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Curator OF the Mi nicipal Museums, Hull. 

Author of "Geological Rambles in East Yorkshire" ; "The Making of East Yorkshire" : 
■Editor of Mortimer's "Forty Years' Researches." 

Hon. Secretary of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union; President of the Hill 
SciKNTiKic and Field Naturalists' Club ; Member of the Councils and Committees 
OF THE British Association, Museums' Association, Yorkshire Roman Anti- 
fiuiTiES Committee, the East Riding Nature Study Association, the 
East Riding Antkjuarian Society, the Hull Geological Society, 
and Hull Literary Club; Chairman of the Hull Shakes- 
peare Society; Life Member of the Yorkshire 
Geological Society ; Hon. Life Member of the 
Spalding Gentlemen's Society; etc. 


Lecturer in Biology, Technical College, Huddersfield ; 







A. Brown & Son.s, Ltd., 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And .\t Hull and York. 



SOS, 4i — 


Ik completing- another Volume, an opportunity presents itself 
of congratulating^ the readers of the "Naturalist" upon the 
flourishing position now attained by the journal. It can be safely 
said that in no previous year has the " Naturalist" been so well 
illustrated, both by plates and figures in the text, as during 1906 ; 
and in no previous year have there been so many valuable 
papers by such well-known authorities as those who have 
favoured us with their contributions. 

On account of the quantity of valuable matter available, 
the publishers ha\'e on four occasions increased the size of the 
journal. On one of these a special " British Association " number 
was issued, consisting of 64 pages, with photographs of some of 
the Presidents, etc. This (the October) number may be safely 
said to contain a reliable record of the natural history work 
accomplished at the York meeting, and includes summaries 
of the various papers read at the diff'erent sections, so far as they 
relate to the northern counties. 

As in the past, prominence has been given to the work of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, and reports on the scientific results 
of its Excursions have appeared as promptly as was possible. 
Particular care has also been taken to keep readers acquainted 
with the current natural history literature, references to which 
have appeared monthly in the "Notes and Comments," "Northern 
News," or " Reviews " columns. 

Dr. Woodhead's absence abroad for most of the year has again 
caused his colleague to be largely responsible for the volume. 

Mr. W. E. L. Wattam has kindly prepared the Index 


K I- Section of Branch of Sycamore .. ... face p. i 

II. Bearded Tits 

III. Yorkshire Diatom.s ... 

IV. Sheffield Trough F"aiilt 

V. Deformed Speeton Belemnite.s 

VI. Speeton Beiemnites .. 

VII. Nests of Herring Gull 

VII. Nests of Arctic and Lesser Terns 
IX. Trichonisciis pHsillus. Brandt 
X. Fig. I. — Cordierite-Mica-schist, Sinen Gill 

Fig. 2.- — Cordierite-Mica-schist, Hiirdell Gill, 
Caldew Valley 
XI. Cordierite-Garnet-Mica-schist, Swineside, Cal- 
dew Valley ... 
XII. Map of England showing Migration of House 
IMartin in 1905 
XIII. Portrait of Henry Clifton Sorby, LL.D., etc... 
XIV'. Yorkshire Bats 
XV'. Actinocamax plenus. Actinocaiua.x grcxniilaius. 
Actinocntnaxverus. Bclcninitcs minimus 
XVT. Actinocamax Grossouvrei ... 

XVTI. Portrait of J. G. Goodchild 

XVIII. Lincolnshire Chalk, Micro.scopic Sections of ... 
XIX. Harvest Spiders, etc. 
XX. Yorkshire Naturalists at Flamboi-oiigh ... 
XXI. j Fossil Mollusca from the Carboniferous Rocks) 
XXII. I of the Midlands / 

XXIII. Fly Chart 

XXIV. Portraits of E. Sidney Hartland, F. S. .\. ; 

E. II. Griffiths, 'm.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. ; 
G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S. ; Prof. .M. E. 
.Sadler, LL.D. ;" A. L. Bowlcy, M..A. ... 
XXV. Loniax Exhibition at York 
XX\'I. /\'//y)ic//o.s(ii/nts ar/ict'fis {(.)\\c]-[) . . 

XXVII. Habitats of Bats 

XXVIII. Rooms in Wilberforce Museum, Hull 
-X.XIX. ' Leaf Butterflies ' amongst Leaves 
XXX. I'igures explanatory of Plate XXI.X 

JANUARY 1906. 

No. 588 

(No, 386 of current series). 





The Museum, Hull ; 


Technical College, Huddersfield ; 


Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., 
T. H. NEL50N, M.B.O.U., 


Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated) : — Our New Volume, Methods in Microscopical Research, 
Section of Sycamore, The Doncaster Earthquake, Pictures from Nature, The Black- 
Throated Diver, The Trent Aeger 

New and Rare British Fungi (Illustrated)— Geo. Massee and Charles Crossland 

The Large Felspars of Shap Granite— Cosmo /o/!HS, F.G.S., Af-/-Mfc/i.£ 

Yorkshire Diatoms in 1905 (Illustrated)— i?. //. P/iiVf/) 

Yorkshire Geological Photographs Committee's Report for 1905— A. J. Slather 

The Wych Elm {Ulmus moataaa)— P. Q. Keegan.LL.D 

Nest="Poking— S. L. Mosley 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies of the British Association 

Notes on a Solitary Wasp (Odyaerus parietum Linn) (Illustrated)— C. F. George, M.R.C.S 

East Yorkshire Spiders — Wm. Falconer 

Field Notes 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Northern News (Illustrated) 


Plate I 











5, to, 13, 21, 26 

17, 22, 30-31 

... 31-32 

4, 17, 14, 27, 32 



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And at Hull and York. 
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Should the Author of any short note wish its simultaneous appearaTice in another 
journal mention should always be made of such wish. The Copyright of all the contents 
of The Naturalist is reserved to the proprietors. This will not prevent reproduction 
of any article on leave being expressly obtained from the Editors, and full acknowledg- 
ments given. 

NOMENCLATURE RULES. -The Nomenclature adopted in The Naturalist will be 
— as far as possible -in accordance with the latest standard list or monograph, with such 
alterations as are necessary to bring the name into accordance with the strict law of 

CAPITALISATION OF SPECIFIC NAMES. Hitherto the rule of The Naturalist has 
been the Zoological one, that specific names shall invariably commence with a small 
letter, never with capitals. Henceforth this rule will still apply to all Zoological names, 
but in deference to the wishes of our botanical contributors the specific names of plants 
will conform in this respect to the standard catalogue or monograph in each branch 
of botany. 

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Members are entitled to buy all back numbers and other publications of the Union 
at a discount of 25 per cent, off the published prices. 

All communications to be addressed to the Hon. Sec, 

T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., Museum, Hull. 
Second Edition now ready, Price 6s. 6d. net; if by post, 4d. extra. 


By G. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S., 
Past= President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, etc. 

May be had from the Hon. Sec. Y.N.U., The Museum, Hull. 


Edited by T. SHEPPARD, F.C.S. aid T. W. WOODHEAD, F.L.S. 

(With 400 pages, 26 plates, and numerous illustrations in the text,) 


PRICE 7s., net ; if by post, 5d- extra. 
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FOR 1905. 

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Now Ready, contaiiiini;^ 396 jjai^fcs, Demy 8vo, .suitably bound in Cloth Boards. 
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A Complete Annotated List of all the known Fungi of the 
County, comprising: 2626 Species 

By Q. MA5SEE, F.L.S., F.R.H.S., 

Royal Herbarium, Keiv ; Chainiuiu of Ihc Yorkshiri- Mycoloirical Committee ; ami 


Halifax, Hon. Sec. if the Yarksliite Mycoloi^^ieal Committee. 
May be had from tiie Hon. See. Y. N.U., The Mtiseuin, Hull. 

Please mention 'The Naturalist' In replying to Advertisements. 

////•: .V.I / rAM/./.sy, nion. 

l""rc)iii 'Mi'tlutd.s ot.Micio.scopical Rt-.sfarcli."' H\ A. I''i..\ ri liK.s. 


Fig. 51. 

|,„„„i,„.linal Mi.Mlian s..rtinn nf •a-.-mnpl.-t." liniiwl, ..I,u,v >h..NMn- 
tl.n ,,.,sili..M -f (1.- ..ppnsit.' !..-tinl..s ..t tl..- .•urn-i.t y.'iir a... llu- ;;^'^;' '7 ;''''; 
for n...M v..;.rs v.-J.-laliv- ,MMio.l. 1. C.M.tral ax,s ,,.,tlO. •-'. '»" / 
,.„,n.nt v:.r. S. (N'Mlral axis of n.-xt yars l.ran.-l,. 4. S.-paiatinj^ 1. > • 

7 Canil.inn,. s. IM.In.Mn. Sa. ( '..rliral tissu.v '.». S,-alr.. I.). 1 ..vol-Mm.- 
leaves. 11. Cn.wiii- p..!. it m l,ra.u-li. TUv aniun nl .rparati-.i. lia> taUn. 
pliwe from the point marlvcd ,\. 

THE NflTURfllilST 

FOR 1906. 



IT is very gratifying' to the editors and proprietors to be 
able to report that their efforts, combined with the efforts 
of their contributors, have resulted in a very substantial 
increase in the circulation of the ' Naturalist ' during the past 
two or three years. This has enabled them to make the journal 
of greater value and interest by the use of numerous plates and 
illustrations in the text. A further result of this success is 
a satisfactory arrangement which has been made with the 
publishers, Messrs. A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., which permanently 
secures the standard which has been reached. In futvire the 
'Naturalist' will be printed at Browns' Savile Press, Hull, 
which already has a high reputation for excellent work, and 
this will enable the Editors to personally supervise the printing- 
of the Journal. It will also save much clerical work, &c., 
which has naturally arisen in consequence of the printing being- 
done over fifty miles away from the editorial office. Our only 
regret in connection with the change is that we sever our 
connection with Messrs. Chorley & Pickersgill of the Electric 
Press, Leeds, who have served us so well for some years. 


Some little time ag^o we announced in our advertising- 
columns the appearance of a work by Mr. Abraham Flatters, 
under the above title, provided sufficient subscribers could be 
found. The book is now issued,* and we have no hesitation in 
saying that every one who subscribed will be pleased with it. 
The name of the author is a sufficient guarantee of the excellence 
of the work, as few can claim the practical experience that 

* Sherratt & Hughes, Manchester, x+ii6 pp. quarto, and 2;^ coloured 
plates, £i IS. 


2 No/cs unci Commcuts. 

Mr. Flatters can. The book is divided into ' General 
Remarks ; ' ' Collection and Preservation of Specimens, &c. ; ' 
' Tools and Methods of Work ; ' ' Stains, Reagents, Mounting 
Media, Cements, &c. , their Formulae and Manipulation;' 
•Mounting Media;' 'Cements;' and 'Instructions for the 
Preparation of Types.' Each of these contains the results of 
Mr. Flatters' extensive experience, the full benefit of which can 
be derived by all who use the book. As the author points out, 
'had such a work been at his service twenty years ago, he would 
have been spared years of persistent hard work and many dis- 
appointments.' The first part of the book is illustrated by 
numerous diagrams and blocks from photographs, by the aid 
of which both beginner and expert will alike derive much 


But it is in the 85 coloured illustrations of botanical sections, 
enlarged by the microscope, that the charm of the book lies. 
These are arranged upon twenty-three large plates, and the 
manner in which they have been reproduced, showing the 
effects of various stains, reflects the greatest credit upon all 
concerned. By the kindness of the publishers, we are able to 
give our readers a specimen illustration (see Plate I.), but even 
this does not do justice to the work. In the first place the 
detail and eff"ect of the plates in the book itself are not marred 
by the reference numbers, which are there printed in outlines on 
transparent paper, which covers each plate ; and, secondly, the 
descriptive letterpress appears on a separate page facing each 
plate. The appearance of the illustrations is thereby much 
improved. Not only do these show the proper method of 
cutting and staining sections, but they will be of the greatest 
service to all interested in vegetable histology. 


In a paper recently read to the Geological Society, of London, 
Dr. C. Davison described the Doncast Earthquake of April 25th 
1905. He pointed out that the Doncaster earthquake of 1905 was 
a twin, with its principal epicentre half a mile north of Bawtry, and 
the other about 4 miles east of Crowle and close to the centre of 
the disturbed area of the Hessle earthquake of April i ^tli ic)02.* 
The distance between the two epicentres is about 17 miles. 

• Sco * N;itiii;ilist, ii^oji, }). 35. 


Noies and Comments. 3 

The disturbed area contains about 17,000 square miles, including 
the whole of the counties of Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, 
Stafford, Leicester, and Rutland, the greater part of Yorkshire, 
and portions of Lancashire, Cheshire, Shropshire, Worcester- 
shire, Warwickshire, Northamptonshire, Cambridgeshire, and 
Norfolk. The originating fault runs from about E. 38° N. to 
W. 38° S., and appears to be nearly vertical within the south- 
western focus, and inclined to the south-east in the north-eastern 
focus. The first and strongest movement took place within 
the south-westena focus. A twin-earthquake is probably due to 
the diflfereratial growth of a crust-fold along a fault which 
intersects it transversely, the first movement as a rule being 
(one of rotatiom of the middle limb, accompanied by the almost 
■simultaneous slip of the two arches, and followed soon after- 
wards by a shift of the middle limb. The movements, in 
which the Doncaster earthquake originated, presented a slight 
variation in this order. They consisted of successive, but 
continuous, displacements, first of the south-western arch, then 
of the middle limb, and finally of the north-eastern arch. 


Under the above title Messrs. Cassell & Company have 
published fifteen large Rembrandt Photogravures of Birds and 
Beasts at home amidst their natural surroundings. Without 
ihesitation we can say that these pictures are really the finest 
that w^e have seen for some time, and they are undoubtedly the 
■* pick ' from the negatives of the Brothers Kearton. The 
•subjects portrayed are Black-throated Diver, Kittiwakes at 
Hjome, Leverets in their form. Kingfisher, Squirrel, Puffins at 
home, young Willow Wrens, Ring Dove, young Cuckoo and 
Sedge Warblers, Hedgehog, young Long-eared Owls, Gannet, 
Peewit, Sparrowhawk adding sticks to her nest, and the Great 
Tit, or Ox-eye. Each is a most suitable subject for framing 
and hanging in a naturalist's ' den,' and each is accompanied by 
a page of descriptive matter. 


Perhaps one of the most striking of the pictures is that of 
the Black-throated Diver on her nest, which the publishers 
kindly enable us to reproduce on a small scale, though even this 

* In portfolio, aos. 6d., i8|in by 11. ^in. 

1906 January i. 

4 A^fl/es and Cinnments. 

looks poor compared with the orij^inal. ' Only two decades ag-o 
men were writing- of the difficulties of approachin^f such shy, 
wary birds as the Black - throated Diver close enough for 
destruction with a shot i^un, and here we have ... a member 
of the species figured on her nest with the camera, and its 
operator not i6 feet away.' We have no reason to assume 
that there is any ' fake ' in the photograph, and to obtain 
such a negative is truly a remarkable performance. In his 

The Black >throa ted Diver on her Nest. 

' Introduction ' to the series Mr. Richard Kearton dwells once 
again upon the extraordinary difficulties experienced in securing 
the photographs, and of the ' danger to life and limb, 'etc. If he 
will pardon our saying so, the prominence given to such details 
is rather irritating, especially when it is borne in mind that there 
exist several hundred very excellent ' bird ' negatives taken by 
other qualified naturalists, without anything like the expenditure 
of money and time and labour that Mr. Kearton so frequently 
tells us is his lot. 


Notes and Comments. 5 

In a recent issue of ' Nature '* Mr. W. H. Wheeler gives a 
detailed account of the Aeger in the Trent, which he had 
witnessed. The aeger or bore ' is caused by the check of the 
tidal flow through the shoal water of the sand banks and the 
contraction of the waterway, the tidal current over-running the 
transmission of the foot of the wave.' It first assumes a crest 
somewhere between Burton Stather and Amcotts, depending on 
the condition of the tide, the water rising almost simultaneously 
3 feet. The bore was to be seen under exceptionally favourable 
conditions on September 30th and October ist last. It could be 
heard approaching about half a mile from the place of observa- 
tion, and passed with a crest in the middle of the river of from 4 
feet to 4^ feet, extending across the full width of the river, which 
is here about 200 feet at high water. At the sides the breaking 
waves rolled along the banks 6 feet or 7 feet high. The 
crest was followed by five or six other waves of less height, 
terminating in a mass of turbulent broken water for a distance 
of 100 yards. The velocity of the wave, as nearly as it could be 
measured, was about 15 miles an hour. 

Red Rock of Rotherham. — Whilst out with the Geological 
Students of the Sheffield University on October 7th, we were 
fortunate enough to discover a fossiliferous band of clay in this, 
otherwise barren, rock. The locality is a quarry, now disused, 
almost opposite to the Kiveton Park Colliery's Hospital, on the 
Kiveton Park to Harthill Road, about half a mile south of the 
former village. Leaving the road by the truck-way the quarry 
is soon reached, and the band is to be seen on the eastern face 
of the rock about four feet from the base of the exposure. 
It is about four or six inches in thickness, dipping in a 
northerly direction ; about 12 feet of the band is to be seen, 
the northern end being obscured by the talus. Its further exten- 
sion northwards is very probable, for a few yards further on a 
spring is seen, the presence of which could not well be accounted 
for in any other way. The fossils found in the clay are mostly 
fragmentary, but seem to be of the usual coal-measure type. 
Up to the present they have not been identified with certainty. 
— L. Glauert, Junr., F.G.S., Sheffield, Dec, 1905. 

* Vol. 73, No. 1880. 
1906 January i. 




Of the followinj^ six species, the first five are new to the 
British Isles ; the sixth has one previous record only, and does 
not appear to have been hitherto met with in any other country 
than Britain. As noted below, three of these were found on 
Union Excursions — Pocklinj^ton, Cudworth, and the Maltby 
foray ; two are from Hebden Bridge, and one from Masham. 

Advantagfe has been taken of the fresh specimens to make 
fuller descriptions. The description of the new British puffball 
is supplemented by the photograph on page 7. 

During the recent fungus foray at Maltby, a very fine and 
representative series of specimens of a puffball, which appeared 
to diflfer in certain characters from hitherto known British 
species, was collected in Maltby and Stubbing"s Woods. 

On further investigation the species proved to be Lycoperdon 
cruciatum, Rost., a fungus not previously recorded as having 
occurred in this country. Superficially this fung"us somewhat 
resembles a small form of L. gemmatiim, and has probably been 
passed over as such on previous occasions. Its most pro- 
nounced macroscopic, or field character, consists in the whitish 
outer wall of the peridium ["peeling off in large flakes as in 
species of Bovista, and exposing the brown, minutely granu- 
lated inner peridium. The structure of the outer peridium in 
L.' cruciatuvi somewhat resembles that of L. velatum (an exotic 
species), but in the latter the spines of the cortex are very 
persistent, and when they disappear, do so singly, as in most 

The following- is a full diagnosis of L. ouciatum, which is 
well described and beautifully figured by Rostkovius in Sturm's 
Deutschlands Flora, vol. 5, p. 19, pi. 8 (1864). 

Peridium subglobose to broadly piriform, narrowed below 
into a short, stout, sterile stem-like base, 3-4 cm. high by 
2-3 cm. broad ; cortex whitish, formed of groups of minute 
more or less pjramidal spines, breaking away in large flakes 
and exposing the inner yellowish-brown, minutely granulated 
peridium ; dehiscence by a small, irregularly torn apical pore. 
Gleba umber, spores globose, smooth, almost hyaline, 5-6 /t 
diameter ; threads of capillitium mostly unbranched, slender, 
4-5 // thick, ends tapering, \er\- slightly coloiu'ed yellow- 

Massee and Crossland : Nexy and Rare British Fungi. 7 

brown. The lacunose sterile base not projecting- into the gleba 
as a columella. 

On the ground among hazel bushes. 

Distribution. — Germany, France, United States. 


Lycoperdon cruciatum, ttost. 

The left-hand fig. shows the outer peridium intact. In the 
two remaining figs, only fragments of the outer peridium 
remain. Natural size. 

tiebeloma subsaponaceum Karst. — On the ground in strip 
of mixed woodland, AUerthorpe Common, near Pocklington, 
Y.N.U. Excursion, Aug., 1905. First British record. Diff"ers 
from allied species in the strong soapy smell, dry pileus, adnate 
gills, and smaller spores 6-9 x 4-6 /x. 

Cantharellus hypnorum Brond., Rev. Myc, 1892, p. 65 ; 
Sacc, Syll. 11, p. 32, 1895. — ^Pileus campanulato-convex then 
expanded and slightly depressed, margin incurved, minutely 
downy, the down sometimes collected into little fascicles, pale 
primrose yellow, sometimes verging on pale ochre, i-i^^ in. 
diameter ; flesh thin, whitish ; gills thin, edge acute, somewhat 
crowded, branched, decurrent, yellow ; spores hyaline, smooth, 
oblong with a minute oblique apiculus, 7x41".; stem about 
I in. long, slender, often slightly flexuous, almost glabrous, 
yellow, sometimes darker than the pileus towards the base. 

Collected by E. Snelgrove, on Ferrymoor, near Cudworth, 
Y.N.U. Excursion, Sept. 9th, 1905. First British record. 
Previously recorded for France only. 

A very distinct species, allied to C. aurantiacus, from which 
it differs in the less tomentose pileus, absence of orange colour, 
and smaller spores. C. aiiranfiacus is considered by some 

1906 January i. 

8 J/dssiY (Did Crossland : A^'tw (uid Rare British Fungi. 

authorities as belong-iiii,'- to the g-enus Clitocybe, and perhaps 
correctly so, the thin, acute-edj^-ed i^ills not agreeing" with the 
one feature most characteristic of CaHthurcUus. C hypnorum 
belong-s to whatever g-enus C. anraniiacus does. 

Lachnea cinnabarina (Schw.) — Ascophores g-reg'arious or 
scattered, sessile, at first subglobose, then expanded, ii-3 lines, 
across, fleshy, |^-line thick, disc flat, scarlet, tending- to Vermillion, 
margin obtuse, bordered by rows of subclavate cells 40-50 x 
20-25 /x, exterior ochre, almost glabrous, only a few slightly 
thick walled hairs being present, the basal cells give rise to a 
few flexuous, hyaline, aseptate hyphae 7 fi thick, which penetrate 
the substratum ; excipulum of irregularly inflated loosely inter- 
woven, septate hyphae, regular and parallel at the cortex which 
is 3-4 cells deep, cells 40-50 x 25-30 /x, outermost layer globose 
30-35 fi. Asci cylindrical, base gradually narrowed into a curved 
foot, 200-220 X 12 ju, apex subtruncate ; spores 8, obliquely 
i-seriate, elliptical, ends obtuse, hyaline, continuous, eguttulate, 
minutely verrucose, 15-18 X 18 /x ; paraphyses abundant, 
septate, apex clavate, 8 /x thick, filled with red granules 3.5-4 ^ 
thick below. 

Pesisa cinnabarina Schw. Syn. p. 173. 

Lachnella cinnabarina S'ACC. Syl., viii., n. 1643. 

On dry, muddy settlings of old dye tanks, Hebden Bridge, 
September, 1905. Crossland and Needham. First British 
record. Previously recorded for America only. Closely allied 
to L. Hfubraia, but diflFers in the distinctly but minutely verrucose 
spores and almost glabrous exterior and margin. 

Acetic iodine turns contents of paraphyses blue-black, no 
effect on asci. 

Lachnea gilva (Boud.) Sacc. Syl., n. 747. — Ascophores 
scattered or gregarious, often contorted through mutual 
pressure, sessile, at first subglobose, finally expanded, fleshy, 
disc sometimes undulate and lobed, dingy pale reddish-ochre, 
5-8 lines across, exterior brown, margin clothed with pale 
yellow-brown, 6-9 septate, gradually tapering, obtuse hairs, 
250-300 X 6-8 jx (midway), mostly in tufts of 30-40, sparse 
below the margin ; flexuous, almost colourless, septate hyphae, 
5-6 ju, thick spring from the basal cells ; excipulum of stout, 
irregularly swollen hyphae, cortical cells brown, subglobose, 
15-20 /xdiam. ; Asci cylindrical, 8 spored, 200-220 x 12-14 /^> 
apex rounded ; spores obliquely i-seriate, hyaline, elliptical, 
smooth, continuous, eguttulate, 16-17 ^ 9-10 /x ; paraphyses 
hyaline, septate, 5 /x, slightly thickened upward. 


Massee and Crossland : New and Rare British Fungi. 9 

Peziza gilva Boud. Icon. 37. 

Pesiza {Sarcoscypha) gilva Mycogr. , p. 240, fig. 406. 

On sandy ground, among moss, river side, Hebden Bridge, 
September, 1905. Crossland and Needham. First British 
record. Previously recorded for France only. Closely allied 
to L. fimbriata Quel. 

M. Boudier has established a genus Tricharia in which he 
includes this sp. 

Humaria Phillipsii Cooke, Mycogr., p. 48, fig. 88; 
Massee's Biit. Fung. Flo., iv., p. 417 ; Sacc. Syll., viii.,n. 553. 
Redescribed from freshly gathered specimens. Ascophores 
sessile, scattered, at first sphaerical, then expanded but deeply 
concave, fleshy, slightly gelatinous, 3-4 lines across, disc dark 
bluish purple, exterior dark purple, minutely rough with small 
tufts of cells 8-10 X 6-8 [jl, margin somewhat evenly crenulate- 
serrate with tufts of 3-4 septate hyphae 80-90 X 7-10 /x ; cortex 
of circular cells 10-18 /a, two to three cells thick, hypothecium 
and inner portion of excipulum of densely interwoven hyphae, 
which suddenly give place to the globose cells forming the 
cortex, the basal cells give rise to septate, hyaline hyphae, 5-6 //. 
thick, which penetrate the soil. Asci cylindrical, apex rounded, 
8 spored, 270-290 X 15 jU.; Spores obliquely i-seriate, continuous, 
hyaline, elliptical, ends rather acute, coarsely warted, warts 
hemispherical, in optical section 7-8 down each side, 22-23 ^ 
12 [x.. Paraphyses septate, 4 ju. thick below, 5 ju. at the slightly 
swollen apex. 

Ascobolus amethystimis Phil. , Grev. iv. , p. 84. 

Peziza Phillipsii Cke. , in Phillips' Brit. Disc, p. 90. 

This most interesting peziza, apparently only once previously 
found, was met with by W. A. Thwaites in sawmill yard, on 
sandy soil by the river side, Swinton, near Masham, Sep., 1905. 
The first record (Grev. iv., p. 84), is by the late W. Phillips, 
•on sandy ground on the margin of the river Severn, Shrews- 
bury, Oct., 1875. 

It was named Ascobolus amethysthiiis on account of its colour, 
and the spores appearing to become purple. Later, however, 
it was found the spores are permanently hyaline, thus proving 
it not to be an Ascobolus, and Cooke re-named it Peziza 

The dark purple colour pervades the whole structure with 
the exception of the asci, spores, and the hyphae given off by 
the basal cells. The following remark accompanies the original 
description : ' The cells composing the exterior are of a beautiful 

J906 January i. 

lo Morn's : Fawn-coloured Siskin muir Scdbenrh. 

amethyst purple under the microscope, and when pressed yield 
their colouring- matter to surrounding objects.' The xMasham 
specimens behaved in an exactly similar manner, and when 
tresh sections were cut the released colouring- matter stained 
spores which came in contact with it and certainly gave such 
the appearance of being- self-coloured. To settle this point 
finally spores were got without either cutting a section, or 
<^'&g''"g' a pinch directly out of the disc. A couple of ascophores 
were placed side by side, on damp moss, in their natural position, 
in a shallow card-board box ; a glass slip was placed over them, 
resting: on the edges of the box so as to clear them by 
about a quarter of an inch. On the following day two small, 
cloudy, white, semifused circles were seen on the under side of 
the slip immediately over the ascophores. An examination 
proved the cloudy spots to consist of thousands of uniformly 
colourless spores which had been shot up direct from the asci 
beneath, and had adhered to the overlying glass. The colour 
leaves the paraphyses on their being- placed in water. 


Rough = leg:ged Buzzard near Qrassington. — Mr. John 
Crowther of Grassing-ton forwarded for my inspection a very 
fine specimen of an immature bird of this species which 
had been caught in a rabbit-trap on Grassington Moor, on 
December 8th. The bird measured 4 feet 9 inches from tip 
to tip of expanded wings, and weighed 2^ lbs. From tip of 
beak to end of tail it measured (over all) about 25 inches, and 
covered exactly 23 inches from head to tail as it laid on its 
back on the table — which, in my opinion is the better way 
of obtaining the correct length in this class of birds. On 
dissection it proved to be a male. 

This bird will be exhibited at the Annual Meeting- of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, in the Cartwright Hall, at 
Bradford, on January 27, 1906, after which it will find a 
permanent home in the newly formed museum at Grassington. 
— Harrv B. Booth, Spring Royd, Shipley. 

Fawn-coloured Siskin near Sedbergh. — I saw a light 
fawn-coloured Siskin near Sedbergh, feeding on alder seed, 
recently. I got close to it, but could not see any other marking'-s 
upon it. — W. Morris, Sedbergh, 4th November, 1905. 





In a recent discussion* of certain features in Shap granite 
allusion was made to the large pink crystals of orthoclase 
that characterise this beautiful rock. It is now proposed to 
endeavour to trace the life history of these crystals in some 
detail in the light of the theory of reciprocal solutions. From 
various observations on slags it is now known that felspar 
forms very slowly, and that alumina exercises a retarding 
influence on the crystallization of such masses. Seeing that 
felspar occurs in such abnormally large crystals in Shap 
granite it becomes very evident that the conditions under 
which they formed were abnormal. 

From the fact that the texture of the rock does not get 
finer towards the margin ; that the porphyritic felspars are well 
developed there too ; that these felspars are wanting in the 
small ramifying fissures while in the intrusive mass itself 
they are orientated as if to suggest a line of flow, it seems- 
reasonable to conclude that they did not form in situ in contact 
with cold walls. They were probably ready formed when the 
mass was intruded, and thus date their formation back to the 
original magma. From the papery quoted in the former article 
we learn that "these large felspars enclose crystals of apatite 
and sphene, besides occasional flakes of mica and prisms of 
striated plagioclase. More rarely they contain little patches of 
quartz, or even a well-bounded crystal of this mineral." 

With this data at our command, and treating the original 
magma as a reciprocal solution, several facts seem to stand out 
clearly. To begin with, the fused mass was once at a higher 
temperature ; for the growth of the large felspars only became 
possible when the temperature fell to the point where the 
orthoclase forming material would separate out. In the earl}'" 
stages of cooling, apatite, zircon, some magnetite, and possibly 
sphene, would separate out for the very good reason that the 
solubility of these minerals in fused silicates, such as the 
magma was composed of, is a function of temperature. In the 

* Naturalist, December, 1905, p. 364. 
t Q.J.G.S. 1898, p. 278. 

1906 January i. 

12 Johns: The Liifirc Felspars of Shap Granite 

case of mag'netite it would appear from the writer's own 
experiments that its solubility also depends on the acidity of 
the magma, for he found magnetite to refuse to enter into 
solution with fused silica at a temperature exceeding i8oo°c. , 
though it seemed to combine with certain silicates. The 
presence of magnetite in the consolidated rock suggests that 
the original magma contained both ferric and ferrous oxides of 
iron, though only the former is mentioned in the analysis given 
in the paper quoted from. From experiments upon slags it 
has been concluded that magnetite never forms unless both 
oxides are present. If we consider that before it could form 
from ferric oxide alone, an atom of oxygen would have to be re- 
moved, the reasonableness of this conclusion becomes apparent. 

When the temperature fell to the critical point corresponding 
to the separating out of orthoclase from the solution, there 
would only be in existence those minerals possessing low 
solubilities. Being a magma, we can also assume that the 
temperature gradient of the cooling mass was not a steep one. 
The skeleton frames of the felspars would begin to grow as the 
embryo crystals formed, and as the particles of orthoclase 
passed from the fluid into the solid condition heat would be 
liberated ; from the size ultimately reached by the crystals it 
becomes evident that the evolution of heat during the solidi- 
fication of the early orthoclase must have nearly, if not quite, 
balanced that lost by the magma through its containing walls. 
But felspar, we know, forms slowly, so our early assumption 
that the temperature gradient was not falling steeply receives 

There is, however, further proof of this from the evidence 
we have that connection currents were absent within the mass. 
Rapid cooling would have meant movement of the different 
particles in the direction in which heat transference was taking 
place. Now the large felspars could not have reached their 
abnormal size had the magma been in motion, for it is a 
common experience with solutions that the more rapid the 
cooling the smaller are the crystals, and also that motion tends 
to reduce the size. The reason for this is not far to seek ; the 
skeleton crystals are very fragile, and if the surrounding 
mother liquor be in motion they break up and form separate 
units. Thus far it is very clear ; but these conditions of 
stillness in the magma and the abnormal growth of the skeleton 
crystals would be the very ones to render it probable that a 
portion of the mother liquor would be enclosed in the meshes 


Inyiocent : Ringed Plover, fi^r. , at Sheffield. 13 

of the formingf crystal, and thus become land-locked as it were. 
Here, then, we have a hint that may serve to explain the 
occurrence of quartz, flakes of mica, and prisms of plag"ioclase 
as enclosures in the large crystals. 

The meshes of the growing- orthoclase crystals having 
entangled and cut off", from the surrounding mass, small 
portions of the magma, these would be robbed of their 
orthoclase material to complete the building of their prison. 
They could not recover equilibrium by diffusion, and we should 
have a case of a rock forming within a rock ; for when the large 
felspars were complete the little " land-locked" particles would, 
under certain conditions, perhaps not until after intrusion had 
taken place with the resulting further cooling, differentiate as 
quartz, mica, and plagioclase. The still fluid magma, however, 
would contain no free quartz or minerals other than those of 
low solubility. From the regular distribution of the porphyritic 
crystals in the consolidated rock it is rather suggested that the 
mass must have been in a viscid condition, and at no very high 
temperature, otherwise gravity would have acted and the large 
crystals segregated. But this would only land us in another 
difficulty, for if the mass was at a comparatively low temperature 
when intruded how comes it that the surrounding rocks bear such 
marked evidence, for a considerable distance, ot metamorphism ? 
As this problem does not directly concern the life history of the 
large felspars it would perhaps be better to leave it alone for the 


Easington Bird Notes. — A Hoopoe was seen here on Oct. 
17th, and on the 21st of November a male Bittern killed itself 
by flying against the Lighthouse. In the last week in October 
a few Little Stints were noticed, and a Little Auk on November 
24th. — P. W. LoTEN, Easington, Dec. 4th, 1905. 

Ringed Plover, &c., at Sheffield. — Perhaps you may like 
to record that Ringed Plover (generally accompanied by Dunlin) 
visit the Redmires Reservoirs in this City every year on the 
autumn migration, and the Golden Plover, Curlew, and Common 
Sandpiper and Common Snipe breed close to the Reservoirs. Is 
there another City in England with such a record ? — C. F 
Innocent, Sheffield, Nov. 21st. 

1906 January i. 




At two of the excursions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
last year (Pocklinijton and Maltby) i^athering-s of Diatoms were 
taken. The Givendale Springs, near Pocklington, yielded 
almost pure gatherings of Diatoma hiemale, the only other 
species present being that very fine form, Melosira arenana — a 
truly lovely object under y^ oil immersion objective, owing to 




1. Fra^ilaria capucina Desni. Type form, (n) Three frustules conjoined. (6) Valve 
view. 2. Fragilaria capucina. Vax.mesolepta. Valve. 3. Pragilaria capucina. New(?) 
variety from Roche Abbey Lake, (a) Valve, (b) Two frustules conjoined. 

its iridi.scent colours and delicate cross striation. The Ouse- 
thorpe brook yielded a greater variety, of which the most 
interesting form was a diminutive Diatoma elongatiim var. 
tenuis in abundance. The other species present were : — 

Achnanthcs linearis W. Sm. 
Diatoma hiewale (hyni^.) Heb. 
Frairilaria virescois Ralfs. 
Gonifihonenia montanum Schiiin. 

,, olivaceum Kiitz. 

,, parviilum Kiitz. 

Navicula gracilis Ehr. 

,, radiosa Kutz. 
Siirirella ormlis Brob. 
Syncdra ulna Ehr. 

,, Vaiichcria' Kutz. 

Vanheurckia %<ulga ris(TUw .) \'. H. 

The Maltby excursion was specially interesting from the 
opportunity afforded of comparison of the gatherings taken 


Philip: Yorkshire Diatoins. 15 

from Roche Abbey Lake with those of Mr. J. N. Coombe 
recorded in the ' Naturalist ' for November 1905 for the same 
water. Of the 58 species mentioned by Mr Coombe, 36 were 
found ag-ain on this occasion, and in addition the following- : 

Achnanthes microcephala Kutz. Nitsschia dissipata (Kutz.) Grun. 

Janceolata Breb. vars. media and acuta. 

Cocconeis pedicnhis Y.Y.r. ,, dehilis {Xr^oXX) GvMn. 

Cymbella amphicephala Naeg. ,, apiadata (Greg.) Grun. 

Gomphonema acuminatum Ehr. ,. Palea (Kutz. fCrun. and 

,, panndum Kutz. van fonticola. 

Navicula baciUum Ehr. ,, recta Hantzsch. 

G«'5/a?<w (Ehr.) Donk. Surirella ovalis var. Crumena 

,, /lumdis Donk. Breb. 

,, Pupu la Kutz. Sta urone is Smithii Grun. 

Xifsschia acicularis \V. Sm. Synedra radians (Kutz.) Grun. 

The tnost prominent form was still Pleiirosigma atteniiattun 
with unusually larg^e frustules, as found by Mr. Coombe. 
Fragilaria capuciiia was present in three varieties, the type 
form (common in most fresh-water g^athering-s) ; the var. 
niesolepta, and a third variety which I have not previously seen 
described. Instead of the constriction in the median portion 
of valve, which is characteristic of the var. mesolepta^ there 
was a distinct dilatation. 

In Maltby village there is a spring- to which local belief 
attributes mysterious virtue. When I went down to take a 
g-athering- from the brown fringe that festoons the water in its 
rocky basin, there was an ancient rustic engaged in filling a 
farm water-cart. ' Aye,' said he, ''tis real good watter, the best 
for many a mile round — and puts moor stuff in a man's boans.' 
To my ears this sounded as rather dubious praise, but to my 
doubtful query, the aged one staunchly responded, ' I doa'nt 
know nowt aboot that, but I've supped this watter for moor nor 
seventy year, and I've never had roomatiz in my life.' To this 
unsolicited testimonial no cavilling was possible, so I meekly 
filled my tubes, wondering whether this marvellous water would 
yield anything special in its algae. The principal form proved 
to be Meridion cirnilare^ whose graceful whorls are familiar 
to all diatom students. The most uncommon was Synedra 
ulna var. vitrea, whiih was also fairly abundant. About a 
dozen other species, all rather common, have been mentioned 
as occurring in other waters. 

1906 January i 




The Committee has succeeded in awakening' the interest of a 
number of the Geolog'ical Photographers, who have come 
forward with a number of vakiable photographs of various 
geological phenomena in the East Riding, which is ground 
which has been but sparcely touched upon previously. 

Nearly all the photographs contributed this year have been 
obtained in duplicate, so the Committee will have a g"ood 
number of prints to hand over to the British Association before 
the I St of July 1906. 

Altogether 78 additional photog"raphs have been added 
during 1905. Some of these have already been reproduced 
in the ' Naturalist.' 

The following is a list of Photographs received : — 

From Mr. Godfrey Binglev, Leeds. 










& 6846. Hambleton Quarries, 

near Bolton Abbey. 
Hig'h Force, Upper Teesdale. 
High Force. Down stream 

from above Falls. 
Section of altered Limestone. 

Above High F"orce. 
Niddy Bank (Skiddaw Slates). 
Niddy Bank (Mica Trap 

Cauldron Snout. 
Falcon Clints. 
Falcon Clints (Whinsill, on 

Basement Carboniferous 

& 8. Thistle Green, Cronckley 

Dry glacial overflow valley in 

Clayton Bay and Osgodby 

Osgodby Nab, from sands. 
& 6931. North side of Cay ton 


with boulder cla)). 


6933, 6934. Osgodby Nab 

(Estuarine and Millepore 

6935. Osgodb}- Nab (Lower Oolites 

and Millepore series). 
6937. Osgodb^• Nab from the North 

6940. Scalby Bay. 
6941 & 694^. Sections in Scalby 


Cliff sections in Scalb\' Ba\. 









6955. Scalby Nab. 

6957. Cliffs South of Scarbro' (L'pper 
Estuarine series). 

6958. Cliffs South of Scarbro' (Lower 

6960 & 6961. Castle Hill Scarbro", 

North Side (Middle Oolites). 

6963 & 6967. Red Cliff Cajton Bay. 

From Mr. T. Sheppard, Hull. 
Cliff Section at Waxholme (see | 2, 3, & 4. Sections in Railway 
' Naturalist' for October). Cutting at Hessle. 


Reviews and Book A^oiices. 


From Mr. J. T. Dyson, Hull. 
I. Humber Bank at Paull. | 2. ClifFe Section North of Scarboro". 

From Mr. W. S. Parrish, Hull. 

I, 2, 3. Sections at Pockling-ton. 

4. Filey Brig-g' (showing peculiar 

D152. Rudstone (showing Monolith). 
2D. Hessle Waterside. 

Hi. Hornsea, The Mere. 


Hi 3. The Cliffe at Hornsea. 

D135. Flambro', Robin Lythe's Cave 

Di25a. Interior of above. 

From Mr. J. W. Stather, Hull. 

I & 2. Hessle, Cooke's Pit. 

3. Hornsea. 

5. Hornsea (bed of old Mere). 

6 & 7. Bridling-ton (current bedded 

8. Sewerby (pre-g-Iacial sea beach). 
9. Weaverthorp (chalk on end). 
ID & II. Filey Bay (laminated 
Kimeridg'e clay.) 

12. Filey Brig- (conglomerate). 

13 & 14. Scalby Island. 

15 & 16. Sections of Glacial Gravels 

and Boulder Clay north 

of Scarbro.' 
17. Current-bedded Shale and 
Sandstone north of Scarbro.' 

From Mr. Suddaby, North Cave. 

1. Welton Dale. 

2. Brantingham Dale. 

Drewton Dale. 

Eggs of the Native Birds of Britain. By W. J. Gordon. Simpkin, 
Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co. 3/6, 

In the Introduction to this little work the author gfives a useful account 
of the eggs of our British birds, and a serviceable comparison between the 
eg"gs of different species. There is also a list of British Birds towards the 
end of the book which, had it been printed on one side of the paper only, 
would have been admirable for cutting into labels. The author states that 
the eg'gs were arrang'ed in trays, photographed, and accurately coloured 
from the eg-g's by Mr. T. J. Gordon, and the lithographers have done the 
rest.{\) From this we assume that the lithographers are to blame for the 
poorness of the plates. We have recently seen many coloured plates of' 
birds' eggs, of varying' worth, but these are worse than any. The shape 
and relative sizes of the egg's are all rig'ht, but the colours are bad. From 
these one might assume that by far the greater proportion of our birds' 
eggs were of a slaty-blue colour, whilst red is almost entirely absent. 
Beyond the shapes there is nothing' in the representation of the kestrel, 
buzzard, martin, etc., to enable one to recognise them. Quite half the eg'gs 
fig'ured could not be identified by an expert oolog'ist. 

Notes on the Composition of Scientific Papers. By T. Clifford 
Allbutt, M.D., etc. MacMillan & Co. 2nd Edition. 164 pages. Price 3/6. 

This is a book we can particularly recommend to our readers — to the 
Editors of the Proceedings of our local Field Clubs, etc., and especially to 
those who cannot understand why their notes when printed in this journal 
do not always correspond precisely with the wording of the manuscript. 
Not only does Dr. Allbutt present a most readable — not to say amusing — - 
series of extracts from the examination papers which he has perused, but 
what is of more importance, he gives some sound advice to all those who 
write scientific articles. 

1906 January i. 



}' . CJ . K E E G A N , L I, . D . , 
Patterd<iU, Westmoilaiui. 

Among the prehistoric trees specially characteristic of the Lake 
District is the Wych or Mountain Elm. It may be deemed and 
termed an opportunist sylvan item in that locality, i.e., the 
soil and situation thereof are admirably adapted to the secure 
ensconcement and vig^orous development of the tree. Rich, 
deep, loose alluvial bottoms, lavishly paved with rock-debris, 
and therefore of infirm texture, and almost constantly drippinij 
with percolating- water, supply an excellent medium for the 
penetration of its long tough roots, capable of fully ministering 
to its inorganic needs. The fact that some such adaptive rela- 
tions between soil and organism are indispensable in the case of 
this particular tree will be evinced in the course of the following 
exposition of its chief anatomical, chemical, and physiological 

Stem. — The wood is moderately hard and heavy (specific 
gravity 0.628), lightish-brown in colour, with a fairly clear 
distinction between alburnum and duramen. The medullary 
rays occur singly or are grouped in three or four layers, and in 
tangential section may be twelve times longer than broad ; the 
vessels of the spring wood are very large, being over 160 /a wide, 
have areolated pores, and form a continuous belt of one or two 
rows, but in the autumn wood they are much narrower, have 
areolated pores and fine spiral bandlets, and are arranged in 
narrow, wavy, concentric bands ; the very thick-walled fibres 
occupy most of the interspaces between the vessels, while the 
parenchyma is sparsely distributed among" the smaller vessels. 
In the bark, the long, smooth, poorly-lignified fibres are 
arranged in bundles which form irregular concentric zones, 
separated laterally by the soft bast, which consists of cells 
enclosing either a single crystal or a red-brown pigment, and of 
sieve-tubes which are united end to end by transverse partitions 
nearly the whole svuface of which is a simple sieve ; isolated 
bast-fibre bundles occur in the pericycle, i.e., the latter is dis- 
continuous ; the phellogen is the sub-epidermal layer, and the 
superficial periderm formed thereby lasts three or four years, 
atter which the secondary periderm and a persistent rhytidome 
commence to be produced in the form of flattish scales, tin- 
ext(;rior parts of stem and branch ultimately becoming more or 


Keegan : The Wych Ebu. ig 

less furrowed according" to agfe. The wood contains traces of 
tannin and phlorog"lucin, no fat or resin, a moderate amount of 
lignin, some g"lucose, and an enormouse production of starch 
in summer, which, however, disappears in October from the 
pith and becomes somewhat reduced in quantity in the rest of 
the wood till Februar}-, when it reappears till flowering time, 
then once more disappears during the bursting" of the buds, and 
finally in July commences to be redeposited in full force ; the 
wood of a branch of about one inch diameter, cut in May, had 
about 2 per cent, of ash in dry, which yielded 15 per cent, 
potash, 31 lime, 4.7 silica, 6.15 P-O^, etc. (Of our trees in the 
division Apetalae the Elm contains the most potass in its wood.) 
The bark retains its summer starch till towards the end of 
November ; the bark of the branches contains about 2 per cent, 
wax and a little resin, about 1.8 tannin with traces of phloro- 
glucin, about 20 mucilage (occurring as cellulose-encased pro- 
jections from the walls of roundish, large, strongly-refracting 
cells or special sacs), and 10.8 ash, which in May has 12.4 
soluble salts, 1 1.8 silica, 45.1 lime, 2.2 magnesia, 1.7 PoO^, with 
traces of iron and manganese. The mucilage swells enormously 
in water, contains unchanged cellulose, has an acidic function, 
and arises apparently by the growing pressure provoking the 
decomposition of the pectates of the middle lamellae of the thick 
cell-walls of the parenchyma. 

Leaves. — The mesophyll is composed of one or two layers 
of palisade cells occupying half its thickness and a regular 
lacunar tissue of single cells extended horizontally and separated 
from one another by wide intercellular gaps ; the cuticle is 
normal ; the upper epidermis is of straight, polygonal cells, the 
lower epidermis is of smaller and narrower cells with sinuous 
walls, have simple and peltate hairs ; the stomata are small and 
surrounded by accessory cells ; the petiole encloses three vascular 
bundles at the base, which nearer the blade are fixed into a 
closed ring which eventually opens in the form of the letter U. 
At the end of July the leaves contain about 63 per cent, of water, 
and the dried leaf yields about 2 per cent, wax, carotin, etc., 
18 albumenoids, 2.9 tannin, and some free phloroglucin. much 
glucose, a large quantity of pectosic mucilage (enclosed in round, 
deep-reaching cells in the epidermises, petiole, and ner\es), 9.5 
cellulose, and 9.8 ash which yielded 18.4 per cent, soluble salts, 
19.17 silica, 33.8 lime, 5.2 magnesia, 3.6 P-O^, and 1.3 SO^. 
The finely-tinted withered leaves of the autumnal forest yield 
16.8 per cent, of ash in dry, containing 28-8 per cent, silica and 

1906 January i. 

20 A'eco-afi : The Wych Elm. 

40.8 lime. Silica-containing rosettes of cells surround the 
epidermal hairs whose walls are also imprej,mated with silica, as 
are also some of the walls of the epidermis ; while crystals of 
oxalate of calcium occur in the nerves and druses of same in 
the mesophyll. 

Flower and Fruit. — The flowers are disposed in loose 
clusters or in simple umbels, and most of them are male by 
abortion ; they all open nearly simultaneously, and fertilisation 
is effected all at once in each umbel, soon after which they fall 
to earth. The dried flowers contain about 20 per cent, albu- 
menoids and 8 ash, which has 29.2 per cent, potass, 14 lime, 
11 P-O^, and 16.3 SO^. The fruit is a samara with peripheral 
wing's ( = a wing-ed achene), i.e., the external epidermis expands 
into flattened prolongations in the form of wings ; the interior 
remains empty for some time, but is rapidly filled up by the 
developing embryo, which has tuberous cotyledons with cellulosic 
cell-walls, nerves in the procambial state, and aleurone and oil, 
but no starch ; the radicle is superior, and there is no endosperm. 
The histological composition of the ripe fruit is obscure, the 
various original parts having become fused, or some of them al- 
together obliterated. The chemistry, however, is of great interest. 
The dried fruit and seed yield 8.3 per cent, of a fluid oil which is 
mostly of olein giving with mineral acids dark greenish-brown 
colours and a pale yellowish elaidin ; also considerable resin, 
some sugar (glucose and levulose), traces of tannoid, a very 
large quantity of mucilage with much oxalate of calcium, but no 
phloroglucin, and no starch ; the ash amounts to 9.9 per cent., 
and contains 30.9 per cent, soluble salts, 14.6 silica, 24.3 lime, 
4.7 magnesia, 8.5 P-O^, and 3.3 SO*. It will be observed that 
the amount of silica in this fruit is quite unique among our 
forest trees, and is probably connected with the great, rapidity 
which marks the maturation of the organ. The thin extended 
surface of the winged epidermis off"ers facilities for rapid evapo- 
ration and the drainage of silica thereto from other parts. 

Summary. — An eminent peculiarity of this tree is the highly 
developed system for the conduction of water — the spacious 
vessels in the wood, the numerous lacuna; in the leaves, etc. 
The physiological processes are characterised as languishing, 
and so far imperfect; the increase of lignin, cellulose, and starch 
is slow, the albumenoids and the soluble carbohydrates show 
few symptoms of exhaustion, and the fixed insoluble matters 
tend to accumulate in a very marked degree. The young stems 
cease to g-row at an c-arly period, the \('getati\e development 


Keegan : The Wych Elm. 2 i 

terminates in June, and new buds are thereupon formed. The 
flowering-, too, is very precocious, and the fruit rapidly matures 
and vegetates the same season. Hence from the latter weeks 
of June there is nothing- to do, as it were, for the org-anic 
principles ready formed and apt for chemical transformations, 
and therefore their weig^hts or percentag-es in the fresh leaf, etc., 
seem to underg-o little change from the beginning of July till the 
autumnal fall in mid November. A somewhat similar physio- 
logical condition of things occurs in a few other of our indigenous 
forest trees, but as regards the increase in the percentage of 
ash and of silica as the life of the leaf progresses, the Wych Elm 
has no compeer. Thus, on 5th June, in the not-as-yet full-sized 
leaves I found 9 per cent, of ash in dry having 9.4 silica therein, 
and on i6th November the corresponding figures amounted to 
i6'8 and 28'8 respectively. The general explanation of this fact 
is, as expressed by Palladin, that ' it is on the quantity of water 
vapourised by plants that depends in a great measure the 
entrance and the distribution in the plant of silica, lime,' etc. 
The enormous accumulation of silica in the Elm leaf is the 
result of the action of the living tissues on the perishing or 
dying tissues with which they are connected. ' Between the 
time,' says M. Emile Mer, 'when a tissue in contact with living 
tissue commences to perish and that when it dies it dries a little, 
and in proportion as this water is evaporated it is replaced by a 
drainage of substances,' etc. The physiological condition of 
the leaf admits, so to speak, of a kind of demise almost from 
the first — a sort of drying, not perhaps of the entire organ, but 
especially of its external tissues ; and the water thereby lost is 
replaced by silica which, copiously supplied by special soil, 
proceeds from the living parts towards the dermal appendages, 
especially of the upper surface. 


White Mole in Lincolnshire. — 'A White Mole, taken by 
a member (of the Spalding Society) at Cowbitt, in his garden in 
this parish. Present to the Museum. A spot of black hairs 
round each eye and a black tail.' ' Antiquities in Lincolnshire,' 
being the Third volume of the ' Bibliotheca Topographica 
Britannica ' (Nichols), 1790. — E, Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock. 

1906 January i. 



S. r.. MOSLK V. 

I SHOLLD like to enter a protest against what has become far 
too common a practice: I allude to the photographing of birds' 
nests. I am led to make these remarks from seeing the 
photograph of a nightingale's nest in your last issue, and the 
statement that it had been stolen. Is there any wonder 
when we know the number of visits made to it by the various 
''Naturalists?" The place must have been trampled down. 
Scores of birds have been driven away from their nests by such 
unwarrantable intrusion. For a man to wait five hours keeping 
a rare bird off its partly incubated eggs, in order to get a 
photograph of the bird going on, is worse than taking the eggs. 
And what good is the photograph when taken? In the print 
in your journal we cannot tell whether the eggs are round or 
square, the material of the nest might be anything, and not a 
single plant in the vicinity can be identified with certainty. 
The photograph is not needed. We know already far more 
about a nightingale's nest than any photograph can tell us, and 
for public instruction one of the South Kensington cases is, out 
of sight, superior to any photograph. If these men really 
wanted a photograph, why did they not go where nightingales 
are plentiful, and where the driving away of one pair would have 
done no great harm, instead of badgering away perhaps the 
only pair which favoured East Yorkshire with a visit? If we 
are naturalists let us try to protect Nature from ruthless 

[W'ilhoiil sugfg-cstiiijJ- for a moiiu'iit that our l^radford frifiuls were in any 
way Ki'i'ty c*f '^he general cliartifes made by Mr. IVIosle}', we certainly think 
that there is something to be said on this question from both sides]. — V.V. 

A New Census Catalogne of British Hepatics has been published 
b\ the Mnss lCxrliant;c C'iul). The C'alaioi^uc is l)ased on the system of 
classirii ation ado|3tod by Schillner in iMiglci- and I'rantl's ' Die Natiir- 
lichcn IMlan/.cnfamilien,' and was c(>m])il('d bv Mr. Symers M. Macvicar. 
The Rev. C. 11. Waddell has done the dislriljiition for Ireland and Mr. W. 
Ingham for (ireat Britain. This is the lirst time the distribution of 
Ili-patics has been attem])led accortling to the iij Motanical \'ice-Counties 
t>f (ireat Britain and the 40 of Ireland. Cojjies of this valuable Catalogue 
may be had from Mr. W. Ingham, B.A., York, at gd. each, postage 




In consequence of the Meeting" of the British Association for 

1905 being held in South Africa, it was arranged that the 
Annual Conference of the Corresponding Societies of the British 
Association should take place in London, A meeting was con- 
sequently held in the rooms of the Linnean Society, Burlington 
House, on October 30th and 31st, at which the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union was represented by its Secretary. Delegates 
from the following Northern Societies were also present : — 
Hull Geological Society, Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' 
Club, Leeds Naturalists' Club and Scientific Association, Man- 
chester Geographical Society, Manchester Geological etc., 
Society, Manchester Microscopical Society, North of England 
Institute of Mining etc., Engineers, Rochdale Literary etc., 
Society, Yorkshire Geological Society, and Yorkshire Philo- 
sophical Society. 

The Conference was presided over by Dr. A. Smith Wood- 
ward, F. R.S., of the British Museum. After welcoming the 
deleg'ates, he delivered an address, in the course of which he 
stated, in reference to 

Field Cllb Excursions, 
' I deem it a special honour to have been deputed by the 
Council to preside over this Conference of Delegates, because 
there is no nation in the world in which local Scientific Societies 
are so numerous or form so prominent a feature of intellectual 
life as in the kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. I also 
undertake the duty with peculiar pleasure, because I began my 
scientific career as an active member of the small Society at one 
time flourishing in my native town, and it was then that I first 
learned how to observe and how to write down my observations 
in a logical form. None but those who have associated with 
the scientific men of other countries, and have seen the splendid 
isolation in which most of them are accustomed to work, can 
appreciate the service which our scattered small Societies render 
to the cause of natural science here. Throug-h the influence of 
these bodies everyone who is able to devote his energies to 
original research is assured the sympathy, and frequently the help, 
of a multitude of cultured men who are too much occupied with 
other pursuits to give more than superficial attention to natural 
science. Through the same influence also a continual stream 

1906 January i. 

24 Coiifcrciur of Dc/co-ti/cs. 

of recruits is furnished to the j^reat Societies in our three 
metropolitan centres whose activities and resources excite the 
admiration, even if not the envy, of our colIeai<-ues in scientific 
research abroad. 

' In the first place it seems to me that some of the Societies — 
especially the Field Clubs, which admit too many so-called 
' antiquarians ' — continually reduce their efficiency, and even 
endaiii^'-er their existence as scientific bodies, by the luxurious 
picnics which are misnamed 'excursions.' The excursion- 
circulars of one Society, which I often see, particularly amuse 
me. The hour of starting- is made sufficiently late to avoid the 
discomforts of even moderately early rising- ; carriages are 
arrang^ed for every possible part of the route ; at least an hour 
is spent in an elaborate luncheon at some well-appointed 
hostelry ; an hour and a half afterwards an amiable hostess 
invites the party to tea ; and then, after inspecting- some old 
building-, the direct return journey is begun. Natural history 
forms an entirely subordinate part of the programme. I know 
three Societies which have lost the co-operation of some of the 
best naturalists in their district by frivolity of this kind ; and, 
however tempting; the propect of multiplied subscriptions may 
be, I do not think it is to the advantag-e of science for any 
Society to increase its membership at the sacrifice of strict 
attention to its main objects. Excursions are a most admirable 
institution, but when intended for natural history should be as 
systematically scientific as the meeting's.' 

The address was followed by an animated discussion, in 
which it was shown that, at any rate, most of the Yorkshire 
Societies were not guilty of the drawback pointed out by 
Dr. Smith Woodward. Details of the discussion, as well as 
of Dr. W. Martin's paper on 'The Law of Treasure Trove' 
which followed, will appear in the Report of the Corresponding- 
Societies Committee in due course. Following these papers a 
visit was paid to the jNIuseum of the Royal College of Surgeon.*:, 
where the Conservator, Mr. C. Stewart, described the more 
interesting exhibits. 

On the following day Prof. G. S. Boulg-er introduced the 
subject of 

The Prksi;k\-atio\ ov ovu Native Plants. 

He pointed out that ' Plants are in danger of extermination 
from inevitable natural causes, such as the encroachments of 
the sea and the increasing density of population, with its con- 

Conference of Delegates. 25 

comitant clearing', draining- and building. Among avoidable 
causes of loss the more important are the thoughtless excesses 
of children, tourists, and botanists, and the work of trade 
collectors. The demands of artists have led to much local 
extermination of the sea-holly, and the fruitless endeavours of 
amateurs to cultivate our terrestial orchids seriously endanger 
some species. . Nurserymen, who certainly do not cultivate 
them, offer the latter for sale, just as clergymen and others in 
the Lake District, or other districts still rich in ferns, advertise 
collections of these plants. It is mainly plants such as primroses 
and ferns, which can be obtained in large quantities, that appeal 
to the trade collectors ; but these men, who now range far 
afield from London or other large towns, are often merely the 
employes of large wholesale firms. Botanists, w^ho ought to 
know better, are often recklessly wholesale in their collecting-, 
rooting- up numerous specimens of non-variable species partly 
for the purpose of exchange. Even the gathering- of the 
blossom may endanger the continuance of species, such as 
Blackstonia perfoliata, which are annual, by preventing the 
formation of seed. 

' Among protective measures are the concealment and enclo- 
sure of the localities of rarities, the cultivation of wild forms, 
transplanting them from places where they are in danger, 
educational or moral methods, and legislation. Enclosure, 
unless a keeper be emplo3'ed, may only direct attention to the 
locality of some rarity : it must be costly, and can only be ot 
very limited application. Much may be done by the cultivation 
of rarities in g^ardens near by, so as to supply tourists, as Mr. 
Correvon grows edelweiss and other alpines at Geneva. Small 
gardens near Ben Lawes, in the Lake District and at the 
Lizard, would be very valuable. Ultimately we must depend 
mainly upon the development of a general sentiment in favour 
of the conservation of our natural beauties, and nothing- will 
conduce to this end more than educational measures. We 
must educate our teachers. A leaflet might be distributed 
among them stating the case ; and, perhaps, ' a reader' might 
be prepared interming^ling pleas for plant protection with inter- 
esting accounts of plants and plant life. The clergy, or other 
managers of school treats, mig-ht well represent to the children 
beforehand such simple principles as that one cannot both eat 
one's cake and have it ; that some flowers should be left to form 
seed to grow into new plants; and that some should be left for 
others' enjo3'ment. 

1906 Jannary i. 

26 Ficlil Xolcs. 

' As the results of education must be tardy, and the existini,-- 
law is inadequate, leg'islation appears necessary. It is at 
present necessary to prove damag-e; it is difficult to secure the 
co-operation of landowners and the police; and the powers of 
the Home Secretary and of the County Councils as to the 
makinif of by-laws are not sufficiently clear. It is proposed to 
introduce a Bill on the lines of the Wild Birds' Protection Acts, 
applying,'- only to persons over fourteen years of ag-e as princi- 
pals, and exempting occupiers of land and those authorised bv 
them, but authorising the scheduling of species, districts, or 
wholi' counties.' 


Malaxis paludosa in the North Riding of Yorkshire. 

(See page 355 Dec. ' Naturalist,' 1905.) — Mr. Alexander will be 
interested to know that I found this plant on the Yorkshire side 
of the Tees, about 100 yards above the High Force, on 24th 
August, 1895, and recorded it in the 'Naturalist' soon after 
(Nov., 1895, p. 307.) In my case also, the few plants were 
g-rowing on the top of Sphagnum close by the river, and kept 
wet by a slight trickle of water. — Wm. Ingham, York, iith 
Dec. 1905. 

— :o : — 


Aplecta nebulosa var. robsoni at Wakefield. I took a 
specimen of Aplecta nebulosa var. robsoni at Haw Park, Wake- 
field, on 1 8th July last. — Arthur Whitaker, W^orsborough 
Bridge, Barnsley, nth November, 1905. 

This is the first definite record we have of the occurrence of 
A. nebulosa var. robsoni in Yorkshire, though very dark speci- 
mens are so numerous in the south-west, it was pretty certain 
that the extreme black form [robso)ii) must occur. — G. T. P. 

Euchromia mygindana near Sheffield ; an addition to 
the Yorkshire list. — Amongst some micro lepidoplera taken 
during the last few years, and identified for me by Mr. G. T. 
Porritt, arc two specimens of Euchrotnia uiyi^intlaiia. Tiiis 
species, Mr. Porritt informs me, has not previously been 
recorded as occuring in \'orkshire. They were taken in a rough 
moorland wood in the Sheffield miglibourhood. — L. S. Bkadv. 
Sheflield, 25th Nov., 1905. 




(Odynerus parietum Linnj. 

C. F. GEORGE, M.R.C.S., 

Kirton Lindsey. 

This active little creature is, perhaps, our commonest species 
of this Genus of Solitary Wasps. It is not often observed, 
except by Naturalists, in consequence of its timid and suspicious 
nature. Occasionally it strays into houses by accident, and is 
then seen in the window, and promptly destroyed, as a nasty 
little black wasp. It oug'ht really to be protected and set at 
liberty, for it is very useful in the garden, as it provisions its 



..^..,_^„.,, , 





Nest of Solitary Wasp. 

nest with the g-reen caterpillars, so destructive to the rose leaf. 
It is sometimes so intensely interested in its work that it may 
be closely approached. Many years ago I saw the little creature 
rush from one edge of a rose leaf to the other, backwards and 
forwards m quick succession, following the motion of something 
on the other side of the leaf, at last it caught hold of the cater- 
pillar and dragged it forth ; the weight was so great that both 
wasp and caterpillar fell to the ground ; the wasp then stood 

1906 January i. 

28 Xo/i's 0/1 (I Soli/diy W'lisp. 

over the caterpillar to rest, and perhaps to sting- it, as well as to 
perform its own toilet. After a little while it took up the cater- 
pillar and flew away with it. On another occasion I saw an 
Odynerus either enter or come out of what appeared to be a nail- 
hole in the mortar between two bricks ; after it had left I 
extracted several of these green caterpillars — it was evident 
that a hole, already formed, was to be used, instead of buildinij 
an entire nest. In igoi I went to examine a nest made by 
some insect near the front door of a neighbour ; it had not 
been discovered until completed, and its entrance closed. It 
was situated in an angle of the brickwork, at the bottom of a 
column, as shewn in the photograph. In the spring of 1902 I 
was allowed to fix a small net of muslin over the cell, and fasten 
it in such a manner as to detain any insect that might emerge 
from the cell ; in this way I was enabled to obtain more than 
one specimen of wasp, and to make out the species, which I 
decided to be Odynerus parietiim Linn.* During the spring of 
1902 another nest was built, two bricks above the first one, but 
possibly the insect builder came to grief from some accident, as 
the nest was never sealed up. It is very curious that, although 
people were very frequently passing in and out every day, the 
wasp whilst at work was not observed by anj'body. On the 
25th July igo2, I took the photograph which shows the two 
nests, the unsealed opening of the upper one is very plainly to 
be seen, and it will be observed the wasp made several attempts 
to make the upper nest, but was only satisfied of its security 
when it commenced on the mortar between the bricks. Panzer, 
in his ' Fauna Germanica ' gives a good coloured figure of this 
Wasp. Donovan also in his 'British Insects,' Vol. xiv., p. 
72, Plate 495, figures two other species. In 1868 Dr. Ormorod, 
the father of the well-known Entomoligist, Miss Ormerod, 
published a popular History of British Social Wasps, beautifully 
illustrated. I have not however heard of any popular work on 
British Solitary Wasps. In the October 'Naturalist,' p. 292, 
appears a short notice of (American) ' Wasps Social and 
.Solitary,' by G. W. and E. G. Peckham, which, thanks to Mr. 
Sheppard, I now possess, and which should be read by all 
interested in Wasps. In it are mentioned six or seven species 
of Odynerus, but O. fxirie/uni, which differ in its methods of 
nest building, is not dt'scribrd. 

* We have sevoral species of Odynerus in Great Britain : F. Smith, in 
lii.s Catalog'ue of tlie British Museum, publislud in 1S58, describes 12 species, 
and Saunders in liis Synopsis of 1S82 mciuions 13, and possibly more have 
been recorded since that time. Naturalist 





Again omitting- the g-enerally common species, the following 
spiders collected in the neighbourhood of Scarboroug-h in 
August are additions to the brief list given in the ' Naturalist ' 
for February 1905, p. 61 : — 

Oonops pulcher Tempi. Three examples, Hayburn Wyke. 

Cluhiona reclusa Cb. Scalby, Scarborough, Cloug-hton. 

Clubiona holosericea Degeer. An adult male and female, Scalby. 

Clnbiona frivialis C.L.K. Several examples of both sexes, Rhiging-- 
keld Bog, Clougfhton. A rare spider. 

Chiracantliium carnifex Fabr. Common, but all immature, both sexes, 
Riagingkeld Bog. 

Coelotes atropos Walck. Raincliff Woods, a few females. 

Antistea elegans C.L.K. Scalby, four males, two females. Ringingkeld 

Bog, one female. A scarce spider, frequenting bogs. 
Hahnia montnna Bl. Many adults, both sexes, Hayburn Wyke. 
Pholcomma gibbujn Westr, One male and six females, Hayburn Wyke. 

Drapetisca sociaJis Sund. A few examples from tree trunks, Hayburn 

Leptyphantcs obscuriis Bl. Scarborough Mere. Raincliff Woods. 

Leptyphantes pallidus Cb. Two adult males, Raincliff Woods. A rare 

Bathyphantes variegatus Bl. Man)' examples, Scarborough Mere. 

Porrhomma microphthahnum Cb. One female, Ringingkeld Bog. 

Hilaira e.xcisa Cb. One female, Ringingkeld Bog ; two females, 
Hayburn Wyke. A rare spider. One of the specimens was 
remarkable in having only half of its complement of eyes in a 
serviceable condition, two laterals on the same side being obsolete, 
and two centrals being imperfect!}- formed. 

Tmeticus riifus Wid. One female, Raincliff Woods. 

Tmeticus hiithivaitii Cb, An adult male and female from beneath the 
stones on the foreshore, Hayburn Wyke. A rare spider. 

Microneta viaria Bl. Raincliff Woods ; Hayburn Wyke. Among dead 

Syedra pholcommoides Cb. Just removed from the genus Sintula. One 
adult female. Cornelian Bay. A rare spider. 

Erigone promiscua Cb. One male, Scalby. 

Lophomma pttnctatum Bl. One female, Scalb}- ; three females, Ringing- 
keld Bog. Another hygrophilous species and a scarce spider. 

Diplocephalus picinus Bl. Many females, Raincliff Woods. 

Diplocephahis fuscipes Bl. One female Raincliff Woods ; one female, 
Hayburn Wyke. 

Peponocraiiium ludicrxim Cb. One female, Raincliff Woods. 

Tapinocyba pollens Qh. Two females, Raincliff Woods. A rare spider. 

Cornicularia cuspidata Bl. Two females, Raincliff Woods ; one male, 
two females, Hayburn Wyke. 

1906 January i. 

/Reviews (im/ Hook Xoticcs. 

Cornicularia unicornis Cb. One fVinali', Rinifiiiickfld Bojj'. 

Xesticiis celliilanus Clk. Many fxaniplts, bolli m-xcs, .'icliilt ami 
immature, Ha^'biirn Wyke. 

Em tlioraritii Wid. Haybiirn W\ki' ; Rinj;-ini;kclci l^otf. 

Mef(t nwrianac Scop. Haybuni Wykc. 

Oxvptilii tnix Rl. A few adult and immature specimens, Scalby, 
Cornelian Ray, Kinjai'ing'keld Rotf. 

Lycosa uigriceps Thor. Adult and immature examples, Scalby and 
Rin^inifkeld Roif. 

Neon retictilatus Rl. One femak-, Riiiijinsjfkeld Rovj ; one female, 
Ha\burn \\"\ke. 


The Making of East Yorkshire. Ry Thomas Sheppard, F.O.S. 

A. Rrown & Sons, Hull. 29 Paj<-es and 4 Plates. igo6. Price is. od. net. 

In this booklet Mr. Sheppard has done good service to two 
causes, to Geology and to Education. In the first aspect it is 
popular rather than scientific, in the sense that it is intended, 
not for the enlightenment of geologists but for the popularisa- 
tion of geology. Viewed from this standpoint it has many 
merits. It is fortunate in its subject ; for though the East 
Riding is of recent origin, there are few districts where the 
elementary processes of earth-building and earth-carving can be 
studied to better advantage. We can see the river and estuary 
at work. In the long -line of cliffs from Spurn to Whitby the 
sedimentary rocks are laid in successive sections mile after mile, 
there are witnesses of oceans and meres and shallow seas, while 
the stupendous forces of the ice world remind us of the time 
when Holderness was as Alaska is now. Those who read the 
record of the East Riding know no sinall portion of the secret 
of the earth's history. But the presentation of this record to 
the uninitiated requires knowledge. Just as the teacher knows 
his subject, has got beyond the perplexity of it, and sees it 
whole, can give it out in simplicity and with a sure hand. This 
Mr. Sheppard is able to do. 

We said also that there was good service to education. This 
was prompted by the fact that the lecture was delivered to a 
Teachers' Association. For an appreciation of Geology has a 
double worth. It familiarises the mind with the action of the 
laws of nature. No one who has grasped the meaning of this 
record but can look out on the world with a larger view. 
Moreover, as our system of education learns to deal more with 
the realities of life, it is certain that the story of the earth will 
be taught to every educated child, and that it will be the better 


Northern Neifos. 31 

for it. By his address to the Hull and District Teachers' 
Association Mr. Sheppard has helped to this end. 

We may say that the Illustrations are excellent. There is 
one Greek word in the book and it is wrong", but this is a 
misprint. -J. Malet Lambert. 


An earth tremor occurred in the Manchester and Salford district at 
3.45 a.m. on November 25th last. 

A memorial bust of the late Dr. Joule was recently unveiled at Sale, near 

The new Museum and Laboratories of Zoology of the University of 
Liverpool were opened by the Eiirl of Onslow in November. 

In the Geolog-ical Magazine for December, Mr. G. \\'. Lamplugh, 
F.R.S., has some 'Notes on the Geological History of the Victoria Falls.' 

Yorkshire Naturalists will be sorry to hear that Mr. W. Nelson, of Leeds, 
who has done so much for Yorkshire conchology, is suffering- from a severe 
illness, from which he is not expected to recover for some time. 

]\Ir. J. W. H. Harrison, B.Sc. , writes on ' Social H3'menoptera in North 
Durham,' ' Note on Vohicella tombylans,' and ' Megachile circumciiicta, 
Lep., in Durham,' to the December 'Entomologist's Record.' 

Mr. W. West and Prof. G. S. West contribute a memoir on ' Fresh- 
water Algae from the Orkneys and Shetlands ' to the ' Transactions of the 
Botanical Society of Edinburgh,' vol. 21,^ part i. 

The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is issuing a 
new periodical, ' The Animal World,' part i of which has just reached us. 
The publication, which is well illustrated, will doubtless advance the cause 
of the Society. 

It has been decided by the Council of the British Association that the 
meeting of the Association, to be held at York in 1906, shall commence on 
August 1st. This date is much earlier than usual, and we doubt the wisdom 
of such a change. 

Sir John Burdon Sanderson, who was Professor of Physiology at Oxford 
for many years, has recently died at the age of 77 years. He was a 
native of Jesmond, Northumberland, and a familiar figure at the meetings 
£)f the British Association. 

The death is announced of Capt. F. W. Hutton, of the Canterbury 
Museum, New Zealand, who was the second son of the Rev. H. F. Hutton, 
Rector of Spridlington, Lincolnshire ; and of Dr. Ralph Copeland, Astro- 
nomer Royal for Scotland, who was born in Lancashire. 

We regret to record the death, on November i8th, of a well-known 
Bradford worthy, James Monckman, D.Sc, at the age of 63. Dr. Monck- 
man was one of the founders of the Bradford Scientific Association, and was 
three times the president. Though he was principally occupied with 
chemistry and allied sciences, he took a great interest in the natural sciences, 
and paid particular attention to the glacial features of the Bradford district. 
He was helpful in the formation of the Bradford Botanical Garden, and 
occasionally contributed to the Journals of the Yorkshire Scientific Societies. 

1906 January i. 


Northern News, 

From the 'Hull Daily Mail" :— ' Rara Insectus : A fly of the above 
jCciuis was seen in the stackyard of a farmer in the neig-hbourhood of 
Drewtoii Dale. It is the first time that it has been known to visit this part. 
In appearance it is very much like the common or domestic housefly, onlv it 
has eyes very much larj^^er and is continually humming-. Several of the farm 
hands tried to effect a capture, as we are informed that a large price is 
off"ered for the rarity. It evaded its would-be captors, and was last seen 
making a bee line for Hull, humming the while. We suppose the extremely 
mild weather is accountable for its presence with us.' [The specimen has 
not arrived at the Hull Museum. — Ed.] 

At the annual meeting of the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union, held at 
Lincoln on Nov. 23rd, the officials were re-elected. The President (the Rev. 
E. A. Woodrufte Peacock) read a paper on ' The Stoat and its ways.' In 
his opinion the 'record' was held by a stoat at Pennyhill, which ' killed 
during one night 11 turkeys, 30 ducks, and 20 chickens.' We cannot beat 
that record ! The present membership of the Lincolnshire Union is 106. 
We are glad to notice that the Union has a ' balance in hand," and trust it 
will now consider the advisability of printing annual transactions. We feel 
.such a departure would result in an increased interest being taken in the 
natural history of the county. 

We quote the following from the Eastern Morning Neias :—^ \X. the 
Gainsborough Police Court, a baker was charged, under the Wild Birds' 
Protection Act, with having in his possession a horned owl. The fact was 
admitted, but defendant maintained that the bird was perfectly tame, and 
was allowed to fly about the house. He had had it between two and three 
months, and it was tame when he bought it. The Chairman pointed out, 
and quoted a case to show, that it was no offence in law to keep one of these 
birds in captivity, unless it could be shown that it had been recently taken. 
It was a bad state of the law perhaps, but they had to take the law as it 
stood, and the case must be dismissed.' 

A meeting of the leading Yorkshire antiquaries and representatives of 
various Yorkshire Societies was held at the Leeds University- on December 
i6th on the invitation of Principal Boddington, The object of the meeting 
was to consider the advisability of forming a Committee to advance the 
study of Roman antiquities in Yorkshire by the formation of a Bibliography 
and the production of a map, and by the investigation of Roman roads 
and of sites of buildings, and other remains within the county. It was 
unanimously decided that such a Committee be formed, and the following 
officers were elected and formed the Executive Committee : — President, 
Principal Boddington ; Yice-Presidents, Rev. Julian (Sheffield) and Mr. 
Dickons : Prof. Foster (Sheffield), T. Sheppard (Hull), and T. Boynton 
(Bridlington), with Mr. .Sidney Kitson as Hon. Secretary. The first meeting 
of the Society will be held at York in March. 

We cannot resist reproduc- 

mg the accompanying block 
from a recent issue of Punch, 
wliicli the proprietors of thai 
journal have kindly en.ibled 
us to do. The birds in the 
fjackground are evidently not 
wasting their time in discuss- 
ing ' protection ' : — 

Mr. Bird. " I was witii 
them when they started the 
Society for the Protection of 
Wild Binls, but now tiiey're 
forming ont- for the protectit>n 
of wild worms -it's a bit too 




No. 589 

(No. 367 of current series) 





The Museum, Hull ; 



Technical College, Huddersfield ; 


(vrof. P. F. KENDALL 
T-. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., 


, F.R.S, A..S., GEO. T. PO 

L, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. T 



Contents ;— 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated) : —Shapes of British Skulls, The Origin of Early 

Yorkshiremen, Strange Habitats for Fungi, Pot-holing, Lancashire Paleontology 
Lincolnshire Freshwater Mites (Illustrated)— C. F. George, M.R.C.S. 

Yorkshire Lepidoptera in 1905 

The Birds of North-West LinAsey~Max Peaccck 

Notes on Lepidopterous Yariation in the Skelmanthorpe District- 
Birds etc., u.sed for Food in the Sixteenth Century 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Bradford 

Field Notes 

Reviews and Book Notices (Illustrated) ... 

Northern News 


e Palffiontolo 


... 33-36 
.. 37-38 
... 39-41 
... 42-47 

-B. Moi-ley . 

... 48-51 
... 52-56 
... 57-59 
...36, 60-61 
47, 56, 61-63 



37, 38, 61, 63 


A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenle, E.C 

And at Hull and York. 
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A Complete Annotated List of all the known Fungi of the 
County, comprising: 2626 Species 

By Q. MASSEE, F.L.S., F.R.H.5., 

Royal Hcrharium, Keiv ; Chaitman of the Yorkshire Mycological Committee; and 


Halifax, Hon. Sec. uf the Yorkshire Mycological Committee. 

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In the 'Journal of Anatomy and Physiolog"}' ' Dr. Wm. 
Wright has recently given the results of his examination of the 
series of pre-historic skulls in the Mortimer Museum. It is 
illustrated by several photographs, two of which, shewing 
extreme types of skulls, we are kindly permitted to reproduce. 

Skulls from Yorkshire Barrows. 

The first is a good example of a long skull, or, as the author 
describes it, ' markedly dolichocephalic — an excellent example 
of the class called Ellipsoides peiasgicus longissimus.' The 
other example is a brachycephalic, or round skull. 


Dr. Wright's conclusions are interesting. He points out 
that it is usually stated that Europe in early Neolithic times 
was inhabited by a long-headed race ; that in late Neolithic 
times— the so-called .-Eneolithic Age -a round-headed race 

1906 February i. 

34 JVo/es and Comnicn/s. 

passed across from east to west. Representatives of these two 
races are frequently found buiied toj^ether in the barrows of 
Continental Europe of the late Neolithic Age. He finds similar 
representatives of a mixed race in the round barrows of East 
Yorkshire. The conclusion to which one is therefore driven, is 
that at the dawn of the Bronze Age colonists from the mixed 
race passed over from the Continent to England, occupying, 
amongst other places, the East Riding of Yorkshire. This 
differs from the conclusions usually accepted, viz., that in the 
Bronze Age a pure brachycephalic race passed into England, 
and that the mixture of types found in the round barrows here 
is due to the peaceful intermixture of the new arrivals with those 
who were already in possession. To grant this conclusion, one 
must believe that a pure round-headed race could have made its 
tardy progress across Europe unmixed — an assumption which 
is unwarranted and incredible. Another fact which supports, 
one in believing that the intermixture had taken place at an 
early epoch, is that the presence of bronze articles, and the 
practice of incineration, cannot be associated mor^ with the 
round-headed individuals than with the long-headed. The 
round barrows of East Yorkshire must not be associated with a 
round-headed race. 


In the ' Proceedings and Transactions of the Nova Scotian 
Institute of Science' (vol. ii., pt. i) issued recently, Dr. A. H. 
MacKay gi\es a provisional list of the Fungi of Nova Scotia. 
In this is figured and described a specimen of Plcurotiis Cokkvelli 
n. sp., which was found growing on the bone of a whale in the 
Museum of Acadia College, Wolfville. The bone had been 
picked up on the beach two years previously. This somewhat 
unusual habitat is equalled by an entry in Massee and Crossland's 
' I'^uigus I-'lora of Yorkshire.' It is there recorded (p. 60) that 
about a dozen pilei of a minute agaric [Plcurotiis chionciis Pers.) 
were found growing upon a human bone, which had been exca- 
vated from an Anglo-Saxon cemetery near South Cave, and had 
been placed in a hedge bottom for a few weeks. 

I'OT- 11 1, I N C. . 
judging from the excellent manner in which the ' \'orkshire 
Ramblers' Club journal '* has been issued, the fme illustralions, 
and the vaiirly of subjects discussed, the N'orkshire Raml)lfrs' 

• Vol. J., I'l. (.. J. lish.r I'luviii. .'/-. 


Notes and Comments. 


Clnb is in a flourishing' condition. The principal articles deal 
with ' A Fortnight in the Eastern Alps,' the ' Kleine Zinne from 
Cortina,' 'A Holiday among the Horungtinder,' etc., which, 
though possibly the work of Yorkshiremen, hardly come within 
the scope of this Magazine, It is on turning to the part of the 
Journal which more nearly refers to our own district, 'Jockey 
Hole and Rift Pot,' etc., that we are disappointed. One is 
christened ' Rift Pot ' because it is a rift in the limestone. 
A hole through which the party wriggled is christened ' the 
Eye,' and lest the name should be forgotten, one meets with 
' the Eye ' again and ag"ain. Details are g"iven of the rope 
ladders, life lines, ropes, flare lamps, etc., etc. ; of the 
'difficult climbing,' 'wriggling,' 'crawling,' 'negotiating'; 
the 'great deal of hard work,' 'much pulling and pushing,' 
'struggling,' 'many contortions,' and 'tremendous efforts'; 
also of the accidents, additional bruises, etc. One ' explorer ' 
had the misfortune to ' bump his knee ; ' another ' explorer ' 
heard 'a stone of no great size falling,' which dislodged 
others in its descent, but he rushed to aplacfe of comparative 
safet\', and, notwithstanding the shock he experienced, he 
■quickly regained the surface, and received the ' cordial con- 
gratulations of his comrades.' And so on.. ..But when one 
comes to look for some scientific or other results of these 
dangerous and difficult explorations, the search is in vain, 
notwithstanding the fact that there are ' notes on the Geological 
Features ' by another writer. We can only repeat the first 
sentence of the paper referred to : — ' The fascinations of Pot- 
holing do not appeal to all.' 


In some ' Notes on the Palzeontology of Sparth Bottoms, 
Rochdale,' in the Transactions of the Rochdale Literary and 
Scientific Society (Vol. 8), Mr. Baldwin gives particulars of the 
\arious interesting geological discoveries that have been made 
in the Coal Measures at Sparth Bottoms, Rochdale. Some of 
the more interesting have already been referred to in these 
columns. Nearly all of the specimens have been found by 
members of the Rochdale Society since 1900, when a specimen 
of Prestwichia rotundata was discovered and described. In his 
present communication Mr. Baldwin figures two examples of 
Anthnicomartiis, which we are kindly permitted to reproduce. 
With regard to Fig. i , the author considers that this is probably 

igo6 February i. 


Field Xotes. 

referable to Authnicomarlus irilobitus, Scudder. The specimens 
fij^ured represent the abdomens of arachinds. In the same 
volume, Mr. W. A. I'arkin describes some Remains of Fossil 

3. \ 

Fic I Fir. 2 

Anthracomartus, sp. from the Rochdale Coal Measures. 

Fishes found near Rochdale ; Mr. \\\ H. SutclifFe describes 
'The Bullion Mine of the Upper Carboniferous Rocks.' and 
there are other papers of particular local value, as well as some 
which do not appear to have any connection with the district. 


Mammalian Remains in East Yorkshire. ^ — I have recently 
obtained two pieces of tusk, one measiirinj^- 13J inches in lengfth 
by 4 inches in diameter, and the other 12 inches by 4} inches. 
One was found at t)asin<,'-ton in November last, and the other in 
December, not far away from the first one. I have also obtained 
a fine antler of a Red Deer in excellent condition. Its total 
length is 36 inches, and the brow tine is 13 inches long. It 
was dragged up with a crab net, and is from the peat bed which 
occurs on the beach at Withernsea. J. Wilkinson, Withernsea, 
January 13th 1906. 

[I have seen these specimens, and from the appearance of the 
pieces of tusk they are evidently both from the same tusk of 
:i mammoth [Elephtis priniii^cniits^. T.S. | 





Arrhenurus curtus, n.sp. This mite is one of Thor's subgenus 
Afajoa/i/rns, and when living" is, in colour, similar to many 
individuals of Arrhenurus caudatus (the type of that sub- 
division), but is at once seen to differ in its general appearance, 
the tail part being comparatively short, giving the whole mite a 
stuggy appearance. The chitinous skin is well developed, and 
the end of the tail has no downward processes or projections, 
but the outer corners are slightly raised, forming small humps. 
When placed in preservative solution it soon alters in colour. 
Mr. Soar gives the length of the whole mite as 1.28 mm. The 
palpi and legs are of the usual type, having the spur on the 
fourth leg, the hairs on the end of which are wavy. The two 

figures represent the upper and under surfaces of the mite, the 
legs and palpi being omitted. If these figures are compared 
with others which have appeared from time to time in the 
Naturalist, such as A. inembrauafor, March 1903, p. 83 ; 
A. pyriformis, June 1903, p. 215 ; A. mantonensis, p. 216 of 
the same number; and A. insperatus, January 1905, p. 25, 
the great difference in general appearance will be very evident. 
I have only met with a single example of this mite. 

Pionacercus. The species of Pionacercus appear to be rare 
in this district, I have only been able to identify one, whilst 
Mr. Soar in Science Gossip for March 1900, page 303, figures 
and describes the hind legs of the males of three species ; 
the hind legs of the males are very peculiar, and vary so 
much anatomically from one another as to form very good 
marks of identity for each species. Mr. Soar however does 
not say a word about the females, whose legs are quite 

1906 February i. 


Northern Xcivs. 

unlike tlie males ; it occured to me that fig"iires of the most 
'ikely parts for identification of this sex, of the one species 
I have found, mig'ht be useful should other species turn 
up; I have therefore figured the posterior part of a female, 
shewing the genital acetabula with their plates — these seem to 
be peculiar. The acetabula are very circular in figure, and 
equal in size, the plates in which they are embedded are 

triangular, but are singular in that the)' almost embrace each 
acetabulum, and the edge of each plate is in consequence 
concave between each cup ; on the plate also there are a few 
little hairs, which appear to differ in situation in different 
specimens. The palpi, fig. 2, resemble those of Piona 
(Lamellipes of Piersig), and the end part of the first leg is 
much enlarged, and furnished with a large retractile double 
claw, fig. 3. 

■ ■■■ -♦♦- 

With the December issue the Journal of Mnlacoloirv closes its career, 
after having' been in existence fbr twelve years. The number of" natural 
history maj^azines that have ceased during' the past few years is realh" 

An application was recently made to the Halifax Corporation for a grant 
of/^i2opi-r finnuni towards the Banktirld Museum, 'fhc a|)|)liialion has 
been declined, and the Committee naively decide ' seeing that Bankfield 
Museum has now attained to the excellence which your memorialists admit, 
the Committee think it should remain in that condition for some time imtil 
more attention has been devoted to the Libraries.' 

