rarely. We are informud by Oppius, that 

" Though wounds in tbe kne« sre higlilf <liuigi:rouR, deaih does ool nt- 
anan'fy ensue. 

** Of uuDther p^reoa, who bud Ihwt forfeited hi* bail. It woa ibo cua- 
tom to WuBh the ear of thfl atlcatinj wilnega. 

" Thfl ^oddcM of retiibiitiira. See n. unit, c, 5, whew ho makei fur- 
ther numtioa of her statue in tho OapitoL 

C. Ibfarius, who was seren times ooDsul, Trw tlio only m&n «T«r 
knowu t/j b« ul*]t> Co lixve them «xtruct«tl in a etuutUog po- 


All animalB take a right-hand direction when th^j first 
begin xa wnlk, antl lie; down on iho ielt side. "WTiUo the other 
wiiinal6 walk JuEt as it may hii.p{>oD, the lion only and the 

icaniel walk foot by foot, or io Binih a way that the left fool 
Dsver patiaes the right, but always couiin bt-hiud it. Mf n have 

,tb» ItirgL'et f&et; iu L'V«ry kind of animal the ft-miJL' biw thu 
Bniallvat. Man only" has calves, and flesh upon the legs ; we 
find it stated by tiuthurs, huwevt^r, tliiit thi-n* waa once an 
Eg}ii>tiaa who had nu calves on bia l<-ga. All m«u, too, witb 
Bome few txcepiions, have a boIp to the foot. It is from th«M 
exceptional casrts thiit p<-raonB have obtained the umnes of 
Plaacus,''' Fluntus, Pansu, iind Scuurus; juat an, from the mal- 
fonufltion of Clie logs, wo find personB ualled Viirua/' Vacia, uud 
Vatiuius, all which bleniishee aro to be seen in quadrupeds 
aho. Aiiimalfl wliich have no horns have a eolid hool', from 
vhicb circuiUBtanct! it ia used by tlu-m us ti weupou of oflenoir, 
Id place of hums; euch antniaU us those uro uIho dos- 
titute of pastern bon«s, but thoee which haw ciovea huul« 
'have thvin ; while those, aftaJn, which have toes have none, 
Dor ate tbej pver found iu the fore-fpct of animals. Thu 
.camel has pastern bones like those of the ox, hut somowHat 
jsmallor, the feet being cloven, with a slight line of diviision, 
uud huviag; a flft^hy sole, like that of the biuir : heuco it ia, 
that in a long journey, the animal beooDies fatigued, and ihu 
Jbot crouks, if it is not shod. 

CHAP. 106. (46.) — UQors. 

The horn of the hoof grows again io no anlmali exo«pt 
beastB of burden. The awino in bome plac«e iii Iltyriouiu 
luive solid hoofs. Kearly all the horned finimalij arc oioveu- 
looted, QO aoicial having BoUd hoofs and two horns. Thv 
Iftdiaa (lss is gnly a oue-horQed animal, uud the oryx is botli 

" Th« frog ia, in aomo mesiiiim, n.r> eicc^ptinn. ^^ 

** Or "flat-riiot," ••gpky-fcict," "Ut"^'""' '" and "dub- ^H 

» Word* m^uuiig " Loock-kaoed," 1," uil " 





iHie-linrned and oliivfii-footPfl. The Inflkn asa" is the 
only ftolid-hoofi'd animal thut hua pastcrn-boiics. As to 
swine, thty arc looked upon fv\ n sort of moTigrcl rnce, with a 
mixture of both IdndB, luid lienoe it in thiit their ankle-botira 
lire BO migshiipL'n, Thoafl authorH who have imaged Ihut 
man has siuiilm' pasteni- bunts, urn caeily to hv couiuttd. The 
tj-nx ia the only one amoog the aoitiialB that have the feet 
divided into toes, that has anything hearing a reaemblanop 
lo & piiak'rn-bono ; while with tho lion it is more crookid 
etill. The groat paBteru-bone in ati-aJtjht, imd sitLiate in the 
joiots of tliu toot ; it jirojectB outwards in a convex protube- 
rance, anil ia held fast in its vertebration by certuin liga- 

CHAP. 107. (47.) — I'HB FEEI OP BEItiDa. 

Among birds, some have the feet divided into toes, while 
others, again, nre broad and fiatfooted — ia otliers, wliioh par- 
take of the intermediate nature of both, the toes are diviueil. 
with a wide epuco between them. All birds, however, bavo 
tour toes — tlitffc io tront, and one on the heel ; this hvst, how- 
ever, ia wanting in Bonie that have long legs. The iynx** i« 
the only bird that has two toes on paeli side of the leg. This 
bird alao protrudes s long tongai; simillir to that of the serpent, 
and iteim turn the neck quite round and look bBckwards ; it 
lias great talons, too, like those of the jackdaw. Some of the 
heavier birds have spurs also upon the lega ; but none of 
those have them which have crooked tiilons as well. Thii 
Inn^-footed birds, as they fly, extend the legs toWRrds tho tail, 
while those that have short lega hohl them contracted close to 
tho middle of the body. Those quUioib who deny that therti 
i» any bird without feet, assert that those even which arc 
called apodes,** are not without tlieai, as also the nee, and the 
drepanis," which last ia a bird hut very rarely seen. Ser- 
pi^ut^, too, have beea Been with feet like tbose of the gooftt). 

•3 The ihinoeer^w, 

M Or rrjTieck. " See K s, c. S. 

* SuppMcd to hp tlio Hininilo spna of Linnroiia, (Jf the "oet" nt^tting 
li kniiwa ; indocid, the roadiuj; is vory doubttiil. 

Chilp. 109.] ,TI« ftEXCAI. P\ItT8. 


rwo FXET to iiiwti wiru X UUXUUKU UWAUF-. 

Among iiisi<clD, tliosfi which liavo bonl erOB have the Tore- 
ii-ctlong, iaurdir thut from ttiub tu t'luiu ihvy muv rub ilu; 
eyes with Uieir feit, a» we freqiiontly bco done by llie«. Th« 
insects which hnre long hind-feet are able to leap, the locust 
for instance. Ail theec insects have six fett : ami Bome of tho 
tpiden hav« two wry l^ng fwt ia addition. They hnT*-, all 
of them, three j<'iiit». We hare already" «t»ted that inarino 
Ittsrcts hsTfl eight feni, such ax thtt jiolyput*, the espia, the 
ttitllc-fish, and tho crah, unimajH which more thtir arms in a 
contrary diretlion to their feet, which hwt they movo srountl 
« well as obIiqii(-ly : ihpy am the only animijs tho fwt of 
vhioh have a rounded form. Othfr inwcta have two feet to 
Trgulale their movemciita ; in tho crah, and in that ouly, thi«c 
duties art) performed by fuur, Tho liuid Animitla which exceed 
this number of feel, as moet of tho' worms,** never have fewer 
tliiin twelve feet, and Bome, indeed, us miuiy us a hundred. 
The nuniher of fe«t is never unevvu iu any Htiiinul. .^luuii^ 
the solid- lioofi^i auinialts the legs are of thuir proper It^ngth 
from tho moment of their birth, alter which they may with 
nO'CC propriety be said to ext«nd themselvL-s lh«n to incrfusw 
ia growth : hence it is, that in infancy they on- iiblo to ftcmtch 
Iheir eai-s with the hind feet, » thing which, when they grow 
older, they nro not ab!e to do, bo*ausii their increa«o of growth 
fltfecLi only the fluperficiea of the body. It is for tho same 
nason also, they arc only able to grazi! at first by bending 
thA kncca^ until su'ih time us the neck has tittuiued it« proper 

(49.) There ore dwurfli to be huui among all aniinals, and 
■moQg birds bvvn, 


Wo have already epokcD fiiifficiently** iit length of those ani- 
mab, tJis malcH of wmch have tho eexuut parts behind. In 
the woU^ tho fox, tht; wem^'l, and the funx't, ttiene [mrts are 
iKmy ; Mid it is tite gtnit«J* wf Ibo hwt- mentioned aiiiiiiul 

«* B. )i- c. 44. 

■* Hetvidcndymwnsiiweotiof tboccntiptMie cbiu. SeeB.xiis.g. 3&. 
*• B. X. 0. 83. 


[Dook XI, 

that Biippir the principnl mmedJos for caJculua in tlio humuii 
HaddfT. It is paid nlan that the geaitulB of th« btar uro 
turned into & hnrny aabBtmnce the momeat it dies. Among 
the peoples of the East the verj* beat 'bow-Btringa are thow 
which are made of the member of the camel. These parts also, 
among different mil.ionn, Eiro made the object of certain uaages'" 
and rfligioiia observances ; and the Galli," the priests of the 
ilother of the gods, aro m the hahit of castrating therogelvcs, 
without anv dungeroua rosiiltfi. On the other hand, there ia 
in some few vrmacv. a moBstroiis reseinhlanoG to the mole oon- 
formntion, while herraftphroditeB appear to purlake of the 
nuturti of both. Inatanwa of this last conrormntion were 
Hoen in quadrupedB in Nero "a reign, and for the first time, I 
imagine ; for he OBt^ntutiousLy paraded hermaphrodite horses 
yoked to his car, which had been found in. the territory of 
the Trcviri, in Gaul ; as if, indeed, it was so r&marfcahly fin« a 
sight to behold the ruler of the earth seated ia a chariot drawn 
by monstrufiitieB I 


In sheep and catllo tho teatea hang down to the legs, while 
in the hoar they are knit up cloae to the hody. In the dolphin 
thcT are very long, and are ooncpnled in the lowttr part of the 
helly. In the elephant, also, thGj are tjiiite concealed. In 
oviparaufl aoimals they adhere to the interior of tho loias. : 
these animals are the most apeedy in the venereal eoDgress. 
PisheB and sorpentB have no testes, but in place of them they 
hare two Teina, which nin from the renalregion to thege^nitals. 
The bird IcnowB as th<i "buteo',"°' has three testes. Hun is 
tho only creature in which tho testes are ever broken, either 
nccidentally or hy some natural malady ; those who are thus 
afflicted form a. third class of half mc-a, in nddilinn to her- 
maphroditcB and bunuchs. In all npecies cif animals the main 
is more courageous than the female, with the exception of tho 
panther and the bear. 

CHIP. HI. (500 — Tim taiis a? lynmts. 

Kenrly all the aniniLda, both Tiviporous aa well as oriparous, 

*" Such ai circumttainn among the Jews. 

n See B. nnv. c. 46, 

** Fiubublf the buzsarJ; firom tliia aittc^viK callei) the '^ triorehJs." 

Cksp. 113.] vatrssxsT toices or ahim^vlr. 



■with the exfieplion of man and the apo, have Uils in propor- 
tion to the nGce«sitaea of the body. Lq ammals witli t)riatk'ft 
tlie tail in bare, as in the hour, for inavmce. In those that are 
shaggy, it ifl emnll, Riu-h np the hoar: whilo in tho^c ammolB 
IJiat bare bng huir, the toil ie loug al?o, the horse, f<rr in- 
Btouuc Thu toil of a lizard ur erqicul, ircut off, will grow 
agsin. The tail govei-ua the movb-ruLnU of tliu iiah Uko a 
rudder, and turning )rom side to side, to the right or to the 
left, imptfle it onwardE, actuig in some degree like an oar. 
A double tail is sornetiines found in lizii,rdB. In oxi-n, the 
stalk of the tail is uf remiirkulilo length, and is covnrt-d with 
TOTigh hair at thp extremity. In the aas, too, it is longer than 
in tbe horse, but in beast* of burden it ia covered with bristly 
haira. The tail of the lion, at the extremity, is likc' that of 
thi' ox and the field-monee ; but this ie not the uaae with the 
^unther. In tlie iu.'t uud the wolf it ia coveri^d with hug 
hair, aa in nhecp, ia which it is longer also. In awioe, Una 
tail is curled ; among dogi, those that are mongrels uarry it 
close beiieaUL tho bvlly. 


Arii'tollc'' b of opinion that do iminud bus. a voice wbiuh 
diwa Qut rcftpirv, uud that hcacc it ia that there is no voite la 
insects, but only a iioiEe, through the circulation of the air in 
the interior, and ita resounding, by reason of its cuinprt^ssioa. 
Some inMttct«, agniu, he Kiys, tmit a sort of humming noiae, 
cuch 89 the bee, for instance ; others a shrill, long-drawn note, 
like the gnifishopper, the two cnvitica heneath ibi; thorax ro- 
ceiving the air, which, meetitig a mov*iabIe membrane wilhia, 
emits a aouml hy the attiition. — Aku that flten, been, and 
other inacctfi of that nature, aro only heard whilu thuy ai'u 
flying, uud eease to bu heard the moment they settle, and ikit 
the sound which they emit proceeds from the friction and the 
air within them, and not from any act of reapiration. At all 
evcutii, it is geucrally belit^ved that Ihe locust emita a soimd 
by rubbing together the winga and thighs, and that among 
the aquatic animals the stallop makes a certain noise as it 
flica.* Mollusks, howf-Ttr, and the tostjioooiia animals have no 
voice utd emit no sounds. Ae for the other (Uhea, although 

K Hist. Anim. B. iv. c, 9, 

M Sw B. ii. ». 52, 



Hook XI, 

thoy tiTO doatituto of lungs and the traclieal artery, they oro 
not enUrely without tbe power of emitting certuin sounds : it 
is only a iiiove jokt to B;iy Ibat the noisu which tliuy make » 
jiroiJuM^d "by grating thtiir tet-th toj^ethor. Tin; tish, too, thut 
is found iu the river AclidoiH, nn-d 13 known as tho boar-fifih,** 
innki's n gruinliig noih-c, 119 do some others which vc have pre- 
viously*' luPBlioned. The oviparous animals liias: in the 
Borpent this hissing' is prolougijd, in the tortoiBo it is short and 
[ilii'upt. Fr%'S make a intculiiir tiuise uf tliwr own, m ulruiidy 
btcittd;" unlees, indeed, this, too, is to be looked upon ua a 
]U!4ttcr of doubt; but their noiso origiiisilcB in the laoulh, and 
not ill the lliontx, Slill, however, io rofcivnce to tbis suhjfcl, 
tho natiu'e ol' the various lotalitioa exercises a very considemhle 
inHuoncc, for iu Macedonia, it is siiid, tlie froga are dumb, atid 
The eamc- iu rc-ierenee lo the wild bonrs there. Among birds, 
the snitdler ones cbirp and tintter llie m<iBt, and more t-epu- 
eiully «hoiit the lime of piiinng. Others, again, cxiircise their 
voice while figliting, the qmdl, for iiietance; others before 
liiey bugiu to fig-ht. sueh us the purtridffe ; and others when 
llivy bitve gained the victory, the dimghill coek, for instauco. 
T)iy lUttlea in these spycles h;ive a peculiar note of their own, 
while in others, the nightiiigule ior (3:iuniple, the male has 
the tiume notti as th>? fLuiiide. 

Sotne birds. sing ull tiic jear round, others only at Certain 
limes of the j'car, as we have already mentioned when speak- 
ing of them individtiiilly. The elc])b«Tit produces n noiso 
Fimilur io thiit of sneezing, by tbo aid of the mnuth, and in. 
dependcntly of llio iioBtriJB: but by means of the nostrils it 
emits a sound giniilar to the lioarsc braying of a trunijict. 
Jt is only iu the buviiie race that tiie voite of the feniiile is the 
deepust, it being in all other l;indB of animals more clii-ill than 
lliat of the male : it is Hil< same ulsit with tlic male of Ibo 
hutnan race wbun castrakd. The infant at ita biitb ia nvvtr 
heard to utter a erj- hcfun? it liiL^ entirely left the ntenia: 
it begins To spcult ht the end of the fii-st year. A eon of 
f>Q3aus," howeviT, spoke when only fiix mouths old, nnd, while 
yet wielding the uhild's rutUe, nifurded portentous omcnB, for 

1' •' Apor," » B. ix, c- 7. 

"^ Sco L-. 09 of (lio pnufiit Tlook. 

•■ Not iW duni'i Kin nn'iiUimfd bj- Ucrodotos, irho saved Lii futlicr'i 
Ufa ut tbc taking or Sut ik-s. 


it was at the same period Uiat his futber's empire fvU. Tboeo 
chililrcQ which bepin to iqwiik llie BOonpat, bi^n to walk tlie 
Ltt«8t, The hum;ui Toictt ucquin-s titiditiuitul strength ut Ibu 
fourtet-ntL jetLT ; but in old age it bccompi* more ittiriU agftiRr 
and there is no living creature in ivhich it is sutjjoct to more 
i'rcqucnt changes. 

In addition to the preceding, there arc etill Bomc lingular 
rircunictanci^B that deserve lo liu raentiontiil with rfferpiiLP to 
llie voice. If saw-dual or Bund ie. thrown down in the orchcB- 
tra of u Ibcutre, or it' tho wulla urouiid aro litft in a roii^h 
suite, or empty caaka mo placed there, tlie voice is aWorhcd ; 
while, on tlie other iiaud. if the wall Ja cjiiito straight, or if 
built in H concavi? form., the voicL' will move uloug it, and will 
oouvey words spoken in the sIlghtt-Mt whUpT from one 
end** to the other, if there is no inequality in the surface to 
impede its progress. The voice, in man. contrihuU-s in a great 
ik-groe to form his phyRiognomj-, for we form n knowledge of 
u man before wti seie hiio hy hraritjg his voice, just us wcU* 
US if we hud seea him with our eyta. Tlniro uw os muiiy 
liiuds of voices, too, as there are iiidinduals in cxistcDce, nnd 
CQOh man has his own peculiar voice, juHt us much ae hie own 
peeuliiir phyEiognomy. Hiuee it is, tlnit ariuee that vast di- 
versity of uatious and languagt-e throughout the wliole earth : 
iu this, too, originate the many tnneB, ineasures, and inflexions 
that exist. But, before (ill olhiT things, it is the vuice tlisit 
»cr*-e8 to eiprees our sentiments," a [lowtT that distingnisiies 
us fiom the beasts ; just as, in the Hnnie way, tlie various shades 
nnd difFi:rt.nces in Iaii*ung<i that exist nmon;; men have created 
an equally marked diifcri'iiet) bttwcen ua and the brutes. 

Ct{\T. 118. (52.) SOFBRFLUUPS LIMBS. 

Supem iiuiemry limbs, when they grow on aniniala, nre nf 
lia lUsC, whieh is thp case also with the sixth finger, wlien it 
grows on man. It was thought proper in Egyf>t to rejtr n 
human mon»tuT, that had two additiunul eves in the back puit 
of tile he^id ; it could not see with theiu, however. 

l.ikn ilin whiipB^inK gallory of St, Paul'ii Csthcdi'iil, 
" Nou alitor qusni txiutu." Oo tbii, few vjll bv fuiiad to ngne nit^ 
— /. 

*' .And not to "cottcoal" them, nctording- to tljcopiniunfiFspmcmodcrn 



[Book XI. 

rrlSFOBiriON OF UAK, FROM XnH i.lMB8. 

I nm greatly Biirprised that Arietotlo hns not only believed, 
but has even commilteii it to writing, that tlierc ore id tlio 
huouLQ bgdy certain prognostiea gf tUe duratioa of life. Al- 
though I am quite convinced of the utter llitility nf these re- 
mtirks, and am of opinion that they ought not to he published 
without hesitation, fot fear lest each pi'rson might ha anxionRly 
looting out for these pmguoetica in his own person, I shall atill 
malce eome slight mention of ihe suhject, seeing that so learned 
a man m Arif^totle did not (rent it with contempt. He has net 
(Iowa the following ns indicationa of a. ahort life — few teeth, 
very lonsj fiagcrB. a Icifidcn coilour, and numerous broken lines 
in the palm of the hand. On the other hand, he looks upon the 
following as prognostics o-f a long life — stooping in the shoul- 
ders, one or two long uabrokou liiicBin the band, a greater num- 
IcTttaatwo-and-tliirty teeth, and largcepars. Hf does not, I 
imagine, require that all thene symptoms should unite in one 
person, but looks upon them «» individually significant : in my 
opinion, however, thoy are TJttcrly frivolona, all of them, al- 
though thoy oblain currency among the vulgar. Our own writer, 
Trogus, has in a similar manner set down the phyaiognomy as 
indicative of the moral disposition ; one of the rery gravest of 
the Roman ftuthors, whoso own*' words I wilL here subjoin : — 

" Where the forehead is broad, it is si^iiicant of a dull and 
nluggigh underatunding hcni;atk; and where it ie Bmiill, it ia- 
dicates an unsteady disposition. A rounded forehead denotes 
an imsoiMe temper, it eeeniing as though the BurelUng anger 
had left its traces there. Wliere the eye-brows are extended 
ill one straight line, they denote effeminacy in the owner, and 
■when they arc bent downwitrda towards the noae, an austere 
dinpoaition. On the other hand, when the eye-brows are bent 
towards the temples, Ihoy are indicative of a BarcaBtic digpo- 
aition ; hut when they lie very low, they denote malice and 
envy. Long eyes are signiticant of a spitcfu.!, nialieious nature ; 
and where the corners of the eyes next the nose aj'o fleshy, it 
ia a sign also of a wicked disposition. If the white of the ej-e 
IB large, it bears tukeue of impudenee, while those who are 
jucesftantly closing the eyelids are inconstant, Largeaeas of 

*' Bui tbay are bonroweil firam AriatoUSf Hiit. Amra. B. i. c, 9. 

tlie ears i» a eigu of Loquacily and foolisbneBS." Tbxa much 
•t" wb«t Trogus aays. 


The breath of liie lion is fotid, and that of the bear qnile 
bcstilentinl ; indeed, no heuBt will touch nnytlim^ with w)iich 
\t6 bri^ath has corn's la cotitact., iind BuhHlancPS whioh it han 
Imattied upon will bucoiDC! putrid sooner than otiiers. U ia 
in nam only that Nature bos willed tlmt the bruath tdiould 
become tainted ia several viajs, either through faultizicss in 
the victuob ur thi^ teeth, or elK', ae is uioro geocrall}' ihecast^ 
tlirough extreme old f>g<-. Uur breath iu itaidf whs ins«Diuble 
to all pain, utterly devoid oa it was of oU. powers of touch and 
fifling, without which there can be no Bonsation ; ever re- 
newed, it was alwajH fortbcnmlng, deRtined to be the laat ad- 
nGnst that ehuU leave the body, and tlio only one to remiiiii 
Traon all IB gono bt'sidu ; it drew, in fine, lU origin froni 
beRTcn. In spite of till this, Iiowerer, certain penalties were 
discovered to bo infiicled upon it, so that the very subet«Doe 
by the aid of wbic>i we.' lire might become a turmcut to it* in 
life. This inconvenience is more particularly experienced 
among the Parthians, from their youth upwards, on account 
tif the indi9i:rimi£iutft u&e of lood among: them ; and, indeed, 
their very escesa in wine causes their breath to be fetid. The 
grandees, however, of that nation have a remedy for bad hrcnth 
in the pipe of the AeHyrian eitron,*' which ihey mbt witli their 
fuod, luid the aroma of which is porticalarly agroeuble. Ths 
breath of the elephant will attract eerpeiite fryui their holce, 
while that of the stag ocorches them. Wc have sdready made 
Beation" of certain races of m<jn who could by suction extract 
KfeMB the body the venom of serpenta ; anrl swine wilt cvlu eat 
Bptpenta," which to other animola are poisonous. All those 
srcaturL^s which we have spoken of as insects, cjin be killed by 
■merely flprinMing them with oil."* VuItiirtR, wliieh are put 
bi flight by unguents, arc attracted by other odours; the beetle, 
too, u attitieted by the rose. The soorpiou put» to death eiTtain 
•erpeats. The Scythians dip their arrows in tho poieoQ of 

« See B. xii. c. 7. « B. rii. c. 2. 

•* See B. xxix. c. 23. 

" S«e & 31 of Utc pRMnt Book. 

TOU m. H 


[Book XL 

serpcnti anfl liiimfln blood : egoinat this frightful composition 
there is no romt^y, for with the alighti^st touch it is prwiuctivG 

of instant dctitli. 



The aniigals wliicli feed upon poison have bcon ttlresdy" 
mentionc'cl. Some of them, which are hflrmlpse of thcmstiln-a, 
become noxious if fed upon TCnomous subatancc-a. The wilt! 
boar of Viimpbylia and the raountdinous parts of Cilicia, aftt-r 
having dtvoun-d q salamander, will become poiaonoiig to thoso 
whf> GJit ita flesh ; and y«t the danger lb quite impcrceptiblu 
by roaaun of any peculiarity in the sraull and tasto. The sulri- 
munder, too, will poison either wnter or wine, in which it 
happens lo be dmwmid ; ami what is more, if it has only druuk 
thereof, the liquid becjoraes poisonous. The samo is the caw, 
too, with tho frog known to us us the bramMe-frog. S^o n«- 
luerouB urij the snares tbftt am laid in wait for life ! Wa-ip^* 
greedily dorour tho flush of thi? serpent, a nutriment which 
renders their stings fatal ; so vu3t is the difference to he found 
between one kind of food nnd another. In the country, too, 
of the Iclithyophagi,'" as we learn from Thcophraatnti, the oxen 
are fed upon fish, but only when alive. 


The most wholesome mitrirneiit for man tg plain food. An 
nccmnuhilioa of flavours is iojiiriouB, and still moro so, if 
heiglitetied by nauccs. All acrid elciaents aro difficult of di- 
gestion, and the same is the case if food la devcuirod greedily, 
or in too lai'ge quantities. Food ia also less cuaily digested in 
summer Ihnn in winter, and in old Jige than in youth. Tho 
vomits whiuh man haa invented, by way of romcdy for this 
evil, rtuder the body more ooldj itnd are nio-re particuJm'ly inju- 
rious to tlie eyea and teef^h. 



Dittestion during sleep is mora productive of corpiilenca than 

•ttcngth. Hence it is, that it ic preferable for athletes lo 

^ B. it. e. 33. " Or Pisb -eaten. 

CInip. 119] 



<]uickeu digcsUuii by walking. Wutching, at uigiLt mare es- 
pecialiT, prumotes digostion of the food. 

(54.) TIi€' sise of the-bodj- is increased by cstiog sweot atul 
fsAty Hubstauces, as well as by ilriukioff, while, on tbe other 
bond, it is dimi nitthcr] by eating dry, ai^rid, or cold inibntiinceB, 
by abstaining bam drink. &ame ammeds of Africa, m 
as Bhcop, driok but once cTcry four days. Abstinence 
food for BCTcn days, even, if not of noocesity fatal ta man : 
And it isa well-known fact, that msnyperBcnabftre not died till 
after sn abstinence of ulcvi'Ji duya. Man ia tbe only animal 
iJiftt ia ever attacked with un inttutiate*' oru\ing for fuud. 

CIUP. 119. — WHAT iniJtQB, BY llEIiKl.I TASTIXG Or TaEM, 

Ou the other bond, tb^re are fiome EubstoncoE whicb, toflted 
in small quantities oiJy, appt-asu liuDRor and thirst, onJl keep 
lip the strength, such as bulttir, fur inAtiincc, cbeew made of 
maruB* milk, ajiil liquorice. But the ra(»L jiemifiidiift Uiingof 
all, and in every station of lift-, ia cxol^s, and more csput-ially 
excess in ft>od ; in fact, it is the most pnident pliin to re- 
trench evftything that may hi; poHsibly productive of injury. 
Let us, bowcver, now pass on to the olhtr branches of Xatuw;. 

STTMiTABt. — Remarkable facts, narratives, and obBcn-utioEB. 
two tbouaand, two hundred, and Bevcnty. 

lioMAK ArtBoBS ttiTOTED. — M. VuxTO,* Hygitius.*' Swofa," 
SaBoma," Culetis CorncdioB," iEiuiliua MaciT.'' Virgil,™ Colu- 
mella,'* JoliuB Aq^iila'" who wrote on the Tuscan ait of Divi- 
Dution, Tai qui tins™ who wroto on the iiamt>6ubjecl, UmbriciuB 
Melior"™ who wrotti on the same subji-et, Cato thp donwr," 
DomitiiiB Calvinus,'" Trogus,*™ itcliaras," FabianuB,*" Muci- 
anus," Nigii3ias,* Manilius,'" Oppius." 

•" (It haKmitt, 

•• Sm end of B. ii. *• 8c* Mid of B. lit. 

" ('. Tmnirllius Bcrofa, afritadof M. Vatr*, and one of the early whlen 
OD ujtricaUiiro. "" Sm; pnti of H, s. 

"i^ See end of B. vii. '* St^e ond of B. ix. 

"• 8m ffltid of B. Tii. '• S«o end of B. viii, 

" See end of B. ii. ^ See Wid of B. ii. 

w Seo «id at B, I. « See ond of B. iii. 

" NuthinK Mema to he known of t^iii ■wrilnr. 
" Bm ata of fi, vii. ^ Suu end uf B. rti. 

M Sm end of B. ii. *° Scs mi of B, ii. 

•* Bm end of n. Ti. " 8m on^l of It, x. 

" C. Oppiiu,OQeof Ibemotl i&tii&atc£rit.iidH uf Julius CWEir, for whom, 


ptmrr'a MATtiEAr, iitstort. 

[Duok XI. 

FoKETGH" iCTHoaB BCOTED. — An 610110,"° Demotntus,*' Neoji- 
tohimuB*' who wrote tliy Mtiiturgica, Ajistomnchiis"* wUo 
wrote oa the same subject, Pbilistiia"'' who wroto on the same 
subject, Nicander/' M«necruteB,"° DionysioB'* wlio traQp!fttt!d 
Hago, Empcdoc.les,*' Callimflchuaj*' King Attains, "* ApoUo* 
dorua' who wrota on Tcnonious anirnala, Happocratoa,' Hero- 
phUiis/ErofiistrstuB,* Asdepiadea,* Thtmifion," Poeidoniue' tho 
Ktoie, Mcnnndcr* of Priene and Mt'niinder" of Heraclea, Bu- 
phroniua"" of Athena, Thoophrastus/' Hosiod,'' King I'hilo- 

nith Bulbils, lie iLctud in Spdu. Of his numeroui biogtaphio&l aodhu* 
tnrioul worke, tiodo bavc survived to oiir time. 

*" 8m end of B. ii. ™ Sea pnd at B. ii. 

"' Probably NeoptoTeniii* of Pnros. who wrote a book of Epi^rRmt, a 
treati»e on Longiiiij^ea, arul iith^ worka. 

" Of Soli, an. oksetvtr of the hftbits oT bee*. Hi& portrait is saiil still 
to exist, tin a conidimi, atWotiTdj- ohsaisbg it Bnuriu uf bees-. His wrote 
upon IWM, honry, and ihfl an nf tniiing vrines. 

"' Prohmbly a diftrrpnt wn'tw from ihc oue mentioned at tLe tnd of 
B. viii. ; mitliing acfms [a he kaovm of bini, "' See end of B- vtii. 

» Sep end of B. «m. ** Se« eml of B. ». 

•^ A i>lii]<i8oplii;r i>r Agrigcntum, and disdiilu of IVtiiacuras. Ho is 
■idd to liafB ptriahod in tLo CTatcr of Mount Km«. iff wrolo numerous 
worki, of -which only some frugmcnts eiist. 

** &» Olid of B. iv. 

" Apparently the same aa tbe Eing FHlometor, mculioAuU bcbw, Sm 
end of B. rili. 

I Of tLLs writer nothing sQeiR^ tu be knotni. 

' fipe end of U. vii. 

' Of Cbalcedon, one of the moet famous physieiinjs of nnliquity. Ho 
was ubyvicinn lo Phtil^trie, tlic C^riuit uf Sii.-ilj', and i« aiid to heve dii- 
aeoteu criDiiuals dive, lie vaa tlio tltHt thnt paid paiUcuLor uttrntioQ to 
Iha EorTdna syBtein. 

' A Dative of Inlij, in Cob, ot eUe Ccoi, grandson of Aiiiitatle, &nd 
dinciple of Thoophraatiii. He ncijuired gT«at rcpiitatiou ns 9 t>hyRii:iiii, at 
tbo oourt of Selciieas Nieatoi, kiug uf Syria, whiiro liii disci>v"BrO(l tha snp- 
powd du^Ksc of trinvs Antiocbiu, who had fullcn in Ioto with hi« stop* 
mother, Slratonioo. Of his numoious moiLicnl works, oaly tho titles and 
a few fragnipnl* eii«t. '' Sc-h end of ]i. Vn. 

• A pb)'sicLsn of Liwdiniea, foandcT of the sehmJ <if tlit> Mttttoditi. He 
wai a pupil of Asolepisdeii, ttad died ubuut e.g. 43. 0/ his medical vaxlu 
otdj a few frB?ni<^ats aurvire. ' &aa end of B. ii. 

" Bee end ot B. viii. " Sac end of B. viii, 

'<■ See end of B. viii, " See end of K iii, 

" Bue end of B. m. " See King Attains, aiar». 

Sucb, then, is tlio history, awoKtic}; to their raiious species 
and Ihc'ir peculinr confuriuatioiu, of itll the aniuimls within the 
compaas ot our kiiowlfidge. It now retuainR for us to ep«ak of 
the regetahle prodactioiu of the tarth, which are equally far 
from being destitute of a vital spirit,' [for, indeed, oothing can 
lire without i t), that we may then proceed to d<>j»cribe tJic mim.-- 
nls eictracted from it, and so nono of the works of Nature may 
be paased bj iu silonct^. Long, indeed, were tbosu last bonn- 
tiea of hers oonocalcd beneath the ground, the tnxa and loresta 
bcin; regarded as the tnost raluablc bcnctitf conferred by Nu- 
turu upon mnnlciad. It was from th« forest that man drew 
his first alinientj by the leaves of the tnws vvit» his cuve ren- 
dered more habitable, and bj tht^ir btirk \^~bs bis clothing sup- 
plied ; even at tliis very day,^ tht-io are nations that Live 
under similar cirraTnstanc^'s to these. Still more and more, 
then, must we be struck with wondt-r luid itdniimtion, that 
from, a primscTnl stato such as tliia, wo shoiUd now be olearinf^ 
the mountains for their marble*, risitinp the Sctl-b' to obtain 
our clothing, seeking the pearl in the depths of the "Red Sea, 
and the emerald in the very bowt'ls of iho nirth. For our 
ndcmmiGnt with these prccioua stoncB it is that we hiirr dcviiied 
thOBO wounds which wc moke in our £ft»; becausti, forBooth, 
it was deemed not enough to carry them on our haods. our 
aeokft, and our hair, if we did not insert thera inom- veryHeah 
as well. It will be only proper, then, to follow the order of 
bumaa invoatioiiA, and to speak of the Ina^ before treating of 

■" •* Anim*." Thi; notion thnt plants ate poutncd of ft loul or spirit, it 
deriTtd iroB tha Greok ptibsnphera, whoattribuhd to iham intallacl nUo, 
Bad icitsu. 

» Vilniviaii incntioi)* tto people of Gaul, Hupania, LuaiUnm. und 
AquiCacio, w living in kb day iii dwnlling* coTertnT with oak ahingleii, or 
iritli itmw, 

> Sae B. ri. c. SO, ud S. xi. c 28. 



[Book xn. 

other Eobjects ; thus may we trace up to their very origin the 
raanncra and usages of the prewnt day. 


The tr«e8 fonned the first temples of the gods, aud even at 
the present day, the country people, preserv-ing in. all their 
Biiuplicity tlitrir nneicnt rites, consetnita the- fincrt lunong their 
trees to some divinity;* indeed, wo feel ourBelves inspii-ed to 
adomtion, not leas hy tJio sacred grovea and their very atitlnetn, 
than by the statues of thtj grids, reaplftndent. as they ore with 
gohl and ivory. Eaah kind of tri?e romoins Immutably conse- 
tiratod to its own peculiar divinityj tlitJ heeoh' to Jupitc-r,* the 
laurel to Apollo, the olive to Mincrra, the myrtle to Venus, 
and the poplar to Hercules : beeides which, it is our belief 
that the SylvoBS. the Fanns, and vaiious fcinils of goddess 
i'ympha, have the tutelage uf the wooils, and we look upon 
those deities as especially appointed to preside over thera by 
the will of heaven. In more recent timea, it waa the tr«;a 
that hy their jtiines, more aoothing eren thnn corn, first molli- 
fied the natural afiperity of man ; and it is from thoso that we 
now derive the oil of the olive that renderp the limbs eo supple, 
the draught of wine that ao efficiently Teeruits the strength, 
and tlio numerous delicacioa which spring up gpontaueouBly at 
the various suusoiis of the year, and load our tubles with thoir 
viaads — tables to replenish which, we engage in combat with 
wild beafits, and seek for th^ fishos which have fattened ufCoa 
the dcftd corpse of the shipwrecked maiiner— indeed^ it is only 
at the second ' doutso, after all, that the prodaoe of the trem 

But, in addition to this, the trees have a thousand other 
UHus, all of which are uidispciiBahh;i to the full eajoj'ment of 

' DwfoQtainuB remarVi, tliat wo miiy stni trace vtBtii^es of tliif truslom 
in tlio fine trocA that ^ow near uliLirch porchos, imd in cburch-yardi. 
Of oouTsa, Ilia temaTli will apply to Franee movi\ yiorticuliu'ly, 

* It u doubtful whether Vie les^ulua of ttie llciinutiu wan Uie lame m Llia 
bay^aok, tLe holm-oak, or the beech. Sf)k B, xvi. c. 4. 

' See further on this subject in Phreilriis's Fables, B. iii. f. 17, 

' REckoning the pTumafds, antecieao, or trustatio, not as a cDane, but 
anly & prelade, the bellaria. or dfiBscrt, at the Uoaiiin Iwtniiietd, formcid the 
»f«aDd courBc, ur ULcnsa. It cEUUiateJ of Iruita uneoutcd, iwectmeata, uid 




life. It is by tbo aid of the tree that wc plough tho il<%p, and 
bring near to us &r distant landn ; it is hy thu aid of the iTHe, 
too, that wo cuDBtmct our edifices. Tiio Btutut'8, evou, of tku 
deities were ibrmcd of the wood of trees, in the dayt wbc-n nu 
Talue hsMi been set as yet on llie dead carcase* of a wild beast, 
and 'wliea. luxury rot yet deriving it* Kuiction from tho 
gods thcm&elTf^ft, we UnA not to behold, rcHphmdpnt with the 
Kune JTory, the heads at the dlTinilit's' and the feet of our 
tables. It ift pelftt«d that tlw Gnuls, Bop/initfd from us in they 
were by the Alps, which then formwl an almost initiirmountable 
bulwark, had, as their chief inativi> for inTiuliiig lUily. its 
dried fig8, its gr.i])c-s, its oii, and itt^ wiuc, sunipk-i^"' of which 
had b(>eu brought back to tlicm by Ueltoo, a citizen of the 
Helvetii, who bad been staj-ing at Itome. to {imcliwj thi'R' aa 
an artizan. "We may offer soam excutie, then, for Uiem, when 
we know that they came in quest of these rarioiu productions, 
though at the price even of war. 



But who is there that will not, with good rensoui be «ur- 
priiKid to learn that a tree has btien introduired among us from 
a foreign olime for nothing but ite ehadi' ? 1 nioan thi; plane," 
which was hret brought ucrues the Ionian t^a to the IkIu" of 
Diomedes, there to be planted at his tomb, and was afterwards 
imported theneo into Sicily, being otic of llic vt'ry first exotic 
trees that wcrtt iatrnduc(.-d ioto Ilaly. At the present rfny, 
however, it baa penetrated as far as tho coimtry of th« 
Morini, end occupies even a tributary'^ soil ; in return for which 

* Ho nlliulM to tho [nmuit of the clejihunt, for thu parpoBc of o)>Uinin^ 
Irorf, wiudi wu extduirclf used in bu day, in mnking ihc eUtu«a of tLi>i! 

* A Banaitio anlitbens. And y«t UAl«cb%m|ia would resd "humiaom" 
tiisU«d of " numitium" ! 

'!> PranniMx The Pxnctmeaiiinc-of this word doGBnnl appear. Thoagh 
»U tho M8S- agree in it, it in ptoiinbly a ctitnijit numling, PIuLirch, in 
Ud Life uf Camillijs. says tbal Ulu wine of IU]f waa lint iutru^uctxl in 
Gftul br AruDB, tli<i EtiuBcun. 

" Tho PkUnita uHuutolis or Lhcicus. It itcuivcd its tunuo from th« 
Gmd vMrcc, " bica^th," by rcusoii of its wiilo-sprcading brunchM. 

" For further mentiunol' this likncl, nov Tr«iiuti, hm Jl. iii. c. iO. 

■) He alludu, pnitwbl}', to the *'Tccligal Bokrium," a lort of graimd- 



[Hook XII. 

ihoBe DatiuDS have to pay a tax for the cuJoyTnent of its shade. 
Ilionysius the EMer, one of the tyrants of Sicily, had plaDP- 
treta conveyed to the city of Ilhegiiua, whtTP tliey were loolted 
upon as the great toftrvel of his palace, which was aftcrwardA 
c-onycrted into a gymnaaiura. These trees did not, however, 
in that locality, attuiu any very great hbight. I find it also 
stated by Home authors, that there were aome other iQ9taDct», 
in iboflQ days evon, of plunc-ttccis hcin^ foand in Italy, aod I 
tiud aume menliouuil by name as existing in Spyin." 


This cireumetanco toot place about the time of the capture 
of the City of Borne ; and to such high honour, in the courao 
of time, did the p[anc-tree attain, that it was nurtuted by 
pooricg wioe upon it, it being I'ound that tho rooU wore g^r^atly 
atn^ngtht^ned by doing "so. Thus have we taught the very 
trees, even, to be wine-bibbers! 



The first plane-trees that were apokcn of in terms of high 
mluiiratjon wcte tliose which adorntd the walks of the Aeii- 
dpttiy'' at Athena — [in one of which}, the roots est^^nded a dis- 
tance of thirty-three cubits, and spread for beyond its hmnchc». 
At the preaent day, thero is a very famous piano in Lycin., 
Bituatu in close proximity to a fountain of the most refresh- 
iug coolness ; gtonding near the road, with the cavity in its 

rent which the tributary DBtii:iiia paid 1o tLe Ronriia trew^ury. Vttgit and 
Homer »peali of the shade of tine plnne-trGe, osa [tlBOsoiit reiiurt fuE fwtiv« 

'"' It is not improlinhlu that Pliny, in. copying from Thuophrnstna, baa 
hurt commiftvd lui anut. Tliat autnov, Jt, ii. c. 7, aaya : tv uiv yjp r^ 
'Alpia xkaravou oifAairiv livai, TXiff irFpi tJi S,iOfiiiSuiii; ufiiv mraviaf 
ti »al iy 'IrnXi^ fra^p. " Thoy stiy that in Adria thcri! are no plune- 
GraeE. fjtcopt abuMt tlie tMnpJo of Diomcd«8 : and that ihoy are cxtrciaplj 
nre in Italy." Pliny, nmbaLly, when bis secretary v&a rending tu hliu, 
mistuok the wotd oiravtai', " rare," /or 'Irrfl-oi-ip, '' in Spaii]," 

" It has been ntmarked thiit, in roiilily, this process would only tQIl(i 
to impede lU ^rowlb. Ma^ubiiu tidls u£, that Hoi't^osiuft Wfu guilty uf 
thUsmeiilur Tally. 

'" Situate near the Ma-sboie. It wu licro tbat Flatti taugJit. See 11. 

XIXU 0. &, 


Cbap. 6.^ 






interior, H forms a Bpecies of house eighty-one feet in width. 
Its Bummit, too, prewrits tJio f'>lingi< of h grove, white it shtcld* 
itM-lf with huge briittchfx, ench of vhich woald ntjual nn ordi- 
naiy tree in size, as it throws its Irnigthened« across the 
6elds. lu addition to thi^, tliut nothing^ may hn vtinting to 
iw exact resemijlaCL'e tn a grnttn, there is a circle of nents 
vithiii, formed of etoao, intunnioglcd with pumice overgrowa 
with moss. This tree wtu looked upon as bo worthy of remark, 
tJiat Liuluius Mueiaoua, who wae thn.'e times consul, and re- 
ecDtiy the logxtus of that province-, thguKbt it a circuiustance 
dvttervtDj; of IrjinsmisaiDU evtii to pfisterity, that ho, togvther 
with eighteen pcraona of hin retinue, had «at down to a banquet 
in the intiirior of it.- lis leaves afforded material for their 
couches in the greatest abundance, while he himi^lf, sheltered 
from every gnat of wind, and ttying in vain to hear i.ho pat- 
tvriug of tlic ruin oti the leave*, tuok his meal there, and oil- 
joyed faim&tlf more than lie would have done amid tlic resplen- 
dtmix of marble, a multiplicity of pointings, and beneath a 
cifliiig rcfuigeat with gold. 

Another curioua instance, again, was that afforded ia the 
reign of the Emperor Cuius." That prince waa so struck with 
ailiairalioii on Buciiig a jilane in the lerritorj' of Vylitemuia, 
which prcsenled lloor after tloor, like thoso of the several stories 
of a house, by means of broad benches loos<Jy Inid from branch 
to branch, thiit lie lield u hunqutt in it — himself adding'* very 
materially to the ahado it threw — the triclinium being formed 
for the reeoption of &ftecn guoEta and tlie neceBs^ry attendants: 
to thi» singular diiuBg-roum ho gave the name of his " ntst." 

At OortjTia, in the lelo of Crete, there is, in the vieinity of 
a fountain thert-, a single plane-tree, which has "been tong cele- 
brated in the records of both the Greek and the Latin language : 
it nevpT loaos'* ita leaves, and from an early period one of the 
fjibuloUB leg);nds of Greece hoa been attached to it, to the eftVct 
ihut it was beneath this tree that Jupiter lay with Eoropa; 
just ua if there had not been another tree of a similar naAire 

" CaligDiii. 

" It it suppuwd Cbat hn hert tllailei sarcuLicBlly (o tb? extrumv nor- 
pulcnco of CnliKutn. 

'' M. FqC: we li.-umuil editor of tlie botanical books in AJbmoo's tnns- 
lyivn. rciourkii, thut thii ciuinot \iaxf been the I'lAUniia or the lx>tnn»rs, 
wd that than a ao tree uf Kuropc, ithiah docs not loie iU teavc-i, tliat 4t 
■U rcMmblo it. 


[Book Xn. 

ia the island of Cyprus. Slips of the tree at (lortynB— so 
fond is man by nature of novelty — "were at an early period 
lituntcd at different, places in Crttn, and reproduced the natural 
imperfections of the tree f though, indeed, there is no higher 
reeommendation in the plane than the feet that in Bununer it 
protects us from tiiD rays of the Bitn, while in winter it aJinila 
them. In later linies, during the rei^a of tht Kmiieror 
Claudiuei, a Thessuliun euuuah, the fri?«(linan of UatveUas 
JEscrainixB;" who, howcv<>t-, Irom motivee of ambition had en- 
ruUod himseU' Ja the number of the fivudmcn of the emperor, 
and had aciiuiitd very conaideraWe wealth, introduced thia 
plane into Italy, in order to beautify his country-Mat : so that 
he may not inappropriately be etj-Ied a second Dionysius. 
Thcw monBtroBities of other lands are Btill to he seen in Italy, 
independently of those which that oountry has herself devised. 


For we find in Italy eome plane-trees, which are knomi as 
charaseplataoi," in consequence of their stun led growth; for 
wo have discoTtrod tho art of caueing^ abortion in trees even, 
and hon<;(j, even iu the vegetable world we shall hare occaaioa 
to moke mention of dwarfs, ttn. unprepossessing subject ia every 
case. This result ia obtained in trees, by a peisuliar method 
adopted in planting and lopping them. C Mntius,** a mciiilx-r 
of the E([ueBtriQn order, and a fnond of thti late E!tip<'ror 
Augnatua, inventDd the art of clipping arboiirs, within the last 
eighty years. 


The cherry and the peaeh, and all those trees which hava 
either Greek or foreign names, are exotics: those, however, of 

"" The tcndijticT, natntly, to loie tbeir LeB.Tes. 

** Grucdsoa of Aaluius Pollio. Tadtiis Ulla lis, tliat lie iris uncaf 
ihoso whwiB Piao rflquestRd la iiiidurtttke his d^fonce, when churgtd with 
liaving poisoned Cfntiftniotis; but he declini?<i the oliioe. 

3J Or "around plane-trees," It is by no mciiis uncommon to scy dirarf 
vnrieties o( the luger Ircei, wliich aie lliua rtiliii^cil to t)ie dLmcneioud cif 
mere &tiTu'l>e. 

** C. Mutiui CaUcna, tho Mend of Julina and Anpistna C^aar, as slao 
of Oiuro. H<t i* sapposoil to have traaalatetl the Iluid into Littin 
and to bare written a woik on cookery. 

IS slao I 





tbiftuumbor, wbicb have boguji to be oaturoEzcd among ub, 
will be trested of wben I coiue to speak of the Iruit-trovii iu 
gvoenL For the present, I shall only make mention of the 
iijnlly exotic trees, bp^nning with tliv one Ibat i» npplied to 
the most ailutary uai-n. The citron tree, «n!le(I the Aiwyrian, 
and fajBomc^c Median npplc, is on antidoto against poiaons.** 
The leaf is similur to that of the ttrhule, except that it has 
small prioklcB* running ticrosfl it. As to the fhiit, it is never 
eiiten,*" hiit it is remnrkoble for its estremcly powerful arn^D, 
which is the case, alKo, wilh the lettves; indeed, ihtj odour ia 
t^ strong, thut it will pcnctmto cloUies, when they are odl9 
impregnated with it, and hencti it is very useful in repelling 
the attiicks of noxioUB insects. The tree boare Iruit at all 
feMsons of the yeur ; while some is fulling oil', other fruit is 
ripening, and oUht, nj^aiii, jiiftt bursting into birth. Vurious 
nationa have attempted to natui'alize tbi^ tr^e among them, for 
the sake of ita medical propcrtica, by planting it in pota of 
,..olay, with holes drilled in them, for tbe parpoai; of introducing 
the air to the roots; and I would here remark, once for all, 
that it is as wfill to remember that the best plan is to paek all 
Elipa of trcoa thut have to bo carried to imy distance, ae cloae 
together as they cim possibly be pltu^ed. It has been found, 
however, that thia tree will grow nowhere" except in 
^edia or Persia. It is this fruit, tbe pips of wbieh, ns we 
bare already mentioned,^ Uic Purlbian grundees tmploy in 
MOSODing their ragouts, as being peuuliuily condueive to tho 
■weetening of the breath. We find no other tree very highly 
commeiidt^ that is produced in Media. 

CttAP. 8. (4.)— THE TKKES OF HfDIl. 

In describing the conntry of the Sorea, we haTe olrcftdy 

** 8(« B. xxiii. c. 55. Foe rciimrka, tbat the miiitenU CDafounilcd tli« 
citroo with tbe orange-tic^. 

V V4e Tsmaik^ ilmt clii* 1* nut Uic cuso. Thu nrbutc ii JHcriI»d 
in B. ST. c. 28. 

" In tho time of Pliitnrch, it hoA bpgua to bo lomewbut more mcti. It 
niAkM one of tho veiy fia»it jiregtrvts. 

>^ At tha pTQSciit dny, it ib cultivahjd atl over India, in China, SouIIl 
Anterica, aoa tltc Bouihcni puru \it £uropa. F^o tay», ibat they gruvr 
orni in llie opm air in the garden? of Malmaisou. 

" B. xi. 0. lis, VirgU enys ittt mhih!, liforg, 1!, ii. II. 131. IS5. 
Tbeophraittu tatnaa to my, llinl it vint tto ouXar liod that was ta ubciI. 



[Soak XII. 

maiic mention * of tbo wool-bearinit trees whicb it producoe ; 
aud wo have, likewiae, touohed '" upon the extraardinorj' 
maguitudo o.f the trees of India, Virgil" has spoken in 
glowing terms of the ebony -tree, one of those whicli are pecu- 
Sar to India, and he Irirtht'f inlbrms ua, thut it will grow in 
no other country. Herodotus, however, hnii preferred to 
aaeribe" it to Ethiopia; and states that the people of that 
conntry were in the habit of paying to the kings of Persia, 
erery third year, by way of tribute/^* one hundred hiUota of 
ebony-wood, topother with a ocirtain quantity of gold and 
ivory. Nor ought we here to omit the Jact, inasmufih as thu 
BsmQ anthur has stated to that efftict, that Iht; .^t,hiupiiios 
were also in the habit of paying, by way of tribute, twenty 
large elephants' teeth. So high was the cateem in which 
ivory wits held in the year ixoni the building of our dty, 
310; for it was at that period" that this author was com- 
piling his History at Thtirii, in Italy ; which is all the more 
remarkable, from the implicit conficlente we place in him, 
when he sftya" that up Ut that time, no native of Asia of 
Grocoe, to his knowledge at leaat, had ever beheld the river 
Padns. The plan of .Ethiopia, which, aa we hare already 
inentioned," was recently laid before the Emperor Nero, in- 
forms uft, that this tree ia very nncommon in the country that 
lies between Syene, the extreme bo'iindary of the empire, and 
Mtroe, a distance of eight hundred and ninety-six miles ; and 
that, in fact; the only kind of trco tliat is to be found there, ie 
the palm. It was, probably, for this reason, that ebony held 
the third pltice in the tribute thmt was thus imposed. 

" See B. Ti. «. 20. 

^ Suo B. rii. c. 2. The tree to which he allndps ia iinkcqwii. 

=1 GooT^. li.ii, U. lia, 117 

" B. iii. c. 97. Tlicro t£ h*tlle Uuubt ttint, undor tha Bcncral namfi ai 
" ebony," thu wood iK" muny kinds of were was, and le still, imported into 
till! WMtevo world, 6o that both Jlcrodolus and VirgU may hare lieen. cor^ 
risct in rvpri>£Dntiti^ vboiiy ax t)ip product of h'^tii india and JGtliiopEa. 

"' Ht'toJutus suy^ iwo Imndryii. 

■■^ In Italy, ivhiilitT Im had rotirad from the hostile nttacks of his fi-iUnw- 
i'i1isii!ii3. It ia supposed l>y La Vuyer and others, tlvit I'iiny i« wrong in 
tiis asiierti'in, ttiot itcrodotua wmtc to this vffuct while ut TKurii ; Ukiu^Ii 
Dr. Schmitx is inclined Ui bo uf opinitin that ho ia ria;ht tn hit BUt«ia«nt. 

ai B.iii. 0.115. 

w li. Ti. c. 3fi. 




FomptjiuB Magnus display^ ebosy on tbe occaeion of bia 
triumph over Mithritiates. Faliiantu declares, that l!u» wood 
Trill give out no Qume; it btirns, ticiwOTer, with a rerynffrec 
able BowU. Thure are two Ititids " of ehony ; the rartat kind 
is the best, and ia pKidnoed from a tree that is an^ulatly flreo 
from knotii. The wood is blatk cmd ebiniDg, tmd pleaeiin^ to 
the eye, without any odTentitioua flid from nrt. Thi; other 
kind of ebony is the produce of a ahrul) which reaenilxlcstho 
cytisus, and is to bo foiiiul Buattoiud over the whole of India. 

CHAT. 10. (3.) — THE raniASTHOBN. 

There is in India, also, a kind of thorn*' very nimilar to 
ebony, tbongli it may be disHngnished from it, by thn aid of 
a lant«m even; far, on the nppliiaitiaii of flaini', it wUl in- 
stantly run aeroaa the tree. AVe will now proeted to describo 
those trees which were the admiration of Alexander the Great 
in tits vioforiouB career, when tliut port of the world vrvs first 
rsTealod by luM onus. 


The Indian fig* bears hut a Hmnll fniit. Always growing 
8|KiQtaneDualy, it spreaflm fur and wide with It^ vast branches, 
the ends of which beud downwardB into the ground to eucIi a 
d^ev, that they take l^reah root in the course of a y«ar, and 
thus form a new plantation around the parent stock, traced in 
a circuhir iorm, juBt a» though it had bt'tn. the work of the 
ornamental gardener. Within the bowere Ihna formed, tlu' 
shepherds take ap their abode in the aummer, the spate occii- 
pied by them being, at once, overehodowed and protected by 

"• Y6e remrtJ'lcs, Ihftt l.he words of Pllnj iV not jifTonl «» naj mfiaiu of 
judHin^ prMdit'ly nliat tn« it wa» thnt he uudurstiioil \tj Uiu name of vljonjr. 
tie Dorrnwii hii nccotiiit muinly fmni Tlimtiliriutiin. 

*' Tl is not kncvim lo wb«i tii-t ho sUuacs, 

" This accoiutt of the Ficus Indion, or rcli^n«n, known to w a> tb<^ 
l*ai«ii-tn«», ia borrowed ftnlirKly trcrti 'f hi-ftplmwius. F(ie ri*niMln, how- 
eier, tlixt he i< wrong in soror of 1ji>> ■tntonj'tiii. fi>r thnt the lenvmu-i- h-j/ 
cresmilt-«hnp«d, hat oliltiijg nnil [>ii)iitr>L nm! Uiut tliio fruit. Iiux not a pluK- 
lUDt Qavour, and b oaly tutea by thv bii>l». 



[Book xn, 

tiio bxilwark wliicli tite tree thus tlirows around ; a most 
giaootul eight, whether we stand bunenth aud look upwards, 
or whether we view its arcadeil foliage trnm a distuuco. The 
higher branches, however, shoot upwards to a vciy connidtT- 
able height, and, by thoir numbor, form quito a grove, spring- 
ing aloft from the vast trunk of the parent tree, Trhich 
overspreads, very fri>qu<!ntly. a sjiace of sixty pacos in estt-nt, 
while the ehado that ia thrown by it will cover as much afl 
a couple of stadia. The broad leaves of the tree have jnat the 
shape of on AmAZoniim buokler; and hence it is that tlm 
fruit, from being (\\iiUi coverod by the leaves, is greatly impeded 
in its growth, "rtie fruit, indeed, of this treo is but et^anty, 
and never exceeds a bean ia eizo ; being ripenwd, Lowever, by 
the rays of the sun, as these penetrate the leavea, the figs aii; 
remarkalile for f heir singular lusciousnfiss, and are quite worthy 
of the marvellous tree by which they arc: produced. These 
fig-treca aifi found, more particukrly, in the -vicinity of tLc 
river Aoesinca." 

CHAP. 13. (6.) — rni pxla: the ramr cilled abjeka. 

There is another tree" in India, of Btill krgcr size, and 
even more remarkable for the aize and sweetness of its fruit, 
upon which Uie Hages" of India Hve. The leaf of this tree 
rewfmblca, in shape, the wing of a bird, being three cubits ia 
length, and two in breadtli. It puts forth its iruit from the 
bark, a fruit remarkable for the sweetness of its juice, tt single 
one containing sufficient to eatifiiy four pcraons. The name of 
thi&trceis "pala," imd of the fruit, "iiricna.'* They aro found iii 
the greate.'ft abundancie in the country of the Sydmei." a terri- 
tory which forms the extreme Jimitof the expedition of Alex- 

There is another** tree,alao, very Bimiliir to this, but bearing 
a still sweeter fruit, though very apt to cause derangemont of 

w See B. ri. c 2a. 

" 9prnjgsl and JJitutin are of opinion ihat tliebimaiia. is the tree meant 
liere; Dodunn'ua thinks tLiU it ii tlji! pomwgrunato. Thcvel «aj« thot the 
paU is tha patjiLDTora of India, tho fruit of nhioh is called pucona. Ilia 
Bitroiitit IB hnmjwed from Thcoplirfial,iis. 

" Tlio OyTniiOBuphiati, ot Biaiiniiiis, 

*" <'al!Bd Syndraci in B. vi. o, 23, 

'* Jt ii not imprubablu thnc the TuniBriiKlus IndicA of T.iauEouj is tha 
trc^^ ifiTO alladod to : Chough M. Fee oombata that opinion. 

Chnp. U] 



the bowelR. Alexander isaiied strict orders, forbidding any 
one in the expcditioa to toaoh this frait. 


iHifiAM Tiu:«9 wnica beam flax. 

Th« Ulactdonium " have made mention of Turioua other 
kinds of trees, tho grcflUr part of which, howevpr, are without 
uimes. I'hcro is one which rcoembluB the torebinth " in ererr 
ruepcct, bxcupt Lh« fruit, wliich ia tctt tdmilar to the ftlmono, 
thuogii less in size, and remarkable fur its extreme svcetneM. 
This tree was met with m Baclria, and som? pursons looked 
upoD it KS a variwty of the lvn,-btiiUi, nithtr tlwii us bv^rtu); ii 
•trong re^emlilanco tu it. .\» to Hie tree from which thejr 
mana&cture a kind of linen ** cloth, in leaf it resembles the 
molbcrry-trcc, vhile tho eolix of tlic fruit is aimilor to the 
dog-roeo." This tree is renred in the plains, and there is no 
sight throughout ihe nnltivated partt of thu counlry thai ia 
uiorti L'ticlmatiiig tlian lUe pUmtuliuna of it. 


The oliro-tniH" of India is nnprixliict-ive, with the Sole 
oxvcption of the wild olive. In every part we mtK't with tiws 
that Dear pepper,'** rcry similar in appearance to our junipers, 

" See Ttitfiphrusliu, B. iv. c. (. 

** Dal«rluiiip« Hnd Drafontuinv* xre of nmnion, that the pu^ehin, nr 
PUtacta ttTvbiiilliii* (if Uriiwui, la bcro sllndcil to; ttut Pf«coituder« that 
Ana are no indiciLtioiLJ to lead to suuh a condution. 

*< U in not improbnblct thiil, he aia,j here allude t« the eoUcn-troe, of 
irkicb iniution JK niadv in e, xn. of tho preteot Book. 

" Fie in of njiiniiin IhnKVnnrrhiHlon hirm roemiii, nnl Iho dng'Ttinn, but 
tliii gall wbioli IB forrjiQil uii toe tre^ by the timg uTiliv Cyoipa bedci^u. 

** F^eiprcuGshiinMlf al a loat la uciijccCuru what iracftara here meant 
l>]r Fliny, 

<* yin remark*, that Ifaorc ara many inn<;ciiraci(« in Itie accdtint here 

£'v«n hv riiny iif tlie pvpjior.tree, uuil itiat il iImi not bcuir nii)' rtMic- 
ooci: li> tho juiiipcr-crci;. TLk! grainis. hr myt, grow in c1uet'?r«, und ncit 
inahiuk or piid;aiid he rcmurk», that thu l.-dg p^-pptrunJ tliu liludi pcp- 
]w, of which Iho whita is onljr a variaty direstcd of the onto- coat, nro 
awtinct unt.iM. He alM uhti^rfci, tbut tli« renl long; fpiff, the l*ipet 
laogom af Liiiaaui, wai not known to Ibo ancieut*. 



[Bool: STI. 

Hlthougb, iui3ee(3, it has Leon allcgi^ii by eome aiithfirs that ihfy 
only grow on the alojics of Caucasus which lie exposed to the 
Bun. The aeeda, howc^vcr, dift'er from those of tho jiinipor, in 
licing enclosed in email pods Minilar to those wliich we seo in 
the Iddney-beim. ITieee pods are picked hetbru tliuy open, 
and when dried in theaun, make what wt: call " long pt-pper." 
But if allowed to ripen, they will open gradually, and wht-n 
anived at maturity, ditfoover the white pepper; it* lull t*x- 
poaed to the heat «f the aun, this becomes wrinkled, and changcH 
ita colour. Kvea tho8« productions, however, are subjwt to 
tlicir own peculiar intirniities, and aro apt to become l)last*?d 
hy the inclemency of the weather ; in which cai50 the needs 
aro found to be rotten, and mere husks. These abortive seeds are 
known by the name of " bregma," a word which in tho Indian 
languoge eigniSes "dead." Of all the various kinda of pepper, 
thifl La the naoFt pungent, ae well as the very lightest, and ie 
remarkable for the extrr-uio paionees of ita colour. Thatwhieh 
is black ie of a mot'^ agrceublo flavour ; but the 'white peppec 
is of a milder quality thna either. 

The root of this tree is not, as many personB have imagined, 
tiie same aa the substance known as zimpiheri, or, as some eall 
it, xingiberi, or ginger, although it ia very lite it in taste. 
For ginger, in fact, grows in Arabia nnd in Tniglodytica, in 
various cultivated spots, being n small plant" with a white 
root. Thifl plant is apt to decay very Bpeedily, although it is 
of inteniie pungency ; the price at which it eolls is six denarii 
ppr pound. Long prp]tei' ie vi^ry easily adulterated with 
AU'sandrian Diustttrd ; iis price ia fifteou denarii per pound, 
while that of wliite pepper i& seven, and of black, four. It is 
quite Burprining that the use of pepper bag come st> much into 
fashion, seeing that in other sabBtances which we use, it ia 
sometimes their sweetness, and sometitnes their appearance that 
has attrflfited our notice; whereas, pepper has nothing in it 
that can plead as a i-eeoBimendation to either fruit or berry, it« 
only d'Csirablc quality being a CRrtain pungency ; and yet it is 
for this that we import it all the way from India! Who waa 
tho first to make trial of it us an article of food ? and who, I 
wonder, was the man that was not content to prepare himself 

"" Ftie ntmnrkA, Ihnt IhisiBroIft cuiTtct liescriptionof gmg^r. the Amo- 
mum ajiigiher of Lianioas. L)i unci jr idea was one of tLoKe who tbouKbt 
tliitt gmgfT was thi? tout of lltu p[*]i|H'r. true. 



by hmiger only for the satisfying of a greedy appetite ? Both 
pepper uud gio^r ^w wild in Uiuir recpucUve countries, and 
yet bore ve buy them by weight — just as if thuy wcru bo 
much gold or silver. Italy,*' too, now poKsewes a speoiea of 
jiopper-lroo, eciDL-whiit larger than ihi' riijTtle, nnd not vpry 
iiiuike it. ThehiLtemexanf thAgi-nins i» Himilur la ttmt which 
wo may reasonably suppose to exist m the IndiDo pepper 
when newly gathered; hut it is wjuitin|; in that mature Ha* 
vonr which the Indian gTBin Roqiiirra hy exposure in the Bun, 
and, eonBC4|iit'ntIy, beam no n^Bcnibluneu to it, tiiher in colour 
or the wrinkltKl appearance of the eeeds. Pepper is adulterated 
with juniper berries, which, have the property, to a marrellous 
d«gn.f , of iieguntiug the puu|?ency of ])i'pper, Ju ret'iTrence to 
its weight, there are aUo WTttnd inethiMhi of adulterating it. 



There is, filwo, in India another groin which beam a eonri- 
dcrable rtscmbliince to pt-pper, but is longer njirl more brittle; 
it is known by the name of ftarj-opbylloii." It is eaid thai 
this grain ia produeod in a Eaori'd' grure iu India; with uft it 
is imported for il« aromatic perfume. The same country pro- 
duces, also, a thorny shrub, with grains whieh hear a nsem- 
hlnnee to pepper, and are of a ri'murkubly bilUr taste. 'Xha 
lemres of this shrub ore Binali, like those of the oj-prus ; " tlie 
hnnchos ore thico cubits in length, the bark pallid, and the 
roots wide-aprending and woody, and of a eolour rcM^'iiibliDf; 
that of boxwood. By boiling this root with the Heed in a 
copper TCMel, the medicament in prepared which is known bj 
the name of lycion." ITiia thorny shrub growB, also, on 

»' It U Tcrj- (IcvulKful wimt troo is hem alluded to by PUny, ihouvh oor- 
Uin thitt it' in nril one of tbo pr-ppcr-trcM. S])rengcl tak«a it ta ha tfao 
Daphne Tlij'ini'ls^a. 

K It bn* Ih-i'd ■uf;e;'«t'^1 tlint [inilrT tliii nams Uii oli>n in meant, tliniigh 
Tie sad Ui-ifuiitalui* t.-xjiruis n oiiiirary opiuioa. Spreii)(«l ibuiks ibat it 
i> the VitiM trifotiu of Linimiiu, nnd fiuuhin m^i^stii Did guIkI), tho I'ipur 
catwba of l^DDwiiA. Fen tltinkn it. einy tiAVu ])iiaitihl^ hcca iho Mymia 
caiyopIijUat& of Ceylon, the fritit uf which cDrTutpoiidi to tbi; dcscnplinti 
\tn P'"* l)/ Iliny- 

" B«j 0. 62 ortcieprpscui Book, 

** Or "LtBium." It t« iaipwtiblv ttfsa7wiLhcxactfiuMwLat tlieinedic&l 
Eqaid callea " Lfftoa" yr&a. Cstcchti, an citiAci fram Iho l&n of Out 
ncscia, has boca mggaltil ; Ihftagli the fruit of tfaul tr«e dou not uuwiir 
the pTOent dcacriptiim. 




pldie'b aAiDUAX aisaoBT. 

[Bgok XIT. 

Mount Felion;'* thia la!<t kind is much uBcd for the purpune 
of adulterating tbe mediainieat ahorve mputioned. The root 
of tlic nspliodi'l, ox-gall, wormwood, etimach, and the nmiircti 
of olive oil, are also employtd for a similar purpose. The best 
lycion for medicinal purposes, ib that which hiis a frolh on ih> 
surfitn'f' ; the Indiana eetitl it to an in leather bottles, londo of 
the skin o( the camel or the tViinoceroa. The shruh itBeif ia 
knoAvn by some pcrsuus in Qrteue under tli« name of tbe 
Chirouiuu p^'xuouQtLus." 

CHAP. 16. (8.) — MAcm. 
Macir,'" too, ia a regetable substance that is brought from 
India, being n red bark that grows upon n krgc root, and bears 
the name of the trpe that prodiicea it : -what the nature of this 
ti ee ia, I have not been able to ascertain. A dccoetion of this 
bark, niiseil witii honey, h greatly employed In medicine, asa 
Bpacific for dysientery. 


Arabifi, too, pruduees Bugur ; " but that of India ia the moat 
esteemed. This &ubHtiui<:e is a kind of honey, which eoUeets 

'^ F^usu^eimis Ibat tbis way posaibly bo ctio Lydum Eiiropajum of 
Linnjciii, a &h.Tuh not uncomnionly fuuuxt in the t<oiitb of Europe. 

** T!i<? Hhamnu* Lycioidos of LiimicuB, knoun to us as biKiktbom. The 
burricM of Tuuiiy vurietics of itie lltiflinniiB nrc VLolctit juirgalivra. 

^ WLut he mean* uinJer tliis Lead it nut kiiu-wti. t'va n\>eiA.» of a. tree 
nbicli ^0 Briihmias call mncrei, mid wliivb the ForttieuMc uvllod orraro 
&a [ri curaariiui, afvoro sancto, arvorc do saacio Thome, hm «f wlitch thpy 
have ^ivnn tio furllirr pnrticulnrs. Aca^ta. Ciutiiiif. rod Kauhin hRv>> also 

frofeiKd til gim iiuiiuuiils of it, but t):oy do ii»t luud (u tti iili'titificulion- 
lojniigiiiu thinks thnt pii.her thijSDiiUiii^a, theRei amarorjsof KutiipbiuK, 
or ulw tlie Polyoardiit of CiniiDrrscin is itiuant. It bcviuk by rm niiiuis itn- 
ptifisibb (but maco, tbo covorinif of ibeuutcntp, U the substaaoe alliidwl to, 
an ftplninn tlmt is siipportud by GcrnrJ nnit OcBfmntainfB. 

^" " Sfwehnrfin," r<'e snpgvaU Ihnt I'bny nllndi's to a peculiar kind 
of cryatBlliied siigiir, tlmt xs fouod m tlii? bmnbi-o rtinw, tbuugli, at 
the eamie time, he think* it ndl improbabtci tLtt hv imiy Lave beard of 
the gfgjiuiiie mirnr-canK ; lu Strabo, B. xr., ip^iake of a hooey foimd ia 
India, preparpd without the aid of beea, and Liiam hm ILc line— 

"Qui<iuu bibunt tijiiori dultf« ab nrumliiLo buccds.," 
eridcntly referring tn n siijnr in tbt form o( a sjTup, aud nat of eiystal, 
likv tbitt of tbi! Bumlua urundinucea. It ia by no means improbable, tbal 
PHojf, or rnlhcr DioBcnridM, from wh(vm he cripies, coiil'uaM Hit two kiiriU 
of iiugnr-, nx it is wi;ll knnvrn tliat thn Siiecbanini offleiufirum, »r sugw 
tauc, Lm bt'L-ti mtltii'utud frtua a very early pnriod in Aiabiu I'tlii. 




in reeds, whit«, like gum, and brittle to Che teeth. The 
larger pieces ate about ihe sizti of a filbert; it is oolyeoi- 
ployod, iiowcTer, in mt-dicuiu. 


On the frontiers of Infiia is n country called Arian^ which 
produces a thorny alirub," rendered pretioua by the Icaia 
which it distils. It bearB eoniie rtscmbluHai to myrrh, but is 
very difficult of access, by rcaaou of the thorns with whioh it 
is armed. Here, too, a poisonous ebrub is foutid, with a root 
like the radish,"" and leave? like those of thu laurel, By its 
iwwerfnl odour it attracts horses, iimi wiis very Dearly depriv- 
ing Alenander of all his cavalry npoa his lirst arrival then-, 
an accident which olao buppcned in Gtdrusia. A thorny 
ehrob*" has been also spoken of as a native of tbo flame 
ronntry, with leaven like those of thp laurel, tht> juice nf 
which, if ^rioklod upon the eyes, is produt'tivi' of blindnc«g 
in all aaimalB. Auutbc-r pLunt is also nienticiaed, with a most 
remarkable odour, and full of diminutive aerpeats,*" the sting 
of which is sure to causu instiuit dvuth. OuiBkritus Htut<?B, 
that in Uie vallica of llyrcuuia, tbtre is u tr»* ri'scmbiiug tbo 
iig, and known as the occhus," from whioh a honey distils 
for two hourfl every morning. 



** Ft is nnkuftWB what pknt h )ivn allinled to by Pliaf, but Spreiigt'I 
t* that it is the Aencln IntroniiTn 

Tom the divert ptiiin, this wuttl J appt-at lif In.- a sort of poi&onoiu 

•• Theio is II Ireu ia Imlb, m wj tre iiifiirniipil by Fei-, whitli ii knoitn 
U tbc Plsubutria Ae;iUlii{'liuni, Che juice of whicti is ri^mnrkabl^ ucriil. 
8ailors, on ttriking' it <Kith a hnteb^it, nnd rniinin^ the ^»lce to agiirt into 
thair vyc*, bare hetti in Juiik*^ "^ luaii>;> IbQir Bij^lit. It it pcxnblo that 
thfa mn; be ibu tne inn aVudeil t» by I'linv. 

« He borrow* tlm ncuoant oJ' tlii* luiirvt'lluu* ghrub frnm Thi>nphTa«His. 
Nli Kucb plant U tikdy to boTO ever oii«(e{] ; [lif>u)(b*niull,iiiid uvun larg^i, 
luinkeH may occationuli)' talie rttnge unanf throha and faoilDir ttoos. 

'J T)i«re ii lUUe doubl tJiat ttio Hcilymiuin Alhitei nf Linnteiis is hera 
mtunii from wbich a liinJ of linnoj nr tniuiii* lluit!!, linuwti aa " Enitern" 
maniiA, or tereiitablD. It U aot so hii;h im th» Itir-tnM', nnd !■ foumi ia 

■ KhnrnAiui. Syria, Mffsopolaiaia. uad vIh^wIktu. Tbc Rianna dJHtilu prm- 

■ cipally ia tbc morning. 




la the vicinity, too, of India, ia Bactrinna, in which region 
we Jiud bdeUium," that is go highly esteomtd. This tree it of a 
black uolour, nuil about t)ie size n( the olive ; it hae leaves like 
those of the robur, and boars a. finiit simildr to that of the wild 
lig, and ia nature resembling a kind of gum. This, fruit it 
by Bome persona called brocbon, by others malacha, and by 
others, ngain, inaldac«n. When of a blatk colour, and rolled 
tip in it heara thd name of hadrobolon. Thip substnnflo 
ought to ho transparent an^ tJie ■colour of was, odoriferous, 
unctuous -when eulijoctcd to friiiiion, and bittor to the taate, 
though without thti elightest aridity. Wh^n uaM lor aacrcd 
pnq)oseB, it is Hteopud in wine, upon which it craits a still 
EDoro powerful odour, The tree is a native of both India and 
Arabin, as wtU iis Hudia. and Babylon j somo persons give to 
the bdt;Lliuni that is import*td by way of Media, the nam» of 
pemticuin." This last ia remarkable for its briltlcnesa, while, 
(it the same time, it is hard&r and more bitter than the other 
kinds ; that of Indin, on the other hand, ia. moister, imd giimmy. 
ITiis last sort is aduitfrated by means of almonds, while the 
various other kinds an? falsified with the hm-k of scordnatum, 
that being the name of a tree" the gum of which strongly re- 
'Bembles bdtUium. Theao adiiitonitioBB, however, are to bo 
J detected — and let it sufiioG to raontion it here, in rolatiou to all 
other perfumes aa woU — by the smell, the colour, the weight, 
the taste, and the action of flre. The bdellium of Bactriana 
i& shiuiag and dry, and covered with numeroua white sputa 
resembling the finger-uails; besidca which, it should he of a 
certain weight, hPurJer or lighter than which it ought not ta 
be. The price of bdellium, in its pure state, is thr<'to denarii 
per pound. 

** Feo remBrks, ihat it is singular thut a reainoiis gum, aach as bdel- 
lium, should liivu baim iiseil ia r^uminfiroL- for now two tlimisnti^ jeaim 
and yet its origin remain uiiknoini. Kmmpfcr hiiiI' Kuraplma !ire of 
iipiniDn, that the Itgq which produces it is tho one known to uuturaligt* «• 
the ISariisaiia flahcllifnnnis of LiiitUQUS, ur lliu LoaiuiUE of othcn. It ii 
impftrtod into Europa tTom Arabia nad ladin, luiJ ii often found mixed 
with gill II Arabic. 

«' TJipuTiiiov\teomirtpaTiiyiit, "tii-a remotest p&rta of tba eaitli," 
from whieli it was Wouglit, 

*'■ The modem attiUE of t'-iis tree U unknown. 

Chap. 21.] 



CniP. 20. tSSKB OF FKB8IS. 

ASjoining'thccoimtTica which we have prcvicmslj- mpnlionwi 
is PerfflB, lying along the fthoPM of ihu Roii S<iii, wliicli, when 
deBcriblng" it, we have mentioneii as the Pemim Sea, the tides 
of which jicuctrutu far into the lund. Thu trees in these 
legions are ofa luiirvcilous outurv ; fur, corroded by thu aetioa 
of the Bait, and bearing b. conniderable resembloDcc to vegeta- 
ble BubstuQCcs that huvo bwti tJirou-B up and abandoned br 
the tidt^, thi.*y are scta to (.-mbrace tho iirid Eundii of Uio seu- 
shore with tlieir naked raobi, just like w many polypi. When 
the tide rises, buffeted by the waves, there they stand, fixed 
and immoveable ; nay, more, athigh wcti-r they are compk-tety 
noverDd ; a fact which pTOves to Bonviotion, that thoy derivr 
tlieir nutriment from tlia sidt contained in the water. Thp 
t-ize of tboaf^ treta iu quito murvelloiifl; in apivcunuico iimy 
strongly nrstraible the orbutc ; the Iruit, which on tlio outside 
is very aimihir to the almond, has a spiitd keroel within.^ 


In the Bame gulf, there is the ieland of Tylon," covered witli 
Q forest™ on the Bide which loolia tuwoids tho East, whcrb it 
is washed also by tho eeu at high tides. Each of the tieeu 
is in. 8120 as large aft the ilg ; the blasBoinB are of an indescri- 
bable tveetoees, and tbe fruit is similar in shnpe to a lupine, 
but BO rough and prickly, tJifit it is never touched by any ani- 
mal. On » more elevated plateau of the »une island, we find 
tree* that bear wool, but of a different nature from those of the 
Reres ; " aa in these treciB the leaves produce nothing at all, 
and, indeed, might very readily be token for those of the vme, 

" B- vi- e. 29. 

^ it in mmpofced tbat. the "Ithinophorft Jlftoglo of Linisus is tho trw 
that is hum dttoiibcil. It grow* vn nU \\tv coiubt of ludin, from tjiim to 
tb« entiaiico of ifat Pereinn Oulf. It Ukl>es root on siiciu >rhii;h Lavo hutn 
inunitatM 1^ tho bga, and its botig'ht bvcd i]vniLwari,ls, aud ukin? root in 
tbti earth, advonc^r grodunll; townrda the sea. The leaf and fruit have Ibe 
Gbiinict<iriilic3 of iIium.- tif Lhu arbuUi aad iilnioTid n« here iDouliuucd. 
'«» B. ri. c. 32. 

'" ¥ie ms^inu (liat sowio of mnngroTu it protnUy alluded to, of 
the knid kaown aa aviuauia, w bnijuicra. 

" Sue B. vL 0. 20. 


[Paok XII. 

irere il not that tiipy are of smaller size. They bciw a kind of 
gourd, about the size of a quince;'" which, when arriTed at 
maturity, bursts nsmider and discloses a ball of down, from 
■which a costly kind of linen cloth is made. 

(11.) This tree ia known by the name of goBBypinus : " 
the smaller island of Tyloa, which is ton ruilt'u distant from tlio 
liirgiEC uiitj, [iroduces it in even greater abuadanct. 



Juba states, that about a certain shrub there grows a woolly 
down, from whitsh a fabric ia mtuiufiictiircd, prcferablo even to 
ihogu of India, He adds, too, that certain txeeB of Arabia, 
fvom which ve&tmcnts are made, are oolled cjiiie, and that they 
haT-c u leaf bimilar to that of the palm. Thus do tlieir veiy 
lree« afford clothing for the peoplb of India. In the islands of 
lyios, there ia also another tree, with a blossom like the white 
violet'* in appoarance, though four times as large, but it is 
destitute of Bmell, a very remftrkable fact in these tlimutes. 



There is also another tree eimilor to the preceding one, but 
with a thicker foliage, and a hlosaom like the roBe. This flower 
shuts '* at night, and, beginning to open towards sun-rise, 
appears in fiill blow by mid-day ; the natives are in th» habit 
of sajHng that in this way it goes to sleep. The same island 
bears also the palm, the ohve, the Tine, and the fig, with 
various other kiuda of frnit. None of the trees in this idaad 
lose their leavea:" it ifl abundantly watared by cool Btreams, 
and rcccirca the benefit of rain, 

''' " Cotijnni." To this TMcmblRnoeof its fiiiit Id fhc quince, fhe tiottQU' 
iniv, which is here olhdpil to, not iniprobaWy owes its luodcra naiue. 

'^* TUo coilou-troe. ot QoBay|iiuni arboreum of Liaiinnis, It is worthy 
of rcmiirk, Ibut I'liny cojiiw here almost lilp.rnlly (tnTa Thcoplirastua. Ac- 
curding to l'iiili>aLi.'!itus, [111! bj'ssus, or fine tJS*.u«« Mdrn by ihe ligyptiaa 
pritku, vern minlu of cotton. 

^' The Maliliuluiiicunu. 

^* F6e su(;gi-atH ttiat this mny bo a MagnoliA-, bnt, os ho Temurkii, mntit 
plantnopon and aliut ax certain h-riiurB; i:'Oii«i:H^iieiiUy, tti't cannot b« re- 
Kuxiled n> liny pccuiiiir chui'iittcristic, sutQdiL'iit tu tend wiLh carlniutjr tu 
Its idiindliciitioii. 

T> Tbuofihiaslus, from whom our author is cvpjiag, says tliat this is Itiv 
COM oniy willt tlic Rg-liut thuru. 

CbaiK W.l 

catt. 24, — Tmi TASTors rsEFci piionrcra nv tkrrs. 

Arabia, which is in the ^ncinity of thei»c iglaods, requires 
that wt) should make Home distinction in its vegetable produot«, 
teeing that here the various jHirts of tre«8 which are cm- 
jjloycd fot iiaefal purpose* nr*; the root, the branches, l)io 
bnrk, the jnioen, the giim, tho vood, the Bhoots, the hlosfioma, 
the leaves, and tlio fruit. 

CHAP. 25. (12.) — onsrvs. 

A root and a leiif, however, are the prodiicHoDs which nre 
held in the very high<-st eHtimatioii in Inilia. The root ix that 
of the coitus;" it has a hufning ttatc. in the mouth, and a 
TiiiMt exquisite odour ; JD other rnf'ppor^, the branches ore good 
for nothing. In the island of I'atale,^ Bitiiiito at the Tenr 
Tnouth of tho river Inclua, there am two kinds of costua found, 
the lilack aad the white ; the lost is eoofiidered the best Thu 
price of it is five denarii per pound. 


Of the leaf, which ia that of the iiard," it is obIt right to 
speak eomewhat uiore at length, as it holrlw the principal place 
among our unguEiila. The uanl is a ahruh witli a heavy. 
thiL'k rool, but short, black, brilllc, and yut onctauus us wdl; 

'" AeetiT^mg to nio€.t commcntAton. thii » tlie Coitus Amtiicui of lin- 
nmii. DioKoridM ncnttions Ihret! varietips bf costas : l\\*> Aniliion. whirli 
i> of thp iHst qiLditf, imd ia wbiLo find OflonFrTotio; tho Itidinn. -which ti 
ItliickaDdcmcioth ; nnd thn Syiinn, whiclg is of tbo colour nf wax, ilmkr, nnd 
itrang smelling. Fi<i.*. however, doubt* whAtber the modeni oo«lui m the 
■ante thing ac that of lb« aaci^iiis ; fur. tu hv mya, uHliouKb it biu a swei't 
oAma, it doei not deacnx tlio appellation of a " prettioua aiomatio," which 
Ve tbid constantly firoii to it by the ancients. 
'< 8e.(t n. vi. r.. 2.3, 

^ It ii proli;ibli> that the nard of ths nniTimtn, from irhj<^h ttipy extrafltod 

titc famous nard-oil, was tsul thi; suam pLuul wliich we Lauw u* tbu ItJiiian 

' Hard, or Andraiio;>on nardiiB of Linnipua. IniJeDd, it has bcm pretty eon- 

cluiiTHly MtaktislLcil by Sir William Jr,nMf in his "Asiatic IttBRnrcbei," 

that tta« Valeriana Jutamunii ia the pl»nt from which they obtaioeil tbuuil. 

' AnLOa^t the liindDM, it ii VtKiwn he cliatAninJini, and by Hie Arnhs undtr 

> thu name of •oinbul, or '•spike," ftom ilie f,iotof tho bnf* being siirti>uini(,-d 

I with can or spikoi. wbcnci:, prohahly, iln Kunian npptUntion. Thip «pe- 

I (iM of tolcrinn growiin the nic-r« distant and mountainouf parts of luoia, 

' ^ootas aud Nepuil, for iaituaoo. 


120 PLorr'a sUkTvasL eistobt. [B#ntXir. 

it has a musty BmpU, too, -very much like that of the cyyien!,s 
■with a fihoTp, acrid taste, tlie leuvL* bL-itifi; stnall, and growing 
in tufts. 1 ho heads of the ttard upread <uit into care; hcmo 
it 18 that nard le bo famous for its two-fdd pruduction, thw 
flpike or ear, and Uit; leaf. 'Xbcre ia another kind, agaiii. that 
^rowB oil the banks of the CJnnges, but ia altogether coE- 
demned, as beiug good for nothing ; it bears the uame of 
osEemtLB, " anil cmil'-'i a fetid odour, Nard is adultcratvd 
vjth a Bort of plant called pseudo-nftrd,*' which ia foiind 
growing everywhere, and is known by ita thick, broad kaf, 
and ita sickly colour, whioh inclines to while. It is so- 
phisticated, alao, by being mixed with the toot of the gontiine 
nard, which adda very considi-'rahly to its weight, Gum is 
also used fur the same purpose, oiitiiuouy, ai)d cypenis ; or, 
at leoetr^tbe outer coat of the cypcrus, Its genuinciKies ia tested 
by ita Lightucss, the rodnpw of its coluur, its eweut emtll, and 
the tasto more particularlvi whiuh parchtia the muutli, mid 
Ittavea a plpaaant flavour hi-bind it j the price of spikenard is 
onB hundred denarii per pound. 

J,eaf * nard varies in prioe according to the size ; for that 
which is known, by the name of hadroBphffimm, consiating of 
the larger leaves, sella at forty denarii por pound ; when tho 
kares are amaller, it h calli^-d mesosphierum, and iit sold at 
sixty. But that which is eonaidcrod the most valuable of all, 
is known aa microaphioruiQ, and consists of the very Bmalh^t 
of Ihu leaves; it sells at seventy-five denarii per pound. All 
thoKO varieliea of nard have »n agreeable oduur, bnt it is mu^t 
poweifal when fresh. If the nard is old when gathered, that 
which is of a black colour is consirkTod the best. 

In our part of the world, the Syrian^^ nard is held in tho 

^ From tha OirBpfc, HJmv.u, "« putrid ^ora." F6c siiggasta that CliU 
may Imvc Ijpen the N'.irdd* IjinJnisjilfciL-run] ot'Uif inodoniH, 

*' FiSo eu|>;>(hiits tljut lliia Ik iml kwader, as aonic imve thi)uj;ht, but Iho 
Allium i-iotoriiilia oi iniiJprn anturiJisle, which ib ttiil mixod with llic n4trj 
fnna llie Aiidropogrjn. He iloubt» tlio possibility ol iU Jaiuing bsoa odul- 
t«rntcd witli »tib8tunKes of suah a liiifcrent natiiry as thosu mtiitbued Utro 
hy I'liiiy. 

*> FAo is of ojiinion, tltat the Grtek writrra, (rditi vrhma Pliny copied 
thi* pnasa^, ictiinded to f^eak of tlie tars of nraixl. or s[iik(-ii»nJ. 

"^ According tn DinHCondes, thig n[>pellrition> only mcnng such nard as is 
ciittivtited in certain iiiauritoiEis of liiilia w]ii<:li fuok Uiv/ard Syriii, und 
wliich. aecnTdiiig t» that author, w»»[|je b* si nard of bIL Dalouharapn mid 
Uurduoiu, huviitvu-, ridicule tUie explaaaliou of ttio tontu 

Cfaap. 27.3 

neJtt highest esteem next to ttiis; thro the Gallic;** and in 
the thirid place, that of Crute," wliinh h^ Romo penoiu ia 
ullod "a^on," andby otlions*'phu." This last has t-'xactly tho 
le&f of tlie olueulrum,** with a sUlk a vubit iu k-ugUi. knoltuil, 
of a irhitiiili ootour, inclining to purple, and a root thut niuB 
adcwaj-s ; it is covered, too, with l«ns hair, and strongly 
roeembles the foot of a bird. I'ield nurd i^ known by ibe 
name of baccur." We »bnll hftve further occasion to mention 
it when v« comu lu K|>e»k of the fiowera. All the^ kinds of 
nard, however, are to be rcckonodas herbs, iriththccxcrptioQ 
of IndiuD nurd. Of tJicsc, the OollJc kind in pullud up along 
with the root, and washed in wrine; after which it is dri«d iu 
tlic shade, and wrapped up in paper, iu i^mall [lureflit. It in 
not T4.'ry difTi^rtut from Ibo Indiun nard, but ia lighter tliiui 
that of Syria; the prict at wliich it fcils is tlirwu dv''*rii per 
p&und. I'he otdy way of tvetiug thv Umvee of all these 
Viirivtii.^* of uanl, is to i»i?e liiat they are not brittle and parohed, 
inatead of being driod naturally and gradually. Together 
with the nard that p-owB in Gaul, there nlwnys* spring up 
a herb, which it known hy tho natni; of hircnlnsj or tho 
"little gO[it," on aocouut of its ofTiUfiivo Kmid], it being Tory 
mmilar to that of the f^oat. This herb, too, is verj* mueh usud 
in the aduiteralion of nard, though it diffi!!^ from it in tho 
fiiot that it htm no E>t<>m, atul its leavin an; sinulkT ; the root, 
too, ia not bilUir, and ia outirtly dcstituto of em^ll. 

CB.^P. 27. (13.)— ASAKUll, OH FOU^roOT. 

The herb aaanim,* too, has the projHJrties o'f nard, and, 
indaud, hy eoiuti penuns is kaowa as wild oui-d. It has a leaf, 



'* OcneraUy Euppoacd to ho iht ValcciaDu Cvlliua uf modom mttuniliati. 
11. «i. c. 79, 

■* PrubaitK Llia Valiiriiuta lUlicn of moctum nntuniliits. 

•• feu H. i«. c. 48. 

" KaoMm ia thii ouuntry U fni-clovn, our Ijuljr'* glovw, aagt of Jctii- 
■ilna. or clo«ii'» qiiVcaard, Sco B. isX. c. 16. 

"■ Not alirayB, but totj Mldora, Kroucr inys. < Insint has ectablisb«d, 
from obtcmicicin, UmC tltit plant u em\j a mni^tty at ihi' Vnlrriiuin Colticii. 

• Fee nnuiukB, llint tint (imni'! " ljn<:cuni," in (iruik. t>ro|jtTly !)fl«a(|^j 
to tlUB pUnt, but that it wna tTitnifcrrtiL liy tli4! lWi:iiu ti' tlm i\-M uard. 
with wUiuli till) .:V»iitum liad bocumo cvnft'uniiKd. Ii in thu nluu luttlit- 
AMiam EuTopiGiim of motlurDutitonduUi but iiduwuut,a< Vl'my Etf&uU, 
fidtrcr twiov in Ibo jcat. 



[Book HI. 

iliswevcr, moTP like that of the ivy, only that it is rouu'dcr and 
liofter. The Aowlt is purjilo, tliB root vtry Himilar to that of 
the GuJlic nnrii!, and Uie scetl is Uku ft grape. It is of u warm 
find vinoUB flavour, aail bloissoms twice ft year, growing upoii 
hill eidipa thut are densely shaded. The best kind ie thut t'ound 
in Ppatus, and the neit best that of i'lirygia ; that of IJlyri- 
cum bein^ only of thinl-rate q^unlity. The root is dug up 
wfaen it is jast. bcgitming to put forth its kavf's. and thcTi dried 
in the suii. It very soon turns mouldy, and loa&s its propertifia. 
There haa, also, been lati-ly found a certuin herb in some parts 
of GreiMie, the leavos of ■whirh do not (iifftr in the slightCBt 
degree from those of the liidiim nurd. 

cn\r. 28. — iMOMTna. — .\M:oMja. 

The clustered Hmomum"' ia very extensively used; it 
grows upon a kind of wild rine that is found in India, though 
some persons havo been of opininn that it le borne by a shrub, 
Tescmbling the myrtle in. appearance, and ahont the sbtoo 
height a» tho palm. Thltt plant] also, is plucked along tfith 
the rout, and i& carefully presBbd together with the hands ; for 
it very soon beconieB brittle. That kin<3 is held in the highest 
eetecnip the learea of which hear a strong resembknce to those 
of tho pomegranate, being free from wrinkles, and of a red 
colour. Thu seeoad quality is that which is of a pallid liao. 
That which has a green, grassy appearance, is not so good, 
and the white is the worst of ull ; it assumes this appearance 
when old, Thw price of cluHtcifd amomum ia sixty denarii per 
pound, but in dustit sella at only forty-nine. Amomtim is pro- 
duced, alao, in that part of Armenia which is knownaeOtenft; 
as, lJso, in Media and PontuB. It is adulterated with the IcaTes 
of the pomegranate and a aolulion of gum, which ia cmployi-d 

^ II IB by nn meaiiB tptlled among naturBliBts, wbat plant tho Amonium 
of the aackuts was; indeed, timrnj biu lieen Ihe gtmUat diTergrnoo of 
opmion. TrngiiB taltta it to he n kind of bindweeJ Matlliioli. the Piper 
jdtliiupicum i>r LmiuiiUB 1 Curdug :i]tJ Scoliger, lliu tihp of Jnrialio, ibfi 
Ansatfttiea liierncuntti;n o/LiniLKUs, (Josuer thints ic to liavo bLtn tlio 
gordea popput, tlie Suliuium buudferum of Toumefort: Ca^siilpious Ihc 
cnbeb, the I'ijicr cubcba of LinnmiB : Plukenot and SpTcng>!l ihe Uisiiis 
viligiuea, wkQe FiSc and Pauli^t look upon it sn aol improbably ideuticii! 
with tbe Amomuni racemosaru of r.iiinfeuB, The name is probaMy dprivrd 
frnm the Ainhic hnfatnAmii, tiio Aralfisai Uaviug &itl iaUu-duoGil it U) liiu 
notice of iho Orooks. 


ill order (o mnkt; the tearcs sdhcro and Ibnn clusters, tike 
those of the grape- 
There is anatbcr substance, also, which is known ty the 
name of unomi^;" it is not so full of veins as omomum, 
honler, and not ho orloriferoiis ; ftum which it wnuld appear. 
either that it is altogether a diiTcniit plant, or else that it is 
UBOmum guLhcrtjd iii un umipc state. 


Similar to th<?su BubBtanoct, both in namD as well at the 
ehrub which produce it, i« t3ic cunlamonmm," the seeds of 
^iriuch are of an oblong shape. It is gathered in the wune 
manner both in India oiyl Arabia. There axe four different 
kinds of cardamomnTn. That which is of n rery preen colour, 
anctimnn, with sharp anghn, and very tiiffiniilttfl break, is the 
most highly tetccmed of iidl. Thu ni'xt Iwat is of a reddish 
Tvhite tint, while that of third-rate quali^ is fihorter and 
blacker, Jie worst of all being mottled and friable, and emit- 
ting bat little bqicU ; which, in its Ri.'iiiiiDe° eUtte ought tu be 
very almilar to costum. Cftrdamomum growH also ia Media. 
The price of the best ia three denarii per pound. 

CHAP. 30.' — mit ootneniT or FnimurcewE. 

Ifoxt in affinity io cardamomnm would haTe been cinnamo- 
mum," and this we should have now proceeded to Fpeak of, were 
it not more conrcnient first to mnVe Tnention of the trensurea 
of Aiabia, sad the ren^oas for which that coimtr)' h»K received 
the names of "Happy" uud "Blest." The chief productions 
et-Aiabia are frankiuoc-D&c and myrrh, which last it bears in 

BoppoMd to havu bMD only the Amomuni, ta on unripe Bbitc, ui Pliny 


ill Biioim in pliitrniacy u " oardumiim." It ii nnt hnwcvDr, a» 
Ffiof san, found in Arabia, but in Inilia ; ftom which it prtrhnbly reached 
th« braekK and Jtiiman* bji w>;' of the Std Sea. Tlii-rn Km three kinds 
JLaavB in modtm ccimmcrcc. Iho Inrgo, ttio tniildlii s\r,e^ and tba stnull. 
K. IhinaMro, " JdiittiuI ilv Pliannucit," ^^fi tG^^. ii of upinloD, thnt the 
mud oartlaiDamuni ci^iilM "amomum in pi^ilf," ttio E^tian kardh 
EieuiiQg "pod," or "btiBk." It it,, howtTcr, nnaTi: ^KncraUf luppOKd, 
UmI tlut Grerk word, KafiSwi, " lieiirt," uDlrn into iu uoin political. 

*° *' Vnu* *' tecou a prefitrablc reading licra ki " vera," nhicii hts bcDn 
aJwtcd by SHIIk. 

*• 8a« 0. 42 of the pTMuat Book. 

[^odIc xn. 

coauMon wirti the country of H.Q TroglodytsB. (14.) There U 
no country in the world that produces ['rankmccuao except 
Arabia,'* and, indeed, not the whole of thut. Aliuoat in tho 
very centre of that region, nre the AtnimitiE,"* a community 6f 
the Habrei, the capital of wLoae ktugdom is Rahota, a place 
Rttuiite oil a lofty mountiuii. At a dietanoe of eight stations 
from this is the iacenBe-hearing: region, known by the name 
of &aba, Tho Greeks nay that tho word signifies a "secrtt 
myeteiy." Xhia diBUiut looks towuiils the north-east, and 
is rendered inacc«geiblc by rocks on. every side, while it is 
bounded on the right by the SLTt, from which it is shut out by 
cliflii of ti'emeudous hcigiit. The soil of this territoiy is said 
to be of a milky white, (i little inclining to red. The foitat* 
extend twenty schcpra in length, and half that distance in 
breadth. The length of tho schfcnue, according to the esti- 
mate of ErafcosUiuncH, ifl forty atadiaj or, in other words, ftvo 
miles; some pfraons, howevor, have eatimalod tho acbtemw at 
ncr more than tliirty-two stadia. In this diatritit sonifi lofty 
hills take their rise, and tho trees, whioh uprijig uj) epontu- 
noouRly, run downwards along thp iloclivitios to tho plains. 
It LB genuraliy jtgreed that the soil is argillaceous, and that 
the ppringa which there take their rise are but few in numbLT, 
and of a nitrous q^ualitj'. Adjoining are the Mintei, the people 
of snothci: comrauoity, throTigh whose country is tlie sola tran- 
sit for the frankincense, along a single narrow road, The 

"^ Vir^l. Georg. B. ii, I. 13K, muntiona I'unuliaiii, in Aruliin, ns being 
more eapccinll)' llie country of fi-mikinc^nBO. That rtgioh conteponJs willi 
the modeiD Yemtoi. It is, howcvur, a wt'll-aacertumcd I'acl, Ihiit it grow« 
in India dk well, nnd it ifi euppiwed tliRt ihi? gi-ejiter part of it vsei by 
tliD anciGUta vrna in r^-'uUty impitrtcd from ttint cuuncry. Tliv locliiui in- 
cunae is tlm procliirt of ii Inn bdunpliiy to the IfernMuth cluM, mttncd by 
Eoibwrgli, who Hret diatsOTcrci it itnswellift thurifern. It. is nior* cant- 
cwUy foyml in the moimtaiTniuB parts uf India, On tlit other liBiiil, it lim 
Iicen RMerted that the Aral>ian incciisi; vm» tho prniiurt of a enniferou* tree, 
either the JtiniperaB Lmn, the JimipiTus Pl;u!uii!tm, or tht Jmiiperoa 
Itmrifora uf I.iiiniBiu, hut. qb F^k j'lsllj* niuarliH, it would apptmr nioro 
Toiwonjibii? to look umong tlie t*rc:l)inlbii i)f Arithla fur the inct-iise treat, if 
one uf tUat elm pr ndito.-b it in lodiii, nml more esgi^cidlly bcuuitu lb« voui- 
fUToUB trees prcuiuiiu -ntily i-osins, while tlie terebintlis proiluen gum ri:ain«, 
to which cl:i»* of veg*tQliI(i ornduutB frankincense tviduntly buloagod. In 
DummcrcD, thu gutn rcKin, OlihiLJium, l1ic produvi of tba liuswcUiit scrratu, 
n,Tiil impurtLHi from the Levant, heure the niLme uf frankincoiiB!!. 

*• ScR It. vi. •;. 32. Thi:ir namfi ia Btill pre&ervod in l!ie mwlern Hodra- 
nmuL, lu the iiast uf Atli^ji. 



Uinici "rcre the first people who onrricd on any trnffio ia 
IrankinceDBC!, which ihey still do to n grciLtfr extent than any 
otitcr pcreonts and bencu it is that it liiu rticdvuil thu apptUti- 
tioQ of *' Mioteaii." It is the isuha'i uioLC, and no other 
people amoTic the Arabians, that l^hoid the incoDse-tree ; and, 
indued, not ail of them, for it IB said that lher« are not more 
than three thoufi^ind fimilictB which har« a right to claim that 
privilege, by virtne of hereditary exiccewion; and that for Uu» 
Fc^tson tbo»c persona are ciUIed oncred, and are not allowed, 
while prtining tlip Crois or gathering the horvtut, to rtctlvc 
any pollution, either by intcrcoTirflc with women, or coming in 
contact with the df-ad; by those rpligiouB obsj^rrnneea it ib 
that the price of thti commodity is eo eoiieidirrably imbuucL'd. 
persona, howeyor, say, thiit tho right oi' gathering" in- 
Miue in the forests belongn to all the^e people in commoB, 
wlule oUitTs ngwin state, that they take their turns year by 


Nor 18 jt by any m^'ans agreed what is the appenrance of 
the incenee-tree. "We have sent fiexcral erpedition* iij^aimtt 
\rabia, and the Eomun anna hare penetrated into the greater 
part of that cfluntrj' ; indeed, Cuiu» Casor,'' the son of Anguft- 
lus, even earned considerable renown there ; and yet this tree 
has been di'seribed by no Latin writer, at k^ast that I know 
of. The des-criptiona given of it by the On-ek wriliTB rury 
considerably: some of them say that it has exactly the 
^of the pear-tree, only somewhat smaller, and of a grass, 
green colour. Othera, again, say, that it huH a rather rt^ddish 
leaf, like that of the mnstich, and others, that it is u kind of 
terebinth," nnd that King Antigonua, to whom a branch of it 
WBJ« brought, was of that opinion. King, in the work 
which hu wrote and dudiuated to C'aiiiB {^rosar, the son of 
AugiiBtii9, who was inflamed by the wido-spread renown of 
Arabia, states, that the tree Las a spiral stem, and tliat the 
branches hear a considerublu reBemblaHce to those of the Pontic 
uiapie, wliile it secretes a sort of juieu very similar to that of 

l£. Ti. na. 31 and 32. ITn vsx tlioson (f Agrippa uidJutiHi tbe 
Ttt Augustus, bjr whom Iiq was adnpl^'d. 
I Hcm till.' uiitat priitMiblo among tmat >&riuiui svrcoiies and ooa^ 



[Book 7Jl 

the almoiid>tree. Such, he aaya, is the nppcftrance of the tree 
as neon in Carmanid and Egypt, where it was introduced and 
planted under the auspict'S of the Ptolemies when reigning 
t^erc. It is well knuwn that it hiia a bark not unlike thai uf 
the laurel, and, indeed, eoma peraucis have asserted that thi-ir 
leaves are Biniilar. At all eveuta, such was tko casu with tho 
Iroe as it grew at gardes : for the kings of Asiu also took con- 
siderable cure to htiVB it planted tliere. The ambassadors 
who in my time have come to liome from Arabia, have madu 
all these matt«ra mont uncirrtain, ovun, than they were beforu ; 
a thing at whicii we may justly he suipnaed, seeing that 
some sprigs even of the incenae-ti-ee have been brought among 
lis, fi7>m which we have some reason to conclude that the 
parent tree is round and tjipcrtng, and that it puts forth. Ita 
flbootd front a trunk that ia entirely free 6*001 knots. 


In former times, when they hod fcawei opportuulliee of 
selling it, they ua&d to gather tho fritukinuense only once », 
year; bat at the preient day, as there is a much greater de- 
Dtand for it, there is a eeooad crop as well. TJie first, and 
what we may call the natural, vintage, takes place about the 
rinng of the Du^-Btnr, a period when the beat is moat int«n»u ; 
on which occasion they cut the trte whore the baik appears 
to be the fullest of juice, and extremely thifl, from being dis- 
ti;aded to the gi-eatest extent, ITie imiirion thus made ia gm- 
dually extended, but nothing is removed ; tlie consequeneo of 
which IB, that an uncluoua (bum oozes forth, which gradually 
coagulates and thiekene. Wlit'n tlie nature of the locality re- 
quites it, thisjuieeis received upon matsof polra-ieaveB, though 
in aorae places tho apace around Lho true ia made hard by being 
well ritmuted down for the purpose. The fruDkincenee that 
is gathered after the former method, lb iij Xhv purest stat*, 
though that which falls on the ground is tho heaviest in 
weight: that which adbures to the tree is pated otf with an 
iroQ inetntmetit., which accounts for ita being found mingltd 
with pieces of baik. 

The forest is allotted in certain j>ortionB, and such is the 
mutual probity of the owners, that it is quite safu from all 
depredation ; indeed, there ts no one IcHt to wstuh the treee 
after the IniiimoQa are made, and yet no one is ever known to 

Chap. 32.] TA.KLOUS KIH08 OF riL&KEmCEKBB. 


pUmdcr liis uoigbboar. Bat, bj Herooles! at Alexandria, 
"wbeze Uw inoeiue is dremed for iuil<-, the workshops can oevvr 
b« griardecl with vufficinnt oace ; a seal m even placed upon tbe 
workmen's apront, find a masb put upon the head, or else* 
net irith very close mcBhe*, while the people are ntripped 
naked before they are allowed to leavp work. So tnie it is 
that pucislimonta afford less security among im than i& to he 
found by thcHc Arahiaus amid their woods and foreals ! TTio 
incense which has acciimul&tecl during the summer is gathered 
In the tfiitumii ; it is the purest of all, and is of n whit^} colour. 
Tbe Mcond gathei'iag takes plue« in sprinf;, iacisioog K-iug 
made in the Wk for that purpwse during Uiv winter: this^ 
however, is of a rtrd colour, and not to I>« compared with the 
other in wnee. The first, or aiiptrior kiud of inc«n»e, in known 
as carfiathum," the latter is Gidltd dathinthum. It is thoimht, 
also, that the incense which ia gathered from the tree while 
young is tJie whitest, though the produce of the old trees has 
the most poworfid. amcll ; aomc piTsons, too, have an impres- 
aton that the beet inc^eu^e is found in the Ulunda, but Juba 
osscrtfi that no ineenso at oU is grown there. 

