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^ 



THE 



NATURALIST: 






/ 



MONTHLY JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

WM. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., 

Recorder to and Ex-President of the Conchological Societv, and Hon. Secretary 
OF the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, &c. ; 

with the assistance in special departments OK 



J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., 
Royal Herbarium, Kew ; 



CHAS. P. HOBKIRK, F.L.S., 

Dewsbury ; 

W. EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S., M.B.O.U., GEORGE T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S., 

Museum of Science & Art, Edinburgh; Greenfield House, Huddersfield; 



ALFRED HARKER, M.A., F.G.S., 
St. John's College, Cambridge ; 



W. BARWELL TURNER, F.C.S., F.R.M.S. 

38, Sholebroke Avenue, Leeds. 



1890. 



LONDON: 

LovELL Reeve & Co., 5, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, E.G. 
MCGoRQUODALE & Co. LIMITED, Gardington Street, Euston ; 

AND 

Leeds : Basinghall Street. 



21300 



PREFACE. 

The Editors take the opportunity afforded by the 
completion of another year's vohime to thank their 
contributors for the notes and articles which have served 
to maintain the variety and utility of character of the 
contents of the volume, and their subscribers for the 
generous and appreciative support which a journal like 
* The Naturalist,' definitely limited in its scope to a given 
tract of country, always needs. 

The Editors trust that in future volumes they may be 
favoured with a greater amount of contributions from the 
counties which a reference to the classified index will show 
have not of late received adequate attention. 



No. 174. 



JANUARY 1890. 




MONTHLY JOURNAL 01' 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



CONDUCTED 15Y 



WM. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., 

Sunny Bank, Leeds ; 

WITH THE ASStSTANXE IN SPKCIAI, DEPARTMENTS OF 



J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., 
Royal Herbarium, Kew : 

W. EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S., M.H.O.U., 
Museum of Science & Art, Edinburgh 

ALFRED MARKER, M.A.. F.G.S., 
St. John's College, Cambridge ; 



CHAS. P. HOBKIRK. F.L.S., 
Dewsbury ; 

GEORGE T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S., 
Greenfield House, Huddersfield ; 

W. BARWELL TURNER, F.C.S., F.R. M.S. 
38, Sholebroke Avenue, Leeds. 



Contents : 

Cause of the Coloration of Red Sandstones— 7". Mellard Reads, F.G.S 
Report of the Yorkshire Marine Zoology Committee— 7. Ptrcy A. Davis 
Ornithological Notes from the Humber District, in the Autumn of 1889 — 

JohnCorde.tux. M.B.O.U 

Geological Papers relating to the North of E.r\g,\a.nd—S. A. Adamson, F.G.S. 
Occurrence of the Germon on the Cumberland Coast — Rev. H. A. Macfiherson, 

M.A., M.B.O.U 

Some Rare Mosses in Cumberland— i^i»z/. C. H. Phistead, B.A 

Occurrence of Carex strigosa in North Yorkshire — J. Gilbert Baker, F.R.S., 

F.L.S 

Three Weeks on the Guadalquivir—//. E. Dresser, F.L.S. , F.Z.S., etc 

Notes — Ornithology 

Long-tailed Duck inland in Northumberland — Alfred C. Chapman ; The Two- 
barred Crossbill in Lincolnshire, etc. — Jolin Cordeaitx, M.B.O.U. ; An 
Albino Wheatear in Cumberland — //•". Hodgson, A.L.S.; Redbreasted 
Flycatcher at Scarborough — "jf. //. Gurney, Jnti., F.Z.S. ; Great Spotted 
Woodpecker near Alford — Jas. Eardley Mason ; Great Spotted Wood- 
pecker at Liversedge, Yorkshire — Rev. E. P. Knubley, JM.A., M.B.O.U. ; 
Flamborough Bird-Notes — Matthew Bailey. Wa.xwing and Dotterel in 
Central Ryedale — Jno.H. Phillips: Late Breeding of Starling in Nor- 
thumberland — H. T. Archer. 

Note— Botany .. 

Draba verna in November—/'. J. Maclagan. 



PAGE 
I &2 

3 & 4 



5 to II 

12 to 14 

15 
16 

16 

17 to 32 

2, II, 14, 15 



LONDON : 
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BOOKS RECEIVED. 

R. Ridgway. — (i) Birds Collected on the Galapagos Islands in 1888, 8vo. reprint, 
1889, 28 pages; (2) Review of the Genus Xiphocolaptes of Lesson, 8vo. 
reprint, 1889, 20 pages; (3) Review of the Genus Sclerurus of Swainson, 
8vo. reprint, 1889, 10 pages. [The Author. 

Hans von Berlepsch. — Notes on Some Neotropical Birds belonging to the U.S. 
National Museum, 8vo. reprint, 8 pages, 1888. [R. Ridgway. 

Dr. H. C. Sorby. — Temperature of Tidal Estuaries of South-East England, 
8vo. reprint, Nov. 1889, 7 pages. [The Author. 

Torrey Botanical Club. — Bulletin, vol. 16, No. 10, Oct. 1889. [T. D. A. Cockerel). 

Wm. Whitwell. — Arenaria gothica Fries in Britain, 8vo. reprint, Dec. 1889, 
5 pages. [The Author. 

Nat. Hist. Trans. Northmb.,Durh., and Newc.,Vol.8,Pt.3,i889,8yo.[Tyneside Club. 

Soc. Royale Malacologique de Belgique — Proces-yerbaux, Annee 1888-9. [La Soc. 

New York Microscopical Soc. — Journ., vol. 5, No. 4, Oct. 1889. [The Society. 

Manchester Geological Society — Trans., Vol. 20, Parts 11-13, 1889. [The Society. 

Grevillea, quarterly record of Cryptog. Bot.,No.86, Dec. 1889. [Dr. M.C.Cooke, ed. 

Yn Lioar Manninagh, No. 4, Oct. 1889. [Isle of Man Nat. Hist. Soc. 

West American Scientist, Vol. 6, No. 48, Oct. 1889. [T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Revue Bryologique, i6« Annee, 1889, No. 6. [M. T. Husnot, redacteur, Cahan. 

Nat. Hist. Journ., No. 117, Dec. 15, 1S89. [J. E. Clark & others, Editors, York. 

Science Gossip, No. 300, for Dec. 1889. [Messrs. Chatto & Windus, publishers. 

The Midland Naturalist, No. 144, for Dec. 1889. [Birmingham Nat. Hist. Soc. 

Research, monthly illust. journ. of science. No. 18, Dec. 1889. [A.N.Tate, editor. 

The Young Naturalist, Part 120, for Dec. 1889. [Mr. John E. Robson, editor. 

The Zoologist, 3rd Series, Vol. 13, No, 156, Dec. 1889.' [J. E. Harting, editor. 

/;/ Paris^ at One Shilling, Svo, luiili Engravings, 

An Illustrated Manual of British Birds 

By HOWARD SAUNDERS, F.L.S., F.Z.S., etc., 

Editor of the yd and a,th Volitmes of Yarrell's ' History of British Birds.' 

Fourth Edition. 

To be completed in about 20 monthly parts. 



IP E^osI=':EGTTJS 03sr j^:pi3x.icjLmoiT. 



GURNEY & JACKSON (Successors to Mr. Van Voorst), i. Paternoster Row. 

Improved Egg Drills (2 sizes) and Metal Blowpipe with instructions 1/3 free. 
' Hints on Egg Collecting and Nesting,' illustrated, 3^d. free. Birds' Skins, 
Eggs (side-blown and in clutches with date), Lepidoptera, Ova, Larvae, and Pupae, 
Artificial Eyes, and all kinds of Naturalists' Requisites, Lists, one stamp. All 
specimens, &c., sent out 'on approval.' 

J. & W. DAVIS (Naturalists), DARTFORD, Kent. 

The cheapest dealer in Birds, Skins, Eggs, Butterflies, Moths, Foreign Shells, 
etc., is John Eggleston, Park Place, Sunderland. Lists free. 



t 



The naturalist 

For 1890. 



CAUSE OF 
THE COLORATION OF RED SANDSTONES. 



T. MELLARD READE, F.G.S., 
Park Corner, Bluiuiellsands, Lh'erpool. 



While walking along the shore at Hightown my attention was 
called by one of my sons to several small patches of red sand which 
occurred among the ordinary light yellow sand of the sand-dunes. 

The face of the sandhills at this point is nearly vertical, having 
been cut into by the sea. The patches in question were so unusual, 
and looked so exceedingly like disintegrated Triassic sandstone 
that we were all much interested. On digging out a portion of the red 
sand at two places, we found that on the top of one of the patches 
was a large iron nail, and on the other several small ones much 
rusted. It is evident that the coloration was produced by the 
oxidation of these nails, the remarkable fact being the uniformity of 
tint given to the sand below and its redness. 

An examination with the microscope showed that the grains, like 
those of our Triassic sandstones, were more or less coated with 
a pellicle of peroxide of iron. Some were a light translucent pink, 
others a darker pink, while a few of the grains appeared a very dark 
brown, the general effect being a pinky red. 

I consider this an interesting illustration of how our red Triassic 
Sandstones may in many cases owe their coloration to percolation of 
water holding ferrous oxide in solution. It shows that a deposit of 
peroxide of iron may in this way take place on the individual grains 
in a tolerably uniform manner. 

Mr. Israel Russell has, in a very interesting and valuable 
memoir, published by the U. S. Geological Survey (Bulletin, No. 52, 
1889), given reasons for believing that the Red Rocks of the Newark 
System, which includes the Trias, Jura, and Jura-Trias, are sediments 
derived from the residual deposits left by the sub-aerial decay of 
rocks containing hornblende, mica, chlorite, garnets, and pyrites, etc. 

The oxide of iron arising from the decomposition of these 
minerals colours the residual deposits a deep red, and Mr. Russell 
considers that the red rocks of the Newark System are these 
deposits aqueously re-arranged. Nature does not, however, always 

Jan. 1890. A 



2 NOTES — ORNITHOLOGY. 

perform her work in the same way, and from the great abrasion 
most of the grains of the red rocks of the Trias of Lancashire and 
Cheshire have undergone, I am incHned to believe that the colora- 
tion must in many cases have been subsequent to the sedimentation. 
The well-known porosity of these sandstones lends itself to this 
explanation. One cubic foot of Runcorn Stone will hold three 
quarts of water, and I have shown in a demonstration at the 
Liverpool Architectural Society that a solid sandstone syphon may 
be made that will empty one vessel of water into another by simple 
capillarity. Colouring matter may have been introduced in this way 
by the circulation of water containing iron in solution. In other 
cases, no doubt, colouring matter may have been introduced 
simultaneously with the sediment. 



NO TES— ORNITHOL OGY. 

Long-tailed Duck inland in Northumberland. — The above heading is 
not intended to call attention to the presence of this bird as a Northumbrian bird, 
because it is common enough during winter on the coast, but as on October 30th 
ult. I happened to come across it some thirty-five miles inland, on a sheet of 
water near Haydon Bridge in Northumberland, I think the fact of sufficient 
interest to send to this journal. 

I have no doubt the bird, which was a female, had been driven out of its 
course, the wind during the previous night having blown very hard from the S.W. 
I have never before known or heard of this bird being found inland in Northum- 
berland. And on the same sheet of water where it was busy diving when 
I noticed it, I shot a pair of Tufted Ducks (old female and an immature bird) on 
September 9th ult. Golden-Eyes, Mallard, and Teal also frequent this pool. 
I noticed Redwings in numbers on 30th ult., having heard them shrieking over- 
head in the darkness at midnight on the sea-coast several nights before. On 
October 5th I was struck with the prodigious number of Blackbirds, mostly 
cocks, whilst shooting in turnip-fields in Northumberland. No doubt they would 
be new arrivals. — .\lfred C. Chapman, Roker, Sunderland, Nov. ist, 1889. 

The Two-barred Crossbill in Lincolnshire, etc. — I am indebted to 
Mr. Giitke for the following information in connection with the occurrence oi Loxia 
bifasciata (C. L. Brehm) in Heligoland, in the autumn of 1889 : — 

' Common Crossbills in plenty, mixed, or rather followed, by the white-winged 
species (Z. bifasciata). It has not been obtained here for many years. I stuffed 
three old vermilion males, one yellow male, two old grey females with bright 
yellow rump, and an interesting young bird in the first complete plumage — grey 
and black, striped on the rump, white, with black stripes. 

'The dates of their appearance are — August 14th, two, male and female, stuffed ; 

a few more seen. September Ist, six ; 15th, several seen, one caught ; i6th, the 

■ same ; 18th, three red, one grey, caught ; 22nd, six, caught three — were altogether 

about fifteen, and greatly more than that number seen. Several were put in cages, 

and went to wreck and ruin, or were sold alive to the summer visitors.' 

I have now before me a Lincolnshire example that was shot at South 
Cockerington, between Louth and the coast, in the autumn of this year, and taken 
in the flesh to Mr. Kew of the latter place, for preservation. It is a remarkably 
fine adult male bird. Comparing it with a skin of L. leucoptera, kindly lent me 
by Mr. Gurney, the wings, tail, and scapulars are quite as black as in the 
American bird, the bright parts are inclined to ver/itilion, but in L. leucoptera 
they are distinctly rose-)-ed, without any trace of that colour. In the western 
species also the beak is considerably weaker than in the European bird, and not 
so deep at the base. — John Cordeaux, Great Cotes, Ulceby, Nov. 7 th, 1889. 

Naturalist, 



REPORT OF THE 
YORKSHIRE MARINE ZOOLOGY COMMITTEE; 

Presented to the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, Nov. 20th, 1889. 



J. PERCY A. DAVIS, 
Halifax; II cu. Secretary to the Committee. 

Since his appointment to the Committee for the investigation of the 
Marine Zoology of the Yorkshire coast, a branch of research which 
has not hitherto received the attention it deserves, the Secretary has 
had pleasure in taking part in two excursions : the first a dredging 
expedition from Scarborough northwards up the Yorkshire coast to 
Whitby on the occasion of an excursion of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union ; and the second at Filey, an excursion arranged by the 
Leeds Naturalists' Club. On the first occasion, by the kind permis- 
sion of Major Woodall, the Committee were allowed the use of that 
gentleman's yacht and dredging tackle, and four members of the 
Union partook of the opportunity afforded them. The sea was any- 
thing but calm, and consequently did not add much to the dredging 
facilities. The trawl was an ordinary fishing-net, and perfectly 
inadequate to the purpose, it being impossible to land anything but 
large objects. Four casts were made, the depth varying from twenty 
to thirty fathoms. The first brought up fish, amongst which were 
Haddock, Plaice, Dabs, and other smaller species, with a few 
Echinoderms, but a peculiar absence of Protozoa was noticed. In 
the second cast there were fewer fish, more Echinoderms of the 
common species Echinus sphcere, some Protozoa, and a few Crustacea, 
i.e., the Common Shrimp {Crangon vulgaris), Spider Crab {Afaia 
squitiado), Hermit Crab {Faguriis bernhardus), and the Common 
Starfish {Uraster riibcns). The third haul was almost identical with 
the second, with the addition of a large female Dog Crab (with 
spawn), and a small Skate. The fourth and last proved rather disas- 
trous to the tackle, the net catching a piece of wreckage, which tore 
it from end to end. Nevertheless, a large number of sea anemones 
were got up. They were perfectly white, this being due to the depth 
from which they were dredged. A few Crustacea were found, but no 
fish or Protozoa. Considering the appliances which they had at their 
disposal, the Committee were fairly well satisfied with the day's work. 
On the 14th of September, the Secretary, at the invitation of 
Mr. Addyman on behalf of the Leeds Naturalists' Club, took part in 
an excursion at Filey. The members were divided into two parties, 

Jan. 1890. 



4 DAVIS : YORKSHIRE MARINE ZOOLOGY REPORT. 

Mr. Addyman taking the lead of a dredging party, and the writer of 
a second to Explore the Brig. 

Mr. Addyman reported the following: — A small Shanny {Blennius 
pJwlis) was taken in the dredge. Two species of Asteroides were 
obtained, the Sand Star {Ophiura albida) and the Brittle Star 
{Ophiothrix fragilis), both of which exist on this coast. Several 
crustaceans were obtained, the most notable amongst which was the 
Acorn Barnacle {Balanus balafioides). An interesting specimen 
obtained was a minute Spider Crab {Maia squinado), whose body 
was only an eighth of an inch in diameter, but whose limbs were 
quite three-quarters of an inch in length. Many molluscs, all of 
them common, were dredged. The Hydrozoa and Polyzoa were of 
ordinary species, including Sertidaria and ffydractinia. 

On the Brig a number of shells, all of common species, were 
found : — Littorina iittorea, L. littoralis, L. rudis, Trochus cinereus, 
Chiton fascicularis, Tellina tenuis, T. solidula, T. fabula, Saxicava 
rugosa, Mactra subtruncata, M. sttiltorum, M. solida, Venus striata 
(with Whelk borings), Solen ensis, and others. The eggs of Piirpura, 
Skate, Dogfish, and Whelk were obtained, also the Brittle Star 
{Ophiothrix fragilis), and the Sand Star {Ophiura albida) were taken. 
Of the fish the One-spotted Goby {Gobius unipunctatus), the Black 
Goby {Gobius niger), and very young specimens of Gurnard 
{Trigla, species) were captured, and the Shanny or Smooth Blenny 
{Blennius pholis) was seen, but escaped. Of the Crustacea the 
Common Shrimp, Sandhopper {Talitrus locusta), Hermit Crab 
{Fagurus bernhardus). Spider Crab {Maia squinado), and many other 
species of crabs were seen or captured. The only anemone found 
was the common Actinia mesend)rya7ithemuin. As the parties returned 
from their respective expeditions, a Common Tope {Galeus canis) 
was observed on the shore. It was 4 ft. 6 in. in length, and had 
been caught by fishermen in the bay during the same afternoon. 
This fish has previously been obtained near Scarborough and 
Bridlington Bay, but has not hitherto been recorded from Filey. 
Altogether, a very pleasant day was spent, and not absolutely with- 
out reward. During the summer the Secretary has been staying on 
the Yorkshire Coast, and hopes after a time to furnish a full list of 
the mollusca of Bridlington Bay. By next season it is very desirable 
that proper dredging appliances be procured ; it is impossible to 
obtain any of the small organisms in an ordinary fishing-net. 

Many other objects have been obtained. They have not yet 
been named, but await identification by specialists, and it is hoped 
by the next annual meeting of the Union that the Committee may 
be able to present a more substantial report. 

Natur.ilist, 



ORNITHOLOGICAL NOTES 

FROM THE HUMBER DISTRICT, IN THE 

AUTUMN OF 1889. 



JOHN CORDEAUX, M.B. O. U., 
Great Cotes, Ulcchy, Lincolnshire. 



Two-barred Crossbill {Loxia bifasciata). An adult male 
shot at South Cockerington near Louth, as recorded in the 
present number of The Naturalist, 1890, p. 14. 

Turnstone {Strepsilas interpres). I have seen a pair at intervals 
through the summer on some fittie land in the parish of 
Stallingborough. They were not in mature plumage. 

Oyster-catcher {Hamatopus ostralegus). Two have been seen 
near this same place, either together or single, to the end of 
June. 

Whimbrel {jVninenius phaopus). July 9th, first on return 
journey. 

Teal {Qtierquedula creccd). Mr. G. H. Caton Haigh informs 
me that considerable numbers were seen at Tetney on this date. 

Greenshank {Totanus canescens). August 8th, first observed. 
Have been by no means uncommon in August and September 
on the coasts of the Humber. 

Redpole {Linota rufescens). Occurs usually in small numbers 
as an Autumn migrant, but of late years has also bred 
regularly in this parish (Great Cotes) and district, and is 
becoming quite common. 

Curlew {Niiiiiemus arquata). August loth, in considerable 
numbers, birds of the year, on the coast and sea-marshes. 

Black Tern {Hydrochelidon nigra). August 28th, saw an adult 
bird on the wing along the shore near Tetney Haven ; it is the 
only one, old or young, I have seen this autumn. 

Sand-Grouse {Syrrhaptes paradoxus). August 28th, a pair, sup- 
posed to be male and female, the former in very fine plumage, 
were seen to-day in a field on the Stallingborough Kiln Farm, 
near the Humber. The field was half under cultivation in 
peas, the remainder fallow. I went, subsequently, to look at the 
place, and found it just as my informant, George Skelton, had 
said. He was watching for Wood-pigeons, and saw the birds 

Jan. 1890. 



6 CORDEAUX : HUMBER ORNITHOLOGICAL NOTES. 

close to him, and afterwards put them up, when they flew off, 
caUing at the time. Skelton, whom I have known for many 
years as a coast-shooter, is well acquainted with Sand-Grouse, 
having shot them in 1863, and again in 1888. He is a grand- 
son of old Skelton, the decoy-man, and was born at Friskney, 
and assisted, as a boy, in the old decoy at Dersingham, 
Norfolk. 

Knot {Tringa canutiis). August 29th, five to six hundred in 
a very compact flock on the Humber muds. I had a long look 
at them from the embankment with a telescope; all seemed 
young birds of the year, with buffish breasts, and it was evident 
they were a fresh arrival on the coast. On the 31st I was 
fortunate in seeing a flock of twenty-five to thirty Knots, in 
summer plumage, on the wing, along the coast near Theddle- 
thorpe. They had exactly the appearance of a small red cloud 
drifting over the sea. 

Sandwich Tern {Sterna cantiaca). Fishermen have reported 
extraordinary numbers on the wing with other Terns, at 
sea. On August 31st, I saw several flocks of Sandwich Tern 
come in, at low water, to rest on one of the sand-banks off the 
coast, to which I had walked and waded out. Some were birds 
of the year, black -spotted ; the majority, adults; lovely birds, 
seen at fairly close quarters through a glass. They had, however, 
quite lost the salmon-pink of the under side. Their cry is loud 
and grating. I saw several Arctic and Common Tern during 
the day. 

Arctic Skua {Stej-corarius crepidaius). August 31st, several 
seen to-day off the coast, or beating to and fro above the 
sand-banks, without exception young birds in the dark-brown 
plumage of immaturity. They were very graceful and active on 
the wing ; very considerable numbers have been reported, and 
several brought in to the bird-stuffers. A young Arctic Skua, 
shot on the Humber waters, which I saw in the flesh, had 
the head, neck, and breast a pale cinnamon, with narrow 
streaks of brown down the shaft of each feather. 

Sanderling {Calidris are7iarid). I saw a few on August 28th, 
and numerously on the 31st, along the coast between Mable- 
thorpe and Saltfleet. 

Storm Petrel {Procellaria pelagica). August 20th, a pair 
seen at sea off Spurn about this date, fluttering and beating 
for food round a fishing-boat at the time the men were hauling 
in their crab-pots. This is a very early occurrence. 

Naturalist, 



CORUEAUX : HUMBEK UKMl HULOUICAL NOTES. 7 

Redstart {Ruticilla phceniatrus). Between September 5th and 
9th, with easterly winds, there was a large arrival of small 
immigrants, both at the Spurn and on the Lincolnshire coast, 
Redstarts being very abundant, also Wheatears, Pied Fly- 
catchers, Yellow Wagtails, Meadow Pipits (swarming), Reed 
Buntings (numerous), and first flights of Thrushes. 

Wryneck {lynx iorqiiilla). Received the wings of one killed 
against the lantern of the Newarp Light-vessel on September 8th. 
Mr. Haigh saw one on the coast near North Cotes on the 9th 
and loth. 

Titmice {Farus major and F. cceruleus). From the middle of 
September and throughout October there have been large 
additions to our local birds^ — bright, clean-looking birds. Very 
many of both near the coast in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire ; 
also a few Farus aier. 

Jack Snipe {Gallinago gallinula). September 20th : saw the 
first to-day. 

Great Spotted Woodpecker {Dendrocopus major). Mr. Gatke, 
writing under date October 22nd, from Heligoland, says : 'more 
Ficus major were seen than ever before ; latterly, a few Jays 
turned up, and some Farus ater ; all signs of an Eastern immi- 
gration. I should not wonder if Mealy Redpoles were to 
appear, followed by Fyrrhula 7?iajor (the fine Eastern bird) and 
Wax-wings, but all depends on the weather.' Mr. Philip Loten, 
of Easington, has heard of about a dozen F. major as seen or 
obtained near the Holderness coast ; six of these I have seen, 
all young birds, with the crown of the head more or less red. 
I have heard of others, seen or obtained near the coast of 
Lincolnshire, amongst them a fine adult male, shot near Mable- 
thorpe on October 22nd, and taken to Mr. Kew, of Louth. 

Spotted Crake {Forzana maruetta). Numerous during Sep- 
tember and October all over the district. I have seen 
a considerable number at the bird-stufifers' shops — the greater 
proportion being birds of the year. Three, all immature, were 
obtained near Spurn. The Spotted Crake is known to breed 
in at least two localities in North Lincolnshire. We have con- 
siderable additions to the local birds in the autumn, and it is not 
improbable that any birds bred in the district leave at that season. 
Grey Phalarope {Fhalaropus fulkarius). Oct. I St, one, which 
I have, was shot from a fresh-water pool near the sea embank- 
ment in the parish of North Cotes. It is an adult in winter 
plumage, and from its size probably a female. 

Jan. i8go. 



8 CORDEAUX : HU.MBER ORNITHOLOGICAL NOTES. 

Dusky Redshank {Totanus fuscus). One seen by Stubbs (the 
Plover -natter) on the fitties at Tetney, on October 2nd. 
Another, an adult in full winter plumage, was subsequently 
obtained. Our salt -fitties are a very favourite haunt of this 
somewhat rare bird, in the autumn. 

Ruff {Machetes piignax). One taken in the flight-nets at Tetney 
early in October, and subsequently two more between the 
5th and 22nd. 

Lapwing {Vanellus vulgaris). October 9th, wind W. (6 to 7), 
flights passing over Great Cotes at short intervals, from 9 a.m. 
to I p.m., from S.S.E. to N.N.W. On November 6th, Mr. Haigh 
observed a large immigration of Lapwings over Grainsby Park ; 
also Wood Pigeons and Fieldfares, the last in flocks of fifty to 
one hundred, at intervals all clay, to \V. The Plover, also in 
the same direction, but chiefly in the morning. 

Siskin {Chrysomitris spinus). October 12th, I observed one 
adult male in a hedge near the highest part of our Wolds ; 
several were seen at Spurn about the same date. 

Ortolan {Emberiza horiulana). October nth, Mr. Hewetson, 
of Leeds, shot a young female Ortolan in a field near Easington, 
at this date. 

Raven (Corvus corax). At the Leman and Ower Light-vessel, on 
October 12th, noon, W. (4) B.C.M., twelve Ravens and twenty 
Titlarks are recorded from eastward, going north-west. As 
Crows, Black Crows, Grey Crows, Rooks, and Jackdaws are 
entered at various dates in the same schedule, this occurrence 
may probably be taken as correct. 

Snow Bunting {Pledrophanes nivalis). October 15th, flight 
of many hundreds in the marshes, appeared to consist almost 
exclusively of young birds ; smaller flights, with much white in 
their plumage, came in with the gale from N.E., on October 19th 
and 20th. 

Golden-crested Wren {Regulus cristatus). In the first fort- 
night in October, many ; and in the third week, from the 
17th to 22nd, hundreds and thousands between Flamborough 
and North Cotes, on the Lincolnshire coast, and in all proba- 
bility, extending to much further north and south, had observers 
been available. Mr. Haigh saw numbers at Tetney on the 22nd 
with Great and Blue Tits, and Redbreasts. 

Dipper {Cindus aqiiaticus var. //lelanogaster). Mr. Kew, of Louth, 
has a very good example of the northern form, shot somewhere in 
the marsh district, east of Louth, a few years ago, in the autumn. 

Naturalist, 



CORDEAUX : HUMBER ORNITHOl.OGICAL NOTES. 9 

Woodcock {Stohpax rusticola). From the loth to the 22nd of 
October the wind was persistently E. and N.E.— very rough at 
sea. On the night of Saturday 19th, and Sunday 20th, there 
was a heavy gale from N.E. During this time, from the loth 
to 22nd, Woodcocks kept dropping in daily, at various points of 
the coast, but not in great numbers. The ' great flight ' came 
across on the night of Saturday, November gth-ioth, wind N., 
but very slight — full moon. Woodcocks also occurred at 
Heligoland on Sunday morning, the loth, wind northerly, 
light, accompanied by Blackbirds, and preceded by Parus 
major, Frini^illa luinria, and Lanius major. The gale of 
October 19th and 20th was very destructive to the coast-line 
south of Kilnsea, considerably altering the character of the 
shore. Many immigrants on nearing land were beaten into the 
sea, and I found the coast south of Easington strewn with the 
bodies of Rooks and some Jackdaws. From Flamborough, 
Mr. M. Bailey, in litt., October 23rd, says : — ' The storm of 
Saturday night caught the migrants at sea, and great numbers 
perished, others, striking the cliffs, fell to the bottom dead, and 
were seen by scores, washing about in the surf. At present, the 
storm is raging, with the barometer at 29^^-50', and a strong 
easterly wind blowing, which has brought over Woodcock, 
Ring -ousels. Golden -crests, and Redstarts. The Grey 
Shrike and a Shorelark have been obtained.' Mr. Haigh 
writes: — 'The North Cotes and Marsh Chapel coast is 
strewed with the remains of Rooks, Redwings, and a very few 
Starlings.' 

Mealy Redpole {Linota linaria). Between tlie 20th and 24th 
October, several were seen at Spurn and Easington, and 
some shot. I have not met with it in this district since 
October 1881, when the Rev. H. H. Slater, Mr. VV. Eagle Clarke, 
and myself found so many at Spurn. It is an irregular winter 
visitant in this district, seven or eight years intervening between 
its visits. As on the last occasion in 18S1, it v^^as associated 
with Siskins. 

Brambling {Fringilla montifringilla). In considerable numbers 
at Spurn at the same date. 

Shorelarks {Otocorys alpestris). October 20th to 24th. Several 
seen, and some shot ; subsequently very numerous on coast. 

Great Grey Shrike {Lanius excubitor). From October 20th 
to the end of the month several were seen in the Spurn district. 
Two were observed by Mr. G. H. Caton Haigh on a clump of 

Jan. 1890. 



10 CORDEAUX : HUMBER ORNITHOLOGICAL NOTES. 

trees near the coast at North Cotes on the 22nd. I had the 
wing of one from the Leman and Ower Light-vessel, which 
struck the lantern and was killed on the 22nd at 12.30 a.m. 

Little Stint {Tringa mitiiita). Fairly numerous in the Humber 
district in September. One was taken in the flight-nets at 
Tetney as late as October 21st. 

Water Rail {Eallus aquaticus). There is always a considerable 
arrival on this coast between the middle of October and the end 
of the first week of November. Their immigration appears as 
well marked nearly as that of the Woodcock. Two were 
obtained close to the coast at Kilnsea on October 20th and 
23rd, and several from this date in Lincolnshire. 

Sea Eagle {Haliaetus albicilla). A young female, measuring 
8 ft. in extent of wing, was shot by Mr. J. C. Clubley, with 
a charge of No. 8, in the head, on October 28th, skimming 
low down over the bents near the chalk embankment at Spurn ; 
another was seen at the same time. Presumably, the second 
bird was again seen near the point at Spurn on November 7th 
by Mr. Townsend, of the coast-guard, and others. Mr. Town- 
send told me he was very near the bird. 

Purple Sandpiper {Tringa striata). An extremely fine example, 
from its size probably an adult female, was shot from a flock of 
Dunlin on the coast near Killingholme Haven on November 2nd. 
The upper parts have that rich purplish gloss which is acquired 
with the autumn moult. 

Rough-legged Buzzard {Archibuteo iagopus). November ist, 
an immature male, a very small example, shot near Kilnsea. 

Golden Plover {Charadrius pluvialis). The immigration com- 
menced on the Lincolnshire coast at Tetney on October 30th, 
when Stubbs saw large numbers coming in during the day. 
Here, at Great Cotes, we had considerable arrivals on Nov. ist 
and 2nd, only remaining a few days, and then leaving again. 
On Monday, nth, young Stubbs saw thousands going N. all 
the morning. They were very high up, and would not be 
whistled down. The northward movement of Golden Plover 
at this season indicates mild open weather for some time to 
come. 

Tree Creeper {Certhia familiaris). November 1st, two, male 
and female, shot at Easington Lane end, where it meets the 
coast -hne. There can be little doubt these were immigrants 
recently arrived. 

Naturalist, 



HODGSON: ALBINO WHEATEAR IN CUMBERLAND. II 

Fire-crested Wren {Regulus iguicapillus). I have a very 
beautiful adult male, killed on November 4th, by a boy 
with a stone near Easington. The white streak over the eye 
and the black streak through the eye will at once distinguish it 
from its congener. The beak also is rather stouter than in the 
Gold-crest, and there is a conspicuous golden-green patch on 
the side of the neck. At Heligoland they are in autumn always 
later than the Goldcrests, and in spring earlier. 

Black Redstart {Ruticilla Htys). November 6th, an adult male 
was seen in a garden at Easington. 

Swallow {Hirundo rusticd) and Martin {Chelidon nrbica). On 
November loth, I saw a Swallow flying under Kilnsea Cliff, 
and the same day a Martin hawking near the village of Kilnsea. 

SEA-FOWL. 
I have recently seen and examined the following birds obtained 
at sea, and brought in by fishing-smacks to Grimsby : — 
Pomatorhine Skua {Stercorarius pomatorlmms). A young 
bird, of the light variety, in first plumage. In this the foiv 
central tail feathers, two of which are very broad, are equal 
in length, and project half an inch beyond the next or third 
feather on each side. 
Great Shearwater {Fuffitms major). One caught by a hook. 
Iceland Gull {Lams leucopterus). A young bird. In this the 
legs and feet are pale flesh colour, bill brownish-black at 
tip, the anterior part pink, and quite as deep in colour as in the 
bill of Anser hrachyrhynchus. 
In forwarding these notes to The Naturalist, I beg to acknowledge 
my indebtedness to Mr. G. H. Caton Haigh, of Grainsby Hall, for 
information sent in letters, on the birds seen by him during the 
autumn on the coast of Lincolnshire; also to Mr. Philip Loten, of 
Easington, for personal information on the Spurn district. 



NOTE—ORNITHOLOG Y. 

An Albino Wheatear in Cumberland. — In the early spring of the present year 
(April 15th, 1889), the writer was taking a stroll along the beach known as the 
North Shore, at Workington, near the mouth of the river Derwent, when his atten- 
tion was arrested by the movement of a flock of Wheatears {Saxicola anaiithe). 
The birds, about a dozen in number, were all males, resplendent in full breeding 
plumage, and apparently liut newly arrived. One of the number was a strikingly 
handsome bird, his snowy poll readily distinguishing him from his fellows. 
Except a slight smirching of colour upon the outer wing covers, his plumage was 
stainless as the ' untrodden snow ' on the plains of Linden. He probably found a 
mate, but not in the immediate neighbourhood, though several pairs nest in the 
slag banks of the iron furnaces hard by, or among the stacks of pig iron, as I 
saw him n o more. — W. Hodgso.m, A.L.S., Workington, August i6th, 1889. 
Jan. iSgo. 



12 



GEOLOGICAL PAPERS 
RELATING TO THE NORTH OF ENGLAND 

Read at the Newcastle Meeting of the British Association, 1889. 



S. A. ADAMSON, F.G.S., 
Leeds. 



Amongst the many valuable papers read and reports presented at 
the recent annual meeting of the Parliament of Science, may be 
briefly mentioned the following: that eminent glacialist, the President 
of the Section, Prof. J. Geikie, F.R.S., in his inaugural address, 
described the glacial accumulations of Northern Europe, with 
references to those of our own country; J. E. Marr, M.A., F.G.S., 
' Dynamic Metamorphism of Skiddaw Slates ' (he described a belt of 
Skiddaw Slates running along the W. side of the Cross Fell escarpment, 
from Melmerby to Roman Fell, and had noted several large masses of 
quartz ; in a good exposure on the E. side of Brownber, the quartz 
veins had been evidently intruded along bedding planes before the 
main folding took place ; they had since been extremely contorted, 
and the slates had been altered into a rock composed chiefly of 
mica and secondary quartz) ; J. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.G.S., ' The 
Amygdaloids of the Tynemouth Dyke ' (this dyke is exposed in the 
angle formed by the breakwater and the cliff on which the Priory 
stands, and also in the cutting near the railway-station; a typical 
specimen was said to consist essentially of porphyritic crystals, or 
crystalline aggregate of a felspar closely allied to anorthite, embedded 
in a dark finely-crystalline ground-mass, composed of augite, lath- 
shaped felspars and interstitial matter ; the history of the rock so 
far as it is recorded in microscopic structure closed the paper); 
T. P. Barkas, F.G.S., ' Notes on numerous newly-discovered Fossil 
Footprints on the Lower Carboniferous Sandstone of Northumber- 
land, near Otterburn ' (the pith of this interesting paper appeared in 
the September iV"«/«ra//^/, p. 270); T. Mellard Reade, F.G.S., 'The 
Physiography of the Lower Trias' (after reviewing various theories 
accounting for the marine current-bedded sandstones constituting 
the base of the Trias, known as the Bunter, he suggested that 
a granitic area, such as would be exposed now by an elevation of, 
say, 1,000 ft, occupying the site of the English Channel, together 
with the Old Red Sandstone beds of the anticlinal axes connecting 
the Mendips with the Belgian coal-field, along with the immense 
denudation of the Carboniferous Sandstones of the Pennines, etc., 
added to the destruction of the Old Red of Herefordshire, may 
have supplied the materials for these sandstones) ; Prof. W. C. 
Williamson, F.R.S., ' Report on Coal Plants: On the state of the 

Naturalist, 



ADAMSON : GEOLOGICAL PAPERS. 1 3 

Inquiry into the Microscopic Features of the Coal of the World, 

and into the Organisation of the Fossil Plants of the Coal Measures ' 

(the venerable but energetic Professor said that some years ago he 

determined on a microscopic examination of the chief coals of the 

world, the object being to obtain more information as to their origin 

and formation, amongst the specimens which had been forwarded 

from all parts of the world, ranging from the Arctic Regions to 

Australia, from Japan to Nova Scotia, and from Sweden to Borneo, 

were some from Durham and Whitehaven, but none from Yorkshire 

were mentioned); G. R. Vine, ' Polyzoa of the Red Chalk' (this 

being of a most technical character, was taken as read) ; John 

Marley and Prof. Lebour, M.A., F.G.S., 'Sketch of the rise and 

progress of the Cleveland and South Durham Salt Industry, and on 

the extension of the Durham Coal Field ' (this was a most important 

communication ; after a review of the whole subject, the area of 

proved salt was said to be at least twenty miles ; details of borings 

w^ere given and specimens exhibited of the same) ; C E. De Ranee, 

F.G.S., ' Fifteenth Report of the Committee on the Circulation of 

Underground Waters ' (the Committee had inquired into the waters 

yielded by the Permian and Trias, following these formations from 

Teignmouth in Devon to Tynemouth in Northumberland) ; Dr. D. 

Embleton, 'On the spinal column of Loxomma alhnanni from the 

Northumberland Coal-field' (this specimen had a longer series of 

vertebrce than any hitherto got from the Coal Measures, and was 

probably, when living, 14 ft. long); Dr. R. Laing, 'The Bone Caves 

of Cressweir (described the recent discovery of an extinct feline 

—Felis brevirostris — new to Great Britain) ; G. W. Lamplugh, ' Report 

on an Ancient Sea Beach near Bridlington ' (the report stated that 

no further excavation of the buried cliff-beds had been done during 

the past year, but the committee asked to be re-appointed, without 

grant, for the determination and disposal of the specimens) ; 

Dr. H. W. Crosskey, F.G.S., 'Report upon Erratic Blocks' (the work 

of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union in this direction, embracing 

nearly sixty reports during the past year, was highly eulogised, and 

stated to be excellent and exhaustive, and an example to other 

counties ; a contour map of Yorkshire, to mark the elevations of the 

various boulders reported, was recommended) ; G. W. Lamplugh, 

' Note on a new locality for the Arctic Shell-beds of the Basement 

Boulder-clay on the Yorkshire Coast' (the paper stated that the 

basement boulder-clay at the South Landing at Flamborough Head 

included many irregular masses of fine gravel, silt, and sand ; one of 

these, a thin lenticular layer of greenish-yellow sand, contained 

many shells of the same species discovered at Bridlington and 

Jan. 1890. 



14 NOTES — ORNITHOLOGY. 

Dimlington, and their matrix also was similar); W. Topley, F.R.S., 
' The Work of the Geological Survey in Northumberland and Durham' 
(this was an excellent synopsis of the geology of these two counties, 
with special references to the igneous rocks of the Cheviots, and the 
intrusive basaltic rocks known as sills and dykes) ; R. Tiddeman, 
F.G.S., ' On concurrent Faulting and Deposit, Craven, Yorkshire, 
with a note on Carboniferous Reefs' (he described the Craven faults, 
and speaking of the breccias found at the base of the limestone, 
suggested they were reefs formed on a slowly-subsiding sea-bottom). 
The above are a few brief notes upon a small portion only of the 
papers read in merely one section. If we contemplate the amount 
of research and labour contained in the whole of the sectional papers, 
we must be impressed with the wonderful amount and valuable nature 
of the work the members of the British Association yearly accomplish. 



NOTES— ORNITHOLOG V. 

Redbreasted Flycatcher at Scarborough. — An immature Redbreasted 
Flycatcher {J/iisthapa parva) was obtained by Mr. John Morley, at Scarborough, 
on October 23rd ; it was in a wood amongst beech trees, and was observed to 
fly from its perch at intervals after flies, the white feathers in its tail being then 
very conspicuous. Mr. ^lorley adds that the wood was swarming with Golden- 
crested Wrens, and also Woodcocks, which had evidently just arrived. The bird 
has been to London for comparison, and its identity fully established, as I took it 
to the Zoological Society for that purpose ; it was too much shot to distinguish 
the sex. — J. H. Gurney, Jun., Keswick Hall, Norwich, November 28th, 1889. 

This Yorkshire example is the seventh specimen and sixth occurrence known 
for Britain.— W. E.G. 

'■'■ Mnscicapa parva turns up here (Heligoland) almost every autumn late in 
October, and, wonderful as it should seem, during the first half of November. 
It is a (juiet bird that with you, amongst all your trees and shrubs, easily might 
escape notice. — Heinrich G.\tke, per John Cordeaux, 13th December, 1889. 

Great Spotted Woodpecker near Alford. — An adult female of the Great 
Spotted Woodpecker {Dcudyocopiis tnajor L. ) was brought to me on the 26th 
November, having been shot the previous day at Ailby by Mr. S. Lonsdale. — 
Jas. Eardlev Mason, The Sycamores, Alford, Line, 29th November, 1889. 

Great Spotted Woodpecker at Liversedge, Yorkshire. — A Great 
Spotted Woodpecker (Dciuhoiopux inajoi- L. ) was shot on the Sth of November 
at Liversedge by Mr. Joseph Woodcock. The Rev. William Fowler, who showed 
it to me in the flesh, said that he believed it to be the first that had occurred in 
that neighbourhood. It was a fine specimen, and the crimson occipital crest 
showed that it was a male. — E. P. KxuBLEY, Staveley Rectory, Leeds, Nov. i6th. 

Flamborough Bird-Notes. — Innumerable quantities of birds have arrived 
on our coast for the last few days. Thursday, Oct. 17th! I saw scores of flocks of 
Larks (Alaiuia at-censis) making for the Headland ; also several flocks of Crows 
and Jackdaws {Corviis moiicduUi). Unfortunately for some of them, the storm 
of Saturday night and Sunday overtook them, and before reaching the land they 
perished in the sea ; others, striking the clifts, fell to the bottom dead, and were 
seen by scores washing about in the surf At present the storm is raging, with 
the barometer at 29 "50, and a strong easterly wind blowing, which has brought 
over several Woodcocks {Scolopa.x rusticola). Ring-ouzels {^Turdus tonjuatus), 
Gold-crested Wrens (Keguiiis iristatus), Redstarts {Kiiticilla fhanicuriis), etc., 
the Great CJrey Shrike {Laniits e.xadntor) and one Shorelark {Otocorys alpestris). 
— Matthew Bailey, Flamborough, October 23rd, 18S9. 

Naturalist, 



15 



OCCURRENCE OF THE GERMON ON THE 
CUMBERLAND COAST. 

Rev. H. a. MACI'HERSON, M.A., M.B.O.U., 
Carlisle. 



I HAVE the pleasure of recording the recent occurrence of an 
example of the Germon {Thynnus alalonga Giinther) on the coast 
of Cumberland. The specimen in question was found stranded in 
a creek on Burgh Marsh early in October 1889, by a fisherman. 
It was secured for me in the flesh, and weighed 1 1 lbs. The long 
sickle-shaped fin convinced me at once that the fish could only be 
referred to Thynnus alalonga ; but, to anticipate gainsayers, I took 
the fish to the Natural History Museum, where Mr. Boulenger 
kindly confirmed our determination. Although this species has 
occupied a place in the British list for a long number of years, this 
appears to be only about its fifth occurrence in British waters, and 
to be considerably more northern than the others, all of which refer 
to the coasts of Cornwall and Devon. 



NO TES— OKNITHOL OGY. 

Waxwing and Dotterel in Central Ryedale. — Will my friend, Mr. C. W. 
Smith, allow me to add to his interesting list two more notes on Birds of Central 
Ryedale ? 

Waxwing (Atnpelis garnilus L. ). During some severe winters a pair or 
more of these beaiitiful-plumaged birds were to be seen perched on the uppermost 
branches of lofty fir-trees in 'Acus' plantation on the banks of the Riccal not far 
from Helmsley. Others were noticed to frequent the fir-woods near to Cow-house 
Bank, four miles north of Helmsley. 

Dotterel (Eudro/nias viorinellus L. ). Forty years ago numerous flocks of 
these birds were to be met with on the Hambleton range of hills near Thirsk. 
In walking across the plain from Dialstone Inn to South Woods I have put up 
many hundreds. Their numbers are greatly diminished. A few may be met 
with north of Limekiln House on the old Roman road leading to Osmotherley. 
Anglers know the value of a feather from the wing of a Dotterel wherewith to 
dress a 'March Brown' or an 'August Dun.' — JNO. H. Phillips, Scarborough, 
8th November, 1889. 

Late Breeding of Starling in Northumberland. — In connection with the 
recent controversy as to whether the Starling {Sturmis znilgaris) is double- 
brooded or not, the enclosed paragraph from thisdays ' Newcastle Daily Journal ' 
is interesting : — ' At present there is to be seen at Heiferlaw Bank, near Alnwick, 
a brood of young Starlings; the old birds are feeding them.' — H. T. Archer, 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, November 30th, 1889. 



NOTE— BOTANY. 

Draba verna in November. — On the 25th of this present month, my son 
saw abundance of this plant in flower and with completely-formed silicules, on 
a wall-top near Chathill, North Northumberland. I have half-a-dozen specimens 
growing in a saucer. — P. J. Maclagan, Berwick, November 28lh, 1889. 
Jan. 1890. 



i6 

SOME RARE MOSSES IN CUMBERLAND. 



Rev. C. H. BINSTEAD, B.A., 
As/air:a, near Carlisle. 



Grimmia elongata Kaulf. This was found, in September, at an 
altitude of about 2,500 ft., growing upon wet rocks in compact 
cushions of a dull olive-green colour. It seems to be confined 
to one mountain — Whiteside — where it grows in plenty, although, 
apparently, within a restricted area. 

Coscinodon cribrosus (Hedw.) Spruce. Grows on a wall (slate) 
in the Lorton Valley, near Cockermouth. It is plentiful in 
one place, and occurs in small quantity also at widely-distant 
intervals, upon walls, where it is found in company with 
Grimmia Doniana Smith, from which it may generally be 
distinguished by its pale colour. 

Mnium orthorrhynchum Br. & Schpr. What appears to be this 
moss — so rare in our country — was found, in September, at the 
Lodore Cascade, in one place only. It does not seem, how- 
ever, to be quite clear whether the moss in question is the true 
Mnium orthorrhynchum., or Mniu7n riparium Mitt. From a 
careful comparison of the leaf-cells, together with the general 
aspect of the moss, there appears to be hardly any appreciable 
difference between the Lodore Mnium and Mn. orthorrhynchum 
from the continent. Whichever of the two it may be shown to 
be, it is hoped that a brief notice of its occurrence in Cumberland 
may be of interest to students of our northern mosses. 
November \^t]i, 1889. 

OCCURRENCE OF CAREX STRIGOSA IN 
NORTH YORKSHIRE. 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.LS., 
Royal Herbariiiii:, Kew ; Ex-President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 



I AM indebted to Mr. W. W. Reeves, for many years librarian to 
the Royal Microscopical Society, for specimens of Carex strigosa, 
gathered by himself in Forge ^^alley this summer, whilst botanising 
with Mr. M. B. Slater. This adds a species to the flora of the 
North Riding. The plant has long been known to occur at Hackfall 
and Studley, just outside our limits. These are the most northern 
stations known for the plant in Britain. They also found Equisetum 
Telmateia var. seroiitium A. Br., the form of E. Telmateia in which 
the fertile stem bears leafy branches. 

Naturali.st, 



17 
THREE WEEKS ON THE GUADALQUIVIR. 



H. E. DRESSER, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Etc. 
Author of ' The Birds of Europe' ; r resident of the Yorkshire Naturalists Union 
{being the second portion of the Presidential Address to the Union). 

I HAD been suffering from gastritis all last winter, and was thinking 
of taking a holiday, to try and get quite well again, when my friend. 
Colonel Hanbury Barclay, asked me to join him in a trip he had 
decided to take in the south of Spain, chiefly with a view to collect 
eggs, and although I expected to have to rough it a little, I at once 
decided to close with so good an offer. Colonel Barclay had already 
arranged to have the use of a steam launch on which we could live, 
so that we should be quite independent of inns, which, except in the 
larger towns, are in Spain, places to be most carefully avoided. 

We started from London on the ist May, and after spending one 
day in Paris, and one in Madrid, reached Seville early in the morning 
of the 4th ; and after a most refreshing bath and lunch at the house 
of a friend, we went to the river to see our steam launch, and take 
in stores. Our luggage, which we had sent over from London by 
steamer, was still at the Custom House, and it took us a couple of 
hours to get it passed and put on board the launch, and it was late 
in the evening before we had all our stores aboard and could make a 
start. Our crew consisted of a skipper, who could also do a little 
cooking, an engineer, a boy, and a man — who w^as to act as guide 
when we went ashore, and to make himself generally useful when we 
were in search of eggs. Our steam launch had a good-sized saloon, 
aft, with seats along the side, which, at night, were made up into 
beds for the Colonel and myself, the rest of the furniture being only 
a table and some campstools. Aft of the saloon was a small space 
where we had our bath, and which we used as a dressing-room, and 
in the saloon we had a couple of lockers or cupboards for our stores. 
Forward, there was a cabin below deck, for the men, and on the 
deck was a cooking-stove, but as the whole vessel was covered 
with a sheet-iron roof or awning, the men usually slept on the 
benches on deck, well protected by the awning, and we utilised the 
top of the saloon, which was well protected from the sun and rain, 
as a store place for our luggage and stores. Our hunting-ground 
was on both sides of the Guadalquivir river, from Seville to the sea, 
but for obvious reasons I refrain from giving any particulars as to 
exact localities, although, owing to the difficulty and consequent 
expense in getting there, it would not repay anyone to visit these 
parts merely to collect eggs and birds with a view to dispose 
of them. 

Jan. 1890. B 



l8 DRESSER: THREE WEEKS ON THE GUADALQUIVIR. 

At about six o'clock we went aboard and dropped down the 
river. We prepared our own supper, as the skipper was busy, and 
after getting our stores somewhat in order, we made up our beds, and 
turned in, but did not either of us sleep particularly well, as the seats 
on which we lay were so narrow, that we could not turn round 
without danger of falling off, besides which, the cushions were 
abominably lumpy. These small inconveniences, however, we got 
quite accustomed to in a day or two, and managed to sleep pretty 
well. At five o'clock the men were moving, so we turned out and 
got our breakfast, consisting of chocolate, bread, cold fowl, and 
oranges ; and soon got up steam and moved onwards towards the 
large marshes, but on the way we made a halt, and went on shore to 
explore amongst the belt of trees and bushes which skirted the river. 
Here we found a Magpie's nest containing six eggs of the Magpie 
{Pica caiidata), and one of the Great Spotted Cuckoo {Coccystes 
glandarins) which we took, and we saw numbers of small birds, but 
found no more nests, and as the long grass was very wet, it having 
rained in the night, we found walking so uncomfortable, that we were 
glad to return to the launch. As we steamed slowly along the river, 
we saw numbers of Bee-eaters {Merops apiaster), a few Black Terns 
{Hydj'ochelidon nigra), a-xid. several Marbled Duck (Anas angustirostris) 
flew up out of the reeds as we passed. We soon reached the 
marshes, and disembarked for a ramble on shore. The whole 
country around was one vast pasturage, for the water had dried up, 
except in places, leaving mud on which had grown up grass and 
floAvers, and large herds of cattle and horses were grazing on the rich 
herbage. In most places the ground was very irregular, owing to the 
cattle having roamed around when the ground was still soft, leaving 
holes rather than hoof-prints. Here and there were low bushes, and 
tansy seemed to grow everywhere. We found several nests of the 
Short-toed Lark {Ca/andrella hrachydadyla) with eggs, and two or 
three of Calandrella bcetica, all these latter, however, being empty. 
The nests of the Short-toed Lark were placed on the ground, usually 
in a hoof-hole left by the cattle as they trampled through the 
soft mud, and almost always at the foot of, or near a tuft of grass or 
low bush, and were as a rule not very strongly constructed of dry 
grass bents. The nest of Calandrella bceiica was usually better and 
stronger built than that of Calandrella hrachydadyla, and the nests 
of the two species could be readily distinguished. Both species 
usually line their nests with a few feathers, or use a little wool in the 
lining, but not invariably ; and the nests of Calaiidrella bcetica 
generally contain fewer feathers than those of Calandrella brachy- 
dactyla. 

• Naturalist, 



dresser: three weeks on the GUADALCJUIVIR. 19 

We had arranged, before leaving Seville, for three horses to be sent 
here to meet us, and soon after noon we saw them in the far distance 
coming toward us. After letting the horses have a rest, and after 
taking a slight lunch ourselves, we started on horseback with our 
guide, and visited several marshy places, having frequently to wade 
long distances through the water. We saw a good many Stilts 
{Biniantopiis catididus) and Pratincoles {Glareola pralincola), but 
found eggs of neither. We observed numbers of Short-toed Larks, 
Calandra Larks, Grey-headed Wagtails \MotaciUa flavn), and a few 
Stone Curlew {(Edicnemus scalopax), one of which the Colonel shot, 
but we could not find their nests. Towards evening we returned 
to the steamer, got our supper, blew our eggs, and turned in. The 
next morning (6th May) we did not turn out till nearly seven, and 
did not go ashore till eight o'clock, vv hen we found the horses 
waiting for us. We had two men with the horses, so we arranged 
for the old man to go with us, and the younger man and our guide 
to go in another direction, to see if they could find any eggs, whilst 
we went to the breeding-haunts of the Stilt. Our horses were not 
provided with regular saddles, but merely with pack-saddles and 
huge grass-panniers, such as are used in the country, and we either 
straddled or sat sideways on the top. Our great drawback was that 
as these saddles were not provided with stirrups, we could not 
mount without getting a 'leg up'; but the old man had his own 
trained horse, which, when he wanted to mount, put its head down, 
and when he bent over the neck the horse threw its neck back, and 
thus rolled him on to the saddle. I tried this dodge, but my horse 
was evidently not up to it, and I had to give it up as a bad job. 
Before we left England we had two baskets made, which were so 
arranged that they could be used as knapsacks, or else fastened like 
panniers on a horse, and these proved most useful, for we put them 
in the grass -panniers and filled them with cotton wool, amongst 
which we packed the eggs as we took them. Besides these, we 
carried food for the day, and a large earthenware bottle of fresh 
water to drink. After riding across the grass prairie for about a 
couple of hours, and crossing several shallow lakes or overflows, we 
came to a large sheet of shallow water, through which we waded for 
about half a mile, until we reached a huge patch of reeds, in which 
our man told us we should find the Stilt breeding. We were soon 
met by about a dozen Whiskered Terns {Hydrodielidon hydrida), who 
flew over our heads, clamouring loudly, evidently strongly resenting 
our intrusion on their domain. We soon found several nests of 
these Terns, but all were empty. Some distance further on we were 
met by a number of Stilts [Himatitopus caiididus), who flew round us, 

Jan. 1890. 



20 DRESSER : THREE WEEKS ON THE GUADALQUIVIR. 

clamouring loudly, approaching quite near, and every now and again 
settling on the rank masses of white water-buttercup which covered 
the surface of the water in patches where it was free of rushes. Here we 
soon found several nests of Stilts containing eggs, and, dismounting, - 
we proceeded to take the eggs, mark them with pencil, and pack 
them in our baskets. The water was in places nearly up to our 
knees, though in most parts it was scarcely above our ankles, but the 
bottom was soft mud, which made walking rather difficult. Both of 
us had, however, water-boots, and I was fortunate in possessing a 
very strong pair of German marsh-boots, which reached up to my 
knees, so I did not get the water into my boots ; and, in fact, after 
wading in water for several hours my stockings were scarcely damp. 
As we went on we found many nests of the Stilt, and also of the 
Terns, and took as many eggs as we cared to take away with us. The 
two species nested near each other, and sometimes close together^ 
but usually in separate communities. The nests were placed in the 
dense growth of water-buttercup that covered the surface of the 
water, usually in more open places where the rushes and reeds grew 
more sparsely, and in nearly knee-deep water. The nests of both 
species were strongly and well constructed of rush and reed bents> 
but the nests of the Stilts were stouter and stronger built, being 
raised much higher above the water, whereas those of the Terns were 
flatter and more lightly constructed, and were invariably lined with 
bleached rush and reed bents, and were thus easily distinguished, 
even at some distance. The full complement of eggs was four of 
the Stilts and three of the Whiskered Terns. We also found several 
nests of the Coot {Fulica atra), but only one with the full comple- 
ment of eggs. After spending some time in the reeds, and visiting 
several colonies of Terns and Stilts, we returned to a sandy island 
for lunch. Here we saw a good number of Pratincoles and several 
Kentish Plovers {ALgialitis cantiana), and found four eggs of the 
latter on a piece of dry cow-dung, without any pretence of a nest. On 
the shore were several flocks of Waders, and Colonel Barclay fired 
into one flock and picked up one Dunlin {Tringa alj>ma), one 
Ringed Plover {yEgialitis hiaticiila), and one Pigmy Curlew {Tringa 
subarquata). At four we returned to the grass prairie, and rode back 
to the river. We passed large flocks of cattle and horses, and the 
ground was covered with grass, tansy, and a rich purple flower, and 
here and there we observed a very pretty deep blue Spanish Iris. 
We returned to the steam launch for supper, and soon after our two 
men came in with a clutch of Bustards' {Otis tarda) eggs and the 
hen-bird, one clutch of Bitterns' {Botaurus stellaris), a lot of Coots 
eggs, and one young Coot in down, which last I skinned at once, 

N.ituralist, 



dresser: three weeks on the OUADALgUIVIR. 21 

and we spent the rest of the evening l)lo\ving eggs and skinning 
birds. 

The next morning (yth May) we were up at six, and, after 
getting up steam, started for a place where we expected to find the 
Little Bustard {Otis tetrax), arriving there soon after ten, and at 
once went ashore. To-day we were on foot, having sent the horses 
off to some distance, intending to rejoin them to-morrow. We passed 
through large tracts of grass-land, and in one place we had to pass 
through a large enclosure, in which were numbers of fighting bulls, 
so-called 'Toros bravos,' destined for the bull-ring, which are often 
very awkward customers to meet. We gave them a very wide berth, 
and kept as close to the fence as possible. We passed also in 
another pasture large herds of horses and cattle. In some parts the 
ground was covered with a plant bearing a flower rather like that of 
a white netde, pretty, but, they told me, of little use as food for the 
cattle. Everywhere the wild flowers were very beautiful and abundant, 
and there were many sorts that I did not know at all. We also 
passed large fields of wheat, oats, and barley, and saw numbers of 
Great Bustard, but could not get within gunshot. We took one nest 
containing two eggs of the Great Bustard, and one nest of Calandra 
Lark, but saw no sign of the Lesser Bustard. After walking about 
three hours, we returned to the launch, and visited an island where 
the Night Heron {Nycticorax griseus) usually breeds. The island was 
surrounded by a dense fringe of reed lo to 20 ft. high, and studded 
over with large white poplar trees. Brambles were everywhere in 
dense profusion, and we got well scratched and torn as we pushed 
our way through. We saw several last year's nests of the Night 
Heron, but not one tenanted, and a Black Kite's {Milvus migrans) 
nest which we also examined was empty. Not finding anything in 
the way of eggs, we steamed off some distance along the river, and 
went ashore to prospect. The country was flat and covered with 
dense grass and a sort of small purple flowering clover, and abundance 
of wild flowers of various sorts; and there were large herds of horned 
cattle and horses. At one place the bulls followed us, and showed 
signs of attacking us, but a dog we had with us effected a diversion, 
and we beat a hasty retreat. We saw numbers of Pratincoles, 
Calandra and Short-toed Larks, and several Stone Curlew, but 
found no Pratincoles' eggs, though we got one nest of the Calandra 
Lark. On our way back to the launch we found our two men with 
the horses camped, and preparing their supper. They had shot a 
hen Bustard and taken her eggs, which they gave us, and which we 
found very hard set, and had difticulty in blowing them, which we 
did before turning in for the night. Hitherto the weather had been 

Jan. 1890. 



22 dresser: three weeks on the GUADALQUIVIR. 

extremely fine, the sun so hot that our faces began to peel, but there 
was always a wind blowing over the marismas which made it cool, 
except in the direct rays of the sun. This evening, however, it 
clouded over, and looked like rain, but early in the morning (8th May) 
the clouds began to disperse, and it soon became very hot. At six 
o'clock we steamed along two or three miles to a place where the 
horses were awaiting us, and we then mounted, and started across a 
flat country, most of which had recently been submerged, but was 
now covered with a tolerably dense growth of herbage, and studded 
somewhat closely with low bushes. Here we found a nest of the 
Mallard {Anas boschas) with fresh eggs, and saw several Marbled 
Duck {Anas angustirostris), but could find no nest. The Black- 
bellied Sand-Grouse {Pterocles arenarius) was seen several times ; 
and in the far distance, wading in a shallow lake, were hundreds 
of Flamingoes, looking like a white stripe on the horizon. 
Last season they nested here, but the present season being a 
dry one, not a nest was to be found. Many of the shallow 
lakes were dried up, and large tracts which last year were covered 
with water, were now overgrown with grass, or were a nearly bare 
tract of sun-dried mud. Here we also met with several Harriers 
{Circus centginosus and Circus cineraceus), both of which are arrant 
egg-thieves, and destroy numbers of nests. We camped for lunch 
on a small island on which Convolvulus minor grew in great 
abundance; and here, as in most parts of the dry parts of the 
marshes, the Painted Lady Butterfly ( Vanessa cardui) was extremely 
numerous. Kentish Plover and Pratincole flew past us as we 
were eating our lunch, and many flocks of shore birds were 
wading about in the shallow water. After lunch we went some 
distance along the lagoon, and then waded across to a dry patch on 
which the old man, who acted as our guide, told us we should find 
the Slender-billed Gull {Larus gelastes) breeding, and we certainly 
found several nests, but they contained only egg-shells, all the eggs 
having been broken, which was a great disappointment to us. We 
saw no Gulls, but many GuU-bifled Terns {Sterna anglica), one of 
which we shot. We saw many Grey-headed Wagtails {Motacilla Jiavd) 
and Short-toed Larks, and took one nest of Calandrella btetica 
conlairiing a single egg. On the way back we saw a single Flamingo, 
wading in the shallow water, and the old man told Colonel Barclay 
that he could take him close enough to it to shoot it, by using his 
horse as a stalking-horse, so they started off. I taking charge of the 
other horses. Stripping his horse, and leaving only a halter on it, 
the old man kept behind the fore-quarters of the horse, the Colonel 
doing the same behind its hind-quarters. The horse, who evidently 

Naturalist, 



DRESSER: THREE WEEKS ON THE GUADALoUl VI R. 23 

knew his business, proceeded slowly as if grazing, gradually working 
towards the bird, the two men keeping well concealed behind it. 
We had a black lurcher-cur with us, who was told to remain behind, 
and who sat by me watching their proceedings with the greatest 
interest. After some time they got within range, without disturbing 
the bird, and the Colonel fired, killing the Flamingo. The moment 
the shot was fired, the dog went off like a flash, dropping a piece of 
meat I had just given him, and retrieved the dead bird. This dog, 
by the way, though an ugly, lean cur, reminded me of the dogs 
I used to see hanging about the wigwams of the Red Indians in 
America, was a most useful beast, for he would crouch down or 
sneak behind, when we were after shore birds, and was an excellent 
retriever. Besides, he could find nests, and did so very often, but 
once or twice I caught him helping himself to an egg on the quiet, 
and he spoilt several clutches for us, but this was his only fault. 
The old man was our greatest trial, for he was very deaf, which he 
did not like to own, and his answers when spoken to were generally 
far from the mark, besides which, he chattered incessantly. He was 
moreover, too old to find nests, and would have found none but for 
his dog. Towards evening, we rode leisurely back to the launch, 
and on the way saw several Sand-Grouse, which, the old man told us, 
bred hereabouts rather later in the season. When we arrived on the 
river bank, we found the two younger men (who had been off in 
another direction) awaiting us. They had one egg of the Marsh 
Harrier, with an old bird, and five young in down, one old Purple 
Heron (^Ardea purpurea)^ and four young in down, and one Marbled 
Duck; but no eggs, except one Harrier egg, above referred to. 
These men, if allowed, would pot every bird they met with, irrespec- 
tive of season, and we had often considerable difficulty in preventing 
them from shooting birds which were no use for food, and which we 
did not want to skin. To-day, the sun had been very hot, but late 
in the evening the clouds gathered, and during the night we had 
torrents of rain. Towards morning it cleared, and when we got up 
(9th May), it was quite fine again. The Colonel wanted to shoot an old 
male Bustard, so we steamed off to a place where they are always to 
be found, and going on shore with all hands, we walked through the 
grassy prairie till we found Bustard, and tried a drive, without, how- 
ever, any success, for, although we saw more than one flock of male 
birds, they were far too wary to be approached, and could not be 
driven within gun-shot of the Colonel, who was posted in a ditch, 
well hidden amongst the dense herbage. After trying for some hours, 
we decided to revisit the place where, a few days back, we found the 
Stilt breeding, so we went back to the steamer and started, arriving 

Jan. 1890. 



24 DRESSER : THREE WEEKS ON THE GUADALQUIVIR. 

at the place where our horses were awaiting us, early in the afternoon, 
and mounting, we rode ofif, passing several large sheets of water on our 
way to the Stilts' home. Arrived there, we were met first by the 
Whiskered Terns, who, clamouring loudly, flew round us before we 
arrived amongst the rushes. A little further on, numbers of Stilts 
flew close around us, uttering their wailing call, keeck^ keeck ; every 
now and then settling down close to us, and after running for a few 
paces on the plants covering the surface of the water, would fly up 
again and circle round us. They were extremely tame, and let us 
approach within a few paces, until a shot was fired, as the Colonel 
wanted a pair for his collection, and they then kept well out of gun- 
shot range. We picked out a few clutches of the best marked eggs 
of both the Stilt and Whiskered Tern, and then returned back to the 
grass covered prairie. On our way back to the river we saw several 
flocks of shore birds. Grey Plover {Sqnatarola helvetica), Pigmy 
Curlew, Dunlin, Ring Plover, etc., and by using the old man's horse 
as a stalking-horse, my companion shot specimens of all those birds, 
and also two Sand-Grouse {Pterodes arenarius). These birds do not 
frequent the dry sandy localities of which there are large tracts not 
far distant, but are always found in the grass-covered spots in the 
marismas, where, not long before, there could have been nothing but 
vast sheets of water and patches of mud ; and their eggs are, we 
were assured, invariably found in these marismas or marshes. They 
make no nest, but deposit their eggs in a suitable depression in the 
ground without any lining. Late in the evening we returned to the 
launch, and found that our men had already come back, bringing 
with them four eggs of the Pratincole, three Baillon's Crake {Porzana 
bailloni), three Kentish Plover, and three nests with eggs of the 
Short-toed Lark. 

The next morning (loth May), as our supplies were low, we 
determined to go up to Seville, so started quite early, the weather 
being fine and the sun very hot. Just before midday we arrived at 
Coria, and went ashore for a short time. Here we found many 
warblers in the groves and orange gardens near the town, but did 
not remain to collect any specimens or to look for eggs. This town, 
though numbering about 4,000 inhabitants, is, to all appearance, 
a century behind any English or French town ; the streets are only 
partially paved with rough stones, and the centre of the street is 
a gutter, which appears to act as a common sewer. Altogether, it 
reminded me forcibly of a Mexican town, as I used to see them 
when in that country twenty-five years ago. Between Coria and 
Seville the banks of the river are well covered with willows, white 
poplars, and tamarisks, and every here and there were gardens and 

Naturalist, 



dresser: IHREE WEEKS ON THE GUADALQUIVIR. 25 

cultivated tracts, some of them extremely beautiful, and we passed 
several large orange and lemon gardens. Nightingales were so 
numerous that it seemed as if there was at least one every dozen 
yards along the bank, and we saw many other small birds in the 
bushes and reeds on the banks as we steamed along. Arrived at 
Seville in the afternoon, we took in a fresh supply of stores, and as 
we purposed going into the woods on the morrow, we hired a lad 
as a climber, and succeeded in getting the son of an English work- 
man, who could speak Spanish and English, and was therefore 
available as an interpreter for the Colonel, who could not speak 
Spanish. After getting our supper with a friend, we went on board 
and turned in, starting off soon after. At five o'clock (nth May) we 
passed Coria again, and soon arrived at the place where we had 
arranged for the horses to meet us ; and going ashore with our 
baskets and food for the day, we at once started for the pinal or pine 
woods, where we purposed spending the day. After riding some 
distance through fields covered with grain, some being planted with 
fig and apricot trees, and through olive gardens, the road being 
a mere bridle-track, only available for horses and the rough native 
carts, we arrived at a pine wood, but there we found but few nests, 
and indeed up to lunch time we took no nests but those of the 
Woodchat Shrike {Lanius pomeranus), Common Bunting {Embcriza 
miliaria) — the eggs all much incubated, and one nest of the Black 
Kite. 

The country here was very beautiful, large pine trees growing here 
and there, the intervening space being overgrown with large cistus- 
bushes, profusely covered with flowers — white, red, yellow, and white 
with a red centre — and everywhere wild flowers grew in rich pro- 
fusion, amongst which the most noticeable were a sort of rose 
campion and a rich yellow chrysanthemum-like flower with a deep 
purplish-brown centre. We also saw patches of a large plant with 
a leaf like an amaryllis, which our guide told us was a sort of garlic, 
bearing a long purplish flower. Whilst at lunch we were joined by 
a keeper, who showed us a Black Kite's nest, out of which we took 
two eggs, and a little later on we found a nest of a Kestrel {Falco 
tinnunculus) containing five eggs. Both these nests, as well as others of 
the Black Kite which we also found, were built in pine-trees and were by 
no means easy to take, for these pines are invariably denuded of their 
branches, except the very top ones, as they grow, and consequently 
they are smooth and branchless except at the top, and as most of the 
trees in which we found nests were from thirty to fifty feet high, it 
was no joke to swarm up them, and we had good cause to regret not 
having brought climbing-irons with us. Late in the afternoon we 

Jan. 1890. 



26 DRESSER : THREE WEEKS ON THE GUADALQUIVIR. 

met a couple of goat-herds, one of whom, on being asked if 
he knew of any nests, told us that not far off was a nest of the 
Short-toed Eagle, but he thought that it contained a young bird. 
However, on going with him to the nest, he climbed the tree for 
us, and brought down an egg, which proved to be much incubated. 
The nest was tolerably large, and placed in the very top of a rather 
large pine, which stood rather apart from the adjoining trees. The 
old bird flew round close enough to enable us to recognise it 
perfectly well, so we did not shoot it. The goat-herd called this 
eagle the ' One-egg Eagle ' — a very apt designation, as it always lays 
one egg only. 

On our way back to the launch we passed a bank in which 
were numbers of Bee-eaters' holes, and many of these birds were 
flying round, but as yet there were no eggs. Many Hoopoes ( Upupa 
epops) were seen, and a nest we examined, which was in a hole at 
the foot of an old olive tree, contained young birds nearly fledged. 
The Common Bunting appears to be very numerous here, and we 
found several nests ; all the eggs, however, were too much incubated 
to be preserved. We also noticed a Booted Eagle {Aquila pennata) 
flying round, but did not succeed in finding any nest of this species. 
In the evening we blew the eggs, and discussed matters as to 
what we should do next week, eventually deciding that I should go 
the next day up to Seville and arrange for permission to visit some of 
the ' cotos,' or large tracts of land kept for sporting purposes, and 
that the Colonel should take the men and visit a pine wood in 
another direction to that where we had been to-day. Accordingly, 
on the morrow (12th May), after seeing them off, I started for 
Seville, where I spent most of the day, and succeeded in getting the 
required permission and a good deal of useful information. We had 
arranged to meet in the evening at Coria, but I arrived there rather 
early, and went ashore to examine the place at my leisure. As the 
town was not particularly inviting, I strolled with our skipper to 
a large factory outside the town, where we met a very pleasant 
fellow, a Belgian, who carried on an extensive poultry and rabbit 
farm. He had some very large incubators, and told me that he had 
several times hatched out Bustards' eggs, two of which he then had 
in one of his incubators. With him we went through the orange 
gardens, and for the first time I tasted and greatly appreciated the 
sweet lemon, of which fruit he gave me a supply to take back to 
the launch. 

On our way back to the town I examined some of the houses 
burrowed in the perpendicular cliff near the town, which are not 
uncomfortable, and one or two contained quite large rooms, the 

Naturalist, 



dresser: three weeks on the Guadalquivir. 27 

only inconvenience being the smoke, which had to find its way 
out to the front of the house, which was boarded in, leaving an 
aperture at the top for the escape of the smoke. 

Late in the evening, Barclay returned with four nests and eggs of 
the Azure-winged Magpie {Cyanopica cooki), two of the Black Kite, 
and two eggs of the Booted Eagle {Aquila pennata), the nest being 
an old Kite's nest, which the Eagle had repaired and utilised, and 
which contained three Kite's eggs. He also brought the old Eagle, 
two young Buzzards {Bufeo vulgaris), one Dartford Warbler {Melizo- 
philus undatiis), and five Genets — two adult and three young. 
The weather was on the whole fine and hot, but there had been 
two or three heavy showers. 

The next morning (13th May) we breakfasted at six, but as it 
had rained in the night, and looked dull, we decided not to go to the 
pine woods, but visited some woods near the town. We dug out 
two Bee-eaters' nests, but found no eggs. We saw numbers of 
Calandra Larks, Bee-eaters, Turtle Doves {Turtur co7nmunis), Azure- 
winged Magpies, Cetti's Warblers {Cettia sericea), and a few 
Hoopoes, and we watched a couple of the latter toying about like 
a pair of large butterflies, and the Colonel shot one of them. I was 
not very well to-day, so returned to the launch, and laid up all the 
afternoon. Towards evening some boys brought a lot of Turtle 
Doves and Quail {Coturnix communis)., which they offered for sale, 
and we purchased several of the latter for our supper. To-day we took 
eggs of the Woodchat Shrike, Azure-winged Magpie, and Corn 
Bunting. 

At four o'clock on the following morning (14th May) we started 
down the river, and arrived at Bonanza at about eleven. On the way 
we saw numbers of Duck, chiefly Marbled Duck, Black Tern, 
Harriers, etc. The weather was bright and very hot, and the sky 
cloudless. On arrival at Bonanza we went ashore, and walked up to 
San Lucar, a distance of about two miles. The road was ankle-deep 
in dust, and it was a very hot tiring trudge up to the town. The wild 
flowers were lovely, and a large mesembrianthemum, which covered 
the sand-banks at the road-side, was especially lovely. Arrived at 
the town, we visited a banker, to whom we had a letter of intro- 
duction, and from him obtained particulars as to where we could 
procure permission to ramble about and collect in one of the large 
cotos. The town, like all the smaller Spanish towns, was badly 
paved, the streets being scarcely fit for wheeled conveyances with 
springs, and the centre of the streets being evidently used as a gutter 
for the reception of sewage ; but many of the houses were well- 
built and comfortable, almost all having a large open court-yard or 

Jan. 1890. 



28 DRESSER : THREE WEEKS ON THE GUADALQUIVIR. 

* patio,' in the centre planted with flowers or orange-trees. Outside 
the town were some large gardens filled with beautiful flowers, and 
scattered around were some large orange and lemon groves. We 
found a tolerably good inn near the Plaza, where we got our dinner 
and purchased some supplies, after which we returned to Bonanza, 
went on board the launch, and started up the river, where we again 
went ashore ; and whilst Barclay walked along the shore, I, with one 
of the men, went inland to the cottage of one of the keepers, to 
whom we had a letter. As he was out we had to wait for him, and 
I soon made friends with the children and induced them to go out 
with me to hunt for eggs, but we found nothing but Magpies' nests, 
which were plentiful enough ; but in one of these we found five 
Magpie's eggs and one of the (Ireat Spotted Cuckoo {Oxylophus 
glandarius). On returning to the cottage we found the keeper had 
arrived, and after arranging with him to start off and obtain per- 
mission for us to go some distance inland with one of the under- 
keepers, we returned to the launch, got our supper, and turned in 
for the night. 

Early the next day (15th May) we steamed up to a marsh some 
distance away, and went ashore with the men. Here we saw 
large numbers of the Ruhilla or Marbled Duck, and found two 
nests, containing only egg-shells, the Harriers having been there 
before us. Also a nest of the Mallard with only one egg, the 
others having likewise been sucked by Harriers. These nests 
were placed under low bushes on the low flat ground, which 
had been left dry when the water had receded, and some short 
distance away from the true marsh. In the marsh itself, where 
the water was nearly knee-deep, and where there were also low 
bushes and quantities of rushes and rank herbage, we found 
one nest of Montagu's Harrier with two eggs, one of the Marsh 
Harrier with three young in down, and saw numbers of Stilts, 
Whiskered Terns, Black Terns, and Grebes, and several Shags or 
Cormorants {Phalacrocorax graculiis) passed overhead, flying towards 
the mouth of the river. Whilst wading through the marsh we came 
across four men, who were busy collecting eggs to take to San Lucar, 
where they offer them, hard boiled, for sale in the market, and 
through them we procured eggs of the Black I'ern, Eared Grebe 
{Podiceps nigricollis). Little Grebe {Tachybaptes fluviatilis), Lesser 
Tern {Sterna mitmta), and Marbled Duck. One of them caught a 
Baillon's Crake, in which, when we skinned it, we found an egg ready 
for exclusion. On our way back to the launch, as I was walking 
with one of our men, we flushed a Marbled Duck, which we shot, 
and on examining the place where she rose, we found a nest con- 

Naturalist, 



dresser: three weeks on the GUADALQUIVIR. 29 

taining fourteen eggs. The nest was placed under the bush, well 
hidden, and was constructed of small sticks and twigs and coarse 
grass, and well lined with down, and the entrance was made, not 
close to the bush, but a short distance away, through a small covered 
way amongst the long grass. We also procured another nest of the 
Marbled Duck with nine eggs, and in this nest there was scarcely 
any down. Besides these we took three Avocet's {Recurvirostra 
avocetta) eggs, several Stilts and Whiskered Terns, and two clutches 
of Redshank's {Totanus calidris). Early in the afternoon we returned 
to our old quarters, where we found the keeper, who had brought 
the necessary permission, and we at once proceeded to make 
arrangements for an early start in the morning, and as the Colonel 
wanted to attend to some business at Seville, it was finally arranged 
that I should take a three days' trip inland, taking one of our men 
with me, and that during that time he should go to Seville. We there- 
fore steamed down to San Lucar, where we went ashore and 
purchased some corn and necessaries for the trip, and arranged for 
two horses to meet us early the following morning, and we then 
returned back, and turned in. On the next day (i6th May) we were 
up at five, and after getting breakfast, I and one of our men were 
put ashore at the place where we had arranged for the two horses to 
meet us, and Barclay started for Seville. My baggage was very small, 
consisting of our two baskets, one filled with cotton-wool to pack the 
eggs we expected to procure, a plaid, half a small box of biscuits, a 
pound of chocolate, and a flask of whisky. I did not trouble to 
take any change of raiment, beyond a spare pair of socks, as the 
weather looked settled, and I am too old a campaigner to trouble 
about wet clothes ; and the biscuits and chocolate, together with raw 
eggs beaten up in the cup of my flask, and flavoured with a little 
whisky, would be all I should need for more than a three days' trip, 
but for the men we had some bread, cheese, cold meat, sausages of 
a red colour, which I could not have touched to save my life as they 
were redolent with garlic, and a small pot in which they could cook 
any game they shot, as here such a thing as a close time seems to be 
unknown. Before the launch left, however, a girl, one of the 
keeper's daughters, brought us a few eggs, taken on the previous day, 
viz. : — one clutch Kite {Afilvus ictinus), two Black Kite, two Booted 
Eagle, and one of three eggs of the Blackbird ( Tardus merula). As 
might be expected the horses did not arrive at the time appointed, so 
I left the man to watch the baggage, and took a stroll to a neigh- 
bouring grove, where, during the hour we had to wait, I observed 
the following birds, viz: — Turtle Dove, Cuckoo {Cuculus canorus). 
Great Spotted Cuckoo, Golden Oriole {Oriolus galbula), Spotted 

Jan. 1890. 



30 DRESSER : THREE WEEKS ON THE GUADALQUIVIR. 

Flycatcher {Muscicapa grisola), Coal Titmouse {Parus afer\ 
Nightingale {Daulias luscinia), Dartford Warbler, Black Kite, 
Common Kite, Roller {Coracias garrula), Red-leg Partridge {Perdix 
riifa). Swallow {Hirtitido rustica), Crow {Corvus corone), Woodchat, 
and several small birds which I did not identify. . After waiting an 
hour a young underkeeper arrived with two strong horses, on one of 
which were the usual large panniers, the other having on it a regular 
Spanish saddle, with large shovel-shaped stirrups, just like we used to 
have in Mexico, so I took possession of the steed, and found myself 
quite at home again in the Spanish saddle. Our baggage and the 
two baskets were packed in the panniers, and, Spaniard-like, Manuel, 
the underkeeper, perched himself on the top of the load, whilst 
I fastened the bag of corn behind my saddle. I carried only a 
light stick-gun, but our man Miguel had a long Spanish gun with 
him, and he and I arranged to ride and tie, as I preferred to walk as 
much as possible, and in places where the water was deep both men 
rode on the other horse, which seemed to carry them and the 
baggage with ease. 

After going to the keeper's house to obtain a supply of fresh 
water, which we carried with us in an earthenware jar, we pushed on 
inland from the river through an undulating sandy country, and for 
some distance passed through a rather straggling growth of pine 
trees and bushes, and then entered into a succession of sandhills, 
where the nearly-white sand was ankle-deep and the walking very 
wearisome, especially as the sun was broiling hot. Amongst the 
pine trees we saw a couple of Booted Eagles, but found no nest, and 
several Black and Common Kites were also observed. A Common 
Kite's nest was next found, but as it contained young in half down, 
we left it untouched. Amongst the sand-hills were patches covered 
with bushes and grass, and generally small shallow ponds were in 
the middle of these patches, and from one of these we started a pair 
of Black Storks {Ciconia nigra), which are said not to breed any- 
where near here, and soon after we saw both Black Vultures 
and Griffon Vultures {Gyps fulvus) circling round. Soon we 
rode through a long narrow fertile belt, well covered with trees, and 
in an open glade we saw some keepers' huts, and met one young 
fellow, who had shot several Red-legged Partridges which he showed 
us. In a more open part, where the trees were larger and more 
scattered, we first found a Kite's nest with young, and then a nest of 
the Spanish Imperial Eagle {Aquila adalberti), from which the old 
bird flew as I rode up to the tree, showing the white on the shoulders 
very clearly as she flew off. The nest was a large structure of sticks, 
lined with grass, and was placed in a main fork of a tolerably large 

Naturalist, 



DRESSER: THREE WEEKS ON THE GUADALQUIVIR. 31 

pine tree at an altitude of about thirty feet, and it contained two 
young birds half feathered, and the remains of a couple of rabbits ; 
and below the nest, on the ground, were remains enough of rabbits 
to show that the Eagles had made sad havoc amongst the bunnies. 
I wished to leave the young birds, but Manuel insisted on killing 
them, so I took them along with us. After halting to rest the 
horses and take lunch, we again passed through some sand-hills, and, 
reaching a grass-covered tract, we kept along it for some distance, 
making for a laguna, where I was told we should find many birds 
breeding, and on which there was a boat that we could make use of. 
On this grassy tract were a few cork trees here and there, and from 
one of these we started a Little Owl, and Ave also saw a couple of 
Green Woodpeckers {Gecinu sharpii). At about four o'clock Ave 
reached the lagoon, and wading across the narrowest portion of it, 
we camped close to the ruins of a rough hut, which had been built 
to house sportsmen who come here to shoot Duck, but had been 
allowed to fall into decay. The lagoon extended some distance, and 
was fringed by marsh and high reeds, and we could see on an island 
in the middle some Purple Herons, but, oddly enough, we did not 
see any of the Egrets or Buff-backed Herons, which I fully expected 
to find here. After we had unloaded and picketed our horses, we 
went to hunt for the boat, but could not find it, so we tried to wade 
to the island, but the water was too deep, and the aquatic herbage 
was so dense that it was unsafe to attempt to swim to it, or I would 
have done so. We, therefore, waded about in the marsh, where we 
took a Montagu's Harrier's {Circus cineracejis) nest with three eggs, 
and saw several Bitterns, but found no nest. At nine we made up 
a fire, and whilst one of the men cooked the food, I and the other 
man skinned the two young Eagles, and we then turned in, making 
a bed of a lot of half-dried bracken. Besides the birds above 
enumerated, we saw to-day the following species, viz., Falco cenchris, 
Afias angnsiirostris, Sterna mimiia, Hydrochelidon hybrida^ Recur- 
virosira avocetta, Athene noctua. Circus ceruginosus^ Anas boschas, 
Galerita cristata, Gecinus sharpii, Fidica atra, Vanellus vulgaris, 
Merops apiaster, OEdicnemus scolopax, and numbers of Flamingoes 
and Stilts. 

During the night I was woke by a shepherd's dog, who came to 
see who was there, so there were evidently shepherds about, and at 
about six in the morning (17th May) we were visited by a shepherd 
and his boy and a gamekeeper, who told us that the boat had been 
taken away, and that we could not get on to the lake ; so we 
decided to ride on further. The men breakfasted off a duck they 
had shot, and I contented myself with a couple of biscuits, a piece 

Jan. 1890. 



32 DRESSER : THREE WEEK.S ON THE GUADALQUIVIR. 

of chocolate, and a little whisky and water. The country we passed 
through was flat, covered with Ijushes, chiefly cistus, which were 
covered with blossom, and here the yellow cistus predominated. 
We passed numbers of bee-hives, made of a section of cork bark, 
and we also visited several small water-holes, where we generally 
found large cork trees, in which were usually nests of the Kite or 
Green Woodpecker, but the latter breed very early, and in every 
case the young had flown. However, we found a nest of the 
Lesser Kestrel {Falco cenchris) in one large cork tree, and took out 
of it two very richly marked fresh eggs. We passed several shepherds 
and one told us that he had taken, a couple of days previously, a nest 
of the Norfolk Plover, with three eggs, which he had eaten. We 
saw several Green Woodpeckers, and their note appeared to me to 
differ considerably from that of our British species {Gecintis viridis), 
and to some extent reminded me of the call of the Wryneck. At 
about ten o'clock we reached a large grass-plain, on which we saw 
some herds of goats, besides horses and horned cattle ; and ere long 
we reached a large hut, where we dismounted to get a glass of goat's 
milk. No one was at home but a woman, who was busy making 
goat's milk cheese, and who received us most hospitably, and gave 
us as much milk as we could drink. Ere long, a queer looking old 
man came in, who we found was quite dumb, and appeared to be 
rather 'soft,' but he seemed to be acting as herdsman, as he left with 
us and went to take charge of some cattle. From here we rode off 
to some large marshes, where we found numbers of Avocets, Stilts, 
Kentish Plover, Redshank, and Pratincole breeding, and where we 
set to work collecting eggs. The Pratincoles were especially 
numerous, and we rode for hours through half-dried mud and grass- 
covered plains, where they literally swarmed, and so numerous were 
their nests, that after a short time we only took eggs that were well 
marked. The Avocets were more scattered, and their nests were 
more difficult to identify, but we succeeded in marking several birds 
oft" their nests. Here the Stilts were breeding on the dry mud 
plains, not as we previously found them, in shallow water ; and 
their nests when on the dry land were much smaller. The 
nests of the Avocet were very slightly constructed, and were mere 
depressions in the ground but scantily lined with grass bents. The 
Pratincoles make no nest, but deposit their three eggs in any 
convenient hollow in the ground, or on a piece of dry cow-dung, but 
I found three eggs in a tolerably well constructed nest, which 
appeared to me to be an old nest of a Redshank. The Redshanks 
eggs were almost all hard set, and we saw not a few young birds in 
down running about. Oddly enough, I did not see a single Lesser 

N;itiiralist, 



No. 175. 



(Q FEBRUARY 1890. / 



T li w 




i^ MONTHLY JOURNAL OF ;jt, 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



CONDUCTED BY 

WM. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., 

Sunny Bank-, Leeds ; 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE IN SIRCIAI- UEl'ARTMENTS OP 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., CHAS. P. HOBKIRK, F.L.S., 

Royal Herbarium, Kew ; Dewsbury ; 

W. EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S., M.B.O.U.. GEORGE T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S.. 

Museum of Science & Art, Edinburgh : Greenfield House, Huddersfield ; 

ALFRED MARKER, M.A., F.G.S., W. HARWELL TURNER, F.C.S., F.R.M.S. 

St. John's College, Cambridge ; 38, Sholebroke Avenue, Leeds. 



Three Weeks on the Guadalquivir—//. E. Dresser, F.L.S., F.Z.S., etc. .. 

Bibliography: Hymenoptera, 1884 to 1889 

Notes on the Tree Sparrow — F. B. Wliitlock .. .. 

A Plea for the Starling — John Harrisotc 

Autumn Bird-Notes from Notts.— j^. i?. /F/«V/<'r/t 

Storm Petrel in Summer— Rev. H. A. Mncfihersc^n, M.A., AT. B.O.U. 
Lepidopterous Fauna of Lancashire and Cheshire (Tineina)— 7^//« /;'. Ellis, 
M.B..L.R.C.P.,L.E.C.S.E.,F.E.S 

Notes — Birds 

AVhite Variety of the Little Gull at Flamborough— 7. H. Guntey ,y iiti . , F.Z.S. 
Probable Occurrence of Phylloscopus superciliosus near Spurn — 'Johii. Cor- 
den7ix,M.B.O.U. ; The Yorkshire Records for the Great Black Woodpecker 
—Rev. H. H. Slater, AT. A.. F.Z.S. , M.B.O.U.; Shore-larks at Flam- 
borough — Matthew Bailey; Storm Petrel near Alford in 1888 — Jas. Eardley 
Mason ; Dunlins and Ringed Plovers in Notts. — /•'. B. IVhitlock. 

Note — Fishes 

Occurrence of the Short Sunfish and Torpedo off the East Coast — Joitn Cor- 
deau.v, M.B.O.U. 

Notes — Lepidoptera 

Colias edusa. Vanessa cardui, and other Butterflies near Alford, Lines. — Edward 
Woodtlwrpe ; Colias edusa near Arthington, etc. — Charles Smeihiirst. 

Notes — Mollusca 

Molltisca near Spofforth, Yorkshire — Wni. Nelsoti, M.C.S. : Possible Occurrence 
of Bulimu.s acutus in Cumberland. — Jf'. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S, 



HACK 

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S. L. INIosley. — History of Brit. Birds and Eggs, Part 60, coloured plates. [Author. 
HertfordshireNat.Hist.Soc— Trans.,Vol. 5, Parts6, 7,0ct.,Dec. 1889. [Society. 
Psyche: journ. ofentom.,Vol.5,No. 160-4, Aug.-Dec. i889.[Camb.Ent.Cl.,U.S.A. 
Notarisia,Ann. 4, No. 16, Ottobre 1889. [G.B.deToni eD.Levi-Morenos, Redattori. 
Essex Naturalist, Vol. iii, Nos. 7-9, July-Sept. 1889. [Essex Field Club, 

Journal of Microscopy, N.S.,Vol. 3, Part i, Jan. 1890. [Bailliere & Co. publishers. 
Scottish Naturalist, N.S., No. 27, Jan. 1890. [Prof. J. W. H. Trail, editor. 

II Naturalista Siciliano,ann. 9,nn. 1,2, Ott.-Nov. 1889. [Signor Enrico Ragusa. 
New York Microscopical Soc. — Journ., vol. 6, No. i, Jan. 1890. [The Society. 
West American Scientist, Vol. 6, No. 49, Nov. 1889. [T. D. A. Cockerel!. 

Science Gossip, No, 301, for Jan. 1890, [Messrs. Chatto & Windus, publishers. 
The Midland Naturalist, No. 145, for Jan, 1890. [Birmingham Nat. Hist. Soc. 
Research, monthly illust. journ. of science. No. 19, Jan. 1890. [A.N.Tate, editor. 
The Young Naturalist, Part 121, for Jan. 1890. [Mr, John E, Robson, editor. 
The Zoologist, 3rd Series, Vol. 14, No. 157, Jan. 1890. [J. E. Harting, editor. 
Yorkshire Genealogist, Part 18, Jan. 1890. [J. Horsfall Turner, editor, 

Naturce Novitates, 1889, Nos. 23, 24,25, Nov, -Dec. 18S9. [Friedlander&Sohn,pubs, 



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DRESSER : THREE WEEKS ON THE GUADALQUIVIR. 33 

Ring Plover, for it was here that Mr. Abel Chapman, some years ago, 
found these birds breeding. The Pratincoles were very amusing ; 
they would fly round us, and then settle on the ground, and after 
running some distance with high-uplifted wings, would throw them- 
selves on the ground and lay for a few moments with outspread 
wings, like huge butterflies pinned on a board, and would then 
suddenly start up and circle round, uttering their alarm note chirrick, 
chirrick. Towards evening, on our way to our camping-ground, I 
was fortunate in securing a couple of young Stilts, about two or three 
days old, which I skinned. They had brown eyes, the beak livid 
blue, and the legs were livid plumbeous, with flesh colour showing 
through the blue tinge. We took several nests of the Mallard, and 
I ate two or three of the eggs beaten up in the cup of my flask, with 
a little whisky. Late in the evening we reached a small sandy island 
surrounded by shallow water, and camped for the night on a patch of 
sand, and as the men were unloading the horses I hunted round, and 
found two nests of Motacilla flava, and one of the Redshank, close 
to our camp. Whilst the men were cooking their supper, which 
consisted of eggs mixed up with garlic and some of the horrible red 
sausage, I examined the basket, and found that our bag consisted of 
seventy-five Pratincoles' eggs, thirty-seven Avocets', eight Kentish 
Plovers', and a few Stilts' eggs, besides several clutches of Short-toed 
Larks, Redshanks, and one of the Lesser Tern. The weather was 
clear and very hot all day, but a high wind was blowing, which made 
it very pleasant. 

Just as we were settling down for the night we saw several 
Bee-eaters flying about the end of the island, and on going there 
we found about a dozen nest-holes in the flat ground, three of which 
we dug out, but found no eggs. The nests, or rather nest-holes,, 
were about \\ ft. long, ending in a roundish chamber, which was 
about arm's depth below the surface. As it became dark the 
mosquitoes were very troublesome, and surrounded us in dense 
clouds, but they appeared to annoy the men much more than me, 
for I soon fell asleep and did not trouble myself about them ; but 
ere long we were awoke by the cattle, who several times came to 
pay us a visit, and once or twice the bulls annoyed us considerably, 
and when driven off, kept walking round, bellowing loudly. 

Soon after daybreak (i8th May) we turned out, and the men 
cooked their breakfast, I, as usual, making a meal of a couple of 
biscuits, a piece of chocolate, and a couple of eggs beaten up with 
whisky. After wading some distance through the shallow water, we 
reached a long stretch of tolerably dry, grass-covered ground, and 
here, besides Stilts, Pratincoles, and Kentish Plover, we met with 

Feb. 1890. c 



34 DRESSER : THREE WEEKS ON THE GUADALQUIVIR. 

a flock of Pin-tailed Sand-Grouse {Pterocles alchata), which were, 
however, very shy, and as we passed the place where we first 
observed them we found one egg placed in a mere depression in the 
ground, without any lining. We quartered the ground here most 
carefully, but though we found several Pratincole's nests, this was 
the only one of the Sand-Grouse we succeeded in discovering. After 
riding some distance, and passing through several large water-covered 
marshes, where we found some large colonies of the Whiskered Tern 
breeding, we reached the places where the Flamingoes bred, and 
where we saw several old nests, but though we saw large numbers 
of the birds, there was no sign of any recent nests; but we found one 
empty egg, which had probably been sucked by a Harrier. 

From here we went over to the sandhills which we passed 
through two days previously, to reach which we had to wade for 
nearly a mile through water which reached nearly up to the horses' 
bellies. Here we halted for lunch under a large stone-pine, and 
whilst the men were resting and the horses feeding, I rambled round, 
but found nothing of interest, except a good-sized Land Tortoise, 
which I caught and packed in one of the baskets, and which we 
•eventually brought home. Here there were several places where 
the wild hogs had been rooting, quite lately, but I did not meet with 
any. After lunch we started on, and, early in the afternoon, reached 
the keeper's house from where we first started, and having time 
■enough to spare, we got a table put out under a tree, and blew eggs 
for a couple of hours or more, whilst the horses rested. The 
keeper's wife, who most hospitably offered us goat's milk, and in 
fact everything she had in the way of food, told me that there were 
several men in San Lucar who devoted most of their time during 
the spring to collecting eggs for the market, and told our man 
where we should find one old veteran who had collected for many 
years, and knew all the best nesting-places for many miles round the 
town. I had arranged for the launch to meet us at the landing-place 
between four and five, so we went there soon after four, and sent 
the horses away ; but the launch did not put in an appearance till 
six o'clock, when we went aboard and steamed off to Bonanza, and 
at once started off on foot to San Lucar to hunt up the old egger. 
On the way we passed several cottages, the inmates of which were 
enjoying the rest of Saturday evening outside, and at one cottage 
a couple of pretty dark girls were dancing to the music of a guitar, 
which they accompanied with castanets, the rest of the party sitting 
down and keeping time by hand-clapping. 

Arrived at the town, we soon found the old egger, who was with 
the rest of the family sitting in the 'patio,' listening to a young fellow 

Naturalist, 



DRESSER : THREE WEEKS ON THE GUADALQUIVIR. 35 

who was playing on the guitar and singing a rather wild kind of 
a song. When we explained what we wanted, he took us upstairs 
and showed us a basket of eggs which he was going to boil before 
taking to the market to-morrow morning, and out of these I selected 
about a dozen eggs of Lams gelastes and a few others, besides 
several which somewhat resembled the eggs of the Gull-billed Tern, 
but which he assured me were those of a Black -headed Gull (which, 
from his description, could be nothing else hvXLarus inelanocepkalus), 
and not of a Tern. Finding that the old man knew the birds of the 
country thoroughly well, I asked him to have a glass of wine, and to 
bring any other egg-collector he knew. He went out with us and 
soon found another egger, and we all adjourned to a queer old wine- 
shop, where I ordered a bottle of the white wine of the country and 
handed round my cigar-case. This opened their hearts, and they 
soon gave me lots of interesting information. He described the 
birds very well, and amongst others he described a Duck which he 
had shot off her eggs, and which I feel sure must have been 
Erismatiira Icucocephala. He also told me that he had found 
a red Duck, which he called 'Pato tarro,' and which from his 
description was Tadonia aisarca, breeding in a rabbit-burrow on the 
other side of the river. About ten years ago, he told me, the 'Gallo 
azul ' {Forpliyrio acruleus) used to breed in the marismas, but he had 
not seen one during the last four or five years, and did not believe 
that it is now to be found there at all. The lesser Herons also {Ardea 
garzelia, ralloides, and bubulcus) are now, he said, extremely rare, and 
last year he only knew of one small colony of the Buff-backed 
Heron. Amongst other things, he told me of a man who for years 
past had spent the summer in the marismas, where he collected eggs 
and fished, only coming to town to dispose of his eggs and fish, and 
told me where we should find him now. After spending an hour 
with these men we started back for Bonanza, where we arrived at 
about nine, and on going aboard the launch, found that Colonel 
Barclay had arrived back by rail from Seville, so we got our supper 
and turned in. 

The next day being Sunday (19th May), we steamed up to the 
marisma, and rested there all day, and as it rained heavily, we were 
unable to leave the launch. Early the following morning (20th May) 
we sent our man to hunt up the old egger, whom he found located 
in a hut built of rushes, on the bank of the Cano, where his boat 
was moored, and who returned with him at 8.30. We soon made a 
bargain with him to take us to some breeding-places of the Gulls. 
We steamed some distance up the river, and then went ashore, and 
after walking some distance through the marsh, he took us to 

Feb. i8go. 



36 DRESSER : THREE WEEKS ON THE GUADALQUIVIR. 

a heronry, where, last year, the Bufif-backed Heron bred, and where 
we saw about a dozen old nests built of sticks, and placed on low 
bushes, but we saw no Herons, and no new nests. Some distance 
further on we found a gullery, but the eggs had all been broken, and 
here we shot a Pratincole, an Avocet, and a Gull-billed Tern. As 
there seemed to be no prospect of finding eggs here, we returned to 
the steamer for lunch, and on the way took several nests of Kentish 
Plover, two of Pratincole, and one of Redshank ; and were 
fortunate enough to find one Pratincole's nest, containing two newly 
hatched young birds, which I determined to try and keep alive. In 
the afternoon we steamed up to another marsh, and on the way our 
man shot a fine male Scoter {CEdeinia nigra) from the launch, which 
we found had one foot damaged. At about three we went 
ashore to hunt for nests, and took two nests of Montagu's Harrier, 
two of the Marbled Duck with sixteen and fourteen eggs 
respectively, and three of the Mallard. In the evening we skinned 
our birds, and blew the eggs, turning in rather early. To-day the 
weather was cloudy but fine up to midday, after which it cleared 
up and became intensely hot. Next morning we made a start for 
another part of the marsh at 4.30, but did not turn out till nearly 
six. At seven o'clock we arrived at our destination, a large marsh, 
and going ashore we walked for a couple of miles through mud and 
water without finding any nests, though we saw several Gulls {Larus 
gelastes), and Terns. After passing several mud-flats covered with 
low bushes and coarse heritage, we reached a large shallow lasoon^ 
through which we Avaded for about half a mile, to reach some small 
mud islands. The old man and I were some distance ahead when 
we approached the island, Barclay having gone off to try and shoot 
a Gull, and, as we came near the first low bushes, a gull flew up and 
circled close round us, and it certainly was a Black-headed Gull 
{Larus melanocephalns), as I could see quite well, but having only 
a light stick gun I could not shoot it. On going to the place where 
it flew up, we found, at the foot of a low bush, a nest containing 
three eggs like those of our Common Black-headed Gull, but smaller,, 
the nest being made of small sticks, without any lining. We called 
Colonel Barclay to shoot the bird, but when he came up it had flown 
oft', and though we saw it for some time, it would not approach 
within gun-shot range, and we could not secure it. A little further 
on we found a nest of Larus gelastes with two eggs, and Barclay shot 
the bird as she left the nest, and she is now in my collection. The 
nests of both species were constructed of sticks, those of Larus 
gelastes being somewhat stronger built, and invariably lined to some 
extent with Flamingoes' feathers, besides some of these feathers 

Naturalist, 



DRESSER : THREH: weeks on THE GUADALQUIVIR. 37 

being worked in the foundation of the nests. On the other hand, we 
found no feathers in the nests of L. vielanocephalus, and in one 
instance two eggs were deposited on the ground, in a depression, 
without any sign of a nest. Here we found several more nests of 
Lai'us gelastes and Lams vielanocephalus, which we took ; and also 
several of Rccurvirostra avocetta. 

I may here state that on arrival in England we sent the eggs, 
which we firmly believe to be those of Lams melanocephaliis, to 
Lord Lilford for inspection, and he considers them to be those of 
Sterna atiglica, which they certainly resemble, but run rather larger 
than those in my collection of this Tern, and as we did not shoot 
the Gull, the question cannot be satisfactorily decided ; but I trust 
at some future time to re-visit these parts and finally set it at rest. 

We had arranged for the steamer to meet us at the other end of 
the marsh, so we started off to the place we had indicated, visiting 
several more small mud islands, but finding no more guUeries. 
Towards noon we caught sight of the steamer, and ere long met 
the skipper, who had walked on to find us. Here we found a long 
tract of dry ground bordering the river, and covered closely with 
grass and low bushes ; and here we found several nests of the 
Pratincole and Kentish Plover, but nothing else of any note. 
Amongst the bushes the Clouded Yellow Butterfly was very numerous, 
and in parts close to the marsh, where the mud had only recently 
dried, and was baked and cracked by the scorching sun, I observed 
myriads of wood-lice and small black beetles. We went on board 
for lunch, after which we sent two of the men with a small net to 
catch some fish, and in a couple of hours' time they returned with 
a large bag full of fish, which closely resembled Grey Mullet, and 
some smaller ones like Roach, the former of which we found 
excellent eating. 

We now had to think of starting back for Seville, so we settled 
with the old fisherman, who started on foot across the marshes for 
his hut on the Caho, and we steamed up the river for Coria, which 
town we reached late in the evening. On the way up we saw many 
Harriers, Black Terns, Black Kites, Bee-eaters, and also several 
Marbled Ducks. We remained all night at Coria, leaving early the 
following morning (22nd May) for Seville, and on the way up we 
were hard at work packing up our specimens and our portmanteaus, 
so as to have all ready to take on shore directly we arrived at 
Seville, as we wanted a little spare time to see the sights of Seville. 
We arrived there soon after nine, and paid off our men, sending our 
luggage to the Union Bank of Spain and England, as Mr. Drake, the 
manager of the bank, who had been most kind in assisting us in 

Feb. 1S90. 



38 NOTES BIRDS. 

every way ever since our first arrival at Seville, had undertaken to 
forward it to England for us. The rest of the day and the following 
day we spent at Seville, seeing the various places of interest in the 
town, and of course went up to the top of the Giralda, where we saw 
large numbers of the Lesser Kestrel and Swifts. I thought that 
I could distinguish the Pallid Swift, as well as Cypsebis apiis, and 
was assured that a few pale-coloured Swifts breed there together with 
the Common Swift. 

On the evening of the 28th May we left Seville on our way 
home, via Madrid and Paris, after having had a most enjoyable trip, 
during which we collected over 500 eggs, besides a goodly number 
of bird-skins, and other specimens. I must not omit to say that 
I managed to keep the two young Pratincoles alive until after we left 
Seville, but the shaking in the train between Seville and Madrid was 
so great that they only survived the journey a very short time. 

We received every possible assistance both in Seville and in other 
parts which Ave visited, and were especially indebted to Don Edmondo 
Noel, of Seville, who procured permission for us to visit and collect 
on several of the large estates or so-called ' cotos,' Avhich are reserved 
for sporting purposes, and gave us a large map of the river and the 
surrounding country, which proved of the greatest use to us. 



AZOTES— BIRDS. 

White Variety of the Little Gull at Flamborough. — On October 29th 
last a white variety of the Little Gull [Lanis miiuitits) was shot by a fisherman off 
P'lamborough Head, and was secured by iMr. M. Eailey for Mr. John Marshall's 
collection of varieties. It is not an albino, as the terminal bar on the tail is visible ; 
the occiput and ear-coverts are faintly mottled, and the hue of the mantle is just 
perceptible. — T- H. Gukney. Jun., Keswick Hall, Norwich, January 6th, 1890. 

Probable Occurrence of Phylloscopus superciliosus (Cm.) near Spurn. — 

I omitted to mention in my notes of last month that Mr. Hewetson, of Leeds, wrote 
me in October describing a small leaf-warbler seen and watched by him at early 
morning in his garden at Easington, and which he considered at the time could 
only be referred to this species. Subsequently Mr. Hewetson had an opportunity 
of .seeing an Heligoland example of the Yellow-browed Warbler, which I have 
in a small case on the wall of my room, on seeing which he exclaimed at once, 
and before I had spoken, ' that is the bird I saw in my garden at Easington, the 
same conspicuous streak over the eye, and the two bars on the wing. '—John 
COKDEAUX, Great Cotes, Ulceby, December 20th, 1889. 

The Yorkshire Records for the Great Black Woodpecker. — Myths often 
die hard. Though the occurrence of the abt)ve Iiird at Ripley in March 1846 has. 
been treated as more than doubtful in Messrs. Clarke and Roebuck's ' Handbook 
of Yorkshire Yertebrata ' (iSSi), and elsewhere, it appears periodically to renew 
its youth like the phoenix. I hnd a reference to it in the September iVat.uralisi 
of the present year, page 257. I can only say that, when resident in Yorkshire, 
I went, at the suggestion of Mr. J. H. Gurney, jun., to Ripley, and made the 
minutest inquiries, which satisfied me (and I believe Mr. Gurney) that if the bird 
in question was not the Greater Spotted Woodpecker (which appears to have done 
duty for Piciis uiai-titts on several occasions) it was not a Woodpecker at all. — 
H, H. Slater, Irchester Yicarage, Northants, 

Naturalist, 



39 



BIBLIOGRAPHY: 

Papers and records published with respect to the Natural History and 
Physical Features of the North of England. 



HYMENOPTERA, 1884 to 1889. 

The present instalment of about 43 titles, taken in conjunction with 
that of 33 published in 'The Naturalist' for May 1888, pp. 153-155, 
comprises a record of practically the whole of the work done by 
North of England naturalists in six years, so far as it has been 
directed to Hymenopterous insects. Workers in this department are 
few and scattered, and it is therefore a pleasure to note that amongst 
the papers published during the six years are such valuable lists as 
that for Cheshire from the pen of Mr. Newstead, that for Kirton- 
in-Lindsey by Mr. George, and those of Sawflies near York by 
the late Mr. Thomas Wilson, as evidencing some systematic attention 
having been paid within our area to so neglected an order. 

Anon, [not signed]. Durham, Northumberland S. 

List of . . . Donations to the Museum ... of the Natural History 
Society [of Newcastle-on-Tyne], from June 1877 to August 1S87 [in 
1885, Wasps and Wasps' nests, Vespa geriiiam'ca, I', britannica, V. sj'/veslris, 
and V. riifa, from Harnam and Bradford, near Belsay (Chas. Robson) ; nest 
of Wasp [Vcspa, s'pecits not stated), Oakfield, Gosforth (Wm. Cochrane)]. 
Nat, Hist. Trans. Northumb. Durh. and Newc, vol. 9, part 2 (1888), p. 286. 

Anon, [not signed]. Line. N» 

Louth Naturalists' Society [; Megachile ligtiiseca, Halichts rjihiciindus, 

Ichneittnou trilincatiis, and Ophion Inteus noted as occurring in district]. 
Nat. World, Aug. 1886, iii. 158. 

J. B. Bridgman. York S.W. 

Additions to the Yorkshire List of Ichneumonidae [Caiiipoplex unicinctus 
Holmg. , and C. triscitlptiis Hohiig. from Green Farm Wood near Doncaster, 
31st May, 1884]. Nat., Jan. 1887, p. 20. 

Peter Cameron. Cheshire. 

Cheshire Sawflies \_Nematus fagi Zadd. and Eriocantpa auiutlipes from 
Sale]. Nat., March 1887, p. 66. 

John T. Carrington. York N.E. 

Sirex gigas in Yorkshire [writer has seen occasional specimens among tir 
woods at Sandburn, where it doubtless breeds regularly]. Ent., March 1889, 
xxii. 77. 

T. D. A. Cockerell. Cheshire. 

A September Walk through . . . Cheshire . . . [Cynips rosiv, gall noted 

between Chelford and Congleton, Sep. nth, 1885]. Nat., Feb. 1886, p. 57. 

N. F. Dobree. York S.E. 

Sirex juvencus at Hull [in Aug. 1887]. Nat., Feb. 1888, p. 51. 
C. WoLLEY Doi). Cheshire. 

Wasps [abundant, and destructive to fruit, near Edge Hall, Malpas, West 
Cheshire; details given]. Field, Sep. 17th, 1887, p. 478. 

Feb. 1890. 



40 KIBI.IOGRAPHY : HYMENOPTERA, 1884 TO 1889. 

John W. Ki.lis. Cheshire. 

Entomological Localities near Liverpool [the only reference to Hymenop- 
tera is that Wallasey sand-hills are the haunt of Colletes cnniciilaria, found, 
writer believes, nowhere else]. Ent. Mo. Mag., Aug. 1886, xxiii. 61. 

E. A. FiTcii. Lane. S. 

[Isosoma orchidearum Westw. , an Eurytomid bred from knots in stems of 
Cattleya triaiur in an orchid-house at Southport]. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
May 7th, 1884; Zool., June 1884, p. 240. 

[W. W.] Fowi.EK. Northumb. S., Cheviotld., Durh., York N.E. 

Migration of Insects [extracts from the Migration Report, 1886 : Tees 
5th Buoy Light-vessel, April jOfh, 1886, wind E., light, 'a great many 
Bamble-l)ees and a few Wasps during day, flying to N. W., several remained 
on board.' Cocpiet Island Lighthouse, Sep. 12th, W. (5). — 'Hundreds of 
small flies all night in lantern']. Ent. Mo. Mag., Feb. 188S, xxiv. 205. 

lIiLDERic Friend. Cumberland. 

A Contribution to the Life-History of Lophyrus Pini [as observed near 
Wigton in Cumberland, infesting Finns sy/vcs/r/s ; elaborate details of life- 
history as noted in confinement]. Young Nat., Feb. 1889, pp. 33-35, and 
March, pp. 47-48. 

T. Gardner. Durham. 

Ravages of Lophyrus pini [at Shemton, about eight miles from Hartlepool, 
where a small plantation of young Scotch firs were much infested ; specimens 
named by Peter Cameron]. Ent. Mo. Mag., Nov. 1888, xxv. 131. 

WiLLouGHRY GARDNER. Cheshire. 

Sirex [Juvencus] in North Wales and Cheshire [for many years established 
in a small fir-wood at Rock Ferry]. Ent., April 1889, xxii. 117. 

C. F. GEORGE. York S.E. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Spurn Point [3rd Sep. 1884 : 
PoDtpilus pittnihcits noted in some alnmdance ; named by E. Saunders]. Nat., 
Nov. 1884, p. 92. 

C. F. George. ? Line. N. 

A Strange Wasp's Nest [with a bird's leg built into it ; presumably near 
Kirton-in-Lindsey ?]. Sci. Goss., Dec. 1887, p. 283. 

C. F. George. Line. N. 

Aculeate Hymenoptera in North Lincolnshire [an enumeration of 

II Fossores, 5 Diploptera, 40 Anthophila, and Sirex juvencus, taken 
about Kirton-in-Lindsey]. Nat., April 1888, p. 107. 

James Hardy. Northumberland. 

Report of meetings of Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, for the year 1885 

. . . Rothbury [June 24th ; insects destructive to Sir W. Armstrong's pines 
supposed to be Lophyrus pini ; Formica flava\. Proc. Bervv. Nat. Club for 
1885 [pub. 1886], xi. 35 and 41. 

W. Hewett. 'York.' 

Sirex gigas in Yorkshire [fairly common near York, July and August 188S]. 
Ent., March 18S9. xxii. 76. 

H. Wallis Kew. Line. N. 

Notes from the Greensand [at Donington-on-Bain, July 7th, 1886 ; 
Megachile circitDicincta Lep., and Spiiecodes gil'bus L. , noted]. Nat. World, 
Nov. 1886, iii. 202. 

II. ^VALLIs Kew. Line. N. 

Pteromalus puparum near Louth [at Cawthorpe ; parasitic on Vanessa 
atalanta ; identified by E. A. Fitch]. Nat., July 1 886, p. 213. 

Natumlist, 



bibliography: hymenopiera, 1884 TO 1889. 41 

II. Wai.i.is Kew. Line. N. 

Hymenoptera at Louth, Lincolnshire [C/i>ysis ignita, Gorytes fitystaieus, 

Andrc'iia albicriis, A. alhiians^ Odyncrits pictiis, ■ss\^ Halicttts siihfasiiatiis, 

identified Ijy E. Saunders ; and fchneumon triltneatus, named by E. A. Fitch]. 

Nat., Nov. 1886, p. 347. 

H. Walms Kkw. Line. N. 

A Half-Day's Ramble on the Lincolnshire Coast [at Mablethorpe, 

April 3rd, 1SS6; Ophion liitfiis (named by E. A. Fitch) noted]. Nat., 
June 1886, p. 172. 

H. Wali.is Kew. Line. N. 

Megachile ligniseca and Halictus rubicundus at Mablethorpe, Lincoln- 
shire [localities given ; indenlified Ijy T. I). A. Cockerell and W. F. Kirby]. 
Nat., Aug. 1886, p. 251. 

H. Wat. I. IS Ki.w. Line. N. 

Hymenoptera near Louth, Lincolnshire [Abia seriiea, Dolenis gonai^er, 
Te)ith)-edo anciipariu-, Piinpla innla.'oria, Ichneumon rtifiJens, Afesolep/us 
testaceus, Jchueiinion o'ierator, Crahro criln-ariits, Sphecodes gihbus, and 
Alegacliile circitviciuita noted, with localities and dates]. Nat., Sej:). 1886, 
p. 276. 

H. Waixis Kew. Line. N. 

The Greasy-field and Grisel-bottom [near Louth ; Bonthus te7-restris, J 'espa 
vulgaris and lihneuinon trilineattis mentioned]. Nat. World, June 1886, 
iii. 101-103. 

E. P. Knurlky. York Mid W. 
Wasp-Nest destroyed by Great Tits [at Farnham near Knaresborough ; 

details given ; species of Wasp not ascertained]. Nat., Nov. 1889, p. 333. 

W. J. LeTalt.. Derbyshire. 

A City of Wasps [at Hackenthorpe near Sheffield, described and figured ; 

attributed to 'a tree wasp, Vespa {nicdial)'\ Nat. Hist. Journ., Nov. 15th, 

1887, xi. 192. 

John R. Makshai.l. ? Westmorland. 

Dead Humble Bees under Lime Trees [in Dalham Tower Park ; with 

editorial explanation]. Field, Aug. 13th, 1887, p. 283. 

P. B. Mason. Derbyshire. 

[A South-European Ant (Cre/natogaster scutellaris Oliv.) in Mr. Baxter's 

fernery at Burton-on-Trent, probably imported with cork]. Ent. Soc. Lond., 

June 5th, 1889; Ent., July 1889, xxii. 191 ; Ent. Mo. Mag., July 1889, 

XXV. 330; and Young Nat., July 1889, p. 151. 

F. I). MoRicK. Lane. S., Cheshire. 
Rare Aculeate Hymenoptera in 1889 [Haliclic: atricorm's (both sexes) in 

a sandjnt aX Whalley, Aug. 1889; previously known for Cheshire, B. Cooke]. 
Ent. Mo. Mag., Nov. 1889, xxv. 434. 

S. L. Mosi.EY. York S.W. 

[Captures in Holmfirth Valley, loth June, 1889; Furmica fusca, Mynnica 
rubra, Andrena cineraria, A. fnlva, Bombtis terrestris, and Vespa sylvestris 
cited]. Nat., July 1889, p. 203. 

Geo. T. Porritt. York Mid W. and S.W. 

Sirex juvencus near Harrogate [and at Huddersfield]. Nat., Oct. 1887, 
p. 290. 

L. Richardson. Cumberland. 

The Ascent of Cross Fell, Ap. 26th, 1886 [while sitting on the cairn, 

alt. 2,900 ft., a 'black bumblcr ' luHed flying about]. Nat. Hist. Journ., 

Feb. 15th, 1888, pp. 13-14. 
Feb. 1S90. 



42 CORDEAUX : SUNFISH AND TORPEDO OFF EAST COAST. 

George Rohekts. Yorkshire. 

Topography and Natural History of Lofthouse and its Neighbourhood 

[etc.]. Vol. ii. Leeds : printed for the author, 1SS5 [viii + 258 pages, Svo ; 
with references to Hornet (p. 27) ; Sirex gigas (pp. 27 and 149) ; Black Ants 
(p. 27); Humble-bees (p. 94); Yellow Ants (p. 116): J'espa briiannica 
(P- 135) ; Cryptocampus galls (p. 139); and Gooseberry Sawflies (p. 147)]. 
J. T. RoDOERs (Oldham). Lane. S. 

Sirex juvencus at Oldham [two, taken in a cotton-mill, July 1887 ; intro- 
duced with the timber used for 'skips-clogs']. Young 'Nat., Oct. 1887, 
viii. 204. 

Wm. Denison Roebuck. York N.W. 

Abia sericea L. in Wensleydale [found as larva near Hawes, Aug. 1884, 
by Rev. G. V. Harris]. Nat., June 1885, p. 246. 

W. D. Roebuck. York S.W. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Hatfield Chace [Sept. 21st, 1888; 
larvae of Trichiosoma vitellimc noted]. Nat., March 1888, p. 85. 

York Mid W. 

\V. Denison Roei'.uck, \V. Eagle Clarke, and William Storey. 

Upper Nidderdale and its Fauna . . . Hymenoptera [enumerated ; four 
Vespcc, Andrcua fitlva, io\u Boiiibi, Apis inellijica, toiA Sirex gigas\. Nat., 
July 1886, p. 210. 

C. B. Rountree. York S.W. 

Ackworth Natural History Exhibition, 1888 [Wood Ants [Formica mfa) 
in Brockendale]. Nat. Hist. Journ., Oct. 15th, 18S8, xii. 158. 

Thomas Wilson. York Mid W. and N.E. 

Hymenoptera near York in 1882 and 1883 [a list with annotations ; 

including 5 Tenthredina, 2 Doierides, 2 EmpJiytides, 10 Selaudriades, 

9 Nemati)ia, I A/n'a, 1 HylotPina, i Lophynis, i Ichiieiniioii, and 3 Cryptidic\ 

Nat., Dec. 1884, pp. 115-117; and June 18S5, p. 263. 

Thos. Wilson. York Mid W. 

Hymenoptera near York [notes on Abia nitens, Teuthrcdopsis sordida, and 

T. ?iassata, supplementary to former paper ; Mr. Wilson's collecting-ground, 

though not here stated, was about Holgate and Acomb]. 'Nat., June 1885, 

p. 246. 

Thomas Wilson. " York Mid W. 

Hymenoptera Captured near York in 1883 and 1884 [being notes on 
Te}ithrcdopsis corda/a, Athalia Ingens, Emphytits serotinus, Blennocampa 
fiiliginosa, Hemichroa rufa, Cladius eradiatus, Neniattis croceiis, JV. ctrnileo- 
carptis, Cimbex sylvanuii, and Trichiosojiia Incontni, all of which — except 
the two last — are new to Yorkshire, and raise the county list of Sawflies to 
119 species]. Nat., Sep. 1886, pp. 257-259. 



NOTE— FISHES. 

Occurrence of the Short Sunfish and Torpedo off the East Coast.^ 

A remarkably fine example of the Short Sunfish ( Oi-tliagorisciis niola L.) was brought 
into Grimsby recently, caught in the North .Sea. Also a Torpedo {Torpedo 
hebetans); this last taken in a trawl from the .Silverpit, off the mouth of the 
Humber. It measures 18^ in. in length, by 10 in. at its greatest breadth. On removing 
the skin the two batteries, or electric organs, were exposed on each side between the 
head and pectoral fins. These have, superficially, a honeycomb appearance, being 
formed of vertical hexagonal cells, filled with a clear gelatinous substance — these 
organs are connected with the brain by nerves of extraordinary size and capacity. 
Both these fish are now mounted in the small museum attached to the station of 
the Marine Fisheries Society at Cleethorpes. — ^Joiin Cordeaux, Great Cotes, 
Ulceby, Jan. 13th, 1890. 

Naturalist, 



43' 
NOTES ON THE TREE SPARROW. 



F. B. WHITLOCK. 

A ileiiborough. 



Judging from the perusal of the avifaunas of the North of England 
that I have in my possession, this bird {Fasser immtantis) does not 
seem to be at all common as a breeding species. There being quite 
a colony within easy distance of our village, I have had good 
opportunities for observing its habits during the breeding-season. 

The colony is located in the stone facing of a canal wall, perhaps 
a third of a mile long, with a space of about three feet between the 
coping and the water-level. Weather and water have dissolved the 
mortar from between the stones, leaving many suitable nesting-sites. 
With the exception of a pair or two of Starlings, the Tree Sparrows 
have monopolised the whole of the situation. I have not been able 
to detect at present a single House Sparrow's nest, though the bird 
is abundant in the neighbourhood. This year (1889) nesting 
operations commenced in the last week of April, and by the 
1 2th May many of the nest contained the full complement of eggs. 
Up to the end of the month it would have been still possible to 
have obtained fresh eggs, though some of the nests contained young 
birds. It is very difficult to get a perfect nest from the holes they 
are in, but those I have been able to examine were semi-domed 
in shape, like a Willow Wren's. Outwardly, they were loosely con- 
structed of dry grasses, with a little straw and moss, and warmly lined 
with hair and a profusion of feathers collected from the neighbouring 
farm-yards. I found one nest containing young birds in a low dense 
bush only a foot from the ground. 

The eggs, five or six in number, vary very much in their markings. 
The ground colour is white or occasionally pale-green, but usually 
so obscured by dark-brown or grey markings as to be almost 
invisible. Compared with those of the House Sparrow, they are, as 
a rule, much darker and smaller, though no doubt the measurements 
overlap. Perhaps the eggs they most resemble are those of the 
Meadow Pipit. A beautiful variety has the colour all massed at one 
end. At the nest the Tree Sparrow is a much shyer bird than its 
famihar ally, flying off at the least alarm, even when incubation is 
advanced. 

The note is similar to that of the House Sparrow, but not so 
harsh, and shriller. It is curiously local in its breeding-haunts ; 
though this colony contains perhaps fifty pairs, I have only twice 

Feb. 1890. 



44 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

found its nest in other places in this neighbourhood. In the cana 
wall I have seen three nests within as many yards. Some years all 
the first eggs will be destroyed by a rise in the water : this was the 
case in 1S76. I have not detected this species in the bunches of 
Sparrows offered for sale in our local market. I examined three 
dozen birds caught within a mile and half of the colony, but all were 
House Sparrows. _ 

NO TES—LEPID OPTERA. 

Colias edusa, Vanessa cardui, and other Butterflies near Alford, Lines. — 

Last season I captured three specimens of Colias editsa, all males, at Ailby, near 
Alford, on the 22nd and 28th August and 12th September. I also bred Vanessa 
■cardui from larva; found on Ciiicus arvcnsis at Greenfield, loth July. Hibernated 
individuals were numerous in April and May. I took Alelanargia galathca at 
Well Vale on the 30th June and 2nd July. My other captures of butterflies 
round this town included Pieris hrassiccr, P. rapic, P. napi, AiitJtoc/iaris car- 
daviines, Aroynnis eiiplirosyne, Vanessa urticcc, V. io, V. afaianta, Pararge 
megicra, Epi/nepkile janira, E. tithotnts, E. hyperanthus, Chortohius paviphiliis, 
Polyovimatiis phliras, Lycicna a/exis, and Hesperia sylvaniis. — Edward Wood- 
THORI'K, Alford, 29th November, 1889. 

Colias edusa near Arthington, etc. — On the 22nd of Sept. last, Mr. Oliver 
Stead, of Leeds, took a very ]:)ale female sjjecimen of this butterfly near Arthington. 

I will take this opportunity of recording that on the 2nd June, 1888, a 
specimen of Vanessa cardui. in splendid conclition, as if just emerged, and not 
looking at all like a hibernated example, was picked up by my son near the church 
at Burley, Leeds ; the day being dull and cloudy. On subsequent days I saw other 
si)ecimens flying in my gardens at lUuley. 

During the jiast season (1889) I hive been breeding Abraxas grossulariata 
from my gardens, and have obtained some very remarkable varieties. — CuARLES 
S.METHURST, Burley, Leeds, Jan. 8th, 1890. 



NO TES—MOLL USCA . 
Possible Occurrence of Bulimus acutus in Cumberland. — A short time ago 
the Rev. Hilderic Friend, F.L. S., of Carlisle, sent me a number of shells from 
that neighbourhood, amongst them a couple of Bulinius acutus, a species hitherto 
not on record for Cumberland. Mr. Friend thinks they were from Silloth, and it 
is to be hoped that further search will confirm this record. — W. Denison 
RoEKUiK, Leeds, Jan. 15th, l8qo. 

Mollusca near Spofforth, Yorkshire. — On Saturday, the 28th September, 
accompanied by my friend Mr. Pennington, of Spofiforth, we spent several hours 
searching for Limnaiida; ; and though late in the season for freshwater shells, we 
were successful to some extent. Our first efforts were searching the old fish-pond 
at Stockeld Park, where we wei"e unsuccessful, not finding the least trace of a shell. 
We then searched a small weed-grown pond near to Crow Wood, and found 
Planorbis cjiitorius, and two or three specimens oi Liiniuca pcregra, which I think 
may be the Liiniuca liiiiosa of continental conchologists. Leaving here we made 
for Newsome P'arm, and in a nearly dried-up pond we obtained L. pahisfris. 
L. pcregra , and Planorbis margina/us. Passing over Newsome Bridge we searched 
a pond in a quany, and here we obtained L. per eg r a of three rather distinct forms. 
We then went forward to North Deighton, and in an old pond procured rather 
fine specimens of Linincca stai^nalis, and amongst the Ivy-leaved Duckweed 
several immature Splucrium coriieuni. Returning by way of Newsome Bridge we 
searched the Old Crimple, where we found Pliysa fontiiialis, rather common (at 
this time they were all young), Planorbis albus and /'. contortus. Land-shells we 
did not search for with any degree of perseverance, or a much better list might 
have been made. The following are the K]5ecies taken -.—Zonites cellarius, 
Z. a/iiarius, Z. g/aber, Helix ho}-tensis, H. hispidal, H. rotundata. Pupa unibili- 
cata, and Clausilia rugosa. — Wm. Nelson, Leeds, Nov. 1889. Naturalist 



4S 
A PLEA FOR THE STARLING. 