Mr. H. v. Charlton reports thai on December 2olh last he shot a 
ChifFchafF, 'an unaccountably (!| scarce bird in Northumberland,' at 
at Cullercoates (January Zooloi^sl). In the same journal Mr. W. (lyng'ell 
draws attention to the fact that he nevei" sees the 'I'wile in the moors near 
.Scarborough, thougli they ;ire appari-ntly admirably suited to its habits. 
Mr. Rosse Hulterfield also contributes some interesting notes on Cuckoo's 
eggs being ile|)osiled \\\ nests of the 'i'wite. H»' can <|uite confirm the 
vi-racilv of (another writer's) statemi-nl. ' No man in llu' North of Knglanil 
has taken more eg'gs of the Twite in past years than he has !' 




The following reports, contributed by various members of the 
Yorkshire Entomological Committee, were briefly referred to at 
the recent Annual Meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 
and are now printed in full : — 

Mr. Whitaker, of Barnsley, writes that sugaring was 
particularly good. Five or six specimens of Hadena siiasa which 
he took at Lunn Wood on June 28th were interesting 'finds,' 
as the species has not been taken in the district for very many 
years. Xylophasia scolopacina was abundant on sugar near 
Wakefield at the beginning of August. Orthosia suspecta 
plentiful at sugar. A fair sprinkling of Eiiperia paleacea, 
Noctua trianguhim^ Xylophasia hepafica, Etipithecia fraxmata, 
Cymatophora Jluctiiosa and Notodonta dictceoides are also interest- 
ing species which have occurred again during 1905 in the 
Barnsley district. Mr. Whitaker also took at Haw Park, near 
Wakefield, a specimen of variety robsoni of Aplecta nebtdosa ; 
and says that the afternoon of October 28th at Penistone, ' stone 
turning ' for Dasypolia tempH, produced eight specimens. 

Mr. Morley, of Skelmanthorpe, reports the season a very 
good one. PJiigalia pilosaria very common, and included one 
quite black, another in Deff"er Wood the palest he has ever seen. 
Larentia imiltistrigaria abundant, and many of the melanic 
form variety niibilata. On the commons near Penistone 
Satiirnia carpini and Hadetta glaiica were common. Whilst 
searching at night he came across larvae of Agrotis agaihiiia, 
which have produced a fine series of melanic imagines. This 
species is new to that district. On the same common early in July 
Larentia ccesiata swarmed, and many of those obtained were 
black. Odd specimens have turned up of the following species: — 
Neiiria saponarice, Cucullia verbasci (both new to the Skelman- 
thorpe district), Acronycta leporina, Xylophasia scolopacina, 
CyniatopJiora diiplaris (black), Notodonta dromedarius, &c., 
Eupithecia vcnosata and Eupithecia assimilata were very 
common. Eupithecia pulchellata, Cidaria silaceata, Melanthia 
albicil/ata, Eupithecia fraxinata. Cilix spinula, and many others 
were more or less common. During June and July sugar was 
very good, and attracted countless swarms of common species, 
including many black Xylophasia polyodon, Orthosia suspecta, &c. 
On hedge wound-wort Abrostola urticce, A. triplasia, and Plusia 
ganinia were always about, and Plusia chrysitis only slightly less 
frequent, while Plusia pulcJirina and P. iota were both abundant. 

1906 February i. 

40 }'orks/iiiT Lcpidoplcrti in kjoj. 

Otiier species were Acldalia iiionui/ii (a few), Geomctra papili- 
oiKi/'id, Xoc/iKi dahlii, and Eiipen'ti paleacea in Deffer Wood. 
Altog"ether durinj^ the season Mr. Morley records having taken 
or seen 201 species in the SUehnantliorpe district. Mr. Morley 
adds that of the Larcutia ccesiata one-third were black, and 
that Lareiitia mnllistrii^aria will soon be a black race about 
there. In all probability too, black Xylopliasia pulyodon are more 
frequent, and many other species seem to be becoming' melanic. 

Mr. J. W. Carter, Bradford, reports that D. templi has been 
lather common in the Bradford neighbourhood, and that Erebia 
blandina was as abundant as ever at Grassington in August. 

Mr. H. Johnson, Beverley, writes that Hecatera serena 
occurred in abundance near Beverley. Mr. Hewett took a 
specimen of this species at rest on a tree trunk, close to Flam- 
borough Station on June 22nd. 

Mr. Beck, Shipley, reports the capture of a fine female 
specimen oi Acherontia atropos at Baildon Bridge on August 31st. 

Mr. Corbett, Doncaster, says moths were very abundant at 
sugar during July, but chiefly common species, and that he never 
saw TrypJuena pronuba in such abundance. Aplecta occulta and 
Xylophasia hepalica and Neuria sap'juaruc, of the latter species 
he took a good pale variety. 

Mr. L. S. Brady, of Sheffield, reports obtaining larvae of 
Boarmia repcmdatUy from which he bred some perfectly black 
forms and many intermediate varieties. He also captured 
melanic forms of Venusia cambncaria, which were fairly plentiful. 

Messrs. Boult, Chapman & Porter, of Hull, found common 
insects plentiful at sugar, and record the capture of 16 specimens 
of Agrotis nivida, Maniestni d/bico/oii, Maniestra abjecta, 
Neuria saponarkc, Noctua bninneu (two), all at sugar. This 
last species is scarce in the Hull district. Achcrontiu afropos, 
four or five larvae, near Hull (Mr. Porter). 

Mr. Lofthouse, Middlesbrough, reports the capture of a few 
Tieniocampa leiicographa at sallows, and at sug'ar single speci- 
mens of (\doc(imp(i vcfusta and Clodiitha solidtii^inis and one or 
two Pyni/is cos/ci/is in an outbuilding at Linthorpe ; for this last 
species only one or two localities are given in Mr. Porritt's list. 

Mr. W. Brooks, Rotherham, says Plnsia iota and Abrostola 
tnp/asiu were very common at Grange Park, and that larvae of 
Ciiciillid vrrbdsci were common. 

Mr. W. Hewett remarks on the scarcity, indeed almost total 
absence of Abnixus iilnuitd at Sledmere, where a few years ago 
it swarmed. Asflwiiii blonwrnrid, Wiiusid canibricdria and 


Northern Neivs. 41 

Melanthia albicillata, all of which used to occur at Sledmere in 
considerable numbers, are now scarce. Notwithstanding- the 
larg-e numbers of larvae which are obtained by some of the York 
collectors and their friends, the very local Epione vespertaria 
was in abundance near York on the nigfht of the 15th July, when 
also several Geomctra papilionaria occurred. 

Some beautiful varieties of Abraxas grossulariata have been 
reared by Mr. S. Walker, from larvae obtained at York ; 
and a number of specimens of the variety varleyata of the same 
species from larv^ obtained in the Huddersfield district, were 
bred by different collectors. 

Mr. F. Emsley records the capture of two specimens of 
Acidalia cmutaria at Kilnsea, near Spurn, on June 27, 1905 ; 
whilst Mr. L. S. Brady records Euchrornia tnygindana from 
near Sheffield, both of which species are new to the County 


A specimen of Otiorrhynchus nigifrond, Gyll., is recorded in Miller's 
Dale, Derbyshire (Enfoinologisi's Monthly Magazine, January). This seems 
to be the most inland locality at which this usually maritime species has been 
found in Britain. 

The President's address, entitled "What were the Carboniferous 
Ferns?' by Dukinfield H. Scott, F.R.S., is printed in the 'Journal of the 
Royal Microscopical Society ' (1905, pp. 137-149). It contains some excellent 
illustrations of fossil plants from the Barnsley bed, etc. 

Some thousands of tons of sand having- been carted away from the shore 
between Tynemouth and St. Mary's Island during- the past few months, the 
natural barrier to the encroachment of the sea has been removed, and the 
waves are undermining and removing- the grassy slopes. 

The following is a fair sample of newspaper natural history, taken from 
a recent issue of a leading halfpenny paper: — 'Rare Moth Caught. — A 
convolvus or hawk moth just captured at Hartford (Cheshire) was presented 
to the Northwich Museum yesterday. It is a rare specimen, and the best 
informed naturalists declare they have never before seen one in this part of 
the country. The hawk moth is nocturnal, and lives upon smaller moths, 
being- quite cannibalistic. The specimen measures four inches from tip to 
tip of the wing-s. ' 

At the recent Annual Meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomo- 
log-ical Society Mr. Horace St. J. K. Donisthorpe gave an address. He first 
dealt with the eighteen species of Beetles that had been added to the 
British list during 1905, and afterwards summarised the more noteworthy 
papers that had appeared in current Entomolog-ical literature during- the 
year. Later, in discussing the Science of Entomology, he exhorted mem- 
bers to undertake original research, and to collect with some special object 
in view. There were the theories of mimicry and protective resemblance ; 
the courtship of insects ; the uses of the scents they bear, attractive and 
repellant ; and other equally interesting- problems for solution. In many 
cases he deprecated a protracted waiting- for further evidence before 
venturing to theorise, and insisted on the faculty of imagination, rightly 
used, being as essential to a scientist as to a literary man, as instanced in 
Darwin, and referred to the mass of material already accumulated in the 
museums of the country. 

1906 February 1. 



Cadnty. Lincolnshire. 

Yellow-Wagtail. Motacillu Raii Bonaparte. Is fairly 
common, and breeds in meadows, corn fields, &c. 

Tree-Pipit. Anthus Irivialis Linn. Visits us each season, 
but I have only found one nest, i6th July 1886. It is rare at 
S. Kelsey. 

Meadow-Pipit. Anthus pratensisWnn. Comes to us every 
spring-. It nests in pasture and meadow fields with us. 

Rock-Pipit. Anthns obscunis Latham. Is a very rare bird 
so far inland. I have seen it on the beck at Yaddlethorpe 
gravel pits after rough weather in winter. 

Golden-Oriole. Oriolus galbula Linn. I have never seen 
this species. The Eastern Woodlands have ' during the last 
thirty years undoubtedly had breeding pairs,' as Mr. R. N. 
Sutton-Nelthorpe has told us. Mrs. F. M. Burton saw one bird 
at Laughton in 1899, which was confirmed by her son's record 
the following season. (See ' Naturalist' 1900, p. 368.) 

Great Grev-Shrike. Lauius excubilor Linn. Is very rare. 
I shot a pair on Butterwick Common 27th November 1886. 
One bird was feeding on a Jack-Snipe. Sir Charles J. A. 
Anderson records one for Lea shortly before 1847. 

Red-backed Shrike. Luniiis colliirio Linn. I have never 
seen or heard of it. Mr. Cordeaux said he had proof of its 
nesting at Hibaldstow and Raventhorpe. 

Waxwing. Ampelis garruhis Linn. Visits the woods 
occasionally. A pair was shot at Kirton-Lindsey in 1837, and 
seen in the flesh by the late Rev. W. T. Humphrey. I had a 
pair shot at Holme Hall, January 1889, by Mr. W. Mumby, 
bailiff to Mr. J. Cliff. They are in the Lincoln Museum now. 
'Occurs occasionally in hard winters in fir woods near Claxb}',* 
Mr. Young says. 

Spotted Flycatcher. Muscicapci grisola Linn. Thinly 
distributed over the whole district annually. It was much 
commoner from 1873 to 1876 than in the years before or since. 

Pied Flycatcher. Muscicapa utricapilla Linn. Is a rare 
visitor. It nested at Scavvby in 1871, and at Normanby in 
1896. In a Pyracanthus on the front of West Rasen Rectory in 
1891. Has nested near Gainsborough too, Mr. F. M. Burton 
says. Was observed at S. Kclsi-y in 1S74. 

* .See ' Natiiialist ' i<)oj, pp. H)7-jo4 I'oi- fust inst.ilnuMit. 


Peacock : The Birds of North- West Lindsey. 43 

Swallow. Hinindo rustica Linn. Comes every year in 
great numbers. At Bottesford there were seven nests in one 
cow-house for years. From the 14th to the 23rd of April is 
their usual time of arrival ; in 1890 it was as late as the 26th. 
Much depends on the prevailing wind and temperature. If it 
is genial weather with south-westerley breezes we may expect 
them early, but should it be 'a wild north-easter ' and cold, they 
are very late. A white swallow was hatched, and flew from the 
Keeper's Lodge, Cadney, 1899. It never returned to the parish. 

House-Martin. Chelidon urbica Linn. Was formerly very 
plentiful at Bottesford. It arrives, as a rule, about a fortnight 
after the Swallow. It was very late in 1900. Once a white 
specimen visited us three seasons running. On a barn at 
Mamby Hall, in the Eastern Woodlands, I counted 132 nests. 
No doubt some were old ones of former years, but the numbers 
of birds coming and going astonished a party of visitors to the 
Lily Woods. One season in the early seventies — I cannot now 
fix the date for certain — the weather was unusually cold when 
these birds arrived in their ordinary numbers. Probably they 
were weakened for want of sufficient insect food. However 
that may be, there came a heavy storm of wind and rain from 
the north-east. During this 'blast' we picked up great numbers 
drenched and dead, or nearly dead, in the hamlet of Bottesford. 
About a dozen were found in the Manor House garden. Not a 
single Swallow was discovered at the same time, though they 
were in their usual numbers. The House-Martin has never 
frequented the place to anything like the same extent since, and 
for some seasons we were almost without it. 

Sand-Martin. Cotile riparia Linn. May be said to be 
plentiful in suitable localities. At Yaddlethorpe about 100 pairs 
breed in the gravel pits. During the dry season of 1887, when 
the Home Close at Bottesford was being mowed, hundreds of 
Sand-Martins visited the field to take the insects disturbed by 
the scythes. They breed in the sandy banks of the beck, but 
till I saw them over the grass I had no idea there were such 
larj^e numbers about Bottesford. I once roughly measured the 
work a pair of birds could do on a fresh sand face in a day. 
The 'drift' was 2.75 inches across by 2.50 inches from the face 
to the back of the hole. It was shallow cup-shaped. The 
Vicar and I have often taken the female bird on the nest as lads 
from the beck bank. The tunnel was about 3 feet long. 

Greenfinch. Ligurinus chloris Linn. Is very common. 
There is a large immigration in October. In the winters from 

1906 February i. 

44 Peacock: The Birds of Xorfh-West Lindsey. 

1873 to 187& hundreds collected at iiii,'-lit in tlie everj^reens of the 
two Halls and Vicarage ^'•ardens at Kastoft, in Liiicohishire, 
and \'orkshire. 

Ha\vfinc:h. (\)ccol/i/'aiis/es vu/jj-uris Pallas. I never saw 
this species at Bottesford till the 27th July 1886. I shot one of 
two which were eating- peas in the Manor g-ardens. On the 
1st of April 1890 I saw a pair in the g-arden ; on the 20th of 
April i8yo two pairs. They remained and nested in a holly 
bush and yew hedg-e. Others must have bred near at hand, for 
the young- proved so destructive in the g-arden I had to shoot 
eleven before they were driven off. They have bred ever since. 
Has nested in the S. Kelsey Rectory g-ardens (Brewster). 
Fairly common at Gainsboroug-h (Burton). 

Goldfinch. Carduelis elegans Stephens. Is not so com- 
mom in N.W. Lindsey as it was 25 years ag^o. In 1880 there 
were three nests in fruit trees in the Manor g-arden. We often 
cag-ed up the young- just before they could fly, and allowed the 
old birds to feed them throug-h the wires. I have reared five 
birds from a nest in this manner. There is a local tradition 
that the old birds poison their young-, if they are cag-ed, when 
the proper time comes for them ' to find for their sens.' The 
young- often die at this critical time from not havings proper 
food and plenty of water provided. Rolled hempseed gets 
over the food difficult}-. It must be slightly crushed, as the 
husk of the hemp is too hard for them to crack when young. 
The melanistic form often appears in caged birds which have 
been fed too long wholly on hemp seed. There are only two 
nests just round the Manor House this season, 1900. Mr. 
Young's notes are: — 'A pair or two at Claseby, ditto Barnetby, 
every season. I saw a family party by the roadside between 
Gainsborough and Harpswell, September 1897.' I have often 
seen these family parties at Bottesford in the autumn feeding on 
thistle {Cniciis lanceolatiis) seed. But very rare!}' the seed head 
of the common thistle (C arvensis), but it cannot be seen 
frequently now. Mr. Hunsley writes to me, 22nd October 
1900: —'One very seldom sees them at this work at Kirton-in- 
Lindsey. I have seen them in large flocks in my fields. They 
•were most useful in destroying the thistle seed, but it is years 
ago now.' 

Siskin. (\irduelis spinus Linn. Visits us rarely in Septem- 
ber, October, and November. There are never more than two 
or three together. I believe it is this species which cracks the 
J^udf seeds and feeds on the kernels. I have never seen them 


Peacock: The Birds of North-West Lindsey. 45 

actually at work feeding- on them. But in October, when I 
have disturbed a party on bramble bushes, the spiders' webs 
below the fruit heads have usually been loaded with the broken 
husks. I should much like this observation confirmed by other 
workers. (See under ' Lesser Redpole.') 

House-Sparrow. Passer domesticus Linn. Is everywhere, 
driving out and taking the place of much more valuable species. 
It is a curse wherever found. Its eggs vary very greatly in 
colour, more so than our other common birds. 

Tree-Sparrow. Passer inontaniis Linn. Is widely but 
thinly distributed, but is not as common with us as about York. 

Chaffinch. Fringilla ccelebs Linn. Is still plentiful, and 
grows remarkably bold where it is protected. It makes a 
beautiful nest, and follows its environment wonderfully closely. 
First nests 29th March 1884 and i6th April 1900. 

Brambling. Fringilla rnontijrijigilla Linn. Rarely visits 
us in late October. A good beech-nut year, like the present, 
1904, seems to attract it to certain localities, like the Eastern 
Woods before the beech trees were cut down. 

Linnet. Linota cannabiua Linn. Is generally but thinly 
distributed in suitable places. It nests in whin bushes and 
rough places, but is hardly common where most plentiful. ' At 
Kirton this species grows rarer and rarer,' Mr. Hunsley says. 

Mealy Redpoll. Linota linaria Linn. I have never seen 
this species. On the 19th to the 20th of April 1899 three birds 
were in the Rectory g^arden at South Kelsey. They were never 
seen again after the latter date. 

Lesser Redpole. Linota rufescens Vieillot. Is not by any 
means rare, but at no time plentiful. I found a nest with four 
eggs at Bottesford in June 1896. We have small flights in 
winter in the woods. They may nearly always be found pick- 
ing and feeding on birch-tree buds. In December 1879, while 
watching the taking of ducks in Ashby Decoy, I and the Vicar 
observed Redpoles and Siskins in company fairly g"orging- on 
the birch trees. This was the largest flock of both species I 
ever saw. 

Twite. Linota Jlavirostris Linn. Is a rare bird. I have 
only seen one specimen, shot by Mr. Piatt at Yaddlethorpe 
during the October migration. A few pass down the Trent 
valley from Yorkshire nearly every year, the Vicar says, but 
are more rarely seen on their northern passage. 

Bullfinch. Pyrrhula etiropcea Vieillot. Nests with us, but 
not in great numbers. The orchards in winter have a great 

1906 February i. 

46 Peacock: The Birds of Xor/h-lVesf FJiidsey. 

attraction for them. For years they ruined two larg-e cherry 
trees below the Manor garden. It is said their visits are 
prompted by a grub in the buds ; but when shot in the act of 
ruining the flowering buds, the Vicar could discover nothing 
like a grub in their crops — only the future flowers and leave's. 

Crossbill. Loxia curuirostra Linn. Is not as uncommon 
in our fir plantations as is generally thought. But, personally, 
I have only seen them once. They were on the edge of Mr. J. 
Cliff's plantation N.W. of Holme Hall, December 1888. 

Corn-Bunting. Emberiza miliaria Linn. Is found most 
\ears at Bottesford. It cannot be called common anywhei'e in the 
district. Found nest June 1888. (See ' Naturalist ' 1903, p. 262). 

Yellow Bunting. Embcrisa citrinella Linn. Is very com- 
mon. No two nests of eggs are marked alike. I had one clulch 
quite white. At Howsham the Vicar found three nests within 
50 feet on a ditch side. 

CiRL BiTNTiNG. Emberisa cirlus Linn. Very rarely seen 
on our commons and sandy warrens. I have never heard of 
a nest. ' I identified one some years ago' (Burton). 

Reed-Bunting. Emberisa schccnicliis Linn. Is frequently 
seen by our becks and drains, especially in the lowlands. It 
decreases steadily as we improve away its nesting places. I 
saw a partially white one, 4th August 1892. 

Snow Bunting. Plectrophenax nivalis Linn. May be called 
very rare inland. I, however, shot seven in the winter 1894. 

Starling. Sturnns vulgaris Linn. Is very common. 
Large flights pass over Bottesford in the winter evenings on 
their way to roost in the reed beds on the warpings or woods. 
The noise of their many wings can be heard before they come 
into view and after they have passed out of sight. These 
' flocks ' or ' warblings ' are a perfect nuisance when they select 
a game cover for their winter or spring concert roosting-place. 
Their droppings make the place foetid and iminhabitable for 
other birds. The way to be rid of them is to light smoky fires 
to the windward of the covers or woods for a few evenings. 
The drifting smoke soon makes them shift their quarters. Mr. 
Young says: 'Very common in the Market Rasen district, 
it interferes very seriously with both the Green and Great 
.Spotted Woodpecker, neither of which seems able to retain a 
hole for their own use till the season is well advanced and the 
wants of the Starling are provided for.' The same is just as 
true of the Cadne)-cum-Howsham fox covers, where both 
these species of Woodpeckers breed. 


Reviews and Book Notices. 47 

Nutcracker. Niicifraga caryocatactes Linn. Is a Very 
rare species indeed. Mr. F. M. Burton saw one or more at 
Laug^hton, 14th August 1900. (See 'Naturalist' 1900, pp. 319, 

Jav. Garriihis glandarius \J\\\\\. Has never been common 
in Bottesford parish, but at the present is perhaps commoner 
than ever before, 1895. This year, 1900, they have increased 
greatly. Mr. Young says: — ' Fairly common, few being killed 
by keepers about Claxby. ' 

The Rational Almanac: Tracing the evolution of Modern Almanacs 
from Ancient Ideas of Time and sug-gestingf Improvements. By Moses B. 
Cotsworth. 474 pages. 5/- net. To be obtained from the author at 
Acomb, York. 

In this work Mr. Cotsworth, who is already well known through his 
wonderful series of Calculators, etc. , has brought together a mass of 
information relative to the methods of measuring and recording Time, from 
the earliest periods. His travels in various parts of the world have enabled 
him to observe for himself the numerous monuments which have been 
erected — such as the Pyramids — having a bearing on the subject. Several 
of these have been photographed, and appear amongst the 180 illustrations. 
Our author has sought the aid of astronomy, geology, and archaeology, and 
UHdoubtedly some of the conclusions arrived at are well worthy of the con- 
sideration of scientific men. To geologists Mr. Cotsworth's observations 
on the shadows cast by the Great Pyramid are of especial interest, and 
from a series of elaborate calculations Mr. Cotsworth concludes that when 
the Pyramid was built the pole was evidently in a diflferent position from 
what it is in to-day (as indicated on the map on page 214). The position of 
the pole at that time has a bearing upon the position of the great terminal 
moraines across Europe and America, and in this way our author gives 
some evidence of the date of the Glacial period. The well known Devil's 
Arrows near Borobridge are amongst other items dealt with. These Mr. 
Cotsworth considers to have been erected for astronomical purposes. It is 
mainly, however, with the Almanac of the future that Mr. Cotsworth is 
concerned, and, briefly, his views are as vmder : — 

' Without disturbing the accepted Gregorian length of years now used, 
the advantages of the Proposed Permanent Almanac could be easily 
realised by three simple steps. (i.) From Christmas Day, 1916, cease 
naming Christmas Day by any week-day name, and merely call it " Christ- 
mas Day," which could thus be set apart as the extra yearly day, fitted into 
the last week of the year as a duplicate Sunday to permanently combine the 
week-end holiday with Christmas, and get rid of the troublesome and 
unbusiness-like changing of week-day names for dates throughout future 
years. By naming " Leap Day " as a public holiday without any week-day 
name, justice would be done to salaried servants, whilst maintaining fixed 
day names for each date. (2.) Let Easter, Whitsuntide, and the othe 
movable Festivals be fixed (as Christmas is) to always fall on the fixed 
dates to be arranged for 1916, or such other permanent dates as will suit 
the convenience, welfare, and pleasure of the people. Easter, our longest 
"open-air" public holiday, would be better for the Church and people if 
celebrated in more ideal weather towards May. (3.) Divide the 52 weeks 
of the year into thirteen months of^ weeks each for greater utility and business 
facility by inserting a Mid-Summer month (Sol), between June and July.' 

There are doubtless many advantages in the Rational Almanac, but 
whether Mr. Cotsworth will succeed in getting it adopted is another matter. 

1906 February i. 




After some years of careful observation upon the variations 
so striking^ly developed in many of our local species of lepi- 
doptera, perhaps the following- brief account of a few instances 
noticed may be of interest to others. It is not my intention to 
try to explain any of the various causes that may have more or 
less influence on the coloration of the species. My leisure being- 
limited, it is impossible for me to carry out a large number of 
experiments by breeding and crossing forms of extreme variety, 
and recording the results thus obtained. Perhaps by such 
means a few of the puzzling- phases of the variation might be 
solved. At present it almost seems impossible to arrive at any 
satisfactory conclusion as to what agent is, or agencies are, ir* 
force causing the variations. The results, however, are such 
that one need scarcely be surprised at any strange variation 
that may develop. Not only is the melanic tendency remarkably 
well developed in many species locally, but of recent years other 
species not affected by melanism are actually showing a strong- 
tendency to vary in the opposite direction, and frequently 
examples are obtained, the bright colours of which are quite 
surprising. It is not merely an instance of occasional bright 
specimens, but a few species in particular seem to be g^radually 
leaving their darker hues, consequently the predominating- 
forms are much lighter than formerly. 

Cidaria stiffumata is a good example. Last spring I netted 
a few, using no discrimination whatever, only for those in the 
best condition. In due time, when pinned into the cabinet, the 
difference in comparison with others taken on the same hedge- 
row seven years ago was very striking indeed. The lighter 
parts of the wings were more clear and the central band darker. 
In the same locality a brighter form than this is frequently 
taken, and very rarely the extreme form var. Pornttii (Robson) 
is obtained also. It seems probable that the extreme forms 
now so rare are in reality the forerunners of what the species 
may ultimately become locally. The colour of this beautiful 
variety is very striking, the central band and the blotch at the 
base of the wings are quite black, as though all the colour in 
the ruinaining parts of the wings has been assimilated into 


Morley : N^otes on Lepidopterous Variation. 49 

them, leaving- the other parts a very pale straw colour. All the 
stagfes linking- this fine form with the ordinary type have been 
taken during- recent years, and now apparently the species 
g"enerally is leaving- the ming-led brown-coloured form that 
obtained a few years ag-o, and taking- on this well-defined type 
of markings and coloration. It may be of interest to note that 
the dark variety piceata, which occurs in some parts in the 
north of the county, has never been recorded here. One would 
almost expect to find that the dark form would be the natural 
variation of the species in this district, where melanism pre- 
dominates in comparison with any other variation, especially 
when it is remembered that the dark piceata type is by far the 
commonest form of extreme variation in these islands. How are 
we to account then for the neig-hbourhood of Skelmanthorpe 
producing- specimens of perhaps the very brig-htest type to be 
found in Britain ! 

Another very singular instance of extreme and widely 
differing variation came under my notice during- the season of 
1903. Having- previously noticed the frequence of Xanthia 
cerago ab. Jiavescens at heather bloom, &c., I determined to 
breed the species. According-l}', while collecting- for Tcenio- 
campcp at sallow during- the spring-, I carefully picked up all the 
catkins that fell down upon the sheet, hoping- that some mig-ht 
possibl}' contain the young- larvae of the species desired. When 
the bloom had passed away, and the catkins had become 
withered, I went for more. From the number of _small larvae 
they were infested with, it was evident that cerago would be 
present among- them. When they g-rew larg-er it proved to be 
that cerago and A', silago had been obtained plentifully by this 
simple method of collecting-. Later, when the same sallows 
came into leaf, the \-Av\?e^ oi Epiinda viniiiialis were found plenti- 
fully, and a good supply was taken, which during July gave 
good reward for the little work and care spent on their behalf 
by coming out into the perfect state, invariably almost black. 
The result, however, was expected, for this species seems to be 
a perfect example of melanism locally. During August the 
Xanthias began to make their appearance also. X. silago 
gave thirty-three moths, all more or less of one type, and so 
far as I know quite ordinary. A', cerago, on the other hand, 
came out very variable ; of the nineteen moths bred, twelve 
gave a good range of variation from the type to almost ab. 
Jiavescens, and the remaining seven were of that very pale 
form. 1 have no idea what percentage may be expected of this 

1906 February i. 

50 Morlcy : Xotcs on Lcpidopteroiis I'an'tifion. 

distinct variety from larvcC obtained from otlier parts of the 
county. Perhaps the above were hii^^h in comparison, but it 
seems very extraordinar\ that the same sallow bushes should 
be supporting- at one and the same time, exactly under the 
same conditions, three species, one ordinary in colour, and 
practically showing- no variation ; another invariably almost 
black, an absolute departure from the type ; and another, 
of which above one-third were of the bri<^ht form mentioned, 
with the remainder showing a nice s^radation between it and 
the ordinary type. 

Another case of local \ariation came under my notice 
last season, 1905, and one worthy of mention both from its 
local sig-nificance, and the striking varial position in which 
the species stands, when compared with its kind in other 
parts of the county. In June last, on a heath about three 
miles from here, and detatched from the moors, it was my g-ood 
fortune to accidentally come across larvae of Agrofis agdthiua. 
This in itself was regarded as a stroke of g^ood luck, for I had 
not previously found the species in this district, nor had I a 
specimen in my collection. From the larvae found fifteen moths 
were bred. I suspected from the first that the specimens were 
of a darker form than usual, but had no idea of the g^reat 
difference that really existed between them and those from other 
parts of the country, until Mr. G. T. Porritt pointed it out to me 
when he saw them. It occurred to me that it would be 
interesting- to compare them with others taken in the county. 
The Rev. C. D. Ash, of Skipworth, very kindly sent for my 
inspection a few of his forms taken near Selby. Of the five 
specimens sent the following brief descriptions will perhaps be 
sufficient for the purpose intended. 

No. I. Ground colour, lightish brown, with pinkish and 
black dashes. Common. 

No. 2. Groundcolour, darker brown than No. 1, pinkish and 
black not so prominent. Common. 

Nos. 3 and 4. \'ery worn, seemed to be rather sooty, and 
markings not distinct. Very rare. 

No. 5. Ground colour a \cry pale pink, black niaiks not 
conspicuous, except the black flash on which the discoidal spots 
are placed. Rare. 

When compared with Mr. Ash's specimens mine were almost 
black. With the exception of one the\- are all of one t\pe, with 
a very short dirty pinkish streak at the base of the costa, the 
discoidal spots small l)ut distiiict, the centre of the wing's a deep 

Morley : Notes on Lepidopteroiis Variation. 51 

shining black, and the area beyond the reniform suffused black 
and dark brown, very slightly dashed with dirty pink. The 
exception has the pinkish colour rather more prominent than 
the rest, and probably a near form to Mr. Ash's 3 and 4. It is 
worthy of note that we have this very distinct variation in 
A. ao-athina, but perhaps the strangest feature is the respective 
variation of this species and Acrouycta menyanthidis in the two 
districts. In the Selby district A. menyanthidis is taken 
commonly of a black form, and A. agathina of the forms 
mentioned above, while on the West Riding moors exactly the 
opposite seems to be the case in both species. Such instances 
rather upset one's calculations as to the why and wherefore of 
local variations. It is evident, much that is now only slightly 
understood, will have to be grasped more fully, and perhaps 
causes that are really very effective in their influence on the 
colours of many species are not understood, or even suspected. 
Much remains to be demonstrated therefore before a plausible 
solution is arrived at. 

Another species has afforded much interest in this district of 
recent years, namely, Xylophasia polyodon. Always an abundant 
species, and forcing itself upon one's notice so much by coming 
to ' sugar ' so freely. It is six or seven years since I noticed 
the first black one, but since then every 3'ear the black ones 
have been more in evidence. During last season it may be said 
to have been quite common. Sixteen were brought home 
considered fit for cabinet specimens, including a very inky 
black one, and as many were left on account of their shabby 
condition. Intermediate forms are common, in fact the species 
here is a very variable one. But melanism is no doubt 
developing very rapidly, in this immediate locality, at any rate 
in this species. Snie/inthus populi is also worthy of note, a few 
bred last season from larvae, found close to my home, were a 
\ery variable and fine series. All are of types lighter than the 
ordinary dull slat}' form. Two in particular are very beautiful, 
with a ground colour of a light slaty hue, and striped b}- marks 
almost white. A few have the stripes and shaded portions 
of the wings distinctly purple, others olive green, while 
others are the pale and faded form. The whole series is a 
demonstration of striking variation, and give one the feeling 
that even our most common species are well worth care and 
attention, for it does afford much pleasure when one sees the 
beautiful variable ranges which so many of them give, standing 
out in such fine contrast to each other. 

1906 February i. 



The ' Northumberland Household Book ' (the Regulations 
and Establishment of the Household of Henry Alg^ernon Percy, 
the fifth Earl of Northumberland, at his Castles of Wressle and 
Leconfield in Yorkshire, beg^un Anno Domini 151 2) has just 
been issued by Messrs. A. Brown & Sons.* It is full of quaint 
and interesting- entries relating- to that period. Under 
" Direccions taken by my Lorde and his Conseill at Wresill 
upon Sonday the xxviij'^ day of Septembre ... in the iij"^ 
yere of the reig-ne of our Sovereigne Lorde Kynge Henry 
the viij'h concerynge the Provision of the Cator Parcells 
as well as of Flesch as of Fj'sch which shall be pro- 
vyded througheout the Yere," &c., we find several items, 
with prices to be paid, &c. Generally " yt is thought 
goode that [Pygges, Geysse, Chekyns, Capons, 7 Hennys, 
Pegions etc.] be bought for my Lordes Mees [Mess]. 
Other delicacies purchased were Cunys [rabbits], Swannys, 
Pluvers [jd. a pece = one penny each !] Cranys ( = cranes,) xvjr/. 
a pece ; Hearonsewys (Herons) xijr/. (one shilling) a pace ; 
Mallardes ijd. (2d.) a pece. Evidently Teal was not thought 
much of, as we find that "Item it is thought good that no Teylles 
be bought bot if so be that other Wyldefowl cannot be gottyn 
and to be at jc/. a pece." Also we find that " Item it is thought 
good that Woodcokes [woodcocks] be hade for my Lordes owne 
Mees and non other and to be at jd. a pece or jd. ob. [three half- 
pence] at the moste. The same applies to " Wypes" [Peewits], 
and " Seegulles" "so they be good and in season." These were 
to be bought at the same rate. Styntes (stints) "so they be 
after vj a ]d. " = six a penny. "Quaylles [Quails] " at Pryncipall 
Feestes and at ijV/. [2d.] a pece at moste." "Snypes. . . iijajV." 
[Snipe at 3 a penny] " Pertryges [Partridges] at \jd. a pece 
yff they be goode." Redeshankes [Redshanks], three half- 
pence each. Bytters [Bitterns] x\jd. [one shilling] a pece so 
they be good. Fesauntes [Pheasants] were also to be a shilling 
each. " Reys " [Ruffs and Reeves] 2d. each; " Sholardes " 
[Shovellers] 6d. each; " Kyrlews " [Curlews] a shilling each. 
From the following entry it seems that peacocks could be 
obtained at a shilling each, but no pea-hens were to be 
bouoht : — " Item Pacokes to be h:idde for mv Lordes owne 

* 452 pag-es, 1905, 8/6 net. f A variety of the farmyard fowl. 


Birds, <'/r. , used for Food in ihe Sixteenth Century. ^2^ 

Mees at Pryncipall Feestes and at xijV. a pece and noo Pay- 
hennys [pea-hens] to be bought." 

Immediately following the above is an entry in more general 
terms : " Item it is thought g"ood that all nianar of Wyld- 
fewyll [wildfowl] be boug-ht at the fyrst hand where they be 
gottyn and a Cator [Caterer] to be appoynted for the same For 
it is thought that the Pulters [Poulterers] of Hemmyngburghe 
and Clyf [Hemingborough and CliflF] hath great advauntage 
of my Lorde Yerely of Sellynge [selling | of Cunys [rabbits] 
and Wyldefewyll." 

" Wegions " were to be " jr/. ob." [three half-pence] 
" the pece except my Lordes comaundment be otherwyze." 
*' Knottes " a penny each ; " Dottrells " were the same ; " Bus- 
tardes," unfortunately, are not priced; " Ternes " were four a 
penu}', and "Great Bvrdes " [Fieldfares, Thrushes, &c.] four 
a penny and "Small Byrdes" [Sparrows, Larks, &c.] 12 a 
penny; Larkys [Larks] were also a penny a dozen. Seapyes 
[Oyster catchers] were " for my Lorde at Princypall Feestes 
and none other time." 

Following the above are some g-eneral entries: — 

Mount Jdv. — Item Bacon Flykes for my Lordes owne Mees 
Mr. Chambrelayn and the Stewardes Mees bitwixt Candlemas 
and Shroftyde ells none except my Lordes comaundment be to 
the contrary. 

Yerely. — Item that a direccion be taken at Lekyngfeld 
[Leckonfield] with the Cator of the See what he shall have for 
everv Seam of Fvsch thorowt the Yere to serve m}- Lordes hous. 

Quarterly. — Item that a Direccion be taken with my Lordes 
Tenauntes of Hergham and to be at a serteyn with theme that 
they shall serve my Lordes hous thrugheowt the Yere of all 
manar of Fresh Wavter Fvsche. 

Yerelye. — Item it is thought good that there be a counnt 
made with the Cator by great for Egges and Mvlk for the hoole 
Yere if it can be so doyn what for a Gallon of Mylke and how 
many Egges for ]d. 

Yerelv. — Item that from hensforth that theire be no Herbvs 
bought seinge that the Cookes may have herbes anewe in my 
Lordys Gardyns. 

Yerelye. — Item a Warraunt to be sewed oute Yerely at 
Michaelmas for xx Swannys for th'expencez of my Lordes 
hous as too say for Cristynmas Day v — Saynt Stephyns Day ij 
— Childremass Day ij — Saynt Thomas Day ij — New Yere Day 
iij — ande for the xij'^ Day of Cristynmas iiij Swannys. 

1906 February i. 

54 ninis, efc, used for Food in the Si \ Icon I h (\'ii/iir\'. 

Jlvr/)'.— THE COPIES of the WAR RUNTS to be 
sewed oute Verely for SWANNV'S for tli'expencez of 
my Loordes lions after this forme follo\vyng"e. 

Welbiloved I greete you well ande woll ande charg-e you 
That ye delyver or cause to be deliverd unto my welbiloved 
Servauntes Richard Gowge Countroller of my hous ande Gilbert 
Wedall Clarke of my Kitchinoe for the use and expencez of my 
saide hous nowe aijainst the Feest of Christynmas next comyni,'-e 
Twenty Sign'etts to be taken of the breed of my Swannys within 
my Carre of Arrom [Arram Carr| within my Loordeship of 
Leking-feld within the Countie of Vorke whereof ye have the 
kepin^e Ande that ye cause the same to be delivered unto 
theme or too oone to theme furthwith upon the sight hereof 
Ande this my writini^e for the delyverey of the same shal be 
unto you agenst me and tolTore myne Auditours at youre next 
accompte in this bihalf sufficient Warrunt ande Discharge 
Geven under my Signet and Signe Manuell at my Manoure 
of Lekingfeld the xxij'^ daye of Novembre in the v''' Vere of 
the reign of our Sovereign Loorde Ky ng Henry the viij''^- 

To my welbiloved Servaunt the BailifT of 
my Lordeship of Lekingfeld afforesaide 
and Kepar of my seid Carre at Arrom 
ande to the l^'ndre Kepars of the same 
for the tyme beinge. 

In the list of birds enumerated* it will be noticed that the 
turkey is not mentioned. On p. 398 is a note bearing on the 
matter. " About the 15th [year] of Henry VHI. it happened 
that diverse things were newly brought into I^liigland, where- 
upon this Rhyme was made : 

" Turkies, Carps, Hoppcs, Piccnrcll and Moore, 
Came into F^ng-land all in one ycai-. " 

Amongst the fish required for food we find Stokfish, Salt 
fishe, Whyt Hering, Rede Herynge [red iicning], Sprootis, or 
Sproytts [sprats], Salmon, Saltt Stiu'gion, and Saltt clis (or 
Elys) [eels]. 

There are also some interesting facts in leference to the 
number of deer in the parks at that period. " I'or th" ("xpcnscz 

* .Si-vcral of tin" birds in this list are also onmiu'ratod in ' The l-?irds of 
till- Lincolnshire Fens and Wolds in 1612,' in a serii>s of stanzas fi-om the 
I'oh-olhinn, with notes, priiiti'd in the ' Natnrvilist ' fi)r I ).'Ccn)bL'r 1886. 


Birds, etc., used for Food in the Sixteenth Century. 55 

of my Lordes hous bitwixt Alhollowdey and Shraftide " twenty- 
nine does were required, as under: — 

SpofFord ... ... ... ... ... V 

Great Pare of Topclyff 
Litle Pare of Topclyflf 
Helag^h ... 
Catton ... 

The Nombre of Does is — xxix. 



From the same parks were also obtained ig bucks, and also 
one from " Wressill " — the total "Nombre of Bukks " being- 


Bearing- on the above is added a valuable " Account of all 
the Deer in the Parks and Forests in the North belonging- to 
the Earl of Northumberland taken in this 4th year of Henry 
VIII. Anno 1512. 

'' In Northumberland. 

' Huln Park, 
' Cawledg"e Park, 
' Warkworth Park, 
' Ackling-ton Park, 
' Rothbury Forest, 




Red Deer ... 

" In Yorkshire. 
' Topcliffe Great Park, Fallow-Deer 
' Topcliife Little Park, ditto 

' Spofforth Park, 
' Spofforth Wood, 

' Wressel Wood, 

' Wressel Little Park, 
' Newsham Park, 
' Leckinfield Park, 
' Catton Park, 

(Red Deer, 42) 
(Fallow, 92 J 

" In Cumberland. 
' Lang-strothdale Park, Red and Fallow 
' Advkhorp Park, ditto 

Ditto Old Park, ditto 

' Helaugh Park, ditto 

' Wasdale, Red Deer ... 

' Ditto Fallow 

' West-Ward, Fallow-Deer 

Total of Deer 















Exclusive of those is Sussex and other counties in the South. 

1906 February i. 

56 /^c'7<n'7iK\' (Did Book Xo/ircs. 

Thoiij^h perhaps not strictly of natural liistor)- interest, I 
can hardly resist giving" the following extracts relating to 
breakfast "for my Lorde and my Lady," " Braikfastis of 
Flesh days dayly thorowte the Yere " : - " Furst a Loof of 
Brede in Trenchors ij Manchetts j Quart of Bere a Quart of 
Wyne Half a Chyne of Mutton or ells a Cheyne of Beif boilid." 

During Lent " my Lorde and my lady " partook of " Fl'rst 
a Loif of Brede in Trenchors ij Manchetts a quart of Bere a 
Quart of Wyne ij Pecys of Saltfysch vj Baconn'd Herryng iiij 
Whyte Herryng or a Dysche of Sproits." 

T. S. 


The Naturalist's Directory, 1906=7. L. L'pcoit Gill, London. 1/6, 

cloth, 2/-. 

This useful annual improves each year, but is yet not perfect. The 
directory of naturalists is very handy for reference, particularly to the 
amateur. As is quite possible, unless very much up-to-date, the ' list of 
natural history publications ' contain the names of many now defunct. And 
under Yorkshire (Museums) on page 176, we fail to find that there is a 
Museum at either York or Hull. Ye g-ods ! 

Who's Who, 1906; 7/6. Who's Who Year Book, 1906; i/-. 
The Writers' and Artists' Year Book, 1906; i -. A. ^^ C. Black. 

These three indespensable annuals appear promptly. The first is made 
more useful than ever by the addition of much new matter, and the volume 
now contains nearly 2000 pages, and is yet a convenient size. Telephone 
numbers, telegraphic addresses, &c., have been added. We notice several 
interesting new entries in this edition. The ' Yeai- Hook ' contains statistics 
of societies, government officials, t'sre., &e. The third volume referred to is 
most useful to authors and artists wishful to find a suitable paper for their 
work. The ' List of papers and magazines with details' is most complete, 
and enables one to see at a glance the nature of any ])ublication. 

The Science Year Book, 1906. King, Sell iK: Oiding. 5s. net. 

The additions and improvements made in the current issue of this well- 
known scientific diary make it, if possible, even more indispensable than 
ever to naturalists and scientific men. A useful feature is the series of 
articles on the Progress of Science in 1905 -those of particular interest to 
our readers being 'Anthropology,' by Professor A. C. Haddon ; ' Botanv,' 
by Mr. (L .Massee ; ' Geology,' by Mr. H.J. Seymour; ' Meleorologv,' bv 
Mr. \V. Marriott; ' Microscopy,' by Mr. F. S. Scales; and ' Natural Hisloiv',' 
by Mr. W. P. Pycraft. Amongst the new features is a list of the I'niver- 
sities with Professors of Science, a list of Colonial .Scientific Societies, and 
a list of the more important scientific books pulMished during the vear. 
One or two of the articles liear little evidence of the pioofs having been 
read. .\ paiJer in the Tra:i>i^etions of the ' Norf. Now. Nat. Soc' Ijv Mr. 
' R. Garney' will hardly be recognised by our Norwich frienils, whilst on 
the next page a reference to a 'Decoction of bouilUinn ' would seem to 
indi(ate that the compositor had fairly let I's run riot. The year book 
contain .ibout 600 pages in all, and is well bound. 




Bradford has certainly kept up its reputation. At the annual 
gathering- of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, held on Saturday 
last, January 27th, the citizens of Bradford had obviously done 
everything- in their power to ensure the meeting being a thorough 

Two excursions were arranged for the morning, and not- 
withstanding; the inclement weather, these were well attended 
by naturalists from all parts of the county, and afforded an 
opportunity of seeing the various glacial features of the district 
as described by Messrs. Jowett and Muflf. By the aid of an 
excellent contoured map in the current issue of the Bradford 
Scientific Journal the principal items of interest were pointed 
out by Mr. J. E. Wilson. Mr. W. H. Parkin and Mr. H. B. 
Booth were also responsible for carrying out the morning's 
programme, and in addition the members were able to visit the 
botanical g-ardens in Lister Park, where Mr. E. Naylor is doing 
such excellent work. 

The members dined together at the Ro3'al Hotel, and then 
proceeded to the Cartwright Memorial Hall, where the meetings 
for the remainder of the day were held, by the permission of the 
Bradford Corporation. 

The report presented at the General Committee was of a 
\-ery satisfactory character. It was shown that the various 
excursions held during the summer of 1905 had been well 
attended, and had been productive of good result from a 
scientific point of view. Four new societies had become 
affiliated with the Union since the last annual meeting, and 
o\er thirty new members were on the Union's list, making the 
number of members and associates over 3300. 

In the matter of publications it was reported that during 
the year Mr. Roebuck's Presidental Address on 'The Salient 
Features connected with the History of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union,' and the final part of the 'Fungus Flora of Yorkshire ' 
(350 pages), had been issued. It was also stated that the final 
part of Baker's ' North Yorkshire ' w'as in type and about to be 
issued, and that the ' Bird.^ of Yorkshire ' was in the printer's 

The reports of the \arious committees and sections were 
received, and on the recommendation of the Geological Section, 
the scope of the Fossil Flora Committee was enlarged so 

1906 February i. 

58 Vorks/iiiT X(i/iiralis/s at Hi ad ford. 

as to include the investioation of ihe Mollusca of the Coal 
Measures, &c. 

Messrs. S. Marj^-erison (Cal\ erley), E. Naylor (Bradford), 
and H. B. Booth (Bradford), were added to the permanent 
General Committee. 

After much discussion the excursions for 1906 were arrani^ed 
as under : — 

/ii<^/t'/oii, week-end, second week in May. 
FlaniboroHs^Ji, VVhit-week-end, June 3rd-5th. 
Fcwston for Washbuni \'(tUc\\ end of June. 
Askent, Thursday, middle of July. 
Guisborongh, August i8th-2oth. 

Farnlev Tyas, near H udders field (Fungus Fora}), Sept. 

It was also decided that an excursion be arrang'ed on 
August Bank Holiday in connection with the meeting- of the 
British Association at 'S'ork. 

By the invitation of the \'ork Society the next annual 
meeting- of the Union will be held in the capital of the county, 
probably in December, when Mr. W. Eagle Clarke will deliver 
an address. 

At the conclusion of the meeting of the General Committee 
tea was provided in the Restaurant in the Cartwright Hall, 
after which the members had an opportunity of seeing- the 
various archceolog-ical, botanical, and natvu-al history exhibits 
which had been brought together for the benefit of the Union. 
Several of these were of altogether exceptional interest, and it 
was arranged that the exhibition should be continued during the 
following week for the benefit of the public. Dare we go so 
far as to hope that the exhibits arranged on Saturday last may 
be looked upon as a commencement of a public Natural History 
Museum for Bradford? The Cartwright Hall — which has so 
recently been opened as an Art Gallery and Museum —is a 
building of which an}- city might be justly proud. The struc- 
ture is grand —the rooms within it are fairly numerous, 
spacious, and well lighted the exhibits already on view - 
pictures, statuary, &c., are beautiful. So far Bradfordians may 
congratulate themsehes. Brr, is there any city in ^'orkshire 
of anything like the size of Bradford that cannot boast of its 
museum of loail geology, antiquities, and natural history? 
Is there an\ town ol any importance whatever but has its local 
histor\ represented in some u ay oi- anolln-r ? C^ui there be any 


Yorkshire N^aturalists at Bradford. 59' 

question of the importance — educational or otherwise — ot a 
local natural history collection ? Is there an}' sane being" in 
Bradford who will say that a local natural history collection is 
not worth the trouble and expense of g"etting it together and 
maintaining- it ? The Corporation is already in possession of 
some valuable specimens which are suitable for such a purpose. 
Why not go on, therefore, and arrange and exhibit them in a 
part of the Cartwright Hall? Why should Bradford, so go-ahead 
in man}' ways, be behindhand in this respect ? Why ? 

But the first step to such a desirable end must be the 
appointment of a qualified curator, who shall devote all his 
time to the work. Until this is done all the efforts and all the 
enthusiasm of the local naturalists — amongst whom are many 
of our foremost men — will be without avail, and future genera- 
tions of Bradford's citizens will doubtless have cause for 
regretting the apathy of their predecessors. 

Many points in favour of a local museum were brought 
forward b}' various prominent scientific men in the discussion 
following the President's address, and from the excellent way in 
which the reports of the Union's proceedings were published in 
the press, the members and friends of the Bradford Corporation 
will at any rate have an opportunity of carefully considering the 
question on its merits. The same subject was also the main 
topic of conversation at the subsequent Conversazione, which 
was kindl}- given in the Cartwright Hall by the Mayor and 
Mayoress of Bradford, Mr. W. A. Whitehead, J.P,, and Mrs. 

The address of the President, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, 
F.R.S., was delivered during the evening, and dealt with the 
'Responsibilities of the Amateurs in Science.' We hope to 
print this in our next issue. Afterwards the meeting was 
addressed by Messrs. H. Wager, F.R.S. , P. F. Kendall, 
F.G. S., and others. In replying to the vote of thanks passed 
to the Bradford Corporation, the genial Chairman of the Art 
Gallery and Museum Committee, Alderman Toothill, vastly 
entertained those present by detailing the products of his 
extraordinarily imaginati\e brain ! 

The Bradford meeting was a great success, and the Union 
is much indebted to the Scientific Association and the Natural 
History and Microscopical Society for their efforts, and par- 
ticularly to Messrs. S. Margerison and H. E. Wroot, upon 
whose shoulders fell the principal burden of the arrangements 
and work in connection therewith.- -T. S. 

1906 February i. 




Cornbrash Fossils from North Kast Yorkshire. —Visitinir 

one day last \ear the quan-}' on Sitamer Road, Scarboroui^h, 1 
found a small tooth in the Cornbrash shales. On subniittulii' it 
to Dr. A. S. Woodward, he kindly informed me he thoui^ht 
it belong'ed to the Pycnodont Mcs/nnis. This is a new record 
for the Cornbrash of Yorkshire. Also in the Cornbrash of 
Cayton I5ay 1 found a tooth oi Lcpidotiis. In the I)uff shales on 
the top of the Cornbrash rock I found a Belemnite in matrix 
of Cornbrash shale. It mea.sures 50 millimetres from the tip to 
the alveolus and 7 millimetres in diameter. The Rev. J. F. 
Blake, M.A., F.G.S., in the 1905 " Faheontoi^'raphical Society's 
Monoi4raph," mentions only one species of Belemnite, viz., 
B. ri'tiivivits of which there are only four specimens, two in the 
Sedi^wick Museum, and two in ^'ork Museum, all from the 
Cornbrash shales of Cayton Bay. The Belemnite 1 found there 
is indeed like those figured in the above, but only about half the 
diameter. 11. C. I)k.\ke, Hull, 13th January igo6. 

: o : 


Trichoniscus roseus near Liverpool. — While on a visit to 
The Priory, Grassendale, near Li\erpool, I was fortunate enoug-h 
to turn up a large colony of the little Rosy Woodlouse in the old 
garden of The Friory. M}' host's boys, Masters Jim and Fric 
Pinion, had gone with me to assist in a snail hunt, and on 
turning over a large flat stone the latter disturbed several 
species of Woodlice, including numbers of tlie above, the 
species having only in recent )ears been found in Ireland, 
very local in all stations, excessively rare in some, though \ery 
abundant at others. I started a thorough search in likely 
places all round Thi; Priorv to see how it might occin- in 
England. We did not find it outside the garden, but there it 
was most abimdant, especially about cinders in one heating pit, 
very bright in colour, and as large almost as the best Bushy 
Park", Dublin, specimens.* We ha\ e about nine Irish records 
now, from Dublin, Kerry, Finu-rick, Down, and Antrim. I was 
fortunate enough to find it in the \ery ctntii> of the latter 
County last summii'. R. Wici.cii. Belfast. 

* //is// N(ihini/is/, Nov. U)<)^, p. jOo. 


Revieiis and Bcok Notices. 


Late Swallows near Middlesbrough in November. — On 

the morning" of gth November I noticed two Swallows hawking- 
about for insects at Linthorpe, Middlesbrough. — T. Ashton 
LOFTHOUSE, Linthorpe, Middlesbroug-h. 

[Mr. W. H St. Quintin, also informs us that he saw a 
Swallow flying \ ery feebly in Lowthorpe on the 4th November. 
— Eds. I 


Beasties Courageous. B\- Douglas English. S. H. Bousfield & Co. 
121 pag-es. 5/- 

Under this somewhat odd title Mr. Eng-lish gathers together a number of 
interesting- stories relating to rats, mice, voles, weasels, toads, etc. They 
are told in a somewhat peculiar style, presumably for the benefit of younger 

The Weasel. 

naturalists, to whom the book will undoubtedly be of value. But the 
numerous beautiful photographs reproduced in the book undoubtedly are of 
great value. Of their kind they would be exceedingly difficult to beat. 
The frontispiece, 'The Woodmouse, he who is of all mice the handsomest,' is 
perfect. The publishers have kindly enabled us to reproduce herewith one 
of the illustrations. 

The Age of the Earth and other Geological Studies. By W. J. 
Sollas, F.R.S., etc. T. Fisher Unwin. 328 pages. 10/6 net. 

In this volume Prof. Sollas has brought together various essays, which 
every geologist will be glad to have in this form. The first, and that which 
gives the book its title, is Prof. Sollas' address to the British Association 

1906 February i. 

<)2 I^i-vie7vs and Book Xoticcs. 

Ill its liiadforil nu-eliiii;. We also wi-Uonic tlic story of ' Kiniafuli,' which 
ap|X'ari-tl in 'Natural Science.' Whilst the prcsiiil ifciU'ration is not 
likch- to fbrjj;ct that excellent journal, its pieniature decease \wa\ result 
in futuie students not having' this narrative of the effort to bore a coral 
island so easy for reference. It therefore finds a suitable place in the 
present volume, as also do the addresses on the ' Influence of Oxford on 
(ieolog-y ' ('Science Proj^rcss"), ' Orij^in of Freshwater Animals,' (Royal 
Dublin Society), ' (leology and Deluges '(' Nature,') etc. Some of these, 
however, are largely re-written, and contain much new matter. One 
chapter on 'The Formation of l-Tuit,' is new, and 'gives a connected 
account of the results of observations and discoveries extending over a long 
series of \ears, and is perhaps the first attempt \-et nijide to trace in detail 
the origin, growth, and final decay of that puzzling object, the common 
flint.' To Yorkshire and Lincolnshire geologists this chajitcr is particularly 
interesting. One of the essays, on ' A visit to the Lipari Isles," is written 
in a lighter vein, and though it may contain a few references not geological, 
it is not the less welcome. It at any rate bears evidence that even the pro- 
fessor of Geology at Oxford is human. Though the essays are upon such 
a variety of subjects, they appear to follow each other quite naturally, and 
we agree with the autlior that the volume 'appears to have come together 
through a natural process of evolution.' 

Nebula to Man. By Henry R. Knipe. J. M. Dent v^- Co. 251 

pages. 21/- net. 

This large volume is undoubtedly one of the most extraordinary that we 
have seen for some time. It contains a sketch of the history of the evolution 
of the Earth on the Nebular Hypothesis — from that far-off time when 
■• A f,'lowing mist, throujth realms of space uiiboiindecl 
Whirls on its way, by starry hosts surrounded." 

to the present day, the whole being written in rhyme ! 

In his preface the author states, ' To attempt a work of this kind in 
rhvme is, I know, a bold experiment. But, however severely scientific in 
some of its aspects, the Story of Geology is truly the most enchanting story 
in the world; and rhyme may well be regarded as an appropriate form in 
which to present it. Indeed it is a fit theme for jjresentation in a much 
higher form than this; and we may well hope that some day it will be taken 
in hand b)' some great poetic g^enius.' Let us hope so. In the present 
work, however, wonderful as it is, the desire to rhyme has resulted in the 
frequent use of words which would not otherwise have appeared — words 
which have obviously been used because they rhymed, and not because they 
best expressed the author's thoughts. In the chapter devoted to the Epocli 
of Great Glaciation, we find : — 

" Weird is the scene. Ice shattered fjreat ami small 
Of various shapes lies off the littoral. 
And throng it is thai well may call to mind 

A roadstead filled with craft of every kinil." 
.\nd later. 

" Meanwhile are other glaciers wandering far 

On.divers routes from Scandinavia. 

Some far to north their glasssy cargoes bear 

Down sloping vales, coal carrying as it were 

To Newcastle. Others south-eastwards stretched 

With facile steps have distant regions reached, 
and so on. The book is, however, most beaulifulh' illustrateil .Messrs. 
L Smit, L. Speed, J. Charlton, H Bucknall, C. Whymper, E. A. Wilson, 
and Miss Alice Woodward having contributed over 70 excellent plates, 
fourteen of which are coloured. These for the most part represent restora- 
tions of the various beasts which come under Mr. Kni])e's review, and are 
\cry clever. They certainly add much to the value of the book. 

I£xtinct Animals. By E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. .\rchib:ild 

C"i;iistal)le \' ("o. ,\^i pages. 7/() net. 

In this alti-active aiul uell-illustr.iteil volume is reproiluced a report ol 
the series of lectures delivered at the Royal Institution during the Christmas 
Holidays of 1903-04, by Dr. i-ankestei-. The lecturi-s were prepared for a 


Reviews and Book N^otices. 


juvenile audience, and the book is therefore in such a form as to be most 
suitable for young- readers. On the other hand, those of more mature years 
will find it a most facinating- narrative of the strange animals once inhabit- 
ing- the g-lobe. Not only does Dr. Lankester refer to those strange beasts 
which were ' dead and turned to clay ' countless ag^es ago, but he also 

Skeleton of large-paddled Ichthyosaurus preserved in Liassic rock. 

Drawing to shew the probable appearance of an Ichthyosaurus swimming beneath 
the surface of the sea. 

describes those which have become extinct within historic times, some of 
which owe their extinction entirely to the efforts of civilised human beings ! 
The Author's position as director of the Natural History Museum has 
enabled him to illustrate his remarks by a number of photographs and 
sketches taken from the magnificent series of specimens in the national 
collection. Of these there are over 200, two of which we are kindly permitted 
to reproduce. They may be taken as fair samples of the other illustrations 
in the book — some are better, others are not so good. The book is printed 
with large type, and in other ways bears evidence of its suitability as a 
present for a 3'oung naturalist. 

1J06 Februiry i. 



We imicli regret to hear, on ^"''1^ ^o press, of the deatli of jMr. \V. 
Nelson, of Crossgfates, Leeds, which took place on Sunday, midnight. 

In the January Annals of Scoff ish NafnrnI History Mr. Robert Ser\ice 
records the occurrence of the Red Mullet and the Maigre in the Solvvay. 

Referring to the note in this journal for Februar}- last (p. 35), we under- 
stand the ;^ 1 2,000 necessary to purchase the Gowbarrow estate by the 
National Trust has been secured. 

At a recent meeting of the Entomological Societ\-, i\Tr. (1. T. Porritt 
exhibited specimens of Odonfopcra hidcnfala ab. nigni, the melanic form of 
which is rapidly increasing in the Wakefield district. 

In the 'Eminent Living Geologists' series, the Januarj" Geological 
Magazine contains an article on ' Thomas McKenny Hughes, M. A., F. R.S. ," 
&c., with portrait. 

At a recent meeting of the Lancashii-e and Cheshire Entomologiiril 
Society, three specimens o{ Liniiiophilus elcgans, one of the rarest of Euro- 
pean Caddis-flies, were exhibited. They were captured at Ballaugh, Isle 
of Man. 

At a recent meeting of the Conchological Society' Mr. J. D. Dean 
exhibited a specimen of Vertigo alpestris from Devil's Bridge, Kirby 
Lonsdale — the first record of this species for Westmorland. Mr. B. R. 
Lucas exhited sinistral living Valvata piscinalis and var. anfi</iia of sunn-, 
from Budwith Mere, Cheshire. 

In the Januar}' issue of the Eiifoniologisf s Monfhly Magasine, Mi". 
I'ercy H. Grimshaw (formerly of Leeds) continues his notes ' On the British 
species of Hydrofcea, Dsv.' The present instalment includes a description 
of//. Alhipuncfa Ztt ( fasciculafa^ Meade), a specimen of which is recorded 
at Burley-in-Wharfedale. 

The Chief Constable of Scarborough has been instructed to take steps to 
prevent the shooting of sea birds on the sands. The Corporation have been 
advised that apart fi'om the Wild i->iixls' Protection Act ])ersons discharging 
firearms on tiie sands can be prosi-iuted, and the Committee of the Town 
Council have unanimously resolved to stop the wanton slaughter of birds. 

Referring to Mr. Moslc}"'s note on 'Nest-poking' in the January 
' \.\Ti'R.\i,isi ,' which was written as a result of a |ihotogra])h of a nightin- 
gale's nest rei>roduced in om- December issue from tin- Bradford Scientific 
Journal, Mr. Rosse Butterfield informs us that the nightingale's eggs were 
not stolen, but were destroyed by mice. Neither did an_\' one from Bradford 
pay a second visit to the nest, not to mention ' various visits.' 

In the January Geological Magazine Mr. C. Davies Sherborn gives 
' .Some Remarks on the Irregular Echinoids of the White Chalk of England, 
as exhibited in the British Museum.' In the same journal Di". H. Wood- 
ward figures and describes 'a very well preser\i'd ini])M'ssion in clay- 
ironstone, of tile wing of a nem-opti'rous insect, from the rich |)lant-bed at 
l'"oley, near Longton, North Stallordshire." Dr. Wootiwanl refers it to 
Lifhouianfis carl onariiis (?) 

The following is taken from tiie Dect'mber ' Naliu-e Notes': — 'This 
spring a pair of house mai-lins built their nest under the eaves of Kimberley 
House, Barniby M(jor, \'oikshire. A few days ago the old nest was re- 
moved, when it was noticeil that the op<Miing was closed, and inside was 
found a dead sp.irrow. One of the worknun informs us that he noticed with 
interest (in the nesting season) great excitement amongst the m.irtins, ;nui 
wondered why a number of tiieni <-omljined to seal u]) the door of the nest. 
The dead body of the jjoor usurpei- explains their combinetl action to |)unish 
with death the foe who refused to In- cjc ttd.' 




MARCH 1906. 

No. 590 

(No. 368 of current series) 





The Museum, Hull ; 


Technical College, Huddersfield ; 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 

Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., 
T. H. NEL50N, M.B.O.U., 


Contents : — 

tVotes and Comments (Illustrated) :— Natural History Magazines, Still Another New- 
Magazine, British Rhizopoda and Heliozoa, Rare Diatoms, Permian Footprints in 
Nottinghamshire, A Yorkshire Cave Relic, Bradford and Natural History 

The Lesser Grey Shrike near Whitby: an Addition to Yorkshire Avi-Fauna— T/ios. 

An Addition to the Yorkshire List of Lepldoptera — T. Ashton Lofthouse, F.E.S 

On the Necessity for the Amateur Spirit in Scientific Work— G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S., F.G.S 

Birds requiring; Protection in Yorkshire — Riley Fortune, F.Z.S. ... 

Sheffield's Trough PauXt— Cosmo Johns, M.I.Mech.E., F.G.S. 

Neolithic Remains on the Northumberland Coast— C. T. Trechmann, 

Brythreea pulchella Fi.—P. Fo.x Lee 

Lincolnshire Freshwater Mites (illustrated)— C. F. George, M.R.C.S. 

Old English Forests 

Notes on Some Speeton-Clay Belemnltes (Illustrated)— T. Sheppard, 

Field Notes 

Reviews and Book Notices (Illustrated) 

Northern News 


Plates II., III., IV.. v., VI., VII., VHI. 



69, 80, 86, 91, 


66, 68, 93, 












94, 100 



98. 102 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y,N. U. 



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NOMENCLATURE RULES.-The Nomenclature adopted in The Naturalist will be 
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alterations as are necessary to bring the name into accordance with the strict law of 

CAPITALISATION OF SPECIFIC NAMES.— Hitherto the rule of The Naturalist has 
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Members are entitled to buy all back numbers and other publications of the Union 
at a discount of 25 per cent, off the published prices. 

Ail communications to be addressed to the Hon. Sec, 

T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., Museum, Hull. 
Second Edition now ready, Price 6s. 6d. net ; if by post, 4d. extra. 


By G. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S., 
Past-President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, etc. 

May be had from the Hon. Sec. Y.N.U., The Museum, Hull. 


Edited by T. SHEPPARD, F.C.S. aid T. W. WOODHEAD, F.L.S. 

(With 400 pages, 26 plates, and numerous illustrations in the text.) 


PRICE 7b., net ; if by post, 5d- extra. 

To be obtained from the Editors, The Museum, Hull. 


FOR 1905. 

Cloth Cases, gilt lettered, for 1905, can be obtained at pd. net each ; if by post, i}d. extra. 

' The Naturalist* for any year will be bound up in Cloth Case for is. 6d ; postage ■Id. extra. 
Cases for previous years can be obtained. 



Now Ready, conlainiiij.f 396 paj^cs, Demy Svo, suitably bound in Cloth Board.s. 
I'ricr lOs 6d. iH't ; if b\' ]), 4d. I'xtia. 


A Complete Annotated List of all the known Fung;! of the 
County, comprising: 2626 Species. 

By Q. MASSEE, F.L.S., F.R.H.S., 

Koyal Ihrhnriiim, Keiv ; C/uiinuan of the Yorkshire Mycological Committee ; and 

C. CR0S5LAND, F.L.S., 

Halifax, Hon. Sec. of the Yorkshire Mycologiial Committee. 

May be had from the Hon. Sec. Y.N.U., The Museum, Hull. 

Please mention *The Naturalist' in replying to Advertisements. 



Since the first number of the ' Naturalist ' was issued, over 
three quarters of a century ago, it has seen the birth and death 
of some scores of natural history niag-azines. Some of these 
were of a most useful character, and their death is a loss in- 
deed. Others are as well dead, and their loss would only be 
felt by those who were financially responsible for their pro- 
duction. During- the past few months we have chronicled the 
decease of several publications ; some really well produced, 
edited by most competent naturalists, and supported by a 
number of influential men. Still they were not successful. 
We have reason to believe that other magazines will shortly 
be sharing the same fate. In view of this, how can it be 
expected that a new magazine, covering the same ground, 
can flourish, without it has some exceptionally good features. 


Yet we have before us the first part of ' The Naturalist's 
Quarterly Review,' printed by Mr. Davis, published by Mr. 
Davis, and edited by Mr. Davis. From the number of Davis' 
advertisements in the magazine we should assume, and probably 
correctly, that the new magazine is a publisher's venture — a 
cheap way of advertising one's natural history requisites and 
books, and is not intended to be a serious scientific contribution. 
By far the longest article is by Mr. VV. P. Westell, who re- 
fers to the enormous number of books that have recently 
' passed through ' his hands, and proposes each quarter to 
give 'notes upon those volumes which reach him,'' presumably 
for the benefit of the reader of the magazine, though from 
the ridiculously indiscriminate praise which he showers upon 
the thirty odd volumes he ' reviews ' (many of which are 
certainly not worth it) there is just a suspicion that Mr. 
Westell may have some other motive than benefitting his 
readers. Certainly the notices cannot be looked upon as a 
guide to the naturalist requiring books. Then follows some 
more book notices, presumably by the editor, Mr. Davis, with 
a very favourable notice of one of Mr. Westell's books — a work 
which has not had the unanimous approval of the ornithological 
press. A note informs us that any of the books reviewed 'can be 
supplied by the publishers of the magazine at the published 

1906 March i. 


.Vo/t's (Did Coinnicii/s. 

price.' Not the review copies, we hope ! Then there are 
advertisements of Mr. Westell's books, .and of Mr. Westell's 
lectures, and advertisements of Mr. Davis' publications, Mr. 
Davis' entomological apparatus &c. .\nd Mr. Davis writes 
some articles for the magazine, arid so does Mr. Westell. And 
you pay your eightpence for the 32 pag-e quarterly, and must be 
satisfied. In case the work reaches a second number, we would 
sugg-est as a far more appropriate title 'The Westell-Davis 

The Ray Society continues to publish its valuable mono- 
graphs. The latest issued is under the above title, and has 
been prepared by Mr. James Cash, of Manchester, with the 
assistance of the energetic Secretary of the Ray Society, 

Centropyxis aculeata var. splnosa. 

(a) A well developed form. (6) An example showing variation, (f) Lateral view 
of this form, in outline. From Dunham Marsh, Cheshire, x 260. 

Mr. John Hopkinson, who is a native of Leeds. In the new 
volume is a classified description of these microscopic animals, 
which it is hoped will result in other workers entering upon 
a field of research, which is fascinating in a high degree even 
to the general microscopist. The iieki is a wide one, and 
besides the structural beauty of tiit- Rliizopoda and the in- 
teresting phases of their life histories, the possibilities open 
to anyone of discovering new and previously unsuspected 
forms in our ponds and marshes, are practically unlimited. 
The volume is profusely illustrated b\ a number of beautiful 







\ ;.-r:^-:::; 


Notes and Comments. 67 

plates and illustrations in the text, which are of particular 
interest to readers of the ' Naturalist ' from the fact that most 
of the specimens fig-ured have been taken in Cheshire. We 
are kindly permitted to reproduce one of the illustrations 
herewith, representing- a new variety, better representations 
of which occur on one of the plates. 


It is pleasing- to find that the Hull Microscopists are not 
resting- on their oars, since the appearance of Mills' and 
Philip's excellent illustrated monograph on ' The Diatomaceae 
of the Hull District' was issued in 1901. Notwithstanding- 
the fact that the work contained particulars and illustrations 
of no fewer than 600 species and varieties, the list is added to 
annuall)'. In the transactions of the Hull Scientific and Field 
Naturalists' Club for 1905, Mr. R. H. Philip gives particulars 
of the additional forms recently found. These are figured on 
a plate, which we are permitted to reproduce (plate III.). 
The specimens figured are from Spurn, Cleethorpes, &c. In 
the order on the plate, they are I. Synedra barbatula, II. Navicula 
apis, III. N. exilissima, IV. .V. seminiilum, V. N. vtdpifia, VI. 
Plagiotropis gibhenda, VII. Amphora tutgida, VIII. A. acu- 
tiusciila, IX. Nitsschia socialis, X. N. punctata var. coarctata, 
XI. Pleiirosigma obsciiruni, XII. Achnanthes Danica, XIII. 
Hantzschia amphioxys var. vivax. 


At a recent meeting of the London Geological Society, 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins communicated a paper by Mr George 
Hickling, which was of particular interest from the fact that 
'■ No footprints had previously been found in the undoubted 
Permian of this country.' The fossils were discovered in the 
Rock Valley Quarry, Mansfield, in a local lenticular mass of 
sandstone intercalated in the Magnesian Limestone. The im- 
pressions formed two double rows, approximately parallel, and 
seven and two feet long respectively. Nearly the whole of the 
longer series is in the Nottingham Museum, and part of the 
shorter series is in the Manchester Museum. Both sets were 
made by the same species of animal, the stride in one case being 
eight, and in the other case eight and three quarter inches. 
The prints show a well marked heel and comparatively slender 

J906 March i. 


.Vo/r.\- </>/(/ (\>»inii'iifs. 

dig-its, and there is evidence of a membrane between the toes. 
There is a wide separation between the right and left sides, 
the separation being- more marked in the fore than in the 
hinder footprints. The prints present some resemblance to 
those named /c/niiiim (tcrodactvlnm^ from the upper Permian 
of Thuring-ia. The footprints are evidently of an Amphibian 
allied to those recorded from the Permian on the continent. 


In part 3 of the ' Bradford Scientific Journal,' which we have 
only just seen, is a note by Mr. VV. Cud worth on a Unique 
Yorkshire Cave Implement. This was found by the Rev, E. 
Jones in Calf Hole Cave, in Upper Wharfedale, and was 
associated with bones of bison and reindeer. The haft of the 
implement is made from the antler of a reindeer, in which is 

y<''iTC.r<WT0JW5;-.jj^;;^^jjvi^'\ -, • 

Implement from Calf Hole Cave. 

inserted (according- to Prof. Dawkins) a very large boar's incisor. 
The total length of this, the ' very oldest British Tool known, '^ 
is a little over seven inches. As will be seen from the block, 
which has been kindly loaned by the Bradford Society, the haft 
of the implement is perforated, the orifice being about an inch 
in diameter. Whilst the object was at the Manchester Museum 
a plaster cast was niade, which is fortunate, as on its wav home 
the tool was 'lost' -stolen, we believe. Though this is some 
years ago, it is hoped that tlic ol^jfct may yet exist. Should any 
of our readers see it at any lime, we trust they will advise us. 
A plaster cast has been placed in the archieological section of 
the I lull Museum. 


Reviews and Book Notices. 69 


It is most gratifying^ to learn from the Yorkshire Observer 
that the exhibition of natural history specimens, which was 
arrang-ed in connection with the annual meeting- of the York- 
shire Naturalists' Union at Bradford, and was subsequently left 
open for the public, has been an unqualified success. ' Thoug^h 
comparatively little has been done to make the exhibition known, 
it is admitted by the attendants at the hall that equal numbers 
have been attracted by no art exhibition held in Bradford during- 
recent years — last year's exhibit, of course, excepted. Every 
afternoon, and on both evening^s when the building- was specially 
kept open till nine o'clock, the room has been crowded, some- 
thing- like a hundred persons being- frequently to be seen there 
at one time. Representatives of the two societies concerned in 
its organisation — The Bradford Scientific Society and the Brad- 
ford Naturalists — have attended, and have done not a little, by 
explanations, to interest the visitors. The exhibition has 
'caught on' so effectively that it was kept open for another week, 
and will doubtless do not a little to stir up the Museum Com- 
mittee to make the natural history i-nuseum a permanent and an 
effective educational institution of the city.' 

British Butterflies. By J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. Elliot Stock. 

The full title to this work, viz. : ' A Natural History of the British 
Butterflies, their world-wide variation and g-eog-raphical distribution. A 
text book for Students and Collectors,' fully describes its scope. The work 
is being- issued in shilling- parts, two of which are before us. The first con- 
tains pag-es 1-48 (General Observations on Butterflies), and pag-es 81-104 
(in which details of Eg-g-laying-, Ovum, Habits of Larvse, &c., are given). 
Part H. contains pag-es 5-8 (Eg-gs of Butterflies, &c. ), and pages 105-124. 
Mr. Tutt's reputation is such that remarks on the value of this work are 
unnecessary. There is nothing- to indicate how many parts will be issued, 
but we understand from the author that there will be two volumes, and that 
the first will contain twenty parts. 

Hugh Miller: A Critical 5tudy. By W. M. Mackenzie. London, 
Hodder & Stoughton. 246 pp., 5/- net. 

\x\ this interesting little book Mr. Mackenzie very carefully reviews 
Hug-h Miller and his work under the heads of early life and training, 
literary style, history and folklore, religion and philosophy, geology- 
researches, g-eolog-y-reconciliations, g-eolog-y — the development hypothesis, 
politics, and ecclesiasticism and editorship. It is not necessary to inform 
readers of the ' Naturalist" further of the nature of this work, which has 
been written by one who has become thorougfhly familiar with Miller's many- 
sided interests. Our marvel is, that in a certain ' literary ' review recently, 
this book was referred to as " An account of the life of an extinct and 
worthy Scotchman. . . . Mr. Miller appears to have been something of a 
scientist -AS well ! ' 

1906 March i. 



THos. stkphi:nson, 


On the 20th September last a Grey Shrike was shot at 
Sleig-hts, about three miles from Whitby. I sent the specimen 
to Mr. VV. Eag-le Clarke for identification, and he reports that 
it is an addition to the Yorkshire list, namely, the Lesser Grey 
Shrike (Latiius minor). This South and Central European 
species has only on eight previous occasions been detected in 
Eng-land, and this is the first occasion on which it has been 
known to occur in the North of England. It is a young bird in 
first plumage. The specimen has been placed in the Whitby 


Middltibrough . 

Orthotcenia antiquana. — I took a good specimen of this 
Tortrix at Redcar on July 3rd 1905. The only Yorkshire 
record for this species was struck out of Mr. Porritt's list when 
it was revised ; thus this re-establishes the record, and adds 
another species to the present Yorkshire list. 

We should advise all readers of the ' Naturalist ' who are 
interested in the photograph}- of birds' nests, plants, or other 
objects which are not easily accessible to the ordinary camera, 
to write to Mr. W. Butler, of 20, Crosby Road, Birkdale, 
Southport. Mr. Butler will gladly forward to such persons an 
illustrated prospectus of a camera stand which he has invented 
and patented under the name of ' Swincam.' We have care- 
fully examined the details of the new stand, and have seen some 
of the results achieved by its use, and can thoroughly recom- 
mend it. For the ])inpose of taking photographs of objects in 
awkward positions or at uiuisual angles it is indispensable. 




Being the Presidential Address delivered at Bradford on 
January 2/'//z, igo6. 


It is with a somewhat uneasy conscience that at this, the close 
of my Presidency, I undertake for the first time the duties proper 
to the Chair. In proffering my apologfy to the members of the 
Union for such apparent neg'lect, I shall venture to plead that 
the contingent circumstances which, in the event, have barred 
my presence from any of the meetings of the Union during the 
past year were made known beforehand to your Executive, and 
were met by a gentle hint that if I could manage, in case of 
absence, to secure a continuance of the active services of your 
last President, the interests of the Union would suffer no detri- 
ment whatever. This, through the kindly acquiescence of Mr. 
Pawson, I was fortunately able to do, and feel that in this 
matter I have acquired merit. 

Nevertheless, I was uncomfortably reminded of the state of 
the Union during the homeward voyage from South Africa, 
when our Amateur Dramatic Company produced a new and 
original play entitled 'The Lost President,' the plot of which 
turned upon the mysterious disappearance of the President of 
an Association, who, before he was discovered, had unexpectedly 
reverted to the parent stock ! It is with an echo of this whim- 
sical little plot in mind that, being now here to address you, I 
shall claim the privilege of reverting to the parent stock of my 
own work, and shall take the standpoint of the amateur rather 
than of one to whom scientific investigation has become a matter 
of daily duty. From this standpoint I shall seek to direct your 
attention to some of the general responsibilities that rest upon 
us in taking part in the advancement of knowledge. 

When the necessity for preparing this address was brought 
forcibly home to me by the whip of our genial Hon. Secretary 
I hesitated between two courses. One, the easier and pleasanter, 
was to face inward over the excellent results that have already 
been achieved in almost every branch of science by amateur 
workers in our county, a course which could not fail to put us 
on good terms with ourselves as Yorkshiremen. But, being 

1906 March i. 

72 The Necessity for the Amateur Spirit in Seieiiti/ic Work. 

myself a Vorkshireman, 1 know that our complacency ou 
this, as on most matters, needs no stinuilus. Therefore I have 
chosen the other course, and shall face outward over the wider 
field, in whose cultivation we amid a multitude of earnest 
workers have taken our little share, and have still a vast 
undeveloped country ahead of us. 

But in sug"icesting^ this familiar old simile of the labourer 
and the field, it is well to consider what in this particular case 
is its meaning" — we become so accustomed to the use of time- 
worn symbolism that we are apt to forj^et that a concise 
meanini^ may attach to it. What then are we doing-, and why 
should we busy ourselves so g^reatly with matters that lie 
outside the routine of our daily life ? Even it may be asked, is 
what we are so busy with really worth doings ? To the pro- 
fessional man in a professional atmosphere, such a question 
would seem trivial and unworthy of notice ; but I know by 
experience that to the amateur, workings amid more or less 
unsympathetic surrounding's, it is a question with which, 
tacitly or outspokenly, he is so persistently challengfed that he 
cannot entirely ig^nore it. To that question we can give a clear 
and sufficient answer, for the justification is complete. 

In increasing- the sum of human knowledg^e — be it by ever 
so little — we are increasing- the rang-e of human consciousness 
and pushing^ forward the development of those faculties which 
have raised mankind to his present state, and have given him 
great promise of further attainment. We are the makers of the 
new material of thought — the humble silkworms drawing the 
threads from which the philosophers and poets of the future 
will weave their most radiant and enlightening perceptions. 
This, as it seems to me, rises above all the utilitarian — all the 
educational all the personal considerations which obscure our 
forward path. Each in his own sphere — the astronomer in 
studying the heavens, the physicist and chemist in studying the 
properties of matter, the geologist in stud\ ing- the past of the 
earth, the zoologist and botanist in studying the life upon its 
surface — is trying to bring into his own consciousness, and 
through his own, into the general consciousness, a more faithful 
representation of the universe in which we find ourselves. The 
investigator may so lose himself in the fascinating detail of his 
work that for a time this wider pui-pos'e may not be perceived ; 
but, knowingly or unknowingly, it is toward this end that he is 
striving. Carefully he corrects the slightest inaccuracy in the 
received idea ; carefully he seeks to add his mite to the general 


The Necessity for the Amateur Spirit in Scientific Work. 73 

fund of accurate ideas that represents the mental wealth — the 
only safe and enduring- wealth — of mankind. 

And in his intellectual as in his physical career, the progress 
of each worker is an epitome of the progress of the race. From 
the simple elements of a few impressions that have chanced to 
strike deeper into his consciousness than the habitual sensations 
of his daily life, his observant faculties are aroused, and are 
directed with a slowly growing sense of purport toward a 
definite end. If we turn from the particular to the general — 
from the individual to the race — how slow were the first stages 
in this progress let the archaeologist declare ! 

I have sometimes half-seriously pondered over the genera- 
tions of early research-work that led up to the discovery of the 
pocket or its predecessor, the wallet, with its later development, 
the collecting bag. Judging from the relative distribution of 
flint implements, it is clear that for a long time after the 
discovery by primitive man that certain kinds of stone could be 
made useful for cutting, it was his habit when there was cutting 
to be done to resort to the places where cutting tools were 
readily obtainable, and there do the work. Like the lowest 
savages of the present day — practically unclad : with no means of 
conveyance for small objects except hands and mouth, and 
these available only when not otherwise occupied : imbued also, 
no doubt, with the usual savag-e disreg^ard for contingencies — 
our early ancestors seem to have struggled along for ages with- 
out so much as the germ of the idea which underlies the evolution 
of the pocket-knife ; and their upward progress must have been 
terribly hampered in consequence. To become even a geologist 
under such conditions was of course impossible, and it is no 
wonder that the only Ancient Briton we know to have made a 
feeble attempt in this direction was found by the archaeologists 
dead in his barrow with his burdensome specimens around him.* 

Is it not clear that the invention of the wallet marked a very 
decided step towards an accurate knowledge of things, by 
rendering possible the collection of material that served to fix 
and correct the hazy remembrance of common objects ? How 
distorted such memories tend to become, even at a much more 
advanced stage of human progress, we may know from the 
grotesque caricatures of natural objects that were based on the 
recollection of travellers to strange lands in mediaeval times. 

But with the wallet once in common use, the habit of 

* See illustration in 'Naturalist,' Nov. 1904, p. 321. 
1906 March i. 

74 The Xccesxity for I he Ai)ialciir Spirit in Scicniific Work. 

collcctiiii,'- i,'-re\v apace ; tluis the establishment of that lari^-er 
permanent wallet, the museum, became inevitable; and then 
followed, as a matter of course, the perception of the relation of 
thini^s to each other, and their classification into like and unlike, 
whereby a vastly increased number of facts were brou£,^ht easily 
within the range of the mind. 

It is indeed essential that we should make constant reference 
to the thing-s themselves in order to maintain the truth and 
vigour of our impressions unimpaired ; for it is not in small 
matters only that the mirage of memory and imagination tends 
continually to lead our faculties astray. The note-book, with 
its outcome — the technical memoir, and its latest development — 
the scientific text-book, in which we strive, according to our 
ability, to image the facts in words, are at the best but imperfect 
pictures that show on a plane surface what must necessarily be 
a superficial rendering of the object. 

Again and again has it happened to the wayfarer along the 
path of knowledge that, through too much dependence upon 
written directions, the wrong fork has been taken, and a by-way 
entered that has led only into a maze of abstractions from which 
there has been no escape save by harking back to the slower 
path of laborious personal observation. And herein, again, lies 
the virtue of the humble collecting-wallet, at which impatient 
minds in all ages have been prone to scoff. How often has the 
plausible and apparently brilliant generalization been proved 
unsound and misleading when applied to the touchstone of a 
sufficient collection either of data or specimens, such as any 
intelligent worker finds it well within his power to make. In 
this way the veriest mouse in science may, and sometimes has, 
set free the lion himself from a network of error ; though I am 
afraid that such service has not alwavs been received with the 
gratitude that, under the circumstances, would have been 
becoming in the lion. 

And this brings me to the matter that 1 had especially in 
mind in claiming the privilege of addressing you as a fellow- 
amateur. It is that, with the rapid advance in every branch of 
science and the heaping up of its subject-matter into highly 
technical schemes of much complexity, there has arisen a very 
serious danger that the duty ot fmtln-r advance will be left too 
much to the professional worker, and will be regarded as 
beyond the scope of the amateur. Without implying any 
disparagement of the professional scientific spirit as it exists at 
present I cannot help feeling that the fulfilment of the magnifi- 


The Necessity for the Amateur Spirit in Scientijic Work. 75 

cent prospect which science has opened before us is not likely to 
be thus attained. It has happened many times in the history of 
our race that the Learning^ of the community has been left 
entirely to the Wise Men employed for its service, and always 
the results have sooner or later been disastrous not only to the 
community and to the Wise Men themselves, but especially to 
Learning-. For a time, perhaps, all has g^one well — the first 
Wise Men have been devoted to their work and have worthily 
fulfilled the measure of their great responsibility. But after a 
time, these worthy men have been succeeded by others with 
scarcely any sense of responsibility beyond the duty of main- 
taining- and enlarg-ing- the caste-privileges that were obtained by 
the virtues of their predecessors ; until by and by the position 
has become intolerable, and the community has been compelled 
to resume, in amateur fashion, its releg-ated task of enquiring- 
into the nature of thing's. 

It is easy enough for the community by payment to secure 
the services of the professional Teacher who will impart what 
he has himself been taught ; but not by any system of tithe 
can we evade our collective responsibility to investigate the 
things that have not yet become teachable. And it is only in the 
spirit of the amateur that such investigation can be carried out ; 
though the spirit may — and fortunately very often does — animate 
the professional worker also. 

Of course it is necessary that there should be men to whom 
can be allotted the dut}' of gathering together all that is already 
known in some particular branch of learning, so that such 
knowledge may be the more readily communicable at need ; and 
this duty can rarely be undertaken except as a profession. But 
the amateur is not disqualified from doing serviceable work 
because he may lack this comprehensive knowledge. It is still 
such a short distance to the limits of the surveyed ground, 
that he who will but choose a definite path and follow it steadily 
and unswervingly for a while, will soon find himself in new or 
imperfectly known country whatever may be the direction in 
which he choose to travel. It is when the amateur seeks to 
follow the professional method in ranging over what is already 
known that he becomes discouraged by the complexities and 
difliculties of the trodden ground. 

In dwelling on the importance of the amateur in science, we 
of course refer only to those who have an earnest purport in the 
pursuit — the trifler does not count whether he call himself 
amateur or professional. But with this proviso, I think we may 

1906 March i. 

yb Tin- XccessHy for //ir Amateur Spirit in Scientific Work. 

contidently expect to iind thiit the advancement of science will 
depend as lari^ely upon the efforts of its voluntary workers in the 
future as in the past. It is true that the number of those 
employed professionally in the work has been lari^-ely increased 
of late, but it does not by any means follow that the rate of 
advance will be proportionately increased — indeed, to judg-e 
from analogy, there is much probability that such will not be 
the case. The advance in Medicine has never been propor- 
tionate to the number of its professional followers, of whom 
the majority are content even to stop short of what is already 
known. Nor can it be said that in Law or in Theoloi^y 
the endowment of the professions has broug-ht about the 
results that mig-ht reasonably have been anticipated. So also 
in Education, I think it must be acknowledged that the vested 
interests of the schoolmasters have been a hindrance rather than 
a help to advance in the methods of their profession. 