That incense which has hung swppended in globniar dropa is 
known to tis as ''mnJe" fraiikiueeuse, although it is tnofntiy 
tbs oiise that ws do not use the ttrm "mule" exL'&pt m coti> 
tradistmctioQ to the word "female:" it has lK>«n attributed, 
however, to religions scruples, that the name of the other sex 
wi« not employed as a denorai nation for this substance. Some 
[XTwsnj*, again, are of opinioa that the male frankineense hn« 
been ao called iJ-om ittt resemblance' to the testes of the male. 
The incense, however, that ia llie most esteemed of all ia that 
which is mammose, or brea-ft-xlinped, and is produced when 
one drop has stopped short, and another, following close npon 
it, has adhered, and united witli it. I find it stated that one 
of these lompa used to make quite a handful, at u time when 
men displayed less Gagcmess to gather it, and it was allowed 
more tune to accumulate. The Greeks call such lumps aa 

* Theee words are laid by somp to hp ilcri^ail frotn the OrKek, tapaiit, 
" a hollow Btiillt," on ncnount of ils li(rUtinfM, imd Iqliov, " a tnreh,* tin 
■Cfoutit of ita reeinnm nnd inllamTnnhk qunlitiea. II it, liftWfTW, mach 
Btore probable Uist they wrrc derived Irum th« Arabic, tuil not from tbo 
CBlti>-»i!]rLhic, MPoinainel cunjecturw. 

' Ffe it pnbnbl^ rii;bt in hm conjpcturt, that it was so called Eolely in 
WOMqiHiDM Cif ita tujicrivr Nlxi'Ugtb. 



thcac by the name of stagoaia* and atomiiB,^ while the smBller 
pie«eR arc enUed orobia.* The fragments which are broken off 
by sliaking the tree are known to us as manna.' Even at the 
pn^sent duy, however, there are dropa found which weigh one- 
third of a mina, or, in othpr woHs, twenty-eight aenaxii. 
Alexander thu- Great, when a boy, was on oav occasion loading 
the altora with frimkinct-DBe with the grc-iiteal prodigality, 
upon which hia tutor Lconidts^ rematkcd to him that it 
would he time to worship tbe gods in euch a Jft^-ish manner 
ns tliat, wh(!n he had conqiitred l:ho countriea that proditped 
l.hi! frankincense. Alter Alexandi-ia had fioufjiuertd Arabiu, 
]io d(;?patchod to Leoaidca a siiip freighted with frankincenae, 
and sent him word, rL>quesUng that ho would now wotship the 
gods without stint or limit. 

The intsense, after being collected, is carried on camels' 
hiicka to Sahota,' ut which place a single gnte is left open for 
it.s ftdmieainn. To deviate from tho high rond wliilo oonvey- 
ing it, the laws have mado a capital offence. At this place the 
priests tiike hy m;i(i9iire, imd not by wf^igliJ, a tenth part in 
ItoQOHr of their god, whom they oali HiiXiia ; indeed, it ie not 
allowable to dispose of it before this has been done : ont of 
this tenth tho public csptmaca are defrayed, for the divinity 
guucrously entertain!) all those strangers whio bav« made u cor- 
tain number of days' journey in coming thither. The iaceose 
«an only be exported through the country of the Gebaoitae, 
and for this rensnn it is that a certain tax is paid to their 
ItiiLg as well. Thornna,* which is their capittd, is diAtant 
Irom Goaa, a city of Judneaj on tho ehorce of our sea, 4'136'* 

* Menning "dnip" incGnsb. * "Undivided" ineetiBo. 

* From tlicii being tho bwl' of an opa0t>Ct f>r *' cMcfc-pea." 

* TheTH i»«)tni;doubls3 tiilhccorxMtni.'a.iof ttiisieailipK- Tlie"infinna" 
bare nmationiyi i« quit* aiiitftreot subatsiit-p to ttio iDaiina of imnloni cDin- 
jucrcD, oblained frcmi llie J-'raiinus onmii of iiiitumlisLs. 

* He WM a kinaman of Olympius, tbo moiljir of Alcsandcr, anJ a mnn 
of very ituRtero bnhiu. rEut.»rc)i saya, tliut nn this ■icKiuion jML-xandoc 
■mil to Leouiilua QUO ttdttuta' wt'ight of ioccnie aai myrrh, 

» See B. vi. c. 32. 

* Probably the Barao as iho duity, AsaBbimis, rawtioned b;j K^ In 4. 
\2 fiT the pTcfionl Biwlt. TheojihriistiiE mentiuiu bini iDt idcnttcnl With At 
tan, othrra, agiiin, \TiLb JapiCer. Tbcapbinatos N!L}'b that the god ntxATei 
nut a LcDith parC, but h tliird. 

* An to this plat-B wid tUe Gabanit™, see H. ¥i. c. 32. 
''^ XU^n ntuiit suj'ely bti $om^ misLakc in thw9 uiunbBTi, 

-Om^. '3-3 



tnilfls, the distance Wiog divided into Rixty-five dnj«' joumejr 
tj camel. Thv-rv xt« ci?rtuin portion* nlw of tlio fi«iikiiici>iiM 
vhich are given te the pn<>t<t.4 and thi^ king'H McretdriM: mid 
in addition to liicse, tlio kcqjcrs of it, as well ns tho soliiew 
Ttho gnard it, the gato-kc+pfra, and varinus othtr employe*, 
have th«ir share as wull. And then huHidcB, all along the 
louto, tbcTu is ot one plate wattr to pay for, at imollcr ftiddcr, 
lodging at the stations, and various Culqs and inipost« be«ide9; 
the coneLMjuence of which is, that the cspensu fur eaoU uunel 
Wure it urriveK at the shores of our" xea is six hundred and 
eighty-eight denimi ; after all this, too, there arc certain pay- 
Iii«nts still to be mntlc to the firmera of the revenue of our 
empiie. Heneo it i.i that a ponnd of the best franlcinccnae 
Bells at six denarii, the second (juidity five, and tho tliird 
"Birco. Among us, it. is adiiIk'ntU.-d with drops of white resin, 
a nibstaace which beiirs a Htrong rescmhlance to it : but the 
Jknud may be easily dutucted by tin? methods which liave 
already mentioned.'* It Ik tented by the following qaa- 
; its whitfBuss, size, hriUUncs*, and the readiness witli 
Trti«h it talse-s fire when placed on hefttcil coals; in addition 
to which, it idionid not give t,o th<? priisauni of the teotb, hut 
from ite natural hrittlcncfiB cnimble aU to pioca. 

CHAP. as. (15.) — XYUEB. 

According to somft authors, myrrh" is thD produce of a tree 
that growfi in the same forcBt* aa the inecnso-trce, though 
most lay that tliey grow in difFcTont plnccs : but l-lie I'liet is 
that myrrh grows in many partii of Arabia, as will be setn 
when wfi come to speak of tUu several varieties of it. A sort 
tliat is highly esteemed is brought from the ialouds" also, and 
the Sabrei even crosa the sea to procure it in tlnf emintrj- of 
the TroglodytR'. It is grown also by being transphint^tH, and 
when thus cultivat^rd ia greatly preferred to that which is 
grown in the forests. The plant is greatly improved by niking 

•1 Tht Medit*rtaii«,in. " In c. 10 of tho pTceml Rdok. 

'» It i» snpi>iw-^ to br tho pnxhictof on nmyriB, hut is not now Mtotned 

a pprfume; but is iwi-d iii rai-diune a> a t.ouic. Pomkiial hniattribiitpd 
lo tbe Amyti* kHtar, (ir t-ifiil, tli« nrgilmtion of tnyrrli. Accunlin^ ti> 
EbreiAwK. a yeiy siiuiLuT ma, tlioofrii con^titutint; a uiff«rcDi KpcciEi, the 
BslMUO^dram mvnhii. also produc^M lliii triil>i<tjiiico. It it imuoited 
Into Enropn ^ra hnth .Ab^iitin and Arabia. It vat mucb need ayiho 
ancicnlA. to Bafour tlidr wiaes. 

•• Sm B. Ti, c SZ. 

roL. in. , M 




sxiA baring tho roots ; indeed, the cooler tho roots are kept, the 
better it is. 


Tho trce grows to the height of firo cubits, and haa thomi 
upon it: the tnmk is hard and spiral, and thicker than that 
of the incensc-tree, and mnch more so at the root than at tho 
upper part of the tree. Somo authors have said that the bark 
is smooth lilie that of the arbute, others, that it ie rough and 
covertd with thoTUB : it has the leaf of the olirc, but more wavy, 
with sharp points at tho cdgea : Julia eayB, however, that it 
rcHombkB the kal' of the oluaatrum. Some agiain say that it 
reserribles the juniper,'* only that it is rougher and brietUng 
with thorns, and that the leaTcs are of a rounder shape, though 
thoy have exactly the taate of the juniper. There have bouu 
Bouie writers who have incorrectly aaaerted that both myrrh 
and fronkinccnso ore the product of tho Bome tree. 


Intiaions are made in theroyrrh-treealfio twice a year, and at 
the Bftme Benson na in the tncense-tree ; hut in the coae of tho 
myrrh-tree they are all made the way up from the root m far as 
the branches which arc ahle to hear it. The tree spontaneously 
exudes, before the incision ie made, a liquid which bears the 
name of atuuto," and to whicli there ie no myrrh that is supe- 
rior. Second only in quality to this is the cultivated myrrh : 
of the wild or forest kind, the best is that which ie gathered iu 
summer. They give no tithes of myrrh to the god, because it 
is the produce of other countries as well ; but the growers pay 
the fourth part of it to the king of the Gobonitse. Ityrrh is 
bought up iudiBcriminately by the common peoplej and then. 
packed into baga ; but our perfumers separate it witliout any 
diMculty, the principal test« of its goodneee being its uncluoua- 
uesB und its aiomtitio Bmell. (16.) There &re several" kiiid» 

1* XheophrftBtua suys the terebinth. 

*8 FioTu tliu Giatk oTiiCiu, " li> diop." F&e obserres, tlist the raodiwTui 
know natLLng positive as to the niodc of L'Xtracting' mvrrh from the trev. 
See the aoiouut given by Ovid, Met, 13. 1. 1. 500 H »cq'. of tLu tnuiafoiuiu- 
tion of Myrrha into ttiii tree, — " Tiie warm drops ftill from tli>a truo. Tlie 
leara, even, haro their ava honoiir i and the mjrfli tkai ilistits ftom tho 
bark beoTB the aame of iti mi&trees, nnil in vn nge trill rtmuiii unknon-n." 

" P£e reniaikB, that at the pTuwnt iky th hju aL-quiiiiiLed only willi onu 
kind of ■Dyrrti ; the fh^meut^ wblcii beu im iiDpresuva hie tho«e of Mill 

Ohcp. UE.] 




of mjirh ; the £rst among the wild myrrliB is tiie Troglo- 
dytic ; and the nezt are the MinEean, which includes the 
Atnunitic, end that of Ausaritis, in the kingdom of the Oeba- 
nite. A third kind is the Dionitic,'' and a fourth is the 
twxed mytrh, or "all-«ort8;"" n fiftJi, again, is the Somhra. 
oftnian, ■which is brought from a city in 5ie kiugdum of the 
Sabffii, nosr the aoii ; ucd a Eixlh is knpwn by the tmmo of 
Dasuritic. Th^e i& ufchitu mjTih bIsq, which is produced in 
only one spot, and is c&nied lor mie to tho city of MeS6alam. 
The Troglodytic myrrh is ttstcd by its unctuousHeeB, and its 
peculiarly dry appearance: it haa also a dirty, rough look 
with it, but is more acrid than the other kinds. The Sambra- 
cenian myrrh has none of thf'se faulta, and is more sightly in 
ai^eazanc« than any of them, though it ia tai from heing 
ID powerful. In general, however, the proof of its gooduL-M 
eonsiBte in ite bein;> Bepartited in littk jiiccoe of uneven ehtipe, 
fbimed by the concretion oi' a whitish juice, wliich dries up 
Utile by little. When broken it ought to exhibit white marks 
like the iSnger-Duils, and to be slightly bitter to the kistv- 
That of second quality is of a mottled appearance within ; 
while of worse quality is that which is of a block colour 
williin ; the very worat of all is that which is hlack on tiiA 
outaido &B well. 

Tho price of myrrh varies according to the number of pnr- 
ohueers. Staotc ia sold at prices which varj' from three de- 
niuii to forty jicir pound, while the very higheet price of the 
ooltivated myrrh is eleven denarii. EryUirtcim oiyrrb, the 
same, it is pretended, as Arabian myirhj is sixteen denarii per 
pound, Troglodytic also, ia sixteen dennrii ; and that known as 
odoraria, or odoriferous myrrh, eoUfl at fourteen, Myrrh is 
adnlteratod with pieces of mastich^ and other guma ; it is also 
drugged with the juice of wild cucumber, in order to produce 
a certain bitk'meas, and with lithaigo for tho purpose of Id* 
creasing ittj weight. Other BoplustieittioDB may he discovered 
00 tasting it, and the gum will adhere to tho teeth. Hut the 

being not a diatJucl ktud, but a EimplH variety In anp^siaiice unly. Ho 
t3uu£), aUo, ifiat Pliny may vtiry ptfasiljly bo deccnbiD^ seviical oUtinot 
ru£iQi>u& products, uuJur tlio ouo imiuo of uiyrib. All ucuuuaC of tlieac 
Tnhoua diftriclc will he h^izA in B, vi. c, 3'2. 

^' Hnrdouin fufgusts that it may bo lo colled from thn islimd ol Dju, 
lucntioaod hy Striuio, B. iii. 

i» " CqUuUtu." 'rliB reiidia^, howeTer, ia very doubt!\iL 

K 2 



pwwt'b SATUHA* BirrOET. 


cleTPTcst mode of ail ulteni ting it is with Indian myrrh,''" a 
Babstiinco whieli is gathered Trom a. cttrlain prickly ahriib wbiuk 
grows there. Tliis is the only tbing that India produeoa of 
worse q^uality than tiie corresponding prodtite of other coun- 
tries : they may, however, be very easily (Ustbgutsbfed, tJut 
of India being bo very nnich inferior. 

CBAF. S6. (17.)— uastich. 
The trnnsition, Oierefore," ib very easy to mBstich, "wlich 
prows upon another prifikly shrub of ludia and Aiubis, knotrn 
by the niima of laiiia. Of mastich as wtll there are two dif- 
ferent kinds i for in Asia and Groeee thoro ie aho fuund a herb 
which puts forth leaves fi-om the root, and bears a thistly 
head, resembling an apple, and full of fiecd». Upon an inci- 
sion being mnde iu the upper part of this plnnt drops distil 
from it, which can hardly be diatiaguiBhed from the genuine 
mastich. There ie, again, a third sott,^ found in Pontiia, but 
mort! Uke bitumen UiiiQ anything else, llie moat eeteemcd, 
huwever, of all these, is the white mastich of Cliioa, the price 
of which is twenty denimi per pound, while the black mastich 
sella at twelve. It is said that the maatich of Ciiios exudes 
from the lentisk in the form of a sort of gum : like &ank> 
incense, it is adulterated with resin. 


Arabia, too, still boasts of her ladanum." Many writias 

*> Wbiit tliis woa is nnw untnnafn. FeoauggeBln that it m.iy have bcon 
bdellium, ivliich is fuuud in con&idLrablo quantilicE in tlio m)Tr!i that b 
ininurtod nt tlir pwsi^nt cbiv. 

" Tliia is TiigsL jHuliably the meauing of Pliny'* cxpreBsion— •" Ergo 
tnniiit ia m&xticLcn ;" tbuuf^h llunluuin mails it aa mctuuDK llint myrrh 
wmetiiD<» drj^'dnurulij ta mA.9ticb : and Pee, uoiientaitiliti;; tliu piusoge ia 
Ac nmc wnss, rcmnrla tbot thr RUttmont u ptiToly litbulnus. Mutkh, 
he BiyB, ie Ihf^ produtu af the Pialjicia lEntiscuK of Linmiins, wbith abound* 
iaOrceoeimd tb# otlinr psirU cif iinath^ni Eiunps. Tbe groat^ir part of 
the nixsttch of comni<jr(.-c cotiii's IVnin thu islaud ul' Ctiig. It is iuLpuaaible 
tc (Kinjovtiiie lii \/hiii plaat riiny \\na aUudt's. with Ihe b-niid of a tolsUa. 

" Tbift kind, I'fc aajj, ia qTiit-^^ uiikiiL")\ni ta the aiodcm*, 

^ This auliBtnnce is alill gnthiTiiil frtim ttin Ciatiu crBlicus of Liniwaas, 
wluoli i» inpiiOBed to l>u tlio mfub iu fne plant k-dn, men tinned bv Pliny. 
It i» alio muit probably the »ame as the Cistbon, Dieationed by Fliny m 
B. xiiv, c. 48. It IB v«ry commoDty foaind ia Spuin. Tho subS'tniicc ia 
gfttliureJ from off tha htavci, not bv the aid cif eoaii, hut irith vhipi fiir- 
niBbEd wilh (ujvi;i-d tbciigs. with wbitib tlie shrubs uro beaten. Theic are 
tWA hotU r^fladajium knnini in commeroe ^ Ihi: one friabla, aiid mixed with 
earthy sulwlautei, and known w " ladanom in taiti& ;" the othijr block, and 




luLTc statc-d that this subfttanoe U the fortoitous result of ma ac- 
cideDtat injuiy uiHicl«(l upou s. certain udorit'tTutifi plnnt, under 
the Galloviiig ciKriuuxtanofa : tlie goat, thfy (wj-, which ia in 
gi*n«»l an animal that ia ostrpmcly miBchitTous to foiiaj*e, is 
particularly fond of this shrub* that ore (nloril'ernua, as if, in- 
cteod, it were really scnsihle of the value that is evt u^a 
them. Hcncu it is thut as the animal crous the sprouting 
shootA of the branches which ure swollen v'iUi s liquid juice 
of remarkable sweeLncsE, thcsti juicus drop and bii-oEne min- 
gled tog«Uier, and are then wiped up by tlio shaggy hairs of 
ita unlucky beard, Heing there mingled with the dust, ttieae 
jiiioes form kuots and tutte, and arc then dried by the sun ; 
and hence the drciumBtancc is aaaanniad for that in the lado. 
nam which ia iiiiporLcd by us wo find goat^ bain. This, 
however, we are told, occui's nowhere but among the Nuba* 
tsei,** a people of Arabia, who bordt't upon Pyria. The more 
recent writers ctU tliie subistanfu by iiw aiimi of Btohoioii, and 
statti that in the t'orei^ta of Ambia the treex are broken by ths 
goata whilo browzing, and tlmt the juices in consequence ad- 
here ta their shaggy hair; but the genuine Indnnnm, they 
assure us, comes from Lhe ialand of Cyprus. I make mention of 
this in order thnt every kind of odoriferous plant mny he taken 
some notice of, oven tb')ngh incidentally and not in the order 
of their respelive locnUtica. They s:iy also that this Cyprian 
hidanum is ooUt^tul in tliu sauiu inuoncr as (he other, and 
that it forms a kind of grtafiy subatauee or tesypuin,** whiuU 
adheres to the beards and ehiiggj- logs of the goats ; but that 
it is produoid from the flowers of the ground-ivy, which thoy 
have nibbled when in quest of their morning food, a time at 
which the whole island ia covered with dew. After thi% they 
aay, when the fogfi are dispersed by the sun, the diwt adheres 
to their wat (xiats, mid tbu hulcumm is furmud, whiuh U after- 
wuids tuk«D olf of them with a eomb. 

There are aome authors who give to the plant of Cyprus, 
from, which it is mudi^, the uuuiu uf luda ; and h«noe it ih that 
soft lo the Sngfn, the noly Atlvcrititi»u» nilMtKiicea in wtiinli are a litHo 

PSw B. n. 0. .12. 

' Vai soate fartEier a««ouat of tills subtitaiice, see B. xziz. a. 10. T%t\iy 
as it VBA. tho oaifptim, or airoiil nml cr^Qfld of shenp, was u&ed t>y thi! 
Konaa l&diea aa one of ihctr nnst citom ffg^inetics. Urid, ia bu " Art uf 
LoTB," metro tlum onc« ioTcighi ogaiEiit the uw of it. 



wo find it also colled ledanum. Thpy say, also, that a Tiscona 
aubs^ce BctUcs Qpoa this plant, and, that, by the aid of 
Btringa wotind aroimd it. its leaves unu rolled into balls, ttvta. 
which a kind of eate is made. Hence it is, that io Cyprus, as 
well as in Arabia, t]iere are two kinds of ladanum ; the ouo 
natural, and mingled with earth, and the other Artificial : the 
former ia friable, while the latter ib «f a Tiscous nature. 

It 18 stated, alao, that thifl eubstance ia tie produce of a 
ahrub originally found in Cannania, and propagated by plants, 
by order of the PtoiemieB, in tho parts beyond Egypt ; while 
other authoritiee arc fouud, which aay that it gnvis on Hie 
incense tree, and ia gathered like gtun, from in>uiGiou8 made in 
the bark, after which it ia collected in bags of goat-skin. Thnt 
of the moat approved quolityj sells at the rate of forty asaea 
per pound. Ladanum ia adulterated with myrtle berries, and 
filth taken from tho fle&ceB of other animals bcsidea the goat. 
If gontiinCr it ought to have a wild and acrid smell, in Bomu 
measure redolent of tlie d^eert places where it is produced : it 
ia dry and parched in appearance, but becomeB soft the moment 
it is toachcd. When igoited, it gives a brilliant flame, and 
emits a powotful hut pleasant odour j if mixed with nlyrtle 
berries, its BpuriouB quidity is immediat«ly discoTcred by their 
crackling iu the £rc. In additioa to this, tho genuine lodu- 
num has more grits, or etony particlea, adhering to it, than 

CHIP. 38' — jassxitos. 

In Arabia, too, the olive-tree diBtila a sort of tear, with 
which tho Indiana make a medicament, known by the Greeks 
«8 enhsimou ; " it ia said to be of wonderful efficacy in con- 
tracting and healing woUnds and sores. These trees," situate 
on the coasts there, are covered by the sea at high water, 
without the berries suffering the slighteet lEJury, althoagh it 
is a well-known ^t, that the salt collectB upon the l&avca. 

" From t^e Gf**t ivaiitov, "styptic," or " bloml-itcrpping-." Tt is it 
thepresgiLt dajcoUcid gtim "da leccG" in ICalv. y^a saya Innt it ia not 
oflea prounrcd from iho oiivo-frees of France, though ii is fLiucd very oora- 
monly on thoso of Nuplea anil Cokbria. It tiaa do active poirun, ho myi, 
OB a m«diciTW. 

" Uutiouiii sDggeBtl that they ata^ Ik the pelngiiQ, menliaQMl i^in ia 
B. xiii. o. dl. 





AH theae trepa are ppculinr to Ambia, but it hos tame few 
besiiles, ia cominon ^'ith ottier countxiea, of wliich ve eholl 
make meutioii elsewhere, the kinds growing in Arubia being 
of inferior quality. The people of that country have a won- 
•lerful regard for the perfumcB of fon-iga parte, and import 
them from places at (i considerable distaoce; &o roou are in<;a 
Bated with whiit they have of their own, and bo covetous are 
they of what belongs to otherB. 


Hence it is, that they import from the country of the 
Elymici ** the wood of a tree c^dJed hratos,^ which is similar ia 
appearance to a Bpreoding cyprcM. Its branches are of n 
whitish colour, and the wood, while burning, eniitii u. pleBsant 
odour; it is highly epokea of by Cluudius Ctcsor, in his 
History,^ for its marvellous properties. He states that tho 
PartbiuDS sprinklo the leaves of it in their diiuk, that its HtneU 
closely ri^sembles that of th@ cedar, and that the smoke of it is 
cfflcwious in counteracting the effect* of smoke emitted by 
other wood. This tree growa in thecountriea that lift htyoad 
the Pasitigris," in the territory of the city of Sittaca, upon 
Mount Xagrus. 


Tha Arabiana import from Carmanid also the wood of a 
tree called stobnim,'' which they employ in fumigivtionB, by 
Bteeping it in palm wine, and then setting fire to it. The 
odouc lk»t aBuends to the ceiling, and then descends La Tolumes 

^ 8wB, Ti. c. 31. 

* Although ths (aiin Bhnib, the Juuipems Hnbina of I.iniuciii, tjcan 
this naioe in Giufk, it ia evidtat, as Fed aiiyB, thai Pliny dues nal alluda 
to it, but to n conifciouB tree, ae it ia Ihut fumily wtiichprnduixnanaiiwiu 
VDod Willi a biUamiu odour when igfnited. Baiitain. and otbcn W(ni]d 
mike tbn tit-e nii>nDt to be the Thuya occidnntnliA of Linnniu ; but, lu P^ 
nbcrres, thai ireu U ia rmililj a native ori^nslly of Canada, nliile tbo 
Thuifit (iriEinbilis i« a njLtiTc nt Ja|iftQ. He lug^its, liowBvcr, thnl thir 
'HitL^ arliculata of Mount Atlu may hare poesibly been the dtrut of 

** Bee end of B- r. 

3' All tbeie are meatianDd ia B. vi. c 31. 

=" It ii not known what wood ia meant aad?r thia name. Aloe, and 
som« otW woodSr fh-an i^itcd are dightl^ niiuotio. 




to the floor ; it iB very agreeable, but ia apt to cause on 
opjjrcisaioii of the h«ad, though. nnatWaded with paJa ; it ia 
used for proniotiiig skcp ia pcraoiiB when ill. For thviis 
braTichf 8 of commerce, they have opened the city of Carnc,'* 
which eervcs as an entrepot, iind from which place Uioy ircro 
formerly in the habit of proceeding to Gabbiij nt a diatanoe of 
twenty davB' journey, and theute to PalBfatina, ia Syria- But 
at a lattr period, ae Juba inibnuB us, they bf^^m to take the 
road, for the purpoees of this traffic, to Charax** and tha 
kingdom of the Farthians. JTor my omi part, it would appear 
to me that th*?y wefw in the habit of impotting these coninuv 
dities among the Persians, even before they began to convey 
them to Syria or Egypt ; at least Herodotus beora tcsliniony to 
that effect -wheii he etatca that the Arabians paid a. yearly 
tribute of one thousand bUonls, in frankinconse, to the kiog^s 
of Persia. 

From Syria tiiey bring hack storas,'* which, burnt upon 
the hearth, by rte powerful smell dlEpols that loathing of their 
own perfumes with which thtist) people are ali'ecLed. For in 
general there are no kinds of wood in use among thorn, except 
those which are odioriferouB ; indeed^ tlio Sabsi are in the 
lialut of cooking their food with incense wood, while others, 
again, employ that of the myrrh tree; and hence, the smoke 
and smells that pervade their eities and villages ore no other 
than the very Bame which, with us, prooeed itvm tlie altara. 
For the purpose of q^ualifyiag this pywerful smcU, thoy buru 
etaraz io. goiit-skiue, and so fumigate their dwellings, bo tiua 
it is, that there is no pleasure to be found, but what the con- 
tiiiiird enjoyment of it begets loathing. They also burn ttiia 
Bub&tance to drive away tho Bcrpenta, which, are extremely 
Dumeroua in tho foroata which bear tlie odoriferous trees. 

CHAP. 41. (IB.) — 'WHT &11&3IA WAS CALLED "HAPPT." 

Arabia produces neither cinnamon nor cassia; and thu is 
the country styled "Happy" Arabia! False and ungrateful 
docs she prove herself in the udoption of this Btirname, which 
fihe would imply to have been reoeived from the gods above; 
whereas, in rcalityj she is indebted for it far more to tlte goda 

» Sea B. V. t. 21, 

^ Sen c. 66 of the pincDt Book. 

« See B. vi o. 30. 

C9i^, a.} 




Ik'Iow.* It i« the luxury which is iliRpIafcd by tn«n, even in 
the parnphomolia of dcoth, thnt has rendt^i^ Ambin t>iii« 
"happy;" mid which prompla him to bum with the dead 
what was oi-iginally underetood to liave been produced for tho 
eervtce of tli« giids. Those who an likely to bo the best 
avquuiutc-d witli thv matter, assert that tbiscouutry doiM uot 
pnjduoe, is a whole year, so large a quantity ef perfbmcs oa 
waa burnt by tha Emperor Ni-ni at the luueral obsequies of 
\ii» wifu PuppteH. AJiil then let us only tuke into ui^euunt 
the viwt number of funRrala Uiat arc celebrated throughout Lbo 
wholo world cflcli tcmit, mid the hcnp3 of odours that aro 
up in honour of the bnAku of thn dead ; the quanti- 
_ too, that are offtn-d to Um: goclH in Etngle grains; und yet, 
it^en nieii were in the Iiabit of ofrenQg up to ihcm the eultod 
cdte, they did not show tbemscLves any the less propitious ; 
nay, rather, us thu fiiLts Uiuinst'lvus prove, they wcro even 
more &tvuura,ble to ij» tbnu they actt now. iJiit it is the sea of 
Arabia that has even astiil greater right tohccaUcd "happy," 
for it is this that fbrnishesuAWith p«irU. At the rory towcflt 
computation, India, the Beros, and the Arabinn Peninaulfi, 
withdmw from our cinpiro uae hundred milliona ofBeetcrL-cB 
every year — so dwu-ly do we pay for out luxury and our 
women. How lar^e a [tortion, too, I ehould like to know, of 
all thene perlumce, ivaJly ootuvE Ut Ihc f^s of heaven, and tha 
Aaii&s of till! fihtideft bolow ? 


Fabulous antiquity, und Hurodotus'^iiioro purticulurly, bavB 
rcluU>d thut cuinamoiuuni und cauia arc found iu the uesls of 
eertoia biixls, iind principally that of the phoenix, in the dis- 
tricts where Fulh(;r Liber wiia brought up ; titid thnt these eub- 
8lauix-» (-ithfir IVd! from tho inaocessible roclts and treea in 
whirJi tho nests are built, in constqucncu of the wdght of tho 
pieces of flii'Bh which the birds carry up, or el«P are brought 
down by the aid of arrowH loaded with letul. It ia said, ^o, 

** Uecinse its prrAiinm were held in nick high otccfm, for buniinr n 
tiM] pilu of thn <tend. Tlii«, at OMine, wu da»D primarily la aroid tko 
offenaru kidl-U. 

» Ilie l>^Tk of Dili rinnsmanium Zeytanloum of ibn modern natarnliati. 
Itiv unaamou-tree of Cpylua. 

" B.iii. 


[Book Xn. 

ft;il cassia growa around certain fflarshcH^ but is. protected by 
a fi-igbtful kind of bat armed -witb claws, and by winged m-T- 
pents as well. Ail these tales, however, hare been evidently 
invented for the purpose of enhanciDg tho prices of these 
commoditifl);. Anotiier atoty> too, boarH them coinpany, to the 
effEHJt that imder the raya of the noon-day nun, the tmliro 
peuixLEuh) exhales a certain mdeBcribable perfume composed of 
ils numeroitB odours; that the breezes, as thej' blow from it, 
are impregnated with these odours, and, indeed, were the fint 
to announce the vicinity of Arabia to tho fleets of Alexander 
the Grc&t, while still far oat at sea. All this, however, ti 
false ; for flinnamotnnto, or cinnamum, which is tho same thing, 
grows in the country of the j^thiopiana,*" who are united by 
Intermarrtajjes with the Troglodyte. These last, after buying 
it of their neighbours, oarry it over vast tracts of eea, upon 
rafta, which are neither steered by rudder, ner drawn or 
impelled by oars or sails. Nor yet are they aid^ by any of the 
resources of art, man alone, and his daring boldness, etanding 
in place of all these ; in addition to which, they choose tho 
winter season,, about the time of the cq^ninox, for their voyage, 
for then a eouth easterly wind is blowing; these winds guide 
them in a straight course from gulf to gulf^ and after they 
have doubled the promonotory of Arabia, the north eaftt wind 
carries them to a port of the Oebonitie, known by the luuuo of 
Oeilia.*" Henoe it is that they steer for tkia port in preference ; 
and they say that it is almost five years before the mer- 
chants are abEe to effect their retom, while many perish on 
the voyage. In return for their wares, they bring back arti- 
cles of glass and copper, cloths, bucklcfi, bracolets, and neck- 
laces ; hence it is that this traiBc depends more particularly 
upon the capricious tastes and inclinations of the female acx. 

Tho cinnamoQ ahrub" Is only two cubits in height, at tho 
moet, the lowest being uo more than a palm in height. It is 
about four fingtirs in breadth, and hardly has it risen nix 
fingers fmm the ground, before it begias to put forth shoots and 

» Seo B. ri. c. 34. '" See B. yi. c. 26. 

*' As Y6e obserreB, tliU deMrriptim does not at all resemUe Lhnt of tlie 
clnoanmn-tree of Ceylon, sa known fo ua, M. Bonastre is of opmion lliat 
tHu nutmef-triie waa koown to ths oucieaU under tbJs lauaa; but, u ¥4e 
obaervee, tne nutmeg could uover hnvabeentttkenforaWk, ondciDiiamon 
in docribed as such in tha ancient vritcra. He inclines to think that their 
ciniiution was reaUy the bark of a ipeciea of omjTLi. 




Backers. It has then all the appeanuice of being dry and 
withered, and while it w green it Imsno nrlnurutall. Thu leaf ia 
like that of wild marjoraio, and it thriTes b«it in dry Incalittcc, 
being not so proHfio in rainy weather ; it requires, aUo, to be 
kept c-onstantly clipped. Though It growa on level ground, it 
thrivfs beet among toogkd bmkcs and brumbLva, and henne 
it 18 extremely di^oult to be gatbertd. It is nevor {^tbvnid 
unless with the perroiasion of the god, by whom EMtnie appose 
Jupit«r to bo meant ; the Ethiopians, however, call him 
AssabiouB." They offer the entrails of forty-four oxbd, ffmts, 
and rams, when they implore his permiwion to do so, but afl*r 
all, they are not allowed to work at it before Bunrise or after 
snnact. A priest divide* tho brancht-a with a spoar, and Belo 
■ride ono portion of them lor the god ; niter which, the dctder 
stores away the rest in lumpR. There is another aocoant given, 
which states that a division is made botweentbe gatherereand 
the sttn, and that it is divided into three portiauH) after which 
K li)t» are twice drawn, and the nhare which falU to the Ban ia 
I left there, and forthwith ignites spontADeoufily. 
I The thinnest parts in thi3 sticks, for about a palm in length, 
■ are looked upon as producing the finest ciunamon ; the part 
that comes ncit, though not quite ao long, is the noxt best, 
and BO on downwards. The worst of oil is that which is 
neareet the roots, Cram the cireumstance that in that port 

I there is the least bark, tho portion Uiut is the moet eatvemed : 
hence it is that the uppto- part of the tree ie preferred, thero 
being the greateot proportion of bark there. As for the wood, 
it is held iu no eateem atoll, on account of the acrid taste 
which it has, like that of wild marjoram; it is known as 
xylocinnamnm." The price of cinnamomum is ten denarii per 
pound. Some writers make mention of two kinda of cinna- 
mon, the white and the black : the white waa the ono that was 
t, formerly preferred, but now, on tho contrary, the black is held 
in the higheet OHtiaiatioa, and the mottlwl, even, is preferred to 
the white. Tho most oertaia tent, however, of the goodneaa ot 
cinnamon is its not being roagb, and tho fact that the pieces 
when rubbed together do not readily crumble to powder. That 
which is soft is more particularly rejected, which is the case, 
also, when the outer bark too readily falls off. 

*'' Bm e. 33 of the present Book, aail tbo Nota. 
" Or " wood of dnnamoa." 

TliP rigKt of regulftting the sale of the cianafDnn belon^i 
aolcly to the king of the Gcbanita?, who opcma the market for it 
by public proc^lamation. Tlie price of it wna formerly as much 
naatihoUBand donarii per pmind; which. was afterwnrdii increased 
to half Bs much again, ia conHuquence, it ia auitl, of the forests 
having bc-LD set on Bre by the barbariaiiE, frum motivt's of 
rcseatnueat ; whether Lhis took place throug-H any injostioe 
extTuised by those in power, or only by accident, has not been 
hitherto exactly aacertnined. Indeed, we find it stated by 
Mme authors, thut tlie fiouth winds lliat prcvitil in theae parts 
nro Rometimcfl bo hot bs to not the forests on fire. The Em- 
peror Veapasianna Aitguetus was t'he first to dedicate in the 
temples of tilt; Cupitol and the godd«ss Peiioe chaplots of cin- 
Daraon inserted in traboSBcd" gold. I, myself, once saw in tho 
ttimplii ol* the Puiatiutn, which hia wife Augueta** dedicated to 
hor htisbiuid the lute empei-or Augastus, u root of cinnauoa 
of groat weight, placed in a patera of gold : from it drops lut^ 
to diflti] CTerj- year, which congeal*^! in hard gnins. It re- 
mainsd there until the temple was accidentally destroyed by fire. 

cnip. 43. — CA.SBU. 

Cftasia" i9 n ahrub also, which stows not far from the plaina 
where cinnamon is produced, but in tbe monntainouu locali- 
ties; tbe branches of it are, however, considerably thicker tlian 
those of cimtnmon. It is co^rred with a thin aldn rather thun 
a bnrk, ami, contrary to what b the case with cinnamon, it 
is looked upon as the most Taluable when *he bark falla off 
and crumbles into Bmall pieces. . The shruh ia thrrc cubits in 
height, and tho colours which it asauraos are thrcefulJ : wli&ii 
it first Bkuots t^oiu the ground, fur the length of a loi>t. it i» 
white ; ai'ter it has attained that heightj it is red for half a 
foot, and bfyond that it is black. This laet is the part that 
is held in the highest estoem, and nejct to it the portion that 
comc3 ne5et, the while part being the least valued of all- Tht^y 
flut tho ends of the branchea to the length of two lingf rs, and 

** " Intemutili." Gold paiUj emboseed, and partly left pkin, wa< ihia 

** Tbe Emprwi Livia. 

** Thrre Ims Iiccn iwriBirfei-ftble doiibt whst plant it wna that prodnfted 
the pnsiiu of ihe aiicierile. I''5e, a-flEr diligmlly ynupiring intij tbe iiitiji-'ct, 
incline* to thu\k thut it wns the Linirug ciLasiu of LlnaieuB, the umu tica 
tlittt prudueea tbe ca«ia of tbe preBGiit day. 


Chap. 43.] CkBHiA. 

tiioa sew IhcTu ia the fresh skins o! cattle Uiat hav* hiwn 
kiUud Mpreasly for tlia purj)oee; the object bciiiR that ihe 
skiiu may putr«fy, uml tliu msggoU fp'in.-niteil llitrcby may 
eat away tho "wttody parta, and 1*0 excavate *' tLe bcurk; which 
is so intensely bitu-r, that it is quito safe from Uieir attackx. 
That vhicli i« the frfshpst, is tho most highly fslccmed : it 
h«s a vary delicate smoll, and is 90 extremely hot to the taeto, 
tiuA it may Ik: said to bum tiiu tonguti, nitlicr Lhan ^roduall^ 
vwnu Uic mouth. It is of a purfiUs colour, and Uwng^ of 
ooDsiderable volomc, wuighs but very little in coiniiorison ; the 
outer ooat forms inUi eliurl tTibts wliii:ti am by no mcims easily 
broken : this ulioiut- kind of cassia, the barbariaittt call by the 
name of lada. There ia another sort, tigain, which i» called 
bakomodcH,*' k.>cuusc it has a ^mtU liko that of biJitum, but it 
15 bitter; for whirh reason it is more employed f.)r medicinal 
puipaees, just aa thrt black casuiu is uac-tl fur unguents, lliere 
u no BobetUBfic known tbat is subjtict to greater Toriations in 
price : the best qualiticiB sell at Mty deaoxii per pound, othei?, 
again, at fire. 

(30.) To those Turietiea tbe dealers have added aDother. 
which they call daphnoides,'* and give it llie surname of isocia* 
namon;'^ the price at which it wlln is three hundred 
denarii per pound. It is adult^rat^^d with 9>torax, and, in, 
oonseqncnce of the rfstmblanco of the bark, with very small 
sprigs of lanrel. Cassia, ia nlso ptantcd in our"' part of tho 
world, and, indeed, at the tixtreme verge of the Enipiri?, on tho 
bankaofthe river Eheuua, where it fiouriGhcs wht'U planted 
iu the TJciuity of hives of bees. It has not, however, that 
Booiohed colour which i-i produced by the excessive heat of the 
sun; Dor has it, for the Kuinu reasoo, a similur amvU to that 
which oomee from the south, 


From the confines of the country which produces ciimamoa 

<> Thtrc ii liUIf dooht thut nil this is HiTjuIdiib. 

** Or, -'loiielliug lilct- buLmiu." 

it *' I^joklDg like laurel." 

iH " Eqaal to ciiuuiaoa." F&i iblakt that it ii a variety af the Laanii 

" He probably nJlm^M 10 the Daphne Cnidiiim of Linnieiui, whieli, aa 
Pie rcioarks, it altogatbeE diffcroul iroiu Ilia Launu couia, ui gcuaias 

puitt'b VXTVBA.1 HIBTOBT. 


and cassia, cancarnnm" and tarum** axe imported; but these 
Bubstonces ore brought by way of tbo NubutOMm TcogLodytot, 
a colony of the Nabjitioi. 


Thither, too, are carried wrichatnm" and gabalium, aroma. 
tIcB which the Arabians rear for their owa conaumptioa, and 
which are only knowu by name ia our piut of the world, 
though they grow ia the aemc country as cinnamon and o&Bsia. 
Still, however, eerichatum dot>8 reach ue occasionally, and is 
employed by eome persons in tlie mimuiactiire of uoguents. It 
13 piirchaBed at tke ratt; of six denarii per pound. 

CHAP. 46. — iiYaoBAia.Hiju. 

In the country of tho TroRlodytK, the Thebaia, and the parts 
of Arabia which separate Judtca from Egypt, myrobfilanuni" ia 
cinnmonly found ; it is provided by Nature tor uogiieuta, as 
from its very nunie would appear. From ita name, alflOt it is 
evident that it is the nut of a troo, with a leaf similar to that 
of the tLelioti'o^iuoi, which we shall hare to mention when 
Bpoaking of the herbs. The fruit of this tree is about Uie size 
of a filbort. The kind that grows in Arabia is known an 
Syriaca, uad is white, while, oa the other hand, that which 
grows in the Tbebais is bliiek : the foriaer is preferred for tho 
quality of the oil extructed from it, though that which is pro- 

w A BTiro resin of some nnknnwn spocif-*, lul rot improbaiily, Fie 
thinlu, tlie produce of Ho-tne of tbc Atnyiidts, Sptimgel tbinks tbat it WU 
produced fnjm the Qurdenin gunuiiifuni. 

" AIiw-woimI. 

*• According to Poinsinet, these AraWa words floriTe their origin from 
tti« Slavoaic; the first signifyiag a "cordial drug," or"aIoxi[)liitrtaic," and 
th(i ot.her a dreg " wLicli dirides iEsclf into tablets." It is inipo«aiUa to 
divine whaf drugs are meant by these naniei, 

** 5igrnif]Tng tliu "uTiEuunt nwra," or "'aiil." ThocB U little douct 
that tbo IbUuu or bca nut of (he Acubiaaa is meant, of which there arc 
■CTLTnl sortB. It IB used liy the Hiodooa for cslicn printing and pharmacy, 
and waa formpTly Binpluyed In JJiiriipo in tlie nrls, and for medioii) par- 
pncpa. It ii DO luueor u^d as a jk^rfiime. Tte"iiiLof ben'' uSL'd la 
cuniuiercQ k exlravtciffrurB tbe fruit of tho Mortagu olulfsntof iutaniliil«. 
It is JnodoTfiuB ; for whicb rcoson, Fee is of opMoa tbat tlio nuniQ Ei^iAes 
" thfl oily nut," and quotes Dioscoridca, who says. It. iv,, Uiiit iul oH is ist* 
triwtcd from tbis balanns, nbicli is used at nu ingredient in ungucnU, in 

Slant! of (itlier oils. Vee uUo gayi that at the prejient day it is uil-iE by per- 
imora, to III 01 ancst tlic eTSDacoitt odgure of iUoL fl-owera lis tbc j HEmiae' 
ami tl» lily. 

Ckap. 47-1 



duocd in ihe Ti.ehsi3 yields it in larger qunntitjea. Among 
these Tariotu kinds, that which is dent from the country of tho 
TroglodyUe is the worst of ail. There aro some persons who 
prefer that of ^thiopisi" to all of these, the out of which ia 
black, and not oleaginous ; it has only a very small kemol, but 
the liquid which ia extrucUi-d from it is more odoriferous thaa 
that of the other kinds; it grows, too, in a champaign, open 
country. It is aaid that the Egyptian nut is eren more olea- 
ginous, being of ft reddish colour with a ttdcker eheU, and 
that the plant, although it grows in wet, marshy spola, is 
shorter and drier than tho other kinda. The Arabian nut, 
■gain, us eaid to be of a green eolour and of smaller size, but 
turder and more oompaot, from the ciioumataucc that it grows 
L in mountainous districts. The beet of all, however, is that of 
1 fctra, which comes ftom a city meutioued^' on a previoc* 
L.oeoasion ; it has a black shell, but the kernel is white. The 
^Mrfamera, however, only extract the juices from the shells; 
but medical men pound the kernels, pouring warm water on 
thiem, Uttlo by little, ob they do it. 

CHAP. 47. (22.) — rHffiKieoBAiaKCB. 

Tlie IVuit of tlie pnlra in Egypt, which ia known by th« 
name of adipsos,*^ te put to a similar use in unguenta, and ia 
held next in esteem after the myrobalanuni. It ia of a green 
colour, haa exactiy the dmell of a (quince, and has no stone or 
nut within. It is gathorod a Uttto before it begins to ripen. 
That which is left ongatbered ia known as pbucuicobalanuH ;" 
it turua black, and has a tendency to inebriate the person wb* 
eftts of it, The price of myrobalanura is two denarii per pound. 
The shop-keepers give this name also to the dregs of the 
unguent that is made with it. 

«• Till* ^tLioptun variety is qnite nakaowTi, nnd is. at F6b r«mEU'ks, 
mutt pf obabty of n r]iff6i(i;nt spi^cics from the ^nuinu mjTobiilunuB. 

**- Sec B. vi. Q. 32. 

" " Curing thint." IiioBcoridcs, H. i. «. H8, ta<f» tbut it waa so oullod 
from beioa full of juit*, wlik-li niicnchod ihirat Uko water. 

*• "Pufra-uuL." F*e tbirk« it not. improbobk lliat one fif the dute- 
ptlma IE m*anl, if wo tntiv jiiJg^n rniiii the iiuiiic. He KiigR-tfil* Ibat pussi- 
nly Ih-c EJiii* tw ai'tiita of Oiiiai'B, tho ICtjiin (juiBPEiisis, whieli is found us 
fu u Cjiper K^pt, an<l wliic;li iToducoH a Ana oil koon'n as ptdm-qiil, U 
meant, or poM^ly ttic Doiima Thulitiicit, a mlai-tcee freauunlly mat with 
in Eify!>t. Ou fKi'inviitalian, a vinnu-i drinx is estxitQtcii ftom tha ki% 
vhitb is oapublc of pruducmj; iuCuxicutiuii. 






Scfrntol eakmiis also, Trhich grows in Arabia, k oommoa to 
both India and Syria, that which growa in the lost country 
being superior fo all the rest. At a (lietmific of oue hundred 
and fifty stadia from the Modilerranean, hi^twcen iloant 
liibanus und another mountoio of no Dutu (and not, an Bomo 
liave Gnpposcd, Ajitilibanus^ there is a valley ot modenta 
mze, situate ia Lbo riciiiity of a luke, the maiiihy awamps of 
which are drii.'d up 'jvery guramer. At a distuuce of thirty 
stadia from (.bis lake grow the sweet-scentt'd faliimus and 
ruah. We shall here make some furthiT mention of thia rash 
ns well, although we have art apart another Eook for plants 
of that description, aii^iag that it is our object here to de- 
scribe all tho difliT*.'nt matt-rials used for uiigtienta. Thene 
plants diffBr in appeamace in no respMt from others of thoir 
kind; but the calomuB, which has th« more useable smell of 
liie two, attracts by its odour at a considerable distaaoc, and 
is softer to tho touch than llie other. The btjst is the kiod 
which iB not ao brittle, but breaka into long Hakes, and not 
Bhort, like a radiah. In the hollow Btjilk there ia u Biibstance 
like 11 cobwtb, which is generally known by the name of the 
"flower:" those plants which contain the most of it are 
eBteomctl tho beat. Tho other tosta of itfl goodness are its 
being of a black colour — those which are whitti not being 
esteemed; bemdes whi«h, to be of the very best q^uality it 
ehuuld be short, thick, and pliant when broken. The price of 
the Nucnttid calamua is eluvea, and ol' the rush til^cea denarii 
per p^uiid. It is said that the sweet-scented rugh is to be met 
witlj also in Campama. 

CHAP. 49. — HAlUtOHIACUa. 

^e hare now departed from the lands which look iowoHs 

?ii^ remarks, that llis must nut ka cunfuuaded wiiJi thu Calamus 

ftrmnaUcut of tho mudertis, of which I'liny aponks in B. xxr. c. lUO. with 
tTi1H(iriit acouruoy lo enable ns to iiiiMilify it >vitli tJic; AL'oruf ciiliimiis of 
Tjttinirns. It- ie not usK'trtiincd bv uatuTaliala wli^it jiluiit ts meant by 
Pliny iu tbn present iiJsLiiii'i\ Lboujj;)) Fta is of oiiiiiiou that i grivniiii«>lii 
plant nf ihi? iji'iiiis .\Ddrnpijgiin ii mount. M. Oailuart Uus suggesttJ Utut 
tho Indian (kntiiiua ohimyia ii tlie plimt. From whitt Pliny says ia B. 
xiii. C. 21, it iLppcara tlmt tbia calaniua grow in Syria, vhicii u ako the 
natiie oountry at the Andropugon MhxemmthiLS, 

ChMp. ».] 




the ocean h> entnr upon those which have an aspect towards 
our MOB. (23.^ Alhcu. wUiub lim below iEUiigpia, di&tiU 
li UttT'like gum in its vands, called hommciniacum,"' the uuae ul' 
which haj paaeed to the oracle of Uammgn, situal« near the Irtv 
which prmlucvM iU 'Ilii* «ubiitttnoe, which b also oallwl nieto- 
pion," b<-a» a strong rewtnhloncc to a rcoin or a gQtn. Tliurv 
are two kinds of ummaniuc-um ; that to which tho name ie 
given of tliraD^ton, end which beani a ree^mUancc to tnalu 
Jtankincens*-, hcing th« kind that is tho moat tjateeraed, aiid 
that which is kuown us phynunu, htiing- of mi unctuous aiid 
reeinous nature. This BoL«tiuicc is aiiulterat^d hj tueuuB of 
Mud, which bad all the appearance of having adlierud to it 
duiiog its in^wth; hvuc*: it i» greittly preffrn-il wlii-o tho 
pivcvD arc exLrKuif ly xinul], and in the pun.'st t>tat« ]iOH»lble. 
i'lit) price of buiumoniacuui of the host quality u forty asaca 
per pound. 

CSAF. SO.^rBAoxoa. 

Below these countrieB, and in tho province of Cyronaica, the 
perfume vallbd sphagnoa*' is found in the highest Rlata of per- 
fection : thero are nome who udl it by the name of liryon. 
The xphagnoB of Cyprus holds the second rank, and that of 
Fbcenicia the third. It is said that this plant is produced in 
Egypt also, and in Qaul as well, and 1 f,eu no rc-tuoii to doubt 
thatmoh is the fact, for this nLune is given to errUiin while 

"° Scr- B. xxU. c. H. The ^in r^ia amraouiBcum U EtHl imporlwl 
iuta Europe rmm ATricn unci llir Enal, in the fnna at dr«p« at ultrs. 
It ia a miliilr ■tiiDuliiliu^ tipacUirtint. and is laid tu lie X]u> piudace of ibe 
Lkirenia auiatoiuiu:uin. T)ieri> iire utill two norti in cnmiDproci : thr &nt 
is Iwg* BUiMM vf a yt'llijw, ilirty culuur, niiuirlcd <*iih li^luniifrnMiui ftiib- 
irinira. inil nf ■ rlnfolj- r -iirr Irn-- This is tko phymniu uf Plinv, ur 
tmxed flmiDoniU- Thi: other m in Umr*, qS im-exiUi furm ftiid a u-iruiiL 
CidoBr. ttrltUe and \iti«oii* vlian bojki-n. Thi« ia the thTiiviCon, ur 
" friahio" atnmoniBC «I Plinjr. Jiickson uya, tkul tlie pluit wliiuli |in>> 
dv<w« it i* tMiuiuoQ !□ MorocoOt nnd is called fedwuk, rwembling h iiugv 
stalk of (enml Tbc ammoaiM of Morocco if not, huwcvur, imyvrivd into 
this eaiintrf, tieiac bao much imnTe^nAtcd mth sand, in contoiiueniw uf 
uut Iwiaff f^ttti.'n;il till it Tall* to llir gn>iiml. 

■* Siilinm trill IU, l)i2il tlia tiro itMilf iicallrd MctopR. 

" It JB Qlt'M tli-iE, iinili r tliia ninip, ccrtiiin licln'tii uf a Imiry or filu. 
aaa\MTy onturu aru mutiul. 'rUt]' adbeti-, Bitncuniiw I^JIk iu, tu the 

" T, till- wkitD pnpLnr, anJ the ouk. TIif vrhito outs hvloaif, nruliubl)-, 
IC tJanca Unniia of I.innu'iie, tUc rud t'>uu lo the Vaa«a burWu, tiuil 
'd|ili)Ei|nfc BiMS U> the AlnctoHft jubuU, ao uimiMt inudorou* lio)i':Ei, 


PLmrr'a ■m.Ttmkz histoet. 

[Books II 

shaggy tudts upon tret- b, such oa wo often eco apon the quoroas : 
those, however, of which m'u are epoaking, t^ntit a moat ex- 
quisite odour. The moat esteecned of all are Uie whitest, and 
tliosc situate at the grodtast height upon the tree. Those of 
6i!:cond quahty are red, while thoae which are hlack are not of 
the elightest value. The aphagnoa, too, that 13 produced on 
islmids (jTid ftmrmg rocks,** ia h<.-ld in ito esttein, aa well aa all 
thoeo vuric'tica which hiLvo the uduur uf the polm-trbe, and. not 
tliul which is Bu ptBuuHurly thoir own. 


The cypnia" ia a tree of Egypt, with the leaves of the zlzi- 
jilius," uud seeds like coriRnder." white and odorifL-rous. 
rhcee eeods aro hoilcd in olive oil, and then aubji'Oted to 
pruMaroi the product is known to us aa cj-proa. The price of 
il iu live lioimrii psr poutid. T]je heBl ia thut produued on the 
books of the Nile, iieur Canopus, tJist of Hucond quality coming 
Irom AgouIoq in Judwa, and tJio third ia cstimatioa for th'O 
ewcctoess of its odour, Itoih the island of Cyprus. Home people 
will Imvt^ it thut this is the same its tbo ti^u which in Italy VTO 
cull liguatrani.'" 


In thp Bamo countrj',*' too, grows aBpulathoe,** a wh^t<^, 
thorny flhrub, the eize of a moderute tree, and with flowers 
like the pobr, the root of which is in great request for un- 
guents. It is aaid that every shrub over which the rainbow 
i& cxtendod ia possessed of the sweet odour that belongs to 
the aepalathoa, but tliat if the aapalathos ia one of them, it« 

•* Protiably the Htwjcella tinctoria of LiimsBUS, a ticlien most CDrnmonly 
foi^oil upoii r^cks. 

*' TUe heiiui, the Ijiwsonia iiLcrmia of tlie tnud«ni naturulieU. a ahrnb 
fonnil in Egypt, Syria, and BnrhaT'^, From ttiie trva tKn linnna in inads 
witJi wMuh (lii^ 'naineu of the tinst sLiiu Clxo tkin of llicir hniiilc aud feet. 

"* Tbo jtijubc-lri'G, Bae U, £», o. 14, 

« Sue B. XX. 0. 62. 

■n Or prirtt. , 

*■ iJLt in 13. xsIt. e. 68, he saja thftt tliis plant grows in the i&lafad of 

•• Act-oTiliiit; ta Fie, tlifg ta the snme m the Li^nHm Rbotiiiinuni, nr 
wood of JUmdus, uf cummLurce, sumetiiues also- wlliiil, but ineorrcctly, woinl 
of rotes. It is, probublyt tiia sumc is Ute Couvulvulm sco^uiiu of Xiii- 


Bccnt is BomGtlun* quite irtdi'j*crilialilft. SomP person! call this 
plant prip'sisceplTuni,"' imd others, ttgain, Bif*ptium. Tho proof 
of its gL'iiiiinnuvBs is its red or fiery colour; it i« also compact 
to tlio t«ucb, uuiil liaa the etnoll of costoreum -J' it is Bold at 
the rate of five dcaarli per pound. 

CHIP. 53. — UABOtr. 

In Egypt, too, grows raarum," though of inferior quality 
to that of Lydia, which Ia»l haa hirger leaves, covered witii 
t\tots. ThoBP: of the other arc ahorUir and smaller, and give 
out a puwcrful ecuDt. 

oBjj. 54. (25.)— BAtSAnnJii; opoiul&am™; asd xtlobai^ 

Bui to all other odoars th»t of bulgnrDum'* is conBidered 
prefenihle, a pintit that has be>in only be&towed by Natimj 
U])Oii the land of Jiichca. la fooner timoB it was ciiltiratod in 
two gardens only, both of wfiich helonged to the kiDgH of that 
iwantry ; one of tliem was no more than twenty jugera in 
extvnt, and tho ntbfir somewhat Braaller. The cmpororB Vfs- 
TKiaiaQus and Titus had this ahnih exhihitisd at Eouie; indoorl, 
it is worthy of eij^al remark, that fdnce the time of Pompeius 
Ifagtnia, we have been in the hiihit of canyiiig trees even in 
our triumphal proceHsiouH. At the prespnt day thin trco pptya 
lis homage and tribute alon? with its native laud, but it has 
been found to bo of altogether a diticrent nature to that which 
i« Qf i( jpj scppiie,''' prtilintjy *o rnHiid from the ftonert doitoring nlong 
the wltule Im^h at the tiranohv*. 
'' A liquid inntU;! »HrKoU-J from Ihit boraTpr. 

'• OwiitiiIIt rygardod as identical with llic Tuucriiim Marum frf T.inii!C!U<>. 
a BiVBct-siniellin^ slinili found in thr "outh ft i;iirop<? nnil tho Enat, hy us 
'"•"Mnonly linown na "herb mBslich," toint^wliat stmttar to luaijontm. 
_B Buys that tlie uiartint o! Bg^pt is n kind of ui^, ttc Salviu .^tbiujiin 
' Iiinnwiin. 

J'^ liuUiini (nr Wm of MK«a, ne tt U Bomplimc» c«lIocI) i« the prixlucR 

'^two truM, pH'hably varieties of ono anoihti, aS tho torchinth fwnilj'. 

'unging to liir gfmi» Anij^ris So fur frinn Hcinj; fl raliTo wklyof 

'tea, UriiL't) uaamrcit iia Llial its ori^inul couiitrv was ihat wliJeh prDduccn 

rh, iti tho Tii'inity of llahtluintiL^ol, and ilint thv inhatiUnts ute tW 

._d iwltly for fud, In JuJu.'u it Bj-pwirs tu hace been cullivaled solely 

igardijai; and it was tltin tracvldch produced ihe tamciu'halm of Oilend 

of Bcriplure. The baltam tnta kmiun to m do not at all carrcapond with 

lliiiy's dc»criptioii, M Ihef do not ii-aciiihlf: uitiier the viae or tajTCte, aor 

on Lbvii UaVM at hJI like ihoae of ne. 


rtiBT a MATtfiUL aiHTOEr. 

[Book XI r. 

our own as wnU ns foreigii writers had attributed to it : for, id 
fact, it bears a much Htrongcr i^sembluDcc lu tbc vine tbim to 
the myrtle. This recent acquisitioa by conquest baa learned, 
like the vine, to he reproiluced by mallet '*-Bhoots, tind iC 
(iovetB deolimiEia just Jike the vinp, which Biipports its ova 
weight without the aid of stays. A\Tifa it puts forth brancbea 
it is pmaed in a einiilar mauuer, oud it thrives by being wtli 
raked at the roots, gru^ing witli remarkable rapidity, und 
beiiritig fruit at the end of tbieu years. Tho leaf bears a very 
couitid«r»blu rcBemblauce to that of rui', wnd it is an ever- 
green. The Jews venttd their rage upon this shrub ju»t us 
they were in the habit of doing agttinst their own lives luid 
persons, while, or the other handj the RomnnB protected it ; in- 
deed, eomhata huve taken place before now in dii'i^nce of ashrub. 
At the pretieiit diiy tlio reproducition of it hiia hecome a duty 
of the daoal authorities, and the plunla were novfr known ui 
bo more minieroue or of larger growth ; they nevtr exceed tlio 
heiglit, however, of a eouple of vubitn. 

There nre three dift'L-rciit kiiida of haUamum. The firat has 
a thin and huir-lilce foliage, and is known by the name of 
eutheriaton,''-* Tlie second is of n ruggfid oppcaraneOj bonding 
downwards, full of branebts, aud more odoriferous thiin tin: 
first; the nume of this is trachy. Tlie third kind is the 
eiimepes, so ealltid, becniiae it is tidier than the others ; it hus 
a smooth, even, hark. It is the gecond in quality, the eathe- 
ristou being inferior to the trachy. The swd of this plant 
has u tiuvour gtioiigly re&embhng thut of wine ; it is uf a 
reddish colour, and not without a certain amount of unctuous- 
neiM; the gniiiis of inferior quality are lighter iu weight and 
uf a greenei' hue: the braaehts of the elirub are thicker ihait 
those of the myrtle. Incisions are made in it either with 
giusf!, or else a eharp stone, or knives mude of hone : it being 
liighty injurioua to touch tho vitiil parts with iron, for in Bueli 
ease it will immediately witlier a\(Hy and die. On the other 
blind, it will allow of ail the superfluous branches being pruned 
away with an iasUuuieiit of imu oven. The hLiiid of the 

'* " Malleoli*.''' Bo calleil wbL-n. thniewsbootof t!ie trmi springing from 
n IraDub of iMo foTiniT your, is cul vS! it/t tho tukc< of pljcutiiig, M'itL a bll 
uf liiv iild watti on each M^ of it, in the form '>f u mollot, 

'* " lia*ilv cut," 'J'liie and the ofhtr kinds, tho naitiea of which mean 
"rough bnrktd," and "gocij Itnjjtli," uic probnUy ooiy Tuiittiw of the 
■HUM trim, ia iliffeTUUt statM. 

Chip. £4,] ' SiLSAMiM. 149 

peiwn who mikM Qia incieivD ie guuL-mllj bulaoecd by ao 
artiiioiiU guide, in order that lie luuy not actidfutuU}' inflict n 
wound in the wood beyond the bark. 

A jiiicfl distils from the wotind, which in known to us 
as opol)al&iununi ; it ia of extraordinary swcutcLss,'" but onlj 
exudes in tiny drops, which arc then cotlcctt'd in wool, ami 
dcpodited in smtill horns. WT)en taken from out of these, the 
BubtitaQco ia placiiccl in new oarthtn vcsseU : it hc-arn a strong 
reeeioblancti to a thick oil, nnJ is of a while rolour wh«n frfsti. 
It soou, buwever, lums ri-d, and aa it hurdous lusvs itt^ truiis- 
pnrenoy. When Ali>xtuider the Great wagt-d war in tho[« 
■pvjia, it WHS locked upon as a fair eutniner day's work to fill a 
hiugta coiiiia.'' with this liquid; tho tintirtj jjroJiiuo of the 
T garden being six congii, and of the smaller one a single 
BOnglua; the price, too, ut which it wiia sold wu8 double ila 
■weight in etilver. At tho present day the produce of a single 
tree, even, 13 larger; the incifiiona aro made three timuB every 
summer, Jiftor which t)io tree ia prunt'd. 

The cuttings, too, I'orin an article of merchandize: the fifth 
year ufter the ootKjuest of Judieii, theae cutUngs, with tbe 
suckers, were Bold lor the price of eight humJcvJ ibouisund 
itesterees. Th{,«ti outtingfl are cidled xylobalsaaiuni,^* luid iirt; 
boiled down fox minting with ungUient^, and in the manul'ae- 
tories have ht^n suhslituted tor tlie juici^s of tbt; shrub. The 
hoik is also in grriit R'quest fbr nittilJciiial purpose.'*, but it )■ 
the tears that ore so particularly valuable ; tho seed holding 

" Th« U Mii(i, pruliablj^, in ulIiLiion to tbe *rni-U, rhiI K'A l\\v Uutr. 
Y(a rcmarka, ciiut Plin^Bjiiaki nitli n 0DtuiJtriibk> dog^rci- fif ting^ention. 
IIS iu odour is v<?ry infcciur to thnt <i1 si^voral tintMrnii whinh cnnUIn l>m- 
zuic acid. Tho linlMin abtaindd bj- incimon, e« mrntioncil bj' Pliny, is mA 
broiiKbt to Europi^r '^ut onlr tbiil obtoiiniHl b; the {irocuu uf ib-pnrtinii ; 
«hien i* knowii at "bubiiof Ak-i.'c&," otof Judtva It t* diUlcuk to bflii've, 
aucordiiig to Y^e, that it wiu iu1u]t<;mt?<l nitb l\m tutntitnccR licrv njcii- 
tioned by I'liny ; oil of roaei liavinp hotn jlwaya a rmy preoiou* eoin- 
nioditf. wai beiDK likrly loelirmEii; it« nntnxr entirclj', iiikJ giiim nnt being 
iif a nRture to ciimbioii wilb it. Itn uueiteil iirr<:tn u[iuil milk, bt) »UXe» l» 
be milirely bbulano ; the utiiti'mi'iit is dfrivi'd tVom DicncaiiilM. 

■' The concbo, or "aliblV' ^^ ' Gruok uail Honiatt Huuid mcmiurT, Af 
which There w<>r« tno sizM. Tbn Riiiiilliir vrua liult'ii cyntfiiis .VII'J of ad 
EDgli*li pint ; thi: lugr.r nun ubuiit ttiriu tiiii'bA tiie tht <if \liti funiirr, ami 
vsa known abiii ua tW oxybnpbunt. 

">* Or " wiMiii of buluni." ]t (■ ilitL knuwn in Eiirojkiai) i:ojnmrnui lij 
iu ADcicut Duiue. Tkie liuil i> cuUed C'iirpi>b»Umniuii. 



[LodV X3J. 

the ueond TonTt in cstitnatioTij the bark the third, and (ha 
wood hcing the least cst-ccnicd of nil. Of the wood, that kind 
which yraifiublea boxwiood ia coDfjdered the beet : itlmnitlw} 
iho fitroiigi'tit Bmcll. The best seed is that which is the luigfiBt 
iu flize und the heaviesl in weight; it has u Mting or raihcr 
tmming taste ia the mouth. BalsarauTa is adulttrated wilt 
hypericon'*' from I'otra, but the fraud is easily detected, from 
the ("act that tlie grains of the lafttr are larger, compui-aliToly 
empty, and longer than those of biiisamam ; they are destitute 
also of any pungeucy of smell, and have a flavour like that 
of pepper. 

As t(> the toani of hulsamuirii the test of their goodness is 
theor being unutuou:^ to thct touch, sinall, of a Eomewhat rL-dditth 
colour, aad odoriferoua when subjected to friction. That ol" 
»fc»nd-rale quality is white; the green and coarsB is inferior, 
and the blitck ia the woi-st of all; for, like oUve-oUf it is apt 
tf> turn rancirl when old. Of all the incisions, the produce ig 
considered the best of those froia whith the litpHd has flowed 
bi'fore the formation of the need. In addition to what has 
be*.n alreafly Etated, it is often adulterated with the juice of 
ihu BL>ed, and it i& with eoiisiderubte diifitiulty that the traud ia 
df^tcoted hy a slight bittornce.8 in tho tast*?, whioh ought to bo 
delicate and without the slightest misture of acidity, the only 
puiijgeacy being that of tho Bmcll. It ia uduUeratud also with 
oil of roBCB, of cytn"us, of mastioh, of balanu!<, of turpentino, 
wnd of myrtle, as aUo with rtain, galbanum, and Cyprian wax, 
jiwt as occasdon may serve. Hut tho very worst itdulteration 
id' all, is that which is effected with gum, a substance which 
is dry when eiDptiod into the hand, and falls to the bottom 
when placed in water ; both of which are charactetriBtics of tho 
genuine commodity. Bolsamum, in a genuine state, should bo 
quite hard, but when it ia mixed with gum a brittle p-cUicle 
tiirmq upon it. The fraud can also be dcteeted by tlie toeto, 
and whtn placed upon hot coaU it msy easily be seen if there 
has been any adulteration with wax am l rcsiu ; the flame too, in 
this case, bums with a blacker smoke than when tiie balsamum 
is pure. 'When mixed with honey its qualities are inmie- 
diately changed, for it will attract flies even in the hand. In 
addition to these various testa, a drop of pure balsamum, if 
placed in luSie-warm water will settle to the bottom of tho 
'•• Be« B. ixvi, oc, 53, Si. 

vessel, wlieroas, if it is adulterated, it will float upon (lie sur- 
face like oil, und if it hus been drugged wilh metopioiL or 
haramciniaouRi, a white circle will fann aronnd it. But the 
beet test ol' all is, ihut it vnH cuiibc ciilk to curdle, iind leave 
no stain upou uloth, In no c»mmoJily aro tberf! jiractiPL'd 
moru pulpabk fruud^ Ihoii in this, for u EL-storins of buleamuiu 
which i» £uld hy the fitcal uuthoritics nt three hundred dentirii, 
is Bold again for a thousand, bo vast 19 the profit to be derived 
frgni inereaaing this liquid by sophiaticatiou. 'Xhtj price of 
xylobiilsauiulu is six d<.-u:irii per pound. 

CHAP. 55. — 6T0C1I. 

That part of Syria joining up to Judaea, and lying above 
Phccnicia, produces storax, Tcliich in found in tlic vtciuity of 
Giihala and Marathus," aa also of Casius, a mountain of Re< 
leucia. Tlic treo" bears the same iiaroi>, and liits a Btrong 
rcscmblaiicti to. the quince. The tcarlins n bai'!^ tiote, with n 
pleasant smell; in the interior it bus all the nppeuranucof arc'cdi 
uud Ik tilled with a liquid juice. About the rising of the Dog- 
atar, certain email winged worms hover about this stibstaLW 
and eat it uway, for which reason it is ojVn found in a rotten 
state, with worra-hol(*8 full of dust. The storax nest iti csti- 
malion aft^r that already menlioned, comes from I'isiditL, 
Sidon, Cyprus, and Cilicia; that of Crete being considered the 
very worst of all. That which cornea from Mount Anuinus, 
ia Syria, is Iiighly esteemed for mpdicinal pur]io8ee, and uvea 
more so by the perfumore. iVom wlmtever coualry it cuinea, 
that which is of a red eotour is pri'terred, and it should, be 
botli unctuous as well as viscous to the touch ; the worst kind 
ia that which crumblt's like bran, and is covered nil on r witb 
a whitish mould, lliia substauco is adalteratt^d witli the rcsiii 
of cedar or with gnm, and sometimes with honey or bitter dl- 

" ThftM loeftlitiefl nre m(^ntione^I ia B. t. 

*" Tlie Storax oEuinalw of Linnaius, n trea fooad ia tTie Muth of 
Europe onil tbe Ll-thdL The Tnricty founil in Frnncn, and known a* l1i« 
Alilwufitr. ptoduMs no stomi. or at han a very small propuruQn. Tlio 
storai ol' coniniETce nppears in thrse states— grain storm, with wtiicli Pliny 
dniTi not aiipt-ar W Iibt-u been acquainted ■, aniygilolitii, whioh is pcrhaiu 
the sort winch he tpeji-kt nf as iiilttlUrnt<?il witl) oilier kImoD<ls; antl lump 
(tuTiU, of mddi^ broHn culuur, whUh is frnjiinhtly miitiil wilh wood liiiiat,. 
or wotni diiEt, as tneaLioned by Piiny, and it bul titUu uEUeincd, 'fli? Uua 
U obo uullsd Liqaidombar HytauLQua. 


fiiooTt xn. 

mondtf ; nil \v}ik'h sophiaticutiona may, however, be tleteutoi tiy 
thfl laste. The price uretorax of the test quality is ficventeen 
flrnorii per pound. le comca also from PampliyKii, but this 
luBt ia more arid, and not m fiiU of juice. 

dEAP, 56. OALBAirnill. 

SjTui prodntes galbanum too, wliich growa upon the SAni« 
mountain of Airmmia : it exmlps from a kind of giant- fennel ** 
of the pamfi name as the n-nin, though sonifttimofl it is known, 
an eldgonitis. Tte kind that ia the moat esteemed is tartila- 
gJTioiiB, clear likit hammDniacum, imd free fnim nil liwacoiiR 
cubHtaiices. Still, however, it i& somctintoa adultoriiteiL with 
hcutis, or with Bitoopeninm. "^ If Ignited in a pure Etate, it 
JiAR the property of driving away Bcrpcuts" by its smoke. It 
i.4 »a\A lit Jive denarii pt^r poiuid, and is only employed for 
medicinal purposes. 

CBAF. 57. (20.) PAHAX. 

Syria, too, fumiehea ponas,"' an ingrfdicnt hboiI in ungur-ntB, 
This pliuit gri>w3 also at Faopkia in Aroudiii, about the 80urw?a 
ofthp Eryniimthus, in Africa also, and in Maocrloiiia. This is 
u iKtiUiar kind of giiint-fennel, wJueh staiida five cuhite in 
lu'i{;lit : it first thruws out four kaTeSt ucd then six, wlueh liu 
close to the ground, round, and of very (;onsiiier.ible size ; thoftc, 
however, wliifh grow towards tb« top resemble the leaves of 
IheoliTe. It bears its seed in certain tnfts, which hang down, 
juAt &A in the fennel. The juice is obtained hj incisions 

*' A shnih of th« fnraily at OxDhflVifisTta, belonging to the gecns hiibon, 
It i« a niLtive nf Asin MmrT nnd Syria. 
" Sec B. «ix. 0, 53, sml B. is. c. 76. 
^ This -Vila a. cmanioa tiotian with lb« llamnus. ViT^l, Qaai^. fi. jii. 

" OalliancoijiiH? agUarft graTes niiloro cUel/Jroi." 
Thoufli con*idere(i; to protlui-e a plcasiLiit prrfiimc by tlio andents, it ia nfl 
[icitiCir he)il in eslimnlion for that quality, und u only unipli>yi:ii in inrnc 
■ItKlit dc^roi? (ot mciluial ]iiirp(iae&. 

** Tilt! [iroduee tit' Ihu Paslma™ n-popanai of Limi»us, or thii Pnntii 
Copticuin of HiLuhin, uii iimbullLfurnus plum wbich atxiuitdi in His Eoalf 
sail i« not tiiiDuaimuii In Uiu euulh uf Fnuiue. Tliu gum tatloi] OpupuniiX 
wiij fnmKrriy wvd. nii<i iU ttijiifrinod virtues arc iDdicatod by its nuniC 
wliicU ni^nincB " the juica wliich is the iULivcrau.1 romudy." 

Chap. 66.) 



niuilu in diu sialic at liarvpst-limf, and in tliR root in nutumn. 
\Vli«!ii in a oou^uiuU'd slulu. it is fBtL'trntJ uccynliiig toils 
whiteness. Tlie next in valijo is that of « pallid colour, wliilo 
tile hlnck i§ hplrl in iio eiteem. Ttie prico oi tbut of the best 
quality la two denarii per pound. 

CHAP. 58.— SI-OMDILniM. 

The difference between this kind of giant-fenucl and that 
known &s spondjlium," coiiBiKtis only in the leaf, which is 
•plitlier, and dividrii like tbiito!" tlie pluntt tree. It grows in 
duulr pluces only. The wed bt-ara the earae nante a^ the jjlant, 
and i«L9 a strong resemblftnct to that of hurl-wort ; it U only 
employed in medicine. 


Syria produce* tie malobathrum" also, a tree which bears a 
folded leaf, willi just the colour of it leiif when dried. From 
thia plant an oil is i-xtnn;ted for un^iiciita. Egypt produces it 
in fltill greater atundanoo : hut that which is the most eateemeil 
of all (»imes from India, whi:re it is said to grow in th« marKhca 
like tht> lentil. It liita a more povveri'ui oduur tliau Aufli-oii, 
luid hoH a black, rough app<>anmce, witli a sort of bra(.'kii<h 
tofitc. Thu whitu is the letiet approved of idl, and it very booh 
tfpDs musty when old. In taste it uugiit U> hti aimilur to 
nard, when plaei^d nnder the tongue. Wlien made luke-warm 
in wine, tho odour wliieh it emit« is superior to any othec 
The prict* at which thia drug ranges are gomithing cjuitfl 
murrelloui, being from one denarius to lour hundred pnr ftound ; 
oa for the leaf, it generally sells at sixty di-narii per pound. 

CH»P. 60. (27.) — ourHAcipa. 

Ooiphacinm*' is also a kind of oil, which is obtained from 

^ Tho itriiWllifcTDui plant known aa tlie nenii'kiim afidndyliimi of> 
fiKiiK. It in nnnminnly lomiil ia Froiicu, vli^re it in iiriillimt llnrnn-lii'uncv 
tusiae. It n-auiviHl iu tuinLe bam The n soroblmici; of iu enioll to tliat ff 
tko iphondylc, a fetid kinit of waod-battk. 

" Soma iiippoau tliia trL-n Id hu Ihc Laiinis Msaia of Linnmua. or wild 
cinnamrin ; otin-m taka U fur IIir Ih'IcI, the riper hiUA of l.inniciu. 4.'lis- 
■iui tliirilui tliat llii? name isderivRd from tlm [iiJian Tuttiulplrit, tli'-nnnie 
giien friMJi time iiiiiiieiiiorial t9 t.fic leaf of a trep known oy l^^) Arah* w 
the Cad&Ki-indt, poi^sibljr tho sami; at the KuUMi-uaruit t>f ihv Maluliart. 

*' Proio tho Greek bji^eucuiv, bdog miuta ttt unripe frrupoa. .^ Fit 



[Bool xn. 

two troeB, the oHve and the vine, by two different mt^ttiotla. 
; It itf prgclucod A^m the tvnucr by prL'sulQ^ Uiu olive while it 
lift still in tbe white statu. That is of on iLfmor qiiitlity which 
in made from the druppa — such being the name that is givtfu 
to the olive before it is ripe and fit for food, but already 
hegiimiiig to change its colour. The diU'ertnce between thf m 
IR, that the latter kind is green, tho former white. The om- 
phacium that is made from the viae is extrnct*d from cither 
tile paytbian* or the Aminean grape, when the gmpes are 
about tliG size of a cliicli-peu, jiiHt betorc the rising' of the Dog- 
Bliu?. Th« grape ia {ijalhtred when ihu ftrst bloom is aiJpcttring 
upon it, asid the verjui&e is extracted, ttfter which tho residue** 
its left to dry in the sun, due precautiune hoing tukc*n aguinst 
tbi} dewB of the night. The verjuice, after being uolltt'ted, in 
piit into eartht^n vessels, and tljen, after that, stfjrt-d in jars 
of Cj'prian cflpper.* The beat kind ia thiit -which is of a. 
Tf-ddieh colour, acrid, and dry to the tflatf. The price nt 
which it bpUb is six denarii per pound. Omphacjum is also 
mode another way — the unripo grape is poundLd in a mortar, 
littfr which it is dried in the bub, uud tiien dividud into 

CHAP. 61. (2fi,)— BRroy, (ew4Nihk, and massartb. 

Bryon" also bears an affinity to those subetancea^ being thu 

ist*r8 of berries produced by the white poplar. The be«t 

inds grow in the vicinity of Cmdos, or in Cariu, in spots Uiat 

are dustitnte of water, or tlsw in dry and mggwl localities. A 

remarks, t'lst miidij frora the oliva is uwrreutly dBaeribed us a kind uf oil, 
hut tbut ffiadc from til's ^ape must luive dpcu u rub, or puve verjuice. 
ThbBD two liquids must, have boil lotijiy riifTcrent quiilili«A, und rtseriblrd 
i-DCh atlisr in nothing but tliu nami?. Thut eitructcd from the olive ia 
n ten tinned agnin in B. xxili. c. 4, in refLTence t<i its mcdiunul properties. 

"* TliHKi! ^-raptfi sve dtBcrih«d iJi B, liv. a. 4 and b. H. 

"* '• lUHqiium wrpus." It is aol cl-eor wlint is tUu mvuning of thia. 
The pssaag* is cither in a cotrupt state, or del'tctive, 

*' A Btngnlur metali one would tliink, for keeping Tcrjuicft in. 

" From Ibc Ormik ^piov, " moss." Hit speaks agiiin (it tliase ^rape* 
of the white pupW in U. xx\y. o. 34 ; bIso iu c. SI of tlie ^rBBeut Book. 
Hwdouin thinki that bu is epciaking of moss. F^e is of opiiuun, tbitt tlia 
lllOHOms ur buds of the treearc meant, irliioh hnve a fra^ant smeU. This 
it 'lllcniiii'e pinliuliLc, as ve find PlDiy lieTA BpeukiDg ol' the ujnniitlie, or vvw- 
flowei, by which Vcfs Hunpoaei thut he iiiunni the lilotwjiu uf tke Vllia 
viaifcni of Limueuj, wliioh exholeji a delightful pei-iunie. 

Oftp. C3.] 



tiryon of Bpcond-rate qanlity is prodnced IVom the onlarof 
Lyoia.** (Enantlie, bxi, botirs an affinity to tliese siihtitaiiu!*, 
hang the cliwters of the wild vine : it ia gathered when it ia 
in flower, or, in aih^r wonis, when it has the finest smell r 
after which it is drii^cl In. the shade upon a lini-n. sheet apread 
beneath, it, and then BtorL<d nway ia casks. Tbu best sort is 
that which comes ^m l'ara[iotamia :'" tlie nex.t he^t kiudg are 
those made at Antiochia and I.,aodicea in Sjria ; anil that of 
Ihird-rato quali^, comes froin the mountainous parts of Uedla ; 
this last, however, is preferable for medicinal purpoMea, IJomSi 
persona give thu preference over all to that grown in th* 
island of Cyprus. As to that which conits from Africa, it 
is solely uscii for medicinal purpoaes, being known by the 
name of massitris." WlmU'ver country it may happen to he, 
the white wild vine producer an oiuiuithe of eu^urior i|uulit7 
to the block. 


There is another tree"* also, that c&ntributPB to the menu- 
fectnro of unguents, by some pptaons Jmown under the name 
of elate, bat which we call ahics; others again call it a pnlm, 
and others give it the name of apathe. That of Uammonium 
is the moat esteemed^ and that of Egypt next, after whii^h 
comes the Syrian tree. It is only otloriferouB, liowever, in; 
pkces that ore dcatituta of water. The tears of it aro of ua 
unctuous nature, and are employed aa aia ingredient in un- 
guoDts, to modify the barshuess of the oil. 

CHAP. 63. — CiaSAMON OS coKxeuv. 

In Syria, too, is produced that kind of cinnamon which is also 
known as coniaeum.°* This is a juico which is extracted from 

" Tlio buil, proliably, of lie Juciptraa l.y«itt. 

W Bub B. Ti. c. 31. 

M gaid to bati 1)oca a Burniinio p\ta by some italioiu to tiiii god Bac- 

*^ It ia gf^ncrally snpprMol by the ccTnmGntittors, that Pliny inakea a 
niitalie beie, and Inat the i-latf or ^pnthe wat not a tree, but tbe envelope 
01 nnpaule, coaUinin^ tbe flon-ers ajid fruit of a tree, wlitnh is suppoicd by 
wnie ti> have been really Uie Ptii>aii dactylifem, or dal^-palin. ThcM 
ran be little doubt tbut ha is mistakeu iu bis muution of tbu ubicB or fit- 
tri;>a here. Sm II. itjii. a. 53. 

<* Baubia thinks that tbii Juiu or oil wu exu&cMd from tbe autmeg, 


156 Piiirr's KATOBAi uibtoet. [BooV Xil. 

a oat, and very different from the extract of the rral cinna- 
mnnitiBl, tliough it somewhat reaenil»lea it in its agree lib Ic BmeiL 
Tlie price at wJutli it scUb ia forty usses per pound, 

ScHMABT. — EcraarkalDlB fiicte, Darrntivca, ond obaervatlons, 
nine hundred, and eovcEty-four. 

Romas atjthobs «itotf,d. — M. Viirro,' Mucianus,* Vii^,* 
Pabiiiiiua,' HthoHua,* PompoDiiia Mi'lti,* i'iariuB,' Procilius,* 
HjginUK," Trogus,"-' CJaudius Cffigtix," ComL-liiia Nepos/^ Ses- 
tiiB Niger'^ wlio wrote a Greek troatiwi on Medicine, Cassius 
Uemina,'* L. Pis&,'* Tuditanus," Antiafl." 

FoiiEiGH AurnOEB anoTED. — Theophraatua,^* HerodotuB,'" Col- 

tlie Myiiitica moschnta nf Thiinberg^, and Bonastre is of the taniD opinion. 
Milt, 8« F^ iibmirvnn, Ihn milineg ii a natiTe of Iniiin, and Pliny spn-aks uf 
theComncuiB. us onniiiig frimi byiia. Some aultors., be adds, wh» are of 
this o]iiniciu, lliiiik ulsf that lh« olbtir uinuiimoQium mcntLoudd hy Pliny 
WBB no -nthar than thn nutmeg, whinh iiiey Cake to bo tho Eiuae 3E the 
chryiolwldnoB, or "golden nut," of (Jult-u. 

^ Sat end of B. ii. '' See tnd of B. ii. 

1 Hell end of Ii. vit. 

* I'ubiuuus Pupirius : tea end of B. ii, 

' Sfle end of Ii. ii. ' S^o end i>f D. iii. 

' Th'U sun of a &(-odmnii ; boric futther pnrCioulart ure given of liim bjr 
i'llTir in It. Kixiii. c. 1. ]jy liis t»l«nU and ektquenre, lie ttltuiiied con- 
sidnrHbld distiuclLun ut Boitiu. JJu wu> luii.U'a a auuiitor hy Appiiis C'liiudiua, 
uiid was cuiulc sdilc b.c, 303. H'i paliUsbed ^ coIlccUou of lu^ rults, 
entitled the " Jus J-'laTianuTD," 

" Sue eud of H'. nil. * Bee end uf B. iii. 

■" Hise «Dd of 0. vii. " Sk« «nd of 11. v. 

" S^eendof I), ii, 

'^ Probnlily ibo same rs the NJpr nHrntioned by DigscoridcB as a wriir? 
«n Katcriu Hedioa. He laiiliio nieiitioned hy EpipUitmus itnd Galon; but 
KiwcoridM ebmget him wilh nunifrons blundcri in his accounts of \<^ge- 
IuI>Iq pruductioaa. 

'* A compiler of Harnnn history, who wrote at t^e bej^nning of tlve 
ti^Dond cmtury befun.' Clmst, He wrote Amiule of Bomu from ibe MirliuBt 
w liiD own limes : only a kw frugnieuu of Liti work have Eurmt-d. 

i» Scemd of U. ii, 

'• C, .Seni[iroDiu» TudKanui, consul of Rome, n.c 129, Hp wrote « 
book 'uf Uiitutiual CouoieiiLuiiiii. lie wus muLnrn^ graudfatliiii' uf Uto 
oral'ar floruinsjus. 

" Sdu i^d of B. ii. » s^ end of B. iU. 

" Scooiid of U. ii, 


iMthenen,* Isigonm," Ciitiirchus,'^ AnaximeneB," Duris,'* 
Nearchus,* Onesimtus," Polycritus.," Olympiodorus,"' Ditig* 
netus," Nicotmlus," Anticlines," Chares" of Mitylene, Men- 
fPchrnuB,'" Borothi^iis"'' of Alliens, LyciiSj** AntiEuv"" Ephippus," 
])ion,'' Demodca," Ptolemy Ltigua,*" Mareyaa" of Macedou, 

■° A nativn gf OIyntlii». Hw motbcr, Dmo, irits n cousin tit fho philo- 
Ropher Ar'mUitlL', uiiiicr tvliote tute]iie;if l<e whs U'ducatcd. It h geiimlly 
(iippoBtJ Ihitt ho wut pat to death hy ardor tif Alcsunder Lbr Grrat, but ill 
nhnt mAnni^r i« a fnaUcr of uncertainlr. lln vtoIu a History of (iro^cct. 
nnd nunirruuB dllier Ituirncd worki. ^tnc MSS. uro ititl OKtaot, prufcnt- 
iui{ ti) Imi liis writing* ; but tliey wu gcnemllir ltiuk«l upon na ([lurious. 

*' Spf t'ud of B. vii. " See end of B. rii. 

'^ A tjfttivc pf Lii-wpsiK'ai", nrid diMiplo of Dlo^'Im^ llic Cynio. He oc- 
eoTiipanit'd AifMiulcr tb« (inat in lii* Aiinttr, «pi-diiioii, lie wrul* a 
history of the ri'ij,*™ "f I'liiUjr itnil Alcxnndcr, and u hislorj of Orwuc, in 
twvIvB hiioks. Only a kw IVagmeiLU of !>is wotlci are iolt. 

'J* St« orid of K, Vii, »» Suo end of fl. »i. 

" See idBil of B. ii. 

^~ There was a tiutive of Mrni)«, in Sidly, of this name, who wrote a 
history «f UiimysJiLi, tlic lyrnut. DrSymi^ It wu, priitinlily. a liiirTi-nl 
uerion of tills Dfiiiic nlio nroli- a work uu the East ; if lucU ia tliu cute, 
rliny tnniil prnlinlily qiiutrB from t)ii> work i>f the luttec. 

»* Nothing wema to be known of this writer ; but it i« iUggoitod tli&t 
ho may bare {Hicompnnird NcArobiiB aoi Onccicritm is tho Eusl. 

'" fire rod nf fl ri. 

*J Nolliinj; i« kimnrr. fFhim; hnl Tl.iTiIoiiin »utr)r«it« llmt he nmy huTO 
aoeanifjiuiU'd Aiiiuudur lUu Orvut in hi* Lustfni I'xpcditiuii. 

" Sr* oA of B. W. 

*' An olficiT al the court of AVxand^r th(^ (ii'tut. who wrote a coUircUoa 
nf anPwlol''« rmpfclinff tlit priviitc lilr and rciga of tkit ompcror, loniu 
frujiniieiii* of whiuh «ro prewrvei! by Atlieninus. 

^^ St'o end of B. iv. 

** He tB tii|ipoB»i to haTc bocn iho «anio with thr pcT*on of llint aamv 
whii nTute a hi»iory of Alciandcr the tJiuut ; but DuUiin(; further i« known 
of liim. 

^ A pbyoiriftn of Ni^npolix, w-bn ia Mippoicd to huvtt livtid in the tailj 
part of tht! first UL'iitury ufur ('bri»t. 

™ A WTHtr on mediciLo. of whom ull furtbor particulura hine petwiied, 

^ Pussihly I'lpliipputi of Dlynthua, a UmcIc hidtoriiu of ib-u rvigti of 
AI(!UiindG!r lliii Gr^nt. 

** Sec <:iid of 1!. yiii. 

'• An aiidrni Oro(lt biiitoritLii, mentiimtdalso bySuabo; but no further 
part.iriiliu-A aro knnim of him. 

*> Tilt- foaniier nf tbc riyniusty of th* Efrption PtolomiM. wliiuh eadi:d 
in Clonpjitrn, it.u. 38 : hi? wrote a nnrnitivc nf^tlip -wars of Alctflndi-r, whirh 
is lr<ii|ui'utly luoted by the Inter wtittrs, and served u* Ilia groiindworic fur 
Arrian's hittory. 

*> A lutive of Pella, who wrote a hiBtory of Uoccdoulit iIowd to tba 


[Book xri. 

Zoilaa" of Macedon, Bcmomtus," Amphiloclius," Aristo- 
mochus,*' AlexALder Polyliistor," Juba," ApoUodorus" who 
"wrote on Perfumes, Heraclides" the jjhj-sician, Arehidemus'" 
the physician, Dioiiysiiia" Ihe phjaacian, Pcmoelidcs'' the 
TihyaicLim, Euphron'^ the physician, Mnesidcs" iho physician, 
IHagoraB" the physician, loUus** the physician, Heraclides" 
of Tarentum, Xenocrutea*' of Ephcsuaj Eratoathence.'^ 

wan of Alemnder the Rrcat Tlitfrewnsunnther writer of tlio Banienanio^ 
A native of Philippi, wlio sIbo wrote a treatiBe^ either geograpbioal or hia- 
torioilt, reJativo to Mnctdonia. 

'* A native of Aiupliip'jlis, thoug-li gome make him to ha»e been an 
DphctiiLn. Ttie sge m nhiuli lie livmd is not c-uutly iLnown. He attacknd 
tliti wniiugs of Iloiugr ivitli audi uumlieil-fur usperily, thiit hii iiamo liiu 
been proverbinl for a cnarlitig, captious critic. lie ie siiid to Uaro met 
with a. violent death. Ilia literary productionA wrt numeroiui, but noiu 
oftbcm have come down to ui. 

« Site end of K U. " See prnd of B. viji. 

*' See end of B, xi, *> Seo end of H, ili. 

*' Sc!c end of B. v, « See end of B. zi. 

*• A iihvsiciaa of llcrncloa, near Ephcius. He wrote c amnion tar iea m 
the worts nf Hijipiicrutc's. 

w Nothing vi kiiinvn uf him ; hnt it has beer »i]g:pfliled tlint he may 
ha<re becti tbo autliirr of a few fctigiuents dq vclnriuar^' Kurgury wbiclt iiiu 
113 iat. 

"' There were many phraiciunB and suiffeotia of this name, Imt prolmhly. 
Sionysiug. of Haiuos is meunt, or «1kl> BaJlitirtiu* Dionynus, quotLil li; Plinj, 
K, iHii. V. 20. 

" AUq called Dcmncedi'S, a pTivaieiaa of Crotona. who prncliacd at 
JEpT>A. IJe waa anj-rwarrls physician to PolycratcA, the tyrant of Snmoa, 
and King Eariua, <Nhi39e foot be cured. Uia work ou niudidue boa fa- 

" Nothing wLatcFer is known of this writer. 

** Notliinp is known rulaiiTo to tbii wfitcr. 

" Jfolhing is kunwn of liim, 

^ Or 161au«, a native uf Uithynin, wbo wrote a work on Materia McdjicA. 
He vat probubly a conlcniporarf of Ilcraclidea of TiLrKntum, in tbo tbird 
oeutury n.c, 

*' A physician nf Tiinjutum, who Wuneei! to thnEinpirio sect. Ho 
WTOto Btivurai. modicul worki, and is highly earamdndcd by Gulen. Only ii 
few fia^merta nf hia wriliDgi ri^nimn. 

'* An hisUirituI a»d gL-ogTUi>hi<:«l writer, frequently <(uo1od by PUny. 
From the mcntum made of bins in fl. jcxxfii, <;, 2, it would appear that h« 
fluuTi»lKi4l during tbe lime of riiuy, or very sborll; befont. 

"* Soe atid of B. ii. 


C1IA7. 1. (I.) — ttItetIB5I8 — AT WniT PEEIOD TBEV WERE FIRST 

Thus far we Iista been epcaking of the trefR which uro 
vulimblc for Iho odoiirB thoy produce, nnd i-ach of which is a 
eubject lor our wonder in itelf. luxury. howcvt;r, hoB 
thQQght fit to niirgle all of ihreo, and to make n single odour 
wf the wlicle ; henwf il is that ungueDis have beta itu'eaU'd.' 
Who Y'as the firet to mukv ungiifuU U u I'lict iiut nwrdud. 
In the timeB of the Trojan n'at' thuy did not exiRt, nor (lid 
they UBf incense when scicrificiiif; to thu goiis; indeod, pcopl^ 
knew of no other smell, or rathc-r stoiJch,' I may »iy, thnti that 
of the cedar and the eitrns,* Bhriibs- of their omi (jrnwth, as it 
arose in votnmes of emoltc from the aacrificrs ; still, however, 
crun then^ the extract of roses was known, for wo find il men- 
tioned aa confoirin^ additional value on olive-oil. 

We ought, by {food rights, to aficribe the Uret ubo of un- 
guents to the Persians, for thtiy quite soult thi.'iust^'lvcH in it, 
and 80, by nn udventitious recommendation, counteraot the 
bnd odours which are produced by dirt. The first in«1nnce of 
the use r>f unguents that 1 bnvo in-euable to meet with is that of 
the cheat* of iirrfumes wliich fell into the hands of Alrxaniler, 
■with the rrst of the propoxly of King Uorius, at the taking of his 

' Fee remurVs, ihul most of Iho nn^^atnls aad jwrfumes of wtiich Pliny 
here gopak* wcmld find but btlle tavoiir rL t.hi- prf*iTl liny. 

" Thin iIotR (idt appoar Cu hv ezacLly \he caiit, for iii Llie twvnlr-tliiid 
BiioV of (h? lliiii), 1, 1M, we liuO '■ n>s<i-si:ent«d," oil motitionDcl, inidMil, 
Winy Uiiateil &Uii<ks to ii a liltlo fucihiT on. 

'■> •' Nidorem." lliis trrra was ufH in n-fjircnee to ihe tmtW of lurnl ur 
rorislrd ntiitnal inihutaiiciii. It it not improbablQ that lie allude la tUd 
■limcb Hibia)^ fiaiii tliv bnimt MLi'rificnos, 

» Tlni '■ Tlinyt nrlicutaU " Sru c. ^9 of the [ireMiit Boolt. 

* "Suimiiim." Hee B. vii. o. 30. 


Damp.* GiQce those timea tLis luxury hue ^eeo adopted bj 

ouj own countrymen as well, among the most prized nnrl, in- 
cI[?L-ii, the m08t, elegant of all the enjoyments ol' life, and haa 
begun even to be ndmitted in the list of honours paid to the 
dead; for which i^ason we shall have to enlarge further on 
that sTihject, Those perfiimeB whi<;h aro not. the produce of 
elirubs' will only bo nsentioncd for the present by namu : the 
nature of tbetu will, boweTor, bo Btati'd ia Iheii' Qppropriut« 


The namea of ungacnts are due, some of them, to the ori- 
ginal placie of thi'ir composition, others, aguin, to the estracte 
which form their hitecs, others to the trees £mm whieh they 
are derived, and others to the jiaeoliar circuinstance under 
which they were first made : and it ia as well, first of all, to 
llcnuw that in thia respect the fu&hion hoa often changed, and 
that the high repute of peculiar kinds has been hut transLtorj-. 
In ancient times, the perfumes tliti moat estecmeJ of ail weru 
those of the island ol' Delos,' and at a later period those of 
MendcB.* Thia degree of eBtocra is foimded, not only on the 
mode of mixing them and the relative proportions, hut aceord- 
ing: to the dsgreo of favour or disfavour in which the vuxioiiB 
pluotis which pruduue the in^redieum lU'e lit'ld, and the compa- 
rative exoeilence or degeneracy of the ingredients themselves. 
1'he perfume of irJB,'" from C7orinth, whs long held in the 
highest eelfcm, till that of Cyzicua canjc ioto fashion. It wjw 
tlie aatne, too, with tlie perfume of roses," from f hoselis,'* the 

* Thr Mpof perfumM moie probably originated in Inilit. thiiii ftinong 
the Pcrtiuns. 

' lliit of seeds or plsula 

' TIh' porfuiuM of L^l.-]o8 tlieniselvcE liad nnltiini! ic jtarticular tn r^ 
Mtnmend them ; butm it was the cciitT« oi the vorship of Apollo, it ti not 
jmprobable thut exi^iifsLte pcrfumtii farnm^ri a largo proportiun of tho offei- 
iuga brought tliitber from di parts of iIjg wurU. 

> In KgyjiL Sit li. r. c. II. TheuDfpiunU of Mendes aru again ja^n- 
tionod Id lue prespot OJiapier. 

'" Or fltJw<ir-J'--lu('o. Tliii perfume wna ealM Irimim. Tlie Iris Flo- 

rt-ntina nf the liatfti)l&la, Kco savs koE tho smvll uf the riolet. F^ir tku 

cunLpuhition of tlii» perfume, Me BiuscuridLfi, R. i. c 67. 

1 Ehodinuni. >^ See fi^T. e. 20. 



viack VH aftenrs^i «dipwd Inr tkon of XcuoUs. 

■d FkKBOte. Oa «r nOraB,** 6<oni Soli in CUicia, 
WM fcr s hag tta* bcU ia nptttv lNi5>Mtd may other, and then 
tbatfivKBtedc*; aAervfaichperfaiDGaf ceaanthr," from Cy- 
pCBS, one iato fatioB, and thcs that a( Egjpt vra» pn-icmd. 

B0S pirirf thi* «f AiirunjUeiun came into ro^up, asd 
wm wof^mUi hf mBgaemi of niMganiti,** fnta Ooi^ 
ia ill Una vm a^MiKdi-d by ijuiiicc bloBom " unguent 
he mmt plaea. As to perfume of cypnu,*' that from 
mdoCCyiinii'ns at first preferred, and then that of 
; wfaea all on a Euddcu tin- onguGots of Hendm and 
matapinrn'raaaintocitvem- In later ticiva^CDiuciavclipecd 
Egypt ID the mannbctore of tfaeae last tvo, but Urft to that 

IooimtZT the rtpDte of producing the bi^l undent of cypma. 
Athdw baa perscreringly maintainod the rtpat4> of her 
pBBa A enaicon." There was Hormerly a faokoas tiiig;iieiit, 
ktMiwn as "pardaliom,"" and made at Tarsus; attheprMrnt 
day its rerr composition and tho mode of mixiDg it are quite 
aaJcnoviL iWe : th«y bare left off, too, makiiig aognant of 
DoniflBUB^ from the Sowen of that plant. 
Tb«re are two rlvmeiits wliicli cntvr uito the cotnpoaition of 
VBgucBtB. the juic«s and Uie solid porta. l*h« former gvuvrally 
constat of rarious kinds of oils, the latter of odoriferous sub- 
Ktaacvs. Then last are knonn as hpd)*BtDatn, whil^ the oila 
are called i^rmmata.** There is a third elctacat, which ocou- 


** Croeiaain; made fron the Crociu satirns ornalnralista. 

'* See fi. xiL c S2. It va* iuuiIl- from L\m fluwrn of Hit rtO'*, mixod 
«riUi wnpliariaiiL 

" Aaanraciaiiin. Tbe amaractu is fappoMil to bnTO bccD llii: Oricvnum 
majoTancidca of tbe nadonu. DIosooruM, B. i. o. 69, ny» tbut thii bdit 
wai mado at Cjnicas. 

•* Bldinum. Set B. niii. c, 64. 

" CjrpTinum, See B. lii. c. 61. The cypru* wm tie raodflrn Iaw- 
(onia inpmiis. 

'* Made from tho oil of bitti^r almocds. See R. av, «. 7. 

>* Or " nil Alhritiau." W^ tind in Atheiiaui, B. it, o, IS, the ram- 
puntiun of Ihii uo^unt. 

^ From vhat is i.iid hy ApnllDnitgi in tlin psiunj^ of AthDniviii kat 

3iiDlt^, ilhoslR-uu llimi^'lit [lint lliiuwiulho Nino Bi (he uiiKUuQt called aor- 
jntun. it is ydij ilouhtful, howcviT. 

" Niircusinum. Soe li, xxi. o. 70. DtoBCoridee giree the compomtjnn 
of this uEigucnt, n. ). t. 54. 
I " AjQong tUo (tjcninata, Dioworidui nnget the Bweet-rnih, tlie awMt- 
l VOL. lU. M 



[Book XJU. 

piea a place Iwtweei] the two, liut bos heea m-ach neglected, 
the ciilouring matter, namely. To produce a colour, howeritr, 
cmnabar^ uiid aJkanet'* arc often emplovcd. If salt" is 
Bprinklyd in the oil, it will aid it in rctaiuing its properties; 
Ijut ifalkaiiet baa been emploj'Kd, Biilt ia never untid. Rtisiu 
iiTtd gom ore added to £x tUc odour in the Bulid porfumeii ; 
iudcvd it is 8pt to die away imd disappear wiLh tb« groiitest 
rapidity if these subiitances are not employed. 

The unguent wliich i» the moEt rvadily prepared of all, 
and indeed, in all probability, the vviy first that was ever 
made, is that composed oi" brj'on" and oil of baluDus,-' eub- 
Btitnces of which wc have made mention already. In latw 
times the Mend&sian ungiicut wiia invented, a more corapli- 
cntcd misture, as reain and myrrh were added to oil of b&> 
lanus, and ut tlio preaeot day they evon add rnetopion*' oi 
wcU, an Egyptian oil extrttetad from hiltLJ" almonds : to which 
hftvebeeu added ompliaciu.m.'^cardamum.^'sweet rush, ^'houey," 
vinv, myrrh, seed of bolsamum,^ gulbunum,^ and reein ot 
turfbinth,^ as bo many ingredients. AmoBg the most common 
UDguenta at the present day, and for that reason Buppuseil to 
be the most ancient, is that composed of oU of myrtlij,'" cala- 
mus, cypreBB," cypms, miistich,^aiidporapgraniitc-rind." lam 
»cented caliiiiias aud lylo-buliiaiiiiim ; and nmont; the htflyEmuta amomuni. 
Hard, rnyrrh, bulsatn, custua, aud. luarjoram. Tlio latter coastituteiJ the 
iiHc of uiigTicnts, the former were only aidnd nccnnoiiJiJly, 

" Cifinshur U neror nsed to noloor coBMetica at llici prestoit day, from. 
itA tesdeciRj to eiorisU Ifau Bkin. S-ee II. xiiii. c. 39. 

** Tint IS BtilL u$i--d far uulouring ci>ameticB a.t tlie pti^amt duy. See D. 
xxii. 0. 33. 

-' FSe remiirlcB, lliot salt canbc of no UBe; liiit by fulling to thebofctom 
mitboat diesolvingi wouli! rat.bicr tend to spoil the iini;uciit. 

■'' Si'c B. xii C. 611. The iiiLnie "brywu " seems .iilso to hnvfl been, wi- 
iL'iidiid to tLi> buJg ol' vnrious Irpeit of the Coriiftra cIjws luid of llio wbilu 
piiplar. It is prubably to iW buds of tbi; last itce thut I'liny lioro 
alludw, «■ on of bm. Sou B. lii. c. 48. 

" Or nintopium. See Note 18 Jibovu, 

M Mftde from iiliv.iS. Sfp B- »ii. <;. SO. * S.-e B. lU- r. 29. 

" The modorn Aiidrupogun scboarniQlliin. See B. in. c. 48, 

>* See 6. xit. u- 4S. ^ Ciirpuljalj^iaiLUL Sim>. B. xiJ, e, 6U 

»» See B. lii. C. 63. 

■A t'luiil nam of conircrana trcci of EuTope. 

« StB B. IV, c. 3.5. 

*' Cunrassiis aoiuper-TireM. He dutu not say what jiwt of tlio troo 
wu ooipLoyml. °^ S^e B, sii, c. 3S. 

■* 3m 0. 33 ot the pTeniLt Book. 

Oiiip. 2.] 


of opinioD, ho-trever, that the unguenta which bavB been the 
most nniversally adopted, aro thoBo ■which are eompflornlcd of 
the Toao, a flower thnt grows everywhere; nnd hence for 
a long time Iho compoHition of oil of roRfe was of the raoBt 
nimplG nattire, though more roctintly there have been added 
OBLphacium, roiie hluaBomB, cianabarv cnluiDtitr. honey, gwt-ct- 
rush, flour of salt or else aikanet.'" and wine. The Bome 
is the case, too, with oil of snffron, to which have been lately 
oddrf cfiniiabar, altanet, and wine ; and with oil of sampsuchmn," 
with which omphacium nnd caltinius have been compounded. 
The host com«s ttom Cyprus oad JKitylcnc, where sampsuchum 
nbmjnds in largo (inautitiea. 