JOHN HARRISON, 
n'ihtrof> Hall, Yorkshire. 



The long-continued depression so severely felt by agriculturists 
has been attended by changes that could scarcely have been reckoned 
upon twenty years ago. The passing of the 'Ground Game Act' 
enabled tenant-farmers to check the excessive increase of hares and 
rabbits, which on some estates were a constant source of disappoint- 
ment, vexation, and loss. In fact, every subject connected with 
agriculture is freely discussed at Farmers' Clubs and Chambers of 
Agriculture, so that we may reasonably hope that most of the 
grievances which farmers have endured will sooner or later he 
redressed. 

Sometimes, however, we hear them complain of annoyances which 
they — by united action — could speedily remove, for quite recently it 
was reported that some of the fen districts of Lincoln or Cambridge 
were infested by swarms of rats which were committing extensive 
havoc. But why were they alluwed to increase and multiply to such 
an extent when the consequences might be clearly foreseen ? 

During last month, at the annual dinner of the Cheshire Farmers 
Club, the Secretary reported that sparrows were so numerous, that 
previous to last harvest, damage done by them to the wheat crop in 
the county of Chester was estimated at from four to ten bushels per 
acre. Certainly, with ordinary precaution, such a loss would not 
have been sustained. In the several parishes of this neighbourhood, 
it has been customary for more than half a century to pay one half- 
penny per head for every sparrow destroyed, and the same sum for 
each nest of not less than four eggs, which effectually prevented their 
increase. This is what the Cheshire farmers have decided to do. 

It was also stated at the above-mentioned meeting that starlings 
were injurious to the farmer, though in what particular way was not 
specified. This greatly surprised me, as I have had better oppor- 
tunities than most farmers of observing their habits, as for the last 
twenty-five years not less than 150 to 200 pairs of starlings have 
annually made nests and reared their young in the farm premises 
contiguous to my house, and although some of the nests were in the 
garden walls, and within a few yards from where strawberries, 
raspberries, currants, and plums were ripening, the birds passed them 
by, preferring to search for grubs, worms, slugs, beetles, &c., in the 
lawn and adjacent pastures. During the breeding season especially, 
they were continually engaged from morn till dewy eve in clearing 
the fields of what are correctly termed ' pests of the farm.' 

Feb. 1890. 



46 NOTES — BIRDS. 

Equally unfounded is the notion that they commit a great deal of 
mischief in pigeon cotes, by pushing the young birds out of the 
nests and devouring the eggs. My experience on the subject leads 
to a directly opposite conclusion, as for more than thirty years I have 
kept a well-stocked pigeon cote close to the farm premises, and even 
placed eggs outside the cote, where the starlings were in quest of 
food, yet in not a single instance did they touch, or even notice the 
eggs, and after careful observation I am satislied they do not disturb 
the pigeons in any way. 

It is difficult to account for the prejudice which exists in the 
minds of some persons respecting birds. As a rule farmers are not 
close observers of their habits, although the subject is not unworthy 
their attention, and especially should they notice the several varieties 
which do not feed upon grain, lest, haply after compassing their 
destruction, the cultivators of the soil should find their fields and 
gardens infested by hosts of winged and creeping insects, doing 
incalculable damage, and baffling the most persistent efforts to 
exterminate them. 



NOTES— BIRDS. 



Shore-larks at Flamborough. — Twelve Shore-larks (Otocoiys alpestris) were 
shot on the headland on Saturday, 21st December last, and .several more were 
.seen. — Matthew Bailey, Flamborough, December 24th, 1SS9. 

Storm Petrel near Alford in 1888. — On the 14th November 1888, 
Mr. Thomas Bishell, a gardener at Thoresthorpe, a hamlet adjoining Alford, 
observed a bird hovering about him as he was spreading hsh manure — partly 
sprats. Thinking it was a Swallow — so unusual a visitor at that time of year — 
he watched until it alighted near him as if to feed on the fish. With a well 
directed throw his fork chanced to fall upon and hold the bird till he could seize 
it, apparently little harmed. After keeping it a couple of days he had it killed 
and stuffed. Mr. John Cordeaux and I saw the bird yesterday, and it is clearly 
Procdlaria felagica Linn. Mr. Bishell has since kindly given the specimen to 
me. — Jas. Earuley Mason, Alford, Line, 24th January, 1890. 

Dunlins and Ringed Plovers in Notts. — These two species occur very 
regularly on our part of the Trent every spring and summer. I am somewhat 
puzzled as to where their breeding-grounds lie. 

The former species (71 alpiiia) arrives generally about 20th April, on its spring 
migration. It usually occurs in small parties of six or seven, in full breeding 
plumage. Compared with Scotch specimens, it is distinctly smaller, the length of 
bill being considerably less. By the middle of July the young are to be seen 
feeding on the shores of the Trent, some of them showing considerable traces of 
down on the neck. 

The only high ground in this neighbourhood is the Charnwood Range, but this 
is a very unlikely ground on which to find Dunlins breeding. I have not met 
with them in the Derbyshire Peak. The direction of the spring migration is certainly 
against the stream of the Trent. Can it be that these are the Dunlins that breed 
in the marshes of the Dee? 

The same remarks apply to the Ring Plover (.-Egialifis Itiaticiila), except that 
its arrival in spring is rather later, and it does not differ in size from the normal 
variety; it is also less numerous. — F. B. Whitlock, Attenborough. 

Naturalist, 



47 
AUTUMN BIRD-NOTES FROM NOTTS. 



B. WHITLOCK, 

A ttciiborougli. 



I FOUND Mr. Cordeaux's Humber notes particularly interesting. 
There is no doubt we get most of our autumn migrants via the 
Humber and Trent Valley. The direction of the spring migration, 
however, is not so clearly defined. 

Tits. Our osier-beds by the Trent side during September and 
October have simply swarmed with Blue Tits {Pariis cceruleus). 
Great Tits {P. major), Coal Tits {F. ater), and Long-tailed 
Tits {F. caudatus) have also been numerous. On October 6th 
I saw a flock of these four species cross a lane, numbering 
upwards of fifty birds. At the time of writing (January 2nd) 
Blue Tits are still numerous. 
Great Spotted Woodpecker {Bendrocopus major). This has 
also occurred in our village (Attenborough), and I have heard 
of half a dozen Spotted Crakes {Forzana marnetta) being seen 
or killed during September and October. On September 4th 
a fine adult female was 'telegraph-wired' close to my house, 
no doubt during migration. On October 19th, an immature 
female was sent me, one of three killed just outside Nottingham. 
I have since heard of others. 
Redpoles. The Lesser Redpole {Linota rufescens) breeds regularly 
with us. I have met with one small flock of L. linaria, out of 
which I killed a single male, showing traces of pink on the 
breast (November 2Sth). 
Bramblings {Fringilla montifringilla) have been fairly numerous, 

judging from bird-catchers' reports. 
Black Terns {Sterna nigra) only occur in the spring. I have 
seen as many as eight or nine in one afternoon. They occur 
regularly about the end of May, usually with S. hiruiido. 
Amongst other birds, the Peregrine {Fako peregriniis) and the 
Bittern {Botauriis stellaris) have both been shot near Cunthorpe in 
December. The former bird is a fine specimen. I take it to be 
a young male, the breast being sparingly streaked with dark brown. 
The expanse of the wings is about forty inches. Both the Peregrine 
and Bittern seem to occur every year. An Osprey {Fandion 
haliaetus) is reported in one of our local papers, but I have not yet 
been able to confirm this. A friend was at Hunstanton on Novem- 
ber 6th ; he reported an arrival of immense numbers of Lapwings 
( Vanellus vulgaris). This would be simultaneous with the arrival 
noted by Mr. Haigh. 

Feb. 1890. 



48 MACPHERSON : STORM PETREL IN SUMMER. 

On November 9th I received from a shore-gunner an adult 
female Great Grey Shrike {Lanius exaibitor) killed near Hunstanton. 
I saw Snow Buntings {Pledrophanes fiivaiis) on the Norfolk coast, 
October 17th. 

STORM PETREL IN SUMMER. 

Rev. H. a. MACPHERSON, M.A., M.B.O.U., Etc., 
Carlisle: yoini-Aiii/ior rf the '' Bii-ds of Cniiiberland^ etc, 

I AM interested in Mr. Cordeaux's note of a couple of Storm 
Petrels seen off Spurn on August 20th, because it confirms a 
suspicion I have for some time entertained, that these small Petrels 
do not breed in their first year. The late Mr. Gatcombe recorded 
a male example of Procellaria pelagica obtained on June 22nd, 
1883, at Plymouth. He also recorded one obtained on Sept. 7th, 
1879, which is rather an early date for so late a breeding bird to 
have left its quarters. In the 'Field' of December 1886, Mr. W. 
Beckwith recorded a Storm Petrel obtained in Shropshire on 
July 1 6th; and I am sure that a special search would reveal other 
instances of this Petrel being found far away from its nesting haunts, 
tiilien it ought to be breeding. With regard to Leach's Petrel 
{^P. leucorrhod) the case is similar. 

I find that the late Mr. Heysham, of Carlisle, had a fresh 
specimen of this Petrel in his hands on July 31st, 1841, on which 
day he sent the bird to Blackett Greenwell, in order that ' he might 
examine a scarce British bird in the flesh.' 

Again, in 1875, Mr. Devvar shot a Leach's Petrel on Loch Tay 
in the month of July (Proceedings of Natural History Society of 
Glasgow, 4, p. 68). These isolated instances of birds found a long 
distance from their breeding-stations are too meagre to be conclusive 
in any way ; but I am glad to draw attention to a point that has not 
been thrashed out. 

Perhaps I may add that in July last, in company with my friend 
Mr. F. P. Johnson, I visited an island haunt of F. pelagica, in order 
to dig out a nest for the National collection. This was accomplished 
successfully, and the nest, bird, and egg may now be seen in the 
museum at South Kensington, being one of the latest additions to 
the series of groups of breeding-birds. The Petrel's nests are not 
easy to discover, unless a terrier or two be introduced. The terriers 
at once detect the musky odour of the Petrel in a burrow, and 
scrape impatiently at the entrance. We only took two eggs, one for 
the museum, and one for Mr. Johnson, an example that many 
oologists would do well to follow. 

Naturalist, 



49 



LEPIDOPTEROUS FAUNA OF LANCASHIRE 
AND CHESHIRE. 



JOHN W. ELLIS, M.B. (Vict.), L.R.C.P.E., F.E.S., 

Liverpool; late Honorary Secretary to the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society \ 
and to the Liverpool Naturalists' Field Club. 



TINEINA. 

Fam. CHOREUTIDA':. 

CHOREUTIS, Hiih. 

Choreutis myllerana, F. = scintillulana, Hub. Very local, 
being recorded only from Hoghton, near Preston (J.H.T.), 
Dunham Park and Moss Side (J.C.), and from a quarry between 
Poulton and Wallasey (C.S.G.). 
Choreutis oxyacanthella, L. = fabriciana, Steph. Abundant 
everywhere among nettles. 

Fam. TAL.EPORID.E. 
TAL/F PORTA, Hiib. 

Talaeporia pseudo-bombycella, Hiib. Local, and recorded 
only from Cheshire : — Bidston Hill, on heath and tree trunks 
(C.S.G.); Bidston Heath (J.F.B.); Delamere Forest (J.B.H.) ; 
Dunham Park (J.C); and Knutsford (H.H.C). 

SOLENOBIA, Z. 
Solenobia inconspicuella, Staint. Local, and not common. 

Lane. — Preston (J.B.H.) ; Prestwich Wood, on beech 
(R. S. Edleston, Zool, xvii, 6463) ; Prestwich and Pendlebury 
(J.C). 

Ches.— Jackson's Wood, Claughton (C.S.G.); Wirral (J.F.B.). 
Solenobia triquetrella, Fisch. Very local on the Lancashire and 
Cheshire moors, such as Withnell and Staleybrushes (J.B.H.). 

Fam. TIl^EIDX.. 
DIPLODOMA, Z. 

Diplodoma marginepunctella, Steph. Local, and not common. 
Lane— Cleveleys (J.H.T.); Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T.); on 
old posts near Simmonswood Moss (C.S.G.). 
Ches.— Rock Ferry (J.F.B.). 

XYSMATODOMA, Z. 
Xysmatodoma melanella, Haw. Very rare, and recorded only 
from three localities in Cheshire, viz., Bowdon (J.H.T.), 
Eastham Wood (J.F.B.), and Prenton Wood, near Birkenhead, 
a single specimen (C.S.G.). 

Feb. 1890. l> 



50 J. W. ELLIS: LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 

BLABOPHANES, Z. 

Blabophanes imella, Hiib. Rare. 

Old posts on Linacre Marsh (a locality now built upon), 

three specimens (C.S.G.) ; Manchester (J.C). 
Blabophanes ferruginella, Hiib. Local, all the records being 

from Lancashire : Kirkby Wood, in rotten fir-logs (C.S.G.) ; 

Lytham (J.B.H., J.H.T.), and Manchester, in drysalteries and 

granaries (J.C). 
Blabophanes rusticella, Hiib. Common everywhere. 

TINEA, Z. 

Tinea fulvimitrella, Sodof. Not uncommon. 

Lane. — Agecroftand Prestwich (J.C); Manchester (J. H.T.) ; 
Pighue Lane, Wavertree (C.S.G.). 

Ches.— Dunham Park (J.C.) and Staleybrushes (J.B.H.). 
Tinea tapetzella, L. Abundant everywhere in woollen materials. 
Tinea arcella, F. Not common. 

Lane. — -An old hedge near I>ittle Britain, Kirkby (C.S.G.); 
Longridge and Penwortham (J.B.H.); Preston and Wardless 
(J.H.T.); Manchester district (Staint. Man. ii, 290). 
Ches. — Puddington, scarce (J.F.B.). 
Tinea cortieella, Curt. Generally distributed. 

Lane. — Levenshulme (H.H.C.) ; Manchester district (Staint. 
Man. ii, 291); Penwortham and Warrington (J.B.H.); Preston 
district (J.H.T.). 

Ches. — Bowdon (R. S. Edleston,Zool. 1857, 5719); Cheadle 
Hulme (H.H.C); Dunham Park (J.C); Daresbury (J.B.H.); 
Puddington, scarce (J.F.B.). 
Tinea parasitella, Hiib. Recorded only by Mr. Brockholes as 

scarce at Bidston. 
Tinea piearella, Clerck. Manchester district (Staint. Man., ii. 290).* 
Tinea granella, L. Common throughout both counties in grain 

warehouses. 
Tinea cloaeella, Haw. Local. 

Lane. — ^Chat Moss and Prestwich (J.C.) ; Knowsley and 
Kirkby (C.S.G.); Levenshulme (H.H.C); Preston (J.B.H., 
J.H.T.). 

Ches.— Dunham Park (J.C); Wirral (J.F.B.). 

* The list of Lepidoptera occurring in the Manchester district was supplied to 
Mr. Stainton by Mr. R. S. Edleston, who was an accomplished micro-lepidopterist. 

Natur.-ili.st, 



J. W, ELLIS: LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE IINEINA. 51 

Tinea albipunctella, Haw. Very local and not common. 

Lane. Cleveleys (J.H.T.) ; Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.) ; 
one at Brockholes Wood near Preston (J.B.H.). 
Ches. — Bidston, scarce (J.F.B.). 
Tinea confusella, H.S. Recorded only from Morecambe, by 
Mr. Threlfall. 

Tinea nigripunctella, Haw. Mr. Gregson records the capture 

of two specimens at Wallasey, and Mr. Threlfall's record 

' Liverpool ' probably api)lies to these. 
Tinea miselia, Z. Very local, being recorded only from Huyton 

near Liverpool (J.H.T.); and Tranmere, in granaries (C.S.G.). 
Tinea fuscipunctella, Haw. Abundant everywhere. 
I Tinea pellionella, L. Abundant everywhere. 
Tinea pallescentella, Staint. Abundant in warehouses. 
Tinea merdella, Z. Occurs in wool warehouses, being first 

discovered and described as British by the late Nicholas Cooke. 
Tinea lapella, Hiib. Local. 

Lane. — Grange and Preston (J.H.T.); Liverpool district, in 

old hedges (C.S.G.); Manchester district, frequent (H.H.C.); 

Pendleton and Eccles (J.C.). 
Ches.— Wirral (J.F.B.). 
Tinea semifulvella, Haw. Local. 

Lane.— Chat Moss (J.C); Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Ches. — Cheadle Hulme, occasionally (H.H.C.); Claughton 

Park fences, and bred from old birds'-nests (C.S.G.); Dunham 

Park and Knutsford (J.C). 
Tinea argentimaeulella, Staint. Recorded from Bowdon by 

Mr. R. S. Edleston (Zool, 1858, xvi. 6214) and Mr. Threlfall. 

PHYLLOPORIA, liein. 

Phylloporia bistrigella, Haw. Very scarce, being recorded only 
from Birch Wood, Woolton (C.S.G.), and Grange (J.H.T.), both 
in Lancashire, and as scarce at Bidston (J.F.B.) in Cheshire. 

TINEOLA, H.S. 

Tineola biselliella, Hummel. One of the most abundant of 
' clothes-moths.' 

LAMPROMA, Z. 

Lampronia morosa, Z. =^ quadripunetella, Steph. Common 
and generally distributed. 

Feb. 1890. 



52 J. W. ELLIS: LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 

Lampronia luzella, Hiib. Recorded only from two localities, 

both in Lancashire : Grange (J.B.H. in litt. and Ent., x, 40) 

and Withington (J.C)- 
Lampronia praelatella, Schiff. Local, and only in Lancashire. 

Brockholes Wood near Preston (J.B.H. ), Grange (J.H.T.); 

Manchester district (Staint. Man.,ii, 296); and Withington (J.C). 
Lampronia rubiella, Bjerk. Fairly common. 

Lane— Barton Moss (J.C); Brockholes Wood (J.B.H.); 

Grange (J.H.T.); Liverpool district, in old gardens among 

raspberries (C.S.G.). 

Ches. — Marple and Delamere Forest (J.C). 

INCURVARIA, Haw. 

Incurvaria musculella, F. Common and generally distributed, 
Incurvaria pectinea, Haw. Local. 

Common among birches in April, in the Liverpool district 

(C.S.G.); Grange (J.H.T.); Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Incurvaria tenuicornis, Staint. Recorded from the Manchester 

district (Staint. Man., ii, 297) and from Preston (J.B.H.). 
Incurvaria capitella, Clerck. The only notice of the occurrence 

of this species in our district is in Stainton's Manual (ii, 297), 

the locality being Manchester. 
Incurvaria CEhlmanniella, Tr. Local, and not common. 

Lane— Birch Wood, Woolton (C.S.G.); Grange (J.H.T.) ; 

Manchester district (Staint. Man., ii, 297); Preston district 

(J.B.H.). 

Ches. — Bidston and Hooton, scarce (C.S.G.). 
Incurvaria canariella, Staint. Near Grange (J.B.H.). 

NEMOPHORA, Hiib. 

Nemophora Swammerdamella, L. Locally abundant. 

Lane, — Grange and Silverdale (J.H.T.) ; Prestwich (J.C). 
Ches.— Alderley, Bramall, and Taxal (H.H.C); Dunham 
Park, Knutsford, and Delamere (J.C). 
Nemophora Schwartziella, L. Locally common. 

Lane. — Liverpool district (C.S.G.); Lakeside, Windermere 
(J.H.T.). 

Ches. — Dunham Park and Knutsford (J.C) ; Eastham Wood 
(J.W.E.); Taxal (H.H.C); Wirral (J.F.B.). 
Nemophora pilella, F. Recorded from the Longridge moors 

(J.H.T., J.B.H. in litt. and Ent., xiii, 164). 
Nemophora metaxella, Hiib. Longridge moors (J.B.H. in litt. 
and Ent. xii, 204) and Salwick near Preston (J.H.T.). 

Naturalis 



J W, ELLIS: LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 53 

Va.m. ADELID.l-:. 
ADKLA, Latr. 

Adela fibulella, F. Local. 

Lane. — Glazebrook and Withington (J.C); Grange (J.H.T., 
J.B.H. in Ent. Mo. Mag., x, 40); Preston (J.B.H.). 
Ches. — Patrick Wood near Bromborougli (C.S.G.). 
Adela rufimitrella, Scop. Local. 

Lane— Glazebrook (J. C); Howick near Preston (J.B.H. ); 
Preston (J.H.T.); Manchester district (Staint. Man., ii, 299). 

Ches. — Bidston Marsh, on flowers of Cardamine praiensis 

(C.S.G.); Bolhn Valley (J.C.). 

Adela DeGeerella, L. Very local, being recorded only from 

Rainford Moss (C.S.G.), and Worsley and Woolden Woods 

(J.C). 

Adela croesella, Scop. = sulzella, Schiff. Brockholes Wood near 

Preston (J.B.H.). 
Adela viridella, Scop. Locally common. 

Lane— Grange (J.H.T.) and Preston (J.B.H.). 
Ches. — Dunham Park, Knutsford, and Delamere Forest 
(J.C.) ; Woodford and Bramall, local (H.FLC.) ; Eastham 
Wood (C.S.G., J.W.E.). 
Adela cuprella, Thunb. Recorded only by Mr. Chappell, from 
Dunham Old Park. 

NEMATOIS, Hub. 
Nematois cupriacellus, Hiib. Manchester district (Staint. Man., 

ii. 301)- 
Nematois minimellus, Z. Longridge and near Ribchester 
(J.B.H. in litt. and Ent., xiii, 105). 

Fam. OCHSENHEIMERID.-J^:. 
OCHSENHEIMERIA, Hiib. 

Ochsenheimeria birdella, Curt. Local. 

Lane— Blackpool (R. S. Edleston, Intell.. 1859, ii, 27); 
Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 

Ches. — Bramall and the Bollin Valley (J.C.) ; plentiful in 
afield opposite Hose Farm, Liscard (C.S.Ci.); near Seacombe 
(J.F.B.). 
Ochsenheimeria bisontella, Z. Local. 

Lane. — Lees, near Oldham (J.C); Longridge (J.B.H., 
J.H.T.) ; Manchester district (Staint. Man., ii, 288); near Rib- 
chester (J.B.H., Ent., xiii, 105)- 

Ches. — Recorded from Bidston Lighthouse (C.S.G.). 

Feb. 1 890. 



54 J- W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 

Ochsenheimeria vaculella, Fisch. Manchester district (Staint- 
Man., ii, 288). 

Fam. TEICHOBID.-E. 

TEICHOBIA, H.S. 

Teichobia verhuellella, Staint. Recorded only from the coast 
of North Lancashire : Old lanes near Cleveleys, not uncommon 
on hart's tongue (J.B.H., J.H.T.) ; Grange (J.H.T.). 

Fam. ACROLEPID.K. 
ACROLEPIA, Curt. 

Acrolepia granitella, Tr. Local, and not common. 

Lane. — ^Grange (J.B.H.) ; Pendleton and Irlam (J-C.) ; 
Preston and Cleveleys (J.H.T.). 

Ches. — One specimen taken at Bidston or Claughton 
(J.F.B.); two specimens taken by Mr. Edmondson at Liscard, 
near the Trafalgar Hotel (C.S.G.). 
Acrolepia pygmaena, Haw. Grange (J.B.H.). 

Fam. HYPONOMEUTID.K. 
SCYTHROPIA, Hiib. 

Sc5rthropia crataegella, L. Manchester district (Staint. Man., 
ii, 307); Stretford near Manchester (J.C). 

HYPONOMEUTA, Z. 

Hyponomeuta plumbellus, Schift". Recorded from Grange 

(J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Hyponomeuta padellus, L. Locally common. 

Lane. — Grange (J.B.H.) ; Manchester, common (J.C.); 
Greenbank near Liverpool (J.W.E.). 

Ches. — Cheadle Hulme, abundant (H.H.C.); Upton, near 
Birkenhead (C.S.G.) ; Wirral (J.F.B.). 
Hyponomeuta cagnagellus, Hiib. =- evonymellus, Scop., 
Staint. Local. 

Lane— Grange (J.B.H.); Longridge (J.H.T.). 
Ches. — BoUin Valley and near Castle Mill (J.C.) ; Claughton 
(J.F.B., C.S.G. ). 
Hyponomeuta evonymellus, L. -^ padi, Zell. Locally common. 
Lane— Grange (J.B.H.); Hale (C.S.G.). 
Ches.— Bramall, abundant (H.H.C); Marple, Bramall, and 
Reddish (J.C). , 

Naturalist, 



J. W. ELLIS: LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 55 

SWAMMP:RDAMIA, Hub. 

Swammerdamia combinella, Hiib. = apicella, Don. Local. 

Lane. — Grange (J.B.H.); Liverpool district, common among 
blackthorn (C.S.G.) ; Manchester, common (J.C). 
Ches.— VVirral (J.F.B.). 
Swammerdamia griseocapitella, Staint. Local. 

Lane— Chat Moss (J.C.) ; Grange and Silverdale (J.H.T.); 
Rainford Moss (C.S.G.). 

Ches. — Bidston and Puddington, occasionally (J.F.B.);, 
Cheadle district, abundant (H.H.C.). 
Swammerdamia oxyacanthella, Dup. = caesiella, Staint. 
Local. 

Lane. — Grange (J.B.H.); Manchester district, common 
(J.C). 

Ches. — Claughton and Prenton (C.S.G.) ; Liscard (J.W.E.). 
Swammerdamia lutarea, Haw. Recorded only from Tranmere, 

near Birkenhead (J.F.B.). 
Swammerdamia pyrella, Villers. Common and generally 
distributed. 

PRAYS, Hub: 

Prays curtisellus, Don. Generally distributed. 

Lane. — Grange (J.H.T.) ; Liverpool district (C.S.G.) ; Man- 
chester district, common (J.C); Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Ches.— Cheadle Hulme, common (H.H.C.); Wirral (J.F.B.). 

ZELLERIA, Staint. 

Zelleria hepariella, Staint. Recorded only from Grange 

(J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Zelleria insignipennella, Staint. Recorded only from Grange 

(J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag., xii, 163). 

ARGYRESTHIA, Hub. 

Argyresthia ephippella, F. Very local, being recorded only 
from Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.), Windermere (J.B.H.), Manches- 
ter (Staint. Man., ii, 369), and a single specimen from an 
un-noted locality near Birkenhead (J.F.B.). 

Argyresthia nitidella, F. Abundant everywhere. 

Argyresthia semitestacella, Curt. Local. 

Lane. — Croxteth Park, among beeches (C.S.G.) ; Grange 
and Windermere (J.B.H.); Irlam (J.C). 

Ches.— Wirral (J.F.B.). 

Feb. 1890. 



56 J. W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 

Argyresthia albistria, Haw. Local. 

Lane. — Grange and Windermere (J.B.H.); Irlam and 
Withington (J-C) ; Preston, common (J.H.T.). 

Ches. — Between Hose side and Wallasey village (C.S.G.) ; 
Wirral (J.F.B.). 
Arg^yresthia spiniella, Z. Recorded from Grange and Winder- 
mere (J.B.H.); Manchester (Staint. Man., ii, 369); Simmons- 
wood Moss and Bidston Hill (C.S.G.). 
Argyresthia conjugella, Z. Generally distributed. 

Lane. — Chat Moss (J.C); Grange and Windermere (J.B.H.); 
Liverpool district, among mountain ash (C.S.G. ). 

Ches.— Bidston Hill (J.F.B.) ; Staleybrushes (J.C). 
Arg:yresthia serariella, Staint. Staleybrushes (J.B.H., J.H.T., 

Ent., xiii, 164). In berries of mountain ash. 
Argyresthia semifusea, Haw. Local. 

Lane.— Grange and Windermere (J.B.H.); Preston (J.H.T.). 
Ches.— Bidston Hill (J.F.B.) ; Cheadle Hulme, local 
(H.H.C); Heswall (J.W.E.). 
Argyresthia mendiea, Haw. Local. 

Lane.— Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.); Windermere (J.B.H.); 
Withington (J.C). 

Ches.— Wirral (J.F.B.). 
Argyresthia glaueinella, Z. Local. 

Lane. — VVildbottoms, near Preston (J.B.H. in litt. and Ent. 
Mo. Mag., ii, 160). 

Ches.— Bowdon (J.H.T.); Dunham Park (J.C); Patrick 
Wood near Bromborough (C.S.G.). 
Argyresthia retinella, Z. Local. 

Lane. — Chat Moss (J.C); birch plantations near the 
Lancashire mosses (C.S.G.); Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.); Win- 
dermere (J.B.H.). 

Ches.— Cheadle Hulme (H.H.C); Wirral (J.F.B.). 
Argyresthia dileetella, Z. Grange (J.C, J.B.H.). 
Argyresthia Andereggiella, Dup. Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.) 

and Windermere (J.B. H.). 
Argyresthia eornella, F. = eurvella, Staint. Local. 

Lane. — Grange and Windermere (J. B.H.); Preston (J. H.T.). 
Ches. — Bromborough and Frankby, on apple-trees (C.S.G.). 
Argyresthia sorbiella, Tr. Local. 

Lane. — Chat Moss (J.C); between Knowsley and Kirkby 
(C.S.G.); Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Ches.— Dunham Park (J.C). 

Naturalist, 



J. W. ELLIS: LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 57 

Argyresthia pygmaeella, Hiib. Local. 

Lane. — Chat Moss (J.C); Grange and Preston (J.H.T.); 
Liverpool district, among sallows (C.S.G.); Windermere 
(J.B.PL). 

Ches. — Flaybrick Hill and Tranmere (J.F.B.). 
Argyresthia Goedartella, L. Locally common. 

Lane. — Astley, Irlam, and Worsley (J-C); Grange and 
Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T.); Liverpool district, among old birches 
(C.S.G.). 

Ches.— Cheadle Hulme, common (H.H.C.); Wirral (J.F.B.). 
Argyresthia Broekella, Hiib. Local. 

Lane.— Chat Moss (J.C); Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.); Liver- 
pool district (CS.G.) ; Levenshulme (H.H.C.); Windermere 
(J.B.H.). 

Ches. — Bidston and Rock Ferry (J.F.B.); Dunham Park 
and Knutsford (J.C). 
Argyresthia areeuthina, Z. Grange (J.B.H.). 
Argyresthia aurulentella, Staint. Also recorded from Grange 
by Mr. Hodgkinson. 

CEDISTIS, Z. 

Cedistis farinatella, Dup. Local. 

Lane. — Chat Moss (J.C); Grange (J.H.T.); Longridge 
(J.B.H.). 

Ches.— Bidston Hill (C.S.G., J.W.E.); Claughton and 
Burton (J.F.B.) ; Lindow and Wilmslovv (J.C). 

OCNEROSTOMA, Z. 
Ocnerostoma piniariella, Z. Local among firs. 

Lane.— Chat Moss (J.C); Liverpool district (C.S.G.). 
Ches. — Bidston and Claughton (J.F.B.). 

Fam. PLUTELLID.-E. 
EIDOPHASL\, .Steph, 

Hidophasia Messingiella, F. Recorded only from a few localities 
in Lancashire : Brockholes Wood near Preston, on Cardaviine 
amara (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag., ii, i6o; J.H.T., Ent., x, 75); 
near Ribchester (J.B.H., Ent., xiii, 105); Hoghton (J.H.T.); 
Manchester (Staint. Man., ii, 311). 

PLUTELLA, Schr. 

Plutella porreetella, Z. Very local, recorded from Liverpool 
district, in old gardens (C.S.G.), Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T.), 
and scarce at Rock Ferry (J.F.B.). 

Feb. 1890. 



58 J. W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 

Plutella cruciferarum, Z. Abundant everywhere. 

Plutella annulatella, Curt. Recorded from Morecambe by 

Messrs. Hodgkinson and Threlfall. 
Plutella Dalella, Staint. Very local, all the localities being in 

Cheshire, viz.: Bidston Hill (J.F.B., C.S.G.); Claughton 

(J.F.B.) and Staleybrushes (J.C). 

CEROSTOMA, Latr. 

Cerostoma vittella, L. Local. 
Lane. — Preston (J.B.H.). 

Ches.— Cheadle district (H.H.C.); Dunham Park (J.C); 
Puddington (J.F.B.). 
Cerostoma sequella, L. Dunham Park (R. S. Edleston, Zool., 

XV (1857), 5719). 
Cerostoma radiatella, Don. Local. 

Lane. — Croxteth Woods (C.S.G.) ; Grange (J.H.T.) ; Preston 
(J.B.H.). 

Ches.— Dunham Park (J.C); Wirral (J.F.B.). 
Cerostoma paranthesella, L. = costella, F. Very local. 
Lane—Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 

Ches. — Dunham Park (J.C.) ; Patrick Wood near Brom- 
borough (J.F.B.). 
Cerostoma sylvella, Z. Recorded from Dunham Park by 

Mr. Chappell. 
Cerostoma lucella, F. Recorded from Manchester in Stainton's 

Manual (ii, 314). 
Cerostoma scabrella, L. Grange (J.B.H.). 
Cerostoma nemorella, L. Local. 

Lane. — Cleveleys and Wardless (J.H.T.) ; Preston district 
(J.B.H.). 

Ches.— Bidston (C.S.G.). 
Cerostoma xylostella, L. Common and generally distributed 
among honey-suckle. 

Fam. ORTHOTAILID.1^:. 
ORTHOT.ELIA, Steph. 

Orthotaelia sparganella, Thunb. Very local, being recorded 
only from one locality in Lancashire : Pendleton (J.C), and two 
in Cheshire: Bidston Marsh (J.F.B.), and pits near Birkenhead 
(C.S.G.). 

Natur.^list, 



J. W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRK AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 59 

Fam. CHIMABACCHID.K. 
DASYSTOMA, Curt. 
Dasystoma salicella, Hiib. Of very rare occurrence, being 
recorded from the Manchester district (Staint. Man., ii, 282), 
from Huyton, and from near Bromborough Mill (C.S.G.). 

CHIMABACCHE, Z. 
Chimabacche phryganella, HUb. Nearly all the localities for 
this autumn species are in ('heshire. 
Lane. — Grange. 

Ches.— Delamere Forest (J.B.H.) ; Dunham Park, Agecroft, 

and Knutsford (J.C); Eastham Wood (J.F.B., C.S.G., J.VV.E.). 

Chimabacche fagella, F. Abundant in oak-woods in South 

Lancashire and Cheshire, but apparently not so common in the 

north. 

Fam. GELECHIDAi. 

SEMIOSCOPIS, Hiib. 
Semioscopis avellanella, Hub. Recorded only from Bidston 
Park Wood, by Mr. Gregson. 

EPIGRAPIIIA, Steph. 

Epigraphia Steinkellneriana, Schiff. Very local . 
Lane. — Grange (J.H.T.). 

Ches.— Alderley (J-C.) ; Bidston and about Upton (C.S.G.); 
Delamere Forest (C.S.G., Ent. vi, 453) ; Wirral (J.F.B.). 

EX.ERETIA, Staint. 

Exaeretia Allisella, Staint. Local. 

Lane. — Liverpool district, among Artemisia vulgaris 
(C.S.G.); Warrington (J.B.H.). 

Ches.— Stockport (J.C.) ; Wallasey (J.F.B.). 

DEPRESS ARIA, Haw. 
Depressaria eostosa, Haw. Common among broom and gorse 

all over both counties. 
Depressaria flavella, Hiib. - liturella, Tr. Common and 

generally distributed. 
Depressaria pallorella, Z. Local, being recorded from Delamere 
Forest (C.S.G., Ent. vi, 453), Rudd Heath (R. S. Edleston, 
Zool., ii, 735), and Stretford (J.C). 
Depressaria umbellana, Z. Local, but common where it occurs. 
Lane. — Broadgreen and Roby, on broom (C.S.G.) ; 
Lytham (J.B.H.) : Rivington (J.H.T.). 

Ches.— Bidston Hill, common (J.W.E.) ; Wirral (J.F.B.). 

Feb. 1890. 



6o J. W. ELLIS: LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 

Depressaria nanatella, Staint. A coast species, feeding on the 
leaves of Carlina vidf^aris. Occurs at Lytham (J.B.H., J.H.T. 
in litt. and Ent. x, 75) and New Brighton (C.S.G.). 
Depressaria atomella, Hiib. Local. 

Lane. — Longridge (J.B.H.); Manchester district (Staint. 
Man. ii, 322); Preston, on Genista ti7ictoria (J.H.T., Ent. x, 
75); Samelsbury, near Preston (J.H.T.) ; near Stoneyhurst 
(J.B.H., Ent, xii, 204). 

Ches.— Bidston Marsh (C.S.G.). 
Depressaria arenella, Schiff. Local. 

Lane. — Liverpool district (C.S.G.); Lytham (J.B.H.); 
Preston (J.H.T.); Weaste, near Manchester (J.C). 
Ches.— Wirral (J.F.B.). 
Depressaria propinquella, Tr. Found only on or near the 
coast, especially on the sand-hills, as at Lytham (J.B.H.); at 
Grange (J.H.T.); Wallasey (J.F.B., C.S.G.); Bidston (J.F.B.). 

Depressaria subpropinquella, Staint. Same localities as the 
preceding species. 
?Var. rhodochrella, H.S. Recorded from Blackpool (R. S. 
Edleston, Intel!., 1859, ii, 27) and Fleetwood (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. 
Mag., ix, 162). 
Depressaria carduella, Hiib. Recorded from one locality only 
in each county, viz., Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.), and the Wallasey 
sand-hills, near Leasowe Castle (C.S.G.). 
Depressaria Yeatiana, F. Exclusively a coast species. 

Lane. — Blackpool (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag., ix, 113) ; Lytham 
(id., Ent. Mo. Mag., ii, 187; J.H.T.); Formby (J.W.E.). 
Ches.— Wallasey sandhills (C.S.G.). 
Depressaria ocellana, Y. Generally distributed. 

Lane. — Chat Moss (J.C); Liverpool district (C.S.G.) ; 
Lytham (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag. ii, 187); Preston (J.H.T.). 
Ches.— Bowdon (J.C.) : Wirral (J.F.B.). 

Depressaria alstrcemeriana, Clerck. Recorded from Lytham 
(J.B.H.); New Brighton (C.S.G.); and Wirral (J.F.B.). 

Depressaria purpurea, Haw. = vaccinella, Hiib. Coast 
sand-hills, etc. 

Lane. — Blackpool (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag., ix, 113); Lytham 
(J.B.H., J.H.T.). 

Ches. — Prenton and Wallasey sand-hills (C.S.G.) ; Wirral 
(J-F.B.). 

NatiiralisT, 



J. W. ELLIS: LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 6t 

Depressaria liturella, Hiib. = hypericella, Tr. Scarce, recorded 
only from Chiklwall near Liverpool (C.S.G.); Grange (J.B.H., 
J.H.T.), and the BoUiu Valley near Bowdon (J.C.). 
Depressaria conterminella, Z. Local. 

Lane. — Lytham (J.B.H., in litt. and Ent. Mo. Mag., ii, 187) ; 
Pilling Moss (id., Ent. Mo. Mag., ii, r86); Preston (J.H.T.); 
Stretford and Withington (J.C). 

Ches.— Bidston (J.F.B.); Wallasey (J.F.B., C.S.G.). 
Depressaria applana, F. Common everywhere among Umbel- 

liferai. 
Depressaria ciliella, Staint. Local, but common where it occurs. 
Lane. — Lytham (J.B.H.) ; Preston, common (J. H.T.); 
Stretford and Withington (J.C.). 

Ches.— Bidston (J.F.B., C.S.G.) ; Prenton (CS.G.) ; Upton 
(J.F.B.). 
Depressaria capreolella, Z. Recorded only from Grange 
(J.B.H., J.H.T.) and Delamere Forest (C.S.G., Ent., vi, 452). 

Depressaria rotundella, Doug. Leasowe sand-hills (Cheshire),. 

among sea-holly (C.S.G.). 
Depressaria angelicella, Hub. Local. 

Lane. — ^Lytham (J.B.H.) ; Pilling Moss (id., Ent. Mo. Mag., 
ii, 186); Preston and Sal wick (J.H.T.); Manchester district 
(Staint. Man., ii, 324). 

Ches.— Bidston Marsh (C.S.G.). 
Depressaria pimpinellae, Z. Not common. 

Lane.— Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.); Pilling Moss (J.B.H.,. 
Ent. Mo. Mag., ii, 186). 

Ches. — One specimen taken near New Brighton (C.S.G.). 
Depressaria badiella, Hiib. Local. 

Lane. — Liverpool district (C.S.G.) ; Lytham (J.B.H.); 
Pilling Moss (id., Ent. Mo. Mag, ii, 186). 

Ches. — One specimen taken on the Wallasey sand-hills 
(J.F.B.). 
Depressaria heracleana, DeG. Local. 

Lane. — Chat Moss, Withington, and Glazebrook (J.C.) 
Lytham (J.B.H.); Penwortham (J.H.T.). 

Ches. — Bidston and Tranmere (T-F.B.) ; about Wallasey 
Mill (C.S.G.). 
Depressaria discipunctella, H.S. Grange (J.B.H.). 
Depressaria albipunctella, Hub. Scarce, recorded only from 
the coast : Cleveleys (J.H.T.), Hightown and Wallasey (C.S.G.). 

Feb. 1890. 



<62 J. W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 

Depressaria Weirella, Staint. Recorded from the Liverpool 
district, among Anthriscus sylvestris (C.S.G.;; Lytham (J.B.H.); 
Penwortham (J.H.T.); and Pilling Moss (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. 
Mag., ii, 1 86). 
Depressaria pulcherimella, Staint. Local. 

Lane— Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.) ; Pilling Moss (J.B.H., 
Ent. Mo. Mag., ii, i86) ; Preston (J.H.T.). 

Ches. — Bidston and Leasowe (J.F.B.) ; Claughton and 
Upton (C.S.G.). 
Depressaria Douglasella, Staint. Confined to the Lancashire 
coast. 

Lane— Blackpool (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag., ix, 113); 
Crosby sand-hills, four specimens (C.S.G.); Fleetwood (J.B.tL) ; 
Wardless (J.H.T.). 
Depressaria chaerophylli, Z. Recorded from Prenton and 

Woolton, both near Liverpool, by C. S. Gregson. 
Depressaria nervosa, Haw. Local. 

Lane— Lytham (J.B.H.); Penwortham (J.H.T.), 
Ches.— Wirral (J.F.B.). 

GELECHIA, Staint. 

Gelechia rhombella, SchifT. Recorded only from Lancashire : 
Cheetham Hill (R. S. Edleston, Zool., 1845, 1220); Grange 
(J.B.H.,J.H.T.); Irlam(J.C.). 

Gelechia distinctella, Z. Recorded from Lytham (J.B.H., Ent. 

Mo. Mag., ii, 187; J.H.T.) and Wallasey sand-hills (J.F.B., 

C.S.G.). 
Gelechia celerella, staint. Recorded only from the Cheshire 

sand-hills (Staint. Man., ii, 337), Leasowe (C.S.G.). 

Gelechia sororculella, Hiib. Local. 

Lane— Lytham (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag., ii, 187); Man- 
chester (Staint. Man., ii, 332); Preston (J.H.T.). 
Ches.— Wallasey sand-hills (J.F.B., C.S.G.). 

Gelechia velocella, Dup. Recorded only from the W\allasey 
sand-hills by Mr. Brockholes, and from Manchester (Staint. 
Man., ii, 331). 

Gelechia peliella, Tr. Manchester (Staint. Man., ii, 332). 

Gelechia fumatella, Doug. On the sand-hills midway between 
Wallasey and Leasowe (C.S.G.). 

Gelechia ericetella, Hiib. Abundant wherever heather grows. 

Naturalist, 



J. W. ELLIS: LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 63 

Gelechia lentiginoseUa, Z. Scarce and local. 

Lane. -Near Stoneyhurst (J.B.H., Ent., xii, 204); Samels- 
bury, near Preston (J.H.T.). 

Ches.— Bidston Marsh, on Genista (C.S.G.). 
Gelechia mulinella, Z. Locally common. 

Lane— Cleveleys (J.H.T.) ; Liverpool district, among gorse 
(C.S.G.) ; Manchester (Staint. Man., ii, 331). 

Ches. — Knutsford (J.C.) ; Wallasey and Tranmere (J.F.B.). 
Gelechia malvella, Hiib. Manchester, common (Staint. Man., 

Gelechia longicornis, Curt. Common on the Lancashire and 

Cheshire moors and mosses. 
Gelechia diffinis, Haw. Common on moors and mosses. 

BRACHMIA, Hein. 

Brachmia Mouffetellae, Schiff. Very local, being recorded only 
from Cleveleys on the Lancashire coast (J.H.T.), Withington 
and Glazebrook (J.C), and Tranmere (J.F.B.). 

HRVOTROPHA, Hein. 

Bryotropha terrella, Hiib. Abundant everywhere. 
Bryotropha politella, Staint. Recorded only from the Wallasey 
sand-hills (J.F.B.). 

Bryotropha desertella, Doug. A common species on the coast 
sand-hills of both counties. 

Bryotropha senectella, Z. Coast sand-hills, etc. 

Lane. — Grange (J.H.T.); Lytham (J.B.H., in litt. and Ent. 
Mo. Mag. ii, 187). 

Ches.— Wallasey sand-hills (J.F.B., C.S.G.). 
Bryotropha mundella, Doug. Recorded from Lytham (J.B.H., 

J.H.T.) and Wallasey sand-hills (J.F.B., C.S.G. ). 
Bryotropha affinis, Doug. Local. 

Lane— Lytham (J.B.H.); Preston (J.H.T.). 
Ches.— Wallasey sand-hills (J.F.B., C.S.G.). 
Bryotropha umbrosella, Z. Recorded only from Lytham 

(J.H.T., J.B.H., in htt. and Ent. Mo. Mag. iii, 37). 
Bryotropha domestica, Haw. Local, 

Lane. — Churchtown near Southport (J.B.H.); Liverpool 
(C.S.G.). 
Ches.— Bowdon (J.C); Wirral (J.F.B.). 

Feb. i8qo. 



64 J. W. ELLIS: LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 

LITA, Tr. 
Lita artemisiella, Tr. Abundant on the coast sand-hills. 
Lita atriplicella, F. Fleetwood (J.B.H.). 
Lita ocellatella, Staint. Fleetwood (J.B.H.). 
Lita instabilella, Doug. Fleetwood (J.B.H.); Humphrey Head 
near Grange (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag. vii, 87); Wardless (J.H.T.). 
Lita acuminatella, Sircom. I.ytham (J.Pj.H.). 
Lita sethiops, Westw. Local on heaths and mosses. 

Lane. — Chat Moss (J.C.); Lancashire mosses in places 
where they have been burnt (C.S.G.); Longridge (J.H.T.). 
Ches.— Prenton (J.F.B.). 
Lita Hubneri, Haw. Recorded only from the Manchester district 

(Staint. Man. ii, 339) ; Irlam and Glazebrook (J.C). 
Lita maculea, Haw. Local. 

Lane— Lytham (J.B.H.); Pilling Moss (id, Ent. Mo. Mag. 
ii, 186); Preston (J.H.T.). 

Ches. — Flixton and Carrington Mosses (J.C); Wirral 
(C.S.G.) ; Claughton? (J.F.B.). 
Lita fraternella, Doug. Local. 

Lane— Fylde district (J.H.T.); PiUing Moss (J.B.H., Ent. 
Mo. Mag., ii, 186); Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T.); Withington(J.C.). 
Ches. — Prenton, etc. (C.S.G. ). 
Lita viscariella, Staint. Recorded only from the Lancashire 

coast at Cleveleys (J.H.T.) and Fleetwood (J.B.H.). 
Lita tricolorella, Haw. Local and not common. 

Lane— Manchester (Staint. Man. ii, 338); Preston (J.B.H., 
J.H.T.). 

Ches.— Dunham Park, rare (R. S. Edleston, ZooL, 1845, 
1220) ; Eastham (J.F.B.) ; Wirral (C.S.G.). 
Lita COStella, Westw. A single specimen beaten from Solarium 

dulcamara at Olive Mount near Liverpool (C.S.G.). 
Lita maculiferella, Doug. Local. 

Lane— Lytham (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag., ii, 187; J.H.T., 
Ent. Mo. Mag., xix, 112); Preston (J.B.H.). 
Ches.— Wallasey sand-hills (J.F.B.). 
Lita junctella, Doug. Manchester (Staint. Man., ii, 339). 
Lita marmorea, Haw. Recorded only from the Lytham (J.B.H., 

J.H.T.) and Wallasey sand-hills (C.S.G., J.F.B.). 
Lita semidecandrella, Threll. Lytham (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 



No. 176. 



MARCH 1890. 




MONTHLY JOURNAL OF 



NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF FNGLANl). 



CONDUCTED liY 



WM. DEN I SON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., 

Sunny Bank. Leeds: 

WITH THE ASSISTANCK IN SIKCIAI, DKl'ARTMENTS OF 



J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., 
Royal Herbarium, Kew : 

W. EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S., M.B.O.U., 

Museum of Science & Art, Edinburgh 

ALFRED MARKER, RLA., F.G.S., 
St. John's College, Cambridge ; 



CHAS. P. HOBKIRK, F.L.S., 
Dewsbury : 

(lEORGE T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S., 
Greenfield House, Huddersfield ; 

\V. BARWELL TURNER, F.C.S., F.R.M.S. 
38, Sholebroke A%'enue, Leeds. 



Contents : 

Lepidopterous Fauna of Lancashire and Cheshire (Tineina, Micropterygina, 
Pterophorlna, and Alucitina) — 7o//« //'. £//is, Jl/.B., L.R.C.P., 
L.R.C.S.E., F.E.S 

Ludvlg Klein on the Genus Volvox—TVlowrtj- ///<X-, ^..-1., Z>..iV. 

The Tree Sparrow in the Lake District— A"^?. //. A. Macpherson. M.A., M.B.O.U. 

The Dotterel in \orV.%\\\re— Rev. H. A. Afac/'/icrsoti, M.A., M.B.O.U 

Note — Hymenoptera 

SIrex juvencus near Alford, Lines. — Jas. Eardley Masoti. 
Note — Mollusca 

Trent ^)\e\\i— George Roberts. 
Notes— Birds 

Great Grey Shrike at Middleton, Leeds— .£(<frt>- R. Watte: Red-Throated 
Diver at Alford, Lines. — Edgar R. U'aite. 
Note— Mosses 

Grimmia torquata in fruit — Chas. P. Hobkirk, F.L.S. 
Note— Mammalia 

Natterer's Bat at Bingley— //^. B. Booth. 



65 to 86 
87 to 91 
92 to 94 
95 &96 
94 

94 



96 



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J. W. ELLIS: LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 65 

TELEIA, Hein. 
Teleia vulgella, Hiib. Locally common. 

Lane— Irlam (J.C); Preston (J.B.H.). 
Ches.— ^^■irral, common (J.F.B., CS.G.). 
Teleia sequax, Haw. Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Teleia fugitivella, Z. Recorded from Croxteth, near Liverpool 

(C.S.G.). 
Teleia humeralis, Z. = Lyella, Curt. Grange (J.B.H.). 
Teleia proximella, Hiib. Local. 

Lane. — Chat Moss (J.C.); around the mosses on trunks of 
alders (C.S.G.); Preston (J.H.T.). 

Ches. — Bidston, scarce (J.F.B.); Cheadle district, common 
(H.H.C.). 
Teleia notatella, Hiib. Local. 

Lane. — ^Manchester (Staint. Man., ii, 335); Preston {J.H.T.); 
Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Ches. — Wirral, occasionally (J.F.B.). 
Teleia triparella, Z. Local, found at Grange (J.H.T.); around 
the Lancashire mosses (C.S.G.); and recorded for the Man- 
chester district (Staint. Man., ii, 342). 
Teleia luculella, Hiib. Local, and not very common. 

Lane— Levenshulme(H.H.C.); Preston (J. H.T.); Withing- 
ton (J.C). 

Ches.— Bramall (H.H.C.); Dunham Park (J.C). 
Teleia dodecella, L. Local, among firs. 

Lane— Chat Moss (J.C.).; Grange (J.H.T.); Liverpool 
district (C.S.G.). 

Ches. — Bidston and Claughton (J.F.B.); Lindow Common 
(J.C). 

POECILIA, Hein. 

Poecilia nivea, Haw. = gemmella, Z. Taken only at Grange 
(J.H.T.) and Bidston and Rock Ferry (J.F.B.). 

ARGYRITIS, Hein. 
Argyritis pictella, Z. Taken by Mr. Gregson at the mouth of 
the Alt, at Hightown. 

NANNODIA, Hein. 

Nannodia stipella, Haw. = naeviferella, Dup. Staint. Recorded 
from Grange (J.H.T.) ; Church Road, Stanley near Liverpool, 
and Prenton near Birkenhead (CS.C); and Manchester, 
com mon (Staint. Man., ii, 345). 

March 1890. e 



66 J. W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA, 

Nannodia Hermanella, F. Recorded from Lytham by J. B. 
Hodgkinson and J. H. Threlfall, and from Wallasey, Tranmere, 
and Oxton by J- F. Brockholes. 

SITOTROGA, Hein. 

Sitotroga cerealella, 01. Abundant in grain warehouses in 
Liverpool (C.S.G., J.B.H.). 

PTOCHEUUSA, Hein. 
PtOCheuusa littorella, Doug. Wallasey sand-hills (J.F.B.). 
Ptocheuusa inopella, Z. =paupella, Z. Cleveleys (J.H.T.). 
Ptocheuusa ossiella, Staint. Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 

PARASIA, Dup. 
Parasia lappella, L. Local, recorded by J. F. Brockholes as 

abundant between Flaybrick Hill and Claughton, and by 

C. S. Gregson as occurring near Hose Farm, Liscard, and on the 

clay banks at Egremont. 
Parasia metzneriella, Staint. Recorded from Grange and 

Longridge (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 

CHELARIA, Haw. 

Chelaria Hubnerella, Don. Local. 

Lane— Chat Moss (J.C.); Silverdale (J.H.T.); Windermere 
(J.B.H.). 

Ches.— Bidston (J.F.B.); Tranmere (C.S.G.). 
ERGATIS, Hein. 

Ergatis ericinella, Dup. Local. 

Lane. — Chat Moss (J.C); Grange and Farrington (J.H.T.); 
Liverpool district, on heaths and mosses (C.S.G.). 
Ches. — Oxton Heath near Birkenhead (T.F.B.). 

DORYPHORA, Hein. 
Doryphora lucidella, Steph. Recorded by C. S. Gregson from 
Liscard (Cheshire) and from pits near Tue Brook (Liverpool). 

MONOCHROA, Hein. 

Monochroa tenebrella, Hiib. Local. 

Lane. — Farrington (J.H.T.) ; Liverpool, on the lawn opposite 

the hot-houses in the botanic gardens (C.S.G.); Lytham (J.B.H.). 

Ches. — Cheadle Hulme, common (H.H.C); Oxton (J.F.B.). 

LA.MPROTES, Hein. 

Lamprotes atrella, Haw. Taken only at Grange (J.H.T.) and 

Lytham (J.B.H.). 



J, W, ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 67 

ANACAMPSIS, Curt. 
Anacampsis sircomella, Staint. Recorded from Preston (J.H.T.) 

and from Crewe (Staint. Man., ii, 343). 
Anacampsis immaculatella, Doug. Taken at Wardless by 

Threlfall. 
Anacampsis anthyllidella, Hiib. Common on the Cheshire 

sand-hills (J.F.B., C.S.G., J.W.E.) and at Lytham (J.B.H.). 
Anacampsis ligulella, Z. Local. 

Lane. — Lytham (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag., ii, 187); Preston 
(J.H.T.). 

Ches.— New Brighton (C.S.G.). 
Anacampsis taeniolella, Z. Local. 

Lane— Grange (J.H.T.) ; Lytham (J.B.H.); Manchester 
(Staint Man., ii, 343). 

Ches. — Wallasey sand-hills (J.F.B.). 
TACHVPTIUA, Hein. 
Tachyptilia populella, Clerck. Common and generally distributed. 
Tachyptilia temerella, Z. A coast sand-hill species, occurring 
at Lytham (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag., ii, 187; J.H.T.), Crosby 
(C.S.G.) and Wallasey (J.F.B.). 

BRACHYCROSSATA, Hein. 
Brachycrossata cinerella, Clerck. Local. 

Lane— Grange (J.H.T.); Lytham (J.B.H., in litt. and Ent. 
Mo. Mag., ii, 187); Stretford (J.C.). 

Ches. — On the roadside between Poulton and Wallasey 
(C.S.G.) ; Wallasey sand-hills (J.F.B.). 

CERATOPHORA, Hein. 

Ceratophora rufescens, Haw. Local, occurring on the Lan- 
cashire and Cheshire coast near Liverpool (C.S.G., J.F.B.), and 
at Stretford near Manchester (J.C.). 

CLEODORA, Curt. 

Cleodora cytisella, Curt. ALmchester (Staint. Man., ii, 349). 

YPSOLOPHUS, F. 

Ypsolophus marginellus, F. = striatellus, Hiib. Recorded 
from Grange by Hodgkinson. 

SOPHRONIA, Hiib. 

Sophronia semicostella, Hiib. = parenthesella, L. Recorded 
from the Manchester district (Staint. ALan., ii,35i), from Dunham 
Park (J.C), and from Jackson's Wood, Claughton (C.S.G.). 

March 1S90. 



68 J. W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 

ANARSIA, Z. 

Anarsia spartiella, Schrk. Local. 
Lane— Preston (J.H.T.). 

Ches. — Bidston and Wallasey (J.F.B.); gorse bushes between 
New Brighton and Wallasey (CS.Ci.). 
?Var. genistae, Staint. Morecambe (J.H.T.). 
PLEUROTA, Hiib. 
Pleurota bicostella, Clerck. Common on heaths and mosses. 

CARCINA, Hiib. 
Carcina quercana, F. Common and generally distributed among 
oaks. 

HARPELLA, Schrk. 

Harpella Geoffrella, L. Very local and scarce. 

Lane. — A few specimens in a lane near the old mill-dam at 
Garston (C.S.G.); Manchester (Staint. Man., ii, 353). 
Ches.— Puddington (J.F.B.). 

DASYCERA, Haw. 
Dasycera sulphurella, F. Abundant everywhere. I had the 
pleasure of breeding (about 1880) two specimens in which the 
yellow markings were replaced by bronze — a variety quite 
unknown to Mr. Gregson. 

a-XOPHORA, Z. 
CEcophora tinctella, Hiib. Cheetham Hill (R. S. Edleston,. 

Zool. ii, 735). 
CEcophora flavifrontella, Hiib. Very local. 

Lane. — Grange (J.B.H. in litt and Ent. Mo. Mag., x, 40;. 
J.H.T.) ; Windermere (J.B.H. ). 
Ches. — Bidston, scarce (J.F.B.). 
CEcophora subaquilea, Staint. Very local, being recorded only 

from Staleybrushes (J.B.H.) and Bidston (J.F.B., C.S.G.). 
CEcophora pseudospretella, Staint. Abundant everywhere. 
CEcophora fuscescens, Haw. Local. 

Lane. — Grange and Wardless (J.H.T.) ; INIanchester, com- 
mon (J.C.) ; Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Ches. — Bidston Hill, in old gorse bushes (C S. G.); 
Puddington (J. F.B.). 
CEcophora stipella, L. = similella, Staint. Recorded only from 
the Manchester district (J.B.H., and Staint. Man. ii, 356) and 
Disley (J.C). " 

Naturalist, 



J. W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 69 

CEcophora minutella, L. Local. 

Lane. — Manchester (J.B.H., and Staint. Man., ii, 356); 
Preston (J.B.H.). 

Ches. — Puddington (J.F.B.). 
CEcophora tripuncta, Haw. Local. 

Lane. — ^Lmchester (J.B.H., and Staint. Man., ii, 356) ; 
Preston (J.B.H.). 

Ches. — Oxton, near Birkenhead (C.S.G.). 
CEcophora woodiella, Curt. About fifty or sixty specimens of 
this species were taken by Robert Cribb, about 1S40, in a rotten 
tree on Kersall Moor, near Manchester ; all but three of these 
specimens (one in the Curtis collection in Australia, and two in 
the Carter collection at Owens College) were accidentally 
destroyed, and the insect has never been taken since either 
there or elsewhere. 

Fam. GL YPHIPTER YGID.P:. 
GLYrHIPTERYX, Hiib. 
Glyphipteryx fuseoviridella, Haw. Locally abundant. 

Lane.— Chat :\Ioss (J.C.) ; Crosby sand-hills (J.W.E.) ; 
Preston (J. B.H., J.H.T.)." 

Ches. — Lindow Common (J.C.) ; Prenton and Tranmere 
(J.F.B.) ; Wallasey sand-hills (C.S.G.). 
Glyphipteryx thrasonella, Scop. Local but common. 

Lane. — Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T.) ; Liverpool district, among 
rushes (C.S.G.). 

Ches. — Bidston ]\Lirsh and Prenton (J.F. B.); Knutsford 
(J-C). 
Glyphipteryx Haworthana, Steph. Locally common. 

Lane.— Bury (J.H.T.); Chat Moss (J.C.).; Lancashire 
mosses — feeding on seeds of cotton grass (C.S.G.). 
Ches. — Lindow Common (H.H.C.). 
Glyphipteryx equitella, Scop. Very local. 

Lane. — Grange (J.H.T.); Humphrey Head (J.B.H., Ent. 
Mo. ^Lag., vii, 87). 

Ches. — Old walls where Sedum acre grows, near Wallasey 
church (C.S.G.). 
Glyphipteryx Fiseheriella, Z. Locally abundant. 

Lane.— Irlam (J.C); Longridge (J.B.H.); Preston (J.H.T.). 
Ches. — Alderley, rare (H.H.C.) ; Bidston and Tranmere 
(J.F.B.) ; Bromborough, near the Station (J.W.E. ). 

March 1S90. 



70 J. W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 

Fam. GRACILARIDAi. 
GRACILARIA, Z. 

Gracilaria alchemiella, Scop. = Swederella, Thunb. Common^ 

and generally distributed. 
Gracilaria stigmatella, F. Local. 

Lane— Chat Moss (J.B.H.): Cheetham Hill (R. S. Edleston, 
Zool., 1845, 1220); Preston and Grange (J.H.T.). 
Ches.— Cheshire sand-hills (C.S.G., J.F.B.). 
Gracilaria hemidactylella, F. Recorded only from Dunhanv 

Park by Mr. Chappell. 
Gracilaria semifascia, Haw. Grange (J.B.H.). 
Gracilaria populetorum, Z. Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Gracilaria elongella, Z. Very local. 

Lane. — Croxteth Park, among silver firs (C.S.G.) ; Grange 
(J.H.T., J.B.H. in litt., and Ent. Mo. Mag., xii, 163). 

Ches. — Delamere Forest (C.S.G., Ent., vi, 453); Dunham 
Park (J.C). 
Gracilaria tringipennella, Z. Local. 

Lane— Fleetwood (J.H.T.); Grange (J.B.H.) ; Withington 
(J.C). 

Ches. — Puddington and near Birkenhead (J.F.B.); Wallasey 
(J.W.E.). 
Gracilaria syringella, F. Abundant everywhere among lilacs. 
Gracilaria phasianipennella, Hiib. Local. 

Lane. — Grange (J.B.H. in litt., and Ent. Mo. Mag., xii, 163). 
Ches. — Claughton, a single specimen (C.S.G.); Delamere 
Forest (C.S.G., Ent., vi, 453). 
Gracilaria auroguttella, Steph. Local, all the localities being in 
Lancashire : — Lane leading from Broad Green Toll-bar to 
Woolton, near Liverpool (C.S.G.) ; Chorlton-cum-Hardy (J.C); 
Grange (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag., xiii, 16) ; Pilling Moss (id., Ent. 
Mo. Mag., ii, 186); Scorton, near Preston (J.H.T.). 

CORISCIUM, Z. 
Coriscium cuculipennellum, Hiib. Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.) 

and Windermere (J.B.H.) are the only recorded localities. 
Coriscium sulphurellum, Haw. Boor's Wood, Hale (C.S.G.). 

ORNIX, Z. 
Ornix guttea, Haw. Local. 

Lane. — Grange and Preston (J.H.T.) ; Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Ches. — Bidston and Moreton (C.S.G.); Upton and Tran- 
mere (J.F.B.). 

Naturalist, 



J. W. ELLIS: LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. ?! 

Ornix loganella, Staint. Local, taken in Lancashire only, at 
Grange (J.H.T.); Simmonswood Moss, beaten from mountain 
ash (C.S.G.); Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Ornix avellanella, Staint. Local. 

Lane— Croxteth Woods (C.S.G.); Preston (J.H.T.); Win- 
dermere (J.B.H.). 

Ches.— Hale Barn and Bucklow Hill (J.C) ; Prenton Lane 

(C.S.G.). 
Ornix torquilella, Z. Local. 

Lane— Cleveleys and Grange(J.H.T.); Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Ches.— Tranmere (J.F.B.). 
Ornix scoticella, Staint. Very local. 

Lane— Grange (J.H.T.) and Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Ches.— One specimen, Bidston (J.F.B.). 
Ornix betulx, Staint. Very local, being recorded only from 

Simmonswood Moss (C.S.G.), and Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Ornix scutulatella, Staint. Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Fam. COLEOPHORIDyE. 
COLEOPHORA, Z. 

Coleophora juncicolella, Staint. Local. 

Lane— Farrington and Longridge (J.H.T.); Grange (J.B.H.). 

Ches.-Bidston Hill (C.S.G., J.F.B.); Bowdon (R. S. 

Edleston, Zool., 1857, 54o6): Knutsford (J.C.) ; Puddington 

(J.F.B.). 
Coleophora limosipennella, Dup. Grange (J.B.H.). 
Coleophora laricella, Hiib. Local, among larches. 

Lane— Grange (J. B.H., J.H.T.); Liverpool district (C.S.G.); 
I^Lmchester district (Staint. Man., ii,384); Windermere (J.H.T.). 
Ches.— Bidston Hill (J.F.B.) and Dunham Park (J.C). 
Coleophora adjunctella, Hodgk. Preston (J.B.H.). 
Coleophora Wilkinsoni, Scott. Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Coleophora lutipennella, Z. Local. 

Lane— Chat Moss (J.C.) ; Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Ches.— Dunham Park (J.C); Eastham Wood (C.S.G.); 
Tranmere (J.F.B.). 
Coleophora fuscedinella, Z. Local. 

Lane— Chat Moss (J.C); Liverpool district, common 
among alders (C.S.G.) ; Preston (J.B.H.). 
Ches.— Puddington (J.F.B.). 

March iSgo. 



72 J. W. ELLIS: LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 

Coleophora viminetella, Z. Local on heaths and mosses. 

Lane. — Chat Moss; Farrington and Longridge (J.H.T.); 
Preston (J.B.H.); Simmonswood Moss (C.S.G.). 
Ches. — Wallasey and near Birkenhead (J.F.B.). 
Coleophora bicolorella, Scott. Grange (J.B.H.). 
Coleophora vitisella, (iregs. Staleybrushes (J.C, J.B.H.). 
Coleophora orbitella, Z. Recorded only from Carrington Moss 

(R. S. Edleston, Ent. ii, 150). 
Coleophora siccifolia, Staint. Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Coleophora gryphipennella, Bouche. Local. 

Lane— Cleveleys (J.H.T.); Withington and Irlam (J.C); 
Liverpool district, common among roses (C.S.G.). 
Ches.— Northenden (J.C.) and Wirral (J.F.B.). 
Coleophora nigricella, Steph. Abundant everywhere on hawthorn. 
Coleophora paripennella, Z. Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Coleophora fusco-cuprella, H.S. Grange (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. 

Mag., xii, 163 ; and J.H.T., Ent. x, 100). 
Coleophora alcyonipennella, Kollar. Common and generally 

distributed. 
Coleophora deauratella, Z. Windermere (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Coleophora fabriciella, Vill. Local. 

Lane— Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.); Preston (J.H.T.). 
Ches.— Bidston (C.S.G.); near Claughton (J.F.B.). 
Coleophora anatipennella, Hiib. Local. 

Lane— Farrington (J.H.T.) ; Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T.); 
Withington and Irlam (J.C). 

Ches.— Bidston (J.F.B.); Wallasey sand-hills (C.S.G.). 
Coleophora albicosta, Haw. Local. 

Lane— Cleveleys (J.H.T.) ; Preston (id.; J.B.H.); Man- 
chester (Staint. Man., ii, 388). 

Ches.— Bidston and New Brighton (C.S.G.); Wirral (J.F.B.). 
Coleophora pyrrhulipennella, Z. Common on heaths and mosses. 
Coleophora fuscociliella, Z. Grange (J. B. H., Ent. Mo. Mag. x, 40) . 
Coleophora OChrea, Haw. Recorded from Upton and Moreton 

(Cheshire) by Gregson. 
Coleophora discordella, Z. Local. 

Lane — Crosby sand-hills among Lotus corniculatns (C.S.G.) ; 
Lytham (J.H.T.); Pilling Moss (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag., li, 
186); Preston (J. B. H., J. H.T.) ; Manchester (Staint. Man., ii, 390). 
Ches. — AVallasey sand-hills and New Ferry (J.F.B.). 
Coleophora niveicostella, Z. Manchester (Staint. Man., ii, 390) 

Naturalist, 



J. W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 73 

Coleophora therinella, Tgstr. Recorded only from Preston (J.B.H.) 

and a single specimen from the Wallasey sand-hills (J.F.B.). 
Coleophora tripoliella, Hodgk. On Aster tripoUum at Fleetwood 

(J.B.H., Ent. viii, 55). 
Coleophora virgaureae, Staint. = albicans, Frey. Very local. 

Lane. — Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.); Warrington (N. Greening, 
Ent. Mo. Mag., iv, 137). 

Ches, — Wallasey sand-hills, common on mugwort (J.W.E.). 
Coleophora laripennella, Zett. = annulatella, Tgstr. Recorded 
from Fleetwood and Preston in Lancashire (J.B.H.) and Bidston 
and Wallasey in Cheshire (J.F.B.). 
Coleophora salinella, Staint. Fleetwood (J.B.H.); Humphrey 

Head (id., Ent. Mo. Mag., vii, 87). 
Coleophora murinipennella, Dup. Recorded from Preston 
(J. H.H., J.H.T.) and Pilling Moss (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag. ii, 186). 
Coleophora csespititiella, Z. Locally abundant. 

Lane— Chat Moss (J.C.) ; Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T. ). 
Ches.— Bidston Hill (J.F.B., C.S.G., J.W.E.); Knutsford 
and Staleybrushes (J.C). 

Fam. LAVERNID.-E. 
CHAULIODES, Tr. 
Chauliodes chaerophyllellus, Gceze. Not common, being recorded 
only from Cleveleys (J.H.T.), Grange (J.B.H.), and near West 

Kirby (J.F.B.). 

LAVERNA, Curt. 

Laverna propinquella, Staint. = paludicolella, Doub. Local. 
Lane— Pilling Moss (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag., ii, 186); 
Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T). 

Ches. — Prenton near Birkenhead (C.S.G.). 
Laverna lacteella, Steph. Button near Ribchester (J.B.H., Ent., 

xiii, 105); Windermere (J.B.H.); and Tranmere (C.S.G.). 
Laverna miscella, Schiff. Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Laverna rhamniella, Z. Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.) and Silverdale 

(J.H.T.). 
Laverna ochraceella, Curt. Very local. 
Lane, ---Preston (J.B.H.). 

Ches. — Bidston Marsh, among Epilobiiiin (C.S.G.); Pud- 

dington (J.F.B.). 

Laverna Schranckella, Hiib. Local, but only in Lancashire. 

Brockholes near Preston (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag., ii, 160); 

Pilling Moss (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag., ii, 186); Liverpool district 

(C.S.G.); Salwick, near Preston (J.H.T.); Windermere (J.B.H.). 

March 1890. 



74 J- W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 

Laverna decorella, Steph. Grange (J.H.T.). 

Laverna Hellerella, Dup. Cleveleys and Preston (J.H.T.). 

Laverna atra, Haw. Local. 

Lane. — Chat Moss (R. S. Edleston, Zool., 1845, 1220); 
Preston (J.B.H.) : Liverpool district (C.S.G.). 

Ches.— Knutsford (J.C); Tranmere (J.F.B.). 
Laverna vinolentella, H.S. Preston (J.B.H.). 

PANCALIA, Curt. 
Pancalia Leuwenhoekella, L. Recorded from North Lancashire 
only. Grange (J.H.T., J.B.H. in litt., and Ent. Mo. Mag., x, 40); 
Lytham (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag., ii, 187); Silverdale (J.Ff.T.). 

ENDROSIS, Hub. 

Endrosis lacteella, Schiff. = fenestrella, Staint. Abundant 
everywhere. 

SCHRECKENSTEINIA, Hiib. 

Schreckensteinia festaliella, Hiib. Locally common. 

Lane. — Chat Moss (J.C); Button, Grange, and Windermere 
(J.B.H.); Preston district (J.H.T.). 

Ches. — Bidston, Prenton, and Eastham (J.F.B.). 
BATRACHEDRA, Staint. 

Batrachedra praeangusta, Haw. Local. 

Lane. — Chat Moss (J.C); sand-hills between Crosby and 
Hightown (C.S.G.); Grange (J.B.H.). 

Ches.— Bidston and Ledsham (J.F.B.); Marple (J.C). 
ANTISPILA, Hiib. 
Antispila Pfeifferella, Hiib. Recorded only from Pendlebury 
(R. S. Edleston, Zool., 1845, 1220). 

HELIOZELA, H.S. 
(TINAGMA, Dup.). 

HeHozela sericiella, Haw. Local. 

Lane.— Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.); Liverpool district (C.S.G.); 
Brest wich (J.C). 

Ches. — Tranmere (J.F.B.). 
Heliozela stannella, F. Recorded only for the Manchester 

district (Staint. Man., ii, 367). 
Heliozela resplendella, Staint. Recorded only for Manchester 
(Staint. Man., ii, 367) and Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 

CHRYSOCLISTA, Staint. 

Chrysoelista bimaculella, Haw. Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Chrysoclista terminella, Westw. Grange (J.B.H.). 
Chrysoelista aurifrontella, Hiib. = flavicaput, Haw. Common 
and generally distributed. Naturalist, 



J. \\\ ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 75 

PERITTIA, Staint. 

Perittia obscurepunctella, Staint. Scarce. 

Lane. — Edge Lane, Liverpool (CS.Cl.) ; Grange (J.B.H., 
J.H.T.). 

Ches. — Patrick Wood and Puddington (J.F.B.). 

HEYDENIA, Ilofm. 

Heydenia profugella, Staint. Near Grange (J.B.H.). 
Heydenia fulviguttella, Z. = flavimaculella, Stt. Local. 

Lane. — Barton, near Manchester (J.C.) ; Preston (J.B.H., 
J.H.T.) ; Wardless (J.H.T.) ; Liverpool district, among AngtUca 
sylvesiris (C.S.G.). 

Ches.— Castle Mill and Mobberley (J.C). 

Fam. ELACHISTID.^. 
BUTALIS, Tr. 

Butalis grandipennis, Haw. Common and generally distributed 

on heaths. 
Butalis fuseo-aenea, Haw. Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Butalis senescens, Staint. Recorded from Bidston Hill (C.S.G.) 

and Grange (J.B.H.). 
Butalis laminella H.S. Recorded only from Grange (J.B.H.). 
Butalis fuseoeuprea, Haw. Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 

AMPHISBATIS, Z. 
Amphisbatis ineongruella, Staint. Recorded only from Staley- 
brushes (J.B.H.) ; Delamere Forest (C.S.G., Ent., vi, 453); and 
Carrington Moss (R. S. Edleston, Zool., 1857, 5406), all in 
Cheshire. 

STEPHEXSIA, Staint. 

Stephensia Brunniehiella, L. Near Grange (J.B.H.). 

ELACHISTA, Staint. 
Elaehista trapeziella, Staint. Caton, near Lancaster (J.H.T.). 
Elaehista Gleichenella, F. Grange (J.B.H., in litt. and Ent. 

Mo. Mag., vii, S7) ; Prestwich (J.C). 
Elaehista densieornella, Hodg. Grange (J.B.H.). 
Elaehista apieipunetella, Staint. From Lancashire localities 

only; Chat ISIoss (J.C); Button near Ribchester (J.B.H., Ent., 

xiii, 105); Grange (J.B.H.) ; Preston (J.H.T.); Simmonswood 

Moss (C.S.G.). 
Elaehista albifrontella, Hiib. Common and generally distributed. 
Elaehista einereopunetella, Haw. Recorded from Grange 
(J.H.T.) and Knutsford (J.C). 

I\Iarch 1890. 



76 J. W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 

Elachista luticomella, Z. Local. 

Lane— Preston (J.H.T.); Prestwich (J. Ca- 
ches. — Knutsford (J.C.) ; Rock Ferry and Bromborough 
(J.F.B.). 
Elachista atricomella, Staint. Local. 

Lane— Grange (J.B.H.); Preston (J.H.T.). 
Ches. — Knutsford (J.C). 
Elachista Kilmunella, Staint. Locally abundant. 

Lane. — Dutton, near Ribchester (J.B.H., Ent., xiii, 105); 
Grange district (J. H.T.); Kirkby Moss (C.S.G.). 

Ches.— Castle Mill (J.C); Prenton (C.S.G.); Pelly Pool, 

Delamere (J.W.E.). 

Elachista perplexella, Staint. Recorded from Brockholes near 

Preston (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag., ii, 160), and Grange (J.H.T.). 

Elachista subnigrella, Doug. Grange (J.H.T., J.B.H. in litt. 

and Ent. jNIo. Mag., xiii, 16). 
Elachista nigrella, Haw. Recorded from Liverpool district 
(C.S.G.); Preston (J.H.T.); Grange (J. B.H.), and Rock Ferry 
(J.F.B.). It used to be common in Ullet Road, Liverpool. 
Elachista Gregsoni, Staint. First described (Ent. Ann., 1855,70) 
by Stainton from specimens taken by Gregson on the cinder- 
path leading from Edge Lane to Church Road, Stanley. 
Elachista Bedellella, Sircom. Recorded only from North Lan- 
cashire. Grange (Humphrey Head), by Hodgkinson (m litt. 
and Ent. Mo. Mag., vii, 87). 
Elachista humilis, Zett. Recorded by J. B. Hodgkinson from 
W'lldbottoms, near Preston (Ent. Mo. Mag., ii, 160), and by 
Brockholes from Rock Ferry. 
Elachista obscurella, Staint. = subobscurella, Doub. Local. 
Lane. — Preston, common (J.H.T. ). 

Ches. — Dunham Park (J.C); Cheshire sand-hills (C.S.G.); 
Wirral (J.F.B.). 
Elachista megerlella, Staint. Local. 

Lane. — Grange (J.B.H.); Preston (J.H.T.) ; Manchester 
(Staint. Man., ii, 409). 

Ches. — Between Seacombe and Liscard (C.S.G.); Rock 
Ferry (J.F.B.). 
Elachista adscitella, Staint. Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Elachista taeniatella, Staint. Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T., Ent., xii, 

87 and in litt.). 
Elachista gangabella, Z. Grange (J.B.H.). 
Elachista zonariella, Tgstr. Preston (J.H.T.). 

Naturalist, 



J. W. ELLIS: LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 77 

Elachista cerusella, Hiib. Local, being recorded from Grange 
(J.B.H.); Preston, common (J.H.T.); and the Lancashire 
mosses, on wet parts (C.S.G.). 

Elachista rhynchosporella, Staint. On the mosses, where it 

feeds in cotton grass. 
Elachista biatomella, Staint. Local. 

Lane— Grange (J.K.H., J.H.T.) and Silverdale (J.H.T.). 
Ches.— Bidston Hill and New Brighton (C.S.G.). 
Elachista pollinariella, Z. Grange (J.H.T.). 
Elachista serricornis, Logan. Pilling Moss (J.B.H.). 
Elachista rufocinerea, Haw. Al)undant everywhere. 
Elachista triatomea, Haw. Recorded from Morecambe (J.H.T.) 

and Bidston Hill and New Brighton (C.S.G.). 
Elachista dispunctella, Dup. Grange (J.H.T., J.B.H.). 
Elachista argentella, Clerck. ^cygnipennella, Hiib. Abundant 

everywhere. 
Elachista subalbidella, Schlg. = ochreella, Staint. Recorded 

from Pilling Moss (J.B.H.); Bidston Marsh (J.F.B.); and 

Bidston, three specimens only (C.S.G.). 

Fam. LITHOCOLLETIDAi.. 
CENOPHILA, Steph. 
CEnophila V-flavum, Haw. Ashton-on-Ribble (J.B.H.). 

LITHOCOLLETIS, Zell. 
LithocoUetis roborella, Z. Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Lithocolletis amyotella, Dup. Windermere (J.B.H.). 
LithocoUetis hortella, F. Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Lithocolletis cramerella, F. Common and generally distributed 

among oaks. 
Lithocolletis tenella, Z. Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Lithocolletis Heegerella, Z. Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Lithocolletis alniella, Z. = alnifoliella, Dup. Common wherever 
alders grow. 

Lithocolletis irradiella, Staint. Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Lithocolletis lautella, Z. Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Lithocolletis ulmifoliella, Hiib. Locally common. 

Lane— Croxteth Park (C.S.G.); Grange and Preston 

(J.H.T.); Manchester district, common (Staint. INLan., ii, 417);, 

Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Ches.— Mobberley (J.C). 

March 1S90. 



78 J. W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 

Lithocolletis spinolella, Dup. Local, being recorded only from 

Lancashire; Chat Moss (J.C.) ; Preston district (J.H.T.); 

near Simmonsvvood Moss (C.S.G.) ; Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Lithocolletis viminetorum, Staint. Local. Grange (J.H.T.); 

Liverpool district, among osiers (C.S.G.); Manchester, abundant 

(Staint. Man., ii, 417); Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Lithocolletis salicicolella, Sircom. Recorded from the Liver- 
pool district (C.S.G.) ; Longridge (J.B.H.) and Manchester 

(Staint. Man., ii, 418). 
Lithocolletis pomifoliella, Z. Abundant among Pyriis mains. 
Lithocolletis torminella, Frey. Manchester, common (Staint. 

Man., ii, 418). 
Lithocolletis spinicolella, Staint. Locally abundant. 

Lane— Preston (J.H.T.); Windermere (J.B.H.); Withington 

(J.C.) ; Manchester (Staint. Man., ii, 418). 
Ches. — Liscard (C.S.G.). 
Lithocolletis faginella, Z. Common in beech-hedges. 
Lithocolletis coryli, Nic. Local among hazel. 

Lane. — Grange and Preston (J.H.T.); Manchester (Staint. 

Man., ii, 419). 

Ches.— Knutsford (J.C); Prenton (C.S.G.) ; Wirral (J.F.B.). 
Lithocolletis Junoniella, Z. = vacciniella, Staint. Lancashire 

and Cheshire moorlands, as Button near Ribchester (J.B.H., 

Ent., xiii, 105); Longridge (J.B.H.); Staleybrushes (C.S.(i., 

Intell., 1856, 76). 
Lithocolletis quinqueguttella, Staint. A coast species, feeding 

on the dwarf sallow on the sand-hills at Lytham (J.B.H., J.H.T.) 

and Wallasey (C.S.G., J.F.B.). 
Lithocolletis quercifoliella, Z. Common in oak woods. 
Lithocolletis messaniella, Z. Among oaks, but not so common 

as the preceding. Recorded from Agecroft, near Manchester 

(J.C.) ; Liverpool : Aigburth Road and Edge Lane, among 

evergreen oaks (C.S.G.) ; Preston (J.H.T.) ; Windermere 

(J.B.H.). 
Lithocolletis scopariella, Z. Button, near Ribchester (J.B.H., 

Ent., xiii, 105). 
Lithocolletis ulicicolella, Staint. Local among gorse. 
Lane— Fleetwood (J.B.H.)and Stalmine (J.H.T. ). 
Ches. — Between Poulton and Wallasey (C.S.G.) ; Prenton 

and Wallasey (J.F.B.). 
Lithocolletis viminiella, Staint. Farrington and Grange (J.H.T. ) ; 

Manchester (Staint. Man., ii, 420) ; AVindermere (J.B.H.). 

Naturalist, 



J. W. ELLIS: LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 79 

Lithocolletis corylifoliella, Haw. Common among hazel. 
Lithocolletis caledoniella, Staint. Grange (J.H.T.) and Win- 
dermere (J.B.H.). Recorded also from Manchester (Staint. 
Man., ii, 421). 
Lithocolletis Nicellii, Staint. Local. Croxteth (C.S.G.); Grange 

and Preston (J.H.T.) ; Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Lithocolletis Dunningiella, Staint. Croxteth (C.S.G.); Grange 
(J.H.T., J.B.H., Ent., x, 40); Preston (J.H.T.); Windermere 
(J.B.H.). 
Lithocolletis Froehlichiella, Z. Local. 

Lane. — Grange and Preston (J.H.T.) ; Huyton Quarry 
(C.S.G.); Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Ches. — Tranmere, near Birkenhead (J.F.B.). 
Lithocolletis Stettinensis, Nic. Local, recorded from Formby 

(C.S.G.); Preston (J.H.T.); Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Lithocolletis Kleemanella, F. Formby (C.S.G.); Manchester 
(Staint. Man., li, 422); Preston (J.H.T.); Clifton Park, 
Birkenhead (J.F.B.). 
Lithocolletis schreberella, F. Preston (J.H.T.); Manchester 

(Staint. Man., ii, 422). 
Lithocolletis emberizaepennella, Bouche. Local. 

Lane. — Woods at Hale (C.S.G.); Preston, common (J.H.T.); 
Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Ches. — Eastham Wood (C.S.G.) ; Mobberley and Knutsford 
(J.C). 
Lithocolletis tristrigella, Haw. Locally abundant. 

Lane. — Cheetham Hill, Manchester (R. S. Edleston, ZooL, 
1845, 1220); Preston and Grange (J.H.T.); Prescot (C.S.G. ). 
Ches.— Bidston Hill (J.F.B.); Upton (C.S.G.). 
Lithocolletis trifasciella, Haw. Generally distributed. 

TLSCHERLA, Z. 

Tischeria complanella, Hiib. Common in oak woods. 
Tischeria marginea, Haw. Locally common. 

Lane. — Grange and Preston (J.H.T.); Manchester (Staint. 
Man., ii, 413); Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Ches.— Flaybrick Hill and Patrick Wood (C.S.G.) ; Wirral 
(J.F.B.). 
Tischeria angusticolella, Z. Manchester (Staint. Man., ii, 413)- 
Tischeria dodonaea, Heyd. Grange (J.H.T.) and Windermere 
(JJi.H.). 

March 1890. 



8o J. W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 

Fam. LYONETID.-E. 
LYONETIA, Hiib. 

Lyonetia clerkella, I- Recorded from Grange (J.B.H., Ent. Mo. 
Mag., xii, 163), Liverpool district (C.S.G.), and Silverdale 
(J.H.T.) in Lancashire, and Bowdon (J.C.) in Cheshire. 

CEMIOSTOMA, Z. 

Cemiostoma spartifoliella, Hiib. Locally common. 

Lane. — Grange and Preston (J.H.T.) ; Longridge (J.B.H.); 
Morley Green near Wilmslow (J.C.). 

Ches.— Claughton and Bidston (C.S.G.); Tranmere (J.F.B.). 
Cemiostoma Wailesella, Staint. Local. 

Lane. — Dutton near Ribchester, and Samelsbury (J.H.T.) ; 
Longridge (J.B.H.). 

Ches. — Near Mottram (Staint. Man., ii, 426). 
Cemiostoma laburnella, Staint. Locally common, among 
laburnums, but recorded only from Lancashire : Ashton (J.B.H.) ; 
Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.); Manchester district, common (J.C). 
Cemiostoma scitella, Z. Local. 

Lane— Flixton and Glazebrook (J.C); Preston, common 
(J.H.T.); Pighue Lane, near Liverpool (C.S.G.). 
Ches. — Tranmere (J.F.B.). 

BUCCULATRIX, Z. 

Bucculatrix nigricomella, Z. 

Var. aurimaculella, Staint. Recorded from Grange (J.H.T., 

J.B.H. , in Htt. and Ent. Mo. Mag., x, 40); Preston (J.H.T.); 

and Bidston (J.F.B.). 
Bucculatrix cidarella, Z. Manchester, abundant (Staint. Man., 

ii, 427). 
Bucculatrix ulmella, Z. Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.) ; Preston 

(J.H.T.); and Manchester (Staint. Man., ii, 428). 
Bucculatrix demaryella, Staint. Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Bucculatrix maritima, Staint. Fleetwood (J.B.H. in litt. and 

Ent. Mo. Mag., ix, 162); Stalmine (J.H.T.). 
Bucculatrix frangulella, Goeze. Grange (J.H.T., J.B.H., Ent. 

Mo. Mag., X, 40). 
Bucculatrix thoracella, Thunb. = hippocastanella, Dup. 

Grange (J.B.H.); Manchester (Staint. Man., ii. 429). 
Bucculatrix cristatella, Z. Grange (J.B.H.). 

Naturalist, 



J. W. ELLIS: LANXWSHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 8[ 

Fani. NEPriCULID.'E. 
OPOSTEGA, Z. 

Opostega saliciella, Tr. Recorded from Barton Moss (J.C.) and 

Preston (J.B.H.). 
Opostega crepusculella, Z. Grange and Preston (J.B.H., 

J.H.T.); Bidston (C.S.G.). 

TRIFURCULA, Z. 

Trifurcula pallidella, Z. Recorded only from Button near Rib- 
chester (J.H.T., J.B.H. in litt. and Ent, xiii, 105). 

Trifurcula immundella, Z. Recorded from Button (J.B.H.) ; 
Lytham and Rivington (J.H.T.). 

NEPTICULA, Z. 

Nepticula pomella, Vaughan. Preston, Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Nepticula pygmaeella, Haw. 

Lane— Grange (J.B.H.); Liverpool district (C.S.G.); Preston 

(J.H.T.). 

Ches.— Bowdon (R.S.E.).* 
Nepticula ruficapitella, Haw. 

Lane— Preston (J.H.T.); Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Ches. — Bowdon (R.S.E.) ; lane leading from Bromborough 

to Eastham, on oaks (C.S.G.). 
Nepticula tiliae, Frey. Grange (J.B.H.). 
Nepticula anomalella, Goeze. Recorded from Bowdon (R.S.E.) ; 

Grange (J.B.H.); Preston (J.H.T.) ; and the Liverpool district 

(C.S.G.). 
Nepticula viscerella, Staint. Bowdon (R.S.E.). 
Nepticula aucupariae, Frey. Bowdon (R.S.E.) ; Grange (J.H.T.) ; 

and Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Nepticula minusculella, H.S. Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T). 
Nepticula oxyacanthella, Staint. Bowdon (R.S.E.) ; Grange 

(J.B.H.); Preston (J.H.T.) ; Tranmere (J.F.B.). 
Nepticula desperatella, Frey. Grange (J.H.T); Windermere 

(J.B.H.). 

Nepticula regiella, H.S. Bowdon (R.S.E.) ; Preston (J.B.H.). 

Nepticula aeneofasciella, H.S. Grange, Lytham (J.H.T.), and 
Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Nepticula splendidissimella, H.S. Lytham (J.H.T); Winder- 
mere (J.B.H.). 

This and following records of Nepticulse at Bowdon are from a list given by 
R- S. Edleston, in the Zoologist for 1857, p. 5S27. 
March 1890. _ 



82 J. W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE TINEINA. 

Nepticula aurella, Staint. Abundant everywhere among bramble. 
Nepticula Hodgkinsoni, Staint. Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Nepticula gratiosella, Staint. Bowdon (R.S.E.) ; Preston 

(J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Nepticula ulmivora, Hein. Button (J.B.H. in litt. and P^nt., 

xiii, 105); Grange (J.H.T.). 
Nepticula prunetorum, Staint. Bowdon (R.S.E.) ; Grange 

(J.B.H.). 
Nepticula marginecolella, Staint. Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T.) ; 

(;range (J.H.T.). 
Nepticula alnetella, Staint. Bowdon (R.S.E.); Preston (J.H.T.) ; 

Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Nepticula centifoliella, Z. Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Nepticula microtheriella, Staint. Bowdon (R.S.E.); Grange 

(J.B.H.). 
Nepticula betulicola, Staint. Bowdon (R.S.E.); Grange (J.B.H. , 

J.H.T.). 
Nepticula plagicolella, Staint. Bowdon (R.S.E.); Preston and 

Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T. ). 
Nepticula ignobilella, Staint. Bowdon (R.S.E.) ; Preston 

(J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Nepticula poterii, Staint. Grange (J.B.H.). 
Nepticula glutinosae, Staint. Preston (J.H.T.); Windermere 

(J.B.H). 
Nepticula luteella, Staint. Grange and Windermere (J.B.H., 

J.H.T.). 
Nepticula SOrbi, Staint. Preston and Longridge (J.H.T.); 

Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Nepticula Woolhopiella, Staint. Grange (J.H.T.). 
Nepticula argentipedella, Z. Bowdon (R.S.E.); Grange (J.B.H., 

J.H.T.). 
Nepticula tityrella, Stamt. Bowdon (R.S.E.); Grange (J.B.H.); 

Preston (J.H.T.). 
Nepticula malella, Staint. Bowdon (R.S.E.) ; Grange district 

(J.H.T.). 
Nepticula atricollis, Staint. Bowdon (R.S.E.); Grange (J.H.T.). 
Nepticula angulifasciella, Staint. Bowdon (R.S.E.); Grange 

(J.H.T.); Preston (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Nepticula arcuatella, H.S. Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.). 
Nepticula myrtillella, Staint. ^Vindermere (J.B.H.). 
Nepticula salicis, Staint. Bowdon (R.S.E.) ; Chat :\Ioss (J.C.) ; 
Grange (J.B.H.) ; Preston (J.H.T.) ; Wirral (J.F.B.). 

Naturalist, 



J. W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE MICROPTERYGINA. 83 

Nepticula castanella, Edlest. Bowdon (J.H.T.). 

Nepticula fulgens, Staint. (irange and Preston (J.H.T.) ; 

Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Nepticula floslactella, Haw. Common everywhere. 
Nepticula lapponica, Wilk. Grange (J.H.T.); Windermere 

(J.B.H.). 
Nepticula septembrella, Staint. Bowdon (R.S.E.); Grange 

(J.B.H., J.H.T.); Silverdale (J.H.T.). 
Nepticula catharticella, Staint. Grange (J.B.H., J.H.T.); 

Silverdale (J.H.T.). 
Nepticula intimella, Z. Grange (J.B.H.). 
Nepticula Weaveri, Staint. Bowdon (R.S.E.) ; Button (J.B.H.) ; 

Staleybrushes (J.C). 
Nepticula trimaculella, Haw. Bowdon (R.S.E.) ; Teyland 

(J.H.T.). 
Nepticula sub-bimaculella, Haw. Common everywhere. 
Nepticula argyropeza, Z. Grange (J.B.H.). 
Nepticula apicella, Staint. Grange (J.B.H. ). 
Nepticula (Trifurcula) pulverosella, Staint. Button (J.B.H-); 

Grange (J.H.T.). 
Nepticula cryptella, Staint. Grange (J.B.H.). 

BOHEMANXIA, Staint. 

Bohemannia quadrimaculella, Boh. Preston (J.H.T.). 

MICROPTEKYGINA. 
MICROPTERVX, Hiib. 

Micropteryx calthella, L. Locally abundant, in flowers of 
Ranunculaccc'e. 

Lane. — Childwall (C.S.G.); Grange and Preston (J.H.T.); 
Otterspool, near Liverpool (J.W.E.); Windermere (J.B.H.); 
Withington (J.C). 

Ches. — Bromborough Wood (J.W.E.) ; Bunham Park and 
Knutsford (J.C); Patrick Wood near Bromborough, and New 
Brighton (C.S.G.). 
Micropteryx aruncella, Scop. Recorded from Bunham Park 
and Knutsford by Mr. Chappell, and Manchester, common 
(Staint. Man., ii, 302). 
Micropteryx Seppella, F. Local. 

Lane. — Grange and Preston (J.H.T.); Manchester (Staint. 
Man., ii, 303); Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Ches. — Bidston and Tranmere (J.F.B.); Knutsford (J.C); 
New Brighton (CS.G.). 

March 1890. 



84 J- W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE PTEROPHORINA. 

Micropteryx mansuetella, Z. Manchester (Staint. Man., ii, 303). 
Micropteryx aureatella, Scop. =- allionella, F. Local, but 

common where it occurs. 

Lane— Chat Moss (J.C) ; Grange (J.H.T.); Windermere 

(J-B.H.). 

Ches. — Knutsford (J.C). 
Micropteryx Thunbergella, F. Local, and recorded only from 

Lancashire. Croxteth Wood, by beating hollies (C.S.G.) ; 

Grange (J.H.T., J.B.H., Ent. Mo. Mag., x, 40); Manchester 

(Staint. Man., ii, 303) ; Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Micropteryx Sparmanella, Bosc. Local, and not recorded 

from Cheshire. Grange (J.H.T.) ; Manchester (Staint. Man.^ 

ii, 304); Simmonsvvood Moss (C.S.G.) ; Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Micropteryx subpurpurella, Haw. Local, but abundant where 

it occurs. 

Lane. — Chat Moss and Prestwich (J.C.) ; Grange and 

Preston (J.H.T.) ; Windermere (J.B.H.). 

Ches. — Dunham Park (J.C.) ; lane leading from Brom- 

borough to Eastham AVood (C.S.G., J.W.E.); AVirral (J.F.B.). 
Micropteryx unimaculella, Zett. Local. 

Lane. — Chat Moss (J.C); Lancashire mosses (C.S.G.);; 

Windermere (J.B.H.); Withnell (J.H.T.). 

Ches. — Abundant in Delamere Forest (C.S.G., Ent., vi, 453). 
Micropteryx semipurpurella, Steph. Local; recorded only 

from Lancashire. Chat Moss (J.C); Grange (J.H.T.); Lan- 
cashire mosses (C.S.G.); Windermere (J.B.H.). 
Micropteryx purpurella, Haw. On the mosses, recorded by 

R. S. Edleston from Coppy Wood near Middleton (ZooL, ii,. 

735); by C S. Gregson from the Lancashire mosses; and in 

Stainton's Manual (ii, 303) from the Manchester district. 

PTEROPHORI NA. 
PLATYPTILIA, Hub. 

Platyptilia ochrodactyla, Hlib. Local. 

Lane. — Bedford Leigh (J.C) ; banks of the Alt and at Hale- 
(C.S.G.); Manchester (Staint. Man., ii, 440); Grange (J.B.H.); 
Pendlebury (R. S. Edleston, Zool., 1845, 1220). 

Ches.— Bromborough Pool (C.S.G.); Wirral (J.F.B.). 
Platyptilia Bertrami, Rossi. Recorded by J. B. Hodgkinson 

from Button near Ribchester (Ent., xiii, 105), and Grange. 
Platyptilia gonodactyla, Schiff. = trigonodactyla, Staint. 
Common and generally distributed among coltst'oot. 

Naturalist. 



J. W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE PTEROPHORINA. 85 

AMHLVl'TILIA, Hiib. 

Amblyptilia acanthodactyla, Hub. Recorded from Lancashire 
only. Dutton (J.B.H., Ent., xiii, 105); Grange (J.]].H.); 
Hale Marsh (C.S.G.). 

Amblyptilia cosmodactyla, Hiib. = punctidactyla, Haw. Local. 
Lane— Hale (C.S.G.). 
Ches.— Bidston and Traninere (J.F.B.) ; Claughton (C.S.G.). 

OXVPTILUS, Z. 

Oxyptilus hieracii, Z. Recorded only from Bidston near 

Birkenhead by J. F. Brockholes. 
Oxyptilus teucrii, Greening. Delamere (J.B.H.). 

Oxyptilus parvidactylus, Haw. - microdactylus, Steph. 
Recorded only from Grange (J.B.H.). 

MI.M.KSOPTILUS, Wallgr. 

Mimaesoptilus serotinus, Z. = bipunctidactylus, Haw. Local. 
Lane— Grange (J.B.H.) : Kenyon (J.C); Manchester 
(Staint. Man., ii, 442). 

Ches.— Knutsford (J.C); New Brighton (C.S.G.); Wallasey 
sanddiills {J.F.B.). 

Mimaesoptilus zophodactylus, Dup. = Loewii, Z. The only 
recorded capture of this species in Britain was at Southport by 
Gregson, a single specimen in August 1857, and recorded in 
the Zoologist for 1857, 5855. 

Mimaesoptilus plagiodactylus, Staint. Recorded from Grange 
(J.B.H.) ; Manchester (Staint. -ALan., ii, 442); and Knutsford 
(J.C). 

Mimaesoptilus Hodgkinsoni, (hegson. Grange (J.B.H.). 

Mimaesoptilus pterodactylus, L. = fuscus, Retz. Locally 
common. 

Lane— Grange (J.B.H.); Pendlebury (R. S. Edleston, Zool., 
1845, 1220); Warbreck Moor (C.S.G.). 

Ches.— Dunham Park (J.C); Wallasey sanddiills (J.F.B., 
J.W.E.). 

n:DKMATOriIORUS, Wallgr. 

CEdematophorus lithodactylus, Tr. Grange (J.B.H., Ent., x, 
40) and ALmchester (Staint. ALin. ii, 443). 

PTEROPHORUS, Wallgr. 

Pterophorus monodactylus, L. = pterodactylus, Hiib. 
Re corded from Grange (J.B.H.) and Wirral (J.F.B.). 

March 1890. 



86 J. W. ELLIS : LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE ALUCITINA. 

LEIOPTILUS, Wallgr. 

Leioptilus tephradactylus, Hiib. Grange (J. B.H.); Manchester 

(Staint. Man., ii, 443). 
Leioptilus microdactylus, Hiib. Grange (J.B.H.). 

ACIPTILIA, Hiib. 

Aciptilia tetradactyla, L. Grange (J.B.H.). 
Aciptilia pentadactyla, L. Common, but local. 

Lane. — Grange (J.B.H.) ; Irlam, Patricroft, and Withington 
(J.C.). 

Ches. — Wallasey and Tranmere (J.F.B., C.S.G.) ; Liscard 
(J.W.E.). 

ALUCITINA. 
ALUCITA, Z. 

Alucita hexadactyla, 1.. = polydactyla, Hiib. Local among 
honey-suckle in Cheshire ; Bovvdon, Knutsford, and Mobberley 
(J.C.); Delamere Forest (J.B.H.) ; Eastham Wood (J.W.E.) ; 
Wirral (J.F.B.). 



SUMMARY, 



Sub-Orders. 


Total 
British 
Species.' 


Number 
recorded 
for Lanca- 
shire and 
Cheshire. 


Per- 
centage. 


Rhopalocera 

Heterocera — 

Sphiugiiia 

Bombycina 

Koctitiua (including Deltoides) 

Geonietriiia 

Pyralidina and Cranibina ... 

Tortricina 

Tineina... 

Alicroptcrygina... 

Pterophorina and Ahicitina ... 

Total 


65 

39 
III 

324 
279 
161 

343 

708 

12 

37 


47 

25 

66 

223 

204 

86 

209 

465 

II 

20 


72 
64 

59 
68 

73 
53 
61 

65 
91 
54 

65 


2079 


1356 



^" 'The Entomologist' sj-nonymic list of British Lepidoptera, by Richard South, F.E.S.^ 
(18S4), which offers the nearest approach to the classification adopted in the preceding pages, viz.: 
for the Macro-Lepidoptera, that of W. F. Kirby (European Butterflies and Moths) ; and for the 
Micro-Lepidoptera, that of Wocke (Catalog der Lepidopteren des Europaischen Faunengebiets). 

Naturalist, 



87 
LUDVIG KLEIN ON THE GENUS VOLVOX. 



l',v THOMAS hick:, B.A., B.Sc. 
Demonstrator and Assistant Lecturer in Botany, Owens ColUg^e, Manchester. 



The interest in Volvox is truly perennial. From the time of 
Leeuvvenhoek, who first described it nearly 200 years ago (1699), 't 
has never lacked admirers among microscopists, and has again and 
again been the subject of investigation by biologists, both from the 
botanical and the zoological side. To say nothing of many others, 
the names of Ehrenberg, Williamson, Busk, Cohn, Stein, Butschli, 
and Wills, are honourably remembered in connection with Volvox, 
and to them we are indebted for much of the knowledge we now 
possess of the structure and life-history of this remarkable plant. 

Quite recently, however, Klein has undertaken a reinvestigation 
of Volvox from the morphological and the biological standpoints, 
and in a rec^t issue of Pringsheim's Jahrbucher (Zwanzigster Band, 
Zweites Heft) has published the results of his researches, accom- 
panied by a searching criticism of the descriptions and statements of 
previous writers on the subject. The whole paper is well deserving 
of careful study on the part of botanists and others, and may be 
strongly commended to their notice for its completeness, for the new 
and important facts which it brings to light, and for the admirable 
way in which the contradictory and inconsistent statements current 
in the literature are either harmonised or corrected. But there are 
certain portions of it to which the special attention of the botanical 
readers of ' The Naturalist ' may be directed, and that with an object 
which will be apparent later on. These are the paragraphs that 
refer to the habitat of Volvox, the distinctive characters of the 
species, and the seasonal duration of the sexual and asexual colonies. 
On all these points our knowledge has hitherto been extremely im- 
perfect, and not the least merit of Klein's paper is the fulness with 
which they are dealt with. 

Habitat. — Under this head it will be convenient to include the 
whole of the influences of the immediate environment as expressed 
in the vertical range, the physical features of the locality, the 
associated flora and fauna, and the meteorological conditions. 

Klein found one or both species of Volvox in pools in the plain 
of the Rhine, and also in what he describes as stagnant old waters of 
the Rhine. By these latter it may be presumed he means the Rhine 
waters left behind in the shallows after an overflow. But he never 

March 1890. 



88 HICK : KLEIN ON THE GENUS VOLVOX. 

met with either species in the pools and turf waters of the more 
elevated regions of the Black Forest, i.e., at a height ranging from 
900 to 1,300 metres. 

My own experience of the British species, though limited, is 
in accordance with this. The localities in which my captures of 
Volvox have been most abundant are : — Rawclifife near Goole, 
Askham Bog near York, pools in the neighbourhood of Wetherby, 
and — if I mistake not — Strensall Common — all low-lying and in the 
region of the plains. On the south side of Manchester, where I am 
now located, similar physical conditions prevail, and Volvox is of 
common occurrence. 

The well-being of Volvox is of necessity affected by the plants 
and animals associated with it. The statement has been made that 
it thrives in company with Lemna, but Klein was not able to confirm 
this. He found it diminish in quantity as the Lemna increased, and 
the development was most abundant in pools where Lemna was 
absent, although Sphagnum^ Vaiuheria, Conferva, Callitriche, Alisma, 
and even Eqtdsetum limosuin, Utn'cnlaria, and Chara were present. 
With him it flourished best along with such filamentous Algae as 
Conferva, Mesocarpus, and CEdogoniiim, and with only a few aquatic 
animals. Among the latter are several which feed on Volvox, and 
if these are present it speedily disappears. Small crustaceans, he 
says, are particularly destructive ; but in addition to these he points 
to young Miller's Thumbs, and probably pond snails, as enemies of 
Volvox. Elodea canadensis, like Lemna, seems to be adverse to the 
well-being of Volvox when abundant, probably because it, too, pre- 
vents the access of light on which Volvox is so dependent. 

Warm sunny days were found favourable to the development of 
Volvox, while continued wet caused it to disappear almost entirely. 
Here again my experience accords with this, and suggests further 
that wind unfavourably affects Volvox, either directly or indirecdy. 

Specific Distinctions. — Into the confusion which has hitherto 
prevailed on the question of specific distinctions, Klein has intro- 
duced something like law and order, and it is now possible to 
formulate with some precision the characters of two species of 
Volvox. 

Looking back in the light of the results he has obtained by his 
own researches, he finds that the form described by Leeuwenhoek 
was the true Volvox globator, while the Volvox globator of Linnaeus 
was a collective species. Ehrenberg accepted this name and gave it 
a legitimate position by his careful descriptions and figures. Under 
it, however, he appears to have confounded the vegetative colonies 
of two species, and he accorded it an asexual mode of repro- 



HICK : KLEIN ON THE GENUS VOLVOX. 89 

(luction only. His Volvcx stellatus, with echinulate oospores, was 
merely the female colony of V. globator^ and his Volvox aureus, with 
smooth oospores, the corresponding colony of another species, whose 
male colonies he regarded as generically distinct and named 
Sphierosira volvox. In 1854 Stein recognised the distinctness of 
tlie species with smooth oospores and named it Volvox minor, while 
Cohn proposed the name of Volvox monoicus for Ehrenberg's 
V. glcbalor, and V. dioicus for Stein's V. minor, being inclined to 
regard both as sub-species of the old Linna^an Voh'ox globator. 
Subsequently (1882), Drude cleared up the somewhat entangled 
synonymy of these two species of Volvox, and sustained the claims 
of Volvox aureus to stand as the name of the second species against 
the later designations of Stein and Cohn. In the paper under 
consideration Klein follows Drude in naming these forms of A^olvox, 
V. globator and V. aureus respectively, and furnishes sufficient 
details of the structure and life-cycle of each to enable us to see in 
what respects they agree and differ respectively. 

Selecting what appear to be the most obvious and most pro- 
nounced characters, the diagnosis of each species will run as follows : 
Volvox globator Ehr. Volvox monoicus Cohn. 

Colonies : Asexual, globular ; Sexual, oval ; usually larger than 

those of V. aureus. 
Protoplasts : Angular in the surface view and irregularly pro- 
duced at the angles ; smaller and more numerous than 
those of V. aureus ; contractile vacuoles 2-6, usually 4. 
Connecting threads or processes : not sharply distinguished from 
the protoplasts ; much thicker than the cilia. 
Volvox aureus Ehr. Volvox minor Stein ; Volvox dioicus Cohn. 
Colonies : Asexual, globular ; Female, globular*; Male, oval ; 

Female usually smaller than those of V. globator. 

Protoplasts : Nearly or quite circular in the surface view; fewer 

than in V. globator, but larger in size ; contractile vacuoles 2. 

Connecting threads or processes; sharply distinguished from the 

protoplasts ; as fine as the cilia. 

The connecting threads or processes here referred to are the 

strands of protoplasm which connect the protoplasts of the individual 

cells. In V. globator they are mere continuations of the processes 

of the protoplasts, and are comparatively stout ; in V. aureus, whose 

protoplasts are devoid of such processes, they^arise from the surface 

and are extremely fine filaments. Klein has raised again the 

question as to whether these threads are continuous, bringing the 



* In Spring a few are oval, and have a small nipple at the posterior end. 
March 1890. 



90 HICK : KLEIN ON THE GENUS VOLVOX. 

protoplasts into physical connection with one another, or whether 
they are interrupted midway by a ' middle lamella.' He pronounces 
in favour of the latter view, without, however, contending that such 
a condition obtains in all cases without exception. My own obser- 
vations long ago led me to the conclusion that the threads were 
continuous, and so far a re-examination of my preparations and of 
fresh material has only confirmed me therein. But Klein appears 
to hold strongly to his view of the state of affairs, and in the face of 
this it would be unwise to insist upon a contrary view until a further 
investigation has been made, and his methods of treatment have 
been tested. 

It will be noticed that in the above diagnosis the monoecious 
and dioecious conditions are not mentioned, whereas by Cohn they 
were emphasised and utilised as important specific distinctions. 
Klein, however, shows that they are not so constant as has been 
supposed, and that parthenogonidia, antheridia, and oogonia may 
occur in nearly all possible combinations, either simultaneously or 
successively. 

Seasonal Duration of the Various Colonies. — Stein and 
Cohn interpreted the life-cycle of Volvox as an alternation of 
generations, the asexual colonies occurring first and for a long period, 
and the sexual ones later on, or on the drying-up of the pond. 
Klein finds, however, that the relations of the various colonies are 
much more complicated than this interpretation would lead us to 
expect. In Volvox aureus ase.xual propagation goes on abundantly 
in the early spring, but soon dioecious sexual colonies make their 
appearance, and the normal alternation is completed. But while 
this occurs in a part of the asexual series, the rest continue to 
multiply asexually into the summer, and form what Klein, for 
brevity, names the summer series. When subsequently sexual repro- 
duction occurs in this series, the distinction between sexual and 
asexual colonies appears to be partially or entirely lost. The history 
of this summer series, combined with that of the earlier one, leads 
Klein to the conclusion that in Volvox aureus the alternation of 
generations occurs in three ways : a normal typical one, in which the 
asexual generations are followed by dicecious and pure sexual 
colonies, and two others which he considers as phenomena of 
adaptation. In one of the latter the series of asexual colonies is 
followed by dioecious sexual ones, but the males are not pure, seeing 
that, besides antheridia, they contain parthenogenetically produced 
daughter colonies. In the third form of alternation the asexual 
generations are followed by sexual viomxcious colonies which are 
firoterogynous. Into the further complications which occasionally 

Naturalist, 



HICK : KLEIN ON IHE GENUS VOLVOX. 91 

occur in these three groups of alternating generations he does not 
enter, regarding them as exceptional ; but he emphasises the fact that 
sexual activity is uninterrupted from March to November. 

With regard to Volvox g/obafor, his own observations and those 
of others, lead Klein to the conclusion that this species also probably 
possesses more complicated sexual relationships than is generally 
supposed, and these seem to be connected in some way with the 
time of the year. He observed oospores in May and June, 
Falkenberg at the end of June, Stein in August, and Cohn, as well 
as Klein himself, in October and November. It would seem, too, 
that the moncecism of this species is occasionally lost, and that 
colonies occasionally become proterandrous, and others perhaps 
proterogynous. Other departures from the usual development are 
also mentioned, but these need not detain us, and we will only add 
that asexual and sexual colonies planted by Klein in May remained 
sterile during the whole summer, and only formed the second 
generation of oogonia at the beginning of November. 

Reflecting on the facts adduced by Klein on the points dealt 
with in the preceding paragraphs, I have been impressed with the 
smallness and indefiniteness of the knowledge we possess of the 
biology of the British forms of Volvox, as also with the fact that 
English writers seldom distinguish the species met with. In the 
course of my own experience I have seldom gathered the true 
Volvox globator as now defined by Klein, and most of the speci- 
mens gathered by others that have come under my notice have been 
Volvox aureus. Moreover, so far as I am aware, little attention has 
been paid in this country to the seasonal succession and duration of 
the various colonies and generations, and the physical and meteoro- 
logical conditions under which they occur. This being so, may 
I suggest to the botanical readers of 'The Naturalist' the desirability 
of collecting data with a view to extending our knowledge on these 
matters? I have myself taken up the subject in the district round 
Manchester, and have already obtained valuable assistance in the 
work. As, however, the observations cannot be too widely spread, 
either personally or territorially, it would be an advantage to have 
the co-operation of Yorkshire botanists, so that the results which we 
may hope to obtain may be applicable to the two great counties of 
Yorkshire and Lancashire, if not to a still wider area. Though 
hardly necessary, it may be well to add that those who act upon the 
above suggestion should note, among other details, the species of 
Volvox they collect, the associated flora and fauna, the nature, 
surroundings, and elevation of the pond, and the state of the 
weather, wind, etc., at the time of collection. 

]March 1890. 



92 



THE 
TREE SPARROW IN THE LAKE DISTRICT. 

Rev. H. a. MACPHERSON, INI. A., M.B.O.U., Etc., 
A tithor of the ' Visitation of Pallas s Sand-Groiisc to Scotland' etc. 



Mr. Whitlock is no doubt right in his suggestion that the Tree 
Sparrow is a scarce bird in the North of England ; or at least in the 
North-West of England, for which district alone I am responsible. 
In Cumberland it occurs very sparingly, even in the winter months, 
when it is chiefly noticed; as in January 1890, when, of five hundred 
Sparrows caught for shooting matches near Carlisle, three birds 
proved to be identical with tliis species. I have seen it breeding 
near Howtown ; Mr. Duckworth found it nesting near Kirkoswald, 
and a third colony exists on our coast ; but I cannot name with 
certainty any locality for its breeding in Westmorland, or in the 
adjacent district of Furness. Many years ago I found it nesting in 
an old wall at Fontainebleau ; and anyone who visits the Paris Bird 
Market in the month of June will find youiig birds of this species 
and the House Sparrow in nearly equal numbers, young feathered 
chicks being offered for half a franc a piece by the enterprising bird 
merchants. Such, at least, was my experience. Some ten years ago 
we used to find the Tree Sparrow nesting in pollard willows near 
Oxford ; and there I noticed a point which Mr. Whitlock has not 
discussed, viz., that this species is apt to flock with Greenfinches 
{Lii^iiriiiiis chloris) and other small birds in the autumn months. 
Mr. Whitlock does not allude, either, to this species fraternising with 
the House Sparrow ; but where the two species breed in proximity, 
individuals will be found to seek the company of the other species. 
A very charming colony of Tree Sparrows, perhaps the strongest of 
the half-a-dozen colonies that we know to exist in the Western 
Highlands, frequents a ruined chapel, the shrine of St. Donan, in the 
island of Eigg. Since it was noticed by Mr. W. Evans, in 1884, it has 
been strictly protected by my relatives as they are proud of their 
Tree Sparrows. I visited the birds in 1885 and 1886, and found 
them on good terms with the House Sparrows ; I have a note, for 
instance, of spending twenty minutes in quietly watching a party of 
five Tree Sparrows nesting in a thatched roof; the centre of the 
party was a lively House Sparrow, which seemed to enjoy the com- 
pany of his neighbours amazingly. Whether the two species inter- 
breed in a wild state, I cannot positively say. I saw, in Eigg, one 
bird that might be a hybrid ; on the Rhine I once met with a bird 
that I felt quite satisfied was a half-breed, but the day being a 

Naturalist, 



MACPHERSON : TREE SPARROW IN THE LAKE DISTRICT, 93 

Sunday, I had left my gun at home, and could only scruthiise him 
through a glass. Bechstein long ago stated that, iti captivity, the 
two species interbreed. In 1880 a male House Sparrow paired with 
a female Tree Sparrow in an aviary at the Zoological Gardens, but 
their eggs proved unfertile. Such was usually the ex[)erience of 
Mr. Otty, of Norwich, who eventually succeeded in obtaining a fine 
hybrid between the two species. At Mr. Gurney's kind suggestion, 
I examined this interesting bird at Norwich, August 26th, 1887. 
It showed much of the Tree Sparrow in its plumage, and also in its 
actions, but the shape seemed to correspond closely with that of the 
House Sparrow. But to return to the wild Tree Sparrow. I observe 
that Mr. Whitlock says nothing about the song of the species. In 
1884, Mr. Whitaker recorded, in the 'Zoologist,' his first experience 
of the song of the Tree Sparrow (Zoo)., 1884, p. 232). But, long 
before our time, the late Edward Blyth drew attention to the song of 
the Tree Sparrow, remarking that the Tree Sparrow, like the common 
species, has a great variety of chirrups, one of which is peculiarly 
musical and sweet, and may be rendered ' pee-cu-weep.' Its proper 
song, he says, consists of a number of these chirps, intermixed with 
some pleasing notes, delivered in a continuous strain, sometimes for 
many minutes together (cf. Mag. Nat. Hist., vii. p. 487). Now, having 
kept Tree Sparrows in confinement, I know their notes tolerably 
well, and found that in captivity the males sang from March onwards. 
In 1885 I listened to one of the wild Tree Sparrows in Eigg, singing 
merrily, on the ist of July, when the earlier broods were strong on 
the wing. This seemed late. But in 1881 I heard and saw a male 
Tree Sparrow singing the full song of the species, in a fruit tree that 
grew in a road-side orchard near Montreux, in Septemlier. I believe 
that this is the first record of the Tree Sparrow singing in autumn. 
I, at all events, have not drawn the attention of any but my friends 
to the fact previously. I do not wish to discuss the variety of situa- 
tions selected as breeding-quarters by the Tree Sparrow, and ranging 
from the chalk cliffs of Kent to the pollard willows of the Thames, 
and the old ruins and stone walls affected in the north, with much 
besides. But there is just one other ])oint that may interest 
Mr. Whitlock, to whom we are so much indebted for his admirable 
paper. Some years ago, when I kept a large number of British birds 
m confinement, it used to interest us to allow our birds to range 
about our rooms. But I found that Tree Sparrows, if liberated from 
their cages, not only flew directly for the nearest window panes, with 
great swiftness and force, but that they almost always lamed them- 
selves in so doing. Other birds also flew at times against the panes, 
and sometimes killed themselves, as occurred to two light Goldfinch 

March 1890. 



94 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

and Canary Mules, which we valued and were sorry to lose ; but 
these did not lame their legs in any instance, while the Tree Sparrows 
constantly did so. I could only explain the apparent anomaly by 
supposing that, in flight, the Tree Sparrow carries the legs more 
extended, and further from the body, than most other birds. 

Allow me to say, in conclusion, that I shall be glad if any readers 
of ' The Naturalist ' can assist me in discovering any new breeding- 
stations of the Tree Sparrow during their summer excursions through 
the English Lake District. It is difficult for any one person to work 
a faunal area without a little assistance from without ; and to acknow- 
ledge assistance received is always a pleasurable duty. 

February is/, 1890. 

jVO TE—HYMENOPTERA . 

Sirex juvencus near Alford, Lines. — At Tothill, near Alford, Miss Susan 
Allett took a female of this species on the i8th September, 1889. The specimen 
is now in my possession. — Jas. Eardley Mason, 14th February, 1890. 



NOTE—AIOLL USCA . 

Trent Shells. — Among a large number of shells obtained last year from sand 
dredged from the river Trent above Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, I have found the 
following species and varieties: — Cyclas rivicola, Palitdiiia vivipara, Aiiodcnta 
lygiiea, A. anatiiia, Unio pictoriim, with varieties rostrata and curvirostris, 
U. tumidus. with vars. radiata and arcitata. There are also several varieties 
apparently unnamed as British. — George Roberts, Lofthouse, Feb. 19th, 1890. 

NOTES— BIRDS. 

Great Grey Shrike at Middleton, Leeds. — Miss Maude, of Middleton 
Lodge, sent to me for identification a specimen of Laniiis cxcnhitor, picked up 
dead, though warm, in Middleton Wood, three and half miles south of Leeds 
Bridge (and only just outside the Borough boundary), on the 17th inst. It is 
a female (by dissection), and has the single white bar of var. Z. major on the 
primaries. — Edgar R. ^YAITE, The ^Museum, Leeds, 24th Jan., 1890. 

Red-throated Diver at Alford, Lines, — Mr. J.'^s. Eardley Mason sent to 
the Museum, through Mr. Roebuck, a specimen of this bird (Co/yiiil'iis scpteiitrio- 
iia/is). It is in full winter plumage, and when dissecting I found it to be a female. 
Mr. Alason informs me that it was taken alive by a farm labourer in a turnip-field, 
on the 27th December last, at Alford, seven miles from the sea. — Edgar R. 
Waite, The Museum, Leeds, 13th January, 1890. 



NOTE—AfOSSES. 

Grimmia torquata Hornsch. in fruit. — This moss, of which the fruit has 
hitherto been unknown, is now reported (Revue Bryologique, No. I, 1890, p. 16) 
to have been found fruiting freely in the mountains of Northern Idaho, U.S.A., 
at an altitude of 6,000 ft., by Mr. J. B. Leiberg, in March of last year (1889). 
This is the Gr. iorta Nees. of Wilson's Bryologia, and it will be interesting to be 
assured that this is really the true fruit, though it is not described, as Dr. Brail h- 
waite says (Mo.-s Flora, vol. ii. p. 15) that 'the supposed fertile specimen of 
Leibman was due to capsules o{ Aiitphoridhiin Lappoiiiaiin growing intermi.xtcl.' 
Mr. Leiberg also claims to have found the rarely-fruiting Gr. Harttiiani Schp. in 
the same locality in fruit. British Bryologists look out !— C. P. Hobki rk. 

Naturalist, 



95 



THE DOTTEREL IN YORKSHIRE. 



Rev. H. a. MACPHERSON, M.A., M.B.O.U., Etc., 
Aittlior of the ' Visitation o/ Pallas's Sand-Grouse to Scotland,' etc. 

Although the late Dr. Heysham examined eggs of the Dotterel 
{Eudnvnias /norinellus) taken on a mountain in the north-west of 
England in the year 1784, the fact of their identity was not recorded 
in print until long after ; and hence, although Dotterel visited the 
mountains and marshes of the North of England in comparatively 
large numbers during the early years of the present century, yet the 
question whether the species really I'red south of the Scottish 
border was actively canvassed by Yarrell and some of his con- 
temporary ornithologists. It naturally fell to the lot of tiie late 
T. C. Heysham, then the most prominent ornithologist in the North 
of England (for Mr. Hancock was young, and Hewitson had not 
yet made his reputation), to investigate the question and to solve the 
mystery that hung round the movements of the Dotterel among the 
mountains of the North. I do not propose on the present occasion 
to discuss the question afresh, but only to quote one or two letters 
relating to Dotterel in Yorkshire, in the belief that even these meagre 
chronicles of the bird may be of interest to some, since upwards of 
sixty years have elapsed since they were first penned. 

The first letter is that of a Mr. John Brown, written in answer to 
Heysham's inquiries, and dated from Marble Mills, Stone House, 
Dent, July 15th, 1831. It runs thus : — 

'Sir, — I am sorry to say, in reply to your favour of the 12th inst., 
that your application for eggs of the Dotterel is at least one month 
too late. The birds have nearly all left the hills. But have you not 
made a mistake? I think it possible that in the hurry of writing 
you have said eggs instead of skins. Great numbers of these are 
preserved and sold to anglers, but I am told that the eggs are seldom 
taken. If you wish to have a icw skins, pray inform me, and I will 
send you some. Late in the season as it is for these birds to be on 
the hills, and it is unusual for them to remain so long, I believe 
I can yet procure two or three fresh ones.' 

The following year we find Heysham applying to John Robinson 
of Stone House, Dent, on the i6th of May, but the letter Mas 
delayed in transit. Robinson replies : — ' I am afraid it will be out 
of my power to procure you a nest with eggs. There is some dispute 
whether they breed or not. Some are of opinion they do, others the 
contrary. I have never yet met with anybody who had found a nest. 
I called a few days ago on a man who partly makes it his business to 

March 1890. 



g6 BOOTH : natterer's bat in Yorkshire. 

look after them. He informed me that lately he shot a bird 
Dotterel [sic], which on opening he found contained an egg, which 
puts the matter out of dispute. He informs me that for the last 
four years the bird has become more plentiful, which is to be 
wondered at, considering that immediately upon its being ascertained 
that they have arrived, everyone that can raise a gun is after them. 
. . . About the 15th or i6th of last month [? May 1832], a flock of 
nine or ten arrived. One of our men shot two of them.' 

Robinson appears to have taken an active interest in assisting 
Heysham, for on the 29th of August the same year, 1832, Heysham 
received a couple of Dotterel shot on Woofell, with a note, in which 
the following passage occurs : — ■' I have been repeatedly on the 
mountains during the summer, but could never meet with any 
[Dotterel]. I think that there is little doubt that they leave us in 
the spring and return again in September, and remain a little wliile 
with us, prior to leaving our island for the winter. I would suppose 
that they [the birds despatched with the letter] are male and female 
or a young and an old bird. I am sorry one of them is hurt 
in the plumage round the neck. You will see, by the map of York- 
shire, that Woofel is very high land.' 

The foregoing is all the information relating to the Dotterel in 
Yorkshire that I have hitherto unearthed in excavating — so to speak 
— the ornithology contained in the correspondence of the late 
T. C. Heysham, placed in my hands by his relatives. Let me con- 
clude with two short passages, one relating to Norfolk, the other to 
London. In a letter written from Yarmouth on iMarch 25///, 1843, 
Mr. \V. R. Fisher informs Heysham : — ' I saw . . . two or three 
Dotterel this morning at a dealer's in Yarmouth.' In a second 
letter of April 25th, 1843, Mr. Fisher adds : ' It was Charadrius 
moriiieUus, and not the C. hiaticnla. I mentioned it, because, as you 
observe, I thought it was earlier than usual.' In a letter dated from 
Ryder Street, St. James, September 7th, 1845, Yarrell remarks to 
Heysham : ' Dotterel were more numerous last spring in the London 
markets than usual; I counted seventeen couples at the shop of one 
poulterer's at one time.' This latter incident was embodied in 
Yarrell's ' British Birds.' 



NOTE— MAMMALIA. 

Natterer's Bat at Bingley, Yorkshire. — Towards the close of last summer 
I obtained, through a friend, a specimen of a Bat from the belfry tower at Bingley, 
which I have to thank Mr. Roebuck for identifying as Vcspertilio nattereri. 
According to the Transactions of the Bradford Naturalists' Society, this makes the 
first record of this species for Airedale. — Harry B. Booth, Frizinghall, Shipley, 

February 8th, 1890. 

Naturalist, 



No. 177. 



APRIL 1890. 



R <i> 




MONTHLY JOURNAL OF %i]X 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



CONDUCTED BY 

WM. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., 

Sunny Bank, Leeds; 

WITH THE ASSISTANXE IN SIKCIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., CHAS. P. HOBKIRK, F.L.S., 

Royal Herbarium, Kew ; Dewsbury ; 

\V. EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S., M.B.O.U., GEORGE T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S., 

Museum of Science & Art, Edinburgh ; Greenfield House, Huddersfield ; 

ALFRED HARKER, M.A., F.G.S., W. BARWELL TURNER, F.C.S., F.R.RLS., 

St. John's College, Cambridge ; 38, Sholebroke Avenue, Leeds. 

