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Full text of "The naturalist"

^55 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




LIBRARY 

OF THE 

Museum of Comparative Zoology 



m. tm. ZDDi 

JUN171960 
UNIVEBSiTY 



TH^f^lATijRAUtn-yCiLLni 




fi,^. t. 





F^t-d 



cr.Hr^hkifkOA'. 



M^^-hi:Si 0,Jst 



''Labor Omnia Yincit." 



THE NATURALIST 



JOURNAL OF THE WEST-EIDING CONSOLIDATED NATURALISTS' 



SOCIETY, AND MANUAL OF EXCHANGE IN ALL 



DEPARTMENTS OF NATURAL HISTORY, 



With which is Incorporated the Entomologists' Journal, 



VOL. I. 

From Mat, 1864, to Mat, 1865, 



LONDON: 

SiMPKiN, Marshall, and Co., Stationehs' Hall Cottet. 
HuDDERSFiELD : Geo. Tindall, 12, New-Street. 

1865. 



MUS. CGMP. ZOOL 
LiSRARY 

JUN171960 

HA",ARO 
IlKil/taSlIY 



ik)< 






//<:? ^- 



INDEX TO AUTHOR'S NAMES, 



(Exclusive of Exchanges. ) 



A. L. 8. 

Amicus, 84 

Annitage, John. 166. 

Aspdin, J. 26, 337. 

B: 219. 

Babington, Prof. C, F.R.S., 111. 

Baker, J. G. 14, 33, 60, 93, 141, 185. 

Beaumont, Alfred. 26, 45. 

Bee vers, Jas. 108. 

Blackburn, J. 29, 110, 239, 350. 

Bradley, B. 111. 

Brittain, F. 90, 118. 

Britten, Jas. 56, 84, 137, 161, 177, 201, 

230, 261, 314, 356, 364. 
Buckmaster, C. J. 48. 
Burgess, N. 333. 
Cash, J. 104, 129, 195, 
Chai^pell, Joseph. 223. 
Cole, W. 55. 
Collins, Rev. John. 286. 
Cooke, M. C. 304. 
Crepin, Prof. F. 150, 345, 364 
DaUas, W. S., F.L.S. 29. 
Denny, C. 26, 107. 
Deseglise, Alfred. 273, 292, 309. 
Dixon, John. 81 
Editors. 1, 41, 55, 58, 173. 
Evans, W. H., M.D. 193. 
Foxton-Firby, E. F.A.S.L. 323, 354. 
Fraser, Louis. 44, 127. 
G. H., jun. 171. 
Gamble, Henry. 77. 
Gibb, T. H. 245, 327, 353. 
Gibson, B. 268. 
Gibson, J, 26, 77. 



Gissing, T. W. 151. 

Graham, E. 111. 

Gregson, C. S. 79, 108, 135. 

Grindon, Leo. H. 11, 38, 122, 272. 

Gunn, T. E. 44, 75, 127, 145, 170, 207. 

240, 305, 338, 352, 373. 
Guthrie, W. 32, 58, 174. 
Hartley, John. 171. 
Heaviside, Percy. 284. 
Hebson, R. 221, 255. 
Heiiworth, J. 24, 73, 126, 159, 187, 

340. 
Heurck, Prof. Henri van. 172, 242. 
Hicks, Wm. 192. 
Hobkirk, C. P. 5, 221. 
Hodgkinson, J. B. • 47. 
Horstall, W. C. 208, 349. 
Inchbald, P. 26, 46, 79, 83, 220, 237, 

253, 270, 271, 287, 302, 318, 

325, 350, 361, 379. 
Irvine, James. 158. 
J. E. W. 239. 
J. F. R. 172, 175, 223. 
Jeans, Rev. Geo. 257, 289. 
Jessop, R. 174. 
Johnson, Rev. J. 286. 
Lane, Chas. H. 157. 
Liversedge Geo. 26. 
Lumb, Geo. 361. 
Mason, J. E. 224. 
Matthews, G. F., R.N., F.L.S., 49, 69, 

88, 157. 
Mellor, Thomas, 55. 
Melvill, J. C. 59, 154. 
,^i Miall, Louis C. 51, 209, 246, 277, 37C. 



INDEX TO author's NAMES. 



Morris, Rev. F. 0, 8, 32, 237, 257, 289. 

Nelson, W. 45, 302, 

Parke, Geo. H. 7, 8, 225. 

Parsons, W. E., 78. 

Porteus, Wm. 28. 

Piscator. 208. 

Pratten, Mrs. L. M. 220, 223. 

R. B. S. 77, 208. 

Eanson, John. 76, 85, 171, 189, 191, 

192, 219, 237, 
Roberts, Geo. 77, 174, 255, 267, 322. 
Saville, S. P. 115. 
Saxby, Hy. L., M.D. 237, 349. 
Sharpe, R. B. 156, 170, 268, 350, 352. 
Sim, John. 3, 48, 128, 159, 185. 



Smith, Sidney. 349 
Stone, S. 157, 267. 
SiitclifFe, Joseph. 108. 
T. G. P. 128, 174, 253. 
Tate, W. R. 317, 370. 
Thompson, Lady Mary. 319. 
UUyett, Hy. 260, 286, 302. 
Yarley, James. 7. 136, 268. 
"Veritas. 7. 
W. G. 10. 

W. H. C. 28, 80, 192, 
Ward, Geo. 364. 

Wliite, Buchanan, M.D., 53, 68, 120, 
132. 



GEIS^EEAL INDEX. 



Acorns. 224 

Address, Editors'. 1. 

Ateuclms, 8, 28, 128. 

Auk, Recent exhumation of "bones of great, 

323. 
Barbary, Natural History of. 90, 118. 
Bee Keeping. 157. 
Birds at Cookham. 170. 

in Nortliumberland. 244, 353. 

rare, near Richmond. 337. 

SmaU. 323. 

Blackpool, Coast around in March. 361. 
Botanical Tour. 126. 
British Birds, Notes on. 257, 289. 
British Butterflies on Continent. 171. 
British Mosses, Notes on. 5, 221. 
Brockerdale, Excursion to. 187. 
Buckinghamshire Plants. 56, 137, 161. 
Butterflies of High Wycombe. 260. 

British, on the Continent. 171. 

Correspondence : — 

Destruction of Rare Birds. 84. 

Entomological Collection in British 
Museum. 8, 32. 

Flora of Buckinghamshire. 364. 

On Discovery of New Mosses. 31. 

Royal Horticultural Society. 10, 110. 
Caterpillars, preservation of. 7, 29. 
Chaffinch, Curious nesting place of. 237. 
Chloranthie in Verbascum Thapsus. 252. 
Cleaning skeletons. 192. 
Cock cherishing feelings of revenge. 77. 
Coleoptera, relaxing. 80, 111. 
Cromaghlan, Ascent of. 193. 
Cuckoo. 237. 

Cuckoo, Habits of, in confinement, 284. 
Destruction of Fish. 208. 
Destructiveness of the Wood Pigeon. 191. 
Dogger Bank, Dredging on. 225. 



Double Varieties of Wild Plants. 68, 59, 

159. 
Dwarfism and Atrophy. 150. 
Early Spring Flowers. 11. 
Eggs of Money Spider. 171. 
Entomology of Norfolk. 338, 373. 
Exchange. 8, 29, 48, 60, 80, 111, 128, 

176, 224, 239, 256, 272, 288, 

304, 326, 352, 365. 
Excursion to Brockerdale. 187. 
Ferrets. 352. 

Fire, Loss of Specimens by. 41. 
Flora of Manchester. 272. 

Essex, Additions to Gibson's. 314. 

Food of Ling and Cod. 237. 

Forbes' Malacologia Monensis, Additions 

to. 7. 
Freshwater MoUusks. 350. 
Frogs and Toads. 24, 73. 
Frog and Toad, enemies of larval. 340. 
Galls, Oak. 27. 

Rose. 83. 

Willow. 46. 

Yew. 79. 

Ghost Moth, Notes on number of eggs of. 78. 
Grafting, Curious eftect of. 173. 
Grouse, Red. 26. 
Heematozoa, Origin of, in Human and 

Animal Systems. 354. 
History of my Redstarts. 189. 
Hybridism. 28. 

Isle of Wight, Winter Rambles in. 287. 
Keepers of Seals and Otters, Hints to. 349. 
Kingfisher, Notes on. 107. 
Lake District, A day in the. 135. 
Larva3, Abundance of, in 1864. 286. 
Lepidoptera, Captures of. 7, 47. 

(Macro) of Perthshire. 63, 

120, 132. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Llandudno. 379. 

Llangollen, A day at. 108. 

Magpie, Notes on Azure-winged. 49, 69, 

88. 
Malham, Botany of. 209, 246, 277, 376. 
Micro-Lepidoptera, Preserving of. 224. 
Microscopic Gossip. 333. 
Molluscs Freshwater. 350. 
Motlis, Rare, at High Wycombe. 302. 
Mustelidae of Nortliumberland. 327. 
Natural History, 3. 

Ornithology of Norfolk. 44, 75, 145, 156, 
207, 240, 305. i 

Suffolk. 45. 

Ormes Head, Eambles at the. 379. 
Plants of Aberdeenshire. 363. 

• Bishani and Great Marlow. 154. 

Buckinghamshire. 56, 137, 161. 

Frodsham. 172. 

Hampton Court, &c. 157. 

Lincolnshire. 84. 

Pontefract. 255. 

• Teesdale, 151. 

Notes, on rare and interesting. 

38, 122. 
Plover, Golden, variety of. 237. 
Reports of Societies : — 

Accrington Naturalists'. 266. 

Amateur Botanists'. 81, 135, 168, 
280. 

Belfast Field Naturalists'. 169, 235. 

Birmingham Natiu'alists' Union. 43, 
54, 168. 

Doncaster Philosophical. 168, 219. 

Edinburgh Botanical. 316, 360. 

Halifax Naturalists'. 81. 

Huddersfield Naturalists'. 71, 125, 
215. 

Leeds Naturalists'. 280. 

Manchester Field Naturalists'. 30. 

Oswestry Naturalists' Field Club. 72. 

Southport Naturalists' Club. 43. 

Wakefield Naturalists'. 31, 72. 



AVarrington Field Naturalists'. 125. 
West Riding Consolidated Naturalists'. 

43, 124, 300. 
Reptiles, Observations on. 370. 
Reviews. 134, 175, 234, 299. 
Robin. 77. 

Robin's Nest, Curious place for a. 26. 
Rosa Alpina in Britain. 173, 184. 

Observations on Classification of 

Si^ecies of. 273, 292, 308. 
Roses, Review of British. 14, 33, 60, 93, 

141. 
Rotifera, Notes on. 104, 129, 195. 
Sacred Beetle of Egyptians. 29. 
Scarbro', Field-days near. 220, 237, 253. 
Scottish Summits. 302, 318, 325, 350. 
Seal, Capture of 236. 
Sexes of Kingfisher and Owl. 115. 
Sherwood Forest, Excursion to. 111. 

Three Days at. 268. 

Entomological Notes from. 

269. 
Slugs, Method of preserving. 253. 
Song Thrush, Remarkable Attachment of, 

to place where it hatched a brood 

of young, 45. 
Sparrow Hawk, Instance of Audacity in. 

208. 
Species, Considerations on, apropos of M. 

Jordan's New Work. 345, 365, 
Spontaneous Exotics. 177, 201, 230, 261, 

356. 
Stray Rambles. 47. 
Teesdale Plants. 151. 
Toad, Habits of. 166. 

Winter quarters of. 219. 

Tree-sparroAV. 174, 223. 

WiUow Wrens, Rev. Gilbert White's Three. 

85. 
York, Field-day near. 270. 
Zoological Society's Collection, additions 
. to. 44. 



INDEX SPECIERUM. 



[N.B. — This Index includes only those si^ecies of which special mention is made in this 
volume. All species casually mentioned, local lists, and exchanges, are excluded. ] 



ZOOLOGICAL. 



Abraxas grossulariata 136. 

Accentor modularis 146 

Acherontia atropos 55, 157, 221 

Acidalia inornata 192 

Alauda arvensis 146. 

A. calandra 88. 

A. cristata 89 

Alca impennis 323 

A, torda 243 

Alcedo hispida 107 

Anas boschas 149 

A. clangula 307 

A. fuligula 26 

A. fusca 307 

A. moUissima 307 

A. querquedula 45 
Anguis fragilis 372 
Anolis velifer 373 
Anser segyptiacus 45 
Arctia Caja 136 
Ardea stellaris 306, 337 
Argyi'oneta aquatica 109 
Ateuchus latticollis 92 
Bomby cilia garrula 337 
Bombyx Cpithia 319 

Bufo calamita 317, 342, 371 

B. vulgaris 166, 370 
Caprimulgus em'opeus 149 
Carbo cormoranus 243 
Cecidomya rosaria 46 

C. salicis 46 
C. Taxi 79 



306 



267 



Charadrius morinellus 45 

Cidaria larentaria 47 

Cinclus aquaticus 219, 

Clostera anachoreta 28 

C. cm-tula 28 

Coccothraustes vulgaris 

Columba livia 26 

C. palumbus 149, 191 

Colymbus arcticus 353 

0. septentrionalis 45, 243 

Corvus corone 148 

C. frugilegus 148 

C. monedula 148 

Crephasia lepidana 47 

Crotalus horridus 371 

Crymodes Templi 26 

Cryptocampus angustus 46 

Cuculus canorus 149 

Cygnus musicus 306 

Cynips aptera 271 

C. Rosse 83 

Dasypolia Templi 285, 286 

Distoma hepaticum 355 

Emberiza citrinella 76, 147, 191 

E. cia 89 

E. miliaria 147 

E. nivalis 77 

E. schseniclus 147 

Empis borealis 47 • 

Eupithecia nanata 7 

E. pulchellata 47, 136 

Ealco sesalon 26 



INDEX SPECIERUM. 



P. apivorus 240 

P. cineraceus 241 

F. buteo 337 

F. cyaneus 241 

F. haliteetus 208, 240, 244, 337 

F. milous 70 

F. nisus 354 

F. tinnunculus 44, 145 

Felis catus 44 

Fringilla borealis 148 

F. cs&lebs 147 

F. cannabina 148, 207 

F. carduelis 148 

F. cerinus 89 

F. cHoris 147 

F. citrinella 90 

F. coccothraustes 127 

F. domestica 147 

F. incerta 128 

F. linaria 148 

F. montana 242 

F. spinus 156 

Floscula cornuta 200 

F. ornata 198 
Gallinula cliloropus 149 

G. porzana 338 
Glj^phipteryx Hawortliella 47 
Hadeiia glauca 55 

Helix rotundata, var. alba 45 
Hepialiis liumuli 78 
Hirundo riparia 149, 208 
H. rapestris 90 
H. rustica 90 
Hsematopus ostralegus 242 
Lanius excubitor 241, 267, 337 
Lestris Ricliardsoni 243 
Lima alpina 47 
Limnea involuta 193 
Limosa melanura 243 
Loxia curvirostra 156, 337 
L. pyrrhiila 148 
Lutra vulgaris 327 
Machetes pugnax 243 
Melicerta ringeus 129 
Mergus albellus 307 
M. merganser 307, 338 
M. serrator 307 
Muscicapa atricapilla 26, 108 
M. grisola 75, 145 



Necropliorus vespillo 192 

ISTotodonta cucuUina 78 

Nucifraga caryocatactes 242 

Numenius arquatus 243 

N. pliJBopus 243 

Pelias berus 371 

Perdix cinerea 149 

P. coturnix 306 

P. rubra 149 

Pboca vituliua 236 

Pica cyanea 49, 69, 88 

Picus major 75 

Picus minor 156, 268 

P. viridis 148 

Planorbis marginatus 108 

Podiceps cornutus 350 

P. cristatus 353 

P. rubricoUis 349, 361. 

Physa hypnorum 302 

Eana pipieiis 371 

R, temporaria 371 

Ripiphorus paradoxus 157 

Rissoa calathus 7 

R. subumbilicata 7 

Scolopax major 243 

Simla satyrus 44 

Smerintlius ocellatus 239 

Solenobia triquetrella 47 

Stauropus Fagi 78 

Steplianoceros Eicbbornii 105 

Sterna nigra 75, 243 

Strepsilas interpres 45 

Strix aluco 75 

S. brachyotus 241 

S. flammea 305 

S. otus 145, 240 

Sturnus vulgaris 78, 148, 208 

Sylvia ajnantlie 146, 

S. cisticola 88 

S. hippolais 87 

S. luscinia 92 

S. melanocepliala 88 

S. provincialis 88 

S. rubecula 146 

S. sibilatrix 85 

S. suecica 71 

S. trocliilus 86, 146 

Talpa vulgaris 79 

Testudo pusilla 373 



INDEX SPECIERUM. 



Totanus fuscus 338 
T. glottis 45, 243 
T. hj'poleucos 75 
T. ochropus 75, 246, 338 
Tringa variabilis 26 
T. Canutus 45 
Troclius ]\Iontagiii 7 
Triton palustris 370 
Tardus merula 76, 146 



T. musicus 145, 170, 207 

T. pilaris 145 

T. torquatus 75, 241 

T. viscivorus 192 

Unio margaritifeiTis 7, 81, 220 

Upupa epops 337 

Vespa vulgaris 157 

Yunx torquilla 45, 75 

Zootoca vivipara 372 



BOTANICAL 



Aconitum Lj^coctonum 181 
A. Stoerkianum 181 
Adonis aestivalis 179 
A. flammea 179 
Adoxa moschatellina 11 
Anchusa sempervirens 248 
Anemone nemorosa 59 
Arabis alpina 231 
A. arenosa 231 
Arenaria balearica 264 
A. fastigiata 264 
Argemone mexicana 201 
Asperula taurina 158 
Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum 55 
A. marinum 175 
A. Trichomanes 55 
Barbarea intermedia 206, 232 
Bellis perennis 124 
Boletus cyanescens 303 
Buffonia tenuifolia 265 
Camelina dentata 203 
Cardamine bellidifolia 205 
Clielidonium laciniatum 202 
Clj^peola lonthlaspi 203 
Crambe orientalis 204 
Cucubalus baccifer 265 
Deutzia scabra 13 
Delphinium Ajacis 180 
D. orientale 181 
Dianthus barbatus 261 
Dielytra formosa 202, 232 
Diplotaxis erucoides 231 
D. viminea 231 



Draba rupestris 52 

D. verna 51 

Enarthrocarpus lyratus 205 
Epimedium alpinum 183 
Epipactis latifolia 138 

E. media 138 
E. ovalis 250 
Erodium ciconium 359 
E. cygnoram 359 

E. littoreum 359 
E. malacoides 359 
Enica sativa 204 
Enicastrum obtusangulum 232 
Erysimum orientale 206, 233 
E. Perofskianum 206, 233 
E. virgatum 206 
Escholtzia californica 201 
E. crocea 201 
Farsetia incana 203 
Ficaria verna 12, 48 
Frankenia pulverulenta 234 
Fraxinus excelsior. 12 
Geum rivale 123 
Glaucium plioeniceum 201 
Gypsophila Vaccaria 262 
Heliantliemum canum 212, 380 
H. ledifolium 234 
H. vulgare 212, 380 
Hibiscus Trionium 357 
H. vesicarius 357 
Hieracium (sp.) 246 
Holcus lanatus 122 
Hutchinsia alpina 51 



INDEX SPECIERUM. 



Hypecoum procumbens 202 

Hypericum AndrosEemum 357, 358 

H. anglicum 357 

H. barbatum 359 

H. hircinum 357, 358 

Iberis umbellata 202 

Inula Dysenterica 159 

Lathyi'us pratensis 123 

Lavatera alba ? 356 

L. Cretica 356 

L. Olbia 356 

L. punctata 356 

L. trimestris 356 

Lepidium Iberis 204 

L. sativum 203 

Linaria purpurea 137, 174 

Lunaria rediviva 203, 232 

Lychnis coronaria 264 

L. vespertina 124 

Malcolmia africana 230 

M. littorea 230 

M, maritima 230 

Malva Alcea 265 

M. ambigua 266 

M. crispa 266 

M. Nicseensis 265 

M. parviflora 266 

M. pusilla 265 

M. verticillata 266 

Moricandia arvensis 231 

Neslia paniculata 203 

Neotinea intacta 361 

Nigella arvensis 181 

N. Damascena 181 

N. sativa 181 

Pseonia corallina 181 

P. officinalis 181 

Papaver nudicaule 201 

P. setigerum 172 

Pentas carnea 13 

Phjrteuma spicatum 123 

Pinus Coulteri 361 

Platystemon californicum 202 

Polysticbum Loncliitis 277 

Primula vulgaris, /3 elatior 249 

Eanunculus alpestris 179 

E. Ficaria 48, 58 

E. gramineus 180 

E. muricatus 180 



E, repens 140 

E. trilobus 180 

Eaplianus Landra 205 

E. sativus 205 

Eapistrum perenne 205 

E. rugosum 205 

Eeseda gracilis 233 

E. odorata 233 

E. Phyteuma 233 

Eibes sanguineum 13 

Eosaalpina 173, 185, 186, 316 

E. Andegavensis 100 

E. arvatica 101 

E. arvensis 141 

E. Bakeri 102 

E. Blondseana 103 

E. Borreri 63 

E. csesia 100 

E. canescens 97 

E. canina 93 

E. celerata 99 

E. consimilis 17 

E. coriifolia 98 

E. coronata 20 

E. Crepiniana 97 

E. cryptopoda 6Q 

E. dumalis 94 

E. dumetorum 96 

E. farinosa 38 

E. Hibernica 22 

E. involuta 21 

E. Jundzilliana 65 

E. lutetiana 94 

E. micrantlia 62, 63 

E. mollissima 33 

E. myriacantba 16 

E. Ozanonii 17 

E. platyphylla 95 

E. pomifera 35 

E. pruinosa 96 

E. Eobertsoni 21 

E. rubella 17 

E. rubiginosa 60 

E. sabauda 20 

E. Sabini 18, 21 

E. sepium 67 

E. spinosissima 15 

E, spreta 16 

E. subcristata 97 



INDEX SPECIERUM. 



K. subnuda 21 

K. sylvicola 62 

K. tomentella 102 

R, tomentosa 36 

R. iincinella 95 

R. urbica 94 

R. yerticillacaiitha 100 

R. vinacea 101 

R. Watsoni 98 

Sagiiia nivalis 316 

Salix Davalliana 364 

S. petrsea 364 

Seliistostega osmimdacea 221, 239 

Silene Armeria 263. 



S. catholica 263 
S. rubella 264 
Sisymbrium austriacum 230 
S. Columnse 230 
S. pannonicum 230 
S. polyceratiuni 230 
Stellaria scapigera 264 
Tetraphis pellucida 5 
Thalictrum majus 179 
Thlaspi alpestre 211 
Trifolium 123 
Vella annua 204 
Verbascum Thapsus 252 
Veronica peregrina 128 



THE NATURALIST 



Labor Omnia Vincit." 



ADDRESS. 



At tlie commencement of our career it is perhaps necessary to make 
our readers acquainted with the reasons which have induced us to embark 
in a boat which has twice suffered shipwreck ; to do this no lengthened 
address is necessary. 

The demise of the " Weekly Entomologist " left a gap in Entomo- 
logical literature which was keenly felt by the working student in that 
science ; the facilities for making exchanges which were afforded through 
the columns of that periodical, as well as of its predecessor the '' Entomo- 
logists' Intelligencer " brought collectors into correspondence with each 
other, and their collections were at once enriched with s|)ecies which 
would have taken years to obtain had no such means of communication 
existed. The capture of a rare species was at once made known, and a 
love for inter-communication among Entomologists, and especially among 
the young students of that science, was fostered and encouraged. 

Although the two former Entomological periodicals failed through 
lack of sympathy and encouragement on the part of those who ought to 
have been contributors to their pages, there is reason to believe that a 
Magazine conducted on similar principles, but on the more extended 
basis of Natural History in the widest signification of the term, containing 
papers and observations in Botany, Zoology, and PalEeontology, instead of 
confining itself to Entomology, and affording facilities for effecting ex- 
changes of specimens in all those departments of Natural Science, would 
have a much better chance of success ; and it is in order to put this to the 
test that " The Naturalist " has been projected. 

The rise and progress of " Naturalist Societies " also increase the 

hope which the projectors of this Magazine have of its success. There is 

scarcely a town in the kingdom, and in the North of England scarcely a 

village, in which some such society, either " Botanical," or " Entomoio- 

Iso. 1, May 1. B 



]i THE NATURALIST. 

gical," or " Naturalist " does not exist, whilst " Field Clubs " are con- 
tinually exploring every portion of the country. The West-Riding Con- 
solidated Naturalist Society alone, comprising six societies within an area 
of twenty miles, numbers upwards of 200 members ; the Northern 
Entomological Society (Liverpool) about the same number ; and it would 
not be too much to affirm that in Yorkshire and Lancashire alone, 2,000 
students of nature are banded together in societies of this kind. It is our 
earnest wish that " The Naturalist " may be the means of binding them 
still more firmly together, and making them better known to each other 
and to their brethren in more distant parts of the country, and of increas- 
ing their zeal and love for natural science. In order to further this object 
we should be glad to be furnished with, and at a future time to publish, 
a list of such societies, with the names and addresses of the secretaries, 
and the number of members. The Transactions of these societies shall 
always have a place in the pages of " The Naturalist " if communicated 
to us by some officer of the society, and we anticipate in the list of natural 
objects found during the excursions, much information tending to throw 
light on the geographical distribution of species. 

In order to make " The Naturalist " a success, we earnestly ask for 
the co-opel-ation and encouragement of all who bear the name, in what- 
ever department of the work they may labour ; without this assistance 
success is impossible, with it, a certainty. Let no man shrink from the 
task of contributing to its pages, under the impression that he is incom- 
petent to do so. Any observation made of any natural phenomenon by 
a7iy person, if made carefully, truthfully, and simply as it occurs, is 
worthy of preservation, and will assist in filling up the great storehouse 
of facts, from which at some future time important generalizations may be 
made. 

We refer with feelings of grateful pleasure to the list of gentlemen 
who have kindly promised us their assistance, as an earnest of the sup- 
port we shall hereafter receive, and as a guarantee that our Magazine 
shall not suffer in quality by comparison with its contemporaries, and 
we sincerely hope that the number of contributors may be increased with 
every issue. The field of Natural History is wide, and we ask every 
labourer to enter the lists, and we can assure them that no effort shall be 
spared by us to make the pages of " The Naturalist " in every way a 
worthy repository for their observations, and an unbiassed exponent of 
their opinions. 



SIM ON NATURAL HISTORY. 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



By John Sim, A. B. S. Ed. 



There is no subject which presents more attractions to the mind 
of man, than the study and investigation of his great Creator's handy- 
works. The extent and universality of Nature's vast empire, places the 
study of Natural History in a greater or less degree within the reach of 
all. It would be well were the desire commensurate with the opportunity ; 
such, alas, is not the case, else long ere now much that is hidden and 
obscure, would have been lucid as a sunbeam. Did the careless and 
unthinking, the hoarders of gold and silver, and the votaries of worldly 
pleasure, conceive for a moment the intense, lasting, pure and unalloyed 
enjoyment derived from the examination of objects of Natural History, 
they would abandon their unsatisfactory pursuits, and embrace with 
alacrity, and pursue with zeal and ardour, those studies which have ever 
been pursued and admired by the great and the good of all ages. 

The immense multitude of objects everywhere spread around us is 
generally divided into three great departments, commonly designated 
kingdoms, viz. — the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral ; the two first com- 
prising the organic, the latter the inorganic, or animate and inanimate 
portions of material nature. Natural History, properly speaking, includes 
the history of each, but is now more generally applied to that section 
which treats of the nature, classification, habits, habitations, &c., of animals 
only ; embracing all the various forms and species of animated beings, 
from the mammoth imbedded in Siberian ice, to the infusorial monad 
of our stagnant waters. The vast domain of nature can never be fully 
explored, her attractive resources being infinite and inexhaustible. This 
consideration, so far from intimidating her votaries, ought to act as a 
powerful stimulant to their exertions, forasmuch as they know that there 
is ample employment for all, however manifold the discoveries, however 
extensive the investigations. The Naturalist ought ever to bear in mind 
that in science, as in armies, there are pioneers as well as generals, men 
who clear the way and remove obstacles as effectually in their own sphere, 
as they who have conquering legions at command. The great field of 
nature is sufiiciently spacious to afford ample and constant employment 
for all who take pleasure therein. 



4 THE NATUEALIST. 

The study of nature possesses an incalculable advantage over all 
secular pursuits, in so far that while it improves and elevates the heart 
of man, it never palls nor pollutes his senses, and unlike all other worldly 
callings and recreations, it is relished alike by the youth of tender years 
and the hoary head of three score and ten. Such being the ennobling 
tendency of the study of nature in general, and the animal kingdom in 
particular, why are the labourers in this kingdom so few ? Why are 
so many standing all their lifetime idle, when there is ample employment 
for all ? 

The study of Natural History always improves, but never deteriorates 
the moral perceptions. The greatest and the best of all ages have ever 
been ardent students and admirers of nature's works, nay, we need not 
hesitate to state that they in general have been the very benefactors of 
our race, the true friends of our common humanity. There are two 
classes of men who more than all others have ever laboured hard and 
stedfast, in order to secure the moral improvement and social and indi- 
vidual happiness of mankind — clergymen and physicians — and they per- 
haps more than all others, have been ardent admirers and untiring 
investigators of Natural History. From the days of Aristotle to the 
present time such has been the case, and such will likely continue to be so 
while time endures. It is however a cheering feature of the present day 
that, though such men act as generals in this wide field, there is a large 
army of private soldiers acting in concert, and co-operating with the plans 
and purposes of their honourable and talented commanders ; such being 
the case, and having before us the labours and examples of such illustri- 
ous worthies, let each lover of nature's wonderful works endeavour to 
enlist the labours and sympathies of others in the contemplation and 
examination of the infinite number of sentient being^ which traverse the 
forest, wing the air, glide in the waters, or crawl on the ground. To the 
christian the study of the great Creator's works ever affords inexpressible 
delight, and happy, truly happy is he who, while gazing with love and 
admiration on the vast profusion of beings which tenant the air, the 
earth, and the ocean, can exclaim with filial love and confidence — 
" My Father made tlicm all." 

The proprietors and conductors of this new-born serial undoubtedly 
deserve the support and sympathy of all well-wishers of society, their 
object and aim have umnistakeably been good, a sincere desire to promote 
the mental and moral well-being of their fellow men. May they receive 



OBSERVATIONS. 5 

that support and encouragement which they deserve, and may the Giver 
of all good crown their efforts with great success : such is the prayer of 
the writer, may such be the desire of the reader, and if so this new 
periodical will be conducted with honour and credit to its proprietors, 
and benefit to society at large. I close these remarks with the eulogium 
of the French poet, as nature's vast army passed in review before the 
mental vision of this pleasing writer. 

" Quelle magnificence dans le plan de la creation terrestre ! 

Quelle grandeur ! quelle profusion ! 
Quelle complaisance a organiser la matiere, 

Et a multiplier les etres sentants ! 
Nous voyons les animaux repandus 
Sur toute la surface de la terre, 
Dans toute I'entendue des eaux, 
Et jusques dans les vastes contours de Patmosphere, 

La Mitte, comme I'Elephant; 
Le Puceron, comme TAutruche ! 

Le Vibrione comme la Baleine, ne sont qu'un compose d'animaux; 
Toutes leurs liquors en fournissent ! 
Tous lears vaisseaux en sont semes ! " — Bonnet. 
Bridge End, Perth, April, 1804. 



©irsn''bati0it^. 



Notes on British Mosses. 
By C. p. Hobkirk. 
I. — Tetrai^his pellitcida, Hedw. — 
The subject at the head of the pre- 
sent notice was gathered on 2nd 
April, in Grimescar Wood, near 
Huddersfield, and is I believe the 
first time it has been found in this 
neighbourhood, hence the prece- 
dence given to it, as the first moss 
in this intended series of " Notes." 
One word by way of introduction. 
It is my intention to supplement in 
some measure, the short and terse 
descriptions given in text books, 
and to render the discrimination of 



the species more easy to young 
bryologists, and at the same time, 
I may perhaps be able, in some 
instances, to contribute somewhat 
towards the general mass of scien- 
tific facts. 

The moss under consideration 
was originally named by Linnaeus, 
(who was followed by Dillenius), 
Mnium pellucidum, but was re-chris- 
tened by Hedwig, TetrapluspeUiicida, 
under which name it now stands, 
both in Smith's English Botany, 
by Hooker, and in Wilson's Bryo- 
logia Britannica. Its present gene- 
ric name is derived from a Greek 
word, tetraplios, "having four pro- 
minences " — the specific name pellu' 



THE NATURALIST. 



cida, from the transparent appear- 
ance of the leaves. In our woods, 
in spring time, its delicate light 
green frondage may be found, co- 
vering the rotten stumps of old trees 
in considerable abundance. At 
this time of the year it presents a 
rather peculiar appearance ; being 
apparently merely a number of mi- 
nute cups supported by very short 
stems, which are hidden by the 
small transparent leaves. If we 
place these small cups under the 
microscope, with 1-inch objective, 
we shall find they are filled with a 
number of small granules called 
gemmae. On increasing the power 
to the j-inch we shall observe 
that each of these gemmae is com- 
posed of a number of cells, arranged 
in a circular manner, the central 
ones being full of small granules, 
the outer ones generally empty and 
transparent — and further, that each 
gemma is furnished with a pedicel 
or footstalk, composed of single 
four-sided cells placed end to end, 
by which they appear to be attached 
to the cup, which bears them. The 
lower leaves of the stem are ovate 
and somewhat pointed, with the mar- 
gin plane and entire ; the nerve is 
thin and ceases below the apex of 
the leaf. The fruit which appears in 
mid-summer, or later, is elevated on 
a short reddish footstalk, (seta). The 
capsule, when ripe, is of a yellowish- 
brown colour, and has a red tumid 



border round the mouth, — the calyp- 
tra is somewhat whitish, with a 
brown apex, and is furnished with 
eight or nine ribs or furrows, reach- 
ing from the apex to the mouth, 
each rib terminating in a laceration 
at the base. The teeth, or peris- 
tome, are four in number, hence the 
name (Tetraphis,) and are united, 
below and inside the mouth of the 
capsule to the coUumella, which is 
divided with it into four pyramidal 
teeth. Bruch and Schimper remark 
on the peristome of this moss, that 
" in this genus it does not exhibit 
the usual composition of 39 primary 
divisions ; and that each of the four 
teeth has from 8 to 14 longitudinal 
striae, the cellular tissues of which 
they are composed being similar to 
that of Biixbaumia aphylla. 

In Hooker's Smith's English 
Botany another species is described, 
under the title of T. Broivniana, 
Grev., but this is now removed into 
a separate genus, Tetradontium, of 
which two species are described in 
the Bryologia Europea. 

Synonyms : 

Tetraphis pellucida, Hedwig, Schwa - 
egr, Bridel, Hooker and Taylor, 
Bruch and Schimper. 

T. cylindrica, Funck. 

Georgia mnemosyne, Ehrh. 

Mnium pellncidum, Linn. 

Huddersfield, 

April, 1864. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Occurrence of Pallas' Sand Grouse 
in the Isle of Man. — In May last six 
specimens of Pallas' Sand Grouse 
(Syrrhaptes puradoxusj were obser- 
ved at Kirk Santon, about six miles 
from Douglas. I succeeded in ob- 
taining a fine male specimen, which 
has been purchased by Capt. Clement 
Hill, and is now in the collection of 
Lord Hill, near Shrewsbury. — John 
Gold, Castle-street, Douglas. 

[Our correspondent encloses a 
well executed drawing of the bird 
in question, which leaves no room 
to doubt its identity. — Eds.] 



Additions to Forbes' " Malacologia 
Monensis."-'Dmixig a few days dredg- 
ing on the Manx coast, in July last, 
my operations extending from Doug- 
las Bay to Castletown, I met with 
the following species, which are new 
to the Manx fauna : — 
Eissoa calathus, Forbes; mostly dead 
specimens, 10 fms, off Port Soderick. 
B. subunibilicata, Mont.; common on 
fuel, in 5 to 10 fms, Derbyhaven 
Bay. 
Trochus Montagui, Gray ; one speci- 
men, 15 fms, off Douglas Head. 
I also noticed Ancylus fiuviatilis, 
Mull, in a small stream near Doug- 
las, though not common. — Geo. H. 
Paeke, Mornington Place, Halifax. 



Lepidoptera. — I have taken and 
bred the following Insects since 
Feb. 6th, 1864 :— 



Feb. 6, Phigalia pilosaria. 

,, „ Hybernia progemmaria. 
Mar. 12, Nyssia hispidaria. 

,, ,, Anisopteryx ^scularia. 

,, 16, Bistort hirtaria. Bred. 

,, 20, Nyssia zonaria. Bred. 

,, ,, Hybernia rupicapraria. 

„ ,, Larentia multistrigaria. 
Apr. 14, Selenia lunaria. Bred. 

„ 20, Saturnia Carpini. Bred. 

,, ,, Anticlea badiata. 
I think we shall have a good season 
for insects, for all the common sorts 
are prolific, such as Gothica, Rubri- 
cosa, Instabilis, Stabilis, &c. — James 
Vaeley, Almondbui^ Bank, Hud- 
dersfield- 

Eupithecia nanata. — On Thursday 
last (April 21) several specimens of 
this pretty species were brought to 
me. This is very early — I do not 
remember seeing it in former years 
until the second week in May. — 
Geo. H. Paeke. 



|tot^s antr ^mxm. 

Preservation of Caterpillars. — 
Will you allow me to ask if any 
of your readers will supply me with 
any new or better mode for the pre- 
servation of Caterpillars than that 
practised by Mr. Weatherhead some 
twenty years ago, viz. : — " The ani- 
mal is killed in spirits of wiue, a 
small puncture or incision is then 
made at the tail, by which the con- 
tents of the abdomen are gentlj 



THE NATUilALIST. 



pressed out ; the skin is filled with 
dry sand, and restored to its natural 
position. When dry, the sand is 
carefully shaken out, and the speci- 
men affixed, hy strong gum, to a 
piece of card." — Veritas. 

Ateuchus. — Can any of your readers 
inform me why the Ateuchus is called 
the sacred Beetle of the Egyptians. 
— A. L. 

Unio margaritifera. — I should be 
glad to learn through the medium 
of " The Naturalist " whether this 
species is still to be found in the 
Manx rivers ; Forbes' Monensis, 
and most of the Manx Guides, give 
as its habitat the Black river, near 
the Nunnery Grounds, Douglas. 
I have searched this place in vain. 
— Geo. H. Parke, Mornington 
Place, Halifax. 



Gratis. — W. Cash, Delph-street, 
Halifax, will be very glad to assist 
any beginners in British Land and 
Fresh Water Shells — provided that 
they pay postage expenses. 

Coleoptera. — I have specimens of 
the following Beetles for exchange, or 
any person (if a coleopterist) wanting 
any of them can have them by send- 
ing a box, post paid. I should be 
glad to open correspondence on 
Coleoptera with any one : I have 
collected about two years. Cicmdela 
hyhrida, Carahus catenulatus, Cara- 



bus nitens, Colymhetes nigroceneus, 
Acilius sulcatus, Aphodius 4 pustula- 
tus, Cionus scrophularics, (would want 
relaxing), Coccinella 11 punctata. — 
William Hy. Charlesworth, East 
Parade, Huddersfield. 

Shells. — Having a great many land 
and fresh-water shells in duplicate, I 
should be glad to exchange them for 
any of my desiderata in Land, Fresh- 
water, or Marine. — Joseph Hebden, 
Sandal Common, Wakefield. 



The Entomological Collection in 
the British Museum. 

By the Eev. F. O. Morris. 
Nunburnholme Rectory, 

April 18, 1864. 

Sir, — Of every one hundred per- 
sons who have entered in at, and 
then come out of the front door of the 
British Museum, after having gone 
the round of the rooms, ninety-nine 
would say that they had seen the 
Entomological Collection, and that 
very beautiful it was. The fact is, 
that not more than one in an hun- 
dred of those who visit our National 
Gallery of Nature, either sees the 
Entomological Collection that it 
contains, or has any knowledge of 
its existence. After entering the 
front door, if a person wishes to see 
the collection, which is probably the 
finest in the world, and well worth 
any one's inspection, which it would 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



take far more than one visit to do, 
even very cursorily, he must turn 
to the left through the old Statuary 
Gallery, then to the right along the 
Egyptian one, and then at the end 
of it to the left through a door down 
a narrow and rather dark passage, 
■which will lead him to the " Ento- 
mological room." What ordinary 
visitors have seen are merely some 
showy duplicates exposed to the 
light in open cases upstairs. 

The Entomological room con- 
tains, I believe, 3,000 cabinet glazed 
drawers of insects, vast numbers of 
them in each of the Orders, of the 
most wonderful beauty of colour and 
markings, or the most astonishing 
variety of singular and fantastic 
shapes and forms. 

I read with much interest the letter 
of a correspondent of the "Times" 
H. C. recently, having long con- 
templated writing on the same sub- 
ject myself, and agree w4th every 
word that he says, except as to the 
facility with which he thinks that 
the work so necessary to be done 
might be accomplished ; here I must 
say he is lamentably mistaken. Mr. 
Frederick Smith, whose name I am 
glad he has mentioned, is indeed a 
most valuable public officer in that 
department ; his politeness is only 
equalled by his patience, and his 
labours are worthy of all praise. 
But will it be believed that since the 
loss to the Museum of the energetic 



services of Mr. Adam White, Mr. 
Smith is the single and only officer 
in charge of this vast collection, to 
which such great additions are being 
made almost every day, some of 
them most extensive ; as for instance 
the splendid collection recently pre- 
sented to the country by Mr. E. 
Bowring. Not only so, but even 
that one officer cannot devote his 
time to the work that is so heavy, 
but in addition to laborious sci- 
entific correspondence and ordinary 
official letters, he is continually in- 
terrupted by visitors, scientific and 
unscientific, either of whom, as may 
be sux^posed, will be often equally 
exacting, and equally prove a trial 
to his patience, great as it is. 

The whole collection, in conse- 
quence, is in such a state, that not 
the small and temporary staff that 
the *' Times " correspondent san- 
guinely thinks will be sufficient, 
would at all suffice for anything like 
the amount of work that has to be 
done, but several permanent paid 
officers should be appointed, and 
with much better salaries than have 
heretofore been paid ; one, I would 
say, for each Order, and they should 
further be assisted by several pro- 
fessionals in the work of re-setting, 
the whole collection, as suggested 
above. 

(To be contvnued.) 



10 



THE NATUKALIST. 



KOYAL HOETICULTUEAL SoCIETY. 

To the Editors of the Naturalist. 
Gentlemen, — Would you be kind 
enough to allow me a small space 
in your first impression, though I 
feel some little delicacy in asking 
this favour, knowing that you will 
be pressed for space in this your 
first issue. I doubt not you are 
aware that the Eoyal Horticultural 
Society, South Kensington, have 
offered prizes for collections of the 
dried plants of each county in the uni- 
ted kingdom. They state that this is 
for the encouragement of Scientific 
Botany among all classes. But 
surely they do not think of what 
are termed working men competing 
for these prizes, and more especially 
in an extensive county like York- 
shire ; now I should suppose that 
this, emanating from a society like 
the Eoyal Horticultural Society, is 
intended for the encouragement of 
Scientific Botany amongst young 
gardeners, more than any other class 
of men : this may, or may not, be 
the case. They further state the 
judges will not award the prizes 
unless the collection is a fair repre- 
sentation of the plants to be found 
in the county in which they have 
been collected. I profess to know 
something of Yorkshire, as well as 
of the plants that are to be found 
growing wild in it, and I have no 
hesitation in stating that it is a moral 
impossibility for any one man to col- 



lect anything like a representation 
of the Flora of Yorkshire in the time 
specified by the society. They must 
naturally think that there is some- 
thing very fascinating in connection 
with a medal, to induce a man to 
give up his employment and set out 
collecting, and this he will have to 
do, and a meagre affair it will be 
when the season is over; and if his 
time is worth anything his collection 
must cost him in time, railway tra- 
velling, &c., not less than One Hun- 
dred Pounds; I cannot see how he 
will be benefited by this outlay, or 
what benefit science will receive 
from it. 

They state the collection must be 
arranged according to any natural 
method, the collector to follow some 
work on British Botany ; there are 
three or four works mentioned which 
no doubt are preferred by the So- 
ciety, so that if the intending com- 
petitor is not already possessed of 
one of these works, he must at once 
procure one to carry out the object 
they have in view, and to make room 
for new editions that will no doubt 
shortly appear with new localities 
attached ; that is on condition that 
this work is carried out to the entire 
satisfaction of the Society. This is 
the benefit the working botanist 
will receive for his labour. He will 
in the first place give the informa- 
tion, and in the next he will have a 
new edition of some works on British 



GKINDON OK SPiilNG FLOWERS. 



11 



Botany ready for him to purchase at 
his earliest convenience. On the 
31st December, 1864, the collections 
must be forwarded to the Koyal 
Horticultural Society, South Ken- 
sington — a sealed letter must accom- 
pany each collection, containing a 
declaration, signed by the collector, 
in the following terms — " The i)lants 
which accompany this note were 
collected by myself from the fields 
and woods within the limits of the 
County of Yorkshire," or any other 
as the case may be. There is one 
thing that must strike very forcibly 
the mind of any thinking man, that 
is this, that the collector must sign 
a declaration where and when col- 
lected, but not one word about 
naming. Why should not the col- 
lector be bound to name them him- 



self, instead of getting the assistance 
of any scientific man he can ? It is 
evident from this that good speci- 
mens well mounted, a truthful list 
of localities, and time of flowering, 
is all that is required to carry out 
the object of the society. 

You will be glad to hear that it is 
the intention of several gentlemen, 
members of the Huddersfield Bo- 
tanical and Naturalist Society, to 
award prizes for collections of the 
following Genera — salix, or willow; 
carex, or sedges ; rosa, or rose ; ru- 
bus, or bramble; to be collected 
within, say — eight ol* ten miles 
around Huddersfield; both species 
and varieties collected to be named, 
with full particulars of soil and situ- 
ation.— W. G. 



#rigmal "^xiuhB. 



NOTES UPON SOME EARLY SPRING FLOWERS. 



By Leo H. Geindon. 



Adoxa moscJiatellina. — This pretty little plant presents many difficul- 
ties to the young student. In our Floras it is classed either with the ivy 
in the Natural Order AraliacecB, or with the honeysuckles in the Order 
CaprifoUacece. To neither of these does it bear the slightest external 
resemblance, and on minute inspection, the ovary, instead of being deci- 
dedly and palpably " inferior," as in the two families mentioned, is found 
to resemble that of many saxifrages, especially Chrysospleniam. That is to 
say, while the perianth is adherent to the lower portion, the upper is pro- 



12 THE NATUIIALIST. 

trucled above. The entire organ is so minute that it is not easy to make 
it out. Surmounting it are 4 — 5 styles which are united at the base; and 
seated on the petals are the 8 — 10 stamens, disposed in couples. To a 
Linneean botanist the plant is almost equally perplexing, the 4 lateral 
flowers, (which are placed back to back, like the dials of some public 
clocks, that look as it were to the four points of the compass,) being 
tetramerous ; while the fifth, at the summit, looking up to the zenith, has 
the parts in fours, except that the calyx is three-lobed. 

Ficaria verua, the common pilewort, or " lesser celandine," — the 
latter name equally ungrammatical and inappropriate. *' Celandine *' is 
an abbreviation of CheUdonlum, and whatever may have been the plant to 
which the name was originally applied, as a herald or synchronous com- 
panion of the swallow, the English form of the word should be restricted 
to the genus that bears the Latin one. There is a very considerable differ- 
ence in the corolla of this lively flower. The petals which vary from 
eight to nine, are sometimes extremely narrow, sometimes almost as 
broad and obtuse, in proportion to their size, as those of the Caltha. The 
effect is then very lustrous. Such examples should be selected when it is 
desired to obtain improved varieties of plants. They illustrate in little, 
the origin of those more important ones which enrich our gardens and 
farms. The starch-grains in the tubers are exceedingly minute. To 
wood-pigeons the latter appear to be palatable and nutritious, since these 
birds consume them freely. 

Fraxinus excelsior, the common ash-tree. The masses of deep black- 
purple anthers, when ready to burst, and clustered at the extremities of 
the gray and flattened twigs, resemble ripe blackberries. If a specimen 
be gathered, and laid on the table in-doors, the anther-cells burst, and 
discharge their pollen in great abundance ; the latter in its dryness and 
fineness resembles the spores of the Lycopodium clavatum, and if collected 
in sufficient bulk, and scattered in the air would probably ignite in the 
same way. Many pollens appear to be oleaginous, and it would be inter- 
esting to have their inflammable qualities determined. The blackness of 
the unopened leaf-buds is remarkable and characteristic. When the leaves 
are fully expanded it is a sign that the time has arrived when greenhouse- 
plants may be safely placed in the open air : when the leaves fall, (which 
is generally rather early, and without material change of tint), it is a sign 
that the time is come when they should be returned to shelter. Indica- 
tions of seasons, and of the best time for performing operations, both in 



GRINDON ON SPRING" FLOWERS. 13 

horticulture and agriculture, are afforded in abundance by the life history 
of Trees, and we should do well to mark their phenomena more exactly. 

Eibes sangidneum. — While the leaves are expanding, and the]crimson 
clusters beginning to open, an excellent opportunity is given by this 
beautiful bush for noting the nature of perules. The greater portion of 
the perules that surround a given leaf-bud are pink and bract-like — here 
and there, however, may be found one with a miniature green lamina at 
the extremity, precisely corresponding to that which is found on the 
uppermost bracts of the Helleborus fcetldus, and at the extremity of the sepals 
of the " King Charles " polyanthus. The homology of the vegetative and 
reproductive organs of plants should be diligently looked after by the 
young student, since no true idea of them can be obtained except by 
watching their development, and noting how from one primitive element 
may be developed, (according to the vital impulse, and to the exigencies 
of the individual), into perule, leaf, bract, sepal, petal, stamen, or carpel. 

Pentas carnea. — The " interpetiolar stijDules " of the great Natural 
Order CinclionacecB, form one of its most striking characteristics. The 
Pentas, in bloom at this season, gives a remarkably fine example of these 
organs ; they are very large, erect, and deeply laciniated. Many of the 
flowers, instead of being 5-cleft, are tetramerous, and thus in striking 
correspondence with the condition found in certain Galiums, and more 
particularly in the Rubia peregrina, in which the 4-cleft and 5-cleft corollas 
are often half and half in number. I have never noted 5-cleft corollas 
in the Asperula, though 4-cleft ones are not uncommon in the CinclionacecB 
proper. The combination of the two families respectively illustrated in 
the plants adverted to, and the denomination of the whole as Bubiacece, is 
no doubt proper as a matter of high synthetical Botany For the student 
of our native plants, it seems desirous that the herbaceous forms should 
be kept apart as the Galiacece, especially as the intermediate leaves of the 
whorls of the latter are rather difficult to prove to be only " stipules," 
except to the advanced observer. 

Deutzia scabra. — The flowers of this shrub make their appearance in 
the florists' bouquets at this season, as well as those of the Deutzia parvi- 
fiora, and one or two others. They are easily identified, growing in little 
racemes, the five petals snow-white, the filaments of the stamens broad and 
dilated at the summit, and presenting a pair of erect and pointed shoulders, 
with the anther like a little head, between, — as happens in certain species 
of Allium, — and by the 4 — 5 long white styles. I refer to this plant on ac- 



14 THE NATURALIST. 

count of the extreme beauty of the ovary when viewed with the microscope. 
The entire surface is covered with silicious stellate "hairs," resembling 
those of the leaves, but much more delicate, and in admirable condition 
from the circumstance of the plant being kept under cover, and thus free 
from dust. 



EEVIEW OF THE BRITISH EOSES, 
ESPECIALLY THOSE OF THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



Br J. G. Baker, Esq., of Thirsk. 



Part I. 
In Britain, of late times, comparatively little attention has been paid 
to our indigenous Roses, and hardly anything has been written about them 
during the last thirty years. Eosa is one of those genera, where a 
difference in the point of view from which an author looks at the great 
species question, makes the widest difference in the number of species 
which he acknowledges. Where M. Grennier enumerates only Q3 Roses 
for the whole of France, M. Deseglise describes or mentions 107 in his 
elaborate monograph of the French Roses, and M. Boreau, in the last 
edition of his Flora, gives 74 for the Central Departments only. In the 
present state of the literature of the subject, to write a monograph of the 
European Roses, to group the combinations of subordinate value into 
species which well marked characters separate, to trace out the synonymy 
of these latter, and their distribution through the different countries, to 
clear up, or cast aside as impossible to be cleared up, the crowd of species 
which have been imperfectly described, would be a very laborious task. 
But a large proportion of the species of major, and apparently a larger 
proportion still, of those of minor value, do not extend their range into 
Britain ; and for us to satisfy ourselves about our indigenous species, and 
their distribution within the limits of the island, does not seem to be 
very difficult of attainment, after what has been already done. What I 
propose to do in this paper is principally to narrate my own experience of 
the North of England Roses, and their distinctive characters. There is 
hardly any genus of plants in which there seems to be a greater diversity 
of opinion, as to what characters are of value for diagnostic purposes : and 
unless in the handbooks, tho descriptions in these critical genera are 



Baker on British roses. 15 

unusually full and complete, it is impossible for those who have only- 
books to rely upon to name the species they gather. So that I have 
considered that to attempt to describe our species, and especially to attempt 
to ascertain the range of their variations in character, would not be an 
unprofitable task. I intend as I proceed to deviate from this local limi- 
tation to make any comments that suggest themselves, respecting 
the synonymy, alliances, and distribution of the British species. With 
regard to synonymy I am under special obligations to M. Deseglise, who 
has not only given me his opinion upon a collection of all the British 
forms which I was able to send him, but has also furnished me with 
authentic specimens of most of the species described in his book. And 
of other continental Botanists I have to thank M. Boreau for authen- 
ticated specimens of many of the Eoses of his " Flore du Centre," Dr. 
Fauconnet for examples of many of the Swiss sj)ecies, and Professor Crepin 
for Belgian specimens, and copious notes on what I sent him from this 
country. 

Passing the alien CinnamonecB we come first to the Spinosissimce, all 
comparatively low bushes, plentifully stoloniferous, with erect or slightly 
arching stems and short compact branches, typically subglobose fruit, and 
truly persistent sepals, but best characterised amongst the free-styled 
roses by the decided inequality of their usually crowded prickles, which 
pass from their full development down to minute aciculi by gradual 
stages of transition, and by the, at least occasional occurrence of setae on 
the well-matured stems. 

I. — R. spiNOSissiMA. Linn. In exposed places an erect shrub, with 
main stems one to four feet high, and short, rigid, compact, spreading, 
branches, creeping extensively, and forming a colony where it is allowed 
to grow unmolested ; in shade sometimes with csespitose arching stems 
and looser and longer branches. Shoots densely beset with prickles, which 
pass by gradual stages of transition into aciculi and setae. Largest prickles 
of the mature stems with bases about three-sixteenths of an inch deep, the 
prickle upwards of a quarter of an inch long, narrowed suddenly from the 
base to a slightly compressed needle, the uj)per line hardly at all curved. 
Well developed leaves not much over two inches from the base to the apex of 
the terminal leaflet. Leaflets rigid in texture, roundish or oval, in small 
specimens not more than one-eighth of an inch long, by less wide, in 
larger specimens three-quarters of an inch long by half an inch wide, 
simply serrated or with an occasional accessory tooth, lower serratui'es 



16 THE NATURALIST. 

tolerably open, occasionally gland tipped, both sides of the leaf glabrous 
and glandless, or with a very occasional gland on the midrib beneath. 
Petioles without hair, but often with a few setss and aciculi. Stipules 
with erecto-patent, lanceolate auricles, glabrous on the back, but some- 
times slightly gland-ciliated. Peduncles invariably solitary and bractless, 
erect in fruit, usually glabrous, but sometimes more or less aciculate and 
setose. Calyx tube sub-globose, glabrous, purple where exposed, segments 
entire, naked on the back, and either the same at the edge or furnished 
with a gland or two, from three-eighths to half an inch long, shorter than the 
petals. Flowers usually nearly white, sometimes more or less tinged with 
red, measuring from one inch to one and a half across when fully expanded. 
Styles villose. Fruit coriaceous, shining, glabrous, usually purplish black 
when ripe, but sometimes reddish, in shape subglobose, or even some- 
what depressed, three-eighths to half an inch broad, crowned by the truly 
persistent somewhat coriaceous purplish sepals, which are hardly if at all 
lengthened out and flattened at the point. Fruit ripening in September 
and October. 

The only British specimens which I have seen to which the above 
description does not apply, are — one gathered by Mr. Eobertson, in Castle 
Eden dene, Durham, which has an ovate ampulliform fruit, twice as long 
as broad, but otherwise as above — and one gathered by Mr. Borrer, at 
Brighton, which has a very prickly and setose peduncle, and in which the 
lower part of the fruit is prickly and setose also. This latter is doubtless 
the variety y aculeatissima of Woods, and the former probably his var, s. 

Our plant is the pimpinellifollia of several continental authors, who 
give spinosissima as a distinct species. Eeichenbach (Fl. Excurs,) assigns 
to his pimpinellifoUa globose fruit, glabrous peduncles, and simply serrated 
roundish leaves, and to his spinosissima ovate fruit, hispid peduncles, and 
doubly serrated oblong leaves ; but this does not give quite a correct 
idea of either, if Deseglise is correct in quoting the latter as a synonym of 
his E. Fdpartii. This latter, of which specimens are given in his '* Herba- 
riam Rosarum," has roundish oval doubly glanduloso-serrated leaves, the 
midribs beneath finely glandular, and the stipules gland-ciliated, the 
peduncles and globose calyx tube varying from glabrous to roughly acicu- 
late and setose. U. myriacantha, De Can. is described as having doubly 
glanduloso-serrated leaves, which are glendular-beneath, and densely 
aciculate and setose peduncles and fruit. R. spreta, Deseglise appears to 
differ from spinosissima principally by its fewer prickles and less hairy 



BAKER ON BRITISH ROSES. 17 

styles. R. conslmUis, Deseg. has few prickles, glabrous or slightly hairy 
petioles, almost glabrous leaves, a small glabrous roundish fruit and gla- 
brous styles ; and R. Ozanonii, Bcscg. unarmed branches, hairy and glan- 
dular petioles, leaves both hairy and glandular on the midrib beneath, 
glabrous peduncles, and a small spherical fruit with woolly styles. But 
none of these are known in Britain, and leaving out of view Lindley's 
^ pilosa, which seems to be altogether a doubtful plant, there is no need, 
so far as Britain is concerned, to speak of sub-species here, and no diffi- 
culty in finding well-marked distinctive characters to rely upon. It is the 
only British rose which has the flowers essentially single, and from its 
nearest allies, the character of its fruit and sepals separate it readily. 

B. rubella is represented in Winch's collection at Newcastle, by two 
specimens in flower, marked " Durham Coast," with ovate, glabrous, 
simply toothed leaves, slightly setose but not hairy petioles, bracts with 
spreading setoso-ciliated auricles, peduncles closely aciculate and setose, 
ovate calyx tube slightly setose at the base, and simple but decidedly leaf 
pointed sepals, which are glandular over the back, and the largest of which 
is about as long as the petals. According to the descriptions (British 
Flora, &c.) it has few prickles, but numerous setae on the stems, cernuous 
mature peduncles, short oval drooping fruit, firm in texture and bright 
red in colour, shortly oval, tapering at each end or somewhat urceolate in 
shape, and crowned by the persistent sepals. But a plant in Mr. Eobert- 
son's collection, marked " This is mentioned by Smith in E. B. as R. 
rubella. On sand of sea shore between 'V\Qiitburn and Sunderland, Durham, 
plentifully," is a mere red fruited form of spinosissima. In the Transactions 
of the Tyneside Naturalists' Club, vol. iv. p. 185, Mr. John Hogg, of 
Norton House, Stockton-on-Tees, gives an account of a rose which he 
gathered near his own residence, and which was pronounced by Winch 
to be B. rubella, as lately as 1832. Of this he has kindly supplied me 
with specimens, and it also is evidently a mere form of spinosissima, with 
pinkish flowers, slightly glandular petioles and aciculate and setose 
peduncles. So that for the North of England we have no authority for 
the occurrence of the true plant, except the original statement of Winch. 
R. rubella as just described recedes from R. spinosissima in the direction 
of R. alpina, approaching the latter closely in the nature of its fruit, and 
diff'ering conspicuously from the former. There are jolants in the Swiss 
Alps, which come very near to the above characters, which are considered 
as hybrids between spinonissima and alpina by M. Reuter, and one of 
No. 2, May 14. C 



18 THE NATURALIST. 

which is the E. rubella of Godet. I have specimens of two of these from 
Dr. Fauconnet, but they are in flower only, and even as far as they go, 
neither coincides precisely with Winch's plant. Koch refers a specimen 
sent from England as R. rubella to the Istrian B. gentilis, Sternb. but 
describes this latter as having the prickles crowded upon the shoots of the 
year, and the sepals one half shorter than the corolla. 

II. R. Sabint, Woods. In exposed places an erect shrub, with stems 
three to six or eight feet in height, short compact branches, and deep 
vinous-purple shoots and prickles, creeping extensively and forming a 
colony : in shade with taller somewhat arching stems and looser branches ; 
the whole plant with a resinous scent and young leaves of the twigs softly 
downy. Shoots densely beset with prickles, which pass by gradual stages 
of transition into numerous aciculi and setse. Longest prickles of the 
mature stem with bases a quarter of an inch deep, the prickle three- 
eighths of an inch long, narrowing suddenly from above the base to a 
slightly compressed needle, the upper line almost straight or slightly 
curved, the aciculi of the flowering shoots hardly at all curved. Well 
developed leaves of the barren shoots of the year about three inches from 
the base to the apex of the terminal leaflet which is cordate or broadly 
ovate, and measures about one inch long by five-eighths broad. Leaflets 
more or less thoroughly doubly serrated with open main serratures, dull 
green and greyish-hairy on their upper surfaces, paler and more hairy 
beneath, with reddish resinous glands spread sometimes all over the blade, 
but more frequently almost confined to the midrib and margins. Stipules 
hairy on the back and usually also glandular, densely setoso-ciliated, with 
lanceolate erecto-patent auricles. Petioles and peduncles with abundant 
hairs, aciculi and setae. Flowers solitary or two or three together, 
the bracts ovate-lanceolate, hairy and glandular, and copiously setoso- 
ciliated. Calyx tube subglobose, often purplish, more or less thickly beset 
with aciculi and setae, the segments about three-quarters of an inch in 
length, more or less lengthened out and leafy at the point, usually simple, 
but not unfrequently furnished with one or two narrow pinnae, the lower 
part of the blade always aciculate and setose, the upper part tomentose, 
and the leafy point often setoso-ciliated. Petals varying from pure white 
to deep rose colour, in fine specimens not less than one inch in length 
by an inch in breadth, so that the fully expanded flower is quite two 
inches across. The calyx segments are often of a rich deep purplish brown 
by the time the corolla falls, and then spread out at right angles with the 



BAKER ON BRITISH HOSES. 19 

tube. Styles villose, fruit not ripening till October, pulpy in texture, deep 
red in colour, crowned by the connivent or ascending segments of the 
truly persistent calyx. 

This species is tolerably frequent in the North of England. In North 
Yorkshire we have it in seven out of the nine drainage districts, and as- 
cending from the sea-level to 900 feet. After the examination of a con- 
siderable number of authenticated specimens I am entirely at a loss to 
find characters to distinguish Sabini, Doniana snid gracilis, even as varieties. 
I have not seen the larger prickles more than slightly curved. In small 
plants the flowers are often single and the sepals all entire, but this is a 
mere question of want of luxuriance. The flowers vary considerably in size 
and colour, the peduncles and calyx tubes in the closeness of their aciculi 
and setae, the leaves in the openness of the serrations and especially as 
regards the glandulosity of their underside and the hairiness of their 
upper surfaces. 

Professor Crepin has furnished me with a series of specimens of the 
Belgian rose, which he describes so carefully in the second fascicle of his 
'' Notes sur quelques plantes rares ou critiques de la Belgique," page 95, 
under the name of R. coronata, and it does not seem to me in any way 
essentially different from the plant above described. The stems of this 
he says are about three feet in height and do not arch at the summit, and 
the flowers are pale rose-coloured. His specimens have the terminal 
leaflets ovate-elliptical, somewhat narrower in proportion to their length 
than in our ordinary plant, with sharp moderately open double serratures 
and usually abundance of glands upon their under surfaces. Comparing 
our British plant, as illustrated by specimens which I sent, the diff'erences 
which he indicates (Notes p. 29) are that our plant is more robust, with 
flowers more frequently more than one, and in consequence with the 
bracts and stipules of the upper leaves more dilated, the branches and 
calyces dull violet, the corolla larger and apparently paler. This plant 
grows in the provinces of Namur and Luxembourg in Belgium and is 
given in Wirtgens' fasciculi of critical plants, issued in 1858 and 1860. 
I have not seen the Savoyard R. sabauda, Rapin, but apparently we 
may also safely refer it here. M. Kapin identifies it as a species with the 
Belgian coronata. M. Crepin states, after the study of authenticated 
specimens, that it only differs from his plant by its leaves not glandular 
beneath, and with less compound serrations, less glandular stipules, less 
prickly calyx tube, and more elongated and leaf-pointed sepals : and he 



20 THE NATURALIST. 

tells us that in the second edition of the *' Botanist's Guide to the Canton 
de Vaud," M. Eapin defines two varieties : — a R. sabauda, Rapin. Bull. 
Soc. Hall, p. 178, leaves glabrescent, simply or almost doubly dentate ; 
and l3 R. coronata, Crepin, leaves grey hairy and velvety doubly dentate. 
In the second edition of Renter's Plants of Geneva these two are described 
as distinct and both localised on Mont Saleve, the former on the summit 
of the hill, the latter in several places at a lower level. 

Mr. Borrer kindly supplied me with specimens of E. involuta, and 
there are others from the Cambridge Botanic Garden labelled by him in 
Mr. Robertson's collection. Judging the ]3lant by these, and the figures 
in the English Botany, the most tangible difference from Sabini which I 
can see is in the leaves, which are glabrous or very nearly so on the upper 
surface, hairy principally on the ribs beneath, glandular principally on the 
midrib and edges, with some of the teeth simple and some with one or 
more accessory gland-tipped serrations. The sepals are usually entire but 
have occasionally, as one of my specimens shews, an accessory pinna, and 
the calyx tube is very prickly. The smaller size of the bush and flower, 
the more northern station of the plant may well account for, and in other 
points it appears to coincide with the description of Sabini already given. 

The Belgian variety subnuda, with which M. Crepin has also kindly 
furnished me, recedes further from the type, and I cannot possibly do 
better than transcribe M. Crepin's account of its characteristics as given 
at page 26 of his " Notes." The leaves are glabrous on the upper surface, 
thickly covered with glands beneath but with the nerves only slightly 
pubescent. The petioles are hairy and setose, the peduncles and calyx 
tubes quite naked, the corolla deep rose coloured and the fruit slightly 
glaucescent. 

The Northumbrian plant that grows on the banks of the Ouse burn 
in Heaton dene, near Newcastle, which was once called R. involuta, by 
Winch (Geog. PI. second edition. No. 3, App.) is intermediate between 
Sabini and Smith's involuta. In this the leaves are hardly at all hairy 
above, hairy principally on the midrib beneath, and slightly glandular on 
the margins, the serratures being sharp, some of them single, but more 
usually compound. The peduncles are aciculate and setose, but the calyx 
tube is nearly naked, in hue glaucous and dark purple, so that this must 
be regarded as a connecting link between the other three forms. 

Regarding then R. Sabini as best distinguished from spinosissima by the 
nature of its fruit and sepals, and by its more or less hairy and glandular 



BAKER ON BRITISH ROSES. 21 

doubly-serrated leaves, from Wilsoni and hibernica by the latter character, 
and from Jiibernica also by its glandular sepals, we have subordinate forms 
as follows, viz. : — 

1. Sabini, Doniana and gracilis, Angl. ; coronata, Crepin and Renter ; 
srttai^da, /3 i?rt^;m; peduncles and calyx tubes setose and aciculate, leaves 
with conspicuously compound teeth, hairy on both sides, more or less 
glandular beneath. Britain from Clova Mountains and Bi'aemar south- 
ward to Sussex and Isle of Wight, Belgium, Savoy. 

2. involuta, Smith ; sabauda, Renter ; sabanda, a, Rapin ; peduncles and 
calyx tubes setose and aciculate, leaves with less compound teeth, glabrous 
or nearly so above, hairy principally on the ribs beneath, and not- glandular 
or only slightly so. Scotland, Savoy. 

3. Robertsoni : involuta, Wiyich, Geog. non Smith : peduncles aciculate 
and setose, calyx tubes nearly smooth, leaves with less compound teeth, 
nearly glabrous on the upper surface, hairy principally on the ribs beneath 
and slightly glandular. Northumberland. 

4. subnuda, Crepin; peduncles and calyx tubes smooth, leaves with 
fully compound teeth, glabrous on the upper surface, very glandular all 
over beneath, but only a little hairy on the veins. Belgium. 

Judging from the description R. Wilsoni closely resembles Sabini in its 
habit of growth. The stems are said to be about three feet high in the 
wild state. In the character of the armature of the stem I do not see 
any difference between them, and the shape and measurement of the 
prickles seem to be the same. In size the leaves and leaflets are like those of 
Sabini. The terminal leaflet on the leaves of the barren stem is usually 
typically ovate, but varies from cordate to ovate considerably narrowed 
below. The leaflets are deep green in colour, often blotched with purple, 
glabrous on the upper surface or very slightly hairy on the midrib, paler 
beneath, and somewhat hairy or even glandular on the ribs and i^etioles 
the serrations simple or with only a casual accessory gash, varying from 
as close as an oi'dinary canina to moderately open. The stipules and 
bracts are closely setoso-ciliated, the peduncles densely setose and acicu- 
late, the flowers from one to three in number, the calyx tube either entirely 
naked or slightly aciculate and setose, the segments about half an inch 
long in the wild plant, glandular on the back, either simple or slightly 
pinnate, the point lengthened out and slightly dilated, the petals white 
but towards the outer edge deeply tinged with rose colour, about five-eighths 
of an inch broad by three-quarters deep, so that the fully expanded corolla is 



29 THF. NATURALIST. • 

about an inch and a half across, and the styles are hairy. The fruit 
appears to ripen as in Sdbini, but to have more of a tendency to an ovate- 
urceolate shape. The calyx segments spread out at about right angles 
from the tube when the petals fall, but afterwards ascend. Mr. Wilson 
visited the station again last autumn, and has kindly taken considerable 
pahis to show me that the sepals are really persistent. The best character 
which we have to distinguish it from Sdbini seems to be in the toothing 
of the leaves, so that we can scarcely, in my view, regard it safely as a 
species of primary value. 

The figures of II. Sabiiii and B. Wilsoni in English Botany are both 
taken from unusually luxuriant specimens, and this has perhaps given rise 
to some misapprehensions respecting them. M. Crepin for instance, 
(Notes p. 28) questions whether 2594 be really Sablni at all, and not a 
very robust specimen of a form of R. mollissima. I think there can be no 
question of its being really the true plant, but it is confessedly from a 
garden-grown bush. Plate 583 for size and general habit shews our 
common form well, but not the characteristic armature of the stems, and 
the fruit is from a garden-grown bush of R. pomifera. 

III. — E. HiBEENicA Smith. A stoloniferous shrub, with somewhat 
arching main stems, 4 to 6 feet in height, and more robust shoots than the 
preceding. Stems densely beset with prickles, which pass gradually into 
acicuii, and sometimes furnished also with a few setae. Largest prickles of 
the mature stems with bases three-eighths or even half an inch deep, nar- 
rowed suddenly to a compressed needle, the prickle three-eighths of an inch 
long, varying from nearly straight to decidedly falcate, and the prickles and 
aciculi of the flowering shoots often curved considerably. Well developed 
leaves of the barren shoot of the year about four inches from their base to 
the apex of the terminal leaflet, which is broadly ovate and measures an 
inch and a quarter long by three-quarters or seven-eighths broad. All the 
leaflets bright green above, paler and somewhat glaucous beneath, and 
(in the Yorkshire and Cheshire plants) quite without hairs, and with only 
an occasional seta on the midrib beneath and the petioles, the serrations 
as sharp and close as in the ordinary forms of canina, the lower teeth 
occasionally gland-tipped. Stipules glabrous on the back or very nearly 
so, and not at all glandular, with lanceolate erecto-patent auricles, rather 
closely setoso-ciliated, the bracts the same. Peduncles quite naked, 
solitary, or two or three together, and on vigorous shoots, as in all the 
rest, except the essentially solitary flowered species, there may be as many 



BAKER ON BRITISH ROSES. 23 

as a dozen in a cluster. Calyx tube quite glabrous, sub-globose or tending 
towards ovate, the segments about three-quarters of an inch in length, 
conspicuously leaf-pointed and more usually pinnate than simple, quite 
glabrous on the back, but with an occasional gland on the edges. Styles 
hairy. Petals pale pink, the expanded corolla measuring not more than 
an inch and a half across. Sepals spreading at right angles from the tube 
or even somewhat reflexed after the petals fall, afterwards ascending. 
Fruit ripe in October, globoso-urceolate, deep red and pulpy, measuring 
about half an inch each way, crowned by the persistent ascending or 
spreading sepals. This has been met with by Mr. Borrer and Professor 
Oliver in the vale of Lorton, in Cumberland ; by Professor Oliver at 
Witton-on-the-Wear, in Durham; by Mr. Webb in hedges near Great 
Meols, in Cheshire ; and by Mr. Mudd and myself in hedges at Newton 
and in Airy-holme Wood, in Cleveland, in North Yorkshire. In Mr. 
Watson's herbarium there are two specimens from Surrey, labelled 
" Eoadside at Combe Wood, on the left hand side near the top of the hill, 
coming from the Robin Hood, towards Kingston : only one bush actually 
seen and that I took away * * Mr. R. Castle," and there are as confirma- 
tion of this several small specimens of what is evidently the same 
amongst some roses dried by Mr. Watson, from Mr. Castle's garden. 
The Yorkshire, Cheshire, and Surrey plants have quite glabrous leaves 
and petioles, whilst the original Irish rose which was described under this 
name has hairy petioles, and the midrib and principal veins on the under 
side of the leaf are somewhat hairy also. Unless it be that in the latter 
the sepals are a little more setose at the edge, I do not detect any other 
difference. The Cumberland plant is slightly hairy ; the Durham one I 
have not seen. 

The plant found by Professor Oliver, in Northumberland, in the dale 
of the Coquet, which is placed doubtfully under this species in Babington's 
Manual, presents some striking points of divergence from the type, in the 
direction of B. Sahini. The prickles of the main stem are more slender, 
and the large ones hardly at all curved. The peduncle instead of being 
glabrous is rather closely aciculate and setose up to the top. The leaves 
in shape recal those of Sahini, the leaflets of the barren shoots being much 
rounded, often quite cordate at the base, and the serratures more open and 
blunt than in the type. The petioles are shghtly hairy and setose, and 
the leaves very slightly hairy beneath. 



21 



THE NATURALIST. 



Here then the range of variation is as follows : — 

1. eu-hihernica, peduncles naked, petioles hairy, leaves hairy 

beneath. 
Q. glabra, peduncles naked, petioles and leaves hairless. 
3. cordlfolia, peduncles aciculate and setose, leaves broader and 
more bluntly toothed, almost hairless. 
Closely allied as they are in many respects, if R. Sabini by the 
clothing, toothing, and odour of its leaves recalls the Villosm, R. hibernica, 
in a similar manner, reminds us of canina. The French R. Biturigensis, 
Boreaii, is quite intermediate between this group and R. rubiginosa. It has 
as numerous and as unequal prickles as Pi. Sabini in combination with 
leaves glabrous above and hardly hairy beneath, but densely covered with 
viscid glands, and the French R. Schultzii, Ripart, classed by Deseglise 
amongst the Canines, comes very near our R. hibernica, var. glabra. 



®hBtxbviixann. 



Frogs, Toads, Sc. — Now that we 
are fairly in the middle of the breed- 
ing season of these animals, when 
every one's attention is forcibly 
drawn lo them by their loud and 
well sustained love songs, it will 
not perhaps be deemed superfluous 
or uninteresting to give a few notes 
respecting them. 

The frog and toad are, as every 
one knows, oviparous. They gener- 
ally commence to deposit their eggs 
or spawn about the end of March. 
Last year I saw spawn, left by the 
frogs, on the 6th March ; some of 
this I secured for my aquarium. 
This year I saw the frogs, for the 
first time, depositiyig their eggs on 
the 26th March. 

There is a great difference between 



the forms in which the spawn of 
the frog and toad is extruded. The 
spawn of the frog consists of an im- 
mense number of eggs, each enclosed 
in a separate globular coat of mucus ; 
these being again united form a 
somewhat spherical body of the 
average diameter of four and a half 
inches. These germs are not fer- 
tilized while within the body of the 
parent, but at the moment of extru- 
sion. The number of germs con- 
tained in one of these masses is 
enormous. Let us endeavour to 
ascertain approximately what this 
number will be. I have found by 
measurement that the average dia- 
meter of these clusters is four and a 
half inches. I find also that the 
number of eggs per linear inch is 
three ; this gives 27 germs to the 
cubic inch, and 1,288 in an average 
sized mass. 



OBSERVATIONS. 



25 



The toad it would appear is equally, 
or even more prolific than the frog, 
in the Intellectual Ohserver, vol. iv. 
p. 123, Mr. J. Couch says that he 
took the trouble on one occasion to 
draw out and measure one of the 
masses recently deposited by the 
Natter-Jack, a species of toad. He 
found that it was at least one hun- 
dred feet long. He further stated 
that the eggs were in two rows 
within a cylindrical string of mucus. 
He does not state how many eggs 
were contained in one linear inch ; 
but it is highly probable that they 
would be about the same distance 
apart as are those of the common 
toad, which I find to be eight in one 
linear inch ; if this should be the 
case, we should thus have 19,000 
germs, speaking in round numbers, 
in one mass. 

As may be gathered from the pro- 
ceeding paragraph the spawn of the 
toad is not, like that of the frog, 
deposited in globular masses, but in 
long cylindrical strings of mucus. 
These strings in the common toad 
contain a single row of eggs arranged 
down their centre. The strings are 
about two lines in diameter, the 
eggs about one line. After extrusion 
they generally assume a spherical 
aj^pearance. 

I have not so far been able to 
follow Mr. Couch's j)lan of actually 
measuring one of these strings ; but 
I have made a calculation which 



gives me very nearly the same result, 
when we consider that there are two 
rows in the spawn of the Natter- 
Jack while in the common toad there 
is only one. I have taken four 
inches as the average diameter of 
these masses. Now as there are 
eight eggs in one linear inch, and 
six strings laid side by side fill the 
same space, we shall have for one 
cubic inch 288 germs, and in a glo- 
bular mass of four inches diameter 
9,650, or rather more than half the 
number obtained from Mr. Couch's 
measurement in the case of the 
Natter-Jack. 

The newts do not seem to be 
nearly so prolific as the frog or toad ; 
but their habit of depositing only 
one egg at a time, and that upon a 
submerged leaf which is afterwards 
carefully folded round the egg 
renders observation on this point 
much more difficult. I have kept 
them in confinement in my aquarium 
and have seen as many as a dozen ; 
but, I think, never more from one 
female newt. Perhaps others may 
have obtained different results. 

In their development from the 
larval to the adult form, the hind 
legs of the frog and toad first make 
their appearance and afterwards the 
front pair ; while in the tritons or 
newts it is exactly the reverse, 
the anterior pair appearing first 
and afterwards the posterior. — J. 
Hepworth, Lofthouse, Wakefield. 



26 



THE NATURALIST. 



Since writing the above I have 
glanced over Mr. Couch's paper on 
the Natter-Jack ; I find that the 
eggs though in tivo rows were ar- 
ranged alternately, and consequently 
it is more than probable that there 
would be only eight to the linear 
inch. This would reduce the num- 
ber to 9,600, or nearly the same as 
I make for the common toad. — J.H. 



Red Grouse. — I have to record the 
first appearance of this bird in Essex. 
A fine specimen having been shot at 
Little Tey, by Mr. William Patten, 
and which is now in the possession 
of Mr. H. Eose, of Coggeshall, for 
preservation. — C. Denny, Kelvedon. 

Merlin (Falco cssalonj. — A fine 
specimen of the above bird was 
recently shot in this neighbourhood, 
and is also in the possession of Mr. 
H. Eose, of Coggeshall, for preserva- 
tion. — C. Denny, Kelvedon. 

Occurrenee of the Tufted Duck, at 
Halifax. — I have just heard that a 
pair of the Tufted Ducks {Arias 
fuligida) were shot in this neighbour- 
hood, about ten days ago. — J. 
Gibson, Washer Lane, Halifax, 
April 28th, 1864. 

Occurrence of the Dunlin and Pied 
Flycatcher at Meltham. — On the 27th 
ult., I saw a pair of Dunlins (Tringa 
variabilis) on the moors above Mel- 
tham. I was not previously aware 
that they bred in this locality. On 



the 28th ult. I saw perched on an 
extended bough of alder, growing on 
the bank of Meltham Mills reser- 
voir, a Pied Flycatcher (Muscicapa 
atricapilla), which is only a very 
occasional visitant here. — Alfred 
Beaumont, Greave, near Meltham, 
May 4th, 18G4. 

The Hock Dove (Columha livia). — 
This bird I am very happy to say 
we have, during the last few days, 
been enabled to add to the list of 
those breeding in this neighbour- 
hood, from the fact of having found 
on the 26th of last month, two nests 
containing two half-fledged young 
ones each, in a cluster of rocks about 
two miles and a half from this town. 
— J. AsPDiN, Eichmond, Yorkshire. 
May 5th, 1864. 

Curious place for a Robin's Nest. — 
On the 23rd of last month I found 
a robin's nest built in the bottom of 
the deserted nest of a magpie, which 
was placed in a thorn bush, about 
twenty feet from the ground. It 
contained five eggs, and the hen bird 
had just commenced sitting. — J. 
AsPDiN, Eichmond, Yorkshire, May 
5th, 1864. 



Crymodes templi. — On the 30th ult. 
I had the good fortune to find at 
rest, on the bole of a wild cherry, a 
fine female G. templi. — Geo. Liver- 
sedge, Bum Eoyd, Huddersfield. 
Mav 7th, 1864. 



OBSERVATIONS. 



2T 



The Oak and its Galls. 

Of all our forest trees the Oak 
seems to offer the greatest attraction 
to a grouj) of insects, known by the 
name of Gall-flies (Cynipes) and be- 
longing to the order Hymenojptera. 
Koot, stem, buds, leaves, leaf-stalks, 
catkins, — all offer a home and 
nourishment to one or other species 
of Cynips. In some instances the 
gall is tenanted by a colony, in others 
by a solitary individual. The eco- 
nomy is the same in all cases : the 
parent insect pierces with her ovi- 
positor that part of the tree best 
adapted to the nourishment and 
development of her offspring : the 
sap stagnates, and causes the part to 
assume those singular growths, some 
of which must be familiar to all who 
have gathered oak-branches on the 
99 th of May. These grow^ths are 
destined, as I have said, to nourish 
and protect the infant progeny 
through the earlier stages of its 
existence, until it assumes wings and 
leaves its home. 

I have had opportunities of seeing 
the home and watching the develop- 
ment of several species of Cynips, 
during my long residence in this 
neighbourhood, and I give the result 
of my observations for the benefit of 
your readers. I shall begin with the 
root. Tuber-like galls, attached by 
small threads to the main root, are 
tenanted by a little colony of gall- 
grubs. I have not yet succeeded in 



hatching this species, but I hope to 
do so before the summer. Oak- 
apples, as they are commonly called, 
are the nidus of a numerous colony 
of gall-flies, which find their food and 
shelter therein in the larva state of 
existence. These I have repeatedly 
hatched, as many as twenty or thirty 
being inhabitants of the same gall. 
Then we have the round hard galls, 
round as a marble, on the branches 
of young oaks. In these single gall- 
flies pass their earlier existence. 
The fly somewhat resembles the one 
that is instrumental in forming the 
ink-galls on the Quercus infectoria of 
Turkey and the Levant, but is not 
so large. The gall, too, bears some 
slight resemblance to the ink-gall of 
commerce. The gall on the under- 
side of the leaves is of a pulpy 
nature, and is prettily tinted in the 
autumn with various shades of red 
and green. This again is the home 
of a single cynips, which difl'ers in 
size and colour from that of the 
hard gall. The leaves of the oak 
are dotted on the underside with 
rosy spangles in the autumn that 
look like parasitic fungi ; these 
prove to be the home of a single 
cynip>s. As the leaves fall and fade 
the spangles become covered with a 
woolly substance, and in the follow- 
ing spring they give birth to a small 
black cynips that really seems dis- 
proportionate to its tiny home. I 
have hatched several of these during 



28 



THE NATURALIST. 



the spring of the year. The buds 
of the oak serve as a home for 
another species. These are crippled 
and made to assume the appearance 
of a little artichoke, and in the 
centre of the overlapping scales is a 
small pear-shaped nut, which is 
tenanted by five or six larva, each 
in its own honeycomb-like cell. 
The last gall-fly I have to mention 
attacks the catkins of the oak, 
causing the flower-stalk to be covered 
with little balls that look like half- 
ripe red currants. These, when the 
galls are numerous, have a very 
pretty appearance. — P. Inchbald, 
Storthes Hall, May 2, 1864. 

Clostera anaclioreta. — This species 
is now appearing in my breeding 
cages ; the recent warm weather 
having doubtless accelerated its ap- 
pearance. It is a very prolific 
species, and easily bred where its 
food i^lant (Dwarf Sallow) can be 
obtained. A fact which goes far to 
prove that in a few years time, it 
will be numbered with our common 
species.— William Pokteus, Halifax, 
April 22nd, 1864. 

Hyhridism — On Wednesday night 
I observed a male specimen of Clos- 
tera anaclioreta with a female of C. 
cur tula — six eggs have been deposited 
and I trust more will follow. If 
they are fruitful I will record the 
result in the " Naturalist." — Wm. 
PoETEus, 17, Dean-street, Pellon- 
lane, Halifax. May 6th, 1864. 



Ateuchus. — A. L. asks if any of 
the readers of** The Naturalist" can 
inform him why the Ateuchus is 
called the ''Sacred Beetle." The 
following from ''Westwood's Classi- 
fication of Insects," vol. 1, page 
206, will perhaps answer his ques- 
tion. 

" The type of this family is the 
renowned Sacred Beetle of the 
Egyptians, of which so many models, 
carvings, amulets, &c., are discovered, 
occasionally of a gigantic size, in 
sarcophagi, and rolled up in the 
mummies and other ancient relics of 
that remarkable people, by whom its 
appearance, in great numbers, on the 
sandy margins of the Nile, after the 
annual rising and falling of the 
river, together with its extraordinary 
motions whilst rolling along its little 
globular balls of dung, were re- 
garded as mystically representing 
the resurrection of the soul, the 
motions of the earth and sun, &c. 
Latreille, who has published a 
memoir upon these Sacred beetles 
in the fifth volume of the Mem. du 
Museum, translated by Benett, in the 
first volume oiihe ZoologicalJournal, 
and in the Appendix to the Voyage 
to Meroe of M. Caillaud, in Sennari, 
where their first settlements were 
established. Mouffet, with his usual 
cumbrous loquacity, has given a long 
account of these insects and their 
supposed virtues. It was also re- 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



^9 



garded as the emblem of fertility ; 
and we are informed bj Dr. Clarke 
that it is now eaten by the women of 
Egypt."— W. H. C. 

Preservation of Caterpillars. — 
In answer to Veritas, p. 7 of " The 
Naturalist," now to preserve cater- 
pillars or larvae, I believe the 
following to be the best and readiest 
mode: — ^ Immerse them in hot water 
to kill tbem, afterwards put them 
into equal parts of spirits of wine 
and distilled vinegar a short time, 
take out and make a puncture at or 
near the anus, squeeze out the in- 
ternal parts with the thumb and 
finger, beginning at the head and 
running down to the anus, then 
clean out the interior with blotting 
paper, say a small roll, afterwards 
put a small straw into the anus and 
blow so as to inflate the larva's 
body to its natural size; having a 
silk thread, the same colour as the 
larva, previously tied loosely round 
the bottom part, withdraw the straw 
and pull the silk thread at the same 
time, and tie it fast ; afterwards dry 
them by the fire, or in a slow oven, 
a short time, and they will retain 
their natural colour. You may 
mount them on card with gum 
tragacanth dissolved in pure spring 
water. — Joseph Blackbuen, Leeds. 

The Sacred Beetle of the Egyptians. 
— Your correspondent, A. L., wishes 
to know why the Ateuchus is called 
the Sacred Beetle of the Egyptians. 



The only answer to this is that it is 
so called because the Ateuchus sacer 
was regarded as a sacred animal by 
the ancient inhabitants of Egypt. 
Other beetles seem to have shared 
with it in this character, but it is 
the species most frequently repre- 
sented in the hieroglyphics, and on 
the signets and other ornaments 
found in Egyptian sepulchres. This 
beetle is also met with embalmed, 
and it, or its image, was generally 
placed on those bodies which were 
prepared according to the most ex- 
pensive process. It was sacred to 
the sun, and to Phthah, or the 
creative power ; and was adopted as 
an emblem of the sun and of the 
world. A. L. will find further par- 
ticulars in " Sir J. G. Wilkinson's 
Manners and Customs of the Ancient 
Egyptians," second series, vol. 2, 
p. 255. — W. S. Dallas, Museum, 
York, May 9 th. 



Amphydasis prodromaria. — I ha^'e 
larvae of this insect, which I should 
be glad to exchange for anything I 
have not already bred. Offers, if 
accepted, will be replied to by 
return of post. — Colonel Stewart, 
Eldon Villa, Eedland, Bristol, May 
9th, 1864. 

Gratis. — I have larvae of Clostera 
anachoreta and Pupas of C. curtula in 
duplicate, and shall be glad to send 
a few to any of my Correspondents 



30 



THE NATURALIST. 



who sent postage last season, and 
did not succeed in obtaining a 
supply, or to any Entomologist who 
may require them.— Applicants to 
pay postage. — William Porteus, 
17, Dean Street, Pellon Lane, 
Halifax. 

Liparis dispar. — The larvae of this 
species are appearing in my breeding 
cage by hundreds. I shall have 
much pleasure in distributing them 
to any one sending a suitable box 
(prepaid), with return postage. — 
Thomas Mellor, Skircoat Green, 
near Halifax. 



^l^porte of ^otutm. 

Manchester Field Naturalists' So- 
ciety. — The concluding Soiree for 
the season of this Society was 
held in the Library Hall of the 
Athenaeum, Manchester, on Tues- 
day, April 26th, and was perhaps 
one of the most brilliant of these 
usually gay assemblages. The hall 
was profusely decorated with living 
plants and flowers disposed on 
tables, whilst the walls were hung 
with large coloured drawings of a 
variety of plants, native and exotic. 
Amongst the living wild plants from 
the neighbourhood of Manchester 
may be mentioned : — Petasites vul- 
garis, in fine flower. Primula vulgaris 
very fine from Penketh and Mobber- 
ley, Luzula pilosa, Caltha 'palustris, 
Oxalis acetosella, Polypodium vulgare, 
Hedera helix, in full ripe fruit. 



Some beautiful greenhouse exotic 
plants contributed by several mem- 
bers added greatly to the attractions 
of the evening ; the Bougainvillia 
spectabilis, with its pretty lilac bracts, 
the beautiful cream-white panicles 
of Spircea japonica, and the purple 
racemes of Wisteria Sinejisis were 
very striking objects. A specimen 
of the Japanese Skimmia jaj)onica 
was also on one of the tables, the 
red berries of which had hung in 
their rich clusters perfectly fresh 
since last October. Deutziaparviflorat 
Diceyitra spectahilis, several species 
of Khododendron, Azalea, and 
Acacia were amongst the specimens 
shewn. A number of British mosses 
were sent from the neighbourhood 
of Kendal, by a lady friend of 
the society, amongst which were 
Dicramim scoparium, Polytrichiim 
commune, Hypmim plumosmn, Dicra- 
nuni majus, and Hypnum rugosum, 
all in fruit. H. tamariscinwn, H. 
cupressifonne, Antitrichia curtipendula 
&c. Amongst the scientific instru- 
ments, the most interesting perhaps, 
was the " Natural" Stereoscope, the 
patented invention of Mr. Joseph 
Wood, of Huddersfield. Three of 
these instruments were exhibited by 
Messrs. Wood, Barker, and Shaw, 
of the Huddersfield Literary and 
Scientific Society, and commanded a 
very large share of attention, from the 
brilliancy and clearness of the views 
shewn, and the beautiful atmospheric 



CultRESPONDENCE. 



31 



effects produced. Tlie chair was 
occupied by Dr. Alcock, and an 
address was given in the early part 
of the evening by Mr. R. Holland, 
on ** The Spring Phenomena of 
Plant Life." 

Wakefield Naturalists' Society. — 
The usual fortnightly meeting of 
the above society was held on the 
5th inst. Specimens of the whole 
of the flowers in bloom, in this dis- 
trict, were laid on the table. The 
larvae of L. monacha, T. cratsegi, 
D. cseruleocephala, and P. populi 
were exhibited by Mr. Talbot. A 
large collection of shells beautifully 
mounted was shewn by Mr. Lunn. 
Mr. Hebden exhibited several dis- 
torted shells which aptly illustrated 
the readiness with which nature 
remedies casual injuries. *' Nature 
made Paper" was shewn by Mr. 
Willis, which he had taken from a 
pond at Hickleton, near Doncaster ; 
he also exhibited the femur of a 
rabbit which had been broken and 
afterwards, in a most curious man- 
ner, had grown together again ; the 
muscles of the leg having contracted, 
drawing the end of the lower part of 
the femur half an inch beyond that 
of the upper part, and in this 
position the sides had grown 
together, with the sharp jagged 
ends projecting on each side. 
Arrangements were made at the 
beginning of the year for the 
reading, by the members, of a series 



of original papers on scientific sub- 
jects. An interesting paper was read 
this evening by Mr. 0x1 ey, on the 
''Fructification of Flowering Plants." 



To the Editors of the Naturalist. 

Gentlemen, — Would you be kind 
enough to allow me a small space in 
your Journal, to say a few words to 
the more enthusiastic Cryptogamic 
Botanists, in reference to the dis- 
covery of mosses new to this neigh- 
bourhood. It must be borne in 
mind that up to the present time, 
there has been no channel through 
which these communications could 
be made by scientific men, either in 
Botany or any other branch of 
Natural History. 

The desideratum being now sup- 
plied, facilities are afforded for the 
better cultivation of what has hitherto 
been somewhat neglected. That 
this is a rich neighbourhood for the 
Cryptogamic Botanist no one can 
doubt who has paid any attention 
to that study, and I trust that in a 
short time those gentlemen who have 
devoted much time to this delightful 
study, will furnish the readers of 
this Journal with the fruit of their 
labours, in the form of lists for the 
benefit of those less acquainted with 
the subject. I was informed the 
other day by a botanical friend, that 
two mosses had lately been found 
new to this neighbourhood, but on 
making further enquiries I found 



sa 



THE NATURALIST. 



them to be two kinds, wliicli in my 
rambles for the last ten years, I have 
been in the habit of meeting with 
yearly in abundance, two miles 
North-West of Huddersfield. The 
following are the names : — -''Weissia 
7iuda, Tetraphis pellucida, — another 
beautiful moss is very common, the 
Hookeria liicens, and I have no 
doubt before long that the rare 
Schistostega x)ennata vfiW be found by 
some enterprising botanist in this 
neighbourhood. W. Guthrie. 
Fixby Park, April 22nd, 1864. 
\^Discelium nudum. — Eds.] 

The Entomological Collection in 
THE British Museum. 
(Continued from page 9.J 
Sir, — The correspondent of the 
''Times" has not overstated but 
understated the facts of the case. 
Great improvements have been 
made of late years in the setting 
of insects by the invention of 
setting boards or corks, greatly im- 
proved Entomological pins, etc., etc., 
and as such a vast proportion of the 
specimens have been set abroad with 
insufficient apjDliances, and others 
carelessly extended by dealers or 
others at home who have had no 
personal j)ride in the setting of their 
captures or their duplicates, it is no 
exaggeration to say that nearly the 
whole collection ought to be re- 
pinned and re-set, so as to have if 
possible that uniformity andneatness 
which every Entomologist knows 



adds so immensely to the beauty 
and value of a collection. 

There are besides an immoderate 
and inordinate number of duplicates 
in all the orders, which want weeding 
out. I know that the difficulty of 
donation comes in here, but it is a 
purely personal matter, and should 
not be allowed for a moment to stand 
in the way of the improvement of 
the splendid collection of insects 
which the nation possesses in the 
British Museum. 

I said that I agreed with every 
word of the letter of the "Times'' 
correspondent, H. C, but in one 
point I am glad somewhat to differ 
from him. He spoke of specimens 
being so incrusted with London 
dust as to be almost indiscernible. 
I think little or nothing of this is to 
be seen, at all events in the cabinet 
drawers, but possibly he may only 
have been speaking of the store 
boxes, and alluding to the insects in 
them, and if so it may be too true 
as far as they are concerned, but 
the remedy in that case is ready in 
future by the adoption of the reforms 
I have suggested, the making room 
at once for all first additions, from 
time to time, by the elimination of 
duplicates, and by having paid 
officers sufficient for their arrange- 
ment, without delay or accumulation, 
in their proper places. — F. O. 
Morris, Nunburnholme Rectory, 
May 3, 1864. 



P.S. — In the previous letter, for " above," in the last line, read " below. 



aa 



#rigmal %xixthB. 



REVIEW OF THE BRITISH ROSES, 
ESPECIALLY THOSE OF THE NORTH OF ENGLAND, 



By J. G. Baker, Esq., of Thirsk. 



Part II.-VILLOS.E. 

Strong bushes with suherect, or somewhat arching stems. Prickles 
uniform, slender, straight or nearly curved, narrowed suddenly from 
above the base to a compressed needle. Leaves doubly serrated, more or 
less hairy all over above, conspicuously hairy and usually more or less 
furnished with reddish resinous glands beneath. Peduncles aciculate and 
setose, or very rarely naked. Sepals setose on the back, spreading or 
connivent, never reflexed upon the fruit, truly persistent or sub-persistent. 
Styles free, villose. 

IV.— R. MOLLissmA. Willd. Fries. A tufted shrub, with suberect 
not arching stems six or seven feet high and stiff spreading branches, 
which are deep vinous-glaucous in exposure, and with soft grey unfolded 
upper leaves. Prickles of the well-matured stem uniform or nearly so, 
the base about a quarter of an inch deep, the lower part slender, the 
prickle from three-eighths to half an inch long, narrowing gradually to a 
long needle-like point, the upper line scarcely at all curved, but often 
declining considerably from a right angle with the axis. Well developed 
leaves of the shoots of the year from four and a half to five inches from 
the base to the apex of the terminal leaflet, which is broadly ovate, 
rounded or even cordate at the base, and measures from an inch and a half 
to one and three quarters long by fully an inch broad. Leaflets rugose 
and strongly veined, generally softer and greyer than in any of the other 
species, glaucous-green, and covered with a thick coating of soft white hairs 
on the upper surface, paler and still more hairy beneath, usually furnished 
with a few reddish-brown glands on the under side, the serratures open 
and furnished with two or three fine gland-tipped teeth, the petioles villose 
and setose, and furnished with two or three needle-like aciculi. Stipules 
and bracts hairy and more or less glandular on the back, copiously setoso- 
ciliated, the former with ovate-lanceolate spreading auricles. Peduncles 
usually so short that they are hidden by the stipules and bracts. Calyx 
No, 3, June 1. D 



34 THF. NATURALIST. 

tube ovate-urceolate or subglobose, purplish and bloomy in exposure, 
varying from glabrous to densely aciculate and setose, the segments about 
three-quarters of an inch long, leaf-pointed, entire or only slightly pinnate, 
densely clothed on the back with setae and aciculi. Petals almost crimson 
in bud, usually deep rose-coloured when expanded, beautifully veined with 
a deeper red, sometimes paler, sometimes pure white, occasionally gland- 
ciliated along the edge, about as long as the larger sepals, so that the 
expanded corolla is about au inch and a half across. Styles villose. 
Sepals erecto-patent or connivent after the sepals fall. Fruit ripening in 
the North of England early in August, sometimes even changing colour 
in the latter part of July, more or less typically globose in shape, at first 
a reddish-orange, finally a bright crimson, in fine specimens measuring 
five-eights of an inch each way, crowned till it fades by the truly persis- 
tent sepals, the stalk sometimes erect but not unfrequently cemuous. 

With us but little liable to vary. The principal change is in the 
clothing of the leaves, which are usually soft and grey, and with very few 
glands beneath, but sometimes greener, harsher, and more glandular, and 
the same may be said of the sepals. From tomentosa the nature of the 
fruit furnishes the best character of distinction. Although they flower at 
the same time, this species ripens its fruit at least a month earlier. By 
the middle of August its bright crimson globes, often gracefully pendant 
from the cernuous peduncles, are already a conspicuous object in the hedge 
rows. They soon grow pulpy in texture, the skin and juice having a 
pleasant acid flavour, are crowned to the end by the truly persistent 
connivent and sparingly compound sepals, and deliquesce with the early 
frosts. As in tomentosa both naked and prickly fruited forms are common. 
The ciliation of the petals, as above described, which is mentioned both by 
Fries and Deseglise as a cha,racter of mollissima is quite unusual in our 
plant, and accurs also in undoubted tomentosa. In the latter the fruit is 
typically ovate, but so great is the resemblance between the two in other 
points, that often, dried specimens in flower are hardly distinguishable. 

According to Fries it is universally distributed throughout Scandinavia, 
and it is the only British rose tbat reaches Lapland, whilst tomentosa is 
confined to the south west, and in Scandinavia proper is almost restricted 
to Gothland. Scandinavian specimens from Swartz in Mr. Eobertson's 
collection, and from Hartmann in Mr. Watson's, seem to coincide with 
our plant, except that Swartz has confused it with tomentosa. In the North 
of England it comes next to canina and to?«^»iosa in order of frequency 



BAKER ON BRITISH ROSES. 35 

and in North Yorkshire reaches 500 yards above the sea level. Mr. 
Watson's specimens shew a diffusion in Britain from Orkney (J. T. Syme) 
to the Isle of Wight (A. G. More), but its distribution in the South of 
England apart from tomentosa still wants working out. The same may be 
said of its distribution in Central Europe. Crepin gives it as a Belgian 
species, — Reichenbach unites it with pomifera, — both Koch and Grenier 
with tomentosa. There are specimens from Frankfort in Mr. Watson's 
collection. Von Garcke (1863) does not mention it at all for Northern and 
Central Germany. R. ciliato-petaia of the 2nd edition of Koch's Synopsis 
from Tyrol and Carniola is the same plant or closely allied. I have it 
from two places in Savoy. Boreau gives it as very rare in Central France. 
Four of Deseglise's species, J?, mollissima, Ch'emerii, minuta, and resinosa, 
are very near to our plant. The same may be said of the Styrian R. 
resinosa of Sternberg and Reichenbach. Whether R. mollissima of Renter be 
the same is doubtful, but his R. pomifera apparently includes R. Grenierii 
of Deseglise, which is certainly far nearer mollissima than the genuine 
pomifera. 

A plant which grows in hedges at Woodend near Thirsk may perhaps 
be worth placing as a variety. It has a taller stem than in the type, more 
glandular leaves, petioles and bracts, sepals copiously setose on the back, 
fully an inch long, furnished with leafy points, and three out of the five 
with long toothed pinnse, erecto-patent upon the fruit. When in flower 
this looks more like tomentosa than mollissima, but in the nature of its 
fruit and prickles it coincides with the latter. This is referred doubtfully 
by Deseglise to R. resinosa, but does not quite agree with the sj^ecimens 
which he sends, which have greener and less hairy leaves, more glandular 
beneath, and shorter and more glandular sepals. 

R. pomifera, Herm., though almost always given as distinct, is in 
reality very near to R. mollissima, with which it coincides in the persistence 
of its sepals and the early date at which the fruit ripens. Its habit of 
growth is more robust. The leaves are larger, more lengthened out in 
proportion to the breadth, attaining two inches or more when fully developed, 
the upper part somewhat dilated and rhomboidal-obovate in outline, the 
texture hardly so soft, the serrations more open and many times finely 
toothed. The sepals are an inch long, two usually simple, and the other 
three considerably pinnated. The fruit is globular or even depressed, 
measuring in fine specimens three-quarters of an inch across, and is 
described as dark purplish-red with a glaucous bloom, the peduncles being 



36 THE NATURALIST. 

cernuous and the calyx tube very prickly. The unripe fruit is figured 
from a garden specimen at E. B. 583, along with a flowering branch of 
R. Sabini. There are specimens in flower both in Mr. Watson's and 
Mr. Syme's collections, labelled " Cotes heath, Staffordshire, June 25, 1850, 
Kev. R. C. Douglas," but it is a rose not very uncommonly grown in gardens 
and hardly likely to be a native of Britain. According to Fries it is 
scattered over the East of Norway, Sweden, Gothland and Denmark. 
According to Crepin it is doubtfully indigenous in Belgium. It is scattered 
over the North of Germany (Hamburgh, Coblentz, Frankfort, &c.) In France 
it is not known to occur in the eastern half, and according to Boreau it is 
doubtful as a plant of the Centre, but there are numerous stations in the 
hilly tracts of the West, in the Pyrenees, and in Savoy and Switzerland. 
If the use of the Linnean name villosa be continued, it is this plant that 
has the best right to it. (See Fries Novit. FL Suce.) 

V. — R. TOMENTOSA. Smith. A tufted shrub with somewhat arching 
stems, eight to ten feet high, erecto-patent or diffuse branches, which are 
purplish in exposure, and soft greyish unfolded leaves. Prickles of the 
well -matured stem uniform, the base about a quarter of an inch deep, the 
prickles three-eighths to a quarter of an inch long, considerably less robust 
at the lower part than in R. cmiina, but often more so chan in the preceding, 
varying in shape from straight to falcate. Well developed leaves of the 
barren stem measuring from four and a half to five inches from the base 
to the apex of the terminal leaflet, which is ovate or elliptical, rounded or 
even cordate at the base, and measures from an inch and a half to one and 
three-quarters long, by from one inch to one and a quarter broad. Leaflets 
grey-green or full green, and more or less thickly covered all over with 
hairs on the upper surface, paler and more hairy beneath, varying from 
almost or quite glandless to thickly glandular all over the blade, the 
serratures open and furnished with two or three fine gland-tipped teeth, 
the petioles villose, more or less glandular and furnished with two or three 
setaceous or slightly hooked aciculi. Stipules and bracts more or less 
densely hairy and glandular on the back, copiously setoso-ciliated. 
Peduncles longer than in the preceding, more or less densely aciculate 
and setose. Calyx tube ovate-urceolate or subglobose, aciculate and setose 
or naked, the segments from three-quarters to an inch long, leaf-pointed and 
often more or less pinnate, the more luxuriant ones copiously so, all 
densely coated on the back with setae and aciculi. Petals normally of a 
bright clear rose-colour, sometimes white, occasionally ciliated along the 



BAKER ON BRITISH RCSES. 37 

outer edge with a row of glands, just shorter than the largest sepals, so 
that the expanded corolla measures about an inch and three ^quarters 
across. Styles hairy. Sepals erecto-patent after the petals fall. Fruit 
ripening in the North of England through September, varying from ovate- 
ui-ceolate to subglobose in shape, measuring from five-eighths to an inch 
long and from half to three-quarters of an inch broad, finally bright 
crimson, the sepals usually adhering till it changes colour, but falling as 
it ripens, only accidentally lasting through the winter. 

Here the prickles vary much in shape and robustness, the leaves 
in hairiness and especially in glandulosity, and the calyx tube and 
fruit in shape. On the whole it appears much more likely to be 
confused with the preceding, from which, as already explained, the nature 
of the fruit best distinguishes it. After the examination of several 
authenticated specimens, I do not see how R, Sherardi or subglohosa 
and scabrluscula are to be characterised even as varieties. Sub- 
globose fruit does not always go with falcate prickles, and in the 
plants which combine the two there is no uniformity in the coating 
of the leaves. R. scabrluscula, Winch, is not exactly the same as R. 
scab) iuscida, Smith. (See Eng. Flora.) Of the French species I do not 
see how R. cuspidata, subglohosa, tomcntosa, and Andrzeioiiskii are to be 
separated. Our common North of England plant agrees best with M. 
Deseglise's description of ciispidata and to this he refers many of the 
specimens of a range of forms which I sent. A Yorkshire plant 
which M Deseglise refers to Andrzeioiiskii has sepals which fall as the 
fruit ripens,* and in other respects I cannot distinguish it from that just 
referred to. 1 am not sure that I have seen anything in England which 
exactly corresponds with the French tomentosa, which has ovate-urceolate 
fruit in combination with glandless leaves. Devonshire specimens from 
Mr. Briggs agree well with the French subglohosa, which has glandless 
leaves and subglobose fruit, but hardly hooked prickles like Smith's 

* Perhaps I ought to explain in what sense I am using the terms which refer to 
the duration of the sepals. By deciduous sepals, I understand those which fall, — casual 
exceptions excepted, — before the fruit changes colour ; by subpersistent sepals I under- 
stand those which mostly adhere till the fruit changes colour, but fall, — casual 
exceptions excepted, —as it ripens ; and hj persistent sepals only those which endure till 
the fruit itself gives way. It seems to me that the important distinction is between the 
latter and the two others, but M. Deseglise appears to characterise the sepals as 
persistent in all the species where they last till the fruit ripens. So far as I know in 
the British species it is only to R. mollissima and the Sjnnosissimce that the persistent 
really applies. 



38 THE NATURALIST. 

plant. Mr. Borrer's specimens of Smith's original Tunbridge Wells 
subglohosa have slightly glandular leaves and stipules and the calyx 
segments more roughly coated on the back with aciculi and setae than in 
any other form I have seen. The name subglohosa is applied in Switzer- 
land to a plant which is considered as distinct from tomentosa by M. Renter 
but according to specimens from Dr. Fauconnet, this is identical with the 
French subglohosa, not with Smith's plant. B. tomentosa 7 of Woods and 
Borrer, of which there is an original specimen amongst Mr. Robertson's 
Roses, seems to me to belong to the CanincB, under which it will be noticed. 

I have not seen this species from further north in Britain than 
Aberdeenshire. In the North of England it is the commonest rose except 
canina, and like the preceding ascends to 500 yards above the sea level. I 
should suppose it to be much more plentiful in the South of England than 
the preceding, and have specimens now before me from Devonshire, Sussex, 
and Kent. Its restricted distribution in Scandinavia has already been 
pointed out, but throughout all the rest of the adjacent parts of the 
continent it seems to be universally diffused. 

A plant from the neighbourhood of Bradford, in West Yorkshire, 
contributed to Mr. Watson's collection by the late Mr. Hailstone comes 
near B.farinosa, Eau. It has slender prickles, hardly at all curved, leaves 
thinly hairy on both sides, very slightly glandular on the midrib beneath, 
hairy petioles with but few setse, quite naked subglobose calyx tube, 
naked or very slightly setose peduncles, sepals almost all quite simple, 
with a lengthened leafy point, some with a broad tomentose margin and 
very slightly glandular on the back, but others green to the edge and very 
thinly coated with setse. 



NOTES UPON RARE AND INTERESTING PLANTS. 



Bt Leo H. Grindon. 



I have just returned from a three days' visit to North Lancashire and 
the Lake District, whither a party of eight made their way, last week, for 
the purpose of botanizing. The afternoon of Thursday, May 19 th, was 
spent at Silverdale. Here grows the fly-orchis, Ophrys muscifera, Sesleria 
ccerulea, Arenaria verna, and many other plants not ordinarily met with. 



GRINDON ON EARE PLANTS. 39 

In a wood between the Station and Gelland, Paris quadrlfolla is extemely 
abundant. 

Our walk on the Friday morning was in the neighbourhood of 
Humphrey-head, and afterwards to the summit. The slope towards the 
open sea is completely covered with Helianthemwn canuni. The flowers 
are much smaller than those of H. vulgare; the colour is a full and 
uniform yellow ; the leaves are destitute of stipules, and very downy on 
the under-surface ; and the style and stigma appear as if crushed down- 
wards instead of being straight and erect. Associated with it, (but more 
plentifully upon rocks about a mile nearer Kent's Bank) grows the 
beautiful liiijpocrepis comosa. The inflorescence of this plant, along with 
that of many Coronillas and the Lotus major, is usually called a " depressed 
umbel." If a new term be admissible in Botany, I beg to recommend the 
name " chaplet " as more appropriate ; the golden ring of blossoms seems 
to me always to suggest the idea of a diadem. On the Head grows Poly gala 
vulgaris, in five or six different varieties of colour ranging from cream- 
white, through pink and lavender, into the deepest violet-blue. The 
beauty of this little flower lies in two of the sepals, which are greatly 
enlarged, and simulate petals ; eventually they become green, and clasp 
the flattened ovary. Such deviations from usual structure should be 
attentively considered by the young student, and wherever possible, the 
parallel cases among exotic plants. In the genus Musscenda, for instance, 
belonging to the Cinchonaceee, and common in hot-houses, one of the five 
sepals is similarly enlarged, becoming white and petal-like. Many flowers 
grow together in a cluster, but only the outer ones have a sepal thus 
changed and enlarged, so that the general appearance approaches that 
called " radiant " as in the Hydrangea, and the Viburnum Opulus in its wild 
state. Geranium sanguineum grows upon the Head, but rather sparingly. 
The rocky beech below is plentifully strewed with Armaria, Silene maritima, 
and other plants that love the scent of the sea, and where muddy there 
is plenty of Glaux maritima. Every one who has a microscope should 
examine the flowers of the Armeria in every detail. The plaited calyx 
with its long green sepals, connected by a transparent web into a vase fit 
for the hand of Titania; the five long and tender styles, and the 
extremely curious interior of the ovary, and its solitary and suspended 
ovule, are all objects of the highest beauty and attractiveness. Moving 
through the fields towards Cartmel, we noticed in every hedge the 
elegant foliage of the Tamus. This beautiful plant looks like a pro- 



40 THE NATURALIST. 

duction of the Tropics rather than of the chilly North. It lies, in truth, 
far away from all its congeners, — the DioscoreacecB, of which it is the sole 
representative in Britain, being pre-eminently a family of the hotter 
regions of the world. No pjienomena in botanical geography are more 
pleasing than those observable in this throwing out, as it were, of out- 
posts. We are tempted by the sight of them, to ask in what direction are 
the head-quarters, how far they are distant, and what may be the aspect of 
the forms thus faintly announced. Like many other unisexual plants, 
the Tamus shews in its male flowers, the rudiment of an ovary. For the 
microscope, it supplies extremely beautiful compound spiral-vessels, 
resembling those of the MusacecB. On a hot day, in high summer, the 
very sight of it is refreshing, since the foliage is generally disposed in such 
a way as to seem, in its green gloss, a fountain of water turned to leaves. 
On the Saturday we made our way from Ambleside through Kirkstone 
Pass, to Patterdale and the borders of Ulleswater. The swampy ground 
upon the left, soon after ascending the first hill, is decked at this time of 
year with the lively and verbena-like flowers of the bird's eye Primula, (P. 
farinosa). They were in perfection on the sunny forenoon of this opulent day, 
as were the blossoms of the Pingulcula, so like a little Gloxinia. The 
two stamens of the latter plant are placed in close contact with the round 
green ovary, one standing upon each side, like the " supporters " on the 
armorial bearings of a nobleman ; the stigma is nearly sessile, blue, and 
petaloid, like that of many Iridaceous plants : the hairs on the palate of 
the corolla are formed, at the base of two or three cylindrical tubes, and 
on the upper part of a succession of circular and flattened cells, shaped like 
cheeses. Under the microscope the appearance is exceedingly rich and 
curious. The instrument I use when in the fields or among the 
mountains, is one formed like a pocket-telescope, with an extra tube, 
capable of being drawn out when higher powers are desired. The ad- 
vantages of this construction of instrument are very great. Instead of 
placing the object to be viewed on a stage, and adjusting the light to it 
with a mirror, it is merely necessary to place the object between two slips 
of glass, (the lower one provided with a shallow cavity to prevent crushing), 
then fix the slips below the steel springs at the end, and hold the instru- 
ment up to the sk}^ as if it were actually a telescope, and we were looking 
at a star. The amount of light thus procurable is the largest possible, 
and can be regulated and changed at pleasure, and to suit the object; the 
object itself is immovable, so that the microscope can be handed round. 



TO OUR READERS. 41 

passing from one to another as we walk ; or it can be used while riding in 
a carriage, or sailing in a boat. 