Indeed, as in all other spheres of human activity, where there 
is a livelihood to be gained the livelihood and not the work most 
frequently becomes the paramount motive ; and when this 
happens, it is only to be expected that the worker will view with 
some disfavour the movements that tend constantly to increase 
the amount of labour required of him. It is not every medical 
student who hails with delight the wider range of knowledge 
that modern advances in science have made necessary to him ! 

Moreover, the very fact that the range of knowledge required 
of the professional man has so greatly increased and is still 
increasing, whereby his mental energies are taxed to the utmost, 
and under the spur of necessity, at the beginning of his career, 
must have a tendency to check the ardour of his later work. 
It is only in exceptional cases that we can expect the keen 
amateur pleasure in the work itselt to be maintained unabated 
after the hard pressure of the professional training is 

Then, too, thr mullitude of new facts and ihcir subtending 
problems with which the professional worker has perforce to 
deal, tend to distract his attention and to blunt his sense of 
appreciation for new discovery. Yet it is only when such 
discovery is welcomed with delight, and is lovingly cultivated 
to mature growth, that it attains its full productiveness. To 
change the metaphor, we may say that new ideas thrive best 
that are treated, not as patients, but as offspring. 

Hence, I repeat, it appears to me that instead of there being 
less necessity for the amatevu' worker owing to the increasing 


The Necessity for the Amateur Spirit in Scientific Work. 77 

number of professional men of science, there is the g-reater 
necessity for such workers. And under the new conditions their 
responsibilities are also greater, for it is in their hands not only 
to advance knowledge by individual effort, but also to guard 
against the crystallizing out from the body of the community of 
a special privileged class that might eventually claim to be 
alone capable of the duty and to be above external criticism. 
Already one sometimes hears that ominous word, ' layman ' 
applied in contradistinction to the professional investigator ; 
and the implication is obvious. 

But since it is above all things essential that by one method 
or another the splendid work that has been begun shall go 
forward vigorously, we must see to it that there shall be an 
ever-widening' intelligent sympathy in our progress, even 
among those who do not feel called upon to take up an active 
share in the movement. To arouse this intelligent sympathy, 
as well as to furnish the friendly appreciation which helps to 
maintain the zest of the serious worker, is pre-eminently the 
function of such a body as this Union of ours — a function that 
it has fulfilled in the past and may be expected to fulfil with 
increasing sense of responsibility in the future. With the 
spread of this sympathy there will assuredly follow an increase 
in the number of those who find delight in the pursuit of 
scientific investigation for its own sake, and are best qualified 
to criticize and check any undue presumption that may arise 
from the growth of professional interests. It will also rest 
with them to maintain unimpaired the spirit of high ideals in 
the effort toward further advance. 

In respect to the actual work of investigation, I know from 
personal experience that the amateur is apt to overestimate his 
disabilities. It is true that the time he can devote to his chosen 
subject is usually very limited — though, after all, these limits 
are more narrowly determined by the measure of his enthusiasm 
and energy than by any other factor. Yet his control over 
such time as he can give is unrestricted. Therefore he can 
freely select the line of research most to his liking, and can 
concentrate upon it with unblunted faculties, finding positive 
recreation in what might prove a wearisome task if done of 
necessity and not from choice. Moreover, in doing this, he can 
afford to neglect all considerations that do not bear directly 
upon his self-appointed objective, in a manner that is not often 
possible to the professional worker. 

To take a concrete example, let us compare the methods of 

1906 March i. 

78 The Necessity for the Amateur Spirit in Scientific Worli. 

the amateur g'eolog'isl with those of the official surveyor. The 
amateur can ^o straiijht to the open sections or to the most 
favourable localities where the materials for the special purpose 
that he may have in view are most accessible — to the sea-clifFs, 
quarries, or crag-gy mountain-sides that are best likely to repay 
every moment spent upon them and there he is free to concen- 
trate his whole attention upon his pre-determined object. The 
geological surveyor, from whom a wider range of general 
information is rightly demanded, has no such free hand, but 
must go laboriously over the whole country-side alike -over 
the soil-covered cultivated lands, the grassy slopes, and the 
artificially obscured town-sites — with all kinds of objects in 
mind that have an equal claim upon his attention ; and conse- 
quently the greater part of his time is spent, not on the 
favourable exposures, where usually for the very reason that 
the information is adequate his duty is quickly done, but in 
searching the obscurer ground for scraps of evidence that the 
amateur would scarcely deign to consider. The comparison 
comes forcefully to mind whenever I re-visit Speeton and recall 
the methods of my earlier work there. I am compelled to 
recognize that any such method of prolonged concentration upon 
a single section could never be possible to the geological 
surveyor. I refer to this work merely as a ready example of 
the kind of research in geology that can only be carried out 
either by the amateur, or by the professional man who is ready 
to adopt the amateur spirit and method, for he who goes beyond 
the bounds of allotted duty in pursuing with his whole energies 
a congenial task thereby proves himself to be essentially and 
truly an amateur. 

Of course, in considering this aspect of the matter, we must 
not lose sight of the fact that there is a vast amount of irksome 
toil necessary to the further advance of science, which, like 
most of the field-work of the geological surveyor, would never 
be undertaken by the voluntary worker, and will require the 
employment of labourers of all grades. Also in the future 
even to a greater degree than in the past, the high task of 
co-ordinating and interweaving the freshly-gathered materials 
into a serviceable fabric will be rarely possible except to the 
man who can devote himself entirely to the duty. And just as 
the geological surveyors' map supplies the basis from which the 
amateur geologist usually starts his advance, so in other branches 
of science the amateur makes the best progress on his chosen 
ground wlicn he finds tlic roulc thereto already cleared for him. 


The Necessity for the Amateur Spirit in Scientific Work. 79 

This is the first use of new roads — to aid the road-makers 
themselves, whether amateur or professional. But the amateur 
must see to it that he take his full share in the work, lest the 
professional road-maker come to regard him as an idle path- 
stroller on pleasure bent, who can be ordered to ' keep off the 
o;-rass. ' There is always a danger that the free waste lands of 
to-day may become the preserved park lands of to-morrow ! 

It is not, however, to be implied that we expect everyone 
who finds interest in science to undertake forthwith the work 
of investigation — indeed, this is not even desirable unless the 
same hands that gather the raw material are capable also of 
weaving it into the fabric. The active amateur workers will 
always be few compared with the number of those who are 
sufficiently interested to watch with appreciation what is being 
done, though, as I have previously suggested, with an increase 
in the number of the sympathetic watchers there will assuredlv 
be a proportionate increase of serious workers. It is upon 
these workers, backed as they should be by the intelligent 
support of the community, that the great responsibilities of 
the future to which I have alluded will mainly rest. 

It may seem perhaps that for me to dwell thus upon the 
value of the amateur worker in science is superfluous — the 
mere labouring of an argument that is already granted. But it 
is useful sometimes to review matters ot this kind under the 
light of changing circumstances, and I must let this be my 

There is another aspect of scientific research, independent 
altogether of the matters we have been discussing, with which 
I should have liked to deal, but can only just touch upon now. 
It is with regard to the reaction of this kind of work upon the 

There is one thing sure, that whoever enters seriously upon 
the study of any subject in the scientific spirit, and pursues it 
far enough to grasp the essence of the scientific method, whether 
he succeed in adding to the sum of knowledge or not, will be 
intellectually the better for the discipline. The illusions and 
shadowy uncertainties that perplex the mind in our daily life 
are generally based on defective observation, or lack of observa- 
tion ; and any training of the mental faculties that helps to bring 
the idea into closer accord with its object — that, in common 
phrase, aids us ' to look facts square in the face ' — is indeed 
valuable for this reason alone. The man of business uncon- 
sciously acquires this faculty by contact with affairs, and his 

1906 March i. 

So /Reviews (ind Book Xo/ici's. 

traininj^ is lo this extent a scientific training" : but it is remark- 
able how readily a habit of thougfht that has been acquired for 
some definite purpose is dropped except when employed for that 
particular purpose. In the scientific training proper, however, 
the faculty is persistently and consciously exercised, and if really 
gained, it cannot fail to permeate the whole mind. The con- 
scious striving after accuracy in all things, small and great, is 
the essence of the method and the proof that it has been 

But at the beginning of the address I sheared off from one 
tack lest it should lead us to excessive self-complacency, and 
1 now find myself drifting along another that is certainly 
not tending towards humility of spirit ; so it is evidently time 
that we dropped anchor. I am fully aware that I have asked 
you to accompany me over a trite course — a mere Dover-to- 
Calais sort of voyage — that has offered no new incident or 
outlook. But it is useful sometimes on occasions like this to 
follow the old route with a fresh pilot, if for no other reason 
tiian to see whether his soundings agree with those of his 

If, with a purport which is serious enough, I have taken 
unwarranted advantage of the opportunity that my office affords, 
in bringing forward matters of personal opinion rather than of 
fact, it must be my plea that there is a standpoint from which 
opinion itself is a fact that deserves consideration. Nor have 1 
forgotten in addressing you that w bile the statement of scientific 
fact may justly demand acquiescence, the statement of scientific 
opinion can, at the most, ask only for consideration. 

The Clyde Mystery: A Study in Forgeries and Folklore. 1\\ 
Andrew Lang, dlasgow: James MacLeliose & Sons. 141 p.p., 4/6. 

Ill this little book an effort is made to prove that the various extra- 
ordinary objects found in the Clyde area, and pronounced as forgeries by 
Dr. Mvinro, niay be really genuine— though unique- or, at any rate, the 
author would like to show, after carefully considering all the evidence, that 
the matter is ' not proven." The book is cleverly written, and no ettbrl has 
been sjjared to bring in every possible argument in favour of the relies being 
genuine. But we do not think tin- author has advanced the matter n-.ueh. 
Amongst the objects found were some carvings on ' American I^lue-l'oints ! " 
the aniicjuily of which even Mr. Lang cannot substantiate. As to the 
genuiniiuss'of the Clyde relics, the author's own words on p. 125 perhaps 
ijest define his position :— ' Whether they were done by earl_\- wags, or by a 
modern and rather erudite forger, I know not of course ; I only think that 
the cjuestion is open; is not settled by Dr. Munro ! ' There are no fewer 
than 34 ' chapters" in the book, which is explained by the fact that a page 
or a jjage and a half is sullicient for a chapter. 





Hon. Sec. Wild Birds' and Eggs' Protection Committee, Y.N.U. 

Hon. Sec. Vertebrate Section, Y.N.U. 

Meivibers of the Yorkshire NaturaUsts' Union, and naturalists 
g-enerally, will be g-reatly disappointed with the conduct of the 
County Council of the West Riding- in shelving the proposed 
new Bird Protection Order, which has been drawn up with the 
utmost care by the Wild Birds and Egg-s Protection Committee 
of the Union. 

When, in conjunction with Mr. Nelson, I called a meeting of 
gentlemen interested in this subject, I felt that it was quite time 
something w as done if the extermination of several most interest- 
ing species as residents in the county was to be prevented. 

One of the principal points in view was to have a uniform 
order for the whole of the county, and when a meeting had been 
arranged of representatives from each of the County Councils to 
consider the proposal from the Y.N.U., all were very hopeful 
that the results of their deliberation would be satisfactory. 

This Committee agreed practically to the whole of our 
proposals, and, from what we understood, the matter was 
settled, and we congratulated ourselves upon the good work 

Just when we were expecting the new order to be issued, we 
learn with consternation that the County Council of the West 
Riding has shelved the whole matter, and without giving any 

Their action is extremely disappointing ; a body of men, 
perfectly competent in every way to deal with the subject, drew 
up the proposed schedule with the utmost care, and it is 
inconceivable why the County Council have not followed out 
their suggestion. 

The worst enemies to our rare birds are collectors. Personally 
I have no objection to anyone making a collection of eggs in a 
modest way, but I think the wholesale taking of the eggs of rare 
birds in clutches is deplorable, and especially when the collector 
is not satisfied with taking what he requires for his own cabinet, 
but continues to harry the nests for the purpose of selling the 
eggs outright, or, what is quite as bad, using them for the 
purpose of exchange. There are " naturalists " in our own 

1906 March i. 

82 Fortune: Birds rcij it iriu if Protection in Yorkshire. 

county who persist in this course, even ^oinj^- to the extent of 
obtainin": access to protected g-rounds, on the pretence of beinj^- 
anxious to see the birds, being- wishful to obtain photog-raphs, 
or some similar excuse, and when the secrets have been revealed, 
afterwards sneaking- back and clearing the ground of eggs. I 
have even heard of them pacing lads so much each for curlew's 
eg-g-s, and coming awa}- from certain districts with a basketful. 
Conduct like this is reprehensible and abominable ; if persisted 
in it will result in these people having their names pilloried (they 
are well known) and held up to the scorn of all true naturalists. 
It IS, therefore, necessary for some stringfent order to be 
passed and effecti\e means adopted so that its provisions may be 
enforced to protect our birds against these wholesale destroyers. 
I think it all naturalists' societies in the county were to pass 
resolutions asking the County Council to go forward with this 
matter, it would strengthen the hands of the Union considerably, 
and in the meantime local efforts to protect any special or rare 
bird might be effective. 

Spurn Point, the only breeding place of the Lesser Tern in 
the county, has been declared a sanctuary by the County Council 
of the East Riding, but unfortunately there is no one to see that 
these orders are carried out, and to my knowledge the eggs of 
this bird and those of the Ring- Plover are regularly taken. 
Some years ago subscriptions were obtained, and a watcher 
employed during the breeding- season to look after these birds, 
but for some reason this system was abandoned ; it would be a 
good thing if it could be resuscitated. I am sure the editor 
would be glad to receive subscriptions for the purpose, and the 
Wild Birds' Protection Committee would see they were employed 
with g-ood effect. 

The following is a list of birds which are in urgent need of 

Peregrine Falcon. — There are now only two, or at the most 
three, pairs endeavouring to nest in llie county, but they fail 
absolutel}- in their attempts to bring off their young. For years 
I ha\e had their nests under obser\ation, being particularly 
anxious to secure a photog-raph of young birds, but the eggs 
have invariably been taken, on several occasions when on the 
point of hatching. One cliff has to my knowledge been in- 
habited by a pair of falcons for a quarter of a century, and 
during- that lime they have not reared half a dozen broods. 
Unless we can give these few adequate protection, thev ^vi" 
soon be extinct as V'orkshire nesting species. 


Fortune: Birds requiring Protection in Yorkshire. 83 

Raven. — This species is reduced to an odd pair endeavourin|f 
to nest, unfortunately without success, the eg-gfs being- invariably 
taken, like those of the Pereg-rine, even when on the point of 

Buzzard. — These birds have not nested in the county for 
several years ; all their old haunts are deserted. An abso- 
lutely harmless species, it is a great pity that continual 
persecution has driven it from the county. If only from 
a matter of sentiment, it is a cause of deepest reg-ret that we 
should have to contemplate the disappearance of these three 
fine birds from our area. I strong-ly appeal to collectors in 
Yorkshire and elsewhere to stay their hands, and gfive them 
a chance to ag-ain establish themselves. 

Merlin. — The numbers of this beautiful little hawk have 
been sadly thinned of late years, both by collectors and g-ame 
preservers. As the food of these birds consists almost entirely 
of Meadow Pippits and other small birds, there is no excuse for 
their destruction by gamekeepers. 

Goldfinch. — This bird is practically exterminated as a York- 
shire nesting- species. The depredations of bird-catchers in the 
first place, and eg;g--collectors to a smaller extent, have com- 
bined to bring; this about. A beautiful and absolutely harmless 
bird, every protection should be g-iven it for some years. 

Linnet. — The actions of the bird-catchers threaten this 
species, which happily is yet not vmcommon ; still there are 
many old haunts which are now deserted, the birds having- been 
swept away entirely. 

Bullfinch. — This species has had its numbers sadly thinned 
by the bird-catchers. A year or two ag-o I knew one small 
plantation that held nine nests full of young- birds, all of which 
fledg-ed safely. Yet, in spite of this, there has not been a nest 
in this place since ; every bird was captured. There are many 
who say the Bullfinch should not be tolerated on account of the 
harm they do to the gardens, &c. I grant that they cause a 
certain amount of destruction, yet I am confident that if their 
habits and movements are studied, and not from one point of 
view only, it will be found that the good they do at least 
balances the harm ; in any case, it would be a disgrace to 
exterminate such a beautiful bird. 

Red pole, Chaffinch, Twite, Siskin. — These species all suff'er 
from the depredations of the bird-catchers. I am not altogether 
against anyone possessing cage-birds, but I am strongly 
opposed to the reckless destruction caused by this nefarious 

1906 March i. 

84 Fort ti lie : Birds ri'(/uirin<r Protection in Yorkshire. 

trade. I think that I am well within the mark if I say that 
not one bird in a dozen captured lives more than a day or two ; 
the rest, crowded to^-ether in a vitiated atmosphere, with 
unsuitable food, perish miserably, while the amount of cruelty 
practised is appallinj^-. Bird-catchers are a curse to the 

Kino/is/ier. This, our handsomest bird, should have abso- 
lute protection, both aj^ainst the eg-g-collector and the man who 
fancies haviui^ them in a g-lass case, or the lady who would like 
one in her hat. They are harmless to anyone's interests, as 
their food consists chiefly of minnows and other small fry. 
Of course, if they g"ain access to trout-reariui^ ponds they 
play havoc, but it should be comparatively easy to keep 
them out. 

Lapwing. — I am astonished that farmers ever allow the eg"g"s 
of this bird to be leathered. They are the best friends the 
ai^riculturists have. Many districts I know, where they used to 
be common, but continual persecution has driven them to seek 
fresh pastures until there is hardly one pair where formerly were 

Stone Curlew. — One or two pairs still endeavour to nest 
with us, but the efforts of the collector effectually prevent them 
adding to their numbers. A most interesting bird, it would be 
a thousand pities if they were turned out of the county bv cease- 
less persecution. Only absolute protection, both for themselves 
and their eg^g^s, can save them. 

Dotterel and Diuilin. — There is probably only one pair of 
the first mentioned in the county and not many of the second. 
Their egfgfs should be protected for some years. 

Ring Plover^ Oystercatcher, Lesser Tern. — There are only 
two places in the county where the first-named species nests, 
and only one where the other two are foimd. In these cases 
their ej^j^s should be strictly protected, and also those of the 
odd pair of S/ieldncks, which nest in the same locality. 

Ducks. — Some of the rarer species of ducks are extendingf 
their rang^e, and if they were allowed to nest in security would 
no doubt become much more common ; for this reason the egfgfs 
of the following- should have the utmost protection afforded : — 
Shoveler, Wig-eon, Teal, Pochard, and Tufted Duck. 

Great Crested Grebe. — This fine species, like some of the 
ducks, is extending- its rang-e in the county, and would become 
more plentiful if it were not so persecuted by eg-g^-collectors. 
Both birds and their cg-g-s require absolute protection for some 


Fortune : Birds requiring Protection in Yorkshire. 85 

years. Of course, I do not advocate the protection of the birds 
so far as the Ducks, Plovers, &c., are concerned, as the county 
is visited by such enormous numbers of migrants in the autumn 
and winter months. 

Kittiwake. — I am inclined to think the numbers of this bird 
are slig-htly increasing-. Nevertheless, as we have only one 
breeding-place in the county, protection afforded to both birds 
and eggs for a number of years could only do good by increas- 
ing the numbers of the most beautiful of the gull tribe 

Black-headed Gull. — These birds are endeavouring to found 
colonies in several places in the county, and would do so were 
their eggs not so persistently taken. The eggs should be pro- 
tected, as the birds are harmless to both agriculturists and 
game preservers — indeed, to the former they are good friends. 

These are a few species requiring, in my opinion, special 
protection. Of course, there are many more needing it, but 
not to such a great extent as these. Owls, Woodpeckers, 
Kestrels, &c., might be mentioned, but, as a rule, these nest 
on large and well-preserved estates ; and thus, more or less, 
effective protection is afforded them, and more especially so, as 
the owners are beginning to recognise the good qualities of the 
Kestrel and the Owls. 

Other birds should receive protection from the gunner. I 
will only refer to some. The Golden and White-tailed Eagles, 
the Osprey, Harriers, Bitterns, &c. Of course, some will say, 
Why protect these ; they are not likely to nest in our county? 
I admit this, but in the case of the Eagles they are chiefly 
young birds, and would, if not molested, probably find their 
way back to their old haunts to occupy some of the ancient 
deserted eyries, and thus help to keep these noble and interest- 
ing birds as inhabitants in our islands. 

The same of course applies to the Osprey. I think I am 
right in saying that Ospreys have practically ceased to nest in 
Scotland, which is a great pity. They ought to receive pro- 
tection throughout the whole of Britain. Parliament should 
pass a law scheduling certain species for absolute protection in 
the kingdom. 

To Harriers and Bitterns the same remarks will not hold good, 
as there are many suitable places in the county for both species 
to nest, and from the number reported every year as shot, it is 
pretty certain that were this persecution withdrawn we should 
soon be able to number them among our breeding species. 
Many others could be mentioned, if space permitted. 

1906 March i. 

86 /'ii'VH'7vs (Did Book Xo/iccs. 

In contrast to the action of the County Councils of the West 
Riding-, it is pleasing- to note that the Councils of the North and 
East Ridings have adopted the proposals of the Union. 

The actions also of the Town Councils of Scarborough and 
Bridlington, in prohibiting the shooting of Gulls, &c. , on the 
sands, is greatly appreciated by the Union. 

Nature in Eastern Norfolk. By Arthur H. Patterson. Methuen 
& Co. 352 pp., witli twelve illustrations by F. Southsj^ate. Price 6/-. 

Not loiij< ag-o we noticed in these columns an interesting- work by Mr. 
Patterson entitled 'Notes of an East Coast Naturalist.' In 'Nature in 
Eastern Norfolk ' our author g-ives a more substantial volume, which is 
exceedingly readable, and contains most reliable information on the fauna 
of the district in which he resides. The volume is in two parts, the first 
section being autobiographical, and also containing some general observa- 
tions on the fauna ; the second being a catalogue of the various birds, 
fishes, mammals, reptilia and amphibia, stalk-eved Crustacea, and mollusca. 
Needless to say the first part of the work is that which will be at once read 
bv every purchaser of the book, and the remainder is also full of facts and 
records of the most useful character. It can be safely said that Mr. 
Patterson has monographed the fauna of his district in a very creditable 

As an example of the information in the second part of the work, we 
quote the following from the author's remarks in reference to the Bearded 
Titmouse ; — ' This exquisite little bird has for )'ears past been most merci- 
lessly slain and its eggs stolen by the mercenary part of the shooting 
fraternity in the Broadlands. On November 19th, 1890, eight slaughtered 
birds were exposed for sale in the market place, seven of which were so 
badly mauled by duck-shot as to be useless for the stuffer's art. Four were 
brought up from Filbv Broad on February 1st, 1895. F"or years a premium 
placed upon nests and egg's, to supply a rapacious skin dealer in the 
Midlands, was the means of sadly decimating this native species, of which 
Norfolk naturalists are so justly proud. ' After the mild winters of 1862-63,' 
writes Stevenson, ' these birds were more than usually plentiful at Hickling 
in the following spring, and from this locality alone about five dozen egg's 
were procured b\' one individual, n(jminall\' a collector, but in reality a dealer, 
who thus for the sake of a few shillings would go far towards extirminating' 
this beautiful species.' Old birds in some numbers were also killed at the time. 
It will be a sad pity if eventually this beautiful creature should be lost to us. 
It is a positive delight \.o watch a flock of these elegant birds flying in 
company from one reed-clump to another, or creeping mouse-like up and 
down the reeds, their bright rufous plumage contrasting sharply with the 
green lanceolate Icjives, meantime uttering their clear nietalic pi'iif .' f>ing ! 
a call note which, once heard, can never be confounded with any other.' The 
following figures relating to the estimated number of nests in different years 
tell their own story- — In 1848, 170; 1858, 140; 1868, 125; 1878, 90 ; 1888, 45 ; 
1898, 33. \.y\<\ yet there are some who speak of the uselessness of the Wild 
Birds' Protection Act ! The notes on the Bearded Tit are illustrated by a 
charming colrjured plate, which the publishers have kindly enableii us to 
reproduce (pl;itc 11.). We have pai-licular |)leasure in doing so, ])artly 
because it gives our readers an idea of the nature of the twelve illustrations, 
which are from drawings bv Mr. F. Southgate, and partly because the 
Bearded Tit was recc^rded in these columns some little time ago as occurring 
at Hornsea Mere a record we sliouki v<-r\' nuuli like repe.iting. 



Plate II. 




Sheffield is remarkable for the many striking geological 
features which occur in its vicinity. Reference has been made 
in the pages of this journal * to the small patch of boulder 
clay found at Crosspool, at an elevation which places it in a 
position of splendid isolation so far as current theories of the 
glaciation of Yorkshire are concerned. The famous Wharn- 
cliffe Gorge has supplied the key j to one of the interesting 
examples of river diversion in this island, while the Red Rock 
of Rotherham has puzzled a couple of generations of geologists, 
and, despite several praiseworthy attempts,! still remains with 
its exact stratigraphical position undefined. 

It only requires a striking example of the effect of com- 
plicated earth-movements to complete the series, and this is 
supplied by the narrow strip of faulted ground that forms the 
northern side of the Don Valley between Sheffield and Rother- 
ham. A reference to the sketch map (Plate IV) will help to 
make clear the structure of the rocks intersected by the 
Sheffield, Northerly Don, and Southerly Don Faults. East of 
the last mentioned fault the coal measures dip gently to the 
N.E., while the various coal seams crop out with a strike 
ranging N.W. and S.E., this being the normal dip and strike 
for this portion of the coal-field. North of the Northerly Don 
Fault, and west of the Sheffield Fault, the measures have again 
the normal dip and strike, but are lower in the series. In the 
country between the two main faults we find the so-called 
middle coal measures, from the Silkstone up to the Barnsley 
seams, exposed, dipping steeply in places up to 50''', and with a 
strike at right angles to the rest of the country. The late Prof. 
Green, when making his survey of the district, drew attention 
to this striking feature, and, after describing the present lie of 
the rocks, remarked as follows : — § 

" The way in which this block of strata has been torn from 
the beds to which it was once united, and twisted round through 
an angle of nearly go'' is very striking, but we know so little 

•Johns, 'Naturalist,' Aug. 1905, p. 243. 
t Lower Carter, ' Rep. Brit. Assoc.,' 1904, p. 55S. 

J Green, 'Yorkshire Coal-field,' p. 482. Kendall, 'Rep. Royal Com. on 
Coal Supplies', 'Geological Report,' p. 22. 
§ Green, ' Yorkshire Coal-field,' p. 498. 

1906 March i. 

88 Johnx: S/icJfichrs Trouo/i Fun//. 

of the machinery by which faultiii'^ and disturbance were pro- 
duced, that we can offer no explanation of the way the wrench 
was caused. " 

It sliould not be forgotton that when the survey was made, 
Structural Geolog^y had not received the attention that has been 
devoted to it during- recent years. 

To beg-in with, it mig-ht be mentioned that there has been 
no wrenching- away and twisting- round throug-h an angfle of 
90" in the area we are discussing-, so we are spared the trouble 
of investig-ating- the mechanism necessary to produce such 
movements. The Yorkshire coal-field is sing-ularly free from 
evidences of tang-ential stresses and reversed faults, and over- 
thrusts are almost absent ; such trifling- examples as may be 
pointed out are local in character, and only due to the efforts of 
wedg-e-shaped rock masses to accomodate themselves to new 
positions while underg-oing subsidence. The disturbances that 
have determined the tectonic features of the basin, are to be 
included in the g-roup of Gravity Faults. Gravitational stresses 
are the only ones that need consideration, and Normal Faulting^ 
is the rule. 

Normal faults, as. is well known, hade to the downthrow 
side, and from their very nature involve extension of the strata 
affected. It is, however, in the sequence, rather than in the 
character, of the faulting that we must seek for an explanation 
of the movements that broug-ht about the present structure of 
the part of the Don Valley now under investig-ation. The 
Southerly Don Fault ends abruptl}' against the Sheffield one, so 
the last mentioned is evidently the older. The Southerly Don 
Fault is perhaps the niost interesting- in the coal-field, and there 
is a strong suspicion * that it was progressive in its character, 
and moved more than once between the deposition of the 
Barnsley coal and the laying down ot the Permian rocks. That 
is, however, a question that does not concern us here. The 
important point is that its extension into the area under dis- 
cussion was posterior to the Sheffield Fault and anterior to the 
Northerly Don Fault. 

When the fracture was extended, after the close of the middle 
coal measure period, to use the conventional term, up to the 
Sheffield Fault, it did not establish complete equilibrium in the 
stressed rocks, for afterwards the strip, that now lies with a 
strike at right angles to the rest of the district, broke away. 

* Kciuliill, '(J.J.(;.S.' .\o. J4J, May 11)05, P- .^44- 




fit F\. r SHEfF/em F/IOiT 

River don 


Map and Section of Country around Sheffield. 

Northern Neivs. 89 

The cross section of this mass must have been of a wedge- 
shaped form with the small end down, for, as a result of the 
two successive fractures, the space between had been increased, 
andjthe dislocated strip sank into the trough. But the strip did 
not sink evenly, for owing" to the Southerly Fault being the older, 
the rocks on that side of the trough would be lower, and the 
edge of the displaced strip nearest the depressed side would sink 
deeper. The opposite edge would be reared up, and a portion 
of its fractured surface, with the coal seams, would be exposed 
with a strike that would now be at right angles to that of the 
rocks bordering the trough. The transverse faults probably de- 
V eloped as the displaced mass adjusted itself in its new position. 
The movements just described were in all probability gradual in 
their character. Denudation would afterwards do its work, and 
one result that seems clearly indicated is that the Don, or, 
as it would then be, the Sheaf, for the Don diversion above 
VVharncliflFe Gorge had possibly not occured then, followed the 
line of fault. The probable outcrop of the Barnsley seam is 
marked beneath the alluvium of the Don Valley on the sketch 
map. Recent excavations in the neighbourhood of Brightside, 
disclosed the seam at a depth and with a dip that would carry 
it to the position indicated. 

We have here, therefore, an example of a trough fault dis- 
tinguished by the fact that the faulted strip has subsided un- 
equally, and has one long edge reared up above the opposite 
one. It is also distinguished by the fact that, owing to the 
differential rate at which the areas to the east and west of the 
strip have subsided, one margin is much higher than the other. 
There is evidence too that the rocks had undergone considerable 
flexure before the second fracture occurred. The various move- 
ments are therefore more complex in their character than would 
be the case with a simple trough fault. Though this explana- 
tion might seem more prosaic than the one it is oflfered as a 
substitute for, it does not necessarily detract from the interest 
of what must be considered to be the most instructive faulted 
area in the whole of the coal-field. 

The report of the Corresponding- Societies' Committee of the British 
Association, and of the conference held in London on October 30th and 31st, 
has been issued. It contains the papers, &c. , referred to in our January 
issue, as well as the discussions thereon. A valuable addition to the report 
is the classified summary of the papers printed in the various proceedings 
and transactions of the cori-esponding- societies. 

1906 March i. 





Chihhhi) flints appear to be absent from that part of the North- 
umberland coast extending- from the mouth of the Tyne 
northwards to Monkseaton. At the latter place where the coast 
line is cleaner a few chippings were found. Further to the 
North on the coast opposite to St. Mary's Island, more distinct 
traces were noticed ; a few flakes occurring on a patch of bare 
ground together with a gun flint and several fragments of 
g-lazed pottery and broken bones.* 

The coast extending from the Island to Seaton Sluice is 
more interesting from a purely geological point of view, and 
has not afforded any flint flakes ; while from this point to Blyth 
is a long stretch of blown sand which would conceal any neo- 
lithic site which might exist. On approaching Newbiggin 
flints begin to be more plentiful, and between Camboise and 
Newbiggin they may be picked out of the soil capping the 
edges of the cliffs. -|- 

The most prolific site however is situated about i mile North 
ot Newbiggin, and nearly opposite the village of Woodhorn. 
As in other localities the site is immediately above the sea coast. 
The part where most of the flints have been found is an old 
sandstone quarry near the promontory. In order to reach the 
stone it has been necessary to strip off about 3 feet of clay 
and rubble which covers the rock. This rubble, plentifully 
mixed with pieces of sandstone, has been shot over the cliff on 
the edge of the quarry nearest the sea coast, where every 
specially high tide washes a portion away, exposing the flint 
flakes and other stones. The chipped flints are also found 
completely washed out of the soil and lying amongst the 
shingle accumulated at high water mark. 

The series includes most of the usual objects found on such 
sites, with the peculiarity that flint seems to have been an 

* This site is a curi(jiis orii.-, a similar one occurs at Newbig-gfin quite 
mar the church, where a distinct stratum of a light colour may be noticed 
beneath the brown sand. Such sites are quite difTerenf from the true Neolithic 
sites which are rarely found amongst the brown sands. 

I' Pieces of flint are found in the so-called pre-glacial beach at this spot but 
they are very different from the fragments and nodules used by Xeolithic 


Reviews and Book Notices. 91 

even scarcer commodity here than on the Durham coast and 
many of the flakes show traces of having- been used as cutting- 
and sawing- tools. 

About four hundred implements, flakes, and chippings, were 
obtained from this spot. The largest flake is no more than 
\\ inches in length, while most are much smaller ; some of 
the scrapers are absurdly small, resembling in this respect some 
of the minute thumb flints from the Scotch sands. One pigmy 
or midget implement was obtained. 

A curious implement in the form of a small "sling stone" 
was found ; it shows the crust of the pebble on one side, and 
was probably used as a scraping tool as the use of a lens 
reveals numerous fine fractures on one edge onl}'. The flints 
are all fresh and show no iron stains or other marks, and the 
surfaces of the flakes are highly bleached and mottled from 

About 10 distinct scrapers were picked up, all abnormally 
small and none of them fitted for use in handles. 

In addition to these a quartzite core with a few quartzite 
flakes occurred, and three or four much battered quartzite 
striking stones. 

No arrowheads have occurred up to the present on the site, 
and neither greenstone nor any polished implements were found. 

The rest of the Northumberland coast seems to be very un- 
prolific in prehistoric remains. A fine arrowhead of opaque 
flint is in the possession of the Rev. M. Fletcher of Seahouses ; 
it was found near Bamborough, but appears to have been an 
isolated example. Although many barrows have been opened 
up on the Whin sill escarpment in the parish of Bamborough, 
I failed to find any definite flint sites along this part of the 
coast. A seemingly good locality on the coast between 
Dunstanborough and Bamborough yielded only a single flake. 

One and All Gardening, 1906, London, the Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Association, Ltd., 2d. 

The eleventh issue of this popular gardening- annual, edited by E. Owen 
Greening-, contains about 30 original articles by well-known writers. There 
are 200 pag-es and 170 illustrations. Anyone with a garden will do well to 
spend twopence on this ' hardy annual.' 

The Fifteenth Quarterly Record of the Hull Museum (Publication 
No. 28) has been issued (A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., Hull, One Penny). It contains 
illustrated articles on Inscribed Roman Fibulas, Rural Relics, and on a large 
Mammoth Tooth recently found at Withernsea. There are also notes on 
Medals ; Saurian, &c., remains ; Cremation, &c. 

1906 March i. 



An Addition to the Flora of the N. Riding of Yorkshire, and Uther Records. 

p. FOX LEE, 


During the two weeks, 26th Jul}- to 9th Aiis^ust 1905, 1 had a 
g-lorious time amonifst the coast-hne flora at Whitby, Saltburn, 
Marske, and Redcar, and inland at Middleton-in-Teesdale and 
Higfh Foss. Besides enjoying- the pleasure of seeing- many species 
of plants not previously observed growing anywhere (all 
recorded, however, in Mr. J. G. Baker's classic ' North York- 
shire,') I was fortunate in discovering an addition to the flora of 
the Riding, namely, Erythrcea pulchella, or Slender Centaur}-. 

Mr. Baker, the veteran author of ' North Yorkshire,' has 
verified my record, saying in a letter, ' The Erythrcea is certainly 
dwari pii/chella, which is new for the North Riding.' Passing 
through Middlesbrough by train, a naturalist might easi'y think 
he had come to some active volcanic region, the grimy smoke- 
laden atmosphere of the district is fairly alarming, but after all, 
it is comforting to reflect that the ballast-hills have not yet 
invaded all the ground. Although they do spread out in huge, 
unsightly tongues of slag, they are gradually being disintegrated 
and covered with plant life. At the present time, some of the 
slag is being utilised in various ways commercially. There is 
much marsh-land still free and open for the seaside-loving plants. 

The tiny specimens of Erythrcea pulchella — pretty as the 
name denotes, and but one to two inches in height — with rose- 
pink, star-shaped flowers, were growing freely on several of the 
drier sandy hillocks in one of the salt-marshes near the East 
Coatham sand-hills. 

The following coast plants were associated with the Erythrcea, 
namely : — Btula media, Trifolium fragiferum, Glaiix nuiritinuiy 
Jiuiciis niaritimus, Triglochin viaritimtan, Lepturus Jiliformis, 
and many commoner species. Unfortunately the abnormally 
dr} season had both hastened the maturing and stunted the 
g'"rowth of many of the plants observed on the sand-hills and 
boulder-clay cliffs between Redcar, Marske, and Saltburn, such 
as Thalictriim (hincuse, i\irli)i(i vulgaris, ih-chis latifolia, Scirpits 
Carices, and Eqiiisetitm maximum. 

The only other records of Ervthnva pulchella for \'orkshire 
hitherto made are near Scarcroft, Kinningley, and Bawtry, in 
Mr. F. Arnold Lees' 'West Riding Flora,' p. 324, and at Brid- 
lington Qua}' (a very old record) in J. Fraser Robinson's ' Kasi 
Riding Flora,' p. 144. 





The following' are some notes on observations of the g"rovvth and 
changes of the appendage of a species of Megalurus extending 
over a period of about six weeks. 

On Tuesday, August 29th last, I found in water taken from 
one of my usual collecting ponds the day before, a male 
Arrheniinis unlike any I had before noticed. Its general colour 
was pale reddish with a yellow Y-shaped malpigian centre, the 
legs a pale transparent blue colour, the fourth segment of the 
hind leg spurred, the hair on the end of the spur curly, eyes a 
bright Vermillion, the chain-like chitin coat very distinct, and the 
lined condition of the epidermis which covered it was easy to 
make out ; the striated epidermis I have before observed to be 
most frequently and best seen in 3'oung mites which have 
recently changed their skin. The most remarkable thing about 

Fig. I. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. 

the mite was the tail, which was short and globular. At the 
extreme end, in the centre, a small papilla, and another on each 
side near the outer edge (see fig. i). On the yth of September 
following the tail had slightly elongated and become conical 
(fig. 2), reminding one of Piersig's figure of Arrheniinis com'ciis, 
the central malpigian body extended almost to the end of the 
tail, the side coeca were a semi-transparent warm brown colour, 
and the end of the tail a rather transparent delicate pale pink. 
On the nth this had become more elongated, and continued 
semi-transparent, the end nearly square across, with the little 
papilla in the centre, and above this some slightly blue chitin 
plates. The mite now appeared to be very like the mite 
described by me as Arrhenurus mantonensis (see figure in 
' The Naturalist ' for June 1903, p. 216). As development was 
perhaps not yet finished, I still kept the mite alive for observa- 
tion ; a week afterwards great changes had taken place in the 
tail, two side projections had formed at the end, the chitin 

igo6 March i. 

94 Field Notes. 

plates liad fully developed, and a sort of papule had formed 
above them, and the mite had taken upon it the appearance of 
Arrheuiirns caudatas, fig-. 4 ; the <^eneral colour of the mite 
however continued to be pale, and rather transparent, the side 
coeca brown. After this I sent the living mite to Mr. Soar for 
his examination. He wrote to me October 14th. He thinks it is 
Arrhcniinis caudahis, and the absence of the usual colouring of 
that mite is perhaps due to its being de\eloped in confinement. 
On October i6th I found it dead, and so mounted it. It 
certainly was very diflFerently coloured to any A. caudafns 1 
have before seen, and I still think it a variety of that mite, and 
suggest it being called ' Arrheniinis caudafns majitotioisis,' 
until further investigation shows that the ordinary A. catidatus 
goes through all these diflferent changes during its final growth. 

Interesting Tortrices, «S:c., taken in Cleveland in 1905. — 

Pyralis costalis \ — fimbria lis\. Specimens taken in out build- 
ings, Linthorpe, Middlesbrough, pre\ iousl\- recorded for 
two localities in the Yorkshire list. 

Peronea sponsana. Middlesbrough. 

Pcronca comariaiia. — Kildale in September. Only one pre- 
vious Vorks. record. 

Peronea fnaccana.— Four or five specimens, including both 
sexes, taken at sugar, Linthorpe, Middlesbrough. This 
confirms my previous record (the only Vorks. one), which 
was made from a single specimen taken some years ago. 

Peroiiea ferriiiiinia. Kildale. 

Mixodia s( •luiloiana. — Kildale. 

Pu'disea opliihalniieaua. — Kildale. 

Ephippipliora /iirhidaiin. KildaU- in July. 

Olindia ulmaiia. Killon Woods, Loft us, July. 

Catoptria fiilvcnia. Swaintsy in Cleveland, June ijtii. Only 
one previous record in ^'()rks. list. 

(Keoplwra stipella. Kildale. 

T. AsiHo.N Li)irn()i SK, Linthorpe, Middlesbrough, 
27th Jan. 1906. 




Ix our February number (pag-e 52) we drew attention to a 
recently issued publication which was of particular interest 
to northern naturalists from the information contained therein 
relating to the birds &c. , used for food in times gone by. 
Of a similarly informing character is the work just issued on the 
Royal Forests of England, one of 'The Antiquary's Books' 
written by the Editor of that series, Dr. Cox. In this work Dr. 
Cox has gathered together for the first time many valuable facts 
relating to the old forests, the forest officers, beasts of the forest, 
trees of the forest, &c. , and describes in detail the various forests 
once existing in different parts of the country. The work is also 
illustrated by numerous quaint drawings, &c. , mostly from 
contemporary sources. 

In the first place Dr. Cox defines a forest, as it was under- 
stood in the Norman, Plantagenet, and early Tudor days 
It was ' a portion of territory consisting of waste lands, and 
including a certain amount of both woodland and pasture, 
circumscribed by defined metes and bounds, within which the 
right of hunting was reserved exclusively to the king, and 
which was subject to a special code of laws administered by 
local as well as central ministers.' Had the true meaning of 
the old word ' forest ' been grasped, much waste of learning- 
and of vain strivings to prove that certain barren tracts were 
wood-covered in historic times might have been spared. A 
' chase ' was, like a forest, unenclosed, but could be held by 
a subject. 

The foresters and other officials appointed in connection with 
these vast tracts of country are described, and particulars given 
of their duties, wag-es &c. We learn that twopence a day was 
the usual wages of the Pickering foresters. 

Under ' The Beasts of the Forest ' are many particulars of 
animals formerly existing, which should be studied by all in- 
terested in the former fauna of Britain. Particularly interesting 
are the records relating to the wolf. ' The abundance of wolves 
throughout England in the pre-Norman days is borne witness 
to by the Saxon name for January, namel}', the wolf-month. 
There was probably no part of England where the wolves 
had surer or more prolonged retreats than amid the wilds of 

* 'The Royal Forests of Eng-land,' By Charles Cox, LL.D., F.S.A. 
Methuen & Co., 372 pp, 7/6. 

1906 March i. 

96 Old Enolish Forests. 

the Peak Forest and its borders. The last places in this 
country where they tarried were the Peak, the Lancashire 
forests of Blackburnshire and Bowland, and the Wolds of 
Yorkshire. It has been confidently asserted that entries of 
payment for the destruction of wolves appear in the account 
books of certain parishes of the East Riding-, presumably 
of sixteenth or seventeenth century date ; but this on examina- 
tion proves to be an error.' The last wolf was killed in 
Scotland in 1743. 

There are extremely full and interesting accounts of the 
forest of Galtres, and the forest of Pickering, and it is dis- 
appointing to read at the end of the chapter dealing with the 
former that 'lack of space prohibits any reference to the York- 
shire Forests of Hatfield Chase, Knaresborough, and Wensley- 
dale.' it is to be hoped that the information Dr. Cox has 
gathered together relating to these will be published elsewhere. 
To Yorkshire Naturalists, particularl}-, is the account of the 
Forest of Galtres of value. This forest naturally suffered severely 
during the Civil War, which raged so fiercely round York. It 
was deforested in the time of Charles II. 

Relating to the forest of Pickering there are many curious 
entries, but we can only refer to one or two. .-Xt ' the eyre for 
Pickering Forest in 1338, the question as to whether the 
roe was a true beast of the forest arose ' and it was decided 
(contrary to previous decisions) that it was a beast of the 
warren, for the curious reason that it put to flight other deer. 
In 1322, Edward II. paid the large sum (in those days) of ;^5 
for cord to make nets to catch roebuck. Henry, Lord Percy, 
claimed in 1338 to hunt and take fox, roe deer, cat and badger, 
on his manor of Seamer, although within the forest. 

Sir John de Meaux paid to the Earl of Lancaster for his 
woods of Levisham, in Pickering Forest, 2s. annual rent, 
and eyries of falcons, merlins, and sparrow hawks. Thomas 
Wake, in his barony of Middleton, in the same forest, claimed 
to have eyries of sparrow hawks and merlins in his woods. 

In Pickering Forest, also, as elsewhere, poaching and game 
trespassing was carried on, frequently by men of good family, 
such as the Acclams and Hoynlons. A number of secular 
clergy were also found to be culprits. Waller Wirksall, chap- 
lain of Westerdale, was convicted of twice joining a poaching 
party in 1328, and was fined £\ 6s. 8d. Robert Hampton, rector 
of Middleton, kept four greyhounds, and often hunted hares ; 
as lu- did not put in :ui appearace and could not I)e found, 



I'l.ATh V 

Dcfornn-'d Spucton ISclcmnitcs, 


Speeton Belemnites. 

Shepptii'd : Xotcs on Snuie Specton-Clay Bclevuiitcs. 97 

the rector was outlawed. John, the chaplain of Hackness, in 
1 31 2, knowing-ly received unlawfully hunted venison and 
was fined £^\ 6s. 8d. And so on. Rig-ht through the volume 
are interesting" details, valuable alike to the naturalist and 
antiquary. ' The Royal Forests of England ' should be on 
every naturalist's shelves. 



Perhaps one of the best arg'uments in favour of the necessity 
of the amateur spirit in scientific work, referred to by Mr. G. W. 
Lamplug^h on another pag'e, is a piece of work now before us, 
which will particularly appeal to Mr. Lamplug-h on account 
of his former researches on the same ground. I refer to an 
admirable paper by Mr. C. G. Danford, entitled 'Notes on the 
B(;lemites of the Speeton Clays.'* 

The Speeton Clay were first referred to by Youngf and Bird, 
in 1822, as the ' Upper Shale,' and from it they figured a few 
specimens. Phillips, in his well known work on the Yorkshire 
Coast, a few years later, gave a much more complete account of 
the beds, with figures of fossils therefrom. In 1868-70, Prof. 
Judd published some papers in the Quarterly Journal of the 
Geological Society, in which he sub-divided the beds by the aid 
of the Ammonites. But all these works were eclipsed by a 
paper by Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, then an amateur, with a little 
leisure time. Mr. Lamplugh carefully collected from, and 
measured the different beds, and by the aid of the belemnites 
they were sub-divided into more or less definite divisions. Mr. 
Lamplugh 's ability, and the exceptional opportunities he had for 
studying the clays, left us almost without hope of adding much 
to our knowledge of the fauna of the Speeton Series. A few 
years later however Mr. J. W. Stather, in the ' Transactions of 
the Hull Geological Society,' described a section south of the 
ravine from which he had obtained some specimens which were 

* In the 'Trans., Hull Geol. Soc. ' vol. III. part I., 1906, with 4 plates. 
This paper may also be had separately froni Messrs. A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., 
Hull, price 1/6. 

1906 March i. 

g8 S/ieppan/ : \o/i's on Some Sf>i'e/on-C/<iy Bi'lcmnites. 

new to Mr. Lamplus^h's lists. A circumstance certainly well 
worthy of record. After that, the Speeton Clay did not appear 
to have the attraction for g-eolo^ists that its reputation merited. 
Rain and frost and sea played havoc with the section — large 
landslips occurred, and when, three or four years ago, a few 
of us \isited the section, we found a huge mess resembling 
an enormous cauldron of sooty, soppy pudding, such as could 
not be adequately described without some association with 
his Satanic majesty ! It was certainly then thought that not in 
our time would the section be 'presentable' again, and nothing 
short of a miracle would enable anyone to add anything new 
relating to the zones and their fossils. 

Soon after this, Mr. C. G. Danford took up his residence 

Slipped Mass o» 5peeton Clay. 

(From ' Geologic il Rambles in East Yorkshire.') 

at Reighton Hall, close by— with most beneficial results to 

geological science -and to the Hull Museum! As a result ot 

almost daily visits to the section, combined with a perseverance 

and patience and enthusiasm which did one good to witness, 

Mr, Danford has not only been able to make order out of muddle 

and puddle, but he has been able to demonstrate that the zones 

are by no means so sharply defined, and the range of certain 

belemnites is by no means so restricted as was previously 

supposed. He has also added considerably to what was known 

of the palaeontology of the beds. Some of the belemnites 

he has found were little suspected though they arc now known 

to occur in some numbers, and several are of by no means 

small size. It is quite probable that four or iixt- aie new tt) 

science. Mr. Danford's acfiuaintance with fori'ign literature on 


Sheppard : Notes on Some Speeion-Clay Belemnites. 99 

the subject has enabled him to compare his specimens with those 
found in the Neocomian strata on the continent — the result 
being-, that with regard to the Speeton belemnites and their 
nomenclature local geologists will have to begin de novo. 

In order however, to put the Speeton belemnites on a proper 
footing, Mr. Danford's paper is accompanied by four beautiful 
collotype plates, upon which twenty-six of the typical belemnites 
— common and rare alike — are figured. Previously some of the 
belemnites had not been figured at all. Others were in different 
out-of-the-way publications which were difficult of access. The 
Hull Society is certainly to be congratulated on enabling geolo- 
gists for the first time to see the illustrations of the Speeton 
belemnites together, and the plates are so well executed that 
identification is quite an easy matter. 

The two plates accompanying these notes are from photo- 
graphs of the specimens which Mr. Danford has placed in the 
Hull Museum. The number of specimens figured in the memoir 
under notice is much greater. The first plate (No. V.) shows 
a number of deformed belemnites. Such examples are by no 
means common. A deformed specimen from the chalk ot 
Flamborough was figured in this magazine for May, 1904. In 
one particular bed of the Speeton Clay, however (the ewaldi zom) 
such abnormal specimens are not uncommon, that is to say, 
to collectors of Mr. Danford's kind. .\s will be seen from the 
photograph, some of the guards of these old time cuttlefishes 
have evidently been damaged at an early stage in the life of the 
animal. One or two look suspiciously as though some denizen 
of the Neocomian Sea had taken a bite at these cuttlefishes, and 
thus abnormally 'shaped their ends.' Others have similarly 
suffered, either from damage or disease. The specimens 
figured are : — i. B. puzosi. 2. B. ewaldi. 3. From the B. 
lateralis beds. 4. P>om the B. bnuisvicensis beds, probably 
B. speetonensis. 5. B. Jacnlum. 6. B. ? 7. B. miniums. 
8. B. eimldi? Nos. 2, 3, 7, and 8 are probably post-mortem 
deformities ; the remainder are obviously guards which have 
been damaged and healed during the life of the animal. 

The other plate (No. VI.) illustrates some of the specimens 
of more particular interest, described by Mr. Danford. The 
species represented are, in order, i. (? New). 2. B. obtitsirostris. 
3. B. bnuisvicensis. 4. B. Jasikowi. 5. B. speetonensis. 
6. B. obsolutifoi'mis. 7. B, subquadratus. 

igo6 March i. 



The Bramble as food for Birds; &c. 1 was much interested 
to read Mr. Peacock's record of the SisUin. I have never seen 
this species feed upon the blackberry fruit, but in heavy snow- 
times 1 have watclied the Bullfinch, peiched in the hedi^e, slowly 
crackling" in its thick beak the hard, dry seeds that had never 
developed a succulent exterior. Here the Siskin is the great 
devourer of the naked red seed that lies ensconced in the woody 
cone of the alder-tree. It comes in great flocks, which are 
extremely shy and wary : but if food is abundant, the flock will 
break up, and linger in small parties. I'ossibly it passes through 
the district every winter, though not noticed unless it stays to 
feed, which is generally from mid-November to mid-January, 
the time when the alder fruit is ripe. On December 9th last, 
I was close to five birds which were feeding eagerly on the trees 
by Grasmere Lake. They descended to the ground, apparently 
to pick the fallen seeds ; for the seeds were then loose in the 
cones, which had probably been already well shaken by a large 
flock of birds, of which these were the left-behinds. 

A notice of the Siskin was unfortunately omitted in my list 
of the Birds of Rydal, July and August, 1902. — ^Makv L. Akmitt, 
Rydal, Westmorland. 

Siskins in Airedale. — Scarcely a winter passes without a 
small llock of these birds being noted in this district. For 
some unaccountable reason, diu-ing the present rather mild 
winter we have had a greater number, and extending over a 
longer period, than I have ever known before. 1 have seen 
them several times during December, January, and in early 
February, but the greatest flocks occurred on December 22nd 
and 23rd, when there would be quite sixty to seventy birds. 
They were always seen near the river (between Shipley and 
Bingley), generally in company with a few other finches ; and 
usually investigating the seed cones of the Alder, i^ut on 
February 4th, with a strong and cold northerly wind blowing, 
they were away from the trees altogether, and evidently feeding 
on something quite close to the edge of the water along with 
Meadow Pipits. 1 afterwards learned that five had been shot 
out of the large flock in December. On examination 1 found 
they consisted of two adult males, two adult females, and an 
immature bird. H.VRRV B. Booth, Spring Royd, Shipley, 
I'^ebruary 20th, 1906. 


THK \AI CRALISr. 19(10. 

Pl.ATK Vll. 

Nests »; I Idling tiulls on the Calf. 


Plate VIII. 

Nesting Place and Eggs of ArcticJTern. 

(Amid drift of highest tides.) 

Hf? ^a^»^.% '^ ■ ' Wff^tB^F 

_^ id'"" 

Nesting Place and Eggs of Lesser Tern. 



Mr. Ralfe's monograph on the avi-fauna of the Isle of Man, 
which has been anxiously awaited by British ornitholog-ists, has 
made its appearance, and is in every way a credit to the author, 
publisher, and the little island with which the work deals. We 
have had many new books on birds through our hands recently, 
a g"ood proportion of which were worthless, or nearly so, whilst 
others were of some value from the beauty of the illustrations, 
or some similar feature. The present work, however, may un- 
hesitating-ly be placed upon the shelves of all .bird lovers and 
naturalists as a sound, reliable, and interesting- work of consider- 
able scientific value. For years the author has been carefully 
collecting' information relative to the birds of the island. He 
has the advantage of the help of Mr. P. M. C. Kermode, whilst 
the boundaries of the island, and its position in the middle of 
the Irish Sea, almost equi-distant from England, Scotland, 
Ireland, and Wales, g^ive the author an exceptional opportunity 
of describing the birds of his particular area, an opportunity of 
which he has taken full advantage. The wonder is that such a 
work on this subject was not issued long ago. 

Mr. Ralfe, who is a contributor to this journal, describes in 
his work a total of 183 species. Of these, 75 are resident 
(breeding) ; 18 reg'ular summer migrants (breeding), 45 regular 
autumn, winter, or spring migrants (not breeding), and 45 
occasional. An interesting comparison is made between these 
birds and the birds of the mainland of the adjacent countries. 
A lucid description is also given of the physical features of the 
island, and this section of the work is illustrated by a charming 
series of plates. There are also a number of plates (from 
photographs) of favourite nesting places. We observe with 
pleasure that the nesting places of some of the rarer birds 

are described as 'At . ' Manx names, folk-lore, &c., are 

not neglected. In fact, we fail to see how Mr. Ralfe could have 
advantageously added anything to his volume. By the courtesy 
of the publishers, we are able to give our readers an idea of the 
illustrations in this work. Plate VII. shows nests of Herring 
Gulls on the Calf, and Plate VIII. gives views of nesting place 

* The Birds of the Isle of iM:in, by P. G. Ralte. Edinburg-h, D.ivid 
DoiiiJlus, pp. IV.-321., maps and plates x, 18/- net. 


I02 Revieivs <ind Book IVo fires. 

and eg'g's of the Arctic Tern and Lesser Tern respectiveK , 
photoi^raphs forcibly calling to mind the conditions at Spurn 
Point. By a coincidence, the ' Birds of Yorkshire,' now beinj^- 
printed off, is being- issued in simihir style to the ' Birds of 
the Isle of Man.' 

An Introduction to Practical Cieography. By A. T. Simmons 
;uk1 Hugh Richardson. Macmillan & Co. t,Ho pag-os. 3/6. 

The cxceodiiig-ly practical nature of the book at once commends it to the 
notice of all teachers of g-eog-raphy, and its use will unquestionably 
materially add to the interest taken in geography by the scholars. To 
many of our readers also who have recently taken u]j the question of 
mapping, the book will be found to contain most useful hints. Having- been 
prepared for the use of scholars it is by no means too technical, and that it 




















































_J .1 

i 1 





























Diagram to illustrate the connection between the amount of rainfall at York 
and the height of the river Ouse. 

is thoroughly up to date is proved from the carefully prepared chapters 
dealing witli plant geography and botanical mapping. Tlie book is 
suggestive in its method, and points out useful jjroblems to be worked 
in whatever district tiie reader may be situated. One such problem is given 
in reference to tiie connection between the rainfall and the height of the 
water of a river. This is illustrated by statistics furnished at ^'^)rk, and a 
diagram, which we are able to reproduce. This ' Introduction ' is well 

The Jaiuiar\' Bradford Sricii/ific Jouriiitl is a valuable number, and 
contains an Obituary Notice (with photo) of the late Dr. J. .Monckman ; 
Fungi, by C. Crossland ; \'anishing Local Plants and .\nimals, by R. 
Bulterficld ; Botany at the Bradford Sewage Works, by J. W. Carter and 


Ncrthei'ii Neivs. 103 

J. Beanland ; Winter-time in the Bradford Botanical Gardens, by \V. P. 
Winter; and another section of Jowett and Muff's paper on the Glacial 
Geolog}' of the District. There is a useful contoured map of the Bradford 
area, which can also be had separately for 3d. and is well worth it. There 
are a number of queries at the end of the Journal, presumably in the 
hope of being answered in a subsequent issue. From their nature we shall 
expect at least a double number to be devoted to them alone. ^^ We hope, 
however, the editor will consider the replies unsuitable for the Journal — as 
are the questions. The first ' query' occupies twelve lines — and contains as 
many questions. It begins, 'As regards the exhibition of life, what are the 
degrees of environmental influences which limit its manifestation ? ' 'G.A.B.' 
wants to know ' What are the chief theories as to the origin of speech in 
mankind?' &c. ; and 'A. B.' asks ' \Miat is the difference between Instinct and 
Intelligence?' Another " would be pleased if someone would explain the 
phenomenon of sleep,' &c., &c. 


Lord Masham died at Swinton Park, Masham, on the 2nd February. 

In the January 'Journal of Conchology ' Mr. M. V. Lebour writes ' On 
X'ariation in the Radulae of certain Buccinidae.' 

Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, F. R.S., will preside over the geological section at 
the British Association Meeting at York in August. 

Mr. Walker's ' Quarries Inspection Report ' for 1904 on the Yorkshire and 
Lincolnshire district appears in the January ' Quarry.' 

Mr. Arthur Smith, the Hon. secretary of the Lincolnshire Naturalists' 
Union, has been appointed Curator of the Lincoln Museum. 

Mr. W. Ingham contributes notes on ' Some new and rare Hepatics and 
Mosses from Yorkshire and Durham ' to the January ' Revue Bryologique.' 

The Annual Report of the Bolton Museum and Meteorological Observatory 
for 1905 contains a lengthy list of the various objects begged, bought, or — 
borrowed during the year. 

Prof. W. W. Watts, F. R.S., of the Birmingham LIniversit}', has been 
appointed to the professorship of geology at the Royal College of Science, 
vacant by the retirement of Professor Judd. 

Referring to the notes on late Swallows in our February issue (p. 61), 
Mr. J. Wilkinson, of Withernsea, informs us that he saw a swallow fl}ing 
near the Cliff top at W^axholme on November 12th last. 

A female otter and two cubs were shot in the Louth Canal, near 
Grainthorpe, in January. The female weighed \2\ lbs , and was 3 feet 7 
inches in length. A reward was offered for their capture, on account of 
their being so destructive to fish. 

In a note on the t3'pe specimen of Pleuronautilns pulcher, in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Malacological Society (vol. 6, pt. 5), Mr. G. C. Crick 
definitely proves that the type-specimen of this interesting cephalopod was 
obtained from the ' Pendleside Series' of Hebden Bridge, Yorkshire. (See 
also 'Naturalist ' 1904, p, 256). 

* We might suggest, as an alternative, that the latest edition of the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica be presented to each subscriber. 
igo6 March i. 

I04 Nor f hern News. 

It is reported that three sahiion poacliers were recently before a North 
Yorkshire police court. The constable, in jfivinjf evidence, swore that on 
the day he arrested the prisoners he searched the house where one of them 
lixed, and discovered three salmon hidden away. Two were dead, but the 
other was alive and qiiiti ivarm ! 

At the Annual Meeting of the Scarborough Piiilosophical and Ar(ha:o- 
logical Society recently held, Dr. J. Irving was electeti jiresident, 
C(.)mplaint arose of the apparent carelessness in dealing with the ^^^■^•^ of the 
Cireat Auk which the Society possesses. It was decided to ' keep the 
specimen under lock and key in future.' 

A Dusky Thrush {Tiirdus dnhius) is recorded at Gunthorpe, .\ottingham- 
sliire — a new record for the count \- (December ' Zoologist.') ' There is no 
doubt that it is a I^usk}' Thrush, and is in very perfect plumage, antl not 
onlv the first Notts, specimen, but a new one to the British list. Tiie bird 
was shot on October 13th last, and was a male.' 

Amongst the recent awards of the Geological .Society of London, we 
notice the Wollaston medal has been granted to Dr. Henry Woodward, 
F. R.S., the Murchison medal to Mr. T. C. Clough, the Prestwich medal to 
Mr. W. Whitaker, F.R.S., part of the Lyell Fund to Mr. \\ . G. Fearnsides, 
and the Barlow-Jameson fund to Mr. H. G. Beasley. 

The Rev. H. P. Slade, Hull, writes that a brilliant meteor suddenly 
startled wrapt lovers and lonely pedestrians about 8-35 p.m. on January 
27th. So intense was the light that all objects rising above the earth's 
surface cast strong shadows. The path pursued was from east to west, 
parallel to the horizon and situate in a sliglitly curved line between the star 
' L' ' in the constellation Leo and Proc\'on in Canis Minor. 

W'e gi\e below another choice bit of newspaper natural history : — 
Another mummied mammoth, or saiu-ian, known as the Tyrannosaurus — 
the most formidable fighting animal of which there is any record whatever — 
has been resurrected in the ' Bad Lands ' of Montana, and is now being 
restored in skeleton outline. Not since the great Brontosaurus skeleton have 
archaeologists and savants been so interested in a pi-ehisloric disco\ery as 
in this new Tyrant Saurian, which is declared to be the king of all kings in 
the domain of animal life. 

In consequence of enquiries which are constantly being made, we should 
like to state that the Geological Bibliographies dealing with the p.apers, i*tc., 
l)ublished relating to the Northern Counties, which formerly appeared in this 
Journal, are still being kept up, and the lists for 1902-1905, necessary to 
bring them up to date, are practicallv readv for the printer. On account of 
pressui-e ot s])ace in this Journal, however, they have been held over, and 
they will probabh' shortly appear in the Transactions of the Yorkshire 
.Naturalists' Union, or in a special supplement to the 'Naturalist.' If the 
former, readers of the ' Naturalist ' will be duly advised. 

.A meeting called by the Lord Mayor of \'oik (Alderman i\. H. \'ci-non 
W'ragge) was held at the Mansion House, York, on l-"riday, the 9th 
February. ,\t this meeting ^'2500 was asked for to meet the local expenses 
in connection with the forthcoming visit of the British .Association to York 
on August 1st to 8th. It was announced that over /"2000 had already been 
received. The Yorkshire Naturalists' I'nion was represented by its 
secretary, by invitation ; aiul on the strong Local Reception ('onnnittee 
which was formed the following twelve officials of the L'nion were elected : — 
.Messrs. \V. Eagle Clarke, G. \V. Lamplugh, J. H. Howarth, II. H. Corbett, 
R. Fortune, W. Robinson, J. J. Burton, J.' \V. Stather, P. F. Kendall, 
W. G. .Smith, G. T. Porritl, and T. .Shep]3ard. The fortlicoming meeting 
of the Biitish .Association, wiiieh will be held on the seventy-fifth anniversary 
of the formation of the .Association at ^'oI■k, promises to be c'ln exceptionally 
successful gathering. [.At a further meeting held on February 23rd, it w.'is 
announced that over ^^2640 had been subscribed. | 


APRIL 1906. 

No. 591 

(No. 369 of current series) 





The Museum, Hull ; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield ; 


Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.5c., F.G.S., 
T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., 


Contents : — 

Notes and Comments : — Yorkshire Roman Remains, Work for 1906, The York Museum, 
Dr. H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., British Woodlice, East Coast Erosion, Groynes and Sea 
Defences, Water Supplies of Yorkshire, Birds as Head-gear 

The Weather and the March High TiA<ss—W. H. Wheeler, C.E 

Marine Beds in the Coal-measures of Yorkshire— I^a/coi Gibson, B.Sc, F.G 

LImaaia peregra monst. slaistrorsam, in Durham — C. T. Trechmanu, B.Sc 

Notes on Sinistral Shells of Llmaaea peregra—J. W. Taylor 

The Fossil Plants of the Yorkshire Coal-measures— IK. Cash, F.G.S. 

Cordierite in the Metamorphosed Skiddaw Slates— .4 //> erf Marker, F.R.S. ... 

Classification of Alien Plants According to Origin— r. IV. IVoodhead, Ph.D. 

Yorkshire Diatoms in 1905— Af. H. Stiles, F.R.M.S. 

In Memorlam, John George Goodchild 

Field Notes 

Reviews and Book Notices (Illustrated) 

Northern News (Illustrated) 


Platte IX.. X., XL, XII. 

Iff, 115, 120, 


123, 127. 131 


109, 132 

133, 136 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 

Only a limited Edition available. 



Studies of its Botany, Qeolo^y, Climate, and Physical 




F.R.S., F.L.S., M.R.I.A., V.M.H. 

Lat« Keeper of the Herbarium and Library of the Royal Gardens, Kew ; 

Late President and Perpetual Vice-President of the Yorkshire 

Naturalists' Union. 

And a Chapter on the Mosses and Hepatics of the Riding, 


Matthew B. Slater, F.L,S. 

680 pages, coloured geological, lithological, etc. maps, 
suitably bound in Cloth, 

l*rice 15/- net. 

This volume is a companion to Lee's ** Flora of West Yorkshire," 
and, together with Robinson's ** Flora of East Riding," completes the 
Flora of the County. 


A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., Savile Stre*t & King Edward Street, Hull. 

A few copies only left of 

Cee*$ " Flora or ttlest yorksbirc. 

Price 10/6 net. {Published at a Guinea). 
Please mention 'The Naturalist' In replying to Advertisements. 



The first annual meeting' of the Roman Antiquities Committee 
for Yorkshire was held in the Museum at York on Saturday, 
March 3rd, under the presidency of Dr. N. Boding-ton, of the 
Leeds University. A tour was made around the principal objects 
of interest in this city, under the guidance of Mr. F. Haverfield, 
F.S.A., of Oxford. Mr. Haverfield also delivered an address to 
about forty antiquaries from all parts of the county, in which 
he congratulated the new society upon the fact that in it the 
Yorkshire Universities and the local societies were working- 
together — a rare occurrence in this country, curiously enough ; 
and he also suggested lines upon which the society should carry 
out its work. Mr. Haverfield was rather severe with the nature 
of the work of the average amateur, and urg^ed that research 
should be largely left to the specialists. To some extent, 
perhaps, he was rig'ht, but it must not be forgotten that, in 
Yorkshire particularly, most of our present knowledge of the 
relics of Roman occupation is the result of the efforts of the 
amateur. And so long- as the amateur is content to carefully 
record facts, and place the results of his excavations, localised 
and described, in some permanent public institution, no one, not 
even Mr. Haverfield, would have anything to say against him. 
It is doubtless due to the fact that Mr. Haverfield has had 
occasion to examine ' tons ' of local publications for papers, 
most of which were of a speculative or theoretical character, 
that caused him to speak so strongly. And we can sympathise 
with him. 

WORK FOR 1906. 
In the new society, however, with the experienced men on 
its list of officers, there is every hope that good will result from 
its work. During the coming year the researches named below 
will be carried on, under the supervision of the persons referred 
to: (i) Investig-ation of the Roman Road from Ilkley to Adel 
and Tadcaster, by Sir John Barran, Bart. ; (2) Excavation of 
the Roman Villa at Harpham, by Mr. T. Sheppard ; (3) 
Investigation of the Roman Road across East Yorkshire from 
Stamford Bridge, by Mr. W. Stevenson ; (4) Excavation of 
Roman Foundations at Middleham, by Dr. Bodington ; and 
(5) Roman Remains near Tanfield, by Mr. J. N. Dickons. It 
was also decided to form a Bibliog"raphy of Literature on York- 

igo6 April i. 

io6 ^V(;/<'.v (Hid ConiDients. 

shire Roman Remains, and to prepare a map. An excursion 
will be arranged to Blackstone Edg-e during the summer. The 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, being affiliated with the new 
society, Its members may join at the modest fee of half-a-crown 
per annum. Mr. S. D. Kitson, of Greek Street Chambers, 
Leeds, is the hon. secretary. The other officers elected for the 
coming year were as shewn on page 32 of our January issue. 


.A^t the meeting referred to above, the members had the rare 
privilege of being conducted around the collection of Roman 
antiquities by Mr. Haverfield. York undoubtedly contains 
*' the finest and most complete series of Roman remains in the 
provinces," notwithstanding the fact that scores of valuable 
specimens from this ancient city are to be found in other 
museums in the country. But on examining the collection it 
was deplorable to notice the limited space allotted to the 
specimens — probably no more than was available when the 
York Society first opened its Museum about a century ago. 
Objects which in other museums would have special cases set 
apart for their reception are literally piled one upon another, or are 
placed in rows on shelves not protected by glass at all. Is not 
this a crying disgrace to the wealthy citizens of York ? With- 
out exaggeration it can be safely said that a building quite three 
times the size of the present one is required for the proper 
display of the treasures it contains. Is it too much to hope 
that one result of the forthcoming meeting of the British 
Association at York will be that a keener interest is taken in 
York antiquities, and that better premises are provided for their 
reception ? At a recent meeting held at the Guildhall, \'ork, the 
Right Honourable the Lord Mayor of \'ork stated that 
any surplus funds raised in connection with the British Associa- 
tion meeting would be devoted to some scientific purpose. 
What better purpose than an extension of the Museum ? 
We can only hope that the surplus will be a large one, and 
that it will, at any rate, form a nucleus for a fund for the work 

1).. H. C. SORHV, F.R.S. 

In the presence of a large number of specially-invited 
supporters of higher education, the Lady Mayoress of Sheffield 
recently unveiled at the Sheffield University a portrait of 


rilF. S ATVRM.lSr. t9()ii. 

Trichoniscus pusilJus. 

I.ciit;lli, tour iiiilliiiif 

Charles Sillein, del. a<l iiat. 

!•'. W. Reader, sculpt. 

Notes and Comments. 107 

Dr. Henry Clifton Sorby, F.R.S. It had been subscribed for by 
friends in recognition of Dr. Sorby's long-life devotion to science 
and his services in the spread of it. Dr. Sorby is in his eightieth 
year, and owing to bad accidents it was not thought advisable 
that he should be present. The subjects that have chiefly 
absorbed Dr. Sorby's attention, and about which he has written 
more than one hundred memoirs, are the applications of the 
microscope to the study of the structure of rocks — a new 
optical method, by which a 'flood of light ' has been thrown on 
the science of geology. Not less important was his application 
of the spectrum microscope to the examination of animal and 
vegetable colouring matter, and to the detection of blood stains 
found in criminal investigations, and the origination of the 
modern method to the study of the structure of iron and steel. 
His valuable geological, biological, and archaeological researches 
are familiar to our readers. On several occasions Dr. Sorby 
has been engaged by the Metropolitan Board of Works to 
conduct scientific investigations in the Thames, which led to 
the study of marine plankton. There has been no more 
ardent and generous worker in securing- the establishment of the 
Sheffield University, and it was thought fitting that his portrait 
should adorn its walls. 


Messrs. W. Mark Webb and C. Sillem have for some time 
been publishing in the Essex Xatiindist detailed accounts of 
various species of British Woodlice. These have now been re- 
printed in the form of a monograph, which is well produced, 
and illustrated by no fewer than twenty-five charming plates. 
Being printed on extra thick paper, the plates give the volume 
a much more substantial appearance than it would otherwise 
have. With their aid, however, it should be a very easy matter 
to identify any species. In looking through the various ' British 
localities ' we are astonished to find an almost entire absence 
of any Yorkshire or Northern Country records ! This should be 
remedied. The plate we are permitted to reproduce (No. IX.) 
represents a species which happens to be recorded for 
Northumberland and Durham. We trust our readers will 
be able to add to the meagre northern records in ' British 
Woodlice. ' 

* 'The British Woodlice." Duckwortli & Co. 1906. 54 pages and 
25 plates. 6/- net. 

1906 April I. 

io8 No/es (Dtcl (\>?nnn')ifs. 

p:ast coast erosion. 

The high tides of the 12th March and subsequent dates, 
have certainly done much to brinj^ the question of the erosion 
of the Yorkshire coast prominantly before the public. A recent 
visit to the principal places on the Holderness coast, showed to 
what a serious extent the sea had wrought havoc, not only on 
the coast, but inland. At Hornsea, a skeleton-like line of piles 
shows where the sea-wall was. At Withernsea also the cliffs 
are cut into considerably, and at Kilnsea the sea has overridden 
the embankments, cut across the cliffs, and has flooded several 
hundred acres of land. The aspect of south east Holderness a 
fortnight after the tide, was desolate in the extreme. Here and 
there remains of entire \'fooden buildings were scattered over the 
fields and roads. 


Watching the waves at high-water time at Hornsea was 
most instructive. The groynes which had been thrown out, 
roughly at right angles to the cliff, were obviously not of the 
most suitable character. They were far too high above the 
beach, and simply guided the rush of waters to definite points 
on the cliffs. The fact that the}' were also at some little distance 
from the cliff foot, enabled the water to get behind the com- 
plementary line of piles, and in this way the material for pro- 
tecting the cliffs was washed awav. 


The Geological Survey is about to issue a memoir which 
should be of very great service to all interested in the provision 
of water from underground sources. It will deal with all water 
supplies, public and private, in the county east of the Magnesian 
Limestone of which any information can be obtained. The 
task of preparing the memoir has been entrusted, as was 
intivitable, to the competent hands of Mr. C. Fox Strangways, 
and he has had the assistance of other geologists, oflicial and 
unofficial, in the collection of his data. The memoir is one of a 
series, of which tliat of Lincolnshire has alreadv appeared. 


Field Note. 109 


It is pleasing^ to find that in response to a memorial from the 
Society for the Protection of Birds, the Queen has caused the 
following- letter to be forwarded to the president of the society, 
which was read at its annual meeting- on the 20th March : — 
' The Queen desires me to say, in answer to your letter, that she 
gives you as president full permission to use her name in any 
way you think best to conduce to the protection of birds. You 
know well how kind and humane the Queen is to all living 
creatures, and I am desired to add that her Majesty never wears 
osprey feathers herself, and will certainly do all in her power to 
discourage the cruelty practiced on those beautiful birds.' As 
the ' fashionable ' people, likely to meet her Majesty, will 
probably now take care that they have no dead birds strung 
about their person, and as all ' fashionable ' people are pre- 
sumably likely to meet her Majesty at some time or other, it 
will probably now become fashionable not. to wear such orna- 
ments, and undoubtedly in this way more has just been done to 
protect the birds than is even at present dreamt of. 


Pleistocene Mammalian Remains near Doncaster. — In 

excavating for a deep cutting on the Dearn Valley Railway 
near Conisboro' some fragments of bone were thrown out by 
the steam navvy. These were taken to the office of the resident 
engineer, Mr. Gibbs, and were kind!}- given by him to me. 
They consisted of part of an antler, probably Cerviis elaphiis, and 
two bones of Rhinoceros.'*' These latter have been submitted for 
identification to Mr. T. Sheppard, and by him to the British 
Museum Authorities. Close to the place where the bones were 
found is a cave in the Magnesian Limestone, and it is hoped 
that when this is further opened up, more bones, &c. may be 
found. Mr. Gibbs has given orders that anything of interest 
discovered is to be handed over to me for our local museum. — 
H. H. CoRBETT, M.R.C.S., Doncaster. 

* These are the ulna and tibia, and one of them is distinctly gnawed, 
apparently by hyaenas. It is to be hoped that further researches will result 
in as interesting- a set of specimens being- found as occurred in the Creswell 
Caves, which were also in the Mag-nesian Limestone. — T.S. 

1906 April I. 


W. H. VVHEEI.EK, C.i;., 


The weather durini;- March has been true to llie old sayiiiif 
' March many weathers.' There were in the early part of the 
month bright sunny days and mild temperature. These days 
of glorious springs weather made it appear as if ' a week of 
May had lost its way.' The brig-ht sunshine had a mag-ical 
effect upon the g-arden, and the beds began to look very gay 
with yellow, mauve, and white crocusses, all opening wide to 
the sun ; the white snowdrops which had peeped out of the 
snow, were still lingering, and contrasted with the bright blue 
and red of the hepatictes, and here and there, the bright blue 
scillas and the chinoxdoxias were peeping out of the earth, 
the first bunches of the megasea were very pronounced, 
although the great leaves from under which they had pushed 
their way, showed the eftect of a recent frost b}' their brown 
colour and withered appearance. But as it has been said 
English weather 'is ahva3s normal when it is most abnormal,' 
and March, which had come in like a lamb, soon reverted to its 
old way of roaring like a lion. The thermometer fell seven 
degrees below freezing point, and made the premature flower 
buds look withered and scorched. The ground was white with 
snow, and a bitterly cold blizzard caused the fact to be realised 
that winter was not yet done with. On the 12th the wind was 
blowing a gale from the north-west, and in some parts of the 
coast almost with the force of a hurricane. This was due to a 
cyclonic disturbance which had its centre over the Baltic. The 
full moon being only two days old, and the tides near the time 
of the Equinox, were laid down as nearly a foot above ordinary 
spring tides, but due to the gale, and the direction of the wind, 
which was favourable to the making of high tide in the North 
Sea ; all along the East Coast they were exceptionally high, 
the water on Monday rising nearly 3 ft. above an ordinary 
spring tide, and 2 ft. 4 in. above the predicted height. In the 
Thames the tide was 4 ft. 4 in. above Trinity high water mark, 
and rose nearly level with the Thames Embankment. A very 
large area of land along the river was inundated ; the quays in 
many places were under water, and the warehouses and base- 
ments of houses flooded. At the mouth of the river the water 
was stated to be 7 ft. above its normal height in the Medway. 
The sea banks were broken through near Sheerness, Southend, 


Rcvitnvs and Book Notices. 1 1 1 

Heme bay, and Whitstable being- flooded. At Harwich the tide 
was stated to be the highest known, overflowing- the principal 
streets. Damaged foreshores and flooded houses were reported 
at Clacton, Walton-on-Naze, Kings Lynn and Lowestoft, where 
two more houses were washed down at Pakefield. At Boston 
the tide was 3 ft. above an ordinary spring tide, and in many 
places rose within a few inches of the top of the sea banks, and 
overflowed the main road. 

On the Yorkshire coast, aboat 1000 acres of land near 
Kilnsea were overflowed, and considerable damage done all 
along the Holderness Cliff's ; at Hornsea, damage estimated at 
_£,20oo was done to the promedade, and ;^5oo at the Marine 
Hotel protection works. 

Up the Humber, near Goole, the river overtopped the banks, 
and flooded several hundred of acres. A breach in the banks 
occurred near Rawcliflfe Bridge, flooding the main road to 
Thorne, and several farmsteads. 

The following are the heights of the tide abo\e ordnance 

datum : — 

Hull ... ... ... 15.42 

Grimsby ... ... ... 14.75 

Ferriby Sluice ... ... 17.00 

London ... ... ... 16.83 

Boston ... ... ... 16.12 

Alien Flora of Great Britain. By S. T. Dunn, B.A., F.L.S. 

West Newman & Co. 1905. 

This little volume will be welcomed by many students of our flora as a 
useful summar)' of the many facts concerning the origfin and distribution of 
alien plants. It is well printed, very light, full of interesting details on the 
species concerned, and forms a useful addition to our floras. The author's 
appointment to a post in Hong Kong caused a hasty production of the work, 
and it is admitted to lack the finishing touches and wide outlook of the 
subject which it would otherwise have received. A German friend turning 
over its pages remarked, " Are these all the ' Aliens ' you have in Britain ? 
I thought you were overrun with them ! " Certainly one would have 
expected a longer list, and w-e notice a number of omissions of North of 
England records. The author has acted wisely in including as aliens many 
of species (of Labiateje, «&c.) which are too commonly classed as 
' natives,' and it is well attention should be directed to a consideration of 
their true place in our flora. He dismisses in a few words attempts to 
classify plants in this respect, but .serious students require that this 
should be done, and it is hoped that in a future edition special attention will 
be paid to it. As we show on another page, something has been done in 
this way, and we believe one of the most interesting chapters in botany 
awaits the hand of one who will piece together the threads of the story of the 
origin and dispersion of aliens, for their study not only reveals to us some of 
the early stages of agriculture and civilisation, but furnishes interesting 
evidence of the very complex inter-relations of modern commerce. 

1906 April I. 



Renewed attention has been of late paid to the occurrence of a 
marine fauna at several horizons in the Middle or Productive 
Coal-measures of North Staffordshire. Until igoo, references 
to the existence of marine beds in the Derbyshire, Nottingham- 
shire, and Yorkshire Coal-measures, excepting the bed imme- 
diately above the Gannister Coal, were restricted to Green's note 
on the presence of Avicuiopecten {Pieriiwpccten)^ and Goniatites 
below the Ackworth rock. During the re-survey of the 
Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire coalfields, Mr Wedd and 
myself have been enabled to detect at least three marine beds 
occurring" at widely separated horizons in the Productive Coal- 
measures ; and as regards Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, and 
southern Yorkshire these are found to contain a constant fauna, 
and to occupy well defined positions in the Coal-measure 

The lowest horizon occurs above the Alton Coal of Derby- 
shire (Gannister Coal of Yorkshire), and contains a rich 
Goniatite fauna. The next horizon is met with about 300 feet 
above the Deep Hard Coal (Park Gate, Old Hards, Two Yards, 
Brown Metal, and Firthfields coals of Yorkshire). The fauna 
consists of Goniatites^ Pterinopecten, Myalina^ Lingula, and 
Prodiictus ; the strata, consisting of black shales, layers of 
nodules of ironstones, and pale blue shales. A third horizon, 
of exceptional interest, has been traced from Gedling, near 
Nottingham, to Mansfield, and as far north as Doncaster, at a 
vertical distance, varying from 524 feet to 600 feet above the 
Top Hard Coal of Nottinghamshire (Barnsley Coal of York- 
shire), or 250 feet above the High Hazles Coal (Kents Thick 
Coal and Mapperwell Coal), or 200 feet above the Clowne 
Coal ( ? Wathwood Coal of Yorkshire). The fossils are found 
in pale blue shales ; with a blue argillaceous limestone, 
weathering brown, near the base. 

This horizon contains a unique Gasteropod and I'ish fauna, 
and is also rich in marine Lamellibranchiata. 

Apart from their scientific interest, considerable economic 
importance attaches itself to these marine horizons. Mining 

Limncea peregra nionst. slnistrorsiim, in Durham. 113 

engfineers are universally agreed that the Productive Coal- 
measures contain few or no distinctive lithological characters 
by means of which the position reached in a boring or experi- 
mental shaft-sinking- may be recognised. These marine bands 
appear to afford such a clue. To make this certain, it is 
necessary that the persistence of the bands should be definitely 
proved. This can only be done with the help of local geologists 
who will take the trouble to carefully examine all railway 
sections likely to intersect these horizons, and who will visit new 
sinkings, and examine at frequent intervals the material 
brought to the surface. In thus appealing to Yorkshire 
geologists, 1 do so with the perfect confidence that this appeal 
will not be in vain. Yorkshire geologists have examined the 
Chalk Formation for themselves : they will not hesitate to zone, 
even in a more systematic manner, their county's magnificent 
development of Coal-measures. In so doing, the debt owing by 
geologists to mining enterprise may be in part repaid ; while 
the unique Fish fauna of the marine beds of the Coal-measures 
holds out hopes that he who cares to seek may add a link more 
to the well-forged chain of palaontological evolution. 



Having read of the occurrence of this interesting monstrosity 
in North Leeds (' Naturalist,' July 1901), I should like to record 
the finding of this mollusc near Hesleden, Co. Durham. 

The locality is a small pond, quite near the vicarage, where 
they were first noticed more than thirty years ago, as my 
grandfather informs me, by the late Canon Tristram, then rector 
of Castle Eden. Since then they were unnoticed till about 1895 
when I obtained a few specimens while dredging for newts. 
I have repeatedly searched the pond since 1899 and have seen 
it practically trampled dry by cattle in the summer time, but 
it was not till July 1903 that I found them again ; minute 
specimens crawling up the grass stalks in one end of the 
pond. Further searching resulted in the acquisition of quite 
a number, all about the size of a pin's head. They were 
put in an aquarium where they grew rapidly and spawned 
profusely during the spring and summer of 1904 and 1905. 

1906 April I. 

114 Taylor: Xotex on Sinfs/ni/ Shells of Liniticea peregra. 

Although none but tlie sinistral varieties were in the 
aquarium, nearly equal numbers of sinistral and dextral were 
produced, the sinistral slightly preponderating. They all grew 
to the usual size of the species and having come to the ful- 
ness of maturity, died. 

The water in the pond is quite as pure as in similar ponds 
and the shells are not malformed. A pond about 12 feet 
away and separated only by a hedge contains none of them. 

The other molluscan inhabitants of the pond are quite 
normal, including fine specimens of the type species : Pisidium 
fontinale in the mud, and the very small Planorbis nautileiis 
living on the undersides of the duckweeds {Le?)ina muior). 

The shell has not occurred in any of the other ponds in 
the neighbourhood, and the above facts I think are of interest in 
showing the persistence of the monstrosity. 



The persistent occurence of this phenomenon, for so long a time 
within such a very limited area, strongly corroborates the belief 
that local environment is one of the contributory causes inducing 
this condition of shell and animal. 

All embryonic gastropods are at first, what is termed Kxo- 
gastric, that is, they have the spiral enrolled to the front and 
the excretory and other orifices behind, and whether the animal 
becomes sinistral or dextral depends on whether the twisting, 
which the body subsequently undergoes, takes place to the right 
or to the left, this movement transferring the anal and other 
orifices from the hinder part of the body to the front. 

The cause of this reversal of the normal coiling- is not under- 
stood, Bourguignat suggested that it might be caused by 
electrical conditions, while Prof. Carus believes that the direction 
of the coiling may be determined by the direction of the embry- 
onal rotation. 

The results of the breeding of sinistral specimens of Linnucu 
percgra by Mr. Trechmann establishes the inheritable nature 
of the variation and the relative number or proportion of sinistral 


Reviews and Book lYo/ices. 1 1 5 

specimens produced may be said to conform with the theories 
of Mendel, who teaches that the characters of the germ-celis 
do not fuse with others but merely ming-le, and that the pairing- 
of two similar aberrant specimens of this character would result 
in the production not of a brood precisely similar to their 
parents, but of one, in which only half the offspring- would 
resemble their imniediate progenitors, and of these indi^•iduals 
thus externally resembling their parents, only a moiety (or 
25 per cent, of the total number of young) are really purely 
sinistral, capable of breeding true ; the remainder inheriting- 
and transmitting a latent tendency to dextrorsity. 

Similarly, of the dextral progeny of the sinistral parents, 
half will be purely dextral forms with power to produce onl}' 
dextral offspring-, whereas the other moiety, though also dex- 
trally coiled, possesses a latent sinistral tendency, and their 
descendants would be composed of sinistral and dextral in- 
dividuals in the same ratios of 25 per cent purely dextral 
specimens, 25 per cent purely sinistral, and 50 per cent of 
individuals combining the tendency to dextral and sinistral 
modes of convolution, the underlying- principle being- that 
although a particular individual may not display the special 
character in question, yet the peculiarity may still be possessed 
by its germ-cells, and will be transmitted to, and re-appear in 
the progeny. 

It is to be hoped that further precise observations may be 
made on these most interesting points. 

Last Words on Evolution : A Popular Retrospect and Summary. 
By Ernst Haeckel. Translated by J. McCabe. A. Owen & Co. 1906. 
127 pages, 6/-. 

In this volume Mr. McCabe has earned the gratitude oj English 
natin-alists not familiar with the German language, by enabling them to 
read for themselves Haeckel's matured views on the evolution problem, 
as put forward in his now famous Berlin lectures of 1905. It will be 
remembered that recently it was announced that Professor Haeckel had 
abandoned Darwinism and given public support to the teaching of a Jesuit 
writer. This was subsequently contradicted, but the result was a desire on 
the part of the educated English public to know more of Haeckel's precise 
attitude in this matter. The present volume contains the ' three famous 
lectures delivered at Berlin,' which 'are the last public deliverance the aged 
professor will ever make.' The chapters are (i) 'The Controversy about 
Creation, Evolution and Dogma," (2) 'The Struggle over our Genealogical 
Tree, our Ape relatives and the \'ertebrate Stem," (3) ' The Controversy 
over the Soul, the Ideas of Immortality and God.' As an appendix there 
are some useful ' Evolutionary Tables.' Amongst the plates is an excellent 
portrait of Haeckel. The book is well produced. 