§ox\tcnt5 : 

^ PAGE 

Bird-Notes from the Tees District, during the late Autumn and Winter 

months ^889-^890— Jvog^er Lqfi/iouse 978:98 

Bird-Notes from Redcar and Tees Mouth for 1889-90—7". If. Nelson, M.B.O. U. 99 & 100 
The Fossil Sturgeon of the Whitby Lias (Illustrated) — A. Smith Woodward, 

F.G.S., F.Z.S loi to 107 

The Land and Freshwater Mollusca of Ingleton, Clapham, and District — 

IV. E. CoUbige .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 10910114 

The Shorelark In Cumberland — I\ev. H. A. Mucpherson, M.A., M.B.O.U. .. 115 & n6 
In Memoriam (Samuel Arthur Adamson, F.G.S., Jcseph Edwin Gartside, 

Edward Brooke Wkigglesworth, and John Grassham) .. .. .. 11710120 

Bibliography : Geology and Palaeontology, 1888 12110128 

Notes — Botany 107,116 

Sparganium ramosum var. microcarpa — P. Fox Lee; Ceterach officinarum in 
the East Riding of Yorkshire — il/<J «/««<; B. Slater, F.L.S.; Alford 
Naturalists' Society — Jose/h Btirtt Davy. 
Note— Lepidoptera n6 

Pterophorus zophodactylus — Geo. T. Porritt, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
Note— Birds 120 

Stone-Chat at Headingley, Leeds — H. Knight Horsfield, M.B.O. U. 
Notes — Mammalia 120 

Common Seal at Coatham — T. H. Nelson, M.B.O.U.; Badger in Lincolnshire — 
yavies Eardley Mason ; Otters in the North — y. VV. Fawcett. 
Notes and News ^ 108 

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Grevillea, quarterly record of Cryptog. Bot. , No. 87, Mar. 1890. [Dr. M. C. Cooke, ed. 
S. L. Mosley. — ^History of Brit. Birds and Eggs, Part 62, coloured plates. [Author. 
Notarisia.Ann. 5, No. i7,Gennais 1890. [G.B.deTonieD.Levi-Morenos,Redattori. 
Nat. Hist. Journ., No. 119, March 15, 1890. [J. E. Clark & others. Editors, York. 
II Naturalista Siciliano, ann. 9, n. 4, Gennaio 1890. [Signor Enrico Ragusa. 

Science Gossip, No. 303, for March 1890. [Messrs. Chatto & Windus, publishers. 
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Manchester Geological Society — Trans., Vol. 20, Parts 16-17, 1890. [The Society. 
Berwickshire Naturalists' Club— Proceedings, Vol. 12, Part 2, 1888. [The Club. 
U.S. Department of Agriculture. — Bulletin, No. i, 1889. [The Department. 

Do. do. North American Fauna, Nos. i and 2, 1889. Do. 

Urban Smith — The Country Roads of England. 8vo. reprint, Jan. 1890. [Author. 
Mcintosh and Prince — Development and Life Histories of the Teleostean Food- 

and other Fishes (Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb.,Vol. 35, Part 3, No. 19. [Mr. Prince. 
YorkSchoolNat. Hist. Soc— Reports 1861-1869, i87i-i874,& i876-i889.[Society. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. Northumb., Durham, and Newcastle-on-Tyne —Guide to the 

Collections of Local Fossils in the Museum, 1889. [Mr. R. Howse, Author. 

EXCHANGE. 

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97 

BIRD-NOTES FROM THE TEES DISTRICT, 

DURING THE LATE AUTUMN AND 

WINTER MONTHS, 1889-90. 



ROGER LOFTHOUSE, 
M iddleshroiigh-on- Tecs. 



Small flocks of Dunlins {Tri/iga alpina) and Ringed Plovers 
{y£gialitis hiatiaila) frequented the mud-flats and sands at the Tees 
estuary all the summer as usual. 

The autumn migration set in about the end of July. On the 
31st, Terns were noticed, probably the Common or Arctic species 
{Sterna fluviatilis or .i". macriira). 

On the 5th of August the flocks of Dunlins and Ring Dotterels 
had increased in size, and a few Knots {Tringa canutus) were seen, 
and also two or three Sheldrakes {Tadorna cornutd). On the 17th, 
Sanderlings {Calidris arenarid) were first observed, and a mature 
bird was shot; Knots were also observed. On the 21st Sanderlings 
were more common. On the 22nd an extremely large flock of 
Arctic Terns was noticed in the early morning resting on the sands 
(they were associated with Gulls of various kinds) ; one or two were 
shot for identification. These Terns were noticed in the same 
place on several successive mornings. On the same date a Curlew 
Sandpiper {Tringa stibarqiiatd) was shot — a good specimen, and 
I heard of another being shot about the same date. On the 23rd, 
early in the morning, I fell in with a flock of about fifty Dittle Stints 
{Tringa mifmta), and shot one or two for identification ; they settled 
by the margin of a small pool close to where I happened to be 
concealed, and I had a good chance of observing their quick and 
lively movements in the shallow water as they probed their bills into 
the mud. Knots and Sanderlings were more common at this date, 
and there were immense flocks of Dunlins and Ring Dotterels and 
a good few Curlews {Nu?neniiis arquata) were about. I also noticed 
about half a dozen Duck, which I thmk were Teal, but the light at 
the time was not very good. On the 24th several Bar-tailed Godwits 
{Limosa lapponica) and Turnstones {Strepsilas interpres) were 
noticed, and two of the former shot, and one or two Common Terns 
{Sterna fluviatilis) were shot for identification in the place frequented 
by the Terns before mentioned. A small flock of Little Stints were 
also noticed, and Sanderlings were frequently seen ; this is one of 
the most restless of shore birds, being always in motion, and running 

April 1890. G 



98 LOFTHOUSE : BIRD-NOTES FROM THE TEES DISTRICT. 

at a very rapid pace for so small a bird. On the 25th I noticed 
three or four darker birds in the flock of Terns ; these were probably 
Black Terns {Hydrochelidon nigra). On this date I picked up a fine 
Turnstone in winter plumage. About the end of August 1 heard 
of two Little Stints being shot at the Durham side of the Tees 
estuary, and one at Redcar. Some Sandwich Terns {Stertia 
catitiaca) were also shot at Redcar. 

About the second week in September I noticed a flock of Terns 
about ten miles up the river, apparently Arctic or Common Terns, 
or probably both. About the 17th September an immature Ruff" 
{Machetes pugnax) was shot in Cowpen Marshes, and on the i8th 
two Spotted Crakes {Porzana maruetta). On a visit to the Tees 
Breakwater in the early morning of the i8th September, I noticed 
four or five Cormorants {Fhalacrocorax carbd) fishing on the sea side 
of the breakwater close in to the shore ; this is a favourite fishing- 
ground for Cormorants. The morning was bright and the birds 
seemed singularly large as they circled round and round, every now 
and again dashing with lightning rapidity into the seething water, 
sending the spray several feet high, and emerging again in a few 
moments. A few hours later these same birds may be seen sitting 
on the rocks opposite Huntcliffe, with their wings spread out to the 
sun to dry, and presenting a very odd and curious spectacle. 
Numbers of Gulls and a few Skuas were aliout, and we witnessed 
some very pretty chases, the latter invariably seeming to effect his 
purpose, as evidenced by his sudden drop after a severe chase, to 
intercept the fish given up by the (iulL On this same morning 
the sands between the breakwater and Redcar were alive with 
Wheatears {Saxicola cenanthe) and Pied Wagtails {Motacilla lugubris), 
particularly the former, and there was evidently a migration taking 
place overhead as well ; numbers of Larks seemed to be coming in 
from the north or north-west, and passing on inland. 

Great flocks of Lapwings ( Vanelliis vulgaris) and Starlings 
{Sturnus vulgaris) have been about this district all the winter, owing, 
I suppose, to the very open weather we have had. A Wryneck was 
shot in the district in the late autumn, and a Rose-coloured Pastor 
{Faster roseus) was shot out of a flock of Starlings at Redcar, and 
came into the hands of Mr. T. H. Nelson. Fieldfares {Turdus 
pilaris), Redwings {T. iliacus), and Hooded Crows {Corvus comix) 
have been here in their usual numbers. 

Of the Sand-Grouse {Syrrhaptes paradoxus) which favoured this 
district with their presence in some numbers during the late invasion, 
I have heard nothing lately, and I question very much whether there 
is one alive in the district. 

Naturalist, 



99 

BIRD-NOTES 
From Redcar and Tees Mouth for 1889-1890. 



THOMAS H. NKLSON, M.I5.0.U., Ere, 
Redcar. 



In continuation of my notes for 1888 ('Naturalist,' 1889, p. 81), 
I now give an account of ornithological occurrences for 1889-90. 
I have to regret that the record is of so meagre a quality, but 
perhaps the remarkably mild winter may account for the great 
scarcity of birds. 

1889. January 3rd. — Eight Swans were noticed at 10 a.m. about 
a mile out at sea, flying to the N.W. 

January 30th. — Great quantities of shore-birds were on the Tees 
sands, but they were quite unapproachable with an ordinary gun. 

February 14th. — A Green Cormorant {Phalacrocorax graculus) 
was killed in the river by a Redcar fisherman. The Shag is, in my 
experience, a rather rare bird in this district. 

February 15 th. — I purchased a Red-necked Grebe {Podiceps grisei- 
gena) in winter plumage, which had been picked up alive on the sands. 
About the end of May a Grey Plover (^Sqnatarola helvetica) in 
breeding plumage, was shot by the river Tees, near Lackenby. 
During the summer a local taxidermist had four young Haw- 
finches {Coccothraustes vulgaris) brought to him, and he is of opinion 
that they were from two different broods. Two of them (male and 
female) he reared, and they are now thriving and in good condition. 
It would not be advisable to indicate the exact locality where the nests 
were found, but I may say that it was within a mile or two of Redcar. 
August. — During the middle and latter part of this month shore- 
birds arrived in considerable numbers. About twenty Little Stints 
{Tringa ininuta) and two or three Pigmy Curlews {T. subarquata) 
were shot; two of the latter were adult birds. Knots {T. canutus) and 
Turnstones {Slrepsilas iuterptes) were also very numerous towards the 
end of the month ; two of the former with red breasts were procured. 
August 30th and for several days afterwards. Sandwich Terns 
{Sterna cantiaca) passed to the S. in small parties of three or four. 
While off in a boat E. of Redcar I shot two, both mature specimens. 
September 6th. — My friend Dr. Kershaw shot a Pigmy Curlew 
{Tringa subarquata) with partly red breast, from a flock of Dunlins 
{Tringa alpina), and on the 9th he shot an immature example of 
Bufifon's Skua {Stercorarins parasiticus). The Skua tribe was well 
represented in September, the majority being ^. crepidatus., but on 
one occasion, when sailing between Redcar and Saltburn, I noticed 

April 1890. 



lOO NELSON : BIRD-NOTES FROM REDCAR AND TEES MOUTH. 

several .5*. poniatorhiuus in adult plumage. nth. — r3uck {Anas 
boschas) and Wigeon [Mareca penelope) passed in large flocks during 
a N. E. gale ; I shot two of the latter, both immature birds. 

October 6th. — An immature example of Sabine's Gull {Xe/iia 
sabini) was shot in the Tees Bay, and came into the possession of 
a Redcar sportsman, from whom I purchased it. 12th. — N. gale, 
rain. A great flight of Ducks passed, also a few Hooded Crows 
{Corvus comix) and Woodcock (Sco/o/>ax rtisticola). Two Spotted 
Crakes {Forzana maruetla) were obtained on the marshes near 
Middlesbrough. 13th.— N. wind, light. Larks {Alaiida arvensis) 
and Hooded Crows {Corvus cortiix) crossed over in large flocks. 
A Fulmar Petrel {Fiihnarus glacialis) was captured in a rather 
extraordinary manner ; it alighted on the sea near the wreck of 
a screw-steamer on which some fishermen were working ; one of them 
put off in a small boat, armed with a piece of wood, which he threw 
at the Fulmar, hitting it on the head and stunning it. 

I examined a Peregrine Falcon {Falco peregrinus), which had 
been shot near Ingleby-in-Cleveland, and brought in to the Middles- 
brough taxidermist to preserve. 

November 23rd. — A Rose-coloured Pastor {Pastor roseus), the 
first I have known in this neighbourhood, was shot at West Coatham, 
and taken to our local bird-stufifer. 

1890. — Early in January I was informed that some Shore Larks 
{Otocorys alpestris) had been observed at the Tees mouth. On the 
29th one was shot, and I went out several times to see if I could 
fall in with them, but, although I saw a few each time, they were 
very wild and I was not successful in getting a shot ; but on 
February 14th I managed to secure six, and saw seven or eight more 
feeding among the rough grass near the shore edge. 

During the latter part of January and beginning of February 
the fishermen reported numbers of Little Auks {Mergulus alle) at 
sea. On February ist, one was picked up on the sands, it having 
been killed at sea and washed ashore. 

February 26th, 27th, and 28th. — Several Puffins {Fratercula 
arctica), Guillemots {Lomvia troile), and Little Auks {Af. alle) were 
driven ashore in a strong N.E. gale. Some of the Puffins and 
Guillemots were alive when found. February 28th. — Another Shore 
Lark {Otocorys alpestris) was shot at the Tees mouth. 

Two Great Spotted ^Voocl peckers {Deyuirocopiis major) were killed 
near Redcar in the course of the autumn ; in all probability they 
belonged to the migratory flight which has been observed from other 
stations along the coast. 

March $th, 1S90. 

Naturalist, 



THE 
FOSSIL STURGEON OF THE WHITBY LIAS. 



A. SMITH WOODWARD, F.G.S., F.Z.S., 
Of the British Museum {Xatural History), Sonih Keusittgton. 



For a long period the occurrence of large fibrous fish-bones in the 
Upper Lias of Whitby has been well known ; and these fossils, as 
pointed out by Mr. Simpson,^ are especially abundant in the bitu- 
minous shale immediately above the jet rock. So long ago as 1S43 the 
bones were submitted toAgassiz, who recorded them, without descrip- 
tion, under the name of Gyrosteus //lirabilisf and the genus they 
represented was placed among the somewhat indefinite extinct group 
of Ccelacanths. In 1858 Sir Philip Egerton'' expressed the opinion 
that the problematical remains were truly referable to a Sturgeon, 
resembling Chondrosteus from the Lower Lias of Lyme Regis ; and 
in 1876 Prof. J. F. Blake* published some desultory notes on the 
bones, without making any very satisfactory comparisons. During the 
last few years the writer of the present notice has had the privilege 
of studying nearly all known examples both of the Whitby fish and 
of its congener from Lyme Regis ; and the principal results of the 
investigation were published last year by the Geologists' Association 
of London.'^ It now appears that most of the bones can be 
interpreted by reference to those of the common living Sturgeon 
{Acipenser), with the aid also of certain known facts in the structure 
of Chondrosteus. 

Beyond the fact that the jaws were toothless and the external 
bones unornamented, little can as yet be ascertained concerning the 
head of the fish. There seems to be an example of the great basal 
{parasphenoid) membrane bone of the cranium in the Whitby 
Museum (No. 338) ; and other elements perhaps referable to the 
roof of the skull are also preserved in the same collection. The 
most characteristic and easily-recognised bone, however, is the great 
supporting element of the jaws, connecting them with the skull. 

^ M. Simpson, 'The Fossils of the Yorkshire Lias,' ed. 2, 1884, p. xiii. 

* L. Agassiz, ' Rech. Poiss. Foss.,' vol. ii, pt. ii (1843), P- I79- 
3 P. M. G. Egerton, Phil. Trans., 1858, p. 883. 

*J. F. Blake, in Tate and Blake, 'The Yorkshire Lias' (1S76), p. 256, 
pi. ii, figs. 2, 3. 

* Smith Woodward, ' On the Palaeontology of Sturgeons,' Proc. Geol. Assoc, 
vol. xi ( 1889), pp. 32-36, figs. 2-7. 

April 1890. 



I02 WOODWARD : FOSSIL STURGEON OF THE WHITBY LIAS. 

This is shown, of one-third the natural size, in the accompanying 
fig. I. It is a long bone, constricted in the middle, and with a 
triangular expansion at each extremity ; the upper portion being the 
smaller and compressed antero-posteriorly, while the large inferior 




Fig. T. Right hyomaiidibular bone of Gyrostcus mirahilis, lateral aspect (A) 
and posterior aspect (B) ; one third natural size. 



expansion is compressed from side to side. The bone agrees in 
shape exactly with the corresponding element of the living Sturgeon 
(fig. 8.;), but in the latter the greater part of the lower expansion 
remains unossified ; in Gyrosteiis, indeed, the ossification is only 

Naturalist, 



woodward: fossil sturgeon of the WHiTiiY LIAS. 103 

complete in the adult, small examples of the hyomandibular 
appearing much less extended below than the one here figured. 
Some of the parts of the hyoid arch are also bony in the Whitby fish, 
and two elements, probably to be regarded as ceratohyals, are shown, 
of one-third the natural size, in fig. 5. There is at least one large 
quadrangular bone in the gill-cover, but no branch iostegal rays have 
been observed. The gill-arches were partially-ossified rods, as in the 





Ceratohyal bones of Gyrostens luirabilis; one-third natural size. 



modern Sturgeon (fig. 8,;), these being met with as long, hour-glass- 
shaped bones, more slender than (but otherwise not unlike) the 
supposed ceratohyals just referred to. 

Of vertebrce there are no traces, and the notochord must thus 
have been persistent in Gyrostens, as in all Sturgeons. There seem, 
however, to be distinct slender ribs in a specimen in the British 
Museum ; and Prof Blake has made known some supposed neural 
arches. 

April 1890. 



I04 



WOODWARD : FOSSIL STURGEON OF THE WHITBY LIAS. 



The bones of the shoulder girdle, supporting the pectoral fins, so 
far as known, agree well in shape with those of the living Acipenser, 
only differing in the absence of all external ornamentation. The 
great clavicle is shown, of one-sixth the natural size, in fig. 3, and 




compared with the corresponding bone of the recent fish in the 
accompanying fig. 4 ; while another element, evidently the supra- 
clavicle, is represented in fig. 5. In the pectoral fin the foremost 
rays are stiff, not jointed ; and a small example of the fin in the 
collection of Mr. S. Chadwick, F.G.S., Malton Museum, seems to 

Naturalist, 



woodward: fossil STURCEON of the WHlTIiY LIAS. I05 

exhibit the minute superficial asperities so characteristic of the 
pectoral fin of Choudrosteus. The rays of the other fins appear to be 
all closely jointed, and a large portion of the tail-fin, displaying this 
character, is shown, of one-third the natural size, in fig. 6. These 
caudal fin-rays are unjointed for a short distance at their inserted 
end, but they soon become crossed by closely-arranged sutures, and 
nearer their extremities they bifurcate once or twice. 




Fig. 6. C.iudal fin-rays of Gyrosttiis mirabilis; one-third natural size. 

No scales or dermal plates are known, and the body was thus 
probably naked, as proved to be in CJiondrosteus. Indeed, the 
oblong .scales found to invest the unsymmetrical upper lobe of the 
tail in all known Sturgeons, recent and fossil, have not yet been 
recognised ; but the upper margin of the tail is bordered in the 
usual manner by a row of great saddle-shaped, imbricating scutes— 
a feature well shown in the restoration of Choudrosteus (fig. 7). 

April 1890. 



Io6 WOODWARD : FOSSIL STURGEON OF THE WHITBY LIAS. 




Naturalist, 



NOTES — BOTANY. I07 

Two small examples of this serried armour are preserved in 
Mr. Chadwick's collection at Malton ; and there are a few scutes 
from a very large tail in the York Museum. 'I'he scutes are 
bilaterally symmetrical, flattened, and taper to an acute apex, the 
largest measuring about four or five inches from this point to the 
bifurcation of the base ; they are destitute of an external layer of 
enamel, and the only traces of ornamentation are feeble rugse upon 
the exposed sides. 

Nothing is known of the external form and arrangement of the 
fins of Gyrosteus ; but it is most probable that the entire fish had 
much resemblance to the well-known Chotidrosteus (fig. 7), of which 
tolerably complete skeletons have been discovered. The typical 
species, Gyrosteus mirahilis, probably attained a length of six or 
seven metres, thus rivalling in size the most gigantic Sturgeon of the 
present day. _ 

NO TES—B OTA NY. 

Sparganium ramosum Huds. vav. microcarpa Neum. — On p. 200 of the 
' Naturalist ' (1888 Vol.) I announced the discovery in Yorkshire of this variety or 
form of the hur-reed under the name microcarpuin. In the recent issue of 
C T och C. Hartman's 'Handbok i Skandinaviens Flora,' 12th ed. (first part only 
yet" published), Neuman gives, on pp. 107-I12, a masterly account of the genus 
Sparmnitim, and states that the name of this var. is microcarta, and not inicro- 
ca,-piun, as I previously gave it, hence I now correct the mistake. Ihe plant has 
been found in Scotland, and it is put down in the Scandinavian flora as occurring 
in Gotland and Medelpad, two provinces of Sweden. In going over this l-lora 
one is struck with the similarity of our own flora and that of Scandinavia, and 
thou^^ht c-oes back to the time when the configuration of the land surfaces of 
Euro^pe was very different to those we at present know. Mr. Arthur Bennett, 
who reviewed the ' Flora of Scandinavia' in the 'Journal of Botany for December 
1889 informs me that my find near Dewsbury is the only record yet for \ orkshire 
of Sfa,xa>iiiim microcarpa. As far as I know, it has not been observed anywhere 
else in England.— P. Fox Lee, Dewsbury. 19th March, 1890. 

Ceterach officinarum in the East Riding- of Yorkshire.— I have lately 
discovered this species growing on a wall in the village of Langton. It is growing 
in a truly wild condition, and thoroughly naturalized in its position. It is a rare 
plant generally in Yorkshire, and in Baker's 'North Yorkshire ' it is stated to be 
growing upon a wall in Mr. Williams' yard at Appersett, in Wensleydale— sought 
for there recently, but without success. My friend. Dr. R. Spruce, of Coneys- 
thorpe, however, informs me that at the time he investigated the botany of Upper 
Teesdale he met with it in several localities near the villages in the dale. Ihis 
was in the summer of 1843. In Lees' ' Flora of West Yorkshire it is given as 
'native; on dry limestone rocks and walls, very rare.' It is, however, recorded 
in several places near Settle on the authority of Prof. L. C. Miall, also at the 
base of clifts to east of Malham Tarn, stated to have been seen in this locality in 
1880 and 1885 by Mr. P. F. Lee. The locality at Langton is thus far away, 
probably one hundred miles from the nearest place where it is now known to grow 
in Yorkshire, and therefore is a good record for the East Riding flora, jhis fern 
is more particularly a plant of the western English counties, and is found plentifully 
in the neighbourhood of Bristol. It is a valley plant, and is not found at high 
elevations, and seems to be very rare on the east side of the Pennine Chain of 
hills. There is some possibility of the plant having been introduced to the 
Langton locality. It is, however, thoroughly naturalised in its present site, 
and more information regarding its hist appearance at Langton is desirable.— 
Matthew B. Slater, Malton, 21st March, 1890. 
April 1890. 



io8 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



Recent elections to the Fellowship of the Zoological Society have included the 
name of Mr. Riley Fortune, of Harrogate. 

The natural history publications of Mr. S. L. Mosley, F.E.S., whose writings 
are so well known, and whose work in Economic Entomology is so full of practical 
utility, have lately included the announcement of the commencement of a new 
work on British Butterflies, to be completed in twelve parts, and to include 
coloured figures of every species, engraved by the author and hand-coloured by 
his daughter. This will be actually commenced as soon as a hundred subscribers 
have given in their names, at a subscription price often shillings for the whole work. 



Many years ago. Professor Ray Lankester, when reviewing Professor MTntosh's 
great treatise upon the Nemerteans, which appeared in the Transactions of the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh, declared that the Society, by publishing such splendid 
researches, did more honour to itself than any it could confer upon the author. 
Once more the premier Society of the North has published a memoir ('On the 
Development and Life Histories of the Teleostean Food- and other Fishes,' by 
Professor W. C. MTntosh, F.R.S., and Edwd. E. Prince, B.A., St. Andrews 
Marine Laboratory; Trans. Royal Soc. Edinb., vol. xxxv, part ii. No. 19) as 
voluminous and perhaps as exquisitely illustrated as its predecessor on the 
Nemerteans ; but treating of the development of British Teleosteans, especially 
Food-Fishes. The work is one which will take a high rank in its department, and 
the fact that Mr. Prince, conjoint author with Professor M'Intosh, is a Yorkshire- 
man, and was at one time an active naturalist in the West Riding, will lend 
additional interest to the treatise in the eyes of many readers of this journal. 
After perusing a copy of the memoir, received from one of the authors, we cannot 
but be of opinion that it is one which may be placed side by side with preceding 
works from the pen of the distinguished Professor of Natural History at St. 
Andrews. And that is high praise. Cunningham, Brook, and other English 
investigators, have issued brief papers on the embryology of Marine Osseous 
Pishes ; but this is the first comprehensive study of an important subject which 
has been too long neglected. The present paper extends over 281 pp., and 
the plates number twenty-eight, all the figures on which, with the exception 
of one or two small sketches, are from the pencils of the two authors. Those 
acquainted with the elaborate papers of His, Hoffman, Lereboullet, Bambeke, 
List, and other foreign authors, will find that an English treatise upon the 
propagation, embryonic development, and larval life of British Teleosteans has 
now appeared not inferior in excellence and completeness to the splendid con- 
tinental publications. Though consisting of thirteen sections, the memoir 
practically may be divided into three parts : — (i) a laborious account, very detailed, 
and largely microscopical, of the structure of the Teleostean ovum, the process of 
fertilisation, and the early stages of larval development ; (2) a lengthy description 
of the advanced and post-larval stages, and (3) a concluding part in which 
the development of the Salmon is compared with that of a marine Teleostean, 
the Wolf-fish (Anarrhichas). The Wolf-fish was reared in the St. Andrews 
Marine Laboratory, from the egg, until the end of the sixth month, at the 
conclusion of which period the young fish exhibits all the features of the adult. 
This is really the first time, we believe, that a marine Osseous Fish (and 
Anarr/iic/ias is an admirable food-fish, though little known as such) has been 
artificially reared through all its larval and post-larval life. Every page of the 
memoir embodies observations of deep scientific interest, and many intricate 
questions such as the nature of the periblast and its nuclei, the formation of the 
medullary canal in the neurochord, the existence of the neurenteric canal, and 
similar embryological points are fully detailed and illustrated by serial sections, 
and by drawings from life under high powers. Future workers upon the life- 
history of British Food-fishes, will look to this work as affording a basis for their 
researches, and it is certainly a splendid contribution to a department of know- 
ledge which is now being recognised as of paramount importance, no less from its 
practical, than from its scientific bearings. 

Naturalist, 



I09 
THE LAND AND FRESHWATER MOLLUSCA 

OF 

INGLETON, CLAPHAM, AND DISTRICT. 



W. E. COLLI NGE, 

Leeds; Honorary Assistant Curator to the Conckological Society of 
Great Britain and Ireland. 



The district round Ingleton and Clapham, wliich I have had 
numerous opportunities of examining, is one of great interest to the 
naturahst, and peculiarly favourable to molluscan life. Numerous 
papers dealing with the geology of this district having previously 
appeared from the pens of well-known geologists, I have not thought 
it necessary to preface this list with any remarks on the subject, it 
being sufficient to note that most of the species recorded have been 
taken on the Mountain Limestone. 

Previous records have been published in Vol. V. of the ' Journal 
of Conchology,' by Mr. Hugh Richardson, p. 60; Mr. C H. Pierson, 
p. 183 ; by myself, p. 197 ; and in Vol. VI, p. 40, by Mr. Edward 
Collier. Mr. Richardson's paper includes the records of Mr. J. R.. 
Brockton Tomlin and Mrs. M. C Hughes, and Mr. Collier's includes- 
those of Messrs. C. Oldham and R. Standen ; to the records of these 
conchologists, and other observations not my own, I have appended 
the names of the authorities. 

To my friend Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S., my thanks, 
are due for having kindly placed at my disposal the records of the 
Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland, which include 
those of Mr. Wm. West, many of which are here published for the 
first time. 

The ponds mentioned as ' ponds on Clapham Common ' are four, 
situated about half-way across the Common, and about a mile and a 
half from Ingleton. I visited these ponds at Easter, 1883-4-7, and 
once or twice during 1885-6, when they swarmed with fine specimens 
of Sphjeriidee and Limnaeidce ; visiting them, however, at Easter, 
1888, I was very much surprised to find an entire absence of any 
specimens whatever, the reason of which was not far to seek, some 
enterprising person having erected, in close proximity, a wooden 
shed for the shelter of a la!^ge flock of fowls, geese and ducks, whose 
rapacious appetites could no doubt account for the disappearance of 
the shells. 

The number of species enumerated in this list is 83, and 27 
varieties. 

April 1890. 



no COLLINGE : MOLLUSCA OF INGLETON. 

Sphaerium corneum L. Abundant, ponds on Clapham Common, 

Thornton Foss, Kingsdale, and Jenkin's Beck, a small brook 

running on the south-east side of Ingleton, joining the river at 

the west-south-west of the village. Lake marl, Crummockdale 

(H. Richardson). 
Sphaerium rivicola Leach. Common, found in most of the 

localities recorded for the preceding species. 
Sphaerium lacustre Miill. Ponds on Clapham Common. 
Pisidium amnicum Miill. I have only met with this in the 

ponds on Clapham Common, my brother (H.H.C.) and I made 

a good search in the district in the early part of 1887 for 

members of this genus, and were rewarded by finding a few 

specimens in a small pond on the Common, near the second 

bridge on the road from Clapham to Ingleton, they were 

associated with the three species following. 
Pisidium fontinale Drap. Few specimens in small pond on 

Clapham Common. Ingleborough (W. West). 
Pisidium pusillum Gmelin. Few specimens in small pond on 

Clapham Common. 
Pisidium nitidum Jenyns. Few specimens in small pond on 

Clapham Common. 
Bythinia tentaculata L. Common. Kingsdale, Jenkin's Beck, 

etc. 
Valvata piscinalis Miill. Ponds on Clapham Common. Lake 

marl, Crummockdale (H. Richardson). 
Valvata cristata Miill. Ponds on Clapham Common. Lake 

marl, Crummockdale (H. Richardson). 
Planorbis nitidus Miill. Brook near Clapham Station. Pond in 

field near Thornton Foss. Lake marl, Crummockdale, one 

specimen (J. R. B. Tomlin). 
Planorbis nautileus L. My brother took specimens in 1883 

which he labelled 'near Clapham'; he does not remember the 

precise locality. 
Planorbis albus Miill. Brook near Clapham Station. 
Planorbis parvus Say. Clapham (J. R. B. Tomlin). 
Planorbis spirorbis Mull. Pond at Clapham, near the village. 

Jenkin's Beck. 
Planorbis vortex L. Abundant in all the ponds on the Common. 
Planorbis carinatus Miill. Common and generally distributed. 

Very small specimens in pond in fields near Pecca Falls. 
Planorbis complanatus L. Common and generally distributed. 



COLLINGE : MOLLUSCA OF INGLETON. I 1 1 

Planorbis corneus L. Not uncommon, but only small. Ponds 

on Clapham Common ; brook near Clapham Station. 
Planorbis contortus L. Common and generally distributed. 
Physa hypnorum L. Ponds on Clapham Common. Not a 

common species. 
Limnaea peregra Miill. Abundant and very fine, everywhere. 
Limnaea auricularia L. Ponds on Clapham Common, only 

small specimens. 
Limnaea stagnalis L. Not uncommon, and fairly distributed. 
Limnaea palustris Miill. Ponds on Clapham Common. These 
specimens were the first Limnaeas I observed to discharge a 
purple fluid when irritated, which they did frequently during the 
time I had them in my aquarium. Lake marl, Crummockdale 
(H. Richardson). 
Var. albida Nelson. Two specimens with type. 
Limnaea truncatula Miill. Common everywhere. 
Limnaea glabra Miill. Abundant in ponds on Clapham Common. 
Since I found this species exterminated from this locality I have 
had only one opportunity of working the district for freshwater 
molluscs, but much to my regret I was unable to discover a fresh 
locality. Should it be found again, I should be very pleased to 
hear of it. 
Ancylus fluviatilis Miill. Common, ditch on the side of Ingle- 
borough ; rocky pools at Swilla Bottom. 
Arion ater L. Abundant everywhere. 

Var. brunnea Roebuck. Sides of Ingleborough with type. 
Arion hortensis Fer. Common everywhere. 
Arion bourguignati Mabille. Common in Kingsdale (W. Denison 

Roebuck). 
Limax maximus L. Generally distributed and fairly common. 
Limax flavus L. Common. 
Limax agrestis L. Abundant everywhere. 

Var. albida Picard. By Clapham Church-yard wall. 
(J. R. B. Tomlin). 
Limax laevis Miill. One specimen in Kingsdale (J. R. B. Tomlm). 
Amalia marginata. Sparingly met with, but of frequent occur- 
rence (VV. E. CoUinge and J. R. B. Tomlin). Near Ingleton, 
Helks Wood, etc. 
Succinea putris L. Common in suitable localities. Two speci- 
mens in Lake marl, Crummockdale (J. R. B. Tomlin). 
Succinea elegans. 'One specimen only, on herbage in a wet 
ditc h, Bentham Road, Ingleton ' (E. Collier). 

April iSgo. 



112 COLLINGE : MOLLUSCA OF INGLETON. 

Vitrina pellucida Miill. Fairly common and generally distributed. 
Zonites cellarius Miill. Abundant everywhere. 

Var. albinos Moq. Two specimens, Helks Wood, Ingleton 

(E. Collier). 
Zonites alliarius Miill. Common throughout the district. 

Var. viridula Jeff. One immature specimen, Clapham (E. Collier). 
Zonites glaber Studer. A few in Helks Wood, Ingleton, but not 

common (E. Collier). 
Zonites nitidulus Drap. Generally distributed, but not abundant. 
Zonites purus Alder. Rare. Near Ingleton and Clapham. Near 

Coombe Quarry, Ribblesdale (M. C. Hughes). A {ew in Helks 

Wood, Ingleton, also at Clapham (E. Collier). 
Zonites radiatulus Alder. Helks Wood, Ingleton (W. West). 
Zonites nitidus Miill. Not uncommon, but never in large 

numbers. Clapham. Sides of Ingleborough. Kingsdale. 

Hedge-bottoms on the Bentham Road. 
Zonites excavatus Bean. Local. Base of old wall, Ingleton. 
Zonites crystallinus. Common. Clapham Common, etc. 

Storr's Common, Ingleton (Robert Walker). Common in 

Helks Wood, Ingleton (W. West). 
Zonites fulvus Miill. Fairly plentiful. Clapham. Helks Wood, 

Ingleton. Plentiful, Helks Wood (W. West). One in Kings- 
dale, one in Clapham Woods (J. R. B. Tomlin). 
Helix lamellata Jeffreys. Common. Two specimens in Farrer's 

grounds, Clapham Common (J. R. B. Tomlin). Helks Wood, 

Ingleton (W. West). 
Helix aculeata Miill. Ingleton (W. West). Clapham Common 

(J. R. B. Tomlin). 
Helix aspersa MUll. Very common throughout the district. 
Var. conoidea Picard. Ingleton (E. Collier). 
Var. undulata Moq. Ingleton, with type (E. Collier). 
Helix nemoralis L. Common and generally distributed. 
Var. rubella Moq. On the Bentham Road (E. Collier). 
Helix hortensis Miill. Abundant. 
Var. lutea. Ingleton (E. Collier). 
Helix arbustorum L. Common and generally distributed. 
Var. alpestris Zgl. Common in the lane near Ingleton Hall, 

and beautiful specimens (E. Collier). 
Var. trochoidalis Roff. Few very fine specimens in the lane 

near Ingleton Hall (E. Collier). 

Naturalist, 



COLLINGE : ISIOLLUSCA OF INGLETON. 113 

Var. marmorata Roff. Three or four specimens in the lane 

near Ingleton Hall (E. Collier). 
Var. flavescens Moq. Ingleton, with type (E. Collier). 
Helix rufescens Pennant. Abundant everywhere. 

Var. alba Moq. Neighbourhood of Clapham (J. R. B. Tomlin). 
Var. rubens Moq. Common with type. 
Helix concinna Jeffreys. Common, foot of Ingleborough. 

Clapham, on the Bentham Road, near Pecca Falls. 
Helix hispida L. Woods near Pecca Falls ; hedge-bottoms on 
the Bentham Road. 
Var. albida Jeffreys. One specimen on an old wall, Beezley 
(C. Oldham). 
Helix sericea Miill. Among some specimens collected near to 
Ingleton in 1885 by my friend Mr. R. Allsebrooke Hinds, 
I found a single specimen of this species. Ingleton (W. West). 
Helix fusca Montagu. Helks Wood, Ingleton, a few specimens 

(W. West). 
Helix virgata DaCosta. Local, pastures and old walls near 

Ingleton, specimens only small. 
Helix caperata Montagu. Crina Bottom, Ingleborough 

(W. Denison Roebuck). 
Helix ericetorum Miill. Storr's Common (E. Collier). 
Helix rotundata Miill. Abundant throughout the district. 
Helix rupestris Drap. Common on most old walls. 
Helix pygmaea Drap. Ingleton, wood near waterfall (W. West). 

Helks Wood, Ingleton (E. Collier). 
Helix pulchella Miill. Ingleton (W. West). 

Var. costata Miill. Moderately plentiful in Helks Wood, 
Ingleton (E. Collier). 
Helix lapicida L. Few specimens at Clapham, rare. 
Bulimus obscurus Miill. Not uncommon, sides of Ingleborough. 

Few in Helks Wood, Ingleton (E. Collier). 
Pupa secale Drap. Common and generally distributed. Few 
dead specimens in Helks Wood, Ingleton (E. Collier). 
Var. edentula Taylor. Found in 1877 at the foot of the rocks 
near Ingleton (W. Denison Roebuck). 
Pupa ringens Jeffreys. Slopes of Ingleborough (Wm. Nelson). 

Helks Wood, Ingleton, plentiful (W. West). 
Pupa umbilicata Drap. Abundant, the most plentiful of any 
land shell I have met with in the district. 
Var. curta Pascal. Ingleton (E. Collier). 
Var. albina Moq. Kingsdale, one specimen (J. R. B. Tomlin). 

April 1B90. " 



114 COLLINGE : MOLLUSCA OF INGLETON. 

Vertigo antivertigo Drap. Helks Wood, Ingleton, one 

specimen (W. West). 
Vertigo pygmaea Drap. Two specimens near the lead-mines at 

the left of Ingleborough. Helks Wood, Ingleton (W. West) ; 

Clapham (J. R. B. Tomlin) ; Ingleton (R. Standen). 
Vertigo pusilla Miill. To Mr. Wm. West is due the credit of 

being the first to frnd this shell in the district in 1882. Helks 

Wood, Ingleton (W. West). Clapham (W. West). Plentiful in 

Helks Wood (E. Collier). 
Vertigo edentula Drap. Not uncommon. Helks Wood, Ingleton 

(W. West). Clapham and Kingsdale (J. R. B. Tomlin). 

Balea perversa L. Common near Ingleton. Clapham, Kings- 
dale, Helks Wood, Ingleton. 

Clausilia rugosa Drap. Abundant, and generally distributed. 
Var. dubia Drap. Common with type, on an old wall near 
Beezley Grange. Twistleton Scar End, Chapel - le - Dale 
(E. Collier). Mr. Collier says in his list — ' I am inclined to 
think this a different species from C. rugosa.' It would be of 
interest if Mr. Collier would state his reasons, not that I at all 
doubt its right to specific distinction. 
Var. gracilior Jeffreys. Near Clapham Church, 1884 (C H. 

Pierson). 
Var. tumidula Jeffreys. Clapham Woods, rare (J. R.B. Tomlin). 
Clausilia laminata Mont. Clapham, Helks Wood, near Pecca 

Falls, etc. 
Cochlicopa tridens Pult. Helks Wood, Ingleton. Clapham. 
Common near Helks Wood (W. West). Clapham Woods and 
in Kingsdale (J. R. B. Tomlin). 
Var. crystallina Dup. Two specimens in Helks Wood 
(R. Standen). 
Cochlicopa lubrica Miill. Abundant ; Ingleton, Clapham, Kings- 
dale, etc. Helks Wood, Ingleton (E. Collier). 

Var. lubricoides Fer. Few with type (E. Collier). 
Var. ovata Jeffreys. Few with type (R. Standen). 

Carychium minimum Miili. Common, but requires lookmg for. 
Helks Wood, Ingleton, Clapham, etc. Clapham, common 
(W. West). Farrer's grounds, Clapham (E. Collier). 

Acme lineata Drap. Slopes of Ingleborough (W. West). One 
specimen, Helks Wood, Ingleton (E. Collier). 
Var. alba Jeffreys. With type (W, West). 

Naturalist, 



115 
THE SHORELARK IN CUMBERLAND. 

Rkv. H. a. MACPHERSON, M.A., M.B.O.U., Etc., 

A uthor of the ' / 'isitation cf Pallas's Saud-C rouse to Scotland,' etc. 

The winter of 1889-90 has not been productive of many uncommon 
birds in the North West of England ; and if I were wilhng to give 
a Hst of them, it would be a short one. One species, however, turned up 
in February, that rarely visits any portion of our A\'est coast ; I mean 
the Shorelark {Oiocorys alpestris), so well known of late years as a 
visitor to the East coast of England. I had suggested (in the 'Birds 
of Cumberland') that the Shorelark would be detected some day 'on 
our salt-marshes'; and sure enough, the ist of February, 1890, verified 
the prediction, for a party of three Shorelarks then appeared on the 
edge of a marsh that I often shoot over, and remained in the locality for 
several days, in fact, until shot; they proved to be in winter plumage, 
though one male showed much vinous colour. Among other localities 
visited by the Shorelark during the present winter, Dover may be 
instanced. The species indeed seems to occur there as regularly as 
on the Norfolk coast, hardly a season passing without one or more 
specimens being captured alive. 

I find from my notebooks, that I have received several living 
Shorelarks from Dover at different periods. One of them I gave 
away to my friend, Mr. Young, F.L.S., who kept it in a cage with a 
number of other small birds, and found it an excellent addition to 
his aviary. Another, a female, that I kept in my own aviary, became 
very tame, in fact, quite reconciled to the loss of liberty, and used to 
sing a low and subdued song. This bird became pied in one moult. 
Ultimately I gave her away to another friend, Mr. H. D. 
Astley, F.Z.S. A third was a particularly vigorous male, and a very 
hearty songster. Like my other Shorelarks, he preferred to live 
chiefly on the ground, tripping over the gravel with light and dainty 
action. He took great pride in his pretty vinaceous plumage, and 
fairly delighted in a sand-bath. If alarmed, as by the approach of 
a stranger, he would fly up to a broad rail, and there remain perching 
until his solicitude was removed. The call-note used by this and 
other birds on most occasions, was a soft 'chee-chee,' but he had also 
a lively twitter and a pleasant song. In summer, our Shorelarks 
showed a partiality for insects, and would then eat mealworms, which 
they rejected during the winter months. I see from my notes, that 
a Shorelark shot by a quondam collector of mine near Rye on 
April 22nd, and sent to Mr. Aplin, contained the remains of 

April 1890. 



Il6 NOTES LEPIDOPTERA AND BOTANY. 

numerous small white worms, and small green coleopterous larvce. 
The late Mr. R. Gray once wrote to me that some Shorelarks, which 
I had reported to him, shot on the Firth of Forth, contained only 
small seeds ; so, birds shot at Spurn were recorded by Mr. Eagle 
Clarke to have subsisted, during the winter 1879-80, on the seeds of 
a marine plant. Mr. Aplin kindly sent me a Shorelark from the 
chief Norfolk haunt of the species, in November 1886, with the 
information that the number then present could not be estimated at 
less than one hundred birds. 



NO TE—LE PID OPTERA . 

Pterophorus zophodactylus. — Dr. Ellis' note on Pterophoncs zophodactyltis 
( = lot'7vii) in the concluding pari of his ' Lepidopterous Fauna of Lancashire and 
Cheshire' ('Naturalist,' 1890, l'>-85) is somewhat misleading. .Since the specimen 
referred to was taken at Southport, the species has been taken in a number of 
localities in ]5ritain, and is now scarcely considered even a rare British insect. 
It is recorded from two Yorkshire localities — Bramham, by J. Smith, and Sand- 
burn, York, by William Brest (see 'List of Yorkshire Lepidoptera,' p. 175), 
though personally I have never met with it in our county. Most of my own series 
I bred from larvre sent to me from near Dorchester, and which I fully described 
in the 'Entomologists' Monthly Magazine' of March 1884. Last season it 
occurred on a peculiar stretch of ground in a sort of valley on the sand-hills, two 
miles or so north of Hunstanton, where its ordinary food -plant, Erythi\ea 
centaurea, grew, as did also in some plenty its very pretty relative, E. piilchella, 
and on which P. zophodaityliis is probably equally at home in its Norfolk habitat. 
— Geo. T. BoRurrx, Huddersfield, March 8th, 1890. 



NO TE— BOTANY. 

Alford Naturalists' Society. — The report of the secretary presented to the 
October (1889) Meeting, and printed, includes notes on the work of the summer 
season of 1889. On Saturday afternoon, the 6th of July, a joint excursion of the 
Grimsby, Alford, and Louth Naturalists' Societies was made to Mablethorpe. 
On and beside the sand-hills north of the Pull-over, 31 species of Phanerogams 
were observed in flower, besides eight plants which were not fully identified. The 
most noteworthy were the Asparagus (Aspara^-iis officinalis Linn. ) and the Wild 
Lettuce {Lactuca virosa Linn.). The Houndstongue{C)'«(7o-^j,f//w officinale Linn.) 
and the Common Ragwort [Seiiecio jacohcca I^inn. ) were very plentiful, the latter 
being said to be very scarce in the Grimsby district. No specimen o{ Eiyngium 
maritinnim Linn, (the .Sea Holly) was noticed, although at .Spurn it quite carpets 
the ground and is found at most places on this coast. Mr. Altoft and the 
.Secretary, on Wednesday, the 21st of August, went to Calceby ; 62 species of 
Phanerogamous plants were observed in flower and duly recorded, the most 
interesting being the Wild .Sage, Wild Thyme, Common Calamint, and the Marsh 
Cudweed [Gnaphaliion ulii^-inosum Linn.). On Wednesday, nth September, 
Messrs. Y. Altoft, J. W. Chandler, and the Secretary spent some time in the 
parishes of Ailby, Aby, and Belleau. The Wood Vetch ( Vicia sylvaticd) in 
Mother- Wood, Aby, and the Saponaria officinalis (the Soapwort) in Aby Village 
were pointed out by Mr. Chandler. Both these have been verified by 
Mr. F. Arnold Lees and the Rev. Wm. Fowler, M.A. The former plant is 
especially interesting, and they are both additions to the flora of the district. 
Cardiius acaulis (the Stemless Thistle), first recorded for North Lincolnshire last 
year, has turned up in two places — about a mile and a half apart — in Well parish 
this year. — ^Joseph Burtt Davy, Hon. Secretary. ^_^^^ 

Naturalist, 



117 



§n ^iTcmoriam. 



SAMUEL ARTHUR ADAMSON, F.G.S. 

The subject of this memoir, whose early death after a brief ilhiess 
caused surprise and grief to numbers throughout the county of York, 
was a son of the late Joseph Adamson, Gas Engineer. At a com- 
paratively early age he obtained an appointment under the Leeds 
New Gas Company, and when that undertaking was acquired by 
the Leeds Corporation, his services were retained, and he became 
eventually chief clerk in the gas department. 

The year 1874 witnessed the institution of the Yorkshire College 
in Leeds, — an institution which has proved of incalculable benefit to 
the county, — and young Adamson was only too delighted to indulge 
his geological proclivities by attending the lectures of Prof A. H. 
Green, then attached to the College, and now Professor of Geology 
at Oxford. He was an apt pupil, and, under such a master, quickly 
picked up a good general knowledge of geology, and of the Coal 
Measures and other palseozoic rocks of the West Riding in particular. 
To the study of books he added, what is most essential, a practical 
acquaintance with the various strata in the field ; with an observant 
eye, an attentive ear, and note-book in hand, he never missed an 
opportunity of accumulating fresh information during the many 
excursions which he attended. It was mainly owing to the admirable 
excursions organised by the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union that he 
gathered his intimate acquaintance with the secondary rocks of the 
East and North Ridings, under the leadership of the President of 
the Geological Section, with whom he was on the most cordial 
terras. 

He had a retentive memory and a facile pen, and the interesting 
reports which he drew up, as Secretary both to the Leeds Geological 
Association and to the (ieological Section of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, were always read with pleasure, and will often be recalled 
with regret that the hand that penned them can no longer contribute 
to the knowledge and enjoyment of those who mourn his loss. 

Perhaps no geological publication of a similar nature was ever 
rendered so attractive as the Transactions of the Leeds Geological 
Association, edited by Mr. Adamson, combined with his reports of 
field excursions. It whetted the appetite, it encouraged the timid, 
and the result was a general increase of members, and a diffusion 
among them of the zeal which animated their honorary secretary, so 
that few scientific societies have in a short time attained so high 
distinction as the Leeds Geological Association. 

April 1890. 

% 



Il8 IN MEMORIAM. 

A similar tribute to his careful pains and power of description 
must be paid by the members of the Geological Section of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. Without his pen, the enjoyment of 
the excursion would have been confined to the twenty or thirty who 
participated in it, and the remembrance of the details would gradually 
have faded away ; but his interesting narratives afforded pleasant 
reading to others as well, and still remain a storehouse of knowledge 
to refresh the memory of those who were his companions in the field. 

But Mr. Adamson's labours were not confined to these narrow 
limits. His zeal knew no bounds. He threw himself heart and soul 
into the geological work of the British Association, and it was 
entirely owing to his energy and perseverance that such admirable 
reports were collected and presented to the Boulder Committee of 
the British Association, three years in succession, as to draw forth the 
remark from Dr. Crosskey, that ' the work of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union in this direction was excellent and exhaustive, 
and an example to other counties.' He took up also warmly the 
idea of Geological Photography for registering and preserving 
a permanent record of rock-sections from time to time exposed, and 
of the changes in the aspect of nature, continually being brought 
about by marine or sub-aerial denudation, and it was through his 
instrumentality that a Committee of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union was recently appointed to carry on this work in connection 
with one established by the British Association at Newcastle, in 1889. 

In addition to the numerous papers which he contributed to the 
' Naturalist,' ' Research,' and other periodicals, as also to the 
Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, the Proceedings 
of the Yorkshire Geological Society, and Quarterly Journal of the 
London Geological Society, of which Society he was a Fellow, 
Mr. Adamson did important work in collecting, arranging, and 
making abstracts of papers and records, published from year to year, 
with respect to the natural history and physical features of the north 
of England, the result being contributed by him to the ' Naturalist,' 
under the head of ' Bibliography, Geology and Palneontology,' and 
calling forth special commendation from Professor Lebour at the 
Newcastle meeting above mentioned. These abstracts alone, 
published in the 'Naturalist' for December 1885, November and 
December 1886, and February and March 1889, and in the present 
number, show what important contributions Mr. Adamson himself 
has made to the study of Yorkshire Geology. 

It only remains to add that he was looking forward with deep 
interest to the forthcoming meeting of the British Association at 
Leeds, where, amid the many celebrities gathered together, he would 

Naturalist, 



IN MEMORIAM. II9 

have taken no unimportant place, when death from pleurisy deprived 
him of life, and the societies with which he was connected, of his 
valued services. He died on March 13th, 1890, in the flower of 
his age (44). His place will not easily be filled, if at all. His 
genial face, warm-hearted disposition, and kindliness of manner, 
combined with a singular modesty, can never be forgotten by those 
who knew and loved him for his own and his works' sake. 
Universally respected, his funeral was largely attended by his 
numerous private friends, and by his scientific and business colleagues, 
and it is already announced that steps will shortly be taken to find 
a fitting memorial to one who has emphatically deserved well of his 
county. — E. M. Cole. 



JOSEPH EDWIN GARTSIDE. 

It is with feelings of sorrow and regret that I have to record the 
sudden death, at the age of 59, of Mr. Joseph Edwin Gartside, ot 
Elland, from apoplexy, on the 22nd February. He was a fair 
all-round naturalist and a good taxidermist, and possessed a collec- 
tion of birds and birds' eggs. He was the founder of the Stainland 
Naturalists' Society, and several times its president. He was local 
secretary and caterer to the West Riding Consolidated Naturalists' 
Society when it held a meeting at his house, the Royal Oak Inn, 
Bur- Wood, on the 6th September, 1873, the occasion on which many 
of the members visited the beautiful grounds and aviaries belonging 
to the late Mr. Samuel Shaw, of Brooklands. Mr. Gartside's kind 
disposition and genial manner endeared him to a large circle of 
friends. — C. C. Hanson. 



EDWARD BROOKE WRIGGLESWORTH. 

In Mr. Wrigglesworth, who was born on the i6th March 1855, and 
died of consumption on the 21st of February, 1890, after a some- 
what lingering indisposition, the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union loses 
a former office-bearer and the Wakefield Naturalists' Society a 
member to whom they owed much. At one time he occupied for 
some years the Secretaryship of the Entomological Section of the 
Union, his own special subject of research being the Order Coleoptera. 
A memorial of his services to the Society in his own native city 
exists in the form of the printed twelfth Report, issued in 1883, 
which contains numerous records, including a full list of Shells of 
the district, and less complete ones of Hymenopterous and Coleop- 
terous Insects, Birds, and Mammals. He was the holder of an 
appointment in the rate-office of the Wakefield Corporation. 

April 1890. 



T20 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

JOHN GRASSHAM. 

Mr. John Grassham — who was one of the oldest and most valued 
members of the Leeds Naturalists' Club, died on the 23rd February, 
after a very brief illness culminating in inflammation of the lungs. 
Born on the 9th November 1818, he had entered upon the 72nd 
year of his life. His natural history studies, though only begun in 
middle life, were ably and vigorously pursued, and he got together 
excellently arranged collections of lepidoptera and birds' eggs, besides 
numerous mounted examples of interesting birds, which will still 
be cherished by his family, one of whom at least inherits the 
paternal interest in the study. He became a member of the Leeds 
Naturalists' Club in 1872 and was for a long period one of its most 
active working members ; he was seldom off the council, and often 
filled the office of vice-president. His kindly genial temperament 
endeared him to all who had the privilege of his acquaintance, 
not 'Only among naturalists but in private life and among the Odd 
Fellows, with whom he long filled the office of Treasurer of his 
Lodge, and by whom his long and faithful services in that capacity 
were acknowledged by the presentation of his portrait and a time- 
piece. His stores of natural history information were of considerable 
interest and value, and although he published but little himself his 
knowledge was always freely at the service of his friends. — W. D. R. 

NOTE— BIRDS. 

Stone-Chat at Headingley, Leeds.— On February 24th I saw a Stone-Chat 
(Pratincola riibicola) near my house. This is the first time I have heard of the occur- 
rence of this extremely local species so near Leeds. — H. Kmght Horsfield. 



NO TES— MAMMALIA . 

Common Seal at Coatham. — A young Seal ^PIuHa vilnliim) about three 
feet in length, was shot on Coatham Sands this morning, and exhibited in a tent 
at Redcar.' — T. H. Nelson, Redcar, 5th March, 1890. 

Badger in Lincolnshire, — On Saturday, the 15th of ALarch, a Kadger 
was found by John AUett, curled up asleep in a dry ditch in Gayton Fen. 
It crossed the river Eau into Withern Fen, and was finally taken near .Strubby 
Church. It weighed 18 lbs. This on the information of Miss Susan Allett. 
James Eardley Mason, Alford, 24th March, 1890. 

Otters in the North. — Northumberland: A fine dog Otter {Ultra 
vulgaris), 4 ft. 3 in. long, with a rare dapple coat, killed on the Reed near 
Coisenside, May 28th, 1886. One hunted on North Tyne above Wark, but not 
killed, May 30th, 1886. A dog Otter, 20h lbs. in weight, killed on the Devil's 
Water near Corbridge, September loth, 1889. A fine dog Otter, 24 lbs. in 
weight, killed on the Tyne near ChoUerton, September i8th, 18S8. Two others 
killed on the Tyne, 1889. Cumberland: A dog Otter, 21 lbs. in weight, was 
killed on the Irthing near Lanercost, August 25th, 1885. A dog Otter, 27 lbs. 
in weight, was killed on the Esk near Netherby, June 1888. Durham: Two 
Otters seen on the Wear near Cocken Dene, June 28th, 1887. Several seen near to 
Fatfield in 1887.— J. W. Fawcett, The Grange, Satley, Durham, Oct. 5th, 1889. 

N.-itiiiali.'.t, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY: 

Papers and records published with respect to the Natural History and 
Physical Features of the North of England. 



GEOLOGY AND PALAEONTOLOGY, 1888. 

The recent sudden death of iMr. S. A. Adamson, F.Ci.S., one of 
whose last pieces of work was the preparation for press of the 
present instalment of bibliography (the titles being supplied partly 
by himself and partly by Mr. A. Harker, M.A., F.G.S.), deprives the 
'Naturalist' of an able and willing coadjutor, whose loss will be very 
much felt, and whose place will not easily be filled up. 

The Editors will be glad if some of their geological readers would 
volunteer to assist Mr. Harker in future instalments by undertaking 
to furnish titles from such specified periodical literature as may be 
most convenient. Supposing a Manchester or Liverpool resident 
were to undertake to examine the Lancashire periodicals and litera- 
ture, and some Yorkshire resident would undertake the same task 
for the periodicals of that county, the assistance would be most useful 
and acceptable. 

Anon, [not signed]. Cheshire. 

Local Museums, Chester [the collection of local Triassic rocks, arranged by 
A. Strahan, is very complete, and includes several fine slabs of Clieirotherean 
footjirints from Storeton ; the Carboniferous formation represented by some 
fine corals and coal-measure plants ; the shells from the local drift deserve 
special mention]. Research, Aug. 18S8, i. 18-20. 

Anon, [not signed]. Derbyshire. 

Scientific Aspects of Health Resorts : No. 2, Buxton [Section on Midland 
Railway between Buxton and Monsal Dale given, also another at Dove Holes; 
near Tideswell and at Barmoor 'ebbing and flowing wells' noted ; at Castle- 
ton, three caverns mentioned where the mineral ' Blue John ' is found ; at 
' \Vindy Knoll ' Quarry bitumen (elaterite) and petroleum occur ; account of 
Mam Tor or ' Shivering Mountain' added]. Research, Aug. 1888, i. 20-22, 
with views of Chee Tor, Chee Dale, and Mam Tor. 

Anon [not signed]. Yorkshire. 

[The Yorkshire Boulder Committee and its Work [a brief review of the 
work of the above committee, and suggestion for formation of a similar com- 
mittee in Lancashire]. Research, Dec. 1888, i. 89-90. 

AcKWOKTH (Roys') Reports. York S. 

Fossils, Lepidosti-obiis, Spheiiopteris, Asterophylliies — all from Snydale Colliery ; 
Axiints diiiiiiis, Bakevdlia, Myalina, and Phtirotoniaria autrina from Went 
Cutting]. Nat. Hist. Journ., Oct. 15th, 1S88, .\ii. 158. 

S. A. Adamson. York N.E. 

Visit of the Leeds Geological Association to Malton, on Easter Monday, 

April nth, 1887 [detailed account of explorations at North Grimston and 

Settrington and about Malton]. Fourth Rep. Malton Nat. Soc, 1886-87 

(pub. 1S87), pp. 14-16. 

S. A. Ad.vmson. York W. 

Notes on a Recent Discovery of Stigmaria ficoides at Clajrton, York- 
shire [with place and circumstances of discovery and full details of dimensions]. 
(^)uart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 1888, xliv. 375-7 ; Abst. in Geol. Mag., 1888(3), v.285. 

April i8go. 



122 bibliography: geology and paleontology, 1 88b. 

S. A. Adamson. Yorkshire. 

The Yorkshire Boulder Committee and its First Year's Work [a sketch 

of the origin and history of the Committee, followed by details of first year's 

work, comprising seven reports and embracing boulders or groups of 

boulders in fifteen different localities]. Nat., Jan. 1888, pp. 17-24. 

S. A. Adamson. York S.W. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Hatfield Chace [21st Sep., 1887; 
the drains and dykes of Hatfield Chace noted, and an account of 'warping' 
given ; also section of gravel-i)it near Lindholme, with varieties of rock com- 
posing the gravel ; two erratic blocks at Lindholme Hall visited]. Nat., 
March 1888, pp. 87-88. 

S. A. Adamson. York N.W. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union in Lower Wensleydale [at Leyburn, 
2ist May, 1S88 ; section at the Keld Head Lead Mines given, the 'Lady 
Algitha' Cave visited and briefly described; also the 'Black Flags' Quarry 
and the Harmby Limestone Quarries ; glaciated surface of limestone in the 
Leyburn Station-yard noted]. Nat., June 1888, pp. 173-177; Trans. Leeds 
Geol. Assoc, 1888, Part ix., pp. 211 -21 2. 

S. A. Adamson. York S.W. 

Yorkshire and Lancashire Naturalists at Saddleworth [June i6th, 1888; 
route from Diggle Station over Harrop Edge into Castleshaw \"alley, and its 
physical geology described ; Millstone Edge ascended to inspect the Cudworth 
Quarries of Kinderscout Grit ; section from Pule Hill to this point quoted, 
giving beds from Rough Rock to Kinderscout Grit ; Mr. Watts' specimens 
taken from erratic blocks upon the drainage area of the Oldham Waterworks 
visited and examined ; section at Lower Castleshaw excavated to make the 
puddle trench given; a Trap erratic noted and measured]. Nat., July 1888, 
pp. 214-216 ; Trans. Leeds Geol. Assoc, 1888, Part iv. pp. 215-219. 

[S. A.] Adamson. York N.E. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Robin Hood's Bay [i6th July, 1888 : 
the Crag Hall (^Juarry at the Peak visited ; section — the Lower Estuarine 
shales and sandstones resting upon the Dogger series, which again rest upon the 
alum shales or 'Communis' beds of the Upper Lias— the ' Striatulus' beds 
are wanting in this quarry.] Nat., Aug. 1888, pp. 240-242; Trans. Leeds 
Geol. Assoc. 1888, Part iv. pp. 224-226. 

S. A. Adamson. York W. 

Calverley Wood Quarries, Leeds [Sections of Rough Rock in these (pmrries 
described; faults and slight contortions of strata noted]. Nat., Sept. 1888, 
p. 276; Trans. Leeds. Geol. Assoc. 1888. Part iv. pp. 227-228. 

[S. A. Adamson]. York E. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Market Weighton [6ih Aug., 18S8; 
on the Peverley line a section of the zone of Ainvionites aiigiilatus. Lower 
Lias, examined ; on the new railway from Market Weighton to Driffield 
a magnificent section in the Middle Chalk traversed and described ; outcrops 
of the Lower Lias in Londesborough Park noted]. Nat., Sep. 1888, 
pp. 280-282 ; Trans. Leeds Geol. .Assoc 188S, Part iv. pp. 227-230. 

S. A. Adamson. York W. 
Glacier Work in Airedale [a quarry in the Rough Rock at Greengates, 
Apperley Rock visited ; the rock is capped by about six feet of very stiff and 
tough yellow Boulder Clay, full of rounded ami sub-angular blocks of gannister 
and other local sandstones, with fragments of coal and shale ; the bared surface 
of the Rough Rock was polished and engraved with well defined strix and 
groovings running N.W. and S.E. ; the quarry is about 300 ft. above sea- 
level, and at present is the furthest point down the Aire Valley where such an 
observation has been noted and recorded]. Nat.. Oct. 1888, p. 297 ; Trans. 
Leeds Geol. Assoc. 1888, Part iv. pp. 230 231. 

Naturalist, 



BIBLIOGKAPHV : GEOLOGY AND PAL.'EONTOLOGY, t888. I23 

s.A. APAMsoN. ^ ^. ^°'■^f• 

Excursion, Hull and Barnsley Railway, South Cave and District [the 
line traversed from Weedley to Nnrth Cave an(l sections en route described, 
vi/. C.rey Chalk, Red Chalk, ( Jxf.nd Clay, Kellaways Rock, Millepore Beds 
Middle and Lower Lias]. Trans. Leeds Geol. Assoc. 18SS, 1 art iv. 
pp. 207-209. 

York W. 

S. A. Adamson. ^°^^ 7* 

Excursion, Knaresborough and Plompton [l^eneath Knareshorough Castle, 

the Lower Mai^nesian Limestone noted resting imconformably on the i hira 

Grits ; the noted I'h.mpton Rocks visited and described]. Trans. Leeds 

Geol.'Assoc. 1888, Part iv. pp. 209-211. 

S. A. ADAMSON. York W. 

Excursion to the Meanwood Valley [Elland Flagstone, shales and ganmster 

beds beneath visited and described, also Meanwood (,)uarnes where Rough Kock 

is worked]. Trans. Leeds Geol. Assoc, 1888, Part iv. pp. 213-215. 

.. V ; .. York W. 

S. A. Apamson. 

Excursion, Knaresbro' to Nidd Bridge [Middle Marls and Lower Magnesian 
Limestone resting upon Third (Irits ; denudation by river Nidd noted and 
described; axis of Harrogate anticlinal crossed over]. 1 rans. Leeds Ueoi. 
Assoc, 1888, Part iv. pp. 219-221. 

c X V V, York S« 

S. A. Apamson. 

Excursion, Beeston and Batley Railway [Geology traversed m lower part 

of Middle Coal Measures, from Middleton Mam Coal upwards to llaigh 

Moor Coal or a vertical section of aliout 200 yards ; various sections noted 

and measured]. Trans. Leeds Geol. Assoc, 1888, Part iv. pp. 221-224. 

, , York. 

S. A. Apamson. ,..,•, 

T E Bedford F.G.S. [biographical sketch of President of Leeds Geological 

•'• As'sodationJ' Trans. Leeds Geol. Assoc, 1888, Part iv. p. 232, with portrait. 

. . . York. 

S. A. Apamson. 
The Yorkshire Boulder Committee and its Second Year s Work [an 

account of the second year's work followed by details ot the erratics reported 
to and approved of by the Committee]. Nat., Nov. 1888, pp. 332-34S- 
M. L P. 15APPK..KV. Lake District. 

The English Lake District; 4th ed. revised [a guide-book with descriptions 
of phytical features, and fourteen tinted contour-maps by J. bartholomewj. 
XXX. and 216 pp. ; London; 18S6. 

G Bakfr "^^""^ ^• 

' North Yorkshire : Studies of its Botany, Geology, Climate, and Physical 

Geoeraphy ; 2nd ed. [opening part, including (ieology, pp. 5-45.. i^"''' ^ 

MessTs 1 E Clark and H. M. Platnauer ; with coloured geological niap ot 

the North Riding]. Trans. Yorks. Nat. Union, Part li for 1885 ; Leeds, 1888. 

York W. 

Robert R. Bai.derstox. , t^ 

Evidences of Glacial Action near Ingleton [valleys of Greta, Twiss, and Doe 
examined; description of bouUlers principally observed ; \ oredale Grits, 
Yoredale Black Marble, Productus Limestone, Crinoidal Limestone, Upper 
and Lower Mountain Limestone, ' Calliard,' Green Porphyry, Micaceous 
Trap, Silver-grey Trap, Coniston Limestone, Silurian Conglomerate]. Nat., 
July 1888, pp. 189-193. 

York W 

ROHKRT R. BaI.PKRSTON. ^ °^f 

The Evidences of Glacial Action near Ingleton [further notes on the former 
article bearing that name, which sec]. Nat., Aug. 1888, p. 234. 

r^ ^ York N. 

G. Barrow. 

The Geology of North Cleveland. Mem. Geol. Surv., England and Uales 
(Explanation of Ouarter-sheets 104 S.W., and S.E.) [describes the Trias and 
Rhitic rocks, seen only in a single outcrop ; the Lias, so niagnihcently 

April 1890. 



124 bibliography: geology and PAL/EONTOLOGY, 1880. 

exhibited in the coast sections ; the Lower Oolites, which form the high 
moors ; the Kellaways Rock, the highest member exposed in the district ; the 
Cleveland Dyke ; and the Glacial and Post-Glacial deposits. A chapter is 
devoted to physical structure, faults, etc. ; another to economic products, 
including the celelirated Cleveland ironstone ; there is also an appendix 
giving the bililiography]. Svo., loi pp., London, 1888. [Reviewed, Geol. 
Mag., Dec. 1888, dec. iii. vol. v. jip. 569-570]. 
H. C. Beasi.ey. Cheshire. 

On a Section of Upper Keuper at Oxton [stating that the red marl there 
seen is not in situ]. Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc, 1886, v. 134-136. 
H. C. PjEasley. Lancashire and Cheshire. 

Some Instances of Horizontally Slickensided Joints [following described : 
in (|uarry at Wallasey, four parallel joints running E. and \V., and a fifth 
crossing them in a direction 20^ N. of VV. ; at Poulton, half-mile S. of above, 
and in same beds, lowest part of Keuper Sandstone, several joints at varying 
angles from 20° S. of W. to 25° N. of W. ; on north side of Howbeck Road, 
Birkenhead, a joint 30° W. of N. traceable across the quarry ; on Bidston 
Hill, at a jioint in cutting close to windmill, an indistinctly striated joint 
about 20° N. of W. ; at Brandreth Delph, Parbold, Millstone Grit, two sets 
of joints at right angles]. Proc. Liverpool Cieol. Soc, 1887, v. 246. 
Henry C. Beasi.ey. Cheshire. 

Report of Field Meeting at Bidston Hill [a road has exposed a continuous 
section of Keuper Sandstone, of which the hill is composed ; at Flaybrick 
Hill, a section of Upper Ihniter overlain by a conglomerate, the latter being 
the base of the Keuper]. Proc. Liverpool (.ieol. Soc, 1887, v. 290. 
H. C. Beaslev. Cheshire. 

Some Irregularly Striated Joints in the Keuper Sandstone of Lingdale 
Quarry [measured details of a series of slickensided faces exposed on the 
VV. side of the quarry, showing striations in varying directions within a very 
short distance of each other; plan and section given]. Proc. Liverpool Geol. 
Soc, 1888, V. 386-3S8. 
H. C. Beasley. Cheshire. 

Report of Field Meeting at Wallasey [four or five parallel joints pointed 
out having an K. and W. direction, distinctly slickensided and striated 
horizontally, and in some instances traceable for a considerable distance, whilst 
they were crossed diagonally by a similar joint exposed on both sides of the 
quarry ; a bed of conglomerate and another of grey shale, much disturbed, 
noted], i'roc Liverpool Geol. Soc. 1888, v. 389. 
J. E. Beui-ori). Isle of Man. 

Notes on the Isle of Man [after brief mention of geological features at Port 
Soderick and Port Erin, visit to Stack of Scarlett and 'Chasms' described; 
near Peel are found a great number of flint flake implements ; details of 
.section given from which they were obtained]. Trans. Leeds Geol. Assoc, 
1888. Part iv. pp. 177-179. 
W. J. Bird. Durham. 

The South Durham Salt Bed and Associated Strata [strata thus classified ; 
(I ) Surface Deposits; (2) Upper Gypseous Marls; (31 Red Sandstones and 
Marls; (4) Lower Clypseous RLarls; (5) Saliferous Ikds (Anhydrite. Salt, 
etc.); (6) Magnesian Limestone; details given of twenty-three borings 
through aljove]. Trans. Manchester Geol. Soc, vol. xix. 564-584, with 
sections and tables. 
J. F. Blake. York N.E. 

On a Star-fish from the Yorkshire Lias [a Solaster from Huntcliff ]. Rep. 
J5rit. Assoc, for 1887. p. 716 ; see also Nature, 1887, vol. xxxvi. p. 591. 
Herkert liOLioN. Lancashire. 

Observations on Boulders from the High-level Drift of Bacup [rock 
specimens obtained from drift described in detail and altitudes given ; con- 
cludes the presence of three well-defined beds of Glacial Drift in the Bacup 

Naturalist, 



bibliography: gkoloc.v and paL/^-'-ontology, 1888. 125 

area; No. i, a stitT blue clay of great thickness; No. 2, a lied of angular 
Drift Sand, about 20 ft. in thickness ; No. 3, a bed of variously coloured clay, 
varying considerably in thickness, and containing a great number of foreign 
boulders of granite, felstone, volcanic ash, etc., from the Lake district]. 
Trans. Manchester tieol. Soc. xix. 393-404. 

W. MiLiiURN BiUGcs. Cumberland. 

Micro-Petrology: a note on the FelsiteGroup [an extract or quotation from 
Rosenbusch's great work]. Wesley Nat., April 1888, ii, 57-58. 

Charles Bkdwnridc.e. York W. 

Interesting- Discovery of Boulders in the Coal Measures at Wortley, 
near Leeds [obtained in the ' Black Bed' pit of Messrs. Ingham ^; .^ons; 
four described — the largest a coarse gritstone embedded in the ' bind ' or 
clayey shales overlying the coal ; the three smallest qnartzites embedded in 
the ' Black bed' coal itself; analysis of the quartzites by Prof. Bonney, F.R.S., 
given]. Nat., Feb. 1888, pp. 49-51- 

C. Brownrioce. York S. 

The Lindholme Boulders [details of two boulders on the west front of Lind- 
holme Hall, near Hatfield; Halletlinta and Coarse Gritstone]. Nat., Nov. 
1888, p. 347- 

G. W. Bui.man. Durham, York E., Cumberland. 

The Influence of Geology on Population [written to show that geology 
has had some share in deciding the areas to be occupied by the various, 
settlers in Britain ; thus comparisons are drawn between the geology of 
Denmark and that of the part of England where the Danes settled ; also 
between the rocky and deeply-indented coast of Norway and that of the west 
coast of Scotland ; further refers to the fact that the geology of Wales and 
Cornwall by its mountainous character preserved the Celtic race in England 
from extinction]. Sci. Goss., Aug. 1S88, pp. 177-179. 

A. Carxot. Lancashire and Northumberland, 

Sur . . . le phosphore dans la houille . . . [pointing out the presence of 
phosphorus in coal, and especially in the spores; coal from Lancashire con- 
tained 0-02852 per cent., Wigan 0-02246, Newcastle a trace only]. Bull. 
Soc. Chim. Paris, vol. xliii. pp. 63-66. 

W. D. Carr. Lincolnshire. 

Erratic Boulders [recording a large boulder of Lincolnshire Oolite which is. 
quarried at Marston, five miles west of Ancaster, where is the nearest outcrop 
of that rock]. GeoL Mag., Feb. 1888, dec. iii. vol. v. p. 96. 

S. Chadwick. York N.E. 

Geological [Report, for year 1885-86 ; giving lists of local fossils from the 
chalk and the coralline oolite of North and East Yorkshire]. Third Ann. 
Rep. Malton Field Nat. and Sci. Society, 1885-86 (pub. 1886), pp. 5-8. 

S. Chadwick. York N. and E. 

Geology [being report on investigations made by Malton members 
during 1886 ; several species of fossils mentioned]. Fourth Rep. Malton 
F, Nat. and Sci. Soc, 1886-7 (pub. 1887), pp. 24-25. 

S. Chadwick. York S.E. 

Ancient and Modern : or, Scenes in the History of a Glacial Pebble 

[a fine specimen of an ancient British stone hammer, made out of a piece of 

Dark Blue Whinstone (probably an old glacial pebble from the coast) ; now 

deposited in the Malton Museum]. Nat., Feb. 1888, p. 51. 

Samuel Chadwick. Yorkshire. 

[Reports upon Erratics in North and East Ridings of Yorkshire ; tletails. 
of erratics at Croplon near Pickering, Neswick near Driffield, Grosmont near 
Whitby, Sleights near Whitby, Kirby Underdale, Speeton near Filey, Hun- 
manby, Reigliton, Cayton near Scarborough, Lebberston near Scarborough,. 
Filev, and Seamer]. Nat., Nov. 1888, pp. 335-343. 

April 1S90. 



126 bibliography: gp:ology and pal/eontology, 1888. 

Wm. Chf:ktham. York N.W. 

From the Millstone Grits to the Silurians [description of a tour by road 
from Horsforth, via Ilkley, Burnsall,Gras.sington, Arncliffe, into Ribblesdale; 
thence returning via Stainforth, Giggleswick, Gargrave, Skipton, and Otley ; 
principal geological features mentioned]. Trans. Leeds Geo). Assoc, l888, 
Part iv. pi^. 194-204. 

I). C[ka(;ue]. Lancashire. 

Notes of the Month [account of excavation made at north end of Hope 
Street, Liverpool, showing a soft sandstone belonging to the Upper Bunter]. 
Trans. Liverpool Geol. Assoc, 1886-7, '^ii- 53- 

E. Maule Coi.e. Yorkshire. 

Notes on Flamborough Head Boulders [erratic blocks on Beacon Hill, 
Thornwick Bay, and Bempton briefly described ; Granite, Whinstone, Sand- 
stone, and Mica Schist]. Nat., Jan. 1888, p. 19. 

E. Maule Cole. York S.E. 

The Rudstone [details of the great monolith at Rudston near Bridlington ; 
it is a grit similar to that of the Lower Oolite found on the watershed of the 
North Eastern moorlands ; author suggests that it is a bloc perche, and 
brings evidence to support his theory ; derivation of word ' Rudstone ' given 
at length]. Nat., March 1888, pp. 81-S2. 

E. Maule Cole. Yorkshire. 

[Reports upon Erratics in North and East Ridings of Yorkshire ; 

details of erratics at Stillington near Easingwold, Gristhorpe near P'iley, 

Carr Naze, Filey Brigg, Muston near Filey, Bempton, and Buckton]. Nat., 

Nov. 1888, pp. 333-335. 

E, Maule Cole. Lancashire. 

A Lake-Dwelling in Lancashire [details of a section, 30 ft. deep, exposed 
in works for diverting course of Ribble, at Preston, and constructing docks ; 
in the area of the unfinished dock have been found 52 pairs of antlers of red 
deer, 43 heads of Urus, 14 human skulls, two ancient canoes hollowed 
out of the trunks of trees, and a bronze spear-head, but no flint or pottery; 
in the gravel-beds are piles standing vertically, and driven in to a depth of 
from 8 ft. to 15 ft., and near the top a quantity of brushwood had been laid 
horizontally between the piles, so as to make a solid and firm floor]. Yorks. 
Geol. and Polyt. Soc, vol. xi. part i. pp. 90-91 ; Nat., Dec. 1888, p. 360. 

Henry Cowburn. Lancashire. 

Boulders in Coal Seams [brief description of two hard fine sandstone 

boulders found in the coal about six inches from the bottom of the seam in 

the Five Feet Mine at Brookside Colliery, Leigh]. Trans. Manch. C!eol. Soc, 

vol. xix. part 16, pp. 404-405. 

H. W. Crosskey. Yorkshire. 

Note upon the Hitchingstone, Keighley Moor [its claim to be considered 
an erratic block finally negatived]. Nat., Jan. 18S8, pp. 23-24. 

11. "W. Crosskey. Durham, Yorkshire, and Lancashire. 

[Erratic Blocks, being the] Fifteenth Report of the Committee, consisting 
of . . [eleven names] . . for . . recording the position, height above the sea, 
lithological characters, size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, 
Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of interest connected with the 
same, and taking measures for their preservation [the reports are obtained 
chiefly through the Yorkshire Boulder Committee ; they include Bulmer's 
Stone at Darlington, and the Sadberge Stone ; blocks at Northallerton, 
chiefly from the Cheviots and Scotland ; boulders on the Yorkshire coast — 
the Hitchingstone near Keighley, and the boulders from the base of the 
Carboniferous at Norber and Malham ; also some detailed notes by Rev. John 
Havvell of the erratics in his parish of Ingleby Greenhow, and notes by 
R. H. Tiddeman on the distribution of boulders from the base of the car- 
boniferous series at Norber and Malham Tarn]. 57th Rep. Brit. Assoc, 

Manchester, 1887 (pub. 1888), pp. 236-244; see also Nat. 

Naturalist, 



BIHMOGRAPHV: GEOLOCJY AND PAL.t:ONTOLOGY, 1888. I27 

J. W. Davis. Yorkshire. 

On the Discovery and Excavation of an Ancient Sea-beach, near 
Bridlington Quay, containing Mammalian Remains [details of the 
ancient clift' and sea-beach north of iJridlington Quay]. Reji. Hiit. Assoc, 
for 1SS7, pp. 694-696. 
J. W. Davis. York W, 

The Norber Group of Boulders [notes upon the Silurian Grit Moulders 
resting upon Mountain Limestone at Norber near Claphani ; liibliography of 
this group appended]. Nat., Nov. 1888, pp. 346, 347. 
C. Davison. Cumberland. 

Note on the Movement of Scree-Material [with reference to the manner 
of ' creeping ' of the screes of slate on Hindscarth]. Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc, vol. xliv. pp. 232-237 ; abstract in Geol. Mag. (3), vol. v. p. iSl ; 
Phil. Mag., April (5), vol. xxv. pp. 320, 321. 
W. B. Dawkins. ' Pennine Chain.' 

On the Structure of the Millstone Grit of the Pennine Chain [derived 
from granites and schists with garnets]. Rep. IJrit. Assoc, for 1887, p. 686. 
W. B. Dawkins. Isle of Man. 

On the Phyllites of the Isle of Man [describes peculiarities of cleavage in 
the slates of the Isle of Man]. Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1887, p. 700. 
[Sir] Wm. Dawson. Cumberland. 

[Buthostrephis harknessii Nich. and B. radiata Nich., from the Skiddaw 
rocks of Cumberland are the oldest plants known to him ; he is inclined to 
consider both to be parts of one plant, for which he proposes the generic 
name Frotaunularia]. Pop. Sci. Monthly (New York), April 1888, p. 790 
and tig. i. 
R. M. Dkelka'. Lincolnshire. 

Correlation of the Lincolnshire Pleistocene Deposits with those of 
the Midland Counties [the author's Older Pleistocene is scarcely repre- 
sented in Lincolnshire ; his Middle and Newer Pleistocene correspond to the 
Older and Newer Boulder Clay of Jukes-Browne]. Geol. Mag., April 1888 
dec. iii. vol. v. pp. 153-155. 
C. E. DeRance. Cheshire, Cumberland, Lancashire, Yorkshire. 

Notes on the Vale of Clwyd Caves [before describing the above caves, the 
evidence obtained of deposits in the above counties from the commencement 
of the glacial conditions to the present time is reviewed ; section at the 
Victoria Cave, Settle, given]. Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Poly. Soc, Part i. 
vol. xi. pp. 1-20. 
C. E. DeRance. Lancashire, Lincolnshire, Cheshire. 

[Underg:round Waters, being the] Thirteenth Report of the Committee, 
consisting of . . [18 names] . . for . . . investigating the Circulation of 
Underground ^Yaters in the Permeable Formations of England and Wales, 
and the Quantity and Character of the Water Supplied to various Towns and 
Districts from these Formations [details given of wells and boreholes at 
Gainsborough, Lines., at Capenhurst, Cheshire, Manchester, Penwortham 
near Preston, Bury Railway .Station, Withnell Moor, and Walton-le-Dale ; 
and the Report concludes with a most valuable ' Chronological List of Works 
referring to Underground Water, England and Wales,' by W. Whitaker ; 
556 titles given]. 57th Rep. Brit. Assoc. (Manchester, 1887), 1888, 358-414. 

E. Dickson. Lancashire. 

Notes on the Excavations for the Preston Docks [describing the Boulder 

Clays and Sands, and the Pebble-beds of the Bunter, and giving lists of the 

bones and the shells found]. Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc, vol. v. (1887), 249-256. 

E. Dickson. Lancashire. 

Geological Notes on the Preston Dock Works and Ribble Develop- 
ment Scheme [supplementary to the above paper, and giving a folding 
sectio n]. Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc, vol. v. (1888), 369-376. 
April i8go. 



128 bibliography: geology and paleontology, 1888. 

D. Emulrtox. Durham and York N.W. 

A Catalogue of the Place-names in Teesdale [with many references to 
the physical features]. Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. , Durham, and Newc- 
on-Tyne, vol. ix. (1888), pp. 1-223. 

L. Fletcher. Yorkshire. 

An Introduction to the Study of Meteorites [with a list of those in the 

British Museum collection ; includes the aerolites which fell at Wold Cottage, 

Thwing, in 1795 (pp. 22, 73), and at Pennyman's Siding, Middlesbrough, in 

1881 (pp. 26, 80, 85)]. 92 pp., 8vo., London, 1888. 

C. Fox-Strangways and G. W. Lamplugh. Yorkshire. 

La Geologie du I'Est du Yorkshire [prepared for the excursion of the 
London Geological Congress ; the former author gives an account of the 
Jurassic rocks of East Yorkshire ; the latter a description of the Cretaceous 
and Glacial deposits near Bridlington ; there are also a bibliography and a 
coloured map]. Congres Geologique International, 41^ Session, Explications 
des Excursions, pp. 131-175. 

W. Garnett. Durham. 

Report of the Committee appointed to inquire into the Observations 

of Earth-tremors . . . [giving record of tremors observed at Marsden, and 

pointing out their probable connection with earth-quakes in various parts of 

the globe]. Trans. North of Eng. Inst. Mining and Mech. Eng. , xxxvii. 55-57. 

S. Gasking. Lancashire. 

Report of Field Meeting at St. Helens [Cowley Hill Quarry and Middle- 
hurst's Quarry in the Lower Coal Measures visited, and in the Middle Coal 
Measures, Doulton's Delph, were Stigmaria and Dadoxylon were seen in situ]. 
Trans. Liverp. Geol. Assoc, 1886-7, vol. vii. p. 55. 
S. Gasking. Lancashire. 

Report of Field Meeting at St. Helens [recording numerous Coal-Measure 
plants at an excavation at Cropper's Hill known as Doulton's Delph]. Proc. 
Liverp. Geol. Soc. , vol. v. 1888, p. 391. 

A. Geikie. North of England. 

The History of Volcanic Action during the Tertiary Period in the 
British Isles [many of the great dykes of basic rocks in the North of 
England are held by the author to have been the channels of extensive fissure 
eruptions in Tertiary times ; the basaltic lavas have since been removed by 
denudation, except in Antrim and the Inner Hebrides ; the Cleveland Dyke 
runs from near Whitby to near Carlisle (no miles), and perhaps 80 miles 
farther, into Ayrshire (pp. 49, 50)]. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb. , vol. xxxv. 
pp. 21-184, with plates i. and ii. (1888). 

Isaac E. George. Lancashire and Cheshire. 

Wind Erosion [or .-Eolian action stated to be one of the potent forces of 

denudation ; the structure of sand grains described and their connection with 

the origin of some of the Triassic sandstones alluded to]. Trans. Liverp, 

Geol. Assoc, 1886-7, vol. vii. pp. 36-39. 

I. E. George. Derbyshire. 

Bank Holiday Trip to Castleton [Windy Knoll Quarry visited, and speci- 
mens of elaterite obtained ; the gorge of the Winnatts traversed, and its 
origin suggested, the Cave Dale basalt thought to be intrusive, in one place 
developing a rude columnar structure vertically]. Trans. Liverp. Geol. 
Assoc, vii. 1886-7, 79-81. 
I. E. G[eorge]. Derbyshire. 

A Remarkable Valley [the origin of Cave Dale considered ; a splendid 
example of denudation]. Trans. Liverp. Geol. Assoc, 1886-7, vii. 82-83. 

W. Hodgson Gill. Yorkshire. 

[Report upon Boulders at Filey and Hunmanby ; details given of two 
boulders at Filey and one at Hunmanby]. Nat., Nov. 1888, pp. 346,347. 

Naturalist, 



No. 178. 



MAY 1890. 




NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF. ENGLAND. 



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§onfenfs: 

Bibliography: Geology and Palaeontology, 1888 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: 28th Annual Report .. 

The Connection betwixt Yorkshire and Scandinavia— 7. E. .^rarr. Jir.A., ftc 

A New Entomological Journal (Review) 

The Birds of Oxfordshire (Review) 

Microscopic Fauna and Flora of Markington, Mid-West Yorkshire 

Stanley Tute, B.A ... 
Some Further Notes on the Tree Sparrow—/-. B. Whitlock.. 
The Lichens of Westmorland— 7'<7j</>A ^. i1/<Tr/'y«a'rt/<^ 

Notes— Birds 

Nesting of the Cirl Bunting in Yorkshire— 7(7/j« Ward; Flamborough Notes 
Arrival and Departure of Birds — Matihi-.v Bailey. 
Note— Geology 

Exposure of Lower Lias at Redcar— ^cr'. "'■ C. Hey, M.A. 
Note— Entomology 

Entomological Exhibition at Alford, L\nci— Joseph Burtt Davy. 
Notes and News 



FAGH 

125 to 138 
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149 

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BiHLioc'.kAi'HV : (;b:oi,()(;v and valA'-Onvoixu-.v, 1888. 129 

J. C;. (iooDciiu.D. Cheshire, Cumberland, and Westmorland. 

Some Observations upon the Natural History of Gypsum [its nuxles of 

occurrt-nce and probable origin ; considcral>le deposits occur about the 

horizon of the Mai^nesian Limestone in Cunii)erland aiul Westmorland, and 

in the Keuper Marls in Cheshire]. I'roc. (leul. Assoc, vol. \. (1888), 425-445. 

J. C. ('.[oodchild]. Westmorland. 

Westmorland [an account of its geology, physical features, climate, and 
minerals]. Encycloiwdia lintannica, 9th ed., vol. xxiv. (1888), jip. 513-515. 

^^'M. (iKEGso.N. York N.E. 

[Reports upon Erratic Blocks in the North Riding of Yorkshire ; detail-^ 

of erratic blocks at Cattersty Sands, Skinningrove, Whorlton, Haldersby Park, 

Elmire, Robin Hood's Bay, and Mutton Moor]. Nat., Jan. 1888, pp. 19,^:0. 

Wm. ClREc-.soN. York N.E. 

[Boulders at Guisborough ; details of two boulders in the Priory Cirounds, 
Guisborough]. Nat., Nov. 188S, pp.347, 348. 

W. .S. Gkf.slev. Derbyshire. 

The Occurrence of Variegated Coal-Measures, Altered Ironstones, 
etc., at Swadlincote, Derbyshire [describes a quarry-section showing Coal- 
Measures iron-stained by the overlying red Permian beds, and containing 
nodules of clay-ironstone convertetl into hxmatite]. (leol. Mag., March 1888, 
dec. iii. vol. v. pp. 1 1 5- 117. 

AV. S. (iRKsi.iiY. Northumb., Durham, and Yorkshire. 

[Letter on correlation of coal-seams in the North of England, in dis- 
cussion of a paper by Mr. Walton Brown]. Trans. North of Kng. Inst. Mining 
and Mech. Eng.,vol. xxxvii. pp. 123-125. 

W. S. Gre.slp:y. Lanes., Yorksh., Northumb., etc. 

On the occurrence of Boulders and Pebbles in the Coal Measures 

[describes many instances not only of boulders and pebbles found end)edded 
in coal-seams and lying on the roof, but 'erratics ' occurring in the Hoois or 
underclays of coal beds]. Trans. Manch. Geol. .Soc, vol. xix. Part 18, 
pp. 488-504, with sections. 

C. 1). Hardcastle. Yorkshire. 

The Greystone, Leeds [described ; Millstone Grit ; details of the block given, 

also a legend and historical facts connected with it]. Nat., Jan. 1888, 18-19. 

Cheviotland, Derbysh., Durham, Northumbld., Cumbld, Westmld., 
Alfred Marker. Furness, York N.W., York N.E., Isle of Man. 

The Igneous Dykes of the North of England [the striking phenomena 
of the igneous dykes of this country generally alluded to, and numerous 
localities" given, with particular reference to the great augite-andesite dyke of 
Cleveland, known a I. so as the CockHeld and the Armathwaite Dyke; it is sug- 
gested that igneous dykes should be formed into groups — firstly, those in 
connection with volcanic necks or plutonic bosses, commonly presenting a 
rough radial arrangement about their source ; secondly, those injected during 
or closely subsequent to movements, etc., in the strata; and thirdly, these 
belonging to more extensive geological operations (fissure eruptions, etc.)]. 
Nat., De'c. 1888, pp. 349-353- 
George F. Harris. Westmorland. 

Granites and our Granite Industries [account given of the .Shap (Quarries ; 
the stone is described as a porphyritic hornblendic granite]. Chap. v. .Sec. A, 
Hornblendic Ciranites, pp. 53-54. 
T, F. H[enuerson]. Yorkshire. 

York [a summary of the geology, physical features, minerals, etc., of the 
county]. Encycl. Brit., 9th ed., vol. xxiv. pp. 746-747, 1888. 

M.iy 1890. 1 



130 bibliography: geology and PALyEONTOLOGV, 1888. 

W. Hrvvitt. Lancashire. 

Notes on the Topography of Liverpool [rtTening to the water-supply, 
boulder-clays, and quarries]. I'roc. Liverp. Geo). See, vol. v. jjp. 145-150. 

\V. Hewitt. Isle of Man. 

Notes on Glacial Deposits and Markings in the South of the Isle of 

Man [describing the till and the ice-scratches ab(iut Port Erin, Port St. Mary, 
and Castletown]. Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc. , 1888, vol. v. pp. 352-358. 

W. HEwnr. Cheshire. 

Report of Field Meeting at Runcorn [describing the Keuper beds there 
exposed]. Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc, 1888, vol. v. p. 390. 

W. Hewitt. Lancashire. 

River Deposits in the Ribble Valley [a resume of the papers by Mr. E. 
Dickson on the same subject]. Research, July 1888, pp. 9, 10. 

W. Hill. Lincolnshire and York S.E. 

On the Lower Beds of the Upper Cretaceous Series in Lincolnshire 
and Yorkshire [the Hunstanton Limestone is represented by the Red Chalk, 
with varying thickness up to 30 ft. at Speeton : the base of the Chalk Marl 
is marked by a bed of compact limestone etjuivalent to the 'sponge-bed'; 
the upper limit of the Chalk Marl is fixed by certain courses of grey chalk 
representing the Totternhoe Stone, with frequent red coloration in Lincoln- 
shire]. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xliv. pp. 320-364; Abstract in Geol. 
Mag. (3), vol. V. pp. 234, 235 ; Phil. Mag., May (5), vol. xxv. pp. 445, 446. 

Bernard Hobson. Isle of Man. 

The Glaciation of the Isle of Man [draws attention to the glacial stria^ on 
Carboniferous Limestone at Scarlett Point near Castletown, direction E. 35° N. 
and E. 37^° N. ; at Port St. Mary, on the outer side of the shore end of the 
new concrete jiier, average direction E. 33° N.; from the beds immediately 
overlying the limestone at Port St. Mary — a rounded and well-scratched 
boulder. The article is written in refutation of Mr. Keegan's article in 
Sci. Goss., April 1888, p. 73]. Sci. Goss., July 1S88, pp. 165-166. 

B. Hoi-OATE. Yorkshire. 

The Magnesian Limestones of Yorkshire [after general remarks upon 

the Permian formation, localities are given ; divisions of the Permian rocks 

of Yorkshire (|uoted ; also their economic uses]. Trans. Leeds Geol. Assoc, 

1888, Part iv. pp. 182-184. 

B. Hoi.cATE. Westmorland and Cumberland. 

Notes on the Lake District [visits to Castle Rigg near Keswick, the Glenda- 

terra Pass near Skitldavv, and othfer places described ; metamorphism of the 

Lake District rocks illustrated]. Trans. Leeds Geol. Assoc. 1888, Part iv. 

204-206. 

J. HoRNELL. Isle of Man. 

Ice-graving in the Isle of Man [a note on the glacial striations of the 

isL-ind, mentioning localities]. Sci. Goss., June 1888, pp. 140, 141. 

W. H. HuDLESTON. Lincolnshire and York E. 

A Monograph of the British Jurassic Gasteropoda. General introduc- 
tion, pp. 1-15, ^iid Part i. No. i; Gasteropoda of the Inferior Oolite, 
pp. 17-56 [Inferior Oolite of P^ngland divided into four districts ; No. 3, the 
East Midland, including Lincolnshire and South-East Yorkshire; No. 4, the 
Yorkshire Basin proper ; comparison of Dorset and Yorkshire coasts, p. 35]. 
Palreontographical Society, vol. xl. (for 1886, pub. 1887). Part i. No. 2 ; 
• Gasteropoda of the Inferior Oolite, pp. 57-136, plates i.-vi. [Lincolnshire 
Limestone described, pp. 71-73 ; the introductory portion of the monograph 
discusses the details of the Inferior Oolite in the East Midland district and 
the Yorkshire Basin, pp. 74-77 ; systematic part of work, which follows, 

describes many Yorkshire species]. Vol. xli. (for 1887, pub. 1888). 

Naturalist, 



bibliography: geology and palaeontology, ib88. 131 

W. H. lIuDLKSTON. Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. 

Report of Sub-Committee [on classification of Oolites ; contains the 

author's arrangement of the Oolitic strata of Yorkshire, with their distriliu- 

tion, lithological characters, and characteristic fossils]. Congres Geologi(iue 

International ; compte rendu, 3"ie session, pp. 457-483 5 Berlin, 1888. 

T. McK. HucHKs. York E. and Cheshire. 

On the Drifts of the Vale of Clwyd and their Relation to the Caves 
and Cave-Deposits [discussing also the relations of the well-known ' Brid- 
lington Crag' and the shell-bearing deposits at Kelsey Hill and Macclesfield, 
and giving full lists of the species recorded]. <^uart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 
vol. xliii. pp. 73-115 [9i-97]> 1S87. 
O. W. Jeffs. Lancashire. 

The Calday Grange Fault, West Kirby [describing the exposures and 
noting slickensides; with a plate]. Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc, 1888, vol. v. 
247-249. 
O. W. JKKKS. Lancashire. 

Report of Field-Meeting at Thurstaston and West Kirby [descril:)ing 
the Upper liunter, etc.]. Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc, 1888, vol. v. pp.290, 291. 

O. W. Jeffs. Cheshire. 

Notes on the Occurrence of Copper in the Keuper Sandstone at the 

Peckforton Hills, Cheshire [with analyses by C. C. Moore]. Proc 
Liverp. Geol. Soc, 1887, vol. v. pp. 139-144. 

p:dward Jones. Yorkshire. 

On the recent Exploration of a Cave at Elbolton near Thorpe [the 
entrance to this cave is at the foot of a small scar on the south side of Elbolton, 
about 100 ft. from the summit ; known in the neighbourh(3od as ' Knavvy 
Noddle Hole'; Whitaker (Hist. Craven) calls it ' Knave Hole'; has recently 
been explored by Craven Naturalists' Society ; description of cave given, and 
the following animal remains reported to have been obtained : man, horse, ox, 
sheep, dog, fox, badger, pig, wild boar, red deer, rat, water rat, mouse, 
shrew', and three sjiecies of birds]. Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Pol. Soc, 
vol. xi. part I, pp. 86-90. 

T. Rui'ERT Jones (Secretary). York Mid W., Derbyshire. 

Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheridge, Dr. H. 
Woodward, and Professor T. Rupert Jones (Secretary), on the Fossil 
Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks, 1887 iDithyrocaris tenuistnata. 
Mountain Limestone, Settle ; D. lateralis, black bands over the main lime- 
stone of Derbyshire ; D. pholadomya, in a dark micaceous sandstone of the 
Lower Carboniferous Limestone, Berwick-upon-Tweed, are noticed]. 57th 
Rep. Brit. Assoc, Manchester, 1887 (pub. 1888), pp. 64 and 65. 

J. W. JuDD. Lancashire. 

Report on the Manchester (Oxford Road) Boulder [a much-altered por- 
phyrite, and originally, no doubt, an andesitic lava ; the rock is very similar 
to some of the Lake district volcanic rocks, especially to that of Eycott Hill ; 
' I think there is little doubt that it came from the Lake district ']. Proc. 
Liverpool Geol. Soc, vol. v. part 4, 1888, p. 370. 

A. J. Jukes- Browne. Lincolnshire. 

The Correlation of Midland Glacial Deposits with those of Lincolnshire 

[a letter criticising Mr. Deeley's conclusions]. Geol. Mag., July 1888, dec. iii. 
vol. V. pp. 332, 333. 
{'. <^). KEEt;AN. Isle of Man. 

In the Isle of Man [includes notes on the Silurian slates and other formations, 
and on the minerals of the Island]. Sci. Goss., April i888, pp. 73-75« 

May 1890. 



132 BIBLIOGRAPHY : GEOLOGV AND PAL/^ONTOI.OGV, 1 888. 

P. V. Ken DA 1,1.. Lancashire. 

Note on an Erratic Block observed during' excavations for a sewer in 

Oxford Street, Manchester [a block 9 ft. 6 in. long, of andesitic rock, 

[probably from Ilonister and Coniston district]. Mem. and Proc. Manch. 

Lit. and Phil. Soc, Ser. 4, vol i. pp. 97-98. 

R. KinsTON. York S. 

On the Fructification of two Coal-measure Ferns [one of which, Crossotheca 
fivihnata, is described as new from Monklon Colliery near Barnsley, and 
East Ciawber Colliery, Barnsley, being sent by W. Hemingway, and the 
horizon l)eing Middle Coal-measures shale over 'Barnsley Thick Coal']. 
Ann. and Mag. N. H., July 1888, Series 6, vol. ii. pp. 22-27, ^''''' Plate i. 

R. KiDsroN. Northumberland, South Yorkshire. 

Additional Notes on some British Carboniferous Lycopods [giving 
description oi Lcpidodcndro7i vcltlieiiniaiinim .Sternb., Lower Carboniferous of 
Lumby Law Railway-cutting, near I^dlingham, Northumberland ; fruit of 
Bolhrodciidron miuntifoliuvi Boulay, Monkton Main Colliery. Barnsley; and 
B. iviikiaitinn. Little Whickhope Burn, near first branch above Cross .Sike, 
Northumberland]. Proc. Roy. Phys. .Soc. Edinb., .Session cxviii, 1888-89, 
vol. X. pp. 88-97 and Plate 4. 

Robert Law and Jas. Horsfall. Lane, and Yorks. 

An Account of Small Flint Implements found beneath Peat on several 
elevated points of the Pennine Chain, lying between Huddersfield and 
Oldham [localities where found, and number obtained given ; .Section at 
March Hill where the greater number of them have been obtained, is detailed]. 
Trans. Manch. Ceol. .Soc. vol xix. Part 20, pp. 599-603. 

G. A. Lebour. Northumberland. 

On Thinolite and Jarrowite [the ' Thinolite ' of Nevada identified with the 
' Jarrowite ' of the Tyne]. Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1887. p. 700. 

F. Arnold Lees. West Yorkshire. 

The Flora of West Yorkshire [the second volume of the Botanical .Series 
of Trans. Vorks. Nat. Union. Climatology is dealt with in pp. 3-61 : the 
zones of altitude included in West Yorkshire are the Infer-agrarian, Mid- 
agrarian, Super-agrarian, and Infer-arctic ; the next section (pp. 65 84) treats 
of the lithology of the Riding ; with reference to the subject in hand, the 
various formations are grouped as Dysgeogenous, Pseudogeogenous, and 
Eugeogenous, their distribution being indicated on a coloured map ; the 
physical characters of these formations and the soils they produce are discussed 
from a botanical standpoint]. 8vo, London, 188S. 

H. Carvill Lewls. North of England. 

The Terminal Moraines of the Great Glaciers of England [lays down 

the position of these moraines in the North o( England]. Rep. Brit. Assoc. 

for 1887, pp. 691, 692 ; Nature, vol. xxxvi. j). 573, 1887 ; abstract given in 

Nat. Monthly, Oct. 1887, p. 37. 

J. LoMAS. Cheshire. 

On a Section of Boulder Clay near Hyde, Cheshire [with notes on the 
nature of the boulders, chiefly of hornblende-andesite]. Proc. Liverpool 
Gaol. Soc, 1887, vol. v. Part 3, pp. 257-259. 

R. Taylor Manson. Yorkshire. 

The Stranger's Stone, near Barnard Castle [details of an erratic block of 
Shap Granite on the bank of Deepdale Beck, a small stream running into the 
Tees, a little above Barnard Castle]. Nat., Jan. 1888, p. 21. 

R. Taylor Manson. Yorkshire. 

The Low Field Boulder [details of the erratic block at Low Field near 
Pierce Bridge ; Shap Granite ; a smaller one near Clifte Hall alluded to]. 
Nat., Jan. 1888, pp. 20, 21. 

N.itur.ilist, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY : GKOLOCV AND PAI„i;ON TOLOGV, l88S. 133 

R. Taylor Mansox. Durham. 

The Sadberge Block [ilctails of an erratic block at Sadherge, three miles 
N.E. of Darlington; encrinital blue limestone; recently iledicated as the 
'Jul)ilee' Stone]. Nat., Jan. 1888, ]i. 22. 

K. Tayi.ok Manson. Durham. 

The Bulmer's Stone, Darling^ton [details of the erratic block in Nonhgate, 
Darlington, known as the 'Huliner's' .Stone; Shap (Jranite]. Nat., [an. 
1888, pp. 22, 23. 

J. K. Mark and K. H. Tiddkman. West Yorkshire. 

La Gtologie de I'Ouest du Yorkshire [notes for the excursion of the 
International (leological Congress ; there are descriptions of the Ordovician, 
Silurian, Carboniferous, and Permian rocks, of the chief earth movements in 
the district, of the (Jlacial deposits, and of the Victoria Cave, besides a 
bibliography and a coloured map. The chief points are Mr. Marr's treatment 
of the Lower Pal.-eozoics, and Mr. Tiddeman's account of the two types of 
the Carboniferous, the southern division of the area containing the coral-built 
masses, which he terms 'knoll reefs']. Congres (ieologiipie International, 
4i'>e .Session, Explications des Excursions, pp. 63-106. 

J. E. Makr and H. A. NirnoLsox. Westmorland. 

The Stockdale Shales [the authors have minutely studied these beds, dividing 
them into a lower (Skelgill) and an upper (Browgili) division, with fifteen 
zones characterised by special graptolites and trilobites ; these zones show 
the closest correspondence with the Birkhill and Gala groups of .Southern 
.Scotland : among the fossils described and figured are new species of Cheiruriis, 
Acidaspis, Harpes, Aiiipyx, Froclus, and Atrypa\. (^uart. Journ. Ceol. .Soc. , 
vol. xliv. pj). 654-732, and pi. xvi ; abstract in Geol. Mag. "(3) vol. v. pp. 327- 
328; Phil. Mag., June (5), vol. xxv. jip. 519-520; Nature, May 31st, vol. 
xxxviii. p. 118; Ann. and Mag. N. 11., July 1888, 6th Series, vol. ii. p. 117. 

P. H. Marrow. Isle of Man. 

A Geological Ramble in the Isle of Man [raised beach at Carrickey Bay 

alluded to, also conglomerate at Poolvash Bay, the so-called Poolvash marble, 

.Silurian schists and metamorphism, the Foxdale lead mines, etc.]. Trans. 

Liverpool Ceol. Assoc, 1886-7, vol. xiv. pp. 56-62. 

W. Mawer. Lincolnshire and Cumberland. 

Primer of Micro-Petrology [note on large boulder of an ophitic rock (dolerite) 

known as the ' Blue Stone,' at Louth, with figure of a microscopic slice ; 

pp. 67 and 12 ; also figure of chiastolite-slate from Skiddaw ; p. 52.]. 70 pp., 

i2mo., London, no date [1888]. 

Charles E, Miles. Lancashire and Cheshire. 

The Mersey Estuary (Abstract) [assumes that at the close of the glacial period, 
when the river would be much shallower and extending further out to sea, 
the mouth would, by tidal ox other action become barred by sand or clay ; 
this would give rise to a lake, which slowly filling up by deposits of blue clay 
arising from denuded boulder clay brought down by the river, would produce 
marshy ground and suljsecpient peat ; in the course of time the erosion of the 
sea would form the present estuary]. Trans. Liverpool Geol. Assoc, vol. vii. 
1886-7, pp. 85-89. 

T. Carier Mitchell. Yorkshire. 

The Cundall Boulder [details of a boulder at Cundall, near Boroughbridge ; 
Shap Granite]. Naturalist, Nov. 188S, p. 348. 

Kohert Mortimer. York E. 

The Youlthorpe Boulder [details of a boulder at Voulthorpe, between Bishop 
Wilton and Stamford Bridge ; a very quartzose sandstone]. Naturalist, 
Nov. 1888, p. 348. 

G. H. Morton. North of England generally. 

Early Life on the Earth [references to earliest species of Foraminifera 

recorded ; S(iiCai>i//iina carteri occurs in the Lower and Upper Bernicean of 

North umberland ; Arachnida — species are recorded from the Coal Measures 

May 1890. 



134 BIBLIOGRAPHY : GEOI.OCV AND PAL/?':ONTOLOGY, 1 888. 

of Lancashire ; Insecta — two wings of an Orthopterous insect, Protophas- 
mida:, from the Ravenhead Beds, Middle Coal Measures, are in the Liverpool 
P'ree Museum ; Polyzoa — represented in the Coniston Limestone by Fenestella 
assiviilis and Plilodiclya ; Gasteropoda — I\}iap]ii stoma sp. occurs at Skiddaw ; 
Cephalopoda — Orthoccras vai^aus in the Coniston Limestone at the top of 
Skelgill ; Amphibia — the earliest occur in the Coal Measures, and belong to 
the Labyrinthodonta (see Mr. Atthey's collection in the Museum of the Nat. 
Hist. Soc. of Northumberland at Newcastle-on-Tyne) ; Reptilia — the earliest 
belong to the Lacertilia, and occur in the Permian ; there are two species, 
Profosaurus speiiceri and P. huxleyi from Durham]. Proc. Liverpool Geo). 
Soc, vol. V. part 3, 1887, pp. 209-241. 

G. H. Morion. Lancashire. 

The Microscopic Characters of the Millstone Grit of South-West 

Lancashire [at Knowsley Park, CJrimshaw Delph near Wigan, and Parbold : 

the grit is mainly of quartz-grains, with some reddish orthoclase and a little 

mica]. Proc. Liverpool C>eol. Soc, 1887, vol. v. pp. 280-283. 

G. H. Morton. Lancashire. 

Report of Field Meeting- at Eastham [describing the Lower Bunter as 
there seen]. Proc. Liverp. Cleol. Soc, 18S7, vol. v. p. 291. 

G. H. Morton. Cheshire. 

Stanlow, Ince, and Frodsham Marshes [the south coast of the estuary of 
the Mersey between Ellesmere Port and the river Weaver is bounded by 
a marsh, which is divided at Ince by a promontory of the Lower Pebble Beds, 
and there is an outlier of the same rock at .Stanlow Point ; a section of the 
lieds about one hundred yards \V. of Ince Lighthouse given]. Proc. Liverpool 
Geol. Soc, vol. V. part 4, 18S8, pp. 349-352. 

G. H. Morton. Lancashire. 

Local Historical, Post-Glacial, and Pre-Glacial Geology [a Presidential 

Address on the recent geology of Liveri)OoI]. Proc. Liverpool. Geol. Soc, 

1 888, vol. v. pp. 303-334. 

E. T. Newton. York N.E. 

On the Skull, Brain, and Auditory Organ of a new species of Pterosaurian 

{Scaplipgiiathiis piirdoni) from the Upper Lias near Whitby, Yorkshire 

[exceptionally perfect specimen]. Phil. Trans., clxxix. 503-537, plates 77, 78. 

Thos. Parkinson. Yorkshire. 

Reports upon Boulders near Northallerton [details are given of the 
following boulders : — Thornton-le-Beans, near Northallerton — .Shap Granite ; 
Thornton-le-Moors, near Northallerton — three boulders of Granite, coarse 
Dolerite or Gabbro, and closely-grained Trap or highly-altered fine Ash ; 
North Otterington — Ciranite]. Nat., Nov. 18S8, pp. 344-345. 

John H. Pan i,n'.s. York N.E. 

Notes on Shap Granite Boulders at Scarborough [a number of erratic 
blocks collected in the neighbourhood of Scarborough noted — .Shap Granite], 
Nat., Jan. 1888, p. 23. 

Sir JAMF.s PicTON. Lancashire. 

Notes on the Local Historical Changes in the Surface of the Land in 
and about Liverpool [rejiort only]. Research, Dec. 1888, vol. i. p. 97. 

H. M. Platnauek. Yorkshire. 

Reports upon Boulders in the Grounds of the Yorkshire Philosophical 
Society, York [iletails of sixteen boulders obtained from the Boulder Clay 
that was dug out when the York New .Station was built, and now placed in 
the Museum Grounds ; .Shap Granite, Mountain Limestone, Oolitic Limestone, 
Lithostrotion, greenish-grey Trap, etc.]. Naturalist, Nov. 1888, pji. 344-345. 

H. M. Platnauer. Yorkshire. 

Note on some Crystals of Celestine [from the bed of the Nidd at Knares- 
liorough]. Annual Report \'orks. Phil. .Soc. for 1887, p. 34. 

N.Ttur.Tlist, 



Biiu.ioc.KAHHv : (;F':ologv and pai./?-:ontology, 1888. 135 

11. M. ri.AiNAi KK. York S.E. 

Note on Hybodus obtusus Ag. [■<pines from Corallian of Malton flistrict 

described and figured]. Ann. Re]!. N'orks. I'hil. Soc. for 1887, pp. 35-36, pi. i. 

C. Potter. Cheshire. 

On the Sand-dunes of the Cheshire Coast (Abstract) [the several charac- 
teristics of the New Red Sandstone of the district alluded to ; by noting 
what actually occur.s amongst the sand-dunes, and observing the phenomena 
presented by blown sand, he concluded that similar results occurred during 
the formation of the Triassic sandstone ; the vegetation of the blown santl 
greatly instrumental in the building up and together the drifting loose 
material ; the tlieories to account for the almost total absence of fossils in the 
Trias examined]. Trans. Liverpool Cleol. Assoc. 1886-7, vol. vii. pp. 28-33. 

T. Mellakd Reade. Cheshire. 

Report of field-meeting- at Hilbre Island [relations between liunter and 

Keuper well exhibited]. Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc, 1888, vol. v. pp. 389-390. 

T. Meli.ari) Reade. Lancashire. 

Notes on a bed of Fresh Water Shells and a chipped flint lately found at 
the Alt Mouth [the shells including Lintirrea peregra^ Cyclas ioriico, and 
r/aiiorl'is sf<irorl'!s\. I'roc Liverp. Cleol. Soc, 1886, vol. v. pp. 137-139. 

T. MEi.i.ARt) Reaiie. Lancashire 

Notes on a large Boulder found in driving a Sewer Heading in Oxford 
Street, Manchester [giving dimensions and manner of occurrence of the 
boulder 9 ft. 6 in. long, now in the grounds of Owens College, with a note by 
Professor Judd describing the rock as an altered andesite doubtless from the 
Lake district]. Proc. Liverp. (ieol. Soc, Session 1887-8, pp. 12-14. 

T. Mei.i.ari) Reade. Lancashire and Cheshire. 

An Estimate of Post-Glacial Time [from an examination of the denudation 
of the Boulder-Clay on the Lancashire and Cheshire coasts and the seriuence 
of more recent deposits, the author places the close of the Cdacial Period not 
less than 57,500 years ago.] <^uart. Journ. Ceol. Soc, vol. xliv. pp. 
291-299; Abstr. in Proc. Geol. Soc, Feb. 29th, 1888: Nature, vol. xxxvii. 
pp. 478-479 ; Geol. Mag. April, dec. iii. vol. v. pp. 180-181 ; Phil. Mag., 
April (5), vol. XXV. [ip. 319-320 ; Nature, March 15th, vol. xxxvii. pp. 47S-479. 

Clement Reid. York S.E, 

Notes on the Geological History of the Recent Flora of Britain [with 
mention of />V/«A7 ;;</;/<? from submerged forests at Bridlington and Holmpton, 
Pritiiiis padiis and .thins ohtliiioia (cones) from the post-glacial beds of 
Hornsea and Sand-le-meer, Corylns aTel/aua (nuts) from the latter (dace, and 
Plira;^i)tites <o/iniiiiiiis (panicles) in post-glacial peaty bed at Kelsey Hill]. 
Annals of Botany, 1888, vol. ii. p|). 179-199. 

Osborne Reynolds. Lancashire and Cheshire. 

On Certain Laws relating to the Regime of Rivers and Estuaries, 
and on the Possibility of Experiments on a small scale [treats the 
case of the Mersey inner estuary as illustrating the manner in which the con- 
figuration of the shore-line determines the banks and channels ; the author 
has made a working model]. Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1887, pp. 555-562. 

L. Richard.son. Cumberland. 

The Ascent of Cross Fell [noting swallow-holes near the limestone outcrop, 
fluor-spar at the leail-mines, etc.]. Nat. Hist. Journ., vol. xli. [ip. 13-14. 

C. RicKEi IS. Westmorland and York W 

The Base of the Carboniferous Limestone [describing its nature at Kirkby 

Lonsdale and at Sha|) Wells (where the conglomerate contains fragments of the 

Shap Granite) ; also near Ingleborough]. Proc. Liverpool Geol. .Soc, 1887, 

vol. v. pp. 262-271. 

C. Ricketts. Lancashire. 

Report of Excursion along the Mersey Tunnel Extension and Wirral 
Railway [noting sands imbedded in the Boulder-clay]. Proc. Liverpool 
Geol. Soc, 1887, vol. v. pp. 388, 389. 

May 1890. 



136 BIBLIOGRAPHY: GKOLOGY AND PAL.?;0NTOLOGY, 1888. 

C. RicKETTS [conductor of excursion]. Cheshire. 

Liverpool Geological Association [at Flaybrick Hill, Birkenhead, June nth, 
1888]. Research, July 1888, p. 15. 

H. G. Seelky. York N.E. 

On the Mode of Development of the Young in Plesiosaurus [describes 

fttlal plesiosaurs from the Lias of Whitby]. Rep. Brit. Assoc, 1887, 697, 698. 

A. C. Seward. Lancashire. 

Woodwardian Museum Notes. On Calamites undulatus (Sternb.) [from 
Coal-measures near Wigan ; the specimen sup]")orts the view that the undu- 
lating character of the ribs on which the species is founded is due merely to 
pressure]. Geo!. Mag., July 1888, (3), vol. v. ])p. 289-291 and plate ix. 

A. C. .Seward. Yorkshire. 

Woodwardian Museum Notes. On a Specimen of Cydopteris (Brong- 
niart) [a large specimen from the Upper Coal-measures of Brierly Common]. 
Geol. Mag., August 1888, dec. iii. vol. v. pp. 344-347. 

Theodore SiNOxOiN. Lancashire. 

On the recently disclosed Sections of the Superficial Strata along 
Oxford Street, Manchester [detailed sections obtained during the con- 
struction of a sewer along Oxford Street, Manchester, from the river Medlock 
to High .Street, at a depth of about 30 ft.]. Trans. Manchester Geol. Soc, 
vol. xix. Part 20, pp. 603-606, with section. 

J. Si'ENCER. York S.W. 

On the occurrence of a Boulder of Granitoid Gneiss or Gneissoid Granite 
in the Halifax Hard Bed Coal [this boulder found in Hard Bed Coal, 
Shibden Head Pit, near Halifax ; it is of a greyish colour, about four inches 
in length by about two and a half square ; the angles have been worn off, and 
the faces polished and striated transversely: this most probably due to 
slickensiding ; Prof. Bonney has examined a section of it, and says : ' It is 
one of unusual interest ; it is not a quartzite, but a granitoid gneiss or 
gneissoid granite, probably derived from some mass of Pre-Canibrian age.' 
The conditions attending the deposition of the strata enclosing the coal-seam 
in which it occurred are added, and also the general character of the strata, 
and the direction from whence they appear to have come. The author, in 
conclusion, says it is reasonable to attribute the transportation of such boulders 
to drifting and tangled masses of vegetable matter rather than to ice]. 
Proc. Yorks. Geol, and Polyt. Soc, vol. xi. part i, pp. 96-100. 

J. Spencer. Lancashire. 

Evidence of Ice-Action in Carboniferous Times [abstract only ; the author 
ascribes to floating ice certain striations in the Haslingden Flag-rock and at 
a similar horizon near Rochdale]. Quart. Journ. (jeol. Soc, vol. xliv (Pro- 
ceedings), pp. 93, 94. 

W. Squire. Durham, etc. 

The Sulphur Springs of Great Britain and their Therapeutic Action 

[giving particulars of these springs, and especially of Dinsdale-on-Tees, with 
a brief notice of the geological conditions of this place]. Lancet, Aug. 4th, 
1888, vol. ii. pp. 201-203. 

M. Stirrup. Lancashire. 

Foreign Boulders in Coal Seams [an exhaustive description of various 
boulders found in coal-seams of Lancashire collieries from 1 85 1 downwards ; 
classification of several by Prof. Bonney included ; in discussion, Mr. J. 
Dickinson, F.G.S. (the President), believes them 'to be simply freaks of 
nature, assuming the form which it has been assigned for such matter to take; 
he would no more expect to imd a boulder in the middle of a coal seam than 
in the middle of a cocoa-nut.' The large boulders from the Astley Pit at 
Dukenficid are cpiartzites ; the large one from the Old Meadows Pit is granite; 
another a dark gray quartz felsite, etc., etc.]. Proc. Manch. Geol. Soc, 
vol. xix. Part 16, pp. 405-428, with sections and sketches of boulders. 

Naturalist, 



BiBLioGRAi'HY : (;eoi.O(;y and PAi,/i>:oNroi.O(;v, i88S. 137 

M. Sttrrup. Lancashire. 

On Foreign Boulders in Coal Seams [records numerous cases in Laiicrrshire 
collieriesj. Rep. Brii. Assoc, for 18S7, pp. 686-688. 
A. .Stkahan. Westmorland, West Yorkshire, and Lancashire. 

The Geology of the Country around Kendal, Sedbergh, Bowness, and 
Tebay, by W. T. Aveline and T. McK. Hughes, 2nd ed. Mem. Geol. 
Surv. England and Wales (expl.anation of (Juarter-shect 98 N.K.) [chap. 1. 
describes the pliysical geology of the district ; ii. the Lower I'aliTOzoic rocks ; 
iii. the Carljoniferous system ; iv. the Shap granite and igneous dykes ; and 
V. the (llacial and other superficial deposits ; an appendix gives lists of the 
fossils, inchiding a table by Prof. Lapworth showing the distribution of the 
Ciraptolites]. 8vo, 94 pp. and iii. plates, London, 1888. 
R. A. SuMMiiKi lEi.r). Yorkshire. 

Boulders at North Stainley, near Ripon [details of a large Carboniferous 
gritstone l)Oulder at North Stainley, and notes upon others in the district]. 
Naturalist, Nov. 1888, p. 345. 
A. N.5RMAN Tati.:. Yorkshire. 

Scientific Aspects of Health Resorts. No. i. Harrogate [the special 
.-eolo'dcal features of this district briefly reviewed, with a diagrammatic 
section through the Harrogate anticlinal from Saltergate Hill to Plumpton 
Rocks given ; notice and views of Brimham Rocks added]. Research, 
July 1888, pp. 5-7 and illustrations. 
A. NORMAN Tate. Derbyshire. 

On the Colouring Matter of the Mineral ' Blue John ' [ascribing the purple 
colour of this fluor-spar to organic matter, though a minute quantity of iron 
is also present]. Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc, 1888, vol. v. pp. 384-385. 
T. T. H. Tkali.. Northern Counties in general. 

British Petrography: a Description of the Ordinary Rocks of the 
British Isles [the early parts of this work were noticed in the Bibliography 
for 18S6 ; the whole volume is now issued, and forms a most useful addition 
to the literature of the subject ; the North-Country rocks hguied include, 
besides those already noted, Andesitic Dolerite of Preston (xxx), Ouartz-felsite 
of Ridlees Burn (xxxi), Mica-trap of Swindale Beck (xxxii), Chiastolite Slate 
of Skiddaw (xxxiii), Biotite-Granite of Shap (xxxv), Enstatite-Augite-Andesite 
(xxxvi) and Enstatite-Porphyrite (xxxvii) of the Cheviots, Perlitic Felsite of 
Long Sleddale (xxxviii), and Augite-Granite of Cheviots (xxxix)]. viii and 
469 pp. and xlvii plates, roy. 8vo. London, 1888. 
O. ToRKi.i,. York S. and Lincolnshire. 

On the Extension of the Scandinavian Ice to Eastern England in the 
Glacial Period [the ice-stream from southern Scandinavia crossed the North 
Sea to Ilolderness and Lincolnshire; the ' Rhombenporphyr ' of Christiania 
has been found at (Irimsby, and the syenite of Fredriksvarn in Holderness]. 
Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1887, pp. 723-724 ; abstract in ' Nature,' vol. xxxvi. 
p. 573, 1888. 
R. H. Traoijaik. Derbyshire and Lancashire. 

New Paljeoniscidse from the English Coal-Measures [the new species 
described include Eloimhthys biniuyi from Stanton, Derbyshire; Khadi- 
nichthys plant iimm Colleyhurst, near Manchester, and Burnley, and Acrolepis 
wi/soiii from the Yoredale shales of Turnditch near Belper]. Geol. Mag., 
1888 dec. iii. vol. v. pp. 251-254. 
W. A. E. UssiiER, A. J. Jukes-Brownk, and A. Strahan. Lincolnshire. 
The Geology of the Country around Lincoln, Mem. Geol. Surv. England 
and Wales (explanation of Sheet 83) [notes on the Carboniferous, Permian, 
and Trias are given by Mr. W. H. Dalton ; succeeding chapters describe the 
Rhaetic rocks near Gainsborough; the Lower, Middle, and Upper Lias, 

May 1890. 



138 DIBLIOGRAPHY : GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY, 1 888. 

the Lower, Middle, and Upper Oolites, the Lower Cretaceous ('Neocomian') 
and Upper Cretaceous, and the Glacial and Post-Glacial deposits ; appendices 
jjive tables of fossils, particulars of borings and of the mineral springs of 
Woodhall Spa]. Svo, 218 pp., London, 1888; Reviewed in Geol. Mag., 
December 1888, dec. iii. vol. v. pp. 571, 572. 

W. Y. Veitch. YorkN.E. 

The Saltburn Boulder [details of the above boulder are given ; Shap Fell 
Granite]. Nat., Nov. 1888, p. 346. 

G. R. Vine. Yorkshire. 

A Monograph of Yorkshire Carboniferous and Permian Polyzoa, Part i 
[i. Introduction : 2, Bibliographical References; 3. Terminology. Cystodictya 
parallela and C. rariscosfa, and Goniocladia cellulifera ; generic and specific 
characters given, with their distribution, followed by details of their minute 
structure]. Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc, vol. xi. part i, pp. 68-85, with 
two plates. 

J. F. Walkek. York S.E. 

On the Occurrence of Terebratula Gesneri in Yorkshire [specimens of 
this rare br.ichiopod in Malton Museum from Coral Rag of North Grimston ; 
figures given]. Annual Report Yorks. Phil. Soc. for 1887, pp. 33, 34. 

T. Ward. Cheshire. 

The History and Cause of the Subsidences at Northwich and its 

Neighbourhood, in the Salt District of Cheshire [the abstraction of the 

salt in solution by pumping leaves cavities]. Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1S87, 

pp. 713, 714 ; Nature, 1887, vol. xxxvi. p. 572. 

Arthur Watts. Durham. 

A Boulder at Seaham Harbour [details of a bouhier in the grounds of 
Hawthorne Tower, Seaham Harbour ; F^ncrinital Carboniferous Limestone]. 
Nat., Nov. 1888, p. 348. 

William Watts. Lancashire and West Yorkshire. 

Distribution of Erratics and Boulder Clay on the lower portions of the 
Drainage Areas of the Oldham Corporation Waterworks [the .Strines- 
dale, Piethom, Denshaw, and Castleshaw valleys described, with list of forty 
named erratics found on these drainage areas]. Trans. Manchester Geol. 
Assoc, vol. xix. Pait 20, pp. 584-598. 

Jas. WiiDiNi;. Lancashire and Cheshire. 

The Use and Abuse of Stone in Building (Al)stract) [the Triassic Sandstones 
of Runcorn, Woolton, l^verton. and Storeton briefly alluded to in eulogistic 
terms]. Trans. Liver|-iool Geol. Assoc, vol. vii. 1886-7, pp. 90-91. 

W. C. Williamson. York S.W. 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. C. Williamson and 
Mr. Cash, for the purpose of investigating the Carboniferous Flora of 
Halifax and its neighbourhood [the most important result for the year is 
the identification of the fruit of Calamites]. Report Brit. Assoc, for 1887, 
PP- 235-236- 

^V. C. Williamson. Lancashire and York S.W. 

The Fossil Trees of the Coal Measures [an address upon Stigmariie, with 

particular reference to the Clayton Fossil Tree now in the Museum of Owens 

College, Manchester]. Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc, vol. xix. Parts 14 and 15, 

pp. 382-388. 

H. A. WooDWARii. Lancashire. 

Boulders in Coal Seams [brief note on three boulders found in the Trencher- 
bone Mine, Newtown Collieries]. Proc. Manch. Geol. Soc. vol. xix. part 18, 
p. 488. 

Naturalist, 



139 
YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 



28th ANNUAL REPORT, for 1889. 

Your Executive, in presenting the 28th Annual Report and State- 
ments of Accounts, have to pass in review a year of successful work, 
whether as regards the interest maintained in the Excursions, the 
value of the publications, or the amount of work achieved by the 
various Committees appointed for special research. 

The Meetings which have been held during the year have 
been five in number, one in each division of the county, the places 
and dates having been as follows : — 

Huddeisfield for Holmfirth \alley, Whit-Monday, June lOlh. 

Robin Hood's Bay and the Peak, Friday, June 21st. 

Harrogate for Pkmipton and Rudding Parks, Saturday. July 13th. 

Upper Teesdale, Saturday to Bank Holiday Monday, August 3rd to 5th. 

Malton for Kirkham Abl^ey and Acklam Brow, Wednesday, September 4th. 

For each of these meetings the usual descriptive circular, which is 
so conducive to the convenience of members and associates under- 
taking the day's explorations, was issued, and at all the meetings 
good results were achieved. 