Ulleswater is a lovely spot. The steep hills on the right hand, as 
we ascend the lake, are covered with juniper-bushes, at the end of May in 
full flower ; the debris further up the mountain sides is an abiding-place 
for the alpine lady's mantle, (Alchemilla alpina) with its lining of satin ; 
and at every step we see great forests of the Lycopodiiun, or stag's horn 
moss. The plant itself creeps upon the surface, anchored every here and 
there by a strong and wire-like root, as if it were pegged down ; the erect 
portions, that make these strange but pretty white forests, are the young 
seed capsules and their vertical stalks. L. Selago is also plentiful here ; 
and, as everywhere in Kirkstone Pass, the green parsley-fern, Cryptogramme 
crispa. The contrast of the rich pure colour of the fern with the grey of the 
ancient rocks is at this season most striking. Nature, in tliese grand soli- 
tudes that have never felt the plough, presents combinations that are not only 
novel, but in the highest degree pleasing to the accomplished mind. No 
man of taste has " completed his education," nay, he has no more than 
entered the vestibule, until he has lived awhile in such scenes as these, 
leaving his companions, and standing face to face with their sublimity. 
It may be worth noting that in the most retired and romantic spots, was 
still and everywhere heard, on this memorable 21st May, the cheerful 
voice of the cuckoo. 



SERIOUS LOSS OF BOTANICAL SPECIMENS BY FIRE. 



To OUR Readers. 

We are sure of the hearty sympathy of our readers in calling their 
attention to the almost irreparable loss recently sustained by our zealous 
friend and contributor, Mr. J. G. Baker, of Thirsk, author of the " Review 
of British Roses," now passing through our pages. On Monday night, 
the 9tli inst., Mr. Baker's residence and place of business were completely 
burned to the ground, the whole of his botanical library and herbarium 
being utterly destroyed ; Mr. Baker himself and family narrowly escaping 



43 THE NATURALIST. 

with their lives. In addition to the business stock, (which is only par- 
tially covered by insurance) we have to deplore the loss of several valuable 
herbaria, &c., as under : — 

With the exception of the Lichens and Hepaticse, which were lent 
out, the whole of Mr. Baker's herbarium, containing upwards of 100 
fasciculi of British flowering plants, of 50 species each, including all the 
specimens preserved as authentications of names and stations published 
in his work on North Yorkshire, the result of 18 years labour. 

Some 3000 species of European flowering plants. 

About 2000 species of American flowering plants and ferns. 

A large collection of mosses, British and Foreign, (some few of which 
were afterwards dug out of the ruins). 

The M.SS. of a work on the Flora of Northumberland and Durham, 
and two good collections of plants, on loan, for the completion of the 
work, belonging to the late Mr. W. Backhouse, of Darlington, and the 
late Mr. Storey, of Newcastle. Mr. H. C. Watson's valuable collection 
of Koses, British and Foreign, so often referred to in the '* Eeview." Mr. 
Baker's own collection of European Koses, which was almost without 
equal in the kingdom. 

The whole of the " Thirsk Exchange Club " stock of duplicates, 
including many thousands of rare and critical British plants, together 
with their very valuable library of books of reference, &c. 

Fortunately the M.S. of the " Eoses" is safe, being in our possession, 
but the collection on which it is grounded is completely destroyed. Such 
a collection of plants can scarcely be replaced, but we appeal to our 
botanical readers and friends, throughout the kingdom, to aid us in 
endeavouring to furnish Mr. Baker with the nucleus of a fresh herbarium. 
We have already had about 500 or 600 species promised by a botanical 
frfend, and shall be glad to take charge of any duplicates, that our friends 
can spare, until such time as Mr. Baker can find opportunity for receiving 
them. Parcels may be addressed to the Editors of the "Naturalist," care 
of Messrs. Wheatley and Co., Huddersfield. Considering how much 
Mr. Baker has done for the Botanists of England, we are sure this appeal 
will not be made in vain. 



EEPORTS OF SOCIETIES. 



43 



West-Ridiiig Consolidated Natural- 
ists' Society. — The quarterly meeting 
of this Society was held on the 
7th of May at Huddersfield, ahout 
100 members being present from 
the Consolidated Societies of Hud- 
dersfield, Halifax, Wakefield, Heck- 
mondwike, Leeds, and Norland. 
The principal objects of the meeting 
were the exhibition and exchange 
of Natural History specimens of all 
kinds, though at present the attention 
of the members seems to be nearly 
confined to Entomology, Botany 
and Conchology. The tables were 
loaded with plants, chiefly collected in 
the neighbourhood of Huddersfield, 
and some good cases of Lepidoptera 
•and Coleoptera were exhibited. A- 
mong the more noticeable species 
were ; Insects, — Selenia lunar la, Arc- 
tiafuliginosa, Orgya fascellina (larva), 
Papilio machaon (pupa) ; Haliylus 
UveatocoUis, Latridius transversus, dc. 
Plants, — Ranunculus liederaceus, R. 
auricomus, TrolUus, europcBus (Holm- 
firth), Actaa spicata, Berheris vulgaris 
(Brighouse), Genista anglica, Conval- 
laria majalis, Equisetum hyemale, and 
Adoxa moschatelUna (Clayton West). 

Southport Naturalists' Cluh. — The 
members of the above Club held their 
monthly meeting on Friday evening, 
the 20th May, at the Exchange- 
rooms, W. H. Talbot, Esq., J.P., 
president, in the chair. This being 



the annual meeting the Hon. Sec. 
presented a statement of the accounts 
and a review of the work of the past 
year; the financial affairs were satis- 
factory, shewing a balance in favour 
of the club ; he was glad to say the 
book of transactions exhibited a very 
gratifying result of the year's pro- 
ceedings ; the members had read 
eight original papers on Natural 
History subjects, several of them 
containing valuable additions to the 
knowledge of the subjects treated 
upon ; the members have also by 
their research added considerably 
to the known Natural History of the 
district. The number of new speci- 
mens added in each class are as 
follows — Zoology : Mammalia, 1 ; 
Aves, 4 ; Eeptiiia, 1 ; Mollusca, 23 ; 
Crustacea, 9 ; Badiata, 2 ; Arachnida, 
2 ; Annelida, 21 ; Foraminifera, 25 ; 
Botany: Crptogamia, 3. The meet- 
ings generally have been of an in- 
teresting character, and there has 
been a good average attendance of 
members. The ofi&cers of the past 
year were unanimously re-elected, 
viz. :_W. H. Talbot, Esq., J.P., 
President ; J. A. Kobinson, Esq., 
Vice-President ; Mr. C. H. Brown, 
Hon. Sec. 

Birmingham Naturalists' Union. — 
On May 4th, a number of Entomo- 
logical and Botanical specimens were 
exhibited by various members, the 
greater portion having been met 
with in the course of their rambles, 



44 



THE NATURALIST. 



upon the previous field day, in the 
neighbourhood of Solihull, Earl's 
Wood, and Moseley. At the same 
meeting an interesting paper was 
read by the president (Mr. A. Frank- 
lin), on "Feathers, — their adapta- 
tions," noticing them as a means of 
flight — for clothing and ornament 
to birds, and calling attention to 
their minute construction. In elu- 
cidating the subject, specimens 
of Cygnus olor, Machetes pugnax, 
Dqfila caudacuta, Cuculus canorus, 
&c., were exhibited. 

May 18th. — Mr. Bettridge read 
an interesting paper upon the 
" Landrail," illustrated by a speci- 
men of the bird and its egg. In the 
course of his paper the writer referred 
to the anatomical construction of the 
bird, and its nicely adapted form for 
running. At this meeting several 
interesting Silurian fossils were ex- 
hibited, collected in the vicinity of 
Great Bare. Among others were 
specimens of Astrea, or Star coral, 
portions of crinoidal stems, and 
shells of the genera Lingula, Orthis, 
Murchisonia, &c. In Ornithology 
there were laid upon the table spe- 
cimens of various kinds of Petrels 
from the vicinity of the Cape. In 
Entomology several species of Lepi- 
doptera and Coleoptera, collected the 
previous day at Sutton Coldfield, a 
locality well known to Entomologists 
generally through the country, were 
exhibited. 



Additions to the Zoological Society's 
Collections. — Some of your readers 
will be glad to hear that the Earl of 
Seafield presented to the Zoological 
Gardens, in the Regent's Park, a very 
fine specimen of the Wild Cat {Fells 
catus, Linn.) which had recently 
been captured on his Inverness 
Estate. Many persons are of 
opinion that the species had become 
extinct in the British Islands. The 
Society have also added a very fine 
pair of Orang-Utans (iS/mrt satyrus, 
Linn.) from Borneo to their already 
magnificent collection of animals. — 
Louis FiiASER, the Green, Knights- 
bridge. S.W., May 9, 1864. 



Notes on Ornithology. 

Norfolk. 

Kestrel (Falco tinnunculits.) — A 
very nice variety of this hawk was 
obtained on the afternoon of the 
12th inst., at Brooke, a village, a 
few miles from Norwich, The back 
and upper surface of its wings are 
of a light buff colour, marked with 
blotches of darker tint; throat 
white ; head, neck, breast, belly and 
under surface of the wings of a 
light ash grey, marked with very 
light brown streaks and blotches ; 
beak, legs, &c., being of their usual 
colours ; male bird, and was in good 
condition when shot. 



OBSERVATIONS. 



45 



Dotterell [Charadrlus morhicllus.)-- 
An adult female shot at Burgh, near 
Yarmouth, about the 10th inst. 

Turnstone [Strqjsllas interpres.) — 
Of this species two male specimens 
were taken on the 7th inst., at 
Yarmouth. 

Knot [Tringa Camitus.) — A pair in 
good condition, shot at Burgh, near 
Yarmouth, on the 10th inst. 

Greenshank [Totanus ylottis) — A 
female was shot at the above-named 
place on the 12th inst., in dissecting 
it a cluster of eggs were found, 
several of which were as large as 
hemp seed. 

Garganey [Anas querquedula.) — A 
male was shot in this locality, about 
three weeks since. 

Egyptian Goose (Anser cpgyptiacus.) 
— A fine adult pair were obtained on 
the morning of the 7th inst., on 
Breydon water, Yarmouth. 
Suffolk. 

Bedthroated Diver (Cohjmhus sep- 
tentrionalls.) — About the 5th of this 
month, a fine adult female specimen 
of Cohjmhus septentrionalis in full 
summer plumage was captured near 
Lowestoft. — Thos. E. Gunn, Nor- 
wich, May 14, 1864. 

Remarkable attachment of a Song 
Thrush to the place where it hatched 
a brood of young. — Early in February 
a thrush built its nest in some ivy, 
and hatched its young in March, 
which were reared in safety. A 
fortnight later a boy, thinking the 



nest useless pulled it down, and to 
his astonishment two eggs fell out ; 
a companion seeing this, attempted 
to construct a new nest out of the 
remains of the old one, which was 
almost destroyed, and placed it in 
the same position. Not having any 
thrush's eggs he placed two black 
bird's eggs in the hastily constructed 
nest. Being most anxious as to the 
result he awoke about three o'clock 
next morning and looked out of his 
bed-room window, where he had a full 
view of the nest, and saw the female 
thrush busily employed in arraying 
and beautifying the rude substitute ; 
he went to bed again, and at five 
o'clock to his great joy saw one blue 
spotted egg ; since then she has laid 
two more eggs, and is now sitting on 
three, the two blackbird's eggs hav- 
ing been removed. — Alfred Beau- 
mont, Greave, Meltham. 

WrynecJi. — On the 22nd of May 
I saw a Wryneck, Yunx torquilla, 
which had been shot at Honley a 
few days before — Alfred Beaumont, 
Greave, Meltham, May 24, 1864. 



Helix rotundata, var.alba. — On the 
16th instant I was collecting mol- 
lusks, and was so fortunate as to 
find a specimen of Helix rotundata, 
var. alba, Moquin Tandon ; according 
to Jeffreys this, though widely 
distributed, is a rare variety, — W. 
Nelson, Leeds, May 2.3rd. 



46 



THE NATURALIST. 



The Willows and their Galls. 

Before speaking of the willows 
and the gall-flies that affect them, I 
would remark that we have in our 
neighbourhood three or four tolerably 
common species. They are Salix 
capraa, 8. fragilis, 8. fusca, and 8. 
alba. These are all more or less 
attacked by Dipterous and Hymenop- 
terous gall-insects, and foremost 
in each group are Cecidomyise and 
Tenthredines. I will begin with 
our Easter friend, the great round- 
leaved Willow, or Palm, as it is called 
in the north. (8. caprcea.) In the 
winter and spring the uppermost 
shoots not unfrequently terminate 
in a tuft of withered leaves in the 
form of a rose. If this be examined 
more narrowly, the centre will be 
found to consist of closely fitting 
bracts, and in the midst of them is 
a reddish-coloured grub. This is 
the pupa of a gall-gnat, fCecidomyia 
rosaria) and in this once green tuft it 
has fed, and here it nestles till it 
puts on wings in the month of May. 
Examine the leaves of this same 
willow, as also of other species, in 
the late autumn, and you will find 
them occasionally beset with hollow 
blisters. Each has been the home 
of the larva of a saw-fly. (Tenthredo.j 
Here it has fed through the summer, 
and when it has eaten to the full, it 
has made its way out of the blister, 
and bored into the soil below, to 
await its final transformation. 



The Brittle Willow (S./m^fiZw) is 
subject to the attacks of another 
gall-gnat that has obtained the name 
of Cecidomyia salicis. The economy 
of this gnat is totally different from 
that of the species that frequents 
the palm. The twig is made to 
assume the appearance of a long, 
rounded, woody knot. In this knot 
a whole colony of larvae are housed, 
and find therein food and shelter, 
till they emerge, and enter on their 
winged existence. These contorted 
twigs I have noticed on Salioo fusca 
as well as 8. fragilis. The manner 
of escape of the gnat would appear 
to be by means of some acid solvent, 
with which the pupa is provided. 
I have repeatedly witnessed the exit 
from the gall, which is effected with 
wonderful rapidity. 

The last gall to which I would 
draw attention occurs on Salix 
vitcllina. It is the work of a saw-fly. 
{Cryptocampus angustus.) The shoot 
is grooved by the parent saw-fly, and 
her eggs deposited therein ; the sap 
stagnates, and a spongy matter is 
formed over the wound. In this 
the grubs feed in security, as many 
as three or four being tenants of the 
same gall, whence they emerge in 
April, to perform the same round of 
existence as their parents. The 
imago I have hatched this year ; and 
Mr. Smith, of the British Museum, 
informs me that it is probably the 
first time that this saw-fly has been 



OBSERVATIONS. 



47 



noticed in this country, at all events 
it is new to the Museum list of 
Hymenoptera. — Peter Inchbald, 
Storthes Hall,. May 16, 1864. 

Stray Ra?nbles.—OQ. 29th April I 
took my gun and other paraphernalia 
requisite for the securing of anything 
to fill up a general bag, and after a 
thirty-six miles ride and a four miles 
walk I arrived at my old quarters, 
the Derby Arms Inn, Witherslack. 
Leaving my gun at the Inn I started 
for the rocks to look after cases of 
Solenohia triquetrella, and after much 
peering and close looking on the 
Lichen covered rocks I found a few, 
which as yet have only produced 
apterous females, however my close 
examination was rewarded by finding 
at rest on the same rocks, sheltered 
from the wind, thirteen specimens of 
the hitherto rare Tipula, Lima alplna 
of Dale, a beautiful species whieh was 
taken first by the worthy veteran 
Entomologist himself, at Kirkstone, 
about five years ago ; his specimens 
remained unique, and, of course, 
disputed as a species until last year, 
when I took both sexes. It was a 
source of pride and gratification to 
Mr. Dale that this " gem " was thus 
rescued from oblivion, and obtained 
a permanent place in the list of 
British Diptera. 

April 30th. — I wended my way 
to my " pug " rocks to look for 
the pupa of Eupithecia pulcliellata ; 
whilst turning over the moss on 



the rocks I looked up, and tliere 
was a fine specimen of the moth 
at rest, I turned round and 
sent a great stone into an over- 
hanging yew tree, and down came 
another quivering specimen just 
emerged. I had not much time to 
stay there, but found a Ruby Tiger 
pupa case on the rocks, which has 
since emerged, and a " pug " pupa 
by splitting off a piece of rock. After 
picking up three Lurkers {Cidaria 
larentarid) and a few Micro Spiders, 
I made off for the turf moss expect- 
ing to find some of the hybernated 
Peroneas and Depressarias on the 
wing, but the sun did not long shine 
forth. I laid my gun down among 
the heather and took Empis borealis, 
another local and rare Dipterous 
species. A few Cnephasia lepidana, 
a pretty Tortrix, and Ghjpliiptenjx 
Haivorthella (a Tinea) was ail that I 
saw during sunshine. My time was 
working fast on to return, and I still 
wanted a few summer birds before 
the train came up to take me away 
from one of the most romantic and 
lovely places that a naturalist could 
wish for. — J. B. Hodgkinson, 31, 
Christ Church Street, Preston, May 
14, 1864. 

Lepidoptera. — The following are 
some of my captures in the neigh- 
bourhood of London, this season, up 
to the 18th of May. 

E. cardamines, by no means com- 
mon, near Coombe Wood. 



48 



THE NATUllALIST. 



L. camelina, found one sitting on 
a hazel leaf. 

P. lacertinaria, one by beating 
birch, Coombe Wood. 

V. maculata, common, Coombe 
Wood. 

E. porata, beating, Wimbledon 
Common. 

L. petraria, abundant, Wimbledon 
Common. 

H. rupicapraria, by searching 
hedges at night with a lantern, 
common. 

E. exiguata, one by beating Wim- 
bledon Common. 

E. pumilata, two on palings. 

C. propugnata, one by beating. 

S. certata, two in a garden. 

X. litJioriza, on palings. 

With other common species. 

C. J. BUCKMASTER, 11, South- 

fields, Wandsworth. 



Ranunculus Ficaria. — Some years 
ago while taking my accustomed 
walk in this neighbourhood, I ob- 
served by the roadside, a strange 
form of this early spring flower, in 
which all the stamens had become 
converted into petals. This curious, 
and to me, novel circumstance struck 
me very forcibly, never before hav- 
ing seen this plant, except in its 
normal condition. I at once removed 
it from a state of nature to a state 
of cultivation, in my own garden ; 



this I did with a view of seeing what 
shape it might assume in future. I 
have now watched it carefully for 
three or four years, and although it 
has very considerably enlarged its 
dimensions, it has scrupulously 
maintained through each successive 
season the form in which I found it, 
a profusion of double flowers, but 
not a single stamen to be seen. Can 
any reader of " The Naturalist" cast 
a ray of light on this remarkable 
phenomenon ? I may add that with 
the single exception of double flow- 
ers, there is not the slightest differ- 
ence between it and the common 
form and state in which I have here- 
tofore found it. — John Sim, Bridge 
End, Perth, May, 1864. 



€u\mx^t. 



I shall be glad to open cor- 
respondence with Entomologists 
(young beginners especially,) and 
to exchange lists of desiderata 
and duplicates with them. — R. 
Merryweather, Town Wall, Har- 
tlepool. 

Clostera anacJwreta. — The applica- 
tions for C. anachoreta and C. curtula 
have come in so thick and fast that 
I shall not be able to supply more. 
The boxes that are in hand, I will 
return to the owner the first op- 
portunity. — Wm. Porteus, 17, Dean 
Street, Pellon Lane, Halifax, May 
25th, 1804. 



49 

©riginal %xtuU^, 



NOTES ON THE AZURE-WINGED MAGPIE (Pica cyaneaj, &c. 



By G. F. Mathews, Esq., R.N., F.L.S. 



IStli January, 1864. — I started this morning, at half-past four, 
with two of my messmates for Coina, a small village situated on the 
south side of the Tagus, across the bay commonly known to English 
sailors as ''Jackass Bay;" and much resorted to by the sporting 
inhabitants of Lisbon on account of the snipe shooting which is to be 
obtained there. We wrapped ourselves up warmly in railway rugs and 
great coats, as the morning was raw and chilly, lit our cigars, and 
reclining comfortably in the boat, had a pleasant row across, arriving there 
just at daybreak, the distance being I should say from six to eight miles. 
It is not my intention, however, to give a long description of the manner 
of sport we had, but merely to mention the fact that we were by no means 
displeased at the end of the day at the bag we had made. Having briefly 
noticed that shortly after landing, a fine male Lanias excubitor, Lin. was 
shot while sitting on the bare branch of a lofty poplar, and likewise a 
specimen of Picus major, Lin. as it ran up the bark of a patriarchal fir tree; 
I shall at once proceed to the principal object of this paper; which is to 
record the intense gratification of seeing (although not for the first time, 
as I observed a small flock near the same place in February, 1863,) in 
considerable numbers, the graceful and beautiful Pica cyanea. No one, 
except those who have experienced the feeling, can have any idea of the 
intense pleasure there is in meeting in its native haunts a bird, or any 
other living creature which one has only read of in books, or seen 
preserved in museums, and especially such a charming bird as this. The 
first flock I saw, and which consisted of some two hundred individuals, 
were flying along the borders of an extensive fir wood, their beautiful 
azure blue wings and tails, dun coloured backs and breasts, white throats 
and coal black heads contrasting remarkably with the dark green of the 
neighbouring trees, and the sun shining brightly at the time made them 
appear doubly conspicuous and attractive. They were keeping up an inces- 
sant chattering as they moved from tree to tree (which indeed had at first 
called my attention to them, when I was some distance off,) many flying 
No. 4, June 15. E 



so THE NATURALIST. 

down to the damp rushy fields outside the wood, where they seemed to search 
for hybernating Orthoptera, which the warm sun had brought out in goodly 
numbers from their winter quarters, and one bird I distinctly saw fly off 
in great triumph with what could have been no other than an unfortunate 
specimen of Gryllotalpa vulgaris, — which insect by the bye appeared to be 
tolerably plentiful, as I discovered several under loose bark and tangled 
grass, at the foot of a large alder tree growing at the side of a dyke close 
by ; — others flitted to the ground in the wood itself, where they hunted 
diligently for insect food at the roots of the trees and underwood, and 
others preferring to remain in the thick tops of the trees, busily employed 
themselves investigating the old cones and the nests of the young larvae of 
C. pityocampa, which abound in immense profusion, and I believe formed 
their chief food, but of this I will not be positive. On our approach they 
became excessively wary and commenced flying away in a great hurry, 
although not to any considerable distance at a time, all taking the same 
direction along the edge of the wood, and at once ceased their chattering 
noise, with the exception of one or two individuals that appeared to be the 
leaders of the flock, and occasionally uttered notes of alarm, much 
resembling that of the Common Whitethroat {Sylvia cinerea, Lin.), only of 
course on a much louder scale. I tried in vain to obtain a shot at them, 
but one of my companions was more fortunate and succeeded in bringing 
one down ; it fell, however, among some high rushes skirting the wood, 
and for a long time defied all our efforts to discover it, and we were just 
on the point of giving up the search in despair, when I suddenly stumbled 
right on it, as it lay nearly buried in some soft moss by the side of a small 
slimy pool, overhung with thick and tangled sedge. It was a magnificent 
specimen and beautifully shot, not a spot of blood soiled it, nor was a 
feather ruflled. I was enra]Dtured with my prize which I carefully placed 
in the palm of one hand while with the other I smoothed its lovely 
feathers, — though I must own not without some feeling of regret for the 
death of such a charming creature, — and pointed out its various attractions 
to my friends, who however, I am sorry to say, did not seem to appreciate 
my delight as they ought to have done, but on the contrary were some- 
what impatient at being kept so long from following up their legitimate 
game. I was too much taken up with my little Magpie to pay much 
attention to what was said, and determined as soon as I had packed it 
safely in my bag, to follow the flock and try and procure another, 
particularly as I heard them commence their chattering at no great 



MIALL ON HUTOHINSIA ALPINA AND DRABA RUPESTRIS. 51 

distance ; accordingly leaving my messmates to take care of themselves, I 
selected a path in the wood along which I walked for some time before 
again coming in sight of these lively and interesting little fellows, and as 
they were still very wild I thought the best means of obtaining a shot 
would be to conceal myself behind some bush, and take the chance of one 
coming within range ; so choosing a spot which seemed to be favourable for 
my purpose, I sat down and waited patiently. The situation I had appropri- 
ated, commanded a pretty good view of the neighbouring valley, which was 
rather picturesque, the hills on each side being densely clothed with dark 
green fir trees, with here and there a patch, in the vicinity generally of a 
dilapidated farm house, consisting of not more than two or three acres 
broken up and under some sort of cultivation, though looking at this 
time of the year, as compared with the woods enclosing it, extremely 
desolate ; but in the spring and summer doubtless green with wheat or 
vines. In the midst of the valley ran a small clear stream, from which 
during the course of the day, which was intolerably hot, I frequently 
drank copiously, and can testify to the excellence of the water. 

(To he continued.) 



Ingleborough Stations for Hutchinsia alpina, JR. Bi'own, and Dbaba 
RUPESTRIS, R. Brown. 



By Louis C. Miall, Esq. 



One of our first critical botanists, and a gentleman whose name is 
familiar to all students of the Yorkshire Flora, has been lately instrumental 
in making an interesting discovery. In the end of last year Mr. 
Carruthers showed the Rev. W. W. Newbould two specimens, labelled 
" Lepidium petrceum, Ingleborrow, Mr. Mc. R[itchie]," forming part of a 
collection bequeathed to Sir J. E. Smith, some sixty years ago, and 
afterwards in the possession of the Linnaean Society. Judging from the 
dates affixed to various plants in the collection, it appears to have been 
made in the latter part of the last century. On examination, these plants 
prove to be Hutchinsia (Lepidium, L.) alpina, R. Brown. In a letter 
communicating the discovery, Mr. Newbould writes : — " The probability 
of their being native is strengthened by the fact of Inglebro' being almost 



53 THE NATURALIST. 

the only spot in the British Isles where the requisite soil and the 
requisite elevation for] that species are^ both met with." In a notice 
written for the "Journal of Botany," (Dec. 1803), Mr. Newbould mentions 
the circumstances of its supposed occurrence in Britain, and adds : — " It 
cannot be safe to consider the Yorkshire station an error, when it is 
remembered that both the calcareous soil and altitude which the plant 
requires are found in the Ingloborough district, and that its Continental 
distribution is not opposed to its being found with us ; but it is desirable 
to have modern confirmation of its occurrence before it can be with 
certainty called a British plant." 

Such confirmation is eminently desirable, and attention to the subject 
is requested on the part of West Yorkshire botanists. To aid them in 
the search, Koch's description is aj)pended, with a translation of the same. 

HUTCHINSIA ALFINA (R. BrOWU h. HuTCHINSIA ALPINA (R. BrOWH 

kew. l.-c.) fol. pinnatis, caiile svmplici Hortus Kewensis ed. 2. v. 4. p. 82.) 

nudo, racemo fructifero eloiigato laxo, Leaves pinnate ; stem unhranched, 

petalis calyce du]Dlo longioribus, leafless ; fruit-hearing raceme elongate, 

siliculis oblongis utrinque acutis lax; petals twice as long as the 

stylo breviterminatis.'2^. Inglareosis calyx ; pouches oblong, sharp at each 

humidis et ad rivos alpium solo end, terminated by the short style. 

calcareo ; cum fluviis in planities Perennial. In damp gravelly places 

descendens (dch. d. g. Alpenk.) and near alpine streams, on calca- 

Apr. Mai. in mont. altioribus Jul. reous soil ; descending with the 

Aug. D. fl. 4. 518. Lepidium alpi- rivers into level ground. April and 

num L. sp. 2. 898. Jacq. a. t. 137. May ; on the higher parts of moun- 

St. h. 20. L. Halleri, Crantz a. 1. tains, July and August. Synonyms 

p. 8. Noccsea alpina Rchb. fl. exc. and references. 

p. 663. 

Synopsis Florae Germanicse et Helveticse, Ed. 2. Frankf. 1843. 

The unhranched stem and lax raceme distinguish it sufficiently from 
the two other Hutchinsias, especially if the acute tips of the pouch be 
taken into consideration. The characters of the genus are found in the 
British Floras. 

In the letter above quoted, Mr. Newbould continues : — ** Do you 
know that Sir W. Hooker gathered Draba rupestris on Inglebro' ? At any 
rate there is a specimen so labelled by him in the Kew herbarium." Our 
botanists of the West-Riding should endeavour to ascertain the truth of 
tills enrolment of a rare Highland plant among the natives of Yorkshire. 



WHITE ON MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA OF PERTHSHIRE. 



53 



A LIST OF THE MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA WHICH OCCUR 
IN PERTHSHIRE. 



By F. B. W. White, Esq., F.B.S., Ed. 



Part I. 

The county of Perth, as the readers of the " Naturalist" are probably 
aware, possesses a certain degree of fame, both to the Entomologist and 
to the Botanist. 

To the former the name of Rannoch will at once awaken thoughts of 
Petasia nubeculosa, and other rare insects which are to be found there only ; 
whilst to the latter the thought of the Breadalbane mountains, where the 
Alpine Forget-me-not shines with its deep blue corolla, and where 
Saxifraga cernua loves to hide among the wild crags, is enough to make 
him grasp more firmly the spud, and set forth with greater ardour to the 
fields and w^oods. 

This rich country, however, possesses no catalogue of its treasures ; 
only incomplete lists are scattered here and there, through various 
publications. 

The following list, though doubtless by no means perfect, will give 

the readers of " The Naturalist" some idea of what Macro-Lepidoptera 

are to be found in Perthshire. 

ehopalocera. 



[Colias Edusa. — I once thought I 
saw a specimen of this near Perth, 
but as nothing more has been seen 
of it, I may have been mistaken. I 
think it is not improbable that 
Edusa should be found near Perth.] 

Picris brassiccB. 

P. rapcB. 

P. napi. 

Anthocharis cardamines. 

[Leucopliasia sincqns. — This has 
been recorded as occurring near 
Perth, but it was certainly a mis- 
take.] 

Lasiommata jEgeria, not common 
near Perth. 



L. MegcBra. 

Hipparchia Semele, abundant in 
several places (as KinnouU Hill), 
round Perth. 

H. Janira. I have seen a speci- 
men of this taken near Perth, that 
had male markings on one side, and 
female on the other. 

H. Hyperanthus. 

Erebia Blandina, Pitlochry, Ran- 
noch, etc. 

E. CaSsiope, Rannoch. 

Ccenonympha Davus, Rannoch, etc. 

C. Pamphilus. 

Cynthia cardiii, sometimes abun- 
dant, at other times not to be found. 



64 



THE NATUBALIST. 



Vanessa Atalanta. 

V. lo, Bridge of Allan, Perth ? 

[F. Antiopa, Bridge of Allan ?] 

Y. urtic(B. 

Argynnis Aglaia, not uncommon. 

A. Selene. 

A, Euphrosyne, rare. I have only 
seen three specimens. 

Melitcea Artemis, local. 

Thecla quercus, spins up under- 
ground. 



2\ rubi, local. 

Chrysophanus Phlaas, chrysalis 
on the under surface of a stone. 

PolyommatusAlsus,\ocsL\, but often 
abundant. 

P. Alexis. •» 

P. Mgon, near Pitlochry. Mr. D. 
P. L. Morison. 

P. Artaxerxes, on all the hills near 
Perth. Some varieties nearly ap- 
proach Agestis. 



Birmingham Naturalists* Union. — 
The summer exhibition of objects of 
natural history by the Birmingham 
Naturalists' Union was opened at 
125, Suffolk-street, on Wednesday 
evening, June 1st, and remained 
open during the three following days 
free to the public. The Union was 
formed about two years ago, and it 
now consists of between thirty and 
forty members, chiefly young men, 
who assist each other in the various 
branches of natural history by means 
of papers read at the weekly meetings, 
exhibitions of specimens, field-days, 
of which they have eight every 
year — the formation of a library for 
circulation and reference, and the 
establishment of collections of orni- 
thological, entomological, botanical, 
geological, and other specimens. 
The objects exhibited were numer- 
ous and valuable, occupying four 



rooms and consisting of illustrations 
of the sciences of Zoology, Botany, 
and Geology, arranged in collections 
lent by individual members of the 
Union and others. Among the 
Mammalia were a lion belonging 
to Mr. Wadhams, who, it is said, 
intends to present it to the Cor- 
poration to be placed in Aston 
Hall ; a tiger ; the skull of an 
elephant shot by Sir Stamford Raffles 
when he was Govenor of Sumatra ; 
the head of a Spanish bull ; speci- 
mens of the horns and skulls of the 
koodoo and buffalo ; and two enor- 
mous bats from Australia. The 
Reptilia were represented by a Boa 
constrictor, with two young, which 
were produced in a travelling show- 
man's van in Birmingham. The 
class Aves was largely illustrated 
both by rare and beautiful Foreign 
species, and by good collections of 
British Birds. Among the former 
were a couple of specimens of the 



OBSERTATIONS. 



65 



" Bird of Paradise," and underneath 
them in strong contrast with the 
gay plumage of its neighbours was 
a " JSooty Albatross." Collections of 
birds of beautiful plumage from 
Australia and India were also much 
admired. Among the English Birds 
were a specimen of the Stormy Petrel 
[Thalassidroma pelagica) caught on 
the canal in the neighbourhood of 
Birmingham ; an Eagle Owl [Strix 
bubo) ; a pair of the Great Northern 
Diver (Colymbus septentrionalis), &c. 
This portion of the exhibition was 
also enriched by a large collection 
of the nests of British Birds, in situ, 
and shewing the peculiarities of their 
construction. Collections oiMollusca 
were exhibited by Mr. Cash, of Hali- 
fax, as well as by several members of 
the Union. The Entomological and 
Botanical collections were numerous 
and several large aquaria formed 
centres of attraction in the various 
rooms. Mr. Lancaster, optician, 
also lent two powerful microscopes, 
which added greatly to the interest 
of the exhibition. 



Acherontia atrojws. — On the 3rd 
instant I had the pleasure of breed- 
ing a fine specimen of this species, 
from a larva obtained at Darenth 
last August. The peculiar " squeak- 
ing " noise produced by the Imago 



is very perceptible, but I did not 
find that either the larva or pupa 
emitted any sound. — Wm. Cole, 
Page Villa, Tottenham, June 6th. 

Hadena glauca. — On May 2nd, 
whilst searching the Heather (Callu- 
na vulgaris) on Norland INIoor, near 
Halifax, I had the good fortune to 
meet with a pupa of Hadena glauca, 
from which a female emerged on the 
5 th. I believe this is the first time 
it has been taken in this neighbour- 
hood. — Thos. Mellob, Skircoat 
Green, near Halifax. 



Asplenium Adiantum - nigrum. — 
Some years ago this pretty fern grew 
somewhat sparingly in Dungeon 
Wood, near Huddersfield, but we 
understand some ruthless collector 
having become acquainted with its 
habitat, completely exterminated it. 
We are, however, happy to announce 
that on Saturday (21st ult.), we 
found a tuft springing out of the 
creviceof a rock. Of course we didnot 
take it, but merely plucked a single 
frond in verification of its occurrence . 
We shall not, at present reveal the 
exact locality for fear of another 
similar eradication taking place. 

We may also state that a few tufts 
of A. Trichomanes (which suffered 
the same fate as A. Adiantum-nigrum 
some years ago), are still to be found 
in its old locality, in the wood near 
Woodsome Hall. — Eds. Nat. 



66 



THE NATURALIST. 



Notes on a few Buckinghamshire 

Earities, — May, 1804. 

By James Britten. 

At the end of last month I was 
staying for a few days in the neigh- 
bourhood of Little Marlow, Bucks, 
and as the botany of this locality 
appears never to have been fully 
investigated, I venture to offer the 
following notes of my principal dis- 
coveries there to the readers of the 
' Naturalist.' 

Little Marlow is a picturesque 

village, situate near the Thames, 

which in this vicinity quite comes 

up to the poet's description, 

*' Though deep, yet clear ; 
Though gentle, yet not dull." 

this is certainly more than my Lon- 
don readers can say in its favour by 
the time that it arrives in their 
neighbourhood. It may seem rather 
an anachronism when I state that, 
although this paper is entitled 
*' Notes on a few Buckinghamshire 
rarities," the locality to which I 
would first draw attention is in Berk- 
shire ; yet such is the case. In a 
marshy meadow not very far from 
Cookham, and by the side of the 
railway, I was delighted to find a 
perfect miniature foi'est oiPedicularis 
palustris. This plant, which, by the 
way, is one of the handsomest owned 
by our flora, is generally recorded 
as common. It appears, from the 
* Cybele Britannica,' to be as widely 
distributed as P. sylvatica ; and yet, 



as compared with this latter, it is 
rare. I myself had never previously 
met with it, though my botanical 
rambles had extended over consider- 
able portions of at least six counties, 
(to say nothing of occasional ex- 
cursions into many more.) A friend, 
by whom I was directed to this spot, 
informed me that she had never be- 
fore seen it, and this after studying 
British Botany for at least thirty 
years. The leaves are dark brown 
in colour, so dark, indeed, as almost 
to remind one of the Perilla Nankin- 
ensis now so fashionable as a foliage 
border plant. Growing with the 
Pedicularis, and in still greater 
abundance, was Siellaria glauca, 
which certainly well deserves its 
specific name. Saxifraga granulata, 
occurred on a neighbouring bank, 
but was of course in a somewhat 
advanced state. At the further end 
of the meadow, on a bank, was a 
patch of the Star of Bethlehem 
( Ornithogalum umhellatam), its beau- 
tiful white starjy blossoms expand- 
ing fully in the sunshine. This is 
one of the " unfortunates " branded 
as " alien " by the inexorable * Cy- 
bele ;' how it could possibly have 
been introduced to this locality, I 
cannot imagine. It was confined to 
a very small piece of ground, so I 
took but a few specimens ; and it was 
fortunate that I did, as on revisiting 
the spot a few days after, nearly all 
the blossoms had been wantonly 



OBSr.PvVATIONS. 



57 



plucked and thrown down to wither 
on the bank. The bulbs of this 
plant grow remarkably near to the 
surface of the ground, and an " ex- 
terminator " would find but little 
difficulty in destroying it entirely, 
as far as this locality is concerned. 
Let us hope that such an one will 
never visit the spot ! In the mea- 
dow on the other side of the railway, 
Valeriana dioicaandCardamine amara 
grow sparingly ; in the drier parts of 
this, and in most other meadows, 
Camimnula glomerata was flowering 
profusely; its time of blossoming, as 
usually recorded, is July and August. 
To return now into Buckingham- 
shire, which, in strict conformity to 
the title of these notes, I ought not 
to have left. In a walk from Little 
Marlow to Well End, several good 
plants were noticed. Ranunculus 
parvijlorus covered the bank on one 
side of the road near the latter place, 
and was counterbalanced on the other 
by Geranium lucidum. The bright 
red stems and rosy flowers, in union 
with the glossy leaves, render this 
plant, though small, one of no or- 
dinary beauty. Close by was G. colum- 
hinum, the delicately cut leaves and 
lilac-purple flowers of which almost 
rival in \o\ aimers ihoseoiG. lucid am. 
I found in a cornfield, near the 
hedge, two fine specimens of Hyo- 
scrjamus nigcr, just opening their 
delicately veined blossoms ; in the 
evening the plant leans to one side, 



and the leaves close round the flow- 
er-head. Its extremely fetid smell 
and clammy touch almost counteract 
the admiration with which one must 
regard it. In the same field Thlaspi 
arvense was very abundant. I have 
never seen it in so great profusion 
elsewhere. Is it quite definitely 
ascertained that Lychnis diurna and 
L. vespertina are not forms of one 
species ? In this neighbourhood the 
latter is the common plant ; indeed, 
I never noticed L. diurna during my 
stay here : while in some parts of 
Essex, L. diurna abounds, where 
L. vespertina is but rarely seen. The 
latter is called " Bull-rattle " in this 
vicinity. In a grassy field just before 
entering Well End, the common 
gravel plants were noticed, with 
Trifolium subterraneum and T. stria- 
tum, both in great abundance. By 
the roadside close to ths village were 
several fine plants of the Blessed 
Thistle (Car duns Marianus), which 
were showing well for flower. In 
returning to Little Marlow^, in a 
cornfield near the new and handsome 
school, Myosurus minim us, out of flow- 
er, was very abundant ; this I had 
previously gathered on the Berkshire 
side of the river. By a curious mal- 
formation, the spikes on some of the 
specimens were forked, and this oc- 
currence was by no means unfrequent. 
In the same field were Specularia 
Jnjbrida and Anthemis arvensis, the 
former with both purple and white 



58 



IHE KATUBALIST. 



flowers; also Centaurea cyanus, and 
the pretty, but injurious, Eanun- 
cuius anrnsis, which, as I was in- 
formed by a former, is here called 
*' Starve-acre," and " Devil o' both 
sides ; " the latter curious name hav- 
ing been bestowed on it from the 
circumstance that the large carpels 
are spiny and prickly on either side. 
On a wall opposite Little Marlow 
church were one or two specimens 
oiArenaria tenuifolia, growing among 
a perfect crop of A. serpylUfoUa, Sax'i- 
fraga tridactylites, &c. In a neigh- 
bouring ditch, the beautiful Water 
Violet (HoUonia palustris) grew in 
great abundance ; it is frequent in 
this neighbourhood. Fedia dentata 
occurred plentifully in a cloverfield 
near Sheej)ridge ; and in the w^oods 
Neottia nidus-avis and Cephalan- 
tJiera grandiflora are generally met 
■with. My friend had noticed a fine 
plant of Anchusa sempervircns near 
Great Marlow ; it was probably an 
outcast. I have now^ enumerated 
the principal rarities observed dur- 
ing my spring trip into Buckingham- 
shire ; should they be thought of 
sufficient interest, I may possibly 
record the fruits of my summer holi- 
day, in the same neighbourhood, in 
these pages. 



Uanunculus Ficaria. — With respect 
to Mr. Sim's Query in our last num- 
ber respecting a double-flowered 



specimen of li. Ficaria, we beg to 
refer him to a paper by Dr. Berthold 
Seemann on " Plants producing dou- 
ble flowers," in the current number 
of " The Journal of Botany," jDp. 
177-8. This paper contains a list 
of 279 species of plants, which have 
been observed to produce double 
flowers, and amongst them is the 
one named by Mr. Sim. Dr. See- 
mann also remarks that *' in wet 
seasons double Uanunculi are by no 
means uncommon." 

Another remark worthy of note is 
that " The bulk of the plants pro- 
ducing double flowers, is undoubted- 
ly indigenous to the Northern Hemi- 
sphere ; in Polynesia and the whole of 
Australasia not a single species with 
double flowers has turned up ; but 
there are in South Africa and South 
America, at least a few phints, the 
stamens of which are converted into 
petals." Op. cit. p. 177. — Eds. Nat. 

Eaniinculus Ficaria. — In looking 
over the '' Naturalist " for June 1st, 
I observed a Query on the above 
plant producing double flowers : this 
peculiar form is by no means new to 
this species, as well as others of the ge- 
nus. We find this plant mentioned 
in the catalogue of the plants culti- 
vated in the Edinburgh Physical 
Garden, as far back as the year 1683. 
At that time it was known by the 
name oWhelidonium Minus Jlore pleno, 
Pilewort or lesser Celandine. Since 
then it has been cultivated in almost 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



59 



every collection of Alpine Plants, its 
neat habit and showy flowers, and 
above all its early blooming, have 
won for it the admiration of all lovers 
of early spring flowers. I have met 
with it in my rambles on several 
occasions with semi-double flowers, 
and have cultivated the double flow- 
ered var. for the last twenty years, 
and, as remarked by Mr. Sim, I have 
never seen any thing like stamens 
in the double flowers. A fortnight 
ago I picked up two other plants 
with semi-double flowers, viz. : Ra- 
nunculus repens and Ranunculus acris. 
R. repens with one flower open con- 
taining six stamens ; the others 
converted into ovate and lanceolate 
petals. In the flowers of R. acris 
in jDlace of the stamens there sprung 
from the centre of the flower ano- 
ther peduncle supporting a flower 
bud. The two plants I removed from 
the field to the garden, and by this 
means I shall have an ojpportunity 
of observing any change that takes 
place. The yellow Bachelor's But- 
tons so often seen in cottage gardens 
is a sport from the normal condition 
of Ranunculus acris ; this also was 
cultivated in the year 1683 under 
the name of Ranunculus Pratensis 
erectus acris fiore joleno ; or double 
flowered upright meadow crowfoot. 
At present the jDlant is known by the 
name of Ranunculus acris fiore pleno. 
I might mention other sports from 
the normal form in the Ranunculus 



family, but will leave them for some 
future occasion. — W. Guthrie, Fix- 
by Park, June 4th, 1864. 

Double varieties of Wild Plants.—" 
I have read with interest the remarks 
of Mr. Sim upon the double variety 
of Ranunculus Ficaria he found. Al- 
though! have never seen this species 
of Crowfoot with double flowers, yet, 
in May, 1861, at the Northwick 
Walk Fields, Harrow, I discovered 
several fine plants of R. repens com- 
pletely double. The flowers retain- 
ed this peculiarity throughout 1869, 
when unfortunately in the early part 
of last year they were destroyed, 
owing to some alterations which were 
being made in the field path. Ano- 
ther member of the natural order 
Pianunculacece, Anemone nemorosa, I 
found growing with double flowers 
last month in a wood at Harrow ; I 
send a specimen to the Editors of 
the " Naturalist " for inspection. 
The whole plant looks larger and 
more luxuriant than is ordinary. A 
large colony of them was growing 
in the shade; I should consider that 
extra richness of soil has doubtless 
produced the monstrosity (if I may 
be permitted to use the term) in both 
this and the R. repens, and most 
likely the same has caused the jpecu- 
liar formation of Mr. Sim's R. 
Ficaria. Again, whilst discussing 
the peculiar forms of Ranunculi, 
might I enquire if any of your 
readers have ever seen a form of 



feo 



THE NATURALIST. 



Banmiculus acris, like one I found last 
summer at Harrow Weald, Middle- 
sex, growing in a dry ditch there ? 
It had not the smallest vestige of 
stamens or seed vessels, and the 
petals were also remarkably small, 
of a pale yellow hue, and about 
the size of R. hederaceus. The 
leaves and stalk had no apparent 
malformation existing in them. — 
J. C. Melvill, The Grove, Harrow, 
June, 1864. 



I have some fine specimens of 
N. lucina, T. rubi, S. tilice, S. populi, 
P. statices, C. iilantaginis (bred), L. 
ynonacha, S. carpini, G. trilinea, 
and A. ornata, which I should be 
glad to exchange. I wish to replenish 
my series of many of the common 
and local species, so that my desi- 
derata will be very numerous. — W. 
E. Parsons, New Koad, Aylesbury, 
June 7, 1864. 



REVIEW OF THE BRITISH ROSES, 
ESPECIALLY THOSE OF THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



By J. G. Baker, Esq., of Thirsk. 



Part III.— RUBIGINOS^. 

Bushes of various size and habit with suberect or arching stems. 
Prickles uniform or intermixed withaciculi and a few setae, the full sized ones 
falcate or uncinate, with the lower part moderately robust. Leaves doubly 
serrated, glabrous or slightly hairy above, more or less covered with hairs 
and viscous often odorous glands beneath. Peduncles aciculate and setose 
or occasionally naked. Sepals more or less glandular or setose upon the 
back, spreading upon the fruit, deciduous or subpersistent. Styles free, 
moderately hairy or glabrous. 

VI. — R. RUBiGiNosA. Linn. A shrub four or five feet in height, 
with hardly arching main stem and comparatively short more or less 
compact branches. Mature stem furnished with numerous large prickles, 
plentifully intermixed with either setaceous or slightly curved aciculi and 
sometimes a few sette, but not passing down into them gradually as in the 
Spi?wsissimcp. Large prickles with narrowly elliptical bases about a quar- 
ter of an inch deep, the prickle from three-eighths to half an inch long, 
falcate or even uncinate, moderately robust below but the point long and 



BAKER ON BRITISH ROSES. 61 

needle-like. Well developed leaves of the barren stem measuring from two 
inches to two inches and a half from the base to the apex of the terminal 
leaflet, which varies from broadly ovate or obovate to roundish in shape, and 
measures from three-quarters to an inch long by from three-eighths to 
five-eighths broad. Leaflets bright green above, glabrous or very slightly 
hairy, pnle green beneath, hairy only on the midrib and veins, but thickly 
covered all over with viscid odorous glands, the serratures open and much 
toothed, each tooth being gland- tipped, and the petioles both setose and 
hairy, and usually furnished with numerous unequal setaceous aciculi. 
Stipules with erecto-patent or divergent auricles, copiously glandular but 
hardly hairy on the back, but the ovate lanceolate bracts nearly or quite 
glabrous on the back, both densely setoso-ciliated. Peduncles densely 
aciculate and setose. Calyx tube ovate-urceolate or subglobose, usually 
naked, but sometimes prickly. Sepals mostly pinnate, the more luxuriant 
ones with two or three long toothed spreading pinnEe on each side, glandular 
on the back and with a dilated leafy point, the largest about five-ei"-hths 
of an inch long. Petals usually of a full rose-colour, sometimes paler, 
measuring about five-eighths of an inch each way and the fully expanded 
corolla about an inch and a quarter across. Styles thinly hairy. Sepals 
spreading out at about a level after the petals fall, afterwards ascendinf^. 
Fruit measuring about half an inch each way, bright scarlet in colour, 
typically subglobose or obovate in shape, not ripening till October, by 
which time most of the sepals have fallen. 

In some parts of the North of England this is tolerably plentiful, but 
it has been cultivated so much and so long, that the stations must often 
be considered doubtfully indigenous. There are examples in Mr. Wat- 
son's collection from as far nortlx as Inverness. Though in Scandinavia 
this is a more northern species than either tomentosa or spinosissima, I 
have not seen it with us at more than 250 yards above the sea level, whilst 
they both ascend to 500 yards. It is reported from all the adjacent parts 
of the continent. Of M. Deseglise's species our plant agrees best with 
R. comosa, Ripart, which is included in his " Herbarium l\osarum." His 
R. ruhiginosa has villose styles in combination with an aciculate ovoid 
calyx tube, and leaves hairy upon the upper surface. His R. permixta 
and R. septicola have narrower and more graceful calyces and fruit in com- 
bination with glabrous styles and pubescent stipules. Under the former of 
these he quotes E. riihifiinom of Alton's Hortus Kewensis but I have not 
seen either of these from Britain. 



65 THE NATURALIST. 

A plant gathered by James Backhouse and myself in Swaledale, North 
Yorkshire, has several points of difference from that just described, and is 
referred doubtfully by M. Deseglise to R. sylvicola, Deseglise and Elpart. 
The habit of growth is looser. The main prickles are as slender as in 
the VilloscB, and curved but slightly, the petioles being furnished, as in 
ruhiginosa, with numerous unequal aciculi. The leaves are larger and but 
faintly odorous, the terminal one being obovate with a rounded base. 
The fruit has more of the ovate or elliptical urceolate shape of micrantha 
than that of the typical plant, and is rather prickly, but the sepals are 
those of rubiginosa, the more luxuriant ones being furnished with two or 
three toothed spreading pinnse, and the styles are hairy. 

VII. — R. MICRANTHA. Smith. A tufted shrub six to eight feet in 
height, with arching stems and ascending flexuose branches. Prickles 
uniform, uncinate, those of the mature stem with bases about three- 
eighths of an inch deep, the prickle from a quarter to three-eighths of an 
inch long, narrowed suddenly above the base, but the lower part moderately 
robust. Well developed leaves of the barren stem from two and a half to 
three inches from the base to the apex of the terminal leaflet, which is 
usually typically ovate, but sometimes obovate or roundish, and measures 
from an inch to an inch and a quarter long by from three quarters to seven- 
eighths of an inch broad. Leaflets thinner in texture than in the pre- 
ceding, bright green and glabrous or very nearly so above, hairy on the 
principal ribs beneath, thickly scattered over with faintly odorous viscid 
glands, the serratures open and much toothed, each tooth being gland- 
tipped, and the petioles both pubescent and setose, and usually furnished 
with three or four falcate aciculi. Stipules with erecto-patent or divergent 
auricles, occasionally pubescent, and the lower ones always densely glan- 
dular on the back, but the upper ones and the ovate lanceolate bracts 
usually glabrous on the back, all densely setoso-ciliated. Peduncles 
densely aciculate and setose. Calyx tube narrowly ovate-urceolate, either 
naked or slightly prickly at the base. Sepals simple or pinnate, from 
three-quarters of an inch to an inch long, lengthened out and leafy at the 
point, but the more luxuriant ones with only one or two small narrow 
erecto-patent hardly toothed pinnae on each side, all densely glandular on 
the back. Petals pale rose-coloured, often not more than half an inch 
broad and deep, so that the fully expanded corolla is scarcely more than 
an inch across. Styles glabrous or very nearly so. Sepals spreading out 
level after the petals fall, afterwards ascending. Fruit bright scarlet, in 



BAKER ON BRITISH ROSES. 63 

texture like that of R. caiiina, ovate or ovate-urceolate in shape, measuring 
about five-eighths of an inch deep by three-eighths to half an inch broad, 
ripening in September, by which time the sepals have all or most of them 
fallen. 

Of our species, this is only in danger of being confounded with the 
last, from which it differs by its habit of growth, which resembles that of 
R. canina, by its uniform prickles, which are less numerous, more strongly 
toothed, and more robust below than the large ones of ruhlginosa, by the 
shape of its leaves and much fainter odour of their glands, by the shape 
of its calyx tube and fruit, the different texture and pleasant acid taste of 
the latter when ripe, by its glabrous styles, and narrow-bladed long-pointed 
sparingly pinnate sepals, which fall before the fruit ripens. It is not 
known in Scandinavia. M. Crepin identifies our plant with the Belgian 
R. nemorosa of Lejeune, the R. Libertiana of Trattinick, and sends me what 
is evidently the same plant as ours, but a specimen from Cobourg in 
Mr. Watson's collection, marked by Herr Hornung as the authenticated 
plant of Lejeune, is evidently only a sylvestral form of Pi. rubiginosa. M. 
Boreau and M. Deseglise have both informed me that our plant, as illus- 
trated by specimens which I sent, is identical with the French plant 
which they describe as nemorosa. Their R. micrantlia is a low bush with 
leaves not more than half an inch long by three-eighths of an inch broad, 
the terminal one narrowed at the base, slender scarcely curved prickles 
not more than a quarter of an inch long, small prickly calyx tube, short 
almost entire sepals and much smaller ovate-urceolate fruit. I have 
gathered our plant in two stations in Yorkshire, and possess it from a 
third, all three being very slightly elevated above the sea level. I have 
not seen it from anywhere further north, but it is evidently widely diffused 
through the central and southern counties. 

VIII. — K. BoRRERi. Woods. Stems six to eight feet high, arched, 
with ascending flexuose branches. Prickles uniform, their bases three- 
eighths to half an inch deep, the prickle about three-eigbths of an inch 
long, strongly hooked and the lower part robust. Well developed leaves 
of the barren stem three and a half to four inches from the base to the 
apex of the terminal leaflet, which varies from elliptical to broadly ovate 
with a cordate base, and measures from an inch and a quarter to an inch 
and a half long by about an inch broad. Leaflets full or deep green above, 
thinly hairy all over when young, glabrous when mature, paler beneath, 
hairy principally upon the veins, thinly sprinkled over with small green 



64 THE NATURALIST. 

viscid glands, which are sometimes confined to the midrib and secondary 
veins, the serratures moderately open, and each furnished with two or three 
fine gland-tijDped teeth, the petioles pubescent and abundantly setose, and 
furnished with three or four falcate aciculi. Stipules with hmceolate 
erecto-patcnt auricles, the lower ones usually both pubescent and setose 
on the back, the upper ones and the lanceolate acuminate bracts usually 
glabrous, but all closely setoso-ciliated. Peduncles hispid, but much less 
densely so than in the preceding, the setae and. especially the aciculi 
w-eaker, sometimes altogether absent. Calyx tube gracefully ovate or 
elliptical urceolate, naked or casually a little aciculate. Sepals three- 
quarters of an inch long, the blade ovate-lanceolate, the point rather 
lengthened out and leafy, but not so much so as in the preceding, the more 
luxuriant ones furnished with two or three large toothed erecto-patent 
pinuffi on each side, setoso-ciliated and varying from almost naked to a 
good deal glandular on the back. Petals pink, from three-quarters to 
seven-eighths of an inch broad and deep, so that the fully exj)anded corolla 
measures about an inch and a half across. Styles hairy. Fruit ovate- 
urceolate, deep scarlet, in texture resembling that of R. canina, ripening 
in September, by which time most or all of the sepals have fallen. 

This species is intermediate between micrautha and canina, differing 
from the former by the larger size of all its parts, in which it corresponds 
with tomentosa and canina, by the much fewer glands of its leaves, stipules 
and bracts, by the feebleness of the setce and aciculi of its peduncle, or by 
their entire absence, by its somewhat hairy styles, and by its broader 
bladed sepals which are much less glandular on the back, not so 
much lengthened out and dilated at the point, and the more luxuriant 
ones copiously pinnate, with toothed leafy pinnae. M. Deseglise con- 
siders it distinct from U. inodora, Fries, of which he has seen authenticated 
specimens, which I have not : but he identifies the German R. inodora, 
Reich, with our plant. Fries himself says (Summa) that his plant is 
distinct from canina by its densely viscid leaves and long enduring 
sepals, and in neither case docs this seem to ai^ply well to our 
plant, which is certainly not identical with, though nearly allied to, the 
French R. Kluckii. I have seen R. Borreri from two stations in Yorkshire 
— Lodge Dingle, near Settle, (John Tatliam), and a hedge at Holdgatc, 
near York, (James Backhouse) — and besides this from three counties only, 
Worcestershire, Sussex, and Kent. The Northumbrian R. inodora, Winch, 
may not unlikely be the true plant of Fries. It differs from R. Borreri by 



BAKER ON BRITISH ROSHS. 65 

having a few setaceous aciculi and a few sctre intermixed with its prickles, 
leaves more glandular beneath and the glands faintly odorous, the terminal 
leaflet being nearly as broad as long and much rounded at the base, by its 
deeper coloured flowers, more elongated calyx tube and fruit, and more 
persistent sepals. The specimens which I have seen were gathered in a 
hedge at Spring Gardens, near Newcastle, by Mr. Robertson, who reports 
it also from Ravensworth Woods, Durham. 

IX. — R. JuNDziLiJANA, Besser. A vigorous bush with arching stems, 
about six feet in height, and the habit and appearance of R. tomentosa. 
Prickles uniform, the base about three-eighths of an inch deep and the 
prickle about the same length, the lower part moderately robust, the 
prickle curved but slightly and the point long and needle-like. Well 
developed leaves of the barren stem from four to four and a half inches 
from tlie base to the apex of the terminal leaflet, which is broadly ovate or 
elliptical, rounded or even almost cordate at the base, and measures from 
an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half long by fully an inch broad. 
Leaves full green above, thinly hairy all over when young, but becoming 
glabrous as they mature, glaucous or greyish green beneath, thin in texture, 
hairy only on the principal veins, but thinly covered all over the blade 
with green viscous mealy glands, the serratures open and each furnished 
with two or three gland-tii^ped teeth, the petioles only thinly hairy but 
plentifully setose, furnished with three or four slightly curved aciculi, and 
sometimes several smaller setaceous ones in addition. Lowest stipules 
not hairy but slightly glandular on the back, the upper ones and the ovate- 
lanceolate bracts almost or quite naked. Peduncles and ovate-elliptical 
calyx tube densely aciculate and setose. Sepals five-eighths to three- 
quarters of an inch long, ovate-lanceolate with the point not much length- 
ened out or dilated, mostly with two or three toothed leafy pinnse on each 
side, tomentose towards the edges, rough on the back with setae and 
aciculi, spreading out level after the petals fall, afterwards ascending. 
Petals pink, the flower the same size as that of R. tomentosa. Styles thinly 
hairy. Fruit subglobose or broadly elliptical urceolate, prickly or nearly 
naked, three-quarters to seven-eighths of an inch deep by three-quarters 
broad, the sepals falling before it changes colour. 

Gathered by Mr. F. M. Webb and Mr. H. S. Fisher in a hedge near 

Morton, Cheshire, only one bush actually known. The Cheshire plant 

agrees well with my specimens of the French plant from M. Deseglise, 

except that the prickles are rather more robust. This appears to be in- 

No. 5, July 1. F 



QQ THE NATUKALIST, 

termediate between B. tomentosa and R. Borreri, differing from the former 
by its prickles, which are more of the BuhiginoscB than the ViUosce type, 
leaves thinner and more delicate in texture, glabrous above when matare, 
hairy only on the veins beneath but covered all over with fine green viscid 
glands and by its stipules and bracts not hairy on the back and only the 
lower ones glandular ; and from the latter by its stout subglobose prickly 
fruit, peduncles and calyx tube densely beset with setae and strong aciculi, 
and sepals tomentose at the edges and densely coated on the back. 

X. — K. CRYPTOPODA. Prickles somewhat unequal, the larger ones 
uncinate and moderately robust below. Leaves from three to three and a 
half inches from the base to the apex of the terminal leaflet, which is ovate 
or elliptical, either rounded or somewhat narrowed towards the base, and 
measures rather more than an inch long by three-quarters of an inch wide. 
Leaflets greyish or glaucous green, glabrous on the upper surface, still 
greyer beneath, hairy only on the midrib and principal veins, but thinly 
scattered all over with green viscous glands, the serratures open but not 
deep, each furnished with several fine gland-tipped teeth, the petioles 
pubescent and setose, and furnished with two or three ftdcate aciculi. 
Stipules glandular on the back or even a little pubescent, the upper ones 
and the bracts very large, when the plant is in flower quite hiding the 
short peduncles, the bracts also glandular on the back but not hairy, all 
finely setoso-ciliated. Peduncles very short and quite naked. Calyx tube 
broadly ovate or subglobose, quite naked, glaucous and tinged with purple. 
Sepals five-eighths to three-quarters of an inch long, naked on the back 
but somewhat hairy towards the edges, the more luxuriant ones furnished 
with three or four erecto-patent toothed pinnse on each side, all copiously 
setoso-ciliated. Petals deep red, the flowers measuring about an inch 
across. Styles villose. Fruit subglobose, not at all narrowed at the neck, 
measuring about five-eighths of an inch each way, ripening in September, 
by which time the erecto-patent sepals have all fallen. 

Found by Mr. S. King in the neighbourhood of Luddenden, near 
Halifax, in West Yorkshire. This comes near to R. sepium, Thuill. from 
which it differs by the size, shape, and colour of its leaves, their hairy ribs 
and petioles, its peculiar bracts, stipules, and peduncles, subglobose fruit, 
slightly hairy sepals and villose styles. It is nearer still to the French 
R. virgiiUorum, Ripart, ( R. iief/lecta, Ripart oUm, non Leman), but this has 
firm textured green leaves glabrous on both sides, more glandular beneath 
tlian in our plant, the terminal leaflet often much narrowed at the base. 



BAKER ON BRITISH ROSES. 67 

petioles densely setose but not hairy, similar fruit, peduncles and sepals, 
but only sliglitly hairy styles. 

R. sepiiun, TliuiUier, is a low shrub only three or four feet in height, 
with long flexuose pendant or spreading branches. The prickles are 
numerous and somewhat unequal, the large ones about three-eighths of 
an inch long, not much hooked but the lower part robust. The leaves 
measure about two inches from the base to the apex of the terminal leaflet, 
which varies in shape from obova!;e-lanceolate narrowed at the base to 
elliptical narrowed out at both ends, and is not more than three-quarters 
of an inch long by three-eighths broad. The leaflets are bright green and 
glabrous, though, sometimes a little glandular on the upper surface, 
glabrous also but more or less thickly covered with viscid glands beneath, 
the serratures fine and forward-pointing with fine gland-tipj)ed teeth, the 
petioles densely setose but not pubescent and hardly at all aciculate. The 
stipules and bracts are densely glandular on the back, but not hairy. 
The peduncles and narrow ovate or elliptical-urceolate calyx tube are quite 
naked. The sepals are about five-eighths of an inch long, naked on the 
back, the limb lanceolate, some of them simple, some of them with two or 
three toothed linear erecto-patent piimse on each side, and are all copiously 
gland-ciliated. The petals are pinkish or nearly white, measuring about 
five-eighths of an inch each way, so that the fully expanded corolla is about 
an inch and a quarter across. The styles are glabrous or nearly so, the 
fruit being gracefully oblong-urceolate in shape, measuring about three- 
quarters of an inch long by three-eighths wide, with the sepals all fallen 
by the time it changes colour. This is a plant of Belgium, France, and 
other parts of Central and southern Europe. I have not seen specimens 
of the Warwickshire plant which is figured under this name in " English 
Botany," but it appears from the figure and description to come very near 
to the above, and may not unlikely be identical with or near to the French 
R. Lemanii, Boreau, which is stated to difier from sepium by its oval leaflets 
which are slightly hairy beneath, hispid peduncles and oblong calyx tube, 
which also is sometimes prickly at the base. 



G8 



THE NATUEALIST. 



A LIST OF THE MACRO-LEPIDOPTEKA WHICH OCCUR 
IN rEKTHSHIEE. 



By F. B. W. White, Esq., F.B.S., Ed. 



Part II.- 

SPHINGINA. 

Smerintlius populi. 

Acherontia Atropos, widely distri- 
buted. 

Sphinx convolvuU, abundant in 
some years, as 1846 ; a specimen or 
two nearly every year. 

Deilephila galli, fifteen larvae of 
this were found on Galium verum, 
near Perth, in 1859. 

Chccrocampa celerio, one male, by 
Mr. Trotter, in 1862, near Perth. 

[C. Elpenor, I have seen this re- 
corded as found near Perth, but I 
think it doubtful.] 

G. porcellus, not uncommon. 

Macroglossa stellatarum, not un- 
common. Larva on Galium verum. 

Sesia bombyliformis, rare. 

S, bembeciformis, round Perth, 
not rare. Imago seldom seen. 

BOMBYCINA. 

Hepialus hectus. 

H. Lupulinus, rare. 

H. humuli. 

H. velleda, common, but local. 

var. carnus. 
H. sylvinus, local, but common. 
Cerura furcula, not common. 
C. vinula. 

Notodonta dromedarius. 
N. ziczac, not common. 
Leiocampa dlctcBa, rare. 
L. dictaoides, rare. 
Lophopteryx camelina. 



Heterocera. 

Diloba ccBruleocepliala. 

Petasia nubeculosa, Rannoch. 

Clostera reclusa, rare, there are two 
broods of this. 

PygcBra bucephala. 

Dasychira fascelina, not very com- 
mon. 

Demas coryli, not uncommon. 

Orgyia antiqua. 

Lithosia complanula, Bridge of 
Allan. 

Gnophria ruhricollis. 

Nudaria mundana, local. 

N. senex, rare. 

Euthemonia russula, Heaths, com- 
mon. 

Arctia caja, two broods. 

Nemeopliilaplantaginis, not uncom- 
mon, I have found a variety in which 
the yellow is replaced by white. 

Phragmatobia fuligiiiosa, three 
broods. 

Spilosoma menthastri. 

Callimorpha jacobcea, used to be 
found near Perth, but seems to have 
disappeared. 

Lasiocampa rubi, larvae common. 

L. calluncB. 

Pacilocampa populi, not rare. 

Endromis versicolora, Rannoch. 

Saturnia pavonia-minor, tubercles 
of the larva of female, yellow. 

Platypteryx lacertinaria, Dunkeld. 

Drepana Jalcataria, KinnouU, &c. 



MATHEWS ON AZURE-WINGED MAGPIE. 69 

NOTES ON THE AZURE-WINGED MAGPIE (Pica cyaneaj, &c. 



By G. F. Mathews, Esq., R.N., F.L.S. 



C Continued from page 51. J 

The soil through which it ran was of a soft sandy nature, and conse- 
quently a deep channel had been worn in it ; in places here and there 
where it had been dammed up for purposes of irrigation there were deep 
dark pools overhung by alders and sallows, the latter in profuse bloom, 
but elsewhere it ran over a smooth shingly bottom, and was not more than 
a few inches deep ; in the summer months I suspect it is nearly dry. 
The valley on each side the stream was divided by low banks of about a 
foot high into small square plots, barely half an acre in extent, and which 
contained the remains of a crop of apparently some species of sedge, which 
I believe the Portuguese make use of when cut and dried, for thatching 
their cottages and ricks, and also for covering and packing bottles, &c. with. 
In some places close to the margin of the stream no attempt whatever had 
been made to reclaim the ground, which was covered with a thick tangled 
mass of brambles, stunted willows, dead reeds, &c., and formed an excel- 
lent retreat for various species of warblers and other birds. 

I must now return to the Magpies. After waiting some time and not 
hearing them, I imagined they had taken themselves off entirely, when all 
at once I heard a great noise overhead, and looking up saw the whole flock 
flying above me at a considerable height, but evidently with the intention 
of descending to a large fir tree some distance off, which they presently 
did ; their flight is much more undulating than that of our English friend. 
I thought this would be a good opportunity of obtaining a successful shot, 
so walked towards them as cautiously as I was able, but they were still 
much too wide awake for me, and on one of them beginning to pipe his 
note of alarm the whole flock took to flight in all directions, and I was 
again disappointed. I did not, however, altogether despair, but reseating 
myself beneath the same bush I kept as quiet as possible. The birds had 
not gone very far, and from my silence they probably concluded all danger 
had passed, and very soon recommenced their lively chattering and ap- 
peared to be quite at ease. Presently I noticed one fly into a tree not 
more than a hundred yards from me where it was speedily followed by 
others, but as soon as several became occupants of the same tree they 
commenced squabbling violently, and of course the weakest had to give 



THE NATURALIST. 



way, and quitting the tree alighted in one quite close to the bush behind 
which I lay concealed ; and in a few moments the trees all round me were 
occupied by the whole flock, and I had an opportunity of observing them 
at close quarters. It was getting rather late in the afternoon so they had 
finished feeding, their j^rincipal object seeming to be to find a suitable tree 
to roost in, though I doubt whether with their pugnacious dispositions 
they would agree well together in the same. After watching them for 
some minutes I thought it high time to pick out an individual to shoot, 
particularly as I saw one or two which were very close to me stand upright 
on the boughs on which they were perched and look in my direction in a 
very suspicious manner, so selecting one some distance off, as I wished to 
kill it clean, I fired and it fell into the thick head of the tree where it hung, 
having apparently in its death struggle tightly clasped a small branch ; of 
course 1 fancied the report had frightened all the others away, but when I 
approached the tree and looked up for the bird I had killed, I was surprised 
to see several more fly out, at one of which I had an unsuccessful snap 
shot with my other barrel. I suppose they had remained to sympathize 
with their dying comrade, or else the discharge of a gun was such a novelty 
to them that they could not understand it. As the trunk of the tree was 
entirely destitute of branches for some twenty-five feet from the ground, it 
was a matter of impossibility to climb it, and I had the mortification of 
leaving the dead bird behind. Thus ends my adventure with the Azure- 
Winged Magpies. The next day I succeeded in making a tolerable skin 
of the only specimen obtained. 

Among other notes made during the time we were in the Tagus in 
January and February last aie the following ; — ■ 

The Kite (Falco milous, Lin.) This magnificent and elegant bird, 
which I regret to say may now be looked upon as nearly, if not quite, ex- 
tinct in the British Isles, was not uncommon in the neighbourhood of 
Lisbon, and might occasionally be seen soaring at a great height in the 
clear sky, where their graceful movements could not fail to strike the 
admiration of merely a casual observer. A pair frequently attended the 
ship at noon, hovering some distance above the river, and every now and 
then swooping down and clutching a piece of offal or anything else they 
might fancy from the surface of the water, which feat they performed with 
suiprising dexterity, seldom making a miss. The Gulls, (of which there 
were several species at this time of the day, were always in hundreds astern 
of the ship on the look out for fragments of biscuit which are swept up 



REPORTS OF SOCIETIES. 



71 



from the deck and thrown overboard, and which they eagerly devour, fight- 
ing desperately for it and making a terrific noise), took very little notice 
of the Kites except when they observed one had secured a larger morsel 
than it could swallow at once, and then they invariably gave chase and 
very often made him drop it ; they did not then always succeed in getting 
it, as sometimes the kite would dash down suddenly, disperse the gulls on 
each side of him, and regain his lost food before it reached the water. 

Bluethroated Warbler (Sylvia suecica, Lath.) was tolerably common at 
Coina, and also at IMoita ; at the latter place, which is a small village on 
the south side of the Tagus, on the line to Setubal, and the third station 
from Barreiro, I noticed it on the 13th February in some numbers. 
There were several millponds close to the village on the banks of which 
reeds, rushes, and a variety of plants grew luxuriantly, drooping over the 
muddy margins of the ponds, particularly a species of Cheiiopodlum ; these 
formed excellent retreats for those pretty little birds, who had accord- 
ingly taken up their abode there, and from which, even when disturbed, 
they were very reluctant to depart ; every now and then flitting out and in 
again, or, half flying, half running, they seemed to chase the small insects 
which they frequently dislodged from among the tangled vegetation through 
which they forced their way. From its secluded habits I should imagine 
this species is one which might readily be overlooked. 

(To he continued.) 



HuJdersfield Naturalists' Society. — 
An ordinary meeting of this Society 
was held on Monday evening, June 
13th ; the president, Alfred Beau- 
mont, Esq., occupying the chair. 
After the transaction of the ordinary 
business, Mr. John Armitage exhi- 
bited seven species of Veronica, four 
species of Ranunculus, and a fine 
specimen of Atropa Belladonna, the 



latter grown in his garden, but origi- 
nally obtained from Almondbury 
Bank, where it formerly grew luxu- 
riantly. Mr. James Varley exhibited 
fine specimens oi Notodonta Dodoncca 
from Sherwood Forest, and Cymato- 
jjJiora fliictuosa recently caught in 
Wharncliffe Woods. Mr. W. H. 
Charlesworth exhibited a fine collec- 
tion of Coleoptera, obtained during 
a recent visit to Sherwood Forest 
by some members of the Society. 



72 



THE NATURALIST. 



Wakefield Naturalists' Society.-^kt 
a meeting of the above Society held 
on the 3rd June, there were exhibi- 
ted many fine specimens of Lepi- 
doptera ; among others were the 
following, the imago of L. venosa, 
A. prcecoXy and larva of 0. dilutata, 
shewn by Mr. Lumb ; the imago of 
H. defoliaria, C. curtula, C. Ana- 
choreta, N. Dodoncea, C. Verbasci, S. 
lunaria, and larvse of H. pefinaria, 
P. pilosaria, H. aurantiaria by Mr. 
Talbot ; L. dispar, 0. fascelina, T. 
criida, C. Aiiachoreta by Mr. Gib- 
son. In Conchology Mr. Hebden 
exhibited the genus Trochus almost 
complete ; Mr. Eoberts shewed 
many specimens of shells which he 
had recently collected in the neigh- 
bourhood of Settle, also the eggs of 
the Pied Wagtail one of which was 
almost purely white. Seveial birds 
were shewn, none of which however 
were rare. A large number of 
flowers were laid on the table and 
named. Mr. Gibson read an inter- 
esting and instructive paper on En- 
tomology, giving a general outline 
of it as a science, and describing, 
from personal observation, many of 
the transformations of insect life. 

Oswestry Naturalists' Field Club. 
— The first excursion for the year 
of this Society took place on Thurs- 
day, 0th June, and was attended by 
about fourteen members. The route 
lay along Pen-y-lan lane towards 
Llainforda, through the Craigforda 



Woods, and thence to the summit 
of the northern shoulder of Craig-y- 
rhiw, thus crossing both the Moun- 
tain limestone, and Millstone grit 
formations. The geologists were 
rewarded with a nice series of fossils 
from the grit, which was at one time 
supposed to contain no traces of 
former life, and were also much in- 
terested in observing the boulders 
of greenstone and other igneous 
rocks, left on the retirement of the 
" glacial sea " from the valley of the 
Ceiriog. Amongst the plants col- 
lected were, Scrophularia vernalis, 
Anchusa sempervirens, Lysimachia iie- 
morum, Polystichimi lobatum, Gerani- 
um lucidum, both species of Chrysos- 
plenium, Ophioglossum vulgatum, Sco- 
lopendrimn vulgare, and Botrychium 
lunaria. Polypodium calcareum {Ro- 
bertianum) was seen, but not gather- 
ed, there being at present only a 
small patch of it growing in one 
locality. A grand and terrific thun- 
derstorm drove the party from the 
tojD of the hill to the friendly shelter 
of some cottages, and they after- 
wards dined together at the Queen's 
Head. The business of the Club 
was transacted after dinner, and the 
balance sheet shewing a balance in 
hand, nearly double that of last year, 
a number of books were ordered to 
be added to the library. The next 
excursion was fixed for the lOtli 
June, to meet the Caradoc Field 
Club at Breiddanon. 



OBSERVATIONS. 



73 



Feogs and Toads. 

It has been shown in a former 
number of "The Naturalist," (p. 24,) 
that the frog and toad are exceed- 
ingly prolific animals. To many 
thinkers the statements there made 
on this point will have raised several 
questions not easily solved, at least 
by those who have not had opportu- 
nities of observing their habits, &c. 
It will not satisfy an earnest en- 
quirer into nature merely to be told 
that she may be likened to a beauti- 
ful and complicated piece of machin- 
ery, in which there are numerous 
"wheels, levers, pulleys, screws, &c., 
many of which to the ignorant looker- 
on seem totally useless, nay positively 
detrimental, though to the skilled 
mechanist each part bears a particu- 
lar relation to the rest, and plays a 
definite part in the working of the 
machine ; and that therefore these 
creatures have their appointed duty 
in the economy of nature, though 
not known to all. For although this 
is strictly true — nothing in nature 
being without its use — he wishes to 
see what is the relation which these 
creatures bear to other parts of na- 
ture, and what is their j)articular 
office in that grand machine, if I 
may be permitted so to speak. With 
the assistance of the aquarium I will 
endeavour to solve a few questions 



that presented themselves to me 
under similar circumstances. 

Of what use are all these tadpoles 
— young toads and frogs ? Are they 
beneficial or injurious to man ? 

Tadpoles live almost entirely upon 
decaying animal and vegetable mat- 
ter, though they sometimes — when 
short of food for instance — attack 
living organisms not even exempting 
their weaker brethren. 

A mere cursory glance at any pond 
in summer is sufficient to show that 
it literally swarms with animal and 
vegetable life, while an equally su- 
perficial survey in winter reveals as 
great a paucity. Where then are all 
the beautiful forms that gave such a 
charm to a pond visit in summer ? 
Gaze down through the now deep 
waters and the question is answered 
at once. The bottom is thickly 
strewn over with their remains. 
The waters are now clear and sweet. 
But as summer approaches the wa- 
ters will dry up and this organic 
refuse will be exposed to the fierce 
rays of the sun. Decomposition 
will set in — copious exhalations of 
poisonous gases will take place — 
the pond will become a dangerous 
nuisance — a hot-bed of disease, and 
a focus of death. 

But before this can take place — 
in early spring — millions of tadpoles 
make their ajijpearance, and, as- 
sisted by mollusca, Crustacea, in- 
secta and infusoria, eat up this pu- 



74 



THE NATURALIST. 



trescent matter and thus prevent 
those evils to which we should other- 
wise most certainly be subjected. 

Is it not then plainly the office of 
these tadpoles, in part, to prevent 
the accumulation in ponds of these 
baleful substances ? Whether this 
be their true office or not it is cer- 
tain that they do act as scavengers, 
and in that capacity confer a great 
boon upon the human race. 

Viewed in this light the vastness 
of their numbers is no longer prob- 
lematical, but becomes at once an 
intelligible fact. 

But having performed their ap- 
pointed task of eating up these 
disease-creating substances, what 
then becomes of these myriads of 
tadpoles ? Surely they do not all 
reach a state of maturity, for if so 
how is it that we see so few adult 
frogs ? 

Few of those vast swarms that 
blacken the waters in spring with 
their dusky forms ever reach the 
perfect frog. Their enemies are 
many, their means of defence few. 
They become the prey of larger or 
more warlike animals than them- 
selves. These constant attacks 
greatly thin their numbers. Thus 
by the time they are fit to leave the 
water they are, though still some- 
what numerous, much less so than 
at an earlier period of their exis- 
tence. But having left the waters 
they are still exposed to great dan- 



gers. They are greedily devoured 
by the snake, weasel, polecat, and 
by nearly every species of water 
fowl. Then there are the young of 
the genus "homo" who, prompted 
by the unloving heart of ignorance, 
kill every member of the class rep- 
tilia they meet with as useless and 
dangerous animals. It is sad to be 
compelled to say that these little 
tyrants are not so much to be blamed 
as theirparents, friends and teachers, 
for these, generally speaking,through 
ignorance or cruel prejudice, set 
them the example, or at all events 
do not care to check them in their 
career of destruction. But it is our 
duty, it is the duty of all who lay 
any claim to the honourable title of 
Naturalist to protect these and other 
equally ill treated creatures, from the 
blind fury of the ignorant. We 
should let no opportunity slip un- 
improved of showing that they are 
not only harmless but really bene- 
ficial. Let us not be passive spec- 
tators of this cruel injustice, but let 
every one be taught the truth, and 
then should this inhuman persecu- 
tion continue, we at least can acquit 
ourselves of all complicity in their 
guilty deeds. 

The greater number of these lar- 
val frogs perish at a very early 
period of their existence from aquatic 
foes. Among those animals which 
I have seen feed largely upon them 
are the following : — 



OBSERVATIONS. 



75 



The larvse of the different species 
of Libellala. These are exceedingly 
destructive to them, thinning their 
numbers very rapidly : 

Dytiscus marg'uialls, larva and 
imago, a water beetle of great power 
and ferocity : 

The NotonectidcE, or boat flies, a 
curious race of aquatic insects : 

The Newts, (Triton yalustris and 
Triton aquaticus) : 

Several fish as the Bearded Loach 
[Gohitus barbatula), and the Stickle 
back [Gasterosteus aculeatus). 

It is more than probable that the 
attacks of these and other aquatic 
foes, together with their land ene- 
mies, so thin their numbers that not 
one out one thousand of those young 
frogs emerging from the egg in 
spring ever reach their winter 
quarters. 

Here is a powerful illustration of 
that " st]'uggle for existence" which 
is constantly going on among the 
different races of organized beings 
— animal and vegetable. Were it 
not for the almost unbounded fer- 
tility of the frog and toad they would 
be totally exterminated in one year, 
by the unceasing attacks of their 
numerous terrestrial and aquatic 
foes, hhould this fertility be check- 
ed by any cause whatever, these 
creatures, like their giant prototypes 
of the Mesozoic and Cainozoic ages, 
would soon be known only by their 
remains. — J. Hepworth, Wakefield. 



Notes on Ornithology. 

NOKFOLK. 

Tawney Owl, [Strix alula.) — On 
the 6th instant, a fine male was shot 
at Moulton ; two young live speci- 
mens have also been taken near 
Norwich. 

King Ouzel, {Turdus torquatus.) — 
A female was shot during the first 
week in May. 

Great Spotted Woodpecker, (Picus 
major,) — A male at Kirby, near 
Bungay, on the 3rd ult. 

Wryneck, (Yunx torquilla.) — This 
bird seems to be plentiful here this 
season: I have noticed at least a 
dozen specimens during the last 
fortnight. 

Common Sandpiper, (Totanus Juj- 
poleucos.) — Four specimens have been 
captured lately in this locality. 

Green Sandpiper, (Totanus ochro- 
pus.) — A specimen about five weeks 
since near Ui^ton. 

Black Tern, (Sterna nigra.) — On 
the 16th of May, an adult female 
was shot at East Tuddenham. — T. 
E. GuNN, Norwich, June 10th, 1864. 



The Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa 
grisola) : — This bird is in this neigh- 
bourhood called the " W^all-chat." 
It is not a common bird in North 
Yorkshire, and it was not until 
1862 that I became acquainted with 
it, never before 185 7 having had 
a walled garden, with wall-trees. 
In 1862 I found a nest on a branch 



76 



THE NATURALIST. 



of a trained Orleans' plum in my 
garden ; I took out an egg, which 
at first sight I mistook for the egg 
of a robin, but was soon undeceived 
by a view of the parent bird. The 
gardener's boy finding the nest took 
it, and I lost the opportunity of 
watching the bird, but gained the 
information that it was the nest of 
the " Wall-chat," a bird unknown to 
me by that name. In May of the 
same year, being on a visit to an old 
friend at Kirby-Moorside, I had a 
good opportunity of watching the 
actions of this active little bird, for 
a pair had built their nest on the 
bough of a wall-pear-tree, and the 
hen was sat on four eggs. Both 
nests were outwardly composed of 
bent and lined with hair, with here 
and there a feather. The eggs were 
of a dull white and spotted with faint 
red, the spots being most numerous 
on the thick end.- They were in 
aj^pearance not unlike a robin's egg. 
The cock was very attentive to the 
female, often feeding her on the nest 
and taking his share of the troubles 
of incubation. As the nest was in full 
view of the front kitchen window 
and only three or four feet from it, 
1 had ample oppoitunitics of watch- 
ing them during my week's visit. 
The male never visited the nest to 
bring an insect but he flew back to 
the head of one particular post in 
the garden fence ; the same post 
served also for a resting place from 



which he darted to catch the passing 
insects, returning to the same spot 
when he had caught them. In June 
of the same year I found another nest 
on the bough of a trained pear-tree ; 
in this case the nest was externally 
built of moss, of which there is a great 
variety in the woods and on the banks 
in the neighbourhood, and it was 
lined with cow's hair. The support of 
the espalier served for a roosting 
place and a point to hawk from, and it 
was pleasant to observe them flying 
to and fro. The sitting birds were 
very tame and in both cases allowed 
me to stand within a yard without 
leaving the nest. The pear-tree at 
Kirby-Moorside has a nest in it 
nearly every 3'ear, but I have not 
been able to find one here since 
1862, though I have carefully looked 
for one. — J. Kanson, York. 

Late Nesting of the Yellowhammer 
{Emberiza citrinella, Linn.) — The 
Yellowhammer, or " Goldy," as the 
Yorkshire boys call tliem, rear two 
or thi'ee broods in a year, and the last 
brood is frequently hatched so late 
as September. A few years ago I 
found a nest in a cornfield hedge, 
upon the North Moors, so late as 
the 28th of September. The young 
ones were only just hatched. I 
have frequently found them in 
August, with eggs in. — Jno. Ean- 
soN, York. 

Piebald Blackbird. — A beautiful 
variety of the Blackbird (Twdus 



OBSERVATIONS. 



77 



merula) was shot at Cookliam, Berks, 
a few weeks ago. It was rather 
above the ordinary size, and had a 
beautiful ring of white feathers 
going completely round its neck. 
At the base of the bill it had some 
more wliite feathers, which con- 
trasted remarkably with its orange 
beak and jet black feathers. This 
one is a fine male bird, whereas all 
the others which have come under 
my notice have been female. A few 
years ago there was a very fine bird 
shot at the same place, but this was 
a female also. This bird was pre- 
served by J. Ford, Junr., of Cook- 
ham, and is at present in my pos- 
session. — R. B. S. 

Occurrence of the Snow Bunting at 
Halifax. — I have just added to my 
collection a fine pair of Snow Bunt- 
ings [Emberiza nivalit;, Linn.) which 
were shot on the High Road Well 
Moor, near Halifax, in the month 
of March last. — J. Gibson, Washer 
Lane, Halifax. 

Singular case of a Cock cherishing 
feelings of Bevenge. — About twelve 
months ago a farmer residing in the 
neighbourhood of Bingham, Notts, 
pulled some feathers from the tail 
of an ordinary farm-yard cock. The 
bird after this seemed to entertain 
a feeling of bitter animosity towards 
him ; a feeling that was not dimin- 
ished by any acts of kindness on his 
part. On the 1st of April last the 
farmer was engaged in foddering a 



cow in an outhouse, having concluded 
which, he moved towards the door 
which he had barely reached when 
the bird, having previously secreted 
itself on a beam overhead, flew down 
upon the farmer and struck its spur 
violently into his cheek, just below 
the eye. The pain experienced was 
much increased by the fact that the 
bird had struck so deep as to be 
unable to extricate itself, and as it 
was fluttering about the whole time 
it may be imagined what the pain 
must have been ; at last, however, 
the spur was extricated and the bird 
killed. That the bird should have 
cherished feelings of animosity for 
so long a time, and in spite of any 
conciliatory advances made, is surely 
remarkable ; that it was prompted 
by reason and memory there cnn be 
little doubt, as, had it been instinct, 
the bird would shortly have forgot- 
ten the circumstance. It had also 
made numerous attempts at retalia- 
tion during the whole period, and 
refused its food from the hands of 
the farmer, standing aside from the 
chickens during feeding time while 
he was present. — Henry Gamble, 
8, Shawfield-Street, Chelsea, S.W., 
June 4. 

The Robin.— On the 28th of April, 
I found the nest of a Robin built in a 
heap of dead potato tops. As it was 
necessary to remove this heap in 
order to dig the ground, I took the 
nest, which contained five eggs in 



78 



THJ2 NATUEAUST. 



course of incubation, and placed it 
carelessly at the foot of a plum tree. 
To my surprise the bird returned 
and continued silting. Feeling in- 
terested in the result, I surrounded 
the nest with a few of the dead tops, 
in the hope of screening it from the 
sight of egg-devouring or carnivo- 
rous enemies. In the course of 
about a week young were hatched, 
but, I am very sorry to say, they 
fell a prey to thnt wily and indefati- 
gable, diurnal and nocturnal prow- 
ler, the half-fed cat. — Geo. Roberts, 
Lofthouse, Wakefield. 



Stauropus Fagi. — While searching 
for examples of Cidaria silaceata in 
Drayton Wood, near Aylesbury, 
yesterday, I was so fortunate as to 
find a fine male Stauropus Fagi at rest 
on a small fir-tree ; it looked as fresh 
as if ithad justemergedfiom its pupa 
case. I may also mention that 1 took 
a female specimen of Notodonta 
cucullina last May in the same lo- 
cality. — W. E. Parsons, New-road, 
Aylesbury, Bucks, June 13th, 18G4. 



Note on the Number of Eggg 

DEPOSITED BY THE GhOST MoTII 

(Hepialus humidi), with eem.auks 
UPON OUR Friends and its Enemies. 
— April 27th, picked up a larva 
of H. humuli in my garden, feeding 
upon grass root; it changed to 
pupa April 29th, and appeared as 
a beautiful variety of H. humuli 



June 5th, having remained in pupa 
thirty-seven days ; on piercing it with 
a pin it commenced to deposit its 
eggs, and in seven minutes deposited 
four hundred and thirty-eight. I 
removed it into another box to en- 
able me to count those already laid, 
which seemed to cause it to to cease 
laying ; on looking at it shortly af- 
terwards it had commenced again, 
and though it did not lay as quickly 
as it had done befoie, it continued 
dropping an egg regularly until it 
eventually made up the veiy great 
number of eggs laid to eight 
hundred and sixty-eight. As this 
insect feeds principally on cypera- 
ceous roots, and is an abundant 
insect everywhere, destroying the 
roots of the plants it feeds upon, 
the amount of mischief it does is 
very great; but what might it not do 
if it were not kept in check by birds 
and animals. To the Starling (Stur- 
ims imlgaris) we are indebted for the 
most effectual check we have upon 
the increase of this insect ; they are 
ever boring into the ground for this 
and other injurious larvoe, and es- 
pecially so during April and May, 
when they have eggs or young; con- 
suming countless numbers of the 
larvae and pupoe. Thus on April 
27th I shot a starling that I might 
count how many larvae it was flying 
to its nest with, and in its mouth 
were four large full fed humuli cater- 
pillars, and as I had counted the 



OBSERVATIONS. 



70 



number of times it returned to its 
nest in thirty minutes to be nine, 
we may assume this bird destroys 
say sixty hirvie per hour for ten hours 
daily, being on a low computation 
the enormous number of six hundred 
larvae per day during the breeding 
season. When the great size of the 
laiva is taken into consideration 
this seems almost incredible. The 
next best friend we have is the Mole, 
(Talpa vulgaris) and of course he is 
the next great enemy H. hiimuUlms. 
This animal, living pnnci])ally upon 
insects, is not slow to *' ply havoc 
and let loose the ' moles ' of war " at 
this larva, for it must prove a dainty 
dish to these little fellows, (whose 
receent food has probably been 
hard wire worms, with a dirty Bot 
now and then, or perhnps the up- 
turning tail of a larva of a Stapha- 
line whose head was poison, as the 
head of the Gurnards, " Trigula cu- 
culiis" and *' Gurnardus" are said to 
be by old fish wives, simply because 
there is naught but bone in or upon 
it). Shortly after, it is hatched ; and 
doubtless its appetite grows with the 
growth of the larva, else with a root 
feeder which against the continuous 
attacks of its rapacious enemies, still 
maintains itself in strong force, how 
should we poor mortals destroy it ; 
and if we could not, it would eventu- 
ally destroy us and our cattle, sim- 
ple as it is. Let us then as entomolo- 
gists raise our voices in favour of the 



bird and the mole, let us shew that 
without them insects would so in- 
crease that we should decrease, that 
the food they feed upon lives upon 
our food, and that in destroying one 
we do but increase the other, to the 
decrease of our requirements ; and 
let us by these little facts prove per- 
sistently our case, until " poisoned 
grain," " Sparrow heads," (paid for) 
and *' Mole catchers " are spoken of 
as things that were; for, as I said in 
a little paper dated 1855, " Moles 
like men remove when food is scarce," 
and shoukl not, nay cannot, be 
driven from where it is plentiful. — 
C. S. Grkgson, Spring Hill, Stanley, 
near Liverpool, June 5th, 18G-1. 



The Yew and its Galls. 
It has been stated by a recent 
writer, who has attained to some 
degree of well-merited popularity, 
that no insect feeds on any part of 
the Yew, excepting its berries ; and 
that furniture made of Yew has the 
recommendation of being entirely 
exempt from the attacks of the in- 
sect community. Recent experience, 
however, has proved that this state- 
ment is not altogether correct. The 
green and tinted bosses, so fre- 
quently covering the yew, and which 
call to mind miniature representa- 
tions of the artichoke, are the work 
of a dipterous insect (Cecidomyia 
Taxi). In June, 1861, 1 succeeded 
in hatching a considerable number 



80 



THE NATURALIST. 



of these gall-gnats. Each boss con- 
tains a single insect, which lives 
through the winter in its nest of 
closely fitting leaves. The economy 
would seem to be as follows. Early 
in June the parent gnat deposits an 
egg in the heart of a young and 
tender yew-bud. This, instead of 
being developed, gradually assumes 
the tuft-like appearance I have de- 
scribed. The egg hatches, and the 
larva thus has its food and shelter 
provided. In this tuft it feeds through 
the autumn and winter. In the 
succeeding spring it enters on the 
pupa stage of its existence, gathering 
intensity of colour as it approaches 
maturity, and in June it comes forth 
a beautiful orange-coloured gnat. 
When Professor Loew, of Posen, 
brought out, in 1850, his elaborate 
monograph on the Cecidomyim, the 
insect was unknown. (" Noch ganz 
ungewiss ist"). I may just remark 
that the gnat presents a tolerable 
appearance, being nearly equal in 
size to the largest of the willow- 
gall gnats. The gulls occur, often 
abundantly, on yew trees near Wood- 
some Hall. — P. Inchbald, Storthes 
Hall, June, 1864. 



Helaxing Colenptera. — Can any of 
the readers of the " Naturalist " 
inform me of any means of relaxing 



Coleoptera, or of keeping them in 
a relaxed state for two or three days 
after killing them. I find that spe- 
cimens killed by immersion in hot 
water become quite stiff in a very 
short time, so that if not set im- 
mediately it is almost impossible to 
do so.— W. H. C. 



€%t\'di\\!^t. 



I have the following Insects in 
good condition, viz. : — N. Lucina, 
A. Selene, T. fimbria, T. janthina, 
M. belgiaria,^upi^ oiP.monaclia, and 
larvae of N. Lucina, and A. Agathina. 
My wants are C. Hyale, C. Edasa, 
E. Cassiope, A. cratcegi, A. Galathea, 
G. cardiii, P. Adonis, L. quercus, A. 
fiexula, and larvae of most of the 
Hawk Moths. — Jno. Benn, Junr., 
Wortley, near Leeds. 

I have larvae of E. lanestris, and 
L. camelina, also a few p>up£e of 
E. lichenea, to exchange for larv£e 
or pujDae of other species. My wants 
are too numerous to mention, but 
applicants must please write before 
sending boxes. — J. Eohner, Upton 
Vale, Torquay. 

D. carpophagu. — I have upwards 
of twenty good specimens of D. 
carpophaga, for which I shall be 
glad to receive offers of exchange. 
I shall also be glad to exchange 
lists with collectors. — J. Gardner, 
1, Victoria Place, Hartlepool. 



BEPORTS Ob' SOCIETIES OBSERVATIONS. 



81 



^i^prts 0f ^atuim. 

Halifax Naturalists' Society. — The 
members of this Society made their 
first Botanical Excursion this sea- 
son, to Salterhebble, on Tuesday, 
June 28th, conducted by Mr. Gib- 
son, V.P. About 170 species of 
plants were gathered, many of them 
rare, including two or three species 
which have not been noticed hitherto 
in this neighbourhood. On their 
return to the meeting room Mr. 
Bates gave an interesting descrip- 
tion of the rarer species, with remarks 
on their varied structure and uses. 
It was resolved that the excursions 
should be continued and that the 
Annalist should be furnished with 
the results, from which a complete 
list, so far as practicable, should be 
published at the end of the year. 

Londo7iSociety of Amateur Botanists. 
— At a meeting held on the 6th inst., 
at No. 197, Piccadilly, the president, 
M. C. Cooke, Esq., in the chair, 
Mr. W. T. Dyer read a paper on 
" Daphne Mezereum," with especial 
reference to its re-discovery at High 
Wycombe, Bucks, a locality for this 
rare plant which is not given in any 
of the British Floras. Mr. Harland 
Coultas then read an interesting pa- 
per on " The Philosophy of Leaves," 
illustrated with original drawings, 
in which he demonstrated that leaves 
in general have a tendency to pro- 

No. 6, July 15. 



duce leaflets, and that a lobed leaf 
was but a leaf endeavouring so to 
do. This theory he termed *' leaflet- 
genesis ;" it is illustrated in the case 
Rubus discolor, &g. Specimens of 
lianunculus ophioglossifolius, and 
other Jersey plants, were then pre- 
sented to the Society by one of the 
members. An excursion to the rail- 
way cuttings at New Cross, Surrey, 
was arranged for Saturday, the 9th 
inst. 



Unio margariiiferus. — As remarked 
by your querist, Mr. Parke, nearly 
all the Isle of Man hand-books in- 
form us that Uiiio margariiiferus is 
found in the Dhoo, or Black Eiver, 
near Kirk Braddan, and that it was 
formerly much sought after on ac- 
count of the valuable pearls it 
sometimes contained. Acting upon 
this information I have, on more 
than one occasion, searched very 
diligently for this shell, commencing 
at Kirk Braddan and following up 
the course of the river past Union 
Mills and nearly to its source, but 
without finding a single specimen. 
The country people assured me that 
they used to be found by hundreds ; 
that pearls had been obtained from 
them which sold for as much as a 
guinea each; that they still occurred 
G 



THE NATURALIST. 



in the river, though somewhat 
sparingly ; and that very few now 
contained pearls. To remove all 
doubt as to their existence several 
half shells were shown to me. These 
are turned to a useful account by the 
thrifty Manx housewives who use 
them for scoops, and for scraping out 
the nutritious morsels of the porridge 
pot. In the course of my enquiries, 
I met with an old gentleman who not 
only gave me some curious facts as 
to the habits of this Unio, but also 
procured me some fine living speci- 
mens, one of which contained a small 
but not very brilliant pearl. This 
was Mr. Gates, of Kirk Braddan, 
through whose farm the Dhoo runs. 
He is a good specimen of an honest 
warm-hearted Manx fai'mer, and I 
trust caught no cold in catching me 
*' black-mussels." Unio margaritiferus 
loves to lurk in the shallow and 
quick-running parts of the river, 
amongst the gravel and small stones, 
and as the shell generally burrows 
in a somewhat oblique position only 
a small portion of it is visible, and 
this being black and not unfre- 
quently covered with a little moss, 
requires a well practised eye to 
detect it amongst the surrounding 
stones, for one of which it may be 
easily mistaken. It seems very sus- 
ceptible to the action of light, for 
under the full blaze of a bright mid- 
day sun it emerges more out of the 
gravel and protruding a portion of 



its body through the partly opened 
valves of the shell is the more readily 
distinguished. If the sun becomes 
overcast or the water above the 
shell be muddy it immediately 
closes, and, to a person not well 
conversant with it, is then very 
difficult to find. The country 
lads generally select a bright noon- 
day to look for them, and take them 
either by wading, or by thrusting the 
end of a long slender rod into the 
half open shell, which instantly 
closes upon it and it is then dragged 
to land. I shall probably be visiting 
the Isle of Man again in September, 
and hope a few more specimens will 
be ready for me, which I shall 
have much pleasure in distributing 
amongst such Conchologists as may 
want them. I may observe that I 
found about fifty specimens of Pwpa 
umbilicata congregated in a single 
tuft of grass growing upon one of the 
"rope-stones" of a barn at Balla- 
doole, near Castletown ; and that 
from another small tuft of coarse 
grass growing upon the toj) of a dry 
wall near Kentraugh, I procured 
twenty specimens oi Helix umhilicata. 
Baleafragilis was tolerably abundant 
under the top stones of a shaded wall 
between Douglas and Kirk Onchan ; 
near the latter place I found a 
singularly contorted specimen of 
Helix nemoralis. — John Dixon, 
General Infirmary, Leeds. 



OBSERVATIONS. 



83 



The Eoses and their Galls. 

Three or lour roses occur in this 
immediate neighbourhood. They 
are Rosa canina, R. mvensis, and R. 
villosa. Another si^ecies is common 
to the sandy sea-shore, as also to 
mountains, this is Rosa spinosissima. 
The galls of which I have to speak 
chiefly a&ect R.canina and R. spinosis- 
sima. Every one must have noticed 
those tufted moss-like productions 
on our hedge rose, known by the 
name of bedeguars. These beautiful 
jDroductions may be found late in 
the summer and in autumn, when 
the leaves begin to change ; they too 
assume intensity of colour, being 
prettily tinted with red and green, 
and becoming at this season of the 
year a great ornament to our hedge- 
rows. They serve as a nidus through 
the winter and spring for a whole 
colony of gall-flies, of the order 
Hymenoptera, scientifically known 
by the name of Cynips Rosce. 

The economy is this : — The parent 
fly, which is blackish brown with the 
abdomen ferruginous and strongly 
arched, pierces the young shoots of 
the rose, laying her eggs within the 
shoot. The juices of the part 
pierced become languid, and these 
singular growths supervene ; and as 
it is the natural tendency of the 
rose to clothe itself with prickles, so 
we find the galls thickly covered over 
with fibrous bristles. Each bede<T:uar 



contains many separate cells, and 
each cell gives exit to a single 
tenant, and it is really surprising 
with what rapidity the gall-fly eats 
its way through the hard little hol- 
low globe that keeps it a close 
prisoner till it assumes the imago 
state of existence. On removing the 
bristles from the bedeguar, the small 
circular openings through which the 
gall-flies have made their exit are 
readily seen. 

Visitors to the sea-side, in the 
summer, can hardly fail to have 
noticed the little red balls that beset 
the prickly Burnet rose. Hardly 
any part of the plant seems free ; the 
calyx itself is made to assume 
unsightly proportions, while the 
stem and leaf-stalks offer a series 
of ruddy wens of varied size and 
form. These are the work of a tiny 
gall-fly (Cynips Roses sjnnosissimcej. 
Each wen is tenanted by a single 
Cynips, which finds therein its 
nutriment and shelter till it puts on 
wings and leaves its singular home. 

The galls are smooth, thus difler- 
ing from those of the hedge-rose. 
This circumstance, I may remark, 
is the more strange, when we con- 
sider how much more spiny is the 
stem of the Burnet rose, as compared 
with our friend of the green lanes 
and hedges. The insect differs from 
the Cynips Rosm both in size and 
colouring. — P. Inchbald, Storthes 
Hall, June 24th, 1864. 



84 



THE NATURALIST. 



A Few Plants observed near 
Barnetbt-le-Wold and Caistor, 
Lincolnshire, 
Chiefly in August, 1862. 

By James Britten. 



Anemone apennina. Near tlie mau- 
soleum, in Brocklesby Park, near 
Caistor ; plentiful. 

Chelidonium majus. Hedges at 
Searby, near Barnetby. 

Corydalls solida with Anemone apen- 
nina : also at Hundon, near Caistor. 

Drosera rotundifolia- At Wrawby 
Moor, near Barnetby. 

Sagina nodosa. Damp ground by 
the railway, at Barnetby. 

Malva moschata. The white variety 
occurred in a wood near Barnetby. 

Oxalis stricta. Wall and garden 
paths at Hundon. 

Trifolium arvense. Nettleton moor 
and the Sandbraes near Caistor ; 
very abundant. 

Spircea Filipendula. Brocklesby 
Park and Hendale Woods, near 
Caistor. 

S. salicifolia. Hendale Woods ; 
probably planted. 

Geum rivale. Woods about Barn- 
etby. 

Ejnlohium angustifolmm. Hendale 
Woods ; in great abundance. 

Conium macidatum. About Caistor. 

Arnoseris j)usilla. Wrawby Moor. 

Gentiana Pneumonanthe. Wrawby 
Moor; also on Nettleton Moor, 
near Caistor, as recorded by John- 
son in Ger. Emac. 



Menyanthes trifoliata. Wrawby 
Moor. 

Linaria minor. On the railway at 
Barnetby. 

Galeopsis versicolor. Cornfields, 
Barnetby. 

Pinguicula vulgaris and Samolus 
Valerandi. Damp ground near the 
railway, at Barnetby. 

A nacliarisA Isinastrum. Large ponds 
near the Barnetby Station; flowering 
profusely, August, 1862. 

Alisma ranunculoides. Small pool 
by the Barnetby Station. 

Sagittaria sagittafoUa. Ditches 
about Barnetby. 



To the Editor of the Naturalist. 
Sir, — I saw with regret in a county 
paper {Stamford Mercury), of yester- 
day, that three of those fine birds, 
the wild swan, had been lately shot 
at Winthorpe - in - the - Marsh. It 
seems they alighted in a field, and 
being disturbed, flew up, and de- 
scending at no great distance, joined 
a flock of tame geese, out of which 
they were shot by a Mr. Whaler, of 
Winthorpe. This is another instance 
of the welcome accorded to many 
rare and curious birds, which, might 
very probably, if undisturbed, breed 
and remain with us in the summer 
months, if not all the year. 
I am, with sincere regret, 

Faithfully yours, 
18th June, 1864. Amicus. 



85 



THE KEY. GILBERT WHITE'S THREE WILLOW WRENS. 



By John Ranson. . 



In that delightful, gossiping book, *• The -Natural History of Sel- 
borne," in a letter (No. 16) to Thomas Pennant, Esq., the Rev. Gilbert 
White first mentions his discovery of three species of the Willow Wren, 
as follows : — ** I make no doubt but there are three species of the Willow 
Wrens ; two I know perfectly, but have not been able yet to procure the 
third. No two birds can differ more in their notes, and that constantly, 
than those two that I am acquainted with ; for the one has a joyous, easy, 
laughing note, the other a harsh loud chirp. The former is everyway 
larger, and three quarters of an inch longer, and weighs two drams and a 
half, while the latter weighs but two ; so that the songster is one-fifth 
heavier than the chirper. The chirper being the first summer bird of 
passage that is heard (the wryneck sometimes excepted) begins his two notes 
in the middle of March, and continues them through the spring and 
summer till the end of August, as appears by my journals. The legs of 
the larger of these two are flesh-coloured ; of the less black." In letter 
10, he writes " Mr. Derham supposes, in ' Ray's Philosophical Letters,' 
that he has discovered three. In these there is again an instance of some 
very common birds that have as yet no English names." The three birds 
here mentioned are Sylvia sibilatrix, Sylvia trochilus, and Sylvia hippolais, 
and the dates of the letters are 1768. This gives us an insight into the 
state of English Natural History one hundred years ago; when birds 
differing so much from one another in habits, song, nesting, and other 
peculiarities, had no English name, and had not been clearly distinguished 
by the learned as three species. 

The Wood Ween (Sylvia sibilatrix J This little bird is aboat the 
earliest of our summer visitors, and, as White has well observed, the 
male may be heard as early as the middle of March, and continues to 
pipe his little song until his departure in August. The song is a very 
poor one indeed, consisting of two or three notes, and it by no means 
entitles him to the appellation of the wood warbler which some writers 
give him. The male birds are said, and I believe truly, to arrive some days 



86 THE NATURALIST. 

before the females. In this neighbourhood, (York,) but more particularly 
in the neighbourhood of Kirby-Moorside, Yorkshire, they are common, and 
add very much to the pleasure of a walk by their pleasant chirp, (for this 
bird is White's chirper) and the mode in which they fly into the hedges and 
bank sides. The motions of birds are, to the eyes of the true lover of 
nature, as grateful as their songs are to his ears. The nest is a domed 
one, and is°built on the ground amongst grass. I found one this season 
when fishing in the Hyle ; it was on the crown of the bank, and close 
under the largest branch of a fallen willow. The materials are grass, 
bents, moss, and occasionally leaves, and the lining is hair. The eggs, 
which are six in number, are white, spotted and speckled with plum-red. 
This little bird is sometimes called the Yellow Wren, and is frequently 
confounded with the Willow Wren by careless observers ; why it should 
be called either the wood warbler or wood wren I could never understand ; 
because it is not, here at least, a wood bird. I have found scores of nests, 
and have most frequently found them on bank sides ; and they seem to 
me to prefer the neighbourhood of willows, the dead leaves of which 
frequently enter into the composition of their nests. They are very tame, 
and when they visit my garden in quest of currants, or to enjoy a sly 
nibble at my cherries, they will hop on to the branches and peck away 
within a yard of me, and I have known them sit on their eggs until they 
were lifted off. I should as soon think of killing a Robin as either a 
Wood Wren or a Yellow Wren, and never could find in my heart to deny 
to these innocent and loving birds a bunch of currants or a cherry. 

The Willow Wren (Sylvia trocliilus.) This is a very lively bird, 
and is known by a great variety of names to rustic naturalists. About 
Kirby-Moorside it is called " Mealy Mouth ; " it is known in other parts 
of Yorkshire as the " Hay-bird," and is also called the " Ground Wren," 
'' Meadow Wren," " Yellow Wren," and " Scotch Wren." It is a much 
better known bird than the Wood Wren, and the nest is much oftener 
found, being generally placed in tufts in cow pastures. During hay 
harvest the nests are frequently found in meadows and by bank sides. 
The old ones and the young of the first brood may be seen hunting for 
insects upon the newly mown grass; at such times it is in incessant 
motion, catching insects on the wing. It is an early visitor to this 
country, generally appearing in April, when its song may be heard in the 
fields and its favourite haunts. The song of tlie Willow Wren is very 
pleasant, and has been pronounced by competent judges to be '* soft and 



RANSON ON white's THREE WILLOW WRENS. 87 

pleasant." The nest is like that of the Wood Wren, with the exception 
of being lined with feathers instead of hair, and the eggs, six or seven in 
number, are white, with spots of reddish brown, numerous at the thick 
end. The Willow Wren always lines her nest with feathers, and the 
Wood Wren with horse-hair, and sometimes horse-hair and soft grass, but 
never with feathers. The lining will always point out to which bird the 
nest belongs, and saves much trouble to the Oologist. Unlike the Wood 
Wren, the Willow Wren is very uneasy at the aj^proach of any one to her 
nest, particularly if it contains young ones, and thus she often betrays her 
secret by her over anxiety. 

The Chiffchaff, (Sylvia hipjwlais,) was called by White the Least 
Willow Wren, and is known to "the many" by the name of *'Pettychaps." 
In March the Chiffchaff makes its appearance in our gardens, and from 
then to its departure in August its monotonous song consisting of the two 
syllables chiff-chaff is continually heard. I have ahvays been much 
pleased with this industrious little bird, and have frequently watched it 
hawking for flies. Standing on an espalier it darts upon its prey as it 
flies by, and then returns to its perch. Very kind and attentive is the 
male bird to his mate when she is sat on her eggs, often feeding her with 
flies, and treating her with a specimen of his vocal powers, doubtlessly 
more pleasing to her than the song of the Nightingale would be. The 
nest is generally placed on or very near the ground in a low bush, or in a 
thick tuft of grass, and very often among the coarse herbage on a bank 
side. It is oval shaped, with a round hole near the top ; it is made of 
coarse grass, intermixed on the outside with dead leaves, and profusely 
lined with feathers. The eggs are generally six in number, and are not 
unlike the eggs of the Willow and Wood Wren, being speckled with dark 
purplish-red. In fact the eggs of the three Willow Wrens are very 
much alike, and it would be difficult to distinguish them in the ab- 
sence of the nest. The Chiff chaff is very fond of cherries and currants, 
and does, at times, considerable damage in gardens where these fruits are 
much grown. The presence of an old cherry-tree in a garden gives the 
naturalist a favourable opportunity of studying the habits of some of our 
summer visitants. The Willow Wrens chiefly feed on insects and 
caterpillars, and earn, a thousand-fold, their right to a few currants or 
cherries. 



88 THE NATURALIST. 

NOTES ON THE AZUKE-WINGED MAGPIE (Pica cyanea), &c. 



By G. F. Mathews, Esq., R.N., F.L.S. 



('Concluded from jpage 71. J 

Sylvia melanocephala , Lath. These lively and interesting little birds 
were exceedingly numerous all around Lisbon, haunting gardens and dry 
hedges in preference to low marshy situations, or thick woods ; and might 
generally be seen flitting from bush to bush in search of food, at the same 
time uttering a soft call-note, which, on the approach of anyone, would be 
changed to a harsh grating sound, something similar to that made use of 
by our common whitethroat when its nest or its young are endangered by the 
presence of a suspected enemy. The males appeared greatly to predomi- 
nate, and among other habits, delighted in flying from the summit of a 
bush into the air some thirty feet high, w^here, fluttering for a few moments 
with seeming difliculty, they would pour forth a short and not unpleasing 
song, descending at its conclusion into the depths of the hedge as if 
ashamed of their performance. 

Sylvia provincialis, Bl. and Ks. (Dartford Warbler). I observed but a 
pair of these birds, one of which I shot, on a large open piece of country 
near Almada. They were flying about some heath and broom bushes and 
I at once recognized them. 

Sylvia cisticola, Lin. This beautiful and minute species was common 
in every marsh, always on the move, flitting from one clump of rushes to 
another in quest of food, sometimes varying their operations by flying into 
the air in chase of small insects, snapping at them and making a noise 
with their beaks after the manner of our Spotted Flycatcher. They were 
evidently of a very fearless disposition, as they allowed one to approach them 
within a few yards as they sat swinging to and fro on a single rush. 

Of our British species of Syhiadcc I noticed locmtella, Phragmitis, 
atricapilla, cinerea, sihllatrix, trochilus, and riifa, the three latter being by 
far the most abundant. Many of these were doubtless awaiting the 
arrival of spring to migrate northward, and enliven with their sweet 
melodious warblings the shady lanes and green woods of old England. 

Alauda calandra, Lin. This magniflcent Lark was tolerably common 
in some localities near Lisbon, haunting especially the semi-uncultivated 
country in the neighbourhood of Villa Franca and Rcguengo, feeding to- 
gether with our common A. arvensis, but at once to be distinguished from 



MATHEWS ON THE AZURE-WINGED MAGPIE, ETC. 80 

tliat species by its large size, stout appearance, short tail, and clumsy 
beak, and besides which its call-note is loud and harsh, and somewhat 
resembles that of our common Bunting. The males when singing attain 
to a great height, and their habits when so employed are strikingly dis- 
similar from that of A. arvensis, their wings not being moved with that 
incessant vibration which so characterizes that species ; when rising they 
seem as it were to soar with less effort and with a certain graceful undu- 
lating motion, and also describe much larger circles. Their song, heard 
at a distance, is exceedingly soft and beautiful, but when near it is piercing 
and unpleasant. This appears to be one of the favourite cage birds of the 
Portuguese, as in some of the streets of Lisbon one might see them hanging 
(generally in cages much too small for the size of the bird) outside every 
house, and frequently the poor captives would take it into their heads to 
sing against each other with all their strength, and on such occasions it 
was anything but agreeable to be in the street. These birds are excellent 
eating. 

Alaucla cristata, Lin. This bird was not rare, but I never observed it 
flocking together with any other species ; they were invariably to be seen 
in pairs frequenting dry roads and paths, sometimes in the most public 
places, where they were very fond of dusting themselves and preening their 
feathers. 

Emheriza cia, Lin. This species was not uncommon in low marshy 
localities in the vicinity of Coina, Almada, &c., and I also occasionally 
met with it in gardens feeding in company with E. clrlus, Fringilla seriniis, 
&c. It appears to delight in sitting on the top of a dead reed or low bush, 
where it would remain for a considerable time singing its monotonous 
song, and when so engaged would allow one to approach within a short 
distance of it. 