The ooTumoner kindB of oil, too, are mixed with those of 
myrrh and laurel, to which ttie added MimpBuchum, lilieR. 
fuRugreek, niyiTh, cassia," nurd," awoet-rush, and cinnamon." 
Thero is im oil, too, made of the cutniaon quince and the 
sparrow quince, i'4tU<?d mtUmmi, as we shall havo occasion to 
mention hercatter;" it is used as an ingr>edieiLt in ungueut^, 
mixed with omphacium, oil of cj-pnw, oil of aeaamum," balsa- 
mam," sweot'ruah, ensaia, find ahrotOTnira.** Susinum*' la 
the most fluid of them all : it in made of liliea, oil of hnlaTHin, 
colamui, honey, cinnamon, fiafTroa," and myrrh ; while the 
ung;ncnt of cyprua" is compounded of cypruB, om^phooium 

'* Tho ulkanct nai cianaboi n-orv only aMd for cotouriit^. 

** " S(ini[HU<stiiaum." Ilugeatrally auppoa-ed that thtt snmpaitchiini, 
QTid the annrnaiis Tore the tiune, tbe awret murjoram, or Origanum mnr- 
jorauB of Liimriu, P6b, bowerer, is of a eofttrary opiivion. See U. xxi. 
C. 35. Fn DioMitrides, II. i. c. 19, Ibera is a ditference made tietwuea 
statpcuoliioiuD and aniBruuiuiLni, though Imt a very ilijfhc one. 

» The bull of the CaaEia ligaoa of tha pliarmiicopiBJi. the Lauias eaa&ia 
of botany. See B. xii, 1. 13. 

" Sm B. xii. c. 24}. Tlio Andropogan oardas of Linnffiua. 

•• 8m B, xii. «. 41. 

*' See B, uiii. c. &4, alw R. ir. o. 10. Th@ Malum atruthiaoi, vt 
"iponvw q_uinwi," wm nn wblong varieiy of the fniit. 

** Stniaum ontutaia of Liiuinus. &fx B. xviii. e. 2i, and B. txit. 

*' Bolm of Qilead. 8b« K lii. c. Si. 

** Soiilberawtjod. Tho ArteniiEin ahrotnanm of Linnomi. 

" 0( lily uu^uijut, maJo of tha lily uf Siua, whiob had probacy & 
mom powtrful BHiulJ thua thul of Uurupe. Uiflgcaridcw (^tm iCa coaipoii- 
ti«n, 11. i.e. 63. 

•" Ths Crocus Mtinis of Linnaius, 

" CypiiniLui. It bus been ptwiciiuly mvntloaed in thii Chftpler. 



and cardamum, ealiimus, nspalatlius." and abrotonum. There 
are 3omc persons who, whtm making; unguent of cypras, em- 
ploy myrrh also, anil punax :" the beat ie that made ut 8idoB, 
and the nest l/uat tLiut oi Egypt : core must ba takeo not tu 
add oil of &tisamiiin : it will kit^t-p as long as foiu yeurq, aad its 
odoar is streitgthened by the addition of cinnamon. Telinam^ 
ia made of fresh olive-oil, cypirus," ealamua, melilott-,** fenQ. 
greek, honey, maram,^ and Hwect marjoram. This last was 
the perfume most in vogue in the time of the Comic poet 
Meniinder : a cotsiderable time aftor that known as " me- 
gahum" took Lta place, being so called aa holding the very 
highcfit rank ;" it was cuuiposed of oil of hidaiiua, hELlsamum, 
calamufl, Bwcet-rush, xyIobat^aTuuin,°" co^nia, and reaic. Oat 
peculiar property of thi& unguent is, tliat it re-quiroB to be 
couetantly Btirred while boiling, until it hm lost all smell : 
when il beconnis cold, it recovei-s its odour." 

There are some single esjenoee also which, individually, 
afibrd uugnonts of Tery higli character; the firat rank is due 
to lualohaUirum," and the next to the iris of Ujyricum and 
the Bweet mtujoram of Cj'zicus, both of them herbs. There 
are porftimera who sometimes ad<l some f«w other ingredienM 
to these: thoee who use the most, employ for the purpose 
honey, flour of salt, omphacium, leaves of a^us," and pnnflx, 
ttll of them foreign ingi'^dientB." The price of unguent" of 

" SccB. xii, c. 62. 

" The gum resin of the Paatinafa opopiiiui of linncens, 8«e B. xii. 

*' Or unguent of fcnugreelc, from tho Gresl r rjXic. nienning that plant, 
llie Trigoniilla foenurn Graaciini of LinnsEiia, Sew B. Jtii». u. 120. 

" 8<?e B, ii. P. 36. an'l B. »«. c. 6H -TO. 

** Tlni Trifolium laelilotus of LiameaB, See B. xii. e. SO. 

>! Sflc B. xii. c. 63. 

^ Ue would iicjily that it waiio called from the Bnek/tt^iii-, "j^nat ;** 
but it wM mc^Tti gunuiull; lutd tbat it ie«eiv«d in name frum iti uiYentoi, • 

» Sec B. xii. c. 6. 

*" F4a docs not ajipear to credit (liia siiatemenl. Ey the iwe of tho 
word " f entilctur," " IJuiued" amy be possibly implied. 

«' See B, xii. c. S9. 

*' Tho Agnu£ casttia of Linnciu, Gae B. xdv. tt. 38. The teaves art 
^tiit« inodardUA, Lbmigh. tlie fruit of tliis plant is sLigbtly aroniBtiu, 

'■ '< Eitcmit." Thv rendinc; is doubtful, and it la diflji;iilt Ui aay wliat it 
tii^ exact rucaiiiag of the woxJ. 

** Oiaasjiiuaiuii), 

Caap. i.] 



cinnftmoTi ia qiiito raonnous ; to cinnamon there is aUded oH 
of biiknuB, xylobalsainum, calamufs Bweet-rusli, scoda of 
b&lfiamum, myrrVi, and perfumed honey: it ia ihe Uiiokest in 
conaisLtney of all Iho ungucnte ; the priM at which it Bells 
nnge^ tirom thirty-live to three hundred denarii per pound. 
"Unguent of nard,** or foUatum, is oomposcd of omphaciucD or 
else oil of 'bahtoms, sweet-rash, costus,*' n»rd, amomum,'*' 
myrrh, »nd halsninum. 

While sppdkin^ on thia subject, it will be aa well to bear in ' 
mind that there arc nine riifferent kinds of plant* of a Bimilar 
kind, of which we havo already made mention** ts t*ing em- 
ployed for tlio purpose of imitating Indian nard ; so ahun- 
dant ore the mnt&rials that are afforded for adulteratJoii. All 
these perfumea aro rendered still more puugont by the adiii- 
tiuu of costus and amouium, whiuli hnve a particularly powur- 
ful effect on the olfactory organs; wliilu myrrh givi-a them 
greater consiateney and additioDal sweetness, and saffron makes 
them btttcr adapted for medicinal purposes. They are most 
pnngcnt, however, when mixed with ainoiniim alone, which 
win often produce head-ache even. There are some persona who 
content ihemseiveB with spriakliof; tlie more preciouB ingre- 
dients upon the others after boiling Ihcm down, for the pur- 
pose of eoonomy ; but the streogth of the unguent ia uot so 
^cat as when thu iugredienta havo bcua boiled together. 
Myrrh used by itself, and without tlie mixture of oil, forma 
an ungu«Qt, but it is stacte'" only that must be used, for other- 
iriae it will be productive of too great bitterness, tfnguent of 
Cyprus turns other uagaentfi green, while lily ungncnt" make* 
them more unctuous: the unguent of Mendea turns them 
black, rose nngueut makes them white, and that of myrrh 
of a pallid hue, 

Snob are the particiilara of the oncieat iuveationB, and the 
varioaa fidsi&eations of the shops in later times; we will now 
-pass on to make mention of 'what is the very height of riihijo- 
ment ia these articles of luxury, indeed, I may say, the liieaii. 
ideal" of them all. 

" Nardiniim. 

** Or lenf uuguent, ao coiled from being nuido of leaves of nsrd. See 
B. lii. 0. 37- 

" Bee B. lu. o. 25. " Soe B. rii. 0. 2S. 

•• 8eo B. rii. c. 23, 27. wUcrs tlio Iwi ')»■ gircu. 

'• Sec B. Hi, e. 35. ■" Sueinuiti, See p. 153. 

** Soinoui aactoritus loi. 



[Book XI n. 

(2.) Tliifl ia what is called the "regnl" unguent, from the 
&ct that it ia composed in these proportioDa for the kings of 
thm Purthiiins. ItCoUBlstH of myrobaiatius,"co8tus, amomnm, 
citinamoii, comacmii,''* cardamum, spikenard, marum, myrrh, 
rosaia, Btoras,'*hidanu.iD,'''' opuholsamum, Syrian calamus" and 
SjTian Bweet-ruBli,'"' cenanthD, inal&hathnim, eerichatum,'' 
oypnis, afipraJathiiB, panas, saffirun, cypirus, ewcet marjorain, 
lotus,*' houey, aud wioe, Hot one of the ingredients lu this 
Qompouad ia produaetl either io Italy, that conqueror of tlio 
world, or, iadeed, in aU Europe, with the exception of the 
iris, which grows in Illyricum, and the nard, which is to bo 
tmind in Qaul : es to the wine, the rose, the leaves of myr- 
tle^ and the olire^il, they are poseesscd by pretty nearly all 
countries in common. 


Those unguenta which are linowri by the name of " dia- 
paamu,"" are composed of dried perfiinica. The let's"* of im- 
guenta ere known by the name of " magma.** " In aJl theso 
prpparatione the most powerful perfume is the one that is 
added the last of all. Unguents keep best in hoses of &!»• 
haster,"* and perfuiaes'* when mixed with oil, which conduces 
■jM the more to their durability tha thicker it is, such as the 
oil of almonds, forinatance, tJngnent*, too, improve with ag«; 
hut the sun is apt to spoil them, tor which reaaon they aro 
nmiftlly stowed away in a shady place in vcflsclB of lead. 
When their goodness is heing tcsli'd, they arc plctoed on tho 
hack of the hand, leat the heat of the palm, which ia more 
flediy, should bavo a bad effect upon them. 

" 8«.6 B. lii. c. id. ■" 8ee B. lii. a. 53. 

" See B. lii. c. 65. « Se« M. xii. c. 37. 

" Sue ]i. xii. e. iS. i» See B. xii. o. 18. 

" Si-e B. xii, o. 45. 

■• Fee suggest* that th.i» mny be tlie Nymphaa ctEnilca of auTigay. 
plant tliaC is comrtioa ia the Nile, and the flDWcr& of wliich cxhnlcsawetit 

"^ The diapoioi^tiL werodr^, odoriferous powdQra,stitiilBr to thMO lucd 
at the jirc-flcnt duy in spichelfi Jtad scent-baga. 

*' " Ta^ccm iiii'jruenti, " 

^ Tbis nurd is el.ill used in phtirroHcy to donotu Uie buska or rasidusry 
matU-r left after the eitraiition of llie jujcr. 

•' Sou B. Kuvi. c, 12. Soc ti3*o Hark liy. 7, aod luho xii. $. Leadea 
boi«» were olsu used fora umUiur purpose. 

" Udores. 

Clrtp. 4.] 



COAP. 4. (3.) — TIB Excesses to wmcu ldscbihas bhh is 

These perfumes form the objects of n losury which may he 
looked upoQ us being the moet eup^rfluous of any, for pearls 
and jewels, after all, do paea to a man's representative," nuii 
gurmunts huve gome diinihility; but unguents lose their 
odoiir in an instanit, and die aivi<y the very hour thi'y utb 
QMd. The very highest recommcndatjoa of them is, that 
when a female paesus by, the odour which procoeda from her 
may possibly at:traot the attention of those even who till then 
are intent upon Homothing cIbg. In price theyeseeod so large 
a sum even as four hundrtd denarii jrt pound : so vuat ia Uie 
amount that is paid for a luxury made not for our own enjoy- 
ment, hut for that of olhers; for the person who carries the 
perfume ahout liim is not the one, all, that smells it. 

And yet, even here, there are some points of difference tliat 
deserve to be remarked. We reiid in the works of CicerOj " 
that those unguents whiBh smell of the earth are prefi^rahle to 
ihoBO which smell of saffron ; hiding n proof, that even in a 
matter which moet strikingly hespeaka our state of extromo 
comiptneBB, it is thought as well to temper the viee bj a little 
show of austerity,*' There aro some pereons too who look more 
particularly fur cuasiBt«ney^ in thoir uogucnts, to which they 
accordingly give the name of " Hpiasiam ;*"' thus showiag that 
they lore not, only to be fljirinklod, but cvpti to b(! plasterod oyer, 
with unguents. We have known the very soles'* even of tiio 
feet to ho sprinkled with perfumes ; a refinement which was 
taught, it ia suid, by M. Otho"' to the Empt'ror Ntiro. HoWj 

« " HcroB." Tlie person was bo culk-d who locceedeil to the property, 
whether renl or pi^raonal, of aa intastutc. 

■' See U, xii-ii, fi, 3, whcroho f)nit(« thiipnsfww frnmGiceKmtlonglh. 
It apjiL-urs to be rriiiu. i.lo Onit. B. iii. e. ii9. KuLh Cii^uiru and Pliny pro- 
f^u U> Soil ii smcU tlial arises from tliG pi^rth iUcIf, through tbo ngencyof 
the sua. But, rw F6o rotuai'ke. pure eiirlb is pei'ft-ctly imidorous. lie sug- 
eetM, however, that tliis odour Attribuu^d by the siickntt to the earth, cnny 
W re*litjr have jironeed^id frnia tlintihniNs ro.iu at thyme sni) otiier pUnts. 
If such i» not the rcul solution, it srtros impijssihle to suggpst any other. 
■* Bv KiTiii^ iirtifi-rt'iico to the inoiitf etraple odours, 
*> '■ {,'rassitiiila." >■»* Or " lliit'k " ungiient- 

*" Wc Ifurn from Aihenieui', and a ;>K!iit!ig« in iho Aululnria of Plauiua, 
that this W4W (lone hag Ijefore Nuro's liiao, atimng the Ijitoka. 

>< Who AUf'ce'odMl GaJtta. lie wac ona of Veto's favourite coiDpuuftna. 
in hi* dcbaii oh frits. 



PLiirr'8 rrAToaAL Hiaronr. 


I should like to know, csuM a perfume bo at oil perceptible, 
or, indeed, productive of any kind of pleasure, when placed 
on that part of tho hody ? Wa hiiTe heard alao of n privata 
pcraan giving orders ibr the woUtt of the batli-room to be 
sprinkled witb unguents, wbile the £aiperor Caiua" had tbo 
same thing *3one to his sitting-hatli :" that ttuB, too, might not 
I iw looked upon aa thn pcc.nhar privilr-gc of a prince, it ■ft'iw 
afterwards done by ore of the slaves that belonged to Neru. 

But the most wonderful thing of all ia, that this kind of 
luxurious gratification Bhould havemflfie its way into the caoip 
even : at all events, the eagles and thfl Htandards, du?1y as 
thfiy are, and bristling with thdr sharpened points, are 
auoiiittid oa festivti" dnya. I only wish it could, by any pos- 
ftibility, be stated who it waE that Erst taught ub this practice. 
It was, no doubt, under thr corrupting iniiueiipc of such tcaap- 
tationa as these, that oiir eagles aijhic'Vfd the corKjueat ** of tli^ 
■world ; thus do we seek to obtain thiir patroiia;i;e and sanc- 
tion for our vices, and mnko them our precedent for using 
ungnonts cvim beneath the caaque." 


I cannot exactly aay at what period tins use of unguents 
first found its way to Rumc, It ib a. weU-known ftict, that 
when King Antioehiis and Asia" were eubdued, an t-dict Kas 
published in the year of the City 563. in tiie ceDSDrship of P. 
LiciaiuB Crassua and L, JuHus Ccettur, fo'ibidding any one to 
lell eiotica;"* for by that name ungiienta were tbpn called. 
But, in the name of Hercides I at the present day, there are 
8om(^ persons who even go so far as to put them in their drink, 
and the bittemess produced therohy is prized to a high degree., 
in order that by tbeir lavinhnoeft on these odoiira lli^y may 
thus gmtii'y the seusee. of two purts** of thfi hody at the Bame 
jnomeut.' It i» u well-kaawn historical fact, that L. PloliiiB,' 

" CalifTiila. " Snlium. 

'^ AfUT victories, fur iuBtanoe, or wheu murutiiii^ ordera were giren. 

"^ This in Baid in bittur irony, *° Sub cassitlu. 

•" Asiit MiTiiir luon- parliculnrly. *' KTOliiia. 

** The organ* of ttwtf nnil i>F »(iipil. 

1 We bate this fact alliiUed to in thowurkaof PlautUB, Juyenul, Mnrtiril, 
nnJ. .T.liini. Tho Greats were parlirularly fond of rniiing inynrb wJlll 
tlidr vine. Nard wine is ukv montiuriL-d by I'ltiutUB. MllvsGL lit. S. U. 

> Or Lnciiu riaulios I'luncuR. lie wus proscribed by tlio triunivira. 

CbKp. G.] 


the brother of L. Planens, who was twii-c coasul and censor, 
after twang proncribod by the Triamvira, was Ijctmyed in his 
place of fconepalDH?nt at Sftlemum by the smell of his un- 
giienta, a disgnice which more than outweighed aH the gailt* 
tittondinjf hia proacriptioii. For who ie ihore that can bo of 
opinion that suoh mea as this do uot riottly dwurre to uome to 
a violent end? 


In other re^jit-cts, Efiypt is the country that is the be&t suittd 
of all for the production of unguents; and next to it, Ciun* 
panitt,* from its abundance of rosea. 

(4.) Jndffia^ too, ia grc^fitly ri-'nowncicl for its pcrfiimp*. an^ 
oven Btill more bo for its pilm-trcoe," the nRturc of which I 
ehftll take this opportLLiiity of eulai^ng apon. There aro some 
K)UDd in Europe nlBO. They are not uaconimon in Italy, hot 
are quite burreu then-. * The palms on the coaet of Spuin bear 
fruit, bntitis sour.' Thu frait of those of Africa is swfet, 
but quickly becomes vapid Rnd loses its flavour ; which, how- 
ever is not the ensc with the fruit of ihoie that grow in the 
East." From these trees n wine is mnde, and bread by some 
nfltionB," and thi'y afford an aliment tor uuiueroas qnadnipeds. 
It wU bo with very fair reason then, that wc shall confine onr 
deBcription to the palm-tree of foreign countriee. There ore 

with thn 8nrn>tinn fif tiia hrnthrr. In fonsfgupTinc of his u«p tit pcrftimei, 
tha -plate of his cijuc^almcnt " got i,Tiiid ;" and in nrdtr In savtr bU bUvm, 
wbu wcTo bciti^ tnrturcd to ili'iitb biiCBUSo tiiny would nut butiu; him, he 
Tutiintju'ilv tumiidi^rvd liiniKflf. 
' AltotliingUj the Iriunivirule, 

* CQ|itia, its cujiiul, wiu the great toftt of the nti^i>eiit and [wrfumo 
aiifactiir* in Itulv. 

The Plia'iiii ikcljliferft of Linatnuj. See alau B. lii. o, 62, nlwe be 
ns rIwi to H.Uiiile tittliis trup. 

* Al tho pr<'«Dnt day this is nut llio Tiicil. I'll!) vUlaK^ nf Ja Bordiglii^ni, 
nitunta on an cmlnonce of tho Apcnniiicji, etowh great quantitiM of dntci, 
of good quidity. At Ili^nx, Kic«, l&tai li&mo, and iif.aan, tbey est ataa 

' Thw, too. IB nol t!i« ftct The daitet of Valencia, SeTille, and other 
ppovircc* of Spuin, am swept, nH'i of ■'■xni'Ucnt fiiiiLlity. 

" Plitiy IB wrong ti<,''aiii in tkui Htutumeiit, Tug iiiU; of Sutbary, Tunis, 
Alfnera, sod Eildiil^rLd, tbc " Isiid of dutes," is superior in cveiy rupciot 
tu that ofthn Eimt. 

* TliB .dStliiupiuu, u wo icmn from Thcaplirastus, D. ii. c. 8. 

pnirr's itatdeal histoby. 

[Bwt xm. 

none in Italj" that grow Bpoatancouslj-, " nor, in fact, in any 
other part of the worlii, with thu escuption of tbo warm coun- 
tries : iudoed, it in only in tUe very hottest climates that this 
tree will leur liuit. 


The pfllra-tree grows in a light and sandy soil, and for the 
most part of u nitrous quality. It loves the vicinity O'f Howiiig 
vtkttti ; and as il is its nature to imbibe tLe whole of the year, 
there aro some who are of opLuion, that in s year of drought 
it will rceoivc injury from heing niaaurod evou, if tho raanurv 
is not tirst mixed with runmug water : this, at least, is th« idea 
entfrtaiofd hy aome of the Assyriaas. 

The varieties &f the palm are uumeroiis. First of all, thero 
ftre those which do not excei^d tho aize of a ahmb ; Uiey aro 
Moetly barren, though somctitnea iticy arc known to produou 
fruit : the brancheR are Khort, and the tree U well covered vilh 
leaves idl round. In many plaoeB thia tree is used as a kind 
of rough-cast," as it were, to protect tho walls of hoa&es 
ttgaiust damp. The paJms of greuter height form whola 
IbrestSj tlie trunk of the tree being protected all round by 
pointed leaves, width are arranged in the form of a comb; 
these, it muafc be nnderstood, are wild palms, though Homctime*, 
I by some way ward fancy or other, they are known to make 
their appearance among- the cultivated variottea. The other 
kinds arc tidl, round, and taptiring; und being fumiahed with 
densi! and projecting knohe or ciicks in the ttark, arranged in. 
regulai' gradation, thi'y aro loiind easy of Hseent by the people 
in the East ; in order to do which, the climber fastens a loop 
of osier ronod his body and the trunk, and by this contrivanca 
ascends the tree with astonishing " rapidity. All the foliage is 
at the summit, and tiie liruic as well ; this laat being situate, 
not among the leaves, na is tlio cam with other treea, but 
hanging in clusters from shouts of ite own among the 
brauuliea, and partalitng ^f the nature both of tho grapo and 
tho apple. The leaven terminate' in a sharp edge, like that of 
a knite, while tho eidvs are deeply indented — a peculiarity 

'" Or in ft wUil state. 

11 "Teciorij vicem." Thoy wore probably planted in rum, vlosetatha 

11 Tliis mode of uvrading iho date-palm is »till prQctisuH in ibe Etut, 

Chap. :.] 



whii^h &i¥t gox9 the ides of a tr<xip of soldiers presentiBg fac« 
OD two Bides at once ; at the preaent day they arc split asunder" 
to form ropes nud wythux for iMUtuuig, as we\l ns light uiu> 
brellas'* for covering the head. 

The more diligent" enquirers into the operations of Nfltnro 
state that oil trees, or rnther all plants, and other productions 
of the earth, hdoug to either ouo Bex or the other; u fact 
whiuh it may bu Eufficicnt to notice on thu pi-t;&cuL ouKUfiiwii, 
and 0Q& which manifests itself in so trte more thun in the 
pulm. The malii tree hloseoou at the shoots ; the ieiuule buds 
without blossoioiiig, the hud being very similar to utt eur of 
com. In both trees the flesh of the fruit Bhowfl first, and 
after that the woody piirt in!>ide of tt, or, in other words, the 
seed: and that this isrcallythefaae, ia proved by the fact, that 
wo often find amall fruit on tho same shoot without any sijed in 
it at all. Thid seed is of on oblong ahupe, imd not roundi^l 
like the olive-stoiiQ. It is also divided down the back by a 
deep indentation, and in most epecimens of this fhut thero 
is exactly in the middln a sort of nuveJ, an it were, irom which 
the root of the tree firat takes its growth." In plontiiig this 
seed it is laid on its antJ?rior surface, two being placed side 
by side, while as many more are })ljiced abore ; for when 
plaQtcd singly, the tree that springs up is but weak and 
eiokly, wherea-i the four 8pedn all unite and form one strong 
tree. The seed is dividod from the flesh of the fruit by Bevenil 
coaU of n whitish colour, some of which arc attached to tho 
body of it ; it ties hut luos«ly in the inside of tlie fruit, ad- 
hering only to the Bummit by a aJngHe thread." 

The flesh of this fruit takes b year to ripen, though in some 
places, Cyprus" for instance, even if it should not reach ma- 
turity, it is very agreeable, for the swcetnrBSof its flavour: 
the leaf of the tree too, in. that island, is brottdcr than else. 
wburc, and the &uit roimder than usual : tho body of the fruit 

>* Sm B. iri. c. 37. 

" " Umbraottla." Thefibrus of the loaves wire pruballyplattcdor woven, 
and tbo " umbracolii " nude iu muuU ibe tunio manner as tke straw nad 
fibm hftls of the presi^nt dar. 

'* Mn«t of thia ts hdmiw'cd from Theophrflstus, Hiit. Plant, ii. 9. 

'* Fie remarki, lliat tbit ut-count ii (];uiie erruaeoiis. 

>' Thu ha cnpiw also from Tlii.'iiphrastUB, B, ii. e, 8. 

>" Tbnophrasliu, B. ii. o. S, meittioBs tliis as a idad »t dat4 ptwuUitr to 



[T3oolt XI n. 

JioweTOr, is never eaten, hut is always Bpit" out again, aftar 
tlifl juicQ has been extntctatl. In Arabia, the paUa finiit is 
said to kavo a mWy swi-et taete, ultbough Juba says that he 
prefere the date found amon^ tlie Arabiaa HcenltsB,'" and to 
which they give the unrac of "cln-blan," before tha^tj. of any 
other country for flavour. In addition to the above parti- 
cularSj it is as&crtod that in a forest of natural gTOv,-tii the 
female*' tpei58 will beeome barren if they nro deprived of the 
males, and that many fcmnlfl trees may be seen surrounding a 
3iagl£ malo with downcast heads and a fnliago that Hcems to be 
bowing cart'Hsingly towards it; while the male tre^, on tbe 
other liaiid, with leaves all bristling and erect, by its exha- 
lations, and even the vciy sight of it and the duHt** from 
off it, feciinditea the others: if the male tree, too, fihould 
happen to be cut down, the female trees, thus reduced to ft state 
of widowhood, will at once become barren nnd unprodiictire. 
So well, indeed, is this sexual union between them iinderatood, 
tliflt it has been imajipned even that fecundation may he en- 
sured through the agency of man, by meana of the bloasoma 
and the down" gathered &om off the male trees, and, indeed, 
Bometimee by only eprinkling the dost irom olf them on the 
fiitnalo trees. 


Palm -trees are also propagated by planting;" the trunk ia 
first divided with oKCtain fiaaurea two cubitB in length which 
communicate with the pith of the tree, and ia then buried in 
the earth. X slip also torn away from the root wiU produc>(t 
a sucker with vitality, and the same may be obtained from the 
more tond>LT among the bruji;;he£. In Assyria, the tree itself 

" This i« liaid solrly in relation to the diite of Cyprus. 

•° Dr "dwiflleirs ia t«nU;" siTiiilsr tu Ihv moilein fi^douiiu. 

" F4e remarks, that in Uiose wor-le wc And tliL' ftrist ^rma of llio soxaal 
iystem thnt has hnea eatablisbed hy die laodtrn botarnsla. He ihinka that 
it i* denriy iliown liy this uttcnmil, lliut I'liny was acquMnted with tha 
f-HfUUilutioQ ofplunls by tlia aguiicy oi tliB_pulli?D. 

** In allusidn to tliB milluu, possibly. Sbb tlio kit Note. 

" "Laaug'mi.:" It i« pai^Biblu tlial ia i\u> nan of this word, aUo, lin 
moy albide to the pollen. Under the lErm " pulrU," ■' dnst," ho probably 
alliiileB in OTnggiii.Ked terms to thii snrne theory. 

** The iamc niRtliod* of |>ro[itirating llio piiliu Ian «tiU fulluwcd iti lh« 
£iiit, lend in the vouatiiia near the tropins. 

Chnp. 9.] PALM-TBEBB. 178 

is aotnetimes laid Ipvfvl. and then covered over in a moist soil; 
upon whiuli it wiU throw out roots all over, but it will gnvf 
oaiy to be a uuml^er oi' shrubs, tmd oertr a tree : bonce it is 
that they plant nurseries, itnd transplaot the young trees when 
H year old, and again when two years old, a8 they thrive all 
the bett<!r tbr being transplanfM ; this is done in the spring 
soQson in other countries, but in Aasyria about the rising of the 
})oe-8tar. In those ports they do not touch the young trees 
with the knife, hut merely tie np the foliage that they may 
flhoot upwards, and an jittaln cotisidemhlD height. When 
thoy are strong they pnint' them, in order to uicrviUB their 
thickneH!, but in bo doing htiva the branchoB for about haU'u 
foot; indeed, if they were cut off at any other place, the ope- 
rBtioa would kill the parent trpt. Wo have alr^Mdy'' men- 
tioned Uiat they thrive particulitrly wcU in a. ailtiBh soil ; 
hence, when the soil is not of that nature, it is the custom to 
scfttter wtlt, not exactly about the roots, but at Q little distance 
off. Thfre are palm-trcop in Syria and in Egypt which diride 
into two tnmka, and anme in Crete into three and ae many iw 
fire even,*' Some of thusB Ircea bear imratdifltely at the end of 

» three years, and in C'ypriia, Hyria, and Egypt, when they are 
four years old ; others again at the end of live years : at which 
^>eriod the tree is about tb« height of a man. So long as Iha 
tree is quite young the &uit has no seed within, iroia wbiuh 
circumBtaaoe it has reeeivt^d the nidamnie of the " eunuch,"" 


There are numerous varieties of the pBlm-tree, In Asayria, 
and throughout the whole of Persia, the burren kiflids ar« mode 
use of for oarp«nt:er8' work, and the varioua appliaocea of 
luxury. There are whole forests also of palm-trees adapted 
for cutting,^ and wbieh, alter they arc cut, shout ugaiu &oia 

*s In p. 7 of tliB present Book See also B. irii. o. 8. 

I* F&meuttousgneneiuElviuin Spain, which shot up inlosevm distinct 
tntf, aa it wcm, from a singlo trunk. Tho iJomna Tachnioa, he eayi, of 
Byriii and E^pt, ft prcTilinr kinj of pnlm, ii filao hifiircntcil. The fruit 
[>f it, hu tliiiiU, urH VL'iy probublj tliir Pb>»iiici>bulanua of B. xii. C, 47. 

W " Spailo." Pk0pi^?8pntecJ by thp Gropfe iBfoujo; nriil li-opjfOj;. 

•* "Ca.'Jua)" TlougL thit in tlic fitd us tu eohiu pulm-lrccii, lUi^ greater 
part psriib a.(ia being^ cut ; tlia riut hmi occnpyin^ tho auamit, and tho 
- tnnk not b«ing ffusEoptible of any incrciue. 


[Book XHI. 

tho root ; the pitfi of them towards the top, which ia nflnally 
cftUcc] tho brain" of the tree, is ewoet to tlie tuBtc, imd tho 
tive will live vvea after it has "been estracLed. which ia the oiwe 
with nootherkind. The uameof this ireeis "chainmrops;""' 
it has & broader and softer leaf than the others, which is ax- 
tremely usefa I for Taritms kinds of wickerwork ;" theaa trees ar© 
■v^ry numeroiia in Crete, and eren. more so ia Sicily. Tbo 
■wood of the palm-tree, when ignited, bums both brightly and 
Blowly.'' In some of those that bear fruit," the eeeA of the fruit 
is shorter than in othera, while in Home, ngain, it is longer; in 
some it ia softer thiin in others, and in aomo harder; in aome 
il ie OBBeoua nnd crbscent-shapcd ; poli^licd with u tooth, auper- 
stitioQ employs the stone an an antidote against channa and fas- 
cination, ThtB 8t»ue i-B enclosed in eevoral coats, more or less 
in number ; sometimes they are of a thick texture, and somu- 
times very thin. 

Hence it ia that wo find nine and forty different kinds «f 
palm-trcc8, if any one will be at tho trouble of enumerating all 
tiieir variouB barbarous names, and the diilbrent wines that ore 
extracted from them. Tbo most lamoas of all, are thosv 
which, for the sake of distinction, have received the name of 
" royal" palms, bccimse they were preserved solely hy the 
kings of Persia ; theae used to grow nowhuio but iit Eiibylon, 
and there only in the garden of Bagyus," Uiitt being the 
Persian for an eunuch, BeTernl of whora have CTen reigneil 
over that country ! This garden was always carefully retained 
within'* the precincts of the royal court. 

In the eouthem porta of the world, the dates Imown as 

" Cereliram. 

^ The Chnmairep* buiuilUoftbe madam hotBciaU. ItisfDund, amon^ 
otber ooitntriea, in Spuia, Morouco, and Arabiu, 

« ViUli*. 

" *' Viifnoea." Perhaps it may mean tliil (lie wood rctaias th« fliofom 
long time, when it burns. 

*' V66 fluggi-alit ttiat, Dicf may passibly have confoimded ttie fruit nf 
otber p^iime with the dale. 

3* Thii teems to have bem a ^sneral name, as Pliny sajrc, xneBomg an 
ouauoh ; but it is eTid^nt that it whs iilsit usi'd ae 3, proper aamif, as ia tbo 
rsie of tbc (;uaudi wliu aUw Artuxursi's, Ocbiie, ii.o. 'H^S, by poi&on, 
and of another eanuch who helftngcJ U> Dariua, but aftrrwordK fell into 
M\B hMiiii nf AlcjnndiT, of whom ne became nn espccinl fa»ourita. The 
ntime i» Kanietini'ffs wriuau " Builds," and aQmatiiam *' Bn^oaa^' 

s* Doniipiuitis IB aulu. 

Chap- 0] 



"^agri,** hold tbe highpst mnk, aud next an«r tbem thotie 
that are ceilvA " mar^aride*." These last are short, whit*-, 
and round, and bear a stronger resetnblaneo to grapes than to 
dates; for which rcuBon it is that they hoTo received their 
DOtne, in consequence of their cIobb respmhlance to "marga- 
rilffl," or pctirSs. It is said that there is only ono tree that 
bears them, and thut in the locality known ns Chora." The 
same is the case aleo with the tree that bears the syagri. We 
have heard a woml^-rful etoiy too, relative to this last tree, to 
tlie eiTect tiiut it dit« aiiii comes to life itgaiu in a similar 
maDD^r to the phcenix, .which, it is ptierally thought, has 
borrowod its name from the polm-trce, in consequence of this 
pet'uliarity ; at the mompnt that I am writing this^ that tree 
IB Btill bearing fruit. As for the fruit itself, it is large, hard, 
and of a rough ujipeamnce. and differing in taNte from all other 
kinds, having a Eort of wild Havour peculiar to itaelf. imd 
not unliltc that of tlie flesh of tlio wild boar; it is evidently 
thia cLTcunieUmce from which it has derived ita oaiae of 
" ayagnis." 

In the fourth rrmk arc the Antes cnlled " sandalides," from 
their resemblance to a anndal in shape. It is stated, that on 
ihc confines of Ethiopia there are but five of these trees at 
the mo^t, no len.^ remarkablo for the Gingultir lusciousness of 
their fruit, than for their oxtreme rurity. NeJct to these, the 
datca known as "carj'otae "" are Ihe most esteemed, affording 
not only plenty of nutriment, but a great sibuudance of juice ; 
it is from these that the principal wines" are made in the 
Kast ; these wines are apt to affect 'the head, a cirfumatance 
from ftliich the fruit deiiveB its name. Hut if these treea are 
remarkable for their abundance and fniitliilneas, it is in Jtulfca 
that they enjoy the potest repute; not, indeed, throughout 
the whole of that tLirritory, but more pnrticularly at Hierieua," 
although those that grow iit Arthtdais, PIiimeliB, and LtvinB, 
Tollies in tlie same tunitory, are highly esteeoibd. the more 

* Froia tlio Greuk ovay-pe;, "a wild timr," us Pliny afterwards atol'-s; 
tttvT being so colli^d fiam their twculiu vild taste. 

« Sm B. Ti. fl, :H9. 

^ Said to liaTe buen »a called from tba OreeV icApti, " Cfae head," and 
ImiSia, " tLupidity," awing lo Llm lieculy nutur-e of Lhc winu cxtraoted firam 
tie iVuit. 

« 6ce B. »u 0. 32, and S. riv. c. 10. 

*> The Jericho of Scriptuto. 



[Itook XIII. 

remarkable quality of these U a rich, uuctuous juico ; tlioy are 
of a milky consisteacj', and have a sort of \-inou8 flavoar, with 
a rem arkable sweetness, like that of honey. The Kicolaan" 
dal*8 an? of 8 similar kind, but somfewhat diit-r; thpy are 
of pemarkable size, ao much so, indeed, that four of them, 
pUce<i end to end, viW make a cubit in length, A. te^ fine 
kind, but of Biater (juality to the carj-otse for flavour, are the 
" adelphidee,"*^ heime bo called ; theBe come nest to them in 
HwettueBB, but still are by no means their e[|uuls. A third 
kind, again, are the patetos, which abound in juice to exceaa, 
so much e,o, indeed, that the fruit bursti), iu its excesa of liquor, 
even upon till) piLfcat tree, and pi'esents allthyappearaueeof 
ha^'iug been trodden" under fuot. 

There are numerouB kinds of dates also, of a drier natnre, 
which Rre long nnd slender, and sometimes of a curved shape. 
Those of tiis sort which we consecrate to the worship of the 
gods are collod "chydtci "" by the Jews, a nation remarkable 
iur the contempt which th'ey maiiitest of the divinities, llioae 
found all ovi^r Theb&is and Arabia are dry and amall, M'ith a 
Bhrivelled hotly: buing parched up and scorched by the con- 
stant heat, they are covered with what more nearly resemble* 
a shell'" than a skin. In Ethiopia the date is quit^ brittle 
even, ho great is the drinesa of the climate ; hencv the people 
ape able to knoad it into a kind of bread, jufit like so much 

*^ AWienxtis, B. \ir. c. 22, tolU us that tbcsc Aatea vera thus called 
from Ni(;ijkuft of numucus. a Peripntctje pliLloBophpr, who, wbL-n viaiting 
Itome witb Uertwl tbe Great, mado AugiiBtus a jiicaeiil of tlie finest fruit 
of thci Dftlni-tiae tlint cnuld bo procurea. TluB uuLt returned its numo of 
" Nieuliijiii," dtpwii to llic mtiMlL- agoB. 

** Plluy would implv ibat Ihcy siro m culled htm tho GrteV nliXfia, 
"a sieWr," oa beittg 9f eisturquaiily to the carpUe; but it ig much nrnro 
probable, as l'(t> nniBrks, tlitit they got this name from being atOwhod in 
jiuin U) the snrae pcdicit^ or tlalk. 

*' I'liity ctrtainl}' seems to imply thnt they are eu ealkiJ from tbe Grtiek 
iroriw, " lo tread uiJilcr font," ilii<^ Ilardouin is of tbst o^inioD, F'^ 
bowevt'T, tliinlu tha naioe is from tlit lielirewot Svriac "iialiioh," " toex- 
pfinil," oc "mpen/'orelAefrnra tho Hebrew " riatholii," (he name of the firat 
vwvfBl, from Buiuo fiuicieiJ iMoniljInnce in the forni. 

*• From tht Gret-l: juimos, "vulgar," or "common," it is sopposed. The 
Jfwa DrDbflWy called iliom bo, ai bwog rqminon, nr olfi'icd by tlie GeatilcB 
to then idols and divinities, Pliay tvidcally tunnidtrs thut ia itu iianiu 
given to them no compliinont wus 1111011(1114 to tha doitiea of the hoaibin 

** ^Toin ita extivme drineu, and iti ihriTelled appQ&rance. 

Chap. B.] 


tiour.** It growB upon a ahrob, with branches ii cubit in 
leagth : it hua a broad baf, aud tbo Iruit is roimd, and larger 
than an apple. The niune of this date in "cout."*' It comes 
to maturity in three yeain, and there ia always frait to bo 
fogiud upon the ahrab, in Tftrions stages of maturity. The 
date of Thobais is at once packed in casks, vdlh oU its natn> 
ral heat and freshnese ; for without this prpcaatdon, it q^uicltly 
beQomES vapid ; it is of a poor, sickly taste, too, if It is not 
cspoactd, before it is i'aten, to the heut of an oven. 

The otlicr kinds of datea appear to bo of an ordinary natare, 
and are generally iuiown as "Iragemata;"" but inaome parts of 
Pboonicis and Cilieia, tUey are oonamoiily calted " balani," a 
name which has been also borrowed by us. There are numfi- 
TOus kinds of them, which differ from one another in being 
Toimd or oblong ; aa also in colour, for aom© of them are black, 
and others red — indeed it is said that they preaunt no fuwer 
raiietie6 of colour than the dg : the white ones, howercr, are 
the most esteemed. They difi'er aleo in aize, avoordiDg to tho 
DQmber which it requires to make a cubit in len(rth; some, 
indeed, are no liirg«r than a beau. Those are the best adapted 
for keeping which are produced in salt and sandy soils, Judfca, 
and Cyrenaifji in Africa, forinatanco : those, LoweTcr, of Egypt, 
Cyprus, Syria, and Keleucia in Assyria, will not keep : hence 
it is that they are much used for fattening swine and other 
animals. It is a sign that the fruit is either spoilt or old, 
when the white protuberance di&appears, by which it has ad- 
hered to Ibo duster. Some of thti suldiew of Alcsimdcr's army 
were choked by eating green dates i'* and a similar eO'eot is 
produced in th« country of the Gedrosi, by the natural quulitj 
of the fimit ; while in other places, again, the same result* arise 
from eating thom to excess. Indeed, when in a fresh state, they 
are bo remarkably luscious, that there would be no end to 

*" From ThocpphraBtus, B. i, c. 16. 

^' Ki'icut in tliD Greek. It is supposci! bj Sprenget to be the iRmi fti 
the CycAS oitdunulia of Lianwat ; liui, aa E6e rem&rlu, that u only foimd ia 

*• From tb8Greek,inflaiuiig"6weetrnoiil5,'* or "desaeit frnit:" tic pra- 
baMymnuu that io SjTia nnJ somepurtsof PWnki-itthfywcti' thus milled. 

*• This ituiy, whitli is borrowed from Theaphrastus, B. iv. c. 5, i» 
•Iniibtrd by F6e, "kIio eays thctt in ihe gi-ceii el.ntc the}* arc 6o hiird oad 
causL-uu*,' iliac it is next M initiu«ibU W tat sufficient w be materially ta- 
ttmrnoiiid by them. 

TOL. Ill, 9 

pinntB yiTUKAL niaroHT. [Boofcxnr. 

paling them, were it not for fear of tho duugeroiu consequencea 
Ibut would "be sure to eosua. 


In addition to tho palm, Syria haa ecvcral trees that are pe- 
culiar to itself. Among the uut-treoB tbere ia the pi»tftcia,** 
^cll ksuwa tuQDDg U3. It is eaid thut, takco either in food or 
drtuk, tiie kernel of this nut is a specific agoiQEt the bitti of 
eerpenta. Amoag £gs, too, tlic-re are those known as "cu- 
ricto,"*' tog'cthor with some smaller ones of a Blnular kiod, 
the name of which is " cottana." There is a plum, too, which 
grows upon Mount Bamascusj" aa also that known aa th« 
"myxa;"" thc-se lost two arc, however, now naluralized in 
Italy. In Egypt, too, they make a. kind of wine from the myxa. 


Phcenicda, too, produces a small cedar, which bears a strong 
resemblance to the janipCT.** Of this tree there are two 
varieties; iheonefouadin Lycia, theotherin Phtcnicia." The 
differtaice is in tho leaf: the one in which it is hard, sharp, 
and prickly, being linown as the oxyccdros,*' a branchy troe 
and ruggod with knots. Tho other kind is more esteemed for 
ita powerful odour, 'fh-e Bmall cedar prodaccs a fruit the aizo 
of a. grain of myrrh, and of a sweetish taste. There aro two 
kinds of the larger cedar" also; the one that blosBums hears 

•" Tte ristauia 'era of Lianitus. It was intnidiiwd iato' RoaiP in the 
veiga cif Tiberius. Tlie kernel is of u» use whatefer in « medical poiot of 
new, und whnt Fits; BUfB abgiit lU oanag tbq bite <if lerpwU if per- 
fectly fttbuloUfl. 

" 8(!E B. IT. 0.19. The "carica" waa propeily the "Unrian" Bg, 
" FicUi oarica" is, hciwefM, the name giTca to Iho tottnuon &g faf Ibo 
laodcrD botaniste. 

*' The jiaient of our Damaacrai's, or damsona, Bao B, iv. e. 13. 

*' Sijppo9«{l to b>e the Cord& mvxa of LinnKUs, Sec B, %v. c. Ifi. 

*' Tba JiinipcruB commLiiiifi of LinnKUS. 

*> I'lio Janipetus I,ycaa, and tte JunipeniB rbteaicia, proljablj, of Lin- 
niE'lu. It bjiH hum iUppu»ed liy tome, that it is the»a trees that prcKluua 
the frankiauenfle of Africa; but, as Feo obseivei, the subject is coTulypwi 
in oonsidisrable obacurity. 

" The " s!i(iT])-lBiivod " cftdar. Tho Junipcrua tajreedros of Urustia. 

w Tile "I'iauscfdrus" of Liniiieiia. TJio mtrnc "dL'drui" ufaspvcn by 
tlw anoii'Uta not only to the cedar uf I«banou, hut tg moEj others uf the 
ContfeiE m ymil, aa'd man paitioidarly to fevcn^ vwi^tl^ of lb«Janipor. 

Chap. 13.] 



DO fruit, wliile, on the other band, the ooe that bean fruit haft 
no bloasom, and the fruit, as it falls, is being coQtinuitlly rvuLiccd 
by fresh. The »oi-d of this tree is nimiiiir to that of the cy- 
press. Some persons give this tree the name of " cedrelates." 
The resin produced from it i& very highly pmisod, and the 
wood Df it Insfa for ever, for which rooBon it is thut they have 
long boen in the Jiubit of using it for maldng the statucR of the 
gods. lu a tcQipb at Home thi^rc is a stutuu of Apollo fioei- 
auiu** in cedar, originally brought from Sdoucia. There is ji 
tree similttr to the cudur. found olgo in Arcadia ; and there is 
u shrub that grows in i'hrygia, known as the " cedrus." 

CHAP. 12. (8.)— <raB ■txsjxtSTu." * 

Syria, too, produocB the terebinth, the male tree of Avhidi 
bears uo fruit, and the femide consiBts of two dilFerent va- 
nities ; "" one of these bears a red fruit, the size of a loutil. 
while the other is pale, and ripf-ns at tlie Hamo period hx 
the grape. This fruit is cot larger than a bean, 18 of a rerj* 
agreeable Bmclt, and aticky and reainuus to the toui^h. About 
Idu iu TrouB, and in Hucedonia, this tree is short and shrubby, 
but at Domaavus, in Syria, it is found of very conBiderahle nisL', 
Its wood is remarkably flcxiblo, and coutiaucs sound to a very 
udvaQced uge : it ia block and eliimng. The blousoma ap[>car 
in clusters, like those of tlie olive-tree, but are of a red colour ; 
the leaves are dense, and closely packed. It produces folli- 
cules, too, from whir.biasue certain insects like gniits, lu alao a 
kind of reeinoua liquid" ■which oozos from th« bark. 


The male sumach-tree*' of Syria ia productive, but the 
female is barren. The leaf reaemblea that of tht- t-Im, though 
it is a little longer, and has a downy surfacfi. The footstalks 
of the leaves lie always alternately in opposite directionB, and 

« S^a a. nsvi. i^ i. 

*" ristiLcia iBrnLiatlius iiF Linnoios. 

*'' 'I'lteie variuliet, Fee xajo, uiu iiitl obaerrcil by roodom naturnlicU. 

•' Gaiid"! k" remnrkeil, that Ihcr trunk, of tliin trei! jinniii™-* coriiu-nmin 
TwUOw, QUed wiih a clear nnd iniciifcrDUB icrebintiiiae, in which puccroDS, 
or apbidoi, ure tu be Kea dtmtinK- 

" " RbuB." Th* IlliuA coriarift of LinniEus. Pliny is wronK in dietia- 
jrumbiBfc tliis tree into lexei, (U all tlio lloncra ure liLrninjihrtiatliciLl, uuil 
Mtorel'uTe ftaiUiil. 

N 2 

180 PLuri'a satcbal histoht. fCoci xm. 

the broDtihes are s^hort and «Ii^Biler. lliis tree is UM'd in the 
]jrepiiration of white skinn.*-' The seed, whigh stiougly re- 
HL-niblcs n lentil in appeui-ance, tm^na rtjd with the grape; it 
is known by the name of " roB," and torms a nect-saary in- 
grcdiant in various medicamenta." 


Egypt, too, has miuiy trees which are not to bo fotuid else- 
where, and the kind of fig more pai-ticularly, whith ibr thi«i 
rciason has been called tin; Egyptian fig.'* In leaf this tree 
repombles the mullterry^tree, aa also in siae aiid generul appear- 
ance. It bean fruit, not upon brnnchps, but upon rhe trunk 
itstdf: tlio fig ia remarkable for its oxtj-f^me ewoctaesB, and 
has no 6(jt*dH" in it. This tree in uIbo wmiirkable lor its fruit- 
I'ulness, which, however, can only be uneured by making; inci- 
siona'"' in the fruit with, books of iran, for otherwise it will 
not como to maturity. Bat when this has boon done, it may 
be gathmred within four days, imEwtliately uj^iou which another 
ehoots up in its place. Hence it is that in the year it produces 
Bcvtn ahimdant crops, and throng-hout all the summer there is 
Mil ubundunce of milky jiiice io the ftuit, EtcU: if the inci- 
siona are not made, the fruit will shoot afreah four timcB 
during the summer, the new fruit eiipplajiting the old, and 
forcing it off before it hits ripened. The wood, which is of a 
very peculiar nature, is reckoned among the moBt usefbl 
known. When cut down it ifl immediately plunged into 
6tun<iij^ water, auch being the means omployed for drying"* it. 
At first it sinks to the bottom, after which it begins to Soat. 
iiiid in i« certain length of time the additional moisture sucks 
it dry, which has the effect of penetrating and aoakiug all"" 

*■' It is sLill iiiod by cutrieM in preparina Iealbi2r. 

"' See B. iiiv. c. 79. 'f lie tluit, wbicii lias n pleaBant aridity, wa« 
used for ouliiiury putposog by the lOLdtaila, uaitk by tUu Turks at th« 
present daT. 

"^ Th<] FicTiB syciunDruft of Liimieufi. It i^ceires its TUkme from tjeine 
a R^-trc-u tliut bi'on a coniLdomblc TCBtrmblunoe to tha " W-otiih," or muU 
beciy-troo. '^ TliiB is not tiio wuw. 

'" Tbia appcutB to be doubtful, uhlivugU, us F^-u uiy», tlio fhiit ripeiui 
but tary sk-wly. 

*« This. Fie taje, in a fnllftoy 

f» >■ Aliani oinuum." TbU rendiu{; wemi to be very doubtfiil. 

Chop. 16.] 



other feinda of wood. It ia b Htgn tliut it is fit for uw*" wUea 
it begins to Uoat. 

CXtU". la. — IQE FlO-l-REE OF CTPBCB. 

The fig-tTEM! tiuit grows in Crtle, and is known there ae tbo 
C\'pnuu fi^,^' bciLnsomereBemblanoe tothc pr«cciliu{; ouoj far 
it beai'B li'uit upon the trunk of the tree, and upon the briuiohw 
88 well, wh«?n they have attained a ucrtiiin tlcgrce of thirkneBH. 
This trw, however, st'nda forth buds without any Waves/' but 
aimilar in appearance to a root, The trunk of the {rve U 
similar to that of the poplar, wid the K-aTcs to those of the eJm. 
It produces four crops in the ytair, and gtrminntes the sama 
numher of timcH, but ita gTMn" friiit wil! not ripen unless on 
ineifiioa is niiide in it to Itt out the milfcr juiuu. The sweet- 
noss ol' ihe i'rah nad the appeorimco of tho inside niv in uU 
respects EimUur to those of tlie fig, and in size it is about aa 
lugu »B a sorb-applo. 

CnAP. 16. (8.) — THE cakob-tbee. 

Similar to this is tlie earoh-tree, by thti lonians Itnown m 
the '■ Cfcmunia,"'" which in a Bimilar manDtr hears fruit from 
the trunk, thia fruit b*?iiig known by Uie name of " siliquft," •' > 
or *' pod." for this i'l-usou, comniittiug u moniCcst error, 
wiuo porsood'* huve calle'd it the- Egyptian fig; it hetug: llic 
fact that thi* tri*e does not grow in Kgypt, but in Pjria and 
Ionia, in the vicinity, too, of Cniilus, and 'm thu island of 
BhodcJi. It ia alw«y3 covered with Ipay^es, and bears a whilti 
tiower with a very powerful odour. It sends forth shoots at 

■" This wood waa vcrv (ntunaively iiaed in Egypt for makiDg tfac outer 
Ctuos, or cotfins, in. wliicri ibe muinnii<-& ^cte rnufoKcd. 

" Tliis nccount is bdrtowcd aliiioat fliutr<-ly from Thcophrnitiia, Ilisl. 
Plant. B. iv. «. 2, A uricty of the gjTamorn is prohihly jiieajit. It ia 
still found in tin? IhIc o( Urelc, 

n Qq moim to uiuau lliHt tbo bud« do imt shoot forth into leaves ; Uis 
rouliiig. however, varia in the ulitiuna, uid ia oxtrsiuiJy doubtfui. 

M The CcnUntiift nlkiila uf Liniieiti. It ia of the samo size b« tbe BJ- 
eiaore, but reaenitilos it in no other respect. It is BtiU, couunffa ia ths 
lowlitio mcntiouod Ity Fiiny, and ia the «outh or Spiiu, 

'* ThGophrasnu ID the nuiabtr. Hist. Ilunt. i. '2:u nnd iv. 2. It bf^nrt 
no TMEonbumoA to ibe tg-tTi-<i, and the fruit is tobJly (IjjrcrenC froai the 
fig. Pliny, tooj is wtodk in mjing tbnt it doi;* uot grww m Egypt ; llio 
tmit iHing that it is fooud thara iu grtiat EtbundBaee. 

tie lower part, and is conaeriuently quite ycUow on the but- 
faoe, an the young Buckers deprive the trunk of the requisite 
moUtiire. "When the fruit of tho pTeceding- year is gaihered, 
about the riBing of the Dog-star, fresh frtiit immediately malt«8 
ita appearancfl ; afler which tiis trac biosaoma while the con- 
RteUatiotL of AroLurus''^ is above thu hvmoo, aud the winur 
imports uourisluiient to tlie truit. 



Egypt, too, prodaceg another tree of a peculiar desoriptioo, 
the Persian" tree, similar la appearance to the pear-tree, hut 
retaining its leaves during tho winter. This tree produces 
without iDteniiission, for it' the fruit ja pulled t<>day, fresh 
iruit will make its appearance to-raoirow : the time for ripen- 
ing is while the Etesian.'^ winds prevail. The fruit of this 
tree it more oblong thnn & pear, but is cncloBed in a bHc-U and 
a rind of a graa&y colour, like tho almond ; but what is found 
within, inetead of being a nut as in tho almond, ia a plum, 
differiag from the almond" in being shorter and quite soft. Thia 
fruit, although particularly inviting for its lusfiouB sweetness, 
is productive of nu injurious elTect&. The wood, for its good- 
nesa, solidity, aud blaeknces, ia. in no rcapcct inferior to that 
of the lotus : people have been in the hubit of making statues 
of it. The wood of the tree which we have mejutioned as 
the "balanus,"*' although very dumhle, ia not so highly es- 
teemed a& this, as it ia knotted! and twisted in the greater 
pnrt : hence it is only employed for the purposes of ship- 

"* See B. XTiii. c. 71. 

" tie identides it witli Ihe Egyplinn abnocd, mentioned by Pliny in 

B. XV. 0. 28; the MyrDbukniu obcJiulus of Wwlin^, thu B^iillRS 
J^Typtiacn of Delilk', ninJ thi Xyinenin .Xgyptiaca of Linnieiia. Bohtobcr 
itaa Sprongal lako it. to he the Cordk SubcHtitna of Linnatua ; but that it « 
iref peciihirt to tho AnliJlcs, The fruit h m shape like a duto, FnDlosing a 
ln,j^e atoii« with fivB aides, aad coTeredwith a Utile Tteoous. fle»h, ot fitnu- 
whftt bitter, thougti not disagT-eeable fiaTour. It ia founil in tba riciniljr 
of Sttnaiuir, md aviu thu Rvi Sen. Tba Amhs call it tho "dau of Ulo 

'• 6«e B. iviii. c 68. " See B. it. p. 84. 

•• Or ben. Boe U. lii. cc. 46, i7. 

n»p. 19.] 


CSAP. J 8. — THl COCTB. 

On the other hand, thfi wciod of Uio cucua*' ia bdd in very 
Uijjh tiBtwm. It ie elmiliu in. uaturu to the palm, as its leaves 
are dmilorly used lor thti purposes of tt;xtiu'e : it diFurs from 
it, however, in upreading gut ita anas in large branches, Tbo 
jtiiit, which is of a, sizi? Inrgv enough to fill the htmd, is of a 
towny colour, and recommends Itself by ita jiiico, whicli is a 
mixture of Bweet end rough. The seed in the inside is lurgu 
imd of remarkable hardness, and turners use it for making 
enrtnin rings.** Tho kernel is awectj while freah; hut when 
driL-d it he[»meA liunl to a most tcmaxkuhh degree, so much 
BO, thiit it can ouly bo eaten after being BoakeJ in water for 
Bev«ral days. The wood is beautifully mottled with circling 
veins," for which n-u«uu it is particularly catvumed among thu 
Fenian 8- 


No less oatcemedj too, in the same country, :« a certain kind 
of thorn,** though only the black varifity, its w<M)d being im- 

ficriahablp, in water isvcn, a (jiuility whieh rendtirs it partlcu- 
nrly %-alnfthIo for tasking the eides of shipa: on the other hand, 
the white kinds will rot very rapidly. It lias sharp, prickly 
thome on the Icavea nven, and bears its sLSjds la pods ; they 
on.- tiiaploywi for thu gouic purposes as galls in the preparation 
of leather. Tho tlowcr, too, has a prttty effect when iumIq 
into garlands, and is extremely useful in medicinal preparations. 
A gum, also, distils from this tree; but the princi])at merit 
that it poiw'twi* is, that when it ia cut down, it will grow 
again within throe vciirs. It grows in the vieiaity of Th^^bcs, 
where we also find the nuercuB, the Persian tree, aa<i the olive : 
the apot that produces it is a piece of woodluud, distuiit three 

*' Many bnvo mlii'ti l1u« to be Oio coeua-nut tree ; huu m Fife remark*, 
that ia a tnc of Intlim aa<l thte of ^RVpt, Thero it littlo dgubt Ibat it is 
the doum of tlie AmU, tho OucifrTi Ibehaicn at Ddilltt. The Litnbrr of 
0») trunk i» mucli iw*! iu Egy[)l, and of the leavw carpcLi, bugSj and 
paooien are mado. In fnct, tiie ilMcripltou of it and ita fruit ia ulmwt 
idoDtical wilh thai Ucr« givoo by Pliny, 

The MiTtj or atftD': of Kins doiint is BtJU uaod in EjfTpt fur ouikiag dw 
Is of cho]ilcts . ii admiU af a rery higli poliBh. 
HaCeric* crisp ioiu elc^nnlin. 

8MR.niT.c-S7- Tlii>ii,n«doiibt, tho AcaciaNilotioaof liaaaius, 

wbich prodacee tho giito Arabia of modeni conuQarco. 



PLnir'e KAiimAL hibtobt. 

[Book SITT. 

himdrod stadia from the NHo, and .watered by spring of its 

{10.) Her© we find, too, t^e Egyptian"' plum-tree, nntmuch 
unlike the thara laat maiitijOEed, with b fruit similar to tho 
medlar, (md which riptna in the winter. This tree never Iobcs 
its leavos. Ttc seed in the fruit la of wnfiiderablis aize, but 
the fleali of it, by reaaon of ita qiudity, and thf great ahund- 
anoe in wbich it grows, aiTorda quitu a harvest to the ialiabit- 
anta of thoae parts ; after clcaoingjt, they subject, it to pressure, 
and then make it up into uakea for keeping. There was for- 
merly " a woodland distriot in the vicinity of Memphis, with 
trees of such enomiouB size, thst three men could not span 
one with their arms ; one of these trees is remnrkahle, not for 
its fruit, or any particular use thai it ia, but for the singular 
phfenomenon that it prt-senta. In nppfflrance it strongly re- 
sembles a thorn." and it hoa loaves which haw all the appear- 
aaoo of wing^, and whieh fall immediately tho branch i> 
toQclLDd by any one, and thca immediately ahoot again. 


It is yniversally agreed, that the beat gum is that produced 
from the Egj'ptian thorn ; ** it is of variegated appeurancc, of 
azure colour, clean, free from^ all admixture of bark, and 
adhcrea to the teeth ; tha price at which it sells in tbroe 
denarii per pound. That pruducetl from tho hiLtor almaad- 

« Tliiii is ftum Tbcophrastus, Hist. Plimt. B, ic, c. 3. Fis aut-J^esM 
that it may bnvu b^icn a Vind of myrobalanus. Spran^ol tdentiflu it with 
till} Cordis subcstnna nf the bcitAnints. 

"" ■■■ Fiiil." Prom tb« usi; of this word he seema imeertain lis to its ex- 
iatcnc-i! ia his time ; the accuimt is cnpied ftnii) Thenplirmtus, flitt, Plant. 
B. iv, c. 3. Fi5e aug^wts that bet may here alhiu to tho Bncbiib, tho 
AJiuuQDm digitutH, iniich grows in Stat^'Bl and Ssmiaitr to an enornomi 
BiZii. Prcapor Al])Lnua speaka of it aa uusiing in Egypt. Tlie Arobe cuU 
it El-omanili, nurl the fruit El-toa^leB. 

"^ The Mimosa polyacanthe, probably. F& saya that the mimiwte, r»- 
BjiectiTiily known as aastu, pailihuiida, riia, aDd'frensitiva, with tnaay of 
tho in|,''a, aad othur bgiiiniiioat tre«<a, arc irritablo In the highest degiva. 
Tliu tree here E]>o1ce]i uf he von&idera to bs one of tho aciuiits. Th« pns- 
sage la ThG{}j>hntBtiia spunks of llio leaf as ahrinking, ami not falling, 
Allvt thfn Qa Birajilj' rcviTing. 

•• Tho Aeacia Nilutii-s of Linn.KUB, (rora wliich wa derive tho gum 
Ambio of comDLi<rc« ; and of which a CLUidduraUv porlioa is sliU ileiived 
from £gypt. 

CbAp. 21.] 

ras sxrravn. 

tree and (he clieiry"' is of nn inferior Tjind, imd thatwJiioh i» 
gnthereil from the plum-tree is tho wonit of nil. Tho vine, 
too, pruduc^B agum,''" which is of tho gruaU'et uUiity JTi healing 
tho ^rcs of diildi'uu. ; wliilt? that wliicb U &«metiuies found on 
the oUve-tre« " is used for the tooth-aohe. Quni is also found 
on the t'lm" upon Mount Corj'ciw in Ciliciw, and upon the 
junifier,"^ bnt it is good for nothing;, the gam of the 
elm fonnd there ia apt to hrecri gnntA. From the sarcocoUii*' 
a]so — HUth is the uiunc of ti ctrtnin tree — & gum exudes that i« 
remarkably nsefnl to pninters'* and medical men ; it is similar 
to incenae dust in iiiip<?arance, and for those purposnn the whitt; 
kind is preft^riihlu to itiu rod. Tho prieo of it is the same aa 
that mentioQcd above.^ 


OBiF. 31. — IBS : Tm: iraB op rAmx; wsfj> it was 

We hnve not aa yet taken uny notice of tlio marsh plants, 
nor yet of the shruba that grow upon tho biinks of rivers : 
before quitting £g^'pt, however, we must make some meutiou 
of the nature of the piipynis, seL'iiijj; tbut nil the utagos of 
oiTilLzcd life depend in tsueh. a. rcmaikabU- dogroc upon Uiv 
employment of paper — at oil events, the rememhraiifle of pEiat 
cvfcnta. J[. Varro infonnB us that paper owei its discovery to 

^ These f'<'"" ii)^ lOln-niiciiUy ilifftxi-at ttam i;um Arabic, and they am 
una Ibr iUffm:uL purpoEcs la ihc arts. 

*' Tkfl vine dntR mil [iti)i1iii:i: il ^iim; but wlicii thn tvp Mr.i-it^, a juice 
is secnUMi, nhich somC'tiinL'f^ llCl^»^^c!l flolid on Ibt^ cvnporntiun of Iho 
■ijnenua purticl'is. Tliii mlHtntic^n rcmtainx uiri.nid; nf pnUon, which, br 
Che dccnnimiition of l}iat &.ilt, ber^omtu a onrhiimatc of thn same ba»e. 

*' Thin » Hot SI guiii. bitt u ivsiiiviiit prijcluut ol'u puiiidioi: DaLtirc. It is 
knowu to ibe moJcrna br tbo ntime uf " oUrioe." 

•* Tlwtapof the oim lcavp*a*fllinc depiait on thn bark, prinripoUy 
formed of carboMto of ijuIqssb, J'i-u is at a loss tu know wliellier Pliny 
hertaltudr* to tliin or tn lliciunnnatrhiRh is iiicidrntalLyformrii hvotruiin 
iowcU on Bomo trtos aad ri-uJu. lEut. as !i>u justly says, would I'liiiy euy 
of thobttn that it is "ait nihil utik" — "^t)o<l for nothinf '7 

** A ttfinoiu product, no i\a\iht. Tbo ^ankiiitcnNi of Africa hiu heim 
attributed by tomv U> ibu Juntji^nu Lyuiu and J'liuiiit:iia. 

** Thu Pt!Uiiui 8«r«oonli;n>f' Lintiieus. The (jpjm rtaia of t(ii» Irim ii 
■dll bcmuirhl &Din Abysdnis, but ii U not uisi] in mcilitiae. This aocount 
ii from IlioKondoa, B, iit. c. iH. TiiQ siuao a fruiu the Grutik rapE, 
" fltsli," and KaWa, " glue." 

■* Soo It. uiv. c. 78. ** Tktcc d'e&arii jicr ]ionnii. 



[Book XI II, 

tlie victcirioUM'" career of Alexander tho Great, at the time 
when Alexaniiria in Egypt was fo«udt'rl by him ; before which 
pC'riod paper had not h«eii used, the Icavea of the palm having 
been employed for writiiig at an early period, and after that 
the hark of cirtaiii trece. In BUececding ages, public docu- 
meutB wore inscribed on shi-cts nfJGad, while privato nicino- 
miida were inipresstd upon linen cloths, or cIbb engraved on 
tablets of wax ; indet^d, we tied it stated in Hooier.'" that tablets 
w«r« etaploycd for thia purpoBO even before the time of tho 
Trojau war. It is generally Bnpposftd, too, that tli« conntry 
which that poet speaks of aa Egypt, waa not the same tliat is 
at presc-nt nnderstood by that name, for the Sebeunytic and 
the Saitic *" Nomefl, in whicb all the papynja h produced, have 
bfcon added einco hia time by the alluvian of tho Nile ; indc«d, 
he himself has stated' that the inuin-lnnd was a day and a 
night's sail from the island of Pharoa', which island at tha 
prVHont day is united by a bridge to tho city of Alexandria, In 
later times, a rividry hnving sprung up between King I'tolemy 
ond ICing Eutncaos,* in reference to their respective libraries, 
Ptolemy prohibited the export ofpapyriis; ■upon which, naVarro 
relatee, parchment was invented for a similar purpose at 
Pergamus, After thia, tho use of that commodity, by which 
immortality is enfluted to man, became univereally known. 


PftpyruB growB either in the marahea of Egypt, or in the 
Btitggieh waters of the riyor Nile, when they liavo overflowed 
and ttr« lying stagnant, in po-ola that do not exeeud a couple of 
cubits in depth. The root lies obliquely,* and is about the 

" It ia liardlj ncoessiiry to stste llint tliia h not tlie fact. Tlis plsat i% 
the nyjieTHg nnpyni* of LmapBUi, lh« "berd" of tLe modem EgjptiBns. 

^ 11. B. Ti, I, 168, See B. sxiiii. o. 4. whoro tlia taWwU whiyli arc 
h«te vallod " pugiliaros," aro alyltd " eudiciUi " hy Pliny. 

*• Bis nrgumEHl is, tliiit [vaper mai^ from tfic papyrua coidil nnt bo 
bnoWD in ttie (ima of Homer, lu tbat ptnnt nnly ^ren in ci-rtain diatrivta 
wliich hnd been rescued ttam tlie ten. since the Lima of tlie poeL 

> Od, B. jv. 1, 355. a 8w D. ii. c. 87. 

' Theru is liiilo doubt thut parchment waa rcttlly Vnown raimyyaErB 
: bnforft the time of Eunmnos ll,,^ing of PoutuB. It is tnost pKibiible th&t 
tMi king iatiuduced extensive improrL'miinCa ia ths mauufiLuturc of pnrch- 
lucot, for UurodDtui mentifina writing- on tkina aa CDronioD. in liis time ; and 
in H. T. 0. SS, hi.' stat«i thai ths IiiiLi»tu( bad been acGiutomnJ to give Ih* 
namo of >b'ii«, htfftpat, t» buoIiB. 

* liravhiiUi ntdjioia uhli^uw cntuitudiae. 

Chup. 23.] 


tbicttiicss of ontf's arm ; the eection of the stalk is trinngtilar, 
and it tapere gracelully upwards towarila the rxtri'inity, 
being not more tlian t«n cubits fttmost in h^ght. Very luuch 
like a thytsuB " in shnpft, it baa a head on the top, whicte baa 
no Bec4*' in it, and, indred, is of no use whatcvpr, except e» a 
flower employed to crown thn etatuea of tbe gods. The 
nativps UBG the roots by way of wood, not only for iirin^, but 
for various other donicstie piirjtosos as well. From the papy- 
riiB itst'lf Ihey conatrucl. batitn* also, and of the outor coat they 
mako sails and mats, as well as cloths, besides coverlets onil 
ropes; they cbew it also, both raw and boiled, though they 
swallow the juiee only. 

The papyrus grows in Syria also, on the bord^crB of the same 
lake around wliich grows the swe-Pt-Rceoted calamus;' and 
King Antiochus used to employ the productions of that conntry 
solely as cordagB for naval purposea; for the use of Bpartuni* 
had notUien biconie commorjly known. Mort- recently it has 
been understood that a papyrus prows in the river Euphrates, 
in Iho vicinity of JJabyloD, from which a similar kind of paper 
may easily l* prodcci-rl : slill, however, up to the present time 
the Farthians have preferred to impress* their characters upon 

CHAP. 23. (12)— nzE jtznE dutkbreti kisss of p.vpks. 
Paper ia made iroin the papyrufi, by splitting it with a 

* Thi( was a (wle rFpreavEitod as bdn^ (.niTried by Biicdius Aod hia Bu- 
elianall&Q Irua. It was mantly t^rmiitniuil b; the Qt ante, tliat am btaag 
deilicatC'J t<i llncchug, in conse(jUtiaec cf Lbc usb nf ite ooTie* nrd torpentiiui ' 
in mating wine SoKiL'tirnua il is aurmoiniled bj »ine er fig Icuvcs, wild 
grnpni -nr berries artiinp?ii in fonii of a conn, 

*" Tlii* U not the fact ; it has sepU in it, iIi(kij;1i not very ciuilj percop- 
liblo, Ttio deacription here pvoa it olhoTwiso veiy correct. 

■ Amone the anciflnU the term pnpjrm* wis used sin gL-nnnil rtppollafimi 
for all thDiliffcroat plants of tbcgnnusCTpcrua. vrbich woe usud Tuc miiking 
nuU, biiulM, bii^kt^bg, nnil numiTouii ether nrtii-li-i: but 0.1111 tiirci»g itiily 
WM •mplojccl for nidkiiig papar. theOypxrnn pitpyrue, or Bylloa. !■'« 
■tutM tluit ihe papjiua is no longer Co bo foucd in thn Ikltn, ■nhcro it fot- 
mcrly aliounclod. ■■ Stu B, xii. c. 1!i. 

■ Somclimea tranBlated fiemp. A deicription will bo gi?en of il in B. 
xix. «. 7. 

• " lntexerc.*' Thin would almost appenr t™ mean tLnt tbey embrDirlercd 
of Interwovo the choroclQre. Tho Firnmns tilUl writu ua a eiufl mnit of 
wbiM hUL gummed and duly preparvi lor the purpose. 



[Book xm. 

needle into vury thiu leaves, due care being taken that they 
phouki be oh brojid as possible. That of the firgt quality u 
taken from the centre of the plant, anil so in rcgiiltir succession, 
according to the nrder of division. " Hieratiea" '* was the name 
that was anciently given to it, from tie cirenmstunce that it 
■was entirely rt'Bcrveci for the religious books. In later times, 
through a spirit of atlulfition, it received the name of "Au- 
giista," just OH that of second quality wa« colled " Liviiuja," 
from hiB wife, Livia; the consequence of whicli was, that the 
name "hiertttiea" came to designate that of only third-rate 
quality. The paper of the next quality was called " aiiiphi- 
theatrica," from the locality" of its manufacture. Theskilftd 
maoui!n;tary that waa estahliiJipd by EacniuB'^' at Roine, was in 
the habit of receiving this last kind, and thert, by a viMy 
careful process of instrtioii, it was rfiidered much finer; bo 
much ao, that from being a common sort, he made it a paper of 
flret>ratc qualitj^, and gave his own" iiume to it : while that 
which was not subjeck'd to this additional prooeaa rettiined 
its oL'igiual name of "amphitheaLriea." Next to this ie the 
Hititie pa^Mir, ho called from the city of that name," where 
it is TUHUiifaetured in viiry large quantities, though of euttinga 
of inferior '* quality. Th« TEeuiotic papyr, bo calkd from a 
plac* in the vicinit^,'* is manufaictTiTcd from the materials that 
lie TiflartT to the outside skin ; it is sold, not according to its 
(luality, but by weight only, Aa to th.o paper tfiat is known 

'" Or " bolv" pnper. The priocte wnald not tiWav it to tip sold, lest it 
mi^lit be ospif for protana wrihiig ; bat afl*r it was out« viiillfti ujiuu, it 
»IL« (!Fi»i]jf prorurablB. 'His Romans wpw; io (he hnhil, of pUTchiwing' il 
largely in thG latter stitc, auil tlien washing' off tho wnlla|{, mii! uniti^ il 
a* piipiT at Vhc jiucdt qualiry. Uonce it leceirc*! tho aiimc of "Au^iuiiu," 
as repriBenliug in latin ila Grueli nanic "hienitieiis," or "Baurca." In 
Inngtn of time it bFicnme the cnmmon impresGiim, n« hnrc nifntioneil, that 
thia name VQa givca to it in Ikjuoul* o( Augustus Cicaur. 

"■ Near thu amphitliiMLtrt', pcobtibly, of Alexncdria, 

'* He aUudc« to Q,. Rvauaixa Jfaonius Palwoion, a fiuaoua grammarian 
of Rome, tlioujeili ori^iEially il kIiivb. Itviji^ lunnumtitGd. ho opened a school 
at EoniD, which wm riBorleil to by pjeat. nnmbtra or pupiU, ni^CwitbstuinU 
ing bin nntoriooaly buil ctiJirnctei'. U© njippHrs to ba»e '.'uluUtabi'd, alio, 
a mauufuclor; fur paper at Home, Suel;oiiiiia| in Ijii ircaLiMcou lllurtrifitt* 
Gramnmniin*, gives u lang nccoUBt gf him- IXe ii «upp<iiiid to littvo hiva 
thi! preuL'plor ut QuiaUUsii.. 

'* Fanniana. " la Lower F^ypt. 

>* Ex Tiliorlbas ramentiB. ^* Of AJraandria, probably. 


Chftp. 24.] 

as "emporeticfl,"" it is ijiiite iiaelefia for writing upon, and is 
only employed for wmpping up othfr paper, ami as a covfring 
for vftriotia nrticlcB of merchandiiie, whence its name, as being 
u?ed by dealers. After this CDmes th« barlt of the pa^iyros, 
the outtr ekin of wMch bears a strong reBemblan'Ce to the 
bulruab. ootl is sololy ustd for molLiiig mpes, aod then only 
for those which tare to go into the water." 

All theee vurious kinds of psp«r stb morle upon A tabic, 
raoisti-ned with Nile wator; ft liquid which, when in a 
muddy state, has the peculiar qualities of glnp." This table 
being first iuclined/^ the leaves of papyrus are Inid upon it 
iengthwise, a.s long, indeed, m the papyrUB will udmit of, the 
Ji^ed edges being cut off at either end ; after which a croea 
layer is phux-d otpp it, the same way, in fuct, that hurdles are 
made. When this is dooti, the lenveB iire presaed dose together, 
and then dried in the Eun ; after which th^^ are omted to one 
another, tho b«st sheets being always taken first, and the inft- 
rior onea added aflerwotdfl. Thurc are never more than 
twenty of the»e sheeta to a roll." 


There h a great difference in the brendth of the varion* 
kinds of paper. That of ht»t quality " ia thirteeu fingers wide, 
while the hieratica is two fingers Icbb. The Fanniana is ten 
fingers wide, and that known a» "amphithcatricn," one less. 
The Saitiu ia of still gmallcr hrcuidth, indeed it is not so 
wide OB the mallet with which the pajier ia boaton ; and the 
emporetica iiS particularly narrow, being not more than eis 
fingers in breadth. 

In addition to the above particulars, paper ia eet^^euied 
afloording to its tineness, its Btomtness, its whiteness, and its 

loolhness. Claudius Cfcsor effected a change in that which 

*> " Sliup-pajWT,"' or " paper of eoramcme." 
" Othtrwise. prnhdWv. th* nipe woul^ not lonit hold together. 
" F^E rcmaika. (hat tliis is liy no tricans llie fact. Wit! M. Poiret, lie 
qaeitiuDs tbu accuracy of PUuji'e mrcouDt of prcpnriiii; the pftpynu, and t> 
~ opiruMi that it nfen more probubEjr to ihn tnainiuiLt ot tume otbvr 
Ublo nibBbiDsa frvn wbioh puptr vna mudd. 
Primo nmjn% taboln ichedfi. 
" "SMipaa. ' This was, properly, the cj'timJcr oawhioh the paper wu 

^ Auguatan. 



[Boot xnr. 

till then had been looted upon as being of the first quality: 
for the Augnstan papirr hiifl bt'on found to bo so mnai-kiLhly 
fine, as to offer no reBistaoce to tlto pressure of the pen ; in 
addition to which, as it ullowud tbe writing upoii it to ma 
througili, it was continually cauaiug apprelK^nsioos of He bt-ing 
blotted and blurred by the writing ou llie other side ; the re- 
markablB transparency, too, of the paper was Tc-ry unsightly to 
the eye. To obviiite thiiae inconvenicuces, a gitmndwork of 
paper was made with loaves of the second qmJity, over which 
"was laid a woof, as it were, formed of leavc-fl of the first. Ho 
increased the width also of paper ; the width [of the oommon 
Bort] being raadeafcmt, and that of the eize knowTi us "macro- 
collum,"^ II eubit; though one iacoDTCiiieoce was eoon dcteotfid 
in it, for, upon a single leaf*' being torn in the press, mora 
pages were apt to bu apoiit than before." in conse<juence of. 
th« iidvuntages above-mentioned, the Cluudian has come to bo 
prefttrxed to all other kinds of paper, though the Augustan ia 
still used for the purposes of e|)istol)i!rj' ooiTcspondcnce. The 
livian, which had nothing in oommon with that of first quality^ 
but was entirely of a secc^ndary rank, still holds its former 


The roughness and inbqUAlitios in paper are emoolhed down 
with a. tooth" or shell ; but the writing in such places is very 
opt to fade. When it Ib thuB poliahcd the pajior does not take 
the- iiik BO readily, but is of u mora lustrous and shining eurraci^. 
Tlie wat<°r of (he Nile tiiat has been originally employed in 
its manufacture, being sometimes used untiioutdue precaution, 
will unfit the paper for taking writing: this fault, however, 
may be detected by a Mow with the mallctj or eren by 
the smell," when the carelesgneas has Ibecn extreme. The&e 

*■■" Or "long plusd" papOT! the lireaiJth probably oon Bin ted dF tlint of 
tvro or more nh^ots gtued or paaterf at tlio ougos, the Ecam rmning down 
tbc roll. 

** SulioJo. One nf tlie leaves of tha pnpynw, of which the roll nl 
Iwenty. joia-jd side by side, wus funneil. 

^^ TliiG puiiM^ ie dilliciilt Co bo uniivrstood, and varlotis attcrnptc tiaTe 
been maiEd to cipUin it. It ifi not unliktilr tbat h\.% raeniiing i* t)iat tb« 
brntflUi being dnubleit, tlip tcariag of oue Iciif or iialf lircadLli enUilcd of 
McuKSBtt)' tlie sptiiliiig- of ttnotlier, itiuking (5ie ttJTrtiBpontlilig liulf lii'oatith, 

^* lie pcrbapg mnnoa n pcrtloD of an ulejjluilll's tltak, 

w Heuuiug a damp, musty nuell. 

Gtip. 27.] 

VHs EOOEft OF mnu. 


epota, too, miiy be detected by the eye; but the Ptre&ks thaC 
rim down the middle of the leavcB where they have been 
pasted together, though Ihoy rendtr the paper spongy and of 
a soaking oaturt', cou hardlr erer Im dettM!t«d before the ink 
runs, while t)ie pen is furoimg the IctterH ; so many are Ibo 
ojtemQgs lor fraud to be- put in practice. The consequPDce i», 
that another labour has beea added to the doe preparation 
of paper. 


The commrtu paper paste is mnde of the finert flour of wheat 
mised vdth boiling ivater, and some amall dropa of vinegar 
Fprinkkd in it: for ths ordinary workinuu's paste, or gum, 
it" employed for this purpose, will render the paper brittle. 
Tboee, howevi>r, who take the greatest puinB, boil the crumb 
of Iwirened bread, and then etruin oJf the water: by tho 
adoption of thia method the paper hiLs the fewest Beams caused 
hy the paste that lies between, and ii softer than the nap of 
linen even. All kinds of pQBt« that are iiwd for this purpose, 
ouylit not to be oldtT or newer than one day. The paper is 
then thinned out with a mallei., atWr which a new layer uf 
paete lit placed upon it; then the crenaeH which hnTC formed 
are again preasod out, and it then underifoes the same proceae 
with the mallet as befona. It is thus that wv have memoriiUa 
preaen-ed in the ancient handwriting of Tiberius and Cuius 
Gracchus, which I have seen in the possession of Pomponiiis 
Seeundus,™ the poet, a very illustrious citiaen, almost two 
hundred years since those cboracttra were penned. As for the 
handwriting of Cicero, Augustus, and Virgil, ■we frequently 
eee them at the present iL'iy. 

CBAP. 27. (13.) — TIIB BOOKS OP KUHA. 

There are BCime facts of conaderablc importance which make 
against the opinion expressed by M Vnrro, reliitivc to the 
iitvcntion of paper. CaaaiuB ITemina, a writer of Tcrj groat 
antiquity, haa stated in the Fourth Book of hia Annals, that 
Cneius Tereatiue, the scribe, while engaged in digging on hia 

« See B. vii. c. 18. and B. xiv. c. 6. Aiau tliB Life of Pliny, in the 
Intnjiiuction to Vol. i. p, m. 



[Book sm. 

lunA in the Janiculum, canio to a coffer, in wtiich Niima had 
iK'i-n buried, thu tviiiier king ol" Itotut, and tliaL iu this cotfer 
well) also loiind some booka^ of his. TliiB took pl^iee iu tlio 
OOBSulship of Publius Cornelius CethegiiB. the son of Lucius, 
and of M. B!cl)iijB Tamphilus, tho son of CJuintusj tlie interval 
between whofie coDBulship and the reign of Niima-waa five 
Inmdred and thirty-fire yeais. These boota were mode of 
paper, and, a thing that ia more remiirkiible etiU, is the fnct 
that they laated bo many years buried in the ground. In 
order, therefore, to egtahliBh a fact of such Bingular import- 
ance, I shall here quote ttie words of HLmiira himself — " Somo 
persona expressed wonder how these books could have possibly 
lasted 80 long a time — this wae' the explanation that T^i'ea- 
tius gave ; ' Is nearly tiio middle of the coffer there lay a square 
stone, bound on evei-y side with cords enveloped in wax ;* 
npon this atone the books had hi-en placed, and it was through 
this precnution, lie thought, that they had not rotted. The 
booka, too, were, cnrefiilly Mvemd with citnia kavcB,*' and it 
was through thisj in his bolicf, that thfiy had been proteet*>d 
from the nttacka of worais.' In Ihese booliu were written 
certain doctriaea relative to the Pythogoreaa philosophy ; they 
werit burnt by C^. I'etiliue, thn prastor, becausG they trcuteu 
of pMloBopliieal suhjcets."" 

Piso, who h^d formerly been censor, n^lat«s the same fuots 
io the First Book of hiB CommuntiLrieB, but he statea in addition, 
that Ihc-ro were Bcven books on Pontifical Rights, and sev*:]! on 
the l*ythflgnr<-aa philosophy.^ Tiiditanus, in. liis Fourteenth 
Book, 6aya that they contained the deereosof Xuma : Vhtto, in 
the Seventh Book of liis "Antiquities of Mankind,*'** etatea that 
they were twelve in number ; and Autiss, in his Second Jlook, 
Bays that thuro wero twelve written in Latin, ou pontiiical 

" This, story, no doubt, dcaorv«» to bo rejected as totally fabulon!, oren 
tlLOUg-h yra hnre Jlcniion'i word for it. 

Sf See B. xvi. o. 70. 

>' B. xii. <!. 7, anil B. xiii. <i. 31. It wne thought tlint tlm Iwm 
and juices of the cedar and tbu oitnis prcBemid tmoka and liaen (torn tb« 
ittlAclcR of noiious in^ctc. 

^^ And heii.ause^ a» Livy bbjtb, Qu^r duebriDM kccc ininuual U» the then 
existing Tcli^iiii. 

*> Vul. M(ixiiiius sjiys that llicTit wcro wirae buoks wrilttti iu Ijutia, od 
the ponciBBu] ri^hu, and utbcij-it in GL-iwk aa pbiio^Dphicol aubjocle. 

» lIiiiEiiuiiE Autiiiuitutes. 

Chop. 28.] ' 



l^'WtUtni, nnd as maiiy in Greek, containing ];i!uio9opliical pre- 
eepta. The Bflme author statea abto in his Third liuok why 
it was thought proper to bum them. 

It is ft fact neknowk-dgfid by all writers, that the Sibyl" 
brought ttiree books to Turquinius Sujierbue, of which two 
were burnt by biueeLt', whilt thu Ibiiil purishi^d by firo with 
the Capitol'* ID the days of Sylla. In adUitioii to thc»e fiicts. 
MuciauuB, wiio waa three timee consul, has utated that he had 
rt-ctrnlly mvii, while govi-rnor of Lycia, a Icltor writtou upon 
paper, and ju'eserved in a cei'tain temple tht*re, wliicli h«d 
been writtim Irom Troy, by Sai-podon; u thing that surprisi's 
me the more, if it really was the fact that even in ihc time 
of Homer tbe country that we call Egypt was not in exist- 
L-nce.^ And why too, if paper was tlu-ii iu use, waa it the 
custom, as it is very well known it woa, to write upon iL-uiIin 
tablets and linvn cloths P Why, too, has IXomcr'^Etated that 
in Lyciu tulili.'t«^* wtTu given to i^clliirophuu to vaiT)', and not 
a paper letter ? 

Papyrus, for making paper, is apt to filil oocaBionally ; aueh 
u thing happened in the time of the linipLror Tibt-rius, when 
there was bo great a scarcity" of paper that members nf the 
senate were np})ointed to regiilnte IIk; distrihution of it : had 
not this been doni?, all the ordinary relations of life would 
bare been completely disarraTigud. 

CHAT. 28. (14.) — ras tkiiss at Mramru. 

iEthiopia, which bordt-rB upon Egypt, has in general no 
Kmarkable trees, with the exception of the wool-hearing" 
yni?«, of whit^h we hnvt- had occasion to 8]ioak*" in onr descrip- 
liou of the ti-L'cs of India and Arabia. IJuM-ever, the produce 

« See H. «xiT. e. II. '^ Scr B. xxnWi. c 6. 

" He impHci thai h coulJ aol have been wtjiUml upon paper, m the 
pipfnu anrl lh« dtRtricla which prniJuroil it vera not in fxixtviax in tbe 
timo tff Honiw. Ko dunbi tlii< *o-yiilli'(l !■eI^JJr. if (buivn at all, wu» a for- 
gerr, a "pia fraue." Sm c. 21 of tlic proiLnt ]look. 

* II. rf. ri I. 168. 

•• •* Cudinilliiii," lis meauin;; cliarnctOT* Trriltfn on a nirfoce of wood, 
iricoC, M Humor enlU it. 

" It W88 pitilmbly then lliftt lhe*ui>ply of it first Vgnn to filil; ia the 
siath ccDtury it mi» iiill uhliI, but ly the twulftli ic had wUuIlf fjll<.a 
111 to disndc* 

*' Tbc cottnn-lroc, CiMsj-piiua arbonnim of lAnniciu. 

« Sen B. sii. 0. SI, 22. 

VOL. lU, O 

PLisr B natuiulL insToar. [Book XIII. 

of the tree of Ethiopia boars a mncli etrongcr rescm'blance to 
■wool, and Uie fnllir-ule is much larger, being Tcry similflr in 
npjirrarniice 1^ ft pomegranate ; aa for the trees, thcj" arc other- 
wiao aimUw in Bverj- respL'ct. Besides thie trt'e, there are 
nomo palms, of which we hare spoken ali''.'* In duatrlhiiig 
tht! it^l:ull]5 oloug Xhu caast of ^thiopiii, we havo iiXntudy mado 
luuiiLiuu" of thtiii txc-ea Aod their odunl'erous loitsts. 

CBA^p. 29. (IS.) — ran thees of mopst atlas, tdb caTRUBj asd 


Mount Atlaa ie said to poaaess a foruai of trcoa of a peculiar 
L-harantLT,** of wliiob wc have already spoken.*^ In the viciniiy 
i\( this niouutuia is MaareUmia, a cuunlry which abounds in 
the citruB," a trt^ which guve riae to tho mnuia" lor fine 
tiiblea, aa tutravagance witli which tlie women reproach the 
men, when they complain of their vast outlay upon pearls. 
There is iiresorvci to tlie present day a table wliioh belonged 
to IC. Cicero,'^ and for which, notwithstanding his compara- 
livoly modflniie means, juid what is even niuru surprising" Etill, 
nt that day too, he g'lve uo less than oni^' million HCt^UTOCS ; 
we find m«uUoa made niso of one belonging to titillus Asiniufl, 
whiuh cost one raiUion one bundled thouauud sesterces. Two 
tiibka were aUo sold by auction which had belonged to King 
Jnha; the price fetched by ono was one million. I wo hundred 
thousand si?8tcrees, and that of the othur soinc>thing less. 
There has been lately destroyed by fire, a table whicli eRmn 
down from the family of the Cethcgi, and which had been sold 
for the BUTD of oiifs million four hundred tlioiisand aesttToc*, 
the price mt a conBiderable domain, U' any one, indeed, eould be 
luund who would give eo large u bum fi;r un eatute. 

'" In c, 9 of tjie present Bonk. *• Sfip U. vi. c, 3fi, 37. 

» DeKfcQlaiuM obBcrvt'il in tii* viniitily of Jill*«i, siirfnil ircas |)«ii- 
liar to ihat diatrici. Anioiijt others of tbii Baton;, lie nnracs Tlie PUmcia 
Atlantica, and the Tbuya ariiculala. 

t^ See B. V, c. 1 

" Ctnifrally iiipposeil to Ije lliB Thuya ■rtioiilti't* of Besfoataines, Hie 
Cu3ruB Ailaatioa ototliGrlhoianisu. 

*' TUiJirupn fur Ent mlilosriudaof llierilriisisnlbiilciUo, arann^otlicrK, 
l>y Murtiil and PotMiiiug Arbitci. Sop alao Liicac, A. tx. B. 42(i, et. acq, 

" It i* fi ralh"^ ciuioiia fatf. llint it is in Cii'tro's wort* that wp liiid 
IW PiirlJKst nienfiDii [Made ol'tilrim tables, 2ii-d Oration ag. VotreM, ». 4 '.^ 
" You deprived ({. LuUtiiu l>iollurUB ot Lilyljceum or n. citrus tnblo of rs* 
auirkable a^ oud boaiity." ^ Soni^wlicni aWut £9000. 

The largPRt iubic tlint Iieib ever yet boctt known was one 
tliut belonged lo I'lobmaiiiB, king of MnarotRnia ; it ^ras made 
ofltvo m.'iui<:ircuiiil<jrcuci'& joined togcUicr down the middle, 
beiag four feet nud li hull' in diunicLi^r, nad u quarWr of a foot 
ia tbickneBs: the most wonderful fact, howvv-i.T, cynuected 
witli it, Kiis ifn: surprising »kiil witli which the joining liad 
liecn concn:ilc-d,*' ond wldcii rcmkfft'd it more vu1ij:iI>I.g Chan if 
it liad been by nuluru a siiiglo pic-ce of wood. Tbe largest 
tuble that 19 ru^ide of ft single piect of -wood, is the one that 
tiik«« its name" tVora X-imius, a frt'edtnan of Tibprius Csesur. 
The diuraettr of it is four feet, short by ihi-cc quarters of an 
inch, and it ia hulf u foot in tbickness, icns the- Bumif franlion. 
While Bpookin;; upi>n thia Eubjocl, 1 ought not to uiuit tu men- 
tiou tli:it Ibc liinpcror Tiberius had a tiblo that exceeded four 
feet in diuiuct^r by tn'o iiitbee and a i{ii:ii'ttir, luid was un itich 
and a Italf in thickness : this, liowewr, waa only (pvefud with 
a venct-r of citrue-wood, while thul which belonged to his 
frec'dtnan Xomiua w(w so costly, the whole material of which 
it Wiis compOBtd being knotted " wood. 

Tliesi3 liiiula arc properly a Uiiwaao or fxtrBRCpnco of thn 
root, and tbuse uti^d for this purpose are more particularly 
ealecmed which have lain entirely ooncciiU'd midor ground ; 
thoy arc much more rare tliau those that grow above groiind, 
und that aix- to bu found on the briinehi.-8 uUo. Tlius, to epeiik 
eorrectly, tliat whieh wo buy at so vusl a prico is in rigidity u 
defect in the Irtw : of the *ize and root of it a notion may bo 
easily foriDLd Irom the cittiiiur aoctions of iu trunk. The 
tree rcBcmbles the wild frmale r^j-jirosa*' in it« foliuge, gmell, 
and the appeanmco of the trunk. A spot ciiUcd Mount Anco- 
rarius, in Nearer Mouretaniti, used tiirnierly to (\imiih the 
moat ostoerood citrua-wood, but ut the preeeut day the supply 
is (juito cxlmuEtod. 

lim^E lABLKH. 

The principal merit of tljeae luhlu's is to havo vmua* arrnoged 

" Tliix !■ contiilen^ niitbiug Temjirkable at tite prewnt day, aiioh is tb* 
sliill ditphywl by wur cnbiiuit-iiiaktra. 
:. ColW '■ Nomiaua." " Tuber. 

" Tlie IJnropcan cypnii, the Cuprcsaiis Bomppn-inns of I.inneiia. 
^ XliesG nioa •asns notluu^ ia e^Lit; bat Itie lia» of thfi lAfon or 

V 3 





[Book XUr. 

in waving lines, or clee ibnning spirals like so many little 
■wViirlpoolB. In the former arrangement the Imua run in an 
oblong direction, for which reasoa these aro miiud " tiger" •• 
tablcH ; -wbile in the latter the msuks are circliiig and spiral, 
and hence tliey are Btjied "panther"'^ tubK*. Thcrt aru 
some tables also with wavy, unJukling marks, and which are 
more partictUfurly esteemed if these rcReniblo the eyes on a 
peiicock's tail. Next in esteem to these last, as well its thtisB 
preTioudy laeiitioinjd, is the veined wood," covered, as it were, 
with dense mflsses ot'^rain, for which refison thtse tflblt-a have 
received the name of " apiataj.""' But the colourof the wood 
is the quality that is hc-M in tbfl highest t'steom of aU : that 
of wine mixud with honfy*" being the most prized, the Toiusboiug 
jieculiarly re-liil^Diit. Kext to the colour, it is the eizo that ie 
jjiized : iit the preeent day whole trunks ihg greatly adnjirod, 
and somelijaee Bei'erul are united in a BJiiglo tabJe. 

The peculiju (iL'fects in tbeau kinds uf tables aria wooiliness,"' 
»uch being Uie name givtn to the talJe when the wood is dull, 
Komtnon- looking, indistinct, or cist has mere simplie mwka 
ujOTu it, Tcacmbling the lenres of the plane-tree ; also, when 
it resembU'B the vetns of tho liolTB-oak or the eolour of that 
Iroc; anfl, a fault to which it is peculiarly liable from the 
effect of heat or wind, whon it has flnwa in it or hair-like lines 
rcBembling flaws ; when it has a black lufirk, too, riiuning 
through it reBenit>ling a raurena in appearanee, various streaks 
thai look like crow ecratchea, or kuots like poppy h(;adsj with a 
colour all over nearly approaching to lihick, or btotciiet of & 
Mckly hue. The barbaroue tribc-a bury this wood in the 
B^Dud while groen, Hrat gi^ng it a coaling of wax. When 
it comes into the workmtn'a bands, they put it for scvon days 
henenth a heap of com, and then take it out for as Qi,auy 

strata li^nua. runiiin? ]itTprrjilicul;irly in ihe Iruuk, nad the cumber of 
which tlvnotce tlie iige uftuc tree. 

•• " Tigriiia?." 

»r '■Piiiitbi:riti!o."" The fonner tnbl«B were probalilv made or small pitcM 
from till' tniak, lliu luiUir (rom tlic nt'tUuiis ol" llio tubcre ur knots. 

=» " Criepii." 

*• Or " pBrsIi'j''Sep[l " tnlJcs, It lins Him l>L*n siipgeiitfJ that the worj 
JC'iineii from '"flpw," u k-tj dm WiJoil presimtiug the uppiHtraiKc uf buiug 
cnvyr(i(l with swuitiib ofbocs. 

"^ "MuUum." TUiu mulitre will b« fiiiiud fruquDall/ mimliunud in t^e 
noxt Book. 

" Lignum. 

Chap. 3fl.] 


moro: it is quite surprising how grently it lciae» in weight by 
thi« process. Shipwrecks have recently taught us alao thut tbiB 
wood ia dried by the aittion of sea-WHter. find lliut it thereby 
aOQuires a hardnoHb'^ nud iiidt^greB of dcudty wiiich render it 
proof uguiiist i!orru[iUuu : no other method is <?i]uully sure tu 
produuj thuao robults. These mbleB are kept best, nud Hhiuo 
with the grii'iitust lustre, when rubbed with the dj-y hand, 
more particularly juai after bathing. As if ihiH wood hiid 
been created for the buhuul of wiae, it recvivejj no injury 
tjroiu iL 

(18.) As this tree is one among the elements of more civil- 
ized lite, I think that it ia as welt on the present occiuion to 
dwell a httle further upon it. It wiia k.ntnvu to Homer even, 
and in the Greek it ie known by the iiuiuu of *' thyoii,"** or 
eumetimes "thya." He aaya that the wood of thiH tree wiia 
ainong the ungueots that were burnt foe their pleuBaut odow 
bj- Circe," whom ho would reprt;sent its beiUK a. go<lde««; a 
eiretuustaucB which shows the grtat tui«t;ik« coiumitteU hy 
those who suppose that perfumes are meunt under tliat name,*" 
seeing that in the very &anie tine he says that cedur und lurch 
were birmt nlong with this wood, a thing that clearly prove* 
that it is only of different trees that he ia speaking. Theo- 
phrastus, an outhor who -wrote in tho ago anccciding thiit o(* 
Alicxander the Gre^it^ and about ihe year of the City of Rome 
440, has awarded a very high rank to tins Irec^, stilting that it 
is related that tho rafteiiag of Uie uiieiLDt temples used to lie 
mode of this wood, and that the timber, when emjdoyed in 
roofs, will last for ever, 90 to say, being pruuf aguinst ail de- 
cay, ^-quit« incorruptible, in fiiet. He ulao says that there i» 
nothing more full of wavy veins** than the root of this tn^c, and 
that there is no workmanship in existence more preeioua thmi 
that made of this iiiuleriiJ. The (itiefit kind of citriiB grows, 
ho eays, in tho vifiinity of the Temple of JupJtiar Hammon; 
he slates aUo that it is produced in the lower pnrt of Cyre- 
niuca. Ue has made no mention, howuver, of tho tables that 
uTQ made of it ; indeed, we have no more ancient accounte of 

"' Via mmsu'kn thnt (bia iit tncnm-ct, stiiI Lbat this stKt«nii-Rt betiny* uu 
endre iEOonuioe of tlia veiJtjtaWe pliytidngy. 

" Gintv, " wood 1)1" wcri&u." 

»* 06. B. T. 1. 00. Plin; makes a mistake in sailing "Cin»i" itiliould 
be "Cfd™o. 

»*• eioc. * Crimiin*. 


[Sooi xnc. 

them than those of the time of Cicero, from which it would 
appear that ihoy ore a coeiparutiTely recent invention. 


There ia anothir tree also which has the same name of 
"citrufi,'"* anrl bears a fruit that is held by some persona in 
porticuhir dislike for iU smell nnd remnrkable liittcrnps*; 
whiio, on th* other hund, thcro are BoiKe who esteem it very 
highly. This tree ia uaed as nil ornament to houses j it re* 
quires, howc'Tcr, no further deacription. 


CITAP. 32. (17.) — THE LOTCS. 

Africa, too, at least thitt, part of it which loolts tow; 
our shores, produces a remarkable tree, the lotus,'" hy some 
known as the "eoltis," which htisnlao bf-cnnatumiized in Italy,* 
thotigh it has hc-cn Romewhu-t modified hy the chango of soiL 
The fiueat fjuality of lutiis is that found in the vicinity of the 
Syrtis and aniorg the NaBanufnts. It is the cams hzc as tho 
pt«r-tree, ullhoug-h CorueliuB If epos states to the effect that it 
is but short. The leaves havw numerous incisions, just as with 
Uioso of the holni-oLik. There Are many varieties of th« lotue, 
which are characterized more particularly by the difference in 
tht'ir re«[)cctive fruits. Thu fruit is of abuut the size of a 
bean, and its cnlour ia that of saffron, though before it is tipe 
it ifl continnally fibangiiig its tints, like the grape. It has 
bmnohcs thickly aet with IfaiTS, like tli-e mrrtle, and not, 
m with uh* in Itnly, liko tho cherry. Ia the country to 
^ItivU lliia trco is indigenous, the fruit of it iis no remarkably 
swec-t and lu^iuue, thut it hu3 even given ila ua.nie to a wUulo 
Iwrritory, and to a nation'* who, by thtir singular hospitaUly, 
have cvvn seduced btrangers who have come ttiD4:>ug tlwm, to 
loae ftll rem^mbmifce of their autivc couiitry. It is said nliW, 
ihiit thosB who cat this fruit ore subject to no mnladtea of tlie 
stomo&h. The fruit which ha* no stone in the inaide ia the 
best : thia atone in the other kind Bcoma to hie of an osa^oiw 
nature, A wino is also extracted from, tliia fruit very similitr 

'^ HeMludei to till' vitrQJi,tlic Citrus Kudica of LIunieiu, Suii B. xii. o, 7. 
■^ The KtiamnuE lotus of LiniinuB : tlm Ziixyphits lotus of DMContitinrs. 
•• The tHliM aiiitriiii* of Lmmu Fee remmk* tLiil; I'liiiy » ia error 
ia giving (lie tiHmc uf Cell'm lu the IdIus af Africu. 
« Th^ LuLo]ilingL See U. v. c. 7. 

Chap. 32.] THB LOTUB. 

to honied Trino ; nccording to NcpM, howover, it will not Inst 
abuve ten ilnya; he aUites «Iso that tho berries are clioppcd up 
with alioa,™ and tlien put away in ciiaks for tJie labU'. In- 
deed, we reud that armieti Iiutu Itccu fed upon this ftwid wli^n 
marrhmg to antl fro through the territory of Africa. Tbti 
woctl i» of a bkck colour, fintl ia held m high Geteem lor making 
flutes ; from the root also they manufacture haadlus lor kulres, 
and variouB other small articles. 

SqcIi ip the nuture of the tree thnt IB so called ia Africa ; tim 
same nuitie being al*o given no a certain" herb, and to a stalk" 
that grows in Egypt bdonginj to tlje unirah plants. This liittt 
plant spiingy tip when tht! watera ol' thu Nilu Iuito rctiiiid nft«r 
its orertlow : it.^ atutk i» similar to that of the hc-itii, iind itH 
loaves are numerous and grow in thick clustcre, but ai"e eliortir 
and more slcntior llian those of the beau. The fruit grows oa 
the head of the plant, and ia siniilaf in appeiitriuctt lu a poppy 
in ife indentiitions" and all its other clianicttriaticB; ttithiu 
therj are small grains, similar to those of millrt.'* Thu in- 
liab:tanta ky thcso hcadB in lai^e hcnpe, and there let them 
totj after w>iii:h they separate the grain from the rpsiiJne by 
Wishing, and then dry it; wheu this ia done they puiind it, 
and then use it as Sour for middug a kind of bread. What is 
stated in addition to these partitulare, ia a very singular '" tuct : 
it is said thut when the emu. setij, these popj>y-hcuds ahnt and 
cover theni?eU'e9 io the leaves, and at §ua-rim? they opea 
uguin ; an altem:ttioa which continues until tho fruit is per- 
fectly ripe, and the flower, which ia white, falls olF. 

(18.) E-ren more than this, of the lotus of tho Enphratea,'' 
it 18 said that the head and llijwer of tho plant, at nightfulE, 
sink into tho water, and there rtsmoin till midaight, em deep in 
the "water, tlmt on thrusting in one's ami, the hi-ud cannot be 
reached : after midnight it coDiuienoea to rcturii upwards, and 
gradually become* more and more erect till sunrise, when it 

"• A kind of grain Jist. 8oe B. iiiii. 0. 29, and B. xiii. e. 01. 
^^ Tlia Mi-lilutti* uQicJDulii of Linnxiis. 
" Thi> Nymphaen Nelmnlio of Linuwiw, or Egyptian b^an. 
^ He tpuidLE of the tQiLentiitiiiiif on tlie ■urJiu.i:e of tiuf puppy-bcsdi 
T* Boo B. xxii. D. 2S. 

T» Vft nrniaVa that there is nothiaK ein^lir about it, the snn moM « 
leu exercising a nmiljir influence- t^n tul plantA. 

)■ Tbe ttuua m the Nyiaphcea Nclumbo of Ute Xtle, occor^g to ¥ie. 

yuin's NATOBAt H1BT08T. 

[Swli SIII. 

emerges entirely from the water iiiid opoQs its flower ; after 

which iC atill oiialinuos tn riae, until at last it is to ba seen 
ruiMsd quite alotY, higli above the leTet of Uio water. Tbia 
loins bus a ruut about Ibu »iae of ti quiuca, f nveloptd io a UucU 
akiu, Himilur tu thut with, wliich the ctiesnut iu covered. Ihi 
siibiitiuici; that lies withiu this sliiu is wbit«, aud forms very 
pleasant fo<jii, but ia blotter cuoked, eitlit-r iu wiitcx or iipou 
hot uahea, LtifU iii a raw state. Swine fatten, upon noihiag 
btslter Diuii liiG peclui(^ of this root. 