1906 April I. 



Part I — What and How to Observe, Collect, and Record. 

W. CASH, F.G.S., 

Readers of 'The Naturalist' are doubtless aware that there is 
in connection with the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union a ' Fossil 
Flora Committee,' which has already done g"ood work under 
the g"uidance of its president, the well known Paleeobotanist, 
Robert Kidston, Esq., F. R. S., of Stirlin<^, N.B. The object of 
this committee is to investigate the Fossil Plants of the York- 
shire Coal Measures, and especially in three directions : — 

1. As to distribution of fossil coal plants vertically (in time), 
and horizontally (in space), and particularly of fhe common 

2. As to the discovery of species and genera new to the 
county or to science. 

3. As to the correlation of the separate fragments of plants, so 
as to show new, or at present, unexpected relations between 
what are to-day regarded as distinct forms. 

There is no doubt that many readers of ' The Naturalist ' are 
qualified to help in this investigation, and some occupy positions 
particularly favourable to the production of most satisfactory 
results ; to such persons, and to those to whom the subject 
may be at present somewhat unfamiliar, it is proposed in the 
following pages to strongly appeal. 

Most excellent results in this department of scientific research 
were obtained by two men, the late James Binns and the late 
James Spencer. These men, under most unfavourable conditions 
and with the slenderest advantages, learned to Observe, Collect, 
and Record many new species of fossil plants, and even genera 
new to the county and to science ; the result of their strenuous 
efforts and self-denying labours contributed greatly to the 
value of the fine monographs which the late Professor William- 
son, F.R.S., of the Manchester University, published in the 
Royal Society's Transactions ; nor were their names and work 
unknown to the leaders of fossil botany on the Continent, as 
may be seen by consulting the papers of such distinguished 
savants as Professor Renault and Dr. Hovelacque of Paris, 
Count von Solms Laubach of Berlin, and many others. 


Cash: The Fossil Plants of the Yorkshire Cool Measures. 117 

Binns and Spencer were not content to be mere collectors, 
they proceeded to sectionise their specimens, and to prepare 
them for microscopic study ; and the material from the Halifax 
Hard Bed enabled them to most successfully assist in the 
interpretation of the relationships of fossil plants to their 
modern descendants. Of the men of whom we now write it 
may be said, in the words of the late Professor Craik, ' Want 
of leisure, want of instructors, want of books, poverty, un- 
congenial and distracting- occupations, the force of opposing 
example, the discouragement of friends, all separately or in 
various combinations, exerted their influence either to check 
their pursuit of knowledge, or to prevent the very desire of it 
from springing up. But they opposed the force of their strong 
natural passion and upward tending determination in vain.' 

We doubt not there are similar men yet among us who will 
take up and continue the good work so faithfully initiated, whilst 
others more fortunately situated, and with greater advantages 
of culture, and with wider opportunities, may well also con- 
tribute their quota to the further extension of our knowledge in 
this fascinating department of natural science. 

It is now recognised amongst scientific botanists that the 
value of a fossil plant is enormously enhanced by exact and 
accurate information as to the actual bed from which it was 
taken, and the name of the pit and of the locality where it was 
found ; it is only by the accumulation of a large amount of 
information of this character that important generalisations as 
to the distribution of fossils can be arrived at. 

It is our intention in these pages to suggest in plain and 
simple language the best methods of collecting fossil plants, of 
recognising and naming the species and genera, of accurately 
recording the results of work done, and of indicating how and 
where assistance and guidance may be found for beginners and 

The Collection and Preservation of Specimens. — Fossils 
may be said to occur : — 

1. As Incrustations. 

2. As Petrifactions. 

Under the head of Incrustations come the common and 
generally known forms, such as impressions on shales and sand 
stones, or in nodules of clay ironstone, and casts, where as in a 
mould a model of the once living plant has been left (though the 
organism itself perished long ago), and is now represented by a 
mass of sand or of some mineral substance. Petrifactions are 

1906 April I. 

ii8 Cash: The Fossil Phints of the Yorkshire Coal Measures. 

much rarer, and in the area under our consideration are almost 
exclusively restricted to specimens found in the coal nodules of 
the Halifax Hard Bed. In these petrifactions the conditions of 
fossilisation have permitted the smallest cells of the plant tissue 
to be filled with transparent carbonate of lime, and the cell 
walls have been mineralised in such a way that on making" thin 
slices of the fossil and mounting them as microscopic objects, 
the minutest details are shown, and that as clearly as in sections 
from recent plants ; spores, stomata, cell structure, wood, bast, 
leaf tissue being all preserved. On sending some such prepara- 
tions to the late Charles Darwin, no wonder that he wrote : — 
* It is marvellous to see structure so admirably preserved for so 
many ages.' 

Let those who may think they have not the skill to prepare 
microscopic slides of these wonderful fossil plants, be not dis- 
couraged on that account, for there is an easier way of showing" 
up their minute structure, as follows : — having broken a coal 
nodule containing plant remains, rub the flat face of the specimen 
on a slab of stone until a smooth surface is produced, then dip 
the specimen for a short time in a dilute solution of hydro- 
chloric acid, wash well in clean water, and wipe dry, when 
shortly the structure of the plant will show itself as a whitish 
pattern on a dark ground. I well remember how my old friend 
James Binns (whilst working as a quarr\man, and at that time 
quite unable to purchase so costly a machine as a lapidary's 
wheel) told me that he had rubbed holes in two sink stones in his 
kitchen, preparing sections of coal plants in the manner above 

The Naming of Specimens may be done in several ways : — 

1. Robert Kidston, Esq., F. R.S., F.G.S., 12 Clarendon 
Place, Stirling, N.B. , has kindly permitted us to say that he 
will name and return any specimens of Fossil Coal Plants sent 
to him for identification. As he is a recognised authority on 
the subject, he off'ers a fine opportunity to any student taking 
up the subject of Fossil Botany. 

2. For our own part, we shall be pleased to ad\ ise an\one 

• To those who, whilst wiUinj^ to collect spi-cinu'iis, vet flight sh\- of pre- 
parhig micro slides, we can confidently recommend tiie availiiiijf themselves 
of assistance from the well-known expert, Mr. James Lomax, of 65, 
Starcliffe Street, Great Lever, Bolton. lie, for a small sum (from 6d. or is. 
per slide and upwards, accordinic to size), will cut desired sections from 
material sc-nl him for that ))ui-])<)sc. lie also sends out excellent elementary 
collections of typical coal plant micro slides, accurately named and localised, 
at a moderate cost. 


Cash: The Fossil Plants of the Yorkshire Coal Measures, iig 

sending nodules containing- plant structure to 35 Commercial 
Street, Halifax (of course, in all cases the sender should pay the 
cost of carriage of the specimens). 

3. At the University of Manchester Museum there are exten- 
sive collections to which the students may refer, and we doubt 
not that the courteous Curator will give every facility for study 
to any serious worker in fossil botany. 

4. In these pages it is hoped descriptions sufficiently clear 
will be given to enable anyone to name at least most of the 
genera and the commoner species he may come across. 

5. Collectors of fossil plants with structure will find the 
specimens offered by Mr. Lomax invaluable. 

Unsolved Problems. — Let none imagine that the field of 
research is exhausted ; on the contrary, there are a hundred 
questions yet vmanswered. 

{a) Do nodules containing plants with microstructure occur 
in any bed besides the Hard Bed ? 

{b) What fossils are restricted to particular beds or zones ? 

(r) To what plants do the many as yet uncorrelated and 
separate fragments and organs found in the coal measure 
belong ? 

[d] What new species and genera are yet undescribed ? 

{e) What new points in structure and affinity can yet be 
cleared up ? 

Notes for Guidance in working out the Vertical and 
Horizontal distribution of the British Carboniferous 

I. As soon after collection as possible, label all specimens, 
stating — 

{a) Full locality, giving name of pit, if collected at a 

[b) Giving horizon,* where ascertainable. 
(r) Name of collector. 
2. — Collect all specimens, however small or uninteresting 
they may appear, and give great care to the collection of all 
fructifications — even when fragmentary — whether cones or fruit 
of ferns. 

3. — On no account varnish the specimens, and if absolutely 
necessary to apply some preservative medium, use very weak, 

* ' Horizon,' i.e., the name of the coal seam with which the shale was 
associated that contained the fossil, or any other particulars that will enable 
the exact position of the rock to be determined from which the fossil has 
been derived. 

1906 April I. 

I20 jRcviews and Book Xoticcs. 

watery g^lue, and apply it by " dabbiiij;- " j^ently with a soft 
spong-e. It need hardly be added that all fini^^ering- of the surface 
of the specimen, or rubbing of any kind, ought to be avoided. 

On collecting, wrap the fossils up singly in paper at once to 
prevent their being scratched or the carbon displaced while 
carrying them home. In mending broken specimens, gently heat 
each part before applying the glue. 

4. — In packing fossils for transit, wrap each separately in 
paper and pack with additional paper, straw, hay, or shavings, 
in a strong box. Never use sawdust, husks, or any similar 
substance for packing. 

5. — All specimens sent for examination to be numbered 
and accompanied with a list containing the numbers, locali- 
ties, and any other additional particulars that may be thought 
necessary. Attention to this saves time and trouble to all 

Literature. — The first important book to study is always 
'The Book of Nature.' Still, though no real knowledge can be 
got without actual personal contact with and study of the 
specimens themselves, both in the museum and the field, it yet 
remains true that good books are a great help. 

From personal use we strongly recommend the following: — - 
' Structural Botany (Flowering Plants)' and ' Structural Botany 
(Flowerless Plants)', by Dr. D. H. Scott. (A. & C. Black, 
London). These furnish a necessary preparation for the 
understanding of the structure of fossil tissues ; ' Fossil 
Botany,' by Dr. D. H. Scott (Macmillan), an indispensable 
book, and ' Fossil Plants,' by A. C. Seward, 2 vols. (Cambridge 
University Press). 

In conclusion, let Yorkshire colliery proprietors, mining 
engineers, and working miners, who have unexampled oppor- 
tunities for doing so, help to elucidate the many problems which 
are so bound up with their self-interests, profession, and daily 
work, and so hasten the time when the far-reaching and wide 
generalisations may be reached that shall prove of the greatest 
benefit to mankind. 

Twenty=ninth Annual Report and Proceedings of the Lanca- 
shire and Cheshire Entomological Society. Session 1905. 57 i)i>. i\-. 

In addilioii to delaik-d reports of the nieetiiijjs and excursions held 
during' 1905, this report contains an address by H. St. J. K. Donistliorpe on 
'The Myrniecopliilous Coleo])tera of (ireat Britain;' ' Some Notes on ^lanx 
Coleoptera,' by J. R. le H. ToniHn ; and 'Noti' on Hiith and Infancy of 
Dyliscus punclulatus' by E. J. B. Sopp. .A jiortrait of a vice-president of 
the Society, Mr. Richard Wilding', forms the frontis])iece. 


rm-: sa rru.ii.isi . t>m. 

1^1. ATK X. 

Fig I. Cordierite>Mica=schist, 5inen Gill; x 25, natural light. 

Tlu clciU' spaces represent irregular crystal-grains of cordierite. The other constilmiits 
arc hiotite. niuscovite, quartz, andalusite. and graphite. 

I'i.if. 2. Cordierite-Mica-schist, liurdell (iill, Caldew Valley; x 25, 
crossed nicols. 

Showing a cross-section nf a ciniplcx twin of cordierite. 

THE NATUHAr.ISr, 1906. 

Plate XI 

Cordierite-Qarnet=IVlica=schist, Swineside, Caldew Valley ; x 25 ; 
A, natural light ; B, crossed nicols. 

This rock is made up of intt'rlockiiif,' crystal-drains of cordierite, enclosing snial 
garnets an<l flakes of biotite. 



It is a reproach to Eng-lish petrolog-ists that no systematic study 
has yet been made of the metamorphosed Skiddaw Slates of 
Cumberland. Owing- to the underlying situation of the Skiddaw 
granite," the aureole of metamorphism occupies a considerable 
area, and different members of the Skiddaw Slate series are 
involved in it. The different types of arg-illaceous and g-ritty 
sediments, subjected to metamorphism in varying- deg-ree, have 
g-iven rise to an interesting- variety of secondary minerals, which 
have hitherto received but little notice. Clifton Wardf re- 
cog"nised three chief types among- the metamorphosed slates, 
representing- three successive stag-es of alteration : (i) Chiasto- 
lite-slate, (2) Spotted- (or Andalusite-) schist, (3) Mica-schist. 
Ward's work was done at a time when microscopical methods 
in petrolog-y were still something- of a novelty, and his account 
is not only very brief and partial, but is in some respects 
incorrect. Certain errors were pointed out by Rosenbusch, j^ 
who, however, knew the rocks onl}' from a few specimens. 
Since that time practically no further information has been 
published, except that in 1894, the present writer j noted the 
occurrence of cordierite in some of the metamorphosed slates. 

The object of the present note is to draw the attention of 
north-country petrolog-ists to a neg-lected field. The only new 
fact to be recorded is that cordierite, formerly described from a 
single locality, has a very wide distribution in the district, and 
indeed is probably more abundant than andalusite. The two 
minerals (including chiastolite as a variety of andalusite) are 
often found together ; and in general one or other of them 
predominates, or occurs exclusively, according to the com- 

* The several outcrops, in Sinen Gill, the Caldew V'alle}", and Grainsgill, 
aie probably parts of one extensive mass, which is mostly concealed. See 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. li. (1895) p. 140. 

t Quart Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxi. (1875), pp. 568-602 ; vol. xxxii (1876), 
pp. 1-34. The Geology of the Xorthern Part of English Lake District, Mem. 
Geol. Sur. (1876), pp. 9-12. 

X Die Sfciger Schiefer, Geol. Sur. Alsace-Lorraine (1877), pp. 211-213. 
.\ translation is gfiven in A'aturalist, 1892, pp. 119, 120. 

i5 Geol. Mag. 1894, PP- '69, 170. 

1906 April I. 

122 Marker: Cordicrilc iu f/w Metamorphosed Skidihiw Slates. 

position ot" the rock in each bed. There is no difficulty in 
distinsjfuishin^- the two in thin slices. Cordierite is inferior to 
quartz in mean refractive index and in birefring^ence, while 
andalusite stands well above quartz in both characters. Further, 
the i^ood prismatic cleavage, which is usually well seen in 
andalusite, is wanting^ in cordierite. The other common 
minerals in these metamorphosed slates are : biotite, con- 
stantly abundant in rai^g^ed flakes ; muscovite, less plentiful 
and in smaller scales ; chlorite, and sometimes ilmenite, with 
the same habit ; quartz, in the more siliceous slates only ; 
g;raphite or opaque carbonaceous matter, almost always present ; 
minute crystals of mag'netite ; and sometimes ijarnets of micro- 
scopic size. In particular beds a certain mineral, such as 
quartz or white mica, may be specially abundant, as determined 
by the composition of the material metamorphosed. 

The crystals of cordierite are rarely more than one-eig"hth 
inch in diameter, and often less than half that size. They elude 
observation, however, less by their size than by their capacity 
for enclosing" other constituents of the rock. In thin slices, 
seen with natural Hg'ht, the outlines are, as a rule, almost 
invisible ; and the crystals may appear merely as relatively clear 
spaces, containing- less brown mica than the rest of the rock 
(Plate X., fig", i). With crossed nicols it is seen that the cordierite 
crystals are usually very imperfectly bounded. It is also seen 
that they are often not simple crystals, but complex twins. A 
cross-section then shows a division into six parts, representing- 
repeated twinning^ on the prism-plane (Plate X., fig- 2). This is 
well known in cordierite, but it seems to be unusually prevalent 
in these rocks. The dividingf lines are not very reg-ular, and 
there are often narrow lamelhe or wedges included in one 
individual of the twin, which behave optically with the adjoining^ 
individual. A long-itudinal section of such a twinned crystal 
shows rather irreg-ular parallel or sub-parallel lamelhe in the 
direction of the long- axis. 

Like other aluminous silicates in metamorphosed rocks 
(andalusite, staurolite, &c.), cordierite has the property of 
enclosing- a larg^e amount of foreig-n material. When it occurs 
in isolated crystal-grains, it may include only small granules 
and flakes of the other minerals, the bulk of these being 
expelled beyond the border (Plate X., ligs. i and 2). But in many 
of these metamorphosed Skiddaw slates, cordierite, making up 
the greater part of the rock, constitutes a kind of grounc^ .s 

of irregular grains, luting together without interspaces The 


Reviews and Book N^otices. 123 

other minerals are in this case scattered more or less uniformly 
throug-h the mass (Plate XI.,). The boundaries of the cordierite 
grains are invisible in natural lig'ht, but become very evident 
with crossed nicols. 

When larg-e crystals of aluminous silicates are formed in 
slates which contain carbonaceous matter, the finely divided 
opaque inclusions often tend to arrang-e themselves in a definite 
manner. The most familiar example of this is the chiastolite 
variety of andalusite, which is well shown in many of the 
Skiddaw rocks. An analog^ous micro-structure is sometimes 
met with in staurolite. In cordierite any special arrangement 
of the carbonaceous inclusions seems to be rare, and I have seen 
it only in one localitv, near the farm of Swineside in the lower 
part of the Caldew valley.* The cordierite in all these rocks is 
usually fresh, but in some cases the marg-inal part of a crystal 
is altered into an ag"g"regate of minute flakes of a colourless 
micaceous mineral. 

Summarily, cordierite is of very widespread occurrence in 
the metamorphosed slates surroundings the Skiddaw g-ranite. 
So far as my examination g"oes, it is rarely absent, except in 
some of the more g-ritty beds, and it is often the principal con- 
stituent of the completely metamorphosed rocks. If Ward saw 
it, he perhaps mistook it for andalusite ; but cordierite was 
probably absent from the examples which he studied more 
particularly, for, according" to the chemical analyses, these 
■contained only about two per cent, of mag"nesia. The specimens 
which I have examined came from the Caldew Valley and its 
neig'hbourhood, including- Poddy Gill, Grains Gill, Burdell Gill, 
.&c. ; also from Lonscale Fell, Dash, and Sinen Gill. 

Six Lemons de Prehistoire. Par Georges Engerrand. Bnixelles 
Imp. Veuve Ferd. Larcier. 263 pag'es, and 124 figfures in the text. 

In this little volume the author gives a useful summary of our know- 
ledge of prehistoric man on the continent, under the heads of ' General 
Considerations,' ' Tertiar}- Man,' 'The Eoliths,' 'The Lower Paleolithic 
Ag'e," 'The Upper Palaeolithic Age,' and 'The Neolithic Period.' Through- 
out, the work is profusely illustrated, almost every possible point being" 
explained by a sketch or diagram. Some of these however are rather 
crude. There is a very good index. W'c should have preferred a much 
more substantial cover to the book— a paper covered book rarely reaches 
this countrv intact. 

* .See fig., Geul. Mag., '<594, p. 169. 
igo6 April i. 



T. W. WOODHEAD. Ph.D., F.L.S. 

The publication of Dunn's 'Alien Flora of Britain ' ha.s rexived 
an interest in these plants. Now that so large a number have 
been broug-ht tog-ether, along with many details as to their 
origin and habitats, it may be worth while to notice what is being 
done on the Continent in classifying the heterogeneous mass ot 
facts which have for many years been accumulating, in order to 
bring into prominence the chief points of interest concerning 
their origin and distribution. Dr. M. Rikli of the Polytechnicum, 
Zurich, has attempted to do this,* and his scheme of classifica- 
tion has been fairly generally recognised. It is adopted, with 
slight additions, by Naegeli and Thellung in their ' Flora of the 
Canton of Zurich, "t now in course of publication, and below I 
give a translation, with slight modifications, | of the more 
important features taken from Part I. of the latter work 
(Rudeval-und Adventivflora in genetische Gruppen). The 
names given to the diflFerent groups are not very in\'iting, and 
some are almost unpronounceable, but the method of grouping 
is very suggestive, and may be followed with profit in this 
country, where little advance has been made since Watson's 
time in this direction. 

The plants here considered belong entirely to the youngest 
element in our flora, and its existence is bound up with the 
activity of man. We may therefore call it the ' Anthropophile ' 
element, and the species belonging to it as ' Anthropophytes.' 

We divide this Anthropophile element into two parts : - 

A. Anthropochores (Rikli), those plants which were not 
originally wild in the country under consideration, but which, 
by man's activity, were either purposely or unconsciously 
introduced, c.o-.^ cultivated plants and herbs. To these may be 
added in consequence of their occurrence in artificial habitats — 

B. Apophytes (Rikli) species, which were originally native 

* ' Dii' AiUhi-opoclion-ii unci der FoimL-nUn-i.s dcs .N.isliiiliimi piiliistiv 
(Leyss) D.C." Ber. d. Ziiricli botan. Cicsscll. 1901-3, p. 7'-^"^-: '^•''• 
Centralbl. xcv. Xr. i. 1904, p. 12. 

\ " Die Flora dfs Kaiitons Zurich. 1 'l\il : I >!<■ Riitk-ral-iiiul .\dvciitiv- 
tlora, von O. \ac^i-li imd A. Tliclliiiig'. Ziiii( li, 11)05. 

:;: These relate principally to jjroups (> and 7, wlicic I lia\r ventured to 
make a .sharper ilistinction between them Ihan in the iiii_i;inal. 


Wood he ad : Classification of Alien Plants. 125 

in the country, but to some extent have now abandoned their 
natural habitats and g^one over to the cultivated areas, and 
there more or less adapted themselves, e.g., Nasturtium 
palnstre, native in wet places, goes over to the rubbish heap, 
and there takes on a changed growth, (f. erectinn). 

We can therefore define the Anthropophytes as follows : — 
The Anthropophile element of a floral district includes all 
the plants of the artificial areas, and those not originally wild in 
the natural habitats ; their representatives thus owe their 
importation, or at least their habitat, to the activity of man. 

Each of the two divisions characterised above ma}' be 
divided into nine categories : — 

A. Anthropochores, brought into the country by man. 

I. Intentionally introduced by man, e.g., foreign cultivated 
plants and their derivatives. 

(i) Ergasiophytes (nob.), exotic cultivated plants including 
medicinal and ornamental plants which have reached their 
habitat (field, garden, &c.) by the conscious activity of man, 
and have been cultivated by him, e.g., Secale cereale (cultivated 
cereal), Pelargonium sonale (ornamental plant), Althcea officinalis 
(medicinal plant). 

(2) Ergasiobpophytes (Naegeli and Thellung), relics of 
cultivation, were originally planted in natural habitats, and 
have maintained themselves without the intentional cultivation 
of man, e.g., Acorns calamus, Fraxinus ornus. 

(3) Ergasiophygophytes (Rikli), fugitives from cultivation, 
which have reached other habitats without the assistance of 
man, i.e., grow 'wild' in : — 

{a) Artificial areas (fields, ruderal habitats), e.g.. Lobelia 
crinus (ornamental plant, ' wild ' on rubbish heap). Silene amieria 
(ornamental plant, in grain) Petroselinum sativum (economic 
plant, in ruderal habitats), &c. The duration of these is for the 
most part temporary. 

{h) In natural /labitats {meadows, woods, &c.), e.g., Robinia 
pseudacacia (ornamental plant, ' wild ' in woods). Scoraonera 
hispanica (economic plant, in meadows). From the duration 
and constancy of their occurrence, they are partly casuals 
(compare 7, e.g., Gladiolus communis), partly denizens (compare 
5, e.g., Robinia). 

igo6 April i. 

126 Wood he ad : Classification of Alien Plan Is. 

II. Broug-ht into the country by the unconscious interxen- 
tion of man, e.g., foreij^n weeds. 

(4) Archccophytes (Rikli), plants wliicli have occiuTcd con- 
stantly with us since pre-historic times, originally, however, 
growing- wild nowhere in the country, field and g^arden weeds, 
e.g^. , Centanrea cyanus, Agrostenuna, Loliuni temnlentum, as 
proved by Oswald Heer in the Lake Dwelling's (compare 9^^/, on 
native species which gfo over to cultivated land). 

(rt) From cultivated land (true Archaeophytes). 

{b) Apophytic, g^one over to ruderal habitats {Papavcr sp. 
Cenfaiirea cyaniis, &c.) 

(5) Neophytes (Rikli), denizens, relatively frequent and con- 
stant in natural habitats, often associated with the native 
veg-etation (e.g". , Erigeron annuns, Solidago serot'ina), and are 
thus not dependent on the continued activity of man for their 

(6) EpbkopJivtes (Rikli). Colonists. Of recent appearance, 
more or less numerous and constant in the country, but confined 
to artificial habitats (e.g., Lepidiuni riiderale on waste heaps). 
They are so far dependent on man for their existence that their 
habitats require constant renewal. Ripe seeds are produced, 
but unless the g^round is prepared for them ihey die out, being- 
unable to withstand the competition of hardier native species. 

(7) Ephemerophytes (Naeg-eli and Thellung;), casuals, -aliens. 
Only a few and of casual occurrence, almost exclusivel}' in 
artificial habitats. Owing- to climatic conditions the seeds do not 
ripen, and the species disappear unless seeds are reintroduced. 

(rt) In cultivated land. Strangers, newly appearing; in cul- 
tivated fields [Centaurea solstitidlis), clover and lucerne fields 
{Anini/ nuijiis), cornfields {Vieid piuuionica, tS:c.), these after 
a short time ag-ain disappear. 

[b) In ruderal habitats. Here belong, e.g., a great part of 
the Railway flora {Lepidiuni perfo/idtiini, Tn'foliuni hippaeeiun). 

B. Apophytes. Originally wild in the country in natural 
habitats, but later have g-one over to the- cultivated areas. 

i. Throug-h the conscious activity of man. 

(8) Oekiopliyles (Naeg-eli and Thellung). Nati\e cultivated 
plants, raised as ornamental or economic plants, e.g"., Seilla 
bifolia, Convallaria majalis (ornamental plants), R 11 bus idwiis, 
Fnigaria vesca (economic plants). 


Reviews and Book Notices. 127 

II. Spontaneously g-one over from artificial habitats. 

(9) Spontaneous apophytes (nob. ). Deserters, emig-rants. 

(rt) Apophytes of cultivated land, e.g., Saxifraga tridactylites. 
Tunica prolifera, Cerestium sp. (gone over from the dry sunny 
slopes in the fields.) 

[b) Ruderal apophytes, e.g.. Nasturtium palustrey f. erectum 
Briigg, Lamiuni sp. 

Naturally one and the same species may, even in difl^erent 
parts of our small country,, belong to different categories. 
Further, the flora of the cultivated areas consists of a very 
heterogeneous element, c.g.^ the field weed flora is composed of 
at least two groups, ^he true Archaeophytes {\a) and the 
spontaneous Apophytes (gc/) ; but this not unimportant part of 
the field flora has till now been too little observed, and to these 
may also be added the garden fugitives, occasionals, &c. In 
the same way the ruderal flora consists of different elements, 
e.g., T,a, ^b, 6, jb, and 91^ .... In the list of Naegeli and 
Thellung special attention is paid to the Apophytes, which 
group is often very much neglected, as it off^ers but little 
interest in a floristic way, but certainly from the point of view 
of ecological plant geography it is not uninteresting to examine 
which of our native species are capable of going over and 
maintainingf themselves in artificial areas. 

The Founders of Geology. By Sir, Archibald Geikle. Second 
Edition. Macmillan & Co. 486 pages, 10/- net. 

This volume is probably so well known to our g-eological readers that 
it is hardly necessary to point out the nature of its contents. We refer to 
the second edition, which has recently been issued at a cheaper rate, how- 
ever, in order that any who have not already obtained the book, may do so. 
With the name of Sir Archibald Geikie on the title page, the ' readableness " 
of the contents of the volume is assured. 'The Flounders of Geology' 
originated in a series of lectures delivered in America in 1896, in which he 
selected for full consideration ' the lives and work of some of the masters to 
whom we mainU' owe the foundation and development of geological science.' 

Creatures of the Night: A Book of Wild Life in Western Britain. By 
A. W. Rees. John Murray. 448 pages, 6/- net. 

In this work Mr. Rees reprints a series of entertaining articles, which 
originally appeared in The Standard. The animals described are the otter, 
water-vole, fox, brown hare, badger, and hedgehog. The hare is included 
as * in unfrequented districts where beasts and birds of prey are not 
destroyed by gamekeepers, the hare is as much a creature of the night as 
is the badger or fox.' The author is obviously well familiar with the 
subjects upon which he writes. The volume has eight full-page illustrations 
from drawings by Miss. F. H. Laverock. There is an index. 

1906 April I. 



M. H. STILKS, F.K.M.S., 
Doncdstci . 

As a sapplemenl to Mr. R. H. Philip's interestini^ report on 
Diatomacean i^atherins^s made at two of the Y.N. U. Excursions 
in 1905, I send the following lists. They are the results obtained 
from g-atherini^^s collected at Askern (the Bog" Pond), in March, 
and at Ilkley (a tiny streamlet running down the side of the hill, 
near the Tarn and towards the town), in September 1905. 

The whole of the Ilkley list is given, but the Askern list is 
merely suppleinentary to that published in the ' Naturalist ' 
for November 1900. 

In going- over my record of the Askern g^athering, I found 
a note, made at the time of my examination, of the presence 
of a Fnifnlaria slightly inflated at the median portion of the 

<- "" ■■ III i iiii i ii r i i r»^^'''»> n - M ir'iiii iiii """^ '^t. 
U'l i iii i ii inn i ii iil iii i ii l ^^ ,i> i li m ^lll lM M ll 1 1 1 n 1 1 i ll l l *^ 

Fragllaria capuciaa var. inflata. 

valve. After reading Mr. Philip's remarks on the occurrence 
of a new (?) variety of F. capucina in the Roche Abbey Lake, 
I again turned up the Askern slide, and now furnish a sketch 
of the Diatom in question. 

The Ilkley gathering is remarkable for the great variety 
of forms present. 

The Askern Diatoms have not been previously recorded. 
Those marked thus * are also new to the Doncaster list of 
November 1900. 

Atnplioni in>alis Kiit/.., \;ii-. (ijfiiiis. 
Cyinhella CKSpidalu Kill z., var. iiavi- 

t ulifoniiis. 
CymhcUa siibcequcil is Gniii. 

* ,, gastmides Kut/.., var. 

Stauroneis Siiiil/iii (iriin. 

* Xaviciila liiiiosa Kiilz., var. i>ih- 


* ,, ventricosa Doiik. 

,, ellipiicn Kiitz. , var. 

,, I rid is VMr. 

,, viridiilii I\iilz., fornia 

,, Rrinhanil a (\v\w\. 

* Xaviciihi Brcbissoitii Kiitz. 

* ,, ciucta Kutz. 

,, Anglica Ralfs. 

,, peregrina Kutz., var. 

mcnisruliis, form Upsal- 


* Ciomplioiwniti gracile Ehr. 

* ,, iiiontanum Schum. 
R/ioifosp/icii ill curz<aia Grun. 

' Corconi'is scii/vllum VA\r. 

Kunolia lunar is (irun. 
*Synvdr(i I'tii/r/irriir Kniz. 

var. prr- 
' ,, I '//III Nitzsch, \ii.v. /ong is - 



Sh'les : Yorkshire Diatoms in Jgo^. 


Denticula tenuis Kutz. , van injJata. 

Surirella ovalis Breb. van ovata. 

Hantzschia aniphioxys Ehr., var. 
*Nitzschia amphibia Grun. 
* ,, paradoxa Grun. 

Fragilaria capuciua Desmaz. 

,, ,, ,, forma 

,, construens Ehr. 

' ,, mutabilis Wm. Smith. 

' ,, tcnuicollis Heib. , van 


Ilkley slathering' — 

Amphora ovalis, Kiitz. 
Cymbella cuspidata Kutz. , var. 
naviculiform is. 
,, leptoceras Kutz. 

,, cymbiformis Ehr. 

1. ,, .1 var. 

Encyonema venfricosinn Kutz. 
Navicnla viridis Kutz. 

,, ,, ,, var. rommu- 

,, gibba Kutz. 
,, mesolepta Ehr., var. 

,, append icidata Kutz. 

,, subcapitata Greg. 
,, radiosa Kutz. 

,, rhyncocephala Kutz. 

,, cryptocephala Kutz. 

,. ,, 1, var. 

,, Anglica Ralfs. 
,, eUiptica Kutz., var. ovalis. 

,, hum His Donk. 

,, limosa Kutz. 

,, I rid is Ehr., var. undulata. 

,, binodis Ehr. . 

,, rocconciformis Gregf. 

,, nana Gregf. 

Colletonema Jacustre Ag. 
Amphipleura pelhicida Kutz. 
Gomphonema constrictum Ehr. 

,, ,, ,, van 

,, acuminatum Ehn, van 

,, in(>?iiaiium Schum. 

,, ,, var. com- 


Gomphonema gracile Ehr. 

,, olivaceum Kutz. 

,, parvulum Kutz. 

Rhoicosphenia curvata Grun. 
Cocconeis pedicnlus Ehr. 

, , placentula Ehr. , var. lineata. 
Epithemia tiirgida Ehr. 
,, gibba Kutz. 

,, gibberula Grun., var. pro- 

duct a. 
Eunotia A reus Ehr., var. bidens. 
,, gracilis Ehr. 
,, lunar is Ehr. 
,, ,, var. bilunaris. 

Synedra pulchella Kutz. 
,, ulna Nitzsch. 
,, ,, van oxyrhynchus. 

,, Vaucherice Kutz., var. par- 

,, Vaucherice Kutz., var. per- 

m inula. 
Fragilaria mutabilis Wm. Smith. 
,, construens Ehr. 

,, tenuicollis Heib. 

,, undata Wm. Smith. 

Diatoma elongatum Agf. 

,, hiemale Lyng-le, var. meso- 
Meridion circulare Agf. 
Tabellaria Jlocculosa Roth. 
Surirella ovalis Breb., var. ovata. 
Nitzschia amphibia Grun. 

,, sinuata W^m. Smith. 
,, 7!itrea Norman. 

,, ,, forma major. 

, , thermalis Kutz. , van inter- 

Melosira arenaria Moore. 

igo6 April i. 


3u riDcnioriam. 

1 844- 1 906. 

It is with very great regret that we record the death of 
Mr. J. G. Goodchild, F.G.S., of H.M. (ieolo^ncal Survey of 
Scotland. Mr. Goodchild, who was for many years editor 
ot the ' Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland 
Association,' and wrote many most valuable papers in those 
transactions, certainly accomplished much in furtherance of 
natural science. He was one of the earliest of the workers in 
the field of glacial g-eolog^y on modern lines. His paper on the 
' Glacial Phenomena of the Eden Valley,' which appeared in the 
'Quarterly Journal of the Geolog-ical Society,' has been justly 
described as 'one of the gems of glacial literature.' He also 
wrote ' On the New Red Series in Cumberland and Westmor- 
land,' ' Ice-work in Edenside,' ' Notes on the Water Supply of 
Edenside,' ' Notes on Some of the Limestones of Cumberland 
and Westmorland,' 'Some Notes on Peat,' 'Granite Junction 
in Mull,' ' Augeii Structure and Eruptive Rocks,' ' How to take 
Impressions from Fossils,' etc. He was formerly a frequent 
contributor to the scientific journals. To the ' Naturalist ' he 
was an occasional writer, one of his best papers being ' Notes 
on the Glacial Phenomena of Upper Ribblesdale.' In recent 
years he has devoted the most of his time to the mineralogical 
collections, etc., in the Royal Scottish Museum at Edinburgh, 
and has written on ' Astronomical Models in the Edinburgh 
Museum," ' On the Arrangement of Geological Collections,' 
' On the Arrangement of Mineralogical Collections,' ' Simple 
Methods in Crystallography,' etc. In 1884 he was elected a 
F^ellow of the Geological Society of London, and received 
the proceeds of the Wollaston Fund in 1893. 

He joined the Geological Survey in 1867, and for many years 
was engaged in mapping areas in the North of England, and 
particularly in the neighbourhood of the Lake District. There- 
after he was removed to the Survey Office in Jermyn Street, 
London, and in 1887 was transferred to Scotland, where he was 
placed in charge of the collections obtained by the Scottish staff, 
and deposited in the Royal Scottish Museum, an appointment 
for which he was specially adapted. Possessing remarkable 
powers of receptivity, a mind extremely susceptible of new ideas, 




J. G. Coodchild. 

(7(1 /till- pa^c 130.) 

R('vii'7vs and Book Notices. 131 

and a facile pen, he contributed a very large number of papers 
— about 200 — on a wide rang-e of subjects to the transactions of 
various scientific societies in Eng-land and Scotland. He also 
edited the important work in two volumes on Scottish Miner- 
alog-}', by the late Professor Heddle, published some time after 
his death. 

He was an ideal leader of an excursion, as the members of 
the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union can testify, and it was on 
such occasions that his familiarity with so many branches of 
science was revealed. Among- the many interests upon which 
his versatile mind extended itself, must be mentioned Orni- 
thology, with especial reference to the Raptores (see his paper 
on ' Crested Birds of Prey ') and Folk-lore and Dialects. 

Mr. Goodchild's artistic abilities found expression in beautiful 
and finished water-colour drawings of birds which he generously 
distributed among his friends. Many will miss Mr. J. G. Good- 
child and the ready help he always offered to anyone seeking it. 
He leaves a widow and three sons. 

T. S. 


A History of Westmorland. By Richard S. Ferguson. Cheap 
Edition. Elliot Stock. 1905. 312 pages, 3/6 net. 

This well known history of ' The land of Western Meres or Lakes ' can 
now be obtained at the reduced price named, and all who have not the 
volume already on their shelves, should at once secure a cop}'. In the 
eighteen chapters in the book, the history of this important county is dealt 
with in a very careful and methodical manner, commencing' with the pre- 
Roman times. Of special value for I'eference is the 'Classified List of Books, 
(Jtc, relating to Westmorland,' which appears to be very complete. The 
volume also contains, what is almost a rarity nowadays, a very good index. 

An introduction to Geology. By J. E. Marr. Cambridge : The 
L'niversity Press. 229 pages, price 3/- net. 

It seems almost necessary nowadays for every geologist of note to write 
a text book on geology. In the work under notice the Past-President of the 
Geological Society gives a volume, which ' it is hoped may be found useful to 
those general readers who wish to obtain some idea of the science, but do 
not desire to pursue its study far, but especiall)' as an introduction for 
those who will subsequently proceed to the perusal of more advanced 
treatises.' There can be no question that the 'general reader" will profit 
by a perusal of the volume, and the author's reputation is such, that there 
will be little fear of the ' general reader ' being led far astray. It is illus- 
trated by several process blocks from photographs, those representing flint 
implements and fossils, however, taken by (he enthusiastic Mr. W. G. 
I*"earnsides, are not so successful as we might have expected. ' A belemnite ' 
on page 181, is surrounded by such an arra\' of apparatus, &c., that we 
might not unnatural!}' assume that the 'taking' of a belemnite required the 
skill and care of a Kearton. And surely better examples of 'human im- 
plements' might have been selected for illustration than those on page 213. 

1906 April I. 



Mamestra furva and Cucullia verbasci at Huddersfieid. — 

Recentl}- Mr. James Lee brous^ht me for confirmation two speci- 
mens of Miniicsira furva^ which he had taken last summer on 
the Deii^-hton side of Huddersfieid, where he said the species 
appeared to be fairh' common. It is ver}' many years since the 
species was previously taken in the district, but probably 
the spot where Mr. Lee took his examples had never been 
worked in the meantime, and it may have been there during- all 
the long- interval. Mr. W. E. L. Wattam, too, told me that a 
colon\^ of larvae of Cucullia vcrlnisci was observed feeding near 
Newsome, Huddersfieid, last year, thus confirming Mr. B. 
Morley's capture of an imago at Skelmanthorpe last summer, 
which was the first record for the district. — Geo. T. Porritt, 
Huddersfieid, March 7th, 1906. 


The Brambling in the North of Engfland. — This species 
has been exceptionally numerous in most of the southern 
counties during the past winter, but I have not been able to 
hear of any increase in the North of Lngland. in this im- 
mediate neighbourhood it only occurs in small numbers, (pro- 
bably owing- to the absence of large beech woods), and this 
winter no increase has been noted. It would be interesting to 
know whether any reader of 'The Naturalist' in Yorkshire, or 
in the North of England, has noticed more than the usual 
numbers. Particulars of observation would be of interest and 
mig-ht tend to throw some light on the migratory movements 
of this northern breeding finch. In this district the Siskin has 
been much more common than usual (see page 100). If this 
has been generally so in the north, and the Brambling has 
certainly been much more numerous in the south, it would be 
interesting to endeavour to discover the cause, or, as 
the past winter cannot be described as haxing been a hard 
winter in these islands. Hakrv B. Booth, Spring- Royd, 
Shipley, March ujth, 1906. 



More Natural History Essays. B\- Q. Renshaw. Shenatt and 
Hug'hes. 243 pa^'es, 5/- net. 

Apparently in a previous volume, entitled ' Natural History Essays,' Mr. 
Renshaw dealt with African tjpes of mammalia only ; in the present work 
representatives of the mammalia from various parts of the world — bats, 
lemurs, shrews, tijfers, whales, sea-cows, tapirs, ant-eaters, &c., are 
described in a careful manner, and in connection with most, the author has 
interesting anecdotes to relate. That he is also thoroujjfhly up to date 

Whale Room in the Natural History iYluseum, South Kensington. 

is shown from the fact that in his description of the beluga or white whale, 
details are given of the records of this species at the mouth of the Tyne ancT 
at Scarborough in 1903, and in the Ouse in 1905, details of which duh- 
appeared in this journal at the time. There are several illustrations, one of 
which the publishers kindly allow us to reproduce. It shows the half 
models of whales as arranged in our national collection by the late Sir 
\\\ H. Flower. In the foreground is a white whale and a narwhal. A 
fragment of an abnormal narwhal skull, with two tusks is also shown. A 
skeleton of a narwhal, with a fully developed tusk, and one onh- partialh- 
developed, is in the Hull Museum. 

A Monograph of the British Desmidiacese. Bv W. West, F.L.S., 
and Q. S. West, M.A., F.L.S., A.R.C.S. Vof. II. Ray .Society. 
280 pp., 32 plates. Price 25/- net. 

The appearance of the second part of this valuable work will be welcomed 
by all students of our microscopic flora. The present volume deals with the 

1906 April I. 


Northcni Neivs. 

tfenera EuHstriim and Micrasteiias, and a portion of the very extensive 
i*-enus Cosmarium. These comprise some of the most beautiful species 
of Desmids and we may especially particularize the g^racefully frinj^ed 
and ornamented cells of Micrasterias. An interestinjif point concerninj;^ 
distribution occurs in relation lo this j<-enus. It is, we are informed, generally 
found in the lakes and bog^s of the older Palaeozoic and Precambnan areas, 
and several species are exclusively confined to such loclities. Thus we find 
that only one single record occurs for the East Riding of Yorkshire. 
Micrasterias tnmcata having been found in bogpools on Ski])with Common ; 
but on the other hand, Wales, the Lak<- district and Scotland are localities 
for every species. Messrs. West do not theorize on these facts, but it 
is clearly significant as to the t-volution and history of the Desmidiacea; 
that its most highly developed genus should be thus limited. 

The genus Cosmarium, it was hinted in the introduction to the first 
volume, would some day require to be split up into smaller genera, 
and the force of this remark becomes obvious when we come to con- 
sider the large number of species described under this heading. The 
present volume describes 50 species, an instalment of 126 which constitute 
merely the first division of the genus. We have indeed progressed far 
since Pritchard summed up all known species of the genus as 38 in number — 
not all of which would now be assigned to it at all. But, as our authors 
acknowledge, their classification of this genus is exceedingly artificial. For 
instance, the broad distinction drawn for the two large groups, the section 
with smooth cell walls and the section with rough cell walls, reminds us 
that in the case of other genera such a distinction is used merely for a 
varietv and not even for a species— still less for a group of species. 

The plates illustrating this book are well executed and do full justice to 
the beautiful forms of the Desmids. No higher praise could be given than to 
.sav that thev quite maintain the high standard set bv the first volume. 

■ ■ R. H. P. 


We regret to record the death of .Sir Robert L. Patterson, .M. B.O.I'., 
of Belfast, an occasional contributor to our Journal. 

Part I. of School Nature Study ' has appeared, and consists of 4 pages, 
price 2d. ' Further editions will be published in May and October.' 

The Manchester Microscopical Society continues to do the good work 
for which it is so well known, judging from the circulars which are 
regularly received. 

The Zoological Record for 1904, an invaluable volume, has been issued. 
Over two thousand new generic, etc., names are recorded, as a result of the 
work of natuialists for a single }-ear ! 

A recently issued number of the 'Journal of the .Manchester Geographica 
.Society' contains a well-illustrated account of 'The National Antarctic 
Fxpedition,' by Captain R. F. Scott, R.N. 

In the February Entomologist's Monthly Magazine Mr. R. S. Bagnall 
gives some ' Notes on .Some Coleoptera imported into our Northern Ports 
(Newcastle, .Sunderland and Hartlepool. |' 

'Mainly .d:)out Books' is a gratis pam])hl(l issind three times a year 
bv the Ceiitral Public Library and .Museum of Boolle. It takes the place 
of the ' (.hiarterly Jouinal,' previously issued by the Bootle authorities. 

In the February Zoologist the following records occur : A small flock of 
Cirl-Buntings on Jan. iyt<.\ ; a Shore I.ark on Hilbre Island on Dec. iqth 
.1005; an Elder oti Dee. 31st, .iiul ;i Knot on I)c(. v>th all in Cheshire. 


Northern News. 135 

The Council of" the University of Liverpool has decided ' That a reader- 
ship in ethnography be instituted in recog'nition of the scholarship of 
H. O. Forbes, LL. D., director of the Public Museums of Liverpool, and 
that Dr. Forbes be appointed to the said readership.' 

We learn from a London daily of March 3rd, that ' a bird known to 
naturalists as the Pacific rider [eider], and which is said to be only the 
second ever captured in Europe,' has just reached Scarborouo;h. It was 
shot a few days before in the Orkneys. We presume the specimen will not 
leave Scarborough so readily as did the previous specimen ! 

As the subject of his Presidential Address to the Bradford Scientific 
Association recently, Mr. H. E. Wroot dealt with the life, work, and 
scientific friendships of Dr. Richard Richardson of Brierle}- Hall, a well 
known botanist, and a contemporary of Abraham Sharp, the astronomer. 

' Notes on Some Speeton-clay Belemnites ' is the title of Hull Museum 
Publication No. 29, just issued (A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., Hull, one penny). 
It contains illustrations of some rare and curious Belemnites from the 
Speeton and Kimeridge claj's, part of an extensive collection recently placed 
in the Hull Museum by Mr. C. G. Danford of Reighton. 

A special effort is being made to secure a goodly list of new members for 
election at the first field meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Lhiion for 
1906, which will be held at Ingleton from May i2th-i4th. The Secretary 
of the LInion (at the IMuseum, Hull) would be glad to hear of any person 
wishing to join, or would supply particulars of the work of the Union, &c., 
to anyone interested. 

\'arious teachers in the East Riding, interested in natural history, have 
formed an ' East Riding Nature Study Association,' and have decided to 
affiliate with the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. A list of excursions has 
been arranged, and early in October there will be an exhibition and con- 
ference at Pocklington. Mr. W. J. Algar, the Schoolhouse, Lockington, is 
the Hon. Secretar}-. 

The County Press, of 19 Ball Street, Kensington, W. , is issuing a 
novel series of educational post cards, the first example of which (natural 
history department) is a picture presentment, on seven cards, for the 
price of sixpence, of the whole of the British Ferns (42 species nature 
prints) from the illustrative plates of Mr. Francis George Heath's work, 
' The Fern Paradise.' 

A conference to consider the promotion of extension work in connection 
with the University of Leeds, was held at Leeds on Saturday, March 17th. 
The \'ice-Chancellor (Dr. Bodington) presided. Sir John Gorst and others 
addressed the meeting. A general committee was appointed to promote 
the extension work of the University. The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
was invited to send a delegate, and was represented by Dr. E. O. Croft, 

At the annual meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union held at 
Bradford, the Fossil Flora Committee was enlarged in its scope, and will 
in future be known as the Fossil Flora and Fauna of the Carboniferous 
Rocks Committee. Added to it were several members interested in the 
mollusca of the coal measures, and doubtless good will result from the 
committee's labours. Messrs. Wheelton Hind, and Walcot Gibson, have 
kindly agreed to assist the committee in its work. 

Several of our readers will be sorrv to hear that the ' Leeds Mercury 
Supplement' has ceased to appear. In former 3'ears this paper was welcomed 
b)- all northern naturalists and antiquaries on account of the excellent 
articles, reports of meetings, &c., which there appeared. The editor, Mr. 
W. S. Cameron, was ever ready to further natural science in any way in his 
power. In recent times, however, the paper has changed considerably in its 
scope, to the regret of man}' of its readers. The death of the ' Leeds 
Mercury Supplement ' leaves a distinct gap in Yorkshire joiu'nalism. 

1906 April 1. 


Northern News. 

Tlu- following' are places and dates for the excursions of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union durinjf tlie coming- session : — 

May iJth to i4tii — Ingleton. 

Jime 2nd to 4th (Whit week-end) — Flaniboroug'h. 

June 30th, Saturday l""ewston, foi- Washburn \"alley. 

July 12th, Thursday — Askern. 

August 18th to 20th— Guisborough. 

September 22nd to 26th — F'ungus Forav at Farnle\- Tvas, near 
We learn from the Huddcrsjicld Chronicle that the degree of I'h.D. lias 
been conferred on Mr. T. W. Woodhead, F.L.S., lecturer in biology at the 
Technical College, Huddersfield, by the University of Zurich, Switzerland, 
where Mr. Woodhead has been working during the last few months in 
collaboration with Professor C. Schroter, the eminent authority on the 
Alpine flora. It will interest Dr. Woodhead's friends to know that this well- 
merited honour has been bestowed upon him for a i)aper on the ' Ecology 
of woodland plants in the neighbourhood of Hudderstield.' 

A meeting of the Excursion Sub-Committee of the British .Association 
was held at York on the 20th March, Dr. Tempest Anderson presiding. .A. 
number of places suitable for visits by the members of the Association was 
chosen. In connection with these, however, the early date of the .Association 
was once more found to be inconvenient. We can imagine, for example, 
what the nature of a visit to Scarborough would be on .August Hank Holiday 
or the Saturdav preceding. There are also other attractions in the follow- 
ing few davs, which will probably interfere with the most successful 
arrangements being made for the comfort of the \isitors to the meetings of 
the British .Vssociation. It is sincerely to be hoped that the experiment of 
holding the meeting of the .Association in the first week in .\ugust will not 
be repeated. 

A conference was held at the Hotel Windsor, Westminster, on the 6tli 
I'"ebruar\-, for the purpose of considering the question of national defence 
against "the erosion of the sea. The following resolution was carried : 
' That whereas it is a settled principle of the common and statute law that 
the responsibilitv of the sea defence works rests ]>rimariiy on the nation at 
large, this representative meeting is of opinion that steps should be taken to 
obtain some assistance from the Imperial Exchequer towards the ever- 
increasing burden of expense which local authorities on the seaboard are 
compelled to bear owing- to the constant erosion by the sea ; and that with a 
view to carrying out this object a petition be presented to the King in 
Council praying that right may be done.' A committee was appointed to 
formulate a scheme and submit it at a future meeting. 

By the courtesy of the editor of the Yorkshire Weekly Post, we Jire able to 
give our readers a drawing of tlie larg-e mammoth tooth found at Withernsea, 

and described in these colunnis for November last (j). 34S). 
is loj inches in length, and weighs gjlbs. 

The tooth figureil 


MAY 1906. 

No. 592 

(No. 370 of current series) 





The Museum, Hull ; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield ; 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 

Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.5c., F.G.S., 
T. H. NEL50N, M.B.O.U., 


Contents : — 

Prominent Yorkshire Workers— 

I. Henry Clifton Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S., etc. (Illustrated) 

The Development of the Senses in Bats (Illustrated)— .4 rt/itif- Whitaker 

On the Belemnites of the Chalk of Yorkshire (Illustrated)— C. Davies Shcrborn, F.G.S. 
Note on a Rare Form of Actiaocamax {A. Grossouvrei) from the Chalk of York= 

shire (Illustrated)— G. C. Crick, F.G.S. 
In Memoriam, William Nelson (Illustrated) 

,, William Cudworth (Illustrated) 

Bird Migration (Illustrated)—//. B. Booth 

Field Notes 

Northern News 


Plates XII., XIII., XIV., XV., XVI., XVII. 

lot, 166 
... 154, 



159, 162 


A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 

Only a limited Edition available. 


Studies of its Botany, Geology, Climate, and Physical 




F.R.S., F.L.S., M.R.I.A., V M.H. 

Late Keeper of the Herbarium and Library of the Royal Gardens. Kew ; 

Late President and Perpetual Vice-President of the Yorkshire 

Naturalists Union. 


And a Chapter on the Mosses and Hepatics of the Riding, 


Matthew B. Slater, F.L.S. 

680 pages, coloured geological, lithological, etc. maps, 
suitably bound in Cloth, 

Price 15/- net. 

This volume is a companion to Lee's " Flora of West Yorkshire," 
and, tog-ether with Robinson's " Flora of East Riding^," completes the 
Flora of the County. 


A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., Savile Street & King Edward Street, HulL 

A few copies only left of 

tee's "Flora of iUest yorksWre." 

Price 10/6 net. [Pitblislwii ul d CiHi)n'a). 
Please mention 'The Naturalist' in replying to Advertisements. 

riir \ATrK ii.isr. woo. 

/^V. yCv^^ .V;;^^Xy^ 



I.— HENRY CLIFTON SORBY, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S., etc. 

(plate XIII.) 

It is proposed to give occasionally in these pag'es a brief 
account of the life of some of our leading- Yorkshire workers. 
The selection of the first of the series has not been in the least 
diflScult. In Dr. H. C. Sorby it can be safely said we have a 
scientific man, whose standing- as such is of the highest possible. 
His reputation is world wide. During the past sixty years he 
has devoted some attention to almost every branch of natural 
and applied science, and everything he has touched has been the 
better for it. Probably no living man has accomplished so 
much in such a variety of ways as has the subject of ovir sketch, 
and few can boast of having occupied more official positions in 
so many scientific societies than has he. Besides all this, 
Yorkshiremen will for ever respect his name for the keen interest 
he has always taken in the scientific welfare of Yorkshire, and 
particularly the city in which his life has been spent — Sheffield. 
In the affairs of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union he has at all 
times taken the keenest interest — has helped its work in every 
way in his power, and the Union conferred upon him the greatest 
honour in its power by asking him to be the first to occupy the 
Presidential chair. 

Dr. Sorby has been fortunate in being able to devote his 
whole life to scientific research — an opportunity which is 
open to many but rarely taken advantage of. To a prize he 
obtained at school, entitled ' Readings in Science,' he partly 
attributes the desire he subsequently had for investigation. 
Later he had for a tutor one who was well informed in mathe- 
matics, chemistry, and anatomy, whose influence also left its 
impression upon the scholar. In addition to the subjects 
named. Dr. Sorby devoted some attention to optics and water- 
colour drawing, and all these he found of the greatest possible 
value to him in his subsequent career. 

In 1897 he delivered an address to the Sheffield Literary 
and Philosophical Society, entitled ' Forty Years of Scientific 
Research,'* in which he points out that he worked in his 
young days ' not to pass an examination ' but to qualify himself 
for a career of original investigation. That such a course 

* I am indebted to this for much of the information here given. 
1906 May I. 

13^ Proiuincnt Yorkshire Jl'or/ccrs — Henry iUifton Sorby. 

was beneficial is well proved by what has subsequently taken 
place, and a perusal of the list of memoirs at the end of these 
notes is evidence of the benefit of his early method of work. 
And it must be borne in mind that these memoirs are by no 
means of the ordinary class of papers, as many of them cer- 
tainly indicate distinct epochs in the advance of our knowledge 
of the subjects dealt with. 

It may not be without interest to briefl}" refer to a few of the 
subjects that have occupied his attention. To even mention 
them all would be a very serious undertakini^-, such has been the 
untiring- energy which Dr. Sorby has shown all through his life. 
It can be safely said that he has never been idle, and when the 
writer had the pleasure of spending some hours with him only a 
few days ago, he was much impressed with the Doctor's energy — 
certainl)' far exceeding that of many men half-a-century his 
junior. And although he is in his eightieth year, and unable 
to walk, through an unfortunate series of accidents, he still 
spends many more hours a day at his work than do most 
* business '-men, and he has as many ' irons in the fire ' as ever. 

His first papers dealt with animal and vegetable chemistry, 
and were published so long ago as 1847. About the same time, 
sheltering from a shower of rain in a quarry near Handsworth, 
his attention was attracted to what he afterwards called ' current 
structure,' viz., structures produced in stratified rocks by the 
action of currents present during their deposition. Since then 
many more papers on the subject have appeared from his pen, 
some of them being of a most important character. 

It is in connection with his work with^he microscope that 
Dr. Sorby is best known. His first piece of microscopical 
work had reference to the small shells of the so-called ' Bridling- 
ton Crag.' About the same time he made the acquaintance of 
the late Prof. Williamson, then practising as a surgeon in 
Manchester. Williamson showed him his collection of sections 
of fossil wood, teeth, bones, etc., and explained how they were 
made. In these Dr. Sorby found new fields for work, and in 
1849 it occurred to him that much might be done by applying 
a similar method to the structure of rocks. He was the first 
to prepare transparent microscopic sections of rocks. Not 
unnaturally his earlier efforts were laughed at — had not Saussure 
stated that mountains must not be examined with microscopes 
Our present knowledge of the structure of rocks, however, is 
largely due to the fact that Sorby studied on heedless of his 


Prominent Yorkshire Workers — Henry Clifton Sorhy. 139 

In the following- year, 1850, the first of a lengthy series of 
papers on the microscopic structure of rocks appeared, and 
dealt with the Calcareous Grit at Scarborough, and even at that 
period practically all the methods of examining rock sections 
known to-day had been developed by Dr. Sorby. 

A year later some papers in the Quarterly Journal of the 
'Geological Society, dealing with slaty cleavage, directed his 
attention to that subject. Up to that time various theories had 
been advanced to account for this structure, and at the Museum 
of Practical Geology an experiment was made which ' proved ' 
that cleavage was ' due to the action of weak electric currents 
passing through deposits ! ' The late Sir Henry de la Beche 
told Sorby that the question had been thoroughly settled at 
the Museum. Still working on his own lines, however, Sorby 
■eventually demonstrated that ' slaty cleavage was due to 
mechanical pressure, acting in a peculiar way and developing- 
its characteristic structure in a plane perpendicular to it.' His 
paper or the subject was sent to the Geological Society, but 
the then President (Wm. Hopkins) had a theory of his own 
that cleavage was developed at an angle of 45 degrees to the 
pressure ! A leng^thy correspondence followed, and eventuall}' 
ithe paper was withdrawn and published elsewhere. Since that 
time Dr. Sorby has heard nothing of either Mr. Hopkins' or the 
.electric theory of slaty cleavage ! Work amongst the schistose 
icrystalline rocks was next taken up with good results. 

His examinations of thin sections of limestone rocks showed 
that a knowledge of the microscopic structure of shells, corals, 
.and other marine calcareous organisms was necessary before 
the rock sections could be properly understood. In this connec- 
tion it soon became evident that the question as to whether the 
shells were of calcite or aragonite was a matter of paramount 
importance. This subject has since been followed up by Prof. 
P. F. Kendall.* 

The microscopic structure of minerals then occupied his 
.attention, his work thereon being- such that on the formation of 
the Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland he was 
elected the first President. Sorby was the first to point out the 
existence in certain igneous rocks of what he called ' glass 
cavities,' analogous to ' fluid cavities,' only that when the 
crystalline minerals were formed they caught up a liquid which 
on cooling solidified into glass. It was thus proved that the 

* " Calcareous," Geol. Mag., Feb. 1888. 
jgo6 May i. 

140 Prominent Yorkshire Workers — Henry Cliflon Sorhy. 

minerals in these rocks crystallised out from a solvent in the 
state of g-lassy fusion. ' This fact at once settled the question, 
so long- disputed between the Wernerians and Huttonians.' 
These inclusions in minerals indicated whether the rocks had 
been formed by the action of water or of fusion or by the two 
combined under pressure. 

in 1858 he read a paper to the Geolog-ical Society- on ' The 
Microscopical Structure of Crystals, indicating the orig-in of 
minerals and rocks.' The late Leonard Horner, the onlv 
sur\i\ ing original Fellow, was in the chair, and after the paper 
was read stated that he had been a member of the Society ever 
since its foundation, but ' did not remember an)' paper having 
been read which drew so largely on their credulity,' the facts 
being so new and remarkable ! Sorby was also the first to 
point out that certain minerals contained liquid carbonic acid, 
and described its striking properties. 

The microscopical character of loose sand-grains then occu- 
pied his thought, and the}' were found to possess features having 
an important bearing upon the origin of certain sandstone 
rocks. Next followed his explanation of the so-called ' crystal- 
line sands,' which contain crystals of quartz due to the deposition 
of crystalline quartz around ordinary grains of sand which had 
acted as nuclei. A study of pseudomorphs — crystals in the 
form of one mineral, but with the chemical composition of 
another — resulted in many important discoveries. About i860 
he made a whole series of artificial pseudomorphs by the action 
of cold or highly-heated solutions. It was demonstrated that 
certain rocks, such as the Cleveland ironstone, ' were originally 
composed of carbonate of lime, but have been altered to 
carbonate of iron, the carbonate of lime having been dissolved, 
and carbonate of iron derived from the associated strata 
deposited in its place.'* 

Following on this line of research upon the structure of 
rocks, he eventually proved that there is a direct correlation 
between mechanical pressure and certain kinds of chemical 
action, and gave the results of his work in a paper to the Royal 
Society, which formed the Bakerian Lecture for 1863. 

I^xperiments on the freezing point of water and on the ex- 
pansion of water and saline solutions at high temperatures 

* In connection witli tlic ("inishofouuli nicclini;' ot" the N'orksliii-c 
Xatmvilists' Union, to he lu-lil in Antriisl next, the cjiicstion of the origin 
of the Clevehmd Ifonslone is to he liisciissed. Dr. Sorhy has kindly 
ajCreed to contribute a paper on the subject on that occasion. 


Protnincnt Yorkshire Workers — Henry Clifton Sorby. 141 

followed, by the aid of which it was possible to calculate the 
approximate temperature at which certain minerals had been 
formed in Nature. 

From the foregoing notes it will be seen how deeply indebted 
present-day g-eologfists are to Sorby's pioneer work in reg-ard to 
the microscopic structure of rocks. In fact, a study of Dr. 
Sorby's work is almost an epitome of the history of geological 
science in recent years.* So long ago as 1872 the Dutch 
Society of Science awarded him the first large gold Boerhaave 
medal for hax'ing done more than anyone else to advance the 
sciences of geology and mineralogy during the preceding 
twenty years. 

From the study of the structure of rocks followed that of 
meteorites, and in order to properly consider the latter an 
investigation of artificial iron was started. This was in 1863, 
and in the following 3^ear a paper was read to the British 
Association on the subject, the full economical value of which 
remained unrecognised for over twenty years. In 1887, however, 
the Iron and Steel Institute appointed Dr. Percy, Sir Henry 
Bessemer, and Dr. Sorby to decide upon the best method of 
illustrating a complete paper on the subject. Since then the 
importance of a microscopical investigation of iron and steel 
has been generally recognised. ' In those early days,' writes Dr. 
Sorby, ' if a railway accident had occurred, and I had suggested 
that the company should take up a rail and have it examined 
with the microscope, I should have been looked upon as a fit man 
to send to an asylum. But that is what is now being done.' 
What Dr. Sorby proved was that various kinds of iron and 
steel consist of varying mixtures of well-defined substances, 
and that their structure is in many respects similar to that of 
igneous rocks. 

Following this much work was accomplished in connection 
with blow-pipe chemistry, and he showed that much could be 
learned by studying the microscopical character of the crystals 
deposited in blow-pipe beads allowed to cool very slowly over a 

Continual work with the microscope, particularly relating to 
the study of meteorites, led to several improvements being 
made in connection with the instruments. He invented the 
spectrum microscope, with a new arrangement to get what is 

* In the 'list of authorities' in Geikie's 'Text-book of Geology" Dr. 
Sorby is responsible for more references than is any other author. He is 
also one of those included in Geikie's ' Founders of Geology.' 

igo6 May i. 

14- Proin'incnl Yorkshire Workers -Ilcnry Clifton Sorbv. 

called ' direct vision.' Then followed ieiij,'"th\' researches upon 
various branches of enquiry in which colour plays a part — about 
forty papers being- written on these subjects. In these the 
colouring matters of human hair and of birds' feathers, the 
pigments in birds' eg-g^s, and the numerous colouring matters 
met with in almost every group of plants, were dealt with. 
From these it was an easy step to the detection of blood stains, 
work whicli has since proved exceeding-ly useful in connection 
with criminal investigation. The microscopical examination of 
sewage also followed, and, like most of Dr. Sorby's work, with 
most useful results from an economical point of view. 

From 1879, and until his accident a few years ago, Dr. Sorby 
lived about five months ot each year in his yacht the 'Glimpse.' 
This naturally necessitated a change in his work. On board 
the ' Glimpse ' investigations were carried on in connection with 
the seas and estuaries, and their animal and plant and inorganic 
contents. The results of some of these investigations have 
appeared and are appearing in the Victoria County Histories 
(Essex, Kent, and Suffolk). In addition to paying- attention to 
meteorology, the colour of the sea and sky, and taking observa- 
tions extending over several years on the temperature of seas 
and estuaries and the amount of salt present in the water, he 
collected and preserved various marine objects. The colouring 
matters of these were studied, and extensive experiments made 
as to the best methods of preserving both the organisms and 
their colours. Details of these have already been contributed 
to this Journal by Dr. Sorby.* More recently, attempts to shew 
both marine animals and plants as transparent lantern slides 
have met with great success. 

In the Thames, Dr. Sorby has spent much time studying the 
changes which take place in connection with the sand-banks in 
the estuary and other changes which take place. In connection 
with the Royal Commission on the drainage, he in 1882 occupied 
seven hours a day for 240 days in studying the Thames. 

Thus in matters geological, physiographical, biographical, 
physiological, botanical, and hydrographical has Dr. Sorby 
worked, and worked well. Hut these are b\' no means the only 
subjects which have occupied his attention. His researches 
relating- to the changes in the \ icinity of the Isle of Thanet 
necessitated his ac(]uaintance with archa'ological niatti-rs. Hi- 

' 'Oil till' I'icscrvaliuii of Mariiir Animals.' ' XaUiialisl,' .\ov., 1903, 
PP- 4.17-440- 


Promiiioii Yorksliire Workers — Henry Clif/oii Sorbv. 143 

examined Roman, Saxon, and Norman building^s, and this led 
to a detailed study of the structure of building materials and 
experiments thereon. The dimensions of bricks used in the 
buildings of various periods were also carefully worked out. 

Whilst at work on Norman and Saxon architecture he 
examined various earh' illustrated manuscripts in the British 
Museum and elsewhere. These showed a varying- length of 
unit used by the scribes in making manuscripts, a knowledge 
of which Sorby has shown to be of value in ascertaining where 
the manuscripts were prepared. ' Some of the early Irish 
scribes seem to have used the old Greek foot. Other manu- 
scripts are on the scale of our present English foot, which was 
used extensively in Saxon times. Very early manuscripts, 
probably made in Italy, are written to the scale of the old 
Roman foot ; whereas certain Continental manuscripts are 
written on the scale of the much larger old French foot.' 

This archceological work led Dr. Sorby to study early 
cosmogony and geography, and also the archaeology of natural 
history, in order to explain the origin of ideas with regard to a 
great number of the more or less mythological animals met with 
in early art. To carry out this thoroughly, a knowledge of the 
early Egyptian hieroglyphic language was necessary, and in his 
characteristically thorough manner, this was mastered. He has 
gathered together a vast collection of most of the original 
works of importance bearing on the subject, from the earliest 
period down to mediaeval times, and he hopes that their study 
will lead to important conclusions in connection with the history 
of science and art 

Such is a brief summar}'' of the principal lines of investig"a- 
tion which ha\'e occupied the attention of Dr. Sorby, who is 
yet as hard at work as ever. In addition to the work for the 
Victoria County Histories, and the other items referred to, he 
is at present busy applying quantitative methods to the study of 
the structure of almost every geological formation, a work which, 
when completed, will unquestionably hold a foremost position 
amongst the many fine achievements that stand to his credit. 

It is only natural that one who has done so much for science 
should be recognised b}- the scientific world. Honours have 
deservedly been showered upon him from all parts. He was 
elected a Fellow of the Geological Society in 1853, a Fellow 
of the Royal Society in 1857, a corresponding- member of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and of the 
Lyceum of Natural History of New York in 1858, a member 

1906 May I. 

144 Proniiiicn/ Yorkshire Workers —Hctirv Clifton Sorby. 

of the Imperial Miiieralojj^ical Society of St. Petersburii;- in 1862, 
an honorary member of the Manchester Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society in 1869, and a Foreij^n member of the Royal 
Dutch Society of Science in 1872, and he is a member of the 
Academy of L}nxes of Rome, Foreign member of the Micro- 
scopical Society of Brussels, and of the American Academy 
ot Arts and Sciences, honorary member of the Natural History- 
Society of Torquay, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and 
of the Zoological and of the Linnean Societies. In 1879 the 
degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by the University 
of Cambridg-e. 

The Geological Society awarded to him the VVollaston 
Medal in 1869 ; in 1872 he received the first large gold Boer- 
haave medal issued by the Dutch Society of Science ; and in 
1874 he received a Royal medal from the Royal Society of 
London. \ 

He has been through the Presidential Chair of several 
important societies. In 1878-80 he was president of the 
Geological Societ}' of London. He was the first president of 
the Mineralogical Society, and president of the Microscopical 
Society of Great Britain and Ireland in 1875- 1878, and of the 
Geological Section of the British Association in 1880. He was 
the first to occup\' the presidential chair of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, as at present constituted. In 1852, 1870-1-2, 
1879, 1894, 1897, and 1898 he was elected president of the 
Literary and Philosophical Society in his native city, Sheffield, a 
city which has greatly benefitted by his presence therein. A 
few years ago the Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society 
presented him with a handsome portrait of himself, in com- 
memoration of his fifty years connection with the Society. 
This was painted by Mrs. M. L. Waller, and by the kindness 
of the publishers of this journal, we are able to give each of 
our readers an excellent though small copy of this (plate XIII.). 
In February last a replica of the portrait painted by Mrs. 
Waller was presented to the Sheffield University, of which Dr. 
Sorby is one of the founders and has taken such a practical 
interest in since its foundation. We can only hope that Dr. 
.Sorby may long be spared to continue his useful work. — T. S. 

(The list of Memoirs, etc., by Dr. Sorby will appear in our 
next issue). 


I 111-: .V ( r IK. I LIST. ivon. 

— — lll^Ii^^'" 


Fig. 2. 

FiR. 3. 

\'\k. .«. 

Yorkshire Bats. 

Fiir. 5. 



(plate XIV.) 


]\'nrsbi-ouf;h Bridge, Barnsley. 

Probably the personal acquaintance of man)- of the readers of 
the ' Naturalist ' with bats is no greater than has been afforded 
by occasional g^limpses of these creatures flitting about at dusk 
of a summer's day, and a few notes on them when under closer 
observation may consequently be of some interest. 

Bats are highly developed animals, so much so that Linnaeus 
was led to give them a place in his highest order of the 
Mammalia, the Primates, along with Man and the Apes ; nor is 
their position very materially altered in our present classification, 
though they are now ranked as the first sub-order of the second 
great order Carnaria, instead of the last sub-order of the first 
order Primates. 

Classification is principally based on physical structure, but 
broadly speaking as the scale of animal life is ascended, we 
find a gradual development of mind and senses, as well as 
a structural development. 

It is, then, a subject worthy of attention to try to ascertain 
if bats exhibit that development of the senses which their high 
position in the scale of animal life would lead us to expect. 

Before trying to estimate the development of any animal, 
we should try to dispossess our mind of the idea that every 
physical and mental power is highly developed or otherwise just 
in proportion to its approximation to our own. 

As the focus of the eye must be proportionate to the size of 
a creature, so must its other senses and mental powers be of 
that * focus ' which will be most useful to their possessor. 
Milton's words apply not only to man, but to all creatures : — 

' Not to know at large of thing-s remote from use, obscure and 
Rut to know that which before us lies in daily life, 
Is the prime wisdom.' 

Thus we should not call a dog more intelligent than a sheep 
merely because it understands a few words which we may say to 
it. The mountain sheep knows what the weather will be for 
many hoiu's in advance, and ability in one direction must be set 
against ability in another. Nor is the sight of a cheese mite 
better than your sight or mine, although it can see its fellow. It 

1906 May I. 

14O W'lii taker : The Dcvclopnioit of flic Senses in Ihits. 

IS only the focus that is dilTereiU. Kach creature sees and 
knows what it is most needful that it should see and know. 

These facts we must try to bear in mind whilst briefly 
reviewing the senses as exhibited in the Cheiroptera. 

First, let us take hearing. This sense appears to be highly 
developed in the creatures under our notice. When a bat is 
placed in a cage or box (especiall} if it be a cardboard one) it is 
interesting to touch the outside at any point lightly with one 
finger, after it has been undisturbed for some time, and to note 
the start the little occupant will give, and the rapidity with 
which it will turn its head towards the place from whence the 
sound came. If the finger be drawn slowly backwards and 
forwards, the uneasiness of the bat is still greater. 

In captivity, bats take some little time to get accustomed to 
the various household sounds. A Noctule Bat {V. noctiila) 
which I kept in my office for some time last summer, became 
accustomed to most sounds after a few days, and took little or 
no notice of them ; but for some reason which I cannot even 
surmise, as long as I kept it it always started and displayed 
considerable uneasiness at the sound of tearing paper, though it 
would quite disregard many much louder noises. During a 
thunder-storm I observed it, and found that the most sudden 
and violent concussions did not appear to cause it uneasiness. 

The voices of persons in ordinary conversation it never 
seemed to take much notice of, but a chirruping or squeaking 
noise made by drawing in the air through one's closed lips 
would attract its attention at once, and this was the sound I 
always made to it when feeding it, and to which it became so 
accustomed after a few days that it would wake up and come 
quickly crawling to the cage door as soon as anyone made the 

A low note on the piano or organ it scarcely appeared to 
notice, but a high one would attract its attention at once. This, 
of course, is exactly what one would be led to expect from the 
notes or noises produced by bats themselves, for the noises 
made b}' any creature are of course always of the pitch and 
strength best adapted to its own hearing and the hearing of its 
fellows, and consequently can always be taken as a clue to the 
scope of the hearing powers. Now the note of bats is 
exceedingly high in pitch, so much so in fact, that the sound 
has been comjjared b\- the Rev. J. G. Wood to that produced 
by drawing a scratchy slate pencil, held vertically, over a slate ; 
only, he sa}s, the noise of i)ats is several octaves higher. 


Wliiltikcr : T/ie Dcvt'lopnwii/ a/ //w Senses in liti/s. i47 

All these thing's point to the conclusion that a bat's sense of 
hearinj^ is adapted to sounds of a much higher pitch than our 
own and than that of most animals. Probably bats can plainly 
hear, and locate with precision, many sounds which, on account 
of their hig-h pitch, we either could i*ot detect at all, or could 
do so only in such an imperfect way as to be afforded no clue as 
to the direction from whence the sound came. COn the other 
hand, it is probable that a low-pitched sound, even though of 
great volume, may be outside the scope of a bat's hearing, and 
the sound of thunder be less obtrusive to it than the high note 
of a violin string. 

Now, as all senses are so developed as to be of the greatest 
possible use to their possessor, it follows that the sounds which 
it is most important for a bat to hear are ones of very high pitch 
indeed, and it is not improbable that its hearing may assist it in 
search of food, and the sound produced by the most minute 
gnats and other insects be plainly audible to it. 

In matters of iasle the bat is somewhat of an epicure, and 
holds decided likes and dislikes with regard to its food, for not 
only is one kind of food preferred to another, but different 
indi\ iduals show different fancies, and whilst one bat in captivity 
will feed readily on raw beef, another specimen of the same 
species cannot be induced to touch it. 

All our British bats of which I have any knowledge show a 
g-reat weakness for mealworms, the larva of the common Meal 
Beetle {Tenebrio molitor), and will go on eating these, evidently 
because they like the taste so much, after they have so far 
satisfied their hunger that other ordinary welcome food would 
be rejected. This is the more remarkable, as mealworms are 
certainly not a food procurable by bats in a natural state. 
Insectivorous birds share the same weakness, as all bird-fanciers 
know, so that there appears to be a strong concensus of opinion 
that mealworms are par excellence as an article of diet — " tie 
gustabtis noil dispiitandeni." 

One day I was feeding a Pipistrelle Bat {Vesperugo pipis- 
trellus) with some moths, and after giving it several different 
species ( M. Jitictata, M. slrigilis, A. basilinea, and M. brassicas, 
&c.), I offered it a Magpie -Moth {Abraxus grossnlariala). It 
took a good bite at this, and then spat it out, and backed away 
to the far side of its cage, coughing and spluttering in the most 
ludicrous manner ; and moreover, it was some little time before 
it would trust me sufficiently to take even a mealworm from my 
fingers, so bad an impression had the taste oi ffrnssulariala made 

1906 May I. 

i4i^ ^Vfii/dkcr : The Development of tJic Senses in Bals. 

upon it. Here ai^ain we ha\e an interesting^ parallel between 
the taste of birds and bats, for, so far as 1 know, ^s^fossulnriafa 
is one of the very few moths which insectixorous birds refuse to 

I have never made any experiments to try to determine the 
extent to which the sense of smell is developed in bats. 

The sense of touch, or perhaps I should say some nervous 
sense akin to it, is most incomprehensible, and probabK' witliout 
parallel in the animal kino^dom. 

Having read of experiments conducted by several eminent 
scientists, who have blinded bats by the coniplete removal of 
their eyes, and found that they were still able to direct their course 
when flyingf, even in a strangle place, so as never to come in 
contact with any obstacle, and seemed, in fact, to be able to 
recognise the nature and locality of their surrounding's quite 
independently of sight, I thought it would be most interesting 
to repeat the experiment, and give my own results. 

Accordingly 1 took a Reddish Gray, or Natterer's Bat 
{I'esperiilio natiereri, see Plate XIV., fig. i), and covered its 
closed e}es carefully with wax, and after some little difficulty satis- 
fied myself that I had rendered it for the time being, to all intents 
and purposes, ' stone ' blind. I then liberated it in a room in 
which it had not been before, and was not only quite unfamiliar 
with its size and shape, but also with the position of the gas 
chandeliers, of which there were two, chairs, tables, and other 
furniture. I often allow bats to exercise themselves in this 
room, and their usual behaviour is to circle round close to the 

The behaviour of this temporarily blinded bat was somewhat 
diflFerent. When released it commenced to fly in a rather slow 
and hesitating manner, but with rapidly-growing confidence. 
It went first straight for the closed door, and, I thought, was 
about to fly right against it, but it suddenly turned itself when 
but a few inches off, and hovered slowly once or twice along the 
top edge and down the side, still without touching, but following, 
1 feel convinced, the slight draught of air admitted. Having 
apparently satisfied itself that there was no exit large enough 
for it there, it turned round, and flew the length of the room, 
straight for the fireplace, still, 1 believe, following the draught. 
When it got near the fire it turned, warned, no doubt, by the 
heat, and then commenced to fly slowly and cautiously about 
the room at a height of about six inches from the floor, and 
I noticed it repeatedly pause and hover in front of the wainscote 


Whitaker : The Development of the Senses in Bats. 149 

at one point where it had sprung slig-htly from the wall and 
admitted a distinct current of air. Although it flew fairly 
quickly, and kept passing" underneath the chairs, of which 
there were over a dozen in the room, it never once, so far as I 
could see by lying down to watch it, even touched anything with 
the tip of its wings. An attempt on my part to catch it caused 
it to fly up to the ceiling, and just below this it commenced 
circling round and round rapidly, repeatedly dipping to pass 
under a beam crossing the centre of the ceiling. I tried holding 
a walking-stick perfectly still in its path, but it would swerve 
suddenly when but a few inches from it. After fl,ying for over 
twenty minutes it suddenly settled on a chain supporting one of 
the weights on the gas chandelier, and that it could settle in 
such a place is in itself a wonderful proof of the accuracy of 
this ' s?econd sight." 

I stood on a chair and approached my hand very slowly in 
order to catch it again, but when my hand was within about a 
foot of it, it commenced to turn its head nervously and jerkily 
from side to side (an action characteristic of a bat when dis- 
turbed), and flew again before I could get hold of it. 

Eventually I was obliged to get out my butterfly net to 
catch it, and even then had some little difficulty — and by the 
way, netting bats indoors is decidedh' exciting, and apt to 
become rather an expensive amusement, and one productive of 
serious domestic disturbances should an ill-judged stroke sweep 
half-a-hundredweight of best mixed crockery off" the mantel- 

When I caught my bat again I found the wax still adhering 
properly and quite covering the eyes. Although the little fellow 
had got on so well without the use of his eyesight, he never- 
theless seemed glad when I removed the wax and he got it 
back again, and I was amused to note how long he stood by the 
side of the water pot in his cage, alternately dipping his face in 
the water and scratching it. 

This experiment and many others which have been made 
with similar result seem to indicate that in the deep caverns 
and other pitch-dark places to which many kind of bats resort 
for hiding, they are guided by some sense other than sight. 
The opinion arrived at by Cuvier, and now generally accepted, 
is that it is an abnormal development of the sense of touch, 
based, I should be inclined to say, upon an almost incompre- 
hensibly acute perception of atmospherical currents, vibrations, 
and resistence, and residing, it is believed, in the delicate 

1906 May I. 

150 W'hildkcr : TJtc Devclopincnf of the Srnscs i)i Bdts. 

expanse of the wing- membranes —the wing's being- literally a 
mass of nerves. In support of this, it is worth noting; that 
those species which seek the darkest retreats in the daytime, 
and fly the latest at nig^ht, are furnished not only with larg-e and 
sensitive ear membranes, but have additional developments of 
sensitised skin which appears expressly desig-ned to aid this 
mvsterious sense. This additional development of sensitive 
skin, which is frequently of a leaf-like shape, is undoubtedly 
placed in the position where it will be of most use, /.<'., on the 
top of the nose, so that these creatures, at least, can safely be 
advised to follow their noses when in a dark place. 

Whatever explanation be accepted of the power of bats 
to recog-nise the nature and locality of objects independently of 
sig^ht, it is a wonderful thing", for all other living- creatures, so 
far as we know, derive such impressions almost exclusively 
through the medium of light and reflection. That this is not 
so with bats is easily shown. As their early prog-enitors became 
more and more nocturnal in habits, and darker retreats came to 
be soug-ht in the daytime, more acute perception of objects in 
the dark became necessary to them. If lig-ht had played any 
part in this essential perceptive development, the eyes and 
optical nerves already sensitised to it would have been de- 
veloped to the required degree, and not the nerves in other 
parts of the body, sensitive not to light but to touch. 

It is most difficult to estimate to what extent the true eye- 
sight of bats is developed, the sense we haxe just been con- 
sidering and classed with touch approximating so closely in the 
impressions it conveys to the sense of sight, that, although we 
know that a bat has received certain knowledge of its surround- 
ings, it is often very difficult to say through which medium the 
impression has been conveyed to it. Nevertheless, a bat has 
eyes and can see, and the saying 'as blind as a bat' is 
certainlv anything but a happy one, for it is almost certain that 
it is, partly at least, by sight that a bat is enabled to catch the 
minute insects on which it feeds, when fl\ing rapidl\ , in ainiost 
total darkness. 

Still it is strange, very strange, that whilst in the case of 
niost nocturnal animals the eyes have become exceptioiially 
large and convex in order to take in as much lig^ht as possible, 
in the case of bats, where one would have looked especially for 
such development, the eyes have become reduced to the most 
minute size. We can understand the similar paradox in the 
case of the mole, for in its subterranean workings it can rely 


Northern Nc%vs. 151 

mainly vipon touch and hearing, and large eyes would obviously 
be a disadvantage to it in its burrowing operations. 

There is no doubt that a bat uses its true eyesight 
to some extent. In captivity I have observed one display 
considerable uneasiness at the flashes of lightning during a 
thunder-storm. It would start at each flash, and upon an 
unusually bright one it once or twice threw one wing quickly 
over its face, and then gradually withdrew it. Of the thunder 
it seemed to take no notice, as before mentioned. 

A Lesser Horseshoe Bat {Rhiiiolophus hipposiderus, see Plate 
XIV., figs. 2-3) which I allowed to fly about in a room with a 
large mirror about six feet by four at one end, kept persistently 
flying at the mirror, and though it never actually touched it, it 
hovered in front of it in such a way as to indicate clearh* that it 
was in some way deceived by it. This is the more curious, as 
the window of a room, which one would naturally have thought 
would be the more deceptive of the two, never seems to deceive 
a bat at all, though I have known one eff'ect a very speedy 
escape through a small hole in the pane of a wash-house 
window. By swinging round an artificial fly at the end of a 
long fishing line and rod, I have attracted several Noctule 
Bats, which circled round ten or a dozen times, closeh' following 
the fly, and probably guided by sight. 

The strong predilection of bats for dark corners is also 
suggestive. In one case which came under my observation this 
instinct was attended with disastrous results. A Long-eared 
Bat [Plecoitis aiiritus, see Plate XIV.., fig. 4) which I had 
obtained one day, was placed, on my arrival at home, in the 
first receptacle handy, which happened to be a box containing 
several large shells. In obedience to its usual desire to try to 
get into the darkest corner, the bat squeezed itself so far into 
one of the shells as to be unable to extricate itself again, so that 
on opening the box a few hours later I found it dead, and 
wedged so firmly in the shell that I had difficulty in withdrawing 
it (see Plate XIV., fig. 5). 

This brief review seems to indicate that the Cheiroptera have 
all the five senses well developed. The photographs, reproduced 
on Plate XIV., have very kindly been taken for me by my friend 
Mr. E. H. Wakefield. 

Mr. Edgar R. Waite, formerly of Leeds, and at one time Editor of the 
Naturalist, and recently Zoologist at the Australian Museum, Sydne}-, has 
been appointed Curator of the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, New 

igo6 May i. 


(plate XV.) 


So far as at present known, the Belemnites found in the Chalk 
of Yorkshire are Hmited to five forms — 

Actinocamax o-niiinla/its (De Blainville). Micrastcr cor- 

angtiinum zone to A. quadra/ us zone. 
Actinocamax vcrus Miller. M. coi'-au_^uinum zone to A. 

quadratiis zone. 
Actinocamax grossouvrci Janet. The subject of a special 

note by Mr. Crick (page 155.) 
.Actinocamax plenus (De Bainville). A. plcnus zone. 
Belemnites minimus (Sowerby ex Lister). Red Chalk. 

B. minimus, the common fossil in the Red Chalk, can easily 
be found in those beds as exposed on the shore at low tide under 
the Speeton Cliffs. The shape and lenj^th of this species \ aries 
considerably with ai^e. 

A. pletiiis, lon^" known from the zone to which it g-ives its 
name, from Lincolnshire to the South of Eni^land, has only 
recently been found in Yorkshire. (C. Thompson, Naturalist, 
July, 1905, p. 202.) 

A. verus, usually common in the Uintacrinus band of the 
Marsupites zone in the South of England and for many years 
known only from the top of the Micraster cor-auouinum zone of 
Micheldever in Hampshire and Northfleet in Kent, was found 
by Dr. Rowe in the same position at Walmer in Kent in 1903. 
In Yorkshire, thoug-h rare numerically, it has a much more 
extended range vertically, and Dr. Rowe and 1 hav^e collected it 
on the Yorkshire coast from within fifty feet of the flinty chalk 
of the Micraster cor-angu in u?n zone to the south of High Stacks, 
right through the Marsupites and A. quadratns zones to within 
25 feet of the highest part of the latter zone as exposed at 
Sewerby Cliff. We did not, howexer, tind it in the successively 
higher quadratns chalk as exposed in the pits between Sewerby 
and Ruston Parva. Mr. Mortimer showed us an undoubted 
example of this form, which he says came from the flinty chalk 
of Fimber. This gives an undoubted range of 650 feet for A. 
verus, a range in striking contast to that of 68 feet at Margate, 

Till: .\.l n l< II.ISI . I'XXi. 




1. Actlnocainax plenus. .1. pUiuis-/.inH-. HIik-UcH Hill I'ii., Knit. H.M. 

C. S-jO;. 

2. Actlnocainax granulatus. .Miinialcr ii>i-itnf;uiiiniii-y.<mv. XinililU .t, H.M. 

C. .s.V).i. 

3. Actinocamax xranulatus. Marsnt^iUsAy.uul lahovc tlic Bcilucll liiu-i. Kitlc Hints 

M.iiK'.ii"-. H.M.,C. 7J-.^ 

4. 5. Actinocamax verus. i'iiiliiiiiiius-h,uu\ (below the BiiUvfll lintl. H(ii,m\ Hay 

M.uMaH'. HM., C. 7^f>). 
0. Belemnltes minimus. Kl'<1 Cli.ilk, Siicuion, Voiksliin-. H.M., C. jo.n. 

Sherborn: On the Bclcmnites of the Chalk of Yorkshire. 153 

which, so far as is known at present, is the g"reatest measured 
thickness for this Belemnite in the South of Eng-land. 