The opening meeting, arranged for Whit-Monday, at Hudders- 
field, was well attended, notwithstanding the threatening aspect of 
the weather. The country chosen for investigation was the millstone 
grit district lying S.W. of Holmfirth, including the Holme Valley, 
Bilberry Reservoir, Ramsden Edge and Harden Moss. The meeting 
was held at Huddersfield, Mr. Chas. P. Hobkirk, F.L.S., President 
of the Botanical Section, being in the chair. 

It will be remembered that the excursion which was planned last 
year (1888) for visiting the Peak or South Cheek of Robin Hood's 
Bay, was but poorly attended, owing to the incessant rain. It was 
therefore arranged that the same ground should be again visited, and 
the second excursion of this year took place there, on the 21st of 
June, when there was a large attendance, attracted partly by the fine 
weather and beautiful scenery, partly by the fact that the excursion 
was under the leadership of a distinguished ex-president of the Union, 
Mr. W. H. Hudleston, F.R.S. The Marine Zoology Committee 
were able on this occasion to do good work by means of a steam 
launch and trawl, which was kindly placed at their disposal by 
Major Woodall. The general meeting was held at Whitby, under 
the chairmanship of the Rev. E. Maule Cole, M.A., President of the 
Geological Section. 

May 1890. 



I40 YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION — ANNUAL REPORT. 

The third excursion was held at Harrogate, on Saturday, the 
13th of July, for the investigation of the Crimple Valley, Rudding and 
Plumpton Parks, and the geological exploration of Hanipsthwaite and 
Clint. At the general nieeting the chair was successively occupied 
by Mr. Thomas Bunker, President of the Vertebrate Section, and 
Rev. R. A. Summerfidd, B.A. 

A departure from the usual practice of the Union was made in 
the case of the fourth excursion, when the meeting which was held 
at the High Force Inn, on Bank Holiday Monday, the 5th of August, 
was preceded by a three-days' excursion commencing on the Saturday 
previous, for the investigation of the south or Yorkshire bank of the 
Tees from Middleton up to the junction with Maize Beck. At 
the meeting, which was attended by about forty members, the 
chair was occupied by the President of the Union, Mr. H. E. 
Dresser, F.L.S., who on this occasion made his first acquaintance 
with the Union and its members. 

The excursion programme was brought to a successful termination 
on Wednesday, the 4th of September, when a visit was paid to the 
lovely valley of the Derwent at Kirkham Abbey and Howsham 
AVoods, the geologists examining the N.W. escarpment of the wolds 
at Acklam Brow. The meeting was held at Malton, the chair being 
occupied by the Rev. W. C. Hey, M.A., President of the Concho- 
logical Section. 

On all these occasions the Union has been indebted to the kind- 
ness which the land-owners of Yorkshire have always been so ready 
to manifest in facilitating research on their estates ; and the facilities 
which the various railway companies which run on Yorkshire soil 
have granted, have contributed their share to promoting the success 
of the Union's investigations. 

The Societies which constitute the Union are now forty in 
number, as against thirty-eight last year, the loss of two — the 
Ripponden Society, which has ceased to exist, and the Bradford 
Microscopical Society, now amalgamated with the Bradford 
Naturalists' Society — being more than counterbalanced by the 
accession of four Societies, three of them (Pocklington Literary and 
Philosophical Society, Purlwell Field Club, and Yeadon Geological 
Society) being newly-founded organisations, and the fourth (Hud- 
dersfield Naturalists' Society), the veteran society which took a 
leading part in the original foundation of the Union twenty-eight 
years ago, and which it is a pleasure again to enrol on the list. 

The statistics with which the secretaries of the different Societies 
are good enough to furnish the Union from year to year show a con- 
siderable increase in the number of Associates, the total membership 

Naturalist, 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION — ANNUAL RLl'OKT. 141 

of the 40 Societies being now 2,517, or an increase of 408. This, 
with the number of direct members added, makes the total numerical 
strength of the Union amount to about 2,925. 

The Membership now stands at 410, an increase of 35 on the 
previous year. During the year 60 new members have been elected, 
and in this connection the Union has been much indebted to several 
of its Hon. Local Treasurers and to other members for the successful 
exercise of their influence with such of their friends as take interest 
in natural history, or whose sympathies incline them to support tlie 
work which the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union carries on. It will not 
be invidious to mention here that the Union is especially indebted 
to its old friend Mr. S. Chadwick, of Malton, who has been directly 
instrumental in securing nearly half of the total number of new 
members elected during the year. 

The Financial Position of the Union has materially improved 
during the year, owing to the unremitting and vigorous attention 
which your Hon. Treasurer and the various Hon. Local Treasurers 
have given to the collection of the very large amount of outstanding 
arrears which was reported last year as resulting from the total 
disablement of your Honorary Secretaries during the year 1888. 
The persistent attention given to this matter has had the result that 
not only have arrears been collected to the amount shown in the 
balance-sheet, but the current year's subscriptions have been collected 
to an amount which has never been shown for a current year in any 
])revious balance-sheet. Much credit is due to the Hon. Local 
Treasurers for the very considerable and valuable service which is 
thus rendered by them to the Union. Li several of the collecting 
districts there are at present no arrears whatever outstanding, and it 
is trusted that during the coming year this state of things may have 
become the case in all the districts. 

Much, however, depends upon the members themselves, who 
can, by prompt payment of their contributions, do very much to 
lighten the heavy burden which is always cast upon an hon. treasurer^ 
and in connection with this subject it is to be noted with satisfaction 
that a considerable number of members have signed the form which 
authorizes the payment of their subscriptions to the Union's bankers 
by their own bankers, a course which prevents subscriptions falling 
into arrear, and which saves much trouble, not only to the honorary 
officers of the L'^nion, but to the members themselves. 

It may be here noted that a little misunderstanding has e.xisted 
in the case of a few members (fortunately, not many) who have not 
taken into consideration the absolute necessity of a definite and 
written resignation being tendered by every member wishing to dis- 

May i8go. 



142 YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS UNION — ANNUAL REPORT. 

continue his subscription. It may be pointed out that members on 
election sign a form in which they undertake to pay their subscriptions 
' until further notice,' and that it is very needful, in order to obviate 
all risk of misunderstanding, that such notice of withdrawal be in 
writing, and forwarded direct to the Hon. Secretaries ; and it should 
be further noted that any such notice expires at the end of the year 
in which it is given. It hardly needs to be added that some such 
arrangement be made, in order that the Union may be able to 
discharge its own financial engagements entered into on the basis of 
the subscriptions realising their nominal amount. 

The Publications of the Union have been as in previous years. 

The Transactions. — Part 12 was issued in January last, and 
Part 13 within the past few weeks, both consisting of sheets of the 
re-issue of Mr. Baker's valuable work on ' North Yorkshire : its 
( jeology. Climatology, and Botany,' of the latter portion of which 
the Natural Order Caryophyllacece has been reached. 

The printers are proceeding with the sheets intended to form the 
next instalment of 'North Yorkshire,' and the continuations of other 
papers are in course of preparation by their respective authors. 
Messrs. Clarke and Knubley are engaged upon the ' Birds of York- 
shire '; Messrs. Nelson and Taylor upon the list of Yorkshire 
Mollusca, and Rev. W. C. Hey upon that of Coleoptera — of all of 
which sheets will be printed as soon as received from the authors. 

The Library continues to increase by means of donations and 
exchanges. The necessity for increased accommodation which was 
referred to in the last annual report, has been met during the year — 
partly by the purchase of a new bookcase, but chiefly through the 
kindness of the Committee of the Leeds Mechanics' Institution, 
a body to whom the Union has been indebted in so many ways in 
the past, who have placed at the Union's service a different room, 
which affords much superior accommodation and greater convenience. 
The consequent removal of books and other property has delayed 
the completion of the administrative work upon which the Librarian 
was engaged at the date of the last report. 

The Sections of the Union have carefully carried on their 
work during the year, and it is to their efficient working that the 
success attending the excursions has been attributable. 

Committees of Research, — This important feature of the 
Union's work has been further developed during the past year, by 
the appointment of a new Committee, viz., on the Erosion of the 
Yorkshire Coast. 

The Boulder Committee has again accomplished a large amount 
of valuable and highly-appreciated work, as shown by their Report, 

Naturalist, 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION ANNUAL REPORT. 1 43 

which was published in full in 'The Naturalist' for October 1889, 
and the great importance of what they have done has again been fully 
and generously acknowledged at the British Association meeting. 

'I'he operations of the Marine Zoology Committee have been 
mainly confined to a couple of dredging expeditions, the first on the 
occasion of the Union excursion to Robin Hood's Bay, the second 
in co-operation with members of the Leeds Naturalists' Club. On 
both occasions numerous specimens were obtained, some of which 
remain to be submitted to specialists. Some difficulty was experienced 
from the want of proper dredging appliances, without which it is 
impossible to obtain many of the smaller organisms, and the Com- 
mittee consider it very desirable that such apparatus be procured 
in view of next season's work. The report has already appeared 
in ' The Naturalist.' 

The Fossil Flora Committee has prepared the first portion of a 
report on their subject from the pens of Mr. William Cash and 
Mr. Robert Kidston, which your Executive hope shortly to publish. 

The Coast Erosion Committee have had careful measurements 
at certain points on the coast made for future reference, beyond 
which their inquiries have not been as yet extended. 

Proposals will be brought forward at the present meeting for the 
appointment of three additional Committees, to deal with important 
subjects upon which the British Association has this year decided to 
take action, and in which it is highly desirable that all local Societies 
should co-operate. 

One of these is to be for investigating the causes of the 
Disappearance of Native Plants, and a second for collecting and 
recording Geological Photographs of Yorkshire sections. The third 
committee is for the investigation of the Invertebrate Fauna and 
Cryptogamic Flora (microscopic forms of life) of the fresh waters 
of the county, and your Executive recommend that the existing 
Section G (Micro-Zoology and Micro-Botany) be converted into such 
committee. It is manifestly impossible for work on such a subject 
to be carried on and reported upon at the meeting in the same 
manner as the work of the other sections of the Union. 

British Association. — The Union has again been selected as 
one of the Corresponding Societies of the British Association, and 
was represented at the Newcastle meeting of the Association by the 
Rev. E. P. Knubley, M.A., whose detailed report was published in 
'The Naturalist' for November 1889. 

The next meeting of the Association is to be held at Leeds in 
September next, when it is hoped that all Yorkshire naturalists will 
do wha t lies in their jiower to make it a thorough scientific success. 

May iSqo. 



144 NOTES AND NEWS. 

New Members of General Committee. —Your Executive 
recommend that Mr. R. Barnes of Saltburn, Mr. Godfrey Bingley 
of Leeds, Mr. James Booth, Mayor of Hahfax, Mr. Frederick 
Brittain of Sheffield, Mr. Riley Fortune of Harrogate, Mr. John 
Gerrard of Wakefield, Mr. Hugh Richardson of Sedbergh, Mr. Henry 
Speight of Bradford, Dr. F. J. Sawdon of Hull, and Mr. Thos. F. 
Ward of Middlesbrough, be the ten additional permanent members 
of the (General Committee for this year. 

Your Executive have again considered the desirability of the 
members having a direct voice in the choice of representatives on 
the General Committee, and they hereby recommend that in future 
the ten additions made annually to the list of permanent members 
be made by vote of the members, the voting to be by written com- 
munications forwarded to the Hon. Secretaries, and afterwards 
examined and reported upon by scrutineers to be appointed by the 
General Committee at the Annual Meeting. 

The Presidency. — In conclusion, your Executive have to 
announce that the office of President has been accepted by the 
Right Rev. Wm. Walsham-How, Lord Bishop of Wakefield — 
a naturalist of old standing, who in years gone by was successively 
the founder, hon. secretary, and president of the Oswestry Field 
Club, one of the most successful of the Field Clubs of the West of 
England. 

Your Executive have further to express their warm sense of grati- 
tude to the retiring President, Mr. H. Eeles Dresser, for the honour 
which he has conferred upon the Union by his tenure of the office. 



iVOTES AND NEWS. 

The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland have issued an 
important circular, announcing the formation of a Committee of Aid in conducting 
Anthropological and Archaeological Explorations. In carrying out the Ancient 
Monuments Act of 1882, it has been noticed that, whilst, owing to the public 
feeling enlisteil in their favour, comparatively little damage is being done to 
ancient monuments as defined by the Act, a large amount of valuable information 
is constantly lost by the destruction of ancient relics, in the course of agricultural, 
mining, and other operations which the Act of Parliament is powerless to prevent. 
Attention is also drawn to the unsatisfactory way in which many archaeological 
investigations are conducted, and the absence of any systematic method of recording 
the measurements of human skeletons, the absence of any uniform system of 
measurement, the absence of any systematic measurement of the bones of animals, 
the neglect of valuable evidence owing to the explorers not knowing what to 
observe and record. It is thought that landowners might be induced to undertake 
explorations upon their own property, if a Committee were formed to which they 
could refer for information as to the proper method of conducting them. The 
Council of the Institute have nominated therefore Lieut. -Ceneral A. Pitt Rivers 
President, Prof. W. Flower, J. G. Garson, A. L. Lewis, F. G. Hilton Price, and 
C. H. Read, as such Committee, and their functions are defined in the circular. 
Explorers desiring the assistance of the Committee can address the President at 
Rushmore, Salisbury, or 4, (.Irosvenor Ciardens, London. 

Natiir.ilist. 



M5 



THE CONNEXION 
BETWIXT YORKSHIRE AND SCANDINAVIA. 

J. E. MARR, M.A., Sec. C.S., 
.9/. "301111'$ College, Cambridge. 



It is of interest to trace back the influence of Scandinavia upon 
this country from historic into pre-historic times, and so backwards 
into remote ages. To this influence, exerted again and again in 
past times, are due not only many of the characters of the county 
itself, but also to some extent the temperament of its inhabitants, 
whether acquired from direct intercourse with the Scandinavian 
peoples, or developed in conformity with the physical surroundings. 
As is well known, the influence of the Scandinavians in historic 
times is testified to by the abundance of ' wykes,' 'bys,' and 'thorpes,' 
along the coast or situated in the interior of the county, whilst pre- 
historic relics yield evidence of communication between the two 
countries, during the Neolithic or 'polished stone' age. To give 
one instance, the remarkable ripple-flaked stone tools found so 
abundantly in Denmark occur also in Yorkshire, and in no other 
English county. 

Prior to this, in the Great Ice Age, when nearly every part of our 
island was covered with an icy mantle descending from the highlands 
of our own country, the east coast of Yorkshire was subjected to the 
invasion of ice from Scandinavia, as shown by the occurrence of 
Scandinavian boulders in the (llacial Clays of the coast region, 
and after the recession of the ice, the district, subject to a sub-glacial 
climate, was occupied by plants similar to those of Norway and 
other mountain regions, which still maintain an existence in the 
hilly district of the West Riding, where they are accompanied by 
certain Scandinavian insects. 

During the formation of the Chalk and Oolitic rocks, the site of 
the county was occupied by a sea, spreading over a large part of what 
is now north-central Europe, and doubtless at this period much 
of the material which was spread out upon the sea-floor was derived 
from the wearing away of the great continental tract, of which 
mention will be presently made. These secondary rocks, when last 
seen, are striking over the North Sea, and we get fragmentary repre- 
sentatives of both Chalk and Oolites in Scania, the most southerly 
province of Sweden. 

When we pass to an examination of the paleozoic sediments, 
the influence of this great continental area, of which Scandinavia 

May 1890. 



146 MARK : YORKSHIRE AND SCANDINAVIA. 

remains as a fragment, becomes most marked. Lower Palaeozoic 
and earlier rocks form a large part of Scandinavia and Scotland, and 
the recent researches of Prof. Lapworth and the Geological Surveyors 
have given us much insight into the constitution of this old land, 
fashioned in Lower Palaeozoic times by the development of a set 
of crust- wrinklings having a general N.E.- — S.W. trend, which gave 
rise to a highland region running from Northern Russia, through 
Sweden and Norway, Scotland, and North Ireland, to the site of 
the present Atlantic Ocean. Sufficient remains of this old region 
to give us some notion of its original character, for the plications of 
the rocks and the nature of the metamorphism they have undergone 
are such as are characteristic of mountain regions, of which repeated 
and long-continued erosions have left us the basal wreck. That 
much of this eroded material was washed over the site of Yorkshire 
was long ago suggested by Dr. Sorby, from an examination of the 
coarser sediments of the Carboniferous system, and there is no 
doubt that that great rock-group to which Yorkshire owes so much 
of its prosperity, and the older portions of which have originated 
scenery unrivalled of its kind, has been derived from the partial 
destruction of the old highland region developed by the crust- 
movements, which gave rise to what is now generally spoken of as 
the Scandinavian system of folds. 

But not only did these movements furnish us with a source of 
supply of material for the formation of the massive Carboniferous 
rocks of the county, but the very site of the county was occupied 
by a similar set of rocks, folded also in Lower Palaeozoic times, 
though not to such an extent as the rocks of more northern regions, 
and planed down at the end of Lower Palaeozoic times to form 
a nearly even sea-floor, upon which the Carboniferous strata were 
deposited. 

This floor may be looked upon as the very foundation of 
Yorkshire, and it is only brought to light where profound dis- 
turbances have elevated a tract of country far above the level of 
surrounding regions. 

It is well known that the beautiful Mountain Limestone district 
in the neighbourhood of Ingleton consists of gently-sloping beds of 
limestone forming parallel scars, the whole lying evenly upon 
a planed floor of greatly-folded slate-rocks, which occupy the lower 
])ortions of the valleys of Ingleton, Clapham, Austwick, Settle, and 
Malham. 

An examination of these slate-rocks, which appertain to the 
Ordovician and Silurian systems brings to light some Scandinavian 
affinities, for although at the time of their formation, north-western 

Naturalist, 



MARR : YORKSHIRE AND SCANDINAVIA. 147 

Europe was largely occupied by a great ocean tract, the deposits 
formed therein varied considerably in different regions. These 
Yorkshire deposits are of interest as forming to some extent a 
connecting link between the slate-rocks of the Lake district and the 
ancient silts of Scandinavia. The oldest rocks visible are the green 
slates of Ingleton, no doubt largely derived from the destruction of 
some volcanic tract such as occurred about the time of their formation 
in the adjoining Lake country area. Resting upon them are some 
calcareous shales, forming the top of the Ordovician system, and 
undoubtedly equivalent to the more calcareous strata known further 
west as the Coniston Limestone, but having affinity also with the 
more clayey Trinudeus shales of Sweden. It is interesting to find 
an old acid lava at Wharfe Mill Dam near Austwick, for great 
masses of such lavas were poured out in the region of the Lakes 
and in North Wales at this time, and the equivalent shales of the 
island of Bornholm contain some ashy bands. The characteristic 
Triniuiens of these shales in Sweden occurs in abundance at Norber 
near Settle, where it is accompanied by a beautiful and rare trilobite 
of the genus Dindymene, which is also found in Sweden. 

Of recent years, the study of the remarkable sea-pens known as 
graptolites has led to their utilisation as a means of correlation of 
these early sediments and we find at Norber the form Dicellograptus 
anceps which occurs in beds of this age in Sweden. 

The Silurian rocks of Yorkshire are of Llandovery, Wenlock and 
Ludlow ages. To the former age is assignable the Pliaeops elegatis 
limestone, containing a trilobite characteristic of the equivalent beds 
in Norway where it was first described, whilst, in the Sedbergh area, 
we find a group of graptolitic shales of this age with the genera 
Monograptiis, Rastrites, Diniorphograptus and other forms marking 
this horizon over a large part of Europe. 

To the Wenlock beds belong the flags of the Wharfe Valley, 
containing Monograptus pn'odon, and Retiolites geinitzianus also 
found very widely distributed. 

Above these are grits, to some subordinate shales of which the 
remarkable Moughton whetstones are probably referable. They 
contain Monograptus nilssoni and M. dubius found on the same 
horizon in Scandinavia and marking the base of the Ludlow series. 
They are succeeded by the flags of the great quarries of Ribblesdale 
with Monograptus colonus, M. rxmeri and M. bohemicus, above 
which are some grits also referable to the Lower Ludlow, and 
forming the highest Silurian rocks of this area, though still higher 
beds, the Bannisdale slates occur near Sedbergh and equivalents of 
the Upper Ludlow are found immediately west of the Lune. 

May 1890. 



148 NESTING OF CIRL BUNTINtl IN YORKSHIRE. 

It will be gathered from the preceding remarks that the plicated 
rocks of the old Yorkshire floor give us the first indications of that 
connexion with Scandinavia, which has been more or less marked 
ever since. I have dwelt specially upon the development of these 
rocks, because although, thanks to the energy of Yorkshire geologists, 
a great part of the geology of the county has been very fully 
elucidated, this early chapter is not yet fully written, and I would 
recommend those who love fine scenery, country inns whose comfort 
has not yet been entirely destroyed by the rush of the destructive 
tourist-wave, and physical geology which is unrivalled by that of 
any other district of our island, to complete our knowledge of these 
ancient rocks. The fossiliferous Ordovician rocks of Norber and of 
the Sedbergh district will, doubtless, yield many rare forms to further 
search, and the Silurian slates will furnish a rich harvest, in addition 
to that which has been hitherto reaped from them. 

Finally, the explorer of this delightful region will not enter upon 
an undescribed district, but will find in Messrs. Davis and Lees* 
work upon West Yorkshire an admirable description of the geology 
of the district. 



NOTE—ORNITHOLOG V. 

Nesting of the Cirl Bunting in Yorkshire.— I have great pleasure in 
calling attention to the nesting of the Cirl Bunting in Yorkshire. This bird seems 
lo have been overlooked by ornithologists. It may have increased its numbers 
and spread northward since its discovery in this country by Montagu. Having 
looked over the family of the Buntings in a new ornithological work by 
Mr. Howard Saunders, I find that the Cirl Bunting {Einberiza cirltis) has by chance 
been olitained in Norfolk, the Midland Counties, and it is said to be of accidental 
occurrence in Yorkshire. If so, I must say that it is for want of closer observation. 
At Lofthouse, about the middle of May, 1882, hearing the song of a Bunting 
which drew my attention by its being peculiar, I soon found out that its song was 
different, both in tone and variation, from either the Corn Bunting (E. iiiiliaria') 
or the Yellowhammer {E. litriitella). By the aid of the field-glass, the site was 
discovered where the building operations were going on, and on May 31st, 
I visited that site, and found the nest built in the fronds of a Lady Fern {Asplenium 
ft/ix-ftcmiiia) about a yard from a hedge, and six inches from the ground, 
containing three eggs. Again, on May 6th, 1889, at Low-Laithes-Lane, near 
Fiushdyke, Ossett, I had the opportunity of finding another containing four eggs, 
built in a very thick bushy thorn, two feet from the ground, so well concealed 
that had not the bird flown from its nest, it would not have been detected. Nest 
not so slovenly built as its congener the Yellowhammer, but deeper, and more 
cup-shaped, and rather more moss intermi.ved, lined with a good quantity of small 
fibres, fine grasses, and hair. Eggs of a muddy pinkish-white, with blotches of a 
dark chocolate colour, with a few hair-lines springing generally from the blotches. 
I may say that the eggs have been seen and verified l>y Mr. Geo. Parkin of 
Wakefield. — John Ward, Pymont House, Lofthouse, March 21st, 1890. 

The Cirl Bunting has been casually observed in Yorkshire from localities 
between Doncaster in the south to Richmond in the north, and it is said to have 
nested near Huddersfield. In the above communication we regret to observe that 
no mention is made of the bird, the most, perhaps the only, satisfactory means of 
identifying the ownership of the nests and eggs discovered. — \Y. E.C. 

Naturalist 



149 

A NEW ENTOMOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 

' The Entomologists' Record and Journal of Variation.' Edited by 
J. W. TuTT, F.E.S. 

We have received the first number of this Journal, which is based 
a good deal on the Unes of the ' Entomologist.' A characteristic, 
however, distinct from either of the two London entomological 
journals is that it is to be devoted entirely to British Entomology, 
and being such, if kept up to the standard of the first number, we 
think it likely to be a success ; for although our insular prejudices 
cannot be defended on many logical arguments, the fact remains that 
comparatively few British entomologists — or more strictly speaking, 
collectors — care anything whatever for any insect taken outside the 
boundaries of the British Islands. And as a rule (there are of 
course many worthy exceptions) by the time they have become 
educated to a point beyond this, they begin to lose interest in 
entomology altogether. 

As the name of the journal implies, a special feature is to be 
the prominence given to papers and notes on ' Variation,' the 
interest in which has so much increased of late years, the 
impetus being due in great measure to the writings of the editor of 
the journal under notice. Other good features are the ' Scientific 
Notes,' the 'Current Notes,' the 'Notes on Collecting,' the 'Practical 
Hints,' etc. The journal, published on the 15th of every month, 
at a subscription of si.x shillings a year, is well worthy of support, 
and Ave heartily wish it every success. — G.T.P. 



NOTE— BIRDS. 
Flamborough Notes : Arrival and Departure of Birds. — Pel^ruary 22111!, 
seveinl pairs of Stonechats ( Pratincola nihicola) arrived on the headland. March 1st, 
I observed the Pied Wagtail [Motacilla Ingitbris). March 30th, when taking a walk 
from the village to the lighthouse, I also observed a pair of Wheatears {Sa.xiiola 
a naiithe) which, no doubt, had just arrived, and strange to say, a swarm of Crested 
Wrens ( AVi,'/////.? cristatus) were in the woods and on the hedge-rowson the same date ; 
whether they had arrived or were taking their departure, I am not able to state ; 
they were seen some two or three days. April 6th, Easter Sunday, I saw a great 
number of Hooded Crows {Cor7>tis coriii.x) on the headland, waiting for a favourable 
opportunity before taking their departure. — Matthew Baii.f-.y, April 8th, 1890. 

NOTE GEOLOGY. 
Exposure of Lo^wer Lias at Redcar. — In the 'Yorkshire Lias' (Tate and 
Blake), page 65, the authors say ' the hard stone bands of the Biicklandi series 
without doubt form the ridge on which the towns of Redcar and Coatham are 
built, but of this we have no positive evidence.' The evidence appeared last 
week. On Tuesday, April 8th, there was a storm, and great tide at Redcar, and 
the sand and stones masking the low cliff at the East end of Redcar were entirely 
swept away. Several feet of lias, in position, full of Gryphira arcuata were 
shown at the base of the cliff. On the lias rested a few feet of red boulder clay. A 
huge sandstone boulder appeared in the clay, resting on the top of the lias. 
Above the clay was a section of sand, containing cockles and periwinkles. — 
W. C. He y, St. Olave's Vicarage, York, April 14th, 1890. 
May i8go. 



I50 

THE BIRDS OF OXFORDSHIRE. 

The Birds of Oxfordshire. By O. V. Ari.iN. With a Map and Plate. 
Oxford : Clarendon Press. 1889. 

Mr. Aplin's ' Birds of Oxfordshire ' is a welcome addition to the 
ranks of our faunal hterature, and is a satisfactory production, 
worthy of hearty recommendation. We are especially glad to note 
that Mr. Aplin has fully realised what naturalists really want in and 
expect of a county avifauna, and has not trenched upon the domain 
of what should appertain to a text-book on British birds. He tells 
us just what we desire to know about Oxfordshire and its birds, 
while he also gives interesting notes on their habits. 

It is thought, however, since Mr. Aplin is evidently a believer in 
the specific distinctness between Linota linaria and Z. rufescens, 
that he would be quite justified in adding the Mealy Redpoll to his 
list of Oxfordshire birds on the evidence he himself adduces at p. 95, 
where he tells us that ' the large light-coloured race of Redpolls has 
occurred in Oxfordshire, and some were in the hands of an Oxford 
bird dealer in the winters of 1879-80 and 1880-81.' We have 
certainly never heard of a large light-coloured race of L. rufescefiSy 
and the occurrence of such-to-be-described birds in winter, leates, 
it is thought, no doubt as to their identity with L. linaria. 

There is a good descri])tion of the county and its ornithologists ; 
and it is needless to say that the book is well got up. We do not 
much like the plate, nor can we say that we are inchned to think its 
subject — the Alpine Chough— is altogether free from the suspicion 
that it may not find its way into this country unaided. — W.E.C. 



NOTE— ENTOMOLOGY. 

Entomological Exhibition at Alford, Lines. — At the Alford Flower Show 

on the 13th of August, 1889, members of the Society had a special tent in which 

Mr. Robert Garfit exhibited his magnificent collection of insects, principally 

Lepidoptera, both English and exotic, besides larvif of various moths feeding on 

their proper food plants. The local rarities included a specimen of the Clifden 

Nonjiareil (Calocala fraxini) taken at Hogsthorpe, the only example ever found 

in this neighbourhood; Clouded Yellow (CfV/V/j cv/z^fa) taken at Alford ; Clreasy 

P'ritillary {Melitiia arteinis), very local, bred from larv;^ taken at Ailby, feeding 

on the Scabious {Scahiosa sitccisa Linn.) ; Marbled White (Me/atiarge galatea), 

very local, taken at Well ; Large Tortoise-shell ( Vaucssa polychloj-os), bred from 

larva; taken at Alford, feeding on the Drooping Willow ; Camberwell Beauty 

( r. aiitiopa) taken at Louth ; Death's Head Hawk Moth {Acheroutia a(ropos), 

larvw, pupa;, and imagos, taken at Alford ; Convolvulus Hawk Moth {Sp/iiiix 

convo/vuli) taken at Alford ; Bedstraw Hawk Moth {Deilephila gah'i) taken at 

Alford; and the Dark Tussock {Dasychira fascelina) bred from larvte taken at 

Mablethorpe, feecjing on the Sea-Buckthorn {Hippopliac rhavtuoides Linn.). 

The President exhibited his collection of British Hemiptera-Heteroptera, Dicy- 

p/iiis covstrictiis Bohemann, being the rarest, having been taken by him on two 

occasions at Well, but elsewhere in Great Britain only by Dr. Buchanan White at 

Perth. Mr. Mason also exhibited, in their various stages of development, with 

examples of damage done, a numerous selection of insects injurious to gardens 

and the farm, among these being the Hessian Fly, with plants of wheat and barley 

injured by it.— [osErn Burtt Davv, Hon. Sec, October 1889. '. ; — 

■' ■' - Naturalist, 



MICROSCOPIC FAUNA AND FLORA 
OF MARKINGTON, MID-WEST YORKSHIRE. 

Rkv. J. STANLEY TUTK, B.A., 
i'ictir of Marki}igton, near Ripley. 

The following is a list of the animals and vegetables — Infusoria and 
Algce— which I have found in and now record for the Markington 
district. There are some other Algas, which I have not identified. 
Those which I have mentioned do not by any means always occur, 
e.g., I have only once found the Volvox globafor, and then it was 
abundant. I think the same year or the year following the farmer 
in whose field the pond containing the Volvox was, cleaned it out, 
and so destroyed any prospect of a second growth of plants. One 
year the mill-race was filled with the long filaments of Spirogyra ; 
in the following years they have not occurred there, though they are 
common in many of the pools elsewhere. Above a certain by-wash 
the Diatomacete are more various and beautiful than they are below. 
So there is a chance of disappointment or of unlooked-for success. 
Still, these I have set down have undoubtedly existed here, and future 
searchers may find, I dare say, many new forms. 

The plant I mentioned as rare, viz., Ophiocytium majiis, is men- 
tioned in the ' Micrographic Dictionary' as a genus of unicellular 
Algae, of which several species are described not yet noticed in 
Britain (Bibl. Nageli). I think, too, that there are two species of 
Vducheria, though I have named only one. 

The more common Infusoria I have not mentioned ; only the 
rarer kinds. There are more species of the Rotatoria, a Water Bear, 
and Entomostraca, which are common, but except Daphnia pulex 
and Cyclops quadricornis, I have not identified any. 

ANIMALS. 
Amoeba diffluens. Markington. 
Actinophrys viridis. In pools of stagnant water near farms, 

Markington. 
Distigma viride (?). Markington. 
Arcella vulgaris. Markington Beck. 
Arcella aculeata. Do- 

Dileptus folium. Markington. 
Stentor polymorphus. Ditch, with clear water, but not flowing, 

Markington (Westerns Pasture). 
Vorticella microstoma. Stagnant water, Markington. 

May 1890. 



152 TUTE : MICRO-FAUNA AND FLORA OF MARKINGTON. 

Ophridium versatile. Eavestone Lake (now drained) and river 

Skell. The colonies in the river evidently came from the lake, 

and it would be hopeless to search for them. 
Cothurnia imberbis. Mill-pond, above the Shaw Mill ; pond, 

Bishop Thornton. 
Floscularia ornata. In another clear-water ditch, Markington 

(Westerns Pasture). 
Vaginicola crystallina. Mill-pond near Shaw Mills, Bishop 

Thornton. 
Epistylis anastatica. Markington. 
Loxodes bursaria. Pools of water in a quarry of Gritstone, 

Spa Gill, about a mile west of Fountains Abbey. 
Hydra viridis. Pond near Morcar. 
Rotifer vulgaris. Markington. 
Squamella oblonga. Do. 
Pterodina patina. Do. 

Anuroea curvicornis. Do. 
Notommata centrura. Do. 
Spongilla fluviatilis. In the stream near the Rectory, Ripley; 

abundant. 
Paramecium aurelia. 
Peridinium cinctum. 

VEGETABLES. 
Chlamidomonas pulvisculus. Stagnant water, Markington. 

Where this has occurred, the dried-up surface of the ditch is 

afterwards frequently covered with moss. 
Euglena viridis. Stagnant water, Markington. 
Tetraspora gelatinosa. Roadside pool, Ingerthorpe, at the 

point where it is fed on the N. end by a ditch. 
Palmella cruenta. Markington. 
Protococcus viridis (red state). Gordale Scar, in rock pools. 

Gordale Scar is, of course, not in the neighbourhood of 

Markington, but it may be useful to mark its occurrence in 

a place so well known. 
Gonium pectorale. Small pond in a meadow, Wallerthwaite. 
Pandorina morum. Do., do., do. 

Volvox globator. Do., do., do. 

I have only found Volvox once, then it was abundant. 

Pandorina I found more frequently. The pond was cleaned 

out, and I have found neither since. 
Oscillatoria autumnalis. Markington. 

Naturalist, 



Do., 






do. 


Do., 






do. 


Do., 






do. 


Do., 






do. 


t the source 


of 


Markington Beck. 


Do., 






do. 


Do., 






do. 


;. With the 


Closteria 


and Cosmarium. 




Do., 




do. 



TUTE : MICRO-FAUNA AND FLORA OK MARKINGTON. 1 53 

Cylindrospermum catenatum. Markington. 

Phacus longicauda. Markington. 

CEdogonium braunii. In the pond at Morcar. 

Closterium lunula. In ponds and the beck, caught in the inter- 
stices of moss, etc., growing on stones. When the water is 
squeezed out of the moss, the out-flowing dirty water contains 
many Desmids and Diatoms, which appear after a time when 
the water is placed in a vessel in the light. 

Closterium acerosum. 

Closterium griffiithsii. 

Closterium setaceum. 

Cosmarium botrytis. 

Hyalotheca desiliens. 

Euastrum oblongum. 

Desmidium swartzii. 

Ankistrodesmus falcatus. 

Scenidesmus obliquus. 

Scenidesmus quadricauda. Do., do. 

Staurastrum margaritaceum. Do., do. 

Pediastrum boryanum. Do., do. 

NostOC commune. In clear still pools, Markington. 

Batrachospermum moniliforme. Do. 

Melosira varians. In streams and small shallow ponds. 

Spirogyra quinina. Suddenly appeared one year, and filled the 
mill-race with filaments about five or six feet long, but this has 
not occurred since. 

Spirogyra nitida. In streams and small shallow ponds. 

Zygnema cruciata. Do., do. 

Mesocarpus SCalaris. In clear running water, in troughs, etc.. 
High Birstwith. 

Ulothrix zonata? Do., do. 

Cladophora glomerata. Markington Beck and Mill-race. 

ChcEtophora elegans. Do., do. 

Ophiocytium majus. This rare plant is found at Aldfield, in a 
pond lying in the angle made by the Ripon and Pateley Bridge 
Road, and the road from the village of Aldfield. (See Micro- 
graphic Dictionary, Ophiocytium). 

Vaucheria caespitosa. In a watering-trough, Cayton, Cayton 
Gill Farm. Another species (I think) is common. 

May 1890. 



154 TUIK: MICRO-KAUNA and flora of MARKlNOTONf. 

Draparnaldia glomerata. Running water. Markington. 

Cocconema lanceolatum. Do. 

Achnanthes exilis. Do. 

Odontidium mesodon. Found in the Ure, Uredale. 

Tabellaria flocculosa. Do., do. 

Surirella, species. Markington Heck. 

Gomphonema truncatum. Do. 

Denticula obtusa. Do. 

Campylodiscus costatus. Do. 

Cocconeis pediculus. Do. 

Homoeocladia anglica. Markington Beck. 

Pinnularia Do. 

Sphinctocystis elliptica. Do. 

Sphinctocystis solea. Do. 

Nitzschia sigmoidea. Do. 

Gyrosigma attenuatum. Do. 

Gyrosigma acuminatum. Do. 

Cymbella gustroides. Do. 

Diatoma vulgare. Markington Beck. A much smaller variety, 

South Stainloy. 
Bacillaria elongata. ^[arkington Beck. 
Fragillaria capucina. Do. 

Synedra ulna. Do. 

Synedra splendens. Do. 

Meridion circulare. Mouth of drains, road-side, Markington. 
Encyonema paradoxum. How Hill. 
Amphora ovalis. Markington. 

There are many Entomostraca in the ponds, Daphttia />itlex, 
Cyclops quadricornis, Cypris, etc., etc., but I have not worked at 
this section. There are many Rotatoria?, especially in water which 
is not very pure. Water-bears also occur in the mossy tufts in water. 

There seems to me to be a considerable difference between the 
fauna and flora of Shaw Mill Beck and Markington Beck. Perhaps 
this is owing to the flict that Shaw Mill Beck flows over Millstone 
Grit and its derivatives, Markington Beck over Millstone Grit, Boulder 
Clay, and then over Magnesian Limestone. 

Above the little weir which turns the water to the upper mill, 
the stream is for richer in DiatomaiWe than it is below. Cray-fish 
{Astacus fluviatilis) are found in the Shaw Mill Beck, but not here; 
they are also found in the river Skell. 

Naturalist, 



155 

SOME 
FURTHER NOTES ON THE TREE SPARROW. 

V. B. WHITLOCK, 

A tienborough. 



I AM well rewarded for my notes on the Tree Sparrow {Passer 
tnontanus) by their having drawn from the Rev. H. A. Macpherson 
his further contril)Ution to the life-history of this species. 

My observations as to the social habits of this species tend 
rather to prove exclusiveness than fraternity with its near ally 
or with the Greenfinch. This latter bird is very common with us at 
all times, but I usually find it in company with the Chaffinch or 
House Sparrow. Several facts incline me to the belief that our 
local Tree Si)arrows are migratory. In the first place, I can find no 
traces of them in the winter either round farm-houses or in the 
country-lanes. In the winter of 1888 I wanted one or two for 
skinning, and though I shot at any Sparrow that looked at all likely, 
I only picked up House Sparrows. Up to this date I have not 
detected it in the flocks of Sparrows that frequent the September 
stubble-fields, though it should turn up there if anywhere. Since 
writing my first notes I have seen three Tree Sparrows amongst 
some dozens of House Sparrows killed about six miles below 
Nottingham in the Trent valley. In the second place, I find it 
varies greatly in numbers from year to year during the breeding- 
season. 

My boyhood was spent on the borders of Nottinghamshire, where 
the pollard willow abounds. I used to find a nest or two most years, 
but never found it breeding commonly. I have been in close cor- 
respondence with an ornithological friend in the neighbourhood ever 
since leaving home, and his experience tallies with mine. Last year, 
however, he writes, ' I have found no nests so common as those of 
the Garden Warbler and Tree Sparrow.' I do not think mild winters 
would account for such a large increase in the numbers of this species. 

I am sorry to say that I have not heard the song of the Tree 
Sparrow. Observing it principally at its nesting-colony, I am afraid 
I am treated rather to abuse than song. Whenever I have wanted 
any eggs my plan has been to row gently down the canal in my boat, 
and quietly as I go, the Tree Si)arrows are off before 1 can exactly 
note the site of the nest. They usually fly to some thick hawthorns, 
where they keep up an angry chatter, which was well described one 
day by a passing politician as ' Parliament had met.' 

It is quite characteristic of the species to make a dash for liberty 
as Mr. Macpherson describes. As to their laming themselves, the 

May 1890. 



156 ■ NO'J'ES AND NEWS. 

explanation occurring to me is that the angle of the body to the 
direction of the bird's flight is greater in Sparrows than in the longer 
winged species ; consequently, when a collision occurs, the legs are 
likely to be protruded and to bear part of the shock. 

At the risk of making my paper too long, I should just like to 
quote a few passages from Mr. Seebohm's ' Siberia in Europe ' as 
to the flocking together of the two species : — ' ... At Vologda we 
were under the impression that they were all the House Sparrow. 
In the villages through which we passed after the first day they were 
certainly all Tree Sparrows . . . (Archangel). Once or twice we identi- 
fied a Tree Sparrow, but by far the greater number were the common 
House Sparrow. ... As we proceeded further east Sparrows were 
less plentiful, but we noticed both species ... in the villages we 
saw a few Tree Sparrows . . . (Ust Zylma). At this time we ascer- 
tained positively the presence of a bird which we had long suspected 
to be on the roof of the Preestaff's house — a no less important bird 
than the common Sparrow. This is an extraordinary instance of the 
extreme localness of birds. \Ve never by any chance saw the 
common Sparrows among the Tree Sparrows. . . . During the week 
there had apparently been an arrival of House Sparrows, for they 
abounded in M. Znaminski's (the Preestaff) yard. Strangely enough, 
we could not meet with any in other parts of the town.' 

In conclusion, I should like to ask the readers of the ' Naturalist' 
' Have they found the House Sparrow ever breeding in a hole in 
a pollard willow or other tree ? ' I never have. This seems to be 
one of the few differences in habit between the two species. I once 
found the Tree Sparrow breeding in a nest of the long-suffering 
House Martin. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

Among the recently-elected Fellows of the Linnean Society we note the name 
of Mr. Edgar R. Waite, sub-curator of the Leeds Museum. 

>0!X 

We trust our readers will again make observations (and let us have their notes 
for publication) on the (juestion as to whether Starlings are double-brooded or not, 
concerning which so many interesting notes were printed last year in our journal. 
Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z.S., has also suggested that observations be made with the 
view of ascertaining whether .Starlings pair for life or not. 



In the early months of 1889 the Huddersfield Naturalists' Society adopted a 
most excellent method of stimulating natural history work among their members 
by publishing monthly a small-sized four-page circular giving the proceedings of 
their previous meeting, and also numerous natural history notes of more or less 
(generally more) interest, and giving announcements as to the Society's proceedings 
and programme for the following month, and sometimes in addition useful hints as 
to 'What to Observe.' We were much pleased with the first five numbers, but 
have not seen any since last July. _^_____ 

Naturalist, 



157 
THE LICHENS OF WESTMORLAND. 

JOSEPH A. MARTINDALE, 

StaveUy, itfar Kendal, Weitworland. 

172. Lecanora murorum (Hoffm., En., p. 62, tab. 9, fig. 2); 

Nyl. in Elora, 1883, p. 106 ; Placodium Leighton, Lich. Flora, 
3rd ed., p. 160 pro parte ; vide ' The Naturalist,' 1887, p. 358. 
On limestone walls. Kendal, Shap, Heversham ; not 
abundant at any of these places. 

173. *Lecanora decipiens (Am. in Flora, 1866, p. 529) ; Nyl. in 

Flora, 1883, p. 106 ; Leighton, Lich. Flora, p, 161 ; vide 
'The Naturalist,' 1887, p. 359. 
On limestone walls at Shap and also near Kendal. The 
plants gathered in these places are not typical. 

174. Lecanora tegularis (Ehrh.,Exs.,304; Hoffm., Flora Germ., 

p. 158;) Nyl. in Flora, 1883, p. 106. Placodmm 7tiiniatum 
Leighton, Lich. Flora, 3rd ed., p. 162 pro parte; vide 'The 
Naturalist,' 1887, p. 360. 
On stones of all sorts. Distributed generally through the 
county. I have it in my herbarium from Sandside, Kendal, 
Staveley, Shap, Tirril, and Lowther Park. 
175- Lecanora cirrochroa Ach., Syn., p. 181; Nyl., Lapp., 
p. 126; Leighton, Lich. Flora, 3rd ed., p. 161 ; vide 'The 
Naturalist,' 1887, p. 362. 
On limestone rocks. Arnbarrow, Haverbrack, Milnthorpe, 
and Levens Park. Always barren. Some specimens approach 
L. obliterans Nyl. in Flora, 1874, p. 7. 
176. Lecanora sympagea (Ach., Prod., p. 105); Nyl. in Flora, 
p. 197. Placodium viuroruni Leighton, Lich. Flora, 3rd ed., 
p. 160 pro parte ; P. cailopisvmm var. plicaiiun and var. 
synipage7im Leight., I.e. p. 162 ; vide 'The Naturalist,' 1887, 
P- 363- 
Common on limestone walls and rocks. Very abundant 
on rocks at Sandside and Arnside, and found generally dis 
tributed wherever there is limestone. 
177- Lecanora xantholjrta Nyl. in Flora, 1879, p. 361, and 
1883, p. 107. \'ide The Naturalist, 1887, p. 364. 
On limestone rocks. Scout Scar, Whitbarrow, Haverbrack 
(covering a large extent of rock), and near the river Lowther 
in Lowther Park. 

May 1890. 



158 MARTINDALE : LICHENS OF WESTMORLAND. 

Perhaps, as an imperfect plant, this and Leproloma lanu- 
ginosum ought to be relegated to an appendix ; but there 
can hardly be a doubt that L. xatitholyta is a state of some 
Lecanora. 

I). Group of Z, cerina (Callopisma). 

178. Lecanora citrina (Hoifm. Flora Germ., ii, p. 198); Ach., 

Syn., p. 176; Placodium Nyl., Scand., p. 136; Leighton, 
Lich. Floja, 3rd ed., p. 163. 
On limestone walls and on mortar. Milnthorpe, Kendal, etc. 

179. Lecanora flavocitrina Nyl, Flora, 1886, p. 461; 'The 

Naturalist,' 1886, p. 374. 
On walls of clay slate at Staveley and at Crosthwaite. 

180. Lecanora aurantiaca (Ach., Prod., p. 44; Meth., p. 69; 

Lich. Un., p. 204; Syn., p. 50). Nyl., Scand., p. 142 pro 

parte ; Leighton, Lich. Flora, 3rd ed., p. 206 — only as regards 

var. salicina. L. salicina (Ach., Prod., p. 43 ; Meth., p. 173) 

ejusdem Lich. Un., p. 400; Syn., p. 175. 

Not very common. On ash-tree roots, Beathwaite Green, 

in Levens Park and in Lowther Park \ the plants from these 

places are the ioxxw Lecanora salicina. On trees near Kendal; 

this is the form Lecidea aurantiaca of Ach., Meth., etc. 

181. Lecanora crenulatella Nyl. in Flora, 1886, p. 462; vide 

' The Naturalist,' 18S6, p. 374. 
On limestone at Sandside. 

182. Lecanora erythrella (.-Vch., Prod., p. 43, Meth., p. 174); 

ejusdem, Lich. Un., p. 401 ; Syn., p. 175 ; L. aurantiaca v. 
erythrella Nyl., Scand., p. 142 ; Leighton, Lich. Flora, 
3rd ed., p. 207 \ Callopisma Jlavovirescens (Wulf.) ; Arn., 
Lich. Frank. Jura, p. 85. 
On sandstone near Cliburn ; near Tirrill ; and at Shap. 
On limestone near Brigsteer. 

Wulfen's name Jlavovirescens., if it really belong to this 
plant, is older than that given by Acharius. 

183. Lecanora ferruginea (Huds., Flora Angl., ed. i, p. 440, 

ed. ii, p. 526); Nyl., Scand., p. 143 pro parte ; Leighton, 

Lich. Flora, 3rd ed., p. 208, excl. vars. scotoJ>laca, concilians, 

2Sii\fusco-aira. L. crenularius With., Arr., 3rd ed., iv, p. 32. 

The corticolous or typical form I only remember to have 

once seen in Levens Park, but the saxicolous states are 

common on the sandstone and slate. Most of them belong 

to the vdiX. /estiva of Nyl. Of this variety I have gathered the 



MARTINDALE: LICHKNS OF WESTMORLAND. 150 

form ^re/iu/ana of Withering on sandstone in Lowtlier Park 
and near Cliburn. A rather remarkable form occurs on sand- 
stone near Tirrill, in which the apothecia as they increase in 
size grow darker in colour, and at length become a full black 
and immarginate, then bearing a great resemblance to some 
Lecidea of the contigua group. 

184. Lecanora ferruginascens Nyl., Flora, 1872, p 407- 
Pyr. Or., p. 6. 

On clay slate near Staveley ; only gathered once. 

I publish this lichen with some hesitation, as I have never 
seen an authoritative specimen of the Pyrensean plant, and 
I have too little of my own to send any of it away for' con- 
firmation. It, however, seems to agree perfectly with 
Dr. Nylander's description. 

[Lecanora fusco-atra(Bayrh.; Nyl.,Scand.,p. 143); Flora, 
1872, p. 427; Pyr. Or., p. 6. 

I have gathered this plant in the Isle of Man on the coast 
to the north of Douglas, but have not met with it in West- 
morland]. 

185. Lecanora cerina (Ehrh., exs.No. 216; Hoffm., Flora Germ., 

li, p. 179); Ach., Lich. Un., p. 390 ; Syn., p. 173; Nyl.,' 
Scand., p. 144; Leighton, Lich. Flora, 3rd ed., p. 209. 
Not common. On trees in Lowther Park. On ash near 

Beathwaite Green and in Fevens Park. 

Var. stillicidiorum (Horn). On mosses, Cunswick Scar. 

186. Lecanora cerinellaNyl. in Flora, 1872, p. 427; Pyr. Or., p. 7. 

On a tree near Barbon. I have only a very small specimen 
containing about a dozen apothecia. 
187 Lecanora steropea (Ach., Lich. Un., p. 404; Syn.,p.i75); 
Lamy, Cat. Lich. Mont Dorc, p. 60, et ejusdem Lich. Caut ' 
p. 44- 

On walls at Staveley. The species was determined for me 
by Dr. Nylander. 

188. Lecanora pyracea (Ach., Meth., p. 176 ; Lich.Un., p. 207; 
Syn., p. 49); Nyl., Scand., p. 145 pro parte; Leighton,' 
Lich. Flora, p. 211 pro parte. 

I do not remember ever gathering the type in Westmorland, 
though very probably it occurs. 
Var. pyrithroma (Ach.) non Leighton. 

On limestone, here and there to the south of Kendal, and 
on Whitbarrow. 

May 1890. 



l6o MARTINDALE : LICHENS OF WESTMORLAND. 

Var. picta (Tayl, Flora Hib., ii, p. 130) :- pyrithroma 

Leight., op. cit., p. 212. 

On clay slate near Staveley, rather common. My plant, 
specimens of which have been seen and determined by 
Dr. Nylander, must, I suppose, be regarded as a state only 
of Taylor':; lichen. In general appearance it agrees with 
Taylor's description, but when closely examined with a lens 
there are several discrepancies. In particular, the bright 
yellow pruina of the apothecia is entirely absent, and the 
margin is not such as he describes. 

189. Lecanora luteoalba (Turner in Trans. Linn. Soc, vii, 

p. 92, fide Stizb., Lich. Helv., p. 99). Lamy, Cat., p. 62. 

On elm in Levens Park. The only Westmorland specimens 
in my herbarium at the present time were gathered on a fine 
elm at the entrance to Levens Park, which has since been cut 
down. This tree was, for a large extent, almost completely 
covered with the lichen in very fine condition. 

190. Lecanora vitellinula Nyl, Lapp. Or., p. 127; Flora, 1863, 

p. 305. Lecanora aurantiaca v. inalpma Leighton, Lich. 
Flora, 3rd ed., p. 207, at least pro parte. 

On limestone rocks and walls. Very abundant to the south 
of Kendal. The walls near Beathwaite Green and Levens 
are covered with a thin badly developed form in thin 
ochraceous patches, some of them of large extent. At Haver- 
brack the plant is better developed with larger apothecia. 
Near Arnside a very handsome form of it occurs with a pale 
whitish-yellow continuous thallus, sometimes almost evanes- 
cent, and pleasant yellow apothecia not so crowded as in the 
other forms. In this state it comes near to saxicolous forms 
of L. pyracea. 

191. Lecanora phlogina (Ach., Meth., p. 180 ; Syn., p. 176, sub 

L. xanthostigma) ; Nyl., Scand., p. 141 ; Leighton, Lich. 
Flora, 3rd. ed., p. 213. 
On trees in Levens Park. Only once gathered. 

192. Lecanora irrubata (Ach., Prod., p. 75 ? Lich. Un., p. 206 ; 

Syn. p. 40) ; Nyl. in Lamy Lich. Caut., pp. 45 and 46. 
L. rupesiris v. rufescens and v. viridiflavescens Leighton, Lich. 
Flora, 3rd ed., p. 204. 
On limestone, probably not uncommon. In Mallerstang, 
near CHburn and at Arnside. 

Naturalist, 



No. 179. 



JUNE 1890. 



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MARTINDALE : LICHENS OF WESTMORLAND. l6l 

193. *Lecanora calva (Dicks. Crypt., ii, p. 18); Nyl., Scand., 
p. 147. L. rupestris var. incrusians et var. calva, Leighton, 
Lich. Flora, 3rd ed., p. 203. 
On limestone, very common. 
194- Lecanora candicans (Dicks. Crypt, iii, p. 15 ; Flacodinm, 
Nyl, Prod. Lich. Gall., p. 72 ; Leighton, Lich. Flora, 3rd ed., 
p. 164); Nyl, Flora, 1S76, p. 306. Name only. 
Common on the limestone to the south of Kendal at 
Haverbrack, Arnside, Brigsteer, etc. Also on limestone on 
the slopes of Wild Boar Fell in Mallerstang. 

195. Lecanora tetrasticha Nyl.inFlora, iS74,p. 307; Leighton, 

Lich. Flora, 3rd ed., p. 224. 

On limestone, Whitbarrow, Levens, Heversham Head. 
Very sparingly gathered. 

[Lecanora chalybsea (Duf. in Fr.L.E., p. 125; Flacodium, 

Nyl., Scancl, p. 138 ; Leighton, Lich. Flora, 3rd ed., p. 165); 

Schar, Syn., p. 60. 

There is little doubt that this plant will be found to occur 

on the hills bounding the east of the county, if not elsewhere 

in the district. I have gathered it on the Cross Fell range in 

Cumberland at a very short distance from our boundary.] 

196. Lecanora albopruinosa (Arn. in Flora, 1859, p. 152; 

Nyl., Scand., p. 139, sub. Placodio Agardhiano, under which 

name Leighton also describes one form of it, Lich. Flora, 

3rd ed., p. 165); Stiz. Lich. Helv., p. loi. 

On limestone, here and there to the south of Kendal, as at 

Heversham Head, Scout Scar, etc. Very fine specimens are 

to be found near Arnside on rocks by the sea shore, associated 

with Lecanora vitellinula. 

E. Group of L. vitellina [Candelaria). 

197. Lecanora xanthostigma (Pers. in Ach. Lich. Un., p. 403 ; 

Ach., Syn., p. 176 pro parte) ; Nyl., Lapp. Or., p. 130. 
On trees in Lowther Park, The barren thallus occurs 
rather frequently, but I have only once gathered it with 
apothecia. 

198. Lecanora vitellina (Ehrh., exs. 155); Ach., Lich. Un., 

p. 403 ; Syn., p. 174; Nyl, Scand., p. 141 ; Leighton, Lich. 

Flora, 3rd ed., p. 166. 
Very common on rocks and walls, and sometimes on wood. 
The varieties corniscans and aureila also occur somewhat 
frequently. 

June 1890. L 



l62 MARTINDALE : LICHENS OF WESTMORLAND. 

199. Lecanora laciniosa (Duf. in Fr. L. E., p. 73); Nyl. in 

Flora, 1881, p. 454. L. candelaria, Leighton, Lich. Flora, 
3rd ed., p. 167. Lichen concolor, Dicks. Crypt., iii, p. 18. 
x\pparently very rare. I have only gathered it twice ; once 

on apple-trees in an orchard at Beathwaite Green and once 

in Levens Park. 

V. (Iroup of Z. sophoJcs {/\iiiodina). 

200. Lecanora sophodes (Ach., Prod., p. 67; Meth., p. 155) 

ejusdem, Lich. Un., p- 357 ; Syn., p. 153, excl. varieties; 
Nyl., Flora, 1869, p. 412; Leighton, Lich. Flora, p. 214 
pro minima parte. 
Apparently rare. The only place in which I have found it 
is between Kendal and Helsington, on some stunted trees. 
2ot. Lecanora exigua (Ach., Prod., p. 69; Meth., p. 154 pro 
parte); Nyl., Flora, 1873, p. 197, and 1874, p. 307 ; Lecanora 
sophodes v. exigua, Leighton, Lich. Flora, p. 214 (pro parte). 
On trees in Levens Park and Lowther Park, and 
occasionally on stones in walls, as at Staveley. Probably 
generally distributed. 

202. Lecanora roboris Duf. Hb. ; Nyl., Flora, 1869, p. 412. 

Lecanora sophodes v. roboris, Leighton, Lich. Flora, p. 215. 

Somewhat plentiful on trees in Levens Park and at Hever- 
sham Head. I think I have seen it also in Lowther Park, 
but I have no specimens from there in my herbarium. 

[Other species belonging to this group which can hardly 
be entirely absent from Westmorland, though as yet I have 
not noticed them, are Lecanora confragosa, L. milvina, 
L. atrocinerea, and Z. bischoffii. I have gathered L. milvina 
in the Isle of Man, and the Rev. W. Johnson records it 
from the neighbourhood of St. Bees.] 

G. Group of L. alpJioplaca. 

203. Lecanora circinata (Pers. in Ust. Ann., vii, p. 25) Ach., 

Syn., p. 184; Nyl., Scand., p. 152 ; Flora, 1873, p. 18 note; 
Leighton, Lich. Flora, p. 179. 

On limestone rocks near Kirkby Lonsdale, Sir J. E. Smith, 
fide Leighton, I.e. 

H. Group of L. subfusca. 

204. Lecanora galactina (Ach., Meth., p. 190) ejusdem, Lich. 

Un., p. 424; Syn., p. 187; Nyl., Lapp., p. 132; Leighton, 
Lich. Flora, p. 189. 

Naturalist, 



MARTINDALE : LICHENS OF WESTMORLAND. 163 

On limestone walls and stones, Kendal, Milnthorpe, Arn- 
side, Lowther Park, and Tirrill. Probably general on the 
limestone. A dispersed form of this species occurs, but 
I have not succeeded in finding the Lecanora dispersa of 
Persoon. 

205. Lecanora crenulata (Dicks., Crypt., 3, p. 14) Nyl., Lapp., 

p. 181, note 2. Lecanora hageni v. crenulata, Leighton, 
Lich. Flora, p. 191. 

On limestone walls and rocks at Kendal, Heversham, 
Lowther, and Tirrill. Probably general on the limestone. 

206. Lecanora subfusca (Linn., Sp., 1609; Ach., Prod., p. 47; 

Aleth., p. 167) ejusdem, Lich. Un., p. 393; Syn., p. 157, all 
pro parte; Nyl., Flora, 1872, p. 250 ; Lecanora subfusca v 
argentata Leighton, Lich. Flora, p. 186 pro parte. 
On trees of various kinds throughout the county. 

207. *Lecanora campestris (Schar., Spic, p. 391 ; F:n., p. 75) 

Nyl., Flora, 1872, p. 354. Lecanora subfusca v. argcntata 
Leighton, Lich. Flora, p. 186 pro parte. 
Common on stones in walls, Ambleside, Windermere, 
Staveley, Kendal, Levens, Lowther, Tirrill. 

208. Lecanora pseudistera Nyl., Flora, 1872, p. 354. 

On stones in a wall at Staveley. A plant differing from 
the preceding species by its smaller spores and its more dis- 
tinctly articulated paraphyses, as well as by other characters. 
.209. Lecanora rugosa (Pers. in Herb. .\ch., Stizb. in Bot. Zeit., 
1868, p. 891) Nyl., Flora, 1872, p. 250. Lecanora subfusca 
v. rugosa Leighton, Lich. Mora, p. 186. 
On trees, Levens Park, Sedgwick, and Ambleside. 
210. Lecanora gangaleoides Nyl., Flora, 1872, p. 354; 
Leighton, Lich. Flora, p. 189. 

On rocks at Kirkstone Pass and on Red Screes. 
^11. Lecanora chlarona (Ach., Lich. Un., p. 397, Syn., p. 158) ; 
Nyl., Flora, 1872, p. 250; Lecanora subfusca v. chlarona 
Leighton, Lich. Flora, jx 188 ; Lecanora subfusca n. pinastri 
Schar., Spic, p. 390, Fn., p. 74. 
Apparently generally distributed on firs throughout the 
county— Staveley, Ambleside, Kendal, etc. All my West- 
morland specimens are of the form pinasiri of Schiirer, 
which Dr. Nylander regards as belonging to Z. chlarona. 
Leighton joins this form to Lecanora cotlocarpa, Lich. Flora, 
p. 1S6. 

June 1890. 



164 MARTINDALE : LICHENS OF WESTMORLAND. 

2 12. Lecanora coilocarpa (Ach., Lich. Un., p. 393, Syn., p. 157; 

Nyl, Scand., p. 160) Nyl. in Lamy, Cat. Lich. Mont Dor., 

p. 72. Lecanora subfitsca v. coilocarpa Leighton, Lich. Flora, 

p. 186, pro parte. 

On clay-slate stones in walls at Staveley. I have not 

gathered the corticolous form. 

213. Lecanora intumescens (Rebent., Flora Neomarch., p. 301, 

fide Stizb., Lich. Helv., p. 112) Nyl., Flora, 1872, p. 250; 

Lamy, Cat. Lich. Mont Dor., p. 73 ; Lsca/wra subfiisca v. 

intuviescens Leighton, Lich. Flora, p. 186. 
On trees near Ambleside. My specimens are not well 
developed, and I was for a considerable time in much doubt 
whether they could rightly be referred to this species, which, 
in general, is easily recognisable. Some time since, however, 
I received a number of continental specimens among which 
were some exactly like the plant from Ambleside. 

214. Lecanora glaucoma (Hffm., Flora Germ., ii, p. 172;. 

Ach., Prod., p. 56 ; Meth., p. 160) Ach., Lich. Un., p. 362 ; 

Syn., p. 165; Nyl., Scand., p. 159; Leighton, Lich. Flora, 

p. 204. 
On clay-slate stones in walls near Heversham and near 
Staveley, not common. The specimens from Heversham are 
infested with the parasitic ArtJwnia varians (Dav.). I have 
a form gathered near Lazonby in Cumberland which differs 
very much in aspect from any that I am acquainted with, but 
agrees in chemical reaction, and in all essential characters. 

[Lecanora subcarnea (Sw., Ach.) Nyl, Flora, 1873, p. 69; 
Leighton, Lich. Flora, p. 205. 
This species will most likely be found to occur in Westmor- 
land, though I have not hitherto noticed it. I have gathered 
it, however, near Keswick in Cumberland]. 

215. Lecanora umbrina (Ehrh., PI. Crypt., 245) Nyl., Lich. 

Scand., p. 162 ] Leighton, Lich. Flora, p. 191, exclude 
varieties. 
On stones and walls. None of my Westmorland specimens 
are really typical. 

[Lecanora prosechoides (Nyl. in Crombie's Lich. Brit., 
p. 51) Nyl., Flora, 1872, p. 250. Lecanora u/!il>rifia v. 
prosechoides Leight., Lich. Flora, p. 191. 

Common on the east coast of the Isle of Man, but I have 
seen no Westmorland specimens]. 

Naturalist- 



1 65 

DIPTERA FROM THE 
ALFORD DISTRICT OF LINCOLNSHIRE. 

JAMES EARDLEY MASON, 
The Sycamores, Al/brci. 

The following is a list of some of the flies taken casually by me in 
the year iS88, and identified by Mr. G. H. Verrall. Others were 
rendered impossible of accurate identification by having been carded 
with gum, like beetles, and the whole series examined thereby made 
exceedingly awkward to deal with. My indebtedness to Mr. Verrall 
is consequently tinged with compunction at my having trespassed so 
largely on his kindness. No one in the county studies the Diptera, 
to my knowledge. Would it were otherwise. 

This list is an addition to that which appeared at pp. 217 and 218 
of ' The Naturalist ' for July, 1888. 

/^cnemia nitidicollis Mg. ? Alford ; 3rd August, 188S. 
Macrocera fasciata Mg. Well; 25th June, 1888. 
Ceratopogon bipunctatus L. Chapel ; 31st July, 1888. Mable- 

thorpe ; 12th August, 1888. 
Ptychoptera albimana F. Well; 20th October, 1888. 
Limnobia tripunctata F. Well; 27th June, 1888. 
Pachyrrhina histrio F. Alford; 8th August, 1888. 
Pachyrrhina quadrifaria Mg. Alford; 8th. August, 1888. 
Tipula lutescens F. Alford; 23th June, 1888. 
Leptis tringaria L. Well; 12th August, 1888. 
Philonicus albiceps Mg. Chapel; 31st July, 1888. 
Empis tessellata F. Well; 1 6th June, 1888. 
Empis stercorea L. Well; 25th June, 1888. 
Tachypeza nubila Mg. Chapel ; 23rd July, 1888. 
Tachista arrogans L.? Chapel; 23rd July, 1888. 
Tachydromia bicolor F. ? Well ; 1 6th June and 23rd August, 1 888. 
Dolichopus trivialis Hal. Well; 25th June, 1888. 
Argyra argyria Mg. Chapel; 31st July, 1888. 
Chilosia flavimana Mg. Well; i6th June, 1888. 
Leucozona lucorum L. Well ; loth and i6th June, 1888. 

Chapel; 31st July, 1888. 
Platychirus manicatus Mg. ? Alford; June, 1888. 
Syrphus bifasciatus F. Well ; loth June, 1888. 
Volucella bombylans L. Well; loth June, 1888. 

June 1890. 



I 66 SHORT NOTES. 

Eristalis intricarius L. Chapel; 31st July, 1S8S. 
Thelaira leucozona Pz.? Mablethorpc : iSth August, 1SS8. 
Sarcophaga carnaria 1- Alford ; 20th August, 1S88. 
Calliphora erythrocephala Mg. Chapel; 31st July, 18S8. 
Stomoxys calcitrans I- Alford, Juno, 188S. 
Hyetodesia flaveola I'ln Well; 25th June, 1888. 
Anthomyia radicum L. Chapel; 31st July, 1S88. 
Homalomyia canicularis L. Mablethorpe ; 26th August, 1888.. 
Lispe tentaculata Dg. Chapel; 31st July, 1SS8. 
Sciomyza albocostata Fin. Well; i6th June, 1888. 
Titanocera punctulata Scop. Well; 25th June, t888. 
Ptilonota centralis 1". Well; i6th June, 1888. 
Seoptera vibrans 1- Alford; 5th July. 1888. 
Acidia heraclei L. Thoresthorpe ; 4th June, 1SS8. 
Spilographa zol- Mg. Alford; 8tli June. 18SS. Well; loth 

June, 188S. 
Sepsis nigripes Mg. ? Ailby ; 17th October, iSSS. 

Besides these, the following pests have been very abundant 

both in iSSS and 1S89: — 
Cecidomyia destructor Say (Hessian Fly). 
Hylemyia coarctata Fin. (Wheat-bulb Maggot Fly). 
Chlorops taeniopus Mg. (Ribbon-footed Corn-Fly). 

24/// .)/(/;•<//. lSv)0. 

NOTE— FISH. 

Lamprey at Flamborough. — On the 3rd of May Mr. Matthew Bailey sent 
nie a t;ooil-si/eil exaniplo of the Lamprey (/V//-r'wrc^// tiiariinis) wliich had been 
taken by IJielhy Wooilhousc, lisherman, of Flamhorough that same mornintj. 
He was out loni:;-line tishing about six or seven miles south-cast of the Headland, 
and had taken several Cod. ^Vhen taking hold of a very large Codfish he saw this 
strange fish in the Coil's mouth. It appears that the fish was quite strange and 
unknown to the fishermen of Flamborough, in whose experience (and Mr. I'ailey's) 
it hail never occurred before. Mr. Edgar R. Waite. F. I... S., of the Museum here, 
and I, made out the fish to be a Lamprey, with Varrell's description of which- 
it agreed in every respect. — W. Demson Rokiu'ck, Sunny l^ank, Leeds, 
^^ay 5th, 1S90. ^ 

NOTE—BOTAN\ '. 

Geranium phaeum in Littondale, Mid-West Yorkshire. — On ALay 20th 
I had the good f utuno to find a tine plant of this rare tlower in bloom. It is a 
very healthy plant, growing near to the stream at an elevation of about 650 ft. 
above the seadevel. As there is only one plant, for obvious reasons I refrain from 
giving the locality more definitely. But I shall be glad to show the blossoms, 
which I have pressctl for my herbarium, to any botanist who may be travelling 
tills way. It is interesting to find the plant in this dale, as Mr. Arnold Lees has 
no Wharfedale station for it in his 'Flora of West Yorkshire' and mentions 
350 ft. as its highest range. It was f(-)und many years ago at 1-eizor near Clapham. 
which is about 15 miles from ArnclilVe — W. A. SnrFFKF.V, M.ay 21st, 1S90. 

Naturalist- 



167 
NOTES ON THE STARLING. 

RH.KV FORTUNE, F.Z.S., 
Pivsidciit of the Iltirrogate Nnttiralists Society. 

Last year information respecting the breeding of the Starling 
{Sturmis vulfi^aris) was puiilished in the columns of 'The Naturalist.' 
It is in the hope of getting a little more information about this 
common bird that these lines are penned. 

Does the Starling pair for life? This is a question I should like 
settling with the help of the readers of 'The Naturalist.' For 
many years I have had Starlings under constant observation, and my 
opinion is that in a good many instances they do. 

The hole in which the nest is built is never really deserted. 
When the young are ready to fly, the old birds and young disappear 
early some fine morning into the country, where they stay continually 
day and night for a few weeks. After that time the old birds return 
to the hole every day throughout the winter, and roost therein at 
night ; they are occasionally accompanied by the young ones. If 
two broods are reared in a season, the parent birds stay a shorter 
time in the country with the first brood. 

On a fine winter's day, the old Starlings are almost invariably to 
be found on the house-top, warbling and chirming out their peculiar 
song. On the approach of spring, if the young birds are still about, 
there arc sure to be fierce combats for possession of the hole, as 
a rule resulting in the victory of the former tenants. Sparrows, too, 
often try to obtain possession, but they are soon evicted, being 
generally hauled out by the tail, very often the tail feathers and Mr. 
Sparrow parting company during the struggle. The quantity of 
tail-less Sparrows to be seen about during spring, proves that this is 
no uncommon occurrence. 

Starlings are excellent mimics, and it would be interesting to have 
recorded the various calls they have been heard to imitate. I have 
heard them give perfect imitations of the cries of the following birds 
this spring : — Sparrow, Lapwing, Golden Plover, Yellow Hammer, 
Chaffinch, etc. 

A year or two ago the shepherd in Haverah Park told me that 
Starlings were a regular nuisance to him ; they imitated his whistle 
so closely that even the dogs were deceived. While he was relating 
this, we heard them at work, and the representation of the human 
whistle, as given by them, was perfect. 

They are very quarrelsome birds. A dozen or two come regularly 
every day into our stable-yard for food. It is very interesting to 

June i8qo. 



1 68 WILLIAMS : BRITISH LAND AND FRESHWATER SHELLS. 

watch them ; the first thing a new comer does, after flying over the 
stable and dropping down near the others with a curious tumbler- 
like flight, is to run at the nearest bird and give it a dig with its 
beak, and all the time they are there they are squeaking and fighting 
with one another in a most unfriendly way. 

Starlings have increased wonderfully of late years in this district. 
They do an immense amount of good, and, so far as can be ascer- 
tained, tw harm at all. The farmers and gardeners, for a wonder, 
seem to be unanimous on this point. The only fault to find with 
them is that they are too fond of usurping and occupying the 
nesting-holes of the Woodpeckers. 

Harrogate, \()th April, 1890. 



BRITISH LAND AND FRESHWATER SHELLS. 

Land and Freshwater Shells: an Introduction to the Study of Conchology, 

By J. W. Williams. (' Young Collector ' Series. Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 
1889.) 

If any 'young collector' purchases this book with the hope that 
it will help him to collect, he will be sadly disappointed. The first 
four pages only are devoted to ' collecting and preserving slugs, etc' 
Instead of figures of the various species, he will find anatomical 
diagrams of ' a segment of the radula of Neritiiia^ ' nervous system 
of Haliotis' (a sea shell, by the way), 'reproductive organs of 
H. poinatia,' etc. — all very well in their way, but not in a 'young 
collector's ' way. For a tyro to read that ' Nalepa has found that in 
Zoiiites alginis the cells of this " epithelial organ " develop in spring 
. . . but after that they gradually atrophy, and, according to Longe and 
Mer, they are entirely wanting in the full-grown animal,' or that 
'the trypsin of the secretion of the " mitteldarmdriise " converts the 
proteids of the foodstuffs into peptones, ' is, in our opinion, enough 
to make his researches end there ; nor is there any glossary to this 
mass of technicalities, which takes up the bulk of the book — 
forty-four pages. Then comes a very fair description of the different 
shells, spoilt, however, by the specific names being placed awkwardly 
after them. The descriptions are further confused by the different 
standards of measurement — y-^ i"ch, 5i lines, 10 to 13 mm., occur- 
ring on the same page ; and we are commonly treated to fractions 
such as ^4, gV, /„ of an inch. The book is well printed, and the 
matter interesting to students of molluscan anatomy, but not to a 
* young collector.' The most useful part of the book is the Con- 
chological Society's 'census.' — -A.L.E. 

Naturalist, 



t69 

LINCOLNSHIRE LIMESTONE PLANTS. 



Rev. WILLIAM FOWLER, M.A., 

I'icar of Livcrsedgc, Vorkshiic ; }ice-P resident of the Yorkshire Naturalists^ Union. 



The plants included in the following list are those which grow on — 
(i) The Chalk Wolds, between Barton-on-Humber and Burgh; 

(2) The Inferior Oolite, between Winteringham-on-the-Humber 

and Stamford ; 

(3) The Lias Limestones, between Whitton-on-the-Humber 

and Grantham. 
The Chalk Wolds are less productive than other Chalk districts, for 
two reasons — they are largely covered by Diluvial Drift, and are 
in a high state of cultivation. 

The Lias Limestones, too, are throughout the greater part of 
their length overlaid by sands and clays, so that the soil does not 
consist of disintegrated Limestone, except in a few places. 

All the rarer plants are found on the Inferior Oolite, and 
especially on its top bed, the Cornbrash, which is easily disintegrated 
by atmospheric agencies, and then forms a light Limestone soil. 

A few Limestone plants are found on the Red Marls with 
Gypsum (or Sulphate of Lime) which occur in the Isle of Axholme, 
and these, as they are all found on the Limestone soils of the Chalk, 
the Inferior Oolite, or the Lias, are marked with an asterisk in 
this list, instead of being repeated as a separa/e one. 

Anemone Pulsatilla. Hypericum montanum. 

Broughton. Ancaster. Broughton Wood. 

Ranunculus parviflorus. • Malva moschata. 



l]ritten's list. 



Linum perenne. 



Aquilegia vulg-aris. Britten's list. 



Broutrhton. Near Alford. 



Geranium sanguineum. 



Berberis vulgaris. Broughton Wood. 

Arabis sagittata Geranium pratense. 

Reseda lutea. Geranium pyrenaicum. 
*Reseda luteola. Harlaxton. 

■'Viola odorata. Euonymus europaeus. 

Viola hirta. Rhamnus catharticus. 

Viola Reichenbachiana. Ononis spinosa. 

Cerastium arvense, Trifolium procumbens. 

Hypericum hirsutum. Anthyllis Vulneraria. 

June 1800. 



170 



FOWLER : LINCOLNSHIRE LIMESTONE PLANTS. 



Astragalus Hypoglottis. 

Broughton. Ropsley. 
Astragalus glycyphyllos. 

Whitton. Broughton. 
Uffington. 
Hippocrepis comosa. 

Broughton. Ancaster. 
Spiraea Filipendula. 

Appleby. Broughton. 
Lissington (Lees). 
Rubus saxatilis. Broughton 
Wood. Gateburton, Gains- 
borough (Lees). 
*Agrimonia Eupatoria. 

Poterium Sanguisorba. 
*Poterium officinale. 
Rosa rubiginosa. 

Broughton. Bytham. 
Parnassia palustris. 
* Bryonia dioica. 
Bupleurum rotundifolium. 
Britten's hst. 
*Sison Amomum. 
Pimpinella Saxifraga. 
Pimpinella major. 
*Silaus pratensis. 
Selinum Carvifolia. 

Broughton Wood. 
Peucedanum sativum. 
*Daucus Carota. 
Cornus sanguinea. 
Viburnum Opulus. 
Galium Mollugo. 
Galium tricorne. 
Asperula cynanchica. 

Broughton. Ancaster. 
Valeriana Mikanii. 

Broughton Wood. 
Dipsacus pilosus. 
Morkery and Ponton Woods. 
Claxby Wood. 

Scabiosa Columbaria. 



Solidago Virgaurea. 

Erigeron acre. Broughton. 

Antennaria dioica. 

Broughton. 

Inula Conyza. Britten's hst. 

Stainton-le-Vale (Lees).. 
*Senecio erucifolius. 

Senecio campestris (tall 
form). Ancaster (Streatfeild). 

Carlina vulgaris. 

Carduus nutans. 

Cnicus eriophorus. Corby. 

Cnicus acaulis var. caules- 
cens. Near Laughton. 

Serratula tinctoria. 
*Centaurea Scabiosa. 

Cichorium Intybus. 

Picris hieracioides. 

Picris echioides. 

Hieracium umbellatum. 

Lactuca muralis. 

Campanula glomerata. 

Campanula Trachelium. 

Chiefly on the Cornbrash„ 

Campanula latifolia. 

Specularia hybrida. 

Primula veris. 

Ligustrum vulgare. 
*Black:stonia perfoliata. 

Gentiana Amarella. 
*Cynoglossum officinale. 

Lithospermum officinale. 

Lithospermum arvense. 

Echium vulgare. 

Verbascum Thapsus. 

Linaria Elatine. 

Melampyrum cristatum. 

Careby Wood, 

Lathraea squamaria. 

Well Vale (J. E. Mason). 

Naturalist, 



FOWLER : LINCOLNSHIRE LIMESTONE PLANTS. 



T71 



Verbena officinalis. 
Origanum vulgare. 
Thymus serpyllum. 
Calamintha Clinopodium. 
Calamintha arvensis. 

Salvia Verbenaca. 

Kirton-in-IJndsey. 

' Nepeta Cataria. 
Marrubium vulgare. 
Plantago media. 
Plantago Coronopus. 
Chenopodium polysper- 
mum. Careby Wood. 

Daphne Laureola. 

Witham. Ashby-cum-Fenby. 
Euphorbia amygdaloides. 

Bourn and Ufifington Woods. 
Neottia Nidus-avis. 

Ropsley Wood. 
Orchis pyramidalis. 
Orchis ustulata. Winterton. 
(llentham (Lees). 
Orchis Morio. 
Orchis Mascula. 
Aceras anthropophora. 

Britten's list. 
Ophrys apifera. 

Broughton. Cockerington. 
Ophrys muscifera. 

P5rou2;hton Wood. 



Habenaria chloroleuca. 

Broughton. Boothby, 
(iatel)urton (Lees). 
Iris foetidissima. 

('areby Wood. 
Tamus communis. 
Convallaria majalis. 
AUium oleraceum. 

Broughton Wood. 
Colchicum autumnale. 

Fh.\.borough. 
Paris quadrifolia. 
Scirpus Caricis. 

Pond-side, Broughton. 
Carex muricata. 
Carex divulsa. Bourn Wood. 
Calamagrostis lanceolata. 

F.aston Wood. 
Avena pubescens. 

About l)ishopbridge (Lees). 
Koeleria cristata. 
Melica uniflora. 
Festuca rigida. 
Brachypodium pinnatum. 
Asplenium Trichomanes. 

Ovvston Ferry. 
Asplenium Ruta-muraria. 

Ovvston Ferry. SawcHffe. 
Polystichum aculeatum. 
Polystichum angulare. 

Burwell Wood, Louth. 



Habenaria conopsea. Phegopteris Dryopteris. 

Habenaria viridis. Ancaster. Britten's Ust. 

Several of the plants in the above list do not seem to require 
liine, but only a poj'OJis soil, and are, therefore, found also on sand. 
The finest specimens of Orchis fyramidalis I ever saw, occur, for 
instance, on sandy ground near the sea ; and many others are met 
with in as flourishing a state on alluvial sand as on limestone soil, 
for example : Cerastiiim arveiise, Ononis spinosa, Galinni iricorne, 
Solidago Virgaiirea, Erigeron acre, Carlina vulgaris, Cynoglossian 
officinale, Echium vulgare, Verbascuni Thapsus, Plantago Coronopus^ 
Convallaria majalis, and Carex muricata. 

June 1890. 



^72 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT HULL. 



The 28th Annual Meeting was held in the Royal Institution, Hull, 
on Wednesday, the 20th November, 18S9, ^^^'-^ the thanks of the 
"Union are due to the Hull Societies, and to the various local gentle- 
men who had made the arrangements for the day's proceedings. 

The attendance was not quite so large as usual, Hull being so far 
distant from the mass of the population of the county, but a con- 
siderable number of local members were present, and some had 
journeyed long distances, these being principally representatives of 
the various local societies. 

The Sections met at 4.0 o'clock for the consideration of their 
reports and the election of their officers, and were followed at 4.30 by 
the meeting of the General Committee, at which eleven Societies 
were officially represented by delegates, and six others unofficially 
by permanent members of the General Committee. In addition 
to these gentlemen, the attendance included two ex- Presidents 
(Dr. H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., and Rev. W. Fowler, M.A.), the two 
Hon. Secretaries (Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S., and Rev. E. P. 
Knubley, M.A.), and one Hon. Assistant Secretary (Mr. Edgar R. 
Waite), two members of the Executive, three Presidents and four 
Secretaries of Sections, two of the Hon. Local Treasurers, and two 
other permanent members of the General Committee, making a total 
attendance of thirty-five members of Committee. 

The chair was taken by Dr. H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., and the 
minutes of the previous meeting taken as read. The 28th Annual 
Report, which appears on -page 139 of 'The Naturalist' for May, 
was read by the Rev. E. P. Knubley, M.A., one of the Secretaries, 
and unanimously adopted, on the motion of Mr. J. J. Stead, 
seconded by Mr. J. M. Kirk. 

The Excursion-programme for 1890, which had been drawn up 
by the Executive, was adopted as follows, on the motion of the 
Rev. E. M. Cole, M.A., F.G.S., and Mr. S. A. Adamson, F.G.S. 

Whit-Monday, 26th May — Driffield for Lowthorpe. 

Saturday, 14th June — Dewsbury for Bretton Park. 

Tuesday, 8th July — Kildale-in-Cleveland. 

Saturday, 2nd August, to Bank Holiday Monday, 4th August — Upper 

Svvaledale (Gunnerside, Kisdon, and Keldi. 
Thursday, lith .September — Malham and Gordale (in connection with the 

meeting of the British Association). 

Naturalist, 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION — ANNUAL MEETING. I 75 

The Secretary read a letter signed by Mr. J. W. Davis, F.S. A., F.Ci.S., 
on behalf of the Scientific Societies of Halifax and district, cordially 
inviting the Union to hold its next Annual Meeting at Halifax. The 
invitation was unanimously accepted, on the proposition of Mr. Jas. 
Spencer and Dr. F. F. Walton. 

The election of officers next took place, when the Rev. W. 
Fowler, M.A., announced that the Lord }3ishop of A\'akefield had 
accepted the Presidency for 1890. 

Both the Hon. Secretaries (Mr. Wm. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S., 
Leeds, and the Rev. E. Ponsonby Knubley, M.A., M.B.O.U., 
Staveley), and the Assistant Hon. Secretaries (Messrs. P. H. 
Grimshaw and Edgar R. Waite, both of Leeds), were unanimously 
re-elected, on the motion of the Revs. W. Fowler, M.A., and 
E. Maule Cole, M.A. The Hon. Librarian, Mr. Charles Brownridge, 
F.G.S., was re-elected, as were also the ten retiring members of the 
Executive, Rev. W. Fowler, ]\Lx\., Liversedge ; Messrs. S. A. 
Adamson, F.G.S., Leeds; J. W. Davis, F.S. A., F.G.S., Halifax; 
Wm. Cash, F.L.S., Halifax ; C. P. Hobkirk, F.L.S., Dewsbury ; 
John Emmet, F.L.S., Boston Spa ; Benj. Holgate, F.G.S., Leeds ; 
H. T. Soppitt, Bradford ; J. J. Stead, Heckmondwike ; and 
M. B. Slater, F.L.S., Malton. Messrs. J. E. Bedford, F.G.S., and 
C. D. Hardcastle, both of Leeds, were re-elected Hon. Auditors. 

The following Hon. Local Treasurers were also re-elected — 
Messrs. W. E. Brady, Barnsley ; J. D. Butterell, Beverley ; 
H. Speight, Bradford ; P. F. Lee, Dewsbury ; Geo. Winter, 
Doncaster ; Thos. Bunker, Goole ; Wm. Cash, F.L.S., Halifax; 
Edgar R. Waite, F.L.S., Leeds; M. B. Slater, F.L.S., Malton; 
T. F. Ward, Middlesbrough; T. H. Nelson, M.B.O.U., Redcar; 
Rev. R. A. Summerfield, B.A., Ripon; Messrs. J. H. Rowntree, 
Scarborough ; W. N. Cheesman, Selby ; A. T. Watson, Sheffield ; 
J. J. Stead, Spen Valley ; Geo. Parkin, Wakefield ; Thos. Newbitt, 
Whitby ; and G. C. Dennis, York, together with the following new 
Treasurers — Messrs. L. B. Ross, F.C.S., Driffield; Riley Fortune, 
"F.Z.S., Harrogate ; John Stears, Hull ; R. Barnes, Saltburn ; 
H. Richardson, B.A., Sedbergh ; and Wm. Fletcher, Pickering. 

The Committees of Research were then appointed. 

The Yorkshire Boulder Committee was re-appointed, to consist 
of Prof. L. C. Miall, F.L.S., F.G.S., Leeds (chairman) ; Messrs. 
C. D. Hardcastle, Leeds (vice-chairman) ; S. A. Adamson, F.G.S., 
Leeds (hon. secretary) ; J. E. Bedford, F.G.S.,C. Brownridge, F.G.S., 
Leeds; S. Chadwick, F.G.S., Malton; Rev. E. Maule Cole, ^LA., 
Wetwang ; J. W. Davis, F.G.S., F.S.A., Halifax; Prof A. H. (;reen, 
M.A.. F .R.S., Oxford ; Wm. Gregson, Baldersby ; B. Holgate, F.G.S., 

June i8qo. 



174 YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS UNION — ANNUAL MEETING 

Leeds ; Wm. Home, F.G.S., Leyburn ; James Spencer, Halifax ; 
T. Tate, F.G.S., Leeds; J. W. Woodall, F.G.S., Scarborough; J. R. 
Mortimer, Drififield, and R. Wood, M.D., Driffield, and the 
Rev. H. W. Crosskey, M.A., as an honorary member. 

The Yorkshire Marine Zoology Committee was re-appointed as 
follows :— Dr. H. C Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S., Sheffield (chairman); 
Messrs. J. P. A. Davis, HaHfax (hon. secretary) ; G. Brook, F.L.S., 
Edinburgh ; J. D. Butterell, Beverley ; W. Eagle Clarke, F.L.S., 
Edinburgh ; John Cordeaux, M.B.O.U., Great Cotes ; W. Cash, 
T.L.S., Halifax; Rev. W. C. Hey, M.A., York; Baker Hudson, 
M.C.S., Redcar; T. H. Nelson, M.B.O.U., Redcar; O. T. Olsen, 
E.L.S., Grimsby; Rev. H. Smith, M.A., Redcar; J. W. Woodall, 
M.A., F.G.S., Scarborough ; and Geo. Massee, F.R.M.S., Kew, as 
Botanical Referee. 

The Yorkshire Fossil Flora Committee was also re-appointed, 
to consist of Prof. W. C. Williamson, LL.D., F. R.S., Manchester 
(chairman); James W. Davis, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.S.A., Halitax 
(vice-chairman) ; Wm. Cash, F.G.S., F.L.S., Halifax (hon. secretary) ; 
Messrs. S. A. Adamson, F.G.S., Leeds; Thos. Hick, B.A., B.Sc, 
Manchester; B. Holgate, F.G.S., Leeds; R. Kidston, F.G.S., 
F.R.S.E., Stirling; Robert Law, F.G.S., Halifax; Prof. L. C. Miall, 
F.L.S., F.G.S., Leeds; James Spencer, Halifax; John Stubbins, 
F.G.S., F.R.M.S., Leeds; and William West, F.L.S., Bradford. 

The Yorkshire Coast Erosion Committee was re-appointed, to 
consist of Mr. J. W. Woodall, F.G.S. (chairman), and the Rev. E. M. 
-Cole, M.A. (hon. secretary), Mr. J. C. FAnson, F.S.A., F.G.S., 
Saltburn-by-the-Sea, and F. Fielder Walton, F.G.S. , Hull. 

It was then unanimously resolved that the present Section for 
Micro-Zoology and Micro-Botany be transformed into a Committee 
•of Research, dealing with the same branch of study and working in 
■connection with the British Association Committee on the same 
subject, to consist of Dr. H. C Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S., Sheffield 
(chairman) ; J. M. Kirk, Doncaster (hon. secretary) ; W. West, 
F.L.S., Bradford; Prof. Alfred Denny, F.L.S., Sheffield; C. B. 
Crawshaw, Dewsbury; C. P. Hobkirk, F.L.S., Dewsbury ; Rev. W. E. 
Hancock, M. A., Knaresborough ; Chas. Crossland, Halifax ; and 
M. H. Stiles, Doncaster. 

A new Committee was then appointed to investigate the 
causes of the Disappearance of Native Plants, to consist of the 
following members: — C. P. Hobkirk, F.L.S., Dewsbury (chairman); 
P. F. Lee, Dewsbury (hon. secretary) ; J. Emmet, F.L.S., Boston 
Spa; M. B. Slater, F.L.S., Malton ; Rev. W. A. Shuffrey, M.A., 
Arncliffe; Rev. W, Thompson, M.A., Sedbergh ; J. H. Phillips, 

Naturalist, 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION — ANNUAL MEETING. 175 

Scarborough ; T. W. Woodhead, Huddersfield ; H. T. Soppitt, 
Bradford; R. Barnes, Saltburn-by-the-Sea ; and E. Birks, Sheffield. 

A second new Committee was appointed to collect and record 
Geological Photographs of Yorkshire, and to consist of J. W. Davis, 
F.S.A., F.L.S., F.Cr.S., Halifax (chairman) ; S. A. Adamson, F.G.S., 
Leeds (vice-chairman) ; J. E. Bedford, F.G.S., Leeds (hon. secretary) ; 
Rev. E. M. Cole, M.A., F.G.S., Wetwang ; Godfrey Bingley, Leeds; 
F. W. Branson, F.LC, F.C.S., Leeds; G. Fowler Jones, Malton ; 
A. E. Nichols, Leeds ; and F. F. Walton, F.G.S., Hull. 

The General Committee exercised its power to add to its own 
number ten permanent members annually in favour of R. Barnes, 
Saltburn ; Godfrey Bingley, Leeds; James Booth, F.G.S., Halifax; 
F. Brittain, Sheffield ; R. Fortune, Harrogate ; J. Gerrard, Wakefield; 
H. Richardson, B.A., Sedbergh ; F. J. Sawdon, M.D., Hull; 
H. Speight, Bradford ; and T. F. Ward, Middlesbrough. 

The following gentlemen whose names had been duly proposed 
.and seconded in writing were unanimously elected Members of the 
Union: — H. J. Barber, Brighouse ; J. H. Buchanan, M.D., Thirsk ; 
Wm. Cooper, "C.E., Hull; H. T. Hallimond, Saltburn; A. M. Jackson, 
Hull; A. O. Jones, M.D., Harrogate; B. B. Le Tall, M.A., York; 
W. T. H. Nassau, Hull; A. E. Nichols, Leeds; Walter Roberts, 
Doncaster; F. A. Scott, Hull; W. H. St. Quintin, J. P., Scampston; 
M. L. Thompson, Saltburn; C. O. Trechmann, Ph.D., Hartlepool; 
.and R. A. Worswick, Saltburn. 

The Scarbro' Field Naturalists' Society having being duly 
JlDroposed, was admitted into the Union. 

The secretaries of the sections then announced the election of 
their officers as follows : — 

B. Vertebrate Zoology. — Mr. Thos. Bunker, Goole, presi- 
dent; Mr. James Backhouse, jun., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., York, and 
Mr. Edgar R. Waite, F.L.S., Leeds, hon. secretaries ; all re-elected. 

C. Conchology. — Rev. W. C. Hey, M.A., York, president 
'(re-elected); .\L-. John Emmet, F.L.S., Boston Spa (re-elected), and 

Mr. L. B. Ross, F.C.S., Driffield, hon. secretaries. 

D. Entomology. — Mr. Dobree reported that want of attendance 
at the meeting had prevented the election from taking place, where- 
upon it was moved and carried unanimously that the officers be re- 
■elected as follows: — Mr. N. F. Dobree, F.E.S., Beverley, president; 

Mr. W. E. Brady, Barnsley, and Mr. J. H. Rowntree, Scarborough, 
hon. secretaries. 

E. Botany. — Mr. C. P. Hobkirk, F.L.S., Dewsbury, president; 
Mr. P. F. Lee, Dewsbury, and Mr. M. B. Slater, F.L.S., Malton, 
hon. secretaries ; all re-elected. 

I line 1890. 



176 NOTKS AND NEWS. 

F. Geology. — Rev. E. M. Cole, M.A., RG.S., Wetwang, presi- 
dent ; Mr. S. A. Adamson, F.G.S., Leeds, and Mr. S. Chadwick, F.G.S., 
Malton, hon. secretaries ; all re-elected. 

The members then adjourned to the Cafe Royal, Saville Street, 
where tea was provided. 

The Annual Public Meeting was held at seven o'clock in the 
Lecture Theatre of the Royal Institution, the chair being occupied 
by the President, Mr. Henry E. Dresser, F.L.S., F.Z.S. The substance 
of the Annual Report and the Excursion-Programme for 1890 were 
announced to the meeting by the Rev. E. P. Rnubley, M. A., M.B.O.U.,. 
after which the chair was vacated in favour of the Mayor of Hull 
(Aid. John Sherburn, M.B.), who called upon Mr. Dfesser to deliver 
the annual Presidential Address, entitled 'A few remarks on Natural 
History, past and present, together with Notes on a recent Trip tO' 
Spain.' The President prefaced his remarks by an expression of the 
extreme gratification it afforded him to preside over a meeting of 
Yorkshire Naturalists, especially in the town of Hull, for, essentially 
a Yorkshireman (as not a drop of blood tlows in his veins but what 
is pure Yorkshire) he was half a Hull man, and spent some of his 
earlier days in that town. He then proceeded to give a short sketch 
of the gradual growth of the Study of Natural History, and more 
especially of Ornithology, to the study of which he had from 
childhood devoted his spare time. 

At the conclusion of the address a vote of thanks, proposed by 
Dr. Lambert and seconded by Dr. Walton, was unanimously passed 
to the President, as was also a cordial vote of thanks to the Hull 
Societies for their kind and hospitable reception. 

A hearty vote of thanks, accorded to the Mayor of Hull, brought 
the proceedings to a close. — E.R.W. 

lYOTES AND NEIVS. 

The names recently added to tlie Geological Society of London include those 
of Messrs. Bernard Ilobson, B.Sc. , of Sheffield, and G. W. Lamplugh of Brid- 
lington Quay. Mr. Lamplugh has made numerous contributions to the glacial 
and general geology of East Yorkshire. 

><io< 

One of the new selections for the honour of F. K.S. is Mr. J. J. II. Teall, 
M.A., F.G.S., formerly of Nottingham, antl now attached to the Cieological 
Survey ; author of several valuable jiapers on north-country geology and petrology. 

AnotliLM- of ihoni is a compliment to natural history research of the old sterling 
stamp : and zoologists generally will be gratified to learn that the Royal Society's 
fellowship is to be conferred upon so worthy a naturalist as the Rev. Alfred Merle 
Norman, D.C. L. , of Burnmoor Rectory, co. Durham. 

>ocX — 

In the Entomological Society's Transactions for 1SS9, Mr. G. T. I'orritt, 
F.L. S., has a short paper on an extraordinary race of Antia iiieiuiica and figures 
three males and fifteen females, exhibiting striking deviations from the ortiinary 
type, all bred in 1S88 and 1SS9 from specimens found at Giimescar near Hudders- 
field. The ex(iuisite coloured plate is from the pencil of Mr. S. L. Mosley. F. E.S. 



177 
BIBLIOGRAPHY: 

Papers and records published with respect to the Natural History and 
Physical Features of the North of England. 



BIRDS, 1888. 

The present instalment includes a few titles of earlier date which 
have hitherto escaped notice. 

The remarks prefixed to the ])ird-l)ibliography for 1886 (]niblished 
in the Naturalist for May 1889, p. 145) are equally applicalile to the 
present intalment. ' 

Anon. [ik^I .signed]. Cumberld., Durh., Northb. S., Yorksh., Cheviotld. 

List of . . . Donations to the Museum ... of the Natural History 
Society [of Newcastle-on-Tyne], ivom June, 1S77, to August, 1887 
[1879 — ncsi and egg of Cj'/'sriiis a/'/zs taken at Carlisle, and of Cotile riparia 
at Duiiiani, June 3rd, 1878 (F. Raiiie); 1880 — a young Rook {Cor-'i/s frtii^i- 
/t'i;'i/s) witli white feathers in eaeh wing, shot at lUaydon-on-'I'yne (Thomas 
Thonijison) ; 1881 — nest of Dipper [Ciiiiiiis aqitaticus) taken at Eijchester, 
Aj^ril 25th, 1878 (D. Embieton); male specimen of the Summer Duck 
{Deiidroiiessa spojisa) from Leazes Park, Newcastle (Mr. Wilson) ; 1882 — egg 
of Rhea americana laid at Chirton Cottage, North Shields, July 17th, 1882 
(J. F. Spence) ; hybrid between Anns boschas and ,-/. acuta shot near New- 
castle, Feb. 1835 (^^- C- Trevelyan) ; Common Wild Duck {A)ias boschas), 
variety with great deal of white, shot at Fenham Flats, 23rd Fel)., 1883 
(F. O. Keid) ; egg of Rhea americana laid at Chirton Cottage, 3rd July, 
1883 (J. F. Spence) ; Fork-tailed Petrel [/'j-ocellar/a lettcorrhoa) killed against 
telegraph wires near Brandling Place, Oct. 1882 (R. Howse) ; immature 
Merlin (Falco usalon) shot at White House (J. S. Forster) ; young male 
Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisiis) taken at Shipcole (Dr. H. S. Pattinson); 
female ditto taken at IJeaufront (I,. \V. Adamson) ; Common Wren {'J'roglo- 
ilytes parvnliis) taken at Moorlands (J. d. Fenwick) ; 1884 — nest of Wheatear 
(Saxicola aiiaulhe) found in a large heap of sandstone, bricks and slag at 
Nest House, Gateshead (.Mr. Robson) ; skeleton of Rhea americana, which 
died at Chirton, Aug. 1884 (J. F. Spence); Young Heron (Ardea cincred) 
shot at Bamburgh (J. I. Mnling); two Purple Sandpipers [Triiii^a striata) 
shot near Bamburgh (Id.); Common Pochard {Fitligiila feritia) shot at Gos- 
forth Lake (R. S. Garwood) ; two Razorbills [Alca tarda) and one Guillemot 
(Loinvia troilc) from Northumberland coast (J. I. Maling) ; two Roseate 
Terns [Sterna domi-alli) one mature and one young, Northumberland coast 
(C. M. Adamson) ; male and female Shoveller [S/'atiila clypcata) shot at 
Gosforth (N. Dunn); nest of young Kestrels (Tinniiiiciilns alaiidariits) taken 
near Alnwick (N. Dunn) ; hybrid Swan bred at Gosforth Lake in 1883, cross 
between female Cyi^niiis ferns and male C. olor (N. Dunn — refer to p. 281 for 
account of the crossing) ; Golden Plover (Charadritis plnvia/is) with white 
wings shot at Lorbottle, October 12th, 1885 (John Noble) ; a fine male Great 
Bustard [Otis tarda) said to have been killed in Yorkshire (Misses Crawhall); 
mature male Pochard [I''n/i»-nla feriiia) shoK at Gosforth (N. Dunn); three 
white eggs of Sparrow ['\isier donicsticns) taken at Gosforth Park, 1882 
(Wm. Charlton); 1886 — Common Wild Duck [Anas I'oschas) shot at Gosforth 
(N. Dunn); Little Grebe [Tachybaptcs Jlnviatilis) in winter tlress, caught in 
pond at Felling, July 1885, in summer dress, pinioned and kept in Leazes 
Park, Newcastle, uiUil Feb. 1886 (\V. Wilson); two eggs of Water Hen 
(Gailinnla citloropus) from Cleadon, one showing the chick having burst the 
shell, the other showing the chip on the egg previous to bursting the shell 
(H. C. Abbs); four eggs of Sandwich Tern {Sterna cantiaca). Fame Islands 
(Sam. Graham); eggs of Black-headed (hill [Lams ridibnndns), from Hal- 
lin gton Reservoir (J. R. Forster) ; Greenshank [Tutanns i^riscns = canescens)y 

June 1890. M 



178 BIBLIOGRAPHY: BIRDS, 1888. 

shot at Beadnell (Alex. Yellowley); Common Tern {.Stcr/ia Ihiviatilis), young, 
killed against telegraph-wires, Cragside, Rothbury, Sep. 1886 (Sir W. G. 
Armstrong); Kestrel {Tinnitncuhis alattdariiis) shot at Cleadon (H. C. 
Abbs); Golden Plover {Charadrhis pluvialis) in first plumage, shot in 
Northumberland (John Hancock) ; immature Herring Gull (Lams ixi-geiitatus)^ 
Northumberland coast (John Jackson) ; Merlin (Falco cesaloti) and female 
Great Spotted Woodpecker {Demirocopus major) shot at I-ong Benton (Edwin 
Bold); 1887 — Spotteil Flycatcher {Mitsicapa grisola), killed in Summerhill 
Grove in summer 1885 (fohn C. Forster); one Brown Owl {Syrniiim a/i/ro), 
two Cuckoos {Cncidtis canonist, five Crossbills {Loxia ctirvirostj-a), Jack 
Snipe {Lz//inoc-/yJ>/es ga////!n/a),W!iter Rail (Nalhts aqiiaticiis). Black-throated 
Diver [Colyitdms arcticus), female Pochard {Fuligntla ferina), and male Teal 
{Qticrqiiediila crecca) — all from Belsay, Northumberland S. (Sir A. E. Mid- 
dleton): three Red Grouse {Lagopus scoticiis) near Featherstone Castle (Id.) ; 
Tufted Duck (Ftil/s^ula cristata) and Golden Eye {C/aii,i^'iila i^IancioiiA fmm 
Capheaton (Id.) ; young White Sparrow [Passer domestuus) killed at North 
Seaton, Newbiggin-by-the-Sea, June 1887 ( — Bell); immature male .'-^abine's 
Gull [Xena sahinii) shot near Seaham Harbour, Oct. loth, 1879 ( F. Raine)]. 
Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb., Durham and Newc.,vol.9, Part 2 (i88S),276 285. 

Anon, [not signed]. York S.E, 

[Rissa tridactyla, albino, shot at Flamborough]. Land and Water, Nov. 13th, 
1886, p. 483. 

Anon, [not signed]. Derbyshire. 

The Snow in Yorkshire and Derbyshire [damaging to (j rouse {Lai;vpi!s 

scotici/s), attracting Pheasants (Phasiantis colchiciis) and Partrltlges [Perdix 

cinerea) to farm-yards, and Wild Geese [Aiiser, query species) flying over the 

county]. Field, March 3rd, 1888, p. 287. 

Anon, [signed A.N.C.]. Derbyshire. 

Kite {Milviis regalis^ in South Derbyshire [captured on Hullandward 
Common, 30th March ; measurements given]. Field, April 14th, 1888, p. 536. 

Anon, [signed B. (Haigh, \\'igan)]. Lane. S. 
Abnormally-shaped Plovers[ = Peewits, raiudlns vu/gar/sX Eggs [near 
Haigh, Wigan, 2i in. x ih in., and are double-yolked, 2j in. long]. Field, 
April 2ist, 1888, p. 547. 
Anon, [signed W.P.S.]. Notts. 
Arrival of Summer Birds [at Nottingham; Sax/Vo/a anatitlie, April 15th]. 
Field, April 21st, 1SS8, p. 547. 
Anon, [signed W.]. 'York.' 
Fieldfare S^Turdiis pilaris\ nesting in Yorkshire [not far from York; details 
of habitat given]. Field, May 26th, 1S8S, p. 763. 
Anon, [signed F.E., Elvet Hill, Durham]. Durham. 
Pallas's Sand-Grouse [two seen May 25th, 188S, about half a mile out of 
Durham]. Field, June 9th, 1S88, p. 839. 
Anon, [not signed]. Westmorland. 
Dotterel [Endnviiias iiiorincUiis'] in the Lake District [account of conviction 
of a man under the Wild Bird Act, and of John Watson's evidence in the 
case]. Zool. , July 1888, 3rd series, xii. 270. 
Anon, [not signed]. Lane. S. 
The Nightjar {{Capri imdgus eiiropicus) arrived on sandhills between South- 
port and Ainsdale, 21st May. 1888; Stockdove [Columba av/flj) and Wheatear 
{Saxicola ananthe) reccjrde'd as particularly numerous there, and breeding]. 
Research, July 1888, p. 13. 
An"N. [not signed]. York S.W. 
The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union [at Saddleworth, i6th June, 18SS; 
Lagopus scoticiis, Ciici/lus, Turdus torqnatus, Cinclus, Motacilla lngid>ris, 
and Saxicola wnaid/ie noted]. Research, July 1S88, p. 14. 

Naturalist, 



i;ini.iot;R.\i'in- : hikds, x888. 179 

Avon. [siLjneil SUnniy Petrel]. Isle of Man. 

Pallas's Sand-Grouse [{Syrr/ia/^/cs /'araJoxus) in the Isle of Man ; three 
shot out of thirty]. Field, July ytii, 1888, p. 5. 
Anon, [signed ' R. S.'J. Cheshire. 

The Nightjar [( 6V//r/w ///-// j- ruro/'.cii.s) nesting at Bidston Hill (8th Aug., 
1886) described at length]. Research, Aug. 1888, p. 28. 
Anon, [not si<,Mied]. York N.E. 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union [at Robin Hood's Bay, i6th July, 1S88 : Co'^iis 
iiioiiedttla, Eiiibcriui ciin'/iclla, .Svlvia ciitcrea noted]. Research, Aug. 1888, 
p. 29. 
Anon, [signed R.l!. L.]. Durham, Westmorland, York N.W. 

In Upper Teesdale [an angling jiaper, with incidental mention of 'J'innuii- 
ciiliis and Falco pcregriiiiti at Cauldron .Snout]. Field, Aug. i ith, 18S8, p. 214. 
Anon, [signed H.T. (Nottingham)]. Notts. 

Curious [buff] Variety of Blackbird [{Tnnlus incnda) shot at Cotgrave 
near Nottingham, Aug. 15th, 1SS8]. Field, Aug. 25th, 1888, p. 279. 

Notts., York Mid W. and N.E., 
Anon, [various observers]. Cumberland, Lane. S. 

Migrant Table, No. 12, 1888 [including observations made at Nottingham 
(C. .S. ^^'atson), Leeds (E. S. I'ickard), Rawdon (Report), York (nine names), 
Thirsk (Ernest Foggitt), Penketh (J. T. Gumersallj, and Wigton (RejDort), 
upon Saxicola (ciiaiithe, PliyllosiOpus riifits, P. trochilus, Hiniiido, Coti/e, 
C/ielidon, Pratincola riibetra, Aiithits trivialis, Motacilla rait, Sylvia atii- 
lapilla, Citciilus, Riiticilla pJuvnicitrus, Sylvia cinerea, S. ciirruca, Acroce- 
plialus p/iraginitis, Lociistella uicvia, Crex, Mitscicapa atriiapi/la, Cypscliis, 
Triiis^oidiS, Sylvia hortensis, and Muscicapa grisola ; the dates average four 
days later than the late dates of 1887, and 7^ days behind the mean of twelve 
years]. Nat. Hist.Journ., .Sept. 15th, 1888, \ii. 140. 
Anox. [not signed]. Notts. 

The Weather and the Swallows [quite exhausted at Worksop through 
cold, I3ih July, 18SS]. .SheHield and Rotherham Independent, teste Harold 
Davy; Nat. Hi.st. Joarn., .^e]n. 15th, 1888, xii. 140. 
Axon. [Ed. Zoologist]. Cumberland. 

Reported Nesting of Pallas's Sand-Grouse [Syrrhap/cs paiaaoxiis] in 
Cumberland [a gross imposition exposed]. Zoo!., Oct. 1888, 388. 
Am_in. [signeil Worksop]. Notts. 

Late Brood of Pheasants [{P/iasiainis colcJiicus) ; seven hatched, Sept. 2i.st, 
1886, at Blyth, Notts.]. Field, Oct. 2nd, 1888, p. 510. 
Anox. [signed H.L. (Barasford, Northumberland)]. 

A Late Brood of Swallows [{Ilinmdo rustica) in a wooden porch at 
Barasford, Northumberland, Oct. isi]. Field, Oct. 6th, 1888, p. 509. 
Axon. [Ed. Nat. Hist. Journ.]. York N.E. 

White Storks \Cicoiiia alba] at Scarbro [April 8th and May 24th, 1S88, 
antl June loth, 18S6]. Nat. Hist. Journ., Oct. 15th, 18S8, xii. 167. 
Axon, (not signed]. York S.W. 

Ackworth (Boys') Reports [/Av/i/'/v.iJ///^ major notetl ; Fuligitla Jcrina zind 
Piitlcriza si/iaiiidi/s near Hcmswoilh Dam ; Qtieiqiiedula crecca at Thoriie ; 
iic-st of Rcgnlus cristatus in tree at lirockendale (inhabited by them for three 
years); and nidificition at Ackworth of I'hylloscopus trochilus, Sylvia hor- 
tcnsi', Acroccplialns pliraginilis, AiifJnis Irivialis, Muscicapa grisola, and 
/.i:;itriiitis'\. Nat. Hist. Journ., ()ct. 15th, 1S88, xii. 158. 
Axox. [not signed]. Lincolnshire. 

The Zoological Society of London. Additions to the Menagerie 
[Now Is;, one Knot (7'riiiga cauuius), Lincolnshire, presented by Clias. 
Whymiierl. Field, Nov. loth, 1SS8, p. 681. [Nov. 17th, two Cliaradrius 
plirvialis, Lincolnshire]. Field, Nov. 24th, 1888, p. 759. 
J line 1890. 



i8o bibliography: birds, iS88. 

Anon, [signed R.H.W.L.]. York S.E. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse \{Svyrhaptes paradoxus) nesting near Beveiley]. 
Field, Dec. 1st, 1888, p. 801. 

Anon, [newspap^ir paragraph]. Lane. S. 

Golden Eagle [{Aquila chrysaetos) taken alive, wounded, at Quarlton near 
Eolton. This was erroneous, the sjiecies being Haliac/iis aU>iciUa\ Nat. 
Hist. Journ., Dec. 15th, 1888, xii. 248. 

Anon. [Sci. Goss., Nov. 1888]. York N.E. 

Curious Nesting-places [ Tiirdus menila built on a pair of steps hanging 
against a wall at Heslington Hall, near York]. Nat. Hist. Journ., Dec. 151I1, 
1888, .xii. 248. 

C. M. Adamson. Near Newcastle. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse [{Syrr/iapfes paradoxus) near Newcastle ; discussion 
at length of various points]. Field, Oct. 20th, 1888, p. 555. 

Henry F. Allison. York S.E. 

Wild Birds' Protection Act [has been very effective at Flamborough, pro- 
moting increase of Lonivia Iroile and Alca tarda in particular ; I.ariis 
ar,i;vu talus nested, 1886 and 18S8, not in 1885]. Field, June 9th, 1888, p. 840. 

H. F. Allison. Line. N. 

A Lincolnshire Gullery [at Twigmoor near Brigg ; description of place 
given ; species not stated, doubtless Larus ridibundus\. Field, June i6th, 
1888, p. 853. 

C. AsHFORD. York N.E, 

Lapwing \VanellHs vulgaris'] — Diversity of Eggs [in size; measurements 
of examples taken on Flixton Moor near Scarborough, 1869 and 1871]. 
Nat., April 1888, p. 114. 

j. Backiiousk, Jun. Cumberland, York N.W., Durham. 

Notes on and Additions to the Avi-fauna of Upper Teesdale [the notes 
refer to C/'/n/us, Falio peregrinus, Accipita- ii/sus, Su/a, Hc/odro/iias, Fuligula 
frrina — the last three being 'additions,' Gidcmia nigra, Lanius cxcubttor 
(erroneously reported before as L. collurio), Numcnius phaopus, Lamus 
collurio, Muscicapa grisola, Eudromias, Triiii^a alpiiia, Tringo'ides, Xuiueiinis 
arquata, Loxia cui-t'irostra, and Cluysoiititris spinus\ Nat., March 1888, 
pp. 79-80. 
fA.MKS Hackhousk, jun. York N.W. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union in Lower Wensleydale [at Leyburn, 
2 1 St May, 1888 ; nesting of Larus ]-idil>undus. Tot anus calidris, Nunieuius 
arquata, Ruticilla pha:niciirus, and Vancllus; occurrence of Phylloscopus 
trochilus and three j1/(?/r7<v7/„']. Nat., June iSSS, p. 177. 

[. Backhouse, jun. York S.E. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Market Weighton [6th Aug., 
18S8 ; Syrrhaptcs not seen during the day, though present in the ilistrict]. 
Nat., Sept. 1888, p. 278. 

Mattiikw Bailky. York S.E. 

Flamborough Bird-notes [two notes ; Fratercula in abundance ; departure 
of Loinvia troih' and A/ca torda; Fuffi)ius angloruni in great numbers; 
Sterna cantiaca ; increase in numbers ot Lonivia troile. Alca foi'da, Fratcr- 
cnla, and A'issa, also of Larus minutus ; occurrence of Fulinarus glacialis, 
Xenia salnni, and Phalaropus fulicarius ; arrival of Coi-i'us rornix, Feguhis 
tristatiis, Turdus torquatus, and Scolopax rusticola ; all ihe notes are for 
August to October 1887]. Nat., Jan. 1888, p. 15. 

Matthew Bailey. York S.E. 

Albino Kittiwake \Rissa Iridactyla] at Flamborough [shot 15th November, 

1887 ; description given]. Nat., Feb. 1888, p. 54. 

Naturalist,. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY: BIRDS, 1888. 181 

ISIatthew Bailey. York S.E. 

Flamborough Notes [anent Otocoiys aipestris in 1S65 ami 18S6, and large 

numbers of Coltiiitha livia, l^urdtts pilaris, T. iliaciis, T. iniisiciis, '/'. i/ienila, 

I'aiu'/Iiis, Charadrius pluvialis, Sttmiiis, and Alaiida arveiisis\. Nat., 

April 18S8, p. 1 14. 

Matthew Bailey. York S.E. 

The Irruption of Pallas' Sand-Grouse [Syrrhaptes paradoxiis] . . . 
Flamborough, Vcnkshire [June 15th, eic.]. Nat., July 1888, p. 198. 

Matthew Bailey'. York S.E. 

Notes from Flamborough [arrivah of A'/t/ifi/la p/nr/iiatnts, Saxico/d aitautlw. 
Hit undo rustiia, Cuculus, Mnsciiapa, Turdiis ionjiialns, and Cypselits apus, 
all in April 18S8]. Nat., Aug. 1888, p. 242. 

Matthew Bailey. York S.E. 

The Solan Goose S^Sida bassaiia] near Bridlington [found dead at Sewerby]. 
Nat., Aug. 1888, p. 234. 

Matthew Bailey. York S.E. 

Flamborough Bird-notes [Cnculus, Capri/iitcl^iis, Molacillu-, Rnticilla, and 
Saxiiola noted on departure]. Nat., Nov. 1888, p. 330. 

•Geo. Bakchaki). York S.E. 

Pallas's Sand-Grouse [three shot 20th May, 1888, at Mapletown, three miles 
south of Hornsea; details given]. Field, June 9th, 1888, p. 839. 

■Geo. Barchard. York S.E. 

Pallas's Sand-Grouse \{Syrrhaptes paradoxus) seen in flocks at Mapleton 
nml Cowden, June 7th and 8th]. Field, June i6th, 1888, p. 854. 

Geo. ISarchari). York S.E. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse {[Syrrhaplrs paradoxus) arrived at Mapleton, K.ist 
Riding, again, on 28th June to July 5th]. Field, July 14th, 1SS8, p. 53. 

Hugh Barclay. Cheviotland, 

Preservation of Sea Birds on the Fame Islands [extracts from printed 

report detailing results of steps taken to this end ; Sterna niacrura, S.Jluvia- 
tilis, S. canliaca, SoDiateria mollissima. Lams fuscus, L. artrentatus, 
Hmi/uitopns, Eiidromias,Frateirula, Lomvia,Phalacrocorax carho referred to]. 
Field, Oct. 6th, 1888, p. 509. 

"Hugh G. Barclay. Cheviotland. 

The Protection of Sea Birds on the Fame Islands [being report on the 

nesting or occurrence during 1888 (.A Sli'rna lantiaca^ S. inacrura, S. Jiuvia- 

ti/is, Soniateria mollissima, Larus fnsciis, L. argentatiis, Hiciiiatopus, 

Eudromias, Fraterciila, Lomvia, and Sterna doitgalli\. Zool., Nov. 1888, 

. 3rd Series, xii. 431. 

Dora Barkworth. York S.E. 

Swallows nesting on a Curtain Pole [at Raywell near Hull, in 1887 

and 18S8 ; details given, but species not stated]. Field, June l6th, 1888, S53. 

Dora Barkworth. York S.E. 

Sequel to the Story of the Swallow's Nest on a Curtain Pole [a second 
nest made and voung duly hatched, at Raywell near Hull]. Field, C3ct. 20th, 
1888, p. 556. ' 

Edward Bidwell. Notts. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse WSyrrhaptcs paradoxus) in Sherwood Forest ; account 

of their occurrence and of a visit to the flock]. Field, Aug. 4th, 1888, p. 190. 

F. Boyes. York S.E. 

Reappearance of Pallas's Sand Grouse in Europe [noting its reappearance 

in Fast Yorkshire on the anniversar)' of its appearance there in 1863 ; details 

of locality of flock seen May 20th. not given ; P. S. statt^s thirty seen near 

Spurn on 25th]. Field, May 26th, 1888, p. 763. 

June i8qo. 



i82 bibliography: birds, i88S. 

F. BoYES. York S.E. 

Sand Grouse \{Syrrhapfes paradoxus) in East Yorkshire; great dt-stiuction 
since nesting commenced]. P'ield, June 23rd, 1888, p. 901. 
F. BoYF.s. York S.E. 

Night-Cry of the Moorhen {[GaUiiuihi chloropiis) nt Beverley, descril>ed]. 
Field. Sep. 8th, 1S88, ji. y] ;;,. 
F. BovEs. York S.E. 

Sparrows {{Passer do/iicsficns and /'. /noii/amis] nesting in Burrows [of 
Cot He riparia]. Field, Nov. loth, 1888, p. 680. 
F. BoYEs. York S.E. 

Breeding of Pallas's Sand Grouse [(Svrrliap/cs paradoxus) ; notes on 
habits]. Field, Nov. lOth, 1SS8, p. 680. 

F. BoYEs. York S.E. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse {(Syrrhaptes paradoxus) in East Yorkshire ; the note 
is partly controversial, but includes notes on occurrence, breeding, habits, etc.]. 
Field, Dec. 8th, 1888, p. 842. 
F. BoYEs. York S.E. 

Note of the Jack Snipe \[Liiniiocryt>tcs i^alliimla) as noted near Beverley]. 
Field, Dec. 8ih, 1888, p. S43. 
W. D. Braith\yaite. York S.W. 

A Wounded Kingfisher \^AIicda ispidd\ on the Went [picked up 2nd March, 
1888]. Nat. Hist. Journ., April 14th, 1888, p. 71. 
James Brigham. York N.E. 

Pallas's Sand-Grouse \{Syrrhaptcs paradoxus) ; si.x seen at Slingsljy, York- 
shire, June 9th]. P'ield, June i6th, 1888, p. 854. 
Frank Broadbent. Notts. 

Hooded Crow [Corvus cornix\ attacking a Rat [at South Collingham near 
Newark]. Field, March 24th, 1888, p. 424. 

P. J. H. Bro(;ijo.\. Line. S. 

[Cream-coloured] Variety of the Redwing [{Turdiis ///arus^ winged from 
a flock of this species and T. pilaris, near Spalding, 27th January, 1888 ; 
described]. Field, Feb. 4th, 1888, p. 159. 

C. E. Brown. York Mid W. 

Rough-Legged Buzzard \Arc!iibuti-o Iax^opus^, near Leeds [at Meanwood, 
November 6th]. Field, Nov. loth, 1888, ]i. 680. 

THONrAS Bunker. York S.E. 

Yorkshire and Lancashire Naturalists at Saddleworth [June i6th, 1888 ; 
Turdiis niusicus, T. mcrula, T. tonjuatus, Chnlus, Erilhacus, Accentor, 
Alauda ai~uensis, Eniheriza citrinella, E. viiliaria, Sturnus, Lappus scoticus. 
Pica caiidata, Saxicola auaiit/ie, Authtis trivialis, and Cuculus noted]. 
Nat., July 1888, p. 212. 

Thomas Bunker. York N.E. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Robin Hood's Bay [July i6th, 
1888; Coii'us nnvicdu/a, Sylvia atricapilla, Einberiza citrinella (with nest 
and eggs), Turdus vierula, T. viusicus, Sturmis, Vandlus (already in flocks). 
Accentor, Passer doviesticits, Sylvia ciuerca, and Anthus pratensis noted]. 
Nat., Aug, 1888, p. 238. 

A. H. Burtt. York N.E. 

Goosander \^^^ergus merganser'] shot near Sherburn [in late January, 1S88]. 

Nat. Hist. Journ., Feb." 15th, 1S88, p. 24. 

E. P. P. BuTTERFiELD. York Mid W. or S.W. 

Crested Tit [Partis cristatus] near Keighley [in Aug. 1887 ; Helodromas 

ocliropus and Potanus calidris at Many-Wells, Sep. loih, 1887]. Nat., 

Jan. 1888, p. 15. 

Naturalist,. 



I'.II'.I.IOGRAPIIV : lilRDS, 1888. 183 

E. I'. 1'. Bum KRi'iKi.i). York S.W. 

Bla:k-throated Diver [C<'/>/«/wj- rt-rr/Zcz/.f] near Bingley [shot at Manywells 

l;ist winter ; the only specimen on record for districlj. Xat., Aug. 188S, p. 236. 

K. 1'. P. BiTTKRiiKLii. York Mid W. 

Unusual Nesting-site for Missel Thrush [( 7>//v//« rvV/Vv; w) near P.ardeii 

Moor; nesting nf A/iisnoif'a /ii.iiiosa in Harden Tower also noted]. \at., 

Sep. 1888, p. 264. 

II. S. BvERs. York N.W. 

Bittern [Bolannis strnan's\ near Ripon [at Norton Conyers, Jan. 1887J. 

Nat., Aug. 1 888, p. 242. 

C. Candi.eu. Line. N. 

Rough-legged Buzzard {Airhibtitm /ci^o-opus] in Lincolnshire [at Kevesby 

near I'.nston, Nov. 1888]. Field Nov. 24th, 1888, p. 759. 

Bash. Carter. York N.W. 

Robin [£r/7//aa/s nikruhj] caught in a Mouse-trap [at Burton House, 

Masham]. Nat., Nov. 1888, p. 330. 

James Carter. York N.W. 

Climatic Phenomena and Curious Effect of the late Fog in North 

Yorkshire [upon Coliimba palitiiibus, described]. Field, Jan. 21st, 18S8. p. 87. 

James Carter. York N.W. 

Effects of [severe] weather on game \Lagopus scoticus and IWdi.x cii!eira\ 

in North Yorkshire [near Masham; appearance of four swans (< j',<'7?//,v, 

.species not determined) on the Yore noted]. Field, March 24th, 1888, p. 424. 

James Carter. York N.W. 

Early Nesting of the Brown Owl \(Svnuum aluco) at Masham ; dates given 

for five years, earliest being March 8th, 1884]. Field, March 31st, 1S8S, p. 461. 

Tames Carter. York N.W. 

Notes from [Masham in] North Yorkshire \Saxicola a-jmntkf arrived 

30th Marcli ; Atil/iiis pratdisis and Motacilla tiiclanope in great numbers ; 

J'cn-ix cinerca killed by Corviis friii;H,xus when weakened by severe weather]. 

Field, April 7th, 1888, p. 472. " 



T. Carter. 



York N.W. 



Arrival of Summer Birds [at Masham ; Cotilc, Phylloscopiis tivchihts, and 
J\ nifiis, all on April 17th]. Field, April 2lst, 1888, p. 547. 



James Carter. 



York N.W. 



Notes from North Yorkshire [Masham ; Totaii/is ca/Mr/s arrived Aprd 
7th, Hiitiinto and '/riii'^oidcs on l6th ; Syrniiini aluco noted with five eggs]. 
Field, April 21st, 18S8, p. 547. 
James Carter. York Mid W. or N.W. 

Golden Oriole yOrioliis galbula\ in Yorkshire [found dead at Hob Green 
near Ripon ; seen by recorder on 3rd May]. Field, May 19th, 1888, p. 702. 
James Carter. York N.W, 

Notes from [Masham in] North Yorkshire [nesting of To/anus calidns 
and Dendroiopns iiiiiior, decrease of Mnscicapa Itictiiosa and Alcedo ispida, 
nesting of Tnngoides and Rjiticilla pluvnicunis (on the ground)]. Field, 
June 2nd, i88S,'p. 798. 
James Carter. York Mid W. 

The Present Visitation of Sand-Grouse \{Syrrhapt€s paradoxus) one tele- 
graphed near Boroughbridge, 24th May ; same day eight more seen a few 
miles distant]. Field, June 2nd, 1888, p. 797. 
James Carter. York N.W. 

Notes from [Masham in] North Yorkshire [anent appearance of ./s;t,w////jr 
liiatkula in spring 1888 ; never observed before, although Sqitalarola, 
Procellaria pelai^ica, Tringa alpina, Helodromas, and Eiidroiiiias morimllus 
have been noted]. Field, June 9th, 1888, p. 840. 
June 1890. 



184 BIBLIOGRAPHY: BIRDS, 1888. 

Thomas Carter. ' York N.W. and Mid W. 

Movements of Grouse {Lagopiis scoticus'] in Hard Weather [sufifering very 

severely about Masham, as also did Partridges (Pcrdix cinerea); editorial 

note appended as to similar movements of Grouse near Ilkley, Artliington, 

Weeton, and Harewood]. Zool., March 1888, x. 107. 

Alfrijj C. Chapman. ' Northumberland.' 

Habits of the Tawny Owl [{Syrninvi aluco) ; with reference to its nesting 
in Northumberland]. Field, April 14th, 1888, p. 536. 

Alfred Crav/hall Chapman. Durham or Northumberland. 

Breeding- of Pallas' Sand Grouse [(Syr7-haptes paradoxus) and note as to 
a flock in the North-east of England]. Field, .Sep. 1st, 1888, p. 316. 

Joseph Chappei.l. Lane. S., Cheshire. 

Bigamy and Polygamy among Starlings WSlunius vulgaris) near Man- 
chester and Altrincham, several instances ; one also of Jackdaws {Corvus 
inonedula)\ Young Nat., Sep. 1888, p. 182. 

R. W. Chase. York S.E., Cheviotland. 

Notes upon the Recent Occurrence of Pallas' Sand Grouse [giving 
notes and dates of specimens at Welwick near I'atrington, Spurn, Holy 
Island, Flamborough, etc.]. Midi. Nat., July 18SS, pp. 1S6-7. 

W. E. Clarke. York S.W. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Hatfield Chace [Sept. 21st, 1887 ; 

ri-atiiicola ruhiiola and Circus cyaneus observed during the day ; Tetrao 

re/rix and Coluinba a-nas, locally captured, exhibited at the meeting]. Nat., 

March 1888, pp. 84-85. 

W. Eagle Clarke. York S.E. 

Nightingale [Daulias luscinia] near Beverley [in May, 188S]. Nat., Tune, 
1888, p. 160. 

W. Eagle Clarke. York N.E. 

White Stork [Cifonia ai/>a] near Scarborough [one picked up ' recently' i.e. 
m May? 1888]. Nat., June 1S88, p. 169. 

W. Eagle Clarke. York Mid W., S.E., S.W. and N.W., Notts. 

Irruption of Pallas' Sand-grouse [{Syrr/mp/i-s paradoxus) into Yorkshire 

(Leeds, .Spurn, Ardsley, Goole, Flamborough, Norton-le-Clay), Notts. 

(Clifton), etc., in May 1888]. Nat., June 1888, p. 170; rep. Sci. Goss., 

July 1888, p. 164. 