The region of Cyrenaica places before the lotus its paliurus,*' 
which is moL-i) like a shrub in chiiracter, aud btdtirs a truit of 
n redder colour. This fruit contains a nut, the ki^mclofvshieh 
Jb eaten by itself, and is of a vyy ugreeubie ilmfotir. Tht: 
Vttute of it ia improved by wino, and, in fact, the juices are 
thuught to he an improvemont to wiue. Thu interior of 
Afpieji, aa far aa tbo Garamant'.'B and the deaerLa, ia covered 
w'ii)i puluis, remarkublt; for their extraordinary size and tlio 
lundouaoods of thuir fruit. The most celebrated are those in 
tin: vicinity of the Teiuplo of Jupiter Hamuiou. 


But tlie vicinity of Carthage is claimed more particularly an 
its own by the fruit the numo of whiuh in the " Punic applf;"" 
tliuujjh by 8omo it is called " ^unutum."'" This Iruit has 
beuu difetingutshed into u variety of kinds ; tho name of 
■ iipyruniim" *" b<!ing given to the oii« which htia no*' woody 
Wi-da. inside, but is naturally whitiT than tbe others, the pijia 
boing of a more a^eeable flavour, and the membranes by 
w1ii(^ they tui3 ectparatod not bo bitter. Their confurmation in 

" IVohnUy the Rhamnua paliurua of LiniiGeusi the Spina Cbristi of 
other butuuUts. 

''* The ponu'^nu^tv, the Piiniix. granatiim at boUmieLi. 

'* flr"gnuiipil applo." 

" From iha Cceek aWfptivw, " without kenwl." Thb FS« would nui 
traiiKliilu litLrully, bul us iticimin^ lliitt by ciilnvation tho ^uiuJi IlhU bcvu 
rKluBMj to a verj diminutivo sine, ri*e B. xsiiL o. 67. 

" Tluu vuriut^- Appears to bo cxtioct. P& doubu if it over (ulitcd* 

*■ See B. xxhi. c. 67 

Cbap. 30.] 



oilier respeotfl, wtiicTi ia very aimUar to the partitionH of the 
cp-lie ill tile hou'oycaml), in miicti ih<i suiutj iii all. Of lliose 
ibut havu a. kvruel tliL-ru mv live Iviuds, ibi; swtut, tliu iktiiI, 
tiie mixed, tim ucid, and the viuvus : those of gtauion and 
Efj^pt are diMiugniftlifd into those with fmI, niul thusu with 
wbiUi foiiafiro.'" Thi' sltin, iviiilt- Uii.- I'riiit w j'l-t wiiir, ia held 
in high e8U>*:m for Uinuiii^ k-atlici'. Thi- llowtr of this tree ia 
known by the name of " balouatmm," mid is very nsclul for 
medifiimd purpo&es ; *" ulso for dyeing oiutho a ccduur which 
&>m it has derived its name.^ 


axanuan, on CHKotiosr. 

lu Asia and Greece aro produced Ihtt following slimbs, the 
epipactiB",*" by eomt; known its " l!llL•^^^iu^^," tlie leaves of 
which arc of aiaall size, and whun biken io drink, iito mi 
antidote ogaiubt jioiaon ; just id thu aumt: wity that those of 
the erica'' are a apecifio ngainst the Bting of the Bcrpont, 

(21.) Hera is alao found auolhor shruh, upon whiuli grows 
the groin of Cnidos,'* by eome known us *' linum ; " the nume 
uf the ehrub it9t)if htititj thymolasu,* while others, again, cull it 
"chumfllffia,'* olbi:rB pyruHa;!biie, others cm-atpon, and othtrs 
UDeorom; it bears a siniug roaeuibliuicij to tin; wild olive, but 
h)u u uurrow leuf, wliiuh bas a j^umiuy to&te ia thu mouth. 
The slirub h of about the eize of the myrtle ; its sewd is of ihti 
same colour and appearmtce, but is solidy used SuK medicinsl 

CHAP. 36.— aHK TltAGIDir : TKASAVAX'^nS. 

The island of Crt^te is tbeonly place that produces Qie 

* S« B. uiii. c. GT. «* 8«« B. xaiii. C. Gl). 

** " l'iiTii<:eiui," immtily, a kind nf niir|>l>8. 

" Sue B. xxviL u. 52. Sprvii^I iliiuks tint thii u tb« Neottis fpirali* 
of &cliv&rU; but F^U afoji'iiiioa thai it bos not bi(bert<i Wu iileotil^vd. 

" Probiibl; llj'B EricuurtHtrca uf Liiiuicus. ar " IlclIL " in its uvcrul 

■* Gmnnm CniilLiim. The ahrub ii tha Dtphiie Cnidiiua uf Linni^UK. 

•• Tlie " tbymt^ulive," 

« Tbo "^nund oliiro," or "nnull olivn." Dii>rKi(iri']>(^s nutbvt a dis- 
tiTiGtiou heCwL-cn tin^te^ Iwn liuC; and Sprcn;;!^! hm fuiLowfx) it, luuaiug tltu 
lut Dapbne UDidium, imd iLe £jst Daphnv Cucoriam. 



[Bool xin. 

Bhnibcallod "tmgioM."" It is similaT in nppoiinmce to the 
torchintb ; " a similarity wliich extenila to the Bciod oven, said 
to be rcmarkabiy efficimiouB for healing wouiiila miiilo hy 
nrrowB. The sarao iahrad produces tragacantlHj™ also, with u 
root which resoraHes that ot'tho white thorn; it is very muflh 
prtifcn-cd'" to thut whiuh is grown in Media or Ln Achaia; the 
price ut wbiflh it sells ia tliree deniiril per pouad. 


Astii, too, produces the trago^** or scorpio, a thorny ebmb, 

destitute of kavos, with rod cluB-ters upon it f liat are employed 
in medicine. Italy produces the niyrica, which some persons 
CiiU the " Uiniarix ;" "* and Achaio, tho wild bryu.," teraarkalilu 
for the circumstiiace that it is only tho cultivatotl kind that 
bears n fruit, ni)t unlik« the gall-nut, In Syria and Egvpt 
thin plant is very n.bimdant. It ia to the treca of this iast 
country f.lmt we givo tht; name of " unhappy;"" but yet thoBO 
of Oi'oeco ar» more unhajipy still, for that eounti-y produees thd 
tret! known aa " oslrye," or, as it is sometimes catlod, "ostryo," " 
u solitary tree that grows about rouka washed by the vati:r, 
and very siinilar in tho bark aad branches to tho ash. It rc- 

" See B. xivii, e. 115. 

■^ Hit says tIsewWi! lliut it is like the juniper, which, however, in not 
ttin ame. O-uiettinl tliiiiiciii the Un^ion ik tlis Anilroii«nioii f«tiHiiiii, 
the Itypeimm hircltium oT tlie itiodeni uotiuiiiiu, S|)r>-ii{||;<.'l nlta iidopiM 
the wme opinion. p6o u inoliacd to tbink Itmt it was ii ntriety of tho 
Piltucln iciitiflcus. 

■* Dont'B Uiuni, Tho Astragalus Cteticua of LinuBBUi. 

** lit iipeaka orgum trugauauth. 

** Set! B. ixvii. c. 110. Sjirengal identiilirs U uUb Lha Salcola tngm 
rif Liun.Eas. 

" PxubaUT tho Tamaris Gullica of Liimteus. Pfo uiyi, in rctstion tit 
t'm rayriniL, Ant it woulil aflom thai the aneiLTU UKitcd in ono colleclJTo 
flame, dirvcrnl plunla wUioh rcMmbled each othijv, not iri Uiuir botniiicul 
ulmniRtuTigLics, but in. outitrnrJ oppGuranuv, To thU, bo suyii, is {iwiii}> 
cba t»ot tbat Diosocrlilea calls toe myrica a trvu, Kavurinu» a ht^rb; 
DiMCurirlei iayii that it i^ fruitful, NLcantter annl Vlmj calt it barren ; 
ViM^l eallH it smail, and TheoiibrMttis m^ l.hut it is Inree. 

" Fee thinlts Ihut it is the Tamarii une-iitaliB o-f Dclilje. 

* " Infelix," nicraning "alorile," Ue wmna tovty this more partieiilRTly 
iumfrreiico t^ tho brya, which E-gypt produces. Aatoibbuso of the worii 
" iiiMix," eoe B. xvi, o. 4S. 

™ aprfngel and Fee idriitify thia with th* Oatrya Tulg/jrisofWilldeniMf, 
Ibft CarpinuA ostrya of Linncu!!. 

Clutp. 39.] 



Bembles fhc pear-tree in its leaves, which, however, are alittlo 
longer (iml thicker, with wrinkled indtMiUliuns running down 
thu whole length of the It'af. The Bcc-d of this tfL^e reuemblea 
biirky in form and colour, Tho wood is hard and solid ; it is 
Sttiti, tliiit if it is introduced into a hotiao, it is pryduttive of 
pajjiful deliveries and o£ &huckiDg dt^aths. 

CHiP. 38. (22.) THB ■ECO'TTMoa. 

Thtro is no tree productive of a mors auspicious presage 
than one which grows in thu Isio of Ll.'9^^o9, and ia known by 
the oanie of eiionymos.' It beiira some resemblance to the 
pomegranate tree, the leaf being in. size between the leaf of 
that flnd the leaf of the Inurel, while in shnpe nnd aoftness it 
resemldes that of the pomogranatfi tree : it has a whit© hloE- 
Bonif* by which it im mediately gives na niftiuu of its dangerous 
properties.' It hears a pod* very similar to that of Bcsame, 
williin which there is a grain of qnadrangulur ahape, of coarse 
mttko and puiBonous to aitimuls. Tho leaf, ton, has the suniu 
noxious bSects ; suinetimeB, however, a speedy alvine di&chat;ge 
is found to give relief on such occasions. 


Alexander Comollus has called a trea by the nnmu of 
" coa," • with the wood of whiob, ho eays, thw ship Argo was 
biiilt. This tree has on. it a mietletoo siiuilar to that of the 
oak, which ia proof against all injurj- from either fire or water, 

' Or tho "liictily fiftmcil." It ^ew cm Momit OrdyiDDUfl in L«(bM. 
Sm ThvuylinintitB. fi. ii. o. 31. 

* Tlio EvuayraUB EiireipiBUi. or el«o the F.Tonvmiw hlifoliui of bota- 
tlUu, in pTohatly intcndrtl to he. indicated ; but it is a mi»t(iki! to wiy tliitt 
it is poiBoticiUB to nniruttU. On Uio ooulrary, F<-ti (uiy» llniit ahcep will 
fitttEn vn it* It-jms very ajierdily, 

* " SUlim pMl^tn tlcnuuliiuis." Pliny UTujwim to l)o in crrot hcrr. 
In copying; from Theophrtutiis, be loome tonaTc found tho vatcI ^ufnc 
u«eil, really ia reFcit-n-eu t» n blnod-reiL juice nrhicli iliatili fnim tho pbnC; 
but aM tiie same wnrii aUu nicinus ■Uug!it«'T. or ileutli, he uwm* tu Imva 
Ihuiig^ht ttiat it jrf-nlly Iwuni tcri-rcniw tu Lbe 0'iiii<ii» qiialiti>i-s o-f lh« plant. 

* Vie ocns'in;'* the asa of lUe word "siliqua," as inopprupmW, b1- 
ttiOD^h thoiiMrd duv* luavmbla tbut uf seaaiHum^ tho Sciumum orlsntule 
of T/inateiii. 

' IH ccinin. Yea mgp-nfA (hnt in story, irhich probably bcLangs 
to the rrgion of Fablu, lotne Idud «f u&k may pouibly be alliid«d Ut. 


PLtinr a sxtvius, niBxoEX. 


in the mtne matmer, In (act, as that of no oth^r trf<ci knnwn. 
This Ire*, however, appenrs to have been known to no otln;r 
author, that I am aware of. 

CHAFi 40. — THK AlthUXCatzJ 

Ifoarlf all the Greek writer* interpret the name of tho tree 
culled "andrachle," aa mpaninj^ the name as " purslain : " ' 
wliorcaa pureUin is, in reRlity, a herb, and, with fiii.' difit-rwnce 
Iff a siDglb lettor, is cj.lltd " andrttchiie." The andrachle ii» a 
wild tree, wliich never grows in the plaiti country, and in sinii- 
kr to the orbute tree iu appfflTuDco, only tlijit its leaves are 
Rinallcr, und never fall off. The bark, too, ia not roiigb, but 
might be tali€u to bo ffozen all over, ao truly wretched ia ita 


Similar, too, in leaf to the pa'ceding tree, ia the o&ocj^b,* 
though not so Eurge ; it has this pecnliarity, that it loaes ita 
fruit while still in the downy" state^th<?y then call it 
" pappus " — a thing that happens to no othfr tree. The 
apharce'" is another tree that ia siniilfir to the aii'Irnelile, and 
like it, beaia twice io thu' year : jiiBt ae the gi-njKi is beginning 
to fiower the firat fruit is ripening, while tho second fniit 
rippna at the commencement of winter; of what nature thia 
ti-uit IB we do not find Btated. 

CHAi". 42.^^rMK FEXULA, 

Wo ought to place Hit ferulti" also ia the nnmher of the 
exotics, and as making one of the trees. For, in fai.t, we dis- 
tingui^ the trees into several different kinds : il is the uatum 
of Bome to have wood entirely in piano of bark, or, in other 

■ In the formHr editions, "adrnclmt)" — t)ie Arbtrloa LntegriFoiiit, Fife 
Ruya, end tiot the rlr>>ittus aijilriichne of LmniMis, aa Sprccgcl thinkii. 
^ " PorL-iUHLii " Tlif Purtiildca oieriiceu nf Linnaeus. 

* Thi! Ittius (lorinuB of l.iunwiia, a surL of iuiitaclj. 

* Tbie 19 Eot tlie f«ct ; thp s^cdg wliun ripe are merely lost to view to 
tli8 large tufts of ilown wliii:h prow on the Btumi. 

'" Cienerftlly snppoBcd ta ha tho game as the dlatpmiis, mentioned in 
B. i»i. e. -tS. Some wiittrs idi-iitify it, wilh the rb)l]iroti uuguslifolin. 
of LinneeuB. 

" Pntbably Llit PcniU cnnuBimia of Liiutajiis, tbu lictti or tbrub 
knoicuiii "-fuLuiul giout." 

Ohop. 43.] 


M-ordB, pa the outside; while, in the interior, in place of wood, 
there is tt fungous kind of pith, like that of the elder; 
othtrs, ngnin, Q»e hollow wilhin, lil«! llio reed. 'Ihe ferula 
gruvis ill hot toHUtripa and in phw-ea beyond sea, the BUilk 
heinu divided luto ku;>tti'd joialB. There art' two kiuds of il ; 
that which tfrowD upwards to a great hiiglit the Greeks call 
l>y the name of "uurlh&x,"" while the other, which never 
rines far from the ground, is kuowii os lliu " nartliecya.'"* 
From thf joints very largi? leaves shoot Corth, the largest lying 
itearesit, to the ground: iu other rewpecta it hus the &ume na- 
ture aa the aiii&p, whieh it resemWea also in lis fruit. The 
wood of BO shrub is lighter thiin thia ; hencf- it is Tory easjly 
(inrri«l, and the stulka of it make good wulking-sticks" tor 
the aged. 

CttAP. 43. THB TBAPali. 

The Beed of thu ferula has been by some persons calh'd 
" thapBia;"" decn-ived, no doubt, by wh«t is really tlie faet, 
that tlie thapsia is a ft?riila, but of a peculiar kind, with Ivavt's 
like those oJ' fennej, and a hollow stalk not exceejing a witlk- 
iD^-stitk in leij^h : the seed is like that of thu ferula, and 
the root of thu phiut in white. MTieu on inciMon is mnde in, 
the thiipsin, a uiilky juice oozes from it, and, when pounded, 
it produces kind of Juice ; the hark oven is never thrown" 
uwav. All thesu part^ nf the ebruh are poiaonuus, and, in- 
deed, it JR praductive of iiijuriuue uffi'L-lK to thom^ engagod in 
(ligg:ing iL up ; tor if the slightest niud btiuuld hupiaii to bu 
blowing tuwurdj them from tha ishrub, the body begins to 
swell, and erysipelas attacks the face : it in for this reueon that, 
before beginning work, they anoint tiic facu all over with a 
solution uC wftS. Still, however, tJie medicid toco B;iy that, 
lui.^ed with other ingredients, it is of coDsiderablc use in tlie 

" The Fends gkuca of I.iiinEriis. 

•^ Tlie PeiniU iioiiidcii'a i-f Litiiiwtis. 

" Il ie iCiil iiw>d for i.lisil i)1ii]iii*l' id thp soiillt of Kiuono. The Kumun 
■chcwlnuutvn, ua vie Ituni (two Juvciuil. M»r(ml, mid 'iiLcre. cmplo^t^ it 
tor the diaEtiecmnnC of liierr scholare. Pliny is in error in rpcliuning it 
ittiion^ Ihr iTi;!'*, it rt-aWy Unving no prtitnnmiiii* tii Ik: cnntiiJni'ud bucU. 
-It i* iiitd to liEve reiit'ii'Mil \ia iituiw frum " t'Kric," to "V-at." 

'* K;irci));i>l ihhiki thut thin is tho Tlinp^in aiin1i<|iiutii ot' the IDWltmi ; 
Ijiii Feu bikv* il to W tlie Tliugwu villuHa of Limiiuiu. 

'* It WA£ voluuil, Liii»iX)ridci gu)b, tor iU iiilhufUc p'rcpurtica. 


PLIPT'b JTatdoal HISTOHr. 

[Bgoi XIIL 

treatment of some diseaeea. It is employed also for the euro 
of ecuM-liood, and tbr tbe removal of black ami bliio spota 
upon tlio skm, as if, infUiiid, wc were reully at a lose for reine- 
difs in 8ucb caecs, wilhout having rucourso to thiugs of m 
deudly n nature, Tliese plajits, liowtver, act their part in 
serviiig as a pretext for tlie iiitroductioa of noxioua agents; 
fund BO gri?!it is tho effrontery now displayed, (hat people would 
absolutely |iei-suftde one that poisons arc a req^uisite adjunct to 
the practice oi" the medical art. 

The tliopsift of Africa" ia the moat powtrfnl of nil. Some 
persons make an incision in the etnUi at liarvcat-timo, and bore 
}icdc8 in iho root, too, to lot the juicn (lowj after it huB hu- 
cume quite dn,', they take it away. OthurB. again, pound the 
leaves, etalk, and root in a mortar, and aftur drying the juice 
in the aiin. divide it into lozenges. '* Nero Cwsar, at thu- be- 
ginnuig of hia roif^n, (lonfi-iTed coiisidt-rable celtjbrily on this 
pliint. In his nocturaal ekirmisbcs'* it eo happened thiit be 
reci-ivcd severfJ eontustons &n the face, upon wliich he 
unoiHtcd it witli a Tiiistnrp compoBed of thapsia, frutikinuonaoj 
and wax, and 80 contrived the next day effuctuaily Id girt IJie 
]io to all rumoura, by appeanng with a whole skin,'* It ih a 
■Wfill-known fwf, thnt fire" is kept alight remarkably well in 
the hollow fitalk of the furula, aud tliat for thia puri»u3u tltoBC 
oi £gypt ttro ttiD beet. 



In Egypt, too, the oapparis'* is found, a shrub v.-ith e wftod 

" lilbw tlioThiipMa pirpuiiiBa of Willdunow. *ir tbo TlinpHm tiltowi, 
fiitiiid in Africa oinl IIjc eoiilh of Ettrope, tlmiipli, m I'liiiy sayn, Ilia 
flmptia cif EiirrnK^ ii mill] in its elli^i^U coiaiiareil tvitli thut tif Africu. It 
U TOTTiiiioii OH tlie coast of Barbary. 

i» J'uiiitllog. ■■* KwtuTiiis griissulionilius. 

*" iL IB Btill iisfd in Bailinry At ilio tuto of Lclttr and riu^wi'tTn. 

'" Tlie iitfiry "wnn, titiit Pri>ini^tliuUB, wLiu bo skiJt ILo lituvciily flro from 
Jiipr4<!r, cuiirealnl iL iti a tiltilk i^f jiiiitlici. 

" Thii " capiiV-tnfr," tlio Coipparis spinosa of Lintimiis. F^e BUR^tM 
tlint PliuT luny poKiibly clliidc, in some of ftio feature's wliii;li \n: tii.%tvnhn, 
to kinde fcM knuwn ; nucli, for iiislance, as tlio Capparie iticrmis ot KoiiJi* 
lull, found in Aruliin; t.lie Capparia ovata cf DrefuiiUim-N, limmi iii Unr- 
Iiary ; ll* Ciipjinrin t^innicn. toiiiid im Mount Siiiai. aiid miiiirlinlile fi-r 
the RiMt of itN fruit; cud Itit- Ciij'pariN .^^yplioca ot .Luniori;k, I'ommimfy 
found ia I'.gjpi. 

CUp. 4G.] 



of much greatjT solidity. 'J'lis aeed oi it is a wcll-ltnown 
article of food," and is mostly gatliercd together wilh lliestulk* 
It is BE well, howCTor, to ho od our guard BgninBt tliu foreign 
kinds;** for tluit ofArsbia has ccrlain di;luU,TitJii8 jirojiri-litifl, 
that Jrum Airica is injurious to lliu gunis, oud ibut IWtu 
Murmtiriuu is prcjudlcittl lo tho fFomb uocl catiacs JlHlultnce 
ia all iht; orgouB. That of Apuliu, too, is productive of vomit- 
ing, and causea dt'raiigoment in the stoinmh and iiitf-atiin-fl. 
Sinnc persons call this felirub " cynoBLiaUm,"^ others, again, 
*' ojihiostaphyle.'"" 


Tlic Rariphn.*^ ton, thnt grows on tlifl banks of the Kile, 19 
en*' of tlie elinib gcnuM. It is gcniTally ubuut two tuhits in 
lidght, aud of tliti Uiiukiiess of oiiu's ihuuib : it Ijoh tin.- lulitigo ' 
of the papyrue, and is mten in a sinultir inaniuT. The root, 
in c:c)ii8equ<3iK.-o of iU cxircmu liurdui.'E8> in uaud luf u Eub»lilutf) 
fur uharcoul in forging irpD. 

CBAF. 46. (24.) — THE IIOTAL THORIf. 

"We must tukt' curr', uIbo, sot to oinit a ji^culior i^hriih that 
is [iluntt'd at Jiub^lon, tind only u^vyu a thorny piiml Ihtxe, 
as it will not live anywhvre else, just in tliH saino manner m 
the mistletoe will live nowhere hat uym Ireoe. This slimb, 
howevpr, will cmly grow ii|»i)ii 11 kind of Ihorn, which is known 
OS tho royal thom.'^ It is awondrrfnt fact, but it grmiinatea 
the Tcr}' same day thut it has huen planted. This is done 

)* Tho >Utb an.^ cced wrm triUxi orjicTdeA. The huSt nr iuir-Tjmr>dFil 
flowen of Uki« altiuli :ire admired &« a picUe or Miicr' of delicati; HAVuur. 

*> Vtt! rRmurki tliut thin ii not tiic truth, all titc kindx pnMi-wing the 
BKDM qualilif* ThcTU niiiy. hovreriT, liava bwu tome ^'luvnmev hi Iba 
mode of uiltitig «r pivkliii); tln-ui, uuil |>UEnibIy produrtive of nfltiuus 

** Praliabljr from iU Ihoms, tliut \inng flie numc nf the ^wprt-bviar, or 
dor>roM. " " Scrpi'iit prajits " 

*) Spronfffll *ii<l V(o lalto Ihii to In thi> CypcTiif fiutigiatui of Jyinnanit, 
wbioh Votiiktal round in liii- rivor JfLlo. 

*' Bpinii ri'pin. Sorau writer* liavo tonriJ^red tliis lo ba tho iame with 
Iho CcntauroB aolntilialia of i.innicite. Sprongd lakes ii to Iw- llif Cnsivdi 
Illifiirmi» of Liiitiftnii, ii [inrnMLiM] [>liiiir of linJia. Wu mtisi coiidu'dc, 
liuwL'm, with F«u, lUat bulii the tliom anU Qtt jiuiuiIf lia*e uot liitUctta 

[Bwl XtU. 

at tlie rising of the Dog-star, after which it speedily takes 
posBeSBion of tliB whole ttvc. They uae it in the |>m[)iiration 
of wiae, and it is ior Lliig purjjose that it is jilaatird. This 
thom grow* at Athtaia ulso, upon the Long Walls ttteru.*' 

CHAT. 47.' — lUB CVUSDB. 

Tho cytiaus*' is aim a ahnili, which, ns a food for shpop, liS 
been fictoUcd with wonderful onroniitims by Arietomochus the 
Athenian, iitid, in a dry stiile, for SR-irit; as well ; the same 
liuLhor, too, piudgea his wurd tliut u jiigurum of vfcy mid- 
dling land, [iiautL'd with the cytisus, will produce on ineomu 
of two thousund seeturc^s por ttnnum. It is c^uite as useful as 
the crvTim," but is apt to satiato more spoudily : vury little gf 
it is aenesaary to fatten cattlu ; to t»uch a degree, indtied, Uiut 
beasts of biirdeu, when ft-d upoa it, will very soon take a di»- 
hke to barley. There in no fodder known, in feet, that is 
priiiJuctive of a grtater abundance of milt, and of better qiui- 
lity; in tho mudicol treatrtiont of tattio in pjirticular, this 
shrub IB found a most i3X(itliL:nt specilic for uvf;ry kind of ma- 
lady. Ev(^n more thaa this, tb« same author rouomniuiids ji, 
wheu flret dried and thon boiled in watpr, to be given to nure- 
ing womtm, (nixiHi with wicD, in caseH where tho milk has 
failed them : and he eaye that, if this is done, the inlunt will 
bu all tho sirouKcr and taller fur it. lu a green stiite, or, if 
dried, steeped ia water, he recoinmendB it for fowls. Both 
Democrit'W and Amtonia<!h«& promise us also that bees will 
never fail us so long a» they cun obtiiiu the rytisfls for fuod. 
Tliere is no iirop that we know of, of a similar nature, that 
coBta a amallcr price. It ia sown at tho aarae time as bjirley, 
or, at all event*, in the spring, in Be<?d like, the Icelt, or tdsw 
planted in the auLuma, and btii'ure the winter Bolst lee, in the stalk. 
When Gowu in graiu, it ought to ha steeped iu water, tiad If 

" Tti» Multron Ti-iabos. Sua B. Iv. <t. 11. 

^° rnm tho variiiuA titatcRiunU uf anciciit authors, Fiio lios nomv to iho 
conclunioii tlbiit thin iittirie waa g^ivL^n to two tdUtlly ditferfjiit prfiiluetionft, 
Tliit i:yLi>u« which the piicta Bpc-uk of an ^r^xivM to bc«it rtni gnuliL. aud 
■ImoTi, lia ta)tu lu 1k tke Mudi<:M^D ai'boriM «t' I.iiinujuii, known tu lu u* 
MeJic trt'Wl, or luwrne; whik. the ullitT, u tci'« will] ii bljict wolmJ, bv 
coafiidcrs i^outiuiil with iliu C)'iiauii liiliarQum of Liauicus, lt(j lubuniaui, 
or fjilft'^ctiony tr^e. 

*" A kiuilufrutchorlare. S«cB.xt1u, 



tliere should faa^hpeQ to be no rain, it ought b> be watered 
vhen Bown : when tho plimta are about a cubit in height, 
thi^ are repbmtcd in trenohos a foot in depth. It is tran»< 
planted at tha equiiioxcB, while the shrub ib yet tender, and ia 
threo years it wiU anivo at maturity. It is cut at the vernal 
uquiaux, whuu. the flower is just going off ; a child or an old 
woman is able to do tliis, imd their labour may be had at a 
trifling rnUi. ft is of a wlute appearance, and if onu would 
^lisL Ui ispresB brieEy what it looks like, it i.a a triToliated 
shrub,^ with small, narrow leuvtfl. It is always given to 
animalsatiutcrrnlaof a coiiploof daya, and in winter, when it ia 
dry, before being given to thein, it ia flrat raoiatuned with water. 
TcQ pounds of cjtiBUfi will Bii^iti for u horae, and for smaller 
animals in prDportion : if I may hero menUoa it by the way, 
it is found very proHUilile to bow garlic and ouiom betwet'n 
the rowB of cytisuH- 

This shrob has beea found in the lale of Cythnus, from 
whence it has been tninspliuitod to alt the Cyclades, and more 
recently to the citien of Crcecp, a fact, which has greatly in- 
creaaed the supply of chcwgo: considuring which, I am much 
surpriBcd that it ia bo Taruly naed in Italy. ITiia ahnib is proof, 
too, BgaiiL''t all iiijurips from heat, from cold, from liail, and 
IVotn enovr : and, as Uyginus adds, aguiuat the depredalionB of 
the enemy even, thu wood" produced being of uo voluo what- 



Shrabs and tree* grow in the sen** ns well ; those of our 
«ei* are of inferior size, while, on the other hand, the Red Sea 
and all tlir Kasti'ru Ocean are tilled with denee forceta. No 
other languQgo has uaj namv tor the gliriib M'hieh is known tu 
the Greeks m the " phycos,"^ Bince by the word " alga"" a 

I* ■' Fnitcx." Whtn spenkinj^ of it ob a e^rub^ be Bccnu to be oonfound- 
THE tha tree wilh tlj« plant, 

» Evidently in alluBJoti to the tree. 

^ Bu ulIuJc-B to varioos kinds of fucua or tea-weed, nbich grawt to a 
much loTjreT BLEc in tho EuUini bciu. 

» Thc'Ucditerrunean. 

>* Whoaoe tlie word " fucoB " o( the natarniiiU, 

" FeR sii^gF«U that this may b« Lho LamiDikria aitcchariita of LinilKUt, 
lieuig OTM of^the "uIvr" uftvD tlirowti up on Uie coaista dI' Europe. 

VOL. m. S 



[Book XUt 

men bert is generally understood, whilu the " phyoos" is a 
complete shnili. This plant has a broad \i-af of a grcon oo- 
loiir, whicb 15 by some called "jfrasori,'**^ and by otliere is 
known as " ztiBtcr."*' Aiiotlifr kind," ugain, bos a hairy eort 
of leaf, vory aimilar to fennel, and grgws upoD rocks, while 
that previously mentionacl grows in shoiily spots, not far from 
the shorB, BoLh kinds shoot in the spring, and die in uutiunn." 
The phycos" which grows on the rocka in the n>eighbtiarb<MMl 
of Crete, is used also for dyeinj purple ; the best kind being 
that produced on the north nidu of tho ishind, whioh is the 
case also with sponges of tho very best qaulity. A third kind,*" 
H^in, is mmikr in uppearaiKie to grass: the root of it is 
knotted, and so is the stalk, which reaemblea that of a roud. 

CHAP. 49. — tHr sr« BSTOtr. 

There is another Knd of marine shrub, knoira by the name 
of " bryon ;" ** it has tliu loaf of the luttucL-, only that it is 
of a more wrinkled uppearancG; it grows utartr huid, too, than 
tlje lost. Far out at sea we find a fir-trt'*; " iind an oak," 
eauh a cubit in height ; shoUe are found adhuring to thutr 
branchflfl. It is soid thut this sea-ouk in used for dyeing wool, 
und that Eome of them eren bear acoriiB " in tlit; sea, u fact which 
has been aficertaiaed by sliipwrecked persoiLS and divers. Tliere 
are otlier murine trees also of rt-mai-kiihlc sizi", luund in tho 
Ticinity of Siftyon ; the sea- vine/* indeed, grows everywhere. 
The sea-fig ** ia destitute of leaves, and tho hark is red. ITiflre 

» Tho " greon " plimt. » The " girdle " ptant 

'" Till! FUCDR bftrimtuis, pTohnliljr, of Linnseu*, or cl*a the Kucus eroVJe*. 

*' Tboy nee in reaiity moria lDiig-lir>nc[ iliiiii thin, 

*' P^ tvgffOU t^mt it U thi! ]ioo«t>Llii tiiictitriu uf T.innKUi. 

** The Zuii«ni woriiut of Limiitufi, ueciordirig tu F<<i'. 

•* The Olvu InatUHm of tiie niwieriis, a very iiommon Bwnwcd. 

** The t'xicut cTwidiA, Fbr Biipges!*, not'nnliki' a fir ia itppi-unuior. 

** (j,iicrcnB. Aci^iiriluj;; lu Gmclliit, tlm is llic t'licus vriiculniitiiti of Ltu- 
MKU. ItM hkiM MZ« induntol, gociEwhut liniiUrl^ to diMO of Ih^ oak. 

" Polflriiu, u quoU.'d by Athuuet'uii. naya UiaL iti tha Laatcanian Sea 
then an mlci thitt oeu acorns, on trbioli the tbanniM (««d and grow hi. 

*" Oa tko uiBtnjy, Thi^nbrasUis uy«, IJ. tv. c. 7, tbat tho wa>*inB 
j^m Menr theaeu. fmm whicli F£e is diHpciftHl to coiuidiir it a nbanDraga- 
iiioua pluat. If, ou. the oLUvr husU, it ii rcully a furiw, be Uiialu that Ihe 
Fui:iw urarius nuiy Ix uraiitt, the fcaiciM of wbich leiembld a ^pn in 

■vt ^" *pBaU of a imadrepoKs, Fit tbinki, tbe iddslify of whiob il ia 

Chap. 51.) 



ifl A palm-tiee •* also in the number of the aeft-ehnibB. Beyond 
the oolumna of Herculbs there ia a aeu-shrub that grows with 
the kaf of the leek, and otlicrH with thoae of the tarrot," and 
of thj'me. 13oth of theee lust, wLcn thion*n up by the tide, 
arc truusforiued" ioto puuiico. 


Iq the East, it Is a vtiry remarkable thing, that imufdiutcij 
after leaving Cuptos, m we pass through lie dEieerts. we tiud 
jiothiog wbatever growing, with the exception uf the thorn that 
ia Itnown as the " tbiraly"** thorn ; and this but very mrely. 
In the lied Sea, however, there are whole foreats found grow- 
ing, among which more particularly there are plants that bear 
the laurel-hurry an'il the olive :*• whon it ruina also certain 
fungi make their api:i(»iFaiice, which, aa eouu as tli£y arc t{>uche(i 
by the rays of tho BUD, are turned into pumice." The»izeof thu 
shru-bs is thivo cubite in height; and they are all filled with 
sea-dogs," to guch a degree, Uial it U harilly safe to look at 
them &om the ship, for they will firet^uently s^ize bold of th« 
very oore. 


The ofRcers " of Alexander wha navi<;iited the Indian bm>, 
have left au tuscoimt of a marino tree, the foliage of which 18 
green, while in the water ; but the moment it is taken out, it 

difflciilt to (tetotminift. ProfoMor PnllM spen-ks of an Alcirunirliura ficuft, 
vrhLcli livca in the MciUtcrranenn and in ths tuniin, and whicU reiemMes it 
fig, and hm no lea res, tiut its i-iCL'nor is nut rmi, 

*" Fft) <iu<:ri» wlaetlicr ibJn nio^ not In; ilin (liirKniiiii piiltnH of Liniiieaii, 
wbich has reeeifocl iis name froni its resemblaiicL' W a smnll nulm-tree. 

*' I'hoBe three. Vie thinks, are nrndreporiaor noophyt**, whii'h it would 
be iBIii li> attempt lo idEntity. 

•" Tlmt is, (.iiey dry up to the conaislcDCV of piimicp, 

'^ " Sitit^iis." Uulillo coiiEidtin this tu i(]«nliciU witb hit Aoactu »eyul, & 
tb-omv tiDo, cittta to ho BG'&D in the drscrU of Afiicm. 

** f'rnbfibly roophjtiw now unknnwii, 

** Fie BuggBit* thai he njay iilludo to thr Mniirepnra fiin)>it«a t>( Lin- 
rteiu, tha Fungus liipideui of Bnuhin, Thc«t< are toand in Cbn ]W Am 
sad the In Jinn Oceau ; but, of ti)iursG,tbe st«ry of their opp*aranflf Uuriin,* 
rtdn IE fiibulriiis, 

*• Khnrka ; si.-e B. it fl. 70. 

" The oumpiuiiuu of UQCsiciitUs uA i^eorchBt. 


MEBrr a hatubal niflTOBT. 

[Book XIII. 

drie» tind ttunB to salt. They have spoken also of bulrushes" 
of stone bearing a stiong re&emblance to real ones, which grew 
along the sea-shore, aa also certain shni'bs * in the main sea, 
the oolour of (in ox'b horn, hranching out in rurious direc- 
tions, and red at the tips. These, they say, were brittle, and 
broke like gksa when touched, while, on the other hand, in 
the fire they would beoome red-hot Uka iron, and when cool 
reaume th«ir original colour. 

In the same part of the earth also, tho tide covera the 
foreats that grow on thti islands, although tho trees there are 
■more lofty '^' than the very tidiest of our plaues and poplara ! 
The leaves of these trees resemble that of tho laurel, while the 
hloaaom is similar to the violet, both in smell and colour : the 
berries reaemble thoso of the olive, and they, too, have an 
agreeable amell : thoy appear in the autiiinn, and the leaves 
of the trees never fall off. IIjh smaller onns ore untireiy 
covered by the waves, while tlie summits of those of larger 
Mzi} protrude from the water, and ahips are mad-e fast to them ; 
when tho tide tails tL« sieHstila arp sitnilarlT moored to the roots. 
Vt'e find the eitma persons making mention of certain other 
trepa which they saw out at aea, whicK alwayis retained their 
leaves, and bore a fruit very similar to the lupine. 


Juba relates, that about thp iglands of the Troglodytw 
there is a certain shrub found out at aea, which ia known as 
the " hair of laia:'"" he says that it hefire fl strong resem- 
lllance to ooral, is destitute of leaves, and if cut will change 

oolour, becoming ipiit* hlatik and hard, and bo hrJttlo as to 
Irniak if it Mle. He Epeaks also of another murine plant, to 
which he givee the name of " Charito-blepharon,""'' and which, 

^ Tie insatis H oonjectnrt' tliut this tdut he tliu Gurgonia Kinioa of 
PallttB, found lo the Indian Seas. 

"' One of the Gorgonis, Vei: thicks ; but Lte cliOractcrutiM are sat Euf- 
ficiectly itateLl Id tntiblc ub to idcotiry it. 

»» A faljlE worthy nf Siabiid the Sfiilor ! 

" "Isidts criaeiu." Fc'iitnyBtiiiitlhuiG ovidcutlf ^lock uoral, the Gor- 
gnnia anlipathm of LiniiiF^tis. 

" "The cjtiid of the GraMi." Fee is ilmost tempted to think that ha 
KRaOB red «oraL 

Cliap- 52.] 



he sRya, is particulnrly efficacious in lovc-channB.* Brae^- 
lot^ und necldaccA nre mado of it. Ho bqj-e aleo tlmt it in ecn- 
sible^ when it Ib about to be taken, imd that it tuntH as hard 
afi horn, so hard, indued, as to blunt the odgs of irun. If, on 
the'otbcr bimd, it ie cut before it is sensible of tbo danger, it is 
imoiediately traosfurmed to stono. 

ScxuABV. — KcmarkxLblo ttmts, QorrutiTCs, and ubBcrvuticine, 
four hundred oud bixtj-cight. 


Fabianus,** Schosu*,'" Pomponius Mela,'' Vubius," Procilius,™ 
Hyginiis,'* Trogiis," riaudinB CiMor/* Comelins Kepos," Ses- 
tiuB Niger^ who wTotc in Qrock on Modicinej Cassius Hd- 
mina,™ L. Piso," TuditunuB," Anlioa." 

FoKMOH AOTH0E8 auoTKD. — TfaoophntstuB,*' Horodotue," 
Callisthijnes,*' Isigonna," Clitarchua," Aniiximeiies,'* Dnris," 
JTearcliUB,'" Oneaicritus,*' Polycritus," Olnnpiociorus," Diog- 
netus," Cleobulus," AnticUded,'* Chares " of Mitylene, Me- 
mBChmas,'^ Dorotheoa ^ of Athens, Lycwe,' Anteus,* EphLp- 

•* Amnlariis. 

•* Spatalia, Armlet* or brnMlfU. 

"* liy tliis appBit-ntly fabulous story, one woulJ. Im dIidmI jnclinfd to 
tbink tciitt he u #pciLkiiig of a zoajilivle. 

" Sn end of £, ii. ' " 9<x cod «( H. ii. 

« 8m end of B vii. 

•" I'tpiriuB FabianuB. Bee end of Ii. ii. 

" See cud of B. ii. " S« end of B. iii. 

" FHbiu» Piclor. See Rnii <i( B. i. 

W Sou end of B. ¥iii. 

'* TrogTia Fomp«iu». 

" SseeniiofB. v. 

" See end of B. siL 

■' Sea end of B. u. 

" &e6 «md of B. ii. 

•• See end of B. ii. 

•• Saeecdof B. tu. 

" SfiC end of B. lii. 

» See end of B. -ri. 

H Sno end of B. xij. 

« Sue end of B. vi. 

»• Sfleendof B. iv. 

** Sefl end of K iv. 

I See end of B. sii. 

" Bee end of B. iii. 
SoG euJ uC B. viL 

" See end of B. ii. 
'" See end of B, «i. 
s'' See end of B. lii. 
S> Bise end of B. lii. 

» See end of B, xiL 
•' Soocnd of B.Ti. 
w Bee end of B. Til. 
•' See end of Ii, ij. 
" See end of B. lii. 
» See end of B. ir. 
" Sue end of B. xii. 
•• S&e end of H. viii, 
* ScD end of B. xii. 



[Bftok xni. 

pus.' Dion,* Adinifintiis,* Ptolemy Lagiis,* Marsyaa' of 
Macedon, ZoUub^ of Mocedon, Dcmocritiw,' AmpMlouhus,"' 
AlcxandtT Polyhie-tor,'' AristomachTifi," King Juba," ApoUo- 
donis '^ who wrote on Perfumea, Horaolides " the [ih3rBiciaii, 
Boliye'" tbo pliyaiciao, Archideoius " the pUyaician, Diatiy- 
siuB 'Hhe physiciQit, Dumoclides '^ the physicia.D, liuphron" 
the phyeiuian, Mnesidea^' th© pliy»iciaii, Diagoraa '^ the phy- 
sii^iim, lollns ^ the phyfiicinD, Hi*raclidGB-' of Tarcntum, Xeiio* 
cnttea " ot" EphesuB. 

» Sea end of B. xii. * See end ot B. vill, 

° Nothing ccrtiLi II ie known of tiim: but hanppcarB tvbo thop^ogTaphcr, 

a natiTe o( Lampsacua. mnntianed by Sttabo in D. xiii. 

* Sue end of B. lii. ' Bee end of B. tiL 

» See end of B. xii. • See end of B. ii. 

'" Soo end of B. liii. " 8ee end of B. iU. 

'• X writer oa Agrioulturo, or doiaeatiu economy; but aotliiag furlhorU 
^knovn of him, " 8oe end of Q. v. 

'* Perhaps the ftaniu wrilsr thai is mtnCJuavd ut tho end of B. xL 

■* Pur Iwi) phyeiciiins of (liis iianic, itc cud (if B lii. 

M Oacof bis pTflBcnptiona is. piuaerre;! in. tha works of GoIeD. Nothing 
«Ue is kaoKTi of hiia. '^ $»e eod of D. xii. 

'" &CU ctid uf B. sii. " Sei& end of B. xii. 

w St-e «i(l of B. sii. " Bee end of B. lii. 

" 8« end of H. lii. " 8m end of B. xii. 

" Sob ead yf B. xU. " See end vf B. xti. 



CBU«. I & i2. (1.)^-T1IS SATTEIt OP TBE TIXB. 


rtS VODE 0? 

lliose which have been hitherto mentinnpiS, arc, nc-arly nil 
of them, exotic trw-s, which it is impottaihlo to rear in any 
other than thinr native soil, and whii;h Jirc Dot to he mttunilizod 
in Etmuge countries.' It ib now for tis to epcok of tho nioro 
ordinary kinds, nf all of which Ituly mny be looked tipoa 
aa more porti'culuily the pareiit.' 'fhogft who nro well ac- 
qiiainti-d with the subject, niiiKt only bear in mind tJ^jat far 
the present we content our&elTCs with merely Blating the 
different varieties of these treee, and not the mode of ciiltivating 
them, although there ia no douht that the chamctcrifltioa of a 
tree depend very considiTKhly iipwn its eiihivation. At thia 
fact I cannot sufUciL-ntly expreea my aRtoniEhment, th&t uf 
some trees till memory has utterly periehijd, aad that the 
very names of some, of which we &ad various unthon making 
montioD, hare wholly diBoifpcared.' And yet who doea noi 
readily admit that now, when intercommiimcRtions hare beea 
opened between all part* of the world, thanks to the mnjeBlic 
Bway of the Roman empire, dvilijtation and the arta of life 
have mitde a rapid progress, owing- to the intenhonge of oom- 
modities and the common enjoyment by all of the hlebritigs of 
peace, vhilo at the eame time a laultitudo of ubjecta which 

^ Thin must be iiiKlf^TstJiC'd vith conuflftTaMc modifliMtinii — m&ny-of 
the Lro]))iMiI Iri-ts nnd pknta Lava bet-n natniitlLzed, and tboao of America 
moro pBrticulatly, in EiiTdpe. 

> lie ia probably wroog m looking opon tlie me u indlgenou to ltd)'. 
It wu known in very carly_ dmee in E^rypt anJ Orccce, and it is tinv 
(^cr&lip cADfiid^rtid that it ia indigenous throiighnut tb< tract Hint 
BtrctfihM to thr wuth, ftDin the the mounlftiui of Mftziintlirun on Ibc Cft»- 
man Ui tUe abort* of the P«nijm Qulf and tlie Indian Bt-a, anil saiiwmd 
ftroueh Kborauon nnJ Cabul to (be bace of the liinmUyM. 

3 Ae ait of pri&tLDj;, i'6s remarkt, utt«rly prwludes the roourreiiH of 
lueh R fut ■■ tliit. 


pBooic srv. 

formerly lay coaceoled, ore now revealed for oar iiidiscriniiiLate 

Still, by HerculeB I at the preaent day tlu-re are mmc to bo 
fotmd who bave any acquaintance with much that hae been 
handed down to lis by tlio uneient \vritcps; so much more 
compFeheneire was the diligent reacardi of our forefuthere, or 
else ao much more happily employed was their industry. It 
is a thauaond ycara ago aiuce Hesiod,' at the very dawn, so to 
say, of literature, first gave precepts for the guidance of the 
agriculturiat, an esampic wbich has sine© been followed by no 
small Qumbeir of writer*. Hence bave originated considerRblv 
luboura for ourselves, seeing that we have not only to enquire 
into the discoverieB of modem times, but to aflcertain aa well 
whftt was known to tho ancietite, and this, too, Jn the Tcry 
midst of that oblivion whii^h tho heciileflfineBa of the praaent 
day has bo greatly tended tu generate. Wiiat causes thon are 
we to neaign Cor this Ifithac^, other than tho»e feelings which 
we find actuating the public in genored throughout all the 
world ? New mannors and usages, no doubt, have now coin© 
into vogue, and the minds of men are occupied with subjwt* 
of a totally different nature ; the arts of aviirice, in fact, are 
the only ones that are now cultivated. 

In days gone by, tho Bway and the destinie* of states were 
bounded by their own narrow limits, and consequently the 
geniuB of the people was aimilurly ciroumFwribod as well, 
through a sort of niggitrdliDcas that woa thus displayed by 
Fortune; Lence it became with them a matter of absolute 
necessity to employ the advantages of the UDderatauding : 
kings innumeniblo received the homage of the art«, and in 
making a display of the extent of their rcBources, gave the 
highest rank to those arts, entertaining the opinion that it wa« 
through them that tliey should ensure immortality. Hence it 
TPaa that due rewards, and the various works of civilization, were 
displayed in such vast abundance in thuBO times. For thene 
later agea, the enlarged boundaries of the habitable worhl, 
and the vast estont of out empire, have been s positive ityury, 
BinoB tho Censor has been ehosen for the extent of hia property, 
I tince the juJge has been selected according to the mngiiitude of 
hii fortune^ since it hoa beoome the fushion to consider that 

' In allarion to Ih poem, tbe "tVorka and Days," the pnttotype of 
Tirpl'a Gevrg'iBi. 

Chap. 2.] 

nnt KATPBi or the tjkt. 

nothing rcflcptfi a higher mprit upon the magiBtraU^ itJid Ik^.i 
general than a lar^ ectaW, einoe tie being dpsticuto of heira' 
has be^un to ennfrr upon pcreona the ver^' highest pnwpr onrl 
influenc'e, eiuco legaej'-huniing' has bcoume lh« most lucrativa 
of all prufesBions, and since it has been considered that thv 
only real pleasures are those of posseaaing, all the true enjoy- 
nients of life hxvD bi-en utti-rly lo«t sight of, nod all those arl« 
which have derived the namn of liberal, from liberty,'' that 
greatest UtsMing of life, have come to doserve the contrary 
uppcllation, servility alone being the- paa-tport to profit. 

This servility caph one has his own pecnliar -WBy of making 
most agr&oahlo, and of putting in pnititjce in reference to 
others, the niotivcB and ihe hopRft of all tendiLg to tliu one 
great object, the acquisition of wealtli : indeed, we may every- 
whero behold men even of natundiy eswillent quoiities pre- 
ferring to foHter the viciiMis inclinations of othem niLher thim 
cultivate their own taleuts. We may therefore conclude, by 
Hercules ! that plca.inre hm now begun to live, and that life, 
truly BO called, has ceasod to be.* Aa to oiirBolves, however, 
we shall oouticue our rcsearehes into matters now Ii>»t in ob- 
livion, nor shall we be deterred from pursuing our task by the 
tririal nrittire* of aorao of our detailts, a consideration which 
Las in nu way influenced us in our deeuriptioQ of tbo unimal 
world. And yet w© find that Virgil, that most adniirablo 
poet, bus allowed this to indueacohim,inbisoraisBton toenlai^^ 
upon the beauties of the garden -, for, happy and grsceful poet 
as he is, he baa only culled what wo may call the flower of 
bis Bubjeot: Lndoed, we find that he lias only named'* in all 
some fifteen varieties of the grape, three of the olive, the same 
nombor of the pear, and the citron of ABeyrisif and has passed 
Qver the rest in siknee allog«thcr. 

(2). Willi what then ought we to begin in preference to tbe 
vine, tbe superiority in which has been so peculiarly con-i 

* He iilluilei to 111? l(>jr&r^7<huiit«T« with whiuh Srime slH»ini]ed in hi« 
ti[Q9> Tb«y nio s^okciit of by Ssaeca, Tacilui, and JaTOlial, in Unnt of 
•even re|>rti1>atiiin. 

■ Tlili Mcns to be the meaning of " cnptatio ;" much like what we ea]| 
"toadying," or"too<l-eating."' 

' Tno " litwraU's wIm," wcro those, th* piimiit of which wm not con- 
kiidn^d d«rogiili»iy to ihc dignity tif a bea luan, 

* Vita icHB dceoit. 
' UumiUtiw. " In the Gcor^. 


[Book SiV. 

ceded te Italy, that in tliia one bleaHing wo may pronounoo hbV 
ti> luivo tiur^KiaBed thuso of all other aatious of tno eurLti, wilh 
tlie sole exoc'^tio^n of tLiosv Uml bear tbie Turiouti peifamuB? 
and even ther«, when tlie vine is in flower, Ihure ie not a per- 
fume; knQvvn which in exquisite sweBtiiess caa surpass it. 
The Tine has been jnsUy reckoned" by the ancients among llio 
trees, on nccouiit of ita romariablG aizo. In the city of Popu- 
lonium, wc ece ii statue of Jupiter formed of the trunk of a 
Biogle vino, which has for agea remained proof a^inBt all 
decay ; untl tit Masailia, theru is a patera madu of tho eaino 
wood. At Afetapontimi, thi3 templo of Juno hua long stood 
sapporled by pillars formed of thii like materiLtl ; and even at 
the prewjat day we aecf ]id to tli*^ njof of the temple of I>iana at 
EpbesuB, by stairs constructed, it is saidf of the tnink of a single 
Tine, thfit was brought Jrom 0)-pru3 ; the vines of that i^aud 
often attaining a moat rcmarlfnble size. There ifl not a wood in 
exietonee of a more laating uatnro than this; I am atrongly 
inclined, however, to he of opiiiiua that thti material of wmuh 
these vanoue articles were constructed was the wild vine. 


The eultivated vine is kept down by pruning eTery your, 
and all the atrength of iho tree ia drawn as much as possible 
into the shoots, or else thro-wu downwards to the seta ;'" indeed, 
it 18 only allowed to expand with the vioiw of enauring an 
abundnnt Bupply of juto^, u result which i& obtained in various 
modes according to the peculiaritieB of the climato and the 
nature of the soil. In CEuupaniu th{!y attach" tht; vine to the 
poplar: embracing the tree to which it is thus wedded, the 
vine grasps the branchea with its amorous arms, and as it 
cliinhe, holds on with its knott<-d trunk, tiU it ha* reached the 
veryBummit; the height being eometimeB so Btupendons that 
the vintager when hired is wont to stipulate for his funeral 
pile and a grave at the owner's expense. Tho vine keeps 

" Thcophnwlus rMltons it amonjf the trwB ; Cnlnmdltt, B. ii,. ennitd<^ 
it lo occapy a middle positinn betircen a tree and n ibrub. Horace, B. i. 
Ode IB, call» it a true, "^ arbor.' 

" Or ■■InyeTB," " propaginBi." 

'^ Nubunt, pHiperly " fliiiTry." TIiIb ii still doao ia NapUs, and otli«c 
pom cr Italy. Iho UK of viae stayii tboT'O wo uakoawn. 



continually on tbti increase, aad it is quite imposcibic to eoua- 
rate the two, or rather, I may say, to tear them atiunatir. 
ViileriflDus CornpHua has rogairded it aa «n© of th« most re- 
markable facta that could be tmneTnitted to postority, that 
single vines have been known to surround villas and countrj'- 
hauBes with tlieir ehoob? and creeping tendrils ever on the 
strotch. At Kome, in tho porliuoes of Livia, a Bitglfl vine, 
witli its Icat-ckd trcUises, prottfuts with its shudc the walka 
ia the opun air ; the &uit of it yields twelve umphune of 

Everywhere wo find tbo vinet ovprtoppiag tlie elm even, 
and we read that OiDeaa,"" the ambassiidor of King Pyrrhua, 
when admiring the great height of the xiniis at Ariotii, 
wittily making Atlui>tDn to the peculiar rough taste of wint-, 
reinurked that it was with very good reaaon that they had 
hung tlic parent of it on so lofiy a gibbet. There is & treo 
in that part of Italy which Ilea beyond tlie Padus," known 
as the " riunpotinus," "* or sometimes by !ho name of "opu- 
iu»," tbt! broad circular'* etorcys of whieh aro covered with 
vines, whose branches wind upwards in a serpentine form to 
the port whpre the boughs finally di^'ide," and then, throw- 
ing out their tendrils, disperse them in every direction among 
the straight and finger-like twigs which project from the 
branches. There are vines also, about ae tall aa a man of 
niodi;Tatd height, which aro Biipportcdhy propa, and, as they 
throw out their bristling tendrils, form whole vineyards : while 
others, again, in their inordinate love for climbing, combinod 
with skill on tho port of the propriotorj will cover even tlie 
very centre" of the court-yard with theii ahooti! and foliage. 

'* "Muitum." Pure.unfermeQtaljiiioe of thegTflpe. 

'** 8«e B. rii. e. 31. '> Italiu TruQspadaQa. 

^^' Sen R. ssiv. e. 112. Ill)) Bnuhiiu lire at opiaion Lhnt thii j« th>e 
Ami onolua of Willdetiow, commtm in Italy, and very bmoth?. 

^^ " faliuiiita to nrbtm patula." lie prolmbij alludca to tne braiLcfatt 
«xIeR>dini; horixoBloUy from tke truak. 

" '"iDpalmiunejut." 

^ There is no doubt that the whole at this poMare i« In a mott cor- 
rupt itatc, and wo cbq only gatat at iti mrnainf^. cilliK miggcBtj a new 
rending, »bich, misupporti-if aa it ia by any of tli* H38., can only be 
lOf^rdcJ ax fanciful, and jicrhnpn as n very sUgbt iuiproveTjient QD. th« 
ulti'TiypUi tu obtain a £i>luti<iii uf iha diJQtrulty. Pliny'i miUR object Hcenu 
to be to ciontmst the vinta that totniiio mmi polu aad. tiK peipendicu- 
briy ytitix tiboixs Uaat oretp horizontulLy. 



[Book SIV. 

fio iiTinieroas are the varictiea of the Tino Trhiob even Italy 
al«ne presents. 

Id Bome of ths prtmnccB the vine is able to stand of itself 
■without anyfJiiiig to Bupport it, drawing in its horiding 
broD-uhcB, and makiiig up in its thickness for ita stuated size. 
In other pkfloe, again, the winds will not allow of this mode of 
culture, as ia Africa, for instaiice, and various parts of the 
pro*ince of GaUia Narlioaensia. These vineB, fM^ingprerrntod 
from growing beyond the first tranches, and henoe always 
retaining a resemblance to those plants wliich etand in need 
of the hoe, trail along the ^ound just Eke thcra, and crery 
hftri! and there suck" up Ite jiiiecs from tho earth to fill their 
grupee : it is in oouBtn^ueneQ of this, that in the interior of j\ij-iott 
the clusters'* are known t^ exceed the body of an infant in sixe. 
The wine of no country iu more attd than those of Africa, but 
there is nowhere to be found a grape that is n^ore ugrui^aUle 
for ite firnmeas, a circuuiHtance which may very probably have 
given rise to it« name of tlie "hard grape."" As to Lho 
varietiei of the grnpp, although they are rondered innumerable 
by tho size, the colour, and tho flavour of thu berry, they are 
multiplied even etill more by the wines that they produeo. 
In one part they are lustrous with a rieli purple cQlour, while 
ia aaother, again, they glow with a rosy UnC, or oIhq are gloBay 
with their verdant hue. Tho grapes that are merely whito 
or blaek are the common sortJt. Tho bumnstue'^ swella out 
in form like a breast, while that known aa tlie "dactylus,"** 
has a berry of remarkable length. Nature, too, diaplaya such 
variotiea in these productions of hers, that eraoll grapea are 
often to be found adhering to tlie largest fines, but of sur- 
paasing swcKitneaa; they aro known by the name of " lep- 
Ifjrrttgae,"^ Some, again, will keep throughout tho winter, if 
curej is taken to hang them to the ceiling^ witJh a &tiiDg; 

'* Bj throwine out fresli Blioot* every here and there. Fie, Iiowevw. 
Menu to tbink toitt te meaDi tbat the gravies tiiem(«b«*. as tbcT itaS 
aluiig the ground, BTifik up tlicjiiii!B» Willi ihcirporcB. Tliwa areknnwo 
in France oa "running linM," ami aro t'oimd in Ucnr nnd Anjou. 

'■'" He miut eviiltatly he spceking n( tlie size of tho buntAet. See tto 
eccooat of the grapes of Canaan, in NumlierB ziii. 24. 

" " Duriii atinus," or, according to soma reudiaga, " dujacinas," 

^ FrgmtlieGceekjdoi>jiiRffr^C,a ow'b tent, mcaiiaiied byVi^l, GwTj. 
ii. 102. =* Or flncer-grLipe. 

» From the Rroflk \inr<ipayic, " imall-homud." 

" PensiU cuncBoiariiliB uodo. 

Chitp. 8.] 



while others, sguiu, ivill ke(::p by virtue af their own natiiml 
freshneBB and vigour, if put into eorUiijn jun, wMch ore thea 
encloaed in dolia," and covered up with the lenneDtiug husts 
of grapes. Some grapes recnivc from thi.' wnokc of the black- 
HiniUi's forge that remarkable flavour which it U also known 
to impart to wint-s : it was the hiyh name of the Emperor 
Tiberius thnt brought into such great repute the gmpcB that 
had hflfiii 8iuok<!d iu the smithieg of Africa. Before his time 
the hlght«t rank at tuble wae asaif^id to the grapes of Rhie- 
titi,'' imd to those growing in the territory of "Verona. 

Raisins of the Sim have tho name of "pasd," from baviag 
been submiUed* tu the inHuente of the sun. It is not un- 
QonuD'OD to pre^rve grapes in must, and so make tlitim drunk 
with their owa juices; while there are some that art all the 
sweeter for being placed in miiRt afttr it has been boiled ; 
others, again, are loft to hang on the parent tree till a new 
crop has made its appearance, by which tirao they have be- 
GQine &B clear and as tnuiflpareut''" as gians. A»tringfot 
pitch, if poured upon the footstalk of the grupe, will impart 
to it all that body and that fimmoes which, when p!uo*d in 
Aili»* r amphorae, it gives to wine. More recently, too, there 
JPMHi^ discovered a viae which produces a fruit that imparts 
t6 tb irinti n Htrucg fl.ivour of pitch: it i^ the faniou» grape 
that conl'cTs such celebrity on the territory ot Vienne,*' and of 
which ecTwal variptiea have recently enriched the territories 
of the Arvcmi, the Requani, nod the Helvii:" it wria un- 
known in the time of the poet Virgil, who haa now been dead 
these ninety yeans." 

Iq addition to these particulars, need I make mention of the 
fact that the Tine" has been introduced into the camp and 

** We harfi no correspondinjt won! (at the I^tin "dolinnn." It woe 
an oblong earthen vessel, tucd for nmcb the miue purpoM ns niir Tiitx ; 
ni'W wina wu* ({«nemlly placed iu it. In tiiueB lalur tliiii tUa: yf Pliny 
the dolia ware mado «E nuod. 

*' RarAmiD apcuSu of Ihcne ^apu a& itjil {ttairin^ is His timn in the 
Valtcliiav, atLil Tcnuirknble for thKir cicdlemui'. 

^ " A pBtientiic." Bociuise iLaj hava tujfmd froni tho Jictioa of the 

i* From tliB thioaeiu of the skis. 

*■ fic« (i. '2-i, also it. siiii. c, -24. ^' See B.iii B. naiii.o. 24, 

*" Ue diL«l in the your B.C. 19. 

^ A riue! sipliag wiu the cbiuf mark af the 'Ceatucioa'e authority. 



f Book XIV. 

placed in the centurion's hand for the preservation of the 
Buprtmo authority oni command ? that thia is tho high reward 
■which eumroons the lagging ranks to tho cjigluB rmsed aloft.,*' 
and that even in ehastisemont for faults it tends to reflect 
honour upon the puniaktuent?'* It was the viacyard, too, 
that first atforded a notion,"* the practical utility of which hoa 
beBQ eipc^rienced in many a siege. Among the medicinal prtJ- 
piir.itnons, too, tht; vine holds eo high a place, tliat ita very 
wines takeu by thoinselvoa ore elUcocioua as remedies lur 


Demoeritna, who has di>clttred thut he was acquainted with 
every Tariety of the grape knoi™ iu Greece, is the only person 
who has heen of opinion that every kind could he enumerated ; 
hut, on the other hand, the rest of the authors have stated that 
thoy ore quite iiinumei'abla^'' and of infinite exti.-ut, sle aascrdoQ 
the truth of which will be more evident, if we only consider 
tlie vast numbtir of wines. 1 shidl notiLttempt, then, to spetik 
of every kiuti of Tine, btit only of Ujobs that aro the most re- 
markable, seeing that the Tarieties are very nearly as number- 
less OB the districts Ln. whith they grow. It will suffice, then, 
to point out those which are tJie most remarkwhle among the 
vines, or pIso are peculiar for some wonderful property. 

The very highest rank is givon to the Aminean* grape, on 

** Tito rending " fktns," ha* been (ulojted. If "lentns" is rt'iainH, 
it may mDim, " priirnotiuii, alow tbuugli it be," for tile ivard "nqiiiU" 

w»B oVlim i*ui3 tH) rionotfl the rank of tb» " priimpilu*," who h&a tlw 
oliurgo uf the va^ln uf the k-cifa. 

** B«ea.u86 it wu* Uio privilcsa soklv of tboso sgldiora who were Ronmn 
citJEens to bi^ bcottn with the vine ni\i\ing. 

** lie alludes lo IIlo " vinca'' tiBcd in boaiegin^ towns ; tlie fjrit notion 
of which WBsdsrivrd from llielfftfy roof iifi'orded by tho vlnca wlien crepjiiilK 
on tliK tii'lli* o»i'r-liGad. it was o mowublfl niiithine, uJlurJijig ii rygf 
under whicii iho lesiotfPTs owtecwJ ihrtniitlTtit apuiiigt durls, stones, Are, 
und otlicr miisiLCB. Uuw aides or wot clotbn couhtittiiod thf. ij|ipcrnio«t 

« a.!P B. juiiu c. 19. 

** Many jmn acw. Iheie were in tlie (rardons of tbo LiiXfrnbourii out- 
tlionsanil fuiiir hunJn.'d vorietiea of the Frcncti grapt^, itnil cvon then thorc 
wwR miiny nut ut ho found tlioro; whik. nl th* ftam^ time, It wiw eoti- 
nidered tliat the Frcneh kinds did not fuTiu more tbau onc-twcntitlh part 
ol' tbp Kpi^cicii kniiwa in Kuiupe, 

^> TliLtf fine woa said la Ik of Grooian origin, udJ to hare been cvu- 

Gbap. 4.] 


account of the body and durability of ita wine, wbiii improvei 
vith old age. Tbere are fire Vtirietioa of the Amineaa grape ; 
of these, the emaller germana, or " sister" grape, has a smaller 
bcny tiiaD the rest, and flowers more elrnngly, being able to 
bear up ngainat rain and tomprBtuoue wcatJiLT ; a thing that 
is not the rEise with Iho lttrgT?r germana, thouph it is Iurs ei- 
pgsed to dangi^r when attachi-d to a tree than ^'beo supported 
only by a trellis. Another kiad, aguin, has obtained the 
niune of tht; "gL'OHjlla," or " twin" grupe, because the clusters 
always grow*" in couples : the flavour of the wine is extrcmdy 
rough, but it is remarkable for its strengtii. Of theae several 
varieties the smaller one siiffc-rs from the south wind, but re- 
ooires nntriment from all the others, upon Mount Vcfluviiis, 
for iiiBtanc«, and the bills of Surrentiun : in tins other parts of 
Italy it 18 rifver grown excupt attached to trees. The flfth 
bind is that known as the lanata, or " wooUy " grape ; ao that 
w© need not be surprised at the wool-bearing trees'^ of the 
Seres or the Indians, for this grajie lb covi^red with a woolly 
down of renmrkablo thickness. It is tlie firat of the Ami- 
nean vines that ripcna, hut the grape decajB with remurkablo 

The second mnk belonga to the nnes of Noroentum,** th« 
■wood of which ib red, from which circumfllance the vines have 
received from some the name of " rubelhe." The grapes of 
ihiE vine produce Icbb wzue than usual, in eoascqueuce of the 
extraordiufiry quuntUy of husk and tees thoy thruw off: but 
the vine is remarkably atrong, in well able to eUiud the frost, 
and i» apt to receive more detrimont frora drought th&n from 
rain, fr^im beat than from cold j hence it is that tiiose are 
looked upon m the best tlmt are grown in cold nnd moist 
localiticd. Tlmt vuritty which has the BUioUest grape is con- 
voyed bj' u I'bciMaliuu tribe to Iwly, where it was grown at Araincft, « 
viUa^o U ibe Fakinmn distritt uf Campanin. It u BUftposcd la haie 
bcfn the nittrio ea tlir ffrtin plant of the Fnncli- The vtrirtici mentiubtd 
bj' Pliny mbiu not tc liavu hnea recogiiiipil bj tbe muduma. 

*" Vit (InrE n-oC gice cradit to tbiE statement. 

" 111 allutilon tu the cottoa'tme, or ehv tbc mulberry Icaviw dovct'tU 
witb iJi-B cucoiiDR oT the silkwomi. Sc^c E, vt. c. 20, anil B. iLi. c. HI. 
Tlrgil, In Ihu GMraita, bia tiif wr'll-lcnown line ; 

" Villetaquo ut fulib dcpecUnt teniLii Sirra." 

" See B. iii. k. 9. There «ri' niany riatSj lUc wu-ud of KhLch ia redj 
bot titit flpadca Vob not botm identiliud.' 



[Book XtV. 

Biilered the moet fruithU ; tb<j one which bus a jagged leaf is 
Ififls productive. 

The vine known as the " apiana,"" has ri^ciTed that namo 
from th6 bee, aa inw?ct which ie remiirhahly fond of it : there 
ore two vartutitifl of this viae. This grape, too, ie covered in 
its young state with a kind of dowu; the mtiin. ditlfcrcnce bo- 
twecB the two varieticB is, that the one lii^ous more rapidly 
tliun tke other, Uiough this laet ripens with condderabUi 
quickne^. A cold locality k not at ttU hurtliil to tttnn, 
although t]iere ia ciO' grttpe ttiat ripeos nooner: the»e grapea, 
howevL-r, very aoon rot in the rain. The winea prodnced by 
this grape are Bweel at first, but contract a tougb flavour in 
the course of yeara. Thia vino is ciiltivatod more than any 
other in Etruriu.. Thuu far we h»vc made mention of th« 
more celcbratecl vinen smong those which are peouliar and in- 
digoacma to Italy ; the rest have been introduced from Chics 
or T hasoa. 

The Bmoll Greek** grape ib not inferior to the Aminean for 
the excellence of ita quality: the berry is remarliably thin- 
Bkinncd, and the clustor ao estremiely amoU,^ that it is not 
worth while cultivating it, ejtcept on a soil of reitiarkablo 
richness. The ougenia,*' so oallcd fhJin itu high qualitiea. has 
been iatroduuod into tbe Alban territory Irom the hilla oC 
Tauromciiiuoi ;'* it is found, however, to thiive only there, 
for if traneplanted elsewht;r& it degencratee immediak-Ey : in 
fuot, there is in some vines so strong an attachment to their 
native noil, that they leave behind thera all their high repute, 
and are nuTci- Irunsplanttd in their full entirety. This is tho 
case, too, with thp Khtctian and the Allobrogian grapes, of 
which we have made mention above as tlie pitch-lUvoured" 
grape; theee are justly deomed cxcollent in their own couil' 

•* From " npi"," it " hee." He sllnidi's, il. ig tlioiielit, to the rauscatpl 
erspe, fiudi to aa-ve bail ib narnn frum " lausuii," u '-Ay ;" an iae&ui wUvU 
IS grs&Uy attracted hy its EWo«tncB9. 

^ F£o il inclinfl lo think tiuM he alludes In tbo viuo af Coiiatb, Itio 
drifid fruit of nhiuti an the L-uinLuU of commeroo. 

*• Kiomtlici Greelt ii>ylt'na, 

*■'' Xaw Tuurmiuti, tn Siuily, whcri}', V&c myn. it is itill to Ira round. 
Tba gnipca uro rod, similar lo thoKc of Uaecali nour i^lna, and niiuli 

" HcaU. Seep, 22!. 

Cliop. 4.] TiniETIES Qir TUB TINB. 225 

tiy, while elecwbcro thoy we held in no Lsteem at alL Still, 
however, in cousoqu'ence of their XLiuarkaljlo fi-rtiUty, tiiey 
make up for quality by abundance: the eugcnia thrircs in 
spots which aru Kcorvhlng hot, the llhstliin vine in p!ac?s of a 
more moderate tempernture, anil the Allobrogian in cold, ex- 
posed situations, the &mt ^teiog of a block colour, and ripeiiMl 
ty the ftgoncy of firost. 

The wines produced from the vines of which wc haro 
hitherto made mention, even though the grspt-s are bUck, 
b(;come, all of theni, wb«li old, of a white '" complexion. Tlir 
other TLues arc of ao note in particular, though somtitimt^s, 
thanks to Bume peculiarity either in the climate or the soil, 
the wintw produced from thera ttttaiji a mature vld tcge ; »uch, 
for instance, aa the Fwienian'" vine, and the liiturigiiui," which 
blosgoms at the same time with it, but haa not ao many grapen. 
The blossoms of those last- mentioned vin^ nre not liuble to 
receive injury, both bi^aiiw- they are naturally but tmiist- 
tury, and bavo tlio power of n'sieLing tho iictioa (if both wind 
and stonn; still, howevir, thu»u that grow in cold sputtt are 
considered superior to those produced ju a wartn site, and thosw 
found in muist pluses Bupcriot to thoee grown in dry, thirsty 

The vine known b» the " vxbuIe" « • * • * juoni 
than abundance of fruit, being unable to endure the extreme 
viiriutiuiu of the atmoephere, though it ih very well able to 
nEand a con tin nation of either cold or hi-at. Of this last kind 
the sDtsllcr one is the best, but difficult to pkasc in its thoice ; 
in a rich earth it is upt to rot, while in a thin Boil it will cume 
to nothing at nil : in ile fti^tadioHBueFs it retiuirea a soil of 
Buddiiug quality, and hence it is that it is so commonly fooiid 
on the hilk of the Subiuc territory. Ita grape is unsightly in 
appearance, but has a very pleasant flavour : if it is not gathered 
at the very moment that it is ripe, it will iall, even before it 
decays. The extreme size of the leureH, and its natural hardi- 

** /. «,, mlo sbmw colour. 

*° Itluu DMoiinppowd That tliic vice roaiiTtid its niiin«frODi "fRx," the 
vine dcjKxitiuir on unuuiall^ lur^c qunuiU.r cf \«oi. 

" It IS donbtfU wheihor tliis rino had ila nume from being frown in 
Ihd diatriot row isallt-il Bowrgps, or thut of Bniirdtaui, Uuttichftrnjn ideii- 
tifioa il with Ihe ptanl iT^JtUiju. 

^ The iirigin of ita nuiie is luikiLown. Tlje text ii eridaatljr dohctiv*. 

Toi- ni. 4 



[Bo«t XIT. 

ne&9, aix} iU great protectioa afloat the diswtroiu efiecU <if£ 

Tho gropcB lainwTi as " lielvolaj"*^ are remarkable for the 
peculiarity of tht-Lr colour, which is a sort of midway betirc<rii 
purple and blatk, but vcriea-ao frequently that it has mado 
Bomo peraona give them tlie name &f " variftnte." Of the two 
Hfirts of hclvola!, the bkok is the one gtinerally proferred ; they 
buth of thorn prudncc vv(;ry other year, but the wine ie btiet 
when the vinlsge has ta^en kas abunduiit. 

The vine thnt ia known aa the *' precia"" is also divided 
into two varieties, distinguished by the size of the grape. 
These vines produce a vast quaotit}' of wood, and the grape ie 
very good for preserving in jars;'* the leaves are aimiJar ia 
appearance to that of parsley." The people of Dyrrhaebium 
hold in high esteem the vine known as the " baaUica," tho 
same which in Spain ia called the " coeolobie."" Tho grapen 
of this vine grow in thin clustora, and it can stand great heat, 
oud the south winds. Thu wino produced Itom it is apt to fly 
to the head :** tho produce of tlie vine is very large. Tho 
people in 8puin diatinguish two kinda of thia vine, the onu 
witt the oblong, the other with the round grapo ; they gather 
this fruit the very laist of all. Tlic sweeter the cocolobia ia, 
th« more it is valued ; but even if it has a rough taate, the wino 
wil! become &w«et by keeping, while, on the other liand, that 
which was Bweet at first, will acquire a certain roughneaa ; it 
id in this laat state that the wine is thought to rival that of 
Alba,* It is said that the juice of this grape is remarkably 
cfflcacioua when drunk as a specific for diseases of the bladder. 

^ By till* ntmio it would be untlvntoad thut tli^y wr» r>f an irjlor- 
mudi&U colour IkIwcuu rotu nadwtiite, u not UDComnioD colour ia tho 
grape. PUnv. howcvt^r, says otherwisn, anil be. is stiiinurttd by Columella. 

^' C. Banriu took tliis lo niraa oiip of the ^aKitn currant tree*, tbe 
Bibcs uva crispit ol' LiuEHniB, cnllod by Eauhin Graggulnria siniplki acino, 
111' olie i4pini)gH ntgretVm, Hut, as Fcl' uliscirvc'^, the aucieaU veie mil m> 
ignuruiLt us U uonl'uund a vino with a currant-bush. 

'^ Iiike the I'orCusaiiee grupeit at the prtaent day. 

** finspcd and indented, 

W Ibi* vatiiBtv, aoturtlinR U> Christian do la Vpffn, was caUimtnl 
nhiinduiitLy [a urennda. The wurd otK^aiy according t<> fi^iicu, uicuat 
cchjVb comb. It ia mujitioucd lu a Sptaitali wurd bv Columdlu. 

** Dalcchumijs Eaya. that a mrailar mac was tnaile at Montpollicr, and 
that it WBJ Bfillihd "piijuurdnot." 

*• See B. iiiii. cc 20, 21, 

du-p. 4.] 



Tbo " iilbucliii" * produces moat of ita finiit at the top of 
iho tree, the c isula at the bottoio ; h«Dce, when pl&ated uround 
the same tree, ia consequence of these [lecutiantieB lo their 
nature, thty bf-nr betwii^en them a two-f«>ld crop. One of the 
black grape vines haa boon called the " inc-rticiila," *' though 
it might with more propriety have been style*! the "sobria;"*' 
the wine from it ia r«itiarkiibly good, vaid more portictitariy 
when old ; hut though strong, it ib productivi; of no HI effetts, 
and, indeed, is this unly wiae that will not cuuse in- 

The abundance of their produce again rocomniends other 
vines to us, and, in the first pluee, that known as the " belveu- 
naca"" Of this vine there are two kiuda; the larger, which 
ia by aorae called tiio " Iticg" helvennaca, and the smallt'r 
kind, which is known as the " emarcum,"" not so prolilic as 
the first, but producing a wine of more ngrecable flavour ; it 
is distinguished by ita rounded leaf, but thoy are both of 
theiu of alendfsr make. It ia requisite to platiu forks beneath 
these vines iur tlie support of thuir branches, as otherwise it 
would be quite impossible for them to support the weight of 
their produce : they receive nutriment from the breezes that 
blow Irom th« Bca, and foggy weather is injurious to them. 
There it! not one among the vices that manifets a greater 
avendon to Italy, for there it becomes companitivtly leafless 
and stunted, and soon dconys, while the wine which it produces 
there will uot keep beyond the summer : no vine, however, 
thrives bettor in a poor solL OnBcinus, who has copied from 
the works of Cornelius Ccleus, givea it as hia opinion that it is 
not that the nature of this vine ia repugnant to the climatt' 
of Italy, but thut it is the modo uf cultivating it that is 

•• Probatily from "altjiis," "wliiti>." Poinsiiiot tbinks that it may 
ban boun so isdk<] iivia the Celtic wurd nfA, ut <i^i a mouutuiu, luid ihai 
it grtrit on elL-vati'il hjiaU. This, tiowov«r. is probably funoil'uL 

" CftUc.lI bj the Orveka afiUfutroy, itam its oompurativoly haimUss 

** Or "iobef " vino. 

"* Uardouin uiys tbat in hie lima it wu still «idtivalcd sbmit Kiieunta, 
in iTit Komaii Stulca. F«e thiiiks that it may bo one ftf thfl olimbiog 
vines, supported by forks, cultivate! in tij* tLTitttil proTiiicci of Fniuec. 
S«? nl»o il. utiii. c, 19, a& to Ibi? eHV'tU produKud by its -winu. 

** PuiaBiart gUcB a CcUo-Scytliuu wigia to ttU word, ant! says tint, it 
means "iiijurou by hg&." 'Ihit ap^eati to be Buppuirtvd ia aumu nwiuuic 
by what ia elated btlow. 




wrong, and tTio anxiety to force it to put forth ita shoots; a 
mode of treatment, ho thinlis, whJcH absorbs all its fertilitT, 
unless the Boil in whiuh it is planted happens to be remitrkably 
rich, and by it3 support prpvcnts it from being PxhiniBtcd. It 
is fiftid thai thia vino is nover carbimcSed," a pemarkablo qua- 
lity, i{, indeed, it really is thu fact that there ia any vine in 
existence that is exempt &om the natural in^uencee of the 

Tile Epionia, by some called the " spinea,"** is able tob*»r 
hcnt very we]l, and thrives ia the autumn and rainy weather : 
indG(^d, it is the only one among all tho rities that does woU 
amid fog», for which reason it i« peculiur to the territory of 
Ilftvenna." The venicula" ir one of those thnt blossom the 
strongest, and ita grapt* are piirticiilarly well adapted i'ar pro- 
Herviag in jara. I'he Campanians, howiover, prefer to give it 
t]i« name of" Bcireula," while others, again, call it " stacula." 
Tarracina haa a \ine known as tho " jiuiniwaua;" it has no 
ciualities oE its own, but baa charnoteri sties just according to 
the nature of tlie soil in which it is planted : the wine, how- 
ever, if kept in the earthen caaks *" of Surrentum, is remark- 
able for it« goodnesa, that is to Bay, aa far south as VesnviM. 
On amTing in that distrii^t, wo lind the MnrgLntina," the very 
bent among all thoeo that come froai Sicily. Some, indeed, 
call the vine " Pompeiana,"" and it is more particularly fruitfal 
when grown in Latium, just as the "hopconia'*'^ is producti\-e 
nowhtrc but in Campanift. Of a contrary nature ia the vine 
known as the " argeioa," and by Virgil called " argitia i*'" 
it makes the ground all the more'' productive, and is remark- 

*• Seo B. ivii. c. 37. 

** Or'Mliorny" nne. P6e queries why it abould be tbai called. 

"^ This buniiil, munliy loc&IIly was nut4>d tm tbu biidiiese of it« ^ttpot, 
nnd cons^quentlv ofita moo. 

"" Fltirdouin nhinksthnt tliisistlie "Mano mirra" oF tdo Venetiuii: 
wUftWOt', periiaps, it* ancient name, 

1" "TnjitiB." See B, nxv. c. 4G, 

'" From Mnrpivntum, iu Skily. Sso E. iii. 0. 11. 

^' From I'ompoii. aftcrwnnU Aeettoyei. See B. iii. C. 9. 

'' Bardouin. m Feu thinks, «itbout good reosan, idendflM this m'th 
thn " .^relaca" uf Coluruella, 

" OvDtgirs, ii. 99. 

'■< Tbia aeuiTia ta \ni Iha mGaain^ of " ultru solum Imtim fncit," Tbcm 
tTra litas bavG been introduced bjr Sillig, from one of tbs MSS., lor tho 
futt titne. 

Cliftp. 4.] 



ably stoat in its r&stistance to rain and the ctTocls of old age, 
though it will liatdly produce wine every year ; it if remark- 
ablp for the «bun(lKiit crops which it iwurs, though the grapes 
are held bat in SToall cattem for eating. The vine knona as 
the " metica" laBts woll for years, and offers a suocessfiil re- 
eietance ia all clionges of we&thor ; the grapo is black, and the 
wine as-uuniflB a tawny huQ when old. 

(3.) Thu Yoriotics that havi! beea mentionpd thus far ani 
thoBe that ara gifuerally kauwn ; the others hcluug tu piTuliar 
countries or indi\'iduaL localities, ordse are of ttmixednatare, 
the produce of graCtiug. niUB the vine known as the " Xutler- 
nis,"™ is peciiEiar to the didtriii.-tH of Btriiria, aiid bo loo is 111* 
vine that bears the name of " Hai-entia. '* At Arretium the 
talpono, the etesiacii, luid the consemina, are particularly ux- 
eellent,"* The talpona,'^ which is a black gmpo, produccjs a 
pale, Htraw-coloured" must 1 the etefriaca'* it; apt to deceire; 
tfau mom the wine it produixis the better the (juality, hut it 
.'JB a remarkable fuet, that juitt as it hua roatlii^d that paiut itB 
' fecundity ceiuici) altogether. The conscTninu ^ boors a black 
grape, but iU wine will not keep, though the grape itself is 
a most excellent keeper ; it is gathered tifteeii days later than 
any other kind of grape : this vine ia very fruitful, but its 
grape is only good tor eating- The leaves of this tree, like 
those of the wild vine, turn the colour of l>lc«d just before the 
fall : tlie same is the case also with »oinu " other varieties, bnt 
it is a proof that they are of very infurior quality. 

The irtiolii*' is a vine peculiar to TJmbria and the terri- 

Ts Huiluiiin tlunlu that it ts so culled from Tudvr, a tvira of StrariA. 
Sen li. lii. a. It). 

" Siliig auffgcBU ttiBt the rcadioj heio ifl cnmint, and that Pliny 
meuLS to Eiiy tliut tho villi; cullfil Flocuntia is parti cull irly excellent, kji-J 
mrrcly tu iUlF tliac tliM tnlpoDa, &';., »te peculiar to Arn<tiunL; foi, »i 
liv safe, Epttikiuii- dirccily ufterwftnU m (li£pitnis«iii«nt cf thum, it u nut 
likely lie wduU jitonnuficf: thcni " opima." of " first-rate quality." 

" From " tulpa," a "■ mole," in cotiKuncuce o( its btiuk coloar. 

« "Album." 

'' l^bably w culled frnoi thGEt.BBion vrinils, whicli impmri^ilitc ci'o^tb. 

*■ Forbapa menniD^ "dimblc-sc-cilc'ii." Wo muy Ihtu reiiuirk. that the 
winisa oflStacao]', thouf^h held in Liitlu esteem ia aucicnt times, aro bighlf 
otoumcil at the priiatnt liny. 

^* Tbo iL'avra uf moHt Viirictira tiim red jiut before the fitll, 

^ And UitCGJlu tbinlu tbat Ibii ia tbe kind boia wbicb Hie raiaiiu of the 


[Bwic xrv. 

torica of Mevaiiia mid ricenmn, whilQ the pumula" belongti 
to AmitcTnuiii. la the etuno districte we iiii<l tho viuo coiled 
banDaaica," which is very deceplive. thotigh the people are 
remarkably fond of its fruit. The luunieipiiL town of Tom- 
peii has given its name to the Pompeia,*^ although it is. to be 
Ibimd in greater ubundance in the teiritoty of Cluaium. The 
Tiburina, also, is so called from the municipal town of Tibfir, 
although it is in this district that thry hare lately discovered 
the gmpe Imown aa the "olenginea," from its strong resem- 
blance to an oUtb : this being the rery last kind of grapa that 
hafi been introduced. Tlie Sabiucsandthe Lanrcntpa are thti 
only people ac(]iiainted with tho vinaeiola.*' Ae to tho vines 
of Slount Gaurus,* I am aware that, as they haTO been trtins- 
pluuted from the ralernian territory, tliey bear the name of 
" Falemian ;" but it is a fact that tbo Palernian vine, when 
transplanted, rapidly degenerates. Some persons, too, have 
made out a Tarentine variety, with a grape of remarknblo 
swcctneag: the grapes of the "capnios,"*" tho "bHcconiatis,"" 
and tho "tarrupia," grow en the hills of Thurii, and are 
never gathered liU after the frost commoncos. Pis» enjoys 
the Fanan vine, and Mutina the prasiniaD,*' with a black 
grape, the wine of which turns pale within four years. It is 
a veiy remarkable thing, but there i* a grape here that turns 
round with the aim., iu its diurnal motion, a circumstance ixom 
which it has received the name of " Btreptoe." ■* In Italy, the 

ttnn, comniDn in Italy, and more partlsuliulyiii fke Valley of Bevagna, the 
Mevsnia of Pliny, we mftde, 

" I'erhaps from "■pmiiilio," a dwarf. 

w The " royal " vine, aocording to Poinsinet, who would deiivo it fioin 
the Sckvonio " ban." 

" Prtrioiiiily muntiiined. p. 228. 

•* The rpsidcnoc of Hoinr*, now Tivoli. 

»■" Bttcciui! sftjs thflt tlio irineof thi»grap« wa« thin lilce if ater. ami that 
the vma wm trained on loflj trees, a nuidB of rulfJTation itiU folloifGd in 
the' TLcinily of Iltxno. Laurcntum trus ^ituuto within a short dist&Dce of 
it. near Oiitia. 

»* Sec B. iii. c. 9. 

*■ 8n called from the Bmolcy or intennediate oalour of its grapei. Ffe 
■UggCKCa that this may bo the tlow-Tipening grape of Frauoe, collad the 
"t^irius," cr "roirnna de coq." 

** Poiaibly meaning the *' moitthfnl." 

*■ Perhaps io called fiom Prusa, in Sithjuo, A diBtrict whieh bote M* 
IflUfiiit grape*. 

•" Or the " tunung " grape. A flibiilous rtoiy no doubt, origmBting ia 

Chap. 4.] 



(iallic vine is a great favourite, while Wyonfl the Alp't Ihat of 
Piceoum" is preferred. Virgil has mnde lutntion** of the 
Ttiitsian vine, the Mureotia, the In^E-a, an<J several other forcigri 
varieliftii, wliich are not to bo fwuiul in Italy. 

Them are some vincd, again, tlmt mo. rcmnrlcablc, not for 
their wint-, hHt for their prapps, such, for inatance. as, tho am- 
hrosiH,"oneof the " duracinufl "•• kind, a prnpc which requinai 
no potting, hilt will keep perfpctly well if left on the rine, so 
remitrkahli? ia the atrcngth with which it is rnrlowed for with- 
staadiag the efi'ects of mid, lioat, and eturm^ wn^thcr. Tho 
"orthampeloB,'"" too, is a vine thut reqiiireK neither tree nor 
stay, as it is well able to eustain its own weight. This, how- 
ever, i« not th« I'-use with the " dactjrliB," " the stom of which 
is no thicker than the Rnger. The " ooiuinbina"" is one of 
thoM with the finest clusters, and still more no is th« puri)]e 
"bimammia;" it dotsnot bear inclit8ti>rs,' but only secondary 
Ininches, There is the triptdanca,' too, a name which it owes 
to the length of its cluaters, and the pcirpiilfl.^ with it.* fthrivclled 
berry ; the RhHilicn,' too, bo called in tho Maritimri Alps, ihnugh 
very different from the grape of that nuuio whiuh is bo highly 
eetmned, and of which we have jirc^-iouBlv ejjoken ; tor in 
this variety thoclustoraare small, tho grapes iic closely packed, 

th>> namp, pTnlwblf. F^i? mi-^QmU thnt it mny liavc nciffiiiiatc*] in t1)» nnt 
DiiLwiiitiijii pmciiw of Uitiifjr tiin bunches hung after lliej wmd ripe, naJ 
th«n twisting llieni, vhich was thoiij;lit to inorcoie ihojuioa. 
*■ In thn irrndrm Mftruhra of Ancoiia. 
*• (joorg^ici, ii. 01. tt tt<i. 

Sunt 'FliBtiii: Tit«&, aunt et Marvotidea aLb» : 
• • • • « 

Ft pDMD FiilliiL udlior. t«iiiiiH|uc I^tcm, 
TtaUtura [>L>di« olim, riactura(]ac lin^iuua^ 

Puspnrra?. I*reciiDquo 

>* A iDiUUfail, F6e tUinlu. 

^ Oc "hard-bcrriKl." F^e thinlu tliat tlic maroqiiin, or Uorooeo 
an^ nailed lb« "pivd da jJouJe" (ui fowVe iwi), at Moulpdlior, may be 
Sia dtmtdniis. 

" Ot "ojirigbt Tine." In Anjaa oail Ilerault tbe riiiM are of iimUM 

»• Tho "fingnr-lika" Tin«, «» Tlie "piceoa" vino, 

' TIioukIi '"'fy fruitTul, it due* oat bear iu largo clutttn (racoini), but 
only in srriaU bniachca (uvd). 
» The"llirM.fnot"rin4), 

* Perhaps raeaning the " ntah" grape, from iti ■briftll«l appcunUGS. 

* See c. 3 of lhi« BmV. 




[Book SJT. 

and it produces 'but n poor wine. It has, however, the thin- 
ncRt akin of all the gpapee, and o single Rtone,' of Ttry dinii- 
nutivo sizPj which is knuwn aa tho " Cbiun ;"* one or two of 
iL-e grapes on the clustur are remarkubly large. There Is also 
the black Aminean, to which the name ol' tjjriaca is given : 
th« Spanish rine, too, the v^ry best of all those of iiiieriui' 

The grapce that are known as escariBC,'' ore grown oo Ixt-l- 
lise.s. Of the duracinus* kind, there are those known as the 
white and the btnck Tmctioa ; the bumaetus, too, ia aimilatly 
distmguishBd in colour. Among the viaiis t-iio, that havo 
not 06 ytit boon mcntiomKi, tfapro aro tho J^gian atd the 
KhodJELEi* kind:), as itlsa the imcialia, bu mlltid, it would seem, 
from its grape being ua ounce in weight. There is the luciuu'" 
too, tho blackest" grape known, and the stephjuiLti*," the 
cluBters of which Nature, in a sportivo iiitrod, has arranged in 
the form of a garland, the Itinves being interspersed " among 
the grapes; thi-re Lire the grapes, too, known as the "torenMS,"'* 
and whio-h quickly come to maturity, recommend thBrnselvea 
to the buyer by their good looks, and are easily carried &om 
jjlaetj to place. 

On the otlier hand, those known as the *' oinerea"'* uro 
condemned by their very looks, and so ar<! the rahiiBcula " and 
the aeiausca; " the produce of the alopecia," which rosii^mblns 
in colour a fox's toil, is held in less diBcetocDi. The Alexon- 
drina '" is the name of a vine that gi-ows in the vicinitj' of I'lia- 

' Tlio ordiaary number of pips or stonus is five. It U uilil'am ihai. via 
find hut one. Virril miinlions ihii ^pe, Ocorg, ii. 9o. 

' "Chiuai." THi* rtading is doubttQi, Ffc says that hcttreen JTarni 

anJ Temi, eight leagues frfim Sntilt'to, a smnl] grnpe ia fonaJ, williuUt 
■tiinp.s. It ix called "uva passB, or "pt 

' ptUHeriiia," So, ton, the Sultmu 

' "Orown for llio tabic." * Or "hard-berry," 

* MuBtioned by ^^rlfil. ftoorg, U. 101, '■" IJr pitch-^pe. 

" I'trbftps the "noirnnu" or "teiaturier" of Iho French. 

I) Qr " pitljuid-thiHlBti'd " vine. 

'* Keo_»»y» that this is Boroetimes ncuideofally the oose, bttt ia not the 
chanuilunstii: oia.ay voriuty now kuuvru. 

'* Or '•tn,•lTkl:^Jr^lpBB.'■ 

" The " Mh-coliiiitiM;!."' '* Thn " TUSfU-t-iittlonred." 

" Trahftbly ao crillei] from its grey coli;uf, liko that of tLu uis. 

I* Or "fin" Tiue. Till* variety i» unltnown. 

'* So CHllrd from AIcKandrio, ia Ttcob, not in Eg'ypt. Pkcdiicni YfM 
in tha Ticiaity of Moiuit Ida. 

Chop. &.} 

LcnxuftE or the visl 

locra : it is of stunted growth, Bsd bos branches b cubit la 
length ; the grape is black, almut the size of a bean, wilh s 
Wrry that ie »>ti, and remurkabJj small : the olnitcn hang in 
a slnnting diiTiction, and arii remarlcably nwDot ; the loaves are 
amall and round, without any diTiaion.*' Within tho last 
■Bven yearn there has been introduced at AJha HclTioj" in the 
, jmvince of Oallin Xnrbonenaia, a vine which blossoms but a 
flhtglc! day, iinil in consequently proof againnt nil noddcute: 
thi! uami! ^iven to it in "NarboniL'a," luid it is uuw planted 
thmighout the whole of that province. 


ocLTcaE or tob vise. 

The uldor Cato, who w«s rendered more particalu'Iy iUus- 
trt<iiJ8 by his triumph^' and tlie cen8t>r*Iiip, imd even more so 
by his literary lame, and the precepts whii-h he has givea to 
the Itomnn people upon every subject of utility, and the 
proper methods of cultivation in. partinolur ; a man who, by 
the univertwil imnfessiun, waa the firal hnshandraan of his age 
imd without a rival — has itii'Utioiic.-d u few varieties only of 
the vine, tho very nami^s of some of which are by tliia utterly 
forgotten." His Rtatennyit on this subject deserves our 
sepuratu couHtJiTation, and requires to he quoted at length, in 
ordt-r thtit \va may mulio ourselvca aequaintcd with the differ- 
ent varieties of this tree that were held iu th« higheet OBtecm 
in tiie yeiir of the City of llome (300, about the time of the 
capture of CurthitKO and Corinth, tliu period of his death: it 
will show too, what great advanr^^a civilisation haK iiiude in 
the huit two hundred and thirtyyeoFB. The following are tho 
remarks which he hos nmdo on the subject of tho vine and tho 

^ A» tlie ImTcn of tlio vino am universally (livittwl, it haabcenwHMidcred 
by many of the Mmmcntnt'm Hint thi.t is nut in nttlity a tids, but tlio 

Athlltiiil vira iirri of LiDiiiBU". The fruit, liiinivtT, nf l.lut criiaiCL-oiui 
pluit is remarltalil/ acHil, uml nol «we«t, u t'liny ttalve. Fie lejovU Ibis 
Bolutioa. ^ 

** Anbenai, In t1i<! Yirnrau, ncconliiig to ITardonin ; Alps, ncoording to 
Bratier. We rniut r^jpot this nwwrti™ at fnhuluus, 

'*' In n.r.. 1H4, fur hui iiiiwr-uicii iw Spain. 

■3 Mode of c*lturi', loc-ulity. cltiimti^, aixil othnr ettrnni'otn circuiii*taiic«»i 
work, DO dotibt, bq aaUre changv in t1i» nnturs of tbe vlav. 


fBook XIT. 

" Where the site is conaidcred to be most faroumMe to Uie 
growrth of the rinc, and exposed to tho warmth of the sun, 
you will do well to plant the email'* Aminoan, as well om the 
two eugeriia,** and the Bmallor helvia." On thti otlier handf 
where the eoil ia of a tlensor nciture or more oxpoHt>d to fogp, 
the greater Amiueau should be planted, or else the MurgcD- 
tine,*'' or the Apician of Lucania. The other varietieb of the 
grape are, for the moat part, adapted to uny kind of soil ; tiiey 
arc best prestjn'cd in u kira." 'ITie best for keeping by haagr 
ing, are the duratiniae kind, the p-eater Aniinean, and the 
ficantian ;'' these, too, will make excellent raisins for keeping 
if dried at the blncksmith's forge." There are no precepts in 
the Latin language on this subject more ancient than these, so 
Boar are we t« the very eonimencement of all our praclii^ 
knowltadge ! The Amineaii gnip«, of wliieh ntfatiou liufibcea 
Ejade above, is by Vorro colled the " Soantian." 

In OUT own times we have but few instaneeB of nnyconsum- 
jnsle filiill that has bevn manil'estod ui ri'fereiice to th:s subject : 
the less excuse then should we have lor omitting any particular 
■whiL'h may tend to throw a light upon the profits that may 
te derived from Iho culture of the vine, a point which on nil 
occasions is regarded as one of primary importance. Aciliin 
Stiicnelus, amim ofpleheion rank, and the sou of a freedinan, 
acquired ver^' eonffiderable repute from the cultivation of n vine- 
yard in the territory of Nomcutum, not more than Bixlyjugera 
U extent, and which bo finally Bold for four Luitdred thuUBond 
Beaterces. Yetulenue ^giolus too, a freedmun as well, ao- 
qmred very considerable note in the district of Littrnum,'" in 
Campania, and, indeed, received a more extenaivo share of 
the public favour, from the fact that he cultivated the spot 

** ProbaWy tho first or the Ave that he fan* muitio-ned in c. 4. 

** l[e bai only nnuilionod unn tort iu o. 4. 

»• See 0, 4. " See e. i. 

*■ We hnve no porrrgponiljng word for I.liJa beremge in the English 
liiiiTuagD — a tliin, puor lifjuor, niii^e bj ptitiring' nnU'r on the huillu and 
■UIkh itftor buing fully pretsi-d, uUowing Uiitm l-u B-onk, [iregging thocn R^n, 
■ad tlieii fvrmuuliag ilie liquor. It wns atao colkd " vinuia operarium,' 
or '" labuurcr'fi wiae." Ah atiiicd in the prcseal inBtuii4.-c, grupcs wcro 
somutimea fitAred in it for k-eoping. 

*> A riiriety of the AmiDean, as ctated bcloir. 

• S«e B. ill. Q. 9, 


which had hcen thp plane of flxilo of Scipio Afrlcaoms." The 
grcatu&t ct'lolpiity of all, huwevcr, was that which, hy tbo 
agency of the same StheueluB, was accorded to Ebemmius 
Paltetnoi], who was also equally fcmoUB as a leamcd gram- 
mariiui. This person liought, Bome twenty years ago, aa estate 
at the pnVe of sii hundred tbousimd scBferces in the sntne 
district of Xomcntutn, about ten miles disfunt from iho City of 
Rome. The low price of property*' in tlie suburbs, on erc-ry 
side of the City, is well known ; but in thatqnartcT in particu- 
lar, it had (leclinGd to a most rtmsrknhle extent; for the 
«ltate which he puirhased hiij la-L-ome dtteriorated by long- 
continued negWt, in addition to which it woe situate In the 
Tcry worst part of a hy no mtaiis i'avourite locality." Such 
was the natnre of tlie property of which he thue undertook llie 
cultivatioTi, not, indeed, with aoy commendable views or inten- 
lionB fit first, hut merely in that spirit of vanity lor which ho 
"Was notorious in so rcmnrl;nblc q degree. The Tinpyarrfp were 
ol! duly dre&sed afresh, and hoed, nndcr the Biiperintcudenceof 
t^thcoieluB ; the result of wliii:h was thiit Fidienion, while thus 
playing tho husbandman, hroug-ht this estate to such an almost 
incredible piteh of perfcctioa, that at the end of eight years 
the vintag"o, aa it hung on the trecB, was knocked down to a 
purcbaiKr lor the Eum of four hundred thousand seeterceB; 
while all the world waarmming to behold the heaps upon heaps 
of grapes to be w<^n in thesis vim yards. Tlie neighbourH, by 
way of finding some escu&e for their own indolence, gave ah 
the credit of this remtirkablo Bucceaa to Falemon's profound 
erudition; and at Inat AntiEcus SenDna," who both held the 
highest rank in the learncil world, and an amount of power and 
inBueuce which at last proved too much for him — this ^ame 
Beneca, who wae far from being an admirer of frivolity, was 
seized with encii. vavt admiratioTi of this eatate, as not to feel 
ashamed at conceding this tictory to a man who was olher- 
wific the object of his hatred, and who would be sure to make 
the Ti-iy moet of it, hy giving him four times the original cost 

■> The elder AAriimntiH. ITe rotircd in volustary oitle to his coustrj- 
ttat at Lit^rGum, vcbeit he diisl. 

" Mcrcid. 

" Tiip miggiiBtion of Silli^ ha bnen Bi!optin!. for tho ordinary readinp 
ig evidipnllj ijotrupt, aTid abiurd as well — ■■ doi in tlit vury worst part 0/ a 
favourite louultly " — jusl t1is uuiivurHu uf tho itIioIl' tCQor of the story. 

^ The pkUoeo|ih«r, and tutci of Hero. 



[Book SIV. 

for tliosc very vincj^urda, and Lliut wilbia ten ^ara from the 
time that be had taJten lh«ni imder his mouttgeiaeDt. This 
WHS nn cxamplw of good husbandry worthy to be piit io 
[iracticc opoa the lands ot'Csccuba an<l of Setia; for since then 
these same lands have many ft time produced as much as seven 
ctUei to the jugenim, or in other words, out hundred and forty 
amphnne of must. That no ono, however, may entertuii) tho 
lielief that ancient times were surpaBSed on this occasion, I 
would remark that tho Bamo Cato bus stated in his writinga, that 
the proper return wua seven cidoi to the jngeruin: all of thura 
BQ many inetun^ea only tending most convincingly to prove 
that thu sea, which in our mshncBS wo trt8pa«8 upon, docs not 
maku a more homiteona return to the nit it: bant, no, not even 
the merchandize that we seek on the shores of the Ked and 
the Indian Scaa, than doca a well^ljll&d homeatcad to the 


The wine of Mnronea," on the coafit of Thrace, nppeara 
have been the moat cclobrated in nncieat timcH, as we learn 
from tho writings of Homer. I dismiss, however, all the fa- 
bulous stories and various traditions which we find relative to 
itB origin, cxaopt> indeed, the one which etatt'a that AriBtiens,'* a 
native of the boiuo oountry, was tho Gi'st pcruoQ that mixed 
honey" with wino, natural productioiiB, both of thi^ni, of tbo 
hightst degree of exeellenee. Homer'* has atated that the 
Haroneau wine was mixed with water in the proportion of 
twenty measures of water to one of wino. The wine that is 
still produced in the same district retains all ila former 
strength, and a degree of ■vigour that is quite insuperable," 
Kucianus, who thrice held the consulehip, and one of our 
most recent authors, when in that part of the world wbs 
witness bimeolf to the fact, that with one Bestorius of Uiis 
wine it waa the cuetom to mix no less than eighty sextorii q( 

^ Siiid to have bevn bo coIKvl from Muroo, it Vmg ot Thrace, who dvelt 
in thn vidiiJI;ir of tho Thrncian lemanu. See B. iv. c, IS. Homer mra- 
tiim* tliia mat in the Odyeeev, B. \s. c. Iff7, *t i'f. Tt was red. hftnpy- 
•wvet, Eragrant. The place ia sttU called Marogtin, in llouoiulia, a couDUy 
Uiit ninra of whlcti are still mucb luteerncil. 

" See B. tU. o. 57- ^' Thus mnking "multum." 

« B. ix. c 208. » IftdoBituM. 


Chap. 6.) TDX UOST JUfCtZlTF WIICES. 237 

watEir: ho statue, uleo, that this wine is black,^ hoe a Btrotig 
bouquet, ft&d is till the richer for beiiig old. 

The Pramniaii wine, too, whioh Homer" has also sinularly 
eulufrizer], atill retains its ancient fame : it is grown in the 
t/'iritOTy of SiDymii, in the TJcinity of the ^rine of the 
Mother" of the fnids. 

Among the other wines now known, we do not find any 
that enjoyed a high reputation in ancient times. In the 
year of tho oonsulship of L. Opimius, wh^n C. GracchiiSj'* the 
tribanc uf the people, cng^aging in sedition, waa eloin, the 
growth of every iviue wtia of the very highest quality. In 
that year, the weather woe romarliftbk for its »ercneneBa, and 
the ripening of the grape, the '■ L-octura,"*' as they cuU it, 
was fiiUy effi'cled hy tlif heat of the Bun. This wn* m. tho 
year of the City 633. There are wines still jireserved of this 
year's growth, nearly two iiun^d years ago; they have 
aaamned tho consiatency of honey, with n rniigh taatc; for 
fiuch, io fact, is tho nature of wines, that, whtn extremely 
old, it is impoaaible to drinii them in a pure state ; imd tht-y 
require to bte mixed with water, as long keeping renders them, 
intolerably bitter." A very snudl f{ua]itity of the Opimian 
wine, mixed with them, will eulBec Ibr th« Bcosoning of other 
wince. Let ub suppose, uccordiug to the estimated value of 
these wines in those day*, that the original price of them was 
oce hundred weBterceB per amphora : if we add to this *ix piT 
rent, jier annnm, a tegaj and moderate interest, wc shall 
then ho ablo to ascertain what was the oiact price of the 
twelfth part of an amphora at the be^ning of the reign of 
Caius Ca>sar, tine son uf GenaanieUB, one hundred and Bucty 
years alter that oonHuIship. In relatioa to tliis fact, we have 
a remarkublo instance, ** ^vhc-n we coll to mind the iil'e uf Fom- 

K> By '* black " wicM hs mwuis tliose that tiarl the frame cnloiir a* our 
port. *' 11, XI. «38. Oil. X. 234. 

** CyWlo. A wine cnlled " PtAmnian " was also grown in thfl inland of 
Itariii, ill r.i>slinA, und is the tcrritoi'; of Epbeaus, The Bchnlinjt on Ki- 
candur tava Ihtit tbe gru'pe of Ihn p^rtbiii -was uted in mabJU^ it. Oi<]»- 
noridiyi miV" tiint it whs a " prfitropum," ffiret-clnss wine, rniidc of tlit jiiire 
ihm Toluntanly iiowcd frnm the fe'ni|jes, ia cuain,-i)iinic« of tlwir own pcw- 
lurc. *^ II. c, 121. 