A.grmuilatiis, known only from the upper part of the Micras- 
ter cor-angninuni zone at Gravesend in Kent, passes throug"h 
the Marsiipites zone, where it is common, and occurs somewhat 
abundantly in the lower 150 feet of the A. quadratus zone in the 
South of Engfland. In Yorkshire, not only is it found in the 
flinty base of the M. cor-anguinum zone at Fimber (Mortimer : 
See Rowe, Proc. Geol. Assoc, XVIII. (4), 1904, p. 270), but 
Dr. Rowe and I have traced it rig-ht through the remainder 
of this zone on the Yorkshire coast, up through the zone of 
Marsiipites to the top of the highest quadratus chalk as exposed 
at Sewerby. Further than this, we have followed it successively 
throug'h the higher beds of this zone from Bessingby to 
Carnaby, Burton Agnes and Ruston Parva, thus demonstrating" 
an unbroken range in Yorkshire for this form of about 800 feet, 
or nearly five times as great a rang^e as known in Sussex, 
hitherto the greatest known. Moreover, throughout the whole 
of this great thickness it is clear that it is only one form, and 
the slow evolution of the species can be traced, step by step, 
until at last we are at the point, so to speak, of the next form, 
the so-called species Actinocainax quadratus, which g"ives its 
name to the zone. But a true specimen of the deep and quad- 
rate alveolated form known as A. qjiadratus has not yet been 
found in Yorkshire ; and if, as is probable, that Ruston Parva 
gives us the highest part of the quadratus zone which has 
escaped denudation in the county, it never will be found, for the 
true quadratus occurred in the hig'her beds which have long* 
since been destroyed 

For further particulars of Yorkshire Chalk Belemnites, that 
is the two latter forms, the reader must refer to the paper 
mentioned above (Rowe, Proc. Geol. Assoc, XVIII. (4), 1904, 
pp. 193-296), where the whole of the White Chalk and its fossils 
of the Yorkshire coast is described. I reproduce here the figure 
and legend there given of the alveolar ends of A. granulatus, 
showing the progressive deepening of the alveolar cavity as 
the belemnite ascends in the zones. I also give figures of the five 
forms discussed for handy reference (plate XV.), and call 
attention to a remarkable deformed specimen of A. granulatus 
described by Mr. Crick in an appendix to Dr. Rowe's paper, 
and reproduced in the ' Naturalist' for May, 1904. 

1906 May I. 

154 Sherhoru : On flic Bclcviiiites of flw Chalk of Yorkshire. 

C I. — From the base ot the Micrtis/cr ror-aiii^nd/m/n-xoue, 

Hii^h Stacks. 
C. 2. — From the Micraster cor-angiiitmni-zow^., between High 

Stacks and South Sea Landing". 
C. 3. — From the upper part of the Micraster cor-uugiiinnni-Aow^^ 

west of South Sea Landing". 
U. — From Uiiitacrin iis-hund, between South Sea Landing and 

Danes' Dike. 
M. — ^From J/a fs?tpi/cs-ha.nd, west of Danes' Dike. 
Q. I. — From quadratus-zow^, Sewerby Cliff. 




























Parva. Q- 




\ u / 

Drawings of Alveolar-Ends of Actinocamax granutatus, showing- Progressive 
Deepening of the Alveolar Cavity as the Belemnite ascends in the Zones. 

(Measurements in uiilliinetres.) 

(By permission 0/ Dr. Roiue and the Council of the Geologists' Assoiiatioii.] 

Q. 2. — From (/iiadra/as-zone, Sewerby Cliff. 

Q. 3. — From (/nadra/i/s-zone, Sewerby Cliff. 

Bessing"by E. — ^From guadra/us-zone, East Bessing'by. 

Bessingby W. — From (/iiadra ins-zone, West Bessingby. 

Burton Agnes. From (/aadraius-zone at Burton .Agnes. 

Ruston Parva. -From (/ at Ruston Parva. 

Q. X. — Typical example of Aciiiiocamax qnadratus from the 
qtiadrai US-zone of Haniliam, Salisbury. This specimen 
shows the deep alveolus of the true quadraius form, 
and the cross-section of that cavity is of the typical 
quadrangular shape. 


77//-: xiriRtr.isr. i<m. 

Actinocamax Grossouvrei. Chalk {Miiynstir i(>i-iiiif;tiini(iii-y.oi\e). I-'iiulxM", N'tuksliirf. 
Ill the CdllcLtiiiii of Mr. J. K. Moiiiincr, Driffield, Yorksliire. Natural size. 

Kio. I. \'ciitral aspect. 
Vic. .;. Left lateral aspect. 

Fic. 3. Dorsal aspect. 

I'Ki. 4. Transverse section at ah iiid. 



(plate XVI.) 

G. C. CRICK, F.G.S. 

British Museum (Natural History). 

The interesting fossil which forms the subject of the present 
note belong-s to Mr. J. R. Mortimer, of Driffield, Yorkshire, to 
whom I am greatly indebted for the loan of the specimen. My 
thanks are also due to Mr. Sherborn for calling- my attention to 
it. Mr. Mortimer says the fossil was collected in 1863 close to 
Fimber, in Yorkshire, from the flinty chalk. This flinty chalk 
is assigned to the base ot the Micraster cof-angicimim zone by 
Dr. Rowe,* who records from it, besides other fossils, three 
■examples of Actinocamax granidatiis and an undoubted speci- 
men of Actinocamax veriis. 

The fossil under consideration is undoubtedly referable to 
the species which M. Janet t described in 1891 as Actinocamax 
Grossouvrei. The following is a summary of M. Janet's descrip- 
tion, which was based upon three specimens, from the Cretaceous 
rocks of France, exhibiting different stages of growth. 

The guard at an advanced stage of development is rather 
massive and much depressed, having, when viewed from a 
ventral aspect, its point of greatest width at about three-fourths 
of its length from the alveolar end ; from the point of greatest 
width it tapers gradually and regularly up to the alveolar 
extremity, whilst in the opposite direction it tapers much more 
rapidly and forms an ovoidal point. 

In the very young stages of development the transverse 
section is, as shown by fractures of the guard, quite circular, 
but with growth this section assumes a more and more flattened 
form. A medium-sized specimen presents in a ventral aspect a 
long and fusiform outline ; its point of greatest width is 
situated, as in an example at a more advanced stage of develop- 
ment, at about three-fourths of its length from the alveolar 
extremity, but from this point it decreases much more rapidly 
than in the older individual up to the level of the ovisac, | where 

* Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. xviii., part 4, Feb. 1904, pp. 251, 252. 

t Bull. Soc. g'^ol. France, st§r. 3, torn, xix.. No. 9, Nov. 1891, pp. 716- 
719, pi. xiv., fig-s. I, 2, 3, and text-figs. 2 and 3. 

X The ovisac is the small globular body at the apex of the phragmocone, 
and is therefore situated at the bottom of the alveolar cavity. 

KJ06 May I. 

156 Cnck : A Rare Fun-m of Actiuocamax [A. Grossouvrci). 

it has its least diameter ; from this level up to the border of the 
aheolus it enlarg-es slightly. 

None of M. Janet's specimens showed the ventral fissure 
quite clearly. They exhibited only a slii^ht indentation of the 
border of the alveolus proloni>^ed or not by a very slight and 
very short groove. 

The dorso-lateral grooves are not very deep, but wide and 
distinct, and extend over more than three-fourths of the length 
of the guard. 

The alveolus was preserved in only two of M. Janet's 
specimens. In one it was moderately deep, and its surface 
rendered irregular by radiating ridges ; in the other it was very 
smooth, without radiating stride or concentric ridges, onl)' very 
slightly excavated, and with a small but distinct pit in the 

The surface of the guard is smooth and without any granula- 
tion, ' but,' says M. Janet, ' the superficial layers have been, 
peeled off especially at the lower part of the ventral surface, so 
that near the extremit}- there is seen to appear the very oblique 
section of the concentric layers nearest the apical axis. The 
base of a coral which remains attached to one of our specimens 
proves that this alteration is not recent, and is due without 
doubt to the fact that in this part of the guard, as in the 
neighbourhood of the alveolus, calcification was less than in 
other parts.' 

'This alteration,' continues M. Janet, 'has caused to dis- 
appear, if howexer it ever existed, the mucronated point so 
clear in Belemnilella mucronata^ Aciinocamax ffnniii/d/us, and 
Actiuocamax subventricosus. ' 

Mr. Mortimer's specimen (PI. XVI., figs. 1-4) agrees very 
closely with M. Janet's largest example. For the sake of 
comparison, the dimensions of these two specimens are given 
in the following table ; the English specimen is obviously, how- 
ever, more incomplete anteriorly then the French example, 
because it presents no indication of the alveolus, and appears 
therefore to be somewhat shorter, although the other dimen- 
sions are almost the same. 

I-<nt^tli ill inillimclres 

W'litro-dorsal diameter at the most inflated part 
Transverse diameter at the most inflated part ... 
X'enlro-dorsal diameter at tlic narrowest jiart, 

/.('., at tile anterior end 
Transverse diameter at the narrowest pai-t, /.<■., 

at the anterior end ... 

Dimensions of 

Dimensions of 

M. Janet's 
largest cxami>le. 










Crick: A Rare Form of Actinocamax [A. Grossouvrei). 157 

The Yorkshire fossil is much depressed, especially its 
posterior half, and is slightly curved towards the dorsal surface 
(see fig". 2), just as is shown in the lateral aspect of M. Janet's 
example {he. cit., PI. XIV., fig. ic). Its anterior end is imper- 
fect, and shows no trace ot the alveolus. Its broad and not 
very deep dorso-lateral grooves are well shown (see figs. 2 
and 3), extending over fully three-fourths of its length. Its 
surface, where not eroded, is quite smooth, and its ventral 
portion exhibits the exfoliation of the superficial concentric 
layers, as mentioned by M. Janet in his largest specimen. In 
M. Janet's specimen, however, this exfoliation, doubtless result- 
ing as that author points out from the imperfect calcification of 
these layers, was most marked at the lower part of the ventral 
surface, but in the present example it does not extend so far 
back as the posterior extremity of the guard, and is due to the 
imperfect calcification of almost the whole of the ventral portion 
of the superficial layers. The calcified portions of these layers 
cover, therefore, only the dorsal surface, the sides, and the 
posterior part of the guard like successive sheaths, which are 
open over the greater part of the ventral surface. (Two of these 
sheaths are plainly visible in fig. i.) Possibly the present 
specimen had not reached such an advanced stage of develop- 
ment as M. Janet's largest example. 

The posterior part of M.Janet's examples was not sufficiently 
well preserved to show if the guard possessed a mucronated 
point, but though the point of the Yorkshire specimen is not 
quite perfect, there is enough to show that the guard, as 
Grossouvre* has already pointed out, was mucronated (see 
specially fig. 3) as in Belemnitella nmcronata Schlotheim, 5/).,t 
Actinocamax quadratus Blainville, sp.,\ and Actinoctunax siibven- 
tricosiis Wahlenberg sp.% 

As M. Janet observes Actinocamax Grossoxivrei most 
closely resembles Actinocamax subventricosus, Wahlenberg, sp. 

* Bull. Soc. geol. F"raiice, sen 3, vol. xxvii., No. 2, June, 1899, p. 129. 

t Taschenbuch fiir Mineralogie, torn, vii., 1813, p. iii. See also 
C. Schliiter, Palaeontographica, Bd. xxiv., p. 80, pi. Iv., figs. 1-12. 

X M«^m. sur les Belemnites, 1827, p. 62, pi. i., fig. 8. See also C. 
Schliiter, Palaeontographica, Bd. xxiv., p. 77, pi. liv., figs. 1-13 ; pi- liii-, 
figs. 20-25. 

§ Petrificata Telluris Suecana (Nova Acta Reg. Soc. Scient. Upsal., 
vol. viii., 1821), p. 80. See also C. Schluter^ Palaeontographica, Bd. xxiv., 
p. 75, pi. liii., figs. i-g. 

1906 May I. 

158 Crick: A Rare Form of Acliuocamax (.1. Grossoiivrei). 

\= AcfiiiocaiiKix maniDiillaftis Nilsson, -v/). *], but it differs 
from that species in having- the section of g^reatest diameter 
lower than in A. subvoitricosiis, in being- more depressed, in 
having- a shallower alveolus, in havingf the transverse section of 
the alveolar end somewhat trapezoidal instead of subtriangular, 
and in several other minor characters. 

M. Janet's larg^est specimen was found in the neig-Jibourhood 
of Beauvais (Oise), France, in the Marsupite chalk ; the second, 
a younger and more elong-ated form, was obtained from the 
mag-nesian chalk at Margny-les-Compi6g-ne (Oise), France ; 
whilst the third, a still young-er and more elong-ated form than 
the second, was collected at Beauvais at the same horizon as 
the larg-est specimen, tog-ether with Actinocamax vcrus and 
Marsupites ornatiis. 

In the paper to which reference has already been made, M. 
Janet t founded the species Actinocamax Toiicasi upon a sing-le 
specimen, which differed from Actinocamax Grossoiivrei in being- 
relatively much smaller at the alveolar end and much wider at 
its most inflated part, but M. Grossouvre| has since pointed out 
that yl. Grossouv re i and A. Toiicasi diXt. not distinct species, but 
extreme forms of the same type connected by a series of inter- 
mediate forms. 

In France, then, the species occurs in the Upper Santonian 
and the Lower Campanian. |[ 

Actinocamax Grossoiivrei is a widely distributed species ; it 
occurs in the north of France, in the north of Germany, and 
in Scania, but everywhere it appears to be very rare. M. 
Grossouvre,§ however, states that in the Pyrenean reg:ion, 
judg-ing- from the numerous frag-ments which have been found, 
it would appear to be relatively abundant. Wherever the 
species is found it occurs on the same horizon as Actinocamax 
granulatiis and Actinocamax venis. It is interesting- therefore 
to note that in Yorkshire also it is associated with the saiiie two 
species of Actinocamax. 

* I'ftrifical.'t Suc-caiui, 1S27, p. 10, pi. ii., tig-, z. .^ee also J. C". .Mobcrg-, 
Cephalopocierna i .Sveriges Kritsystem, pt. 2 (Sverig-. Geol. L'lidorsok., 
Afhandl., Ser. C, No. 73, 1885), p. 53, pi. v., fig-. 27 ; pi. vi., figs. 1-12. 

I Hull. See. gr«^ol. Fiance, s«^r. 3, vol. xix. , No. 9, .Nov., 1891, pp. 719, 720, 
pi. xi%-., figs. 4rt, b, c, and text-fig^. i. 

:;; Bull. .Soc. g-«^ol. France, sir. 3, vol. xxvii., \o. j, June, iSgg, pj). 
129, 130. 

Ji Ibid., p. 133. 

II See A. de (jrossouvie, ' RccheiTJies sur la craic supcM-icurc,' pi. i., 
fasc. 2, 1 90 1, pp. 796-801. 



3n nDemoriam. 

Born November gth^ jSj^, Died January 28tli, igo6. 

By the death of WiUiam Nelson, which took place at his 
residence at Crossgates, near Leeds, Yorkshire naturalists 
have lost a friend and companion — one of that sturdy band 
of working'-man naturalists, who, b}- their unwearying" activity 

William Nelson. 

and enthusiasm in the field, and by the influence of their personal 
example, have done so much to place, and to keep, the North of 
Eng-land in the fore-front of scientific research, and who — them- 
selves the ' hewers of wood and drawers of water ' (as he himself 
so happily put it) — have contributed larg'ely to the accumulation 
of the stores of facts upon which the more venturesome are able 

1906 May I. 

i6o /// Mciuon'am — William Nelson. 

to build the superstructures, more or less elaborate, which 
summarise the labours ot man}' workers. 

Our deceased friend was one of those lovable persons whose 
influence is magnetic and whose enthusiasm is largely instru- 
mental in drawing others into the field, and in this way it is to 
him in great measure that is owing the making of many 
proselytes, and the foundation of various societies, and of one 

Born in Leeds about 70 years ago, he learnt early to observe 
and to study the shells, the plants, the insects, and the birds 
of the eastern outskirts of the town, and in 1862 he was mainly 
instrumental in founding the East End Naturalists' Society, the 
lineal forerunner of the present Leeds Naturalists' Club. 

A currier by trade, he left Leeds about 1865 and settled in 
Birmingham for about seven or eight years, taking an active 
interest in the natural history of that town, the results of his 
work there being embodied in a published paper on ' The 
LinDucidcc of Birmingham.' 

It was not long after his return to Leeds that he — with three 
other conchologists — helped to found and was the first president 
of the Leeds Conchological Club, which afterwards, by a some- 
what natural process of evolution, became what is now the 
Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. The first 
president, he at various times filled all the other offices, and 
always continued to take a prominent part in the proceedings 
until the Society's headquarters .were removed to Manchester. 
The Leeds Conchological Club thereupon resumed its seperate 
existence, and in its proceedings and work Mr. Nelson con- 
tinued to join till near his end. 

In 1892 he was elected one of the ten Honorary Members of 
the Conchological Society. He was one of the compilers of its 
Official Catalogue of the British Land and Freshwater Mollusca. 

He was not, however, a prolific writer, and his scientific 
papers were but few in number. His excessive caution, 
amounting almost to timidity and to distrust of his own judg- 
ment, deterred him from publishing until he should feel that lie 
had completely verified and confirmed all his data. 

His scattered records and field notes were, however, more 
numerous, and it was in such papers as the ' Extracts from a 
Conchologist's Note-book,' which appeared at intervals in the 
Naturalist from 1891 to about 1900, that his literary st\ le most 
appropriately manifested itself, and levealed the true inward 
bent of his mind. 


In Memoricvji — William Cudworth. i6i 

He was pre-eminently a field-naturalist, and was the happy 
combination of one who took interest in all the objects seen in 
the country-side and of a specialist, his particular field of 
research being- the family Limnceido', which he studied and 
collected throughout his whole career, and of which he accumu- 
lated a very extensive and complete collection. 

As a man, his sturdy, well-knit, and thickset frame, with 
close-trimmed hair and full beard, and a fine round open 
countenance beaming with smiles, showing a genial and hearty 
disposition, was always a welcome sight to his friends, and his 
peculiarly and inimitable subtle, dry, and yet inoffensive 
humourous remarks always added a spice of genial interest 
to a naturalists' discussion. 

He was twice married, and leaves children of two families, 
one much older than the other. His first wife died in 1891, a 
year in which he took up his abode at Crossgates, in the 
immediate eastern outskirts of Leeds. 

For some time before his death he had been visibly failing 
in health. He was subject to heart weakness, which interfered 
much with his work and his recreation alike, and was also sub- 
ject to attacks of hemiplegia, to one of which he succumbed on 
the 28th of January this year. He was out collecting shells 
the day before, and was examining his captures during the 
day (Jan. 21st) on which he had the fatal stroke to which he 
succunibed a week later. — R. 

1 830- 1 906. 

On March 20th the Bradford Naturalists and ^Antiquaries lost 
one of their most enthusiastic members, William Cudworth, 
who died at the ripe age of seventy-five. Mr. Cudworth had 
been ailing for some time, and he was in anything but robust 
health when he attended the recent annual meeting- of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Bradford, where many of us 
saw him for the last time. 

Whilst on the staff of the Bnid/uni Observer, Mr. Cudworth 
developed a taste for Antiquarian reseach, and he subsequently 
published a number of books, &c., the most important being 
the ' Life and Correspondence of Abraham Sharp, the York- 
shire Mathematician and Astronomer,' (1889). He also wrote 

1906 May I. 


/// Mouoriam -Willi (lui Ciiilioorth. 

' Historical Notes on the Bradford Corporation,' 'Round about 
Bradford,' 'Rambles round Horton,' &c. In more recent years 
he developed a taste for ideology and natural history. In g-lacial 
g^eolog-y particularly he was a keen student, and read papers 
thereon to the Bradford Scientific Society. In July 1903, he con- 
tributed to this journal an article on ' Carboniferous Vegetation 

William Cudworth. 

near Bradford,' in which a description was j^iven of a line fossil 
tree and roots (Siirill<iri(i and Slignuiria) recently unearthed. 

Mr. Cudworth was perhaps best known from the interest 
he took in collecting" Roman and British Antiquities. Of the 
former period he gathered together a magnificent series of 
lamps, which is now in possession of a collector at Skipton. A 
well -illustrated catalogue of these lamps was prepared by Mr. 
Cudworth. Of British remains he had a fine series of implements 
from the ^'orkshire Wolds and Moors, and it is pleasing to 


Field Notes. 163 

record that these have found a permanent home in the Cart- 
wright Memorial Museum. In connection with this building" 
Mr. Cudworth took a great interest, and was a strong- advocate 
in favour of it being a museum devoted to local geology, 
natural history, and antiquities. He took a leading part in the 
formation of the Museums at Ilkley and Grassington, and was 
also instrumental in founding the Bradford Historical and 
Antiquarian Society, and for many years edited the Society's 

Not in Bradford only (his native place), but much farther 
afield, will his loss be felt. We are indebted to Mr. H, E. 
Wroot for the photograph accompanying these notes, as well as 
for some of the information. — T. S. 

Coecilioides acicula, &c., in East Yorks. — I have pleasure 
in recording another locality for Coecilioides acicula in this dis- 
trict.''' Yesterday I found three shells in a chalk pit in South- 
burn parish, about three miles from the pit in which I was 
fortunate enough to find the same species two years ago. I 
found quite a colon}' of Vitrea ciystallina and Vallonia piilchella 
associated with Coecilioides yesterday. — Miss L. F. Piercy, 
Driffield, April 3rd, iqo6. 


Hemerohius concinnus var. quadrifasciatus, near 
Sheffield. — Whilst collecting with Mr. L. S. Brady in a wood 
near Sheffield on the 29th June last I took specimens of the 
local Hejuerobms concinnus var. quadrifasciatus. As at Sled- 
mere, only the variety occurred, and as the form is so very 
different to the type, and so seldom occurs with it, notwith- 
standing its apparent structural identity, it is difficult to believe 
the forms do not represent two species. — Geo. T, Porritt, 
Huddersfield, March 5th, iqo6. 

Hemerohius marginatus at Grassington. — When working 
in the Grass Woods, Grassington, with Mr. J. W. Carter, on 
October 14th last, I was pleased to find a fine specimen of this 
pretty and rather rare species on a pine trunk. — Geo. T. 
Porritt, Huddersfield, March 5th, 1906. 

* See Fetch, "The Published Records of the Land and Fresh \V ate 
Molkisca of the East Riding-, witli Additions." — Trans. Hull Sci. and Field 
Nat. Club, \'ol. 3, No. 2, 1904, pp. 151-152. 

igo6 May i. 



(plate XII.) 

A REPORT recently issued by the Mitiration Committee of the 
British Ornitholoi^ists' Club* is an earnest attempt to trace the 
arrival and dispersal of our sprin^,'- mii^ratory and immig-ratory 
birds. The members of the British Ornithologists' Union and 
other competent ornitholog^ists throug-hout Eng-land and Wales, 
were supplied with specially prepared schedules for each week 
during- the time of the vernal migrations. By the kind per- 
mission of the Master and Elder Brethren of the Trinity 
House, the keepers of the lig-hthouses and lightships on the 
south and east coasts of Eng-land were allowed to fill in 
schedules and to forward the wings of birds killed at their 
lanterns. By this arrangement the birds were properly 
identified, and, as might be expected, the correct names were 
in marked contrast to those filled in by the lightkeepers, 
who described most species either as Wrens or Flycatchers. 
The work is intended to suppleiiient the work done b\- the 
British Association Migration Committee (so ably classified and 
edited by the President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 
Mr. W. Eagle Clarke), so far as the arrival and settling down 
ot the summer migrants is concerned. The British Association 
Committee relied almost entirely on the reports of the light- 
keepers for a number of years, not having had any land 
observers. In the present case the number of observers was 
172, who returned 738 schedules; and the keepers of 31 lights 
returned reports and wings. The total number of separate 
records reached 15,000. In tabulating the returns the Com- 
mittee has endeavoured to trace w-here the birds first entered 
the country ; the number of separate immigrations of each 
.species ; the dispersal and settling down of the various batches 
for nesting purposes ; and the passing forward of the remainder. 
In many cases they have disregarded the records of the very 
early stragglers, or other apparently abnormal arrivals, with the 
object of discovering the general trend of the immigrants. A 
map is devoted to almost every one of the twenty-nine species 
imder obserxation, while the immigrations and dispersal of the 

* Report oil llu' Iininijj;-i-ations of tlio Suininer Rosiilcnls in the Spriiij;- of 
1905, by (he Mij^r.itioii Committee of tlic British ()riiitlioloi>fist,s' Club. 
Edited by W. R. Og-ilvie-Craiit. W'ilhciby <Sc Co., I.oiidoii. 127 pp. and 
T,2 maps. 6s. net. (paper covei). 




Map showing the Migration of the House Martin, 1905. 

Boot! I : Bird Migration. 165 

Swallow and the Chiffchaff have each required two maps. A 
table g'iving- the weather and wind conditions prevailing- on each 
side of the Eng-lish Channel from April 7th to May loth, and 
showing at the same time the number of immig-rations noted each 
day, is a valuable addition. From these it would appear that the 
chief periods for mig^rants crossing" the Channel in 1905 were 
respectively April 9th to 12th, April 26th to 28th, and May 7th 
to 9th, almost irrespective of weather conditions. The map, 
reproduced by the permission of the committee (Plate XII.), 
illustrates the four chief immig-rations of the House Martin, 
as g-athered from the records for this species. Leaving- out 
the early stragg-lers (among-st which are Radnor April 3rd 
and Yorkshire April nth), it would appear that the House 
Martins arrived at certain parts of the south coast onlyy 
none having- been noted in the centre [i.e.^ the Hampshire 
and Dorset coasts) This was in g-reat contrast to that 
of the Swallow, which appeared to arrive in a broad front 
along- the whole of the south coast. The respective immi- 
g-rations of the House Martin made their appearance on the 
south coast of Eng-land as follows : April loth to i6th, April 
i8th and 19th, and April 24th to 27th. The birds forming; the 
above three immig-rations can be traced northwards throug-h the- 
country by the reference dates on the map. The fourth immig-ra- 
tion was noticed on the coasts of Sussex and Kent on May 7th 
and 8th, but the course of this last batch was not traceable 
further, and these birds probably passed forward to more 
northern breeding- g-rounds than Eng-land. 

Besides a short written account, a ' Chronolog-ical Summary 
of the Records ' is published with each species. We think it 
would have been better to have published all the reliable records- 
in full, and more particularly all those that are shown on the 
maps. These omissions render comparisojis and deductions 
very confusing- to the student. Using- selected records also is 
liable to g^ive a wrong; impression, and to bring- to mind the 
saying that 'Statistics can be made to prove anything-.' The 
altitude above sea level of the various observatory stations 
would have been an improvement. The bare description 
' Yorkshire,' for instance, is very vague, when we know that 
the arrival and settling down of many species is governed to a 
certain extent by the varied geographical ' face ' of our county 
of 'broad acres.' A list of those who made the observations 
would have added additional value and authority to the records. 
The committee, however, are to be complimented on the success. 

1906 May I. 

1 66 Northcni News. 

of their undertaking-, and on the manner in which they have 
dealt with such a larg^e amount of material. They expressly 
point out tliat the first year's work can only be regfarded as 
approximate, and that they are unwilling' to generalise to any 
great extent on the results. They desire to carry on the work 
for a number of years, and hope to take in hand the autumn 
migratory movements as well, at some future time. All 
interested in the migrations of birds will wish them success, 
and for our part we should like to see similar reports added 
for Scotland at least, which would show the further northern 
movements of many species. 

Some significant facts, brought to light by this investigation 
(subject of course to confirmation by future years' reports), are 
that certain birds, including the Tree Pipit, Whinchat, Redstart, 
Lesser Whitethroat, and Red-backed Shrike, which are rare or 
imknown in Ireland, were found to enter England on the south- 
east coast only. On the other hand, the Ring Ouzel, Garden 
Warbler, Swift, and Landrail, appear to have arrived solely on 
the western half of the south coast. It would be interesting if 
these observations could be confirmed. Unfortunately the two 
most important counties for noticing the first arrivals on our 
shores (Kent and Cornwall) were practically without observers. 
We trust the committee will be able to remedy this serious 
defect in the future. Recorders were also rather sparse in the 
Midland Counties, including Norfolk, a most important county 
for the purpose. Yorkshire was represented by about nine 
recorders, who were fairly well distributed over the county. 

For the purpose of recouping part of the necessarily heavy 
expenses, the ' Report ' has been issued to the public. The text 
is ablv and clearly written. 

At a rt'Cfiil iiieelii\tc of the LaiicashiiT aiul Clu'sliire Enloinoloj;ical 
Society a ]japer was read by Mr. W. Mansbridj^c upon sonic of tlic niicro- 
lepidoptera of the Liverpool district. About twenty species were dealt with, 
somi' of thcin new to the county list. Anionic the more inlcrestintf records was 
that of the inoth Myclois ceratonite and its al)cnalion firycrcUn with an inter- 
mediate form ; these were bred from larv,-c found in dates purcliased in 
Liverpool. Another interesting^ insect was a specimen of Diorvctria ahictclla 
— a very dark form captured in Delamere Forest. A bred series of the local 
tortrix, Pcroiiea permutana from Wallasey, was also referred to by the author, 
who exliibited most of the species noted in illustration of his paper. Other 
exhibits were a series of Scninsia Ji'<r/>fni/i/ii, bred b\- .Mi\ G. L. Cox, (Vom 
larv.-e found in cherry bark at Oxton ; Mr. K. ). H. Sop]), K. K.S., the exotic 
cockroaclies Syctibora holoscricca and I'unchlora vircsccns from the ship 
ianal docks at Manchester. 



Mr. W. E. L. Wattani is President of the Liiidley Naturalist and Photo- 
jifraphic Society for the present year. 

Mr. E. P. Butterfield gfives some notes on Cuckoo's egfg-s in Twites' 
nests in the April Zoologist, based upon observations on Yorkshire moors. 

Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, F.S.L., has returned from his travels abroad, 
having visited various parts of New Zealand, Australia, South Africa, 
India, &c. 

In the ' Transactions of the Yorkshire Dialect Society,' part 7, recently 
published, the Rev. E. M. Cole has a note on ' Ancient Danish " Mens- 
names " in Yorkshire.' 

Under the heading ' Latlirobiuni Icevipenne Heer : An Addition to the 
British List of Coleoptera ' in the Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine for 
March, Mr. W. E. Sharp records the occurrence of L. boreale in Cumberland. 

In Knoivledge and Scientific Neivs for March, Mr. E. A. Martin has a 
paper on ' Coast Denudation in England,' in which he refers to the Yorkshire 

We understand the Scarborough Societies are considering the advisability 
of making a special effort to raise funds to put their museum in proper 
order. We trust the effort will be successful. 

By the kindness of Mrs. Goodchild, we are able to reproduce a photo- 
graph of the late J. G. Goodchild in the current issue (Plate XVH). See 
notice in the April ' Naturalist,' pp. 130, 131. 

The April Zoologist contains some ' Rough Notes on Derbyshire 
Ornithology' (whj^ 'rough?'). The same Journal has a record of a 
' Continental Longtailed Tit ' at Kirkham Abbey. 

In the March Entomologist's Record Mr. J. W. H. Harrison has a note on 
the causes of variation of Polia chi. His observations are largely based on 
specimens from Yorkshire, Durham, and Cumberland. 

A paper on ' The Home of the Sea-Gull ' appears in the April Animal 
World. It is illustrated by photographs of Fleetwood, once the Sea-Gulls' 
home, Cockerham Moss, &c. 

' Keighley Museum Notes' are sheets printed at the Museum as labels, 
for use in connection with elementary schools, and for purposes of exchange 
with other museums. Twenty-four have already been issued. 

Mr. Cosmo Johns, F.G.S. (Sheffield) contributes a note on ' Allotropic 
F"orms of Silica as Constituents of Igneous Rocks ' to the March Geological 

The Rev. Canon Greenwell, of Durham, the well-known archaeologist, 
is said to have recently celebrated his eighiy-sixth birthday by catching a 
721b. salmon in the Tweed. 'A less truthful man,' says Punch., 'would 
have caught an 86 lb. salmon ! ' 

In the February School World Mr. Hugh Richardson, of York, gives 
some useful hints on ' School out of Doors,' which might well be followed by 
other schools. He shews several ways in which valuable work may be done 
by scholars in the fields. 

A new British fish, to which the name of Coregonus gracilior has been 
given, is recorded in the February Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
It is recorded from Derwentwater, and is allied to the vendance of 

1906 May I. 

»68 NoH/icni N^ews. 

At a recent meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire Entoniolog-ical 
Society, Dr. J. Cotton exhibited a long' series of Tripha'iia fimbria and 
T. proniiba. The series rejDresented the ranjjfe of valuation as met with 
in the St. Helens district very fully, the rarest form shewn being- of 
a iMiicolorous dull brown with none of the usual marking's visible. 

We much regret to record the dealli of Mr. (i. \V. Lether, of Scarborougfh. 
Mr. Lether was a keen g^eologist and knew ev'ery quarry and section for miles 
around, and was exceptionally familiar with the various fossils found therein. 
He frequently oblig^ed the Yorkshire and other societies b}- conducting them 
round the quarries when they visited the Scarborough district. 

A ' Nature-Study ' Conference was held at the Keighley Museum on 
March 31st. A special collection of specimens illustrating the natural 
history of Airedale was on view. Mr. A.. E. Benney read a paper entitled 
' Pleasures and Benefits of Nature Study," and Mr. S. L. Mosley, the 
Curator, read notes on ' Our Museum : Past .Achievements and ^'uture 

We notice in the current Bradford Scientific Journal that a writer is 
there criticising an ' unfortunate inaccurracy ' which is alleg'ed to have 
appeared in the ' Naturalist ' in reference to taking a nightingale's nest near 
Selby. \\'hether the nest and eggs were ' stolen ' or not, perhaps it will be 
admitted that at any rate one of the egfgs was subsequently stolen — properly 
' stolen " this time, from Bradford ! 

With the ' Proceedings of the Liverpool Geological Society — Session 
1904-5,' this society commences its tenth volume. Among-st the papers are 
'Some Geological Problems in South-West Lancashire" (President's 
address) by T. H. Cope ; ' The Glacial Geology of .Anglesey,'" by W. 
P2dwards ; ' Notes on Some Specimens of Lancashire Boulder-clay," T. 
Mellard Reade ; ' Notes on a Recently Explored F"ault-Fissure on Ingle- 
borough,' by H. Brodrick ; and ' .Sands and Sediments," b\- T. M. Reade 
and P. Holland. 

.Amongst the many valuable notes appearing- in the .April Bradfiird 
Scientific Jotirnah the following may be referred to on account of their local 
interest : Obituary notice of the late William Cudworth ; The Wild Boar and 
its Associations; Return of Local Gulls; The Common Wren; Yorkshire 
Naturalists at Bradford ; and Museums and Nature Study. The Journal 
also contains the concluding- portion of ' The Glacial Geology of the 
Bradford and Keighley Di.strict,' which is accompanied by a useful map 
shewing the various positions of the ice-front in the Cottingfley X'alley. 

'The Fiftv-third Annual Report and Transactions of the Nottingham 
Naturalists' Society for 1904-5' has just been issued. In addition to 
the list of members, etc., this Report contains the Presidential Address 
bv Mr. H. Mellish, on 'Some .Aspects of Meteorology,' with charts; and 
' Notes on the Botany of Nottinghamshire,' by Prof J. W. Carr. A 
list of plants which do not occur in ' Topographical Botany,' nor in any 
of the county ' Floras,' is given, thus bi-inging the Nottinghamshire list u]) 
to date. 

.A valuable 'Catalogue of the Manx Museum (Antiquities), Castle 
Rushen, 1905' (32 pp.), has been published. It is written by Mr. P. M. C. 
Kermode, and contains particulars of the various objects, dating from pre- 
historic times to the present day, which are housed in the Isle of Slan 
Museum. Judging from the catalogue, the collection is an admirable one ; 
and we trust the aut hoi's ajjpeal for more suitable objects will be responded 
to. There are certainly many Manx antiquities in the hands of private 
collectors which would be more useful if at Castle Rushen. 


JUNE 1906. 

No. 593 

(No. 371 of current aeriea) 





The Museum, Hull ; 


T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield ; 
with the assistan'ce as referees in special departments of 

Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.5c., F.Q.S., 
T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., 


Contents : — 

Notes and Comments: — Unconformity in the Northumberland Coal-measures, 
Survey Maps of East Yorkshire, Lepidoptera Illustrating Melanism 

The Use of Maps in Botany — VV. G. Smith, Ph.D 

The Permian Salt Lake — Cosmo Johns, M.I.Mech.E., F.G.S 

The Plant Cell: A Historical Sketch— /4g-ues Robertson, D.Sc 

Notes on Sections in Gravels near Doncaster (Illustrated) — Geo. Grace, B.Sc 

New and Rare Yorkshire Mosses and Hepatics — W. Ingham, B.A 

Abnormal Immigration of Fieldfares—//. B. Booth 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Ingleton (Illustrated) •. 

List of Papers and Monographs — D 
Baker's North Yorkshire 

Field Notes 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Northern News 


//. Clifton Sorby, F.R.S. , etc. 













183, 193, 199-200 


... 187, 188, 200 
... 184, 185, 189 

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Studies of its Botany, Geology, Climate, and Physical 



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Late President and Perpetual Vice-President of the Yorkshire 

Naturalists' Union. 

And a Chapter on the Mosses and Hepatics of the Riding, 


Matthew B, Slater, F.L.S, 

680 pages, coloured geological, lithological, etc. maps, 
suitably bound in Cloth, 

Price 15/- net. 

This volume is a companion to Lee's " Flora of West "S'orkshire," 
and, toj^ether with Robinson's " Flora of East Riding," completes the 
Flora of the County. 


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At a recent meeting" of the London Geological Society, Prof. 
Lebour and Dr. J. A. Smyth described an interesting case of 
Unconformity and Thrust in the Coal-measures of Northumber- 
land. The sections described occur on the coast north of the 
Tyne, near Whitley sands. The base of the ' Table-Rocks 
Sandstone ' is found to rest unconformably upon a series of 
alternating shales and sandstones, among which is a well- 
marked band of clay-ironstone crowded with Carbonicola anitn, 
one of those ' mussel-beds ' which are found to be perhaps the 
most remarkably-persistent strata in the North-of-England Car- 
boniferous rocks. The entire junction, so far as it can be seen 
at the base of the cliffs and on the foreshore, many parts of 
which are only swept clear during exceptional weather, has 
been studied as opportunity offered during a series of years. 
The unconformity is shown by discordance in dip, by overlap of 
the Table-Rocks Sandstone, and by the existence of a pebble- 
bed, containing fragments of the mussel-band and other parts 
of the underlying series, in the lower part of this sandstone. 
But the upper, more massive, beds in the section have been 
thrust in a northerly direction over the lower and more yielding 
beds, the plane of g-liding corresponding accurately along parts 
of the section with the plane of erosion. Towards the north of 
the section the beds of the upper series are weakened by 
intercalated bands of shale, and then differential action has been 
set up. The result is that the thrust-plane is no long-er a 
simple one coinciding- with the unconformity, but extends some 
way above it. The effects of the thrust are seen in the 
ploughing-up, folding, and faulting of the lower series, in the 
penetration of tongues of sandstone from the upper series into 
the lower, in the curling-up and shattering of the pebble-bed, in 
the puckering and hardening of the shale, and in the blending- 
of fragments of the various rocks subjected to its influence 

The geologists of Yorkshire, and those who visit the county 
to study its splendid development of Jurassic and Cretaceous 
rocks will rejoice to learn that a new edition of the official maps 
is being undertaken, and the more so as it has been decided to 
produce them by colour-printing. The advantages of this 
method are many ; not only will the price be reduced from 3s. a 

1906 June I. 


170 Noll's ami i^uiniiculs. 

sheet to is. 6d. (when may we hope to see the price reduced to 
the popular and convenient 'bob'?) but geologists have the 
assurance that when once the final proofs have been revised no 
colourists' errors or omissions will insidiously vitiate the work. 
We have known rather important generalisations to be made on 
the basis of a supposed unconformable overlap when the actual 
junction was a faulted one, but the colourist had omitted the 
necessary streak of Chinese white. Colour printing, it is to be 
hoped, will secure uniformity of shade in contiguous maps, and 
in this respect great improvements have been effected since the 
production of the Geological Index Map (four miles to the inch), 
in which the contrasts between what should have been identical 
tints on adjacent sheets gave the mounted map somewhat the 
aspect of a chequer-board. While we are speaking of the Index, 
we ma}^ venture to utter a gentle protest against the short- 
sightedness — not, we believe, at Jermyn Street -which permitted 
the first edition of the Index Map to run out of print before a 
new edition was ready to replace it ; the consequence is that 
students and others desiring a copy of this most useful and 
admirable map have been waiting weeks or months, and may 
have an equal time still to wait before the maps are on sale. 

Is there no chance of our finding some knight-errant M.P. 
who will undertake the righting of all the wrongs we have 
suffered at the hands of the Ordnance Survey or the Treasury — 
we cannot apportion the blame — ^in the matter of good, cheap 
and easily purchasable maps. Much has been done, but more 
remains to do, and many geologists, to say nothing of engineers, 
sanitarians, and land owners, lament the falling off in the 
quality of the work put into our six-inch maps since photo- 
zincography took the place of the old methods of producing 

At the meeting of the British Association to be held this year at 
York (August 1-8), it is proposed that there shall be an exhibition 
of British Lepidoptera illustrating Melanism. The Organising 
Committee of the Zoological Section invite those who are willing 
to take part to communicate with Mr. L. Doncaster, Zoological 
Laboratory, Cambridge, stating the species and number of 
specimens which they are prepared to send. It is ixpected that 
a paper on ' Melanism ' will be read at the meeting by Mr. G. T. 
Porritt, of Hudderfield, and that it will be followed by a 



W. G. SMITH, Ph.D., 
University of Leeds. 

The naturalist who ha.s made a fair trial of the use of maps 
in his rambles will need little argument to convince him of 
their utility. When feeling- one's way over a new country, a 
good map is not only a guide as to routes, but also indicates 
many features which might otherwise be passed unheeded. 
Whether one goes into the country for pleasure or with some 
definite object in view, it is surely a matter of general education 
to know the topographical features, the course and direction of 
the rivers and streams, and in other ways to absorb on the spot 
the information which a map can convey. A map may appear 
at first sight to be matter of fact and uninteresting, yet with the 
Ordnance Survey sheets as sole companions, one may learn 
many things about a district as it is to-day, and as it was in 
days gone by before industry had obliterated natural features, 
and one may even obtain glimpses of a still earlier period when 
the Romans and early Britons made their settlements and roads. 
The value of the information conveyed by the one-inch Ordnance 
maps, for example, may be appreciated in some degree if one 
could imagine a large tract of country uncharted. How much 
information could any of us gather respecting such a district in, 
say, a year of residence there ? If circumstances demanded that 
we should try to make a picture of the district, how far should 
we progress in a year ? Of course, much local knowledge has 
been gathered by many people who have rarely or never seen a 
map of their district. There is, however, this diiference between 
the man who tries to make a map of his own locality and the 
man who only knows it mentally, that the former leaves docu- 
ments which may benefit posterity, whereas the latter carries his 
local knowledge away with him. This is too often the case with 
local natural history. The few make notes, and in after years 
the few records actually made are all that the generation 
of that time has acquired ; the observations made but not 
recorded are either altogether lost, or the facts are too indefinite 
to be accepted without re-examination. In reading over the 
notes of some old observer, one often feels how much more 
satisfactory it would have been if he had amplified his description 
in words by calling in the aid of some other method. The 
preservation of specimens of plants, animals, rocks, and other 
objects is fundamentally a means of amplifying the written 
record, since in this way one can refresh one's own memory as 

1906 June I. 

172 S>/ii//i : Tlic Use of Maps in liofduy. 

to the facts, or convey the impression of what the object really 
looks like by showin<;- it to others. The sketch and the photo- 
graph, the rough chart and the map, are all means of illustrating- 
what one wishes to convey. The map is a form of illustration 
which has long- been used by the geologist, but has not been 
valued at its true worth in other branches of natural history. 
In Botany the small map showing the distribution of a natural 
order has been in use for some time, but the use of large-scale 
maps to show the features of a small area is comparatively 
recent. The success of these has attracted attention to their 
use as records of local natural history. Recent volumes of the 
Naturalist contain several suggestions of this kind,* and the 
present notes are mainly intended to be supplementary to the 
extremely practical hints on map-records by Messrs. Cosmo 
Johns and Alfred Harker in last year's volume. The former 
author has suggested so many ways in which maps may be used 
to record facts in natural histor}- that we need not tarry over 
this side of the matter. 

One of the first points to be decided is the kind of map to use. 
Those available for field-work are g^enerally known by some 
name indicating the scale used to represent a mile ; the more 
important are : — 

{a) 'Quarter-inch,' or 'four miles to one inch.' Here 
each inch represents four horizontal miles, and the numerical 
reduction is i : 253440 of actual length on the ground.! 

[b) ' Half-inch,' 'two niiles to one inch,' or i : 126720. 

(r) 'Inch,' one inch to one mile, or i : 63360 ; sheets 
(12 X 18 miles) cost is. each. 

{ii) 'Six-inch,' 'six inches to one mile,' or i : 10500; sheets 
(6x4 miles) 2s. 6d. , or quarter sheets (3 x 2 miles) is. 

{e) 'Twenty-five-inch,' or 'twenty-five-inches to one mile.' 
The numerical reduction here is i : 2500 of actual length on the 
g-round (this is the easiest numerical ratio to remember), and a 
mile is actually 25.344 inches on the map. It is also useful to 
remember that one square inch of this map approximately 
represents one acre. 

The Ordnance Survey Departnu-nl pul)li.sli mai)s on all the 
scales given above, except the half-inch, anil tlu-y are the best 
maps obtainable in Hritain. Convenient maps on the quarter- 

* .Maps ami Kciuitls. Comiio Joliiis (Srplriiil) -f, k)05, j)]). jOu-jOj). 
The Recording- of Localities. .Alfred Harker (November, 1905, p. 331). 

t The iiuinerical reduction should always be ^-ivi-n in the case of publica- 
tion, as it is much more convenient for compai-ison with foreign maps than 
tlie Eng-lish inch scale. 


Stnith : The Use of Maps in Botany. 173 

inch and half-inch scales are issued by the various firms of map 
publishers, but as the main object of these is to serve as road- 
maps, they do not show much detail. The Ordnance maps on 
the one inch and larg-er scales show contour lines, altitudes, 
and boundaries, as well as woods and uncultivated land, which 
are useful guides in botanical work. A useful explanation of the 
symbols used on these maps, with examples of the differen* 
scales, is published in a pamphlet — the characteristic sheet — 
which can be purchased (price 6d ). The maps may be obtained 
from agents in the larger towns, and also from many of the post- 
ofiices. The ' one-inch ' map is printed in four styles, but the 
unshaded outline maps are the best for recording. 

Some consideration must be given in selecting a scale suit- 
able for the records to be made. The quarter-inch maps will be 
found too small for most purposes. The half-inch maps of 
Bartholomew were used as the basis for the colours showing 
vegetation in the published maps of botanical survey in York- 
shire* and Scotland.! This scale is only suitable, however, for 
showing general features of the vegetation, and in every instance 
the actual field-work was done on Ordnance maps of a larger 
scale. In publishing the results of botanical surveys of West- 
morland (F. J. Lewis \) and Dublin District (G. H. Pethybridge 
and R. L. Praeger j), the authors found that the inch scale was 
necessary to record the observations made. 

An examination of these published papers will indicate how 
much can be shown on maps of the scales mentioned. In 
choosing a scale map for field-work, much depends on the kind 
of records to be made. The work in progress in botany is 
capable of expansion in many directions, but at present it may 
be grouped into the recording of plant species and the recording 
of plant associations. 

Recording of species. The topographical botany of H. C- 
Watson has led many naturalists to follow up the work, and we 
believe that maps will prove the best method of making records 
of this kind. There is now in progress, under the guidance of 
Professor Traill, a very systematic system of recording the 
occurrence of species of plants in the north-east of Scotland. 
Map tracings have been distributed to a large number of 

* Geographical Journal, April and Aug'ust, 1903. 

t Scottish Geographical Magazine, July and August, 1900, December, 
1904, January, February, March, 1905. 

X Geographical Journal, March and September, 1904. 
§ Proc. Roy. Irish Academy, xxv., December, 1905. 

1906 June I. 

174 Snii/h : The Use of Maps in Bolany. 

recorders with a list of plants which they are asked to record. 
The maps are sub-di\ided by squares into small areas, so that 
the position of a sing-le plant or g-roup of plants of a species can 
be marked with great accuracy. The district is a g-ood one for 
examining the upper limits of lowland plants and the lower 
limits of Alpine species, and the object is to ascertain these and 
other facts regarding the distribution of plants. It is not 
sufficient to state that some particular plant occurs in a 
Watsonian vice-county, or in a parish, river basin, or some 
similar division of Britain. It is a familiar fact in Yorkshire 
that there may be considerable variations in altitude and in 
the geological formations and soils within a single square 
mile ; these have each an influence on plant growth, because 
the}' bring about changes in the climate and the soil conditions. 
The occurrence of a particular species may also be due to the 
presence or absence of trees or shrubs, and may have little 
relation to altitude or latitude, except in so far as these influence 
the tree-growth. The mere recording of the stations for a 
species may not be scientific work of a high order, yet if a large 
number of records were correlated by a competent organiser, as 
in the case just mentioned, results of importance could be 
attained. For records of this kind the one-inch Ordnance maps 
are too small, and the six-inch or twenty-five-inch maps would 
be necessar}-. The expense is an objection which will be 
considered later. The suggestions of Mr. Cosmo Johns and 
Mr. Harker will be seen to apply definitely where map-records 
of this kind are made, and one or other system should be 
adopted in the work. We should also like to re-emphasise Mr. 
Marker's advice to make the record on the spot. 

Recording of plant associations. The choice of a suitable 
scale of map depends on whether the association to be recorded 
covers (or is likely in every case to cover) a large area or a 
small one. If, as in the Yorkshire botanical surveys. Heather, 
Grass, Cotton Grass, and other large moorland associations, 
with three or four types of woods are the only things shown on 
the map, then a careful observer may find the one-inch map 
sufficient. Yet almost all who are now engaged in similar 
work find the six-inch maps more useful, because they contain 
so many more landmarks by which to determine one's position. 
There need be no hesitation in strongly recommending the six- 
inch maps for the work of local societies, and, as Mr. Cosmo 
Johns states, these are already in use at Shefl'ield. There is, 
however, a system of botanical survey for which even the six-inch 


Smith : The Use of Maps in Botany. 1 75 

maps may prove too restricted. Dr. T. W. Woodhead's 
surveys of woods showing" the distribution of the Bluebell, &c. 
[Naturalist., 1904, pp. 41-48, 81-88), were carried out on twenty- 
five-inch maps, although the striking" results obtained were lost 
to some extent on the small published maps. The writer has 
assisted in a botanical survey of a salt-marsh in which even the 
twenty-five-inch scale was too small to exhibit the features 
which it was necessary to show. In this case a survey of the 
area was made with chain, level, and theodolite, and the results 
were plotted to a scale of i : 500 or 10.5 feet to a mile (Oliver & 
Tansley Nerv Phytologist, iii., p. 228, 1904). 

The cost of the Ordnance Survey maps is sufficient to deter 
many from attempting to use them over large areas, and in 
the case of the six-inch maps is too great for most individuals to 
bear single-handed. It is not, however, beyond the means of 
many of the Societies of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union to 
acquire the maps of their own district, and the providing of 
such a set of maps is thrown out as a suggestion to any 
prospective donor who would secure a permanent souvenir of 
his generosity. If the Society's set of maps were ruled in 
squares as suggested by Mr. Cosmo Johns, any worker by using" 
note-books ruled in squares could make his records without 
defacing the niaps themselves. Dr. Woodhead, at the British 
Association Meeting" at Cambridge, described a process of 
manifolding copies of small areas from the Ordnance maps, 
which would solve the difficult}' of providing several copies at 
small cost. Personally we are not inclined to cut the maps up 
to the extent proposed by Mr. Harker, because marginal work 
on a map is rather liable to be irritating. A well-known ex- 
president of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union contrives to carry 
the quarter sheets of the six-inch map in a capacious pocket, 
which may not be conducive to external appearance, but is very 
efficient. The method of carrying" the map sheets in a portfolio 
is probably the best yet devised. These, however, are details 
which may be left to the individual to deal with. 

In closings these notes on the use of maps, it may be added 
that the subject has been submitted to the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union Committee for Suggestions, and will be brought up for 
discussion at one or more of the Field Meetings this year. 
It will facilitate the preparation of a scheme of work if those 
who have anything" to add to the subject will communicate it 
either through the Naturalist or to the meeting, of which 
notice will be given in the Excursion circular. 

1906 June I. 




That the Permian rocks east of the Pennines differ from their 
representatives in the west is a well known fact. That they 
were deposited in an inland sea under conditions unfavourable 
to animal life has loni^ been recos^nised. The peculiar character 
of the deposits, that is, so far as this island is concerned, and the 
evidently abnormal conditions attending their deposition, render 
them deserving of far more attention than they have received. 
In a short paper like this a detailed discussion of the many 
interesting features presented would be out of place, if not 
impossible, so its scope will be limited to a study of the climatic 
and other conditions that must have prevailed during the time 
the upper marls were being laid down. 

The particular section of the upper marls to be discussed is 
that furnished by the core of the well known South Carr * or 
Haxey deep boring. In the greater portion of the Midland 
coalfield the Trias overlaps the upper marls which were laid 
down in the shrunken relic of the great Permian Sea. The 
eastern representatives of the Permian rocks carry in their 
changing features, as we examine them as an ascending series, 
every evidence that the sea in which they were deposited had not 
only become land-locked, but that evaporation was proceeding 
apace and increasing salinity was accompanying the decreasing 
volume as might naturally be expected. In upper marl time the 
dwindling sea had become a veritable salt lake — not only salt, 
but saturated with salt — the evidence for which will now be 

Towards the top of the upper marls we find a thin bed of 
gypsum, and above it, but separated by more marl, a bed of 
anhydrite 9 feet in thickness. This anhydrite is remarkably 
pure and, so far as can be seen,t its formation was not inter- 
rupted by any sediments coming in. This very pure bed is 
followed by marls, then comes another thin gypsum band. A 
little marl follows, and then the Triassic sandstone appears. 
There are good reasons for believing that this bed of anhydrite 
extends over a fairly large area of the coalfield, but it is probably 
not continuous with the thick deposit which lies at the top of the 
Permians at Hartlepool, :[ The sequence is complete, and the 

* Trans. .Mainlicster (leol. Soc. 1902, p. 5S. Trans. Fed. Inst. M.E. 
vol. xii. i<S()7, ]). 5i<S. 

t Private conimunication to aullior. 

;}; Geikic, 'Text Hook of Gcolojcy," 1903, p. 1071, footnote. 


Johns : The Permian Salt Lake. i77 

evidence required for our investigation is all that one could 
ask for. 

Gypsum is of course sulphate of lime, with its water of 
crystallisation, and may be represented by its formula, 
CaSO^ 2H2O. Anhydrite is sulphate of lime without the water. 
Now gypsum is a very ordinary deposit in a salt lake which has 
reached a certain degree of concentration, but the formation of 
anhydrite only takes place under certain well defined conditions. 
These conditions were determined during the investigations* of 
Vant' Hoff and his pupils on the famous Stassfurt salt deposits. 
It will now become clear why stress has been laid on the presence 
of gypsum beds both above and below the anhydrite, and separ- 
ated from it by marl. It is the fact that they appear in these 
positions that supplies the proof that the conversion of the 
gypsum into anhydrite was contemporaneous, and that the 
particular conditions attending its formation must have been 
peculiar to upper marl time. 

Vant' HoflF's experiments t prove that gypsum is converted 
into anhydrite only when the temperature is about 3o°C. and in the 
presence of a saturated solution of sodium chloride, common salt. 
The conversion is a slow one, and though it might have a slight 
range above and below, it affords us a reliable figure for deter- 
mining the temperature of the lake for a considerable period. 
The lake was shallow, and the eflfect of pressure on the trans- 
formation temperature would be so small as to be negligible. 
We are thus presented w^th interesting data of an unexpected 
character, and a discussion of the climatic conditions at that 
remote period has in this particular instance the advantage of 
being based on something better than doubtful lithological 
features or obscure paleontological evidence. 

The simple character of the salts in the Haxey bore, viz.^ 
gypsum and anhydrite, differentiate these deposits from those 
composing the Stassfurt beds, where there is ample evidence 
that the sea had access at times to the basin in which the 
complex series of salts found there were being deposited. In 
our shrunken Midland basin the lake was landlocked, and there 
is no evidence of occasional inroads of the sea. The marls 
testify to rushes of fresh water bringing down sediments from 
the surrounding land surface, and the gypsum is evidence that 

* A resume of \';int' HofTs work by Professor Armstrong; appeared 
in ' Rep. Brit. Assoc.,' p. 262, et sequa. References occur in various Nos. 
of ' Science Abstracts ' during- recent years. 

t 'Archives Nt^erlandaises ' 6, pp. 471-489, 1901. Reference in 'Science 
Abstracts' 1902, p. 219. 

1906 June I. 

178 Jo/ms : The Permian Suit Lake. 

salinity was increasing,'' notwithstanding'. The succeeding marl 
notes the appearance of more sediment-bearing water, and then 
we have the thick bed of anhydrite, during which concentration 
of the salt constituents of the lake must have reached the point 
of saturation for sodium chloride. It should now be made clear 
that in the case of sodium chloride, complete saturation means 
that some of the salt must have been present in the solid form. 
The purity of the anhydrite, and its freedom from interbedded 
sediment indicates the extreme aridity of the climate just as 
clearly as the extreme salinity of the water does. 

Another influx of muddy water left its sediment lying on the 
anhydrite, and after the last layer of gypsum had been deposited 
from the now less salt-laden water, a final layer of marl brought 
the Permian period to a close. With it ended the Palaeozoic 
era that had been born when the mighty Cambrian sea, with 
its wonderful Trilobitic fauna, flowed over the pre-Cambrian 
land surface — it expired in the miserable salt lake of the 
Permians, now buried deep below the surface of the fertile 
Vale of ^'ork. Yet before the wind-blown* sands of the 
Triassic desert had hidden its last sediments, an obscure 
chapter had been written on the saline pages of the upper 
marls. It was written in characters hard to decipher, but 
yielding at last their secret story to the patient worker who, in 
his laboratory, spent ten years in the laborious task. All 
honour to \'ant' Hoff and his brilliant helpers. 

Those who take the trouble may now learn how the humid 
swamps and morasses of- the coal measures subsided under the 
waters of the Permian Sea. How stage by stage that sea 
contracted in volume, laid down the massive lower Magnesian 
Limestone, and then after the middle marls came the thinly 
bedded upper limestone in a much diminished sea. Then came 
the final dwindling into the salt lake whose history we have 
been discussing. 

This lake ivas saiu rated with eommon sail, and its tern pe rain re 
for a considerable lime must have been 30^ C. , that is 86'^ F. 

It does not require much imagnnation to conjure up a picture 
of that dwindling and shrunken salt lake, its sun-baked shores, 
and the distant but lowly Pennines dried and parched, from 
whose surface the western winds and occasional torrents were 
to carry the sands of the Triassic desert, and usher in the 
Mesozoic era. 

Walcol (Jibson, ' North Staffordsliirr Co.illicKls ' 11505, p. 139. 





Cytology, the stud}^ of the cells, or elementary units of which 
all living- things are built up, is a comparativel}' young- science, 
dating back less than three centuries. Some branches of botany 
are comparatively independent of special methods of observa- 
tion. For instance, the systematic botany of flowering plants 
may well be studied with no external aids at all ; with 
Cytology on the other hand the case is quite different. We 
can have no knowledge whatever of cell structure without 
the aid of lenses, and each fresh development of the subject 
has had the way paved for it by some fresh development 
in optics. Some of the first observations with magnifying 
glasses of which we have a record are those of the Dutch- 
man Leeuwenhoek (1632- 1723) who examined an infusion of 
pepper with the aid of lenses, and saw minute living creatures 
swimming in it. Many people were sceptical about Leeuwen- 
hoek's results, to his great indignation. ' I have often heard,' 
he says, ' that many persons dispute the truth of what I advance 
in my writings, saying that my narratives concerning animal- 
cules, or minute living creatures, are merely my own invention. 
.... For my own part, I will not scruple to assert that I can 
clearly place before my eye the smallest species of these 
animalcules concerning which I now write, and can as plainly 
see them endued with life, as with the naked eye we behold 
small flies, or gnats sporting in the open air, though these 
animalcules are more than a million degrees less than a large 
grain of sand. For I not only behold their motions in all 
directions, but I also see them turn about, remain still, and 
sometimes expire ; and the larger kinds of them I as plainly 
perceive running along as we do mice with the naked eye. 
Nay, I see some of them open their mouths, and move the 
organs and parts within them ; and I have discovered hairs at 
the mouths of some of these species, though they were some 
thousand degrees less than a grain of sand.' In justice to 
Leeuwenhoek, I ought to explain that when he uses the size of 
a ' grain of sand ' as a term of comparison, it is by no means as 
vague as the size of a ' lump of chalk ! ' In the days when 
hour-glasses were universal, the different qualities of sand 
were most carefully sifted, and our author explains somewhere 

1906 June I. 

i8o Rohertson: The Plant Cell. 

that he always has in mind a certain sand of a specified degree 
of fineness. Leeuwenhoek's observations were apparently 
quite discredited in England until Robert Hooke confirmed 
the existence of these 'infusoria,' and exhibited them under 
his microscope in 1667 at a meeting- of the Royal Society. The 
importance of this observation was felt to be so great, that a 
document attesting to its truth was drawn up and signed by all 
those who were satisfied on the evidence of their own eyesight. 
Two years earlier, Robert Hooke had published a book called 
the ' Micrographia,' in which he figures the cellular formation 
of various plant tissues, such as cork and charcoal, which he 
had observed under his compound microscope. His description 
of his method of observation has some interest : — ' I took a 
good clear piece of cork, and with a penknife, sharpen'd as 
keen as a razor, I cut a piece of it ofl^, and thereby left the 
surface of it exceeding smooth, then examining it very 
diligently with a Microscope.'' The structures which Hooke 
saw, and to which he gave the rather unfortunate name 'cells,' 
from their resemblance to the compartments of a honey-comb, 
were not the living cells at all, but the dead cell-walls. It was 
probably because plant cells are characteristically clothed with 
cell-walls, while animal cells, as a rule, are naked, that cells 
were seen in plants before the}' were recognised in animals. 
The existence of the li\ing jelly, protoplasm, which we now 
know to be the essential part of the cell, corresponding to the 
honey in the honey-comb, was not realised in Hooke's day. 

The Italian, Marcello Malpighi, and the Englishman, 
Nehemiah Grew, followed Hooke a little in point of time, but 
have more claim than he to be regarded as the fathers of plant 
histology. They were the first to begin to realise the real 
importance of the cell. Grew's description of the structure of 
the soft tissue of the root (in the book which he published in 
1672, and modestly called ' The Anatomy of Vegetables begun ') 
though it sounds quaint in our ears, yet shows that he had quite 
a good idea of its nature. ' The Contexture of the Cortical 
Body may be well illustrated by that of a Spoinye, being a Body 
Porous, Dilative, and Pliable. Its Pores, as they are innumer- 
able, so extream small. These Pores are not only susceptive of 
so much moisture as to fill, but also to enlarge themselves, and 
so to dilate the Cortical Body, wherein they are ; . . . . 'tis a 
body also sufficiently pliable, or, a most exquisitely fine-wrought 
Sponge.' Grew speaks with respect of his countryman, Robert 
Hooke, saying in his chapter called 'Of the Trunk,' 'that 


Robertson: The Plant Cell. i8i 

Worthy Person .... Mr. Hooke shevveth us, that the Pores of 
the Pith, particularly of Elder-Pith, as far as they are visible, 
are all alike discontinuous, and that the Pith is nothing- else 
(to use his own words) but an Heap of Bubbles.' Respect, 
however, is singularly wanting in Grew's treatment of the un- 
fortunate engraver who executed his illustrations. To one of 
the figures in his book called ' An Idea of a Phytological History 
Propounded,' he appends the concise note, 'This sculpture is 
utterly false ! " 

It is perhaps hardly surprising that even after making such 
a good start, Cytology remained dormant, or else spent its time 
in mistaken speculations, right through the eighteenth century, 
since that century was in so many other ways a time of intel- 
lectual barrenness. The great botanist Hugo v'on Mohl, who 
flourished in the first half of the nineteenth century, says ' The 
works of the plant anatomists of the eighteenth century did not 
further the knowledge of cell tissues in the smallest degree.' 
Some of the botanists of the period, seeking an analogy with 
animal cellular tissue, fell into the error of describing vegetable 
cellular tissue as a mass of irregular fibres and lamellae inter- 
woven together ; whilst others regarded it as a homogeneous 
mass hollowed into holes and canals. 

It was not until the nineteenth century that the study of the 
cell obtained a new lease of life, chiefly through the exertions of 
Hugo von Mohl, Robert Brown, Schwann, and Schleiden. We 
may perhaps connect this renaissance with the fact that Amici 
and Fraunhofer made the first achromatic objectives in 1815 — 
an immense advance in the development of the microscope. In 
1828 von Mohl in a brilliant paper elucidated the nature of pitted 
membranes, and three years later Robert Brown discovered the 
nucleus, the central organ of the cell which presides over all its 
activities. The nucleus is so extraordinarilv important in 
Cytology that I think it is worth while to quote the words in 
which Brown announced his discovery. The passage occurs 
incidentally in a paper on the Orchideae. ' In each cell of the 
epidermis of a great part of the family, especially of those 
with membranaceous leaves, a single circular areola, generally 
somewhat more opake than the membrane of the cell, is 
observable. This areola, which is more or less distinctly granular, 
is slightly convex, and although it seems to be on the surface, is 
in reality covered by the outer lamina of the cell. There is no 
regularity as to its place in the cell ; it is not infrequently, 
however, central or nearly so ... . This areola, or nucleus of 

1906 June I. 

1 82 Robe r /son: The Plant Cell. 

the cell, as perhaps it mii^ht be termed, is not confined to the 
epidermis, beino;- also found, not only in the pubescence of the 
surface, particularly when jointed, as in Cyprepedium, but in 
many cases in the parenchyma or internal cells of the tissue .... 
The nucleus of the cell is not confined to Orchide;c, but is equally 
manifest in many other Monocotyledonous families ; 1 have even 
found it, hitherto however, in a very few cases, in the epidermis 
of Dicotyledonous plants.' 

The most epoch-making- work of this period was Schwann's 
* Microscopische Untersuchungen,' (1839), which laid the 
foundations of the cell theory. The keynote to Schwann's 
remarkable book is found in the sentence ' It may be asserted 
that there is one universal principle of development for the 
elementary parts of org-anisms, however different, and that this 
principle is the formation of cells.' This theor\' is now so 
completely taken for g^ranted that it is quite difficult to realise 
that there was a time, not so very long- ag^o, when it was new 
and revolutionary. The year 1839 may perhaps be reg"arded as 
the biolog-ical ' annus mirabilis ' of last century, marked as it was 
by the foundation of the cell theory, and also by the first clear 
conception by Charles Darwin of the idea of Natural Selection, 

As soon as the truth of the cell theory had been really 
demonstrated, the question arose — how do the cells of the body 
orig-inate? Most unluckily Schwann and Schleiden made the 
mistake of supposing- that cells mig-ht arise in two different ways, 
either by division of a pre-existing^ cell, or by crystallising-, as it 
were, out of a formless medium. They thoug-ht the latter 
process the usual and typical one. Schwann says ' .-\ structure- 
less substance is present in the first instance, which lies either 
around or in the interior of cells already existing- ; and cells are 
formed in it in accordance with certain laws, which cells become 
developed in various ways into the elementary parts of 
organisms.' Hugo von Mohl had recognised, as early as 1835, 
what we now know to be the true view, namely that no cell can 
arise except from a pre-existing cell by division, but it was not 
until twenty years later that the pathologist Virchow actually 
drove it home, and insisted that ' omnis cellula e cellula.' To 
von Mohl, who in so many ways was ahead of his age, we owe 
the word ' prot()i)lasni,' which he first used in 1846. After 
speaking of tin- nucU'us lu- sa\s, 'The remainder of the cell is 
more or less conipletely filled with an opake, viscid fluid of a 
white colour, ha\ing granules intermingled with it, which fluid 
I call pro/op/dsni.' It was Huxley who brought the word 


Field Notes. 183 

' protoplasm ' into such popular prominence when he named 
it ' the physical basis of life.' 

In such a short historical sketch as this, we cannot do more 
than just mention one or two men connected with each main 
advance, and name them crudely ' the discoverers.' But it g-oes 
without saying that this is only a shorthand manner of speech. 
Each g-reat discovery is arrived at by a gradual building up 
process in which many hands take part, though as a rule it 
is only the man who at the eleventh hour sets the coping stone 
who is remembered in after years. 

Plantago coronopus at Beverley. — My attention has been 
drawn to Plantago coronoptis growing on the side of the Beverley 
Beck. It seems to have wandered a long way from its proper 
home, Flamborough Head, though I see it noted in Robinson's 
East-Riding Flora at South Cave and on the Wolds. — ^J. J. 
Marshall, Beverley, May ist. 

A Budded Ash. — Near the Churchyard at Cadney, in the 
Manor House stackyard, grows an ash about fifty years old. 
One large branch of this tree puts out leaves a fortnight before 
the rest of the tree, and in the autumn the leaves come off a 
fortnight earlier. This branch was budded into the tree by 
one Joe Dunn, now in foreign parts if alive, along with a 
nvuTiber of other buds, for the purpose of making a ' weeping 
ash.' Only one bud lived, and it ' weepeth not.' In summer 
the tree looks norma), but at leafing and the fall abnormal. — 
E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock, Cadney, Brigg, May 12th, 1906. 

Primula elatior, Jacquin, in Lincolnshire. — Mr. J. 

Hawkins, of Grantham, recorded this species as a native on the 
Chalky Boulder Clay in 1905 in The Field. I was more than 
sceptical about it, as I have had quite a hundred hybrids between 
Priniiila acaulis Linn., and P. officinalis Linn., gathered in 
Lincolnshire, through my hands in the last thirty years. On the 
27th of April he fulfilled his promise by putting a specimen into 
my hands. There is no question it is the true plant of Jacquin, 
not a hybrid. There are several roots growing on a bank of 
Chalky Boulder Clay under a hedge in an arable field, bordering 
the road, not far from Hazel Wood, near Great Ponton. This 
adds South Lines. 53 to the four other vice-counties already 
recorded for the species. — E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock, 
Cadney, Brigg, May 3rd, 1906. 

1906 June I. 




Over the district to the east of Doncaster are scattered large 
patches of gravel. They generally rest on the Bunter Sand- 
stone, and have been mapped by the Geological Survey as of the 
same period, but there seems room for doubt as to whether they 
may not be much later. They consist of beds of sand alternating 
with layers of well rounded pebbles of vein quartz, quartzite, 

Section in Gravels at Armthorpe. 

sandstone, ironstone, and cherts of various colours. The last 
three are most probably of Carboniferous origin, but the former 
two, which are the most numerous, are of unknown age. They 
are strikingly current-bedded, and the directions from which the 
streams which have arranged them appear to have come vary 
very much. A fuller account of them has been given by Mr. 
H. H. Corbett in a previous volume of the ' Naturalist.'* 

During the construction of the new South Yorkshire Railway, 
a cutting has been made through one of these gravel heaps near 

Glacial Geology of the Neig-hbourhood of Doncaster, Feb. 1903, pp. 



Grace : iVoA's on Seciious in Gravels near Doncaster. 185 

Armthorpe, about 2 J miles N.E. of Doncaster. The section ex- 
posed runs nearly north and south, and when first made showed 
very clearly the current-bedding of the gravels. Taken as a 
whole the appearance was that of an anticline, the northern part 
of the section dipping to the north, and the southern part to the 
south ; but, examined in greater detail, the individual beds did 
not agree with this, especially in the case of the gravels. One 
thick lenticulrr piece had a clear dip to the N.E., whereas a 
little further away the dip became distinctly southward. Also 

'Pipe' in Gravel at Armthorpe. 

the beds of gravel and sand thin off and run into one another 
so frequently that they cannot be very well separated. 

The clearest fact in connection with the exposed part of the 
beds is that they, so far as can be seen, rest on a horizontal bed 
of sand which is continuous the whole length of the section, but 
does not appear to belong to the underlying Bunter Sandstone. 

The first photograph reproduced shows one of the lenticular 
sections of gravel resting on the horizontal sand and covered by 
another thinner bed of sand and more gravel. 

The second photograph shows, what may perhaps be regar- 
ded as an incipient fault, or else as a pot hole, which runs the 

1906 June I. 

l86 Revieivs and Book Xoticcs. 

whole depth of the section, and down which the drainaj^e has 
carried the contents of the hi^-her beds. There does not appear 
to have been any vertical displacement or downthrow, as the 
top surface of the bottom sand appears to be in the same line on 
both sides of the crack, but the way in which the ends of the 
thin gravel beds have been turned down near it is very striking. 
It was not easy to find out how far this crack had extended 
laterally, there was no sign of it on the other side of the line, 
and a few weeks later when the face had been removed from the 
section photographed for a depth of two yards, all signs of th'e 
feature had disappeared, so that it may be regarded as nearer 
akin to a sump or pot hole than to a fault in the ordinary sense 
of the word. 

Transactions of the Hull Scientific and Field Natu- 
ralists' Club for the Year 1905. 

Always interesting and valuable, the part before us is 
exceptionally so. Indeed, we seldom read a part of Trans- 
actions of any society with so much pleasure as this has given 
us. The papers embrace such a variety of subjects, yet are 
all well written, and whether strictly scientific, historical, or 
biographical, are valuable contributions ; Mr. T. Fetch's 
' Mycetozoa of the East Riding,' and Mr. T. Sheppard's just 
claims as to the Educational value of the Hull Museum, 
together with the biographical account of the well known 
Hull lepidopterist, Mr. J. W. Boult (of whom an excellent 
portrait is added), may be taken as well representing the 
sort of contributions the part contains. The other papers are - 
'Natural Aspects of Hull and District,' b}- J. Eraser Robinson ; 
'Notes on Local Diatoms for 1904-5' (with plate), by R. H. 
Philip ; 'In Memory of Thomas Blashill ' (with photograph) ; 
'Notes on the Reclaimed Land of the Humber District,' by 
T. Fetch ; various East Riding notes, including a portrait 
of Mr. G. H. Hill ; and lastly, but by no means of less 
importance or interest, 'The Committee's Report on the Work 
of the Club during 1905,' showing the Club to be doing highly 
successful aiul usi-ful work, and in a generally prosperous 
condition. (j.T. F. 

\".il. 3., Pt. 3. Edited by T. Slu-pp;ird, I'".(i.S. A. Imowd cSc Sons, Ltd., 
1'hj^l's 189-246. 4 ijlates. 2/6 net. 





Mosses. On i6th August 1905, I found the minute moss 
PhyscomitreUa patens B. & S. on the bed of a dried up pool 
on Skipwith Common — a new habitat for the East Riding. On 
5th September 1905, I noticed the same rare moss in a similar 
situation at Hevvorth, half-a-mile from York. Both gatherings 
were in abundant fruit, and both are new habitats. 

On 1 8th May 1903, I found the rare moss Weisia niucronata 
B. & S. on the side of a path at Ravenscar, on the descent to 
Robin Hood's Bay. To my list of Mosses of Askrigg and 
District in the 'Naturalist' for 1905 (page 278) must be added 
Brytan munile Wils., which I obtained in Whitfield Gill at the 
meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, an addition to 
North Yorkshire mosses. I got the same Bryum in Jackdaw 
Crag Quarry, Tadcaster, i6th March 1900, an addition to 
West Riding mosses. Mr. Dixon has seen both gatherings, 
and agrees that they are certainly Bryiim niurale. 

Hepatics. Jungermania Goiilardi Husnot. This Hepatic 
I found on the face of a rock in a wood near Falling Foss, North- 
East Yorkshire, in September 1905. Mr. Macvicar has 
examined it also, and agrees that it would be better to make it 
a variety oi Jungermania sphaerocarpa. The Hepatic is new to 
the British Isles.* 

Mr. Slater asked me to let him see my gathering, and in 
' North Yorkshire,' p. 627, he seems to have determined some of 
his early gatherings as /. Goulardi after seeing my specimen. 
Mr. Slater appears to have forgotten that I first recorded this 
Hepatic for Britain, for it is not entered on p. 627 of the new 
part of ' North Yorkshire.' 

* See Revue Bryologiqite, Jan., 1906. 

The ' Country Press,' 19, Ball Street, Kensington, has issued twelve 
post-cards for one shilling, including facsimile prints, popularly and 
scientifically named, of the leaves of the principal British trees and shrubs. 
These prints show in their design by Mr. Francis George Heath, the exact 
venation, or system of veins, in the cellular tissue of each leaf, giving to 
each figure represented a very marked and interesting individuality. 

igo6 June i. 

1 88 




Some weeks after the Fieldfares, which have spent the winter 
in the Bradford neig^hbourhood, have departed, we each year 
notice flocks of immig-rant Fieldfares passing through this 
district in a northerly direction, and very often in a rather 
leisurely manner. This usually takes place towards the end of 
April, and occasionally small flocks are seen as late as the first 
week in May. The numbers seem to vary considerably each 
season, but this year they have completely eclipsed in numbers 
all previous records. For the past fortnight Fieldfares have been 
in evidence almost daily in small parties, but on April 21st and 
22nd great numbers were seen slowly passing northwards, and 
every now and then settling. Some of the largest flocks on these 
two days were estimated at quite four hundred birds. Since 
then only straggling birds, or small parties, have been observed. 
On the evening of the 12th of April (which would be about the 
commencement of the movement through this district), Mr. 
Rosse Butterfield noticed a flock of several hundreds flying 
towards the north. All the birds seen were on the west side ot 
Bradford, and were noted near Denholme, Wilsden, and 
Bingley, but 1 have no proof that others did not pass to the east 
of Bradford as well, although I have not heard of them. It 
would be very interesting to know from whence all these birds 
came, and in what direction they left these Islands. 

Other observers doubtless will have noticed them in other 
districts, and records would be most interesting. April 26th, 
1 906. 

P.S. — Since writing the above note, stra_\- parties of Field- 
fares have been seen in the same districts, and generally working 
northwards, the last stragglers being noticed on May 4th. 1 
have been in constant communication with Mr. R. Fortune, ot 
Harrogate, and he has repeatedly informed me that he has not 
seen a single Fieldfare there during this immigration. This is 
as interesting as it is curious, because Harrogate only lies a 
little to the east of the route which they appeared to be taking. — 
H. B. B., May loth. 


On .May i2tli llic 'I^ostoii .\iili(|iiaiian ami N'almalisls' Ramblintj Socioly,' 
was foiiiKlcd. Tli<" .Mayor (Councillor H. Barron CMarkf) is the first 
I'rcsidcnt, and Mr. T. .V. .Man is is tlic lion. Secretary. 



May 12-14, 1906. 

The opening excursion of the Yorkshire NaturaHsts' Union for 
the present year was held at Ing-leton in the middle of May, and 
many members took part therein. As mig"ht be expected from 
the nature of the area, the g^eolog^ical party was the strong"est, 
and included several of the Union's most prominent workers. 
Other sections devoted their attention to the vertebrate zoology, 
concholog}', entomology, and botany of the district. 

Ingleton 'Granite' Quarry.' 

Particulars of the work accomplished in the different sections 
are given below. 

About fifty members assembled at the Ingleborough Hotel, 
Ingleton, where, after tea, the meetings were held. Representa- 
tives from nineteen affiliated societies were present. Mr. Cosmo 
Johns, F.G.S., President of the Geological Section, took the 
chair. Before the ordinary business was proceeded with, a 
hearty welcome was accorded to Mr. W. Denison Roebuck on 
his return from his travels in India, Australia, New Zealand, 

Block kindly lent by the Yorkshire Geolog'ical Society. 

1906 June I. 

I go Yorkshire Naturalists at Ingleton. 

and Africa. Sixteen new members were elected, and four 
societies became affiliated with the Union. A vote of thanks 
to the divisional secretary, Mr. W. Robinson, was passed for 
his pains in arranging for the excursion. 

We have since received the following reports on the 
excursion : — 

The Ornithologists, led by Mr. A. White, F.Z.S., at once 
made for the fell sides of Ingleborough, from which they 
obtained a glorious view of the surrounding district. A pair 
of corvinae was noticed, and a marshy piece of ground was 
inhabited by curlew. Sandpipers were in plenty, as was also 
the dipper, a nest with one &gg, belonging to the latter being 
observed. Many dead birds were met with during the day, 
including a red-shank with the breast only eaten away, which 
was evidently the work of a hawk. Several eggs of the lapwing 
were also noticed with two holes in them, close together, which 
had been made by some bird. Owing to the scarcity of the 
rook in this district, that bird can hardly be blamed this time. 
Numbers of young lapwings were watched and photographed. 
Wagtails were common ; the pied grey and yellow wagtails 
being observed. The last appears to be increasing. Other 
species noted were pipit, whin-chat, wren, blackbird, thrush, 
and missel-thrush. 

The Conchological Section was represented by its president, 
Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S., of Leeds, and its secretary, 
Mr. Thomas Castle, of Heckmondwike, and also by Mr. 
John Wm Carter, F. E.S., of Bradford. The day was spent in 
Helks Wood, and the following thirty-one species were collected, 
six slugs and two freshwater species being included : — 

Carycliiuni viinimum Miill. 
Ancyliis fluviatilis Mull. 
Limncea pereger {MuW. ). 
Helix aspersa Miill. 

,, nemoralis L. 
Hygroiitia rtifescens (Penn. ). 
,, liispida (L.). 

,, granidata [?s\A.). 

Vallonia pulctiella {Miill.). 
Buliminus obsciints (Miill.). 
Pupa secale Drap. 

,, cylindracea (DaC). 
Vertigo piisilla Miill. 
Balea perversa (L. ). 
Clausilia bideniafa (Strom.). 
,, him in at a (Mont.). 

Codilicopa lubrica (Miill.). 
Vitrina pelhicida (Miill.). 
Hyalinia cellaria (Miill.). 
alliaria [W\\\.). 
, , n itidida (Drap. ). 

pura (Aid.). 
,, crystallina (Miill.). 

Agrioliiiiax agrestis (L.). 
,, /(?ws (Miill.). 

Arion ater (L. ). 

,, 5?/6/"».yr«5 (Drap. ). 
,, liortensis Fer. 
., circiimsrriptus Johnst. 
Pyranridula rotundata (Miill.). 
, , rupestris ( D rap. ) . 


Yorkshire Nafuralisis at Ingle ton. igi 

In reporting-, the sectional president referred to the district 
being very rich in land shells, and that the day's collecting- was 
by no means representative. Mention was made that the 
var. violacea of Agriolimax agrestis was found as well as the 
usual double types, pallida and reticulata^ and that Avion 
circuniscriptus was abundant and very larg-e in size. The other 
species called for no particular remark. 

Mr. J. W. Carter states that few species of Coleoptera 
were met with owing- to the fact that Ingleboro' was not 
investig-ated. The district worked was Helk's Wood, and the 
species noted were what one would expect to find in almost any 
part of the count}-, viz., Nehria brevicollis, F ; Loricera pilicornis, 
F ; Notiophilus bignttatus, F ; Pterostichus niadidns, F ; P. niger 
Schal ; P. vulgaris, L ; P. striola, F ; Ocypus ater, Gr. ; Tachiuus 
collaris, Gr. ; and Agriotes obscuriis, L. 

Of Hymenoptera, Mr. T. Castle captured an ichneumon in 
Helk's Wood, which Mr. Claude Morley has identified as 
Ichneumon confnsorius Gr. 

Dr. W. G. Smith writes : — One section of botanists pro- 
ceeded towards Crina Bottom and spent the first part of the day 
on the Limestone of White Scars (1200 to 1300 feet), with the 
object of examining- the vegetation and comparing it with the 
results obtained on the Upper Wharfedale and Airedale Lime- 
stone during the botanical survey of that area.* It was too 
early for many flowers on the Limestone Pastures, and even the 
leaves of many species were scarcely recognisable. Arenaria 
veina, Draba verua, Liizula canipestris, Sesleria coerulea with 
early Dandelion and Lady's Mantle were almost the only species 
in flower. At one place three species of Lycopodiiini (Z. Selago, 
alpinum, clavatuni) were found together, and the two first- 
named were frequently met with about this altitude ; they 
ought therefore to be included in the plants of the Limestone 
Pasture of Ingleboro'. A soft mossy turf, consisting largely of 
Saxifraga hvpnoides was also common ; this we have met with 
frequently on the Ingleboro' Limestone up to the Encrinite 
strata near the summit. The Limestone Pavements were 
found to harbour in their crevices almost all the species already 
recorded at Malham and in Lipper Wharfedale. The Anemone 
was particularly showy with large flowers. These pavement 
plants are almost all species found in the valley woods, and 
were seen there later in the day, but they are absent on the 

(* See Smith & Rankin, ' Geographical Distribution of X'etjetation in 
Yorkshire, Part II., 1903.') 

1906 June I. 

192 Yorkshire Naturalists at Iiiirlctoti. 

open pastures ; it is probably the case that they were broug-ht 
up by birds {e.g. Ivy berries) or by wind [e.g. Hoj^weed), 
and have found in the pavement fissures at this altitude, 
conditions suitable for growth. On descending- to the Granite 
Quarry, a line of springs was found where the geologists were 
searching for the basement beds of the Limestone. Primula 
farinosa (almost in flower) and the Butterwort were conspicuous 

The later part of the day was spent in the woods from 
Thornton Force down to Ingleton. The vegetation here was a 
marked contrast to the dry, small-leaved, wiry vegetation of the 
Limestone Pastures, and most of the pavement species were 
seen again. Hazel is the dominant element in these woods, and 
at this season its light foliage showed up the dark Yew bushes 
scattered amongst it. Ash is fairly abundant, only just coming 
into flower, Mountain Ash and Thorn were breaking into leaf. 
The wood is on the whole a good example of the Ash-Hazel 
copse of Upper Wharfedale, but Oak was distinctly more 
abundant, and was present as far up the valley as the rocks 
above Thornton Force. The close carpet of undergrowth was 
also found to be made up of species recorded in the Scar woods 
round Kettlewell. The most abundant grass is Brachypodium 
svlvaticum, the broad, light-green leaves of which were very 
conspicuous. Some of the wood plants seen in flower were 
Sanicle, Woodruff, Early Purple Orchis, Bluebell, Primrose, 
Lords and Ladies, Mercury, Wood Rush and Melic Grass. An 
evening exploration of the Hazel copses on Meal Bank, between 
the two streams at Ingleton, added to the list Goldielocks and 
Herb Paris in flower, with Globe Flower, Lily of the Valley, and 
Thalictruni in bud. We have given the results at some length, 
because we consider that the Botanical Survey of Yorkshire has 
gained something profitable from this excursion of the Y. N.U, 

Mr. C. A. Cheeth.'\m adds : — In the evening we climbed the 
hill between the two becks and behind the limekiln ; on the way 
up we saw Sesleria cwrulea, Carex veriia, and Carex Jlacca in 
flower. In the wood on the top the Bird Cherry was very fine. 
Flowerless plants of the Hairy Violet, Stone Bramble, Bird's 
Eye Primrose, &c. , were seen. 

The following day we took up the Tliornlon beck gyll, and 
the first noted were the fertile stems of Equisetum ariK'nse and 
E. maximum, also the barren stems of E. hyemale. The 
plants in flower were whitlow grass, scurvy grass, moschatel, 
thale cress, and hairy rock cress. 


Field Note. 193 

On crossing- over the limestone to the Ing-leton beck, a field 
full of the wood anemone attracted the eye, and in the beck there 
was a g-ood deal of Myriophyllum alternijioriim , which does not 
appear to be noted for the Lune drainag^e. Across the foot- 
bridge the appearance of Sphagnum with sundew was very 
interesting-, showing- the absence of limestone and presence of 
the grit rocks. Another ecological fact was shown by the sand 
wort and Alpine penny cress, which always prefer the lead 
working's, and were here growing in profusion where the debris 
from the lead workings was strewn around. 

Near at hand the presence of Erica, Calluna, Vaccinium, 
and Empetriim showed that the limestone was well covered with 
drift, either glacial or detrital. 

On the main limestone of the Yoredales the purple saxifrag^e 
was still in flower, and many plants of the yellow saxifrage were 
seen The rose root was just starting- for the year's growth. 

Mr. C. Crossland reports that on Monday, in Helk's Wood, 
he and Mr. Broadhead met with the following Fungi : — Pleiirotiis 
mitis on dead stump, N^aiicoria seniiorbiciilaris among short 
g^rass ; Psilocybe siibericcus amongf g-rass ; Xylaria Hypoxylon in 
very good fruit on stump ; Morchella esculenta on moist grassy 
bank on stream side ; Uromyces pore on leaves of Ranuucnlus 

{Further reports will appear in our next issue.) 


Strange Behaviour of a Hare. — On April 24th my son 
Dennis took our spaniel for a walk. He saw an incident the 
like of which I have never witnessed. Doe hares often drive 
off cattle when g^razing near their forms, when they have 
leverets, but I have never heard of them doing this to a dog-. 
Dennis, however, reported as follows : ' Bogey was smelling in 
some rough g-rass along a hedg^e side in a ploughed field. A 
hare ran up wind, and kicked — or rather struck in passing — the 
dogf with its front paws on the nose and side of the head. The 
dog- was quite startled and frightened, but, seeing or g-etting 
wind of its assailant, followed after it at his best pace.' There 
can be little doubt, I take it, the hare had a form of newly- 
dropped leverets close by. — E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock, 
Cadney, Brigg, April 24th, 1906. 

1906 June I. 



By Dr. H. CLIFTON SOKHV, I-.K.S.. \c. 

[Continued from pngc r^-f.) 