Fringilla serinus, Lin. This elegant little species was very numerous 
everywhere in the neighbourhood of Lisbon, and sometimes I observed 
them in large flocks assembled in fields where there was an abundance of 
short dry grass, upon the ripe seeds of which they fed. On one occasion 
I fired at a flock with a small walking-stick gun (which, when going for a 
ramble in the country, I generally took with me for the purpose of secu- 
ring specimens) and shot five individuals, upon one of which I was much 
surprised to discover two large parasites about the size of an ordinary 
dog-tick. These creatures were situated at the back of the bird's head in 
a spot quite impossible to be reached, and must have caused intolerable 



90 THE NATURALIST. 

annoyance ; indeed it is wonderful how the little bird could have lived with 
two such monsters continually draining its system. 

Fringilla citrinella, Lin. This bird was not so common as the pre- 
ceding, but still by no means rare, frequenting gardens, where it seemed 
to be very fond of selecting some old lichen-covered olive tree, in which 
it would repeat over and over again its simi^le song. 

Hirimdo rupestris, Scop. This very distinct species I observed several 
times in large flocks flying above the swampy valleys near Coina and 
Moita, and succeeded in securing several examples. During clear fine 
weather they kept very high, but on the approach of rain descended, 
and I then very often noticed them skimming over the surface of the 
water, every now and then dipping in, more for the purpose of securing a 
fly which might be floating on the stream than for the pleasure of a bath. 
In October and November, 1862, 1 recollect seeing them in great profusion 
flying about the rock of Gibraltar. 

Hirundo rustica, Lin. Many individuals of this species made their 
appearance about the middle of February in the same localities as the 
preceding, and most probably as the season advanced proceeded on their" 
journey northward. This bird, as well as Cypsehts apus, Illig., was 
frequent at Madeira, in December, 1863, flying over the town of Funchal. 



NOTES ON THE NATUEAL HISTOEY OF BAEBAEY. 



By F. Brittain, Esq. 



Tangiers, 28th May, 1864. 

Dear Sir, — I have now the pleasure of sending you a list of the rare 
Birds and Coleoptera that are found in the North of Barbary, as far as I 
have been able to ascertain them. I could give you very little information 
respecting the Lepidoptera and Diptera, and therefore postpone writing 
about them till another time. As from a bare list of i^lants, birds, and 
insects you would be able to form but a poor idea of this charming country, 
I shall give you a short account of one of my rambles in the neighbour- 
hood of Tangiers. 

On a delightful sunny morning in the end of May, I left Tangiers 
with Hamet, the Moorish guide, intending to follow no beaten track, but 
go where the country was the most inviting, and the vegetation the most 
luxuriant. We passed over a hilly sandy country which offered few attrac- 



BEITTAIN ON THE NATURAL HISTORY OL BARI3ARY. 91 

tions, until we reached some pretty orchards and vineyards. Here nature 
was all activity, every tree and bush was alive with insects ; butterflies of 
the gaudiest colors were flitting from tree to tree, and from sweet-peas, 
roses, and honeysuckles bees were busily extracting honey ; sometimes a 
heavy beetle buzzed lazily past us, and the grasshoppers kept up their 
peculiar whirring sound without intermission. Behind the hills that shut 
out from us the sea-breeze the rays of the sun were very powerful, and I 
was glad when we reached a shady lane and found a refuge from the scorch- 
ing heat. For nearly a mile we now followed a very narrow path that led 
through groves of orange, fig, and pomegranate trees. The vegetation as 
we passed along was constantly changing, sometimes on each side a hedge 
of canes rose to the height of nearly twenty feet, meeting in an arch 
over our heads ; and then we passed hedges of willows and brambles 
intermixed with the fantastic limbs of the Barbary fig, round which 
were twining Convolvuhts sepiiim, and purpurea, and Lathyrus odoratus, 
covered with their beautiful flowers ; from these we passed to rose 
trees, vines, acacias, and occasionally pomegranate trees, spangled with 
their brilliant scarlet blossom. Innumerable climbing plants crept up the 
stems of the trees and hung their flowers from the arch above, the gayest 
and the most abundant of all being the Indian Nastursium, so common in 
our own gardens. After we had proceeded a few hundred yards the foliage 
became so dense that the rays of the sun could not penetrate it. It was 
impossible to go farther without sinking over the ankles in mud at every 
step. Hamet took off his shoes, and I mounted on his shoulders and was 
carried by him two or three hundred yards. I think these dark places 
were the most beautiful, but not liking the mode of travelling I was glad 
to reach dry ground. In the exposed places where the foliage was scanty 
we frequently disturbed long curiously marked snakes that were warming 
themselves in the sun. I got close to one, more than two yards long before 
I saw it. They are extremely abundant in Barbary, and two or three 
species are very venomous. Lizards of all colours and sizes were darting 
about among the aloe leaves, but at our approach they soon disappeared. 

You will easily imagine what a delightful chorus the birds kept up 
all day. The North of Barbary is like a great caravansary, whence many 
of our summer visitors take their departure for our shores, and where they 
arrive upon their return in autumn. The number of birds is very great, 
and these thick groves of fruit trees afford them a retreat where they can 
pour forth their delightful songs in undisturbed security. The first to 



gg THE NATURALIST. 

announce the approach of day, before the sun's first rays have shot from the 
East— the nightingale, (Sylvia lusciniaj—oi^eiis the chorus, and long after 
the sun has set, when all other voices are hushed and the silent night 
seems listening to his song, he is singing all the other birds to sleep. 

After leaving the shady lanes we entered the open country and fol- 
lowed the banks of a stream, over which bright scarlet, blue, and green 
dragon-flies were darting in every direction. The stream abounded with 
land tortoises, many of which were more than a foot long. I noticed great 
numbers of that interesting beetle, Ateuchus laticollis. It is very amusing 
to observe its manoeuvres, I saw one bury the ball of dung and dirt con- 
taining its eg^, after it had sought some time for a suitable place. When it 
had disappeared beneath the sand I put a very large specimen of the same 
species close to the place where it was busy underground. The large one 
held its head on one side in an attitude of great attention, made some 
sharp movements, and then began digging. It soon reached the other 
beetle and a battle ensued, the one that had been disturbed rose to the 
surface, and putting its head under the body of the. intruder threw it over 
its back to the distance of several inches. The other nothing daunted 
returned to the charge and they closed for a regular battle. There was a 
deadly struggle for some time, during which their legs rattled and bent 
and they rolled over each other time after time. At last the legitimate 
owner of the e%^ was forced to give up the unequal contest and take to flight. 
During our walk I noticed a long procession of large black ants, each 
of which was carrying a grain of a small species of barley, I followed the 
track of the ants to a patch of barley, but could see none of them at work. 
At last in a place where the grain was the ripest I found every ear covered 
with them ; it was very interesting to watch their curious way of reaping ; 
they pulled the grains out of the ear by main force, shaking them from 
side to side to loosen them. A number of these industrious little creatures 
would soon clear a field. 



[The above interesting sketch is extracted from a letter to the Editors, and 
will shortly be followed by a similar one of a day's excursion in the 
neighbourhood of Cape Spartel, and also with lists of the Birds, 
Coleoptera, and Plants of the Northern portion of Barbary. Eds. Nat.] 



93 

BEVIEW OF THE BRITISH ROSES, 
ESPECIALLY THOSE OF THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



By J. G. Baker, Esq., of Thirsk. 



Part IV.— CANINE. 

Robust bushes with more or less conspicuously arching main stems 
and diffuse branches. Prickles uniform, robust below and narrowed 
gradually from the base to the point. Leaves simply or doubly serrated, 
glabrous or slightly hairy above, glabrous or somewhat hairy beneath, 
but never more than slightly glandular. Sepals reflexed or erecto-patent 
on the fruit, deciduous or sub-persistent, usually glabrous, but sometimes 
glandular on the back. Peduncles usually naked, occasionally aciculate 
and setose. Styles free, varying from almost glabrous to densely villose. 

XI. — R. Canina. Linn. The plants included here differ from one 
another widely, if we take the extremes, in many points of importance, 
especially in the shape, toothing and clothing of the leaves and stipules, 
the texture and time of ripening of the fruit, and the direction and 
duration of the sepals ; but in spite of this, each of them^ is always 
connected with the one that is nearest to it very closely. We have here 
an excellent illustration of what one school of botanists considers to be a 
single variable species, and what another school considers to be a large 
group of closely allied species. As furnishing an illustration bearing 
instructively upon the question of the nature of species, I have taken 
considerably more pains with the English Caninse, than I should other- 
wise have done. The following are as good descriptions as I am in a 
position to furnish of the English Dog-roses which have come under my 
notice, and I would ask the particular attention of my readers to the two 
points to which allusion has just been made, how widely the extremes 
differ, but how gradual is the transition between them, by intermediate 
stages of gradation. With the kind aid of M. Deseglise, to whom I am 
indebted for excellent specimens of nearly all the Canince described in his 
Monograph, I have identified as far as I can our plants with those of the 
Continent, with what result will appear from the list. Nearly all the 
forms have arched stems from six to ten or even twelve feet in height, 
plentifully furnished with lithe greenish ascending branches. The prickles 
are uniform and either falcate or uncinate, their base from three-eighths to 
half an inch deep, the prickle curving gradually from this to the point, 



94 THK NATURALIST. 

and consequently the lower part more robust than in any of the previous 
groups, The flowers are from one and a half to two inches across, gener- 
ally pale pink, and the measurement of the leaf and leaflets about the same 
as in R. molUssima and tomentosa. 

Subsection I. eu-canin^. Leaves not glandular beneath, peduncles 
naked or very nearly so, fruit stone-hard when green, not ripening till 
October or the latter part of September, the sepals reflexed after the petals 
fall, and deciduous before the fruit changes colour. 

(A) Ijeaves g-lalbroixs on both, sides. 

1. jR. lutetiana, Leman. R. canina, Boreau and Deseglise. Leaves full 
green or somewhat glaucous green, not flat, firm in texture, glabrous on 
both sides, the terminal leaflet ovate, narrowed or somewhat rounded at 
the base, the serratures numerous, simple, sharp, and connivent, the 
petioles naked or nearly so, but furnished with three or four hooked aciculi. 
Stipules and bracts naked on the back, not at all or only the auricles 
setoso-ciliated. Peduncles naked. Calyx tube and fruit varying from 
ovate-urceolate to subglobose, the sepals leaf-pointed, and fully pinnate, 
naked or slightly hairy on the back towards the edge, hardly setoso- 
ciliated. Sepals reflexed after the petals fall, the fruit ripening in October 
or late in September, before which the sepals fall. Styles slightly hairy. 

3. R. dumalis, Bechst. R. canina, Leman. R. sarmentacea, JVoods. 
B. glaucophylla, Winch. Habit of growth and prickles of the normal plant. 
Leaves full green or glaucous green, not flat, firm in texture, glabrous on 
both sides, the terminal leaflet ovate, narrowed or somewhat rounded at 
the base, the serratures neither so numerous nor so close as in the preced- 
ing, each or several furnished with from one to three gland-tipped teeth, 
the petioles more or less setose, but not hairy or only very slightly so, but 
furnished with three or four hooked aciculi. Stipules and bracts naked on 
the back, but closely setoso-ciliated. Peduncles naked. Calyx tube and 
fruit varying from ovate-urceolate to subglobose, the sepals leaf-pointed 
and fully pinnate, naked or slightly hairy on the back towards the edge, 
more or less densely setoso-ciliated. Fruit as in the preceding. Styles 
hairy, sometimes a little protruded. Very common. 

(33) Leaves g-labroTis above, liairy on tlie veins beneath.. 

3. JR. urhica, Leman. R. colUna, /3 Woods. R. Forsteri, E. B. S. 
Habit of growth and prickles of the normal plant. Leaves full green or 
glaucous green, not flat, firm in texture, glabrous above, liairy on the ribs 



BAKER ON BRITISH ROSES. 95 

beneath, the terminal leaflet ovate, narrowed or somewhat rounded at the 
base, the serratures numerous, sharp, simple, and connivent, the petioles 
villose, but only slightly setose, furnished with three or four hooked aciculi. 
Stipules and bracts slightly hairy on the back, a little setoso-ciliated. 
Peduncles naked. Calyx tube and fruit broadly elliptical or subglobose, 
the sepals leaf-pointed and fully pinnate, hairy on the back towards the 
edges, slightly setoso-ciliated. Fruit as in the preceding. Styles hairy. 
This and the two preceding appear to be much the commonest British 
CanincR, and to be quite identical in the nature of the fruit and duration 
of the sepals. A closely allied plant from Naunby bank, and hedges at 
Sowerby, near Thirsk, with slightly double serrations, peduncle a little 
aciculate, sepals not fully reflexed and a little glandular on the back, is 
referred doubtfully by Desegiise to U. platyphylloides, Rlpart. 

4. R. platyphyUa, Ban. Habit of growth and prickles of the nonnal 
plant. Leaves flat, grey-green, glabrous on the upper surface, glaucous 
beneath and hairy upon the ribs, firm in texture, the serrations moderately 
sharp and connivent, somewhat unequal but not truly double, the terminal 
leaflet varying from ovate rounded at the base, to broadly obovate, in fine 
specimens measuring two inches long by an inch and a half broad, the 
petioles densely villose, but hardly setose, furnished with several hooked 
prickles. Stipules and bracts slightly hairy on the back and a little setoso- 
ciliated. Peduncles naked. Calyx tube and fruit broadly ovate or sub- 
globose, the sepals leaf-pointed and fully pinnate, pubescent on the back, 
but hardly at all gland-ciliated, reflexed after the petals fall. Styles villose. 
The ripe fruit I have not seen on British specimens. Giggleswick and 
Settle, West Yorkshire. 

(C) Leaves more or less laairy on botli sides. 

5. Pi, uncinella, Bess. Habit of growth and prickles of the normal 
plant. Leaves flat, grey-green, slightly hairy on the upper surface when 
young, but glabrous when mature, greyer still and hairy all over beneath, 
so that the edge is ciliated, firm in texture, the serrations simple, spread- 
ing and open, as broad as they are deep, callous at the tips, the terminal 
leaflet broadly ovate or obovate, much rounded at the base, the petioles 
villose but hardly at all glandular, furnished usually with two or three 
hooked prickles. Stipules and bracts slightly hairy on the back, dentate 
but hardly at all gland-ciliated. Peduncles naked. Calyx tube and fruit 
large, broadly elliptical or subglobose, the green fruit rather more pliable 
than in the preceding, the sepals reflexed after the petals fall, leaf-pointed 



Q(3 THE NATURALIST. 

and fully pinnate, tomentose and slightly glandular on the back, hardly 
at all setoso-ciliated. Styles villose. Banks of the Yore at Aysgarth 
Force, North West Yorkshire. 

6. E. dumetorum, Thuill. Woods. Habit of growth and prickles of the 
normal plant. Leaves flat, grey-green, thinly hairy all over above when 
young, greyer still and hairy all over beneath, thicker and softer in texture 
than in any of the preceding, the terminal leaflet large, broadly ovate, rounded 
or often cordate at the base, the serrations simple, open, and neither sharp 
nor deep, the petioles villose but hardly at all setose or aciculate, stipules 
and bracts hairy on the back, dentate but hardly at all setoso-ciliated. 
Peduncles naked. Calyx tube and fruit with us usually large ovate- 
urceolate, sometimes subglobose, the green fruit more pliable than in the 
preceding and ripening rather earlier. Sepals fully pinnate and leaf- 
pointed, reflexed after the petals fall, hairy on the back, but hardly at all 
gland-ciliated, deciduous before the fruit ripens, which with us is in the 
latter fortnight of September. Flowers somewhat deeper in colour than 
in the preceding. Fruit in the large ovate-urceolate form, fully an inch 
long. Frequent. This is intermediate in appearance and the character 
of its leaves between R. lutetiana and coriifolla, but as regards the fruit 
ranges best here. 

7. R. 23ndnosa. R. ccBsia, Borrer in Bri. FL in jjjari not E. B. Stems 
less arching and prickles more slender than in the normal plant. Leaves 
flat, glaucous green above, thinly hairy all over when young, glabrous when 
mature, still more glaucous beneath and hairy all over, the terminal leaflet 
broadly ovate, roundish or even cordate at the base, the serrations open 
and furnished with one or two gland-tipped teeth on each side, the petioles 
villose and copiously setose. Stipules and bracts hairy on the back and 
setoso-ciliated. Peduncles naked. Calyx tube and fruit subglobose, re- 
sembling that of the preceding, but the sepals more setoso-ciliated. This 
is Mr. Eobertson's R. casia, but it differs considerably from Mr. Borrer's 
Argyleshire plant which was figured under that name in English Botany, 
and which will be described afterwards. This resembles closely R. dume- 
torum, differing principally by its glaucous doubly-toothed leaves. Mr. 
Robertson's specimens which I have seen were gathered by the bridge 
between Smallwell and Axwell Park, Durham. I have gathered a 
similar plant on Marrick Moor, North West Yorkshire, and a form 
with sepals glandular all over on the back, in thickets by the Swale side, 
near Keld. 



BAKER ON BRITISH ROSES. 97 

8. R. cmiescens. Habit of growth and prickles of the normal plant. 
Leaves grey-green above, tolerably firm in texture, thinly hairy all over 
when young, but hardly so when mature, very grey beneath and thinly 
hairy all over but not at all glandular, the terminal leaflet not more than 
ovate rounded at the base, the serrations open but not deep, furnished 
with two or three accessory gland-tipped teeth on each side, the petioles 
villose but very slightly setose, furnished with two or three hooked aciculi. 
Stipules and bracts hairy on the back and closely setoso-ciliated. Pedun- 
cles naked. Calyx tube broadly ovate, scarcely urceolate. Sepals hairy 
on the back, leaf-pointed and copiously pinnate, closely setoso-ciliated, 
reflexed after the petals fall. Fruit obovate or subglobose, stone hard 
when green, not ripening till October, by which time the sepals have 
fallen. This has a considerable resinous scent, and leaves much resem- 
bling those of tomentosa in combination with the fruit of normal canina. 
M. Deseglise considers it nearer to the former than the latter. Hedges 
near Thirsk, North East Yorkshire. 

Subsection H. SuBciiisTATiE. Leaves not glandular beneath, peduncles 
naked or nearly so, fruit pliable when green, ripening early in September, 
the sepals erecto-patent after the petals fall and usually adhering until 
after the fruit changes colour. 

9. B. Crepiniana, Deseglise. Habit of growth and prickles of the 
normal plant. Leaves somewhat glaucous-green, especially beneath, gla- 
brous on both sides, the serrations large, simple, and forward-pointing, 
the terminal leaflet ovate or elliptical, usually narrowed at the base, the 
petioles prickly, but hardly at all setose, and not at all or but slightly 
hairy. Stipules and bracts glabrous on the back, hardly at all setoso- 
ciliated. Peduncles naked, short, often hidden by the stipules and bracts. 
Calyx tube and fruit naked, subglobose, rather glaucous. Sepals 
naked on the back, leaf-pointed and copiously pinnate, hardly at all 
gland-ciliated, erecto-patent after the petals fall. Fruit turning scarlet 
early in September, most of the sepals adhering until it is fully ripe. 
Styles densely villose. Hedges at Kilvington, North East Yorkshire, and 
I have gathered similar plants, with casually aciculate peduncles, and 
sepals slightly glandular on the back, near Woodend, North East York- 
shire, and near Chesterholme, Northumberland. 

10. B. subcristata, B. tomentosa, y Woods. Habit of growth and 
prickles of the normal plant. Leaves somewhat glaucous-green above, 
more so beneath, glabrous on both sides, the serrations somewhat open and 

'No. 7, August 1. H 



98 THE NATURALIST. 

each furnished with one or two accessory gland-tipped teeth, the terminal 
leaflet elliptical or ovate, a little rounded at the hase, the petioles prickly, 
a little hairy and rather copiously setoso-ciliated. Stipules and bracts 
naked on the back but setoso-ciliated. Peduncles naked. Calyx tube and 
fruit ovate-urceolate or subglobose, the sepals somewhat tomentose towards 
the edges and more or less gland-ciliated. The fruit ripening and the 
sepals adhering just as in the preceding. Styles villose. This grows in 
numerous stations in North Yorkshire, and there are specimens in Mr. 
Watson's collection from Perthshire. As in the preceding there is a form 
with the sepals glandular on the back, and there is a beautiful Rose which 
grows at Keld, in Swaledale, with deep red flowers, slightly prickly pedun- 
cles and sepals glandular on the back, which agrees with this in other 
respects. The specimens of the plant of Woods which I have seen are 
from Loch Tay, gathered by Mr. Borrer, to whose remarks in the British 
Flora reference should be made. This plant has a subglobose calyx tube, 
and some of the peduncles a little aciculate. 

11. R. Watsoni. R. hractescens /3 Woods. Leaves glabrous on the 
upper surface, the teeth sharper and closer than in the next, not always 
simple, the accessory serrations gland-tipped, somewhat hairy beneath, the 
terminal leaflet ovate, the petioles villose but hardly at all setose. Stipules 
and bracts nearly glabrous on the back, slightly setoso-ciliated, not 
peculiarly large nor hiding the peduncle as in the next. Peduncle and 
ovate-urceolate calyx tube naked. Sepals erecto-patent after the petals 
fall, leaf pointed and fully pinnate, glandular all over the back. These 
notes are taken from an authenticated specimen of the plant of Woods, 
from Ambleside, Westmoreland, in Mr. Robertson's collection, and there 
are specimens which agree with it amongst Mr. Watson's Roses, gathered 
by himself by the roadside between Daliwhinnie and Etrisk in Inverness- 
shire. It evidently connects the following and the preceding. 

12. R. coriifoUa, Fries. R. sepium, Swartz, non Thuill. R. 
sepincola, Swartz. R. hractescens, Woods. R. frutetorum, Besser, Boreau. 
Branches purple in exposure, prickles more slender and not so much 
curved as in the normal plant. Leaves greyish-green above, rather thickly 
hairy all over, paler beneath and softly hairy all over the underside, the 
serrations simple, spreading, shallow, as broad as deep, the terminal 
leaflet broadly ovate or obovate, rounded at the base, the petioles villose, 
but hardly at all setose, furnished with one or two small prickles. Stipules 
and bracts large, villose on the back, hardly at all gland-ciliated. Peduncle 



BAKER ON BRITISH HOSES. 99 

short, quite naked, hidden by the bracts and stipules. Calyx tube naked, 
broadly ovate or subglobose, purple in exposure. Sepals leaf-pointed and 
copiously pinnate, erecto-patent after the petals fall, hardly at all gland- 
ciliated, naked on the back, but usually tomentose towards the edges. Styles 
villose. These notes are taken from a specimen gathered by Woods at 
the original locality of Ulverstone in Lake-Lancashire, and from a pre- 
cisely similar example gathered by Mr. Watson, near the Castletown of 
Braemar, in 1844. Neither of these shews the mature fruit, but there can 
be, I think, no question of the identity of our plant with that of the Con- 
tinent. There is an excellent Scandinavian specimen from Swartz, under 
his original name of sepium, amongst Mr. Robertson's Roses. It is included 
both in flower and fruit in Deseglise's Herbarium Rosarum, from the 
Canton of the Hautes Alpes, and is described in his Monograph ; and I 
have it from Savoy, gathered both by the Abbe Puget and Dr. Fauconnet. 
Fries says that the fruit ripens a month before that of canina, and he calls the 
sepals persistent, but they appear to endure, as in the other plants placed in 
this sub-section, only until after the fruit changes colour, and to fade and 
fall as it ripens. It is described from Northern Germany by Von Garcke, 
and from the vicinity of Geneva by Renter : and B. crassifolia, Wallmann, 
and R. terebinthinacea, Grenier, appear to be the same plant. A specimen 
gathered by Winch, near Newcastle-on-Tyne, has the large bracts and 
short peduncles of this, but leaves in shape, clothing, and toothing, more 
like those of the preceding. 

13. R. celerata. Habit of growth and prickles of the normal 
plant. Leaves flat, firm but thin in texture, full green and glabrous on 
the upper surface, pale green and hairy on the midrib and principal veins 
beneath, the serratures open and as broad as deep, each furnished with 
two or three fine gland-tipped teeth on each side, the terminal leaflet 
broadly ovate and much rounded at the base, the petioles pubescent and 
setose, and prickly. Stipules and bracts copiously setoso-ciliated, naked 
or nearly so on the back. Peduncles naked. Calyx tube and fruit sub- 
globose, the latter turning scarlet very early in September, the sepals 
erecto-patent after the petals fall, leaf-pointed and copiously pinnate, 
somewhat tomentose towards the edges, copiously setoso-ciliated and mostly 
lasting until after the fruit changes colour. Styles hairy. Thickets 
in Holywell dene, Northumberland. This agrees with tomentella in the 
shape of the leaves, but differs in the fruit. 

Subsection III. Hispid^. Leaves not glandular beneath but the 



100 THE NATURALIST. 

peduncles and often the calyx tube also more or less densely aciculate 
and setose. (For a notice of forms with casually aciculate peduncles see 
under Nos. 3, 9 and 10.) 

14. U. Andevagensis, Bast. R. canina y glandulifera, Woods. 
Leaves firm in texture, glabrous on both sides, the serratures sharp, con- 
nivent and simple, the terminal leaflet broadly ovate and somewhat 
rounded at the base, the petioles not hairy and only veiy slightly setose 
and prickly. Stipules and bracts glabrous on the back, slightly gland- 
ciliated. Peduncles and base of calyx tube rather closely aciculate and 
setose, the latter ovate urceolate or subglobose, the sepals pinnate and 
ieaf pointed, glandular and prickly on the back, but hardly at all gland- 
ciliated. Sepals reflexed after the petals fall. Styles villose. The 
specimens which I have seen of this are from the Pass of Lanrick, 
gathered by Mr. Borrer, and from Braemar, gathered by Mr. Watson. 
Mr. Borrer's plant has the stipules, bracts, peduncles and calyx tube, 
deeply tinged with red. The continental Andevagensis has the sepals 
usually naked on the back. 

15. B. verticillacantJia, Merat ? Habit of growth and prickles 
of the normal plant. Leaves firm in texture, bright green above, paler 
beneath, glabrous on both sides, the serrations sharp but moderately open, 
and each furnished with one or two gland-tipped teeth, the terminal leaflet 
ovate a little rounded at the base, the petioles densely setose but only 
slightly hairy and furnished with two or three hooked prickles. Stipules 
and bracts naked on the back but closely setoso-ciliated. Peduncles 
densely aciculate and setose, usually shorter than the bracts. Fruit 
elliptical, naked, not ripening till October, the sepals somewhat glandular 
on the back and densely setoso-ciliated, deciduous by the time the fruit 
changes colour. Styles slightly hairy. These notes of character are 
taken from a plant of which Mr. Bromwich has sent a supply of specimens 
from My ton, Warwickshire to the Botanical Exchange Club. It agrees 
very well with my specimens, and the description ofB. verticillacantJia, but 
in the latter the prickles are said to be arranged " en spire autour de la 
tige." There are similar plants amongst Mr. Watson's Koses from 
Twycross, Leicestershire, (Kev. A. Bloxam) and Bridgewater, Somerset, 
(T. Clark), the latter with a densely prickly calyx tube, senals densely 
glandular on the back and more hairy styles. 

16. B, cccsia, Smith. Leaves glaucous-green and glabrous upon 
the upper surface, still more glaucous and hairy principally upon the 



BAKER ON BRITISH ROSKS. 101 

veins beneath, the serrations sharp, connivent, simple, or slightly double, 
the terminal leaflet ovate or elliptical, narrowed or slightly rounded at the 
base, the petioles prickly and villose, and copiously setose. Bracts and 
stipules slightly hairy on the back and copiously gland-ciliated. Peduncle 
rather closely aciculate and setose. Calyx tube ovate-urceolate, naked, 
purplish with a glaucous bloom. Sepals leaf-pointed but only slightly 
pinnate, glandular all over the back and hairy towards the edges. These 
notes are taken from the original plant figured in English Botany, which 
was gathered by Mr. Borrer, near Taynuilt, in Argyleshire. A plant 
gathered by the Eev. W. M. Hind, near Stapenhill, Derbyshire, differs by 
having the leaves slightly hairy on the upper surface, the calyx tube 
aciculate as well as the sepals, which latter are more compound than in 
Mr. Borrer's plant. This and the tomentosa var. incana of Woods, which 
I have not seen, represent Deseglise's subsection E, and the two former 
his subsection C of the Canince, the plants belonging to which seem to be 
much more plentiful in France than with us. 

Subsection IV. Subrubiginos^. Leaves slightly glandular beneath, 
at any rate on the midrib and secondary veins ; peduncles naked or acicu- 
late, the fruit various in character. The plants of this subsection are 
classed by Deseglise with the RubiginoscB. 

17. R. vinacea. Habit of growth and prickles of the normal 
plant. Leaves somewhat glaucous green, firm in texture, hardly flat, quite 
glabrous above, paler beneath, but not at all hairy, glandular on the midrib 
and principal veins, the veins prominent, the teeth sharp but moderately 
open, each furnished with one or two fine gland-tipped serrations, the 
terminal leaflet narrowly ovate, hardly rounded at the base, the petioles 
not hairy but prickly and densely setose. Stipules and bracts naked or 
slightly glandular on the back, densely setoso-ciliated. Peduncles and 
calyx tube naked, the latter subglobose, the sepals reflexed after the petals 
fall, leaf-pointed but not much pinnate, slightly glandular on the back and 
copiously setoso-ciliated. Fruit subglobose, not ripening till October, by 
which time the sepals have fallen. Styles hairy. Veins of the leaves, 
petioles, stipules, and bracts, all deeply tinged with red. Hedges at 
Thirsk, North Yorkshire. 

18. R. arvatica, Paget. Habit of growth and prickles of the 
normal plant. Leaves firm in texture, hardly flat, glabrous above, paler 
beneath, and hairy on the midrib, and glandular on the midrib and 
secondary veins, the serrations moderately sharp, open, and numerous, 



102 THE NATURALIST. 

and each furnished with two or three gland-tipped teeth, the terminal 
leaflet narrowly ovate or elliptical, narrowed at the base, the petioles both 
prickly and also pubescent and setose. Stipules and bracts hardly hairy 
on the back, but some of the lower ones a little glandular, all closely 
setoso-ciliated. Peduncles quite naked. Calyx tube ovate or elliptical, 
the sepals copiously pinnate and leaf-pointed, closely setoso-ciliated and 
slightly glandular on the back, spreading but not fully reflexed after the 
petals fall. Fruit stone-hard when green, broadly ovate or subglobose, 
not turning scarlet till the beginning of October, by which time the sepals 
have fallen. Styles glabrous or only very slightly hairy. Hedges at 
Sowerby and Kilvington, North Yorkshire, and there is a specimen from 
Newcastle in Mr. Robertson's collection, marked as a connecting link 
between canina and inodora. This is placed by M. Deseglise amongst the 
EubiginoscB near B. sepiiim, which it resembles in the styles and shape of 
the leaves. 

19. R. tomentella, Leman. Branches unusually lithe and flexuose 
and prickles strongly hooked. Leaves flat, firm in texture, thinly hairy 
all over above when young, paler and thinly hairy all over beneath, but 
only very slightly glandular, the serrations open, spreading, triangular 
cuspidate, as broad as deep, and each furnished with three or four acces- 
sory'gland-tipped teeth, the terminal leaflet broadly ovate, much rounded 
at the base and sometimes almost as broad as long, the petioles hairy and 
setose, and furnished with three or four much hooked aciculi. Stipules 
and bracts slightly hairy on the back, copiously setoso-ciliated. Peduncles 
quite naked. Calyx tube naked, subglobose, the petals pale, the sepals 
leaf-pointed and fully pinnate, slightly hairy but not all glandular on the 
back, copiously setoso-ciliated, reflexed after the petals fall. Fruit sub- 
globose, not turning scarlet till October, by which time the sepals have 
fallen. Styles hairy, somewhat protruded. This I have seen in many 
places in North Yorkshire, and have it also from Warwickshire, R obtusi- 
folia-, Desv. R. Icucantha, Bast, which I have not seen from Britain, is 
intermediate between this and No. 1. 

20. R. Baker'i, Deseglise, Syme. Stems six or eight feet high, scarcely 
at all arching, purple where exposed, branches stiff and spreading, and 
prickles more slender and less curved than in the normal plant. Leaves 
full green, moderately firm in texture, covered all over with a thin coating of 
soft silky hairs above, paler and hairy all over beneath, with a scattering of 
small green viscous glnnds, the serrations open and many times toothed with 



BAKER ON BRITISH ROSES. lOH 

gland-tipped teeth, the terminal leaflet ovate or obovate, either rounded at 
the base or narrowed from below the middle, the petioles both prickly and 
rather pubescent, and copiously setose. Stipules and bracts both hairy 
and somewhat glandular on the back, copiously setoso-ciliated. Peduncles 
sometimes naked, sometimes with a few weak prickles and setae, short and 
often hidden by the bracts and stipules. Calyx tube naked, ovate or elliptical 
urceolate, the petals deeper coloured and smaller than in the type, and 
wavy towards the borders. Sepals one or two simple, the others copiously 
pinnate and leaf-pointed, all slightly glandular on the back, hairy towards 
the edges and copiously setoso-ciliated, erecto-patent after the petals fall. 
Fruit ovate or elliptical, ripening early in September, most of the sepals 
adhering until after it changes colour. Styles villose. Hedges at 
Sowerby, N. E. Yorkshire. This in many points comes near to R. Borreri, 
but the leaves are different in shape and texture, the underside very 
slightly glandular, the peduncles hardly at all aciculate and the sepals are 
subpersistent. 

21. Pi. Blondaana, liipart. R. trachyphylla, Boreau in part. Stems 
dark purple and glaucous where exposed, branches more divaricated 
than in the normal plant, and the prickles less robust and less curved. 
Leaves somewhat glaucous -green above, decidedly glaucous beneath, 
glabrous on both sides, but glandular on the midrib, and a little over the 
surface beneath, the serrations moderately sharp and open, each with two 
or three fine gland-tipped teeth, the terminal leaflet typically ovate or rather 
obovate, the petioles prickly and densely setose but not hairy. Stipules 
and bracts not haiiy but a little glandular on the back, copiously setoso- 
ciliated. Peduncles slightly aciculate and setose. Calyx tube naked, 
subglobose, the sepals leaf-pointed and copiously pinnate, glandular all 
over the back, erecto-patent after the petals fall. Fruit obovate or sub- 
globose, turning scarlet early in September, by which time some of the 
sepals have fallen, but others remain. St3'les rather thickly hairy. Hedge 
at Kilvington, North-east Yorkshire, and I have gathered a very similar 
plant, but with an aciculate calyx tube, both in Perthshire and Aberdeen- 
shire. This and the last agree with Subsection TI in the character of the 
fruit, but Nos. 17, 18, and 19 with Subsection I. 



104 THE NATURALlSl'. 

NOTES ON THE ROTIFERA. 



By J. Cash, Warrington. 



Among the many sources of enjoyment which the student of Natural 
History has at his command, there are few equal to — certainly none sur- 
passing — that of searching out and forming an acquaintance with the 
hahits, &c., of the denizens of our pools and ditches. The expense of 
microscopes, which formerly was a great obstacle to the popularity of this 
pursuit, is now happily, in a great measure, removed. Instruments are 
sold at a moderate price which are sufficient for a very large proportion of 
microscopical investigations. In the case of the Eotifera, a power of from 
one to three hundred diameters is ample. If, however, the student is 
desirous of studying the peculiarities of structure — especially of the more 
minute species — he will require a considerably higher power ; but it is 
astonishing what an amount of work can be done with an instrument 
costing not more than three or five guineas. 

In gathering Rotifera the student should provide himself with half-a- 
dozen, or more, small wide-mouthed glass bottles, and should search out 
those ponds where there is a good supply of the finer leaved water plants, 
such as Ranunculus aquatilis, MyriopliyUum verticillatum, Hottonia palustris, 
&c. ; although plants of more robust growth are not to be entirely over- 
looked. I have found some of the rarest species on the leaf-stems of 
Hydrocharis. When they occur in this situation, however, they cannot 
be examined under the microscope. Many good things are to be found 
u]^on Anachar is ; I have seen scores of Melicerta cases upon a single stem. 
A small portion of the plant should be removed carefully from its place of 
growth and transferred to a bottle previously filled with water. By the 
aid of a pocket lens the value of the collection may be easily ascertained — 
indeed this may be often settled with the naked eye, for some of the larger 
Rotifera are distinctly visible without any microscopic aid whatever. Only 
a few days ago there appeared an uncommonly fine Stephanoceros in my 
aquarium, which, placed in a favourable position with regard to the light, 
I could distinctly see at a distance of nearly two yards. 

It may not be out of place here to observe that the aquarium is a 
most valuable — indeed an indispensable — adjunct to the microscope, and 
the student of infusoria should not be without one on any account. A 



CASH ON THE ROTIFEEA. 105 

rectangular tank, substantially built with plate glass sides, is by far the 
best, but for all ordinary purposes a common glass jar, such as confectioners 
preserve their sweets in, will be found sufficient. 

I propose to give two or three short papers upon the Kotifera, and, 
on account of its great beauty, and reported rarity, I shall give the 
precedence to — 

Stephanooeros Eichhornii. (Ehr.) The genus Stephanoceros — 
of which there is but one established species — possesses the following 
characters : — *' Frontal lobes long, slender, erect, convergent ; ciliary setae 
set around them in whorls. Jaws each of three teeth, connected by a 
web." 

S. Eichhornii (the Crown Animalcule) which Mr. Gosse describes as 
the largest, rarest, and most elegant species of the class, seems to be 
tolerably plentiful about Warrington, although it has been found as yet, 
only in one place — that is, my aquarium. This fact will serve as an 
illustration of the value of aquaria to microscopical students. The 
creature had, of course, been introduced with water plants from some of 
the ponds in the neighbourhood, but all my attempts to discover the 
particular spot from which it had come have proved futile. I first 
discovered it in the summer of 1862. One dull, rainy afternoon I had my 
microscope before me, and made a few dips into my aquarium just by way 
of passing a leisure hour : I was engaged in the examination of some 
threads of Conferva, when to my delight and astonishment the ciliated 
tentacles of a Stephanoceros shot across the field. Any one who has 
found a rare object, and one which he has long wished to see may guess 
what pleasure I felt at the discovery. In the course of a few days others 
appeared ; and on making a careful examination I found that the plants 
in my tank were literally swarming with them. The glass sides, too, 
were covered with scores of these beautiful creatures. They continued 
with me throughout the winter, and I had no difficulty, at any time, in 
finding as many as I wanted for my own amusement and study, and for 
shewing to friends. But the time came when my tank required to be 
emptied, and not being sufficiently careful of the Steplianoceri, I found, to 
my regret, that they had all disappeared. Lately, they again presented 
themselves on the introduction of fresh plants ; and I have before me, as 
I write, a beautiful full-grown specimen, attached to a bit of fine-leaved 
Potamogeton, and — as luck will have it — two infant Stephanoceri in close 
proximity. The young ones, which seem to have only just settled down,. 



106 THE NATURALIST. 

and can scarcely be said to have begun life in earnest, have not yet 
developed their distinguishing crowns, but, in one at least, the action of 
the jaws is distinctly perceptible. The adult specimen has a most 
beautiful crown, consisting of five arms " which rise erect from, and 
converge to, a rounded point, after bulging outwards so as to present the 
figure of a tall crown or mitre (whence the generic name) — but the points 
do not actually meet." The case in which the creature dwells is composed 
of a gelatinous substance, and is quite transparent. The irregular outline 
alone is visible. In the opinion of Mr. Gosse there is no organic con- 
nection between the animal and its case, after the latter has been once 
formed. During inhabitation the upper margin is turned inward, and when 
the animal suddenly and strongly contracts itself, the top of the case is some- 
what drawn in after it. But this, says that gentleman, is not the result of any 
adhesion of the margin to the animal, but simply that of the action of the 
water rushing into the vacuum suddenly produced by the downward 
retraction of the body and carrying in with it the soft and flexible margin 
of the case. I do not like expressing an opinion adverse to perhaps the 
greatest living authority, but it appears to me that there is a sort of 
mechanical connection between the neck of the Stephanoceros and the 
ujDper part of its case. The sudden contraction of the animal would 
undoubtedly produce a vacuum which would become instantly filled with 
water ; but I think, if there was nothing to prevent it, the case, owing to 
its flexibility, would return to its original form. I find that, on the retreat 
of the animal, one or two of the outer folds of the case are drawn into the 
cavity, and, instead of returning, remain there until the animal again 
unfolds its crown. At times the creature seems sulky, and will on no 
account venture above the top of its case. It will retreat to the bottom, 
and either remain stationary or make occasional upward movements as if 
intending to come forth. Every such movement makes the drawn-in 
folds of the case approach more and more their original position, whilst 
every downward jerk brings them more within the case, and there they 
remain whilst the animal is still. I think the fact of the space being 
occupied by water would not account for this ; nor, in my opinion would 
these modifications of the case so closely correspond to the movements of 
the animal within, unless there was such a connection as I have suggested. 
It is interesting to watch the creature feed. If a little monad happens 
to get within the tentacles woe betide him ! As if possessing a pre- 
sentiment of his fate he flies about in the wildest manner until, drawn 



OBSERVATIONS. 



107 



within the mouth-funnel, down he goes at a gulp. Tho digestive process 
may be distinctly traced. 

Once I had the gratification of witnessing the birth of a young Ste- 
phanoceros. The parent certainly could not be congratulated upon its 
offspring's likeness to itself. The little fellow, after leaving the egg state, 
assumed an elongated form, tapering towards the tail, and possessing a 
wreath of cilia at the head in active motion ; but no trace of a crown. It 
was fixed between the body of the parent and the inner wall of her case ; 
and fought its way upward until, having reached the top of the case, it got 
entirely free and swam away. Had it been in the aquarium instead of in 
my live-box, it would in less than half-an-hour have settled upon the 
leaf of some plant; and in little more than twenty -four hours it would 
have assumed the true form of the Stephanoceros. 

There is much in the economy of this creature well worthy of investi- 
gation. With reference to its supposed rarity I am inclined to think there 
is too much said. Mr. Gosse mentions the water in front of Kensington 
Palace, and a pool at Highgate, as the only stations in Britain where it 
has been found. Eichhorn, he says, found it at Dantzig exactly a century 
ago, and figured it in 1775. Ehrenberg rediscovered it near Berlin in 
1831, and afterwards saw it on several occasions. Weisse met with it 
once at St. Petersburg. I believe, if careful search were made, it would be 
found much more widely distributed than it is reported to be in this 
country. 



Notes ok the KiNansHEK. 
The Kingfisher (Alcedo ispida) is 
0113 of my especial favourites. Often 
when out on a fishing excursion I 
have noticed this beautiful little bird 
capture its finny prey by quietly 
perching on some branch over-hang- 
ing the river, and then waiting, with 
dogged perseverance, for the moment 
in which to make its plunge. At 
length some unsuspecting fish rises 



to take a floating insect, and then, 
quick as lightning, down descends 
the glittering bird ; the water is 
scarcely moved by its plunge ; the 
next moment it reappears with its 
victim which it bears to its resting- 
place, where, striking the head of its 
prey smartly several times against the 
branch,endsits struggles and swallows 
it whole. This bird seems to have no 
companion but its mate, and they 
labour with unabated diligence for 
the support of their young. The 



106 



THE NATURALIST. 



usual place selected for incubation is 
the old hole of the water rat ; at the 
end of this burrow is a little cham- 
ber, where, without building any 
nest, it deposits its eggs, from five to 
seven in number, of a clean pinky 
white. "While the work of incuba- 
tion is going on the female is sup- 
plied with food by her mate ; and 
from the fact that the Kingfisher, 
like the o\^i, recasts the indigestible 
parts of its food, has arisen the ab- 
surd supposition that the nest is 
composed of the pellets of fish bones. 
The young soon acquire the plumage 
of the old birds, and when able to 
leave their abode follow their pa- 
rents, and, resting on the branch of 
a tree in some lonely part of the 
river, tax the industry of the parent 
birds. — Charles Denny, Kelvedon. 
The Pied Flycatcher (Muscicapa 
atricapilla, Lin.) at Halifax. — This 
bird is considered rare in this neigh- 
bourhood. I have to record the 
occurrence of two specimens which 
have been shot this season, one by 
myself in Warley Clough, the other 
was sent me for preservation. Both 
males. — Joseph Sutcliffe, Warley, 
near Halifax, June 28th, 1864. 



Monstrosity of Planorbis margi- 
Hatus. — On May ICth, I met with a 
spiral monstrosity of Planorbis mar- 
ginatus. It has four whorls : the two 
first are coiled in the normal way, 
the other two are spii-al. Length 



quarter of an inch ; width three- 
sixteenths. It occurred in company 
with P„ vortex. — James Beevers, 24, 
Chorley - street, Wellington - street, 
Leeds. (This is not unusual : the 
tendency to distortion is common to 
the genus. — Eds.) 



A Day at Llangollen in June. 
June 10. — Beached here at seven 
p.m., started for the " Gleusiegs " 
rocks, sugared the lower ground be- 
fore ascending the mountain. Beach- 
ed the ledges I had previously deter- 
mined to sugar at dusk, and went to 
work forthwith. Night, all sorts — 
fine, wet, windy, and calm, within 
the two hours, I remained perched 
on the ledges, sugared about one 
mile of ground and went three times 
over the sugar. The best insect 
captured was Agrotis cinerea. On 
my return to the lower ground I 
found Aplecta tincta, Rusina tenehrosa, 
Xylophasia hepatica, amongst other 
abundant species on my sugar, and 
was glad to observe my old coleop- 
terous friend Lemera podagrarce, tak- 
ing sweets here in June as freely as I 
had at Conway seen it sipping sup- 
per from ivy bloom in September. 
Lampyris noctiliica was just lighting 
her lamp on the mountain slopes to 
guide her lovers to her bower of 
moss, and several of these *' roving 
blades" met a pill-box grave as they 
came to see what strange queen of 
light reclined in my lanthorn. Be- 



OBSERVATIONS. 



109 



turning by a lane in which I had 
observed the Honey Dew on a hedge 
under a Sycamore tree, I passed the 
light upon the hedge and here the 
moths kept up their revels. The 
genus Agrotis seemed to have as- 
sembled by special appointment to 
meet a few friends and strangers, 
for almost all orders were represen- 
ted, the Stegoptera being rather 
strongly so ; and it was evident by 
the way that some Hemiptera were 
enjoying themselves that they liked 
sweets quite as well as some of their 
relations like blood. 

Next morning early I was in the 
woods; (EcopJwra grandis rewarded 
me by gently passing into my net 
and thence to my satchel ; the sun 
getting overcast, rain and wind fol- 
lowed ; and now to work for Tro- 
chilium scoUaformis in pupa ; pursuing 
this pleasure until I was tired, I 
packed the results carefully away in 
moss, and took to other game. The 
sun regained the ascendency, and 
out came the beautiful Longhorn 
Adela Degeerella, and the more 
beautiful Harpella Geoffrella which 
though abundant in the South, 
rarely glads the eyes of a Northern 
Entomologist. The best insect taken 
by beating was GEcophora subaquilea, 
and thus the day passed, now a 
moth, then a larva, pupa, or beetle, 
but always something, until a kind 
of gnawing at the stomach reminded 
me that if I would sugar at night, I 



must eat soon, and so I turned 
towards Llangollen for food and my 
sugar. The night proved very un- 
favourable, but common moths were 
more abundant on sugar then the 
night before; the rain having washed 
the Honey Dew away. The species 
seen, however, were identical with 
those seen on the previous night, 
minus A. cinerea ; in fact it was 
impossible to keep a lanthorn lighted 
and hold an umbrella on the ledges 
where I took it on such a rough 
night. 

The results of the journey being 
on the whole better than my expec- 
tations, I left for home next morn- 
ing, without regret, especially as 
there ^vas a heavy storm brewing 
over the Merionethshire mountains 
to the south-west. — C. S. Gregson, 
June 14th, 1864. 



Diving Water Spiders ( At gyro- 
neta aquatica, Walckenaer.) — Three 
years ago I collected Water Spiders 
from a place called Frost Dam, be- 
tween Methley and Normanton, and 
put them into a glass jar with some 
Anacharis, and kept them till the 
following spring, but they dwindled 
away and died in April, I think 
owing to my not changing the water 
oftener. I collected others at the 
same place on the 15th of October, 
1863, and have kept them up to 
the present time. These I have 
observed spinning silken cells or 



110 



THE NATURALIST. 



bags in the water, about the size of 
a marble, and of a very pale yellow 
colour, adhering to the Anacharis ; 
in these bags they have deposited 
their eggs, from which I hope to 
have a good supply of young ones 
diving out by the middle of July. The 
Diving Spider may also be found at 
Knottingley near Pontefract, living in 
its diving-bell, which shines through 
the water like a ball of silver. Their 
singular economy was first described 
by Clerck, in the Arcmei Suecici, 
Stockholm, 1757, also by De Geer, 
Mem. des Insectes, cap. 7, page 312. 
" These Spiders," says De Geer, 
" spin in the water a cell of strong 
closely woven white silk, in the form 
of half the shell of a pigeon's egg, 
or like a diving-bell. This is some- 
times left partly above the water, 
but at others is entirely submersed, 
and is always attached to the objects 
near it by a great number of irregu- 
lar threads." Clerck says " the 
shining appearance proceeds either 
from an inflated globule surrounding 
the abdomen, or from the space be- 
tween the body and the water." 
The Spider when wishing to inhale 
the air rises to the surface with its 
body still submerged, and only the 
lower portion of the abdomen rising 
to the surface. It comes up for air 
several times in an hour, though [ 
have good reason to suppose it can 
continue without for several days 
together. — J. Blackburn, Leeds. 



Royal Horticultural Society's 
Prizes. 

fTo the Editors of the Naturalist) 

Gentlemen, — I have been rather 
amused by the article in your first 
number on the prizes proposed by 
the Royal Horticultural Society, 
especially as I had a hand in the 
protest sent to the Society against 
them. It seemed to me and many 
other botanists that such prizes were 
likely to endanger the existence of 
the rarer or more local plants, with- 
out in any real way promoting the 
study of scientific botany. It was 
clear to me that they could not be 
of any real use to the class for whose 
benefit they were apparently in- 
tended ; and it therefore, gave me 
much pleasure to find that the 
Society saw fit to reconsider them. 

Prizes given for making collections 
of specimens to be estimated by the 
number of species contained in them 
are in my opinion useless, for they 
only stimulate the habit of accuma- 
lating objects without their study. 

If prizes are offered, I think that 
they should be for such collections 
as show a real knowledge of a small 
number of plants. They should 
consist of dissections, showing the 
structure, either of the perfect plant 
or of its progressive development. 
Take for instance some genus and 
illustrate the peculiarities and dif- 
ferences of the species contained in 



NOTES AND QUERIES EXCHANGE ORIGINAL ARTICLES. 



Ill 



it : the generic character, and the 
specific characters of the s^Decies. 
Thus a true knowledge of the plants 
would he ohtained, and the powers 
of ohservation and discrimination 
improved. If our local societies and 
cluhs would do this they would 
make botanists not simply collectors. 
W. G. seems to fear that one 
object of the Horticultural Society's 
Prizes was to sell the '* three or 
four books mentioned." Now it 
happens that the authors of the three 
most pypminent British Floras all 
protested against the prizes, viz. : — 
Sir J. W. Hooker, Dr. Walker 
Arnott, Mr. Bentham, and myself. 
I do not recollect if any other books 
were " mentioned, " and have not 
the circular of the Society at hand, 
but if others were named it is pro- 
bable that their author's names will 
also be found amongst the remon- 
strants. We do not insert many, if 
any, exact localities in our books, 
and so could not require or use the 
information which your correspon- 
dent suspects was intended to be 
provided for our future editions. 



But I think that your correspon- 
dent's paper is valuable and well 
timed ; although he is mistaken in 
this one respect. The suggestion 
in his last paragraph is excellent, 
and will I hope he acted upon. 
I am. Gentlemen, 

Obediently yours, 
Charles C. Babington. 
Cambridge, 8th July, 1864. 



Relaxing Coleoptera. — In reply to 
the query on page 80, if W. H. C. 
when collecting Coleoptera will put 
them in a bottle containing bruised 
Laurel leaves, his captures will be 
dead in a few minutes, and after 
remaining in the bottle two or three 
days will be quite relaxed. — E. Gra- 
ham, 15, Victoria Street, Blackpool. 



Clostera anaclioreta. — I have larvae 
of this species in duplicate, and shall 
be glad to send a few to any one 
who requires them. Applicants 
must pay postage. — Wii. Porteus, 
17, Dean St., Pellon Lane, Halifax. 



®ngmal %xikth%. 



AN EXCURSION TO SHERWOOD FOREST. 



By B. Bradley. 



Sherwood Forest. This once thickly wooded tract, of some twenty 
miles in length, and from five to seven in breadth, was, as stated by 
Gilpin in his " Forest Scenery," the frequent scene of Royal amusements ; 



1][2 '^^^^^ NATUKALIST. 

Mansfield being, on these occasions, the general residence of the Court. 
It was on one of these visits, that Henry, became acquainted with the 
Miller of famous memory— Sir John Cockle ! as recorded in " Percy's 
Rehques" and in Dodsley's Dramatic Entertainment, entitled the " King 
and the Miller of Mansfield." Whatever amusement this eccentric miller 
may have afforded the king and his suite, certain it is , that some other 
attractions must have existed. Would it be mere surmise to suppose 
that the vast extent of forest— the deer, and the sport, were not the chief 
attractions in those days of yore, that Royal visits should have been so 
frequent ? The Sherwood of 1864, notwithstanding that the scissors of 
cultivation have clipped off some 80,000 acres, still presents attractions so 
diversified, and is a field of such vast richness to the naturalist, that he 
could scarcely err in designating it '•' Nature's unlimited storehouse." 

To the botanical tourist are presented most remarkable objects of 
curiosity. Amongst the many large and venerable trees, the most re- 
markable are, the " Greendale Oak," which is at least 700 years old, and 
has a coach road cut through it; the ''Duke's Walking Stick," 111 feet 
high, and 11 tons in weight ; the '* Two Porters," 38 and 34 feet in 
circumference ; and the " Seven Sisters," all of which are situated in 
Welbeck Park. 

Birkland, the property of the Duke of Portland, and Bilhaugh, be- 
longing to Earl Manvers, two ancient woods three and half miles in length, 
and about half a mile distant from the village of Edwinstowe, is that part 
of Sherwood referred to in the following remarks. Many large and venerable 
oaks are to be seen here, in every stage of perfection and decay. It appears 
(as recorded in a local work,) that in cutting down some timber at the close 
of the last century, letters were found cut or stamped in the body of the 
trees, denoting the king's reign in which they were marked. This is 
suj)posed to have been done by the bark being cut off and the letters cut 
in ; after which, the next year's wood grew over the insciiption without 
adhering where the bark had been removed. The cyphers when found, 
were of James I., of William and Mary, and one of King John. The 
latter was eighteen inches within the tree, and more than a foot from the 
centre ; so that the tree must have been planted above a hundred years 
before John's reign, and when it was cut down in 1791, must have been 
about 706 years old ! 

We, a party of four, commenced our journey by taking train to Work- 
sop. We noticed, after leaving Sheffield, Primula veris in abundance 



EXCURSION TO SHERWOOD FOREST. 118 

on the sides of the railway cutting. Upon arriving at Worksop we had a 
pedestrian journey before us of ten miles. This, considering the very hot 
day, and having to carry luggage required for two or three days sojourn, 
not forgetting boxes and other miscellanea was, to say the least of it, an 
unwise arrangement. On proceeding along the Mansfield road we noticed 
Ballota nigra, growing profusely in the hedge to the height of upwards of 
two feet, Viola odorata, (in fruit,) and Geranium dissectum. On the OUer- 
ton road we found Arabis hirsuta. A few yards from the road side we 
passed a sand pit completely perforated with holes made by the Sand 
Martin (Hlrundo riparia), and although some men were busily at work 
in the same pit, the martins were plying to and fro like bees to their hive. 
The heat had become oppressive, perspiration had long trickled down our 
faces ; need we say, gentle naturalist, after these five miles walking — how 
we welcomed the rest and refreshments afibrded by a call at the " Rising 
Sun." On resuming our journey, birds' nests became quite common. 
A Lesser Redpole was upon its nest, the faithful one was very un- 
willing to leave, and it immediately became a prisoner in one of the 
nets ; the nest contained five eggs. A few paces further, and only 
one yard and a half distant from the marks of the wheels upon the 
road, we found the nest of a Pheasant (Phasianus colchicusj contain- 
ing four eggs. The insect world was very active, and large quan- 
tities of larvie were gathered from the hedges. We soon came to the 
picturesque village of Budby — with its castle — its woodland scenery and 
small river abounding with shoals of trout. Each cottage in this lovely 
spot is the very picture of " a home retreat." A few yards to the left, 
over the bridge, is a most beautiful spring of cold clear water ; near to 
which were growing Cardamine amara, Stellar ia yiemorum, Carex aquatiliSy 
and Carex panicea. On the slope, basking in the sun, we noticed a very 
fine Adder, (Vijwra hems), which narrowly escaped capture, by suddenly 
giving a twist and curling into the hedge. We picked up a specimen 
of the Glow-worm (Lampyris noctiluca), a rather unusual occurrence 
in the afternoon, in the early part of May. Coming to the forest, we 
took round by the "Old Major" oak, a venerable tree, 28 feet at its 
narrowest girth. The ever keen and vigilant eye of one of our party, 
instantly detected upon its trunk, a beautiful specimen of Tephrosia 
crepuscular ia. An old man, who daily visits this tree, will open out tales 
of wonder about the tree in question, and its associations, a few coppers 
being the only return expected. When asked if any collectors came to 
A^o. 8, August 15. I 



114 THH NATURALIST. 

the tree ? he naively observed, that persons sometimes came pottering at 
the roots as he thought for hedge-hogs ! We now wound round to the 
viUage of Edwinstowe^ where at the " Old Jug and Glass " a comfortable 
private room had been prepared for us. 

Having dined, we went to the forest. Amongst the insects we 
captured, may be noted the following : — Ganonymplia pampMlus ; Vanessa 
urticce ; Chrysophanus phlcBcis ; Plujtometra cenea ; Tephrosia punctulata ; 
Ephyra punctaria ; Lozogramma petraria. 

At dusk the sugar bait was resorted to, but without any success. 
This failure may perhaps be accounted for by our visit being a fortniglxt 
too early, and the large quantity of bloom upon many of the trees. 

Our labours for this day being over, we sat down upon the velvety 
sward, and abandoned ourselves to the indulgence of feelings, which the 
almost primeval nature of things around inspired — feeling the deep 
impression of a charm and hidden meaning in this grandeur, far removed 
from all things terrestrial ! Our " elysium " was doomed to be of shoi't 
duration, for the hooting of the Barn Owl [Strix fiammea) not very politely 
intruded itself; it was shortly joined by the Shorteared Owl (Strix 
hrachyotusj and Longeared Owl f Strix otus); which together with the 
interminable duet of the Night-jar (Caprimulgus europceus) produced a 
concert of strange sounds, not by any means familiar to the ears of persons 
resident in manufacturing towns. 

The morning broke in all its splendour — all nature was lovely — to 
rejoice with her smiling brightness was but an instinctive act. A few 
paces and we were greeted with the shrill notes of the Swift (Cypselus 
apusj. In our walk we noticed of the warblers, the Kedstart (Sylvia 
pjhcenicurus ) , Black Cap [S. atricapilla), Garden Warbler (S. hortensis), White 
Throat {S. cinerea), Wood Wren {S. sibilatrix), Willow Wren [S. trochilus), 
Chiffchaff (S. rufa). The songs of these warblers were being continually 
intermixed with the notes of the Great Titmouse (Pants major), Blue 
Titmouse (P. cceruleus), Cole Titmouse (P. ater), the Stonechat (Sylvia 
ruhicola), Whinchat [S. rubetra), with the occasional notes of the Wryneck 
(Yiinx torquilla), and the Green Woodpecker (Picus viridis), Spotted Wood- 
pecker (P. major), and Stock Dove (Colnmba anas). To the contemplative 
naturalist — these, with a whole host of the feathered tribe, swelling the 
majestic chorus, with the ever hovering voice of the Cuckoo (Cuculus 
canorus) as if conducting the whole, — produces an effect indescribably 
grand. 



NOTES ON THE KINGFISHER AND SHORTEARED OWL. 115 

Next day, work began in earnest. The beating for larvoe and Beetles 
was successful beyond our most sanguine expectations. Upwards of 
eighty species of Coleoptera were collected. The following are a portion 
which have been named: — Scaplildiam quadrimaculatum ; Lcunpyris noctiluca ; 
Badlster hipustulatus ; Haltica Nemorum ; Thyamis femoralis ; Ontliophagus 
nucliicornis; 0. ovatiis ; Ctenicerus pectinicornis ; Elater sanguineus; Byturus 
tomentosus ; Aplon violaceum ; A. humile ; A. Ervl ; Epurea ohscura. 

It may be worthy of note that a nest of the Wild Duck (Anas 
boscJias), containing nine eggs, was found built up in the trunk of an old 
oak, four or five yards from the ground, and at least one mile from any 
water. A specimen of the Adder (Vipera herus) was captured alive, and 
secured within a bottle. 

In the evening we took a stroll down to Ollerton Corner, thinking we 
might hear the Nightingale, but found it was too early for its appearance. 
We were repaid by many incidents in a delightful walk, and on our return 
at 11 o'clock p.m., the Grasshox^per Warbler (Sylvia locustella) and the 
Sedge Warbler (5'. Phragmitis) were in full song. 

Next morning we packed up our luggage, and sent it off to Worksop. 
Walking leisurely after, we took train, and arrived home quite safely, after 
a most delightful and interesting excursion. 



NOTES ON THE DISTINGUISHING POINTS IN THE 
SEXES OF THE KINGFISHER AND SHORTEARED OWL. 



By S. p. Saville, Esq., M.B.N.U., &c., &c., 

Private Naturalist to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales. 



" Infinite is thy mercy, and in wisdom hast thou made them all.' 



I am aware the subject of which I purpose to treat, is a most tenacious 
one, and its many failings must, therefore, be read with leniency, taking 
the will for the deed. I am convinced of the pure truth of my assertions, from 
the minute and careful examination of many examples, and repeated 
observation of freshly killed birds, extending over some years, nor have I 
set down these points or distinct features without first thoroughly ex- 
amining the truth of what I now pen, well knowing what a difficult task 
I had before me (yet not difficult when once ascertained). There are 



116 THE NATURAT.IST. 

visible j)uints of material difference in the sexes of every species of bird 
and quadruj)ed that exist upon the face of this terrestrial ball of clay ; 
it is these not very easily distinguished characteristics, in some species, 
I wish to bring before the readers of " The Naturalist ;" why one species 
should have such readily distinguishing marks of identity, as to sex, 
whilst others (even of the same genus) at the same time are almost 
entirely beyond the penetrating vision of observant man. I have no 
backwardness in averring that the all-wise and omniscient hand of their 
Creator, has a particular design in thus giving to some as it were a glaring 
stamp of identity in this matter, andleaving others scarcely to be recognised ; 
this part of Nature's economy I leave for other hands than mine to solve, 
and proceed with my subject. 

The first species named in my notes is that beautiful and indigenous 
bird, Alcedo ispida. (I cannot refrain from here expressing my grief 
at reading the attempts now being made to kill this bird, upon almost 
all our waters, from the cause as their persecutors state that they 
destroy so many young fish.) — Vide Field.* I would say oh Angler — not 
woodman — spare that bird. The Kingfisher is a particular favourite 
with me, I love to see him dart along the meandering stream, or 
sit poised and stately upon some favourite over-hanging twig or stump. 
It was this partiality, in the first instance, led me to practically discover 
as much as I was able df its history, habits, and more especially the 

* The article to which our correspondent refers, is one by Mr. Frank Buckland, 
which appeared in a recent number of the Field. We copy it verbatim : — " The most 
destructive things in the work! to young fish are Kingfishers (?) Not long ago, I was 
staying at a friend's house, near Canterbury. He had hatched a great number of fish, from 
eggs I had given last year, and turned them out into a pond in his garden. The fish, 
however, kept continually disappearing. The cause could in no way be ascertained till at 
last it was found out that some Kingfishers had discovered the whereabouts of the little 
fish, and were picking them out fast, one after the other, as children do solitary plums 
out of a school cake. It is, however, a sad thing for the Kingfisher that they have 
become fashionable among ladies ; their skins are therefore very valuable to adorn 
ladies' hats. A day or two ago I met a man in a punt on the Thames, whose special 
mission was to destroy Kingfishers. He had one, a beauty, and had two shots at 
others. They were going, he told me, to London, to be made into ornaments for ladies' 
hats. It seems a very great pity to destroy these little birds ; but ladies' fashions rule 
the day. They have already, by making them fashionable, nearly utterly destroyed the 
black monkey on the West Coast of Africa. The skins of the Himalayan Pheasant are 
getting very dear. Sea Otters have retired to the Arctic Circle, and now the Kingfisher's 
turn has come : and if this continues, the Kingfisher will become shortly a rare British 
bird." We trust our lady readers will take the hint, and refrain from using those 
adornments which never appear so beautiful as when worn by their natural owners. — 
Eds. 



NOTES ON THE KINGFISHKU AND SHORTEARED OWL. 117 

feature pourtraying at a glance the distinction of the sexes. This feature 
is in the lower mandible. The female having at all ages the lower 
half of the beak light brick-red and somewhat longer, — its entire plumage 
being at the same time less intense blue, and more inclined to green in the 
shade while the male has a uniform dark horn-coloured beak, both the 
upper and lower mandibles, and decidedly shorter than that of the female. 
If any one will take the trouble to follow me in this, it will be found a 
never failing mark of identity in this species. 

The Shorteared Owl is an occasional visitant to our fens. I 
have had every opportunity afforded me of making examinations of a great 
number of fresh killed examples, and minute inspection of them has 
rewarded me with a perfect triumph in respect of ascertaining the sexes 
by external features. The only mark outwardly is the very observable rich 
dark colouring of the female, and thicker streaks of black pervading its 
entire plumage, whilst the male is very much lighter in colour, and only 
faintly marked, (upon the heart particularly,) and is less rich in general 
colouring. The face of the male is also much paler. 1 have never yet 
seen this species properly figured or delineated ; the smaller quill feathers are 
in every case represented as laying one over another as in the Hawk, while 
this species never reposes but with these feathers brought down — overhang- 
ing the greater quills — in a slanting direction. This is an observable 
feature peculiar to the species, and in nearly every case this Owl is figured 
sitting upon a tree, which is rarely, if ever, its true habit, as it perches, or 
rests upon the ground, except in rare cases. I had very serious doubts, 
some little time since, if it ever perched at all ; but through the extreme 
kindness of my friends who have all most courteously rendered me their 
experience, I have decided that this one usually reposes upon the ground, 
but upon rare occasions is found to perch. The turnip field is an especial 
favourite with this bird. I desire especially to return my thanks to my 
ever kind and obliging correspondents, Sir W. M. Milner, Bart., and the 
Rev. M. A. Matthews, &c., who have sent me many pleasing and valuable 
notes upon this species. 

At no distant time, I purpose to find for these valuable pages a 
continuance of these sexual distinctions, and sincerely hope they may nat 
prove utterly devoid of interest to my brother naturalists. 

King's Lynn, Norfolk, July, 1861. 



118 THE NATURALIST. 



AN EXCURSION TO CAPE SPARTEL, BARBARY. 



By F. Brittain, Esq. 



In conformity with the promise that I made you in my last letter, I 
write you a short sketch of my excursion to Cape Spartel. I had arranged 
with Hamet, the guide, to leave Tangiers ahout eight o'clock in the morn- 
ing, but we were detained about half an hour by a very violent shower ; 
as soon as it was over and the clouds had passed away, we mounted our 
horses and left the town. It was market day and we met crowds of people 
bringing the produce of the country to the market. The procession of 
camels and mules laden with faggots, bundles of grass, or baskets of 
poultry, conducted by savage looking men of every complexion between 
that of a Moor and a black from Soudan, and the women mounted 
upon horses and^mules, and dressed in their curious witch-like costume 
with everything but the eyes concealed, rendered the scene highly inter- 
esting and picturesque. 

For the first four or five miles our path led across pleasant 
undulating prairies, carpeted with grass and composite flowers, such as 
Acliillcea, Gnaphalium, Antennaria, Hieracium, HypochcBris. The brilliant 
ultramarine Eclihim vulgare and Borago officinalis were extremely abundant, 
and occasionally I noticed specimens of Cichorium intybus. As we had a 
ride of thirty miles before us, which it was necessary to complete before the 
closing of the gates of Tangiers, I could not dismount to take specimens 
of every plant that I saw, but putting my whip in my mouth I took note of 
many of those that I knew. When we reached the foot of a hill up which the 
horses could not walk very rapidly I dismounted, and seized the opi)ortunity 
of taking a number of specimens. Amongst the rocks I found in great 
abundance Cistus heterophyllus, many species of Epilohium, Campanula, 
Sedum, Fedia, Galium,, and a great variety of odoriferous plants, such as 
Thymus, Origanum, Verbena, Eosmarinus, and Lavandula. 

When we reached the summit of the hill we saw the ocean before us, 
and its deep blue waves were crested with foam. As we descended we 
passed through a more thickly wooded country, but here few of the trees 
reach any considerable height ; amongst the more beautiful are the Algar- 
roba and the fig. The Agave amcricana and Opuntia vulgaris are very 
plentiful, but the palm is rarely seen near the coast. On the mountain 



EXCURSION TO CAPE SPAllTEI., BARCARY. 119 

sides one of the commonest trees is Quercus ballota, and the myrtle is by 
no means rare. I noticed two species of Acanthus, one of them was spino- 
siis but the other I did not know, In a sheltered nook by the side of a 
mountain stream I found Osmunda regalis, and a beautiful Adiantum with 
fronds about a foot long. After resting a short time at the lighthouse 
we went forward to Cape Spartel ; the path is extremely bad and the 
descent into the little bay rather dangerous. Upon our arrival at the 
Cape we left our horses to graze upon the flat ground on the top of the 
cliffs and entered a most singular cavern. Here we sat upon the rocks 
with the sea rolling in just below us, and had lunch. 

After resting an hour we mounted our horses and recommenced our 
journey, following a narrow path that led across an extensive plain. 
Sometimes we skirted fields of barley or Zea Mays, at the edges of which 
were growing Scabiosa arvensis and succisa, Linum iisltatissimum, Lotus cornicu- 
latits, and other common British plants. The beautiful grasses Briza 
major and minor were abundant, but I saw no specimens of m£dia which 
is so common in England. I also noticed Lamarkla aurea, and Trisetum 
l(x fling lanum. As the weather was remarkably fine the birds were singing 
all the day. I distinguished the songs of nearly every bird that I am 
acquainted with; amongst them those of Anthus arhoreus, Sylvia Jiortensis 
and cineria, Troglodytes europccus, Alauda alpestris, Tiirdus merula and 
musicus, Salicaria phragmitis. That unmusical bird, Crexj^ratensis, was the 
commonest of all. 

In the course of our ride we reached 'the banks of a sluggish stream 
over which there was no bridge ; my horse got safely over with some 
difficulty after sinking considerably over the knees in mud, but Hamet 
was not so fortunate, his horse fell in making violent exertions to extricate 
itself from the bog and Hamet was thrown to the ground. Whilst he 
was washing his legs which sadly needed it after his promenade in the 
bog, I spent the time in taking a survey of the neighbourhood. Fortun- 
ately the accident had happened in a beautiful valley near a village. On 
the roofs of the cottages stately storks were sitting in their enormous flat 
nests, others were flying slowly and gracefully in circles above the village. 
These singular birds nearly always build their nests upon houses, and, as 
their presence is considered a shield from evil influences, they are never 
disturbed. In September they all leave for the south and return about 
May, each one taking possession of its old nest. On our way home I saw 
many enormous Onojwrdums and Centaureas, Eryngiuni marilimum, Slaiice 



120 



THE NATUEALIST. 



Limonium, Cotyledon umbilicus, Alisma plantago, Papaver Bhceas, Orobanche 
major, Poly gala vulgaris, Genista tinctoria and anglica. Ononis arvensis, Melilo- 
tus officinalis, Chlora perfoliata, Scrophularia sambucifolia, vernalis and nodosa, 
Veronica Anagallis, and a great number of papilionaceous and umbelliferous 
plants. We reached Tangiers in the evening after spending the day most 
delightfully. 



A LIST OF THE MACRO-LEPIDOPTEEA WHICH OCCUR 
IN PERTHSHIRE. 



By F. B. W. White, Esq., F.B.S., Ed. 



PART III. 



NOGTUINA. 

Thyatira batis, not common. 

Cymatophora duplaris, not common. 

C. flavicornis, Kinnoull, Rannoch. 

Bryophila perla, common. 

Acronycta tridens, rare. 

A. psi. 

A. leporina, not common. 

A. ligustri 

A. rumicis. 

A. myriccB, Rannoch. 

Leucania conigera, not uncommon 
on the flowers of LycJmitis Flos-cu- 
culi. 

L. comma. Bridge of Allan. 

L. impura. 

L. pallens. 

Nonagria fulva. 

N. crassicornis, one specimen, 
Mr. Trotter. 

Gortyna Jlavago, common. 

Hydroecia nictitans. 

Axylia piitris. 



Xylophasia rurea, two varieties, 
one very dark. 

X. litlioxylea, not common. 

X pohjodon, a very dark variety. 

Hellophobus popularis. 

Charaas graminis, fond of sitting 
on the flowers of Senecio jacobcea in 
the day time. 

Mamestra Jurva, Perth, rare. 

M. BrassiccB. 

Apamea Basilinea. 

A. oculea. 

Miana strlgilis. 

M. fasciuncula. 

M. literosa. 

M. furuncula. 

Caradrina cubicularis. 

Rusina tenebrosa. 

Agrotis suffusa. 

A. segetum. 

A. exclamationis . 

A. Agathina, rare. 

A porphyrea. 



WHITE ON MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA OF PERTHSHIRE. 



121 



TriphcBiia lanthina. 
T. fimbria. 
T. orbona. 
T. pronuba. 

Noctua glareosa, Perth, Bridge of 
Allan. 
N. plecta. 

N. c-nigrmn, not common. 
IV. brunnea. 
N. /estiva. 
N. umbrosa. 
N. baja. 

N. sobrina, Rannoch. 
N. xanthographa, rare. 
Trachea piniperda. 
Pachnobia alpina. 
Tceniocampa gothica. 
T. rubricosa, not common. 
T. insiabilis. 
T. stabilis. 
T. cruda. 

Orthosia macilenta. 
Anchocelis rufina. 
A. litura. 
Cerastis vaccinii. 

C. spadicea. 
Scopelosoma satellitia. 
Xanthia cerago. 

X. flavago. 
X. ferruginea. 

Cirrcedia xerampelina, once on the 
South Frith, Perth, Mr. Lamb. 
Cosmia trapezina. 
Dianthoecia capsincola, 

D. cucubali. 
Folia chi. 
Miselia oxyacantha. 
Agriopis apriUna. 



Phlogophora meticulosa. 

Euplexia lucipara, Rannoch. 

Aplecta herbida. 

A. nebulosay rare. 

A. tincta, Rannoch. 

A. advena, rare. 

Hadena assimilis, Rannoch. 

H. adusta. 

H. protea. 

H. dentina. 

H, oleracea. 

H. pisi. 

H. tliallassina. 

H. rectilinea, Rannoch. 

Calocampa vetusta, not rare. 

C. exoleta, common. 

CucuUia umbraticcB. 

Anarta melanopa, Rannoch and 
Glen Almond. 

A. cordigera, Rannoch. 

A. myrtilli. 

Abrostola urticcB. 

Pliisia chrysitis. 

P. bractea, Perth, and Bridge of 
Allan, frequents flowers of Lychnis 
Flos-cuculi. 

P.festuccB. 

P. iota. 

P. pulchrina. 

P. gamma. 

P. interrogationis, Birnam. 

Gonoptera libatrix. 

Amphipyra tragopogonis. 

Mania typica. 

M. maura. 

Euclidia mi. 

E. glyphica. 

Phytometra anea. 



12'2 'i'HK NATURALIST. 

NOTES UPON PLANTS. 



By Leo H. Grindon. 



Grasses. — Young botanists are accustomed to turn from the grasses in 
dismay, supposing them intensely difficult. At the present season, when 
so many species of this beautiful family are in perfection, it may be well 
to invite the student's attention to one or two of the commonest, and 
which are at the same time very easy to understand. Take for instance, 
the common meadow soft-grass, Holcus lanatus. While quite young, the 
panicle is close and compact. As the flowers open, it gradually assumes 
the form of a triangular pyramid, some plants commencing to bloom 
at the summit, others at the base, and when fully expanded, is hung all 
over, and most elegantly, with the little purple and pendulous anthers. 
Except when growing in shade, which is not often, (the meadow soft-grass 
being one especially of the open fields and even of the wayside) the hue of 
the panicle is of a peculiar pinky-red, — a character by which the plant 
may generally be identified at a glance. When abundantly difi'used among 
mowing-grass, the surface of the meadow is markedly tinted by it, some- 
what in the same way as by the sorrel, but not so agreeably, since the 
soft-grass has little or no lustre, nor is the colour rich and glowing as in 
the former. Another very obvious character, when the plant is taken in 
the hand, consists in the velvety softness of every portion, and especially 
of the leaf-sheaths. Now take an individual spikelet : at the base are the 
two "outer" glumes, purplish, boat-shaped, hairy, semi-transparent, and 
with a strong green rib up the middle, and another near each margin. 
Inside these are the glumelles, which being green, are plainly distinguish- 
able by their colour alone, as well as by their much smaller size, and are 
visible through the glumes, which are often almost as clear as a piece of 
glass. Interior to these again are the organs immediately concerned in 
reproduction, and which consist of three stamens in the upper of the two 
flowers, and of three stamens and a solitary pistil in the lower one. The 
glumelle of the upper flower has a delicate and curving awn at the back 
It is so short, however, as to be quite concealed by the great glume, so 
that without dissection the flowers seem awnless. 

Other very good species for the beginner are the common ray-grass, 
Loliu7n jierenno, and the silver oat-grass, Arrhennthermn avenaceiim. On 



r.lUNDON ON PLANTS. 123 

fine days they liaiig out their jn-etty anthers in profusion, and even with- 
out dissection we may plainly sec the recurving and feathery stigmas. 

Lathy r us pratensls. — The leaflets of this plant and of several of its 
allies have the veins parallel, almost like those of the leaves of an 
Endogen. No mistake or confusion can arise, since the petioles are 
provided with stipules, appendages which never occur in the latter class of 
plants. At the extremity of the petiole there is likewise a tendril. This 
organ is very rare in Endogens, and is familiarly illustrated in our hot- 
houses only hy the Gloriosa of the East Indies, a lovely climbing plant of 
the liliaceous type. When the Lnthyrus comes into flower, of course, its 
affinities are plain enough. 

Trifollum and Medicago often, perhaps always, have the veins of their 
leaflets forked like those of many ferns. Here again the stipules prevent 
any mistake that might arise from the idea that forked veins are peculiar 
to the Filices. True, they are very seldom met with in any other plants; — 
markedly so only in the Salisburla and some other trees belonging to the 
natural order Taxacecr, which stands as a link between normal Exogens 
and the Cryptogamia. 

Phyteuma spicatum. — This plant, only enrolled as a native some few 
years since, when it was observed wild in the South-east of England, I 
have recently discovered in some low and grassy ground on the banks of 
the river Weaver, near Northwich, Cheshire. The exact spot is within 
the circumference of a park, but there is no reason, that I can learn, to 
suppose that the plant was ever cultivated there ; and although the margin 
of a river is always a suspicious locality, and the Phyteumia is a limestone 
rather than a sandstone plant, I am disposed to consider it a bona fide 
acquisition to our local Flora. 

Geum rivcde. — When this plant is out of flower, and the ovaries are 
in course of ripening, the entire head is elevated upon a peduncle, so as 
to stand at a considerable height above the relics of the floral envelopes 
and the withered stamens. Does this indicate a tendency towards the 
unisexual or monoecious state ? Several of the Rosaceoo are almost nor- 
mally unisexual, as Piuhus Chamamorus, and the strawberry is well known 
to be so in many instances. 

Trifoliwn. — Students who possess microscopes, even of the simj)lest 
and oldest construction, should examine the calyces of the different species 
of this familiar genus, especially the smaller ones. They are semi-pellucid, 
most elegantly ribbed with green, and usually freckled with rose-colour. 



124 



THE NATURALIST. 



Sometimes the tube is altogether white, while the long teeth are green 
and hairy. Supplementary specific characters are supplied by the last- 
named parts. 

Vicia and Lotus. — Compound leaves are usually provided with petioles, 
and generally with rather long ones. It is interesting accordingly to find 
an exception in these genera, where the lowest pair of leaflets is almost close 
upon the stem ; while in Lotus the leaves are absolutely sessile. There is 
no room even for the stipules ordinarily characteristic of a papilionaceous 
plant, the large broad portions which simulate stipules being in reality the 
first or lowest of the two pairs of opposite leaflets. They are articulated 
to the petiole in a way that stipules never are. 

Bellis perennis. — What queer little cones the common field-daisy lifts 
up by midsummer ! When the flower fades, first the white rays drop ofl"; 
then the receptacle that holds the yellow disk-florets begins to elevate 
itself, and in a few weeks becomes a tall white cone like that in the inside 
of a raspberry. The surface is thickly covered with the ripening ovaries, 
every one of them retaining the withered corolla upon the summit, the 
extremities often turning reddish ; — when mature, all drop away, begin- 
ning from the base of the cone, and the latter, naked and erect, and set 
in its little saucer of green leaves, (formerly the basket of the flower) gives 
an exact image of such a cap as is placed by fable and picture upon the 
heads of witches. 

Lychnis vespertina — The calyx, though tubular, readily separates into 
its five component sepals, thus resembling the calyx of a Stellaria, on a 
larger scale, and prettily illustrates the real nature of a tubular calyx, i. e. 
shows that the latter is compound as to its elements, and that a one-leaved 
calyx, like a monopetalous corolla, is only a term of convenience, no such 
thing being actually found in nature. 



West-Riding Consolidated Natural- 
ists' Society. — The delegates from the 
various Societies in the above Union 
met at Leeds, on the 9th ult., for 
the transaction of business, after 
which a general meeting was held at 
the Working Men's Institution, Mr. 



G. Walker in the chair. Several 
animated discussions took place on 
various subjects in Natural History, 
shewing the advantages of a well- 
regulated Union of Societies. Mr. 
Taylor spoke upon the irregularity 
of development, and the habits and 
structure of S.Bonihi/lifonnis. Larvse 



BEPORTS OF SOCIETIES. 



125 



of N. liicina'^ were exhibited col- 
lected on Primnla vens, at Bram- 
ham Moor. Many Conchological, 
Oological, and Botanical specimens 
were also exhibited ; the following 
list contains the j)rincipal species of 
plants on the table : — 

EaiiiincidusFlannmda, R. sceleratus, 
R. arrensis, Alliaria offi,cinalis, Tilla 
europcea, Sparganium ramosum, Lis- 
tera ovata, Orchis maculata, Comarum 
palustre, Polygonum amphiblum, P. 
aviculare, Galium cruciatimi, G. sax- 
atile, G. veriim, Veronica officinalis, 
Euphrasia officinalis, Thymus serpyl- 
lum, Stachys sylvatica, Betonica ojffici- 
nalis, Nepeta Cataria, Lysimachia 
Nummularia, Hypericum quadrangu- 
lum, H. perforatum, H. pulehrum, H. 
humifusum, Papaver Rhccas, Lapsana 
communis. Chrysanthemum Leucanthe- 
mumy Tanacetwn vulgaris, Hieracuim 
aurantiacum, Sagittaria sagiUifolia Ta- 
mus communis, Atropa Belladonna, 
Silene i)ijlata. 

Wanington Field Katuralists' So- 
ciety. — At a recent meeting of this 
Society the honorary Secretary, Mr. 
Peers, read a description of the larva 
of Tortrix vihurnana (hitherto unde- 
scribed) which he first found agglu- 
tinating the leaves of Andromeda 
jjolij'olia on the 18th May, and sub- 
sequeutly screwing the leaves of 
Myrica gale on Woolston Moss, near 
Warrington. The perfect insect 

* N. lucina. "The larva has not been 
found in England." — iStaintori' s Manual. 



made its appearance on the 26th 
June. Mr. Cash exhibited speci- 
mens of Volvox glohator recently 
found in the neighbourhood in great 
abundance ; also a specimen of Ste- 
j)hanoceros Eichhornii, and various 
other animalculce, under the micro- 
scope. 

Huddersjield Naturalists' Society. — 
At the Ordinary Meeting of this 
Society held on Monday Evening, 
July 11th, Alfred Beaumont, Esq., 
President, in the chair, a more 
than usually interesting collection 
of Plants, Insects, &c., were exhibi- 
ted by the members. Mr. W. H. 
Charlesworth exhibited a good, and 
neatly set, collection of Coleoptera, 
including Calosoma Inquisitor, Cychnis 
rostratus, from Epping, Pyrochroa ru- 
hens, from Sherwood Forest, Dromius 
quadrimacidatus, &g. Mr. Jas. Var- 
ley exhibited some very remarkable 
varieties of Albraxas grossulariata, a 
description of which will ajDpear in 
an early number of " The Natural- 
ist." The following plants from the 
neighbourhood were on the table : — 
Rosa arvensis, R. canina, R. villosa, 
Linaria cymhalaria, L. purpurea, L. 
minor, L. vulgaris, Circcea alpina, C. 
lutetiana, Lythrum salicarla. Mr. 
Jessop also exhibited a fine plant of 
Linaria cymhalaria, with double flow- 
ers, gathered at Waterloo, near 
Huddersfield. Mr, Varley brought 
the following species from the neigh- 
bourhood of Filey, &c. : — Centauria 



126 



THE NATURALIST. 



Scahiosa, Lycopsis arvensis, Plantago 
marltima, P. coronopus, P. media, 
Achillea millefolia (red flowers), Ero- 
diwn ciciitarium, Hyoscyamus niger, 
Acorus calamus, AntJujllis vulneraria, 
Triglochin palustre. 

July S3rd. — This meeting was 
held, by invitation, at the residence 
of the President, Alfred Beaumont, 
Esq., Greave, Meltham. After tea, 
and inspecting Mr. Beaumont's beau- 
tiful collection of Birds and Insects, 
about 100 species of plants were laid 
on the table, on which some remarks 
were made by Mr. W. Guthrie, of 
Fixby. An interesting discussion 
also took place on several subjects 
in Natural History, including the 
annual migration of small Birds. 
Amongst the plants above-named 
the following claim more particular 
notice, viz.: — Geum urbanum, Alcliem- 
illa vulgaris, Epilohium montanum, 
E. cdpinum, Sedum Rhodiola, S. Tele- 
pjhium, S. rup)estre, Hydrocotgle vulgaris, 
Helosciadum nodijiorum, (Enanthe 
crocata, ^thusa cgnapium, Conium 
maculatum, Smijrnium Olusatrum, Lon- 
icera Periclymenum, Samhucus nigra, 
Galium uliginosum, Valeriana offici- 
nalis, Sonchus arvensis, Campanula 
latifolia, C. Piapunculus, C. rotundi- 
folia, C. persicifolia, C. glomerata, C. 
hederacea, Vaccinium O.vycoccos, Erica 
tetralix, E. cinerea, Ligustrum vulgare, 
Erythrwa Centauriwn, Polemonium 
cwruleum, Myosotis palustris, Symphy- 
tum tuberosum, Rhinanthus Crista Galli, 



Linaria vulgaris, Var. palustris, Mentha 
arvensis, Stachys palustris, S. sylvatica, 
Scutellaria galericulata, Lysimachia 
vulgaris, Plantago media, Blechnum 
boreale, Aspidium recurvum, ( ? ) Eqiii' 
setum sylvaticum. Ranunculus Flam- 
mula, Corydalis lutea, Draba incana, 
Hesperis matronalis. 



A Botanical Tour. 
On Saturday, June 18, accompanied 
by my friend Mr. Oxley, president of 
the Wakefield Naturalists' Society, 
I explored the south-west side of 
Wakefield. Living on the north or 
rather north-west by north I have 
previously examined that side of 
Wakefield well. By comparing the 
two and other neighbouring districts, 
I find that many plants are exceed- 
ingly local in their distribution. 
Many which are abundant in one 
locality being altogether absent from 
immediately adjoining districts. 
Again, many which in " Withering " 
and other " British Floras " are de- 
scribed as " very common" I find 
very sparingly distributed in this 
quarter. As an example of this I 
may cite Sanicula curopea, which 
is described as abundant. I have 
hunted many woods — its favourite 
locality — and have only found 
three specimens, two in Lang- 
ley Wood, Lofthouse, and one in 
Howe Park, (a wood) near Walton. 



OBSERVATIONS. 



127 



We surely cannot cull this ''abun- 
dant." 

It is evident, tlien, that we cannot 
really become aquainted with the 
Flora of our portion of Britain or 
even of this great County of York by 
means of these " British Floras." It 
is by means of local lists, and local 
lists alone, that any real knowledge 
of the distribution of x^lants can be 
obtained. 

I shall make no apology then for 
troubling you with the result of our 
Saturday's tour, deeming what I 
have said a sufficient excuse for so 
doing. 

I may add that we found many 
plants besides those named in this 
list ; but I thought it unadvisable to 
insert them here, as they seem to 
be common over a very large district. 

The following is a list of plants 
collected, excluding the more com- 
mon : — 

Sagittaria sagittifolia. Canal near 
Walton; plentiful. 

OrnitliopiisiJerpusillus. A few plants ; 
very local. Kailway side. 

Trifoluim procumhens. Bather local ; 
Canal side, Walton. Plentiful. 

Polygala vulgaris. 

Melampyrum pratense. Howe Park ; 
plentiful. 

Hypericum humifusum. Few plants ; 
Eailway side, near Wakefield. 

Potamogeton natans. Barnsley canal. 

Pianunculus aquatilis. New Miller 
dam. 



Veronica motttana. 

Alisma plantago. Barnsley canal. 

Skerardia arvensis. Abundant ; 
New Miller dam. 

Asperula ofZoraia."Abundant; Howe 
Park. 

Spergula arvensis. 

Parietaria officinalis. New Miller 
dam. 

Sanicula europea. Howe Park. 

ClierophyUum sylvestre. 

Conium maculatum. 

Orchis maculata. 

FERNS. 

Lastrcea Filix mas. -j Everywhere 

L. spinulosa, \ abundant. 

Athyrium Filix-fcemina. Howe 
Park. 

AspleniumTncliomanes. New Miller 
dam ; a very few plants. 

Aspjlenium Ruta-muraria. Do. 

I have found a very few plants of 
Polygonatum multijiora, in a wood, 
near Lofthouse ; and on a railway 
embankment at the same place, a 
few plants oiPolypodium Dryopteris.— 
J. Hepworth, Lofthouse, Wakefield. 



The Hawfinch Breeding in Nor- 
folk. — A splendid pair of Haw- 
finches, Fringilla coccothraustes, in 
full summer dress, was shot on the 
2nd instant at Weston, a village 
about eight miles from Norwich ; 
from information I received they 
bred and reared their young in that 
neighbourhood, the nest being placed 
in a thick hawthorn hedge a few 



128 



THE NATUllALIST. 



feet from the ground, near to a gar- 
den to which they proved very de- 
structive, their food consisting chiefly 
of the green peas, with which their 
crops and stomachs (on being dis- 
sected) were found to he completely 
filled. A pair bred in the same 
locality in the summer of 1861. — 
T. E. GuNN, Norwich, July 30, 1864. 
Fringilla incerta. — Your readers 
will be pleased to learn that I have 
a living specimen of that exceedingly 
rare and doubtful British Bird, 
Fringilla incerta, of Risso ; I at first 
mistook it for a hen Greenfinch. — 
Louis Fraser, The Green, Knights- 
bridge, London, S.W., July 13, 1864. 



Ateiichiis. — In reply to your cor- 
respondent A. L., I beg to inform 
him that the reason why the Ateu- 
chus is called the Sacred Beetle of 
the Egyptians is, that the Ateuchus 
was the symbol used on the Egyp- 
tian monuments to represent the 
God " Pthah," who was worshipped 
as the embodiment of strength and 
stability.— T. G. P. 

Veronica peregrina is now well 
established in the neighbourhood of 
Perth. It is a common weed in 
Dickson and TurnbuU's nurseries 
on the side of the river Tay, opposite 
to the fair city. How this foreigner 
(if such it be) has gained an entrance 
into our country, I believe as yet 



has not been satisfactorily deter- 
mined, only the plant is here and 
in abundance as a living evidence of 
the fact. Has this little annual been 
found in any other part of Great 
Britain ? I am perfectly aware that 
it occurs plentifully in more places 
than one in the North of Ireland, 
particularly in the vicinity of Lon- 
donderry, but like its appearance at 
Perth, who can account for it ? Mr. 
W. Gait, in the Glasgow Manuscript 
Magazine, has some very interesting 
remarks upon the native residence 
of V. jjeregrina. Would it not 
be very acceptable to see some fur- 
ther light thrown upon this humble 
annual ? One thing, however, ap- 
pears to be certain, it is now firmly, 
and I have reason to believe perma- 
nently, established in the British 
Isles, and like another foreign in- 
truder ( Miimdus luteus) will pro- 
bably in a few years considerably 
extend its boundaries. — John Sim, 
Bridge End, Perth. 



®^rfjange» 



I have H. Semele which I should 
be glad to exchange for C. Hyale, 
A. cratoegi, E. Cassiope, C. Davus, 
L. Sibilla, A. Irus, G. C. album, T. 
pruni, T. W. album, P. Avion or P. 
Actwon. Applicants will be kind 
enough to write before sending any 
box. — A. J. Hay, Uckfield, Sussex. 



1Q9 



NOTES ON THE ROTIFERA. 



By J. Cash, Wareington. 



No. 2. — Melicerta Ringens. 

This rotifer, which, according to the old arrangement, forms a genus of 
itself, is distinguished by the following characters, according to Pritchard. 
" Case of a brownish red colour, composed of small lenticular (?) bodies, 
deposited by the animalcule ; rotary organs simple, with four lobes when 
expanded ; alimentary canal divided into segments, in one of which (the 
pharyngeal bulb) are complex jaws ; mouth situate at the bottom of the 
cleft, between the two large lobes of the rotary organ. Male generative 
organisation unknown. Two water-vascular canals arising from a con- 
tractile vesicle ascend towards the head. There are two tactile appen- 
dages with setigerous extremities on each side of the head, and two eye- 
spots in the young animal." 

This is almost as common a rotifer as any we have in the neighbourhood 
of Warrington, and if not the most beautiful, it is at any rate the most 
interesting of the whole class, from the fact that instead of merely secret- 
ing a gelatinous case, like the Stephanoceros, in which to live when it has 
reached maturity, it builds for itself a house, using for the purpose bricks 
of its own moulding. It is this habit of building which distinguishes it 
from all other members of the class, and which, I think, should keep it 
distinct, however much resemblance there may be in regard to internal 
organisation. Mr. Gosse, however (see Popular Science Review, vol. i., 
p. 481,) takes nine genera, each containing a single species, and reduces 
them to two, giving the generic name of Melicerta to the following : — 
Ptygura, CEcistes, Tubicolaria, Limnias, Melicerta, and Cephalosiphon ; while 
MegalotrocJia, Lacinularia, and Conocliilus, constitute another genus, to 
which he gives the name of MegalotrocJia. These two new genera are dis- 
tinguished by the circumstance that in the former the individuals are 
always solitai7 ; in the latter they are (in adult age) aggregated by mutual 
adhesion into somewhat spherical masses, composed of many animals radi- 
ating in every direction from a common central point of adhesion. 

^0. 9, September 1. K 



130 THE NATURALIST. 

Without entering into tlie question of the propriety of this change, — 
which, however, it may not be amiss to say is in some respects an ad- 
mirable one — I propose to supply a few notes with regard to Melicerta 
ringens. The operation of brick making, which is its peculiar characteristic, 
is as interesting a one as can well be conceived. Let us imagine that we 
have a young and vigorous specimen before us. The first thing that 
attracts our attention is, of course, the machinery of the expanded disc. 
We cannot avoid noticing it, and so beautiful is the spectacle that if we 
have never seen a Melicerta before, some time will elapse before we can be 
persuaded to take our eyes from it ; but if we look carefully we shall see a 
little below this — if the creature happens to be engaged in building — a 
small circular or cup-like cavity, within which a little pellet is revolving 
with a ceaseless and rapid motion. This pellet is identical in shape and 
size with those which form the case. Now let us watch the movements of 
the creature rather closely. We see it sway violently from side to side — 
its flower-like disc the while being considerably changed in outline — the 
edges of each lobe or petal are turned upwards and made to approach 
each other — presently it bends forward and deposits the pellet, or brick, 
or whatever we choose to term it, with the utmost precision, always taking 
care to deposit each one so as to make its house gradually wider as it in- 
creases in height. When the Melicerta has " righted" itself, it re- 
commences its brick-moulding ; in a few minutes the little circular cavity is 
re-filled, and another pellet is laid. Sometimes, however, though very 
rarely, the Melicerta does not succeed in depositing the pellet in its proper 
place. On one or two occasions I have seen it fail, when it has been 
driven away by the ciliary current. The pellets, which are apparently 
spherical, are cemented together by a glutinous substance secreted by the 
Melicerta in the cavity in which they are moulded : this substance is also 
mixed with the fine particles from the surrounding water, of which they 
are composed, in order to give them cohesion, else they would readily be 
dissolved.* As it is they preserve their consistency for a considerable 
length of time. Usually, however, in a few days after the death of the 
animal they disappear. During the present summer I introduced a large 
number of MelicertsD into my aquarium on the leaf-stems of Anacharis, 
but from some cause or other, which I am unable to explain, they all 
died, and their cases soon became dissolved. 

* In the last edition of " Pritcbard's Infusoria," these pellets are erroneously said 
to be secreted. 



CASH ON THE ROTIFERA. 131 

Professor Williamson says that the young Melicerta commences its 
house by secreting a " thin hyaline cylinder," and the first row of pellets 
is deposited, not at the base, as would be expected, but in a ring about 
the middle of the tube. " At first new additions are made to both ex- 
tremities of the enlarging ring : but the jerking constrictions of the animal 
at length force the caudal end of the cylinder down upon the leaf, to which 
it becomes securely cemented by the same viscous secretion that causes the 
little si3heres (pellets) to cohere." Once I came upon a Melicerta which 
had not commenced to build at all. It had not laid a single brick, and 
such an odd appearance did it present, with its two arms, or *' tactile 
appendages," stretched out at almost right angles to its body, that I was 
greatly puzzled at first to make out what it was. It became clear, however, 
on a close examination, that it was nothing but a young Melicerta. It did 
not commence building whilst under my observation. 

The great beauty of the Melicerta lies in its ciliary apparatus. To 
one unaccustomed to the use of the microscope there is nothing more en- 
chanting than this. Everything else is for the moment lost to view. The ob- 
server sees the ciliary waves chasing one another in regular succession round 
the lobes of the disc, and can hardly persuade himself that there is not an ac- 
tual rotatory movement going on. It is, however, the result of an optical illu- 
sion " produced (as Mr. Gosse says,) by the cilia being brought momentarily 
closer together at certain regular points, causing opacity, and alternating 
with correspondent separations, causing transparency. These waves run 
ceaselessly round, but the cilia themselves do not change their places, they 
merely bend and straighten themselves in rhythmic alternation." This 
action may be more distinctly perceived, and the building operations more 
clearly traced, by the introduction of a little carmine into the water. 

As is the case with Stephanoceros, the male of the Melicerta is un- 
known. The creature is supposed to be dioecious, and the fact that, 
among the vast number of specimens that have been examined, no trace 
of a male organisation has been found, seems to afford some ground for 
this supposition. 

My next communication will be on the Floscules. 



132 



THE NATURALIST. 



A LIST OF THE MACEOLEPIDOPTEEA WHICH OCCUR 
IN PERTHSHIRE. 



By F. B. W. White, Esq., M.D., F.B.S., Ed. 



PART IV. 



GEOMETRINA. 

Epione apiciaria, Callander. 

Rumia cratcEgata. 

Venilia maculata, local, but com- 
mon. 

Metrocampa margaiitata. 

Ellopia fasciaria. 

Selenia illunana. 

8. lunaria, 

S. illustraria. 

Odontopera hidentata. 

Crocallis ellnguaria, not common. 

Ennomos tiliaria. 

Himera pennarla. 

Phigalia pilosaria. 

Aniphidasis Betidaria. 

Cleora viduaria, I took one speci- 
men of what seems to be this species 
near Perth, in 1858. 

Boarmia repandata. 

Tephrosia laricaria, near Perth. 

GnopJios obscurata. 

G. pullata. 

Dasydia obfuscaria, Rannoch, &c. 

Psodos trepidaria, Rannoch. 

Pseudoterpna cytisaria, two speci- 
mens, near Perth. 

Geometra papilionaria, rare, 

Epliyra punctaria. 

Acidalia remutata. 

A. bisetaria. 

A. fumata. 

A. aversaria. 



C. rotundaria, rare. 

C. exanthemata, not common. 

Macaria liturata. 

Halia Wavaria. 

Fidonia carbonaria, Rannoch. 

F. atoynaria, abundant. 

Fidonia piniaria, abundant. 

F. brunneata, Rannoch. 

F. limbaria, Dunkeld, Bridge of 
Earn, and three miles North-east of 
Perth. 

Abraxas grossidariata, once used to 
occur at Perth, not found there now ? 

Lomaspilis marginata, 

Hybernia Tupicapraiia, abundant. 

H. leucophearia, not common. 

H. j^f^ogemmaria. 

H. defoliaria. 

Anisopteryx JEscularia. 

Clieimatobia brumata. 

C. borearia. 

Oporabia dilutata. 

Larentia didymata. 

L. multistrigaria. 

L. ccBsiata, in some places abun- 
dant. I have seen this moth come 
and rest on my clothes, when sitting 
quietly among the heather. 

L. fiavici7ictata, Rannoch, Ben 
Lawers, &c. 

L. olivaria, not common. 

L. miaria. 

Emmelesia Alchemillata. 



WHITE ON MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA OF PERTHSITrRE. 



133 



E. albulata, common. 
E. ericetaria, Rannoch. 
JE'. blandlata, Rannoch. 
Coremia munitata, Rannoch. 
Eupithecia nanata, not rare. 
E. tenidata, the larva is not rare 
in Sallow catkins, near Perth. 
E. rectangulata. 
E. exiguria. 
Thera coniferata, rare. 
T. variata. 

Yi3si2Mes inijjluviata, common ; at 
one tree I found twenty-eight pupas 
of this moth in 1862. 
Y. elutata, very variable. 
Melantliia ruhiginata. 
M. ocellata. 

Melanippe tristata, abundant. 
M. unangulata, common. 
M. hiriviata. 
M. montanata. 

Anticlea badiata, not common. 
Camptogramma bilineata. 
Phibalapteryx lapidata, Rannoch. 
Cidaria psittacata. This species 
hibernates. 
C. miata. 

C. picata, not common. 
C. corylata. 
C. russata. 
C. immanata. 
C. suffumata. 
C. silaceata. 
C. Prunata. 
C. testata. 
C. Populata. 
C. fulvata. 
C. pyraliata. 



Pelurga comitata. 
Eubolia mensuraria, 
E. Plumbaria. 
Chesias spartiata, abundant. 
C, obliquaria, not common, Kin- 
noull. Scone, Glen Almond. 
Odezia chaerophyllata. 

PYRALIDINA. 

Hypena proboscidalis. 

Pyralis farinalis. 

Aglossa pinguinalis. 

Herbula cespitalis. 

Enmjchia cingulalis, local. 

Hydrocampa NyinpJicBalis. 

Botys unicalis. 

B.fmcalls. 

Pionea forficalis. 

Scopula alpinalis, Rannoch, Ben 
Lawers. 

>S'. decrepitaUs. 

Sjjilodis stictalis. 

Eudo7'ea atomalis. 
E. ambigualis. 
E. pyralella. 
E. frequentella. 
E. alpina. 
E. gracilalis. 
E. pallida. 

Aphomia colonella, larva in wasps' 
nests. 

Achroia grisella, Perth. 

Nephopteryx abietella. 

Crambus ericeUus. 

C. inqiimatellus, Rannoch. 

C. geniculeus. 

C. tristellus. 

C. pbietellus, not uncommon. 

Chloephora prasinana. 



134 



THE NATURALIST. 



" British and Garden Botany," by 
Leo H. Grindon, Svo., with nu- 
merouLs Illustrations. (Routledge, 
1864.) 

To quote from Mr. Grindon's pre- 
face, " This book is intended for per- 
sons who take an interest in plants 
and flowers, whether wild or growing 
in gardens, and who are wishful to ac- 
quire a knowledge of such portions 
of botanical science as are useful, 
agreeable, and easily at command, 
though without leisure to study Bo- 
tany in its minute details." With 
this object the author has devoted 
the first sixty-seven pages to an 
elementary treatise on Botany, and 
an explanation of most of the terms 
used in a description of a plant. 
Then follows an " Artificial Key to 
the Families, &c., described in the 
book." 

This key is somewhat novel in its 
arrangement, and answers the pur- 
pose for which it is intended better 
than any other attempt of the kind 
we have seen. It does not profess 
to be exactly an analytical key to 
species in general, but rather an 
" index" by which any plant under 
examination may be easily found in 
the descriptive part of the work ; 
though at the same time for the 
discrimination of species it is an 
admirable guide. By a proper and 
careful use of it any plant in fioiver 



may be easily determined, and one 
is not obliged to wait, as in other 
" keys," for the fruit, or ripe seed, 
before a species can be satisfactorily 
made out. This is certainly a step 
in the right direction, and will be 
very useful to the young botanist. 

In the descriptive portion, which 
occupies 747 pages, under each Bri- 
tish order containing exotic species 
grown in greenhouses or gardens, a 
few remarks on such species are ap- 
pended ; and those orders, which 
are not represented in our native 
flora, but include species occasion- 
ally cultivated, are introduced, with 
remarks on the species as before. 

In those critical genera, Ranun- 
culus, Eosa, Bubus, Hieraciuni, and 
Salix, no attempt is made to unravel 
the complicated question of species 
versus varieties, but each genus is re- 
duced to a minimum number of 
species : thus Salio), of which Prof. 
Babington describes thirty-one spe- 
cies, is reduced to fifteen ; though 
under each described species is 
mentioned a large number of plants 
given as varieties. Whether the 
author intends to reduce the num- 
ber of British species to fifteen, 
or only to describe those of most 
distinctive characters, we are not 
aware. 

One thing we must find a little 
fault with, the undue preference 
given to English names of plants. 
These names being in many cases 



REVIEW — OBSERVATIONS. 



135 



merely local are not calculated to 
increase the knowledge of botany 
amongst the masses, for it is certain 
that any one acquiring a taste for 
botany, and commencing to study it 
by local names only, will, if inclined 
to read and understand either British 
or continental works on the science, 
or make himself acquainted even 
with our British flora alone, have to 
begin his studies afresh, with the 
proper nomenclature. At the same 
time it is possible that the way in 
which Mr. Grindon has used them 
may have a tendency to induce some 
to make themselves acquainted with 
the scientific names. 

We can confidently recommend 
Mr. Grindon's book to any one in- 
clined to commence the study of 
Botany, and if such persons make a 
proper use of it by acquiring a 
knowledge of both names, they may 
soon become very well acquainted 
with our English flora, and be able 
to read and understand more ad- 
vanced works on the science. The 
introduction of exotic species, which 
is quite a new feature in English 
botanical text books, will give the 
student more comprehensive ideas 
and wider views than the considera- 
tion of the limited number of species 
indigenous to Britain can possibly 
do ; and perhaps lead to the study of 
a branch of the science which among 
amateurs at least, has been very 
much neglected. 



Society of Amateur Botanists. — 
At a meeting of this Society, held 
on the 17th ultimo, at No. 193, 
Piccadilly, the president, M. C. 
Cooke, Esq., in the chair. Mr. A. B. 
Cole read a paper on SturmiaLoeselii, 
with especial reference to the ferti- 
lisation of that plant. Examples of 
the following British species, in a 
living state, were then laid on the 
table by one of the members : — 
Bujyleurum falcatum, Chenopodium 
hybridum, C. miirale, Carduus setosus, 
&c. Another member exhibited and 
distributed specimens of the follow- 
ing Jersey plants : — Ranunculus 
ophioglossif alius, Dianthns prolifer, 
Silene quinquevulnera, Orchis laxi- 
flora, Epipactis palustris, Ophioglos- 
sum lusitanicum, Isoetes Hystrix, and 
many others. It was then agreed 
that the next meeting should be 
devoted to the exhibiton of new and 
rare British plants. 



®hntxMmx^. 

A Day in the Lake District, 
IN July. 

Having previously determined to 
spend a few days in the neighbour- 
hood of Windermere, towards the 
end of July I packed up, and took 
advantage of the fine weather in the 
last week thereof, making the " Ferry 
Hotel" my head quarters. 

Starting fair, early in the morning, 
I commenced by examining the tree 



13G 



THE NATURALIST. 



trunks in the woods with very little 
success; afterwards beating amongst 
the nut bushes, I found Emmelesia 
hydraria in profusion, Larentia 
olivata rather scarce, but fine, Eupe- 
thcecia rectangulata amongst crabs, 
and Eupithecia tenuiata, near sallows ; 
the first all light green varieties, the 
latter fine rich coloured specimens, 
butboth very much behind the time at 
which they appear in this neighbour- 
hood. E. rufiasciata was also out ; 
July is very late for the first brood, 
and yet too early for the second. 
Cidaria immwiatavfas in profusion, as 
was also Hypenodes costoestrigalis, and 
the wild cherry trees swarmed with 
Argyresothia ephippella. Tiring of this 
game, I turned my attention to larva 
hunting on the foxgloves growing in 
the open parts of the woods, and 
here I found that the larvae of 
Eupithecia pulchellata had been in 
abundance, and that there was still 
plenty of it left of all sizes. I also 
found it feeding on the Peritstemoii, 
but it had not closed the flower up 
as it does the foxglove. Desirous 
of changing the character of my 
ground, I struck into the dark, close 
growing woods, and had scarcely 
done so, when the object of my search, 
Emmelesia tceniata, met my eye for 
the first time alive. It was dis- 
lodged from a young oak. Follow- 
ing up the clue to its habits here 
observed, I was soon in the darkest 
part of the wood, disturbing them as 



I went, but not always capturing 
them, because they were very fond 
of getting a few young trees between 
themselves and me, as soon as 
possible, and of getting into closer 
and rougher places than I could get 
into or move about in. Night at 
length made even my pet dark places 
too dark to see this dark looking 
moth as it flies ; and I had just sat 
down to tea when a waiter walked 
into the coff'ee room, saying " you 
had better see if he is here," and 
another pleasure was added to my 
tea table, in the shape of my old 
friend Mr. J. B. Hodgkinson, to whose 
suggestions we are all indebted for 
the great discovery of the year, the 
proper food plant of E. pulchellata^ 
for though I have found it on two 
other plants, there is no doubt but 
that the stamens of the foxglove is 
its proper food. Arrangements for a 
day together closed a " red letter day" 
in the Lake District in July. — C. S. 
Gregson, Aug. 5th, 1864. 

Remarkable varieties of Abraxas 
grossulariata and Arctia caja. — 
About the 5th of June, a friend of 
mine brought me a few larvse of 
Abraxas grossulariata from his gar- 
den, and asked me if I knew what 
they were and how to get rid of them, 
for there were thousands on his 
gooseberry trees. I went the fol- 
lowing day and collected a large 
quantity ; they were nearly full fed 
and commenced changing into pupae 



EEPORTS OF SOCIETIES — NOTES AND QUERIES- 



137 



at once. On the 1st of July, the 
imagos began to make their appear- 
ance, and I am amply repaid for 
my trouble in collecting so many 
laiTse of a very common insect by 
the beautiful varieties I have thus 
obtained. Some of them are very 
pale, the usual orange markings 
being of a light buff: others, of which 
I send you two examples, are very 
dark, the orange bands on the wings 
being entirely obsolete, and one of 
them has a black margin half an 
inch broad, an enlarged black basal 
blotch and an entire absence of the 
usual spots upon the wings, though 
the body is orange with black spots 
as in the ordinary form. I have 
likewise bred a good variety of 
Arctia caja, the fore wings being very 



light, and the hind wings and body 
are of a very light orange colour, 
instead of the usual deep red. — J. 
Varley, Almondbury Bank, Hud- 
dersfield. 

[We give in plate 1 a sketch of the 
above varieties ; together with (Fig. 
1) the normal form of the insect. 
Fig 3 is the dark variety mentioned 
above, and Fig. 3 is an intermediate 
variety. — Eds.] 



I see in No. 8 of '* The Natura- 
list" that Linaria purpurea was 
exhibited at one of the meetings of 
the Huddersfield NaturaHsts' So- 
ciety. Will any member furnish 
me with the locality for it, through 
these columns. —James Britten. 



NOTES ON A FEW MORE BUOKINGHAMSHIEE EARITIES. 



July, 1864. 



Bi James Britten. 



Having just returned from my summer's holiday in the above-men- 
tioned county, and mindful of a promise to lay the results of that holiday 
before the readers of the " Naturalist," I take up my pen to attempt the 
pleasing task. I have been staying this time at High Wycombe, a rapidly 
increasing town, situate in a valley through which runs the little river 
Wick, to which the town owes its name. It possesses a magnificent 
church, of great interest to the archeeologist, but as my object was Botany 
and not Archaeology, I did not pay so much attention to its beauties as I 



138 THE NATURALIST. 

might otherwise have done. My first walk was into the Park, situated on 
the side of a hill, at the back of the town, at the top of which are two or 
three woods. Whilst rambling in these woods an Epipactis was noticed, 
which, on investigation, proved to be E, media. This plant was new to 
me, and as E. latifolia grew abundantly in the same spot, I took the 
opportunity of observing the chief differences between the two. E. media 
is a taller plant than E. latifolia, and is altogether lighter in colour ; the 
flowers are also larger, and want the purple lip which is so ornamental to 
the latter ; this lip in E. media terminates in a sharp point, while in E. 
latifolia the point is blunt, and frequently curves under. Another differ- 
ence is noticeable in the time of flowering : the former was in full blossom 
on the 20th of July, while of the latter but one or two flowers appeared. 
I found both these species also in Dane Garden Wood, near the Park, and 
in Bisham Wood, Berkshire. In the Park woods, the dead stems of 
Neottia Nidus-avis were abundant, and the Wall Lettuce, Lactuca muralis, 
is common here, as well as on walls and in woods throughout the neigh- 
bourhood. Descending from the woods to the waterfall, I noticed near the 
latter a nice patch oi Aconitum Napellus ; here, however, it may have been 
planted. Passing through the lodge gates, I shortly arrived on a hilly 
common, known by the name of Keep Hill ; Carduus acaulis was here 
very conspicuous, with C. nutans ; and the prickly heads of St. Barnaby's 
Thistle [Carlina vulgaris) were just appearing, Hippocrepis comosa was 
abundant earlier in the season ; and Herminium monorchis is stated in a 
local paper to have been found here. Crossing the hill, I entered Dane 
Garden Wood, where I observed a few plants of the Tutsan [Hypericum 
Androscemimi) which name is evidently a corruption of " tout sain,'' or " tout 
saint," given it in the days when the St. John's Worts were endowed with 
imagined mystic powers. Lysimachia nemorum is abundant at the top of 
this wood ; and in the lower part are a few plants of Epilobium angusti- 
folium. Passing across a field, I arrived at the railway, and walked part 
of the way home along the embankment, where, among numbers of plants 
of Verbascum nigrum,, I was delighted to find three or four of the rare V. 
Lychnitis, each bearing several tall stems covered with white flowers, which 
had a sweet scent, resembling that of honey. I believe that this species 
has not been hitherto noticed in the county. I selected one or two speci- 
mens, taking care to leave plenty for seed, and then returned home, well 
satisfied with my success, noticing Chelidonium majus in the hedges near 
the town. 