*» "fiooking," Uwrallir, nr "boiling." 

" Tbtt winca of Burgiiudy, in puticular, bMcniie bitter when extiemelf 
old. « See B. Tii. c. 18. 





[Book XIV. 

poniua Secundus, the poet, and the banquet whicSi h« gave 
to that prince*^— 90 enornioiis is the capital that Ilea bnried in 
our cellflrs of wine ! Indeed, there Je no one thing, the Talao 
of whioh more aensibly LrtcreafiCft up to the twentieth yecir, or 
■which dccrcasea with greater nipiiUty after thiit pctricKj, Biip- 

EDHiiig that the valaa of it ia aot by that timo greatly ea- 
aQced." VL'ry riirely, indeed, up to the preseut day, has it 
been known for a eingle** piece of wice to goat a thousand 
fii^steroes, except, indoud, when »uc!ii a sum may have ' paid 
in a lit of extravaganiie aud defaaucliery. The people of 
Tienne, it is said, are the only ones who have set a higher price 
than this upon their " picata," wines, the vftriouB kinds of 
which we havo nlready mentioned ;" and this, it 13 thought, 
thoy only do, vying with each other, and infiuanccd by a Bort 
of national aclt'-CHteem. This wine, drunk in a cool state, ia 
generally thought to bo of a ooidei" lempentture than any 


It is the propocty of wine, when drunk, to cause a feeling 
of warmth ia tku ioterjor of the viseera, and, when poured 
upon the exterior of the body, to be cool and refreshing. It 
will not be foreign to my purpoBe on the preaent occasion, to 
Btate the adri-pp which Androcydes, a mim famous, fnr hia 
wisdom, wrote to Alexander the Great, with tlie view of ])ut- 
ting a chc-ck on his iutemperanoe : *' When you are ohoat to 
drink wine, king !" said he, "remember that you are about 
to drink the blood of the earth : hemlock is a puliiou to man, 
wine a poison*^ to heniloi-k." And if Alexander liad only fol' 
lowed this advice, he certainly would not have had to answer 

" Caligala. 

** By wime rMnarkaMe and peculiar quality, such as in tlip Qpimian 
wine- ** "Tc-stn," moaning the am ji hum. 

^ Sdo c. 3 of the present Bouk, wlmrs tii«Kt " picatu," ur " pltohod- 
wines,"' hAVo invn further «l(*tirib<^d. 

•' On the coulrarj. i'6c wij*, Ibn iMldest winei are tlioiie tltst contnin 
the IrtiDbt ulcohol, wtiervas thoiL- uf Vieniie (iu modem Danphinf] uuatiua 
mgro tUan tb<j rnsiiority of wines. 

^'' Ho iniplieB tliut wino is na aatiilnta tu the puii<.inoii3 ^rTticts of hem- 
Infk. Thifl is not the caar, but it U laid by butub that vinegar ia. It U 
t\ivi nUnt hi'mliicli: (cicubi] thut ia mciint, unit ii,>t the futol dmiiffht Ihiit 
VM uruuk by SocralM and Pliilopaiweu. See fuitUur in fi. xaiii. a. "" 
and B. skt. c- &3. 

Ufa^. 8-1 

»IETI KCfDB or wnrss. 



for slaying his friends** in his dnmlien fits. In feet, we may 

feel ourselres quite juatified in Biiying Lhut there is nothing 
more uaefu] than Wine for fittengthening the body, -ffliile, at 
tho same time, there ia nothing more pemiciouB as a luxury, 
if we are not on our guard againat exceds. 

CKAP. B. (6.) FIFIT KiHSB OP eKNBJtoca wnTBS. 

THio can entertain a donbt that some kinda of wine nro 
more agreeable to the palate than others, or that even out 
of the vpry some vat" there nra occaaionally produced wineft 
that aro by no moms of eqiml goodness, the ona bt^ing much 
BUperior to the other, whether it in that it is owing to the 
cask," or to some other fortuitous circujnBtanct! ? iet each 
person, tlicrofore, comLituto himself his own j udgo as to which 
kind it ia that oceupiea the prc-emiiitncie. Livia** Augusta, 
who lived to lier eighty-aecond year,*' attributed her longevity 
to the wine of rueinum,'^ as she never drank any other. This 
■wine is grown near a bay of the Adrialie, not far from Mount 
Tima^'UB, upon a pioco of devoted rocky ground, where the 
eoa-breuze ripeuB a fuw grapes, the prtjduce uf wiiiuh fiiippliea 
a few amphorED ; there in not a wini; that is deemed euperior 
to this fur medicinal purpoaee. I am strongly of opiniou that 
this is the same wine, the produce of the Adriatio Qulf, upon 
which the Greeks have bestowed such wonderful enconiiams, 
under the name of I'rietetianum. 

The Ltte Emperor Augustus preferred the Sctinum to all 
othora, and nearly all the emperors that havo succeeded him 
have followed his example, having learnt from actual expe- 
rience that there is no danger of indigestion and flatulence 
rcBuIting fi-ora the use of Ibia liquor : thifi wino is grown in 
the country** thut lies just above Forum Appii.*" £q former 
times the Ctecubum enjoyed the reputution of being the most 

" Clilua aad Cailisttfiics. ■" LacuB. 

•* The UsU or amjihora, mnite of eiurth. 

** Ai the wifH uf AugiMtu* is mtiiuit, thb Toatltng appean iiTEiemlilE to 
" Jttlw." 

* Dicn CaisEus bhvb " oighty-siill." 

"* Sm B. iii. V. 2'i, and 1). xvii. t. 3. Fuctnum was in Ittrio, and the 
district ia said Btil] » pniduee good wine i accaiilitig tu Ualecbdmps, the 
plitM 1* cnlli'ii I'izxiiio tt'Intiin. 

** Tlia liiilB of Selia, liioVinf; down n a the Poiuptiiie M.arsheB7 now 
gmxn, tliti winooTwIiictiis uf uoiepute. 

<u See B. lii. «. 0. 



[Book xra. 

ftSt^rous of all the winat; it wns gro\«-fi in Romo mfmhy 
mrampBj planted with poplars, in the vicinity" of the Gull' of 
Amj-clflc. This Tincyord has, however, now (iisoppeared, the 
result of the carcile8BTie68 of the cultivaCor, combined wirfi its 
on'ii limited o.£t(;nL, ani the works on tliu viinul which Nero 
uoiumcucud, in order to provide a naTigudoii team. Lake Aver- 
QU8 to Oetia. 

The seeorid rank belonged to the wine of the Falemian ter- 
riLory, of whivh the I'uuetianuin was the moEt choice Tadet>' ; 
the njsult of tte tare and skill erapluyud upun its ciiitiv»tion. 
This, however, has also degenerated very conaidernbly, in con- 
Heq^uence of the growers being more solicitous about quantity* 
than quality. The Fnlemian*' vineyarda begin at the bridge of 
Campania, on the left-hand as you journey towards the Urbana 
Coloiiia of Syllfl, which was lately a township of the city of 
Capua. As to tho Faustian vintyards, they extend about four 
miles Irom a village near Ciodieia!,'' the same village being six 
mileB from Sinuet^sn. Thcro is now no wine known tbut rajiks 
higher than the Fuleminn ; it is the only one, too, among M 
the wines that takes fire on the application of flame.'* There 
ore throe nirieties of it — the rough, the sweet, and the thin. 
8onie pci-sons make the following distinctions : the Cauciutim, 
they say, prows on the Bummit of this range of hills, tho Faus- 
tianum on the middle slopes, and the Falernum at the foot: 
the tbct, too, should not be omilted, that none of the grapes 
that produce those more famous winea have by nay m&anB an 
agreeable flavour. 

To the third" rank belonged the rarioUB wines of Alba, in tho 
vunuitj of tho Cit)', remarkable for their sweetness, and sotne- 

*^ Bob B. Hi. c B. BrliTorn FuiK^i and 8>>tia; u Incatitf now «f no 
ipputt- fur ituwiiiei. In B. ixivi. c. 19, I'liuy suyi, ibut lliu OKCubu tIm 
WM DXtmut : liul in B. xvii. v. 'i, he m^i tbat io tbe FoBLptinfi MankM U 
was to be fuuad. 

" Thi« wn* thacosc, it has been iaiuarko(I.witliMa:d<^ira«>nit years aira. 

*' Tliii U t1i« most crlebTateil u(' «il tho ancient wlnus, at being more 
eepwd^y l\v3 thpoin of th* pimu. 

^ Sw B- si. c. 97. Till' «dae< of thu Ful'Taian difltriot are no lenrtr 
held in any cstooni ; iadood, all the Campanian wui» ure sour, and a a 
(liB<gTVinl>lc flavour. 

^ It appeara tO' hare been exceedingly rii:ti lu tilmliol. 

* But in B. zxiil. c. 20, he uulr^iis ilir Ant r.-ink (o the Albantm ; pot- 
' bUt, Itowever, u a modicinal ^nnn. The winea «f iMtttm we no lai^e> 
lieldin cttcem. 


tinicB, thougEi nircly, rough" as wcU: the Siirrentiiic" winos, 
also, the gruwtb of only stayed rine.1, which are especially 
recomracndetl to inviilidx for Uiirir Oiinni^Ks itud Hhi-ir whole- 
eolnf^Des3. Tiburitis Gcesar U9t'<i to say that tho ph jsicians had 
conapirt'd thus to dignify tho Surrontinum, which was, in feet, 
only onothtr 'aa.m& for gL'nerous vinegiir; whil'P Cains Caesar, 
who HUccoodetl htm, gavi? it tho name of "noble vuppa.*'** 
Vying in rt'palation with Ibesu aro the Uassic wioeE, from thu 
spots whit'li luuk from Muunt Guurus towards PuteoU and 
BaiiB.™ Ab to the wineg of Stata, id the vicinity of Falcmuni, 
there is no douht that they lonncrly held Iho very highest 
nukk, a fnct which proves very tltjarly that every disti-ict bus 
its own peculiar epochs, jijat as all other things have their cine 
and their de'-adence. TheCfllenian" wine.i, too, from the aamu 
neigh bourh nod. nnod to be prt-fi^rrcd to those hist mentioned, 
08 al&o ihci Fiindfinian," the produce of vines grown on atays. 
or else uttuchid to Khruhe. The winea, too, of VeliUrnnnr' 
and rrivema,'" which were grown in the vicinity of the City, 
used to ho highly tisteemed. Ae to tiiat produced at Sijnia,'* 
it is hy fur too rough to be nsLd as « wine, Wt is vtiry tisoful 
as an astri»gr<n1;, and is coniw>ciucntly reckoned among ihc 
medicines for that purpose. 

The fourth rauk, at the public banquets, was given hy Die 
lute Sntperor Julitis — he was the first, in fact, that brought 

tf Sno B. xiiii. c. 21. 

•* From Surrentum, ihe Tiroranutory Cnrmiofr tho loiithcm horn of tha 
Bay of Nnplti*. Oviil and MMtinl sprak in prnisc of thcM wHim; thoy 
Wert! dejlilutc uf richiiian anJ vtrjt dry, in i^oaaeijiwiio.' of wbicU Uity re- 
•]iiir«d tw*mty-flTe yoam tn rin^n, 

*» Or " dfiul viniijur." " Va|>p«" wn« vinp^ai njuwod to tbo air, and « 
(le«tilut« of iu pTopertiiM, and quite iaBi[>id, 

^'' l^Koellmt trincii an itiU nrodur.i'd in thcrii-inityAftbii place. Mnf- 
■icam was one of t1io porfbmM wiiiea. Gmiriu itdcll piyiduccd Uib " Gau- 
ranum." tri imiill ijiiiiniity, lint of hiirh quality, full-hniiji<'d stid iliick. 

'■ For (.bo Caltoian UilK wo B. ui. o. E> ; »e^ also B. sxiLi. c. 12, fur 
tomv ftiriliu ai:uouBt of tbo wines of StaLa. Tlio winee of (bU, diArict aic 
now hold in na eBteom. 

" From FiiniJi. Sue It. iii. C 9. 

" Now Caalel Uul VuHiirnii : alUiniipti coTerri] witb rineyHrd*, ite vrimn 
are of no n£):oniit. Tliis nmu nlwayatJiHleHj at if mixed with Bvniv foioigu 

''* Now Pipcrao. It wna a thin and plcaaant wine. 

"<' Xow Sitgai, in Urn States of tbo Church. 

TOL. in. 

plist'b nattteal hibtoht. 


thorn into favour, as we S»d fitattcl in liiis Letters'* — 'to the 
Mamertine wines, the produce of Ihe country ir the vicinity' 
o( Mf>»!iaHa," iu Sicily. The finest of thp»e was the Potu- 
laniini," 80 called from its nriginal cultiv«U>r, aud grown on 
the spots that lie nearest to tlie mainland of lluly. The Taa- 
romenitunuin also, a wino of Sicily, fnjoya a higli rejmCe, and 
fluggone" (if it arc oeciisionfilly pushed off for Mainortimim. 

Anionfr the other winps, we find mcntiosi'd upon the Upper 
Sea thoso of rrtctutia and Ancona, as also thoae linown ns 
the "Palmonaia,"*^ not iinprobnbly bocniiae tho duatw springs 
JVtwn a single! shoot."' In llie interior wu find the wiiica of 
C'a'dKim''' ttiid that known a» Itie Jltecfinatian,'^ while in Iho 
territory of Verona th^ra are the Itlitctiim winoB, only inferior, 
in Ihti eiitiniation of Virgil, to the Falcruiaa,*' Then, too, at 
tho bottom of the CJulf" wv find thu wines of Adriu.* On 
the shores of the Lower Hwa there are Ihe L^tLuieagian" 
wines, the Grariacan,** and tho Statoni^n i*^ in litniria, tho 
winca of Lurm hear away the ptilnj, and those of Genua'* in 
Ligurtn,. Ma^silia, which lies bLtwcen the Pyrenccg and the 
Alps, produces two rnrifties of wine, one of which is richer 
and thicker than tho otbor, and ia used for seasoning other 
wines, being generally known na "Buoooauin."" Tho Tepu- 

" WiilUm to tiie Simate, nUo to Cicero. "Wu learn from Suetonius that 
Chey wurt partly wriilrii In ciplirr, 

'''' AlrflsitLD, &l tlii> preiw:n[ day, cxporu wuies of Tcry pio(\ i]iutlity, and 
irbith attaisi a great age. 

"* It waa sound, light, and not witbaiit hoAj. 

'* " LuKBiiW-" TliH «aine sjiot. now Taoriiiina, in Sieily, hstween Citnni;! 
U)4 Mtifr&iya. itiU proilucei i^xticlleiit -wines. 

*^ Srw R, lit, (!. 18. V6<t eaya that thin la thought to have been tlia 
wine of Sjrol, of laat century, grown nwir Anfonn. 

" " I%lnm." Notwitb&LaudiiiK tlii* sii^eentiiin, it i* mnte genenlly «ii|i- 
pciaod thnt tlif j Imd tl](<ir iiiuue from ihe place called Piilina, npar Marono, 
OQ ihe Adriatic. Its niuua are still canaiikroil v! u^rcobli: ftavoiiT, 

"■- The wtnM of inodflrn C«Ecaa enjoy no ropiite, owing, ptuiiably. to tho 
mode of aiuking Lhim. 

** Probaljly SCI i-allo(l bocauso it was bronelit into fashion hy Mawona*. 

** Sue Oeur(^. li, 9.5. The wiiieu of tho 'iyrol, the auciont Ilhimia, eri 
itill conaidereti as of ciCH^llrnt. qwditf. 

•* Uf AJriik, or the Adnalio Sua, 

•• Sue II, iii. L-. 2(i TlicM wines arc of liltlo repute. 

" In Ijilium. Suo H. iii. o. 9. 

** From GruviiciE. Sao 0, iii. o 8. 

■ See B. iL c. M, Ct. iii. o. 0. and R. x«vi. o. 49. 

•" Tb^^wiflc* of Urjnoa saoat niidJlinjuimhty only, snd but little known, 

" Or "juioy" wjae. 

Chnp, 8] 

rtrrr orroa op wrfEH. 


tation of tlio wine of Bpt^rrw** does not extend beyond the 
(rallic territories ;•* and as lor llie otliorH tliat arc prwluced in 
Gallia Narboncnais, nothing can lie positively staled, fur tlio 
gToWflfB of ihtit coufilry htive tjbH.>liittilj- pstabliahcd mtmuliM.-* 
turii-B for tho purpose of ndullrrution, wht-rc they give a dark 
huB to tl«!ir wiiits by iJie agency of Rniokis; I only wish I 
coald iv.y, too, that Uuy do not tinploy i-arioua hfirba iind 
noxious drugs for the same purjjoBt; ;** iudtud, thifw cIcaltTB are 
even known to use alops for the puriwse of hei^htouing' the 
flavour «ncl improring the colour of their wioca. 

The regiaus of lUiIy tluit are lit a gR-ntpr dietaoce from the 
Aosoniim Soa, are not without lliyir wiiieR of not*-, such tia 
those of TaTfntiim," 8i?mlJa,'* and Consontia,*^ and Ihcwc, agulii. 
of Tempsn, H;ibia, and LuL-nniu, among which the wincB uf 
Thurii hoM tbp prc-f mincnoc. But tliO most cdcbrntod of all 
of them, owing to the tact that Mi-ssnln* uwd to drink it, nnd 
was indehtod to it for hia t'xccUout health, was tho wine 
of Logani,* whiuL wan grown not far from (Jrumcnlum.' In 
Campania, more recently, new gix»wth* uinlur new uunies have 
piiined considerable credit, either owing to carcftil cultivntion, 
or elwj to eome other fortuitoue eircumfilanoes; ttuis, fur in- 
attmce, wo find fcur miles from Neajwlie the Trebelliiui,'' near 

" Now BMSieTS. in the soutti of France. The winffs o( tbii part wo 
cfrtWidcied Mwllont at. the prMrnt (inv, Tiint of I'toh tijjniin pr«ws In it* 
vicinity. Ft-p )« indiiiod tu Hunk, fiom I'lraj's rctnoiVs huro, that tlie 
nnflipntii fttiit the mod»m« differed witimly in thVir nntiun* m to wli«t ci>»- 
ttitut«< ipioi OF IkiiI wiiii.'. 

** He moans, hcvoiid moiiern Provoaca, and lAii5il«t!oc : dictrictt fa- 
Diotu for their rxof Jlcnt Trine*, morr piirririildrly thr. Iniur. 

•* FefdwiiLiull tliisquilt jnirrbdihlu. Our EaKliib eijwrrknoe, howerer. 
ti-IU on thit it i* hr ni> mi»>uw m ; miirii of Ihp wirm that ]> iWaai. in llii» 
cniiiilrt it indebtcu for dnviur n* wull lu nilinir tu aiiylliiiiK bul llio gntpo. 

*• The nine* of mmlfm Otrunto iii; oriinarily of ?uod quality. 

•* Bftcejiii r^odi " Sefctriniiinft,'' buli* prnlmbly wrnne:, if Jn^ i» not. it 
might allude to tbp place miw Uiidwti a* Sun Savurillu, aiiJ i^hi'.'ti jUudiiBm 
cX'ji'Uent winr-, F^l- tliinks thttt tlwsp wiiit* win* pruivii in th« Ufriioiy 
of Sulcrno, which Rtiil cnioy* mldprity for it* muw;kiti:I wiatai, 

^ See B. iii. o. 10. Tlie winc-s of m^diim Cohhu still i^ijoj a bi^h 

M. Vuleriu! Manilla CoTTinu*, Lke writer and porttiian ot AugiisluL 
Swendof B, ii. 

** A plucR euppc.ted to luiv« bvua sttiiaWJ nuitr Tliuril, 

1 8m B. iii. c. IS. 

* Said by Gali'n to lie vi-ry wliolii'iio'nic, n* well an pLcount. The win« 
of the licinity of Napjtii ae atill litJd in liigh tetiuuu, 

B 2 


PLnrr's ifATtroAi, history. 

[Boak XIV. 

Capiia the Cnuline, * wine, and the wine of TretulB'' grown, in 
Ibo ttTritwry so cidhd, thongh but of a oymmon sort : Campania 
boasto of ait these, aa well hb of htr I'lifoline* wuiee. A,^ to 
the wiaea of Pompeii,* thoy have arrived v-t thi^ir full perfecliicin 
in Um yrars, after whi<;ti they gain iiolhiiijg iiy flge : they are 
found also to be productive of headache, which often lasts 
so long as the sixth honr' of the next day. 

These niufltraUons, if I am not greatly mistaken, ^111 go far 
to prove that it is the land and the Boil that ie of priraary 
i mportancf, and not the grapo, and that it is quitu euperQuouH 
to attempt to enumtrato all the varietiea of every kiod, Rccing 
that thu same vine, traDsplniitcd to several places, is productive 
of fcatiircB and charucteristicB of quite opposite natures. The 
Tineyai-ds of Lalotanum" in Spain' are rt'inuriable for thn 
abundance of irine they produce, while those of Tarraco'" and 
of Lauron" are estepmed for the choice qualities of their 
■winoB : those, too, nf the Balearic Isles^* nro often put in coici- 
paristm with the very choicest growths of Italy, 

I am by no mcitns unawnro that moat of iny readers will be 
of opinion that I have omitted a vast nurabrr of wines, seeing 
that every one hna his own peculiar choice; so much »o, that 
wln)r«ver wo go, wc hear tlic santo etory told, to the effect 
that one of the irtedmca of the lute Kuiperor Augustus, who 
was remarkable for his judgment and his refined taite in wines, 
while employed in tasting for hi& maslier'a table, made tliii 
ohsorvution to the master of tho house where the emperor 
was stayin*, in reference to some wine the growth of that 
particular tountry : "The taste of ihia wine," eald he, "is 

» Onlcn Biiys that it was very similar to thfl Falemifin. 
' Sfi! }l. iii. t. a. 

* Tlif! Tnfntine territory was in the vieinilr of ('iimn. It in powiiWe 
thkt the wino ain^ Itiire lad iu namn IroTn tokiiii; lliri'o ycurH lo ovra« to 
muLunlyi or piWIil; it whe owin^ tg some pccuLiarity iii, tba ihui. 

* Tlicy hai'o hcuri ulrtiudy itieatiuncd iit c^ 4. Sea fi. iii. a. Q. 
' Twclvo o'clock ia t-lie rlov. 

* Hfe B. iii. V. i. 

■ In Catolonin, wbicli itill produces, abundunce uf nine, liut ia gcncnl 
of Inferior lepulu. 

'" The winps of Tairaj-tmn are still MiMidfiwl gttotV 

" A plAM in the province ol HiBpuiiia Ton-acoflBBais, )l«itroyed by Sei'- 

'^ lliey aLIII enjojr a Iiieli repute. TLie fama of tb^ir Mulvuijuo hu 
extended all avei tW wwlJ, 


Chap. 9.] 

roBEtax vrnrn. 


DOW to mo. and it is by no mt'aiia of first-rate (joaltty; lie 
emperor, liowevcr, you will nee, will di-ink of uo olher."" 
Indeed I hare no wish to deny that there may if othei' winca 
dcaerving of a vfliy high reputation, but those wliicli I here 
already enumerated ave tho rarietit^s upon the excellence of 
which the world ia &t preaont agi-ced. 


We will now, in a Biinilfir manner, give o. description of tlie 
varieties fovad in the part* l>c-yvad sea. AEler th« wines 
nipntioned by Homer, and of which we have already spoken," 
those held in till; highest esteem were the wineB oT Thasos 
and Chios," and of the latter morcpnniciilurly iJic sorl linown 
as " Arriaium."'* By the side of thcao has been placed the 
wine of Liiebos," upon tho authority of ErafiistratuH, n lUmuuii 
physician, who fioiirished about thci year of tJie City ot Itonie 
450. At the present day, the most cateemed of all is the wine 
of Clozomentc," Binco tht<y hava Learned to season it mure 
£paringly with sea-water. The wiae of Lesboe has Qutarally 
a taste of sea-water, Tliat from Mount Tmolus" is not so 
much eatvemed by iUelf™ for its quiUitieB as a wine, aa for it« 
peculiar sweetuess. It is on account of this that it is mised 
with other wines, for the purpose of modifying their hiirsh 
flavour, by imparting to them a portion of its own eweetness ; 
wiiilo at the same tiino it gives tlu-m nge, for immcdiatt^ly 
alter the mixture they sppear lo he much older than they 
rouUy urc. Kext in OKteum alter theea ore the winee of 

" He iticaaB to lUuitraCe tlie capricioue tutes Oiat eiisled u to the 
mtrito ftf wines. " In e. 6 of ttu Book. 

" Ttiu CLiun lii;ld the firet rank, Ibe Thflsiitii llie second. 

" From Airitiuni. or Aitii^iuni, h ]^\Uy distnct, in the centre of tlie 
iduild. TIlO wins of ("liios sLill ruluius ila ancieiiit I'ol'-liriLy. 

■' II ^aa reniarkablo far its EWectncu, and aromntict were HometiTDci 
niixod with it. nomer cnlls it bomili^t, Lesboi still ptodncM choio* 

" Near Smyma, J'TOlinhlj" sitniluT lo tlie PfRmnisn wine, mentiuned 
ui c. 6. 

" Set) B. T, c. 30. Thii wind is tncntionrd ngnin in ihe next pnge ; It iB 
generally Ihnuglit, thret he ia wrong in mnkine theTniQliteBainTtLc) Meio- 
gitca dittinrH winti, for lliey arc auppoiM.'d to aarc hfcn identicjil. 

'X' If drunk bj- lUeif, And uut u n flifouring iar utUur wiiiei. 


PLTsr's KAtriLtL MrsTOTir. 

[VoaV sxe. 

Sii-yon," Cyprus," TtlnieBBUs," Tniiolia,'* I3Drytu£.'*Tyrt;,'* 
uuJ Sctbcnuya ; this liiHt is gruwa in Egj-pt, being the produoe 
of ttree larieties of grape of the very highest quality, Jcngwn 
na the Thasiun," the ajUialuB," and tlie peucj.-." Npxt in 
rank art^ thti liippodamantian* wine, the Mystic,^' the can* 
ihariU','* the prfltropum" of Gnidos, tho wine of the oatftce> 
caunipnf,** the Pctntan,** and the Myconinn r* aa to the 
Mt-aogitic," it hns been found to give hcad-adhe, whilo that of 
KpheBua ia far from wholoaome, bting BoasonL'd -with sea-water 
und delrutum." It is Baid that tlio witu; of Apamea*' ia re- 
murkubly weU udupted fur making iimlsuni,"' like that of Prts- 
tiitia ia Italy : for this w a quuMty peculiar to only oertuio 
kiuds of wiu«, the mixture of two ewmt liquidii being la 

'" Biu.'vhus hwil a temple t.liere. 

■■" Tli« wines of CjpruB a,iv lUo mmt clioii!? erf lUI tbe Grecinn win.os at 
tli« prvient duy. ^ Id 

"■" In Syria. Wino U no longer made ih«ni, but tho grapw ar« excel- 
lent, nnd iiro dHcd fur raiinui. 

^ iitiw Bi^yriiut. It dixa uot fldem tliat wine ii made tbere now. Tlia 
fTahonuiLui religion n.ty bave teuduil tu tho extinclioii uf many ijf tboM 

-' At Hts villb;^ of Sour, on tUo liu of ancient Tyio, the grape U only 
oullivHb'il for raihiaH. 

'''■ Sue sUo c. 22 : probably introdiioeil from Thaso*. 

•* The "emuliy" ((rapu. "^ Tliu "pitrliy" irrnpo. 

* A strong winr. Hardouin thinks, fcotn wlicnoa iu dame — "rtrong 
eiinngh ti S11M11P a hrifsr," 

^* From llip inn.iU iiland of Mystus, near Ci-phHllunia. 

^ So crUoiI frnro the rine tho name nf whifli was " cBDthftreiw," 

" Mudi', HBelrefuly slutEpd, from tbu juliw t)i&t 9ow«d apontuuixjuiily tnia 
tbiu grspes. SB'S uIbq p 2^0. 

** Or the "burnt up" coiintTy, n loltanii! dietriet of Mysin. whirh still 
rftniiis ite iincient fanio for its vine. Virg'il iilludLH to t\\U wine in 
G«org. i*. 1. 380: — 

— Cups Miecinii CBroheaiiL Itaiicbi. 

^ Perhnpt frum I'Hra in Arabiu: tlivugU ¥{-a euggvsta Petn in the 
Biilcaric Islands. 

^ Sb6 B. iv. c. 22. In tlie iiiand of Myconos in the Archipelago nn es- 
nllant winu in still frown. 

" Froni Mount Miisogis, which diTidi-ft tlie tributiiric-B of tho Cftygtcr 
frum thoM of thd Hwiudiir. It is ^uiurully uvocidaud lliu Huno u tliu 

'" Muit <ir grtpH'juico bcilcd dcwn to ono bnlf. 

w Sue B. T. e. 29. 

K *-' Unlflnm," or honied wine, wm of two kiude; boney BtlXAlt viUl 
vine, and boney mixed with, mutf or grupu-juicu. 


general not atWiKlrd with gond rrsuUs. the proljigion" is 
quite gouv vut of date, a vrinv wbicb Uii- Bcboul of AsclepJudfS 
has reclioDed a.s nvxt iu mi-rit to thotv of lUtly. Thu pliyaiuiua 
ApollodoniB, in the work which he wrote recommending Kiu^ 
Ftoli^my whi)t wine» in purtiL-uW to drtak^tur in liin lime 
the winea of Italj^ witc imt gen*Mrally known — lias ajtokta id 
liigh terras of that of NaspoTciiie in Pontua, next to which he 
places the Orctic," and llu-n tho (Encutittn,** tli« Leut^diun,*' 
the Amhracicitio,** and thePeparetliian," to whith laflt he gives 
Ihe pmf«renc!o over all the reetj thutigh he alatcB that it en- 
joj'ed an interior rfputiitiun, t'roui the fxiet uf its not b^iug 
KonsidtJicd &t for drinking until it bud been kept bix yean. 


Thus far wo hiivo trx'ated or wines, the goodaess of whith is 
due t*> the cnuiitiy of their growlli. In ■Oreece the wine tli»t 
in known by the name of " biun," and which in KdminiHt^'ied 
for its corative qualines iu Bi?vcrfil muladies {&6 wc Khnll hiiTc- 
occasion to remark when we come to Epeak on the Bnlrjpet of 
Medicine"), hna beim justly hdd in the very highest t>»te*'in. 
This wine is made iu the following niimiier: the grapes are 
plucked before they are quite ripe, and then dried in a hot 
Bun : for three days they are turned three times a day, and on 
the fourth day they are pressed, til'ter wliieh thu juice is put 
in esaks, ** and hi\ to Require age in the heat of the sun.'* 

TliP ppople of Cob mix sea-wutet in large qmmtilieti with 
their wincjn, nu iuveution which they first knimcd I'roin a uliive, 
who adopted this mfthod of supplying the dedcienny Uiiit hud 
heen caused by hia tbiflvi&h propeusLliea. When this is mixed 
with white nuiat, the mixture receives the name of "leu- 

*' From iu Grefik nunic, it wonld seom t« mosa '■ of Rnt qiiolity," 

*' Sn cnllol from a place in Kuhoiii. the mixli'm Negrapunt. See. B. i*. 
o. 20. NcgTurxittl pnnlucL'H guud winee at the prcMtat dnj. 

•* The lorsfit)' i" lUiknown, 

** t'rum Lutiuiidia, or I.*Qt!iit« ; see B, iv. C. 2 ;. the viae wiis \My ahiin- 
dant thFTo. 

*" Frnm Amlirnnin. St« B. iv. c 2. 

•* Kritm tliL' inldiii] of Fefnirctlius. S^e, B. i». c. 23, wticre lie taj'n that 
from iu afc-untlmtcn <>{ v'wes it was tiiUwl iroivfic, nr '* EfpinM." 

" E. uiii. V. 1, and c. 20. " '* CiMiis." 

** Tiv rcraurlu Lltut ibio motliod ia still udupUil in making HTvnU of 
Lbc liqiioiirs. 


prnfr'9 KAnmAt htbtorv. 


cwoiim."" In nthcT conntrioa tigain, tliey follow a BimSliir 
pliui ia making a wine called "tethitkEsomenoTi."" Tbty 
muko a wiut; iilao Uquwh as "thalaasitoH/*" liy placing vessuU 
i'ulloEinust in the sea, a method which quickly imparts to tho 
wine all the qualities of old age.'^ In our own coiintry too, 
Cato has sliown the method of iiitiking Italian winp into Coan : 
in addition to the modes of ]ireparatioii above stated, he telb us 
that it muHt be left exposed four years to the hcnt of the sun, 
in order to bring it to maturity. The RhodJftn*' wine is 
similar to that of Cob, and the Phorintan is of a still saltiT 
Ihiviiiir. It ia genoraily thought that all the winca from 
biyond at^a arrivu at their middle Btute of maturity in tbu 
doui-gt* of six" or seven years. 

CHAP. II. (9.) — EroBTEinff vAfintTRiJi or swracT wnra. 

BAJanr-wntE and ttepskma. 

All the luscious -wines liavc but little" aroma : the tli inner 
the wice the more aroma it hos. The cn!f>m-a ofwincBarR 
four, white." brown," blood-coloured," nnd black." Paythiimi" 
and melampsytliiiirn*' are vurieties of roiaiu-wine which havo 
the peculiar flavour ol" the grapn, and not that of wine. Scy- 
beliLea" ia a wiue grown In Gaktia, and Aluntium"* is a 
wine of Sicily, both of which have the flavout of muUiim/* 

'" 'WTiite wine of Con. F^d thinks Ihat Plinv mcaiis to sa* ttiat tbe Ml 
water Pirn* Uio miwl. nf'a white or pale straw colour, find is of ojiinicin tliul 
he lias Iji^ni wrniigly inroriiiuil. 

■" " Sca-n ater " wiue. *' "Sea-BDasoned" wiin". 

'^ 7io snye, thai If th*^ \fBse}t were oloard hfrrncticully this woald hari* 
little or nil AppTf^ciithk 'cBVet ; if not, Lt tvuulil liMid to e\un\ th« vhT\'\ 

*' Atlifn»ii4 %nya thnt tlip Ehodiun wine will not mix xu iir-W with ws- 
wnhir OS tlio Conn. Fee romurkii i1i»t if Ctit'.'s pUn w«re fulloned, tti« 
wine ■wrtiilJ liccoms vincptr hug befwu ttiP cn'l ofihr four yvun. 

" Sillig thinks that lUe pri'iii^r rtmlina: is "in bU" only. 

*« TliL' Bwi-cl wiiu'i, in raciicm tiniM, nave ths must hoiiiiii^t or nrontit. 

*i " Albiis." nsle struw-caloar. ** " Fulvns," auiburiiolttur. 

"* Uritht and gWwiiig, iile Tgibt afld Burgundy, 

*" "Sigcr," tU: colourof »ur port. 

B' Sunpusiid to ha a spmM of I'ramninn wino, mmtionrd in c. 6, ' Tliij 
TU uaea, OB H\io (he Amiiifrin, fnr injikiug (imphactuni, lumcntionoJ in 0. 
lii, 0. flO. Sc-e also t\ Ift of thi» Buuk. 

« ■' hliurk pnytkiiin " 

*• Mentioned by Gnli-ii iimotiit the sweet wincfi, 

** See D. iiL e. 14. Hav SulunH in Sicily,, which prodacei cxcoll«nt 
•ina. ^ Jlouiod wino. 

Chap, It.] TAGtETIBa OP BlrttKT WIMi. 34D 

As to sirBpam, by nonie known ns "liepienm," and -wliicli ia 
otir langTjagc ia called " mijia,'"" it is a proiiuct of art i\tiA not 
of Nature, being prepared from must boiird down to ono-third : 
when must 13 boiled down to onivhulf only, wb give it tbo 
name o( " dufruLtim." All tliL'BC mixtures hnvo been d»- 
viaed for tbu udultvnition of bonify." As to tbose vwriotips 
which we havo previouiily ttniutiuni.'d, tbuir niLiita Ji-ut'ud 
upon the ffrape, and the soil ia whitrh it IB grown. Next 
alter the ntieia-wine yf Crete,"* those of Cilicia and Afrtcu (in> 
hiild in tiie highoat tsU-*™, twth in Ilwly us well as the ad- 
joining pruvinces. It is well known that it is made of a grape 
to which tho CTrtfkaliiiyegJvca tile name of " etica," and whicb 
hy us ie onlM "apiana:"™ ii is also made ol the ficirpHla." 
The grapus are Ifift on the vine to dry in the tun, or eluo are 
builed in the dulium.'" Komu ponsomi uinku thia wine of the 
sweet and eitrly white" grapo : tliey kavo the gi-apes to 
dry in the sun, until they hare lost pretty nearly hall' their 
weight, after whith they crush them anJ subjuct them to a. 
gi-ntie pttiwure. Thi-y tiu-ii draw uif Uie jiiiiv, and add to 
the pulp that ia left an iii\ual (jmiiitity of well-water, the pro- 
duct of which 13 raisiu-winc of iiCcoud quality." The more 
cjirpful makers not oitIv do this, but Uike «ar« nUo bIVt drying 
the grajKiS to remove the atnlkn, and then slf^ep the raisins in 
wino of good quality until they swell, after which thej- prr^sa 
thom. This kind of raisin-wine is pri-furrcd to idl others: 
with the addition of wator, they follow the tavae plan in 
making the wins of acuond ijimlity. 

The liiiuor to which tho (iruL-ka give Ibo namo of " aigloa- 
coe,"" ie of middle quality, bttweeu the eirops and what is 
properly called w^ine ; with us it is culled " semper musUim."" 
It is only made hy nsiag great precaution, and taking Cure 
that the must docs not fttroient ;" such being the state of the 

* Tliii wan *viilettt:ty n kind of prep* sirop, or gntpajrlly. "Hub" 
is iwrhap*. lu Ilurdoulu «ii)i;|featii, a ant iimppMip'riiiti! iiiinit I'ur U. 

" Wtaon cold, they ■would havfi nearly titf. mmt: coiiBieuin-oy. 

** The rA»in wiae ot Cuir wiu ttin nuntl ]im>*'l of nil m a aliuii. 

•• Meiilion«l in c, 4. Prubably a miiscmtt'l gni[>a. 

iv So< c. i of thif liook. 

n Or'*v>t." THc liuniinonpoadlnj; was "oleoj" which WOTild imply that 
Lhsy were planed iolo builia^ od. Columella rnvoun llm Ult«r rcadiug, 
U. sii. c. IS. ^' TliD rooming i-i prubahLj di'reottTn heru. 

'* PaMum aMundaTiani. '* Or "alnajB •wcct." 

" " Always miuu" " t'orruro, "boil," or "eff«r»«cB.'* 


[Book XIV. 

must in H& tran^fgramliuu into wine To uttoiu Llib ulijuct, the 
must is tukua, from tba yoX and put iatu casks, whiub uri> iin- 
ni-jdiately plunged into waWr, and there letl to remaia until 
the winter ft(J]»^i(^e is past, and fruety wenther Uas made it« Thixe i» another kio^, liguiii, of niLtumlaiglciicoa, 
■which is kniiwn in tho province of Narbonensis by the nuaui 
of '' d'jliie,"" nnd more particularly in the diatrict of the 
Vooontii. In order to TDafeft it, thtv k«pp tho grapo hanging 
on the tree fiip a onnsidcrahle tiTne, taldng can' tx> twist llie 
stalk. SoiDp, agriin, inakp an inciBion ia the Ixairing shoot, as 
der,'p an the piUi. m^IuIp othera leave the grajjee to dry ou tiles. 
The gnly grap", however, thfit is used in tlieae various [>ro- 
cuEses is thut of the rine kiiowQ as the " bclvi.'fliiaca."^* 

Some persons ndii to tlio list of lltusb sweet wine? that 
kaown aa " diar'iiyton..""' It i^ made by drj'ing grapes ia the 
Buo, and then placing them for seven days ill a closed place 
upon hurdlea. s>jiiue sevea feut fr'>in tho ground, cat5 being 
tiiktn to protect thcrn at night from the Acws : on the eighth 
day they are troddun out : this method, it is aiiid. prcHluoes a 
lL(|uor ol'ssquifiite bouiiaet and flavour. Tho liquor kaown aa 
melitites"" ia aLno one of the sweet wines : it ditfers from 
roulaum, ID biniig made of rauat ; to ilve coajfii of rough-flii- 
vourod must they put<tiii> congina of honey, uud one cyathus 
of Golt, and thoy are tliiiiu brought to a gentlo bt^il : tids mix- 
ture is of a rough flavour. Among thewc varielit^s, I ought to 
place what is known a« " protropum ;"*' sai^h being the name 
given by momo to the m^ist that rims spontaneously fi'om tiie 
grapea before thc-y are trodden ont. Directly it flows it is 
put into flaggons, and allowed to feriopnt; alter which it ia 
left to ripen fur forty dityB Id a Bummereun, about the rising 
of the Cog-star. 

" "Swc«" drirlt. fee ieemetn Ihink t;hn,t thin Bwwt win o racist have 
bei'n iometliinj^ similar to dmmniiKtio. Tlnrduuiu saja tliat it cumipuiidB 
tn t^a Tin doui d'9 I.iiu<jux, or blauquiitte da LliuouIs, dud the via Mw- 
cut d'Azik. 

" See c, 3 of Ihie Book. 

■iU If Poiirtd," nr ■■' gtruined throngh." 

■* " Uuuey wiiw."' A diBagmflubla niedicsment, F6e thiolts, rstlier tlian 
a mm. 

"' Somewbat jiiuilur to (Tic viii Jo premiuro jjouttP of tha Froncb. It 
wo-Qld scorn to ban been morii o^ a liqaoar Xhau u wiuu. Tcbiy is tnoile 
ID • tcmcurbftt umilftr manner. 

CUp. 13.] TTHEN ynssa WEUK nUBT VAVI ik itilt. 


Those cannot propt^rly be termed winca, which by th« 
Greeks are known under tJie ntime of " deutem,'**" and to 
wbich, in common witli Cato, ■wo in luly give the name of 
" toru,"'' bviiu» nittde from thu hunks of grupt» etecpcil ia 
water. Still, howovfn-. thia bevuruge ie rtck^iutd as tuiikin^f 
ouu ul'tlie " liibuunjrs" *" wint-s. TUuruaiv iLi-lc vaiioUu* uf 
il: the llrst" m mmie iu thi^ IbUowmj; maDuer: — Altvr ikn 
must ia druwn uff, uae-tcnth ut' iu omuutit iu U'uU-r is addt^d 
tu Lht) hueks, wliicli uru Ihou K-lt U> suitk a duy and a uighl, 
and then are a^aiii nulijtnited tu prexaure. A ae^xtnd kiud, 
thut which the UruL'ka are in thu luibit of muking, in iircpurcd 
by addiag on^^lhird la water of thi' quanritr of must Uiat ha(< 
LJI^eo drawn off, and after submitting the pulp toprriasuru, tli« 
■fMiUt is Riduci'd by boiling to uuc-Uiird ui' iis urigiuul qutui- 
tity. A tliird kind, u^^uiii, is prcsiiod out Iroui thu wiuc-itius; 
Cuio gives it tlw naitit: ui' " iiecKitum."** is-^ae of tbuse be- 
vut^gua, howuv«r, wiU keup fur uuru Lhan a eiQgle yt;ur. 


While treating of these TuriouB details, it occnrs to mo to 
nui-nlLon thnt of the t-igtity difFeront kinds throughont the 
whole earth, whicti niuy with propriety l>o reckoned in the*! 
cloBs of gcni-roua*' wines, fidly two tliiniB* uru the pniducc 
of Ituly, whicdi consi-tiucmly iu lliii* rLnpuct far BuriJasBLB any 
uther couDtry : aad oa trueiag tbis subject somewhat higher 
up, the fact §ngg('Bt8 itself, thut the wiiiM* of Italy have not 
Ittva in any greut fiivuut Irom. an early period, their high 

•> Or "wcinid*' prrj* wino). •• Dc Ku Rusl. c. 1B3. 

•* ViniuQ opi-mriuiii. 

" Thi» nivtimd i» still aJopUil. Ffo t-ity%, in nitliiig "piquott*," « 
"sinoll wini'." iliroii^iout rausiof the cuuuiHcb i^fEuruiMi. 

" Or " viau-i«c dnuk." tt would make oa adi bcvengt^ of diuigroc- 
Hbla buit«. 

■" " >'ub<lia." In c. 29 b« ipeaks of 195 kind*, and, reckoaing all Lhi; 
varieCict- iluublc tliut uiiiiibcr. 

" Via obHurvi's thut iho varintl^iR of the modRra wines art: ;^nite innu- 
meruMc Hi; n^murlis u1<d tliiit J'bny dots nut t.ptak nf tlie Aiiucic wintm 
lucutiiriivil by Atliiuieua, iirhicb wurc kept in lurgu boUlM, bung in thin 
i^hinuLnf cnmc-t ; vtUrru tha li<(Uid, by evnpuffntiun, ucauinsi the cuiuiaUinii]' 
of ulu The wioM ui otiior ccauu-ioi ofidtiutlj wocoiticle known to Pliaj. 


[Itooit XIV. 


TL-piite haviag oiily been acq^airud bIugo the six liutiiltedtb year 
«f the City. 


ItomaluB iTidde libationSj not witli wine but ^rith milk; a 
fact wliich is fidly established by the religious ritos which 
nwo their foundation to him, and are ohserTcd even to the 
tiresent day. The Posthumian Iaw, promalgatpd by King 
SuTnn, has an injnnction to the following effiict: — •• Sprinkle 
not the fiuiLTa! pyre with wine ;" a law to which he gave his 
eaHction, no doubt, in ^onsoquonce of tho rcmurkiiblu scuroity 
of that commodity in those days. By the Biiiiie law, he oko 
pronounc^-d it illegal to make a libation to the gods of wine tbut 
waa the produce of aii uupruDed vine, his ohjc-et Wing to compel 
the husbaiidinon lo prune thoic rines ; a duly which they 
Bhowed thomst'lveB reiuctiuit to perform, ia consequence ofthc 
danger which attended climbing the trees,"' M. Varro in- 
forms us, that MezentiuB, the ]dag of Etruria, nuc^oured the 
Ku-tali against the Latini, upon condition that ho Rhouid re- 
ceive all lh« wine tliat was then in the ttniiory of Latium. 

(13.) At Kome it wiia not lawftil for wuinwi lo drink wine. 
Among the various anecdotes flonuected with this subjoct, wo 
find that tho wife of Egnatius Mcccnius •" was slain by her hu8- 
b'liud with aetick, because nhuhad drunk aoiue wine from the Tut, 
and tliat he was absolved from the murder by Romulus. Fabitu 
I'ictor, in Ills Book of Annals, iias stated that a ciJtoin. lady, 
for having opened a purse in whith the keys of the wine-cellar 
wore kcp^ was starved to death by her family : and Onto tell* 
ua, that it was the usage for the male relativeB to give the 
ftimalcB a kiss, in order to nscflrtaiti whether they Hineit of 
" tometum;" for it was by that liaiue that wine was then 
knowii, whence our word " tciaulcntia," sigoilying druukto- 
aesa. Ca. Doniitius, the judge, once guve it as hia opinion, 
that e. cortiiin wom-un appearud to liira to have di-uok more 
wiutt than wa« reipiifii-te for her health, and without the know- 
ledge of her husband, for which reason he condemned her to 
loae her dower. For a very loug time there was the greatest 

*" " Cirnt pcrituta nrbiuli." Tliis is prububly tbe mnooiag- of this nrf 
eLliplical pasnii^i;. See p. 218. 
■" Calbd tlotdlus bf Valerius Moximiu, H. vi. c. 3. 



i-couuiuy maoifi Gk- J at lUime io the uk of Ihis article. L. Va- 
piriuK," the geoerul, who, on one occasion, commatideil ngnitiHt 
th« Sam nites, when about Ut engngp.vowi^d lUi ofti'ting to JupiU-r 
offlwnfiUcupfuUor wine, ifheshonldgain the victory. In lact, 
among the gilts pretwtntcd to tlie gods, we find mentioa made 
of offerings of sexturii of milk, but never of wine. 

The same Onto, while on his voyage to Spain, from which 
he alterwanls ntumed triumpljimt," would drink of no othtr 
winu but tJiut whieh way wrvi-d out to the rowers — very dil- 
ferent, indeed, to the conduct of those who are in the huhit of 
giving to their gueeU even infurior wine " to that which thi'y 
drink thcms'jlvee, or else voulrlve to ftubstitute interior la the 
course of ttie reimat," 

The wint-s lliut wero the mont oetremcd among tho smejont 
TlomaoB wcro thot* iK-rfumed with myrrh," as racniioiiod in the 
plwy of Plautua, entitled the" Pereiaii,"** though w€ tlncj it there 
elated that ciUitiaufi " ought to be added to It. Uence it i«, 
thut some pi.T»oui! tire of opinion that they were pMrticadarly 
fond of aroiualitea:" but fubius JJoHBennuR. qiiile decide* 
the que^ition, in the following line: — " I sent them good 
wine, riiyrrh-wiiif ;"" and in his piny culled " Acharistio," we 
find these wordu — " Tlrmd and pearled hurley, myirk-wine 
too." I find, too, that Scasvola and L. -•'Elina, and Atcins 
C'apito, were of the Btimo opinion; and tlien we rend in the 
play known Hs the " PepiidoliiB:"' — " But if it ie renTiiaitc for 
liiui to draw forth what ie sweet from thu place, hsxs he uught 
uf thatK' to which Cburinus makes answer, " Do you ask 

•i S*B B. xrii, 0. 11. 

»• OviT tho CehiI»ori. 

«" Thr younfirr Pliny, B. tl, Ep. 2, cfiMnrw thi« Ktingy i»rectiee. Sec 
dM IkfartioL K. iii. Kpij;. 60. 

** That Uii«, liowrrct, wna iinl iinromnwtil)' dnnr, wr maj judgr from th« 
remark niaiie by ilie ^ureinor of ibo foast, Jiitiii li. 10, to tbu bnde^om. 

•> CnlliMl " raTrttiinii." Kfc rt^miirk* thnl ihc lliivoiir of raj^irh is nnrid 
and bitter, its ojoar dtrnn);: nml difiajrretaMc, and uiyt that it ib diUlculL m 
conuivA how thf nncirnt* could drink WLtii; with Ibmubittiincciciwlutiiin, 

*• Ab tlio "Ptrnu" hn» tonm down l» tw, wn Bud an inonliwi of loynti 
in lb* pawKgo alliuJcd to. 

■I Se« B. xii. c. 19. TUi> h nie<atioaed in tbe Tens., A. i. bc. 3, 1. 7. 

•• Arumatiu or wrtiiined wiiioa. "• MarrtiiiiRm. 

> TheC'hoat arlmpo«lor: aplBj'orPUutin. Be«A.^.K.*,l&l,etug. 




[Boot XIV. 

tlie question? He has mjirh wme, raiain wine, defrutum,' 
aod houoy ;" from which it would appear that myrrk wise 
was aol uuly rtiukoiiud tuuviig Ikt: wiuvs, but amoag the eweel 
wines too. 


I'hii fact of tho existence of the Opiraiaa wine gis-cs ua* 
daubttjil {irooi' tlit^if it'erEi wiiie-LmilK,' uud tJitit wine WfL> 
racked utf iu the year of Same 033, Italy bang alnwly ali\-o 
to the blcdsinga she enjoyed. Slill, howevtsr, the sevtral 
varit'liea that are now bo cLihibratecl were nut bo in those days; 
iind hunuo it is that all tlm wince that wore grown ut that 
period have only the one generiii name of "Oplmiun" winc», 
Uroux th« then tuiisul Opimiija. So, too, for a long time aiXet- 
wards, and, iudi:t.'d, so ktu us the times of oar graudfatUcts, tho 
win'CS firoui Leyaati sen were hidd in tlia hight'st esteem, eTL'ii 
though Fidornian was iLli'ea.dy knowiif a I'oct whith we learn 
lioia the line of the Comic writer,* " I ahoU draw five cupa of 
Thufiian and two of Faltruijin." 

V. Liciuiiis Oriissns, nod L. JiiKiis Ciesar, who wt-ns Cen- 
Bora in the yoar from the Uuitding of thu City (565, iasuiid ua 
odidt forbiildiu<; tliu sale of either GrL-ek or Ainiiiean wine nt 
a higher priw than cig-ht obbbs liie. quadmuUil^ — fur Buuh, ut 
tuct, are thl^ oxa<;t words of tlie edict. Indwd, the Ovivk 
wines Wi^i'e so hij^hly vulutd, that uot muru than, a ungle cup 
was served to a guesl daiiug the rcpunt. 


M. Varro gives us the following Rtateraent ag to the Tirmc£ 
that were held in the highest esteem at tiiblu in hia d*j-: 
" L. LnoulluBj when u hoy. never atiw an cntt*rlaJnment at his 
father's houBe, howLver sumptuous it might be, at which GrfHik 

* Must boilud Aiiwn 1.1) !itiir iis nriginiil quantity. 

* Aputliucuit. 'Hie " ajiuthe-uie " wuie fouiuj ut iliu top of the house, in 
wLiiuh tbe vinae ■vara pliiiiL>d for tho purpotie a( sDiL^oniiig, Sumetiitiai a 
ourrrnt of smoki) -Wiis diivctL^i l.hrjugli l.lium. Tliey vare qiiito diitinol 
from the " cmIIh viiiarm," ur " witK-'-ctrllur," The 0[ii'iiiui] wine '\a ineu- 
tinned in c. i. 

* this writut U. unkaowD. > Or smplLora. 

Chap 18.] 



wine was hundcil round more llum once during thp Tcpast: 
vhen'-iifi 111? kiiuiBcir, whrii liu rctumt-ij Iruiu Ai:4it^ ilistnbutMl 
-flqaWgt^'iS amuug tliu ptu^lu nii>ru thuii ti ]iuiidr<;d thoueiitiii 
oongiuriii^ of tlie; camo wim;. C. StuliiiB, wliuui wf haru soea 
Fi'ivtur, ik^d to »uy that Chiau wiikj uuvcr eiiUrivd liU bouse 
udUI bJ8 physician prescribed it to him iVir the cardiac^ dis- 
euse. Ou ttiu olhcr hand, llorU'nsiiis Ibfl tuu tliousund caelu 
of it to his hfir." Suub is l.liir BliituiULUt raimlu by Vurro, 

(15.) And bt-sides, is it not u. wtll-knuwn fjtct Uiatt Cwstar, 
wLen iJictator, at the btmiiUL-t given uu the occasion d1" hia 
triumph, allotted to oflch tabic- an mnyhttTH of Fitlirniua Jiml h 
cudus of Chian? On iho ocntision, loo, of his Triumph lor hia 
rietories in Spain, ho put bcSbrv the j;iii!hU bmh Chimin as well 
^ Falcmi&n ; uud aguiii, ut iht> bttiiiiuvt given *»i )iia ihird 
'gnsulehip,* he gnve Fulcmiuit, Chian, lA'tbian, imii Mniuir* 
tine ; indeed, it is generally agrei'd thai this was the Qiht 
occasion oil which four difllront kin<Je of winu wvrc Bcn'ed dt 
tuble. It was niter ibis, tbeu, thut it!l tliti other m<r\* ranio 
into unch ve:ry high repute, soniewht^ru about the year of the 
City 700. 

CHAP. 18. (150 — ""^ '"-"'f^S t*!' ''"''' ■W'l* TTfR, TTHIT mCES 

I nm not auriirised, then, tiiul for these muny ngee there 
have bei'u inviintfd aliiioet tnonmeruUe viirittica vl' urdfiuiul 
wiuL'B, of which 1 shall now make stinie ni>entiDn ; th«y arti till 
of them einpioyed for nit<lii:iniil piir^Dses. We have already 
stated in a loniier Bnufc hiiw omphiii^iimi,* which is used for 
nnjpjints, is made. Thifi Ciqnor known as " (Bnantiiimim " is 
niiidt) from the wild rino,'" two pounds of the flowers of which 
UFC 6t<>cpcd in acddus of nniKt. Hiid are then chtLogcd at tha 
end of thirty days. In ailflitioa to thin, tho root und tht 

< ToMcti containing a eongiiu, or the cightli of no ampboriL, ncutily mx 
pints iinglisli. 

' Aa lo [bit mjtladf, fita B. li. o. Tl. 

• B.C. iS. * B. xii, c. 61. 

" Or "InlintiBii." "(Eoanthiniim " mcuiia "mudtof vinofli>wrri," TIib 
wilil villi' i« nuL a dixtinct *\i«a<.» frniii l\ve cultivated tine : it )■ onljr u 
uoripty of it kmiwn in liiiliuiy hi llti- Vitiji»ilv('Blris liibnisL-a (if f^) urn o fori., 
F^u Uibiks tbiLt a* iht must ooulil otily^ 1)6 uai-i in uuVuuiu. whuu thu wild 
vino irw not Eluwnrinj;, tlio flownn uf it muat have b««o dried. 




Luslis of the grajies nrc cmployi^d in tlrpssing leather. The 
grapes, too, a little after the bloMom has gone off, are ain- 
giilarlj" cffipaciiius as a apeciftc forflonliug the fevcriBh heat of 
the body in certain maladies, being, it ia srud, of a nature re- 
mnrfciibie far extreme coldneas. A jiortion of these gnipra 
wither away, in conKcqBcnco of ihtJ hi-ut, before the rest, 
■which aro tlmnLO calii'd solstitial" grapes; indeed, the whole 
of them never attain maturity; if one of these grftpws, in 
an unripe statci, ia given to a hnrn-door fowl to ewt, it is pro- 
ductive oi' a disHlte to grapoK for tlie future.'* 

CHAP. 19. — RixTr-sii TAttrrpiEft op abtipictal wura. 

The first of the artifloiiil wines has wine for its hasia ; it ia 
called " adynamon,"^* and is made ia the following msnot-r. 
Twenty st'xtarii of white must are boiled doivn unth half that 
quantity of water, until the amount of the watfr is lost by 
evaporation. Somt^ persons mix with the must ten sextarii of 
aea-wfltcT and lui equal quantity of rain-water, and leave tha 
whole to evaporatt! in tha sun for forty days. Thia heversgo 
ifl givon to invulida to whom it is appi^shcndiMl that wine may 
prove injurioiiB, 

The Tipxt kind of artificiul wino is that mode of the ripe 
^rain of millet ;^'' a pound and a quarter of it with Lho slxaK' 
ia Bteciied in two congii of must, and tho mixture is poured off 
at the end of six mouths, We have already atuted" how 
various kinds of wine are made from the tree, the nhnib, and 
thp hcrh, respectively known as tho lotus. 

From fruit, too, the following wines are miule, to the list cf 
which we shall only add some necessary explanations: — ^Fiwt 
of all, we find Che fruit of the palm'* employed for thispiir- 

" "SohtitiiiiM," nMimwe thpy withstand the heal ol' the Bolstice. Mnr- 
CCllllH Emplriciw culla llic m *■ CauiKuUili,'" buciuimi; thrj- b!:i[r (he LvHt of thr 

" FCf reraniki thuL this nsserlioa i> qtiUo crrociuuus. 

'* From tho Greek, mcaainf; ■' withnul etron^Lb," Tho tniihirc, V(t 
TCmarkft, woiilil appi-sr U> bi> ntithcr pnUhk mir nhak'sumu. 

" .Seci B. xsiii. e. 24. A kirnl of bieer niiKhl ho roada with it, Ffe •o)'* ; 
but this mixture niust liare heen very unpuliitftblG. 

>' 3ee_!t, xiii.e. 32. 

'* A vinouadrinlt iiinyhemnilp in iHn manneT herEatatMl; hut thennlicu 
vine tit ihe peojilLS nt Aaia and Alii<ui is only lande of tliu fixaieatca t:i.p 
of the ttee, Sc« B. nii. c, 9. 


pora liy the FurLluaim as wvU us liiu IndiiUfi, and, intleod. 
ttiroughout oU tlic couDtrics cf ttio £ast. A inodius of tho 
kind of ripe dnte called " thydieie" ^" is added to three congii 
of water, and ofter being stepped for Bome time, they are 
»iubjcct*id to pressure. Sjtilcs"" ia ft preparation *imilaTly 
made from figa : aorac pfiinons call it " pftlmipriniuin,"" olhera, 
again, " catorchitt-8 : " if Bwcttness ie not the maker's olijcct, 
instt-ad of vrXict thore is added tha aame (i^iinDtity of husk 
juice" of ^ipos. Of the Cyjniaa fig" a very DJiccllpnt vinogor, 
too, is made, and of tliat of Alexajidria'* a. still supeiior. 

A "wino 19 made, too, of the pods of the Syrian carob," of 
pears, und of all kinds of applpB. That known «s " rboites"'* 
is nittdo from pomegranates, aod other varielieit ant pri?p3n?d 
from corbels, modljirs, eorb apples, dripd iniilbCTTie*, and pine- 
nuts ;" these loAt ftro left; to stpcp in must, and ore then prcssM : 
thn others prodiiff a swett liquor of thprneclvca. Wo shall 
have occasion bi>foru long: to ehow how Cato'* has pointed out 
the method t>f making injTtites:-* (he Greeks, liowovir, adopt 
a difEtrent metlioJ in makiug it. They firet boil tender sprigs 
of myrtJe with tho leavee on La white musl, and after pound* 
ing Iht-m, lioil domi one pound of the mixture m three coogji 
of niiiBt, until it is rfduced to a couple of congii. The be- 
verage that is prepared in this maune^r with the berries of 
wild myrtle ia known a* "myrtidaaiim;""' it will stain th» 

Among the garden plants trc find winea made of tho follow- 
ing kinds : the radish, asparagus, cunila, origftnum, parsley* 

'* Ke EUTB "caryoiic," and nnl chytliBBv, in B, liii, c. i. The modios 
— [ Rnmething mnre t.hun nnr pick. 
' From the Ot-ect wukij, a " Qk" Tliii wino wiw mftAn, V(o thinks, 
tiom lln? inrotiocp oT snttie Tftricty of tho Bycamottf. Bye B. xiii. o. H. 

" " rnrae psliu" apparently. 

" TorliTUTii, probably : lb« Bscond Bquetaing. 

w Sto B. siii, 0. 15. " Sec B. riii. c- 14. 

" Hee H, ii:i, c 18, 

'* Fruia pia, a "pomegmiinlti," 

^ JJidwraridu* crdls it '* ^trabilitiit," T4<! says that ihoy coulU bo of an 
wtrlce in prodadng a viofttu tlriak. 

»» Sou H. XV. c. 37. " Or "mynls vine." 

** Myrtle will not make a wine, but ■ vbic^ittice 
i» tbc mtrnftmuni. 


seed, abrotonnm," wild mint, nip,°* catmint,,'* wild thyme,*' 
and horchound." A couple of handfula of theee ingriMlieiita 
are put into a caduB of nnjst, as ateo one Bcxtariua of sapa," oud 
half a Bextoiius of aea-watur. A wine is outde of the nayhew " 
tarmp hj adding two drachms of aaphew to two sextarii of 
must- A wine Is made also irom the roots of squills.'^" Among 
the 0owerB., that of the rose furnisheB a wine ; the leaTCs are 
put in a linen cloth and then pounded, afteT which they are 
thrown into must with a small weight attached to make them 
Kink to the bottom, the proportion being forty drachms of lcav<-s 
to twenty sextarii of miiat ; the vessel in. which it is kept 
muflt not ho opcnoil before the end of three montha. A wine, 
too, ia made of Gallic nard,^ and another kind of the wild** 
Torioty of that plant. 

I mid, also, that Toriotis kinds of aromatites" are pre- 
pared, cUffering bat Tery Uttle in their mode of composition 
from that of the unguents, being made in, the first instance', 
aa I have already statedj*" of myrrh, and then at a later peri(jd 
of Celtic nnrd," calamus, and aspalathus,** of which coki-s aru 
made, and are then thrown into either must oi- sweet wine. 
Others, again, make these wines of calamus, seented rush," 
costtis,'* Syrian nard," amomum,** cassia,*" cinnamon, safiVon,'" 
pokn-dates, and foal-foot," all of which ore made up into caki^ 
io. a similar maimer. Other persona, again, put half a pound 
ofnord and malobathrimi'^ to two congii of muBtj and it is 
in this, maauor that at the present day, with the addition of 

Artomiaifl abrotoaam of Liaaxus. 

Ncpeln caUiis o( LIbiibim, '* 

Marrabium vulgnre of LiniiteBS. 
(irapc-juicc boiled Jovm to oiio-tliird. 
llrasaiai napUA of Liiiii«Lu, 
Nftrdiis Gallicog, or Valeriafla Cellicu 
Niuxlus sjlieetria or boccailB. 
lao. 15 af this Book. 
ConvotvoJiia spj>pariu* of Linflteas. 
Andropagun scbteiiantLm of Linaieus, 
Gosliu ludicua of Liaaseus, 
Andropogoa Doitlus of Linnjetig. 
Sue B, xiii. c 2. *» 

Orocna eativuj) uf Liimsua. 
Anaciim Eurnfiiuuni of LijuKeiU. 
See B. xii. u. 50, 

" Sula graTPoti-ns of LinnffiUi. 
Tkymu^ gerjiyllLini ol' Lmnioui- 

"s ScilU mnritm of liunKot. 
of LiaDKiu. Seij fi. lii, c. 26. 

*' Aromatic wiiw* 

" VuLeiiaaa Celtict. 

Sc« B. xii. C U. 

pepper anil lioney, the wince are mndD by some known as oon- 
lectioji winofl." and by ottera n3 ppppiired" winoB. Wo find 
mculioD. made of noctarites also, a beverage extracted from a. 
lierlj known to some ofi " heloiiioa,'*" to others aa " Me- 
dica," ** &ud to others, again, as eymphytoD," Idojo, Orestion. 
or uectaria, the root of which is added in tho proportion of 
forty druchme to six soxtani of mnst, being lirat aimilurljr 
placed in a lirt^n clotb. 

Afl to other kinds of herbs, we find wormwood wine," made 
of Pontic wormwood in the proportion of one pound to forty 
Bextarii of must, which is then boiled down until it is reduced 
to ono third, or else of slips of wormwood put in wine. In a 
Bituilar mauntir, hyssop wine"" is mude of Cilidan hyssop,*" by 
adding three oudccb of it to two coagii of must, or else by 
pounding tlueo oimaea of hyssop, and adding th^u to O'DO 
congiqa of must. Both of these wines may be made also in 
another method, by eowing tLiiae plants around the roots of 
vines. It is in this mannwr, too, tliat Oafo tells ua how to 
make hellebore*' wine from black hellebore ; and a frimilar 
iHEithod ia used for mftking scammony'^ wine. The vino hoa a 
rKraarkabk propensity*' of contracting the flavour of any plarE 
that may happen to be growing near it ; and henco it is that, 
in tho murehy Iiindg of Putavium, the grape has the peculiar 
flavour of the willow. So, in lik« manutr, we find at Thasos 
hfUebore planted amouj; tho yincs, or o!so wild eacumber, or 
BcaaimoDyi Iho wino that is produced l^om iheao vinea is 
known by the name of " phthoriiun," it bein^ productive of 

=° Condita. " Pipcmtt. 

" Inula hi'lutiioni of Liuniens. Soo B. ui. c. t(I. 

*■ Mtdiraigo ^aiUn ofLiiinwus. 

^ Bympiijrtnm ffflkifliili; ul' Linweufc, bting all different Taiivtio. 

^ " Abiinliiitcs;" raatlu of Ibg AttcmiBm PoDticu of Linnuiu. A medi- 
cinnl vitLc JB shll prepared witb wormwood ; and " ujiainthc," a hijQcur 
much ealcumed m b'riuicfl, is madu from it. 

"" HTBaojiifes, 

40 H}'StMjpit«8. of&dnulu of Lmuicus. 

" HtW^brntu. "■' ScaiomthniteB. 

" Fee Mja that this is not the fact; and queries whether the vulgar 
notian etill vntertninL-d on this Eubjert, m&y not be traced up to our auLtior. 
It is a ticit uncuni.m>Qii btjUcf that rosea ameli all the sweetei if wcidDji sto 
plaatcd near tliem. 


ptnrt'a WiTpaAi bistort. 

[Book Xn'. 

Wines ore made, too, of othec herbs, tho nutiire of which ■will 
bo mentiuaed in their respective places, the ata-chiiH" for 
instantH!, tiio ruot uf gDiitiun," Uagurigaaura,'** [litlany,^ ibal- 
iugt,'=* daucus,*' elelispbaoua,"' pimiut,'' acoruB," conyza,*' 
thymo,'* mandragore,'"' and Bweet rush." We find the nanKn 
nientioiieij, alto, i>f scy;!iuuci,^ itiroiiKOis, utid Icctiupkagitv)), 
eompounds of wbich thu riiceijit is now lost. 

The wines that are infl<k trora iho shrube aro mostly ex- 
tmcted from the two kinds of cedar,'" the express," the laurul,* 
the juniper,*' the terehintii,^ and in Gaul the li'Dtiek.'* To 
mEike these winee, t!i(?y lioil titlitr the bcrricH or thu new wood 
of tho Bhrub in must. Tlicy emptuy, ulso, tho wood of tlie 
tlwiirf olive," the ground-pine," aad tlic germander "" for a 
Bimilar pui-pose, adding at tho aamo timg tui diaoluiu of the 
llowur to a oongiuB of must. 

** Laveiidulti itcEthw of Linnaos. See B. xivii. c. 107. 

** Gtuliiuia lutca of Liiuiiuiia. Bei: B. xiv. c 34. (icatiklL viite it 
biill njuJu. 

"* Tlivmus tra^orieanum of LiiinicuB. Sec B, ix, c, B8. 

•' On'gnimm dielnmnus of Linnfftiw. See B. ixy. a. liU. 

" Asnmni Eiinipwiim cit'Linnn-iw. Sec B xii. e. 37. 

'■' Ciuery, if nut iiunxiV? Mei; B. xtv. c. 64. 

'" A variety of eulvia or sa^n : h will bu oiijiitioned again, ftirther on. 

'' Lurrpittnm fairBntum vt Linnnctia. See B. xkv. to. II, 12, mtd 13. 

^ Acorus talanius ol LiuivKUs, Sec B, xxv. c. 100. 

^^ See B. «ii. C 3'2. ?• See f). inri, C- 31. 

'* Atrnpuniinaucliagorauf Linnffitiii, TUi* wiuo would But na a mirwiti'; 
]K)iBan, il wauld apiwur. 

"^ Audropogou Buhmuontliae of LinncuB. Sot B, ssl. e. 72. 
'' Tlu' urigiD and jiicttDiiig' of tb<j»(.< nnmoB aro unknown. 

''* See B. xii. o. 11. Juuiferus Lycia, and JutiipErus FlucniaeR of 

'" Cnprewns scmpprriKTis of LinHKus. 

"" Laurus iiabLliB i>f I.inii»iiia, Sl'b B. xv. c. 29. 

*' Jriiiipi^rua cnmmuniB of LinniBiis. 

" 8iw It. liii. c, 12. Tlie I'isijidft tercUnltiiis of Liniiirus. 

" Sea B. xii- 0. 88. Tho Pistauia lentiBcUB of Liiin^rxH ^_ 

•* " CtaiuoJteB." ThoGriiiiiiuuCQidium, I>iipLuuCuiiliuTii, aiidDnytin* 
OReoruRi of Linnaiw. Sec It. xiii, c. 'ia. VenomouB [iIildIb, wliich, Uikcti 
eroallf, would lie proJnctivc o-f djingcrows rftsuH*. 
■ ChuDMepitrjB. The Teucriiun oiittnifcpitrjg of LinnsBUS. Ste B. xjr. 

* ChamicdryB.. Tho TeuOTiora tlianiEedrys of Linaieiw. 
e. SO. Uioscanitos mentiona most uf diesc so-iuillcd viu'it. 

See B.xxir. 

Chap. SI.] 




CBAr. 20. (17.)~HTI3RrtMKLl, OR mXHTHATOX. 

There U a wine ulao mndc solely of honey anil watpr." For 
this purpose it is recommended tliat rain-wiitcr*' should tie 
kei>t for A period of five ycure. Those who shew greater skill, 
content themeelveB with tnking ihe wat*ir just after it hn^ 
ftiUcDf and boiling it. down U> ooi? third, to wliJth ttpy llit-n 
add one third in quantity of old hoai;y, acid kctp the mixturL' 
exposed to the ru.ys of a hot sua."' for £<a\y daya alter tbu 
riring of the Pog.Btar ; othere, however, rack it oft' in the 
course of ten days, oiiJ lightly tank tht; Tfssc-Is in which it is 
kept- This l;«vtT(ige is known as " hydroineli," and witli age 
acc[uirea the flavour of wine. It is nowhere more highly 
esteemed tliaa in Phrygia.'" 


Vinegar" erea has been mixed with honey; Dolhing, in 
fact, has been loft untriod by man. To this mixture the name 
of oxymeli has been given ; It is L'Oinpomided of ten pound? of 
honey, five semi -sex tarii of old rinegor, one pound of sea-salt, 
and five sextarii of rnin-wAttr. This is boiled gpntly till the 
mixturo has hnbbled in the pot aomc ten. times," after ■which it 
is drawn off, n.nd kept till it is old j '* all these wines, how- 
ever, are condemned" by Themison, on author of high antho- 
rity. And really, by Herculijsl tho use of them docs ap- 
pear to bo Bumowhat forcod," unices, indueil, we are ready to 
raaintain UiHt iheee tiromatic wines are so many compounds 
taught U9 by Nature, as well as thone that are mauuliujturod of 
perfumos, or tbiit shrubs and plants have been gL^nerated only 
for the purpose of bfing swallowed in drink. Howtver, ail 
these particulars, when knotvn, are curious and iuterc»tiiig, 
and show how sncceBst'hUy the human intellect has pried into 
evfry Benret. 

" Mfod, or mcthfitliik Srw Tl, iniii c, 51. 

•• TbCTo i* no prfmnd. Fit »ajii, Tui thh rccomxDtilidation. 

•• SUV'SI an now used f«r lhi» ]iurpo9r. 

M ** Efdronieliini." on ihi- uibur tuuiil, rna<1c tit vaUxr sad ftpplm, wu 
the Mldo H OUT mtKlcm cirlcr. °' 8ee 11. xxui. a. S. 

" "SuWerstfiittia," " Ju»t noma on the boil." 

*i The nxynLcl a( mndrrn timei voatains ao lalt, mid U odj used Bl a 

^ At drinks, no doubt; and with good rcusoR, oa to most «f tbcra. 
"^ CoutuB. 

PLXprr's 5ATU1UD HiaToai. 

[Bwk XI ST. 

None of these wiuce, howewjr, will keep beyond a year," 
vith the aoLe exccptivo. of those which wc have spuken of u 
nwjuiring age ; many of theee, itidet-d, there can be no doabt, 
do not improve after being kept so little aa thirty days. 



There are come miraculoaB properties, too, in certain innos. 
It is sidd thftt in Arcadia there is a wine grown -wluch is 
prodiictire of fruitfiilnesa'" in women, and of madnuia in men ; 
while in Achaia, and more OHpectnlly in the vicinity of Cary- 
nia, there ia a wine which causes abortion ; an effect which is 
pqimUy prodnced if a woman in a state of pregnancy happens 
only to cat a grope of the vino from which it is grown, although 
in taete it is in no way dilferent from ordinary grapee : agoin, 
it IB confidently a&acrted that those who drmk the wino of 
Troezen never bear children. Thasos, it is aaid, produces two 
varieties of wine with (iiiite oppoeite pi-opertiea. By one kind 
Aleep ia produced,*" by the other it is prevented. There is 
also in the anine island a vine known as ihe "theriaco,'"" the 
win$ and grapt's of which are a Cure for the bites of serpenta. 
The lihnman vine' also produces a wine with the smdl of 
frankincense, with which they make libations to the gods, while, 
on the other hand, the produoe of that known as " aRpendios,*" 
is buniBhed from all the altars : it ia eaid, too, that this last 
vine ia never touched by any bird. 

The Egyptians call by the name of "Thasian,"' a eertnin 
grape of Uiat country, remarkable for its eweetness and it» 

•* Otirmodicinal wine«will mostly keep longer tkaTi tTiis, owing- probably 
to the diffbrence in tlic mode o( making Uae naL wiaee Cbat form tkcii 


•" Thcro is liltle doubt that Hits ia fjibTtloua : wine taken in exCMi, we 
k'inw, is proJuctive of Iom of tlic gBCi.i?a, frenij Id tb« ihapo of delirium 

'* ThiA is not unlikdy; for, aa YCte remarks, the red wines, conbdning 
a large propurtioo of aicohol, act ti[M>n tbu brain and promntr .«Lecp, whllo 
tie wUite winia, charged with caibwuic gsa, are productive of nakcfolncM, 

°* Or Uealiiig vine. Sae B. ixiii.c, 11, 

' " LibaniuE." Frobubty iaeca^Q vea put m this win«, to produce the 

' From i, " rot," dJid irrivlttv, " to make Hbatiftil." 

' Bee g. 9 of thiji Book. It va» intaodoced, protubJj, from 'f 

Thuo*. M 

Chap. 24.] HOW UU8X in f B£?AltSI). 263 

lEtxative qualities. Oo the other hand, there is in Lycia a 
certjtin grape which proves aBtringent to the Btomacfa when 
relaxed, Egypt has a wine, too, knOwB as " ccholas,*'* which. 
la produttive of abortion. There are some wines, which at 
the risiBg of the Dog-atar change their nature in the wine- 
lofU' where they are kept, and afterwards reoorer* their 
original quality. The same is tl]e caae, loo, with wines when 
coiriod acroBs the seas : thuse thut are able to withBtoud tLc 
motion of tlic waves, appear alWwords to bo twioti a& old '' as 
they really are. 



Ab religion is tho greut basia of the ordinary ueoges of life, 
I shall liere remurk thut it is coneiden-d improper to ofTcr 
libations to the gods with any winee which are the produce of 
au unpriuied vine, or of one thai has beun struck by lightning, 
or near to whieh a dead man has been hung, or of grapca that 
hare been trodden out by eore feet, or made of mu&t from 
hu^ that have been cut,* or frona grapes that have been 
polluted by the fall of any unclean thing upon tbcm. The 
Greek wines are excluded also from tho sacred ministrations, 
because they contain a portion of water. 

The vine itself ia soinetimps eaten; the tops of tho shoots* 
are taken off and boiled, and arc then pickled in vinegar " 
and brine. 

cnip. 24. — HOW MUST ta itbcallt prepared. 
It will he aa well now to make somo mention of the methods 

* From It^dWii, "to dort." * ApoULene. 

* He ftUudet to tbc working of intu.'s iu periodi of eitreme bent ; kIso 
in the spring. 

' Of our ni(i(3ern wines, Mail eira, aitj Bourdtunx Improve by lieing carried 
d'L-roM ma. Burguniiy, it' uny tliiog, ilaUrioratca, hy the lUminuliua of its 

* After the grapes hail boen trodden and preaaiid, tbe huiks wera taken 
oat and Ihttr vdgi^a cut, tiod then again Biibji>cted to prewure : the remit 
wmkQuwn aa " torti»uin," or "cinjiUodBi^oni," a win« of very iafeiioi 

I" Hu alludes to the young shoota, which have aa agrocable adidit;, 
owing to Eicetic and tortam miii. 
'" Aci^ltD oi^id ; thR result, do doubt, of th« faulty vioie of maniifHetura 
universatty pt^rdeat ; thL-ii winas contaiond evidoatly but little kIoqIiuI. 


tuhtc'b yiATVKAh uiaranr. 


used in preparing wines ; indeeri, several of ihc Gpeelts have 
wrillcTi Bcptirate trcatitvBa un this enbJRut, and huvo madd a 
complete art of it, bucIi, for iaatauee, aa Euphiuoius, Aristo- 
macnus, Commiadce, aod Uiccsiua. The people of Africa arc 
in the liaLit of iiiputrtLliziiig auch acidity" as miiy Ije found 
wiUi gypstun, mid in somo parts with lime. The people cf 
Greece, on the ot.hcr hand, impart briskness to their "WinM 
when too flatj with pottera' esrthj pounded murHe, enlt, or 
■fioa-wfiter ; while in Itnly, again, brown pitch h used for that 
purpoae in Bome parts, and it is the wniTerwU praetitc hotb 
there as well ae in the udjoining pro^-iucea to season thtir now 
wines with roein : Bomctime^, too, thoy ecason them with old 
wiue-loes or vinegar.'-- They make various modicami-TiU, also, 
for iliii purpose with the must itself. They hoil it dcn-« till 
it becomes quite sweet, and has lost a coaBiderahle portion of 
its. strength ; though thus prepcired, they say it will nevar Jflst 
beyond a single year. In some placca they toil dowi Iho 
must till it ■becomes aapa," and tlicn mix it with tli<:ir mnes 
for the purpose of modifying their haruhness. Both for 
these kinds of wiucs, as, indeed, all others, they idways employ 
vessels which hn-vc thcmeelves received an inner coat of pitcit ; 
the method of preparing them will be eot forth in a succeeding 

CHAP. 25. (20.) — pnca AJfo BErni. 
Of the trees from which pitch and rcain distil, there an 
somo which gi-ow in the East, and others in Europe ; the pr«- 
viiiefl of Afiitu," which lies between the two, haa also somo of 
both kinde. la the East, the very beet commodity of this 
kind, and of tho finest quality, is that produced by tlie t«rc- 
binth,'* and, next to it, that from the leutisk,'^ which is also 
knownus theraaatich. Thu next in quality to thesi^is the juico 
of tho cypress, '" being of a more acrid flavour than any other. 

'^ See B. ssiiL o. 24, and B. isxvj. c. JS. 

" A process veif likely, as Vie remarks, lo tnni tlie viaes spocdilj U 

'^ Down to oDO-tliiid, Ihk ptuelico of using lioilcd mpu-juiue mji 
■euoi'iiu^, is Btill fuUowed la Spiua ia muking Bocneof the Uquetire; but tl 
is not gcacriilly rocomTncndod. 

'* B. T»i. c. 21. " A^ia Minor, nniucly, 

'« B. liii. c, 12. " U. lii. c. »*. 

"^ It |jiuilucea but ft vecy miiLute q^uuility of rsEJn, wluclt tana longer 
ail artiale of commerce. 


Chap. £5.] 

PITCH iJsii usais. 

All the above juices iiru lii)iii(l and of a rcsinoue nature odIjt, 
but lliut of the cedur '" ia (-iini|iuratWe[y thick, u.ud ol' ii pnipor 
consistfincy for making pitch. l*ho Arabiari resin '"^ is of a 
pule colour, hua uQ ucrid san:\l, nnil its I'limee aro sti^iag to 
those employed in lioiling it. Tbut of Jiidien is of n iiun]«r 
□bturs, aiiit hii8 a sLruuger emclt thiia tliaL t'tMxa ihe terubiutlr' 
eTtifl. The Syrian ^ rtsiu bus all the uppvuruncu of Attic 
liQuty, but liiut of Cyprus ie supecior tQ any other ; it is the 
oubur of honey, and is ui* a solt, dcehy natuixi. Tlio resin o£ 
Colopiiou"'' is yellower Uian Uio ulhiT vurii'li(.-8, but whou 
pouudi^d it liii'us white; it hwt a stilling siit^ll, for whiclt 
reoaon the perlumers do nut employ it. That prepared in, 
Asia from the produce of the pitch-tfCH; is vury white, and is 
known by the name of " spngna." 

All tho rt-sina aro solubln in oil ;** aorne pcraoua are of opi- 
□ion ako Itiut pottt.-n>' nhulk may bumi dibsolvbd:'^ I fed 
aBbannfd " to avow ihat tho principal esteem iu which the 
resius ai'e held umoug us is as dvpilatoritra lut tdung tbd haii 
ofi' rut^n'a buiUi-s. 

Ths niBtiioit itHed for aeaaoniiig ^rinca is to sprinkle pitch 
in the must duriug the lirst ttnncntaLion, which neTor lusts 
beyond nuif days ut lUt; nMiMt, m that m Imuquitt i» iuipurlt'd 
to tlie wine,-'' with, in some degree, its own peculiar piquancy 
of flavour. It ia gcnerully considered, that this is doiiL- mu(!C. 
e.Teclufdly by thij use ol" raw llower^ of rcein, which imparls 
a uuntiidemblu degree of briHkueE.s to nine : whik!, ou tliu 
ulliur liimd, it is thought that cr}ipula^ itself, if uiixud, tuudu 

'B 5e» II. xii). c. U, ami 0. ivi. c. 21. Not tb« oedor of LftumoD, 
prolKiUy, wliich «ul/ givuit h my suiuU quuitily ul' a«iii> liul uau ttt Um, 

>" I-oo Kagfcstj that this nn/ bmo been thu rain of Iho AraUina tcri- 

■' Hf« II. iiiv, c. 22. 

" ]V-r[iit|<i( rruiii tbu PUtacia U-ntbiiillim of LiuntBii*. 

^ This was mtuitf from the Lrrcliinth : but thu modcni Kua of Colw^ilioa 
U cxlni(UKl from ritnotien of tho ouoifcno. 

»> Sm B. liiv. e. 22. 

'•" Knrlhx iirn unl idUiUr in oiU. 

*' As beinc a niuik of ojui'iu'I eSTominacy. 

*'' TliD muter tlic qiiaaiiiy u/ uleuhol, itio luoru rt*iu iba viae would 
bi able to aM in aoltttton. 

-• 8oeB.xvi,c, 2'2, 

** " C'rai>iilii" iiropcrly iiiL-au* hfind-nclur, and what is not uncommuiily 
known n "su^iljieM." lUsinoil wiuo vriu tUought to bo piuLluctivii ut 


Pirax'S HiTCEAl niaTOBX. 

[nook xn". 

io mifcigntc the liarehncBg of the wine and subdue its aaperity, 
and when the win.o is thin and flat, to give it additioiial 
strength and body. It \s in Liguria more particularly, and 
the districts in the vicinity of the Padus, that the utility is 
recognized of mixing crapula with the must, in doing which 
thia foUowing rule is adopted : with, winee uf a Gtrong and 
generouB nftturo they mix a larger quontityf while with those 
that are poor and thin they use it more Bpariagly. There are 
eomo who would have the vnne seoeoned with both crapula 
and flower of rwBin at the aamp time," Pitch too, whca used 
for tbiB purpose, lias much the samo properties aa most when 
BO employed. 

In Bomo places, the mast is aubjeot to a spontancouB fcrrncn- 
tation n second time : when thia unfortunately happens itlones 
all its flavour, and thtin rcticivea thonamc of " vappa,"" a word 
which IB applied as on opprobriouB ap]]ellation even t« worth- 
leBB men of degenerate spirit: in vinegar, on the other hand, 
uotwithBtandiog its tort aad acrid taste, there arcj very oou- 
Biderable vii.tuea, and without it we shcrnld miss maay of the 
comforts " of civilized life. 

In addition to what we have already stated, the treatment 
and preparation of wines are the object of such remarkable at- 
tention, that we tind some persons employing ashes, and others 
gypsum and other Bubatanees of whieh wo have already** 
spoken, for the purpose of improving its condition : the aahea," 
however, of the ahaote of vines or of the wood of the quercna, are 
iu general preferred for this purpoeo. It is recommcndL'd alsa, 

those (ffacto, and hence obtaineil the nnnie. Thia Idnd of wino wna used 
iUelf, as we »ee aboTn, in Btasonia^ tlio othrr kicds. i'&e rttuurks, tbat 
is ritality re&ins have no »ticb clfcct as imparling body to vrcak winra. 

" Tlie whole of thh passage is hopelesiiy corrupt, and we osn only 
gucBB ai tho meaning. 

3- Wo bnTe already slated that " Tappa " is properly vinagur, whieli 
hits b*en ciposod to the air and has lost its tlurour. In this ftf-sli chr- 
mical cbimgii, whii'li he calls a second femientaLion, the wine bt-coniiM 
vinegar; and probaWj in tlie case? bti msntioaB, for some peouljar r«asoa, 
itaepecdf truasitida to "vappa" couJi] not bo arr«at«d, 

^ Mixed willii water, it was the "poscn," orcnmniDndrinkof t^ie Romon 
joliliun ; nnd it wna Used eiteagivdy botii by Uireck^ and Romana in tbcir 
4XH>k.uig( and at meala. 

« In c. 3*. 

*> B)r the mixture nt uhca, F^b eays, the imes wotUd lose thair goIoqi, 
and tuTfi a dote&tablo sUuUno flavour. 

Chap. 25.] 

piTcn \KD BEsnr. 


la take sea-nrater far out at sea, and to keep it in reeerve,** 
to be employed for this purposii ; at ali cTents, it osigbt to I>e 
taken ap in the nigfit aiid diiring the summer 8oUt.LW-, while 
the north-east ■wind 19 blowing ; but if token at tho time of 
tlie \-intage, it should be boiled before being u&ed. 

Tho pitch moat highly tiateeiaed in Ibily for preparing 
VGRsetH ftr Btoring win*', lb tliat which comes from Enittium. 
It IB mada irom tho it-siu that distibs Ixom the pit'uh'tret' ; that 
which is used in Spain is held ia but little eateem, being the 
proiluce of the wild pine ; it is bitter, dry, and of a diBagroe- 
ablo BraoiL Whilt; spviiking of the wild treea in n s«ei:eeding 
Eook," we shallmakemenlionorthediffereTit varieties of pitch, 
and the methods used in. prepaiiug it. The defeat* in rcain, 
besides those which^ we have already mentioned, area certain 
degree of Bcridity, or a peculiar smol^' flayonr, while lie great 
fiiult in pitch ia tho being OTer-bumt. The ordinmy test 
of ii^ goodntBB is a certain luminous appearouco when broken 
to pieces ; it ought to stick, too, to tho teeth, with, a pleasantt 
t«rt flavour. 

In ABia, the pitch which is most esteemed is that of Mount 
Ida, in Greece of Pteria; but Virgil** gives tho preference to 
the Narjcian '" pitch. The mori3 careful makers mix with 
the wine black mastich, which comes from Pontns,*^ and resera- 
hlcB bitumen in appearance, oa also iri8".root and oil. As to 
coating the vcsaela with wax, it has been found that the wine 
is apt to torn acid :" it is a better plan to put wine in veBst-la 
that have held vinegar, than in tlioae which have previously 
eontaincd sweet wine or raulBiun. Cato" reeommcods that 
■wines ftliould be got up— twjtMWftor*' is his word — by putting 
of lie-ashee boiled down with defrutum, one- fortieth jiart to tho 
cnlcuB, or else a pound aad a half of salt, with pounded 
marble as well : he makes mention of sulphur also, but only gives 
the very last place to rosin. "When tho fermentation of the wine 
IB coming to an end, he recommonds the addition of the must 

" A perfect absurdity, F^o remarlu. 
Iff B. xvi. oe, 16—23. 

>* ButcniDSB, (iTincu, and a dUagrccalilo nncll. 
" lirotg. ii, 4i]8. ^" Sm B, iv. e. 12. 

*' S™ B. xii. e. SO, " Sco B. sji. e. 18. 

*> Itrm' (TAX, Ffie rsiiMrks, irouLd nut Inivu thii 
vcuolt vould. 
*< Ue B« B.U11. c. IZ. 


fLnsT s kattjeai, bistobt. 

[Book SIT. 

to w>uch he gives the name of " tortivam," " meaning that 
wliich ieprppHt-d out th« very last of all. Fur the purpose of 
colouring wiuc wu also add curtain subsUuiL-cB tias sort of pif;. 
meat, and these bave a tendency to give it u body as wdl. 
; By such poisonous eophistications is tbis tevcrago compt-lkd 
I to Biiit our tii«te<4, and then we are Burprised that it is iajii- 
rioUH in its efrLcts ! 

It is a proof that •wins is beginnings tn tnm buJ, if a plate o( 
\owi, on heiag put in it, changt-a its colour.* 

on*p. 26. — vrsEQAH — lees of wixx. 

It 19 n. peculiarity of wine, amon;; the liquids, to become 
mouldy, or else to turn to vinegar. There are whole volumea 
whifth treat of the various ineihods of preventing this. 

The leea of wine when dried will tiike fire and bum without 
the oddition of fuel : tho aaht)& so proJucod have very much the 
nature of nitre," and Biiniliir virtues ; the more so, indeed, UiB 
more unctuous they are tu tlie touch. 

CaiP. 27. (21.) — WINB-VESBBLS — WXtTE-CELLiaS. 

The vnrious methods of keeping and storing -wines in the 
cellar arc very different. In tho vidnity of tho Alps, ihey put 
their winea in wnuden vtesela hooped around ;"' during their 
cold wintora, tboy even keep lijjbted fires, to piotect th« wines 
llroui the tifcuts of tho cold. It is a singtilnr thing to nota- 
tion, but still it has been occaBionally aeen, that these veswls 
have burst asunder, and there hns. stood the wine in frozen 
masses ; a miracle almost, aa it is not ordiniirily the nutore of 
wino to freeze, eold having only the fflbct of benumbing it. 
In TDoro temperate cUmatLB, th<.y place their winea in dolia,* 
vhich they hury in the eartH, cither wirering them ontircly or 
111 part, ai-cordiug to the teiapcraturo, Sumetimes, again, they 
expose their wines iu the open air, while at others they iiro 
jjlsiood beneath sheds for protection irom the atmosphoru. 

** The stGnnd " BqueeaiagB," 

*• If the wine ia turning t* vinsgar, (iibncotato of fead irill be f&med. 
*' Tley are tnrtrni™, onrl huve no dlliiiity ut nil wilh nitr*. 
** Cub, ia faL't^fiimilur to tV>»e osi'-l in FVunce id Cbo [Jfewiit iaj. Ia 
Spun th«f uso earthiMi jiir£ anil tlio ekmn of iiaimult. 
-" OUoog' vurthra vwitb, luud w vues. 

Chap, a?.] 



The following are runang tho rulrs giTcn for the proper 
managemimt of wines; — Oii« nidf of tEio wimsecUar, or, at 
all cvcala, the wioJows, ought to fiico the nurth-cafit. or at leaRt 
due east, All diiugliillB and roots of ticcs, unil i^iverythiiig of 
a repulsive smell, ought tw be kept at as great a di^lance us 
posBiblp, w-ini.' being very upt to contract an odour. Fig-treta 
Too, either wild or oiiHivat*-(l, ought not to ho plimfed in thw 
vicinitj-. InlciTals alioiild also be left bctwoon the Tcssels, 
in order to prc^vent infection, in case of any of thorn turning 
had, wine boing rcmarkubly apt tf> hcen'me tnintod. Tho 
shape, too, of tho veesels is of coiisidiTahla imporUincD: those 
that arc bcoiid and hellyinfj*' nro nut ho good." Wofiiid Itro- 
commend«d too, to pitoh them immediately aftt-r tlie rising of 
iiw Dog-star, and ttiun to wash them either with Bia or salt 
wal»T, ader which Ihoy should be aprinldod with the ashes of 
tree-shoots or else with pottoi^e' earth ; they ought then to be 
ctconc-d out, and perfumed with myrrh, a thing whieh ought 
to he frequently done to the wine-cellars an well. "Weak, 
thin wines should he kppt** in dolia sunk in the ground, while 
thoae in whieli tlie strongor onea are ktpt aliouJd he more ex- 
posed to the air. Tlie vesBi-la ought on no account to be entirely 
filled, room being l«fl for seasoning, by tiiising either nu^in 
wino or tlsi' dLfrutmn flavoured with eaffrun; old pitch and 
sapa are eometiiiies used for the mmie purpose. 'Die lids, too, 
of the dolia ought to be scawned in a Biuiilar manner, with. 
the additiou of mastich and Brutlian pitih. 

It is strongly rfMx>mmcndfd nevi-r to oppn tho vesside, ex- 
cept in fine weather; nor yet while a south wind is hiowiug, 
or at a full moon. 

ITie flower" of wine when white is looked upon ne a good 
sign ; hut when it is red, it ia had, unless that should happen 
to be tho colour of the wine. Tho veBnelB, too, ebould not he 
hot to the touch, nur should the covets throw out a sort of 
sweat. YThen wine very fioon flowers on the surface and 
emits an odour, it is a sign that it will not keep. 

As to deihitum and sujiti, it is reconjmcndcd to corainonce 
hoiliug them when there is no moon to he seen, or, in othi^r 

" " VentiTKrsa." He meHns " round.'* " Ab obloti* onw, probalily. 
*' ^Tiilu fermi.>alin^, and btibre ratting' off. 

** Ftufi viui, lUe Mj-uudurmii vlui uf Duioiuaic^ros, a mould w pdUcuLe 
which fgrau ou tbo lurTaco, and aftorwards MLs aad ia tield in Eutpunitiuii. 

wordii, at tho conjunctioTL of that plnnet, and at no otlier time. 
Leaden" veBsela eliould bo uscrl for this piirpose, and not coppoi" 
ones, and wtiloutd are generolty tlirown into them, tcom. a 
nottOD that ibej abBorb'^ the snioko. In Campaniti they ex- 
pose the reiy liacBt wines m casks iu the open air, it being Uiu 
opinion that it trindB to improre tho ■wine if it ia exposed to tliu 
action of the sun and moon, tho rain iind the winds, 

CHAP, 28. (23.)^»BinfKENirE8a. 

If anyone -wUl take tho trouble duly to consider the matter, 
he will And that upon no one aulijeet is the industry of man 
kept more conBtuntJy on the alert than upon the making of viae; 
OS if Nature had not given as water as a beverage, the one, in 
fact, of which all &ther animals molse use, "We, on the other 
hand, orta go so far as to make our very boasts of burden 
drink** wine : ao vast are our efl'orts, ao vtuit our labours, and 
80 bouadless tho coat which wo thus lavish upon a liquid 
which deprives man of his reusoa and diivcs kioi to freazy 
and to the comroisBion of a thotiiBancI crimes ! So great, bow> 
ever, are its attractions, that a great part of mankind au-e of 
opinion that there is nothing eli5e in life worth living for. 
Nay, what is even more thsm this, that wc may ho c^nabled to 
Swallow all tho more, we have adopted the plan of diminishing 
its strengtli by pressing it through''' filters of cliJth, and havn 
devised nmneroUB inventiona whereby to create an artificial 
thiTBt. To promote drinking, we find that even poisonouH 
roistures Lave baen invented, and some men are known to 
take a dose of hemlock before tbty begin to diink, that they 
may huvo the I'ear of death before them to make them take 
their wine :*■' others, again, take powdered pumice" for the 

** VtustU of lead are never used f(ir this purpnae at the present day ; u 
that niptal would oiiifiie too r»pidly, and liquidB would huve kibhI diffl. 
culty ill coming to a l)oil, A siuw firo muet uaTebe<"ii used iiy tlii; :in(.'ieaU. 

'" They wBiu tbouglit to fnvQ a bud liar-aur tu ihi eapa or ilefiutnm, 

■" A lueci! jiuurilitj, oe Pew rtmorks, 

* lie dots not Btati.' the raasun, not does it nppenr tu be known, Al 
tho priiSbnt day warniL-d wtne is sumulimes trivoji to a jaded liarwi, to ]iiil 
liim on his legs again. 

*' 'niough jiTactised by tboae who wished to drtak lai^ly, tUi* was oon- 
iidcred to diminiah the tfavnur of deiieato winoB. 

'"' Bee B, iiil. c. 23, and H, xirt. c. !)5 ; also c. 7 rf the pri'icnt Book. 
\l'be is no longer coiuidt-rcd au &utidijitL' to cituta ox licniluuk. 

<> San B. xuri. c. 42. 

Oh>^. 28.] 



same purpoee, and ToriouB othi^r mixtDics, vbich I Bkould 
itiel qtiiUi itshamdtl luiy further to colorge upon. 

We see the more prudent amoiig tbose who are gjvcD to this 
bsbithave theniBelvea parboiled in bot-batbs, (turn wKijicethey 
are caJTicdawuy bitU' ilcad. Others tlicre are, agaio, who can- 
not wait till tbey have got to the lianqueting couch,'" no, not 
BO much oa till tbey htiTc got their shirt on,"^ but all naked 
and panting as they are, tho in&tAnt they leave the bath they 
seize hold of large vcbscIb filled with wine, to show off, aa it 
were, their mighty powers, and bo gulp down tlio whole of the 
Gonttints only to vuuit them up ogaiEi the very n&xt moment. 
Thia they will repuat, too, a eeooiid und even a third time, 
juat as though they had oaly boon begotten for the purpoee of 
wasting wiue, und as if' that Eicjuor could not be tlironii away 
without having first passed through the human body. It is 
to encourage habits such ns these that we have introduced the 
athletic exerciaos" of other conntries, such as rolling in the 
mud, for inatojifie, and throwing the arms back to ahow off a 
bmiivny ntck and «heat. Of all theee exertiiBes, thiistj it ia 
said, ia the chief and primary object. 

And then, too, whut veBsels are employed for holding wine ! 
carved oU over with the representuttous of adulturous Lutrigues, 
as if, in fact, druokenneaa itself was not Bufllcieutly capublu of 
t«tichiog U9 lessons of luHtfulnesa. Thus we see wines quaffed 
out of imptirities, and inehriety invited evL-n hy the hope of a 
reward,— invited, did I say? — may the gods forgive me for 
saying so, purchaaed outright. Wo find one person induced 
to drink upon the condition that he bIiqU have as much to eat 
83 he has pre^ionsly drunk, while another has to quaff as 
many cups as he has thrown poiulH on the dice. Then it ia 
that the roving, insatiate eyes are setting u pneo upon the 
matron's chastity; and yet, heavy as they arc with wine, they 
do not fail to betray their designs to h*r husband. Thea 
it is that ail the secrcls of the mind are revealed ; one man ia 
rd to disclose the provisions of hia will, another lets falZ 
a expression of fatal import, and so faiU to keep to himself 
words which will be sure to come home to him with a cut 

"'^ This Bcemn to br. t!io meaning at " Lcctom ;" but tbc paxaa^ is ott- 
SCurr. '' TunJuuiu, 

'^* ITe lalirixo, prulmhl;, some kind of gymnastic E'XcreiAos that had 
bwninUoduc»idtoprguiuUi'tbcsjt(.«dy piissEigu^rclJtiniuvtluoughthft bud?. 



ireDu ■ 

throat. And ho-vrinanyamanhaamel; hia death in this faahion! 
Indeed, it Ims liecomo quite a common proverb, ttidt " in irine" 
tbwe 19 truth." 

Should lie, howercr. fortunateljr csuspe all tlicse ditngfirR, 
Uiti druakiird ocvur bebulda thu lisiag uun, by wliicU Lib life 
of diiukiug is mude all ilio ehortvi'. frona win«, too, comet 
that pallid hue,** those dropping fj-elids, thosy sore eyes, those 
tivmiilouB hauds, uaable to hold with. etfJiuliuL-ss the o 
liowiug vessci, condign punish imyit in the shape of s\mp 
tatcd by Furies during the rfstlcas night, and, the aup 
reward of inebriety, those dri'iitus of moustroii& lustfuliietia and 
of forbidden delights. Then on tlio nest day thero is the hreatJl 
reeking of the wine-caak, and a nearly total oblivionsnesa of 
(.■verytliingt trom theanniliilutiou of the powtra of the nitimory. 
And this, too, is what thoy call " Boizing the momentu of life!"*' 
whereas, in reality, while other men lose the day th»t hus gone 
before, the driBkcr has already lost the oue Uiat is to come. 

Tiiey fii'st began, in tlia reign ol' Tiberius Claudius, eome 
forty years ngD, to driuk fiisting, nud to tiiko whets of wine 
htforc meals ; an oulkndifiK" fashion, however, (snd only pa- 
tronized by pTiysicJatiB who wiahed to recommend themaclvea 
hy the introduction of some novelty or other. 

It is in the esereiHG of their drinking powcre that the Par- 
thians look for their fiharc of lame, and it was in this that 
AliOibiiuleB among the GIreeka earned hia grout repute. Among 
cursulvce, loo, .NovcUius TorquatoE of Mediolouum, a mou 
who hold all the honours of the slate from the prulecture to tho 
pro-consulate, could drink off three coagii'* at u single draught, 
u fi'at frr>in which he ubtaiued tha tiuroame of "Trioon- 
gius:" this he did befoi'o the eyes of the Emperor Tiberiiu, 
and to hia extreme snrprifle and astonishment, a roan who ia 
his old age was very morose,'" and indeed very cruel in gcn*- 
ral ; though in his younger days ho himself had huen too 
much addicted to wine. Ind'cod it was owitig to ihut reeom- 
mendutiou that it waa generally thomfht that L. Kso wa* 

" " In vino Veritas." 

"^ F^L' rcomrUt Chut this is one ^roof ttiul the wina trf (ho oiivieati KDi 

fBipntifllly different in iu tiaturo from aurs. In out day wiuo gives nay- 
thing liul a " piiliiil " hue. 

«' " RajjCTH titam," "» See B. xliil. e. 23. 

•" Tiirac giUoftn and thrao piats ! ! Ttcre must fawo boon »nie jngglcrj 
ia tbb perrurnaneo. 

■>" I'rububl)' towEUdd thoso guilty of cxccmcs in wiac. 

flflyctcd Tiy liim to have tlie chargft and custofly" of tlic Citj* of 
Itome; he having krpt up r driuking-bont at the reeitlttnce of 
TiWrins, just after lie had bwuoine emperor, two days uiid two 
ni^ht« without iuUrmiKsion. In nu poioti tou, wus it gi>ur- 
rally said that Drn^s Ctenar took aiVr bis i&i\ivi 'I'il'trius 
mnn? than tliis." Tornuatiis had the rather uncommon glory— 
ior this »clenr«, too, 18 rtgiJalfd by peoulisr laws of its own — 
Df never being known to stammer in his ipeecb, or to rehore 
the stomach hy vomiting or urine, while tngagi>d in drinking. 
He wafi always on duty at tbe morning giiiird, was able to 
empty the Lirgr-at reeBel at a single draught, and yet to lake 
more ordinary cups in addition tiian any ons else : he was tJ- 
Wuys tobe irnpLiciily depended upon, too, fur being able lo drink 
ipithout taking breath and witbout ev&r spitting, or so mutb 
■B leaving enough at the bottom of tite cup to make a ptash 
Djion the pavement ;" thus showing himsvlf aa exact ohserFcr 
pf the regulations wliieb have been made to prevent all uhirk- 
bg on the part of drinkers, 

Tergilla reproiiches Cicero, the eon of Varcua Cicero, with 
wing in the hahit of tj^ilting off a couple of congii at a singli; 
Branght, and with having thrown a cup, when in a slate of 
drunkcnncM, at M. Agrippa i" such, ia tbct, bi'ing the ordinary 
result* of intoxiejition. Jlut it in not to be wondi-red at thdt 
Cicero was deeirous in this rtspect to edipae tbi; fame olil, 
Anlooius, tbii aiurcl<^rET of his father ; a uiaa who had, bifum 
thy time of the younger Cicero, shown himself so txtxvoiely 
anxious to maintain tlie superiority in this kind of qrialilic*- 
tioDj thitt be bad even goni.- «o far a» to publis.)i a book upon 
the aubjert of hi« own drunkenness.'* Daring tn this work ti 
speak in hia own defence, he has proved very Hutdafactorily, to 
lay thinking, h«w many wert^ the tt-ils he had iudictL-d upon 
the world through this aame vice of drunkenneBH. It was hut 
a short timL< before the buttle of Actiuu that he vomitud forth 

_ ^' A« Prrefictus CrUis. '■ I^ve oT drinking. 

b " The muilfc of tilting whrtlier any "hdijluiM" wrri^ left or not. It 

■roi tbia cuHtoTH, pri)tKttily, Ihut gave iiie tu the furuurLtL- gAOU uf tbu 

■ ^* I>r. Uiildleton, iii tii« Life of CiocTO, in bis unlimited partiality for tbu 
^.imiljr. ((Wilus tlri) a* au iiuUiu'v of uuurui.*!.- hiiiI tii^li Gpint, 

^' According to I'aloroitLu^, he v^iitmd of dtiviiij^ about in a chariot, 
i-ri>vrnn'l wilh iry. u pildcn goMut iii bin liaii'l, uud drtssul likt UimcLui, 
by wliivli tilLn be cirOtn^d btiuauU tu be ailJi'uut^ 

\itL. lU. J- 



[Book XIV. 

thia booli of liis, from which we hav^e ao grout dUHculty in 
comitnj to tlic codcIumod, tliat dnuik as lie aiready wuis with 
the blood of hie Celion'-citizena, the only r«siilt was thitt lie 
thirsUid for it fill the more, For, in fact, such is tho iufalUble 
eharacteriatir- of drunkenncBa, tbi; more a person, is in tiiu 
habit of drinlcing, the more rugiT he is for drink : and tlic 
rirnurk of the Suytliian ambttsRador ifi as tnie as it ia well 
known — the mote the Partbians drank, the thiratier they ven 
for it. 