On the Amount of Sulphur and Phosphorus in various Agricultural Crops. 
Chem. Soc. Mi-ni.. ill., 1845-48, jjp. 281-2S4 ; Froru-p's Nolizen, I\'., 1847, 
col. 35-37: '^l"'- ^I^'.^-, XXX., 1847, pp. 330-334. 

On the Formation of the Valleys ; and on the Modern and Ancient River 
Action in the Neighbourhood of Sheffield. Slu-ffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. 
Rep., 1847, Aui;. 6th ami I)i-c. 3rd ; 1848, March 3rd. 

On the Geology of the Malvern Hills. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. 
Rep., 1849. yy. 15. 

On the Probable Former Existence of a Tract of Land between Norway 
and Scotland, as indicated by the Fossils and Structure of the Oolitic Rocks 
of the Yorkshire Coast. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., i8^o, p. 7. 

Observations on the Northern Drift or Diluvium, together with a General 
Outline of the Present State of the Theories of the Origin of these and 
Similar Deposits. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1850, p. 13. 

On the Tetramorphism of Carbon. Rrit. .\ssoc. Rep., 1850 (pt. 2), p. 62. 

On the Existence of Four Crystalline Species of Carbon. Proceed. West 

Vorks. (Jeol. .Soei(.-ty, III., 1850, pp. i59-i()8. 

On the Excavation of the Valleys in the Tabular Hills, as shown by the 
Configuration of Yedmandale, near Scarborough. Proceed. West Vorks. 
Geol. Sue, III., 1850, pp. 169-172. 

On the Tetramorphism of Carbon. PIdinb. New Phil. Journ., L., 1851, 
pp. 149-159. 

On the Microscopical Structure of the Calcareous Grit of the Yorkshire 
Coast. Geol. Soc. J(nirn., \'II., 1851, pp. 1-6; Proceed. West. Vorks. 
Geol. Soc, III., 1851, pj). 197-206. 

On the Contorted Stratification of the Drift of the Coast of Yorkshire. 
Proceed. West Vorks. Geol. Soc, III., 1851, pp. 220-224. 

On the Oscillation of the Currents Drifting the Sandstone Beds of the 
South-East of Northumberland, and on their General Direction in the 
Coalfield in the Neighbourhood of Edinburgh. Proceed. West. Vorks. 
Geol. Soc, III., 1851, pp. 2T,2 et seq. 

On the Occurrence of Non-gymnospermous Wood in the Lias, near Bristol. 

Microsc. Soc Trans., III., 1852, pp. 91, 92. 

On the Oscillation of the Currents drifting the Sandstone Beds of the 
South-East of Northumberland, and on their General Direction in the Coal- 
field in the Neighbourhood of Edinburgh. Proceed. West. Vorks. Geol. 
.Soc, III., 1852, pp. 232-240. 

On the Existence of an Analogy between the Symmetrical Development of 
Organised Beings and Crystallized Bodies. SluOield Lit. and Phil. Soc 
Rep., 1852, p. 7. 

On the Microscopical Structure of some British Tertiary and Post- 
tertiary Fresh-water Marls and Limestones. Geol. Soc Jomn., IX., 18:^3, 
Pl>- 344-34'>- 

On the Origin of Slaty-cleavage. i:dinl). .\e\v i'hil. jonrn., L\"., 1853, 
PP- '37- '50. 

On the Origin of Slaty-cleavage. IVoceed. West. Vorks. Geol. Soc, ill., 
1853, ])p. 300-31 I . 

On the Microscopical Structure of British Calcareous Rocks, including 
those of the Recent, Post Tertiary, Tertiary, and Cretaceous Periods. 
Shefiield Lit. and I'hil. Soc I\ep., 1X53, p. 9- 


Sorby : List of Papers and Monographs. 195 

Observations made during a Three Months' Geological Tour in the 
South- West of England. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1853, p. 13. 

On Yedmandale, as Illustrating the Excavation of some Valleys in the 
Eastern part of Yorkshire. Geol. Soc. Journ. X., 1854, pp. 328-333. 

On the Motions of Waves as Illustrating the Structure and Formation 

of Stratified Rocks. Proceed. West. Yorks. Geol. Soc, \'II., 1854, 
pp. 372 et seq. 

On Determining by Mathematical Calculation the Form of the Ultimate 
Atoms of Crystalline Substances from a Comparison of their Specific 
Gravities and other Properties. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1854, p. 5. 

On Changes of Climate, particularly with reference to that of the 
Glacial Period. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1854, p. 11. 

On the Direction of Drifting of the Sandstone Beds of the Oolitic Rocks of 
the Yorkshire Coast. Proceed. Yorks. Phil. Soc, \'ol. I., 1855, pp. 111-113. 

On the Motion of Waves as Illustrating the Structure and Formation 
of Stratified Rocks. Proceed. West Yorks. Geol. Soc, III., 1855, pp. 

On the Structure and Mutual Relationships of the Older Rocks of the 
Highland Border. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1855 (pt. 2), pp. 96, 97. 

On Some of the Mechanical Structures of Limestones. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 
1855' (pt- -)■ P- 97- 

On the Currents produced by the Action of Winds and Tides, and the 
Structures Generated in the Deposits formed under their Influence, by which 
the Physical Geography of the Seas at Various Geological Epochs may be 
ascertained. Brit. Assoc Rep., 1855 (pt. 2), pp. 97, 98. 

On a Partially-constructed Ancient Camp in Great Roe Wood, near 
Sheflaeld. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1855, p. 6. 

Researches into the Physical Geology of Kent, Sussex, Hampshire, and 
the Isle of Wight. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1855, p. 8. 

On the Origin of the Cleveland Hill Ironstone. Proceed. West. Yorks. 
Geol. Soc, III., 1856, pp. 457-461. 

On the Physical Geography of the Old Red Sandstone Sea in the Central 
District of Scotland. Edinb. New Phil. Journ., III., 1856, pp. 1 12-122. 

On Slaty-cleavage, as Exhibited in the Devonian Limestones of Devonshire. 
Phil. Mag., XL, 1856, pp. 20-37. 

On the Theory of the Origin of Slaty-cleavage. Phil. Mag-., XII., 1856, 
pp. 127-129. 

Description of a Working Model to Illustrate the Formation of 'Drift 
Bedding' (a kind of False Stratification). Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1856 (pt. 2), 
P- 77- 

On the Terraces in the Valley of the Tay, North of Dunkeld. Edinb. 
New Phil. Journ., I\'. , 1856, pp. 317-321. 

On the Structure and Mutual Relationships of the Older Rocks of the 
Scottish Highland Border. Sheffield Lit. and Phil Soc. Rep., 1856, p. 10. 

On the Microscopical Structure of Mica-schist. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1856 
(pt. 2), p. 78; Edinb. New Phil. Journ. (2 ser.), IV^, p. 339; Neues Jahr- 
buch fur Mineralogie, 1857, p. 89. 

On the Magnesian Limestone having been Formed by the Alteration of an 
Ordinary Calcareous Deposit. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1856 (pt. 2), p. 77; Edinb. 
New Phil. Journ. (2 ser.), IV'., pp. 338, 339; Neues Jahrbuch fiir Minera- 
logie, 1857, p. 89. 

On the Physical Geography of the Tertiary Estuary of the Isle of Wight 
Edinb. New Piiil. Journ., V., 1857, pp. 275-298. 

1906 June I. 

196 Soi'by : List of Papers and Monographs. 

On the Crag Deposit at Bridlington, and on the Microscopical Fossils 
occurring in it. I'roccfd. West. N'orks. (jt-ol. S<jc., 111., 1X57, ])[}. 559-562. 

On some Facts Connected with Slaty-cleavage. Hrit. .Assoc. Rep. 1857 
(pt. 2), pp. 92, q;v 

On the Magnesian Limestone having been formed by the Alteration of an 
Ordinary Calcareous Deposit. Shctlicki Lit. ami I'liil. S<)(\ Rc})., US57, p. 6. 

Sur le Mode de Consolidation du Granite et de Plusieurs autres Roches. 
Paris, CoiiipU's RtMicliis, XL\'I., i<S5S, pp. 146-149. 

On the Ancient Physical Geography of the South-East of England. 

Edinb. .\e\v Phil. Joiiiii., \'1I., TS5S, pp. 226-237. 

On the Currents Present during the Deposition of the Carboniferous and 
Permian Strata in South Yorkshire and North Derbyshire. Brit. .Assoc. 
Rep., 1S5S (pt. 2), p. loS. 

On the Microscopical Structure of Crystals Indicating the Origin of 
Minerals and Rocks. (Jeol. Soe. Journ., XI\'., 1858, pp. 453-500. 

On the Current-structures of Rocks and their Application to the Study 
of the Physical Geography of Ancient Ge->logical Periods. .Slu-fTu-ld Lit. 
and Phil. Soc. Rej)., 1858, p. g. 

On some Peculiarities in the Microscopical Structure of Crystals, Appli- 
cable to the Determination of the Aqueous and Igneous Origin of Minerals 
and Rocks. I'^dinb. W'w Phil, journ., \'II., 1858, ])p. 371-373; .Neiies 
Jahrbiich tiir MineraIot;if, i860, j^p. 86, 87. 

On a New Method of Determming the Temperature and Pressure at which 
Various Rocks and Minerals were formed. Brit. As.soc. Rep., 1858 (pt. 2), 
p. 107 ; Lxlinb. New Phil. Journ., IX., 1859, p. 151 ; Neues Jahrbuch fur 
Mineralf)g-ip, i860, [). 85. 

On some Peculiarities in the Arrangement of the Minerals in Igneous 
Rocks. Brit. Assoc. Ivep., 1858 (pt. 2), ]jp. 107-108 ; Edinb. .New Phi!. 
Journ., IX., 1859, p. 150; Neues Jahrbuch iiir .Miiieralog'ic, i860, p. 85. 

On the Structure and Origin of the Millstone-grit of South Yorkshire. 
Proceed. West Yorks. Geol. Soc, III., 1859, pp. 669-675. 

On the Expansion of Water and Saline Solutions at High Temperatures, 
i'hil. Mai,-., XVIIL, 1859, pp. 81-91. 

On the Freezing Point of Water in Capillary Tubes. Phil. May;., X\'III., 

1859, pp. 105-108; .\nnal. de Chcniic, LX'IIL, i860, ])]). i^-;:^, -54 I Journ. de 
Pharm., X.XXV'II., i860, pp. 124, 125; .Archiv. de Sc. Phys. (2), \'I.,p. 294; 
Zeitsch. tiir Naturw., XI\'., \). 43 ; U Nuovo Ciniento, X., pp. 386, 387. 

On the Structures Produced by the Currents present during the Deposi- 
tion of Stratified Rocks. ( ;i'ol();_;ist, IL, 1859, pp. 137-147. 

On the Origin of 'Cone in Cone.' Brit. Assoc. Rc])., 1859 (pt. 2), p. 124; 
Gcoio^-isl, II. , 1859, p. 485. 

On the Temperature of the Springs in the Neighbourhood of Sheffield, 
i'rocccil. W'l-st. ^'<)rks. (Icol. .Soc, I\'., 1851), pp. 40-45. 

On the Formation and Structure of Granitic Rocks. SluHicld Lit. and 
Phil. .Soc Rep., i85<), p. II. 

De I'Action prolongee dela Chaleur et de I'Eau sur Diflferentes Substances. 
Bull. Paris, (.'()m|)l(s ivciulus, L. ,||i 8()(), p|). 1)4)0-992. ; .Soc ("icol. dc I'lancc, 
XVIL, i860, pj). 568-571 ; .Neues Jahrbuch i'ur Mineraloyie, 1861, p]). 697, 
6gS ; Jahresbcricht iiber ilie Eortschritte der Cliemie, i860, pp. 6i, 62; 
Chemical News, 1 1., i8()o, p. 270. 

Sur I'application du microscope a I'etude de la geologie physique. Bull. 
Soc. Cieol. tie France, X\'1L, i860, pp. 571-573 ; Neu»s J.dirbuch fiir 
Mineralojfie, 1861, pp. 769-771 ; Matlrid, ivevista, XL, i8(>i, jip. 449-451. 


Sorby : List of Papers and Monographs. 197 

Oa the Organic Origin of the so-called " crystalloids " of the Chalk. 
Annal. Nat. Hist., VIII., 1S61, pp. 193-200. 

On M. Boucher de Perthes' Collection of Flint Implements from the Drift of 
Abbeville and on the Recent Discovery of Similar Objects in the Neighbour- 
hood of Paris. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1861, p. 12. 

On the Caus9 of the Difference in the State of Preservation of different 
kinds of Fossil Shells. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1862 (pt. 2), pp. 95,96; Geol. V., 
1862, p. 423. 

On the Comparative Structure of Artificial and Natural Igneous Rocks. 
Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1862 (pt. 2), p. 96. 

On Crushed and Impressed Pebbles. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 
1862, p. 16. 

On the Direct Correlation of Mechanical and Chemical Forces { Bakerian 
Lecture). Ro)al Soc. Proceed., XII., 1863, pp. 538-550; Phil. Mag-. (4 sen), 
XXVII. , pp. 145-154; 11 Nuovo Cimento. XVII. , 1S63, pp. 272-275 ; Jahres- 
bericht iiber die Fortschritte der Chemie, 1863, pp. 94-97 ; Chem. C. Bl., 
1864, pp. 3-21-3-4 ; Archiv. Sc. Phys. (pt. 2), XX., pp. 43-45. 

On the Original Nature and Subsequent Alteration of Mica-schist. 
Geol. Soc. Journ., XIX., 1863, pp. 401-406. 

On the Microscopical Structure of Mount Sorrel (Grooby) Syenite 
Artificially Fused and Slowly Cooled. Proceed. West Yorks, Geol. Soc, 
IV., 1863, pp. 301, 304. 

On Models illustrating Contortions in Mica-schist. Brit. Asso. Rep., 
.863, (pt. 2), p. 88. 

Ueber Kalkstein -Geschiebe mit Eindriicken. Xenes Jahrbuch fur 
Mineralogfie, 1863, pp. 801-807 ; Jahresbcricht iiber die Fortschritte der 
Chemie, 1863, pp. 854, 855. 

An Account of a Geological Tour in the District of the Rhine. Shef 
field Lit. and Phil. Soc. Re]), 1863, p. 11. 

On a New Method of illustrating the Structure of various kinds of 
"Blister" Steel by Nature Printing. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc, Feb. 

On the conclusion to be Drawn from the Physical Structure of some 
Meteorites. Brit. Assoc Rep., 1864 (pt. 2), p. 70. 

On the Microscopical Structure of Meteorites. Royal Soc. Proceed., XIII., 

1864, pp. i,y^, 334 ; Phil. Mag. (4 sen), XXMII., pp. i57-i59; Krit. Assoc. 
Rep., 1865 (]5t. I ), pp. 139, 140; L'Institut, 1865, pp. 46, 47. 

On Microscopical Photographs of various kinds of Iron and Steel. Brit. 
Assoc. Rep., 1864 (pt. 2), p. i8g ; Dingler's Polytec Journ., CLXXVIL, 

1865, p. 468. 

On the Application of Spectrum Analysis to Microscopical Investigations, 
and especially to the Detection of Blood-stains. Quar. Journ. ofSci., II., 
1865, pp. 198-215; Chemical News, XL, pp. 186, 194, it^2. and 256; Die 
F"ortschitle der Physik, Berlin, XXL, 1865, pp. 236, 237 ; Les Mondes (2 sen), 
XIIL, 279. 

On a New Form of Spectrum MicroECape. Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1865, 
(pt. 2), pp. II, 12. 

On Impressed Limestone Pebbles, as illustrating a New Principle in 
Chemical Geology. Proceed. West Yorks. Geol. Soc, I\'. , 1865, pp. 

On the Physical History of Meteorites. Printed Privately, July 1865 ; 
Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1865 (pt. i), pp. 140-142. 

{A further list of Papers, etc.. will appear in our next issue) 
1906 June I. 



In this handsome volume Mr. J. G. Baker g"ives a valuable 
account of the North Riding- of Yorkshire — its Geology, Physical 
Geography, Flowering Plants, Ferns, &c. The first edition of the 
work (300 copies), which was printed at Thirsk in 1863, con- 
tained 353 pages and four maps. Some copies were sent out to 
subscribers, &c., but the remainder was unfortunately destroyed 
by fire at the author's residence. The present ' second edition, 
which is about twice the size, may, therefore, be looked upon 
as an entirely new work, and, with F. A. Lees' ' Flora of West 
Yorkshire,' published by the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, and 
J. F. Robinson's ' Flora of the East Riding,' published by the 
Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' Club, completes the account 
of the Flowering Plants, Ferns, Mosses, and Hepatics of the 
county. Massee & Crossland's ' Fungus Flora of Yorkshire,' 
and W. & G. S. West's ' Alga Flora of Yorkshire,' also 
published by the Union, unquestionably complete a series of 
works dealing with the Flora of the County of which any Society 
might be justly proud. 

From a geological point of view also it is welcome, as, 
together with Davis & Lees' ' West Yorkshire,' and Sheppard's 
' Geological Rambles in East Yorkshire,' the general geological 
features of the three Ridings may now be said to be fairly 

As an example of the thoroughness of Mr. Baker's work, it 
might be pointed out that, notwithstanding the fact that 
numerous ardent botanists have been at work in the Riding, 
only fifteen flowering plants and ferns (not reckonings aliens) 
have been added to the Riding since 1863. The section devoted 
to the Mosses and Hepatics, however, for which Mr. M. B. 
Slater is responsible in the present work, shows up rather 
diflferently. Not only has the number recorded for the Riding 
been increased from 309 to 418, but particulars of numerous 
additional localities have been added, as well as a list of 
Hepatics (124) which is almost entirely new. 

The principal contents of the book are Introduction, 
Geology (with map), Lithology (with map). Climatology (with 
map), Topogra])liy, and Physical Geography, description of 

* .North ^'()l•ksl1il•c : SUiiiios of its Hotaiiy, (>t'oloi^\-, C'liinati-, ami 
Physical ( itoijraphy, witii a iliaptt-r on tiie Mosses aiui Hi-|)ati(s by 
M. B. Slater, F. L.S. Second edition. Hy John (iilbcrl Haker, 
F.R.S., F.L.S., &c. 1906. .-V. Brown & Sons, 5, I'"arrinj;tlon Avenue. 
680 pag^es, eight maps. Price 15s. net. 


Field Note's. igiigi- 

the West Tees District, the West Swale District, the Yare 
District, the Nidd and Wharfe District, the East Tees District, 
the Esk District, the Derwent District, the East Swale District, 
the Ouse and Foss District, and the Flora (Flowering- Plants, 
Ferns, Mosses, and Hepatics). Mr. Slater has also written a 
lengthy and useful introduction to the Mosses and Hepatics. 
In the matter of Indices, the volume is likewise well supplied, 
there being- a Geographical Index, an Index to the Flowering 
Plants and Ferns, an Index to the Mosses, an Index to the 
Sphagnums, and an Index to the Hepatics. All these have 
been carefully compiled, and are an exceedingly valuable addition 
to the work. It is a pleasure to see a volume of reference, such 
as this will be for all time, so well indexed. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union is certainly to be con- 
gratulated on being the means of presenting so useful a work to 
the scientific world, and it is a matter for reg-ret to learn that 
this edition is so very limited, and will probably soon be out 
of print. The volume is very reasonable in price, and anyone 
interested in the county should not hesitate to buy a copy at 

. It is gratifying to find that Mr. J. G. Baker, who published 
the first edition so long ago as 1863, has been able to see the 
present work through the press. 


Lincolnshire Aculeate Hymenoptera. — In the April num- 
ber of the Naturalist for 1888 will be found a list of Aculeate 
Hymenoptera collected by myself. I should like to put on 
record half-a-dozen more named for me by the Rev. A. Thornley. 

They are as follow : — 


Hal ictus nitidiusculus Kirby. 
Nomada succincta Panz. 
Epeolus rufipes Thorns. 
Melecta annata Panz. 
Megachile circumcincta ? Sep. 
Osmia civrulescens Linn. 

The specimens of this last bee were taken out of a nest made in 
the wall of an orchard house at Kirton-in-Lindsey. It is a 
very pretty little bee. The sexes are so remarkably different in 

igo6 June i. 

200 Field Notes. 

appearance that they are apt to be taken for two difFerent 
species. Of course, the presence of the Aculeus hi the female, 
and its absence in the male, together with the peculiar forceps, 
are diagfnostic of the sexes. — C. F. George. 

Gelecthia scalella Scop, near Wakefield : an addition to 
the List of Yorkshire Lepidoptera. — Recently the Rev. T. B. 
Eddrup sent me a box of Micro-Lepidoptera for determination, 
amongf which was a good specimen of Gelecthia scalella Scop.- — 
a Fleella Tab — a species hitherto unrecorded for Yorkshire. Mr. 
Eddrup tells me he took several specimens, and that there were 
others at rest on oak trunks in Coxley Wood, Horbury, on June 
3rd and jth last. — ^Geo. T. Porritt, Huddersfield, May 2nd, 

— : o : — 


New Yorkshire Spider Records. — The following- appear 
to be new records of Spiders for Yorkshire : — 

Dysdeni cracota CL.. Koch. ^ Scarborough. 

Tetragnatha extensa Linn. ^ Harwood Dale. 

Ca'lotes terreslris Wid. ^ Cayton Bay. 

The last named is the third record of this rare species for 
Britain. — R. Gilchrist, Scarborough. 


In the April ' Irish NaUiraiist,' Mr. R. Lloyd Pracgor has a paptr on 
' A Simple Method of representing^ Geographical Distribution.' 

Mr. G. T. Porritt adds Lathkildale, Derbyshire, and Alford, Lincoln- 
shire, to the localities for Ha/csits irt///a///><'>in/s {Eiifoniologisf's Monthly 
Magazine, .\pril). 

At the annual nu'ctinj;' of the Leeds Philosi)|)hiral and I.ilerar}- Society, 
held recently, Prof. P. V. Kendall, F.G.S., was elected one of the lion, 
secretaries of the society. 

Mr. K. A. Newbery shews {En/o/no/og/'s/'s Monthly Magasine, .Vprii) 
that Thyumis curia, recorded for the Isle of Man, is certain!}' not curia, and 
has, therefore, no jjlace in the Hrilish list. 

Mr. I). Thoday has a note 'On a sug-yfeslion of Ileterospory in Sphcno- 
phyllum dawsoni,' in the New Phylologist for .April 30. His remarks are 
based on a section from .Shore, Littleboroujjfh, Lanccishire. 

' Manurinjc,' by ICiIward Owen Greening^, F'.R.H.S., &c. London: 
Aj;ri(Miltur;il and Horticultural Association. Price one penny. This 
practical handbook clearly ex])lains the piin(i])les and practice of manur- 
injc, and is very Cully illustrated. 


JULY 1906. 

No. 594 

(No. 372 0/ current $eriet). 





The Museum, Hull ; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield ; 





Contents : — 


f«lotes and Comments : — Antarctic Birds, A Deformed Stoat, Perigrines at Flamborough, 
Peregrines at Ingleton, The Pro.ection of Birds, Vandalism at Flamborough, Yorkshire 

Hynienoptera, Natural History as a Business (Illustrated) 201-20& 

Notes on the Upper Chalk of Lincolnshire— ^ ></!«>■ Burnet 207-212 

The Microscopic Aspect of the Upper Chalk of Lincolnshire (Illustrated)— IK. Hill, F.G.S. 213-214 
Notes on Harvest Spiders, with particulars of their occurrence in Yorkshire 

(Illustrated)— U'm. Falconer 215-220 

The Pine Marten in Lake-land— Edudrd T. Baldwin 221-222 

Xeris spectrum at Leeds: an addition to the British List of Hymenoptera— 

II'. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S 22* 

List of Papers and Monographs— Dr. H. Clifton Sorby, F.R.S. , etc 225-230 

On* the Ingleton Carboniferous Basement Beds— Cosmo Johns, M.I.Mech.E., F.G.S. ... 231-232 
Yorkshire Naturalists at Ingleton: Geological T^otes (Illustrated)— Edwin Hawkesimrth 233-23^ 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Flamborough (Illustrated)— r. Sheppard, F.G.S 240-248 

Field Notes 206, 214, 223, 224, 239 

Northern News 222,248 

Illustrations 201,202,234,240,243 

Plates XVIII.. XiX. 

Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. J^^^10^ ^MUttt' 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. XejjfN^ 



SUBSCRIPTIONS to this journal are for the whole Calendar Year. 

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accepted on the understanding: that sucii publication Is not anticipated elsewhere. 
Should the Author of any short note wish its simultaneous appearance in another 
Journal mention should always be made of such wish. The Copyright of all the contents 
of TIte Naturalist is reserved to the proprietors. This will not prevent reproduction 
of any article on leave being expressly obtained from the Editors, and full acknowledg- 
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NOMENCLATURE RULES.— The Nomenclature adopted in The NmtaraUst will be 
—as far as possible- in accordance with the latest standard list or monograph, with such 
alterations a.s are necessary to bring the name into accordance with the strict law of 

CAPITALISATION OF SPECIFIC NAMES.— Hitherto the rule of The Naturallat has 
been the Zoological one, that specific names shall invariably commence with a small 
letter, never ^^ ith capitals. Henceforth this rule will still apply to all Zoological names, 
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will conform in this respect to the standard catalogue or monograph in each branch 
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A1EA1BERSHIP of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 10/6 per annum, includes sub- 
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Members are entitled to buy all back numbers and other publications of the Union 
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All communications to be addressed to the Hon. Sec, 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., Museum, Hull. 





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See Catalogue N, Post Free. 

The Largest MAKERS of Microscopical Slides in the Country. 

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Second Edition now ready, Price 6s. 6d. net ; if by post, 4d. extra. 


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A Complete Annotated List of all the known Fung^i of the 
County, comprising- 2626 Species. 

By Q. MASSEE, F.L.S., F.R.H.S., 

Ni>V(il Herbarium, Kew ; Clitiiinmn of the Yorkshire Mycological Committee ; and 


Halifax, Hon. Sec. of t lie Yorks/iite Mycoloi^ical Committee. 
May be bad from the Hon. See. ^'.X.L'., The Museinn, Hull. 

Please mention 'The Naturalist' In replying to Advertisements. 




Mr. W. Eagle Clarke, the President of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, has contributed to the ' Ibis' an exceedingly 
valuable paper on ' Ornithological Results of the Scottish 
National Antarctic Expedition,' the present paper dealing with 
the birds of the South Orkney Islands. In Mr. Clarke's mono- 
graph are several items of great interest. He describes rookeries 
of three species of Penguin, some of which ' contain several 
millions of inhabitants, and their daily life presented scenes so 
remarkable as to be almost be}'ond description. The Ringed 

Departure of Uentoo Penguins. 

(Scotia Bay.! 

Penguin, hitherto regarded as being nowhere an abundant 
species, was found to have its metropolis at the South Orkneys, 
where the summer population on Lawrie Island alone was 
estimated at not less than one million birds.' Eggs of the 
familiar Cape Petrel (hitherto unknown to science), and the 
chicks and young of the Ringed Penguin and Snowy Petrel, and 
eggs of Wilson's Petrel, the Sheathbill and the Blue-eyed Shag, 
were also taken in abundance. ' The series of bird skins is one 
of the most important ever made in the Antarctic Seas. It 
comprises one hundred and forty-three specimens, representing 
sixteen out of the eighteen species now known to frequent the 

1906 July I. 

202 AWc.v (iiid C 'oniDicufs. 

island.' Many of tlie skins enable Mr. Clarke to describe for the 
first time the youn<^ and immature sta<jes of some of the birds. 
Mr. Clarke's monoicraph is illustrated by coloured plates and 
several blocks from photog'raphs, one of which the editor of the 
Ibis' kindly permits us to reproduce. 


In the recently issued 'Transactions of the Lincolnshire 

Naturalists' Union,' the Rev. E. A. Woodruffe Peacock has a 

paper on 'The Stoat and its Ways,' in which he says that 

plenty of proof exists that the male will destroy or maim the 

young' at times. Tailless and injured stoats are recorded, and 

from the peculiar character of their losses, the work of the male 
may be suspected.' The accompanying photograph, which we 
are permitted to reproduce, shows a stoat ' destitute of both 
fore limbs, taken off close to the body, not in the least like the 
way a trap could injure one.' 

im:ri:(}rines at i-lamhorolch. 

' At a recent meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union al 
Flamborough, the members obser\ed with pleasure that a pair 
of pereg'rine falcons have al last successfully nested on the cliffs. 
The Union's Wild Birds' Protection Committee was represented 
by some of the leading ornithologists in the North of England, 
and has ofTered a reward to the men in charge of that particular 


Notes and Comments. 203 

section of the cliffs if the young- birds get safely away. A 
substantial reward will also be paid to any person giving in- 
formation which .should lead to the prosecution of any person 
interfering with the nest or shooting the birds. It is hoped that 
the publicity given to this note will prevent any ardent collector 
from interfering with them, particularly in view of the fact that 
the peregrine is one of our disappearing birds, and has for years 
unsuccessfully attempted to nest at Flamborough. The pere- 
grine is supposed to be protected by the Wild Birds' Protection 
Act, but past experience has proved this to be very largely a 
farce. It is the intention, however, of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, which is some 4,000 strong, to suitably deal with any 
individual molesting the birds in any way.' 

The above is a copy of a communication made to the press 
b}' the Hon. Secretary of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 
at the request of the members attending the general meeting 
of the Union on Bank Holiday. It was by no means a 
secret that the peregrines had at last successfully nested 
on these famous cliffs, after an absence of a quarter of a 
century or more, and it was thought that the best way to 
ensure the safety of these birds was to offer a greater reward 
for the successful rearing of the brood than would be obtained 
for the dead birds. It was subsequently ascertained that three 
young- ones were in the nest almost ready for flight. 

These have since safely 'got off"' and it is to be hoped that 
the peregrine may in future be included as one of the regular 
breedinof birds of the headland. 


As a contrast with the instance of the Flamborough falcons, 
we give below an extract from a recent issue of the Lancaster 

' On Monday Messrs. Ormrod and R. Sutton had a day's 
hawk hunting at Ingleborough. Being- aware of the existence 
of peregrine falcons, they spent a considerable time in searching-, 
and were eventually rewarded by seeing a fine specimen at 
Foals Foot, the north-western side of Ingleborough. After 
considerable trouble, and at g-reat hazard to themselves, they 
reached the nest, which contained a young falcon. The wary 
parent birds, however, kept out ot the range of Mr. Ormrod's 
g-un, and although he had two shots, the range was too great. 
A curious point is that in the nest they found a half devoured 
pigeon, from whose leg they extracted the ring'. In addition to 

11J06 July 1. 

204 A^o/es nuii (^mniicnfs. 

this there was a plentiful supply of bones and carcases. The 
nest was left with a nicely covered trap set.' 

No doubt Messrs. Ormrod and Sutton have been exceedingly 
clever, and it is not surprising- that their g;rand achievement 
should be chronicled in the press. But what is perhaps 
astonishing- is the apathy of the police I Howe\er, if they 
cannot see their way to take the case up, someone else must. 
It is in consequence of the doing's of such individuals as Messrs. 
Ormrod and Sutton that we are losing- — for ever — some of our 
finest birds. 

THK protp:ctio.\' of birds. 

The Yorkshire Wild Birds' and I'^ggs' Protection Committee, 
supported by the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, is determined 
to use every possible effort to protect the birds of the county. 
In addition to watching- such instances as these referred to 
above, it will also look after the colony of terns at Spurn, and 
pay watchers to look after the nests and egg's of rare birds in 
other parts of the county. This will require financial assistance 
— though not of a very serious character^ — and subscriptions 
for this purpose will be gladly received by the Secretary of the 
Union, at the Museum, Hull, or by any of the members of the 
Birds' Protection Committee. Without any request whatever, 
some amounts have already been received, and others proniised, 
particulars of which, as well as of, the way the funds are 
disposed of, will appear in due course. In the meantime, will 
those who are willing to help kindly inform Mr. Sheppard. 


The following letter was sent to the press by the Secretary 
of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union imn'\ediately after the 
Flamborough excursion : — 

' I am requested by the niembers of the Yorkshire Nat- 
uralists' Union, considerably over a hundred of whom were 
present at the meeting at Flamborough on Monda\ last, to 
draw yoiu' attention to a hideous method of spoiling the land- 
scape, which has recently been perpetrated on the headland. 
On the beautiful grassy slopes of North Landing, l-Maniborough, 
one of the most charming pieces of clitT scenery on the Kast 
Coast, a certain lirm's starch and another's lung tonic are 
advertised by means of large while chalk boulders forming 
letters of some five feet in height. These can be seen at a 


JVofcs and Comments. 205 

considerable distance, and it is pretty obvious that unless some- 
thing- is at once done to prevent the spoliation of the landscape, 
all the numerous green-clad slopes of Flamborough Headland 
and district will be similarly 'ornamented,' and one of nature's 
beauty spots will be quickly transformed into a bilious-pilled, 
soap-sodden advertising station, which will result in Flam- 
borough Headland being as attractive a holiday resort as an 
average railway terminus. We were informed by an individual 
well known in Hull that he had rented the piece of land for the 
purpose of the advertisements, but we feel sure that the two 
firms can have no idea of the amount of damage they are 
likely to do to the district, and it is a matter of surprise that 
the people of Flamborough themselves, in their own interests, 
should not have protested ag-ainst advertising materials, one of 
which, at any rate, should not be required in that district. 

' A resolution is being sent to the two firms in question, and 
also to the landowners, which it is hoped will have the desired 
effect ; but in the meantime we trust that the publicity you give 
to the matter will be beneficial. ' 

Strangely enough, enquiry shows that neither of the two 
firms in question had given any authority for the advertisements 
to be displayed, nor knew of them until their attention was 
called to the matter. Apparently they were put up as a 
speculation by an enterprising individual, and it is perhaps 
some consolation to know that he will not be paid for his pains. 
The carting of the large boulders from the beach to the top 
of the cliffs would be no easy task. To throw them down again 
would be much easier ! 

In connection with the list of the County Hymenoptera which 
Mr. W. Denison Roebuck is preparing for the ' Victoria History 
of Yorkshire,' we are asked to state that he will be glad to 
receive any vmpublished records of bees, wasps, ants, saw-flies, 
gall-flies, ichnevmions, and other hymenoptera, or references to 
any published records he may possibly have missed, for the 
better completion of the list. That there is much to be expected 
may well be imagined when it is stated that of consignments of 
five species of aculeates sent by Mr. E. G. Bayford, a similar 
number sent by Mr. W. E. L. Wattam, a small lot of ichneu- 
mons of Mr. Roebuck's own collecting in his infantile days as a 
naturalist, and the two saw-flies collected by Mr. Porritt at 
Flamborough, all submitted to Mr. E. Saunders, Mr. Claude 

igo6 J Illy I. 

2o6 Field Note. 

Morley, and the Re\ . F. D. Maurice, the results were : two 
species new to ^'orkshire from Mr. Ha) ford, one species new to 
the British Isles from Mr. Wattam, three ichneumons and one 
ant new to Yorkshire from Mr. Roebuck, and two new saw-fiies 
from Mr. Porritt. Lepidopterists can materially assist by sub- 
mitting- the ichneumons they rear to Mr. Claude Morley, partly 
to assist Mr. Morley in his Monographic Papers, and partly to 
help the Yorkshire List. 

We recently referred in these columns to a new mag^azine. 
The Naturalists' Ouartcrly Review, which we sug-g^ested was 
apparently published for the benefitof two individuals — the editor, 
Mr. Davis, a dealer in natural history requisites ; and Mr. 
Westell, who gives ' popular extempore lectures,' and writes 
books. Part II. of this ' Review' has appeared, and confirms 
our former supposition. In this, the first article is on ' Forming^ 
a Collection,' by Mr. Davis (6 pp.). Mr. Westell follows with 
'Some Birds of Spring' (4 pp.). Mr. Davis next gives 
' Localities for Lepidoptera around London ' ; and Mr. Westell 
follows with 'The Country Lovers' Library.' From this last it 
is obvious that if one is writing a book, and wishes to have it 
said that 'no library is complete without it,' or that it is 'sure 
to receive a cordial reception,' or that 'no student can possibly 
afford to be without it ' — send it to Mr. Westell ! We notice 
that articles on ' g^ood collecting localities ' are asked tor, and 
one such article appears in the present issue, in which even a 
detailed plan is given, showing the collecting ground of a rare 
species, where the author and a friend ' netted three dozen 
apiece.' W'e suggested a title for the new magazine in our 
previous notice. This suggestion has not been acted upon ! 
May we make another try — •' The Collector's and Exterminator's 
Review ' is certainly more appropriate. 


Fossil Tusk at Bridlinffton. On March 17th Mr. S. 
Purvis, of liridiiiigton, found a \ery fine tusk of Elephas 
antiqnus on the clifis near .Sc'WcrI)y. It is entire, and about 
3 ft. 6 ins. in length, i i ins. in diameter in the middle, and 
13 ins. in greatest diameter. It is exhibited in a shop window 
at Bridlington, and was seen at the rcc-ciit meeting ol" the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. T. S. 






The following description of the Upper Chalk of Lincolnshire is 
based upon field work done by myself in 1902 and 1903,* and 
may be considered supplementar}' to that of Mr. William Hill, 
who had visited Lincolnshire a few years previously, and had 
discovered the existence of Upper Chalk in that county. 

There is now no doubt whatever that the zone of Holaster 
planus can be traced continuously from a point just north of 
Louth right up to the Humber, but we have as yet no positive 
information as to the western boundary of this zone. The 
general direction of the dip of the beds is north-easterly, but it 
is very slight, and there are few faults or flexures of any 

In its lithological aspect, the chalk of the Holaster planus 
zone of Lincolnshire presents a marked contrast to that of the 
zone below, for, in addition to the scattered nodular flints which 
characterise the Terebralulina zone, there is in the higher zone 
a large number of immense bands of continuous tabular flint. 
The chalk is hard, and fossils are usually rare, and difficult to 
extract in good condition. Seams of grey or yellow marl, about 
two or three inches in thickness, are not uncommon. In the 
upper part of the zone the chalk becomes a little softer and 
rather flaggy in places. Above this there are some bands of 
continuous tabular flints intermingled with chalk. These bands 
are probably the base of the Micraster cortestudinarium zone. 
There are no beds having the lithological peculiarities of the 
'Chalk Rock' of the southern counties. The following account 
of the sequence of the beds near North Ormsby is taken from 
the Geological Survey Memoir on 'Cretaceous Rocks,' vol III, 
p. 273, and may be regarded as fairly typical of the exposures 
in other parts of the Upper Chalk area in North Lincolnshire. 

ft. in. 
Thill-bedded white chalk witii flint nodules ... 6 o 

Course of grey flint interlaminated with chalk .. 6 

Firm creamy white chalk ... ... ... ... 30 

Seam of dark grey shaly marl ... ... ... 3 

Hard dull white chalk with flat lenticular flints ... 60 
Continuous floor of flint ... ... ... ... 6 

Hard white chalk in thick beds without flints ... 76 
Hard dull white chalk with small lenticles of flint 10 o 
Hard white chalk in more massive beds ... .. 60 

* See also Geol. Mag., 1904, pp. 172-176. 
1906 July 1. 

2o8 Bitrnct : Xotcs on I he I'ppcr C/ialk of Lincolnshire. 

One of the most soutlierly exposures of Upper Chalk is the 
qnarry at Boswell, near Xorth l')lkini,'-ton. As Mr. Hill had 
previously visited this quarry, and had fully described it in his 
note in the Geological Magazine for September, 1902, I did not 
make a leng-thy search for fossils here. They are, however, 
not difficult to find in this pit, and, so far as I know, it is the 
only quarry in Lincolnshire where Micrastcrs are at all common. 
Two other very typical sections oi Holaster planus chalk occur 
at Fotherby. The first of these, three quarters of a mile W.S.W. 
of the villag'e, shows about 25 feet of hard white chalk with 
bands of dark tabular flint, and a seam of dark yellow marl. 
From this quarry I obtained the following fossils : — 

Septifcr liucatus. Echinocorys scutatus. 

Jnoceranins brongniarii. Goniastcr sp. 

Plicatula sigillina. Rhynchonella ciivieri. 

Ostrea vesiculans. Tc re brat 11 la carnea. 

Ostrea normaniana. Terebratula setniglobosa. 

Holaster planus. Terebratulina lata. 

Holaster placenta. Kingena lima.* 

Cyphosoma (spine), 
As in many other quarries on this horizon, fragments of very 
large Inoceramus shells are somewhat abundant. 

The other quarry lies a little to the west of Fotherby Grange, 
and here I found Holaster planus, Rhynchonella cuvieri, Tere- 
bratula carnea., Terebratulina lata, and Terebratulina striata. 

At North Ormsby there are three quarries, all showing the 
same series of beds. They are situated as follows : half a mile 
S.S. E. of the Church ; about 360 yards north of the Church ; 
and three-quarters of a mile N.N.W. of the village. From 
these sections I obtained the following : — 

Inoceramus cuvieri. Rhvnchonclla cuvieri. 

Holaster planus. Terebratula carnea. 

Holaster placenta. Terebratulina lata. 

Kchinocorvs scutatus. /\iu<^e)ia limn. 

On the high ground to the west of the village there is a 
small pit showing bands of the imperfect tabular flint already 
referred to. This quarrj' yielded the following : Micraster 
corbovis, Holaster placenta, R/iynchouella cuvieri, Ostrea (a 
small species), Ostiea vesicularis, and KinQcna lima. 

I'^urthcr west, at I.amhrroll, there is anothtM- section where 

* In licol. .Mdi^., u)0-|, lliis fossil was rci-di-iU'ci as Mm^ns piitiii/is. ll 
has now been shewn by Dr. Rowc that Mngns is conlinecl to the /itlfiiiiii/ella 
iiinrronii/tt zone -a zone not re])resente(l in I.inenlnshii-e. — Kn. 


Burnet: Notes on the Upper Chalk of Lincolnshire. 209 

these same beds are seen, but the onl}^ fossils that I could find 
were Rhynchonella cuvieri, Kingena lima., and a spine of Cidaris 
peronata. This pit is about 400 feet above O.D. 

At Beesby, about a mile south of Hawerby, there is a 
fairly g'ood section showing- beds which are slightly different 
from any seen at Ormsby or Fotherby. The chalk is flaggy, 
and not hard, but fossils seem to be rare. The only ones 
that I found were Ostrea vesicitlaris, Terebratnla carnea, and 
Inoceranius sp. Lower beds than these are seen at Wold 
Newton at a quarry S.S.E. of the village, where there is an 
exposure of about 30 feet of hard chalk with thick tabular 
flints, and the following fossils : Rhynchonella cuvieri., Kingena 
lima., and Holaster placenta ? 

At Beelsby there is a fairly larg-e quarry near the Church. 
The chalk is rather flag^gy and is not hard, but fossils are 
scarce. Those found were : Rhynchonella cuvieri., Terebratnla 
carnea and Inoceranius (an unnamed species). Similar beds are to 
be seen in a quarry south-east of Irby. Here are exposed about 
25 feet of rather flaggy chalk, with tabular bands, and scattered 
lenticles of flint, and containingf Inocera7nus cuvieri, Spondylus 
latus, Holaster planus (or placenta), Rhynconella cuvieri, and 
Terebratulina lata. 

At Great Limber there are two very good sections. From 
the quarry a little to the west of the Church I obtained Parasmilia 
centralis, Rhynchonella plicatilis, var. octoplicata , Rhynchonella 
cuvieri, and Infulaster excentricus. The other quarry is a mile 
south-east of the \illage, and here I found Spondylus latus, 
Echinocorys scutatus, and Terebratnla carnea. 

There are no good sections in the neighbourhood of 
Brocklesby. There is an old quarry half a mile south of the 
village, and another at Limber Parva, just inside the park, but 
both are much overgrown, and the only fossils found were 
Holaster placenta and Serpula sp. from the latter pit. 

From the quarry at Kirming-ton, described by Mr. Hill in his 
' Note on the Upper Chalk of Lincolnshire,'* I obtained Holaster 
planus, Kingena lima, Rhynchonella cuvieri, and Inoceranius 

There is a ver}' large quarry near the railway about a mile 
south of Ulceby The beds are horizontal, and these contain 
scattered flints. There are also a few tabular bands. The 
fossils found here were Terebratnla carnea, Kingena lima, 
Rhync/ionella cuvieri (or reedensis), and Ostrea vesiculan's. 

* Gcol. Mag., Sept., 1902. 
igo6 July i. 

2IO liunu'l : Xotes on I he Upper C/i<i/k of Lincoln shire. 

There is a very interesting- exposure in tlie quarry a mile 
west of Ulceby, which shows about 30 feet of comparatively 
soft chalk, with bands of imperfect tabular flint. The beds have 
a slight easterly dip. The fossils found here were : — ■ 

Micnister cortestiidinarium. Rhynchonella cnvieri. 

Holaster (either planus or Terebrutiilina lata, 

placcntii). Terebrainlu carneti. 

Rhynchonella reedensis ? Ostrca vesicnlaris. 

From this point northward to the H umber there are numerous 
quarries showing- similar beds to those already mentioned, but 1 
have not yet had an opportunity to make a leng^thy examination 
of them. A very good section is to be found in a large quarry 
three-quarters of a mile west of Thornton, where there are 
about 35 feet of hard white chalk with immense tabular bands 
of dark flint. Fossils are rare, and the only ones found here, 
and in one or two other pits in the vicinity, were : Inoceranms 
cuvien\ Rhynchonella cnvieri^ Terebrafnlina lata., Terebrattilina 
striata, and Cidarls spines. 

There are, however, some very large quarries just south of 
Barrow, and here I found : — 

Echinocorys scutatus. Kingena lima. 

Terebratnlina lata. Rhynchonella reedensis. 

Terebratula sp. Holaster placenta., 

Rhynchonella cnvieri. Inoceratnus sp. 

As regards the zoological characteristics of the Upper Chalk 
of Lincolnshire it will be noted that while there is a general 
resemblance to that of the same horizon in the south of England, 
there are, on the other hand, certain local peculiarities. 

The Lamellibranchs found in these beds do not call for any par- 
ticular comment, with one exception. The example of Septifer 
lineatus which I found at Fotherby is the only specimen hitherto 
obtained from either Lincolnshire or Yorkshire. It is a species 
characteristic of the 'Chalk Rock,' and is described by Mr. H. 
Woods in his paper on 'The Mollusca of the Chalk Rock.' * 

Among the Brachiopods Terebratula carnea is the most 
common. Terebratula seniiglobosa, a form \ery common in the 
Middle Chalk, is extremely rare. I have obtained three speci- 
mens of Terebratula from the quarr\' at Fotherby, which Dr. 
Kitchin says are probably referable to this species. They differ 
very much in both size and forni from the normal type, and he 

• Quart. Journ., C.col. S,„:, \,il. 1,11., 1897. 


Burnet: Notes on the Upper Chalk of Lincolnshire. 211 

informs me that they may be either dwarfed adults or immature 
specimens (the pHcated stag-e not reached). 

R. cuvieri is the commonest species of Rhynchonella, but it is, 
generally speaking, much below the average size. R. limhata 
and R. plicatilis, var. octoplicata are quite characteristic of 
Upper Chalk. 

The common occurrence of Kingenn lima in this part of the 
chalk is a feature peculiar to Lincolnshire, or perhaps it would 
be more correct to say, peculiar to the nothern chalk. It was 
first found in the Upper Chalk of Lincolnshire by Mr. W. Hill, 
who also discovered it in the Holaster planus chalk at Enthorpe, 
Yorks. It has also been found by Dr. Rowe in the Terehratulina 
zone at Reighton, and in the Holaster planus zone near Flam- 
borough. In the course of my own very limited collecting 
from the Yorkshire Chalk I have obtained specimens from both 
these zones in inland Yorkshire, so it would appear to be not 

Echinoderms are generally common in the Holaster planus 
zone, but such is not the case in Lincolnshire. The commonest 
forms are Holaster planus and H. placenta. Echinocorys is also 
found, but the specimens are too imperfect or too much crushed 
to show any characteristics of shape. As in Yorkshire, 
Micrasters are very rare. The Micraster cortestiidinariuni from 
Ulceby is the only example of that species which has been 
found in Lincolnshire It is about the usual size, having a 
length of 48 mm. and a breadth of 52 mm. The most remark- 
able of the echinids is Infulaster excentricus. This fossil is 
common in the zone of M. coranguinum, and also occurs in the 
higher zones, but its occurrence in the lowest part of the Upper 
Chalk is quite remarkable. Mr. Rhodes, of the Geological 
Survey, collected a specimen from the Acthorpe quarry, a mile 
and a half north-west of Louth. In addition to the example 
which I found at Limber, I have also obtained a specimen from 
a quarry near Malton which is either in the Holaster planus 
zone, or just within the zone of M. cortestudinariuni (probably 
in the former). 

Dr. Kitchin has carefully examined the two specimens, and 
has compared them with the one from Acthorpe, and he says : — 

' The specimens are very good examples of Infulaster excen- 
tricns Rose. I find that this is a variable form as regards 
outline. The elevation of the apex, the degree of dorsal 
carination, and the slope exhibited by the margin of the anteal 
sulcus are characters subject to much variation, but I do not 

1906 July I. 

212 Bnnict : Xolcs on the L'ppcr ilutlk of Lincolnshire. 

think that your two specimens of Infuldslcr can be specifically 
separated from one another or from any of our museum 
examples. The specimen from Acthorpe is less than half the 
size of either of yours ; it is relatively more flattened and less 
elevated, less stronj^ly carinated, and its anteal profile shows a 
j^-reater convexity of outline. But we have a cast of a much 
larg-er specimen labelled ' Upper Chalk, Swaflfliam,' and the 
differences between this, your Limber specimen, and an 
extreme form such as }our Yorkshire example, are only 
differences of dei^ree.' 

No spons^es have yet been foimd in these beds in Lincoln- 
shire. The only coral foiuid was Pdnisniilia coitralis. 

The following' is, so far as I know, a complete list of the 
fossils recorded from these beds. 

* Fossils obtained by the Geolos^ical Survey. 

t ,, ,, ' Mr. W. Hill. 

\ ,, ,, the Louth Naturalists' Society. 

Il 5 5 5, m\-self. 

X Exogyra sp. 

* I Inocerauius broniriiiarti Sow. 

* I! ,, cuvieri Sow. 

* ,, digilutiis Sow. 

,, sp. (an unnamed 

II Modiola cot to: = Scptifcr lineal us 

11 Ostrca itoniuinitDKi (I'Orb. 
II ,, vestcularis Lam. 
II ,, (a small species). 
II Plicatida sigilUna S. P. W'oodw. 
II Spondyhis latiis Sow. 
t + ! Kingena lima Defr. 
I! RhynrlwueUa cuvieri d'Orb. 

* II ,, limha/a Schloth. 

II ,, />/ita/ilis, \iiv. octo- 

plicnta Sow. 
i II ,, rccdeitsis Ktli. 

i| Terrhrafiila carnea Sow. 

,, son iglobosa Sow. 

X il Tcrchnitulina lata Eth. 
11 ,, striata Wahl. 

li Serpula (two species). 
Cidaris pcrornata Forbes. 

! ,, sceptrifeni Mant. 
I' ,, sp. 

I Cyp/iosonia sp. 

*? t Echinocorys scitlatus Leskc. 

* (ialerites globulus Desor. 
Holaster placenta \^. 

\ ,, planus Mant. 

* il Infulasier excentricus Rose. 
'! Micraster corbovis Forbes. 

,, corlestudinarium Coldf. 

I ,, leskei Desm. 

/'arasni ilia centralis Mant. 
' U ippdhea elegans d'Orb. 

In conclusion 1 wish to express my very sincere thanks to 
Mr. W. Hill, .Mr. .\. J. Jukes-Browne, Dr. F. L. Kitchin, and 
Dr. Rowi- (who has enabled me to make se\ eral corrections to 
the list published in the Gcol. Mail.) *«>'' ''i'" \;ilual)li- help which 
they have so kindly given to me. 

1 am also indebted to Mr. Hill for the follow ing notes on 
two thin secti(jns from these beds, and lo Mr. A. 1".. Holt lor 
the micro-photograj^hs in illustration. 


iUE .V.I iVRM.IST, 1906. 

Pl.AlK XVllI. 

Microscopic Sections ot Lincolnshire Challv. 




(plate XVIII.) 
\V. HILL, F.G.S. 

No. I. — From the quarry three = quarters of a mile 
W.S.W. of Fotherby. 

The example of the Chalk of Lincohishire on this slide will 
compare with many examples of chalk from the base of the 
zone of Micraster cortestudinarium from the south of Eng^land. 

Its charactei" is well marked by the large number of 
' Spheres ' which it contains, and, though these are not packed 
so closely together as in some specimens of chalk from other 
localities and horizons, yet give it an aspect which may form a 
useful help in determining the horizon elsewhere in Lincolnshire 
or Yorkshire. Besides these ' Spheres,' which at once take the 
eye when the section is examined under the microscope with a 
i-in. objective, there can be recognised foraminifera and a few 
shelly fragments. 

Among the foraminifera Globigeriiia is the most common, 
together with a minute Textuhirian (probably 7>.v///^//'/« minufa). 
There are one or two other forms, but there seems neither a 
large number nor a great variety of foraminifera in this chalk. 

Some of the shell fragments can be identified as belongings 
to Inoceramiis, the prismatic arrangement in the shell being well 
shown, others are too small for identification. There are also 
three fragments of some Echinoid test, and one small Echinoid 
spine has been cut through in making the section. 

As in many specimens of chalk, the greater part consists cf 
amorphous calcareous matter, probably the debris of calcareous 
organisms, which has of course surrounded and perhaps helped 
to preserve those remains which we can still recognise embedded 
in it. I estimate the amount of this to be about 55 per cent, of 
the mass, the remainder largely consisting of ' Spheres,' with a 
few foraminifera and shell frag'ments 45 per cent. 

No. 2. — From the quarry a mile west of Ulceby. 

I cannot refer to this specimen as being like the chalk of any 
particular horizon. It consists very largely of amorphous 

1906 July I. 


214 Field Note. 

calcareous inaltcr, with toraminifera. A few frai^ments of shell 
and here and there a tliin, thread-like spicule of a sponge can be 

The foraminifera, however, exhibit considerable variety in 
genera, and the chalk would I think be worth washing if soft 
enough. Amongst those I can recognise are Globigerina^ which 
is fairly common. Texfularla (two or three species), Cristell- 
aria, A\)dosar/a ( ? ), and some Ratal inc forms, besides others. 
' Spheres ' are present, but most of the single cells seen in this 
section appear to me to be the primordial cells of Globigcrina or 
other foraminifera. The shelly fragments are very small, and 
give no clue to identification, but there is one large fragment of 
the test of an Echinoid. I estimate the recognisable ingredients 
of this chalk to be about 20-25 P^"" cent, of its mass, the rest 
being amorphous material. 

Rare Speeton Clay Fossils. One of the most interesting 
fossils collected ditring the visit of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union to Speeton in June, is a small ammonite of the Olcoste- 
plunius type which Prof. Kendall found on the weathered clays 
high up on Black Cliff Ridge. 

It evidently belongs to the form of ilisco/alacttis with few 
umbilical ribs (19-21) not to that with many (24-30), de- 
scribed and figured as Olc. {SitJibcrskites) discofalcatiis in the 
' Argiles de Speeton'* (p. 146, pi. xi. fig. 15), but which Prof. 
Pavlow in a later work t has shown to be Olc. ? phillipsi Neum. 
and Uhl. (sp. or subsp.). 

Though but 25 mm. across, several of the siphonal ribs 
exhibit the occasional befurcations usually seen only in older 
examples. It has been suggested that the presence of this 
species here should be recorded as affording additional proof 
of correspondence between the fauna of the Russian and Speeton 
Neocomian deposits. 

.Another find on the same excursion was a small Crioceras 
of tlie genus .Ancyloceras, belonging to a species which Prof, 
von Koenen, to whom specimens had previously been submitted, 
considers undescribed. — C. G. Dan'kokd, Reighton. 

* ' Ar^'ili.'s dc .Speeton i-t I, curs l"!<jiiiv;iU'iits.' A. l\i\lo\v ct (i. W. 
Laniplii^ifh. .Moscmi, 1892. 

t ' Le Cretace Iiifc-rii-iir ilc 1h Riissie I't s;i I'.uiiH'.' A. I'avlow. V. 7.S, 
pi. vi. tiif. I (t, b, r, tl ; \i\. vii. tij^. 2 a, b, r, fi^. 3 </, /;, <: 




(plate XIX.) 


Slaithioaite, near Huddersfield . 

Inasmuch as harvest ' spiders' are most in evidence at the time 
of the ing-athering of the crops, they justif}- the appHcation to 
them of one part of their trivial name, but they are not, notwith- 
standing- the popular conception of their identity contained in 
the other part, true spiders. Nevertheless these creatures have 
an affinity with each other, and are so nearly related, as both to 
be placed by systematists in the same g-reat class Arachnida. 
Once they were reg-arded as insects, even by naturalists, but in 
more modern times they have been removed from amongst the 
insects, from which they can with ease and certainty be differen- 
tiated by the absence of antenuce, the possession of four pairs 
of leg-s, the union of the head and chest into one piece (the 
cephalothorax), and their different life history, which is un- 
marked by any metamorphoses, the eg^g- producing- a juvenile 
which resembles its parents from its birth, and which without 
change of form in process of time becomes adult. 

Although the harvestman and the spider possess these 
characteristics of their class, there is considerable dissimilarity 
between them, and so apparent is this difference to the unaided 
sight that there is no likelihood, when once the distinction is 
made, of either of them being mistaken for the other, even by 
the most careless observer. In the former (Fig. i) the body is 
without division, the cephalothorax and the abdomen being 
fused together ; the latter shows definite, if occasionally in- 
distinct, traces of original segmentation, and is without spinners ; 
the eyes, two in number, are placed on an elevation, which is in 
many species armed with two rows of more or less strong 
denticulse. In the latter (Fig. 2) the cephalothorax and the 
abdomen form separate portions of the body, and are connected 
by a distinct pedicle ; the abdomen shows not the slightest sign 
of segmentation, and is furnished with spinners ; the eyes in the 
British species are either six or eight, variously grouped. 

Only a few of the commoner and more active kinds of 
harvestmen force themselves on our attention in the late summer 
and autumn, running briskly over the grass and herbage ; the 
others must be diligently searched for during- the same seasons 
(except a few which are adult in spring, and one or two which 

1906 July I. 

2i6 Fdlconcr : Nolcs on Ifarvcsf-Spiilers. 

may be found ihrout^hoLit the year), in more or less concealment 
amono^st moss, dead leaves, and debris, at the bases and roots of 
j^rass and low veg^etation, on the foliasje and trunks of trees and 
bushes, in wall crevices, on the inferior surface of projections, 
and under stones. In these situations they find full scope for the 
exercise of their carnivorous propensities, feedinj^ on the small 
creatures (inclusive of the weaker and youni^er of their own 
kind) which abound in such places. Beinj^ without spinning- 
apparatus of any kind, they cannot weaxe webs to ensnare their 
prey, and so ensure an easier and more certain capture ; and, as 
their fang's are not connected with poison-gflands, they must, to 
obtain a meal, overcome their victims by superior streng^th. 
One of the larger Phalang;iids has been seen to capture and eat 
an adult female ' wolf spider, an animal as larg^e as itself and 
armed with more deadly weapons in the form of poison-injecting' 
fang's.* On the other hand, there are times when their own 
lives are in dangler, and then they adopt a remarkable expedient 
(though not one peculiar to theni) to bafHe their enemies and 
secure their own safety. Should they be held by one of their 
long' leg's, they instantly and of their own volition throw off the 
limb, which, being endowed with great nervous irritability, 
begins and continues for a considerable length of time a series 
of vigorous contortions which bewilder the assailant, fixing its 
attention and giving the imperilled harvestman an opportunity 
to hide in the nearest and most convenient retreat. In tiie use 
of such a device for self preservation, they are equally gifted 
with the slow worm, the common lizard, the spider, the crab 
and the lobster, the reptiles throwing off their tails, the spider 
its leg, and the crustaceans their claws in similar circum- 
stances. In all these animals the discarded portions are sooner 
or later replaced. It is, therefore, assumed, but the fact has not 
been proved,! that a similar renewal takes place in the harvest- 
men, to whom, however, the deprivation of a leg is apparently 
no great loss, for they may frequently be seen speeding on their 
way with any number short of the proper complenient down to 
two (one on each side of the body), while the Re\ . |. G. Wood 
mentions an example which had only one leg left, with which it 
endeavoured to edge it.self along. { They are nol always the 
victims of open violence ; foes of a more insidious iialurc and ol 

' lsi\. (). l'i< k.ird (\iml)ri(l)L;i's ' Urilish l'ii;ilaiij;'itica,' p. 5. 

■I' Ibid. 

% 'New Illiistralod .Xaliiial HisUiry," p. 751. 



Plate XIX. 

I: c a. 


Harvest = Spiders, etc. 

Falconey : Notes on Harvest-Spiders. 217 

much smaller size often attack them. One of these assailants, 
the youngf six-legg'ed form of a red mite, one of the Tronibidiice, 
attaches itself g-enerally to their leg's, but occasionally to the 
upper and lower surfaces of their bodies, selecting" those situa- 
tions which are out of reach of its victims. Being at this 
stage of its existence a true parasite, its intention, in thus 
effecting a lodgment on another animal, is manifest. Firmly 
anchored in this position by peculiar modifications of the mouth 
parts, it is enabled to suck the juices of its host, and at the same 
time secure wide dissemination. Eventually it drops to the 
g"round, in which it hides itself, changing in about three weeks 
into the perfect eight-limbed free imago. Harvestmen, 
especially when, as often happens, they carry several of these 
mites at once, are, owing to the bright colour of the latter, 
rendered much more conspicuous objects than from their sober 
colouring they would otherwise be. Sometimes too, as has 
often been observed in England * and in Germany,! the pseudo- 
scorpion takes advantage of the free-roaming harvestman's long 
legs as a means of locomotion, holding firmly by its strong pincers. 
Its motive is much less obvious than that of the mite, and con- 
sequently, naturalists who have enquired into the reason for this 
strange habit, have not all come to the same conclusion. Some 
think it merely desires a change of quarters, and adopts this 
plan to attain its end ; some that being disturbed in its lair, and 
being moreover of a very pugnacious and obstinate disposition, 
it angrily seizes the intruding limb, will not let g^o, and is, 
therefore, taking an involuntary ride. Mr. H. Wallis Kew, in 
an interesting article, J concludes that the pseudo-scorpion, in 
spite of its vastly inferior size, attacks other creatures for food, 
and must therefore be regarded as an animal of prey ; he adduces 
observations from various sources in support of his view, but 
adm.its the subject will bear further investigation. Apparently 
the harvestman does not (one wonders why ?) associate violence 
with the treacherous attacks of the parasitical mite or predacious 
pseudo-scorpion, and makes no attempt to clear itself of them by 
throwing off" the infested limb. 

The twenty-five species (of which one is doubtful) of British 
harvestmen are arranged in three families and nine genera, and 
all belong to the section Plagiostethi of the Order Opiliones 
'^\.w\A.= Pluilangidea Cb. While the different species are not 

* Rev. \V. W. Spicer, ' Science Gossip,' 1867, p. 244. 

4. Professor Leydig-, ' Skizze zu einer Fauna Tubingensis,' 1867. 

:J: ' Natiu-alist,' July, 1901, No. 534, pp. 195-215. 

1906 July I. 

2i8 /ui/coiicr : .Votes on Hdi-vcsl-Spu/rrs. 

dillicult to discriniinati- u Hl-u ackilt, it is otherwise with the 
sexes, but the male may i^enerully be disting-uislied from the 
temale by the smaller size and more intense colourinif of his 
body, his lons^-er and more slender lej^s, and in some kinds by 
the curious development of his falces. 

The subjoined list records fifteen species for the County 
of York — thirteen of m\- own collectings, the work of three 
months —July to September, 1905 — and two from other sources. 
One of the thirteen has been previously taken in Yorkshire, and 
it is very probable that some of the others, owing- to their abun- 
dance, have been also, but if so the fact is unknown to me. 
They liave all been verified or named by the Rev. F. Pickard 
Cambridg-e, whose ' Monograph of the British Phalangidea,' 
1890, is indispensable to students of this small, compact, but 
very negflected group. From this work the table below for 
purposes of identification has been compiled, and in them the 
abbreviations P^.E. — eye eminence; C.T. =the cephalothorax ; 
Leg's I., II., III., or IV. =the first, second, third or fourth pair 
of leg's respectively ; F..S. =the three frontal spines which stand 
in a line near the front edg'e of the cephalothorax of the g'enus 
0//<^.)/'>/>/i//s C. Koch. First refer the specimen to Table .A to 
find the family to which it belong^s, next under the family chosen 
in Table B pick out the g'enus, and then under the selected 
g'enus in Table C determine the species. Finally compare the 
specimens with a detailed description to eliminate error. 


1. Transverse folds bjhiiui U.K., 2 : palpi with 

terminal claw... .. .. ... P/ia/iimr/idie. 

Transverse folds behind E. K., none: ]y,i\p\ 

without terminal (law ... ... ... 2 

2. Coxai of lei^s free : C.T. not |)r(jloni;'ed into 

a hood... ... ... ... .W'liins/oinatidir. 

Coxfe of leg's sjldered to undL-rside of body : 

C.T. prolonged into a hood .. .. Troj^ii/iiiie. 

Tahi.k B— r.FMFR.V. 
I. I-.\.M. rn.\i..\.\(.iii).K. 

1. Margin of C.T. without lateral ])i)res . .St/rro.s-oi/Ki Lucas. 
Margin of C.T. with latei-al pores 2 

2. E.E. without tlenticulai ... /,/n/itniiiiii C. ivoch. 
E.E. will) denticuhv ... . .. ,^ 

3. Palpi without or with only small apophyses 4 
Palpi with more oi- less strong ap(jphyses 5 


Falconer: Notes on Harvest-Spiders. 219 

4. Legs I. metatarsi with false articulations 

(except P. saxatile) Phalangium Linn. 

Legs L metatarsi without false articula- 
tions ... ... ... ... Oligvlophus C Koch. 

5. Both cubital and radial joints of palpi 

with apophyses... ... ... ... Plafyhn nus C \^. K-Och. 

Cubital joints of palpi only with apophyses Megabiaius Meade. 

IL F.\M. Xkmastom.\tid.^. 

One genus only, see Table A. ... .. Nemasfoma C. Koch. 

in. Fam. Trogulid.^. 

1. Legs L and IL tarsi of 2 articulations ; 

Legs III. and IV'. tarsi of 3 articula- 
tions ... ... ... ... ... Trog-uhis l^aXv. 

2. Legs I. and II. tarsi of 3 articulations ; 

Legs III. and IV. tarsi of 4 articula- 
tions ... ... ... ... ... Anelasmocephalus Sim. 

Table C— SPECIES. 
Gen. Sclerosoma. 

1. Tibiae of legs without spines ... ... qitndridentntHDiCnvxev 

2. Tibiaj of legs with strong spines ... m/>ta >i inn L. Koch. 

Gen. Liobunum. 

1. Eyes rimmed with black ; 2 blunt projec- 

tions below front edge of C.T. ... rotundum Latr. 

2. Eyes rimmed with w-hite ; these projec- 

tions absent ... ... ... ... black^vallii M-QBiAe. 

Gen. Phalangium. 

1. Two prominent adjacent teeth below 

front edge of C.T. ... .. ... opilio \J\nn. 

These teeth absent ... ... ... ... 2 

2. Larger ; without central abdominal line 

of conspicuous white spots ... ... pnriefinum C Koch. 

JMuch smaller, with central abdominal 

line of conspicuous white spots ... saxatile C. Koch. 
The doubtful species, P. »ii?iiifum Meade, is omitted. 
Gen. Platybinus. 

1. Apophysis of cubital joint of palpi = 

\ length of joint itself corniger Herm. 

2. Apophysis of cubital joint of palpi = 

g length of joint itself triangularis Vi^tvhsX.. 

Gen. Megabunus. 

One species only, with one long spine near 

front edge of C.T /«5?^«/5 Meade. 

Gen. Oligolophl.s. 

1. F.S. very small ... ... ... ... 2 

F.S. strong ... ... ... ... ... 7 

2. F.S. equal, wide apart ... ... ... 3 

F.S. central one slightly longest, closer 

together .. ... ... ... ... 5 

1906 July I. 

220 Fiilcoiicr: Xo/cs on flurvcst-Sfiiderx. 

3. Legs long 4 

Legs short ; no spines or denticiilce ... citwrasccns C. Koclu 

4. Spines on tibia; of legs I., none oi' few, 

and weak ... ... ... ... nii>ri<) V-Ahr. 

Spines on tibiae of legs I., ninnei-ous and 

strong ... ... ... ... ... (dphnis llerbst. 

5. F.S. central one a little in advance ; 

genital plate with circular indentation ajrrcs/is IMeade. 
F.S. in straight line ; Genital plate with- 
out a circular indentjition ... ... 6 

6. Lighter coloured ; F.S. tapering ... fridens C L. Koeh. 
Dark coloured ; F.S. conical ... ... hansenii K.ri\.i:\^\. 

7. F.S. unequal; in straight line ... ... 8 

F.S. equal ... ,. ... ... ... g 

8. F".S. nearly vertical ; central one slightly 

longest ... ... ... ... /yalpiiuilis Merbst. 

F.S. directed forwards; central one equal 

at least twice the lateral ones ... nn'mieii Cb. 

9. F.S. directed a little forward ; central one 

a little in advance .. ... ... ephippia/iis C L. Koch. 

F'.S. directed much forward ; in straight 

line ... ... ... .. ... spinosits Bosc. 

Ge\. \'e.m.\sto.m.v. 

1. Black; legs short . . ... ... ... liiifubrc i). F. Muller. 

2. Legs long and ver\' slendir ... ... r/i rvsoni i'la x ML'vm. 

Gkn. Trogllls. 

One species, see Table B. ... ... ... /riairinafiis Linn. 

Gk.\. Anel.\smoceph.\lls. 

One species, see Table B. ... ... ... rui/ibr/'dic// \\'cs\\\. 

(To be coufiiiued.) 


Drawings by F. P. S. Mir 11. 
l'"ig. [. Outline of body of a harvestman. \. position of genital plate. 
Fig. 2. ,, ,, spider. 

Fig. T,(i. PhnhiHiriiini opilio Linn. — falx of male. 
Fig. T,h. ,, ,, ,, tlie two teeth below the front edge of the 

Fig. ^ti. LiohHUKtn rofiiiiiiniu Latr. — ^eve eminence. 
Fig. 4^. ,, ,, ,, tiie two projections below the front 

v([\:;<.- of the tephaU)lhorax. 
I'"ig. 5. /'.'(ih'hiiiiKS tr'ntii<ruhxris llerbst. - p.dpiis showing the large 

{•"ig. ha. Olig()li)p/iiis (lirn-sfis Mv^Ade -genital plate with circular iiulentation. 
[•'ig. 6/;. ,, ,, ,, till- three spines of the cephalo- 

i'"ig. •}(!. 0!iiri>!ophi<x p:ilpinn!i.< llerbst. — palpus showing ih^- sniiU 

I'"ig. -h. ,, ,, ,, the three frontal s])ines of the 





Until lately 1 was under the impression that the Pine Marten, 
Maries sy/ves/n's (locally known as ' Mart ' or ' Sweet-mart '), 
was approaching- extinction in the hill districts of Cumberland, 
Westmorland, and North Lancashire ; but from enquiry 
recently made on the spot, I find that this is far from being- the 
case, and that the Pine Marten in fair numbers still holds its 
own in its former mountain fastnesses. 

What records I was able to obtain brings the instances of its 
occurrence g-iven by the late Rev. H. A. McPherson, M.A., in 
his valuable work on the ' Vertebrate Fauna of Lake-land ' 
(1892), down to a much later date ; in fact, in some instances, 
almost to the present day. As such, they are worthy of notice. 
Two youngf ' Marts ' were trapped in the third week of May 
igo6, close to the Bowder Stone in Borrowdale, a locality well 
known to all tourists in the Lakes. One was g^ot by a man 
called Jackson, employed (I believe) at the slate quarry there? 
the other by a man whose name I forg-et. Jackson, who 
appears to be a noted ' Mart ' catcher, is credited with having- 
trapped no fewer than seven in a sing-le winter, but I believe this 
■occurred some twehe or fourteen years ago. Most of these 
(if not all) were g;ot at the same place, and were obviously 
attracted by the number of domestic fowls kept there ; in fact 
the traps seem to have been set close to the fowl run. 

Another "Mart" was got, about Christmas 1905, at Watend" 
lath. This is a hig-h upland valley, running- parallel with Borrow" 
dale, and lyings between the Armboth and Borrowdale fells. The 
Blencathra Foxhounds (a pack kept mainly in the interest of the 
sheep farmers for killing- hill foxes, as disting-uished from the 
mere sport of hunting-, and whose Master is the present Speaker 
of the House of Commons), when hunting, in May of the preseiit 
year, the steep rocky side of Borrowdale, opposite the tin}' 
village of Stonethwaite, are said to have put away a 'Mart 
which they ran for some distance, but finally lost in the rugged 
slopes of Glaramara (2560 feet) on the opposite side of the 

In the spring of 1905, considerable losses of lambs occurred 
on the sheep run occupied by a Mr. Richardson, of Seathwaite. 
Seathwaite is the hamlet of half a dozen houses at the head of 
Borrowdale, which has the unenviable reputation of possessing 

1906 J Illy I. 

222 Noiihcini Xcivs. 

an annual averaj^e rainlall oi 150 inches. I<'ui' some lime it was 
thoui^ht that a hill fox was the culprit, but after it became plain 
that the injury to the lambs was all of the same nature, and that 
a peculiar one, a small piece beini^ in each case bitten out of the 
back of the neck, it was suspected that a ' Mart ' was at work. 
Accordini^ly a trap was set by a man named Pepper, the ' Mart ' 
was caug-ht, and the depredations at once ceased. 

I was informed by a shepherd that his brother, employed as 
a g"amekeeper by a Mr. Robinson, in Lani^dale, had during the 
last four years trapped four or five ' Marts.' These were all the 
recent records I was able to obtain, but it is only fair to say that 
enquiries were made in but one place, viz., Borrowdale. As a 
boy (now, alas, many years ag^o) I remember hearini^ that 
* Marts ' were fairly plentiful in the upper part of Eskdale, and 
we possessed a magnificent stuffed specimen which had been 
trapped there by a gamekeeper named Proud. If one attached 
a long" string to him and dragged him gently and noiselessly up 
to a cat sleeping by the fireside, the result was such as to 
exceed the wildest expectations of any malicious boy, but the 
sport had to be curtailed, or broken wmdows would have 
marked the maddened exit of the poor cat from the room. 

I am told that 'Marts' are very easily trapped, and that a 
piece of fish is a fatal bait, though a bit of rabbit will do at a 
pinch. They cannot stand smoke, and when run to ground in 
rough stones or screes, if a bunch of bracken is set alight and 
applied to the mouth of the hole, they u-ill bolt immediately. 
The best kind of dog for hunting them is said to be a cross 
between the otter and the foxhound. 

The Raven {Corvus comx) seems still fairly plentiful. I saw 
no less than four when standing on June 4th of this year on 
the summit of Stickle Pike (2300 feet), one of the Langdale Pikes. 
And though not quite so recently, I have heard their familiar 
croak in the steep precipices of Dale Head, a (comparatively) 
little-known mountain of the Borrowdale group. The sheep- 
farmers do not think they molest the healthy lambs, but they 
give (rather to my surprise) a bad name in this respect to the 
Carrion Crow, especially during the last year or two. In fact, 
they were said to be worse than the hill foxes. 

TIr- rrisicKnlsliip ol (hf NuiUsliirc X.iliiralisls' I'nioii lor 11)07 lias Ix-iii 
offered to and acccpU-d by Mr. C. Crosslaiui, l-M,.S.. ol" I lalifax, ii<iiil author 
of the recently piiblislied ' Funjjiis Flora of Yorkshire.' 






While g-etting together material for the Hst of Yorkshire 
H3'menoptera, to be very shortly published in the first volume 
of the Victoria History of the County, I had some specimens 
sent me for names by Mr. W. E. L. Wattam, and I am indebted 
to the Rev. F. D. Morice, of Woking, for identifying one of 
them, which is Xcr/s spec f rum (L.), ^, one of the family 

Mr. Wattam informs me that it was captured by a friend of 
his in May 1905, in the workroom of the Yost Typewriter Co., 
in Leeds. 

Mr; Morice says he does not know whether it has ever been 
recorded from Britain ; that it might no doubt turn up anywhere 
in imported timber, and that it may be indigenous, but he should 
doubt its being so. 

It is always a difficulty to state the real home of these wood- 
feeding Sirices, and it might be just as well entitled to a place in 
the British list as in that of other countries from which it is 
placed on record. Mr. Morice states that W. F. Kirby (Brit. 
Mus. Cat.) g-ives x)nly 'Munich, Transbaikal, Algeria' as 
localities, that Konow localizes it for ' Europa,' Andre for 
Germany, and Thomson gives it as a Scandinavian form, 
occurring sparsely in pine woods. 

Broscus cephalotes L. etc. near Doncaster. — My atten- 
tion was called a short time ago, by Mr. Tonkinson of this town, 
to the fact that this maritime species was to be found in a sandy 
lane about two miles east of Doncaster. On visiting the spot 
I found the insect fairly common. It has also recently been 
taken by Mr. Tonkinson at Edenthorpe, and by myself at 
Finningley. It would therefore appear to be widely dis- 
tributed and well established in the district. Other Geodephaga 
taken in the same lane as Broscus, are Cychrus rostratus, 
Carabus neinoralis, C. inonilis, Xcbria brcvi'collis, Harpalus 
ceneus, H. tardus, H. latus, H. ruficornis, Ptristichus madidus, 
PL uiger, Amara fulva, A. apricaria, A. tibialis, A. plebia, 
Calathus cistcloides, C flav'ipes, C. nielanocephalus, Pristonycha 
terricola, Aiichoinenus dors(dis, Treclius miuutus, and Lebia 
chlorocephala. — H. H. Corbett, Doncaster, June i6th, 1906. 

1906 July I. 




Silene nutans near Doncaster. — This beautiful and rare 
plant is now llowcrini^ in profusion on some waste land to the 
east of Barnby Dun Station, about 4^ miles from Doncaster.^ 
H. H. CoKHHTT, Doncaster, June i6th, 1906. 

Claytonia perfoliata at Ainley Wood, Elland. — There is 
a moderate quantity of this interesting- alien plant at the above 
locality. It was brought to me for identification by Mr. J. 
Robertshaw on the 2nd June last. — W. E. L. Wattam, 

Variety of Ranunculus repens at Shaw Wood, Out- 
lane. —Duriui;- an investigation of this wood by members of the 
Lindley Naturalist and Photographic Society on the 2nd June 
last, my attention was drawn to a variety of Ranunculus repens^ 
the flowers having petals from eight to twehe in number. 
The plants bearing this type of blossom cover a large area of 
moist ground. — W. K. L. Wattam, Newsome. 

— : o : — 

Note on the Mole. — I have ample proof that moles wil' 
catch at, and cling to, the feet of birds which have accidentally 
broken through the crowns of their shallow runs. A strong 
bird like a full-grown pheasant will, on first being seized, fly 
off" for a short distance with the mole clinging to its foot. Till 
to-day I have never heard of them attacking a child. I have 
often picked living moles up, but have never been bitten. Here 
at Cadney a child was seized b\- the finger ; as he is only 
between two and three years, he cannot give details. The 
mole clung to his hand, just as they will to a bird's foot, till it 
was torn from its hold by his cousin, and as promptly dis- 
patched by Mr. David Richardson, of the Manor House, who 
was standing by, and told me of the incident. — H. Adrian 
Woookuit-e-Peacock, Cadney, Brigg, May i2lh, 1906. 

: o : — 
Albino Starling and Meadow Pipit at Sedbergh. — We 

have in our district a white starling and a meadow pipit. The 
latter has white wings, and white feathers under the body. 
Both have been bred this year.- — W. Morris, Sedbergh, June 
15th, 1906. 


Sorby : List of Papers and Monographs. 225 


By Dr. H. CLIFTON SORBY, F.R.S.. &c. 

(Continued from page i<j7-) 

On the Cause of the Difference in the State of Preservation of Different 
Kinds of Fossil Shells. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1865, p. 10. 

On a New Method of Detecting Blood Stains and Ascertaining their 
Approximate Age. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Re]3., 1S65, p. 11. 

On the Construction and Use of the Spectrum Microscope. Popular Sci 
Review. \'., 1866, pp. 66-77. 

On the Physical History of Meteorites in Connection with the Nebular 
Theory. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1866, p. 10. 

On a Definite Method of Qualitative Analysis of Animal and Vegetable 
Colouring Matters by means of the Spectrum Microscope. Royal Soc- 
Proceed., X\'., 1867, pp. 43-5-455; Phil. Mag. (4 sen), XXXIV., 1867, pp. 
144-166; Die Fortschritte del- Physik, Berlin, XXIII., 1867, pp. 261-264. 

• On a New Method of Detecting Poisoning by Belladonna and other Allied 
Pruits. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1868, pp. 16, 17; Medical Press 
and Circular, Nov. 27, 1867, p. 494. 

On the Colour of the Clouds and Sky. Phil. Mag. (4 sen), XXXIV., 

1867, pp. 356-359; Les Mondes(2 sen), XVI., pp. 1 15-117. 

Le Microspectroscope, sa Construction et son Usage. Revue X'niverselle, 
XXL, 1867, pp. 337-354- 

On the Direct Vision Spectrum Microscope and its Application to Quali- 
tative Analysis. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1867, p. 5. 

On the Microscopical Examination of Rocks, Crystals, and Fossils. 

Dr. Lionel Beale's " How to Work with the Microscope," 4th edit., 1868, 
pp. 174-1S1. 

On the Microscopical Structure of Iron and Steel. Dr. Lionel Beale's 
" How to Work with the Microscope," 4th edit., 1868, pp. 181-183. 

On the Spectrum Microscope and its Applications. Dr. Lionel Beale's 
" How to Work with the Microscope," 4th edit., pp. 218-228. 

On the Colour of the Clouds and Sky. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 

1868, p. 8. 

On the Colouring Matters of Blue Decayed Wood. Quar. Jour, of 
Micro. Sci. (new ser. ), IX., 1869, pp. 43,44. 

On the Dichroism of some Zircons. Chemical News, XIX., 1869, pp. 
122. 123. 

On New Applications of the Microscope to Blow-pipe Chemistry. Chemi- 
cal News, XIX., 1869, p. 124. 

On the Application of the Microscope to Mineralogy. Quar. Jour, of 
Micros. Sci. (new sen), IX., 1869, pp. 182, 183. 

On the Structure of Rubies, Sapphires, Diamocds, and other Precious 
Stones. Royal Soc. Proceed., X\'II., 1869, pp. 291-302. 

On the Microscopical Structure of some Precious Stones. Mon. Micro. 
Journ., I., 1869, pp. 220-224. 

On Crystals Inclosed in Blow-pipe Beads. Mon. Micro. Journ., I., 1869, 
pp. 349-352 ; Chemical News, XX., 1869, pp. 18. 19. 

On a Blow-pipe Reaction of Thallium. Chemical News, XIX., 1869, 
p. 309. 

The Microscope in Mineralogy. "Scientific Opinion," Feb. 24th, 1869 
pp. 307, 308. 

1906 July I. 

226 Sorbv : Lis/ of Pitfycrs mid Moiinj^nipfis. 

On Jargonium, a New Elementary Substance associated with Zirconium. 
Royal Soc. I'l-occi-d, W'll., i<S6(), p]). ^r i -5 1 5 ; ( "hciiiical News, XX., i.Sfxj, 
PI). 7-9; I'liil. .Maj;-. (4 sfi-.), XXXIX., 1S70, p]). ()5-7o. 

On some Technical Applications of the Spectrum Microscope Ouari. 
Joiirn. of Micro. Sci. (new ser), IX., 1S69, pp. 35S-3S3 ; Chemical .\c\vs, 
XX., 1869, pp. 279, 294. 304, and 314. 

On the Excavation of Valleys in Derbyshire, as illustrated by the Cavern 
in Deep Dale, near Buxton, (icol. Mat;-., \'I., 1S69, p. 347. 

On the Colouring Matters derived from the Decomposition of Minute 
Organisms. .Mun. .Micro. Joiini., III., 1S70, pp. 2J9-J31. 

On some remarkable Spectra of Compounds of Zirconia and the Oxides of 
Uranium. KoyalSoc. Proceed., XX'III., 1870,]))). 197-207; Ciiemical .News, 
X.\!., 1S70. pp. 73-7'); Phil. IMatf. (4 ser. ), XX.XIX., 1870. pp. 450-460. 

On the Spectrum of the Flame of the Bessemer Fumes. Chemical News, 
XXI., 1.^70, pp. 79, 80. 

On the Detection of Blood by means of the Spectrum Microscope. Guv's 
Hospital Rej). (3 ser.) X\'., 1870, pp. 274-377. 

On some Compounds derived from the Colouring Matter of the Blood. 
Qiiar. Jour, of Micro. .Science, X., 1870, ])p. 400-402. 

On the Application of the Microscope to the Study of Rocks. Mon. 
Micro. Journ. I\'., 1S70, pp. 148, 149. 

On the various Tints of Autumnal Foliage. (Juar. Jouni. of .Sci. (new 
ser.), I., 1871, pp. 64-77. 

On the Spectrum Analysis of Blood-stains. The Medical Press and 
Circular |ne\v sen), XI., May, 1871, p. 437 ; Brit. Med. Journ. May 
27th, 1871, pp. 360, 561. 

On some Improvements in the Spectrum Method of Detecting Blood. 
.Monthly .Mi(M-o. Journ., \T., 1871, pp. 9-17. 

On the Colour of Leaves at Different Seasons of the Year. Ouart. Jounr 
of .Mici(;. .Scirncc, XL, 1871, ])p. 215-234. 

On Blood Stains. The Medical Press and Circular, XII., July 26ih, 1871, 
pp. 67-70; The Doctor, I., .Auifust 1st, 1S71, pp. 150, 151. 

On the Various Tints of Foliage. X'atvne, I\'., Au<;iist 31st, 1871, jjp. 

On the Jargonium Fallacy. The Lancet, I., .\uv;-ust T9th, 1871, pj). 
256, ^57- 

On the Examination of Mixed Colouring Matters with the Spectrum 
Microscope. .Moulhh .Micro. Journ. ,\I , 1871, p|). 124-134. 

On the Action of Heat on Blood. The .\< ademy, II., (^ct. ist, 1871, p. 458 
On the Colouring Matter of some Aphides. (Juar-. Journ. of Micro. Sci., 

XL, 1871, pp. 352-3()o ; The .\cadcmy, II., |). 481. 

On some Facts connected with the Colouring Matter of Aphides. Tin- 
.Metiical Press and Circulai', .XIL, Oct. 18th, 1871, pp. 333, 334. 

On the best form of Compound Prism for the Spectrum Microscope. 
.Nature, I\'., ()(1. j6th, 1871, pp. 511, 512; (Juar. Journ. of Micro. .Sci., 
XIL, !>. 68. 

On the Spectra of Blood and Cochineal. Naiur<', I\'., Oct. 2bth, 1871, p. 
505, and coricclion in \'., .Nov. 2\\d, 1871, p. 7. 

Review of Fryer's Blood Crystals. The .\cademy. III., Jan. 1st, 1872, 
pj). 13, I |. 

On the Colouring Matter found in Fungi. Nature, \'., I-'eh. 15th. 1872, 

p. 2<,S. 

On Comparative Vegetable Chromatology. Proceed. Royal .Soc. .X.XL, 
1S73, |)p. 442-483; Ouar. Journ. Sci., III., 1873, pp. 45i.4(>5. 


Soi'hv : List of Papers; (uid Monoi^'nip/is. 227 

Review of a work on Chlorophyll Colouring Matters. Xatuix- \'III., 1873, 
July lotli, p. 202, and Jul\' lytli, p. 224. 

On Photo-chemical Analysis or the Employment of Light as a Reagent 
in the Study of Animal and Vegetable Colouring Matters. SheRield Lit. 
and Phil. Soi\ Rep., 1873, p. 15. 

On the Study of Natural History. Nature, IX., Jan. 22nd, 1S74, p. 228. 

On some recent Astronomical Speculations and their Relation to Geology. 
Nature, IX., Nay 19th, 1874, p. 388. 

On the Temporary Fading of Leaves Exposed to the Sun. Nature, X., 
June 25tli, 1874, p. i4g. 

On Impressed Limestone Pebbles, illustrating a new principle in Physical 
Geology. Rep. and Trans. Cardiff Nat. Soc, V., 1874, pp. 21-25. 

On Comparative Vegetable Chromatology, being the Study of the 
Evolution of Plants from a New Point of View. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. 
Soc. Rep., 1874, p. 12. 

On the Chromological Relation of Spongilla fluviatilis. Quar. Journ. 
Micro. Sci., X\'. , 1875, pp. 47-52. 

On the Colouring Matter of Bonellia viridis. Quar. Journ. Micro. Sci., 
X\'., 1875, pp. 166-172. 

On the connection between Fluorescence and Absorption. Mon. Micro. 
Journ., XIII., 1875, pp. 161-164. 

On the Discovery of Diatomacese in the Ashes of Coal, by Count 
Castracane. Nature XL, April 15th, 1875, p. 475. 

On New and Improved Microscope Spectrum Apparatus, and on its 
application to various branches of research. Mon. Micro. Journ., XIIL, 
1875., pp. 198-208. 

On the Colouring Matters of the Shells of Birds' Eggs- Proceed. Zool. 
Soc, May 5th, 1875, pp. 351-365; Nature, XII., May 13th, 1875, p. 38; 
Naturforschen, IX., 1876, pp. 13-15. 

On the Characteristic Colouring Matters of the Red Group of Algse. 
Journ. Lui. Soc, XV'., 1875, pp. 34-40; Nature XII., May 13th, 1875, p. 38. 