BRITTEN ON BUCKINGHAMSHIRE RARITIES. 139 

Another of my more successful rambles was to Huglienden, formerly 
spelt Hitchenden, the seat of the Hon. B. Disraeli. The woods here seem 
never to have been investigated, and are full of treasures. On the chalky 
banks Orchis pijramidalis was noticed, just off flower, with Hippocrepis 
comosa, Chlora perfoliata, &c. In a young fir plantation was a magnificent 
plant of Atropa Belladonna, having three main stems, each at least four 
feet high, and of the thickness of a good-sized walkingstick, densely 
branched, and covered with the dull purple flowers and immature fruit. 
Ascending into the wood, I discovered Monotropa Hypopitys, just going to 
seed, and a fine clump of Pyrola minor. The flowers of the specimens here 
gathered had a delicate pink tinge at the edges of the petals, which, coupled 
with the fact that the stems were spirally twisted, induced an able local 
botanist to consider the plant P. media, but a reference to Professor 
Babington quickly dispelled this pleasing illusion. In another part of the 
wood I found Epilobiuni angustifollum ; this handsome plant appears to be 
rather frequent in the neighbourhood : also Aquilegia vulgaris, Neottia 
Nidus-avis, Habenaria bifolia, Orchis maculata, Ophrys muscifera, and a few 
plants of Epipactis latifolia. At the bottom of the wood I came upon 
another clump of Pyrola minor ; it is probably sparingly distributed 
through the neighbouring woods. Making my way out of the wood, I 
strolled across one or two fields, in which I noticed Linum usitatissimicm, 
and in a short time arrived at Downley Common, where I saw nothing 
worthy of special notice. Following the footpath towards Wycombe, I 
arrived at a very small village called Littlemore ; here, by the roadside, 
were about a dozen healthy young plants of Hyoscyamus niger. The foot- 
path now led through Tinker's Wood, which is said by tradition to take 
its name from the murder of an unhapjDy tinker within its precincts, in 
" days lang syne"; on a bank near which was Alchemilla vulgaris. On 
emerging from the wood, I came into a field, which I may characterise as 
being a field full of wonders. The crop, or rather the second crop, was 
Trifolium elegans, and the first object which arrested my attention was 
Orobanche minor, growing in some abundance on Medicago lupuUna : here 
the corolla was of the usual colour, whitish striped with lilac ; but I am 
informed that in specimens gathered near Bisham, Berks., in a similar 
situation, the blossoms were of a brick-red hue. Here and there, in some 
quantity, was a large and very handsome Trifolium, with which I was un- 
acquainted ; it had probably been introduced with the crop, but certainly 
not for agricultural purposes. I at first thought that it might be T. patens, 



140 THE NATUKALIST. 

but on forwarding a specimen to my friend, the Eev. W. W. Newbould, he 
kindly informed me that it was not that species, but a form of T. procum- 
bens, distinguished specifically by Schreber under the name of T. campestre. 
It is a much larger plant than T. procumbens, and appears very distinct, 
growing quite erect, and bearing very large heads of pale orange-coloured 
blossoms ; the leaves are comparatively* small, and cluster round the stem ; 
the whole plant has a very stiff appearance. In one part of the field I 
gathered a proliferous variety of Lapsana communis, having buds growing 
out of the flower-heads. A form of Ranunculus reopens, with semi-double 
blossoms, was abundant all over the field ; and as this j)henomenon in 
Ranunculaceous plants has attracted some notice in the *' Naturalist," I 
may here mention that I have noticed near London R. Flammula, R. acris, 
and R. repens, bearing flowers in which some of the stamens are converted 
into petals. My attention was attracted by a light brown patch at a little 
distance. On nearer investigation it proved to be a large sheet of Cuscuta 
2V^/oZu, just coming into blossom. I had nearly passed it over as a burnt- 
up piece of ground. The injury which this plant causes to the crop, 
where it occurs in any quantity, must be immense : it entirely smothers 
everything which comes within its grasp, spreading over a circular patch 
of ground with fearful rapidity. In some parts of Essex, where it is fre- 
quently too abundant, I am informed that the farmers' men tear it off the 
field in large sheets, and wrap it round them as though it were a coat ! 
A plant of Trifolium pratense, having pure white blossoms, was my last dis- 
covery in this wonderful field. 

In a walk to West Wycombe, Nepeta Cataria was noticed by the road- 
side. I took a piece, intending to try its effects upon one of the feline race, 
and am glad to say that the result exceeded my anticipations. The cat smelt 
it, rolled upon it, took it up, and at last chewed it, evincing the greatest 
delight all the while. Corydalis lutca abounds on the walls about West 
Wycombe Park, and on the little bridge which there crosses the Wick. 
In one of the woods above the Park, Hypericum Androsamuni was of fre- 
quent occurrence : and on a wall at West Wycombe was Pyrethrwn Par- 
thenium. Going from West Wycombe towards Bledlow Ridge, I noticed 
the Sweetbriar {Rosa rubiginosa,) in some plenty in the hedges and by the 
roadside ; Asperula cynanchica on the chalky banks ; this also grows on 
Keep Hill, and on other commons ; and the Centaurea nigrescens of Eng- 
lish authors frequently occurs by the roadsides, and on the borders of 
fields. Returning in the direction of Wycombe Union, Iberis amara. 



BAKER ON BRITISH ROSES. 141 

Linaria Elatine, L. spuria, and L. minor were abundant in the corn fields. 
These plants, especially the Iberis, are general in the neighbourhood, and 
the last named is so remarkably common, not only in corn fields, but by 
roadsides, and even in woods, that I would suggest that the teim "local" 
would convey a better idea of the frequency of its occurrence than that of 
"rare," as given in our Floras. In a pit above West Wycombe Park, I 
have seen specimens measuring at least a foot across, and covered with 
blossoms so white as to be scarcely distinguishable from the surrounding 
chalk ; in some plants the flowers are of a lilac hue. In the woods above 
the Union are Neottia Nidus-avis, Orchis latifolia, Hahenaria bifolia, Hippo- 
crepis comosa, &c., and by the roadside I gathered the garden form of Pyre- 
thrum Parthenium. CheUdonium majus occurs by the gate of Bradenham 
House ; and in the corn fields opposite Bradenham Anagallis carulea is 
abundant. I cannot help thinking that this is specifically distinct from 
A. arvensis, although the last named occasionally varies in the colour of 
its flowers. The three above-named Linarice are here in great strength. 

(To be continued.) 



REVIEW OF THE BEITISH ROSES, 
ESPECIALLY THOSE OF THE NOETH OF ENGLAND. 



By J. G. Baker, Esq., of Thirsk. 



Part V.— SYSTYLJE. 

Bushes with sub-erect or rampant stems, uniform short broad-based 
strongly hooked prickles, simply serrated leaves, glabrous on the upper 
surface, not glandular and at most only slightly hairy beneath, the pedun- 
cles furnished with sessile glands, or with setse and aciculi, or occasionally 
naked, the deciduous sepals naked or but slightly glandular on the back, 
the styles united in a more or less prominent column. 

XII.>:^ — R. ARVENSIS. Huds. A bush only three or four feet in height 
if not supported, with long wide-spreading trailing rooting shoots, which 
are purple and bloomy when exposed. Prickles of the well-matured stem 

* I ought to have explained before that what I am numbering in series which 
terminates here, are what I understand as species of primary value, of which I have 
seen specimens from the six northern counties of England. 



143 THE NATURALIST. 

uniform, the base three-eighths of an inch deep, the prickle ahout the 
same length, robust below and strongly hooked. Well developed leaves 
of the barren shoots from three and a half to four inches from the base to 
the apex of the terminal leaflet, which is usually obovate and rounded but 
little at the base, and measures about an inch long by from five eighths to 
three quarters of an inch broad. Leaflets dull green and glabrous on the 
upper surface, much paler and often glaucous beneath, almost naked, or 
hairy upon the midrib only, the teeth broad-based and not deep, and only 
casually double, the lower ones often gland-tipped, the petioles slightly 
hairy and setose and furnished usually with three or four slender falcate 
aciculi. Stipules and lanceolate bracts naked or very nearly so on the back, 
more or less densely fringed with setsD. Peduncles forming a close cluster 
when the shoot is at all well developed, much lengthened out but only 
spreading very little, purple in exposure, usually clothed densely with 
almost sessile purple glands, occasionally almost naked. Calyx tube vary- 
ing from ovate or elliptical to subglobose, purplish and bloomy, naked or 
glandular just at the base, the segments usually not more than half an 
inch long, naked on the back, hardly dilated or leafy at the point, broad- 
bladed, and either entire or furnished only with one or two small linear 
entire pinnse. Petals white, very rarely tinged to any considerable extent 
with red, considerably exceeding the sepals, the corolla measuring an inch 
and a half across, and spreading out widely when fully expanded. Styles in a 
prominent hairless column, which usually exceeds the stamens. Fruit 
varying from broadly ovate or elliptical to subglobose, not exceeding half 
an inch long, turning red in October, by which time the sepals have all 
fallen. 

This is common in many parts of the north of England, but I have 
not seen it anywhere wild at an elevation of more than 200 yards, and in 
Scotland not from any further North than Kincardine. M. Deseglise ap- 
plies the name arvensis to the R. Candida of Scopoli, a closely allied plant, 
with solitary glandless peduncles, but there can be no doubt that what 
Hudson intended is our common York rose, which is the R. arvensis of 
De Candolle, the R. repens of Scopoli, Rau, and Reichenbach. A plant 
which has been gathered by Mr. T. R. A. Briggs in Devonshire, has much 
stronger and taller stems than in the type, in combination with more hairy 
leaves, roughly hairy petioles, and peduncles with more strongly stalked 
and more numerous glands. There can be I think but little doubt of the 
identity of R. arvensis of Borrer in Hooker's British Flora, with R. librae- 



BAKER ON BRITISH ROSES. 143 

teata, Bast. The only British specimens I have seen were gathered near 
Henfield by Mr. Borrer. This has stronger stems than in the type, more 
spreading peduncles, and leaves shining upon the upper surfixce. The 
leaves are similar in shape to those of E. arvensis, but the sepals are longer, 
a little setoso-ciUated and somewhat more pinnate. As Mr. Borrer re- 
marks of the English, so does M. Deseglise of the French plant, that it 
closely resembles the well-known R. sempervirens in habit and appearance, 
but in this the column of styles is hairy, and the leaves are evergreen. 
Our British R. systyla — the plant originally figured in English botany 
under the name of R. collina — was once supposed by Mr. Woods to be 
identical with Bastard's plant of this name, but afterwards both he and 
Mr. Borrer appear (see British flora) to have doubted their identity, and 
to have considered that this and the continental plants called brevistyla, 
leucochroa, and fastigiata, were really allied more closely to R. arvensis. I 
have had the opportunity lately of examining a considerable number of 
specimens labelled with these names by the continental botanists who 
are most likely to know how to apply them correctly, and my own impres- 
sion is in favour of the identity of Bastard's plant with ours. In habit and 
appearance this latter resembles canina more than arvensis. The manner 
of growth is that of the former, the stems being eight or ten feet high, and 
the branches erecto-patent. The terminal leaflet is narrowly ovate or 
elliptical, the leaves being glabrous upon the upper surface, slightly hairy 
but not at all glandular beneath, and the serration usually as sharp and 
close as in the ordinary forms of the Dog Eose. The peduncles are almost 
always furnished, not with subsessile glands as in arvensis, but with aciculi 
and setae, as in the RuUginosce or Villosce. In one instance only, that of a 
specimen in Mr. Watson's collection, from Leigh Woods, near Bristol, 
gathered by Mr. H. 0. Stephens, I have seen the plant with naked 
peduncles. The sepals are leafy at the point, and the more luxuriant 
ones are furnished with two or three erecto-patent leafy pinnce. The petals 
are pink, and the fruit is ovate. The column of styles is very variable in 
length, ranging from hardly protruded to as long as in R. arvensis. I have 
seen it from Kent and Sussex northward to Worcester and westward to 
Bristol. M. Deseglise distinguishes R. fastigiata from R. systyla by its 
leaves more hairy beneath, sepals less pinnate, and less prominent 
column of styles. I have seen our British R. systyla with the column 
of styles as short as in the specimen of R. fastigiata with which M. 
Deseglise furnished me, but not with the leaves so hairy on the lower sur- 



144 THE NATURALIST. 

face. M. Boreau unites systyla and fastigiata together. R. leucochroa and 
stylosa have white flowers, and leaves more like those of hihracteata and 
arvensis than ccaiina. Whether these are inhabitants of Britain still re- 
mains to be shown. 

To conclude with a general summary of what has been advanced with re- 
gard to the affinities of the British species, we can perhaps best express their 
mutual relationship by a diagram, in which canina is placed in the centre 
of a circle, and the species which differ from it most at the circumference. 
The result will then be something like the following : — 



mollissima. 
* 










rubiginosa, micrantha. 










Jundzilliana. 
* 






tomentosa. 
* 








sepimn, cryptopoda, and Borreri. 
* 








coriifolia. 
* 




Caninoe subrubiginosm. 
* 


Sabini. 










canina. 
* 








hibemica. 

* 






systyla. 
* 




spinossisima. 








hibracteata. 
* 














arvensis. 



As nearly as I can estimate, if we were to adopt with regard to the Bri- 
tish Eoses, a similar rendering of what constitutes a species to that em- 
ployed by M. Deseglise, in his " Monograph" for France, the following 
would be the result : — 

Spinosissimse 8 

Villoste 6 

Bubiginosse 8 

Canin[e 28 

Systylse ^ 

Total 47 



14J 



NOTES ON THE ORNITHOLOGY OF NORFOLK.- 
VARIETIES. 



Bi T. E. GuNN, Norwich. 



The following notes on some of the more remarkable variations in the 
plumage of birds which I have (with a few exceptions) observed myself, as 
occurring in Norfolk of late years, will, I hope, prove acceptable to the 
readers of the " Naturalist." 

The Kestrel — {Falco Tinnunculus.) — I have seen but one variety, 
which I described in the " Naturalist," No. 3, page 44. 

LoNGEARED OwL — {Strix otus.) — An immature male was obtained at 
Burgh, near Great Yarmouth, on the 3rd of July, 1861. Its head, neck, 
breast, and abdomen were white, intermixed with patches of its usual 
plumage, wings and tail partly white, upper wing coverts blotched with the 
same colour. 

Spotted Flycatcher — {Muscicapa grisola.) — Last summer I noticed a 
very pale ash-coloured specimen. I also heard of an entirely white variety- 
being obtained a short time since in the neighbourhood of Wymondham. 

Fieldfare — [Turdiis pilaris.) — One, a male bird, the back and upper 
surface of its wings and tail of a pale buff, marked with blotches of a 
darker tint, the breast and under surface of its body and wings of a cream 
colour, the feathers edged with a light reddish hue. I am not certain of 
the date and locality of its capture. 

Thrush — [Turdus musicus.) — I observed a pure white specimen in Sep- 
tember, 186'2. A variety was shot at Stoke, near this city, on the 13th o^ 
November last, of which the following is a description : — crown of head, bat xv, 
ujDper surface of the wings and tail of a light reddish brown ; breast, abdomen, 
and the under surface of the wings, white ; the breast sprinkled with spots 
of a pale reddish brown, bill and legs yellow. Another variety had the 
upper parts of its plumage of a pale yellowish brown, the feathers on the 
back and wings edged with a yellowish tint, throat and breast of a pale 
yellowish hue, speckled with spots of light brown, abdomen white. This 
variety was shot at Wreneningham, on the 11th of July. 

No. 10, Sep. 15. L 



146 THE NATURALIST. 

Blackbied — (Turdus meritla.) — The piebald variety of Tiirdus merula 
is not of very unusual occurrence here. A few specimens are generally 
obtained every year. A male variety I noticed last year was marked with 
a ridge of white feathers, extending across the shoulders in the shape of a 
horseshoe ; other specimens are variegated in a variety of ways, such 
as white heads, wings, tails, &c., the remaining part of their plumage being 
of its usual colour ; the plumage of others is sometimes speckled all over 
with small patches of white. A curious variety, a male, the whole surface 
of its plumage being of a reddish brown, was shot at Foulsham, September 
SOth, 1869. Another variety, a male, having the upper surface of its 
plumage of a light buff, and the under surface of a cream-colour, was shot 
at Westwick, February 8th, 1862. A second occurred about the middle of 
December in the same year. A splendid pure white specimen was taken at 
Shottisham, near Norwich, in November last. In the summer of 1861, a 
friend shewed me a nest of young blackbirds, five in number, the plumage 
of two were w^hite, (having just moulted their first feathers,) the remaining 
three were of the usual colour, as were also the parent birds. He had 
had opportunities of watching them very often. 

Hedgesparrow — [Accentor modidaris.) — A male was shot at Eaton, 
near Norwich, December 31st, 1862, mottled with white, chiefly about the 
head and upper parts of its plumage. A second variety was taken at 
Saxlingham, December lOth, 1863, the plumage being of a yellowish 
brown on the upper parts, the uuder surface of a pale slate colour, in- 
clining to greyish under the throat. 

Robin — [Sjlvia ruhecula.) — Two varieties were obtained in this 
neighbourhood in the Avinter of 1859. One of them was of a bluish 
slate colour, lighter on the breast and abdomen ; the other was white, 
mottled. with small patches of its usual i^lumage. 

Wheatear — [Sylvia oenanthe.) — Towards the latter part of last sum- 
mer I noticed a specimen of this bird of a very pale ash grey on the upper 
surface, and of a dull white on the under parts of its plumage. 

Willow Wren — [Sylvia trochilus.) — An immature male was shot 
in the neighbourhood of Gunton, in August, 1861, of a uniform pale yel- 
low, inclining to a straw yellow on the under parts of its plumage, bill and 
legs straw yellow. 

Sky Lark — [Alauda arvensis.) — I have seen an individual whose plum- 
age (through being confined for several years) had become quite a brown- 
ish black. I have noticed pale buff, and also variegated varieties. An 



OUNN ON NORFOLK ORNITHOLOGY. 147 

immature male of the latter kind was shot on the beach at Cromer in the 
autumn of 1861. Two years since an albino sjoecimen with entire white 
plumage, bill and legs straw yellow, and eyes pink, was taken near North 
Walsham. 

Co:\rMON Bunting — {Emheriza miliaria.) — Two varieties were taken in 
this locality, in November, 1869, the whole plumage of one being of a 
uniform cream colour, with the exception of a few dark feathers scattered 
over the back and upper surface of its wings : the other specimen was 
mottled with small patches of white. 

Blackheaded Bunting — (Emheriza sclioeniclus.) — A pied variety wag 
shot in 1860, on the Heigham Marshes, near this city. 

Yei.lowhammer — [Emheriza citrinella) — Of this species I have observed 
three varieties. One of a dark chocolate colour, which had been kept alive ; 
the second having the back and wings light reddish brown, throat, breast, 
and belly of a pnle sulphur colour ; and the third white. The two latter 
specimens were taken in this neighbourhood. 

Chaffinch — (Fringilla calehs.) — The following is the description of a 
variety I observed four years since ; crown of head white, with a small 
patch of bluish slate colour in the centre, neck and throat white, cheeks 
slightly tinged with a light brown, back and upper wing coverts of a pale 
yellow, intermixed with light brown and white, wings and tail white, with 
the exception of a few feathers in the former and the two centre feathers 
in the latter, which were pale brown, breast of a reddish and slate coloured 
tint, abdomen white, tinged with a very pale reddish hue. A specimen 
similar in description to the above was kept alive for two years by a per- 
son residing in this city ; it died but a short time since. 

House Sparrow — [Friiigilla domestica.) — In March, 1860, a dark 
chocolate variety was obtained, as also a buff coloured variety ; the latter 
was taken by a friend in this neighbourhood, and is now in my possession. 
The following variety was shot at Cantley on the 2oth of August; the upper 
parts of its plumage of a rich cream colour, marked with a few faint bars of 
a reddish hue, the under surface of a pale cream colour approaching to 
white. The pied birds are not unfrequently met with, a few specimens 
generally occurring every year. A pure white variety was shot at Hether- 
sett, last December ; a second was obtained at East Tudenham about 
three weeks since ; both the latter-mentioned varieties had pink eyes. 

Greenfinch — [Fringilla chloris.) — A pale green variety was obtained 
near Norwich in the winter of 1860. 



148 THE NATURALIST. 

Goldfinch — (Friyigilla cardueJis.) — An immature specimen was caught 
at Hellesdon, last November, its back being of a pale buff, cheeks and the 
under surface of its plumage white, slightly tinged with a pale yellowish 
hue at each side of its breast, the crown of the head and the wings of their 
usual colour. 

Linnet — [Fringilla cannahina.) — A birdcatcher being out with his 
nets in the neighbourhood of Gostessey one day last winter, noticed 
amongst a flock of these birds, a peculiar specimen, which he, after a short 
time, succeeded in obtaining possession of; it proved to be a male bird, 
with a band of white feathers extending quite round its neck, having the 
appearance of a collar at a distance. 

Mealy Redpole — [Fringilla borealis) — During the latter part of the 
year 1857, a white variety of Fringilla borealis intermixed with markings of 
its usual plumage was obtained on the Heigham Cancer, near this city. 

Lesser Eedpole — [Fringilla linaria.) — I have often observed the 
plumage of this, as also of the preceding species (when in confinement,) 
attain a yellowish hue, instead of the deep rose tint observed in specimens 
(adults,) when fresh captured, or after their first moult while confined. 
I have never heard of an instance of their regaining the rose tint after 
once losing it. 

Bullfinch — [Loocia pyrrhula.) — A birdcatcher informs me he caught 
a male specimen several years since, one side of the breast of which was 
of a pure white, the other side of its natural colour. 

Starling — [Slurnus vulgaris.) — A cream coloured variety was observed 
amongst a flock of these birds during last winter. 

Crow — [Corvus corone.) — A pied variety, an immature specimen, was 
shot in this locality about the latter end of July, 1861. 

EooK — [Corvus frugilegus.) — I have seen buff and cream coloured va- 
rieties. A sj)ecimen of the latter was shot at Aylsham in 1858. I have like- 
wise observed two or three nice piebald varieties, but am not certain as 
regards the date and locality of their occurrence. 

Jackdaw — [Corvus rnonedula.) — One, a piebald variety, was shot in 
June, 18G1, in this locality, an adult male. 

Green Woodpecker — [Picus viridis.] — I have in my possession an 
adult male, obtained near Wymondham, about four months since ; the 
two centre feathers in its tail, and the tips of the four longest quill feathers 
in each wing are of a pale brown : this is the only variation in the plumage of 
this species I ever noticed. 



GTJNN ON NORFOLK ORNITHOLOGY. 149 

Cuckoo — (Ciiculus canorus.) — Am immature female, shot at Beeston 
Eegis, near Cromer, on August 0th, 1862, had the whole surface of its 
plumage mottled with patches of white, more particularly about the back 
and breast. 

Sand Martin — {Hiriuulo riparia.) — Two cream coloured varieties have 
occurred, one shot at Eaton, near Norwich, in the latter part of August, 
1860 ; the second obtained on the 20th of September, in the following 
year, in the neighbourhood of Weasenham ; both of them were imma- 
ture specimens. 

Nightjar — {Caprimulgus europmis.) — A nice pied variety, an adult 
male, was taken in the summer of 1859, at Melton Constable. 

Ring Dove — [Columhapalumhas.) — In the autumn of 1861 a specimen 
was obtained at Hove ton, of a cream colour, marked with blotches of a pale 
slate colour on the upper surface of its plumage. I am informed, by a 
friend, that Mr. T. Ellis, Naturalist, of Swafham, had in his possession, a 
pure white specimen, obtained a few years since near the above-named 
place. 

Partridge — [Perdlx cinerea.) — Specimens mottled with patches of 
cream colour and light buff have occurred in several instances during the 
shooting seasons, at Westwick, near North Walsham. 

Redlegged Partridgp: — [Perdix rubra.) — A male bird was shot in 
the neighbourhood last September, having part of its breast of a pure 
white. 

Moorhen — {Gallinula chloropus.) — A curious variety of this bird 
was shot by a person named Drake, on the meadows at Trowse, near 
Norwich, in the winter of 1862. The whole surface of its i^lumage 
was of a complete yellowish hue, rather lighter on the breast, sides, and 
abdomen. 

Wild Duck — {Anas boschas.) — During last January a variety of A?ias 
hoschas was obtained at Ranworth, the whole surface of its plumage being 
of a pale buff, lighter on the under surface; a few patches of its usual 
plumage were scattered over the upper surface. 

Norwich, July 20f7i, 1864. 



150 THE NATURALIST, 

DWAEFISM AND ATROPHY. 



By M. FEAN901S Crepin, 

Professor of Botany a " VEcole d' Horticulture" Gand. 



The florist, and above all, the monographist, with mind absorbed in 
details, too often loses sight of certain general facts of great importance. 
Amongst plants there exist two causes, the effects of which frequently 
mask the veritable characters of species. I refer to Dwarfism (nanisme) 
and Atrophy, which are opposed to " excessive development " fgeantisme,) 
and Hypertrophy. In fact, under certain conditions, plants decrease 
considerably in height, their vegetative organs shrini^, the stems and branches 
lose their habitual dimensions, the inflorescence is modified in its details, 
and certain floral organs are abortive or atrophied. These changes may 
take place owing to a too dry and arid soil, to a situation too much ex- 
posed to the sun, or too shady. On the other hand, on land too fertile, in 
a fresh and shady place, or more particularly in the neighbourhood of the 
sea, the same plant may be modified in a contrary direction. 

In default of taking into account these general causes of variation, botan- 
ists are misled into describing as distinct species, forms simply affected by 
atrophy or hypertrophy, — dwarfs or giants. Neglecting the attentive ex- 
amination of habitats, they afiervvards discover in dried specimens, diver- 
gences which they cannot explain, except by an innate difference in the 
objects themselves : they take no account either of soil or humidity, dry- 
ness, shade, &c., and thus take for a distinctive character what is but an 
accident to an individual plant. * We might mention numerous species 
created in this manner, with varieties dwarfed or developed more than 
ordinarily. 

As I have already stated, an excess of development or impoverishment 
frequently brings in its train quite a suite of differences, which would 
almost make us believe it a separate and distinct species, if not on our 
guard against modifying causes. This series of differences, which appears 
to make a complete series of excellent specific characters, constitutes at the 
bottom of it but one simple divergence repeated in all the similar organs, 
and at once disappears from all these if the modifying causes are overcome 
and removed. At first sight descriptions of these critical forms, wrongly 
elevated to the rank of species, appears to include equally differential 



CREPIN ON DAVARFISM AND ATROPHY — GISSING ON TEESDALE. 151 

charncters, with those of true species, but an experienced eye soon per- 
ceives that this is an error, and that a single cause has alone produced all 
the differences. 

Ag;iin a fifth cause, allied more or less closely to giantism or hyper- 
trophy, profoundly modifies the/ac/6^s of specific types — disjunction — that is 
to say, the division more or less deep of the foliaceous or floral organs. 
What multitudes of new species have we not seen created in our own days 
from variations due to disjunction ! It may be objected that the theory which 
I have here broached, is not founded upon any positive experiment, that 
it is based only on hypothesis, and that a contrary hypothesis may with 
equal reason hold good. If I have advanced this theory, it is only because 
I believe it to be supported both by the observation of facts in nature, and 
by certain experiments which appear to me conclusive. For the rest it is 
not new ; already have some of our highest savans advanced it ; but they, 
going too far in their deductions, have materially compromised the cause 
of truth, and their antagonists have thus rejected all which they have pre- 
mised, confounding facts with hypotheses and problematical ideas. One 
thing which still retards the acceptance of these principles of deduction, is 
the manner in which certain botanists of advanced age systematically op- 
pose the dismemberment of the infinity of old species, rushing into the 
opposite excess of re-uniting under the same name, many excellent types 
which certainly ought to remain distinct, and which will do so in spite of 
them, because they are true types. 

Rochefort, 17th Aug., 1864. 



FLOWERS IN TEESDALP: IN JUNE. 



By T. W. Gissing. - 



Although Teesdale is a district that has been pretty well worked bo- 
tanically, it may be interesting to some collectors, more particularly the 
younger ones, to know what plants were to be found in flower there at the 
beginning of last June. I have only given localities in a very general 
way, because of the unscrupulous abuse of the knowledge of the exact 
place of growth by some men, who, from their position and botanical 
knowledge, ought to be more careful of their own reputation, and of the 



162 THE NATURALIST. 

preservation of British plants. Some men who often visit the Tees- 
dale district, are absolutely disliked by the natives, on account of their 
greedy ways — they even go so far as to eradicate a plant rather than leave 
it for some one else to find. They are described by one or two local bo- 
tanists (not collectors,) as " cunning, greedy old men." 

I may say that the course of our journey was, from Barnard Castle, 
through Lartington, Cotherstone, and Eomaldkirk, to the turnpike before 
crossing the Tees to enter Middleton-in-Teesdale, thence on the Yorkshire 
side of the river, by Crossthwaite Scars, through Hoi wick, by Hoi wick 
Scars, and across the meadows to Winch Bridge (which, by the way, is not 
marked on the Ordnance Map,) then for a short distance up the bed of the 
Tees, crossing to the Durham side, and along the high road to High 
Force Inn, thence through the woods to High Force, crossing the river 
above the fall into Yorkshire, and down about a mile to the foot bridge, 
and back to High Force Inn. 

This was our first day. On the second we left the inn and kept to 
the road for somewhat over a mile, then turning into the enclosed pas- 
tures, keeping to the Durham side of the Tees, we passed Cronkley 
Brid"-e, under Cronkley Scars, along Widdy Bank, up the front and over 
the top of Falcon Clints, dropping down to Cauldron Snout, close to which 
is the junction of Yorkshire, Durham, and Westmoreland, these counties 
being separated by Maizebeck and the Tees. Here we crossed by the 
foot bridge half way down Cauldron Snout into Westmoreland, and then 
over Maizebeck again into Yorkshire, thence over Cronkley Fell down to 
White Force (now dry) and the Tees, on by the river to the top of High 
Force, over again into Durham and up through the woods to High Force 
Inn. Our walk this day was shortened by a heavy storm that came on 
about noon, and wetted us all to the skin. In the evening (after partial 
drying) we rode to Barnard Castle to sleep. 

On the third day we walked along the Durham side of the Tees to 
the "Pay Bridge," (as it is locally called,) just below Egglestone Abbey, 
crossed to see the Abbey, and then kept along the road to the corner of 
Bokeby Park, thence by the river side to the junction of the Tees and 
Greta, over the stone bridge by " The Dairy," past Mortham Tower, and 
down to Greta Bridge, which looks deserted and smells of mould and 
decay ; by Tutta Beck, past the Roman Camp, back to the Greta, and along 
the bed of the river to Brignall, passing on our way the very lovely ruins 
of the old church, with the little square walled-in churchyard, and the 



GISSING ON FLOWERS IN' TEE9DALE. 



153 



graves hidden in the long rank grass. Then, on through the wood by 
Scargill Cliff and Brignall Banks out into the open meadows, and finally 
back into the Roman Road (which we left at Greta Bridge,) and up to 
Bowes, where we saw " Do-the-boys Hall," and dined, and then by rail to 
Wakefield. 

The following list contains only plants that are not common in almost 
every district, and only those found in flower. 



Geiim rivale, from Greta Bridge 
up the valley. 

G. intermedium, occasionally. 

Gentiana verna, about Cronkley, 
much less abundant than I eX' 
pected. 

Potentilla frut'icosa, very abundant 
about High Force. 

Thalictram aJpinumy Cronkley 
Fell. 

Trolliiis europceus, very abundant. 
Apparently taking the place of com- 
mon species of Ranunculus. 

Cardamine amara, occasionally. 

Heliantheiaun canum, Cronkley 
Fell. 

Viola palustris, frequent. 

V. lutea, very abundant, and all 
shades of colour, from deep purple 
to bright yellow. 

Arenaria verna, frequent. 

Geranium srjlvat'icum, common. 

G. lucidum, frequent, but not 
abundant. 

Anthyllis vulneraria, frequent. 

Prunus Padus, frequent. 

Drijas octopetala, very s^jaringly 
on Cronkley Fell. 

Sanguisorba officinalis, frequent. 

Pyrus Aria, very frequent. 

P. aucuparia, frequent. 



Pibes Grossularia, apparently truly 
wild, occurring veiy far from either 
cultivation or habitation. 

Saxifraga granulata, frequent. 

S. liypnoides, frequent. 

S. tridactylites, frequent. 

S. stellaris, sparingly, near Falcon 
Clints. 

S. aizoides, frequent. 

Chrysosplenium alter nifolium, spar- 
ingly- 

Myrrhis odorata, abundant. 

Galium boreale, Banks of the Tees. 

Gnaphalium dioicum, frequent. 

Campanula glomerata, near Bar- 
nard Castle. 

Menyanthes trifoliata, occasion- 
ally. 

Veronica montana, frequent. 

Bartsia alpina, Cronkley and 
Widdy Bank. 

Pedicularis palustris, frequent. 

Myosotis sylvatica, frequent. 

Pinguicula vulgaris, frequent. 

Primula farinosa, abundant. 

Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus, fre- 
quent. 

Polygonum viviparum, very spar- 
ingly. 

Juniperus communis, abundant and 
remarkably fine. 



154 THE NATURALIST. 



Tojieldla palustris, plentiful in a 
few places. 

ErtopJiorum vaginatum, frequent. 

Cairo: capillaris, Widely Bank, &c. 

Poh/podium Dnjopterls, frequent. 

P. Phegopteris, frequent. 

AUosnrus crispus, frequent. 

Wo' dsia and Polijsticliiim Lonchitis may still be found in inaccessible 
places, but from my experience they have both disappeared from all parts 
easily and safely scaled. 

Wakefield, August Uli, 1864. 



Asplenlun vir'ide, Falcon Glints. 
Lyropodium aljmium, frequent. 
L. Selago, frequent. 
L. selaginoldes, frequent. 
Equisetum variegatum, Winch 
Bridge. 



'O^ 



NOTES ON A FEW PLANTS OBSERVED AT OR NEAR BISHAM 
AND GREAT MARLOW, DURING JULY AND AUGUST, 1864. 



By J. C. Melville. 



As I have been residing at Great Marlow for the last two months, I 
have had a good opportunity for making researches amongst the wild 
plants of the neighbourhood ; and since Mr. Britten, a few months ago, 
kindly favoured the " Naturalist " with an account of his spring explora- 
tions at little Marlow (about three miles distant,) these notes may form a 
kind of supplement or continuation to his treatise. 

The Thames is as rich in its aquatic plants as it is in its fish. Mar- 
low has been called the very paradise of the Thames angler, and rightly, 
too ; and the same j)lace might be called the paradise of Thames aquatic 
plants. First and foremost comes Vlllarsia nympmlioides, prized no less 
for its beauty than for its scarcity, which grows near Quarry Wood. It 
never grows in the main stream of the river, but in little secluded nooks ; 
it is seldom or ever found wild except in the Thames, for, since it is culti- 
vated with so much ease, it is frequently transplanted into ornamental 
water, &c. I found also several plants of Sparganium simplex, near the 
railway bridge at Marlow Road, floating, as it were, in the middle of the 
stream. 

Along the banks of the Thames, many plants grow that cannot fail 
to excite notice. One of the ipost prominent of these is Geranium pra- 
tense, which I have met with in three or four places by the river. At 



mp:lville on bisham and marlow plants. 155 

Harley Ford it grows in the greatest profusion, as'well as in the Bisham 
Woods. It is rivalled in beauty by the handsome Lysimachia vulgaris, 
which occurs abundantly. Slum latifoUum, with its large umbels of white 
flowers, and broad leaves, is not unfrequent at Great Marlow, and towards 
Henley. I had the satisfaction of finding Nasturtium sylvestre on the banks 
of the river, by Quarry Wood; it is a rare plant. Before we leave the 
river side there are two more plants worthy of notice, viz.: — Butomus um- 
hellatus, which occurs near Bisham Abbey, on the water side ; it is rare 
here, though abundant in some parts of the country : and Acorus calamus 
with its curious spikes, and sweet odour ; it grows with Batomus. In the 
Bisham woods I found Atropa Belladonna growing luxuriantly with its 
lurid flowers and tempting, noxious berries. Hypericum montanum is fre- 
quent here likewise, and H. androscp.;num is occasionally found in the 
woods. Epipactis lalifolla and E. grandijiora are both to be met with • 
indeed, the former is very common here. On a bank, between Parmoor 
and Lane End, Erigeron acrls opens its purplish little flowers, and in the 
same place Gentiana Amarella var. germanica grows with very large dark 
blue flowers. The common G. Amarella is to be met with in the Bisham 
woods. The rayed variety of Centaurea nigra is more frequent here than 
the common C. nigra : has it been ascertained yet whether they are both 
one species ? In a marsh, at Lane End, almost dried up this year, owino- 
to the drought, Scutellaria minor grew in company with Anagallis tenella. 
I was informed that Hypericum elodes usually occurred there, but it has 
disappeared this year, owing to the want of moisture. Epipactis palustris 
was to be found very sparingly hard by, so I was informed, but I could 
not see any specimens. In a wood, at Parmoor, Pyrola media, grew very 
scarcely. Upon an embankment, at Danesfiold, by the bridge that crosses 
the road there, Campanula Piapunculus grows evidently wild, together with 
the white-flowered variety of C. rotundifolla. At the same place I found 
Epilobiwn angustifollum. This also occurs in the Bisham woods. In 
hedges at Hednor, Astragalus glycypJujllos puts forth its greenish white 
flowers. This plant is called Wild Liquorice, from its root tasting some- 
what like that commodity. In a stagnant ditch (full of Anacliaris,) which 
runs by the footpath behind Court Garden, Great Marlow, Hydrocharls 
Morsus-rancB is to be found, and Calamintha ojiclnalls is not unfrequent in 
the neighbourhood. Near the Ray Mills, Maidenhead, I found Nepeta 
Cataria and Lycopsis arvensls. This is a summary of the many plants I 
have found here during the last two months. 



166 



THE NATURALIST. 



Loxia curvirostra. dc. — I dare say 
it will not be uninteresting to lovers 
of Ornithology to learn that I have 
a very fine specimen of Loxia curvi- 
rostra (Lin.) alive. His colours are 
remarkably bright, and he is very 
tame, considering the short time he 
has been in captivity. Concerning 
this bird I have heard a curious 
story, namely, that it changes to 
quite a different hue after every 
moult. I was assured that my bird, 
which is at present quite orange- 
coloured, will moult green. I went 
to one or two bird-fanciers in Lon- 
don about it, and was assured that 
such was the case. I can hardly 
believe this, and should be glad to 
hear of any cases similar through 
your interesting paper. Among my 
other pets I may mention a specimen 
of Fr'wgllla spiniis (Lin.) which has 
just got through its moult and has 
turned out a beauty. I am con- 
sidered most fortunate in having 
brought him safely through the 
summer, and was told that he was 
worth half-a-guinea. I would not 
take three times that sum, for he is 
the tamest of birds and will go 
through a number of tricks. He is 
undoubtedly the brightest I ever 
saw, and being a good call-bird I 
hope with the aid of my cages and 
other traps to catch a good many, 
as they are plentiful among the alder 



trees at Cookham in the winter. Last 
week a fine male specimen oiColumha 
turlur (Lin.) was shot and stuffed by 
Mr. Briggs of Formosa, and is at 
present in my possession. A pair 
of Plcus minor (Lin.) have built in a 
high elm tree in the beautiful 
grounds of Formosa, near Cookham, 
in the possession of G. de Vitre, 
Esq. A few years ago a pair built 
in the same neighbourhood and the 
nest was taken by Mr. Briggs, the 
gardener, for the celebrated Mr. 
Gould. He climed a tree seventy 
feet high and sawed off the branch 
which contained the nest, and let it 
down from that height to the ground, 
a most perilous feat. A fine young 
male of Cuculus canorus (Lin.) was 
shot on the 28th of July, and was 
stuffed by the above-named Mr. 
Briggs, and is at present in my pos- 
session. — R. B. Sharpe. 

Ornithological Notes from Norfolk. 
— I had sent me recently an exqui- 
sitely fine pair of adult Hen Harriers 
[Falco cyaneus,'Lin.,) shot in Wales, 
and from this neighbourhood a nice 
clean example of the Whimbrel {Nu- 
menius phccopus, Lath.,) which ap- 
pear to have returned from their 
northern breeding stations, as I have 
seen several pairs upon our beach. 
The specimens under consideration 
have commenced moulting, as has 
the Dunlin. I find the two species 
named, and a few Blackheaded 
Gulls [Larus ridibundus, Lin.,) are 



0BSERVATI0N3. 



157 



the only signs of approaching au- 
tumnal migi-ation I have yet dis- 
covered upon the shore. — S. P. Sa- 
viLLE, King's Lynn, Norfolk. 



RipipJiorus paradoxus. — I have for- 
tunately succeeded this summer in 
obtaining both larvae and pup^e of 
this insect. On opening a cell of 
Vesjja vulgaris on Saturday morning 
hist, I found a larva of the parasite 
firmly adhering to the spun up larva 
of the wasp, which before yesterday 
(Monday) morning it entirely con- 
sumed, with the exception of the 
skin and mandibles, although it had 
made comparatively little progress 
in the work of destruction at the 
time I opened the cell. From other 
cells in the same nest I obtained 
examples of the parasite in the pupa, 
as well as in the perfect state. — S. 
Stone, Brighthampton, August 23, 
1864. 

Bee Keeping. — I am a strong ad- 
vocate tor depriving bees of their 
honey without injury to the swarm, 
and I think some of your readers 
may be glad to know my method, 
which is extremely simple. I use 
straw double-hives, which are very 
inexpensive, and cool for the bees in 
summer ; in the afternoon, about 
four o'clock of a dull day in August, 
I take the upper j^art of a hive, (put 
a cork in the hole of communication) 
and put it down in a cool place near 



the hive, in a few hours all the bees 
leave it and return to the hive ; when 
I cut out the comb, remove the cork, 
and replace the top. This year has 
been unfavourable for bees, I think 
owing to the drought; the yield of 
my hives is not half what it should 
be. Hoping you may find space for 
these lines in your interesting work. 
--Cpiarles Henry Lane, Clifton, 
August 23rd. 

Acherontia atropos. — A large male 
specimen of this insect flew on board 
last night and was captured by one 
of the men; we were about thirty 
miles out to sea at the time, off the 
Start Point, and had been at sea for 
two days, so I think it very probable 
(hat this individual was crossing the 
channel one way or the other and 
our lights attracted it. It is now 
on one of my setting boards, and 
notwithstanding the rough handling 
it has received is in pretty good 
condition. The weather last night 
was calm and fine. — G.F.Mathews, 
H.M.S. Warrior, August 29th. 



List of Plants Seen about Hampton 

Court and the Neighbourhood, on 

August 6th, 1864. 

Nymphcea alba, ditch at Walton 
Bridge. 

Nasturtium sylvestre, Walton, river 
side. 

Reseda Luteola, near Walton and 
Hampton Court. 



158 



THE NATURALIST. 



Malachium aquaticum, river side, 
between Hampton Court and Wal- 
ton. 

Hrpericum ferfomtum, hedges and 
ditches between Hampton Court and 
Walton. 

Geranium pratense, near the tow- 
ing path between Walton and Hamp- 
ton Court, especially near Sunbury. 

Trifdhim fragiferum, river side, 
near Walton. 

Bryonia dioica, hedges, between 
Hampton Court and Walton. 

Dipsacus syivestris, along the tow- 
ing path between Hampton Court 
and Walton. 

Epilohiun hirsutum. along the river 
side between Hampton and Walton. 

Ly^hrum Salicaria, between Wal- 
ton and Hampton, along the river 

side. 

Scahiosa Columbaria, between Wal- 
ton and Hampton Court. 

Sium latif'oUum, by a ditch at Wal- 
ton Bridge. 

Cichorium Intyhis, road side, near 
Walton. 

Tanacetum vulffare, near Sunbury. 

Lysimachia vulgaris, river side, 
near Sunbury. 

Mentha aquatica, river side, be- 
tween Hampton Court and Walton. 

Scutellaria galericulata, river side, 
Hampton Court. 

Villarsia nymphceoides, Walton- 
Bridge. 

Polygonum amphihiwn, river side, 
near Hampton Court. 



Humulus Lupidus, by the towing 
path, near Sunbury. 

Acorns Calamus, in a ditch, near 
the Thames, at Walton Bridge, and 
in several places by the river side, 
between Walton and Hampton Court. 

Sagittaria sagitifolia, in a ditch 
by the Thames, at Walton Bridge. 

Anacharis Alsinastrum, in a ditch 
by the Thames at Walton Bridge. 

James Irvine, 28, Upper Manor 
Street, Chelsea. 

Asperula taurina, cCc. — This plant 
was discovered in this neighbourhood 
about two years ago. It occurs in 
two localities, in neither of which is 
it plentiful. Both stations are among 
trees, and lie about equally distant 
from the city of Perth, viz. thi-ee and 
a half miles, one at Murray shall, 
north-east, and the other at the south 
side of Moncrieffe Hill, south-w^est. 
I was not the original discoverer of 
this rare plant in either place, it was 
a young schoolmaster, but not a 
botanist, who, though a lover of 
flowers, knew not the name of this 
interesting plant, and therefore 
brought it to me for identification. 
I will not dispute the point as to 
whether this plant is native or intro- 
duced, to me it appears to be the 
former, but others may come to a 
different conclusion. It is easy of 
cultivation, and, like its congener 
A. odorata, if once planted requires 
neither care nor keeping, and will 
maintain its position and grow and 



OBSKRVATIONS. 



159 



multij)]y enormously. Of this I 
have proof positive, having planted 
in my garden a fragment of it two 
years ago ; it now occupies a large 
space and had this season a profu- 
sion of leaves, stems, and blossoms. 
I should like to see the history of 
this little plant recorded from its 
English localities. Is there any 
contributor to the "Naturalist " who 
knows any thing certain about its 
English habitats ? Perth is cer- 
tainly remarkable for rare plants, 
how such a number of beautiful and 
interesting flowers could have be- 
come established in this neighbour- 
hood is to me a perfect mystery. To 
believe they are all indigenous may 
to many seem quite preposterous, to 
belie'-e they have all been introduced 
seems to me even more absurd ; 
especially as no motive whatever can 
reasonably be alleged for their in- 
troduction. The beautiful and fra- 
grant Wallflower is by many believed 
not to be indigenous to any part of 
the British Isles. Here it adorns 
the rugged and precipitous cliffs of 
Kinnoul Hill in great profusion in 
early summer, dispensing fragrance 
and beauty all around. I maintain 
that no unprejudiced observer can 
view the Wallflower on the rocks at 
Kionnul Hill and affirm that it could 
have been introduced by human 
agency ; such a supposition is directly 
opposed to reason, because where 
this lovely plant grows most largely 



human foot never did nor can tread. 
The same remark is applicable to 
Autlrrh'mum mnjus, which also occu- 
pies the face of the rugged clifihigh 
in air beyond the reach of human 
hand. These are facts not to 1 e 
disputed. How can the existence 
of these plants be accounted for, far 
removed from human habitation and 
unapproachable by mortal man, — 
save that they or their progenitors 
have been in possession of this r vj- 
ged rock ever since Kinnoul Hill 
assumed its present form and con- 
dition. — John Sim, Bridge End, 
Perth, August, 1864. 

Notes on a Double Inula 
dy-enterica. 
The other day my friend Mr. Ro- 
berts and myself being out botanis- 
ing in the neighbourhood of Burton 
Salmon, found among other plants 
a vast quantity of Inula chjsenterica. 
One plant especially arrested our 
attention, on account of the sui)erior 
size and gay colour of its flowers. I 
plucked a specimen, and found that 
its superior beauty was caused by 
a change which its florets had un- 
dergone. In our gardens we have 
many syngenesious or composite 
plants, as Dahlia, Marigold, (Sec, 
which are prized by florists in pro- 
portion to the amount o^ doubling , 
as they call it. This term, as ap- 
plied to this class of plants, is cer- 
tainly improper, though I know no 
other term by which in common 



100 



THE NATURALIST. 



parlance this metamorphosis may 
be expressed. 

In certain tribes of plants possess- 
ing many stamens, as for example, 
RanuncidacecB, Rosacece, &g., the sta- 
mens, by cultivation are trans- 
formed into petals, and thus the 
petals become doubled over and over 
again, till, in the language of the 
florist, the flower is perfect, that is, 
all the stamens have undergone this 
change. This may truly be called 
doubling. 

The flower of the composite 
plant is made up of a great number 
of small flowers, arranged on a capi- 
tulum or head. Many of these 
plants, as the Daisy, &c., possess 
two kinds of florets, viz., tubular 
and ligulate or strap shaped. The 
tubular florets are generally very 
small and inconspicuous. They 
occupy the centre of the head, and 
form the disc. The strap-shaped 
florets are nmch larger and gayer 
in appearance. They occupy the 
margin of the head and form the 
ray. Now, when under cultivation, 
and sometimes in a wild state, as in 
the present instance, the tubular 
florets of the disc — begining with 
those next the ray — become larger 
and ligulate, thus increasing the 
number of whorls in the ray, and 
rendering the flower more hand- 
some and conspicuous. It will be 
seen that this doubling of the whorls 
of the ray florets is totally different 



from the doubling in those plants 
previously alluded to. There is no 
increase in the number of petals, as 
in them, but simply a change of tu- 
bular into ligulate florets. To use 
the same term then to express 
changes so totally dissimilar is, to 
say the least, to eause much misap- 
prehension and confusion. 

In the specimen under our notice 
the ligulate whorls were increased 
from one to six or seven, and the 
flower was thereby rendered really 
handsome and imposing. We met 
with no other instance of the kind 
though the plant was there truly 
abundant. 

To the professed botanist these 
few remarks will convey no new in- 
formation, but I am aware that in- 
cipient and non-botanists have very 
vague and imperfect notions of the 
change which takes place in these 
plants, and to them — and to such I 
write — these remarks may prove 
acceptable. 

We collected about twenty species 
ofi)lants, the majority of which are 
not found in this locality. I should 
have enclosed a list but find that 
my friend, Mr. G. Roberts, who has 
visited the district three or four 
times this season, is preparing a list 
of all the i)lants that he has taken 
this season, and with them will be 
incorporated our recent captures. — 
John Hepwouth, Lofthouse, Wake- 
field, September 30th, 1864. 



iOl 

Original %xtuUn. 



NOTES ON A FEW MORE BUCKINGHAMSHIRE RARITIES. 

July, 1864. 



By James Britten. 



f Concluded from page 1 4 1 .J 
On another occasion I went to Taplow, about ten miles from Wycombe> 
to meet a friend from London. While waiting here, I looked about me, 
and observed Corydalis lutea in considerable abundance on a wall ; a locality 
which is open to suspicion. Erysimum cheirantlioldes appeared here and 
there by the roadsides, but in no great quantity ; and a small meadow 
was completely filled with Armoracia rusticana, a plant which, if not an 
original native, must have held its ground for very many years. The 
railway embankment produced Erigeron acris in some quantity, with the 
small form of Melilotus officinalis known to some botanists as M. arvensiSf 
but which does not appear to be the species usually intended by that name : 
and in some old, and apparently disused pits, Trifoliiim arvense was abun- 
dant, with Erigeron acris and EcJmim vulgare, the last very bright and 
beautiful. Linaria spuria occurred in the cornfields, and in a ditch near 
the Thames I noticed several plants of Sparganium natans ; this terminated 
my observations in this neighbourhood. 

A very profitable day was the one which I spent at Medmenham. At 
Danesfield, on the left-hand bank going from Marlow, and at some dis- 
tance from the house, was Campanula Rapunculus, growing in some plenty, 
though extending over but a small space of ground. With it was Epilohium 
angiistifoliuni, and this occurred at intervals for a considerable distance. 
Further on, at the top of the bank on the right of the road just beyond the 
bridge which crosses the latter, was a large patch of Hypericum calycinuni^ 
and near this two rare Sedums, S. dasyphyllum and S. sexangulare, to- 
gether with another not mentioned in our Floras, but which ai^peared 
something like the garden S. oppositi/olium, from which it differed in hav- 
ing red flowers. The occurrence of four such suspicious characters in 
close proximity forces the opinion that they must here have been intro- 
duced, though there was no a]3parent trace of such introduction. The 
three Sedums were in but small quantity, each having about six flowering 
No, 11, Oct. I, M 



162 THE NATURALIST. 

stems ; they were growing at the top of the very steep bank, in an almost 
inaccessible situation. The next plant noticed was Hypericum montanunii 
which occurred sparingly by the roadside : here, as elsewhere, H. liirsutum 
was abundant, and Epilohiiim angustifolium formed brilliant patches of 
colour. In the cornfields Linarla Elatine, L. spuria, and Iberis amara were 
observed, the last very plentiful. In the wood which overhangs the road 
near Medmenham Church, Iris fcetidissima \Yii3 abundant, but not a flower 
remained to gratify my hopes of collecting it, though none of the plants 
had advanced far towards seed. Hypericum montanum appeared here, with 
Chlora perfoliata and EnjthrcBa Centaurvwn and I also noticed two or three 
young plants of Atropa Belladonna. In a pit at the bottom of the wood, 
near the road. Reseda luteola grew very luxuriantly, some of the specimens 
being at least six feet high : in this neighbourhood this species is less 
common than B. lutea. The chalky banks outside the wood afforded As- 
perula cynanchica, Hippocrepis comosa, Gcntiana Amarella or germanica, and 
other more common species. On an old wall near Medmenham church, 
were a few plants of PyretJiriim Parthenium, a species which, in common 
with a few others, seems to delight in placing itself in so-called suspicious 
localities ; Borago officinalis grows here by the roadside. On arriving at 
the river, I observed a patch of Butomus umbellatus, but was informed that 
it had been planted : Acorus Calamus was abundant all along the river side, 
but not a single specimen was in blossom. In walking along the bank 
towards New Lock, I suddenly came upon a piece of still water, separated 
from the main stream by a large bed of rushes ; here the vegetation was 
most luxuriant and varied. The large dark-green leaves "of Nymphcea alba, 
mingled with the small ones of Niiphar lutea, and set off by the magnifi- 
cent white and yellow flowers of both, the elegant pink spikes of the float- 
ing Polygonum amjjhibium, with the large white ones of Sagittaria sagitti- 
folia, the overhanging branches of the willows, and the tall graceful reeds, 
gave to the scene an air of almost tropical luxuriance, enabling me to 
realize, in some faint measure, the glories of the New World rivers. Here, 
too, was a large patch of the lovely and rare Villarsia nymphcBoides, its 
delicately fringed blossoms opened wide in the sunlight : I subsequently 
met with it further down the river, not very far from Marlow Lock. The 
beauty of this plant is quite lost in the drying, as the divisions of the 
corolla are concave, and it is therefore impossible to preserve successfully 
the fringe which is so beautiful. A Cliara was observed here on the roots 
of a tree. On arriving at the open river, I was much struck with the quiet 



BRITTEN ON EUOKINGHAMSHIRE RARITIES. 163 

beauty of the surrounding scenery. The banks were still gay with FAijm^ 
torium cannaUnum, Hypericum quadrangulum, Ly thrum Salicaria, and IajsI^ 
maclda vulgaris, which last is cultivated in London gardens under the 
name of " Orange Bovena," and is there considered quite a new plant. A 
ditch in the meadow, shortly before arriving at Danesfield, was full of 
Sagittaria sagittafolia and Anacharis Alsinastrum^ both blossoming profusely : 
I have noticed that the lower leaves of the former, when growing in run- 
ning water, become nearly linear, and entirely lose the shape of an arrow, 
which gives the plant its name. At Danesfield, a notice warns the wan- 
derer that the footpath there becomes private property, so I was reluctantly 
forced to turn back, but not before I had taken a peep into the forbidden 
ground, and espied Conhim maculatum in some plenty. This plant appears 
from the ' Cybele ' to be found throughout the kingdom, but J do not think 
it is really a common species : the strong smell of mice which adheres to 
it, well distinguishes it from any other member of the -Umbelliferse. Going 
from Medmenham in the other direction, towards Harleyford, a peculiar 
variety of Lysimacliia vulgaris was observed. The truss of flowers was very 
much smaller, and the bottom of each blossom was of a deep orange 
colour : four or five plants growing together exhibited this peculiarity. A 
variety oi Solarium Dulcamara having pure white blossoms, was also noticed : 
Sparganium natans occurs all along in the river between here and Marlow 
Road. After this I returned home, well satisfied with my day's excursion. 
In a walk from Wycombe to Totteridge, a variety of Centaurea Scahiosa 
occurred, having pure white flowers. In a field of saintfoin, I was very 
much pleased to find two fine plants of Adonis autumnalis, and I have no 
doubt that there were others in the same locality, as I did not examine 
the ground thoroughly : this is an interesting addition to the rarities of 
this neighbourhood. On Totteridge Common, Hyoscyamus niger occurred 
sparingly ; it has been here for at least four years. Between Wycombe 
and Handy Cross, the fields supply the three Linarice before-mentioned, 
with Iberis amara and Galeopsis Ladanum. In a hedge, G. Tctrahit was 
noticed : this is the rarer species hereabouts, though it occurs with white 
flowers in Bisham Wood. By the roadside, before arriving at Handy 
Cross, Dipsacus pilosus grows sparingly ; the hedge has this year been cut, 
and I only observed one root of the plant ; but in 1861 there were several, 
though I have never seen it hereabouts but in this locality. At Booker, 
Sedum Telephium occurs in a hedge ; and at Whittington Park, some dis- 
tance further on, were Ejnpactis latifolia, Scahiosa Columbaria^ &c. ; Blechnum 



104 TIIK NATUllALIST. 

splcant, Lastr(Ea spmulosa, and Eqidsetmii sylvaticum are particularly fine 
here. On a common just out of this wood, Eanimculus Flammula is plen- 
tiful ; I mention this, as this species is not very common in this neigh- 
bourhood. Here I have since found the sweetly scented Spiranthcs au- 
tumnalis in great abundance. A little further on is Lane End Common ; 
here grows Scutellaria minor. Between Wycombe and Sheepridge, and 
near the latter place, Mdilotus vulgaris grows in the clover-field mentioned 
at p. 58, with Cuscuta europcea ; is this speeies generally known to infest 
clover ? Here it certainly did so, the red stems clearly distinguishing it 
from G. Trifolii. In the same field was a proliferous variety of Daucus 
Carota, having small umbels growing out of the original head. 

An interesting walk is that from the Marlow Road station to Marlow. 
Proceeding along the Buckinghamshire side of the river, I noticed Achillea 
Ptarmica in small quantity ; it is not common in this district. On a piece 
of waste ground, near* the Spade Oak Ferry, were Plantago Coronojms and 
Erodiimi cicutarium ; and by the river a single plant of Sium latifoliuin. At 
Marlow, this species and S. angustifolvum occur in some plenty by a ditch 
in a meadow near the suspension bridge. In a field of saintfoin, near 
Marlow, was a single plant of Delphinium Consolicla ; this has also been 
found in the Rye, High Wycombe ; Sedum Telephium was observed in the 
hedge. Crossing the Marlow bridge, I returned through the Bisham and 
Quarry woods, along the Berkshire side of the river ; here LijsimacJiia 
vulgaris grew in groves. About the Quarry, Monotropa Hypopitys was very 
fine and abundant, with some dead stems of an OrcJds, which I thought 
might be 0. militaris ; Epipactis media was plentiful here, and E. latifolia 
appeared in small quantity. Emerging from the wood, I came on to Winter 
Hill, where Asperula cynanchica grew in abundance. A ditch at the foot 
of this hill was in one place comx3letely covered with Hydrocharis Morsus- 
rancB, a beautiful plant, but a most difficult one to convey home in good 
condition ; in other parts were Anacharls Alsinastrum, Sparganium natans, 
S. simplex, Helosciadium immdatum, (EnantJie Phellandrium, (E. fishdosa, 
and last, but not least, Utricularia vulgaris. The floating bladders which 
support the flower-stems of this plant are very remarkable ; the yellow 
blossoms are very beautiful, and bear a distant resemblance to those of 
the garden Calceolaria. In a clover field, on the other side of the hedge, 
Cuscuta Trifolii was so fine and abundant that it must have proved a 
considerable nuisance to the owner of the crop. In one of the ponds, 
at the foot of Winter Hill, were Si^m latifolium and Butomns umhellatus; 



Brai'TEN ON BUCKINGHAMSHIRE RARITIES. 105 

the former is truly a noble plant. Hijdrocharls Morsus-rancB fringed the 
edges of all the ponds here. In the flat pasture-land, Trifolium fragifemm 
was abundant, with Helosciadium repens ; my selection of specimens of the 
former excited great curiosity among the rustic population, as represented 
by two herd-boys, and procured for me the complimentary (?) epithet of 
" the clover-man." At one end of this field is the marshy ground where 
so many of my spring rarities were collected. I then crossed the ferry 
at Bourne End, and, on my arrival in Buckinghamshire, noticed Nastunlum 
sylvestre and Chelidoniam majiis. 

Gentiana Amarella, or, more properly, G. germanica, grows in great 
luxuriance on a small common called Four Ashes, Hughenden, with G. 
campestris, which is the rarer plant in this neighbourhood. In returning 
across the fields to Wycombe, Verbascum Thapsus was abundant in a field 
of saintfoin, with two specimens of what I took to be V. virgatum. Ecliium 
vulgare occurs very sparingly near Hughenden ; and Medicago sativa is 
plentiful by the side of a field near Bledlow Ridge. This must conclude 
my list of Buckinghamshire rarities for the present year. 

Since the above was written, Mr. J. C. Melville has rather forestalled 
me by giving his experiences of Marlow and Bisham rarities. I am very 
glad that another botanist has found it worth while to record some of the 
plants of this neighbourhood, and has confirmed my favourable opinion of 
its productiveness. With one or two exceptions, however, the plants 
noticed by Mr. Melville are different from those observed by myself; s6 
that I shall make no apology for the few repetitions which may appear 
above. I may inform him that I have never seen Hypericum elodes, nor 
Epipactis palitstris, on the common at Lane End, though I have frequently 
visited this locality. The floating Sparganium, near the Marlow Road 
railway bridge, is, I believe S. natans, not S. simplex. Is Mr. Melville 
quite sure that the Pyrola of the Parmoor wood is anything but P. minor ? 
I ask this question because P. media has so often been reported from 
localities which have been found to produce only P. minor, and this error 
has, as I have before had occasion to remark, -!< occurred quite recently in 
this neighbourhood. I trust that the peculiar interest which I take in 
Buckinghamshire botany will plead my excuse for these observations ; and 
that offence will not be taken where none is intended. 

♦ Vide p. 139. 



106 THE NATURALIST. 

NOTES ON THE HABITS OF THE TOAD (Bufo vulgaris J. 



By John Akmitage. 



As a practical observer of tlie habits of the toad, having for a period 
of thirteen years kept one in my greenhouse, I may perhaps venture upon 
a few remarks, in addition to those from the pen of Mr. Hepworth, which 
have appeared in the " NaturaHst." (Pages 24 & 73.) 

I first introduced the toad for the purpose of destroying the many 
insects which infested my greenhouse. The result was far beyond my 
most sanguine expectations, for, in a comparatively short space of time, 
it was cleared of them. Thinking now, that the toad might require more 
food, I began to collect insects of all sorts, — wasps, humble-bees, caterpillars, 
worms, wood-lice, beetles, &c. ; these it tookapparently quite indiscriminately. 
Ultimately I foundthat beetles, especially ^6a.TsfnoZ«, were its favourite food. 

I may here observe, that the way the toad takes its food is truly re- 
markable. When the insect is on the move (and it only takes insects that 
are alive and in motion) the toad sets, at a distance of from three to four 
inches, and for an instant remains almost motionless — then there is a 
snapping sound, and the insect has gone ! In a word — the insect disap- 
pears so quickly, that the eye of an ordinary observer will not be able to 
detect its mode of capture. The means by which the toad accomplishes 
this, is by suddenly darting forth its tongue at almost lightning speed — 
the insect is caught — the toad's mouth shuts with a clapping sound — the 
eyes instantly close, and the insect is swallowed ! So certain is the toad 
of its prey that in the thousands of instances that I have seen, I have 
never known it fail once. On one occasion I remember the toad had 
taken an insect but was evidently unable to swallow it ; after struggling for 
some time, the toad put out its tongue which the insect had seized, and 
was holding fast with its mouth. By means, however, of its forefoot the 
toad managed to get it off. The insect was a large Abax striola, and was 
quite uninjured for it soon crept away. 

Although I have said that when the toad takes its food the insects 
must be alive, yet, it would appear that motion, and not life, necessarily 
incites the instinct of the toad to capture. For, from curiosity, I have 
attached a string to the antennae of a dead insect, and slowly pulled it 



ARMITAGE ON THE HABITS OF THE TOAD. 107 

before the toad, when it has immediately set, and captured it in the usual 
way. 

From repeated personal observations I can now positively speak to 
the toad changing its skin once a month, during the summer. The process 
is very remarkable. It first selects an elevated situation, after remaining 
a short time a crack is observed in the forehead, and by means of repeated 
muscular action the crack gradually extends down its side ; it then takes 
the right forefoot and strips off the skin on the left foot, and vice versa ; 
next it draws out its hind feet, and all being now clear, it begins the very 
startling process of taking hold of the skin with its mouth, first to the right, 
and then to the left, and swallows the whole ! The whole of this process is 
accomplished in from fifteen to twenty minutes time. The general 
appearance of the toad is completely changed — it being now of a light 
colour, with a glutinous matter covering the whole. 

The toad remains in a torpid state about six months in the year. 
Circumstances may have much to do with its selection of place — but in my 
case, it crept backwards way into the soil to the depth of about twelve 
inches ; repeatedly have I looked at it in this state, and have always 
found it breathing quite naturally, with its eyes wide open. Sometimes I 
have disturbed it for the purpose of seeing if it would take food, but it 
would do no such thing — living insects are, at this time, no attraction 
for it, and it is nearly void of all motion. 

Having on one occasion to fill up the pit where the toad was, with 
soil, and not requiring the following year to remove it, the poor toad had 
to remain buried for a period of eighteen months — yet when exhumed 
it did not seem to have suffered in the least. 

This brings me to the much disputed question of toads having been 
found alive in stone and coal, at great depths from the surface of the 
earth. I have no hesitation in giving my unqualified opinion, that 
it may be so. For as a periodically torpid state is one of its 
characteristics ; and as it is quite possible that when in this state it may 
have become gradually buried ; its tenacity of existence, together with its 
naturally torpid character, is, to my mind, sufficiently convincing to make 
such an event probable. 

With regard to the toad being poisonous, I quite repudiate the idea : 
hundreds of times and under all circumstances I have freely handled it 
and have ever found it harmless. 

The all-wise arrangement of creation is most beautifully illustrated in 



168 



THE NATURALIST. 



the habits of the toad. It is one of the greatest of balance keepers ; and 
why for generation after generation its persecution should have been so 
absolute, I am at a loss to conceive, — would that the stolid ignorance of 
the farmer could be removed hy facts, then this remorseless extermination 
would cease 1 Only look at the annual destruction of crops by the canker- 
worm, and the beetle that deposits the egg which produces this canker- 
worm is the toad's favourite food ! 

I am reminded of the Churchwardens paying fourpence a piece for 
hedgehogs — because of their milking the cows — a thing all naturalists 
Mow to be absurd. 

"Oh kappy he that can the kno-w ledge gain, 
To know the eternal God made nought in vain." 
Almondhury Bank, Huddersfield, 
September, 1864. 



Birmingham Naturalists' Union. — 
At the meeting of this Society held 
at the Eooms, Suffolk-Street, on the 
31st August, Mr. F. Enock exhi- 
bited a larva of Acronycta alni taken 
by him at Sutton Coldfield on the 
S7th August. This very rare larva 
was taken on a holly bush, but it 
had evidently fallen from the over- 
hanging branches of an oak, on the 
leaves of which it feeds. It has 
since changed into a pupa, and with 
care Mr. Enock hopes to I'ear the 
perfect insect. 

Society of Amateur Botanists. — At 
a meeting of this society, held on 
the 91st ult., at 197, Piccadilly, Mr. 
Bywatcr in the chair, Mr. Dyer 
made some remarks on the botany 
of Haslemcre, Surrey, and exhibited 



specimens of the fruit of Agrimonia 
odorata. Some living examples of 
Amaranthus Blitum were laid on the 
table ; and Mr. W. G. Smith exhi- 
bited some beautifully coloured 
drawings of Fungi. Several speci- 
mens of Osmunda regalis, showing 
its development from the seedling 
state, were submitted to the meeting 
by Mr. Dyer. A copy of Baker's 
" Eeview of tlie British Koses " was 
presented to the library by the 
author. 

Doncaster Philosophical Society."— 
On Monday evening, September 19, 
the usual fortnightly meeting of this 
society was held in the Guild Hall, 
when Mr. Geo. Eayner delivered a 
short paper on '' Microscopical sec- 
tions of woods found in the neigh- 
bourhood of Doncaster." Mr. Saml. 
Appleby, vice-president, occupied the 



OBSERVATIONS. 



109 



chair. The essayist, after speaking 
of woods in general, particularised 
the oak, and gave a numher of in- 
teresting historical reminisences 
concerning that monarch of the 
forest. The question of the cellular 
formation of wood was next taken 
up, when it was explained that, to 
the naked eye, the causes of the 
toughness and strength of various 
kinds were difficult to discover, but 
the microscope revealed the fact at 
once. The substance of the cells 
being more or less fibrous, it was 
shown that this, together with 
their compactness, determined the 
strength and durability of the wood. 
It was because these conditions ex- 
isted in the oak that this tree was 
enabled to brave the frosts and 
blasts of hundreds of winters, that 
encircled it with a garland of glorious 
associations — that had crowned it 
monarch of the forest. With the 
aid of two powerful microscopes 
numerous mounted sections were 
then viewed by an interested com- 
pany of ladies and gentlemen, for 
an hour and a quarter, during which 
time much information was elicited 
on the growth and structure of 
plants in general. It may be stated 
that the sections were transverse, 
and had been mounted with their 
bark on — hence the microscope re- 
vealed almost invariably two differ- 
ent kinds of cells, those in the bark 
for the ascending sap, and those in 



the substance of the wood for the 
descending. During the latter part 
of the evening, a lively discussion 
was engaged in as to whether vege- 
tation received its nutriment from 
the earth or the atmosphere. — 
W. S. S. 

Belfast Field Naturalists Society. — 
The fifth excursion of this club took 
place on Saturday last, the 17th in- 
stant, Shane's Castle Park being the 
locality fixed on. Permission to 
visit the grounds on that day having 
been kindly accorded, the excursion- 
ists left town by railway at 9. 30 a.m. 
for Eandalstown. Here the party 
entered the park, and, following the 
course of the Kiver Main, reached 
the shore of Lough Neagh, the 
members occupying themselves dur- 
ing the ramble, which was continued 
as far as the ruins of the_old castle, 
by a search after the rare plants said 
to be found here. The highly in- 
teresting lignite bed, so strangely 
inter-stratified with trap rock, was 
visited, and fine specimens of the 
coal embedded in basalt were se- 
cured. This point is also rendered 
exceedingly attractive by a well-ar- 
ranged rockery, which has been 
formed during the present year, 
and in which are grouped the 
most interesting plants native to 
the park, thus exhibiting at one 
view the chief characters of its flora. 
The success of the botanists present 
was not equal to what might be 



170 



THE NATURALIST. 



expected from such a rich botanical 
locality. This, however, was due 
to the advanced period of the sea- 
son ; still some plants of interest 
were found. At several spots on 
the railway banks, from Ballypallady 
to Antrim, were observed in profu- 
sion the handsome flowers of the 
field Scabious [Knautia arvensis), and 
in a field near Eandalstown, the 
smooth, round-headed poppy, or corn 
rose (Papaver PJiceas), common in 
England, but here one of our rare 
species. In the park were found the 
gypsy wort [Lycojnis Euroj^ceus), the 
hemp agrimony (Eupatorium canna- 
binum) and the yellow loose-strife 
[Lysimachia vulgaris). Mitnulus lute us, 
an American plant, now naturalised 
in many parts of Britain, was also 
found to have established itself on 
the shores of Lough Neagh. The 
party returned to Belfast by train, 
leaving Antrim at 5-40 p.m. — John 
Haktley, The Castle, Belfast. 



Variety of Turdus musicus, dc. — I 
observed, on the 16th instant, a 
perfectly white variety of Turdus 
musicus. It was an immature bird, 
and was killed at Aldeby, a village 
three miles north-east of Beccles. 
Two immature specimens of Sylvia 
ruhecula were obtained on the 8 th 
instant, at Ketteringham, the whole 
surface of their plumage being white, 
eyes pink. A variety of Ilirundo 



riparia was shot on the river at the 
back of the New Mills, on the 11th 
of August last ; the upper surface 
of its wings and tail being of a very 
pale ash-colour, the feathers of the 
upper wing coverts edged with the 
same. This was also an immature 
specimen. — T. E. Gunn, Norwich, 
September 19th, 1864. 

Birds Collected at CooMiam since 
January, 1864. — Having lately no- 
ticed remarks in the ** Naturalist " 
about plants to be found about 
Bisham, Mario w, &c., I think a few 
remarks on the ornithology of the 
neighbourhood may be acceptable 
to some of the readers of the "Na- 
turalist." There have not been so 
many birds shot this year as is 
usual in this place. Formosa, on 
the banks of the Thames, opposite 
Cliefden, the residence of the 
Duchess of Sutherland, is a splendid 
place for birds, and Mr. Briggs has 
collected for Mrs. De Vitre about 
270 specimens, among which may 
be noticed Ardea stellaris, (Lin.,) 
Colymhus arcticus, Falco subbuteo 
(Lath,) Picus minor (Lin.,) Strix 
brachyotus (Gmel.,) and Sylvia locus- 
tella (Lath.) I my self have collected 
Yunx torquilla (Lin.,) Certhia /ami' 
liaris (Lin.,) Sitta Europ a (Lin.,) 
Turdus torquatus (Lin.,) Strix fiam- 
mea (Lin.,) Falco nisus (Lin.,) Falco 
tinnunculus (Lin.,) Emberiza sclm- 
nidus (Lin.,) Fringilla montifringilla 
(Lin.,) F, coccothraustes (Lin.,) F. car- 



OBSERVATlONg. 



m 



duelts (Lin.,) F. spinus (Lin.,) F. hore- 
alis (Tern.,) Corviis glandarius (Lin.,) 
Motacilla boarula (Lin.,) Cuculus 
canorus (Lin.,) Totanus hypoleucos 
(Tern.,) Gallinula crex (Lath.,) Rallus 
aquaticus (Lin.,) Colymbus septen- 
tiionalls (Lin.,) Sterna hirundo (Lin.) 
R. B. Sharpe, Cookham. 

Curious variety of House Sparrow. — 
A few days ago I noticed feeding 
along with some sparrows, in a 
horse-dealer's yard, at the back of 
the office in which I work, a variety 
of the house sparrow ; it was almost 
all of a pure white, except a few 
feathers in the tail and on the head. 
I was asked might it not be a white 
swallow (Hirundo rusticaj but it 
was without doubt a piebald spar- 
row, having the short round body 
and conical beak of that bird. — John 
Hartley, the Castle, Belfast. 



The Eggs of the Lucky or Money 
Spider. — Some boys brought me 
some common Plantain seed for my 
bird (a grey Linnet) and upon the 
stalk of one I observed a small quan- 
tity of insect silk, about the size of 
a fourpenny-piece. Upon examin- 
ing this piece I found that the silk 
was kept in its place by two threads 
which went round both it and the 
stem. Upon removing this, I found 
under it a cluster of minute eggs, 
laying upon another cushion of silk, 
and glued to it. This cushion of 
silk was also fastened to the stem 



like the other. I put the cushion 
and the eggs under a glass, and I 
soon had a fine brood of the little 
spiders, popularly called the Money 
or Lucky Spider. I have since had 
another collection of similar eggs, 
found fastened in a similar manner 
to a small sprig of Laurel. — J. 
Ranson, Linton-upon-Ouse, York- 
shire, (communicated by the Rev. 
F. 0. Morris.) 



British Butterflies on the Continent. 
— The following notes may perhaps 
not be unacceptable to the entomo- 
logical readers of the " Naturalist." 
I do not pretend that the list is 
a complete one, but that it contains 
simply those observed by me in the 
month of July, on the Continent. 
I noticed the following Butterflies, 
which also appear in England, in 
July, viz. : — P. Machaon, P.BrassiccB, 
P. RapcR, P. Napi,C. Edusa,A. Paphia, 
A. Aglaia, A. Euphj'osyne, A. Adippe, 
V. C-albwn, V. urticce, V.polychloros, 
V. Atalanta, V. Cardui, A. Galathea, 
S. Seniele, S. Janira, S. Hyperanthus, 
C. Pamphilus, T. Quercus, P. Phlceas. 
L. Alexis, L. Corydon, L. Avion, 
H. Sylvinus, and H. linea. I also 
observed the following, which a^jpear 
in England at some other time of 
the year, viz. : — L. Sinapis, A. Carda- 
mines, G. Rhamni, C. Hyale, A. Eu- 
phrosyne, M. Artemis, M. Athalia, V. 
Antiopa, L, Alsus, and S. alveolus. 
I also observed P. Podalirius, D. 



172 



THE NATURALIST. 



Ajwllo, and C. Ligea, which Mr. 
Newman gives as reputed British 
Butterflies.— G. H. jun., 16th Sep. 

Plants around Frodsham, Cheshire. 
—1 think that now for several sea- 
sons the Liverpool Field Naturalists' 
Club have honoured Frodsham with 
a visit ; and for their information, 
should they purpose to include it 
again in their arrangements, I give 
a short list of plants, out of a great 
number that are generally considered 
but local in their distribution. On 
and about Overton Hills may be 
found Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum, 
A. marinum, A. Ruta-muraria, Aspidi- 
um Oreojyteris, Briza minor, Cladium 
Marisciis, ConvaUariamajalis, Solanum 
nigrum, Menyanthes trifoliata, Chlora 
perfoliata, Convolvulus arvensis, An- 
tirrhinum majus, Osmunda regalis. In 
the marshes below Frodsham, Utri- 
cularia vulgaris, Ophioglossum vulga- 
tum, Ononis arvensis, Hydrocharis Mor- 
sus-rancB, Aster Tripolium, Vacciniuni 
Oxycoccos, Armeriamaritima, Plantago 
maritima, Primula veris, &c. In 
conclusion permit me to add, should 
the Liverpool, or any other Field 
Naturalists' Club, intend paying 
Frodsham a visit, I shall have great 
pleasure in acting as their guide, 
if they would kindly give me a 
week's notice of their intention. — 
J. F. R. 

Monstrosity of Papaver setigerum, 
(De 0.) — By Professor Henri van 



Heurck, President of the Societe 
Phytologique d'Anvers. — M. van 
Heurck has kindly sent us a paper 
read by him before the Societe 
Royale de Botanique de Belgique, 
of which the following is an abstract. 
The genus Papaver has already been 
noticed to have produced a singular 
monstrosity, by the change of sta- 
mens into capsules. This pheno- 
menon has been observed in three 
species, viz. in P. orientale, by Hugo 
von Mohl, in P. somniferum, by the 
elder De Candolle, and in P. duhium, 
by Elkan. The monstrosity noticed 
by M. van Heurck differs from the 
above, and was observed by him in 
a plant of P. setigeruyn, growing in 
his garden in 1861. We quote his 
own description of this singular 
phenomenon : — '* At the base of the 
capsule, just above the cicatrice left 
by the fallen sepal, was a little pro- 
jection, terminated superiorly by a 
flower. This projection was not 
found in several other cases, but the 
little flowers were placed immediate- 
ly upon the cicatrice left by the 
fallen sepal. The little flower when 
open measured about 9.70 milli- 
metres [.1063 in.] and the superior 
sepal 1.5 mill [.059 in.]. The 
petals were of the usual number, 
four, but were only rudimentary, 
and the stamens similar to those of 
the normal flower ; the latter were 
formed of a cellular mass, without 
any trace of pollen, and presenting 



OBSERVATIONS. 



173 



a few vascular tubes iu the connec- 
tive. The capsule was well formed, 
covered by a plate of eight stigmas 
but not enclosing any seeds. So 
far we have been examining a very 
curious monstrosity ; but what makes 
it still more interesting is the fact, 
that upon five capsules thus altered, 
two bore three flowers on the recep- 
tacle, and the three flowers were 
at equal distances from each other." 
" It is well known that certain Pa- 
jpaverccw, and amongst them, all those 
belonging to the small group, with 
compound ovaries, have three sepals, 
and further that a variety of P. 
hracteatum is monosepalous. Does 
it follow, then, that in this genus 
there is a fusion of three sepals into 
two ? I hesitate to say so. All my 
researches on living plants, at all 
periods of development, shew me 
nothing to authorize this. To quote 
from a letter of my illustrious coun- 
tryman, M. Decaisne: 'As to fusion, 
I candidly avow that I no longer 
believe in it, and I am persuaded 
that the whole theory of fusions, 
abortions, and so forth, has had its 
day, and henceforth at least there 
will be no further question of it. 
Take good care of making too much 
of cases effusion and abortion, it is a 
commodious way of explaining 
things but not a true one.' " 

Rosaalpina(L.)inBritain."We]iaiYe 
received a communication from Mr. 
John Sim, of Perth, in which he 



states that Dr. White recently 
brought to him specimens of this 
plant, which he had gathered on 
Kinnoull Hill, to be named. Mr. 
Sim enclosed a specimen- of the 
plant in his letter, and also for- 
warded specimens to Prof. Babing- 
ton, and Mr. J. G. Baker, of Thirsk, 
for identification. We hope in our 
next number to give a full descrip- 
tion of the plant and its discovery, 
with the remarks of the above-named 
gentlemen on its claims on the 
British Flora, &c. 

Curious effect of Grafting. — Some 
time ago, in a public garden of this 
place, a branch of elm was grafted 
on an oak in the expectation of ob- 
taining a tree half of which would 
be an elm and half an oak. Con- 
trary to the expectations of the 
gardener, however, the following 
was the result: — The tree com- 
menced budding this spring, and 
when the leaves appeared it was 
found that each branch, nay even 
each twig, had both oak leaves and 
elm leaves growing upon it, in place 
of there being separate branches, 
each bearing a difi'erent kind of leaf. 
I will only add that the tree is 
in full leaf, and I have just obtained 
a cutting, which I intend to culti- 
vate if possible ; and I hope next 
spring to be able to inform the 
readers of the " Naturalist " of the 
result of my endeavours. I also 
enclose a sprig for your examination, 



174 



THE KATUEALIST. 



and would like to ask, is this a 
unique phenomenon, or has aDy- 
thing of the kind been observed be- 
fore ? It is certainly remarkable, 
yet not less strange than true. — 
T.G.P., Clifton, Bristol, Sept. 1864. 
[The twig mentioned above has 
four secondary branches springing 
from it, and bears eight elm leaves 
on the lower two branchlets, and ten 
oak leaves on the upper two. Can 
any of our readers state whether a 
similar occurrence has previously 
come under their notice.— Eds. Nat.] 



Tree Sparrow. — I should be greatly 
obliged if any reader of the " Natur- 
alist " would inform me where the 
Tree Sparrow occurs in Western 
Yorkshire or Lancashire. — G. Eo- 

EEETS. 

Linaria imrpurea. — In answer to 
Mr. Britten's enquiry respecting the 
locality of the above plant, which was 
exhibited by Mr. John Armitage at 
a meeting of the Huddersfield Natu- 
ralists' Society, it gives me pleasure 
to inform him that the place is about 
two miles from Huddersfield, on the 
Bradford Road, on apiece of ground 
called Longwood House, and previ- 
ously broken up by quarrying opera- 
tions. Here the remains of shale, 
clay and loose stones form large 
mounds of some acres in extent, of 
some portions of which the plant 
has taken undisputed possession, 



growing luxuriantly to the height of 
three feet or more. The flowers are 
not very conspicuous, their purple 
colour approaching to that of the 
shale in which they grow. They 
were first found there by Mr. Thos. 
Bartlam, about three years ago, 
and although they have taken 
such firm hold of the ground, I am 
inclined to think they are not in- 
digenous to the locality, but owe 
their origin to the gardens of some 
cottages which stood there before 
the quarrying operations were car- 
ried on. — R. Jessop, Lascelles Hall, 
September 15, 1864. 

Linaria purpurea. — In looking 
over No. 9 of the " Naturalist," I 
observed a query by Mr. Britten as 
to the habitat oi Linaria purpurea in 
the neighbourhood of Huddersfield. 
It is well known to botanists that 
this is not admitted into any of our 
principal British floras, on account 
of its being met with as an outcast 
from gardens. Its native place 
appears to be the South of Europe, 
but it has been cultivated in botanic 
and private gardens in England 
since the year 1683, under the 
following names : — Linaria pur- 
purea, Toad Flax ; Linaria pur- 
purascens, Linaria major odorata, 
Great Purple Sweet Smelling Toad 
Flax ; Antirrhinum purpureum, Pur- 
ple Snapdragon. The Huddersfield 
locality of this plant is about a 
mile and a quarter from the town, 



NOTES AND QUERIES — REVIEW. 



irs 



on the Bradford-road, in a charm- 
ing spot, surrounded by most 
beautiful scenery. Striking across 
a footpath at the back of the New 
Inn, and crossing the hill, we ar- 
rive at the place where once stood 
Longwood House, and its gardens. 
The old house was taken down some 
years ago, and a new one erected a 
short distance from the place. 
Since then a portion of the gardens 
have been destroyed by delving for 
stone, and in this place, among 
stone and debris, L. purpurea is 
found growing. I have been over 
the ground to-day, Sept. 21st, and, 
along with the Linaria, I observed 
the following plants : — Armoracia 
rusticana, Horse Eadish ; Matricaria 
parthenium ; and several others 
which it is useless to mention. I 
think this quite sufficient to convince 
any one as to what claims L. purpurea 
can have as a British plant in this 
locality. If some of Mr. Darwin's 
disciples were to see these plants 
growing here, they might say they 
were struggling for existence, but 
surrounded by difficulties. — W. 
Guthrie, Fixby Park, Sep. 21. 

Asplenium marinum. — Do any 
readers of the " Naturalist " know of 
any inland habitat for this beauti- 
ful fern ? Hooker, in his Flora, 
says " in rocks and caves by the sea 
side." It has been found growing in 
a quarry, near Warrington, and in 
two rocks on Overton Hills, near 



Frodsham, Cheshire — both localities 
far removed from the sea side. 
Perhaps some may be inclined to 
think there must be a mistake, but 
upon comparing it with specimens 
found on rocks by the sea side, and 
with the descriptions given in our 
floras, it is found to correspond in 
every particular. — J. F. R. 



" The Flora of Harrow, ci-c." hy J. C. 
Melville. London : Longman, 
Green, and Co., 1864. 

We hail with pleasure the ap- 
pearance of another addition to our 
Local Floras, in the one standing at 
the head of the present notice. 
These local lists (particularly when 
got up with the same care as the 
" Flora of Harrow,") are undoubtedly 
the best means of delineating the 
geographical range of our British 
plants, and we heartily wish that 
similar lists may soon be published 
of all the counties or districts in the 
kingdom. The little work before 
us is " entirely drawn up by Harrow 
boys, of whom four are still mem- 
bers of the school, and one has re- 
cently left it." 

It contains, besides the Flora by 
J. C. Melville, notices of the birds 
of the neighbourhood (by the Hons. 
F. C. Bridgeman and G. O. M. 
Bridgeman, and of the butterflies 
and moths by C. C. Parr and E. 



176 



THE NATURALIST. 



Heathfield, witli a map of the dis- 
trict, the whole forming a very 
nice guide to the natural history of 
the locality. 

The list of plants is scarcely so 
full as we should have expected, 
containing about one-third (566) of 
our flowering plants and ferns, be- 
sides a few aliens, amongst which 
we may mention Veronica peregriria, 
recently noticed in our pages from 
Perth, which is said to have oc- 
curred "from some seeds on some 
dried i^lants brought from Belfast." 
Were these accidentally or purposely 
scattered on the ground ? Amongst 
the rarities we notice Hesperis ma- 
tronalis, Latliyris Nissolia, Epilobium 
angustifoUum, Vinca minor, Chlora 
perjoliata, Primula elatior, {Jacq.)Frit- 
tillaria, Sagittaria, and a few others. 
The orders Banunculacece, Gerani- 
acecB, Compositce, Carices, and Gra- 
minecB; and the genera Buhus and 
Vero)iica,ixve well represented, whilst 
Saxifragacece, LiliacecB, Ericacea, 
Cam/panulacece, and Filices are in 
small force, the remaining orders 
being of a fair average character. 
A few plants we are surprised to 
find missing from the list. Are 
both the Chrysospleniiims absent ? 
also Cardamine sylvatica. Along 
with Saxifraga tridactyliics we 
should have expected to find 8. 
hypnoides and S. gramdata. Senecio 
Jacohcea should occur, and we think 
further search might be rewarded 



with more species than one of 
(Enanthe and more OrcJiidacece. 

We may also hope, that in a future 
edition, the mosses will receive a 
share of attention. 

The Flora is followed by a very 
fair list of Birds, which have been 
noticed at Harrow, with appropriate 
remarks on many of the species, 
and the book closes with a very 
meagre list of the Macro-Lepidoptera, 
occupying only seven pages. We 
trust the Fauna of this locality will 
receive the same careful attention 
which has been bestowed upon its 
Flora, and that a future edition of 
this interesting work, which we 
hope may soon be required, will 
show that Harrow has not been be- 
hind hand in inculcating a deep love 
of nature among its sons. 



€^d^'anQt. 



Folia Chi, — I have fine specimens 
of this insect for exchange, for the 
ova, larva, or pupa of other species. 
My desiderata are numerous, espe- 
cially among the Bombyces ; amongst 
others I am desirous of obtaining 
the following — S. ocellatus, T. Batis, 
T. derasa. S. Fagi, N. ziczac, C. hi- 
Jida, C. reclusa, D. inendica, E. Jac- 
ohece, E. russula, &c. Offers, if 
accepted, will be replied to by 
return of post. — G. Smith, Back 
Bedford Place, Lcighton Lane, 
Leeds. 



177 



SPONTANEOUS EXOTICS. 



By James Bettten. 



In the neighbourhood of London, and other great cities, especially 
such as are seaport towns, a class of plants occurs which is distinguished 
by the name of " ballast plants," and setting aside such species as the 
Groundsel, &c., which are almost ubiquitous, many of our reputed British 
species are almost entirely confined to such localities, Melilotus vulgaris, 
for example, has a most remarkable predilection for these spots, and this 
is also the case with Datura Stramonium^ and many more. But besides 
these two divisions of the class there is yet another which I think I may 
call the most interesting of the three, comprising such plants as are 
certainly foreign to this country, but which appear spontaneously, and can 
scarcely be reckoned as garden escapes. -i' Many of these have now become 
completely naturalised in one or two localities ; others are imperfectly 
established ; while some only appear occasionally, and do not retain their 
position with us. Now although it may be generally felt that these w^an- 
derers have not the interest for a British botanist that plants indigenous 
to his country enjoy ; yet it must be conceded that they are at least worthy 
of some attention, and should not be passed by without notice. It is 
impossible to draw correctly the line which separates our native plants 
from introduced species ; and all attempts to do so have proved, and will 
prove, more or less abortive. The learned author of the Cijhele Britannica 
doubts the true British nativity of the Violet, except in the Isle of Wight ; 
and each person has his own list of " excluded species," either larger or 
smaller than that of the London Catalogue, for but few agree on the subject. 
As a resident in London, where true British botany is, to a certain extent, 
out of the question, I have given considerable attention to the class of 
plants alluded to, and have been at some pains to collect as perfect a list 
of them as possible from various botanical works. The Phytologist, both 
the old and new series, is a perfect treasury of information on this branch, 

* Of course, I do not mean to assert, by the term *• spontaneous," that the 
appearance of these species is untraceable to the ordinary metliod of plant dispersion, 
by seed: but I use the word to imply only, that as far as the direct agency of man 
is concerned, they have sprung up of their own accord. 

No. 12, Oct. 15. N 



178 THE NATURALIST. 

as, indeed, it is on almost every other of British botany. It has occurred 
to me that the Naturalist would be a fitting recipient for such a list, and I 
shall therefore, with the Editors' permission, send portions of it from time 
to time, for insertion in its pages. The list will contain the following 
particulars relative to each plant enumerated ; — its locality, the name of 
the person by whom it was noticed, and the date, when this is attainable, 
of its discovery ; with such notes as may appear to me useful or interesting 
relative to the circumstances of its occurrence. I shall be very much 
obliged to any of the readers of the Naturalist for any information which 
they can supply regarding such plants, and when accompanied with speci- 
mens this will be the more acceptable. The list will be in accordance 
with the fifth edition of the London Catalogue ; the species which are there 
admitted will find no notice here, and this, not because I accept the 
dictates of that work, but because it is absolutely necessary to have some 
list as a guide as to what to exclude, and what to embrace, and the London 
Catalogue being cheap and well known, is chosen in preference to other 
more elaborate works. 

In addition to those plants which I have termed '' spontaneous exotics," 
there are others which, although British species, cannot possibly be indi- 
genous to many of the localities in which they occur ; these must, however, 
be left unnoticed at present. There are also some species which are set 
down as " erroneously recorded," &c., of these I shall give such particulars 
as may be deemed useful for reference. Of the few species, new and 
apparently indigenous to Britain, which have been discovered since the 
publication of the fifth edition of the London Catalogue, I shall here take 
no notice, as I could not include them with propriety under the title which 
I have chosen for these papers ; and for the same reason the recent divi- 
sions of the species of Fumaria, Papaver, &c., will be excluded. After the 
completion of the present list, a supplementary one will be given, in which 
will be recorded such additions, whether of species or localities, as may 
have occurred since the present date. 

The following are the principal works hereafter quoted or re- 
ferred to, with the abbreviations by which I have distinguished them for 
reference : — 

'Cybele Britannica,' by H. C. Watson, Esq., F.L.S. 3 vols. 8vo. 
London, 1847-51. = Cyh. 

'The Illustrated Handbook of British Plants,' by Alexander Irvine, 
Esq., F.B.S. London, 1858. = H,B,P. 



BEITTEN ON SPONTANEOUS EXOTICS. 179 

' The Phytologist,' old series, vols, i— v. 8vo. London, 1842-54. 
= PJiyt. O.S. New series, vols, i — vi. Svo. London, 1855-C3. = PJiyt. JST.S. 

' The Botanist's Guide through England and Wales,' (Turner and 
Dillwyn.) 2 vols. Svo. London, 1801. = B.G, 

* Synopsis Stirpium Britannicarum,' (Ray.) Third Edition, 1724. 
= a. Syn. Hi. 

Many valuable local Floras are also occasionally quoted, with other 
botanical works ; and much assistance from my friend Alexander Irvine, 
Esq., is thankfully acknowledged. 

Order I. — Ranunculace^. 

Thalictrum majus, • Jacq. This is one of the ill-defined species which 
are fortunately expunged from our Flora. Babington (Mamoal, ed. 3. p. 4.) 
gives as its habitat " Bushy hills in the south of Seotland and north of 
England." " Localities were published for this plant in the provinces of 
Channel and Thames, on the authority of Dr. Maton and Rev. H. Davies, 
but there seems good reason to presume that T. flavum must have been 
mistaken for the present species." Gyh. cc. 73. " At Baysdale, near Dar- 
lington ; also on the margin of Ulswater, Cumberland. Mr. Robson." 
English Flora, Hi. 42. 

Adonis flamynea, Jacq. This is recorded in Brewer's Flora of Surrey, 
p. 313, on the authority of the late Joseph Woods, as being one of the 
" Plants found on the Thames side, near Wandsworth and Battersea, 
undoubtedly introduced to the locality." It seems most probable that the 
plant occurred in the former of these places, which is the locality hereafter 
so frequently referred to as the waste ground at Wandsworth steamboat 
pier. 

A. cestivalis, L. " Cornfields on Salisbury Plain, near the road from 
Ambresbury to Everley." Withering's Systematic Arrangement, ed. 4. Hi. 
492. " I have specimens of this plant, sent me as indigenous from Dr. 
Withering and Mr. Sowerby, which, especially the latter, aj^pear very 
different from A. autamnalis'.'' Turner in B.G. ii. 652. Sir J. E. Smith, 
however, says, " this has never been found in England ; for specimens sent 
by my late worthy friend Dr. Withering, show his cestivalis to be but a 
starved and paler autmnnalis. Eng. Fl. Hi. 44. 

Banunculm aljoestris, L. ''By little rills and among rocks on the moun- 
tains of Clova, Angus-shire, seldom flowering." G. Don, April 9, 1809. 
" No other botanist has ever detected an example of the species there." 
Cyh. i, 83. Babington {Manual, ed. 2. p. 6.) after stating that the figure 



ISO THE NATURALIST. 

in English Botany does not seem to agree with R. alpestris of Linnaeus, 
remarks " Can the Clova plant be R. Traunfellneri, Hoppe, a specimen of 
which (from Croatia) in my herbarium, is well represented by the E. B. 
figure ? " 

R. gramineiis, L. " Specimens brought from North Wales, by Mr. 
Pritchard," With. Arr. ed. 4. m.496. " The locality has been reported " in the 
neighbourhood of Llanrwst, " but botanists have vainly sought the pre- 
sent species in that neighbourhood." Cyh. i. 85. " We have been informed 
by Mr. Baker that this plant has recently been found by Mr. Etheridge, 
of Bristol, in Lundy Island, in the Bristol Channel." Pliyt. i. 190, N.S. 
As this latter announcement was never confirmed, we may suppose it to 
have been erroneous. In both cases, perhaps, small states of R. Flammula, 
such as occasionally occur on the Surrey commons, were mistaken for R. 
gramineus. From the New Botanist's Guide, p. 299, it appears to have been 
recorded, in a work devoted to local information, as having occurred near 
Southport, Lancashire. 

R. muricatus, D.C. Appears from an essay by Mr. N. J. Winch, " On 
the Geographical Distribution of Plants through the Counties of Northum- 
berland, Cumberland, and Durham," to have occurred on the "ballast 
hills of Tyne and Wear." These hills are among the richest localities for 
exotics which are to be found in England ; this will be observed from the 
frequent reference made to them in these pages. R. muricatus is also re- 
corded doubtfully by Mr. Irvine from the waste ground at Wandsworth 
steamboat pier. {Phyt. Hi. 334, N.S.) It is a native of the south of Europe. 
R. trilohus, Desf. and R. cordigerus, ? L. are reported by Mr. Irvine 
from the Wandsworth waste ground : the former in Phyt. Hi. 334, N.S. ; 
the latter doubtfully in H.B.P., 787. 

Deljphinium Ajacis, L. Considerable doubt has been expressed as to 
whether this be not the species supposed to be a native of this country. 
Mr. Baker, in Phyt. ii., 376, N.S., states that his own impression is " that 
this is the plant of ' English Botany.' " but Professor Babington, in his 
Manual ed. 5, distinctly informs us that the British species is D. Consolida. 
D. Ajacis is stated by Mr. Baker, as above, to have been " collected by 
Hort in Cambridgeshire, and Mr. Mudd and myself in Yorkshire." The 
Rev. W. Pv. Crotch, as reported in Phyt iii., 185 N.S., remarks, " The 
specimens of Delphinum in my herbarium, one sent to me by Professor 
Henslow, from Cambridgeshire, one gathered by me in Davenport Wood, 
near Bridgenorth, Shropshire, and one near Greenwich, were all labelled 



Britten on spontaneous exotics. l81 

by me D. Ajacis, at the suggestion of a German botanical friend." The 
Rev. A. M. Norman reports it from " Jersey and Guernsey." Phijt. iv., 
383, W.S. It seems probable that both have an equal claim to be enumer- 
ated among the natives of this country. 

D. orientale, Gay. " From a potatoe field at Carlson Moor, near 
Thirsk." J. G. Baker, PTiyt. ii., 370, N.S. 

Nigella sativa. This, which, like the majority of the plants from the 
same station, is a native of the south of Europe, is recorded by Mr. Irvine 
as having occurred on the waste grounds at Wandsworth steamboat pier. 
PhijL iii., 334, N.S. 

N. Damascena, L., and iV^. arvensis, L. Two South of Europe plants, 
recorded by Mr. Winch as above, from the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear. 
These hills are probably identical with those elsewhere referred to as the 
" Sunderland ballast hills." I have lately received a specimen of iV^. Da- 
mascena from my friend Mr. W. Roberts, who noticed a few plants of it in 
August last, growing in a field of flax in the parish of Westward, Cumber- 
land, associated with Cynosurus echinatus, &c. 

Aconitum Lycoctonum, Reich. " Grows in a meadow in the vale of 
Newlands, Cumberland, too near a garden," W. Bower, P7ii/^. ii.,431,0.<S. 

A. StoerTcianum, Reich. Several plants of an Aconitum, which ap- 
pears to be this species, were noticed in May of the present year, growing 
not very far from the river, near Cookham Bridge, Berks. I removed 
one to my garden, where it has flowered freely. It had probably been 
cast out from a garden. 

PcBonia officinalis, L. This plant, which is the common double 
Peony of gardens, and the P. fcemina of old authors, is recorded by 
Merrett {Pinax, 1067, p. 96,) as occurring " in a close belonging to Mr. 
Stevenson, of Sunning-well, in Berkshire, of above fifty years standing, 
and in Stancomb-Wood, near Winchcomb, Gloucestershire; " the latter of 
these stations being the one hereafter quoted as belonging to P. coraUina. 
In the [Cyhele, i, 99,) we are told that Mr. Hancock reports it from "a 
thicket of bushes near Blaize Castle," northward of Bristol. 

P. corallina, Retz. This species is interesting from the fact that it 
was at one time enumerated among the indigenous productions of this 
country. The first notice of it as a British plant appears to be that of 
Gerarde, who describes it as growing " upon a conyberry in Betsome, 
Kent, two miles from Gravesend, and in the ground sometimes belonging 
to a farmer there called John Bradley ; " on which his editor, Johnson, 



282 THE NATURALIST. 

remarks, " I have been told that our Author himselfe planted that Peione 
there, and afterwards seemed to finde it there by accident, and I do beleeve 
it was so, because none before or since have ever seen or heard of it growing 
wild since in any part of this kingdom." {Ger. Emac, 983.) In Merrett's 
Pinax, before referred to, it is recorded as occurring " in Mr. Field's Well- 
Close, in Darfield, Mr. Stonehouse," (p. 96) ; but in the Indiculus Plmitcd 
Duhiariim, in B. Syn. iii, we are told, on the authority of the same gentle- 
man, Mr. Stonehouse, that in this locality, *' though far from any house," 
it was believed to have come first " out of a garden with some dung." 
Mr. Pamplin, in Phyt. iv, 745, O.^S^., published the following note, "evidently 
by a contemporary of Ray," found by him in a copy of the first edition of 
Bay's Catalogus Plantarum Angliae, 1670: " Paeonia mas vera, found in 
Stankham Wood, about halfe a mile from Winscham in Gloucestershire, by 
Fran. Collins, who took up many of the roots and sold them to the 
Apothecarys of London, and left some of the small roots to grow againe, 
and sowed of the seeds he then gathered in the same place." It is somewhat 
remarkable that this same locality is given by Merrett for P. officinalis, 
and renders it probable that on one side or other a mistake in the species has 
occurred ; but it certainly seems probable that one of the two plants was 
really found in this locality. But the station on which Paeonia coraUina 
claims its place as a British ]3lant, is that on the island of Steep Holmes, 
in the river Severn, where it was discovered in the rocky clefts, growing 
in great plenty, by Sir F. B. Wright, in 1808, [seePJiyt. i, 616, O.S.) In 
B. G. ii, 523, we are told " that it is really indigenous there can be little 
doubt, as well from the nature of the locality as from the information 
communicated to Dr. Smith, who first acquainted us w4th its being found 
there." This opinion was maintained by British botanists for some time, 
but it now seems probable that the plant is an introduction. Mr. Flower, 
in the Phytoloyist, as above quoted, adds, " I observed this plant growing 
in the rocky clefts, in the Steep Holmes, in the summer of 1836, but it 
was then nearly destroyed by destructive visitors." Mr. Edward Edwards, 
however, in a letter dated September, 1833, states that ''the plant, though 
now become extremely rare in the Steep Holmes station, is still there, 
and may possibly remain till future seasons, from the great difficulty of 
attaining the ];)eri'>encliciilar cliffs where it grows." {P^tyt- h '''13, O.S.) 
Since this date we appear to have no further record of its occurrence in 
this locality : does it still remain there ? This is a question which, it is 
hoped, will not be long left unanswered. Mr. Flower also states that " a 



BRITTEN ON SPONTANEOUS EXOTICS. 183 

solitary plant was observed, some time since, growing in the centre of a 
large wood near Bath, Somerset, by Miss Lonsdale ; but I am informed it 
has been recently dug up." The only remaining locality which I have 
found to be recorded for P. corallbvx, is that given in Baker's Supplement 
to Ba'uus Flora of TorJcshire, published in 1854, where it is said (p. 40,) 
to be " naturalised in Kildale Woods, Cleveland, W. Mudd. Probably on 
the site of an old garden." 

Order I-. — Berberidace/e. 
Epimedium alpinum, L. This is another of the plants which have 
been recorded as native to this country, though perhaps on insufficient 
grounds. The older authors, as Gerarde and Parkinson, were unacquainted 
with it as a British plant, nor was it^known as such to the great Kay, the 
true father of English botany. The first notice we have of its pretensions 
to rank as an indigenous plant, is to be found in Blackstone's Specimen 
Botanicum, published in 174G, where it is recorded (p. 19,) on the authority 
of Dr. Kichardson, as growing ''in Bingley Woods, six miles from W. 
Bierley, Yorkshire, not sparingly." In this locality it apparently held its 
ground, and perhaps still remains, for Mr. Samuel Gibson, in Fhyt. i, 715, 
N.S., states that " it is still to be found in the neighbourhood." " On the 19th 
of June last, [1843]," he adds, '•' Mr. Ainley showed me the plant growing 
on the left hand side of the river, going from Bingley towards Leeds. In 
1821 and 1834 I got it on the other side of the river, and much farther 
from the town." In Withering's Si/stematic arrangement, (ed. 4,) the 
following Cumberland localities for the plant are given. " Mr. Eobson 
has sent me a specimen which was gathered on Skiddav/, in July, 1795. 
Also specimens from the Rev. T. Gisborne, whose plants were discovered 
in 1787, in a very wild part of Cumberland called Carrock Fell," (ii, 197.) 
Cumberland, indeed, appears to have been the head-quarters of the plant, 
for we find that it was reported " on Saddleback, near Threlkeld," by Mr. 
Hutton ; and authenticated by Mr. Rudge, who " had received a specimen 
from a lady, who gathered it herself in the above habitat," (B. G., i. 146.) 
Mr. Borrer also recorded it in Phjt. ii, 3, O.S., from " a wood by the river, 
half-a-mile from Santon Bridge, some three miles from Nether Wasdale, 
Cumberland," but considered it to have been there introduced ; and a 
friend, in whose herbarium is a specimen of this plant, informs me that it 
is stated to have been found on the Screes, a mountain on the side of 
Wast-water, also in Cumberland. In the Supplement to the Flora of 
Yorkshire, (p. 70,) it is said to be " naturalised in Kildale Woods* 



184 THE NATURALIST. 

Cleveland," on the authority of Mr. W. Mudd. And in the third edition 
oi English Botany, now publishing, the County of Westmoreland is given 
as one of its habitats. The most southerly English station in which the 
plant has been found is near Bristol, where Mr. H. 0. Stephens observed 
it, somewhere about 1899, " in the northern division of Leigh Wood," 
{Phyt. i. 774, O.S.) A specimen has been sent from North Wales, " with 
the locality of Snowdon attached, (see Phyt. vi, 96, N.S.) ; and in Scotland 
several stations are recorded for it, as " about the ruins of Murdock 
Castle, near Glasgow." Mr. Hopkirk. At Hunter'sTryste, near Edinburgh. 
Dr. Hastings Eng. Fl. i. 220, and '' Cleish Castle, Kinross-shire ; Saline, 
Fife ; but as Saline is very near Cleish, it may be the same locality as the 
previous." E7ig. Bot., ed. 3, i, 74. Mr. Watson considers the species " an 
alien, not to be held fairly naturalized," and " occasionally planted in 
woods for the purpose of imposing on botanists." Cyh. i. 392. 

(To he contiimed.) 



EOSA ALPINA [Lin.) IN BRITAIN. 

In accordance with the notice in our last issue (p. 173,) we have now 
the pleasure of submitting to our readers the following notes on this rose. 
It will be seen that neither Mr. Sim nor Mr. Baker consider it in any 
other light than that of an alien, and Professor Babington speaks even more 
strongly. At the same time it would be satisfactory to have the origin of 
its appearance at Kinnoull thoroughly sifted out. Will any of our Perth- 
shire friends undertake this task, and communicate with us? 

The following are the communications we have received : — 

Feom Mr. John Sim. 

Dr. F. B. W. White, junior, of Perth, has this summer detected this 
rose growing on the north-west side of Kinnoull Hill, about a mile east- 
ward of the city of Perth. When first seen it was in flower, the blossom 
being deep crimson. On a second visit, early in August, it was in fruit ; 
not knowing what rose it was, he brought me a few sprigs in order to see 
whether I could identify it. On reference to Green's Botariical Dictionary 
I found a short description of a rose which agreed with it, under the name 
of Fiosa aljnna. Still having doubts in my own mind on the matter, I 
enclosed a specimen in a letter and sent it to Professor Babington, of 



ROSA. ALPINA IN BRITAIN. 185 

Cambridge, who, with his usual kindness and urbanity, confirmed my 
opinion by naming it Rosa alpiiia, a native of the "Alps, Germany, Pied- 
mont, and Siberia." 

This Rosa, as far as I am aware, has not hitherto been observed in 
Britain ; neither do I consider it as aboriginal to the British Isles. The 
great difficulty is to account for its present position on KinnouU Hill. 
Should it be discovered elsewhere in this country, there can be no danger 
of confounding it with any of our British species, its appearance being 
very distinct from them. The leaves are pinnate, and consist of four pairs 
of ovate, pointed, serrated leaflets, the terminal leaflet or ninth being 
rather larger than the others. It appears to be destitute of prickles, and, 
as far as regards the form of its leaves (only,) has some resemblance to the 
Burnet Rose. The fruit, however, is very different, being urceolate and 
curved, smooth, and terminated by the sepals of the calyx, which are long 
and awl-shaped, or rather spindle-shaped. 

Dr. White states there were several bushes in the locality, each from 
three to four feet in height. 

Bridge End, Perth, August^ 1864. 



From Mr. J. G. Baker. 

Rosa alpina does not fall under any of the five groups which have 
already been described in the " Naturalist." 

The Alpines are low bushes, either entirely without prickles or with 
only a few weak ones on the main stems, but with the younger branches often 
furnished rather plentifully with slender aciculi, doubly dentate leaves, 
quite glabrous on the upper surface, and either glabrous or a little hairy 
and glandular on the midrib beneath, naked or more or less glandular and 
aciculate peduncles, simple, or nearly simple, but long leaf-pointed sepals, 
which are almost naked, or more or less glandular on the back, and which 
are truly persistent on the bright-red often pendant fruit, and more or less 
hairy free styles. 

They have their head quarters in the Alps, with outlying stations 
westward, and northward in the Pyrenees, the hills of Auvergue, the Vosges, 
the Jura, the Sudetes, and in Baden. 

Linnaeus describes two species, alpina and pendulina, Koch and 
Grenier unite these together into one, Deseglise separates them into six. 

Mr. Sim's plant is the genuine R. aljnna of Deseglise. The specimen 



286 'i'lH^ NxVrURALlST. 

he has sent me shows the followmg characters ;— Leaves full green and 
quite glabrous above, paler beneath, quite glabrous over the blade, but 
very glandular on the midrib, the main serrations deep, furnished mostly 
with three or four accessory gland-tipped teeth on each side, the fully 
developed terminal leaflet measuring about an inch and three quarters long 
by an inch broad, in shape elliptical, with a slight ovate tendency. Petioles 
with abundant setse, but neither hairs nor aciculi. Stipules with large 
leafy divergent lanceolate auricles, glabrous on the back, but copiously 
setoso-ciliated. Fruit (unripe,) ovate-ampulliform in shape, pendant, and 
quite glabrous. Sepals about an inch long, one only with a small linear 
pinna. The body of the blade small, but the point elongated and dilated 
at its summit. The sepal naked on the back, tomentose, and slightly setose 
towards the edge, copiously setoso-ciliated. 

In the whole of the British species B. alpina is perhaps pearest 
sjnnoslssima, but from this the difference in the armature of the stems, 
the densely toothed leaves, the pendant scarlet fruit, and the long leaf- 
pointed sepals readily distinguish it ; neither are the flowers invariably 
single, as in the latter, but on the contrary there are three or four 
of them when the plant is at all luxuriant. The petals are a pleasant 
deep bright crimson, so that when in flower it is very conspicuous and 
beautiful. 

It is not unfrequently cultivated, and is scarcely likely, from its Con- 
tinental distribution, (vide sujjraj to grow wild in Britain. But there is 
a bare possibility that it may be found to be a British plant ultimately. 
Amongst a set of roses which I received many years ago from my valued 
friend John Tatham, of Settle, all of which he thought, though they were 
not labelled separately, had been gathered in the Craven district, were two 
specimens of li. alpina, and another dear friend, who knows the plant 
well, tells me that he has an indistinct recollection of seeing it many years 
ago, from the top of a coach, amongst the Chalk Wolds of East Yorkshire. 
Under these circumstances it seems quite worth while for our botanists to 
learn what it is like, and keep it in memory. 
Thirsk, September, 1864. 

[We may state that Professor Babington, to whom these papers have 
been submitted, says that he quite agrees with Mr. Baker, and cannot 
admit B. alpina as having any claims on our native flora. — Eds. Nat.] 



187 
AN EXCUKSION TO BROCKERDALE. 



By J. Hepworth. 



The members of the Wakefield Naturalists' Society having had under 
consideration the desirability of having a field day, at length fixed upon 
Saturday, the 17th September, as most suitable to all parties. 

The day opened very auspiciously, and, with the exception of one 
rather heavy shower, turned out all that could be desired. 

We left Wakefield Station at eight a.m. After a short but pleasant 
ride we arrived at Pontefract : we at once struck off for Went Vale, not, 
however, taking the nearest course, but making a detour in order to meet 
with certain shells, &c. In passing along on the left of the town, our 
attention was arrested by the ruins of the castle. The sight of it took 
our minds back into the long past, vividly recalling many an act of tragic 
horror of which it has been the too frequent scene. Here perished 
Richard II. by the hands of Exton and his bloody assistants, — ^Scrcop, 
Archbishop of York, by the command of Henry IV. ; and Rivers, Grey, 
and Vaughan, by the cruel treachery of the fratricidal king Richard III. 
Our thoughts were recalled from the past to the present by the voice of 
our conchological chief, who directed our attention to a great number of 
molluscs, which were feeding upon an adjoining, damp, sunny bank. Out 
flew our collecting cans and boxes, and to work we went in a thoroughly 
workmanlike manner. Helix aspersa, H. arhustorum, H. nemoralis, (many 
varieties,) and H. caperata were our principle captures here. By the way 
H. aspersa, H. arhustorum, and many other molluscs are now retreating to 
their winter quarters, from which many will never return. We found 
many large clusters of H. aspersa in crevices of the walls, the mouths of the 
shells being fast sealed up with a thick coat, or rather coat within coat, of 
mucus, to protect the inmates from the stormy blasts of approaching 
winter. 

From thence we walked briskly on, still, however, to use a nautical 
phrase, " keeping our weather eye open," till we arrived at Shilling Hill 
Bar. Here, on a triangular plot of ground, at the junction of two roads, 
we found the grass literally covered with H. caperata. They were all 
busily feeding. Each step we took we crushed in the pretty little domi- 
ciles of dozens of these small creatures. After examining these for a short 
time we proceeded onwards through the little village of Darrington towards 



188 THE NATURALIST. 

Went Bridge. We saw few plants in flower worthy of note. Pulicaria dysen- 
terica, Mentha Jursutum, Bartsla Odontites, Poterium Sanguisorba, Pimpinella 
Saccifraga, and Euphrasia officinalis, were the chief. 

Shortly before reaching the latter place our snail-hunting captain 
directed our attention to a heap of stones, beneath which we found the 
following shells, — Pupa pygmoea, P. urnbilicata, Zua luhrica, Clausilia 
nigricans, Baleafragilis, Helix hispida, H. rotundata, H. fulva, Zonites crys- 
tallimis, and Zonites cellarius. We spent a full hour among these stones, 
eliciting many bright remarks from passers-by, who ivere chiefly thread- 
bare blacklegs from Doncaster races ; however, their sneers fell upon our 
ears unheeded, as we felt that it would have been a self humiliation, even 
in a " snail hunter," to have deigned to reply to them. 

We now journeyed merrily on to Went Village, where we were joined 
almost immediately after by a second detachment of our party, who could 
not conveniently start with us from Wakefield. They had taken the 
nearest route from the station, and were thus enabled to reach Went 
Bridge almost as soon as we did. Being thus happily united, we started 
in a body for Brockerdale, the property of John Hope Barton, Esq., through 
whose kindness we were permitted to explore the vale. We soon arrived 
at our destination, and were much pleased with the pretty woodland 
scenery. In several places, on elevated ground, seats were placed. From 
these could be seen the valley stretched out beneath us, interspersed by 
wood and stream, and, here and there, bold cliff's of limestone jutting out 
amidst the trees. We noticed a variety of plants in flower — Campanula glome- 
rata, Reseda luteola — in abundance, and others, including most of those 
already mentioned. We spent some time not unprofitably watching the 
black Ant — here plentiful — carrying on its various labours. Proceeding 
along the wood, Mr. Lumb detected a blind worm, Angmsfragilis, gliding 
among the long grass. His attempt to capture it was, unfortunately, unsuc- 
cessful. We were, however, more fortunate shortly after ; we found an Adder, 
Pelias herus, basking in the sun beneath a tree. After an exciting struggle 
we succeeded in taking it. It proved to be a fine specimen, nearly two feet in 
length, and displayed its poison fangs rather more prominently than some 
of our party liked. It was soon chloroformed and confined in a small 
canister, and consigned to the pocket of the writer, to become, hereafter, 
a standing memorial of our much-enjoyed visit to Brockerdale. 