CRAP. 29'. — uaooBS wiin the stbkjioih; os wipk sllse kjiok 

T1"A.TEJ( 4S0 C«K^. 

The people of the Wt-stem world have also their intozi- 
eating drioka, made froiu com steeped in wuter.™ The*" 
beveragCH avo prepaitd in ditferent ways throughout Oaiii 
and the prorincfcs of Spain; uuder different names, too, 
though in their results they are the aame. The Sp(uii«h 
provinces hare even taught us the fact that theae liquora nre 
capable of btioi; kept till they have attained a eaii»idQni,Mc 
age. Egypt,'' too, has invented for its ust" a vtTy similar btivc- 
I'Hgo innde from corn; indt'od, in no part of the world is 
dmakunaeBS uver at a Ijss. And theu, besides, thi-y take these 
drinks uuoiixc-'d, iiud do not dilute tlu'iu with water, Uie wuy 
that wine is modiiiBd ; and yi.'t, by HercuWe ! one reully uiiglit 
havp supposod thut there tin? earth produced uothing but corn 
for tho people's use. Alas! what wondrous ekill, and yit 
how misplawd ! mcana hnve absolutely been dJicovcred tor 
getting,' dmnk upon water even. 

There tire two liquids that are pcculiaily grateful to tlia 
human body, wiuo wilhin and oil without; both of tliera 
the pii>dui:e of tr^t>, and most t;xcelleut In tht'lr respectitv 
kinda. Oi), indeed, we may pronounce an absolute Dvcessar;, 
nor has maJikLud been slow to employ jill the arts of iuventiuQ 
in (he niftjig fact lire of it- How much moi-e ingenious, how- 
ever, niitn has showu himself in devising vaiious kind» of 
drink wUl be evident from the foot, that there ore uo leas 

" ITd ullmlci to I>eer, or rat.hir awect wort, for Imp* were not vaod tiU 
the luttiT put, priibitbly, of ihv oiiildle Hgea. Lupines were gome times lued 
for jlHVouTiigg' bwr, 

^ DiuduTUB Stcu^ia says tbiit tlie Egyiitiuu beer wtu nuarly o^iul U 
iin&e in Btnat^h and flavour. 


tlian one hundred and mnety-five different kinds of it; in- 
di^d, if sll the vari«ti>ca are reckoned, Ihty will aiDuimt to 
neuriy double- tliiit Dumbtr. Tlie varioua kindn of oil are 
inu€b I<!H8 nuniprouB — w« aball proceed to give on account uf 
tlium in the tullowiug Uook, 

StnniAKT.^Ilciniu'kablu liutB, narrativeH, und ubBctTatioDH, 
five huudrud and Urn. 

BoMABf ACTHoas QC«TK&. — ComoliuB ValtrianiiB,'* Virgil," 
Celsu*,* Cutw the Ctusor,*' Sascrna," (wUkt uu<i sou, Scrol'u,'* 
M. Viirro," 1>. Siltinua." Prtijius Piolwr,"' Tr.jgu*," HjginuH,"" 
FUecua VcrriuB,*"* Oncciuua,"" Julius Attiuus,*' Coluiin)ll«,*' 
Mossurius Siibimis,"* reuL-ftttLlft," Tergillu," Mucc-ius riauiuSf" 
FkviuB,*' DossonoUB,** Sca^rola," ^lius,' Attiua Cuiiilo,' 

'* 8oe end uf B. lii, '* See enJ of B. m 

w 8w end tf B. Tii. »' Sm aiU of B. iii. 

w Sl-o *nd of B. L " tsiT cad of B. si. 

•* See «nd o! B, iL 

^ I>Gciciiii Junius Silitnm. TTf wtis commiwianci] by the lonBte, about 
II.C. 116, to iruutlul'.' iiiUi Litliu Uic twi^uly-cLgbt hwlu ot HtgQ, tl)« 
Carthagmiiui, on Aj^ricultiire. Sm U. zriii, u. a, 

** St-o end of B. X. '•'• &»»■ end «f K. «ji. 

"W Bee en<j ofU. iii. »• Buu iiid of B. iU. 

^ JutiuE OriGGiauji. He wu c-no of llii: nwni di^tiiiKuitliud oratore of 
his time. UaTiDg rvfuied to uci'ttsc M. .fiLliiw Siluiiuu. h<! u-u^ put tuduulb 
A.D. 39, He wrule n work, in iwn buuk», on Ihf ciiiturv of the vine. 

•" lie wan 41 txfiilempoj'iify of I'rlniig luid Coluwuilii, the InLttr ii( whom 
■lates Ihut be wrotv a wuik on a. peouliitr iii^tlux] iif (;iiluvHLm(r ibit «in«. 
Sot ulip if. xfii. V. 18. ^' Sue ci.iii of B. viii. 

** See end of K vii, *• Sew uiid of B. »iiL 

*' Nothing it known of him. He miijr pouihly ha\n written on Bne- 
bAiidrjr. »tid ■■L-eriii ix> iiorti »ptvlniii iu diipjiUMi ut Itiu sun of Ciceto. See 
e yfl of the prwent Book. 

^ Tbu riLiiious Rutnsii Caodo ^l, Wm k.C- 184. Twunty of hboome- 
dit'B &ro still in ciiet«ii4;u. 

^ For AlAuB f lavitift, Bee end of B, is. ; fur CoGins I^IavIue, bgq end itt 

D, Ml. 

"« Or Dorsimn Fnliiiis, uii nnciuDt ('innii: droraalut, feiimred Wyilornre 
for ibtf bml'-ynL'ry uf Im cburacUTS, nud liiu ouMfSSiiow. of liis pioductioui. 
In the iSvb Chbiptrr ut r.bia Ihmk, J'liny quiit™ u liii« Itum tiia ^Manjlit. 

* Ct Muiiu* ^tiiDViiU. ccniul n.c.'lia, mid itesaaaiuflUd hf C. Fkvim 
PtiubriA, baviu^ bwn pruMrihi;d lij \\iv Mariuu IlitLiun. Jio wmlc sevttul 
Worka un tliv Rumnii law, nrid riveru w-jb iu Iht.' iiLimbfr uf bit diaui|jlrii. 

* Sextii* .£Iiu* rurtii* Ctiluit, n cnlcbiiitnd j uriBi^uuiult, and vuiuul u.c^ 
I9tt. He wrul* u wurk uii tliL T^^uLvv Xublia. 

^ See end of B. iii. 




IHnok XIV, 

Cotta Meemliniifi, L. Ftso,* rompeius Leniciu,* Fubiaaiu,' 
Heztiiu Ni^,' Yibiiu Buhu." 


totle," Dpmi>critii8,'-KiDg Hi«T3," King Attalim Philometor," 
Archytaa,'* Xenojihon,'" Amphilochus" of Athens, Anaxipolis" 
of ThiiBOH, Apollodonis'* of Lemnos, Aristophanes'* of Uilctm, 
Antigonufi" of CvmtB, Aguthoclcs" of Chios. ApoUoniw^ of 
PergainuB, Ariatflndr-r'* of Athens, BotryB" of Athens, Bacchias* 
of Miletus, Bion" nf Soli, Chaerpa* of Athene, Chwristu^of 
Atlienn, Dioiiorus'* of Pricne, D'lnn'^ of Colophon, Epi^'iia^ 
of Ithodes, Euttgon" of Thaaoa, Euphronius" of AthenR, An- 
drotion'" who wrote on agriculture, iKschnon" who wrote on 
ufiricidtnrp, LyBimufhu*"' who wrote on aBrii'ulture, Dio- 
nynius" who transliiteil Mago, Diophan€'B" who rriHrln sJi 
Epitome of the work of DionyaiuK, Asclepiadea*" the PhyakidB. 
Oncfticritus," King Juba.*' 

' Hon of Orrinus MwaaU. Ite appfan M have bfiCQ Q rnui of bad re- 
puM : fif hi* writings notlitng- ieems tri be known. 
' Se« «n(l uf B. li. 

* A ftrnpilmnn of Pampcy. hy wlime cntTunimd he tniiiaUW into Lslin 
i'tif work of MithriilaiM on PciisDn*. Aft^r Pompejr's doatli, hfl nuunUiiiiMl 
liims'-ir by kiyiping « Rchpnl nt Knmc. 

* Vax l-'ahi»nu» Pupiriu*, noe end of B. ii. Fftbmriiw Snbincia it»a|i- 
powd lir hnT» bei>n th^ Mime pcTwin. 

' Si-o nnJ uf li. lit. 

* He i* raantioncd hy tbe elitt Seneoo, but Dotbin; wbat«v«r 1b knemi 

* Si-B em) n{ R. rU. '" Sep enil of B. iii. 
" .See vv'l of H, ii. " Re« nnil nf H. ii. 
" 8«t cRiJ of B. viil. '* See enii of B. viii. 
'ft &w end of B. »iii. ^» Swi end of B. iv. 
" Spb «nil of B, viii. '» See end ftf B. viii. 
'• 8i* eiinl «f B. riii " See end of B. Tiii. 
" Sw end of B. idii, * Bw end of B. riii. 
" See iTi4 of B. »iii. ** See end of B. nil. 
" See uud of If. xiiL *" 9oe end of B. Hii. 
n fi<-p riid of B. vi. ™ Sec Mid of B. *in. 

** SnppDeed to hiive been kwrttCT on AsTJ-ciillnra, buL nrilhing fwrlW il 

knfiivn of him. *" Sm end «f B, riii. 

M Svs end uf B. *iii. " 8co L'ud of B. iL ' 

•* 8«B end of B. t. ** Sob ond of U. tlii. 

•• S<ie mil of B. Tiii, » K.« Mid of B. *iii. 

" See end of H. riii. *" Sin^ enil of SI. lii. 

*• Sm end of B. viii. *" S™ cind of B vii. 

*> 3<^« end uf B. ii <■ See end of B. t. 


Aim AFKlCA. 

TnitoriiBASTus,' one of Uic most famous among the Greek 
■writera, who floimBhud about the year -1-10 of thu City of 
BooM!, tag asserted that the olive'' dm» not ^row at a iUbuuicu 
of mure lUnn forty* mites from the swii. Fen(.>«t(.-Uti tt>Uii us 
4hat in thu year of Rome 173, being the reigu of T«rquiiuu» 
■Priscua, it did not exist in Italv, Kjmifi, o^r Afrit^a;' '»-hei\--n» 
at the present day it has cpoaaed the Alps crcn, and has b«m 
introdut-f d iQto Uie two prorinws of Gniil and the middle of 
^puin. 1ji Uit yeur of Rome 505, A|i{itiiH Clatirlinx, ^randion 
«!' Appios Claudius Clccus, uod L. JuuiuH bcicg cuiikuIhj twelve 
.pniinds of oil swlii for an qb ; and at a later period, in thw year 
6A0, M. Kfiue, sou of Lucius, tbo curulc aedilc, n-giilfttfrd the 
' price of olivo oil at Komu, at the ntte of ten pounds for tlie as, 
'for the wbolti year. A persoa wiEl be the has etirpnij(.'d at 
this, when he k'urns that twenty-two years after, in the third 
considHhip of Cn. PompL'ius, Italy was ublu Co export cli^e oil 
to the provinr.c«. 

Hesriod,' who looked upon an acquaintance with agriculture 

' Hi»t. Plant, iv. c. 

'• Tbc Otea Kiimpiwi of I,inii»n«. Sue B, xa, c. 31. 

> Tliii liu> niA bi'cn vUvrivd tu bv lla« fuel. It bu been knovn to 
grail in aiKiient MciopoUmia, mo-rs than ona buadred leo^M Iro-ro tlir c^a. 

■• It in «iippo«rd that it » iiwlieflnon* to Asiii, whmco it wta introducttl 
into Africa and the South of hnnifv. Tlmre i* Utile doubt that long 
befor« the jx-rioil tnpntiriiiiod by I'linj. it wn» grown in Atticti by the Cm- 
thaginiani, and in Ibi- South uf Guul, at die culuiijr of UuiUia. 

* Tbia work {if IlcsioJ it no ton^or in cii^tenco ; but ttiA uurtion in 
eiaggetatcd, ercn if h« alludes to t)tc growth of the Itm frrmi need. Few 
remarki that a mui wtio hut lown the olire at twsiity, ma^ gutltur excoi- 
lent fruit bcfora hn artirna nt uld a^. It is more gna^rally pn>iiiif;MM 
by«Upt 01 Mti. If the triinii is dortroyed by anNidout, tbu ruoU nlU ibrov 
out muih luckflra. 


PLrax'a SixnaiL histoet. 

[Book XT. 

lift candiicive in the very highest degree to the comforta of life, 
has declared that tlic-ro was no one who had ever gathered fruit 
irom the olive-tree that had heeii eowu by his qwq haads, eo 
plow was it iu n^aching maturity iu those times ; whereas, uow 
at the precent dny, it is Buwn in niirBtriea even, and il" triiQS- 
planted will hear fruit the feUowing year, 


TahiaauB maiDtaiiiB that the olive will grow* neither iu 
very ookl cUtEtttua, nor yet in very hi>t ones. Vii^il' hiui 
mfntioned three varieties of the olive, the orchiten,' tlm 
radius," and the posia ; * and says that they require no rakinjc 
ftr pruning, nor, in fact, any attentioa wlmtever. There is nn 
(louht that in tho ease of these plants, soil and climnte are the 
thinga of primary importttiicGi; but still, it is iinual to prune 
them at the Bfwnf} time as tho vine, and they are improved by 
lopping between them every here and there. The gutheringoC 
the olive follows that of thp grape, and there ia even a greatur 
degree of akill rerjuired in preparing '" oil than in making 
wine; for the very same oUvefi wtU frequently give quit* 
different results. The first oil of all, produced from the raw " 
olive before it has begun to ripen, is considered preferable 
to all the others in flavour ; in this Itind, too, the first ^' drop- 
pings of the press are the most esteemed, diminishing gradually 
in goodness and value; and this, whether the wicker-work'' 
basket is used in malting it, or whether, following the mare 

^ This is the ca^. W« may rEmnrk tlint the tree will grow in Hii 
crinntry. but the fruit never camea to tnuturitf. 

* '"jpnrg. ii. 85, also ii. 420, 

' Frobublf tli« Oloa mnxiniD frnvtu of Toiimerort. It liu its ll*iu 
fram tht litnek op^ic, tho " teBtia," a narae by vliioh it Iji still knoiro in 
Bom« parts of I'rovcnei!. 

* Or "sliuttle" olive PtolmUjlj' Ilie inodcrD ptckolinH, i>r long oliro. 

* Pr-.ibnbly Ute Olea meiliu n.itmida pr^raioi of Toumerort. It li 
■llfhtlT bitter. 

"" Tbit iiB ta macli l.he caso, that thnugli the olives of Spain atui I^}^ 
tuziil ate amonp tliB finest, their oils are uf the very worst qunltty. 

"^ It does not appiiir thnt lb.Q inotLnd of prepiiriiig oil by thanMio' 
liailiiig wator wiu koown tn the iLncient*, Unripe nlivei pfouooe aa t% 
celleat oil, but ia vurjr aniall qusutidea. Heac« ihe; are nrely lued la' 
tha pnrpost. 

■^ CbIM "virgin/ 0F*'DatiVD" oilinFnuic]A,andVGTyhighljeitocnked. 

" Sporttt. 

(recent plan, the pulp is put in s rticlc strainer, -^-ith dbitow 
lipik(?n (iml iiiUTnticvii," The rip(T tlic terry, the mnrv unctu- 
ous the juice, nnd ihe \f»» agrepablt' the tiutti'."* Tn obtain a 
Tcmilt both abundant and of excellent flavour, the beat time ta 
gnther it ie when the berry is just on llio point of lureing 

t black. Id this alate it is called " druppu" by ua, by the 
Orwks, " drypL-lis." 

In addition to these di^tinotions, it is of importanco to 
obserre whether the berry ripeiiB in the press or while on thg 
brunch ; whether the tree has bn-n watrrtti, or whetlii-r the 
fruit liati been nurtured Hwiely by its own jiiictsi, miiI has 
imbibed nothing else but the dewa of heaven. 



It is not with olire oil aa it ia with winr, for hy age it ac- 
Diiires a had flavoar,'* and ut the I'uduf u year it is already 
dI<1. l*hi!(, if rif;hUy understixid, ia a wiao provituon on liia 
partof Jtiiturc: wine, which is only produced for the drunkard, 
■he has seen no neceBatty tor ue tu ueu when new : iitdet'd, 
by thu lino Hiivour which it acquires with agi-, elie rather 
invites uHtokvcpit; but. on the other hand, she has not wiUtd 
that wo FthouLd be thus sparing of oil, uml mu bus rendered its 
uee comiDou and universul by the very nect»sity there ia of uung 
it whilo fn-sli. 

In the production of this blessing m welt," Italy holdi the 
highest nuik umong nil conn tries,'* and more particularly Lho 
t*Tritory of Vcnafnim,'* that part of it iu ospeLiul which 
produces the Liciniun oil ; thu i|uijiilic<a of whidi huvu eeulcniKl 
upon iha Liciniufl oUvo tb? very high««t rtnowa. It ia our 

" " £xihl>'it TP^ilis." A kinJ cf wowiua itr«lner, apparontly tadiit^d 
tontnneda the wicker, or1iuekL-i smititi. 

'* It b iDnrc insipid the ripi.r iht fruit, anil the leas Ddorous. 

'• By abwiriiimt lU« oifKtii of tte nir. It maj he pri-st-rrtil two Ot 
three yPHFK I'Vrn, in veutis biiriaaticiilly dum], Tlie oil of Frsuic* IcL-rpi 
bi-ttcr thuii nny ol1i«r. 

" Aa well u tke grapf. 

>* Id crniMqaf-nce u( tha faaitj mode of mannfactiire, tho oil if Italy is 
BOW inferior to tliht of Kronve. The oil of Aii i» partiiiulatly lalieniwl 

'• In Coinpiuiiii. Sn> B. xrii. a. 3. Itotaw lunl Mnrtinl in 
praiw of lb» VcnulViia olirn. ITaiJattia »uggc«t« that Liciniua Cnmua 
may hare iatroJuuiil the Liduiaa ulivv. 





tjDgucDts whidi littvc brought this oil into euch great eeteeni, 
th« peculiar odour of it adaptiog itself so well to tl]«< full 
dtfVBlopomeutof thtirquolilivsj at the same tiniv it* Jclicjit*? tlii- 
TOiir equally etilist^ the palate in its behiilf. In addition to 
this, hirds will never touch tho berry of tho Licininn olive. 

IText to Italy, the oonl<*Bt is mGintuint'd, and on verj' equiil 
terms, betwren the terriloriRS of IhQ'iii and of BtBtLca. 'fbfl 
n<?xl mnk for excclicnua is claimed by the other provintjee uf 
our Empirii, with lh« (;xcfti>tioa of Airica,*" the soil of wbicb 
i» bettttr ada[)ti:'d for groin. That country Nature boa given 
cxdiisively U) the ccri'uls; of gU and wine die hue all but 
deprived it, Beciiring it a §Liffiuient ehare of renown by iu 
Kbuntlant harvests. A» to the remaiDiiig particalars connected 
with the olive, they are rfjlkte with erroneous notions, and I 
shuU have occasion to show that there is no part of our ogri- 
niltnral economy upon which people hsTe been mam gene- 
rally mistaken. 

(3.) The olive ie oonapoEwd of a ntone, oil, flcah, aad 
■murca :*' the last being a bitter liquid, principally composed 
of water ; honce it is that in sunsoos of drought it is less pltm- 
tifiil, and more abtimiant when rains'* havo prevailed. The 
oil is a juice peculiar to the olive, a feet more partioularly 
ctat^ in referenoe to its unripe state, as we have already 
mentioned when speaking of omphaciiim." Tliis oil cootinuKi 
on the increase np to the rising of Arctunia,'* er in other 
words, tho Bixteenth day before the calends ofOetober;'^ ftfttr 
which the increase is in the fttone and the flesh. When drought 
has b^n ibUowcd by abimdatit ruine, tiii oil is spoilt, and 
lurnB to amurca. It is the colour of this omurca that miikcB 
Ihw olive turn black ; hence, when the berry is just beginning 
to turn that colour, there is but little utnurca in it, and before 
that period none at all. It is an error then, on the part of 
personSj to suppose that that is the commencement of maturity, 

*" The heat of Africa ie unravonrnlile to tho olii-o. 

"' The feecw, marc, nr lee*. This is a cnido juic* cftnl^ned in the 
C*llular tiasiie of lh« IVuit, known us t'iriiiinn or Mortipfjfflk. 

^ Tliis h owing, PSe sayi, to a w^rt of fi-iTnicnlatiiia, whioU attin tfie 
tiuuG of the ctlU voDtoiiiiag the oil, dispkcus iho conslilii>ciil nlotneiiU, 
and forms nLhiTS, aiicti as mucuB, tagar, acctio acitl, ammoniuc, tus. 'WlicQ 
tipe-, the olive coniaiiis four oils ; tbat of the akin, the dcBh, the Ctonc. 
Olid tha kernel. 

J» In Tl. IU. r. 6(1. » See B. i»iii. C. 74. 

** Ifllli wf Si'puniber. 


Chftp. i.] 


which is in reality only the near approach of corniptiou. A 
HRCond error, too, is th« sitppuMtion ihut tiie oil incrouwa pro- 
portionable to the llesh nf the bi-rry, it hi^ms: the fact thul. Iho 
oil La all tBc time UDdtTgoinguchnngcinto firah, andthf; stooo 
iH growing iBTgw ftud larger witliiu. It ib for this reason 
more purticuUrly, that care ta tukcn to wutcjr the tree at this 
penod ; the real n^sult vf ilU tliis ciiro imd attoiition, us well ua 
of the iiiU of copious rains, beiag, that the oil in rcidity is 
absorbi.''d as thu bvrry incrt'iiseB Id. size, unless fine dry weather 
should happen ta eat hi, whinh natundly t>>itdH to Coatroct the 
volmni- of thi- fruiL According to Thnoplirastus," heat is the 
', primary cjtuse oCtho oleaginous principle ; for which n^asoo 
lis, that ill tho presBeB," and in the cellars ctcd, gnat fires 
' are lighted to improve the quality of the oil. 

A third trror urisea from mispluued ecuuomy; to spare tfaa 
expeoec of gathering, people ure in die habit of waiting till the 
berry falls Irom tlie tree. Others, a^uiu, whu wlsli to follow a 
middle course io this respect, bent the fruit ofl' with poles, »[id 
HO inllict injury on Um In-e and ensure loss in the succeeding 
year; indecdj there was a very ancient reguhLtiuii in cxistttQce 
relatiTe to the gathering of the olive — "Neither puU nor 
beat the olive-tree.^"' Those who would ohserve a still greater 
degree of precaution, aCrike the brnnchca lightly with n reed on 
one aids of them ; but even then the tree is rerluDed to benring 
fruit but once in two years,'* in consequence of the injury done 
to the budfl. Not less iujurious, however, aru the msults of 
waiting till llie beniea tall Irom the tree ; for, by remaining ou 
it beyond the proper time, they deprive the crop that ta coining 
on of its duo share of nutriment, by occupying its plaee: a 
clear proof of which ift, that if they are not gathered before the 
■west vriodfl prcviul. they are found to have acquired renewed 
strvogth, and are all the lal«i before they Soil. 


The flnt olive that is gathered after the autumn is that 

»• DBCuuiiis. B. i. C.2M. 

* This tatinct ponsilily incttase tlia oil, liut it wimlil rciiJtr iL \oan 
fluid, ami iheroby fscilitftty iu isenpo ffura tlio ai'lls of tlie berry. 

» Hut Ca-to, &i Rust. o. HI, uUd* tUa TUry siraificuat worJ», " Injiuiu 
Oamiai aiLt cuaUxjia." " Withuut the Icava of tho owner or thu kci'por," 

» It ii fouud that thA oWiL, nftur an nliundutit wiajwn, will nftl bear ia 
the followiag ;«sr; prubably tbe result of «jitisii*tioii. 



known as the " posia,"" the berry of which, owing to a vicious 
method of cnltivntion, and not any fault on the pnrt of Nn- 
Xrare, has the raoBt flesh upon it, Ntxt to this is the orchitM, 
which contains the grcuteat quantity of oil, and then, aft«r 
that, the rodiuB. As thcBe arc of a peculiarly clilicate natarei 
the heat very rapidly takes nffeut upon them, and the amiirca 
they contain caiiBcs thorn to full. On tho other hoaJ, tlio 
gathering of the tough, hnml-Bkinncd olive is put off »o late &s 
the mouth of March, it being yve\l able to reeist the eOccts of 
inointure, ami, conBequcntly, very Binnll, Those vnrietit's known 
as the Licinian, th<? CominLan, the Contian, and the Ser^an, 
by the Bahinca ciklled the "royal"*' olive, do not turn blnek 
brforc the woBt wind!? prevftil, or, in other words, before the 
Risth day before" the ides of Febmary. At this period it is 
generally thought thut they begin to ripen, and us a moat €X- 
c<!Uent oil ia extrftctod from them, experience would seein to 
give its support to a theory which, in reality, is altogeClier 
WTong. Tlie growers say that iu the same degree that Cotd 
dttainishes the oil, the ripeness of the berry augment* it; 
whi?rea9, in reality, the go&dneas of the oil is owing, not to 
the period at whioh the olives fire gathered, but to the natural 
propei-lies of this pcciiliiitTariety, inwbichthe oil is remark' 
ably slow in turning to amurca. 

A similar error, too, is committed by those who Itcep the 
olives, when gathered, upon a layer of boards, and do not 
prcsB the fruit till it has thrown out a sweat ; it being the 
fact tbat eveiy hour lost tend* todirainieh the oil andiocreasti 
the amurea: the consequence is, that, aecording to the ordi- 
nnrc eomputfltion, a moiliua of oliTes yields no more than sii 
pounds of oil. No one, however, ever taltcs account of the 
quantity of amurca to eaoertain, in reference to the same 
kind of berry, to whut extont it increasos doily in amount 
Then, again, it ia a very general error** among pmctioal per- 
sons to suppose that tho oil increaseB proporlionably to tlio 
increased size of the berry ; and more particularly ao when it 
is Bo clearly proved that such Is not the case, with reference to 

"> Mfirc corammil^ spelt "pniifia." 
•' "Rc^iB," itm impossihle to idciilifjr Ihtse Tiirietie*. 
'» Stll of February. 

IS This a!8eition of PtinT Ja not generally true. The Iftrga olttM at 
S)uiin field oil very itleutituil)-. 


the variety Itiioivn as the royal olive, by some called mojoriim, 
and by othere phjiulia;** this berry bviag of the very litrgvBt 
size, and yet yielding u minimum of juice. In Kgypt-,"* Wo, 
tho bcrriL's, which arf romarkahly meitty, are found to produce 
hut very- littlu oil; while thosQ of Diecapolis, in Syria, ore so 
BxtrBRiely Hmall, that they are no biggtr than a taper; and 
yut th«y urehiglily esteemed for thuir ficHh.^ It Ik for thia 
reason that thu oliv^ frvui (he parls bcyuud pwi are preftrrtd 
Ivr table to tboatr of Italy, though, at the eame tioie, they uru 
v&fy iiil'i-iior to thorn lor uiakitig oil, 

Jjn Italy, ihoBv of Piceuum utid of Sidicitta" are Gonsidcred 
the he^t for table. These are kept upitrt from the others and 
Steeped in salt, after which, hke olbtnr olives, they aro put in 
aiQurc!a. or else boiled '»*ine ; indeed, Houre of them are left to 
fluat awlely in Ibtir own oil,^ without any adveiititious raodu 
of preparation, and tire then known aa col^-mbadcB : Boniotimus 
thf bt<rry is crushed, and then Bcawned with gretn herba to 
Huvour it. Even in an unripa gtttte the olivo in rendered lit 
for eating by bting wprinkted with boiling water ; it ia quit* 
surprising, too, how readily it will imbibe sweet jnices, and 
retain un advEntitio^us flavour from foreign subBtiinocg. With 
this truit, aa with tho grape, \hcrp are purple'* varictipB, and 
the posia ia of a eompluxion approaching to blatk. BmdeB 
those already meutioued, there are thesuptrba'" and a remark* 
ably luBciuus kind, wliich drii-a of jtaeif, and is even sweeter 
than ttie raisin : this last vahety is extremely rare, and is to 

*' I'roWUly aniHinber of Llie varidj- known to natiirRli»ti m the Oki 
fruntu nitron, uanj«< urnsaa, of Toumuiurt tliv royal uliw cir "tHpnrld" of 
the I'Vnnrh. Thu niLtne is thuu^hl to b<! (mm tbo Greek pdvl^oc, the 
fruit beinic i^atiMiiicrc'd tbIu-gIcm fivia it* paucity af oil. 

** ThwB are! but fi:i» oliK(;-Ire<;» in tithtr hlgrpl or Dacapolis at Ihu! 
pr«MDt day, and no atU'iiijiM am iinuiv V) extract uit ham tLeia, 

" " Ctrnis." He gives tii\» amau U> tbv goliil patt, ur [Hiriuarp. 

" 8«a B. iii. c. 9. 

* TbMO methoila arc not Bciw ttdiinU'd for prewrving the nlivs. The 
fruit an firtl w(tali«ii iu an alkulijie tuliiliuii, anil tlien jilnucul lti salt Mid 
wntvr. T)i>> uolymlmi wm to uuited from tiAvfifiaia, "to Bwim," in ita 
own oil, Dttmely, i>ioswridu8 ddsiaul* un ihe louditinal propcuun* of t)ie 
oolynbailoi. U. i. c. ilO, 

« Tbere &Tfi Mvoral varietioa kTiown of this colour, juid mnreportiuukrly 
the fruit <if tbL- Olea stto-nibuus uf (Jouun. 

^*° The Spuiicb ulivH, Uarduuiaaavii. t'ie tliink* tbnt ttie name "»upor- 
amf" "havglit]'," ii given figuratiTely, &• meaniiig rough uid auit«ru. 


PT-rai's Sixinu.!. histost. 

[Book IV. 

be finmd in A&ica and in the -ncimtjr of Emerita" in Liui* 

The oil of the olive ia prevented from getting** thick lad 
runcifl by the admixture of salt.. By making uu luciuou in 
the l)urk of llie tree, an aromatic oduur may be imparted" to 
the oil. Any other moilo of aeaaoniag, Buch, for insLnocc, m 
those used with rcferuQce to wine, i« not at nil gratifying to 
Uie palate ; nor do we linil bo mnny ^Mi-oties in oil as tllcrt 
are in the produce of the grape, there heiug, in general, but 
tlirce different degrees of goodneea. In fine oil the odour is 
more peaeLruting, but even in the very best it is but short- 

COAf. 5. (4.) T0K KATtml 0? OtITE Otl. 

It is one of the propertiet^ of oil tt import warmth to tlie 
body, ttud to proteut it aguinst the action of cold; wh^ile at 
the same time it promotes coulu^^as in the head when heated. 
The Greeks, those purenta of all vices, hiive abused it by mftk- 
ing it minister to luxury, and employiug it commonly in the 
gymniifiiiun : indipd, it ie a well-known fact thut the gover- 
nors of those cstabtiHhmcnt* have sold the scrapinga** of the 
oil used there for a sum of eighty thouaand eeBtero^. Tho 
nittjeaty of tlie Romau Bwiiy hoB conferred high honour upon 
tliu olive : crowned with it, the troopa of the Equestrian ordur 
lire woat to dtlilo upon the ides of Juiy;** it is used, too, by 
the victor in the minor triumphs of the ovation.'* At Athena, 

*' The olirei of the present Merida, in Spain, are of a rau|;h, diaagrrr- 

at'le AnYour. 

*' This Beeiiii to kn Ebc mcatiinf; of " pin^nia ;" but, oi Tit otmma, 
«iU "KQUld hfiTo no mth effect na bere stated, hut would IrapsTt a ^wtgn^ 
able flavour to the oil. 

** h'it rc^uidg thb niecrt.ioEi as quite TaltulDUR, 

^ It nilt lo? atati-d in fi. iiviii. «. 13, to wliut purpoMt thia abonutmblii 
ugJluijliDii of Sllh Wfts BjiplirJ. 

*' ISih of July, lie allodea to tlie ing[>ection of (Tia Eqiiilra. whiob 
ariginnWy luilnngrii to the Cen»ora, lut afterwards to the Knipuriore. On 
ihia cicnuion tlitre whb "raLi)j[iiltio," oi "review," iLntl llwjn a "tmia- 
■mctin," or '' pn>0(*«ion " of the iiorsnintiil. 

^ Tho uvutiuii wui a Imii'r triuuiijih, at wliiuh the kiiuera! usterod cko 
dt^ Dut in a chariot, but oa fnol. In ULdt timea, hoirevor, the Tio^ar en- 
ti^red on hnrsutHti^k : and a irrcath ttt, aomGliiui:! IaaTi<l, wria wmn 
b; bim. For furLhei puboiLlars na to Uio oiatioo, aau c S4 of the pmrM 

Cha}.-. <.] coLTcnt or tub oi.tts. 2H5 

also, they nre in the hiibit of crowning th*- comiueror with 
olive ; and at OIjmi>ia, the (Jruuks uaipluy ibv wild oUtc*'' for 
a simitar purpose. 

CHAT. 6. (S.) — THE cn-TTHlt Of THB OIJTB : ITB II6BK OP TaS- 

Wewill now procet-d to mvntion tlie precepts giviTi hv Cato** 
in relation to Uiis mibji-nt. Uj)oii a wann, rich'* soil, hu 
reoommencls ua to sow tlio gri-aler radius, the Salentina, the 
ortbiles, tho posia, tht- Sergian, the Comioian, ond the alhi- 
cera;** but with a rpmarkahlc dcigrcc of pru(if?nrfi he addn, 
that those rarietii's ought to lie pIuuttKl iu prefi'pi'»»34' wliifh 
are txjDEidLTfd to tliiivc buat Id the nii^hbouring localities, lo 
a cold*' and meagre soil he saj^a tliat the Licinian olire shoulrl 
be plauted ; and bt* infuniiit us tluit « rich or hut itoil biiit tliv 
effwt, ill this Jfwt variety, tit Hiioiling the oil, while the tree 
becoiuos exhausted by ila own fLTtility. and is liiiblc to he 
attacked by a sort of red moBS." He states it as his opinion 
that the olive p^nndR ought to have a westcni aspect, acil, 
ind£«d, he approvuB of no otlitr. 

(6.) According to him, tlie best mcth^id of ppeaerving oHtcr 
is to put tho orchitee and the poeia, whik g^n-fo, in a stroRg 
brine, or cImj to bniiBo thorn first, and pnjw,'rvc tht-ai in niustith 
oil." The more bitt^'r the olive, lie wiys, the better the oil ; 
but thej" should be gathered from the ground tho vtry moment 
they Ml, and washcil if they are dirty- He saj-s that three 
day* wiU lie quite ftuflicic-nt tor drying them, and that if it 
is I'rofity weather, they ahoiild he pressed on the fourtli, core 
being talc^^n to sprinkle them with ntilt.. Olives, he inforrns 
Uft,** lose oil by being kept ia a bourded etorv-room, and deJe- 
rioiate in quality ; the eame being tho caco. too, it tho oil is 

" Or " oImwUt." •* D.' R« Rtut c. 6. 

" A midOliiLg oreven pm>rBoi] uclios^n fur tli£ oIlvl' &l tbupriaoDt Oay, 

*" ApparoDlly mcnmng itir " ivliitc win " olive. 

** In vrttun t^uunlrie*, u al\e etpoBciil to itxv nurtb is choMn: in 'COlileT 
nnm, a lite whiuh furoi tlip mulh, 

•* See B. iviL c. 37. Tlii) muea has not boen Wenlifled with prccJnon ; 
liut the leaf o[ thf! olivii u tilicn attacked hy un rrymphu*, koown to aatu- 
rallstsaitiifi Alphitom«riiha«iinmnni»; but it iswhiti-, not ^f stmj colour. 

** F£e qucrita havf an y one could pn^iMy cat nlivr-x ihat hiicl Wn 
ttceped in a mIuLIoil of moalivlt. Tlie; mint ba«c buL-ii DaucLigui ia Uis 
Mtroa*. M I>B K« Ruit. o. 64. 



[Bool XV. 

left with the amurca and tJte pulp," or, in other words, the tlfsh 
oi' tlic olive that ioraie the r>t;giduu unci becames the dregs. 
Por tbis reiuoii. lie rt;uQiQiD>t^u(ls Ihut the oil ahu<iild Lk.' puuTMl 
off several tlniQH iu the t\ny, aud iiina put into vchsuIk or cuul- 
drons" of lead, for topper vtssela will epoil il, he Biiyu. All 
th<!ae operations, tiowt-vt-r, should be. cjirriod cm with pi-cKao 
heated 4ind tightly closed,'^ iind exposed to the uir ua little a» 
poBriible — for whioli rc-iison he r(!«ijmDii»ndn that wood should 
iJBver he cut there, the most convenient fuel for tht fires hptag 
the etones of tho iHirri^s. From tho cuiiIUrun tlie oil iiliould 
be poured intu vuts/'' in order that the pulp nod the amurun 
may l:>e diBtitgagi^d in a (^oliditied form: t<> effect which object 
the TcsBcls should be ohuaged as often tis coiivyoH-nt, whilu at 
the eame liiue iLi; osit-.r b:iskutfi should be carefully cleaned with 
a sponge, that the oil niuy run out in aa dcuu and pure a state 
as passible. 

in later limes, the plan hns been adopts of invariably 
crushing thu olivusa lu hoUing water, and at ouce putting thwn 
■wholo in the preas — a rtitithud of i;(fi?ctuidly extmolmg the 
amuroa— uud theu, uftor oruEhing them in the oil-piv^a, sul^ 
jwctiug tiiem to pressure onco more. It is reooramundi-d, tiiat 
not more than, one huudri'd modii ehouLd bi; preyed ut one 
time : the a:ime given to tins quantity is " fsLctus,'"* while die 
oil tbiit flows out ut ihi^ firfit prussurt.- is cnllvd tho " flos."* 
Tour wen, working ut two jiresaea day und night, ought to 
be able to press out three fuctTiK« of olives. 



In thoHe times artificittH oile had not heen introduced^ mi 

u "Frucilius," Tliuopinionuf Pliuy, tJiut olhwdi'ieriorntelij'lieiiigkft 

in Oie B(iit«-ruam, U (.win:(it:ri:d to bu well fouailod ; ciie ulivcs bdu^ api 
to frrmcnt, to tti(* di;t''rii>iittioii of tti-' oil : nl tliii same dmu, ho is wnwf 
iil ftuppusing lliiit llif miiiiiiiit iif oil Jimiiiibliuft by kLtpiuf; tiic benica. 

*^ "Cdrtiuoi." ir W« miiy jiiil^'ofriLim tbeiuniUitliCKCVeiuoIswiire threo* 
fueled, like it tri[i4d, 

'" Tiiei'e aro no ^nd grnauAt for thie recomniendutios, wliU'h if Ixwd 
an Ctia enuotuuH «un|jwiiiiiiu tlml litmt uii;i''(;iisos ilio cii in tho berry. Tbe 
free cirDuktiuu uf lIil- liii- u\mt o'lf^hl nut to be rcBtrinUd, aa . nothing m 
g;iiaHiI by it. In |2riiprHl, lliv iiiclbitJ uf vtti'uctiiig tho nil ia Lb« HiCni! 
with tlifi iiiudvi'ui us witli llui ucii;iijutD, ttiuugb Clic^n U(t did uni amplvy 
iLv uid of binliaic wuUt. * L>ibnt. 

" A "itialiut;," 1(1 •• btituii." » Ut ••fltiwer." 

hbiicb it ie, I euppow, t>iat ve find no mention made of them 
by Cuto ; at tUu jjri«i'ut daj' the varieties nnt vtry imritToue. 
Wc will first upcuk oflliuet;" which uro j»roduw5d fi»m trees, 
and among tlit*m more particuluriy tiic wiid uJivc.'" TJiJS 
olive ifi BDiall, and much more bitter than the cultivated oav, 
and hcncfl ita oil is only Usui] in uicdi(.-iuul prvpHrulioiis : tlia 
oil that beitra the cloMHt rpeenibtimcfr to it in thnt cjclnwtwd 
from the chiimplfett,"'!! Bhnih which grows among the iw.!;*, 
and not more th»n a palm iu height; the leaves and herriea 
being similar to those of the vrild olive. A tltird oil ia thtit 
made of the fruit of the ciiiws,*' a irtc which grows in Egjpt 
iu greut abundance ; b;' »ame it i^ kuuwu us crutun, by others 
;is siii, and by utlicrK, oguin, ae wUd scGamuxn : it is not so very 
Imig sincie this trew wiia fii-st iutrodiici^ \kk. ]ci Spiun, two, 
it shoots up with great rapidity to the size of tlte ulive-trwo, 
having a stem like that o( the luriiU, thi^ li-ufut' thu vine, 
and a ae-eA that bears a rt'scmblnnci:^ to a smnll pule grape. 
Our |)caplo are in tho habit of culHiig it " ridnun,"'* trora the 
reavinblanee of ihe scud tu ihut iiiju-^cl. It le boiled in wuter,** 
und the oil that swiiiiB on the aurJ'itce is theu Hkiiumi-d od*: 
but in Kgj'pt, vrbi-rc it grows in a greater ubuuduuL-e, th« oil ia 
cxtracUfd without employing either lire or water for the jiar- 
pose, the w^d being ili-»t sprinkled \vitli ault, and then sub- 
jected to pressun? : eaten with food this oil is repulsive, but it 
is very useful for hui-aing in lamps. 

Amygdalinum, hy some peraons known as " mctoiiium,"" 

" II may bn remiritr^, Ihnt in this Chnpter llinjr totully cnnfounda 
SxpA oils, vulutile uils, and mmiicinal oiln. Tlio*.- ia Ihe list wliidi he Lure 
piipH. Rnd whiclL Bje not uiliuiiviiG oi]tio«(l in Ibo Kuteip may Iw cmuiilered 
X'» bi^li>i]^ to lliiB last cIhsb. 

*> Tlic L-li^tcT fumiiilicfi but littlci vil, and II li (t'ldum oxtruvtdd. Tht 
oil is thiuotr thnn oniiiiuty nWri- w\, iinJ iiiia a ifUoujtw udiiur. 

" Tho llnphiiu CuL-utuiEi uuj DnptiiLii Caidmni ut' bolauists. Son R 
xi!i. c. Do, aUu B. xxiv. c. B3. i'ie doubu if ca ail wtu cTer uiR<It) froia 
tlie chmneltt^. 

" See B. xxlii. v. 41: the Hii^inuK cDDimuiiut a( Lhiuiuiu, wlieh, 
ftbonndfl ID Egy]il at the pruBLOt <i&y. 'flicngli it apnriirs (o liavc beaa 
f'>riii(<rl]' comrtirriL's u».'iL Tur tli£ tuldi.'., al tin- jihtIi'IU iI.i]' ihi^ oil it mly 
kiuiwn «> " tiAlor " oil. u ulruii^ pLirgutiti*. it i» onr nf tlii' fixid •'iit«. Tbc 
JoHl aad Abys&iDiiLti (.'liiiEimuii in)' tbat it wm uiii]<.-r tlii> true llut Joiuih 
MuL ** A "tick." 

*i Tlii< methoil, P£c sayi, iit still punuvd in Aiucriuu. 

■^ tjAi; li. xiii. c. 2. One of Lbc oicd oiit. 

rhiyj B KATUBAt Hi«Toar. 

[Rook XV. 

It WIti* of tntttv ainionda dried and bimtcn. into a cake, aSU-r 
vhlfih thoy are tti^cped in wat^r, acd th>cD beaten again. J^n 
oil ia extracted from the Imirel nlsti, with the aid of olive oil. 
Skmo persoDB use the berrlee only for this [lurpoBe, while 
oUun. i^n, citipby the Ivuvee^ and ttie guter slua of tito 
berriec: Bome add storax alsg, and othev odoriffroiis gub- 
atunOm The l>Li<t kind for this purpi>ge is the bmnrl-lctaved or 
wihi laurel," witli a black berry. The oil, too, of the blat-k 
mjrrllo ie of a aimilar uuture i that with the broad leaf" is 
rookoood oiso the best. The berries are first apriakled with 
■WMin wiiteT, and then beaten, aft^r which they aro boiled: 
■oine pnrBoiiH t«k« thfl more tender leaves, and boiL there in 
olire oil. aud tlien BiibJE^ol th^m to prcaBurc, whil<' cithurs. iigoin, 
dU-cp them in oiU and leave ilie mixture to ripen iu tho sun. 
The same method is also adopted with the cultivated myrtle, 
but the wild variety with snioU berriofl ie getif^raUj" preferred ; 
by i«otne it is known as the oxyroyraine, by otliera ;is the clw- 
msoinyniine, mid by otiiera, again, aa the acoron," t'roni it* 
strong reBfimblflnofl to that plant, it htfing Khortand brnnching. 
An oil is made, too, fmra the citrua," and from the cypres; 
also, from ihe wulnut," and known by the naitio of " caryi- 
iion,"'* and from the friut of the cedar being genonitir 
known as " pissLdteon."" Oil is exlraoted from ihe grain of 
Cuidus,^* the seed being first thoroughly cloanud, imd then. 

The bumvi; gire b| dvcocliou a Axed dl. of gm:un colour, iwwt. 
rirernui. 'I'lie ciits in g<!ni:Tal h«rc spoken af by I'lisy as exLrsct«l 

I'' An eu^Dtinl uU nmy be extritct«>(] from «i^1i«r) it h at acrid taiUi 
gTcvn, Rni aroutaliu ; but dor » iiH>t sctun to hovu buoit knQwn to tbe sm- 

and cidoTirernui. 
from tlie Jiiiirel, ere mediciriiiL uils, 

*" Tile Jjiiinw IjiafoliM .if ilauhin. 

""> The U}Ttii£ liitiftiliti Ruitiiiiiu of B^iiiliin. It jicMs m euMntial oil, 
and by its dcuociioii miglit dvuuflxi'il oil, insitiaLl quunlit)', liut mj 
ftdufifefoun. Ad boikcl with Aiva uit. he tremta it as a voUtilo oil. 

'I See B. XXV. c. IflO, This nij|Ttl« is the Rusctiia orulc-ntnt of tAanm'i*. 

'* See B. liii, c. 29, and B xxiii. t. 46. A viilatik' oil mi)('il be «!»• 
Irnctod from tlif ciuiis, if uiw of thi' tliuyic, as alio ftnrn llie cypiw«. 

'-I Sae U. xxiii. c. 45. IL ii a QivJ oil, b^U guosideritlly mud in »aiDe 
purti of l^urope, 

J* From tlie Greet xapira, h " Wilbiut." 

J* Titch oil." SiiH B. liiv. e. LI. IT]!* would be a Tehtilo oH. 

f* 8ee D. niii. c, 46, nisi) B. xiii. c. 3ft. F^e ie of opiniini, (hal u no 
tijtfd oil cun bi! (JitruBttd from the Ikaphne Cnidiii™ or llupluw (^aecnim, 
i'Liny niuat alliiili to a mcdlciaid corapoiitiou, likv ibu oU of wild uytdv, 
piKViouily iiieationftd. 

Ch^ 7.] 



pounded; and from maBttch" also. As to the oil called 

" cyprinam,"" and that extrdctpd from t3n; Egyptiiin" "beny, 
■we hare already mentioned the modo in which they are pro- 
pared aa perfumes. The Indiana, too, ore aaid to extract oils 
fejui tho chcaniit,"" BOBanmm, und rice,*' and the Ichthy- 
ophagi " ftora fish. Scurcity of oil for the sapply of lainpa 
eometioicE compels ue tonialcc itfromthoberrius^ ot'theplEuie- 
tree, which ar^ first sU'eptd in suit mid wutcr. 

CBnaathlimm," agiiia, is mado from the ccQimthe, aa we hare 
already gt;itt>d when Epcakiug of ptrfumes. In making gleu- 
ciiium,^ tiMht is lioiltid witli oU-T-e-oil at aslowheiit; Bome 
panons, lioweTtr, du not, employ lirfi in inaldTig it, but leave a 
TOBSf], filled with oil itnd must, surrounded with gntpo huslce, 
for two iind twenty ddjB, tnkiog care to stir it twi^'* n dny : 
hy the end of that period the whole of tho must 18 imliibeil 
by the oil. 8omo peraona mis with this not only sampau- 
chom, but peri\inieB of elill greiiter price : that, too, whii;h is 
used iu tho gymiiaeia is sceutod with pcrfumeB as well, but 
thoBO of Ihevcry lowest quality. Oils uro made, too, fromus- 
palathus,*" from calaaius," balsamuiu,'* carJamum," melilot, 
tiullic ntLfd, panns,"' sampauchuio,'" heleoium, and root of 
ciuDumomum," the plants being first left to steep in oil, and 
then pressed. In a similar manner, too, rhodinum*' is made 
from roses, and juncinum from thesweet msh, hearing a rcmark- 
uble*^ resemblance to rosc-oU: other oils, again, are extraett^d 

'''^ A Sxti oil. Bee B. xii. c. 30. Tb«i lefrilfi wore used for making it- 
Sen B. jiiii. c- 46. 

'" S«e B. xii. Q. Si, and B. sziii. c. 45. The learoe of the Liiwaoiii& 
are Tmr odorifuToiis. 

™ Tnt mjrobalaQus, or bea. Sm B. kit. c. 4C, and B, iiiii. o. 46. | 

*' Ncithor the eiiauut nor rice prodaco iiny kind ol' tixril oil, 

81 6«e n. rrii c. 13. I 

"> Or Fi^h-cBteTs. 8«e B. xxxIL o. Z%. This Is one «f the Qui nili. 

'*■' In rcnljty, ilo fixed dU cua be nbulned fTam Asia. 

*' Or wild vine. See D. lii, c. 61, and B. liii. c. 2. 

•" Nut an oil, so tiiuchasa aiediuinal preparation. DiosccrldMinpntioiw 
ua componc^nt pftrts of it, omphaciun), svievl msb, Celtic uard, s^palaltuK, 
cuBtua, aad uiusi. It rt^iieivi'u iu tiuniu from yXitijco^i "laust."' 

•• The ConvoivulM scopariias of Liimotus. Sea li. xii, c. 62, and B, xui. 
e, a. " Sue B- xii. c. Ba. 

w 8i«u B. rii. c. Si, and B. liu. c. 2. '* Sl« H. lii. c. 2a. 

« Sec B, lii, 0. 57. *' See B. liii. c. '2, p. 163. 





from henbane,'" lupines,** and aarcissiis. Gi^at qutLutitisB of 
oil are maide in Egj^rt, too, of radish" laeed, or else of a 
cumiuoiL grass knoiini there m chMtiiJon." SpBannini" atsa 
yields an oil, and so does the nettlo,' its oil being knovn as 
" enidiniun."' In other countrieSj too, an oil is extractwi 
from lilies* left to steep in the open air, nnd sabj«ctod to the 
influence of the sun, moon, and frosts. On the borden of 
Cappadoclu and Qulatia, lliey moke oa oil firom tha horbs of 
tho country, known as " Selgicum,"* rcrawkaUy useflil for 
etrengthc'uiug the toudocs, Einulor, in fact, to thut of IguTtiim^ 
in Italy. pityh an oil' is extracted, that is known aa 
" pissinura;" it is nmde by boiling the jiitch, and qtntading 
fleeces over the vessels to catcli the sleam, and then wring- 
ing thtim out : the most approved kind is that which comos 
from Bruttium, the pitch of thut coiintry htJng remarkably 
rich and ruainous : the ooloiir of LhtR oil ia yellow. 

Thoro is tin oil that growa epontaneou^ly in the mnritune 
parts tif Syria, known to us as " (jlfBotni^li ;""' it is an unctuous 
Hubgtanco whu;h distils from certain trees, of a thickfff consis- 
tency than honey, but Bomewhat tliiniiLT thun resin ; it haij a 
awect fluTOurj nnd is employed for mc^cinal purposes. Old 
oUre oil' ia of use tor snmp kinds of maladiee ; it is thought to 

" EyascjamttA. \ medicinal oil h still c^tti'actcd fr«m it. See B. ixiii. 
o. 49, 

" 'Diift mcdieinal oil iKiin ImigpruKed. Thu Lupiuiu albiu wa> ibrtaeilf 
ItuM in grcutfi- esti.-eiii ctmn ii is now. 

)^ Tliv EiijihanuB eativua of LinnieuB. See B. xix, o. 26. TUt Is one 
of Clio filed oils ; varieUuB of it urc rapG oil, lud colxa oil, now to esUa- 
(ivEly used. 

" From tlje GiBek ^'''""''■fi " graiB." Tbii raeditinnl oil wciiili) be Ir" 
taJlv williout piiwM thr iffi-ct, 

" A Jixed oil is etlU citi'iii.'Uid in Egypt From tlio ^rniu kitowa at giW'- 
mam. ' Sl-c B. xsii. c. Ifi. 

* i'lata (I'ti?!). a "nettle." Tli? netUe, or UrtiiA urcnsof UnaiuutL, hni 
no atcD^ciiu prindjilos iu itN gc«d. 

* Lily oil is sliU usud ax u uLixliuiiial oompoiitioa ; it ti made from tb^ 
pctnU or thd nhitc lily, Ltlium candidum of Linmous. 

* Vtam HelgB, a luwu of I'jiiidta. S<!e U. jxiii. t. i9. 
' See a. iii. c. 9, and U. kxiii. c. i'3. 

' A voliLtila oil, raiiod with a hiurII pifiportioD of «isp]TennuitiQ oil anil 

■* " Oil-honey." ProbuMy it torubialliino, or oleo-raain. See B. xiiii. 

* WJirn rancid ftiiJ onyifi'iii:;™! I>y nge, it liai iiii irritiittng (jimlity, 
nuiy be found useful for bcrpvliu diseiuca. 

Chap. 8,] 

be particTLlarly UBeful, too, in the preservation Qf ivory from 
dccuy : * ut ill! evuQt», the atatue of Saturn, at Itom^r ^ ^ed 
inth oil in the interior. 

' CHAP. 8. (8.) — iMCaCA. 

But it is upon th.e praises of ftmurca'" more particularly, that 
Cato" has onlsirgod. He rfcommenJa that vats ond MBk*" 
ibr keeping oil should be first senanncd with it, to prevent 
thero from aoaking up the oil ; and he telle ub that threahing- 
flooFH should be woU rubbed with it, to ktep tiway unts,'- 
and to prevent any chinks or crannies from boiiig left. 
The mortar, too, of walln, he Eays. ougiit to be seasoned with 
.it, as well as the roofs tuid doors of groimrios ; and h« recom- 
jaetLds that wardrobes should be sprinkled with aiuurca as n 
Jirtservative agatnal wood-worma aud oUier noxious insect*. 
He says, too, thut nil grain of the etreala should be steeped in 
it, and spcalts of it aa efficaciona for the cure of mahidioa in 
Citttle aa well as trees, and as useful even for ulceration,! in. 
Hie inside aud upon the fuce of inim. Wo hum from him, oImj, 
that thongs, all articles made of leitther, sandals, and axle- 
treoa used to bo luiomted with boiled lunurea; which wn.* 
emploj^ed uliso to prtaeiTo copper vi^ssda against verdif^reasL-,'* 
and to give them a bctt^T colour ; as also fur the seasoning of 
all utensils mude of wood, as well as the eurthen jars hi whi(«h 
dried figs were kept, or uf sprigs of mjTtle with thB Iftavee 
and heri'ic-a on, or any other lulieles of a similar nature : in 
addition to whith, he osRcrta that wood which hos been stt-cped 
in umurea will bum without producing a slifiing Binoke.'* 

According to 5t. Varro,'* an olive-lree whiih hoa bi*u 
liuked by tlio tonguu of lIib Etie-goat, or upon which atic hufi 

* II very pwbftbly will huTo this effect ; hut at tho eipttmo of the eoloat 
of Ibo ivory, wtikh Tery hjuh will lum jclluw. 

'" ]t liiu i[iiiti> lost iis ulirie^it [i>put« : iha nnlv liie it is aon [jul tu ia 
the niaiititiictuiv uf ua lofcijur sdu]i. Sec B. xxiii. u. 31, 
" Di- Ru HiiBl. cu. 13U. it^n. 

" rJ&lia and caili. yfu oliserrcs, tbitt tlii*, if i3onii ivitli tho moiltm 
tlf, wuiild buve a kntli'nt^ (o mnk^ the tiil tuni rm^dil, 
_ On the KiiiLrarj-, f bh is mi:liiu<d to think it would ouraot tll«m, from 
nnRlln^inotis |.>r'a[iL'rtivs. 
" Oirii) vH, itiwuTM, km a toiuk'scjr (o gonoruto Turdifreaae in cnpptr 
" Thia, OS ¥66 rtnatlcs, is inubably so ulisurd u cot to be wottL dU- 
[eiuaiitg. ''» U.B Hint. ii. i. c 3 


yturr's hatcteat. btstokt. 

[Book IV, 

browsed whea it was firBt budding," is Bure to be barren. 
Tlins much in rcfvrcnco to tbo olivo and the oils. 


Tho other fruiu found on trees can hardly bo enumeratwl, 
from their diversity in shape nnd figure, without reference to 
their different flavours and juicos, which huve again been 
modiiiud by repeated oombinntioDS and grafttuga. 

(10.) The lurgL'st fruit, and, induud, the one that hangs at 
tho greatest height, is tlie pine-nut. It contains nilhiitaa 
uumher oi' Hmall kernels, enclosed in arched beds, und corcrcd 
with, a coat of their own of rusty iron-Loloor ; Naturo thus mani- 
festing a. inarreUtnis degvuB of care in providing its Reeds witli 
a soft reteptarlp. Another variety of this nut is the terea- 
tina," the shfell of which may be broken with the fingers ; and 
hence it becomcB a pr^y to the birda while still on tlie tree. A 
ihinl, again, in Ituown aa the " aappinia,"" bting the pn>dtioe 
of tho cultivated pitch-tree : the keroela are eneloacd in a 
Ekin more than a ^hell, whieh is bo rt-mtirkably soil that it is 
eaten togelber with tto fruit. A fourth vmoty is that known 
ail the "pityis;" it is the produce of Ebo pmoBter,** and is 
remarkable m a good tipeciAc lot coughs. The kemols are 
wometiines boiled in honey" among the Tauriui, who then call 
them " aquiceli," The conquerors at tho Isthmian games arti 
croftTicd with a wreath of pinc-leavcs. 


Next in size after these are tho fruit called by us "co- 
tonea,"" by the Greeka " Cydonia," " and ftrat introduced 

" If ihz bappens lo have destroyeiJ Ibo buds, but not othcnrue. 

'* Thu Pinus cumbTo, probably, of Linnieus. 

'■ Sue B. iti, c, 2M. I'be iiuU of the pme aie sweet, ani ba»« bh 
agreenlilo daiour. 

"" Probably tbe wtld piuo, tlie ?iau» lilveattis itf (Le modenu. V"i 
miU OTD sli^ntl^ rcEinaua. 

^' Nbithii.'r till) Tiijr>plc of Turin lioi of hdj oDitT [tloco aro known at llw 
present daj b> mA« Uiii prujinruLiuu. 

'" The iiuincd, tho I'iru* Uyiioiiiii of Linnroas, 

^ From Cydoaia, a city of Crota, Tliu Lutiu nmae is only a curruptiMi 
uf ibc Greek oDo . in Eaglund tbey wers fonnorly colled " malicoto&es.'* 

Cluf. II.] 



from tb@ island of Crete. Thase fruit bend the bmnoliea with 
their weight, aaU bo tcuil to impede the growth of the paceat 
tree. The varieties aru Eumerous. The chijaomtiiuiu " it 
matlcfd with indentations down ib, acd haa a colour iucUuing 
to gold ; tho one that is known as the " It;ilian" quinue, is of r 
paler tompkiioHf and has n most exqaisiteBm all: tho<]uinefc8 
of Neapolia, too, are held in high esteem. The smalkr Tarie- 
ties of the quince which axe known as the " Btmthca,"°* havo 
a more pungent Fnncll, but ripen Inter than the others; that 
called tht! " mustoum,"** ripens the soonest of nil. The coto- 
neum engrafted*'' on tho Btnitheum, baa prodHotid a peculiar 
Variot}', kjjown u& the "Mulvianum," (he only one of them 
all that ift enton raw.'" At the present day all those varieliea 
are kept shtit up in the anteeluunljLrB of great men,* where they 
leceive the visits of tbitir courtiers; they lire bung, too, upou 
the ataUicft*' lliat pass the niglit with ua in our charnhfira. 

There is a staall wild" quince also, the Binfll of which, next 
to that of the atrutheum, is tho most powerM; it grovs in 
the hedges. 


Under tbe ht-nd of apples,^ we inclndo a rariety of fruits, 
although of an entirt-ty different natare, such ns the I'ersiuB " 
apple, for instance, and the pomegrounte, of which, when 
Speaking of the tree, we have alrtiady emimrralcd'" nine va- 
rieties. ThQ pomogranato has a Boed within, enolused in a 

** Or " golden apple," The quince waa sacrad to Twiiis, nod was an 
imblmo oflove. 

"^ Apparently nieaning tile " sparrow quiDCO." DirtMoriiici, Oalen, ami 
AtheTiH^'iia, hnwever, say tlint it was u large variety. Hy. if in BU(;h cn»v, 
it might Dot lOF'Bn the uiitirli:}) (|umce^ 

** " Early ripcnur," 

*^ Quincce are not p'a.ftod an quinoM at iho proBont day, but the pear ii. 

** Fee BU^gtsta Uiat tbia is a kind of podr. 

^' Probably on accoiuit of the fragtonte of Llmir scfnt. 

^ Wb learn from oiliei' sources iluit the bed-abiutibert wexo frequently 
omanittiiled with lUtui^a of tLe iliTiQiliuB, 

^* Tbo Mnla cotonpa aikuBtris of Btuhiii ; tie Cjd<inia fiil^riA of mc- 
dem botanitta. 

* "Mala." The term "niiilTim," sompwhat similar to ''pome" with 
vt, WM Applied to a nmii)>ur of di^vr^at fruiu : the anuig«i the citroa, 
,&ii pomii||;Tanui<j, tbe aprivut, uud okljV'r^. 

» Or puck. M Sw B. ziii. c. 34. 



[Book IT. 

ekin; the pcaoh has a etonc inside. Some among the peare, 
also, known as " Ubrolia." ^' tkow, hy Umir name, wfamt 8 
reuiurkable woiglit tlity attain. 

(L2.) Aiaung the peaclies the palm muat be awarded to the 
duracinuB : " the Onllic and thu Asiatic peach are dietiDguished 
r(!!*pcct)Tcly i>j- the nrmiiis of tbc ctumlTic's of their origin. 
They ripen at thi> end of autnmTi, though some of the early" 
lands are ripe in th« summer. It is only within the laet thirty 
years that thcsi; Inat have been introduced; originally they 
were sold ut the price of a denarius a piece, Tboae known as 
tht! "fltipernatia"" come iirom ihts eountiy of the Subines, Imt 
thti " popularia" grow cveiywhore. This is a very bormtc^ 
truit, and a pHtticular favourite with iiivalide : Eome, in &ct, 
Iiiivo sold bui'oru this us high as thirty sosterces apiece, a price 
that has nevei- been exceeded by any other tiniit. ThisL, too, ia 
the more to he wondered at, ua there is none that ia a vorae 
Itppper : for, whon it is once plucked, the longest time that tt 
'\nll keep is a oonple of days; ajid eo sold it muet be, fbtob 
what it may. 

CE.IP. 12. (13). — rwTLVE xiBriis Of PtTfMB. 

JTest comeB a vast number of varieties of tlio plom, the 
parti-coloared, the black,'" the white,** the barle^'^' plom— 
80 culled, because it ia ripe at b^ey-harrest^and another of 
the same colour as the laat, liut which ripens later, and is of » 
Wwer size, generally known as the "aainina,"" from the litil* 
eateem in which it is held. There are tha onycluna, too, iho 

^' Or "prmnd-weieht" jiciirs: thfl Pinis Tolemnof LinnreuB. 

*" Ot " liaid-'berry" — pmbnbly in rcfei-eaco to the tircunesB of tbe fladi. 
It is gcncrnllj thouglit lu be tlie nei^Lorine. 

" " Prseuuciii." ic is g-oneriilly thniifjhf. t.hat in fhl» nnina onginitrt 
the word "Lipneot," ths I'ranue Armtiiiiiies o! Linnmiia, TLore ia, ho- 
over, an ea;j]' putoh tliut ripens 1); tbo nidiUo of July,, though itis vurj 
doubiful if it was known lo I'liny. 

" "From aboTf." 

*" PerliBM the Pmnui img^nrica of untnialistB, the blaok daniBsk plum; 
ot like llici PmnuB perdrigijuu, tlio pi'rdngun. 

*" Probably tlic rrunuE guliitensis of naturoliata. 

" "llordfioria :" the I'mnua praxioi uf luituraliit* j prabably om 
hfirvcRt pluni. 

*^ Or " !iBs">p£um. The Priiniu aoinaria of natmalitta ; tliD tbvnj 
pltua of tba Frcovb. 


eerina,** — more ertcemed. and lie purple" plain : the Arme- 
niinij** aim an exotic from foreign parts, the only one ftmong tho 
plums thiit reiiommends itself by ite smell. Tho plum-tree 
grafted on the nut cxliibita what wc may cuU a pieco ol" impu- 
d^acti quite its own, for it produces a fruit tbat Iiti^ all the ap- 
p«aran(;o of the parent stock, together with the juico of tha 
adopted fniit : in coaeetiiieiice of its being thua oonipoundcd of 
both, it 18 known, by the iiaraeof "nuci-pruDa.'"* Nut-prunee, 
aa well as the peach, tho wild plum," Rnd the cerina, are often 
put in casks, and sd kept till the crop comes of Ibe following 
yeirf. All the other rarieues ripen with the greatest rapidilyr 
and pass off just as quickly, Ifore recently, in Btetica, they have 
hiL-gun to introduce what they call "nmlina," or the fruit of 
the plain engrafted on the applc-ti'eD,** and " amygilalina," tho 
fruit of the plum en^Tulted on tho almond-trvo,"' the kernel 
found ia the Btone of tliu&e last being that of tlie almond ;" in- 
deed, there is no specimen in 'whiok two fruits huve boeu mora 
ingeniously combined in one. 

Among the foreign trees we have already spoken" of the 
Daniascene'' plum, so called from Damascus, in Syria, but 
introdnccd long since into Itiily ; though the Btone of Ibis plum 
is largfT than ubuuI, and the flesh sniuller in quaulity. Tliis 
plum will never dry so for as to wrinkle; to effect that, it 
needs the sun of its own native country. Tho niyxa," too, 

*^ Or •■ WAX plum." The rnimts cereoln of nUunlists ; the mirabcll« 
of tht) French. 

" Ptissihly the Pnmiia Bmicleata if I,afnarck.: the tnymWan of the 
i'reaoli. Muny vurieties, liowirvcr, aie purplu, 

^ There am two o[)iaionB '.m this : thut it is the Pruaus ClsiidirULa of 
XjimiiTtik, thu " ilunc' Clniiido " of tba Frt'Eiuli ; or eliiu thut it in idrntirAl 
'a [lb tho ajiAcfit already uientiaaL'ii, risaiarkalilo fO't tho swtetiitaa of iu 
Kind]. " Or nuUpTunc. 

^' The Prunus Insititia of Linnieui, 

^^ ThorwulCur thU wuuld oul]' bu n plant Uku tbnt of llio trco from 
Kliicli tli<i ^(l witB cut. 

*" Tho iFinio IU with I'tfcrpnce to the gmrt on the apjilp. 

** ThU i« proliulily quilr fabutuiu. " 11. Mxi. c. 10. 

** Tho Pi'uaus i'muasucna of the n^turnliat* ', our coronnHi ilarasffn, with 
its uumertfuf vuriutiuB, 

^ Probably the Cordis myia of LinDmus ; thn Sc1»ttier of the PrencH. 
It lifta a \isi:ouB puip, and ia much uetn) a& a pectoral. lit groim only iu 
Syriu aiiJ lipypi '. "inl htnca Feo is incliited to reject whui Pliny say* at 
tu its nut.ui'ulientJ'DtL at Komr, uid the aucoual ho gittA u to its hoiug eu- 
grafted OD the sorb. 




may ho mentionerl, m bemg the fellaw-cotrntryman of the 
Damascone: it Las of late Soen introducud iatu Ikime, tuiil 
has bei^n grown engrafted upou the sorb. 


The name of *' Peraiea," or " Pendan applo," girou lo Has 
fruit, iVillj- proves that it is an ©xotio in both Greece as 'Well 
as Asia," mi, tlmt it was first introduced from. Pf^rsie. Aa to 
the wild plum, it is a well-known fact that it will gruw aaj'- 
where ; and I am, therefore, the more surprised that no men- 
tion hrjs bMn miide of it by Cato, more partiealarly aft he hii* 
pointed out the method of preRerving; eoveral of the wild 
fraits as well. As to tho peach-tree, it has b(!cn only intro- 
duced of late yeurs, and with coDsidurablb diffioulty; »a much 
ED, thut it ia pi[>rfL'Gtly barren in the Ide of Ithodos, the first 
testing-place*" that it found afttr loaving Egypt- 
It ia quite untrut that th(i peach which grovrs in Persia i» 
poiaonoua, and produces dreadful tortures, nr that the kings 
of that country, from motives of revenge, hud it transplanted 
in Epypt, -where, through the nature of the soil, it lost all its 
evil propcrtipH — for we hnd that it 19 of tho " pcraca"^ that 
tlie morti ctirefal writers have staled all this,** a touUly different 
tree, thti fruit of which resembles the red mysa, and, indeed, 
camiot be aucceaafuUy cultiriited anywhere but in the East. 
The learned have aleo maintained that it waa nut iutroduoed 
irom Pfliela into Eg^'pt with the view of iufliotiug pamshmect, 
but say that it was planted at MemphiB by Perseus ; fur 
which reason it was that Alexander gave orders that the Tic- 
tors should be crowned with it in the games which he insti- 
tuted there in honour of his*' ancpstor : indeed, this tree hiB 
always lettves iind ftuit upon it, growing immediately upon tbe 
othoni. It miiEt he quite evident to every mw Uiat all our 
plums have boca introduced Buieo the time of Cato,** 

»•■ I. «. Asin Sfinor. *■"' Hospitinm. 

* SeoB, lili.t, 17. The Jklamitea -."Rgyptijien, of Di;liIlB. 

*' It wiw this proiwililj', and not tbe pruch-trBa, that wuulJ nut bfar 
Ihut ia ttie lAn of Khudesi. 

* Pcrsoin. 

>* F«e Tcm&rku that tbp wild plain, the Prtinas lilTeatna or iuitit^ of 
IdnikBa*, was t^ b« foond in Italy Mmh the dajra of Cabt. 

Cbap. 15] 



CUJtr. 14. (14.) THlRTt DTFraRintT KIHB3 OP POSreS. ATWHiT 


AKB wmaicE. 

There are numerous varieties of pomes. Of the citroa** wo 
have already made mentioa when dL'SL-nbiog ita tree; Oie 
Greeks gave it tho name of " Medicn,"" from ite native Coun- 
try. The jujube^-trce and tho tuter" are oqnally exotics; 
indeed, they haw, both of them, btca introduced only of late 
years into Italy ; the luttc-r from Africa, the former from Syria, 
St'-xtns Pnpiniiis, -whom we have seen coubuI," introduciiMl iii, 
both in tJiu lutt«r years of the reign of Auguetus, produced 
from tdips which he had gronii within his camp, lite fruit 
of the jujuhe more acitrly resimkhles a bgrry than an apple : 
the tree seta off a tt.Tracc" remarkably wc'U, and it ie not un- 
common to see whole woods of it climbing up to the very roofs 
of the boui£a. 

Of the tuber there nre two vnrietiea; the white, and theono 
calltd " syrjciim,"" from its coloiir. Those fruita, ton, may 
he ulmost pronomniGd axotic which grow nowhtTo in Ilulyhut 
in the territory of Vtrona, and are kiiown as the wool-fruit.'^ 
They are covered with a woolly down ; this is found, it is true, 
to a very coiisidcnible extent, oh botli tho ttriithcum rariety of 
quince and the peach, but still it has given its name to this 
particTdar fruit, which is recommended to us by no othec 
remarkable quality. 



'Wliy should I hceitatu ta make bome mention, tew, of other 

•• Sro B. lii. c. 7 " Of Mt^lia. 

" It< fruit win ripen in Franco, «a fur north aa Toutb. It )« the Zhy- 
pliusvulgurUof LaviaTuk. It rcsuinbUs&fiDEill plum.iuid isBDmetimce luvd 
as a awG»tmeae. The coiifntlion aM as jujube pu-ib! \t not th.ii dried jdljr 
of thi« fruit, hut merely gum (irfiT)ic oimI supnr, rclourad. 

" A variety of tb&jujulm, Fuc is inclined to thinJt. A nut*p*ach liof 
mltn benn siigeetteiJ, 

" A.U.U. "79. ^^ Oi perbap* umbiuikiociot : "agger." 

>* A reddiiih colour. For the contp'oeicion «f this wilour, see B. 
TUT. «. 24. 

•'' " Lotiata ;" perhaps rMTicr tho "downy" fruit; a vorictv of (|UtDce, 
F^ tliinks. I'liiiT j>i(illiably liad never nuea thi» fruit, in hit upitiiun, 
and "nly epcaii* nftur V^irgii, Eul. ii. 1, 51, " Ipse ogo coua legatu teaeia 

lllUUglllt' Rlfllfl.'* 



[Bool XT. 

Tarieties by name, seeing that thty hare conferred cTerlairting 
remembranco on those who wcro the first to introducu them, 
OB having rendereii same service to their ftllow-men ? Unlese 
I am very much mietaken, un enumeration of them wiU tend 
to tlirow Bonio light upon the ingenuity that is dl^pluyetl in tho 
art of grafting, and it will bt- the more ejieily unileratood th«t 
thoTe is nolliing bo trifling in itself from nhich a certain 
amount of celebrity CQiiTiot he cDSBTcd. Hence it is t1iat we 
have fruits wliich derive their names from Matius* Cesliui, 
Mnllina, and Scandiiis, ** Appinsj too, a mpmhcr of the 
Clau<3ian familyj grjifttid the qiiiiicc on the Sraudian fruit, in 
conBe<juflace of -which Uie product; is known na the Appian. 
This fruit has the smell of the quince, and is of the same sizo 
a£ the Bcundiaa uppio, oud of a nKlily colvar. Let no oa«, 
however, imtigiue that this name was merelv given in ii gpuil 
of flattery to ttn illustciouB family, for there ia an apple knowa 
fts the Sceptiim,'" which owes it.'? name to the son of a freed- 
man, who was the first to introduce it : it is remarkable for 
the roundnosa of its shape. To those already mentioned, 
Cato" adds the Quirinian and tlic Seantion voi'ieties, which 
last, he Bays, keep reniarkubly well in lor^ veseela." The 
latust kind of all, however, that hdt been intrudncod ia the 
BniaJi apple known as the Petisivn,'^ remarkable for its delight* 
f«l flavour : the Amtrinian" apple, too, and the UtLle Greek.'* 
iiR-vf: conferred renown on their respective countries. 

The remaining varieties have received thoir name from 
voriouB. circnmslances- — the apples known as the "geraoUa"'* 
are always found hanging in pairs upon one stalky like twins, 

•• 8o« B. lii. c. 6. The Mfl-tian and tbe OesHan apple are thoueht fcy 
Dalet-hamps t& have bean the Frennh '' coiirt^penriu," or " ihort iialk," 

" Tbt Scundian is ihnuehl to have been n wiiitoT pear, 

''" Adrian Junius takes tiiia to bo the " kera-appel ' of tUo FkmiBJi. 

" De Eo Rnst. cc, J anil 143. " Dolia. 

"" Harduuin says Ihttt thii ii the " Pomnne d'api " of the French ; it i« 
iJiB " Ccnirt-ppiidii" with Adriiin Juniuit. 

T 'Ebe *' Puoim^ in &aiut Thomas,"' intcording to Adrian Juaiui : Dile- 
chiuntNiiileDtiAeBit'nith the pomiueiloGraiivi. Stw Ii. iii.c.19. andcc. 17 
unit 18 cf thti proBcnt Book. 

'" " Uncculfi." So colled, perhaps,, from Toventum, situated in Magai 

'* Twiufi, TJm variety is uaknowu. 



and never growing Hing]y. That known as tbe "Byricum"" 
is so culled from iLs colour, -wbilo the " melapium' "* iaa iU 
name froiu its Btroug nssemb-lance to the pear. The " mus* 
teum" "* was BO called from the rapidity with which it ripens ; 
it is the mttlimelum of the present day, which derives its ap- 
pelktion from ita flavour, Iwing like that of honey. The 
"orbiciilatatn,'"" again, i8 60 ciilled from ita shape, which ii 
exactly spherical — the circtimstunce of the Grt'cka having called 
it tJie " ippiroticTun" provea that it tame originally from 
EpiruB, The orthomastiuTn*' has that pfculiur tippclliition. 
iVom ite resewihlancG to a teat ; and tlie " epadonium."" of the 
iJelgoe 13 so nickDumbd from the total aheence of pips. The 
inelofolium^ has one loaf, and ou^asioually two, shooting frum. 
the middle of the ixult. That known as the " piumueeum" ** 
ahrivBls wi th the greatest nipi-dity ; while the '* pulmoneum" "* 
has a Itimpieh, swollen appearance. 

Some apples aro jiist the colour of blood, owing to an original 
graft of the mulberry ; but they aro all of thom red on the 
Bids "which ie turned towards the sun. There are Bome small 
wild •• ftpplea oIbo, remarkable for tlieir fine flavour and the 
peculiar pungency of their Bmell. Some, again, ore so re- 
markably " Bour, that they arc held in diteateem ; indeed their 
acidity is bo extreme, that it will oven take the edge Irom off 
a knife. Itio worst apples of aU are thoBe which Irom their 
mealineas have received the name of "iarinacea;""" they are 

" Or "wd" apple. Thoi*d caWlleof the French, aaotding to Hsr- 
QiniiD ; the Porotne BUEiae,. according to DAli.'i^lmrDpa. 

'* Tlw Giraailotte of tlie French , the appcl-h«Gi»ii of the Dut«h. 

W The "ejuly ripener." DalwhampB idimtiftui it with tho poiam« 
Baiut Jean, tiie apple of St. John, 

flo TLe Pommo toae, or roae, npple, accoTdiiig to DalfchdimpB. 

*' Or "erect teal." The rommi! tapontiti of tlio French, anmiiliDg to 

•* Or nunuch. Tha Passo porame, or Pomme grilliitte of tbo FrBQclt. 

^ Or "Ieiirw)pl«." KguMtnnrki that thiBuccaeioniiUy happens, biittlie 
apple docs not form a distinct variety, 

"^ The Pommi; ponuete, acourding to Dalechnmps: the Fomme galio 
of Pnovcace. 

" Or " lung" applo. The Pomme folana, aucording to n&Iechninpi. 

8» The Pirtifl matus of Ijnoieus, the wild apple, or estrasTiiilkiQ of tb« 

*' It ii doubtful whether he does not aUude here to a peouliai vmetjr. 
ft " Or "mealy" apple*. 




[Book XV. 

Ihc fi.rst., howcTcr, to ripen, and ought to bo gathered ta sooq 
as possible. 


A similar degree of precocity haa caused the appellation of 
**8Uperbuin""to be given to one Bppcics of tha pear: it ia a 
Bmall &uit, but ripens with remurlvable rapiili^. All tho 
■ vorid ore extremely piictiftl to tho CrufiCumian^poar ; and next 
to it ooiQiOB the Falcmian," bo called from the drink" wUidi 
it uSbrds, Eo abundant is ita juioe. This juice is known by 
the name of "milk" in tho variety which, of a black colour, 
ia by some called the pear of Syria.*" The deuomuiBtiunit 
pTen to the others vary according to the respective localitieaof 
ttieir growth. Among the prnvB, thenamesof which have been 
adopted in out city, the Becimian pear, and the FsQudo- 
Dccimion — au oflshoot from it — have conferred coneidcrable 
renown upon the name of those who introduoed them. Tha 
Bamo is the casQ, too, with the variety known as the "Dola- 
b«llJan","" rcmarkabk for tho length of its stalk, the Pom- 
potiiaa,'* aumamed the maonuosum," thy Licerian, the 
Beviao, the Torranian, a variety of the Sevian, but distiu- 
guiahed from it by the greater length of the stalk, the fa- 
vonian,"" a red poar, rather larger than the 8Hpcrbum,togiellier 
with the Laterian** and the Anicitin, which come at the end 
of autumn, and ore pleasant for the acidity of their flavour. 

*" Or "proud" jiwir, Tho Pftite nia»(aid.iJle, auooTdiiiB to Dalecbamf*. 
^Adrian JuEiUB. ioy« tlat it is the water-ptiere of the Dnfcti. 

^ From Cnutaiaium in Italy ; Cb<j Poire perlu, oi peurl pi-or, acGordia^ 
to Daleulmtnjw : tbe Jacob's poem of tlie Flfmiielj. 

*'■ Tlio roiTe9ii-erfe,«r "iugai.peftr,"R[!Cortlia6lolIiirdQuin; theDerga- 
faiottc, ai:ui)rdiii^ to Daliiclianip. 

" " fntu." He would sppeiir to aUiidc to the mmnifacture of perxT. 

** Tliu Syrian fv&i a vommeiideil by Murtiali it hiu not iteeu iuuuUned, 

'"■ TLe Pniro imuof, flcc<irding to Dali>chainp3, Adrian Junius says that 
it in tho Eni^ekcbe braet-peere of the Flemish. 

•* Tho Pinii FomTioiniift of Linnwus. Dalpflianipg fdc-ntifleii it with 
the Bon elirEttuQ, una Adi'iau Junius is'itb tlio T&llul-ptieio of dio Flcmisti- 

" Tho " broaet-fonned." 

■^ The rirui Fnvaiiia of LiniiKiis : the Gtobm poire nuseadoUe of ^a 

•* TLe Poire preroit, aflcording to Dalcchamps. 

Chap. I a.] 

TjUUKTIks of the PEAB. 


One variety is known qs tho *' Til>eiiaa,""' from its having 
bet>n a particular favonrit* with tiie EiDperor Tibtirias; it is 
more colour i-'iUiy Uiw (tun, and gruwa to a larger size, othenria* 
it would be identical -wilh the Licr-riua variety. 

The followiog kinda receive thoir respective names from 
their native couiilricai the Amertniftn,' Uie latest pear of all, 
the Piccutine, the Numantiiifl, the Aloxandriflc, tho Nuini> 
ilian. tho Gruek, it variety of which is tlu.' Tarentine, and the 
Signine/'' by some cidled " ttJfttaceunif" frum its eolour, like 
earthenware ; a reason wbioh has also given their respective 
namca to tho " onychino" * and the "purplti" kinds. Then, 
again, we have the " myrapiiim,"* the " laureum," and tho 
" nardixram,"* so called &om the odour they emit; the " hor- 
dearrum,"* from the season ut which it comes' in; and Iha 
*'ampullftcc!mi," " so called from \Xs long narrow nwtc. Those, 
again, Lfmt arc known cia the " Coriolanian" * and tho " Brut- 
ti&n," owe their names to the places of Uicir origiu ; added to 
which wo have the cucurbitinuni,"' and the "acidulum," so 
named from the auidity of iU juice. It la i^uito uncertain for 
what r«;i8o« lh«r reepectivt) names were given to Ihu varictiea 
known as the " barbaricuiu" and the " Venerium," " which last 
is known also as the " coloratura ;" '' the royal pear'' too, which 

■■ Thn PoiTP fori, according to Dalechamps. 

' Tho Saint Ttuinna'it petr of the l"'kcniali. 

' Tho Poire cliat of tho Frenoh.aceordintrtoDalwIiflinjM; Uic Riet-pecre 
of the Fltmish, 

' " Lika onyx " Tbo OiiiEsc-itiadai&p. nccortling tu Dalecliampiv 

^ Tku OiilvrHii roiut, nccuTiliDg to iJulcvbuiups. Pcrhups the Boirv 
d'umbrc, or aiiibtr pwar, of i\ie FrEaiuli. 

' Tliu ruiriT il'iirgv'ut, or tilvcr pvur, tKOTfiing to Dolocfaurnps. 

• Or "fmrlcy pt'ur," Thel'uira jieSiiintJ^iui, uiiordiajrUiDnluciftiBp*; 
Ibe musquclffl or muacadeiln, necording to Adtian Jnnitwi 

J Carlty-tHrn-st, 

• So -^^idlcd from its respmlilBrice to tlie " ampulla," a big-helli*d vewul 
with a Emiili utck, iiltiuiifii'd wiilj tlii; I'uiro d'aHfriiiito by Utilwjbiunpa. 

" TliD Poire du jaloUBic, luicording U> Dalcichamp*. 

*" Ur gouni-pcnr. ThJa is the " iahiiut" rucarding to Adrinn Jnniiut, 
thA Puite coiu'go of Dall'l't:lLcnp^ and the Poirit d-e iitrtiau, or de uaiupaue 
of othnrs. 

" TbG Poire do Venus, aooordio^ to Adrian Junius ; the Poiire aocioLe, 
occordin^to Diilcchatnpe, " Coloured roar. 

^^ "Iteginm," ThorairBcnnno^nfilB.aMordinK toDolMnainpailheMit- 
peeWpcert] «f the FlemUb, uoouindiDg to Adriiui Juoiiu. 




has a remark iil:>!y uliort stiillt, and will Btttnd on its «^'?"'j' 
the putriciiini, Hiid the votonium, " a green oblong KiM. « 
addiUon to th.!*ft, Virgil" hjw maiJe mention of apeorcalWtt* 
" vnlrrnm,"'^ n iijiino whit'h he hue, borrowed firom Cato, »» 
mal(4-H irwiition alao of lunds known a» tho *' flemenUme 
iLud the " niUBtcom." " 


w>ii ijonnnifo. 

Thin hraTK^h ofciviliKcc! litM hus long since been ^^^S^^ 
thn Tcrj- liiKhcBtpitth of ptTfectJon, f..r man has left nothing 
uritriM hfiri). ITcnoo it in that wo find Virgil™ speaking « 
Itratliiig tills nut-lriM! on the arbutue, the apple on the plffl«i 
nud thu clifrry on tliti i-lm. Indeed, ibore is nothing furthM 
in thin dt-ptirtmuut that enn posably be duviftod, and itw* 
long tinir hincit iiny mw vuriuly of fruit has h&en diacovo™* 
Itidigiouu fterLipltiB,, Unf, will not allow of indiBcriminate grtSt- 
ing ; tJiwH, fnr m&tftiico, it i» not pprmittod to graft upon w 
thorn, for it ia Ti«t poBy, br any mode of expiation, to utoiJ 
tliw diJsuHtrons olft'iitfi of ligiitning; and we arc told" thai tt 
many us aru the kiniis of trees that have been engrafted on the 
ilirirti, Bo many iirw llic thunderbolts that will be hurled ngainit 

ttliat fl]i«t in It Binglc Slash. 
The form of tlio pear is turbinated ; the Ifltor Itinds remaiit 
on ihi- imrtMit troo till winler, when they np«i with tliu frostj 
Hiiuh, for iuHtnnoo, as the Greek Tariety, tlie arai>uUaceuin, and 
the Irturcym; ihi; saiTK!, too. with tipples of tho Amerinian 
and Um 8i;uudian luuds, Applea and peara are prepared ftr 

" Tbfl Poii'e wrUjiii, aoocrdiug to BAlwhamps- 
*» Oi-«rKii»,ii. 8?. 

'• "A hmuU'iil"— jjnilialilyibo pftunil or pound M penr: the B«rg«ii»otti*, 
•MOrding to llniJuuiiij ibo Bua ctuctjcn or summer, acconliug w A^g* 
'^ Ho Be Ru«t. c. 7. is Or " Seedling." 

Tke "early ripentt." Pfo KnfEgeatB thai ihia amv be & rant 

QiwnnM, ii. BB. This aintenicnt of Virpl miul bo TVgard«<l 
fiufiiux fai>iii^ impnivticable wttb trees not of tho mue bmily, 
*>*• •wmtHAil cvun thc«L 

u iifvtwbly tamo snpmtitiun taught hy the aaptn tar 
nug tbDic pr£ifi:»tua m ocLlitiuoLil uiyttcrj wd a«e. 


Chap. IB.] 



kocpmg juet like grapoe, aod in as amay different wsys; but, 
■witli th« exception of plums, they are tJie ouly fruit that are 
storetl in caski," Apples ami pean ha%'e certdn Tinoas'* 
propoTlit'B, and liltc wine these drinks are forbiddtn to invalids by 
tbe phyaiciauB. These frnite are sometimes boilod up with •wine 
jind water, ami so make ft preGervu** thut is eaten with bread ; 
ft.prop»ratiou which is ncvpr made of any other fruit, with tht) 
exccpticia i)f the quinces^ known as the "cutoneuiu" and the 
" Htnitheian." 


For the better presetring of frnits it is imiversally recom- 
mended that the Btoreroom should he situate in a cool, dry 
spot, with a wcU-liourdtd lloor, and windows looking towards 
Ine north ; which in fiue weather ought to h<i kept opun. Curu 
dwnld aleo bo takvu to kwp out the aoolli wind by winrlow 
panea/'^ whiloat the samt tinifl it should b* boraein mind that 
8 norlh-cftst wind will ahrivel fruit and make it unsightly. Ap- 
ples are gathered alter the autumnal equinox ; but the gather- 
ing ahould never begin before the sixteenth day of the moon, 
or bel'ore the first hour of the day. Windfalls ahould alwaya 
bo kopt B(3pamt«, and there ought to be a layer of etriiw, or 
elau mats or chaff, phiced buitiEuiLh. They ahould, alao, hu 
placed apart frym each otb«r, in rows, bo that the air may cir- 
culate freely betwuen them, and they may equally gain the 
beneiit of it, Thi; Ameriniaa apple is the best kei-p«r, thu 
melimelam the vury worst of all. 

(IT.) Qainocs ought to be stored in a place kflpt nerfectly 
closed, so UB lo exclude all draughts ; or olao they uiouid bo 
boilod in honey" or soaked in it. Pom.ognuiat«a are mado 

« Cwiis. 

" Htt prolablr aUiidca hen to cider and [itrry. Sec p. 300, aad B. mii. 
0. 62. 

" "Pulttwctarii i-icein ;" pi-iipirly "aaubstilnte foi jiulnifiitmiiiii," whielv 
was niiythinfr eutru witli Lrnud, Kutli us meat, vt'gc'Uiblis, &i;. Ho alludeis 
u mo/'ainluiV. Tbe t'ruuuli ruUint Jii a sonicifliui umilar piepatauun 
frum |>ears luul tjuinuw buJldl in new wine, 

» " Spcciilaribua," Ho alludL« tn windows of iransparont itone, lapia 
niRcnLiHit, nr iinuu; trinilnwa iil' et(i»s being iinibflbly uiik.iion'D iuLis tiiuti. 
Iht uMli[iiiry wiuduwi wure mufL'l}' tipenings do^i'd widi skutCen. Svu B. 

XilYl, c. -15. 

^ He aiast allude to a luiid of qtuaue miuouilado. 


ri.ars'a SATTRAL nrsTOBT. 

[Book XV, 

hard and firm bj b^ing first pot in boiling '^ ceo-watcr, 
then hfl to dry for three dsys in the Bun, caxc being tabeo Out 
the d«vB of the night do not touch them ; after which 
are bung up, and when wimtt-d for ww, washed vith 
water, it. Varro * rMomrapnds that they should be kept! 
large ven^ filled with sand : if tiiey arc not Hp«, he 
tliat &ey sboald be put in pots with the bottom broken out, 
and then buried** in the earth, all access to the air bdng cue- 
fully shut, and care b^ing first taken to cover the stalk vith 
pitch. By this mode of trBBtment, he aasorea ns, thejr will 
attain a larger eizD than they would if left to ripen on the tree. 
Ab fur the other kinds of poiaes, he says that they should be 
wrapped up aeparetcly in og'kaTcs, the windfalls being care- 
fully excluded, and then Btortd iit baskets uf osier, m dm 
covCTPd over with potters' earth. 

Pears are kept m earthen vegaels pitched inside ; when 
fiUed, the Tesselit are rtverw-^l and then bnried in pita. The 
Tarcntine pc^ir, Varro anys, is gathered rcry late, while the 
Anicion keeps very well in raiain wine. Sorb apples, too, ara 
einiilarly kept in holes in the ground, the yessel being tamtd 
upsidedowQ, and a layer of piaster plaeed on the lid: it should be 
buried two feet devp, in a suany spot ; Borbs" are also hung-, like 
gr&pes, in the irnudc of large voaels, together with the hranchoi. 

Some of the more recent author; are found to pay a more 
scrupulous decree of atteutton to these various particulsrv, and 
rt^comrat-nd that the gathering of grapes or pom€#, which m 
intended for ket^ing, efaonld take -place while the moon is on 
the wane," after the third hour of the day, and while thfl 
weather is clear, or dry winds prevail. In a rimilar manner, 
tite Miectioa, they say, ougbl: to be made from a dry spot, and 
the fruit ahould be plucked before it is fully ripe, a mooieitt 
being chosen while the moon ia below the horizon. Grspti, 
they Bay, should be wiecled tliat have a stroag, hiird msllet- 
Btidk, and after the decayed benies have bet-n careliilly iv 
morod with a pair of scissors, they should be hung up inidd« of 

** JU F£« rcnurb, tha ^it, if tj>:al£d Uios, would won Iom all the 
WMWrtia fat which it is valued. 
» DeKc Runt, a I.e. 69. 

** A fao]tf jjruceedini;, liowercr dry it HTBt he. 
» This fmii, F& romarks, keep* but iaiifferently, and toon btenwi 
•oft, vinoiu, tuid ati j. 
» Jia abninl supEnUtion. 

Chap. 18.] UODK or KUriSO TABI0D8 rstTITS. 



a 1arg« T(«sel vrhich has just beea pitched, oar« being takes to 
close aU aecese to the south wind, by coToriiig Ihv lid with a 
coat of plcuter. The aome mctliod, they any, Ahould be adopted 
for keeping sorb applce and pears, the stalks being carofiilly 
oorered with pitch; pare ehould be taken, too, tliat the res- 
Ecb are kept at a distance frvm watiT. 

There urv eonia pursous who adupt the ftjUowiug method for 
pre«ervJQg graiics. They take them off together with the 
branch, and place them, wbilo Btill upon it, in a layer of 
plaster,*" taking care to fasten either end of thi- branch in a 
bijJb of KHiill." Others, again, go bo far aa to piaee iht-ni 
within Teoeela containing wine, taking care, however, that Hit- 
grapes, as they hong, do not touch it. Some persona put 
apples in pl<n*s of earth, and then leave them to float in wine, 
a method by which it is thought that a vinous flavour j» im. 
parted to them : while budil' ihiiik it a better plan to ])reaerve all 
ihtso kinds of fruit in millet. Most people, however, oontont 
themeelves nilh first digging a hole in the ground, a coupli! of 
feet in depth ; a layer uf sand is then placed at the bottom, 
tmcl the Iruil ie urruuged upon it, uid covered witli an earthen 
lid, over whivh the etirlh is lliruwQ. Some persons agaiu oren 
go so for OS to gire their grapes a coating of potters' chalk, and 
then hang them up when dried in the sun ; when required for 
use, the chalk is removed with water." Apples are also pre- 
iwrved in a similar manner ; but with them wine is employed 
for getting off tlie chuLk. Indeed, we find a very Mioilar plan 
pursued with apples of the finest quality ; they hare a coating 
hiid upon them of either plaster or wax ; but they ore iipt, i£ 
not quito ripe when tliis was done, by Uie incivase in their 
fdze to break their easing.'-*' When apples are thus jjropared, 
they aro always laid with tlie etalk downwards.* Some 
persons pluck the ajijdo together with tlie bnineh, the ends of 
which they thrufit mto the pith of elder,*" and then bury it in 

*^ A method not unEikdy lo upoil the gnpe, baia the difficullj ofn- 
tBtmtig tin coat thui giirat to iL 

*> A Tcry thtaii nolion, as Ffis oUerroi. To keep fruit in nulUt m 
alo coadduied. 

>• Wbieb, of oonrsp. mti*t dertmonte the flaToar of the ^pc. 

•*■ ll ia tfcnbtful irttirjr will in<'Ti-iu« i'l »iX'', vina imea ilii.ltH. 

»* Tbe modera auUioritie* tmonitueuii iLf jinxbt'ly opi>oMU- pUn. 

*** Ai aUivtl u tbv aw of tbn bulb ofiquill. 

TOL. lU. X 


Uio way alroady pwintfd out.*° There are eomo who assign to 
each upplu or puar iU ecparate vessel uf day, and after cunv 
fully i^itching the coTer, euclose it agaiu iu u larger vessel : 
oecuBionally, too, the fruit is placed on a layer of flocks of 
wooi, or else iu baskl^ts,*' vnlh & lining of chaff uad clay. 
Other persona follow a similar plan, but use cwrUiea plutcs for 
the purpoBB ; while others, aguin, employ the sume melliod, 
but dig a hole iu the eurbh, and after placing a layer uf koA, 
lay the fruit on to[) of it, and thta covor the whole wiih dr>- 
uarUi. PeraoDB, too, aro sonietiiues known to give quiucea a 
coating of Footio '^ wax, and thea plunge iht-m iu htnu;y. 

Columella" iulvrms uh, that fruit is kept by buiug cureftilly 
put iu ywtlwjn v«83el», which then recisiV'e a eouting of pLti:h, and 
are placed in wella or cisterns to sink to the huttom. Ihe peoplu 
of maritime Liguria, in the rioiiiity of the Alps, first dry tbeii 
grapes in the Bun,*° and wrap them up in bundleH of ruslivu, 
which are thon covLTud with plaster. The Grtelfs follow a 
fiimilar plan, but aubstitut* for ruahta the iuavos of the ijkne- 
li-ep, or of the vino itBclf, or else of thu fig, whioh they dry 
for a giiigle day in thi' ehade, and tlivn place in a tiusk in 
ulternato layers witli husks" of grapes. It i» by lliis method 
that they preserve the grapes of Cos and iluryluis, which arc 
inferior to none in awwtauas. Some persons, wheu thus pn- 
piiring them, plunge the grapes into lie-ashes Uie moment tiiar 
take them from the vine, and then dry them ia the sun; they 
thtn steep them iu warm wattr, after which they put them to 
dry Bgnin inthosiiu: and last of all, ae already mentioned, 
wrap tliem up i» buiidl-u-a foiToed of layers of leaves and griqie 
liuske. Thete ai'o some who prefer keeping their grnpca in 
sawdust,'^ or else in shuvinga of the fii--tree, poplar, imd oah ; 
while others think it the btwit plan to liung Uieni up in the 
graniiiy, at a careful distance from the apples, dii'tetly after the 
gathering, being under the impression that the very lx«t cover- 
ing for them UB they hang is tlio dual** that ruituraUy ansae 

•• Itt ajvit two ffeet docp, &v. Sue obflvo. ^ Came. 

»" Sm K. xxi, «.. 1&. "'' Du Ro Rial. B. xii. e. 13. 

*" ThMo must make msins ot tho auii. 

*i Tbue inuit have Uh-ti iiuilccllj dry, or cUd Ihoy would tend to M 
the gnp«a Or nu>ia«. 
*> Calamong^ fur ioitnnw, U. xii, n. 43. 
" Tlic dun is in rvalit)' very lialik Ig ii|>dU tlie fruit, from tbc tooid^ 

Ch&p. 19.} 



from the floor. Qrap<*8 fire effectually protected ngamst ths 
ottocUs of wasps by being sprinkled with oil"* spirted from the 
mouth. Of palm-dates we Imve ttlready epoken." 

CBtr. 19. (18-3 — TWENTT-piME tieiehes of thb pw. 

Of »II the remniuiDg ihuts that are iDcludod uodor thu 
name of " pomes," tiie fig'* is the largest : Bome, indeed, eq)ial 
the pear, eyciii, in size. Wc lmv« alroady moutionud. while 
treating of the exotic fruits, the miraculous productions uf 
Egj-pt and Cyprus'* in the way of figs. The Eg of Mount 
Ida*' is red, mid Iho size of an olive, rounder however, and 
like a medlar in flftvour ; they give it the name of Alex- 
andrian in those parta. The atcm is a cubit m thic-kncBS ; it is 
branchy, has a tough, pliant wood, ja entirely dtatitute of all 
milky juice," and has a gix-en bark, and leaves like those of the 
luideji trep, bat soft to tha touch. OousicriluB status that iu 
Hyrcania the figs are much Bwewter than with, us, and that the 
trees are more prolific, Boeing that a single tree will heia" aa 
much as two hundred and seventy modii** of Iniit. The tig 
]iaa been introducfd into Italy trom other countries, Chalcis 
and Chios, for instance, tlie varictiuB boiDg very nnineroua : 
there aro those irom Lydia also, which are of a purple colour, 
mid the kind known as the "mamillana,"'* which is verj- 
similar to the Lydiaa. The calliatruLiuic arc very little supe- 
rior to tlie last la lluvour ; they uiv the coldest by nature of 
all the figs. Ab to the African. %, by many people preferred 
to any other, it has bcL'ii luiide the subject of very cousidor- 
ablo discussion, as it is a kind that has been introduced rerj' 
recently into Africa, though it bears the name of that country. 

with which !t Bdlinrcs. In all U'kisc mirtlioih, little ntUnlioa would seem 
to be pujit to Ibc rctcntian of the rlavour of the firiiitt. 

'** A iltUiitiil)le iirnctiiT. F6t-'»ayii, as the nil raakt^a an indtlitle muk 
on the e^Lpe, ntiiS gites it nn itbomianble fluTgiiT. tt in the Iwii aietho'd 
to put llic fruil lit m^ of [iiipiT or liuir. 

•♦ 8onB. siii, c. It), 

** Tliero are alxiui fi»tv rniietips now kn^wn. 

" B. xiii. t. H, la. These nrn Ilie Ficu»i sjcoiripms af LiciDKiiE. 

" InTruaa; uiilled tlie .Vieiaridti:ii[ fig, frutii the city i>f Aluxniidriri 
' * tliere. F6o doubt* il' this wns ronllj' u lig, und Boggcsts that it aiig^l bu 
th* fruit of H Tsriiiiy i>f Dioepyroa. 

** No flg-trsB noir known is dwtitiitc of ttuA. 

** F6e tTMlB this u aa csaggcTatlan. 

w From " mamiUa," k teat. 



M.EST'B NATUaAl histoht. 

nioali XV. 

As to the fig of Alcsondrifl,*' it ia n blaci variety, with the 
clult iaelifling tu whito; it hai> had the nuuio givun tu it ttt 
thfl ■"delicute"*' fig: the Khodiau iig, too. aiid tbo Tibuitine,*' 
one uf the early Itiiuls, mv black. Some of them, again, bear 
the tuimtr of tht" persons wdo were the firnt to introitmc tbcm, 
euch, tor insrbuicp, us Ih^. Lilian'" ami the Pompeian" figs : this 
Tasl Toriety is the best for drying in the stm and keeping for 
1150, from year to yeiir; the same is the case, too, with the 
mujisca,** iind the kind which hna a leaf spotted all ovop liko 
the reed." Thort is alao the Htrfiulaaeon fijj, the albicerata," 
end the white nratia, a very lai^o vurifty, with an extcemely 
dtDUDulive stcdk. 

The earliest of them all is the porpbyritis," which bas a 
stulk of remarkable length : it is closely tbliowcd by the popu- 
laris,*" one of the very smallest of the figs, and 80 called mini 
the low cstoem in which it ia held : on the other hand, the 
ehclidoniu"' ia a kind that ripens the last at' all, and to- 
wards the beginning of winter. In addition to these, there are 
%ri that tu:^ at the somu time both lute and early, as tliey bear 
two crops in thm year, one white and the other black," ripen* 
ing at harvest>tinie and vintagtt respeoUrely. There is aautber 
late fig alao, that, has rewived its name frojn the Bingular 
liardiiLSS of its skin ; one of the Chalcidian yarieties bears M 
many as three times ia the year. It is at Tarentum only tJiat 
the remarkably sweet fig is grown which ia known by tho 
name of " ona." 

Speaking of figs, Cato hag the following remarks ; "Plant 
the hg called tht 'marism' oii, u chalky or opca site, but for 
the African variety, the Uerculanetiu, the Kugimtine," the 

" In Egypt. The Figiie serrantine, or coidclicro. 
" '•DtUcuta." Tiie"bon-bpiii!ljB." 

^ F£c tug^QsU tliBt t)iis Kiay have bH>i'n the floiall early fig, 
^ From LniLi, iIig wift- at AugUBliw. 

Kroru I'uTupaiua Mapiiua. m Appaicntly mtanin^ tbo "mamli" fljf. 

Tlio Lsoiiiiiuii rti-d, Tlieopliraatiis says, II. iv. a. 13. 

Tlie " white- wax" fig. 
** Tve unetie* wli-Htbrn it may not h^ tlie Oroisa buutjuottVk 
"^ Or " people'*" fig. Tlit sotall uarly wlit* Hg. 
'' Or "aivallow"-%, 

*' Or it may mean "whitfland lilacli," that being Ito oalonr of tha 
li^, Su«ll a vnricty i« tlill ktinwii. 

'* A Spaajsb <riuitty; tliose of tLe buuUi of Spaia aru vuy biglili 

Chsp. 2ft,] ABECOOXES COySECTBD WITH THE 110. 309 

winter fig and the hkck Tctflnian*' with a long stalk, yon 
ratist seleul a richer mil, or else a griiiind well manured." 
Stnce his day thcw; hiive bo mtmy namea aud kinda c^ine up, 
that evtQ on ttiting this subject into couaiikration, it must be 
Qppareut to tiTi'i y odq how great ure tbt; cLuugcs wliicti havv 
takE'Ti place in civilized life. 

Them »re %< figs, too, in aorae of the provinces, the 
' Mce^ian, for instance; but t-hey lire made bo by Hrtilicial meflns, 
Huch not being in reality ihrir nature. Being a small 
Tftric-ty of the fig-tree, they covtr it up with manure at the L-nd 
of autumn, by which meanB the friut on it ia oTcrtaken by 
winter wMlfl still in a rtccti Btatc : then when the woalhcr 
becomes niilrler the ft-uit is uncovered along witii the tree, nud 
60 restored to light. Jubt ae though it hud tMUie into birth 
afresh, the frnit imbibes tbo httit uf the new sun with tiiv 
greatest avidity— a ditftrent nun, in tact, tn that" which ori. 
ginally gate it life— and Bf> riiK-us along with the blossom of 
the coming crop ; thus attaining maturity in a year not its 
own, and this in a country,** too, where the gjwateat cold 

oiuP. SO. — uiiroiLicii. AXEcsojEa cokitecikd iiith tub n^. 

"The mentifin by Cuto of the variety which bears the name 
of the Afiricaii fig, strongly recalls tj^ my nnud a remarkablo 
Jiict connected with it and the uountry from which it takes 
its nuiuu. 

Burning with a mortal hatred to Carthage, an xiouH, too,for the 
safety of his posterity, nurl exclaiming at evtry sitting of the 
seiiate thut Coithagc must be destroyed, Cato one day brought 
with him into the Senate-houae a ripe fig, the produce of that 
country. Exhibiting it to thi; assembled senatora, " 1 ask you," 
Baid he, " when, do you siippose, this fruit was plucked fro?Q the 
tree ?*' All being of opinion that it had been but lattdy gathered, 
— ■' Know then," was his reply, "that this fig v/iis plu«kc-d at 
Carthage but the day before yesterday**— «o near is the enemy 

" The mndern "hlMlt" tii;, 
■^' Thf »iin or tht fomirr jenr. 
*• In MimJU'^thB [irein?Dl SurTia and Bulimia. 