On the Remains of a Fossil Forest in the Coal Measures at Wadsley, near 
Sheffield. Ouar. Journ. Geol. Soc, XXXL, 1875, pp. 458-460; Rep. 
Sheffield Litrand Phil. Soc, 1S76, p. 25. 

On a New Method of Measuring the Position of the Bands in Spectra. 
Mon. Micro. Journ., XI\'., 1875, pp. 269-273; Nature, XIIL, Nov. iitli, 
i875» P- 39- 

On Some Recent Astronomical Speculations in their Relation to Geology. 
Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1875, p. 13. 

Outlines of Comparative Chromatology. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. 
Rep., 1875, p. 25. 

On the Evolution of Haemoglobin. Quar. Journ. Micro. Sci., X\T., 1876, 
pp. 77-85; Nature, XIIL, Feb. 17th, 1876, p. 306. 

On the Colouring Matters associated with Chlorophyll. Journ. Kot., V., 
1876, pp. 16-18. 

On the Connection between the limit of the Powtr of the Microscope and 
the Size of the Ultimate Molecules (Presidential Address). Mon. Micro. 
Journ., X\'., 1876, pp. 105-121 and 194, 195; Quar. Joiun. Micro. Sc, XV'I., 
1876, pp. 225-234; Nature XIIL, 1876, Feb. 24th, p. 331, and March i6th. 
p. 384. 

On the Colour of Flowers Grown in the Dark. Nature, XIIL, 1S76, 
April 13th, p. 465. 

On Microscopes. Handbook of the Special Loan Collection of Scientific 
Apparatus, pp. 327-339 (Chapman & Hall, London, 1876). 

1906 July I. 

228 Sorby: Lisf of Papers and MouograpJis. 

On Unencumbered Research a Personal Experience. Endowment of 
Kis.'arcli, pp. i4i)-i75 ( Kinjj; iV Co., London, iSj6). 

On Count Castracane's Photograph of Nobert's 19th Band Mon. Micro. 
Journ., X\'., 1S76, p. I. 

On the Microscopical Structure of Amber. Mon. Mii 10. Journ., Xov., 

XIII., isjh, pp. -'.•5-'.v. 

On the Critical Point in the Consolidation of Grantic Rocks. Mimr. Mag-., 
Nov., iS^f). j^ pp. 

On the Colour of the Eggs and Feathers of Birds. Sliefiicld Lit. and 

I'hil. .Soc. Rep., iSjt), ]). 19. 

On a New Form of Small Pocket Spectroscope. Monthly Mic. Jour. ,1876, 
X\'l., pp. (14-66. 

On the Marine Biology of the Coast of Kent. \'ictoria History of the 
Counties of lui^laiui. Kent. In t\pi-, but n(.)t \el jiiiblished. 

The Application of the Microscope to Geology, &c. Anniversary Address 
of the President. Mon. .Micro. Journ., X\'ll., 1877 ; Marcii, 1877, p]5. 1 13-136. 

On a New Method for Determining the Index of Refraction of Minerals. 
Presidential Address. .Miner. .Maj^., NO. (), Sept., 1877, i() jip. 

On a Simple Method of Determining the Index of Refraction of Small 
Portions of Transparent Minerals. Miner. May;., .\o. 4, 1S77, 1 p. 

On a New Arrangement for Distinguishing the Axes of Doubly Refracting 
Substances, Journ. Ro\al Micro. .Soc, X\"III., 1S77, pp. 209-jii. 

On some hitherto Undescribed Optical Properties of Doubly Refracting 
Crystals (Pieliminary Notice). Proceed. Royal Soc, No. 1S3, 1S77, 1 \\\>. 

On the Limit of the Power of the Microscope, compared with the Size of 
tlie ultimate Molecules of Organic and Inorganic Matter. Sheffield Lit. and 
I'iiil. .Soc Re])., 1S77, p. 13. 

On the Determination of the Index of Refraction of Liquids by means of 
the Microscope Journ. Cheni. Soc, Nov., 1S78, S pj). 

On the Colouring Matters found in Human Hair. Jomn. Anihrop. Inst., 
Au_y. , 1S7S, ])p. I- 1 4. 

On the Determination of the Minerals in Thin Sections of Rock by means 
of their Indices of Refraction. Miner. Maij. , No. S, .April, 1S7S, 4 pp. 

On a New Method of Studying the Optical Characters of Minerals. 
Prcjceed. ^'orks. (ieol. Pohtec Soc, 1S7S, |)p. i-ii. 

Further Improvements in Studying the Optical Characters of Minerals. 
Miner. .Ma>;-.. X., Se|)t.. 1S7S, 3 pp. 

On a New Method for Studying the Chief Optical Properties of Minerals. 
SluOield Lit. and I'hil. Soc Rep., 1.S7S, p. 21. 

On the Cause of the Production of different Secondary Forms of Crystals 
Miner. Mai;., .\o. 14. 1879, 3 pji. 

On the Structure and Origin of Limestone, .\ddress delivered at the 
Anniveisar\' Meetinif ot the (jeol. Soc. of London. Quar. Jour. Geo!. 
Soc, 1879, ]jp. 1-65. (Repi-inted, with a privately published appendix of 
eighteen plates, containing thirty-six figures (of rock sections) and accom- 
])an\ing descriptions). 

The Structure and Origin of Limestones. Rej). ShetVield Lit. ami Phil. 
.Soc. , 1 880, p. 1 3. 

On the Structure and Origin of Non-Calcareous Stratified Rocks. 
Address deliveii'd ;il llie .\nniversary .Meeting of the ("leol. .Soc of London. 
Ouar. Journ. (leol. .Soc, 1880, pp. 1-6(1. 

On the Comparative Structure of Artificial Slags and Eruptive Rocks. 

Afkhess to ihi' Cieologieal .Seilion of the British .Association (Swansea 
Meeting). R>i). Hril. .\ssoc, 1880 (issued 1881), 8 pp. 

On the Green Colour of the Hair of Sloths. Journ. Lin. Soc, Zoolog^y, 
X\'., 1881, J)]). 337- J4 1. 


Soi'by : List of Papers and Monographs. 229 

On the Structure and Origin of Non-Calcareous Rocks. Sheffield Lit. 
and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1881, p. 20. 

Five Months' Yachting ofiF the South of England. Siieffield Lit. and Phil. 
Soc. Rep., 1881, p. 27. 

On the Ascidians Collected during the Cruise of the Yacht ' Glimpse,'' 
1881. Lin. Soc. Journ. ; Zooloifv, X\"I., 1882, pp. 527-536. 

On the Colour of the Clouds, Sky, and Sea. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. 
Rep., 1883, p. II. 

On the Detection of Sewage Contamination by the Use of the Microscope, 
and on the Purifying Action of Minute Animals and Plants. Inter. Health 
Exhib. Cont". , July 25th, 1884, 7 pp. 

On Forecasts of the Weather as deducsd from the Rainfall and Changes 
in the Barometei-. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1884, p. 15. 

Cruise of ths 'Glimpse' in 1885. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. So;. Rep. 

1885, p. .3. 

The Characteristic Colouring Matters of the Red Groups of Algae. 
Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1885, p. 19. 

On some Remarkable Properties of the Characteristic Constituent of 
Steel. Proceed. Yorks. Geol. and Polytec. Soc, 1886, IX. (pt. 2), 
pp. 145-146. 

The Recent Earthquake in Essex. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 

1886, p. 9. 

On the Application of very high Powers to the. Study of the Microscopical 
Structure of Steel. Jour. Iron and Steel Inst., I., 18S6, p. 140-144. 

On the Microscopical Structure of Iron and Steel. Engineering-, LI., p. 73. 

The Microscopical Structure of Iron and Steel. Journ. of the Iron and 
Steel Institute, No. i, for 1887, pp. 1-34. 

Studies in the Border-land of Geology and History. Sheffield Lit. and 
Phil. Soc. Rept., 1888, p. 62. 

Scientific Investigations during the last Fifty Years. Sheffield Lit. and 
Phil. Soc, 8 pp. 

On the Microscopical Structure of Iron and Steel. (Iron and Steel 
Institute. ) 8 pp. 

Character of Bricks made at various periods as a means of Estimating 
the Date of the Erection or Rspair of Ancient Buildings. Shetifield Lit. and 
Phil. Soc. Rep., 1888, p. 22. 

On the Temperature of the Tidal Estuaries of the South-East of England. 
Scot. Geograph. Mag., Nov. 1889. (Presented to the Brit. Assoc. New- 
castle Mee'ting, 1889. ) 

Archaeological Studies in Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, and Rutland- 
shire. .Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1889 p. 50. 

On Oyster-culture in Essex. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1890, p. 17. 

The connection between Early Art in England and the Byzantine, Italian, 
and Norman styles. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1890, p. 17. 

On English Pictorial Art before the time of William the Conqueror. 
Sheffield Lit. and Phil. .Soc. Rep., 1890, p. 66. 

On the Preparation of Marine Animals as Lantern Slides to show the 
Form and Anatomy. Trans. Liverpool Biolog'. Soc, X., 1891, pp. 269-271. 

Scientific Studies on Board the Yacht 'Glimpse' in 1889. Sheffield 
Lit. and Phil. .Soc. Re[)., 1891, p. 15. 

On the Utrecht Psalter, a Pictorial Manuscript of the Eight Century. 
.Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., i89i,p. 26. 

The General Character of Saxon Architecture in the Contemporary 
Drawings and Existing Buildings. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., 1892, 
p. 14. 

On a New Method of Studying the Optical Characters of Minerals. 
Proceed. West. Vorks. Geol. Soc, \'\\., pp. 5 et seq. 

1906 July 1. 

230 Snrby : List of Papers ami Monoi^niphs. 

On the Natural History of the Estuary of the Thames. SliL-ffickl Lit. and 

I'liil. Soc, Rep., l<S()2, p. 18. 

The Roman Wall in Northumberland and the Saxon Churches in the 
Valley of the Tyue. .Shini.ld Lit. and Pliil. Soc. Rv\^.. 1S9;,, p. j-;. 

Reminiscences and Anecdotes of Scientific Men whom I have Known. 
Slu-lliild Lit. and I'liil. .Soc. Rip., iSqj, |). 15. 

Results of Investigations on the Microscopic Structure of Iron and Steel. 
Jour. Iron and Steel Inst., 1., iSgj;, pp. ^((i^- •;()(>. 

Natural History Symbolism in Norman Times. Slu-rtield Lii. and Phil. 
Soc. Rep., 1S94, p. 13. 

The Mediaeval Bestiaries in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Sheffield Lit. 
and riiil. Soc. Rep., 1S95, p. 14. 

On the Preparation of Marine Animals and Plants as Transparent 
Lantern Slides. In the -ShetVield I'niversity Colleg"e 'Commemoration 
Volume,' p]). 170-188. 

On some Optical Characters of Crystals. (The President's Address.) 
JoiuMl. t>f the Ro\al .Micro. .Soc, I. pj). i-i<S. 

On Mediaeval Gaography as illustrated by the Map in Hereford Cathedral. 
•Shetlield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Rep., i8q6, p. 14. 

On the Preparation of Marine Animals and Plants as Transparent Lantern 
Slides. WOolhope \at. l^ield Club, i8c)7, 1 ]3. 

On his Natural History Studies during the last Few Years. Sheffield Lit. 
and I'hil. Soc. Rep., 1897, p. 29. 

General Remarks upon the Marine Natural History of the Colne Estuary. 
Essex Xat., X., 1S97, PP- if'f'-i69- 

Notes on the Food of Oysters in Essex. Essi'x Nat., X., 1897, p. 166. 

On the Preparation of Marine Animals as Transparent Lantern Slides. 
Essex Xat., X., 346-350 and 370. 

Fifty Years of Scientific Research. Sheffield Lit. and Phil. .Soc. Rep., 
1S98, pp. 13-21. 

Marine Animals Mounted as Transparencies; for Museum Purposes, 
.Museums ,\ssoc. Rep., 1898, 3 p. 

On the Ganeral Characters and Colouring of Marine Algae. .Sheffield Lit. 
and Phil. Soc. Rep , 1899, p. 15. 

On the Preparation of Marine Worms as Microscopical Objects. Royal 
.Micro. Soc. Journ., itpo, pp. 1-5. 

On the Structure of the Lower Greensand in the Neighbourhood of Folke- 
stone. Trans. Ciiion ot South-Eastern .S( i. Soc., i()oo, j)p. 19-ji. 

On the Geology and Archaeology of the Valleys of the Severn and Wye. 
Sheflield Lit. and Pllil. Soc. Rep., i()00, ]i. 14. 

On English Church Architecture in Romano-British, Saxon, and Norman 
times. Sheflield Lit. and Phil. .Soc. l\ep., ii)oo, p. J3. 

Oa th3 Variations in Numbers and Habitat of Marine Animals on the 
Coast of Essex during the last tea or twelve Years, l-'.ssex .\at., Xli., 
i()oi, p|). 17-J3. 

Note on a Small Shark (dalcKs vuliran's?) seen in the Brightlingsea 
Harbour. Essex Xat.. XII., 1901, ]>. 166. 

On the Preservation of Marine Animals. Xat., Xov., 1903,])!). 437-440. 

The Marine Zoology of the Coast of Essex. \'i(toria Hist, ol'tlie Counties 
ol l'",niL; Essex \'ol. I., I9'>3, pp. ()()-8S. 

Notes on Marine Animals obtained in Essex Waters in 1902 and 1903. 

INsex . \ I I I., l()03, Jjp. M()-1I7. 

On the Microscopical structure of Iron and steel. Tin ICnj;:ineer, LI\'., 
p. 308. 

On the species of Nereis in the district of the Thames Estuary. Journ. 
Linn. .Soc. (Zooloicy) 190O. 





In the Yorkshire NaturaHsts' Union circular, issued for the 
Ingleton meeting- this year, stress was laid on the necessity 
for obtaining- such data as would enable the horizon of the 
Carboniferous basement beds in the district to be compared with 
the complete series of rocks of similar ag-e in the Bristol and 
South Wales areas. Since Dr. Vaug-han published * the re- 
sults of his investig-ation of the faunal sequence in the Bristol 
area, with their zonal divisions in terms of the corals and 
brachiopods, his classification has been applied in the Mendips t 
by Mr. Sibley, in South Wales l by Mr. Dixon, at Rush, Co. 
Dublin' § by Dr. Matley, and in East Derbyshire by Mr. Wedd. || 
Its correctness has, therefore, been well established. 

The g-eolog-ical route for the Ing-leton meeting- was arrang-ed 
so as to include as many exposures of the basement beds as 
possible. Fossils were only collected from beds where the 
relationship to the older rocks could be distinctly made out. 
In most cases the corals were obtained from within a few feet of 
the upturned edg-es of the ancient rock complex, upon the uneven 
surface of which the Carboniferous rocks were laid down. 

Many corals were found as a result of the first day's work, 
but the writer and Mr. W. Robinson of Sedberg-h stayed longer, 
and were able to obtain further specimens from Norber. Bra- 
chiopods were only found as indeterminate fragments during- 
this visit, but the corals were sufficient to enable Dr. Arthur 
Vaug-han to express an opinion that the beds corresponded to 
the top of the Syriiigot/iyn's zone and the bottom of the Seminula 
zone or C^ and Sj^. 

As this was much lower than had been expected, the writer 
made subsequent visits, ag-ain accompanied by Mr. Robinson. 
The western side of Ing-leton Dale and Thornton Dale were 
worked, and, in addition to numerous corals, a number of better 
preserved brachiopod fragments, together with a few whole 
specimens, were found. Most of the brachiopods came from 
exposures opposite the ' granite ' quarry. As it had been 
reported that Lithostrotion basaltiforme occurred in the base- 
ment beds at Foxholes,* a careful search was made but without 
success. Not a single specimen was seen during- the whole 

* Q.J. G. S. 1995, pp. 181-305. t Q.J. G. S. 1906, pp. 324-380. 

:J: Ibid., p. 378, and 'Summary of Progress,' 1904, pp. 44-45. 
§ Ibid., pp. 275-323. II Ibid., p. 379. 

igo6 July i. 

232 Johns : On tlic /ni>ic/on (\irbonifcnnis Basement Beds. 

of the investii^jition. The writer however found it in situ at 
Norber, 125 feet above the coiif^lomerates. The Foxholes 
record is therefore probably an error. 

The new specimens enabled Dr. Vaug-han to confirm his 
previous opinion that the beds corresponded to the C.^ and Sj^ 
horizon. Now this is the point where Dr. Vaus^han had, on the 
i^^rounds of a break in the faunal succession t in the Bristol area, 
divided the beds into an upper or Kidwellian, and a lower or 
Clevedonian series. But it also coincides with the assumed 
unconformity and striking- cong^lomerate noted at Pendine, by 
Mr. Strahan.| It is synchronous with the cong^Iomerate of 
Rush, Co. Dublin, and is about the horizon of the g^reat 
outpouring- ^ of larva at Weston. The Ing-leton beds are 
therefore of more than passing- interest. The)" are indications 
of that final collapse, in Mid Avonian time, of the pre- 
carboniferous floor. The area we have been discussing- had long 
resisted the gravitational stresses. The immense thickness of 
the Old Red Sandstone and Carboniferous Limestone series up 
to the top of the Syringothyris zone had been deposited in South 
Wales and at Bristol before its final submerg-ence took place. 

F^ortunately there does not appear to be any doubt as to the 
correctness of the correlation, for as Dr. Vaug-han points out, 
not a single specimen of a form known to occur only in the 
upper beds of the Carboniferous Limestone series was found in 
the Ingleton beds. It will be necessary now to examine the 
sections on Ingleboroug-h, and when the zonal divisions have 
been made out, to carry them on into the neighbouring dales 
and determine their relationship to the lithological divisions 
which have been mapped. This is now being done. 

The writer desires to thank Dr. X'aughan for deterniining the 
corals and brachiopods collected, and for establishing- the corre- 
lation. He must also put on record his indebtedness to Mr. W. 
Robinson, the divisional secretary of the Union, for his valuable 
assistance in the field and intimate knowledge of the ground. 

Note — When introducing a discussion on inter-carboniferous 
earth movements at the Leeds Meeting of the ^'orkshire 
Geological Society, March 1905, the writer pointed out that 
volcanic activity was characteristic of regional subsidence, and 
cited the Weston lava flows, an-iong other examples. 

* Hardcastle ; J'nins. /.tU'(/s. (it'o/. .Assoc., part 5, p. ju. 

I f^ J. (•• S. 1005, p. 217 ami p. 2(14. 

H- Q- ./■ ^'- •^■^ ' ^iiiiiniaiy of I'loi^-icss," 1904, p. 44. 

S g.J.('.S, vol. Ix., p. 147. 




May 12-14, 1906. 
[Continued from page igj.) 


By Mr. Edw in Hawkesworth. 

Ever since the earliest days of geolog'ical stud}', the 
district of Ing"leton has excited the attention of the students 
and exponents of the science. As far back as 1802, in that 
epoch-making- book, ' Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory,' 
Dr. Playfair refers to sections near Ingleton, which showed a 
bed of ' Limestone,' nearly horizontal, resting- upon almost 
vertical beds of ' primary argillaceous schistus.' Man}- other 
pioneers of the science, including such honoured names as 
W. Smith, A. Sedgwick, and J. Phillips, worked at and wrote 
of the geology of the district, and many of the most eminent 
living geologists have devoted considerable attention to it. 
Nevertheless it still affords a number of problems, pressing for 

In its broader aspects, the geology of Ingleton may be said 
to be fairly simple. On a platform of ancient rocks, highly 
contorted, and then exposed to enormous denudation, rests a 
thick mass of Carboniferous deposits, showing the basement of 
that system up to the Millstone Grit, which caps the higher 
hills. This mass, co\ ering a large area, was in its turn 
subjected to great denudation, leaving a series of high hills, 
very similar in type, some of the deeper valleys between having- 
been cut down into the older rocks. 

But, in coming to details, several complicated and difficult 
points present themselves. The stratigraphy of the Car- 
boniferous rocks is clear, but that of the older rocks is far from 
being so. According to the Geological Survey, the succession 
of these is as follows : — 

,T if^ • ^ (Tough grits and flags. 

Upper Coniston V>t j j ^ 1 ^ 

c-i • - T-i - Cleaved mudstone- or slate. 

Silurian 1* lags 1 /^ , 

\ ° \ Conglomerate. 

L'uconformity ? 

lover ] Coniston Limestone I Mudstone or strongly cleaved 

J*.. . ,- Series. j slate. Limestone and shale. 

I *' Green Slates )^ . , . . 1 ^ 

■' J r) 1 • ,, -Greenish g'rits and slates. 

and rorph}-ries. ) ** 

A considerable patch of these rocks is exposed near 
Ingleton, running for about two miles north-east of the line of 

190C July I. 



Vorks/iirc Xafiini/isfs a/ /iii^/ffon. 

the North Ciaxeii Fault, and several sections are seen in the 
Dale Beck or Ini^leton valley. These appear to belong- to the 
lowest part of the succession, and consist for the most part of 
beds of slates and j^rits, varyinij much in texture. In some 
instances the\- are vertical, but j^enerally have a dip of from 
50° to 80° in a S.W. direction. In places near the marg-in of 
this area, the Coniston Limestone or its supposed equi\alent is 
exposed. These older rocks offer a pressini;- and abstruse 


^- -— 

Photo hy\ 

[J. J. Bl KION. 

Section of the lower portion of the Carboniferous basement beds in ingleborougrh, 
showing conglomerate and current beddinjj. 

problem. There are supposed to he about 10,000 feet, in 
vertical thickness, of these beds ; but it niii;ht hv foimd, from a 
very searchinj^ survey, that this is be\ond the mark, as, in 
such highly inclined beds, there ma\' be sexeral repetitions. 
The question is dillicult. The stratig^raphy is far from being 
clear ; the rocks must haxc underg-one great pressure and 
alteration, which no doubt accounts for the almost total 
absence of fossils, thus adding" greatlx to the dilViculty o| 


YorksJiii'c Xafuralisfs cit lugleton. 235 

Two large faults, the North and South Craven ones, intersect 
the southern part of the area, running- from N.W. to S.E. 
These, again, cause complications, though the evidence of 
them is very clear ; in fact, one cannot call to mind any part of 
our county showing the results of great faults more clearly 
than this. 

The Carboniferous rocks do not present much difficulty in 
themselves. The lowest beds are well seen in many places, 
resting almost horizontally upon the edges of the older rocks. 
In some cases the base is formed by a conglomerate, which in 
others is absent. Where it is present it is very coarse, 
gradually getting finer in the ascending section, until, through 
the stages of lines of pebbles, then traces of quartz grains, it 
passes up into the Great Scar Limestone, here about 600 feet 
thick, and often very fossiliferous. 

Such are the salient features of the district recommended 
for the day's work of the Geological Section, and no wonder 
such a variety of interest attracted a large number of members 
and associates, geologically inclined, and armed with a fearful 
and wonderful selection of implements. They were divided 
into two parties, according to time of arrival, and it was 
gratifying to see so many of the geological officials of the 
L'nion present. They included Messrs. Cosmo Johns, F.G.S., 
and the writer ; president and secretary respectively of the 
section ; Messrs. J. H. Howarth, J. P., F.G.S,, and W. 
Simpson, F.G.S. , of the Boulder Committee; Messrs. E. E. 
Gregory, J. J. Burton, and Thos. Sheppard, F.G.S., repre- 
senting other committees. The earlier party was under the 
guidance of the writer, the later one under that of Mr. W. 
Robinson, both parties following the same route, and joined at 
the granite quarry. 

Jenkin Beck was visited first. Both branches of the Craven 
Fault cross this. The line of the South one was seen very 
clearly, bringing down Coal Measures against the Carboniferous 
Limestone. A bed of sandstone, much shattered, belonging to 
ihe former, was seen adjacent to beds of the latter. The line 
of the North branch was less distinct, but still perceptible, 
throwing down the Carboniferous Limestone against beds of 
the Coniston Limestone series. Passing out of the gill, the 
way was taken over Storrs Common, where some large blocks 
of Silurian rocks, no doubt ice-borne, were seen resting on the 
Carboniferous Limestone. The view from here was extensive 
and most interesting, giving one a splendid idea of the results 

1906 July I. 

236 J orks/iirc Xafiira/isfs at /ni^/c/on. 

of the iifreat faults. A little to the north-west, far below, was 
Black Burton, on the lnj,''leton Coalheld, the Coal Measures 
near having a covering of Permian rocks. On the opposite 
side of the Ingleton \alle\', at a much greater elevation than 
these, could be seen the fine section of Carboniferous Limestone 
in the Meal Bank quarr\ , the beds dipping rapidly to the S.W. 
towards the fault. A little more to the north, rather higher 
than the limestone, was the Silurian slate quarry. 

Getting on to the high road, the line of fault was soon 
crossed, and the party was on the main exposure of the Lower 
Silurian Slates and Grits. 

Considerable attention was de\oted to a quarry at Skirwith. 
The junction of the Carboniferous and Silurian beds gi\es 
rise to a line of powerful springs. Here the water forms a 
beck which has cut down into the Slates and Grits, which are 
almost \ertical. Resting on these, and forming the floor of 
the quarry, is a bed of very coarse conglomerate, containing 
large pebbles, apparently derived from the underlying rocks. 
Over this is a bed of limestone, then more conglomerate, much 
finer than the lower one, consisting mainl\- of small water- 
worn fragments of slate, cemented together with calcareous 
matter. Above this the limestone gets gradually more free 
from derived materials, though for some thickness current- 
bedded thin lines of small pebbles and grains occur. On one 
large feathered face of the rock these wa\y bands or lines of 
harder material stood out well, forming a beautiful picture. 

Higher up the road, near the waterworks, the limestone w as 
seen resting immediately upon the edges of the Silurian rocks, 
the conglomerate being absent. Those who saw this section 
will remember it from the following description : —'As we went 
along the Askrigg road from Ingleton, about a mile and a half 
from the latter, an opening appeared in the side of the hill, on 
the right, about one hundred yards from the road, formed by a 
large stone which lay horizontally, and was supported b\- two 
others standing upright. On going up to the spot we found it 
was the mouth of a small ca\e, the stone lying horizontally 
being part of a limestone bed, and the two upright stones 
vertical plates of a primary argillaceous schistus. The lime- 
stone bed which formed the roof of the ca\ e was nearlv 
horizontal, declining to the south-east ; the schistus, neaily 
vertical, stretching from north-west by west to south-east b\ 
east. The schistus, tliougli close in contact with the lime- 
stone, seemed to contain nothing calcaii-ous, and did not 


J 'orkshire Xd/iwd/isls at Inglcton. 237 

efifervese with acids in the slightest degree.' This is an extract 
trom 'Playfair's Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory,' p. 217, 
1802, which had not been noticed by the writer previous to the 
excursion, but now seems worthy of mention. A number of 
fossils, mostly corals, were obtained from the lower part of the 
limestone here, which, tog-ether with some from Skirvvith and 
trom the other sections examined later, will be carefully 
determined, and it is hoped they will furnish sufficient evidence 
to co-relate the Basement Carboniferous rocks of this area with 
those of the South Wales and Bristol areas. Should this be 
done, the excursion will have answered a very useful purpose. 

Still further up the dale, on about the same line, the con- 
glomerate was seen ag-ain, containing-, in its lower part, very 
larg-e stones. The surface of the older rocks seems to be 
uneven, the cong-lomerate filling- the larger hollows. 

The ' Granite ' Quarry was next visited. Here the two 
parties joined, and were met by Mr. Tate, the manag-er, whose 
willing^ly rendered local information was gfreatly appreciated. 
The quarry showed a mag-nificent section, and formed the 
puzzle of the day. The rock has been described variously as 
g-rit, conglomerate, g-ranite, porphyry, syenitic g-ranite, and 
arkose. Some have considered it as ig-neous, others as 
detrital, and theie appears to be e\idence in favour of each. 
A good arg^ument in favour of the former was a larg-e block of 
the ' g-ranite ' with irregular and angular larg-e pieces of slate 
included. The late Thos. Tate, in describing- a microscopic 
examination of it,* says ' it consists of frag-ments of various 
metamorphic, as well as of eruptive and pyroclastic rocks, 
slates, chlorite, mica, and quartz schists ; peg'matite ; quartzose 
arid granitoids ; tog-ether with ancient rhyolitic la\as, showing- 
banded fluxion and spherulitic structures. Some of the latter 
hold porphyrytically developed crystals of remarkably clear 
sanidine, and of quartz enclosing portions of the felsitic g^round 
mass All these various rock fragments are firmly bound 
tog-ether by a cement of green diabasic paste, with very fresh 
lath-shaped cr3-stals of plagioclase, and more basic minerals, 
probably aug-ite and olivine, now converted into secondary 
products such as chlorite and epidote. The fragfments are 
little water-worn, so cannot have been carried far. Its deposit 
formed an episode in the prevailing- volcanic conditions of the 
period ; consequently we find it sandwiched between beds of 

* Trans. Leods Geol. Assoc, pi. 6. 
1906 July 1. 

238 ]'orks/iirc Xd/itra/'isfs iit fii<^lc/<>)i. 

^Teenisli-^re}' slate, consistiiij^- of a fiiu' telspalhic \olcanic 
dust, which is never a constituent of the 'granite' itself, 
althou<jh it is interbedded witli it on one or two horizons.' 
The problem still awaits solution. 

Leaving- this, the Dale Beck was crossed, the Fox Holes 
providing- the next point of interest. It showed a most in- 
structive section of the Carboniferous Basement Bedscontaining- 
bands not seen in other sections. It was described as follows 
by the late C. I). Hardcastle :—* 

'Solid limestone, coloured with Silurian mud.' 

'Alternate bands of conglomerate and limestone, former 
becoming finer in upper parts.' 

'Coarse conglomerate, 2-3 feet.' 

'Limestone with Lithostrofion basalt ifornic, 4-6 inches.' 

' Limestone and calcareous shale, about 3 feet.' 

' Cla_\e}- shale, about i foot. ' 

' Iron-stained coarse conglomerate, about 2 feet.' 


' Roughl}- cleaved slates.' 

Various fossils were obtained from the limestones here, and 
at one or two other places lower down the \ allex' where they 
were exposed. 

Although it had been amongst grand scener_\- all the da\ , at 
Beezley's the party paid its sixpences to see the 'scenery.' 
This may savour of vandalism, but there is little cause for 
complaint, for, were it not that the lessees have made good and 
safe paths, the glorious scener}- of the lower part of this dale 
would be almost inaccessible. For some distance the walk was 
over the edges of the slates and grits, and the magnificent 
gorge and beautiful waterfalls were much admired. Near 
Ing'-leton an igneous d\ke, variously described as mica-trap, 
minette, and kersantite was seen crossing the bed of the 
stream, but the water was rather too deep to admit of a close 
inspection. A nearer view of tlu' Mi-al-bank quarry, mentioned 
in the early part of the paper, with a thin bed of coal in the 
limestone, completed the da) 's work. Within such a small 
area in our county it would be almost impossible to lind a 
better exposition of such imjjortant geological jjhenomena. 

Mr. Cosmo Johns, I-\(i..S.. adds: .\n t-xaminatlon, as 
carehil as time |)ermitled, of the e\ idenci' ijearing on the 
characl(;r of the Craxi-n laults in the tlistricl \ isited, went 

* Ir.lllS. I.lTlls ( MM)1. Assi.l.. |)|. :;, |). _'(). 


Field Note. 239 

to strengthen the conckision that they are normal. There 
was, as might be expected with faults having- a great throw 
that have moved often, evidence of crushing along the fault 
lines. The section seen, on crossing- over from Jenkin Beck 
into Chapel-le-dale, on the opposite side of the dale was con- 
vincing of this, and admitted of no other conclusion, thus in 
the neighbourhood of Ingleton, at any rate, the faults are 
normal ones. This does not negative the possibility that in a 
long fault line, where the direction varies so much, and where 
the hade possibly varies too, there might be developed during 
recurring movements severe local tangential stresses. There 
was not time available for a prolonged investigation of the 
structure of the rocks older than Carboniferous, but on the 
second day, changes of strike and dip were observed that could 
only be explained by folds along an east and west axis, causing 
the beds to be repeated. This would not agree with the section 
given in the 'Survey Memoir,' p. 4, or the statement on p. 5 
that- ' there must be here exposed a thickness of about 10,000 
feet of strata,' but would be in accord with the more recently 
expressed views of Prof. Hughes. It will probably be found, 
when the structure of the ground is completely worked out, 
that we have here a complex of rocks much more ancient than 
is o-enerallv understood. — T.S. 

Helix nemoralis and li. arbustorum in North West 
Lincolnshire. — While taking a walk on Kettleby Beck bank in 
Cadney parish, on April i6th, I filled my pocket with broken 
molluscs from Thrush Stones. On returning home, I found my 
gathering to be as follows: //. nemoralis, libellula, 117 speci- 
mens, with ordinary banding ranging from 00000 through 
12345 to (12345). There was only one variety wseolabiata (123) 
(45). The variety rubella was represented by 74 specimens, 
with exactly the same range of banding. The only interesting 
shell was (123) x (45). Helix arbuslorum was fairly well 
represented by 35 specimens, and the following varieties : three 
ciiieta, fivejlavescens, and one fuscesceus. All these shells were 
obtained by the Thrushes, from the rough grass on the fresh 
water alluvium of the Beck bank. On the way home, the find 
of the walk was made, at Pepperdale, Howsham, on the Chalky 
Boulder Clay, by a Thrush Stone on the roadside, I picked 
up one specimen of H. nemoralis, libellula, 12034. — Thomas 
L. Warner, Cadney, Brigg, April 17th, igo6. 

1906 July I. 



June 2-4, 1906. 

It can be safely said that the excursion of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union to Flaniboroug-h Headland on Whit week- 
end was one of the most successful and enjo3able that the 
Union has had for a long- time. Nearly fifty members stayed 
the week-end, and on the Bank Holiday those present in the 
different sections numbered over a hundred and fifty. The 
various branches of the Union's work were exceptionally well 

Photo by] 


1-,.KU Ni:, F./.S. 

represented by the officials, in addition to which the members 
had the advantage of the presence and guidance of several 

Of the three days devoted to the study ot the headland, the 
first was occupied in investigating the southern portion ; the 
second was devoted to examining the northern part, at Speeton 
and Reighton ; whilst the third was occupied by watching the 
'dimmers' at Bempton, and in working the eastern section of 
the headland. During the whole of the time the weather was 
perfect ; everyone seemed in the best of humour for work, and 
in almost all the sections several im|3()itant discoveries were 


Vofkshiyc Xa/iiralisfs at Flambo rough. 241 

made, as will be seen from the reports following-. References 
are made elsewhere to the action the Union took in reference to 
the Peregrines at Flamborough, and to the hideous advertise- 
ments which have been erected on North Landing. Mr, C. G. 
Danford also describes on another page some of the more 
interesting discoveries made at Speeton. 

On Saturday evenings there was a well-attended meeting at 
the Society's headquarters, the Station Hotel, under the presi- 
dency of Prof. Kendall, at which reports were given of the work 
accomplished up to that time. A lengthy discussion also took 
place in reference to the Boulder Committee and its work, which 
was opened by a paper by Mr. J. H. Howarth. The secretar\ 
exhibited and described some new Ammonites, etc., found at 
Speeton by Mr. C. G. Danford, as well as a large Saurian bone 
from the same beds. 

On Monday a well-attended meeting was held in the open air 
at Plamborough, at which the Rev. E. M. Cole presided. 
Reports of work accomplished were given by the officers of the 
sections, and several new members were elected. 

Geological Section. — Mr. J. W. Stather writes: — 

The Flamborough excursion from a geological point of view 
must be written down a great success, for what can a geologist 
want more than fine sections, fine weather, and congenial 

Saturday morning was spent in examining the chalk quarries 
in the neighbourhood of Bessingby and Carnaby. The Bess- 
ingby quarry is in flintless chalk, and yielded Actinocamax 
graniilatits, Scaphites binodosns, Cardiaster ananchytes, Rhyncli- 
onella sp.. Ventriculites sp. , and sponges of several species. 
The Carnaby quarry is unfortunately now very much over- 
grown with vegetation, but a careful search resulted in the 
following list : — Ananchytes ovatits (Echinocorys vulgaris), com- 
mon, Hamiies sp., Riiynchonella sp. , Inoceranius lingua, Ammonite 
sp., and many sponges. Mr. G. W. Lamplugh and the local 
observers have long regarded these quarries as representing 
hig-her zones in the chalk than even the cliffs at Sewerby. Dr. 
A. W. Rowe, of Margate, who has recently visited these sections, 
coincides in this opinion, and regards these pits as high up in 
the zone of Acti)ioca»iax quadratus, although it may be as well 
to note here, for the benefit of those unaquainted with the little 
anomalies of modern zonal nomenclature, that this fossil has 
not yet been foimd in Yorkshire. 

1906 July I. 

242 Yorkshire Xulunilisls at l-l(ti)iboroi(<ili. 

Saturday afternoon found the part\ , larj^ely increased in 
numbers, examining" the coast sections between Hridlini^ton 
and Danes' Dyke. A long- pause was made at the Sewerby 
buried cliff, which consists of an ancient cHfl of chaH< buried 
under g-lacial beds. From the deposits backed up against the 
old clitT a large number of mammalian bones have from time to 
time been obtained. On this occasion, though no fossils were 
obtained, the \ arious beds were well exposed and their sequence 
perfectly clear. Much interest was aroused by Prof. Kendall's 
remarks as to the importance of a correct interpretation of the 
section and the conditions under which the beds were deposited. 
The remainder of the afternoon was spent in knocking out 
sponges and other fossils from the cliffs and scars Ijetween 
Sewerby and Danes' Dyke. 

The following day was spent at Speeton. Mr. C. G. 
Danford led the party, and the shore sections were carefully 
examined, from the Red chalk under the big clifts and the 
Kimeridge clay a mile and a half away. In the cliff at the 
south end of the section the DeshayesizVAX'^, were seen, and lower 
down the compound nodular band was visible on the beach. 
The coprolite bed (the dividing line between the Kimeridge cla}- 
and the Speeton clay) was also exceptionally well exposed. 
Many beautiful fossils were taken, including a previously 
unrecorded ammonite, which occurred to Prof. Kendall on the 
slopes of Middle Cliff. 

The Speeton estuarine shell-beds were also examined. 

On Monday morning a \ery large geological party assem- 
bled on Bempton ClifTs. The 'dimmers' were in great form, 
and claimed a good deal of attention. The contorted strata 
in the cliffs at ' Old Dor ' were well seen, and created much 
discussion as to when and how they were brought about. At 
Thorn wick, most picturesque of Bays, a descent was made to 
the beach, and the hammers were got out. Bui the tide was 
high, the chalk hard, and fossils scarce. 

Vertehkath: Section. —The Vertebrate Section was ollicially 
represented by its president, Mr. T, H. Nelson, M. B.O.I'., and 
two of its secretaries, Messrs. Booth and Fortune, who j^resent 
this report. 

Most of the time was spent upon the clitVs by the members of 
this section, excepting on the Saturday, when the country and 
woods near Bessingby were investigated, and also the wooded 
ravine of Danes' Dyke, .\lthough the weather was delightfully 


Vorkshirc Xa^iiralis/s (if Flamborough. 


fine, the hig-h wind which prevailed most of the time prevented 
the birds showing- as much as usual. In all fifty-six species of 
birds were noted, and the nests of nineteen species containing' 
egg^s or young" were observed. 

Many nests of Blackbirds and Thrushes were found, and it 
was rather remarkable that they contained egfg's only, showing' a 
gfreat reg'ularity in the time for their second broods. Quite half 
of the Blackbirds' nests seen were built upon the g'round, 
although there were plenty of more normal situations. The 
increasing' tendencv of this species to nest upon the ground 

Photo ij'] 

Razorbill and Ring-ed Quillemot. 

lR. Furtl'ni', F.Z.S. 

has been observed for some time in the West Riding', and it is 
interesting- to note the same habit in the East Riding. 

The Wood Warbler was heard in a wood near Bessing'by, 
and we were informed that it was a rather uncommon bird in 
this district. The Rev. F. H. Woods found an addled and 
rather remarkable eg-g- of the Pied Wag-tail which apparently 
had two shells, the outer shell being of the normal Pied Wag'tail 
type, whilst the inner shell partook more of the character of the 
Yellow Wagftail. A Thrush's eg^gs were seen in one nest 
which were quite blue, and entirely de\"oid of the usual spots. 

1906 July I. 

244 'Wirksh/n' Xa/iini/is/s <il Flamlyonmgh. 

The sij^-ht of the iiumi'rous colonies of tlie common Linnet in 
Danes' Dyke and other suitable localities, was j^reatly enjoyed by 
members from other parts of the county, where the ranks of this 
delig^htful little bird ha\e been sadly thinned by the rascally 
bird catcher. 

A few scatteied pairs of Stonechals were noted, and also a few 
pairs of Rock Pipits, and the call of the Corn Bunting was heard 
in almost every field. The comparatixe scarcity of all species 
of Titmice was remarked upon, althouii;"h a i^ood deal of time 
was spent in rather unsuitable places for seeing- them. No Tree 
Sparrows were observed about their haunts in the clififs during 
the period of the excursion, but upon Tuesday and Wednesday, 
when the wind had abated, they were much in evidence, as were 
also the Pipits. A Kestrel's nest seen in a wooded ravine 
contained five very finely marked eggs. 

The great treat was observing the sea birds. Looking down 
from the cliff tops \ast multitudes of Guillemots, Razorbills, 
and Puffins were seen. Four sets of ' dimmers ' were following 
their occupation, their methods greatly interesting the members. 
A discussion as to whether the (iuillemots, etc., were as 
numerous as formerly had to be abandoned owing to the 
magnitude of the numbers under consideration, but all the 
climbers complain that the\' are not getting as many eggs as 
formerly, more especially are the better marked varieties 
scarcer. A search was made for the \ariety known as the 
Ringed Guillemot, but although only a single bird was identified 
diu'ing the excursion, the president observed several in the 
course of the following fortnight. 

The chief feature of interest was that, after an absence of a 
((uarter of a century, a pair of Peregrine Falcons has taken up 
its abode in the cliffs again. Owing to the number of people 
about upon Bank Holiday, the birds were not seen after the early 
morning, but on the following day the male and female were 
seen and the position of the eyrie located ; a descent was made 
to the nest on the Wednesday, and it was found to contain 
three young ones well feathered. It is hoped that these fine 
falcons may be allowed to remain and nest in security in the 
cliffs for many years ; the fact of their presence adds greatly to 
the interest of naturalists visiting the localit}-. The birds are 
protected b\- law, and the \V'ild Birds' Protection Committee 
of the Union has made arrangements to see the law is carried 
out, and have promised a reward to the climbers if the birds 
successfulix l)ring dIT their voung, or in case anyone robbing the 


Yorkshire Naturulisls tif Flamhorongh. 245 

nest or shooting- the birds, that they should supply such informa- 
tion as will lead to the prosecution of the offenders. 

It was pleasing" to see the several colonies of the beautiful 
Kittiwake nesting on the cliffs. Herring Gulls were also present, 
not as nesting species, but sailing majestically along" with eyes 
scanning the ledges for unprotected eg^gs. A few Lesser Black 
Backed Gulls were also noticed. Several Carrion Crows were 
seen (including a young one scarcely able to fly), and the 
inevitable Jackdaw, all on the prowl for eggs. Rock Doves 
and Stock Doves were also seen, but it was noticeable that at 
the Bempton portion of the cliffs there were very few doves 
about, either the above kinds or of the half wild dove-cote 
pigeon usually seen. The presence of the falcons probably 
accounts for this scarcity. 

Mr. T. H. Nelson adds : — Until the third week of June 1 had 
the falcons vmder observation, and it is highly satisfactory to 
be able to announce that the young birds fledged about the 
2 1st. On that day, the climber, at my request, went down 
to the eyre and saw the youngsters flying from point to point 
of the lower cliffs. They were strong on the wing, and there is 
every prospect of their safety being ensured. 

In Mammalia and Reptilia nothing- special was observed, 
though the examination of some Badger ' earths ' on the clift' 
tops, showing the presence of these interesting animals in the 
neighbourhood, was a source of considerable pleasure. Mr. 
Roebuck records the Smooth Newt. At the evening meeting 
an ^^% was exhibited by Mr. Nelson (who had it lent by Prof. 
Newton) of very great interest ; it was marked Razorbill, and 
signed as taken b}' the celebrated Yorkshire Naturalist, C. 
Waterton, at Flamborough in 1834. Opinion was against the 
fact of its being a Razorbill's egg", the general idea being that it 
was an ^^^ of the Black Guillemot, which it is known formerly 
nested on the cliffs. 

Mollusca. — -Mr. J. E. CKO^^ ther reports : — The Conchc- 
logical Section was officially represented by Messrs. \V. Denison 
Roebuck, F.L.S., Leeds (president), and J. E. Crowther, 
Elland (secretary). On the road side between Bempton Station, 
the cliffs, and Flamborough, Messrs. J. E. and T. Crowther 
found Agriolinuix agresfis in great \ariety, while Hvgroviia 
hispida, H. rufecscns, and Vitrina pclhicida were also fairl\- 
plentiful. Vitrca cellaria, V. nitidula, Arioii alcr \ar. albo- 
lateralis, A. facia/us, Tlicba caiifiaim, and Cochlicopd liiirica were 

190O July I. 

246 Yorkshire Xdtiinilisis nl F/diiihoroinr/i, 

all found .sparing"ly. Ccpuea horioisis and its variety roseolabiata 
were found on the clift at Bempton. A large colony of Helicogeua 
(ixpcrsa was met with close to Bempton village, and a single 
Milax gasiatcs at the same place. He/iotiaiics vir_i^(i/(i occurred 
on the cliffs near Bridlington. In a pond in Danes' D\ ke 
Acroloxns /dcusfn's was fairly abundant on old rush stems. 
Radix percgrr, SpJicriuni coriiciiniy and Pisidium (probably 
)iiiidu)ii) also occurred but sparingl}'. Gyraulus crista and its 
variety laevigata were very plentiful in the same pond, the 
variety occurring at the rate of about 5 to i of the type. 

Near the Lighthouse Messrs. Roebuck and Cash found in a 
little damp \\o\\o\\ Agrioli max agrcstis, Vitrina pcllucida, Vilrea 
cellaria^ Hygroniia hisp'da (abundant), Coc/ilicopa liibrica 
(several), Cepcea ncmoralis var. libcUiiIa (12)345 (one), I'allonia 
pulchella (one), Succinea put r is (abundant), Arioii ater var. 
uigrcsccns (one), Radix pcrcger (a few), and Limncea tnincatida 
(one). Mr. Cash also noted near Flamborough village Theba 
cantiana, Hygroviia riifcsceiis, and Helicogcua aspersa. The 
Rev. F. H. Woods found I'itrina pellucida (common and 
tine), Claiisilia bidt'iitata, Vitria alliaria, V, nitidula, Candidiila 
caperata, TJieba cautiauay Hygroniia hispida, H. rii/cscciis, and 
Ccpwa iic))i()ra/is. Mr. Wood also reported the marine shell 
Pholas crispata. Mr. C. Crossland brought Ario/i /lortciisis 
and Eiiconitlus futviis from Danes' Dyke. 

In all twenty-eight species of non-marine mollusca and five 
varieties were noted during the day, comprising five slugs, 
seventeen land, and six freshwater species. 

In Hymenoptera Mr. G. T. Porritt collected at Bempton a 
couple of Sawflies which, having since been submitted to the 
Rev. V. D. Morice, turn out to be Pachynrmatiis apicalis 
Htg. , ^ and Dolcriis picipcs Kl., ^ (which is probably the 
same as D. intermedins of Cameron's monograph), and both of 
them additions to the Vorkshin- list of Hymenoptera which Mr. 
W. Denison Roebuck is at present writing for the \'ictoria 
History of ^()rkshire. Mr. W. Pearson took a yee, which 
Mr. \i. Saunders identifies as Audrena albicans ^. 

I'^LOWKKiNd Plants. Mr. |. F. Robinson writes : — The 
.Saturday ranilik-s took in the Boynlon W^oods, nearer Bridling- 
ton, as well as tin- clilTs, fulds, and plantations of the south- 
west portion of the headland, up to and including the deep 
ra\inc to the ancient British earthwork known as ' Danes' 
Dvke.' The clayev and gravelly sea-front from Bridlington 
to a point opposite the \ illagf of Sewerby is dominated at 


Yorkshire Xd/iinih'sfs at Ffaiiiboroiio-Ji. 247 

present by much growth of the buck's-horn plantain [Plantago 
Coronopus), whilst in the ravine at the south end of Danes' 
Dyke a minute investigation yielded all the plants already 
mentioned in the ' Flora of the East Riding-.' Among-st 
phanerogams blossomings most conspicuously just now are 
Viola RiviiiKiiKi, Gorse, and the Karly Purple Orchis (O. niascnla), 
the last being- very fine when it was somewhat sheltered by 
young- trees of a very recent plantation. Two or three other 
orchidaceous plants were found in the fields above, e.g., Orchis 
Mario, O. iistulata, and Listera ovata. Veg-etative signs also 
were seen of the Grass of Parnassus, Eupatoritim cainiabinum, 
Hypericiiin pulchrum, etc. In the small round plantations of 
older Sycamore, Ash, and Scots Pine (the last two very sparsely 
interming-led), which occur on the g-lacial drift that covers the 
chalk near Scwerby, the dominant plant of under-gfrowth was 
the rose-red campion [Lychnis dioica), and it was in greater 
profusion and luxuriance than one had ever seen it previously. 

For the Monday meeting's the rendezvous changed to the 
Bempton or northern side of the chalk plateau, round via Thorn- 
wick Bays, North Sea Landing-, Silex Bay, the Lighthouse, 
and the village of Flamborough, about which already have 
blossomed the flowers of romance, as in Blackmore's ' Mary 
Anerley.' The long lane from Benipton to the cliflf" edge, where 
Guillemot is king, is quite typical of East Yorkshire. Bordered 
by well-cultivated, apparently fertile fields, there was lush 
growth of Hedge Parsley {Clucrophyllum sylvestre), white, and 
red deadnettle, big old hawthorn trees, and again, but more 
subdued, red campion. Although the arborieal vegetation of 
this part is somewhat stunted and possessed of a cowering 
habit due to winds that frequently sweep the upland, still in 
considerable numbers trees are conspicuous generally. Most 
noteworthy was Pyriis mains, Wild Apple, probably however 
not the ' Crab,' but an escape from culllvation, which was in 
profuse, very white blossom. There were also Birch, Alder 
(Alniis g-hilinosa). Mountain Ash, Common Ash, etc., mingled 
with much hawthorn in fragrant blossom. Inland, and more 
under the cultivator's hand, the fields were in one golden 
glory of buttercup— i'?^/;///«r/////^ biilbosiis. Nearer the edge 
of the cliffs, two or three hundred feet above sea-level, vegeta- 
tion showed several points of its xerophilous character — fleshy, 
stunted, and closely clapped to the surface of the soil. Mingled 
together on the very short sward, and varying according as the 
soil was clay, gravel, or chalk, there were Jlola cricctorum 

1906 June I. 

248 Xorthcni Xcivs. 

(yellow spurred), Poh'riiini saiii>iiis(ir{)ii ; four plantains — - 
PUnitago lanceolata^ P. media, P. 7narUim<i, and P. Corouopus : 
two bedstraws — Galium venim and G. saxatile ; tog'ether with 
Thrift {Armeria), Spiriea Fill pr 11 (in /a, and wild Thyme. 
Dotted here and there in the j^rass Opliioglossum vulgutum 
was noted. The ordinary scur\\- j^rass, Cochlearia officinalis, 
tojjfether with Matricaria maritima and a flesh \ -leaved form of 
Lotus cortiiculatus was common on and near the cliff edg'e. On 
earthen and turf-made fences near North Sea Landinj^ one 
tiny grass — Aira prcecox — was noted for the first time in this 

Of watery places, of which there are a few in the shape of 
small ponds, and even small brooklets in the Flamborough 
district, there was nothing- special to note except the occurrence 
of Ranunculus hedcraccus, Pinguicula vul^-aris, and Triglocliin 
palustre, all in flower. A clayey cattle-pond near Flamborough 
village was white over with the snowy flowers of Ranunculus 
floribundusy whilst the smaller-flowered R. Drouetti affected 
other parts, and Slum angusti/oluin with Scirpus palustris, one 
small beck. 

\'ery exhaustive lists of the flowering- plants generally 
were handed to the writer by Re\ . F. H. Wood and Mr. 
J. J. Marshall, from which a very complete florula of Flam- 
borough Head could be made ; and, whilst it would not discover 
any great rarity, yet it would always be interesting if for 
nothing else but completing the more thorough botanical survey 
of an otherwise noted portion of the broad-acred shire. 

Mosses and Hefatics. — Mr. J. J. Marshall writes : — So 
far as I can gather we found twenty-two Acrocarpous Mosses, 
twenty Pleurocarpus Mosses, and six Hepatics. 

The soil was too dry to yield a good haul, and the shady 
baiiks of Danes' Dyke proved the best collecting ground. 
The following are the best plants noticed : — Hymoiosfomuni 
gvninostontuni. Scligci itt paucifolia, S. calcarca, Dicrano-Wcissia 
cirrliata, Barbula lurida, B. hrcvifolia, Orthotrichuni pulchcllum, 
Anib/vstci^iuni clirvsoplirlhini, Fissidcns cxiguus, F. viridulus. 

T. S. 
Po be continued. 

The Rii)()ii Coiporatioii is liDltl'mt;- ;i liistoiical festival in July toi- 
till' ))iii-p()sc of raisiiii;- ftiiuls for the Mmru-ii)al Museum in conTii-ctiiiii with 
the S\y,\. (laicii'iis. Towards this tlu-if arc aliratly several objects housed in 
I lie Town Hall, ineludinj;- ;i eoilection of Coleoi^era formed some yeiirs HjfO 
by liie Marquis of Rijxm. 


AUGUST 1906. 

No. 595 

(No. 373 of current series). 





The Museum, Hull ; 


T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield ; 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 

Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., 
T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., 


Contents : — 

Notes and Comments : — British Association at York, The York Handbook, The Natural 
History Section, York Maps, York Museum, Museums Association at Bristol 

Fossil Molluscan Zones in the Carboniferous Rocks of the Midlands (Illustrated)— 
Wheelton Hind, M.B., B.S., F.R.C.S., F.G.S. 

Notes on Yorkshire Botany in 1727 — Herbert E. Wroot 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Flamborough (Illustrated)— T. Sheppani, F.G.S. 

Lincolnshire Mites, Epicrius, (Illustrated)— C. F. George, M.R.C.S. 

Glacial Phenomena in the Neis:hbourhood of Guisbrough — Frank Ft, 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Fewston (Illustrated)— r. Sheppani, F.G.S 

Publications on Yorkshire Geology (Illustrated) 

Field Notes 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Northern News 

Illustrations 255, 

Plates XX., XXL, XXII., XXIIl. 


... 260, 
■zGi, -Am, 267, 



268, 267 

270, 280 

271, 275 


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Contains various reports, papers, and addresses on the Flowering Plants, Mosses, and Fungi of the county. 

Complete, Svo, Cloth, jciV/i Coloured Map, published at One Guinea. Only a few copies left, 10/6 net. 

This, which forms the 2nd V'ohiine of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, is perhaps the most 
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gams and Vascular Cryptogams, 11 Characeae, 348 Mosses, 108 Hepatics, 258 Lichens, 1009 Fungi, and 382 
Freshwater Alga;, making a total of 3160 species. 

680 pp.. Coloured Geological, Lithological, &c. Maps, suitably Bound in Cloth. Price 15/- net. 
NORTH YORKSHIRE: Studies of its Botany, Geology, Climate, and Physical Geography. 

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species, together with copious notes on variation (particularly melanism), &c. 

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by T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., Museum, Hull; and T. W. WOODHEAU, F.L.S., Technical College, 
Huddersfield ; with the assistance as referees in Special Departments of J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., 
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All comnuinications should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary, 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., The Museum, Hull. 

Please mention 'The Naturalist' in replying to Advertisements. 



To-day (Aug-ust ist) the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, commences its meeting- at York, the city in 
which, three quarters of a century ago, this important society 
was founded. John PhilHps, then Curator of the York Museum, 
was its first secretary. The first meeting was held in the 
Lecture Theatre of the York Philosophical Society — and this 
small room accommodated all the members present. To-day, all 
the largest halls and buildings in the city are necessary for the 
sections to be properly carried on. For the present meeting 
the citizens of York have made handsome arrangements. They 
are hoping that it may be a * record ' meeting. Over three 
thousand pounds have been subscribed towards the local fund. 
In view of the fact that last years' meeting- was in South Africa, 
and that this is the seventy-sixth anniversary of the foundation 
of the Association, there should be every prospect of the meeting- 
being exceptionally well attended. On the other hand, however, 
the date chosen — August bank holiday week — is surely the one 
week in the year that the convenience of the members cannot be 
properly considered. Only those who have been bold enoug-h 
to travel in our county, we cannot say take a holiday, in that 
week, can form any idea of what the eff'ect of several hundred 
additional visitors to York will be — for the convenience of whom 
it is usual to charter numerous special trains ! We do not know 
who is responsible for the unusually early date of the meeting- 
this year, but we feel sure that it is exceedingly inconvenient to 

We have been favoured with an advance copy of the ' Hand- 
book to York and District,' which has been prepared for the 
British Association meeting. It is a substantial volume, is 
well printed on good paper, is of the proper size, has a most 
appropriate design on the cover, and has not been spoilt by the 
insertion of portraits of various local ' worthies ' ! The volume 
is edited by Dr. G. A. Auden, who also writes the Preface, etc., 
and the chapter on Pre-historic Archaeolog-y. The local com- 
mittee has acted wisely in its selection of its editor of the Hand- 
book. Dr. Auden is one of the few — very few — who take an 
intelligent and practical interest in the antiquities of our county 
capital. York, with its glorious associations and wealth of 
historical relics, is, strangely enough, lacking in the type of 

igo5 August I. 

250 .Vo/i's (lud (\))niuc)ilx. 

antiquary that one would expect to find there. Still, there are 
some, and the aid of these has been called in, in the preparation 
of the Handbook. It is, as might be expected, largely devoted 
to archaeology. Messrs. Auden, Platnauer, Hargrove, Willis, 
Cooper, Benson, Solloway, Skaife, Miss Sellers, and the Revs. 
Canon Watson and Purey-Cust, describe every aspect of the 
archaeology and antiquities of the city. Naturally, much of the 
information in these 250 pages is to be found elsewhere, but as 
a summary it is useful, and will probably be much appreciated 
by the visitors to York this week, for whom, we must not forget, 
the book was primarily prepared. 


Seeing that three-quarters of the book are occupied in the 
way referred to, it is hardly to be expected that in the remainder 
there will be much opportunit}' of describing to any serious extent 
the various branches of geology, botany, zoology, etc., of York 
and district. The result is that many of the chapters under 
this section of the book are largely devoted to lists of species. 
These lists, too, as might be anticipated, are for the most part 
drawn from the various monographs issued by the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union. The chapter on ' Geology ' is written by 
the Rev. W. Johnson, who is to be complimented on his success 
in keeping his description within seven pages, notwithstanding 
the fact that ' the geology of York is, in one sense, of the 
simplest kind ! ' Dr. W. G. Smith follows with a ' General 
Survey ' of the botanical features of the area, which has the 
advantage of being exceedingly 'readable,' and can be appre- 
ciated by one who may perhaps not know that Bcllis percnnis 
is the daisy ! Under ' Phaneroganic Flora and Vascular crypto- 
gams,' Mr. H. J. Wilkinson gives several pages of lists of plants 
characteristic of different areas around York. No one could 
have done this better, and it will be very useful for reference. 
The Algai, Fungi, Hepaticie, Sphagnaceje, and Musci Veri, are 
under the name of our contributor, Mr. W. Ingham, and Mr. 
Oxley Grabham lists the mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphi- 
bians ; Mr. Riley Fortune gives a very complete account of the 
fishes ; in three pages the Rev. W. C. Hey deals with the 
Coleoptera, Mr. S. Walker, writes on ' Lepidoptera,' the Rev. 
T. A. Brode gives a list of the Mollusca, and Mr. J. IC. Clarke 
gives some useful ' Meteorological Notes.' These conclude the 
volume, there being vmfortunatclv no index. 


Notes and Comments. 


Accompanying' the volume are three very useful maps, one 
is a reproduction of Skaife's well known archgeological map of 
York (1864). There is a map of the greater part of the county, 
specially prepared by the Ordnance Survey for the meeting, and 
a map showing the glacial lakes, moraines, etc., which is to 
be distributed amongst the members of the geological section. 
This last is handy ; if it is possible to find a fault it would be 
that the railways are shown just a little too prominently, but 
as we believe this map is largely due to the efforts of Mr. M. B. 
Cotsworth, this item is quite excusable ! 


In perusing- the various sections of the Handbook above 
referred to, it is impossible to get away from the fact that the 
York Philosophical Society and its Museum are duly appreciated 
for the influence they have had on the scientific activity — or 
otherwise — of York. The editor is justly proud of the fact that 
the society 'discovered' John Phillips, and that John Phillips, 
with Vernon Harcourt and W. Gray, founded the British 
Association. Were it but possible that Phillips could attend 
the present meeting of the Association — would he not be 
surprised — possibly astounded — at the present position and 
importance of the Association. It has surely g-rown beyond 
even Phillips' greatest expectations. But, wouldn't he be 
even more astounded to find that the Museum he loved so 
well, and for which he did so much, was little diff'erent from 
the days in which he knew it ? True, it may contain some 
specimens which have been added since his day — labels 
too, thanks (?) to the constant changes in nomenclature — 
may bear unfamiliar names, but the buildings, the cases, etc., 
have they advanced with the times ? They have not. This is 
no fault of the Curators, nor of the few enthusiasts who do take 
an interest in the Museum. It is the fault of those who ought 
to have been the very first to have kept their unique collections 
in worthy surroundings — the wealthy citizens of York. We 
can only express the hope — as we have already done recently in 
in these columns — that the meeting of the British Association 
may awaken the people of York to their responsibilities, and 
that a new building may be erected for the better display of the 

1906 August I. 

252 Field Notes. 


The anniKiI conference of Mnseirn-;' Curators (the Museums 
Association) was held at Bristol from July 2iid-6th. Dr. W. E. 
Hoyle, of the Manchester Museum, presided. It was excep- 
tionally well attended, and, whether viewed from the excellence 
and usefulness of the papers read and discussed, the interest 
attached to the places visited, or the delij^htful way in which 
the visitors were entertained, it must be admitted that the 
meeting- was one of the most successful the Association has 
held. Bristol certainly shows up much better than many 
northern towns as regards its 'show places.' In addition to 
the Museum, Art Gallery, and Zoological Gardens in the city, 
visits were paid to the Stone Circle, etc., at Stanton Drew 
(described by Prof. Lloyd Morg'-an), the Cheddar Cliffs and 
Caves, and the British Lake Village at Glastonbury. The last 
named was described by its discoverer, Mr. A. BuUeid. 
Representatives from the following northern museums were 
present: — Bootle, Bolton, Chester, Carlisle, Hull, Hudders- 
field, Keighley, Liverpool, Manchester, St. Helens, Sheffield, 
Stockport, Sunderland, and York. Next year's conference 
will be at Dundee. 


The 'Sheli = bed' at Speeton. — ^The so-called Speeton 
Shell-bed, originally described by Mr. G. W. Lamplugh 
(' Drifts of Flamborough Headland,' ' Quar. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' 
Vol. 47, 1891), has recently been exposed on the beach at the 
foot of the cliffs about 600 yards north of Reighton Gap. 
From it the characteristic shells were obtained. This gives a 
total exposure of the bed at beach level of about half a mile. — 
C. G. Danfoki), Reighton, July 17th, 1906. 

— : o : — 
Testacella scutulum at Rastrick. — On May 24th, Mr .V. 
C. Lane sent me two slugs found in a garden at Rastrick, which 
he said lived on worms ; that portion of the garden infested by 
the slugs being almost denuded of worms. I ha\e submitted 
one of them to Mr. J. W. Taylor, F.L. S., of Leeds, and he 
pronounces them to be TestucelUi scutuhim Sowerby. This is 
a new record for the Parish of Halifax. John \l. Ckow riii-R,. 
Elland, June iith, 1906. 





(plates XXI., XXII,) 


It has long- been a reflection on the students of the g-eology of 
the Carboniferous Rocks of the North Midlands of England that 
they had not worked out any life zones in these rocks. Of late 
years, however, much has been done, and to-day I hope I may 
say that at least the broad lines of Zonal division of the whole 
Carboniferous series has been laid down. Following up the 
idea which led me to show, in a graphic manner, the distribution 
of the mollusca of the coal measures, in my Monograph on 
(\irbojiicoln, A^aidditcs, and Anfliraconiya^ I, in conjimction with 
my friend Mr. Stobbs, published a Fossil Chart for the North 
Staffordshire Coal Field. Since that time we have made many 
observations on the distribution of these shells in other coal 
fields, and we believe that this succession of fossils is fairly 
constant in all of them. Two distinct faunas, one characterised 
by the genera Cai'bonicola, Anihracomya^ and Naiadites, and the 
other by Pterinopccfen papyroceus and various small cephalopods, 
occur in the coal measures, but never intermingle. We regard 
the species of the former as exact zonal indices, and make use 
of marine bands occurring in a definite relation between any two 
of the zones as aftording- detailed evidence of definite horizons. 

That the genera Carbonicola, Anthracotnya, and Naiadites 
denote fresh water, or possibly slightly brackish water condi- 
tions, we assume from the eroded conditions of the umbones due 
to solution of the CaCO.^ of the shell in water charged with 
Co.j. This view is strengthened by the negative fact that no 
known marine species occur with them. Lastly, the Carbonicola 
and Anthracomya belong to the Unionidoe^ which have a fresh 
water habitus now. 

In the North Staffordshire coal field we find that in the upper- 
most beds, 'the Keele series,' no mollusca occur. These beds 
are probably the equivalent of the Radstock series of the Bristol 
Coal Field, judging from the plants which are found in them. 
The shell which is found in the lower part of the Newcastle 
series of North Staffordshire is very small, and has not a wide 
vertical range, but it is fairly common in certain calcareous 
beds in the series. This shell is Anthracoinya calcifera [Quar. 
Jour. Gcol. Soc, Vol. LV., p. 365, pi. xxv., figs. 14-20), and 

3906 August I. 

254 Ilitid : Fi'ssil Zones in the ('(irhoni/lnnis Rocks. 

is our hij^hest Zone fossil. Below it comes the Zona of 
Anthnicomya phillipsii, a most important zone, for it has been 
found in nearly every I^ntjlish coal field. It characterises 
300-400 feet of strata. In the upper part of this Zone a very 
small shell Carbonicola vinti occurs, but at present this species 
has only been found in the North .Staffordshire and Durham 
Coal Fields. Antlirucomya pJiitlipsii occurs in the black band 
ironstones, and its rang^e, as known at present, is from the Top 
Red Mine ironstone to the Gubbin ironstone. The maximum of 
Anthnicomya ivanii occurs, 600 feet below in the bed known as 
the roof of the Wiiii^hay or Knowles coal. It is associated with 
a rare form of NahuUtcs^ N. cloiigdla. 

Anthnicomya adamsii -And its varieties, and A. pulchra, occur 
in a very narrow bed some 500 feet lower in the New Mine and 
Burnwood ironstones. Carbonicola turgida denotes a well- 
marked zone, 500 feet lower, and Carbonicola subconstricta is 
often associated with this band some little way below the 
Moss coal. 500 feet lower is the Zone of Carbonicola robust a, 
but this species g"oes down to the base of the coal measures. 
200 feet lower comes Antliracomya modiolaris in the Holly Lane 
coal. 100 feet lower is the Zone of Antliracomya ivilliamsoni 
and Carbonicola niiciilaris in the roof of the Hard Mine 
coal. 400 feet below is the Zone of Carbonicola acuta or 
rather of its peculiar variety, C. acuta var. rJiomboidalis, for 
the latter are a more definite Zonal index than the species 
itself. 500 feet lower is the well-known band with the marine 
fauna found in the Hard bed coal — Gastriocetas listcri, 
Dimorphoceras gilbcrtsoni, Pterinopectcn papyracens. The marine 
bands of the North Staffordshire Coal Field are described in a 
paper by Mr. J. T. Stobbs and myself in Quar. Jour. Gcol. Soc, 
Vol. LXI., pp. 495-547, and I shall do no more here than refer 
to the position of them with reg'ard to the Zonal species men- 
tioned above. Eleven marine bands are noted in our paper. 

The hig^hest is that known as the roof of the Bay or Lady 
coal, which occurs about 48 feet above the bed with Anthnicomya 
wardi. The bed to be mentioned next, which occurs a few feet 
below the Knowles coal, contains only Lingula mvtilotdcs and 
Orbiculoidea nitida, but Pterinopectcn papyraceus is found in the 
hij^her one, and is, as far as we know' at present, the latest 
appearance of this species, which is characteristic of the whole 
of the Upper Carboniferous below this horizon. It occurs in 
beds which rest on the uppermost Limestones of Zone I)., of the 
Lower Carboniferous. The next marine band, and (he one 


Anthracomya calcifera 


Anthracomya warJi 

Anthracomya adamsi 
Anthracomya putchra 

Carbonico'a turgid J 
Carbonicola subconstn'cta 

Anthracomya williamsoni 

Carbonicola robiista 


Gastrioceras listeri 

Keele Series 



Etruria Marls 

Top Red Mine 

Gubbin Ironstore 

Knowles Coal 

Burnwood Ironstone 

Mossfield Coal 
5 Feet Coal 

Hard Mine Coal 

Cockshead Coal 

Fig. I. 

The Coal Measure 

Sequence in 

North Staffordshire. 

Scale : 850 ft. to an inch. 

Crabtree Coal 
Millstone Grit 

256 Hind : Fossil Zones in the (Uirhonifcrons Rocks. 

most prolific in species, occurs about 40 feet below the Zone of 
Anthracomya adatnsii or the Burnwood ironstone. A second 
marine bed, known as the Florence marine bed, occurs some little 
distance below this coal. The fifth marine bed occurs above the 
moss coal or Zone of Carboiticola turgida^ and the sixth a short 
distance below that seam. The seventh marine band is found 
250 feet below the Zone of Anthracomya ivilliamsoni or the 
Hard mine coal. The eighth bed, the horizon of which is 
doubtful, need not detain us. Bed No. 9 is in the Cheadle Coal 
Field, and for the present we will not discuss its equivalent in 
the main coal field of North Staffordshire. Marine Bed No. 10 
occurs between the Winpenny and four feet coals. Marine Bed 
No. 1 1 consists of two or three bands with marine fossils, near 
the Crabtree Coal, which we consider to be the equivalent of 
the Bullion seam of Lancashire and the Hard bed of Yorkshire. 
It is my hope that this brief table of Life Zones, which has 
been established for one important coal field, may be a guide to 
workers in other coal fields, and enable fossil charts to be drawn 
up for each of them. There is no doubt that collectors have 
studiously neglected the mollusca of the coal measures in the 
past, but it is to be hoped that the future will tell a very 
difi"erent tale. 



I, 2. Anthracomya modiolaris, Sow. Sp. 

3, 4. Naiaiites modiotaris, Sow. Sp. 

5. Carbonicola titrgida. Brown .Sp. 

6. Naiadites carinata, Sow. Sp. 

7. Anthracomya adamsii, van expansa, Hind. 
8, 9. Naiadites quadrata, Sow. Sp. 

10, II. Anthracomya dolahrata, Sow. Sp, 

12. Naiadites triangularis, Sow. Sp. 

13. ,, carinata, Sow. Sp. 

14. ,, elongata. Hind. 
15, 16. Anthracomya -auirdi, Etli. 


1-3. Carbonicola acuta. Sow. 

4. ,, aquilina. Sow. Sp. 

5. Anthracomya senex, Sow. 
6, 7. Carbonicola robusta, Sow. 

8. Anthracomya pulchra, Hind. 

9. Carbonicola cuneiformis. Hind. 

10. Anthracomya phillipsi, Williamson. 

11, 12. ,, ivilliamsoni Hrown Sp. 
13, 14. Carbonicola gibhosa. Hind. 

15. ,, similis. Brown Sp. 

16, 16a. Anthracomya minima, Liidwit;', Sj). 
17- .1 pulchra. Hint!. 

18. ,, adamsii, .Sow. Sp. 

19. ,, nuctilaris, Hind. 


THE Al iVRM.lST, 1906. 

Plate XXI. 


Plate XXII. 




Amon'G the valuable stores of imprinted manuscripts in the 
library of Sir Mathew \V. Wilson, Bart., at Eshton Hall, are 
the followini^ letters written by Dr. Richard Richardson, of 
Bierley Hall, Bradford, to Samuel Brewer. Both writer and 
recipient were botanists of distinction. Richardson (born 1663, 
died 1741) was a man of wealth, and not only liberally patronised 
less favoured botanists, but was himself an ardent student of 
plants, and especially of the cryptOi^amia. He founded at his 
residence at Bierley the first botanical garden in the north of 
England, and one of the best, if not the best, of its kind in the 
country. Dillenius, who was Richardson's intimate friend, 
disting-uished him as one of the two men — the other being- 
James Sherard — who, by repeated botanical investig^ations 
through England, had most enlarged the list of its plants, and 
fixed the habitats of specimens previously unsettled. Linnaeus, 
who was acquainted with Richardson, called a plant after him. 

Samuel Brewer (died 1743?), to whom the letters are 
addressed, was a native of Trowbridge in Wiltshire, but, being 
unsuccessful in business there, he came north. He was the 
companion of Dillenius in a tour to the Mendips, and thence to 
Bristol, passings onward to North Wales and Anglesey in 1726, 
and he remained in Bangfor for some months, sending' plants to 
Dillenius. The letters of Richardson to him were mainly notes 
of the habitats of rare plants in Wales, written to facilitate 
Brewer's searches. These have been printed, but the description 
of the botany of Ing-leton has not hitherto been transcribed. As 
will be seen, Richardson invites Brewer to Yorkshire, and that 
invitation was accepted. In the autumn of 1727 he took up his 
residence in Yorkshire, living first at Bingley, and afterwards 
at Bierley, near Dr. Richardson, who befriended him. He 
remained at Bierley for some years, and died there. 

[From Dr. Rich.ari^ Richardson fo Samiel Brewer, at Bangor.] 

North Bierley, May 26, 1727. 

[Extract.] — ' I intend to spend a few days in Craven, to 
fetch from thence some plants which 1 have lost out of my 
garden, that my friends in the south desire. Ing;leton shall be 
my farthest stage, which is not much above thirty miles from 

1906 August I. 

258 JVnx)/ : .Vo/cs on Yorkshire lio/niiy in z"-'/. 

hence. There I meet with Heleboriiie flore rotundo s. Calceolus 

C.B.P. \Cvpri/>cdiiini ('iiIccoliis\, and Heleborine foHjs prcclong'is 

ang-ustis acutis Newtoiii R.S.M. {Ccphalanthcra ensifoli(i\ 

Orchis abortiva rufa s. nidus avis \Xcottia Nidus-avis\^ and 

Geranium Batrachoides montanum nostras, R.S.M. \Geraniiuii 

syh(ificiini\, Orchis spheg"oides \Hiihcn(tria bifoHu\ and Orchis 

fucum referens [unidentified] ; upon the bog-i^y places of the hill 

Chamcemorus g-erardi \Rubiis c/uimccmoriis], sedum alpinum 

Irifido folio C.B.P. [Sdxifragti hvp)ioich's\, and sedum palustre 

tribhirsutum purpureum C.B.P. s. montanum luteum minus 

nostras, R. Cat. Angl. \Saxifraga aizoides] ; and upon the rocks 

on the top of the hill, Sedum Ericoides C.B.P. \Saxifraga 

oppositifotia\ and Salix pumilla montana folio rotundo J. B. 

\SaUx reticulata, probably a mistake for S. herbacca], and 

several others. At Wharfe, on my return to Settle, Gentiana 

fug-ax verna s. pra^cox R.S.N. Ed. 2d. \Gvntiana vcrna\, a little 

above the town and under the rocks Cardamine impatiens, 

vulg-o Sium minus impatiens and Leucoium lunatum vasculo 

Subleng-o interto R.S.M. \Drabn incana\ and in the rocks 

poh-g-onatum floribus ex sing-ularis pediculis J.B, \Polygouatum 

officinale], and in the way from thence to Settle, Bistorta minor 

Gerardi [Polygonum viviparum\ and Thlaspi globularije folio 

J.B. [Thlaspi alpestre var. occitauuni] ; betwixt Settle and 

Malham, Alsine pusilla p[ulch]ro flore folio tenuissimo R.S.M. 

[? Alsiueverna], Viola montana i^randiflora lutea nostras R.C. H. 

\Viola lutea]. Allium montanum bicorne R.C. H. [Alliu/n olera- 

ceum var. complanatum] I never could find nigh this place, 

though Mr. Ray met with it; Trichomanes ramosum J.B. 

[Aspleniu'm viride] ; I have sometimes found [word illegible] 

with the common one, Cetrach s. scopopendria [cctcrach offici- 

naruui] in the rocks nigh Malham Tarne. 'Tis probable the 

tarne may afford some uncommon water plants ; nigh the cove 

Valeriana Greca [Polcmoniuvi cccruleum] in abundance, and 

some roots of Christophoriana Gerardi [Actea spicata] amongst 

the bushes, and Rubus alpina humilis J. B. [Rubus saxatilis]\ 

by the waterside viola Trachelij folio [? ]'iola hirsuta] ; at Gordil 

[Gordale], a little way from hence, Heleborine atrorubente flore 

C.B.P. [Kpipaclis ovalis] in plenty, Thalictrum minus and 

Hieracium macrocaulon hirsulum folio rotundo R.S.M. [Ilicra- 

ciuin niuroruni[ and one or two Salix's which I have not 

often met with, and primula veris flore rubro Ger. [Primula 

farinosa] in all the wet grounds. I have recommended Settle 

and for a fi-\v miles al)out it as a \ery productive country for 


Wrooi : A^o/l's on Yorkshire Bofaiiy in ly^/. 259 

mosses, though I was never there in waiter, which is theire 
propper season, and I doubt not but these mountains produce 
severell unknown grasses which I believe have not been much 
sought after as yet. I hope you will pardon this long scroule, 
perhaps naming the known products of this country may be a 
temptation to you to pay us a visit, and to make strickter 
inquirys after such discoverys then has hitherto been don, for 
which I doubt not there is still roome enough left. Vou may 
perhaps meet with some seeds that are not usual. I have now 
some good plants raised from seed gathered by you and Dr. 
Dillinenius {sic), which he sent me not long- agoe.' 

Letter from Dr. Richardson to S. Brewer. 

North Bierley, June 17, 1727. 

[Extract.] — I was last week at Inglebrough in order to 
bring from thence and in that neighbourhood some plants tor 
my friends in the south which I had lost out of my garden (viz.), 
Calceolus flore rotundo \Cypripeditun Calceoliis\ Heleborine 
folijs praslongis angustis acutis newtoni \Cephalanthera ensi- 
folia\ in the place where these two grow I met with either a 
new Rubus alpinus humilis J.B. \Ruhus Saxatitis\ or else a very 
singulare variety. The leaves are much larger, rounder and 
smooth, and of a pale green ; whether it differ in flower or 
fruite from the other I know not. I have brought roots ot it 
into my garden. At the foot of Gigleswike Scar I met with a 
Valeriana which seems a stranger to me, it was out of flower, 
it may perhaps be one of those Gerard says grows about 
Ingleborough Hill. I brought roots of it with me as also of 
Chamaemorus Ger. [Rubus Cha?ncE>norus\ and Thlaspi globularia 
folio J.B. [Thlaspi alpestre var. occitanum\ and Alsine pusilla 
pulchro flore folio tenuissimo R. Cat. Angl. [Alsine vernti\ ; in 
a place called Gordill, nigh Malham, I found a Hieracium or 
two that I had not seen before, alsoe Heleborine atrorubente 
flore C. B P. [Epipactis ovalis\ Heleborine latifolia montana 
C B.P. [Epipactis latifolia], and Heleborine palustris nostras 
Raij [^Epipactis palustris], Herba Paris [Paris quadrifolia], 
Lilium convallium [Convallaria waftlis], Rubus alpinus humilis 
J.B. [Rubus saxatilis], Thalictrum minus Ger., and several 
other unusuall plants, also severall rare orchis's. I have 
brought some roots of Thalictrum minus [probably Thalictrum 
alpinum] into my garden, this seems in all its parts much less 
than the Welsh one which grows plentifully with me.' 

1906 August I. 

26o Wroo/ : Xo/i's on ^'orkshit-c liotmiv in 17^7- 

From Dr. R. RiciiAKDStJX to S. Bkewkk. 

July 28, 1727. 
[Extract. ]—' The last wceke the same person who broui^-ht 
me Epimedium An<^uillari;e \Kpimcdiiim alpiniini\ showed me 
a plant in Binj^-ley town which I never expected to be a 
native of Enj^Iand ; 'tis common in the streets and upon the 
dunghills ; it was out of flower when he showed it me, but 
beini^ an old acquaintance I knew it at the first sig-ht, 'tis 
Campanula penta^ona perfoliata, Mor. Hist. 2, 457. I am <;lad 
3'ou think of visiting- Yorkshire.' 

From Dr. Richardson to S. Brewer. 

Aug. 10, 1727. 
[Extract.] — 'Epimedium Anguiilariai was found by John 
Emmott, a gardiner of Bingley, lately in a wood nigh that place. 
I sent a servant to see it growing in its native place, and to 
bring some roots of it along with him, which he has accordingly 
don. The same Gardiner brought me a large branch of a 
Bettula foliis platans, if it is not a rare kind, 'tis a very remark- 
able variety. The same person also brought me a plant which 
he gathered about Richmond in this county ; it was not in 
flower ; it seems to be an Aster. 1 sent the Consul [Sherard] 
a specimen of a Valeriana I found nigh Gigleswike. He 
takes it to [be] Valeriana sepine rotundifolia inodora of Mr. 
Ray. This was out of flower when I found it, but if the 
aromatic smel of the root had not discovered it to be a Vale- 
riana I had not known whither to have referred it. It thrives 
very wel in my garden, the leaves round and undivided, as 
large as a small Dock.' 

Notes of most of these plants were communicated by Richard- 
son to Dillenius for the 3rd edition of Ray's ' Synopsis,' 
published in 1724, and the records appear in Dr. Lees's ' West 
Riding Elora.' But for several of the plants these letters 
constitute the first record, ante-dating by many years the first 
records given by Dr. Lees. The plants referred to as found at 
Bingley are almost certain to have been introduced and planted 
to deceive Dr. Richardson. 

Mr. II. 11. Coi-bi'tt informs us tliat his note in tin- 'Naturalist,' No. 594, 
p. 224, rfcoiclini^ Silciic nuiiins lu-ar Doiirastor is an error. Tlu' ])lant lias 
b('«'n named hy Mr. W. l-'o^^i^fitt, of Tliirsk, as Silcnc dicliotoina Klirlj., a 
soiitii I-Cnro|3ean easiial. 


J HE .V.I, 1906. 


26 r 


(plate XX.) 
[Continued from page 248.) 

Fungi. — Mr. C. Crossland, F.L.S., reports : — Several of the 
members, including Messrs. Jones, York; Philip, Hull ; Jackson, 
Goole; Woods, Bainton ; Cheesman, Selby ; and liooth, Halifax, 
interested themselves in the mycology of the respective areas 
they visited, and handed on the specimens they collected to the 
secretary of the Mycological Section. Among them was 
Stropharia cojvnilla, a new East Riding record, and five or six 
others, once only previously recorded for this division of the 
county. St. George's Mushroom — Tricholoma gambosum — turned 
up in pastures at Bessingby, Speeton, Bempton, and Flam- 
borough, as it did at Filey on the excursion held about the same 
date, 1903 ('Naturalist,' July, 1903, its first record for East 
Riding). Entolonia anieides is not at all of common occurrence, 
its only other Yorkshire records are Arncliff'e, 1894, and Hornsea 
Mere side, 1903 (Yorks. Fungus Flora). It will be noted in 
the following list that all four Myxomycetes were gathered in 
Danes' Dyke ; Trichia affinis is a remarkably fine species, and 
not very common. One scarcely expected to see ' Jevvs'-ear ' 
fungus brought in, but so it was, being spotted on a living elder 
bush in a ravine near Speeton by one of our oldest active 
Yorkshire mycologists. A full list of the species collected is 
given below in the hope that it may prove useful at some future 
date to students interested in distribution problems. 

Locality, and host or habitat, are given in all cases. For 
D.D. read Danes' Dyke. 

Basidiomycetes. Hirneola auricula-jiidce, on living- 

Tricholma gambosum, in pastures. elder tree. In a wooded ravine 

Bessing-by ; Speeton ; Bempton ; near Speeton. 


Entoloma aineides, in pasture. Bes. 

. Uredinace.^. 


Hypholoiiin fasciciilans, on dead Uromyces pace, yEcidium stag-e, on 

stump. D. D. pilewort. D. D. 

Stropharia curoiiilla, in pastiu-e. Puccinia galii, ^'Ecidium stage, on 

Bessingby. crosswort, near the cliffs, Bemp- 

Psathyrella gracilis, in pasture. ton. 

Marasmiiis arcades, in rings in Puccinia I'iohe, ,'Ecidium stage, on 

pastures, several places. viola. D.D. 

Polyporus squa/nosits, on dying ash P/tccin ia pi»ipi/ic//a, .^c]d\{.im stage, 

tree. D. D. on cow parsnip. D.D. 

1906 August I. 


VorksJiirc Xti/iini/is/s at F/dinboroiij^/i. 

Piiccinia poariim, Spcrmojjfoiiiiini 

and -'E-'icrmm staice, on coltsfoot. 

PliragDi idiuin siihrorh'ru/uiii, .-I'^ci- 

iliiim staufi', on wild rose in suvi'ral 



Xv/ii'i(i /ivpoxylon , on dead wood. 

D. I). 
Phyfisnui uccriniiin, niatuieon dcati 

sx'caniore-leaves. I). U. 
Sphcerospora trechispora, on moist 

soil among' moss. D. D. 

Microscopic Alg^. — Mr. R. 
pond in Boynton Woods yielded 
Diatomaceae : — 

Cviiiatoplcuni elliptica Hreb. 

,, Solvit Breb. 

Cviiihrlla CKSpidata var. navindi- 

foniiis Auers. 
Epithiiiiia turgid 1 1 Ehr. 
Fnxgilaria undata \V. Sm. 
Xdviciila aiiihigua Ehr., -awiX forma 
crnticula (rare). 
,, Aiiglica, Ralfs. 

,, elliptica Kutz. 

Diisysrypliit iiii'cii, on dead woods 

\). 1). 
Mollisia atriita, on dead herbaceou. 

stems. D D. 


Lycogala epidendron, on rottiTis^ 

wood. I). I). 
Trichia affinis, on strip of cast 

bark. D. D. 
Didyiniitm sqiianiulosum, on dead 

herbaceous remains. D. D. 
Tilinadoche nutans, on rotten wood. 

D. D. 

H. Philip reports : The 
the followiiio' species of 

N(n'i(//la iihlonga Kutz. 

,, radiosa Kutz. 

Pinniilaria viridis Ehr. 
Staiironeis anccps I'^hr. 

,, acuta W. Sm. 

,, Legunien Ehr. 

,, Phcniccnteron^hv. 

,, S/nit/iii Grun. 

Siirin'lla biscriata Breb. 
,, robust a Breb. 

This o^atherinof was chiefly remarkable for the luiniber both of 
species and individuals of the g"enus S/.aiiroiieis. 

Ponds at Speeton were interesting" from the great number of 
Desmids found in them, though there were comparatively few 
.species. The most abundant were Closteriiun I'l'/ius Kutz. and 
Cosmarimn crcuatum Ralfs. ; also present were Clostcnum 
lauccohtfum Kutz. and C P^hrcnberghii Men. 

A small stream falling into Little Thornwick Bay contained 
some verv interesting Diatoms, among which ma)- be noted the 
following : - 
Amphora ovalis Kutz., and vars. 

affinis and gracilis. 
Cainpylodisciis Hihcrnicus I"2hr. ((ine 

and abundant). 
Coscinodiscus radiatus IChr. 
Cyinbclla cistula Mempr. 

,, cyinbifonnis Breb. 

,, gastroides Kutz. 
Cioniphoiicnia intricatuin Kutz. 
Mclosira niiin inuloidcs .\_tf. 
Xavicula ainphisba'na Bory. 

Xavicula liniosa Kutz., and var 

Xitzschia duhia W. Sm. 

,, linearis \V. Sm. 

,, siginoidea W. Sm. 
/'leiirosignia Spencerii \V. Sm. 
Surirella ovalis Breb., .md var. 
ni inula. 

,, spiralis Kutz. 

Svnedra ulna Ehr., var. longissiina. 
\'anlieurckia vulgaris \. \\. 


Field Notes. 263 

CosciiiodiscHs radici/iis, a marine species, was found ver}' 
plentifully in the lower part of the pulley, but still considerably 
above high-water mark. It would seem it must have been 
thrown up by the foam of the waves, and falling into this little 
stream made itself at home and flourished there. The only 
other distinctively marine species found in this locality was 
Melosira nuiniimloides, and this only in very small quantity. 

The photograph of some of the members, taken at Flam- 
borough, is reproduced by the permission of the photographer, 
Mr. J. Duncum, of Beverley. 

T. S. 

Anchomenus viduus (Panz) at Hatfield. — On the 21st 
June I took a specimen of the type of this species at Hatfield 
Moor. As it would appear that only the variet}' nwesfus (Duft) 
is recorded for Yorkshire, I thought it worth reporting. — 
H. V. CoRBETT, Doncaster. 

HypochcBris glabra Linn., in Lincolnshire. — This species 
has been diligently sought for by Messrs. Lees, Fowler, Fisher, 
and by Miss Stow and myself. In 1902 Mr. H. C. Hawley 
finally met with it, and this season has sent me beautiful 
typical specimens. He took it first in an arable field (peas) on 
Old River Gravel between Tumby and Coningsby. It is a first 
record for Lincolnshire. — E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock, 
Cadney, Brigg, July loth, 1906. 