A number of beetles were captured by Mr. Talbot, while the " pupa 
diggers " were tolerably successful in their researches. A few specimens 



AN EXCURSION TO BIIOCKERDALE — OBSERVATIONS. 



189 



of Helix lapicida were secured. Mr. Ox\cy fonndu^on the rocks Asplejiium 
Ruta-iiiuraria, and a single plant of tlie beautiful Helianthemum vulgare ; 
the latter was also found in another part by Mr. Eoberts. 

The birds, generally speaking, were very mute, but the young larks 
were in full song, and reminded us forcibly of spring. At times we heard 
three or four at once carolling gaily in mid-air. 

We left Brockerdale shortly after six, and arrived at Wakefield a little 
before nine p.m. There we separated, having all of us thoroughly enjoyed 
our day's excursion, and I have no doubt that when these present days 
shall become the " days of auld lang syne," many of us will look back with 
unmixed pleasure upon our day's visit to Brockerdale. 
Lofthouse, October 1, 1864. 



The History of my Redstarts. — Pre- 
vious to the year 18G2, a pair of 
Kedstarts had built and reared young 
regularly for four or five seasons, 
in a hole in a shed wall. A pair 
arrived as usual on the 24th of April, 
1869. On the 27th the female un. 
fortunately killed herself by flying 
violently against a window, from tbe 
hand of a thoughtless person who 
had caught it in an outhouse. I 
watched with anxiety how the male 
would deport himself after the loss 
of his mate. I missed him the day 
after, and supposed he had deserted 
for ever, but about the eighth day 
he returned, bringing with him 
another female. They immediately 
recommenced the business of nest- 
ing, and on the 29th of May both 
birds began taking food to the young. 
On the 6th of June I lost sight of 



the male, and concluded he had 
happened some accident ; the female 
continued feeding the young and 
was very assiduous. On the 13th 
the young were nearly fledged ; 
I saw one sitting on the edge of the 
hole viewing perhaps for the first 
time the outer world ; the next day 
it left the nest, but could not fly, 
and I caught it and replaced it 
in its domicile, where it was much 
safer. The day following, however, 
I saw it again scrambling on the 
ground ; no other young ones came 
from the nest. The parent constant- 
ly fed and tended it. I observed 
that she had a peculiarly beseeching 
way of calling it up from the ground, 
whenever a cat, (of which unfortu- 
nately I am pestered with many,) 
or any other enemy made its ap- 
pearance. How the young Redstart 
escaped the jaws of these audacious 
enemies during the few days that 



100 



THE NATURALIST, 



it could not fly, seemed to me 
truly miraculous ; it did however 
survive. They remained two or 
three weeks near the nesting site, 
the old one always by the side of 
the young one, feeding it, keeping 
it up in the trees, and uttering un- 
mistakable notes of alarm whenever i 
an enemy appeared. Whfin it de- 
scended to the ground to seek for | 
itself the old one always called it up, 
fluttering over its head, seemingly 
in painful agitation. A few days 
after their disappearance it struck 
me to examine the nest, and to my 
surprise I found the male bird dead 
and decayed, and a young one also 
decayed. I attributed the death of 
the former, but perhaps wrongly, to 
poison, for I scarcely think they 
touch anything but insects, when 
these are abundant. In the spring 
I prevented a pair of Titmice from 
building in the Eedstarts' hole, and 
otherwise preserved it specially for 
them, as I particularly wished to 
have further opportunity of observ- 
ing their habits ; but none came till 
the 12 th of May. On that date I 
saw a male hopping about the old 
nesting site, but he shortly disap- 
peared, and I saw no more all the 
year. This year I have seen none. 
The Redstart is one of the hand- 
somest of our small birds. I have 
often been amused and interested 
in watching them of an evening. 
The male used to take his stand on 



the top of a small apple tree, as near 
as he could get to where his mate 
was patiently incubating her eggs. 
From this tree he would dart con- 
tinually after the insects in the 
air, returning to the same branch 
after every capture. Sometimes he 
would rise perpendicularly, take an 
insect, then turn and descend with 
elegant motion to his perch. They 
only bred once in a season. One of 
their breeding notes is almost iden- 
tical with the common breeding 
note of the Robin. I believe Red- 
starts are less numerous in many 
parts of England than they were 
twenty or thirty years ago ; yet they 
are not at all uncommon where 
there are plenty of stone walls. 
This year I was up in the hilly 
parts of Yorkshire, in the breeding 
season, and I saw several pairs. It 
is rather remarkable that they should 
decrease in the cultivated parts of the 
country, in the central or eastern 
portion of Yorkshire for instance, 
where insects abound in greater 
numbers, and in greater variety 
than in the uncultivated districts 
where they seem to have maintained 
their footing. Abundance of proper 
food and suitable breeding places, 
are the chief attractions to the mi- 
gratory birds ; and it appears almost 
contrary to what one might expect, 
that in this instance, the latter is 
the preponderating allurement. — 
G. Roberts, Lofthouse, Wakefield. 



OBSEKVATIONS. 



191 



Desiructiveness of the Wood Pigeon 
{Columha jjaZwm&ws.) — The Wood 
Pigeon is a very great nuisance in 
this neighbourhood, on account of 
the havoc it makes on laid corn, 
among newly sown beans and peas, 
among ^oung clover, and in turnip 
fields. The country being wooded 
with several large oak, ash, and fir 
plantings, they visit the fields by 
hundreds during the early and later 
parts of the year, when men are em- 
ployed to shoot them, which is not 
an easy task, owing to their extreme 
watchfulness. A hut is made in the 
corner, or in the hedge of a field, 
near to the trees in which they 
take refuge when disturbed, or 
when resting from their plunder. 
In this hut the sportsman takes his 
station, waiting for a shot ; some- 
times a stuffed bird or two are placed 
among the clover or turnips, and 
near to the hut as a lure. Some- 
times as many as forty are shot in a 
day in this way, and sometimes not 
one. They sell in York at from four- 
pence to sixpence each. A field 
near a large wood being very much 
injured by these pests, a hut was 
erected, and a man engaged to shoot 
•them. About eleven o'clock in the 
morning, a pigeon was shot at and 
escaped with the loss of its tail, or 
the greater part thereof. The same 
bird was shot about seven at night, 
and was known to have visited the 
field, but out of gun-shot reach, six 



times between eleven o'clock and 
seven, and it might have visited it 
more. The owner of the field, learn- 
ing the above circumstances, sent 
for me to see it opened. I opened 
it in his presence, and we found in 
the crop a good half pint of corn. 
Supposing that the number of visits 
had only been six, here was a des- 
truction of three and a half pints of 
corn by one bird alone ; but the visits 
may safely be presumed to have been 
ten, which would give five pints. I 
should think that the bird, a female, 
had a brood in some of the neigh- 
bouring plantings or woods. Mul- 
tiply this quantity by the great flocks 
that infest our woods and fields, and 
the destruction of agricultural pro- 
duce by Wood Pigeons is immense. 
The Duke of Richmond's keeper shot 
on the Home Farm, at Gordon Cas- 
tle, a Wood Pigeon, in whose crop 
was found no less than 858 barley- 
corns, which would do more than fill 
half-a-pint. — John Eanson. York. 

Emheriza citrinella. — During one 
of my strolls in our lanes, I was 
much amused by the actions of a 
female Yellow Hammer. She en- 
deavoured to draw me from her nest, 
to do which she feigned to be unable 
to fly. She fluttered before me for 
a hundred yards; the utmost ex- 
tent of any one effort would not be 
more than four or five yards, and 
they appeared to be done with great 
difficulty. When she alighted on 



192 



THE NATURALIST. 



the road she'stopi^ed to look at me 
until I nearly got to her, and then 
off she went. When I got about 
100 yards, from the nest, she flew 
with great ease , on the top of the 
hedge, and bade me good speed. I 
had never before seen or heard of 
the Yellow Hammer practising such 
tricks. — J. PvANSoN, York. 

Nesting of the Missel Thrush. 
(Turdus viscivorus.) — All Oologists 
know that the nest of this bird is 
bound round and round with long 
roots, it is not however always content 
with them, but often appropriates 
costlier things. Two years ago a ser- 
vant girl lost from the garden hedge 
two pieces of lace, each about two 
yards in length. About three weeks 
after it was lost it was found woven 
into the nest of a Missel Thrush in 
the same garden. Sometime before 
that, but in another village, a cam- 
bric handkerchief was found woven 
into the structure of another nest. 
Mr. Thompson, in his valuable His- 
tory of the birds of Ireland, puts on 
record the loss of a cap and a yard 
of lace, used for the same purpose. 
John Eanson, York. 



Fecundity of the Burying Beetle 
(Necrophorus vesplllo.j — One of our 
half grown ducks having been acci- 
dentally killed, it was thrown on 
the manure heap, in the garden. In 
the course of a fortnight, it was 



completely consumed by the lai'ves 
of the Burying Beetle. Every bone 
was perfectly cleaned, and the soft 
parts of the quills were all con- 
sumed. The straw in the manure 
heap prevented the beetles from 
burying the carcase, so that it was 
fully exposed to view, and I exam- 
ined it twice to see if I could discover 
more than a pair, but I could not. 
The number of grubs was truly as- 
tonishing, the carcase swarmed with 
them ; a naturalist friend thought 
there would be nearly a pint of 
them. — J. Eanson, York. 

Acidalia inornata. — 'I have eight 
specimens of the above insect which 
have come out this week from a 
batch of eggs I got in the beginning 
of last June. Is not this an unusual 
time for its appearance ? The re- 
maining larvae are about a quarter 
of an inch long, and it appears to 
me they will hybernate, if so, this 
insect must be double brooded. — 
Wm. Hicks, St. John's Road, Shef- 
field, Sept., 28, 1864. 



Cleaning Skeletons. — Can any of 
the readers of the " Naturalist " 
inform me of any safe method 
of cleaning and bleaching skele- 
tons of animals, which have been 
discoloured through exposure. — 
W. H. C. 



103 



AN ASCENT OF CROMAGHLAN MOUNTAIN IN QUEST OF 
LIMN^A INVOLUTA, {Thomp.) 



By W. Hill Evans, Esq, M.D. 



On the 24tli of June I was at Killarney, taking a brief holiday. 1 
determined to avail myself of the oi^portunity of ascending Cromaghlan 
Mountain, and, if possible, procuring some specimens of Limnma involuta 
(Thomp,) from the tarn on its summit, the only known habitat of this 
Mollusk. A very brief narrative of my expedition may not be uninterest- 
ing to some of your readers. 

My party were staying at the Victoria Hotel, at the bottom end of 
the lower lake. Cromaghlan Mountain skirts the south-western shore of 
the uj)per lake, rising above the mail road from Killarney to Kenmare ; 
it is about five miles from the hotel. I came into Killarney in time to 
take a seat on the car, which runs daily from this town to Kenmare 
and Glengarilf, leaving at ten a.m., and was set down at the tunnel on 
the Kenmare Eoad, a little before eleven. If time is no object, I should 
recommend walking rather than riding ; the road is very pretty, and in 
many places there are beautiful peeps at the lakes ; but to those who are 
desirous of saving both time and strength, the car offers great advantages, 
taking you easily and quickly over the first portion of the way. Passing 
the short tunnel through which the road runs, I, accompanied by a guide, 
turned sharply to the left, and the climb at once begun. On getting over the 
road wall, you turn your face almost back towards Killarney, looking along 
the road you have traversed, but keeping rather to the right, and steering 
for two prominent knolls near the summit of the mountain. The climb is 
stiff, but is nowhere very difficult — a little floundering through boggy 
ground, a few slips over occasional rocks, a scramble or two through the 
brambles — and, if you are not tempted to linger too long in contemplating 
the glorious panorama of mountain, wood, and lake, which stretches around 
you, you will reach your goal in little more than half an hour. Some 
friends assured me that they occupied two hours in the ascent, but they 
attempted it by a different route, leaving the high road much nearer to 
Killarney than I did, at Mr. Hubert's shooting tower. I believe that the 
No. 13, Nov. 1. O 



194 THE NATURALIST. 

path I have indicated will be found the easier and shorter. Having got to 
the knolls before-mentioned, which appear to form the summit of one of 
the two ridges into which the mountain is divided, you see to your right 
the little lake you have been in quest of. Its eastern side is almost over- 
hung by the perpendicular wall of the higher ridge of the mountain, alto- 
gether precluding access in that quarter ; the remainder of the lake being 
surrounded for the most part by bog. The water, impregnated by vege- 
table matter, is almost of a coffee-colour, but generally clear, and the whole 
region has a wild and desolate aspect, strangely contrasting with the charm- 
ing scenery we have just left. A thick drizzling rain accompanied with a 
sharp wind did not improve matters on the day of my visit, and 
added greatly to the difficulty of procuring shells. 

During Ihe first quarter of an hour I searched diligently on the leaves 
and stalks of the water plants growing in the lake, and scooped up quantities 
of mud, which I carefully examined, but not a shell could I find. This was 
rather discouraging, and my ardour was getting somewhat damped, when aery 
from my guide, who was at some distance, soon brought me to his side, and, 
to my intense chagrin, I found him ruefully contemplating the broken frag- 
ments of a splendid specimen, which he had just taken, I got him to point out 
the spot where he had seen it, and found that it had been crawling on the side 
of a small rock, which jutted into the lake. Water, rock, and mollusk were 
nearly of one colour, but by kneeling down besides the tarn, and putting my 
face almost close to the surface, I was able to see to some distance into the 
water. After gazing steadily for a few minutes, I thought I discovered two 
Limnceas crawling up the side of the rock, and a little careful manipulation 
with the scoop soon put me in possession of the prize. I spent about two 
hours at the lake, and took eleven specimens of the LimncBa in addition to 
the first which the guide had broken, and in every instance the mollusk 
was either crawling on rocks, or free, never attached to aquatic plants, or 
found in the mud. Had the day been bright and calm, I dare say I 
should have collected a greater number ; but where the breeze rippled the 
surface of the water, it was impossible to see anything accurately, even at 
the depth of a few inches, unless it differed much from the brown tint of 
the water. 

Owing to the unfavourable state of the weather, and the con- 
strained position I was forced to assume, it was impossible to observe the 
animal very accurately in the water : but, although I looked for it, I was 
unable to detect the mantle which is said to cover the greater part of the 



CASH ON THE ROTIFERA. l9§ 

sliell. I transferred them to a box, with some cotton wool in it, kept 
them in my pocket the rest of the day, and kept them in the box from 
this (Friday) forenoon until late on the following Monday evening, when I 
got home ; they were then transferred to a tumbler of water, with a little 
Anacharis in it, and they seemed as lively and fresh as if they had been 
but an hour caught. They moved about rapidly, and with a peculiar con- 
tinuous gliding motion over the sides of the glass, sailing on steadily, so 
to speak, without any of the jerking mode of progression so common in 
most of the gasteropods. They gradually died off, one surviving a fort- 
night; but during the time that I had an opportunity of observing them 
in captivity, I never could discover any portion of the mantle expanded 
over the shell. I paid particular attention to this, as Mr. Jeffreys, in his 
valuable work on British Conchology, states that Dr. Percival Wright in- 
formed him " that the greater part of the shell in this species is covered 
by the mantle, as in L. glutimsa," while from a remark of Professor Good- 
sir, which he quotes, he says, " it might be inferred that the mantle has 
not the expanded lobe which is peculiar to the sub-genus Amphipepla." 
It is highly desirable that some more accurate observations should be 
made on this point. Mine cannot be called accurate, for I was unable 
properly to see the animal in its native habitat, as I before stated ; and it 
is very probable that its mantle may have been retracted when I put it 
into a tumbler containing such an uncongenial element as pure water, 

Bradford, Yorkshire^ Oct, Sth, 1864. 



NOTES ON THE EOTIFERA. 



By J. Cash, WARRiNaxoN. 



No. 3. — The Floscules. 



Some of the animalcules to which the name of Rotifera has been 
applied are not aptly designated. The characters of the order depend, not 
so much upon the presence of a rotary organ, (for in some species, such 
as those we are about to consider, as well as the Stephanoceros, no such 
organ is visible,) as upon certain internal features of organisation. Great 
difference of opinion seems to exist among naturalists as to the ran)*: 



196 THE NATURALIST. 

which they should hold in the animal kingdom, — some considering them 
allied to the Crustacea, and others to the Annelids, or worms, — but, 
leaving out of sight the question of classification, all are agreed that the 
most important character, and that by which they are most readily known, 
is the possession of a peculiar masticatory apparatus. This, which differs 
somewhat in form and complexity, is called by some authors a gizzard, 
but Mr. Gosse states that he has reason for believing it to be a true mouth. 
They also differ, among themselves, in the fact that certain genera — as 
Floscularia, Stephanoceros, (Ecistes, Melicerta, and others — attach them- 
selves to plants or other objects in the water, whilst others, and by 
far the greater number, are constantly roving about in search of prey ; 
and it is not too much to add that, in the circle of minute life in which 
they move, they are as voracious as any of the wild animals which haunt 
the jungles of Africa. It must not be supposed, however, that the fixed 
si3ecies are less predaceous. If possible, they are more so, as I can 
myself testify. They are the very tyrants of their watery home. Often, 
when inspecting a Stei^hanoceros, have I seen lively, rollicking Euglenae, 
one after another, entangle themselves in its meshes, and once within the 
crown — once within the mouth-funnel of a Floscule, — there is no 
possibility of escape, unless by accident. I have observed as many as a 
dozen small bodies in such a position at one time : when something has 
occurred to drive the creature into its case all have escaped. It is com- 
mon to see their capacious stomachs filled with greenish matter, which is 
nothing more than the half-digested forms of Euglenfe, — sometimes there 
are whole ones which have to undergo the process of mastication, — yet 
they continue to take whatever comes in their way. 

Some species of Floscularia may commonly be found at this season of 
the year upon the leaves of Myriophylhwi, Lernna, and other water plants ; 
and where they do exist they are usually abundant. Those who possess 
aquaria, I think, will have no difficulty in finding F. campanulata, — pro- 
bably F. ornata, and others — if there has been no disturbance of the plants 
for several months. The first mentioned species has proved to be extremely 
common in this neighbourhood. I find it in my aquarium usually upon 
Conferva. It may not be amiss here to state that if an aquarium is kept 
for the purpose of supplying the possessor of a microscope with Kotifera, 
and Infusoria generally, it must not be disturbed oftener than is absolutely 
necessary. To keep it as a fine parlour ornament is a different thing ; it 
must in that case be attended to ; the sides — or at least the front — must 



CASH ON THE ROTIFER A. 197 

be periodically cleaned ; the plants must be removed when they get 
unsightly, and others substituted ; but to think of making it valuable as 
an adjunct to the microscope, and be perpetually dabbling in it, is hopeless. 
As a rule the two things, a nice parlour ornament and a useful reservoir 
of minute life, are incompatible. The principle on which I construct my 
aquarium is this : I cover the bottom with about two inches of well-washed 
sand, (silver sand is best,) fill up with water, and then plant Myriophyllum, 
the water Ranunculus, the common water Moss, (Fontinalis antipyretica,) 
which is an excellent aquarium plant, Nitella flexilis, and a sprig or two, 
(not more, on account of its rapid growth,) ofAnacharis Alsinastrum, thvov^in^ 
in a small quantity of Lemna, and perhaps a few detached leaves of the 
water Violet, {HoUonia palustris.) Other plants may be used, but as a rule 
they ought to be the finer leaved species. After allowing it to stand a 
few days I turn in three or four minnows, and such other small fry as 
fancy may dictate, always, of course, avoiding those pugnacious brutes 
the sticklebacks, which ought to have an aquarium to themselves. I then 
let it take its course, and, assuming that the water is in a state of purity, 
do not disturb it for twelve months or so. Elegance is no object so long 
as I make my aquarium subserve the purposes of the microscope. When 
two or three months have elapsed I have no difficulty in finding any 
number of Rotifers that I may want. There is Rotifer vulgaris in myriads ; 
there are also R. macroceros — which at one time was quite as abundant as 
R. vulgaris — and many other species, including Scaridiimi, Monocerca, Salpiiia, 
Metopidia, Pterodina, and many others ; but, what are perhaps most to be 
desired, the attached genera, Stephamccros, Floscidaria, (Ecistes, Melicerta, 
and so on. This is a list which is sufficient to whet the appetite of any 
amateur microscopist. A few days ago I made a random dip into my 
aquarium — which has been left undisturbed for about five months— and, 
on placing a few leaflets of Myriophyllum under the microscope, found that 
I had netted about half-a-dozen specimens of Floscidaria campamdata, 
two beautiful Stephanoceri, and several free rotifers, both loricated and 
illoricated, besides other animalcules and one or two desmids. The 
Floscules are at present very numerous, although not many weeks since 
there was not one to be found. It is interesting to note how, at certain 
seasons, different species of infusoria predominate. All through the 
summer months my water plants have been covered with Stentors — not a 
leaf could be detected which was not swarming with them— now they have 
almost entirely disappeared, and the Floscules have i)resented themselves; 



108 THE NATUEALIST. 

and I should not be surprised if, during tlie winter months, the Tardigrada 
(water bears) have their turn ; for one winter they were so abundant as to 
supersede, in number, everything else. The common rotifer {R. vulgaris) 
is cojnmon at all times of the year, and in all places ; and the little E. 
macroceros, — first discovered and named by Mr. Gosse, which only seems 
to be a variety of R. vulgaris, possessing a longer antennal process, — when 
it does appear, is generally most abundant, and is to be found among the 
loose conferva which grows upon the sides of the tank. But the marvel 
is that when these things have had their run, however abundant they may 
have been, they almost totally disappear. The Stentor (which, by-the-bye, 
does not belong to the family of rotifers) is the most remarkable. You 
may see the trumpet-shaped bodies of these creatures at one time studding 
the plants, — to which, however, they have no permanent attachment, — or, 
by means of their cilia, working their way through the water with a spiral 
motion ; and when you look at your tank a week or two afterwards you 
find that they have (as Mr. Slack expresses it) " gone to smash," by a 
process peculiar to infusoria ; and which Dujardin politely describes as 
*' diffluence." " The integument bursts and its contents disperse in minute 
particles, that in their turn disappear, and scarcely leave a wrack behind." 
This, however, cannot be the case with any species of Kotifera, — whose 
organisation is altogether different from that of the ciliated protozoa, — and 
it is difficult to account for the sudden disappearance of certain species 
■which have, for a time, held unlimited sway. 

But now as to the Floscules, The following are the generic cha- 
racters. 

" Frontal lobes short, broad, knobbed, expanded ; ciliary setse very 
long, crowded about the knobs, jaws each of two teeth." 

These creatures are each furnished with a thin diaphanous case, re- 
sembling that seen in the very young Melicerta. It often happens that 
this case can only be detected by colouring the water with indigo, or some 
other pigment ; but sometimes in aged specimens, though very rarely in 
F, camjjanulata, it is studded with flocculent matter about the base. F, 
oniata is said to be the commonest of the species, but in this neighbour- 
hood it is by no means so common as the other species which I have 
named. I have never yet had the good fortune to meet with a specimen, 
though a friend of mine assures me that he has. I cannot forbear quoting 
Mr. Gosse's description of this lovely creature. He says : " It is far 
inferior in size to Stephanoceros, and cannot compete with it in majesty 



CASH ON TliJi ilOTIFERA. 190 

of form, but it perhaps surpasses that fine species in elegance and grace. 
It may be compared to a long tubular flower with a five-angled petal, 
somewhat like that of a Convolvulus, the tube swollen, and contracted be- 
low the lip, and seated on the end of a long stalk." He gives the dimen- 
sions of this beautiful Floscule, as measured by himself from an average 
specimen, as follows — " Height of the case, -y^^-th of an inch ; height of 
foot, 1 oo^th ; of foot and body to tip of tallest petal, g-Vth ; of entire animal 
from base of tube to tip of longest bristles, so far as they can be traced, 
about yV^^- They are, however, very variable in size, but not so large in 
any of the species as to be distinctly perceptible to the naked eye." The 
body, he goes on to say, " is sub-oval, sometimes very regular, but at 
other times a little enlarging at the upper end. Above this there is a 
constriction or neck, but not so well-defined a collar as in Stephanoceros. 
From this neck, the beautiful flower-like disc opens, an expanse of the 
most exquisitely delicate and brilliantly transparent membrane, which forms 
five blunt points, equidistant and somewhat rising, so as to give a trumpet- 
like contour to the outline. One of the angular projections of the disc is 
considerably higher than the rest, and this is the dorsal one, so that the 
plane of the five lobes is not horizontal, but oblique, facing forwards. A 
very remarkable feature in the animal, and one to which it owes much of 
its peculiar elegance, is, that each knob is beset with straight bristles of 
exceeding slenderness, and of great length, which are not set in one plane, 
but radiate in every direction. Ehrenberg says there are from five to 
eight on each angle, but probably the poverty of his instruments deceived 
him, for I have counted from forty to fifty on each knob. When the animal 
contracts all the bristles are drawn parallel into a single pencil, and con- 
cealed within the body ; and this arrangement is well seen as they slowly 
protrude in the act of eversion. They are motionless when expanded, but 
while protruding, and in the instant of expanding (falling, as Mr. Slack 
says, on all sides in a graceful shower,) the pencil is seen to be agitated 
with a close and rapid thrill or wave, which runs along it, and looks much 
like the flickering of a candle flame. It ceases the instant the disc is ex- 
panded." 

Whilst this paper was in course of preparation I made an excursion to 
Hill Cliff— an attractive spot about three miles from Warrington— with other 
members of the Field Naturalists' Society ; and, on coming to a small 
pool in the field near the entrance to the Dingle, I thought it advisable, 
although the place did not seem to promise much, to fill a bottle with 



200 THE NATURALIST. 

■water, and a few sprigs of star-weed, {Callitriche,) about which there was 
a good deal of Conferva growing. I never like passing a place without 
trying what it is worth. On reaching home I placed a fragment of the 
star-weed under my microscope, in order to ascertain whether I had 
anything more than common ; and almost the first object that struck my eye 
was a Floscule. What species was it ? At first sight it was difficult to 
tell, for the timid creature was safely ensconced at the bottom of its case. 
Was it F. campanulata ? I could not reconcile it with previously examined 
specimens, for the case was completely covered with extraneous matter ; 
and, moreover, the creature had half-a-dozen, or more, eggs at her foot, a 
number rarely, if ever, seen in F. campanulata. What then ? Was it 
ornata? No: it was larger than I should imagine ornata to be. Presently 
it began to venture forth, and I had the prospect of an early solution of 
the question. I caught sight of something like an antennal process, when 
my gratification was momentarily checked by the appearance of a water- 
flea, which came down upon my favourite with a rush, and sent it once 
more to the bottom of its dwelling. There was something about it 
difi'erent from what I had seen in the other species. Could it be cornuta f 
I waited its reappearance with some little anxiety. *' Order having been 
restored," it made a second attempt to unfold its lovely flower, and this 
time without interruption. Slowly the setse, which were of unusual length, 
separated, and were thrown out in a most charming manner ; and the high 
dorsal lobe was seen to be furnished with a waved finger-like process, — a 
decisive indication that it was F. cornuta, and nothing else. I considered 
this a good catch. On farther examination I found that the star- weed, 
and other small plants, were swarming with these beautiful creatures ; 
and I made a visit to the same pond the next day for a sujpply for my 
aquarium. Upon a single leaf of Lenma minor I counted upwards of a dozen 
individuals. 

This species, as well as campanulata, was first described by Dr. Dobie 
in 1849, in the " Annals of Natural History." The Micrographical Dic- 
tionary speaks of both as " doubtfully distinct ;" but, Mr. Gosse says, with- 
out reason, for having repeatedly met with both, he can vouch for the 
accuracy of Dr. Dobie's descriptions and figures, and for the permanence 
of the species. F. cornuta was elaborately described by Leydig, in 1854, 
as if new, under the name of F. appendiculata, and Mr. Gosse himself 
described it in manuscript in 1850, before he was aware of Dr. Dobie's 
memoir. 



SPONTANEOUS EXOTICS. 



By James Britten. 



[Continuedfrom2ycige 184:.] 
Order III. — PAPAVERACEiE. 

Papaver nudicaule, L. " Was found by Professor Giesecke, of Dublin, 
growing singly among rocks and glens in the bills at Acbil-bead in the 
North- West of Ireland." Eng, Bot. v. 4. Some gross error must have 
occurred, as no one else has ever seen the plant in the locality given. It 
is a native of Siberia. 

Argemone mexicana, D.O. Is included by Mr. Winch among the 
plants of the " ballast hills of the Tyne and Wear ; " but has not been met 
with elsewhere in England. It is, as its name denotes, a native of Mexico. 

Escholtzia calif ornica, D.C. This common garden annual occurs not 
unfrequently on rubbish heaps near the Metropolis. I have this year 
found it in such situations in Battersea Park, and in the grounds of 
Chelsea College. 

E. crocea, Benth. *'I found it growing among stones between Dron 
and Nydie Mill, Fifeshire, at the edge of the footpath." It " likewise 
occurs in great abundance in a piece of ground lying waste in consequence 
of the Edinburgh and Northern Kailway operations." G. Lawson in Phyt. 
Hi., 136. O.S. (1847.) Both this species and the last are natives of Cali- 
fornia. • 

Glaucium phoenicium, Gaert. This plant was at one time believed to 
inhabit sandy fields in the county of Norfolk ; but time has shown that 
if it ever occurred there it could only have been as a casual introduction : 
it has also been reported from Portland Island. In Irvine's London Flora, 
published in 1838, it is stated to have been " found near the turnpike, 
about a mile from Brighton, on the beach " (p. 303) ; and in this neigh- 
bourhood it appears to have been noticed as recently as 1859 ; for in Phijt. 
Hi., 285. N.S., we read that Mr. Gerard Burton, on June 14th of that year, 
" gathered a single specimen on the seashore near the eastern end of Brigh- 
ton," which specimen, he adds, " does not at all favour the idea that it was 
an escape from cultivation." In Phyt. iv., 156. N.S., this locality is stated 
to be " not far from Hove." In Surrey it appeared plentifully at the 
Wandsworth steamboat pier locality, where it continued from 1852 to 1865, 
(see H,B.P. 726); here " some of the examples unquestionably perfected 



202 THE NATURALIST. 

seeds." Phijt. HI, 387, 338. N.S. In Yorkshire it is stated by Mr. Baker 
to be " an occasional straggler from cultivation. During each of the last 
three or four years I have usually noticed a few plants in waste places, in 
the vicinity of Thirsk, Rievaulx, etc." Supp. to Flora of Yorkshire (1854), 
p. 41. In his " North Yorkshire " Mr. Baker gives the additonal locaUties 
of Cotherstone and Ainderby Steeple (p. 199). The above evidence is 
sufficient to show that G. phcenicium has no claim to a place among our 
native plants. 

Ghelidonium laciniatum, D.C. " Observed plentifully among the 
ruins of the Duke of Leeds' seat at Wimbleton by Mr. Martin." R. Syn. 
Hi., 309. Since the period of the above notice, the plant appears to have 
spread in the neighbourhood, for in H.B.P. 736, it is stated to grow " about 
Wimbledon, under hedges and on old walls." " A very doubtful native." 
Bab. Man. ed. 5, p. 17. 

Hypecoum procumbens, L. This native of the South of Europe for- 
merly occurred on the waste ground at Wandsworth steamboat pier. 
Phyt. Hi., 334. N.S. 

Platystemon californicum, Benth ? This, ** or some other more re- 
cently introduced species," appears to have been found near Birkenhead. 
See Phyt. iv., 384. N.S. It is a native of California. 

Order III.* — FuMAniACEiE. 

Dielytra formosa, D.C. '' Subspontaneous, or planted in a wood near 
the High force of Seamerdale, plentiful in 1859, Wheldon ! A native of 
America." Baker's North Yorkshire,]). 199. 

Order IV. — Crucifer^. 

As might be supposed, so large an Order as this furnishes a propor- 
tionate number of introduced species, of which besides those which follow, 
there are several as yet undetermined. 

Iberis umbellata, L. This common garden annual is a native of the 
South of Europe, and occurs not unfrequently on waste ground near the 
Metropolis. I collected it last year from the waste ground at Kew Bridge : 
and have this year met with it in some abundance about Battersea Park ; 
it has also recently occurred on waste ground near the Wimbledon rail- 
way station. In the London Flora, p. 169, the " Old Palace, Croydon," is 
given as a locality for it. I have seen a specimen gathered in June last 
in a cornfield near Medmenham, Bucks, where it occurred in small quan- 
tity ; Rud in the following month, I observed a single plant growing in the 



BRITTEN ON SPONTANEOUS EXOTICS. 203 

centre of the Huglienden Woods, in the same county, a rather remarkable 
habitat for the species. 

Chjpeola lonthlaspi, L. Is enumerated in the London Catalogue,]). 16, 
among the plants " erroneously recorded, or subsequently extinct in Bri- 
tain." I have met with no reference to it in the many works which I have 
consulted. A native of the South of Europe. 

Farsetia incana. Br. " In the year 1766 I found a considerable 
quantity of this plant near the rope-walk at Weymouth, and on the spot 
where Gloucester Row and the Royal Palace now stand. It was lost in 
three or four years after that period." Pulteney, as quoted in B.G. i., 296. 
It appears to'have occurred under similar circumstances at Lewes, Sussex, 
where it sprang up " about fifty years ago, on ground broken up for build- 
ing on. I knew it for a few years as a weed in the recently formed gar- 
dens ; but I believe it has long since disappeared." W. Borrer Phyt. v., 
46. O.S. (1854). It is also enumerated by Winch among the plants of the 
ballast hills of Tyne and Wear . 

Lunaria rediviva, D.C. This appears to have been the plant recorded 
by Gerarde under the name of Viola Lunaris sive Bolhonac as having " been 
found wilde in the woods called Pinner, and Harrow on the Hill, twelve 
miles from London ; and in Essex likewise about Horn church." Ger. 
Emac.y 464. Mr. George Jerdon states that it is an occasional visitor in 
the neighbourhood of Bewdley, Worcestershire. See Phyt. i., 361. N.S, 
I have recently received a specimen from Mr. Cockshott, of Manchester, 
who found it on the sands of Morecamb* Bay, Lancashire, in June last. 
A natiye of Germany. 

Camelina dentata, Pers. *' Cultivated fields near Castle-Howard ; H. 
Ibbotson." Suj^p. to Flo. Yorkshire, p. 44. " Drawn from a specimen 
collected near Virginia Water." E. Botany, ed. 3, i., 200. In all proba- 
bility this has as much claim as C. sativa to be ranked among the plants 
of this country. Professor Babington [Manual ed. v., p. 81.) refers all the 
British examples of Camelina to C.fcctida, Fr., and states that he has never 
met with C. sativa, Fr., nor C. sylvestris, Fr. 

Neslia paniculata, Desv. Mr. Irvine has collected it " during several 
years in the vicinity of Chelsea and Battersea, and especially near the 
steamboat pier, Wandsworth." H.B.P. 710. A South of Europe plant. 

Lepidium sativum, L. The number of localities for a plant so much 
cultivated for domestic purposes is of course very great. In Essex, it 
appears to be frequent, occurring at Sampford, Walden, Navestock, and 



204 i'HE NATURALIST. 

Shoebury {Flora of Essex, 33.) ; also on and about the railway near Wiven- 
hoe {Botanist's Chronicle, p. 77.) ; and I have observed it in similar situa- 
tions near Ingatestone. In Kent, it occurs near Dover : and in Surrey I 
have collected it on Wimbledon Common, Putney Heath, at Kew Bridge, 
Battersea, etc. In Middlesex a few specimens may usually be found about 
Parson's Green, near Fulham, and in the grounds of Chelsea College ; and 
it is recorded from cornfields at Koxeth by the Rev. W. M. Hind {Phyt. v., 
204. N.S.) ; this is the most natural locality for it with which I am ac- 
quainted. In Lancashire I am informed by Mr. Cockshott that it occurs 
on the banks of the Mersey, at Nortken, near Manchester ; in Worcester- 
shire it occurs about Worcester, etc., and seems " pretty well Naturalized." 
(See Phyt. iv., 970. O.S.) : in Yorkshire it grows on " river banks and waste 
places." (Supp. Flo. Yorkshire, p. 43. j ; and in Durham it is recorded from 
West Hartlepool, and the ballast hills of Tyne and Wear. In all of these 
localities, with the exception, perhaps, of that at Eoxeth, there can be little 
doubt but that the plant is a garden escape ; and it probably occurs as such 
in most of the English counties. I have no record of its appearance in 
Scotland or Ireland. 

L. Iberis, Poll. Appears, from a review in Phyt. ii., 113. N.S., to have 
occurred in a wild state about Oxford ; it was observed by Mr. Irvine at 
Wandsworth steamboat pier, but " only once, and then but one specimen." 
Phyt. Hi., 339. N.S. A native of the South of Europe. 

Vella annua, L. '' Found by Mr. Lawson on Salisbury Plain, not far 
from Stonehenge." R. Syn. Hi., ^04. In the 3rd edition of English Botany, 
now publishing, it is stated, on the authority of the Eev. W. W. Newbould, 
that " the plant which represents it in the Sloane herbarium is Reseda lutea." 
(i., 224,); and this renders it probable that the original notice was errone- 
ous. The plant has also occurred at Wandsworth steamboat pier, where 
it was '' noticed first in 1852, and in every subsequent year till 1855, in 
which it was not visible. In 1853 it occurred, but sparingly, on soil laid 
on Battersea Fields. The j)lant has disappeared at Battersea." {H.B.P. 
711.) and also at Wandsworth. A native of the South of Europe, as is 
also the following. 

Eruca sativa, Lam. " On the new quay at Wandsworth." J. T. 
Syme. Phyt. iv., 862. O.S. This is the earliest notice which we have of 
the now well known station at Wandsworth steamboat pier. Here the 
plant continued " very abundant for several years." H.B.P. 705. 

Cramhe orientalis, L. " Escaped and wild, but not indigenous, at the 



BRITTEN ON SPONTANEOUS EXOTICS. '205 

Bridge of Spey, near Fochabers," Elginshire. Rev. G. Gordon, in New 
Botanist's Guide, p. 499. A native of the Levant. 

Eapistrum rugosum, All. " One of the very commonest of the exotic 
Crucifers in the Wandsworth steamboat station," H.B.P. 718. Here it 
occurred for some years, but has now disappeared. 

R. perenne, All. At Wandsworth steamboat pier. See H.B.P. 798. 
** West Hartlepool ballast heaps, retaining its ground for many years," 
Rev. A. M. Norman, M.S. This is, like the last, a native of Europe. 

Enarthrocarpus lyratus, D.C. " Has abounded in this [Wandsworth 
steamboat pier] locality for some years." H.B.P. 710. I obtained a sin- 
gle specimen from this station in 1862. See Phyt. vL, 412. N.S. " Has 
been met with on rubbish heaps at Pendleton, near Manchester, by Mr. 
Richard Buxton." Phyt. iv., 57. N.S. A native of Egypt. 

Raphanus sativiis, L. " Scarcely naturalized, though not unfrequent 
in cornfields near towns and villages." H.B.P. 718. I have met with it 
this year on Wandsworth Common, at Battersea, in one or two places, 
and in other localities. A native of China. 

R. Landra, Mor. " Grows about Wandsworth and Battersea." H. 
jB.P. 719. I collected two or three specimens from the Wandsworth 
steamboat pier locality in 1863. 

Cardamine bellidifoUa, L. This is another of the species formerly 
enumerated as genuine natives, but which subsequent investigation has 
failed to establish as such. " On the Rock near the Quarry, by Bath, in 
various places near the monastery at Rippon, and in Denbighshire." 
Merrett's Pinax, p. 20. In the two last-named localities, Arabis hirsuta 
appears to have been mistaken for it ; (See B.G. i. 173, and ii. 702.) and 
this was probably also the case at Bath. In R. Syn. UL, 300, it is said to 
have been " found by Mr. Newton on S. Vincent's Rock, by Bristol;" and 
Hooker (British Flora, ed. 2, p. 301.) records it from the " County of Clare, 
Ireland ;" a very dubious native. But no examples from these localities 
appear to have been preserved, and it seems probable that a mistake, simi- 
lar to that above-mentioned, must have again occurred. The locality upon 
which most reliance can be placed is the remarkably indefinite one of 
" Scotland," where it was '' gathered wild, and sent to Dr. Withering," by 
Mr. Milne," {With. Arr. ed. 4, Hi., 565.) ; and from the 3rd edition of 
English Botany it appears that " in Withering's herbarium two examples 
of it are preserved, said to be from Scotland," (i. 224). No botanist has 
since found it in the kingdom. 



206 I'HE NATURALIST. 

Barbdrea intermedia, Bor. This is an agrestal weed of comparatively 
recent introduction. It appears to have been first noticed by Mr. A. G. 
More, in the county of Armagh, Ireland, in 1844, growing " in cultivated 
fields, where it was an abundant weed, and I think some younger plants 
from roadsides adjoining were the same." Phyt. iv., 88. N.S, In York- 
shire it appears to have been twice observed by Mr. Baker : in 1863 " in 
cultivated fields at the lower end of Bilsdale, on the slope of Easterside 
towards Hawnby," [North Yorkshire, p. 203) ; and in 1863, " in a second 
North Yorkshire station." {Thirsk Report for 1863, p. 6.) It has been 
seen in cloverfields " in the neighbourhood of Manchester," by Mr. Bux- 
ton and others, {Phyt. iv., 103. N.S.) ; and appears to have been found by 
Mr. Hardy, at Hulme, in the same county. See Phyt. iv., 88. N.S. In 
the 3rd edition of English Botany, it is recorded from " near Bowden, 
Cheshire ; and Mr. J. G. Baker has seen it near Dorking, Surrey." i. 170. 
In the latter county it was " plentiful in a field of Trifolium incarnatunif 
near the Box Hill railway station ; May, 1863," {Flora of Surrey, p. 360.) ; 
and here also was observed by Mr. Baker. In the Thirsk Report as above, 
we are told that Mr. Briggs sent, in 1863, " a specimen from Devonshire, 
from a quarry between Saltash and Plymouth ;" a locality to which it may 
possibly be indigenous. It will probably occur in cultivated ground in 
other parts of the kingdom ; but it has not yet appeared in Scotland. 

Erysimum virgatum, Roth. The appearance and disappearance of this 
species in the neighbourhood of Bath is a very curious circumstance. In 
1844 the place of E. cheiranthoides was here " supplied by this plant." 
C. C. Babington, in Phyt. i., 310. O.S., it is stated to be no longer found 
about Bath. It hath also occurred in Yorkshire, having been '' met with 
by Mr. Ward, in Swaledale, between Reeth and Marrick." {North York- 
shire, p. 204.) It is a native of Portugal. 

E. Perofskianum, Fisch. This common and ornamental garden annual 
occasionally occurs on rubbish-heaps, and was noticed last year on the 
waste ground at Kew Bridge. A native of Cabul. 

E. orientale, Br. Appears to have grown in Ray's time on sea-cliffs, 
near Harwich, in Essex ; and on cliffs about Bardsey, near Orford, in 
Suffolk, (See R. Syn. Hi., 993.) But as we have no reeord of its recent 
occurrence here, we must suppose it to have failed in maintaining its 
position. It has since been noticed in several other localities, though 
usually under suspicious circumstances : in Sussex it occurred in " fields 
near Mayfield and near Maresfield." {Coopers Botany of Sussex, 1834) ; 



OBSEfiVATIONS. 



207 



and Hudson records it from " fields near Godstone and Marsfield," in the 
same county. See Eiig. Fl. id., 202. It has also hcen seen " on the 
coast near Brighton." (Phyt. iv., 156. N.S.) In Devonshire **it came up 
spontaneously in a field that had been ploughed to form a garden, in the 
centre of the new square, at Plymouth." (Rev. J. S. Tozcr, in Xcw Bot. 
Guide, p. 14.) And the same gentleman also finds it in fields and on cliffs 
by the sea in the same locality. See Flowering Plants and Ferns of Devon- 
shire, p. 6. In Surrey, Mr. W. W. Saunders records it from " waste 
ground by a mill, near the Dorking railway station, where the seed was 
doubtless swept out with the refuse from the mill." Flora of Surrey, p. 309. 
And at Wands wortli steamboat pier it was " plentiful for several years. 
{H.B.P., 699.) Here I observed several specimens as recently as 1862. 
In Hertfordshire a single specimen was found " on a newly-repaired tow- 
ing-path, near Ware Mill, in 1841 : the seeds had perhaps been brought 
with flax to the oil mill." Fl. Hertfordiensis, p. 27. In Durham, Winch 
records it from the ballast-hills of Tyne and Wear, and more especially 
from those of Bishopwearmouth. In Ireland, it is only recorded from 
*' Dingle, Kerry, in flax fields," (Bab. Man. ed. 2, p. 24) : and there is no 
notice of its occurrence in Scotland. 

[To be continued] 



Notes on the Ornithology of 
Norfolk. — Varieties. 

I beg to notice the occurrence of 
the following varieties which are 
(with the exception of the last men- 
tioned) in the collection of a person 
residiug in this city, who is unable 
to give me information of the precise 
dates and localities of their occur- 
rence, he having had them in his 
possession several years. 

Turdus musicus. — An adult bird, 
the upper parts of its plumage of a 
uniform dull yellowish brown, mar- 
gins of the feathers a shade darker; 



throat white ; breast and sides very 
pale yellow, margins of feathers of a 
darker shade of the same colour; 
abdomen white; under surface of the 
wings and tail of a pale yellowish 
brown, which assumes a darker hue 
towards the tips of the quill feathers 
in the former, and the ends of the 
tail feathers. I did not ascertain 
the sex. 

Fringilla cannabina. — An individual 
of this species has the head, neck, and 
throat white, intermixed with small 
patches of pale brown and yellow ; 
back and upper surface of its wings 
and tail white ; the margins of the 



208 



THE NvVTURALIST. 



featliers of the back and upper wing 
coverts of a reddish brown ; breast, 
abdomen, under surface of its wings 
and tail, white ; assuming a slight 
yellowish tinge on the sides of the 
breast. 

Sturnus vulgaris. — A mature speci- 
men, the whole surface of its plumage 
white : the feathers of crown of head, 
neck, throat, and breast are termi- 
nated with a small round spot of 
glossy white ; spots of a reddish hue 
are scattered over the back and lesser 



wing coverts, 



assuming a much 



lighter hue on the greater wing 
coverts, and in the margins of the 
wings and tail feathers ; the under 
wing coverts are tinged with a pale 
reddish brown. 

Hirundo riparia. — Mr. Knights, 
bird preserver of this city, informed 
me that he had sent to him for pre- 
servation about a month since, an 
albino variety of Hirundo riparia. — 
T. E. GuNN, Norwich, Oct. 91st. 

Instance of Audacity in a Sparrow 
Hawk. — While out shooting yester- 
day I fired at a Snipe which fell 
about forty yards from me. When 
in the act of reloading a Sparrow 
Hawk pounced upon the Snipe and 
carried it off ! but upon my shouting 
at him, he dropped the Snipe and flew 
away. — W. C. Hoesfall, Horsforth 
Low Hall, Oct. 12th, 1864, 

Occurrence of the Osprey near London. 
— Last Thursday, (Oct. 6th), as my 
birdstuffer, Mr. Briggs, was stand- 



ing in the garden at Formosa, Cook- 
ham, he observed a large bird come 
slowly sailing over his head. He 
thought from its flight it would not 
stop," and he therefore did not fetch 
his gun which was at some distance, 
but stood looking at it. The bird, 
however, just as it got over his head 
made a circle in the air, and seemed 
to take stock of him. He called to 
a man to run for his gun but the 
latter arrived too late, as the bird 
had departed. He only escaped for 
a minute however, as a young man 
a few hundred yards down the river 
who was out shooting Wood Pigeons, 
saw the bird approaching and hit it 
in the wing, when it was despatched 
ignominiously by a blow from a 
boat-mop. It was at first said to be 
the Golden Eagle {Falco chrysaetos, 
Lin.) but turned out to be a fine 
specimen of the Osprey (Falco hali- 
(Betus, Lin.) It was sent elsewhere 
for preservation, so I was not able 
to learn the dimensions. — E. B. S. 



A few days ago I observed in a 
newspaper an account of a wholesale 
destruction of fish, (principally chub 
and barbel), this destruction was 
defended on the ground that chub 
and barbel destroyed the salmon roe. 
Can any of your readers inform me 
if it is an established fact in Natural 
History that the coarse fish destroy 
the salmon roe ? — Piscatok. 



SCO 



ON THE BOTANY OF MALHAM. 



By L. C. Miall, Esq. 



Part I. 



The list of plants which follows is one of several which were prepared 
by the writer while engaged upon the Flora of the West-Riding. It was 
subsequently thought sufficiently interesting to justify a separate re-publi- 
cation, and the first part accordingly appeared in " The Phytologist" for 
July, 1863. (New Series, No. 99j. The sudden extinction of that periodi- 
cal, which ceased to appear after the number mentioned, put a temporary 
stop to the project, which is now revived under the auspices of " The 
Naturalist." 

A few introductory observations may prove serviceable to those who 
do not know the locality in question. The little village of Malham, in 
Yorkshire, has long attracted visitors by the wonders of its scenery, and 
the rare interest of its flora. Ray, Willisel, Curtis, Dillenius, and Richard- 
son are but a few of the older botanists who have left accounts, more or 
less extensive, of their discoveries in Gordale and the neighbourhood. 
For nearly two centuries the limestone rocks of that strange spot have 
been explored by an uninterrupted succession of naturalists, nor have 
their pains been ill rewarded. Much doubtless remains to be discovered 
in every corner of this comparatively well-examined country, but it is not 
probable that of those species of plants which are already determined, 
many will now be found at Malham for the first time. 

Malham is situated at the head of Airedale. The river which gives its 
name to that valley rises at the southern end of Malham Tarn. After 
flowing about half a mile, it sinks, reappearing at the foot of the Cove, a 
distance of more than a mile. Another stream, equal in volume, rises 
from the heights and " clowders " north-east of the tarn, rushes through 
the precipitous cleft of Gordale, and under the name of Gordale Beck joins 
the other rivulet between the villages of Malham and Kirby Malham. A 
third tributary flows from Kirby Fell and Scosthrop Moor, uniting itself 
to the Aire about a mile below the fork. 

No. U, Nov. 15. P 



210 THE NATURALIST. 

The general aspect of this remarkable spot may be roughly indicated 
by the resemblance it bears to a staircase of grey limestone cliffs, alternat- 
ing with grassy slopes, reaching nearly 2,000 feet at various points along 
its upper ridge, and descending to 650 feet above the sea-level in the 
valley below. The last irregular descent forms an arc of a circle, which, 
if completed, would have a radius of some five miles. In this arc of about 
30° the Cove and Gordale Scar find their place. The tarn is high up on 
the broad terrace between the top of the Cove and the second great ridge, 
1,200 feet above the level of the sea. The village of Malhara lies about a 
mile from the foot of the Cove, at a height of rather more than 600 feet.* 

It will be readily seen that such a piling-up of rocks as this is far 
from usual. The geological phenomena by which the scenery may be 
interpreted are no less extraordinary. To enter upon this interesting 
subject here is impossible, and it must suffice to say that Malham is situ- 
ated on the edge of the Great Craven Fault, to which disturbance it owes 
the huge and precipitous limestone scars which now form its most charac- 
teristic feature. At the Cove the mountain limestone forms a band about 
400 feet thick, with numerous vertical fissures. The valley of the Aire 
below the Cove is occupied by Yoredale rocks, consisting of alternating 
layers of limestone and millstone grit, with ironstone and goal in smaller 
quantities. The subject may be pursued further with the aid of Professor 
Phillips' " Illustrations of the Geology of Yorkshire," or his cheaper and 
more popular work on the " Rivers, Mountains, and Sea-coasts of York- 
shire." 

So far as this list of plants is not drawn up from personal observations, 
it has been compiled from various MS. catalogues and printed materials. 
An excellent series of papers by Dr. Windsor (Phytologist, New Series, vol. 
i.), which contains a large number of Craven stations for the rarer plants 
has been consulted throughout. Most of his Malham references have been 
verified by the present writer. In all cases where information has been 
confirmed by the discovery of the plant m situ, tbe usual mark (!) is added. 
The figures which immediately follow the habitat indicate the number 
of British " counties " in which the plant has been found, out of 112 into 
which the island was divided by Watson in the Cybele Britannica. These 
numerals, quoted from the Summary of Distribution in the fourth volume 
of that work, will give an approximate idea of the frequency or rarity of 

* The poet Gray has left an admirable description of Gordale among his letters. 
See his correspondence with Warton, October 18th, 1769. 



MIALL ON THE BOTANY OF MALIIAM. 911 

the plant in question. The Roman numerals represent the month of flower- 
ing, and whenever the mark of verification (!) is appended to any of the 
stations of a plant, the time of flowering must he understood to apply 
exclusively to Malhara and the immediate vicinity. In all these cases the 
numerals indicate the extreme times within which the writer has actually 
seen the plant in flower. The vertical limits are given in several cases 
where they have been distinctly traced. The commoner plants are omitted. 
Botanists are invited to communicate any corrections or noteworthy 
additions. 

LIST OF PLANTS. 

KANUNCULACE^. 

Thalictrum mimis, L. The normal form is littoral. 

T. calcaremn, Jord. Grows near the top of Gordale ! 49. vii. 

T. fiexuosum, Reich ? {T. eminens, Jord ?) Gordale ! In some lists this is 
styled T. majiis. The T. majus of Dr. Windsor's list (Phyt., N.S., i. 
203.) is the same as the Gordale j^lant. vii. 

TrolUus europmus, L. Pastures above and below the Cove ! 49. vi-viii. 

Helleborus fcetidiis, L. I have a specimen which is said to have been 
*' gathered below Malham Cove, 1839." No botanist of my acquaint- 
ance professes to have seen the plant in situ. 29. 

ActcEa spicata, L. Gordale ! Top of Malham Cove ! " A few plants at 
the side of the brook below Malham Cove," Dr. Windsor. 3. v. 

CRUCIFERiE. 

Thlaspi alpestre, L. Malham Cove. J. Tatham. Near Malham Tarn 1 
" Very plentiful by the lead-mines betwixt Stockdale and Malham. 
Although this jDlant varies somewhat in form, in the stalk being simple, 
or more or less branched, etc., yet I respectfully submit whether the 
T. alpestre and T. virens of Babington, notwithstanding his general 
accuracy and very high authority, may not really be only slight varieties 
of the same species." Dr. Windsor. The Malham plant is T. occita- 
num, Jord. Probably all of Dr. Windsor's stations for T. alpestre 
belong to this species. Has he not mistaken T. occitanum for T. 
virens? The last-mentioned variety has not been found in Craven. 
Jordan, and not Babington, is responsible for the division of T. 
alpestre. 10. vii. 

Hutchinsia petrcea, Br. " On the higher part of the furthest east cliff in 
Awes Scar, near Malham Tarn," Dr. Windsor. I have found this 
plant at the height of 450 yards. 11. v. 



212 Tllh: NATURALIST. 

Cochlearia officinalis, L. (Var. alpina, Bab. C grcenlandica, Sm., not Linn.) 

Kirby Fell ! Hawkswick Clowder ? vii. viii. 
Draha incana, L. Gordale ! Hawkswick Clowder ! Kirby Fell! 17. vii. 
D. muralis, L. Walls in the village of Malham, J. Nowell. Rocks near 

the foot of Malham Cove ! Gtordale ! Under Malham Cove, Dr. 

Windsor. 6. iv-vi. 
P. verna, L. A specimen in herbarium, named D. infiata, Hook., but 

difficult to identify in the dried state, iii-v. 
Arahis hirsuta, Br. Frequent on the limestone. Several unimportant 

varieties occur. C8. vi-viii. 

CISTACE^. 

Helianthemum vulgare, Gsert. Gordale ! Malham Cove ! 69. vi-viii. 

H. canum, Dun. Malham Cove ! This plant, subdivided by Linnaeus 
into Cistus marifoUus, aiiglicus, etc., is by others regarded as merely 
a dwarf form of H. vulgare. I cannot agree with those who would 
unite the plants. The presence of stipules in one, and their absence 
in the other is a strong point of difference. Koch groups together 
li. fumana, Mill., and H. celandica, Wahlenb., (which includes H. 
canum, Dun.), but H. vulgare, Gaert., and H. poUfoliimi, Pers. The 
following diagnosis was made upon fresh specimens in August, 1859. 

Helianthemum canum, Dun. H. vulgare, Gcert. 

Root — Long, woody. 

jStem — Decumbent, shrubby, covered with /Stem — Procumbent, shrubby. 

numerous minute scars. 
Leaves — Without stipules, ovate, opposite, Leaves — With stipules, ovate, opposite, 

flat, hoary beneath, hairy above. flattish, hoary beneath, thinly covered 

with adpressed hairs above, margin 
slightly reflexed. 
JRacemes — Terminal, bracteate . Bacemes — Bracteate. 

Flower-stalks — Leafed to the top. 
Sepals — Hoary, veins indistinct. Sepals — Hoary only along the veins, in- 

tervening portions glabrous. 
Petals — Estivation rugose. Variable, but Petals — Estivation rugose. Varying 

not so much so as H. vulgare. widely in form and size. 

Anthers — Subrotundate, notched. Anthers — Pyrulate, rugose. 

Style — Flexuose, twisted sharply at the Style — Longer than the ovary " bent at 

base, reflexed, "inflexedat the apex," the base." 

longer than the ovary. 
Seeds — Numerous, fuscous. Seeds — Numerous, black. 

Vertical Mange— Went Yorkshire, 400-450 Vertical Pange—We^t Yorkshire, 50-570. 

nearly. North Yorkshire (J. G. Baker), North Yorkshire (J. G. Baker), 0-700 

600. North of England (Cybele Brit. iv. North of England (Cybele Brit.). Lake 

337), Lake Province, 200 ; Yorkshire. 600. Province^ 360 j Yorkshire, 600. 



MIALL ON THE BOTANY OF MALUAM. 213 

Synonyms— Cistus anglicus, L., mant. 245. Cistus IJeliantkemum, L., sp. 744, E. B. 
C.hirsiitus, Hncls. 232. C. marifollus, Sm., 1321. IlelianthemumChamaecistus, Mill, 
E.B. 396. C. vinealis, Willd., sp. 2. 1195. diet. n. 1. 
C. camis, Jacq. a. t. 277. BeUanthemum 
celandicum, y canescens, Wahlenb., succ. 
333. H. celandicum, y tomentosum, Koch, 
Fl. Germ., ed. 2., p. 86. 7. viii. 

VIOLACEiE. 

Viola hirta, L. Malham Cove ! Gordale ! 68. iv. v. 

F. lutea, Huds. Above and below the Cove ! What appears to be the 

same as Mr. Baker's var. hamulata (" North Yorkshire," p. 207) in 
Gordale ! 50. vi. vii. 

CARYOPHTLLACEiE. 

Arenaria verna, L. {Alsine, Jacq.) " By the Calamine or lead mines be- 
tween Settle and Malham, abundantly," Dr. Windsor. Rises to 650 
yards or thereabouts on Hawks wick Clowder ! Is Dr. Windsor sure 
that A. Gerardl grows in a *' field between Stackhouse-Borrins and 
Feizor?" A. laricifoUa, With., which he gives as the alternative, is 
not more likely, though it is said to be " localized by the Yore side 
at Hutton Conyers." 25. v-viii. 

Stellaria glauca, With. Bogs near Malham Tarn, Dr. Carrington. 43. 
v-vii. 

HYPERICACE^. 

Hypericum montanum, L. Malham Cove ! Gordale ! 34. vii. viii. 

GERANIACE^. 

Geranium sylvaticum, L. Malham Cove ! 37. vi. vii. 

G. columbinum, L. At the foot of Malham Cove ! Dr. Windsor. 52. vii. 
G. sanguineum, L. Malham Cove ! Gordale ! 46. vii. 

LEGTJMINIFER^. 

Hippocrepis comosa, L. Rocks above Malham Tarn, Dr. Windsor. Mal- 
ham Cove ! 32. vi. vii. 

ROSACEiE. 

Potentilla verna, L. Malham Tarn, J. Tatham. Gordale ! 19. v. 

P. alpestris, Hall. Gordale ! near Malham Tarn ! between Grisedales and 

Malham Tarn ? Dr. Windsor. 9. vii. 
Buhus saxatilis, L. Dry banks, Gordale, J. Newell. On the moor above 

Gordale ! 43. vii. viii. 



214 THE NATURALIST. 

R. pUcatus, W. and N. Malham Cove ! I believe that the R. siiberectus, 
Anders., said to have been found at Malham, must be referred to R. 
plicatus. 29. vii. 

R. discolor, W. and N. Frequent in hedges near Malham and Kirby 
Malham, but not ascending the higher scars. 30. vi. vii. 

Pyrus Aria, Sm. Malham Cove ! J. Tatham and others. 41. v. 

ONAGKACE^. 

Circaa intermedia, Angl. Malham Cove, Dr. Windsor, vii. viii. 

GR0SSULARTACEJ3. 

Ribes rubrum, L. Above Gordale, J. Nowell. This apparently belongs to 

the following. 
b. petrceum, Sm. Gordale ! " Crevices of rock betwixt Gordale and 

Malham Tarn. Also above Malham Tarn, and on the banks of the 

rivulet above Gordale," Dr. Windsor, v. 
R. alpinum, L. Gordale ! " Found between Gordale and Malham Tarn, 

with R. petrcBum," Dr. Windsor. 20 ? v. 

CRASSULACEiB. 

Sedum villosum, L. Malham Cove ! 24. vii. viii. 

8. sexangulare, L. " In 1801 I found specimens of what I considered to 
be this plant, on the left-hand just below Malham Tarn," Dr. Wind- 
sor. Roof of a small shed near Kirby Malham ! Undoubtedly alien 
or sub-spontaneous in both places, vii. 

SAXIFRAGACE^. 

Saxifraga oppositifoUa, L. Rocks on Malham Moor ! 22. v ? 

S. granulata, L. Near the top of Gordale ! " Under walls on the road to 
Malham," Dr. Windsor. 50. v. 

S. liypnoides, L. Mr. Tatham refers the plant found near Malham Tarn 
to S. platypetala, Sm., (E. B. 2276.) which I have seen between Mal- 
ham and Kilnsey. v-vii. 

Parnassia palustris, J-i.^ Malham Moor! *' Very common in bogs and 
wet meadows," Curtis. 64. viii. ix. 

RUBIACE^. 

Galium sylvestre, Poll. {G. pusillum, L.) Above Gordale ! Malham Tarn ! 

16. vii. viii. 
G. boreale, L. Malham Tarn ! Aire below Kirby Malham ! 34. vii. viii., 

but usually later than G. sylvestre. 

* Often placed among the Droseracese. 



REPORTS OF SOCIETIEa. 



215 



g.ep0rts of <S0tutus. 

Huddersfield Naturalists' Society. — 
The second Exhibition of objects 
of Natural History held by this 
Society was opened on Friday even- 
ing, October 14th, by the Right Hon. 
the Earl of Dartmouth. His Lord- 
ship has always been the firm 
friend and patron of this Society, 
giving them free access at all times 
to any portion of his woods and 
estates, which comprise some of the 
best Natural History collecting 
grounds in the neighbourhood of 
Huddersfield, and in proof of the 
appreciation in which this liberty is 
held by the members we may state 
that about three years ago they pre- 
sented to his Lordship a very hand- 
some case of Insects, all of which 
had been taken on his own estates. 

His Lordship took the chair at 
seven o'clock, and after congratulat- 
ing the Society upon the evident 
success of the Exhibition, both as 
regards the number and quality of 
the natural objects exhibited, and 
its prospects of success in a finan- 
cial point of view as evidenced by 
the crowded state of the room ; he 
alluded to a fact which had come 
under his special observation this 
year on his estates in Staffordshire, 
viz., the unusual abundance of the 
little insect vulgarly known as the 
ladybird, (Coccinella 1 -punctata), and 
expressed the belief that no animal, 



however humble it might be con- 
sidered or however small its size, 
was without its use and object in 
the great framework of nature. Al- 
though man undoubtedly had had 
given to him power over the birds 
of the air, the beasts of the field, 
and the fishes of the sea, yet he be- 
lieved that when man exercised that 
power unduly by the destruction of 
any particular animal, he interfered 
with the arrangements of nature, 
and was certain to suffer for it by 
the increase of an animal of another 
class. Thus when one of his game- 
keepers waged fierce war against 
the owls, the place shortly swarmed 
with mice ; and when another de- 
stroyed all he could find in the shape 
of stoats and weasels, the conse- 
quence was that they were overrun 
with rats. Having referred to the 
loss sustained to the science of 
Natui al History by the death of the 
late Mr. WooUey, who was a dear 
oldfi iend and schoolfellow, his Lord- 
ship observed that a book entitled 
" Ootheca Woolleyana " was in the 
course of publication, which he 
should have gratification in present- 
ing to the library of the Society, in 
parts, as it appeared, not only out of 
respect to the memory of his late 
friend, but also with the desire to 
place in the hands of the members 
that which he was sure must add to 
their pleasure and profit. His Lord- 
ship concluded his remarks by an- 



di6 



THE NATURALIST. 



nouncing that he had brought with 
him at the last moment a few little 
objects which he hoped the Society 
would accept for exhibition, not on 
account of any intrinsic worth which 
might attach to them, but as an 
evidence of the sincerity of his desire 
to contribute anything which he 
believed would be for their instruc- 
tion or interest. These objects 
comprise a specimen of a bird cap- 
tured on his estate in Staffordshire, 
and known as the Velvet Scoter 
(Anas fiisca) a bird which was rare 
in the midland counties, but better 
known in the north ; also a few pho- 
tographs not remarkable except for 
some artistic peculiarities which he 
pointed out, and as reprssenting a 
happy scene at a haj)py English 
home — his own. 

The Secretary (Mr. B. Bradley) 
then read a short report of the pre- 
sent state and future prospects of 
the Society, which now numbers 
about 100 members ; and although 
the subscription to the Society is 
only 4s. 'per annum, they now pos- 
sess two Microscopes and a Library 
of 98 volumes of Natural History 
Works, some of them of a most ex- 
pensive character. 

The President (Alfred Beaumont, 
Esq.) expressed regret at the absence 
of the Rev. Thomas Hincks, B.A., 
of Leeds, who was announced to 
appear, but was prevented from do- 
ing so by indisposition : and he also 



stated thatE. A.Lea tham, Esq., M.P., 
had been invited to be present, and 
that he had replied by forwarding a 
cheque for £5 in aid of the Society's 
funds. In briefly explaining the 
leading features of the Society, the 
President remarked that it was ac- 
cessible to every person, how- 
ever humble his circumstances or 
position. The object of the Society 
was not so much to obtain funds as 
to cultivate the study of Natural 
History, 

Joseph W. Dunning, Esq., F.L.S., 
Hon. Secretary of the Entomologi- 
cal Society of London, then addres- 
sed the meeting on the advantages 
accruing from the study of Ento- 
mology. Entomologists were not 
now looked upon with mistrust and 
suspicion as was formerly the case, 
but the advantages arising from a 
more intimate knowledge of even 
such minute creatures as Insects 
were felt and acknowledged by com- 
mercial as well as scientific men. 
Mr. Dunning adduced the deteriora- 
tion of the silk crop, and the efforts 
which were being made by Ento- 
mologists to ameliorate the disease 
in the silk worm, in support of his 
view, and also dwelt at some length 
upon the cause of the failure of the 
turnip crop during the past summer. 

Leo H. Grindon, Esq., Hon. Sec. 
of the Manchester Field Naturalists' 
Society, also enforced upon the 
meeting the desirability of an active 



REPORTS OF SOCIETIES. 



217 



study of Botany, and the benefits 
which resulted from it, especially to 
the emigrant in distant lands, who 
would be able to judge whether a 
plant which he gathered for the first 
time was good for food or medicine, 
or was to be avoided on account of 
its probable poisonous qunlities. 
He impressed upon his bearers the 
necessity of studying Botany in the 
field, by the dissection of living 
specimens, instead of being content 
with the examination of dead plants, 
or with simply amassing a large 
collection. 

Peter Inchbald, Esq., also ad- 
dressed the meeting on the desira- 
bility of studying nature in a fair 
and candid spirit, and not being led 
away by specious theories without a 
rigid examination of their truth. 

The Gymnasium Hall, in which 
the Exhibition was held, is an oblong 
room 90 feet long by 33 broad. The 
walls of the room were entirely hid 
to a considerable height by cases of 
Birds, and below these a narrow 
Table running round the room was 
covered with drawers of Birds' Nests 
and Eggs, Coleoptera and Lppidop- 
tera ; a broad Table ran down the 
centre of the room on which were 
pLiced the Botanical and Geological 
specimens, with reserved spaces for 
articles of a miscellaneous character, 
and upon a Table on the Platform 
were placed the Mammalia and Rep- 
tilia in cases against the wall, and 



Conchological specimens in drawers 
upon the Table. By far the most 
imposing portion of the Exhibition 
was the Birds, numbering upwards 
of 560 cases among 36 exhibitors, 
and including some very rare birds. 
British Ornithology was exceedingly 
well represented, 200 out of 352 
recorded species being shown in the 
room. The President exhibited a 
very fine series of British Birds ; the 
excellency of the stuffing, and the. 
neat uniform appearance of the cases, 
making them particularly conspicu- 
ous ; among them was a fine White 
Tailed Eagle {Falco albicilla) the 
Pied Flycatcher (Muscicapa atricnpil- 
la), recorded in "The Naturalist" p. 
26, a White's Thrush {Tiirdus Whitei) 
shot at Almondbury Bank, near 
Huddersfield, a Bee Eater, (Merops 
apiaster), from Cornwall, and the three 
Divers ; this collection was also par- 
ticularly rich in Terns and Gulls, 
containing among others Sterna cas- 
pia, S. arctica, S. fullg'uiosa, Larus 
Sabini, L. Rossii, L. minutus, L. Buo- 
napart'd, L. glaucus, Liestris pomarina, 
L. Biiffonil, Puffinus ohscurus, Thal- 
assldroma Wilsoni, T. Leach'd. Mr. 
John Burgess also exhibited a fine 
collection of Birds, beingparticularly 
rich in Warblers and Tits, among 
which were Sylvia titlujs, S. luscinoi- 
des, S. turdoidcs, Regidiis ignicapillus, 
&c. The Society exhibited an im- 
mature Golden Eagle and Great 
Shearwater, both presented by Thos. 



218 



THE NATURALIST. 



Allen, Esq. A fine immature Spot- 
ted Eagle was exhibited by Mr. Riley. 
Mr. William Briggs exhibited a good 
series of Hawks, amongst which 
were fine specimens of the Goshawk 
and Marsh Harrier. The latter 
bird and an Ortolan Bunting 
[Emberiza liortulana) were exhibited 
by the Eev. J. Johnson. Among 
other noteworthy birds were Strix 
bubo, exhibited by John Dyson, S. 
sco]3s, by Fred Moorhouse, S. nyct(Ea, 
Alauda alpestris, and Nucifmga cary- 
ocatactes, by John Burgess, and Gal- 
linulajjorzana, by Joseph Sedgewick. 
Among Foreign Birds Mr. William 
Ward and Mr. John Dyson exhibited 
some good specimens, the former 
including a Flamingo and Crested 
Crane, and the latter some fine 
American Owls. Four cases of 
Nests of British Birds and a collec- 
tion of British Birds Eggs, occupying 
twenty cases, exhibited by Mr. Geo. 
Liversedge, were well worthy of 
notice, as were also some cases of 
skeletons of Birds and Reptiles ex- 
hibited by Mr. W. H. Charlesworth. 

A neatly arranged collection of 
British Shells was exhibited by Mr. 
John Varley, and some fine Exotic 
Specimens by Mr. S Teal. 

The collections of Insects were 
very numerous, and bore witness to 
the ardour and zeal of the workers 
in this department of Natural His- 
tory. Mr. W. H. Charlesworth and 
Mr. B. Bradley exhibited cases of 



beautifully mounted British Coleop- 
tera, and the collections of Macro- 
Lepidoptera exhibited by Mr. Jas. 
Varley, and Micro-Lepidoptera by 
the President, were very full and 
complete. Among the former were 
some of the remarkable varieties of 
Abraxas grossidariata, figured in " The 
Naturalist." (No. 9), and A. caja. 

A series of Exotic Ferns exhibited 
by Mr, T. W. B. Ingle, and a col- 
lection of British Phanerogamia by 
Mr. J. Godward, formed the princi- 
pal portion of the Botanical depart- 
ment of the Exhibition, if we except 
the living plants by which the room 
was profusely decorated ; vases of 
choice flowers were also placed 
wherever a position was afforded 
them on the well filled tables. 

The Geological specimens were 
not numerous, but some good Fos- 
sils were exhibited, including a col- 
leetion from the White and Red 
Chalk of Speeton, exhibited by Mr. 
Ed. Tindall, and miscellaneous col- 
lections by Mr. John Nowell and 
Mr. John Armitage. 

The Exhibition was open for 
eight days, and the number of visi- 
tors averaged nearly 1000 each day, 
an amount of success scarcely ex- 
pected by the most energetic of its 
promoters ; every evening a short 
practical address on some depart- 
ment of Natural History was deli- 
vered from the Platform, the Society 
endeavouring by this means, not 



OBSERVATIONS. 



219 



only to gratify the eye of the visitor, 
but to inform the mind, and to instil, 
where possible, a love for the study 
of Nature and her works. — G.T. 

Doncaster Philosophical Society. — 
At the meeting of this Society held 
on Monday evening, Oct. 3rd, John 
Lister, Esq., V.P., in the chair, a 
pftper was read by Mr. Appleby, 
F.L.S., " On the Transformation of 
British Ferns." The subject was 
divided into eight sections, four of 
which were treated of in this paper, 
viz. ; Their appearance, — structure, 
— genera, — and economy, habits and 
locations. The other four — repro- 
duction, — distribution, — physiolo- 
gy and transformation, — and their 
liability to new forms, were reserved 
for a future paper. The paper was 
received with much gratification by 
the members present, but as we may 
have an opportunity of printing it 
in extenso during the winter, we for- 
bear making any further remarks 
on it at present. 

On Monday evening, Oct. 17th, 
Mr. Samuel Appleby was to have 
given the concluding half of his 
paper on the " Transformation of 
Ferns," but having an attack of 
bronchitis he was prevented from 
attending. To meet the contingency 
the Eev. W. S. Smith, who was the 
next in order, kindly consented to 
change places with him, and read 
his paper on " The Nest-Building 
Propensities of Sticklebacks." The 



paper gave a description of the many 
peculiarities of this lively little in- 
habitant of the aquarium, its vora- 
city of appetite, and pugnacious 
qualities making it a terror even to 
animals much larger than itself, yet 
evincing most tender care for its 
young, fighting with numbers of 
other sticklebacks who wish to make 
a savoury meal of the ova. The 
paper throughout shewed much close 
observation and did not fail to secure 
the attention of the audience — par- 
ticularly when the mode of building 
and apparent use of the nest was 
described. 



The Dipper {C. aqiiaticus). — A fine 
specimen of the above bird was taken 
at Howley, near Batley, on Friday, 
the 14th October, by Mr. E. Day, 
of the latter place. — B. 



Winter Quarters of the Toad. — E arly 
in the spring of 1860, having occa- 
sion to remove some unhewn timber 
from beneath a hedge, we found 
several toads in a state of semi- 
hybernation. They were each of 
them embedded among leaves and 
pieces of dried grass. A small hol- 
low had been made in the ground, 
lined with fine grass, upon which a 
quantity of leaves (beech leaves) had 
been collected, into which the toad 
seemed to have crept. — J. Ranson, 
Linton-upon-Ouse, York. — Commu- 
nicated by the Rev. F. 0. Morris. 



uno 



THE NATaRALlST. 



Unio margartifera. — Referring to 
Mr. Dixon's remarks on this Shell 
being found in the Black Eiver, 
Douglas, Isle of Man, at page 81 of 
" The Naturalist," allow me to say, 
that, we have them in large quanti- 
ties at Braystones, on the Irt, a 
tributary of the Calder, where I 
have frequently seen them protrud- 
ing their short sii)hons out of the 
mud on a hot sunny day. Tradition 
says that these shells were intro- 
duced here by one of the former 
owners, Sir John Hawkins, who had 
a jpatent for fishing them ; and the 
same story is told by Montague in 
his history of British Shells. — L. M. 
PiiAiTEN, Whitehaven. 



Field-Dats near Scarborough. 
No. I. 
Oct. 1st, 1864.— Our first field- 
day was spent in the Forge Valley 
— a glen of the calcareous range — 
about five miles from Scarborough. 
My companions were an enthusiastic 
fern-grower, whose name so often 
appears in Moore's "Nature-printed 
Ferns," and a Micro-lepidopterist, 
who has been so successful in rear- 
ing those minute forms of insect 
life, that he has attained to conti* 
nental celebrity ! 

We started early, and drove to 
the scene of our operations. Our 
first discovery was Nepticula prune- 
torum, busily mining the leaves of the 
sloe. The concentric zones in the 



brown blotch are sufficiently charac- 
teristic of this species. The sloe- 
leaves had also fed another Nepticula 
[Plagicolella), the large whitish 
blotches giving ample evidence 
thereof. Lithocolletis Coryli next put 
in an appearance, mining in the 
upper side of hazel leaves. We 
soon came upon a large batch 'of 
Berheris aquifolium, whose purple 
berries and shade of foliage are 
eagerly sought by the pheasants on 
Lord Londesborough's preserves. 
Our own British Berheris, with its 
clusters of scarlet fruit, grows ap- 
parently wild in the valley. Hyperi- 
cum hirsutum, the commonest species 
of the calcareous glens and dales, 
gave us another miner, Nepticula 
Septembrella. Fine black-berried 
shrubs of the Buckthorn (Rhamnus 
catharticus) were next examined, and 
the broad galleries of Nepticula 
catharticella were evident in the 
leaves. Actcsa spicata one of the 
Ranunculaceae with deep black 
drupes, is very common in the 
Forge. A grass, not uncommon to 
this neighbourhood, [Brachypodium 
sylvaticum) was feeding within its fine 
leaves the larva of Elachista Tccnia- 
tella. Forge Valley is the home of 
the Wood Vetch which here as- 
sumes fine proportions : it was seed- 
ing profusely. The leaves of a rare 
orchid [Epipactis ensifolia) were 
pointed out by one of our party. 
The Brambling Finch, a native of 



OBSERVATIONS. 



S31 



Norway and Sweden, was already 
uttering its deep finch like notes, 
and told us of its early arrival. On 
the wooded escarpment overhanging 
the Derwent the withered leaves of 
Maianthemum bi folium gave evidence 
of its place of growth. This is un- 
doubtedly the rarest plant of the 
valley : I looked for the red berries, 
but was disappointed in my search. 
Intermixed with it grew Trientalis 
europaa ; but no capsules were to be 
seen. On the moorlands above 
Hackness the French Willow-herb 
{Epilobium angustifoUum) was shed- 
ding its feathery seeds in wild pro- 
fusion. And now we came upon a 
somewhat local fern — Lastrcsa recur- 
va — but as it is shy in its tendency 
to sport, abnormal forms were few, 
though the fern was very abundant. 
The miners again occupied our at- 
tention, and the slender tortuous 
mines of Nepticula Myrtillella were 
discovered in the leaves of the Bil- 
berry, and of Nepticula argentipedella 
in birch leaves. Ornix scoticella had 
wrought its labyrinth on the moun- 
tain ash leaves, while Lithocolletis Xi- 
cellii was mining the under sides of 
the leaves of the hazel, and Lithocolle- 
ttj » ifasciella was busy in the honey- 
suckle leaves. Lithocolletis caledoni- 
ella was still at work in the leaves 
of the hawthorn, and though it was 
nearly dusk, a plentiful supply of 
mined leaves was gathered by our 
indefatigable companion. Thus 



ended our first field-day. — Peter 
Inciidalo, Storthes Hall, Nov, 2. 



Achcrontia atrojjos. — Six years ago 
my friend Mr. Matthewman and I 
obtained upwards of 300 larvae and 
pupae of A. atropos, and I make no 
doubt this would have been another 
successful year but in June and 
August the frost (excepting in a few 
sheltered situations) completely de- 
stroyed the potatoe tubers, conse- 
quently the larvae would die of 
hunger. This autumn the friend 
named above and I have had six 
larvae brought from two or three 
places where the frost had not been 
so destructive. — R. Hebson, Barlby 
Bank, Selby, Nov. 1, 1864. 



Notes on British Mosses. 

No. II. 

By C. p. Hobkirk. 



Schtstostega osmundacea. — Mohr. 
I first made the acquaintance, in 
the living state, of this truly beauti- 
ful moss, at Greensclough, Todmor- 
den, where it grows plentifully. On 
a bright day last spring, in company 
with several other botanists, with 
Mr. John Nowell as guide, after a 
long and pleasant day's ramble, we 
turned our steps towards Greens- 
clough. On reaching the spot we 
found a small low cave or day-hole, 
into which we passed from the bright 
sunlight outside, to what appeared 
before entering a dingy, dirty, clay- 



SS2 



THE NATURALIST. 



hole. But once out of the glare of 
the sun, the soft, glittering emerald 
light spread over the sides and ro(^f 
of the cave, was certainly, although 
we had heard of it before, more 
beautiful than any of us expected. 
The "golden-green light" described 
by Mr. Bowman in Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(vol. ili. page 462,) is an eminently 
characteristic term for the appear- 
ance of the young plants as we saw 
them, and any one, whether botanist 
or not, could not fail to be delighted 
with the sight, which is well worth 
the climbing and uphill work re- 
quired to reach its locality. I have 
since seen a specimen of this moss 
said to have been gathered " in the^ 
neighbourhood of Mirfield," by one 
of the members of the Huddersfield 
Naturalists' Society. 

S. osmumlacea belongs to the ac- 
rocarpous mosses — division gymnos- 
tomi — being without peristome, and 
having the fruit terminal on a short 
peduncle. The whole plant, in- 
cluding fruit-stalk, is seldom more 
than one quarter to one half of an 
inch in height, and were it not for 
the brilliant appearance it presents 
in the dark, might easily be over- 
looked. 

Bridel places it among his Fili- 
coidel, along with Fissidens, both of 
which are remarkable for the dispo- 
sition of their leaves, which are two- 
ranked in a vertical plane. The 
leaves are very delicate and tender, 



with large almost diamond-shaped 
(rhomboid) areolae, only partly filled 
with small granules. The inflores- 
cence is dioicous, both barren and 
feYtile flowers being very similar, the 
latter having somewhat larger leaves. 
The capsule, which is very small, 
is oval or subglobose in form, pale 
brown, when ripe : it is completely 
destitute of peristome, and has a 
very obscure annulus. The calyptra 
is very small, cleft on one side, (di- 
midiate,) and early falls away, leaving 
visible the conical lid, from the once 
supposed character of which the 
genus is named, (Schistos, cleft, and 
stege, a lid.y Hedwig, and some 
others, supposed the lid to be spon- 
taneously fissile, into numerous 
radiating segments, but Mr. Wilson 
says, " The o^^erculum is the very 
thickest and most sturdy that I 
have ever met with in any moss, 
filling up the mouth exactly like a 
bung, composed strictly of cells of a 
hexagonal form pervading the thick- 
ness of the lid, and not unfrequently 
disposed so as to stand in rows from 
the centre to the circumference, so 
that when any part of the lid is 
obliquely placed, with respect to the 
eye, the partitions of the cells in 
perspective represent dark lines re- 
sembling radii ; this appearance is 
so constant when the lower or con- 
cave side of the lid is uppermost, in 
every part but that which may hap- 
pen to be turned at right angles to 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



223 



the line of sight, that it is no wonder 
Hedwig and others believed in a 
fissile lid." The columella is very 
thick, completely included within 
the capsule, and surrounded by a 
great number of minute spores, of 
an irregular, somewhat roundish or 
angular outline, and, so far as I 
have seen, they all appear to have a 
darker spot in the centre, which in 
some seems a depression, in others 
like a fold. This moss can scarcely 
be confounded with any other, even 
on a mere cursory examination, ex- 
cept one or two species of Fissidms, 
which, however, do not flourish in a 
similar habitat with Schistostega. 
The latter may be readily distin- 
guished from Fissidens by its want- 
ing a peristome. This is the only 
genus of the family Schistoste.j(B, and 
osmundacea is the only species, at 
least the only British species. 

Synonyms : 
Schistostega osmundacea, Web. and 

Mohr, Tasch. p. 92. — Nees and 

Hornsch. Bryol. Germ., t. 11. f. 1. 

— Bridel, Bryol. Univers. — Br. 

and Sch. Bryol. Europ. fasc. 17. 
Gymnostomum osmundaceum, Smith. 

Flora. Brit., Eng. Bot. t. 2213. 
S. i^ennata, Hook and Tayl., Muse. 

Brit. t. 8. 
Gymnostomum pennatum, Hedw. St. 

Crypt, t. 29. 
Milium osmundaceum,, Dickson. 
Dicksonia pusilla, Ehr. 
Bryum pennatum, With., Hull. 



Schistostega osmundacea. — Recently 
whilst taking a walk on Overton 
Hills, near Frodsham, I discovered 
the above rare, but lovely little 
moss, called by some bryologists, 
5^. pennata ; thus adding another 
botanical rarity to this neighbour- 
hood. It is growing in a small 
sandhole, about eighteen inches 
long, and ten in diameter: how it 
has come there I cannot tell, as 
evidently the hole has not been 
made very long. At first I thought 
it was some sort of conferva, 
and it appears that I am not the 
only one that has thought so, for 
Berkely, and Stark, in their •' His- 
tories of British Mosses," have made 
the same remark. Its specific name, 
" osmundacea," is not inappropriate, 
being very like Osmunda regalis in 
miniature. When seen under the 
microscope it is a beautiful object. — 
J. F. R., Frodsham, October, 1804. 



In No. 11, page 174, of " The 
Naturalist" is a request for informa- 
tion of the locality of the Tree Spar- 
row in Lancashire. It occurs in the 
neighbourhood of Manchester, gener- 
ally building in holes in decayed Wil- 
low, Poplar, and Oak Trees, near 
the banks of streams. I have known 
as many as four or five nests in one 
tree, and sometimes a nest of the 
Starling in the same. This season 



924 



THE NATURALIST. 



I have noticed the following strange 
occurrence. A tree having been cut 
down in which some Tree Sparrows 
had been in the habit of buildiog 
for the last twenty years, a pair have 
adapted themselves to circumstances 
and built a large oval nest in a 
hawthorn hedge, about twenty yards 
from the place where the tree stood; 
it contained three eggs. I found an 
old nest of the same description in 
the same hedge a few yards nearer 
to the tree. I waited the return of 
the birds lest I might confound it 
with the House Sparrow the nest of 
which it greatly resembled ; after 
about an hour's waiting my patience 
was rewarded by seeing the birds, 
and one of them entered the nest so 
that I was satisfied I had made no 
mistake. — Joseph Chappell, 18, 
Sheffield-St., Manchester. 

Acorns, &c. — Has any reader of 
" The Naturalist" noticed the almost 
total absence of acorns in particular 
localities, this season ? I under- 
stand that in Devonshire this fruit 
has been unusually abundant, where- 
as in the West and North of Cum- 
berland, it is almost a total failure. 
Being in want of a few I searched 
trees on which in previous years I 
had noticed abundance, in the West 
of this county, and out of perhaps 
hundreds of trees, I only found two 
fruited, and they very thinly. The 
same may be said of the oaks of 
Gilsland, Lanercost, and Naworth. 



I may state that amongst the plants 
I have gathered this season I found 
large quantities of Allium Scorodo- 
jjrasum, along the sides of the river 
between Egremont and Lowmill. 
Along the sandy margin of the river 
Irthing, nearly opposite the sulphur 
well at Gilsland, I found Carduus 
heterophyllus (quite new to me in this 
neighbourhood) along with Galium 
horeale. — Lydia M. Pp.atten^ Egre- 
mont, Whitehaven, Oct. 24, 1864. 

Preserviii cf Micro-Lepidoptera . — Will 
any of your readers kindly inform 
me of the best mode of setting and 
preserving the minute moths ; such 
as Argjjroniges and Microsetia ? — 
J. E. Mason. 



I have a quantity of the following 
Insects, in fine condition, which I 
shall be glad to exchange ; — G. fia- 
vago, N. Dahlii, E.fulvago, A. Aprili- 
na, and A . pijramidea. Also a great 
number of Land and Fresh Water 
Shells. — George Lumb, Kirkgate, 
Wakefield, Nov. 4th, 1864. 

I have good specimens of Eupi- 
thecia dehiliata and Phihalapteryx 
lignata which I shall be glad to ex- 
change with Entomologists who are 
in want of them ; amongst my most 
immediate wants are bred specimens 
of Tmiiocampa 2-)op)idetL. — C. Camp- 
bell, 325, Eochdale-Road, Man- 
chester, Nov. 5th, 1804. 



S25 



@riginal ^rticlx^. 



DREDGING ON THE DOGGER BANK. 



By George H. Parke. 



To many it may seem superfluous to chronicle the results of dredgin^" 
operations on this ground, so well known as the scene of the labours of 
our Natural-history friends, Messrs. W. Bean and J. Leckenby, F.G.S., of 
Scarborough, whose researches on the North-East coast of Yorkshire 
have extended over many years, resulting, as is well known, in many in- 
teresting additions to our knowledge of the British Invertebrate Animals, 
and in the addition of many new species to our Fauna. But when we 
consider that the comparatively small space of the sea-bed traversed by the 
dredge, can furnish but a very imperfect record of its nature, and of the 
varied forms of animal life which inhabit it, the very fact of these defici- 
encies must lead us to the conclusion that dredging even on a compara- 
tively well-worked ground, cannot be too often practised. Every expedi- 
tion, nay every haul of the dredge, may bring to light facts which 
will tend in some way or other to benefit the world of science, bearing 
in mind " that no scientific truth can possibly be too trifling or unimpor- 
tant to be worthy of preservation." 

Having waited some weeks for a favourable state of the weather, 
which had, for an unusually lengthened period, been anything but suitable 
for dredging — and especially so for this part of the coast, which is noto- 
rious for its stormy character, — N. E. winds, with a sea sufficiently rouo-h 
to make it unpleasant if not altogether impracticable, we chartered the 
" Vigilant," a neat little craft, but of slow coach celebrity, and sailed from 
Scarborough with a S.W. wind, which promised fair to waft us in good 
time to the desired ground, which we reached during the night. When 
some twenty to twenty-five miles N.N.E. off" Whitby (?) we sounded thirty- 
six fathoms, with a sandy bottom. We threw over the dredges, using in 
place of the usual net, a sugar-bag, which on a loose sandy ground answers 
admirably ; our first haul produced nothing but fine sand, with a few speci- 
mens of Dentalium entails. Several more hauls were made resulting in 
Natica Marochiensis, Gmelin, (dead), several odd valves of Cyprina 
Islandica, and a few specimens of Echinus sphcera, the latter were very 
small, not being more than eight inches in circumference. 
No. 15, Dec. 1. Q 



S26 THE NATUEALIST. 

Night setting in, the dredge was abandoned for the cabin, which 

speedily brought on all the horrors of sea sickness, which continued with 

slight intermissions until the third day. Early the next morning we set 

to work in earnest, having in the night-time arrived at the destined locality 

— the Silver Pits on the west slopes of the Dogger Bank. Here Dentalium 

entalis occurred in every haul, with now and then a specimen of Astarte 

compressa and A. sulcata, Echinus sphcera came up in abundance with an 

occasional sprinkling of E. miliaris. Later on the dredge brought up 

bright coloured specimens of Trochus zizijphinus, and the very next haul 

yielded T. zizyphiniis var. Lyonsii ; this shell when fresh from the dredge is 

a beautiful object — 

"Composed with nature's finest care, 
And in her fondest love." 

of a brilliant pearly white, and in some specimens the animal was tinged 
with bright crimson, which, shewing through the semi-transparent shell, 
added greatly to its beauty. The colour, however, fades when the animal 
is plunged into fresh water. 

Young specimens of Mytilus modiolus occurred with Fusus gracilis ; 
a large water-worn stone, weighing some thirty pounds, was brought up, 
covered with Alcyonium digitatum, attached to which was a specimen of 
Mytilus modiolus. It may be remarked here, that living examples of Bucci- 
num undatum were of rare occurrence, though dead half-grown individuals 
were not uncommon, many of them giving shelter to Pagurus Bernhardus, 
Linne, while the external portion of the shell supplied room for the habita- 
tion of Serpula vermicularis. One of the most successful hauls brought up 
living specimens of Eclmms melo {E. Sardians, Leske ?) an Echinoderm 
which has not hitherto been recorded as British (Mr. Peach has taken 
it at Fowey, in Cornwall, but the occasion was not made public). It is 
a Mediterranean species. The late Professor Forbes in his beautiful 
work on the British Starfishes, remarks that " It is probable that the 
Echinus melo of continental authors is identical with E. sphmra " 
Miiller, it differs, however, in many points from the E, sphcera of Miiller, 
and I think it may be fairly entitled to rank as a good species ; but 
on this point I hope to say more hereafter. This, with Natica helicoides, 
N. sordida (dead), N. pallida (Brod. and Sowb.) and Modiolaria nigra, all 
dredged from a depth of fifty fathoms, proved to be our best things. 
Dead examples of Nassa incrassata, a shallow water species, Natica 
monilifera, N. Marochiensis, Fusus gracilis — the three latter encrusted 



PAEKE ON DREDGING ON THE DOGGER BANK. Q27 

with Hydractinia echlnata, Linne, — and odd valves of Cyprina Islaiidlca 
occurred abundantly, though with tho exception of DcntaUiim entails, 
which seemed to he generally distributed on all sides, living forms were 
seldom met with at the same time. This seems strange, and would 
suggest the idea of a " struggle for existence." Mr. Jeffreys in his dredg- 
ing report read before the British Association (1863) says, " Considering 
the vast extent of sea-bottom which has never been touched by the dredge, 
the exceedingly limited space measured in square acres which can be 
explored by means of it, and the infinite variety of ground comprised 
within any given area, I would suggest that great caution should be used, 
and further inquiries made before the common expression is hazarded 
that certain species are now " dying out," whether slowly, gradually, or 
rapidly. I do not believe that such is the case. The fact of finding only 
dead shells in a particular spot is no proof that living ones connot be met 
with in the same district. There may be, and often is, an accumulation 
of dead shells in one place, like bones in a grave-yard, in consequence of 
the shell-fish having deserted it for some reason with which we are not 
acquainted, while the living brood migrates or shifts its quarters. The 
proportion of dead to living specimens, even of common species which 
are not supposed to be "dying out," is often remarkable. Among 
many hundred single valves of Lima subauriculata, which were this year 
dredged in Shetland, there was only one live specimen." I may mention 
a similar occurrence in my dredgings on the Manx Coast ; in 1862, fine 
living examples of Lwia Loscombii were brought up, in fifteen fathoms 
water, off Douglas Head, and in the same locaUty Pectunculus glycymeris 
occurred in great numbers. In July, 1863, I dredged both species in 
abundance, but, with the exception of three small ones of the latter, all 
the specimens were dead, and in most cases detached mutilated valves. 

Ten or twelve specimens of Solen pellucidus, Pennant, were brought 
up in 45 fathoms water, but more or less injured by coming in contact with 
the debris ; also a young living example of Buccinopsis Dalci, J. Sowerby. 

The following list will show the specimens taken : — 

MOLLUSCA. 



Name. 


No. of 


Sp. 


Observations, 


Saxicava arctica, Linne. 


one. 




Living. 


Corbula gibba, Olivi. 


few. 




40 fathoms, living. 


Solen pellucidus, Pennant. 


few. 




45 „ J, 


Lucina borealis, L. 


few. 




Living. 



2S8 



THE NATURALIST. 



Name. No. ofSp. 

Psammobia tellinella, Lam. one. 
Scrobiculariaprismatica,Mo?itfew. 
Mactra solida, var. elliptica, L. several. 
Venus ovata, Pennant. few. 

„ gallina, L. common. 

,, lincta, Pulteney. few. 

Astarte sulcata, Da Costa. few. 

„ compressa, Montagu, rare. 

„ triangularis, do. one. 
Mytilus modiolus, L. common. 

Modiolaria nigra, G^^ay. two. 

„ marmorata, Forbes, few. 
Leda minuta, Midler. 
Area lactea, L. 
Pecten opercularis, L. 

„ similis, Laskey. 

„ varius, L. 
Dentalium entalis, L. many. 

Trochus zizyphinus, L. many. 

„ var. Lyonsii, Leach, many. 
Aporrliais pes-pelicani, „ one. 
Scalaria communis, Lam. several. 
„ „ white var. several. 

„ Trevelyana, Leach, several. 



Natica monilifera, Lam. common. 

Marochiensis, Gmelin. common. 

sordida, Swainson. rare. 

Montagui, Forbes. rare. 

lielicoides, Johnston, one. 

pallida, Brod S Sow. few. 

Nassa incrassata, Strom. abundant. 

Buccinum undatum, L. rare. 

Fusus gracilis, Da Costa. m. c. 

„ propinquus, Alder. common. 



Observations. 
Living. 
Living. 

45 fatlioms, living. 

Adults rare. 

Dead. 

Living and very fine, 

46 fatlioms. 
In fine sand. 
Young specimens. 
45 fathoms, living. 
Living, small. 
Living, very fine. 
Single valves. 
Young. 

Single valves. 



With Alcyonium digitatum. 

» j> 

Dead. 

)) 
40 fathoms, dead. 
50 „ Mr. Leckenby obtained 

it living on the same ground 

in 1863. 
Dead. 

Dead, tenanted by Hermit Crabs. 
Dead. 
Living. 
Dead, fine. 

Fine adult examples ; living. 
Dead. 
Those taken were chiefly dead 

half-grown examples. 

48 fathoms, very fine examples. 



?AEKE ON DREDGING ON THE DOGGER BANK. 



229 



Name. No. of Sp. 

Buccinopsis Dalei, J. Sowerby, one. 
Trophon Bamffius, Donovan, rare. 
Mangelia turricula, Mont. 
Bulla Cranchii, Leach. 
Philine aperta, L. 



rare, 
rare, 
one. 

POLYZOA 



Observations. 
A young spn. in 45 fathoms, alive. 
Dead. 

Larger than any hitherto recorded. 
Dead. 
60 fathoms, living. 



riustra Murrayana, Bean. 
Cellepora pumicosa, L. 

Sei'pula complexa, L. 

vermicularis, L. 



ANNELIDA. 



ECHINODEEMATA. 



Ophiocoma rosula, Link. 
Ophiuria texturata, Lam. 

,, albida, Forbes. 
Asterias aurantiaca, L. 
Spatangus purpureus, Midi, common. 
Echinus sphsera, Mull. common. 

,, melo, Lam. three. 

„ miliaris, Leske. 
Amphidotus roseus, Forbes. 



ZOOPHYTE S—HYDROZOA. 



Hydractinia echinata, L. common. 



On Natica nitida, N. monilifera, 
Fususpropinquus andlslandicus , 



Tubularia indivisa, L. common. 

„ larynx Ellis. 
Sertularia polyzonias, L. 
Antennularia antennina, L. 
„ ramosa. L. 

ACTINOZOA. 

Alcyonium digitatum, L. common. 

To Mr. Bean, of Scarborough, I am much indebted for carefully ex- 
amining and arranging the result of our labours, and also to Mr. Gwyn 
Jeffreys, who was then on a visit to Mr. Leckenby, at Scarborough, for 
revising the list of the MoUusca. Dr. Wright also kindly identified the 
Echinus melo. 



S30 THJi KATtJRALlSa?o 

SPONTANEOUS EXOTICS. 



By James Beitten. 



\ Continued from page 207.] 
Order IV. — Crucifeii.e. 

Sisymbrium austriacum, Jacq. " Several luxuriant specimens were 
collected in 1859 among the sand-hills on the north-east of Hartlepool, in 
the neighbourhood of a large quantity of clayey soil, brought thither by a 
temporary line of railway from the new docks ; so that most likely the 
seeds have been originally introduced with foreign ballast, and lain dor- 
mant until their removal has offered a favourable opportunity for germina- 
tion." J. G. Baker in Phyt. vL, 720-1. 0.8. It is recorded doubtfully from 
the Wandsworth waste ground in H.B.P. 701 ; and in Phyt. Hi., SS8.N.S., 
is said to have been exceedingly common there, and self -propagated, grow- 
ing " not only on the fresh soil, but on the hard-trodden ground." I 
collected what I believe to be this plant from the waste ground at Kew 
Bridge, in 1863. A native of Austria. 

8. ColumncB, Jacq. Has " grown at Wandsworth steamboat pier 
plentifully, during the preceding five or six years." H.B.P. 701. It is 
not now to be found there. A native of the Levant. 

8. pannonicum, Jacq, This plant aj^pears to be well established at 
Crosby, near Liverpool, where it was observed by Mr. Fisher, " in May, 
1858, growing for about a hundred yards along the railway side ; it was in 
great abundance, and I found had existed there some time, for the Rev. 
W. M. Hind had specimens found some years since at the same place." 
Here Mr. Fisher thinks " it may perhaps have been introduced among 
seeds sown in the station-master's garden." See Phyt. in., 112. N.S. 
This locality is perhaps identical with that of the *• Crosby sand-hills," 
where the plant is stated, in the Thirsk Fieport for 1862, to have been 
'' plentiful for the last seven or eight years." [pp. 9, 10.) It also occurred 
plentifully for a similar period at the Wandsworth steamboat pier locality 
{see Phyt. as above) ; but it has now disappeared thence, in common with 
most of the introduced species. It is a native of Hungary. 

Note. — 8. polyceratium, L., admitted into the London Catalogue on 
account of its naturalisation at Bury, in Suffolk, would ai)pear to have no 
stronger claims to that honour than the last-mentioned species. 

Malcolmia africana, Br. Was collected by Mr. Irvine in the Wands- 
worth steamboat pier locality, where it was *' exceedingly common, appear- 



BEITTEN ON SPONTANEOUS EXOTICS. 931 

ing every year in greater force." Phyt. uL, 338. N.S. It has now disap- 
peared thence. A native of Africa. 

M. maritima, Br. " Between Dover and St. Margaret's Bay, appar- 
ently wild, there being no garden either above or below the cliff for some 
distance. Miss Harvey." Co well's Floral Guide to East Kent, published 
1839, p. 73. In Mag. Nat. Hist, vii., 271, this locality is described as 
being " under the cliff about half way between St. Margaret's and Dover, 
in various places for a quarter of a mile, where the banks are grassy." 
In this neighbourhood it a^Dpears to be at least naturalised ; for Mr. W. G. 
Smith informs me that on June 13th, 1864, he observed it growing luxu- 
riantly here and there between Folkestone and Dover for some little distance. 
It " occurred once or twice near Battersea," (H.B.P. 693), probably only 
as a straggler from cultivation ; and at the Wandsworth waste ground, 
where it was " very scarce." Phyt. Hi., 338. N.S. 

M. littorea, Br. " Appeared for a season or two about Wandsworth 
steamboat pier in profusion." H.B.P. 693. This, like the last, is a native 
of the South of Europe. 

Ardbis alpina, L. This common ornament of our gardens in early 
spring has established itself very plentifully near the Koyal Gardens at 
Kew, close to the gate by the riverside ; here it extends over several yards. 
I am informed that it has also occurred for twelve years on a wall at 
Highgate, Middlesex. It appears from the New Botanist's Guide, p. 517, 
to have been included in a list of plants given in Barry's History of Orkney, 
but was without doubt erroneously so recorded. A native of Switzerland 
and the Pyrenees. 

A. arenosa, Scop. Is recorded by Mr. Irvine, in H.B.P. 798, from 
the Wandsworth steamboat pier locality ; also doubtfully in Phyt. Hi., 338. 
N.S., where it is said to have been " very common in the Wandsworth 
station every season." A native of Europe. 

Diplotaxis erucoides, D.C. " Very plentiful near the steamboat pior, 
Wandsworth." H.B.P. 706. I observed a large plant of it in this locality 
in 1862. See Phyt. vL, 412. N.S. A native of the South of Europe. 

D. viminea, Keich. " Waste places at St. Peter's Port, Guernsey, (Rev. 
W. W. Newbould)." E. Bot. ed. 3., i. 142. It may have been merely an 
introduction to this locality. 

Moricandia arvensis, D.C. ? Recorded doubtfully from Wandsworth 
steamboat pier, by Mr. Irvine (Phyt. Hi. 334. N.S.) A native of the South 
of Europe. 



232 THE NATURALIST. 

Erucastnim ohtusanguliim, Eeicli. '' At Wandsworth steamboat pier." 
{H.B,P. 798.) A native of the South of Europe. 

Sinapis Schhuhriana, Eeich. " In 1861 I found a Sinapis growing on 
the oldest part of the West Hartlepool ballast-hill, which I was unable to 
determine. Mr. J. G. Baker, to whom I referred it, believes it to be the 
above-named species. From its habitat, it has probably been established 
at Hartlepool for some years." Bev. A. M. Norman, in Transactions of 
Tyneside Naturalists* Field Cluh, v, 137. 

8. hispida, Schusb. '' At Wandsworth steamboat pier." H.B.P. 798. 

S. dissecta, Lag. " Abundant in 1855 on mud spread out on Battersea 
Fields (Park), but where it has since disappeared." H.B.P. 704 " Plenti- 
ful this year [185 G] both in Battersea Fields and at Wandsworth steam- 
boat pier." Phtjt. i., 405. N.S. A native of the South of Europe. 



Since the above was written, I have received additional information 
relating to some of the plants previously msntioned, and as, with one 
exception, this refers only to the order Qruciferw, I have thought it better 
to give it without further delay. 

P. 202. Dielytra formosa, B.C. Mr. W. Pvichardson, junr., has re- 
cently informed me that it '' grows in profusion in Hulne Parks [Northum- 
berland], and more sparingly at Eatcheugh Crag, in both j)laces near a 
garden." 

P. 203. Lunaria rediviva, D.C. " A few examples" of this, or of I/. 
biennis, " grew in September, 1864, in a narrow lane leading from St. 
Leonard's church [Bridgenorth, Shropshire], to the river, by a path which 
crosses the railway." Botanists' Chronicle, p. 103. 

P. 206. Barharea intermedia, Bor. Mr. J. Hardy, of Hulme, Man- 
chester, has kindly given me much additional information regarding this 
species, which I have his permission to publish. He writes as follows : — 
*' The localities you give on the authority of Mr. Buxton and myself, read 
as if different, but the fact is, they are one and the same ; the plant being 
very common in cultivated fields throughout the entire Manchester district, 
and more especially so on the south and south-west, wherever land is badly 
farmed, or, as favouring its biennial character, in clover-fields. Bowden, 
although seven miles from the centre of Manchester, is really very nearly 
joined to it, and may be considered as in the same district. Now, with 
respect to the recent introduction of the plant, I have found specimens in 
every old collection of Manchester plants I have had an opportunity of 



BRITTEN ON SPONTANEOUS EXOTICS. 533 

examining, and, in one instance, in a collection made upwards of seventy 
years ago ; and, in conversation with some of the older botanists of the 
district, I have invariably found that they knew the plant growing as it 
does now, from their earliest recollections. Mr. Buxton's Flora of Man- 
chester was published in 1849, and there the plant appears for the first 
time as B. vulgaris var. intermedia. My acquaintance with it commenced 
about this season sixteen years ago, from seeing the root-leaves offered for 
sale in the market as a winter cress. Some year or two later, Mr. Baker 
had a note upon it in the old Pliytologist, about which I communicated 
with him, and the result was the identification of the plant by M. Boreau 
himself with his B. intermedia. It is, I am of opinion, quite as little of an 
introduced species as B. vulgaris, and certainly less so than B. prcecox ; the 
true solution of the problem is, I believe, that it had for a long time been 
confounded with the other species." 

P. 206. Erysimum or ientale, L. Mr. J. C. Melville informs me that 
he has found it " at Woolmer, near Selborne, Hants, in tolerable plenty.' ' 

P. 206. E. Perofskianum, Fisch. Mr. W. G. Smith writes — " I found 
several specimens in the brick-fields at Stoke Newington and Highbury 
[Middlesex] ; I saw it also somewhere else close by, apparently wild, but 
of course an escape from cultivation." 

Order V. — Eesedace^. 

Reseda Phyteuma, L. Occurs on the Middlesborough ballast-hills, 
" near the mouth of the Tees on the Yorkshire side of the river." (North 
Yorkshire, p. 308.) A native of the South of Europe. 

B. gracilis, L. Mr. Irvine records this from the Wandsworth steam- 
boat pier locality. " A native of Naples, Dalmatia, and Austria." Phyt. 
Hi., 334. N.S. 

R, odorata, L. This universally esteemed annual is, as might be 
supposed, a frequent production of our London rubbish-heaps. I have 
met with it this year in the grounds of Chelsea College and at Parson's 
Green, in Middlesex ; and in Surrey, on the embankment by the Thames 
at Battersea Park, where it was plentiful in two or three places ; it also 
occurred in 1863 on Putney Heath. Mr. Winch records it from the bal- 
last-hills of the Tyne and Wear, and '* two or three plants " have recently 
occurred in this neighbourhood, " on about three year old ballast. West 
Hartlepool." M. A. Lawson, in Transactions of Tyneside Naturalists Field 
Club, v., 307. A native of Egypt. 



234 



THE NATURALIST. 



Order VI. — Cistace^. 

Heliantliemum ledifolium, Willd. '* Hudson records this from sandy 
pastures and meadows, near Brean [Brent] Down, Somersetshire ; but 
possibly some error had occurred between this and H. poUfoUum. The 
Eev. J. Collins has sought the alleged locality year after year unsuccess- 
fully." Cyb.i., 172, 

Order X. FEANKENIACEiE. 

Frankenia pulverulenta, L. " On the coast [of Sussex] between Brigh- 
ton and Bognor. Hudson. I never heard that this plant has been found 
there by any subsequent botanist, but Dr. Withering sent me, shortly 
before his death, a specimen which I presume was indigenous, and gathered 
here." Dawson Turner, in B. G. ii., 606. Mr. Borrer could not find it 

here. 

fTo he continued.) 



^^irufo* 



^* The Abbeville Jaiv, an Episode in a 
Great Controversy," by the Eev. J. 
L. KoME, F.G.S. (London, Long- 
man and Co., 1864.) 
The above is the subject of a paper 
read before the Hull Literary and 
Philosophical Society in March last, 
and is divided into two parts or chap- 
ters, the first of which is devoted to 
the Abbeville Jaw, the second to a 
critique upon Sir Charles Lyell's 
" Antiquity of man." Whilst refer- 
ring with some severity to the pro- 
ceedings and opinions of the An- 
thropological Societies of London 
and Paris, the author in the first 
chapter gives a very plain and sub- 
stantial account of the finding of, and 
subsequent discussions upon, the 



now celebrated human jaw. We 
quite concur with the author's opin- 
ions respecting this jaw, and be- 
lieve with him, (with all deference 
to so great an authority as M. Bou- 
cher de Perthes), that in this in- 
stance, a most stupid and senseless 
hoax has been attempted to be played 
off upon geologists, with what re- 
sults the scientific world is now well 
acquainted. At the same time we 
scarcely agree with all Mr. Eome's 
strictures upon Dr. Falconer and 
Mr. Prestwich, and the changes of 
opinion respecting the authenticity 
of the j aw. These gentlemen , along 
with the other members represent- 
ing British science at the Paris 
conference, whilst investigating the 
remains in the council-room, were 
thoroughly convinced of the non- 



REPORTS OF SOCIETIES. 



235 



authenticity of the jaw ; it was only 
on the adjournment to the gravel- 
pits at Abbeville, and after watching 
the labourers from seven a.m. to 
five p.m. dig into the rocks, and 
disentomb a number of flints in 
similar condition to those examined 
at Paris, that this conclusion was 
shaken, and if some of them did 
somewhat hurriedly i-ush into print, 
it was without that mature delibera- 
tion, which afterwards caused them 
to return to their first expressed 
opinion. Probably, if, as Mr. Kome 
suggests, our savans had used the 
pick-axe with their own hands the 
case would have been very different. 
However, the British members of 
the commission are now all agreed 
that no reliance whatever is to be 
placed upon the Abbeville jaw. 

With the second part of this pa- 
per — the examination as to the age 
of the Somme valley and others of the 
quaternary deposits — we cannot al- 
together agree. This perhaps may 
not be of much importance, as 
scientific opinion is yet divided on 
this point. We are glad to find that 
our author cannot accept M. Elie de 
Beaumont's theory for the origin of 
the upper and lowet gravels of the 
Somme, and we think the reasons 
he advances sufficient for not doing 
so. He fully accepts Sir C. Lyell's 
hypothesis of their formation, but 
yet cannot allow them to be nearly 
so ancient as Sir Charles would 



make them. In fact, though, posi- 
tively stating that he has not any 
" theological reasons for discarding 
the new-born physical chronology as 
competing with the sacred one," the 
last few pages are clearly an attempt 
to bring this new-horn chronology 
into something like harmony with 
the sacred one. And after he has 
satisfied his own mind with his recon- 
ciliation theory, as the question now 
stands, he states that should geology 
in future years assert man's place 
in creation as pre-glacial instead of 
only post-glacial, he would reconcile 
the two chronologies by supposing 
the existence prior to the " Historic 
Adam" of a totally different race of 
men, who had gradually disappeared 
before the superior advantages of the 
Adamic race. This we submit is a 
far more glaring " assumption " than 
any of those he so unsparingly heaps 
on Sir Charles Lyell's shoulders. 



^^p0rts of ^tstuixm. 

Belfast Field Naturalists Club.^ 
The sixth excursion of this Society, 
and the concluding one of the sum- 
mer session, was made on the 8th 
of October, the locality chosen being 
the limestone quarries of the Cave 
Hill. The excursion was purely 
geological in its object, differing in 
this respect from the preceding ones 
of the session, in which botanical 
research principally occupied the 



S36 



THE NATURALIST. 



members. The strata as seen at 
this place are of great interest to the 
geologist. Here rocks of the secon- 
dary epoch are exposed, abounding 
in remains of organisms which 
flourished in a period long past, and 
whose only record is to be read in 
the stone. Beneath the capping of 
basalt which crowns the hill are 
the limestone and sandstone of the 
Cretaceous system, and underlying 
these the shales and banded lime- 
stones of the Liassic period. The 
section of the latter which was ex- 
amined consisted of shales indurated 
by the close proximity of a trap dyke. 
The fossils were abundant, but much 
injured by the heat of the intruded 
igneous rock. Good specimens of 
several species were, however, ob- 
tained ; of these may be mentioned 
Modiola Hillana, Axinus cloacmus, 
Cardinia ovalis, aud Pecten Valonlen- 
sis. The shales in which the above- 
named fossils were found are por- 
tions of that zone of lias determined 
by B. Tate, Esq., F.G.S., late secre- 
tary to the club, to be the white lias of 
English geologists. Some work 
was also done with the cretaceous 
rocks. A bed of soft friable green 
sandstone yielded a large number of 
fossils, some of them in very good 
condition. The following species 
may be noted — Pecten orhicularis and 
P. Quadricostatus, Exogyra Icevigata, 
and a Trigonia species not known. 
This bed included a layer of copro- 



lites, with numerous fish teeth, some 
of which were obtained in a perfect 
state. Ostrea carinata, and a fine 
echinoderm, Micraster acutus, were 
found in a higher stratum of sand- 
stone. In addition, a few of the 
chalk fossils were secured, as Anan- 
chytus ovatus, and Pleuratomaria per- 
spectiva. A perfect specimen of Am- 
monites intermedius, in beautiful pre- 
servation, was found in the lower 
lias of Carr's Glen, contiguous to 
the quarries. The summer session 
having now terminated, it devolves 
on the committee to make arrange- 
ments for the vigorous prosecution 
of the work for the winter session, 
which consists of papers on scientific 
subjects read fortnightly by the 
members, which papers are followed 
by discussion relating to the subject. 
The council of the Natural History 
and Philosophical Society have again 
kindly granted to the club the use 
of one of their lecture-rooms in the 
Museum for the evening meetings. 
. Hartley, The Castle, Belfast. 



Singular Capture of a Seal. — About 
three months ago a man engaged in 
the ling fishing caught a seal {Phoca 
vituUna) upwards of three feet in 
length, upon a common hook baited 
with a piece of fish. The depth of 
water was twenty-two fathoms, but 
as the lines wer ebeing hauled in at 



OBSERVATIONS. 



937 



the time of the capture, it is jiroha- 
ble that the bait was taken when 
near the surface. — Henry L. Saxby, 
Baltasound, Shetland, Nov. 9, 1864. 



Food of Ling and Cod. — Several 
instances in which sea-birds have 
been swallowed by fish have, at va- 
rious times, come to my knowledge. 
The latest occurred during the past 
summer, when an entire guillemot 
was taken from the stomach of a 
ling (Lota 7nolva). In examining 
the stomachs of some cod very lately 
I was surprised to find that the 
shells of crabs with which they were 
partly filled, were as red as if they 
had been boiled, and in this respect 
there was but little [difference be- 
tween the broken remains and indi- 
viduals which had been but recently 
swallowed. Most of the stomachs 
contained in addition white shells 
of pectens, and all contained her- 
rings. — Henry L. Saxby, Balta- 
sound, Shetland, Nov. 3, 1864. 