*'' AllolhOT war immiil ti> have ortRinnUil in tbis friiit. XeTI« n-iis 
tcmpli^l hv iliu Ane Has of Athucs to midurtuki] ibo iuvusiua of Gteeee, 
■" " Xdrdum onto diem." In dating &odl bu eseat, the Komans in* 




to our walls." It was immciliatflj' after this occurrence that 
the third Pmiio war commenced, iu wlilch Cortha^ wiu 
destroyed, though Cato had breathed his last, the year o£i&c tbil 
event. Iii this trait which aro we tlie most to admire? was it 
ingenuity^ aud foresight on his j>art, or was it an acuidont tiiat 
was thiia aptly tUTDed to advantage ? which, too, is the moat 
surprising, tho extraordinary quiciltnesfi of the paestigo which 
muBt have been mjidc, or the bold daring of tlie man ? The 
thing, howoTcrj that is the moat aatoaiBhiog of all — indceil, I 
cao ooiieeive nothing more truly man^ellouB — is tiie fact that u 
city thus mighty, the rival of Rome for the sovereignty of tha 
world during a period of one hundred and twenty years, owed 
its f^ at last to aa illustration drawn I'rom a single fig ! 

Thus did this fig effect that which neither Trobin nor Thraai- 
mcnus, not CannE itself, graced with tiie entombment of the 
Roman renown, not the Punic camp entrenched within thnse 
miles of tho city, not fvcn tho disgrace of seeing Hannihal 
riding tip to the CoLlino Gate, could Buggcat the means of 
aeooiupUshing. It was left for a tig, in the hand of Cuto, lo 
stow Flow near was Carthage to the gales of Komo ! 

In the Foram even, and in the v^ty midst of the Comitium.™ 
of Bome, a fig-tree is carefully oultivated, in memory of the 
uongecralion which took place on the occasion of a thunder- 
bolt '^' which once lell on that epot; and still more, as n me- 
morial of the lig-troG which in former days overahadowed 
Eorauliis and Remus, the founders of our empire, in the Ln- 
percal Cave. This tree received the came of "rnminalifly" 
t^om the circumstance that under it tho wolf was found giving 
tho breast — rumia it was culled in fhoao days — to the two 
infants. A groap in hronze was afterwards erected to eon- 
Kecrate the remembrant-e of thia miraculous event, as, through 
tho agency of Attua Nnvius tho augur, tho tree itself had 

eluded both days is tkt) com^uta-tiou ; tUe one tbcy dutuil/rotn, ttsA the 
>\aj n/, the event. 

■** la BvoJin^ Tor thu %, anil thinliia^ of tlis iDGthod of ipcaViag to 
tlio fiirliiig:^ oihii ffllnw-iiouni.r)Tiicii. 

^" A place iatho t'oiom, whiire public mcetuig» were hc.Ul, nnd cortaia 
offeoces tried. 

^^ He uUudfiB to the Puteal, or ertloseci sjium in tlin Fnnim, cnniiecnited 
liy Sci-ibaniiig Libo, in cjonscquvnct; of the s^nt having been Stcuok bf 


]>iiii»ed spontanefinslj- from its original locality" to the ComE- 
tium in the Forum. And not wJtliowt some dire fiil preen^ is 
it: that that tree hm witb^tvd away, though, ihanka ta Iho 
euro of the prieethowd, it has bica since roplaccJ." 

There wuB uBotlier llg-lree also, befwre the totnple of Sa- 
turn,^' which was removed on the occasion of a Bafrifice mad© 
by the Vtatal Virgins, it lieing found thnt it-a rflots were gra- 
dually nndermining the sfAhie of the god Silvanus. Another 
one, accidentally planted there, flourished in the middle of tha 
Fotnm,^" upon the- vivj Bpot, too. in which, when Irom a dirc- 
fal presage it had been foreboded thiit tliu growing empire 
wiiH about to aink to its rery fouudatioiis, Curlius, iil thl^ pric9 
of an ineatimublD tren&urti — in otlier words, by the pocriflco of 
each unbounded virtue and pioty — redeemed hie couutrj' by a 
glorious death, hj » like nccident, too, a nue und an oUvo- 
tree have sprung up in the same spot,'* which have ever since 
been carefully tended by the populace for the agTMable shade 
which tlicy afford. The altar that onro stood there waa after- 
warda removed by order of the deifiod Julius Coesar, upon the 
occasion of the last spectacle of gladiatorial combata" which 
he i^TC in the forum. 


The fig, the only one among all the pomcft, haatenato maturity 
by the aid of a remarkable prorisioQ of Nature. (10.) The 
wild-flg,'" known by the name of " caprificuB," never ripeno 
itself, though it is ablo to impart to the olhere the principle 
of which it is thus deatituto ; for wo occasionulEy find Nature 
inaking ft triLiisf*a' of what are primary causes, and being gv^ne- 
I'ftted from decay. To effect this purpose tho wild tig-treo 

"" On the lianka of tlio Tiber, dbIow tho ralulinu Mount. Tlic wlola 
of tliia pHRss^n is in a most corrupt «uiIg, nad it in ilifticait to eitincl a 
meuuing fruni it. 

f^ Tly slips fnim the old tree, as Tacitiu Memi to toy^" in iio«o» r<»tu* 

" At tho foot of tlifi Capitoline Tlill. 

i» Prohfthty neat nrhtre the Curtiua Lacus had atond in the ently dnjsoF 
Rome. The Btoi^ of Mrtiiii CiiTliaa, who lenpcd into tiic yawning gulph 
in the Formn, iu ordur to sava Uw coimtrf, i* Viwnn to e»PTy clamii^al 

" Tho Fcruiii. "" Sen B, lix. C. 6. 

"^ Thfl FiciuB Caricn of Linnoeiu. It doa boar fnut, thou£;h isiall, Bod 
(liaagfMahlc ta tliD taatti. 

'8 HATrEAt 

produces a kind of gnat.''* These inBects, deprived of all sui- 
tonnnce from tht-ir parent tree, at the moment that it ia has- 
tLTiing to ruttctiti€tiB anil dticay, wing thuir Eight to olhtrs of 
kindi-cd thou^'Ii cultivut'ed kmd. There fetiduig with avidity 
upua the &g, thuy p<3ii&trato it ia Dumerous places, sad hy 
thus making thuir way to the iuside, open tho pores of tlie 
fruit,"' Thu moiDent they effect their entrance, tlio heat of 
the »un finds odmis^ioti too, and through the inlets thus mado 
the fecundating air ia introduced. These imects speedily 
comiune the milky juice that coiistitiites the chief Biipport 
of tho fruit in its int'nnt-" state, a result which would oLhpj- 
wiao be spontttnoouBly efibcted by absorption : and hence it is 
ibut in the plantations of figa h wild fig is usually allowed lo 
grow, heing placed to the windward of tbo other trees in 
order that Uie breezes may bear £rom it upon them. Improving 
upon this discoYfiy, branohi^s of the wild Hg uro sonietiincii 
brought from ti distance, and bundles tied together ai-s plaeed 
U[K)n the cultivuted tree. This method, however, is not necea* 
sary when the trees are growing on a thin soil, or on a site 
nxpoaed to the north-east wind ; for in thiesc rases the figs will 
dry sponUuiooualy, urid the clefts whi^ih arc made in tho fruit 
cffefct the BaiiiQ ripening process which in other iustonees ia 
brougbt about by the agency of thcao insitcts. Nor is it requisite 
to adopt this plan on spots which tuu liable to dust, such, for 
instiiDw, as i« geueruQy the easo with lig-U'ecs plantod by tbo 
side of much-frei^uented roads : the dust having the property 
of drj-ing up" Qie juict's of the fig, and so ab&orbing Iha 
milky humours. Tliere ia this superiority, howevrt', in an ad- 
vantageous site over tbo metboda of ripening hy the agency of 
(luBt or by eaprifieation, that the Unit is not ao apt to fall ; for 
the mccrction of tho juices being thus prevcnt&d, tho fig ia not 
no heavy as it would otherwise be, and tho branchca are lees 
All Sgs ore soft to the touch, and when ripe contain grains*' 

'* ThiHiMeoiiB onoof ihe nymeaopters ; tho Cj-nipa I'imw of LiTHimua 
udFabriciiM, Thtn Lsanothci ia^egt of the some geous, but sot m 
•well knuwn. 

•** h'Av obwrven tho capriGcntion nccelcrntr* tlie nfeupatt of the 
fruii, bui nt iha «iptnm.< of tlic fluvuur. Fur tiiu uumc puiposa tLo uppeT 

'inWd quill. 
I ia&incy of tbo fruit." 

^ IVumenla. 

port of tlic Q^ U uhcrj pricked with a point 
"' ■' Infantum pumi " — litcrolly, '■• t.tie in 
*> Focdunies Che truth of tlia mteitioa. 

Obap. 2U] 



id the interior. Tlio juiuc, wtiuu Uiu fruit Ja ripcuui!^, has Uio 
taate of milk, and when dead ri^xs thitt of honey. If left oa 
the tree they will grow old ; and when in that state, Uiey 
dietil a liquid that flows in tears" like giim. Those that are' 
more highly esteemed are kept for drying, and the most np- 
proved kinds arc put away for keeping in baeketa.** The flga 
of the islunil of Eliusus * are the teat ns well as tho Ini^st, 
and nest to tht-ra uro thnec of Mjiini(!inum .'^ Where figH nra 
in prnat ahiindance, as in Asia, for inntaTHje, hng[! jara** 
are Hllt^d with them, aitd at Kuspino, a. city of Aftico, wo find 
casks " used for a. similar purposo : here, in a dry ettite, they 
an; extensively used instead ot bread,*" nnd indeed as u gi^ner^ 
articli! of iirovisiGU." Cuto," when laying down eeilain dtjfi- 
nito regulations for the support of labourers employed in agri- 
culture, recommends thut their supply of food should bo 
IcMPtied just at thn time" when the tig is ripening: it has 
heen a pka adoptnl in moro recent times, ta find a sulmtituta 
for 8ult with cheeau, by eiiting fn'sli tigs. To this ulasft of 
fruit belong, as wo have already mcntioii^d,^' the cottiuia and 
thecariea, together with the cavnea," which was productive of 
BO had »u omen lu JC. Crassus at the moment when he was 
cmbarkiuj;''' for his expedition aguia^t the Farthiaiis, n dealer 
happening to he crying them just at that very moment. L, 
Vilfllius, wlio was more recently appointed to the eensoi- 
ship," introduced all these varieties Imm Syria at his country- 
sent at Alha,* harin?; acted oa legatua in that provinco in the 
latter years of the reign of Tiberius Coceor. 

** A tnixtare of lbs lu^r of thu fiuit with Xhe milky jiiiiy of the treo, 
wbich u 8 ■p*oiw af caouicboiir. m j^apti*. 

** Sou 1i. iii. u. 11. TheBulvurJu Itlcsitill jniHliuogriHit quunUtimof 
excclli-'at dried figs. *^ 8«e D. iii. a. 17. 

** Orcm. •* Oo(Ji. 

■ *■ Oroand. pfrhfip*. into ft kirnJ of (lour, 

■ *' Opnnii rurm. " (ypinniiiiii" wiix anjthin); eatm with bread, sucto as 
r ve;teUbloa, mcnt. antl fUli, (at luuiaiicc!. 

« I)c Itv Biini. c. 'i6. 

■* Betaoic they ^ould be siure, nnitr any cirenniitafms, to Mt plenty i>f 
then. '• 8oaB. liiLc. 10. 

•* Tli"!«c were so Kullai! Prom Cmmui, n cilyof Curia, famoit* for itadrlcd 
dij*. I'mnoiii: neil "favnuiw," it wonld loimd lo th« superslitluiu, "Cavo 
lit! eoi," " Tuku cure tlmt you go nol." 

*• At BnindiuuiD, " a.c,c. 801. 


, 314 MJirr'S jrjiTij&At BtsionT. [B«)kI^*. 


Tho medlar nnd the sorli ** ought in propriety to be ranked 
under the hood of the apple and the penr. Of the medlar' 
tJicro are three vari*ti«Sj the anthodon,' the Betania^' and b 
third of infoiior quality, which boara a etronger resemblance 
to tbo anthcdoR, and is known as tiie Gitllic' kind. The Beto- 
nia U the lurgest fruit, imd the palest iu colour ; the woody se«d 
in the inside of it is Boftcr, too, than in. Uio others, which are of 
smaller «izo than the geta&ia, bat superior U> it ia tb« fragrauce 
of their smell, ud*! in, being betttr keepers. The tree itself il 
one of very ample' dimensions -. tito leaves turn r<?d hefore they 
fnll ; the root* ore numerous, and penetrtito remarkably deep, 
which ronderfi it almost imposirible to pnib it up. This tree * 
did uut exist in Italy in Ciila's time. 

OfilF. 23. (21). — POim VABIETIEB OF THE mSS. 

Thcro nro four TarieticH of Iho Borb : there being eomo that 
hcive all tho roundnoBs' of the npplc, while others are coDical 
like tho pear,^ and a third sort tare of an ovui' shape, like 
Boino of tho apploa : these InBt, howaver, oio apt to be remark' 
ably acid. The round kind is the best for frograuce imd 
BweetneBs, the others Laving a uinouB flavour ; the finest, 
however, are those which have the- stalk surrounded with 
tender leaves. A fourth kind ia known by tlie namo of " tor- 
minQlia:'"" it is only employed, however, for remediAl pur- 

" The sorb belongs to the ^oims pirns of ths nntnmliGti. 

' Th<! Mespilna g('rinnni<:ii of tbc botanists. 

' The anaralier, a Irm of the loatti of Eiuope, tb« Mnpilne apU folio 
Iftciniitto of C IJauhhi. 

> Ihn MGBj>tliis ItaUca folio laiuino aemto of C. Baiibin, the Mpsjilluii 
eoVmuieter or J. Hnnhin. 

* Ila identity IB mntlcr of unMrtamtj-; but it has been tlLotight lo b»t!ic 
CtnliPgiM oiyiicunLha of modern botdnists. 

* % ''am]jliwiinu»,"faemuBt mt-'itn tkfltit Bpreadsgut vuyiBucbinfiD- 
portion to its bcig'ht, as it is tnor<!iy a shrub. 

< I'^ thinks it a troo indigenous to the north.. 
' The orJiftHiy Bnrb-niiplm of liorticulturista. 
' The «orb-peivr. 

* Varying but little, pToliabljr, from tho conunoa sorb, the Solbuadomw- 
tiiitt of I.innieiiij. 

"^ F^u is inctinod to fhink thot it is the Sttrbu* tcrminalis of Lmnnrck. 
AoguiUam tbiiilu that 11 is the Crataig^ of Xheoplinutus, ooDaidtiivd i>j 

Chap, ii.} 



posea. The tree is n guod bemrer, but doea iir>t reaembto the 
other kinda, the leiif liting seoi'ly that of the plane-tree ; the 
fruit, too, is parti^^iUarly small. Cato" speaks of sorbs being 
prcsoTTcd in boUei wiue. 

CHAP. 24. (22.) — MHTB rAanrriFB of tite rnrr. 

The walnut, " which trould nlniost eliiira precodcnce of the 
Borb ii» Jtizv, yields the palm 1j) it in reference tw the eBteem" 
in whicii they ore respectively held ; and this, altliangh it ia 
BO favourite im acoompfininiont of the Fesccnnine^* gongd at 
nuptials. This nut:, taken as a whole, is very coBsidt-rnbly 
smaller than the pine nut, but the kcnml is larger in jiropor- 
tion. Nature, too, hm coiiferred upon it a peculiar honour, in 
protecting it with a two-fold covering, tho fifst of which forms 
u hollowed cushion for it to rest upon, and tho frccoad is a 
woody ehcll. It is for tliia reaaoa that this Ciuit has been 
looked upon as a symbol conaccraled to marriage, '" ita oil'. 
spring being thus protected in such nianifold wa}'S : an expla- 
nation whif-h bears a mnch gwatcr air of probability than that 
■which would derive it from the rattling which it makes when 
it bttundfi from tiie floor." Tho Greek names tint have been 
given to tliis fruit fully prove that it, like many others, has 
been originally introdueed from Pereia; the l>eat kinda being 
known iu that languaga by the naoios of " Pcriiiuum," '^ and 
" basilicon;"'" these, in fact, being the aamee by which tJioy 

Sprcn'gfd to 1>o identical with the? Cratic^uj azurolua of Linnsns, In 
npcTjin^, tlic froit nf the iinrh undt'Tgoi^s a tort of YJiious fmncntation: 
liene« a Iciiid or ciiltr matlu of it. 

" Be lla Ituat. cc. 7 anil 145. '' Tim Jttj^lans rcgia of Lilin»uj, 

" Tastes Lutc proljably alU^red. linw tliis was wril-lon, 
'* TboiD wore ruJo and vomcttmt's obeceac song? «uine at fcstirulB, and 
more p&rticnloily marria^CiB. Wliilu itLGse Eoa^s were being sung ottho 
dnor oTthentipnnl clinni&er. it wm ttio custom Inrlhohuslvaiid tDaeminlilc 
■waluuU amonH th« toudr ptnpk oBsembleil tlit^re. Thd wnlaut is the ant 
menti'nn'iil in SDlamoa'a Song, vi, 11, 

'* Or, rati re probably, firum the union of tlie twopoitionsof tlie inner Hhell, 

'■* "TripTiiiiiimsDiiiviiira;" inipljinRlhatitwnscnnsiiifred snerpd lomnr- 

ridge, tram the u&e mnde of it liy Ihi^ friends of Ihic liridRgronm vhea 

tliruwa TioleDtlr agsiiist llit> nuptjul cbambcT, with Die tlev of dtumiing 

th* CiES "f the bride. A. vory .ibsurd tiotioii, to idl appuarwipft, 

" Tbo " Pvniim " aut. 

IB The "king's" nut. Tlie walnut-trsfl still utr>andB in Prraia, imd 
u found wild on the alopcs iif the Hiicutlaya. 


pinrT*a katubal nisTonr. 

[Book XV. 

were fir«t known to its. Tl. is goneruUy agreed, trw, tJiBt oiie 
peouliar varipty has dii-ivctl iw wuiiu of " euryon,"" from tiiu 
he»da{]lie wlticli U is apt to ptodaes by tto pungeJicy" li 
its smell. 
I The greon shell of the waliitit is usurl for dyeing*' wool, tai 
thn iiuLs, wliiUi ftill Euiall lud juat derclopiog thvmselres, are 
cmpluyed for giving a red hue to tli« hiiir :^ a, diaoovcTy owioj 
to the staintt which they leave upon the luinds. When olj, 
the nut becomeji more olfftginous. The only difTerrnce in the 
itevpral vttrietica Ninsists in the relative hardnftaa or l>ritllt>iits> 
of the shell, it being thin or thick, full of compartmr-nU or 
smooth and uniform. This is the only firuit that Nuttm bu 
enclosed in n covering formed of pieces Boidereil together; tbe 
tihall, in fnDt, forming a couple of bouts, while the kcmd a 
divided into four sepitnite coiupartmenta'''' by the intervtnUxm 
of a ligneous mvnibrauo. 

In all the other Itinds, tbe fruit and the BhelL respealiTcIy 
tm of one solid piecOh as we find the case wil.h llie buzcl-nilt,'' 
and anothi^r variety uf the nut Ibmiflrly known tm "Abd* 
Ibn," " from the name** of the district in whith it was first 
produced : it was first introduced into j:\jiin and Greece from 
Pontile, whence the name that ia Bom«liinfs given to it — the 
"Pontic nut." This nut, too, is protected by a soft beflrd," 
but both the ebcU and the kernel are roiujd, aud funn»I of s 
single piece: these niita are sometimes roasted.* In Hui 
midiJIo of the kernel we iind a gonnen or navel. 

A thirtl claas of nuts lb the Blmond,'" which liaa an ouUf 

'• Irnplj-ins that it comes fron tbe tirpek sripHv "tlift head." Soattiy 
laoiosieU think t.biit it ts Irtini fUe nello-Scrtluun tarw, a boul ; suob bcug 
thfi snape of tho two pens of ths inner shelL 

■" U i^ ttill a C()iniit<L>u autiuu, F^ s^yi^ tb&t it u kig'bly JDJurioBi u 
sleep beneath a walnut'irc«. 

-' It ia still Ttfi«d for this puqtoac. 

"^Eei! liuir was Bitmiied liy the Roraans. Tbe KoiMua fi'mclet Mcd 
this juice sixo I'm dj+iing theit linir whim griiy. 

** Thiiy are nut tulirthj sepuntlu. 

" Tbo Corj'lua aveUmia ratixiniEi of Willtlonow. 

» Th.1 ftlberl, the Ccryliis lubulftsa ot WUI-lauow. 

* Abtiliiiimi, ill CHDj|)[iiii*. Spa B, iii. c. 9. 

*' Tlie ilown Hin thfi nut, is more apiiBri'iit wrlwii it i< fousf ; bill it it 
eudly ru1)boil oft*. Tbo uiitet aout is prcibnlily in«ant. 

°" Huad aat£ nre guim^itnii;^! roustL-d iu Humu puitfi of Earope, but not 
witb na. 

'■"' 'J^be Amygdaliu communis of Lioansui 

covering, similar to that of the TralBut, but thinnfr, witli a 
PMond ooot iu the shape &f a shcU. The kernel, however, ia 
unliko that of the waliiiit, in rcRpeot of its brood, tlttt shape^ 
its itriDncES, and tho eupnrior tsBlineea of its flavour, ^t, is a 
matter of dvubt whether this trte waa in cxiatcnco in Italy in 
the time of Cato ; we find him epeakiug of Oreek nuts,** but 
there are souie persona who think that these belong to the 
walnut cluss. Ei; makes mention, nlso, of the hazel-nut, the 
calva," and the PrffitieatinD*' mit, which List he pruisea beyond 
oil Other*, antl says" that, put in pots, they may be kept fresh 
and gwpn by bnrying them in the earth. 

At the prcaent day, tho nlmondB of ThfiBos tmi those of 
Alba are held in the higheat cBteunj, as nlso two kinds that 
are grown atTarcntum, one with a tJiin,*' britlit; ahull, and the 
other with a harder" one: these last are remarkably large, 
wnd of an obking shape. There is the almond known as 
the " mftliu.^a,"-'* also, which breaks the shi-U of itstlt There 
are some who would concede a highly honourahle interpreta- 
tion to the name given to the walnut, and aay that " juglana?' 
means the '*glan«i,"or"8e.orD of Jove." It is only vtry lately 
that I heard a raaii of consular rank deiilarp, that he then 
had in his possesaion. walnut-trees that bore two" crops in 
the year. 

Of the pistachio, which belongs also to the nut class, wo 
have already flpokea** in its ajvpropriate place : V'itelliua intro- 
duced tliiii tree into Italy at the Bumfi time; as the others that 

w D« S.V Ra»t. c. S. Seme tfiink that tbia wiu the bitter Rlmosd ; and 
the word ■■uoriore," used by I'liu)', vould slmost vxm to imply thyt such 
l« the date. 

" Apparently tho "^mdoth" or "bald" in:t, Maj not a Tarioty Bomo- 
tliin^ hio tUc uickiiry nut nT Amoritu be n]tiin.t f 

" Pnita* «iiT" that a kind ur nut w!t« m cailw), becanne tbe PrciieetinM, 
wltvu Wii^uiC by Uaiiaibul at CmJliuusi. aii1i«Ultil upon Ihi-m. Sje 
I.ivy, 11. xxUi. ¥6^ conndcra it only au»tllitr name hr the caiumoa liasul 
iial. " He Re Ilii»l, c. 1*5, 

»' Thu BofL-sLuHpiiI ulnninil, or yrtD-'itix aJuauoA of the Frencli; the 
JLmyffduius cnmmuais fragUiu of naturalUts. 

?* Thi» liut vuriiity Hixi not uevta Iti bavu been ideutlfled : iha bard- 
aSmonda do not appear to be larger than tho othtn. 

^ Oi' " eott " alniiintJ, a \itr\e\y (inly tif the Amygilfikie frflRiUi. 

>* There is littlu doubt ttiat 1''^d U riftlit in liin uNiierttoii, tliiit t)iii great 
TKriODDgo impoKod gn Qur author ; u» uo treea of tbis family am kuuna to 
bear two erujis. ^^ B. xiu. v. 10. 


ri,nrE 9 KATUJiAi msTOBT. 


■we meiitiontd ;^ and Flacciis Pompeius, a Roman of Eques- 
trian i-ank, whd served witii him, introduced it at the same 
period into Spaiii, 

caAP. 25. (23.)^EiQnTKEK vabibties of the ciieskdx. 

"We give tlie mtme of nut, too, to tbe cheanut," although it 
would seem niore property to belong to the acorn trilje. The 
chesnut lina its a.irmour of defrnce in o, shell briatlinff trith 
pricld«s like the hedge-'hog, an envelope which in the acorn 
ia only partially dcvetopt-c!. It is reaJIy Burpriaing, however, 
that Kattire should havo iiikfiii Buch pains thus to conceal an 
object of 80 little value. "Wo eometintea find aa many as 
three nuts liieneath a single outL«r ehfU. The akin" of the nut 
is limp and flexiljle : there is a membrene, too, ivhich lies 
next to the body of the fniit, and which, both in this and in 
the walnut, spoils tlie flavour il" not taken off. Chesnuta are 
tlio moat pleasant eating when roasted :" they are eometimes 
ground also, and are eaten by women when iiiBting for frU- 
gious ecmples,*" iis beariug Bonie resemblance to bread. It is 
from Sardt'3" tliat the ehcBnut was fii-et introdticed, and hence 
it 19 that the Greeks have given it the name of the " Sardiim 
acorn;" for the name "Dioa balanon" *^ was given at a latuc 
period. alUii it had been considerubly improved by cultivation. 

At the prt'Hont day there are numeroiia varieties of the 
chesaut- Tliose of Tarentum aro a light food, and by no 
itieuns diiHeuU of digestion; thej- are of aflat shape. There 
is a rounder variety, known as tho "balanitis;"" it is very 
easily peeled, and springs clean out of the ahell, so to Bay, of 

*" Tn <:. uti. of this BooV. 

'" The Ireo h tbe Fngus cnsfaiipa of LirniKU*. *' Ooiiex. 

'* Tli^' LMmrtiuii tnudo uf eating it at tlti prvsent day. Tho Itnliuiu ■Ini 
tnkoolT tliQ ikin and diy Una aul; tbiis ki.>epiiig it from yuiir to year. 
Wlicn required I'lir valJn^, it it »ofien«d Iw ibc sttnm i»f' boibug wntcr. 

" tiot impruliably taid in ailiisioii to tlie fusU intrixluced bj> ibe Jews, 
who had b«poi"Q very niimeroHn in Homo. 

*• It wiLn sainl to Lave oomc from Castana, a cilv of Foatus, wkcaiMr ii« 
name " Casiaatin." It ta probalily iniligciHuis to liiiropc. 

*» The Gnwk for "Jovfi's acorn." 

*• Or "acorn chesnut," I'be wrnie variety, Vie aayi, tliat i> found ia 
tb* Ticiaiiy of Pflrigueux, EiaaU, aeurly louiid, will wiUioiil any particukr 

its o'n-ii Acoord. the Sakrion*^ cheanut has a BmooUi auk^r 

BhcH, vhilo that oF Tari^Qtum is nut so caailr handled,^ Tlie 

, Corcllian is more highly eBleemed, ua ia the Ktexcian, whicli is 

'.an oS»tioot from it producod by u mcthud upon which we shull 

ihave to tnlargf wIilh we come to apviik of grafting."" This 

laflt has a red skin,*' which causes it to be preferred to the 

three-cornered chesmit Rnd our black common sortB, which 

lire known lia "eocttTas.'"" Tarentuni and Neapolia in Cam- 

puBJa are the most esteemed locahlica for tho chL'§aut: other 

kinds, again, are grown to feed pigs upon," the skin of which 

ifl roTigt and folded inwards, so aa to penetrate to the heart of 

•tlie kernel. 

CHAF, 26. (24.) — THS CAAOB. 


■ Tho Cfipob,*' a Iruit of rctnarkablo awectnPBS, docs not ap- 

rpear to ho 80 very dissimiLar to the cheenut, except Ihiit the 

' ekiu" is eateit ub well us the iLside. It is Juist the length of 

a finger, und about tho tbit-kovss of tho thumb, being some^ 

times of a curved shape, like a sickle. The acorii cannot be 

reckoned in the nninber of the fruits; tto shall, therefore, 

of it along with the trt<«s of that class." 


The other fruits belong to the fleshy kind, and differ both 
ID the shape and the Utah. The fleah of the various ber- 
ries,** of tiiQ mulberry, and of the arbute, are qwite dLl'- 
ferent from one another — and then whnt a. difference, too, 
between the grape, which is o-nly sldn and juice," the myxa 
plum, and the Scsh of seme berries,^ such as the olive, for 

*> The Cancbebnc chuunt of Perigiicai, V6o saya, answecs b> thia 

'" On eccivunt of tho prinkles on (io ontor ahi?ll. *» B. XVli. 0, 26. 

* F«e Bayg^ tiiat tUe tuyal whim tlitanut of the vicinity o( Poriguoux 
aii*wcn to thia. " " Ijciling" chesnuis. 

" Hq alludee to wild or harsii etatnuU, probnlily. 

" SceB. liii, c. J 6. 

>•' This ikin ii nut eatable. It is SbrauE and wtrinnDt. 

« lu ». svi. c- a. 

•• "Adniti." Tho gTupp, iry-berry, tjdcr-borry, and othen. 

*■• "Inter culpin aiJcuumijTia." 

** BoGcis. Some coufiuioa is created b| the non-euateoco of KnglijJi 



[Ecwt sr. 

jnstflncel In the fleah of the nralbDiry thi^e ia a jaine of a 
TinouB flavour, aud the t'niit asgiimeft throe cliffcTcnt colours, 
bting lit firpt whit<^, then roil, und ripe wbon blncfc. The 
niuthcrry blossorae ouc of tho very last," and yet is among 
Ihu fiisl to ript'u : the jiiice oi the liuit, whtn ripe, will etaiu 
the Lauds, but that of the imripe fruit will remove tho marks. 
It is in thiR tree thut human iDgeuuity has c-fEi-cted the least 
improveitient™ of all ; there are do Yorifitiea hert;, no modifica* 
tiuns etfetted hy gr;irtiiig, nnr, iu fiict, any uth&r im [irurtmiHlt 
except that the size of the fruit, by carttul management, 

be*n increased. At ItomE^, there is q distinction made bet 

the mulbcirrics of Ostia and thnse of TuHculuni. A variety 
growB ahio on braniblcB, but tliG flesh, of ttic fruit is of a v«iy 
differBnt nature." 


The floah of tho grnund-atrawhcrry*' is very different to 
that of the arbute-trec," wliltih is of a hindrotl kind : indeed, 
thifi is UiB only iaBtiiuce iu which ivc And u similar fruit grow- 
ing upon 0, truo and on tho ground. The true is tullc-d and 
buehy ; the fruit UikeH a year to ripou, tho bloBSoma of the 
yoimg fruit fl.owering while that of tlio preceding j*uar is 
arriving at maturity. Whether it i» the malo tree or llic 
female that is unproductive, authors nre uol gL-nerally agreed. 

This is a fruit httld ia no est«um, in proof of which it h&» 

vfotia (o ilynnte the diffiTgnw between " acinus" »nd " Ijowa-" The lut- 
lor is propurly tliu " Imjit}' ;"' tho grape buiiig [ho tvpt ol' tlio " miiuiis," 

*' See B. xvi. c. 41. Th(! roHlbi?rry is thii Mnnw iiijra of modora 
niiluraliats, II is generally tlioufht tlifit lliis was ItH! only variety known 
to tlir nntianU ; but J'^l; queries, fiom tli« iili>ry «f r|c-ii!tiiu(i nml 'I'liinh', 
■which rep reieiil* the niulb^'iTy as changing from whit" to bk«nl colour, 
Oiat dia iv)iit? m'llbiTrf wnfl ni/l uiikwivii to lti(.-m ; but lUruugL sumi; 
caiioe. now unknown, wa* ifiadually lust a«El>t "f- 

'" Thi» ia ftiil Uip «a»e witti thu; miiltii-ITy, 

" fiw B. \\i. (!. 71, nod B. xxiv. e, 7». II<j ulluilea to the lilaekbcTr^. 

"■ Tbi' coiDtnon sCrBwb(<ny, tlie PingarLn vi^'o ot'Linnntis. &oe R. IU, 
c. 50. A nadre of tiui Alps tiuJ tliu hrtnia of Oaul, it was tuiknowa to 
t)u Greeks. 

** The Arbutus Tiaedo of LitinftU*. It ia otifl of lbs GricnrMili« tron, 
aai itit froit benn a i^jasiilr-nibleri'iiemblBnce to tlic Btrnvrberry— utlK^rwiMi 
Ibcro 18 not flip «li;rlvtpst iilTiDily IwtwteTi lln'ra. Tlie tasti; of iho crbute 
i* poor indtioii, cuuipuied v> tliat t/C iho slntwberry. 



gained ita namo of "uiwiilo."" people being guucnilly oou- 
it;ut with ^ting but oae. The Oreeks, bowevt^r, have found 
for it two nftnie* — '* conuiran" and " lUftnecylon," from which 
it would appcut'^ lliat th«-re art two vnrJeliv*. It hiw abu 
with U3 another naroo besides that of " uncdo," being knoivn 
iU»o as the "artulus." Jubit stutca that in Aruhiii ihia tree 
atLaiuH the height of fifty cubita. 

ca4P. 29. — mt BELiiivE jcATcaBa of BEiiEr retsm. 

There ii^ a j^reat differencti ultio iimaiig the TuriouH acinua 
fhiit^. First of ell, among the grapes, we find cousiderubtt: 
dilftirence in respect to thiir tintiutsi;, tho Ihiuuesa or thick- 
ness of tho skin, and the etone iiisidu the iruit, which in eome 
varieties is I'ttmarkdhly small, and in othera even ilouble in 
immhec : Iheso last pruducing but very iiltle juico. Very dif- 
ferent, ftgnin, (ire tho berripfl of the ivy*" aud the cldor;* tui 
dlao those in ihe pomegronaU','' tliest' being the only onea thitt 
are of aii angular sfm[)u, Tht;ao last, uJai>, Imvo not a mem- 
Lmne for a&eh iudividutU grain, but one to lover them iill in 
coiamDu, and of a pale coluur. All theeu iruits uonsist, Uio, 
uf juict3 and flesh, and those more parldoulurly which havu but 
siniUl Bcods iiiude. 

There are great varietifS, too, among the berry'" IVuits; 
the berry of tho olive heiug quite dilVrn^at Iroai tliiiL of Ihw 
laurel, the berry of the lutua" Irom that &f the cornel, luid 
that of the myrtle trom tho bcrrj- of tho leiilisk. Thu herr;% 
however, of the aquifoUum'* aod tho thorn'' is quite dwlitut'; 
of juice. 

Tho cherry" or-ciipicB a midillc place bclwcen tlio berry and 
the aciuua fruit ; it is white ut tii'jtt, wJiitli is the oaso ulw> 

** H;> sii|2K*^tJ tl'"' h U su vallvd from "■ uiiuui uJu," " I cut liut onti ;" 
ft taihir fauciful utyraology, it wuuld scim, 

"^ Tilts supposiiion Js uiit irjirciLulai], from Tiiontly the ttuit (i( iliere bein; 
liTiiTiames. " Seu B. x*i. u. H'i. 

» Sim. B. niv. c. 36. m Sea B. iiii. o. 34. 

'" " BiiGcic." Berri«a, properly go called. 

^' The Ccltis .^ugI;Tlllis uf Linii.Tiun, 

'* ^u|)pAfl«d by 6iime 111 tw tlw liolly. Sea B. ixv. o. 72. 

'" He ailiiiiw 111 a variety cf the t^nittPgiw. 

" Thp Crrusm tulifuriB uf iiiuilttni boUiiiBlM It issaiil to ImecibUiiiitMl 
iw name froni L'onuiu, ia Aain Miuorj wljvrc bucullus fuiiiiJ \u 

T0£. m. X 



[D«t.k XV. 

with nearly all the? brrrifs. From ■white, some of tbc Wme* 
pass to green, th,c oUrc and tho laurel, for instance ; while in 
the mulberryj the cht-rrj', and llic oornol, the cliimge is to rod ; 
and Hwn in eonie to bluck, as wUh the nmlbeny, the ohctry, 

utid the olive, fur iustancu. 


Tho cherry did not exist in Italy before the ptu-iod of the 
Tictory grained over Milhridatcs by L. LuquUub, in the year 
of the City C80. He was the firet to introduce this tree from 
Pontus, and now, ia the coursn of one b-uiidred sod twenty 
yearn, it has travelled beyond the Ocean, and arrived in Bri- 
Utntiia even. The cherry, as we have already stated/* in spite 
of everj' care, it has been found imposeible to rcor in Egypt. 
Of this fruit, that known aa the " Aprenian"" is the reddest 
vnrtpty, the Luladan" heitig the bhitliest, and the CacciliaTi'* 

tiLTli'Utiy round. The Juuiitu.'" eherry has tm agreeahle flavour, 
>ut only, Fo to say, when eaten bcneatli the tree, tis they are 
Bo rcniiukably delicate that they will not hear carrj'ing. The 
highest rank, however, haa been awarded to tho dunicicue*' 
Taiicty, known in Campania as the " Plinian"*^ cherry, and ia 
Helgicjii to the Lusitaniuu*' cherr)', as also to one that grovs'S 
on the banks of the lUiemts. This lust kind has B. tliird 
colour, being a mixture" of bhicb, red, acid green, and line 
always tho appearance of being just on the turn to tipeiiini;. 
It ia Jess iban five years Bince the kind known iis the " laurel- 
chorrj'" was introduced, of a bitter but not unpleu^nt Savour, 

*' IIv must slhidi< to ivliut bo Inis eCuUkI in 1). sii. c. 3, for ha has do- 
wtcTP said ihal Uit' clicrry will not ^rnw in Kpitii, It is said llmc tho 
clicny in not In bp fuund in J-lgypt nt thi' prwciit uwy. 

^* Tilt ^otte cherry of the Krericli, llm muMiai'd of the Eiigliali. 

" A variely of the nia;!Zai'd, F^e thinks. 

T* Sonic lute tliifi for the Ciifasus JuHatia, ibe gniptiier of iho FrOQob, 
our white hoart : -othcra, u^Ut tor tb« miTiaicir. our aiorcH'O 

_'" It is niijft peiitnilly thought tlmt tlii* 19 tlie CKniam avium of boto* 
Tiitlt,, our morcilii, wLicf] is a verj' (puder tljury. 

"" Or " hard berry," tlia Primm UigwuHa gf Lintiwu*, tho r«l tiga- 

*i Ffeqacnci wbethorUmnyadit haverBwirfld its nameof '^riiniatu" 
in campLimfnt la niir aulbor, or rjiic of liia t'umily. 

'- Haidouin Ibijika tb4it Ibia l^uvtugucau chcixy ia tlio griottc^ or OUUt- 

"* 2^0 goqIi clierrj- ia kaow^i at tlie present iaj. 

Ctiop. 330 




lli(3 produce of n graft" upon tlic laurol. The Macedooitin 
tlitiTy grows OD a trc« that is vtry small,"' niii] rarely cxcec-dg 
tlirce cubits in lieiglit ; wliile the chaiaicci'raBus" is bUU Bmaller, 
being but a mere shrub. The chtiry in one of liu first tn'L's 
to retoinpPiiBc the cultivator with ita yearly growth ; it loveB 
cold ItJCiJitit'S unii a site eijioeed to the north.*' The fiuit 
arc somctinics dried in the sun, and iirt'scrvvd, like olives, in 

CHAP. 31. (26.)^-xQB couHEL. Tan le^tisc. 

The eamc degree of caro is expended aUn on the cultivatiuii 
of the cornel" and Ihe leiitislc ;* that it may not bo thought, 
forsooth, thftt there is anytjiing that v/as not mndp for the 
craving appetite of man! Various flavours are blrndei] to- 
gether, and one h cooiptUfd lo pleufio our palates hy the iiid 
of another — hence it is that the produce of diH'treEt liinds 
nnd various climale9 are so often icingled with one aTiother. 
For uue kind of food it la India that wo Bummon to our 
iiid, and then for another we hiy Egypt itnder contribution, 
or flae Crete, or Cyreae, every country, id fact : no, nor dges 
inaTi aticlt nt poisnns*" even, if he can only gratify hia longing 
to devour evrrylhiiig: a thing that ■will be still more cvid<-Tit 
■when we come lo treat of tlie nature of herbs. 


SVhik' upon this euhject, it may he as well to eta ti* that 
Ihcre are no leas than thirteen different flavours*' belonging 

"' Sutili u praft i* inipotaiblc ; Ihe laiuiii-chairf miwt have hud lomc 
otlinr origin. 

*> Fl'C siiffpusls liiftt this m.iT lio tlic early dwarf cht-rry. 

*• Or"p«iind-clicTryi" a ilwurF^viri^ly, if, iodced, i( was n cheirj-lree 
rt all, nf wbicli l*'Se e»|ircsacii nuiiiy doubt. 

Thii eipkiM, Fi-w w»v», why it will nnt ^w in Egypl. 
Tbo CuTiJU« mas of LliLJiuitu. Thti &ait of tbe twrnA liat 

a Urt 

^oiir, hur tfi niil flat.en in niodnrn Europe, exorpt by soliofll-boj-s. 

*" Tliat jiroilui-t» mimtlcli. Hfn H. lil. c. 36. 

"* Up iilluile^ mare eap^L'ioUy, prliapa, to Itic lUc of ciciito or hemlnck 
by dnmkards, wlio lool^sid upna it as aa antiduLs lo tbo uflecta of wint:. 
Sea a, xiv. <i, 7. 

*i Vce ri'DiarlcE, that ia thta tDnmcratioa Ihoru h no metbod. Lincuju 
rDUTueratM e\nv«a principal fluvoura in Ihn vegiiUbk kitigiloni— dry or 
iniijiid, ai{tieuuB, \nsi,'oiii, fait, aerirl, etjplio, awi-ct, fnt, Miti-r, onid. aii^ 
uaufis&uc i Lbcse tcrius, trnwuver seem, 8ome of tiicm, lo be very iudciinitc. 


in common to the fruits and the varioua juices : the sweet, the 
luBciouB, the unctugus, tVio bitter, the rough, th« utrid,"' th« 
pungenl, the sbarp, tlie Boiir, tUid the siiJt ; in adiiitioti U> 
which, there are tiirec other kinds of flavours of a natute that i» 
truly singukr. The first of ttcae luat kinds is that flavoor in 
which stvernl other Hutouts aro united, (is in wine. Cor in- 
BtiiDce; for in it wo wo Beneihle of the rough, the pUDgent,*' 
luid th<! Lusciouei, itll at tbo eamo moment, and all of iheni 
flaToura Ihiit belong to other eubstances. Tlie hououd of ihiW* 
tiuroum is thul iu which wc are eensiblo at the samo iuKULDl 
of a llavour tliat belongs to imother substttnce, and yet of oat 
that is poGuliur to the hinlividuul object of which we are tast- 
ing, such U8 that of milk, fur iusUuitet : indi-ed, iu milk we 
cannot correctly say that tliore is any pronounced flavour tliut 
is i>ither sweet, or mjctuous, or luaciona, a fiort of smooth taatu** 
in Uie mouth being predominant, which holds the place of a 
aote decided flavour. Tlio third instance is that of water, 
which has no flavour whatever, n»r, iiidocd, iiiiy flavoriring 
I)rinoiide;°° hut still, this veiy aliHente offluvour is cunwdered 
Its coDstittiting one of them, nnd forming a peculiar c!ut«** uf 
iteelt"; bo much bo, indeed, that if in water any taste or flavour- 
ing pri&eipio is detected, it ia h)oktid upon as impure. 

Iq the perception of uU. tliese various flavouris the emuU 
plays u Tory considerable" part, there beiug a very gfent 
affinity between Uteni. Water, however, ia properly quite in- 
odorous : and if the h^aet uniell is to be perceived, it is not 
pure water. It is n singular thing that three of tito principal 
elBmentfl" of Nature — water, air, and fire — should hnveneittier 
Idsto nor smell, nor, indeed, anyflavonring principle whatevM. 

*^ It leijaires con^iilerable dieccTnmftit to apjitopriaic niccljr its Engliah 
synonym to these four varieties of tttsti'!!, "ucnr. HrudiH, ncurling, fctiii 
aciilug," more *sppcially wlien we finil that llira "bill*!'" and tlie "rougli" 
are otoupipd nlreocl; Ijy tlie " umiirufi '' niiil tliu " husUtik." 

** In allnaion, pniiiBi)!^, to tte pungency of the aiuma or boogiwt. 

*' LcnitJilL*. 

* Tliii SL'iinis til bg the raeaniiLtr of " »ucou«.*' 

•• Tha " insipiit." 

" Tliit i» M niuvU tlm ciieii, that tlio must aaruRdiu Ricdicine tniiT W 
(ukfn almoet with impunity— ^ I'tir bb usto ia concemad — by IiKtitl; jiitoi- 
inc' the nuntrila vVAc tiibiu^ it. 

" F*« reiniuks tlial lliiu m (me of Bre, diid of iliatilW or nerfiiclly pui* 
water; but that phyvlulogi^ts un- uuivuniilly agrgcxl tbat tlie air liua lit 
««a pooitUu diutll. 

Cliftp. S3.] 




Among the juices, tTiosd of n vinouB** flnvoiir bcloug to the 
pear, the miilhf'n'y, and the mjTtlc, and not to Iho grape, u 
very eingulnr fact. An unctuous lasto is dLlcctod in the olivp,' 
the lauj't:!, the wnlnut, and the almond ; EwcetoLPs exists in 
the grape, the %, and the d«tp; ^hitein the plum cIabs we 
find a watery" juice. There is a considemlile difference, too, 
in the (loloiira agsumi-d hy the TarioTis jnit-es. That of the 
inulbony, tliechei-ry, Uie corni*!, and the hlack gnipe resem- 
bles the colour of bluod, wliile in the white grape the juice is 
white. The hwmoiir found in the ftuminit of the fig* is of a 
milky nature, hut not so with the jirice found in the hody nf 
the ffuit, In the apple it ie ihci colour ol" foam,* while in the 
DBBoh it is perft-ctly culoiirk'ss, and this ia the ca&o, too, with 
tht dunicitius,^ wbicb ubouada in juice ; for who can say that 
he has t-Tw dotu'eted any colour in it ? 

Kraell, lijo, preseiile its own pcuuliar marvels; in the apple 
it is {lungent,' and itis weak in the peach, while in the sweet^ 
frnitfl wo perceive none at uil : bo, too, the swetft wines are 
inodorotiH, while the thinner ont'S have more nroma, and arc 
niudi sooner fit ior use tlian those of a thicker nature.* The 
udorifcroMB fmits ore not pleasing to the palate in the tjime 
degree, seeing that the flavour" of ihem does not eomo up to 
their siatll : henee it is that in thu citron wo find the emtll 

™ All fniiU iliul aio lirli In miKnr iinJ aiiiiiline, Fve ssvii, rilhei have, 
or actinia' ia lime, b viuuiu flu^uur, 1)y cbu duvvbpirivnt ul' u vex liiin >)uun- 
tity Qriili!()1icil. 

* Id the fniil with a fixed oil, thia principle iumm)^, wbcn the;- ar^ 
ripe, Ul the murihi^fimiijii. 

' lie niu«t nitaii a ihinmr jiiioe, thoiif^h still cwont. 

* AlKiut Iho pLJimcIu or rtulk of Liiu iig. Tlw juice li«re, Fve wi«. i« « 
real «igar. of tlif. oami? nmun- as tlmi whidi cirtulaWK tliruudiiut the 
whole l^ciE; Lbcjuicu in ttti: interior of wimh is prvduuud by naotber order 
o( reisels 

* TltB JTiicp in only foamy whrn tlin vinoiB fcmicntatiiiii is caUlili»heil. 
It liui tbnt Ji[i|)imriiiivi!, Iiowut^t, whuu tku friiic is bittun wLOi tlin Uuih. 

* The " bai'd-bcrT)'," or uc atari ne. 

" In the tentt. of aTnmatit:, or {ii-nrCmting. 

' lie urobnUy mcuus ibaae uf u luactaiu ot (imp; nnturc, withnut any 
oitiditT vbntcvtir. 

■ lleeeenj* to nicau ibat the ttiok, luscim"' wio" rcqitiru longer ki'e]i« 
iiij^, before ihoywlll ^luiiiyuromuitl sU. 'fhia would uc iom, prolMhIy, 
at tlia «ip('iiB6 of thiiir swfictntss. 

* Or he may iduiui, that a Cue Savour biiiL a Anc cmcll cmoot eo-nisti 

[Bftok IV. 

Bo extremely p^?I»'t^!llLng,"' and the taste aour in tho highest 
degree. Somelimes LIk; emell U of « Tiioro delicate^' nature, 
as in tho quince, for instaucc; nltilo tke £g Tia& ao odour 

cnAr. 34.— TUB taiuous satpkeb op vault. 

Thus muoli, then, for the vflrloua ohisses ani] kinda of firult : 
it will b<> as wtU now to cliissiiy their various mitures witJiin 
a morQ limited scopo. Soino fniita grow in a poJ whicli h 
sivfut Ltadf, iind canifiina a bitter eeed : whtretts in most kinds 
of ft'uit the seed is agreeable to tlio palate, those which grow 
in a pod are eondemned. Other fruits aro beriios, with tlio 
Htuuu within and the flesh without, as in the olive and the 
cherry: others, ikgriiu, hard the berry within and the sUma 
without, the caw, as we have already stated, with the berries 
that grow in Egypt." 

Those fruita, known as " pomes/' have the same cbaTftct<*r- 
ifitica as tho berry fruits ; in. some of thnni wo find iho body of 
the fruit within und the ahi-U without, ai^ in tlie nut, for ox- 
amplu ; others, again, have tho mtnit. of tho fruit without and 
the sli oil within, the peach and tho plum, fur instoitoG: tha 
ri-f^iso part being thua surrouudod with tho tleah, while io 
othet fruits the flush is sun-ounded hy tho refuse part.'* 
nuts ave enuloBed ic u shell, chosnnts inaekin; in chesniiU 
Iho ekin is taken oft', but in modlurB it is eatcji with tho real. 
Acorns are covered with a crust, grapea with a husk, and 
pomt-granotes with a skin and an inner inemhrane. The mnl- 
bony is coioposed of llcsh and jiiinn, while the cherry oonmsts 
of jiiioa aud ekin. In some fruits tho flesh eoparates easily 
from the woody part, the walnut and tho date, for instanoc; 
in others it adheres, as in tiio case of tho olive and the laurel 
heny: Bome kinds, n;;aia, p«rta.k(! of both natures, the peach, 
for example ; for in tlia doracimis" kind the itesh adhi-res to 
the stono, and cannot be tora away from it, while in the other 

1" TTio rcadinf here stiouW tw " &onCisBimuB," probalilT, instead of 
' acemran*." The odoiir exist* in tho rind of Ibc citron and in thp outer 
■t of the niiinue ; if llitae are removed, the frnit betoineg inodoiong. 
" "Tenuis." He miiy pcuBibly niann ''Faijit," 
'^ Tliti frait of Chs tea, oi myraljuliuim, ibe Bulauitcs JEg^iptiaco, See 
B. xiii. PC. 17 and IQ. 
" Vitimn. " Hard-herry or nooiarine. Soe c, II. 

sorts they are ftnsily Bciiarated. In some fruits tljcro is ni> 
stone or shell"* either within or without, one variety of tbo 
date,'* for instance. In eome kinde, again, Ihe shell is eaten, 
just the Burnt! ua ihfl fruit ; tJiis we have alrciwlj' mentionod us 
being the caao with a vimiitj- at' Ihe almond fouii>d lu Egypt." 
Some fruits havu ua tin; outsido a twofold refuse corering. thtj 
cheeQut, the ulmuud. und the -walnut, for example, ^oim*. 
again, are comjioNed of three se[>Rrate pitrU — the body of th« 
fruit, then a woody shell, and inside of thcit a kenivl, ns iu Urn 

Some fmits grow clo»eIy paclted together, eiich as giupes 
and sorbs: these last^ just Itke bo many grapes in ft cluster, 
cling round the brunth ttnd bend it downwards with their 
weight. On the other hand, mme fruits grow aepnrutcly, at a 
diaUinco from one another; this is the imbo with the pmch. 
Some fruits ure enclosed iu a. Burt of matrix, as wilh the grains 
of the poiucgranate: some hang down from a etalk, sudi oit 
th« pear, for in&timce: others liang in dusters, grupcs und 
dates, for exauiplo, Othei's, again, grow upon stailts uiid 
bunches united : Ihia we find the case with the bemcs of the 
ivy and the elder. Some udliete eloae to the brunches, like 
the lnurul berry, while olhev varietiea He close to thp bruiieK 
or hang from it, as tie coae may be : thus we find in the olire 
some fruit with short stoUta, and others with long. Some fruits 
grow with a little calyx at tlie top, the pomcgranato, for ex- 
ample, the medlar, and tho lotus'* of Egypt and the EuphrateB. 

TbuQ, too, as to the vurioue parte at fruit, thvy are hidd iu 
difforent degrees of csti-eni according to thoir respective re- 
commendatiooB. Id the date it is the flesh that is usually 
liked, in those of Thebais it is the cnist;" the grapu and llm 
caryota date are cBtecraed for their juice, thepear and the 
up[je for tlieir firmness, the mclimelum^ for its eoft meat, 

" Li.gnum' literftlly, "wood," "There isnowrtoiT, Hlhcr ■within or 
without." He huM oae nni?ergal name fur what wl- call Bliell, iced, sloiiea, 

14 TliG "B})adD,'* or"eunuoh" dute. See B, xUi. c. 9. 

1^ See B. xiii. c. 17. The fruit of llie bia it aLludiid to, but, lu Fi'a 
obBBrPBB, Pliny is wrtmg iu cxiiliii^ ii an almond, as il is a iiuipy trail. 

'• 'ITic Xymphocn uclumbo of Linnreus. 

'^ Or &li<^ll, wliioh, SB 1''^ Euuarica, participates bat rery little ia tho 
pmpertin of the Hc'bIi. 

*^ Or *' iu>ai;^ " uppk ; see 0. If of Hat Book. 


fli:tk a yjncitti. HiBtoar. 

[Bffok IT. 


the mulbrrry for its cartilu^noua consistency, and nuta for 
thfir Itemtils, Some fruits in J^gyjit are eetuL-nicd lor their 
pkin; the oarica,^' for instniiee. This bIob, which in the 
grucn ijg is ihi-owa awuy us bo much refuse peeling, when tho 
lig IB dned is very highly efelwnied. In the papj-nw,^ 
the ferula,*' and the white thorn ^ the stHllt iUelf consttitutrt 
the iruit, and thu shoot* of the fig-tree** aro similarh: 

Among the shruha, the fruit of liie ftftper" is eaten nlong 
with the stalk ; find in the cfirob," what is tho part tJint is 
eaton hut en miirh wood? Xor ought wo to omit onti pecu- 
liarity that esials in tho Bccd of this fruit — it can be cullt.-<l 
niiUuT (Leah, wood, uor oiLttilug^, imd yet no other name bus 
btmii fuund lor it. 

OHAP- 35. (29). — THK UVGTLE. 

The nature of the juices that are found in the myrtle nrfl 
parti(:ulurly reinarkablf^ for it is the nnly one'*of nil the trees, thu 
lii'irit'S of which prudueo two kinds of oil "^ aa well ua of wine, 
besides niyi'tidanuni,*" of which we have already spoken. The 
berry of this was ols? put to another use in aneieut timei), tot 
licfore pepper" wtus known it wna employed in [ilaee of it its u 
K-uiJuiiiug ; so much «o, iudcL-d, that a. uluilij has been derivud 
from it for the highly -seasoned dish which to this day is knewTi 
by the namu of " myrUtum."" It is by the aid of these ber- 
nf-s, too, Lhfit the anponr of the flesh of the wild hoar it 
improved, and they generally form one of the ingredients in 
the fliiTouring of our naucfts. 


This tree was aeen for tiie lirst time in the regions of 

" Or " Camn " Bg. Sue e. I» of tliia Book. 

« Soe B, xiii. c- 11. 

" Spb Jl. liti. o. 42, and B, is., oc. 9 !ind 23, 

»• See B. liii. c. 26. and it. t-ay. c. 66. 

" See B. siii. o. 22. Ftc mrwiks thst il is »inptiliir how tbe ndtaU 
cnulil cnt the hrnncliea at [he fig-tree, tUe jniiMi bain^ ai:tiuiUy ti poiioii, 

*> See B. »iii, c. 44. " Seo c, 2fl mf thi* Book. 

" Hs 19 Bfrraig 1 tliB sumo h the ciue wilt tlie byrrias of lliB Utml, Vii, 
indeed, mimy oIIiit kiiiihi o^ bcrrica. 

" Son a. 7 af thii Book. «> See B, xir. c. 9. 

" Sl-c B. lii, f.. 14. 

" A ktuJ of sausage, unuoned with myrtts. See nUo B. xxvil o. 40. 


Europe, whick eotDtocnce on IhiH side of llii:' CeramiiaD moan- 
toins," growing at Cirocii.** near the tomb of Elpenor there : "• 
it stiill retains its Greek*" iiame, whtcli clearlj- proves it to be 
an exotic. Thote were mytllca growing on tht- site now rccu- 
piod liy Kome, at iho Umo of its tbuudation ; for a tnwlition 
exists to tbe cliVct lliut Uiu Kumuug and the Sabiaos, aflur 
tKey had intended fighting, on account of the virgins wbo had 
"been rnvisiicd by tbn former, purifiwl tlicmst>lvee, first laying 
ilown their iLmi», ivttli spiigs of myrtle, on tin; very bbiho spot 
which is now oncupted by the Btatues of Venus Cluacina; for 
in the ancirnt Itmgiiuge " cluerc" moans to purify. 

This tree le employed, too, for a species of fumigation ;" bting 
aelecttd fur tliat purpose, beeauao Venus, who prusiJis over all 
unions, is the tutelury divinity of the tree."' I am not quite 
Bure, too, whether tliis tree was not the very first that was 
plunted in the public places of llome, the result of some omi- 
nous presagB by the aitu;iu's of wondrous import. Tor ut the 
Temple of (iiiirinua, or, in other words, of Itomulus hiraseif, 
one of the incBt ancient in Home, there were formerly two 
inyrtle-tpees, which grew for a long period just in fi:t)nt of 
the temple; one of iheBo was cjiiltd the I'ulneian tree, the 
other the I'lcbeiiin. The Pntncian myrtle was for many yenrs 
tlio superior trtic, full of sap and vigour ; liidcwl, eo long as the 
SeuaU) inaintaiued its Huperiorilj, so did the tree, heiiig of 
large groivth, while the Plebeian tree presented a meagre, 
Blirivelled appfarHiicB, In later times, however, the latter tree 
gnined the superiority, and the Patrician myrtle began to fait 
just at the period of the'" Marsic War,*^ when the power of 
the Senate was, so gi'eatly weakened : and little by little did 
this onoc majeBtic tree sink into a etate of utter exhaustion 
tuul sterility. 'Ihoro was an ancient altar" also, consecrated' 

^ lie means the AcroceTauoiazi cbaia ia Epiriu, tncntiocpd tn B. iil. 

" See li. iii. c. 9. 

" He was one- of the coropanioDs of UlyHsea, fabled by Homer ani Ovid 
to hare been trmtaformcd hv Circe intoa jwiuo 

" Mvpaivf waa ila (IruA u.iiine. " Sob B. ixv. c 69. 

'^ SeoB.iii.L' 2, Ovii^ Fasti, B. IT. 1. 15, /iwj.,»i)-» that Venus con- 
trxled hitMif from the guzo of tbt: Satyrs bvhiitd this treu. 

*' Either thii stury U untruo, or wc huvo a right no auspinit that Bomc 
undnrhunil f^caoy ttm amployod for the purpom: of itoposjng on the eupur- 
■titiuus crcdiihtyof the RcininD pooplr. 

•0 Or Scwial War. See B. ii. t. 86, 

" Nwi the altar of Consue, cloiu! to the tO'eta of the Circos. 


pinrr s NATCnAt niaTOHT. 


to Vfous 3fyrteu, known at the present day by the name of 


Cato" makeB montion of three vurielioa of the myrtle, the 
hlaok, white, and the couji^iila, pt-rhapa bo called from 
its roferience to conjugiil uuiuns, and bctoagiiig to the sutnc 
Bpecica oa that which grew where Ciuaciiia'a stutaea now 
stand : at the prcBent day tlto varieties are differently distiii- 
guiahud into the cjultivattid aad tho wild*^ mjTtle, each »f 
which includes a kind with a lai-go lent'. The kind known as 
" oxymyrsints,"" heloogs only to tite wild variety : omiimeBtaJ 
gardeners classify aevcrtd vflrieties of the cultivated kind ; the 
" Tarentino,"" they apeak of na a royrtlo with a small k-uf, 
tha myrtle of thia country "■ aa haritig a brchad leaf, and iha 
hefiastieha" aa being very thickly coverad with leuves, growing 
ia rows of six : it is not, howover, mado any use of. There 
are two other kinds, that arc bruuuhy and well covered. In 
my opinion, the conjugulii is the same that is now called the 
Ittiman myrtle. It ia in Egj'pt that the myttle is mu»t 

Cuto" has taught ua how to make a wine from tho black 
myrtle, by drying it thoroughly in the shade, and then putting 
it in must : he says, also, that if the berries are not quite dry, 
it will produce an oil. Since lua time a method lios been dis- 
covered of making a pale wine from tho white variety ; two 
aexLorii of pounduil myrtle arc steeped in thitie aemi-soxCarii uf 
wirne, and the mixture is then aubjeoted to preaanre. 

The leaves'" also are dried by Ihemselvea till they are capa* 
ble of heiny reduced to a powder, which ia used for the treat- 
Toont of aort-a on tlie hiunan body : this powder is of a slightly 
corroBLTe nature, and is employed ulso fur thei purpose irf 
cbecking the per9[)irutiOD. A thing tliat ia stiU iQoro re- 

'* Do Ite Eiiflt. e. 8. 

" Tlie aO'.'CulL-iJ wild myrtle does not in roalit;^ belong to tlie griiui 

" See B.xiiii.c.S.I; the Riweasoculeatasof thoJUmilyof tie Jjpiiragwi. 

" The oomraon myrtle, Itjrtus eommiini* of tlia [luLuriiliiU. 

'* Or Koman myrtlo. a variety of tho Myrtiia communia. 

" Tlio "sji rtiw" mjTtle. Y6a tliinlu 'that it bclwigi to the KyrliU 
ani^tifoliu Elmtita of BauUin. 

w 1)9 Ut, Uu»t. 125. *» Sev B. ixui. c. 81. 




markable, Uiis oil i$ poBsesseil of a certain vinoua Jiavour, 
Lcitigi at the same tim-e, of an iiQctuouB nature, nnd rtmarknbly 
efficacious for impro«Eg*" winoa. When this ia done, the 
Trine strainer*' ia dipped in the oil before it is used, the result 
of which la that it rtituina the leea of the winv, and allows 
nothing but the pure liq^uor to eBcapc, while at the Bame tinie 
it acuompomcs tho wine anil vausts a marked improvement in 
its duvoiu'. 

SprigB of myrtle, if carried by a person when travelling on 
foot, are fouad to bo very refreshing*' on a long journey. 
Rings, too, made of myrtto wLi(;h has never been touched by 
iron, ore an excellent specidc for swoUinga in the groin.'^ 


The myrtle has played"" ita purt, also, in the successeB of 
war. Postbumiu9 Tubertna, who gained a victory orcT the 
Subines in bis consulship," was the tirst penwn who entered 
the City enjojniig tho honour of ou ovatiou,'* for having 
acbieved this Huuuesa with caso and without bloodshed: upon 
whioh oocasion bo mode hla entry crowned with the myrtle of 
Venus Victris, and thereby tendered her tree an objeet of 
regard*^ to our enemies evtn. Ever since this occasion, the 
wreath of those who have enjoyed an ovation has been made 
of myrtle, with the exception of M. Crasaus," who, on bis i-jc- 
tory over tho fugitive slaves and Spartacua, mado his entry 
crowned with knrcb. MassuriuB inl'ormB us, also, that Bomci 
gt'ncrals, on tho occasion of a triumph even, hare worn a 
wreath of myrtle in tho triumphal car. L. Fi&o states that 

*" A cew proof, m Ffe n'Tniirka, that the sneients hail ppciiliar notion* 
of ihQit own, m to the Uiirour uf wiuc ; mjrUe b<ernH.-B, lie suj», ituuU 
impan lo ti'inii u doteaUiblu aroiiiutic Qavaur. 

" "Saecis:" the HtniinrT bring mwilc of cloth. See B. xit. e, 28. 

" Tliuj would be of Ho asaiitbiivuo nliatiivui, and Lhls slatcnifciit is on- 
liruty fictitious. 

^ lid iimj possibly meon hernls. 

^ In ndilitioD to all th»ai; imrticiilarg, tie might liave *tQtcd thnE the 
Lar«3, fir bfluscliulil f^nsh, wen.' crown.ii with royrUc, and that it waa nul 
HLlDwed to entiir ths Tctnpk' of Ilonu Bmi, 

» A.i-.r. 2fil. 

** Soe the Not^ lo o. 3fl of thie Book. 

*^ BoeoiUDthe enemy would bo l.tililH'lytoeavyuBabloodleM tiiumpli. 

** Hedisdatncd tie amm timtitile niyrtlo l'ru^vll, anil intrigued lucccaa- 
fidiy with the Senote to allow him to wear a wreatli of Jaurel. 


PLISt S WltCftAL niaiOBT. 

[Bof-k XV. 

Pupinus Maai), "who woa tlio first to L-njoy a iximnpli for a, 
Tictory over the Marsi— it was on the Alban Uouat" — vt» 
in the habit of attending qt the gamta of the Circus, wcaxinir 
a wreath of myrtlo : he wits Xhe maternal grandfather of tlie 
second Rcijiio AfriciiDiis. Marcna Valerius*' wore two wreiitlin, 

of laurel, the other of mjTtle; it was in. Doneequeitcc of 

jw wliioh he had made to that effect. 

CHAP. 89. (30.) — TOK laurel; thibtebpt taeietibs op it. 

the laurel k ospcciolly conancmtod to triumphs, ig remarkably 
ornamental to houses, and gunrda the portals of tnireraperor3" 
and our pontiffs ; thei'ii eusjK-adud (done, it jfriiees the pidacp, and 
is evwr o]i giii^rd before; the threBhold. Cato** epe-itka of two 
varieties of this tree, the Delphic"' and llie Cyprian. Fonipeiua 
LoiiaaiiB has added another, to whieh lie hsR given the mune of 
" muatnx," froTTi the eircumstanee of its hemg used for putticJK 
undnr the cake known by the name of " nm§taceimi.*"* Jie 
6iiya that this variety 1ms a very large leaf, flaccid, and of u 
whitish hue ; that the Bclphio laurel is of one uniform colour, 
greener than the other, with berries of very large aizc, and of 
a rod tint approaehing to (jreen. He says, too, that it is with 
this laurel that the victors at Delphi "* are orownod, and warriors 
who enjoy the lienoure of a triumph at Ronn-. The Cypriua 
laurel, ho Ray», has a short leaf, is of a hkekish dolour, with 
an imbricated*' edge, and crisped. 

*■ Tlx! S^nntii> ri'fiiBQi] ttiiti a tniiiiiipb; anil he arcorttingly c«lohrtt»ii 
one oa the Allian Mouat, «,t'. 2.11. raulus Biniwiiis mya that liit 
iPMon UiT wririn^ n tnj'rtlt.- crown was liis victory uvur tho CorsiciuiR on 
lim Myrtlu Plains, tliough wlicrc Ibcy ^<i'cra, gr what victorjr is alladed lo, 
IB not KUaivn. 

*> Till? lii-otlier of Vuleiiiia PiiblicoJa. 

■' \Vt karn trora tw>) paesB^es in <">rid th»t tli« I&nrel wu nnnM 
over tbc ^nie« of the cmiirriire, This, oa Feu rvrau^ VU dons mtn 
rciwoM : because it -n.ts Jwkpd mnn (is ft proUetion a^DSt Ii|^tnlllg, ud 
Ticciiuiie it waa coBBidcred an. nnfilem of iiiiiuoi'talitj. 

« Do Bo Eitst. 133. 

** Or " lauicl of Apollo ;" it was into this tree ITint Hapbnc wot frbUd 
to have Ixicn flhnneta See Ovid'a Mot. B. i. I, Dfi7, ti wy. 

"■^ Cdto, DeRe Eftist. c, 121, tbUs ua that ttiiBcalte was made of fine wbwt, 
uiiul, aniae, cummin, aaet, t^liepse, ami Bcrspeil Iniircil Bprig-^, Laiiri^I lc«n* 
were plni»il iiiiilcT it TClii:^n biikcJ. Tbie taixtui't: was cuusiderud u light 
hoi, g<Jod for tUv slQiuiiob ! 

» At iho I'ytliian Guikks uekhrateil tlicra. 

" McJtaing Uiot it oarvee at the edge, eoraethin^ like a p^t-hooM. 

Since his tini«, howtvur, tho Tuxietics have considerably 
augnieated- There is tli« tinus" for inisUncc-, by some eoii- 
sidfred as a Bp^vies of wild laurel, wiiile olhere, again, rega-d 
it a8 a tree ol' a ai^pui'ttto class ; indcitd, it riwa dill'cr I'rom the 
laim-'l as tu tlie colour, the beiT)- being of an azure bltie. The 
royal'* taurol, too, has siiwie beeu added, which has of lata 
beg'un to bo known as tho " AugTiRloB ; '* both the tree, a% 
•wijU as tlin li^uf, are ut rBm^rkublu aize, ujid the btxricB have 
not th(3 UHUiil rnugh timle. Sumo Buy, huwevor, thiit themyal 
hiurel and thv Augu^tiin urn nut ttio Biime trt«, imd make out 
the Ibrmcr to be ci peculiar kind, with a leaf buth lougvr aud 
brotider thuii thiit oftht! AuguBtuu. The siimt' uutliurb, aliiu, 
make a ptculiar species of the hacalia \.hv coitiinoucst luurtl 
of aJl, and the one thut bears the greatest number uf bpri'ii.-s. 
With thcEi, too, the barren laurel™ i« the laurel ol" the tri- 
umphs, niid thiy any that this is th« one that is used by wur- 
riora whon cnjoyin™; a triumph — a thing ibat aurpiiBes me 
very Touch : iidIuks, indeed, the asu of it waa first introduced 
by the lute Emperur Augustus, aud it in to be euUBidored ua 
the progeny of ihttt laurel, which, aa we shall just now httvo 
DCcaetoa to mentiou, was ^ent to him fruiu hvuveu ; it buiug the 
inniallvst ol' thum ult, witlt uunspud^ short luut', lutd very mniLy 
to bv iiit't with. 

In ornamental gardening we uIbo find the taxa'" employed, 
with a »mull leaf sprouting firom Uiv middle of thv Ivaf, mid 
forming a fringe, as it wt-ri', hanging fiom it ; the apadonia,'^ 
tan, without this fringe, a Irde that thrivea remEirkably well 
in the shade : indeed, however dcnsw the shade may be, itwiU 
soon cover tlie spot with its shaotB. There is iJie chazniB- 
duphne,™ also, n Bhrub thut gruwa wild ; the Ali'xandrian^' 

*'* Or tine tret, the VihiiTniitn tiuiiB or LimiEEiii, oai of tlii> caprtfolin. 
It IK aol Tvckoitoil ijs uue t>l' ihu lumule, t!iough U hat niauy of live sutuv 
chsTacicriBtivB. '^ Kc^a. 

*■ Tlic biirrnn linrrl i)f i\ns triutnptift vriu Ebe Lmirus nobilU of LiniiKiis, 
whioh las unlj ihkIc Howri-it. 

T» Thn Ijiarim viil^nrii folinnininleto of the ParUian IlorUu, F^ siijs. 

'1 Not a iMuroI, uu-t yet a ditocylariun. F^o lays bui (■ti? ut ibe Aapn- 
ragea, probnbty ihn Kwkhb by]ji>gluicuai vi Linoieiu, suiuutimcit knowu. 
howeviar. as tha AKsHndrian Viirol. 

'" tlf "cuii'ich" liiiirti ; a viintty, pcobiibly, of Ihr Lnuriis nulnli*- 

^ TUc "giomii3 liiurtit :" ac^urdiiig't'J Sjn-engL'!, liiin la tLu Uuscaa racu- 
0104118 of LmnipiiB. Saa S ixiv. r. ttl. 

^^ Kruiii AlvxiLutirk LnTruuB: thu RusnusliypupIiyUuiu uf LiaoKue, it 
k luppoaod. 


pLimr ft BATuaAL irrsToaY. 

[Book ST. 

lAorol. by some known as tbe Idean, by others as th« "Jiypo- 
pIoLlion,"''" by others aa the " CHrpopliyllon,"" nnd by others, 
iigain, OS the " )iy]ir:latf9."" From the root it tlirows out 
branches three quarters of a foot in length ; it la much usfJ 
in ornamental gardening, tmd fiir making -nToftthft, and it has 
a mnrc pnintod leaf than that of the rajTtle, mid unperior to it 
in BLifLnoaSj whiteue&B, and size : the seed, wliich iice bi'twecn 
the leav(.-8, ia red. This luat kind .grows in great ubuudwHsi) 
on Mount Ida and in the yioinity of Hcraclea in Pontus : it is 
only fgiind, however, In moimtuitious dialriuts. 

Tlio laurel, too, known ns the dtiphnoidcs,'" is a variety that 
haa received many difl't^rent names : by »ome it ia callt^d tlje 
Pelaegian kurel, by others tlie Buthaloii, ond by othem tlia 
st«phanon Akiandri/* This is also a branchy snmb, wiUi a 
thicker and softer leaf than thai of the ordinary laurd: if 
toatud, it leaves a burning aensiition in the mouth ond throat : 
the borriea aro red, iaoliiiing to btaek. The nncient wrileni 
have remarked, that in their time there was no apccies of 
luurel in the island of Cor-^ica, Since then, howevoi', it has been 
planted- there, and bas thmcd well. 

CH*?. 40. — nrsTOErcAT, AsrEfmoTES cossECrRn wixn the ■lxvs.B.. 

^liiB tree is eTublematicoI of pence :*" when a branch of it 
is extended, it is to denote a truce between enemies in arms. 
Tor the l^;mnnH more purticiiiai'ly it is the messenger of joyl'iil 
tiding, and of vittory : it accompanies tlie despatches" of the 
general, and it deeoratea the lances and iavolina of tlie aoldicn 
and the fascee whicli jirLceda their ohief. It is of this trno 
that branchea ai'e depoeited on the lap of Jupitor All-good and 
Ail-gTcat,*^ 80 often as sorae new victory has impaitcd um- 

M "Tho tongue l)plnw." Tbia, Fee jaatly eaj's. would appoor lo U 
a more nppropriat* nMiiefor tlic Uiji, nientiiniod uhov*. 

"■ Froin t|]i! blrry lichi;^ altucbcd tu IheWf. 

'T " The tlironter nut I'riiiiii 'helow,"' cflrliiips. 

f* Sproii^i-1 tLiiiks tiiiit it is tlie Cluiuuns vi(.iilb;i uf I.iuuiciu. Fiicl)- 
sini idi^nCim^ it vith the llapbno Imrrcolnof Linnioun; and 1''^ tlualuil 
mtr he cithnr IhAt or tiit Vaplme mcuream at LmsKua. 

f" " Crown of All' Hinder." ' 

^ Curioudlf enougli, il h generally considered noiK' ■Dorexn^gestiM of 
war llino of [ipacE'. 

*i Tbe dcMpitLclieB were wrapped in laurel Icavet. 

** Optimus Maiimus. 


vemil gladnefla. Tliia is done, not tecauafl it is alwaj's green, 
nor yet becauBQ it is an cinbLem of pi-sico — for in botU of tboau 
rospocta the olive ■woiUil take ttie iir^-cudtiiice of it — but because 
it is the most beauteous true on Mount iParnasHua, and was 
pleasing for its gracefulness 1o Apollo t-rt'M ; ii ilvity to wliom 
thfi kinga of Rume sL'iit otferinga at an early pciriod, ft9 we 
learn from the cnw of L. Ttnitua,'" PDrhaiis, too, honour is 
more particularly paid to ihia tree bccuuse it tv«s there that 
Brntus" earned the glory of aascrting hia eountry's )iberties, 
wlion, by iho direction of tho oracle, ho kisacid thitt luitrel- 
bearing Bull. Auuther reiiftoiij too, niny bo the fact, that of all 
thu shrubs that are planted and received in our liouses, this is 
the ouly one that is ucver stniclt by lightning,*' It is for 
tht^se rwtsoue, in my ojiinion, tliat tlie post of honour lias been 
awarded lo the laurel niorc particularly in triuniplis, and not, 
as Maflsnrius tmys, bccAUsp it was nued for the purposes of 
fumigation and purification from the blood t»f the enemy. 

In ttddition to the ubove partieulLira, it la not pc-rmitted to 
defile the luurei and th« olive by applying thein b) profane 
uses ; 80 much bo, indeed, that, not ewu for the propitialiou of 
Uio divinities, ebould a fir? be ligbU-d with thorn at ■either 
altar or flhrine-" Indeed, it is very evident that the laurel pro- 
teeta against such usage hy crsekbng^ as it does in the fira, 
thux, in a manner, giving express»ion to its abhorrence of such 
treatment. The wood of tliiis tree when eaten ia good aa a 
specific for internal mDhidies and affections of Ihe tiinewa.^ 

It ia siud that vihan it thund&rcd, the £mperor Tiberius was 

" L.Juntai Itratiii, thcnfpfaEwnfTnniui'n. Pliny allnJesto th«in«B(n^ 
wot lo Delphi, (w tite purpme tif vuiisiiilQiig tiie uiiidv on n serpent bving 
pcen in ttic royul pilwv. 

*• IleallufleBtothecircumBlan'C-cof Oie [imat^'w being aaked wlmebould 
reign aC Romu nfitr Tiirmnin ; upun whiph she answortd, " lie whrj flret 
IdlMA hi» tiidtbcr ■" on which l!rutUH. tlw KujipusL'd idiut, Rtumhlvd to the 
pDUtid, aiiil kiased the enrth, Llir. innthiT of nil. 

^ A merf abtwdity ; ti\>t snme haa beta ficiid of ttti tceoh, and ^th 
e^ual veruDitT. 

*» He mskos a distinction between "altar" taiA "sra" licre. The 
forntn' wits the utiar of th» supcriur Divinities, the lutlcr of th« iupeiiur 
Auil iiifLTi-or fiH will!, 

*f Tlio cmctling of tlin iHTiri'l i« cai«f>d hy ifffnrt* of tlie csspnfia] oi! to 
escape tivra tbo purcuutfum or ct-'llulrir tisiui) of tliu IuilT, wkiob il bruuU 
with eogtiJaablu violunuw wlica humijig, 

<" Xorromnu See B. xsiii. c. &0. 




[B«A XV. 

in the habJt of patting on a wreath of laurel to allay his ap- 
prehfiiBioiia of dlsiistruus effects from the lightuing.*" Ilicre 
are also some remurkjible f'licts coEcected with the laurct in 
tho history of tho latt? "Emperor Augiiatiie: ouee while Liviu 
Dniftilla, who iifterwarde on hir murriagu with the Ktnjicror 
asKUmud the name of Aiigiista, uC the tttitti thut ehc tuf 
afflunoed to him. was sejitett, thyrc fell into her lap « hen of 
ru'inmluible ^vhitencsN, which an eiiglu let full from aiolt wil)i- 
out its rect'ivin^ Lh» &ligbtL'&t injury : oit Livia viewing it 
without any symptoiDBof aliinn, it was diseoverfU that ininnJi; 
wiu* addt.-d to miracle, and that it held in it^ hunk a hraiicK of 
laurel covered T,vith berries. The aruspii^es guve orders that 
tlie hen ftnd her prngeny Bhcnild be omefully prestrved, ant] 
th(! branch planted Jitid tencll^d with rpli^ioua care. This was 
iLflcordingly done al; tho country-housia belonging to the Ca3surt), 
on the Fluminiun Way, near the haiike of the Tiber, ci|;hi 
miles Irom the City ; from whloh clrcumatance that rood has 
since receivod the title "Ad galiina*.'"" I'rom the brancli 
tbtre has now arieiai, wondrouK to relute, ijuit*) tt grurv; and 
Atij^stiiiii Cicaar afterwords, when n&lebrating a tiiumpli, held 
n hranth of it in his hand and wore a wreath of this laurel on 
hia head ; since which timi" all thu* fiu<;ccedinir emperors hare 
followed his exnraple. Hencr, too, hna originated the custom of 
plnnting the hrittichea which they IniTe held on these occasion^ 
and wo thua see gnjvea of limi'id still csiatiug wMoh owe their 
raspective names to this tdr^iumstauce. It was on the abar« 
occasion, too, that Bol improbubly a change was efi'ected in 
the usual laurel of the trinmph."' The laurel is the only one 
among tlie trees thut in the Latin liinguago hiM given vi 
appelliition to a man,*''' and it is the only one^ the leaf of which 
bus n distinct nnmo of its own, — it being known by the name 
of "Inuroa." The mime of this tree is still retained by one 
jiluce in the city of Komu, for we find a apot on the AvcntiDC 

" SuetOTiiuB, 0. M, conlinns fliis. Fee say&.tliot the sunie aopetsliliiMi 
Stall <-xi»ts in some parU of i'rauw.'. 6«e J), li. e. fi6. 

*> '-The Poultry" "i S.-o e. .19 of tl.i» Bwk. 

" ScB B. siii. c, 3. As Poineiaet nmnrlts, ihls ii not nlrictly Wit; 
the naiuo " Viaucfiua "' most probably cumt fruni " vlnou," a meviiri. 
KsDiGToua tinrnw wcito d«>rtTod aiia from secda and vcgtrtahUii ; l^w, 
Oiaerch, and LactiioA, for instaniUc, anioDg a liott o( others. " Scii>itf," U>»t 
moaoi a "■ walkin^-ttiuL" 



Mount etill hnown ty the name of " Loretum,"" where for. 
merly n. luiirel-grovo existed. The laurel h employed in 
jiurilicati'jna, imil wb may hero mcuLioD, innidentiilJy, that it 
will grow from slips'" — thougli LomocriCus and Th«t>phniatua 
have expressed their doubt* as to tlittt fact- 

Wo sbaU now procc'cd to epe-ak of the forest trees. 

SiTJTHAaY. — RcniBj'kublQ fucte, oumitivt«T and abservadona, 
one LuiidL'eil and twenty. 

HflMAS ArrnOKS fl-pftrEii. — Fenoatello,** Fahidnus,'* Virgil,*' 
Com. Vajprianus,"* Celaiia,"' Cato the Cpnstor/ Sofleraa' father 
and 8on, SciofUf' M. Varro,' D. ROomia,' Fabiiis Pictur,* Tro- 
yus,' Fyijiiiua,* riuceus VerriuB,' OraicLiiiis,"* Atticus Julius," 
CwluraeUa," Masauriuii aabinua," TergiUa,'* Cotta Mesaidinus," 
L. Piso,''' PompeiuB LeuiGus." Maccius PkutuB,'^ Fluvius," 
DoesBRiis,'" ycwjvula," ^Uus,^ Att'ius Capito," Si-xtiuH Niger,^ 
"Vibius Jtufiia.** 

FoKEioK AcxnoRs QnOTTD. — Aristotle," Dcmocritn^," King 
llicro,'^ Kitig Attalua Pbiloniol«r,"* Arnhytes,*' Xenophun," 
Amphilochus** of Athens, Anaxipoliff" of Tbasos, Apollodoms** 
of Lcmnoe, Arifitophanea-''* of Miletus, Antigonus** of Cjtmb, 

•^ Thfl "lanrel-grove." 
•* Sec end of B. Yiii. 
»' Seo end of B. rii. 
w Sev mil of B. rii. 

* Sec end of B. z. 

* S«s cud of B. iL 
« See tud uf B. s. 

* See end of B. iii, 
w Sco end of B. xi?. 
'* See end pf E. viii. 
^* Sco ctid of B. xiv, 
" See end of B. ii. 
" .Sen fail &f B. xiv. 
»'> Sec cud of B. xi\. 
»* See end of B. xiv. 
>' &ie cud of B. xii. 
M See of B. ii. 
" SoBeodor B. Tiii. 
*' Se* eod of B. viK. 
"^ 8oe find of B. Tiii. 
*• Sse "Mi of B. YiiL 
*> Bee end of B. Tiii, 

VOL. in. 

•• Sec B, xTii, 
** She end of 
M See end of 
' Sue end of 

* Seo tud of 

* See eud of 
' See end of 
» St:e end of 

" See end «f 
*» Sse ond of 
'* Sm end of 
" Sec end of 
'* Sco end of 
»» Seo end «r 
w See sod of 
w See end of 
" See en^ of 
=■ See end of 
*' Sbg end of 
ss Sue und of 
■* See end of 

. 0. 11. 

B. ii. 

B. iki. 
B. iii. 
K si. 
B. xi». 
B. iii. 
n »ir. 
B. Tii. 
B. xiv. 
B, xiT. 
B. iii. 
B. riv, 
B. xiv. 
B. ii. 
B. »iu. 
B. i». 

B. Till. 
B, viii, 



[Book. XV. 

Ag»UiocleB" of Chios, ApoUooiu*'* of Pefgamna, Aristander** 
of Atheua, Bacehius" of Miletus, Bion" of Soli, CLa;r(>aa"of 
Athens, ChtEriBtuB" of Athens, Diodorus" of Priene, Dion" 
of Colophon, Epigenoe" of Khodea, Euagon" of Tbaaoa, Eu- 
phroniuB'" of AlbidiH, Androtion'" who wrote on Agriculturu, 
^Bchrion'" who wrote on Agricultuie, LysLmachua*' who wr«te 
on Agaculturi', Dionysius" who trtmslated 11 ago,*' Dinpliaiies*' 
who made auEpitouio wf the work of Dionysins, Aaclepiades" 
Ite Phjsiuian, ErnaifiU'atuB'* the Physiciaa, (Joinmiades*' who 
wrote on the preparation of WineR, Aristomachua" who WTOtC 
on tfie Bflme subject, Hioesius" wlio wrote on the same 3ti1;geot) 
ThemiBo" the PLyBJeian, Onemcritiis," "King Juba.** 

" fiwecdof B. Till. 

''' Sua ond of B, WiL '^ 8c« end of B. vui> 

« See Md (if B. viii. *' Stu tr\A of H. vi. 

" &ee end of B. viii. " See cqO of U. ii». 

** Eb is meittiuned uIimi (it Varro nnd ColuniuUu, as & wrihtr apon »gn- 
ciilturPT but all further paiticulars of liim ai* unknown. 

" Sow «ml of B. Tiii. «" S»e end of B. ti, 

•' SoQ end of L. I. "* See *nd of D. viii. 

" 8co end of U. viii. "« Bee CTurt of II. yiii. 

" See eud of B. yiii. •» Ste end gf B. iti. 

** Sw end of B. nii, ** 800 end of B. viii. 

» See end of B. vii. >• Sec end of K. xi. 

"^ Hcyond what Plin; hero wys, nothing is koowu of kiin. 

" S^eendof B. jri. ^^ 

" A pbysicinn mhu lived probably at tbe end of ttii.- flmt cvnCaiy mT 
He 'wiuu disciple iif Erasistniliia, orid foundtd a mpdical school aiSmyrriH. 
He IB qu&tedb]- Atlicuteus, and inB.xxvii. c, H. Pliny Qdl.< him "aphy- 
siftian of no smiil] authnrily." He McmetohuveboenaTolLtmmuiuwntnii 
hut none of hi» wnrks bavc surviYcil 

•» 8ra CD<J of B. ii. 0" See «nd »f B. li. 

•2 See end of B. v. 





"Wb have giren the preccddncG in this uccouut tu the fruit- 
treea nod others which, by their delicious juicea. first taught 
moQ to give a relish to hb food tmd the various bHidcdU 
rwiuisite for his sufitt-natice, whcthit it is thjit they gpooUui^ 
ously produce tittmi ddlighll'ii] Havoum, or wbi'lher wo Iiave 
impartad them hy the mcUiods of udoption and iuttnaarriage,' 
thu9 hestowing a fuvour, as it were, upon the rerj- bcoats and 
hirda. The next thing-, then^ would he to Bpt-jik of the glandi- 
feroiia troen, the trees which profferetl the earliest nutrimpnt 
to th*: uppetito of mau. and pruved thtmselFcg liia foster- 
jQothcrs ia hia I'cirlom ttud mvuge state — did I not feci myself 
ooDEtrained on this occuEiiuii to make Bome mcDtiDti of the sar- 
priKJ whii^li 1 hare fidt ou tiiidixig hy uctuul ixpracnce what 
is the lify of mortals when they iuJiubit u eouatry that is with- 
out either tree or shrub. 

(I.) I have aheady stated' that in the Etist many nationa 
that dwell on the ah^R-s of tho oct-aii aro placpd in tliisnoces- 
eitoua state ; and I myself liave pt-rsoually witnesswl the con- 
dition of the Chauci,' both the Greater and the Lcaacr, sibrnle 
in the regions of the far North. In those climflte& a vast tract 
of land, invaded twice each day and night by the overflowing 
wavoH of the ocean, ojjcub a (luostion that is ctiTnallv proposed 
to us hy Nature, wht-Umr these regions aro to be looked upon 
us beloiigiog to tho loud, or whothui &s himug a portiua uf 
tho sea ? 

Here a wretched race is found, inhahiting either the more 
elevated spots of land, or else eminencus ortiticially constructed, 
and of a height to ivhiuh thie.y know by experience that the 
highest tides will never reach. Here they pitch their cabins ; 

' tha nictbotk of ifi-uftinfr mid itiomlatton. 

' B. zin. e, 50. Lhtj dwell bctwiH^a the Ems and tbe Elbe. 

» 8cc U. i»- c. 2ff. 

2 2 



[Bot-k XVI. 

and when tlie waveB caver the BurroaQding oountry far and 
wiile, likt! at many mariaere on bt^ai'd sLip aro tht-y : wlicu, 
ftgtiui,, thci tide recedes, their condition is that of so mauy 
shipwrecked nn?n, and iLFoutid their cutUig«s they pursue the 
fish«i! a8 they mnkci Uieir ciscnpe with the rrccdiiig tido, ll is 
not tbtir lot, like the adjoining nationSj to keep any ilocks for 
Buatenancc hy their miUc, nor even to maintinn a warfare wild 
wild ticnBte, every ahnih, flven, being haniehed afar. With tio 
sedge* and the rushes of the marsh t)icy inake cords, and 
with theee tliey wtiav-e tin: nets empluyed ia the capture of Iht- 
iitih ; they (a»hion the mud,^ too, with their huudH, and drying 
it by th(> help of tlio wiuds more Ihim of the sua, cook their 
food by ite aid, and bo warm thwr eatrails, trozcD as thfy 
lire by the northern l)hist;i; thtir omly'' di-ink, tuo, ib rain- 
water, which they collecl in holes dug at the eiitrance of their 
abodes ; nnd yet tiiese nations, if this very day they were van- 
qniflhed by the Boman people, wo)dd escluira agoinat being 
roducod' to slavery ! Be itao, then — Fortiini) i& moat kind to 
lutuiy, Juat wkcB ahe means to puni^ theiu.* 



Another marvel, too, conn^.ted with (he forests ! Thoy 
cover all the rest of Germuuy, and hy thr ir pliade augment the 
(Mild. Hot the higliest of ttiuga ull are tkuse not fur diataiit 
from the Chuuci tilrtndy mentioned, and moiu particularly m 
the vicinity of the two lakes" there. The very shores are lined 
with oaks,'" wliick mimil'est &n extmordinary eagemeas tu 

* " TJlca." TIiIb xppeitn to be a ^er&I nnmo for all luads of aqiutic 
b(i»h-wiil<ir pluiLta ; ua "a!j:ru" ia Cb&t oi tha variouE MQ-vreeda. 

* He alluiiifl to tnrf for Hfing; iHe Harow) tiirfa of the natlirali«t». 

* Of courtto Ikis itpiitiL'a onl/ Id Uidm who ilnclt dciu Ihi: nax-atiora, and 
nnt tliusc mure iulanil. 

^ Guiutiiu'Jia muiarks, ilat Vliay doca not lieie beoi in mmd tbd svmU 
uf liber tv'. 

* So Laheriiu suys, " Fortunu. multis purccTe in pccnnm njlet;" "P&I- 
tunc ii tiic taring of matLV, tvlitu s.lj>v meaiia to puui^li thctn." 

* He alluilts to tho vicmity uT tlie Zujdyr Zuo. See U. iv. o, 29, Tht 
ipcrt« trWre the«e furusi« uttceatuud aru uow cultivakd plidiu, coTered vHb 
f illiLgeB and other vfi^rVa of the induEtrf af man. 

"1 "Qneroua." We sball sc-c, ia tiiutoiu-stftflJiiBlioolt, that itaidenlit] 
Lu not b<;eu aatisfacl<)tilj eaUiblixliuil. 

Chap. S.] 


Dttttin their growth : imdennined by the waves or uprooted by 
the hlastB, with tlieir entwining roots they carry vast foresla 
along witii them, and, thus balancod, stand ujiriglit ns they float 
along, while th<^y spread afar their hugo brnnchca like the 
li^n^ of so ninny shipR. Many is the time that these trees 
have struck our flreta with »lnmi, ■when the wbtts have driTen 
ihem, almost piirtjosely it would eqvox, a^aiast their jtrows as 
Ihoy frtood at auchcir io tho nigtit; and the men, de&tiluto ut' 
nil remedy and resource, have hud tu uugago ia u naval com- 
bat with a forest of triies ! 

(2.) In the aaiiio noithem regions, too, in the Here)' nian" 
Forest, whose gigantic oaks,'* uninjured by th** lapse of age*, 
und contempoiury with tJio crcRtion of the world, by their oeer 
npprooch to immortahty surpMB all other marrela Imown, Not 
t-o speak of other mailers Ihut would eurpass all belief, it ia a 
weil-liTiuwn fact thut tliL'ir roots,'* as they meti together, up- 
lumvc vast biUt^; or, if tho earth happens not to a<!cumukte 
with thetD, rise aloft to the very liranches even, and, as they 
fontend for iho mastery, form arcuden, like so many poilals 
ttirown op(!ii, and largo enough to admit of the passage of a 
Etiufldron of horse. 

(3.) AH these trees, in general, belong to the glaniUferoiis 
class," and have ever been held in the highest honour by the 
Itoinan people. ' 


It ia with the leavea of tbis class of trees, that our civic 
crown is Jiiade, the most glorious rewcrd that ean be bestowed 
on military valour, and, for this long time past, the emblem of 
tho imperial" clomeucy ; since the time, in fact, when, aftw 

" 8co B. iv. v. 28, finil llio KoLe, i. p. 31S. Tli« villHifo of Uer- 
oin^n, near Waldiao, ia aiippoBcd to Tetmn lIio ancient name. 

'^ " Rohora," It will lio t\-^n in this Book tlini the robur bo« not bwjn 
i'itnlifieJ, aiiY rtiHte tiiau tlie quvrcus. 

" Ken tiwits this »lory n» utterly fabulous. Tim Timnchnu pf (he t'icug 
Iiidkit j^row duwlUl^'UTds, uiiil so fuiu un.'adGi cuTtuiuly ; but Huch ia nut tliu 
ciuie witb any Etiropcnn irce. 

'* Ni't only oalts, bul u vnriely of othw trees, were ineliiiifid iindcr thi» 
RunnH by tlie aiiciLTits; Ihp "frlins" L'mbruciiiig nut only tlie aconi, liul 
tlio magt iif the lit^L'cb, and tho hunL fruLta ut'otltur tri.'o^, 

^ Ho ullmite to the truwa of oak-li-aves, which wus iuspeaJud oa Ilio 
giitrs b(ifor« tin) jaLicc of the om jiiTori. A uivie crown had bcou voiod by 
tha atnaio in J auua CBumr, oa itia groaad at tiuving b&vimI hia eauntry. 



[Book XVI, 

thp impiety of civil war, it was first dPtmed a meritt^rioiu 
action not to shed the blood of a fcHow-citixfn. Far inferior 
to thifl in rank nre tlie mural'* crown, the vailor," and the 
golden" one, superior tliough they may lie in the vulue of tho 
matc^rid : inierior, too, in merit, is tbu roati'dte'" cruwu, ihougli 
tjiiuobled, in recent tinxjs more particularly, by two g^reat uooieti, 
tho9e of M, ViUTO,'" who wa^ presented witli it by Pompeius 
Mrignus, lor hiH great achicToments in the Pimtic War, and of 
II. Agrippfi, on wlioai it was b^atuwed Iiy Cxsar, at the end 
of the Sicilian Wur, which was also a war against piratt-a. 

In formtr days tlie beuks-' of veBseliS, fastened in front of tlie 
tribunal, graced the roruni, and seemed, hb it irerc, a crovn 
placed upon the head of th<? Itoman people itself. In latff 
timca, hawBvor, they begun to be polhzted untl trodden und^r 
foot nmid the eeditiotiR nioTonients of tho tribunes, ttie public 
interest waa sacriliced. to private advantage, each oitizun 
-Bought sokly hia own advaDccmcat, and everything looked . 
upon UH holy was aluiudwiii-d to pi-ofanatiun— bIiII, fruni amid 
all this, th(i lioHtra'''- emerged once again, and passed from 
boneath the feet of the citizens to their heuds. Augustus 
presented to Agrippn the i-o3trato crown, while he Uuns«llf 
received the oiTifl crown^ at the hands of all mankind. 


In andent tdmea crowns" were presented to nono but a 

"^ GKsa to tlio firat taan wlio scaled tie wall of a belief^ place. Tt 
WBii mnrte of g«l(li and detonitcd. with tiirrpts. 

^^ Givca tu tbe Gnl suIiIiimt who surmounted the tiiIIuiii ut cntresc))> 
msnta. It was aiaAa of gohi, uml oniBiucuted wit.b " vull:,'* or«, 
" One of iLq variBtiea uf the triuuijihal crowD was lliu " corgim bumb,*' 
i)r"Eoliilou criiwn." 

'" ilndo (if gald, and dc^inrated with tbn "noitni," or '"btsiJre" of riiiat, 
"> See B, vii. c. 31. 

" The cralur's sUy^u in tbe Forum wris tleeorntfld wilti thn " roetra," vt > 
" of the sliififtof iheABtiatw; benco ilriiuciTed ibo namoof "Bc*- 
Tlie lociilit^oFttio Ko«tni vma vh&itg*2d by Julme Csigar. 

Alluding to thu pMstitutifin fif the Ritstra by tho tribauoa aad alhen 

nr the piirpiiscs of Heilitinn, and the pri^jeDtatiun by Augiutua of tho rot- 
Irste CTOwii lo Agrippa. 

^ Which wn8 8ii*pciidrd, fisalroiidy mBB.tifiri«i!, ut tbo p'tttu uf hU paliM. 
•* .■VthensiiH aiid Fuhiu* Piulur auy tliut .JiiiiKS wnn tht: lint wcariT ot u 
eravn : Pher<^c}'ilc£ aaya it was Sinturn, JJiodarus Sioulua Jupiter, and Leo 
.^gyptia^UB Iiu, who wore one of whciC 

Chap. 6.] 





dhrinity, hc-ofie it is that Homer" awards them only to tha 
gods of hoaven imd to the ontire anoy ; but ncvi-r to an indi- 
vidiial, howerer great his nchifTPUients in bottle may have 
been. It ia 8aid, too, tlint Father Liber waa the first of all 
who plsffid a tirown on liis iead, and that it W88 made of ivy.^ 
lu fluccucding tim{», thueu c^ngu^d in sai;!rifii:es in honour of 
the goda hegeui to wear them, the yietims btinj; decked with 
wrettths a* well. More recpntly, agifin, they wctb employed 
iu llie eacred games ;^ and at the ptegent day they are be- 
6towed on auch occhsiodb, not upon the victor, indeed, but 
upon hia country, which receives, it la proclaimed, this crown at 
his hands." Hence arose the iiBfige ot conteiTing wroaths upon 
warriors when abont to enjoy a triumph, for them to eonse- 
crato in the templea : after which it became tlie cuatom to 
present them at our games It would be a lengthy matter, 
and, indeed, foreign to the purpose of this worU, lo enter upon 
a discuesion wlio was the first Boman that received each kind 
uf crown ; in fact, they w«re aeriuaiutgd with none bat such tSf 
were given as the reward of nijlitjiry prowess. It ia a well- 
known fact, however, that this people has more varieties of 
orowns than those of all other nationa put together. 


BomuIu9 presented Hostua Hostilius*' with e. erown of leaves, 
fcr being the firat to enter Ficlense, Tliie Hoatua was the 
grandfather of King TuUus Hoetilius. P. Deciua the elder, 
the military tribune, was presented with a crown of leaves by 
the army whieb had been saved by his valour, under the oom- 
mond of Comelius Cossub," the consul, in the war with the 
Sanmites. This crown wa« made at fir9t of the leaves of the 
holm ouk, but atterwarda thoac of the a'senlus*' were pre- 
ferred, lui being a tree sacred to Jupiter: this, however, was 
ftoon employed indiiferently with the querous^ according aa 

*< IL xiii. 726. 

" B«c M. ai ttnd 35 of the prcafiBt Book. 

*■ Thi! Olvnipian, Pythiim, Irthniiflii, and Kenuenn ganiM. 

» 8e«B.'vii. V. 27. 

x* He U eallbd Tullua SusUUua by Diauyiiua of HnliciLniascuE, the Enrae 
na his ETanilsiiTi, 

*• A.u.c. ■111. Tlia loavM of the holm-eak wore employed by Eomdui 
on llif oix-aBiua aboic-mcotioiied. 

^ Thete varieties of tbd oak will bs couidcred in the nent chap'tet. 

Pitch inigTit happen to preaent itself, the honournhle disHnctioo 
given to the acorn being the only tiling obaerved. Bigorona 
laws were, however, enacted, to mfiintEuii the lofty glories of 
thirt wreath, by which it was platiod upou. nn e^iuaHty even 
wit.h the Buprcrae honoura of the wreuth that is given Jiy 
Gwcce in presence of Jove" himseLJ', and to receive which Uiv 
exulting city of the rictor is wont to hreak"* a passage through 
ita very wails. These luws tare to the effect that the life of a 
IVUow-citiien muat be preserved, and au enemy slain; tliat 
the apot where thia takes pliice must have been held by the 
enemy thtit afime day; thnt the portion saved Bhall admit iIk; 
fact, other witneases being of no use at all ; and that the person 
saved shall have been u Homau ritizon, 

To ppeeerve an ally merely, even though it should he Uio 
life of a king that is so saved, confers no right to this high re- 
ward, nor ia the honoiu" at all iEcreused, even if it is the 
Boman general that has been thus prtaerred, it being the in- 
tention of the framers of the law that it should be the »taAn* 
of the citizen that is everything. When a mim baa received 
this wreath, it is hia privilege to wear it for the rest of hiB 
liic. When he niakofl hiR appearance at the celebration of the 
gamesj*" it ia cuatimary for the Senate even to rise from their 
Beats, andhehasfchorightof tflking bia seat next to the Benatois. 
Exemption, too, irom aU civic, duties is conferred npon him as 
well as Ids father and his father's fulhcr. Siccius Dontatua, as we 
have already mentioned'" pn an appropriate occasion, rucciwd 
fourteen civio erowne, and ManliuH Capitolinua" bIx," one, 
among the rtatj for having saved the lifu of hia general, S«r- 
viliiiB. Scipio Africanua declined to accept the citic crown 
for having saved the life of hia father at the battle of Trvbia. 
'Ilmea thcac, right worthy of our everlasting admiration, 
which Kccorded honour alone as tlie reward of exploits N 
mighty, und wliich, while other crowns were recommended by 
being made of gold, disduiued tj set a price upon the eaiety of 
a citixon, and loudly proclaimed thoroby that it ia unrighteous 
to aave the life of ti man for motives of lucre. 

=^'' At the CHympJe aimta. eeltbrttted iu liuDour of Jupiter, At Olympia 
there was ft atotuc of tliat goil. owe of Hw mHster-pieiifis nt' I'hidim. 

** Iiii.}jl_T!ug ttierL'b)-, that Itic n'tj ttiat could proilucQ B nuul ivUo OOald 
6o iliEUtiguieli him&clf, stood in no iumi uf wiiUs, 

™* Iu tiio Cixous, *i In B. vii., c. 29. 

3' B. vii. c. 2S. 

» Livyaaja eight. IlaiovedthelifeofSemliiiB.lheMaatergf thaHorefc 

Cbsp. «■) 


It ia fi well-Tsiioivu fact that acorns'* at tliis very day con- 
bUIuIq tho weallii of manj- naticua, und that, too, CTfO amid 
these times of peaoe. Stimetimps, also, when tbero is u scurcity 
of com they are (Jned and ground, llie meal Lein^ employed 
fur making a kind nt' Vircad. Evi-n to tliia Tri^ry day, in tho 
lirovinfles of Spaia,*" we find tlio acorn introduced at table in 
tho EccoBd course : it is thoufjht to be sweeter when roaated 
in the oshcs. Hy tho law of thp. Twelve TahU-a, there is a 
jiroTision nmde thut it Bhiill liis lawful fur u man to guther his 
acomtt when thiiy have fulK^n ujn-'U tbij lauil of unolhor. 

The vuribties of the gluiidifi.Toua trees ura Qunierous, and 
they ore found to diilor in fruit, lociility, eex, uiid tuste ; tho 
uuom of the beech having on« s!i;ijje, tlmt uf the qnvrctia 
another, and that, again, of the holm-oak another. The r;irious 
species also, iimong themselves, offer a considcrahle number of 
varieties. In addition to this, norae of these trepn tiro of a 
wild nature, whila the fruits of others are of a less acrid 
fliivour, owing to a m-ore ciareCul cultivation. Then, too, thcro 
is a difference hetween the varieties which grow on the moun- 
taiufi and those of the plains; the tnalea differ from the 
ffwuies, and thwe tiru L-unsiderublo mudiftcutions in the flavour 
of their fruit. That of tho beech " is the Fweetest of all ;-80 
much so, fhnt, according to CornyliuB Alt'X-indtT, tlie people of 
the city of Chios, whfji bcsii-gcJ, siipportidtheni?K?lvrs wholly 
on mast. The different rarietics cannot possibly be diitin- 
gulahcd by tlieir reBpective names, whicli vnry according to 

*" "Olandes." Under this numc, for whichwe ilu not appeur tolmvBanjr 
Engli»}i wiuhnlpiit, wrre iricluckO, jis nlrGuily mcntionpil, nnt only tlis 
acoiii of the ouk, but ^1ie nut ai- iiis^t of iht ovecb, and [imliulfU ttioBt of 
the ban) or Itvmvl fruiu. In tlx; prrsviit inMimci; Flinv probitbly ulliali^ 
only to the IVuiC of ihe uak and tlio bei^ch. ^it^onu (im nnL liulc iwod aa 
an Jirtidn of fond in tbcRC dnjs. Itoiialed, tbt^ licivc boon piapaaed at a 
kulutil.utd fill euJTi't?. 

*' Thn iKorn of the (Juitciib ballota of LinniBUs ii piobftbly mtiuat, %'liiuh 
19 sl.ill tuuuU uttid in tlie pruviiiuu of Sutiimuuuu, und forms ak u^Tcenbla 
article of fnoHj, T]ui acorn, l''£o kuj'c, utintiiins a Rnnaidcirabln pro^ioirlioR 
of «ul^(;llfl^]lO miittiT, mid is better roastL'i Jn Uic uslios tlinn ItnilcU in wntor. 
IL in iiot, lion«<vi*r, uard iUt ik di'ssi'i-t,j]i» in the liiiic of llie Hoiiiaas. Thcia 
BooruB at« Bulil ut msrki-t in AnJuliub in ihe motiUi uf UiTtnlK.'r. 

*' So far as it gow, ttio kminl of ihe tiii»t or b't^eb-uul in aol unpa- 
UtabU' ; bat in the l^'lisli bcvuli it is say dinuuuUve. 



[Book XVI. 

their sercral locslitidB. The qTierciiB*^ and the robnr** we 
see growing ovcrj-whcre, but not so with the ncBcalufi ;" wMo 

a foiu"th kinil, known as thccerrua," is not bo much oa known 
l.hroughout the creator port of Italy. We ehuU diatiiiguish 
ihom, thiirelbre, by their chiiracteristic fetttun-s. and wliea 
ciT'CUiiiBtaiici'a render it DecesBary, ehall gire theii' Urcek names 
as well. 

CHAP. 7. (6.) — TQE HEBCn. 