W. Eagle Clarke. York S.E. 

Arrival of Crossbills [Loxia aerz'irosfra] on the Yorkshire [Holderness] 
Coast. Nat., Aug. 1888, p. 224. 

W. Eagle Clarke. 'Lancashire.' 

The Eared Chat [Saxico/a alhiioUis Vieill.] not a British Bird [the species 

which occurred in Lancashire being 6". stapaziini\. Nat., Aug. 1S88, p. 234. 

Wm. Eagle Clarke. York Mid W. 

Purple Heron {Ardea purpurea'] in West Yorkshire [shot at Farnley near 

Otley, 20th April, 1888, now in possession of Rev. F. Fawkes]. Nat., 

Nov. 1888, p. 330. 

Wm. Eagle Clarke. York S.E, 

Weight of Sand Grouse [(Syrrkapfes paradoxus) a couple shot at Hollym in 

Holderness, Nov. 19th, weighed 11 and i2oz.]. Field, Dec. 22nd, 1S88, p.912. 

Lane. W., Cumberland, Derby, Yorkshire, 

T. D. A. Cockerell. Lines., Cheviotland, Northumberland, 

North of England Specimens in the British Collection at the British 

Museum [.htscr /uac/iyr/iyui-Iius ( Lanes) ; Bern ii la /europsis and B. canadensis 

(Cumberland) ; Jux/eoccsalon (Lanes. ) and young (Derbyshire), Coracias garrula 

Naturalist, 



bibliography: birds, 1888. 185 

(York) ; I'lirdiis to-qiialiis and ra;^,iphila fliiinua (Yorkshire) ; 'J'riiiga caiiiiliis 
and Philoinac/tiis piignax {lJmc<,. ), Sterna <-a«//rf("rt (Karnes), Triiii^a siihanjiiata 
(Lytham); Himan/opiis caiulidiis (Lines.), and 7drao tetrix (Wallinglon, 
Norlhumberland)]. Nat., Aug. kSSS, p. 227. 

E. M. Coi.E. York S.E. 

[Nesting of Norfolk Plover [iKdicuemits scolopax) on the Wolds, at 
Kiplingcotes and elsewhere]. Nat., Sep. 1888, p. 278. 

E. Mai'i.e Coi.i:. York S.E. 

Pallas' Sand-Grouse \Syn-haptcs paradoxus^ at Wetwang-on-the-Wolds [a 
brace seen Sep. 6, 1888 ; cry noted]. Nat., Dec. 1888, p. 354. 

A. CoLLiNSON, Secretary. York N.E. 

York, Bootham. Natural History Club [Excursion to Scarbro', June i4ih, 

eggs of Syli'ia Jiortcnsis and Antliux Irivialis ([. F. Hills); at Rievaulx, 
May 22nd, Muscicapa alricapilla and eggs of Lai^vpits scoticits (Harris Smith)]. 
Nat. Hist. Journ., Oct. 15th, 1888, xii. 160. 

A. Coi.LiNSON. York N.E. 

[Mealy Redpoll (Linota /inaria) and 15 Long-tailed Tits [An-edula 
rost'd) seen near Nova Scotia Wood]. Nat. Hist. Journ., Nov. 15th, 1888, 
xii. 203. 

A. CoLLiNsoN [Secretary]. York N.E., etc. 

York, Bootham. Natural History Club [ornithological notes anent 

Hirinido riisiica, Oct. 13th; Strix Jlamviea, Ruticilla phixnicurits, Sylvia 

cinerea, Ardea chierea, Tachybaptes fltiviatilis, and Accipiter iii'sus, Sept. 

13th; all near York and Strensall]. N. H. Journ., Nov. 15th, 1888, xii. 203. 

H. H. CoRBETT. Lane. S., Cheshire. 

Bigamy in Birds [three Corvus vioncdiila making one nest in a Bolton church 

in 1888; similar case some years at Cheadle Hulme \v'\\\\ Stiinius \ others 

with Vanelhis. Hinindo, Chelidoii, Connts friigi/L'giis, and Embcriza 

scha:)iiclus\. Young Nat., April or May, 1888, ix. 104. 

John Cokdeaux. York N.E. and S.E., Cheviotld., Durham, Line. N. 

[Migration of Birds] Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. John 
Cordeaux (Secretary), Professor A. Newton, Mr. J. A. Harvie-Brown, 
Mr. William Eagle Clarke, Mr. R. M. Barrington, and Mr. A. G. More, re- 
appointed at Birmingham for the purpose of obtaining (with the consent of 
the Master and Brethren of the Trinity House and the Commissioners of 
Northern and Irish Lights) observations on the Migration of Birds at Light- 
houses and Lightvessels . . . [this abstract report deals with the importance 
of the various parts of the coast, and with the usual routes followed by l:)irds 
on migration ; a few notes on special birds are given, including Rail us 
aquaticus at Spurn and Coquet Island, Dejtdrocopits major in North Lines., 
and other birds on tHe English east coast are mentioned]. 57th Rep. Brit. 
Ass., Manchester Meeting (1887), 1S88, pp. 70-73. 

John Cordeaux. York S.E. 

Heligoland [with casual references to Embcriza nistica, Sylvia itisoria, 
Saxicola deserti, Arctic Bluethroat, and Otocorys alpestris at .Spurn]. Nat., 
Jan. 1888, p. I. 

John Cgrheaux. Line. N., York S.E. 

Ornithological Notes from North Lincolnshire [for 1887 ; rratiiuola 
riibico/a. Anas boschas, ^Mareca, Anser albifrons, and Plectrophaiii's nivalis 
noted January 5th (hard frost) ; Antlnis pratensis, Motacilla Ingubris, and 
Pratincola riibicola on January 7th (hard frost) ; Rissa, Fiiligiila marila, 
Sqtiatarola, .F.gialitis hiaticiila, Trim^a cannlics, T. alpina, Lams ridi- 
bitndtis. Ell ligitla fori na on the mud-flats, 12th January; Tiirdiis I'iscivoriis 
re-appeared 26th January ; Limosa lapponica shot near Cleethorpes, P'eb. 4th ; 
Fiiiigula marila, Feb. 8th; Tringa cantttiis, Feb. 24th; ]\iuclliis jiaired 
Feb. 25th ; Motacilla liigitbris, first seen Fel). 25th ; Anthtis pratensis, Feb. 

June 1890. 



i85 bibliography: birds, 1888. 

25th ; Sax/ro/a anatiilw, numerous April 5th ; Linota rtifesceus and Pants 
ater britannictis, April ytli ; Triuiia alpina in summer plumage, May loth ; 
Squatarola and both Nnmeuii, May loth ; Corznis corone nesting May lotli ; 
four Daitlias. May loth ; Liinosa, Aii^-ialitis hiatiaila, Triiiga alpina antl 
both Niniu'iiii, May I2tii; N. arqiiata, Aug. 6th-; Phylloscopus irochilns 
migrating Aug. 7th ; Wild Geese, Aug. i8th ; unusual number of Triiigu 
sKbarquata, Aug. -Sept., both here and at Spurn; T. niimtta, T. caiititiis, 
and Lif/iosa at Spurn, Aug. 25th ; arrival on Sept. 2nd of Tritiga caiuitiis, 
y. ininula, ?L\\i\ Hydrochelidou nigra in great numbers ; Riiticilla phanicunts, 
Mitscicapa alricapilla at Kilnsea, Aug. 26th ; Tringa canutits, both Niiiiicnii, 
Liniosa (Common Godwit), Tringa suharqiiata, Calidris arenaria, Aigialitis 
hiaticula, Tringa alpina, Strepsilas inteipres, Charadrins pliivialis (summer 
plumage), Squatarola (do.), Ih-lodronias, Tringoides, Sylvia cinerea, and 
Saxicola a-nant/w, all at Kilnsea and Spurn, 26tii Aug. ; Ruticilla phceniciint^ 
on passage, Sept. 6th ; .V. aiianthe, numerous Sept. 7th ; first Scolopax 
rnsticola, Sep. 23rd ; one found dead on lantern of S win iMiddle Light-vessel, 
loth Nov.; Erithacns, numerous Oct. 2nd; Corinis corax, a pair at Croxby 
Pond, Oct. 1st ; Anthiis richardi at Tetney, Oct. 12th, also at Spurn ; Alatida 
arvensis and a few Totaniis cancscens near Tetney ; six Harclda glacialis shot 
this autumn; Niiineniiis arqiiata weighing 40 oz. , Dec. 8th]. Zool., Feb. 
1888, 3rd Series, xii. 59-63. 
John Cordeaux. York S.E. 

Pallas's Sand-Grouse {{Syrrliaptes paradoxus) •gw'wvT, contents of stomach of 
one shot at Spurn on 19th May]. Field, June 9th, 1S88, p. 840. 

JoHiN CoKDKAUx. York S.E., Line. N. 

Notes on the occurrence of Pallas' Sand-Groiise [Syrr/taptes paradoxus'] in 

the Spurn district [and in North Lincolnshire] in the spring of 1888 [full 

details of occurrences from May iSth to 26l1i, with notes on flight, habits, call 
note, etc.]. Nat., July 1888, ]ip. 195-197. 
John Cordkaux. York S.E., Line. N. 

Notes from the Spurn in the Spring of 1888 [anent Tiirdus torquatus, lynx 
toi-quilla, Upupa cpops, Eiuiroinias morinellus, Liniosa lapponira. ILcnuitopus 
ostralegus, Nuincnius arquata and Ta lorna rornuta]. Nat., ]uly 1SS8, p. 202. 

John Cordkaitx. Line. N. 

Field Notes from North Lincolnshire in the Spring of 1888 IM.ircli 12th 
to May 24th ; notes on Fratciiula ant/ca, I'anc'/liis, Charadrins pluvialis, 
IMotacilla lugnhns, Anthus pratcnsis, Tringa alpina, Falco pengnnns, Coluniba 
anas, Helodrontas, Gallinago calestis, A'allns aquaticus, Eniberiza sclicenniiis, 
Hirundo. Saxicola an ant he, Phylloscopus rufus, J', trochilus, A'uticilla 
phceniciirus, Turdus ineritla (var. ), Querquedula crecca. Anas I'oschas, Spatula, 
Colynihus glacialis, Fiilica, Gallinula chloropus, Corvtis corone, 7'tirdus 
torquatus, JMotacilla rail, M. liigubris, Pratincola rubetra, Turdus pilaris, 
Sylvia curruca, Anthiis trivalis, Cuculus, IMotacilla alba, Acroccphalus 
phragmilis, Cotile, both Nuinenii, Tadorna cornuta, Fuligula cristata, 
Squatarola, Tnrtur communis, Tringoides, Totaniis calidris, Asia bracliyotiis, 
Strix flammea. Lams ridibiindiis, Fuligula ferina. Eudroinias, JMiiscicapa 
grisola, Sylvia cnrruca, S. hortensis, ALgialilis hiaiicn^a. Strepsila<:, 
Syrrhaptes, Daithas. and lln>uinculus\ Zool., July 1888, xii. 241-247. 

John Cordeaux. York S.E. 

Crossbills \Loxia cnrvi rostra] in Heligoland [antl at Spurn, July 1S88]. Nat., 
Aug. 1888, p. 224. 

John ("drdeaux. York S.E. 

Food of Crossbills {{Loxia curvi rostra) shot near Kilnsea, July 1888 ; stomachs 
tilled with Philicnus spiii/iarius]. Nat., Sep. 1S8S, p. 276. 

John Cordeaux. Line. N. and S., York S.E. and N.W. 

Notes on the Occurrence of Pallas's Sand Grouse [Syrrhaptes paradoxus] 

in Lincolnshire [a detailed account of the flights of 1863 and 1888, with 

dates and localities]. Zool., Nov. 1888, xii. 419-423. 

Natviralist, . 



lillU.IOGKAPHV : IIIRDS, 1888. 187 

John CoRi>KArx. Line. N. 

Late Nesting of the Corn Bunting [(Emlieriza iniliai-ia) at CI rent Cotes,. 
29th Sept., 18S8]. Zool., Nov. 1888, xii. 429. 

John Cordeaux. York S.E. 

Occurrence of the American Pectoral Sandpiper \_T)iiii^a niaculata X'ieill.] 

on the Yorkshire Coast [shot ntar Kilnsea, 2nd Oct., icS88 ; diagnostic 

remarks and recital of previous \'orkshire records]. Nat., Dec. 18S8, p. 354. 

E. 1*'. Ckossk. Lane. S. 
Blackbird [Turdits inenila'] turning white [in confinement at Liver[)ooI]. 

Field, .Sept. 8th, 1888, p. 373. 

L. MoKi.KV Crossmax. Cheviotland. 

Pallas's Sand-Grouse \{Syrrltaptes paradoxus) ; coveys on and near Holy 
Island]. Field, June i6lh, 1888, p. 854. 

F. Curtis and K. I). D[oncaster]. York N.W. 
[Two Crossbills {Loxia ctirviros/m), Wensleydale]. Nat. I list. Journ., 

March 15th. 1S8S, xii. 42. 

— . Dawks. Notts. 

[Observance of JSi'mic/a leiicof^sis antl Loxia cnrTtroslra near Noltingliam ; 

City of London Knt. Soc, July 6tli, 1888]. Young Nat., Aug. 1888, ix. 160. 

F. W. Dickinson. Derbyshire. 

Siskins [C/iiyso»i/fn's spinas] in North Derbyshire [81 h Dec, 1887 ;. 
a .small flock, three mrdes and two females]. Nat., Aug. 1SS8, p. 224. 

C. Walley Dod. Cheshire. 

Squirrels and Yew Berries [at Edge Hall, Malpas ; the destruction of 

Yew berries considered Ijy Ed. Field rather attriiiutable to Coccothraitstes 

7'uigaris, which Mr. Dod mentions as about]. F'leldjSejn. 15th, 1888, p. 413. 

E. D. DoNcASTER. Derbyshire. 

[Birds of North Derbyshire ; Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysa'ctns). Bittern 

(Jioiaiiriis stel/aris) and Buzzard ( Bjiteo znilgaris) mentioned as having 

occurred, but no further particulars]. Nat. Hist. Journ., March 15th, 1888, 

xii. 42. 

E. D. DoNCASTER. York N.E. 
Shamming [Lameness by a nesting Chiffchaff [Phylloscopiis mfiis) near 

Rievaulx Abbey, 18S7]. Nat. Hist, journ., Nov. 1st, 1888, xii. 182. 

\V. Dt'CKWORTH. Furness. 

Arrival of Summer Birds [at Ulverston ; Hinmdo, April 17th; Saxicola 

ana'ntltc, April 6th ; PliyUosiOpiis riifiis, April 1st]. Field, April 21st, 1888, 

P- 547- 

Ens. Nat. Hist. Joikx. Notts., York S.W., N.E., N.W., Cumbld. 

The Migrant Table, 1886 [dates and averages given for Mansfield, 

Barnsley, Ackworth, York, Thirsk, Cotherstone, and Upper Solway of 26 

migrant birds]. Nat. Hist. Journ., Sep. 15th, 1886, pp. 129-130. 

John Evaxs. Line. S. 

Gannet [Sii/a l>assaiia] and Rough-legged Buzzard ^Archihuteo /agopnsl 
in Lincolnshire [shot Nov. 4th in Bourne Fen, and killed Dec. 8th at 
Grimsthorpe, respectively]. Field, Dec. 29th, 1888, p. 950. 

F. R. FiT/.r,ERALi>. York S.E. 
Pallas's Sand-Grouse [SyrrJiapfcs paradoxus] in Yorkshire [at AYithernsea, 

a flock]. Zool., Aug. 1S88, xii. 299. 
Rii.Ev Fortune. York Mid W, 

Pied Flycatcher \Muscicapa atncapilla] at Harrogate [five jiairs at Birk 

Crag, 4th May 1888; irregularity of appearance noted for 1886 and 1887]. 

Zool., June 1888, xii. 229. 
June i8qo. 



l88 BIBLIOGRAPHY: BIRDS, 1888. 

Rii.EY Fortune. York Mid W., Durham. 

Hawfinch [Coccolhranstes vulgaris'] near Harrogate [in eleven localities, 
named : also noted for Axwell Park near Newcastle in 1S85]. Zool., June 
1888, xii. 230. 

Riley Fortune. York Mid W. 

Redshank [ Totatms calidris'] breeding near Harrogate [three years' 
observations]. Zool., June 1888, xii. 235. 

Riley Fortune. York Mid W. 

Pallas's Sand-Grouse \{Syn-haptes paradoxus) four near Beaver Dyke, 
Harrogate, 26th May 1888; others in Nidderdale]. Field, June 9th, 1888; 
p. 839. 

Riley Fortune. York Mid W. 

Pallas's Sand-Grouse \{Syn-]iaptes paradoxus) near Darley in Nidderdale ; 
two shot out of five by Mr. Smorfitt]. Pleld, June i6th, 1888, p. 854. 

RiLFA- Fortune. York Mid W. 

Kestrel [Tinnunculus alaudarius] nesting in a House [at Killinghall near 
Harrogate]. Zool., July 1888, xii. 269. 

RiLiA- Fortune. York Mid W, 

Pallas's Sand Grouse \_Syrrhaptes paradoxus] in Yorkshire [several 

occurrences detailed; Nidderdale, Goldsborough, Fjeaver Dyke]. Zool., 

Aug. 1888, xii. 299. 

Riley Fortune. York Mid W., S.E. 

Late Stay of Swift {{Cypselus apus) at Harrogate .Sep. 6th, and at .Spurn to 

Aug. 31st]. Field, Sep. 29th, 1888, p. 476. 

[Lord] Gainsborough. Notts. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse [Syrr/iapUs paradoxus] in Nottinghamshire [account of 
an inspection along with J. Whitaker of a flock in the Forest]. Field, 
July 2ist, 18S8, p. 86. 

Rai.i'h Payne (Iallwey. Notts. 

Notes on Duck Decoys, in three Letters [with a reference to one at 
Haughton, Notts, as one of the most ancient]. Land and Water, Oct. 23rd, 
1886, pp. 417-418. 

Derbyshire, Notts., Lane. S., Line. N. and S., 

Ralph Payne Gallwey. York N.W., N.E., S.E. and S.W., Westd. 

Notes on Duck Decoys, in Three Letters . . . Letter HI [gives list of 

decoys — one in Derbyshire, two in Lancashire, 35 in Lincolnshire, four in 

Notts, one in Westmorland, and 13 in Yorkshire]. Land and Water, 

Dec. i8th, 1886, p. 618. 

F. Gayner and B. S. Rowntree. Lane. S. 
A Day on the Southport Sand-Hills [9th June, 1S88 ; nidification of Alauda 

arvensis, Anthus pratensis, Cuculus, Aigialitis Iiiaticida, Sterna inacrura, and 
Saxicola a-nanthe ; Columha anas and Lagopus scoticiis also noted]. Nat. 
Hist. Journ., Sep. 15th, 1888, xii. 122-123. 

G. Grinsteai). Line. N. 
A Live Little Auk \j,iMcrgulus alU) caught at Skegness, Jan. i8th, 1888 ; 

notes of three others at different times]. Field, Jan. 28th, 1888, p. 117. 

J. H. (Ujrney, jun. York S.E. 

Reported occurrence of the Little Egret \Ardea garzetta] in Yorkshire 

[evidence quoted and reasons assigned for thinking the Aike specimen was 
the Great White Heron {Ardea alba)\ Zool., Aug. 1888, xii. 302. 

J. H. Gurney, jun. Cheviotland. 

Crossbill \_Loxia curvirostra] at the Fame Islands [picked up dead, 

July 17th, 1888]. Nat., Sep. 18S8, p. 276. 

Naturalist 



RIBLIOGRAPHV : BIRDS, l88S. 189 

J. II. CiURNEY, Jun. Off York S.E. and Line. N. 

Crossbills (Lox/a iiu-nroslra and /.. pHyopsiltaciis) on the East Coast of 
England [at Outer Dowsing LiglUshiji, etc.]. Nat., Nuv. 1S88, \t. 330. 

C;. II. Caton Haic.h. Line. N. 

Grey Phalarope \PIialaropus fulicariits] in Lincolnshire [one shot at Tctney,^ 
Dec. 1st, 1SS7 ; one there in 1879]. Zoo!., Jan. 1SS8, xii. 33. 

G. II. Caton Haioh. Line. N. 

Long-tailed Duek [Han-hfa ^t^-Iacialis'] in Lineolnshire [several instances^ 
Tetney and Killingholme, all inimaiure, Oct. anil Nov. 18S7]. Zool., Jan. 
18SS, xii. 31. 
G. II. Cator [sic] Haigh. Line. N. 

Sand Grouse {{Syrr/iaples faraJo.Mis) at Fulstow, Lines. ; seven killed by- 
poisoned grain, early in June]. I'iehl, lune 23rd, 1888, p. 901. 
Allan B. Hall. York Mid W, 

Birds near Leeds [Anas /'osc/ias and Fitlica atra on Adel Dam, 12th Aug., 
1S8SJ. Nat. Hist. Journ., Nov. 1st, 1888, xii. iSl. 
Allan B. Hall. York N.E. 

Birds near Thirsk [Anas boschas on Gormire, Ardea ciiierea near Kirkby 
Knowle Tarn, Aaipiter iiisiis in Flazendale; all on 6th Aug., 1888]. Nat. 
Hist. Journ., Nov. 1st, 1888, xii. 181. 
John Hancock. Northumberland S. 

On Two Wild Hybrids recently captured in Northumberland [Hrst 
between Eviberiza citri)iella and E. schocnichis, Whitley Bents, Jan. 1886 ; 
second between IJgiirinus chloris and Linota cannabiiia, Kenton, 24th Dec, 
1887 ; both now in Newcastle Museum]. Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. 
Durh. and Newc., vol. 10, Part I (1888), p. 218. 
C. C. Hanson. York S.W. 

Fieldfares [Tnrdtis p/'/ar/s] near Halifax in July [on the 1st, a flock of eight 
or nine heard and seen]. Nat., Sept. 18S8, p. 276. 
H. S. Harlani). York S.E. 

Remarkable S'WSi\\o-w[JI/n//!do r/is/itn]'s Nest [on a lath hangmg from, 
the ceiling of an East Riding waggon-shed]. P"iekl, Aug. 25th, 1888, p. 279. 
H. S. Harland. York N.E. 

- Homing Instinct in Cage Birds [a young Tui-dus mcnila set free about 
a mile away, returned to its cage in Malton]. Field, Sept. Lst, 1S88. p. 316. 

R. P. Harper. York S.E. and N.E. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse [Syn-haptes paradoxus'] in Holderness [and at Burnistoii 
near .Scarborough ; details of numerous specimens, with notes on habits, food, 
etc. ; Sterna iiiiintta at Spurn referred to]. Zool. , June 1 888, xii. 234. 
R. P. Harper. York N.E. 

The Re-appearance of Pallas's Sand Grouse [Syrrhaptes paradoxus] in 
the British Islands [near Scarborough, May 28th, ilocks of eight and nearly 
twenty]. Zool., July 1SS8, xii. 263. 
R. P. Harper. York N.E. 

White Stork [Ciconia alba'\ at Scarborough [found floating dead on the 
sea near Peasholm, 8lh April]. Zool., July 1888, xii. 269. 
R. P. Harper. Lane. W., York S.E. 

Notes on Birds in Lancashire [Eudromias morinellus (three trips) .Egialiti' 
hiaticula, 'I'riiiga alpina, Slrepsilas interpres, Niniiettius phicopiis. Calidris, 
Sterna ntinula, Cii-cn/iis, and Anas /'osclms, all noted about Lytham, Blackpool, 
Fleetwood and Knut-end, Crossens, etc. ; and a Spurn note on Strcpsi/as]. 
Zool, Aug. 1888, xii. 310-31 1. 
J. W. Harrison. Line. N. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse \Syrrliaples paradoxus'] in North Lineolnshire (one 

shot out of lu-enty at Go.\hiil, Oct. 23rJ]. Field, Oct. 27th, 1888, ]'. L25. 

June iSqo. 



19° BIBLIOGRAPHY: BIRDS, 1888. 

J. W. Harrison. Line. N. 

Pallas' Sand-Grouse {^Syrrhaptcs paradoxus^ in Lincolnshire [one shot out of 
a ilock, Goxhill parish, Oct. 23rd, 1888]. Nat., Dec. 1888, p. 354. 

J. E. Hartin(;. Tees Mouth. 

Small Birds assisted on their Migrations by Larger Ones [quoiinij 
T. II. Nelson's observations as to Asia acapitriims and Kcs^niliis rr/.Ua/us 
at Teesmouth]. I-'iekl, March 31st, 1888, p. 460. 

J. E. Haktinci. York S.E. and N.E., Notts. 

On the re-appearance of Pallas's Sand Grouse [Srn-//a//cs paradoxus] in 
the British Islands [brief particulars of numerous Yorkshire and a Noits. 
occurrence]. Zool., June 1888, xii. 234. 

T. E. HARTrxc. York S.E. and N.E., Line. N., Notts. 

The Reappearance of Pallas's Sand-Grouse [Sy rrhaptcs paradoxus'] in the 
British Islands [recapitulating datts. etc., of eleven North-country records]. 
Field, June 2nd, 1888, p. 797. 

G. E. Hastings. York S.W. 

Cuckoo[C«r/////j iaiiorus''[S Eggs [at Brierley Common, in nests of Authus 
pratensis,]\\\\ft 1st, 1S88]. Nat. Hist. Journ., Oct. 15th, 1888, xii. 167. 

Thos. H. Heuworth. Durham. 

Nesting of the Hawfinch \Coccotliraustcs vulgaris] near Newcastle [at 
Axwell Park ; three nests]. Nat., Aug. 1888, p. 234. 

Thos. Heeman. Lane. S. 

Snipe [Galliiiago ctvh'stis] caught in a Pole Trap [at Risley, Lanes., 9th April, 
188S]. Field, April 14th, 1888, p. 536. 

J. M. Hick. Northumberland S. 

Address to the Members of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club . . . 
May l6th, 1887 [notes on iiel<l meetin'^s : Lagopus srotiius, I'otanus cal/dris, 
Galluiago codesiis, Charadrius pluvialis, .Vwiii'iiiiis arquata. Lams 
ridihitndus, Anas Iwsc/ias, and Tiirdus torquatus at Whinnetly Moss and 
Broomlee Lough]. Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. Durh. and Newc, vol. 10, 
Part I (1888), p. 4. 

John F. Hills, Secretary. 'York.' 

York, Bootham. Natural History Club [records of first Cuculus, April 30th, 

last Turdus pilaris. May 1st, 1S88; Nesting of Reguhis crisfaius, Coliuiiha 

a-nas, and Acrt'dula rosea, all near York]. Nat. Hist. Journ., June 15th, 

1888, xii. III. 

W. HoDcsoN. Cumberland. 

Remarkable Flight of Birds on the Solway [at Flimby, Dec. 12th, 

1886 ; composed of Alauda ai~veiisis, Slun/us, Tardus iliacus, Vanellus, and 

Charadrius pluvialis ; details and estimates of numbers given]. Nat., March 

1888, p. 80. 

Hugh R. Hornhy. Lane. W. 

The Present Visitation of Sand-Grouse \{Syrrliaptes paradoxus) ; four shot 
out of a flock of five, jieat-moss near St. Michael's-on-Wyre, Carstang, 
' Wednesday last ' (before 2Sth May)]. Field, June 2nd, 1888, p. 797. 

H. Knight Horsfiei.d. York Mid W. 

Reed Warbler {Acrocephahts streperus] nesting in the Washburn Valley 

[July 1888]. Nat., Nov. 1888, p. 330. 

H. KxiGirr Horsiteld. York Mid W. 

Rough-legged Buzzard {Archihulco lai;opus] at Meanwood, Leeds [shot 

Nov. 6th, 188S]. Nat., Dec. 1888, p. 353. 

Same. Hunsn\. Line. N. 

The Present Visitation of Sand-Grouse \{Syrrhaptes paradoxus) flock of 

five (one shot) ou .May 23rd, near Epworth]. Field, June 2nd, 1888, p. 797. 

Naturalist, 



1!11!LI0GRAPHV ; I',1RDS, 1 888. 



191 



Pei'kr Inchhai.I). ?York S.E. 

Pellets disgorged by Hooded Crow {{Corvus comix) described ; locality 

iKil state<l, piol)al)ly Hornsea, whence note is dated]. Field, Jan. 28tli, 
iSSS, p. 117. 

P. iNCHDAi.n. York S.E. 

Arrival of Summer Birds [at Hornsea Mere; Hinmdo, April lyth ; 

I'liyliflscopii^ troiltiliis ■:\w([ /'. ;7////.t, April l6th]. Field, April 21st, 18S8, 547. 

Pktkr Inhiihaid. York S.E. 

Great Crested Grebe S^Podicefs Lris(<itiis\ in Yorkshire [breedint; regularly 

on Hornsea .Mere]. Zool., Aug. 1889, xii. 304. 

Peter Inchrai.i). York S.E. 

Spotted Crake \Porzaita inariietta\ in Holderness [' telegraphed ' between 
Hornsea and Beverley, 2lst .Sept. 1S8S]. Zool.. Nov. 1888, xii. 431. 

J. A. Jackson. Lane. W. and S. 

Notes on the Lapwing {l^anellus viili^mris\ near Garstang [its hal)its, 
nidification, folk-names, folk-lore, etc.]. Nat., Sep. 18S8, pp. 269-275. 

Philtp M. C. Kermode. Isle of Man. 

The Re-appearance of Pallas's Sand Grouse \Syrrhaptes paradoxus] in 
the British Islands [two Manx occurrences ; Lhan, 22nd May, eight seen; 
Ballaskeg, Maughold, fifteen seen, 2Sth May]. Zool., July 1888, xii. 265. 

E. PoNsoNBv Knubley. York Mid W. 
The Irruption of Pallas' Sand-Grouse {Syrrhap/es paradoxus] . . . 

Poroughbridge [Yorkshire, 20th June, between Minskip and Staveley]. 
Nat., Aug. 1 888, p. 222. 

F. A. Lees. York N.W. 
Unusual Nesting-site for Missel Thrush \{Ttirdiis viscivorus) in Upper 

Wensleydale ; in stone walls or rock -fissures]. Nat., Sep. 18S8, p. 264. 

Lord Lewisham. Notts, 

Chantrey's Woodcocks {[Scolopax msticola); at Holkham (not Clumber 

as sometimes stated). Sir F. Chantrey killed two at a shot, then carved them 

in marble bas-relief, which is now at Holkham]. Field, Jan. 28th, 1888, 107. 

Tjiomas Lister. York S.W, 

South Yorkshire Notes [Jan. 2nd to .\ug. 28th, 18S6; Tiirdus viscivorus, 
Cliaradrius pluvialis, Vanellns, I'urdus meru/a, PyrrJiula, Alaicda arvensis, 
Dendrocopus major, Crex, Saxicola, Turdus inusicus, Parus major, 1^. ater, 
P. caruleus, Eritiiacus, Accentor, Antiius, Troglodytes. Larus ridihundiis, 
L. canus, Asio otus, f/irundo, CJielulo)i,Linota Jlavirostris, Sterna Jiuviatilis, 
:syr)iitnn aluco, 'Wood Owl,' Gecnius, 'Black-spotted Woodpecker,' Capri- 
mulgus, Cotile, Coccotlirausles. Cuculus, and Pliylloscopns trocliilns noted]. 
Nat. Hist. Journ., Sep. 15th, 1886, p. 131. 

J. K. Wai.i,is Loft. Line. N. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse WSyrrJiaptcs paradoxus) at High J[T]oynton near 
ILirncastle, at Cavvkwell near Louth, in Swallow parish, and in Irby parish]. 
Field, June 9th, 1888, p. 840. 

J. E. VVallis Loft. Line. N. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse {{Synliaplcs paradoxus) at Fulston and at Skidbrooke, 
both near Louth]. l*'ield, Jiuie 30th, 1888, p. 935. 

R. LoiTiiotsE. York N.E., Northumb. S. 

Sand Grouse {{Syn-liaptcs paradoxus) at Kedcar, Maiske, Scarborough, 
Lackeuby, Middleslirough, Darlington, Port Clarence, (hosniont, and at 
Cragside, Northumberland]. Field, June 23rd, 1S88, p. 201. 

P. Maci.agan. Cheviotland, 

Cuckoo [Cuciilns cauorus] in Berwick Town [May ist, 1S88 ; details]. 

NaU Aug. 1888, p. 222. 

June 1890. 



192 bibliography: birds, 1888. 

H. A. Macpherson. ? Cumberland, 

• The Long-tailed Duck [{I-Iart-lda t^laiialis] ; note on variation]. Zool., 
Feb. 18S8, xii. 66. 

H. A. Macpiierson. Cumberland. 

Grey Shrike [I.aiiins cxcuhitor^ in Cumberland [two examples in winter of 
1887-8].^. Zool., May 1888, xii. 185. 

H. A. Macpherson. Cumberland. 

The Present Visitation of Sand-Grouse \}^Syn-haptes paradoxus) reached 
Cumberland, 22nd May, 1888]. Field, June 2nd, 1888, p. 797. 

H. A. Macpherson. Cumberland. 

Pallas's Sand-Grouse \(Syrrhaptcs paradoxus) and jKobability of-i-ts nesting 
near Carlisle]. Field, June 9th, 1888, p. 840. 

H. A. Macpherson. Cumberland, Furness. 

Pallas's Sand-Grouse \{Syrrhaptcs paradoxus) \\\<Zvimhcx\dXi'\ and at Wahiey]. 
Field, June i6th, 1888, p. 854. 

H. A. Macpherson. . Cumberland. 

The Re-appearance of Pallas's Sand Grouse {Syrrhaptcs paradoxus] in 
the British Isles [nineteen killed in Cumberland ; two hens incubating]. 
ZooL, July 1888, xii. 265. 

H. A. Macpherson. Cumberland. 

Gyrfalcons yHierofalio };yrfalco, H. candicans^ and H. islandiis\ in the Lake 
District [supplementary to John Watson's paper ; and furtlier particulars]. 
Nat., Aug. 1888, p. 223. 

H. A. Macpherson. Cumberland, Westmorland. 

The Ornithology of Skiddaw, Sea Fell, and Helvellyn [in criticism of 
John Watson's notes ; Triiigoidcs, Falco piTi-i^-riiiiis, Cliaradriits phtvialis, 
and P/ialacrocorax graiii/iis referred to]. Nat., Aug. 188S, p. 242. 

M. A. Macpherson. Cumberland. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse [{Syrrkaptes paradoxus) and their inhospitable recep- 
tion in Cumberland]. Field, Aug. Iith, 1888, p. 228. 

H. A. Macpherson. Cumberland. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse [(Syrrhaptt's paradoxus) in Cumberland ; several shot 
in November]. Field, Nov. 24th, 1888, p. 759. 

Jas. Eardley Mason. Line. N.. 

Pied Flycatcher \M71scicapa atricapilld\ near Alford, Lincolnshire [a male 
seen, April 1888]. Nat., June 1888, p. 160. 

Jas. Eardley Mason. Line. N. 

Osprey yPandioii haliaetJis^ near Alford [shot at Chapel Marsh, 3rd May,. 
1 888]. Nat., Sept. 1888, p. 276. 

E. N. Mennell, N. Neeve, and F. G. Fkvkk. York N.E. 
[Stork [Ciconia alba) seen on Scarboroug-h Mere, 6th June, 1S86]. Nat. 

Hist. Journ., Sept. 15th, 1SS6, p. 126. 

F. S. Mitchell. Lane. 
Reported Occurrence of the Cream-coloured Courser in Lancashire 

[error of identihcatioii ; the l)ird so recordid in the "Binls of Lancashire' 
(p. 175) is Vtincliits '^re'^arius (I'all.), an addition to the British list]. Zool.,. 
Oct. 1888, xii. 389.' 

Thomas J. Mookf. Cheshire. 

Pallas's Sand-Grouse [{Syrr/iaptc's paradoxus) at Storetnn in-\Virral, Cheshire ; 

Liverpool museum also possesses an adult male from lloylake, Cheshire, 

June 2nd, 1863]. Field, June 9th, 1888, p. 840. 

Naturalist, 



No. 180. 



JULY 1890. 




MONTHLY JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



CONPUCTKl) liY 



WM. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., 

Sunny Bank, Leeds ; 

WITH THE ASSISTANCR IN STRCtAI, UHPAKIM EN TS OE 



J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., K.L.S., 
Royal Herbarium, Kew ; 



CHAS. r. HOHKIRK. K.L.S., 
Dewsburv ; 



W. EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S., M.B.O.U., GEORGE T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S.. 

Museum of Science & Art, Edinburgh : Greenfield House, Huddersfield : 



ALFRED HARKER, M.A., F.G.S., 
St. John's College, Cambridge ; 



W. BARWELL TURNER, F.C.S., F.R. M.S., 

38, Sholebroke Avenue, Leeds. 



§ontent5 



Bibliography: Birds, 1888 

Ornithological Notes from the Humber District, May ^890—y'o/:>t Cordeau.x. 

M.H.O.U 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Lowthorpe near Driffield .. 

Some Additional Localities and New Records for the Mosses of North 

Yorkshire and South Durham — K. Barnes 
The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Bretton Park 
Notes — Mollusca 

Arion subfuscus Drap. at Ingleton — W. E. Collinge, M.C.S. 

Clausilia rolphii at Well Vale near Alford — //". Denisoti Roebuck, F.L.S. 
Notes — Geology 

Discovery of a Bone-Cave at Skirethorns near Grassington-in-Craven — 
H. Speight; The Basement Carboniferous Conglomerate at UUswater — 
A. Marker, M.A., F.C.S. 

In Memoriam (Mr. George Hann) 

Notes — Birds 

Redshanks Breeding in Ripon Parks — Riley Fortmie, F.Z.S.; Albino Black- 
bird near Harrogate — Riley Fortune, F.Z.S.; Breeding of Heron in Wens- 
leydale, N. \V. V'orks. — F>-ed Cliapvtan ; Snipe's Nest with five eggs and 
Black and White Blackbird near Ripon — Riley Fortjttie, F.Z.S.: Notes 
on Migrants about Harrogate — Riley Fortune, F Z.S.\ Black-headed Gull 
at Walton near Thorp .-Vrch — Edgar R. iVaite, F.L.S.; Auction Sale of 
North of England Rarities— Tvfe'. H. A. i\fac/>/ierson, M.A., ."il.R.O.U. 



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' Hints on Egg Collecting and Nesting,' illustrated, 3^d. free. Birds' Skins, 
Eggs (side-blown and in clutches with date), Lepidoptera, Ova, Larvae, and Pupae, 
Artificial Eyes, and all kinds of Naturalists' Requisites. Lists, one stamp. All 
specimens, &c., sent out 'on approval.' 

J. & W. DAVIS (Naturalists), DARTFORD, Kent. 

The cheapest dealer in Birds, Skins, Eggs, Butterflies, Moths, Foreign Shells, 
etc., is John Eggleston, Park Place, Sunderland. Lists free. 



BIBLIOGRAPHV : IlIRDS, 1888. I93 

Thos. J. Moore. Cheshire. 

Pallas's Sand-Grouse \{Syriha/^tes paradoxus) at Storeton, Cheshire, nine 
seen May 27th]. Field, June i6th, 1888, p. 854. 

S. L. Mosi.Kv. York S.W. 

Annual Report, 1883 . . . Vertebrata [noting Pastor rosetis, Ampelis gar- 

ruins, Upupa epops, Cypschts melba, I-'alco lesalon, Chicliis (Slaithwaite), 

and Alct'do for Iliuldersrteld district]. Trans. Huddersfield Nat. Soc, 

Part I (pub. 1884?), p. 7. 

S. L. MosLEY. York S.W. 

Annual Report, 1884 . . • Ornithology [records with particulars of Mergus 
merganser, Fiilica, Crex, and Capri>iiii/giis]. Trans. Huddersfield Nat. .Soc, 
Part 2 (pub. 1885?), p. 9. 

Fletcher Moss. Lane. S. 

Mistletoe not eaten by Birds [at Didsbury near Manchester ; five species 
of 'fiiydus avoided these berries even in severe weather]. Field, March 24th, 
1888, p. 424. 

Fletcher Moss. Lane. S. 

Mistletoe Berries not eaten by Birds [at Didsbury near Manchester ; 
observations made upon Turdi\ P'ieKl, Ajiril 7th, 1888, p. 472. 

Newman Neave. York N.E. 

A Stork \{Cicoiiia alba) fishing among some reeds in Scarborough Mere, 
loth June, 1886]. Nat. Hist. Journ., .Sep. 15th, 1886, p. 131. 

T. H. Nelson. York N.E. 

Ornithological Notes from Redcar [for 1887 ; Tringa siiharquata, 1\ 
ntuiiita, 'J\ caiintiis, Sqiiatarola, Harelda, Lomvia troile (also ringed and 
white), Alca torda, Falco peregrinus. Circus cyaiieus (Egton Bridge, April), 
Sterna, Calidris, Stnpsilas, Ahiinenius ph(Topus, Puffinus anglorum, 
Uydrochclidon nigra, Liinosa lapponica, Puffinus major or griseus, Stercorarius 
crepidatus, Querquedula crecca. Anas boschas, Tringa alpina, Alau.ia arvensis, 
Plectrophanes, Otocorys, Sterna cantiaca, Coi-vus comix, Colynibus gLicialis, 
Icarus glaucus, Mareca, Stercorarius poiuatorhinus, Regulus cristattis, Scolo- 
pax rusticola, Asio accipitrinus, QLdeinia fusca, CE. nigra, Fidinarus glacialis, 
Vanellus, Fringilla Calebs, Erithacus, I'urdus vtei'ula, T. torquatus (shot in 
Bilsdale, Oct. 25th), Colyinbus septentrionalis, P^endrocopits major, Anseres 
and Cyoniis noted]. Zool., April 1888, xii. 135-138. 

T. H. Nelson. Durham, York N.E. 

Pallas's Sand -Grouse [{Syrrhaptes paradoxus) a fine female washed up 
between Redcar and Marske, 25tli i\Iay ; flock seen on Coatham marshes ; 
six seen near Bishop Auckland, June 3rd]. Field, June 6th, 1888, p. 840. 

T. H. Nelson. York N.E., Isle of Man. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse [[Syrr/iapUs paradoxus) at Teesmouth, Saltljurn, 
Marske, Redcar, Hinderwell, Ruswarp, Whitby, antl Isle of Man]. Field, 
June 30th, 1888, p. 935. 

T. H. Nelson. York N.E. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse [Syrrliaptes paradoxus] in North Yorkshire [numerous 
Redcar, Teesmouth, ami Cleveland occurrences detailetl]. Zool., Aug. 188S, 
xii. 298. 

T. H. Nelson. Durham. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse ISyrr/iaptes paradoxus] in Durham [six between 
Bishop's Auckland and Byers Creen, 3rd June]. Zool., Aug. 188S, xii. 299. 

T. H. Nelson. Isle of Man. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse [Syrrhaptes paradoxus] in the Isle of Man [large 
flock of about fifty, early June]. Zool., Aug. l£8S, xii. 300. 

July 1890. N 



194 bibliography: birds, i8S8. 

T. H. Nelson. Durham, York N.E., Isle of Man. 

The Irruption of Pallas's Sand-Grouse {Syr?-/iaftc's pamdoxtis\. Co. 
Durham [near Bishop Auckland], . . . Isle of Man [in July]. . . . Cleve- 
land, Yorkshire [numerous instances cited, with particulars]. Nat., Aug. 
1888, p. 221-222. 

T. H. Nelson. York N.E. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse {{Syrrhaptes paradoxus) ; male and female shot on 

Kirkleatham estate, Redcar, about 13th Nov.]. Field, Dec. ist, 1888, y. 801. 

J. O. Nicholson. Line. N. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse [{Sy>-r/iaptes paradoxus) at Stanwill near Brigg, flocks 
of ten and five, July 27th and May 4th]. Field, Aug. 4th, iSb8, p. 190. 

Rd. Paver-Crow. York Mid W. 

The Irruption of Pallas' Sand-Grouse {^Syrrhaptes paradoxus^ . . . 

Nidderdale, Yorkshire [two near Darlev, early in June 1888]. Nat., Julv 
1888, p. 199. 

J. H. Payne. York S.W. 

Do Rooks [Corvits friii^^ilegus'] like beingf shot ? [with notes on them as 
observed since 1846 at Newhill Hall near Rolherham]. Nat. Hist. Journ., 
Sep. 15th, 1886, p. 130. 

Alfred Pease. York N.E. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse [{Syrr/iaptcs paradoxus) ; note of three Cleveland 
examples]. Field, Oct. 27th, 1888, p. 625. 

Jno. Philtpson. York N.W., Durham, Cheviotland. 

Address to the . . . Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club . . . May 9th, 

1888 [notes of field excursions: Charadrius pluvialis at Cronkley Fell, 

27th June, ,1887 ; Ardea chierea at Langleyford, Sep. i6th, 1887]. Nat. Hist. 

Trans. Northumb. Durh.and Ne\vc.,vol. 10, part i (1S88), pp. 185 and 192. 

Edward S. Pickard. Cumbld., Westmld., Furness. 

Birds in the Lake District [observed during nine days early in July 18S8 ; 
P'i'atincola rubeira, Kutiiilla pha'tiicurus, IMotac ilia rati, Triiigdides, Ciiiclus, 
Turdus torquatus, Cypselus, Larus ridiluiinius, L. caiius, Fako peregrin tis, 
Buteo vulgaris (locally named ' Gledes '), Corvus eorax, and I.agoptts scoticus; 
numerous localities stated]. Nat. Hist. Journ., Nov. 1st, 1888, xii. 180. 

T. N. PosTLETHWAiTE. Cumberland. 

A Morning at the Fly-nets [in Duddon estuary near Hodbarrow, Cum- 
berland ; noting ,'/;/«.? lioscltas, Tadorna, Tolanus calidris, Nuinciiius arquata, 
Hcciiuitopus, Triuga alpiita, and Flialacrocorax tarbo\ Zool. , May 1S88, 
xii. 190. 

T. N. PosTi.ETHWAiTE. Cumberland. 

Curiosities in Nesting [observed in Cumberland ; Corvus monedula 

(variation of eggs) ; Galliiiula clilcropus (benefit by experience) ; Ciiulus 

aqiiatieus and Stur/ius vulgaris under a noisy railway-bridge]. Zool., Aug. 

1888, xii. 308. 

Charles Potter. Lane. W. 

The Buzzard {[Ardiihuteo lagopus) ; recently trapped in 'Wyresdale, York- 
shire'; surely Lancashire?]. Research, July iSS-S, p. 13. 

Herhert Prodiiam. York N.E. 

The Irruption of Pallas' Sand-Grouse \Syrrhaptes paradoxus] . . . 
Pickering, ^'orkshire [at AUerston, 3rd and 5th June, 1888 ; details given]. 
Nat., July 1888, p. 199. 

\V. H. St; Quintin. York N.E. 

The Preservation of Indigenous Animals [as instanced by readiness of 

Jiiinuttculus, Sirix Jlauir/iea, Syrnnnn aluco, Geciuus viridis, Dendroecpus 

major, Certhia, Sitla, Muscicapa grisola, Riiticilla, Motacilla luguhris, 

Naturalisti 



BIBLIOGRAPHY: lURDS, l88S. I95 

M. meltuiope, Pyrr/iii/a, Co/iiinlui anas, C. paliiinlms, Ardca cinerca, Fiilha, 
Gallinnhi (hloropus, Alcnio^ Anas boschas, and Quenjiiedula crecca (all wild), 
and Cliaitlelasinus, Fiiligiila cristala, !•'. fcrina (pinioned) to accept the shelter 
given on the Scampston Estate ; dates of occurrence given for I.exia ciirvi- 
rostra and existence of Atlifiie itocliia not far away descended from imported 
examples]. Field, Sept. 1st, 1S88, p. 316. 

1'. Ralfe. Isle of Man. 

Black Guillemot {Uria ,i,nyile'] in the Isle of Man [where it still breeds, 

and in 1SS6 was very numerous on the we^l coast]. Zool., Nov. 1888, xii. 429. 

R. H. Rkau. Cheviotland, Northumberland, 

British Birds, their nests and eggs frejiort of lecture (p. 6) on the pro- 
tective resemblance shown by Golden Plover [C/iaradri us plnviali s)' ^ eggs on 
a Northumbrian moorj (p. 7) Guillemots (Lo/nvia troile) on the Pinnacle 
Rocks, Fame Islands]. Ann. Rep. Ealing Micr. and Nat. Hist. .Soc. for 
1887-8 : Ealing [Middlesex], 1888, pp. 6 and 7. 

J. W. Refhtt. York Mid W. 

Simultaneous Brooding by Cock and Hen Partridge \{Pei-dix ,inerea) 
near Otley]. Field, July 28th, 188S, p. 125. 

L. Richardson. Northumberland S. 

The Ascent of Cross Fell, Ap. 26th, 1886 [Lams ridibuiidus noted 

between Hexham and Ilaltwhistle, near where they breed; on Cross Fell 

were noted A'//wtv////j- anjuala and Charadrius p/iivialis\ Nat. Hist. Journ., 

Feb. 15th, 1S88, pp. 13-14. 

A. RoKsoN. Cheviotland. 

Large Sitting of Partridge [Pcrdix lincira} eggs [at Eslington Park, 28, 

all hatched]. Field, Oct. 20th, 1S8S, p. 556. 

Ali-red Rowntree. York N.W. 

A Wild Swan {Cyxnms . . . shot at Loch-a-Tarn (Wensleydale), about 
300 ft. above Carperby]. Nat. Hist. Journ., Feb. 15th, 1888, p. 24. 

A. S. Rowntree. York Mid W. 

[Bullfinches (Pyn-hula ciirop(ca) at CopmanthorpeWood reported ; an unu-ual 
bird near York]. Nat. Hist. Journ., March 15th, 1888, xii. 42. 

A. S. Rowntree. York N.E. 

York, Bootham, — May 3rd [at Grimston, nests and eggs of Keguhis cris- 
tatus a.nil Acirdicla rosca\. Nat. Hist. Journ., June 15th, 1888, xii. 113. 

A. .S. Rowntree. York N.E. 

York, Bootham [June 14th, Excursion to Scarborough, nests of Mnsciiapa 

,i,n-isola and Pyrrhiila t'iinp<ca\. Nat. Hist. Journ., Sept. 15th, 1888, xii. 136. 

Howard Sau-Mieks. All the Counties. 

An Illustrated Manual of British Birds . . . with illustrations of nearly 
every species [in monthly parts ; Parts i to 9, April to Dec. 18S8, from V'lirdtis 
z'isih'onts to Atdea alba : the limited space for each species, two jiages only, 
precludes more than lirief indications as to distribution, and only in the case 
of the very rarest occurrences are localities given]. London : Gurney & 
Jackson, i. Paternoster Row [8vo. , jip. 1-360]. 

[P. L.] Sci-ater. Cheviotland. 

[Syrrhaptes paradoxus; one captured alive, May 28th, 1888, at West 

Foulden, Berwick-on-Tweed, and sent to Zoological Gardens]. Proc. Zool. 
Soc, May 15th, 1888, p. 291 (also 413). 

H. H. Scott. Cheviotland. 

Bird Pests of the Farm [as observed at Hipsburn, Lesbury, Northumberland ; 

Corviis friixn'it'giis, Perdix ciiicrea, I.a'^opiis scoticiis. Paster doiiiestuus, Cohiiiiba 

pahiinbns, treated of; and additional notes by R. J. Graham Simmonds, and 

by Gilbert Millar, Harehope, near Alnwick]. Zool., Oct. 1888, xii. 375-377. 

July i8qo. 



ig^ bibliography: birds, 1888. 

II. Skerohm. Cheviotland.. 

[Young Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser alhifrons) shot Sep. 1886 on 
Holy Island]. Proc. Zool. Soc. LoncL, Nov. i6th, 1886; Land and Water, 
Nov. 27th, 1886, p. 531. 

A. C. S PENCE. York S.E. 

Pallas's Sand QroMS&YKSyn-haptes paradoxus); a lai-y;e flock midway between 
Beverley and Driffield]. Field, July 21st, 1888, p. 86. 

Thomas Stephenson. York N.E^ 

The Irruption of Pallas' Sand-Grouse [.Sj';;-//a//^j'/rt;-rt(/t'.*-?«] . . .Whitby, 
Yorkshire [28th May, iSSS, male and female shot out of twenty ; note of 
former occurrence]. Nat., July 1888, p. 199. 

Thos. Stephenson. York N.E. 

Sand-Grouse [Syi-r/iaples paradoxus] near Whitby, Yorkshire [six shot out of 
a flock of about 60, between Lealholm liritlge and Stonegate, ]\\ne 18S8]. 
Nat., Oct. 1888, p. 297. 

T. Stephenson. York N.E. 

Black Guillemot [Uria ,^;-j'//(?] near Whitby [shot off Sandsend, 30th August, 
1888]. Nat., Nov. 188S, p. 330. 

Thomas Siephenson. York N.E, 

Whitby Bird-notes [for Nov. 1888 ; C!tiu!;-ula i^laiicio)!, Somatcria inoll/ssima,. 
and Larits iiiarinits\. Nat., Dec. 1888, p. 353. 

C. E. S[tott]. Lane, S. 

House Martins {C/wlidon nrluca] perching on Trees [not unusual at Los- 
tock near Eolton]. Field, Sept. ist, 1888, p. 316. 

Thos. R. Su.mmerson. Durham. 

Swifts {Cypschis apiis] flying at Night [at Gainford Green and Haughton-le- 
Skerne, they retired at nine p.m. Gilbert White's observations compared]. 
Field, June 30th, 18S8, p. 936. 

James Sution. Northumberland S. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse [Syrrhapies paradoxi/s] in Northumberland [several 
sent ; information vague]. Zool., Aug. 1888, xii. 299. 

EnwAKi) Tandy. Cumberland, 

Grey Shrike [Lam'i/s exctiliifor] in Cumberland [obtained at Woodside, 
28th Jan. ; editor appends note from Macpheison and Duckworth's book]. 
Zool., April 1888, xii. 147. 

J. Tavi.ok. Northumberland S., Cheviotland, 

Partridges {/\'rdix citjcrca] driven by foxhounds [of the Morpeth Hunt, at 
Felton, on the Coquet, Feb. 4th, 18S8]. Field, Feb. i8th, 1888, p. 209. 

W. B. Teoetmeiek. Notts., York S.E. 

Reappearance of Pallas's Sand Grouse {^Syrrhaptes paradoxus] in Europe 
[with brief passing reference to the occurrences at Clifton, Notts, and Spurn, 
Yorkshire]. Field, May 26th, 1S8S, p. 763. 

CvKii, F:. Terkv. Notts, 

Storm Petrel \^Proidlaria pelagica] Inland [one shot on Trent, Nov. 17th; 
now in Nottingham Museum]. FieUl, Nov. 24th, 1888, p. 759. 

John V. Thomasson. Lane. S. 

Garden Warbler {^Sylvia hortciisis] nesting at a height from the ground [near 
Bolton]. Zool., Aug. 1888, xii. 306. 

Wat.ter A. Warne and C. de Yit. York N.E. 

Returning Swallows [(species not stated) at Ayton ; disappeared very tarly, 
and after several weeks rea]5peared abi3ut 20th October, staying till 3°'^'^]- 
Nat. Hist. Journ., Nov. 15th, 1888, xii. 206. 

N.ituralist, 



HIRLIOGRAPHY : lURDS, 1888. I97 

Ai BERT II. Waiers. Yorkshire. 

Nature in March [with repetition of two Yorkshire records for 'J'unius 
pilaris given in Zoo!., Feb. 1886, and Zoo!., x. 29S]. Young Nat., March 
1888, ix. 60. 

M. t;. Waikixs. Line. N. 

[Late Stay of S'wallo'ws {//innnio nistita): seen l)y writer in North Lines., 
Nov. 3ril (? 18S4)]. Angler's Note Book, Yellow .Series, 1888, p. 96. 

J. \Vatson. York N.W. 

Meteorological Notes [also notes on movements of 'J'urdus ///usicits, 

r. iiicntla, Eiiibcriza iniliaria, Friiij^illa (wlel'S, Erilhaciis rubecida, Stiirnus 
vulgaris, Corviis corax (Ravens building), Nnmenius arqttata, Vanellits 
vulgaris, and Lagopus scoticus near .Sedbergh, Garsdale, and Grisedale in 
April 1888]. Wesl. Nat., May 1888, ii. 90-91. 

John Watson'. Cumberland, Westmorland, Furness. 

The Ornithology of Skiddaw, Sea Fell, and Helvellyn [detailed notes on 
Ciiiilus aqiia/ii'iis, Titrdns torqitaliis, Molaiilla liti^ubris, Anthiis prateiisis. 
Saxicola (eitaiitlte, Triiigdidcs hypoletuos, Pandion kaliae/us, Aqiiila chrysaetos, 
Haliaetits alhicilla, Falco peregrinus, F. (csalon, F". sublntfeo, Liiiota flaviros- 
Iris, Lagopus scoticus, Corvus coroiic, C. comix, Titrdiis viscivoriis, Plectro- 
phaucs nivalis, Eitdromias, Charadriiis phivialis, Butco vulgaris, Archihuteo, 
Plialcicrocorax carbo, P. graculus, Lanis ridibundus, L. fuscus, Nuiiienius 
arquata, and Proccllaria pelagica ; lists of vernacular names given at the end]. 
Nat., June 1888, pp. 161-169. 

John Watson. Cumberland, Westmorland, Furness. 

Notes on the Birds of the Lake District [details of occurrences of Green- 
land Falcon [Falco candicans), Iceland b'aicon (/". islaiidus), and Peregrine 
(F. pcrcgrinus)}. Nat., July 1S88, pji. 201-202. 

John Watson. Cumberland, Westmorland. 

Extermination of Birds [Fudromias morinellus] in the Lake District 

[report of Petty Sessions Trial at Kendal]. Research, July 1888, p. 13. 

E. W. West. Derbyshire. 

The Siskin {C/irysoniitris spiuus] in North Derbyshire [five seen Dec. 7th, 
1887 ; and eight on Jan. loth, 18S8, on banks of the Derwent ; details given]. 
Field, Jan. 2ist, 1888, p. 91. 

J. A. WHEi.noN. York S.E. 

Thrush Nest [notes on those of Turdus luusiciis, T. torquatiis and T. i/icrula ; 
one of last-named on a pair of wooden steps hanging against a wall, at 
Heslingtoe(?n) Hall, near York]. Sci. Goss., Nov. 1888, p. 263. 

J. Whitaker. Notts. 

[Pied] Variety of Common Wild Duck [{Anas boschas) caught in the 
decoy at Park Hall; now in Whitaker's collection; description given]. 
Land and Water, Dec. 25th, 1886, p. 640. 

J. Whitaker. Notts. 

Varieties of Common Wild Duck {{Anas boschas) decoyed at Park Hall, 

first week of June 1888 ; described]. ZooL, P'eb. 1888, 3rd Series, xii. 68. 

J. Whitaker. Notts. 

Sand Grouse [{Syrrhapfes paradoxus) at Clipstone Lings, Notts, June I4tli : 
flight and habits described at length]. Field, June 23, 1888, p. 901. 

J. Whitaker. Notts. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse {{Syrrhapfes pamdoxus) near Plidworth, June 19th, 
three seen]. Field, June 30th, 1888, p. 935. 

J. Whitaker. Notts. 

Pallas's Sand Grouse {{Syrrhaptcs paiadoxus) in Notts; notes on habits, 
food and proljable Ijreeding]. Field, July 7th, 1888, p. 5. 

July 1890. 



1 98 NOTES: MOLLUSCA. 

J. WiiiTAKEK. Notts, York S.E. and N.E, 

Sand Grouse [Syrr/taptes paradoxus] in Notts [still about ; also at Filey and 
ISridlington]. Field, Sep. 22nd, 1888, p. 433. 

J. WlIITAKEK. Nott3, 

Late Brood of Wild Ducks [{Anas /wschas) at Rainworth Lodge ; tiftLcn 
young on 29th Oct.]. Field, Nov. loth, 1888. p. 680. 

J. Whitakek. Notts. 

Crossbills [Loxia curvirostra'] in Notts [at Rainwoith, probably breeding 
there]. Field, Dec. ist, 1888, p. 801. 

T. WlUTAKER. Notts. 

Note of the Jack Snipe \(Li>iiiiociyptes gallinula) as noted at Rainworth]. 
Field, Dec. ist, 1888, p. 801. 

J. Whitaker. Nott:. 

A Good [16 oz.] Woodcock {{Scolopax msticola) shot at Rainworth Lodg,-], 
Field, Dec. 15th, 1S88, p. 852. 

Mervox White. York N.E. 

The Cuckoo [Cucuhts cauonts^% Change of Note [as observed at Strensall 
Camp]. Field, July 21st, 1888, p. 86. 

F. B. Whiti.ock. Derbyshire, Notts. 

The Irruption of Pallas' Sand-Grouse \SyrrJinpies paradoxus'] . . . 

Derbyshire [Breaston, May] . . . Nottinghamshire [Rainworth, June 14th]. 
Nat., Aug. 1888, p. 221. 

F. B. VVHirLOCK. Derbyshire, Notts. 

Notes on the Reed Warbler [[Acrocephalus streperus) in the Mid-Trent 
\'alley, as observeti in 18S8 ; details of habits and nidification ; reference 
made also \.o A. phrai^iititis]. Nat., Dec. 18S8, pp. 355-356. 

F. B. Whitlock. Notts. 

Manx Shearwater [Puffiints nngloruiu] near Nottingham [picked up alive 
at Best wood, August 1888]. Nat., Dec. 1888, ji. 356. 

FREnERic A. Wkathai.l. York N.E., York S.W. 

Birds of the Ayton District [a list of 89 species by their English names, 
with indications of faunistic position, comparative frequency, etc. ; preceded 
by remarks on the district and u])on some of the noteworthy birds ; reference 
also made to Brockendale and Ackworth observations of Coluniba a'uas\ 
Nat. Hist. Journ., Feb. 15th, 1888, xii. i to 5. 
S. Henry Wright. Notts, 

Sherwood Forest [in which the following birds are cited : Anas hoschas^Fulica, 
Querquedula crecca, Marcca, Fuligida ferina, F. crislata, Scolopax rusticola. 
Spatula, Telrao tetrix. Circus cyancus, Gariiilus, Corz'us corone, and 
Phasiauus], Nat. Hist. Journ., .Sep. 15th, 1886, pp. 113-117. 

NOTES— MOLL USCA . 

Arion subfuscus Drap. at Ingleton. — I regret to find that in my list of the 
Land and Freshwater Mollusca of Ingleton, Clapham, and district, which 
appeared in the ' Naturalist ' for April, I have omitted to record Arion subfuscus, 
which I collected near to Ingleton. — W. E. Collint.e, Leeds, June 14th, 1890. 

Clausilia rolphii at Well Vale near Alford. — Mr. J. Burtt Davy was 
good enough to send a number of shells and slugs collected by himself at Well 
Vale on the 12th of June inst. Mr. Taylor and I examined them, and were 
much interested to note a dead-example of Clausilia rolphii, with abundance of 
CI. laniinata and CI. rugosa, a single dead Cyclostoma elegans, a dead Helix 
lapicida, and living examples of Buliiiius ohscurus. Helix arbustorum in plen'y, 
Ai'ion subfuscus, etc., 17 species in all. Mr. Davy was unable to find living 
Cyclostoma or H. lapicida, though the former is common dead. — W. Denison 
Roebuck, Leeds. 

Naturalist, 



199 

ORNITHOLOGICAL NOTES 
FROM THE HUMBER DISTRICT, MAY 1890. 



JOHN CORDEAUX, M.B.O.U. 
Great Cotes, Ulcehy, Lincolnshirf. 



Merlin {Falco ccsa/on). May loth. When taking nests of the 
Carrion Crow {Corvi/s corone) in the plantations and hedge-row 
timber to-day, we disturbed a MerHn, sitting on eggs in the old 
nest of a Crow, placed at the very top of a tall straight oak 
growing in an ash-holt, which stands on the edge of the marshes. 
Subsequently I watched for some time through the glass at 
half gunshot, the old male sitting on a tree-top near the nest. 
From the very retired position of the plantation I had good 
hopes that the young might be brought off, but this was not the 
case, for on returning a few days later, the tree had been 
climbed and the nest plundered. 

Grey Plover and Dunlin. May 13th, N., slight. The beach 
at high water near Kilnsea Warren this morning was lined with 
countless waders — hundreds of Grey Plovers {Squataroia hel- 
vetica) and thousands of Dunlin {Tringa alpina), all in summer 
plumage. They were very restless, flying out to sea. A constant 
stream of drifting birds filled the field of my large telescope as 
long as I could hold it out. When the flights turned once 
more to the coast, the Grey Plover looked very much like 
floating discs — white above and black below — moving noise- 
lessly down upon me. Later in the day as the tide receded, 
there was abundant opportunity to watch the waders through 
a glass as they sat grouped along the coast — the Dunlins so 
closely packed that they resembled sheets of brown velvet, 
with some sort of a grey pattern worked over them. One large 
flock of Grey Plover at rest, were very difficult to pick out 
individually, so nearly did they assimilate with the back-ground, 
a bank of rough shingle. All the flocks of Grey Plover were 
associated with Dunlins, but the two species were seldom 
actually mixed ; where the one ended, the other commenced. 
I think most' of this large assembly took their departure either 
that night or early in the morning, for I saw comparatively few 
after this. On the 15th the wind was west and squally, and 
I found nothing except a few noisy Turnstone and stray 
Whimbrel. This was a regular spring day — a play of sunshine 
and showers, with a rain-swept plain of cold grey water, trans- 
formed in a few seconds into glimmering sheets and shifting 

July 1890. 



200 CORDEAUX : BIRD-NOTES FROM THE HUMBER DISTRICT. 

breadths of lavender and pale green, changeful as a sapphire, 
and flecked with a thousand specks of broken foam, each 
lustrous as seagull's wing. 

Turnstone {Stnpsilas interpres). May 13th. Exceedingly abun- 
dant during the week in small parties on the sea and Humber side 
of the Spurn. The mellow and varied cry of the Turnstone is 
very difficult to render; sometimes it seems to resemble 
^prit-pretty-dick^ at others a clear 'cher-ick, clier-ick.'' It is 
known as the 'Dotterel.' 

Sanderling {Calidris arenaria). Fairly numerous on the 13th and 
following days ; generally two or three together. One which 
I examined through the glass appeared in beautiful summer 
plumage — chestnut and shades of brown ; others were very nmch 
in the same dress we find them in during the autumn. 

Whimbrel {Numenius phceopiis). Exceedingly plentiful and very 
tame, generally scattered and not in flocks. They are continually 
boring the loose and wet sand and frequently seem to draw out 
a short worm or slug which is quickly swallowed. 

Oyster-catcher {Hcei/iafopus osiralegus). Seen and heard. As the 
tide flows, the Den, as it is called, on the Humber side (the site 
of Ravenserodd) is the last to be covered and is crowded with 
Whimbrel and Oyster-catchers, and very noisy they become 
when the rising water drives them to seek some other retreat. 
The ■i\\x\\\ pee-peep of the latter may be heard at a great distance 
on this level coast. 

Redshank {Totanus calidris). May i6th. One, to-day, very noisy 
and flitting to and fro above a marsh full of rough grass near 
Kilnsea, probably had a nest not far off. 

Dotterel {Eudronias morineilus). May 15th. A shepherd (who well 
knows the birds) informs me that he saw three trips this morning, 
altogether about thirty birds, in their old quarters in this parish 
(Great Cotes). In 1889 they were seen in the same locality on the 
1 4th May. In the Spurn district the local name is ' Land-Dotterel.' 

Common Sandpiper {Tringdides hypoleucos). Fairly common on 
and near the coast on the 13th and subsequently. 

Ringed Plover {.-Egialitis hiatiaild). I found a nest with four 
eggs on the 13th and again on the 17th. The first nest was on 
Kilnsea Warren., and partly hidden by three growing thistles ; the 
eggs were grouped differently to any I have seen before, which 
is invariably with the narrow ends together, in this case thus : — 

ogo _ 

Naturalist. 



CORDEAUX : BIRD-NOTES FROM THE HUMRER DISTRICT. 20I 

which, if anything, seems an improvement on the normal 
manner of placing them. 

Pied Flycatcher {Musckapa atricapilla). Several at Spurn first 
week in May ; Redstarts {Ruticilla phcetiicunis) also, and up to 
the middle of the month. 

Blackcap {Sylvia atricapilla). May 6th to 12th. Several on 
passage ; also Garden Warbler {S. hortensis) seen and Willow 
Wrens {Phylloscopiis trochilus). 

Red-backed Shrike {Lanius colhirio). A bird, presumably of 
this species, was seen near Easington during several days in the 
second week of May. 

Grey Crow {Corvus corone). May 14th. A pair on Kilnsea 
Warren ; a single one seen also on the i6th. 

Rock Pipit {Aiiihus ol'sciinis). A pair on the sand-hills near 
Kilnsea beacon. 

Reed Bunting {Emheriza schxtiiclus). May i6th. Found a nest 
with five eggs in the bents. The female feigned lameness, and 
fluttered before me for a very considerable distance. 

Swallow {Hirundo rustica). May 17th; Wind S., strong breeze. 
Large numbers, usually two and three together, with Martins 
{Chelidon urbica\ Sand Martins {Cotile riparia), and a few 
Swifts {Cypselus apus), for many hours during day flying low down 
above the bents, continuously to south, taking the line of sand- 
hills to the point. None were observed returning or flying in 
a contrary direction. 

Lesser Tern {Sterna mimita). Several pairs on 13th, and con- 
siderable increase during the week. It is surprising that the 
Spurn colony continues to exist, considering the ceaseless 
plundering of the nests which goes on year after year. 

Turtle Dove {Turtur communis). May 17th. One seen by 
Mr. Hevvetson at Skeffling. On the 22nd I heard one cooing in 
my garden at Great Cotes. 

Linnet {Linota cannabina ; local, 'Bent-Linnet'). Two beautiful 
nests in the bents, one with six, the other with three eggs. 
Later in the season the Spurn Linnets line their nests with the 
white feathers of the Lesser Tern. 

Sand-Grouse {Syrrhaptes paradoxus). Mr. Hewetson has kindly 
sent the following note: — 'May 24th, 1890. Mr. James 
Hopper of Spurn and David Pye of Easington (both of whom 
are familiar with Sand-Grouse) saw six coming in from the sea 
flying in a north-westerly direction — wind east at the time — whilst 

July 1890. 



202 NOTES — GEOLOGY. 

half a mile off Spurn Light in their boat. They passed within 
thirty yards of the boat, and their peculiar cry was recognised. 
The birds were afterwards seen by others to alight on the sand- 
hills near the chalk banks, and they appeared very tired.' 
On Saturday, May 24th, eight were seen near the Humber in 
South Killingholme Parish, Lincolnshire. 
Tree-Sparrow {Fasser montanus). May 31st. We found the nest 
this afternoon, with the unusual number of seven eggs, built of 
dead grass and feathers, and placed inside the old nest of a 
magpie on the top of a Scotch fir in a plantation in this parish 
(Great Cotes). 

NOTES— GEOLOG Y. 

Discovery of a Bone-Cave at Skirethorns near Grassington-in-Craven. 

— A few days ago, whilst in the neighbourhood of Grassington, I visited a newly- 
opened cavern at a place called Height, a solitary farm on the limestone hills about 
a mile west of the hamlet of Skirethorns. The farmer on whose land it is situated 
decided to open it out a week or two ago, as from the large opening (big enough 
for a horse and cart) there seemed appearances of an extensive cavern. It is 
Hlled with stififish clay, and on digging this out quantities of bones were discovered 
embedded in it. What these exactly are I am unable to say. They have been 
carefully collected together, and consist apparently of the remains of foxes, deer, 
and skulls and bones of various extinct animals and birds ; also a number of large 
well-preserved teeth were found, and several jaws in which the teeth are 
remarkably perfect. I entered the cavern and with the aid of a candle penetrated 
to the extremity of the excavations, about ten or a dozen yards, no great distance 
as yet ; but there is every indication of the cave extending to a considerable dis- 
tance into the hill. The passage into it is not more than three feet high, but may 
be enlarged, as the present floor seems of deep clay. The small cliff in which it is 
situated runs north and south, and the entrance to it faces the west. The altitude 
is about 1,200 ft. above sea-level. — H. Speight, West Bowling, Bradford, 
June i6th, 1890. 

The Basement Carboniferous Conglomerate at UUswater. — The 

basement conglomerate of the Carboniferous in the Lake District ('Old Red 
Sandstone" of some authors) is largely developed in the district north of 
UUswater, reaching in Mell Fell a thickness of 1,000 or 1,200 ft. Any informa- 
tion regarding its included pebl)les will be of interest, as helping to determine 
how far the older rocks were exposed by denutlation at the beginning of the 
Carboniferous period, and what was the direction from which the materials were 
derived. There is an excellent exposure on the shore of the lake, under Dun- 
mallett, near Pooley Bridge. A brief search here was enough to show that the 
great majority of the pebbles (not less than 95 per cent.) are of a grey or greenish- 
grey grit, closely resembling the Coniston Grit. Next in abundance come rocks 
referable to the Volcanic Series (the so-called Borrowdales). These are chiefly 
represented by various agglomerates of moderate coarseness and dirty-reddish or 
purplish-brown colours ; but there were also found specimens of a breccia, 
enclosing angular fragments of pink rhyolite in a dark ashy matrix, a compact fine 
ash with small concretionary ovoid spots (' birdseye '), a rhyolite, a dark compact 
andesite containing little glassy prisms of felspar, and other rocks — all of types 
svell known in the Volcanic Series of the central Lake District. A compact dark- 
iilue pebble of Coniston Limestone containing numerous /)(;j';7V///(? also occurred. 
The pebbles are mostly well rounded, and range up to as much as two feet in 
diameter. Some of the grits, es]3ecially the smaller pebbles, are rather oblong 
in form. These have a laminated structure, and are often stained red or banded 
with stripes of red and grey. — A. Harker, St. John's College, Cambridge, 
?nd June, 1890. 

Naturalist, 



2 03-. 

THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION 
AT LOWTHORPE NEAR DRIFFIELD. 

On Whit-Monday last, May 26th, 1890, the Yorkshire Naturalists'' 
Union held its eighty-fourth meeting, the first of the season. The- 
place selected was Driffield, for the investigation of Lowthorpe, Ruston 
Parva, and the valley of the Kelk Beck from Lowthorpe Station 
to Kilham. Permission for the investigation of their estates had 
been handsomely granted by Mr. W. H. St. Quintin, M.P5.0.U., and 
Mr. John Dickson. The weather, by no means a secondary con- 
sideration on an excursion, was not all that could be desired, and 
vividly reminded one of the excursion on the previous Whit-Monday, 
when a similar state of things prevailed at Holmfirth. At the outset 
the sky was dull and overcast, and slight rains fell at intervals in 
many parts of the county. 

The farmers grew impatient, but a few confessed their error, 

And would not complain ; 
For after all, the best thing one can do when it is raining 

Is to let it rain. 

This threatening aspect of the weather no doubt deterred many 
members, and ladies especially, from taking part in the excursion. 
Those who did attend came provided with the inevitable mackintosh 
and umbrella. About noon, however, the sun struggled forth, and 
by the time the members arrived at Lowthorpe Station it was blazing 
in an almost cloudless sky. Here the majority of the members left 
their various impedimenta, including the aforesaid mackintosh and 
umbrella, and those who elected to carry these useful but cumbrous 
articles regretted later that they had not followed the example of 
their more venturesome companions. The party was met by several 
local members, and, now numbering about seventy, after a short 
consultation, proceeded under the leadership of Messrs. J. R. 
Mortimer, and L B. Ross, F.C.S.. in the direction of Ruston Parva. 
The extensive woods to the right of Lowthorpe first claimed the 
attention of the party, which proceeded up the Kelk Beck Valley, 
occasionally crossing and recrossing the stream at the dictates or 
fancy of the leaders, until Brace Bridge was reached. Here the 
geologists diverged to inspect some chalk quarries at Ruston Parva, 
under the intiependent leadership of Mr. Mortimer, while the 
remainder confined their investigations to the more immediate 
vicinity of the stream. The majority of the members returned to 
Lowthorpe, whence they proceeded by train to Driffield, but a tew 
journeyed on foot, passing through the little village of Nafferton, and 
eventually joining their fellow workers at Driffield. 

July 1890. 



204 YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS UNION AT LOWTHORPE. 

At 4.45 the ramblers sat down to tea at the Buck Inn, at which 
place the business of the meeting was transacted. 

After the Sectional Meetings had been held, the General Meeting 
was opened at six o'clock, and presided over by Mr. N. F. Dobree, 
F.E.S. (Beverley), President of the Entomological Section. The 
minutes of the foregoing meeting having been read and approved, 
the following eighteen new members were elected : — James L. Bell, 
M.D., Driffield; H. H. Corbett, M.R.C.S., Doncaster ; J. Norton 
Dickons, Manningham ; George Frank, Kirbymoorside ; — Hodgson, 
Pickering; George Fowler Jones, Malton ; John Nicholson, Pudsey ; 
John H. Phillips, Scarborough ; James Rhodes, Keighley ; William 
Sparks, Driffield; J. W. Sutcliffe, Halifax; W. Y.Veitch, M.D., 
Middlesbrough; Robert Waddington, Driffield; John F. Walker, 
M.A., F.G.S., etc., York; Henry Waud, Darlington ; J. A. Whitaker, 
Halifax ; C. H. B. Woodd, London ; Thomas W. Woodhead, 
Huddersfield. 

The roll of affiliated societies was next called, to which repre- 
sentatives from the following responded : — Conchological Society, 
Dewsbury, Halifax, Hull (two Societies), Leeds (two Societies), 
Malton, Ovenden, Scarborough (two Societies), and York. 

A vote of thanks was then passed, on the motion of Mr. J. W. 
Davis, F.G.S., seconded by Mr. M. B. Slater, F.L.S., to Messrs. 
W. H. St. Quintin, M.B.O.LT., and John Dickson, for permission 
granted to visit their respective estates, to Messrs. Mortimer and Ross 
for conducting the various sections, and to the various contributors 
to the excursion-programme. 

The following resolution was passed, on the motion of Mr. C. P. 
Hobkirk, F.L.S., seconded by the Rev. E. Maule Cole, M.A., F.G.S., 
and supported by Messrs. J. W. Davis, F.G.S., etc., and W. D. Roebuck, 
jr_L_S. :— 'That the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union desires to record 
its extreme regret at the loss sustained since the last meeting in the 
death of two of its most active and valued members — Mr. S. A. 
Adamson, F.G.S., Secretary of the Geological Section, and Mr. E. B. 
Wrigglesworth, a former Secretary of the Entomological Section; 
and that the Secretaries be requested to communicate accordingly 
with the relatives of the deceased gentlemen.' 

The reports of the various sections were then given. 

For the Vertebrate Section, Mr. Edgar R. Waite, F.L.S., 
Secretary, reported that the members attaching themselves to this 
section were chiefly under the leadership of Mr. Fredk. Boyes, 
Beverley, and numbered about a dozen, who confined their investi- 
gations mainly to the east side of the stream. The district appears 
to be a very promising one, and it is to be regretted that so little 



YORKSHIRE NATURALlSls' UNION AT LOWTHORPK. 205 

time was available in which to endeavour to ascertain its fauna. 
The ground traversed was chiefly woodland, and as the trees were 
well into leaf many birds were hidden and it was frequently only 
by their note or song that their presence could be detected. 
Mr. St. Quintin's gamekeeper, who was with the section for a 
short time, pointed out some large ponds which he said had 
sometimes in winter as many as 300 wild ducks upon them ; 
unfortunately he was unable to si)ecify what species were to be 
met with although he said there were several kinds. It was soon 
evident that all was not to be plain sailing, for the ground became 
very boggy and few of the members escaped without sinking below 
the boot-tops. However, 'nothing venture, nothing gain,' and 
having once got wet it was no great trial to go in again and 
again. With respect to the birds a fair number was met with, 
but this would in all probability have been increased, had the 
ground traversed been of a more diversified nature. Many 
woodland birds, such as Thrushes and Warblers, were numerous, 
but the only Tits seen were the Blue and the Long-tailed 
Tits. A tall Spruce-fir was climbed to ascertain the nature of 
a little nest discovered among the topmost branches and some 
surprise was manifested when it was announced to be a Hedge 
Accentor's. In one place where the bog drained itself into a small 
pond nests of both Water-hen and Coot were found containing eggs, 
and one member was decidedly wet before he had satisfied his 
curiosity. After a long tramp the little party emerged from the 
wood and took to the fields, where other species were added to the 
list, including three Buntings, the Yellow, the rarer ' Common,' and 
the still rarer Reed Bunting. On nearing the Beck the Spotted 
flycatcher was seen pursuing the vocation from which it takes its 
name, and the Swallow, Martin, Sand Martin, and Swift were also 
entomologising up and down the stream. On reaching Brace Bridge 
some little time was spent to advantage in the neighbourhood. 
A move was at length made for head-quarters, the majority of the 
section walking on to Lowthorpe, and taking train for Driffield, 
where they were joined shortly afterwards by the remainder, who had 
preferred walking and passed through Nafterton on their way. 

The following is the complete list of Vertebrates recorded. 
The list of birds — 42 in all — included 27 resident and 15 migram 
species. The asterisks * denote that eggs and the daggers t that 
young birds were observed. 

Mammals. Birds. 



Short-tailed un Field Vole. *t Missel 1 brush. 

Rabbit. *t Song Tl.rush. 



July 1890. 



;2o6 YORKSHIRE NATURALISIS' UNION AT LOWTHORPE, 

*t Blackbird. * Linnet. 

Whinchat. Corn Bunting. 

*t Redlueast. Yellow Bunting. 

Whitethroat. Reed Bunting. 

Blackcap. Starling. 

Garden Warbler. Jackdaw. 

Goldcrest. Rook. 

* Chiffchaff. Skylark. 

* Willow Warbler. Swift. 
Sedge Warbler. Cuckoo. 
Grasshopper Warbler. *t Ring Dove. 

*t Hedge Accentor. * Pheasant. 

Long-tailed Tit. Partridge. 
Blue Tit. .- *+ Waterhen. 

* Wren. * Coot. 
Meadow Pipit. *t Lapwing. 

* Tree Pipit. 

Spotted Flycatcher. Reptiles. 

Swallow. Smooth Newt. 

Martin. trog. 



Sand Martin. Toad. 

Greenfinch. 



House .Sparrow. 



Fishes. 



*t Chaffinch. Trout and Minnow. 

The report of the Conchological Section was given by its Secretary, 
Mr. L. B. Ross, F.C.S., Driffield, who stated that the section had 
been represented during the day by Messrs. F. W. Fierke and Brown, of 
Hull, who had spent the morning and forenoon in investigating the 
Driffield Canal, and were afterwards joined at Lowthorpe Station by 
Mr. Ross himself, Mr. J. Darker Butterell, of Beverley, Mr. W. Denison 
Roebuck, F.L.S., of Leeds, and other investigators. The day's 
research was not, however, very successful either in land or fresh- 
water moUusca. The Lowthorpe district cannot from its nature be 
regarded as a happy hunting-ground so far as the aquatic mollusca 
are concerned, there being an entire absence of those delightful old 
ponds, covered with vegetation and abounding in effete animal 
matter, so dear alike to the conchologist and the snail, and however 
charming the meandering trout stream may be to the angler, it is 
almost a blank to the conchologist. The rapid flow of its waters and 
the absence of vegetation militate against success, the only mollusc 
that seems to revel in it being the River Limpet {A/icylus Jluviatilis), 
which is found attached to the stones in great numbers, several 
thousands being observed in one place. The conchologists next 
tried their dredges in the gravelly bed of a quieter portion of the 
stream near Brace Bridge, and fished up the little pea-shaped 
bivalves, Pisidhim pusillum and P.fontinale var. cinerea; and again 
trying their luck, succeeded in bringing to the surface Valvata 

Naturalist, 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION AT LOWTHORPE. 207 

piscinalis and V. cristata. P/iysa fontinalis and Planorbis contortus 
were found in the dam at Brace liridge Mill. The slugs met with 
were Arioii bourguignati, Limax //laximus, and Z. agrestis. The 
party were scarcely more successful in their search after terrestrial 
mollusca, probably owing to the time allowed being short. No very 
great number or variety rewarded their efforts, although probably 
many of the smaller species could have been met with in the woods had 
lime allowed ; but the district not having been previously worked, 
the local guides could render very little assistance in pointing out 
habitats, etc., a very necessary aid when time is short. The 
Zonites were represented by the following species, viz.: -Z cellarius, 
Z. alliarhts, Z. fiihnis, Z. iiitidulus, and Z. crystallinus, and the 
Helices by the following: — Helix ne»ioralis and var. roseo-labiata, 
H. aspersa, If. hispida^ H. ru/cscens, and H. cantiana, the latter being 
abundant. Vitrina pellucida^ Buli/uus obscunis, Carychitwi mifiiniuin, 
and Cochlicopa lubrica were also found sparingly. 

For the Entomological Section the report was given by its 
Secretary, Mr. J. H. Rowntree, of Scarborough, who remarked that 
the season was too little advanced for many insects to be on the 
wing, and although the sun shone brightly, a cold wind prevailed. 
The following imagos w^ere recorded : — Pieris brassica^, P. rapes, 
P. fiapi, Antliocharis cardamines, Vanessa iirticce, V. ca?-dui, 
Cceno7iy)npha pamphilus, Arctia lubricipeda, and Alelanippc rivata. 
Many larvce were obtained by beating the hawthorn, the complete 
list being: — Vanessa iirtiae, Arctia caja, Odonestis potatoria, Rumia 
cratcegata, Odontopera bidetifata, Hybernia progeiiunaria, Cheimatobia 
briimata, Melanippe montanata, Dlloba aeriileocepliala, and Miselia 
oxyacanflue. 

For the Botanical Section reports were given by Mr. Charles P. 
Hobkirk, F.L.S., of Dewsbury, President, and Mr. Matthew B. 
Slater, F.L.S., of Malton, Cryptogamic Secretary of the section. 
Mr. Hobkirk remarked that the botanists had chiefly confined their 
attention to the woods and rich bottoms on the east side of the 
Kelk Beck, with occasional incursions where practicable to the west 
bank, as far north as Brace Bridge. In the swampy ground nearest 
to Lowthorpe, Iris pseudacorus was found fairly plentiful and in 
good flower, also Glyceria aquatica, whilst in many parts of the beck 
Potainogeton lielovpliylliis, P. crispus, and P. densus were plentiful. 
In the various changing habitats of the journey 112 flowering plants 
and ferns were observed, amongst the most interesting of which, 
besides those already mentioned, were Barbarea vulgaris, Hypericum 
<juadra?igulum, Anthyllis Vulncraria, Onobrychis saliva, Geum 
rivale, Potentilla Coniaruin, Potcrium Sanguisorba, Hippuris vulgaris, 

July 1890. 



2o8 YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION AT I.OWTHORPE. 

Habenaria viriiiis, Ramiticulus psetido-fluHans, Carex paniculata, 
C. paludosa^ etc., and Teesdalia fiudicaulis was reported from near 
Market Weighton. Only three ferns were noted ; all common ones 
everywhere. Among the Cryptogamia, Mr. M. B. Slater, F.L.S., 
who had previously traversed part of the ground, had recorded 
30 Mosses and 4 Hepatics, and most of these were noted during 
the day's ramble. Amongst the more interesting may be noted : — 
Mniuiii piinciatum, Amblystcgiiini serpens, Orthotrichum Lyellii, 
Rhynchosteginm cofifertum^ Hypnum cuspidatum c.fr. but with most 
of the capsules cut short off, probably by birds ; EiirhyncJiium striatum, 
E. crassitiervium, Climaciimi dendroides, Leucodon sciuroides, Homa- 
luthecium sericeii/n, Brachytheeium p/uniosuiii, Eurhynchiuin piliferum, 
Zygodon viridissinius, Ortholrichnm affine, O. diaphaniim, Bryuvi 
capillare^FriiUania capil/are, Rndula complanata, LopJiocoIea bidentata, 
and L. heterophyila. Cryphcea Jieieromalla was re])orted by Mr. Slater 
as occurring near Sledmere on the west, and also on the east of 
Lowthorpe, but, strange to say, no trace of it could be found in the 
district investigated, though it was well searched for. 

For the Geological Section its chairman (Rev. E. Maule Cole, 
M.A., F.G.S.,) and Secretary (Mr. S. Chadwick, F.G.S., Malton,) 
reported as follows : — In the Sectional Meeting the chair was taken 
by the President, the Rev. E. Maule Cole, M.A., F.G.S. , who opened 
the proceedings by referring to the great loss which the Union had 
sustained by the premature death of the Senior Secretary of the 
section, Mr. Adamson, to whose graphic pen the Union was indebted 
for so many charming narratives of the excursions undertaken, and 
of the various localities and sections visited, and expressed his belief 
that it would be extremely difficult to find anyone, with similar gifts 
and enthusiasm, to supply his place. After congratulating the section 
on the exceptionally good muster of members, the President called 
on the Secretary, Mr. Chadwick, F.G.S., to make his report on the 
day's proceedings. The Secretary stated that the sections examined 
consisted of Boulder Clay and Chalk. The former extended over 
the whole district explored, and constituted the surface soil, whilst 
the chalk below was only visible in pits. The first chalk-pit visited 
was a large and deep one in the upper chalk without flints, at 
Ruston Parva, where specimens of the following fossils were 
obtained : — Inoceramus, Aviaila, Aiiancliy/cs ovaiiis, Ho/aster planus, 
Ttrcbratida, R/tynconeila, Belemnitella imicronaia, B. quadrata, 
VermcuUna pHcaia, V. convoluta, V. postulosa. Here the Secretary 
took the opportunity of pointing out a peculiarity in the beds before 
them. He had found that the dissolved chalk from this pit 
produced very poor results, very few of the finer forms of foramini- 

Naturali.st. 



IN MEMORIAM — GEORGE HANN. 209 

fera being met with. To explain this, it had been suggested to him, 
that the chalk here was not in its original position, but had been 
denuded, before consolidation, from some other part of the sea-bed, 
and possibly carried by currents a considerable distance. The 
rolling and exposure to which the foraminifera would in such a case 
be subjected, might account for the absence of the more minute 
shells, the larger and stronger ones alone remaining. The President 
said that the idea was new to him, and that he should require 
evidence from a more extensive area, before entertaining it. The 
Secretary next called attention to the fact that in the upper beds the 
various sponge spicules were represented by casts alone, whereas in 
the lower beds of the Upper Chalk they were found replaced with 
calcite. On resuming the walk, the party proceeded to a pit on 
Nafferton Wold, where a higher zone of the chalk was exposed to view, 
and found to contain Ventriculites radiata, V. angustaia, V. cribosa, 
]'. convoluta, Seliscothon planus, Verniculina papillntn, Belemnitella 
mucronata, B. quadrata, Scaphites injlatus, S. crqualis, Hatnites, etc. 

Mr. Waite announced that Mr. J. R. Mortimer had invited the 
members to visit his museum, and proposed a vote of thanks to him 
for his kindness. This was seconded by Mr. J. W. Davis, and 
unanimously carried. A vote of thanks passed to the Chairman, 
on the motion of Messrs. W. Denison Roebuck and J. Thrippleton, 
terminated the meeting. 

Afterwards a number of the members proceeded to inspect 
Mr. Mortimer's most admirably arranged museum of geology and 
archeology, and were much interested in the objects which he has 
brought together. Particularly attractive to the conchologists were 
some boxes of specimens of shells found in the ancient barrows on 
the Wolds, including Helix jiejnoralis in abundance, H. arbustoruni, 
Succinea piitris in numbers, and Achatina acicula, the latter being a 
species not recorded for the East Riding. — E.R.W. 

gn "J^Slcmoriam. 

The Ikadford Naturalists' Society have sustained a heavy loss by the death of 
theii- President, Mr. George Hann. A clerk in the Inland Revenue, he had tilled 
office in Glasgow, Brighton, Dorsetshire, Sheffield, and since May 1S86 at Bradford. 
He joined the Bradford Naturalists' Society and the Bradford Scientific Association 
on his arrival from Sheffield, where he had previously done good service and made 
many friends. Botany was his favourite study, but he was also interested in 
various other branches of natural history. He was an enthusiastic worker in the 
field and a well-read man, with clear views on any subject he took up, coupled 
with a retentive memory. He held the office of President of the Bradford 
Naturalists' Microscopical Society durini; 1889, and as the office he held expired 
before the conversazione was held, the Society considered it was expressing itself 
but very inadequately for the services he rendered in connection by re-electing him 
for 1890. Since Easter he had been in very indifferent health, and died on the 
1 2th May. 
July iSgo. ^ 



NO TES— ORNITHOL OGY. 

Redshanks Breeding in Ripon Parks. — On June 13th I came across a 
pair of Redshanks ( lotaniis calidris) in Ripon Parks. From their movements 
they evidently had young in the neighbourhood. — Rii.EY Fortune, Harrogate, 
June i6th, 1890. 

Albino Blackbird near Harrogate. — On June 2nd an albino Blackbird 
{Tardus iitcrula), a beautiful specimen, white, with pink eyes, was captured near 
Beckwithshaw, Harrogate. It is a young bird, and is now caged and doing well. — 
Riley Fortune, Harrogate, June i6th, 1890. 

Breeding of Heron in Wensleydale, N. W. Yorks. — About the middle of 
April a pair of Herons (Ardca c/in-rca) commenced a nest in one of the rookeries 
between Carperby and Thornton Rust. The nest now contains three young birds, 
and is the first case of breeding of the Heron which has come under my notice 
in Wensleydale.— Fred Chapman, Carperby, Wensleydale. June 5th, 1S90. 

Snipe's Nest with five eggs and Black and White Blackbird near 
Ripon. — On June ist I found in Ripon Park a nest of the Snipe {Galliiiago ccclestis) 
containing five eggs. I have seen f|uantities of Snipe's nests, but this is the first 
time I have found one with five eggs. They were only slightly incubated. The 
lateness of the date would lead one to infer that it was a second brood. On the 
same day we saw a black and white BlackbirtI near the town of Ripon. — 
R. Fortune, Harrogate, June i6th, 1890. 

Notes on Migrants about Harrogate. — Landrails {Crex pratensis) are this 
year very scarce in the neighbourhood of Harrogate. During a twenty miles walk 
in an ideal country for these birds, we only heard two ; in former years they have 
always been so plentiful. How can this scarcity be accounted for? Swallows 
{Hiriiitdo rustica) and Marlins {H. iirhica) are, after a few years of great scarcity, 
beginning to regain their lost ground in this district. When the Wagtails 
{Motacilla alba) arrived this year they were noted to be unusually light in colour. 
Has this been noticed in any other district? — R. F'ortune, Harrogate, June i6th, 
1890. 

Black-headed Gull at Walton near Thorp Arch. — Last evening a farm 
labourer of JNIr. Blanshard's, Walton, brought me a young bird of this species 
{Lartis ridilniiidtis). It was noticed on the duck-pond, and seeing that it was a 
stranger, the man secured it, and was surprised to find that ' it had Duck's feet.' 
When brought to me it was in an exhausted and damaged condition, no doubt in 
consequence of the rough treatment which it had received. The bird is in its first 
plumage, and still retains some down about the head. It has, in all probability, 
been bred in the district. Strensall Common is the nearest known breeding-place, 
although but few jiairs nest there now in what once was a common resort. — 
EDr.AR R. Waite, Walton Old Hall, near Thorp Arch, and The Museum, Leeds, 
25th June, 1890. 

Auction Sale of North of England Rarities.— The sale of Mr. ^\"hitaker's 
duplicates at Stevens', Covent Garden, May 22nd, 1890, included a few scarce 
specimens from the northern counties of England, particulars of which may be 
useful. 

Yorkshire. — Lot 31, a female Little Bittern {Ardetta iiiiiiuta), from 
Mr. Fennell, obtained at Scalby Beck, North Harburn, Scarliorough, Mav i6th, 
1866. 

Lot 38, a splendid Common Skua (Steirorariiis c-a/arr/iacUs), killed at Scar 
borough, Oct. 27th, 1S66. 

Lot 142, a Rose-coloured Pastor (Faster rostiis), obtained in Yorkshire by the 
late Mr. AUis. 

Northumberland. — Lot 143, a fine skin of the Roseate Tern (Sterna 
donga///), from the coast of this county. 

Lot 39, a Storm Petrel (Procc//aria pelagica), from Mr. Hancock, 1848. 

Lincolnshire. — Lot 34, a Sclavonian Grebe (Pod/ceps auritus) in full 
breeding dress, from the Lincolnshire coast. 

Cumherland. — Lot 31, including two female Two-barred Crossbills (Loxia 

hifasdata), 1846. — H. A. Maci'HEkson, 24th May, 1890. 

Naturalist, 



211 



SOME ADDITIONAL LOCALITIES AND NEW 

RECORDS FOR THE MOSSES OF 
NORTH YORKSHIRE AND SOUTH DURHAM. 

R. i;arnes, 

The Cutrdciis, Sattbiiru. 

The districts included under the above heading in which the locah'ties 
given for the different species occur, consist mainly of the Upper 
and a portion of the Lower drainage area of the Tees and Swale, 
along with the north-east part of Cleveland. 

Of the two former districts little need be said as to their bryo- 
logical richness, since they yield, as is well known, some of our rarest 
and most interesting species. 

During a few days spent in Upper Swaledale, in October 1S89, 
the good fortune was afforded me, in the neighbourhoods of Gunner- 
side, Kisdon, and Keld, of meeting with the following species new 
to that part of North Yorkshire, viz.: — 

Andrecca alpina Turn. Kucalyphi v!il:^arh lledw. var. 

Gyimiostoiintni coiiiinutaliiiii Mitt. piUfera Funck. 

Dicranella Schreberi Hedw. Zygodon v/r/diss/iiiiis Dicks, var. 

Dicranella Sc/irel'cr/ \'a.r. data Scli]n-. nipestris Lindb. 

DkraneUa varia Hedw. var. callis- Zygodon Stirtoni Schpr. 

toma Dicks. Bryum alp? man ],. var. nicridionale 

Sehgena Doniana Sni. Schpr. 

Sdigeria pitsilla Hedw. Bryum ioiuiniiatttm Spruce. 

Sdigeria acittifolia var. lougisda Fissidcns dccipiein DeNot. 

L'nclb. Ncckera pumila Hedw. 

Sdigeria tristicha Brid. Anomodon longifoliiis Schleich. 

Didyniodon cylindricus IJruc]:. Eiirhviuhium Teesdalii Sm. 

Didymodon sinuosus Wils. Amldystegiitm Spritcd Bruch. 

'/ nchosiouuim crispuluni, Bruch. Hvpmim polymorphum Hedw. 

Trtdioslomum nitidiun Lindb. Hypuiim stdlatum Schreb. var. 

Barbula rccttrvifolia Schpr. prdcnsum Brid. 

Barlnda intermedia Brid. nypmini strannncum Dicks. 

In addition to the above, the following kinds, though pre\iously 
noted to occur in other parts of Swaledale, are new to the Kisdon 
portion of it, viz. : — 

Dicraniun fuscescens Turn. Zieria julacea Schpr. 

Ulota Drumrnondii Cirev. Enrhynchiiim pit mi 1 11 in Wils. 

Bartramia itliyphylla Brid. Hylocoinium brevirostrum Elirh. 

Hitherto, so far as that portion of Cleveland is concerned which 
extends from Guisbrough in a seaward direction, taking the glens 
of Saltb urn, Kilton, Easington, and Roxby, very few records of 

July i8qo. 



212 BARNES: MOSSES OF YORKSHIRE AND DURHAM. 

its moss-flora have been notified.' As will be seen from this list^ 
the district yields a fair and adequate number of the rare and less 
common species, certain of which are new records for North York- 
shire, and some few for the county generally. In a few instances 
I have given records of some of the commoner species found in a 
state of fructification, but, of course, only those rarely met with in 
that condition ; and in others, records of those of a montane 
character, easily recognised as having descended far from their usual 
habitats. 

The subjoined list is offered to the readers of ' The Naturalist ' 
rather as containing the additional localities cited, together with 
the new records already referred to, than as pretending to actual 
completeness. 

Except when fully indicated, each locality is marked with the initial 
letter of its respective district — D. (Durham portion of Teesdale), 
T. (Teesdale — Yorkshire portion \ S. (Swaledale), C. (Cleveland). 

Those species marked with one asterisk are, to the best of my 
knowledge, new to North Yorkshire ; and those with two, to York- 
shire generally. 

My sincere thanks are hereby tendered to Dr. Braithwaite, F.L.S., 
for his kindness in examining and verifying, and in some cases even 
in determining, the species contained in this list. Without his help 
it would not have been prepared. 

ACROCARPI. 
SPHAGNACE.E. 

Sphagnum acutifolium Ehrh. var. deflexum Schpr. Green 

Fell (T.); Widdy Bank (D.). 
Sphagnum acutifolium Ehrh. var. rubellum Wils. Ayton 

Moor (C). 
Sphagnum acutifolium Ehrh. var. tenue Braithw. Widdy 

Bank (D.); Gurtof Gill, near Boltby, Thirsk. 

Sphagnum acutifolium Ehrh. var. subfimbriatum Braithw. 
Hutton Moor, Ckiisbrough (C). 

Sphagnum fimbriatum Wils. Moor above Slape Wath (C.) ;. 
Lounsdale (C); Gurtof Gill, near Boltby, Thirsk. 

Sphagnum teres Angst. Widdy Bank (D.). Probably new to 
Durham county. 

Sphagnum intermedium Hoffm. Guisbrough Moor (C.). 

Sphagnum rigidum Schpr. var. compactum Brid. Lock- 
wood Beck (C.). 



bARNES : MOSSES OF YORKSHIRE AND DURHAM. 213 

Sphagnum subsecundum Nees var. obesum Wils. Widdy 

Bank (D.) ; Hutton Moor, Guisbrough (C). 
Sphagnum subsecundum Nees var. auriculatum Schpr. 

Moor above Slape Wath (C). 
Sphagnum tenellum Ehrh. Widdy Bank (D.); Cronkley 

Fell (T.) ; Lockwood Beck (C); Easby Moor (C). 

ANDRHi;ACE/K. 

Andreaea petrophila Ehrh. Highcliff, Guisbrough (C.). 
Andreaea alpina Turn. Kisdon Force (S.). 

WEISSIACE/E. 

Gymnostomum tenue Schrad. Tolerably frequent in Cleve- 
land on moist sandstone, and usually with fruit, as at Kilton, 
Roxby, Saltburn, Skelton, Slape Wath, and Upleatham. In 
the Tees district it occurs at Wycliffe, and on the south side 
of the river near Gainford, and also at Croft. 

Gymnostomum rupestre Schwg. By the Tees, descending 
to Whorlton Bridge, Ovington, and Gainford. 

With reference to the Cleveland locality for this plant 
(Hell Gill, Guisbrough Moor, recorded by the late Mr. W. 
Mudd in Baker's ' North Yorkshire '), the ironstone has been 
worked out there some time since, and the station, I believe, 
consequently destroyed ; in fact, the character of the glen to 
all appearance has undergone a complete change. 
*Gymnostomum commutatum Mitt. This species, which in 
Dr. Braithwaite's Br. Moss-Flora is reduced to a variety of 
Gyintiosto/niim curvirostnun Ehrh. ( == Barbiila curvirostris 
var. commiitata (Mitt.) Lindb.) occurs in several localities 
with almost equal frequency to tlie type. 

In the Tees district it descends on the south side of the 
river below Gainford, where it grows in great luxuriance and 
fruits abundantly. Since preparing the present list I have 
noticed an early record for Gyrnnostonncvi curvirostrum in 
Hooker's Br. Flora, ii, p. 8 (1S33), by Mr. Backhouse (pro- 
bably the late W. Backhouse of Darlington), which undoubtedly 
has reference to the above locality. I have also met with it 
and in frui-t by Bowlees Beck, at Gibson's Cave, and at Falcon 
Clints, Teesdale (D.), and by the East Stonesdale Beck, Upper 
Swaledale. 

Gymnostomum microstomum Hedw. On clay ground at 
Roxby (C), and Saltburn (C). 

July 1890. 



214 BARNES: MOSSES OF YORKSHIRE AND DURHAM. 

**Weissia mucronata Bruch. By the side of the road between 
Grinkle Park and Loftus (C); and on clay ground at 
Saltburn (C), and Slape Wath (C). 

Rhabdoweissia fugax Hedw. Cronkley Scars (T.). 

Rhabdoweissia denticulata Brid. High Force (T.) ; Unthank 
Scars (T.) ; Falcon Glints (D.). 

I find no mention of this species or the above in either 
'North Yorkshire' or Spruce's ' Musci and Hepaticae of 
Teesdale.' If they have been elsewliere recorded 1 am 
unaware of the fact. 

Cynodontium Bruntoni B. & S. On sandstone rock on the 
Kildale side of Easby Moor (C.). Known to be a frequent 
plant of the scars throughout the greater portion of Upper 
Teesdale, yet of rare occurrence in Cleveland. I have 
gathered it in the latter district in only one locality, as noted 
above. 

**Dichodontium pellucidum L. var. fagimontanum Brid. 
On sandstone in a small glen above Slape Wath (C). 

Dicranella crispa Hedw. Guisbrough (C.) ; Roxby (C), with 
male inflorescence. 

Dicranella Schreberi Hedw. Kisdon Force (S.) ; Rich- 
mond (S.), in fruit; Kilton (C.), in fruit; Easington (C), 
in fruit; Roxby (C), in fruit. 

■"•Dicranella Schreberi Hedw. var. elata Schpr. Kisdon 
Force (S.) ; Kilton (C.) ; Hagg Beck (C.). 

**Dicranella varia Hedw. var. callistoma Dicks. Gunnerside, 
Upper Swaledale. 

Dicranella rufescens Turn. Guisbrough (C.) ; Lingdale (C.) 
Kilton (C.) ; Roxby (C.) ; Saltburn (C). 

Dicranella subulata Hedw. Guisbrough Moor (C.). 

Dicranum Scottianum Turn. On sandstone rocks, Highcliff, 
Guisbrough (C.). Although this species is not mentioned in 
Baker's ' North Yorkshire ' it is at least fair to note that 
there is a record in Baker and Nowell's supplement to 
Baines's ' Flora of Yorkshire ' by the late Mr. AV. Mudd, for 
Dicranum Scottiatnim Turn, at the above locality, and also at 
Ingleby Greenhow. The plant still grows at the former 
station, though sparingly, and in company with Dicranmn 
fnscescens Turn. I have met with it on the same formation 
on the moor above Slape Wath (C). 

Naturalist, 



BARNES: MOSSES OF YORKSHIRE AND DURHAM. 215 

Dicranum fuscescens Turn. var. falcifolium Braithw. ^\'ith 

the type on rocks on Easby Moor (C.) ; Guisbrough 

Moor (C.) ; and Roxby (C). 
Campylopus setifolius Wils. Among Sphagna on Widdy 

Bank Fell (D.) ; new to Province xi of Baker's ' North 

Yorkshire.' 

BRUCHIACE/F.. 

Archidium phascoides Brid. Blea Beck (T.), in fruit; by the 
Tees below Falcon Glints (D.) ; and in clayey pastures, 
- Saltburn (G.), in fruit. 
Pleuridium nitidum Hedw. Lingdale (G.) ; Ro.xby (G.) ; 

Guisbrough (G.). 
Pleuridium alternifolium B. & S. Glayey pastures, Salt- 
burn (G.). 

SELIGERIACE.^:. 

Seligeria Doniana Sm. Maize Beck (T., Westmorland side) ; 

Kisdon Force (S.) ; Hudswell (S.) ; Richmond (S.). 
Seligeria pusilla Hedw. Kisdon Force (S.) ; Gunnerside (S.) ; 

Hudswell (S.) ; Richmond (S.). 

*Seligeria acutifolia var. longiseta Lindb. Kisdon Force (S.) ; 
Richmond (S.). 

*Seligeria tristicha Brid. Kisdon Force (S.). 

Campylostelium saxicola W. & M. Guisbrough (G.) ; 

KiUon (G.) ; Easingion (G.). 

POTTIACE.E. 

Sphaerangium muticum Schreb. Lingdale (G.) ; Roxby (G.) ; 

Saltburn (G.). 
Pottia minutula Schwg. On clay ground and in stubble fields, 

Saltburn (G.). 
Pottia intermedia Turn. On earth on tree-stumps near Pierce 

Bridge (1).). New to Durham Gounty. 
Pottia Heimii Hedw. Inland on walls at Winston (D.) ; and 

Darlington (D.). 
Pottia lanceolata Dicks. Darlington (D.) ; Saltburn (G.) ; 

and Skinningrove (G.). 
Didymodon luridus Hornsch. Widdy Bank Fell (D.) ; Gain- 
ford (T.); Ovington (T.), in fruit ; Richmond (S.), in fruit ; 

Upleatham (G.) ; Saltburn (G.) ; Slape Wath (G.). 
Didymodon flexifolius Dicks. Easby Moor (G.), in fruit; 

Guisbrough (G.). 

July 1890. 



2l6 KARNES: MOSSES OF YORKSHIRE AND PLRHAM. 

Didymodon cylindricus Bruch. High Force (D.) ; Blea 
Beck (i\) ; Falcon Clints (T.) ; Kisdon Force (S.) ; 
Kilton (C.) ; Roxby (C), in fruit : Crunkley Gill {€.). 

Didymodon cylindricus var. Holtii Braithw. Widdy Rank 
Fell (P. I 

Didymodon sinuosus Wils. Somewhat frequent on damp 
rocks and stones and tree-roots (mostly by the river banks) in 
the limestone districts, and occasionally in similar situations 
by the streams in Cleveland. In Teesdale, by the side of 
Unthank Beck; and by the river-side at Ovington. Winston, 
and Croft. In Swaledale, at Kisdon Force, Hudswell, Whit- 
cliff Woods, and Sandbeck, Richmond. In Cleveland, at 
Easington and Saltburn. 

Eucladium verticillatum T.. Gainford (T.), in fruit; 

Kihon vC.\ in fruit; Roxby (C^, in fruit: Saltburn (C), 
in fruit. 

Ditrichum flexicaule Schwg. In two localities on the sea 
banks near Saltburn. Very uncommon in Cleveland, and 
apparently almost contined to the calcareous tracts. For some 
very characteristic remarks relative to the distribution of this 
species see Baker's "North Yorkshire,' p. 322 (1863). 

Ditrichum flexicaule var. densum Schpr. Widdy R\nk 

Fell v^-^- 
Trichostomum tophaceum Brid. var. acutifolium Schpr. 

On moist sandstone rocks, Saltburn (C): Lounsdale (C). 

At Gainford I have gathered a form which Dr. Braithwaite 

considers mavprobablv be the Trichostomum Unoidis Eng. Bot. 

Trichostomum mutabile Bruch. Maize-beck Scars (T.). 

Trichostomum crispulum Bruch. Cronkley Scar (T.) : 
White Force (T.); Ovington (T.) : Kisdon Scar (S.) ; East 
Stonesdale (S.); Kilton (C.) ; Easington (C); Saltburn (C) 

**Trichostomum nitidum Lindb. In Swaledale, on limestone 

\v.-l's .u Ke'.^'.. Hucsweil Moor, and Richmond. 

**Trichostomum littorale Mitt. In the Tees district on 
Cronkley Scar; and by the side of the river at Ovington. 
In Cleveland, on rocks by the streams of Easington, Kilton, 
and Roxby. 

Barbula aloides Koch. On clay banks, Mowden Lane, Dar- 
angton i^D.); Kihon (C): Liverton (C): Saltburn (C); 
Skelton (C); Skinningrove (C); Upleatham (C). 

Naturalist, 



BARNES: MOSSES OF YORKSHIRE AND DURHAM. 217 

Barbula marginata B. cV S. On sandstone walls at (iuis- 
brough {C.)\ Slape Wath (C); Skelton (C); and 
Upleatham (C). 
*Barbula recurvifolia Schpr. In Teesdale, on the summit of 
Green Fell ; and in Swaledale on an old limestone wall at 
Kisdon Force. 

Barbula rigidula (Hedw.) Mitt. Winston Bridge (T.) ; 
Ovington (T.) ; Richmond (S. ); Gunnerside (S.) ; Brompton- 
on-Swale; Kilton (C.); Roxby (C); Saltburn (C). 

Barbula spadicea Mitt. Gainford (T.); near Abbey Bridge, 
Rokeby (Y.). In Cleveland not unfrequent on sandy rocks 
by the side of streams, viz. at Easington, Kilton, Roxby, 
Saltburn. and Skelton. 

Barbula cylindrica Tayl. Winston Bridge (D.); Saltburn (C.). 

Barbula revoluta Schwg. On limestone walls, Richmond (S.); 
and near Limekiln Wood, Catterick (S.). 

Barbula tortuosa L. In fruit at Kisdon Scars (S.). 

Barbula angustata Wils. Occasionally on hedge-banks near 
Darlington and Richmond. As frequent in this part of the 
Cleveland district as its usually much commoner congener 
Barbula siibulaia L. I have gathered it in the three districts 
at the following localities, viz. : Baydales and Mowden Lane 
near Darlington (D.); Pierce Bridge (D.) ; Hudswell (S.); 
Richmond (S.); Kilton (C.); Guisbrough (C); Crinkle 
Park (C): Saltburn (C); Slape Wath (C). 

Barbula latifolia B. tS: S. On tree trunk by stream side, 
Saltburn (C), and also by the Tees at Stapleton, and the 
Skerne at Blackwell Mill Darlington (D.). 
** Barbula ruralis L. var. arenicola Braithw. On sandy banks 
near Saltburn (C). 

Barbula intermedia Brid. Winston Bridge (D.) ; Huds- 
well (S.) : Richmond Moor (S.) ; Keld (S.) ; Saltburn (C). 

Barbula papillosa Wils. Wydifle (T.) ; Dinsdale Woods (D.); 
Winston (D.) ; Brompton-on-Swale (S.); Marske (C) : Salt- 
burn (C); Upleatham (C). 

Distichium capillaceum L. Descending with the 'Pees as far 
as Wycliffe and Gainford. 

CALVxMPEKACE.lL 

**Encalypta vulgaris Hedw. var. pilifera Funck. On drj- 
limestone rocks, Kisdon Scar (S.). 

July 1S90. 



2l8 BARNES: MOSSES OF YORKSHIRE AND DURHAM. 

GRIMMIACE.l-:. 

**Rhacomitrium ellipticum Turn. On the summit of Green 

Fell, Upper Teesdale. 
Ptychomitrium polyphyllum Dicks. Holwick Wood (T.) ; 

On wall near Eglestone Abbey (T.) ; Roxby (C) ; Skelton (C) ; 

Slape Wath (C). 
Amphoridium Mougeotii B. & S. On moist rocks above 

Slape Wath (C). This, like other species referred to, grows 

somewhat plentifully on most of the scars of the Western 

dales, but in Cleveland, and especially in this portion of it, 

it appears with a marked uncommonness. In Swaledale, 

descending to Richmond. 
Zygodon viridissimus Dicks. Fruiting on elm on the south 

side of the Tees near Gainford. 
*Zygodon viridissimus var. rupestris Lindb. In Swaledale 

on limestone rocks, Kisdon Scars, East Stonesdale, and 

Richmond. 
*Zygodon Stirtoni Schpr. On rocks by the Tees near Ovington. 

In Swaledale at Kisdon Scars and Richmond, in fruit. In 

Cleveland at Kilton and Saltburn. 
Ulota crispuia Bruch. High Force (D.) ; Richmond (S.) ; 

Kilton (C); Roxby (C). 
Ulota phyllantha Brid. On trees, mostly ash, at Brotton (C.) ; 

Saltburn (C.) ; Slape Wath (C.) ; Upleatham (C.)- 
Orthotrichum cupulatum Hoffm. var. nudum Dicks. By 

stream-side near St. Lawrence's Ruins, Gainford (T.). 
Orthotrichum fastigiatum Bruch. On ash trees at Gain- 
ford (D.), and Richmond (S.). 
Orthotrichum stramineum Hornsch. Mostly on ash and 

elm-trees, sometimes on rocks. Holwick (T.) ; Winch 

Bridge (D.); Gainford (D.) ; Richmond (S.) ; Catterick (S.) ; 

Kilton (C.) ; Roxby (C.) ; Saltburn (C.) ; Skelton (C). 
Orthotrichum tenellum Bruch. On trees in hedge-rows. 

Richmond (S.) ; Slape Wath (C). 
Orthotrichum pallens Bruch. In hedge-row near Darling- 
ton (D.). New to South Durham. 
Orthotrichum pulchellum Sm. On willow and elder in 

hedge-rows, Loftus (C.) ; and on trees at Roxby (C). 
Orthotrichum Lyellii H. & T. In fruit, on trees near Muker, 

Upper Swaledale. 
Orthotrichum Sprucei Mont. On trees, mostly willow, by the 

side of Skeeby Beck near Brompton-on-Swale. 



IJARNES : MOSSES OF YORKSHIRE AND DURHAM. 2 19' 

Orthotrichum rivulare Turn. In Cleveland, on stones in the 
streams of Ouisbrough, Kilton, Roxby, and Saltburn. In the 
Swale district, by Skeeby Beck near Brompton-on-Swale. 

BARTRAMIACE.E. 
Amblyodon dealbatus Dicks. Widdy Bank Fell (D.). 
Bartramia ithyphylla Brid. Somewhat rare in Cleveland. 
On sandstone rock, Stanghow, and on shale near Guisbrough, 
but sparingly. On scars opposite the smelting mill, Keld, 
Upper Swaledale. 

BRVACE.i:. 

Webera elongata Dicks. In cleft of rock by Maize Beck near 

Caldron Snout (T.). 
Webera cruda Schreb. In the Tees district, descending to 

Gainford on the Yorkshire side of the river, and in the Swale 

district to Richmond. 
Zieria julacea Schpr. Kisdon Scars (S.). 
Bryum uliginosum Bruch. By the side of the Tees, south of 

Gainford. On the sea-banks, Saltburn (C). 
Bryum alpinum L. var. meridionale Schpr. Kisdon Force (S.). 

Previously gathered at the Peak Cliff, Robin Hood's Bay, by 

Mr. M. B. Slater, F.L.S., and recorded by him as a plant new 

to North Yorkshire in ' Naturalist,' Nov. 1S89, p. 322. 
Bryum concinnatum Spruce. Kisdon Force (S.). 

MNIACE.E. 

Cinclidium stygium Swartz. Widdy Bank Fell, August 18S0, 
in fruit. 

Bryolosists who have been so fortunate as to meet with this 
rare and interesting moss in a fruiting condition, will doubtless 
have noticed the peculiar bloom on the capsules when fully 
mature, reminding one rather of JVe/>era albicans Wahl., when 
in the same condition. 

Mnium cuspidatum Hedw. Winston Bridge (T.). 

Mnium Stellare Hedw. Winch Bridge (D.); Winston Bridge(D.); 
Richmond (S.); Easington (C); Kilton (C); Saltburn (C). 

Mnium subglobosum B. & S. Holwick Fell (T.); Green 
Fell (T.). 

TETRAPHIDACE/1£. 

Tetraphis pellucida L. On decaying tree-stumps near Guis- 
brough (C.); fruitmg, but sparingly. 

July 1890. 



2 20 BARNES : MOSSES OF YORKSHIRE AND DURHAM. 

POLYTRICHACE.^. 

Atrichum undulatum L. van minor Hedw. On bare ground, 

Holwick Fell (T.). 
Pogonatum alpinum L. Highcliff, Guisbrough (C.)- 

AMPHOCARPI. 

FISSIDENTACE.i:. 

In this group I have considered it better, for the purpose of 
clearness, to insert the synonyms of the Br. Moss-Flora. 

Fissidens exilis Hedw. On shady clay-banks, Darlington (D.); 
Richmond (S.); Easington (C); Kilton (C); Roxby(C.); 
Saltburn (C). 

Fissidens incurvus W. & M. {Fissidens incurvns Starke, Brit. 

Moss-Flora). On clay banks, sometimes in company with 

the preceding. Richmond (S.); Easington (C); Saltburn (C). 
**Fissidens incurvus W. & M. van Lylei {Fissidens exigims Sull., 

Brit. Moss-Flora). Shady clay banks, Saltburn (C). 
Fissidens viridulus Wils. {Fissidens viridiilus (Swartz.) Wahl., 

Bn Moss-Flora). On sandstone rocks at Guisbrough (C); 

and Kilton (C.) ; and on shady clay banks, Saltburn (C). 

Fissidens tamarindifolius Brid. {Fissidens incur^ms Starke 
van tamarindifolius (Don.), Br. Moss-Flora). Shady banks 
at Guisbrough (C.) ; Kilton (C.) ; and in clay pasture. Salt- 
burn (C). 

Fissidens pusillus Wils. var. madidus Spruce {Fissidens 
7ninutulus Sull., Bn Moss -Flora). Hudsvvell (S.) ; Rich- 
mond (S.). 

Fissidens crassipes Wils. {Fissidens fontanus Schimp.,Bn Moss- 
Flora). High Force (T.); Ovington (T.) ; Winston Bridge (D.); 
Gainford (T.) ; Skeeby Beck near Brompton-on -Swale ; 
Kilton (C.) ; Liverton (C.) ; Roxby (C.) ; Easington (C.). 

Fissidens decipiens DeNot. {Fissidetis cristatns Wils., Br. Moss- 
Flora). Not unfrequent in Teesdale and Swaledale, and 
occasionally in Cleveland, occurring in the several districts at 
the following localities : — White Force (T.) ; Blea Beck (T.) ; 
High Force (T.); Winston Bridge (T.); Richmond (S.) ; Gun- 
nerside (S.); Kisdon Force (S.) ; Easington (C); Kilton (C); 
Roxby (C.). 

SCHISTOSTEGACE.^i. 

Schistostega osmundacea Dicks. Near Guisbrough (C). 

Naturalist 



BARNES: MOSSES OF YORKSHIRE AND DURHAM. 221 

CLADOCARPI. 

RITARIACE.E. 

Cinclidotus fontinaloides Hedw. There is reason to believe 
that this species and Amxctan^rium compadum Schl. (recorded 
by Mr. W. Mudd at the Hell Gill station, Guisbrough Moor,) 
have, like Gymtiostonutm rupcstre Schwg., and by the same 
means already referred to, become extinct. 

PLEUROCARPI. 

LEUCODONTACE/E. 

Antitrichia curtipendula L. On wall at Angram, Upper 
Swaledale, in fruit. 

NECKERACE.*:. 

Neckera pumila Hedw. On tree near Kisdon Force, Upper 

Swaledale. 
Neckera crispa L. On shady rocks by Easington Beck (C.), 

and near Saltburn (C.), sparingly. Rare in Cleveland, but, 

like Ditricliuvi flexicauh Schwg., it usually abounds where 

the limestone occurs. 

LESKEACE.i:, 

Anomodon longifolius Schleich. On the Durham side of the 
Tees at Winston Bridge, and in Swaledale at Keld and 
Richmond. New to Province xi of Baker's ' North Yorkshire.' 

HYPNACE.E. 

Climacium dendroides L. On Guisbrough Moor (C), in 
fine fruit. 

Pylaisia polyantha Schreb. Not rare in the Tees district about 
Darlington, where it was discovered as a British plant by 
Mr. W. Backhouse (see Hooker's Brit. Flora, ii, p. 82, 1833). 
It grows (chiefly on old hawthorn) at the following additional 
localities in that part, viz. Gainford, Conisclifife, Mowden 
Lane, Walworth, and also on stones at the last-named station. 
Recorded in Winch's Flora of Northumb. and Durham, as 
occurring near Croft, by Rev. J. Dalton. I have noted it 
once only in Cleveland. On old stumps in a hedge-row near 
Grinkle Park, Loftus. 

Orthothecium intricatum Hartm. In the Swale district, 
descending to Richmond. 

Brachythecium glareosum 15. cSc S. Kilton (C), in fruit; 
Roxby (C), in fruit. 

Eurhynchium crassinervium Tayl. Ovington (T.), in fruit; 
Winston (D.), in fruit ; Keld (S.), in fruit. 

July 1850. 



22 BARNES : M(3SSES OF YORKSHIRE AND DURHAM. 

Eurhynchium piliferum Schreb. Kilton (C), in fruit; 
Roxby (C), in fruit. 

Eurhynchium pumilum Wils. Winston Bridge (T.) ; Gain- 
ford (T.) ; Easington (C.) ; Kilton (C), in fruit ; Liverton (C); 
Saltburn (C), in fruit; Skinningrove (C), in fruit. 

Eurhynchium Teesdalii Sm. High Force (T.); Ovington (T.); 
Gainford (T.); Kisdon Force (S.) ; Richmond (S.); Easing- 
ton (C.); Kilton (C.); Liverton (C.); Roxby (G.); Saltburn (C.). 

Hyocomium fiagellare Dicks. By stream above Guis- 
brough (C.); Slape Wath (C.). 

Rhynchostegium tenellum Dicks. On shady limestone rocks 
by the Tees at Ovington and Winston Bridge; and in the 
Swale district, at Limekiln Wood, Gatterick. 

Rhynchostegium depressum Bruch. Winston Bridge (D.), 
in fruit; Richmond (S.) ; Grunkley Gill (G.), in fruit; 
Easington (G.); Kilton (G.), in fruit; Roxby (G.); Salt- 
burn (G.) ; and Gainford (T.). 

Plagiothecium pulchellum Hedw. By the Tees, descending 
to AVhorlton Bridge. 

Amblystegium Sprucei Bruch. In the Tees district, by the 
Westmorland side of Maize Beck, Langdon Beck, Ovington, 
and Gainford ; and in Swaledale, at Kisdon Force, Gunner- 
side, and Richmond. 

Amblystegium irriguum Wils. On stones in Easington 
Beck (G.), in fi'uit ; Roxby Beck (G.), in fruit. 

Amblystegium fluviatile Swartz. On rocks and stones in the 
Tees at Winston Bridge, in fruit. 

Hypnum incurvatum Brid. On shaded limestone rocks 
near Richmond (S.). Not previously recorded for the 
Swale district. 

Hypnum polymorphum Hedw. Winston Bridge (T.) ; Kisdon 
Force (S.) ; Hudswell (S.) ; Richmond (S.); Gatterick (S.). 

Hypnum stellatum Schreb. var. protensum Brid. Falcon 
Glints (D.) ; Kisdon Force (S.); I,imekiln W^ood, Gatterick (S.). 

Hypnum Schreberi Ehrh. Widdy Bank Fell (D.), in fruit. 

Hypnum purum L. Roxby (G.), in fruit ; Saltburn (G.), in fruit. 

Hypnum stramineum Dicks. On Green Fell, Teesdale ; by 
the side of the Swale above Keld ; at Lockwood Beck (G.) ; 
near Gormire, Thirsk. 

Hylocomium brevirostrum Ehrh. Kisdon Force, Upper 
Swaledale. 

Natur.ilist, 



223 

THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION AT 
BRETTON PARK. 

About sixty members of the Yorkshire Naturahsts' Union spent 
a pleasant afternoon on Saturday, June the 14th, in the district 
chosen for the 85th meeting, which was held at Dewsbury for the 
investigation of Bretton Park, Coxley Valley, and Elmley Wood- 
house, a charming district, the first-named place being the Yorkshire 
seat of Mr. Wentworth Blackett Beaumont, M.P., to whom the 
Union is much indebted for so very kindly throwing open his estate. 

For the benefit of everyone, as far as possible, two separate 
excursions had been arranged, the first to start from Horbury Bridge 
Station at ii.o a.m. and to proceed to Bretton Park village by way 
of Calder Bank, Hartley Bank Colliery and Bullcliffe Wood, 
returning by Stocks Moor and Midgley. Horbury Bridge Station 
was also the starting point for the second party, who were to leave 
there at i o'clock by way of Coxley Valley, Stone Cliffe Wood to 
Elmley Woodhouse and Bentley Springs, returning to Midgley. 

This is what had been arranged by Messrs. C. P. Hobkirk, F.L.S., 
and P. F. Lee, to whom the Hon. Secretaries are much indebted 
for making the arrangements and drawing up the usual excursion 
circular, but in point of fact although two i)arties started as arranged 
it would be somewhat difficult to say what actually took place; for 
example several members were on the ground in the early morning 
so as to have a full day in the district, and many of the others took 
to independent research, rambling where they listed. However, as 
the day wore on and especially towards five o'clock, members came 
dropping into Dewsbury by ones and twos and made their way to 
the Royal Hotel. It will scarcely be necessary to mention that 
five o'clock was the time fixed for tea, and tea-time always proving 
an attraction, those who are experienced in these matters find that 
the census of the attendant members can only be safely taken at 
that time. The weather throughout the day was beautifully fine, 
and it is not , too much to say that the members attending the 
excursion thoroughly enjoyed themselves in this lovely district. 
After tea, the sections met to compare notes prior to the General 
Meeting which was held at 6.30, and presided over by Mr. C P. 
Hobkirk, F.L.S. It was found that many members would have to 
leave soon in order to catch their respective homeward bound trains, 
in consequence of which, on the suggestion of the chairman, the 
minutes of the previous meeting were taken as read. 

Mr. Arthur Ed. Holme, M.A., Dewsbury ; the Rev. F. Barham 
Foster, B. A., Heckmondwike, and Mr. E. W. Last, Huddersfield, were 

July 1890. 



2 24 YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS UNION AT BRETTON PARK. 

elected members of the Union, and members were present from the 
following eighteen societies : — Heckmondwike, Wakefield, Ovenden, 
EUand, Liversedge, Leeds (two societies), Bradford, Goole, Concho- 
logical Society, Dewsbury, Malton, Hull, Doncaster, Harrogate (two 
societies), Huddersfield, and Halifax. 

A hearty vote of thanks, on the motion of the Rev. VV. Fowler, 
M.A., seconded by Mr. Jas. W. Davis, 'F.G.S., was accorded to 
Mr. W. B. Beaumont, M.P., for his kindness in allowing the members 
to visit Bretton Park ; also to Messrs. P. F. Lee and W. Rushforth 
for conducting the several parties, and to the various contributors to 
the excursion circular. 