Variety of the Golden Plover. — 
While following a flock of Golden 
Plovers yesterday, I saw one in 
which the wings were perfectly white, 
but unfortunately my endeavours to 
obtain the specimen were unsuc- 
cessful. — Henry L. Saxby, Balta- 
sound, Shetland, Nov.- 2, 1864. 

The CucJcoo. — During a seven 
years' residence at High Harrogate, 
(a locality in much favour with 
cuckoos); I paid great attention to 



this bird. I have found as many 
as thirty young ones in a season, 
chiefly in the tit-larks' nests ; and I 
have made several attempts to rear 
them, but never could get them 
through the winter. A friend of 
mine, who had great experience in 
the rearing of birds for the aviary, 
also made several attempts, but 
without success, and on comparing 
notes with others who had done the 
same, I never found that they had 
succeeded, or knew any one that 
had. Seeing that with every at- 
tention, efforts to get them through 
the winter have failed, I am disposed 
to doubt the statement sometimes 
made, that they occasionally remain 
with us through the winter. — J. 
Kanson, Linton-upon-Ouse, York. — 
Communicated by Eev. F. 0. Morris. 
Curious Nesting Place of a Chaf- 
finch. — I am informed by some 
friends that a few years ago a Chaf- 
finch placed its nest in the heel of 
an old shoe, which was lying on the 
ground, but before it began its nest 
it carefully covered the shoe with 
moss. — G. Ormerod, Kedenhall Rec- 
tory. — Communicated by the Rev. 
F. 0. Morris. 



Field-Days near Scarborough. 
No. II. 
Oct. 4th, 1864.— Our second field- 
day was in the valley of Haybourne 
Wyke, about six miles north of 
Scarborough. We entered the glen 



S38 



THE NATURALIST. 



at the sea-side, following the stream 
up the valley, in the direction of 
Stainton Dale. The stream passes 
through the Lower Oolite, and is thus 
strongly impregnated with limestone, 
as the vegetation on its banks abun- 
dantly shows. At the very entrance 
of the glen, not a stone's throw from 
the sea, were noble plants of Inula 
Helenium, with the seed-heads fully 
perfected. The flounced case of 
ColeopJiora discordella was conspicu- 
ous on the under side of the leaves 
of Lotus major y on which the larva 
was feeding. Another case -bearer 
[C. grypJiipennella) was feeding on the 
leaves of the rose ; its cylindrical 
greyish-ochreous case readily dis- 
tinguishing it. Tall plants of An- 
gelica sylvestris were next examined, 
and in the seed-heads the larvse of 
Eupithecia tripimctata and Q^copJwra 
flavimaculella were detected, the for- 
mer being nearly full-fed. Carex 
pendula, with its fine green leaves, 
hung over the stream in every direc- 
tion. In the seed-heads of Dactylls 
glomerata, one of our commonest 
grasses, GlypJiipteryx FiscJieriella was 
feeding, having made himself a coat 
of the chaff-scales. This was first 
discovered by the companion of our 
rambles. A little higher up the 
stream, a ledge of rock revealed to 
us a pair of water-ousels, which 
hurried quickly past, uttering their 
notes of alarm. Another pug {Eupi- 
thecia centaur eata)^'{\^ feeding on the 



seeds of^ the Eagwort. Pterophorv^ 
osteodactylus, one of the Plumes, was 
consuming the seeds of the Golden 
rod, which was very abundant in 
the valley. Above us the martins 
were still uttering their gladsome 
notes, while hawking for their food. 
The pretty light-green larva of the 
Silver Lines (CloepJwra quercana) 
was creeping down the bole of an oak, 
evidently badly ichneumoned. Lithe- 
colletis spinolella was mining in the 
underside of the leaves of the sallow. 
Myrrhis odorata, with its strongly 
aromatic leaves, was growing by the 
stream-side, and its long, deeply 
furrowed capsules were very con- 
spicuous. We next noticed the 
pretty slender galleries, in rose- 
leaves, of Nepticula anomalella. On 
one rose-tree, that grew somewhat 
in the shade, hardly a leaflet was 
without its mine ! Noble fronds of 
Lastraa Filix-mas, \Qii\ paleacea — full 
five feet in length — were pointed out 
to us by our fern-friend ; the rachis 
being closely invested with a dense 
coating of chaffy scales. Hypericum 
quadrangulum offered us Nepticula 
Septemhrella, as H. hirsutum had done 
on our previous field-day. The old 
cones of the larva of Gracilaria Swe- 
derella were conspicuous on the oak- 
leaves. We met also with Tinagma re- 
splendellum in the leaves of the alder, 
which it first mines, and afterwards 
cuts out for itself therefrom an oval 
flat case. We were now approach- 



NOTES AND QUERIES EXCHANGE. 



930 



ing the Falcon Inn, on the direct 
road between Scarborough and 
Whitby, and were surprised to find 
in the gai'den of the inn a few 
British plants, of which we should 
have been glad to have read more 
fully the history. They were Mentha 
rotimdifolia, SpircBa salicifoUa, and 
Malva moschata with white flowers. 
The former I take to be the species 
so subject to variegation, and such 
a favourite in these days of foliage 
plants. I also noticed another mint 
in the garden strongly marked with 
yellow veins. SpircBa salicifoUa is 
stated, in the Scarborough Guide, 
to grow wild near Cayton, I saw 
it some years ago wildly abundant 
near Bala, in North Wales. — Peter 
Inchbald, Storthes Hall, Nov. 14. 



8merinthus ocellatus. — I had a very 
fine female specimen of the Eyed 
Hawk Moth, emerged from the pupa 
the second week in June last, and 
kept it three weeks and two days in 
my breeding cage, expecting others 
out nearly at the same time, but none 
have, as yet, made their appearance. 
Can any Entomological student in- 
form me through the pages of" The 
Naturalist " if they have ever known 
them go over to the second year. — 
J. Blackburn, 42, St. Mary's-Street, 
Leeds, Nov. 3rd, 1864. 

Schistostega osmundacea, W. & M. — 
Your correspondent J. F. E. writing 



in your last issue, 15th November, 
announces the finding of the above 
species as new to Frodsham ; I be- 
live that Mr. W. Wilson has been 
aware for some years of its presence 
in that neighbourhood, and in the 
course of an afternoon's Bryolo- 
gizing in March, 18C3, I met with 
it in three or four distinct places in 
the vicinity of Frodsham. In one 
of the localities, a sandstone cave, it 
was in the greatest abundance, many 
square yards being covered with it. 
If J. F. R. will refer to the " List 
of Mosses occurring in the neigh- 
bourhood of Manchester," as given 
in the " Report of the Manchester 
Field Naturalists' Society for the year 
1863," he will find it there stated 
that Sch. osmundacea, W. & M., is 
" common at Frodsham." — J. E. W. 



Mr. R. Bathwick, Alloa, Scotland, 
has P. Artaxerxes and C. Davus to 
exchange ; he has also a small col- 
lectionrof Lepidoptera to exchange 
for a collection of Birds' Eggs. A 
list will be sent on application. 



Mosses. — Having a number of du- 
plicates of British Mosses on hand, 
I shall be glad to exchange lists of 
desiderata, &c., with any Bryologist, 
either British or Continental. — 
Chas. p. Hobkirk, Huddersfield, 
Nov. 24th, 18C4. 



§40 THE NATURALIST. 



NOTES ON THE ORNITHOLOGY OF NORFOLK.— 
RARITIES. 



By T. E. Gunn, Norwich. 



Falco hali^etus. — The Osprey lias occurred in two instances in Nor- 
folk during the present season. The first instance I find recorded in the 
Norwich Mercury of the 1st Nov., Irom which paper I quote the follow- 
ing : — " A few days since George Martin, gamekeeper to J. L. Bedding- 
field, Esq., of Ditchingham Hall, shot a remarkably fine specimen of the 
Osprey or fishing Hawk, near the canal in the park, it measured six feet 
two inches between the points of its wings, and was preserved by Mr. Wm. 
Banham, of Bungay." This I should say is an unusually large specimen. 
On the 26th instant I saw a fresh killed male specimen, wdiich was shot 
the day previous in the neighbourhood of Stalham ; this specimen mea- 
sured tw^o feet in length, and five feet eight inches across its extended 
wings to the point of each ; longest quill feather in the wing fifteen inches ; 
tail, ten inches ; irides, yellow ; cere, dark bluish ; legs and toes, pale 
bluish green ; claws, black and very curving, forming nearly a half-circle. 
It apparently had subsisted well during its stay in that locality, as it was 
very fat, just previously to its capture it had been regaling itself with a 
perch fPercafluviatilisJ, as its stomach on being opened was found quite 
filled with the remains of one. 

Falco apivorus. — A splendid immature male of Falco apivonis was 
shot at a small village named Gatesend, about six miles distant from 
Takenham on the 26th of last September, another individual (probably 
a female) has been seen several times since in the same locality. The 
captured specimen measured twenty-two inches from the tip of its beak to 
the end of its tail, and four feet across its extended wings to the extreme 
points ; the whole surface of its plumage is of a uniform brown, feathers 
on crown of head and back of neck, small and pointed, each terminat- 
ing with a small spot of dull white ; the space round the eyes, and the 
the throat, white ; irides, brown ; cere, yellow ; beak, horn colour, darker 
towards the tip ; legs and toes, nearly black. I dissected its gizzard which 
contained the renjains of wasps and honey-comb. This is the second 



GUNN ON THE ORNITHOLOGY OF NORFOLK. S-ll 

instance of the occurrence of this species that has come within my notice, 
the former example was taken in the neighbourhood ot Wymondham, on 
the 7th of October, last year, this was also an immature male. 

Falco cyaneus. — On the 12th instant a female was shot in a turnip- 
field at Rollesby, a village eight miles distant from Yarmouth. Its stomach 
contained the remains of a Meadow Pipit {Anthus 2'>ratensis) and Greenfinch 
(Fringilla chloris) : finding the gizzards of these two birds in a perfect con- 
dition I opened them, the former contained various grass seeds, and nu- 
merous minute insects ; in that of the latter I found a few grains of 
wheat, and some small grit. 

Falco cineraceus. — A live specimen, an immature male, was pur- 
chased a few days since from a person residing at Sutton, near Stalham : 
it was obtained in that neighbourhood during the summer, when quite 
young, and brought up by hand ; it is now very tame. The upper parts 
of its plumage are umber brown, feathers edged with a rufous brown, 
which assumes a broader margin on the upper wing coverts ; throat, breast, 
belly, thighs, and the under surface of its wings of a reddish brown ; upper 
surface of its tail feathers, brown, marked with bands of a greyish brown ; 
the under surface of a greyish brown, with bands of a pale brown ; irides 
light brown, inclining to grey ; cere, yellow ; beak, black ; legs and toes, 
yellow ; claws, black. An adult female of this species was obtained in the 
same locality during the latter part of September, 1862 ; three immature 
birds were taken alive about the same time, two of these w^ere purchased 
by the Zoological Society in the early part of October that year. 

Strix otus and S. brachyotus. — Several specimens of these two birds 
have occurred within the past fortnight. The Strix Irachyotus is however 
by no means so abundantly obtained as in former years, it makes its appear- 
ance in the autumn, returning northwards in the early spring ; it formerly 
used to breed in the Norfolk fens, and may still do so occasionally, but 
very rarely, as a nest has not been obtained for several years past. 

Lanius excubitor. — A male was shot on the 2Gth instant at Rollesby, 
near Yarmouth ; I opened its gizzard, it contained the remains of a small 
bird, wasps, and an imago of Vanessa urticce. 

TuRDUS torquatus. — On the morning of the 3rd instant three indi- 
viduals were observed feeding on a hawthorn hedge that divided two fields 
in the parish of Eaton, near Norwich. During the course of the afternoon 
one of their number, a female, was shot ; two males have since been ob- 
tained, one on the 6th instant at Thorpe, near Haddiscor, and the other 
No. 10. Dec. 15. R 



242 THE NATURALIST. 

on the loth, the two former having passed through my hands I had an 
opportunity of observing the difference between the two sexes ; both speci- 
mens measured lOf inches from beak to tail ; the male may easily be 
distinguished from the female, by the band across its chest being white, 
margins of the feathers faintly tinged with ash grey, in very old birds 
perfectly white ; this band in the female is dull white inclining to a greyish 
hue, margins of feathers of a pale brown ; the beak of the male is black, 
that of the female brown ; both attaining a yellowish hue on the upper 
edge near the base of the lower mandible. The food of the birds I ex- 
amined consisted of the hawthorn and blackberries, of which there is an 
abundant crop this season, which will no doubt prove a most favourable 
attraction to some of our numerous winter migrants. 

Fringilla MONTANA. — Small flocks of this species have made their 
appearance^ in this neighbourhood during the last few days. I have 
noticed several individuals that have been caught by a bird-catcher ; it has 
not to my knowledge occurred in Norfolk since the winter season of 1861, 
when a few specimens were then obtained. 

NuciFEAGA CAEYOCATACTES. — I havo to notico the occurrence of a mag- 
nificent specimen of that very rare visitor, the Nutcracker (Nucifraga 
earyocatactesj, which was sent to a bird-stuffer's shop in this city for pre- 
servation on the 10th of October last, it having been shot a day or two 
previously in the neighbourhood of Burgh, distant seven miles north-east 
of Yarmouth ; this bird which is so rarely met with in the British Isles 
deserves, I think, a short description here. It is an adult male, and 
measures l^ inches from the tip of its beak to the end of its tail, and 21 
inches across its extended wings to the extreme points ; tail five inches ; 
crown of head, umber brown ; space between the beak and irides, dull 
white ; the surface of its back, neck, cheeks, lesser wing coverts, and all 
the under surface of its wings, clove brown ; each feather tipped with an 
elongated spot of dull white ; wings, greater wing coverts, and upper 
surface of its tail, blackish brown ; the tail feathers are tipped with dull 
white, excepting the two centre ones ; under surface of tail feathers, grey- 
ish brown, tipped with white. Irides, dark hazel ; beak, black, straight, 
and conical, and two inches in length ; legs, toes, and claws, black ; the 
centre claw five-eighths of an inch, the hinder three-quarters of an inch 
in length. Its gizzard contained the remains of a few beetles. 

HiEMATOFUS osTiiALEGUs. — A male occurred on the 27th of last 
August. A second individual was obtained on the sea-beach near Cromer, 
on the 2dth of the following month. 



aUNN ON THE OBNITHOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 243 

NuMENius ARQUATA and N. pn^opus. — The former species has occurred 
plentifully on our marshes during the past few weeks, I have also seen a 
few specimens of Ninnejiius phccoims. 

ToTANUs GLOTTIS. — A mature female was purchased in our fish mar- 
ket on the 14th of September. 

LiMOSA MELANDRA. — Four immature specimens (young birds of the 
year) of the Blacktailed Godwit (Lunosa rnelanura), were exposed for sale 
in our fish market on Saturday, the 27th of August last ; they were believed 
to have been killed the day previous in the neighbourhood of Yarmouth, 
they were quite fresh when the salesman received them, two of them were 
purchased by a bird-stuffer, and on being dissected proved to be male 
and female. 

Machetes pugnax. — A young male on the 23rd of September. 

ScoLOPAx major. — During the course of the second week in Septem- 
ber a fine specimen of Scolopax major passed through the hands of a fish- 
monger, of whom I enquired the locality from whence he had received it ; 
he could not however inform me, having purchased it with birds of the 
Common Snipe (Scolopax gaUinago.) S. gallbiago as well as S. galUmda 
appears to be plentifully distributed on our marshes this season. 

CoLTMBus SEPTENTRioNALis. — I saw an immature female on the 21st 
instant, which had been shot on our sea-coast, it had been feeding on the 
common herring {Clupea harengus), as its remains and a few pebbles were 
taken from its stomach. 

Alca torda. — An immature specimen was obtained on the sea-beach 
at Cromer on the 26th ult. 

Carbo cormoranus. — A fine mature specimen was shot on the 10th 
instant. 

Sterna nigra. — On the 30th of August last an immature bird of the 
Black Tern {Sterna nigra) was shot on the marshes at Potter Heigham. 
A second occurred on the banks of the river Wensum at Thorpe, two miles 
above Norwich. A third was obtained at Rockland on the 5 th of Septem- 
ber ; about the same time as this latter occurrence three or four individuals 
were observed feeding on the embankment of the reservoir of the water- 
works, which are situated a short distance from St. Martin's river, about 
two miles from the New Mills, Nonvich. 

Lestris Richardsoni. — On the 4th of October last an immature male 
was killed in the neighbourhood of Burgh St. Peter, near Yarmouth. Its 
length from bill to end of tail is 15| inches, and from tip to tip of its 



944 THE NATUEALIST. 

wings three feet; the plumage of its. head, neck, and throat is of a dull 
greyish brown ; its back, wing and tail coverts are brown, feathers edged 
with dull white, those on the rump and the extremities of the upper wing 
coverts, assuming a broader margin ; wings black, the shafts of the three 
longest quill feathers are white ; under wing coverts, white intercepted 
with transverse bars of a pale brownish grey ; under surface of the quill 
feathers white, attaining a pale brownish hue at the points ; breast and 
abdomen of a pale greyish, intermixed with dull white, feathers towards 
the sides barred with pale greyish brown. Its tail is six and a quarter 
inches inlength, and contains twelve feathers, the two central ones projecting 
three-quarters of an inch beyond the others, both the upper and under 
surface of its tail feathers are black, with the exception of the base which 
is white ; beak and cere, pale brown ; irides, hazel ; legs and base of toes 
of a yellowish hue, the ends of the toes and the anterior portion of the 
intervening membranes, black. 
Norwich, October 31st, 1864. 



EAEE BIEDS IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 



By. T. H. Gibb. 



OspRET — (Falco hallceetus) — A few weeks ago I had the pleasure 
of preserving a very beautiful specimen of this bird captured on the con- 
fines of the Cheviot Hills. It proved to be an immature female, measur- 
ing 26 inches in length and 65 inches in extent of wings. I found the 
oesophagus and crop much dilated with the remains of a large trout, the 
pectoral fin and eye of which were in a good state of preservation, and 
judging from their size I should say the fish could not have been less 
than two-and-a-half pounds in weight. 

This noble bird is of rare occurrence in Northumberland, and but few 
persons have been so fortunate as to see him in all his native majesty. 
Last year, however, two individuals took up their abode on the banks of 
the river Aln, and afforded the " lucky few " many opportunities of ob- 
serving them in their piscatorial expeditions. These birds were bold and 
fearless — caring very little for the presence of man, but eventually one of 
them (a male) fell a victim to his temerity, as he was shot whilst hawking 
in too close proximity to a mill. 



GIBB ON BARE BIRDS IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 245 

I have had many opportunities of observing the habits of the Osprey 
in North America. The first I ever saw was in Nova Scotia, seated on 
the decayed branch of an aged oak, stretching over an extensive sheet of 
water, and well do I remember the gratification I derived from the sight. 
With some precaution I succeeded in approaching unobserved a point 
from whence I had an excellent view of him. For some time he remained 
stationary on the branch in an upright position, and to a casual observer 
might have been taken for a part of it, so inanimate did he appear, but 
eventually he aroused himself to action — unfolded his expansive wings — 
glanced momentarily arouud him, and then launched away from the tree 
and glided over the stream. When midway across the river he fre- 
quently poised himself and as often dashed down towards the water — 
slightly grazing its surface, but ever and again soared aloft without dis- 
turbing its placidity. At intervals he described a succession of beautiful 
spiral curves, now dived through the " ethereal expanse " or bounded up- 
ward with surpassing grace — the while intently watching his prey as I 
could see by the curved neck and drooping head. After half-an-hour was 
spent in these graceful movements he mounted rapidly aloft and quickly 
attained no mean elevation, where he remained until I became almost 
wearied out with watchiag him, but just when I was on the point of leav- 
ing to prosecute my journey which was undertaken in anticipation of 
meeting with Ectopistes migratoria, of which I had heard great numbers 
were in the vicinity, he began to descend by means of repeated undulatory 
circles. When again within pouncing distance of the stream he halted in 
his buoyant flight — for an instant hovered over it, and then with meteoric 
quickness plunged into the yielding element driving showers of spray in 
all directions. When he arose he bore in his talons a noble salmon, with 
which he hied off to his rendezvous on the oak where I doubt not he 
" fared sumptuously " on the rich repast. At this juncture a covetous 
desire induced me to attempt his capture, and I stealthily crawled towards 
him through the sinuosities of the intervening ground with the view of 
getting him within the range of my fowling-piece, but ere I could succeed 
in my " fell purpose " he sans ceremonie " vanished from my sight like a 
beautiful dream," by a rapid flight over the forest. 

I have met with it in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, the United States, 
and in the Canadas. I found its habitat to be very varied, sometimes by 
the sea-coast, occasionally in the interior by the great " inland seas," and 
on more than one occasion in localities but ill adapted to the natural 
economy of the bird. 



246 THE NATURALIST. 

Green Sandpiper — (Totanus ochropusj — A very fine male was shot 
in this neighbourhood on the 18th, and a female on the 21st ult. 

I would also mention the following comparatively rare birds as occa- 
sionally located here. The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrimis) ; Grey 
Shrike [Lanius excubitor) ; Pied Flycatcher {Muscicapa atricapilla) ; Tree 
Sparrow {Fringilla montana) ; Crossbill (Lo^i« curvirostra) ; Spotted Wood- 
pecker {Picus major) ; Wryneck (Ymix torquilla). 

Alnwick, Nov. 12th, 1864. 



ON THE BOTANY OF MALHAM. 



By L. C. Miall, Esq. 



Part II. 
Composite. 

Hieracium pallidum, Fries. In the Dillenian herbarium at Oxford, this 
plant and H. anglicum, Fr., are preserved on one sheet, and labelled 
" Hieracium glaucum pilosum foliis parum dentatis. In loco declivi 
Gordil prope Malham Cravonise vicum." Fries quotes the plant of 
Dillenius as H. oreades, Fr. 23. vi. vii. and ix. 

H. Gibsoni, Backh. Gordale ! Not uncommon on the Craven scars. 
" I cannot regard this plant as any form of H, ccesium, nor indeed as 
being very closely allied to that species ; its nearly glabrous ciliate 
leaves and yellow styles indicate a nearer alliance with H. pallidum" 
Backhouse, Fries sets down this plant as H. hypoclioBridis, a variety 
of H. ccesium. vii. viii. 

H. murorum, L. Gordale ! Malham Tarn. Various forms, which differ 
chiefly in the degree of acuteness of their radical leaves, occur on the 
Craven hills. 58. vii. 

H. caesium, Fries ? Gordale, J. Tatham. It seems somewhat doubtful 
whether the H. ccesium of Fries is one of the British Hieracia at all. 
I do not know anythmg of Mr. Tatham's plant, vii. viii. 

H. sylvaticum, Sm., var. rubescens. This variety which ranks under H. 
imlgatum, Fr., has been found at Gordorle. 
The account of the Malham Hieracia given above is very imperfect. 

It is far from unusual to find in districts like the Craven hills individuals 

oi this genus which agree imperfectly with any of the species laid down 



MIALL ON THE BOTANY OF MALHAM. 247 

in the books, elaborate as the discrimination of some authors is. Perhaps 
the divisions of this extensive group cannot be intelligibly defined. Mr. 
Backhouse's Monograph of the British Hlenicia is a highly artificial and 
minute investigation into the differences and relations of the species found 
in this country — the Symbolse ad Historiam Hieraciorum of Fries (Nov. 
Act. Reg. Soc. Scient. Upsal. vols. xiii. xiv.) a more extended enquiry. 
The Yorkshire Hieracia have been thoroughly criticised by Mr. Baker in 
various publications, and I believe he has issued sets of speciQiens in- 
tended expressly to illustrate the distribution of these plants in North 
Yorkshire and Teesdale. 

Campanulaceje. 

Campanula latifoliaj L. Hedge-banks near Malham, frequent ! J. No well. 
Common in the whole Settle district, and called by the rustics " Fox- 
glove." 52. vii. viii. 

Ertcace-e. 

Vaccinium Vitis-IdcBa, L. Malham Tarn ! 43. vii. 

V. Oxycoccos, L. Malham Moor. 52. vii. 

Pyrola minor, L. A not uncommon plant in the woods of Craven, usually 

frequenting fir-plantations. Woods near Malham, in several places. 

45. vii. 

Jasminace^. 

Ligiistrum vidgare, L. Edge of the shrubby rocks above Gordale ! 
Dr. Windsor. I imagine that no doubt can be entertained of the 
indigenous character of the plant in this station. 54. vii. 

Gentianace^. 

Gentiana Amarella, L. Between Stockdale-edge and Malham ! Dr. Wind- 
sor. Near the guide-post between Lanscar and Ing Scar ! 68. viii. ix. 

Folemonium c<Bruleum, L. Gordale and^^Malham Cove ! Indigenous here, 
but often met with in other places as an escape from cultivation. 5. vii. 

SCROPHULAEIACE^. 

Bartsia alpina, L. Gordale ! Between Malham Tarn and Kilnsoy, J, 
Tatham. 5. vii. 

Euphrasia officinalis, L. Several forms of this plant occur in West York- 
shire, some of which were set down in the Flora of the West-Riding 
under E. officinalis, b. gracilis. The Malham stations there mentioned 



248 TH]^. NATUEALIST. 

appear to belong to E. officinalis, /S nemorosa, Pers. (E. stricta, Host.y 
Mr. Baker gives a different account of the Nortli Yorkshire Euphraslas. 
" Our common form is authenticated by both Jordan and Boreau as 
their E. ericetorum. A plant which grows upon Stockton forest and 
Wass moor is E. rigidida, Jordan and Boreau ! Both these range 
under E. nemorosa, Host., the genuine segregate officinalis apparently 
not being a British plant at all." North Yorkshire, p. 261. vii. 

Oeobanchace^e. 
Orobanche Hederce, Duby. This or 0, rubra, Dr. "Windsor thinks he found 
" under the Rocks, on the east side of Malham Tarn in 1802." Con- 
sidering that neither Ivy nor Thymus Serpyllum, upon which these 
two Orobanches are severally parasitical, is found on these rocks, we 
must presume a mistake. I can find no Orobanche at all in the spot 
mentioned. Dr. Windsor conjectures hesitatingly that the rocks 
may have " been formerly covered with Ivy." This is a mere guess, 
and if true, would hardly lessen the difficulty. 0. rubra, which is 
found on the limestone of Leyburn must be taken as the most prob- 
able of these two unlikely quotations. 

BOBAGINACE^ . 

Amhusa sempervirens, L. Malham Moor! '• No doubt indigenous in the 
neighbourhood of Settle, and very common." J. Tatham. (Cybele 
Britannica, ii. p. 282.) " Perhaps wild in Yorkshire and Devonshire." 
Hooker and Arnott's Flora, 8th ed. p. 294. The Malham station is 
apparently less open to suspicion than any other British one. Of 
the Devonshire habitats, Mr. Ravenshaw gives six, (Flowering Plants 
and Ferns of Devonshire) but marks them all as doubtful, and possi- 
ble introductions. One of them is given on the authority of the 
author of the Cybele Britannica, who says of it (ii. p. 282.) that among 
the several places in which he has seen the plant, this is the only one 
which " had the appearance of being a natural habitat, and the limited 
space occupied by the plants in the place in question (that is, in 
hedges by the road from Barnstaple to Bishop Tawton, Devon), gave 
rise to a doubt even there." Besides this, Dr. Bromfield reports the 
species as " truly wild in a retired lane, on a bank amongst weeds, a 
few miles from Plymouth,"^:^ and Mr. S. P. Woodward thinks it '' really 

* Goulding and Keys' Flora of Plymouth quotes this AncJiusa as common there— 
a circumstance which renders its introduction to Dr. Bromfield's locality less difficult 
to explain. 



MIALL ON THE BOTANY OF MAl.HAM. 249 

wild at Lakonhaiii " in Norfolk. The Reigatc station lias even been 
claimed as a natural one. Several Scottish claims are advocated by 
writers to various periodicals. The old habitats in Cornwall complete 
the list of places in which the plant has been supposed indigenous, 
At least I know of none besides those mentioned. It is by no means 
improbable that it is introduced in all, but if wild in Britain at all, 
we must conclude that it is wild at Malham. vii. 

PlNGUICULACEJE. 

rinrjiucula vulgaris,!^. Malham Moor ! 71. vi. 

Peimulacejl. 

Primula vulgaris, Huds., b. elatior. Pasture near Malham Cove ! J. Nowell. 
This station and several others were given me for P. elatior, Jacq., 
which I believe does not occur in Yorkshire at all. The Malham 
plant seems to be that variety of P. vulgaris which is known by the 
stalked umbel. (P. acaulls, /3 canescens of Koch ?) Mr. Baker is 
clearly of opinion that the Oxlip of the North Riding is a hybrid 
between P. vulgaris and P. verls, and quotes " a series of the same 
range of hybrids from both France and Switzerland, under the name 
of P. variabilis, Goupil, and of hybrids also with the true P. elatior, 
Jacq.," which he possesses. It is not improbable that in England 
we have but three PW/nu/rts specially distinct — P.farlnosa, P. vulgaris, 
and P. verls, but many hybrids between the latter two. The follow- 
ing observations are from Hooker and Arnott's Flora ^8th ed. p. 345). 
'^ On the continent the present species (P. verls) and P. vulgaris never 
grow intermingled, and constantly retain the characters assigned to 
them (a singular mistake !) : in England, however, (and in Scotland 
wherever P. verls occurs,) they are found together and a complete 
series of intermediate forms, constituting the common Oxlip, may be 
observed, which must either be accounted fertile hybrids, or proofs of 
the two extremes being only different races of the same species." iv. v. 

P. farlnosa, L. Malham Cove, &c. ! A common plant in wet places ; 
called by the people of Craven '* Bog-bean," a name which properly 
belongs to Menyanthes trlfollata, L. 10. vi. vii. 
Plumb AGIN ACEJ::. 

Armerla marltlma, Aut. •' In an elevated moist pasture a little above 
Stockdale, on the road to Malham, plentifully." Dr. Windsor. 
Probably /3 puhescens, Link. 



250 THE NATURALIST. 

CONIFEE^. 

Taxus baccata, L. Gordale ! 33. iv. v. 

Orchidace^. 

Neottia Nidus-avis, Eich. Gordale. 56. vi. vii. 

Epipactis ovalis, Bab. Clefts of rocks above Gordale ! Dr. Windsor. 
" About the year 1810 I collected," says Dr. Windsor, "at the request 
of Sir J. E. Smith, recent specimens of this plant for the inspection 
of himself and Mr. Sowerby ; the former thought it might be the 
parviflora of Ehrhart, but Mr. Sowerby informed me that he could 
not decide upon its being a distinct species." What characters of 
Ehrhart's parviflora Sir J. E. Smith saw in Dr. Windsor's specimens 
I cannot tell, but except in trifling variations of the labellum and 
lower leaves none of my Gordale specimens differ perceptibly from 
accredited specimens of Babington's E. ovalis, J^Tany English botan- 
ists have had an opportunity of satisfying themselves as to the real 
nature of the Craven plant by means of Mr. Tatham's specimens. 
There can be no doubt that it is E. ovalis. vii. 

E. pahtstris, Sw. Between Gordale and Malham Tarn, near Broad Scar ! 
44. vii. viii. 

E. rubra, Sm. (Cephalanthera, Rich., Serapias, L.j Gordale, J. Nowell. 
This station may be confidently set down as belonging to E. ovalis. 
" In the New Botanist's Guide the name of E. rubra was applied 
interrogatively to the Epipactis of Giggleswick, in Yorkshire, and the 
Ormeshead, in Caernarvonshire; but E. ovalis is the plant of the 
former locality, and probably of the latter also." Cybele Britannica, 
ii. p. 421. A further notice in vol. iii. p. 379, confirms this state- 
ment respecting the Welsh plant, which is now generally recognized 
as E. ovalis. (Bab. Man., 5th ed., p. 323, Hooker and Arnott's Flora, 
8th ed., p. 428). 3. 

Habenaria albida. Br. Not uncommon in the pastures about Malham ! 
with Gymnadenia conopsea and Habenaria viridis. 37. vi. 

LlLIACE^. 

Allium oleraceum, L. b. carinatum, Sm. Rocks near Malham Tarn, Dr. 
Windsor. Malham Cove ! J. Tatham. This vari'ety [^ complanatum 
of Fries) is known by the uniformly thick, channelled, many-ribbed 
leaf, and must not be confounded with A. carinatum, L. (sp. 426), 
which has stamens twice as long as the perianth. A. carinatum, L. 



MIALL ON THE BOTANY OF MALHAM. 251 

does not appear to have been found in England. Koch's A. oleraceum, 

(3 latifolium is apparently the same as the Malham plant. 2G. vii. viii. 

{A. Scorodoprasujn, L., has been reported to me on insufficient evi- 
dence as found at Malham. I cannot find it there, though the habitat is 
not unlikely.] 
Gagea lutea, Ker. Malham Cove, J. Ward (in Withering's Botany, 4th 

ed., 1804), J. Tatham. 23. iv. 
Convallaria majalis, L. A common plant about Malham in early summer ! 

47. 
C. polygonatwn, L. Various Scars around Malham, and generally on the 

Craven limestone ! 8. 

Fluveai^es. 

Potamogeton prailojigus, Wulf. With P. lucenSy P. perfoliatm, and P. hetero- 
phyllus in Malham Tarn ! 15. vi. 

Cyperace^. 

Blysmus compressuSy Panz. Below Malham Cove ! 37. vi. vii. 

Carex curia, Good. Bog near Malham Tarn, Dr. Carrington, J. Nowell. 

Edge of Malham Tarn ! Dr. Windsor. 46. vi. 
C. divisa, Huds. Wet places below Malham Tarn. J. Nowell. 20. v. vi. 
O. intermedia, Good. (C. incurva, Lightf.) Edge of Malham Tarn ! Dr. 

Windsor. 52. vi. 
C. teretiuscula. Good. Bog near Malham Tarn, J. Nowell. Several places 

on Malham Moor ! 32. vi. 
C. pallescens, L. Wet places around the Scars, ascending to near 350 

yards in Gordale ! 56. vi. vii. 
C. limosa, L. Near Malham Tarn, Dr. Carrington. 25. vi. 

Gkaminace^. 

Scsleria ccDvulea, Scop. Malham Cove, &c. ! The Cybele Britannica states 
that this plant " descends to 300 yards, or lower, in Humber." It 
may be found at Malham not much over 200 yards above the sea- 
level. 9. V. 

Festuca gigantea, Vill. {Bromiis, L., Bucetum, Parn.) Occasionally by brook- 
sides in the neighbourhood of Malham, chiefly on the Skipton side ! 
71. vii. 

Hordeum sylvaticwn, Ru.ds. Wood at Malham Cove, Dr. Windsor. 22. 
vii. viii. 



252 THl^- XATUKALIST. 

On an Instance of ''CHLORANTHIE" in VERBASCUM THAPSUS. 



By Henei van Heurck, 

Professor of Botany at the " Kruidkundig Genootschap," Antwerp. 

One part of my garden having been neglected, I recently found there 
a great number of plants of Verbascum Thapsus, a plant somewhat rare in 
the neighbourhood of Antwerp, and one of them presented a very remark- 
able instance of Chloranthie. 

It will be understood that the term Chloranthie has been given to the 
change of all the parts of a flower into leaves. A flower thus metamor- 
phosed, appears in the bud as a little tuft of foliaceous organs more or 
less compact, and which Mr. George Dickie has compared to a cabbage in 
miniature. Chloranthie is of frequent occurrence amongst the CrucifercB, 
CyperacecB, GraminacecB, and Juncacew, but is rarely noted in the other 
orders, and I know of only a single observation of it in the Verbascums, 
which is that of Verbascum phlomoides by M. Dunal.* 

The plant which furnished the monstrosity described in this article 
was extremely stunted. It was only about thirty centimetres (llj 
inches) in height, with a few very small leaves, in the axil of each of which 
was a well developed bud. 

On the upper part of the stem, in the axils of each of the leaves, was 
a short branch of from one to two centimetres in length, covered with trans- 
formed flowers. The latter were very much crowded, one of these little 
branches alone bearing more than fifty flowers. Each of these flowers was 
composed of a dozen green, lanceolate and almost linear leaflets. In the 
centre of some of them the leaflets were surrounded by rudimentary an- 
thers : in other instances the anthers were well formed, and borne on the 
summit of undilated filaments : but in every case the anthers were green, 
and without any trace of pollen. In the centre of the transformed flower 
I noted sometimes a rosette of five to eight leaflets, sometimes the rudi- 
ments of an ovary. 

The cause of the transformation which I have described is quite un- 
known to me : and on no part of the plant could I find any trace of the 
work of insects. 

* Considerations sur les fonctions des organes floraux colores et glanduleux, par 
M. F. Dunal. 4to. Paris, 1829. 



OBSKRVAXrONS. 



253 



A New mode of Preserving Slugs. — 
Most of the readers of " The Nat- 
uraUst/' at least that portion of them 
who study conchology, have, doubt- 
less, at some time or other wished 
that tliey could find some mode of 
satisfactorily preserving the various 
beautiful molluscs, familiarly called 
slugs, which form the genera Limax, 
Arion, Doris, ffiolis, and others. 
Some time ago I made some experi- 
ments with a view of attaining this 
desirable end. After trying spirit 
of various strengths, glycerine, pure 
and watered, creosote, and various 
other solutions, I hit, accidentally, on 
the following process which answers 
the purpose admirably. — Make a 
cold saturated solution of the Bi- 
chloride of ]\Iercury (corrosive subli- 
mate,) put it into a deep wide mouthed 
bottle. Then take the slug you 
wish to preserve and let it crawl on 
a long slip of card. When the ten- 
tacles are fully extended plunge it 
suddenly into the Bichloride Solu- 
tion ; in a few minutes it will die 
witli the tentacles fully extended in 
the most life-like manner ; so much 
so indeed that if taken out of the 
fluid it would be difficult to say 
whether it be alive or dead. The 
slugs thus prepared should not be 
mounted in spirit, as it is apt to 
contract and discolour them. A 
mixture of one-and-a-half parts of 
water and one part of glycerine I 



find to be the best mounting fluid ; 
it preserves the colour beautifully, 
and its antisepctic qualities arc 
unexceptional. A good sized test 
tube answers better than a bottle 
for putting them up, as it admits 
of closer examination of the animal. 
The only drawback to this process 
is, that unless the solution is of 
sufficient strength, and unless the 
tentacles are extruded when the 
animal is immersed, it generally 
but not invariably fails. Some 
slugs aj^pear to be more susceptible 
to the action of the fluid than 
others, and it generally answers 
better with full grown than with 
young specimens. But, if success- 
ful, the specimens are as satisfac- 
tory as could be desired ; and even 
if unsuccessful, they are a great deal 
better than those preserved in spirit : 
for although the tentacles may not 
be completely extruded they are 
always more or less so. — T. G. P. 



Field-Days ^'EAR Scarborough. 
No. III. 
Oct. 6th, 1804.— Our third field- 
day was in Harwood Dale. Wo 
ascended the course of the Jugger 
beyond Ravens' Ghyll, till we came 
nearly to the verge of Fylingdales 
Moor. This tract is on the Lower 
Oolite, but there are many indica- 
tions of the Cleveland ironstone, 
especially near to Ravens' GhylL 



354 



THE NATUEALIST. 



Our first object of interest was 
Carduus heterophjllus. This is a 
Montane species, growing abun- 
dantly among the Settle Hills. I 
have met with it also in Perthshire 
and the English Lake district. 
Baker mentions it as occurring in 
.the upper part of Newton-dale. 
The larva of LohopTwra hexapterata 
was beaten from willow. Sweet 
Gale was plentiful, and a Coleo- 
phora was feeding on it, that may 
prove new to Britain; though its 
case, it was remarked, has the 
aspect of that of a willow-feeder, 
viminetella ! Another case-bearer 
appeared on heath, whose shining 
black case has gained for it the 
name of Pyrrhulcejminella. The 
seeds of the whin were fed upon 
by Coleoplwra albicostella, and the 
downy ochreous case closely assi- 
milated it to the withered sepals 
of the plant. A Kingfisher, with 
its almost tropical plumage, darted 
by in the sunshine, alighting a 
little higher up the stream. I was 
glad to find it in this retired nook. 
A pretty silky willow (Salix repens) 
was trailing its pliant branches on 
the ground, and gave indications of 
seeding abundantly. Hieraclum sa- 
baiidum, one of the northern Hawk- 
weeds, supplied me with the woolly 
gall of a Cynips, formed on the stem. 
Linnseus, in his " Fauna Suecica," 
mentions similar galls on H. muro- 
rum. I am hoping it may eventually 



prove a discovery, and am carefully 
keeping the galls till next season. 
Near Ravens' Ghyll we met with 
the Club moss, {Lycopodium clava- 
turn,) whose lithe stems were creep- 
ing closely among the scant herb- 
age. The spores of this Lycopod 
are highly inflammable. An in- 
teresting case-bearer, (Coleoplwra 
VirgaurecB,) feeding on the seeds of 
the Goldenrod, was pointed out by 
our entomological friend. The larva 
was quite embedded among the 
seeds, and was very difficult to 
detect, as its case is clothed with 
the loose pappus of the seed. It 
was very abundant in the Dale. 
We noticed a flock of Redwings 
consorting together near the water- 
fall, at Ravens' Ghyll, and could not 
at first account for their keeping so 
tenaciously to the spot. Some 
fruiting plants of the Cowberry, 
fVaccinlum Vitis-Idcea,) soon ex- 
plained the matter. The birds 
were feasting on the berries after 
their long flight from Norway. We 
found this beautiful plant both in 
fruit and flower. Gentiana Amarellu, 
usually indicative of limestone soil, 
and Thymus SerpyUum were both 
noticed by us in Harwood Dale. 
We also saw Junipers in cultivation 
in the valley, which were said to 
have been transplanted from Fy- 
lingdales Moor. Thus finished our 
third field-day. — Peter Inchbald, 
Storthes Hall, December 1st, 1864. 



OBSERVATIONS. 



S55 



Captures near Selby. — Mr. William 
Bowers, of the Training College, 
York, a young but indefatigable 
entomologist, during last midsum- 
mer's vacation, collected in this neigh- 
bourhood amongst many others, 
several of the following larva3 — 
Ennomos Tlliaria, Dicranura furcula, 
D. bifida, D. vinula, Ptilodontis pal- 
pina, Notodonta camelina, N. dictaa, 
N. diomedarius, N. ziczac, Acronycta 
leporina, Liparis Salicis, and one A. 
aim. Mr. Bowers has taken splen- 
did images of Boarmia Eoboraria, 
N. trepida, and Stauropus fagi. — 
Richard Hebson, Bailby Bank, 
Selby, Nov. 21, 1864. 

P.S. In my communication of the 
1st instant, I committed an error by 
stating that the frost had completely 
destroyed the potatoe tubers, instead 
of the potatoe leaf, upon which A. 
atropos feeds. 



Plants Collected or Observed 
THIS Summer, on the Magnesian 
Limestone, in the neighrour- 
hood of pontefract. 

Agrimonia Eupatoria. Ledstone and 

Hillam. Common. 
Berber is vulgaris. Ledstone. 
Bryonia dioica. Abundant in hedges. 
Calamintha Clinopodium. Common. 
Campanula glomsrata. Common. 
CentaureaScabiosa. Common. Found 

one plant with white flowers. 



CheJidonium majus. Brotherlon. 
Highway hedges. 

Chlora perfoliata. Ledstone. Com- 
mon in somo pastures. 

Curnus sa)iguiiiea. Common. 

Daucus Carota. Burton Salmon, 
Birkin. Common. 

Echium vidgare. Near Ledstone. 
Not common. 

Erythraa Centaurium. Common. 
Found one white variety. 

Galium MoUugo, Common. 

Gentiana Amarella. Near Ledstone, 
Glass Houghton. Bather com- 
mon. 

G. campestris. Glass Houghton. 
Not so frequent as G. Amarella. 

Geranium pratense. Near Ledstone. 

Geu7n rivale. Burton Salmon, dit- 
ches. 

Humulus Liipulus. Birkin, Hillam, 
in hedges. 

Inula dysenterica. Burton Salmon. 
Rather common. 

Lythrum Salicaria. Common in 
drains. Found one specimen 
with broadly ovate leaves. 

Listera ovata. 

Lysimachia nummularia. Brotherton 
Marsh. One or two plants. 

Melilotus officinalis. Hillam. A few 
plants. 

Origanum vidgare. Common in old 
quarries. This plant is much 
sought after by herbalists. 

Parnassia palustris. Glass Hough- 
ton ; in disused quarry. Not 
very common. 



256 



THE NATURALIST. 



Petroselinum serjetum. Hillam ; in a 
grass field. 

Plantago major. Burton Salmon. 

Common. 
Itannnculus sceleratiis. Burton Sal- 
mon, Hillam. 

E. arvensis. Corn fields. Common. 

Fi. aquatlcus. Ditches. Common. 

Eeseda luteola. Brotherton, Castle- 
ford. Common. 

Pi. lutea. Castleford. Not so com- 
mon as a. luteola. 

PJiamnus catharticus. Castleford. 

Sagittaria sagittifolla. Aire side, 
Brotherton. Frequent. 

Sangulsorha officinalis ? Burton Sal- 
mon. One plant not in bloom. 

Scabiosa Columbaria. Glass Hough- 
ton ; a few plants in an old lime 
quarry; also at Hillam. 

Sanicula europcea. 

Scutellaria galericulata. Brotherton 
marsh ; ditch sides. A few 
plants. 

Slum latifallum. Burton Salmon. 
Frequent in ditches. 

S. angustifolium. Burton Salmon ; 
ditches. 

Spergula arvensis. Hillam. A few 
plants. 

Tamus communis. Abundant in 
hedges. 

Thymus Serpyllum. Common in old 
quarries and waste places 

Vihurnum Opulus. Common. 
During the summer I have made 

six tours on the limestone formation 

on which the villages above men- 



tioned are situate ; in my last 
journey, in August, I was accom- 
panied by Mr. J. Hep worth, a 
botanist of some experience, to 
whom I am indebted for assistance 
in determining some of the plants. 
— Geo. Roberts, Lofthouse, Wake- 
field. 



^^tljange, 



Le2ndo2)tera. — I have fine speci- 
mens of the following insects, and 
shall be glad to receive offers of 
exchange. — Sesia Bembeciformis, Nu- 
daria mundana, Liparis monacha, 
Cymatopiliora fluctuosa, Cymatophora 
flavicornis, Charmas graminis, Luperi- 
na cespitis, Mamestra PersicaricB, Apa- 
meaBasilinea, Agrotis tritici, Triphcena 
janthina, Trijjhwna fimbria, Triphmia 
orbona, Noctua Dahlii, Ortlwsia ypsi- 
lon, Euperia fulvago, Dasypolia tempi i, 
Agriopis aprilinaf Hadena ptrotea, 
Abrostola triplasia, Plusia chrysitis, 
Amphipyra pyramidea, Cleora lichen - 
aria, Abraxas grossulariata, very fine, 
Melanippe tristata, Phibalapteryx lig- 
nata, Hypena crassalis. As all my 
insects are in fine condition, I shall 
expect the same in return. Those 
not hearing from me in fourteen 
days may conclude their offers are 

not accepted. James Varley, 

Almondbury Bank, Huddersfield, 
December 5th, 18G4. 



S57 



NOTES ON BRITISH BIRDS. 



By the Rev. George Jeans. 



^Communicated hy the Rev. F. 0, Morris.) 



OsPEET.— For two summers after I shot the one I spoke to you of, 
I saw one haunting the same part of the Solent, though never near the 
land ; and once after it had disappeared from the reach of the naked eye 
by mounting up in its beautiful spirals, I succeeded in catching sight of it 
with a telescope and watching it floating aloft for a considerable time. 
They were said to build at the west end of the Isle of Wight, near the 
Needles. 

Buzzard. — When I was a schoolboy, and carried a gun, a Buzzard 
chose for his watch-tower a dead limb of a tree, not far from Egham 
Church. The tree was conveniently placed for his purposes though so 
near the town, for as it stood alone in a hedge in the field it commanded 
a sufficient view around for security and for prog. And eager as I was for 
him, and although he continued to frequent the spot for the greater part of 
my holidays, he never gave me a chance of a shot at him. 

Hen Harrier. — A female was shot here at Bilsby, by the Rev. C. 
Mason, which is preserved. 

Kite. — When I was a boy at Winchester College, Kites were almost 
always within sight of our "meads" (playground), and one was caught in a 
trap and kept tame. Now I am told they have not been seen even on the 
downs about there for some years. 

Peregrine Falcon. — One was shot at Sutton here, by my pupil, F. 
J. Alder, in 1857. 

Merlin. — When standing on the rocks at the Lands End, in Cornwall, 
one dashed past me, flew a little way out over the Atlantic and returned 
again, passing me within shot. About the year 1834, I shot at and missed 
one when standing on the same stage (in Stokes Bay, Hampshire,) on 
which I shot the Osprey some years before. 

Marsh Harrier.— In 1851 or 1852 I went to the Blow Well Holt, at 
Tetney, Lincolnshire, to procure Wood pigeons, one evening about harvest 
time. A young Ringdove flew out of a tree almost within reach of the 
No. 17, Jan. 1. S 



258 * THE NATURALIST. 

end of my gun, and I killed it. At that moment a Marsh harrier, which 
apparently had been watching it within a few feet, flew out and I had not 
a second barrel. It did not pick up the game but kept for some days 
about the place. But though I took much pains I never got a second 
oj^portunity. 

Sparrowhawk. — A labourer named George Peart, at Tetney, told me 
in 1839 that about three years before he had seen in the lane in Coven- 
ham, when walking to Louth, a " sparrowhawk " (I suspect it must have 
been a kestrel) pick up a weasel and mount nearly out of sight. Presently 
they came down together in the field near and he went up to them ; the 
hawk was dead and he brought it home, the weasel ran away. Mr. Tay- 
lor, also of Tetney, told me that in 1844, when he was riding in Holton, 
(near Swinhope,) he saw a similar occurrence, only that in that case the 
weasel dragged the hawk into the hedge. 

Shorteared Owl. — Frequents the marsh in North Cotes, near Tet- 
ney ; I have known five killed there, two of which I shot myself and might 
have shot many more. But once when snipe shooting one rose close to 
my feet, and as I did not shoot at it seemed quite unconcerned, and 
presently another joined it, and they gave me an hour's exquisite pleasure 
in watching their fine evolutions, and their contemptuous treatment of two 
carrion crows that endeavoured to mob one of them, until one of the crows 
nearly paid for his temerity with his life. The crows then left them in 
undisturbed possession of the sky, and afterwards I could never have 
injured a shorteared owl. Their flight, I think, is finer and more self-confi- 
dent than that of any the Falconidse of their size ; and daylight is no more 
inconvenience to them than to a hawk. 

Eagle Owl. — One was taken alive in Norfolk, in 1853, and brought 
to my brother-in-law, the Rev. J. Bramhall. It was purchased by the 
Rev. C. W. Bagot, of Castle Rising, where I saw it dining on a rook. 

Great Shrike. — Common at times near both Tetney and Alford. 
There was a hedge between Tetney and Thoresby where I often saw them in 
the spring. The Rev. J. Allott, of Maltby, has three stufi'ed, which he killed 
there. 

Redbacked Shrike. — Also found at Tetney and near Alford. I 
have seen them in the former place ; and a nest was taken here last year, 
of which Mr. W. Mason, of Rigsby, has the eggs. Common in Surrey. A 
pair used to build in my father's premises, at Egham, and as a boy I have 
shot many on Co op en Hill. 



JEANS ON BRITISH BIRDS. 259 

Hooks. — Can and do work on moonlight nights in nesting time. So do 
Carrion crows, but they do not caw near their nests. Indeed it is difficult 
to perceive whether a crow's nest is inhabited. I had one in ray garden 
(1847) and another within 100 yards of it, and yet I rarely saw or heard 
any of the parents near either, though they had young. I once saw a rook 
flying about with two white feathers in his tail. This I believe is not 
uncommon. But Mr. W. Mason, of Eigsby, shot one all of a brown 
colour, *' like a sparrow," as he expressed it. 

Maqpte. — Hawks at small birds. One nearly caught a pied wagtail 
by repeated stoops, after the manner of a falcon, over my garden at Tet- 
ney. The quarry eventually escaped but was nearly dead with fear, and 
probably my presence saved it. Magpies build several nests before they 
are suited. 

Blue Tit. — October 10th, 1839, I found a nest of newly fledged 
birds, in the Blow Well Holt, Tetney, 

Waxwing. — A flock passed over my house at Tetney, close to me, in 
the winter of about 1852. Two of them were shot the same day by the 
Rev. W. Johnson, of Grainsby. The Rev. J. Allott, of Maltby, has killed 
them there, and has two preserved. One was killed near here also by a 
carpenter, and is stuffed. 

Wryneck. — Heard and saw one at Yarburgh, near Louth, June 5 th, 
1840. Heard one in my own garden, at Tetney, May 7th, 1844. Heard 
one at Waltham, about the same time as the above. Heard one near 
my own garden, at Alford, 1861, when my gardener (formerly a game- 
keeper) heard it too. 

Creeper. — Frequents my garden, at Alford, and is often seen in the 
depth of winter. 

Great Spotted Woodpecker. — I once chased one for a whole day 
along the banks of the Thames, near Chertsey, in Surrey, but could not 
get a shot. 

CucKoo.^ — May 23rd, 1847. Cuckoo very loquacious near the house 
for a long time, at 2-30 a.m. ; moonlight. 

Swallow. — George Alington, Esq., caught a pike in a pond, at 
Humberstone, in 1836 ; in the stomach of which were the feathers of a 
swallow, which it had doubtless seized as it bathed on the wing. 

Martin.— November 11th, 1838, and October 30th, 1839. A house 
martin was on each occasion hawking briskly after flies in the same place 
in Humberstone. In 1860, at the beginning of November, there were 
five flying about my garden, at Alford, 



260 THE NATUEALIST. 

Swift. — One was flying round my house, at Tetney, for hours in the 
afternoon of September 20tb, 1839. On November 24th, I found it dead 
in the ringing room of the church tower. It was an old bird, and, as I 
then judged, a female. 

Sky Lark. — Pitches on hedges in March and April. This is mostly 
after descending from high and more commonly after a short descent, 
and, as far as I can judge, only before nesting has commenced. The bird 
is usually excited when it does so and will permit a near approach, and 
then flies away in a horizontal line and in an unusual mode of flight, by 
a continued vibration of wing. But it is so frequent a thing at that 
season that I am surprised it has been so little noticed. 

Tbee Pipit. — Breeds in this parish, at Rigsby. 

Snow Bunting. — I shot one at Egham, when a boy, when it was 
called " a white lark." I have shot several at Tetney, where flocks of 
them are seen most winters. They fly in a ball, and wheel round more 
rapidly and more compacted into a dense mass than any bird I know. 

Blackheaded Bunting. — Very common at Tetney, where they breed 
in numbers around the Blow Wells, and in the autumn and early winter 
are sometimes seen in very large flocks. Occasionally not one is to be seen 
for months, but they are sure to return to breed. 

Oetolan Bunting. — This morning, May 9th, I have been watching 

a pair of Ortolan buntings, on the lawn, for half-an-hour. My boy wanted 

me to shoot one, and could I have killed both I might have done so, but 

I could only have killed one. They have evidently a nest in the 

neighbourhood. 

(To he continued.) 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF HIGH WYCOMBE, BUCKS. 



By Henry Ullyett. 



The number of species taken in this neighbourhood during the last 
two or three years is thirty-three : this, I think, bears a fair proportion 
to the total number of British species. There are not many very great 
rarities to be caught, but among the " good things " Argynnis paphia is 
plentiful. X suspect too that A. aglaja and A. adippe haunt our heath. A 
friend of mine caught what he said was A. aglaja, but unfortunately it 
escaped from the net. The beautiful A. selene is plentiful on Wycombe 



BRITTEN ON SPONTANEOUS EXOTICS. 



961 



Heath, but in no other locality in the neighbourhood. Out of the seven 
species of " Skippers " that we possess in this country, I have taken five 
this year, all in one spot. Hybernatecl specimens of V. cardui were rather 
plentiful in 1862, but none have been seen since. Of the " Blues " we 
find four species, and they may all be taken on the same hill as the 
'' Skippers." All the following species have been taken by myself 
except Edusa and PohjcJdoros, which only visited Wycombe three or four 
years ago. I have seen the specimens that were then caught. I append 
a list, ommitting only those species that are '' common everywhere." 
Goncpteryx rhamni. Common. 
Colias edusa. Taken three or four 

years ago. 
Argynnis pajyhia. Head quarters at 

Winch Bottom. 
J . Euphrosyne. Dean Garden Wood. 
A. selene. Taken this year on Wy- 
combe Heath. 
F. polychloros. Taken three or four 

years ago, when the larvae were 

plentiful. 
F. Atalanta. Dean Garden Wood, 

&c. Bather rare. 
F. cardui. I took a hybernated 

specimen in May, 18C2, near 

Keep Hill. 
Arge Galathea. Whittington Park 



and Dean Garden Wood, this 

year for the first time. 
S. tithonus. Very plentiful in Dean 

Garden Wood and Hollow Lane. 
S. hyperanthus. Do. 

Thecla rubi. Keep Hill. Plentiful. 
Lycwna agestis. Keep Hill. 
L. corydon. Do. 

L. argiolus. Do. 

Nemeobius lucina. Dean Garden 

Wood. 
Syrlcthus alveolus. Keep Hill. Very 

abundant. 
Thanaos Tages. Do. 

Hesperia comma. Do. 
H. sylvanus. Do. 

H. linea. Keep Hill. 



SPONTANEOUS EXOTICS. 



By James Bettten. 



I Continued from page 234.] 
Order XII. CARTOPHYLLACEiE. 

Dianthus barbatus, L. This well-known garden flower has been found 
in several places where it does not appear to have been planted. In 
Surrey, it occurred " in furze bushes on the bank, at the Wandsworth or 
eastern end of a lateral cutting, on the line of the London and South 



THE NATITRALIST. 

Western Kailway, through Wandsworth Coramon, opposite to the county 
jail, and between two bridges which cross the railway." {Phyt. i., 404, 
N.S.) This notice of it appeared in 1856; and the plant has failed to 
hold its ground in this locality. In Somersetshire, it was found " on a 
limestone wall, at King's Weston, near Bristol," by Dr. Stokes, (B.G. ii., 
401J : and in Yorkshire, on a " marlbank, in Studley woods," by Mr. 
Brunton, (B.Q. ii., 690) : in this county it has been more recently noticed 
" in the grounds by the Wharfe side, above Thorp Arch," but only where 
it has been planted. {North Yorkshire, 208.) In Scotland, it appears to 
have occurred in two or three places near Edinburgh ; " Rosslyn Wood ; 
banks of the Water of Leith, between Coltbridge and Saughton-hall ; 
Colinton Woods, near Maleny ; " are quoted as localities for it, in New 
Botanists' Guide, 440. In a MS. Flora of Eenfrewshire, by Mr. Montgo- 
mery, it is mentioned as growing on the " old castle of Elliestoun, 
naturalised." {Cyb. i., 191.) A native of Germany, &c. 

Gypsophila Vaccaria, Sm. Sapotiaria, L. An ornamental plant, cul- 
tivated occasionally in gardens, and not unfrequently introduced with flax 
seed. The earliest record of its occurrence appears to be that given in 
Cowell's Floral Guide to East Kent, where it is stated to have been "found 
by Mr. Francis, east of the Pier, Heme Bay," in 1832 ; in the same 
county it was noticed in July, 1864, '' in a field of vetches, between the 
towns of East Mailing and West, or Town Mailing, a little south of the 
direct line joining these two places." Here several plants were noticed, 
and it may, perhaps, hold its ground for a year or two. See Botanists' 
Chronicle, p. 85. In Surrey, it appeared "plentiful for several years," 
about Wandsworth and Battersea, (Phyt. Hi., 340, N.S.) ; though it has 
not been observed in that neighbourhood recently : in Cyh. z. 196, it is 
stated to have occurred in Berkshire, though no locality is given for it in 
that county. In Hertfordshire, it " appeared under the same circumstan- 
ces with Erysimum orientale (on a newly-repaired towing-path, near Ware 
Mill) in 1841, and was observed plentiful in a field above Ware, by Mr. J. 
Ansell, in 1845," Flora Hertfordiensis, 41 : and, with reference to its 
occurrence in Middlesex, the Kev. W. M. Hind writes : — " In 1862, a 
single plant was found at the chalkpits. Pinner, I left the root, and a 
large portion of the plant, in hopes of it producing seed ; but no plants 
have been since found." In Lancashire, it was seen, in 1863, by Mr. 
Buxton, "on a rubbish-heap, about four miles from Southport," (Dr. 
Windsor, in Phyt. vi., 419, N.S.) : and in Yorkshire, " a few plants were 



• BRITTEN ON SPONTANEOUS EXOTICS. 263 

found in a cultivated field, near Scarborough," by Mr. William Bean, 
fSup2Jlement to the Flora of Yorkshire, 50. It is recorded from Scotland 
but once, from *' a field of flax, in the parish of Alves, Morayshire, in 
July, 1842," where it was observed by Mr. Wilson, of that place; J. B. 
Brichan, in Phyt. i. 553, O.S. : and it does not appear to have occurred in 
Ireland. It does not seem probable that this plant will permanently 
establish itself in this country ; at present it is but " a casual straggler, 
introduced with clover seed, flax, or otherwise." Cyb. i., 196. A native 
of the South of Europe. 

Silene catholica. Ait. " Was found in the village of Great Livermere, 
near Bury St. Edmund's, Suffolk. The collector must enter the park 
from the village above-named, by the park-gates, or obtain permission 
from the gate-keeper to pass through the lodge on the left hand, and then 
proceed a short distance southward, amongst the trees separating the 
park from the grounds of the parsonage house, where its habitat may be 
found with no difliculty." George Wolsey, in Phyt. ii., 220, N.S. A 
native of Italy, 

S. Armeria, L. A common garden plant which has occurred in a 
semi-naturalised state in many localities in England. It was first recorded 
by Dr. Kichardson, who found it " on the banks of the river, half-a-mile 
below Chester ; " B. Syn. ilL, 341 : since which time it has appeared in 
many of the English counties. In Kent, it occurred in 1843-4, ''on a very 
wild station near the Medway, towards Yalding, far from house or garden ; " 
Edward Edwards, in Phyt i., 1080, O.S. In Surrey, it has been observed 
"in a cornfield, at Weybridge;" by Mr, Borrer, (B.G., ii., 584,) on the 
waste ground at Wandsworth Steamboat Pier, (Phyt. Hi., 335, N.S.J ; and 
"occasionally on old walls about Reigate, but escaped from gardens, 
and very uncertain in its appearance." Flora of Surrey, 309. In Hert- 
fordshire, it grows *' on the old privj garden wall, at Hatfield, opposite 
the church ; " Flora Hertfordiensis, 72 : and in Essex it is recorded from 
two or three places ; having been found at *' Walden and Newport," by G. 
S. Gibson : and " between Colchester and Berechurch," by the Eev. W. 
L. P. Garnons, Flora of Essex, 45. In Devonshire, the Rev. T. F. 
Ravenshaw noticed it '* near Stover " ; {Flowering Plants and Ferns of 
Devonshire, 11) : and it has occurred in Jersey, " in a lane near La 
Haule ; " M. Piquet, in Phyt. iv., 1093, O.S. " The Yorkshire Flora indi- 
cates it to have been found below Settle," (Cyh i., 201) ; and, in the 
Supplement to that work, it is said by Mr. Simpson, to be " naturaUsed 



204 THE NATURALIST. 

plentifully on the embankment of the Northern Counties Union Eailway, 
near Bedale," (p. 50) : Mr. Baker also records it from Thirsk, &c., (North 
Yorkshire, 909) : and I have seen a specimen collected by Mr. Ibbotson, 
in a sandy field, near York, where it was gathered in 1863. There can, 
however, be little doubt that in many of the above localities it is a garden 
escape, which will fail to retain its hold for long in any one spot. It is 
not recorded from Scotland or Ireland. A native of the South of Europe. 

>S'. rubella, D.C. I found a plant of this in 1864, on some sandy waste 
ground, on Wandsworth Common, Surrey, not in the immediate vicinity 
of houses. A native of Portugal, 

Lychnis Coronaria, L. I observed some roots of this common garden 
plant on waste ground, at the commencement of Putney Heath, Surrey, in 
1863. " A few examples " were observed in September last, " on or very 
near the summit " of a rock, near Quatford, Bridgnorth, Shropshire. See 
Botanists Chronicle, p. 103. A native of Italy. 

Arenaria fastigiata, Sm. " On the rocks on the mountains of Angus- 
shire and Fifeshire, Mr. G. Don." Cyh. i., 290. " Erroneously recorded, 
or subsequently extinct in Britain." 

A. halearica, L. " Grew on the north wall of the tool or fruit-house at 
Moncrieffe House, Perth, in June, 1859. There was only one patch of it, 
about a foot in diameter." John Sim, in Phyt. v., 39, N.S. Its appear- 
ance in this locality gave rise to much discussion among certain botanists, 
as may be seen from the work referred to. Mr. Sim has recently informed 
me that the wall on which the plant grew has been thrown do\vn, so that 
it has probably disappeared from the neighbourhood. " Grows now [1861] 
on several walls and garden buildings on the estate of the Earl of Ilches- 
ter, Abbotsbury, Dorset. It has been observed there for several years." 
W. Pamplin, in Phyt. v., 197. N.S. In this locality the plant appears to be 
permanent. No clue has been obtained as to its introduction. A native 
of Majorca, &c. 

Stellaria scapigera, Willd. " By the sides of rivulets on the Scottish 
mountains. In Perthshire, and Loch Nevis, Invernesshire." Mr. G. 
Don. Eng. Flora, ii., 304. This plant, which is " said to have been 
found by Don by the sides of rivulets between Dalwhinnie Inn and the 
old Kirk of Laggan, Perthshire, is ajjparently a monstrosity of S. graminea, 
and probably from Don's garden ; some plant he met with being mistaken 
by him for the same as the one he had in cultivation." English Botany, 
ed. 3, a., 99. 



BRITTEN ON SPONTANEOUS EXOTICS. 265 

Buffonia tcnuifolia, L. " Said to have been formerly found on Houn- 
slow Heath, and about Boston in Lincolnshire. It was unsuccessfully 
sought in the latter place by Sir Joseph Banks, who thought that Bwpleu- 
rum tenuissimum had been mistaken for it. Perhaps Moenchia crecta was 
thus mistaken on Hounslow Heath." Cyh. i. 223. 

Cucuhalus baccifcr, L. ** Gathered in hedges in Anglesea," and com- 
municated to Dr. Richardson by D. Fowlkes. R. Syn. Hi, 267. " Bev. H. 
Davies never found it." B. G. i., 4. *' In the margin of my coj^y of 
Jxay's Synopsis against G. PUnii (C. bacciferj, a former possessor of the 
book has written, as a habitat ' Springfield, Essex,' " H. O. Stephens, in 
Phyt. i., 295. O.S. There can be little doubt that, in each of these cases, 
some error must have occurred, but the plant certainly grew in the Isle of 
Dogs, though it may now have disappeared thence. ** The locality in the 
Isle of Dogs is on the banks of the ditch on the left hand of the road from 
Blackwall to the Ferry House, and there, if not truly wild, it is at least 
perfectly naturalised," Geo. Luxford, in Phyt. i., 255. O.S. It existed 
here as recently as 1852, when it was gathered by Mr. Thomas Westcombe, 
of Worcester, who " found the plant growing in considerable abundance in 
the old station, and thought there was no probability of its becoming 
exterminated." Phyt. iv„ 609. O.S. Are there any grounds for suppos- 
ing that the plant was here introduced ? or is it not rather a genuine 
British species ? I shall be glad to learn whether it has been more 
recently observed in the Isle of Dogs. 

Order XIV.— Malvaceae. 

Malva Alcea, L. " Frequent on the borders of fields, &c.'" B. Syn. 
Hi., 452. *' In the counties of Warwick, Leicester, and Nottingham." 
Flora Anglica. There can be no doubt that the plant here intended by this 
name is only M. moschata ; the true ill . alcea not having been found in 
England, though it is a species not unlikely to occur. A native of 

M. jnisilla, E. B. M. horealis, Wallm. " Said [by Hudson] to have 
been found at Hythe in Kent, which requires confirmation. Whether this 
is truly the species intended by Bay (and by Hudson under the name of 
M. parviflora) may be still uncertain. It has also been reported to me from 
Glamorganshire." Cijb. i., 240. *' Specimens gathered in Pembroke- 
shire." With. Arr. Hi., 599. 

M. Nicceensis, All. " Some few specimens of this species were foimd 
by Mr. Thomas Moore in * Battersea Fields, on the embankment opposite 



Q6 6 



THE NATURALIST. 



the Chelsea Botanic Gardens.' " Cyh. Hi., 399. '* Battersea and Wands- 
worth " {H.B.P. 745) ; it has not frequently occurred in this neighbour- 
hood. A native of Italy. 

M. parvlflora, L. Is recorded " from a heap of manure near North 
Sandwich, Kent," by Mr. J. T. B. Syme, in the Beport of the Tliirsk 
Botanical Exchange Club for 1863, p. 10. A native of Barbary. 

M. verticillata, L. *' Near Llanelly, South Wales {Bab. Man. ed. v. p. 
56) /where it appears to be completely naturalised. " When I first ob* 
served it, there were many hundreds of specimens scattered over three 
fields, though most abundant in one : last autumn we could only obtain 
five specimens, but this year [1847] it has appeared again in considerable 
abundance. I have procured about a hundred specimens, besides leaving 
quite as many, being anxious that the plant should not be exterminated. 
I have found several specimens in an old quarry adjoining the field." 
James Motley, in Phyt. ii., 973. O.S. No clue has as 3'et been obtained as 
to its introduction to this locality. A native of China. 

M. crispa, D.O. Is stated in Irvine's London Flora, p. 304, to be 
" apparently naturalised," but no locality is given. It has occurred in 
Essex, where it " was found Sept., 1799, near Low Leyton, and drawn for 
Eng. Bot., but not published, because it had no claim to be considered a 
a native plant." Floj-a of Essex, p. 53. " In the field at Llanelly, with 
M. verticillata." |G. S. Gibson, in Phyt. ii., 935. O.S. It is occasionally 
cultivated for culinary purposes : and may be but a form of the last-named 
species. A native of Syria. 

M. ambigua, Guss. M. microcarpa, Kehb. ? These two are reported 
by Mr. Irvine from the Wandsworth steamboat pier, in H.B.P. , 745, the 
latter doubtfully. Both are natives of Europe. 

{To be continued.) 



Accrington Naturalists' Society. — 
The monthly meeting of this society 
took place on Saturday evening, 
Nov. 12th, the president, Mr. Wil- 
liam Naylor, in the chair. After the 
usual routine of ordinary business, 



the president exhibited an extensive 
series of coleopterous insects, col- 
lected by him principally at Lytham 
and Whalley, a few of which are 
here noticed : Pyrochora rubeus, Hi- 
piphorus paradoxus, Cleonus sulciros- 
tris, Otiorhynchiis picipes, O. rugifrons, 
Strangalia melanura, Saperda popid- 



OBSERVATIONS. 



967 



nea, Timarcha Icevigata, Coccinella 
11-punctata, C. mutahilis, Lathrobium 
filiforme, L. longulum, Silpha thora- 
cica, Gryjndlus equiseti, Geoirupes ster- 
corarius, var. puncticolUs, Phyllobms 
Pyri, P. Alneti, Nehria Gyllenliali'i, 
N. brevicollis, Erirhinus acridulus, 
Pterostichus stremms, jEgialia globosa, 
Gastrophysa PiapUani, Athoiis hcumorr- 
hoidalis, A. vittatus, Sphceroderma 
Cardui, Trichoderma pubescens, Lyctus 
brunneus, Aplon Carduorum,Hydropo- 
rus xantliopus, Colymbetes notatus, and 
Agabus clialconotus. Mr. Alexander 
Allan exhibited a number of marine 
shells, chiefly from Tenby, some of 
which he kindly distributed amongst 
the members. We noticed Modiola 
tulipa, M. modiolus, Saxicava rugosa, 
and Venus fasciata. Mr. John Bird 
exhibited an excellent collection of 
Land and Freshwater Shells, num- 
bering upwards of seventy species, 
mostly collected in the neighbour- 
hood of Accrington. Many more 
iuteresting specimens were placed 
upon the table. — K. Wigglesworth, 
Hon. Sec, 26, Maudsley Street, 
Accrington. 



J^est of the Hawfinch, near London. 
— I have in my collection a nest of 
the Hawfinch, [Coccothraustes vulga- 
ris, containing four eggs, which was 
taken in Highgate wood, last May. 



Is it not somewhat extraordinary 
that so shy and rather uncommon 
a bird as the Hawfinch is repre- 
sented to be, should choose for the 
place of its nidification a situation 
so close to London as the above lo- 
cality? — Edward Stone, 9, Cathcart 
Hill, Junction Road, Upper Hollo- 
way, December 1st, 1804. 

The Great Grey Shrike, in York- 
shire. — It is almost with regret I 
have to announce the capture of two 
birds of this species, [Lanius excubi- 
tor.) I say regret, because were our 
rarer birds spared and encouraged 
to visit us, or remain with us, we 
should have opportunities of study- 
ing their economy at home, without 
the expense and inconvenience of 
travelling to countries where they 
abound in greater numbers. But, 
unfortunately, few of these birds 
are permitted to return to their 
native haunts ; were they allowed 
to do so they would assuredly come 
again to us, and bring Companions 
with them. One of the specimens 
above mentioned was shot at Brook 
Royd Mills, Stainland, near Halifax, 
about the 1st of November ; the 
other was shot by a Mr. Jagger, on 
the 9th of November, at Whitwood, 
near Wakefield. They were brought 
in the flesh, for preservation, to Mr. 
Geo. Lumb, Kirkgate, Wakefield. 
Both are adult birds in fine plu- 
mage. G. Roberts, Lofthouse, 

Wakefield. 



268 



THE NATURALIST. 



Occurrence of tJie Lesser Spotted 
Woodpecker in the Neighbourhood of 
Lo7idon. — I have the pleasure of 
recording that on the lOth Dec. 
a beautiful female of the Lesser 
Spotted Woodpecker [Picus minor) 
was shot at Cookham, and on the 
26th of Dec. I shot four male 
specimens of Fringilla montium. — 
K. B. Sharpe, 186, Strand, Lon- 
don, Dec. 1864. 



Three Days at Sherwood Forest. — 
In the early part of August last, I 
spent three days in the old Forest 
of Sherwood, which is noted for the 
many rare and local Lepidoptera 
that may be taken in it. At Work- 
sop I met a brother Entomologist, 
from Sheffield, Mr. Hides ; and we 
proceeded together on our way to 01- 
lerton, where we noticed many larvae 
and pupse of that common beetle 
Coccinella 1-punctata, on the tele- 
graph posts, and we found the forest 
swarming with them. We com- 
menced work in good earnest by 
pupa digging, and were soon repaid 
by turning up Notodonta dodon a, 
Hadena protea, and Agriopls aprilina. 
In the evening we commenced 
sugaring, and found a beautiful 
specimen of Acronycta leporina, on 
the trunk of a tree. We sugared 
the long ride, and our eyes were 
soon gladdened by the sight of 
swarms of insects, in many cases 
literally covering the part of the 



tree on which the sugar was spread. 
Our first night's captures, omit- 
ting of course the commoner in- 
sects, some of which appeared 
by hundreds, included TriphcBua 
janthina. six ; T. fimbria, eight ; T. 
intcrjecta, one ; T. orbona, seven ; 
Noctiia rhomhoidea, one ; N. Dahliif 
twenty ; Eujwria fulvago, eighteen ; 
Amphipyra trago]yogonis, six. As we 
returned to our lodgings we collected 
the following insects on the flowers 
of the Ragwort : Hydrcecia nictitans, 
twelve ; li. micacea, four ; Heliopho- 
bus popularis, one ; Cerigo cytherea, 
one ; Agrotis tritici, six. We arrived 
at the " Old Jug and Glass," 
highly gratified with the result 
of our day's work. Next day 
the party was increased to seven, 
by the arrival of Mr. Hicks, 
from Sheffield, and some friends. 
We commenced beating for larvae, 
and ere long had boxed two fine 
specimens of Stauropus fagi, and 
several Notodonta dodoncea, Orgyia 
pudibunda, and Epityra punctaria ; 
commoner species were abundant. 
We also took two fine images of 
Crocallis elinguaria and one of En- 
nomos erosaria, besides one of the 
latter in the pupa state. In the 
evening we were again successful 
at sugar, taking, in addition to our 
last evening's captures, Boarmia 
repandata, and Melanthia ocellata; 
we also took Luperina cespitis, and 
Crambus latistriellus, on the Ragwort 



OBSERVATIONS. 



2(59 



flowers. On the following morning 
we were uj) betimes, and started out 
to collect Charaas graminis, and fine 
sport we had, for they were flying 
by hundreds from eight to nine 
o'clock. After breakfast I started 
on my return journey, taking a few 
things on the way, among which I 
may mention Liparis aurijiua, which 
had just emerged from the pupa 
state. — Jas. Varley, Almondbury 
Bank, Huddersfield, Nov. 1864. 

Entomological Notes from Sherwood 
Forest.— On the 20th of August, I 
started, in company with Mr. Lumb, 
for Sherwood Forest, at which place 
we arrived about eight o'clock the 
same evening, just in time to lay on 
our sugar, a stock of which we had 
brought with us. The night was 
cold and scarcely suitable for the 
purpose, however we obtained one 
Euperia fulvago, ten Noctua Dahlil, 
and a few good specimens of Amjyhi- 
pyra pyramidea. On the Monday 
we set to work pupa digging, ob- 
taining nearly 150, all of which, 
with the exception of five Notodonta 
dodoncea, proved to be Agriopis apri- 
lina. In the evening we sugared 
and took seven E. fulvago, two C. 
diluta, and a few of N. Dahlli. 
Tuesday — Tried beating, but with- 
out success; finding digging a much 
more profitable occupation we pul- 
led out our trowels and succeeded 
in taking about 170 pup£e, including 
three specimens of N. dodoncca. At 



dusk we again sugared, but the 
night being frosty, we boxed but six 
insects, viz. : one E. ftdvago, three 
N. Dahlii, one C. diluta, and one T. 
janthina. Wednesday — This morn- 
ing the cold was so intense that 
our lamp oil was frozen in the 
bottle. After breakfast we dug 
seventy puptc, thirteen of which 
were N. dodoncea ; unfortunately ten 
of these were ichneumoned. We 
sugared at night, but a cold north 
wind blew in strong gusts, and we 
took literally nothing. Thursday — 
Dug IGO pupte, nearly all A. aprilina. 
In the evening we sugared the trees, 
boxing three E. fulvago, eighteen A''. 
Dahlii, six N. glareosa, one H. protea, 
and a worn specimen of P. chi, the 
first we had observed at sugar. A 
beautiful specimen of Lvperina ces- 
pitis was taken flying : the flowers 
of the Eagwort yielded worn speci- 
mens of A. tritici and H. ?nicacea. 
Friday — We spent the day in pupa 
digging, and succeded in turning 
up upwards of 240, ch'ieily A. aprilina, 
The sugar yielded us eight iV. Dahlii, 
six N. glareosa, two C. diluta, and 
one X. cerago. Saturday — Noticed 
large flocks of Lapwings, liinnets, 
and Goldfinches. After breakfast 
we again tried beating, but, as be- 
fore, we obtained nothing worthy of 
note, so we returned to our old 
employment of digging, which, after 
several hours of hard work, pro- 
duced us 225 pupre. During the 



HlfO 



THE NATUBALIST. 



day tlie wind changed from N. to 
S.W., and the night being warm we 
determined to see what our sugar 
would produce ; this we accom- 
plished in a very short time, and 
the results shewed better success 
than on any previous evening ; the 
following insects being boxed : — 
twenty E.fulvago, twenty IV. Dalilii, 
one C. diluta, four N. glareosa, and 
several commoner species. On 
coming away from our sugaring 
ground we saw L. cespitis flying in 
all directions, but they flew so fast 
that it was with great difficulty that 
we succeeded in capturing five spe- 
cimens. On dividing our spoil we 
found that the week's work had 
yielded us nearly 1000 pupae, — 
most of which were A. aprilina; 
we may therefore expect to obtain 
some good and interesting varie- 
ties, — together with a large number 
of perfect insects taken at sugar. 
This being our last day we started 
for home early next morning, much 
pleased with our journey. — B. Gib- 
son, Wakefield, December, 1804. 



Field-Day near York. 
No. IV. 
Oct. 7th, 1864.— Our last field- 
day was spent on Strensall Common 
and Stockton Forest, about six miles 
from York. The soil is principally 
sandy : plantations of fir and alder 
occasionally vary the desolate tract 
of uncultivated heather-land. 



By the side of the York and 
Scarborough line we found a profu- 
sion of a somewhat local willow, 
(Salix repens,) which was feeding in 
plenty Lithocolletis quinquegnttella. 
The larva puckers the underside of 
the silky leaves, contracting them 
towards the mid-rib, so as to give 
the leaf a somewhat curled appear- 
ance. This willow, we learn from 
Baker, is extremely abundant on 
the sandhills of the coast of Lan- 
cashire. (The pretty little thorn- 
clad Genista angllca was eaten by a 
Coleophora named Oenistce. It is 
particularly partial, I am told, to 
this species : the traces of its feed- 
ing are readily observed on the 
leaves of the plant. We obtained 
the yellowish-white cases in some 
quantity, and the tenants had at- 
tained various stages of growth. 
Two of the Button-moths, (Peronea 
hastiana and P. cristana,) were on 
the wing on Strensall Common. 
The pretty larva of Clostera recliisa, 
which was also feeding on the Dwarf 
Willow, was being sucked by a large 
Hemipteron, which has the name of 
Picromerus hidens. We saw several 
empty skins of this caterpillar du- 
ring our rambles, nor is its enemy 
very particular as to its diet, as it 
will attack the hairy caterpillars as 
well as the smooth ones ! The 
Dwarf Willow off'ered us also the 
galls of some Cecidomyia, that may 
prove distinct from any with which 



OBSERVATIONS. 



271 



I am acquainted at present. We 
noticed a Haltica beetle on the 
plant, that had quite disfigured the 
foliage by its depredations. Cemio- 
stoma scltella, that general lover of 
the Pomacese, was blotching the 
Crab-tree leaves, as it did the rare 
Cotoneaster, at Llandudno, years 
ago. The beautiful Calathian Vio- 
let, (Gentiana Pneumonanthe,) so 
common on Stockton Forest, with 
its fine large azure-blue corolla, 
was nearly over : I was glad, how- 
ever, to make acquaintance with its 
capsules. Gentiana Amarella was in 
full flower. Nepticula luteella was 
busy making its long contorted gal- 
leries in Birch leaves. A fine Saw- 
fly larva, which has since made up, 
was feeding on Alder. It will, 
doubtless, show itself in May, and 
prove to be the Tenthredo lucoru7n, 
of Linnaeus. The Ononis, common 
to the sandy ground of Stockton 
Forest, is 0. antiquorum, as its 
thorny branches abundantly declare. 
Nepticula glutinosce was mining in 
the leaves of the Alder; but our best 
discovery was LithocolletisStettinensis, 
which blotches the upper side of the 
Alder leaves. Quite a harvest of 
this local micro-larva was gathered 
by our entomological friend, whose 
quick eye and long acquaintance 
with the leaf-miners readily detected 
mines, where inexperienced eyes 
might have sought for them in 
vain. To this gentleman we are 



chiefly indebted for the information 
conveyed in these papers on the 
micro-lepidoptera. Thus ended 
our fourth and last field-day. — 
Peter Inchbald, Storthes Hall, 
December 16th, 1864. 



Cynips Aptera on the Major Oak, 
IN Sherwood Forest. 
In September of last year, as 
some of the members of the " Hud- 
dersfield Naturalists' Society " were 
pupa-digging in Sherwood Forest, 
they discovered some tuberous-look- 
ing galls attached to the roots of the 
Major Oak. These tubers, which were 
affixed to the larger woody roots by 
the slender fibrils, contained larvae, 
which on examination proved to be 
those of a Cynips. The process of 
their formation would seem to be 
this : — The mother-cynips pierces 
the tender fibrils, some distance 
above the spongioles : the sap, that 
is drawn up for the nourishment of 
the tree, stagnates at the place of 
puncture, and thus nodules are form- 
ed to serve as food and protection for 
the progeny. The nodules were 
usually in threes, and each contained 
a single grub. In May of the pre- 
sent year I opened one of the galls, 
and found the tenant now in the pupa 
state. The case it had formed with- 
in the nut was of papery texture, 
with glazed darker lining, externally 
white, internally amber-coloured. I 
naturally expected the insects would 



272 



THE NATUKALIST. 



swarm before the summer, but 
owing to tbe dry state of the galls 
they never emerged. In August 
I cut open another gall and found 
the gall-fly dead ; happily, however, 
after having undergone the subse- 
quent transformation. As the spe- 
cific name imports, it is perfectly 
wingless — thus unlike other Cy- 
nipes even within the gall — and it 
bears considerable resemblance to 
the species that is instrumental in 
forming the ink-galls of Commerce, 
on the Quercus infectoria of the Le- 
vant. The absence of wings gives 
the creature a very spider-like ap- 
pearance, as the abdomen is more 
rounded than in the Cynipes gene- 
rally. — Peter Inchbald, Storthes 
Hall, December 15th, 1864. 



Flora of Manchester. —In your 
number for December 1st, page 
239, " Mr. Buxton's Flora of Man- 
chester" is spoken of. Lest this 
allusion should lead to mistakes, 
permit me to say that Mr. Buxton's 
catalogue (with localities) of the 
plants growing near Manchester, is 
termed " Guide." The '' Manches- 
ter Flora," a much more com- 
prehensive work, was published 
ten years later, by myself. Both 
works had a prelude in the *' Flora 
Mancuniensis," a simple catalogue, 



with localities, published in 1840, 
''in connection with the Natural 
History class of the Manchester 
Mechanics' Institution." This early 
effort was edited by Dr. J. B. Wood. 
The title-page states that he was 
assisted by Messrs. Grindon, Bux- 
ton, Crowther, and others. — Leo H. 
Grindon. 



Ornithology. — I shall be very glad 
to open a correspondence with any 
one with a view to exchange speci- 
mens of Ornithology. I have 
many good specimens for sale or 
exchange. Please address Mr. E. 
B. Sharpe, 186, Strand, London. 



Lepidoptera. — I have the fol- 
lowing for Exchange : — V. poly- 
chloros, A. leporina, A. fuliginosa, 
G. papilionaria, N. dromedarius, 
L. dictcBoides, T. Munda, T. derasa, 
L. dispar, L. multisWigaria, B. 
neustria, T. W. Albu7n, A. mendica, 
A. salicis, C. flavicornis, C. exoleta, 
N. ziczac, E. tillaria, P. monacha, 
G. fiavago, C. gramuiis, A. myHilla. 
Among my wants are I), euphorbia, 
G. qitcrcifoUa, E. verslcolora, G. Illici- 
folla. Parties not receiving an answer 
within ten days may conclude their 
offers are not required. — E. Hebson, 
Barlby Bank, Sheffield. 



273 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE DIFFERENT METHODS PROPOSED 
FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF THi; SPECIES OF THE 
GENUS ROSA, Lin. 



By Mons. Alfred Deseglise. 



Linneus knowing but 14 species of Roses ^ took for the basis of 
his divisions of the genus Rosa the form of the fruit: 1st Globose; 2nd 
OvaP : quite secondary characters, but which might be admissible at the 
period when this great legislator of the natural sciences brought out his 
Species Plantarum. This division has since been adopted by several 
authors. I shall endeavour to give a rapid sketch of the different clas- 
sifications proposed by eminent botanists, in order to point out the much 
to be regretted confusion which reigns in these various methods. The 
imperfect knowledge we even yet possess of numerous species of Roses, 

(1) I speak here only of the species described in the Species plantarum (1764); 
for the herbarium of Linneus, preserved in the rich botanical galleries of the 
Linnean Society of London, contains 50 specimens of roses, almost all in a good 
state of preservation : there are about 30 European species, the half of which are 
ticketed on the sheet by the hand of Linneus himself. Generally there is only the 
name given, sometimes a note as well : amongst others, a great number are from 
Jacquin, and are accompanied by tickets, containing numerous notes and remarks on 
the sheet ; two or three bear tickets from a French correspondent of Linneus, (Du 
Koi ?) : there are also on some sheets notes in pencil by Sir J. E. Smith. I ara 
indebted for these details to the kindness of Mr J. G. Baker, of Thirsk, and have 
pleasure in taking this opportunity of repeating my thanks for the generosity with 
which he placed at my service the Roses of England, accompanied by numerous notes 
and observations, for the purpose of making a comparison between the French Ro.ses 
and the types preserved in the Herbarium of Linneus. 

(2) The term oval, when used to distinguish the form of the fruit, seems to me 
to be vicious. This word can only be applied to plane surfaces, as a leaf for example, 
and not to a solid as a calyx-tube or a fruit. I think we ought at once to admit four 
types of fruit : — 1st, Globose; 2nd, Ovoid, which, like tlie egg from which it derives its 
name, is broader at the base than at the summit : (the greater proportion of authors 
have no doubt used the term oval in the sense of ovoid) ; 3rd, Ohovoid, the inverse of 
ovoid, i.e. broader at the summit than at the base ; 4th, Ellipsoid, as bi'oad at one end 
as at the other, since taking the form of the ellipse as having both extremities identical 
in size, we should never have broad and narrow extremities. These forms once 
admitted, we might indicate in each species how they vary ; thus we should speak of 
a globose fruit depressed at the summit or at the base; elongated ellipsoid fruit, 
rounded or pointed at each end ; ovoid, elongated or attenuated at the summit, &c. 

No. 18, Jan. 2. T 



274 THE NATUEALIST. 

besides, that in very natural genera it is often difficult to establish general 
characters which shall admit all the species of a single group, is doubtless 
the reason we have not yet attained to more satisfactory results. 

De Candolle was, I believe, the first botanist to seek for another 
character than the form of the fruit, for the sub-divisions of the genus 
Bosa. It was in his " Catalogus Plantarum horti botanici Monspeliense," 
(1818) p. 137, that this celebrated botanist made the observation that many 
roses having their styles united in a column, ought to form a distinct 
section, which he proposed to call SynstylcBK In the supplement to his 
*' Flore Franqaise " (1815) De Candolle makes no mention of this section 
which he had proposed in 1813. 

Desvaux, " Journal hotanique," 1813, vol ii. — Koses indigenous to 
France — makes two sections, according to the condition of the styles : — 
1st Styles united ; 2nd Styles free. These divisions have been admitted 
by a great number of authors, as Chevalier, ''Flore generale des Environs de 
Paris " (1827); Merat, " Flore des Environs de Paris" ed. 4, (1836) ; Guepin, 
" Flore de Maine-et-Loire," ed. 2, (1838) ; Boreau, " Flore du Centre de la 
France et du hassin de la Loire,'' (1840, 1849, 1857) ; Delastre, " Flore de la 
Vienne," (1842) ; Gpdet, " Flore du Jura;' (1853) ; Lloyd, '' Flore de V Quest 
de la France," (1854) ; &c. This division proposed by Desvaux furnishes 
one very good section, that with the styles united into a column, which, by 
the species it includes, having the same form of prickle, leaves without 
glands beneath, and very nearly the same habits, is certainly a very 
natural section. The second section cannot be admitted without breaking 
the series of the species, in spite of the sub-divisions which may be made 
in it ; for in this section we find species which from the divisions of the 
calyx, and prickles mixed with glanduliferous setae, seem badly placed in 
the same group which includes species in which the prickles are all 
uniform, and others which are without prickles ; the leaves present a still 
greater anomaly, since species with glabrous, villose, tomentose, and 
glandulose leaves are all comprised in the same group. 

Eau, '' Enumeratio rosarum," (1816), divides the 24 species admitted 
by him, for the environs of Wurtzburg, into two sections, from the pre- 
sence or absence of glands on the under surface of the leaves. These 
characters are very useful for sub-divisions, but of no value whatever for 

(3) De Candolle, in making this word, seems to me to be guilty of a barbarism. 
The principles of etymology, the formation of words given in the grammars, and the 
Greek words (o-uo-TeXXco, Systole in anatomy) absolutely require Systijka. 



DESEGLISE ON CLASSIFICATION OF SPECIES OF ROSA. 275 

the larger sections. Thus according to this method we find in the same 
group, Ti, arvemis, Huds.; R. r/cmiuata, Rau ; 'R.pnmiln, L. ; 7^. dmiamomca, 
L. ; B.. aJpina, L. ; R. spinosisslma, L. ; 7i. collina, Jacq. ; and R. canina, L. ; 
species ditiering widely from one another in their habits, styles, prickles, 
leaves, and calycinal divisions. 

Leman, " Bulletin de la Soc. PhilomatiqKc," 9th May, 1818, divides 
the roses into three sections after the form of the serration of the leaves. 
The first section " FoUoles slmpllciter dentatis," places R. dwnetorwn, Thuil., 
alongside R. cinnamomea, L., two species differing much in their leaves, 
prickles, bracts, and calycinal divisions : R. spinosissima, L., figures badly 
at the side of R. Bengalensis, Pers. Is Pi. ruhrifolia,Y\\\., well placed between 
R. leiicochroa, Desv., with united styles, and R. canina, L. ? In the second 
section •' Dentibus foliorum marglne inferiore serratis," R. vei-ticillacantha, 
Mer., comes between R. Gallica, L., and R. alpina, L,, three species which 
have no bond of union whatever ! R. eglanteria, L., is in this section 
placed with R. hiserrata, Mer. The third section *' Dentibus foliorum utrin- 
que margine serratis glandulisve," if it included only the rubiginosce would be 
sufficiently natural. 

De Candolle in 1818 proposed in the "Musee Helvetique, of Seringe,* 
a general classification of the roses then known, under the following eleven 
sections: — a, Synstyl^e; b, Rubigina3; c, Gallicanes; r/, Chinoisse ; e, Canellas; 
/, Hebecladics : g, Pimprenellae ; h, Villosse ; i. Centifoliae ; j, Caninfe ; /.-, 
Eglanterse. These sections were adopted by Besser, enumerat. plant. Void 
and Fad. (1822). 

Thort, *' Prodrome de la Monographie du genre Rosier" (1820) makes five 
grand divisions, subdivided into 27 groups; several of which are composed 
of species altered by cultivation. The five divisions are all artificial and 
without any connecting bond, whilst the groups are established upon 
characters of little importance, and often include but a single species. 

Lindley in 1820 brought out his monograph of the Roses, of which 
a translation by de Pronville was published in French in 1824. He divides 
the species of the genus 2tos« into eleven sections^ — i. S[mplicifolij2, 
established with good reason for R. berberifolia, Pall. ii. Feroces. 

(4) In spite of numerous searches I have been unable to obtain this pamphlet by 
Seringe ; and not being acquainted with the chiiracters on which these divisions are 
founded, I simply give their names without any remarks upon them. 

(5) Not having the work of the English botanist in my possession, I quote tho 
sections from de Pronville' s translation, and upon this my criticisms are founded. 



276 I'HJ^ NATUEALIST. 

iii. Beacteat^.. These two sections include only species not found in 
Europe.^ iv. Cinnamomi^. The species in this section are almost all 
strangers to this country, v. Pimpinellifoli^. " Stems with numerous 
prickles or unarmed, peduncles without bracts, leaves oval or oblong, 
sepals connivent, persistent, disk almost absent." If this section only 
included the pimpinelUfolim it would be very good ; but is R. Sahinl, Woods, 
in its right place here ? The grey-tomentose leaves (on both sides) and glan- 
dulose beneath, and the pinnatif\d calyx-divisions, are sufficiently decisive 
characters to remove this species far from pimjyinelUfolicB. The same may 
be said of R. involuta, Smith, vi. Centifoli^. " Prickles unequal, mixed 
with setse, leaves oblong or oval, rugose, disk fleshy, sepals pinnatifid." 
In this section we find R. Gallica, K, and 2t. proviucialis, Ait., with R. 
Damascena, Miller. This last species seems to me too widely different in 
all its aspects, to be united in the same group with the two preceding, 
vii. ViLLOSiE. " Stems upright, prickles straight, leaves oval or oblong 
with divergent serrations, sepals connivent, persistent, disk fleshy." R. 
spinuUfolia, Dematr., with leaves glandulose beneath and glabrous above is 
not in its proper place here ; the same with R. alba, L., which with its 
arcuate prickles, and leaves glabrous beneath, is nearer the Canines than 
the Yilhsce. viii. Kubiginos^. " The numerous glands which cover the 
inferior surface of the leaves, are, I think, sufficient to distinguish this 
from all the other divisions." A very natural section, bearing upon it a 
stamp by which it may easily be recognised at first sight. Lindley wrongly 
places here R. cuspidata, Bieb., and R. pulverulenta, Bieb., and also makes 
a blunder in admitting under the Rubiginos^, R. Montezuma, Humb. and 
Bonp., which has leaves glabrous on both sides ! ix. Canin^e. " Prickles 
equal, recurved, leaves oval without glands, serrations convergent, sepals 
caducous, disk fleshy." This section presents some confusion in the 
grouping of the species admitted by Lindley. Of the nine species com- 
prised in this section, only two are European, R. canina, L., and R. nibri- 
folia, Vill. But R. indica, L., R. microphylla, Roxb., and ii. chinensis, Jacq., 
are surely strangely placed here. x. Systyl.e. " Styles united into a 
column." A very natural section, xi. Banksian^ only includes species 
foreign to Europe, and included in the section Chinenses of the Prodrome 
of De Candolle. 

(To be continued J 

(6) As I am only considering European species, and principally those of France, 
I pass over exotic species in silence. 



377 

ON THE BOTANY OF MALIIAM. 

By L. C. Miall, Esq. 



Part III. 

FiLICES. 

In this Order I have for the most part followed Mr. Moore's Hand- 
book of British Ferns, 3rd edition, 1857. A MS. list, obligingly furnished 
me by Mr. T. Stansfield, of Todmorden, for the West-Riding Flora, is 
frequently referred to. Several varieties and sub-varieties are given in 
this catalogue which I do not regard as either important or permanent. 
In the present unsettled state of British Pteridology it seems best to 
record everything, and leave to subsequent consideration the determina- 
tion and definition of species. We must remember that the value of a 
character, whether in ferns or other groups of natural objects, is often 
quite independent of physiological importance, and depends primarily 
upon its permanence and constant association with other marks. 
PGlypodiiini Dryopteris, L. [Ctenopteris, Newm.) Woods around Malham I 

Widely distributed over the Yorkshire hills. 54. 
P. Bohertianum, Hoffm. (P. calcareum, Sm., Gymnocarpium, Newm.) 
Above Malham Cove ! Gordale ! Scar above Malham Tarn, Dr. 
Windsor. This last habitat implies a height of at least 400 yards. 
Not uncommon on rocks and walls throughout the whole limestone 
district of Craven. 15. 
Pohjstichum Lonchitis, Roth. [Polypodium, L., Aspidlum, Sni.) In several 
long known stations at a height of more than 1500 feet, but judi- 
ciously concealed to prevent extirpation. Perhaps no fern is more 
eagerly sought by collectors, and few seem to be less thoroughly 
known by them. I believe that for every plant of P. Lonchitis ever 
found on the Craven hills, a dozen are so labelled in herbaria. Many 
of these were shown or sent to me while preparing tbe Flora of the 
West-Riding, and proved to be immature forms of P. aculeatum, 
(sometimes of P. angulare.) I understand that such plants have been 
sold by the guides of North Wales for the true Lonchitis. Of late 
years large numbers of plants were distributed from a supposed new 
Yorkshire station for this fern, and, for all I know, they are still 
highly esteemed. I have seen some of these, and every one belonged 
to the lobatum form of P. aculeatum. 14. 



278 THE NATURALIST. 

P. aculeatum, Roth. (Polypodium, L., Aspidium, Sm.) Dr. Carrington 
found the variety lonchitidioides, M.,- on Malham Moor. After culti- 
vating it for some years I have no doubt whatever that its peculiari- 
ties are variable ; I believe they are ultimately evanescent. 

Lastrea montana, Moore. {L. Oreopteris, Bory, Aspidium, Sm., Polypodium 
Thelypteris, Huds., Hemestheum, Newm.) Not uncommon up to about 
400 yards ! 80. 

L. Filix-mas, Presl. {Polypodium, L.) Mr. T. Stansfield mentions a 
vai'iety ramosum (sic) found on Malham Moor, by Mr. A. Stansfield. 

L. rigida, Presl. (Lophodium, Newm.) Malham Moor, J. Nowell. 3. 

L. dllatata, Presl. The var. nana found long ago a few miles off, by Mr. 
Tatham, may be expected at Malham, though I cannot find that it 
has yet been seen there. 
Var. collina, (Newm.) Not uncommon on the scars about Malham. 

Asplenium viride, Huds. [A. Trichomanes ramosum, L.) Rocks and walls 
about Malham, frequent ! A common fern on the Craven limestone. 
In the adjoining valley of Wharfe this fern is still oftener seen than 
in Airedale and Ribblesdale. The crevices of the limestone wall, on 
the left hand of the little road from Kilnsey to Arnclifi'e, contain 
multitudes of plants, together with A. TrichomaneSj A. Ruta-muraria, 
and Cystopteris fragilis. 25. 

Var. multifidum, M. Above Malham Cove, very plentiful, T. Stans- 
field ! 

A. TricJiomanes, L. This fern is perhaps the very commonest of all in the 
neighbourhood of Malham. 81. 

In 1863 I found two or three plants on the Kilnsey side of Malham 
Moor, which are authenticated as var. incisum. This tolerably distinct 
variety is not so rare as the books give it ; at least several new stations 
are being found every year. 

Var. suhcequale, M. About Malham, A. Stansfield. 

* A singularly barbarous and unpleasing name, which is continually mispro- 
nounced, and -which few printers will spell correctly. As an affair of Greek, 
lonchiteides (or even ides) would be better, besides being more easily written and 
read. I mean always to spell it so in future. Selaginoides, ornithoj^odioides, 
hieracioides, amygdaloides, and a crowd of others are equally wrong and want 
altering. It may be as well to remind the makers of specific names that the 
Greeks, whom they profess to follow, added etS?;? [eides, and not oides) to the 
root of the word. I shall perhaps have something to say on this and other 
points of botanical nomenclature by and by. 



MTALL ON THE BOTANY OF MALIIAM. 279 

A. Riita-miiraria, L. (Amesiwn, Newrn.) The var. cuneatiim, which is 

tolemhly conimon ou the limestone rocks of Craven, is the plant 

which has been repeatedly quoted as A. germanicum, a species not 

found in Yorkshire. 

Var. elatum, Lang. Ayrton, near Malham, T. Stansfield. 
Scolopendrium vulgare, Sm. [Phjllitis Scolopendrium, Newm.) 

Var. pohjschides,'^^ Gray. Near Malham, A. Stansfield. 

Var. muUifidum, M. Several forms occur around Malham. 

Var. sinuatum, M. Malham, A. Stansfield. 

Var. transverso-lohatum. Gordale Scar, A. Stansfield. 
Ceterach officinarum, Willd. [Asplenium Ccterach, L., Scolopendrium, Sm., 

Grammitis, Swartz, Notolepum, Newm.) Eocks on the East of Mal- 
ham Tarn, Dr. Windsor. 55. 
Cystopterls fragiUs, Bernh. [Pohjpodium, L.) Common on rocks and 

walls. 56. 

Var. angustata, Sm. Malham Moor, towards Kilnsey ! 

Var. dentata, Sm. Not uncommon ! 
Botrychium Limaria, Swartz. {Osmwida, L.) Eeported from Malham, 

but I do not remember the authority. 78. 

Ltcopodiace^. 

Lycopodlum clavatum, L. Malham Moor ! 62. 
L. Selago, L. The common Club-Moss of Malham ! 62. 
L. selagineides, L. Malham Moor, A. Stansfield ! On the lower side of 
Malham Tarn ! C. Deighton. Gordale, Dr. Carrington. 42. 

Equisetace^. 

Equisetum hyemale, L. Stream from Malham Cove, Dr. Carrington. 32. 

Charace^. 

Chara vulgaris, L. ? Malham Tarn, Dr. Carrington. Stream from Malham 

Cove ! id. 
C. hispida, L. Pools south of Malham, J. Nowell. Malham Tarn, Dr. 

Carrington. 
C. aspera, W. With the last, and in streams at Kirby Malham, Dr. 

Carrington. 

* Pronounce polyshideSf not polyshideSf as is common. 



280 



THE NATURALIST. 



Society of Amateur Botanists. — The 
annual meeting of this Society was 
held on the 23rd ult., and was well 
attended. The greater portion of 
the evening was occupied in hearing 
the president's address, an abstract 
of which, as showing the present 
state of the Society, may not be un- 
interesting. In opening his address, 
the president observed that the So- 
ciety had, during the past year, 
performed in a satisfactory manner 
the work which it had laid out for 
itself. He thought that the best 
way of rendering an account of the 
Society's proceedings would be to 
follow the order of subjects set forth 
in the prospectus. Excursions had 
taken place on Saturday afternoons, 
often once a fortnight, but had not 
been so numerously attended as 
might have been wished. He 
thought that this was caused mainly 
by a want of enthusiasm among the 
members. The annual excursion 
to Darenth Wood was but thinly 
attended, and nothing of much con- 
sequence was then observed : this 
might, perhaps, be partially attri- 
buted to the excessive dryness of 
the summer. Exchange of Plants 
had been successfully carried on 
among the members themselves ; 
but at present the Society had not 
sufficient space at its command to 
enable it to keep specimens for a 



more extensive system of exchange. 
The Pampers read before the Society 
during the past year had been of 
greater interest and more variety than 
in the preceding : among them were 
some of great value, as instances of 
which he need only refer to those 
on Euphorbia amygdaloides, Crucifer- 
ous flowers. Orchids, Abnormal 
Developments, &c. The Herbarium 
was now fairly established, and had 
acquired, during the past year, a 
fasciculus of Leefe's Salices, Bloxam's 
Rubi, and Mosses from the herba- 
rium of the late A. O. Black ; with 
various other contributions from 
members. The greatest difficulty to 
contend with was want of space : and 
on this account it was not to be regret- 
ted that the Carpological collection 
was still in abeyance. After a few 
other remarks it was proposed that a 
Council should be formed to execute 
the business of the Society during the 
coming year ; and the president and 
other officers were unanimously re- 
elected. The Financial statement 
of the treasurer shows a considerable 
balance in hand ; and altogether the 
Society may be considered as being 
in a flourishing condition. 

Leeds Naturalists Society. — A Plea 
for Little Birds. — At the December 
meeting of this Society, Mr. Dixon, 
secretary to the Leeds General In- 
firmary, read a very interesting pa- 
per bearing the above title. We are 
all, said Mr. Dixon, fond of little 



REPORTS OF SOCIETIES. 



281 



birds in a greater or less degree, 
some of one kind, some of another, 
and the sympathy dates back to the 
earliest days of childhood — that 
bright and sunny time when our 
little guileless hearts were brimful 
of faith and love. Would that the 
kindly sympathies, the simple faith, 
the good seed thus planted in the 
young heart, did always fall upon 
good ground to spring forth and 
blossom, and bear fruit in a riper 
age — would that the fine edge of 
such heaven-born love could never 
be doomed to be turned and blunted 
by the briars and thorns, the cankers 
and cares, that beset the pathway 
of a maturer life. The robin red- 
breast holds so conspicuous a place 
in juvenile literature that it is no 
wonder he should be generally the 
first bird to engraft himself in our 
sympathy, nor does the kindly feel- 
ins: thus engendered suffer much 
diminution in after years. Our 
little red-breasted friend might 
know that the world had made up 
its mind to entertain a generally 
favourable opinion of him through 
evil report and good report, and 
has accordingly grown somewhat 
bold and impudent by the know- 
ledge. He hops and perks about 
our spade as we turn up the mellow 
soil as though the work was going 
on for his special benefit, though 
much to the disadvantage of many 
poor wriggling worms — he presents 



himself like a duly licensed pen- 
sioner on the snow-covered window- 
sill confident of relief — he will even 
adventure himself beyond thethresh- 
hold sure of a welcome more hearty 
than many a poor relation would get 
who dared *' just to drop in " in the 
same familiar way ; he defieth both 
wind and weather and whistles his 
cheery song while the heavy rain- 
drops beat time on the window pane 
as the bitter wind howls about the 
old homestead or moans a requiem 
for the falling leaves. The times 
are, however, somewhat perilous for 
those little birds that have not been 
so highly favoured as Cock Robin ; 
and sparrow clubs, wise churchwar- 
dens, the squire's gamekeejDer, and 
my lady's gardener are telling sad 
stories about them. Nearly the 
whole feathered catalogue are set 
down as arrant thieves, poachers, or 
good-for-nothings. A little black- 
bird writing to The Times complains 
that he has been accused of stealing 
all the cherries in a certain garden. 
He denies the accusation, solemnly 
protests his innocence, and recom- 
mends *' my lady " to try a change 
of gardeners, confident that the re- 
sult will tend to his acquittal. That 
letter is very significant and the 
little birds may take some courage. 
But what is a sparrow club ? Let 
the Wiltshire Mirror answer the ques- 
tion : — The annual account of the 
Monkton and Brixton Deverill Spar- 



282 



THE NATUEALIST. 



row Club gives, killed 1536 hard 
billed birds, and 1464 sparrows, or 
a total of 3,000 amongst six mem- 
bers. Mr. Eawlings killed tbe 
largest number, and took tlie first 
prize ; Mr. T. Parliam the second." 
A neighbouring parish makes an 
annual return of 3,500 sparrows, 
trapped, shot, and poisoned, at a 
cost of fifteen pounds, or a little 
above one penny each. Such is a 
sparrow club. The wise churchwar- 
dens of many rural parishes still offer 
*' head money " for birds : sparrows, 
finches, &c., are purchased at a half- 
penny each ; blackbirds, thrushes, 
&c., at a penny each. One old gen- 
tleman, during his term of office 
had expended a very handsome sum 
upon this kind of game, much larger 
than any one of the surrounding 
parishes. There was a *' jolly row" 
about it at the vestey meeting, for 
the upshot of the matter was that 
after paying for his birds he some- 
what carelessly consigned them to 
a neighbouring ash-pit — this was 
soon found out by his juvenile 
sportsmen, and the young rogues 
very frequently sold the game three 
times over before their " little game " 
was found out. But it is time for 
us to ask in all sober earnestness 
what can be done to stop the senseless 
and wanton destruction of our little 
birds which is annually going on ? 
Much has been written and said 
upon the subject, but the occasion 



calls for more, and he who but col- 
lects and reiterates what has been 
well said before does the feathered 
estate good service. Here is a pic- 
ture from the south of England, 
drawn some two or three years 
back : — " When the potato famine 
comes we speak of fortitude and 
patience, and try to keep up one 
another's cheerfulness and resigna- 
tion ; but how will it be with us 
when we have brought on ourselves 
a worse dearth than the potato 
failure by this folly of destroying 
the creatures which preserve our 
crops from insect plagues ? We 
should remember this now, when 
we are hearing every day of the 
plague of insects on the one hand, 
and of the destruction of small birds 
on the other. What is the actual 
state of things with us ? In the 
early spring boys were birdnesting 
all over the country. In a multi- 
tude of townships there is a stand- 
ing offer of rewards for birds' eggs ; 
and thousands of dozens of eggs 
have this spring been paid for within 
an area of two or three parishes. 
Where no such inducement exists 
there has been the same plunder ; 
and long rows of speckled eggs are 
hung in cottage windows, and over 
the fireplaces under the approving 
eye of the farmer, if not of the curate 
and the squire. As the season ad- 
vanced, and the bloom of our fruit 
trees afforded as fine a promise of 



EEPORTS OF SOCIETIES. 



983 



fruit as ever was seen in this coun- 
try, the war against the small birds 
became very animated, not only 
have the guns been heard popping 
in many country parishes, but men 
have shown themselves in markets 
and fairs, all hung over with strings 
of dead finches, and robins, and 
thrushes, and sparrows, as an ad- 
vertisement in their line of business. 
Members of sparrow clubs have met, 
and awarded prizes, and dined, and 
drunk destruction to the order of 
birds. One prize winner, the other 
day, boasted of having killed 1,860 
sparrows in the course of the year. 
A lady, meantime, had at one stroke 
killed with strychnine 800 small 
birds in her garden : and if one 
owner of a garden has done such a 
thing, how many more may have 
lessened the number of our winged 
friends ? The discovery of the effi- 
cacy of poisoned grain in killing off 
the birds has v/rought prodigiously. 
One rookery after another has gone 
to destruction — the birds dropping 
in their flight, and lying dead 
all over the lawns and fields, while 
their young are starving in the nests. 
There has been silence in many 
lanes and copses formerly all alive 
with songsters ; and travelled men 
have observed, in some parts of the 
country, that it was becoming almost 
like France for the scarcity of birds. 
This is a part of the picture of this 
year; but it is not the whole. In 



the same districts there are now 
scores of old women and boys em- 
ployed in trying to save the fruit 
from the caterpillars. There are 
more weeders than ever in the fields 
and gardens, because the weeds 
never were so rampant, country 
gentlemen and ladies are declaring 
that they must give up gardening, 
on account of the overwhelming in- 
crease of the wireworm and other 
vermin. The mice devoured the 
bulbs so as to spoil their spring 
show of flowers : and now between 
the wireworm, aphides, grubs, cater- 
pillars, and the prospect of wasps, 
there is little encouragement to gar- 
deners. There never was anything 
like this plague of insects in former 
years. The farmer smiles grimly 
at those distresses of the gentry, 
for what are they compared with his? 
If they would look at the white- 
worm, and the wireworm, and the 
fly (as it will be presently) in the 
fields, they would be ashamed of 
complaining of injury to mere flowers 
and fruit. His prospect is too like 
that of the French farmers, when 
the practice of killing ofi" the birds 
brought three bad harvests in suc- 
cession (1853-1856). In one of those 
three years the wire-worm destroyed, 
in one department alone, £160,000 
of corn ; and at that rate we shall 
have to pay, very soon, if we allow 
ignorant men, and ladies, and boys, 
to destroy the natural check upon 



284 



THE NATURALIST. 



insect ravages." Mr. Dixon next 
referred to the result of certain 
inquiries in France as to the great 
injuries which had been done to 
agricultural produce in France by 
insects, and the steps which had 
been taken for the encouragement 
of small birds for the prevention of 
such insect devastation. He also 
quoted the opinion of Mr. Walter, 
M.P., and several other persons in 
favour of the preservation of small 
birds, especially noticing the spar- 
row. He concluded by saying. Let 
us hope that the arguments in 
favour of birds will have removed 
this error, and that the question 
between man and birds will have 
reduced itself to whether the balance 
of good is in favour of the latter or 
against them. It would be idle to 
assert that birds consume nothing 
which, but for them, we might con- 
sume ourselves. They feed in part 
at our expense. They destroy the 
insects that infest our gardens when 
they can find any ; and when the 
insects are gone, they search for 
other food. The first is their la- 
bour, the second is their wages. 
And is not the workman worthy of 
his hire ? The man who grudges 
a bird a little seed or fruit, might 
as well begrudge his weekly pay to 
the labourer. We repeat it, then, 
let us look at birds as skilful work- 
men, and the fruit or seed which 
they eat as the coin in which they 



are paid their wages. Every day's 
experience tells us that birds are 
among the most efficient instru- 
ments of Providence for destroying 
the vermin that would otherwise 
overrun us. And people may rely 
upon it that they cannot more effec- 
tually encourage the ravages of those 
insidious foes than by waging war 
upon the creatures which naturally 
feed upon them. 



Habits of the Cuckoo in Confine- 
ment. — I have had a Cuckoo about 
18 months, which was found in a 
nest on Clifton Moss, by a man 
who was mowing, so I infer that it 
was hatched in a titlark's nest. It 
is a voracious and not a very clean 
bird, so we keep it in a cage that 
formerly contained a parrot which 
suits its claws very well, and we 
feed it on hard-boiled eggs, bread 
and milk, lean meat, with the larvae 
of wasps, and caterpillars when we 
can obtain them. About the end 
of last July but one it became very 
restless, particularly at night, beat- 
ing its wings about the cage, and 
hurting itself very much, but as the 
time for its migration passed away 
it began to know us better, becom- 
ing more reconciled : and when 
winter drew near it gradually lost 
most of its feathers, but without 



OBSERVATIONS. 