Tho acorn of the bnecli" is aimiilar in appearance to a bemelf 
encluaed iu a ehell of triangular bhnpC'. The leui' i& thin uud 
on© of tho very lightest, is similar in appetiranoe to that of tbe 
poplar, and turns yellow with remarkable rapidity. From tho 
middle of the lenf, and upon the upper side of it, th«re mo»tiy 
shoots a little green berry, with a pomteil top.*' The beech ia 
particularly agreeable to mt3 nrtd mice ; Had hence it ia, that 
where this trto abonnds, those creatures are sure to be plcn- 
tiftil ftlso. Tiie learea are alao very>-ning for dormioe, 
an.d good for tbrtighes too. AJmoet all trees hoar an a%'i?rage 
crop but onoQ in two years; this is the cose with the buoob 
moro purticuliirly. 


Ite other trees that bear aconis, properly ao called, are the 

" Tlie word " qQernia " is frequently used as a general Tinra* for llis 
Duk ; lint tliruiighuut the present Wvok it is most cmplHuj't-d n<i mviuiLQe ■ 
distinct vuriety of tile ouIe, vdv of ths Inrgnr kkds, >'{:esay!<, GUiilBnawmn? 
tn the QiinrouB TnccoiQKii of Lumncclf, tim QuerouB robur of 1.iTiTm.i n > i, uj 
til* HouTTfl of thti Frrndi, 

*■" This niso has hera mucli employed ns a general naian for the oak ; liut 
licro, aad iu oilier parte iif this Uuok, It ia a{>plieii tn on-o rari^ty. V6r 
thinks that it aoswors to ttiQ Uudkus sesijilLlluru of SJnitli, Bontetiinet »bu 
Dolled "rouTra" by the French. 

** The Qurrcus W8«u1iis «f I.innfciie. Tt is nnt iniprcibiibl(< tbat Ihii oak 
is s (lifFLTEut trpc from the "iEsciiliu " of lloracu and Virgil, which mi 
perhaps either a walnut, or a variety of llie beech, 

" it tiiiB bo(!Q suf^eat*d that this i« the flnme with the Ciii<-roTii9 cetrnaaf 
LicniDiiai Ftud the tjuorcua c-rintta-i^f jjamArcl:, the gland of whii'li in ptueed 
in n prii'kly cupulc. It ia rnrely found in Friinci::, hut it often to ho met 
with in PiedtuuDt mid IL« ApuiininEs. 

'^ The FitgiiiiilTttlica of Lamafck' Itt Latin nRnie,"fftff(u,"t>n]ppMed 
to have been dtrivod frooi iht GntiY fayi-J, " to «iit." An oil ii cstiiiaUd 
from the tuurus at nuts, lUnt is much used in aome parts of France. 

*' IIo epeaka ptohably of one oX the gaDs which ore found Rttncht^ to 
the leaves of the furcit tieea. 

Cbap. 8.] 


robiir, the DDsculns, the cerms, the holm-oak," and the c»rk- 
tre*:*" it is CQntuioed in a riwUcd calyx, which ombracea 
more or less of it, according to the several varieties. Tlie 
leaves of the^ trees, those of the holm-oak excepted, aro 
weighty, pi'lpy. ^^^E' ^^'^ .i^So'*' "* tho edges, and they do 
not tiim yellow heforc they Ihll, as with the boech : they are 
also longer or eliorter, ea tlie case may be. 

There are two kinds ^ of holm-onk; one of them, which 
belongs to Italy, h(i3 a leaf not v<^ry iiTihlto thftt of the olive ; 
Bomo of the Greeks givo it the name of " milas,'"" and in our 
provincea it is known as thu aquifulia. The aiiom of thesp 
two kinds is shorter imd more elendi^r than in the others: 
HoDicr'" calls it " acyloe," and by that name distinguiahea it 
from the ordinary acorn ; it 18 gcaorully said that the male 
tree of the holm-osik Wars no fruit. 

The beat acorn, and the very largest, is that wliich grows 
up&n the quercus, and the next to it is the fmit of the reecu' 
liis: that of the robur, ngain, is diminativc, and th€ frait of 
the cemiB has n meagre, wretched look, being enclosed in a 
ciilyx covered with prickles, like the outer coat of the ches- 
nut. With lelercnco to the ueom of the quercns, that which 
grows upon the female tree" ia sweeter and more tender, 
while that of the male ia more solid and compact. The nconi, 
however, of the latifoliu" ia the moet esteemed, an oak so 

** "Ilei," Fp<! thinks thtii the THrictics known us thp Priniw and tbo 
Ballota wtre ofitn confomided by ttiu wiicieiiU with iho " ilfs " or " holm- 
oak." Tliia tree, hu says, bun ao rracmlilaaco to tLt orJinuiy wik, cx<ri;pt 
in the UoasnniB nnd tha fruit. It b tUo tlci of LiniiiL-us, the " yeufie," or 
" grenn oak," of the F>cncb. 

"* Thi! tlucrciiB siiliGi of Linnitms ; it is found moie puticnlarly in tbn 
ileportiiit-nt of tlie Laiides in Fiance. 

^ As F^ remarks, Tliny i« clcurly in cnox hsra; unc kiail bcia^ thi; 
TtTitabIc iiuM >nr brim oitk, the oitmr, thu aqiufolium or huUy, quite ik dif- 
fOTent troc. 

•' TlitKinilftiorintlftiwiuariailUolm oiik,Imt theoqutfolja wisthe JwUy. 

^ Od. xi, 242. F^o remark* thsit the horry of tho liolly lias aa reseni- 
Muncu l« the uupm whatt^i^r, ani \w iniy» thiit this Btnltmrnl of I'Hny nl- 
tno«t Leadfi him to tliink that the Bccond vfiriety hert mni^ctioned by him wtts 
not in rtnlity Ihe hully, Ijut q rOTicty nf the ({umTMiH. 

•• F^ ubseiTsa ttial, properly aptakiug, ihi^re i> no sax in tie oak, tlia 
iadlTJlluals btinj^ neitht^r iDJiIi' nor ft^miile. The Flora Dunica >inweveT, nit 
k* obwrvufi, ^lvi-s the iiumu t>t " Quuiona f«craina" tv tLi- Quurciu lawnioHU 
of lamarck. 

'^ Or " hroud-losvcil" oak; one of the varieties of the Quercos BcMili- 
florn of Smith— Kw. Jirit. 

PLnfr'B BATFBACi HIBTOlit. [Buot XVT. 

ciilkid from the rumarkatlc broadueas of its JeaTcs. Tbe acorna 
differ also nmong theuist'lvea iu size, and the CDtiiponiUve 
finenL-as of the outer fihell ; as also in the ciccumfitance that 
some bjivo benpicfh the shdU n roiigli coitt of a rusty colour, 
while i& otliora a wtiita flesh immediRtoly presents iUfclf. 
Thosp, too, are moro particularly eateeined, the two extre- 
mities of the uut of which, taken length wise, are as hard as a 
etoue: and it i& roBeidRred jH-eferuble that tliis pecullaritj' 
should preaont itself rather in this shell than in the fleah : in 
eitJier ca&e, however, it only esitita iu tlie fruit ol' the malu tree. 
In eome kindsr again, the ucorn is orid, in otheiv} round; 
wiiUe in others it is uf a more potuted form. Thu colour, too, 
varivB considcnibly, accordipg ns it is b];iclcer or wliiter ; this 
taat heiug held in the highest esteem. The extremities nf Uiu 
atom lire hitter, hut the flcah in the middle of it is sweet;" 
finothcr difference, too, consists ia thft comparative length or 
shortness of the stalk. 

Ab lor the trees thoraBolvee, the one that hears the acorn of 
largest aizc is knuwii hb Die " hL-merifl;"'* a ftiimll troo with 
a thiuk bueby foliage all around it, imd often hollowed at tliL' 
place where tho Iraach is joined to the trunk. The quereus 
has a Btrouger wood, uud kss suaceptible of deeaj ; this ulao is 
a very branchy tree, but is niuoh taller tlian the laat, whtk 
tlie trunk ia eonsidarahly thicker. ITie ffigilops," However, id 
tiio highest of them all, and is ranch attached to wild, unculti- 
vated apots. Next t« this in height is the latifolia, butit« 
wood is far from beiiip so useful either for building purposM 
OT for charcoal. When rough-htjwn it is very apt to spoil, 
hence tt is that it is generally uaed iu an unb(!wn etate. As 
eliureool, it is coiiBidcrcd only eooaomical iti Binelling coppor; 
for the moment the workman ueoses to blow, thu tirti dicB oitt, 
and hence it requires to be repeatedly rekindled ; whilo at tliu 
tutme tlnii! it gires out greut cjufuititicB of sparks. Xhu host 

*• This etnfcinimf is iTimtTary to ponpral "Jitperionoe in raodmi tinei. 
tliu flusuiir i)f lUu ui'urii ln.'iuit iiiiilWiiily iwriil iinil bilUT tiiroajfhoni. It 
ij not impoFiiiblcr bowcvcr, Chat ths davour may Imvc ln^on marc pii]ulali1« 
ia anciimt Limes. 

** A variety of tho common oalt, the Quercna racHinoBa of Lamarck; 
SpretiRiil liika* it to li» Che (JurrRiin tiiillolin uf DrsriiuLiiiiiTO, 

^' The Uucrcuti )Cf;ili>p6 of l.iiiriit:uK. It is u uulivc v! Piedmont, soma 
]mrta of f tul)', iuii tiii: inhuJ vl' Vnte. 


charcoal is that obti^aed from the wood of young trooe." 
Square billets of wood. Dewly cut, are piled compactly together 
with clay, and built up in th^^ form of u chimuuy; the pile is 
then set fire to, and inrisioiiH are made in tLe cont of clay ns it 
gradually hardensj by the aid of long polca, lor the piirpose of 
letting tho moisture of the n-ood cvitpornte. 

The worst kind nf all, however, both for timber and for 
malting charroaJ, ia the oidt known aa l\ia " huliiihlasos,"** tho 
bark of which ia remarkably thick, and the trunk of caneidcr- 
uble size, but mostly hollow and ^iioiigy : it ie the only orio 
of tliis epctiios that rots while the tree is still alive. In 
additioa to this, it is vtry frcijacnlly struck by lightniu)!;, 
although it is not so remarkably lolty in height; for thi« 
reason it is not considered lawful to emjiloy its wood for thti 
purposes of fiaci-ificG. It is hyt rurely that it bears any flcoms, 
and when it dots they are bitti-r ; no animal -n-ill touch them, 
with t)ic ftolo exception of awine, and not t'ven they, if they 
can get any other food. An additional rcasoa alao for ila la- 
tlusion from all rL'UgiouB wremouiuU, is tho ■cireu.m&tance 
that the lire is very apt to go out in the middle of the 
sacrifice whciD the wtiod of it is UBt;d fur fuL-l. 

Tho acorn of tho botich, when giviu to swine,*" maUos them 
brisk and livi^ly, and rundets tlie Hosh tender for cookiug, and 
light and easy of digestion ; while, on the other hand, Uiat of 
the holm oak has the effi'ct of making them thin, pallid, 
meagre, and iuuipish. TKio ncom of the tiucrciis is of a broad 
shape, and is the heaviest aa well as the sweetest of llicm 
all. According to Kigidiua, tlio acorn of the ccrrua occupies 
the noxt rank to this, and, indeed, thcro is no acorn that 
renders tho flush of awine more firm, though at the flarao time 
it IB apt to impart a cortaiu degree of hiirdueas. The same 
author assureti us uluo, that thu acorn of the hoim oak 19 a 
trying diet for pwine, unless it is given in very small quau' 

*• Plmy*9 hccovrC of making ehurpool ia durivcd from Thfloiihinatus, 
B. iii. c. 10. F^ roninrkfi that it difiVrii liUle fiam tlio mct-hud adopted ia 
Franco at the pmBcrit day. 

*" Tie QuercuB UisDuiitcn, pruItaWj', of Laiaanfk. of whitiTi FiJo think» 
tho Qtictku* itscudfi-Btjijci' "f iJwriMitiiijms i^ u varicpf; it is Ibnail ia 
GrfCM ami na iha shotei of iW Moditcrranean. noar Gibraltar. Tha Grecic 
nartiii sigriilies the "*fu corli.t.iii^e," 

^ The Hlalemfint liere BiTi.'n. as to the effect of Ijepuh-niast oTi twine, is 
destitute, f go lemmrks, ofall. tbiuiilnUoa. If fed Wpflft it, tilcir flwtl will 
naturuUy bii uf a vjIk, sjiuugy tuitiue. 


titivs at B time. He says, too, that thig acom is the lust 
to fall, aad that the flteh of Bn^ine, if ft'd uprm the ooonu 
of the lEBculiiB, Iho rohur, or the cork-tree, will be of a 
spongy nature. 

CHAP, 9. — laX tHUfSVI. 

AH" tho glandiferous trees produce the gall-nut as well: 
(hey only bear acoraa, however, in alternate years. The gall- 
nut of the hemeris"* is consideruii the ehokeat of all, and the 
best adapted for the preparation of leather : that of the lati- 
fuUa closely resembles it, but is somewhat lighter, and not hy 
any moans bo highly approvi^. Ihis last tree produces the 
block gall-nat also — tor there aro two varietieBof it — this Ifi^t 
huing dpetaed prelerahle for dyeing vool. 

t?.) The gall-nut hegioa to grow just as the Bun is looving 
the sign of Gemiiii,*^ and alwaya burata forth in ils entirety in h 
single night.*' The white variety grows, too, in a single day, hat 
if the heat happtna to overtake it, it ehrinks imTucdifiteiy, and 
never arrives at its proper size, which ie about that of a bPao. 
The blaek gull-nni: will remain green for a longer period, ami 
sometimes attains the size of an apple'^ even. The best kind is 
that which comes from Commageoe,"^ and th-e most infcriot 
are those produced by the robur : it may easily bo tested hy 
means of uurtaia bolos ia it which admit of the passage of the 



Tho rohur, in addition to ita &ait, has & ^rciat nnmlier of 
other productions : it boai's™ tho two varieties of tho gidl-nut, 

*' Tbia assertion is pnrhnjis too gnticrsl; gvU-iiiits are prod iiot-il m fwy 
(mall quantUk's by ihf' liulwi-uiik. 

^ A. varioty of lins tlui^iniis raoemnaa, whioh produoeis tiie gtctin yalU 
lint at Alejipia, ugiiisiderKil iii mailcvn, u in anucat, times tbc cliuiiievt iu 

"* Tlieiiphrastics says the niirl of Juae. 

** list erywCli, iu lealitj-", ts aui to rapid a* thU. 

'^ Sucn a thiag is ii<<vur secel at tlie prcBcnt day. 

" 111 Sifria. Wc !m\e nicjilinned ttic galls of Alrppo in Nola 82. 

"' Tliis IS thu Kflsc wlieii ihv luside hiis been paten nway by Ihc hisect 
tliat hrBLtis tliGie I iiT i!i>urgB, in sucb cusc it is liollow, li^lit, aad wurtlilct*. 

aa lii^ luidean v/atv udi u^iuru tlutl tie gull wiu protlucc J tiom tiie tgp 

Cbaf. 11-1 


and a pnodaction wLich closely reaembli^B tlie nmlberxy,* ex- 
cept that it difiera frota it in being dry aad bard : for tliu mcwt 
part it bears a resembittncc to a buB'a head, and in the inside 
there is a fruit very BimiLir to the etono of the olive. Little 
halis^" also are fouad growing on the robur, nut unlike nuts in 
app(>arance, and containing within Uiem a kind of soft wool, 
which is uBuii for buniing in Ittmps ; fw it wili kcap burning 
without oil, whitjh is the casw also with the bltick gull-nut. 
It bean anutber kind, too, of Uttlu bidl, cohered with hiur,'' but 
us«l for no purpose: in spring, ho wevir, this contains a juice like 
hunt;}'. lu llie hollows fonnwi by the union o^f thu trunk uud 
branches of this tree there arefonnd also small round bidls," 
which adhere bodily to the bark, and not by means of a stulk : 
(it the point of jnnotioTi thfynn^ whitp, but the rest of the 
body is Bpotl<!d all over with black : inside they are of a scarlet 
colour, hut on opoiing tliem thuy arc found to be cmpt^, and 
are of a bitter t^tc. 

Sometiines, t^o, the robur bears a kind of pumico," as welt 
aa little bulle, whish are formed of tliu k<uvoa roUod up ; upon 
the veins of the leaves, kio, there are waterj- pui<tuli«, ol' a 
whitiah hue, and transparent while they are soft; in these a 
kind of gnat'' is produced, and Ihcy come to maturity just in 
the same way that the ordloury gaii-nut does. 

CIUP. 11. (8.)^M;AcnuiB. 
The robur Iwars uachrj'B,'^ too ; euuk beiu^ thu name giren 

nf the cpiips, <]('r>u«.itecl upon t1it' l«iaf t>i baik oT tlie tiw. !I^ and gallio 
luid itru its principal (^'jtiipvauat purtit. 

•• A miliBlunoe qiiJto unknown nuw ; but it is very doubtful (f Pliny is 
Hglitly iufornicd liero, 

j" A run^niis giiU, proiluted by tlie Cynips furigosa. It is nut used Sor 
liny d(inLentio |"i>irpo«p al th« prnt^int day. 

" This kiud <tl gull is now unkuuwu. F^* qucBtiens tt* assertion about 
iu juice. 

" Tho Oynips qncrcn* baeMmm flf IJnni«ii9. oive af the wmmon pill§. 

'I* Tho root, cyiiipB, tlii! UyaipB rii,ii[i;um uf Fuuicroi, proJucBs tbrae 
colli, which, lia near the root, uufl hnTe tlio 8upciinioi;e of ligneous iiiido- 
aitiot. It is baidcir tLimwooti, and CQntaius uuIIb, in whicli \he lunauf tbti 
iD«:«t licB ooilcd up. 

^' This is a proof, fts Tit rtmiwlcs, Ihnt tlio rmiients fcnd ohs^rred the 
psiiloncv of the t)ii)pt ; though, at iho &ame limti, It ia equally evident 
that tkey did not know tho imprirtuit part it avis in the formatiQii of thu 

'■ This word, aa employed by Thcoplirostiu, means a catkin, tko Julua 




[Boole STT. 

to a stDJil] roimd ball that b cmpbyod in modicine for ita 
caustic propi-rtics. It grows on the &r Uk^viiae, tho lanh, 
the yitdi-tree, the linden, tlie nut-tree, and the plane, and 
remains on the tret- tlirnnglioiit the winter, after thp k-aves bave 
jyien. It contains a kcnicl vtry aimilxir to that of the pint- 
nut, and jncreasos in si-ze during the winter. In spring the 
ball opens throiighoiit, and it tiuaUj' drops wbfln the leares 
arw Ix'giiiiiiug tu grow. 

^udi i» tlkc! multiplicity of tlio proditcts borne by tho robtir 
in addiUoQ to its ftconie ; and not only these, but mHshroouiB" 
as well, of better or woret; qunlity, tLc meet recent stimulautB 
that, have Ut&n disuovered for t!ie appL^littt j these last ar-o Ibund 
growing about ita roots. Those of the querciiB are thu most 
highly cstet-mcd, whi]<? those of the tobur, the cj-press, and 
tbc pine are injurious," Tho rohur prodacc-s rnistlttoc'* also, 
and, if wo may beliove Hcsiod," honey as well ; indeed, it Ja 
a woU-kDown (itct, t hut u houcy^-like de w lulling from heaven, aa 
we liave already mentioned, "' deposits itself upon the leavesof 
thiB tree in preference to tboee of uuy other. It is also well 
known that the wood of this tree, when burnt, produces u 
nitrous" ush. 

atnoDLnmol'tJic botimista; but It b doubtful ifPlitiyattacliea ttiiamc&ntnc 
to tb<i vinii, aa tbe^ limu or liorlcn-tren lias nn cntJiiu, liut an inflot«M:cn«< 
i)f a liiEFn'cnt charaiittr. It in uot iuipruhiibln Lbu.t, under tiiig nanio, he 
al!iiil<« to giiri'B vicirswienc"*, 

"t ThcBu wure tlie " boU'liis" rinil t.lii; " Miiiilu§ ;" tbp Inst of «hich leetn 
only to ImTo bovu recently iiiLrotluuucI nt uiUc in tUe limv of Pliny. Sra 
U. xxii. c. 47. 

'" lie olludea >olGaTly to Fiiniti of riiliiuilly different Qualltlrs, u tha na- 
ture of the CrcR» Iwiicutb wliiuB llicy pruw eunnut poasilily inttueuce thuni, 
anyftirtliei than by tbe vnnems jiropurliiiii* nf hIkmIp thi y ^iffiml. The toil, 
linwmcr, eicrBiKr'H arcat inilueiiue on Ibu quuiily of tlti- luiiKut ; f^rowing 
upon a hill, it may oo inuoxiuuB, nfaile in u w^I i^il il miiy be pruducdv* 
J dcuth. '• gc<t m. 93, 94, and 9fi, uf Uus Bvolc. 

!« ■\Vurka and Dayfl, 1. 230, 

*" Plinv BcuniH Lii liuve bcre titken in a litend sfmte,. what baa htxa nid 
figuraiixcly by Virgil, KbI. iv, 1, 26 : 

" £l Jurw (]ueri:ii^ £uilubnat loaciilB mella ;" 
and. by Ovid, in rtktjon to tho Goldi'n J^^(|, Mat. i. 113 : 
" FluKiiiiiie de viridi etilliilxint iliM mcHa," 
F^ lemarks. tbal wu unil on tliu linf of tbe linic-lrec a thin, tuunry <!«• 
posit, Ii^ft b; inseiiU, and IhuL & cpeuiea of roannu exudes frorii tlic Conifem, 
us uleu (ho bnrli of thc' leuvL i'liis^ lionevcr, U nera tii« oa^e wiUi tbe 
ualt. ^' B- xi. 0. 12. 

*• By this nord, Fiic obserreB, ve mu^t not uadnrstond tbe word ** aitn^" 

Chap. 12.1 




The holm oak, however, by its scarlet biirrj-" lilotte chal- 
lei^u compotjtion with, all these mimifoM productions. This 
grain nppoars at first sight to ha a roiigliiifiea on the fiurface of 
tlm tree, as it were, a Bmall kin*! of tlio aiiuilolia'" variety 
yf holui oak, knowu us tho cusculium.'''* To llio poor in Spain 
it furDisbc-9"° the meuua of pujiug one half of th<.'ir tiittulL-. 
We have already, wheu speaking"' of the purple ff the inurcx, 
mentioaed the best methods adopteii for csiiig it. It is pro- 
duced also in Giilatiu, Aiiica, Piaidia, and Cihuia : the ntust 
inferior inx\A ia that of Sardinia. 

CQU*. 13. A6AIUC. 

It is in the Gallic prorinoea more particularly that the glan- 
diferous tives produce agaric ;'* such heiog thw name givon t»» 
a white fungus which has a strong odour, and is very useful as 
an antidote. It grows upon the top of the tree, and ginw 
out a brilliant Ught** at night : this, indeed, ia the sign by 
Vhioh its prc'scnw is known, and by the aid of this light it 
may be gathered during the night. The ii>gilopa is the only 
one among the glandil'erous troes that bears u kiod of dry 
clothf*" covered witli n white mo9.'»y shag, and this, not only 
attached to the bark, but liangiug down from Uie brauuhts as 
wvll, a eubit even in length : tliis euUtiince hus' a 8ti-;>ug 

in thfl Modera ai-itet:, bat t'he Kub-curbuiiiite nf potash ; wtiilu tite a*li«« of 
tr*i« gruiring en [.lip ibiirea uf the diri produce a aiib-i^arbonattt of sonJa. 

•^ " L'owiiB." Tliis is not II ifiill. ijut thtdUtriiiltJi.! tuily uf kii iiiwi't, lll« 
Lenne«, whitli ^owi oa & pocdiai mk, tlie " (iuurcu* cutcifgra," fouad in 
the Boatli of Eurojie. 

** We liHTc prerioveljr mcndcncd, tiat he Moma to hAve oonfoiindcd tUe 
tully with tie holm oak. 

'^ I'oiijsiiLet, latLer aboiirdly, m it would appear, Bndi in thin vtai tbe 
origin of our word "i'fiehir««I." 

_=' The kurm OS berry is but litilousBd ia Spain, or, indeed, anyvlieie doe, 
eince the dismrc'ry ol tha cocLiiiciil of Amcncii. 

^ B. ix. 0. 65. 

^ Not Use white 114,1100, P^ s&ys, at modvrn pkorraney ; but, a* 00 Iditd 
of agnric is fixuiil ia tlie ouk, it data aut scLm postlbl« ui idiatufy it. Sve 
B. w. «. 57. 

™ It is sridont that aft funpis would givo out phospborie light ; hul it 
may bavA tcEuIted frnrn olrl wood in h itiite of decumpiisiljcjii, 

"^ It it pj'oti]' oleur thai oci; uf the UlIii^ils of the ^epus umiea ia }unv 
refierrnd to, Aioaduc, or GermuL tiaJor, aennu wjaiewhat aimiluj. 

roL. ni. A A. 


fust's KATUEAl HlSTonT. [Book IVL 

odotir, aa wG 'huve alrQudy" stuteil, vIiqu fipcukiug of Uie 

The cork is but n very s^iall tree, and ita acorn is of tii« 
rery worsL" ()iiEility, nod rarLOy to be found us well ; the 
bark" ia its only usoful [iroduct, bting reiciu-kably thick, mul 
if reni«v£id it will grow agfiin. When atraitoncd out, it hns 
beon known to form ptaiiks tia mudh as ten feet eqimre. Thia 
flubfttimoo is cinployt'd more particularly attacvhed as a bnoy 
to the ropoB" ol'shipa' iLntihora and the dmg-neta of Q^termtio. 
It is eDi[jIuyed aleo for the bungs of ca&ks and 03 a mftteriul 
for the winter eliucs" of femati's ; for wbicb rettsou the Greeks 
uot iuappropriatvly caU them** " tbf bnrk of a tree." 

Tlieri! MB aoDue writers who speak of it as the female of tlie 
holm oak; und in the fiountnia where the holm docs not 
grow, they Biibititntc for it tlio wood o( the cork-tree, mors 
pnrticularly in cartwriglits' work, in the vicinity of Elia and 
Lacu^dtomon for inaljinco. The oork-tree doRH not grow ihrougU- 
out the whole of Italy, and in eo*' part whatever of <3auL 


Tho baric nleo of tlio heech, tlio limo, the flr, and the pit^^h- 
trbfl is extenaively used by the peasantry. Puunicrs and 
baakels arc mudo uf it, us also the large flat hiUuiicrH which 
OTD employiid fur tke oarriage of coru and gi'upus: roofs of 

" B. xii, fl. 50 

" Oil ilio Qontrary.F^e Bap.thenoornof ihoQueToiiasnhBridnf Biwcei 
anil ii^rcQiible tliiv,>ur, und is much sn^iight ns a (iiotl for pi^a. The Laioi 
of Bajouie are mud la owe ihulr tiigU rvpuUtiou lu tUe uioriui of the wrk- 

" Tlie word" cork" Uulearljr derived Trom tho Ltljn "ccrtox," "b«A" 
See BfcltmttiiD'g Ui^luxy of Iiivc'iitii>iis, V. i. p. yif}, H tcq., Sohiit Ji^lka, 
foi a. \iiTy iiitei-eKliiiig: aimouitt ut thi>i iroo. 

■* Tliis piLsa.igc. the iii<-[ining of wi]ii.'h is so ubvions, is diMUated itt *03m 
lerngti bj llecknianii, Vol i. ])ji. 321, 3'J2. 

»* It ia aiill cinplnjyed for ninkitig solw wkicb are JniMiTioui lo th« wrt. 

*i It in duuTjtfsil whciber tliis name wiis given to tliu «hinw, or tlie It- 
malos nha vrnrc lh«'m, and we hnv^ ihorcfciro pruacTrcd the doubt, in the 
ambiguous " thiim." BuvkTnniiii ulao di5iiiias(» l.liis pns^ti^p, p. 321. E( 
inftrrmx ae, p. 3'22, that tLa Uomuii Ibulu-a wtio wislicd lu uppenr tullpr tliiui 
t)>f<y rually wtie, iv^fa In Lhn habit of putting plenty of cork under liiv-i>' 

*' At the present day, it ^rawa iji iht greatest obuadance iu France, lit 
LiiDdos more partioululy. 

Clwp. IB.] 

TEE riSB. 



cottages,*^ too, Bie mode of this luateritil. "Wlien a spy haj 

"been sent out he often leaves intbrniation for his geiifiral, 
vrttteD U]iou t'msk burk, hy cutting letters ia the |)iirts of it 
that aro lii<.' m<jBt, juicy. Tbw biult »t tlic Uoch is also em- 
ployed for religmiH purposea in certain sa-jred ritfs." TijJe 
tree, hi>w«Ter, wIk-ii de^ rirod of its bui'k, vili tiut survive. 

vuik: i5. (10.)— KiusuU!*. 

The best Bhing'ks aro Ihoso made of tlie wood of the robur ; 
tlie next beat kieiug those liiriiished by ;ht; uthur g-landiferous 
UeeB and tlie beech. Thusu otoEt eufiily made ari^ cut I'ruiu 
the wood of tlie rt-sinuus trees, but they do not last, ' 
with tho escL-ptiou ut' those made of pine. CorneliuB 
N«pQt informs us, tbat Rome was roofed soltly with Bhingli;? 
down to the time of the war with Pyrrhiis, a jteriod of Jbup 
hundrtd and seventy yeara. It is wc-U Imown tlmt it was 
remarkable for tlic fine forests in ite vicinity, f-ven flt the 
prcsunt duy, ilm name uC Jupitc-r Pugutidus [iolqIs out in 
what locality thero stood a grove of beeches ;" thu ftuLTijuo- 
tulim Gal*! ebowe where tho quorcus once etood, and the Vi- 
inisal H'll 18 tbe spot whera the " viniL-ii"'' was sought io 
ancient times, In, many other parts, too, there were grovee 
to be found, &nd Bomt'tioiea aa many as two. Q. HortensiuB, 
the Dictator, on the a,eoe8»ion of tbe plebci-ins to Ibe Jitnt- 
culum, passed a law in the j5?aculetum,' thut what the ple- 
beians hod Goactud ghould he binding upon every Itoman 

DGJlP. 15. THR rlKB. 

In those flays they nigordcd a.* exotics, bocanee tlicy did not 
exist in tlio vicinity ° of the City, the pine and the fir, as woU 
as all tht! other varieties that produce pitch ; of which we ehtdl 
now proceed to £peak, in order that tho method of seasoning 

** This is stiU die aum ia same of the poorer protincc* of Spnin. 
»• As Fie i«niark&, Mats ii no longer tba iJinnit/ in honour of whom 
cha^al^U'ni are tiiiceJ on ibn bui'lt ol ici-es, 

* On ttio conlrnrjf, F^o aays, liiu luiiii-uui wood* am tlie most proof of 
all aa'itin»t iJiv actinti of thi* air. 

1 Fmtiu *a}s thai ihu Ftti^utul, a Glicino of Jupiter, vae so oalled ttua 
a bOGcti troo [fa^s) tliat atooil Ih&nu, and was buccehI to ibut guil. 

* l)r OHirr. 

* Oi "pkutatlon of ihe ittculuia," * a.c.c. 367. 

* i'it nguitLt tbut lu an oxtiemely dotditful asiertioo. 

A A. 2 

3.*i6 flint's iTATFKAL nrBTOKT. [Boolc XTT. 

wine, fpom tlis rery flret, may tc fully known. "WherMii 
therr are Bflveral ttraong thti Irwa alren*]^ meniioncd in Asia 
or tlifl East, that produce pitch, in Eiir^iK! there ura but 
six varieties oi'kiiidrvd trut-s thut supply it. In this namU'r 
there are the piae^ and the pinaster,* which have long thin 
leaves like hair, imd point""! nt the ^nd. Ite pine yields the 
K'iwt resin of them idl : in the pine niit, iniir.ed, of whicb we 
hare previously apoltcn,' it ia aomotimcs to be fouud, but 
hardly in sufficient quantities to ■warraat ub in reckcminK thu 
pine among the rci^inans trcca. 


The pinaster h nolliiDg else bnt a wild pine : it rises to a 
SUTpriaing height, and thi-ows out branches from the oiiddle, 
just ns the pine does Irom the top. This lie* yields a more 
(iopioufl supply of resin than the pine : tho mode in which Uiih 
is done wo shall st-t forth '" on a future oenasion. It grows 
ttlao Lu fliLt i'oiintn<.'a. Many piioplu think that this is the 
SBOic tree that grows ulcjug the shores ol' llidj, und ix knoim 
as lie " tihuluB ;" " but this last is Blender, and more mm- 
pjwt thra the pine; it is likewise Tree from knota^ and hencti 
IB usediu the construettuu of light gallics;" they are both almoBt 
entirely destitute uf resin. 


The pitch-tree" lovea the mountain heights und cold loca- 
lities. Tliia is a funoreal tree, and, ua an emblem of death, in 
placed before the door of the deeouacd, and is left to grow in 
the vicinity of the funeral pile. Still, howi;Tur, it is now 
some time since it was admitted into our gardens, in consc- 
qmenco of the facility with wliich it is clipped into rutiviu 
fihappA. It givea out, coneiderahle ipmntities of reein," wbicb 

' Tlio Finus pinea of LinnFoua, tbe cullivaind pior, 

' Tlie Pinui HiLvr«[.riii of Liiinieiis, tbu itilil piUo; tlitt Puiui mKritJinaiif 
Lnmarck ii a. viirietj uf it. 

* 0. S.V- g. 5. 10 In u. 23 of this Book. 

" A vwrietj; of the Knns sikestris of LinuiEui. 

" " Libumica;." See B. ix. oc. 5 and iS, 

" The Abita eicdsn of Dee4ii<3i>ile — tbu iWw or Faux aapm (bba tr) 
uf tlie FrcDcb. TliU treu, liuwevur, Iibb not tlie pectiva'tnl, or cODib-Utv 
Isaf, KientiiHiHtJ by Pliny in c. 3S. 

'* It ia itill knuvra in cuiQuerVB as " false inceoss (' imtl is often edIiI 

awp. uj 



is intf nning^lE'il vith irhite granulatioos like poarls, and so 
similar in appearance to fironkiuci^nse, that when mixcil, it in 
impoasiblo to diatinRniah them; hence the uiliilttT&tions wc 
find pracdecd in the ISepksia." All tliis class of trees ha^e a 
nhort briatly lonf, thiitk and hard, like thut of the cyprose. 
The bronchc-e cf tliu pitch-trco aro of moderate size, and cx- 
tt-nd ixom almost tho very rout of the tree, adhviiog to thd 
sides like so many anna : the same is the case wilh the fir," 
the wood of wliicli is held in great e-stet^ra for ship-building. 

This tree grows upon the Humoiits of lolty ciounlaiaa, us 
though, in fact, it had an antipathy to th« sea, and it does not 
at all differ from the pitth-trc-e in apppurance : the wood is 
also very higUy esteemed tor (he conslruction of mftcrB, and 
many othur appiianLts of life. A flow of resin, which in ihe 
pitch-tree eoustitutea its grcdt merit, is looked upon a» a 
dofoct in the £r," though it will geaurally exudo in some 
sniiill quantity on exposure of the wood, to the action of tli» 
Bun. Oa tlie other hand, the wood which in the lii-lxee in 
remarkably fine, in the pitch-trte is only ii»od for muking 
ihingloa, Tats, and a few other articles of joinem' work. 

cnAp. 19. — ^TttE ULBCU : r^x toech-tbsb. 

The fifth kind of rceinuua tree haa the same loi^alitica, ani 
isTcry gimCiir in appenranee; it is known as the larch.'' Tho 
wood of this tree h far more valuable, being unimpaired by 
tim?, and proo^f ngnirist all di-cay ; it is of a reddish colour, 
and of an acrid sraeil. lle^n '" flows from this wood in still 
greater quantities; it is of the colour of honey, more -mcona 
than the other varietiee, and never tnnis hard. 

aa inctn»e fat lbi> rites at Ihf ItttDiuii chuti'h : wbilu somf^timm it is piii' 
posuly oaaplfiyed, s» titing c)ieaii<-r. 

" A gri>al itreM ill Onpiia, wbicliooiuiit«ditnt{riily of thesfaopsof sotlcn 
of anziuate and pcrfiimw. 

'■ It buci the iame pyiiimidal form as t^e ptoh-trcs. It is still much. 
meij in abip-builiiing, bolb iut risinoLu ftn-i) iliuiiMu qualities unci the 
liglitnegB of the yttiiiii. 

" The pTFsonRii fiS rtain is net lonkcil unnn ns nny (l«r««l in the Si at llie 
jnvKal duy. It proJuoes vrhtt is kuonru m ctnunwrut m " StroBbuurg tui- 

"* The AbtM larii of Linnieui, and Ihe Liiris Euiopwn, it is Uwaplit, 
of Docandolle*. 

"• It i< iJie Venioe tarpentincof comnierce. Etioli tieewill fuiniah tttrt'a 
«r «igbt poiULd» ttuvh yeiir i'ui bjilf b ouulut/, 



A sixrti vari(?ty is the toruh-tree,* properly bo caUed, 
■which gives out more resin than any of the othera, with the 
exception of the pitch-tree ; but its resin is more liquid thaa 
that of this last. The wootl, too, of this tree is more particu- 
larly omployert for kindling fires and giving torch-light in 
relijioua ceremaaials. Of this titje it i& the male only that 
hears what is kaown to the Oreeks by thu namu of " ayce,"" 
remarkabli; for its extiviuely powwtiil odour. When, the 
larch" IB chan^d into tho torch-true, it is a proof that it ii in 
a disoaeod Btato. 

The wood of all these trees, when set fire to, gives out tm< 
moderate volumefi-of sooty 9inoke,^Qnd sputters every novand 
then with a eudd^n crackling noidp, while it sends out red- 
hot chnrpoal to a conBidcraMo diatitnce — with the boIg esoeptioii 
of that of the larch, whi-uh will riflilher biira^ nor char, nor, iii 
fact, 8iili'er any nioro froio the action of firo than a alone. All 
these tree3 are evergreenB, and are not easily" distinguished 
by the foliage, even by ttiOB« who iire heat acquainted with 
them, so nearly related are they to one another. The pitch- 
tree, however, is not so high ae the larch ; -which, again, ia 
stouter, and has a smoother hack, with a more Ttlvety leaf, 
more unctuona to the tonch, thicker, and more soft and fl.«d- 
ble.^ The pitch-tree, iigain, has a leaf more apareely scattetod 
and drier ; it ia thinner also, and of a colder nature, roughs all 
over in appearance, and c-overod with a reainous dopoait : Uib 
wood of this trco ia most like Hint of the fii'. Thii larch, wliun 

™ It ia doubtful it' tlia tK^a, or torch-tree, 'hm l>M>n iiienliliied. Sflmi 
tAko it to he iho Pinua tnaglio of Miller, the tnrf fi-pinc nf llic FrvutL ; 
nthers, egsin, suggest thai it is the lamo as tliG I'inus camltro of tbe bo* 

*' So CBllft! from its reBsmhluiice lo a flg-. P^ says tbat Uiere ia Uttlt 
doubt tbiit thid pretended fmit was morvlyn resitLotu sevruUvn, wfcinb 
bftri^ttns laid aiiBiirnc& the fnrm v-f a %. 

" Hb somuwhat luistrflQaliites n pn.iwge of Theophriistns here, wboi 
without LrunsFurming the LurcU into unoLliei tr««, says tliiit ic ui a (i^ of 
disease ia the luruli, whtu ibi stiorettiKis-aroaugniiiutLiI to auoli a d«{ie« 
iIj&L it »etims ti> turn tUelf into resin. 

" The iamp-blni'fc of comniBTco is made from the aoo-t of lh« pitifl. 

)* This stiitemcnt, though aiipporrcd lif thul of Vitrum&, El. ii. c 9, ii 
quite eifoueoua. The wood of thv brch gives out more hc^iit tliui Uuit of 
Ine Hr, nail proitucos more li?*r cool ia proportion, 

** This, ¥4c rtraatlis, is the fact. 

** This dt'sciiption ia inexnct, nn<l wo eliauld have some difflcult]' to 
reoogninng h^rs tiie larch u knowa to us. 

the roota are once burnt, will not throw oat fieeli aboota, 
which tho iiitnh-tjee will do, as whr found to be Vhc case ia iho 
islaad of Lcaboa, niter the I'yrrhaiiui gruve had been burnt 

In the same species too, the variety O'f sex" is found to con- 
stitute a consiilerable difference : the male is the ehgrler tree, 
ftnd has a harder woorl ; while the female is taller, and beara a 
leaf more unctuous to the feel, smoDth and free from all 
rigidity. The wood of the male tree is hard and awry, and 
consequently not so ircll saited for carp^ent^rs' TTork ; while 
that of tho femule in eoftpr, as may be very eofiily perceivpd on 
iho apiilieiition of the asf, a test, in fuet, wbith, in every 
variety, immediately nhows us which trees are males ; the axe 
in Buch case meutiuj; with a greater ruBiatimce, falling with 
a louder noise, and bting williJrawn from the wood with eoa- 
sideraldy greater difSeiilty : the wood of the male tree is more 
piirched too, and the root is of a blacker hue. In the vicinity of 
Mount Ida, in Troas, the cirCTiroBTnnre whether the tree grows 
in the raoiinlain districts or on thu si^a-aboro, maUea another 
considerable ilifTijrenctt. In Macedonia and Arcadia, and in tho 
neighbourhood of Kiis, the names of the several varieties have 
been totiilly altered, and it has not been agreed by authors 
which narao ought to bo given to each : we have, therefore, 
contented ourselves with, employing the Roman denominatioOB 

The fir ia the krgest of tbeiD all, the female being the taller 
of the two; the wood, too, it. softer end more caBiIy worked. 
This tree is of a rounder form than the others, and its leaves 
arc closely paelied and fenlhered, so aa U{)t to admit of the 
pasange of rain ; the appearanco, too, of the tree is idtogelher 
more cheerful. From the hranehea o£ tliese diffenuit varieties, 
with the solo cxeepliou of the larch,* there hsBg oumbers of 
Bcaly mite of compact sliape, like bo mimy calkins. The nuts 
found upon the maJe lir have a kernel in the fore-part, which is 

*' Tiinj u in tmst here, Qitn hthg no distinction af aei ia the eoni- 
fcroii* Ireeg. All Hint ie rflwtes rrlotive to the differencM hctweMi the 
mall! and fuinnli! jiiiip is oonaenurntly fu]»o. He lias, huwaver, in Ihii in- 
■Unoe, only perpi timti^d an rnoiiuous Diiinion of TliFopti rust ill. 

•• Tbii « iiu t;!Tiiti«ms BtatoaiLinl. Tlia lurcli lia& iu cone, m "tH u 
the rest. It it po»iibl«, however, that iu sidbU size moy hnyv cauJ>t^d it ta 
be 6T«tloaked bf Flin/. 


TirsT's sATcaiL nisTonr. 

rsool XY[. 

aot the cnac with tbosc on the female tree. In tlie pitch-tree, 
again, these keraols, which are very smiUl and black, woityiy 
the wbolo of the calkin, which is Btnaller and more slendf* 
thtiD. in the other varieties; hence it is that the Greeks oa!! 
this tree by the nnme of phthirophoron.'* In thia tree, too, the 
Qnta Dtt the mole ura more comprcSBed, and lees moist witb 

CSiF. 20. THT£ TKW. 

Kot to omit aay ono.of thera, the yew*' is similar to these 
other trees in general appetirauco. It is of ti colour, however, 
but alightly approaching to greeu, and of a HlcndtJr form; of 
sombre and oiuinoiia aspect, nnd r^uite deBtituts of jutce : it is 
the only one, too, among them al!, that bears fl berry. In the 
mule Iree the frnit ia injimoua ; indeed, in Spain more particu. 
larly, the berrica contain a dotidly poiaon." It is an as(v(>rtaJncd 
fact that Iruvullers' vessela,^-' made in Gaul of this wood, for Uie 
purpose of holding wine, have ctiased the d(>ath of those who 
used them. Sextius »aye, that is Greece this tree is known by 
the naiae of "saithix," and that in Arcadia it ifipoescgaed of no 
aetlve a poison, that those wEio sleep hcaeath it, or even take 
food" thtre, ai"© sure to meet their death firom it. There are 
authors, nho, who assert that the puisons which we call at 
the present day " toxica," and in which arrows are dipped, 
wore, formerly called toxica,'* from this tree. It has been 
discovered, also, tJiat theee poisonous qualities are qoite neu- 
tralized by driving a copper nail into the wood of the tree, 

*' Or "louflc-bBariTig," As Tie snya, it in diffiealt to see the ntmlogy. 
*" Tlic Tasos baccataof LiiLneua. ITio auooimt Uwu gi?en is lq gf Derol 

" Tt is aiipposetl tliiit Pliny deriTes fUia nfilkm » to tin; ji'w berry frum 
IuUm C*«:ir, n-lin says thai " Cativuluua Ivilltid liimaelf wilh ilie yew, i 
iroc which j^rowa in errtal abimdaiico in Giiul anJ Otnnwiy." It is, ho*- 
mr, Duw kiguwD that llie herty ia quite inoiix'iiGiua ; tiit tho U-nvc« and 
■bnote ii« (IcilriiKUse of Hiiiiual iiCe. 

*' " Viatotiu;" probftljl)' not unlikB our IraTpllIrjg floila and [wckct-pii- 
toN, Tliw stn-trmimt raodo by riinj" ia ncit at nil improhablo. 

'^ Ttiii stateni&m Joes not dcwrvB a serioua (lontradiotioii. 

** Tt it not imnrobQhk, howe»er, ihnt tHov, an "arrow," ia of oWrt 
date IhuL '^tUUB, lueigiiifpng tiie name of tbe yew. 

Chap. 22.] 




Ie Europe, tar ia extracted from the torch-tree" liy the 
Eigcncjr of fire ; it is omplnyed for conting ships and for mony 
oLhtT useful purposes." The wooil o-£ the trco is chopped"" 
into small LUlcts, and then put into a faniacp, which is hc-iittid 
bj" fire* lighted on t-vcry fiide. The first ateam that exudes 
flgwa in the form of water iuto ii reservoir made for its recep- 
tion: in Sjria this substance is known as " ccdrimn ;"'* and 
it posaeiises such reniiirkable etrength, that in Egyjit the bodie* 
of the dead, afttr being stttiped in it, are preserved from all 


The liquid that follows is of a thicker conBisteocy, and coq- 
rtitntea pitch, properly so called. This liquid, thrown again 
into a hrai^on cauldron, and mijtpd with vincgtir, becomes Htili*^ 
thicker, and when left to coagulate, rcceivps the name of 
" Bmtiian" " pitch. It is used, however, only for pitching the 
tnsido9 of doliu" and other vessels, it diU'criug from the oihcr 
kinds in being mtiro viaoons, of n redder colour, and more 
anctuous than ia usually the cose. All theeo varieties of pitch 
ui'e prepurwd fipom tlio pitch-true, by putting ri'd-hot atones, 
with the rei9inouB wood, in troughs made &f etning onk ; or 
if these troughs are not attaioahle, by piling up billets of tlie 

*^ NumoroTisviij'i-eties of tli« coniferw supply TiH Willi tisr, ami Plinv ii 
in error in d«tiviti^ it eokly iiata the lotcb-truc. tb^ Pluub muftliD of liti- 
Dnni. " Sue B. ttiv. o. 33, 

" II is KLill ohtaincii in a similur vay. 

" Fi*«imimrlii, that rliny i» in j-rror bero; this red, vnttery fluid fnmiEd 
in tlie extruetimi oT tar«,bviiiK «)uitu a ililTureTil tiling fiom "(wdnuci," Dm 
eikitrtm OT kitreni of tha .Gratis; wbicli is not Imiirobulil)' mudc froiii h 
atAar, or psthnfia Lbn^ -luiiipMUit Phaiiiora, called " C'cdnia '' by ibe two 
Banhins anil ToumefoTt. I(n kivs tltnt it is not likely tlint titp Egrptiana 
wnulJ mn Ihinrral lulininnce for lliP pliqiospaf jirew-rTUiff tiled rad, nliiirg'i'd 
as it ii with empyreuiuatLO oil, aitd <lL>«titulij of all prnporlk's [frmliiiE in 
rnim. "^ Sco B, xxi. u, 3, and B. x»i». e. 2a. 

*• This ia itnpraeCJ'ttablQ : noiilici vinegar, winr, nor wn-tcr, will rainglo 
ilh pilch. 'riiMC r«»in*, hAtrtvc^r, if ttirrnl up hriskly in hot iratei, be- 
come of a pakr colour, aiiU a^iuin^ un ailditiunRi «itp|ili<DrM. 

*^ I'ccliBnit to ciilW From t'l-ihcbriii, 3 country wlirra itii: piae abcuitdetl, 
snd pait of which vas called UiuUium. 

*' Or wioo-viiu. 



31)2 rilHT'S HATCBiL HI8T0BT. [Book XYT. 

woa^I in the method erapluyed for the manufiictare of char- 
coal.*' It is Uiis i)itj:li that is used for senaoumg mne, bt;lQg 
first pounded and reduced to (i fine powder: itia of a blacker 
colour, too, than the other sort. The eame resin, if bo-iled gently 
■with water, uiid then strained off, becoEics vimioHP, and nwiimes 
a red colour; it is tiien knomi as " di&tillijd" pitch:" for 
mitkiDg this, the refuse portions of tbc rcfiia and Iho hark of 
the tree aro generally Bclyctcci. 

Auother method is adopted for the maniifacluro of that used 
ae crapula." Itaw flower of resiu is luittu, direct from the 
tree, with a pleofciful sprinkling of Bmall, thiu chips of the 
wood. Tliese are then pounded** down and passed through a 
sieve, after whidi they are steeped in water, which is heated 
till it comes to a boil. The nnctinua portion tlint is extracted 
from thift ia the best resin : it ia hut rarely to he met with, 
and then only in a few places in JUdy, in the viuinity of the 
Alps: it is in com^idemble requi^at for inbdiciiinl purposes. 
Tor this, they generally boil a congius of white voBin to two 
eoDgii of ruin- water : " Bome persons, however, think Lt better" 
to boil it without water for one whole day by a bIow lire, 
taking care to ase a vessiel of white copper." Some, again, 
are in the habit of boUing the resin of the te^rebinth" in a fiat 
pan" plnced upon hot SBhcs, mid prefer it to any othir kind. 
The reain of the mastich.*' ia held in the next degree of esti- 

^ See o. 8 of the prctont Book. 

" Stillaticitt. " Sffl B. xiT. c, 25. 

** Thii f>p(ration Temnvwi ftorn thu pitcli «. gnait portiiitn of il« eumtul 
oil. and dlBe]igii^t!s it of aay i-xlraatouii builit^a tliat luuy haw Iccn miud 
witb it. 

" Fee rj'inftrks that tlicrc is no neeeraily for tliis stkclion, thmifh no 
doiilit ruin- irater la Hiipcrior to epring^ or d^tem wnter, tor ttitat purpoira, 
fToro it* )iuldin[r nn terreous utlta in soluliua. 

** Thiiwoiild cnlnur tiiereBiu mors Rliongly, F£e snyi, tin j give it R 
^littui degree uf fTitibiiity. 

•• Sm B. miv. c. 20. " See li. xiv, c, 2u, and B. iiiT, & 21 

*■■ " Snrlago," Geucrally undersLond ta b« the snrnd us iiur frying-fia. 
P^e Teraark* tbnt tbii« tnethoil would ntuit iiicvit^tb-ly cniiii- tlic tna«, m 
fuEJon .to ; Ru-d shciiJd bilbIi not be the rnsE, a. <:oU>vrpA Tfiia vrcniLd 
bo the i«8uU, coIouTsd with a large quaatity ofvuTbon, Uid ilvtlituto of ill 
the MRcntial oil that the leaia oHginuIly cotlainod. 

« Ste n. liv. e. 20, 

^ The t'lr^liinttiiac nf the mnstich, Fi5e brjb, it an oUo-ieno, w ia 
oilier WDrtih, compuaed of aji essential oil and a resin. 

Chap. 23.] 




cH*?. 2S, (IS.J — BOW lira Bssm cahko zopissa re j-uspjiked. 

We must not omit, too, thnt ihe Greeks call by the name of 
ropisaa** Uie pitch niised with wax whii^li has hoen scraped 
from off the bottoma of Bca-going ships ;"* for there is nothing, 
in fact, that has bfen left untried by mankind. This composj. 
tion in found much more efficient for all tlioso purposes in 
which pitch and resin are ctnploj-ud, in conBequraoe of the 
Buperiar hurdnesa which has been imparted to it by the eea- 

The piteh-tcee ia opened" on the side that facea the ftiui^ 
not by moims of an incision, brat of a wonad m»de hy the re- 
mcfval of the bmk: this opening being geuerally twD iect in 
width and one cubit from the ground, at the yery least. The 
body of the tiee, too, ia not spared in tJiis instance, as in others, 
for even the very chips ft-om off it are considered as having 
their use ; IhoBe, however, from the lower part of the tree are 
looliod upon as the best, tlm wood of the higher parts giving 
the reein a hitt«r'^ taelc. In a short time all the rcfiinona 
juices of the entire treo come to a point of conUuence in tha 
wound 80 infiiuUnl : tho sanifi process is adopted ubo with the 
torch-tree. When the liquid censes to flow, the tree jb opened 
in a similar manner in some other part, and then, again, else- 
where : after which the whole tree ia cat down, and the pith"* 
of it is Used for blU'ning." 

So, too, in Syria they take the bark from off the terebinth; 
and, indeed, in those parts tiicy do not spare even the root or 
bTQnohft'i, although ia general the rt'sin obtained from those 
parte is held in diBeKteuui, In Hucedoiua thoy subject the 
whole of the mult larch to Uie a;otioa of fire, but of the female *° 

•• ApparenUf medning "boiled pilch." 
" 8« B. xiiv. 0. 26. 

*' Thii account linB b«oi] borrowed from TTifloplirnrtuB, Hisrt, PInnt.B ii. 
e. ii- The moilem mrtlitnl of usiructin^ the rpsia pI the jiine is vcrj 
•imilar, " Tliiirt' is do foiinduliuD w)iHte*er fur tliis Elaif^mciit. 

** Th* pitli of thn piiin cinrot he K'-piualet] from the wood, and, indecl, 
il not CQiily di»tiii}piuhiid from it. We says tliat in soTne of thwo trees 
maeaoB of rrain arc fuunil in ihd ciivitiea which run lonKitudinrdly vrith the 
fihrra, iind quftriee whether this may not be the '■ narrow " or " pith " «f 
the lri*9 menfianed by Pliny. *■ As a torch Or ■ftundle, pntbablv. 

*' Thin JiHsiun or [}it- lurch into texet, ii» prerioualy iiioutioiiei), i« ooty 
faQoinil, and haa bo Fouadntinn in fact. The result of this Dpcratiun^ V6« 
iBji, woutJ be only a tuit uf tar. 



[Boolt XVI. 

only the roots. Thcopompua has stated in hu writings that in 
tin: territory of the ApolloniatcR thtrii is found a ki nd of mineral 
pilch," not inferior to that of Macedonia. The beat pitflh** 
everywhere is that obtained from trees jdiinted on sunny spots 
vitb a nortb-cost n^^^ct ; while that wtLich is produced from, 
more shaded localities has a disagreeable look and a repulsire 
odour. Rtch, too, that is produced amid the cold of winter is 
of inferior quality, being ic smaller quatitity, too, and compara- 
tively colourless. Some persons arc of opinion that in moan- 
tainou3 localities tliis liquid is jiroduced in the greatest flbun- 
dtmoc, find that it is of superior colour and of a sweeter tasto 
and has a finer smell so long as it remains in a stato of resin; 
hut that when, on t.ho other hauil, it is Bubj^tcd to boiling, it 
yields a Bmallcr nuiuiliiy of pitch, becuiiso so much of it goee" 
off in a serous fthape. Tlioy say that the rewnous trees, too, 
tbut grow on mountains oro tMnucr thuu thoeo that uro found 
on ])!ain8f but that they nt'e apt, both of them, to be unpro- 
ductive in dear, drj- weather. 

Some trees, too, afford a flow of restnoui juice the year after 
the incision is made, some, again, in the second year, and 
othera in the third. The wound so made is filled with resin, 
but not with bark, or hy the cicatrization of the outer coat ; 
for the bark in this tree never unites. Among theae raiie- 
lies some authors have matto Uio eappium" to constitute s 
jmculiar kind, becauBe it is produced from the seed of a kin- 
dred variety, as we have already stated when apeaking of tbo 
nut?" of trees ; and they have given Ihu nanio of laoda* to 
the lower parts of the tree ; although in reality tliia trco is no- 
thing else but a pilch-tree, which hy careful cultiyation lias 
lost eomo studU portion, of its wild character. The iiamu 
"Biippinua" is also given to the timber of these trees when 
cut, «8 we Bhali have occasion tO' mention"'' hereafter. 

*' See B- XQT. a. 61. Ttv aUudes to llii.- bittintrn ktiowa as asptiall, 
iiitunsn nf Judica, rainerAi pitoli. mnimtain pitch, multbt^, piMalphate. 

■•* Tliosp pfttliculars, borrowed (rorn Theojjiiruatuit, Bri?in general CArrML 

^ Tltii in nuL lh« hfX; the pes^ntial oil in which Ui6 rtnn so f^mtlf 
Alwunds, bMomes Tolaiilu with rcnuirknblt I'lu.'ility. 

"* Moat probiibiy oDcaf the vaiivitni-aurilie piue; )iui Lbflmoija in witiali 
Flinv tiipreiiiui liimtulf ructluri it impiisHibls lo identify It witJi uttT 
prcmiion. « B. xv, c. ft, 

" The name biiTUi! ulso hy tho tarcb-irett. 

*r Sue u. T6 of this liuuk. 


CbAp. W.] rorit TABIBTIBS OF THB ASH. 3fi5 


roufi TMtirnES of tde ase. 

It is fur the Baku of their timber that Nature haa created the 
other trees, and more jmrLicularly tlie ash," whieli yields it ia 
greater abimdunce, This ia a tail, taporing tree, with a 
fcather-Iikc leaf: it has been (pratly tnuoMcd by tho encc^ 
miums of Homer, and the fact that it formed the spear of 
AchillcB : *■ the wood of it is employed for numerouB purposea. 
The flsh which grows iii>on Mount Ida, in Ttoqs, is so ex- 
tremely like the cedar,'* that, when, the baik ia remored, it 
■will deceive a purthascr. 

The Qret^iiB have diatinguiahed two vnrietiea of this Iree, 
the one long and without knots, the other abort, with a border 
wood, of a, darkur colour, and a ieiii like th&t of the laurel. 
In Macedonia they give the name of "bamelia"" to «n ugh 
of remarkably large size, with a wood of extreme flexibility. 

JSome authors hare divided this tree into several varieties, ac- 
cording to thfi localiiiee which it inhftbits, and say that the 
ash of the plaiDB has a spottod wood, while that of the moun- 
tain ash is nioro compact. Some Greek writ«s have atated 
lliut the leftf of the uafi is poisonous'* to hoasta of burden, bat 
harmlesB to all iho animale that mminate.'* The leaves of 
thia treo In Italy, however, are not injuriouB to beasts of bur- 
den uven; so far from it, in fact, that nothing has been foaiid 
to act aa so good a spceiflc for the bitos of Berpeats" ue to drink 
the juice extracted from the loaves, and to apply them to the 
wounds. So great, too, are the virtues of this tree, that no 
serpent will ever I'm in the Bhadow thrown by it, tither in thu 

* He Jo<.>» cot, (pcrak in tluB placo of tho "oniiis" or " mouiilttiii wh j" 
nor, na F£e obaun'M, Ams be niccticm tb(i u^g of the bttrk ot the sab as a 
/cbrifugp, or of ita leaves ai t jiurgatiTe. Tbis aib is tho Fruians cx- 
cclrior of Det iiniiulleg. " I!, xxiv. 277. 

"' Plinj makrE » minlale here, in topying tnja fhaophrmtm, who titjM 
tbsl it i« tL*- yew ihiit bcnrs m etroac a rts^mblaiiec lu tLe c*'ikr, 

" Or "hull'B-asli." Thia vEritty cote not Bctm to have beer iderttiftfMi. 

■' This AUIcDicut Te*tilU from liis mininterprttatiou of the Inngiingr of 
Ttacophrostiis, wlio is Tuully Bpi:'akiiLg o( ibe yew, which Vhay uiisUke« 
for tJie ash. 

'^ Miller BEserts tbat, if gUen to oows.thU le&f will impart a bad flavoar 
ti} the milk; a Btatcmcnt which, Ffc tays, is quilu iiiwmcL 

'* A merely fBntiful Tii>Uon, wilhfliit uppan^ntlj' the elif^hlMt foundation : 
the samf, tuo, may be s»icl of the nllc^cT atttij^mlli)' of Ltie actpcut to Uur 
bccch-treo, which is ccither Tenomous nor udunftroot. 


FLC4X*8 ItATOBiX ElSIonX. [Buol XTlI 

morning or tlie evening, lie it ever so long ; indeed, they will 
cIwayB keep at ihe greatest possible dislanco from it. We 
Btate the fnct from oeukr doroonatrstion,''* that if a ecrpent 
and a liglited fire are pkccd witliin a circle formed of the leaves 
oEthii ash, tho riptiiG will ijithcr throw itHcU'iuto tbe fire thim 
CQCounter Uie Ituves of tUe ti'ee- iiy a wonderful prttrieion 
of Nature, thn ubIi has been made to blosaom before the ser- 
ppiits Iciive their holes, and thu fall of Its leaf doe-g not tuke 
jjilaee till aftwc tUej liavw retired fur Ihtj winter. 


In the lindea-tree the male'* and the female are totally dif- 
fercut. In tbe male* the wood is luird and kaolty, of a roddor 
hue, and with a stronger sm«U ; the bark, too, is thicker, and, 
when taken off, has no flexibility. The male bears neither 
seed nor bloRaom as the female doea, the trunk of which is 
thickor, anJ the wood white and of oxcdlcnt quality. It i« a 
Bingiilar'" thing, but no animal will touc^h the fruit of this 
tree, altliough tho juice of the leaves and tho bnrk U sweet. 
Itotween the hark and the wood tlieru aru a uumber of UllD 
Goats, fornnicl by the union of numerous fine merahranea; of 
tli^ee they make those bandfi^'wbicL are known touaiw "tilias." 
Tho finer mninbraueEi are called "philyrat," and oro readcred 
futuouis by the h«uouruble mention that tiie aucicnta hare 
made of them as ribhouB for ^nteatliB^' and garlands. Tbo 

'* Thii story of Pliny has be'en oorroTinraleii by M. df» Veronc, anil u 
strcngtj coiitrsulitit^-ii by Cameratiiis miil CIiiutrs • with M. V6v, than. *n 
miiEt kare ii h) llic roaaer to iud^ wliich ia ttio most likely to bo tpi^lnof 
tLu truth. It is not inprnliaiile that Fliiuy lunv hiirc licnn impoacJ upon, 
EU Ills ci'Ltiiility would tiot al all timca prcdndi.' Lim hum being- diiped. 

" Tlicru i^ ni) luch (iiitinction iu tlii: liciSen or lime, ns tlio ttoiren u* 
biprmaiiliroditii'Lj, TIict nro ni'-'relv tivu vatiptiea : tlie male 'if I'liuy hiasg 
till! Tiilu miurupl) ylln of Dcciui^d^lW iind it vum'ty <.■( tlig Tilin Euiapat 
vf I.innieiiB; and tho (unidu tn'iiig lUe TOia pktyjikylloj, anuthtr Tsnety 
of Ilic Tiliii Enropffia uf I.iinjieus, 

" Not at all singular, l'"eo says, llie fruit being' dry anil insipid. 

'■ Tn France tUesc cottis are still luniiu, ami are Ubt'J for wcIl-npA 
vbeat'Elieiifb, ^c. In the uotih ol' Ftjuiko, tuo. brconi* utii made of ih« 
flULnr liurk, luid tlia etunii is ibe eaeo in Wc^tpbaliai 

'* Se-a D. iii. c. i. Oviil, Fufiti, R, s, I, 1337, ii[>fluk» of the tovcUen it 
diunki^a baui[uiiU biuduij; Uitur li&ir witli ttia j^bilyra. 


wood of Lliis tree is proof against the attacks of wormi : " iL is 
of moderate lieight" onlj, liut of \wrj- considerabLe utility. 

CHAP. 26, (IS.) — TKtt TinrBTiEB op the KArLJi. 

The maple, which is pretty nearly of tho samo'' fliie tu t!ie 
lime, is iiit'L'riwr to the citrus" only for tho hftuutj of its wood 
whon employed for cuhiiict work, aud the cjtqiiisitii flniRh it 
udiuite of. Thuru uro nuinvroua varicltL'ii'^ of this true; the 
light niqdti, remurkuhle for Ihii extreme whitencBB of its wood, 
in known as the " Ghdlio" "• maple in Italy beyond llm I'lidus, 
heing a native of the couutries bt-yond the Aljta. AnoLhur 
kind is covured with wavy »pot» ranuiug ia all direuUona. 
In coiiHtiri^UL-Qcc; of ila superior heaiity it has retjcivud ite utiaio,** 
from iU strong resemblunce to the murks wliich iire iwvit io 
the tail of the peacock ; the finest kiiida aru iboae which grow 
in ttitria oind Itbietia. Ad in&rior 8ort of maple is known u 

Txio UruL-ks difttingiiisli the varieties aceonling to their re- 
epeotivo localities. The niaplo of the plains,** titey eay, ia 
white, and not wavy ; thoy give it the name of " gliuwa." 
On tku other hutiil, tho muunlauu muplt:,** tlivy Guy, is of a 
ittoro Yiuiegutcd upjieuraucu, and harder, the wood of the mule 
tree being more particularly bo, and the test adapted fur spc- 

■ "Tereiio," If iio iiieQiis under (hi» Tiflme to iDcluiie thiit tineu m 
WoU, the UHC'ttii>n is fur luo g<:ai:ral, ns lliU %(>c)d ix enwa nwu;- br iutocu, 
thou^ more aluwly tbui tliu nujnnty of tlic aon-rcaiiioui wuo^. It it 
Home times pcrfnmtcd (iiiito througli bv the Lirvn; of ihc byirhuj, our desUt- 

" Tliis in inrnnect. It altiins tt very cnnaidcntblc I'inight, aud tome- 
Uini* VI L-iiurmuus «ixc. Tlia trunli Is kuovra tu groir U) lu iMuvb u for;y 
or fiftr fu<jt in druumfcrciicv. 

" The miijili' u rauch Iiun In aiu thui vbat the lime or \iadtn really u. 

« 8r^B B. liii. e, 28. 

** Via «j« tiicri; nrc but Ore vxrii'Lici uf Uie nmjilt known in Kianoe. 
Ue dciabtj vltether the umiiiuDti mupli.', the Acer Gumpmtre iif Liuiiiciu, 
vu known W (be anuionU. 

** Fi-a idcBlJtli'a tt with the ABeipMudn-ptatanui of Linnaoiti, thrt A«r 
mantsnuni wiiidiilum of <!. Hunbin. Tbi» tim in rml unftimniiiTi in lljily. 

"* " Aciir [lavoriiiCBuin :" " poiicoi't iiia|jlB," lie givutaatiuilaiuccount 
of ibo spots on Ibfl vnott ot tlm uLriu, it. ziiL o- 111- 

•^ Or "tlcck-yuiiwd" Hiiiiib. 

■" SiippOMd by K6e lo hu iub Acer Moitupcuukcui of Ltoajsua, also the 
Acer triiuDuin of LinniEuti. 

" A Tuiuty of tUe Acsr pieuilo-pUtftiiui of Liniueui, according to F^. 


cimens of ctc^iuit wurkmaDBhip. A third hind, a^in, accord- 
ing to tlie Greckn, ia tlie zygia,"* witli u rutl wwni, vbioh is 
easily split, and a piile, lougt liai-t. OlLf r authoi-s, howeTer, 
prefer to moke of this loitt a pecaUM* species, and give it in 
Ltitia the niiino of " ctirjniiuB." 


But the moet b(uiuliAil feature of all Id tlic maple is ythaX it 
known as >irugcain, and, even more particularlj- 90, tho mol- 
luBuum. These aro botli of them tulieroaitica of this tree, tiie 
bruBtium preseotiBg veiua mofe violmitly cuutortecl, wUilo thoee 
of the monusciiia are disposed in a more eimplo tmd uuit^rm 
manner: indt^ed, if tLis hist were of euMuiuiitly large size to 
admit of tubies being niiide of it, thitv is no duubt tlmt it 
would be preferred to llie wood of the citrus even. At Iha 
present day. however, wo find it but little used except for the 
leaven of tablets, or tin a veaetr for oonchea,*^ Tuberosities aro 
nlao found on the aldtT," hut aa much inlurior to thoao already 
raentioned, lus ihu u!d<T itai^if is to the mapla In the maple 
thfi mole Lj'cc"^ Ih Uio &i-st to blossom. The trons that tVcquunt 
dry Bpote iu;e prefiirrcd to ihose that grow lil wutery Ittoalities, 
ichich iB th€ eaan iilso with tho ash. 

ThcTL' in hand in the couutriuB beyond the Alps a tree, Ui^ 
wood of whioh ia rery sLmilar to that of tli« wbit« maple, and 
which IB known as tb« staphylixlcndron." Thi* tree bean ik 
pod" in which tiiete is found a kemelj which has the flavour 
of the hazel-nut. 


One of the most highly esteemed of nil the woods u the 

'*' The Cur|iinus bctutus of LinniuUB ; the >iorn-lirain or j'okc-rlni. 

•' " 8iliciij«." Tiiia wonl appi-HT« In im Bijitftim-d by the iiocom]iiiri\'iQj[ 
word " Inraimi* ;" Init it is nry d«uLn.Hil wimt i* ttiu utirrvt't [vibdiuj^. 

"* Thfl Ainua glutinoBa at DecandoUcH. Ia 0. aS, Pliny SBya, Tory in- 
co-tTc'ctly, tba.t tlic ulJi-i' has 11 rLnuirLilily l.liii'k Inif ; luid In c, 4&, witb 
Vliihl iiicurrui'tnuM, llmt it hiMT» ueithur aotiil iiui fruit. 

>** F^B ubavrros, tkiit it ts iiicx)rTM.'t Ui uiy tkat the male trco bloMoau 
b*rotu iba femals, if suiil) u Pliny's m«iiiintf We, 

** .From tliB (Jraelt. meaning "11 Iteb wtLh cluitera." IlialbeStaphjUa 
ptnnatJi of Linnasud, the wild or fulae pisHwhio of th6 Frouch. 

"> ■' SilimijL" This term, Fee »aja, is vury iiiiippnipridle to the frah of 
tbiii tree, which U coatained in a ni<.-ciili[auuuH i:apsuJ«. Ihs knuol itoilfi 
and Iluh tli« U^to of (be almunil moia thun the nut. 

Clmy. 33.] TirnEE tasieties or thb boi-tqke. 

Wx," Imt it ie Belciom vein^ict, and then only the.wooii of tliu 
rwt. la olhvT ruBpecte, it h a wood, so to eay, of qiiu;l and 
uapreteudiog appfuj-iiuve, but higKly estuomeJ Cur u curhuu 
dcgrtio of htirdatas and ite pallid hue; thfl tree, too, is veiy 
extenfiively cmployi-d in ori)uiti<-iit»l giirilfmni^;.'^ Tlitrt- ant 
ihtcb*^ raxioUca af it.: thn IJalUi;"' box, whio^ is trained to 
Bb.oot npwitrds in u pymraidal form, find atuina n very cuUBi- 
dcraUo hiAight; tlie (deusler,' whiuh is coiidomned as buing 
utUirlj wurthlcsa, und emits a di^agnienbtu udour ; and a third, 
iuiuwa as ilit " ituliun" box/ u wild vumiy, in my opinion, 
'which has been improTcd by cultivation. This last spruads 
inurti than tho c^thtTs, and fortus u Uiick faodgu : it la itu L>v-ur- 
green, und is eiisify clippt^d. 

Tho box-tree abouiiJa on the Pyrenaan' nuigfl, the moun- 
tains of Cylorua, and the country about iieituynthus.' Th« 
trank grows to the largosC size in th& island of Cowicn,* and 
ila bluBsom is by no itimms dospieablu ; it ii [his that causes 
the lioney Ihuj-c- to be hiiUiv." Thu seed of tho box. is hidd in 
uveniou by all aniiDals. That \vhi<:h grows upon Slount 
OlympuB iu Muvedoata is not more slender tiiuu tht' oUiirr 
kinds, but the Uvu is of a more stuutbd gixjwtb. It lovt^a 
spots exposed to the cold wuids and tiie sun : in fire, too, it 
iDHiiifusta all tho hardm-ss of irou ; it giTea out no ti;tme, and 
ia of no. Q9c wliaU'ver tut the niannfacturc of cKarooal.' 

** Tbo t'.uxus BempurTirons of Liiiutcus. 

" Jt i« Ktill cii.pnsniJ)' iiBKd foe a jifiiiUr parpoee. 

" Thfrc 11111 only twri ^jicfii-a imw known , iJmt. prcvinunljr mentioned, 
a.nd the Uuxiu llali;uru:4t of l^tunaruk. The ttral lb Jividctl intu ike fuur 
vjrictiit, nr)>i)retii.^nnH, !ingiiKtit~>ijL],'i, siLtTruticusa, and niyrtifiilin. 

" Tim Utixiin »urri}iurv!i\'iu of Liunwun ; tmj LOiumuii in tl«i •outh if 
Fruace, nad <>n ibi) bank* •>( llic L<?in;. 

' It it ilaubtt'ul it' thu ii^ a bui at nil. The wild ulive, m^nllaned in K. 
sv. c. 7, liiui thE aaiae numei ali tiic Tailclioi nf thu Ik>i emit a diwi^ive- 
uIiIr ttinuU. 

^ A vuriftj' of the Butua tempernnna, the utmii an tbn Huku> itiiffruli- 
cm i>r LitiuarcL. 

» Thf I'yrcnfan box is moBtly of th« arbcircMwiU kiiiil, 

' In riiij-i,'ii., Bti; U. V. c. ■HI. 

■^ Tiie wiHirtscaut VHiiwt)', 

" Tliii ia doulilal bj i'ie, but it is by du ni«an< imjiuiuLblr. In Penn- 
Rjlraaia the bi.t« iwlloul a pnitonoiu taoiiL*}- fruia thn KliIiiiia intifoltu. 

' A TCiT gu4id ubLirc'iitd itii^lil bv tiitiau fruiu it, li<ii (}i(i wuvil i« too 
raluttble /of such & purposu It biuaa ^vitll u bri^lii, gIvu llam{', and 
tbruws out A o(>lJAuii!iitb>i) bi^l, 

\0L. 111. B B 



[Book XTL 

CHAP, 29, (17.) — PUntt VARIETIES OP TUB ELM. 

Midway botwcon tho preceding' ones nnd the frait-trws 
RLundB tlio «]m, pirUikin^ at tho nature of Uie former in im 
wood, aud lieiu^ ukiii to Lhu latter in Lbe Meadship which it 
nmnitestd tor the vine.* The Greeks distinguish two varietius <i( 
this tree ; tho inount.ftin'^ lIki, which is tlic Inrger of the two, 
and that of tlie jiluins, wtiich is more ftlinibby. Italy givet 
thfl namoof " Atinia"'" to the more loftj' kinda, and gives tlie 
prff^roncfl to thciso which ore of a dry nature and will not 
prow in damp lociiIitieB. Another variety ie the Gallic elm," 
and a third, ihGltaliau." with leaves Ijing doscir togothor, and 
epringiitg in greater mimbcre from a aiiiglc etallt. A fuurtli 
kind 25 tho wild dm. Tlie Atiuia dues not produce any 
Bamara." thut being the name given to the seed of the elm, 
All tha elnja will grow from slipa or euttings, nnd nil of thoiii, 
Tvith the exception of the Atinio, moy be propagated irom 


OV TflR PL*1H. 

Having now made mention of the more remarkable (ret*, it 
remains for me to slate some geoeral facl^ countcted with 
them all. The cednr, tho laruh, the torch-tree, and the other 
rosinous trees profar mountainona localities:" the same is 
the case also with the aquiColia, the box, tho holm-oak, thfl 
juniper, the tcrchinlli, the poplar, the wild mountain-ash, and 

' Attboiigli fin toramon.too, witli oilier LrcM) it is hspiI im n snpport for 
(Ije \inK. iixai. docs ant anj the marc make it of tlic bhwc uutiuc m tb( 
Cm it- tract. 

> The Ulm<u effiua of Willdenow i thetHniiM tDontanaof SDOitli : fbr. 

'" Tho UlmuB campcEtris of Lirnimui; tho TTlnmB marita nt other ht- 
lihwis. " Thw ordiniiry elm, Fee thinks. 

1" A yarltiv of l)ie UJmuB oininEslris, probaiily. 

•* Tliis imran is iti LI prcBcrveJ Ijv lotanisU i'Uny in incorrect in MjhiK 
that tho lui'ge olm proi.Iui.'i'g no naeA, iht' only (.iifurcauc hving xhaX tii* aiwd 
ia Birmllar tlian in Itic other kinds. CuluniHlo, B. t. h. 6, contradiata tht 
•tnicTnent lifre n^llll•^ liv Pliny, but aaya thut it appean to be sterile, in 
coinjaridon with thi; utliera. 

1' The riimi maritiaiii of Linnsaa, wljtab produce* tb<i groater p&itof 
tho TO»ins Ti&od in Fra7i(«, U found, howtvoi, iu ^lut abuitdiuioc in tbt 
fiat couDtry of the Luidui. 

Chap. SO.] 



the yolte-elm." On the ApenoineB there U also fouad a ihiub 
Icnown as the "coMduk,"" t'uiuoiw fur imparling to cloth u 
purple colour liUe that of llie mur<!jc. The tir, the robur, the 
chcnniit, iho lime, the liolm-oalc, and the cornel will grow 
W[ua]ly well oil monnUtiii or iu vulloy; while the maple," the 
ttsh, tUu B^rvico, tbti lindfii, and the cherry, more piiriicularly 
prefer a wiittry sjjot on iha slopo of a hilly declivity. It is 
not often Ihitt wo »ee the plum, the pirinif^unatCj the olivt, 
the wulttut, the umlbcrry, or the elder, growiiifj on iiii elevatpil 
site: tin- cornel, too, the hiizifl, i\\v qiiercus, the wilti ash^ the 
maple, the a.>«h, the heech, ttrid the yote-elm, descund to the 
plains; while the elm, tlio apple, the pear, the hiiird, the 
myrtle, the htood-red" shrub, Iho bolm-oak, nnd the brooms '" 
that ure Gmployecl in dyeing oLoths, all of them aspire to a 
more eleynted locfdity. 

The sorb,'" and even atill more the hireh," ar* fond of a 
cold site; thi:s hidt Ib it Dutive of Uuul, of singular whitL'Uiw 
and slender shape, and rendered terrible as t'orming the t'ascea 
of the magistrawy. From its flexibility it is employed uhw in 
making cin;lets aLd the rib* of pHunit^rB. In Gaul,'* too, ihey 
extract a bitumen from it by boiling. To a oold site, aleo. 
belonga the thorn, which sfl'urds thii most aaspidous lorchca" 

'= Oa tliecoJitmry. the yolcc-olm, oi horn-boani. ciowsiilaLOBt oacluai*oIy 
on the pinion : an'i ibr- saiw witli thi^ cornel iinii the poplar. 

'• Tlie ninis tutinua of Litimeus, ttiu fustic. See H. siti. p. 41. Thi«, 
linwernr, imn.irts n yellow cnlniir^ whilr I'Imy Kjipuka of a [lotple. It bus 
iR'on tHurkil, llowoTOT, llml [he ruol* of si pro<!u-ce » fine red, There is 
no trot) ill }£urupD that prL>dtic<?i u pur|>li' fur il^teiug. 

*' 'I'hn maple, (lii; oak, und Dm KurvioS'tieu, are as ofion foaad ia tlig 
[)liiiQ» ta ou tlio hills 

'" Sv.e c. 43, ami D. xx\v. c. AS. Tlie Cornu* wiiigiiin« nf Liniifciis, 
the blood-rwl romi'l ; tlic brani^hts of which nro rud iti llie wmtiT, siid lli« 
fritit fillud Willi alihidil-TLii juiu*). TliU is probahty tWwmeihrub as the 
nialB orach marilioiicd fiii'thor on by PLiny. 

'" Tte Gr-nin.a tifiiii«ri« tit lAnnmta, or "dy-srs"" broom. 

=" Or " aetviM-[r.;f>," the Sorhiw dom«8lica of Linninua. It ihriTM jurt 
(\E well in n warm loi^ulily as a cold oti<i. 

" Tlia Hnala alba nf Linmviw. It wns sn ohjnfl of tPtrir nut only 
in the tinnda at tlia ItomuD li'ctor, btit iu tUusi; of llie wdiigozne aUii, 
nnd is Biill to coma niicnt. Ucnco it ins furmixl/ aivkaiiDied "Arbor 
wipipntinf," the " irtx of wisdo-m." 

*• Tliia IS no lungur d»iw in rmneo, l»«t it is in Biwsin. wherr ihf.y »1- 
traet from it an Bmiiyreuitiiitio ail, wliiuii iaused ia pr<-piLricigllua*iii liiatliur, 
and wtiicli iinparU to it its sgnwahie smulL 

" BtjiSv butli uf wLoBe jtarciiU were eaciiriujf, usud lo c^jry bcfuru tlio 

n a 2 



[Book X\t. 

ef all &T the nnptiat ceremonj; ft«m the eirciimstanc^, sa 
MaBBorUis aaaurcs ns, that the eln.'phi>rdB, on the occwion of 
tho mpc of tho Sabine women, mme tht'ir turclics of the wood 
of thia tree : at the preai-nt clay, hoWLM'er, the woods «f the 
yoke-elm and tho hazal uro mtxn geutirully uoiployctl fur tliu 

OQ-ii*. 31.- — TRKE8 wiircn Qnow ON A nnv son,: tdobb wmmi 


The cyprcsfl, the walnut, tlie nhi^aut, and the Inlmronin,** 

aro averse to water. This lust trco is also a liutivu of tin 
Alps, and fiiu- Irom gunuraliy kiiuwii : tbe wood is hard mi 
wliite.^ and tho flgwere, which are a cuhit" ui lon^th, do bee 
■w'iU evtr tijuch. The ehnib, tuo, known as Jiipitttr'B beurd," 
mariit'oKtM tin cqviai diiilikti to wuter : it is ot'len cli|]])»d. And it 
employed in ornameutal garduuiiig, being of a round, IxiahT 
f'tToi, with It MilvLTy Ifitf, The willow, the alder, the poplar," 
tlio sili-r,'' and the privet," so extenBLvuly empIuyLHl for niiikijg 
tullios,*' will unly grow in damp, wati^y ]pluct.-ii ; whiuh ia tku 

bridi! a toruh gf white tiiora. This llioru was, not impnibriLlj, tho "Cra- 
tmjiras DSyjLcantliu" of LiuLRUit, wljiuli bears n nUite fiuwcr. Sec B. xsii. 
t 66. 

** TKi-' Cytiitui lubiiruuni of Linnvus, iilau kuuwn M " fdac thouy," itill 
a native of lh« Alp*. 

'* Rut bln<;klii1i iit titi! c(^nlrc; wlionoo itn natnc o£tal»ii vbony, 

" Mi'ttEiiii^ the oliifii&ra ut tho fluw»r». 

" Till: Antliylliii bntbn Jorio nf mailuin b-tituniiitH. The Imvu hare 
xtpaa tliE'iti a silvtrjr dowu, wLcitco tb« nciitio " urgytoptijUo," ^ven Co il 
bj Mft-ndi. 

■^ But in Q. 30, ti» says tliat tlie popl&r grom on htUy or momiuiiaom 

''■' Ihia tree has not bcun stLlisfdctarily idoniified ; bat Pfe is of optRtao 
that it is ^rrihnhly n Tniictv of the wilh^, tbn Halix ntEllina of LiiuuBui. 
Sprciipel tliints Lliflt it is tlie Siiliit ■tapripiL 

"^ The Lii^iistTiim vulgare nf T.iiiiiniui li lins hlack frnit nnd a wllitt 
fluwui, uid is ruiiduruil luiuous bj the lin<is ul' Virg:il — Evl, ii. 17 : 
" formoac pn-ar, niiniiini nt erode eoLuri ; 
Alba ligiiati'it tn<luDt, rncciinkii iiigm IvKuntur.*' 
It ii lendt^tU this jiutiipoiiitiuu lliat hat pruiuptcd Pliu? to mrutJnu Uiic 
Tiirniniuiii m llic aii(!i:«L'iIiUK pjusucc. la B. xij. u. J>1, und H. xxiv. o-l^< 
Tlin^ seiTiiig iiiullneU to cuiiruuud tbia blirub with tli^ Cypni*. Lliu Lavnctia 
inLTFnia of Lianxiit, tho Heitnti of tlio eaitl, n. tthtnU}' ilitrLfnt plunL 

" Wo(id«n talLios nsi^i hv piiliLiooffiuuta iiikeieping lUmraccountai'niqr 
vw« employod till the middle iLg«a. 

'^mp. 430 



can olsoffith tlio vncciniiim,"' grown in Italy for drugging our 
dftTce/^ and in Oaiil tor tJit jinqjose of (It, einR the garrueubi of 
alaves u purpln oolour. All thosi) tr«rH"' wKicb aro common 
to tiio muuutiiiiiB und the pluiuB, grow to a largor size, and are 
of more comely appeuruuco when grown on iliu pluinFi, while 
tliciae Ibuntl on the momntains have a lif'tl'.'r ivuod mid luoru 
li:ivly winod, with Lbo uxcfption of the apple and the p^'ur. 

nr*p. S2. (19.) — ditbioh of tbrm ikto v*mora bfbcies. 

Tn addition to these parlicnlfirs, same of tlio trpes loit thfir 
leitves, while otht-ra, ngnin, ore ertr^iwus. Before, however, 
we trL'flt of thia distinction, it will ho necnarory first to touch 
uiwn. another. Tlirre arc soniu tifca thiit iiro ulLogmhtT at' a 
will! nature, white tliere are otht-rs, ngiiin, thai hit niore 
oivilized, such being the names^' by which man h«8 thought 
lit tu di still i^uisti the tiiirs. IndcmJ, Uiuee lost, which by fht'ir 
ti'iiitK Of nQuiv "thvT Vx-'m-iicial property, or clw- by ihv sljiido 
which they aflord, r!iow themaflveH the benelactor* of man, 
are not inappropriately called ' ' civilized " " tree*. 

oaAT, SS. (20.) — TRKBs WRicn no rot m«"B reinR muAOit, 
TflR Il^nllOl>^■.^DB^N. tkeeh wnicn va Kot lobe thk wii*}1.k 


Belonging to tbis last clasa, there are the fuUowing Iret's 
whioh do not lose their luavcB : the olive, the Jaund, thu 
palm, the myille, the cypivsu, the pine, thu ivy, the rhodo- 
d«lLdron,'^ and, although it may be ralber called u herb than a 
tree, the BaviiL." T)ie rhododondron, iib its name indicolMi, 
comes from Give™. By some it is loiftwii ia the TK^riiim,-" 
and by others as the rhododnphne. It is fin evergreen, bear- 

•» "Du: Primus nralittlc'b, DesfonfjiiiiffiBfly*; hut F-rc iilmtilifs it with the 
black l)o»l.ti-lw^rry, ur wlmrtli^Wry, utill citllui! ''vuctet" in Fiarirc^ It 
ituH BoL, bdwi'vur, tcfofi, a» I'tiny sayR, in watery pliici>'», hut In WDoda and 
ttn abmtibf hills. *• Sio B'. xxi. c f>7. 

»* TbuBc nli«ci-¥fttiotii, F^o saw, ftro hon-owfid frura ThcopbmslttFi, Hwl, 
Haul. B. iii. i:. *, jtnil nn; fminil'd i.n tratli. 

J* ■' Sil««*l.ri'«," aiiU " urbaiiifti'S." '* FrbniKL' 

" Tb" IfKriou olestnilcr of LiiiiiKui; llm Unre!*roie, nr ruet' nf St. An- 
thony of the Fri;iii;bj kbui. »mw cUbWiiI rLwniblnnue in xlie (tlive-lrec. 
but iiali^fu that of tba l&urul, and iu ^Sower very limLliir to tliutor 
thu ruHlr. 

» Sec B. xx'w. e. 61. '» "NerLon" is the Greelc nume. 




[Bonk XVI. 

iiif; a strons rrseniblanco tj the roso-trep, and throwing out 
miRierous bruQciivs I'rucii Uie stem ; to bchsta uC buril«q, goat^, 
xnd sheep it is poisonomi, but fur mail it UiinaDlidQte*" agaiiut 
■ Tcnoin of HTppnts. 

(21.) The following among tbn forest-treos do not lose their 
Efl : the 6r, the larch, tiio piniLstiT, the juniptT, the cc-ilar, 
the tiTebinlh, the box, the holin-yak, the nqiiilolin, thy cork. 
t\w yew, and iba tamariak." A middlti pbce between ifiij 
(•vurgi^fna antl tlioao wliiiih are not bo, is opeupied bj the an- 
dnibldu'' in (jrecut', iind by the urbutua" io ail purls of thv 
world ; as they Iobg all iheir I'Careft with the vxception of thoBe 
on Iho top of Iho trw. AnaoDg c«tam of the shrubs, too, tbo 
limmble ami the cal:iuius, the leaves do Hot full. In thti territory 
of Thurii, whiro Sjharia formerly stood, from the city there 
WAS a. single nnk" to bo seen that uever lost its leaves, and 
■ni>ver uaod to bud before mifUiimmer: it in a siuguhir thing 
that this fflpt, n'hifih h:is b<?en so often alluded lo by Lhe Greek 
writers, should have been pussed over iu gileuce by our own." 
Indeed, bo reoiia-kable are the virtues that we fiod belonging 
lo some loodities, that about Mfmpliis in Jigypt, and at I'Ue- 
phantina in Thebais, th« lensijH'* fall fi-oia nouo of tbo Uaat, 
not the vine eren- 


All the trees, with tho exception of those ulrciidy men- 

"' It hna peitain. dangerous projiertipa, whith tanse the herbittoroii* «ii- 
mati to aToii3 taucbiQg' it. it, nctH strmigly on tlie miiBuiilnr cyxtein, aa<l, 
as F^ii rEinnr![8, iispti lis aa aiitiJote to tlio slings of serpents, it is not un- 
yrobsitlo thut its iiJl'ct't ffoulil be the win-st cf the »wo. 

" Sflc L). siii, c. 37. Tlin tamarisk of tlio modi^rnn is no* itn eTCTpTcno, 
wliicli lias fB.UBeii writcra to ilouht if it is Jilpiitical wilii tlio tamumtiui of 
till! imcLcot*, a.i]J lo be diapoHod to ioolt for it atnoiiH? llie Urgt.'r cricm nr 
li"?atli", Tlie IraTca of the Inrch fiiU every year ; ^^(^»e of tii« '.'tlier otbc* 
gr4)L'u« moEtl; e'cry two »r Ibrce years. •» Hm U xiii. c, 10. 

^'^ See D. xiii. c. 40. This iisserlion of PUny ib erroneoufl, as fhiiit IreM 
Arc in reality (!ver^ei^^ns.lJtoiigh all tn^M of LbjitoluHue tiablc toIgMtheLT 
l^iHVHS lliruugb ctrlaii] maliirJics. 

" "tJuerBiiJi," Tlie ilux at linlm-(n»li is Hn evergrinea. 

** Pliny it in error here. Vurro, Do Jle Rust, ii, i. «. 7, Itaaoiadc tnai- 
Uon of this tiee. 

w 'ITifl hot climatM pnascas a erontpr nnmbr^i of ovc^rffreenn than tho t«n- 

Ctc reffioR*, but not, of thu bomii ti|i«uiea ur ^uui, rluc (iaw Uinuiably 
I il« learn each jrtdir. 



tioQod — a liet wliich it would be tcdiotis to cDumemte — Ioeiu 
Iheir leuveei. tiad it has bei'a obet:^rvtjd tbat the Ivuf dues nut 
dry up and wither luilesH it is thin, broad, and soft; while, 
on the other liond, tho lenvi-a that do not fall are those wliicJi 
are fleshy, thick, and narrow." It ia an erroneous theory 
that the leaf JoeS not &l11 in ihoee trees the juices of which 
are more! uoctuoua than the rest ; for who could make out that 
such is tho caao with tbu hoLm-osk, for iostuuce ? TimtGua, 
the mathemuticiau, ia of opiuioa that the leaves lull whilu thu 
SUB is pusBiiig through the sign of Suorptu, buing uctcd upoL by 
the taflucncee of that lumiiiary, atid a certaiu tbiioiu which 
exists in the atmosphere : but then we havQ a right to wondur 
how it is that, the same reasons cxietiiig, the eaiue iuiiu«:Qca 
is not exercised equally on nil. 

Tbe leaves of moet treea fall in autuom, bat in eome at a 
litter [leriod, rtbtnoining on the treo till the approLL-h uf winter, 
it making no diiTt^runoc whether they havo germinated at an 
earlier period or ti later, seeing that some that are the vory 
firat to hud are among tiie last to lose their leaves — th« 
almond, the ash, anil the elder, for instancfc ; the mulbt-rry, 
ontheMber hand, buds the loet of all, and loBea ita \tavt$ 
among the very fiwt. The Hoil, too, exercises a very consi- 
derable ioiluence in this reepcet: the teaves falling sooner 
where it is dry and thin, and more purtieiilarly when the tree 
ia old : iadccd, thcro are many trees that i^ise them botoro tbu 
ft-uit is ripe, aa in the case of the late Hg, for iaetunce, and tho 
winter pear ; oo the pomegranate, too, the fruit, when ripe, 
beholds nothing but the trunk of the patent trpe. ;Vnd not 
even upon tho&o treos which always retain their foliage do the 
same karea always remain, for as others shoot up benealti them, 
the old leaves gradually wither away : this t^es place about 
the aolBtibe» more partiuulurly. 


The leaves continue the aame upon every species of tree, 
" Tbi* Last iLMOitiOD, F^ laji, IB far from trae^ In rdntioii to ibc coni- 



[BooV XVT. 

wiLli the exL'eptiim of the poplar, the ivy, and tho croton, 
which we have tilrt;aiiy nmulJuued us bring called (lie "ciCU8."" 
(2S J There are three kinds of poplar ; the while," the 
blmsk," and tht* ono ku-own ti3 the Libyiiti*' poplar, with Hvt-ry 
cliiiimutive leaf, and Hxtnimely black ; mutih CBlteracd also fur 
UiQ iuaip. wtiiuli ifrow from it. Tho whito poplar han a pitrti- 
coloured leaf, wnit« oa the upper side and grccii ln'noatli. 
This jiopliir, as also the bliick variety, and the croton, bavo a 
roiiudf J leaf wheji ycumg, as thougli it haii Wta dt'strribed wilJi 
a pair of compasaeB, but when it becomes oliier the lt«tf throirs 
out angular pvojoctions. On the other hand, the Itaf of thu 
ivy," which is an^iiltir at first, bdconies rountlcr, the older the 
tree. From thti leaves of tlie poplnr Ihi-ni fjilla a Tcry ihictr 
down ;** upon tlio white poplar, whidi, it is said, has agrenter 
quMLtity of leaves thuu Uio otbi're, this down is quite whiu-, 
rwembling locks of wool. The letivts of the pomegranate &iid 
tbu ollnond are red. 


V?f, find n most rpmarkable and, indeed, a mftrvellons pwiili- 
arity" existing: in the elm, the lime, the olivp, the white pop- 
liir, nncl the willow ; for immediately alter tho sammcr soUtii.'e 
tho lerives of thrao trees turn completuly nmiid ; indeed, vc 
hiwe no sign which iudicatt'B witli groatcr c«rLainty that that 
period has past. 

(34.) These treea also present in their learea tlie &aine dif- 
ft?renc6 that i« to bo of)norveil in those of all the rest: the 
underside, wMi:h looka towards the ground, is uf a grseo, 

'* 8m B. xr. 0. 7. i' Tho Populitt ^In of Lionsiu. 

** The Pnpiiliis nijfra nf T.ibiiiibub 

') Tho I'uiiiilu* Iri'miiliL of Linnsiis. TIiis itaCcmeut sa tO tilt Icatw of 
the poptitr is v«ri9vil b; niodoni experience. 

" '\ hiR rifirsi not npjicar to lie ciiully corruRt aa Co tUe iTj. Th« iMra 
an lb« fawufT «iifli«r» «r the "Id and Rlcrilc bmnchc-* ara diritlad into tfane 
orfivn rpgiilnr U>hi4, whilii Lhuse whicb ata^ on tliu branulicc dwtiD>J 
to bvdT t1l« bloMnniB are ovbIs it Luicf^olatrtl ovilIx in uliiipa. 

'^ It \u not frdin [be 1cbvi.«, but Crooi tbu fltuitortbu tree that this deva 
falls ; the sot.iis bijing cnr<iluped witb a cottouy tubiCiuuiii. Thid P^f* 
i« hnpclMsly crtrriipt. 

1^ &CV B. xviii. c. 68, where he cnlarpeS »till fiitllicr oa thU am-rtiA 
niTiiii'iirity i he borrows bii 8t«Uia«nt irom Tbeujibrnalus, Uut. I'UnL 
if. i. c. 16. 

Cbap. SB.] 



gmaey colour, and has » smooth surfute ;" while the vpins, the 
callous still, and tlie uxtictilutionB, lia upoo Uie ujfpcr Sica, IIjo 
veiRN ninking icciiiionii iti the pails bfneatli, like tliose to lio 
seen iipoii the huiiifin hand. T!io Icu-f of Ihe olive is whiter 
ahove, ind not so smooth ; the same ia the case, too, with thttt 
of the ivy. The IfJivea of all trees turn" overy day to. 
■vt'tirda the siin, the object being that iho untkr aide muy be 
warmed by its heat. The upper surt'tico of ihtin nil has a 
down upon it, in howcTur smull qumitity it may bo ; in some 
flOuutriEs this dawn ifl used as a kind of wodI."* 

AMD tut: LBEB to which they are iPPLIKD. 

We have already said*' Ihitt in the East atrong ropes are 
made of the leiives of the pfiltu, Mad that they ure improved by 
lying in the water. Among oiirsdvoe. too, tlio leaves of the 
palm arc geriLTaily plocked imnieiliately after harvoat, thobewt 
beiug tittis<; that Iiuvo no diyieioofi in them. Theire leaves are 
loft to dry under cover for four days, niter which they are 
epreud out in the «un, Rod left out in tlie optrn air all nighty 
uU they have bc^come quite white and dry; after this ibvy 
are split before they are put to any ubo. 

cn*T. 38. — asiuiKiBut facts costrtcTsiy wrttt lbatrb. 

The broadest leaves are those of the fig, the vine, and the 
plane; while Ikose of the myrtle., tlie potne-gruDalo, and the 
olive Rre nnrrow. The leaf of the pine and the oodar ia fine 
and reseinblte hair, whilo that of the holly and ouo variety of 
the hulm oak*" is prickly — indeed, in the juniper, we liud a 

^ TliDN Ktatcments are quite confvnmtbla with tb.e laat. 

** Thin iitu.Uraii&L it quttu Itui!, su fur iu tlic Titut that l.he lomM bnrt 
not the samo ponitioD in thu dnj-timc at during (he nig;hl ; Cijo chaa^ts uf 
|H«Uiai] v«ry amstlr, liowutHr, in tlie diffiTeiitlttnils. It tsgi-iwrullj LliougLt 
tliaC an or^ato imbtbility in ih« cauui of lhi« pbiinumcacn. 

"' TUiacesutvlu tlm mvauiag uf " lu oliia gnintium liuia cat." II« 
alladee, prcbably^to cattmi m silk : sen B. vi. c. 20. HtunbLTf; tnlLi ui that 
at BMtdasoud, naar the Cape of Good Hujiv, there grtiwi sa ihick a down 
pu Lhe BuplerriLni gigitnt^iiiii ot Lamari'k, that it is <!tiipli<ytid lu Jaiitutd it 
Hirl ii'f white TeLvut, iuid in usoU for bunuets, gloves, Efa>ckiugs, &c. 

» B, ^iii- C. 7. 

« "Guowe Uicoia." ItlaactiiiLprobiiUutliatlkiibercrafuntatboTuriiity 




thorn la placft of a leaf. The leaf of the cypress and the tant4- 
risk'" is flealiy, and that of the aider is remurlcablo for itt 
lliickiiesa." In the rocA, tho willow, and the pjilut," the leuf 
U lotig, and in Lhc latter trco it is double as wA\ : tlmt of the 
pear ia njiundud, and it is pointed in ttie u|>ple.** In the ivy 
tha leaf ia angular, and in the plane divided-" In tha pitoh- 
Irtiti" itnd the fir the leaf is indented like tho let-tb uf a comb; 
wliile in the tobar i6 is ainuoua on the whole of the oiit^ 
margin : in tlie hrfimble it haa a etpiny Burfuce. Id some 
plants the leaf has the property of stiojring, the aettlfl for in- 
ataocc ; whilu in the pine,** tho pitch-treo, the fir, the larch, 
the cedar, uud tliti huUy, it is prickly. In tliQ olive luid the 
holm-oak it has a short BlaLk, in the vine a lung one : in the 
pwplur the stalk of the leaf is idwajrs i^uivering," and tho ieavts 
of this tn?e are t]je an]j ones that make a crackling i)oii)ti°* 
when coming in contact with another. 

Iti one variety of the apple-tree"* we find a small leaf pw- 
tniding from tho very middle of the fruit, Botnetimcs, indeed, 
a coaple of them. Then, again, in eome troi-s the leaves are 
arniDged. all rouad the- bmnchcB, and in others at the ex.treiiiitio8 
of them, while in the robur th(.>y arc found upon the trunk 
itBcLf. They ore sometimes thick and uIobd, and at othpm 
thiuly soattwred, which is more particularly the ease wLure tlio 
leaf is large and broaii. In the myrtle'" they are ajTiimotrically 

of tlie holm-oak vhich he haa previoiislv culbd "aquifolin," apparent]]' 
euufunnding it wilh tlio hollj, See c 8 of Uiis Uuolt. 

« See B- siii. e. 37, 

*■ This miut be andcrfitoorl of the pung Icnf or the nlder, which hu ■ 
wrt of thick guramj »iiraiali gn it. 

•» B. xiiL 0. 7. 

" I). XT. c. IS. Pliny IB not correct bcTe; the leaf of Ihe pear is otqI 
or Libceoliilvd, wbilc that of thoapploiB oral and noiaovrhat angulur, Ihou^lc 
not flKMCtly " luucroJiaU," or sharply poiiiti'd. 

•* Not eiaclly " disideJ," hut Jlinagty loW. 

** If tliia ig the ease, the pitch-lreu uua hardly l« iJvnlioul villi the 
flkUe fir, the Ahios eiocUa uf DGcaadoltcA. S^u c. LS uf tbia Book, ud 
the Nute. 

** This paasage wouU he a.p1 to misleiul, did we not kaoiv that ihe leavd 
of tho coil) tV'roiu truuB iii^o ini/iLl.iDiied arti nut priiikly, iu Uiu mtme «odh 
as lUose of the holly, which are u^^e^l with verj Ibrmidnblp wcupoiii. 

"^ More purticuiarly ia thu Pajjuiiu trumala, the " quivuriii|f" poplar. 

•* Crfipitontia. 

■* Suu U. IV. G. 15. Not a speciea, hut an a4''i:idi:!ntal mariKtronty. 

''" See B. iv. c. 37, where he speaks of the EeiwUch myrtla. 

Clisp. 3S,] Oai>£I£ OS TU£ PBOCyCTtOK OF PLAKTS, 

niranged, in tie 'box, concare, and, upon iho apple, scattered 
witliout any oi-der or rcffiiluril.y. In the apple and the ptor 
"^o find Buvcnil luitrea i&auing Iroin the saxaa stalk, and in tho 
elm and tlio cytisu^^' thej arc co7(.'rt:d with ruJDL&ed vi^ina. 
To tlie above porticuliurs Ce-Ut-^ udda tliut the leaves of the 
piiplar mid the ciiiercua shoiUd not be given to cattlo alter they 
have fallen aud boconio witlicri'd, and ho rtcommendB the 
ieiivea of the fig,'' the liolm-ouk, und the ivy tor oit'n: the 
leaves, too, of the reed and tho luurel are Bometimea given 
tliem to eat. The leavus of the aervitt-trLL' fail all at uncc, 
but in the othura only by degrees. Thus much in relereucti 
to the Uaves. 


The following is the order in which the operations of Ka- 
ture take pLuiib tlirougboitt the jeur. The firet ie teuundalion, 
which takes place whua the went wind begins to prbvuil, geuc- 
rally about tho sixth day before tho ides of feljruarj-." By 
the agency ut' tliis wind aU the prodactions of the earth are 
impregnated ; to such an extent, indeed, that Ihu marts even 
in Sjjain are imprt^gnated by it, aa w» have already Blated." 
This ia the gentTuting principle of the univei'ae, and it rt- 
CLiTca its name of Favonius, aa some think, from our wo^rd 
"fovere," which mt^ans "to warm and chtrish :" it blows 
from due west at the opioaiiig of tho epripg. The peasaalry 
call this period of the year the " lime of hLat," '" heeause Na- 
ture is then lunging to receive the seeds of her various pro- 
ductioOK, and is imparting Life to everything that ia planted. 
The vegetables conceivw" on various days, each according to 

" The Icarea of the elm atui tbo tree Biipt>oaed to be identioal nicti the 
cytiffiw of cbe oncientt bavti no chanLCUiisticA in conamon. Sec It. xiii. 
Ov -17, "irid l^e Noltn. 

»J 111- lie B?i«i,. c;n. S, 30, 45. 

™ Vtry iau^pri^ptiutu fuod fur cattle, it would uppear: Iheflg leaf ^einr 
eliargod with n (.'oriuaivu miiiky julou ; ilie leaf of tho hulm oak, hard and 
Eiatliciy ; nnd timt of titi' ivy, tiitUr utiil iiausL'uuii in ihu hig-buit di grcc. 

" hiffbtU of Fubruary. ''^ Sw It. viii. c. fi7, 

« <;»tliti(). 

^ He ulluduB to tbe peciud «E the nting of the sap; aa enUnly ii^' 
tinct piocots bom gcrmiaiiiiuu. 


PLnnra hatckai, nreTOBT. 

[Book KVI. 

ITS respective iiabire: Bome tnimedmt«ly, as witb snimaK 
others, again, more «i)owly. carrj'iTig with ihera for a lonpiT 
period the prniiuce of Iln-ir rnnwptioTi, n stat* which hna fruin 
thatc-irciimstaace obtained the name of "gcrmicatioTi." Whon 
the plant flowers, it mny Jje said to bring forth, and the flower 
makes its uppeiirftnce by Iinrrting its littJe capRiiIe, which he* 
noted to it iia an uttTus. The period of tnuoing and edncatioii 
IR the ^owtli of the Iruit. TLiB] oa well as thiit of gcrmina- 
tioii, is iL laborious process, 


The appoarancc of the blo^i^oni bcepcuka the arrivul of iho 
spriDg aud the birth anew of the year ; this blossom ts ihu 
vcn' pride and delight of the trtien. Then it is that tlie; 
show theniBelves quite reiipweil, mid altugpttiur different ffom 
whut thfy really are ; then itis that they qiiit« revt-l in Iho coti- 
lest with each other which shall excel in the various hue* 
and tints which they display. Thi« merit hfts, however, been 
denii'd to matiy of ihem ; for they dn not all blossom, onii 
there arc certain sombrt' trees which do not participate in this 
joyons season of the year. The holra-otilt, the pitch-tree, lie 
ifireh, and tlio pine are never bedecked with hlutfsoiss, qikI 
with them there is no particular fbreniimer cent forth to an- 
nounce tho yearly bii'tli of their reBpettive fruits. The same 
IB the case, too, witli the oultivatwl and tho wild fig," wliicli 
immediately present their fruit in pIjLce of any bloseoTn. Upon 
the fig, too, it is remnrkablc that there are abortivs fruit to be 
sppii which never ripen. 

The juniper, also, is destitute''' of bloMoni ; some writijr*, 
however, distinguifih two varieties of it, one of wbich blosaoins 
but bears no fniit,"' while the other lias no bloa'^om, but pn-- 
StfiLta tbe berrips Immediat'uly, whii-h