The Reports of the Sections were next presented as follows : — 
The Vertebrate Section was officially represented on the ground 
by its President, Mr. Thos. Bunker, Goole, and one of its secretaries, 
Mr. Edgar R. Waite, F.L.S., Leeds, although neither gentleman knew 
of the presence of the other until tea-time, when the excursion was 
over. The report was presented to the General Meeting by 
Mr. Bunker, and Mr. Waite has supplied the following notes on the 
excursion : — In consequence of two parties having started from 
Horbury at an interval of two hours, and owing to the large tract of 
country which was at their disposition, the numerical strength of the 
Section was not known until the Sectional meeting, when it was found 
to have comprised about nine or ten members, who roamed the district 
solitarily or at most in groups of twos or threes. Some investigated 
the fine wood lying between Horbury and Midgley, others worked 
up the stream-side, while one or two spent nearly the whole of their 
time in Bretton Park. Here a small herd of Fallow Deer are kept, 
and Mr. H. B. Booth saw a fine flock of Canada Geese on the lake. 
In BuUcliffe Wood nests of the Song Thrush, Blackbird, Whitethroat, 
and Hedge Accentor were found, as were also those of the House 
Martin and Yellow Bunting near Midgley, all containing eggs. The 
following Mammals were noted on the excursion : — Mole, Common 
Shrew, Fallow Deer, Water Vole, Common Field Vole, and Rabbit. 
Forty-three species of Birds were observed, of which 26 are residents 
and 17 migrants. Eggs of seven and young of three species were 
also recorded. The following is a complete list of the Birds, the 
eggs being marked with asterisks (*) and young witli daggers (f) : — 

Missel Thrush. * Garden Warbler. 

*t Song Thrush. Chiffchaft". 

*t Blackbird. Willow Warbler. 

Whinchat. Sedge Warbler. 

Redstart. * Hedge Accentor. 

Redbreast. Great Tit. 

* Whitethroat. Blue Tit. 

Naturalist, 



No. 181. 



AUGUST 1890. 




NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



CONDUCTED ];Y 



WM. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., 

Sunny JJank, Leeds; 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE IN SPKCIAI. DETAK IMENTS OF 



J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., 
Royal Herbarium, Kew ; 

W. EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S., M.B.O.U., 

Museum of Science & Art, Edinburgh ; 

ALFRED HARKER, M.A., F.G.S., 
St. John's College, Cambridge ; 



CHAS. P. HOBKIRK, F.L.S., 
Dewsbury ; 

GEORGE T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S., 
Greenfield House, Huddersfield ; 

W. HARWELL TURNER, F.C.S., F.R.M.S., 

38, Sholebroke Avenue, Leeds. 



Contents : 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Bretton Park (continued) 

Conchological Field-Notes from Upper Swaledale, N.W.Yorkshire — IV.Denisoa. 

Roebuck, F.L.S 

Notes on Birds from Lancashire— 71*^-'. H. A. Macpherson, M.A., M.B.O.U.,etc. 
Lejeunea rossettiana in North-West Yorkshire — R. Barnes .. 

Notes on North of England Hocy%—\\.—A;frid Marker, M. A., F.G.S 

An Outline of the Geological History of Upper Swaledale — J. G. Goodchild, 

H.M.Geol. Survey, F.G.S., F.Z.S., AI.Il.O.U., etc 

Some of the Birds observed in Upper Swaledale— 7. G. Geodchild, H.M. Geol. 

Sm-z'ey, F.G.S., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U.,eic 

Some of the Flowering Plants and of the Ferns of Upper Swaledale — y. C. 

Goodchild, H.M. Geol. Survey, F.G.S.. F.Z.S., M.B.O. U., etc 

Walks about Bradford (Review) 

Notes — Mammalia 

Whale at the Tees Mouth— T. H. Nelson. M.B.O. U.; Squirrels and Fungi— 
A. G. yuri'is ; Seal on Coast of Durham — y. IT. L. T. Fawcett ; 
Natterer's Bat near Thorp Kxc\\—Fdgar R. IVatte, F.L.S. 
Note— Botany ._ 

Ophrys apifera Huds. at Skipton — T. W. Edntondson. 
Notes— Birds .... 

Curious Incident relating to a Blackbird's Nest — Riley Fortune, F.Z.S. 

Notes and News 



r.AGB 

225 to 227 

229 to 233 
234 to 236 

236 

237 to 242 
243 to 247 
248 to 250 
251 to 2SS 

228 
228 & 255 



236 
250 
256 



LONDON: 
LovELL Reeve & Co., 5, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, E.C. 

McCORQUODALE & CO. LIMITED, CARDINGTON STREET, EUSTON ; 

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BOOKS RECEIVED. 

Marlborough Col. Nat. Hist. .Soc, Report, No. 38, 1889. [The Society. 

List of Sheffield Plants collected by Jonathan Salt, Svo, i890.[Shef.Lit.& Phil. Soc. 
Nottingham Nat. Society.— Transactions for 1889. [The Society. 

Bericht iiber die Verlagsthatigkeit von R. I'^-iedlander & Sohn, No. 13, 1890, 
Jan.— Marz. [Publishers. 

Journ. of Conchology, Vol. 6, No. 7, July 1890. [Conchological Society. 

New York Microscopical Soc— Journ., Vol. 6, No. 3, July 1890. [The Society. 
Journal of Microscoi)y, N.S.,Vol. 3. No. 11, July 1890. [Bailliere &Co. publishers. 
Scottish Naturalist, N.S., No. 29, July 1890. [Prof. J. W. H. Trail, editor. 

Yn Lioar Manninagh, No. 5, Jan.-Apl. 1890. [Isle of Man Nat. Hist. Soc. 

Yorkshire Genealogist, Part 20, July 1890. [J. Horsfall Turner, editor. 

Philadelphia Acad, of Nat. Sci.—" Proc. , 1889, part 3, Oct. ■ Dec. [The Academy. 
Manchester Geological Society— Trans., Vol. 20, Parts 1S-19, 1S90. [The Society. 
Psyche: journ. of entom., Vol. 5, No. 170, June 1890. [Canib. Ent. CI., U.S.A. 
Naturre Novitates, 1890, Nos. 9-12, Mai-Juni. [Friedlander & Sohn, pubs. 

Die Schwalbe, Jahrg. 14, Nr. 1 1 & 12, June 30& Juli 15, 1890. [Orn.Vereins in Wien. 
II Naturalista Siciliano,ann. 9,n. 7, Aprile 1890. [Signor Enrico Ragusa. 

Science Gossip, No. 307, for [uly 1S90. [Messrs. Chatto & Windus, publishers. 
The Young Naturalist, Part "127, for July 1890. [Mr. John E. Robson, editor. 
The Zoologist, 3rd Series, Vol. 14, No. 163, July 1890. [J. E. Harting, editor. 
Entomologists' Rec. & Jn. of Variation, No. 4, July 1890. [J. W. Tutt, editor. 

THE YOUNG NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Magazine of -Natural History, c6nducted by John E. Robson, 
Hartlepool, with the assistance in various departments of— 
G. C. BIGNELL, Plymouth. JOHN GARDNER, Hartlepool. 

G. COVERDALE, London. C. S. GREGSON, Liverpool. 

Dr. ELLIS, Liverpool. J. P. SOUTTER, Bishop Auckland. 

G. ELISHA, London. SYDNEY WEBB, Dover. 



Price Six Shillings per annum, post free. 

Monthly Supplements are given, intended to form when complete separate manuals of the 
various groups treated upon. Tiat now issuing is a Natural History of British Butterflies, by 
J. W. Dale, of Glanvilles, Wootton. It contains an account of all 'reputed' species, and full 
bibliographical details of the references to the various species in the Entomological works of the 
past two centuries, rendering it the most complete work yet issued. 

AH orders and other communications to be addressed to JOHN E. ROBSON, Hartlepool. 

Improved Egg Drills (2 sizes) and Metal Blowpipe with instructions 1/3 free. 
* Hints on Egg Collecting and Nesting,' illustrated, 3|d'. free. Birds' Skins, 
Eggs (side-blown and in clutches with date), Lepidoptera, Ova, Larvae, and Pupae, 
Artificial Eyes, and all kinds of Naturalists' Requisites. Lists, one stamp. All 
specimens, &c., sent out 'on approval.' 

J. & W. DAVIS (Naturalists), DARTFORD, Kent. 

The cheapest dealer in Birds, Skins, Eggs, Butterflies, Moths, Foreign Shells, 
etc., is John Eggleston, Park Place, Sunderland. Lists free. 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS* UNION AT BRETTON PARK. 225 

Wren. Magpie. 

Pied Wagtail. Jackdaw. 

Yellow Wagtail. Rook. 

Meadow Pipit. Skylark. 

Tree Pipit. Swift. 

Spotted Flycatcher. Cuckoo. 

Swallow. Kestrel. 

* Martin. Ring Dove. 
Sand Martin. Pheasant. 
Greenfinch. Landrail. 
House Sparrow. t Waterhen. 
Chaffinch. Coot. 

* Yellow Bunting. Lapwing. 
Starling. Sandpiper. 
Jay. 

TheSmoothNewtand Common Frog represented the Amphibians; and 
th eRoach, Minnow, and Trout were the only fish seen during the day. 

For the Conchological Section, of which one of the Secretaries, 
Mr. John Emmet, F.L.S., of Boston Spa, was present, the report 
was given by Mr, W. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S., who stated that the 
conchologists present during the day (amongst whom may be 
particularly mentioned Mr. W. Nelson, of Leeds, who in company 
with Mr. Roebuck investigated the neighbourhood of Bullcliffe 
Wood and a pond near Crigglestone Station, and Mr. J. E. Crowther, 
of Elland, who had collected in Coxley Valley) had toiled all day 
for but slender results, the unfavourable character of the geological 
formation combining with the dryness of the weather and the 
parched nature of the soil to militate against success. Seventeen 
species in all had been found, of which four were slugs and three 
were freshwater shells. The specimens of Flanorlns albtis found in 
the pond near Crigglestone showed a tendency to distortion and 
a turning down of the mouth. The other water- shells were 
a Fisidium, and, of course, Limncea peregra. The slugs were 
Limax agrestis, Armi ater, A. hortensis, and A. bourguignati. 
Of land-shells Azeca tridens and Zonites excavatus were found by 
Mr. Crowther in Coxley Valley, along with Succineaputris, Z. cellarius, 
Z. fulvtis. Helix nernoralis, //. riifescens, and Claiisilia rugosa, while 
H. rotimdata. and Z. alliarhis were found in Bullcliffe Wood. 

The Entomological Section was not officially represented at the 
meeting, but Mr. S. L. Mosley, F.E.S., of Huddersfield, who 
attended the excursion, writes that but little work was done, the 
members having to hurry too much. In Bretton Park, Etipithecia 
pyg7ncenta and Melanippe hastata were taken, and the trees in Stone- 
clifFe Wood were defoliated by the Winter Moth {Hybernia defoliarid). 
Here the larvje of Pcecilocampa poptdi were found, and galls of 
Andn'ais terminalis were common and large ; galls of A. radicis 

August i8go. P 



2 26 YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION AT BRETTON PARK. 

were also found. The best beetle taken was Donacia bidens. 
Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S., took Cychriis rostratus at Bull- 
clifife Wood. Mr. Edgar R. Waite, F.L.S., noticed the almost entire 
defoliation of hazel trees in BuUcliffe Wood by various species of 
geometer larvse, and remarked that it was a question upon which 
there was some speculation as to how the hungry caterpillars would 
procure sufficient food to maintain themselves until they are full 
grown. He also recorded the great abundance of Abraxas idmata 
on the wing in BuUcliffe Wood. 

For the Botanical Section, Mr. P. Y. Lee, Phanerogamic 
Secretary, stated that the day had been very successful and that 
most of the plants put down in the circular with several other 
uncommon ones, had been observed — one at least of these, a sedge 
(which was left for after determination), being an addition to the 
flora of the Dewsbury district, while another sedge, almost sure to 
turn out as Carex fulva Good, (being yet too young for safe deter- 
mination) will be in that event also an addition to the local flora. 
Out of a total of nearly 600 species, sub-species, and varieties 
known in the district, about 185 in flower or fruit had been noted 
during the day in Coxley Valley and Wood, at Stocks Moor, Elmley 
Woodhouse, and Bretton Park. Barbarea stricta Andrz., the 
uncommon sub.-sp. of B. vulgaris, was gathered, but hardly as 
typical as noticed in former years. Among the best plants observed 
were : — Nasturtium pahistre DC, Viola odorata L., Polygala vulgaris 
sub.-sp. P. depressa Wend., Saponaria officinalis L., Vicia angustifolia 
var. V. Bobartii Forst., Hydrocotyle vulgaris \a.,Afyrrhis odorata Scop., 
CEnanthe crocata L., Adoxa Moschatellina L., Campanula latifolia L., 
Primula vulgaris Huds., Hottonia palustris L., Myosotis versicolor 
Reichb., Lamium album F., Veronica arvensis L., Plantago media L., 
Salix pentandra L. (very fragrant and with fine male catkins), Listera 
ovata Br., Scirpus sylvaticus L., and Acorus Calamus L. The best 
work was done among the Sedges, the following being found : — Carex 
muricata, C. remota, C. glauca, C. panicea, C. sylvatica, and C. hirta 
(in a new locality : Elmley Woodhouse), besides the sedge already 
cited as likely to be C. fulva, and the one unnamed (since examined 
by Mr. Arthur Bennett, of Croydon, and named by him as Carex 
chrysites Link. = C. CEderi Auct. Angl. (non Ehrh.) and C flava L. 
var. cyperoides Marsson) — added to the local flora as a result of the 
Union's visit. In ferns, Nephrodium spimilosum Desv. was seen in 
its old habitat, in Coxley Wood. 

Mr. J. W. Davis, F.L.S., F.G.S., reported that the geologists had 
had a very uneventful day, so far as their science was concerned. 
Beyond a few exposures, showing current-bedded sandstones and 

Naturalist, 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION AT BRETTON PARK. 227 

the indications given by a few pit-shafts, there was little ocular 
demonstration of the Middle Coal Measures, over which their route 
lay. For the convenience of all two excursions were arranged. 
The first left at ii.o a.m., and had the advantage of the presence of 
Mr. Spencer, of Halifax, whilst Mr. J. W. Davis, F.L.S., F.G.S., of 
Halifax, accompanied the second party, which left at i p.m. The 
chief geological feature of the district is the Woolley Edge Rock, 
with its fine escarpment, but time did not allow them to examine 
it. The thinner sandstones, which alternate with shale and coal 
seams over this area, form gentle slopes covered with fertile soil and 
are well wooded. As might be expected, therefore, there were few 
exposures, and the pit banks seen were either newly covered with 
ashes, or did not exhibit anything worth noting. Accordingly 
hammers rested quiedy in their bags, and the party enjoyed the 
rustic beauty of Coxley Valley and Stonecliffe Wood, and the broad, 
undulating scenery of Bretton Park, undisturbed by the temptation 
to ' grub ' for fossils. A short account of the geology of the district 
was then given by Mr. Davis. The geological features, were, for the 
most part, hidden by the surface soil, and the only way in which 
one could ascertain the geological structure was by an examination 
of the sections obtained in sinking coal-pits. Nevertheless, the 
district was extremely interesting. To the west of Bretton Park the 
Lower Coal Measures were characterised by thick beds of sandstone and 
grit, with intermediate shales and thin coal. The strata in the Bretton 
Park district were the Middle Coal Measures. The thick grit and 
sandstone which characterise the lower measures westward had disap- 
peared, their places being taken by thinner beds of sandstone some- 
what finer in structure. These beds were rather numerous. The 
modified escarpments formed by the out-crop of the sandstones, alterna- 
ting with shale and coal seams, gave the country a very beautiful 
appearance. The most prominent feature of the neighbourhood was due 
to the Woolley Edge Rock, on the far side of Bretton Park. The grit 
which formed the moorland near Midgley was not of sufficient promi- 
nence to form an escarpment, but caused the ground to be undulating. 

On the motion of Mr. Thomas Birks (now of Liverpool, and an 
old member of the Union), seconded by Mr. J. M. Kirk, a cordial 
vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Hobkirk for presiding. 

Mr. J. W. Davis took the opportunity of referring to the fund of 
;;^25o which it had been decided to raise on behalf of the widow of 
their late friend Mr. S. A. Adamson, and mentioned that the fund had 
not yet reached ^150. He was sure that if the members of the Y.N.U. 
and of the affiliated Societies would only make up their minds to 
raise the sum the task would be a comparatively easy one. — E.R.W. 

August 1890. 



228 



WALKS ABOUT BRADFORD. 



One Hundred and Eighty Pleasant Walks around Bradford ; including 
a Notice of the Town and its Public Buildings ; also a short Sketch and 
History of Forty-six Villages, and Complete Guide to the District Six to 
Ten Miles around Bradford. By Johnnie Gray . . . Illustrated. . . . 
Bradford : T. Brkar & Cq. . . 1890. [8vo, cloth, pp. xx + 188]. 

Under the above title we have before us an admirably-arranged 
and concisely-written handbook for pedestrians using Bradford as 
a starting-point, and one which will create an interest in many 
objects which would otherwise be passed over unnoticed. Natural 
history — though by no means a main object — is well attended to, 
and not only are there given here and there interesting references 
to birds or plants found in certain locahties, but there is a short 
chapter on geology, and another on botany is useful as giving 
localities for a number of plants belonging to the well-worked (and 
therefore rich) Bradford flora ; while the chapter on Folk-lore which 
follows is also of interest to naturalists. The alphabetical arrange- 
ment of the localities treated of, the clearness and intelligibiUty of 
the typographical arrangement, and the absence of verbiage, are all 
points in recommendation of this little work, which we must not fail 
to note is copiously illustrated with wood blocks. 



NO TES— MAMMALIA . 

Whale at the Tees Mouth. — Hearing from one of the Redcar pilots that 
a Whale had been captured at the Tees mouth yesterday, I went up to the Break- 
water this morning to see if it was still there, and learnt the following particulars 
from a salmon-tisherman who had assisted at the capture. It appears that about 
high-tide a large Whale was noticed in the little boat harbour near the Tees 
Defence Works on the South Gare, and some fishermen, who had been engaged 
with their salmon-nets at the mouth of the river, succeeded in fixing a pair of 
graplings in the blowhole, and then hauled it to the side, and made it fast by 
a rope to a post on the bank ; but, thinking it was of no value to them, after 
about half an hour they let it go again. Its head was lying on a sloping boat 
gangway, and, as the tide was ebbing, it would soon have been high and dry. 
However, it managed to struggle into deep water, and for two hours afterwards 
was swimming about the harbour trying to find a way out, which it eventually 
managed to do, and made off down the river. My informant said it was bleeding 
from the graplings' wounds in the blowhole, and also in other parts which had 
come into contact with the slag on the river's bank. He described it as being 
about twenty feet in length ; its head flat, like an elephant's, with a nose eighteen 
inches or two feet long and as thick as a man's thigh ; the colour was dark on the 
back and light underneath. 

Is there any record of two Whales which were brought ashore here some 
twenty years ago ? One was 26 ft. in length ; the other, presumably a young one, 
was much smaller. — T. H. Nelson, Redcar, loth July, 1890. 

[There is little doubt from the above slight description that the Whale was 
of the Common Beaked species {HyperoMon rostratus Miiller). — W.E.C.] 

Squirrels and Fungi. — Is it a known fact that squirrels eat fungi? I was 
watching a Squirrel [Scitinis vulgaris) eating n flat white thing like a biscuit, 
which it held in its paws and nibbled. On my approaching nearer it let fall 
the substance, which proved to be a fungus, the stalk of which was at the foot of 
the tree, pulled up and nibbled.— A. G. Jarvis, Woodhall Spa, July 1 2th, 1890. 

Naturalist^ 



229 

CONCHOLOGICAL FIELD-NOTES 
FROM UPPER SWALEDALE, N.W. YORKSHIRE. 

W. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., 

Leeds; Hon. Secretary and Recorder to i)ie Coiiclwlogical Society. 



As there do not appear to be any published records of the moUusca 
of Upper Swaledale, a record of what was obtained during a few 
days spent in the dale at the end of July 1884, with Gunnerside as 
headquarters, and a few days in mid-August 1885, with headquarters 
at the Strands farm-house, a mile lower down the valley, will be of 
interest. On both these occasions the writer was accompanied by 
his friend Mr. T. K. Skipwith, to whom, in addition to the pleasure 
afforded by his companionship, is due considerable assistance in the 
search for shells. From these two points, as headquarters, the dale 
was explored upwards by Ivelet, Satron, Muker, Thwaite, and 
Angram to Keld and Kisdon Force, eight miles, and downwards 
past Isles Bridge, Low Row, Feetham, Low Whita Bridge, Healaugh, 
and Reeth to Fremington and Grinton, six miles. One day's 
expedition was directed up Arkengarthdale, returning across the 
moors to the Strands, and other places were visited. But molluscs 
were not the exclusive object of attention, for walks were taken by 
both members of the expedition in which conchology had to occupy 
a very insignificant position, and one of us found the excellent trout- 
fishing which Swale affords very much to his taste, and highly 
conducive to his enjoyment. The district being a high-lying and 
submontane one, and the Swale and its principal tributaries swift 
and turbulent streams, the list includes but two aquatic shells, the 
ubiquitous Limnaa peregra (strange to say) not being one of them. 
The slugs number seven and the land shells twenty-six, total thirty-five. 
The most noticeable deficiencies in the list are Limax maximus 
(which I am pretty sure I have taken, although I can find no 
mention of it in my records), Succinea putris and S. elegans, and 
Helix concinna. There are others which may be expected with more 
or less confidence to turn up. For instance, Kisdon Woods have 
scarcely been explored at all, and should be carefully investigated in 
the hope of discovering such species as Helix fusca, H. aculeata, 
H. pygmcea, Vertigo edcntula, while even Pupa ringens, Helix 
lai/iellata, and Clausilia lamitiata might possibly be found to occur 
there. The roadsides and walls and hedge-rows were found to be 
very prolific hunting-grounds, and the lines of scars along the hill- 
sides offer attractions to various species of calcareous inclination. 

August i8go. 



230 ROEBUCK : UPPER SWALEDALE CONCHOLOGICAL NOTES. 

Arion ater. An abundant species, which ranges further into the 
moorlands than any other. Very numerous on the moorlands 
near the Tanhill Colliery, at an elevation of about 1,500 feet, 
and found plentifully by roadsides at Low Lane near Isles 
Bridge, Feetham, Gunnerside, etc., and in Arkengarthdale near 
Wood House. 

The var. succhiea occurred by roadsides at Angram, near 
Satron, and in Arkengarthdale near Storthwaite; the var, 
nigrescens by roadsides near Ivelet Bridge, near Gunnerside, and 
near Isles Bridge ; the var. plumbea at Angram ; and the var. 
brunjiea at Grinton. 

Arion subfuscus. One near Isles Bridge. 

Arion hortensis. Not uncommon by roadsides near Angram, 
Satron, Gunnerside, and in Gunnerside Gill. 

Arion bourguignati. Common by roadsides and in fields ; near 
Swale Bridge at Gunnerside, at Feetham, Low Row, and 
doubtless everywhere in the low country. 

Limax agrestis. Very common about Satron, Gunnerside Gill, 
Gunnerside, Strands, Isles Bridge, Low Lane, Feetham, Low 
Row, and in Arkengarthdale at Storthwaite. 

The var. sylvatica Moq. is common about Gunnerside and 
elsewhere. 

Limax laevis. Has been found in Gunnerside Gill and by sides 
of roads near Gunnerside. 

Limax arborum. Not uncommon ; near Thwaite, Ivelet Bridge, 
Gunnerside Gill, and by roadsides near Satron. 

Vitrina pellucida. Found singly on roadsides near Satron, 
Strands, Low Row, Wood End near Feetham, and near Low 
Whita Bridge. 

Zonites cellarius. Common ; at Kisdon Force Woods, Angram, 
Thwaite, Scar House near Thwaite, Gunnerside Scars, Gill, and 
village, Strands, and Wood End near Feetham. 

Zonites alliarius. Common by roadsides near Satron ; also 
found at Gunnerside Scars and village. Barf Scars above 
Strands, Wood End near Feetham, Healaugh, and in Arken- 
garthdale near Wood House. 

Zonites glaber. One found in Low Lane near Isles Bridge. 

Zonites nitidulus. A common species ; Keld, Kisdon Force 
Woods, Scar House near Thwaite, Satron, Gunnerside village 
and Gill, near Ivelet Bridge, Strands, Barf Scars above Strands, 
Low Lane near Isles Bridge, Wood End near Feetham, road- 
sides at Healaugh, and in Arkengarthdale near Wood House. 

Naturalist, 



ROEBUCK: UPPER SWALEDALE CONCHOLOGICAL NOTES. 23I 

Zonites purus. By roadsides, occasional ; at Gunnerside, Strands, 
Barf Scars above Strands, Wood End near Feetham, Low Lane 
near Isles Bridge, and Grinton. 

Zonites radiatulus. Has occurred to me sparingly at Angram, 
about the Strands, and in Low Lane near Isles Bridge. 

Zonites crystallinus. Not uncommon ; Woods near Kisdon 
Force, Scar House near Thwaite, roadsides near Satron, 
Gunnerside Gill and village, near Ivelet Bridge, Strands, Low 
Lane near Isles Bridge, Low Row, Wood End near Feetham, 
near Grinton, and in Arkengarthdale near Wood House. 

Zonites fulvus. Has been found in Kisdon Force Woods and 
Gunnerside Gill. 

Helix nemoralis. A large number of specimens collected 
for me near Gunnerside by Mr. Leonard Sunter included 
the following forms: var. libclhila 12345, 123(45), 02340, 
023(45), and rubella 12345, 023(45), some being with pale and 
interrupted bands, others normal. One found by the roadside 
at W^ood End near Feetham, was rubella 00000. 

Helix hortensis. This appeared to be more widely dispersed 
than the preceding. The following forms occurred : liiiea 00000 
roseolabiata at Gunnerside ; lutea 00000 not uncommonly at 
Gunnerside, the Strands, Low Lane near Isles Bridge, and 
Wood End near Feetham ; luiea 00345 at the Strands ; and 
hitea 12345 at Gunnerside (some with pale bands), Strands, 
near Isles Bridge, and Wood End near Feetham. 

Helix arbustorum. Not uncommon in the woods near Kisdon 
Force, at Satron, Gunnerside, in Low Lane near Isles Bridge, 
Wood End near Feetham, and Grinton. 

The var. alpestris is plentiful on roadsides about Satron, 
and near Ivelet Bridge ; the var. pallida occurs on roadsides 
near Satron, and at Grinton ; and the var. marmoraia has once 
occurred by the roadside near Satron, with the type. 

Helix rufescens. Of this I have found but one example, a young 
specimen, at Keld. 

Helix hispida. A common species ; found in the woods near 
Kisdon Force, at Keld, Angram, Thwaite, Park House near 
Keld, Scar House near Thwaite, Muker, near Ivelet Bridge, 
Satron, Gunnerside Scars, Gill and village. Strands, Barf Hill 
top near the Strands, Low Lane near Isles Bridge, Wood End 
near Feetham, Low Row, Healaugh, Reeth, and in Arkengarth- 
dale near Wood House. 

Helix sericea. A common species in wet places by roadsides, at 
Keld, Angram, Scar House near Thwaite, Muker, Satron, 

August i8go. 



232 roebuck: upper swaledale conchological notes. 

Strands, Low Lane near Isles Bridge, and in Arkengarthdale 
near Wood House. 

Helix rotundata. An abundant species throughout the dale ; 
Keld, Park House near Keld, Angram, Muker, woods by 
Kisdon Force, roadsides at Scar House near Thwaite, Ivelet, 
Satron, Gunnerside Scars, Gill, and village. Strands, Low Row, 
Wood End near Feetham, Low Lane near Isles Bridge, 
Healaugh, Grinton, Reeth, and in Arkengarthdale near Wood 
House. 

Helix rupestris. Abundant on limestone walls and scars ; Keld, 
Park House near Keld, near Ivelet Bridge, roadside walls near 
Satron, Gunnerside Scars, Barf Hill near Strands, and Low Row. 

Helix pulchella. Not uncommon in Gunnerside village, and also 
found on roadsides at the Strands and at Wood End near Feetham. 

Bulimus obscurus. Occasionally found ; roadsides near 
Satron, Gunnerside Scars and Gill, Strands, and top of Barf Hill. 

Pupa umbilicata. By no means uncommon at Angram, Muker, 
Gunnerside Scars, in the village, and by roadsides near Satron ; 
also at Strands, Low Row, and Wood End near Feetham. 

Vertigo pygmaea. Not uncommon by roadsides at the Strands, 
Low Row, and near Low Whita Bridge. 

Balea perversa. Plentiful on walls at Satron, near Ivelet Bridge, 
Gunnerside, the Strands, etc. 

Clausilia rugosa. A common species by roadsides at Keld, 
in Kisdon Force woods, roadsides near Satron, near Ivelet 
Bridge, Gunnerside Gill, Strands, Low Lane near Isles Bridge, 
Wood End near Feetham, and Grinton. 

The var. dubia is numerous on walls at Keld, at Park House 
near Keld, and by roadsides near Satron, 

Azeca tridens. A few are to be found on roadsides, near Satron, 
and in Gunnerside Gill. 

Zua lubrica. A common species by roadsides ; Kisdon Force 
woods, in the Buttertubs Pass, Scar House near Thwaite, near 
Muker, near Satron and in Gunnerside village, Gunnerside 
Scars, the Strands, Barf Scars above Strands, Low Row, Wood 
End near Feetham, Low Lane near Isles Bridge, Healaugh, and 
in Arkengarthdale at Wood House. 

The var. lubricoides is not uncommon with the type by road- 
sides near Satron, in Gunnerside village, and at \Vood End near 
Feetham. 

Carychium carychium. Not uncommon by roadsides, at Satron, 
in Gunnerside village, and at the Strands. 

Naturalist, 



ROEBUCK : UPPER SWALEDALE CONCHOLOGICAL NOTES. 233 

Limnaea truncatula. Plentiful on steep wet banks near Ivelet 
Bridge, not uncommon in wet places by the roadsides near 
Satron, the Strands, etc., and very numerous in a horse-trough at 
Gunnerside. 

Ancylus fluviatilis. Plentiful in small rills in Gunnerside village, 
where it has also been previously found by Mr. Henry Crowther, 
numerous in streamlets near the Strands, and has also been 
found in the Arkle Beck at Langthwaite. 

The var. gibbosa Bgt. has been found at Gunnerside by 
Mr. Henry Crowther. 



Such is my list for the upper part of the Swale valley, which 
alone I have had the opportunity of searching for more than an hour 
or so. Further down the dale other observations have been made 
by myself and friends at odd times, and these it will not be without 
interest to recapitulate. 

For that portion of Swaledale which extends from Reeth down 
to Richmond I am not aware of any records whatever. 

At Richmond Mr. Henry Crowther collected some dozen years 
ago the following : — 

Helix rufescens. Pupa umbilicata. 

Helix hispida. Clausilia rugosa. 

Helix rotundata. *Limiiffia peregra and *var. ovata. 

*PIelix lapicida. Limnoea truncatula. 

Those marked with the asterisk are forms additional to my list, and 
increase its numerical total to 37. At Richmond also Mr. Baker 
Hudson found Clmisilia rugosa var. dubia and Helix rufescens with 
var. r7(bens, all very abundant on walls and among nettles and stones. 
At Easby Abbey, on the ist of August 1881, I found 

Helix hispida. * Helix pygmcea. 

Helix rotundata. Pupa umbilicata. 

The one starred brings up the Swaledale list to 38. 

The following have been found at Snape by Mr. H. Crowther ; 

Helix pulchella. *Limn3ea stagnalis. 

Clausilia rugosa var. dubia. L. truncatula. 

*Bythinia tentaculata. Ancylus fluviatilis. 

*Valvata piscinalis. *Sph3erium corneum. 

Limnaa peregra. *Pisidium fontinale. 

And at Leeming Lane near Bedale, Mr. Crowther has found 
'^Neritina fluviatilis and Sphcerium corneum. 

These two localities, which bring in six additional species, are, 
however, low-lying ones belonging to the central plain of Yorkshire, 
and although undoubtedly within the Swale drainage-area, are not in 
what may be properly called Swaledale. 

August 1890. 



234 

NOTES ON BIRDS FROM LANCASHIRE. 

Extracted from Letters of the late James Cooper. 



REV..H, A. MACPHERSON, M.A., M.B.O.U., Etc., 
Author of the ' Visitation of Pallas' s Sand-Grouse to Scotland' etc. 



The North of England has always been fortunate in possessing 
a supply of field naturalists drawn from the working classes and 
pursuing their studies in the face of many difficulties. Of the 
number, none perhaps should be remembered more worthily than 
the late James Cooper. Born at Cockermouth in 1792, he long 
earned his bread as a cotton spinner in the neighbourhood of 
Carlisle. His natural tastes were furthered and developed by the 
late Mr. T. C Heysham, under whose instruction he became 
a successful collector of birds and lepidoptera. James Cooper con- 
tributed a few notes to the ' Zoologist.' Some other results of his 
experience have been published in Mr. Murray Adamson's valuable 
work, ' More Scraps about Birds.' The present paper supplies some 
hitherto nnpuhlished information, relating to Lancashire. In 1840 
James Cooper left Carlisle for Preston, travelling on foot with his 
family as far as Lancaster. At Preston he obtained work at his 
trade, but the intervals of his leisure were given up to collecting. 
Mr. Heysham, who had always taken a lively interest in Cooper,, 
and once offered to start him in business, which he declined, con- 
tinued to employ Cooper as a birdstuffer, no doubt from a wish to 
render him pecuniary support. Consequently, some letters passed 
between the two, and the following particulars have been extracted 
from Cooper's letters as not unworthy of preservation. 

'Preston, September 27th, 1840. — ... I have seen few insects 
or birds ; of the latter I had a shot at a Greenshank \Totanus 
canescens\ two or three of which I saw about four miles below 
Preston on the banks of the Ribble. I stuffed a young Pigmy 
Curlew \Tringa siibarq2iata\ shot near Lytham. Bar-tailed Godwits 
\Limosa lappottica\ and young Ruffs and Reeves \J\fachetes pugnax\ 
are sometimes hanging in the fish-market.' 

'Preston, January 30th, 1842. — Of the rarer birds got here the 
most noted is a specimen of the Hoopoe [ Upupa epops] and one of 
the Wood Sandpiper \Totamis glareola], a Grey-backed Shrike 
[^Lanius excubitor\ and a Little Auk \MergHbis alle\ or two. 
A specimen or two of the Purple Sandpiper \Tringa striatd\ has 
occurred. The Grey Plover \_SquataroIa helvetica] I find remains 
here all the winter. I saw a few the other day, but could not get 
a shot at them. They are very light-coloured.' 

Naturalist, 



. MACPHERSON : BIRD-NOTES FROM LANCASHIRE. 235 

'Preston, September 4th, 1842. — On Tuesday last I killed 
a young Sanderling \_Calidris are}iana\ and saw about ten young 
Black Terns \_Hydrochelidoti iiigra\ but did not get any. Went over 
the same ground and much more on Friday ; saw nothing except 
two Bar-tailed Godwits. Went out again on Saturday (yesterday) 
afternoon ; saw a Spotted Redshank \Totanus fusais\ it came up the 
river and sat down upon a piece of open sand at the foot of a small 
brook. When I attempted to approach it, it rose and took quite 
across the fields, leaving the river altogether, and I saw no more of it.' 

' Preston, November 12th, 1842. — I have done nothing myself 
this autumn. The best bird I killed was a Greenshank \Totamis 
canescens\ I got another from a person one day when I was out 
shooting in the last week of September ; it was a very large specimen, 
and from the hardness of its bones appeared to be an old bird. . . . 
In a letter I had from my son-in-law, who is at Newark-on-Trent, he 
tells me that a Kite \_Miivus ictimis] was killed close to the town, 
and a little Bustard ^Otis tetrax] was killed about two months 
before, not far from that place.' 

' Preston, June 5th, 1843. — ^ ^""i sorry to say I have not been 
able to get a single Dotterel \^Eudro?nias morineHns] this spring, 
although I exerted myself to do so, having had an order for several. 
I saw three, probably the remnant of a flock that had been shot 
away ; they were wild. I had a shot at one, but missed it, and 
never had another chance. There had been seven in the market, 
but I did not get any of them. Six were purchased for the table all 
at once ; the odd bird was bought by an angler for its feathers. 
I was down upon the coast last week, and crossed over to Bardsea 
from Fleetwood, It came on wet. I went up to Ulverston and 
stopped several days. It rained all the time, and I could not get 
out. When I came down on Friday morning to return by the 
steamer, it was fair, and I strolled down the shore a few miles in the 
direction of Foulney and Walney, and met a few Terns coming up 
with the tide ; shot two. They were Arctic Terns \_Sterna macrura], 
and by the state of the belly were evidently breeding. ... I have 
shot nothing this spring worth notice, except a Whimbrel \Nunienitis 
phceopus\ a female continental "\\'agtail {Motacilla alba), and a Black 
Tern [Hydrochelidoti 7iigra'\ — all good specimens. The Whimbrels 
were plentiful, but very wild. I wounded two others, but lost them 
both.' 

'Preston, January 28th, 1S44. — I have fallen in with the Rock 
Pipit \A71thus obscuriis\ on the banks of the Ribble this winter, and 
have killed four, wounded another (which I lost), and saw two or 
three more. . . . They are very like the Tit-Lark in their habits and 

August 1890. 



236 BARNES : LEJEUNEA ROSSETTIANA IN N.W. YORKSHIRE. 

manner of feeding, but were generally single, or at most two together, 
feeding along ditches that run into the river. They are much more 
shy than the Tit-Lark. I have looked very little after birds this 
winter, and nothing has been got here worth notice, except a Fork- 
tailed Petrel \_Froce/laria leucorrhod\ and a Hoopoe late in autumn.' 
These extracts are given verbatim; but the punctuation and 
spelling have been amended slightly, and the scientific names added 
within square brackets. 



NOTE— BOTANY. 

Ophrys apifera Huds. at Skipton.— In 'The Naturalist' for January 1S87 
I reported the rediscovery of the Bee Orchid near Skipton. This year, on 
June 1 8th, Mr. Rotheray found aljout a dozen plants, and on June 24th and 
July 5th, in the course of two short rambles, we increased the number to upwards 
of ninety. The unusual prevalence of the plant this season led me to suspect 
that I had been too hasty in informing Mr. F. A. Lees of its extinction in its 
previously-recorded Skipton locality — Birtwhistle Rocks ; and, having obtained 
the necessary permission, I made careful search for it there on June 30th, with 
the result that I found three plants. The record on page 430 of Mr. Lees' 
' Flora of West Yorkshire ' will therefore still hold good, and the note at the top 
of page 798, which was due to my information, should be erased. 

I have also to record the discovery of Viola hi tea Huds. near Skipton. 
It grows sparingly at the entrance to Waterfall Gill, between Skipton and 
Rylstone. This is, I believe, a new locality record for the Aire drainage district. 
— T. W. Edmondson, Pembroke College, Cambridge, July 9th, 1890. 



LEJEUNEA ROSSETTIANA IN NORTH-WEST 
YORKSHIRE. 



R. BARNES, 

The Gardens, Saltbtirri-by-the-Sea ; Hon. Local Treasurer to the Yorkshire 

Natnralists' Union. 

In April of the present year, while in search of mosses near Hudswell 
and Richmond my attention was taken by a species of Lejeunea 
(larger in size than L. calcarea Lib.) growing on patches of Zygodon 
Stirtoni and on faces of limestone rock, and which has since proved 
on examination to be Lejeunea Rossettiana Massal. The excellent 
descriptions given by Mr. W. H. Pearson and Dr. Spruce in Journal 
of Botany, November 1889 and December 1889, clearly mark the 
distinctness of this species from L. calcarea Lib. A portion was 
sent to Mr. M. B. Slater, F.L.S., who kindly informs me of its being 
the true plant and moreover that this is the first record of the species 
for North Yorkshire. I might add that the localities in which it was 
growing were precisely of the same character as those described by 
Mr. W. West, F.L.S., in Journal of Botany, May 1890. 

Naturalist, 



237 

NOTES ON NORTH OF ENGLAND ROCKS. 

II. 



ALFRED HARKER, M.A., F.G.S. 



I PROPOSE in the present paper to describe a few more igneous rocks 
presenting characters of interest to a student of petrology. The 
numbers given in brackets [ ] refer to sHdes in the collection of the 
Woodwardian Museum, but the rocks are taken from well-known 
localities, and the descriptions will be found generally applicable. 

(vii) Hypersthene-quartz-gahbro of Carrcck Feli, Cumberland. — 
This rock is the ' hypersthenite' of CHfton Ward, which occupies 
a considerable area to the south of Carrock Fell. Dr. Trechmann 
has pointed out that the dominant pyroxenic element seems to be 
diallage, and he appears to question the occurrence of hypersthene. 
Examination shows, however, that in various specimens this mineral 
is nearly or quite as abundant as the diallage, and almost justifies 
Mr. Ward's naming of the rock. 

Hand-specimens show a rather coarsely crystalline aggregate of 
dark pyroxenes and dull white felspars, with little vitreous grey 
patches of quartz. A slice [438] reveals the constituents and 
structure of the rock. Felspar is abundant in crystals giving 
rectangular sections and fine twin-lamellation : sometimes there are 
cross-striae due to pericline-twinning as well as those following the 
albite-law. The mineral belongs to labradorite, or a variety between 
labradorite and bytownite. The rhombic pyroxene (hypersthene) is 
almost invariably converted into a pale-green fibrous serpentinous 
product — the so-called bastite — still preserving the rectangular con- 
tour of the original mineral. This substance is distinctly pleochroic, 
giving the strongest absorption when the length of the crystal is 
parallel to the shorter diagonal of the polarising prism. The 
hypersthene has evidently crystallised in general before the felspar, 
and so shows good crystal outlines ; the diallage is of later consoli- 
dation, and forms irregular plates moulding round the other 
constituents. This diallage has a light-brown tint in section, and 
exhibits a typical 'diallagic' structure with minute rod-like inter- 
positions grouped parallel to two or three definite directions. It gives 
the usual brilliant polarisation-colours between crossed Nicols. 

Another mineral of later formation than the felspar is a brown 
dichroic mica, which, however, is often discoloured and partly 
decomposed. The earliest products of crystallisation in the rock are 

August 1890. 



238 HARKER : NOTES ON NORTH OF ENGLAND ROCKS. 

hexagonal prisms of apatite and rather irregular grains of magnetite. 
The last mineral formed is quartz, with a dusty appearance owing to 
a multitude of minute inclusions. This mineral — an uncommon one 
in gabbros — is wedged into the interspaces left between the earlier 
constituents. 

The rock of White Crags was analysed by Mr. J. Hughes. 
His results seem to indicate about 50 or 51 per cent, of a labradorite- 
bytownite felspar, 28 of the pyroxenes, which cannot contain much 
alumina, 20 of quartz, and one or two per cent, of magnetite and 
apatite. 

A slide [79] from the last-named locality shows the same general 
characteristics as before, except that the hypersthene is almost 
wanting. We see, however, a quantity of green hornblende with its 
characteristic cleavage, pleochroism, and low extinction-angle. Some 
of this is so associated with the brown diallage as to show that it has 
been derived from the alteration of the latter mineral, and this is 
probably the origin of all the hornblende in the rock. 

(viii) Granophyre of Carrock Fell. — This rock, exposed on the 
upper part of Carrock Fell itself, is reddish to brownish-grey in 
colour, with minute porphyritic felspars and little greenish spots. 

Under the microscope [890] we see that, with the exception of 
the little porphyritic felspar crystals, the rock consists of a ground- 
mass of felspar and quartz, the structure showing variations between 
certain limits. In places there is a finely granular texture, giving 
the ' microgranite' of some petrologists ; but the most common type 
is the micropegmatitic, produced by a minute intergrowth of felspar 
and quartz, each mineral having a definite crystalline orientation 
over a considerable area in the slide, as is proved by rotating the 
stage between crossed Nicols, when the quartz over a large part of 
the field is found to be dark in one position, and similarly the felspar 
in another position. In natural light the clearness of the quartz and 
the turbidity of the felspar, which is partially decomposed, distinguish 
the two elements very clearly. Frequently, it may be noticed that 
the micropegmatite growth has grouped itself about the porphyritic 
crystals, in which case the felspar of the micropegmatite is proved 
(by its simultaneous extinction) to be in crystalline continuity with 
the crystal which has served as a nucleus. In other places there is 
a rather ' centric ' arrangement of the intergrowth, independent of 
any nucleus. This is seen sometimes when the micropegmatite is on 
an excessively minute scale. From this, it is not a long step to the 
' spherulitic ' structure observable in some other specimens, in which 
the quartz and felspar are only imperfectly individualised, and the 
general eftect is that of a radiate fibrous growth in which we may 

Naturalist, 



HARKER : NOTES ON NORTH OF ENGLAND ROCKS. 239 

imagine the minute filjres to be partly quartz, partly felspar. Such 
spherulites show a more or less marked black cross when viewed 
between crossed prisms. 

Both Mr. Clifton Ward and Mr. Teall have made the interesting 
•observation that the granophyre appears to pass gradually into the 
-quartz-bearing gabbro noted above. Specimens may be collected to 
•show a mingling of the characters of the two very different types. 
•One such, from a loose block in Caldew Beck, has been examined 

[419]- 

Some portions of this slide show the most perfect and typical 

•examples of micropegmatite together with grains of quartz and small 
crystals of felspar. The quartz predominates, and the grains are 
■continuous with the quartzose element of the adjacent micropegmatite. 
Elsewhere in the same slice we see the larger felspar crystals with 
■close tvvin-striation, the brown plates of diallage, the deeper brown 
partly decomposed mica, the green hornblende, probably secondary, 
the irregular magnetite grains, and the subordinate interstitial quartz 
of the gabbro type. There is a complete gradation. Hexagonal 
prisms of apatite occur throughout the slide, as do also irregular 
.granules of light-brown highly refractive sphere. 

(ix) Spherulitic quartz-porphyry dyke at Greensides Mine, 
Helvellyn. — This is a rock with reddish-brown ground-mass, enclosing 
crystals of both quartz and felspar. In a thin section [461] it 
exhibits a most beautiful illustration of the spherulitic structure. 
The ground presents a confusedly crystalline aspect, the quartz and 
felspar being only imperfectly individualised, though here and there 
■one or other mineral has separated, and collected into a patch large 
■enough to show its optical characters. The most striking feature, 
however, consists in numerous little spherical growths having 
.a marked radial structure, and giving a black cross when seen 
between crossed Nicols. This last point is characteristic of 
•spherulitic growths : where the structure is most typically developed, 
the cross is quite distinct, and on rotating the stage its arms remain 
fixed in direction, viz., parallel to the diagonals of the Nicol's prisms. 
This is evident only in the more perfect spherulites in the rock in 
question. The spherulites are partly free, partly attached to the 
porphyritic crystals and especially to the quartz. The ground-mass 
is further remarkable for containing innumerable little needle-shaped 
crystallites, which sometimes show a tendency to parallelism of 
position, and, in particular, lie parallel to the outline of any neigh- 
bouring porphyritic crystal — a well-known result of a flowing 
movement in the rock subsequent to the formation of both crystals 
and crystallites. 

August 1S90. 



240 HARKER : NOTES ON NORTH OF ENGLAND ROCKS. 

The porphyritic quartz, as well as the felspar, shows good crystal 
outlines, viz., those belonging to the hexagonal pyramid cut in 
various directions. These quartz crystals have irregular cavities 
communicating with the exterior, and filled by material similar to the 
ground-mass. The felspars are much decomposed. A few flakes of 
partly destroyed biotite and little rounded crystals of pinkish garnet 
complete the list of constituents. The latter mineral is easily 
recognised by its isotropic nature, which causes it to remain dark 
between crossed Nicols, and its high refractive index, which makes 
it appear to stand out from the other minerals in the slice. It is 
seen as little crystals of a deep-red colour in the hand-specimens. 

The Greensides Dyke is very similar to a neighbouring one on 
Armboth Fell, which has been noticed by Clifton Ward and others, 
and a slice [756] of the latter rock presents the same general 
characters as the foregoing. 

(x) Micrografiite of St. Joh/i's Vale, Cumberland. — One of the most 
interesting points connected with the acid irruptive rocks is the 
variety of structural gradations which they exhibit between the plainly 
crystalline type of the granites on the one hand, and the glassy 
texture of some of the rhyolitic lavas on the other. Two main lines 
of transition may be recognised in the character of the ground-mass 
as seen under the microscope. One of these is through the 
granophyric varieties such as the micropegmatite of Buttermere 
and the spherulitic quartz-porphyry of Greensides and Armboth. 
A complete series of intermediate varieties of structure might be 
collected to fill the gap between the holocrystalline and the vitreous 
types. Another line of transition is furnished by the granite- 
porphyries, microgranites, etc., and consists in a simple diminution 
m the size of the constituent grains of the rock, the several 
constituents showing no sign of intergrowth, but remaining distinct 
so long as they are visible. PorjDhyritic elements may be, and 
usually are, developed in the varieties of both series. 

An excellent example of a microgranite is the rock which 
constitutes several connected intrusive masses in the lower part of 
the Vale of St. John. It has to the eye a compact appearance and 
usually a grey colour, the porphyritic crystals of felspar being very 
small. Sections [15 and 460] show that these crystals consist 
exclusively of a plagioclase variety with fine twin-striation and narrow 
extinction-angles. The crystals are altered almost to opaqueness,, 
and show rectangular outlines. Flakes of biotite are present in 
varying quantity ; sometimes bleached with separation of magnetite, 
which remains as little granules between the cleavage-lamina of the 
mica ; sometimes converted into a bright-green chloritic substance, 

Naturalist, 



HARKER : NOTES ON NORTH OF ENGLAND ROCKS. 241 

which gives low polarisation-colours (neutral tints and indigo), and 
only partially preserves the form of the original flakes. 

The ground-mass consists of a finely granular aggregate of quartz 
and felspar, the latter preponderating. The quartz is for the most 
part of anterior consolidation to the felspar, and forms clear grains 
of irregular shape imbedded in the later mineral. Calcite dust, 
giving bright red and green polarisation-tints, is among the 
decomposition-products of the felspar, indicating that that mineral 
contained a certain proportion of lime. Specimens from Shundraw 
[753] and Threlkeld [805] show identical characters. Mr. Hughes' 
analysis of the St. John's Vale rock seems to indicate about 24 per 
cent, of quartz, 16 of orthoclase, 40 of a felspar near oligoclase, and 
20 of decomposition-products of felspar and mica. It is evident, 
therefore, that the felspar of the ground-mass must be in part of 
a soda-lime variety, or perhaps it may be a felspar containing both 
potash and soda. 

(xi) Granite, etc., of Eskdale and IVastdale, Cumberland. — The 
normal type in this intrusion or set of intrusions is a granite of 
moderately coarse grain with red felspar, grey quartz, and dark mica. 
A slice from Stanley Gill [747] shows some interesting features, the 
most striking being the variety of acid felspars present and their intri- 
cate intergrowths with one another. Ordinary orthoclase is seen, and 
oblong crystals of a plagioclase of the albite-oligoclase series showing 
close twin-striation and low extinction angles. Besides these, we 
observe broad crystal plates showing a minute 'cross-hatched' structure 
between crossed prisms. This appearance, which is best seen when 
the crystal is nearly in the position for extinction, is distinctive of 
microcline, the triclinic potash-felspar. Again, the orthoclase is seen 
in many cases to be traversed by little irregular veins of another 
felspar, doubtless albite, which extinguishes between crossed Nicols 
in a rather different position from the orthoclase. All the little veins 
within one crystal extinguish simultaneously, and indeed the albite is 
intergrown with the orthoclase in a definite crystalline relation to its 
host. This is the so-called 'micro-perthite.' A precisely similar veining 
with albite is seen in some of the microcline crystals in the same slide. 

All the felspars are partially decayed, and their turbid appearance 
contrasts with the quartz, which is the next important ingredient of 
the rock, in grains filling the interstices between the felspar crystals. 
The quartz, however, contains very numerous minute fluid-pores, 
which are mostly arranged in parallel lines in each grain. The 
remaining constituent is biotite, which, however, is highly altered by 
secondary changes. Much of the mineral is rendered black and 
opaque b y impregnation with iron-oxides derived from its own 

August 1890. (J 



242 HARKER : NOTES ON NORTH OF ENGLAND ROCKS. 

decomposition, but with this occur portions which are clear and 
colourless, and give bright pink and green polarisation-tints like those 
of white mica. 

A slice from Muncaster Quarry, Ravenglass [952] shows most of 
the characters described above, including fine examples of the micro- 
perthite intergrowth. Specimens may be collected from other parts, 
however, which show a departure from the granitic type along one or 
other of the two lines of gradations noted above. One slide, for 
instance, shows a very typical micropegmatite [954] : another from 
Brantrake Moss is a microgranite very similar to that of St. John's 
Vale [748]. 

An analysis of the Eskdale granite agrees roughly with the 
composition : 27 per cent, of quartz, 20 of orthoclase and microcline, 
45 of albite and albite-oligoclase, and 8 of decomposition-products 
of felspar, biotite, etc. 

(xii) Diabase or Doleriie of Castle Head., Keswick. — This intrusive 
mass is of interest, according to Mr. Ward, as probably marking the 
site of one of the Ordovician volcanoes which gave vent to the lavas 
of the Borrowdale series. The rock shows an intimate admixture 
of black augite and light-coloured felspar stained with greenish 
secondary-products. In this some of the little augite crystals stand 
out prominently enough to impart a porphyritic appearance. 

Under the microscope [755] these crystals give outlines 
rectangular in longitudinal and octagonal in transverse sections, the 
characteristic cleavage-cracks parallel to the faces of the prism being 
well marked. The polarisation-tints are of a high order. The crystals 
are frequently twinned, a pecuHarity brought out clearly between 
crossed Nicols, where the two individuals of a twin give different 
tints and extinguish the light in different positions. In addition to 
this, two or three crystals are usually grouped together so as to 
interfere with one another's growth. 

The ground-mass has been composed of plagioclase felspar 
and augite, but the latter mineral is totally destroyed, and the 
little oblong crystals of felspar are for the most part deeply altered. 
Little irregular patches and skeleton-crystals of black opaque 
magnetite are scattered about the slice. The secondary products 
include clear quartz granules, dust of calcite, stains of red-brown 
iron oxide, a pale chloritoid material with low polarisation-tints, and 
serpentine. The last-named substance is chiefly collected in little 
veins in the rock, and has a fibrous structure, the fibres being set 
perpendicular to the walls of the vein. The serpentine gives low 
colours of polarisation, being nearly dark between crossed Nicols 
and extinguishing parallel to its fibres. 

Naturalist, 



243 



AN OUTLINE OF THE GEOLOGICAL HISTORY 
OF UPPER SWALEDALE. 

J. G. GOODCHILD, H.M. Geol. Survey, F.G.S., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 



The rocks of Swaledale consist chiefly of the Lower Carboniferous 
Series, i.e., the Yoredale Rocks and the Mountain Limestone. 
Detached remnants of the basal members of the Millstone Grit, now 
represented only by outliers of the Kinder Scout Grit Series, and the 
beds above this up to the base of the Third Grit, also occur on the 
hill tops in places. The whole of the Carboniferous rocks of this 
area are of marine origin, and represent thalassic deposits laid down 
in connection with the delta of a large river, which drained part of a 
continent lying far away to the north-west. During a prolonged, 
but slow, subsidence, occasionally varied by slight movements of 
upheaval, or by pauses when no movement took place, the delta 
referred to gradually advanced its seaward margin in a south-easterly 
direction ; but the rate of advance was so slow that it was not until 
near the close of the Yoredale period that the delta itself actually 
reached this point. Prior to that event the strata deposited here were, 
at first, mainly organico-chemical (limestones). Then, as the delta 
approached somewhat nearer, alternations of limestones, sandstones, 
shales, coals, and cherts were left, piled one above another in regular 
layers to a considerable thickness. Finally, when the old delta had 
pushed its way seaward so far as to actually reach this part, little 
else than grits, shales, and coals were laid down, the deeper-sea 
deposits and those proper to clear water being, of course, wanting. 
But while these conditions obtained in what is now Swaledale, 
deeper water and clearer water conditions still prevailed miles away 
towards the south-east, and were, in their turn, pushed still farther 
out to sea as the delta grew towards them. 

This preliminary explanation will enable us to understand how it 
came about that the lowest marine beds of the Carboniferous period 
consisted almost exclusively of limestone here ; and how it happened 
that, as we trace the succession of the rocks upward, we find, on the 
whole, the relative thickness of the clear-water deposits to those of 
detrital origin becoming less and less, until, when we reach the 
Millstone Grit, true limestones are hardly to be found at all. 

The rocks of the upper parts of the dale consist chiefly of the 
Yoredale rocks, so named by Prof. Phillips from Yoredale or the 
dale of the Yore (VVensleydale), where strata of this age are well 
exhibited. The Yoredale Rocks may be described as consisting of 

August iSgo. 



244 GOODCHILD : GEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF UPPER SWALEDALE. 

seven principal beds of marine limestone (with others of lesser 
importance), each of which is directly overlain by beds of a shaly 
nature, and each, as a rule, is succeeded below by a bed of sand- 
stone. All the true Yoredale strata are persistent over a very large 
area, the Hmestones being so to an extent little short of marvellous ; 
although, of course, minor local variations may here and there be 
detected if carefully sought for. The total thickness from the base 
of the Millstone Grit above to the top of the Mountain Limestone 
below is subject to some variation, but 1,500 ft. may be safely taken 
as a fair mean for the whole. 

Counting from above downward, the beds of limestone best 
known may be stated as follows, those most persistent being dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk : — Crow or Fell Top Limestone ; *Red 
Bed Limestone ; "Main, Twelve Fadom, or Great Limestone ; 
*Undersett Chert and Undersett Limestone or Four Fadom Lime- 
stone ; *Third Sett or Three Yards Limestone ; *Fourth Sett or 
Five Yards Limestone ; *Fifth Sett, Middle, or Scar Limestone ; 
*Sixth Sett or Simonstone Limestone ; *Seventh Sett or Hardra 
Limestone. Below follow the various subdivisions of the Mountain 
Limestone, whereof the highest bed is seen in Wensleydale near 
Askrigg, etc., and again in the long inlier on the south bank of the 
Swale between Muker and Gunnerside. Above the Main Limestone 
occurs a remarkable series of siliceous beds, which the present 
writer described many years ago as of organic origin, and of the 
same general nature as the siliceous deposits brought to light in the 
course of the late deep-sea researches. These siliceous rocks (Main 
Chert, Red Beds, etc.) play an important part in connection with 
the mining industries of the district. When weathered these rocks 
pass into rotten stone. 

Long after all the Carboniferous rocks had been deposited, the 
whole region underwent considerable disturbance, and most of the 
leading flexures, as well as the leading faults, including the Pennine 
Fault, affected these rocks for the first time. It was at this period 
that the initial tilting of the strata towards the north-east took place. 

At a later period came prolonged upheaval, accompanied by 
enormous denudation, many thousands of feet of Carboniferous 
rocks being stripped off, in course of time, from this area alone. 

Subsequently, the New Red (including under this term all the 
post-carboniferous rocks of older date than the Rhajtics) were 
spread out over the whole of the North of England. As the 
so-called ' Permian ' is only the basement bed of the Jurassic Series, 
it follows that these rocks also once extended continuously over the 
whole of Swaledale. 

Naturalist, 



GOODCHILD: GEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF UPPER SWALEDALE. 245 

Much later on followed yet another long period of disturbance, 
upheaval, and consequent denudation. This episode was followed 
by one of prolonged and steady subsidence, during which the Upper 
Cretaceous Rocks were spread out over nearly the whole of the 
British Isles. Not until long after that did any of our mountains — 
or indeed any other of our great natural features — begin to appear. 

When at last the River Swale began to flow, which was in late 
tertiary times, the surface rock was probably the Chalk, and the 
river took its rise, not where it does now, but far away to the west, 
where now are the lowlands of Edenside. Underneath the Chalk 
in Upper Swaledale extended the thin edge of the New Red Rocks, 
now denuded back to the Vale of York. Prolonged exposure to 
denudation stripped off first the Cretaceous Rocks, then the New 
Red, and finally exposed the plateau, gently inclined to the east, 
upon which these last rocks had been laid down. At this time the 
plateau just mentioned was probably not at a very high level above 
the sea. But after the valley of the Swale had been, so to speak, 
outlined, in the higher part of the plateau, great volcanic disturbances 
affected all the north-western parts of the kingdom. The volcanic 
rocks of the Western Islands of Scotland were formed, and these 
disturbances were accompanied, over a much larger area, by earth 
movements of great importance. Vast upheavals of strata took 
place, the last great dislocation along the line of the Pennine Fault 
occurred, the Swaledale Massif was upheaved to more than 2,500 ft. 
above the level of the sea, and the present order of geographical 
features generally was instituted. But the most important result, so 
far as Swaledale is concerned, was that due to the action of thermal 
springs, which uprose towards the surface over large areas as the 
great volcanic episode was on the wane. It was these thermal 
springs, rising through the old faults, where these were stretched open 
during the upheaval of the district, that carried upwards the solutions 
containing the metallic sulphides, which, when the rising currents 
cooled, were left in the old fissures as the valuable lead veins for 
which North-west Yorkshire has so long been famous. 

The present summit-level joining the highest fell-tops of Swaledale 
represents the modified descendant of the old plateau referred to 
above, and it is out of tliis old plateau, by the prolonged action of 
Subaerial Denudation, that the present valleys have been carved in 
the course of long ages. 

Long after the valleys and all the larger natural features had been 
carved out by denudation into nearly the same form they exhibit at 
the present day, set in the commencement of that long succession of 
periods of increasing cold, which culminated in the climax of the 

August 1800. 



246 GOODCHILD : GEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF UPPER SWALEDALE. 

Glacial Period and the formation of the great Ice Sheet. Throughout 
all the earlier part of the Glacial Period the Dale seems to have been 
occupied by simple glaciers, which flowed down the valleys, or from 
the heart of the mountains, towards the lowlands. The prolonged 
excavation arising from this cause resulted in the removal of the 
whole of the weathered rock disintegrated by exposure during pre- 
glacial times. Necessarily, the greater part of the weathered rock so 
removed was eroded where the ice acted with greater force, so that the 
bottoms of the valleys were considerably deepened by this cause 
alone. Another result followed — ice, in eroding a rock surface, acts 
differently from water, and the results are therefore different in their 
kind from what would have been effected by simple weathering. 
It is to this cause that the present writer attributes the formation of 
the remarkable terraces and scars of limestone, etc., so well displayed 
in the adjoining dales. To this cause also he attributed the forma- 
tion of the coums and other hollows with sweeping curvature, which 
form some of the most characteristic features of the district. The 
general effect of the ice-erosion was to impart to the newly-carved 
rock surface a flowing contour, and an association of scars and 
terraces which are quite different from what would naturally result 
from simple atmospheric erosion. These features are much more 
strongly marked in such districts as Wensleydale, where the flow of 
the ice from first to last did not vary much in direction, if it ever 
varied at all. 

Near the climax of the Glacial Period, when the glaciers had 
become confluent, and their conjoinal surface rose to its highest 
level, the prevailing directions of movement of the ice in the upper 
parts of Swaledale were influenced by causes acting from outside the 
district. As a consequence, the flow of the ice in all the area 
referred to, instead of being along the valley and downhill, was 
towards the north-east, across the valleys, and in many cases uphill. 
This transverse movement of the ice extended even to its bottom 
strata, which, even at the very lowest parts of the valleys traversed, 
here impelled across the low ground and up the hills on the opposite 
side. The valley of the Swale above Keld is thus striated right 
across, in the very bed of the river itself; and the ice that effected 
this striation certainly moved steadily up the hill on the north-side 
of the Swale, and thence right away over the fells until its direction 
was merged into that of the ice-currents then prevailing on Stainmoor. 
Complicated results followed from this change of direction ; but with 
these we are not concerned here. 

What became of all the preglacially weathered rock thus removed 
by the outward flow of the ice ? Some of it, certainly, flowed away 

Naturalist, 



GOODCHILD : GEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF UPPER SWALEDALE. 247 

within the ice at least as far as the Yorkshire coast; but the material 
detached from the rock surface by the ice did not all go out of the 
Dale. Some of it was released when the ice melted — released as if 
it were a kind of sediment — and it is this glacial sediment of stones, 
mud, sand and boulders, that now constitutes the glacial drift, in 
every one of its many different forms. Till, sand and gravel, and 
washed drifts of all kinds here are simply so much material that was 
formerly dispersed throughout the body of the ice (not on it, or 
under it, but wiihiti the ice) and when this ice melted the drift are 
the sediments it left behind. 

In Swaledale, as elsewhere, there is abundant evidence that the 
Ice Sheet ceased to move somewhat abruptly, and that it began to 
melt away on the spot soon after the icy flood attained its maximum. 
Why it did so has not yet been satisfactorily explained ; but so it 
did ; and it certainly did not wane in reverse order through all the 
changes that marked its waxing. The striae left by the ice when at 
its maximum have hardly ever been effaced by later movements in 
different directions. It would seem, however, that some time after 
temperate conditions had taken the place of the rigorous arctic 
conditions just referred to, a later period of cold, very much less 
intense than what preceded it, did obtain here. Here and there 
in the heart of the larger mountain areas, a tiny glacier seems to 
have been nourished, and this may really have, locally, pushed out 
some of the older glacial sediments, and striated the rock surface in 
new directions. But it is doubtful, very, whether this can be shown 
to have been the case in Swaledale. 

At no time during the Glacial Period, or since then, does the 
Dale appear to have been submerged a single foot beneath the sea. 
Nor is there any evidence whatever of the transportal into Swaledale 
of any of the far-travelled boulders that represent the stream netted 
out of the Stainmoor current of the Ice Sheet. 

After the close of the Glacial Period (at the most not more than 
20,000 years ago) sub-aerial denudation renewed its attacks upon the 
rock-surface of Swaledale. Waterfalls again started into existence, 
and have had time to cut back into long ravines ; scars began to 
crumble away, and again to weather into something like their pre- 
glacial contours ; vegetation gained a footing ; Neolithic man entered 
upon the tracts whence — untold ages before — his Palaeolithic fore- 
runner had been driven by the advance of the Ice Sheet ; and, 
finally, the Dale gradually began to assume, under the action of sub- 
aerial forces, something of the varied and beautiful aspect which 
characterizes it at the present day. 

August 1890. 



248 

SOME OF THE BIRDS OBSERVED IN 
UPPER SWALEDALE. 



J. G. GOODCHILD, H.M. Geol. Survey, F.G.S., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

Turdus viscivorus. Jay Throstle. 

Turdus musicus. Bell Throstle. 

Turdus iliacus. 

Turdus pilaris. FeKaw. 

Turdus merula. 

Turdus torquatus. Ring-wuzel. Summer visitant ; breeds 

commonly on the fell-sides j nests in the Buttertubs. 
Saxicola cenanthe. Summer visitant, common. 
Pratincola rubetra. Commonest in summer. 
Pratincola rubicola. Less common resident. 
Ruticilla phoenicurus. Firetail. Summer visitant, common about 

stone walls in the valleys. 
Erithacus rubecula. Valley resident, common. 
Accentor modularis. Do. do. 

Sylvia cinerea. Valley resident, not common. 
Sylvia hortensis. Valley resident. 

Acrocephalus phragmitis. Valley resident, not common. 
Phylloscopus trochilus. Summer visitant, common in the valley. 
Phylloscopus sibilatrix. In woods ; summer visitant, common 

in the valley. 
Regulus cristatus. In larch woods ; common resident. 
Parus major. Valley resident, common. 
Parus cceruleus. Valley resident, common. 
Parus palustris. Do., do. 

Cinclus aquaticus. Bessie Douker. Resident, common in all 

the water-courses up to the valley-heads. 
Troglodytes parvulus. Valley resident, common. 
Motacilla lugubris. Do. do. 

Motacilla melanope. Summer visitant, in the valleys. 
Anthus trivialis. Summer visitant, in the valleys, common. 
Anthus pratensis. Ubiquitous resident. 

Muscicapa grisola. Summer visitant, in the valleys, common. 
Hirundo rustica. Do. do. 

Chelidon urbica. Do. do. 

Cotile riparia. Summer visitant, in the valleys, not common. 

Naturalist 



GOODCHILD : BIRDS OBSERVED IN UPPER SWALEDALE. 249 

Certhia familiaris. In woods, resident, not common. 
Carduelis spinus. Observed on migration, not common. 
Fringilla CCElebs. Scobbie. Resident, commonest in summer. 
Acanthus cannabina. Summer visitant, not common. 
Acanthus rufescens. Observed on migration. 
Acanthus flavirostris. Observed on migration only. 
Pyrrhula europaea. Valley resident, common. 
Loxia curvirostra. 

Emberiza citrinella. Spink. Valley resident, common. 
Plectrophanes nivalis. A regular visitant on migration, chiefly 

confined to the moory uplands. 
Sturnus vulgaris. Sheep Starling, Not known thirty years ago, 

but rapidly increasing. Summer resident only. 
Pica caudata. Pyet. Common. 
Corvus monedula. Jack. Breeds in every village, and in most 

of the crags. 
Corvus corax. Formerly bred in the crags near the head of the 

dale. One pair bred for years in a large swallow-hole there ; 

now nearly exterminated by gun, trap, and poison. 
Corvus corone. Corbie. Breeds in trees up to their uppermost 

limit on the fells. 
Corvus cornix. Almost unknown. 
Alauda arvensis. Lavrock. Not common. 
Cypselus apus. Summer visitant, not common. 
Alcedo ispida. Not common. 
Cuculus canorus. Gouk. 
Strix flammea. Valley resident, not common. 
Asio Otus. Not uncommon in the woods. 
Asio accipitrinus. Has bred occasionally on the moors ; not a 

regular migrant here. 
Syrnium aluco. Jinnie Hewlet. Common in all the woods. 
Buteo vulgaris. Occasionally breeds even yet in the crags about 

the dale head ; rare generally. 
Accipiter nisus. Breeds commonly in the woods. 
Milvus ictinus. Glead. Not rare thirty years ago ; now exter- 
minated. 
Falco peregrinus. A regular visitant on migration ; and one or 

more pairs attempt to rear a brood nearly every year in the 

crags about the dale head. Most commonly seen in August. 
Falco sesalon. A few pairs attempt to breed every year on the 

mo ors. Found only from about May to about October. 

August 1890. 



250 CURIOUS INCIDENT RELATING TO A BLACKBIRD'S NEST. 

Falco tinnunculus. Steangall. A ubiquitous resident, breeding 

chiefly in the scars and crags. 
Ardea cinerea. Hemshew. No longer breeds in the dale. 
Anas boschas. Breeds occasionally in rushy spots near the dale 

heads. 
Querquedula crecca. Breeds more commonly than the last, in 

similar places. 
Columba palumbus. Cushat. Valley resident, common in 

summer. 
Columba cenas. Not known as yet. 
Columba livia (? or feral Domestic Pigeon). Breeds here and 

there in the crags. 
Tetrao tetrix. Only where introduced. 
Lagopus scoticus. Moor Game. Fell resident. 
Crex pratensis. Deaker Hen. Summer visitant, common in the 

valley. 
Charadrius pluvialis. Chiefly a summer resident ; breeds on 

the moors. 
Charadrius morinellus. Formerly bred ; now only occasionally 

seen (and shot) during migration. 
Vanellus cristatus. Tewfit. Nearly ubiquitous, but chiefly 

resident in summer. 
Scolopax rusticola. Occasionally seen on the moors, and may, 

possibly, occasionally breed in the woods. 
Scolopax gallinago. A few pairs breed in the bogs. 
Scolopax gallinula. Winter visitant. 
Tringa alpina. Many pairs breed on the fell tops, but none 

remain through the winter. 
Totanus hypoleucos. A common summer resident. 
Numenius arquata. Breeds on the fell tops, commonly, but 

does not remain through the winter. 



NOTE— BIRDS. 

Curious Incident relating to a Blackbird's Nest.— A lot of laurels were 
brought from some distance to be planted in a gentleman's garden at Harrogate. 
They were laid down for some time, of course with the roots covered over. 
During this time a Blackbird {Titrdus meruld) built its nest among them. This 
was discovered when the laurels were wanted for planting out. The nest, however, 
was taken care of, and placed securely in the laurel it was originally built in, and, 
surprising to relate, the bird took possession of the nest in its new position, and 
continued the incubating of the eggs with what would no doubt have terminated 
in a happy result but for a stupid workman who one day threw a clod at the bird 
as she was sat on the nest; which so frightened her that she deserted the eggs. — 

R. Fortune, Harrogate, June i6th, 1890. 

Naturalist, 



251 

SOME OF THE FLOWERING PLANTS AND OF 
THE FERNS OF UPPER SWALEDALE. 



J. G. GOODCHILD, H. M. Geol. Survev. F.G.S., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 



Anemone nemorosa. Woods, common. 

Ranunculus aquatilis. Pools to 1,500 feet. 

Caltha palustris. Goudilocks. In the valleys, common. 

Trollius europaeus. Fell pastures to 1,000 feet, common. 

Cochlearia officinalis. Wet rocks in calcareous districts. 

Draba incana. Crags, very local. 

Helianthemum vulgare. Dry parts of crags and fell sides to 

1,000 feet, common. 
Viola lutea. Common in the drier meadows, especially above 

Muker. 
Drosera rotundifolia. Very local in sheltered boggy places. 
All the commoner species of Silene and of LycJuiis. L. viscaria 

not known. 
Sagina nodosa. Dry meadows and well-drained scar-tops, 

especially on limestone near lead-mines, common. 
Arenaria verna. Common everywhere around old lead-mines at 

all elevations ; rarely found elsewhere. 
Stellaria nemorum. In the shady parts of the woods between 

Muker and Keld. 
Hypericum perforatum. Common. 
Hypericum quadrangulum. Common. 
Hypericum pulchrum. Common. 
Hypericum montanum. Common. 
Geranium sanguineum. Found in one or two of the crags near 

the dale-head. 
Geranium phaeum. By the road-side between Muker and 

Gunnerside. 
Geranium sylvaticum. Common in the valleys. 
Geranium pratense. Common in the valleys 
Geranium lucidum. Abundant on the old walls in the valleys. 
Prunus padus. Hecktri tree. In all the wood margins. 
Spiraea ulmaria. In moist meadows, abundant. 
Geum urbanum. In the valleys, abundant. 
Geum rivale. In moist shady places low down, common. 

August i8qo. 



252 GOODCHILD : PLANTS AND FERNS OF UPPER SWALEDALE, 

Potentilla fruticosa. Not known. 

Potentilla tormentilla (with Galhun saxatile). Ubiquitous to 

2,400 feet. 
Comarum palustre. Only in bogs low down, very local. 
Rubus chamaemorus. Locally abundant on the moors ; its fruit 

is always devoured before ripening by the moor birds. 
Rubus saxatilis. In moist woods, especially below Keld, rather 

common. 
Rosa spinosissima. In dry places below 700 feet, rather 

common. 
Rosa tomentosa is the commonest rose. 
Agrimonia eupatoria. In drier parts of woods, especially among 

limestone, common. 
Poterium sanguisorba. In dry pastures, very common. 
Alchemilla vulgaris. To 1,000 feet, very common. 
Alchemilla arvensis. Chiefly on wall-tops and on limestone 

crags. 
Pyrus aucuparia. In sheltered spots to 2,000 feet, common. 
Epilobium angustifolium. Undoubtedly wild in valley-bottoms, 

to 1,600 feet. 
Montia fontana. Common at all elevations in 'swangs' and 

springy spots. 
Sedum rhodiola. In sheltered spots on limestone crags to 

2,000 feet. 
Sedum villosum. By the wet margins of hill-side springs to 

1,600 feet. 
Saxifraga aizoides. In limestone swallow-holes near the head 

of the dale ; very local. 
Saxifraga stellaris. On limestone rocks up to 1,800 ft., common. 
Saxifraga granulata. In the woods below Keld. 
Saxifraga tridactylites. Abundant on all the old walls in the 

valleys. 
Chrysosplenium oppositifolium. Everywhere about wet rocks 

to 2,000 feet. 
Parnassia palustris. Abundant on many of the upland bogs. 
Adoxa moschatellina. In the woods, common. 
Sanicula europaea. Do. do. 
Galium verum. Common. 
Galium cruciatum. Do. 
Galium palustre. Do. 

Naturalist, 



GOODCHILD : PLANTS AND FERNS OF UPPER SWALEDALE. 253 

Galium saxatile. Common, 

Galium uliginosum. Do. 

Galium mollugo. Do. 

Galium aparine. Do. 

Asperula odorata. Abundant in the woods around Kisdon Foss, 

etc. 
Valeriana dioica. In the valleys, common. 
Scabiosa succisa. Pastures, common. 
Picris hieracioides, Leontodon hirtus, Hypochoeris glabra. 

Lactuca muralis, Crepis virens, Hieracium pilosella, 

H. murorum, Lapsana communis, well represent the 

Compositse and are of general occurrence. 
Carduus nutans is common on the limestone outcrops. 
Centaurea nigra. Knops. Dry pastures, common. 
Gnaphalium sylvaticum. In the woods, common. 
Gnaphalium dioicum. Dry fell-sides. 
Gnaphalium arvense. May be introduced. 
Solidago virga-aurea. In the woods, common. 
Senecio jacobaea. Common. 
Senecio aquaticus. Do. 
Senecio sylvaticus. Do. 

Achillea ptarmica. Fell pastures to i,8oo feet, common. 
Campanula latifolia. Abundant in valleys. 
Campanula glomerata. Chiefly on calcareous soils, common. 
Erica cinerea. Not uncommon on many of the crags in sheltered 

spots to 1,800 ft. 
Erica tetralix (Bell Heather) and Calluna vulgaris (Ling) 

form nearly all the heath. 
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. Common locally. 
Vaccinium myrtillus. Bleaberry. Abundant on nioory ground 

at all elevations. 
Vaccinium oxycoccus. Singularly local in distribution ; found 

in the bogs near the Buttertubs, but not generally common in 

Swaledale jww ; perhaps because exterminated. 
Gentiana campestris. Common on dry rocks, especially limestone. 
Gentiana amarella. Do. do. 

Primula farinosa. Bonnie Birdeen. Fell pastures to i,6oo feet, 

abundant. 
Menyanthes trifoliata. Bog Bean. Locally common in the 

lowland boffs. 



254 GOODCHILD : PLANTS AND FERNS OF UPPER SWALEDALE. 

Veronica spicata, V. anagallis, V. beccabunga, V. offici- 
nalis, V. chamaedrys, V. montana, V. arvensis, and 
V. buxbaumii all occur. 

Euphrasia officinalis. Common. 

Rhinanthus crista-galli. In meadows, very common. 

Melampyrum sylvaticum. Common in the woods around 
Muker. 

Pedicularis palustris. Abundant on the moors. 

Scrophularia nodosa. By the Swale, common. 

Digitalis purpurea. In valleys and woods, abundant. 

Linaria vulgaris. In the valleys, common. 

Lathraea squamaria. Occasionally found in the woods around 
Muker. 

Origanum vulgare. On dry limestone soils, to i,ooo feet, rather 
common. 

Ajuga reptans. In shady places, to i,ooo feet, common. 

Prunella vulgaris. In shady places in the valleys, common. 

Myosotis palustris. Only in the lower parts of the valley. 

Symphytum officinale and Borago officinalis occur, but may 
be escapes. 

Pinguicula vulgaris. Fell pastures and moors, to 2,000 feet in 
sheltered spots, common. 

Lysimachia nemorum. In woods below Keld. 

Several species of Chenopodhan occur, but some may be escapes, as 
Ch. bonus-henricus (and ? other species) are used for 'yarb 
puddins.' The same remark applies, locally, to Polygonum 
bistorta, though this is common in the wild state also. 

Polygonum viviparum. Grows on many of the wet crags above 
Keld. 

Empetrum nigrum. Locally found on the moors to 2,000 feet. 

Salix herbacea and S. repens are both found, with, also, others. 

Myrica gale. Locally common in boggy spots, 

Juniperus communis. On the hill-sides above Keld, Muker and 
Thwaite, common. 

Listera ovata. Fell pastures, common. 

Habenaria albida. Do. do. 

Allium ursinum. Ramps. Far too common in all the woods. 

Paris quadrifolia. Locally in woods below Keld, rather common. 

Several species oi Potanwgeton occur in quiet pools up to 1,800 feet. 

Narthecium ossifragum. On boggy ground, even in the up- 
lands, common. 

Naturalist, 



NOTES — MAMMALIA. 



255 



Ceterach officinarum. Grew on a dry wall below Gunnerside, in 

the 'sixties.' 

All four British species of Polypodhim are common, 

Polypodium dryopteris and P. phegopteris both occur below 

Keld. 

Allosorus crispus is locally abundant on upland crags, where no 
calcareotis matter is present. It never grows on limestone. 

Cystopteris fragilis is one of the commonest ferns on dry crags, 
old walls, etc. 

Polystichum lonchitis is exterminated. 

Polystichum aculeatum is yet abundant. 

Lastraea oreopteris is very abundant locally, especially on the 
sheltered parts of the fell-sides. 

Asplenium viride is abundant in limestone joints, deserted lead- 
mine levels, etc. 

Asplenium trichomanes has a wider habitat. 

Asplenium adiantum-nigrum occurs very locally ; it is found on 

some of the crags near the dale-head ; also below Gunnerside. 
Blechnum boreale. Common. 
Hymenophyllum tunbridgense has been met with near one of 

the fosses in Swaledale. 

Botrychium lunaria is locally not uncommon in dry meadows 
near Muker. 

Ophioglossum vulgatum is found on a limestone pasture near 
Keld. 

Lycopodium clavatum^ L. alpinum, and L. selago occur on 

the higher moorlands, from 1,500 feet upwards. 
Lycopodium inundatum is locally found in small numbers near 

the fell-side springs. 



NOTES— MAMMALIA. 

Seal on Coast of Durham.— A Phoca gryphus was picked up on March 17th, 
1887, in the sea between Hartlepool and Seaham ; it weighed 35 stone, was 8 ft. 
long, and nearly 6 ft. in girth.— J. W. L. T. Fawcett, The Grange, Sallley. 

Natterer's Bat near Thorp Arch.— I am pleased to be able to record an 
occurrence of Natterer's or the Reddish-gray Bat ( Vespertilio nattcreri) for this 
district. On the nth inst., walking from Thorp Arch Station towards Walton, 
I found the bat lying on the road, but recently dead, as it was quite warm and 
bleeding at the mouth and nose. On opening the Bat I found the front of the 
skull smashed as though it had flown against, or been struck by something. It is 
a female and weighed 115 grains.— Edi;ar R. Waite, The Museum, Leeds, 
2 1st July, 1890. 

August 1890. 



256 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



A collection of drawings from the pencil of Mr. John Hancock, the eminent 
naturalist, has just been presented by him to the Natural History Society, 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, and they are now on view in the Museum at Barras Bridge. 
The drawings consist chiefly of studies of birds from life, and were sketched by 
Mr. Hancock to assist him in setting up the beautiful collection of stuffed birds 
which forms so prominent a feature of the treasures in this museum. They are con- 
tained in thirty-two frames, of which two are devoted to numerous miscellaneous 
coloured sketches, amongst which are depicted a pair of Elephant Hawk Moths 
found near the Thames, Bananas in flower at the Crystal Palace, Fungi and 
Edible Chanterelles. The remaining frames, with the exception of the last (which 
contains drawings of various quadrupeds), consist entirely of drawings of birds, mostly 
from life — Hawks, Teal, Cormorants, Gulls, Herons, etc., and numerous small birds, 
displaying their characteristic attitudes whilst feeding, swimming, sleeping, etc., 
and often introducing their natural surroundings with highly artistic treatment. 
The sketches range from the mere outline of a head, foot, or wing, to beauti- 
fully finished water-colour drawings of birds and groups of birds. Among the 
latter must be mentioned a very fine study of dead game in black and white, and 
another frame containing three groups of Red-necked Phalaropes, Stonechats, 
and Blue Tits, together with several designs for cases of stuffed birds, amongst 
which is a sketch of an Eagle attacking a Heron, to which we can trace the design 
of the magnificent central case in the Bird-room of the Museum — ' The Eagle 
attacking Swans.' There is besides a frame of brilliantly coloured designs for the 
Hevvitson case of Birds of Paradise, bequeathed to the British Museum. The 
whole of the sketches are characterised by the life-like appearance and natural 
attitudes of the subjects, and are in strong contrast in this respect to Bewick's 
drawings for his book of birds, which hang in the next gallery, and which appear 
for the most part to have been sketched from stuffed specimens, and these by no 
means irreproachable examples of the ornithologists' art. Enthusiastic collectors 
of Bewick's works are often liable to extend to him as a naturalist the admiration 
which as a reviver of wood-engraving he is certainly entitled to. This collection 
of Mr. Hancock's studies reveals the source of the life which he has breathed into 
the feathered occupants of his cases in the Bird-room below, and the secret of the 
success which has attended his labours in this branch of natural history, surpassing 
perhaps any of his fellow-workers in the same field. The Natural History Society 
of Newcastle is to be congratulated on its recent valuable acquisition, and we 
deeply regret that Mr. Hancock's failing health renders him unable to continue 
his labours in a field in which he is so distinguished a worker. 



It will not be out of place to refer to the approaching meeting of the British 
Association in Leeds, and to remind such as propose to read papers that they 
should send an abstract (along with the paper itself) to the General Secretaries of 
the Association in London, on or before the 6th August. 



One of the excursions in connection with the Leeds meeting of the British 
Association will be to Malham Tarn and Cove, and Gordale Scar, on Thursday, 
Sept. nth, has been placed in the hands of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, and 
will be organised as a practical excursion calculated to prove of considerable 
interest to field-workers in natural history and geology, the district being remark- 
ably productive in almost every branch of the natural sciences. 

We note with a considerable amount of regret that our Liverpool contemporary 
' Research ' has ceased to exist at the end of its second volume. In the hands of 
Mr. Norman Tate it was so ably conducted that its appearance was looked for 
with pleasurable anticipation by numbers of readers, who will now much miss its 
excellent portraits and memoirs, and its well-written and adequately illustrated 

articles on the scientific aspects of health-resorts. 

Naturalist, 



No. 182. 



SEPTEMBER 1890. 




MONTHLV lOURNAL Ol 



NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF KNGLAND. 



coNDUcricn hv 



WM. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., 

Sunny IJaiik, Leeds : 



UriEl THIi ASSISTAMlv |> 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., 
Royal Herbarium, Kew ; 

W. EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S., M.B.O.U., 

Museum of Science & Art, Edinl)in;^li ; 

ALFRED HARKER, M.A., F.G.S., 
St. Jolin's College, Cambridge ; 



riXIAI. DKIAKIMENTS OK 

CHAS. p. HOBKIRK, F.L.S., 
Dewsbury ; 

GEORGE T. PORRIT'L, F.L.S. , F.E.S., 

Greenfield House, Hudder>field ; 

W. BARWELL TURNER, F.C.S., F.R.M.S.. 
38. Sliolebroke A\enue, I.eed.s. 



•Contents: 

An Additional Station for Arenaria gothica in West Yorkshire— Il'/u. U'/ii/rve// 
Eastern Turtle Dove in Yorkshire — Jas. BaJ;liouse,yiiii., F.Z.S., 1\I .B.O.U. 

Bird-Notes from the Malham District — Hatty B. Booth 

The Conchology of Malham — ]V. Dctiisoii Roebuck, F.L.S. 
The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Kildale-in-Cleveland 
The Tree-Sparrow in the County of Durham — J. IV. Fawceft 
Bibliography: Lepidoptera, 1888 

Lord Lilford's Coloured Figures of British Birds (Review) 
Backhouse's Handbook of European Birds (Review) .. 
Notes — Birds 

Remarkable SwaIIow.s' Nests at Wilstrop, near York — Edgar R. Watte, F.L..S.; 
The Me.ily Redpoll in O.von?— AVe-. H. A. MacJtherson.M.A., M.B.O.V. 
Notes — Fishes 

Tliree-Bearded Rockling off Whitby — T/ios. Stephenson. ; Anctiovy on the Coast 
of the North-West of England— A' tT'. H. A.Macpherson, M.A.,M.B.O. U. ; 
Sting-Ray at Whitby — 7'Aos. Stephetison. 
Notes — Lepidoptera.. 

Pho.\optery.\ siculana in York.shire — Ceo. T. Porritt, F./..S., F.F.S.; Apatura 
iris L. — ^as. F.ardlcy Mason. 
Note — Coleoptera 

Dorcus parallelopipedus near Donca.stcr — E. G. Bay/ord. 
Note— Botany 

Senecio viscosus L. at Savile Town near Dewsbury — P. J''o.r Lee. 



=57 
253 
259 to 261 
263 to 267 
269 to 276 
277 & 278 
279 to 288 
261 & 262 

267 & 268 
258 & 278 

25S & 261 



267 

267 

276 



LONDON: 
LovEi.L Reeve & Co., 5, IIenkiei pa Stueet, Covent Garden, E.C'. 

M<-CORnUOTMLE & Co. LIMITED, CARDINGTON StKEET, EuSTON ; 

AND 

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BOOKS RECEIVED. 

Smithsonian Institution. — Annual Reports, 1886 (part 2) and 1887 (in two parts). 

?>vo, cloth, 1889. [The Institution. 

Dr. Angust Otto. — Zur Geschichte der altesten Plaustiere. Svo. 1890, 78 pages. 

[The Publishers. 
Leeds Geological Association. - Transactions, Part 5, 1S89. [The Association. 

Die Schwalbe, Jahrg. 14, Nr. 13 & 14, Juli 31 & Aug. 15. i8go. [Orn.Vereins in Wien. 
Science Gossip, No. 308, for Aug. 1890. [Messrs. Chatto & Windus, publishers. 
The Young Naturalist, Part 128, for Aug. 1890. [Mr. lohn V.. Robson, editor. 
The Zoologist, 3rd Series, Vol. 14, No. 164, Aug. 1890. [J. E. Harting, editor. 
Entomologists' Rec. & Jn. of Variation, No, 5, Aug. 1890. [J. W. Tutl, editor. 
Notarisia, Ann. 5, No. 19, 30 Giugno, 1890. [D. Levi-Morenos, Redattore. 

Revue Bryologique, 17'- Annee, 1890, No. 4. [M. T. Husnot, redacteur, Cahan. 
The Midland Naturalist, No. 1 51-2, July- Aug. 1890. [Birmingham Nat. Hist. Soc. 
Nuova Notarisia, i Agosto, 1890. [Dr. G. B. de Toni, redattore, Padova. 

Records of the Australian Museum, Vol. i, No. 3, July 1890. [The Trustees. 

S. L. Mosley.— Hist, of Brit. Birds, Nests and Eggs, No. 65, Aug. 1890. [Author. 

For Sale. — Talbot's Birds of Wakefield, 2s. 6d. Address, Eds. Naturalist. 

In Preparation. 

A MonooTa])h of the Land and Fresh -Water Mollusca 
of the British Fauna. 



The work is intended to l)e full, detailed, and exhaustive, and adequately 
illustrative of Variation, Development, and Geographical Distribution. 



Co-operation is invited from all interested, and any information or specimens 
(the common species of every district are particularly desired) will be welcomed 
and carefully acknowledged. The Authors may be addressed — c/o Mr. John W. 
T.WLOR, Oftice of the Journal of Conchology, Sovereign Street, Leeds. 

Information is at present specially required on the 'irAwgi^Testacdla, Limax, and 
Arioit), of which living specimens from every district are desired. 



Improved Egg Drills (2 sizes) and Metal I'.lowpipe with instructions 1/3 free. 
* Hints on Egg Collecting and Nesting,' illustrated, 3^d. free. Birds' Skins, 
Eggs (side-blown and in clutches with date), Lepidoptera, Ova, Larviij, and Pupae, 
Artificial Eyes, and all kinds of Naturalists' Requisites. Lists, one stamp. All 
specimens, &c., .sent out 'on approval.' 

J. & W, DAVIS (Naturalists), DARTFORD, Kent. 

The cheapest dealer in P.irds, Skins, Eggs, Butterflies, Moths, Foreign Shells, 
etc., is John Eggleston, Park Place, Sunderland. Lists free. 



257^ 

AN ADDITIONAL STATION FOR 
ARENARIA GOTHICA IN WEST YORKSHIRE. 



WILLIAM WHITWELL. 



Yorkshire botanists will be glad to know that there is now con- 
siderable likelihood of Arenaria gotJiica Fries proving to be native 
to the county. The Ribblehead Station locality, unsupported by 
others, is certainly inconclusive. 

But on Monday, August i8th, the plant was gathered l)y 
Dr. Silvanus P. Thompson and his sister, Miss R. J". Thompson, at 
a spot three miles distant from Ribblehead, and away from any 
railway. Further particulars about the locality must be supplied 
later. Dr. Thompson, in the course of a walk some days before,, 
noticed a plant which seemed to him to resemble A. gothica, and on 
the 1 8th instant he revisited the place along with Miss Thompson, 
l)y whom the characters of the Ribblehead Arenaria were at once 
recognised in the specimens they collected. Some of these specimens 
reached and were identified by me, on the 20th, and on the same 
day Mr. N. E. Brown, of Kew, also examined them. 

The perennial character of the Ribblehead plant has now been 
placed beyond a doubt. I have received specimens at intervals 
through the autumn, winter, and spring, so that a whole year's stages 
have been seen. Plants (transplanted direct from Ribblehead) were, 
grown by me, and these put forth winter shoots in the same manner 
as an ordinary Dianthus; unfortunately, the latest frost killed the 
plants. The winter and spring specimens were mature ones, bearing 
last year's dead capsules, even after this year's spring flowering had 
actually commenced. 

With much regret I have to add that the very existence of the 
plant at Ribblehead is endangered. In September, 1889, Mr. F. A. 
Lees saw 'hundreds' of plants there. I am told that now there are 
comparatively few. One friend writes that 'it will not be there 
through another season.' The explanation is, I fear, to be found in 
what is said at Ribblehead; 'dozens of collectors have been here this 
year.' I would ask all botanists to pass a 'self-denying ordinance' 
and to scrupulously refrain from taking or obtaining specimens for 
the next two years at least. A similar appeal will be made through 
the 'Journal of Botany.' 

[We trust that Mr. Whitwell's appeal to collecting botanists will 
meet with a hearty and universal acceptance, so that so interesting 
a species may be preserved to the West Yorkshire Flora for many 
years to come. — Eds. Nat.] 

Sept. [890. K 



258 

EASTERN TURTLE DOVE IN YORKSHIRE. 

JAMES BACKHOUSE, Jun., F.Z.S.. M.B.O.U., 
Hon. Curator in Ornithology to the Yorkshire Philosophical Society's Museum, ] 'ori: 

Early last autumn (October 23rd), a specimen of the Eastern Turtle 
Dove {Turtur orientalis) found its way, amongst other interesting 
birds, to Scarborough, and was captured near to that town by a local 
gunner and preserved by Mr. Head. 

The bird has since come into my possession and was forwarded 
for identification to Mr. Seebohm, who writes (April 9th, 1890) : — 

' The Pigeon is a bird in first plumage of Turttir orientalis^ and 
is probably a wild bird, as it has occurred more than once in 
Scandinavia. ... It is a most interesting addition to the list of 
accidental visitors to England.' 

Although the specimen in question was kindly exhibited for me 
by Mr. Seebohm at a meeting of the Zoological Society, held on 
May 6th, it is only right that its occurrence should be noted in 
the pages of ' The Naturalist ' as a new Yorkshire bird. 

[It is of interest to add that by Mr. Backhouse's kindness 
this specimen now forms part of the collection in the York 
Museum. — Ed.]. --— 

NO TE^ ORNITHOL OGV. 

Remarkable Swallows' Nests at Wilstrop, near York. — Visiting at 
Wilstrop Hall, near York, a short time ago, Mr. John Harrison drew my attention 
to several nests built under the eaves of his house. ]!y the aid of a ladder I was 
iible to inspect them more closely. There were five nests in all, three of which 
were Martins' {Chelidon iirbica) and two were Swallows' {Hirttttdo rustica). The 
Martins' nests were not remarkable, being built as usual close under, and touching 
the spout, with the entrance in the side. The swallows' nests were noteworthy 
inasmuch as they were built against the wall unsupported by any ledi^e whatever. 
The upper part of the nest, which was characteristically open, was about two inches 
below the spout. I may add that usual nesting-places for the .Swallow were not 
wanting, for Mr. Harrison took me into one of his many sheds and showed me six 
Swallows' nests. Four of them were placed on a beam, but curiously enough the 
■other two were built against the inner wall of the shed, and quite a foot below the 
angle of the roof. — Edgar R. Waite, The Museum, Leeds, 22nd August. 1890. 



NO TES— FISHES. 
Three-Bearded Rockling off Whitby. — A very fine example of the 
Three-bearded Rockling or Gade [Motella iricirrata) was caught yesterday by 
ii fisherman, on a line, about six miles off Whitby. It measures 18 inches in length 
and 8 inches in girth behind the pectoral fins, and is the first I remember of that 
size being captured off here on a hook. It has been preserved by Mr. J. H. 
Wilson for the Whitby Museum. — Thos. Stei>he\son, i, Haggersgate, Whitby, 
28th June, 1890. 

Anchovy on the Coast of the North-West of England. — Although 
the Anchovy (Engrau/is cncrasicho/us) has been obtained on many parts of the 
British coast, it has not hitherto been reported from the shores of the North-West 
of England. I am, therefore, glad to be able to record that about twenty speci- 
mens of the Anchovy were captured near .Silloth, June 27th, 1890. — H. A. 
Maci'HEKSON, Carlisle. 

Naturalist, 



259 
BIRD-NOTES FROM THE MALHAM DISTRICT. 



HARRY B. I'.OOTH. 



In view of the approaching excursion of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union to Malham Cove and Gordale Scar, it may not be out of place 
to give a few notes on the birds of that locality. I shall not attempt 
a local list of the avi-fauna, but give simply a few short notes made 
•during the periodical visits of my friends and myself to that delight- 
ful and health-givmg district. Of the rare and accidental visitors 
I shall not treat, but confine myself chiefly to those birds which any 
ordinary observer may find if he only visits the place at the proper 
season. 

On entering the valley the lover of birds cannot fail to be struck 
with the great abundance of that beautiful bird the Yellow or Ray's 
Wagtail {Motacilla rait) ; which seems to be nearly the most common 
bird in the whole valley. On one occasion we noticed a nest and 
■eggs of this species right in the centre of the moor — a rather out-of- 
the-way place for this species. Many pairs of the Grey Wagtail 
{M. melanope) may be seen nesting on the mountain streams which 
abound in this neighbourhood. Numbers of Dippers {Cindus 
aqiiaticus) too, make the young river their home ; and here and there 
a Kingfisher {Alcedo ispida) may be seen as he flies before us or cuts 
across a field at a bend and joins the river again behind us. 
In summer many Sandpipers {Tringo'ides hypoleucos) will be seen 
gaily tripping along its banks ; or a Heron {Ardea cinend) may rise 
close to us and almost leisurely wing his way to his home at Eshton 
Hall, about six miles away and near Gargrave. On one occasion as 
we passed through Airton — a small village about three miles before 
the tourist arrives at Malham, either from Bell Busk, Gargrave or 
Skipton — the quick ear of my friend, Mr. E. P. P. Butterfield, 
•discovered the home of a pair of Pied Flycatchers {Muscicapa 
.atricapilla) in a grand old ash-tree close to the low side of the 
village ; a species new to Upper Airedale. Before leaving 
Airton, I should like to mention a small pond about a mile and a 
half towards Gargrave and in the second field from the road. Here, 
•on the 23rd of May of the present year, we were much surprised to 
find three Terns (sp.?) hawking over the water just like swallows. 
They were not there when we had passed the same morning. We 
thought they had got rather out of their line of migration. On the 
same pond, the Coot {Fulica atnx) yearly breeds. If we approach 
stealthily we may generally have a fine view of a Heron as he stands 
apparently asleep in the shallow water, and the Sedge Warbler 

Sept. 1890. 



26o BOOTH : I'.IRD-NOTES FROM THK MALHAM DISTRICT. 

{Acrocephalus phrag/nitis) will tell us plainly he prefers our absence to- 
our company. 

But to return to Malham. On our left, we see the stupendous 
block of limestone called Malham Cove, from under which the 
stream liberates itself after running underground from the moor. 
On the ledges of the steep side hundreds of Jackdaws {Corvus 
monedula) make their homes, and now and then a Stock Dove 
{Co/it i/iba a'nas) may be seen coming or going. A mile and a half 
further on and we are at Gordale Scar. A few pairs of Wheatears 
{Saxico/a ivnanthe) are sure to attract our attention in the ravine, 
while all up the sides thousands of Jackdaws make us aware of 
their presence ; those near the top scarcely looking larger than 
sparrows. The bushes which grow on the ledges of the rock 
afford nesting-places for numbers of Ringdoves {Columba pahimbusy 
and several pairs of Hawks breed on the dizzy heights of the cliffs. 
I have not been able to identify the species, though doubtless they 
are Kestrels {Tinnutiatiiis alaudarius). 

After some time spent in meditation at the almost overwhelming 
boldness of the scene, we commence a stiff climb to reach the moor 
above, on the skirts of which we are sure to meet with a few pairs 
of Ring Ouzels {Tit7-diis torquatus). The weird wild notes of the 
Curlews {Numenius arqualn) and Lapwings ( Vanellus vulgaris) let 
us know when we are properly on the moor ; and afterwards, as we 
move towards some marshy spot, the ever-noisy Redshank {Totanus 
calidris) will join in the chorus. In the spring-time the Snipe 
{Gallinago ca'/cstis) will cause us to look up and wonder how he 
makes his 'drumming.' But what a treat to the lover of birds are 
these wild moor birds' notes I What an air of freedom seems tO' 
surround us who are so much cooped up in a smoky town ! 

And now we come upon a small party of Dunlins {Tri/iga alpina) 
changing into summer plumage, either by a stream side or in 
a swamp. What little beauties they look ! and how tame they are 
as they trip gaily and nimbly along just before us, and then rise 
with a kind of shrill whistle. A little later on and we shall see them iiii 
full summer plumage, either singly or in pairs. Doubtless, they breed 
here, but we have never seen their nests, although we have been 
in the breeding-season. But the most handsome bird on the moor 
is the male Golden \^\ovqv {Charadriiis pli/vialis), with his velvety 
jet-black breast, as he turns on a tussock to face us, and as we 
advance, flies, and alternates with his mate in their alarm notes. 
Now and then a pair of Red Grouse {Lagopiis scoticus) or a pair of 
Partridges {Perdi.x cinerea) will rise before us. Long before this we 
shall have caught sight of Malham Tarn, a large expanse of beautiful 

Natur.Tlist, 



Lii.ioKU: COLOURED i-i(;lrk.s of iiRirisii r.lKUS. 261 

■clear water, with Mr. Morrison's liouse nestling aniong the warm- 
looking woods of conifers on the far side. The Tarn cannot be 
very deep, as I have often watched, with my glasses, Moorhens 
{Gallimda chloropus) and Coots {Fn/ica atra) repeatedly diving, as if 
for food, in the centre. Occasionally a few Mallard {Anas boschas) will 
fly over head. The Tufted Duck {Fuligula cristnta) is reported to 
have bred here once. If one could only see all the water birds 
which make this a resting-place or home during winter, what 
a treat it would be ! 

Returning again to Malham, the Wood Wren {Phylloscopus 
sibilatrix) is not uncommon in the wood at the opposite side of the 
valley. Here, too, in the evening, we may hear the Tawny Owl 
{Syr?iium aluco) and numbers of Nightjars {Caprimulgus europauis). 
I am told by the villagers the Barn Owl {Strix flamviea) is still there 
in some numbers, and the Carrion Crow [Corvus corone) still lingers 
in the district. On one occasion Mr. liutterfield saw a flock of 
Fieldfares {Tiirdus pilaris) here as late as May 5th. 

In conclusion, I should like to state my only object in writing 
this paper is to let my fellow ornithologists know of the district, so 
liiat they may have the chance of enjoying it as much as I do. 



NOTE— FISHES. 



Sting-Ray at Whitby. — On the 12th inst., a fine example of the Stin<;-Ray 
(7'rygo>i pastiiiaca) was caught about two miles oft' Whitby, liy John Waters, 
fisherman, on a line baited with mussel. Its measurements were as follows : — from 
snout to root of tail, 17 inches ; from root to end of tail, 16 inches ; from root of 
tail to first spine or sting, 7 inches; distance between roots of spines or stings, 
l.\ inches; from root of last or second spine or sting to end of tail, l\ inches ; 
length of first spine, 3J inches ; and of second or last, 3 inches. Thickness of fish 
from belly to l)ack 3^ inches, width from tip to tip of wings, 20 inches ; and 
from outside of right to outside of left eye, 4 inches. It is being preserved for the 
Whitby Museum. — Tiios. Stephenson, i. Haggersgate, Whitby, Aug. 15th, 1890. 



LORD LILFORD'S COLOURED FIGURES OF 
BRITISH BIRDS. 

Coloured Figures of the Birds of the British Islands. Issued by Lord 
LiLKORD, F.Z.S., &c., President of the IJritish Ornithologists" Union. Part I, 
Oct. 1885, to Part XV, July 1S90. 

Since October 1885 fifteen parts of this most beautiful work 
have appeared. The size is royal octavo, and each part contains 
twelve plates, printed by chromo-lithography in Berlin, from drawings 
by J. G. Keulemans and J. Thornburn. The former of these 
artists has a long-established reputation for his accuracy in painting 
birds and their surroundings. Mr. Thornburn, although less known, 
evidently possesses in a high degree a real genius for depicting birds, 

Sept. 1890. 



262 LILFORD COLOURED FIGURES OF BRITISH BIRDS. 

combined with a love of them for their own sake, and his numerous- 
life-like illustrations in this work must alone entitle him to a place in 
the very front rank of our bird painters. 

Of the general character of these illustrations it is impossible to 
speak too highly. Since the issue of Part i, not only has the 
standard of excellence which commenced the work been fully 
maintained, but in the more recent numbers considerably surpassed. 
Where all are good, it seems invidious to draw attention to special 
plates. The figures of the Kite, Grey Crow, Barnacle Goose, 
Golden Eye, Red-throated Pipit in Part xi ; Magpie, Oyster-catcher, 
Peregrine Falcon (two plates). Knot (two plates) in Part xii ; Twite, 
Avocet, Garganey, Pintail, Pochard and Tufted Ducks in Part xiii ; 
Siskin, Barn Owl, Corncrake and Turnstone in Part xiv, are all of 
high artistic merit, and faithfully represent the characteristic attitudes- 
of the birds, with charming surroundings of wild nature in their 
familiar haunts, and are executed by painter and lithographer alike 
in the very best style. The duplicate illustration of the AVoodcock 
in Part xiv is a great improvement on that which appeared in Part vii, 
and which Lord Lilford states in a foot-note 'did not altogether 
satisfy me as representing an average specimen of the bird.' 
Certainly, this latter is most excellent, and nothing could be more 
natural and life-like. 

In Part xv just received by us, we would commend to the notice 
of our readers plates of the Lesser Grey Shrike and Woodchat, and 
the Wigeon, Gadwall, and Scaup as admirable illustrations of the 
power and characteristic styles of the two artists. 

We are glad to see that in the more recent numbers the descriptive 
letter-press has been considerably increased. Lord Lilford is so 
well known as a thorough practical naturalist that the short sketches 
of each species coming from his pen are certain to be well received, 
and they have moreover the special merit of being thoroughly 
original. 

The price at which the illustrations are issued, 9s. 6d. a part, or 
an average of under lod. for each plate, is most reasonable, and 
much below their intrinsic value. No doubt after completion the 
work will greatly rise in value. We strongly recommend all who take 
an interest in ornithology and have the means of indulging their 
hobby, to add these illustrations to their libraries. These cannot 
fail, now and in the future, to afford infinite satisfaction and delight, 
and they will certainly be a great aid to any student desirous to 
make himself acquainted with the appearances and plumage of those 
species described in the best recognised text-books of British 
Birds.— J. C. 

Naturalist, 



265 
THE CONCHOLOGY OF MALHAM. 

W. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., 
Hon. Secretary and Recorder to tite Conchological Society. 



This paper is not a record of personal experience, for I have had 
scarcely any in the Malham district (as the meagreness of the list of 
slugs will show), but simply a transcript of records which have been 
authenticated during the past twelve years by the referees of the 
Conchological Society ; and it is thought the publication of them 
will be of interest in connection with the approaching excursion of 
the British Association. 

The district included in the present paper is the plateau of 
Malham Moor, on which is situated the largest of the few lakes of 
which Yorkshire is able to boast, and which has a general elevation 
of about 1,300 ft., together with the steep escarpment (formed by 
the South Craven fault) which terminates it southwards, and so 
much of the upper valley of the Aire as extends from the escarpment 
to Bell Busk. This is in the main — so far as mollusca are concerned — 
a limestone or calcareous area, and therefore produces in profusion 
such species as Helix rupestris, H. arbustorum, If. ericetorum, 
H. lapicida, Balea perversa, and Clausilia dubia. The mollusca 
which inhabit the Tarn itself are worthy of remark. The altitude 
(1,300 ft.) is a great one at which to expect to find such species as 
Limncea stagnali's, Valvata piscinalis, Bythinia tentaailata, Planorbis 
nautileus, P. contortus and Sphceriuni corneum, but the interest is 
increased when we find that some of these species — notably the 
L. stagnalis — are marked by white streaks in somewhat regular 
alternation with the horny ground colour of their shells, a pheno- 
menon which American authors in treating of similar instances in 
the Rocky Mountains States ascribe to the alternations of cold 
and warmth to which water-shells are necessarily subjected in 
localities lying at so great an elevation as Malham Tarn does in 
comparison with the localities in lowland plains usually occupied by 
such species. The specimens of Ancylus fluviatilis which are found 
in the cold waters of the Aire just at the point where it issues — a full 
stream — from the base of Malham Cove, are also remarkable for 
being opaque white in colour. The marshy ground (Malham Tarn 
Moss) lying on the western side of the Tarn is productive of various 
damp-loving species. 

It will be unnecessary to mention here the names of those 
observers to whom we are indebted for what we know of the 
mollusca of Malham, inasmuch as I have adopted the more satis- 

Sept. i8qo. 



264 ROEBUCK: THE CONCHOLOOY OF MAI, HAM. 

factory plan of appending the names of my authorities to the various 
records quoted. 

The total number of species here placed on record is 41, of 
which only three are slugs, 26 are terrestrial, and 12 fluviatile forms. 
To these may be added Helix sericea, which Rev. W. C. Hey has 
found at Janet's Cave. There are several species of land shells not 
yet on record, which may be confidently expected as a result of more 
extended and systematic research. No attention whatever has been 
paid to the slugs, the number of which will certainly be largely 
increased when they are sought after with any degree of attention. 
Arion ater. Street Gate above Gordale, on slate rock, at 1,300 ft. 

alt.; W.D.R. 
Litnax arborum. Gordale Scar ; W. Nelson. 
Limax agrestis. Ascends to 1,000 ft. above Malham Cove. 
Succinea putris. A common species. Road between Malham 

and Bell Busk; W.D.R. Common in marsh at Airton, close 

to river; W. West. Gordale Head, at 1,300 ft. alt, incrusted 

specimens; W. West. Malham Tarn Moss, alt. 1,300 ft.; 

W. West. 

The var. limnoidea has been found at Malham ; W. West. 
Succinea elegans. Has been once obtained. Malham, at 

1,300 ft. alt.; W. West. 
Vitrina pellucida. Has only once been recorded, though it is 

doubtless common. Malham, on limestone ; W. West. 
Zonites cellarius. Not uncommon. Kirkby Malham ; W. Nelson. 

Malham ; W. West. Gordale Beck ; W. West. 
Zonites alliarius. A common species. Kirkby Malham ; 

W. Nelson. Malham ; W. West. Hanlith ; W. West. Street 

Gate, Gordale Beck, on Silurian rocks, at 1,300 ft. alt. ; W.D.R. 
Zonites glaber. One record. Gordale Scar ; W. C. Hey. 
Zonites purus. Malham ; W. West. Base of Gordale Scar ; 

W. West. 
Zonites radiatulus. On Malham Tarn Moss, at 1,300 ft. alt., 

amongst Encalypta and other mosses ; W. West. 
Zonites crystallinus. A commonly-occurring species. Malham ; 

W. West. Rock-crevices above Malham Cove ; W. West. 

Near Malham Tarn, at 1,300 ft. alt. ; W. West. Street Gate, 

above Gordale, on Silurian rocks, at 1,300 ft. alt. ; J. D. Butterell 

and W.D.R. Close under Gordale Scar; W. West. 
Helix nemoralis. Not uncommon. Gordale Scar ; W. Nelson. 

Kirkby Malham ; W. Nelson. Common at Malham, libellula 

00000 and 12345 ; W. West. 

Naturalist, 



ROE15UCK : I'HE CONCHOLOGY OF MAI, HAM. 265 

Helix hortensis. Malham, van lutea ooooo and 10345 ; W. West. 

Helix arbustorum. An abundant and variable species. Airton ; 
W. Nelson. Gordale Scar ; W. Nelson. Common at Malham ; 
W. West. Common at Bell Busk ; J. W. Taylor. 

The var. alpestris occurs at Malham, with type and var. 
pallida; W. West. 

The var. Jlavescens is not uncommon. Malham ; W. West. 
Airton ; W. Nelson. 

The var. pallida is also not uncommon. Malham ; W. West. 
Foot of Gordale Scar ; W.D.R. 

The var. marmorata is common at Malham ; W. West. 
The var. canigonensis has occurred once. Bell Busk ; 
|. Madison. 

Helix rufescens. Common at Malham ; W. West. Above 
Malham Cove, at 1,300 ft. alt.; W. West. Kirkby Malham; 
W. Nelson. Bell Busk ; W.D.R. 

The var. rubens has occurred at Malham, with type ; W. West. 

Helix hispida. Common at Malham ; W. West. Gordale ; 
W. West. Near Malham Tarn, at 1,300 ft. alt. ; W. West. 

Helix ericetorum. Malham ; W. Nelson. Malham Cove ; 
J. W. Taylor. Airton ; W. Nelson. 

Helix rotundata. An abundant species. Airton; W.D.R. 
Common at Malham ; W. West. Kirkby Malham ; W. Nelson. 
Common at Janet's Cave; W.D.R. Common close to Malham 
Tarn House, at 1,300 ft. alt.; W.D.R. 

Helix rupestris. Occurs on limestone rocks and walls in great 
profusion. Kirkby Malham ; W. Nelson. Common on lime- 
stone rocks at Malham ; W. West. Above Malham Cove, at 
1,300 ft. alt.; W. West. Janet's Cave, abundant on limestone 
walls; W.D.R. Airton, abundant ; W.D.R. Common on walls 
near Bell Busk; W.D.R. Gordale, at 1,000 ft., common; 
W. West. Common close to Malham Tarn House ; W.D.R. 

Helix lapicida. An abundant species. Near (iordale Scar ; 
W. Nelson. Common at Malham ; W. West. Hanlith ; W. West. 
The var. nigrescens has once occurred at Malham ; W. West. 

Bulimus obscurus. Gordale Scar ; W. Nelson. 

Pupa umbilicata. An abundant species. Common at Malham, 
on limestone rocks ; W. West. Close to Malham Tarn House, 
alt. 1,300 ft.; W.D.R. Gordale Scar; W. Nelson. Kirkby 
Malham ; W. Nelson. Airton ; W.D.R. Bell Busk ; W.D.R. 

Pupa marginata. Limestone rocks at Malham; W. West. 

Sept. i8go 



266 ROEBUCK : THE CONCHOLOGY OF MALHAM. 

Vertigo pusilla. Malham ; W. West. 

Balea perversa. Occurs on walls in great profusion. Malham ; 
W. West and T. Rogers. Janet's Cave near Malham; W.I). R. 

Clausilia rugosa. A well-distributed and abundant species. 

Common at Bell Busk ; W.D.R. Kirkby Malham; W. Nelson. 

Hanlith ; W. West. Abundant on limestone rocks at Malham ; 

W. West. Above Malham Cove; W. West. Gordale, at 

I, coo ft. alt.; W. West. Street Gate, Gordale Beck, on Silurian 

rocks, alt. 1,300 ft.; W.D.R. 
Clausilia dubia var. suttoni Wstld. is very abundant. Gordale 

Scar ; W. Nelson. Abundant on limestone rocks at Malham ; 

W. West. Janet's Cave ; W.D.R. Abundant close to Malham 

Tarn House ; W.D.R. On old walls, Malham Moor ; E. Collier. 
Azeca tridens. Malham ; W. West. Malham Cove ; E. Collier. 
Zua lubrica. Malham; W. West. 
Bythinia tentaculata. A few in Malham Tarn ; J. D. Butterell 

and W.D.R. 
Valvata piscinalis. Malham Tarn, approaching var. acuminata ; 

J. D. Butterell and W.D.R. 
Planobis nautileus. One found in Malham Tarn ; W.D.R. 
Planorbis spirorbis. Common in Malham Tarn Moss at 1,300 ft. 

alt. ; W. West. 
Planorbis COntortus. Abundant, but small, in Malham Tarn ; 

W.D.R. and J. D. Butterell. 
Limnsea peregra. Common. Malham; W. West. Malham 

Tarn Moss ; W. West and E. Collier. Malham Tarn ; W.D.R. 

Airton ; W. Nelson. 

The var. ovata occurs in Malham Tarn ; J. D. Butterell and 

W.D.R. River Aire at Malham Cove; W.D.R. 

The var. acuminata has been found at Malham, but not 

characteristic ; W. West. This form is very peculiar ; Dr. E. von 

Martens has referred it to L. lagotis Kob. 
Limnaea stagnalis var. fragilis-variegata. Abundant on 

Potamogeton lucens in Malham Tarn ; J. D. Butterell and W.D.R. 
Limnsea truncatula. Malham ; W. West. Common on Malham 

Tarn Moss, at 1,300 ft. alt. ; W. West. 
Ancylus fluviatilis. Malham ; W. West. Common in the Aire 

at its issue from Malham Cove ; W. West. 

The var. capuloides has been found. Malham ; E. Collier. 

Malham Cove ; T. Rogers. 

The var. albida is common in the river Aire just where it 

issues from Malham Cove ; W. C. Hey. 

Naturalist, 



r.ACKHOUSK : HANDBOOK OF EUROPEAN HIRDS. 267 

Sphserium corneum var. nucleus. Dead specimens almmlant 
in Malham Tarn in Sept. 1883; J- 1^- Butterell and W.D.R. 
Mr. Butterell remarked that the dead shells were peculiar in 
shape, and having the young fry very noticeable at the umbones 
somewhat after the manner of S. /aa/s/re, and that living 
specimens should be procured, as he is inclined to believe that 
perfect examples will in some cases show the same alternation 
of white bands with the ground colour as the Z. stagnalis 
var. fragilis. The specimens obtained were also slightly 
inequilateral and very tumid. 

Pisidium pusillum. Common in Malham Tarn Moss ; W. West. 
Common in Malham Tarn ; W.D.R. 

Pisidium fontinale. Malham ; W. West. 

NO TES~LEPID OFTERA . 

Phoxopteryx siculana in Yorkshire.— \Mien collecting on Askliam Bogs- 
near York, in company with Mr. G. C. Dennis, on May 31st last, Mr. I 'ennis 
netted and handed to me a Tortrix. which turned out to be a good specimen of 
Phoxopteryx siculana, a species new to the county of Yorkshire. Previously I had 
only taken this species in VVicken Fen in Cambridgeshire, ground which in many 
respects is very similar to Askham Bogs.— Geo. T. Porritt, Huddersfielci, 
August 7th, 1890. 

Apatura iris L. — This butterfly has been discovered at Welton Wood in the 
parish of Welton-le-Marsh, near Alford, by Edward Woodthorpe, who there took 
a fine male on the 25th July last and saw three others. He has to-day shown me 
his capture.— Jas. Eardlkv Mason. The Sycamores. Alford, 5th August, 1890. 

NO TE— COLE OFTERA. 
Dorcus parallelopipedus near Doncaster.— A few days ago, while looking 
through a miscellaneous collection of insects formed by Mr. Black of this town, 
I noticed one specimen of this insect, and on inquiring about it. was informed that 
it was taken a little outside the town two years ago, and that another of our 
townsmen, Mr. Pattison, had taken more. On following up the matter more 
closely by seeing that gentleman, I was shown four other specimens, one of which 
had been taken on the 9th of this month. In each case the insect had been 
attracted by sugar. Mr. Pattison tells me that he has only met with one per 
season, and all, including Mr. Black's specimen, were from the same locality. 
As the Rev. Canon Fowler (British Coleoptera) makes the remark that it has not 
been recorded further north than Church Stretton, Cheshire, this should be of 
mterest to our Yorkshire coleopterists. It may be that an extended examination- 
of Mr. Pattison's collection might lead to several other records of new species to this 
locality if not to the county itself — E. G. Bayford, 24, Cambridge Street^ 
Doncaster, August nth, 1890. 

BACKHOUSE'S HANDBOOK OF EUROPEAN 

BIRDS. 

A Handbook of European Birds, for the Use of Field Naturalists and 

Collectors. By Jas. Backhouse, Jun., F.Z.S., Etc. Gurney & Jack.son. 

Mr. Backhouse has given naturalists and collectors a handy 

volume of reference, descriptive of European birds. His handbook 

is, howe ver, essentially one to be used by those who have acquired 

ept. 1890. 



268 BACKHOUSE : HANDBOOK OF EUROPEAN BIRDS. 

some previous knowledge of the subject, and to those who are 
so fortunate as to possess this knowledge it should be found a useful 
pocket companion, enabling them to distinguish any species of 
European bird with comparative ease and certainty, and saving the 
necessity of carrying about from place to place a whole library of 
ornithological literature. We have often enough ourselves felt the want 
of a thoroughly reliable and handy guide to enable us to determine in 
some fresh-killed example or dry skin those slight and often obscure 
points which mark the specific differences between one bird and 
another, and every practical ornithologist is aware how hard it is to 
retain in the memory all these minute details so as to have them 
ready for use when required. Mr. Backhouse has, in some 
degree, solved the difficulty, and thereby earned the thanks of his 
brethren. 

We are well aware that this small octavo volume of 334 pages, 
the work of years, must have cost our author much time and labour, 
for not only has he consulted all the best modern authorities, he 
has also, at great trouble to himself, gone carefully through many of 
the finest collections in the kingdom, and by an examination of the 
skins been able to verify and correct his notes. Each species has 
been treated separately, with a concise description of the plumage of 
the adults in summer and winter and the young, special and charac- 
teristic features being given in italics. A few lines are also given to the 
distribution, also the more common haunts, of each. We are far from 
saying that this little book is complete, or altogether without faults ; 
from the very nature of the work this can scarcely be expected, and 
the author admits as much in his preface. In some cases we think 
his differentiations are not sufficiently clear, and in a few he appears 
to have overlooked the most obvious points of distinction between 
closely allied forms. Perhaps the paragraph on distribution and the 
habitat, as Mr. Backhouse terms it, had better have been omitted 
altogether ; as they stand at present they can be of little use either 
to the practical ornithologist or the young student, and might 
occasionally be absolutely misleading. 

In the Appendix a list of North American birds is given which 
are stated to have occurred in Europe, and a second list of purely 
African species which have also been recognised. For the con- 
venience of those unacquainted with technical terms a frontispiece 
has been introduced, illustrating the outlines of a bird, and showing 
the names of the various parts. 

In conclusion, we sincerely congratulate Mr. Backhouse on the 
completion of his work, and his painstaking attempt to supply along- 
felt want of his fellow workers. — J.C. 

Naturalist, 



26^ 

THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION AT 
KILDALE-IN-CLEVELAND. 

The members of the ^'orkshire Naturalists' Union visited Kildale 
on Saturday, the 12th July, and were fortunate in various respects. 
The weather, which was decidedly moist in most parts of Yorkshire,, 
was quite fine, though with an overcast sky, in the region which the 
Union engaged in investigating. The arrangements — thanks to the 
local knowledge of the members of the Cleveland Naturalists' Club — • 
were singularly complete, and carried out as planned, while the 
results at the close of the day were decidedly above the average. 
The attendance was about an average one — about forty or fifty being 
on the ground during the day — although at the tea and meetings there 
were not so many as usual, a number of members having to leave by 
early trains. 

The district which had been selected for examination included 
the valley of the Leven from Kildale downwards to Battersby and 
Ayton, the moors overlooking it, and for geologists the whinstone 
dyke at the foot of Roseberry Topping. Three parties were arranged, 
all starting from Kildale Railway Station. 

The first party consisted of conchologists and botanists, under 
the leadership of Mr. Baker Hudson, M.C.S., of Middlesbrough, and 
had a very easy task, their line of route not extending to more than 
a couple of miles, and lying entirely in the picturesque woodlands 
which skirt the course of the Leven. Their work, too, was taken 
easily, and at one point a small damp hollow full of leaf mould and 
dead leaves proved most attractive and productive. Here J^u/a 
ringens (new to Kildale) was found commonly in the dampest 
portions of the hollow, and Helix lainellata was equally common on 
leaves in the drier portions. 

The second party consisted of geologists, under the leadership 
of Dr. W. Y. Veitch, of Middlesbrough, and Rev. John HawelI,M.A., 
Vicar of Ingleby Greenhow, and was perhaps the most numerously 
attended of the three. They first proceeded to examine the spoil- 
heaps near Kildale Station, then followed the line of route of the 
first party as far as the disused Bleach Mill. Here they diverged, 
striking up the wood to Easby Moor, thence by the monument 
erected in memory of Capt. Cook, who was born not many miles 
away, to the whinstone quarries near Roseberry Topping, and thence 
to Ayton Station. 

The third party consisted of entomologists, under the leadersliip 
of Mr. T. A. Lofthouse, accompanied by Mr. John Gardner. They 
were with the second party for some distance, diverging at Easby 

Sept. 1890. 



^7° YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION AT KILDALE. 

Moor, and proceeding to the examination of Easby Wood, where — 
as will be seen below — they met with a considerable and gratifying 
degree of success. 

All the parties returned to Middlesbrough, where, at the Station 
Dining Rooms, they sat down to a well-served and thoroughly- 
enjoyed meat tea. Sectional meetings were dispensed with, the 
results having already been ascertained and reports prepared by the 
sectional representatives. 

In the absence of the President and all the Vice-Presidents, 
Dr. Veitch, the President of the Cleveland Naturalists' Club, was 
-voted to the chair. The minutes having been read and passed, the 
(following candidates were unanimously elected as members of the 
Union : — Mr. J. Caesar Bacon, Santon, Isle of Man ; Mr. John 
Machell Foster, Pickering ; Mr. J. VV. Procter, York ; Mr. J. Raine, 
Richmond ; Mr. Thos. Spencer, Richmond ; and Mr. W. H. Thomas, 
Middlesbrough. The newly-founded Ravensthorpe Naturalists' 
Society (120 members) was elected into the Union. The roll-call 
showed that eleven Societies were represented by the members present 
during the day, viz. : — Cleveland, Heckmondwike, Hull Geological, 
Hull Field Naturalists, Leeds (all three societies), Liversedge, 
Sheffield, Malton, and York. 

The thanks of the Union were then voted, on the proposition of 
the Rev. Wm. Spiers, M.A., F.G.S., of Hull, seconded by Mr. Robert 
Cook, of York, to Lady De L'Isle and Dudley, Mr. James Emerson, 
and Mr. R. B. Turton for- permission for members to visit their 
estates, to Mr. W. Winn for similar permission in respect of his 
whinstone quarries ; to Rev. John Hawell, Dr. Veitch, Mr. B. Hudson, 
and Mr. T. A. Lofthouse, for their services as conductors of parties, 
and to Messrs. R. Lofthouse and Thos. F. Ward for their contribu- 
tions to the excursion programme. Mr. Hawell replied. 
The reports of the Sections were then presented. 
For the Vertebrate Section, in the absence of all its officers, 
Mr. Thomas H. Nelson, M.B.O.U., of Redcar, reported that obser- 
vations had been made by Mr. Clayton, Mr. T. A. Lofthouse and 
himself, but that the list of birds seen was not a large one, probably 
from the day not being very favourable for observation. The 
following were noted : — 

Missel Thrush. Chiffchaff. 

Song Thrush. Willow Warbler. 

Blackbird. Hedge Accentor. 

Ring Ouzel. Common House Sparrow. 

Redstart. Wren. 

R.edbreast. Pied \\'agtail. 

Whitethroat. Meadow Pipit. 

Naturalist, 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION AT KILDALK. 27 I 

Swallow. Bullfinch. 

House Martin. Starling. 

Sand Martin. Rook. 

Swift. Ring Dove. 

Greenfinch. Kingfisher. 

Chaffinch. Green Woodpecker. ' 

Mr. Nelson added a ftw interesting remarks on the zoology of 
the district. Mr. E. B. Emerson had noticed at Easby, his father's 
residence, the Great Spotted, Lesser Spotted and Green Woodi)eckers, 
Wryneck, Tree Creeper, Long Tailed Tit, Heron, Common Sand- 
piper, Spotted Crake, and Cireat Snipe. The Rough-legged and 
Common Buzzards have occurred several times at Ingleby, and as 
lately as November last a Peregrine Falcon was killed there. He 
also remarked that he had a letter from Mr. E. B. Emerson, J. P., of 
ToUesby Hall, near Middlesbrough, dated the nth July, in which 
he informed Mr. Nelson that a Nightingale {Daulias luscinia) had 
frecjuently been heard singing in the grounds there. Mr. Emerson 
has often heard the Nightingale in the South of England, and is 
not likely to be mistaken. If this record is correct, it shows that 
the range of this bird is steadily spreading northward ; it occurs 
regularly at Harrogate, and there appears to be no reason why it 
should not be heard in Cleveland. 

The Badgers which have from time to time been reported from 
Ingleby are, doubtless, to be traced from Hutton Woods, where 
Sir J. Pease turned out several some years since. 

An animal, supposed to be a hybrid between a Hare and a 
Rabbit, was shot at Easby a it.^^ years ago, and is now in the 
collection at ToUesby. It has the characteristic features of both 
animals, and if not a hybrid, then it is hard to say what it is. 