286 



acquiring any fresh ones, and re- 
maining through the long cold 
winter half naked ; if it had not heen 
that my wife covered its cage with 
a shawl it would have died with the 
cold. When spring came its fea- 
thers grew and it presented a more 
respectable appearance. At present 
it is rather ragged, but not to be 
compared with what it was last win- 
ter. A question arises from the 
above — Does the Cuckoo acquire its 
new feathers before or after its de- 
parture from this country ? I am 
inclined to the latter opinion as it 
would not have time to acquire them 
here its stay is so short. It is an 
affectionate bird and not so deficient 
in intelligence as some persons have 
written ; for instance, it knows when 
a knife or the meat is brought on the 
table, and if we are feeding the other 
birds it is quite anxious till it gets 
some food itself. It can also dis- 
tinguish between my wife and my- 
self, paying the most attention to 
her : it is generally very quiet, sit- 
ting on its perch without stirring 
for some time together, and if we 
take it out of the cage and put it 
before the fire it enjoys it exceed- 
ingly. It has two remarkable pecu- 
liarities, viz. : it very seldom drinks, 
and I have never yet seen it asleep, 
sometimes I have looked under the 
shawl when all has been quiet, ex- 
pecting to catch it napping, but 
there it was with its great round 



eyes wide open and looking me full 
in the face. It has never sung and 
its only note so far is a kind of 
squeak something like that of a 
young magpie. — Percy Heaviside. 



DasypoUa Teinpll — Perhaps the 
disciples of the net and the pin may 
be a little gladdened to know that 
some of our rarer Nocture, are at 
least occasionally, to be met with 
not very far from home. Among 
these DasypoUa Tcmpli may be enu- 
merated. Now Mr. Templi, and 
his good lady likewise, are a little 
queer in their own way, but this it 
is said is natural to people of the 
higher nature, so if this be the case 
there is no ground for wonder, for 
though like other beings they occupy 
a dwelling place, it is situated in 
somewhat an odd locality. I have 
also read that there is no accounting 
for people's tastes, and so with our 
Noctua — for as its name imports, 
it has to do with the stones, or, a 
part for the whole, will bring us from 
stones to buildings, among both 
which the moth is at ease. Whether 
it follows therefore the trade of the 
mason, or aspires to the profession 
of the priest, I cannot quite divine, 
for I find it both in the quarry 
and the church. But apart from 
this, a two hours' hunt for D. Tem- 
jjU is generally no joke, but on the 
contrary a matter of real labour, and 
has often called to my mind " the 



286 



THE NATUEALIST. 



seeking for a needle in the bottle of 
hay." For though the result when 
accomplished is of a more pleasing 
kind — namely the bagging the game 
■ — ^you are in utter uncertainty as to 
when " the find " may be, until the 
insect is verily in full view : and 
should it happen that a dozen tons 
of stones are turned over before the 
lucky moment arrives, the Entomo- 
logist must not give up the search 
hopelessly — patience and persever- 
ance will be well rewarded in the 
end. Finally I have to observe, for 
the information of our Entomologi- 
cal friends in Yorkshire and else- 
where, I believe that where there 
are quarries, especially in high lo- 
calities, D. Temidi may be found 
from the 1st of October for at least 
two months. Turn over every stone 
carefully, examining the under side 
and the ends, until you are favoured 
with the sight of D. TempU, just as 
he lives at home. One introduction 
will reveal to you nearly all you 
need to know, at least for general 
purposes. The larva is an internal 
feeder from May to August upon the 
various Spondylia, and I presume 
other plants with pithy roots and 
stems. I hope to be able to take 
some little trouble this coming 
spring to prove this latter (pithy 
roots and stems) which, if success- 
ful, shall be in due course made 
known. Any further information 
that I can give for the pleasure or 



enlightenment of others, who dare 
venture a pioneering, will be gladly 
supplied on application. — J. John- 
son, Denby Parsonage, Dec, 1864. 

Dasypolia Templi. — During the 
two last months of November and 
December, I have met with speci- 
mens of this interesting insect, 
chiefly females, somewhat abundant- 
ly in this neighbourhood. After 
diligent search in various places, 
the insect was discovered in its 
usual habitats, among the loose 
stones of quarries, under the same by 
the roadside, and in heaps of stones 
in different situations, but for the 
most part in high localities. As my 
personal acquaintance with I). Tem- 
joli is so recent and imperfect, I am 
not able to add anything respecting 
its habits that may not be already 
known to most readers of " The 
Naturalist." — J. Collins, Shepley 
Parsonage, Huddersfield, Jan. 2nd, 
1865. 

The abundance of LarvcB in 1864. — 
This has been a very productive 
year for insects of all kinds. Larvse 
have been swarming on almost every 
tree and bush. The jet black cater- 
pillars of F. lo and those of V. UrticcB 
might have been swept off by hun- 
dreds from the nettles, and every 
gardener can testify to the super- 
abundance of those belonging to 
Brassicm and Rajm. The hawthorn 
hedges and spindle trees have been 
covered with hundreds of liammocks 



OBSERVATIONS. 



287 



containing the spotted larv?e of the 
small ermines ; and the beautiful 
caterpillars of the Mullein shark 
moth have been found of very large 
size. I have gathered hosts of those 
belonging to P. hucephala from oak, 
elm, willow, beech (purple variety 
as well), and lime. Seventeen full 
grown ones I carried home on one 
small branch of a lime tree. A. 
atropos and S. Ligustrl have been 
more plentiful this year than before. 
Apropos of atropos, the caterpillar 
made a sound like the tick of a watch. 
Ht. Ullyett, High Wycombe. 



Winter Kambles in the Isle of 
Wight. 
January 18th, 1864. — The upper 
half of the Island is chiefly of the 
Eocene formation, a belt of chalk, 
that extends from the Culver Cliffs 
to the Needles, severing it from the 
Greensand and Gault of the south. 
The Wealden clay occupies the south- 
west, and is rich in fossil remains. 
Our starting point was Byde, whence 
we took the direction of Shanklin 
and the Undercliff to Vent nor and 
St. Laurence, Freshwater and the 
Needles. At Brading we noticed in 
the hedge-rows the brilliaqt orange 
seeds of the Gladwyn Iris, (Iris 
fcetidissima ) still clustering within 
the widely spreading valves of the 
capsule. This Iris is widely spread 
over the Island. The Butcher's 
Broom (Ruscus aculeatusj was plen- 



tiful along the sea-side footpath 
between Sandown and Shanklin, and 
in flower. It is not unusual to 
meet with both flower and fruit on 
this plant at Christmas. The fruit 
is of the size and colour of a cherry. 
The thrushes were singing merrily 
at Shanklin Chine thus early in the 
year; and the celandines were wide 
open on sheltered hedge-banks. At 
Bonchurch, a mile from Ventnor, we 
were surprised with the luxuriance 
of the evergreen vegetation. The 
Chinese Privet, [Ligustrum liicidum) 
in Captain Huish's pretty grounds, 
thebeautifully glossy foliage of which 
is the great ornament to Bonchurch 
Pond in the winter, grows here to 
the height of twenty feet, and had 
been quite covered with blossoms. 
A magnificient heath, (Erica ar- 
horea) a veritable tree in growth, 
since it attained the height of twelve 
or fifteen feet, was literally loaded 
with white flowers, which are as 
fragrant as they are beautiful. This 
tree-heath is a native of the shores 
of the Mediterranean. Here too, in 
the open garden, I saw yellow cro- 
cuses in bloom, and snowdrops. 
At Ventnor the scarlet geraniums, 
which are trained up the verandahs 
facing the sea, were still in flower ; 
a slight protection of canvas covers 
the lower part of the stem. I 
gathered the shining black berries 
of the madder (Eulia 2:>eregriHaJ for 
the first time at Ventnor. I was 



aes 



THE NATURALIST. 



glad to see its fruit so abundant in 
the hedges, as in other parts it is 
only sparingly matured. The leaves 
and berries are certainly a great 
ornament to the bare hawthorn 
hedges. On approaching St. Lau- 
rence, in the south of the Island, I 
gathered a cowslip, (Primula veris) 
in flower, and saw others in bud. 
Here too the tamarisk, [Tamanx 
Gallica) with boles of tree-like 
growth, was still lingering in bud. 
The foliage of this shrub is exceed- 
ingly light and feathery. I gathered 
quite a spring bouquet of flowers in 
one sunny nook; periwinkles, sweet 
coltsfoot, tamarisk, snowdrops — all 
contributed to my store. As we ap- 
proached the Sandrock Hotel the 
tufts of snowdrops in the plantations 
were in abundance. The Missel 
thrush was shouting his merry 
song, which I always love, though 
it may be rather monotonous ! I 
always think he sings in a key in- 
termediate between the blackbird 
and thrush. Black Gang Chine 
gave us some Ammonites and sun- 
dry other fossils characteristic of the 
greensand formation. Near Kings- 
ton I saw the flowers of the Stitch- 
wort, (Stellaria Holostea) notwith- 
standing the late intense frosts. We 
were pleased with the noble myrtles 
covering the cottages at Mottestone, 
and still in bud, though they had 
suffered from the weather. The 
scarlet peziza-cup {Peziza coccinea) 



was growing on moss-covered sticks, 
and gave beauty even to death and 
decay. Another Peziza, (P. scutel- 
lata) with its convex orange thallus 
and fringe of black, was growing on 
the ground, and, though smaller, 
was nearly as beautiful as its more 
pretending neighbour the dryad's- 
cup, as it is sometimes called. We 
were now approaching Alum Bay, 
and were charmed with the well 
defined belts of colour of its rocks, 
which glistened in the sun like 
stripes in some gay riband. We 
procured several fossil shells from 
the chalk, such as Ditriipa, Chenop- 
sis, Cerithium, and Planorbis. Im- 
pressions of tropical leaves on pipe- 
clay were exceedingly vivid, the 
veins and articulations being dis- 
tinctly defined, as though the cast 
had only been taken a few days 
previously ! We saw a fine speci- 
men of the Goosander, [Mergus mer- 
ganser) that had been lately shot 
at the Needles, doubtless a passing 
visitor from the Arctic regions. — 
Peter Inchbald, Storthes Hall, 
January 2nd, 1865. 



LejndojJtera. — In my offer for 
Exchange in the last number of 
" The Naturalist," an error has been 
made by putting my address Barlby 
Bank, Sheflield, instead of Barlby 
Bank, Selby. — Eichard Hebson. 



280 



NOTES ON BRITISH BIRDS. 



By the Rev. George Jeans. 



[ Continued from iKuje 2 CO.] 
Starling. — This bird brings out three families in the year so fVir 
north as Tetuey. A pair did so for seven years, forsaking the place 
(which was purposely constructed for them) in 184'2. 

Missel Thrush. — Is quite as predatory as the shrike, small birds 
being indeed a regular part of its diet. On Feb. 11, 1840, three missel 
thrushes, two cocks and one hen, were on the wing about my house at 
Tetney for some time ; the males singing, apparently in rivalry, while in 
the air. 

Fieldfare. — A large flock were together late in May, 1840, at Tet- 
ney, and a pupil, F. Holt, shot at them. It is curious that of the thrush 
tribe the fieldfare is reckoned a delicacy in North and East Germany, the 
Redwing in Suabia, the song thrush or Lijster in Holland, where exten- 
sive plantations are formed and laid out for their capture as a commercial 
speculation. The blackbird, or Dominee (=parson) as the Dutch in 
derision call him, is reckoned inferior for the table in all. Whereas with 
us the blackbird is rather the best, and the fieldfare certainly the worst. 
The fieldfare roosts on the ground, and generally by the side of hedges. 

Blackbird.— The late Mrs. Carpenter, sister of the Bishop of Nor- 
wich (Stanley), had among her feathered pets at Hawke House, Sunbury, 
a blackbird, so tame as to come at her call and settle on her hand, even 
while I was walking with her. 

Thrush. — The late Colonel Stapleton, of Thorpe Sea House, near 
Egham, who never would permit a nesting bird to be disturbed on his 
premises, whatever the inconvenience to himself, — of which therefore some 
amusing instances occurred, — once showed me a thrush on her nest in the 
porch over the kitchen door. She resented his indelicacy with great 
anger, but it never occurred to her to leave her charge because of the 
interruption of a stranger. 

Ring Ouzel. — I doubt if" mountain " be a characteristic resort of this 
species. The first I ever shot or saw was in the margin between the high 
cultivated lands of Rowner and the shingle of Brown Down, where Gomer 
No. 19, Feh. 1. U 



290 THE NATURALIST. 

Fort now stands, near Gosport. At Tetney they were common in April 
and October for about a fortnight at each season, and seemed very much 
at home in the marsh holts. Their flight is very discernible from that of 
the blackbird at first sight, though performed by the same wing-motions. 
But there is more of power and decision in it. And they are fond of 
rising by small gyrations to a considerable height, and then going straight 



Robin. — The Misses Gilchrist at Sunbury had a tame robin, doubt- 
less a female, which spent all its life with them, using the house as a 
spaniel would ; it was rare'y absent from the breakfast table, and accom- 
panied them in their walks, ]3erching on the hand at call. It died, an old 
bird, on the night of Murphy's frost, which it was extremely unwilling 
to face instead of the warm fireside. 

Whinchat. — About Egham is called the Utick from its note. It is 
there as it is here and at Tetney, the commoner species. It came to 
Alford early this year, April 11. The wheatear builds here, as it did at 
Tetney. At the latter place I have seen five or six pairs at the breeding 
season. 

Nightingale. — I heard one in 1854 or 1855 at Claxby, and to make 
sure got out of the carriage and came close to it. A servant was also 
present who was familiar with them in the south, and he w; s also sure. 
I have never heard one here since. But one was heard this year in Long 
Sutton by the rector, E. L. Bennett, whose early life was spent in their 
chief resort, Thorpe, near Egham. 

Goldcrest. — Has been seen at Tetney and also here at Alford. 

Stockdove. — The woods near Beverley have them in numbers. I 
have seen them in Grainsby, and I shot one in Tetney. I saw one the 
other day near Peterborough. 

Turtle Dove. — Is common in Surrey, so much so as about Guild- 
ford to be made a substantive article of sport. It builds at Sunbury near 
houses. At Egham I have shot several of an evening. 

Quail. — Nested in Tetney in 1853. About 1836, in the autumn, a 
labouring man of the name of I'hillipson, shot sixteen at a shot on the 
shore, they had evidently just crossed the sea. 

Little Bustard. — One was shot in a field half-a-mile from my house, 
in ihe parish of Bilsby, in the winter of 1855. It was stufted by a 
man in Alford, and I wanted to procure it for the Lynn Museum, but the 
owner would not part with it. 



JEANS ON BRITISH BIUDH. 291 

Pratincole. — One was said to have been seen at Tetney in the win- 
ter of 1840, by a pupil of mine, F, Holt, but I cannot answer for it. His 
descrii^tion answered to the habits of the bird. 

Turnstone. — I saw a pair at Cleethorpo in the spring of 1853. They 
were on the shore by the cliff, and my impression at the time was that 
they h:id paired but without meaning to nest there. 

Bittern. — I have met with this bird at Sunbury, on the Thames 
(Middlesex) ; at Egham, Surrey ; where one shot by a tailor named Weeks 
split open a bargeman's head who tried to get it for him ; and probably if 
the bargeman had not slipped on the ice and stumbled at the moment, 
the beak of the bird would have gone into his eye and perhaps pierced the 
brain and killed him. At Marshchapel (near Tetney) a man shot one 
as it was sitting on the sail of a windmill. Occurs also at Tetney. 

Curlew. — Breeds everywhere on the Lincolnshire coast. I have had 
the young brought me at Tetney. I have seen them at Mablethorpe, and 
they are now breeding at Wainfleet. 

Whimbrel. — This bird is called Titterel (from its note) all along the 
south coast, from Sussex to Devonshire. 

Redshank. — Four pairs used regularly to breed at Tetney, in one 
marsh. 

Wood Sandpiper. — Two pairs used to build at Tetney; where I have 
shot three of the birds. A pair used to breed here at Alford when I first 
came, nine years ago, but I have not seen them of late years. In both 
places they rather affected the shelter of the low coppices where the 
stream ran through them. 

Greenshank. — I shot one about 1841 which is now in the possession 
of K. Thorold, Esq., of Wulsby Hall. 

Ruff. — I never but once saw these birds in Lincolnshire, and that 
was in 1853, when I saw several flocks in the autumn. 

Brown Snipe. — When a boy I three times tried to shoot one on the 
shingle of Hurst Castle but the flint gun missed fire each time, when the 
Rev. John Scobell (now prebendary of Chichester) came up and shot it 
over my shoulder to my intense disgust. My pupil, F. Holt, in returning 
from Holland in the " Batavier" in 1839 caught one that flew on to the deck. 

Dunlin. — Is called Summer Snipe all up the Thames, I have shot 
them in the summer, at Sunbury, Egham, Windsor, Oxford, &c. 

CTo he Continued.) 



292 THE NATURALIST. 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE DIFFERENT METHODS PROPOSED 
FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE SPECIES OF THE 
GENUS ROSA, Lin. 



By Mons. Alfred Deseglise. 



f Continued from page 276 J 

Teattinick, " Monographia rosacearum" (1823-4), divides the 234 
species described in his monograph into 24 series, in which it is very diffi- 
cult to know what one is doing, from the confusion which reigns among 
them, and the secondary characters which he makes use of to establish 
his series ; many of them include but one or two species, or the same 
series may comprise roses with simj^le or compound flowers. 

DuMOETiER, " Notice sur un nouveau genre de j^lctJites : Hidthemia.'* 
(1824), proposes to class the different species of Rosa according to the 
state of the disk, and divides the Roses of Belgium into four sections, 
which three years later (1827) he reproduces in his Florida Belgica. If 
his second and fourth sections seem natural on account of the species they 
include, what shall we say of the third, which contains R. Galllca, L., R. 
lutea, Mill., R, rubiginosa, L., R. tomentosa, Smith, Rk canina, L., and R. 
rubrifolia, Vill. What analogies can be found to unite in the same group 
these widely differing species ? 

Seringe having been requested in 1827 to describe the species of the 
genus Rosa in the Prodromus of De CandoUe, divided the 103 species 
admitted by him for the whole world into four sections, rejecting the 
classification he proposed in 1818 in his Musee Helvetiqiie, and to which 
De Candolle was probably a stranger. Section i. Synstylj^ established 
by De Candolle in 1813. ii. Chinenses. The species of this section are 
foreign to Europe, iii. CinnamomT<:js. " Styli liberi inclusi raro exserti. 
Sepala integerrima raro subpinnatisecta post anthesim, saepe conniventia. 
Stipulse nullse cum foliis 1-foliolatis, aut adnse cum foliis plurijugis. 
Aculei stipulares gemini raro nulli vel irregulares. Fructus globosi vel 
globoso-depressi." Seringe in De C. Prod. ii. p. 002.'' It is in this section 
that Seringe places jR. herberifoUa, Pall., a singular species, which, if it 
ought not to be separated from the Roses proper, (Dumortier in 1824 

(7) This section comprises the Pimpinellifoliae, Gallicanse, and Hebecladje of the 
Mu84e Helvetique. 



DESEGLISE ON CLASSIFICATION OF SPECIES OF ROSA. 293 

proposed to make a new genus for it, under the name of Hulthemiay ought 
certainly to be included in a separate section, on account of its simple 
leaves, and want of stipules. The section includes 32 species, of which 
the following seven only belong to the French Flora ; — li. Gallica, L., H. 
clnnamomea, L., B. aristata, Laj^ey, B. fraxinifolia, Borkh,, U. cglanteria, L., 
a. pimplnelUfolia, L., U. ruhrifolia, Vill. It is always desirable, as far as 
possible, to preserve analogies in a series of species, but in this section of 
Seringe the contrary is the case. iv. CANiNiE. " Styli liberi inclusi vel 
exserti. Sej^ala pinnatifida post anthesim deflexa ssepissimse deciduse. 
Fructus ovatus raro globosus. Stipulse adnatse cum foliis deciduse. 
Aculei sparti non stipulares." Seringe loc. cit., p. 611.^ This section 
comprises 39 species, of which nine belong to the Flora of France, viz. : — 
R. alpina, L., M. canina, L., B,. saxatiUs, Stev., R. hcdtica, Roth., 2?. ruhigl- 
nosa, L., R. tomentosa, Sm., R. cuspidata, Biel,, R. viUosa, L., and R. alba, L. 
R. alpina with its stems without prickles and entire calyx divisions, is 
wrongly placed here, after the characters on which Seringe bases the sec- 
tion : the same may be said of R. fastigiata, Bast., which has the styles 
united in a column, and which Seringe only gives as a variety oiR.canina, L. 
R. Baltica is nearer Pi. cinnamomea than the Caninse. This section is 
very much confused on account of the want of connection amongst the 
species it comprises, and which seem naturally to refuse so forced and 
inharmonious a union. Duby, Botanicon Gallicum (1828), Lorey and 
Duret, Flore de la Cote d'Or (1831), adopt the sections of Seringe in their 
divisions of the genus Rosa. 

Walbroth, " Historia Rosarnm " (1828) divides the genus into two sec- 
tions, after the calyx divisions. 1st entire, and 2nd pinnatijid. Walbroth 
only admits for all the roses known at this period, 24 types, under which 
he places as varieties more than 500 species : his work presents us with 
only an incoherent assemblage of incongruities and badly applied synonyms. 
Loiseleur-Deslonchamps flora gallica (1828) follows the divisions of Wal- 
broth. These sections, which seem natural at first sight, cannot be 
admitted, for they present the same anomalies in the connection of the 
species, as divisions established upon a single character. 

Reichenbach, '\Flora Germanica ea^cursoria" (1830) makes two grand 
sections, according to the form of the prickles of the young shoots : — 

(8) A genus named in honour of Ch. van Hultbera, founder of the botanical 
garden at Ghent. 

(9) This section includes the Villosae and Centifolise of the Musee Eelvetique. 



<^g4 THE NATURALIST. 

i. SETIGERJ3. *' Turiones recti-aculeati simultaque setigeri." Many of tlie 
species which he comprises in this section, are, it seems to me, far from 
presenting this character. B. glutinosa, Sibth., with its pubescent glan- 
dulose leaves is scarcely well placed in the same section which includes U. 
lutea, Mil., R. spinosissima, L., R. alpina, L., R. sulphiirea, Ait., R. ferox, 
Ait., and R. cinnamomea, L. ii. Aculeos.e. '* Turiones absque setis 
aculeati." This section comprises five sub-divisions, established on the 
form of the prickles and the clothing of the leaves : — Sub-div. 1. VilloscB. 
Prickles almost straight, leaves villose : "Aculeis retiusculis, foliolis 
moUibus." Several species in the first section ought to be placed here. 
R. glandulosa, Bellardi, is wrongly put in this section since its leaves are 
glabrous ! Sub-div. 2. Rubiglnosa. Prickles recurved, leaves glandulose 
beneath : " Aculeis recurvatis, foliolis subtus etiam inter venas sparsim 
glandulosis." A very natural section, but R. psilophylla, Rau., having 
leaves without glands is strangely placed in the Rubiginosa. Sub-div. 3. 
Canince. Prickles recurved, leaves glaiidless beneath, except a few on the 
veins : " Aculeis recurvatis, foliolis subtus (costa quibusdam excepta) 
eglandulosis." R. glandulosa, Bell., and R. psilopliylla, Eau., would be here 
in their true place. Sub-div. 4. CentifolicB. " Aculeis difformibus, foliolis 
regulosis." In the species it includes, this division is much confused, and 
is not near so good as the two preceding sub-divisions in the connection 
of its species. Here Reichenbach places R. marglnata, Walbr., R. Jundzil- 
liana, Bess., and R. coriifolia, Fries. The two former having the prickles 
uniform, and leaves with scattered glands beneath, have no affinity with 
R. Gallica, L., and ought to be placed among the Rubigiuosce. R. coriifolia, 
Fr., by its habit, prickles, and leaves belongs to the Canince, and not to the 
section which includes Pi. Gallica. Sub-div. 5. NitidcF-. " Foliolis laevissi- 
mis nitidis, stylis subcoherentibus quibusdam hologynis." R.fcetida, Bast, 
which is found here, has not the styles united into a column, but free : by 
its leaves glandulose beneath it is quite a stranger to any species of this 
sub-division. Reichenbach if he had classed all the species of Rosa after 
the sub-divisions of the section AculeoscB would have caused less interrup- 
tion in the natural connection of the species. We may say, however, 
this is one of the best classifications proposed up to now, spite of its imjDer- 
fections. The prickles of the young stems is too variable a character to 
be considered of primary value. 

Koch. — Synopsis Flora Germanicw et Helvetic^,'" (1843), employs 
four sections for his genus Rosa, making use of the position of the carpels 



DESEGLISE ON CLASSIFICATION OF SPECIES OF HOSA. 5<jy5 

as a character of the first order. This character, besides the difficulty of 
ascertaining it, is fur from being unexceptionable : and having endeavoured 
to make use of it myself for a basis of division in this genus, I was obliged 
to cast it aside as offering nothing sufficiently positive, i. Pimpinellifoli-e. 
" Ovaria in centre calycis breviter stipitata, stipite dimidium ovarium non 
attingentc vel subscssilia. Flores solitarii, ehracteati, vel bractea iinica qua 
e folio ad stipulam, rcducta orta est fulti. Stipidi suhconj'ormis. Trunci juniores 
aculeatissimi, aculeis gracilibus rectis vel reversis, sed non recurvatis, 
incequalibus, intermixtis tenuioribus setulosis." Koch, Syn. p. S46. This 
section comprises five species : — Pi. liitea, Mil., R pinipinelUfolia, L., R. 
alpina, L., R. rjentilis, Sternb., and R. reversa, W. & K. Ought not these 
five species rather to form three sections ? ii. CiNNAMo:MEiE. " Ovaria 
in ceutro calycis, breviter stipitata, stipite dimidio ovario breviore. Flores in 
apice ramulorum, 3-5, pluresque, corymbosi, omnes, intermedio excepto, 
bractea fulti ; si flos solitarius ramulum terminat, bractea una alterave 
cum rudimenta floris secundi vel tertii apparet. Stipulce in ramulis floren- 
ibus conspicue latiores, quam in sterilibus. Trunci juniores ut in sectione 
prima." Koch, loc. cit., p. 2 48. This section contains five species : — R. 
cinnamnmea, L., R. turbinata, Ait., R. ruhrifolia, VilL, R. glandidosa, Bell., 
and R. spinulifolia, Dem. What analogy can be found in these five species 
to unite them in the same section ? R. spinulifolia with its glandulose 
leaves, and R. turbinata wilh prickles mixed with glanduliferous setse, can- 
not be in their natural place alongside R. glandulosa, Bell., and Pv. rubrifolia, 
Villars. iii. Ga^'^'ss:. " Ocaria in centro calycis, longe stipitate, stipite ovarium 
(Bquaute. Flores in apice ramulorum 3-5 pluresve, corymbosi, omnes, in- 
termedio excepto, bractea fulti. Stipule ut in sectione prascedente, in 
foliis superioribus ramulorum florentium dilatatcB. Aculei maiores validi." 
Koch, 1. c. p. 250. This section comprises R. canina, L., R. rubiginosa,'Li. 
R. tomenyjsa, Smithy R. ciliato-petala, Koch, (non Besser), and Pi. sgstijla, 
Bast. Nothing can be better than for the Canince to form a separate section ; 
but what can rubigijiosa have in common with canina ? Is R. sijstgla. Bast., 
with its united styles, in its true place here ? iv. Ros.e Nobiles. " Ovaria 
omnia penitus sessilia, stipite destituta. Stipulte conformes, ramulorum 
florentium vix latiores ; hiuc bractere, e stipulis diminutis aphyllis factae, 
angustiores." Koch, 1. c. p. 274. This section encloses three species : — 
R. arvensis, L., R. sempervirens, L., and R. Gallica, L. The two first species 
by their styles, habit, prickles and leaves, are widely removed from B. 
Gallica, L. 



296 THE NATURALIST. 

Geeniee, "FZor^ de i^mnce," (1848), makes two grand sections, i. 
** Stipules all similar, ovaries sessile, styles free or united." This section 
is divided into two sub-divisions, by means of the styles — free, or united 
in a column, ii. " Upper stipules of the floral branches dilated, styles 
fi'ee." This also includes tv/o sub-divisions — ovaries of the centre with 
short or long pedicels. The above is Koch's method reduced to two great 
sections. M. Grenier in his " Catalogue cles pZa»ies du Douba," (1813), 
places the species of Rosa in a much more natural order, though not 
dividing them into sections. 

GoNNET, *' Flore elementaire de la France" (1848), follows the divisions 
and sub-divisions proposed by Reichenbach. 

Reuter, " Catalogue des environs de Geneve,'' ed. 2, (1861), makes five 
sections, the three first after the persistence or decay of the calyx-segments. 
M. Reuter neglects other characters which would have facilitated the 
series ; thus had he attended to the prickles, the entire or pinnatifid calyx 
divisions, to the glabrous, tomentose or glandulose leaves, he would not 
have admitted species which he ought to have excluded. The fourth 
section includes roses with glandulose leaves ; jB. mariglnata, Walbr., and 
Fi,. spinulifolia, Dem., ought to be in this section and not in the Alpince ; 
the same with F. alpestris, Rapin, which having leaves glabrous above and 
glandulose beneath, ought not to be j^laced with the Tomentose^. 

From this account of the different methods proposed for establishing 
sections in the genus Itosa, two of the classifications appear to merit attention ; 
those proposed by Lindley in 1820, and by Reichenbach in 1830.^" These 

(10) I have only considered the works of those authors which I have in my 
possession; my attempts to procure the following monographs having been unsuccess- 
ful, viz.: — Afzelius i)e Rosis Suecards, xi. fasc. Upsal, 1804-13; Andrews Monograph 
of the Genus Hosa, London, 1787; Rcessig Les Hoses, x. fasc. Leipsick, 1800-17; 
Woods Synopsis of the British Species of Bosa, 1816;* Desportes Bosetum Gallicum, 
Paris, 1828. 

* [Since writing this memoir I have received from Mr, J. G. Baker a copy of 
Woods' Monograph of the Roses of England. Woods published this memoir in 1816, 
in the 12th vol. of the Transactions oj the Linnean Society, pp. 159 to 234, a 
remarkable work for the period ! Besides the very careful descriptions, there are 
numerous observations recorded in the paper, which shew that the author had 
carefully and attentively studied the roses of his own country. Woods formed a 
herbarium of 133 specimens of his types, which is now deposited in the rooms of 
the Linnean Society, at London, where they may be consulted and examined by 
all who desire to do so. Mr. Baker has been kind enough to record in the margin 
of the copy he sent me MS. notes relative to the authentic types of Woods, which 
have enabled me the better to recognise the species of the English Botanist. The 



DESKGLISK ON CLASSIFICATION OF SPECIES OF ROSA. 297 

very natural sections ought to have been followed by authors, correcting 
what appeared defective in them, instead of trying to create new classifica- 
tions, which have none of the value of those proposed by these two illus- 
trious savans, who with good reason rejected the divisions of Linneus. If 
it were desirable to make only two grand sections in the genus Rosa, they 
might be established on a single principal character ; taken from the form 
of the styles according to Desvaux ; from the leaves glandulose or gland- 
less beneath, after Rau ; the entii'e or pinnatifid calyx divisions, deciduous 
or persistent, after Walbroth, Loiseleur-Deslonchamps and Renter ; but 
we must still say that this classification presents many great anomalies, 
by interrupting in a grievous manner, the series of species which seem to 
bind themselves together naturally. The prickles, after Reichenbach ; the 
toothing of the leaves after Leman ; the form of the disk as proposed by 
Dumortier; and the carpels used by Koch ; do not offer a better division. 
We may succeed in establishing good sections, when all the species are 
rigorously described, and known from an organographic and physiological 
point of view. But who shall pretend to perfection when he attempts to 
unravel the grand mysteries of nature ! 

The classification which I propose, is not, I know, more than any 
other, beyond the reach of criticism ; and I must ask m}' readers to con- 
sider it only as a fresh attempt to facilitate the knowledge of our French 
species. In' selecting all that is good from my predecessors, I shall 
endeavour to avoid errors as much as possible ; but, alas ! dare I pretend 
to it ? I propose to divide the genus Rosa (for our French species) into 
nine grand sections, which I think are sufficiently natural. After the 
example of De Candolle, Lindley, Seringe, and a great number of authors, 
I preserve the section Systi/Ice ; a very natural section, which may be easily 
recognised at first sight, and which includes but a small number of species. 

i. Systyl^. — Styles united in a column. 

ii. Gallicanj*;. — Low shrubs ; prickles of two kinds, branches more or less 
covered with slender prickles and glanduliferous setoe ; leaves orbicular 
or oval, more or less coriaceous, pale or whitish beneath ; exterior 
calyx divisions pinnatifid, canescent, not persistent on the fruit, 
styles free or near together, but not united in a column. 

little knowledge wliicli I possess of English Roses I owe to Mr. Baker, whose 
friendship, bora under the auspices of botcany, remains with me always as a pleasant 
remembrance] 



298 THE NATURALIST. 

iii. PiMPiNELLiFOLi^. — Uiider-shrubs, generally covered with liorizontal, 
slender, straight prickles ; leaves very small, glabrous, coriaceous, 
rounded or obtuse, somewhat similar to thos3 of Poterium ; calyx 
divisions entire, persistent ; styles free. 

iv. CiNNAMOME^.. — Shrubs, with branches of a cinnamon-hrown colour ; 
prickles of the stems straight, unequal, subulate and setaceous, not 
glandulose, caducous ; those of the branches situate at the base of the 
leaves ; calyx divisions entire, persistent ; peduncles furnished with 
very larye bracts ; styles free. 

T. Alpine. — Stems ivithout prickles, or very rarely armed with setaceous 
spines : leaves glabrous; calyx divisions entire, persistent; styles free^ 

vi. CANiNiE. — More or less elevated shrubs ; prickles uniform, scattered, 
not mixed with glanduliferous sette ; leaves glabrous or villose, never 
glandulose beneath, simply or doubly dentate ; calyx divisions the 
interior entire, the exterior pinnatifii, deciduous before the fruit 
ripens — in a few species of this section they are persistent. Styles 
free, slightly protruded ; flowers rose-colour or white. 

vii. Eglanteri^." — Leaves slightl}" pubescent, and glandulose beneath; 
flowers large, of a bright yellow, or reddish-yellow inside ; styles free. 

viii. RuBiGiNOS^. Prickles strong, hooked, rarely straight, and sometimes 
degenerating at the summit of the flowering stems, into glanduliferous 
setse ; leaves more or less covered with viscous glands beneath, very 
rarely nbove ; external calyx divisions pinnatifid, deciduous, occasion- 
ally persisteni ; styles free. 

ix. Tomentos^.^^ Prickles straight or nearly so ; leaves greij-tomentose or 
softly villose on both sides, as if felted ; peduncles generally all glandu- 
lose ; calyx divisions persistent or deciduous ; styles free. 

{Tg be continued.) 



(11) This section ouglit perhaps to be included in tlie following one {Buhiginosce) 
on account of its glandulose leaves. The colour of the petals, and the form of the 
prickles, ought, however, 1 think, to establish it as a separate section. 

(12) This section includes species with le^ives glandulose beneath, and which 
ought perhaps to be placed in the Jlubif/i)iosce; however, the habit of these plants, 
the clothing of their leaves, and the prickles, are opposed, I thmk, to this union. 



REVlTilW. 



J^09 



''Tlie Entomologists Annual for 1^^^) " 
By H. T. Stain-ton, F.L.S., and 
others. (London, Jno. Van Voorst.) 

This yearly record of Entomolo- 
gical discovery has again made its 
appearance, and we doubt not will 
prove as welcome as any of its pre- 
decessors, although it may not be 
so rich as some in novelties. The 
work opens with a short article on 
Devonshire, by the Editor, Mr. H. 
T. Stainton, but as he seems to 
have been unfortunate in his choice 
of weather for his visits, his experi- 
ence of that county is somewhat 
gloomy. This is followed by 
Translations of two Sketches of 
Travels in Norway, by Dr. Wocke 
and Geo. Ritter von Frauenfeld, and 
then the real object of the Annual 
is commenced ; Mr. W. F. Kirbj 
has a short series of Notes on Eu- 
ropean Butterflies, which is to be 
considered as supplementary to his 
excellent Manual, and in which he 
corrects some errors into which he 
had fallen, and adds information 
since gathered. 

The next article is a Synonymic 
List of British Trichoptera, by Mr. 
R. M'Lachlan ; as this gentleman is 
engaged on a Monograph of the 
British Species, which we are glad 
to hear is in a forward state, he has 
omitted all mention of the unre- 
corded species, nevertheless the list 



will be welcomed by those gentle- 
men who are working up this inter- 
esting order. 

The new species of Coleoptera 
are described by Mr. E. C. Rye, and 
although that gentleman laments 
the scarcity of Insects owing to the 
long continued drought of the past 
summer, we think the discovery of 
J28 species new to Britnin, a fair 
average crop of novelties for one 
season ; of these, two are new to 
science, AntciUa pnncticollis, taken 
by Mr. D. Sharp, in August, at 
Rannoch, and described in the Zo- 
ologist, p. 8999 ; and Ceuthorliyn- 
chideus Poweri, taken by Dr. Power, 
at Weybridge, in June, and also 
taken at Silverdale, near Lancaster, 
by Mr. J. Sldebotham, of Manches- 
ter ; this species was described by 
Mr. Rye at p. 137 of the Entomolo- 
gists' Monthly Magazine. 

" It is an ill wind that blows no 
one luck," and if the past season has 
been too dry for ColeojDtera, Mr. 
Frederick Smith has found it " in 
every respect highly fovourable to 
the aculeate Hymenoptera." He 
records therefore the capture of a 
considerable number of the rarest 
species, and the addition of one new 
one to the British Fauna, Formica 
exsccta, Nyl. ; besides this Mr. 
Smith appends some valuable re- 
marks on the sudden ajDpearance 
and disappearance of species from 
certain localities, and points out 



800 



THE NATURALIST. 



Bournemouth as a place teeming 
with many rarities, his captures 
alone in the month of August num- 
bering no less than 89 species. 

There are three articles on the 
Lepidoptera. Dr. Knaggs furnishes 
notes on new and rare species, ex- 
cept the Tineina, with some inter- 
esting introductory remarks on 
remarkable varieties captured dur- 
ing the year and other matters. The 
list of novelties is very meagre, 
being confined to three, Viz. Nona gria 
brevilinea, found by Mr. C. Fenn, at 
Eanworth, in August ; Eupithecla 
lariciata, Freyer; and E. carnpanu- 
lata, hypothetically found in the larva 
state by the Rev. H. Harper Crewe. 
This latter gentleman furnishes 
descriptions of the larvse of five 
species of Eupithecia, a genus of 
which he is working out the life 
history in a most energetic and 
laudable manner. The Tineina 
are, of course, left in the hands of 
Mr. Stainton, who describes two 
species new to Britain, Depressaria 
olerella, Zeller, captured by Mr. 
Barratt, at Woolmer Forest, near 
Hazlemere, and GelechiaPinguinella, 
Treitschke, taken on the trunks of 
poplars in the neighbourhood of 
London. Besides this, the disco- 
very of the larva of G. Lathyri hav- 
ing shewn, that that species has 
been known to us as G. nigricostclla, 
it is here placed in its proper place. 

Mr. Stainton also furnishes a 



second interesting article on this 
same group of insects, and the vol- 
ume is closed with a review of Mens. 
Lacordaire's great work, the " Gen- 
era des Coleopteres." 

Although, on the whole, the num- 
ber of new species for the past year 
is very small, we think there is room 
for congratulation in the importance 
of some of the observations made 
upon already known species, and we 
are of those who think that the 
elucidation of an unknown portion 
of the life history of a known insect 
is as important as the discovery of 
a nev/ species. We trust that even 
if the number of discoveries should 
year by year grow less, as it may 
be expected to do, Mr. Stainton 
will still favour us with his Annual 
of Entomological news ; it may now 
fairly be reckoned a serial publica- 
tion, to the advent of which Ento- 
mologists look forward as a source 
of pleasure and profit. 



The West-Riding Consolidated Natur- 
alists' Society. — The annual meeting 
of this union of Yorkshire Natural- 
ists was held at the Royal Hotel, 
Wakefield, on the 7th of January, 
Henry Oxley, Esq., President of 
the Wakefield Society, in the chair. 
The proceedings were commenced 
by the chairman adverting to the 
honor done the Wakefield Society, 



REPORTS OF SOCIETIES. 



301 



by so large an attendance of repre- 
sentatives from other towns, and lie 
gave them a most hearty wel- 
come. The Secretary then read the 
report, in which was contained a 
congratulation to the members on 
the satisfiictory state of the finances: 
an additional incorporation of the 
Chayton-West and Morley societies, 
so that the " Consolidation " is now 
represented by the Huddersfield, 
Halifax, Wakefield, Leeds, Heck- 
mondwike. Norland, Clayton-West, 
and Morley Societies. During the 
past year there have been three 
general, one annual, and four dele- 
gate meetings. The Book of Pro- 
ceedings shows a realization, to a 
tolerable degree, of the "dissemina- 
tion of knowledge in the various 
branches of Local Natural Science, 
together with the exhibition and 
exchange of specimens," for which 
the union was originally established. 
" The Naturalist, and Journal of 
the West-Riding Consolidated Na- 
turalists' Society," was begun in 
May last, and has proved a decided 
success. Thanks have been voted 
and tendered to Geo. Busk, Esq., 
Hon. Sec. of the Linnean Society, 
and to J. W. Dunning, Esq., Hon. 
Sec. of the Entomological Society, 
London, for assistance and encour- 
agement rendered. A list of the 
societies, patrons, officers, commit- 
tees, and members of the Consoli- | 



dation, giving also the study and 
address of each individual member 
was published and distributed, and 
as a means of reference this has 
proved of great value. The report 
was then adopted unanimously. 
Mr. Hepworth, of Wakefield, intro- 
duced the question of the desira* 
bility of each Society making full lo- 
cal lists of the Natural History speci- 
mens found in each neighbourhood, 
with a view to the ultimate publica- 
tion of the same, from which could 
be formed " a Flora and Fauna" of 
each locality. The prospects and 
condition of each society was re- 
spectively spoken of by the repre- 
sentatives present, showing a general 
prosperity. A revised list of mem- 
bers for the present year was decided 
to be published. The meetings for 
the ensuing year, and the officers 
were then appointed, Mr. Benjamin 
Bradley, Sheepridge, near Hudd- 
ersfield, being unanimously re- 
elected Secretary. Mr. Schofield 
exhibited some beautifully mounted 
botanical specimens. There were 
also exhibited specimens of Lepi- 
doptera. Shells, &c. The Secretary 
exhibited the- skin of a snake, ten 
feet in length, from the Cape. A 
vote of thanks to the Secretary for 
his services during the past year, 
and a vote of thanks to the chair- 
man, brought this very interesting 
meeting to a close. 



302 



THE NATURALIST, 



Physa liypnorum occasionally car- 
nivorous. — Having collected some 
specimens of Physa hypnorum, and 
being desirous of keeping them 
alive, I put them into a glass along 
with two specimens ofLiihncea auri- 
cularia: looking at them a day or 
two after I was surprised to find 
three empty shells of P. hypnorum, 
but could find no trace whatever of 
their bodies ; I immediately blamed 
the L. auricularia for the mischief 
done and put them into another glass, 
on looking again three or four days 
after I found some more shells emp- 
ty, but this time caught five or six 
of the real delinquents busily feed- 
ing on the dead body of one of their 
comrades, and one of the empty 
shells had a rather large hole in the 
whorl next to ihe body whorl. — W. 
Nelson, Freehold-street, Leeds. 



Some of the Rarer Moths found 
AT High Wycombe. 

Smerinthus ocellatus. Very fine im- 
ago taken 1864, in an orchard. 

8. Tilim. Imago brought to me last 
year (ls63). 

Acherontia atropos. There have been 
five larvae taken this year from po- 
tato grounds, of which I had two 
very fine ones. 

Sphinx convolviili. Very fine imago 
taken in 1863, in a garden. 

S. ligustri. Larvae and imagos taken 
1864. 



Macroglossa stellatarum. Two imagos 
caught hovering over geraniums 
in a garden, 1864. 

Zeuzera (bscuU. Dean Garden Wood. 

Cossus ligniperda, ( larvae only from 
cherry tree). Wycombe Marsh. 

Procris staticcs. Wycombe Marsh. 

Ourapieryx sambucata. Four Ashes. 

Tephrosia consnnaria. Keep Hill. 

Metrocampa margaritaria. In the 
woods. 

Geometra p)apilionaria. Marlow Hill. 

Arnphydasis hetularia. Wycombe 
Park. 

Abraxas ulmata. Downley. 

Strenia clathrata. Very widely dis- 
tributed. — Hy. Ullyett. 



Scottish Summits. — No. I. 
(Ben Venue.) 
July 4th, 1864. Ben Venue, like 
so many of the Southern Grampians, 
consists of mica schist, intersected 
with veins of quartz. Its height is 
2388 feet. On the ascent from the Tro- 
sachs I first observed the Alchemilla 
alpina, readily distinguished from its 
sister of the plains by the silky 
under-coating of the foliage. A tiny 
willow (Salix herhacea) was creeping 
abundantly among the boulders on 
the top, and gave evidence of having 
flowered, though shyly. Its reticu- 
lated leaves were blistered by small 
red galls, each containing the larva 
of a Tenthredo. This willow is 
usually indicative of a micaceous 
soil. The moss that chiefly clothes 



OBSEKVATIONS. 



3oa 



the summits of the Grampians is 
Trichoslomum hmuginosum. I met 
with it in fine fruit in several of the 
mountain corries both on lien Venue 
and lien Lomond. The Crowberry 
[Empctruiii uii/ruin), the bei'ries of 
which are sought after by the Ptarmi- 
gan and IMack Grouse, was here grow- 
ing in plenty. It is not uncommon 
on the moors around Huddei'sfield. 
The Cloudberry {Rubus Chamamorm) 
was abundant in alluvial soils on the 
mountain sides, though the berries 
were still green. I'he beautiful 
yellow Saxifi'age [Saxifraga aizoides) 
was clustering round every spring 
in company with the Starry Saxi- 
frage, (S. stellaris) the latter often 
growing among tufts of moss. The 
petals in these species are respec- 
tively marked with red and yellow 
spots. Another of the Saxifrages, 
(S. opposUifollaJ with its rich purple 
flowers, was nearly Over, though I 
gathered several late blooms from 
sheltered places. Four of the six 
British Lycopods put in an appear- 
ance on the summit of Ben Venue : 
the least (L. Selaginoldes) I found 
growing among Hypnwi and fruit- 
ing plentifully. This species is, 
I believe, hardly known in the 
south of our island. The Mountain 
Sorrel {Oxyria reniformis) grew plen- 
tifully on the side facing Loch 
Katrine. I am surprised that this 
succulent-leaved sorrel is not more 
frequently seen in our kitchen gar- 



dens, as it readily adapts itself to 
lowland cultivation. The Rose- 
I'oot {fiadiola rosea) was growing out 
of the clefts of the rock. The otto, 
for which this plant is known, ex- 
ists in kernels imbedded in the 
pulpy stem, and the perfume when 
these are bruised, is very powerful. 
My attention was first drawn to this 
circumstance by Mr. Guthrie, the 
gardener at Fixby Park. On de- 
scending I came upon vast tracts 
of spongy ground covered with the 
Sweet Gale (Mijrica G(de). This 
plant, I learned from an intelligent 
sheep farmer in the neighbourhood, 
is very injurious to the young lambs 
in the spring of the year, inasmuch 
as astringency is communicated by 
it to the milk of the ewes, that are 
apt to feed upon the budding leaves; 
and mortality not unfrequently pre- 
vails in consequence at this season 
of the year. I noticed a singular 
little Carex, growing with the Gale, 
known by the name of Carex pidi- 
caris ; the fruit thereof is brown and 
refiexed when ripe, and has some 
resemblance lo a flea, as the name 
imports.— Peter Inciibald, Storthes 
Hall, Jan. lOth, 1805. 

Boletus cyancscens.'^' — The occur- 
rence of this species during the past 
autumn appears to me a fact of too 
much importance to pass unrecorded. 

* The substance of a paper read before 
the Society of Amateur Botanists, (Lon- 
don), October, 1864. 



804 



THJ-: NATUUALIST. 



Towards the close of September I 
found three specimens in the neigh- 
bourhood of the village of Neatis- 
head, in Norfolk, growing by the 
roadside at the bottom of a hedge- 
bank. It should be remembered 
that this species of Boletus has 
hitherto only found a place in our 
Flora on the authority of Sibthorpe 
(Fl. Oxon. 1055), who found it in 
Magdalen College Walks during the 
month of September. I am not 
aware that it has been found in 
England either before or since ; in- 
deed, in "Berkeley's Outlines" it 
is stated " not found since the time 
of Sibthorpe." More recently I 
placed it amongst " Doubtful or 
extinct species " in my Indeo) Fun- 
gorum. From the three specimens 
which I collected I was enabled to 
note the following particulars. The 
pileus was at first globose, after- 
wards convex, of a color so nearly 
like that of the ordinary uncultiva- 
ted forms of Agaricus campestrls that 
at first I took them for robust young 
specimens of the " mushroom." 
The cuticle was to the touch like 
the softest of French kid leather, 
dull, with a tendency to darken in 
color by age. The flesh was com- 
pact, brittle, and of a very pure 
white when broken, gradually, but 
not so rapidly as in some other 
species, becoming blue, at first cae- 
rulean, deepening into full " cobalt ;" 
at length leaving a carbonaceous 



stain where it had been of the 
deepest blue. The stem in all the 
specimens of a somewhat loose tex- 
ture, and brittle, not in the least 
fibrous, snapping readily, but hollow 
in none. In all there was a diminu- 
tion of diameter upwards and down- 
wards so as to be truly ventricose. 
Of the same color as the pileus in 
the upper portion, but dark brown 
at the base, melting into each other, 
without any distinct line of separa- 
tion. The tubes were perfectly free 
from the stem, short, round, and of 
a pallid primrose tint. The spores 
were undoubtedly colorless, twice as 
long as broad, and sometimes longer, 
and narrowed towards each extrem- 
ity. The specimens were found in 
two localities about a quarter of a 
mile apart. The soil was gravelly, 
and in both instances the fungus 
was growing amongst grass. The 
above description will be found to 
agree in the principal features with 
that given by Bulliard, and I have 
no doubt of their identity. — M. C. 
Cooke. 

Lepidoptera. — I have the following 
for exchange : — S. Tithonus, S. hy- 
peranthiis, P. linea, C. diluta, B. 
perla, C. cuhicularis, T. fimbria, N. 
glareosa, G. DaJilii, A. litura, M. Pisi, 
A. myrtili, M. Belgiaria, A. clii, and 
L. multisttigaria.' — William Shaw, 
No. 16, Back Park-street, Newroad 
End, Leeds. 



305 



NOTES ON THE ORNITHOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 



By T. E. Gunn, Esq. 



Hen Harrier. A mature female was killed at Hickling on the 24tU 
instant. In its stomach were the remains of Emheriza citrinella. 

Varieties. Strix Jiammea. Two nice varieties of this species 
have lately heen taken in this neighbourhood. The first example, 
a male, was killed about the 10th of November last; the under parts 
of its plumage instead of being the natural hue, white, were of a uniform 
buff colour ; the upper parts were marked as usual, only of a somewhat 
darker tint. The second individual, an adult female, was obtained about 
the 5th or 6th instant, its plumage being of a similar hue to that of the 
above example, only of a darker tint. This one has been preserved and is 
now in our museum. Fringilla domestica — a female piebald variety was 
shot on the 12th ult. at Reedham, its plumage being speckled with small 
patches of white, a band of white extended from the outer margin of one 
wing, across its rump to the outer margin of the other. Scolopax rustlcola. 
A splendid pied variety, a male specimen was killed at Melton Constable, 
on the 19th of November. The first three quill feathers in one wing ; the 
first three, and the fifth up to the tenth inclusive, in the other wing were 
of a pure white, without the slightest indications of any markings whatever ; 
the fourth quill feather in the latter being of its natural colour and markings, 
with the exception of a small spot of white at its tip ; a few white feathers 
were also scattered over and near the outer margins of its wings. The 
piebald variety of the Woodcock is indeed of very rare occurrence here, 
this being only the second instance I have observed during the last six 
years in the eastern counties ; the first, which was also a male example, 
a sketch of which is given in Young England, vol. iii. page 213, was 
killed in the neighbourhood of Lowestoft, in Suffolk, on the 18th of 
March, 1859. Anas boschas. I saw a female on the 23rd of November, 
the plumage, mor particularly about its head, neck, and upper parts, was 
marked with patches of white. I have in two or three instances met 
with similar specimens before at this season of the year. 
No. 20, Feb. 15. X 



306 THE NATUEALIST. 

Snow Bunting. I have seen but one single individual of this species, 
which happened to be a male ; it was shot out of a small flock at Long 
Stratton, on the 9th of last month. 

Dipper. A male of this species was killed at Buxton on November 
the 14th, by Mr. Gambling, who resides in that district ; he very kindly 
presented it to the collection in the Norwich Museum. It was preserved 
by Mr. T. Knights of this city. Ginclus aquaticus is rather rare in Nor- 
folk, I have noticed but very few instances of its occurrence here; I 
remember two examples being taken in the winter of 1859-60, one in this 
neighbourhood, and the second at Beeston Regis, near Cromer. I have 
also seen a fine adult specimen which I am informed was taken at the 
back of the New Mills, Norwich, a few years since. 

Quail. On December 7th, a nice male specimen of Perdix coturnix 
was killed on Ranworth broad. Its crop and stomach contained two or 
three kinds of seeds, with the addition of a few small pebbles in the latter. 

Stone Curlew. On the 3rd ult., Mr. Geo. Cooke shot a fine exam- 
ple of this bird, at Great Melton, near Wymondham. I believe the Stone 
Curlew is becoming rather scarce, as I have noticed but very few instances 
of its occurrence during the last few years. 

Golden Plover. On Tuesday, the 6th instant, three individuals 
were killed on Upton broad, all were very fat and in good plumage. 

Bittern. A mature male of Ardea stellaris was killed on the 28th 
instant, at Burgh, near Yarmouth. In dissecting it, I found its stomach 
to contain a perch [Perca fiimatilis) 7^ inches in length, it was much 
bitten and partly decomposed, but not so much so as to prevent me from 
distinguishing the species ; a few pieces of reed were also taken from its 
stomach, they being most probably swallowed with the fish. 

Green Sandpiper. Yesterday a mature female was shot at Langley ; 
in its gizzard were the remains of a few small snails and aquatic insects. 

Spotted Rail. I saw one on the 3rd ult. in our fishmarket. 

Grey Phalarope. A male killed on the 17th instant, length from 
tip of beak to end of tail 8| inches, wing from carpal joint to tip 5|- inches ; 
beak -I of an inch ; iris dark hazel approaching to black. 

Wild Fowl. This being so mild a winter at present, wild fowl do 
not appear to visit us in any very great numbers, I have observed but two 
very rare birds during the whole of the season. I will, however, just 
glance over the more particular occurrences. Several individuals of the 
Wild, or Hooper Swan {Cygnus musicus) have been obtained during the 



GUNN ON THE ORNITHOLOGY OF NORFOLK 307 

past two months, but tlicy appear mostly to be immature specimens. 
Four or five examples of the Gokleneye Duck (Anas clangula), — one, 
a splendid old male was shot at Reedham about the 24th instant, the 
remainder were females and immature specimens. I have also seen 
several good adult birds of the Scaup, Tufted Duck, and other common 
fowl. An immature male of the Eider Duck [Anas molllssima) was killed 
on Hickling broad, about the 12th of November last, it was in poor condi- 
tion. This species is of extremely rare occurrence in Norfolk, as very few 
individuals are ever observed so far south as this county, they are, how- 
ever, pretty abundant in the north, in Shetland, Iceland, and other 
northern localities, where during the summer they breed in considerable 
numbers. An adult male of the Velvet Scoter {Anasfusca) was purchased 
on the 20th instant in our fishmarket; it was apparently killed the previous 
day, on our coast, and was in poor condition and probably driven to land by 
stress of weather. Its entire length from beak to tail was 21 J inches ; tip to 
tip of wings 3 feet ; wing from carpal joint 11 inches ; bill 2| inches in 
length, If inch broad, nostrils black, tip of a pale reddish colour, sides of 
upper mandible of a beautiful deep orange, edges black, tip of lower man- 
dible pale orange ; inner sides of legs and toes of a reddish orange, the 
outer sides inclining to a more pinkish hue, as also was the under surface 
of its toes, membranes black, toes the same ; irides pearly white. Two 
Smews [Mergus albellus) were obtained about the 23rd instant, the first was 
killed at Salthouse, and the second was purchased in our fishmarket ; 
both were females. A few individuals of the Redbreasted Merganser 
[Mergus serrator) have been killed on our broads, being chiefly females and 
young birds ; a nice specimen of the former was killed on the 2nd ult. on 
the river at the back of Hellesdon mills, about four miles below Norwich. 
I have also seen three or four individuals of Mergus merganser ; a female 
was taken alive at Morton, about a fortnight since, by Mr. Stimpson, 
farmer, of that parish ; he was going over his field one morning when he 
saw the bird in question sitting on the edge of a knoll next the fence, he 
set his dog upon it which very soon captured it ; the bird had previously 
received an injury which prevented its escape. 

ScLAVONLVN Grebe. Mr. J. Pear, bird stufi*er, of this city, received 
for preservation on the 20th ult., a nice immature bird of this species, it 
having been killed by a marshman a day or two before on Surlingham 
broad. 

Great Northern Diver. On the 24th instant an immature female 



308 THE NATURALIST. 

was killed on the sea-beacli at Wells. Tt measured 33 inches from tip of 
beak to tip of tail : wing from carpal joint I4j inches ; bill 4j inches, the 
upper mandible projecting -^ of an inch beyond the tip ot the lower. 
The whole of the upper parts of its plumage are of a blackish hue, feathers 
margined with grey. It was in pretty good plumage, and exceedingly fat. 
Immature specimens of Cohjmhus glacialis are not very unusual on the 
Korfolk coast during the winter. I noticed the occurrence of three indi- 
viduals last winter season ; two being obtained at Blakeney, near Wells, 
and the other at Horeton. 

Gulls. I have not seen any rare examples of the Laridce this season, 
only a few adult birds of Larus mariyius, and several immature specimens 
of Larus argentatus. 

Leach's or Forktailed Petrel. An adult male of this species was 
picked up dead on the 25th of November last, in the neighbourhood of 
East Bradenham. In condition it was extremely poor and had apparently 
been dead several days. From beak to tail, both included, it measured 
8 inches ; wing from carpal joint 6| inches, from tip to tip when extended 
18 inches. Its head, neck, and back of a sooty black ; wing coverts rusty 
brown ; the tertails tipped with white. The tail is forked (hence the 
name), the feathers of which are black, the two outer ones extending 
half an inch beyond the tips of the others ; upper tail coverts white ; breast 
and belly sooty black ; behind its thighs and extending over the sides of 
its vent is an elongated patch of white ; vent, sooty black ; beak, black ; 
irides, dark hazel ; legs, feet, and toes, black ; the former are an inch io. 
length. 

Norwich f December 31s^, 1864. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE DIFFERENT METHODS PROPOSED 
FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE SPECIES OF THE 
GENUS BOSA, Lin. 



By Mons. Alfred Deseglise. 



(Continued from page 298 J 
The first section may be easily recognized by its styles. The Galli- 
cancB are generally small undershrubs, of 50 centim. to 1 metre (19 to 39 in.) 



DESKGLTSE ON CLASSIFICATION OF SPECIES OF ROSA. 309 

in height, having prickles mixed with gUmcluliferous setse, and pedun- 
cles always glandulose ; it may by these characters be easily distinguished 
from the Systylcc. The Cinnamomece, from their upriglit branches and 
free styles cannot be confounded with the Systylce ; whilst their leaves, entire 
calyx-divisions, the bracts on the peduncles, and their prickles, readily 
separate the section from the Gallicancc. The PbnpinelUfoUm — which are 
small undershrubs covered w^itli numerous prickles, leaves very small, 
calyx-divisions entire persistent, and free styles — cannot be confounded 
with the Sijstijlce. By their habit, the species of this section approach the 
GallicaucB, from which they differ by their prickles, leaves, and calyx- 
divisions. The AlpiiKB, somewhat resembling the Cinnamomece, are dis- 
tinguished from it by their unarmed stems, peduncles without bracts, and 
a habit and aspect different from all the others. The CanincB are ordin- 
arily elevated shrubs, with flexuose branches, bending or straight, prickles 
uniform, more or less robust, leaves glabrous or villose, but not tomentose 
as in the TomentoscB, calyx-divisions pinnatifid ; by which diameters it may 
easily be distinguished from the CinnamomeoB, Pimpinellifolia, and AJpince. 
The Eglanteri(E are recognised by their yellow flowers ; a rare colour in the 
genus Rosa, in which white and rose-colour predominate. The RubiginoscB, 
with leaves always glandulose, bear a character by which they may be at 
once distinguished from all the other sections. The Tomentosa by their 
leaves and prickles are easily distinguished from both the Rahujinosce and 
Canin(B. 

N.B, — In the following Synopsis the mark '-!< signifies that the species 
has hitherto only been found in England ; f signifies that the 
species is found both in France and England. The species with- 
out mark are found in France but not in England. 



SYNOPSIS SPECIERUM. 

Section I.— SYSTYL.E. Lindley, Monog. p. Ill (ISaO) ; Godet, Flore 
du Jura (1853), p. 204.— Synstyl^. De Cand. Cat. Monsp. (1813), p. 
137 ; Desv. Journ. Bot. (1813), vol ii. p. 112 ; Seringe in De C. Prod. 
(1825), vol. ii. p. 597 ; Dub. Bot. (1828), vol. i. p. 175 ; Bor. Fl. du 
Centre de la France (1840), vol. ii. p. 135 ; Deseg. ess. Monog. in 
Mem. de la Soc. Acad, de M. & L. (1861), vol. x. p. 49 et extr. p. 
9 ; — NiTiDii:. Rchb. fi. excurs. (1830), vol. ii. p. 623 in part ; — 
NoBiLES. Koch Syn. (1843), p. 254 in part. 



310 THE NATUEALIST. 



a. Leaves persistent. 



1 K. sempervirens, L. 
% E. scandens, Mill. 



3 E. prostrata, D.C. 

4 E. Euscinonensis, Des. k Gren. 



6. Leaves deciduous, calyx-divisions entire or shortly 1-9-pinnatifid, 
styles close together in a protruding column, equal to or longer than the 
stamens. 



8 E. arvensis, Huds. f 

9 E. repens. Scop, f 



5 E. bibracteata, Bast, f 

6 E. conspicua, Bor. 

7 E. rusticana, Deseg. 

c Leaves deciduous, exterior calyx-divisions pinnatifid, styles in a 
column more or less protruded. 



10 E. fastigiata, Bast. 
HE. systyla, Bast, f 



12 E. leucochroa, Desv. 

13 E. stylosa, Desv. 



Section II — GALLICAN^. De Gand ; Besser, enumerat. pi. Pod et Vohl. 
(1822), p. 60 ; Deseg. 1. c. p. 50 and p. 10 ; — CiNNAMOMEiE. Seringe 
1. c. p. 602 in part ; Duby 1. c. p. 176 in part ; Lorey and Duret fl. de 
la Cote d'Or (1831), vol. i. p. 304, part ; — Centifoli^. Lind. Monog. 
Trans. De Pronville (1824), p. 66 part ; Echb. 1. c. p. 622 part ;— 
NoBiLEs. Koch 1. c. p. 255 part ; Eeuter Cat. Geneve, ed. 2, (1861)^ 
p. 73 part ; — Diastylje trib. dimorphacantli(B, Godet. 1. c. 
a. Styles approaching in a villose column, or agglomerated in a 

bristling column, as long as, or longer than, the stamens. 

14 E. hybrida, Schleich. | 15 E. arvina, Krock. 

h. Styles free, glabrous. 

16 E. arenivaga, Deseg. 
c. Styles free, bristly. 



17 E. geminata, Eau. 

18 E. Borseana, Beraud. 

19 E. Austriaca, Crantz. 

20 E. incarnata. Mill. 

d. Styles free, woolly. 
24 E. Gallica, L. i 26 E. pumila, L. pi. 



21 E. virescens, Deseg. 

22 E. sylvatica, Tausch. 
93 E. decipiens. Bor. 



25 E. Provincialis, Ait. j 27 E. rivalis, Deseg. 

Section III.— PIMPINELLIFOLT^, De C. (nonKoch) ; Besser, 1. c. 
p. 60 ; De Pronville (Lindley) 1. c. p. 48 part ; Deseg. 1. c. p. 51 and 
p. 11 ; — CiNnamome^. Seringe 1. c. ; Duby I. c. part ; Lorey et Duret 
1. c. part; Alpine. Eeuter, 1. c. p. 63 part; — Diastyl^ trib. 
leptacanthcB, Godet 1. c. 



DESEGLISE ON CLASSIFICATION OF SPECIES OF KOSA. 



311 



98 R. Hibernica, Sm. * 

29 R. involuta, Sm. * 

30 E. rubella, Sm. f 

31 Ft. mitissima, Gmel. 

32 R. spinosissima, L. f 



33 R. myriacantha, De C. 

34 R. Ripartii, Deseg. 

35 R. Ozanonii, Deseg. 

36 R. spreta, Deseg. 

37 R. consimilis, Deseg. 



Section- IV.— CINNAMOME/E. De C. (non Koch); Besser 1. c. ; Seringa 
1. c. part ; De Pronville (Lindley) 1. c. p. 32 ; Lorey et Duret 1. c. part ; 
Duby 1. c. part ; Deseg. 1. c. p. 50 and 10 ; — Diastyl^ trib. dimorpha- 
cayithce, Godet 1. c. 

38 R. cinnamomea, L. \ dO R. Baltica, Roth. 

32 R. fraxinifolia, Borkh. 

Section V. — ALPINE. Deseg. 1. c. pp. 51 and 11 ; — Canine. Seringa 
1. c. p. 611 part ; Duby 1. c. p. 177 part ; — Pimpinellifoli-e. De 
Pronville (Lindley) 1. c. part ; Koch 1. c. part ; — Diastil/E trib. lepta- 
canthce et trib, homaacanthce, Godet 1. c. 



41 R. Sabauda, Rapin. 

42 R. alpina, R. 

43 R. pyrenaica, Gon. 

44 R. Monspeliaca, Gon. 



45 R. pendulina, L. 

46 R. lagenaria, Vill. 

47 R. sufferti, Kirskl. 

48 R. rubrifolia, Vill. 



Section V.— CANIN.E. De C. ; Besser 1. c. ; De Pronville (Lindley) 1. c. 

p. 97 part ; Seringe 1. c. part ; Duby 1. c. part ; Lorey et Duret 1. c. 

p. 307 part ; Rchb. 1. c. p. 619 ; Koch 1. c. ; Deseg. 1. c. pp. 52 and 

12 ; Renter 1. c. p. 69, excl. R. stylosa ; — Diasttl^ trib. campyla- 

canthce, Godet 1. c. 

Trib i. — Nud.e. Leaves glabrous, simply or doubly dentate, peduncles 
glabrous, styles free. 



49 R. canina, L. f 

50 R. nuda. Woods. * 

51 R. Crepiniana, Deseg. * 

52 R. subcristata, Baker. * 

53 R. Watsoni, Baker. - 

54 R. senticosa, Achar. 
65 R. fallens, Deseg. 

56 R. Touranginiana, D. et Rip. 

57 R. ramosissima, Rau. 

58 R. globularis, Franch. 

59 R. spuria, Puget. 

60 R. sphaerica, Gran. 



61 R. Schultzii, Rip. 

62 R. aciphylla, Rau. 

63 R. Malmundariensis, Lejeune. 

64 R. squarrosa, Rau. 

65 R. rubelliflora, Rip. 

66 R. rubescens, Rip. 

67 B. dumalis, Bechst. f 

68 R. adscita, Deseg. 

69 R. armatissima, D. et Rip. 

70 R. biserrata, Merat. 

71 R. Reuteri, Godet. 



312 



THE NATURALIST. 



Trib. ii. — Hispid^. Leaves glabrous, simply or doubly dentate, pe- 
duncles always hispid,^glandulose,^styles free. 



72 E. montana, Vill. 

73 R. glandulosa, Bell. 

74 R. Cliavini, Eapin. 

75 E. Caballicensis, Puget. 

76 E. Salaevensis, Eapin. 

77 E. Perrieri, Songeon. 



81 E. vinealis, Eip. 

82 E. Kosinsciana, Bess. 

83 E. vertillacantha, Merat. 

84 E. Acharii, Bieb. 

85 E. Haberiana, Puget. 

86 E. psilophylla, Eau. 

87 E. gallico-canina, Eeut. 
81 E. macrantha, Desp. 



78 E. Pouzini, Tratt. 

79 E. surculosa, Woods. * 

80 E. Andegavensis, Bast, f 

Trih. Hi. — ViLLOs^. Leaves more or less villose above or below, pe- 
duncles glabrous, villose or glandulose, styles free. 



89 E. erythrantha, Bor. 

90 E. obtusifolia, Desv. 

91 E. csesia, Smith. * 

92 E. pruinosa, Baker. * 

93 E. canescens, Baker. * 

94 E. dumetorum, Thuil. f 

95 E. urbica, Leman. f 

96 E. platypbylla, Eau. f 

97 E. uncinella, Bess, f 
Section VIL— EGLANTEEI^. 



98 E. coriifolia, Fries, f 

99 E. celerata, Baker. * 

100 E. corymbifera, Borkh. 

101 E. Deseglisei, Bor. 

102 E. Bellavallis, Puget. 

103 E. approximata, Deseg. 

104 E. collina, Jacq. 

105 E. Friedlanderiana, Bess. 

106 E. alba, Lin. 

Deseg. 1. c. p. 51 ; — Cinnamomejs. 



Seringe 1. c. ; Duby 1. c. ; — PiMPiNELLiFOLiiE. Koch 1. c. part. 
107 E. lutea, Miller. 

Section VIII.— EUBIGINOS^. De Cand. ; Besser 1. c. ; De Pronville 
(Lindley) 1. c. p. 86 part ; Echb. 1. c. p. 617 (excl : B j^silophijlla) ; 
Deseg: 1. c. pp. 53 and 13 ; Eeuter 1. c. p. 71 ; — Caninji:. Seringe 
1. c. part ; Duby 1. c. ; Lorey et Duret, 1. c. part ; — Diastyl^ trib. 
campylacanthce, b. resinoso-glanduloscB, Godet 1. c. 
Xrih. i. — Glandulosa. Leaves with scattered glands, ordinarily 

somewhat abundant. 



108 E. tomentella, Leman. f 

109 E. similata, Puget. 

110 E. Blondseana, Eip. f 

111 E. trachyphylla, Eau. 

112 E. Wasserburgensis, Kirskl. 

113 R. Pugeti, Bor. 



114 E. flexuosa, Eau. 

115 E. pseudo -flexuosa, Ozan. 

116 R. speciosa, Deseg. 

117 R. nemorivaga, Deseg. 

118 R. Jundzilliana, Bess, f 

119 R. gallico-umbellata, Reuter. 



DESEGLISR ON CLASSIFICATION OF SPECIES OF ROSA. 



313 



Trib. a. — PsEUDO-RUBiGiNosJs. Leaves glabrous beneath, covered with 



viscous glands. 

120 R. Borreri, Woods. * 

121 R. Kluliii, Besser. 

122 R. Lugdunensis, Deseg. 

123 R. Lemanii, Bor. 

124 R. Cheriensis, Deseg. 

125 R. Seraphini, Viv. 

126 R. acrrestis, Savi. 



127 R. sepium, Thuil. f 

128 R. arvatica, Puget. f 

129 R. mentita, Deseg. 

130 R. vinacea, Baker. * 

131 R. cryptopoda, Baker. 

132 R. Virgultorum, Rip. 

133 R. Biturigensis, Bor. 



Trib. in. — Rubiginos^. Leaves ordinarily pubescent beneath, and 
covered with resinous glands. 



134 R. Jordani, Deseg. 

135 R. permixta, Deseg. 

136 R. rubiginosa, L. f 

137 R. septicola, Deseg. 

138 R. echinocarpa, Rip. 

139 R. umbellata, Leers. 

140 R. comosa, Rip. 

141 R. marginata, Walbr. 

Section IX.— TOMENTOS.E. ^ 
(Lindley) 1. c. p. 75 part; Rchb 
Deseg. 1. c. pp. 54 and 14 ;- 
Lorey et Duret 1. c. ; Koch 1. c 
Godet 1. c. 

149 R. vestita, Godet. 

150 R. Dicksoni, Lindl. * 

151 R. cuspidata, Bieb. f 

152 R. Tunoniensis, Deseg. 

153 R. omissa, Deseg. 

154 R. Annesiensis, Deseg. 

155 R. dimorpha, Bess. 

156 R. gracilis, Woods. * 

157 R. Doniana, Woods. * 

158 R. Sabini, Woods. * 

Lamothe d'Insay. 



142 R. nemorosa, Lib. f 

143 R. micrantha, Smith. 

144 R. rotundifolia, Rau. 

145 R. foetida, Bast. 

146 R. Bakeri, Deseg. * 

147 R. spinulifolia, Dematr. 

148 R. terebinthinacea, Bess. 

iLLOS^. Besser 1. c. ; De Pronville 
. 1. c. p. 615, (excl. B. glandidosa, Bell) ; 

Canine. Scringe 1. c. ; Duby 1. c. ; 

p. 250 ; — DiASTYLiE trib. ortliocantha. 



159 R. Wilsoni, Bor. 

(Perhaps should be in Section;iii.) 

100 R. tomentosa, Sm. 

161 R. scabriuscula, Sm. * 

102 R. subglobosa, Sm. f 

163 R. Andrzeiouskii, Bess, f 

164 R. moUissima, Fries, f 

165 R. resinosa, Sternb. f 

166 R. minuta, Bor. 

167 R. Grenierii, Deseg. 

168 R. pomifera, Herm. 



314 



THE NATURALIST. 



SOME ADDITIONS TO GIBSON'S '' FLORA OF ESSEX. 



Bt James Britten. 



In tlie following list will be found the names of many plants which 
botanists may generally consider common. But though these may be 
frequent throughout many counties, they do not appear to be as yet thus 
accounted in the present one ; as in the " Flora of Essex,'' special localities, 
and sometimes but few of them, are given for all the species mentioned 
below. The small district of country between Ingatestone and Stock, and, 
indeed, the whole of the immediate vicinity of the latter place, appears to 
have been overlooked by Essex botanists ; and the same may be said of 
the neighbourhood of the little village of Eunwell, distant about five miles 
from Stock : and it is in the hope of filling up this gap, that I have drawn 
up the following, trusting that it may not be uninteresting to some of the 
readers of ** The Naturalist." 



Ranunculus auricomus. Woods, 
Buttsbury, and Stock. 

R. hirsutus. Cloverfield, Butts- 
bury : abundant in cornfields about 
Stock, with R. arvensis. 

Nuphar lutea. Elm-brook, near 
Buttsbury Church. 

Chelidoniummajiis. Hedges, Stock. 

Lepidiuni campestre. Sides of fields, 
&c., Buttsbury. 

Polygala vulgaris. Stock Common. 

Arenaria trinervis. Hedges about 
Stock, abundant. 

Oxalis Acetosella. White's Wood, 
Buttsbury ; not at all common in 
this neighbourhood. 

JEuonymus eiiropceus. Hedges, 
Buttsbury, &c. 

Medicago maculata. Abundant at 
the foot of a wall in Stock, near the 
Church. 



Trifolium prociimbens. Field near 
Buttsbury Church. 

Lathyrus NissoUa. Hedge betwen 
Buttsbury and Stock. 

Orobus tuberosus. Bishop's Wood, 
near Stock. 

Pyrus torminalis. Hedge at Run- 
well, sparingly. 

P. aucuparia. Bishop's Wood, 
Stock, abundant. 

Chrysosplenium oppositifolium ; — 
Adoxa moschatellina. White's Wood, 
Buttsbury. 

Viburnum Opulus. Hangman's 
Wood, Buttsbury. 

Bunium flexuosum. Hangman's 
Wood, &c. 

Asperula odorata. Wood at Stock, 
and White's Wood ; it appears but 
sparingly in this neighbourhood. 

Vinca minor. Copse at Stock. 



BRITTEN ON THE FLORA OF ESSEX. 



315 



Elm-brook, 



Bishop's 



Hangman's 



F. major. Hedge between Ingate- 
stone and Buttsbury, an escape. 

Cuscuta Trifolii. Cloverfields, 
Buttsbury ; frequently too abundant. 

Orobanche Bapum. Buttsbury, 
1857-58. 

Myosotis versicolor. Bank near 
Bun well. 

Hhinanthus crista-galli. Meadows, 
Buttsbury, sparingly ; abundant 
about Runwell. 

Lamlum Galeohdolon. Hedges 
near Stock, plentiful. 

Stachys Betonica. Hangman's 
Wood. 

Veronica montana. Hangman's 
Wood, abundant, said to be not 
common " in the county." 

Primula vulgaris. Most abundant 
about Buttsbury, &c. 

P. veris. Buttsbury, very spar- 
ingly- 

Listera ovata. Hangman's Wood, 
&c. 

Lysimachianemorum. About Stock ; 
and in Hangman's Wood. 

Anagallis ccerulea. Once seen near 
Eunwell. 

Orchis Morio. Meadows near 
Ingatestone and Margaretting. 

Some of the local plant-names 
Morio is called ** Cuckoos," but this name is applied indiscriminately. 
Stellaria Holostea is very appropriately named " Snap-crackers ;" and 
Veronica Chamcedrys, " Cat's-eye." Anthriscus sylvestris, and most of the 
hedge UmhelUferce, own to the elegant cognomen of " Cow-mumble ;" and 
other examples might be given. 



0. mascula. Woods and meadows, 
Buttsbury. 

O. maculata. Brett's Wood, Butts- 
bury ; and near Brentwood. 

Hottoniapalustris. Pond inWhite's 
Wood, where it has been recently 
destroyed. 

Epipactis. Two examples of a 
species of this genus were noticed 
in June last in Hangman's Wood : 
They were probably E. lalifolia, but 
were in too young a state for positive 
determination. 

Iris pseud-acorus. 
Buttsbury. 

Convallaria majalis 
Wood, Stock. 

Luzida sylvatica. 
Wood, &c. 

Equisetum Telmateia. About Run- 
well. 

Polypodium vulgare ; — Polystichum 
aculeatum. Hedgebanks, Butts- 
bury, &c. 

Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum. Bank 
near Stock. 

A» Tricliomanes. Bank, near 
Stock. Miss Hardy. 

Blechnum boreale. Wood, near 
Stock, abundantly. 

are rather extraordinary. Orchis 



316 



THE NATURALIST. 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

XXIX. session III. MEETING. 

The society met on Thursday, 
12th January, at 5, St. Andrew 
Square — Professor Balfour, V.P., in 
the chair. — The following commu- 
nications were read : — 

I. Account of Excursions to the 
Mountains at the head of Loch- 
Lomond, to Ben Lawers and the 
Sow of Athole, in August and 
September, 1861. By Professor 
Balfour. 

In this paper the author gave an 
account of an excursion made with 
pupils to Inverarnan, at the head of 
Lochlomond ; and of excursions to 
Ben Yoirlich, Benmore, Binnain or 
Stobbinnain, the Cobler, Benima, 
and the shores of Lochlomond, from 
August 9th to 13th. Among the 
more interesting plants noticed were 
the following : — Saglna nivalis, on 
Binnain, along with Draba rupestris, 
Carex vaginata, and Polypodimn 
alpestre ; on Ben Voirlich all the 
ordinary alpine species were col- 
lected. On August 20th Dr. Balfour 
visited the mountain called the Sow 
of Athole, and gathered on it Phyl- 
lodoce ccerulea, Azalea procumbens, 
Lycopodiiimannotinu77i,Cornussuecica^ 
and other alpine plants. On 25th 
August he made an excursion to 
Ben Lawers, and found abundance 



of Sagina nivalis on the spot, where 
he had gathered the plant in 1847. 
He also picked Saxifraga cernua, 
Draba rupestris, and numerous other 
alpine species. Specimens of the 
plants were exhibited, and remarks 
were made on the local distribution 
of plants in Scotland, specimens 
being shown of species confined to 
single localities and of others only 
found in two or three places. 

II. Notice of Dilivaria ilicifolia (Juss), 
sent from Old Calabar by Mr. 
Hewan, and now flowering in the 
Edinburgh Botanic Garden. By 
Professor Balfour. 

Dr. Balfour showed specimens 
of the plant from the Botanic Gar- 
den. He agreed with Dr. Thomas 
Anderson in thinking that it cannot 
be separated from Acanthus. He 
gave a description of the plant, and 
mentioned that the seeds had been 
sent from Old Calabar by Archibald 
Hewan, Esq., medical missionary 
there. 

III. Notice of 7?osactZ/?ma(Deseglise), 
found naturalised near Perth. By 
F. B. W. White, M.D. 

Dr. White stated that he had 
gathered this rose in the depth of 
the woods on Kinnoul Hill, near 
Perth, where it seems to have fairly 
established itself. He gave a de- 
scription of the plant and exhibited 
specimens from the locality. The 
plant is not uncommon on the Con- 
tinent. 



OBSEKVATIONS. 



817 



IV. Among the extracts from bota- 
nical correspondence, communi- 
cated by Professor Balfour, was : 
A letter from the Rev. James 
Farquharson, noting some of the 
rarer plants which occur in the 
neighbourhood of Selkirk, among 
which are Trientalis europmt, yeottia 
nidus-avis, Lathrcpa sqiiamaria, Plan- 
tago media, Blysmus compressus, do. 

Mr. Sadler exhibited specimens 
of Cystopteris fragilis var. interriipta, 
which he had picked in Glen Farg, 
near Bridge of Earn, in 1863. 

Dr. James Stirton, Glasgow, sent 
specimens of Mniiim cocldearifolium, 
found by him on the hills behind 
Dunoon. 

Specimens were exhibited of Sa- 
gina ciliata (Fries) and Arenaria 
leptodados (Guss), which had been 
transmitted from Old Machar, Aber- 
deenshire, by Mr. John Sim ; also 
specimens of Simetliishicolor (Kmiih.), 
from Bournemouth, and of Phalaris 
jparadoxa (L) from Swanage, trans- 
mitted by James Hussey, Esq., of 
Salisbury. 

Mr. John M'Donald exhibited a 
peculiar monstrous condition of a 
double Roman narcissus. 

Dr. Greville sent a specimen of 
the common Carnation exhibiting 
monstrosity in flowers, all the floral 
envelopes being changed into scales 
or bracts. 

Piofessor Balfour announced the 
painful intelligence of the death of 



Dr. W. Balfour Baikie, one of the 
early members of the society, who 
had distinguished himself by his 
discoveries in Africa. He died of 
dysentery at Sierra Seone, on 30th 
November last. 



The Natterjack Toad.— The Nat- 
terjack, (Bvffo calamita,) of which 
I have several specimens in my 
Reptile Vivarium, is at once distin- 
guishable from the Common Toad, 
by the very bright yellow line along 
the vertebral column. The general 
colour is a sort of olive striped with 
black, and dark green on the flanks 
and legs. It is also spotted with 
red tubercles, giving it altogether 
quite ahandsome appearance. When 
surprised they begin walking or 
running off" (at a pace between the 
two). They always go in pairs. 
They seem to be more delicate than 
the common species, as mine scarcely 
ever enter the water at this season, 
while the latter frequently do. I 
find them most commonly on sunny 
days, where a pond has nearly dried 
up. Mine are now tame enough to 
eat out of my hand. Their food 
consists of worms and insects, which 
they catch by their tongues in the 
same way as the other species. 
Their croak is hoarser than that of 
the Toad. I have now a Toad which 
croaks whenever handled ; and a 
Croaking Natterjack of my catching 



318 



THi: NATURALIST. 



is in the Zoological Gardens. A 
person inhabiting a disused sema- 
phore, on a heath in Surrey, says 
that they do great mischief in his 
garden by digging their sleeping 
holes in the seed beds. These holes 
are dug straight for a few inches, 
and then there is a passage at right 
angles to the perpendicular one, in 
which the reptile lies . The man calls 
the Natterjacks, " Goldenbacks." I 
find them on heaths in the parishes 
of Cobham and Wisley, Surrey. 
They are also found (as I have been 
told) in Norfolk, near Norwich, and 
in Suffolk, near Southwold. I shall 
be very glad to send specimens to 
any naturalist who will write and 
ask me. I also should like to know 
of any other locality where they are 
to be found. — W. K. Tate, 4, Grove 
Place, Denmark Hill, London. 



Scottish Summits. — No. II. 
(Ben Lomond.) 
July 6th, 1864. Ben Lomond, 
like Ben Venue, consists of the mica 
schist formation, with the veins of 
quartz more strongly developed. 
Its height is 3,199 feet. My ascent 
was from Inversnaid, not far from 
Hob Boy's cave. The sides of the 
cascnde near the inn are covered 
with the Filmy Fern, [Hymenojphyl- 
lum Wilsoni), which was fruiting 
abundantly where it was exposed to 
the spray. Higher up the moun- 
tain torrent, the graceful Oak-fern 



(Polypodium Vryopteris) and the 
Beech-fern (P. Phegopteris) were 
growing side by side, imbedded in 
Sphagnum. Still higher the fra- 
grant Shield-f em (Lastrosa Oreopteris) 
told of its presence. I now diverged 
from the stream, and skirted Loch 
Lomond in the direction of the 
mountain. Here the Royal Osmund 
(Osmunda regalis) grew most luxuri- 
antly, covering a considerable tract, 
and throwing up its fruiting spikes 
in great abundance. The oak copse 
where the fern grew, seemed to be 
the resort of the Gad-fly [Tabanus 
bovinus) so much dreaded by the 
black cattle in the summer, and 
whose loud humming may be often 
heard when the sun is the hottest. 
I noticed on the ascent several 
plants of the Spignel {Meum Atha- 
manticum) with its finely divided 
leaves. This montane plant is 
known in old herb-gardens under 
the name of bald-money. As I came 
within sight of the summit, I heard 
the wild cry of the Curlew {Nume- 
nius arquata) that kept ever varying 
its singularly shrill notes the nearer 
I approached. And now I began to 
climb the shoulder of Ben Lomond. 
Every now and then an Alpine hare 
{Lepus variabilis) would rush away 
from its seat among the bent-grass. 
The change of coat takes place in 
this species in September, when the 
whole fur becomes quite white, 
with the exception of the ears, which 



OBSERVATIONS. 



319 



always remain black. In summer 
the fur is tawnj, with a plentiful 
sprinkling of black. The Alpine 
hare does not associate with its 
neighbour of the plains, and rarely 
leaves its home on the mountain- 
side. The Alpine flowers now be- 
gan to appear. First and foremost 
was Sihhaldia lorocumbens, a Poten- 
tilla-looking plant that is readily 
recognised by its ternate leaves and 
tridentate leaflets. Then Silene 
acaulis, one of the pink tribe, with 
its light-green cushion-like tufts and 
rose-coloured flowers attracted no- 
tice. Cerastium alpinum is a charm- 
ing alpine plant. Its woolly leaves 
and snow-white flowers may well 
rival our border foliage-plani so 
generally in cultivation, under the 
name of C. tomentosiim. A pretty 
little rush, rejoicing in the name of 
Juncus trifidus, was growing in 
shaded places, near the very summit 
of the mountain, with GnaiJhaUum 
supimim, a very dwarf Everlasting, 
that flowers when only an inch or 
two high. These, and the others 
previously noticed on Ben Venue, 
were duly consigned to my botany- 
case. — Peter Inchbald, Storthes 
Hall, Feb. 3rd, 1864. 



Bomhyx Cynthia.'^ — It has long 
been supposed, and it is still the 

* The substance of a Paper by Lady- 
Mary Thompson, of Sheriff Hutton, read 
before the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, 



belief of many, that silk is obtained 
exclusively from Bomhyx Mori. 
Bomhyx Cynthia is also a silkworm, 
and has been reared at Sheriff 
Hutton Park, in the open air, on 
plants of Ailanthus glandulosa. It 
is a native of the colder parts of 
China, and some of the living 
cocoons were sent thence in 1856 
by a Piedmontese missionary (the 
Abbe Fantoni) to his friends at 
Turin. From Piedmont it was 
introduced into France, where the 
cultivation is now being pursued 
with profit by independent persons, 
and also by others with assistance 
from the Government. Though 
the silk of this insect is already 
used extensively in France, it is 
only as spun silk, that is to say 
carded like wool, instead of being 
wound direct from the cocoon in a 
continuous thread, as in the case of 
the mulberry silkworm. Having 
watched the caterpillar in the act 
of spinning, it does not appear to 
me that there is an impossibility in 
obtaining a continuous thread. The 
difficulty arises from the threads 
being laid more compactly than 
those of the mulberry silkworm, and 
being cemented with a gum which 
we have not yet the secret of dis- 
solving. The cocoon of the Bomhyx 
Cynthia is formed with an elastic 
opening for the egress of the mature 

by Luke Thompson, Esq. Communicated 
by Mr. John Ranson, of York. 



320 



THE NATURALIST. 



insect, and the supposition was that 
such an opening could not be made 
unless the threads were cut ; but 
that, however, has already been 
proved to be a mistake. From 
France the insect has been brought 
into England. The experiment of 
its acclimatization was first tried by 
Lady Dorothy Nevill, at Dangstein, 
near Petersfield, Hampshire. In 
the autumn of 1863 (with a view to 
a similar experiment), some Ailan- 
thus were planted in the garden at 
Sheriff Hutton Park ; and in the 
spring, two w^ere set in pots in the 
greenhouse, as it seemed not un- 
likely that the worms might do 
better on the living tree than on 
sprays gathered and placed in water, 
which was the method usually 
adopted. My wish of making the 
experiment (of how far the climate 
of this part of England might suit 
these silkworms) becoming known 
to Lady Dorothy Nevill, she very 
kindly made me a present of two 
dozen newly hatched worms, which 
reached Sheriff Hutton Park at 
half-past seven o'clock on the morn- 
ing of June 30th. They were tirst 
supplied with fresh gathered leaves, 
and, within two hours, 23 were 
placed on one of the plants in the 
greenhouse; the other worm, though 
alive when the letter was opened, 
died shortly afterwards. In this 
situation they throve satisfactorily, 
making changes, the description of 



which, by Mons. F. Blain (in a 
little publication entitled *' Le ver 
a sole de I'Ailante et son education 
en Anjou," is so accurate that I 
prefer using it, to attempting one 
of my own. One little omission, 
however, I must supply in its place. 
"The first age is the interval which 
passes from birth to the first change ; in 
this age the young caterpillar is blackish., 
and its length is about four millimetres 
(about one-sixth of an inch ) The sec(md 
age is that which separates the first change 
from the second. The body of the cater- 
pillar at that time is yellow, with the 
head, the points of the segments, and the 
tubercles black. It measures from eight 
to ten millimetres long; and in the third 
age the body is from fifteen to seventeen 
millimetres long, it is soon covered with a 
waxy substance, quite white, intended to 
shield it from the rain." 

Mon^. Blain has omitted to notice 
that at this age the tubercles grow 
into (as it were) pyramids, or, rather, 
obelisks, each one capped with a 
black spot, the insect presenting a 
more singular appearance than it 
does at any other time. While in 
the greenhouse three worms unac- 
countably disappeared, twenty only 
remaining for the open air experi- 
ment. On Friday, 15th July, the 
plant was taken, with the worms on 
it, from the greenhouse, and placed 
under the Ailanthus in the garden 
(which, as a safeguard against birds, 
had been netted over), and the silk- 
worms soon dispersed themselves 
over the trees. The change from 
a heat of upwards of 70 degrees to 
a low summer temperature seemed 



OBSEUVATIONS. 



asi 



contrary, to invigorate them, and 
they grew rapidly. Shortly after- 
wards, however, one died, appa- 
rently in the attempt to move from 
one to another of the trees. The 
changes proceeded regularly, the 
worms increasing wonderfully in 
size in the course of a very few days. 
One, however, remained in the waxy 
stage, and seemed utterly unable to 
divest itself of that skin. Mons. 
Blain's description of these changes 
is as follows : — " In the fourth age 
the waxy substance still exists, but 
the body and tubercles from white 
pass little by little to green ; the 
head and the feet become of a beau- 
tiful golden yellow, as well as the 
last segment. At that time it 
attains from twenty to twenty-five 
millimetres. In the fifth age the 
green colouring becomes more de- 
cided ; the extremity of the tuber- 
cles is blue ; it has on the last 
segment a blue border, as well as a 
little speck of the same colour at 
the rise of its membranous feet. It 
quickly acquires a length of from 
eighty to ninety millimetres ; in 
this condition it eats less, its 
colouring becomes yellowish, after 
which it loses no time in finding 
one or two leaflets, which it fastens 
firmly to the principal stalk, in 
order to fix its cocoon." On Friday 
the 29th of July, between seven and 
eight o'clock in the evening, the 
gardener noticed that one was spin- 
No. 21, March 1. 



ning, and before morning it had 
covered itself up entirely. On 
Sunday, the 31st, another began, 
and, by two o'clock, bad made con- 
siderable progress, but, rain coming 
on, prevented me observing it. 
After this there never was a day 
when cocoons were not begun, and 
by the afternoon of the 3rd of 
August (the last opportunity I had 
of seeing the worms), twelve had 
already covered themselves up. On 
my return home the gardener re- 
ported to me that, in the week 
beginning Sunday, the 14th, three 
died, owing, it may be supposed, to 
a violent hailstorm, for they never 
seemed to thrive after it. This loss 
left only one remaining to spin, the 
one the changes of which had been 
so protracted. On Saturday, the 
20th August, I saw it ; it had grown 
to be larger than any, and appeared 
extremely vigorous. Up to the 
evening of Monday, the 22nd, it 
was eating voraciously ; but, on 
Tuesday morning, it was found at 
the foot of its tree, and it died soon 
afterwards ; the great cold of the 
night was probably the cause. Wed- 
nesday, 24th, gathered all the 
cocoons, fifteen in number, fearing 
that, as the thermometer had been 
down in the night to the freezing 
point, the cold might injure the 
chrysalids. Friday, 20th, divested 
the cocoons of all leaf, and hung 
them up in a temperature seldom 



322 



THE NATURALIST. 



lower than sixty, and occasionally 
warmer. On Friday, the 23rd of 
September, about 7.30, a bat, sup- 
posed to be in the room in which 
were the cocoons, was caught, and 
proved to be a Bomhyx Cynthia. 
The specimen was unfortunately 
greatly injured by being caught w^ith 
the tongs ! It was caged in a basket 
where it lived between ten days and 
a fortnight. During the day it 
remained very tranquil, towards 
evening increasing in liveliness, and 
being invariably in a state of excite- 
ment in the night. On Wednesday, 
the 19th of October, about twenty 
minutes past five o'clock, p.m., 
another Bomhyx emerged from its 
cocoon. The expansion of its wings 
proceeded visibly but unequally, the 
upper one on the left side keeping 
much in advance of the others. It 
should be mentioned that the worms 
generally, previous to spinning, 
attained the full size given by Mons. 
Blain (80 to 90 millimetres) and 
some even exceeded it. It may be 
observed that the worms on arriving, 
were apparently of the same age, 
nevertheless there was an interval 
of three weeks between the spinning 
of the first on the 29th July, and 
the death of the last without spin- 
ning, on the 22nd August. The 
Ailanthus has been long known in 
England as an ornamental tree, 
bearing all the changes of our 
variable climate ; the silk worm, to 



judge by the limited experiment at 
Sheriff Hutton Park, can be raised 
in the open air even in Yorkshire. 
It is scarcely therefore being too 
sanguine to hope that at no distant 
time a new cultivation will be prac- 
tised, which may contribute some- 
what to the prosperity of the coun- 
try. In order to pursue the ex- 
periment as rapidly as possible, the 
propagation of the plant has been 
tried at Sherifi" Hutton Park by 
several different methods, namely : 
By pieces of the root which struck 
readily, by seeds sown in a cool 
frame, and by seeds sown in an 
open border, which last succeeded 
the best, a crop of vigorous young 
plants appearing in about four 
weeks. Believing that the climate 
of this part of Yorkshire is not 
unsuitable, and that the Ailanthus 
would grow well in not fertile land, 
I had some few planted in a sandy 
situation, but the extraordinary frost 
of the 1st June destroyed the young 
foliage, though it did not kill the 
trees. It was mentioned in a 
French publication, that owing to 
the very unpleasant odour of the 
Ailanthus glandulosa it was safe 
from the attacks of ground game ; 
a statement which I am sorry to say 
my experience does not confirm, 
rabbits having injured the trees 
planted in a spot to which they had 
obtained access. 



OBSERVATIONS. 



323 



Small Birds. — In the interesting 
report of the Leeds Naturalist 
Society, in No. 18, of the " Natu- 
ralist," reference is made to the 
scarcity of small birds in France. 
I beg leave to point out that this 
scarcity is probably in consequence 
of the insufficiency of breeding 
accommodation. On this subject 
Mr. Thompson, the Irish naturalist, 
remarked many years ago ; — " Tra- 
vellers in the north of France cannot 
but perceive the almost total absence 
of birds in that district. The coun- 
try is open, and rarely broken by a 
hedgerow ; and thus shelter being 
denied them, they seek more fa- 
voured spots." Nearly all the small 
insectivorous birds breed in hedges, 
bushes, or coppices. Another fact 
is further explanatory of this paucity 
of birds in France : the French kill 
nearly everything that flies, how- 
ever small it may be, for the table. 
In Italy as well as France, birds as 
small as the robin, are regularly 
killed for food. Allusion is made 
by Mr. Dixon to Blackbirds, in a 
way which seems to imply that the 
practice followed by gardeners and 
others of destroying them is repre- 
hensible. I can affirm that the 
blackbird is a great pest in an 
orchard ; I have had ample oppor- 
tunity of judging of its orchard 
habits. It is perhaps the most 
frugivorous of all the thrushes. It j 
has a particular fondness for goose- j 



berries. The injury it does among 
the gooseberries must not be esti- 
mated by what it consumes. Many 
are pecked at, and rendered value- 
less, and then left. The Blackbird 
is not such a friend to gardeners as 
many seem to suppose. It feeds 
partially on insects only during 
about two months of the year, April 
and May. In June it turns to fruit, 
and lives almost entirely on fruit or 
seeds, cultivated or wild, throughout 
the summer and winter to the end 
of March. In the winter months it 
lives much on fallen fruit. — George 
Roberts. 

The Recent Exhumation of Bones 
of the Great Auk. — A very interesting 
fact in connexion with Ornithology, 
which has but recently come to 
light, is the discovery of some fos- 
siliferous remains of the Great Auk 
{Alca impennis), in the ancient shell- 
mounds and deposits in Caithness. 
This bird is now utterly extinct in 
Europe, having but lately died out 
in Ireland, but said to survive in 
the inhospitable wilds of Spitzbergen 
and Greenland. The bones of the 
Alca impennis are of very frequent 
occurrence in the Danish kjokken- 
moddings, or refuse heaps, where 
by some, they have been thought to 
imply great antiquity and a more 
glacial climate, but it is believed 
that they have never been found in 
any tumuli or mounds of a later 
formation than these primeval de- 



324 



THE NATURALIST. 



posits. The residuary bones dis- 
covered in the shell-mounds of 
Caithness have been satisfactorily 
identified by Professor Owen, as 
belonging to the Alca impennis, and 
which form the first direct evidences 
of specimens of the bird having been 
taken on our northern coasts. Or- 
nithologists now, in their future 
classifications, may hesitate no 
longer in including the Alca impen- 
nis as a genuine old British bird, 
though an inhabitant, probably, of 
our northern rock-bound coasts, at 
some period anterior to the Roman 
occupation. Professor Owen con- 
cludes that, from the presence of 
bones of the Great Auk among the 
remains of the ancient Caithness 
people, the bird is clearly proved to 
be entitled to a place in the records 
of our British birds. As may be 
supposed, from the extreme limits 
to which, in the Arctic regions, it is 
now principally confined, our ac- 
quaintance with its habits and eco- 
nomy is extremely imperfect. The 
northern latitudes are more con- 
genial to the habits and ichthyolo- 
gical predilections of the Great Auk, 
to which they afford a wider and 
more extended sphere, than our 
own and adjacent climates. The 
wings are but partially developed, 
and incapable of sustaining it in 
serial locomotion, thus necessitating 
the adoption of an aqueous mode 
of existence, for which in other 



respects it is admirably adapted. 
The most northern limitation of 
the Great Auk is unknown, for so 
far, however, as our most intrepid 
Arctic explorers have penetrated, 
there the Auk has always been seen. 
It is rarely seen on shore except 
during the breeding season. The 
Little Auk {Uria alle) is one of 
the hardiest and most diminutive 
of the Auk tribe, and is met with in 
the locality of Baffin's Bay and 
Melville Island, in large flocks, 
where they appear to enjoy the in- 
clemency of the climate as much 
as their human companions the 
Esquimaux. In Greenland and 
Spitzbergen they s^varm in count- 
less numbers, watching for the 
breaking up and dispersion of the 
great icefields, when they search 
for Crustacea in the fissures of the 
broken and dissolving ice. They 
very rarely pay a visit to this coun- 
try, indeed, those that have been 
seen are more probably impelled by 
the violence of Arctic storms, than 
as visitants in search of a resting 
stage for the season. Another 
species which is found also in the 
northern regions is the Eazor-billed 
Auk (Alca tordaj, but which, unlike 
its congeners the Great and Little 
Auks, is a frequenter of warmer 
latitudes and more temperate climes, 
including the sea-boards of France, 
Holland, Germany, and Great 
Britain. The Alca torda is very 



OBSERVATIONS. 



325 



common in Scotland — and in the 
Hebrides are several of their breed- 
ing places. — E. Foxion - Firby, 
F.A.S.L., F.E.S., Loc. Sec. A.S.L., 
etc., Grewelthorpe, Ripon. 



Scottish Summits. — No. III. 

(Ben Voirlicii.) 
July 14t.h, 1864. My next climb 
was Ben Voirlich, at the head of 
Loch Lomond. Height 3,100 feet. 
Here again we have the mica-slate 
formation, with veins of intersecthig 
quartz. I followed in the track 
traced out by Professor Balfour, 
who had ascended this mountain 
with his botany-class some years 
previously. Crossing the lake im- 
mediately opposite Inversnaid, I 
skirted the stream till I came to 
Loch Sloy, where the ascent begins. 
Loch Sloy is not so much fished as 
the other Lakes, it offers conse- 
quently good sport to the angler, if 
he will be satisfied with small-sized 
fish, for the trout are generally 
small. It is a wild, lonely gorge, a 
favourite resort of the raven, which 
here croaks in security. During 
my ascent of Ben Voirlich, I made 
acquaintance with the Red and Black 
Grouse and the Ptarmigan, each occu- 
pying its own belt on the mountain. 
They would all seem to be common 
to most of the mountain ranges 
around the Lake. I saw my old 
friends among the Alpine plants, a 
stranger occasionally putting in an 



appearance. Among those not pre- 
viously noticed, was the Alpine rue, 
{Thallrtriim alpimim) a pretty little 
plant with shining deep-green leaves, 
and a spike of tiny white flowers. 
I found it growing amongst the 
grass, and clustering around the 
springs and rivulets. Occasionally 
in the crevices of the rock there was 
the Alpine hawkweed, {Hieraciiim 
alpinum) growing like so many of 
its kindred of the plains in the 
driest spots. I had a good oppor- 
tunity, by the aid of my field-glass, 
of studying the habits and plumage 
of a young cuckoo, which had been 
hatched by the titlark. I could not 
ascertain whether both birds fed the 
foster-child. I think they did. It 
was very eager for its food, uttering 
incessantly a little impatient note, 
like that of the young robin. The 
titlark had to stand on tip-toe to 
feed her nursling. Its plumage 
was brown, and the bars of the 
feathers on the back were darkly 
defined. At a lower altitude than 
GnaphaUum supimnn, grew G. dioi- 
cum, with its lovely rose-coloured 
everlasting flowers and white under- 
foliage. The Bladder fern fCystop' 
teris fragilis) was there in all its 
varieties, and they are not a few. 
On the topmost cairn, the lonely 
Wheatear was sitting as sentinel, 
uttering his harsh notes, the only 
sound that broke the silence of the 
solitary summit. All round the 



3SG 



THE NATURALIST. 



cairn of stones there was a perfect 
cushion of Tricliostomum, as soft 
as any Turkey carpet. It seldom 
fruits, however, at such an altitude. 
The clouds gathering in Glen Fal- 
loch, and coming along at race-horse 
speed, warned me to descend, and 
I had hardly gone down many yards 
before I saw the whole summit 
shrouded in dense cloud. During 
the descent, I saw patches of the 
Dwarf Juniper and Cowberry (Vacci- 
nium Vitis-Idcea ) , ripening their 
berries for the grouse. Twilight 
soon came on, and the Nightjar 
( Caprimulgus Earopceus) began to 
utter his purring notes in the fir 
plantings below, and the Grasshop- 
per Warbler (Sylvia LocustellaJ his 
cricket-like notes in the fenny copses. 
I was glad to get back safe again 
to Inversnaid.^ — Peter Inchbald, 
Storthes Hall, Feb. 17th, 1804. 



I am desirous of exchanging the 
following Land and Fresh Water 
Shells for Marine Shells : — Cyclas 
rivicola, C. cornea, C. cornea var. 
stagnicola, C. lacustris, Fisidium amni- 
cum, Unio tumidus, U. pictorum, Ano- 
donta cygnea, Dreissina polymorpha, 
Neritina fluviatllis, Paludlna Listen, 
P. vivipara, Bithinia tentaculata, B. 
Leachii, Valvata piscinalis, Clausilia 
nigricans, Azeca tridens, Zua luhrica, 
Succinea putris, Physa fontinalis, P. 
hypnoruni, Planorhis corneus, P. alius, 



P. glaber, P. nautileus, P- carinatus, 
P. marginatus, P. vortex, P. spirorbis, 
P. nitidus, Limncea peregra, L. auricu- 
laris, L. truncatidus, L. glabra, L. 
palustris, Ancyclus fiuviatilis, A. ob- 
longa, Cyclostoma elegans, Vitrina 
pellucida, Zonites cellarius, Z. alliarius, 
Z. nitidulus, Z. py/rus, Z, excavatus, 
Z. crystallinus. Helix aspersa, H. 
pomatia, H. arbustorum, H. Cantiana, 
H. hybrida, H. virgata, H. virgata, 
var. alba, H. caper ata, H. ericetorum, 
H. lapicida, H. rufescens, H. sericea, 
H. aculeata, H. fulva, H. fusca, H, 
rotundata, Bidimus acutus, B. obsciirus, 
Pupa umbilicata, Clausilia laminata. 
Parties not receiving answers in three 
days must conclude that their offers 
are not accepted. — George Lumb, 
Tobacconist, Kirkgate, Wakefield. 

I have duplicates of the following 
in fine condition : — P. Machaon, P. 
cratcegi, C. Edusa, M. Artetnis, V. 
C- Album, V.polychloros, V. cardui, N, 
lucina, S. tilice (bred), S. Ligustri 
(bred), H. velleda, P. statices (fine), 
C. dominula, L. monacha (bred), 0. 
fascelina, D. coryli (bred), T. cratoegi 
(bred), P. popidi (bred), B. neustria 
(bred), S. carjnni (bred), E. vespertaria 
E. apiciaria, V. maculata, Il.pennaria. 
N. zonaria, A, prodromaria, A. betu- 
laria, S. chithrata, M. albicellata, M. 
tristata, E. cervinaria, P. lacertida, P. 
falcida, C. cur tula, G. anachoreta, C. 
reclusa, P. palpina, N. camelina, D. 
coeruleocephala, T. derasa, T. batis, C. 
Jluctuosa, C. diluta, Z. littoraUs, L^ 



GIBB OX THE MUSTELID.C OF NORTHUMBERLAND. .3Q7 



comma, L. phragmitidis, N, despecta, 
G.Jiavago, X. sublustris, X. hepatica, 
X. scolopacina, H. popularis, C. gra- 
minis, A. connexa, A. saucia, A. 
triticl, T. janthlna, T. Jlmhria, N. 
glareosa, N. brunnea, N. Dahlil, 0- 
suspecta, X. citrago, X. cerago, X. 
silago, O. diffinis, C. affinis, D. cap- 



sincola, P.Jlavocincta, E. vvimmlis, 
C. verbasci. A. myrtilll, A. luctuosa, 
P. V-aureum, A. pyramidea, T. pas- 
tinum. — Parties not receiving an 
answer within one week, may con- 
sider I am not in want of their 
insects. — William Talbot, Mount 
Pleasant, Wakefield. 



©rightal "^xixtkn. 



NOTES ON THE MUSTELID.E OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 

No. 1 : — The Otter. 



bt t. h. gibb. 



Otter {Lutra vulgaris.) — Representatives of all the British Mustelidse 
are to be met with in Northumberland, these embrace Martes abietum, 
Putorius fcetidus, Miistela fiiro, Mustela vulgaris, Mustela ermina, Meles 
Taxus, and Liitr a vulgaris, and believing that a few brief notes respecting 
each genus of this interesting family may not be altogether uninteresting 
to the readers of the *' Naturalist," I am induced to offer them, beginning 
with the last named, Lutra vulgaris. Perhaps of all our indigenous 
mammalia, there is not one with which we have less acquaintance than 
the otter. Its nocturnal and crepuscular habits, its extreme intuitive 
caution, and the readiness with which it can in its native haunts conceal 
every movement, render it at all times a difficult matter to obtain even a 
passing glimpse of this predacious denizen of our sylvan trout streams. 
He who would witness him in his native wilds, must be possessed of no 
small amount of perseverance. Evening after evening, he must place 
himself in ambush where an otter is known to frequent, and if after 
repeated watchings he fails to discover him, he must try and try again 
until his efforts are crowned with success, when I feel assured he will be 
amply repaid for all his anxious " hours of vigil," for I know of no finer 
sight in nature than to see a pair of otters in the sweet twilight of a 
summer's eve, performing their graceful evolutions in some limpid stream. 
They will lead you into the loveliest glades and most romantic dells, 
*' 'mongst budding hazel groves," and where " the pensive willow sweeps 
the ambient pool," for these are their especial haunts. 



398 THE NATURALIST. 

It would be superfluous in me to dwell on the habitat of the animal, 
for this is well known, and for the same reason I need not mention how 
admirably he is formed and fashioned to perform the part allotted him in 
the animal economy. I will therefore proceed at once to a few particular 
and less familiar traits I have observed in his character : — 

The inquisitiveness of the otter surpasses that of most other conge- 
nerous species, and to satisfy which, he has been known to sacrifice his 
own safety, and sometimes even life itself — I have seen the otter 
frequently during the late hours of a summer's evening— on his piscatory 
excursions, and when stillness and the shades of night gave him full 
opportunity of displaying his natural habits and instincts without " let or 
hindrance," and on such occasions, if a wild duck in his evening flight 
inland happened to alight in a stream, or perchance in aff'right to fly from 
one within sight or hearing of an otter, in an incredible short space of 
time the animal would be upon the spot to ascertain the cause of the 
disturbance. And at a late hour at night, I have occasionally approached 
the brink of a stream where an otter was fishing, and very soon a small 
oval shaped object would protrude from the surface of the water in close 
proximity to where I stood — it was the head of the otter,'his body entirely 
submerged, and his two small jet bliick eyes peering inquisitively upon 
me — and coul^ an otter's lips articulate, his certainly would have uttered 
the apostrophe often repeated elsewhere, " Stranger, what of the night !" 
His presence was vouchsafed but for a minute, and then withdrawn, this 
small space of time being deemed by him sufficient to satisfy his curiosity. 

And to be convinced of the otter's inquisitorial propensities, I have 
repeated the test on several occasions with difl'erent individuals, and 
always with the like result. Notwithstanding the innate shyness and 
ferocity of the otter, he is when captured young, capable of becoming 
remarkably docile, and of yielding to kind and persuasive influences. 
Instances are on record of it having been tamed to capture fish and bring 
them on land to its master. Some years ago, a person of the name of 
Hermble, an unostentatious Waltonian, then living in Rotlibury, a small 
village situated on the river Coquet, some twenty miles west from its 
confluence with the ocean — possessed an otter so wonderfully domesticated, 
that it went about ad libitum, and associated with all the canes familiares of 
the village. And when strangers would call to see him, " Sam" as he 
was called, was often to " seek up" from amongst his companions in the 
street, or they would be requested to leave their card, and call again when 



GIBB ON THE MOSTELIDJi: OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 399 

lie could not be found. " Sam" was also trained to " fish" and during 
the autumnal floods which brought the salmon up the river in great 
numbers to deposit their spawn on its pebbly bed, was very successful in 
his fishing raids, and brought to land many a noble fish to the profit and 
infinite amusement of its owner. 

The otter feeds generally on fish, and possesses a most fastidious 
palate, having a great penchant for the finest " tit bits" of the salmon, 
to wit, the flaky parts of the shoulder, the remainder, where fish are 
plentiful, being unceremoniously rejected by him, hence it follows that 
great numbers of the finny tribe fall victims to his epicurean and discrimi- 
nating taste. He seems partial to eels, and in those waters where the 
salmon and trout are not abundant, they form the principal item of his 
daily diet — nor does he reject water rats and water hens, and in the 
winter when the rivers are bound up with ice and snow, he will betake 
himself to adjacent gardens, where he plays sad havoc amongst the 
culinary herbs, cabbages, &c., these being preferred by him to anything 
else. A few winters ago, a Mr. Bradley, whose domicile abuts on the 
banks of the Aln, had his garden ransacked every night by some unknown 
animal, and so frequent and persistent did these nocturnal visits become, 
that a member of his household ultimately placed a trap in the garden, 
and on visiting it the next morning, he found the depredator — a fine 
female otter in " durance vile." — When food fails them in one particular 
stream, or should they be driven thence as is sometime the case, if they 
are too persistently chased with hounds, they will travel a great distance 
to some more propitious place, and on their way thither, possibly over a 
tract of country destitute of rivers, they will enter rabbit burrows, and 
even farm yards to secure a passing meal. 

There are various opinions as to the mode of the otter capturing its 
prey. Some assert that it secures the fish by its superior speed in the 
water — but with due deference to such an opinion, I must confess myself 
rather sceptical. The adaptability and form of fish for rapid aquatic 
locomotion, is unquestionably j^a)- excdlance ; points in which the otter, 
though likewise admirably formed for it, falls immeasurably short, nor do 
I think it natural for the former to be outdone in their own element and 
by the same means used by a partial intruder, if such I may be allowed to 
term the latter. There are others again who imagine that the tail renders 
no small assistance to the successful capture of a fish, believing that he 
drives them to their hold — say to a large stone at the bottom of the water, 



380 THE NATUEALIST. 

and while there, thrusts his tail underneath it, thereby dislodging the fish 
which rushes out at the other side for safety, but only to run into the 
tenacious fangs of the otter — but this hypothesis also seems untenable, 
for the tail certainly lacks that flexibility which is required to arrive at a 
successful issue in such a mode of capture. Is that important member 
not rather used solely as a rudder and motive power of propulsion ! — 
From observations I have been enabled to make, I am induced to believe 
that he invariably secures his prey by keeping underneath it, and clutching 
it unseen by the abdominal parts, and existing facts I think, will bear me 
out in this belief, for the visual organs of fish are so placid, that they are 
precluded from seeing anything immediately underneath or behind them, 
while from the same cause the otter can more readily perhaps than from 
any other point of vision, see an object above it ; and again, the otter does 
not as may be supposed, swim underneath the water, for it at once 
descends to the bottom and runs along the ground, threading its way the 
same as if on dry land. Thus, when an otter sees a fish, he awaits until 
it is near the surface, when down he plumps, and by a stealthy but rapid 
movement approaches until he is immediately below his intended victim, 
and secures it as I have described. Of course this mode of capture refers 
only to members of the family sahnonidce and cyprinidcB, the anguilUdoe 
becoming easy victims from their diminished powers of speed. 

His tenacity of life is very great, and this coupled with his well 
developed powers of self-defence, constitute him no mean foe to vanquish — 
no ordinary dog can overpower him, and in his own element he can 
conquer three or four canine adversaries. His bite is terribly severe, and 
when once he procures a hold he seldom quits it. His skin I believe to 
be invulnerable to the bite of a dog. This arises perhaps not so much 
from its thick tough oily nature, as from its wonderful elasticity, hence 
the saying amongst old but unerudite sportsmen, '' an otter can turn 
himself in his skin." I have examined several individuals which have 
been worried to death — the last of which was one captured last summer in 
the Jed in Scotland, by the hounds of that indefatigable otter hunter, Mr. 
Gallon, of Bishop Auckland, and in every case, though I found the entire 
flesh crushed and blackened with the teeth of dogs, the skin remained 
intact, and without a single perforation. 

The prevailing colour of the otter is a dark chocolate brown, inclining 
to a dark fawn on the throat and abdomen, and with the muzzle generally 
blotched with cream coloured spots — ^but I have met with varieties of a 



GIBB ON THE MUSTELTD.E OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 831 

much lighter tint, and one individual taken in the Whiteadder, a tributary 
of the Tweed, was covered with small white spots or ticks from the head 
to the tail, while the usual cream colour of the muzzle extended to the 
under jaw and upper portions of the throat, imparting a strange but 
pleasing effect to the animal. This individual is now, or recently was, in 
the possession of Mr. Davison, of North Shields. 