For the Conchological Section, in the absence of all its officers, 
the report was drawn up by Mr. Baker Hudson, M.C.S., of Middles- 
brough, who had acted as leader of one of the parties during the 
day, and who had been assisted in collecting by Mr. W. W. Reeves, 
Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S., Mr. T. A. Lofthouse, Rev. John 
Hawell, and other members. Mr. Hudson being unable to stay to the 
meeting, the report was given on his behalf by Mr. Roebuck, who 
stated that the day's work had been very successful, a most interesting 
species — Pupa ringens — having been added to the previously- 
ascertained Kildale list. The main attention of the conchologists 
was given to the land shells of Kildale Wood, no water shells having 
.l)een found, or even searched for. The list is as follows : — 

Arion ater. Limax agrestis. 

Arion hortensis. Limax maximus. 

Arion bourguignati. Limax arborum. 

Sept. 1890. 



272 YORKSHIRE NATURAIJSTS UNION AT K.ILDALE. 

Vitrina pellucida. Helix fiisca. 

Zonites cellarius. Helix rotundata. 

Zonites alliarius. Helix pygmaea. 

Zonites nitidulus. Pupa umbilicata. 

Zonites purus and Pupa ringens. 

Van margaritacea. Vertigo edentula. 

Zonites crystallinus. Clausilia rugosa. 

Zonites fulvus. Clausilia laminata. 

Helix lamellata. Zua lubrica. 

Helix nemoralis. Azeca tridens. 

Helix arbustorum. Carychium minimum. 
Helix sericea. 

Mr. Hudson had occupied an hour or two previous to the arrival 
of his party by collecting the following species at Ingleby Greenhow, 
those marked * being additional to the Kildale list : — 

*Helix aspersa. Zonites nitidulus. 

Helix rotundata. Zonites crystallinus. 

Clausilia rugosa. Arion hortensis. 

*Bulimus obscurus. *Arion subfuscus. 

Zonites alliarius. Limax maximus. 

This makes a total of 31 species, 28 of which were found in Kildale 
Wood. Mr. Roebuck concluded by congratulating the Rev. J- Hawell 
on his good fortune in finding a few days before the excursion a young 
specimen of the great rarity. Limax cinereo-tu'ger, in Easby Wood. 

For the Entomological Section, in the absence of all its officers, 
Mr. John Gardner, of Hartlepool, reported that owing to the want 
of sunshine only two species of Butterflies were observed, viz., Satyrus 
/'a/lira and Ccenonyinpha pamphilus, but by beating trees and shrubs 
the following were secured : — 

Eupisteria heparata. Lomaspilis marginata. 

Asthena luteata. Acidalia aversata. 

Asthena candidata. Tanagra chcerophyllata. 

Emnielesia alchemillata. Hypena proboscidalis. 

Larentia didymata. Eudorea conspicualis. 

Larentia pectinitaria. Eudorea ambigualis. 

besides other geometers of almost universal occurrence. Of Micro- 
Lepidoptera were obtained : — 

CElcophora stipella. P)actra lanceolana. 

Gracilaria syringella. Tortrix viridana. 

Argyresthia gcedartella. Tortrix heparana. 

Argyresthia sorbiella. Coleophora cespititiclla. 

Argyresthia nitidella. Dasycera oliviella. 
Pepilla curtisella. 

this last-named beautiful insect being new to the Yorkshire list. The 
moors were not visited or doubtless other species would have been 
taken. The district generally is undoubtedly rich in good species, 
the late Mr. T. Meldrum, of Ripon, having taken between Ayton 

Naturalist, 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION AT KILDALE. 273 

and Stokesley Cerura biciispis, Trichiura craicegi and Cleora lichefiaria, 
and it would be desirable to again visit this district the first or second 
week in June. Mr. M. Lawson Thompson, of Saltburn, recorded 
the following beetles taken upon Roseberry Topping. 

Biadycellus similis. Quedius molocliinus. 

Calathus melanocephalus. Notiophihis biguttatus. 

Calathus flavipes. Notiophilus aquaticus. 

Olisthopus rotundaUis. Otiorhynchus ovatiis. 
Nebria gyllenhalii. 

For the Botanical Section, Mr. M. B. Slater, F.L.S., of Malton, 
its Secretary, reported that the finely-wooded dell through which the 
Leven stream runs at Kildale afforded good ground for the botanists. 
Upwards of one hundred species of flowering plants were noted 
as seen on the route, many of them, however, of general distribution 
in the north of England, and the greater portion of the plants were 
seen that are named in the circular. The most interesting plant 
met with was Agriinonia odorata Mill., a tuft of which was found 
growing by the side of the woodland path near to the old Bleach Mill. 
This plant is an addition to the North Yorkshire Flora, and so far 
as he was aware has not been previously recorded. It was detected 
and pointed out to the members of the party by Mr.VValterW. Reeves, 
of London, who has a very good knowledge of the flowering plants of 
the British Islands. Mr. Reeves was on a visit in Yorkshire at the 
time and joined the excursion party, and kindly gave valuable aid to 
some of the younger botanical members by naming their various 
gatherings. On dripping rocks by the stream side and in the shady 
parts of the wood, mosses and hepatics were seen in some abundance. 
If the dale could be more carefully explored for this tribe of plants, 
during the spring and autumn months, which are the best seasons for 
gathering them, probably some interesting species of the rarer mosses 
and hepatics would be obtained. Upwards of thirty species of mosses 
were gathered, but the greater portion at this season in the lowland 
locality not having good fruiting capsules on them, only the most com- 
monly distributed species were recognised. Amongst the gatherings 
were some patches of Bryiein capillare L. in fine fruit, also a tuft of 
Barbula cylitidricn Tayl. with fruiting capsules, a moss not often 
found in that state. On wet stones by the stream side some masses 
of Dichodontium flavescens Dicks, was growing, sterile however, as 
its fruiting season is October and November. In Hepatics, Nardia 
obovata Nees and Cephalozia laniuiersiafia Hiib. were growing in 
considerable masses on dripping rocks by the banks of the stream. 
Jungerniania riparia Tayl. and _/////;■. gracilUina Sm. on damp ground 
in shady places. Fnillania dilaiain L. was seen on the bark of 

Sept. iSgo. s 



2 74 YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS* UNION AT KILDALE. 

several of the trees. Cephalozia catenulata van pallida Spruce 
has also been gathered on Easby Moor by Mr. R. Barnes of 
Saltburn. 

The Geological Section, in the absence of all its officers, was 
under the leadership of Dr. W. Y. Veitch, of Middlesbrough, and 
the Rev. John Hawell, M.A., Vicar of Ingleby-Greenhow, the latter 
of whom furnishes the following report : — Leaving Kildale Station, 
the party first proceeded to examine the peat bed revealed by the 
railway-section a little to the south. Owing, however, to the care 
■with which the railway company's servants level up all inequalities 
of the bank, no very satisfactory exposure presented itself for 
observation, though the position and character of the bed were seen. 
Similar deposits occur in the vicinity of Middlesbrough and of 
Hartlepool, and from it at Kildale have been taken the horns of the 
Red-deer {Cervus elap/ii/s) and the Reindeer {C. taraiuius). An 
investigation was next made of a large deposit of rubbish thrown out 
near the site of the ironstone workings near Kildale. As it is now 
many years since the works here were in operation, the ejected 
debris was found to be much weathered, and such fossils as had not 
suffered from the weathering process were readily extracted. It was 
at once evident that the rubbish was from the Mid-Liassic zone of 
Am. spinatus, the fossils obtained including such characteristic forms 
as Am. spinatus, Pecten cequivalvis. Motiotis i/uequivalvis, Limea acuti- 
£Osta, Rhynchonella tetrahed7-a, Terebratula punctata, Belemnites 
breviformis, Ostrea siibiiiargaritacea, and Chonlophyllites cicatricosus. 
Fragments of wood were also observed in considerable abundance. 
The 'Cleveland Main Seam' of Liassic Ironstone, which at 
Upleatham, only a few miles away, has an undivided thickness of 
13 ft., has unfortunately here dwindled down to a thickness of only 
5 ft. 4 in., and even this includes an inter-bedded band of shale 
measuring about i ft. 3 in. Still, there are compensations every- 
where, and wandering over this ' land whose stones are iron,' one 
may reflect that, had the seam at this place been richer, what one of 
the historians of Cleveland has ventured to call ' Sweet Auburn, 
loveliest village of the plain,' might have become a Zarephath, 
a 'place of furnaces.' 

Proceeding down the Kildale Wood, lower beds of the Middle 
Lias were seen coming into view. The hardness of the Margaritatus 
Sandstone has given origin to a small waterfall. The falling of the 
Leven over the ridge at this point is productive of effects, which, on 
a quiet summer's day, are highly pleasing to ear and eye. Just at the 
entrance to the wood was passed the dam of an artificial lake, which 
formerly ornamented the grounds of Kildale Hall. Another lake 

Naturalist, 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS* UNION AT KILDALE. 275 

■existed further up the stream. Several years ago the dam of the 
upper lake having burst, the water entered the lower lake with so 
much force that the embankment of that also gave way, and the 
effect of the downrush of the combined contents of the two lakes 
may be readily imagined. 

Having ascended the hill to the right, the parly made their way 
along the slopes of the hill upon which Captain Cook's monument 
stands. From here an extensive view was obtained, and one most 
interesting and instructive to the ' geological eye.' A little below 
there was a prominent encircling ridge formed by the hard bands of 
the margaritatus-zone. On the higher ground above them a second 
conspicuous ridge, due in like manner to the resisting power of the 
hard sandstone of the Inferior Oolite. This latter ridge might be 
traced as an escarpment right round the valley to the left, and from 
its various appearances the instructed eye might learn much as to 
tlie amount of change which had occurred since glaciers brought 
their ponderous burdens, and swept others hence. Here and there 
on the lower ground might be discerned hummocks of sand and 
-gravel, due to the Middle Glacial epoch ; while running round the 
hill-sides at a moderate elevation was to be seen a conspicuous line 
of mounds of rubbish mined from the zone of Aini/iofutes serpentlnus 
in the search for jet, in the days when an unjust system of trade 
had not caused ' real Whitby Jet " to be superseded by ' Frenchy,' 
and all but extinguished an interesting Cleveland mining industry. 
Far away in the distance might be discerned the hills near Rich- 
mond. 

Passing through the hamlet of Langbargh, ascent was made in 
the direction of Roseberry Topping, and Airey Holm was reached, 
where the young Captain Cook once lived in his father's house. 
The place has been identified with the ancient Hergum, which 
in turn took its name from the horg, or blot-sten, or sacrificial 
open-air altar made use of in the worship of Odin, the all-father. 
The old name of Roseberry was Odinsberg, and how this name 
came to be superseded by the modern one, and what the first 
element of the modern name signifies, are problems which historians 
and philologists do not yet appear to be able satisfactorily to 
solve. 

The party of nature-worshippers (more intelligent than they of 
old it may be) who visited the })lace on the 12th of July, did not 
observe the blot-sten of old Odin, but they observed certain bits of 
rounded rock which had been pushed into the locality by the long 
arms of the powerful ice-king who ruled here before Odin's time, and 
carved him out his throne. These bits of rock had evidently been 

Sept- 1S90. 



276 lee: senecio viscosus near dewsburv. 

well tumbled about by the old monarch : they had been put through 
a civilising process until all their corners were rubbed oft' and they 
had gained much polish. Portions of old lava were there — rocks 
melted in the fell chaldron of a monarch who ruled long ages before 
him of the ice and long arms, and who, judging from the known 
characteristics of the two, could not well have been his ancestor,, 
that is if the ' principle of heredity ' applied in those remote ages. 
He belonged to the period of the Lower Old Red and ruled in the 
region of the Cheviot hills. 

A little further up another heap of spinatus- rubbish was 
inspected, containing most of the fossils observed at Kildale, the 
principal additional one being Lima hermaiuii. On the return to 
Great Ayton station a visit was paid to the 'Whinstone' quarries 
in its vicinity. This stone is very extensively used for road-making. 
It has been well described as 'a bluish-grey augite-andesite, con- 
sisting of a ground mass apparently made up of augitic and felsitic 
matter, with small crystals of felspar and augite. Scattered through 
this are glassy ci"ystals of triclinic felspar of much larger size, 
very distinctly visible to the unaided eye, and which give the 
rock a distinctive cii.aracter by which it can be easily recognised.' 
The ' Cleveland Dyke ' which is thus being carved up to be trodden 
underfoot extends from near Whitby to the neighbourhood of 
Armathwaite in Cumberland. 

A vote of thanks to Dr. Veitch for presiding, which was proposed 
by Mr. J. M. Meek of Redcar, seconded by Mr. Thomas F. Ward 
of Middlesbrough, and cordially adopted, brought to a close one of 
the most enjoyable and successful days the Union has had for some 
time.— W.D.R. 

NOTE— BOTANY. 

Senecio viscosus L. at Savile Town near Dewsbury. — As there are 
very few records of this uncommon species of Seuccio in West Yorkshire, I ami 
pleased to be able to report an additional one. On July 30th I saw about a score 
plants, varying in size from 6 in. to iS in., on a hedgebank at the foot of ihe 
railway embankment at Savile Town. They occurred not on the rail-bank, but on 
the dry grassy meadow side of the hedge, which was bordered by a ditch— not a bad 
place for the development of plant life. The range of distribution of 6". viscosus, 
as given in 'The Student's Flora,' is from Banff and Dumbarton to Kent and 
Sussex ; Wales (not in W. or Midland Counties) ; antl rare in Ireland. It is very 
local, too, yet I think this must only be considered as casual where I discovered it. 
The author, at p. 291, of ' The Flora of West Yorkshire ' (who has seen my plant 
and confirmed its name) states that S. viscosus is often misnamed or confounded 
with robust S. sylvaiicus. There is no mistake of name in this instance, however, 
the whole plant being viscid or ' clammy,' as old writers put it, very fcetid, and the 
flower heads few, campanulate and erect, with revolute ray florets. The census 
number in the 8th edition of the Lend. Cat. is as low as 28, therefore it is a plant 
worth a pas'^ino- notice, and is n good addition to our local flora. — P. Fox Lkk, 

Dewsbury, 12th August, 1890. 

Naturalist, 



277 

THE 
TREE-SPARROW IN THE COUNTY OF DURHAM. 

J. W. FAWCETT, 
The Grange, Sat ley. 

In the February number of 'The NaturaHst,' Mr. W'hitlock contri- 
buted some notes on the Tree-Sparrow in Nottinghamshire, which 
was followed, in the March number, by an article from the Rev. H. A. 
Macpherson on the Tree-Sparrow in the Lake District, and perhaps 
it may not be out of place if I follow with some brief notes on the 
same bird in the county of Durham. 

The Tree-Sparrow in the county of Durham is a local resident, 
i.e., it is found in certain localities all the year round, and being a shy 
bird it is not so much noticed as its better known congener and 
relative. The bird nests early, sometimes in February or March, and 
generally rears two broods in the season, the second being in June 
and July. The nest resembles that of the House Sparrow, only 
instead of straw it has often withered grass. The eggs, in some cases 
smaller than those of its relative, range from four to six, though 
I have frequently known as many as seven and eight, five being the 
average. The nesting-places of this bird which I have come across 
are as follows : — in holes of decayed trees, holes in walls, under the 
coping-stones of farm-buildings and garden walls, in hedges, bushes, 
between trunks of trees and the ivy clinging to them, in forks of 
branches, and amongst the branches. The trees have been generally 
pollard willows, to which it is especially partial, planes, oaks, larch 
and scotch firs, and the l)ushes, thorns and woodbines. In the 
summers of 1880, 1881, and 1S82, a colony of these birds took 
up their nesting-places in close proximity to the iarmstead of Baxter 
Wood, in the Browney valley, about a mile and a half from the city 
of Durham, where the House Sparrow was very common. From 
almost constant observations which I made during the breeding 
season — June, July — I found that the two species inter-paired, but, 
unfortunately, I am not able to say whether they reared any young, 
as the trees were near a public foot-path, and the nests were much 
disturbed, being totally robbed of their contents at various 
times. In every case of the inter-pairing it was a male Tree-Sparrow 
with a female House Sparrow. 

Some of the situations of the colonies where these birds locate 
themselves in this county are as follows : — in the city and neigh- 
Sept. 1890. 



278 THE MEALY REDPOLL IN OXON. 

bourhood of Durham in trees and old walls ; in old walls near 
Whitburn ; in trees and walls near Wolsingham ; in similar situations 
in the Browney valley and also in the lower part of the Derwent 
Valley. 

Numbers of this bird are only spring and autumn visitants to this 
county, arriving here about the latter part of March and beginning 
of April and leaving again in September and October, or even later, 
flocking with Linnets, Greenfinches, Stone Chats, &c. Others stay 
the winter when they are gregarious, and may often be seen around 
corn-stacks and about farmyards feeding with their more intrusive 
relatives, the House Sparrow, Linnets, Blue Titmice, Robins, &c. 



NO TE~ ORNITHOL OGY. 

' The Mealy Redpoll in Oxon ?— I confess that on reading Mr. Eagle Clarke s 
little notice of the ' Birds of Oxon,' I am immensely amused at his discovering that 
Mr. Aplin, and those of us who worked yi?;- Jn/ii for years in that county, mistook 
Mealy Redpolls for large examples oi Linota rufesceiis. As I, if any one, am the 
chief culprit, Mr. Clarke will no doubt allow me to answer for myself. I have no 
hesitation in saying that the birds were not L. linaria, but simply large examples 
of the Lesser Redpoll, and lighter coloured than most of the tawny little Redpolls 
caught in England. I may say that I have examined /natty hundreds ; at one 
time I used to regularly visit the Ijird shops in Club Row, Shoreditch, and these 
birds were caught sometimes in such numbers that I have known them retailed at 
IS. 6d. a dozen, and even sold as a ' penny bird ' to the street urchins. I have also 
seen ' droves ' of Mealy Redpolls in Norway, most captivating and confiding little 
birds ; the newly-fledged ' branchers ' permitting a very close approach. At night 
they used to roost in the willow-scrub. I have also kept many Lesser and Mealy 
Redpolls in confinement, and have paid considerable attention to the nesting of the 
Lesser Redpoll in the North of England. Both the large form and the small form 
of the Lesser Redpoll breed with us in Cumberland, and their call-notes and habits 
are precisely similar, but the typical British Redpoll is, of course, the little tawny 
fellow, the male of which sometimes breeds before he has acquired the red breast ; 
the other form being the scarcer bird. I hope that after this Mr. Clarke will give 
us credit for knowing the two species apart, because to one who has handled as 
many Redpolls as I have, his suggestion is too diverting. There are two forms of 
Goldfinches, a light form and a small dark one, and the difference between 
the two forms of Redpolls is to my eye just as well marked. I do not, myself, 
believe in hair-splitting ; I prefer much to ' lump ' local races together ; but 
Z. linaria is a well-defined species, with a different call-note from L. rtifescens. — 
H. A. Macpherson, Carlisle, May ist, 1890. 

[The facts which have called for the above note are simple. I ventured to 
consider certain Redpolls described as 'the large light-coloured race of Redpolls,' 
and which occurred in Oxfordshire 'in the winters of 1879-80 and 1880-1,' to be 
Z. linaria. Mr. Macpherson tells us they were simply a form of Z. riifoscens. 
The exposition of his views suggest the question of the expediency of recognising 
a form of L. rufescens to be familiarly alluded to as ' the large light-coloured race. ' 
The historians of our British birds would appear to think otherwise, since they do not 
mention it. If we admit that there is a 'large light-coloured race' of Z. rufescens, 
worthy the name, we would ask where does Z. rufescens end and Z. linaria begin ? 
For the distinction between the two birds is admittedly one of size and colour. 
Mr. Sharpe and Mr. Seebohm, among British ornithologists, regard Z. rufescens 
to be a sub-species only of Z. linaria. Can another split be recognised without 
trespass upon the border-lands of individualism? Mr. Macpherson really must 
pardon us if, after his expressed opinions on this subject, he is regarded as anything 

but a 'lumper' on the subject of Redpolls. — W.E.C.] 

Naturalist 



279 
BIBLIOGRAPHY: 

Papers and records published with respect to the Natural History and 
Physical Features of the North of England. 



LEPIDOPTERA, 1888. 

The present instalment includes not only the titles for 1888, but 
also a considerable number for earlier years, including all papers 
which have appeared in ' The Naturalist ' itself during the years 
1884 to 1887 inclusive, and the publication of which makes the 
Bibliography now a complete record of what lepidopterists have 
done in the North of England during a space of five years. 

The previous instalments of the Bibliography of Lepidoptera 
were published as follows: — For 1884, in Nat. for July 1885, 
pp. 285-292 ; and for 1885, 1886, and 1887, in Nat. for Feb. and 
March 1888, pp. 58-78. 

The present instalment includes a number of titles contributed by 
Mr. T. U. A. Cockerell, to whom the editors have been considerably 
indebted for assistance of this kind. 

The counties for which this bibliographic record is made are 
Cheviotland, South Northumberland, Durham, Yorkshire (N.W., 
N.E., S.E., Mid W., and S.W.), Lmcolnshire (N. and S.), Notts., 
Derbyshire, Cheshire, Lancashire (S. and W.), Westmorland with 
Furness, Cumberland, and Isle of Man. 

Anon. [Editor of Naturalist]. Yorkshire, Lancashire. 

[Comparison of the Yorkshire and Lancashire lists of butterflies ; 
parallelism noted]. Nat., March 1885, p. 183. 

Anon, [not signed]. York S.E. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Pocklington [24th June, 1885 ; 
Abraxas grossitlariata (larvae) and Hydrocanipa stagnalis noted]. Nat., 
Aug. 1885, p. 30S. 

Anon, [not signed]. York S.E. 

[Notes made by Hull Field Naturalists in 1885 ; re-occurrence of Hadena 
occulta, and capture of .S/i'^/wx convolznili\ Nat., Feb. 1886, p. 63. 

Anon, [not signed]. Yorkshire. 

Ackwrorth Reports.— Natural History Society [a ' Kitten Moth ' — which ?— 
caught at Primrose \'ale near Ackworthl. Nat. Hist. Journ., Sep. 15th, 
1887, xi. 128. 

Anon, [signed 'R.?>.L.']. Westmorland. 

Convolvulus Hawk-moth {Sphinx convolvitli'] in Westmorland [at Kendal 
a 'fortnight ago ']. Field, Sep. 17th, 1887, p. 478. 

Anon, [not signed]. 'White Hill.' 

List of . . Donations to the Museum . . of the Natural History Society 
[of Newcastle-on-Tyne], from June, 1877, to August, 1887 [1880, Death's- 
head Moth [Acheroiitia «/r^/w)," taken at White Hill (H. S. Carr)]. Nat. 
Hist. Trans. Northumb. Durh. and Newc, vol. 9, part 2 (188S1, p. 286. 

Sept. 1S90. 



28o BIBLIOGKAPHY : LEPIDOPTERA, 1888. 

Anon, [signed S.D.C. (Northallerton)]. York N.W. and N.E. 

Hybernating Butterflies [near Northallerton ; a great many Vanessa 
cardui and some few V. afa/an/a]. Field, June 23rd, 1888, p. 901. 

Anon, [not signed]. York S.W. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union [at Saddleworth, i6th June, 1888 ; 

Phoxopteryx uiyrtillaiia, Larentia didyniata, Hypsipetis elidata, Hadoia 
glauca, and Clepsis ritsticana noted]. Research, Julj' 1888, p. 14. 

Anon, [not signed]. York Mid W. 

Leeds Naturalists' Club [at Bishop Wood : Vanessa alalanta, Lyarna 

(i/ex/s, Satyrus jaiiira, Pygicra bticephala, Hihernia progeiiiiiiaria, H. 

defoliaria, H. pilosaria, Larentia allncillata, L. montanata, L. In'linea/a, 

Liparis aitrifltta and Dicramcra vinula noted]. Research, Aug. 1888, p. 30. 

Anon, [not signed]. Derbyshire. 

Liverpool Naturalists' Field Club [at Miller's Dale, July 12th, 1888; 

Abraxas ulniata in enormous quantities]. Research, Aug. 1888, p. 31. 

R. Adkin. Lane. S. 

President's Address [a specimen of Deilephila euphorbiic said to have been 
recorded from 15o\vden, near Manchester, by Josepli Chappell]. Proc. South 
Lond. Ent. and Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1886 (pub. 1887), p. 18. 

R. Adkin. Lane. W. 

Crambus eontaminellus [exhibited from Preston]. Proc. South London Ent. 
and Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1886 (pub. 1887), p. 31. 

R. Adkin. York S.W. 

[Exhibition of Cleoceris viminalis Fl. ; from twelve larvse sent from 
Barnsley he expected to rear (jnly the black form of the species obtained in 
that locality ; but among them lie had bred one of the ordinary forms of the 
species as found in the South of England]. Proc. South Lond. Ent. and 
Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1886 (pub. 1887), p. 56. 

R. Adkin. Westmorland or Furness. 

[Cidaria reticulata, etc., exhibited from near Windermere]. Proc. South 
Lond. Ent. and Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1886 (pub. 18S7), p. 71. 

R. Adkin. Westmorland or Furness. 

[Cidaria reticulata recently bred by H. Murray from larvae collected near 
Windermere, on Iinpatiens noH-medange7-e ; specimens exhibited to Ent. Soc. 
Lond., Dec. ist, 1886]. Zoo)., Jan. 1887, xi. 34; Nat., March 1887, p. 69. 

J. Arkle. Cheshire. 

Entomology of Delamere Forest [69 species of Lepidoptera mentioned in 

an unsystematic account of the collecting-grounds]. Ent., Jan. 1888, xxi. 2-5. 

J. Arkle. Lane. S. 

Nyssia zonaria two years in the Pupa [with a reference to its occurring at 
Southport]. Ent., May 1888, .xxi. 140. 

J. Arkle. Cheshire. 

Spring Lepidoptera in Cheshire [in Delamere Forest, March loth, 1888 ; 

Hybcrnia leiicophicaria, Phigalia pedaria, Lareiif/a ntiiltistrigaria, Asplialia 
Jlavicornis, Nyssia hispidaria, and CyinatopJtora or, the latter two being 
additions to the Chester Society's Delamere list]. Ent., June 1888, xxi. 161. 

J. Arkle. Cheshire, Durham. 

Deilephila galii in Cheshire [numerous larvte on the Wallasey sandhills ; 

account given ; reference to occurrence near South Shields some twenty years 

ago]. Ent., Oct. 1888, xxi. 256. 

J. Arkle. Cheshire, Lane. S. and W., Furness. 

Notes from the North-West Counties [i.e. Cheshire (Chester, Delamere 

Forest, W^allasey sandhills, Hoylake), South Lancashire (Southport), West 

Lancashire (Heysham Moss near Morecambe), and Furness (Witherslack 

Naturalist, 



bibliography: lepidoptera, 1888. 281 

Mosses) ; the species noted are Chcimatobia bruma/a, Hyhcrnia dcfoliaria, 
//. nipicapraria, H. leucopluearia, H. niari^inaria, Nyssia Jiispidaria, 
Anisoptoyx uSiiilaria, Lareiitia vutltislrigaria, Phigalia pedaria, Cyinato- 
pitora or, Ainphiclasys stmt aria, Ticniocampa gracilis, 7'. inicrta, Ttp/irosia 
hiiindularia {laricaria), Liparis aurijliia, Nyssia zonaria, Mesotypc virgata, 
Tictiioc, opinia, Nomophila ostrinalis, Vanessa cardiii in profusion, Tortrix 
viridana, Cosniia trapezina, Hylophila prasinaita, Hadma glaiica, Acronycta 
Icporina, Cymatopliora diiplaris, J^ieris iiapi, P. brassiccc, Ccenonympha 
pamphiliis, Polyoiiimatus phlceas, Lyca-na icariis, Thecla riibi, Bupahts 
piniarius, Einatiirga atontaria, Lotiiaspilis iiiarginata, Cahera piisaria, 
Macaria liturata, Hypsipetes rubcrata, Cidaria corylata, T/iera variata, 
Apleda nebtilosa, Hepialus hectiis, H. velleda, Panagra petraria, Eiiholia 
pliiiiiharia, Cyinatophora duplaris, Ellopia prosapiaria, Eucosmia nndulata, 
Geoinetra papilionaria, Anarta viyrtilli, Nemeophila riissitla, Boarmia 
repaiidata, Lyariia icgon, Drepana falcataria, Anipliidasys betularia (black 
male and type female in cop.), Lcttcoma salicis, Acronycta inegacephala, 
Carsia imhutata, Hyria aitroraria, Argynnis seloic, Syrichthits alveolus, 
Lycccna sal/nacis, Pseicdoterpna cytisaria, Drepana lacertinaria, Metant/iia 
ocellata, Nemeophila rtissnla, Peronea riifana, Notodonta ziczac, Gonoptera 
libatrix, Vanessa to, Cidaria reticulata, iVonagria typ/uc, Vanessa cardui, 
V. atalanta, V. nrticce, Bryophila pei'la, Apainca didytna, Svierinthus 
ocellatiis, S. poptdi, Cosmia pyralina, A^otodonta die ttco ides, Deilephila galii, 
Cirrhadia xerampelina, and Acronycta alni\ Ent., Dec. 1888, xxi. 313-319. 
Eustace R. Bankes. Durham or York N.E. 

Coleophora frischella, L. ( = C. trifolii, Curtis), versus C. melilotella, Scott 
[with a passing allusion to the last-named being found at Stockton-on-Tees in 
i860 by John Scott, in the larval state]. Ent. Mo. Mag., June 1888, xxv. 4. 

A. D. Barber. York S.W. 

[Winter observations near Sheffield ; Mottled and Scarce Umber Moths— 
Hibernia dcfoliaria and H. aurantiaria\ Nat. Hist. Journ., March 15th, 
1886, X. 41. 

A. D. Barker. York S.W. 

[Nyssia hispidaria near Sheffield]. Xat. Hist. Journ., Ap. 15th, 1886, x. 59. 

George Boi.am. Cheviotland. 

Additions to the Lepidopterous Fauna of the [Berwick] District, 
with notes on the capture of some of the rarer species {^Colias edusa, Arctia 
lubricipeda, Liparis salicis, Orgyia antiqua, Odoncstis pota:oria, Epionc 
apiciaria, Hypsipetes ruberata, H. clutata, H. impliiviata, Luperina cespitis, 
Nonagria typJuv, Cerigo cytJierca, Agrotis pracox, Trip/ucna siibsequa, 
Heliothis armigera, and Habrostola triplasia ; all cited from localities in 
Northumberland, and details of capture given]. Proc. Berw. Nat. Club for 
18S6 (pub. 1887), xi. 559-561. 

J. Bowman. Northumberland S., and Lane. S. or Chesh. 

Reminiscences of Larvae-breeding [wiih references to his experience of 
Bonibyx qitercus, Dicranura vinula, Acherontia, Snierinthns popitli, Vanessa 
urticcc, V. io, V. atalanta (two latter rare), Chelonia caja, and Pieris brassiccc 
at Morpeth, and Liparis auri/lua at Liverpool]. Sci. Goss. , Aug. 1887, 
pp. 169-171. 

F. BoYES. York S.E. 

[Sphinx convolvuli at Beverley; two fine specimens taken within the last 

few days]. Field, Sep. 17th, 1887, p. 478. 

^VM. E. Brady. York S.W. 

Melanippe unangulata : a species hitherto unrecorded from Yorkshire 

[taken at Haw Park near Wakefield ; dates and details given]. Nat., Dec. 

1884, p. 104. 

\V.M. E. Brady. York S.W. 

Erastria fuscula ; a species new to Yorkshire [taken in Wharnclifte 

Wood, 1871 or 1872, by Henry Willits]. Nat., April 1885, p. 206. 

Sept. 1890. 



282 bibliography: lepidoptera, 1888. 

W.M. E. Brady. York S.W. 

Acherontia atropos and Sphinx ligustri near Barnsley [instances quoted, 
of present and former years]. Nat., P'eb. 1886, p. 54. 
Wm. E. Brady. York S.W. 

A List of the Macro-Lepidoptera of Barnsley [from Nofodonta dictiea to 
Phyionietra aiiea ; 7 Cuspidates and 159 Noctuce enumerated, with localities]. 
Trans. Barnsley Nat. Soc. for 1885-6 (pub. 1887), vol. 5, pp. 15-20. 
John Braim. York N.E. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Saltburn [May 30th, 1887 ; larval 
Pterophorus dichrodactylus noted in stems of tansy]. Nat., July 1887, p. 219. 
E. P. P. Butterfield. Furness. 

Lepidoptera [Asthena sylvata and Lohophora viretatd\ at Windermere [and 
near Newby Bridge]. Nat., Sep. 1884, p. 42. 
E. P. P. Butterfield. York S.W. 

Lepidoptera [Scoparia conspiciialis and Dicrorhampha kerbosaiia] near 
Bingley [localities stated]. Nat., Sep. 1884, p. 42. 
E. P. P. Butterfield. York N.E., Mid W., S.W. 

Lepidoptera near Bingley \Orthotcvnia erketana, Melia socieila, Penthiua 
dimidiaua, Stigmonota regiana, Retinia pinhwrana, Scardia arcella, 
Dicrorampha herbosana, Scoparia conspiciialis, and S. atomalis noted — the 
last being new for Yorkshire]. Nat., Aug. 1885, p. 292. 
E. P. P. Butterfield. York Mid W. 

Thecia rubi on Barden Moor, Wharfedale [21st May, 1888, common in 
a place where an odd one was taken a few years before]. Nat., Aug. 1888, 
p. 244. 
S. J. Capper. Cheshire. 

D[eilephila]. Galii Bred [from a Wallasey larva]. Young Nat., Nov. 1888, 
ix. 224. [from New Brighton larvae, ten]. Young Nat., Dec. 1888, ix. 237. 
J. T. Carrington. Durham or Northumberland S. 

[Melanic variety of Larva of Abraxas grossulariata taken near Shields, 
and (as far as he knew) never taken elsewhere]. Proc. South Lend. Ent. and 
Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1886 (pub. 1887), p. 51. 
John T. Carrington. ' York.' 

[L3rthria purpuraria ; two undoubted English examples, both taken near 
York, and one of which he saw alive]. South Lond. Ent. Soc, Jan. 12th, 
1888 ; Ent., Feb. 188S, xxi. 70 ; Young Nat., Feb. 1888, p. 38. 
J. T. C[arrington]. ' York.' 

Unusual Union between Moths [i.e. Ticniocampa stabilis and T. gothica, 
near York many years ago]. Ent., June 1888, xxi. 15S. 
John T. Carrin(,ton. York N.E., Cheshire. 

Deilephila galii in 1888 [discussing the faunistic status of the species in 
England, and referring to its occurrence at Scarborough and on the Wallasey 
sand-hills]. Ent., Oct. 1888, xxi. 249-251. 
James Carter. York N.W. 

Notes from [Masham in] North Yorkshire [great abundance in 1888 
of Id/ifssa cardi/i, usually only sparingly noted]. Field, June 9th, 1888, 840. 
J. W. Carter. York Mid W. 

Erebia Blandina, &c., in Upper Wharfedale [at Grassington, with 
Plerophoi-its serotinus and Miana expoUtd\. Nat., Oct. 1884, p. 57. 
J. \Y. Carter. Line. N. 

Satyrus tithonus in Lincolnshire [at Owston Ferry, and in 1882 and 1SS4 
near Gainsborough]. Nat., Dec. 1884, p. 104. 
J. ^Y. Carter. York N.E. 

Ennychia cingulalis, etc., at Helmsley [in July 1885, with Satyrus hyper- 
antlius, Astheiia blomeraria, and Venusia cambricaria\ Nat., Oct. 1885, 347. 

Naturalist, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY: LEPIDOPTERA, 1888. 2S3. 

J. W. Carter. York Mid W. 

Lycaena agestis in Upper Wharfedale [at drassington, July 1886J. Nat., 
March 1S87, p. 66. 

J. W. Cartkr. York S.W., York Mid W. 

Melanippe unangulata at Bradford and Harden [details of the captures 

given]. Nat., March 1886, p. 67. 

J. W. Carte K. York Mid W. 

Phigalia pilosaria in January [1888, on the 22nd, at Shipley Glen J. Voun^ 

Nat., March 1888, ix. 63. 

J. W. Carter. York S.W. 

Deilephila galii at Bradford [in Manningham Park, 22nd July ; former 

occurrences at Cleckheaton and Wibsey (1878) noted]. Nat., Sep. 1888, 268. 

JosEfn Chappell. Lane. W. 

D[eilephila]. Galii at Manchester [captured at ' Hest Bank near Morecomhe,'' 
2ist July, 1888]. Young Nat., Sep. 1888, p. 183. 

Joseph Chappell. Cheshire, Lane. W, 

Captures near Manchester [at Dunham, larvre of Chcrrocanipa porcellus, 
Ltiperiiia ccspitis ; antl J^eilephila i^alii at Wallasey and Blackpool]. Young 
Nat., Dec. 1888, ix. 23S. 

H. S. Clarke. Isle of Man, 

[The Eyed Hawk-moth [Snieritithns ocellahts) in the Isle of Man ; writer 
claims to have found the first specimen ever obtained on the Island]. Manx 
Note Book, No. 9, Jan. 1887, iii. 47. 

R. Augustine Clarke. Lane. W. 

Deilephila galii in Lancashire [one at Rossall School near Fleetwood, in 
a tives-court, 22nd July]. Ent., Dec. 1888, xxi. 321. 

York Mid W. 
W. Eagle Clarke, W. Denison Roef.uck, and \Villiam Storey. 

Upper Nidderdale and its Fauna . . . Lepidoptera [an enumeration of 
56 species for Pateley and of 122 for Birstwith, the latter on the authority of 
F. T. Walker]. Nat., July 1886, pp. 208-210. 

T, D. A. Cockerell. Lane. S., Cheshire, 

A September Walk through Lancashire, Cheshire, and Staffordshire 

\Spilosonia lnhricipeda and S. nwiithastri noted Sep. 9th, 1885, between 
Liverpool and Prescott ; Hadena protea at Chelford, Sep. Ilth]. Nat., 
Feb. 1886, p. 57. 

Joseph Collins. Lane. S. 

Larvae of [Deilephila] Galii on Willow Herb at Risley Moss, near 
Warrington [found Sep. 22nd, 1888, while beating for larval Leiocaiiipa 
didcroides ; numerous />. ^rt/?V found]. Young Nat., Oct. 1888, ix. 204. 

John Cordeaux. York S.E., Line. N. 

The Spurn [as a locality for Rare Insects, Sphinx convolvuU, Vanessa 

antiopa, Colias ediisa, Deilephila i^alii, Chuvocaiiipa porcellus, Enchelia 

jacolhctc, Leucania littoralis, Tapinostola elymi, Nonagria liitosa, JMaiiiestra 

ahjecta, Agiotis valliget-a, A. ripiv, A. corticea, A. citrsoria, A. tritici, 

A. aqnilina, A. pracox, A. raTida having occurred]. Nat., Aug. 1884, 1-8. 

John Cordeaux. Line. N. and S. 

Lincolnshire [with reference to disappearance of Lyccna dispar, Papilio- 

//lachaoit. Red Wainscot (probably ' Reed ' Wainscot, Nonagria canna:). 

Rosy Marsh (Nflftiia sulirosea). Red Leopard (piobably ' Reed ' Leopard, 

Phragmat(ccia anindiiiis), and Whittlesea Ermine {Airlia itiiiuo']. Nat., 

Jan. 1886, p. II. 

T. A. Coward. Cheshire, 

[Scotosia dubitata in disused copper-mines at Alderley Edge, Jan. 7th„ 

1888]. Zool., June 18S8, p. 222. 

Sept. 1800. 



284 BIBLIOGRAPHY: LEPIDOPTERA, 1888. 

G. W. K. Crosland. York S.W., Mid W., and N.E. 

Scopula ferrugalis at Huddersfield [one at Grimescar Wood, 31st Aug., 
1888; Scarborough and Harrogate, the only previous Yorkshire records]. 
Nat., Nov. 1S88, p. 331. 
Elizabeth Cross. Line. N. 

Acronycta alni in Lincolnshire [larva beaten off birch at Appleby near 
Brigg, Sep. 3rd, 1888; Notodonta dictceoides occurs]. Ent., Oct. 1888, 258. 

Durham, Westmorland, Cumberland, 
■C. W. Dale. Lane, Yorksh., Line. S. 

The History of our British Butterflies [issued as a separately paged appendix 
to successive numbers of the ' Young Naturalist,' and entering in great detail 
into the life-history and variation of each species ; at p. 109, range oi Erehia 
viedea stated and details of Castle Eden Dene occurrence given ; Canonympha 
polydania and C. typhoii taken in Yorkshire by P. \V. Watson (p. 105) ; full 
details given of Erebia ep/phroit var. cassiope, mountains round Ambleside, 
taken by Thos. Stothard, nth June, 1809, and by J. C. Dale and J. Curtis, 
June 1827 ; also by the latter on Red Skrees, and by Air. Marshall at Gable 
Hill and Styehead, between Wastwater and Borrowdaie (p. 1 13); Apatitra 
iris noted as far north as Lincolnshire (p. 121) ; Linienitis sibylla comes up 
on the east coast as far as Lincolnshire (p. 132) ; variety of Vanessa io taken 
at Hull in 1837 (in coll. auct.) has the eye-spot on hind wings replaced by a 
white blotch (p. 154) ; V. antiopa, one in coll. J. E. Rolison, taken near 
Castle Eden Dene, crawling out of some burning underwood (p. 158); the 
Seaton Carew record of numbers about 1 820 strewing the sea shore repeated, 
also Wailes' S.E. Durham and Morris' Rawmarsh records (p. 160) ; V. antiopa, 
in 1846 in Yorksh., Lines., Notts, in 1872 most plentiful between Humber 
and Tyne ; in 1874 one seen at Newcastle (pp. 161-162) ; Van. urtiiw. var. 
from Hawkeshead, Lanes, figd. by Newman (p. 163) ; a swarm at Xmas 1855, 
Isle of Man (p. 165) ; Wailes' 1858 record of V. polychloros from Northum- 
berland and Durham repeated (p. 168); a singular variety of Vanessa C-albiivi 
taken near Doncaster and given to J. C. Dale by Y. O. Morris, has all the 
black spots on the hind wings run into one large patch (p. 170): Stephens' 
record (1828) that V. C-album is abundant near York (fide Backhouse) 
repeated (p. 173) ; a few were taken in Norfolk as recently as 1861, and also 
in Yorkshire and Durham (p. 174) ; Argynnis aghcia var. charlofta 'appears 
to be least rare in the North of England ' (p. 177) ; A. adippe v. chlorodippe 
H.S. 'has been taken by Mr. Gregson near Windermere, in W^estmorland ' 
<p. 180) ; A. iiiobe is recorded (Ent. viii. 83) as taken by Gregson in Aug. 
1871, at the Devil's Gallop near Windermere (p. 181) ; York and Scarborough 
are the most northerly records for Britain for Arg. latJionia (p. 183) ; in 1868 
one occurred as far N. as Scarborough (p. 187) ; A. euphrosyne is equally 
abundant in Northumberland and Durham (p. 190) ; Melitieacinxia formerly 
occurred in Lines, and Yorksh. for which counties various records from 1 702 
downwards are given (p. 195). Young Nat., Jan. 1888, pp. 105, 109, Feb., 
p. 113, March, p. 121, April, p. 132, July, pp. 154, 158, 160, Aug., pp. i6i, 
162, 163, 165, 168, Sept., pp. 170, 173, 174, Oct., pp. 177, 180, 181, 183, 
Nov., pp. 187, 190, and Dec, p. 195. 
George Dawson. Cumberland. 

Pupa of Erebia epiphron [as noted in the Lake District of Cumberland, 
July 1888 ; Larentia cicsiata and Eviuielesia rninorala {ericetala) also noted]. 
Ent., Sep. 1SS8, xxi. 230. 
George C. Dennis. York N.E. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Helmsley [Aug. 4th, 1884 ; three 
Pierides, Argynnis paphia, Vanessa urticiC, Satyins jantra, S. hyperanthns, 
Chortobiiis painp/n'liis, Thecla qiiercus, T. IV.-albtiin, Lyciena alexls, Boarniia 
ir.pandata, Asthena bloineraria, Ypsipetes elnia/a, Cidaria immanata, and 
Ckarceas graminis noted ; Vanessa C-aUniin not seen]. Nat., Sep. 1884,42. 

G. C. Dennis. York S.W. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Askern [May 20, 1886 ; larval 
Leiicania i/npiira noted]. Nat., June 1886, p. 190. ^ : 



bibliography: lepidoptera, 1888. 285; 

G. C. Dennis. York S.E. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Flamborough Head [14th June, 
1886; Eiipilhccia /ariciata noted]. Nat., July i8S6, p. 217. 

G. C. Den. MS. York Mid W. 

The Yorkshire NaturaUsts' Union in Upper Nidderdale [July 1886 ; 

Ai-idalia reiiiiitata, Cabcra pusaria, Einmclcsia aliheinillata, E. alhiilata, 
Eitpithecia iiiiinifata, J\/t/aii7ppe inontaiiata, Eaimi^ra clueropltyllata, EpiinJa 
z'iminalis, Aiiarta iiiyiiil//\ and Toiirix vibuniana noted J. Nat., \\\<g. 
1886, p. 254. 
G. C. Df.nms. York N.W. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union in Lower Wensleydale [at Leyburn, 
2ist May, 1888; Pici-is I'apic, J'tn/cssn iiiiiiic, Tlwra obcliscala, and larvie 
oi Niidaria muiidniia noted]. Nat., June 1888, p. 172. 

N. F. Dokrkk. York N.E. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Pickering [Aug. 1886 ; Caiionympha 

paviphiliis and Eiip. (supposed) ////(/■(•//(z/rt noted]. Nat., Sep. 1S86, p. 274. 

N. F. DoHKEE. York N.E. 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Gorrnire Lake and Thirkleby Park [the 
lepidoptera noted were Ar'^vtiii/s ai^laia, rolyoniviaius agcstis, J\ a/siis, 
A/(U-rog/ossa stellatantiii, Antliroccra filipendiilic, Gnoplios obsctirata, Anaitis 
plaffiata, Hydrocanipa iiyinplucalis, Pyrausta purpJiralis, Eup. ptilcludlata, 
Leucania ii/ipiii-a, Z. pallciis, Miana expoUta\ Nat., Aug. 1887, p. 238. 

N. F. DoBREE. York S.E. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Market Weighton [6th Aug., 1888 ;. 

Eutheiitoiiia rnssiila and Bryophila per/a noted]. Nat., -Sep. 1888, p. 279. 

C. Woi.LEY Ddi). Cheshire. 

Thecla W.-album in Cheshire [two Iwd specimens caught Aug. 30th in the 

parish of Malpas]. Field, Sep. Sth, 1888, p. 373 ; Ent., Oct. 18SS, xxi. 236. 

Ed[itor]s. [oI' Naturalist]. York S.E. 

Agrotis ripae at Spurn : a Correction [of an erroneous record of it as 
' riparia ']. Nat., Dec. 1SS4, p. 104. 

Eds., N. II. J. Yorkshire. 

Ack'worth Reports [note of Croca/lis t-//i/gi/arin, Ennoiiios tiliaria, Boarmia 
rhoinboidaria. Folia chi, and D/i>\intira i'iui(la\ Nat. Hist. Journ., Nov. 
15th, 1886, .X. 167. 

J. W. E[i.i,is]. Cheshire. 

Heliothis peltigera at Wallasey, &c. [taken by R. Wilding]. Nat., Sep. 
1884, p. 42. 

John W. Ellis. Cheshire. 

Heliothis peltigera [at Wallasey sandhills, two, in June or July, 1S84]. 
Nat., P'eb. 1SS6, p. 49. 

John W. lii.i.is. Lane. S., Cheshire. 

Lepidopterous Fauna of Lancashire and Cheshire [213 species of Noctua.-]. 

Nat., Sep.-Uct. 1SS6, pp. 285-306 [7 Deltoids, 2 Nycteolida;, l Chloephorid;^, 

I Brephos, and 206 Geometra;]. Nat., March and April 1887, pp. 93-1 15. . . . 

Part vii. : — Pyralidina [86 species cited]. Nat., Dec. 1887, pp. 367-374. 

John W. Ellis. Cheshire. 

Rearing Bombyx rubi [which occurs on the Wallasey sand-hills]. Sci. Goss., 
April 1887, p. 93. 

W. Finch, jun. Notts. 

Eccentricities of Insect Life [as observed near Nottingham in 1887 ; 

aliundance of TripJucna proniiba detailed at some length]. .Sci. Go^s., 
April 1S88, p. 93. 
Sept. 1890. 



^86 HIBLIOGRAPHY : LEPIDOPTERA, 1888. 

W. Finch, jun. Lincolnshire. 

Fox Eggars \{Bo»ibyx nibi) with passing reference to the larvte being in 
great numbers on the Lincolnshire coast, close to the sea, feeding on brambles]. 
Sci. Goss., April 1888, p. 94. 

W. W. Fowler. Line. N. 

[Acronycta alni and Leiocampa dictsea at electric light on Lincoln 

Cathedral, Jubilee night, 1887]. Proc. Ent. Soc. LoncL, Dec. 7th, 1887; 

Zool., Jan. 1888, p. 37 ; Ent. Mo. Mag., Jan. 1888, xxiv. 192 ; Ent., Jan. 

1888. xxi. 20; Young Nat., Jan. 1888, p. 14; Nat. Monthly, Feb. 1888, 118. 

W. W. Fowi.ER. Line. N. 

Moths [Leiocampa dictaea and Acronycta alni] attracted by the Illumi- 
nations of Lincoln Cathedral [on Jubilee Day, June 21st and 22nd, 1887 ; 
electric light]. Nat., April, 188S, p. 114. 

W. A. Gain. Notts. 

Sphinx convolvuli in Nottinghamshire [at Tuxford, Aug. 23rd, 1887]. 
Nat., Nov. 1887, p. 351. 
J. Gardner. Durham. 

Chaerocampa nerii at Hartlepool [23rd July, 1885]. Nat., Aug. 18S5. 292. 
J. Gardner. Durham. 

The Locality for certain Agrotidae [is Hartlepool, not Darlington ; see 
Bibliography (Lepidoptera, 1885-6-7) in Nat.. March 1888, p. 62]. Nat., 
April 1888, p. no. 
J. (Gardner. Durham. 

Distribution, time of appearance, habits, size, &c., of the genus Selenia 
[as observed near Hartlepool, where S. iilniiaria occurs commonly and 
.S". liinaria sparingly, and S. iliiistraria not at all]. Ent. Mo. Mag., May 
1888, xxiv. 275. 
J. (Gardner. Durham. 

Deilephila galii at Hartlepool [24th July, and a week before ; particulars 
given]. Nat., Sep. 1S8S, ]). 268. 
J. CiARDNER. Durham. 

Larvae of Deilephila galii at Hartlepool [on the sand-hills ; two found on 
Galium veritm on the 23rd Sep. 1888]. Nat., Oct. 1888, p. 286. 

.R. Gari-it. Line. N. 

Catocala fraxini in North Lincolnshire [at Hogsthorpe, Sep. 1875 ; 
particulars of capture given]. Nat., March 1887, p. 69. 
Ji. Gar FIT. Line. N. 

Sphinx convolvuli in Lincolnshire [at Alford, two, Sep. 22nd and 29th, 
1887]. Nat., Nov. 1887, p. 351. 
J^okert Garfit. Line. N. 

Deilephila galii at Alford, Lincolnshire [2nd Aug., 1S88]. Nat., Sep. 
1888, p. 268. 
F. Gayner and B. S. Rowntree. Lane. S. 

A Day on the Southport Sand-Hills [June 9th, 1888; Lycvia icarus, 
Eiichelia jaiol>u\€, Plitsia i^^anuna, and Pyraiiieii carditi notetl]. Nat. Hist. 
fourn., Sep. 15th, 1888, xii. 123. 
T. (liBK, JuN. ? Derbyshire. 

Exhibition of Asthena hlomeri Curt.: Hepiahis velleda var. caniiis St., and 
a variety of Mdanippe nioiitaiiata, all taken in the neighbourhood of Burton- 
on-Trent]. Proc. South Loud. Ent. and Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1886 (pub. 1887), 
p. 46. 
Hugh Goodfellow. Cumberland. 

Deilephila galii in Cumberland [at Carlisle, 21st July, 1888 ; details of 

capture given]. Ent., Aug. 1888, xxi. 2IO. 

Naturalist 



bibliography: lepidoptera, 1888. 287 

H. CJoss. Lane. W., Westmorland, Furness. 

The Lepidopterous Fauna of Lancashire and Cheshire [notes on the 

occurrence o{ Lemophasia si/ia/'/s, Canonyiiipha typhou (dtnnis)^ Polyommatiis 

lorvdoii, and Tlnrla IhiiiUc, at tirange, Silverdale, Arnside, Witherslack, etc.]. 

Nat., April 1885, p. 206. 

C. .S. Grec.son. Isle of Man. 

Isle of Man Varieties [of Lepidoptera : Diant/ucia ca-sm var. mannani, 

D. capsopltila, D. coiispcisa, Ai^rotis liicfrnea, Phloi^ophoi-a meticitlosa, Aplecta 
nigra, and J 'o/ia itignhiiicfa treated of]. Young Nat., Aug. 1888, ix. 163. 

J. T. G[u.MERSALi,]. Cumberland. 

Butterflies at Seascale (Cumb.) {Satyrt(s tithoniis and Vanessa cardtt{\. 
Nat. Hist. Journ., Sep. 15th, 1887, xi. 139. 

1. T. G[i'.mp:rsall]. Lane. S. 

Moths at Penketh ^Macroglossa s/ellatamtn, S/iierint/ius oiellatus, and 
Pliisia iota\. Nat. Hist. Journ., Sep. 15th, 1887, xi. 139. 

A. E. Hai.i.. York S.W. 

Vanessa antiopa at Sheffield in 1875. Nat., Aug. 1885, p. 292. 
A. E. Hall. ? York S.W. 

Chesias spartiata in February [bred by G. Rose of Barnsley ; locality not 
given]. Ent., April 1888, xxi. 112. 

A. E. Hall. York S.W. 

Lepidoptera in March [1888, at Ecclesall Wood near Sheffield ; 

Cyniatophora flai'iLoriiis, Phjgalia pilosaria, Hyheniia progemiitaria, H. 
kitcophiraria, and Anisopteryx icscularia captured, but the formerly-abundant 
Nyssia hispidaria not found]. Young Nat., May 1888, ix. 103. 

A. E. Hall. York S.W. 

Abundance of LarTse [in Ecclesall Wood near Sheffield ; Hyheniia 
progcinmaria, H. aiirantiaria, H. defoliaria, Phigalia pedaria, Oprobria 
di/titata, and Tieniocanipa piilvenilentd\. Ent., Aug. 1888, xxi. 212. 

A. E. Hall. York S.W. 

The Abundance of Plusia gamma [near Sheffield ; all worn, therefore 
hybernated]. Ent., Aug. 1888, xxi. 212. 

A. E. Hall. York S.W. 

Lycaena Alexis, Hb. [females shot with blue, taken this year in field bordering 
Edlington \Yood, Doncaster ; normal form of female very scarce there]. 
Ent. Mo. Mag., Oct. 1888, xxv. 103. 

A. E. Hall. York S.W. 

Lepidopterous Larvae near Sheffield [beating on Sep. 17th, 1888, produced 

a few each of Cyinatophora flucttiosa, Drepana laccrtiiuiria, Nolodonta drome- 

da/'ins, N. dic/iEoides, LophopteryA iaincliiia, and Cidaria coiylata on birch, 

and of Ventisia eambricaria on mountain ash]. Ent., Nov. 1888, xxi. 281. 

T. \Y. Hall. Derbyshire. 

[Exhibition of series of Cleoceris viminalis Fl. and Xatitkia fiilvago L., 
both bred from Derbyshire larvae ; Mr. South remarked that one or two of 
the series of X. fulvago looked like dark forms of X. fiilvago Fl., and were 
probably hybrids between the two species]. Proc. South Lond. Ent. and 
Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1886 (pub, 1887), p. 32. 

.S. Robinson Hallam and F. HALLA^L ? Derbyshire. 

Lepidoptera of Mavesyn Ridware [in Staffordshire ; includes a note of 
Sphinx convolviili taken in a brewery yard at Burton-on-Trent, Sep. 1887]. 
Nat. NVorld, Dec. 1887, iv. 204-205. 

G. F. Harding, York S.W. 

Lepidoptera near Halifax in 1887 [three Cyniatophora ridens and one 
Sphi)ix coHvolviili\ Nat., Aug. 1S88, p. 244. 

Sept. 1890 



288 BIBLIOGRAPHY : LEPIDOPTERA, 1888. 

James Hardy. Cheviotland or Northumberland S. 

Report of Meetings of Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, for the year 
1885. . . . Rothbury [24th June ; Boinbyx i-nbi {\2ixv^.)7x.x\<\. Satiiniia carpini 
noted]. Proc. Berw. Nat. Club for 1885 (pub. 1886), xi. 42. 

JA^rEs Hardy. Cumberland, Northumberland S. 

Report of Meetings of Berwickshire Naturalists' Club for the year 
1885. . . . Haughton Castle, Simonburn Church, and Chipchase 
Castle, North Tyne [30th July ; Dicranura vinula noted at Hexham and 
plentifully on willows near Carlisle]. Proc. Berw. Nat. Club for 1885 (pub. 
1886), xi. 51. 

Jamks Hardy. Durham, Northumberland S., Lane. S., Cumberland. 

The History of Charaeas graminis, the Grass or Antler Moth, on the 
Borders [with notices of ravages committed at Meldi:>n Park near Morpeth 
in 1821, at Clitheroe in 1881, on Skiddaw about 1824, of its occurring at 
South Shields, and of its commonness on the links at Newbigin-by-the-Sea]. 
Proc. Berw. Nat. Club for 1885 (pub. 1886), xi. 195-205. 

G. P. Harris. York N.W. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Hawes [281)1 June, 1884; three 

Pteritics, Aiilhucharis, four Vanessic, Choi tobiiis paniphiltis, Lycana alexis, 

Melanippe iiiontanata, Corcinia imtuitata, Hepialus kecfits, H. hiuniili, and 

Venusia cambricaria noted]. Nat., Aug. 1884, p. 18. 

John Harrison. York S.W. 

Varieties of Ephyra punctaria and Numeria pulveraria near Barnsley 
[described]. Nat., Jan. 18S6, p. 18. 

H. \V. Head. York N.E. 

Deilephila galii in Yorks. [one in central Scarborough, July 19th, at rest on 
a leaf ], Ent., Sep. 1888, xxi. 231. 

Thos. H. Hedworth. Durham. 

Stigmonota dorsana at Axwell [in a field at Hagg Hill, 27th May, 1888]. 
Nat., Aug. 18S8, p. 246. 

T. C. Heysham. Cumberland. 

[Scotophila purpurea and Anarta myrtilli the food of Laniiis fxcuhitor 
(Great Shrike) in Cumberland in 1831]. Macpherson and Duckworth's 
Birds of Cumberland, 1886, p. 27. 

John F. Hills, Secretary. York N.E. 

[Colias edusa reported at Bootham, York, proved to be Picris brassiiic\. 
Nat. Hist. Journ., June 15th, 1888, xii. ill. 

J. F. Hills [. Secretary]. York Mid W. 

York, Bootham. Natural History Club [Aiit/ioc/ian's caniainines, female, 
at Askham, 4th June, 1S87 (E. D. Doncaster)]. Nat. Hist. Journ., Sep. 15th, 
1887, xi. 132. 
J. F. Hills [, Secretary]. York S.E. and S.W. 

York, Bootham. Natural History Club [Orange {Aiigcroua pnman'a) and 
Carpet Mollis (indefinite 1) at Pocklington, Sep. 19th, 1887 (W. H. 
Barber); Red Underwing [Catocala mipta), Cleckheaton (J. H. Crosland); 
this last is 'decidedly rare in the North.']. Nat. Hist. Journ., Oct. 15111. 
1887, xi. 161. [See next title]. 
J. F. fliLi.s, Secretary. Yorkshire. 

York, Bootham. Natural History Club [J. H. Crosland reports that the 
Red Underwing, mentioned on p. 161, was not taken in the North of England, 
as he had previously understood]. Nat. Hist. Journ., Nov. 15th, 1887, xi. 1S8. 

J. 1!. HoDOKiNSON. York Mid W., Lane. W. 

Lycaena corydon in the North of England [near Settle and Bentham, and 

under Warton Crags near Carnforth, wiih Thecla qiicrcits\. Nat., June 1885, 

p. 246. 



No. 183. 



i 



: OCTOBER 1890. 




NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF KNGLANI). 



CONDUCTED BY 



WM. DEN I SON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., 

Sunny Bank, Leeds; 

WITH THE ASSISTANXK IN RPKCIAI, DEFAUTMENTS OF 



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Museum of Science & Art, Edinburgli ; 

ALFRED MARKER, M.A., F.G.S., 
St. John's College, Cambridge ; 



CHAS. P. HOBKIRK, F.L.S., 
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Greenfield Hou-e, Hutider>field ; 

W. BARWELL TURNER, F.C.S., F.R. M.S., 
38, Sholebroke Avenue, Leeds. 



Bibliography: Lepidoptera, 1888 

Notes on North of England Rocks— tH.'-Ai/red Harder, A/. A., F.G.S. . 
Flowering-Plants and Ferns of Upper Swaledale — Jf/«. IVhitwell 
The Faculty of Homing in Gastropods— //^. Wallis Kew, F.E.S., M.C.S. 

Notes on the Tree-Sparrow — F. B. Wkitlock 

Notes — Mammalia 

Field Voles in North-East Yorkshire— /i" ft'. E. H. Smart, M.A. ; Seal .it Flam- 
borough — Matthew Bailey. 

Note— Botany 

Ruppia rostellata in Cumberland — Wm. Hodgson, A.L.S. 

Notes— Ornithology 

Flamborough Bird-Note> — Mutt/tew Bailey; Swallows' Nests — Rez'. H. A. 
Macpherso}i,M.A., M.B.O.U.: Yellow Wagtail in Swaledale— Jaj. Bnclc- 
house. Jiai., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U; Spotted Redshank in Cumberland— 
Rev. H. A. Macfherson, M.A., M.B.O.U. ; Garganey in Cumberland- 
Rev. H. A. Macpherson, Jl/.A., iif.B.O.U.; Nesting of the Cirl Bunting 
at Lofthouse near Wakefield — ydtn IVarii. 

Notes and News 



HAGH 

289 to 299 
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J. W. Fawcett. — The Birds of Durham, 8vo, sewn, pp. 20, Consett, 1890. [Author. 
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Egon Ihne. — Phanologische Karten von Finland. — 4to reprint, 2 pp. and maps, 
1890. [The Author. 

Watson Bot. Exch. Club.— Sixth Ann. Rep., 1889- 1890. [The Club. 

Philadelphia Acad, of Nat. Sci. — Proc, 1890, part i, Jan.-March. [The Academy. 
Psyche: journ. of entom.. Vol. 5, No. 171, July 1890. [Camb. Ent, CI., U.S.A. 
Naturoe Novitates, 1890, Nos. 13-16, July-August. [Friedlander & Sohn, pubs. 
Essex Naturalist, Vol. iv, Nos. 4-6, April-June, 1890. [Essex Field Club. 

Nat. Hist. Journ., No. 123, Sep. 15, 1890. [J. E. Clark & others, Editors, York. 
Grevillea, quarterly record of Cryptog. Bot. , No. 89, Sep. 1 890. [Dr. M. C. Cooke, ed. 
Die Schwalbe, Jahrg. 14, Nr. 15 & 16, Aug. 31 &Sep. 15, 1890. [Orn.Vereins inWien. 
Science Gossip, No. 309, for Sep. 1890. [Messrs. Chatto & Windus, publishers. 
The Young Naturalist, Part 129, for Sep. 1890. [Mr. John E. Robson, editor. 
The Zoologist, 3rd Series, Vol. 14, No. 165, Sep. 1890. [J. E. Harting, editor. 
Entomologists' Rec. & Jn. of Variation, No. 6, Sep. 1890. [J. W. Tutt, editor. 
The Midland Naturalist, No. 153, September 1890. [Birmingham Nat. Hist. Soc. 
Manchester Geological Soc. — Trans., vol. 20, parts 20 & 21, 1890. [The Society. 

For Sale. — Talbot's Birds of Wakefield, 2s. 6d. Address, Eds. Naturalist. 

Now ready, %vo. cloth, price 6/-, post free. 

LIST of YORKSHIRE LEPIDOPTERA, 

By G. T. PORRITT, F.L.S. 

Contains copious records of the localities, &c., of the 1,340 species of macro- 
and micro-lepidoptera known to inhabit the county ; particulars of local variation 
in species ; with all other necessary information on the subject. 

To be had only from the Hon. Secretaries of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 
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Improved Egg Drills (2 sizes) and Metal Blowpipe with instructions 1/3 free. 
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BIBLIOGRAPHY: LEPIDOPTERA, iSSS. 289 

I. B. HoDGKiNsoN. Cumberland. 

Lycaena corydon in Cumberland [where it used to occur at Grisedale, at 
the toot of Saddleback]. Ent., Feb. 1888, .xxi. 54. 

I. B. HoDGKiNSON. Derbyshire. 

Agrotis fennica [repetition of particulars of the Chesterfield example now 
in York .Museum]. Ent., Feb. 1888, \\i. 59. 

J. B. HoDGKiNsoN. Westmld. and Furness, Lane. W., Isle of Man. 

Northern Lepidoptera in 1887 [at Windermere, Isle of Man, Wyresdale, 
and 'the moors'; very numerous species referred to]. Ent., April 1S88, xxi. 
104-10S, and erratum, May 1888, xxi. 141. 

J. B. HoDGKiNSON. Lane. S. or W. 

Nepticula minuseulella in Lancashire [near Ashton-on-Ribble pre- 
sumably ; also A\ lun/gkiiisonii and Micropteryx spaniiaiuUa ; food-plants 
stated, but not locality]. Ent., June 1888, xxi. 160. 

J. B. HoDGKiNsox. Westmld., Furness, Isle of Man, Lane. W. or S. 

A Lepidopterist's Memoranda in 1888 [numerous Nepticiihe, LithocoUetis 

frolichicUa, L. kUc)iiauiiella,L. stettimiisis, Glyphipteryx ocitlatella, Catoptria 
aspidiscatia, Micropteryx mansuetella, LithocoUetis vacciniella, Inctn-faria 
canarieU.a, Eriopsela fractifasciaiia, Mimceseoptihis hodgkinsoiii, Opadia 

fiifiebrana, Penthina postreinaiia, Stigmonota roseticolana, Cccnoiiyiiipha 
typlion, Acidalia fiimata, Aspilatcs strigillaria, Coleophora wi/kiiisoni, 
Lithosia /iiesoinel/a, Adela viridelia, Ennychia octomaculata, Eiipithecia 
constrictata (Isle of Man), E. valerianata, Lycirita astrarche var. sal/nacis, 
Phothedes captiiniciila, Cramlnis falselliis, C. pinelhis, C. warnngtonelhis, 
Argyresthia aiirnleutella, Coleophora olivaceella, Chorentes 7nyllerana, and 
Elachista monticola noted, for Windermere, Witherslack, Arnside, and 
Preston]. Ent., Dec. 1888, xxi. 294-298. 

R. C. Ivy. Lane. S. 

Pupation of Cossus [ligniperda ; as observed near Southport ; interesting 
details ; second note explains term ' cop ' used in the first]. Ent., April and 
June, 1888, xxi. Iioand 155. 

R. C. Ivy. Lane. S. 

Hybernia marginaria near Southport [at Crossens ; variation described]. 
Ent., June 1888, xxi. 157. 

R. C. Ivy. Lane. S. 

Nyssia zonaria near Southport [decreasing numerically year by year ; 
details given]. Ent., June 188S, xxi. 156. 

J. A. Jackson. Lane. W. 

Notes on the Blaekheaded Gull near Garstang [and on a few lepidoptera 

of ' Gull Moss,' viz. Satyrus iithonits, Chortohitis davits, Anarta myrtilli, 
Chelonia plantaginis, Carsia iinhutata, Hyria aiiroraria, and Crambus 
margaritelliis\ Nat., May 1887, p. 130. 

W. Jesprr. Westmorland. 

Early Butterflies [on Whitbarrow Scar near Kendal, April 12th, 1887, 
Khodoccra rhamiii tmkX Vanessa miicic]. X. H. J., May l6th, 1887, xi. 85. 

H. Wallis Kew. Line. N. 

Satyrus tithonus in Lincolnshire [abundant at Louth and Mablethorpe ; 
at the latter so is Canoiiyinpha pamphilus\ Nat., March 1885, p. 174. 

H. Waliis Ke\v. Lines. N. 

A Postglacial Ravine [at Welton Vale near Louth ; Diumea fagella noted 
April nth, 1885, very plentiful on trunks of oak and elm]. Nat. World, 
Feb. 1886, iii. 21-22. 

Oct. 1890. • T 



290 bibliography: lepidoptera, 1888. 

H. Wallis Kew. Line. N. 

Another Postglacial Ravine [Hubbard's Valley near Louth] and its 

inhabitants {Ti'iphana proniiha. Mania i/iaura and Abraxas idi/iata referred 
to]. Nat. World, March 1886, iii. 41. 

K. Wallis Kew. Line. N. 

The Greasy-field and Grisel-bottom [near Louth ; Melitaa annum, 
Spilosoma fuliginosa, Enclidia tin, E. glyphica, Ino statices, Zygana filipcn- 
dul(B, Tortrix viridaiia, Epinephik jaitira, Vanessa urtiac, Melanargia 
galatea, Charaas gratninis, Polyomniahts phhcas, Goneptoyx rhamni, 
Vanessa io, V. atalanta, V. cardiii, and Lycana icariis, mentioned]. Nat. 
World, June 1886, iii. 101-102. 

H. Wallis Kew. Line. N. 

A Half-Day's Ramble on the Lincolnshire Coast [at Mablethorpe, 
April 3rd, 1S86; Satin Moth {Lencoma salicis, larva), noted]. Nat. , June 
1886, p. 172. 

H. Wallis Kew. Line. N. 

Pteromalus puparum [parasitic on Vanessa atalanla] near Louth. Nat., 
July 1886, p. 213. 
H. Wallis Kew. Line. N. 

In the Woods [near Louth] in Summer [Ca-nonympha pamphilus, Lyc(ena 
icariis, Hesperia sylvanits, Folyommatiis pkla-as, Euclidia glyphica, Epine- 
phile hyperanthiis, Vanessa iirticce, Argynnis paphia and Thecla quemis, 
mentioned]. Nat. World, July 1886, iii. 121-124. 
H. Wallis Kew. Line. N. 

Evenings in Spring [near Louth ; Ttcniocainpa gothica noted]. Nat. 
World, Sep. 1886, iii. 162. 
H. Wallis Kew. Line. N. 

[Euehelia jaeobaeae plentiful at Mablethorpe]. Sci. Goss., Sep. 1886, p. 208. 
H. Wallis Kew. Line. N. 

Natural History Rambles. No. L— In the Woods [near Louth, where 
the capture of Lydcna icants and Amphipyra tragopogonis is noted]. Sci. 
Goss., Feb. 1887, p. 31. 
H. Wallis Kew. Line. N. 

Old Chalk-pits [near Louth ; Epinephile hypetanthus, Pamphila sylvanus, 
J'anessa atalanta, Melanargia galathea, Chrysophanus phlceas. Ccenonyi/tp/ta 
pamphilus, and 'wood ringlets' (?)]. Nat. World, May 1888, iii. 81-82. 

A. Knoblauch. York S.W. 
Urapteryx sambuearia, larva of [on chestnut-tree in the park, Bradford, 

Oct. I2th, 1S88 ; no ivy near, but plenty of elder at thirty yards]. Ent., 
Nov. 1888, xxi. 278. 
J. Larder. Line. N. 

A Strip of Lincolnshire Coast [at Mablethorpe ; Euehelia jacoluac in 
abundance]. Wesl. Nat., Nov. 18S7, i. 2S3. 

B. B. L[e].T[all]. Yorkshire. 
York, Bootham. Natural History and Scientific Club [Tortoise-sliells 

( Vanessa urtieie) and 'Whites' [Pieris, species not stated) noted]. Nat. Hist, 
journ., May 15th, 1886, .\. 80. 
B. 1'.. Le Tall [Secretary]. Lake District, York N.E. and S.W. 

York, Bootham. Natural History Club [phenological notes on Anthocharis 
cardainines and J'anessa atalanta at York; var. with very dark under-side 
oi Satyrus janira at the Lakes; var. of Spilosoma lubrieipeda at Bootham, 
York ; Geonietra papilionaria near Sheffield ; Neineophila plantaginis and 
Beautiful Small Yellow Underwing (? Anarta inyriilli) at Whitby]. Nat. 

Hist. Journ., Oct. 15th, 1S86, .x. 151-2. 

Naturalist, 



bibliography: lei'idoptera, i88S. 291 

\V. LiiscoMii. York S.W. 

Grouse and their Food [at Walshaw, Hebden Bridge ; with a reference 
to Jiiiuiis squarrosiis being there much infested by larviv of Colcophpra 
ccespititidla (names supplied by editor of Field)]. Field, Oct. i6th, 1886,574. 
E. LiTTLK. York S.W. 

A Common White Butterfly \_Picris, (juery species?] appeared March and 
[1S88, at Ackworth]. Mat. fiist. Journ., April 14, 1S88, xii. 72. 
AV.M. McRae. Cumberland. 

The Duke of Burgundy [Nemeohius Luciiia) [ranges from Cumberland 
southwards]. NVesl. Nat., Feb. 1888, i. 365. 
riiiLif Bi<.r)oKE Mason. Line. N. or S. 

[Hermaphrodite Saturnia carpini from Lincoln, exhibited]. Proc. Ent. Soc. 
London, May 2nd, 18S8, p. xv ; Zool., June 1888, p. 240; Ent. Mo. Mag., 
June 1888, XXV. 19; Ent., June 1888, xxi. 164. 
ruii.ii- Brooki-. Mason. Line. N. or S. 

Hermaphroditism in the Emperor Moth {{Saturnia carf^ini) ; from Lincoln ; 
exhibited to Ent. Soc. Lond., May 2nd, 1888]. Nat., July 188S, p. 199. 
P. Y,. Mason. ? Derbyshire. 

[Exhibition of Chaerocampa nerii captured at Burton-on-Trent]. Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Lond., October 3rd, 1888; Zool., Nov. 1888, p. 432; Ent., 
Nov. 1888, xxi. 284; Ent. Mo. Mag., Nov. 1888, xxv. 143; Young Nat., 
Nov. 1888, p. 219. 
E. N. Mennki.l. York N.E. 

[A 'Common Golden Y' {} Phisia io/a or P.^minma), taken at 20, Bootham, 
York]. Nat. Hist. Journ., Nov. 15th, 1886, x. 172. 
S. L. Mosley. York S.W. 

Annual Report, 1883. . . . Entomology [noting occurrence of Chelonia 
p/a)itai^iiiis, Geonielni papilionaria.M\A abundance oi DasypoUatenipli. Miselia 
Qxyacaiitluc, Hintera pennai-ia, several Hyberniic, and Exapate gelatclla, 
near Huddersfleld]. Trans. Huddersfield Nat. Soc, Part i (pub. 1884?], 
pp. 7-8, with woodcut of Chelonia caia var., bred at Almondbury Bank, now 
in coll. S. \Yebb. 
S. L. Mosley. York S.W. 

A Catalogue of the Lepidoptera found in the Huddersfield District.— 
Macro-Lepidoptera [350 species included, with localities and remarks on 
comparative freiiuency ; prefaced by notes as to the district]. Trans. 
Huddersfield Nat. Soc, Part i (dated Dec. 18S3), pp. 13-30. 
S. L. Mosley. York S.W. 

Annual Report, 1884. . . . Entomology {Stetioptcryx hybridalis. Cramluts 
inquinatctlus, Eupucilia dnbiiana, Argyrolcpia cnicana (given in error as 
Conc/iyiis sincathinanniana), Colcopliora fiisccdinella, C. grypliipennclla, 
C. a.tyonipL'nuclla, Elacliista gleichenclla and Argyrcsthia rctinella, for- all of 
which localities are cited, are new to Huddersfield list ; captures of a Psyche, 
Celiena haiuorthii, Oporabia filigraniniaria, Scoparia coarctalis. and Nonagria 
fitlva also placed on record ; reference made to reappearance of Ennychia 
octomaculata in Beaumont Park]. Trans. Huddersfield Nat. Soc, Part 2 (pub. 
1885?), pp. 7-9 ; and erratum at p. 32. 
A. M. Moss. Westmorland or Furness. 

Amphydasis strataria [and Dicranura vinula] near Windermere |with 
notes as to comparative numbers, and a distinct variety (described) ol the 
first-named, and food-plant of latter]. Ent. June 1888, xxi. 156. 
H. Murray. Lane. W. 

Colias edusa in Cumberland [one taken 'near here' (Carnforth) Aug. 1S87 ; 
had not previously occurred with us for about ten years]. Ent., Jan. 1888, 
xxi, 12. 
Oct. 1890. 



292 BIBLIOGRAPHY : LEPIDOPTERA, 1888. 

H. Murray. Furness or Lane. W. 

Cidaria reticulata malformed [seven bred 18S7, near Camforth, all crippled; 
attributed to the dryness of the season]. Ent., Jan. 1888, xxi. 16. 

T. H. Nelson. York N.E. 

Hybernating' Butterflies [Vanessa cardui in great numbers between Redcar 
and Marske, June 12th and 13th]. Field, June 30th, 1888, p. 936. 

W. Nelson. York S.E. 

A Day's Collecting near Howden, Yorks. [Lyavna phhxas noted, 
30th May, 1887]. Journ. of Conch., Jan. 1888, vol. 5, p. 263. 

Wm. Newman. Durham or York N.E. 

Cidaria suffumata var. piceata [near Darlington ; the species not so 
common as formerly ; a larger proportion than known before were of the 
variety]. Ent., Aug. 1888, xxi. 212. 

F. W. Paple. Lane. S. 

Liparis salicis [found in August, in all stages, at Southport]. -Sci. Goss., 
Dec. 1888, p. 282. 

F. N. Pierce. Lane. S. 

Newspaper Entomology [criticism of a paragraph anent a ' full-grown 
butterfly ' at Manchester in January]. Young Nat., March 1888, p. 62. 

G. T. PoRRiTT. York S.W. 

List of the Micro-Lepidoptera of Huddersfield and neighbourhood 

[3 deltoids, 27 pyrales, 10 crambites, 109 tortrices, 168 tinea;, and 10 ptero- 
phori noted — 327 in all — with localities, etc.]. Trans. Huddersfield Nat. 
Soc, Part I (dated Dec. 1S83), pp. 31-46. 

Geo. T. Porritt. York S.W. 

Eupoecilia dubitana in Yorkshire [at Dungeon Wood, Huddersfield, June 
18S4; new to Yorkshire list]. Nat., Aug. 18S4, p. 15. 

G. T. Porritt. York S.W. 

Phycis betulella, &c., near Doncaster [taken 31st May, in Green Farm 
Wood; Geonietra papilionaria also taken]. Nat., Sep. 1884, p. 42. 

Geo. T. Porritt. York N.E. 

Agdistes Bennettii at Redcar [a second taken by J. Sang, establishing its 
position as a Yorkshire insect]. Nat., Sep. 1884, p. 42. 

Geo. T. Porriti'. York S.W. 

Crambus inquinatellus at Huddersfield [taken in Aug. 1884, at Bilberry 
Reservoir near Holmfirth]. Nat., Oct. 1884, p. 57. 

Geo. T. Porritt. York S.W. 

Seasonal Notes on Lepidoptera (South-West Yorkshire) [Oporahia Jili- 
grammaria and Cehciia haworthii, Greenfield and Huddersfield ; Scoparia 
coardalis and Vanessa canitii at Huddersfield]. Nat., Oct. 1884, p. 57. 

Geo. T. Porritt. York S.W. 

Coleophora fusco-cuprella : a Correction [the Doncaster specimens of the 
' Yorkshire List' turned out to be not that species]. Nat., Dec. 1884, p. 104. 

Geo. T. Porritt. York S.W. 

Hepialus humuli [an unusual variation in the females, observed about 
Huddersfield]. Nat., Dec. 1SS4, p. 104. 

CiF.o. T. Porritt. York S.W. 

Stenopteryx hybridalis and Argyresthia retinella at Huddersfield 

[localities and particukars given]. Nat., Dec. 18S4, p. 104. 

Naturalist, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY: LEPIDOI'TERA, iSSS. 293 

Geo. T. roKKiTT. York Mid W. 

Phoxopteryx diminutana in Yorkshire [at Bishop Wood, 2ncl Tune, 1S84; 
nuw to the county]. Nat., Dec. 1S84, p. 104. 

(;. T. roRRiTT. York S.W. 

Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire NaturaHsts at Anston Stones [30th 
April; Ilcrbula ccspilalis noted]. Nat., lune 18S5, p. 261. 

Geo. T. PoRRiTr. York S.W. 

Lepidoptera in the Green Farm Wood, Doncaster, May 30th, 1885 
{/'kycis bctnldla, Colcopliora citrrtiiipomdla, Gcoiiulra papilioiiaria, Clwinia- 
tobia boreata, I'ltoxopicryx rai/iaiia, Arctia incmiica, and Platyptcryx falcitla 
noted]. Nat., Aug. 1S85, p. 292. 

G. T. PoRRiTT. York S.W. 

Curious place for a Cuckoo's egg- [and capture of Hyria anroran'a and 
Acidalia straininata, on Thorne ^^'astc, July 1885]. Nat., Oct. 1885. p. 344. 

Geo. T. Porritt. York S.E., Cheshire, Lane. S. ? 

Heliothis peltigera in Yorkshire [taken at Kilnsea, Holderness, by W. Eagle 
Clarke, Sep. 6th, 1885 ; new to the Yorkshire list; editorial note appended, 
giving British distribution]. Nat., Oct. 1885, p. 347. 

Geo. T. Porritt. Yorkshire, Westmorland. 

Localities of Collix sparsata and Eupithecia constrictata [the latter at 
Witherslack, as well as both in Yorkshire ; note corrective of Owen Wilson]. 
Nat., Oct. 1885, p. 347. 

Geo. T. Porritt. York Mid W. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Blubberhouses [26th Sep., 1885; 
Arctia fuliginosa, Sa/iiniia caipiiii, Oporabia filigranuiiaria, Eupithecia 
pidchellata, Cidaria psittacata, CeLoia hawort/iii, Stcnoptcryx hybridalis, 
Coleophora iniirinipennella, Argyresthia coujiigella, all taken during the day, 
7\x\A Saty}'iis tithomis, Nudaria iiiitudaiia, Acidalia incanaria, Vemisia cant- 
hricaria, Lareiitia fectinitaria, Emnidesia affiiiitata. E. alcheiiiillata, 
Melanthia riibiginata, M. ocellata, Cidaria popiilata, C. pyraliaia, C. fulvata, 
Leucania impiira, Cravibus pratcllus. C. margaritellus, Tortrix forsterana, 
Amphysa geniiiigana, Sciaphila virgaureana, Grapholitha triinaciilana, 
G. penkleriaiia, Coccyx ustotiiaculaua, Xylopoda fabriciaiia, E-iip<ccilia angits- 
tana, XantJiosetia haniaiia, Coucliylis strafiiiiieatia, ApJielia pratana, 
Grapholitha gemiiiaua, Dicrorainpha hcrlwsana, Depressaria piilcherrime!/a, 
and Pterophoriis pterodactylns taken by Thos. Eedle, Tulv i88i;l. Nat., 
Nov. 1885, p. 3S0. 

Geo. T. Porritt. York S.W. 

Entomological Notes from Huddersfield [anent GraphoUta geminana, 
Ephippipliora bnmiiichana, Pcntliiiia sanciana, Gclcchia politclla, Argyresthia 
conjugella,A. cnicana, Culeophoranigrice/la, Tischeria complandia, iJthocoUetis 
salicicolella, Eitpcvcilia diibitaim, Scoparia coarctalis, S. iiiiiralis, Tortrix 
costana, Acidalia inoniata, Sphinx co)ivolvuli, and Acherontid\. Nat.. Tan. 
18S6, p. 16. J . - 

Geo. T. Porritt. York S.W. 

Oncocera ahenella and Catoptria expallidana in Yorkshire [being the 
evidence in support of the validity of the Tiuddersfield occurrences, the only 
ones for Yorkshire]. Nat., March 1S86, p. 66. 

George T. Porritt. York S.W., N.E., Mid W. 

Tortrix transitana (diversana) Spilonota rosaecolana, and Depessaria 

weirella in Yorkshire [at Edlington Wood near Doncaster, at ^'ork, and at 

Saltburn, where also occurred Dep. doicjlasdla and rtcrophoriis dichrodactvlusX 

Nat ., Jan. 1887, P- 21. 

Oct. 1890. 



294 BIBLIOGRAPHY: LEPIDOPTERA, 1888. 

G. T. PoRRiTT. York S.W, 

[Variation in Huddersfield examples of Cidaria sitffinnata and Hypsipctes 
elutata; specimens exhibited]. Ent. Soc. Lond., Dec. 1st, 1886; Zool., 
Jan. 1887, xi. 35 ; Nat., Marcli 1887, p. 69. 

Geo. T. roRRiTT. York N., Lane. S. 

Lepidoptera, etc., on the North-East Coast of Yorkshire, in August 1886 

[a list of 96 species captured ; and a casual reference to l^lack Southport 
examples of Agrotis nigrkans\. Nat., March 1887, pp. 67-69. 

George T. Porritt. York S.W. 

Variation in Hybernia progemmaria [at Huddersfield ; melanism on the 
increase]. Ent. Soc. Lond., April 6th, 18S7 ; Nat., Aug. 1887, p. 228 ; Zool., 
May 1887, xi. 199. 

George T. Porritt. Line. N, 

Coleophora obtusella in Lincolnshire [larvae taken by J. Eardley Mason at 
Chapel near Alford]. Nat., Oct. 1887, p. 290. 

G. T. Porritt. Durham. 

[The Brown Form of Crambus perlellus at Hartlepool occurs with the 
ordinary typical form, and is there regarded as only a variety of it]. Ent. 
Soc. Lond., Oct. 5th, 1887; Zool., Nov. 1S87, xi. 436; Nat. Monthly, 
Nov. 1887, p. 60. 

G. T. Porritt. Yorkshire. 

[Melanic variation in Diiimca fagella at Huddersfield, from which neigh- 
bourhood the typical pale form has almost disappeared]. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
Oct. 5th, 1887 ; Zool., Nov. 1887, xi. 437 ; Nat. Monthly, Nov. 1887, p. 60. 

G. T. Porritt. Yorkshire, Isle of Man, 

[Exhibition of Cidaria rtissata from Yorkshire, Isle of Man and other 
localities, those from the two named being almost black]. Proc. Ent. Soc. 
Lond., Dec. 7th, 1887; Zool., Jan., 1888, 3rd Series, xii. 37; Ent., 
Jan. 1888, xxi. 20 (as C. ' triincata ); E.M.M., Jan. 1888, xxiv. 192; 
Young Nat., Jan. 1888, ix. 14 ; Nat. Monthly, Feb. 1888, p. 118. 

George T. Porritt. York S.W. and N.E. 

Yorkshire Entomological Notes \_Aplecta tincta, Dtpressan'a badiella, Pcvdisca 
hiliinana, and Gclechia politella near Huddersfield, Dep. weirella at York, 
Neptictda tormentilltv on the West Riding moors]. Nat., Jan. 1888, p. 12. 

Geo. T. Porritt. York Mid W. and N.W., Westmorland. 

The Supposed Yorkshire Nepticula tormentillas [is a new and unnamed 
species] ; and l.he occurrence of another species {LitkocoUefis sorhiella, at 
Ligleborough and Richmond] new to the county. Nat., March 1888, p. 82. 

George T. Porritt. Isle of Man. 

An Entomological Expedition to the Isle of Man [in 

Aug. 1887 ; 50 species noted, with localities]. Nat., April iSSS, pp. 103-106. 

Geo. T. Porritt. York Mid W. 

Nepticula serella [new to Britain ; taken at Ingleborough by Mr. E. R. 
Bankes]. Nat., May 188S, p. 151. 

Geo. T. Porritt. York S.W. 

Description of the Larva of Euclidia mi [taken June 5th, 1886, at Green 
Farm Wood, Doncaster]. Ent. Mo. Mag., June 18S8, xxv. 13-15. 

G. T. Porritt. York S.E, 

Yorkshire and Lancashire Naturalists at Saddleworth [i6th June, 1888: 

Hadena glaiica (commonly), Phoxopteryx inyrtillaiia, and Clepsis riisticana 

noted round Bill's-o' -Jack's]. Nat., July 1888, p. 213. -• 

Naturalist, 



niniJOGKAl'HV : LKPIDOPTERA, 1888, 295 

Geo. T. Pokriit. York SAV. 

Variation in Arctia mendica [bred fidin a batch of eggs fouiul nenr llu.:- 
deisfield in 1S87 ; the variation described]. Ent. Mo. Mag., luly ibS."^, 
XXV. 39; Proc. Ent. Soc. Lend., July 4th, 1888, Part 3, p. xxiii ; Zool., 
Aug. 18S8, p. 316; Ent., Aug. 1S88, xxi. 214; Ent. Mo. Mag., Aug. 188S, 
XXV. 72; Young Nat., Aug. 1888, ix. 159. 

Georck T. P.-kkitt. Chesh., York N.E., Mid W., and S.W. 

Deilephila galii in 1888 [in various Idealities; and in the larval Innn on 
Wallasey sand-hills]. Nat., Oct. 1888, p. 298. 

Georce T. Porritt. York S.W., Notts. 

Euperia lulvago and Acronycta alni near Doncaster [in Wadworth Wood ; 
Lohophora Iicxaptcrata there also; previous Yorkshire records recapitulated] 
Nat., Nov. 1888, p. 331. 

Geo. T. Porritt. York S.W. 

Melanism in Boarmia repandata [near Huddersfield ; specimens described 
and variation discussed]. Ent. Mo. Mag., Dec. 1888, xxv. 161. 

L. Richardson. York N.E. 

The York School Excursion to Scarbro', June loth, 1886 [Anthoi/ian's 

cari/aiiiiiit's, Cia'aria silafeata, 'Connnon Carpets,' Argj/iniis eiiphrosyne, 

Fidoiiia atotiiaria, Satuniia carpiui, and Bovibyx rubi (cocoon) noted in 

Bee Dale]. Nat. Hist. Journ., Feb. 15th, 1888, xii. 14. 

Alfred Ridgway and Fredk. W. Ridcway. York Mid W. 

Ramble from Sherburn Station to Cawood, Yorkshire [Aug. ist, 1887; 
Vanessa urtiac, Pieris hrassica, P. rapcc, Satyrus Jaiiira, and Lvfuvia agestis 
noted]. Nat. Hist. Journ., May 15th, 1888, xii. 92. 

John E. Rokson. Durham. 

Heliothis peltigera in the North of England ; three Co. Durham instances 
cited]. Nat., Dec. 1885, p. 393. 

John E. Robson. Durham, York S.W. 

In Memoriam.— John Sang [mentioning his capture at Wakefield in 1848 of 
Deilephila celerio, Elachista gregsoiiella, and Dichroylia?npha tanaceta7ia, at 
Conisclifte, and Elachista pahuittm and Heliozele respleiidella at Hellkettles]. 
Nat., Feb. 1888, pp. 52-54. 

John E. Robson. Lane. S., Isle of Man, York S.W., etc. 

A Visit to Liverpool [notes on C. S. Gregson and his collection]. Young 

Nat., April 1888, ]5p. 101-103. \Agrotis spinifera. Isle of Man, named by 

Doubleday ; Apleda nelnilosa, dark examples from Sheffield; all in C. S. 

Gregson's collection]. Young Nat., June 1888, ix. 121-123. 

J. E. Robson. Durham. 

Abundance of certain species of Lepidoptera [at Hartlepool and else- 
where ; Vanessa cardiii, Plusia gauuua, and Anthochans cardamines]. 
Young Nat., July 1888, ix. 143. 

John E. Robson. Durham. 

Ephippiphora Regiana [at Hartlepool and in Upper Teesdale]. Young 
Nat., July 1888, ix. 144. 

John E. Robson. Durham. 

HeHothus [sic] Peltigera [at Hartlepool, June 15th, 1888, a fine female ; 
the third taken there]. Young Nat., July 1S88, ix. 144. 

J. E. Robson. Durham. 

Deilephila galii at Hartlepool [one, i8th July, 1888, and a second a dav or 
later] . Young Nat., Aug. 18S8, ix. 163. " 
Oct. 1890. 



296 bibliography: lepidoptera, 1888. 

John E. Rohson. Isle of Man. 

Isle of Man Varieties [of lepidoptera ; Dianf/nrcia ctrsia var. maunaui, 
D. capsophila, D. coiis/ersa, and Agrotis hicernea treated of]. Young Nat., 
Aug. 1888, ix. 164. 

J. E. RoiisoN. Cheshire. 

Deilephila galii in 1888 [general considerations, with a remark on its abundance 
on the Cheshire sand-hills]. Young Nat., Oct. iSSS, ix. 198-199. 

J. E. RoBSON. 'York.' 

[Exhibition of five varieties of Zygima lonicenv and var. eboraar, from one 
field near York ; at an exhibition of South Lond. Ent. Soc, Oct. 17th, 1S8S]. 
Young Nat., Nov. 1S88, ix. 223. 

John T. Rodgers. Lane. S. 

Miana strigilis [near Oldham ; the black form — ivthiops Haw. — only taken 
till this year, when two or three with white markings occurred]. Young Nat., 
Oct. 1888, ix. 204. 

W. D. Roebuck. York S.W. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Hatfield Chace [21st Sep., 18S7 : 

Safurnia carpi in\ BoDiby.x riihi, and Eubolia ccrvinaria noted]. Nat., 
March 18S8, p. 85. 

A. J. Rose. Westmorland and Furness. 

[Exhibition of varieties of Boarmia repandata L. from Ambleside, and 
Nitdaria iinuidana L. , which had been plentiful on walls in the Lake Dis- 
trict]. Proc. South Lond. Ent. and Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1886 (pub. 1887). 69. 

Rudolph Rosenstock. York Mid W. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Boroughbridge [25th May, 1885 ; 
S7t.'a»!/iu'rdai/iia coniptella zxvd^ S. pyreUa\. Nat., July 1885, p. 280. 

M. ROUTLEI3GF.. Cumberland. 

Sugaring near Carlisle [since July nth, 1888, produced Agrotis segt-fmn, 

A. exclamationis, Leiicania pallcns, and Xylophasia iiionoglypha, while a bed 

of Valerian attracted Pliisiida and Cucttllia 7imbraticd\. Ent., Aug. 1888, 

xxi. 212. 

M. RouTLEDGE. Cumberland. 

Lepidoptera in Cumberland [at Hayton, Carlisle ; Aplecta ncbulosa, 
Chancas gra minis, Bryophila perla, Ai^ro/is tritici, Galleria nieUoiiella, 
and Ellopia prosapiaria were the best captures in luly and August]. Ent., 
Nov. 1888, xxi. 280. 

J. H. RowNTREE. York S.E. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Spurn Point [3rd Sep. 1884 : 

three J'anessic, Lycu-ua alexis, Agrotis tritici, Plnsia gamma, Pterophorus 

pterodactylus, Stenopteryx hybridalis, Agrotis riparia [error for A. ripic'], 

Pier is brassica, and Macroglossa stellataricm noted]. Nat., Nov. 1884, p. 92; 

also see Dec. 1884, p. 104. 

J. H. RowNTREE. York N.E. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Whitby [3rd August, 1S85; Saiyms 

jatiira, Metrocaiupa, Boarmia rhomboidaria. Abraxas grossiilariata, Eubolia 

mensuraria, Camptogramnia bilineata, and Cidaria russata or immanata 

noted]. Nat., Oct. 1885, p. 349. 

J. H. RowNTRKE. York N.E. 

Acronycta alni and other Moths {Plusia interrogationis and Hcpialus 

vclledd\ near Scarborough [localities and dates given]. Nat., Oct. 1887, 

p. 290. 

J. Sang. ? Durham or York N.W. 

Hemerobius inconspicuus, McLach., bred [along with Ketinia pinii'orana 

from Scotch fir, locality not stated, query near Darlington?]. Ent. Mo. 

Mag., Jan. 1885, xxi. 192. 

Naturalist, 



bibliography: lepidoptera, 1888. 297 

TosEPii T. SEwiJ.L. York N.E. 

Scoria dealbata at Whitby [recorded as new to Yorkshire ; the record 

turned out an error, the species being Spilodes palealis\. Nat., Aug. 1886, 251. 

JosKi'H T. Sewei.i.. York N.E. 

Spilodes palealis near Whitby [new to Yorkshire ; was in former note 
erroneously refolded .is .S.c;-/,? d,-alhata\ Nat., Sep. 1886, p. 276. 

W. (,. Sheldon. Derbyshire. 

[Observations on collecting Tephrosia crepusailaria in Derbyshire, from 
which it appeared that in some of the woods which had been thinned, the 
insect was generally found on the trunks of oak trees, and was the light form, 
whereas those found in another wood which was very thick, were very dark, 
and in some cases almost black]. Proc. South Lond. Ent. and Nat. Hist. 
Soc. for 1886 (pub. 1S87), p. 56. 
Charles Smethukst. York Mid W. 

Lepidoptera near Ilkley [being records of Plusia mterrogationis, Epuuda 
viDiiiialis, Xaiithia cerai^o, X. silago, Cidaria ftilvata, C. pyraliata, and 
Cynthia carditi, with localities stated]. Nat., June 1885, p. 246. 
Bernard Smith. Notts. 

Notes on the Notodontidae. . . No. ^.—Notodonta chaonia and N. irimactda 
[the var. dodoii.ca of the latter is found in Sherwood Forest, 'the larva; 
nestling in the deep wrinkles of the bark of its aged oaks during the day ']. 
Ent., Feb. 1888, xxi. 37. 
Richard South. Yorkshire. 

President's Address [reviewing the additions to the British fauna during the 
year; remarks on 'A Gelechia taken by Mr. Sang, amongst Artemisia 
maritima, in salt-marshes near Redcar, in July, is described by Mr. Stainton 
under the name of G. tetragonella ']. Proc. South Lond. Ent. and Nat. Hist. 
Soc. for 1885 (pub. 1886), pp. 17, i8- 
R. South. ? York S.W. 

[Exhibition of a fine series oi Hyhcniia marginaria ^nd va.r.ftisiata, bred 
from ova received from J. Harrison of Barnsley]. Proc. South Lond. Ent. 
and Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1886 (pub. 1887), p. 35. 
[Richard] South. York S.W., Durham. 

[Exhibition of melanic Aplecta nebulosa from Rotherham, bred with five 
others of ordinary form ; and two dark \&is.oi Eiilwlia limitata from Durham]. 
Proc. Ent. Soc, Sep. 5th, 1888, Part 3, p. xxvi. ; Zool., Oct. 1888,3rd Series, 
xii. 395 ; Ent. Mo. Mag., Oct. 1888, xxv. 117 ; Ent., Oct. 1888, xxi. 260. 
[Richard] South. Durham. 

[Exhibition and description of a series of Lyazna icants from Bishop 
Auckland and Castle Eden]. Proc. South Lond. Ent. Soc, Sep. 13th, 1888; 
Ent., Oct. 1888, xxi. 262; Ent. Mo. Mag., Oct. 1888, xxv. 116; Young 
Nat., Oct. 1888, ix. 201. 
H. T. Stainton. Westmorland. 

Nepticula serella, N. sp. [described from a Scotch and three specimens 
bred by I. H. Threlfall from larv;v found in Potcntilla tormentilla found on 
the moors of NVestmorland]. Ent. Mo. Mag., April 1888, xxiv. 260. 
\\. T. Stainton. ? Lane, or Furness. 

Description of a New Nepticula from Beech [A': fiilgens Stn., bred by 
L H. Threlfall ; locality nowhere stated, but very possibly in the North \Yest 
of England]. Ent. Mo. Mag., June 1888, xxv. 12-13. 
A. Steward. Lane. S. 

Synia musculosa in Lancashire [at Eccles, one at light, 24th August ; an 
aberrant form, described]. Ent., Oct. 1888, xxi. 258. 
Oct. i8qo. 



298 BIBLIOGRAPHY: LEPIDOPTERA, 1888. 

J. A. Ekskine Stuart. York S.W. 

Early appearance of a ['common white'] Butterfly [at Staincliffe near 
Dewsbury, 24th March, 1S86]. Nat. World, May 1S86, iii. 98. 

C. K. Tero. Line. N. 

Rumia luteolata variety [with ground colour pure white ; near Grinisljy 
presumably]. Ent., Jan. 188S, xxi. 15. 

Ben. Blavdes Thompson. York Mid W. 

Deilephila galii at Harrogate [26th July, 1888, one taken hovering over 

Delphinium formosum\ Nat., Sep. 1888, p. 268; Ent. Mo. Mag., Sep. 

1888, XXV. 91 ; also (as ' Deilephila galii in Yorks.'), Ent., Sep. 1888, xxi. 231. 

Chas. F. Thornewii.l. Derbyshire. 

Thecla w-album in Derbyshire [near Burton-on-Trent, in larval state ; 

details given as to capture, food-plant, pupation, etc.]. Ent., July 1888, xxi. 184. 

John Thorpe. Lane. S. 

[Buff and Melanic varieties of Aviphidasis betularia from Middleton 

near Manchester, exhibited to Ent. Soc. Lond., Oct. 18861. Nat., Nov. 

1886, p. 348. 

I. H. Threi.fall. Westmorland. 

On the supposed Nepticula tormentillella [writer has bred (1887) several 

specimens of a Nepticula feeding in Potentilla toniientilla on the moors of 

Westmorland, which do not agree with the description of N. tor)nentilleUa\ 

Ent. Mo. Mag., Jan. 1888, xxiv. 186. 

Jas. H. Tomi.inson. Notts. 

Amphidasys betularia var. doubledayaria [near Newark, at various times, 

but the type only once]. Ent., March 1888, xxi. 91. 

W. H. TuGWELL. ? Lane. W. or S. 

[Exhibition of Crambus eontaminellus from Preston ; ' Herrich-Schiiffer, 

in his work, figured the Lancashire form of [Ov7w/;//.f] coutaniinellits, both 

male and female.'] Proc. South Lond. Ent. and Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1886 

(pub. 1887) p. 33. 

W. H. TuGWELL. Durham. 

[Exhibition of some interesting forms of Spilosoma menthasiri, bred 
from ova received from Hartlepool]. Proc. South Lond. Ent. and Nat. Hist. 
Soc. for 1886 (pub. 1887), p. 41. 

J. W. TuTT. Line., York S.W., Mid W., S.E., Chesh., Northumb. S. 
Contributions towards a List of the Varieties of Noctuae occurring in 
the British Islands {^Cytnatophora duplaris L. var. ar^entea mihi (described) 
from Lincolnshire ; C. dihtta F. va.r.niibilata Robs. & Gardn.,from Yorkshire 
(sent by J. Harrison of Barnsley); Asphalia flavieornis L. var. scotica Stand., 
from Yorkshire, where it is occasionally captured with the type ; Bryophila 
perla F. var. sttffiisa mihi (described), of which form are all the few Yorkshire 
specimens seen by the writer ; Aeronycta psi L. var. bivirgie mihi (described) 
captured on York racecourse by J. T. Carrington, and now in coll. Side- 
botham ; A. leporina L. var. bradyporina Tr.. the ]irevalent form near York 
(Prest), throughout the East Riding (Dobree), and at Liscard (N. Cooke), 
to all whose remarks refer]. Ent., Feb. 1888, xxi. 44-52. S^Acronycta 
ligiistri F. var. olivaeea Dobree, East Yorkshire and near York (refer) ; 
A. rnmicis L. var. salieis Stn., not uncommon near Beverley; A. luetiyan- 
thidis Vw. var. obsoleta mihi (described), Bradford district (refer for account 
of a remarkable asymmetrical specimen); \ar.s7iffiisa mihi, Bradford district]. 
Ent., March 1888, xxi. 81-87. [Leiicania conigera F. var. siiffiisa mihi 
(described) from Morpeth]. Ent., April 1888, xxi. loi. [Leiicaiiia lithar- 
gyyia Esp. , of which Dobree remarks that some of the Beverley specimens 
display a very pronounced tendency to a darker shade on the hind margin of 
the upper wings]. Ent., May 1888, xxi. 137. S^Ltucaitia comma L. var. 
stiff iisa mihi ; from Yorkshire, and Morpeth (latter described), etc.]. Ent., 

Naturalist, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY: LEPIDOPTERA, l88S. 299 

June 18S8, xxi. 154. \Lcitcaiiia fallens var. arcuata Stcpli., Rotlicrham, 
captured by Mr. Young (described)]. Ent., July 1888, xxi. 180. [Several 
forms o{ Noi!ai:;ria gei/iinipunita Haw. from ' Yorkshire ']. Ent., Sep. 1888, 
xxi. 226. [Calai/iia liitosa and C. phragniitidis, and their variation and 
distribution near Beverley, as noted by N. F. Dobree]. Ent., Oct. 1888, 
xxi. 252-254. \_Xylophasia scolopacina and A', nihlitstris darker in Yorkshire 
than near London ; quotation from Porritt's \'orkshire List respecting 
Gortyim ochracea Hb. in East Riding, and additional notes by N. F. Dobree 
thereon]. Ent., Nov. 1888, xxi. 269-271. \Hydmcia nictitans and var. rosea 
at Barnsley (Harrison)]. Ent., Dec. 1888, xxi. 307-309. 

J. W. TiTT. Lane. S., Cheshire. 

Variation of Certain Agrotidae [Lancashire and Cheshire coast exam])lcs of 

/4. (7/;-^(7;-/a referred to in the course of argument]. Ent., Aug. 1S8S, 198, etc. 

J. \V. TuTT. York S.W. 

Boarmia gemmaria, var. perfumaria, in Yorkshire [at Rotherham (^'oung) 

and Fludderstield (I'orritt) ; the usual form at the latter place]. Ent., Nov. 
1888, xxi. 278. 

Howard Yaughan. Isle of Man, Durham or York N.E. 

Variation in the Genus Cidaria [C imnianata from Isle of Man, and 
C. siiffiimata from Darlington]. Nat., July 1SS6, p. 213 ; Proc. Ent. .Soc. 
Lond., May 5th, 1886; Zool, June 1886, x. 257. 

Howard Yaughan. Yorkshire, Cheviotland. 

Entomology and Geology [\'ariation of Gnophos ohscitrata from Yijrkshire, 
Berwick-on-Tweed, and other places]. Sci. Goss., Jan. 1887, p. 17. 

Howard Yaughan. Yorkshire, Cheviotland. 

[Variation in Gnophos obscurata in connection with geological 

formations, illustrated by specimens from Yorkshire, Berwick-on-T\veed, and 

other places, exhibited]. Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., Dec. 1st, 18S6 ; Zool., 

Jan. 1887, xi. 34; Nat., March 1887, p. 69. 

Samuel ^YALKER. York N.E. 

Sphinx convolvuli at York [two, Aug. 28th and 30th, 1888]. Ent., Oct. 
1888, p. 256 ; and Nat. Hist. Journ., Nov. 1888, p. 187. 

J. R. Wellman. York S.W. 

Hypsipetes sordidata Fb. [dark forms exhibited from Barnsley ; the larvie had 
probal)ly fed on heather]. Proc. South Lond. Ent. and Nat. Hist. Soc. for 
1886 (pub. 1887), p. 34. 

[J. R.] Wellman. York S.W. 

[Partially Melanic Specimen of Venusia cambricaria from Sheffield, 

exhibited to South Lond. Ent. Soc. Aug. 23rd, 18SS]. Young Nat.. Oct. 
i888,ix.20o; Ent., OcL 1888, xxi. 261 ; Ent. Mo. Mag., Oct. 1S8S, xxv. 116. 

Thomas Wilson. York Mid W. 

Lepidoptera near York in 1884 [being notes on the occurrence of Macroglossa 
stellataruvt, Orgyia goiiostigiiia, Drcpana falcatan'a, AinpJiydasis stralaria, 
7\pkrosia crepuscularia, Geoiiidra papilioiiaria, Eupilhecia valerianata, 
Peiithina corticana, P. ochi-olettcana, Tortrix viridaiia, T. costana, Ephippi- 
phora similaiia, Stignionoia geniiarana, Eiipitcilia nana, Hedya scrvillana 
(new to Yorkshire), Pyrodes r/ieediana, Fiimea i7iterniediclla, Laiupronia 
p7-(ElateUa, Incnrvaria vuiscalella, Sivavinierdamia griscocapitella, Cerostoma 
vittella, Depressaria punpindhc, Gracilaria stigmatella, Oniix loganelia, 
Coleop/iora limosipennella, C. discordella, Bcdellia sovinulcntella and Elachista 
aptciptmctelld]. Nat., March 18S5, p. 174. 

Thos. Wilson. York Mid W, 

Lepidoptera near York [notes on Tephrosia crepnscularia, Xmneria 

pulvcraria. Dicranura fiiratla, Xanthia citragn, Heliodes arbuti, Colcophora 

paripennella, C. siccu-folia, and Nemotois ininii)iellus, with localities, etc.]. 

Nat. , Oct. 1886, p. 306. 

Oct. i8go. 



300 

NOTES ON NORTH OF ENGLAND ROCKS. 

III. 



ALFRED MARKER, M.A., F.G.S. 



It is not a little curious that so little has hitherto been written on 
the minute structure and constitution of our British calcareous rocks, 
presenting, as they do, so many points of interest bearing on the 
conditions under which they were laid down, and the marine-life of 
the several periods to which they belong. The study is, indeed, one 
well worth the attention of amateur geologists. The rocks are met 
with in most parts of the country ; sections of them are easily pre- 
pared for the microscope ; and their study requires no high-power 
objectives nor appliances for polarised light. With such a guide as 
Dr. Sorby's Address to the Geological Society (1879), the composition 
of the normal calcareous sediments presents few difficulties, and 
a comparative study of limestones from various horizons and different 
districts would certainly yield results of interest. 

In the present paper only a few examples will be briefly noticed, 
and these will be selected from the Oolites of East Yorkshire. 
The series was named long ago by William Smith, from the 
prevalence in its calcareous members of the well-known oolitic 
structure ; but it should be noted that this character is by no means 
peculiar to the rocks in question, being often developed in the 
Mountain Limestone, the Magnesian Limestone, and others of very 
various ages. 

The chief marine member of the Lower Oolites in Yorkshire is 
the so-called Millepore Oolite. Here the rocks, unless taken from 
some considerable depth, are always stained yellow or brown, owing 
to the oxidation of the contained iron compounds. The first 
specimen is selected from a quarry on the west side of the high-road 
not far north of Brough [1087]. The oolitic grains, which make up 
the bulk of the specimen, show very evident concentric coats of 
brown-stained carbonate of lime, but little or no radial structure. 
The nucleus about which these concentric coats have been deposited 
is in most cases a fragment of some organism, such as a chip of 
a shell, and the various organic remains seen in the slide are 
invariably covered with a brown coat, even when this is not developed 
sufficiently to form an ovoid oolitic grain. Many of the shell- 
fragments are such as might be derived from the valves of certain 
lamelli branchs. There are also fragments, often of rather oblong 
form, which consist of a single plate of brown-stained calc ite with 

Naturalisit, 



MARKER : NOTES ON NORTH OF ENGLAND ROCKS. 3OI 

two sets of strongly-marked cleavage-lines. These are doubtless 
joints from the stems of crinoids, the structure being highly 
characteristic of the joints and plates of the echinodermata. The 
various grains and fragments are enclosed and compacted by 
a mosaic consisting of irregular crystalline grains of calcite, in which 
are imbedded a few small angular fragments of quartz. 

A specimen [ro88] from the so-called 'Cockle Quarry,' a little 
farther south and on the opposite side of the road, is a less pure 
limestone, and contains more of the little quartz fragments. The 
oolitic character, however, is well seen in a part of our slide, and the 
grains here are formed sometimes around a fragment of shell, some- 
times around a rolled pellet of what must have been a calcareous 
mud. In the other parts of the slide the pieces of shells and pellets 
of mud are not covered by any coating of calcareous deposit. Some 
of the shell-fragments appear to belong to Pecten ; others, with wavy 
form, represent the little RhyncJwnella spinosa {crossii) so abundant 
at this place, and a few cross-sections of its spines are also seen. 

Going a few miles farther north, to Sancton, we take a specimen 
of a very typical oolite [1089]. Here even the occasional quartz- 
granules are thickly coated with brown-stained carbonate of lime 
and built up into oolitic grains, and the mud-pellets have invariably 
undergone the same process. Some of the grains have apparently 
no nucleus, and these may show a very evident radial structure like 
the spokes of a wheel. Most of the oolitic grains, however, are 
formed upon fragments of organisms, none of which have escaped 
this deposit of material on their surface. The chambered tests of 
foraminifera are not uncommon. The valves of both brachiopods 
and lamelli branchs are well represented, the latter showing a feature 
very characteristic of these shells : the carbonate of lime which 
originally composed their mineral substance was in the form of 
aragonite, and this has been replaced by the more stable form 
calcite, in clear granular patches preserving the outline of the original 
shell but nothing of its internal structure. The matrix in which all 
these various grains are set is, as before, a mosaic of clear crystalline 
calcite. 

One other specimen of the Millepore Oolite may be noticed. 
This is taken from Westow near IMalton, where the formation is 
known as the Whitwell Limestone [945]- Here may be recognised 
the fragmentary remains of crinoids, entomostraca, and other 
calcareous organisms, with one or two scraps of bone, all covered 
with the usual concentric coats of iron-stained carbonate of lime to 
form ovoid oolitic grains. Other grains have for nucleus an angular, 
or more rarely a rounded, fragment of quartz, or, again, a rolled 

Oct. 189D. 



302 MARKER : NOTES ON NORTH OF ENGLAND ROCKS. 

pellet of calcareous brown mud. Some show a feature often 
observable in such rocks ; viz., they are composite, enclosing two or 
three pellets or organic fragments in one shell or mantle. The 
matrix of crystalline calcite contains some angular quartz-granules 
without any coating. 

This frame-work of calcite, occupying one-third or one-fourth of 
the bulk of the rock, must be regarded as of posterior origin to the 
accumulation of the deposit, and is by no means essential. The 
oolites of other districts often lack this matrix, and have in conse- 
quence a porous texture. Such is the case in some of the building- 
stones derived from the Lincolnshire Limestone, which is a thicker 
development of the Millepore Oolite. The specimen sliced [1090], 
from the Ancaster quarries, shows the grains to be loosely compacted 
without any cementing material. The organisms seen are for the 
most part foraminifera and chips of brachiopod shells showing 
a laminated or fibrous structure. Many of the grains consist of 
a pellet of amorphous material surrounded by the usual coating, in 
which a radial as well as a concentric structure is well marked. 

We pass on to the next calcareous member of the Yorkshire 
Oolites, the Scarborough Limestone. Our specimen [946] is a rather 
gritty grey limestone from the beach below AVheatcroft, Scarborough. 
It contains abundance of little irregularly shaped grains of quartz, 
which have sometimes fluid-pores, sometimes glass-cavities, and are 
probably from more than one source. The chief fossil remains are 
scraps of shell probably belonging to Pedeti. These and the quartz- 
grains are embedded in a crowd of minute yellow crystals, which are 
either chalybite (the carbonate of iron) or perhaps a ferriferous 
dolomite. Each little crystal has an opaque centre, probably of 
pyrites. 

One of the nodular iron-stone bands at the^same locality was also 
sliced [947]. This too has little scattered angular grains of quartz 
enclosing fluid-pores ; but the great bulk of the specimen consists of 
minute yellow crystals of chalybite. The quartz-grains are often 
fractured, and the cracks filled in with the jyellow ground-mass of 
chalybite. The slide shows here and there a red-brown stain of 
iron-oxide. 

Our specimen of the Cornbrash from Gristhorpe Bay [1022] again 
shows numerous angular grains of quartz. It contains a great 
variety of organic fragments. Some scraps of lamelli branch shells, 
originally no doubt composed of aragonite, have been converted into 
patches of crystalline calcite-mosaic, while calcite shells, either 
brachiopods or some oyster-like bivalve, retain their proper structure. 
Little oval sections, each behaving as a single crystal of calcite, must 

Naturalist, 



MARKER : NOTES ON NORTH OF ENGLAND ROCKS. 303 

be spines of an echinoid. The ground-mass of the rock, where not 
recrystalHsed, is an iron-stained calcareous mud with pyritous specks. 

The interesting characters of the Yorkshire Kelloways rock have 
been noticed by Dr. Sorby, and we may therefore pass on to the 
higher calcareous members of the Middle Oolites. A specimen from 
the 'Ball-be(is' of the Lower Calcareous Grit at Filey is crowded 
with little sub-angular grains of quartz, while the matrix is so deeply 
stained with iron-oxide that little or nothing can be seen [1023]. 
There are, however, plenty of shell-fragments with a strong, slightly 
oblique, lamellar structure, referable to Feden. Other specimens 
would, no doubt, show other organisms. It will be remembered that 
the Lower Calcareous Grit of Scarborough yields the little kidney- 
shaped bodies, first noticed by Dr. Sorby, and recently shown by 
Dr. Hinde to be the globate spicules of a siliceous sponge. 

In a slide from the ' Lower Limestone ' of the Filey Calcareous 
Grit [1024], the most conspicuous fossil remains are wavy sections 
of valves oi Rhynchonella tinirmanni. Brachiopoda are usually stated 
to have shells composed entirely of calcite, but here the occurrence 
within the lamellated calcite test of a zone of irregularly crystalline 
calcite rather suggests that the shell had originally an inner layer of 
aragonite. The other organic remains present are a few chambered 
tests of foraminifera, joints of crinoid-stems, consisting each of 
a single crystal of calcite, and calcite pseudomorphs after the 
aragonite shells of lamellibranchs. Oolitic grains are seen, often 
formed on a scrap of some organic substance. The general calcareous 
matrix is for the most part crystallised on a minute scale, the 
impurities being, as is usually the case, concentrated in particular 
patches. 

The Middle Calcareous Grit, which forms the prominent feature 
of Filey Brigg, presents i<t\v points of novelty [1025]. It is crowded 
with little angular and sub-angular quartz-grains, containing either 
glass- or fluid-inclusions. The next specimen is taken from the 
' Upper Limestones' of the same series [102 Srt-]. The slide shows 
numerous sections of rather thick shells rep.aceti by an aggret^ate 
of crystalline calcite, and apparently belonging to Trigonia. Other 
shells, which have kept their original structure, must be referred to 
Lima or Pecif.n. There are others, again, which seem to have had 
layers of aragonite and calcite. Some scraps of shell with a trans- 
verse fibrous structure probably represent entomostraca ; while 
chambered foraminifera and remains of crinoids are also to be 
detected. The quartz-grains which occur are rather angular. The 
matrix is tolerably free from impurities, and the greater part of it has 
recrystallised as a fine mosaic of calcite. 

Oct. 1890. 



304 NOTES : MAMMALIA AND BOTANY. 

A specimen of the Coral Oolite from Peasy Hill quarry at Malton 
is a very pure limestone [1026]. The most abundant fossil is 
Chemnitzia heddingtonensis, which appears to have consisted, like 
most gasteropoda, entirely of aragonite, and is now seen to be 
replaced by calcite-mosaic, preserving only the external boundaries 
of the original shell. Even this would scarcely be shown, were it 
not for the brown staining which defines it, for the matrix is also in 
great part re-crystallised. A few foraminifera and crinoidal fragments 
are present, and numerous well-marked oolitic grains. These are 
built up by very many concentric coats of yellowish calcareous 
matter, either with or without an organic nucleus ; and the minute 
fragments sometimes have a sufficiently definite orientation to give 
a rather vague black cross between crossed Nicols. Some of the 
grains contain more than one nucleus, as already noted \\\ some 
other limestones. 



NOTES— MAMMALIA. 

Field Voles in North-East Yorkshire. — In July last the gardens attached 
to a gentleman's country residence near Northallerton were invaded from the 
surrounding grass lands by a swarm of Field Voles {Ai'vicola agrestis), which did 
much mischief generally. Their treatment of the strawberries, the whole crop of 
which they destroyed, was peculiar. They ripped the berries off the plants, most 
of them in an unripe state, and then left them piled up into heaps, as if for future 
consumption. Here, however, the instinct of the marauders must have failed 
them, as the fruit so treated rotted forthwith. — Edward H. Smart, M.A., 
Kirkby-in-Cleveland. 

Seal at Flamborough. — The other evening a fine Seal {Phoca vitulina) was 
observed near to the South Landing. — Matthew Bailey, Flamborough, Sep. 20th, 
1890. 



NOTE—BOTANY. 



Ruppia rostellata in Cumberland. — During the last week in August, while 
paying a brief visit to some botanical friends at Black Dyke, about midway 
between Abbey Town and Silloth, I was informed that they had noticed Ruppia 
maritima growing in great plenty about a week previously in a tidal creek about 
a mile inland from Skinburness. This seaside village stands at the northern 
extremity of a headland at the mouth of the estuary of the rivers Waver and 
Wampool. It was proposed that in driving to Skinburness we should pass along 
the creek and examine the place referred to. Not far from Seadyke End we 
stopped, and there in a series of pools along the course of the creek we found the 
plant in great abundance, the pools being literally choke-full of the floating 
vegetation. We secured quite a large supply of specimens. On my return home 
a closer scrutiny satisfied me that the plants we had collected were really referable 
to Ruppia rostellata, and this opinion has since been corrobated by the authorities 
at Kew Gardens. This is the first recorded instance of its occurrence in Cumber- 
land, so far as my information extends. By the same stream, but a little higher 
up, we gathered specimens of CEnanthe Jistulosa and Carex muricata, both 
remarkably fine ; while close to the village (Skinburness) we noticed Geiitiana 
ainarella and Convolvulus soldanella, the former very abundant. — William 

Hodgson, A.L.S., Workington, Sep. 22nd, 1S90. 

Naturalist, 



305 

FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS OF 
UPPER SWALEDALE. 



WILLIAM WHITWELL. 



Will Mr. Goodchild, author of the interesting paper on the Geological 
History of Upper Swaledale in the August ' Naturalist,' allow me to 
ask if he is quite certain about his identification of the following 
plants mentioned in his botanical list ? I fear that some errors have 
occurred, the list including the names of several ' critical ' or com- 
monly-confused species. 

Picris hieracioides. Range given in Mr. J. G. Baker's 'North York- 
shire' as o-ioo only; not named for Swaledale. Crepis hiera- 
cioides ( = succiscsfolia) is given in ' North Yorkshire ' for Deepdale 
and Teesdale only, and as rare. Is not Crepis paludosa (not set 
down by Mr. Goodchild) really meant? 
Leontodon hirtus. In 'North Yorkshire' o-ioo only, though 
named for Area 8. More probably the common L. hispidus ; 
they are not easy to distinguish off-hand. 
Hypochaeris glabra. In ' North Yorkshire ' as incognit. ' Reported 
from two or three stations, but on investigation they prove to be 
erroneous.' Query — Z^ radicata ? H. glabra is a quite rare 
sand species ; it is unknown to me and to many much better 
botanists than I am. 
Sedum Rhodiola. ' On limestone crags to 2,000 ft.' This is 
a high slate-rock plant, common on the Coniston Fells and 
found at High Cup Nick, but not commencing till 1,800 ft. 
S. ielephium var. fabaria is suggested ; it is a lime-crag form. 
Galium Mollugo. ' Common.' In ' North Yorkshire' as ascend- 
ing to Keld and Thwaite ; range, 0-350. Known in Wensleydale 
at 900 ft. Infrequent in West Yorkshire, e.xcept on the 
magnesian limestone. Does ' common ' apply generally — to 
Upper Swaledale and to Lower ? 
Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi. ' Common locally.' As Vaccinium 
Vitis-idcea is not named, that also red-berried coriaceous-leaved 
species is doubtless intended. A. Uva-ursi is not in ' North 
Yorkshire ' for the western hills, and the ' Flora of West York- 
shire ' describes it as very rare. 
Melampyrum sylvaticum. ' Common around Muker.' In 
' North Yorkshire ' for Teesdale only, but occurs in one spot in 
Wensleydale, above Whitfield Force. In ' Flora of West 
Yorkshire,' as very rare. M. pratense has often been recorded for 
it, and is known to occur in the Muker woods. 
Oct. 1890. u 



3o6 NOTES AND NEWS. 

Veronica spicata. Not in ' North Yorkshire ' or ' Flora of West 
Yorkshire.' V. spicata proper is an eastern counties form, 
V. hybrida western counties only. Query — luxuriant V. offici- 
nalis'^ V. serpyllifolia also occurs, but Mr. Goodchild has not 
recorded it. 

Salix herbacea. Not known to Mr. Baker (' North Yorkshire,' 
p. 282). Grows on Cross Fell; now gone even from Ingle- 
borough, according to Mr. F. A. Lees. Probably a stunted 
form of 6". repens is intended. 

Polystichum Lonchitis. * Exterminated.' Never known in 
Swaledale. The lonchitidioides var. of P. aculeatum is found 
still in Cliff Gill, at the eastern base of Great Shunnor Fell, 
Mr. F. A. Lees informs me. 

Hymenophyllum tunbridgense. H. JVilsoni, if either ; that is 
in ' North Yorkshire ' for Upper Farndale in Cleveland. And 
see notes in ' Flora of West Yorkshire,' p. 499, to the two species. 

Symphytum officinale is native in North Yorkshire only within 
the o-ioo range according to Mr. Baker, and Mr. F. A. Lees 
treats it as rarely native in West Yorkshire ; Borago officinalis is 
recorded by both as a casual only. Ought not, therefore, may be 
to be changed to must be, in Mr. Goodchild's observations ? 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

The 37th Annual Report of the Nottingham Naturalists' Society, for 1889, 
contains, in addition to papers of more general scope, a useful one by Mr. James 
Shipman, F.G.S., on ' The Geology of Nottingham ; \Yhere and How to See it.' 



An interesting feature of the Leeds meeting of the British Association was the 
series of geological photographs brought together by Mr. Osmund W. Jeffs, of 
Liverpool, of which a very large proportion were contributed by the Yorkshire 
Geological Photographs Committee, of which Mr. J. E. Bedford, of Leeds, is the 
Secretary. 

With reference to Mr. Jarvis's query on p. 22S, as to whether Squirrels have 
been known to eat fungi, Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell writes us that last year he saw 
a Grey Squirrel (apparently Siiurits fremonti) canying off a large agaric by 
Willow Creek, Custer Co., Colorado, and that Dr. C. H. Merriam, to whom he 
related the incident, informed him (in litt., Nov. 8th, 1889) that the Squirrels of 
the Siiiints hudsouiiis group habitually eat the larger fungi. 



We learn with the deepest regret of the death' of Mr. James Backhouse, of 
York, which occurred on the 31st of August last, at the age of 65. Possessed of 
a hereditary taste for the natural sciences, he did much to promote their advance- 
ment in a variety of ways. To him in large measure — in conjunction with his 
father and afterwards with his sons — we are indebted for the discovery of many of 
the Teesdale rarities, and botanists are also indebted to him for his most reliable 
' Monograph of the British Hieracia,' a difficult genus which few knew so well 
as he. Readers of our own journal will remember his most interesting paper 

on the Teesdale plants in the number for August, 1884. 

Naturalist, 



307 
THE FACULTY OF HOMING IN GASTROPODS. 



H. WALLIS KEW, F.E.S., .M.C.S., 
Loinion. 

The Limpet {Patella vulgata) is known to return regularly to its scar 
after feeding. Three species of Liniax — the Yellow, Great Grey, 
and Tree Slugs— and two of Helix — the Roman and Common 
Snails — have been observed to return to special places. It cannot 
be assumed, however, that every slug or snail seen crawling out in 
the evening has a fixed home to which it will return. Limpets, it 
would appear, do not wander far. 

Mr. Romanes, in considering certain observations of Mr. Hawk- 
shaw, concludes that the Common Limpet is able to remember 
direction and locality with precision, and thinks accurate memory of 
•direction and locality by a snail for twenty-four hours is apparently 
indicated by an observation of Mr. Lonsdale.* A gastropod is thus 
accredited with the power of forming and retaining a mental picture 
of the special place or home to which it returns, and with memory 
of direction or the retention of a general impression of its bearings.t 
From the nature of the eyes it is hardly likely that the formation of 
this mental picture can be connected with vision ; the eyes of the 
hmpet for instance are described as examples of the most primitive 
kind of eye in the molluscan series, J and of course the mental image 
which this animal retains of its scar ' cannot be supposed to be 
comparable in point of vividness or complexity with the mental image 
that a horse retains of its stall, or a dog of its kennel ; still such as 
it is, it is a mental image,' and betokens what Mr. Romanes defines 
as imagination in the lowest possible phase of its development.§ 

By some this view will doubtless be regarded as implying greater 
mental activity than can be reasonably expected in a group so low 
in the scale, and such will probably attribute the homing of limpets 
and certain slugs and snails to the existence of some mysterious 
additional sense, or will perhaps, be content to say, as Mr. Gosse has 
done in regard to Patella^ that a gastropod returns to its home by 
means of an ' infallible instinct. '|| A homing faculty of an extra- 
ordinary degree of development is exhibited by many domesticated 
mammals and birds, which have often been known to return to 
their homes after having been carried many miles by rail or otherwise 
in closed boxes or at night and set down in unknown districts. 

* ' Animal Intelligence,' pp. 27-29. 

t See Mental Evolution in Animals,' pp. 146, 153, etc. 

X E. Ray Lankester, Art. Mollusca, Ency. Brit., xvi {1883), p. 648. 

§ ' Mental Evolution,' p. 153. 

' P. H . Goss, ' Mollusca,' 1S54, p. 53. 



Oct. 1S90. 



3o8 kf:w : the faculty of homing in gastropods. 