The female produces three or four young in the spring of the year — 
generally in March, and proves herself a most faithful guardian of her 
offspring, tending them with zealous care, until they are old enough to 
"go out into the world on their own account." I have seen her jeopardize 
her own life in her anxiety and maternal care for her progeny ; in fact, 
under no circumstances, can she be induced to abandon them in times of 
danger, and she will resort to various ingenious stratagems for their better 
security and defence. The otter is emphatically a playful animal, and 
often indulges in his moments of hilarity in mock aquatic combats, than 
to witness which I really know of nothing in animal exploits more pleasing 
and thrilling to behold. If you will follow me in imagination on a quiet 
evening in spring, to the brink of a gurgling stream, whose pellucid waters 
dance merrily over grey and moss covered rocks, I will introduce you to 
such a scene — in a niche formed of overhanging branches, we are ensconced 
and completely hidden from view, but with a clear and uninterrupted look 
out both up and down the river — as we sit expectant watchers of the scene 
a modest little Sturnus cinclus alights close to us. His clear white breast 
and dark back contrast pleasingly with the surrounding foliage. At once 
securely perched, he raises his head and i)ours out a song which sounds 
so sweetly to the ear, that Orpheus himself methinks would lay aside his 
lute to listen it. It is his love ditty, and while we are yet ravished with 
the simple amatory strains, his mate joins him, together they flirt from 
stone to stone, anon she dips into the water, and is followed by her swain, 
and when next they appear, they are far down the stream fluttering to and 
fro on its surface. On the opposite bank of the river is a covert of long 
dry grass, and as we look intently into the entangled mass, we see a 
bright red spot. It is the flesh-like covering on the forehead of a 
GaiUnula cJiloropiis, slyly he peers abroad and being assured that no danger 
is near, shoots out iuto the current and busies himself in snatching up 
the insects that float past him, or in tearing ofl' the moUusca adhering to 
the submerged stones. And now a dark shadow flits through the trees 
overhead and as we look upward to define the cause we behold an 



83S THE NATURALIST. 

Ardea cinerea descending abruptly on noiseless wing. As he nears 
the water he checks his speed, and drops into it knee deep, scarcely 
disturbing its placidity. Sedately he wades through the shallows, and at 
last remains stationary near to a shelving rock, intently watching a trout, 
which not being poss3ssed of a discriminating sight, swims unconcious 
of its danger almost within his reach. But we have now been one hour 
in our cache, and we find the sun is just dipping behind a blue and misty 
hill in the west. This we know to be the hour that Lutra vulgaris leaves 
his lair, and we now gaze intently down the labyrinth of rocks and trees, 
from whence we expect him to make his appearance, and at length we 
hear a shrill whistle nm unli. e the cry of Falco tinnunciilus. It 
is the call of an otter. Near and still nearer, the weird-like sound 
approaches us, and now it seems to emanate from our very feet, 
and yet we have not seen the author of the sound, with such 
consummate skill and ease has the animal glided unperceived up stream 
towards us — cautiously we peer through the interstices of branches, when 
an almost imperceptible movement in the water, close to a large flat rock 
crossing out from the banks attracts our attention, and now at last we 
catch a sight of the tawny muzzle of our visitor. He hisses loudly like an 
enraged cat and from this we conjecture that he is either aware of our close 
proximity or that a companion is near at hand. Happily the latter is the 
case, for see, he bounds or rather glides over the rock and disappears like 
an ignis fatuus on the other side of it : but scarcely has he been submerged 
when a second appears and follows after the first, and the next instant we 
see them together in the middle of the stream, stemming the rapid current 
and breaking the foam hills amid the eddies in an exciting chase, now 
one is the pursued, and vice versa the next instant is the pursuer — now 
they leap simultaneously out of the water, snapping at each other as they 
plunge back into it, and the next instant are out of sight threading their 
circuitous course along the bottom, as we can see by the chain of air 
bubbles rising to the surface, and re-appear here and there for respiration. 
For a moment they desist and float quiescently down the current to a 
rock, on which they climb, and raising themselves erect on hinder legs 
they caressingly rub themselves against each other, the while perchance 
shewing their teeth in mock hostility. Now they utter a semi-defiant 
challenge for a renewal of their exciting play, when they meet to all 
appearance in a combat " to the death," and together they roll down into 
the water and down to the bottom of the stream, their soft and suj)ple 



BURGESS : — MICROSCOPIC GOSSIP. 333 

bodies undulating in " graceful mien " with their rapid and ever varying 
movements. Eventually, and it may be believing that " enough is as good 
as a feast," they betake themselves to a sandy nook " 'neath an o'erhangino" 
tree," and carefully smooth down each others usually sleek but now 
dishevelled fur, each performing the kindly office for the other.— This 
done they noiselessly descend again into the water, and phantom like 
glide up to an adjoining stream when we hear a loud splash and presently 
through the murky gloom of the now fast receding twilight, we see them 
at last ascend a grassy knoll each in the possession of a fine trout which 
seems only to whet their appetites and to form the first course of their 
evening meal ; but ere they have yet finished this levy on their finny 
victims we expose ourselves to their view, and they rush impetuously from 
the bank and "head" rapidly up the river, whither they will travel it 
may be for many miles, perchance repeating their gambols and making 
fresh captures on the way, until the fii-st grey dawn of approaching day 
appears in the eastern sky, and sol lifts his head above the horizon to 
illumine the surrounding scene with his golden rays, when they return 
to their lairs on the banks of the river, there to remain couchant till the 
shades of the succeeding evening again call them abroad. 

The otter, though not by any means numerous, is generally dispersed 
throughout the rivers and streams of Northumberland, being met \\ith in 
the North and South Tyne, the Eeed, Wansbeck, Coquet, Aln, the Tweed 
and its numerous tributaries, and in other rivulets of less note. 

Alnwick, January, 1865. 



MICROSCOPIC GOSSIP.— No. I. 



By N. Burgess. 



Introduction. 
In all scientific observations and study, first-class instruments are, 
generally, all in all. This remark applies as much (and perhaps more) to 
microscopic investigations, as to any other source of close research, and 
minute enquiry. A good microscope, therefore, is most important. Now 
to those who are not acquainted with the microscope I will offer a few 
words by way of explanation at the outset. " The stand," which is the 
mechanical part, is only so far important as the means of permitting 



:g34 THE NATURALIST. 

the other parts to be used to their full advantage — hence first-class 
workmanship is most desirable, nevertheless, where this cannot be paid 
for, trouble and extra time can often make a less perfect, and more 
cheaply made stand, do nearly all the work of the most costly. 

Next, the "object glasses" — these are far the most important of all; 
in microscopic parts nothing will make up for bad object glasses, and 
these involve the largest outlay, but then they can be bought one by 
one, so that by this means they can be had in time, by any one who is 
disposed to follow out this study. But I am happy to say that lately 
cheap sets of object glasses have been brought out, I believe for about 25s. 
each, (for the lower powers) which really are almost good enough for any 
purpose, so that object glasses may be said to be within the reach of 
everybody, and for a beginner will answer almost as well as the very best. 
With these cheap object glasses there is a cheap Binocular* stand, so 
that the instrument, which can be used as a Binocular, (then by simply 
sliding out the prism as a " Monocular,") with two object glasses, case, 
condenser, and I think two or three smaller etcs., can be had for about 
£10 10s. Od. I doubt whether a better instrument than this can be had 
for the money ; several of my friends have had this instrument and are 
perfectly satisfied with it. Then we come to the " eye pieces," these are 
more easily to be had than " object glasses." The relationship existing 
between the " object glasses " and " eye pieces " is simply this, the object 
glasses have a certain magnifying power, this is again magnified by the 
eye pieces — for example, let us say the object glass magnifies a certain 
object 50 diameters, this image is thrown on to the field glass (in the eye 
piece), where, we will suppose again, it is magnified 10 times ; — the total 
magnifying power will be seen to be ten times 50, or 500 diameters. All 
this may appear very puzzling to a young beginner, but one thing soon 
follows another, and there is so much to afi'ord pleasure in the very first 

* The Binocular arrangement has two bodies, and two eye pieces, so that both 
eyes are used when an object is being examined; this, in my opinion, is not yet 
sufficiently valued by most microscopists ; I believe it will be found greatly to preserve 
the eyes from injury, as well as allowing the observer more comfort during his 
investigations, while the objects are seen more perfectly, i. e. they are seen under the 
microscope as we see objects by unaided vision. Most persons are unaware of the fact, 
that with one eye we see objects very differently than we do with two, — to prove this, 
let a person place himself at a given distance, and closely watch a certain object, using 
one eye only ; after having fixed the image in the mind as it then appears, at once let 
him open the other eye, and the difference is at once apparent — let this act be repeated 
several times, and it will rather surprise those who have never tried it. 



BURGESS ON THE MICROSCOPE. 335 

outset, that the part which is generally supposed to he the " most dry" in 
all pursuits, is in the microscope often quite as pleasing as the more 
perfect and far advanced knowledge. 

There is now an invisible world before us to investigate. I now pro- 
pose to take two common and familiar objects to describe and explain, 
and with this close the present paper. We will suppose it to be spring 
time, and that we have found the common *' Buttercup," (of the Banuncu- 
lus family), in a ramble through one of the fields. We pluck a flower, it 
is a common thing having a bright yellow color ; well, question No. 1 
suggests itself thus — Does the yellow color exist throughout the whole of 
each of the petals, for they appear yellow on each side ? — and so would 
appear to have this coloring matter running through the whole of the 
mass of which the petal is composed. We proceed to dissect the petal to 
ascertain this, a perfect petal is selected, one fully matured, and perfectly 
clean ; this we lay across the forefinger, holding the point with the thumb, 
and the rounded top of the petal with the second finger, this position keeps 
the petal quite tight and immovable, then with the other hand (commenc- 
ing at the point of the petal) the thumb nail is brought on the upper 
surface so as to " scrape up " a small part of a thin membranaceous covering 
which exposes a perfectly white surface underneath it ; the thin cuticle of 
this petal is carefully stripped off, and laid flat on a slip of perfectly clean 
glass, and with a clean camel's hair brush laid down smoothly ; if not 
quite flat in parts but lying in plaits or folds, it is of no consequence as 
these parts give a very beautiful appearance under them icroscope. We 
now proceed to examine this object under the microscoj^e, and find it to 
be a piece of a golden yellow colored network, appearing somewhat like 
a piece of brass-wire network, highly lacquered, with somewhat rounded 
interstices (covered over with a yellow film) irregular in shape, size and 
form, these are the ** pigment cells " which give the yellow color to the 
petal* — but stop, what is this rounded ball of a yellow color, very finely 
carved all over ? What can this be ! Well, this is one of the " Pollen 

* On examining the petal from which this film was taken, it will be seen to be 
quite white and colorless, now on turning this over, the other side will be seen to be 
yellow also, that film again can by care be stripped off, leaving the centre part quite 
white. The result we arrive at is this, the petal is made up of three membranes (there 
may prove to be more than three) which may be familiarly described thus — the centre 
membrane is like a piece of white paper, on either side of which is pasted a piece of 
yellow paper; such, when divided, being comprised clearly of three distinct layers ; 
such in resemblance is the petal of the common " Buttercup." 



336 THE NATURALIST. 

grains " which has unperceived adhered to the cuticle of the petal, this is 
ao-ain a fine object and well repays a careful examination. Well, what is 
to be done with this object now we have it, can it be preserved ? Oh yes. 
We will now proceed to describe the manner in which this may be done. 
It is attached to the glass already, well, it has to be thoroughly dried in a 
gentle heat, in such a position that no dust can get to it, under a glass 
shade in a warm place for instance, we then get some thin glass used for 
" covers," (to be bought at any optician's in London), this is made perfectly 
clean and laid over the object, a piece of green paper is then covered on 
one side with a smooth coating of gum water and left to dry, when dry a 
small strip is cut, in the centre a round hole is made large enough to 
allow the object to be seen through, the gum is now slightly moistened 
and made to attach the thin cover neatly to the slip of glass, and after 
writing the name on the glass (or what is better, on a paper label gummed 
on the slip) the slide is ready for the cabinet. Slides are made three 
inches long by one inch in width, and can be had at any shop where micro- 
scopes are sold, or may be made by the party himself. I shall, in my 
next paper, say more on the subject of mounting in this form, which is 
now called by microscopists " dry mounting." 

The above plan, in which the Buttercup has been described, is now to 
be pursued with the Pelargonium; one of light pink colour, or one of a 
deep crimson color, or both, is suitable ; here we have a very grand 
object to examine. Here we find a network of a crimson color, of a 
somewhat lengthy hexagonal form, the network is formed by veins in a 
beaded form — as if formed by a number of beads, threaded so as to form 
elongated hexagons, through these veins no doubt the coloring matter 
circulates, or if not possessed of the power of circulating, is deposited. 
Well, inside each of these hexagons is seen a black insect-like-looking 
form, with lines radiating in every direction from the centre to the edge 
of each of these hexagonal spaces, somewhat like a spider with a hundred 
legs, in every direction around the body. 

These two objects, although common, may serve to set an amateur to 
work in mounting the " pigment cells " of plants, the plan here described 
being suitable for all plants, among which the " pansy " takes a prominent 
place. 



837 

® right al ^rtklcs. 



RARE BIRDS OCCURRING NEAR RICHMOND, YORKSHIRE. 



By James Aspdin. 



OsPREY (Falco Tialice'etus). A specimen of this bird, which is of rare 
occurrence in this neighbourhood, was shot by William Prince, game- 
keeper to M. Blunt, Esq., whilst it was fishing in the river Swale, about 
two miles below Richmond, on the 6th of July, 1862. It was a very fine 
adult male specimen weighing 2fbs. 12oz., measuring twenty-two inches 
in length, and five feet four inches in expanse of wing. 

Buzzard (Falco buteoj. A few weeks ago my friend Mr. Harker 
received from a person at Hawes a very old male s]}ecimen of this bird, 
which was killed by him at Cotter Top, a mountainous moorland near 
that town, on the 18th of August last. It had been preserved by the 
party who sent it, who professes bird-stuffing, but was set up in such a 
ridiculous position that it will be necessary to relax and set it up again 
to be decent. 

Great Gray Shrike (Lanius excubitor). The visits of this bird to 
this neighbourhood are very rare, but a fine specimen was shot at Sowerby, 
near Thirsk, on the 22nd of February, 1858. 

Bohemian Waxwing ( Bomhrjcilla garrula). A fine specimen of this 
beautiful bird was shot on the " Castle Bank," a steep hill sloping down 
to the river Swale, and close to the town, in November, 1859, by a person 
named King. 

Crossbill {Loxia ciirvirostra). Five specimens of this bird were shot 
at Park Hall, near Ruth, on the 5th of March, 1858, by Mr. Martin of 
that place. 

Hoopoe (Upupa ejjops). In October, 1861, a fine specimen of this 
bird was shot by Mr. Topham's keeper, on Middleham Moor. 

Bittern (Ardea stellaris). The Bittern is a bird that is very rarely 
seen or heard in this part of the country, but it appears from a paragraph 
in the " Richmond and Ripon Chronicle," of February 15th, 1862, that a 
fine specimen was shot a few days before on the banks of the beautiful 
and picturesque Lake Summerwater, near Hawes, by Mr. Peter Beresford. 
The bird fell into the hands of Mr. Edward Chapman, of Caperby, a 
clever taxidermist, and by him was set up. 

No, 22, March 15. Z 



338 THE NATURALIST. 

Spotted Redshank {Totanus fuscus). In August last a specimen of 
this bird was shot at Hornby, near Catterick, by Mr. Savage, of that place. 

Green Sandpiper (Totanus ocliropus). A specimen of this bird was 
shot by Mr. J. Roper, at Ravensworth, in September last. 

Spotted Crake [Gallinula porzana). Early one morning in October, 
1803, a mutilated specimen of this bird was picked up by a railway guard 
on the Richmond branch, between the Dalton and Moulton stations. It 
had evidently been making a passage during the night, and having struck 
against the telegraph wires thus came by its death. I may here mention 
that through this cause a great many birds are destroyed on Bowes Moor, 
a large tract of moorland near Barnard Castle which is crossed by the 
telegraph wires, and that as many as eleven grouse, together with other 
birds, have been picked up dead at one time. 

Goosander (Mergus merganser). This bird, which only visits us dur- 
ino" the severe frosts, appeared more plentiful last year than usual. A 
beautiful male specimen was shot by William Newton, gamekeeper to R. 
M. Jaques, Esq., at the same pool in the river Swale, and in precisely the 
same spot as that where the Osprey alluded to above was killed; it was on 
the 15tli of January. It was shot while attempting to swallow a Barbel 
a foot long, which however proved too ihucli for him as it was found to be 
tightly wedged into his throat and required some little force to remove 
it. This bird is now in my possession, admirably set up by Mr. W. J. 
Milligan, taxidermist, of this town. It weighed five pounds six ounces. 
About the same time two more birds of this species were killed in this 
immediate neighbourhood, and on the 5th of March Mr. Savage captured 
two female specimens in the pipe at the decoys at Hornby, which he sent 
alive to the Gardens of the Zoological Society, Regent's Park. There was 
another specimen in the pipe, a large male, but this bird made a charge 
at Mr. Savage with his bill and powerful wings, and thus escaped from him. 

Biclimond, January 31sf, 1865. 



NOTES ON NORFOLK ENTOMOLOGY— LEPIDOPTERA. Part L 



By T. E. Gunn. 



At the commencement of these few observations I deem it necessary 
to say a few words by way of introduction to the reader. The county of 



GUNN ON THE ENTOMOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 839 

Norfolk, as many are doubtless aware, is known to be one of the 
richest counties in the British Isles for its Ornithological productions; so 
much therefore being noticed in that department, very few observations 
have lately been made relating to its Entomology. I will here endeavour 
throughout these few simple notes to convey to the reader's mind what 
lepidoptera are to be found in this county, although I am well aware it 
will be impossible to enumerate the whole of the species inhabiting it. 

Norfolk, from the extensive woods, fens, and hedgerows it abounds 
in, is well adapted for the pursuits of the Entomologist during the summer 
months, or indeed all the year through, for when the bright and sunny 
days of summer and autumn are past, the Entomologist's time may be 
employed in pupa digging during the long and dreary winter months. 
The village of Horning, situated 14 miles north-east of Norwich, and 
about the same distance from the sea coast, is a most noted locality for 
various species of lepidoptera, more particularly PapiJio Machaon, of which 
however we will speak more hereafter. 1 might also mention several 
other favourable localities, but think it quite unnecessary to do so, as most 
of my observations are confined to the outskirts of this city within 
a few miles radius. These notes are arranged in accordance with Mr. 
Doubleday's Synonymic list, and I omit all those species which are 
common everywhere. 

DiURNI. 

Papilio Machaon. This insect, which is the largest and one of the most 
beautiful of our British Butterflies, although not obtained so abun- 
dantly in Norfolk as formerly, is still however pretty plentiful, more 
particularly on the marshes of Horning, where during the summer it 
is taken in all its stages. I have bred some very fine images myself 
from larvse taken by a friend in that locality. 

AntJiocharis cardamines. Common, making its appearance in May. 

Gonepteryx rhamni. Not uncommon. 

Colias Helice. Bare. A friend gave me a nice pair about three years 
since, and assured me he had taken them in this county. 

C. Hyale. Bare. T have a specimen from an old collection, but am not 
certain whether taken here. 

Vanessa polychloros. Bather uncommon of late years. 

V. lo. Plentiful during 1861 and two following seasons, but more scarce 
during 1864. 

V. cardui. Bather rare, I have seen a few specimens. 



340 THE NATUIIALIST. 

Satyrus ^gerla. Not uncommon in woods. 

S. Tithonus. Very common, more particularly so on Mouseliold Heath. 

S. Hyperanthiis. Not uncommon. 

Chortobius Pamyliilus. Common on Household. 

Thecla qiiercus. Eare. I saw a male in August last, it was resting on the 

underside of a leaf, I was unable to catch it, having unfortunately left 

my net behind me, I have one in my collection taken a few years since. 
Polyommatus Phlceas. Not uncommon on heaths and meadows from April 

to September. 
Lyccena My on. Uncommon. I have one example which I obtained with 

L. Alexis during last August. 
L. Alsus. Eare. I remember a few specimens being taken in a meadow at 

Ketteringham about four years ago. 
Syricthus alveolus. Uncommon. 

Thanaos tages. Eather uncommon, I have seen a few examples. 
Hesperia Sylvanus. Not uncommon, 
H. tinea. Not uncommon. 



THE ENEMIES OF THE LAEVAL FEOG AND TOAD. 



By J. Hepworth. 



In No. 5 of " The Naturalist," page 75, I gave a short list of animals 
that I had found to be exceedingly destructive to the immature frog and 
toad. With your permission I will again return to the subject, and give a 
few details which may possibly interest some of your readers, and perhaps, 
which is more desirable, turn the attention of others to the — shall I say 
beautiful ? — yes, to the beautiful though greatly ignored inhabitants of 
our wayside ponds. 

How many thousands of our fellow men are suffering from that almost 
incurable disease, " ennui,/ or are wandering away from their homes to 
the public-house, and thence to the gaol and the hulks, because, forsooth, 
they can find nothing upon which to expend their profound thought ! 
What can be done for such men? Is there no " dead fly in the window," 
or live one in the treacle pot — no mummy pigeon in the attic or slimy 
snail in the cellar — no spider on the ceiling or cricket on the hearth — no 
maggot on the cheese or aphis on the rose ? Is there not one of these to 



HEPWORTH ON THE FROG AND TOAD. 841 

attract liis lack-lustre eye — no wood, no field, no pond from which he may 
gather or dredge up some potent charm to liberate his enthralled mind ? 
Surely if such a one would but gaze around he would find food for 
thought, and motives for recreative exercise in tlie objects with which he 
has so liberally been surrounded. The mind once awakened would soon 
free itself from lethargy, and the public-house would speedily lose its 
charms. 

But to return. During the months of April, May, and June I kept a 
large stock of tadpoles in my aquarium. These I had to replenish, or 
rather renew almost weekly from a neighbouring pond. In these tadpole- 
hunting expeditions I usually took with me a small wide-necked bottle 
(capacity nearly half-a-pint) which I filled one-fifth or one-fourth full, or 
more. These I emptied into the aquarium at about three times. My 
live stock consisted, at this time, of three Newts (two specimens Triton 
aquaticiis and one T. palustris), one Stickleback (Gasterosteus acnieatus), two 
Bearded Loaches [Gohitus harhatiila), one larva of Lihellula or Dragon Fly, 
two Xotonectidce, or boat flies ; a few water beetles [Dijthcus marginalis), and 
the water Scorpion [Nepa cinerea). In addition to these, and of a more 
harmless kind, being ]3hytophagi or plant feeders, I had a number of 
Caddis worms (Phryganea,) and a number of moUusca — univalve and 
bivalve — and others. 

Of the first-mentioned group it is not easy to decide which is the most 
destructive to the young frog ; but I think other observers would bear me 
out in saying that to the Lihellula belongs that honour. 

This insect belongs to the Isomorphous group, Nat. Order Neurop- 
tera ; it is consequently active in all stages of its existence. The imago 
deposits her eggs upon some aquatic plant, where they remain till hatched. 
The larva, which differs from the imago principally by the rudimentary 
state of its wings (represented by small lobes), is aquatic. It is fierce, 
strong and, it may be added, cunning. Its respiratory apparatus is partly . 
lodged in the end of the intestinal canal. Into this cavity water is drawn, 
by the expulsion of which the animal moves forward in a series of jerks. 
It does not often move, however, only occasionally changing its base of 
operations. Here it rests with its caudal extremity exserted from the 
water, thus being able to breathe without the necessity for moving. It 
will rem^iin thus for hours waiting the approach of its prey, for it seldom 
or never gives chase. Woe to the unwary animal that passes too near 
this lurking foe. Its large prominent eyes never fail to see, or its viosr- 



342 THE NATURALIST. 

like two-handed labium to seize its victim. Once caught, fruitless are all 
endeavours to escape. Nothing remains but inevitable death. The 
specimen in my possession was a great slaughterer of the poor tadpole. 
Often have I seen them when sailing near, seized by this carnivorous little 
insect, and struggling violently for life but all in vain. The insect, having 
made an incision and bared the flesh on one side, would turn him round 
by means of the hand-like processes, before alluded to, with as much ease 
and precision as a man-cook would handle a joint of meat. It required 
several " taddies " to sate his appetite. The active pupa arriving at the 
period of change ascends some plant on the bank and bursting its tight- 
fitting coat creeps forth, leaving its late dress perfect, even to the eyes, 
antennse, and claws. This skin may be, and often is, picked up as a live 
larva, the mistake not being discovered till by a slight pressure it collapses, 
to the astonishment of the non-entomological beholder. Such indeed was 
my first introduction to this insect. The imago rests a few moments with 
expanded wings in order to dry and give them the necessary rigidity ; it 
then commences its aerial life. In this last stage of existence it preys 
upon other insects, which it rapidly pursues and takes upon the wing. 
It is popularly known as the " Horse tang," or Horse sting ; a title that is 
altogether unjust, as in common with other members of Neiiroptera, it 
possesses no sting. How many such mis-nomers have been given, and 
libellous statements made, with reference to this and other members of 
the animal kingdom ! It were of little consequence under what name they 
were known, were it not that they are daily made to suffer the pangs of 
martyrdom for the mistaken notion that they are what their names indi- 
cate, or what the ignorant declare them to be. We are daily through 
ignorance, often wilful, killing those creatures that by faithfully discharg- 
ing their duties in the economy of nature, are conferring blessings upon 
us, none the less because unknown and unrecognized. 

Next in order of destructiveness, we may, perhaps not very wrongly, 
name the Dyticus, larva and imago. Whether the " bumps of destructive- 
ness " of this little creature are more than ordinarily developed, we may, 
perhaps, profitably leave to the decision of that enlightened phrenologist 
who carefully mapped out the head of a hair-covered turnip, and gave a 
clear and precise account of its various powers — mathematical and other- 
wise. Whatever his conclusion may be we can confidently afiirm, from 
observation, that it plays sad havoc among the " toe-biters," or tadpoles, 
and other aquatic animals. It generally seizes the young frog by the tail, 



HEPWORTH ON THE FROG AND TOAD. 343 

and with its truly formidable mandibles makes an incision at the tail-root, 
and slowly, but surely, scoops out the viscera, in spite of the struggles of 
its victim, which evidently does not approve this method of being ushered 
into the " hind of the hereafter." The tadpole is liable to these attacks 
even after acquiring the adult form before leaving the water. 

The larva of this insect is even more destructive than the imago; 
I have seen it do battle with all comers ; and more than once I have seen 
the pugnacious little stickleback succumb to his superior prowess. So 
great were the powers, and so freely and persistently were they exerted, 
that in order to prevent my aquarium frofti becoming a watery desert, I 
deemed it necessary to consign him to the liquor j^otasscB and prepare 
him for the microscope. 

I know no creature that presents a more "horrid front" to the 
beholder than this larva. See him suspended, as it were, from the surface 
of the water by his two-pronged tail — his body gracefully curved — his feet 
extended — his little eye glaring fiercely — and his immense jaws thrown 
widely back. His whole demeanour betrays the bloodthirsty warrior. He 
is always armed and ready for the conflict. Once having caught hold of 
his prey he is not easily shook off. I remember on one occasion when he 
had caught a stickleback of medium size, having fixed his jaws in, just 
behind the gills, 1 lifted the fish out of the water by the tail, and held it 
suspended some time, the little water tiger maintaining his hold for some 
minutes, but the changed element not suiting his constitution he let 
go and dropped back into the aquarium. The imago attacked and 
destroyed worms put in for the newts. I kept four for more than six 
months and fed them weekly on raw butcher's meat. Cooked meat they 
passed by with contempt. They did not even relish raw meat so well as 
worms or tadpoles secured by their own valour. 

The boatfly may fairly be ranked next. It is very destructive to the 
tadpoles as also to other insects — larva and imago. It is a beautiful 
object for the aquarium. The large oar-like posterior pair of legs — large 
prominent coloured eyes and close pressed wings command the attention 
of those even who feel no interest in natural history pursuits ; while the 
boat-shaped body, peculiar mode of sailing on the back, and general struc- 
ture, give it a claim to the attention of thQ-scientific naturalist. 

Several parts of this insect form beautiful objects for the microscope. 
The wings are very pretty and distinctive. The legs mounted upon a 
slide beautifully illustrate the change which these organs undergo in 



344 THE NATUEALIST. 

order to adapt the insect to aquatic life. The anterior pair are short and 
strong — the middle pair much longer and slightly covered with hair, the 
tarsi being terminated by two long sharp claws — the posterior long and 
very strong, and covered on opposite sides with long hair, giving them 
much the appearance of oar-blades. By powerful strokes with these they 
are able to dart most rapidly through the water, rendering their capture 
no easy matter. The legs of aquatic beetles undergo similar modifications. 

The eye again is beautiful, showing, when under the microscope, the 
hexagonal facets most distinctly. 

It is most interesting for any one of a contemplative mind to sit upon the 
margin of a retired pond, on a beautiful summer day, watching the move- 
ments of its inhabitants. When tired of gazing he will recline on the 
grassy sward and from the scene before him he will conjure up others of 
grander proportions. The Newt will assume the bulk of the Cayman — 
the Stickleback the dimensions of the giant fish of other climes. He will 
revel in the midst of tropical scenes. If he be a Geologist — from the 
small Newt he will wander back to long bygone ages — he will see the 
huge Enaliosaurians gliding about the waters the Pterodactyle 

With two huge and dusky pinions, 
With a bosom smooth and rounded, 
With a bill like two great paddles, 

soaring majestically through the air, and the immense Chelonians brows- 
ing on the luxuriant tree ferns. The frog will bring before him the 
Labyrinthodon, that giant Batrachian, that formerly walked over the sands 
of seas occupying the greater portion of that part of the world now in- 
habited by Englishmen. The '' bullhead," or " miller's thumb " {Cottus 
Gobio), with erectile cephalic spines, will take him back to the seas of the 
Devonian age. He will see the Ptericthys, Coccosteus, and Cei)halaspis, 
with a thousand other mail clad warriors, desporting themselves gaily in 
those ancient seas. " These, and far more than these," beholds the Ge- 
ologist in his waking dream. His mind wanders through unnumbered 
ages of the past, and through untold periods of the future. 

Wakefield, January, 1865. 



345 



co]S"sideratio:n"s on the term '^ species'' apropos of a 
new work by m. jordan. 



BY FRAN9OIS CREPIN, 

Professor' of Botany a " VEcole d'Horticulture,'' Gand. 



During tlie last century, Linneiis, in face of the chaos bequeathed to us 
by the ancients, cast his scrutinizing eye over the animal and vegetable world, 
and labom-ed to unravel their ajDparent confusion ; he divided the organic 
creation into groups of different values and importance, and distributed them 
into orders, sub-orders, genera, and finally into species. Later, he found that 
the greater divisions were defective, and they were modified ; the genera, in 
their turn, or at least a great number of them, were also altered, reduced, 
augmented or dismembered. There was nothing extraordinary in this, for 
the groups being systematic, were often arbitrary ; it was part of their des- 
tiny to vary. Such as are now established, in our da}^, will not always re- 
main so ; for future classifiers will find that their studies will be simplified 
by modifpng them afresh, or that in modifying them they will approach 
more nearly to the plan which nature seems to have adopted. At j^resent 
Linneus is almost cast out of sight in our modern classifications. His genius 
foresaw, but did not discover, the natural method of which we are so boast- 
ful ; his system was bad, and no regret ought to be felt that it has been 
thrown aside. But was the illustrious Swedish reformer more skilful in 
forming his species % Until recent times this has generally been admitted, 
and in a small number of fixed types, it has always been believed that he 
was happy in defining and limiting the species. It appears, however, that 
M. Jordan does not partake of this general opinion : take his OAvn words : — 
" The vegetable forms wliicli have occupied our attention have been hitherto 

neglected The earlier botanists, confining their attention to those 

plants which appeared interesting, either on account of theii' utility or grace- 
fulness, described but a very restricted number of species. Linneus only 
admitted to the rank of species those forms which could be distinguished 
at first sight, and of which a description was easily made. The result of 
this is that the greater portion of the Linnean species, are rather assemblages 



346 ^'li'-' NATURALIST. 

of species than of individuals ; they are the primary groups which should be 
estahlished by the comparison of similar forms, and not true species. The 
greater number of descriptive botanists and monographists since the time of 
Linneus, and more particularly the authors of the great systematic works, 
lilce him, have established nearly all their species from materials found in 
herharia, and on very insufficient data. The limits which they have assigned 
to them are in general purely arbitrary. Further, the specific types admitted 
by them, do not at all correspond with the reality, and may be fitly compared 
to landmarks placed at nearly e(puil intervals to mark out a new route" ^ 

Evidently there is some truth in these remarks, for Linneus and those 
who have followed his method of determining species, were not in tlie pos- 
session of any good criterion wherewith to test the truth of their creations. 
As M. Jordan well says, in admitting to the rank of species only those which 
might readily be distinguished at first sight, and of which the description 
was easily rendered, have they not, in a great number of instances, united 
together many distinct forms, which instead of constituting species by their 
union, ought to form groups of species 1 That this should be so is very pos- 
sible : the botanist of Lyons is profoundly convinced that this is the case 
with the great majority of the old types, and thus he is led to divide a large 
proportion of them into a more or less considerable number of new species. 
Linneus, therefore, could not have known what constituted a true species, 
but took for such Avliat afterwards should become generic groups : the botan- 
ists of the last century, and those too of our own, who liave followed in the 
Linnean errors, must only have arrived at the genera, and have left for our 
task to discover, by a more delicate analysis and research, what is a veritable 
species. This is a progression wliich need not surprise those who have atten- 
tively followed the constantly ascending path of the experimental sciences. 
In chemistry, have we not seen an analogous progress realized ; substances 
which for a long time had been considered as simple bodies, havmg been 
shewn in later times to be really compound ones ? All then should be re- 
formed ; our Floras, our species, and even our genera, must again be weighed 
in the balance, and completely re-founded. 

Already, for several years, the work of reformation has been going on, 
though timidly ; but now M. Jordan has strongly shaken the ancient edifice. 
He first demolishes it, and then proceeds to rebuild it again, making use of 
but little of the old materials. He makes a revolution, in the full force of 

(1) Diagnoses, p. 11, 12. 



PROF. CREPIN : CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TEHM " SPECIES." 847 

the term, as any one may be readily convinced, hy simply casting his eye over 
the table of sp'ecies in the first part of the first volume of his new work, 
entitled " Diagnoses d'esjyecen nouvelles oil meconnus pour servir de jriateHaux 
a line Flore reformae de la France et des Contrees voisines'^ One is literally 
astounded on considering the great number of types, altogether new, described 
in this volume. When we reflect on this prodigious augmentation of 274 
new species for 29 generic groups alone, we ask with astonishment to what 
enormous figures the flora of Europe, or that of the entire world, nmst be 
raised, when all the forms of equal value with those described in the Diag- 
noses are recognised and determined ; we scarcely dare to think of it. M. 
Jordan seems to have foreseen the astonishment which his work was calcula- 
ted to produce, for he says in his preface : — 

" On the appearance of so many new species, almost all observed in 
France, a country the flora of which passes as perfectly kno^vn, many persons 
will be unable to repress a feeling of distrust, or to say the least, of a certain 
amount of astonishment. There is no doubt, among Botanists, a certain 
number who have, after our example, advanced some steps in this way of 
criticism, in which experiment always serves to guide and control analysis. 
These have already conceived the extent of the field before us, and Avill not 
be surprised at a result which they could foresee ; but others, who are not 
yet initiated in this kind of study, or whose researches have been in quite a 
different direction, will be somewhat scandalized with such a result, and will 
even believe themselves transported into the realms of fancy, where arbitrary 
conceptions, and simple hypotheses, are made to a2)pear as real facts. We 
consider ourselves bound, then, to dissipate this distrust, by a clear and frank 
explanation of the path we have folloAved, and the end at whicli we aimed 
and have attained to."^ 

For ourselves we are neither astonished nor scandalized at such an aval- 
anche of new creations j we could foresee the result as soon as we found out 
the criterion of the new school, and above all, the manner in which the 
criterion was to be made use of. Wliat then is this criterion ? We will 
again refer to M. Jordan's book, and it will furnish the answer : — " Let us 
say, at the outset, that we have not for one moment quitted the region of 
positive reality ; also that it is not hypotheses, but material facts tliat we 
have to produce. It is not a certain method of observation, nor a certain 

(2) One vol., Large 8vo. of 355 pages. Lyon, 1864. 
(3) Loc cit., p. 5, 6. 



348 THE NATURALIST. 

opinion, that we have to explain ; but well and firmly established facts, ob- 
tained by the ordinary methods of experiment, and which we fearlessly sub- 
mit to the examination of all friends of science. We have simply to expound 
what we have seen, experimented on, established ; that wliich those who feel 
themselves most strongly disposed to contradict us, might have seen and 
estabhshed as well as, and perhaps better than ourselves, had they under- 
taken the same researches and the same experiments, with similar materials. 
Indeed it is easy to understand, that when there exist, among plants observed 
in the living state, and under perfectly analagous conditions of development, 
manifest and easily recognisable differences, for any one who is capable of an 
attentive examination ; to ascertain these differences is to ascertain a material 
fact, upon the reality of which there cannot be two opinions. To ascertain 
again, that these differences, visible one year, are still visible the following 
year, and every year, is also a material fact of the same nature as the prece- 
ding one. Lastly, to ascertam that the differences constantly offered by 
divers individuals when compared together, are equally observable in other 
individuals, the produce of the former, that they are reproduced hereditarily 
and invariably during a succession of generations, is still proceeding in the 
examination of a material fact, by searching whether it does or does not ex- 
ist. Upon such a fact, properly observed, it is quite open for men of good 
faith, to differ in opinion as to the consequences wliich they may draw from 
it, but not as to the reality or non-reality of its existence. The species we 
propose are nothing more than certain vegetable forms, which we have learned 
to distinguish the one from the other, by a comparison, in the living state, 
of all their organs, and by assuring ourselves, by the most rigorous observa- 
tions, that their differences are hereditary, and not the result of accidental or 
local causes. We say this of the great majority of our sj)ecies ; as to the 
rest, we have judged them by the analogy of their characters, with those we 
have been enabled to submit to experiment."* Thus, then, the sole criterion 
admitted by M. Jordan, is the persistence of characters or differences, con- 
tinued in seed, by generation. Every form which is preserved invariable for 
a certain number of generations, is to him, a veritable species, it mattering 
little if the differences which distinguish it from its congeners be reduced to 
a mere trifle. To give his theory in a few words, as we read in his book, the 
forms which remain stable after a culture of five, ten, fifteen, or twenty years, 
are considered by him as distinct specific types. We say five to twenty years 

(4) Loc. cit., p. 6, 7. 



OBSERVATIONS. 



349 



for he himself reminds us, that his most prolonged experiments have not 
extended over a longer period than tliis. We may note — in passing — that 
some species have not been subjected to experiment, and that for many the 
proofs have been of short duration. 

(To he Continued.) 



A Hint to Keepers of Seals and 
Otters. — Last autumn two young 
otters were caught by a fisherman 
who took them home and endea- 
voured to keep them alive until I 
should be able to prepare a suitable 
place for their reception. My in- 
junction that their food should be 
given to them outside their cage, 
not upon the hay, &c., which formed 
their bed, was at first strictly obeyed, 
but at the end of about three weeks 
the precaution was neglected, and 
very soon afterwards word was sent 
to me that one of them was dead. 
On examination the stomach was 
found greatly distended with a large 
compact mass of hay and wool, and 
one still larger was contained by the 
stomach of the second otter which 
died a few days afterwards. A 
tame seal which was kept at Balta- 
sound some years ago and died from 
a cause which could not at the time 
be explained, was found to have the 
stomach similarly distended with 
straw and heather, which had acci- 
dentally been introduced with the 
food. The ill success which so fre- 



quently attends the many attempts 
to rear these animals in confinement 
may doubtless be attributed, in many 
cases at least, to the want of proper 
care in keeping the food from con- 
tact with the litter. — Henry L. 
Saxby, M.D., Baltasound, Shetland, 
Feb. 22, 1865. 



Occurrence of the Rednecked Grebe, 
at Church. — As a young man named 
Thomas Savage, was returning from 
work on February 10th, by the 
Canal Bank, Church, he perceived 
some boys throwing stones at a bird 
in the canal. The bird appeared 
to attract the boys' attention very 
much, by diving down in one place 
and making its appearance in ano- 
ther. One of the boys struck the 
bird with a stone which killed it. 
Savage got it out of the canal and 
brought it to Thos. Jones, Church, 
for preservation. The bird proved 
to be the Rednecked Grebe, Podiceps 
riihricoUis, in winter plumage. — 
Sydney Smith, Church, near Ac- 
crington. 

llie Rednecked Grebe. — A fine 
specimen of the Rednecked Grebe, 



350 



THE NATURALIST. 



Podiceps rubricollis, was brought to 
me yesterday. It had flown against 
the telegraph wires near here, and 
was picked up apparently uninjured, 
at all events it seems very lively to- 
day, and has eaten half a dozen 
small fish — it is very cross, and 
pecks savagely at any one who goes 
near it. I think the occurrence of 
this bird so far inland and from any 
large sheet of water worth recording. 
A week or two ago, I had a Wood- 
cock brought me which had killed 
itself by flying against the wires 
near the same place — and not long 
ago, a Spotted Crake under similar 
circumstances. — W. Christy Hors- 
FALL, Horsforth Low Hall, near 
Leeds, Feb. 15th, 1865. 

Podiceps cornutus, &c. — At Cook- 
ham last month, was shot a fine male 
of P. cornutus. Picus major and mi- 
nor have also been got. A beautiful 
white stoat was shot towards the 
beginning of the month. F. spinus 
has not been nearly so common here 
as usual. F. carduelis, F. linaria, 
F. montifringilla, have been in great 
abundance. The larks suffered se- 
verely in the snow, and a great 
many fieldfares and redwings were 
starved out. — K. B. Sharpe. 



Fresh Water Mollusks, — In the 
second week of January, in the pre- 
sent year, I, along with a friend, 
took a walk towards Swellington 
Bridge ; when we arrived at a place 



called Waterloo, about two-and-a-half 
miles from Leeds, there was a shal- 
low running stream of water in which 
we cast our net, and ran down the 
stream for about twenty yards and 
back, then withdrew it, and were 
much surprised at the great number 
of shells we secured. We divided 
them and I was so curious as to 
count my lot and found I had got 
upwards of two dozen Limnmis palus- 
tris, one-and-a-half dozen of L. pere- 
ger, and upwards of 200 Planorhis 
complanatus (Linne) ; some of those 
last named are very curious ones, 
being twisted like a corkscrew, some 
have open whorls and some with 
the inner whorl edge upwards, and 
many other monstrosities ; any gen- 
tleman in want of Planorhis com- 
planatus, as I have a few dozen to 
spare, can have them sent by paying 
postage, &c. — J. Blackburn, 42, St. 
Mary's Street, Mabgate, Leeds, Jan. 
26th, 1865. 



Scottish Summits. — No. IV. 
(Ben Lawers.) 
July 9th, 1864. Ben Lawers, my 
last climb, is the highest mountain 
in the county of Perth, and over- 
hangs the beautiful Loch Tay. It 
is composed, like so many others, 
of micaceous schist, but its surface 
is remarkably verdant, and perhaps 
no mountain in the Highlands is 
richer in Alpine plants. Its height 
is 3984 feet. My starting point was 



OBSERVATIONS. 



351 



Killin, a pretty little village at the 
foot of the Loch. Skirting the lake 
for a considerable distance, I diver- 
ged to the l^ft after a walk of six 
miles, and here the true ascent be- 
gins. Near Killin I noticed abun- 
dance of the Sweet Cicely {Myrrhis 
odoraUi) and a local thistle {Cardans 
hetcrophyllus). The Scottish As- 
phodel {Tojieldia palustris) I am told 
grows near Loch Tay. I did not, 
however, meet with it. The lake 
was quite fragrant with the flowers 
of the GUjceria; and the music of the 
sedge warbler, that sung among the 
reeds, added much to tbe pleasure 
of an evening sail. On my way to 
Ben Lawers, I saw the pretty fawns 
of the Eed Deer, trotting away as 
soon as I approached. The herd, 
which is quite wild, is the property 
of the Marquis of Breadalbane. The 
Anacharis alsinastrum, that has ap- 
peared so mysteriously in our rivers 
and canals within the last twenty 
years, seems to have taken perma- 
nent possession of the sandy bed of 
the river Dochart, and threatens to 
choke up eventually the shallow 
feeder of Loch Tay. I had now 
reached the place where the ascent 
begins. On the grassy slopes of the 
mountain, there was plenty of the 
Field Gentian [Gentiana campestris) 
which is easily distinguished by its 
two large over-wrapping calyx-seg- 
ments. I picked up several white 
varieties of this beautiful plant. 



Gentiana nivalis I did not see, though 
it is said to occur on Ben Lawers. 
The IMountain Pansy (Viola lutea) 
was growing intermixed with the 
Field Gentian. The leading fea- 
tures of this pansy are to be sought 
in the pinnatifid stipules and simple 
stem. The Bladder Fern {CyatojHeris 
frag His) was plentiful in the neigh- 
bourhood of Killin, in all its protean 
forms ; and Ben Lawers is the home 
of the rare (7, montana, and though 
the localities have been sadly rifled 
by rapacious collectors — still Glen 
Lyon offers it an asylum, where it 
flourishes on inaccessible ledges for 
the full space of a quarter of a mile. 
Around the Ordnance Cairn at the 
top, a strange little plant — Cherleria 
sedoides — was growing in moss-like 
tufts, looking very pretty in the sun- 
shine. A large patch of frozen snow 
still lay on the side that faces the 
north, and very refreshing I found 
it, after my steep climb on the most 
sultry of summer days. On the 
very borders of the snow grew the 
lovely Alpine Forget-me-not, {Myo- 
sotis alpestris) whose bright blue 
flowers were a great treat to me in 
these upper regions. Ccrastium 
alpinum, i\mil\\^i\. previously noticed 
on Ben Lomond grew here most 
abundantly, and was flowering in 
perfection. Fine large yellow-belted 
Syrphus-flies, which I take to be 
Sericomyia horealis, were rushing 
about in every direction, humming 



352 



thp: naturalist. 



almost as loudly as the Tabauus.^ — 
Peter Inchbald, Storthes Hall. 



Ferrets. — I should esteem it a 
favour if any one would kindly 
inform me what is the disease so 
prevalent among ferrets. Three 
cases have come under my notice 
in the last fortnight. The ferrets 
in question had been kept scrupu- 
lously clean, as might be seen by 
the state of their feet, and the sick- 
ness commenced with severe shiver- 
ing, and they seemed to be attacked 
with, what we should call in human 
beings, bronchitis, accompanied by 
severe swelling of the eyes, which 
discharged a great deal of matter ; 
and, notwithstanding constant bath- 
ing, this never seemed to decrease. 
The ferrets had been hunting with 
a strange ferret who had the disease. 
This one is dead, and the other two 
were soon after seized with the 
complaint, one* is dead and the 
other not likely to recover. — K. B 
Sharpe, 186, Strand, W.C. 

The Natter-jack Toad. — A friend 
informs me that the Natter-jack Toad 
(Bufo calamita) is not of unfrequent 
occurrence in the neighbourhood of 
Ormesby, near Yarmouth, in Nor- 
folk.— T. E. GUNN. 



Lepidoptera. — I have the following 
insects for which I shall be glad to 
receive offers of exchange : — P. 



Machaon, A. Paphla, d. Adippe, V. 
Atalanta, S. Tithonus, H. Sylvanus, 
H. linea, Z. lonicerce, Z. Jillpendula, 
E. Jacobecd, E. vespertaria, N. zonaria, 
B. liirtaria, B. repandata, S. Belgiaria, 

A. idmata, H. progeuwiaria, L. multis- 
tr'igaria, E. nanata, C. tristata, D. 
vinula, C. curtida, C. anachoreta, N, 
camelina, C. diluta, B. perla, L. 
pudorina, L. phragmitidis, G.flavago, 
D. pinastrl, C. cuhicularis, A. porphy- 
rea,L.janthina, T.Jimbria, T. orhonay 
N. glareosa, N. augur, N. p)lecta, N. 
hrunnea, N. Baja. A. rujina, C. 
vaccina, P. chi, M. occyacanthce, A. 
aprilina, P. meticulosa, A. nebulosa, 
H. Pisi, A. myrtilli, B.parthenias, M. 
maura, and E. ghjphica. — C. Smeth- 
uiiST, 19, Wellington Lane, West- 
Street, Leeds, March 3rd, 1865. 

Lepidoptera. — I have the following 
insects in good condition to exchange 
for birds' eggs or birds' skins : — G, 
Edusa, A. Euphrosyne, A. Iris, S. 
yEgeria, S. megcera, H. Semele, T. 
quercus, T. pruni, T. betidcB, L. . 
Alsus, L. Cory don, L. Arion, N. 
Lucina, S. alveolus, T. ._ tages, H. 
paniscus, H. Sylvanus, H. comma, 
H. tinea. Most of the above are in 
pairs. I shall be glad to purchase 
skins of any of the accipitres. — R. 

B. Sharpe, 186, Strand, London. 



Shells. — I have the following land 
shells for exchange : — Bulimus Lack- 
amensis, alias montanus, Achatina 
acicula, Cyclostoma elegans, &c., &c. 
The Rev. J. E. Yize, Bath. 



353 

©riginal §.rticlcs. 



RECENT CAPTURE OF DIRDS IX NORTHUMBERLAND. 



By T. II. (;] 



Blackthroated Diver (Cohjmhus arctic us J. — I have before me a very 
fine specimen of tlds bird captiu'ed on tlie 1st instant on " Rondicar," a reef 
of rocks jutting out on our adjacent sea board. Its plimiage still retains here 
and there a trace of the beautiful summer dress. The forehead, crown, 
occiput, and the nape of the neck dovm. to the anterior part of the back is 
one uniform steel grey tint. The middle and posterior regions of the back, 
dark grey, intermixed with iiTegular jiatches of ebony black. The scapulars 
abundantly dis^^ersed with black feathers, on the tips of each of which aro 
placed two longitudmal spots of vivid whiteness. The tail feathers ovate, 
and slightly acuminated, of a dark grey, nearly approaching to black, and 
margined with white. Upper tail coverts dark — ^dngs same colour as the 
back, their secondaries and upper coverts tipped with two round white spots. 
The lose ear coverts, throat, breast, sternum and abdomen, pure white, sides 
of the body dark margined with white ; under wing coverts white ; tarsus a 
very pale yellowish blue on the inside — outer portions daxjf bro^vnish grey ; 
toes and web same as inside of tarsi ; length of bill from the angle of the 
mouth, three-and-a-quarter-inches ; upper mandible, black, inclining to a blue 
slate coloured grey at the base ; lower mandible, blue grey, approaching a 
flesh tint at its junction with the chin. Total length twenty-six inches; 
Aveight, three pounds eleven omices. 

Cohjmhus arcticiis is a rare visitant on the Northumbrian coast, and is 
seldom seen except after severe gales from the North-east. In tlie Avinter of 
1862, an individual was shot in the Tyne above Newcastle, and ^Mr. Rape, 
game dealer of that town, recollects purchasing one in the flesh in the 
summer plumage many years ago, but I am not enabled to give the date of 
its capture. 

Great Crested Grebe (Podicejys cristcdus). — About the middle of last 
month, one of these graceful birds was secured near to North Sunderland. 
At the same place, and about the same period, a male Tufted Duck (Anas 
fuligula) was killed, and a few weeks previous to this, a very beautiful adult 
male Goldeneye (Anas clamjula) fell to the gun of a fisherman. This 
is a charmmg specimen, being fully matiu-ed and very perfect in pliunage. 
No. 23, Aiyril 1. eb 



354 THE NATURALIST, 

Sparrow Hawk (Falco nisus). — In Kovenil3er last, one of these daring 
little fellows w^as captured at Alnmouth, in a very singular manner. It 
pursued a sparrow into a joiner's sIiojd, in whicli two workmen Avere engaged, 
wdio immediately giving cliase, cauglit tlie bold intruder before lie could make 
good liis escape. It proved to be an immature male, possessing that rich 
russet brown tint, which I think excels in beauty the plumage of his elder 
brother the mature bird. The total length of this bird is fourteen inches, 
wings nine inches, wdiicli is perhaps rather above the average size. 

AlmuicJc, March, 1865. 



THE OEIGIIs^ OF H^MATOZOA IN^ THE HUMAN AIS^D A:N"IMAL 

SYSTEMS. 



Uy Edwin Eoxton-Eirby, F.A.S.L., &c. 



Very recently I was much interested in an examination of those curioils 
parasitic animalcules frequently found in the blood of mammiferous animals, • 
of birds, fishes, reptiles, and even in many of the invertebrata ; hence their 
distinctive name Haematozoa, from Greek Jiaima, blood, and zoon, a living 
being. They have not, I believe, been found to possess reproductive organs, 
and whether they propagate by spontaneous fission, or by vesicular encysta- 
tion, or by the elimination of gemmules from the parent body, similar to the 
mode of gemmiparous reproduction observed in the fresh-water polyp or 
hydra, I cannot indeed decide; but I may observe that they are generally of 
such infinitessimal minuteness, as to be difiicult of inspection without micros- 
copic aid. Some privileged few are said to attain to a pretty large size, and 
to be in possession of organs of reproduction, but these individuals are 
restricted to some special part of the body. The variety called Dlstoma 
hmmatohiurii is only to be discovered in the abdominal venous s^^stem ; while 
another variety of tliese minute animal organisms is solely confined to the 
equine abdominal arterial system — the said system of the horse appearing to 
be its sole habitat. That known under the name of Pseudcdhis filum is 
restricted to the pulmonary artery and its ramifications in the porpoise. There 
is much unccrtaint}^ amongst naturalists attaching to the origin of these 
entozoa, but it would seem highly probable that they are conveyed into the 
blood by the larvse being sw^allowed in turbid water. It has been even 
said that they are the larvce of a worm living in the organs immediately 



rOXTON-FIRBT ON THE H.EMATOZOA. 355 

surrounding the vessels, hut tin's does not appear very likely to he tlio 
case. Specimens of entozoa, discharged through the urethra of a young man, 
were some years ago exhihited hefore the Entomological Society of London. 
Ainong the human hannatozoa, the most important is the variety hefore 
mentioned ( Distoma hcematohiitmj, which has only heen observed in Egypt. 
The liver-fluke (Distoma liepaticum) has occasionally been found in tho 
interior ramifications of the portal vein. Those ha3matozoa found in tumours 
and other morbid excrescences, appear undoubtedly to have been conveyed 
there by the circulating blood. The liver-flukes (Distoma liepaticum) which 
I examined, were taken in prolific abundance from the veins in the liver of 
a sheep. I do not remember ever having seen so many taken from one 
animal, as in this instance. In colour they were of a very dark broA\ai, 
almost approximating to a black tinge, and soon showed no symptoms of 
life when taken for a few minutes from their proper element. It does not 
appear from all I can hear on the subject, that these parasitic entozoa, by 
their presence often in great quantities in the arteries and veins of a sheep, 
affect the health of the animal to any appreciable degree. This may, in part, 
be attributable to the suctorial appendages of the parasite, Avliich are 
subservient to the functions of an oral aperture or mouth, and cannot 
therefore in any way injure the delicate lining of the hsematoid ducts and 
veins. It may not perhaps be generally known that the very common 
disease among sheep, known as giddiness, or water in the brain, proceeds 
from the formation of a hydatid ( Polycephalas ovinusj in the brain, and is 
of frequent occurrence in oxen, sheep, and other ruminants. It often occurs 
in one of the lateral ventricles of the encephalic mass, and occasions a kind 
of vertigo, the poor animal turning round and round in a lateral direction, 
generally on the side where the afi'ected part is afterwards found to be 
situated. Hydatids are a species of entozoa, and were first discovered by 
Hartman in 1686, to be distinct parasitic animal organisms. In appearance 
the hydatid, or acephalocyst (Greek, headless bag), is a mere cystic tumour, 
filled mth a fluid that is always, in a proper hydatid, colourless and clear as 
crystal. It ranks as the most simple of the entozoa. 

Gretcelthorpe, near Ripon. 



356 THE NATURALIST. 

SPONTANEOUS EXOTICS. 



By James Britten. 



(Continued from page 266.^ 
Order XIV. — Malvace^. 
Lavatera trbnestris, D.C. Is recorded by Wincli from the ballast-hills 
of Tyne and Wear. A native of the South of Europe. 

L. Olbia, L. Sprang up plentifully, and in a somewhat remarkable 
manner, in Epping Forest, some years ago. The following account of its 
appearance is given by Mr. Doubleday in the Phytologist for 1842. " A 
few years since, a new piece of road was made through Epping Forest to 
Woodford. At a spot called Fairmead Bottom a large quantity of earth 
was dug from the forest and thrown up to raise the road, for the distance 
of about half a mile. The following summer the sides of this piece of road 
were covered with various plants, such as Seneclo Jacobean thistles, &c. ; 
and among them a great number of plants of Lavatera Olbia, a species not 
known, I believe, as a native of Britain. There is not the slightest doubt 
that the seeds had been buried for a vast number of years, and vegetated 
when brought to the surface, as it seems impossible for the plants to have 
got there in any other 'xvay. For three or four years they seemed to 
flourish, and flowered abundantly ; but now the banks have become covered 
with grass, &e., they seem to be disappearing, and last year I could only 
find three or four plants. When I first noticed it, there w-ere hundreds 
scattered along the whole length of the raised portion of the road." Phyt, i. 
265. N.S. It bas now probably entirely disappeared from this locality. 
Mr. Irvine collected it on the waste ground at Wandsworth steamboat pier 
[H.B.P. 747.) A native of France, &c. 

L. alba, Mr. Lloyd observed this " growing by the side of the road 
between the town ond the back gate of the Botanic Garden, Cambridge. 
Phyt., a. 446. N.S. I am uncertain whether the white-flowered variety of 
L. trbnestris is included under the name, or whether L. Olbia may have 
been meant ; as I do not find L. alba as a species in the works to which I 
have referred. 

L. cretica, L. ? Is recorded doubtfully by Mr. Irvine from the Wands- 
worth steamboat pier locality in H.B.P. 747. A native of Crete. 

L. punctata, D.C. Reported by Mr. Irvine from the same locality in 
Phyt., Hi. 319. N.S. : and doubtfully ia H.B.P. 747. A native of Italy. 



BRITTEN ON SPONTANEOUS EXOTICS. 357 

Hibiscus Trionum, L. This common garden annual occurred about 
18."^2 " on a new quay at Wandsworth ; J. T. Syme, in Phyt,, iv. 802. O.S. ; 
elsewhere called the Wandsworth steamboat pier locality. A native of Italy. 

11. vcsicarius, D.C. Found by Mr. Irvine at Wandsworth steamboat 
pier. Phyt., Hi. 339. N.S. A native of Africa. 

Order XVII. — Hypeuicace.g. 

Ilypericnm anr/licwii, Bert. This is one of the " doubtful species '" of 
the London Catalogue, and it may with reason be doubted whether it has 
ever occurred in England, save in gardens. It is the H. elatum of English 
Botany, and the H. grandifoliwn of Choisy : and has frequently been con- 
fused with H. Androscemum, and H. hircinum. Mr. J. T. Syme in Phyt. ir. 
120. O.S. thus directs attention to it : "A Hypericum appearing to be this 
species, was observed by Dr. Balfour in large quantity, apparently wild, on 
the banks of the Glaumire Biver, near Cork ; the plant had also been seen 
by Mr. Sibbald at Agbada." Professor Babington, however, is inclined to 
consider the species here found as H. Uircinum. Mr. Isaac Carrol, in 
Phyt., V. 77. N.S., remarks, " I have long observed this plant on walls by 
the road under Lota Wood, Glaumire, Cork ; but do not think it can be a 
native ; and this locality may be in close proximity to the one above-men- 
tioned. In 1855, Professor Babington again brought forward the claims 
of H. anglicum to be considered as a British plant, in a paper, read before 
the Linnean Society, of which the following summary appeared in Phyt., i. 
117. N.S. " Mr. B. is disposed to think that the true H. anglicum of 
Bertolini still exists in Britain : a specimen agreeing with it in character 
was found by Mr. T. Polwhele about Falmouth harbour, Cornwall ; and 
specimens of the same kind are in Dr. Balfour's herbarium, gathered by 
him on the banks of the Crinan Canal ; Galway, Ireland, [in 1833^ ; and 
Culross, Perthshire, in [1838]. H. anglicum is represented in EngUsh 
Botany, t. 1225, under the name of H. Androsirmum." Mr. GiiTord, at page 
518 of the same volume, quotes a letter from Miss Warren, having refer- 
ence to its occurrence at Falmouth, in which she observes : " The idea of 
H. anglicum being a Cornish plant is now, I think, entirely set at rest. It 
has been proved to be H. hircinum in every locality in this. neighbourhood 
where found by all explorers, and the same as yours, which still keeps its 
ground at Swanpool." With reference to this quotation. Professor Babing- 
ton remarks, " I cannot agree that ' the idea of H. anglicum being a Cor- 
nish plant is entirely set at rest.' Unfortunately, I do not possess the 
means of communicating with Mr. T. R. Polwhele, and so cannot learn 



358 THE NATURALIST.'^ 

from him tlie exact place at Falmoutli where he gathered the specimen 
now before me. That specimen is certainly not H. hircinum (which I have 
also received from Falmouth), differing in its leaves, and especially in its 
calyx, from that plant." Phyt., ii, 251. N.S. The E. ^.jfigure was made 
from a plant found in Haughley Woods, Norfolk " [Bah. Man. ed. 2. p. 61); 
but as H. hircinum is also recorded from the same locality, it is quite pos- 
sible that a mistake may have here, as elsewhere, occurred between the 
two species. Mr. Syme, in E. B. ed. 3. ii., 145, states that he has speci- 
mens from Arran (Dr. P. W. Maclagan) and Torquay, Devon (C. Eyre 
Parker) ; Dr. Arnott, in the British Flora, gives the following localities : 
*• Cliff above Falmouth Harbour ; Helston, near Falmouth ; Hills behind 
Greenock ; Crinan Canal, Argyleshire ; Culross, Perthshire ; Arran, Scot- 
land ; Galway ; Donard Lodge, Co. Down, Ireland." Professor Babington, 
however, doubts if the same plant is intended by Dr. Arnott [Bab. Man. ed. 
6, p. 02), and thinks some other species may have been mistaken for it. 
Under the name of H. grandifoUwn the present species "is stated by Keich- 
enbach [hones Fl. Germ, vi., 70./. 5193) to grow in Arran, Scotland " (Bab. 
Man. ed. 2, 60) ; but Mr. Watson [Cyb. Hi., 330) thinks that " there is every 
reason to suppose an error in the report, not unlikely H. hircinum may have 
been thus misnamed." There can be no doubt that the occurrence of this 
plant in Britain needs investigation ; and it is to be hoped that further 
search will establish it as a genuine native. 

H. hircinum, L. This common and well-known ornament of our 
shrubberies and gardens has occurred without the bounds of cultivation 
in several places. Many errors have arisen from the confusion of this 
species with H. anglicum, which is stated to be a distinct species, though 
much resembling H. hircinum; H.Androscemum has also been occasionally 
thus misnamed. In Cornwall, our plant is stated by Mr. Gifford to occur 
near Falmouth: — "While residing at Falmouth, in 1845, I gathered this 
plant in that neighbourhood, and pointed out the station to my friend 
Miss Warren ; in her opinion it was not truly wild, — it would appear, 
however, that it is now quite naturalised in that locality." Phyt. i,, 518, 
^.S., (see p. 357.) In Kent, it is said to be "pretty well established in the 
village of Ash " (Phyt., v., 182, N.S.) ; but perhaps this may only allude 
to its occurrence in gardens. Mr. Syme, in E. B., ed. 3, ii., 146, states 
that he has it from the same county. " There is a note upon an unpub- 
lished drawing, prepared for Eng. Bot., which states that Eelhan found 
this plant growing at Impington, * by the side of a pond near the great 



BBITTEN ON SrONTANEOUS EXOTICS. 359 

house in immense quantity, in 1790.' I do not know if the plant still 
continues there, as is jDrohable, but it certainly has no claim to be 
considered as native." Flora of CiimhmUjcshire, 44. " The drawing for 
E. B. was made from a plant growing in Haughley woods, Norfolk, the 
locality where H. elation was found." E. D., cd. 3., i/., 146. In Lan- 
cashire, it occurs "in great abundance and luxuriance, sometimes attaining 
the height of from four to five feet, amongst thickets of brambles, &c., in 
the old lane by Ince Blundell [near Liverpool ] There is no trace of its 
having escaped from cultivation." George Kirk, in Fhyt. ii\, l4f>, ^^S. 
I have a specimen labelled " near Liverpool," perhaps from the same 
locality. It "has been observed in Yorkshire, near Settle." H. B. P., 
With reference to its aj^pearance in Scotland, Mr. 11. C. Watson remarks, 
"I have a specimen labelled by the late Professor Graham — '//. 
Androsamum, from a neglected shrubbery at Touch.' " Cyb., Hi, S'^^O. It 
is supposed to have occurred in Ireland, on the banks of the Glanmirft 
river, whence it was recorded as H. anglicum. See the preceding species, 
p. 357. 

H harhatum, L. " Said to have been found by Mr. Don, 'by the side 
of a hedge near the wood of Aberdalgy, in Strath Earn,' Perthshire. No 
other botanist having met with examples, we cannot suppose this easily- 
seen species to have been either native or naturalised in this one locality, 
and in which it is now probably extinct." Cyh. i., 254. 
Order XIX. — Geraniace.e. 

Er odium ciconlum, Willd. Is recorded by Mr. Irvine from Wands- 
worth steamboat pier, where it was "plentiful and strong for some years." 
Phyt. in., N.S.; and doubtfully from the same locality in H.B.P., 752-. 
A native of the South of Europe. 

E. malacoides, D.C. Mr. Hobkirk has kindly iVivoured me with a 
specimen of this plant, which he collected in 1858, on a " shoddy heap," 
near Huddersfield. Owing to the distribution of the " shoddy " over the 
adjacent fields, the species has now disappeared from that neighbourhood. 
A native of the South of Europe. 

E. littoreum, Willd. Occurred " near the Chelsea Old Waterworks, 
Pimlico." H.B.P., 752. lu^Phyt. Hi. 335, N.S. : the locality is described 
as being "on the Middlesex side of the river, near Pimlico," where it 
" was only observed one year, late in the season, at the south of the 
Grosvenor Hotel." (p. 339.) A native of the South of Europe. 

E. cygnorum, Nees. " The Kev G. Pinder has obligingly furnished 



360 



THE NATURALIST, 



US with specimens of a plant identified by Babington with E. cygnorum of 
Nees von Esenbeck, collected on ' waste ground near Guiseley,' during the 
present summer, [1854.] It is a native of West Australia, and he suggests 
that the seeds have been introduced among wool." Supplement to the 
Flora of Yorkshire, 179. 

(To he Continued.) 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 



XXIX. session — IV. meeting. 

The society met on Thursday, 9tli 
February, at 5, St, Andrew Square — 
Professor Balfour, V.P., in the chair. 

Before commencing the public 
business. Professor Balfour alluded 
to the loss which the society had 
sustained in the death of Dr. Hugh 
Falconer, which melancholy event 
took place in London, on the 31st 
of January last. 

The folloAving communications were 
read : — 
I. Contributions to the Flora of 

Otago, :N'ew Zealand. By W. 

Lauder Lindsay, M.D., F.E.S.E., 

F.L.S. 
IL Eemarks on some Seedling Coni- 

fer£e raised from seeds ripened in 

Britain by Mr. M':N'ab. 

Professor Balfour called attention 
to the recent observations of Mold 
and others, relative to the self-fertili- 
sation of the flowers of Oxalis, Viola, 
Specularia, lmp>atiens, Fumarla, &c. 



Dr. J. B. Wood transmitted a 
notice to the effect that Professor 
Schimj)er was about to publish some 
fasciculi of mosses, contaming 200 
species, not met with in the British 
Flora, or only very rarely, and such 
as, if fomid, have only been met with 
hitherto in a barren state. The price 
of each collection is 100 francs. 

XXIX. session. V. MEETING. 

The Society met on Thm^sday, 9th 
March, at 5, St. AndrcAV Square — Dr. 
Alexander Dickson, President, in the 
chair. 

Dr. Balfour stated that he had 
received a letter from Dr. Murchison, 
in which he says that the scientific 
men in London have set agoing a 
subscription for a memorial to the 
late Dr. Hugh Falconer, and that it 
is proposed to have a bust, and a 
fellowship in natural science in the 
LTniversity of Edinbiu'gh. Dr. Bal- 
four also alluded to a new work now 
in 2:)rocess of publication, entitled 
" Contributions tow^ards a Cybele 
Ilibernica ; being Outlines of the 
Geographical Distribution of Plants 
in Ireland"— by D. Moore, Ph. D., 



REPORTS OF SOCIETIES. 



301 



F.L.S., and A. G. More, F.L.S. 
The following communications were 
read : — 

I. Notice of rare plants collected in 
the south-west of England. By 
F. Xaylor, Esq. 

II. l!s'otice of Esparto. By the Eight 
Hon. the Lord Provost. 

III. Note on the discovery of Neo- 
tinea intacta (Reich.) in Ireland ; 
by A. G. More, F.L.S. Communi- 
cated by Dr. Balfoiu\ 

The plant was discovered by Miss 
More, in April 1864, at Castle Taylor, 
about six miles inland from the Bay 
of Gal way. In the same field with the 
plant occiUTed a rare species of Hawk- 
moth, Anthrocera m'lnos. It is re- 
markable that in Killarney Arbutus 
Unedo is associated Avith two local 
species of insects, Notodorda hlcolora 
and Hydrelia Banksicma. A MoUusk 
Geomalacus maculosus is also peculiar 
to the Killarney district. A specimen 
oiNeotinea infacta was exhibited, and 
presented to the herbaiium. 

Dr. White stated that Anthrocera 
minos had also been met with in 
Argyllshire and Kincardineshire. 

IV. Summary of some of the more 
interesting Botanical Papers pub- 
lished in France since July 1864. 
By G. M. Lowe, Esq. 

In this paper the author alluded 
to the remarks of Boussingault on 
vegetation in darkness ; to the che- 
mical researches on vegetation by M. 
Corinwender ; to M. Chatin's obser- 



vations on BalanoplwracAe ; M. Jodin 
on Chl()r(»i»hyll and its connection 
with light ; M. Godron on the mor- 
phology of Crudfena and oiFumaria- 
ceie ; M. Bazin on the spores of 
Achorton Sclueidcuiu ; M. Halst on 
the chemistry of Cotijlcdou urnhUinus', 
and M. Gaston de Sa2)orta on j>lant8 
with deciduous leaves in the gypsum 
of Aix. 

Letters were read from ]Mi\ John 
Sim, Perth, as to the mode of growth 
in the rhizome of Circwa al^nna, and 
on the transmutation of species. 

Dr. Alexander Dickson exhibited 
specimens of Peziza coccinea from 
Arniston Woods, and a cone of Pbms 
coulter I with the scales numbered so 
as to exhibit the 13-3 4th arrange- 
ment. 



Med necked Grebe. — I have just 
added to my collection a female Bed 
necked Grebe, (Podlccjps rabrkoUis) 
which was shot on tlie river Calder, 
near Wakefield, on the 20th of Feb- 
ruary. A Goosander was captured 
also on the Calder, at Stanley, near 
Wakefield, on the 10th of Februar}% 
and brought to me for preservation. 
Geo. Lumb, Wakefield. 
Coast round Blackpool ix IMarch. 

March 24th, 1864.— Blackpool, as 
the name would lead us to infer, is 
built on the verge of a vast moorland 
tract, that extends south towards 
L)i;ham. The peat, which is chiefly 



3G2 



THE NATURALIST. 



consumed by tlie poorer classes, is 
usually found from four to five feet 
below the surface, the supersoil being 
chiefly of a light porous nature. The 
coast consists chiefly of marl and clay, 
the soft shaly nature of which is con- 
tinually crumbling under the action 
of the air and tides, and thus are 
revealed solid concrete masses, that 
often assume grotesque and curious 
shai')es ! The formation of these solid 
isolated masses would seem to be 
this : — Water, charged with carbonate 
of lime, as it Alters through the soil 
converts those portions with which 
it has affinity into concretions, which 
take the shape of the substances so 
percolated by the petrifying quality 
of the water. These conglomerates 
are frequently used as rock-v\^ork in 
the gardens of the lodging-houses. 
The coast north and south of Black- 
pool is far from interesting in the 
spring of the year, still we may find 
even then something that may be 
thought worthy of attention. In 
rambling towards Tleetwood, I ob- 
served on the sand-hills, pretty little 
plants in full flower of Cerastium 
teirandrum with its tetramerous ar- 
rangement of inflorescence. Bota- 
nists usually consider this jilant 
entitled to specific distinction, though 
it may prove after all only one of the 
forms of the protean C triviale. 
"Witli it, and growing like it, imbed- 
ded in the sand, was the Scurvy-grass 
( Cochlearea DanicaJ, with its cruci- 



form flowers tinged with pink. The 
same remark may perhaps apply to 
the claim of this latter plant, to be 
ranked as a species, since the reputed 
normal plant, fC. officinalis J is un- 
doubtedly very apt to be influenced 
by soil and situation. Still it is so 
named in many of our best text- 
books on British botany. I heard 
and saw the Wheatear, (Saxicola 
(Enantlie) that had come to us thus 
early from the South of Eiu^ope. It 
is a lonely bird that usually takes up 
its summer quarters on our downs or 
moorlands. Its very retiring habits 
cause it to be often regarded with 
superstition by our rural jDopulation 
in the ]N"orth. The Mat-grass, ( Am- 
mopldla arundinacea) one of the true 
grasses, is of essential service in 
binding together the shifting sands 
on the coast. When the matted roots 
are bared by the tide, the economy is 
at once apparent. Fine canes of the 
Raspberry, as strong as those in garden 
cultivation, were growing imbedded 
in sand above tide-mark. The Pewit, 
already returned to his nesting- 
place, was giving out that strange, wild, 
and dreamy cry, that he chiefly utters 
in the breeding season, as he sails in 
wheeling, flapping flight over the 
fallows, where his mate is busily 
engaged in plainiing the future duties 
of incubation. The distance from 
Blackpool to Lytham by the coast 
is about ten miles. The coast I 
found even less interesting than that 



OBSERVATIONS. 



3G3 



to tlie Xortli of Blackpool. The 
Ringed Plover (Cliamdrlas Illati- 
cula) kept running along the edge of 
the waves with sm-prising rapidity, 
picking lip tiny mollusks and crusta- 
ceans here and there as the waves re- 
treated, and uttering all the time his 
happy, whistling notes. This bird is 
particularly partial to tidal rivers, such 
as the Kibble, where extensive mud- 
flats prevail on the ebbing of the 
sea. The Grey Gull (Larus canus) 
is ajDt to make incursions inland. 
I saw it not unfrequently busy fol- 
lowing the plough and consorting with 
the rooks for the purpose of picking 
up the worms and grubs thrown to 
the surface. Its notes when alarmed 
on the furrows were singularly harsh 
and grating, and so different from those 
that it utters on the sea, that I coidd 
not but fancy that it must have been 
taking a lesson in scolding from the 
knavish rook ! On my return, the 
plantations at Lytham Hall, re- 
sounded with the cooings of the 
Ring-dove, and the flapping of the 
wings of the pheasants before going 
to roost for the night. The deep 
flute-like notes of the Blackbird, and 
the drowsy cawing of the Jackdaw, 
were among the last sounds of day. 
— Peter Ixchbald, Storthes Hall, 
March 17th, 18G5. 



Aberdeenshire Plants. — In August 
1864, during a stay of ten days 
at Collieston, a fishing village on 



the east coast of Aberdeenshire, 
I had an opportunity of having 
a few botanical rambles witliiu a 
radius of three miles of the abovo 
named place. I cither collected, or 
observed the following plants, omit- 
ting some of the very common species. 

Arctium Lapxxi, abundant about 
the village. 

Antlujllis vuhieraria, not uncom- 
mon. 

Elijmiis arcnarius, common. 

Ccikile mantima, rather local among 
sand, in full flower. 

Gentiana camj^estris, not uncom- 
mon. 

Ranunculus sceleratus, a few plants. 

Glaux maritimaj not plentiful. 

Salsola Kali, rare. 

Ligusticum scoticum, rather local. 
Sea side, among rocks, not common. 

Lycopsis aruensis, frequent. 

Coniuni maculatum, about the vil- 
lage, abundant. 

Nartliccium ossifrajum, common. 

Pavnassia iialustris, abundant. 

Ilahenaria viridis, rare. 

Plantago maritima, frequent. 

P. coronopus, abundant. 

Drosera rotundifoUa, rather local, 
abundant. 

Erodium cicntarium, frequent. 

Pimplnella Saxi/ra{/a, frequent 

Lithospernium maritinium, yerj 
sparingly. 

Spenjularia mhra, few. 

Silene maritima, abundant. 

Sedum anr/licum, frequent. 



364 



THE NATURALIST. 



Asjilenium marinum, a few plants. 
Thymus- Serpyllum, alDuiiclant. 
Statice Armeria, abundant. 
Empetrum nlg^^um, not uncommon. 
Carlina vulgaris, not common. 
Myrica Gale, very local. 
Hypericum Immifusum, few. 
Sagina maritima, not uncommon. 
Comarum palustre, frequent. 



On Sallx Davalliana and Salix 
petroea in " Salktum Britannicum 
Exsic:'' Leife. — I beg to observe for 
the benefit of the possessors of the 
Salictwn Britannicum, Leife, that the 
leaves of No. 74, S. Davalliana, have 
been by mistake placed with No. 84, 
S. p)etraia, and the leaves of JSTo. 84 
have been put with the amenta of 
74, thus causing much confusion in 
the two — hence, perliaps, the remarks 
of Mr. Borrer on the labels of both 
these two species, or rather varieties 
according to Dr. Anderson, of Salix 
phyllci folia. — James Ward, Pdch- 
mond, Yorkshire. 



Monstrosity of Linaria spmria. — 
Might I enquire if any of the readers 
of the "Naturalist" have ever noticed 
any monstrosity of the smaller species 
of Linaria, (besides L. vidgaris, var. 
peloria, which is so well known.) 
Last summer, when in Essex, where 
L. spuria grows abundantly in the 
corn fields, I found one plant mtli 
all the flowers departed more or less 



from the normal type ; one flower for 
instance had two spurs, another three. 
I should be glad to know if this is 
often the case. I searched in vain 
for another plant of L. sjmria having 
this peculiarity. — J. C. Melvill, 
Trinity College, Cambridge, March, 
1865. 



Flora of Buckinghamshire, 
(To the Editors of the Naturalist. ) 
Gentlemen, — ^Will you allow me 
a short space in your columns to ask 
for assistance in compiling a work 
on the above subject 1 The Flora of 
the county of Buckingham is, I am 
sure, from the comparatively small 
attention which I have been able to 
pay to it, an extremely rich one : and 
it is a singular fact, that, with one or 
two trifling exceptions, no one has 
botanised in it to any extent. The 
lists given for Buckinghamshire in 
the Botanists' Guide, and in Mr. 
Watson's later edition of the same 
work, are remarkably meagre: all, 
or nearly all of the localities there 
given being confined to one or two 
districts. A copious list of Marlow 
plants in the old series of the Pliyto- 
logist, and sundry smaller articles in 
the new series of the same, complete 
the printed information which I have 
been able to collect relative to the 
botany of the entire county : this 
will show how much yet remains to 
be done. I have no doubt that many 



PROF. CREriN : CONttlDERATIOXS OX ''SPFXIES." 



3C5 



of the readers of the Natural tat have 
in their herbaria two or three speci- 
mens of pLants from Ihickingham- 
sliire : if such would forward me the 
localities of these, they would render 
me great assistance. If any one can 
inform me of any work besides those 
already mentioned, -wherein I may 
find printed information on the 
plants of the comity, I shall be 
equally obliged. I am sure that the 
plants of the county merit attention : 
in the neighbourhood of High Wy- 
combe alone, are such rarities as 
Dentaria lulhlfera, Daphne Meze- 



rcum, Orchis fusca, and a host of 
others. ^lay I hope, therefore, that 
this appeal may not pass unanswered ? 
" The smallest contributions will be 
thankfully received" by yours, very 
tmly, James Britten. — Address 18, 
Shawheld-street, Chelsea, London, 
S.W. 



(EKijaitge, 



British Shells. — I shall be glad to 
exchange Foreign for British, or 
British for British Shells of various 
localities. — Wm. Eicn, 14, Great 
Russell Street, Bloomsbury, London. 



(Drigimtl %xtuhB, 

COXSIDERATIOXS OX "SPECIES'' APROPOS OF A NEW WORK 

BY M. jorda:n^. 



BY FRAN9OIS CREPIN, 

Professor of Botany a "VEcole cV Horticulture,'' Gaud. 



(Continued from j>a/7e 239. J 

Besides he himself informs us : — " In speaking on a succession of fiict? 
carefully observed by ourselves, we may, by means of a Icf/ifiniate indartion^ 
arrive at a loell-assured judgment, on the totality of analogous facts which 
w^e have not been enabled to observe with the same care "(^) 

We must raise against this criterion or against the method of using it 
an objection of the gravest character. Is it really certain that no variation 
can survive longer than five, ten, fifteen or twenty j^ears 1 AMiy confine 
ourselves to so small a number of years ? Is hot such a limitation alto- 
gether arbitrary'? IVFay it not be that a great number of these fonns 
remaining stable for five, ten, fifteen or twenty years are really, as the 
partisans of the old school hold, merely varieties already pretty ancient, — 
varieties, which dm-ing the lapse of several centuries, have acquired a certain 
habit, more or less fixed by time? This is a simple .hypothesis, but 

(5) Loo. cit : p. 17. 



366 THE NATURALIST. 

it is one wliicli cannot he quietly inislied on one side^ and whicli 
must tlu'ow a very grave doubt on the legitimacy of the new species. 
Eesides, the partisans of the new school suspect the existence of more or less 
persistent varieties, since their experiments have been extended over several 
successive generations. Suppose every variety should return to its original 
type after the first generation, and thus, that a first or second solving should 
suffice to assure us of the value of the form operated uj^on ; or it may even 
persist after several successive sowings, still the term fixed for its persistence 
is altogether arbitrary, and cannot lead to absolute certainty. If there are 
varieties produced on which time has impressed a certain mark — which have 
accpiired certain differences that remove them slightly from what may be 
taken as the typical form, is it absolutely certain that these marks or 
divergences ought to disappear after the first, second, or thhd generation ? 
If these differences still remain after a considerable number of years, dimng 
which they are experimented on, have we any right to conclude from this 
7nomentary stahility that the forms thus remaining the same are not 
varieties, but really true species ? We are not authorised in drawing such 
a conclusion, for we cannot be certain that this stability will be indefinite. 
May it not be, that, after five, ten, fifteen or twenty years, by a more extended 
and better imderstood trial, on the habit assumed by any form, its 
differences, would, little by little, altogether disappear? This is quite possible, 
and once admitting its possibility, it follows logically that any form having 
remained unchanged for ten or twenty years may equally well be considered 
a simple variety as a good species, and that every species based upon the 
sole criterion of its momentary persistence cannot be proposed with certainty 
as a true species. 

In OUT opinion, the proofs to which the new creations liave been 
submitted are not a true criterion. Persistence during a certain number of 
years can only furnish a pvesumijtlon of indefinite stability, but not a 
certainty. This is a point on which we must strongly insist. Nevertheless, 
in spite of our well-known attachment to the old ideas, if we could have an 
entire confidence in the results of the cultivations, made by the partisans of the 
new school, we should not delay, provisionally, to give our preference to the 
new species, for they are more or less i)roven, whilst the Linnean types, 
generally speaking, rest only on hypotheses — on a certain manner of 
observing. The latter may be veritable species, but it is not impossible that 
they may be only assemblages of distinct forms, which botanists have 
arbitrarily grouped together, in the same way as genera and families. But 



PROF. CREPIN : CONSIDERATIOXS ON "SPECIES. 3G7 

oiir confidence in the results of M. Jordan's experiments, and those of his 
followers, is far from perfect, since our own observations and those of the 
partisans of the Linnean School lead to quite a different result. In our 
opinion, the proofs to which the new creations have been submitted do 
not constitute a veritable criterion. Are we deceived? Are the other 
Linnean observers laboming under an illusion 1 AVe do not think 
so, and therefore we must call in (|uestion the constant stability of the 
multitude of forms described by jNI. Jordan. Had we experimented on 
materials altogether similar to those of this gentleman, should we have 
arrived at the same results as he has ? We cannot answer this question, for, 
so far, we have not experimented on his identical forms. From the con- 
tradictory facts we have established — from the uncertainty wliich the appli- 
cation of the criterion of the new school entails — from the absence of a really 
practical criterion in the old school, we cannot arrive, at present, at any 
logical conclusion, either with regard to the new types or the old ones. 
Nevertheless our own studies and observations, and perhaps also our pre- 
judices, incline us to give the preference to the latter. It is possible that 
some day we may have to acknowledge ourselves in error, and that facts may 
compel us to rally on the side of those doctrines which we now combat. 

Let us noAv examine in more detail the manner in which the partisans 
of the new school discriminate and delineate their sjDecies. In the first place, 
they are led to recognise amongst the forms constituting the ancient types 
several which may be easily distinguished, the one from the other, by an 
assemblage of characters sufficiently marked and persistent. Little by little, 
analysis pushed still further, the observations become more minute, and 
they find that what they had taken for types — unities — are not such. As a 
striking example of this subdivision, we may cite, 1st, the Erophila (jlahres- 
cens of Pugillus, which becomes in the " Diagnoses " E. medioxina and E. 
oblongata ; 2nd. Thlasj)i ijerfoliatitm of Pugillus, which is divided into T. 
perfoliatum and T. martiale. These are however, the only two glaring 
subdivisions in the " Diagnoses ;" but it is not improbable that after a succes- 
sion of gropings, after many variations, the author of this volume has 
finally amved at what he now considers as distinct types, or units. Has he 
not oftentimes been led to subdivide what had at first appeared to him as 
simple % He might, indeed, allow that he has groped, that what he had 
believed to be simple, had after a more profound examination and better 
conducted experiments, proved to be complex, but that this is only the 
progression of all scientific research, and that we ought not to reproach him 



368 THE NATURALIST. 

for what is in tlie nature of tilings. We do not reproacli him with this ; 
we wonkl only suggest to him the question, that after all these fluctuations, 
is he 5?M'e that he has seized the real unit, lyerfedhj Junited, constant, and 
invarlahle, essentially sejxirated every one from the other ? He would 
answer in the affirmative. For ourselves, we are far from certain of it ; first, 
because the criterion is defective, and secondly, because we can scarcely 
believe, sj^ite of all his activity, which is justly admitted, that he has had 
the time and the prodigious jiatience to malce all the comparisons required 
for the numerous new types which he proj)oses. We think, that in a great 
number of cases, he has been content ^^dth analogies, and that he has 
inferred the general from the particular, a method which frequently leads to 
error, unless we suppose that all the forms in one genus or one family 
have the same degree of stability or variability, which is scarcely probable. 
Take, for example, the genus Erojjhila, (^) which already numbers fifty-three 
distinct types for France alone, and which, " when all the forms which exist 
in various parts of this country have been made the subject of attentive 
stud}^, and compared together in the living state, may reach to more than 
one-hundred," and imagine what astounding patience must have been required 
to recognise with certainty the momentary stability of these fifty-three types. 
Before being enabled to establish them, it was requisite in the begin- 
ning to make a first division, furnishing two principal groups ; these two 
had then to be subdivided into two and seven secondary groups. Long 
and patient comparisons had then to be made, in order to ascertain that 
the forms in the one group do not pass into the forms of the other, — that 
those of each secondary group never present the characters of a neighboimng 
secondary group. Each of the sub-grouj)s must have been separated into 
species or units. Each unit must have been studied in a sufficient number of 
examples, and this during several generations. The individuals produced 
by generation, must have been compared with their parents and their de- 
scendants. All the organs must have been passed under review in each 
generation, the compass must have been used to measure the leaves and 
the internodes, almost to a millimetre, the glass to count the hahs, &c., 
&c. When we know by what minute characters — almost indiscernible — 
the units of the genus Eroj)liila are separated from one another, we are amazed 
at the almost fabulous patience which must have been exercised in making 
these delicate comparisons upon thousands and thousands of individuals! 
Besides, in order to arrive at a sure result, these fifty-three types should have 
(6) " Species 53 sequentes ex Draba verna L. typo." Diagnoses p. 207. [Eds. Nat.] 



PROP. CREPIN : CONSIDERATIONa ON " SPECIES." 3G9 

been cultivated, for as M. Jordan confesses, and as we shall have occasion to 
acknowledge below, a good and complete comparison of these species, so 
closely related, can only be made on the living specimen. However little, 
certain individuals of each unity may oscillate between certain narrow limits^ 
and this is a case which may bo presented, what patience must be reqmred to 
follow, during several generations, these exceedingly slight variations. Ecforo 
establishing any unit, it is absolutely indispensable to be assured that the 
slightest differences — an increase of a millimetre in the length of the pedicels, — 
a slightly increased separation between the lobes of the petals, — a little 
darker tint in the sepals — disappear or have no permanence ; for if certain 
individuals of any unity whatever, have preserved one or other of these 
slight differences, if they have consequently remained stable, — such ought to 
be placed on one side to form a new unity. A single difference, be it but of" 
a hair, if persistent, ought, to follow out the principle logically, to suffice for 
constituting a distinct type, for we have not any acknowledged balance for 
weighing the value of a persistent hair — for appreciating so extremely minuto 
a character — which may be as important as that which strikes our eyes at 
once. This hair, from the moment that it is found to be persistent for five, 
ten, fifteen, or twenty years of trial, should be of great value ; it ought to be 
considered as the visible sign of a separate existence — of a " nature distinct^ 
created in time and space, corresponding to a distinct idea, conceived from tJie 
beginning in the Divine mind."'' Let it not be imagined that we are jesting 
at the expense of the new school ; we do but carry out their ideas to their 
ultimate results — results to which they must be inevitably led, if they would 
be logical. Has M. Jordan elucidated the genus ErojyJiila with all the 
care he claims ^ Possibly he has. The units of this genus are distinguished 
from one another only by very small matters ; but these little things — these 
trifles if you mil — constitute for each type an assemblage of characters whicli 
are only valueless to the Linnean School, who require differences on which 
they may place their finger "without hesitation, and wliich may be recognised 
at a distance. But why also exact good and marked differential characters 
for the species? Wliat gives the greater value to these well-marked characters? 
It would be difficult to say. In the actual state of science, it seems to us 
that we ought to accord provisionally, more value to the minute characters of 
tested new species than to the larger characters of the ancient types, since, as 
we are assured, they have persisted for several generations, and are stable and 
unchanged ; the others should be but generic or sectional characters. 

(7) Loc. cit, p. 10. 



370 THE NATURALIST. 

OBSEEVATIONS OK EEPTILES. 



By W. R Tate. 



As I liave kept live Heptiles of various sorts constantly for tlie last two 
years, and at intervals for some time previously, and have spent many days 
in catching them, perhaps a few observations of mine on those little-studied 
creatures may interest some readers of the "Naturalist." 

Crested ISTewt, {Triton ijaliistris.) — I lately had one which I named 
" IsTeptune," because, I supj)ose from some accident, one of the toes of his 
right fore-foot was divided into three little fingers, looking like the trident 
■of that god. A female once laid four eggs in my tub, but they came to 
notliing. They were the coloiu' of those of the Cochin China hen, and sank 
to the bottom of the water. The tip of the tail of this Newt is rather brittle, 
but not nearly so much so as that of the lizard and blindworm. They some- 
times bite when first taken, but^annot make one feel. Before " Neptune " 
died a pair of water beetles, {Hydrous inceus) attacked him and devoured 
the flesh off his tail. In mnter it loses the lobe of its upper lip. 

Common Toad, {Bufo vid(jaris.) I have at present a nice specimen of the 
toad, which croaks loudly whenever touched. Another croaking fellow, together 
with a noisy Natterjack, of my catching, is in the Zoological Gardens. Both 
croaking toads are very regularly spotted with black. They were caught in 
the adjoining parishes of Cobham and Esher, in Surrey, and are possibly only 
varieties. - "When watching an insect which they intend to devour, toads keep 
twitching their hind toes most comically with excitement. AAHien devoimng a 
large worm they use their fore-feet as hands to push it into their mouths, and 
also to pull out moss, &c., which may have got in with the worm. My 
Toads (I have two young ones besides the adult) are now so tame that they 
never dribble over me when I touch them. Last September I was bringing 
one home in a canister with a lizard. After walking about a mile I looked 
into the tm, and found that the Toad had dribbled over the lizard, which 
was gasping. Soon after being introduced into his box my large one 
scraped a hole in the moss with his hind-feet, in Avhich he took up liis 
abode. I have since put a mud Tortoise in with him, which turned him out 
and took possession of his hole. What may be called the thumb on each 
fore-foot of the Toad is covered on the back with very hard raised skin, to 
protect it from abrasion by its rubbing against the body when walking. 



TATE ON REPTILES. 371 

Natterjack, {B. calamita.) In point of intelligence this is to the toad 
what the Chimpanzee is to the Orang. Whoever lias seen those two Apes together 
in the Zoological Gardens will understand nie. The other day I put a Toad 
and a Natterjack into a new box together. The latter spent the first liour 
in walking and climbing all about the box to examine its ne^v abode ; the 
former kept crouched in the corner in which I jdaced it. There is a curious 
difference between the eyes of the two species : in tlie daytime those of tlio 
Natterjack are dull and expressionless, the pupils being contracted into mere 
specks ; wliile in the night they are as beautiful as those of the toad, yet the 
Natterjack is much the more diurnal in its habits. I consider a fidl sized B. 
calamita the handsomest of our indigenous reptiles. 

Frog, (Eana tempomria.) I have a frog in my vivarium which gen- 
erally croaks Avhen handled. Last October it cut a slit in its side by leaping 
against the sharp edge of a tin canister in which it had been travelling. I 
did not wish to kill it as it was a very pretty one, and could not push in the 
protruding entrails, so cut them off, and staunched the woimd with gum 
water : five days after it Avas Avell enough to eat three flies, and is now in as 
good condition as any of my reptiles. It catches flies from greater distances 
than the toads can, as it jumps and tlirows out its tongue at the same time. 
I once had a frog spawn Avliile in my possession. Two years ago I remember 
seeing a field mouse trying to catch a frog in a ditch, but my looking on 
frightened the former away. 

N. American Bull Frog, (Baiia inxmns.) One in the Zoological 
Gardens has lately got drowned. I have had a young toad die from being 
unable to get out of the Avater ; but should not have thought it possible in a 
full groAvn Bull Frog. 

Tree Frog, {Hyla — .?) There is a dirty AvhiteTree Frog, from Queens- 
land, in the Zoological Gardens. As it sticks on the glass side of its cage it 
looks like a lump of putty. 

Rattlesnake, {Crotalus horridus.) Tlie noise of the rattle alAA-ays seems 
to me to sound from the opposite direction to Avhere the creature is. ]May 
not this be so, that an animal in attempting to fly from its deadly foe often 
runs into its jaws 1 

Common Viper, (Pelias be?ms.) It has been said that tliis will never 
strike at an inA-rdnerable object more than once; but those Avliich I havo 
caught have kept biting for some minutes at the bits of fmze Avith Avhich I hit 
them. One of these AA^as of the azure-bellied variety, twenty-tAvo inches long; 
I extracted his fangs and he soon after died. I caught liiin on Wimbledon 



372 THE NATURALIST. 

Common, very near a flock of slieei^ wliicli were rambling about among the 
fern. In tlie spring of 1863 I saw on Wisley Heath, Surrey, a beautiful 
black and wliite Yiper, but not then knowing liow rare a variety it was, 
did not catcli it. It was subsequently cauglit and destroyed by a peasant. 
Last summer I just missed a fine black one at Snaresbrook, in tlie corner of 
Epping Forest, nearest to London. There had been a school treat close by 
the day before. It is a wonder that children on such occasions (which are 
frequent there) do not get bitten, since adders abound ; they seem emboldened 
by the constant sight of visitors, and do not glide ofi" so quickly as in 
Surrey. 

The Slowworm, {Anguis fragilis) changes its skin about once a month in 
summer. It does not come off whole like that of the snake, but peels off in 
little bits. I caught one at Wimbledon in 1863, twelve-and-a-half inches 
in length. The tongue is divided into two round knobs at the end, instead 
of being merely slit as is the case with the lizard. They are rather shy in 
confinement. The young Slowworm is of a beautiful gold colour. 

The Common Lizard, [Zootoca vivipara.) thrives as well as any reptile in 
confinement. Last sunmier I had two broods of young born ; the first con- 
sisted of five, the second of six. They were born on July 1 6th and 1 7th. 
At first they seemed healthy, and ate and drank, but gradually all fell off 
and died. The last died on August 19th. I feed the lizards on insects : 
they prefer flies and spiders, but also relish earwigs, small moths, caterpillars, 
&c. When hungry they will eat worms, but evidently they do not like them 
much. Probably when wild they eat them only in wet weather. Their 
skin, which in warm weather is changed every three weeks, peels off bit by 
bit like the Slowworm's Wlien a tail is broken off it begins to grow again 
in exactly two months, and is completed in another month ; but is then far 
inferior in length and beauty to the original. The tail when sprouting 
resembles bee's wax. The reptile keeper in the Zoological Gardens tells me 
he once caught a lizard, on Hampstead Heath, with two tails : in Avinter the 
tails are not reproduced. I have a male whose tail came off on August 27th, 
and which is not yet (February SOtli) sprouting at all. They soon become 
exceedingly tame. I keep them in small boxes covered with black gauze, on 
which they frequently crawl with their beautiful under parts uppermost. One 
now living in my box was caught on April 12th, 1864. In winter, when 
not torpid, they support life by drinking an immense quantity of water. The 
heaths near London on which they most abound are Hampstead, Putney, 
and Snaresbrook, particularly the last. 



GUNN ON THE ENTOMOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 373 

Crested Anolis, (Anolis vcUfer.) A male specimen of tliis curious 
West Indian lizard lias been very kindly given me by Mr. I^. L. Austen, of 
Croydon. It is intermediate between the geckoes and the iguanas. It has 
the sticky feet of the former, and the pouch of the latter. The body of my 
specimen is about four-and-a-half inches, and his tail six-and-a-half inches 
long. The colour is whitey-brown, barred with black. He is excessively 
quick both in running and jumping. I have placed him in the box "with 
the common lizards, and it is amusing to see him put out liis pouch indignantly 
whenever they approach him. When one treads on his toes he gives it a 
bite. The pouch when distended is very beautifid — brilHant red with some 
blue ill the middle ; but it is only put out when the creature is irritated. 

Mud Tortoise, (Testudo pusilla.) I have a specimen of this reptile, 
bought in Leadenhall market, December lOtli. Up to this time (February 
20th) it has eaten nothing. I j)ut him in with the Batrachia, and he pos- 
sessed himself of the old Toad's hole. Sometimes when I ]}\\i him on tlie 
table he goes to the edge and throws liimself off, taking care to tuck in his 
head out of danger. 

I shall always be glad to correspond with anyone on herpetological 
subjects ; to forward specimens of the Natterjack Toad ; and to show my 
collections to those who like to call. 

4, Grove Place, Denmark Hill, 
Camherwell, London. 



l^OTES 0:N' JSrOKFOLK ENTOMOLOGY— LEPIDOPTEEA. 

Part II. 



By T. E. Gunn. 



NOCTURNL 

Smerinthus ocellatus. Uncommon. I took a few larvcc in 1863, feeding on 

willow. 
S. Populi. Common. I obtained a specunen last season, the greyish brown 

markings of its fore wings being of a much paler hue than in ordinary 

specimens. 
S. Tilioe. Uncommon. 
Acherontla atroj^os. Tins magnificent species although sparingly met with 

in its imago state, in the larva and pupa is far from being uncommon — 



374 THE NATURALIST. 

specimens are obtained every season in almost every potato field in 
tliis neigiibourhood; during the autumn of 1861, the owner of a potato- 
piece, in the parish of Heigham, I^orwich, dug up as many as forty 
pupse, which a neighbour of his j)urchasecl with the intention of rearing 
the following season. He placed them in a large flower-jDot, covering 
them carefully with mould, standing it in his hot house, quite expecting 
from the extra Avarmth applied to them to produce the imago at a much 
earlier period than usual ; great, however, was his disap23ointment when 
only one made its appearance, that being in a crippled condition. I 
know of an instance of the perfect insect emerging from the pupa-case 
when laying in an exposed condition ; a caterpillar having escaped from 
its cage, and changed to its second stage on a piece of Avood that laid^in 
the cellar, the moth was caught while fluttering about and making many 
vain endeavom-s to escape from its unnatm^al locality ; the pupa-case 
being found in the above-named situation. A person with whom I am 
acquainted is in the habit of placing caterpillars of this species amongst 
shreds of cork, rotten wood, &c., by which means he sometimes 
succeeds in bringing out the moth in perfect condition. The larva of 
Aclierontia atropos subsists chiefly on j^otato leaves, but has occasion- 
ally been found on the privet-fence. I saw two examples last season 
which were taken by a lad while feeding on the latter. 

SpTiiiix convolculi. This moth is not uncommonly met with, but its larva 
is rarely obtained. I had the pleasure of examining one last season. It 
was of a uniform bright green, spotted with broAvn on its back, and 
oblique yellow strijjes on its sides. 

>S^. lujustri. Common. Its beautiful larva may be seen feeding on almost 
every privet-fence, in August and September. 

Chmrocampa Elpenor. Uncoimnon. I have seen a few larvae. 

Macroglossa stellatarum. Uncommon. One imago in 1863. 

Besia tiimliformis. Occurred rather abundantly in this locality in 1862, 
since then I have not seen a single example. 

Zeuzera cusctiU. Rare. 

Cvsdus llrjniperda. ^Not uncommon. The larva feeds four years before 
attaining its full growth ; it proves very destructive to timber, particu- 
larly the willow and elm, as it subsists on the solid wood. 

Hepiulus hedus. Local. I captured eighteen examples during one evening 
in July, 1864, at Ketteringham. 

H. lupulmus. Common. Appearing in June. 



GUNN ON THE ENTOMOLOGY OF NORFOLK. 375 

H. sytvuius. Uiicoiimion. I obtained two si3ecimeiis, male and female, in 

July, 18G3. 
Zygcena trifolii Local. Imago on wing during the midsummer. 
Z. lonicerce. Same as last. 
Z. filpendulce. Local and rather uncommon. I have examples of this and 

the two preceeding species in my collection. 
Lithosia comj^lcuiula. Common. 
L. quadra. L^ncommon. 

Euchelia jacohece. Eather common at midsummer. 
Chelonia x>lantaginis. Eare. 
C. Caja. Common in almost every garden. Although I have bred a good 

many examples of this species, I have not succeeded in obtaining any 

particular variations in colour or markings. 
C. villica. Eare. 
Ardia mendlca. Uncommon. Imago in June. 

A. mentliastri. Not uncommon. 
LijMns auriflua. Common. 

L. salicis. Uncommon. 

Orgyia pudibunda. Uncommon. Bred. 

0. fascelina. Eather rare. Bred. 

0. antiqua. Common. 

Demas coryli Eare. My friend Mr. "W. Smith took three examples in the 
summer of 1863, he found them resting on the back of an old shed. 
A day or two afterwards I found a fourth specimen in the same situation. 

Tricliiura cratcegi. Eare. 

Pcecdocampa pojmlL Eare. I caught one in October, 1861. 

Eriogaster lanestris. JS'ot uncommon during some seasons, and rather scarce 
in otliers. In its pupa state it will sometimes lay two years, the imago 
emerging early in spring. Mr. Edward Xe^vman says he has had them in 
the pupa case as many as five years. See Zoologist, page 9259. 

Bomhyx neusfria. Eather uncommon. One in October, 1864. 

B. quercus. Common. 

B. trifolii. Uncommon. Bred. 
Odonestis potatoria. Plentiful. 
Lasiocainpa quercifolia. Uncommon. June. 
Saturnia Carpi ni. I^ot uncommon. Bred. 



376 THE NATURALIST. 

OX THE BOTANY OF MALHAM. 



By Louis C. Miall. 



Part IY. — Lichenes. 
In approaching tliis part of the Botany of Malham, I feel, even 
more strongly than hitherto, my own incompetence for the task I have 
undertaken. Indeed, it is only the deshe of rendering the list as complete 
as possible, which mduces me to include the Lichens at all. The excellent 
list furnished by Dr. Carrington to the " Flora of the West-Riding " renders 
the wish feasible, and any one who takes the trouble to compare this list 
with it will see how largely I am indebted to the work of others. I have 
added references which will enable the student of the less modern manuals 
of cryptogamic botany to identify the species here mentioned. The few 
plants and stations which are distinguished by the mark of verification (!) 
have been certified by the kindness of various friends to whom I have sent 
specimens. 

COLLEMAGE^. 

Synalissa symplwrea, D.C. (Collema nigrum^ Ach.^ Gordale ! Dr. 

Carrington. 
Collema melcenum, Ach. (C. multifidum, Schser.^ Malham, S. Hailstone. 
C. plicatile^ Ach. Malham, S. Hailstone. 
(7. turgidmn, Ach. Malham Cove, Dr. Carrington. 

C. puljjosum, d. cristatum, Borr. Among moss below Malham Cove, (fee. ! 
C. tenax, Sw. Gordale, Dr. Carrington. 
C. fiuviatile, Huds. On rocks in the stream from Malham Cove ! Hooker's 

English Flora, &c. This and the Dillenian station of Snowdon were 

long the only British ones. 
^yneclioUastus fiaccidus, Ach. (Collema.) Gordale, Dr. Carrington. 
S. complkatus, Schl. Malham ? Dr. Carrington. 
Leptogium satiirninum, l^jl. (Mallotium, Mudd. Collema, Ach. J Rocks, 

Gordale, Dr. Carrington. 

LiCHENACEiE. 

Cladonia alclcornis, Liglitf. ( ScyiDopliorus, Fee.^ Malham Moor, Dr. 

Carrington. 
C. gracilis, d. degenerans. ( Bcypojghonis, Fee.^ Near Malham Tarn, Dr 

Carrington. 
C. cervicornis, Ach. ( Scypophorus, F^e.^ Malham Moor, Dr, Carrington 

Gordale ! 



MIALL ON THE BOTANY OF MALHAM. 377 

C. unclah's, L., b. tio'didcsccns, Fries. Near Malham Tarn ! Dr. Windsor. 
C. coca'/cra, L. Various forms, more or less distinct, occur on Malham 

Moor ! 
Icmadophila ccruguiosa, Scop. fCalicium, Ach.J Malham Moor, Dr. 

Carrington. 
Ramalina calicans, Fr. Several varieties occur at Malham ! 
Corniadaria aculeata, Ach. ]\Ialliam Moor ! 

Cetrarle. 
Cetraria glaum ^ b fallax, Ach. This variety, which merely differs in the 

colour* of the thalliLS, is connnon on Malham Moor ! 

Peltideace.e. 
Peltigera cqjhtJiosa, Ach. (Peltidea, Ach.J Gordale, Dr. Carrington. 
Solorina saccata, Ach. Clefts of rocks about Malham Cove ! 

PARMELIACEiE. 

Parmdia pltgsodes, Ach. On rocks about Gordale ! Dr. Carrington has 
found the apothecia near Malham Tarn. 

P. stygia, Ach. Eocks above Malham Cove ! 

P. caperata, Ach. Malham, Dr. Carrington. 

P. Moiigeotii, Schaer. Near Malham Tarn, Dr. Carrmgton. 

Bar vera stellaris, Ach. (Parmelia, Ach.J Trees at Malham, J. Nowell. 

Physcia candelaria, L. ( Squamaria, D. C. Lecanora^ Ach.J Near Jen- 
net's Cave, Dr. Carrington. 

UmhiUcaria polyphylla, Fr. h. jioccidosa^ Wulf. Malliam IMoor, Dr. 
Carrington. 

Lycanorace^. 

Pannaria liypnorum,' Yahl. ( Squamana^ D. C. Lecanora, Ach.J On 
mosses, Malham Moor, Dr. Carrington. 

Squamaria crassa, Huds. Gordale. Crevices of limestone rock, Dr. Car- 
rington. 

S. saxicola, Ach. Eocks on Malham Moor ! 

Placodlum ccdlopismum, Ach. (Lecanora.) Limestone scars, Malham 
Moor, Dr. Carrington. 

P. candicans, Dicks. Gordale, Dr. Carrington. 

Callojyisma carium, var. &fiUicidiorum, Mudd. On dead moss, Gordale. 
Very rare. Dr. Carrington. 

C. aurantiacum, Lightf. Malham, Dr. Carrington. 

C. ochraceur/i, Schrer. Eocks around Malham Tarn, S. Hailstone. 

C. ferrugineum, Huds. Eocks and loose stones 1 



378 THE NATURALIST. 

Lecanora alhella, Tcli. Trees at Malliam ! Var. crenulata, on slate, Gordale, 

Dr. Carrington. 
L. 2>olytro2Kt, Acli. Rocks on Malhani Moor ! ISTot uncommon in Craven 

generally. 
L. glaucoma^ Acli. Malham Moor, Dr. Carrington. 
L. tartarea, Acli. Malliam Moor ! The Cudbear of commerce. 
Urceolaria calcarea, b. contovta, Malliam, Dr. Carrington. 
TJ. scruposa, Acli. Walls' and rocks on Malliam Moor ! 

Var. hryophila^ on Malliam ]\Ioor, Dr. Carrington. 
Gyalecta cupularis, Elu-li. Rocks about Malliam, Dr. Carrington. 

LECIDEACEiE. 

Psora lurida, Swartz. On dead moss in limestone crevices, Gordale ! Dr. 
Carrington. 

ThalUoldima vesiculare, Hoff. (Lecidea.) Pavements on Malbam Moor ! 
Crevices of rocks about Malliam Tarn ! 

Leucothecium nigrum, Huds. (Biatoria.) Malliam Moor, Dr. Carrington. 

Baddia carneola, Acli. (Lecidea.) Trees near Jennet's Cave, Dr. Car- 
rington. 

B. miLscorum, Hook. (Lecidea.) On decayed moss, Malham Moor, Dr. 
Carrington. 

Bilimhia spliwroides, Sommf. On moss, Malham Moor, Dr. Carrington. 

Lecidea uUgiyiosa, Ach. Malham Moor, Dr. Carrington. 

L. calcivora, Elirli. Rocks and walls aljout ]\Ialham ! 

Buellia saxatiUs, Scli^er. Rocks on IMalham Moor, Dr. Carrington. 

Di2?lotomma calcarea, Weis. (Lecidea calcarea, a. Weissii, Scliaer.^ Slaty 
rocks, Gordale, Dr. Carrington. 

Melanospora cerehrina, Mudd. ( Opegraplia, D. Q.) Gordale, Dr. Carrington. 

GrAPHIDACEyE. 

Opegraplia saxatilis, D.C. Rocks around Malham Cove, and between 

Malham and Kilnsey ! 
O. Tuhella, Pers. Trees, Gordale ! Dr. Carrmgton. 
0. scripta, Ach. /3. pulwrulenta, Pers. Trees about Malham ! 
Artlionia astroidea, Ach., b. Sicctrtziana. Malham Cove, Dr. Carrington. 

Possibly a form of Opegraplia cdra. See E. Bot., t. 1347. 
Angiocarpi. 
Endocarpon minicdum, L. Malham and the neighbourhood ! 

b. complicatum, Swartz. Gordale, Dr. Carrington. 
E. rufesccns, Ach. CrcAd^es of rocks in the neighbourhood of Malham ! 



OBSERVATIONS. 



379 



E. cinereum, Pers. fSagedia, Fr. Verrucarla, Ach.^ On dead moss, 
Malham Moor ; rare, Dr. Carrington. 

E. loitevirens, Hook. ( Normandina, ISTyl.J "One specimen was collected 
by Mr. Stansfield, on rocks above Malham Cove. I saw it when living, 
but it was lost in the attempt to propagate it, 1857." Dr. Carrington. 

Pertusaria glohulifeixt, Sm. Trees about Malham ! 

Tlielotrema lejKidinun, Ach. Eark of trees near Jennet's -Cave ! Gordale ! 

Petractis exwithematica, Kbr. (Thelotrema, Ach.^ Gordale and Malham 
Moor, on rocks ! 

Verrucaria aquatilis, Mudd. Stream from Malham Cove ! 

V. plumhea, Ach. Gordale, Dr. Carrington. 

V. Dufouril, D.C. Malham, rare, Dr. Carrington. 

V. nitlda, Sclu-ad. fPi/renuIa, Ach.) b. dermatodes. Gordale, Dr. Car- 
rington. 

V. rliyponta, Ach. Trees near Jennet's Cave, Dr. Carrington. 

V. rimosicola, Leigiit. Parasitic on Lecidea ccdcarea, Malham Moor, Dr. 
Carrington. 
\* Part V. will include the Mosses, Hepaticas and Characeae, concluding 

the series. Any corrections or important additions which may be communi- 
cated will be subsequently inserted in the "^N'aturalist." 



Summer rambles on the Orme'shead, 
Llandudno. 
No. I. 
Tliis headland is formed of the 
carboniferous limestone, which here 
crops out from a chain of submer- 
ged rock, that trends from the -north- 
ern coast of Flint, in a westerly di- 
rection, towards Puffin Island, and 
the Isle of Anglesey. The Flora 
will consequently be found to contain 
such plants as delight in the moun- 
tain limestone ; some being of con- 
siderable rarity, and strictly local 
distribution. 



We will begin with the Notting- 
ham Catchfly, Sllene mdans, one of 
the Caryophyllacese, that abounds on 
the upper ledges of the rock, and 
may be readily recognised by its 
white drooping flowers, which are 
sweetest in the evening. The cap- 
sules of tliis plant feed the rare 
Dlanthxecia cdhimacida, which has 
not been taken in Britain since 18 IG. 
It is possible it may yet turn up at 
Llandudno. A case-bearer, Coleo- 
X>liora leuco2)ennella, feeds also on 
the seeds of Silene nutans on the 
Contment, as was mentioned by Mr. 
Stainton, inr a paper read before tho 



380 



THE NATURALIST. 



British Association, in 1860. I 
found the larva of a weevil beetle, 
Hypena Polygoni, busily feeding on 
the seeds of this catchfly, and half 
buried within the capsule, and on a 
nearer inspection, I saw the pretty 
pea-green cases attached to the axils 
of the stem. From these I 'hatched 
the weevil. Thus I had the pleasure 
of making acquaintance with the 
beetle in all its stages of develo23- 
ment. Mr. Westwood remarks that 
the chief interest of the genus Hy- 
pera exists in the texture of the co- 
coon. Another plant, one of the 
Compositae, that probably attains at 
Llandudno its most northern limit, 
occurs in the utmost profusion on 
various parts of the Orme. It is the 
Goldilocks, Chrysocoma Linosyris. 
This plant loves to grow amongst 
coarse grasses, and is mostly un- 
branched, though branching stems do 
occasionally occur. It is a great or- 
nament to the sea-cliffs in autumn. 
Near the Little Orme were fine tall 
plants of the Yernal Figwort, Scro- 
phularia vernalis, with its yellow 
flowers ; which, as Babington ob- 
serves, are apt to remind one of the 
Calceolaria. The slimy larva of Clo- 
nus Scrophularim had completely 
stripped it of its leaves, and many of 
the brown granulated cases were 
sticking to the cajDSules. From these, 
in; a few weeks, appeared my old 
acquaintance Clonus, I had thus 



another opportunity of witnessing 
the successive transformations of 
another beetle. And now for another 
particularly local plant, mentioned, I 
see, by Mr. Miall, in his plants of 
Malham. This is the Hoary Eock- 
rose, Heliantliemum canum. Mr. 
Miall is very particular in pointing 
out the difference between H. vulgare 
and H. canum. I am glad he is 
so : undoubtedly they are distinct ! 
Probably he will allow me to add a 
few particulars to his diagnosis. The 
two plants grow intermixed at the 
Orme, so that I had abundant oppor- 
tunity of comparing them. I found 
that H. canum was earlier in flower 
by three weeks than H. vulgare. 
The foliage, too, has the appearance 
of being dotted on the upper surface, 
from the pores showing darker through 
the pile with which the leaf of H. 
canum is covered. The flowers are 
much smaller than those of ^. vulgare , 
and never open so widely. I have 
met with the rarer Rock-rose at 
Whitbarrow, in the Lake District, 
on the mountain limestone. A 
curious parasite {Orohanche Hederce) 
occurs on the roots of the Ivy, re- 
minding one, in the earlier stage of 
development, of a head of Asparagus. 
I have met with it on the Orme, and 
also at Conway Castle. The stem is 
considerably swollen at the base, so 
as to resemble a bulb. — Peter Inch- 
bald, Storthes Hall, April 2, 1865. 



•end of the first volume. 



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