In the absence of experiments of a definite nature, Mr. Romanes 
admits that nothing can be said in regard to this faculty except 
that it exists, yet he is not driven to Professor Hackel's conclusion 
that the same is due to an additional and inexplicable sense.* It is 
interesting to find that Sir J. Lubbock, after his experiments with 
Hymenoptera, agrees with Mr. Romanes that there is no sufticient 
evidence of such an additional sense in insects, t some of which, as is 
notorious, exhibit a wonderful way-finding faculty. Seeing how readily 
slugs, snails, whelks, etc., find their food, and that this is thought to 
result in great measure froni the extreme delicacy of the sense of smell, 
it occurred to me that such animals might possibly be able also to 
scent their hiding-places, and follow their own trails, and find and 
track each other by smell. The spot frequented by a slug or snail 
would doubtless be bedaubed with the animal's slime and probably 
with faeces, and therefore might be scented at some little distance. 
Nevertheless, judging from the observations quoted by Mr. Romanes, 
and from the additional facts referred to below, there can, I think, be 
no doubt that a capacity for remembering locality and direction does 
exist in certain gastropods. It would, however, be impossible in 
some cases to say to what extent the animals are guided by smell ; 
probably they often rely partly upon this sense and partly upon 
memory. That they may be guided home by the scent of the 
outward trail will have occurred to many ; and an individual of the 
Great Grey Slug has been found to be in the habit of going out and 
returning along -the same track. In the two instances, however, in 
which I have seen slime-trails which have started and terminated at 
the same place the outward and homeward journeys have been quite 
independent one of the other, and Mr. C. Ashford tells me that his 
observations tend to show that a snail, on returning to its hiding-place, 
is not bound by necessity to the old track. The space between 
a wandering limpet and its scar, and the scar itself, have been 
thoroughly washed many times with sea-water, but this did not 
interfere with the due return of the animal. 

By returning from time to time to a fixed resting-place, a limpet 
is enabled to form a socket or scar having irregularities corresponding 
to the serrations in the edge of its shell, or to adapt the shell during 
growth to the uneven surface of hard rocks, and the security thus 
obtained must be of great importance to an animal much preyed 
upon by sea-fowl and other enemies, and which often has to resist 
heavy breakers. A terrestrial gastropod, if devoid of memory, might 
often fail to obtain shelter, and fall an easy prey to its diurnal 

* ' Mental Evolution,' p. 95. 

t ' Senses, instincts, and intelligence of Animals, 2nd ed., 1SS9, p. 271. 

Naturalist, 



KEW: THE FACULTY OF HOMING IN GASTROPODS. 309 

enemies. Those not protected by a shell, if they had to remain 

uncovered during the day-time, would be liable also to be scorched 

up by the sun ; this might happen to slugs living upon walls, where, 

as is often the case, the holes in which they shelter are not numerous ; 

and the same remark applies probably to those inhabiting precipitous 

rocks. We thus see that the faculty of homing is of great use as 

enabling the animals to escape destruction, and it is, perhaps, not 

surprising that the habit, together with the necessary power of memory, 

should have been acquired. 

I have here put together such information as I have been able to 

collect, but this paper will be very incomplete. I suppose most 

naturalists of wide experience in the field and acquainted with the 

records of others will be able to call to mind additional facts. 

I have much pleasure in acknowledging indebtedness to Mr. Ashford, 

Mr. R. Standen, Mr. W. A. Czain, Mr. Sherriff Tye, and Mr. G. K. 

Gude, who have courteously furnished information and otherwise 

assisted, and to Mr. Romanes, who has obligingly looked over 

the manuscript. 

SLUGS. 

Probably most slugs resort to any convenient hiding-place near 
their feeding-grounds, and do not inhabit particular spots or homes. 
They congregate under pieces of board or tile placed upon the 
ground as traps in gardens,* as do snails in empty flower-pots. 
Mr. Gain believes that when a slug or snail goes out to feed it devours 
the first suitable food it finds, and retires in the morning to the 
nearest refuge, and he tells me that he has frequently left slugs and 
snails {Zonites) in comfortable quarters, intending to find them again 
when wanted, but, on re-visiting the spots, has generally been dis- 
appointed. On this subject, A. Binney says of terrestrial molluscs : — 

Numbers frequently resort to the same place, but this in the Helicidae seems 
a mere matter of accident, while in the introduced species of Limacidse it appears 
to indicate a gregarious habit, as they prefer to crowd together and lie in close 
contact with and upon each other. These last are said by some to occupy per- 
manently the same retreat, but the assertion is probably incorrect. They often, 
and perhaps generally, remain in the immediate vicinity of the place where they 
procure their food, and hence they often resort to the same place of shelter ; and 
as many of them ha%'e frequently been observed in the same place, they have been 
thought to be the same individuals. But when one set of individuals is destroyed, 
another soon takes their place, and whenever a new shelter is provided, by the 
accidental presence of fragments of wood in suitable situations, it is immediately 
resorted to by them. ('Terrestrial Air-breathing Molluscs of the United States, 
i (1851), 193). 

There seems reason to believe that the Yellow and Great Grey 
Slugs {Limax flavus and L. maxiinus), when living between the 

'Garden,' v (1874), 201 ; viii (1875), 306. 
Oct. i8qo. 



3IO KEW : THE FACULTY OF HOMING IN GASTROPODS. 

bricks of old walls, return to the same home from time to time, for 
suitable hiding-places can only be found between certain bricks. 
The slugs, on coming out, like limpets on rocks encrusted with fine 
sea-weed, are generally surrounded by their food, for I am convinced 
from repeated observations that, when living on walls, they subsist for 
the most part on the minute lichens which give the brick or stone its 
familiar grey and yellow-green tints. Thus they have not to wander 
far in search of food, and I believe in many cases they spend the 
greater part of their lives on the surface of the wall in the crevices of 
which they shelter, and in these they are probably hatched from the 
egg.* When no rain has fallen for a number of days, walls tenanted by 
Limaces become literally reticulated with crossing and re-crossing 
slime-trails. Of this I saw a striking instance while searching with 
a lantern over the face of a stone bridge crossing a stream near Louth ; 
the stone was ' covered ' with slime-trails, and there were more than 
a dozen slugs {L. flaviis) within a very small area. These were imme- 
diately over the mud usually covered with water, and there was no 
herbage at the top of the bridge or anywhere near, except a little 
dried-up moss, but the stone was everywhere stained with minute 
lichens. On examining the slugs on walls and tree-trunks at night, they 
are often observed to be busily engaged in rasping off the encrusta- 
tion of small lichens. That the animals may become acquainted 
with their surroundings is not, I think, in these circumstances, 
altogether improbable. By the London Road, at Louth, where 
large numbers of Z. inaximus live in a low wall built to retain a bank, 
I often watched the animals in the evening squeezing out from 
between the bricks. t On this particular wall many slugs crawl over 
the coping and away upon the bank beyond, yet as numbers come 
out almost every evening, it seems probable that they return to it. 
There is evidence that slugs are able to return to special places 
both on walls and elsewhere. On a wall at Hampstead, I saw 
a number of slime-trails all of which appeared to start and terminate 
at a certain hole between the bricks. The trails were very sinuous, 
and crossed many times, so that all the journeys could not be made 
out ; one journey to and from the hole, indicated by a distinct and 
continuous trail, could, however, be traced with certainty. In this case 
the slug had wandered about five feet from home. On some stone flags 



* Mr. Gude, on inserting a knife between the bricks of a wall at Hampstead, 
impaled a very young L.flaznis. 

+ The crevices from which these slugs emerge are often very small. In 18S7, 
I saw an individual whose body, when crawling, measured fully 14 mm. across, 
come out from between two coping-tiles, the space between which was not more 
than 5 mm. Immediately before, a half-grown Arion ater had come out of the 
same crevice. 

Naturalist, 



KEW : THE FACULTY OF HOMING IN GASTROPODS. 3II 

in a garden at Louth, I saw a slime-trail which started and terminated 
at a daisy-plant in the border of a flower-bed, showing that a mollusc 
had returned, after an excursion, to the spot from which it started. 
The animal — a \?irgQ L.Jlaviis — was at rest under the shelter of the 
leaves of the plant. The length of the trail was ^bout 19 feet, but 
no part of it was more than four feet from the plant. On several 
successive mornings, Mr. Ashford saw a L. inaximus (distinguished, 
amongst other things, by a peculiarly-shaped spot in the mantle) 
in the same chink between the rough timbers that shore up the 
upper sides of a well, and it was seen out on a foraging excursion 
during one of the intervening nights. The fact that access to the 
well was apparently to be gained only by an aperture made by the 
breaking away of one of the hinges of the lid, makes this a striking 
instance of the exercise of memory, if such be the guiding faculty. 
The slug was seen to come out at this aperture on the night on 
which it was observed abroad. It made straight for its food on 
gaining the open air, and was found next morning in its old retreat. 
An unusually bright yellow L. flavus was noticed by Mr. Ashford, 
morning after morning, beneath a small damp board upon a heap of 
dead leaves. On one, at least, of the intervening nights, it was 
absent, and was found in its usual place next morning. In his 
greenhouse at Swinton, Mr. Standen had a fine L. maximus, which 
lived in a niche in the wall near the floor, and regularly climbed up 
the wall and along one of the bench-supports to the plants above ; 
' from early spring to autumn this slug kept to the one track exactly, 
both going and returning.' The distance travelled, from the niche to 
the edge of the plant-stand, was about five feet. Mr. Standen also 
tells me that his friend Mr. Ray Hardy has for some months seen in 
his scullery a large L. flavus which regularly crawls to a sink from 
a hole near the water-pipe, and invariably keeps to a well-defined 
semi-circular track. Mr. Gain finds that the tree-slug (Z. arhoruni) 
in captivity is in the habit of excavating a grave-like trencn with 
perpendicular sides, its own length, and about an inch in depth, in 
which it lies. Either the original excavator or its companion, 
Mr. Gain adds, ' has occupied the trench on two occasions subse- 
quent to its formation. On examination, I have failed to discover 
eggs in the trench or m the surrounding earth.'* 

Mr. Sherriff Tye tells me that he has observed that in the green- 
house a slug will forage for nights in one spot, and return to the 
same hiding-place many times. The hole in a tree-pot, he says, is 
a favourite lurking-place for half-grown L. viaxiimis and L. agrestis ; 
they creep under the laths of the staging, which are a quarter of an 

* W. A. Gain, ' Naturalist,' 1889, p. 56. 

Oct. 1890. 



312 KEW : THE FACULTY OF HOMING IN GASTROPODS. 

inch apart, and enter the pots from below. Mr. T. Baines, an 
experienced gardener, states that after feeding on the flowers of 
orchids, slugs retire to a favourite hiding-place, often at the opposite 
end of the orchid-house, and regularly return every night to the 
flowers.* During a considerable period, as observed by Mr. E. Stepp,t 
the colouring matter on some book-covers in a publishing-house was 
damaged almost nightly by slugs, which, as would seem probable, 
came from time to time from secure hiding-places. Mr. Gain informs 
me that L.flavus, as shown by its slime-trails, came nightly to feed 
upon cream in his cellar, and it must always have retired to a safe 
retreat, for most diligent search for it was made without success. 
It seems that the slug was not guided on the outward journeys solely 
by the scent of its food, and it would appear to have relied upon 
memory of locality and direction, for when the milk basins were 
moved to a distant part of the cellar, it was seen next morning 
' wandering disconsolately ' in the place where the basins formerly 
stood, and where it had been accustomed to obtain a meal from 
the cream. Mr. Gain suggests, however, that it may have been 
guided by its own trail or scent. 

Concerning black slugs \Arion aier\ a curious observation is 
recorded in the 'Zoologist' for 1845.+ Two slugs, which had been 
placed in a vessel in a dark part of a room, and supplied with herbage, 
were neglected nearly a fortnight. On recurring to the animals, the 
observer provided them with a piece of raw beef, and placed them in 
another vessel. In the evening, he put the vessel whence they had been 
taken into its former place, and put the one in which they then were 
on a shelf above it. Next morning it was found that the beef had 
been deserted, and the slugs were at length discovered under the 
decaying herbage in the vessel in which they had been formerly kept ! 
The observer suggests that perhaps they were led back to their 
former abode by the odour of the decaying herbage, and they may 
also have scented their slime and faeces. It is improbable that they 
sought the herbage as food, for they were provided with a supply of 
raw beef, of which they had made copious meals. Memory seems 
to be out of court, unless indeed the slugs had been in the habit of 
crawling out and returning to the vessel containing the herbage 
during the fortnight which elapsed before they were removed to 
another vessel ; but this seems improbable, for slime-trails would 
have been noticed about the room, and this would have been 
mentioned in the account, which is a detailed one : yet, on the other 

* 'Garden,' v (1874), 201-2. 

t ' Science Gossip,' 1883, p. 163-4. 

t James Hardy, 'Zoologist,' iii (1845), 1036-7. 



KEW : THE FACULTY OF HOMING IN GASTROPODS. 313 

hand, it seems strange that slugs — which I have always found restless 
in captivity — should have remained for a fortnight in a vessel which 
appears to have been uncovered. Mr. Gain is inclined to explain 
this observation by supposing that the former abode was found 
during a search for shelter, for, as he observes, slugs object to any 
retreat in which they cannot find covering. 

SNAILS. 

Mr. Ashford informs me that for a long time he felt sure that the 
homing faculty was possessed by snails from having observed the 
same individual of the common snail {Helix asj>ersa), recognised by 
its markings, occupying day after day the same spot as a mid-day 
retreat ; the weather was favourable for foraging, and it had in all 
probability gone forth at nights for food.* In 1884, he put 
a colony of snails of this species to the test, and his experiments, 
which are of a very definite and satisfactory kind, together with 
facts observed in the same year by F. d'A. Furtado, fully confirm 
observations made several years previously by Mr. Standen, and 
prove beyond doubt that II. aspersa is able to find its way back to 
chosen quarters. Mr. Standen's observations, details of which he 
has kindly communicated, were made in 1872 : — 

I observed an immature H. aspersa in a hole about two inches [wide] by one 
inch deep, in the smooth brick wall (a newly-built piece) of a relation's kitchen- 
garden. This hole was four feet from the ground, and a piece of wood reared 
against the wall, with one end in a luxuriant bed of miscellaneous garden herbs 
and the other just touching the hole, was so thickly covered with slime tracks 
that my attention was drawn to it, and I requested that the piece of wood should 
be allowed to remain where it was until I could satisfy myself of its being the 
snail's ladder. On going to look in the evening, I found the snail had come down 
to feed, and in the morning it was in the hole again. This I repeatedly observed 
during the summer, and the snail attained maturity and hibernated in the hole, 
where I saw it the following Christmas. Afterwards it was destroyed by some 
animal, probably a mouse, which had mounted the ladder so long used by the 
snail as a road to its food. There were no other aspersas along this particular bit 
of wall. 

Mr. Ashford has obligingly given me the following notes of his 
observations on H. aspersa : — 

At noon on the 20th April, 1884 (I quote from memoranda made at the time), 
I searched for some individuals of this species in their usual corners of concealment, 
and after passing several clusters not numerous enough for my purpose, found 

* It would be unsafe to assume the presence of the homing faculty in a Gas- 
tropod from the fact that individuals are noted day after day in the same place 
without due regard to the habits of the animal. Professor Herdman, for instance, 
had specimens of the small periwinkle {Littorina rndis) under observation for 
a month at a time on rocks in Puffin Island, and found no sign of their having 
moved. Six marked specimens were examined at intervals of from six to nine 
hours during three days and nights (' Life Lore,' ii (1889), 4). 
Oct. i8qo. 



314 KEW : THE FACULTY OF HOMING IN GASTROPODS. 

a group of more than a dozen beneath a broken flagstone leaning obliquely 
against the greenhouse wall. Some were half grown, some adults, all cemented 
to the stone about nine to twelve inches above the ground. Scratching a ring 
upon the stone round the group, I procured some white paint, and having marked 
the shells of seven of the most robust, replaced the slab. At 10 p.m. the same 
evening three of the marked individuals were absent and could not be traced. 
The next morning all the seven marked shells were again fixed to the stone, and 
all were within the ring. Thus three, at least, had been out to browse and had 
found their way back. At 10 p.m. of that day five marked shells had started for 
their night's forage, of which two were traced, after much search, to a small jungle 
of young Caiiipaniila pyramidalis ■ahowS. six feet from the stone. At 10 a.m. of the 
22nd, six marked individuals were beneath the flagstone, five within the ring and 
one an inch outside it. Thus, at least, four had found their way back. Whether 
the absentee had failed to return through breakdown of memory or from having 
wandered so far that it studied convenience and retired to some nearer corner, or 
had fallen a victim to an early thrush is doubtful. This trial appears to me 
conclusive. Results would have shown better if the register had been taken say 
an hour later at night, for it is probable all the seven went out to feed every 
night. 

Mr. Ashford tells me that he has also established the fact that 
H. aspersa will cross a cinder-path to get to its favourite food and 
return by the same uncomfortable route to its original retreat, 
when it could easily have found new quarters in the immediate 
neighbourhood of its supplies ; and this certainly looks like love 
of home ! 

The observations of Furtado are also upon H. aspersa and were 
made in 1884.* A house in which the observer lived, in one of the 
Azores, had a veranda with a flight of steps leading, down to a little 
court or garden. One morning a snail was observed on the veranda 
lodged between a column and a pot in which a young banana was 
growing, and as one of the leaves of the banana had already been 
damaged, the mollusc was thrown down into the court. Next morning, 
however, it was recognised in precisely the same position as previously 
between the column and the pot, having found its way back over a 
distance of at least six metres. Furtado again threw it into the court, 
and watched the result. At 9 a.m. the snail was resting on the rail of 
the staircase having travelled about four metres. In the evening it 
resumed its march, and by 10 o'clock reached the top of the rail 
where it stopped ; shortly after midnight it began to travel along the 
balustrade of the veranda, its course at first being very undecided. 
It was here turned aside by some fish-scales, but soon regained its 
previous direction, and as it approached the banana made straight 
for it. Near the column it fell in with a grooved washing-board, 
' which it seemed to remember,' and ' advanced resolutely from the 

* 'Instinct of Orientation in Helix aspe7-sa,' Zool. Sec, Lisbon Mus., Oct. 

27th, 1885 ; transl. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) xvi. 519-20. 

Naturalist, 



KEW : THE FACULTY OF HOMING IN GASTROPODS. 315 

board to the pot as over known ground.' The pot was climbed 
quickly, the snail mending its pace as it got nearer. For a little time, 
it wandered among the weeds in the pot, 'licking them frequently'; 
crawling at last upon the banana, it fed upon the leaf previously 
damaged. Next morning the snail, which had eaten but little of 
the leaf, was resting as before between the column and the i)0t. 
The author thinks it evident that the snail possessed a ' remarkable 
sense of direction,' and it must be admitted that his observations 
apparently indicate something very similar to the mysterious way- 
finding faculty before mentioned which many domesticated animals 
exhibit ; but the snail had perhaps lived about the veranda and in 
the court for a long time, and may have possessed some knowledge 
of the whole locality, and it should be remembered that it may have 
been guided largely by scent. The observer states that he could 
readily detect the peculiar odour of the gnawed banana leaf at a little 
distance, and admits that the snail may have scented the plant, and 
that this may have helped to guide it, but adds that scent alone will 
not explain all the movements of the animal. 

The celebrated observation communicated to Mr. Darwin by 
Mr. Lonsdale, upon the Roman Snail {Helix pomatia) has no direct 
bearing upon homing, but is interesting as recording the return of 
a snail to a special place. 

An accurate observer, Mr. Lonsdale, informs me that he placed a pair of 
land-snails (Helix pomatia), one of which was weakly, into a small and ill-provided 
garden. After a short time the strong and healthy individual disappeared, and 
was traced by its track of slime over a wall into an adjoining well-stocked garden. 
Mr. Lonsdale concluded that it had deserted its sickly mate ; but after an absence 
of twenty-four hours it returned, and apparently communicated the result of its 
successful exploration, for both then started along the same track and disappeared 
over the wall (' Descent of Man,' pp. 262-3 '■> see also Woodward, ' Manual,' p. 11 ; 
and ' Romanes, Anim. Intell.', p. 27). 

Certain perforations in limestone rocks are said to have been 
produced by hibernating Helices by gradual erosion,* and have been 
regarded as the result of a ' constant resort for shelter to the same 
spot winter after winter ',t but it cannot be supposed that each 
individual remembers and deliberately returns in the autumn to the 
perforation in which it hibernated during the previous winter, and 
Bouchard-Chantereaux observes 'il resulte de nos observations la 
certitude que les memes loges ne sont pas habitees chaque annee, et 
que cette habitation n'est que le resultat du hasard qui dirige les 
individus tantot d'un cote, tantot de I'autre.';}; 

* See, for instance, Proc. Geol. Soc, 1842; 'Ann. Sci. Nat.', 1S61 ; ' Geol. 
Mag.', 1869 and 1 870, etc. 

t Harting's ' Rambles,' 1875, p. 78. 

+ ' An n. Sci. Nat.' 4^' serie, Zool., xvi (i86i), 208. 
Oct. 1890. 



3l6 KEW : THE FACULTY OF HOIMING IN GASTROPODS. 

LIMPETS. 

In 1 83 1, Mr. F. C. Ijukis"' remarked upon the fact that the shell 
of the limpet is found to correspond exactly with the surface upon 
which the animal rests, and stated that if an individual be marked to 
avoid mistake, its regular return to its place of rest might be observed. 

Mr. George Roberts, of Lyme Regis, recorded interesting obser- 
vations in I 847+: — 

On the slope of a great cockle rock (higher greensand rock from Whitlands), 
at the end of the Cobb, is a basin-Hke depression, which is left partly filled with 
water. One fine day I climbed up and found in the basin and round about several 
small and a few middle-sized limpets. Above the level of the water (the basin) 
was a smooth place from which a limpet had not long before moved, as the spot 
was different in colour to the rock around ; the shape was singular. Looking into 
the water, I saw several limpets there, and a good many little fceces of these 
creatures. I was not long in spying my friend, who was from home. I found him 
leaving the others and making his way steadily back to his habitat. I watched 
his course ; he arrived, and I at once perceived a difficulty, which he made 
nothing of, viz., the getting adjusted. He slewed himself round, and fitted 
a little notch which he had to a small piece of projecting quartz with wonderful 
readiness. He was tight in a moment, ready to resist the heaviest breakers or 
any enemy. ... I find this limpet descended daily into the little basin of 
water, met his fellows there, and duly travelled back before the tide came in, and 
fitted the notch to the piece of quartz as before described. 

On a smooth surface out of the stroke of the breakers, according 
to this observer, limpets halt anywhere as their choice leads them. 

Mr. J. Clarke Hawkshaw has attended to the habits of limpets 
on the chalk at Dover ; he observes:;: : — 

It must be of great importance Xo a limpet that, in order that it may ensure 
a firm adherence to the rock, its shell should fit the rock accurately ; when the 
the shell does fit the rock accurately, a small amount of muscular contraction of 
the animal would cause the shell to adhere so firmly to a smooth surface as to be 
practically immovable without fracture. As the shells cannot be adapted daily to 
different forms of surface, the limpets generally return to the same places of attach- 
ment. I am sure this is the case with many ; for I found shells perfectly adjusted 
to the uneven surfaces of flints, the growth of the shells being in some parts 
distorted and indented to suit inequalities in the surface of the flints. 

In one case Mr. Hawkshaw noticed a clearing made by a limpet 
round a pedestal of flint on a sea-weed-covered block of chalk. This 
pedestal was rather more than one inch in diameter, and it projected 
so much that a tap from the hammer broke it off: — 

On the top of the smooth fractured surface of this flint the occupant of the 
clearing had taken up its abode. The shell was closely adapted to the uneven 

* ' Remarks on the locomotion and habits of the Limpet," ' Loudon's Mag, 
Nat. Hist.,' iv (1831), p. 347). 

t ' On the habits of the Limpet,' ' Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.,' xix (1847), 70-71. 

+ ' On the action of Limpets {Patella) in sinking pits in and abrading the surface 
of the chalk at Dover,' ' Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool.', xiv (1879), pp. 406-411. 

Naturalist, 



KEW : THE FACULTY OF HOMING IN GASTROPODS. 317 

surface, which it would only fit in one jiosition. The cleared surface was in a 
hollow, with several small natural cavities, where the limpet could have found 
a pit ready made to shelter in ; yet it preferred, after each excursion, to climb up 
on to the top of the flint, the most exposed point in all its domain. 

The area of rock-surface which one limpet keeps clear of all but 
the youngest growth of sea-weed varies, according to Mr. Hawkshaw, 
from 8 to 14 square inches. 

In 1883, Mr. David Robertson made a number of observations 
on the habits of the limpet, of which an account was published in 
18S5.* To ascertain the movements of the limpet in its natural 
haunts an iron arch was placed over the animal ; a wire, let 
down through the arch, rested on the crown of the shell, so 
that when the animal left its place, the wire dropped on the rock. 
Observations were regularly carried on from the 21st of June till 
the 20th of August, and were made on different limpets and 
on different zones of the tidal belt. Near high-water mark the rocks 
were frequently covered with young balani, which surrounded the 
limpets closely. There was always a little bare space on one or 
other side of the animals, beyond which they were not seen to 
wander. In these cases the animal, after feeding, was always found 
close to the drop wire, as if endeavouring to get back to the exact 
spot it had left. Further down, where the rocks were smooth and 
clean, it was occasionally found that the limpets settled down a few 
inches from the spot which they had left, and again by another tide 
or two were back on their old site. A series of careful observations 
were made on a limpet kept in a glass jar, 6 inches deep and 9 inches 
in diameter. By means of thin wires let down through the perforated 
zinc with which the jar was covered, and of a gummed ticket placed 
on the outside of the glass, the position of the limpet from time to 
time could be registered. 

I found that it would return once or twice to the same spot, then change to 
another, then return back again to where it had been at first. Sometimes it would 
settle on the exact spot it had left five or six days before, and once as far back as 
thirteen days. Generally it settled on the exact spot it had formerly occupied, yet 
occasionally it would be a little to the one side or the other. In most cases it 
came down on the site from above, and occasionally rested a little before it finally 
reached it. 

Observations on this subject have also been made by Mr. J. R. 
Davis at theScottish Marine Station, Granton, Edinburgh. t A number 
of limpets were marked with white paint, and corresponding marks 
made near their scars. The greatest distance from its scar at which 
a marked limpet was seen was about three feet. This distance, 

* 'Notes on the Common Limpet,' Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Glasgow (n.s.), 
i(i885), p. 9-21. 

t ' The habits of the Limpet,' ' Nature,'' xxxi (1SS5), pp. 200-201. 
Oct. 1890. 



3l8 NOTES ORNITHOLOGY, 

though extremely rough and covered with barnacles, was re-traversed 
without difificulty. The animals made excursions from their roosting- 
places in any direction, so that no beaten tracks were formed. 
As the shape of their scar corresponds exactly with the shape of the 
shell, they invariably roost with their snout pointing in the same 
direction. This direction is, of course, only constant for individuals. 
The tentacles of two marked limpets, which were off their scars, 
were excised. One speedily found its way back ; the other seemed 
confused for several days, but after that time was found at its own 
scar ; this limpet was near home when the operation was performed. 
The space between a wandering limpet and its scar and the scar were 
carefully washed again and again with sea-water, but in spite of this the 
animal readily found its way home. 



NO TES— ORNITHOL OGY. 

Flamborough Bird-Notes. — This season, I am given to understand by the 
cliff-climbers, has been a very successful one. On the whole they have done 
remarkably well, having taken an immense quantity of sea-birds' eggs. This is 
not to be wondered at, as the birds increase in numbers every year. On Sept. 2nd 
a very fine specimen of the Wryneck {lynx torqiiilla) was brought to me to be 
preserved, having been captured by Mr. David Atkinson, near the North Landing. 
On Sept. 9th, two Sabine's Gulls (Xei)ia sabinii) were shot near the Smithie Buoy 
— one a splendid specimen. On Sept. 12th Mr. Saltfleet shot a Black Guillemot 
(Uria g7ylle), immature. To-day (Sept. 15th), Mr. George Emmerson shot 
other two Sabine's Gulls, also a Little Gull (Lams }ninutus). — Matthew Bailey, 
Sept. 15th, 1890. 

Since I wrote you, two more Sabine's Gulls have fallen to the last-named gun, 
and two Black Terns{IIydrochelidon nigra). — Matthew Bailey, Sep. 20th, 1890. 

SwralloAVs' Nests. — The Swallows' nests described by Mr. Waite as built 
against a wall without any support, are only occasionally to be met with in this 
country, but in Western Germany I found that the Swallows usually built precisely 
such nests as Mr. Waite describes, the nests bearing some similarity to those of the 
House Martin, but being open at the top, and composed of less pure clay ; a little 
fine hay being mixed with the clay, which moreover is not so thoroughly kneaded 
together by the Swallow as by the House Martin. If Mr. Waite will refer to the 
second volume of Mr. Seebohm's 'British Birds,' he will find the subject fully 
discussed at p. 174. Mr. Seebohm himself considers these unsupported nests to 
be the rule rather than the exception, on the continent. — -H. A. Macpherson, 
Carlisle, Sept. 3rd, 1890. 

Yellow Wagtail in Swaledale. — I notice in reading Mr. Goodchild's 
interesting list of avian occurrences in Upper Swaledale, in the August ' Naturalist,' 
that he makes no mention of Alotacilla rail, the migratory Yellow Wagtail. In 
the spring of 1888, while staying for a few days at Muker, I found this beautiful 
species to be exceedingly common by the Swale. Any day I could find at least 
half a dozen pairs of them among the moist meadows within about a mile of 
Muker. — ^J. Backhouse, Jun. 

Spotted Redshank in Cumberland. — For some years past I have felt con- 
vinced that, given a knowledge of the right fly- line, we should find certain rare 
British birds annually recurring even in Western Britain. Prior to 1888 no speci- 
men of the Spotted Redshank {lotanus fuscics) had been identified as shot on the 
Cumbrian coast for half a century. In 1888 we hit on the right fly-line. Hence 
a young bird was killed that year on August i8th. In 1S89 a second was shot 
upon Sept. 5th. In 1S90 a third was shot on Sept. 2nd. Yet the species is veiy 

rare with us. — H. A. Macpherson, Carlisle, Sept. 7th, 1890. 

Naturali.st, 



319 
NOTES ON THE TREE SPARROW. 

F. B. WHITLOCK, 
Beeston, Notts. 



I HAVE read Mr. Fawcett's paper on the Tree Sparrow in Durham 
with much interest, as I find the birds in his district differ very 
materially in their habits from our local birds. 

I am surprised to read of the Tree Sparrow {Passer montanus) 
nesting in Durham so early as February and March, especially as 
numbers of them ' are only spring . . . visitants to this county, 
arriving here about the latter part of March and the beginning of 
April' Are we to assume that it is the resident birds that breed so 
early, and that the later broods are the products of the spring 
visitors? If so, can Mr. Fawcett say with certainty that the Tree 
Sparrow generally rears two broods in a season, especially as the 
nests under observation were totally robbed of their contents at 
various times. May it not be that the supposed second broods were 
the result of a first (or even second) attempt at incubation being 
unsuccessful. 

Mr. Fawcett observes that the House Sparrow {P. domesticus) 
is very common where the colony of Tree Sparrows exists in the 
Browney valley, and I must confess that when I read his paper 
I think he has been mistaken in some cases in his identity of the 
species. The fact of the Tree Sparrow nesting in the 'forks of 
branches, and amongst the branches ... of planes, oaks, . . . 
and in hedges and bushes,' points more to the habits of the House 
Sparrow. In Notts, with rare exceptions, nests in dense bushes 
have proved to be House Sparrows' nests ; and in the case of nests 
in the forks and branches of oaks, apple and pear trees, I have never 
known the rule to vary. Since writing my first paper, I have 
discovered a large colony of Tree Sparrows nesting in some small 
and very dense hollies, by the Midland Railway near Attenborough, 
but were it not for the old birds flying off, the nests would escape 
the observation of an ordinary passenger, so dark are the interiors of 
the trees. These nests all contained young in the middle of June. 

With regard to the size of Tree Sparrows' eggs, Mr. Fawcett 
writes : ' The eggs in some cases smaller than those of its relative.' 
After comparing a large number of Tree Sparrows' eggs with those of 
its ally, I find that only large eggs of the Tree Sparrow equal small 
eggs of the House Sparrow ; occasionally extreme measurements will 
overlap, but this is exceptional. In the case of the birds breeding 
at Attenborough, it was the smallness of the Sparrows' eggs taken 

Oct. 1890. 



320 



NOTES : ORNITHOLOGY. 



from the nests and brought to me that led me to the identity of the 
parent birds, which I subsequently confirmed. The disparity in size 
of the two species would lead us to expect that the average egg of 
the Tree Sparrow would be smaller than that of the House Sparrow. 

The most interesting part of Mr. Fawcett's paper is the para- 
graph relating to the inter-breeding of the species. Mr. Fawcett truly 
remarks on the shyness of the Tree Sparrow, and one would expect 
some difficulty in noting such a fact as inter-pairing, but as his obser- 
vations were almost constantly made during the breeding season, 
I hesitate in casting any doubt on the fact. I should, however, like 
to ask him if he has noted any disparity in the numbers of the sexes 
of either species, and also if he has observed this inter-pairing at 
any of the other colonies he mentions. In a private letter to me, the 
Rev. H. A. Macpherson inquired if I had ever met with a hybrid, 
and he also informed me that a supposed example had lately turned 
up in Scotland, but he seemed to look upon it as a great rarity. 

I hope Mr. Fawcett will be able to confirm his notes by procuring 
an example or two. This should not be difficult, as he seems to 
have observed the inter-pairing on many occasions. If he is able to 
do so, we shall have almost as interesting a case of interbreeding as 
in the example of Lanius excubitor and L. major. I shall be happy 
to send Mr. Fawcett a series of local Tree Sparrows' eggs for com- 
parison, if he cares to have them, and I trust he will take my 
criticism in as good part as it is intended. 

Sept. loth, 1890. 



NO TES— ORNITHOL OGY. 

Garganey in Cumberland. — An adult female (Jia.xg:iv\&y {Qtiej-qnednla ciiria) 
was shot on the coast of Cumberland on the 15th of August, 1890. Her plumage 
showed that she had recently nested, and her death was unfortunate. It is a rare 
species in the N.W. of England at all times. — H. A. Macpherson, Carlisle, 
Sept. 7th, 1890. 

Nesting of the Cirl Bunting at Lofthouse near Wakefield.— W.E.C., in 

the 'Naturalist' for May 1S90, says, in a footnote on the nesting of the Cirl 
Bunting: — ' In the above communication we regret to observe that no mention is 
made of the bird, the most, perhaps the only, satisfactory means of identifying the 
ownership of the nests and eggs discovered. I may say both pairs of birds were 
carefully observed during the many times I watched them through the field-glass 
to discover the nesting-site. I have an excellent description of the birds in 
Mr. Howard Saunders' new work. The throat, ear-coverts, and lores being black, 
with the sulphur-coloured collar round the neck, were quite sufficient to convince 
me of the identity of the birds, or any other person who thoroughly knows the 
Yellow-hammer. There is as much difference in the plumage of the two birds as 
there is in any of the other Buntings. There is no doubt many birds have come 
to grief since the Preservation Act came into force that are never mentioned ; 
I decline, therefore, to state what befell one of the male Cirl Buntings. — 

John Ward, Pymont House, Lofthouse, June 6th, 1890. 

Naturalist, 



No. 184. 



NOVEMBER 1890. ^ 




MONTHLY JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 




CONDUCTKI) BY 



WM. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., 

Sunny Bank, Leeds ; 

WITH THE ASSISTANCK IN SFF.CIAI. OKrAKTMKNTS OK 



J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., 
Royal Herbarium, Kew ; 

W. EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S., M.B.O.U., 

Museum of Science & Art, EdinburgI 

ALFRED HARKER, M.A., F.G.S., 
St. John's College, Cambridge ; 



CHAS. P. HOBKIRK, K.L.S., 
Dewsbury ; 

GEORGE T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S., 
Greenfield House, Huddersfield ; 

W. BARWELL TURNER, F.C.S., F.R. M.S. 

38, Sholebroke Avenue, Leeds. 



Contents: 

On a Coal-Seam in the Bernician Series of Northumberland, and its Bearing 
on the Theory of the Formation of Coal— C IV. Biihnntt, M.A., B.Sc. 
Eagles in the North of England — Ke?'. H. A. Macpherson, M.A., M.B.O.U. .. 
The Money Cowry on the Coast of Cumberland — Rev. Chas. Craivskmv,M.C.S. 
Notes on the Flora of West C\tn\\3er\a.nd— Percy H. Grimshaw 

The Neocomian Clay at Knapton— G. W. Lamp/ugh, F.G.S 

Bibliography: Geology and Palaeontology, ^QQ9—Ai/red Marker, M.A., F.C.S. 

Saunders' Manual of British Birds (Review) 

Note — Lepidoptera .. 

Crambus salinellus near Preston — J. If. Tui/, I^.E.S. 

Notes— Ornithology 

Grey Phalarope in Cumberland — Kev. H. A. Macplterson, M.A., M.B.O.U. : 
Albino Greenfinch near Bradford — H. B. Booth; Turtle Dove at Lofthouse 
near Wakefield — yohu Ward; Montagu's Harrier in Westmorland — 
Rf7'. H. A. Macphersofi, M.A.,M .B.O.U. ; Swallows' Nests— 7. Yo-ung, 
M.B.O.U.; Storm Petrel at Howden, \orVs.— Thomas Bunker; Flam- 
borough Bird-Notes— y)/rt/Mf7w Bailey. 

Note— Fishes 

The Tope on the Coast of C\.\mhet\AnA—Kiv.H.A.Macpkerson,M.A .,M.B.O. U. 

Notes— Mollusca 

Additions to the List of Mollusca of Malham— f*'. E. Collinge, M.C.S. : Deep 
Limpet ' Scars '— L. E. Adams, B.A., M.C.S. 
Notes and News 



321 & 322 
323 
3»4 

325 to 334 
336 to 338 

339 to 3SO 
351 & 35a 

334 
335 & 352 



335 
335 



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321 

ON A COAL-SEAM IN THE BERNICIAN SERIES 

OF NORTHUMBERLAND, AND ITS BEARING 

ON THE THEORY OF THE FORMATION 

OF COAL. 

G. W. BULMAN, M.A., B.Sc, 

Corbridge-on ■ Tyne. 

The Bernician series of Northumberland corresponds with the 
Mountain Limestone of Derbyshire and the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone series of Scotland. In it several coal-seams of minor im- 
portance occur. Some of these are worked in the south-west and 
north of the county. Among the best known is the Little Lime- 
stone Coal, so called from its position in relation to that limestone. 

The coal-seam in question occurs lower down in the series, and 
is one of the two known as Beadnell coals, from the name of the 
place near which they are met with. The coast section where the 
seam outcrops is a most interesting one, and has been carefully and 
minutely described by Prof Lebour in the 'Transactions of the 
North of England Mining Institute.' It is the position of this 
seam with regard to the other rocks, and the bearing of this on the 
theory of the formation of coal, to which I now wish to call attention. 

It has — like many of the coals in the Bernician series — its under- 
clay, and is directly overlain by a limestone. On the theory of the 
terrestrial growth of coal, and subsidence of the land, the gradually 
sinking area on which the bed of vegetable matter had accumulated 
would necessarily pass through a shallow-water stage, when sand 
and mud would be deposited on the coal, before it reached the 
stage of deeper and clearer water required for the limestone. 

A section not far from the one which contains the coal-seam shows 
the typical transition. A bed of sand, coarse in the lower part and 
becoming finer upwards, is succeeded by a thin clayey band with 
carbonaceous matter — an old mud, partly of vegetable origin — and 
then a limestone. 

The presumable interpretation of this is as follows : a coarse 
sand-bed is accumulated near shore and in shallow water ; the area 
sinks, and finer sand is deposited ; it sinks still more, and fine mud 
only reaches it ; finally it becomes deep and clear enough for lime- 
stone. The coal-seam and fire-clay occupy the same relative position 
as this clayey band with carbonaceous matter ; they both overlie a 
sandstone, and are overlain by a limestone. 

Nov. 1890. w 



322 BULMAN : THE THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF COAL, 

And there is a great difficulty in conceiving how any deposit of 
vegetable matter formed on land can be gradually lowered beneath 
the sea without suffering extensive denudation. This was brought 
vividly to my mind during a recent examination of the so-called 
submerged forest on the Norfolk coast. A little to the north of 
Hunstanton a very good exposure of it can be seen at low water. 
The peaty layer, with tree-stumps resting on clay, is much cut up by 
the sea, and really exists only in patches. If it were covered now 
and preserved from further denudation, it would form a coal-seam of 
isolated fragments, each a few square feet in extent. And, on the 
gradual subsidence theory, every layer of vegetable matter would be 
exposed for a time to the action of the waves between tide-marks. 
This, however, does not apply to the seams of the Coal Measures 
proper, which may have been formed in great land-locked areas, 
where the open sea was excluded. But for the Bernician series, 
with its numerous limestones, the open ocean is required. 

The position, then, of this Beadnell coal favours rather the drift 
theory of the origin of coal. We may suppose the vegetable matter 
to have been laid down when the water became too deep and the 
area too far from land to receive even the fine sediment which formed 
its under-clay, and before it became fit for the formation of lime- 
stone. 

This is in accordance with the views advocated by Mr. Good- 
child, F.G.S., of the Geological Survey, in the Geol. Mag., Feb. 1890. 
Mr. Goodchild points out how the vegetable matter carried down by 
rivers will drift out to sea beyond the zones of ordinary sedimenta- 
tion, and, sinking down, form layers of coal. Thus it would happen 
that a seam of coal would usually succeed a very fine-grained deposit. 
And this is what we actually find with most of our coal-seams. 

M. H. Fayol, too, in his great work on the 'Coal-field of 
Commentry,' has shown that vegetable debris carried down by rivers 
is deposited in the quieter portions of the basins of reception, away 
from the influence of currents, and out of reach of even the finer 
sediments under normal conditions. M. Fayol asserts that all 
varieties of coal are formed thus directly from vegetable matter 
carried by water ; and although we cannot accept so wide a generalisa- 
tion, we must admit that he has proved his case for the coal of 
Central France, if any case can be proved by facts and reasoning. 

For this particular seam of coal, then, I think some modification 
of the drift theory must be adopted. And if so, we must infer tliat 
the presence of an under-clay beneath a coal is not necessarily 
evidence of growth in situ, and, further, that the said under-clay is 
not always a terrestrial accumulation. 

Naturalist, 



323 
EAGLES IN THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

Rev. H. a. MACPHERSON, M.A., M.B.O.U., Etc., 
A iitlior of the ' / 'isitntion of Pallas s Sand-Grouse to Scoilaiui,' etc. 

Having searched during several years, with very Hmited success, for 
old records of Eagles in the English Lake district, I had lately an 
opportunity of making a hurried examination of the pages of the 
' Gentleman's Magazine. Herein I found several references, none of 
them relating to my own faunal area, and all describing the capture 
of birds at a distance from their breeding-grounds. The earliest 
relates to an Eagle captured in Kent in August 1734. The curious 
thing about this occurrence is that the Lord of the Manor claimed 
the bird ; ' but 'twas afterwards demanded by the King's Falconers 
as a Royal Bird, and carried to Court.' The expanse of wings of 
this specimen was stated at 3 yds. 8 ins., an obvious exaggeration. 

The next capture that I shall cite here belongs to Northumberland. 
' 1 75 1. Newcastle, July 27. Last week, as Sir Henry Gray, Bart., 
was fowling near Cheviott Hill, he shot a very large eagle, which 
had seized his dog in his talons, and was endeavouring to carry him 
off. The neighbourhood had been much damaged by this eagle, 
having lost lambs to the value of ^^ 6 ' (Gentleman's Magazine, 
xxi, p. 379). 

Fourteen years later, we find another reference, tu Durham. 
' 1765. October, Thursday, 17. A Golden Eagle of an enormous 
size was shot at RyhoJ>e, near Sunderland. It measured from the 
extremities of its wings, 7 feet 6 inches; from the bill to the tail, 
3 feet ; its largest claws, six inches and a half ; and its heart nearly 
as large as that of a sheep' (Gentleman's Magazine, 1765, p. 490). 

The last passage to be quoted for the North of England is less 
detailed. It refers to the year 1784, and states, under November., 
that ' In the course of the present month an eagle was shot in 
Lincolnshire, which measured from the tip of the wings, when 
extended, 7 feet 7 inches. It was a noble bird, and being hurt in the 
wing only, it was with difficulty subdued' (Gentleman's ^Magazine, 
1784, p. 872). 

The White-tailed Eagle certainly bred in the Lake district until 
the last years of the eighteenth century, and probably the Golden 
Eagle held out nearly as long. I lately interviewed an aged native 
of Keswick, a man of ninety summers. This old gentleman assured 
me that when he was a big lad, a pair of Eagles still nested on one 
of the mountains of the district. 

Sept. Tth, 1890. 
Nov. i8ooi 



324 

THE MONEY COWRY 
ON THE COAST OF CUMBERLAND. 

Rev. CHARLES CRAWSHAW, M.C.S., 
Shipley, Yorkshire. 

Upon the sandy beach between Seascale and the river Calder, the 
Money Cowry (^Cyprcea niofieta) may be found in abundance. This 
shell (with a few C. aiuwlata) occurs upon the high-water 
line left by the tide ; and although visitors clear the ground every 
day, the succeeding tide renews the supply. In the course of 
a few days the writer collected about 600 shells, and nearly all of 
them in good condition for beached specimens. 

The Money Cowry is known to the general public as a foreign 
shell, if not as the product of the Indian Ocean, and the appearance 
of it upon the Cumberland shore is locally explained by supposing 
that it has been introduced accidentally in a living state, and a 
thriving colony established in the sea at the mouth of the Calder. 
These shells have been found now for so many years that the 
popular theory tracing them to the adjacent colony gathers strength, 
while the true explanation becomes more and more obscure. Some 
of the residents, however, remember the wreck of the ' Glendowra,' 
in 1873. This vessel was a four-masted barque, homeward-bound 
from Manilla. Her cargo consisted of jute, sugar, and cowries ; 
of the latter there were on board 600 bags, containing 2 cwt. each. 
The ' Glendowra ' missed the port of Liverpool through an error in 
her course, and, in the fog which prevailed, ran ashore near Seascale. 
All the crew were saved, and the wreck, which could not be recovered, 
was subsequently removed by explosives. 

I find, by counting the cowries in a given weight, that there 
would be in the 600 bags lost in the sea about 70,000,000 shells, 
a number sufficiently accounting for the continual supply cast up 
upon the shore, and also illustrating the amazing productiveness of 
this mollusc in its native place. 

The best cowries come from the Maldive Islands, and are taken 
to Ceylon to be shipped for England, and thence are exported to 
Africa, chiefly by the river Niger. An inferior kind reaches this 
country via Zanzibar, and is sent to Lagos. One Liverpool firm 
transmits from 20 tons to 30 tons per annum. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

We have to ileplore the loss of John Hancock, whose death— at the age of 82— 
took place at Newcastle-on-Tyne, on the 8th of October. 

Naturalist 



325 



NOTES ON 
THE FLORA OF WEST CUMBERLAND. 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, 
Elm Grove, Bnrlcy-in-Whar/editle. 



While spending my annual holiday this year at Seascale, a small 
^vatering-place on the coast of Cumberland, I took the opportunity 
of making a few notes on the flora of the district. My observations 
were made between May 31st and June 13th, so that I missed many 
plants, characteristic of the district, which bloom at a later period of 
the year. 

The area over which I worked may be roughly bounded by 
a line drawn from St. Bees Head to Wasdale Head, thence up Pier's 
Gill to the summit of Scafell Pikes, down Eskdale to the village of 
Boot, then along the narrow-gauge railway to Ravenglass, and finally 
up the coast back to St. Bees. 

Perhaps it will be as well to enumerate the principal geological 
features of this area. They are— (i) a narrow belt of Upper 
Permian sandstones running up the whole of the coast, and varying 
in width from two to about four and a half miles, with magnesian 
limestone at the base of the cliff at St. Bees Head ; (2) adjoining 
this belt, the great mass of Silurian slates (extending over a great 
part of the Lake district); (3) various granites forming the strand at 
the foot of Wastwater, part of Scafell, and most of the hills around 
Eskdale ; and (4) the sand-dunes which line the coast for a few miles 
N. and S. of Seascale. 

Owing to the presence of marshy ground in the hollows of the 
sand-dunes the flora becomes nicely varied, and I was considerably 
surprised at the number of plants found there. I append the list 
(57 species in all) : — 

Ranunculus heteiophyllus. Hypericum humifu.sum. 

Ranunculus Flammula. Geranium sanguineum var. pros- 

Ranunculus bulbosus. tratum. 

Cochlearia officinalis. Erodium cicutarium. 

Brassica monensis. Genista tinctoria. 

Viola palustris. Ulex europsus. 

Viola canina. Trifolium repens. 

Polygala vulgaris. Trifolium dubium. 

Silene maritima. Anthyllis Vulneraria. 

Lychnis diurna. Lotus corniculatus. 

Lychnis Flos-cuculi, Lathyrus pratensis. 

.Stellaria uliginosa. Potentilla anserina. 

Arenaria peploides. Potentilla Comaruni. 

Nov. 1800. 



326 



GRIMSHAW : THE FLORA OF WEST CUMBERLAND 



Rosa spinosi-sima. 
Sedum anglicum. 
Sedum acre. 
Drosera rotundifolia. 
Eryngium maritimum. 
(ialium verum. 
*\'alerianella olitoria. 
Bellis perennis. 
Achillea Millefolium. 
Matricaria inodora var. maritima. 
Cnicus palustris. 
Hieracium Pilosella. 
Leontodon hispidus. 
Taraxacum officinale. 
Sonchus oleraceus. 
Erica Telralix. 



Armeria maritima. 
Myosotis palustris. 
Myosotis versicolor. 
Calystegia Soldanella. 
Veronica officinalis. 
Veronica Chamcedrys. 
Euphrasia officinalis. 
Thymus .Serpyllum. 
Plantago lanceolata. 
Plantago Coronopus. 
Atriplex Babingtonii. 
Salsola Kali. 



Orchis latifolia. 

Habenaria bifolia(;/^/ chlorolcuca). 
Potamogeton natans. 
Eriophorum angustifolium. 

■'■■ This plant varied so mucli in character that I was at first 
completely puzzled with it. One specimen I obtained was in the 
form of a little tuft only about half an inch in height, and was so 
different from other plants of the same species that I could only be 
sure of its identity after examining it carefully under a strong lens. 

Another interesting locality was the rocky bed of the river 
Calder near its mouth, exposed in many places owing to the lowness 
of the water. Amongst the stones and on the banks of the river 
occurred : — 



Ranunculus aquatilis (sub-species 

not determined). 
Ranunculus Flammula. 
Cochlearia officinalis. 
Lepidium campestre. 
Stellaria graminea. 
Sagina procumbens. 
Lepigonum rubrum. 
Claytonia sibirica (see remarks on 

this plant in general list). 
Montia fontana. 
Geranium molle. 
Geranium Robertianum. 
Erodium cicutarium. 
Potentilla anserina. 
Sedum anglicum. 



Callitriche verna. 
Apium graveolens. 
Chrysanthemum Parthenium, 
Primula veris (fruit). 
Lysimachia nemorum. 
Glaux maritima. 
Myosotis palustris. 
* Mimiihts moscliatiis. 
Mimulus luteus. 
Digitalis purpurea. 
Veronica arvensis. 
Veronica serpyllifolia. 
Veronica Beccabunga. 
Euphrasia officinalis. 
Stachys sylvatica. 
Plantago Coronopus. 
Salsola Kali. 



Sedum acre. 

* This plant, the common scented Musk of cottage gardens, 
seems to be thoroughly well naturalised in this spot, which is far away 
from a habitation of any kind. I observed the same species in the 
same locality seveii years ago, and during my last visit noticed two 
patches quite at a distance from each other, so that the plant is 
evidently spreading. 

Naturalist, 



GRIMSHAW: THE FLORA OF WEST CUMBERLAND. 327 

The flora of St. Bees Head, as noted in a single visit, included 
the following: — 

Ranunculus bulbosus. Galium verum. 

Cochlearia officinalis. Galium saxatile. 

Polygala vulgaris (blue- and pink- Bellis perennis. 

flowered). Achillea Millefolium. 

Silene maritima. Matricaria inodora var. maritima. 

Lepigonum rubrum. Hieracium Pilosella. 

Geranium sanguineum var. pros- Leontodon hispidus. 

tratum. Taraxacum officinale. 

Ulex europKUs. Jasione montana. 

Ononis repens. Armeria maritima. 

Anthyllis Vulneraria. Veronica Cham^drys. 

Lotus corniculatus. Euphrasia officinalis. 

I'otentilla Tormentilla. Thymus .Serpylluni. 

Alchemilla arvensis. Teucrium Scorodonia. 

Cratregus Oxyacantha. Plantago maritima. 

Sedum Rhodiola. Plantago Coronopus. 

Sedum anglicum. Rumex Acetosella. 

Conopodium denudatum. Mercurialis perennis. 

Heracleum Sphondylium. Dactylis glomerata. 

Hedera Helix. Pteris aquilina. 

The remainder of my observations are embodied in the following 
general list, and I may mention that the nomenclature adopted 
throughout all these lists is that of the 8th edition of the ' London 

Catalogue.' 

Anemone nemorosa. In flower, Pier's Gill, June 13th. 

Ranunculus Lenormandi. Near Strands. R. Flammula. 

Ranunculus heterophyllus. R. acris. R. repens. 

Ranunculus Sardous. Between Seascale and Drigg. 

Ranunculus Ficaria. In flower, base of Lingmell, June 9th. 

Caltha palustris. 

Meconopsis cambrica. Beckfoot,Eskdale. Burnthwaite,Wastdale. 

Chelidonium majus. St. John Beckermet. Seascale. 

Corydalis claviculata. Boot. Muncaster. 

Fumaria pallidiflora var. Boraei. Braystones. 

Cheiranthus Cheiri. Calder Abbey. 

Nasturtium officinale. Common. 

Barbarea vulg-aris. Santon Bridge. 

Cardamine flexuosa. Stanley Gill. C. pratensis. 

Cochlearia officinalis. 

Hesperis matronalis. In gardens. 

Sisymbrium Thaliana. Between Muncaster antl Irton Road. 

Nov. i8qo. 



328 GRLMSHAW : THE FLORA OF WEST CUMBERLAND. 

Sisymbrium officinale. Braystones. Gosforth. S. AUiaria, 

Brassica monensis. Common on the coast. B. Sinapis. 

Capsella Bursa-pastoris. 

Lepidium campestre. Braystones. Gosforth. Drigg. 

Viola palustris. Common. Just below the summit of Scafell Pikes. 

Viola arvensis. Braystones. V. canina. 

Viola lutea. Seascale. Drigg. Eskdale Green. 

Polygala vulgaris. Common ; blue-, pink-, and white-flowered 
forms all seen. 

Silene Cucubalus. Seascale. S. maritima. 

Lychnis diurna. L. Flos-cuculi. 

Cerastium triviale. 

Stellaria graminea. Braystones. Muncaster. S. Holostea. 

Stellaria uliginosa. Drigg. Gosforth. Strands. S. media. 

Arenaria trinervia. A. serpyllifolia. 

Arenaria peploides. Common on the coast. 

Sagina procumbens. Seascale. Muncaster. 

Spergula arvensis. Seascale. 

Lepigonum rubrum. 

Claytonia sibirica. I came across this beautiful plant on the 
roadside between Seascale and Gosforth, and, on looking over 
the hedge, saw that it grew in an adjoining garden, and so was 
certainly an escape. The same species occurred in the bed of the 
river Calder, as will be seen on referring to the special list for 
that locality. There it was a long way from any garden, and 
the seed must evidently have been carried down by the river. 
The specimens were kindly identified for me by Mr. W. Botting 
Hemsley, of the Kew Herbarium. 

Montia fontana. Kidbeck, near Wastwater. 

Hypericum Androsaemum. Grounds of Calder Abbey. On 
railway-track between Muncaster and Irton Road. 

Hypericum humifusum, Drigg. Boot. Muncaster. 

Hypericum pulchrum. (Gosforth. Kidbeck. Strands. Boot. 

Hypericum hirsutum. 

Tilia cordata. 

Geranium sanguineum var. prostratum. Very abundant on 
the coast. Not seen inland. 

Geranium sylvaticum. Wasdale Head. Near the Woolpack 
Inn, Boot. 

Geranium molle. Common throughout the district. 

Naturalist, 



GRIMSHAW : IHE FLORA OF WEST CUMBERLAND. 329 

Geranium dissectum. St. Bees. Ravenglass. 

Geranium columbinum. Braystones. 

Geranium Robertianum. Common. Slope of Lingmell. 

Erodium cicutarium. Seascale. Braystones. 

Oxalis Acetosella. Stanley (lill. Strands. In flower close under 
the summit of Scafell Pikes. 

Ilex Aquifolium. Calder Abbey. Pier's Gill, thoroughly wild. 

Acer Pseudo-platanus. A. campestre. 

Genista tinctoria. Seascale. 

Ulex europaeus. 

Cytisus scoparius. Beckfoot. Gosforth. 

Ononis repens. Braystones. 

Trifolium pratense. T. repens. T. dubium. 

Trifolium procumbens. The true ' Hop Trefoil,' on the sand- 
dunes, Seascale. 

Anthyllis Vulneraria. Braystones, etc. 

Lotus corniculatus. Common. 

Ornithopus perpusillus. This exquisite little Leguminous plant 
grew on rocks at Kidbeck, near the foot of Wastwater. 

Vicia sepium. 

Vicia angustifolia var. Bobartii. Pretty generally distributed. 

Lathyrus macrorrhizus. Calder Abbey. Stanley Gill. Beckfoot. 

Lathyrus pratensis. 

Spiraea Ulmaria. Seascale. 

Rubus Idaeus. Stanley Gill. Wasdale Head. Muncaster. 

Rubus fruticosus. 

Geum urbanum. Common. 

Fragaria vesca. Ripe fruit, Muncaster, June nth and 12th. 

Potentilla Fragariastrum. Base of Lingmell. 

Potentilla Tormentilla. Common. Near summit of Scafell Pikes. 

Potentilla reptans. Drigg. Braystones. P. anserina. Common. 

Potentilla Comarum. Seascale. 

Alchemilla arvensis. Braystones. Boot. Muncaster. 

Alchemilla vulgaris. Strands. Wasdale Head. 

Alchemilla alpina. Very abundant in Pier's (lill, and on 
Scafell Pikes. 

Poterium officinale. 

Rosa spinosissima. A very characteristic plant of the sand- 
dunes ; not seen elsewhere. R, canina. 

Nov. iSqo. 



330 GRIMSHAW: THE FLORA OF WEST CUMBERLAND. 

Pyrus Aucuparia. Pier's Gill. 
Crataegus Oxyacantha. St. Bees Head. 
Cotoneaster vulgaris. Calder Abbey, naturalised. 
Saxifraga stellaris. Scafell Pikes. Lingmell Beck and Pier's Gill. 
Saxifraga aizoides. Pier's Gill. 

Saxifraga granulata. A pretty ' flore pleno ' specimen found at 
St. John Beckermet. 

Chrysosplenium oppositifolium. Stanley Gill. 

Sedum Rhodiola. Top of Pier's Gill, abundant. 

Sedum anglicum. Well distributed over the sea-ward half of the 
area. 

Sedum acre. Braystones. Seascale. 

Drosera rotundifolia. Common in the bogs. 

Drosera intermedia. Eskdale Green. Foot of Wastwater. 

Epilobium hirsutum. Seascale. E. montanum. 

Circaea lutetiana. Stanley Gill. Beckfoot. 

Hydrocotyle vulgaris. 

Eryngium maritimum. Common on the coast. 

Sanicula europaea. Seascale. 

Apium graveolens. Braystones. Seascale, Muncaster. 

Apium nodiflorum. Seascale. 

.^gopodium Podagraria. Muncaster. 

Pimpinella Saxifraga. Seascale. Gosforth. 

Conopodium denudatum. Calder Abbey. Beckfoot. Strands. 

Seascale. 
Myrrhis odorata. Braystones. Calder Bridge. Seascale. Boot. 
Chaerophyllum temulum. 
Angelica sylvestris. Muncaster. 
Heracleum Sphondylium. 
Hedera Helix. Slope of Lingmell. 
Sambucus nigra. 

Lonicera Periclymenum. Gosforth. Muncaster. 
Galium boreale. Lingmell Beck. G. cruciata. 
Galium verum. Braystones, etc. G. saxatile. Common. 
Galium Aparine. Beckfoot. Galium palustre. 
Sherardia arvensis. Braystones. Calder Bridge. 
Valeriana officinalis. Beckfoot. 
Valerianella olitoria. Seascale. 



GRiINfSHAW : THK FLORA OF WEST CUMBERLAND. 331' 

Bellis perennis. 

Achillea Millefolium. 

Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum. Calder Abbey. Eskdale^ 

Green. Gosforth. Muncaster. Irton Road. 
Chrysanthemum Parthenium. 
Matricaria inodora van maritima. Coast, Seascale. 
Tanacetum vulgare. Seascale. 
Senecio aquaticus. Muncaster. S. vulgaris. 
Arctium minus. Santon Bridge. 
Cnicus palustris, 
Centaurea nigra. 

Crepis paludosa. Seascale. Calder. 
Hieracium Pilosella. Braystones. Seascale. Eskdale Green.. 

Gosforth. Beckfoot. Muncaster. 
Hieracium murorum. Between Seascale and Gosforth. 
Hieracium maculatum. Near summit of Scafell Pikes. 
Hieracium umbellatum. Calder Abbey. 
Leontodon hispidus. Braystones. Beckfoot. Ravenglass. 
Taraxacum officinale. 
Sonchus oleraceus. Seascale. 
Jasione montana. Braystones. Stanley Gill. 
Campanula rotundifolia. 

Vaccinium Oxycoccos. Eskdale Green. Muncaster. 
Vaccinium Myrtillus. Stanley Gill. Lingmell. 
Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea. Pier's Gill. 
Calluna Erica. Beckfoot. 

Hrica Tetralix. Muncaster. E. cinerea. Kidbeck. Boot. 
Armeria maritima. Common on the coast. 
Primula vulgaris. In flower, Drigg, June ist,and Beckfoot,June 5th, 
Primula veris. 
Lysimachia nemorum. Seascale. Calder Abbey. Stanley GilL 

Strands. Santon Bridge. Ravenglass. 
Glaux maritima. Seascale. 
Anagallis arvensis. Muncaster. 
Fraxinus excelsior. 
Ligustrum vulgare. 
Menyanthes trifoliata. Seascale. 
Myosotis palustris. Seascale. Muncaster. Drigg. 

Nov. 1800. 



332 GRIMSHAW : TlfE FLORA OF WEST CUMBERLAND. 

Myosotis arvensis. Braystones. Eskdale Green. Gosforth. 

Myosotis collina. Braystones. 

Myosotis versicolor. Seascale. Kidbeck. Muncaster. 

Calystegia Soldanella. Common on the coast. 

Solanum Dulcamara. Seascale. Muncaster. 

Verbascum Thapsus. Boot. 

Linaria Cymbalaria. St. John Beckermet. Calder Bridge 

Calder Abbey. Boot. 
Linaria vulgaris. Between Braystones and St. John Beckermet. 
Scrophularia nodosa. Braystones. Wasdale Head. 
Mimulus luteus. 

Mimulus moschatus. See special list for bed of R. Calder. 
Digitalis purpurea. Drigg. Kidbeck. Ravenglass. Pier's Gill. 
Veronica arvensis. Calder Abbey grounds, etc. V. agrestis. 
Veronica serpyllifolia. Calder Abbey grounds, etc. 
Veronica spicata. Eskdale Green Station, naturalised. 
Veronica officinalis. Seascale. Drigg. Gosforth. Boot. Muncaster, 

Veronica Chamaedrys. Seascale. Drigg. Calder Abbey. Stanley 

Gill. Strands. Beckfoot. Ravenglass. 
Veronica Beccabunga. Drigg. Gosforth. 

Euphrasia officinalis. Seascale. Drigg. Kidbeck. Muncaster. 
Pedicularis sylvatica. Seascale. Foot of Wastwater. Beckfoot. 

Muncaster. 

Melampyrum pratense. Stanley Gill. Eskdc^vle Green. Boot. 

Rhinanthus Crista-galli. Seascale. Muncaster. 

Pinguicula vulgaris. Eskdale Green. Strands. Boot. Ling- 

mell side. Common around Wastwater. 
Lycopus europaeus. Seascale. 
Thymus Serpyllum. Seascale. Braystones. Drigg. Kidbeck. 

Beckfoot. Slopes of Lingmell. 
Nepeta Glechoma. Seascale. 

Stachys Betonica. Stanley Gill. Strands. Boot. Ravenglass. 
Stachys sylvatica. 
Galeopsis Tetrahit. Beckfoot. 
Lamium purpureum. Seascale. Braystones. 
Lamium maculatum. Boot. L. album. Calder Abbey. 
Teucrium Scorodonia. Braystones, etc. 
Ajuga reptans. Calder Abbey. Muncaster. 

Natiirali<;t, 



GRIMSHAW: THE FLORA OK WEST CUIMHERLANU. ;^^T, 

Plantago maritima. St. Bees Head. P. major. P. lanceolata. 
P. Coronopus. Common throughout the whole length of the coast. 
Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus. Cottage near Stanley dill. 
Atriplex Babingftonii. Common on the beach, Seascale. 
Salsola Kali. Common on the beach, Seascale. 
Polyg-onum Roberti. Seashore, Seascale. P. aviculare. 
Polyg-onum Bistorta. Seascale. Calder Abbey, (iosforth. 
Boot. St. Bees. 

Oxyria digyna. Common in Pier's Gill. 

Rumex Acetosella. 

Euphorbia Cyparissias. In a garden, St. John Beckermet. 

Mercurialis perennis. 

Ulmus montana. U. campestris. 

Urtica dioica. Slopes of Lingmell. 

Myrica Gale. Common in bogs on the top of Heron Crags, head 

of Eskdale. 
Quercus Robur. 
Fagus sylvatica. 

Taxus baccata. Gosforth churchyard. 
Pinus sylvestris. ^^'ell planted at foot of Wastuater. 
Listera ovata. Between Drigg and Seascale. 
Orchis latifolia. Muncaster. 

Orchis maculata. Seascale. Strands. Drigg. Muncaster. 
Habenaria bifolia. Between Drigg and Seascale. This was the 

true bifolia, distinguished from H. chloroleuca by being smaller 

generally, and having the anther-cells parallel, not diverging. 

The lateral sepals are also narrower, and the spur more slender. 
Iris Pseudacorus. Muncaster. Seascale. Drigg. 
Convallaria majalis. Plantation near Stanley Gill, probably not 

truly wild. 
Allium Scorodoprasum. Braystones, only one plant seen. 
Allium ursinum. Calder Abbey, etc. 
Scilla nutans. Stanley Gill. Strands. Boot. Pier's Gill. 
Luzula pilosa. Stanley Gill. L. campestris. Strands. 
Luzula maxima. Seascale. Calder Abbey. Pier's (iill. 
Potamogeton natans. Seascale. 
Eriophorum angustifolium. Seascale. Eskdale Green. Santon 

Bridge. Beckfoot. 

Anthoxanthum odoratum. 

Nov. 1800. 



334 CRAMBUS SALINELLUS NEAR PRESTON 

Alopecurus pratensis. 

Cynosurus cristatus. Calder Abbey, etc. 

Dactylis glomerata. 

Briza media. Seascale. 

Nardus stricta. Pier's Gill. 

Pteris aquilina. Common. 

Cryptogramme crispa. Boot. Slope of Lingmell. Lingmell Beck. 

Lomaria Spicant. Stanley Gill. Santon Bridge. Slope of Lingmell. 

Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum. Abundant between Braystones 

and St. John Beckermet. 
Asplenium Trichomanes. Calder Bridge. Calder Abbey. 

Beckfoot. Santon Bridge, common. Boot. 
Asplenium Ruta-muraria. Braystones. St. John Beckermet. 

Calder Bridge. Seascale. Gosforth. 

Athyrium Filix-foemina. Common. 

Lastraea Filix-mas. Common. 

Polypodium vulgare. Braystones. St. John Beckermet. Sea- 
scale. Calder Abbey. Beckfoot. Gosforth. Strands. Santon 
Bridge. Boot. 

Phegopteris polypodioides. Pier's Gill and slopes of Lingmell, 

common. 
•Osmunda regalis. Having found this plant in a certain bog 
between Seascale and Drigg in 1883, I again made a careful 
search, and was rewarded by finding several plants, not in the 
bog, however, but in a dyke close by. At the last meeting of the 
British Association the fern was reported by the Committee for 
Investigating the Disappearance of Native Plants as extinct ! 

Equisetum arvense. 

Lycopodium annotinum. In fruit, slope of Lingmell. 

Lycopodium clavatum. Foot of Wastwater. Slope of Lingmell, 
in fruit. Muncaster. Lingmell Beck. On Irton Fell ; here 
presenting a most curious appearance by spreading over a con- 
siderable area on the hill-side, in the form of large irregular 
rings of a yellowish-green colour. 

Lycopodium alpinum. In fruit, slope of Lingmell and Pier's Gill. 



NO TE—LEPID OPTERA . 

Crambus salinellus near Preston. — In the ' Naturalist,' p. 298, is a record 
of Crainbtis contaminelliis from I'reston. The exhibition of these specimens was 
made under the name of contaiiiinellus, but the Preston species is sa/iiicllus. — 
J. W. TuTT, Westcombe Hill, S.E., Oct. ist, 1890. 

Naturalist, 



335 

NOTES— BIRDS. 

Flamborough Bird-Notes. — Great rush of Woodcocks {Scolopax rusticola) 
has arrived on the Headland, Oct. 20th and 21st; forty shot. — Mattiikw 
Baii.ey, Flamborough, Oct. 22nd, 1S90. 

Grey Phalarope in Cumberland. — A young Grey I'halarope [Phalaropus 
fiilicarius) in mixed plumage, was shot on the coast of Cumberland on the 
23rd of September. Although this I'halarope is much rarer in the north of 
England than on the south-coast, not a season passes without the occurrence of 
one or two specimens in some part of tlie north-west. This date, however, is 
rather early, October being the favourite month for its appearance, though in the 
great visitation of 1866, one was shot on our coast in August. — H. A. Mac- 
PHERSON, Carlisle, Sep. 24th, 1890. 

Albino Greenfinch near Bradford. — On the morning of the nth April 
I noticed a white Greenfinch {Ligurinus chloris) among a large flock of its own 
species. They were all in a field of newly-sown oats, which skirts Baildon Moor, 
and the Albino looked very conspicuous against the dark soil. I watched it for 
over two hours with my glasses, so I am certain of its identity. In the afternoon 
of the same day, when I returned, it was still about the same place ; but though 
I have been on the lookout, I have not seen it since. — Harry B. Bootji, 
Frizinghall, Bradford, May nth, 1S90. 

Turtle Dove at Lofthouse near Wakefield.— On May 21st I had brought 
to me to name a fine male specimen of the Turtle Dove ( Tiirtur commicin's). The 
bird had been seen for some days previous to being captured making its home in 
the new Union Railway embankment, and feeding on turnip-seed in a field near 
Robin Hood, Lofthouse. After naming it, and pronouncing it to be of rare 
occurrence, it was left with me to be preserved, and is now in my possession. 
I cannot find another on record for this locality. — ^John Ward, Pymont House, 
Lofthouse, June loth, 1890. 

NO TE— FISHES. 

The Tope on the Coast of Cumberland. — A small specimen of the Tope 
(Galeits vulgaris), measuring nearly 17 ins. in total length, was captured on the 
Cumberland coast on Sep. 23rd, and sent to me for identification by one of the 
fishermen. I have no reason to think that this fish is of unfrequent occurrence on 
our coast. On the contrary, the Tope is probably an annual visitant to our 
waters, but so little attention has been paid to ichthyology on this coast that it may 
be convenient to record this fact. — H. A. Macpherson, Carlisle, Sep. 24th, 1890. 



AZOTES— MOLL USCA. 

Additions to the List of Mollusca of Malham. — I have taken the 
following species in addition to those mentioned by Mr. Roebuck in his list for 
the Malham district in the ' Naturalist ' for September : — Pisidiuin iiitidiiin, stream 
on roadside between Bell Busk and Malham ; Planorbis corinatus, P. contortits, 
and Physa hypiiortiDi, Pond near Bell Busk. I am rather surprised Physa 
hyptiorum has not been met with, as in the pond in which I found it there were 
thousands. I have never seen it so plentiful anywhere else. — W. E. Collin(1E, 
Leeds, October nth, 1S90. 

Deep Limpet ' Scars.' — Near Spanish Head, Port St. Mary, Isle of Man, 
are to be seen some remarkably deep limpet ' scars.' The rocks there are flat slabs 
of limestone, sloping very gradually towards the sea, which washes over them at 
every tide — often with great violence. The ' scars ' in question are, in some cases, 
an inch deep, and the apices of the animals' shells are frequently below the level of 
the rock. The depth of the ' scars ' is due, doubtless, to the exposed situation of the 
rocks, though I have never noticed such deep excavations in any similar situations. 
The shells {Patella athletica) are very striking, being large, of irregular shape, and 
very brilliantly coloured inside. I have taken specimens encrusted to the depth 
of half an inch with (I think) 'nullapore,' as are also the rocks themselves. — 
L. E. Adams, Penistone, Oct. 9th, 1890. 

Nov. iSqo. 



THE NEOCOMIAN CLAY AT KNAPTON. 



G. W. LAMPLUGH, F.G.S. 

We have practically no knowledge of the Lower Cretaceous beds 
in Yorkshire except what may be gathered from that one magnificent 
section of the Speeton Clififs. Inland, the ground at the foot of the 
chalk escarpment where these beds should appear is covered deeply 
with drift and alluvium, so that for over sixteen miles nothing 
whatever of the 'solid' geology can be seen. At this distance from 
the coast, however, the gradual rise of the base of the chalk brings 
the underlying beds above the alluvial flat, so that, in the neighbour- 
hood of the villages of Heslerton and Knapton, clay may be traced 
obscurely outcropping from below the Red Chalk. 

Unfortunately, of this clay there has not been of late years a 
single open section. Forty or fifty years ago several shallow jMts 
were worked in it, some of which yielded fossils which are still 
preserved. But these pits were already disused and obscure in 1869, 
when Prof. J. W. Judd examined them, though some indications of 
the character of the deposits still remained or could be gleaned from 
the inhabitants of the neighbourhood ; and from data thus obtained 
Prof. Judd partially described the pits.* 

The conclusion he arrived at was that these Knapton clays repre- 
sented the lower part only of the Speeton series, from the ' Speetonensis- 
beds ' downwards, and that the band of phosphaic nodules which 
occurred in one of the pits was equivalent to the ' Coprolite-bed ' 
found between the Neocomian and Jurassic clays at Speeton, 

The supposed absence of the upper beds of the Speeton series, and 
the presence of the ' Coprolite-bed ' close under the base of the chalk, 
led to the deduction that in this neighbourhood the chalk passed 
unconformably across the lower members of the Neocomian clays, 
and then off them altogether. This view was clearly illustrated by a 
map, and by diagrammatic sections of the Wolds and Pickering Valley. 

The result of recent researches at Speeton, however, raised some 
doubt in my mind as to the reality of the relationship thus set forth. 
Fresh evidence was sought for in the field, but as there are no new 
sections to replace those which have gone to decay, none was forth- 
coming. The broad fact was palpable enough, that the Chalk 
escarpment east and south of Malton rested upon the various 
members of the Jurassic formation in turn ; but this in itself was no 
proof that the unconformity affected the Neocomian beds also, for 
these might just as reasonably be held to have disappeared through 
an overlap of the chalk upon the old pre-cretaceous slope. And that 

* 'Additional Observations on the Neocomian Strata,' etc. (^uart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc, vol. xxvi. p. 327. ^Naturalist, 



LAMPLUGH : IHE NEOCOMIAN CLAY AT KNAPTON. 337 

this latter supposition is the more probable, I have since found 
evidence in another (juarter. 

Seeking to elucidate certain points in connection with the Speeton 
fauna, I recently re-examined the chief public collections of the 
Speeton Clay fossils ; among others, those of the Museums of South 
Kensington, Jermyn Street, Cambridge, York, and Scarborough, 
which contain a large proportion of the local collections made when the 
Knapton pits were open. During this examination I took note of any 
fossil observed to bear a ' Knapton ' label, with the following results : — 

At South Kensington are certain specimens of Ammonites 
labelled Amm. hiaptone7isis Bean ; these seem to be identical with 
the species occurring in the Upper beds (Zone of Bel. seinicanali- 
cnlatus) at Speeton recognised as Amm. deshayesii Leym. 

In the same collection a small tray labelled ' Knapton ' con- 
tains, besides an example of the species just mentioned, one 
specimen of Amm. planus Phil, (probably Amm. tiisus D'Orb.), 
which occurs at Speeton in the Middle^ and perhaps also in the 
Upper, portion of the series, along with two small specimens of" 
Amm. noricus Schloth., whose position at Speeton is in the lower 
part of the zone oi Bel. jaculum.^ With regard to the last-mentioned 
species, I have some doubt whether the Ammonites really came from 
Knapton, as they so closely resemble Speeton specimens. 

At Cambridge (Leckenby Collection), and also at York, are speci- 
mens of a small Brachiopod in a different state of preservation from 
those usually found at Speeton. These are labelled Terebratulina 
striata, but are more probably Terebratulina martiniana D'Orb., f 
which occurs near the top of the zone of Bel. jaculum at Speeton 
and probably also in higher beds. 

In the Scarborough Museum there is a tablet of crushed bivalves 
stated to be from Knapton, which are probably Pholadomya 
martini Forbes, a shell with a wide range at Speeton, extending 
from the base of the zone of Bel. jaculum to the ' cement-bed ' of the 
zone of Bel. semicanaliculatus. 

These are the only Knapton fossils I could find,^: but they are 
sufficient to show that some, at any rate, of the pits were opened in 
the upper members of the Speeton series, the occurrence of the 
highly characteristic Amm. deshayesii under the MS. name of 

* See my paper in (^uait. Journ. Geol. Soc. , vol. \\\. p. 575, for description 
of Speeton Zones. 

t I am indebted to Mr. J- F. Walker, M.A., for this determination. 

J I am informed that a good collection of Knapton fossils was for some time in 
private hands, and was afterwards presented to some public museum. I have been 
unable to trace this collection, and should be very grateful for any information, 
Nov. i8qo. x" 



338 LAMPLUGH : THE NEOCOMIAN CLAY AT KNAPTON. 

Amm. knaptonensis being quite convincing on this point, while most 
of the other species yield confirmatory evidence. None of the above- 
mentioned species occur in the lowest beds of the Speeton Clay, 
i.e., in the zone of Bei. lateralis. 

Then, the presence in one of the pits of the layer of phosphatic 
nodules mentioned by Professor Judd can no longer be regarded as 
proof of the horizon being that of the Speeton ' Coprolite-bed,' since 
I have recently shown that these nodules are not confined at Speeton 
to ofie horizon, but are abundant at not less than //^r^(? different levels ; 
namely, at the base of the zone oi BeL lateralis (^ the Coprolite-bed'), 
at the base of the zone of Bel. jaculum (' the Compound Nodular 
Band'), and in the passage-marls at the base of the Red Chalk. 

Now, judging from the position of the seam at Knapton with 
respect to the chalk, and from the fossil-list as given above, I am 
inclined to think that if the Knapton bed is to be correlated with any 
of the above-mentioned bands of the Speeton section, it should be 
with the last-named, viz., that in the marls at the base of the Red Chalk. 

Thus, an examination of all the evidence now available goes to 
show that the Knapton Neocomians represent chiefly the upper 
portion of the Speeton section, and that there is no proof of their 
supposed unconformability with the Chalk at this locality. It is 
nevertheless certain that the Chalk rests upon the upper members of 
the Jurassic only two or three miles further westward. It was 
suggested in my paper on the Speeton clays that the Neocomians 
may thin out and disappear against the old pre-cretaceous anticline 
which has its crest in the neighbourhood of Pocklington and Market 
Weighton (where the Chalk now rests upon Lower Lias), and that the 
Chalk passes off them by simple overlap, though overstepping the 
Oolites beyond. This view still seems to me the most probable one, 
but can scarcely be considered safely established until more positive 
evidence is forthcoming — and for this we must wait. 



[An interesting confirmation of the view advanced by Mr. Lamplugh 
is furnished by the following passage from Young and Bird's Geological 
Survey of the Yorkshire Coast, pubHshed in 1822, when the Knapton 
pits were still open. ' In one of the clay pits at Knapton, we see the 
junction of the shale with the red and grey chalk. The clay, where it 
joins the chalk, is soft and plastic ; and this also is the case with the 
lower part of the chalk. The two substances are partly blended 
together ; the soft chalk, which occurs here of both colours, approach 
ing to the state of red and grey clay ; while the clay that is next the 
chalk is somewhat impregnated with calcareous matter, and is almost 
divested of its schistose quality.' (Op. cit. p. 58). — A.H.]. 

Naturalist, 



339 
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vol. xlv. pp. 619-625, plate xx. 

D. Emhleion. Northumberland. 
On the Spinal Column of Loxomma Allmanni, Huxley [a detailed 

description]. Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb., Durh., and Newc, vol. viii. 
1889, pp. 349-356 and plate vi. 

^Y. H. FiTTON. North of England. 

One of Nature's Gems [paper on Coal, read to Leeds Geol. Assoc.]. 
Research, August 1889, p. 45. 

Naturalist, 



HII5LIOGRAPHV : GEOLOGY AND PAL^.ONIOLOGY, 1 889. 345 

J. J. Fnv.PAi'KicK. Furness. 

The Permian Conglomerate, and other Palaeozoic Rocks to the North 
of Morecambe Bay [noting an outlier of the ' Brockram ' at Rougholnie, 
and describing the nature of this limestone conglomerate ; an analysis of 
a dolomitised pebble gave carbonates of lime and magnesia in nearly equal 
proportions, and the matrix also was highly magnesian ; the Carboniferous 
Limestone of Humphrey Head and the Bannisdale Slates of Cartmel also 
remarked]. I'roc. Liverp. Geol. Soc, 1889, vol. vi. part 1, pp. 42-49. 

H. Friend. Northumberland. 

A Peep at the Roman Wall [with description of the sandstones near 
Haltwhistle and Greenhead and the ' whinsli>ne' which has broken through 
and overflowed them]. Sci. Gossip, March 1889, pp. 50-52. 

J. Stakkie Gakdxek. Yorks. N.E. 

A Correction. — Mesozoic Monocotyledon [stating that the object figured 
by the author in the Geol. Mag., May 1886, and described as a monocotyle- 
donous fruit from the Yorkshire Oolites, has been found to be a volcanic bomb 
from Ascension]. (jcoI. Mag., March 1889 (3), vol. vi. p. 144. 

I. E. (;eoki:e. Isle of Man. 

Notes on some Manx Lavas [abstract of paper read to Liverpool Geol. 
Assoc.]. Research, June 18S9, p. 233. 

J. G. GooDCHii.D. Cumberland. 

The Physical History of Greystoke Park and the Valley of the Petteril, 

[pointing out especially the existence of three plains of denudation of different 
ages ; first, that at the base of the Carboniferous ; second, at the base of the 
New Red ; and third, probably corresponding to the early Cretaceous. 
The apparent history of the Petteril valley is also traced]. Trans. Cumb. 
and Westm. Assoc, No. xiii. 1888, pp. 89-104 : first printed in Penrith 
Observer, Aug. 9th, 1881. 

J. G. GooixHii.D. Westmorland. 

The Old Lakes of Edenside [pointing out the evidences of old lakes, now 

silted up, near Lazonby, Langanby, and Appleby]. Trans. Cumb. and 

Westm. Assoc, No. xiii, 1888, pp. 105-II3: first printed in Carlisle Journal, 

.Sept. 1883. 

J. G. GooDCHii.i). Cumberland and Westmorland. 

The History of the Eden and of some Rivers Adjacent [pointing out 
the evidence of three plains of marine denudation in the district ; tracing the 
history of the (Westmorland) Lune. Eden, Eamont, Greta, etc., and showing 
how their courses have, in many instances become diverted]. Trans. Cumb. 
and Westm. Assoc, No. xiv. 1889, pp. 73-90. and two plates. 

J. G. (iooDCHii.i). Cumberland and Westmorland. 

An Outline of the Geological History of the Eden Valley or Edenside 

[treating the stratigraphy of the district from the historical stand-point under 
the heads : I. Older Palaeozoic Rocks, II. Post-Silurian Changes, HI. Middle 
Old Red, IV. Upper Old Red, V. Carboniferous, VI. Post-Carboniferous, 
VII. New Red, VIII. Post-Jurassic Events, IX. First Appearance of the 
Mountains, X. The (jlacial Period ; the paper is illustrated by maps and 
sections, and has an appendix devoted to bibliography]. Proc. Geol. Assoc, 
vol. xi. 1889, pp. 258-284. 

W. S. Greseey. Derbyshire. 

Note on Further Discoveries of Sii^ntaria {? ficoidt-s) and their bearing 

upon the question of the Formation of Coal-beds [giving reasons for 

supposing some Stiginaria specimens to be whole plants, not mere roots : 

two examples from Glapvvell Colliery figured]. Midi. Nat., Feb. 1889, 

PP_V 25-32, pi. 2. 

Nov. 1890. 



34^' BIBLIOGRAPHY : GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY, 1 889. 

T. T. Groom. Cumberland, 

On a Tachylyte associated with the Gabbro of Carrock Fell in the 
Lake District [a basic glassy rock, consisting of a well-preserved, globulitic, 
and crystallitic base with spherical granules of quartz, spherulitic felspars, 
and grains of augite]. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 1889, vol. xlv. pp. 298-303, 
and pi. xii. ; abstract in Phil. Mag., 1889, vol. xxvii. pp. 205-206; in Geol. 
Mag., Jan. 1889, (3), vol, vi. p. 43 ; and in Neu. Jahrb. , 1890, vol. ii. p. 92. 

Alfred IIarker. Yorks. S.E. 

Petrological Notes on some Boulders from the Boulder-Clays of East 
Yorkshire [giving descriptions, with microscopic details of fifteen rocks, 
with the view of determining the sources of the boulders ; forms Appendix C to 
Mr. Lamplugh's paper on Glacial Sections near Bridlington]. Proc. Yorks. 
Geol. and Pol. Soc, 1889, vol. xi. part ii. pp. 300-307. 

T. C. B. Hendy. Derbyshire. 

Notes on a ' Dumb Fault ' or ' Wash-out ' found in the Pleasley and 

Teversall Collieries, Derbyshire [brief abstract only]. Geol. Mag., 

Dec. 1889 (3), vol. vi. pp. 575, 576; Phil. Mag., Dec. 1889 (5), vol. xxvii. 

p. 493 ; Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 1890, vol. xlv., Proc, pp. i, 2. 

B. HoLGATE. Cumberland and Westmorland. 

Leeds Geological Association [lecture on the geology of the neigh- 
bourhood of Keswick]. Research, Feb. 1889, pp. 136, 137. 

T. V. Holmes Cumberland. 

The Geology of North- West Cumberland [giving full descriptions, illus- 
trated by maps and sections, of the Carboniferous, Permian-Triassic, and 
Liassic strata, and also of the Superficial Deposits — glacial drift, eskers, etc]. 
Proc. Geol. Assoc, 1889, vol. xi. pp. 231-257. 

T. V. Holmes and J. G. Goodchild. Cumberland and Westmorland. 

Excursion to North- West Cumberland and Edenside [giving an account 
of the excursion made to that district by the Geologists' Assoc, Aug. 5th-IOth, 
1889]. Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. xi. pp. Ixxxv.-cii. 

\V. HowcHiN. Northumberland. 

Additions to the Knowledge of the Carboniferous Foraminifera [describ- 
ing several new species]. Journ. R. Micro. Soc, 1888, part 2, pp. 533-545 
and plates viii.-ix. 

W. H. Hudleston. Lincolnshire and Yorks. N.E. 

A Monograph of the British Jurassic Gasteropoda, Part L No. 3, 

pp. 137-192, pi. vii.-xi. [describing and figuring species of A/ari'a, Cerithiiim, 
and allied genera, many of them from the Lincolnshire Limestone of Great 
Ponton and Weldon and the Dogger and Sands of Blea Wyke]. Palceonto- 
graphical Society, vol. xlii. (for 1888, pub. 1889). 

J. S. Hyland. Lancashire and Cheshire. 

Description of Specimens [of Triassic Sandstones, accompanying a paper 
on ' Slickensides' by Mr. T. Mellard Reade]. Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc, 
1889, "^ol. vi. pt. i. pp. 112-I14. 

P. F. Kendall. Lancashire and Derbyshire. 

The History of our Local Rocks, Deduced from their Microscopical 

Characters. Ann. Rep. Manch. Microsc. Soc. for 1S86, pp. 41-54 (pub. 1887). 

P. F. Kendall. Lancashire. 

On a Large Boulder found in Oxford Street [including an analysis of the 

rock and one of a rock from Coniston for comparison ; the associated boulders 

include andesites, rhyolites, and volcanic agglomerates, besides the Buttermere 

granophyre, etc.]. Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc, 1889, vol. xx. pp. 140-145. 

P. F. Kendall. Lancashire, Derbyshire. 

The History of our Local Rocks deduced from their Microscopical 

Characters. Ann. Rep. Manch. Micro. Soc for 18S6, pp. 4i-54._ 

Naturalist, 



BIIM.IOGRAPHV : GP:0L0G\ AND PAL/EONTOLOGV, 1889. 347 

G. \\ . LAMri,uc;i(. Yorks. S.E. 

Glacial Sections near Bridlington : Part IV. [(lives a summary of pre- 
viously-obtained results in the district, especially with reference to the 
' I'asement Clay,' and a description of the section now hidden by the new 
sea-wall which protects the ' Beaconsfield Estate ' ; the most important 
point is the tracing of the ' Basement Clay ' northwards over P'lamborough 
Head and probably to the Tees ; appendices deal with the shells and the 
boulders contained in this clay.] Proc. Vorks. Geol. and Pol. Soc. , 1S89, 
vol. xi. part ii. pp. 275-300, with folding section (pi. xiii.). 

G. W. r.AMi'i.UGH. Yorks. S.E. 

On the Larger Boulders of Flamborough Head: Parts II. and III. 

[giving particulars of a series of 142 boulders of more than a foot in diameter 
from Danes' Dyke \'alley, and 1 10 from the shore between there and South 
.Sea Landing, besides, for comparison, 500 from Tunstall near \N'ithernsea ; 
the last locality shows a much larger proportion of Secondary rocks than the 
others, and this is attributed to the high cliffs of the headland deflecting the 
lower layers of ice which chiefly carried the Secondary boulders]. Proc. 
Yorks. Geol. and Pol. Soc, 1S89, vol. xi. pt. ii., ]ip. 231-239. 

G. \V. Lami>i.uch. Yorks. S.E. 

Report of the Committee, consisting of ... [7 names] . . . appointed 
for the purpose of investigating an Ancient Sea-beach near Brid- 
lington Quay [a detailed account of the chalk cliff .it Sewerby buried under 
the boulder-clay]. Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1888, pp. 328-338. 

G. W. Lamti.uc.ii. Yorks. S.E. 

Report of the Committee, consisting of ... [7 names] . . . appointed 
for the purpose of investigating an Ancient Sea-Beach near Brid- 
lington [reporting no further excavation since the previous year]. Newc. 
Daily Chron., Sept. i8th, 1889 ; Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1889, pp. 70-71 (1890). 

G. N\'. Lamplugh. Yorks. S.E. 

On the Subdivisions of the Speeton Clay [a careful, detailed working-out 
of the .Speeton succession, with important corrections of the field-work of 
previous writers, and full fossil lists : the author finds in the clays a con- 
tinuous series from Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous : notes are given on the 
zone-belemnites and other fossils]. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 1889, vol xlv. 
pp. 575-617, with two folding tables : abstract in Geol. Mag., May 1889, 
(31, vol vi. pp. 233-234 ; and in Phil. Mag., 1889, vol. xxvii. pp. 429, .1.30. 

G. \V. Lami'I.L(;h. Yorks, S.E. 

Bored Stones in Boulder-Clays [noting limestone boulders bored by Pholas 
and 5<7.r7'mz'rt]. Nature, July 25th, 1889, vol. xl. pp. 297, 29S. 

R. Law. Derbyshire. 

On Bones of Pleistocene Animals found in a broken-up Cave in a Quarry 
near Matlock, Derbyshire. Trans. Rochd. Lit. Sci. Soc, i8S8,vol. i. p. 15. 

G. A. Lekour. Northumbld., Durham, and Yorks. N.E. 

Official and Local Guide [for the meeting of the British Association 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne] Geology and Natural History [the geological 
part of this is a reprint of the 2n(l edition of the author's ' Outlines of the 
Geology of Northumberland and Durham' (1886), to which is added a 
Supplement (pp. 149-151), containing notes on recent Survey Memoirs, on 
the Seaton Carew boring, and on the Team ' Wash ' at Dunston, together 
with a list by Mr. R. Howse of the Carboniferous and Permian vertebrate 
fossils of the district (pp. 152-156)]. viii. and 219 pages, 8vo, and v. plates, 
Newcastle-on-Tync, 1889. 

J. Marley and Ci. A. Leisour. Yorks. N.E., and Durham. 

Sketch of the Rise and Progress of the Cleveland and South Durham 

Salt Industry, and on the extension of the Durham Coalfield 

Nov. i8qo. 



348 bibliography: geology and palaeontology, 1889. 

[summarising the stratigraphy of the salt-bearing district and pointing out the 
thinning-out of the Magnesian Limestone to the west of Seaton Carew]. 
Newc. Daily Chron., Sep. 17th, 1889; Paper in full in Trans. Federated 
Inst. Mining Engineers. 

J. E. Marr. Lake District. 

On the Superimposed Drainage of the English Lake District [the 
Carboniferous rocks which now form a ring round the Lower Palreozoics, 
dipping outward, were probably deposited continuously over the region ; 
subsequently, a dome-shaped elevation was formed, and a drainage-system 
radiating from the summit of the dome near Scawfell ; this arrangement 
still subsists, although the Carboniferous and perhaps Secondary strata have 
been completely removed from the inner part of the district]. Geol. Mag. , 
April 1889 (3), vol. iv. pp. 150-155. 

J. E. Mark. Cumberland and Westmorland. 

Dynamic Metamorphism of Skiddaw Slates [converted into a contorted 
mica-schist at various places along a belt from Melmerby to Roman Fell, and 
especially on the east side of Brownber]. Newc. Daily Chron., Sept. 14th, 
1889; Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1889, p. 568 (1890). 

H. A. MiF.Rs. Cumberland. 

Calcites from the Neighbourhood of Egremont, Cumberland [giving 
crystallographic details of specimens, which include fine heart-shaped and 
'butterfly' twins]. Mineralog. Mag., 1889, vol. viii. pp. 149-153. 

G. H. Morton. Cheshire. 

Further Notes on the Stanlow, Ince, and Frodsham Marshes [a section 
near Stanlow Cottages showed Brown and Gray Estuarine Silt, 6 ft. ; Upper 
Peat, 3 ft. 6 in. ; Grey Estuarine Silt, lO ft. ; Lower Peat or Forest Bed, 2 ft. ; 
Boulder Clay]. Proc. Liverp. Geol. .Soc, 1889, vol. \n. Part i, pp. 50-55. 

G. H. MoRTOx. Lane. S. and Cheshire. 

Some Faults exposed in Shafts and Borings in the country around 
Liverpool [at Naylor's Bridge, Whiston, Green Lane, Borough Road, and 
Flaybrick]. Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc, 1889, vol. vi. Part i, pp. 115-123. 

S. NiKiTiN. Yorks. S.E. 

Quelques Excursions dans les Musees et dans les terrains mesozoiques 
de I'Europe occidentale . . . [translated from the Russian ; the writer 
compares the Speeton succession closely with the 'Volga beds' of Russia, and 
makes careful correlation of the sections]. Bull. Soc. Belg. Geol., 1889, 
vol. iii. pp. 29-58; see also short abstract in Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 
vol. xlv. p. 608. 

A. Pavlow. Yorks. S.E. and Line. N. 

Etudes sur les couches Jurassiques et Cretacees de la Russie : I. 

Jurassique superieur et Cretaee inferieur de la Russie et de I'Angleterre 

[comparing the Russian succession with that at Speet&n and at Spilsby, 
Claxby, and Tealby ; a detailed section of the Speeton Neocomian by 
Mr. Lamplugh is appended, and several Yorkshire and Lincolnshire fossils 
described and figured]. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow, 1889, pp. 61-127, 
176-179, plates ii-iv. ; Abstr. in Geol. Mag., Nov. 1889 (3) vol. vi. pp. 520, 
521, and further notice in Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 1889, vol. xlv. pp. 608,609. 

J NO. Philipson. Durham. 

Address to the . . . Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club , . . May 9th, 

1888 [notes of field excursions : Axinus diil>ii/s, Myalina hatissnianni, 
Pleurophonis costaliis at Roker Dene, Oct. 7th, 188S ; all the same at Whit- 
burn]. Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. Durham, and Newc, vol. x. part I 
(1888), pp. 202 and 205. _______ 

Naturalist, 



biblio(;raphv : oeolocv and pal/EONtologv, 1889. 349 

SiK J. A. I'icTON. Lane. S. and Cheshire. 

Notes on the Local Historical Changes in the Surface of the Land 
in and about Liverpool [especially as to the evidences of elevation in the 
estuary of the Dee and depression in that of the Mersey]. I'roc. Liverpool 
Geol. Soc, vol. vi. part i, pp. 31-42; Abstract in Research, Dec. 1888, 
vol. i. p. 97. 

I. Postlethwah K. Cumberland, Westmorland, and Furness. 

Mines and Mining in the Lake District [giving an account of the Lower 
Palreozoic rocks of the district, with lists of fossils and notes on the igneous 
intrusions ; an annotated list of minerals ; and an account of the several 
mines, with a calendar of State papers referring to mining in the Lake Dis- 
trict ; also a geological map, plate of fossils, and numerous sections and plans 
of mines]. lOl pp., 8vo, Leeds, 1889. [2nd edition, enlarged.] 

T. Mellaud Readi:. Lane. S. and Cheshire. 

The Physiography of the Lower Trias [suggesting that the Lower Triassic 
rocks were laid down in arms of the sea subject to strong tidal currents], 
eieol. Mag., Dec. 1889 (3), vol. vi. pp. 549-558 ; Research, Oct. 1889, vol. ii. 
p. 78; Newc. Daily Chron., Sep. 13th, 1S89 ; Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1889, 
pp. 566, 567 (1890). 

T. Mei.laki) Reade. North- Western Counties. 

The New Red Sandstone and the Physiography of the Triassic Period. 
Nat., April 1889, pp. 108-111, 

T. Meli.ard Reade. _ Cheshire. 

Saxicava Borings and Valves in a Boulder Clay Erratic [describing a 
boulder with burrows and shells of this mollusc found in the workings of the 
New Ferry Brick and Tile Co., and held by the author to prove the marine 
origin of the ' low-level boulder-clay ' of Cheshire and Lancashire]. Nature, 
July nth, 1889, vol. xl. pp. 246, 247. 

T. RoTiEKTs. Lincolnshire. 

The Upper Jurassic Clays of Lincolnshire [pointing out the occurrence 
between the Oxford and Kimeridge Clays of certain black selenitiferous clays 
of Corallian age ; these beds are to be correlated with the Ampthill Clay 
of Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire ; they contain both Giypluca dilatata 
and Ostrea deltoidea, and of the 23 fossils found, 22 are known Corallian 
forms; a map is given]. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlv., pp. 545-559; 
Abstract in Geol. Mag., July 1889 (3), vol. vi. p. 334; Phil. .Mag., Aug. 
1889 (5), vol. xxvii. pp. 140, 141. 

C. Roeder. Lane. S. 
Some Further Remarks on the Oxford Street Section [noting the 

boulders met with in the Boulder Clay]. Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc, 18S9, 
vol. XX. pp. 163-173. 

J. Silencer. Yorks. S.W. 

On the Occurrence of a Boulder of Granitoid Gneiss or Gneissoid 

Granite in the Halifax Hard-bed Coal [from Shibden Head Pit ; with 

a note on the rock by Prof. Bonney]. Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1888, pp. 661,662. 

D. STtK. Northumberland, Yorks. W., and Lancashire. 
Momentaner Standpunkt meiner Kenntnisse uber die Steinkohlen- 

formation Englands [correlating the various coal-deposits of the English 
Carboniferous series with those of Europe ; also giving critical notices of 
species of fossil plants in the Newcastle Museum]. Jahrb. d. k.-k. Geolog. 
Reichsanstalt, 1889, vol. xxxix. pp. 1-20 ; Abstracts in Geol. Mag., Oct. 
1889 (3), vol. vi. pp. 457, 458; and Neu. Jahrb. fiir Min., 1890, vol. i. 
pp. 296, 297]. 

A. Norman Tate [not signed]. Derbyshire. 

Scientific Aspects of Health Resorts.— IL — Buxton [its geology described, 

with illustrations of Chee Tor, Chee Dale, and Mam Tor]. Research, 

Aug. 1S8S, pp. 20-22. 
Nov. 1890. 



35© HIBLIOGRAPHY : GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY, 1 889. 

I. T. H. Teall. Northumberland. 

The Amygdaloids of the Tynemouth Dyke [showing that some of the 
vesicles were filled by interstitial matter before the final consolidation of the 
rock]. Geol. Mag., Nov. 1889 (3), vol. vi. pp. 481-483 and pi. xiv. ; abstr. 
in Newc. Daily Chron., Sep. 14th, 1889, and Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1889, 
PP- 572, 573 (1890). 
A. TiMMiNS. Lane. S. 

Notes on a few Borings and the Base of the New Red Sandstone in 
the neighbourhood of Liverpool [giving details of borings at Halewood, 
Prescot, Eccleston, Gateacre Bridge, Knowsley, Kirkby, and Hale, with twelve 
analyses of probably Permian marls and sandstones]. Proc. Liverp. Geol. 
Soc, 1889, vol. vi. part i, pp. 56-68; also in Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1889, 
pp. 76-80 (1890). 

W. Topi.EY. Northumberland and Durham. 

The Work of the Geological Survey in Northumberland and Durham 

[an excellent summary of the geology of this region, including the latest 
conclusions of the Survey Officers with regard to the grouping of the Car- 
boniferous rocks of Northumberland]. Newc. Daily Chron.. Sep. 19th, 1889; 
also Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1889, pp. 597-600 (1890). 

\V. ToPLEY. Lancashire and Durham. 

Report of the Committee, consisting of . . [16 names], appointed for 
the purpose of inquiring into the Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts 
of England and Wales . . . [including notes on the coast from the Wyre 
to the Ribble by A. Dowson, and from theTyne to the Wear by H. Bramwell]. 
Report Brit. Assoc, for 1888, pp. 898-933 [904-907]. 

W. Upham. Northern Counties. 

The Work of Prof. Henry Carvill Lewis in Glacial Geology [describing 
Lewis's researches, tracing the ' terminal moraine ' of the great ice-sheet 
across Northern England, and his theory of the lacustrine deposition of much 
of the boulder-clays of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire], (jeol. Mag., April 
1889 (3), vol. iv. pp. 155-160. 

J. F. Walker. Yorks. N.E. 

On Oolitic Brachiopoda new to Yorkshire [16 additions to the list given 
in 1876: they include Disci na (i species), Tliecideum (l), Terebratula (3), 
Waldheintia (8), and Rhyiuhonella (3)]. Report Yorks. Phil. Soc. for 1888, 
pp. 37-40; pub. 1889. 

Arthur H. Watson. Cumberland. 

Cavern Formation [in a field at Brigham]. Nat. Hist. Journ., Nov. 15th, 

1888, vol. xii. p. 207. 

\V. Watts. Lancashire. 

Erratic Boulders and Boulder Clay in the Castleshaw Valley [the 
Ixndders including andesites and agglomerates probably from the Borrowdale 
.Series, with Silurian grits, certain syenites, etc.]. Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc, 

1889, vol. XX. pp. 265-26S. 

A. Smith Wood\vard. Yorks. S.E. 

Palaeontology in the Malton Museum [with special reference to the collection 
of fossil fish-remains]. Geol. Mag., Aug. 1S89 (3), vol. vi. pp. 361-363. 

Matsujiko Yokoyama. Yorks. N.E. 

Jurassic Plants from Kaga, Hida, and Echizen [three provinces on the 
west coast of Japan ; correlating the flora with that of the Inferior Oolite of 
the Yorkshire coast]. Journ. of Coll. of Sci. of Imp. Univ. of Japan ; also 
Bull. Geol. Soc. Japan, Part B, 1889, vol. i. pp. i-io. 

Naturalist, 



351 
SAUNDERS' MANUAL OF BRITISH BIRDS. 

An Illustrated Manual of British Birds. l>y IIowaku Saunders, 
F.L.S., F.Z.S. 8vo., pp. xl., 754; with ilhistralions of nearly every 
species. London : Gurney and Jackson, Paternoster Row, 1888-89. 

Those who may desire to possess a thoroughly reliable, handy 
and convenient book of reference cannot do better than obtain 
a copy of Mr. Howard Saunders' ' Manual of British Birds.' The 
greatest possible praise is due to our author for having successfully 
brought together, and condensed with so much pains and labour, 
within the short space of exactly two pages (including the engraving), 
so much information, to date, in connection with the 367 birds, 
considered by him as fairly entitled to be included in the British list, 
and we think a very wise discretion has been exercised in omitting 
certain New World Passeres which labour under the suspicion of 
having reached our shores with an assisted passage. 

Considering the excellence of the work as a whole, and the 
immense amount of material worked up, the comparatively low price, 
putting it within reach of all classes, at which it has been brought 
out is remarkable. This is probably due to the fact that the 
publishers own the blocks which were originally used for the illustra- 
tion of the four editions of Yarrell's British Birds. Several entirely 
new wood-cuts, of recent additions to the British avi-fauna, now 
appear for the first time in the present Manual, these being the 
Isabel line. Black-throated and Desert Wheatears, the Barred Warbler, 
Wall-creeper, Needle-tailed Swift, Lesser Kestrel, Kildeer and 
Sociable Plovers, and Mediterranean Black-headed Gull ; while new 
and improved engravings take the place of those of the Marsh 
Harrier, Goshawk, Merlin, and Great Auk. 

The scientific arrangement and sequence mainly agrees with 
that already adopted by a Committee of the British Ornithologists' 
Union, in their list of British Birds published m 1883, and in the 
introduction to the volume the author has given a synopsis of genera, 
which occupies about thirty pages of closely printed matter; this will 
be found of great use in assisting the student to ascertain the class 
to which any bird belongs, the species being then readily diagnosed 
by a reference to the text. The only fault we have to this systematic 
sketch is that there appears to be an unnecessary multiplication of 
genera, where, as in some cases, the special distinctions are so slight 
as to scarcely warrant separation. 

We are glad to find that so much space has been given to 
geographical range ; this is a subject which is daily growing in 
importance, so closely connected is it with some of those higher 
scientific problems relating to the original dispersion of birds over the 

Nov. i8qo. 



352 notes: ornithology. 

globe and the differentiation of species and races, as well as the laws 
which govern migration. As bearing more directly on this latter subject 
the three maps included in this work will be found of much use for 
reference. These are a Bathy-orographical map of the United 
Kingdom and the groups of islands, a similar map of Europe, and the 
North Polar Chart. 

The author has not failed to point out, so far as his very limited 
space has permitted, the most obvious points of distinction between 
closely allied representative species and races, so that an ornitho- 
logist can have no difficulty in correctly diagnosing any bird which 
he may happen to come across. In every case also, where possible, 
the call-note and song of each species is given, the most ready, and 
often the only way of distinguishing a bird in a wild state. 

The structural character and situation of the nest, number and 
colour of eggs, habits and food are all briefly and clearly described, 
with a concluding paragraph descriptive of the male, female and 
young. 

In fact the whole of the 754 pages of the volume will be found 
a storehouse of information on its special subject, and we have no 
hesitation in saying that all who care in any degree for the study of 
birds will heartily thank Mr. Saunders for his most excellent work, 
and in doing so wish for more. We can only hope that it may 
shortly be followed by a companion Manual dealing with such species 
belonging to the Western Palee-arctic region, which so far have not 
been recognised in the United Kingdom. 

NO TES— ORNITHOL O G Y. 
Montagu's Harrier in Westmorland. — This Harrier {Circus cineraceus) 
is much rarer in the north of England than in the eastern and south-west counties. 
It has occurred in Cumberland, and also on Walney Island, but I have never yet 
examined an example killed in Westmorland. A friend of mine, who has lately 
been shooting near Burgh, reports to me that an example of this Harrier was 
killed in that district on September 15th. He saw the bird brought into the house 
where he was staying, by the keeper who had trapped it. — H. A. Maci'HEkso.n, 
Carlisle, Sep. 24th, 1890. 

Swallows' Nests. — I do not think the site mentioned by Mr. Waite can 
be called uncommon in this country, although I must admit that it is more 
common abroad, merely, I presume, because other sites are less abundant. 
I rememijer, when a boy, taking Swallows' eggs from nests built under the eaves 
of the village church, in precisely similar situations to those of Martins, and 
I know of a wooden shed in a marsh in Kent which always has a nest on its walls. 
In barns, cow-sheds, railway stations, etc., the nests are usually (but not always) 
aftixed to the rafters without support. — ^J. YOUNC, 64, Hereford Road, Bayswater, 
London, Oct. 3rd, 1890. 

Storm Petrel at Howden, Yorks. — 1 received this morning (rom Mr. H. 
Smith, Thorpe Hall, Howden, a Stormy Petrel {Frocellaria felagica) found by 
him yesterday. In all probability it was killed by the telegraph wires. Two 
occurrences of this species have been reported previously near here. — Thomas 

Bunker, (Joole, Oct. 20th, 1890. 

Naturalist, 



No. 185. 




NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE 



)RTH OF ENGLAND. 



CONDUCTED li 



WM. DENISON ROEUCK, F.L.S., 

Sunny Bank, Leec 

WITH THE ASSISTANCK IN SPKCIAI. VKIMENTS OF 



J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., CHAS 

Royal Herbarium, Kew ; 

W. EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S., M.B.O.U., GEOR 

Museum of Science & Art, Edinburgh ; 

ALFRED MARKER, M.A., F.G.S., W. BA 

St. John's College, Cambridge : 



HOBKIRK, F.L.S., 

ivsbnry ; 

r. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S., 
enfield House, Huddersfield ; 

iLL TURNER, F.C.S., F.R.M.S., 
sholebroke Avenue, Leeds. 



Contents 

The Tree Sparrow in County Durham — y. IV. Faiva 

Yorkshire Notes on the Tree Sparrow— y«w;rj Arc/(/ F.Z.S., Jlf.S.O.O'. 

Fungi New to West Yorkshire — C/iarUs Crosslniid 

Obituary: John Hancock.. 

Bibliography: Phanerogamic Botany, 1886 

Notes — Ornithology.. 

Flamborough Bird-notes — Mait/iew Bailey: Shore-l on Walney Island 

Rev. H. A. Macpherson, M.A., M.B.O.U.;- Grey Phalarope in 
Cumberland— y. H. Citrney. F.Z.S., M.P.O. Notes on the Tree 
Sparrow— 7. Youn£, MB.O.U. 
Note — Mammalia 

Squirrel feeding on Fungi — Rev. H. A. Macp/ierson 1 ., M.B.O.U. 

Notes — Botany 

Lycopodium alpiniun in West Cumberland : a Correc -Percy H. Crims/taw, 

Notes and News 

Title-page, Preface, and Index U: Volume. 



I-AOH 

353 & 354 

355 

356 

357 & 358 

359 'o 374 

354 



356 
356 

355 



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Biicher-Verzeichniss — Abth. i, ., Arachnida, Myriopoda, Crustacea, Rotatoria, 1891. 

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J. W. Fawcett. — The Birds of Durham, 8vo. reprint, 1890. [The Author. 

New York Microscopical Soc. — Journ., Vol. 6, No. 4, Oct. 1890. [The Society. 
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353 
THE TREE SPARROW IN COUNTY DURHAM. 

J. \V, lAWCETT, 
The Grange, S alley. 

In answer to Mr. Whitlock"s call, in the October number of 
' The Naturalist,' for further particulars of the Tree Sparrow {Fasser 
montanus) in the county of Durham, I have much pleasure in 
adding the following to my notes in the September part. 

The Tree Sparrow in Durham is a local resident, but, though we 
have many staying with us all the year round, others arrive as spring 
visitants ; in fact, nearly all our resident (twelve month round) birds 
are partly migratory, i.e., immigrant and emigrant. The earliest 
date I know of for the spring visitant Tree Sparrow arriving in this 
country is March loth. The bird nests early, the time varying 
according to the state of the weather; if the spring be fine and open 
it may happen to be the end of February and the month of March ; 
if, however, it is otherwise, the end of March or commencement of 
April may be soon enough for the Tree Sparrow to commence 
housekeeping. Whether it be the end of February or the months of 
March or April that the birds commence to build and eventually 
rear their young, they still hatch and bring up a second brood in 
June and July, or may be the first half of August ; at least, such is 
my opinion, and I have watched the movements, habits and manners 
of the greater part of our British birds in no small measure. Not 
only do the resident birds bring up their first brood during the 
months above named, but also the spring visitants, though Durham, 
I must confess, does not receive them in very great numbers, and 
they (the latter) are, as might be supposed, the later of the two 
(residents and visitants) in getting their first broods to be able to 
care for themselves, though they generally commence nesting soon 
after settling in the county, and hence seem to lose little time. 

I am not mistaken in my remarks anent the breeding (and inter- 
pairing) of the two species, for I know the two distinct species very 
well, and positively assert that what I have said was really the case 
in 1880, 1 881, and 1882. Since the latter date I have not been in 
that locality, and cannot venture to say that things are now what 
they were then. Though I know that the Tree Sparrow is, or 
has been, found in colonies at the places named in page 277 of 
'The Naturalist' for this year, the Browney Valley (Baxter Wood) 
one has, so far, been the only one whereat I was able to make such 
close observations as I did, and the only one where I have known 
the two species to interpair and inter-breed. 

Dec. 1890. Y 



354 NOTES — ORNITHOLOGY. 

Mr. Whitlock's request to obtain a hybrid is too late for this year 
(supposing that they still inter-breed) : and as for next year's birds, 
we shall" have to wait. His remarks on the Tree Sparrow's eggs 
are quite correct for the average. I have had some which measured 
|ths of an inch long by /];ths of an inch wide, and others as small 
as those of the Robin. 

Since writing the above I happened to be in the vicinity of 
Baxter Wood, and visited the place where the Sparrows (House 
and Tree) nested so commonly in 1880, 1881, and 1882, but, alas! 
time had wrought many changes during the intervening seven years, 
several of the trees having disappeared ; of the remaining ones, 
one (an ash clad with ivy) alone was one of the original trees, whilst 
the birds, I found, had emigrated to some other locality. Unless 
I can come across another colony where the birds inter-breed near 
here, I shall be unable to try and obtain a hybrid. — 24.X.90. 



NO TES— ORNITHOL O G Y. 

. Flamborough Bird-Notes. — I have two more Sabine's Gulls {Xona sabi'ni) 
to report. One was shot October 7th, South of the Headland ; the other on the 
North, October 13th. (Quantities of Sea Gulls and Kittiwakes (A'lssa tridactyla) 
have been seen passing the Headland for several days previous to the storm 
now raging, which is not an unusual occurrence on the approach of a storm. — 
Matthew Bailey, Flamborough, October i6th, 1S90. 

Shore-Lark on Walney Island. — Some months ago allusion was made to 
the presence of the Shore-Lark (Otocoiys alpes(ris) on the coast of Cumberland. 
It may be interesting to add that a male Shore-Lark was shot on Walney Island 
in October last, and sent to the writer for his identification. When Prof. Newton 
wrote his account of the Shore-lark for the fourth edition of Yarrell, this species 
was supposed to be almost unknown in the West of England. Mr. Mitchell, how- 
ever, records several 'Lancashire' occurrences in the 'Birds of Lancashire.' — 
H. A. Maci'HER.son, Carlisle, Nov. 6th, 1890. 

The Grey Phalarope in Cumberland. — The Grey Phalarope [Phalaropus 
fiiUcarius) to which Mr. Macpherson alludes as having been shot in Cumberland 
in August 1866, was shot on the 24th of that month, and identified by Mr. J. 
Watson, of Carlisle. Out of 235 Phalaropes killed that year, this was the earliest 
but one, the earliest of all having been shot at Deal on the 20th. The real 
migratory movement did not set in until September loth, on which day three 
were shot ; on the 12th, five ; on the 14th, six; on the 15th, twenty-two; and 
after that they were common. — J. H. GuRXEY, Keswick Hall, Norwich, Nov. 4th. 

Notes on the Tree Sparrow. — With reference to the papers which have 
appeared under this heading, I beg to forward a few remarks as to my experience 
of the habits of this bird in Kent. I have found its nest in the thatch of stacks 
in fields away from habitations, under the tiles of lone deserted houses, in 
chalk cliffs by the sea, and in holes in pollard willows, but never in the branches 
or in bushes. I had a colony under my observation for several years, and I am 
certain that two broods were reared. The first eggs are laid about the middle 
of May, and second batch, often in the same nest, exactly a month later. — 
J. Young, 64, Hereford Road, Bayswater, London, Oct. 3rd, i8go. 

Naturalist, 



355 
YORKSHIRE NOTES ON THE TREE SPARROW. 

JAMES UACKHOUSE, F.Z.S., iM.B.O.U., 
Hon. Curator in Orttitlwlogy to the York Miisiuiii. 

A PROPOS of the various papers on the Tree Sparrow {Passer //io?itamis) 
in your recent issues, it may be of interest to add a icw of my own 
■ol)servations near to York. 

Not far away may be seen a very extensive colony of these little- 
moticed birds, on the farm of my friend Mr. John Harrison, at 
AVilstrop Hall. The majority of the nests built there are in holes in 
walls, specially prepared for them (or for more uncommon species) 
to breed in, and in some seasons scores of pairs bring up their 
young successfully in such positions. A few build in holes in straw 
or bean stacks also, but these seem to be decidedly in the minority 
when wall-nesting holes are available. 

The eggs are mostly laid between the middle of May and the 
end of June, but some lay as late as the beginning of August even, 
at Wilstrop ; and on an early date in May of the present year, 
though many nests were ready, the writer found only three or four 
eggs altogether. An average clutch of Tree Sparrow's eggs are 
darker collectively than those of P. do/iics/ia/s, but in most cases 
there will be found at least one light-coloured egg in striking contrast 
to the rest. In size, a pretty large series of eggs from Wilstrop or 
elsewhere in Yorkshire, appear decidedly less than typical eggs of the 
commoner bird. The full clutch is usually five or six. The nests 
of P. niontaiius are, as a rule, less bulky and untidy, and the bird 
itself is smarter, more slenderly built, and less obtrusive. 

Although no instance has come under my notice of the inter- 
breeding of the two species, it seems likely that it should be so, 
notwithstanding some slight difference in their usual modes of 
nesting. Common Sparrows are frequently discovered nesting in 
adjoining holes to those inhabited by the Tree Sparrow; and 
Mr. Saunders, in his 'Manual of British Birds,' says— 'In captivity 
this species has bred with the House Sparrow.' The fact that the 
sexes of P. montanus are almost identical in appearance adds con- 
siderable interest to the study of the species, and might be an aid 
in making observations upon the interbreeding of the two birds. 

NOTES AND NEWS. 

The Rev. H. A. Macpherson inquires whether Sir Richard Owen has pubhshed 
any account of the animal remains of the Hniestone cave at Arnside, originally 
discovered by Ruthven. It appears that the late Dr. Gough alludes to the bones 
having been sent by Mr. E. Whitwell to Prof. Owen. [Can this be the Kirkhead 
Cave mentioned, with references, in Boyd Dawkins' ' Cave Hunting ' ?] 
Dec. iSqo. 



;56 

FUNGI NEW TO WEST YORKSHIRE. 

CHARLES CROSSLAND, 
Halifax. 



The following is a list of Fungi gathered this season in the Halifax 
district, not recorded in F. A. Lees' ' Flora of West Yorkshire/ 
and therefore new to the AVest Riding : — 

Agaricus (Tricholoma) portentosus Fr. fathered on the 

rough ground between the foot of Horshold Scout and the canal 

near Hebden Bridge, on October 13th, by Mr. Jas. AVhitehead, 

Halifax, while out on a fungus foray with Mr. J. W. Sutclifife 

and the writer. 
Agaricus (Tricholoma) humilis Fr. Gathered near Stern Mill, 

Skircoat, Nov. 8th, by Mr. Thos. Aspin, Halifax. 
Agaricus (Flammula) hybridus Fr. Found at Ovenden on 

the 5th November by Mr. G. L. Lister, of Brighouse. 
Lactarius squalidus Fr. On the ground in a plantation close to 

Watkinson Hall, Ovenden near Halifax, on the 20th October; 

Mr. G. L. Lister. 
Lentinus lepideus Fr. var. contiguus. Ovenden, Nov. 5th ; 

Mr. Lister. 
Phlebia contorta Fr. Shibden, Nov. 3rd ; Mr. Lister. 
Clavaria grisea Pers. On dead oak leaves, Winterwell, Crims- 

worth, October 26th; James Needham, Woodend, Hebden 

Bridge. 
The plants were brought to me shortly after being collected, and 
forwarded to the Royal Herbarium, Kew, where they were examined 
and certified by Mr. Massee. 



NO TE—MA MAI A LI A . 

Squirrel feeding on Fungi. — I am surprised that the fact of the Common 
Squirrel feeding on fungi should be considered at all a new discovery. Mr. Tom 
Duckworth, of Carlisle, brought it to my notice as an undoubted fact some seven 
years ago : and I was then under the impression that the fact had been recorded 
before. To us, at any rate, it is in no way novel, but a taste that has long been 
known. — H. A. Macphersox, Carlisle, Oct. 8th, 1S90. 

JVOT£— BOTANY. 

Lycopodium alpinum in West Cumberland : a Correction. — The Rev. 
H. E. Fox, of Durham, kindly points out an error in my list of West Cumberland 
Plants, which appeared in the November ' Naturalist.' Lycopodium annotiiiiiiii, 
which I have recorded for Lingmell, turns out to be L. alpimtni, the former 
species, as Mr. Fox says, only occurring in one locality in the Lake District, 
viz., the Langdale slopes of Bowfell. — Percy H. Grimshaw', Burley-in- 

Wharfedale, Nov. 3rd, 1890. 

Naturalist^ 



357 
3n ^{lemoriam. 



JOHN HANCOCK. 

All lovers of natural history would learn with regret of the death 
of this distinguished gentleman, which took place at his residence, 
St. Mary's Terrace, Newcastle-on-Tyne, on October 1 1 th last. 

He had passed man's allotted three-score years and ten. For 
over 'twice forty years' he had seen 'yon weary winter's sun return,' 
and at the good old age of 82 he sank peacefully to his rest, being 
attended to the last by his kind friends Dr. Embleton and Dr. Page. 
Up to within about a year of his death he scarcely knew what illness 
was ; his vigorous constitution, strictly temperate habits, and love of 
outdoor exercise, no doubt greatly conducing to his being so strong 
and active almost to the end. 

Born of a family of naturalists — his scarcely less-celebrated 
brother, Mr. Albany Hancock, being one of them — and associated 
in his younger days with Atthey, Wingate, Hutton, Hewitson, 
C. M. Adamson, and others, all ardent lovers of nature, it was 
scarcely to be wondered that Mr. Hancock should soon drift into 
what afterwards became the absorbing passion of Iiis life. In those 
early days Prestwick Carr — a wild, boggy swamp, situated about 
seven miles North of Newcastle — was the happy hunting-ground for 
wild fowl and birds of all descriptions, and many were the rare 
specimens which Mr. Hancock obtained here. 

To Mr. Hancock's personal exertions it was mainly owing that 
the building of the present Museum of Natural History in Newcastle 
— at a cost of nearly p/^5 0,000 — was brought to a successful issue. 
With the munificent assistance rendered by his friends Lord and 
Lady Armstrong, the late Col. Joicey, the late Edward Joicey, 
Sir Lowthian Bell, and others, he secured a most eligible site for 
this purpose, and lived to see a building comjDleted which will for 
all time be a monument to his untiring energy. In addition to this, 
he most generously presented the whole of his extensive and valuable 
collection of birds and skins to the Society^ — a collection of a life- 
time, including every British species in almost every change of 
plumage, w'ith thousands of others besides. 

It was a rare treat to sit by him in his work-room while he was 
stuffing a bird, and hear him talk of bygone days at Prestwick Carr, 
the Fame Islands — in Scotland — and the Tundras in Russia (whither 
he went with his friend Mr. Hewitson on an ornithological excursion) ; 
or to listen to him while he lucidly explained the varying changes in 

Dec. 1890. 



358 IN MEMORIAM — JOHX HANCOCK. 

the plumage of his favourite Falcons during the moult. At a 
glance at the markings he could almost tell the whole life-history 
of the bird. 

In easy circumstances, and having no business cares to harass or 
worry him, he was enabled to devote his whole time to his favourite 
pursuit, and this time during his later years he gave most ungrudgingly 
to the Natural History Society's Museum, where his works of art 
remain as a testimony of his skill. 

In addition to taxidermy, Mr. Hancock was also an accomplished 
sculptor, and an artist of no mean order, one of his latest gifts to the 
museum being a series of water-colour drawings illustrating bird-life,, 
mostly taken from living suljjects in his younger days, to assist him 
in accurately setting them up afterwards. 

As a landscape gardener he was a great proficient. Cragside 
(Lord Armstrong's seat), Jesmond Dene, Newton Hall, and other 
beautiful estates and grounds, were laid out by him. His keen eye 
took in every turn of the landscape ; not a jutting out piece of rock- 
work, or a fallen tree trunk, but were all taken advantage of, and 
made to serve a purpose of his own. 

His iViend Mr. W. C. Hewitson, on his decease, left him the 
beautiful house and grounds at Oatlands Park, near Weybridge, 
Surrey, and from here the writer had from him probably one of the 
last letters he ever wrote there. In it he concludes : — 

'Birds generally are very scarce here this year (1889); I mean 
such species as we should expect to meet with in the South. . . . 
My state of health is just about the same as it was in Newcastle. 
Of course, I get out here every day, and breathe the fresh air, and 
I hope it will tell in the long run.' 

But it was not to be ! On his return to Newcastle his friends 
were grieved to see how his illness had told upon him, and how 
feeble he had become. Towards the end of last year he took to his 
house, and scarcely ever left it again afterwards. 

Of a shy and retiring disposition — unassuming, gentle, and most 
courteous in his manner — where many with not half of his pretensions 
would have pushed themselves forward and had honours showered on 
them, Mr. Hancock preferred to remain quietly in the background. 
Enough for him that his efforts were appreciated by his friends — he 
asked nothing more^and it was always one of his chief pleasures to 
impart the knowledge he had acquired toanyonevvho tookareal interest 
in his favourite study. A true gentleman in every sense of the word, 
he leaves a blank behind him which it is impossible to re-fill. 
Mr. Hancock was unmarried, and leaves behind him — besides other 
relations — a sister, the faithful companion of a life-time. — H. T. A. 

Naturalist, 



359 



BIBLIOGRAPHY: 

Papers and Records published with respect to the Natural History and 
Physical Features of the North of England. 



PHANEROGAMIC BOTANY, 1886. 

The Editors have been much indebted to Mr. P. Fox Lee, of 
Dewsbury, for assistance in the Botanical Bibliography, a con- 
siderable number of the titles now given being from his pen, and 
regret very much that pressure of other work prevents Mr. Lee from 
continuing; it. The Editors are hopeful that some other -botanist 
will volunteer to take up the task that Mr. Lee has been obliged 
to relinquish. 

The present instalment includes not only titles for 1886, but also 
all that have been published in 'The Naturalist ' during 1884 and 
18S5, and a few others for those years that have hitherto escaped 
attention. 

Durham, York N.W., Line. N. and S., York Mid W., 
Anox. [not signed]. Westmld., Derbysh., York S.W., Lane. W. and S. 
[Review of] The Student's Flora of the British Islands [with North- 
English references in the case ot J'oh'j^ala aiish-uiia (Teesdale), Scirpiis rufiis 
(Line, coast), Tilia platypliyllos (N.W. Yorkshire), Thlaspi occitauitm (Settle, 
etc., Westmorland, Durham), Sotccio caiiipestris (Ancaster, Line. S.), Carex 
oniithopoda (Mackershaw Wood, Ripon, and Derby), Selinum iarvifoliitin 
(Lincohishire), Fotcntilla norvcgica (Kirkstall to Snaith), Crepis niarensis 
(Harrogate), Malva borealis (Goole and Preston)]. Nat., Oct. 1884, 67-70. 

Anox. [not signed]. York S.W. 

[Obituary of Amos Carr : his connection with Cin\ra alpina (Riveton \'alley), 

Hypericum diil'iin/i, SciiteHaria minor. Arbutus uva-ursi, and Cotyledon 

■umbilicus (all near Sheifield), and Carduus acaulis ('Kiveton Common)]. 

Nat., Oct. 1884, p. 71. 

Anon. [Editor of Naturalist]. York Mid W. 

[Children's Flower Service at Staveley near Boroughbridge ; prizes 

given for named collections of wild flowers, the winner naming twenty-seven 

out of a total of thirty-four different kinds sent in]. Nat., Sep. 1885, p. 329. 

Anox. [not signed]. York S.W. 

Yorkshire Dialects [as used in valley of Calder from Wakefield up to source : 
Ackerons, ackerils = acorns {Quercus robur); Alehoof= ground ivy (Nepeta 
glechoma) ; Arse-smart = water pepper-plant {PolygoiiuD! hydropipcr) ; Aspin = 
trembling poplar {Populiis tremula); Birk = birch (Betula alba); Blags = 
blackberries {Rubus fruticosiis) ; Bumblekites in North Riding = same; 
Brackens = /Vt'r/j- aquilina; Butter and Cheese = tender le