— : o : — 

Fish Remains in the Speeton Clay — During the York- 
shire Naturalists' Union excursion at Whitsuntide, I found, at 
Speeton, a number of fossil scales, some spines, etc. of fish. 
Being unable to find any published information upon these, 
they were submitted to Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., of 
the British Museum (Natural History), who informs me they 
chiefly belong to the genus Leptolcpis, but are too incomplete 
for a specific name. Two of the specimens are typical dentary 
bones of that genus. These are now in the Hull Museum. — 
T. Hawkesworth, July ist, 1906. 

1906 Aufjust I. 





This g-enus of mites belong-s to Koch's Family of ' Thiermilben ' 
= ' Gamasides.' He describes eig"ht j^enera of this family in his 
Ubersicht, published in 1837 : Epicriiis was not one of them, 

Fijj. i,—Eplcrlus mollis. Kramer. 

the genus had not then been formed. Tiie type species was 
first described and figured by Kramer in 1876 (under the name 
of G(im<isus iiio//is) in the ' Archi\- fiir Naturgeschichte,' and 
the genus Kpicriiis was founded afterwards by Canestrini and 
I'^mzago. Ilaller also figures a species which he calls /•'picrius 
cduvstroiii. None of these papi'rs have yet been seen by nu-, 


George : Lincolnshire Mites. 265 

situated as I am, far from any good natural history library. 
Berlese g^ives larg-e coloured fig"ures of E, mollis and E. geo- 
metricns, (these I have seen at the British Museum, on one 
of the rare visits I have been able to make to its Reading" 
Room) ; Professor Berlese has also kindly examined my 
mounted specimens, and confirmed this diagnosis. 

Fig. I. — Epicrius mollis. Kramer. 

I first found this mite in moss, in January 1878 ; it is rather 
small, but like the rest of the Gamasi it is very active ; it has 
no visible eyes, the front legs are long and slender, and used 
chiefly as feelers, and not for progression ; the skin is highly 
chitinized, and dotted over with angular papillae, well seen at 
the extreme edge of the body ; there are also four rows of very 
long curved hairs, which extend considerably beyond the body, 
these hairs must render the creature's skin very sensitive. In 
colour it is of a beautiful transparent yellow, the papillae or 
tubercles a dark orange, one specimen was considerably darker 
in its general colour, being of a sort of chocolate or cinnamon 
colour, rather translucent, no doubt, like many other mites, the 
colour is much influenced by the nature of the food recently 
ingested ; Mr. Soar's beautiful drawing gives a good idea of 
this extraordinary-looking creature ; he has also figured the 
first and second pair of legs, and gives the measurement of the 
body as 0.40 mm. long and 0.26 nim, broad. It makes a fine 
object for the microscope when well mounted, and once seen, 
can never be mistaken for any other Acariis. Mr. A. D. 
Michael found it in tolerable abundance in Cornwall a good 
many years ago, and he exhibited it at some of the local 
societies. Professor Sig Thor of Christiana has also met with 
it, and a specimen was sent to Mr. Soar, taken in the neigh- 
bourhood of Edinburgh about three years ago, so that probably 
it is not ver}- rare, and may be found if carefully looked for ; 
I believe it has not been before figured in this country, and this 
is probably its first record for Lincolnshire. 

Fig. 2. — Epicrius geometricus. Canestrini and Fanzago. 

This is another very beautiful mite of the same family, but 
considerably larger than E. mollis. I found it in 1879 ; a glance 
at Mr. Soar's drawing will at once show the great difterence in 
appearance between this mite and the one just described ; the 
peculiar arrangement of the papillae, by which the dorsum is 
divided into irregular spaces, like divisions on a map, is well 
shown on the figure, from which the hairs have been removed ; 

igo6 August I. 


Geo fire : Lincolnshire Mites. 

from the centre of the principal spaces, arises one of the long' 
and strong- curved hairs ; these are not quite so long in pro- 
portion as those on E. mollis^ the colour of the mite is a deeper 
orange, and altogether it is a very striking creature, and has 
been well figured in Berlese's g-reat work ' Acari Myriapoda 
Scorpioni Italia, &c. ' 

Fig-. 2)-—Epicrius cauistrinii. Haller. 

This is another extremel)' handsome species of this family. 
I have not had the pleasure of finding it, and so have not seen 

Fig. 2.—Epicrius geometricus. Canestrini and Fanzago. 

it alive. The drawing was made by Mr. Soar, from a fine mount 
kindly given to me by Mr. Michael, who found it in Cornwall. 
In this mite it will be seen that there are somewhat similar 
spaces on the dorsum, as in E. jsivonie/ricns, though diflcring in 
size and pattern, and bordered by ridges, instead of the dis- 
tinctly separate papilla; ; the mite also seems to be much lighter 
in colour than the other two, but this may be due to preservative 
solution, (jr mounting media, &c. 1 should very much like to 


Field Note. 267 

meet with it alive. This however is hardly likely at my time of 
life. However it is quite possible that it may occur in Lincoln- 
shire, and so I hope some reader of ' The Naturalist ' will be 
fortunate enoup-h to find it. There may also be other species 

Fig. s. Epicrius canistrinii. Mailer. 

yet to be discovered and described, but these three are all I 
know of at present ; here therefore is a fine field for work, 
' vei'biim scip.' 

I desire to express my thanks to Professors Berlese of 
Florence and Sig" Thor of Christiana, and Messrs. A. D. 
Michael, F.L. S., and C. D. Soar, F.R.M.S., for kind assistance 
in this and other microscopic work. 

Since writing the above notes, I have seen a treatise on the 
Acarina by Nathan Banks, published at Washing-ton in 1904 ; 
on pag-e 57 he observes that ' of Iphiopsis and Epicrius no 
species have been found in this country ' {i.e. America). 


Selenia Lunaria at Denby Dale. — A single specimen of 
this moth was captured by me at Netherend, near Denby Dale, 
on the i6th June last. Mr. G. T. Porritt kindly identified it 
for me, and states that it is a local moth generally, and in this 
district a great rarity. — W. E. L. Wattam, Newsome. 

1906 August I. 




In view of the forthcoming- meeting of the ^'orkshire Naturalists' 
Union at Guisbrough in August, it may be of interest to give a 
few notes on the Glacial Geology of the Guisbrough \'alley, 
more especially as some of the phenomena have not hitherto 
been described. 

Professor P. F. Kendall in his great paper, ' A System of 
Glacier Lakes in the Cleveland Hills,' has shown that a glacier 
from the Cheviots swept down upon the Cleveland area, and in 
his opinion it coincided with a period of maximum glaciation 
from Scarth Nick to the Wykeham Moraine.* Consequently it 
would impinge directly upon the great Jurassic escarpment 
bounding the Guisbrough Valley to the south. At Bold 
Venture, at 800 feet, occur gravel mounds with Cheviot 
Porphyrites indicating a glacier lake overflow down Sleddale.t 
Erratics are even to be found on Newton Moor at a height 
of 1000 feet. 

When the ice began to retreat, a small lake was held up 
in High Bonsdale, the overflow falling westward at 675 feet. [ 
As the ice melted backwards a great overflow out of the 
Boosbeck Valley into the Guisbrough Valle}' was initiated, 
forming the Slapewath Gorge (600-425). 

Professor Kendall § thinks that, as no channels exist along 
the western slopes of the hills in alignment with Slapewath, 
Airy Hill, above Skelton, acted as a barrier to the ice, and 
that a sinuous lake extended along the hill sides. However 
this m%>- be, at the foot of Bonsdale Hill is a great bank of 
drift (Grove Hill) 400 feet high, with a fine wcs/erly channel in 
front of it, cutting at its exit near Lowcross House, the 325 
foot contour. I do not think that this \alley was in alignment 
with the Slapewath overflow. It simply seems to have been 
produced at a later stage of retreat when the waters in the 
Bonsdale Valley escaped round the end of the hill. The channel 
is of a type not uncommon along the steep slopes of the Jiwassic 

* OiKir/trly Joiiniiil (ifolii^ictil Soiic/y, X'ol. 5S, p. 505. 

t Op. at. p. 519. 

X Kendal, Op. rit. p. 510. 

§ ' ProccctliiiLTs ^'l>|•kshi|•o ( leoldifioal .Sorittx',' 1903, p. 44. 


Glacial Phenomena in the Neighhotirhood of Guisbrough. 269 

escarpment, viz., a large mound of diift on the icevvard side, 
and with an abrupt rocky scarp (generally of the Sandy Series 
of the Middle Lias) on the other. Similar extra-morainic 
channels I have noted at Great Ayton, Ingleby, Carlton, and 

The whole of the vale of Guisbroug-h is covered with drift, 
which must be of great thickness. An old sand pit on Windy 
Hill, just north of Lowcross House, yielded Lower Lias Fossils, 
Cheviot Porphyrites, Botryoidal Magnesian Limestone, a small 
piece of Shap Granite, and a broken valve of Cyprina islandica, 
all (except the Shap Granite) indicating an ice flow from the 

On entering Cleveland the Cheviot Glacier must have 
abutted directly on Eston Nab and practically surmounted it. 
' Among the areas comparatively free from drift, we may notice 
the tops and steep northern faces of Eston and Upleatham 
Hills. With the exception of the small point at Eston Nab, 
occasional pebbles of foreign rocks show that a thin coat of 
drift once existed here.'* Some striking overflows formed 
during" the retreat of the ice on the Eston Outlier prove con- 
clusively that the ice overs wept the whole hill which in pre-glacial 
times must have stood 1000 feet above the plain ! The outlier 
is divided into two branches by Moordale Beck, of which the 
southern one, running from Osborne Rush to Park House, has 
been trenched by overflows from the pent up waters of 

As the ice melted from the Guisbrough Valley its edge 
reached in time the summit of the spur just mentioned. The 
water flowing from its melting front initiated two channels. 
The westerly one is near Normanby Intake Plantation, and 
perhaps leads from the head of Moordale. Its intake level 
is 625 feet, but it cuts through the 650 feet contour, a fact 
which would seem to indicate that it originated in the way 

The second is the grand gorge of Scugdale Slack, certainly 
as fine a piece of glacial erosion as can be found in Cleveland. 
It contains little or no stream, and the intake level is 523 feet, 
cutting clean through the hill where it is about 50 feet deep. It 
rapidly becomes deeper and steeper until where it emerges 
into the Guisbrough Valley it is about 200 feet deep. From its 
outflow a wide flat-floored trench in the drift can be seen 

* Barrow, ' Survey Memoir,' p. 66. 
J906 August I. 

270 Northern Neivs 

sweeping" down the valley to the westward between Grove Hill 
and Windy Hill. I have traced it as far as Lowcross House. 
It is about 25 feet deep near the Chaloner Pit Railway. 

In strict alig'nment with Scugdale Slack is a dry valley 
to the south of Moordale Beck. It commences near Upsal Pit 
and flows past Barnaby Moor Farm. The erosion began at 
575 feet, continuing to 525 feet. The ice has here evidently 
caused the impounded waters of Moordale Beck to travel along- 
its margin and out by Scugdale Slack. Upon the final retreat 
the beck resumed it old course, leaving the channel high and 

After Scugdale Slack was abandoned the waters from Upper 
Moordale flowed along the ice front eastwards. The present 
course of the stream beyond Crow Well is very anomalous, 
recalling on a small scale that of the Esk at Crunkley Gill. 
Here a mass of drift, 500 feet high, blocks up the small valley. 
On the southern side of this barrier flows Moordale Beck in 
a very narrow channel. The most curious point, however, is 
that to the north of the drift hill is a channel, now dry, falling" 
eastwards at a lower level than the top of the present gorg-e ! 
I take this to mean that the northerly channel was formed first, 
then the ice re-advanced a little, and compelled the beck to flow 
at another and higher level. This continued for so long that on 
the retreat of the ice any flow down the northerly channel was 
impossible. A simpler explanation may be found in the irregular 
deposition of the drift with an ice barrier standing on the mound 
until the critical level had been passed, but it leaves unexplained 
the northerly channel with its fall to the castivarcl. Both 
explanations, however, demand an ice barrier. 

In Man for May, 1906, the Hon. JoIiti Abcroroiiib\- fivfurcs and describes 
a Neolitliic ' Pintadora ' (?) from Dcrbysliiiv. This is of red deer horn, one 
end of which is rounded and pohsiied, the otlier being' cut into a diamond 
pattern. It was found in association with tliree pieces of red oclire. The 
author considers that tiie horn object ' may have been a portable stamp or 
pintadera, witli a hole for supension, and intended for im^jrinting' a pattei'n 
on tile human body.' The specimen is in the Bateman Collection, now in 
the Sheffield Museimi. 

The following" is a list of the donations to the Public Museum at Boolle 
last year : — Print of the Great Seal of George I., Nest anil Kggs of 
Blackbird, Throstle, House Sparrow, and Robin ; Model of Catamaran ; 
Casts of Tyi^ical I'"ootprints (Trias) ; Bow and Arrows from BorTieo ; a lai-ge 
Turtle Shell |gi\cn by an Alderman !] ; an I'^'igle ; South AmeiMcan Birds ; 
specimens of Phunbago and Soapst<}ne ; a Gold l""ish ; Cannel Coal ; a 
Tiger Moth ; Seahorses from V'enice ; a Musk Beetle ; Nests of Blackbird, 
liulllinch. Hedge Sparrow, and Throstle; Hedgehog; Otter's Head; 
Water Vole ; Mineral specimens ; a Pheasant ; Sketches of the S.ilmon ; 
and a Venomous Spider and young Alligator (in spirits). 




June 30, 1906. 

The hundred and ninety-fifth meeting: of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union was held at Harrogate, for Fewston and 
the Washburn Valley, on Saturday, June 30th. The day 
proved all too short for the investigation of such a charming 
district. There were about sixty members, who drove by 
brakes, and had the advantage of the guidance of the divisional 
secretary, Mr. R. Fortune, Mr. S. Margerison, who described 
what was being done on afforestation by the Leeds Corporation, 
and Mr. W. Storev, who has charge of the reservoir, etc. 

Photo by] 

Island in Swinsty Reservoir. 

[R. Fortune, F.Z.S. 

The party travelled via Stainburn Moor and Little Almais Cliff 
to Swinsty, where, by the courtesy of Captain Wakefield, 
Swinsty Hall was examined and the old oak wainscotting much 
admired. Mr. W. Denison Roebuck occupied the chair at the 
evening meeting, when reports on the work accomplished were 
given by the officers of the sections. Fifteen societies were 
represented. A vote of thanks to the land owners and leaders 
was proposed by Prof. T. W. Edmondson, of New York 
University, whom the members were pleased to see amongst 
them again. 

For the Geological Section Mr. E. Hawkesworth reports 
that the circular did not promise many attractions, but the 
few geologists who attended found much to interest them, 

1906 August I. 

272 Vorks/iin' Xdliinilis/s 11/ /'"cvs/d/i. 

The district is composed of rocks belong"in>^ to the Millstone 
Grit Series. In the route traversed, sections were rare, but the 
beds were seen to be much disturbed and folded, beini^ on the 
line of the anticlinal fold runninj^ from near Skipton to Harro- 
gate. Most attention was paid to a good section of the ' Shell 
Bed ' exposed in the north-easterly bank of the Fewston 
reservoir. This is a bed of hard calcareous grit, cherty in 
places, probably of estuarine origin. It forms a constant 
horizon over a considerable area, and, owing to its hardness, is 
used largely as roadstone. As its name implies, it is very 
fossiliferous, but the fossils are mostly internal casts of such 
shells as Produclus, OriAts, and Spirifer. Large slabs were 
seen covered with these. Fragments of encrinites are common, 
and a single specimen of Rhabdomeson^ a polyzoan, was noted. 
In the same bed, at Hampsthwaite, a few miles to the north- 
east, these are plentiful. The shell bed was seen to be cut off 
by a roughly north and south fault, and thrown against a bed 
of flaggy sandstone. 

Vertebrate Section. — Mr. R. Fortune writes: — ^The 
Vertebrate Section was unusually well represented at this 
meeting, officially, by its three secretaries, Messrs. Booth, 
White, and Fortune. 

Unfortunately the limited time at our disposal did not 
permit of much serious work being done. 

It was interesting to note how the lowering of the water 
in the Fewston reservoir had left several nests of the Little 
Grebe stranded, and of course deserted. A new nest of this 
bird with one fresh ^^f^ was seen. The singing of the Cuckoo 
was noted, it being rather late in the season to hear the song. 
Whinchats were very numerous, as a rule busy feeding their 
young. Three pairs of the Yellow Wagtail were seen, their 
plumage being not nearly so bright as a month or so ago. 
Snipe were particularly abundant, and it was interesting to note 
the occurrence of the Lesser Whitethroat. Altogether sixty-one 
species of birds were noted, many of them with young. A 
Linnet's nest, containing five eggs, was one of the very few 
seen with eggs. 

Of the rareties noted in the circular as nesting in the locality, 
no traces were seen. This was a great disappointment to the 
members, as it would have been a great treat to have seen them 
in their nesting haunts. A visit paid to the ground a few days 
after the excursion revealed a pair of Tufted Ducks upon 


Yorkshire Naturalists at Feivstoii. 273 

Swinsty reservoir, causing' one to wonder if these birds had not 
been mistaken for Golden Eyes, an error easily made. 

The mammals noted only numbered six species. We heard 
that the Badger was not uncommon, but we met with no 
traces of it in the district covered. We were informed that in 
the larg-e banquetting hall in Swinsty Hall, small bats were to 
be seen flying about every evening, probably the Pipistrelle. 
One Reptile, two Amphibians, and one Fish completed the total 
of our records. No doubt, with more time at our disposal, 
some interesting records might be made, as the district is 
particularly suitable for bird life. 





Missle Thrush. 

Song Thrush. 


Ring Ouzel. 






Lesser Whitethroat. 

Garden Warbler. 

Chifif Chaff. 

Willow Warbler. 

Wood Warbler. 

Sedg-e Warbler. 

Hedge Accentor. 

Great Tit. 

Blue Tit. 


Pied Wagtail. 

List of Species noted. 

Field Vole. 

Yellow Wagtail. 

Meadow Pipit. 

Tree Pipit. 

vSpotted Flycatcher. 



Sand Marten. 







Yellow Bunting. 

Reed Bunting. 






Water Yole. 



Green Woodpecker. 




Ring Dove. 

Stock Dove. 




Corn Crake, 








Little Grebe. 

Other species were reported, but require confirmation. 

Repfilia. - 

-Common Lizard. 



-Frog, Toad. 

The CoxcHOLOGiCAL Section was represented by Mr. 
John W, Taylor and the president, Mr, W. Denison Roebuck, 
The results of the day's working round the margins of the 
Swinsty Reservoir were not very brilliant, only seven molluscan 
species being noted. The district is geologically unfavourable, 

1906 August I. 

274 Yorkshire Xatui-tilisls 11/ Fcwsfoii. 

and the day being fine, with wind, the ground was too dr\' 
Of water shells, Limnccu pcrarra was common in a water 
trough, and at the lower end of Fewston Reservoir, where 
also was found a broken shell of what is most likely /-. 
atcricularia, a species which has before been found there. Only 
one slug was seen, Agriolimax agrestis, and four species of 
land shells, Vitrinii pelliici'da. Helix /lispida, Pattilu rottoidata^ 
and Hyalinia alliaria, the last-named being additional to the 
lists given in the circular. 

Mr. J. H. Ashworth kindly forwards the following list of 
Diptera taken at Fewston, which it is as well to put on record, 
as the changes in connection with the Waterworks and the 
afforestation may affect the fauna to some extent. Most of the 
specimens have been examined by Mr. Percy Grimshaw, of 

Otlev to Blubberhouses. 

Microchrysa Jlavicoriiis '^^. Eristalis arbiistoriim L. 

Chrysopilus auratus K. Syritfa pipicns L. 

Rhamphoinyia sulcata Kin. Morellin curvipes .Mcq. (?) 

Empis sp. Calliphora erytlirocephala Mtf. 

,, livida L. Lucilia serirata Mj^. 

Hilara (P chorica Fin.) Polietcs lardaria F. 

Tachydromia sp. Hylcmyia nig-riniana Mg-. 

DoUchopus ungiilatus L. Limiiop/tora sp. 

Chilosia sp. Sratop/iaga stercoraria L. 

Melanosioma meUiiium L. Sepsis sp. 

Svrphits ribesii L. Opoiiiysa g-eniii nation is L. 

Eristalis feitax L. (.'-') Piop/iila. 

Norwood to the Wharfe below Leathlev. 

Pachyrrhina guestfalica Westh. Sericomyia lappona (Kex (lill, by 
Platychirus peltatus Mg. Cat Crags Plantation). 

,, scutatus Mg. Myden iinpuncfa Fin. 

Psila finientaria 

For the Entomological Section Mr. A. Whitaker reports 
that very little work was done. E. jitnira, C. pampliilus, and 
L. icartis were abundant, and /'. aia/anhi was noted. Ova of 
S popiili and D. viniila were obser\ ed on the small poplars by 
the reservoir. 

A beetle was handed to Mr. Roebuck on the excursion, and 
submitted to Mr. F. G. Hayfoid, who writes : — 

'This is a specimen of Aiirisironychit alniomimilis F., a very 
interesting and uncommon species, for which we possess very 
few recorded localities in Yorkshire. An incident of this kind 
serves to emphasise the desirability of members assisting each 


Piihlicutioiis on I orkshire Geology. 


other in the different branches of natural history which they 
are investigating-.' 

Flngi. — Mr. C. Crossland reports that Mr. Roebuck 
forwarded to him Ombrophila clavus on a decaying^ herbaceous 
stem from the Fewston Excursion. — T. S. 


Thk Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 

Vol. X\'. Pt. 3, does not impress one as pre\ious parts have 
done. It is somewhat thin and watery. Perhaps one is 

Section in Boulder Clay at Balby, near Doncaster.' 

prejudiced against this publication from the fact that the editors 
persistently misdate it. This number, for instance, did not 
appear in 1905 at all, but rather somewhere about May 1906. 
Nothing- is g-ained by such deception, and endless trouble is 
caused in after years to those who have to set the matter 

* One ot tlie many illustrations appearing- in the Yorkshire Geolog-ical 
Society's Publication — reproduced by permission. 

1906 August I. 

276 Reviews ntul linok Xoticex. 

rij^lit. The British Association has had a committee working" 
on general deHiiquencies of editors for years, and I recommend 
to their notice the ^'orkshire Geoloj^ical Society. Another 
thing- that strikes the editorial mind is the extreme reduction 
of the maps in Mr. Carter's papers. By all means let the maps 
be reduced so as to fall in to as small a space as is consistent 
with expense and utility, but letter the orig-inal drawing's 
sufficiently boldly that when reduced one has not to use a 
microscope. Mention may be made of the singular custom of 
publishing^ the proceeding's of the Council in a general publica- 
tion, the details reg^arding^ illustrations printed on p. 489 are 
surely better fitted for the Minute-Book of the Council than 
for the public eye. 

The Transactions of the Hull Geological Society, 
Vol. VL, Pt. I, impress one more favourably. Here is com- 
mendable brevity and restraint in all the papers, doubtless forced 
upon the editor by that excellent master, want of funds, but 
evidently editorial. The result is that one reads such papers 
right throug^h, and does not cast them aside with impatience at 
the mass of detail, often quite unnecessary to print. It would 
have been better if the Belemnites described in Mr. Danford's 
paper had not been fig-ured upside down (perhaps the Editor 
had Phillips' 'Yorkshire' in mind), and if the sections of those 
fossils could have been g^iven on the same plates. Certain ugly 
misprints occur, e.g. ' cordierite-geisses ' on p. 25 ; ' Rhoetic ' 
on p. 80 ; and a bad slip in the second paragraph on p. 88. 
The Bibliographical niatter is invaluable and will always be of 
value ; the addition of an asterisk to those works in local 
libraries is an excellent idea, and such information invariably 
leads to presentations and therefore less imperfection in local 
histor\-. The reproductions by photographic processes of views 
and other objects can now be done so economically and well, 
that smaller societies can almost compete with larger ones in 
their wealth of illustration. Publications on Yorkshire Geology 
are not behindhand in this respect. -C.D.S. 


A Preliminary List of Durham Diptera, with Analytical 
Tables. By the Rev. W. J. Winffate. With Seven Plates. 
[8vo., papers, pp. vi. + 416 -f 7 plates and explanatory leaves]. 

This forms the second \ olume of a new series of the Trans- 



Plate XXIII. 

[Sec page 2jj. ) 

Revie%ics and Book A^ofices. 


actions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, 
Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and worthily sustains the 
reputation of these publications. 

The title of this book is somewhat misleading, in two ways. 
In the first place, it is hardly a ' preliminary ' list, inasmuch as 
it is the third list of the two-wing-ed flies of the county, which 
the author has himself published. No doubt it is by inadvertence 
that no reference of any kind is made in the volume now before 
us to the two previous lists. The first of these was a full and 
elaborate one, with localities of the Durham Diptera, which was 
published in this journal three years ag-o (See the ' Naturalist '^ 
July 1903, pp. 269-288), and the second was published last year 
in the ' Victoria History of the County of Durham.' 

In the second place, the title errs on the side of modesty, for 
this is not so much a list of Diptera of a county, as a series of 
analytical tables by which to diag-nose almost the whole Dipterous 
fauna of the British Isles, the exceptions being duly noted in the 
introductory remarks, and reasons assigned. 

English dipterists (or dipterologists) have so little literature 
in their own tongue available for the determination of their 
captures, that they cannot but feel grateful in the highest degree 
to Mr. Wingate for furnishing them with a work so well calcu- 
lated in its plan to help the young dipterologist to make out his 
captures. The dichotomic or tabular method adopted here is 
a very useful one, as drawing attention to the diagnostic points, 
and likely to assist the beginner in making out, at any rate, the 
well-marked and more distinctly characterised species. The 
actual value of any such tables is not to be gauged by a 
reviewer, and can only be judged after prolonged use in the 
actual determination of the species. 

There are seven plates, giving diagrammatic representations 
of details of external anatomy in various genera. We are 
allowed to reproduce plate i, what the author calls a 'Fly- 
Chart,' figuring an imaginary or generalised type of fl}', on 
which the various morphological features are fully indicated, 
and fully explained In the introductory chapters. This chart 
ought to be very useful, and its use ought to tend to accuracy 
and precision in dipterological investigation. 

The tables give the diagnoses of 2526 species, some being 
forms not yet known as British, but quite likely to occur, and 
localites, or statements of distribution in Durham, are cited for 
the 626 species which the author has found in the district. The 
work is full}- indexed, and one of the indexes is of the Durham 

1906 August I. 

278 /^('vi('7vx and Rook Xotives. 

species, thus giviiiji^ at a i;lance a conspectus of the county 

It is a pleasure to note that the author has placed his collec- 
tion of the Flies of Durham in the Newcastle Museum, and we 
hope that no class-lecturinj^ to school children is permitted in 
the Museum, for nothing can be more destructive to insect 
collections than the orderly measured tramp of well-drilled 
scholars by reason of the vibration of the structure thereby 

The author and the Natural History Society are to be 
cong^ratulated most warmly on the production of this most 
useful volume. — R. 

Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union Transactions. Indited 
by Arthur Smith, F.L.S., F.E.S. Printed by Wij^^^en Bros., 
Louth. 8vo. , 74 pau;"es. 

We have to cong-ratulate our Lincolnsliire friends on the 
publication of this the second part of their Transactions, and 
upon the excellent and varied nature of its contents. 

A list of officers and of members is followed by a statement 
of objects and rules, a balance sheet, and a resume (brief but 
interesting-) of the Field meeting-s held during- the twelve years' 
existence of the Union, and g^iving- fuller details of the meeting's 
of later date. 

A portrait and short notice of the Union's first President, 
the late John Cordeaux, recalls vividly to mind the belo\ed 
personality of an enthusiastic field-observer. 

The next paper, on ' The Stoat and its Ways,' a delightful 
piece of Nature-study, by the Rev. K. Adrian WoodruflFe 
Peacock, F.L. S., forms the presidential address for the year 

An excellent detailed list of the ' Non-Marine Mollusca of 
Lincolnshire,' by Mr. C S. Carter, of Louth, embodies the 
work of no fewer than twenty-three enthusiastic workers at 
the rich and varied mollusca fauna of I>incolnshire, and includes 
loy out of the 144 possible species — a good proportion — as 
well as 133 varieties and three monstrosities. 

The part concludes with an admirable piece of lield-geologv, 
illustrated by a plate and process blocks, in which the worthy 
l"!ditor of the Xalnralisl (Mr. T. Sheppard, F.G.S.) describes 
the structure of his birthplace, in ' Notes on the Geolog^y of 
South l-'crriby.' 


/Reviews and Book Notices. 279 

The part is neatly printed at Louth, but ought to have been 
properly sewn by the binder. It is '' stabbecV througfh with wire^ 
a double fault, which the publishers of scientific publications 
should avoid like the devil does holy water. 

We note also the (no doubt inadvertent) absence of reference 
to the fact that this is the second part of the L. N.U. Transac- 
tions, the first having" been published in 1895, under the 
Editorship af Mr. Walter F. Baker, F.E.S., of Gainsborough, 
the founder and first secretary, which contains papers on 
Lincolnshire Geology by Mr. F. M. Burton, on Cryptogams by 
Mr. M. B. Slater, and on the Life History oi Hydrobiiis fiiscipes 
by the Editor, besides presidential addresses by Mr. John 
Cordeaux and Mr. F. M. Burton, the first two presidents, and 
an exhortation on ' Work for Lincolnshire Naturalists ' by 
Prof. L. C. Miall, besides a Secretar3''s report and a report of 
the Museum Committee. 

May we hope that the Union will be able to publish a 
similar instalment annually, and would suggest that future 
parts be paged continuously with previous parts, instead of 
independently. — R. 

The Butterflies of the British Isles. By Richard South, F.E.S. 

'Wayside and Woodland Series.' Published by Frederick Warne & Co., 
London and New York. 6/- 

One's first thoug-ht, on seeing the title of this work, is to doubt whether 
there is room for another book on British Butterflies even to get a foothold 
among our literature on the subject ; but one does not spend man}' minutes 
in its pages to be convinced that not only will it obtain a foothold, but will at 
once allocate for itself a comforttible position. The book is different from its 
contemporaries, and the difference is distinctly to its advantage. It aims at 
being a pocket companion to the beginner student of our Rhopalocera, and 
it will prove to be what it professes. Handy in size, neat in appearance, it 
attracts at once, and the contents do not belie its outside attractive impres- 
sion. Small and compact, as a field ijocket companion must necessarily be, 
it is illustrated by no fewer than 750 figures on 127 plates, of which figures 
450 are coloured, most being direct photographic reproductions from 
t}-pical specimens by the three-colour process, and the effect is wonderfully 
good, for, although a figure here and there is a little bit ' off",' such is almost 
inevitable in a process the printing of which can scarcely yet have sur- 
mounted every difficulty in its application. 

Part I. of the book gives a clear Life Cycle of the Butterfl}' from the ^%% 
to the imago, followed by chapters on Collecting and Setting. Part IL, by 
far the greater portion of the work, is devoted to the descriptions and 
histories, w^th localities, etc., of the various species, the plates not only 
giving very accurate coloured illustrations of all the British species and 
many varieties, but accompanied in nearly all cases by black and white 
plates representing the eggs, larvie, chrysalids, and food plants. 

The volume is well printed in clear type, and altog'ether is just such a 

book as we should have levelled in when we began collecting butterflies 
long years ago. — G.T. P. 

1906 August I. 



Tlie Hornsea L'rban Council is endeavouring to boirow /' 12,500 for the 
purpose of defending the coast in front of the town. 

The members of the London Geological Association held their ' long 
excursion ' to the Yorkshire Coast (northern section) from July 23rd to 28th. 

Copies of the photograph of the group of Yorkshire Naturalists taken at 
F'laiiiborough (reproduced on a small scale on Plate XX.) can be obtained 
from Mr. Joseph Duncum, photographer, Beverley, price one shilling each. 

We have tried OTie of the lantern slide cabinets made by Messrs. F^latters 
and Garnett, of Manchester, and can thoroughly recommend them. To 
those who use lantern slides these cabinets are invaluable, and are 
astonishingly cheap. 

On August 24th, the bii-thday of William Wilberforce, Hull opens a new 
museum — U'ilberforce House — the birthplace of the great emancipator. 
The museum will be illustrative of the history of Hull, and will contain relics 
of Wilberforce. Particulars of suitable exhibits will be gladly received by 
the Curator. 

In the Annals and Magazine of Natural History for June, 1906, 
Messrs. C. Davies Sherborn and B. B. Woodward have a note ' On the 
date of publication of the Natural History Portions of the " Encjxlopt^die 
Methodique," ' based on sets of that jjublication recently found in Phila- 
delphia, U.S.A., and at Hull! 

Messrs. A. Brown & Sons, Hull, ha\e just issued an attractive penny 
Guide to Hull, one of the well-known ' Borough ' Guides. It contains 
48 pages, and contains a map and twelve views from recent photographs. 
It is edited by Mr. T. Sheppard, who, in an Introduction, describes the 
changes that have recently taken place in the city. 

At the recent meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' I'nion at Flam- 
borough, a lady was asked if she had seen the contortions of Old Dor. 
Thinking the query referred to one of the ' dimmers,' she replied, ' Oh, }'es,' 
is he going down again ! ' Another of the members had heard Filey Brig 
described as the end of Cleveland Dyke — running out to sea ! ^ 

Mr. W. Booth, of Howsham, Lincolnshire, writes us that in his garden, 
which is of chalky boulder clay, under the shade of a beech, three grasses 
grow, B ramus sterilis, Poa trivial is, and Agrostis palusfris. They have all 
been attacked, and more or less destroved, by a fungus, which ^Ir. H. C. 
Hawley, of Tumby Lawn, Boston, says is Erysiplie graniinius. 

Mr. Elliot Stock has issued a cheap edition of Johnson and Wright's 
' Neolithic Man in North-East Surrey,' which was reviewed in these columns 
for May 1904, p. 155. Tiie pi-esent work is in an attractive cover, and the 
contents are, to all intents and purposes, the same as those of the previous 
volume. Those who did not purchase the first volume on account of 
the price, should not hesitate to take the reent iscsue. 

In the report of the Fishery Ofiicer to the meeting of the North-Eastern 
Sea Fishers Committee at Scarborough recently, it is recorded that a 
marked crab liberated at Runswick on September 2nd, 1905, was captured 
in Cove Bay, Berwickshire, on the 28th of .May. The crab has travelled 
northward 120 miles in 268 days. This was the greatest distance from the 
place of deposit at which any of the marked crabs had been captured. 

We understand that a committee of the Moss Exchange Club is preparing 
a Census Catalogue recording the distribution of Mosses in the British 
Isles, and would be glad to hear from any Bryologisls who can render 
assistance. Connnunications should be addressed to Professor T. B;irker, 
Woodlea, Lightwood, Buxton. Help to imjjrove the lately published Census 
Hepatic Catalogc will be welcomrd by W. Inghain, 5-, Haxby Road, York. 





No. 596 

(No. 374 0/ currtnt eeriei). 





The Museum, Hull ; 


T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield ; 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 


T. M. NELSON, M.B.O.U., 


Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated) : — The York Meeting, Statistics, Entertainments, Dr. 
Tempest Anderson, The Red Lions, Excursions, Future Meetings, The Advancement 
of Science, Public Officials, and Their Education, Old and New Lecture Societies, 
Professor Ray Lankester's Requested Resignation, Conference of Delegates, Meteoro- 
logical observations, Photographic Survey, Corresponding Societies, Mr. W. Eagle 

Zoology at the British Association — Oxley Gmbham, M.A., M.B.O.U 

Anthropology at the British Association 

Botany at the British Association 

Melanism in Lepidoptera—G.T.Poriill,F.L.S.,F.E.S. 

On British Drifts and the Interglacial Problem — G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S 

Lead Mining in Yorkshire— James Backhouse 

The Origin of the British Trias— Pro/. T. G. Bonney, Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S 

A Recently Discovered Skeleton in Scoska Cave, LIttondale— //nroW Brodrkk, M.A. 
andC. .4.Hin,M.B.,B.A 

Faults as a Predisposing Cause for the Existence of Pot>Holes on Ingleborough— 
Harold Brodrick, M.A 

Recent Exposures of Glacial Drift at Doncaster and Tickhill (Illustrated) — H. Culpin 
and G. Grace, B.Sc 

Coast-Erosion — Clement Reid, F.R.S 

Notes on the Speeton Ammonites— C. G. Danford 

The Limestone Knolls of Craven — .A. Wilmore 

Life-Zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks — Dr. Wheelton Hind, F.G.S. 

Coal-balls found in Coal Seams— jUiss M. C. Slopes, D.Sc, Pli.D 

The Artesian Boring for the Supply of the City of Lincoln from the New Red Sand- 
stone— Pro/ .EJ!.'afrf Hh//, LL.£)., F.i?.S 

Plain of Marine Denudation beneath the Drift of Holderness— Pro/. P. F. 

Kendall, F.G.S. and W. H. Crofts 

Fossiliferous Drift Deposits at Kirmington, Lincolnshire, and at Various 
Localities in the East Riding of Yorkshire— y. W. Slather, F.G.S 

The Occurrence, Distribution, and Mode of Formation of the Calcareous Nodules 
found in Coal Seams of the Lower Coal Measures — Prof. F. E. Weiss 

A Stigmaria of Unusual Type — Prof. F. E. Weiss ... 

Field Notes 291, 

Reviews and Book Notices (illustrated) 

Northern News 293,317, 

Illustrations 281, 2*3. 2^4. 

Plate XXIV. 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, FARkiNCDOM .\\i;.sur-, r. C. 

And at Hull and York 
Printers and Publishers to the )'. A', i'. 









296, 329 
324, 344 
2<;6, 325 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 

Only a limited Edition available. 


studies of its Botany, Geology, Climate, and Physical 




F.R.S., F.L.S., M.R.I.A., V.M.H. 

Late Keeper of the Herbarium and Library of the Royal Gardens, Kew 

Late President and Perpetual Vice-President of the Yorkshire 

Naturalists' Union. 

And a Chapter on the Mosses and Hepatics of the Riding, 


Matthew B. Slater, P.L.S. 

680 pages, coloured geological, lithological, etc. wapSj 
suitably bound in Cloth, 

Price 15/- net. 

This volume is a companion to Lee's " Flora of West Yorkshire," 
and, together with Robinson's " Flora of East Riding," completes the 
Flora of the County. 


A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., Savile Street & King Edward Street, Hull 





[Bo/tifiiai/, Geo/(\s^tcal, Pond Life, c/r.). 

See Catalogue N, Post Free. 

The Largest MAKERS of Microscopical Slides in the Country. 

48, DEANSGATE, '''''c;':^^^^^^^ Longsight. 

MANCHESTER. Manchester. 

Please mention * The Naturalist' in replying to Advertisements. 

THE XAirRM.Isr. 19)0. Pi.ATK XXIV, 


E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A. 

Principiil E. H. Griffiths, M.A., 

D.Sc, F.R.S. 
(Matlieiiiatical ^: Physical Science). 

Profcshui M. i:. i,i,.n. 
(ICcliicational Science). 

A. I.. Bo\M.h\, M.A. 
(I-xonoinic Science and Statistics). 


A'o5. ./ ami :') from I'lntos hy liiissill i- Skiis 



The long- anticipated York meeting- of the British Association 
has been held, and the walls and railing-s of our county capital 
have lost their covering- of posters and placards directing the 
way to the reception room, refreshment room, and sections 
ABCDEFGHIK and L. It must be admitted that York 
did its best, and with the kind help of the Clerk of the Weather, 
the week will be a memorable one in the minds of all those who 
were able to be present. One missed many friends and workers 

Multangu'ar Tower, York. 

who would have been there had the date been later (and after 
all, the great attraction to most of those who regularly attend, 
is the opportunity the Association gives of meeting and chatting 
with ones colleagues and fellow-workers), but notwithstanding 
this, almost everything had been done to make the visitors 
happy. Quite distinct from the part it has played in the history 
of the Association, surely York is an ideal place for a gathering 
such as the one just held. The picturesque old city with its 
famous cathedral, its walls and bars, and earthworks, the 
Roman remains, the numerous ancient buildings — intact or in 

1906 Scj)teinber i. 

282 AWt'.v ttiui ( 'aiiuiicn/s. 

ruins — the river, and even the museum and its beautiful 
i^rouuds, all lend themselves admirably to the purpose. In 
the matter of hospitality, also, much had been done ; in fact, 
almost every possible want had been well catered for. Perhaps 
the main exception was the ' British Association Refreshment 
Room ' which most of the members went to, once. In one other 
way, though perhaps not a very serious matter, was there 
ground for complaint, and that was the very poor arrangements 
made for enabling- the visitors to purchase books etc., relating; 
to the g-eology, natural history, archaeology, etc., of the county. 
In fact obstacles were purposely put in the way of the proper 
exhibition of such works ! 


The number of members attending- the York meeting- this 
year was 1973, as compared with 2557 at the former visit to York 
in i88i. In South Africa last year 2130 members attended the 
meeting-, and the year previous, at Cambridge, the number was 
2789. The figure for this year is therefore exceedingly dis- 
appointing. The Lord Mayor of York, in various speeches 
before the meeting, expressed the hope that the present would 
be a record gathering ; and in view of the fact that last year's 
meeting was in South Africa, where so many were unable to 
attend, and also having regard to the circumstance that this 
was the Anniversary meeting at York, after the foundation at 
that city of the Association three-quarters of a century ago, 
there was every reason to hope that the present meeting would 
be exceptionally well attended. At any rate, all belie\ed that 
the number recorded in 1881 would be reached. But it was not to 
be. We can only assume that the cause is the inconveniently 
early date of the York meeting this year, as was pointed out in 
our Auijust issue. 

There can be no doubt that York did its best to make those 
who did attend get the greatest advantage therefrom. Numerous 
and various garden parties and ollur functions occupied the 
attention of the by no means small proportion of the visitors 
who make a point at these meetings of having a sort of scientific 
picnic, and care little for tlie ' solid ' work. This is perhaps as 
well, as those who attended for the purpose of serious study were 
thus sa\ ed the inconvenience that arises from a great crow d of 
peo])le who know little and care less about what is going on. 


A^ofes and Comments. 


At the president's address, for instance, which is still tJic func- 
tion at the British Association meeting;, what proportion of all 
the gaily arrayed audience was really interested in or appreciated 
the proceeding's? Yet the address was in every way what such 
an address should be ! 

Whilst it is admitted that the various York officials carried 
out their numerous and onerous duties to the satisfaction of all 
concerned, there can be no question that at least one York 

Dr. Tempest Anderson. 

scientist made almost superhuman efforts in the interests of the 
Association and its objects. We refer to Dr. Tempest Anderson. 
In his capacit}^ as Chairman of the Executive Committee, and 
as President of the York Philosophical Society, and in other 
ways, he was able to do much, and did ; notwithstanding the 
fact that he ' felt like " Poo-bah " in the opera ! " And there are 
many who would have had Dr. Anderson in a much more 
prominent position even than he was, had they had their way. 
But it was not to be. His Friday evening- discourse on " Vol- 
canoes," as mig-ht be expected, was well received. Perhaps the 
effort which appealed to the greatest number of members, 

1906 September i. 


A^o/cs and C^oviinciits. 

however, was his invitation to ' all votaries of the simple life to 
a plain cup of tea every afternoon durin<^ the meetin^^ ' in the 
Museum g-rounds. This was most enjoyable, and was quite a 
feature of the York meeting-. 

The members of ' Ve Red Lion Club ' had a dinner {' bones ') 
at York, after an interval of six years ! This interval probably 

Xankester ond Morl^. 

\(^ ^©i M^fi ^U^ib. 

york, J^ugusf 7fh, 1906. 

accounted for the extraordinary ' roaring ' indulged in by both 
'lions' and 'cubs' alike. We are able to reproduce the front 
page of the ' bones' card, which explains itself. 

The arrangements made by the Excursion Committee were 
somewhat peculiar, and it is perhaps not surprising to find that 
the leaders and organisers of the excursions were complaining 
of the smallness of the number of members who took part in 
them, as a contrast to previous meetings, when one often found 
that all who applied could not be taken on the outings. In 
recent years, at any rate, it has been the practice to present to 
each member a number of neatly printed pamphlets showing the 
nature of the places to be visited, with particulars of cost, time, etc. 
These were often in a cloth cover, and were useful for reference 
tor all time. Not so at "S'ork, where one had first to pay for a 


Notes and Comments. 285 

ticket for an excursion, and then show it in order to g^et the 
pamphlet for that excursion only. Thus the stranger had no 
means of choosing the excursion that would repay him the best. 
Most of the members therefore neither went on any of the excur- 
sions nor got any of the hand-books. 

The next meeting of the Association will be held at Leicester, 
and, notwithstanding the experience gained by the early date 
at York, July 31st has been selected for the date of the com- 
mencement of the 1907 meeting. In 1908 the Association visits 
Dublin, and in the following year an invitation from Winnipeg 
has been accepted. 


The York Meeting may be said to have commenced on Wed- 
nesday evening, August ist, when the presidential address was 
delivered by Professor E. Ray Lankester, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, 
F.R.S., F.L.S., Director of the Natural History Departments 
of the British Museum. The first part of this address was 
devoted to an admirable survey of the advances made in scientific 
research during the preceding quarter of a century. At the 
previous York Meeting, 25 years ago. Lord Avebury — then Sir 
John Lubbock — reviewed the progress in science during the 
previous fifty years. In the two addresses, therefore, we have 
an useful resume of the scientific achievements of the last 
three quarters of a century, during which the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science has been in existence. In the 
second part of his address Professor Ray Lankester dealt with 
"The Advancement of Science as Measured by the Support 
given to it by Public Funds, and the Respect Accorded to 
Scientific Work by the British Government and the Community 
at large." 

In this he pointed out that whilst he had been able to 
indicate the satisfactory and, indeed, the wonderful progress of 
science since the Association last met in York, so far as the 
making of new knowledge was concerned, he was sorry to say 
that there was by no means a corresponding ' advancement ' of 
science in that signification of the word which implies the 
increase of the influence of science in the life of the community, 
the increase of the support given to it, and of the desire to aid in 
its progress, to discover and then to encourage and reward 

igo6 September i. 

286 A^o/cs iuid Coninicnls. 

those who are specially fitted to increase scientific Icnowledg'e, 
and to bring- it to bear so as to promote the welfare of the 
community. He was speaking- on a privileged occasion to a 
body of men who were met together for the Advancement of 
Science, and claimed the right to say without offence to the 
representatives of institutions which he criticised, what was in 
his mind. 


' It is, unfortunately, true that the successive political ad- 
ministrators of the affairs of this country, as well as the 
permanent officials, are altogether unaware to-day, as they were 
twenty-five years ago, of the vital importance of that knowledge 
which we call science, and of the urgent need for making use of 
it in a variety of public affairs. Whole departments of Govern- 
ment in which scientific knowledge is the one thing needful 
are carried on by ministers, permanent secretaries, assistant 
secretaries, and clerks who are wholly ignorant of science, and 
naturally enough dislike it since it cannot be used by them, and 
is in many instances the condemnation of their official employ- 
ment. Such officials are, of course, not to be blamed, but 
rather the general indifference of the public to the unreasonable 
way in which its interests are neglected. 

' A difiicult feature in treating of this subject is that when 
one mentions _^the fact that ministers of State and the officials of 
the public service are not acquainted with science, and do not 
even profess to understand its results or their importance, one's 
statement of this very obvious and notorious fact is apt to be 
regarded as a personal oflfence. It is difficult to see wherein 
the offence lies, for no one seeks to blame these officials for a 
condition of things which is traditional and frankly admitted. 

' This is really a very serious matter for the British Asso- 
ciation for the Adxancement of Science to consider and deal 
with. We represent a line of activity, a group of professions 
which are in our opinion of vital importance to the well-being 
of the nation. We know that those interests which we value so 
highly are not merely ignored and neglected, but are actually 
treated as of no account or as non-existent by the old-established 
class of politicians and administrators. It is not too much to 
sa}' that there is a natui'al fear and dislike t)f scientific knowledge 
on the part of a larg^c proportion of tin- persons who are devoid 


Noll's and Coninwiits. 287 

of it, and who would cease to hold, or never have held, the 
positions of authority or emolument which they now occupy, 
were scientific knowledge of the matters with which they 
undertake to deal required of them. This is a thorny subject, 
and one in which, however much one may endeavour to speak 
in general terms, it is difficult to avoid causing- personal 
annoyance. Yet it seems to me one which, believing as I do 
that it is of most urgent importance, it is my duty as your 
President to press upon the attention of the members of the 
British Association. Probably an inquiry into and discussion of 
the neglect of science and the questionable treatment of scientific 
men by the administrative departments of Government, would 
be more appropriate to a committee appointed by the Council 
of the Association for this purpose than to the Presidential 

' At the sane time, I think the present occasion is one on 
which attention should be drawn in general terms to the fact 
that science is not gaining ' advancement ' in public and official 
consideration and support. The reason is, I think, to be found 
in the defective education, both at school and university, of our 
governing class, as well as in a racial dislike among all classes 
to the establishment and support by public funds of posts which 
the average man may not expect to succeed by popular clamour 
or class privilege in gaining for himself — posts which must be 
held by men of special training and mental gifts. Whatever 
the reason for the neglect, the only remedy which we can 
possibly apply is that of improved education for the upper 
classes, and the continued effort to spread a knowledge of the 
results of science and a love for it amongst all members of the 
community. If members of the British Association took this 
matter seriously to heart they might do a great deal by insisting 
that their sons, and their daughters too, should have reasonable 
instruction in science both at school and college. They could, 
by their own initiative and example, do a good deal to put an 
end to the trifling with classical literature and the absorption in 
athletics which is considered by too many schoolmasters as that 
which the British parent desires as the education of his children. 


' It is a fact which many of us who have observed it regret 
very keenly, that there is to-day a less widespread interest than 
formerly in natural history and general science, outside the 

1906 September i. 

2S8 Notes and Co/zif/icn/s. 

strictly professioal arena of tlie scliool and university. The field 
naturalists among" the squires and the country parsons seem 
no\v-a-days not to be so numerous and active in their delightful 
pursuits as formerly, and the Mechanics' Institutes and Lecture 
Societies of the days of Ivord Brou^-ham have given place, to a 
very large extent, to musical performances, bioscopes, and other 
entertainments, more diverting, but not really tnore capable of 
g^iving pleasure than those in which science was popularised. 
No doubt the organisation and professional character of scientific 
work are to a large extent the cause of this falling-ofF in its 
attraction for amateurs. But perhaps that decadence is also 
due in some measure to the increased general demand for a 
kind of manufactured gaiety, readily sent out in these days of 
easy transport from the great centres of fashionable amusement 
to the provinces and rural districts.' 

After the preceding remarks it seems somewhat fateful that 
at the very moment when Professor Lankester was preparing to 
discharg'e the duties of the President of the British Association, 
the Press announced that he had been called upon to resign his 
position as Director of the Natural History Museum, on the 
ground that the age limit of 60 was reached. As Professor 
Lankester points out in a letter to the Z'/wcv, the decree of the 
Trustees simply amounts to this — they propose to remove him 
from a post of which the salary is ;^i2oo a year and to leave 
him unemployed, and without possibility of appropriate employ- 
ment, at the age of 60 on a pension of ;£'300 a year. His 
predecessor. Sir William Flower, was continued in office until 
68 years of age, and Sir Ricland Owen, his predecessor, was 
80 when he retired. 

Two meetings of the Delegates from corresponding societies 
attending the British Association were held, the Chairman being- 
Sir E. Brabrook. At the first Dr. H. R. Mill gave an address on 
' Meteorological Observations by Local Scientific Societies." He 
urged that there is not a sufficient number of meteorological 
observations made. ' Vou can all do something,' he said, ' to 
improve the official weather predictions in this country. There 
is probablv no body in the British Isles more subject to criticism 
than the Meteorological OlVice, whicli produces the daily forecast 


Nok's and Comments. 289 

in the newspapers. There is no journalist, however young-, who 
has not flung- a gibe at the " Clerk of the Weather," and there is 
no crank who has not at one time or another intimated that he 
knows how to predict the weather a g-reat deal better than 
people who are paid to do it. There is no cure for the journa- 
list but experience, and no cure for the meteorological faddist 
but the study of meteorological facts, and the meteorological 
faddist always refrains from that study. But you can cieate 
an instructed public opinion which will be able to give intelli- 
gent criticism to the predictions that are given out, and once 
the Meteorological Office feels that the predictions are subject 
to intelligent criticism it will be a stimulus that will help the 
heads of the Office, who are doing the best they can, to do still 
better, and will result, I am confident, in a very great 


Dr. Mill would like to see in every town of importance in 
the British Isles — 'and in every town that thinks itself impor- 
tant ' — a meteorological station kept up under the watchful 
care of a scientific society, which would not allow a record to 
be modified to boom the place as a health resort, and which 
would not show a temperature always above the average and 
the rainfall below it, as he had sometimes suspected — but whose 
record of sunshine would never exceed the number of hours the 
sun is above the horizon. Such a society, he suggested, should 
forward observations to one of the central authorities specially 
devoted to the study of meteorology. 

Urging the need of additional observations in regard to 
sunshine, Dr. Mill remarked that we knew deplorably little 
about the sunshine of this country. There were very few places 
where we could tell with approximate exactitude what the 
sunshine of a place was. One result of more observations 
would be that we should find that this country is far sunnier 
than we supposed. It was desirable to put sunshine recorders 
in a few hundred places where they do not now exist. More 
observations of rainfall were also needed. There are more than 
four thousand observers of rainfall in the British Isles, but still, 
thinks Dr. Mill, there are not enough. There are not a quarter 
enough rain gauges in the East and North Ridings of York- 
shire, though the West Riding, and particularly the western 
part of it, is well represented. 

1906 September i. 

290 .\'i';/('.s- and (\)mnu'nts. 


The principal business before the second meetini^ was the 
consideration of a paper by Mr. W. Jerome Harrison, F.G.S., 
on 'The Desirability of Promoting- County Photographic 
Surveys.' In dealing with this important subject, Mr. Harrison 
referred to the origin of the movement in 1889, when at a meeting 
in Birmingham of the representatives of numerous local photo- 
g-raphic, scientific, and literary societies a paper was read, 
entitled, ' Notes upon a Proposed Photographic Survey of 
Warwickshire.' This paper was the amplification of the ideas 
which had been urged in a previous note upon the work of the 
local photographic society read before the Birmingham Photo- 
g-raphic Society in 1885. The ambition was to link together 
photographers of the entire civilised world by the extension of 
the survey idea. The paper continued to sketch the progress 
of the survey work in Britain and to deal with three objects of 
the work, which are to benefit the individual photographer, the 
scientific and photog^raphic societies, and the nation. In an 
appendix Mr. Harrison gave details of the movement, and 
suggested that the British Association seemed to be specially 
well fitted to carry on the work. 

It was ultimately agreed to recommend that a committee be 
appointed next year to promote photographic survey work in 
the British Isles. The names suggested for this Committee 
were — Rev. J. O. Bevan, Rev. Ashington Bullen, John Brown, 
William Crooke, Mr. W. Jerome Harrison, and Thomas 


In the report of the Corresponding Societies Committee it was 
stated that with the view of carrying into effect the new regu- 
lation whereby many of the smaller local Societies which exist 
in this country for the encouragement of the study of science 
may, under certain circumstances, become Associated Societies, 
a circular was drawn up and addressed in the early part of the 
year to a number of such Societies. It was found with satis- 
faction that some of these Societies had undertaken and 
published original scientific work, and were consequently 
entitled to Affiliation. Amongst those recommended, from the 
character of their published work, to be placed on the list of 
Affiliated Societies are the Liverpool Biological Society and the 
\'ale of Derwent Xatiu alists' Field Club. 


Field Notes. 291 

It was also recommended that the following- be placed on 
the list of Associated Societies : — 

Bakewell Naturalists' Club. Liverpool Microscopical Society. 

Barrow Naturalists' Field Club Liverpool Science Students' Asso 

and Literary and Scientific ciation. 

Association. Newcastle-upon-Tyne Literary 

Bradford Natural History and and Philosophical Society. 

Microscopical Society. Preston Scientific Society. 

Grimsby and District Antiqua- Southport Society of Natural 

rian and Naturalists' Society. Scieoce. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Ento- Warrington Field Club. 

mological Society. 

The President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, Mr. 
W. Eag-le Clarke, F.R.S.E., F.L.S., has been appointed Keeper 
of the Natural History Collections of the Royal Scottish Museum, 
Edinburgh, in place of Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S., who has 
had the appointment since 1873. Mr. Eagle Clarke, first as 
assistant, and afterwards as assistant keeper, has been an 
officer in the Natural History Department of this museum for 
the past eighteen years. Mr. Clarke is a native of Leeds, and 
was at one time editor of the ' Naturalist.' All northern natu- 
ralists will join with us in congratulating Mr. Clarke on his 
recent appointment, and in the hope that he may be successful 
in his new sphere. 


Oxyrhina mantelli in the Lincolnshire Chalk. — I have 
recently obtained a fish tooth from the large Barton Chalk 
Quarry on the south Humber shore. It occurred towards the 
base of the Middle Chalk, about three feet above the Belemnitella 
plena zone. Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., kindly identifies 
it as Oxyrhina mantelli^ which does not appear to have been 
previously recorded in the Middle Chalk of Lincolnshire or 
Yorkshire. The specimen can be seen in the geological gallery 
at the Hull Museum. — H. C. Drake, Hull, August ist, igo6. 

— : o : — 

Coronilla Van'a at Elland. — During the ramble of the 
Lindley Naturalist and Photographic Society to Tag Lock, 
Elland, on the 14th Jul)' last, this pretty alien vetch was found 
growing on a waste heap near the Lock by Mr. J. Ackroyd. — 
W. E. L. Wattam, Newsome. 

igo6 September i. 



OXLliV GKABHAM, M.A., M.B.O.f., 
Local Secretary of Section I). 

Thk Zoological Section was, on the wliole, well attended 
throughout the meeting-, from the President's Address to the 
reading- of the last paper. Many subjects of varied scientific in- 
terest were discussed. The chief objects of interest with regard 
to northern county items were (i) the excellent paper read by Mr. 
G. T. Porritt, F.L.S., on 'Melanism in Lepidoptera,' his 
observations in this connection having been largely carried on 
in his own imniediate neighbourhood of Huddersfield ; (2) The 
unique series of lantern slides of Yorkshire Birds and Mammals, 
made from photographs mostly taken by Mr. Oxley Grabham, 
M.A., M.B.O.U. ; and (3) the paper by Dr. E. J. Allen on the 
Relations of Scientific Marine Investigations to Practical Fishery 
Problems. A most interesting discussion on this matter took 
place, in which not only men of science, but those connected 
with the fishery business took part. The whole matter, as it 
stands, is very imsatisfactory. In spite of all that has been said 
about the inexhaustive supply of fish in the North Sea, there is 
no doubt that the lime will come when this supply will be very 
greatly diminished ; indeed, as was shown by statistics, it is 
diminishing now. When we consider the hundreds of thousands 
of pounds invested in the fishery business, the number of men 
employed in the same, and the value of fish as a food supply, it 
is high time that the State took more interest than it does in 
promoting the study of the question as to how to best keep up 
that supply. As was pointed out by one of the speakers, in 
most other branches of science every emolument is open to the 
expert, but in the matter of fish, as soon as anyone took up that 
study he seemed to lose cast amongst his brethren ; no encourage- 
ment was given to him. And Prof. Cunningham advised any of 
his hearers who were thinking of taking up that study to have 
nothing whate\ er to do with the matter, if they wished to get on 
in life. There is surely something very wrong about this, for 
the fishery question is one of national importance. But again, 
as wrs pointed out, the practical fisln'mian looks with contempt 
upon man\ of the |)roceedings of the man of science, as indeed, 
unfortun.'.tely, at times he is justified in doing, and vice versa. 
It is \er\ \cry rarely that one comes across any one who is 
thoroughly conversant not only with the scientific and theoretical 


Northern News. 293 

side of the question, but also with the practical side as well, 
and unfortunately there is no school of learningf where the two 
are taught and combined. Students who can name every part 
of a fish's anatomy have been known to be unable to disting-uish 
between a plaice and a sole. 


As a result of the York meeting', over a thousand pounds have been voted 
for scientific purposes. These are as under : — 

£ s. d. 

Section A. — Mathematical and Physical Science 170 7 6 

Section B. — Chemistry ... ... ... ... 70 o o 

Section C. — Geology ... ... ... .. 113 2 o 

Section D. — Zoology ... ... ... ... ig6 16 6 

Section E. — Geography ... ... ... ... 60 o o 

Section F. — Economic Science and Statistics ... 25 o o 

Section H. — Anthropology ... ... ... 169 o 9 

Section I. — Physiolog-y ... ... ... ... 125 o o 

Section K. — Botany ... ... ... ... 97 5 7 

Section L. — Educational Science... ... .. 15 o o 

Corresponding Societies' Committee ... ... 20 o o 

Grand Total ... ... ... ^1061 14 4 

The Presidents of Sections at the York Meeting of the British Association 
were : — 

A. Mathematical and Physical Section : Principal E. H. Griffiths, Sc. D., 


B. Chemical Section: Prof. Wyndham Dunstan, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., 


C. Geological Section : G. W. Lamphigh, F.R..S. 

D. Zoological Section : J. J. Lister, M.A., F.R.S. 

E. Geographical Section : The Rt. Hon. Sir George Taubman Goldie, 

K.C.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S. 

F. Economic Science and Statistics Section : A. L. Bowley, M.A. 

G. Engineering Section : J. A. Evving, LL.D., F.R.S., MTnst.C.E. 
H. Anthropological Section : E. -Svdney Hartland, F.S.A. 

L Physiological Section : Prof. Francis Gotch, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
K. Botanical Section : F. W. Oliver, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
L. Educational Science Section : Prof. M. E. Sadler, M.A. , LL.D. 

The Correspondent to the Yorkshire Post was apparently particularly 
pleased with Dr. S. Hartland's address to the Anthropological Section, and 
with his 'delicious' humour. 'Take, for instance, his illustration of the 
"fluidity of the savage concept of personality," which g-ave him the oppor- 
tunity of adding that he and they might "quite easily be transformed into 
something more than metaphorical representatives of the British Ass." This 
is the first time that noble animal has been mentioned, so far as the present 
meeting is concerned. It recalled the famous Edinburgh gathering at which 
•Sheriff Nicolson broke into song to the tune of " The Bi-itish Grenadiers," 
and sent the noble army of Professors into fits of laug-hter. One of the 
verses of his ditty ran thus : — 

' We've read in ancient story 
How a g-reat Chaldean swell 
Came down from all his glory 

With horned beasts to dwell ; 
If you would know how it happened so 

That a King should feed on grass, 
In Section D, Department B, 
Inquire of the British Ass. ! " 

1906 September i. 



Although the meeting-s of the Anthropolog"ical Section pro- 
duced nothing of startHng- or extraordinary interest, the general 
high level and value of the communications serve to make the 
meeting at York a memorable one. The president, Mr. E. 
Sidney Hartland, F. S.A., has long been recognised as a master 
of his subject, and his address upon the Origin of Magic and its 
relation to Religion was freely spoken of as one of the most 
striking presidential addresses ever delivered to this section. 
Dealing with the problems of savage religions and savage 
philosophy, he traced the growth of religious practice from 
animism to the concept of personality indued with inherent 
qualities capable of influencing its surroundings. Magic is 
essentially an application of this idea of the potentiality for good 
or evil possessed by personality, and spells and incantations are 
often indistinguishable from prayer and shade Into one another 
by the finest gradations, while the slavery of man to custom has 
deep down below the surface an element of religion in it. 

Ethnological problems were treated by Prof. A. C. Haddon, 
F.R.S. (Ethnology of S. Africa), and Mr. Dornan (The Bush- 
men of Basutoland), while other contributions dealt with the 
inhabitants of Ba-Yaka and Sungei-Ujong. Classical archaeology 
was exceptionally well represented. Mr. D. G. Hogarth de- 
scribed the remarkable results of his excavation of the primitive 
Artemisia of Ephesus, undertaken under the auspices of the 
British Museum, the discoveries in which were described by 
Mr. R. C. Bosanquet as hardly yielding in importance to 
Schliemann's excavations on the site of Troy. Mr. Bosanquet 
himself showed the remarkably successful results of his excava- 
tions in Sparta, which had resulted in the discovery of the 
sanctuary of Artemis Orthia. Dr. D. Ashby detailed the result 
of recent explorations in the Roman Forum, and also upon the 
site of Venta Silurum (Caerwent). The chief archieological 
interest, however, was centred in the lecture by Prof. W. 
Flinders Petrie upon the work of the British School of 
Archaeology in Egypt and the discovery of the site of a fortress 
of the Hyksos, or Shepherd Kings, who held Egypt from about 
2400 to 1600 B.C. This great earth bank, 20 miles north ot 
Cairo, which in all probabilit\ represents the Hyksos Camp of 
Avaris, had originally a great outward slope of while stucco 60 
or 70 feet in length, with a long sloping entr uice ascending 
over the bank which appears to ha\e been subsequently encased 
in fioiil with a wall of limestone Ijlocks some 45 feet high. 


Anthropology at the British Association. 29^ 

Prof. Petrie also described the site of the store city Raamses 
built by the Israelites, and the discovery of the town and temple 
built by the high priest Onias, who fled from Jerusalem to Eg-ypt 
from the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes about 150 B.C. 

British archaeology was, however, by no means neglected. 
Miss Layard gave the results of her past year's work upon the 
Palaeolithic site at Ipswich, and in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery 
near the same place, and showed an extremely interesting 
series of exhibits. Mr. T. Sheppard also contributed papers 
and exhibits dealing with Anglo-Saxon and Roman finds 
near South Cave* and South Ferriby respectivel}-. Dr. G. A. 
Auden exhibited a splendid collection of pigmy flints from 
North Lincolnshire and Yorkshire belonging to Rev. G. Scott 
Gatty, and also a series of crania from York, and from 
the excavations conducted by Dr. Thurman in Lamel Hill in 
1847. This exhibition, together with a paper by Mr. J. 
Mortimer dealing with measurements of bones from his 
museum, served as a prelude to a most useful discussion upon 
the physical characters of the early races of Britain, in which 
Dr. Wright, Dr. Shrubshall, and Prof. Ridgway took part. 
Other valuable papers were contributed by Miss Pesel upon the 
evolution of design in Greek and Turkish embroider}- ; by Prof. 
Ridgway, of Cambridge, upon the origin of the fiddle and 
guitar ; and by Mr. J. L. Myers upon early human t3'pes in the 
^gean. Mention should also be made of the reports of the 
several committees which have done such useful work in 
connection with the Anthropological Section. The committee 
for the exploration of the Lake Village at Glastonbury presented 
a report of continued useful work, which is now nearing com- 
pletion. The printed report of the committee for anthropometric 
investigation gives an illustration of the male human adult 
prepared by Prof. D. Cunningham (chairman) to mark the 
points between which dimensions are to be measured, together 
with provisional schedules and instructions for psychological 
observations. The report of the committee for the investigation 
of the age of stone circles, under the chairmanship of Mr. C. H. 
Read, gave the results of excavations at the Stripple Stones, 
E. Cornwall, which tend to prove that this circle, like that at 
Arbor Low (Derbyshire), previously examined by the committee, 
belonged to a period not earlier than the late neolithic time or 
later than the early Bronze Age. 

* Printed in extenso in the Antiquary for September. 

1906 September 


Revieivs ami Book Notices. 

In conclusion, mention should be made of the nomination of 
a new committee, with Prof. W. Ridy^way as chairman, to take 
in hand the important work of reg'istration and classification of 
the meg^alithic remains of Great Britain, a work which is of 
paramount importance in view of the general supineness of the 
British public and of successive Governments, and the resulting- 
neglect of a class of monuments in which the British Isles have 
been peculiarly rich, but which are in many places rapidly dis- 
appearing. Dr. G. A. Auden, York, is secretary to this com- 
mittee, and it is to be hoped that members of the various 
Archaeological Societies will give the committee their hearty 
co-operation and support, and forward any material which may 
be of service in the work of registration. 

HINDERED by the difficulty 
Mr. Taylor is experiencing 
in obtaining autographs 
and portraits of promi- 
nent conchologists, the 
' Monograph of the Land 
and Freshwater Mollusca 
of the British Isles' is 
making slow progress. 
An appeal for help in the 
matter appears in part 12 
of the Monograph, which 
is just issued. It con- 
tains a further instalment 
of the second volume, 
minute de- 
ion of the 
different species. As in 
previous issues the part 
is illustrated by portraits 
of workers, and views of 
favourite localities. Arion 
inleniicdius 'is here associated with Dr. R. F. Scharff, M.R.I. A., 
of Dublin, its recent discoverer in this country, and the first in 
Britain to m;ike known its reiUy distinctive characters and wide 
distribution." We feel sure our readers will be glad to have 
the opportunity of seeing the portrait of Dr. Scharff, who is a 
native of Leeds. 

'1^!^ which g^ives m 
" tails of distribut 





The botanists had a busy time at York, and thanks to the 
excellent arrangements of the local members, not an idle 
moment was spent. Prof. F. W. Oliver, of University College, 
London, was president of the section, and chose as the subject 
of his address ' The Seed, a Chapter in Evolution.' The 
subject was a natural and suitable one, from a palaeobotanist 
who has recently done so much to raise the question of the 
seed and its significance in comparative morphology to such a 
position of interest. The second portion dealt with ' Botany in 
England,' but more especially modern botany, which is the 
product of the last twenty-five years. He made a significant 
reference to our large Herbaria, ' the effort involved in their 
construction and upkeep being altogether disproportionate to 
any service to which they are put.' With some this may be 
merely a matter of opinion, but no one will quarrel with his 
remark that these institutions might and ought to become 
centres for the teaching of systematic botany of the best type, 
for it is remarkable that in no botany school in England is 
systematic botany taught as it should be. The address is as 
full of interest as it is stimulating, and should be read by all 
botanists. We were glad to see Mr. J. G. Baker rise to move a 
vote of thanks, for who could have been more suitable than this 
veteran Yorkshire botanist. 

The address was followed by several interesting papers. 
Mr. Seward read two papers for Prof. Pearson on ' South 
African Cycads.' Mr. Hugh Richardson dealt with the 
' Vegetation of Teneriflfe,' and Miss Sanders ' The Metabolism 
concurrent with Heat-production in some Aroids.' The 
morning's work concluded with several reports of committees, 
that on ' Botanical Photographs * was illustrated by a number of 
prints, including some of Irish plants by Mr. A. Welch, and 
others of Alpine plants by Mr. Ballance. Many of these 
were excellent, and showed exactly what ought to be done in 
this direction. Mr. F. J. Lewis in the report on ' Peat Moss 
Deposits ' records that the chief point of interest up to the 
present time is the discovery of a well-marked Arctic Plant bed 
lying at the base of the peat. A silty clay occurs in some 
places on the banks of and partly under the river Tees at about 
2000 feet, crowded with well-preserved leaves of Salix reticulata 
and S. Arbiiscula. The stems, and frequently the leaves, of 
these plants are abundant at the base of the peat over the 

1906 September i. 

298 Boliuiy at iJw Ih-UisJi Associii/ion. 

whole of the district. In the afternoon Dr. T. VV. Woodliead 
opened with an account of ' Kcoloj^ical Work in Switzerland.' 
Everyone was surprised at the extent and ran^je of the work 
carried on there, and an opportunity was »^iven to the members 
of examining- much of this in the largfe collection of literature, 
maps, photog^raphs, etc., exhibited in illustration of the paper. 
In stronj^ contrast to similar work in Kns^land, these studies 
are greatly encouraged by government grants, and bv the 
departments of Ag^riculture and Forestry. 

Mr. C. E. Moss dealt with ' Succession of Plant Formations 
in Britain.' He described the plant formations of sand dunes, 
muddy salt marshes, lowland and upland peat moors, and 
primitive woodland. He concluded that plant associations are 
determined much more by edaphic than by climatic factors. 
Of the edaphic factors the occurrence of humus and humous 
acids is one which is highly important and deserving more 
attention. An open association is usually dominated by one 
plant, and the number of other species is small. An inter- 
mediate association either consists of a number of smaller 
vegetation units (plant societies), as in the case of the dune 
marsh association, or is dominated by several plants, each of 
which possesses the same plant form as in the case of the reed 
swamp. The number of species in an intermediate plant associa- 
tion is often very large. A closed association is again dominated 
by one plant, and the number of species in the association is 
small. The g:round is not fully occupied by plants in an open 
association, whereas in a closed association plants cover all the 
available ground. Intermediate associations pass gradually 
into each other, but the extremes are easy to differentiate. 
Prof. T. Johnson gave an account of ' Corn Smuts and their 
Propagation,' and Mr. W. Wilson referred to ' Acclimatised 
Plants ' in Scotland. 

Friday was given up to the Pateobotanists, and they had 
much of interest to tell us. Dr. Scott was to deal with ' Some 
aspects of the present position of Paheozoic Botany,' but he found 
his subject too big and his time too small, so he wisely confined 
his remarks to the interesting topic of Pteridosperms, and he 
was able to reassure us that true ferns really did exist during 
the coal period, in spite of the fact that so many so-called ferns 
had recently been shown to be seed plants. Calcareous nodules 
and coal balls found in coal seams proved hard nuts to crack. 
Prof. Weiss, Dr. Stopes, and Messrs. Watson, Lomax, and 
Bolton all tried their hand with varying success. Dr. Stopes 


Botany at the British Association. 299 

pointed out that they were undoubtedly concretions largely 
composed of Ca CO3, varying in size, and often surrounded by 
•coal. As a rule the plants in two neighbouring balls are 
disconnected fragments, but in some cases the same plant 
continues in two nodules. This suggests that the concretions 
containing the plant tissues were formed in the place in which 
we now find them. She supported the view advanced by Binney 
that the constant association with the roof nodules containing 
marine shells suggests that the infiltration of sea-water and 
<;arbonate was necessary for the formation of true ' coal balls.* 
Mr. Lomax made the not very probable suggestion that coal 
balls were water worn, and had been carried to their present 
position by strong currents of water. He admitted at the outset 
that Dr. Stopes had taken the wind out of his sails. However 
formed, a study of their contents has helped forward palaeo- 
botany at a rapid rate during recent years. There is obviously 
much valuable work waiting to be done around our own doors. 
Saturday was a busy morning. Mr. Gallagher opened with 
an account of the ' Root Anatomy of the Cupuliferae and of the 
Meliaceas.' He found two distinct types of rootlets in our 
native Cupuliferae. {(i) Rootlets free from fungus, these 
possessing- a root cap, root hairs, definite hypoderm, and cortex 
of upwards of twenty concentric layers are present ; these are 
clearly not roots of extension and fixation alone, they are also 
absorptive, as shown by the well-developed root hairs. (6) 
Rootlets bearing an exotrophic mycorhiza, in these root cap, 
root hairs, and hypoderm are absent ; there are not half a dozen 
•concentric layers in the cortex, and the rootlets are much 
shorter than in [a). Culture of the mycorhiza on various media 
were made, but no fructification could be obtained. Dr. 
Blakeslee gave an account of ' Zygospore Germinations in the 
Mucorineae,' illustrated by many interesting cultures. All were 
glad to see Prof. E. C. Jeff"rey, whose anatomical work has won 
general admiration. He is now studying the anatomy of 
Mesozoic plants, and gave some results of his work on the 
' Structure and wound reactions of the genus Brachyphylliim,' 
Prof. Weiss described a ' Stigmaria of unusual type,' found in 
a nodule from the Halifax hard bed of the lower coal measures 
It differs from most specimens of stigmaria in the considerable 
amount of primary wood which was centripetal in its develop- 
ment. Prof. Bottomley had been carrying out experiments on 
the ' Cross-innoculation of Leguminosae and other root-nodule 
bearing plants,' and showed that, provided the specific organism 

1906 September i. 

300 Bofauv (tt the Brifish Associufion. 

which produces the nodule is first ^rown for I wo weeks upon a 
nitrog^en-free medium, cross-innocuhition is possible between 
the organism found in root nodules of the Mimosa?, Alder, 
Elaiag'nus, and various Papilionaceai. 

In a second paper on ' Nitrifying" Bacteria in the V'elamen of 
certain Orchids,' he demonstrated the presence of both nitrite 
and nitrate bacteria in the velamen cells. Dr. Ellis considered 
the ' Taxonomic value of Cilia in Bacteriolog^y,' and showed 
that many non-conciliated forms could, under favourable con- 
ditions, be made to develop cilia, and that the distinction 
between bacterium and bacillus is non-existent. He states that 
motility, either potential or actual is a characteristic of all the 
forms of the three divisions — Coccacecv, Bactcriacecp, and 

On Monday, Botanists and Zooloi^'ists combined in a dis- 
cussion of Fertilisation Problems, introduced by Dr. V. H. 
Blackman, Several foreig'n visitors from the conference on 
Hybridisation attended, and contributed to the discussion, 
including" Profs. Johansen and Ostenfeldt. Prof. Hickson 
pointed out that in spite of much excellent work, some of the 
most generally accepted conclusions of cytologists, e.s^. definite 
number of chromosomes for a given species, and chromosomes 
as carriers of hereditary characters rested on very unsatisfactory 

Tuesday morning was devoted to problems suggested by 
the study of Seedlings, and very able papers were read by 
Messrs. T. G. Hill, A. G. Tans'ley, A. W. Hill, and Miss 
Thomas. In the discussion that followed the ladies figured 
largely, and on disputed points seemed to have the best of the 
argument. They are certainly excellent speakers, many of the 
men being painfully deficient in comparison. Thanks to Prof. 
Tansley, the meetings ran smoothly throughout, and were so 
arranged that the mornings were generally given up to papers 
and discussions, leaving the afternoons free for excursions 
and other functions. Dr. Burtt and Mr. \V. Ingham made 
excellent guides, and conducted large parlies to localities of 
botanical interest. Askham Bog was visited on August 3rd. 
The following day Castle Howard was the place selected. On 
Monday afternoon, after a short but interesting semi-popular 
lecture by Prof. Yapp on ' Some Impressions of South African 
Vegetation,' and the results of observations on ' Periodicity 
in Alg.'c,' by Miss Rich, which showed that some valuable work 
was going on in ihr ecological studv of pond vegetation, the 


Field Note. 301 

members repaired to the laboratory and grounds of the British 
Botanical Association and Messrs. Backhouse's nurseries. 
Afternoon tea was served, the members were photographed, 
and much interest was shown in the valuable collection of 
plants. On August 7th an excursion was made to Skipwith 
Common. Here a hepatic new to Yorkshire was discovered 
by a lady member. This proved to be Riccia crystallina, and 
associated with it was Bot)ydiinn gramilatuin. The botanical 
dinner at Davy Hall was largely attended, and the interest 
enhanced by the presence of several foreign guests. They 
made excellent speeches, which furnished another proof, if one 
were needed, of the freemasonry of science. The meetings 
were also taken advantage of by the Central Committee for 
the survey and study of British vegetation, which met and 
discussed various questions relating to survey work ; and on 
Wednesday, under the leadership of Mr. C. E. Moss, the 
members spent four days in studying the vegetation of the 
North Derbyshire Moors. 

Schistostega osmundacea Mohr. in Derbyshire. — I re- 
cently found a fine growth of this beautiful moss in a small 
heading- made in a gritstone quarry, situated about 850 feet 
above sea-level and about one mile west of Wirksworth. Last 
Sunday evening (July 2gth) I happened to visit the place about 
an hour before sunset, and the time was ideal for showing off 
the so-called luminous but really rather refractive properties 
of the moss. The rays of the evening sun shone directly into 
the heading, makings one side of it a sheet of pale metallic 
green, one of my companions compared it to the peculiar 
metallic green that we see on the breast of some Humming 
Birds. This curious effect appears to reside not in the'fronds 
of the moss but in the protonema, as looking closely into the 
hole the dark fronds could be seen standing out against the 
glittering green covering of the rock surface. When taken out 
into full daylight the glittering appearance is quite lost and we 
see only the moss fronds and a dull green alga-like growth 
covering the sandstone. Sehistosfeg-a osmundacea grows in 
several localities in Derbyshire, all of them upon the Millstone 
grit, in crevices in the rock and often in rabbit burrows, but it has 
not previously been recorded from the immediate neighbourhood 
of Wirksworth. — T. Gibbs, Wirksworth, July 31st, 1906. 

1906 September i. 



G. T. PORKITT, F.L.S., IM:.S. 

Melanism, as applied to lepidoptera, is an increase or substitu- 
tion of black on the \vini;-s or body, or on both, at the expense 
of some other colour. The phenomenon has increased with 
extraordinary rapidity in South-west \'orkshire and parts of 
Lancashire, and also occurs in a lesser degree in many other 
parts of the United Kingdom. In some species the changes 
have been sudden, i.e., not a gradual progression from pale 
to black, for instance the cases of Ampliydasis betiilariu, 
Odotitopcni bideulafa, etc. But in most cases the change has 
been gradual, though rapid. Over thirty species are melanic in 
Yorkshire, the great majority of which have apparently become 
so during the collecting experience of many present-day lepidop- 
terists. In addition, there are also at the present time a con- 
siderable number of other species, of which specimens so much 
darker than the typical forms are so frequently taken, as to 
indicate that they too are being influenced towards the same 
end. The species in which Melanism was first noticed was 
Aniphydnsis be/iilaria, and for many years it seemed to be the 
only representative. But about twenty-five years ag"o Melanism 
was noticed in several others, and since then additions to the 
species have constantly been made. He detailed the progression 
of the Melanism in Pligalia pilosaria, Tcphrosia biunditlan'u, 
Hybernia proge nimaria, Diurnea fagel/u, Boanuia repandatd, 
Arctia mendica, Polia chi, Odontopera bidciiiafa, Larciifid Dutllis- 
frigan'a, Vcniisia canibricaria, Agrotis agdlJiiiui, Acroiiycta 
me?iyau/hidis, and others. These have all apparentl}" become 
black, or largely black, in recent years, and many of them in 
some districts promised at no distant date to altogether oust 
the old ordinary pale forms. One melanic form, the variety 
varleyata of Abraxas grossiilariala, has md increased in num- 
bers. Known more than forty }ears ago, it is to-day as rare as 
it was then, although its hereditary tendency is so strong that 
a brood raised this year from a pair of moths from wild lar\ le 
were all of the extreme form, not a single example showing any 
tendency to revert to the pale ordinary form or to any otiicr 

* Abstivicl of |);i|)cr rejicl to Si'clion 1) (Zoolo>;y ) of tin; Mci'liiij;- of (hi- 
Hritisli Association, \'ork. The ])api'r ilsclf will bf printed in cxtciiso in tin- 
Report of the Hrilisli Association. 


Porritt: Melanism in Lepidoptera. 303 

than vayleyata. In other species, in captivity, and the 
parents selected for the purpose, it has usually taken three 
g-enerations to produce an almost completely melanic race, but 
even then there has g'enerally been a very small percentage of 
the pale forms. The usually accepted theory of the reason for 
Melanism is that it is a protection against birds and other 
enemies of the moths, that the pale forms being' so much more 
conspicuous on the darkened (by soot, moisture, etc.) tree 
trunks, the birds pick them off, and the dark specimens being 
less conspicuous are more likely to escape detection, and so 
survive in proportionately greater numbers to perpetuate still 
darker forms. That Melanisn in many cases is apparently, and 
very probably protective, is not denied, but we have as yet little 
proof from what enemies such protection is needed. He did 
not believe that birds feed to any extent on the larger moths, 
and the nightjar which does, only takes them on the wing at 
night when colour similarity with tree trunks would be useless. 
The same applies to bats and other enemies, and indeed there 
seems to be no evidence of any enemies which systematic- 
ally search tree trunks for large species like Aniphydasis 
hetuliD'ia, Boarmia repandaia, Pligalia pilosaria, Tephrosia 
biundiilaria, and others. Moreover, many Melanic species, 
such as Lareniia mnliisirigaria, the Melanism in which has 
become very rapidly developed for no apparent reason, do not 
affect tree trunks at all. This species hides in the daytime 
among grass and other green herbage on the exposed hillside 
meadows in which it flies, and where the herbage is so thick 
that an assimilation of colour to the soil underneath would 
seem of little use. The theory that smoke and humidity, 
together with natural selection and heredity, in the manu- 
facturing districts of Yorkshire and Lancashire has caused 
Melanism, although likely in many instances, the exceptions 
are so numerous that unless it is conceded that other and alto- 
gether different influences were the causes in these exceptions 
the theorv cannot stand.* 

* This paper was illustrated by a large number of specimens of Melanic 
species from Mr. Porritt's cabinet, supplemented by specimens from the 
cabinet of Mr. Samuel Walker, of York. In the discussion which followed 
Prof. Poulton, F.R.S., Dr. Dixey, F.R.S., the Rev. C. F. Thornewill, M.A., 
and Mr. Doncaster took prominent parts, Prof. Poulton pointing out that 
it was not necessary that the melanic form of Abraxas grossuJariata should 
increase because it happened to be exempt from ordinarj' enemies, for 
neither birds nor mammals would touch it in any stage. 

1906 September i. 



(Extracts from the Addki-:ss to the Geological Section, 
British Association, York.) 

g. w. lamplugh, f.r.s., 

President of the Section. 

If a personal reminiscence be pardonable, let me first recall 
that twenty-five years ag-o, at a meeting- of this Section in this 
same room, I ventured, while still a youth, to contribute my 
mite towards the riijht vmderstanding- of the Yorkshire drifts. 
The occasion will always remain memorable to me, for it was 
my first introduction to a scientific audience, and the encourag-ing^ 
words spoken by Ramsay from this chair impressed themselves 
upon me and gave me confidence to persevere in the path of 

Finding- myself agfain in these surrounding's, it seems fitting- 
that with fuller experience and less diffidence I should resume 
the subject by bringing- before you some further results of my 
study of the drifts. But it is with just a sigh that I recollect 
how on the former occasion I was able to reacli a definite 
conclusion on a simple problem from direct observation, and 
had confidence that all problems mig-ht be solved by the same 
method ; whereas now I find confronting- me an intractable 
mass of facts and opinions, of my own and other people, terribly 
entangled, out of which it seems to g^row ever more difficult 
to extract the true interpretation. 

That the glacial deposits possess some quality peculiarly 
stimulating- to the imagination will, I am sure, be recog-nised 
by everyone who has acquaintance with glacialists or with 
glacial literature. The diversity and strongly localised characters 
of these deposits, together with their aspect of superficial 
simplicity, offer boundless opportunit}- to the ingenious inter- 
preter ; and therefore it is not surprising that along with the 
rapid accumulation of facts relating to byg-one glaciation there 
should have arisen much divergent opinion on questions of 
interpretation. Nor need we regret this result, since these 
difTerences of opinion have again and again afforded the stiniulus 
for research that would not otherwise have been undertaken. 

The Inter(.la( ial Problem. 
One of the most important points on which llu-re has been, 
and still is, wide difference of opinion among glacial geologists, 


On British Drifts and the Interglacial Problem. 305 

both in this country and abroad, is with regard to the value of 
the evidence for interglacial periods ; and it will be my aim, in 
bringing- before you some general conclusions regarding the 
drifts, to concentrate attention principally upon this evidence. 

To keep the discussion within practicable limits I must 
perforce assume the former extension of ice-fields over the 
glaciated areas ; for although I know that there are still 
dissentients from this fundamental proposition, the cumulative 
evidence in its favour has been so frequently recapitulated that 
it would not be justifiable for me to detain you by repeating the 

It is now, I think, agreed by all who accept this proposition 
that the ice-sheets of the Glacial Period, though of vast extent, 
had their northern as well as their southern limits ; the original 
idea, that they represented the outer portion of a polar ice-cap, 
having been disproved by more extended researches in the 
more northerly part of our hemisphere. Moreover, it has been 
found that these ice-sheets had their origin in the coalescence 
of masses which spread outward from separate areas ot accu- 
mulation, acting more or less independently, so that the 
individual sheets did not all attain their farthest bounds at the 
same time. But this recognition of independent centres ot 
glaciation has given sharper prominence to the question whether 
the glacia' deposits are to be regarded as the product of a 
single epoch of glaciation, or whether they represent successive 
epochs of this kind, separated by intervals during which the 
great ice-sheets temporarily vanished. 

As opinion stands at present, probably most geologists lean 
to the idea that the glaciation was interrupted Dy at least one 
interglacial epoch, during which the climate of any particular 
latitude became not less warm, and perhaps warmer, than it 
now is. This is the interglacial hypothesis in its simplest form. 
But it has been frequently pointed out that the criteria depended 
upon in the recognition of warm interglacial conditions cannot 
be all assigned to the same horizon, since they recur at different 
positions in the drift series. Hence it has been claimed that 
two, three, four, or even five interglacial epochs, with a cor- 
responding number of separate epochs of glaciation, may be 
recognised in the glacial sequence. In respect to the number, 
relative importance, and correlation of these epochs or stages 
in different countries, or in different parts of the same country, 
there has been, however, no pretence to agreement among the 
upholders of the Interglacial idea. 

1906 September i. 

3o6 Oil lii ilish Dn'fls ami llic Iiitcrolncld! Prob'cm. 

In opposition to these \iews of every dei,^ree, ;i smaller 
number of i^lacialists have ur^ed that there is no proof of even 
a single absohite interruption of the <4lacial conditions from tlie 
bei^innino- to the end of the period ; and that the evidence 
indicates onI\- one great g^Iaciation, during- whicli there were 
wide oscillations of the marg^ins of the ice-sheets in different 
places, due probably to more or less local circumstances. 

This radical difference of interpretation respecting- the 
constitution of the Glacial Period assumes the g-reater conse- 
quence in that it bears directly upon many questions other than 
those which are strictly g-eolog-ical. Thus, the antecedents and 
distribution of our present fauna and flora, and the time and 
conditions of that momentous event, the appearance of man in 
Northern Europe, are deeply involved in the issue. 

Moreover, until we can tell whether it is one or several 
periods of g-laciation that we require, how can we approach the 
other sciences for aid in our search for the cause of the Ice 
Ag-e ? It is, indeed, essential that, before seeking; counsel's 
opinion of this kind, the g-eolog-ist should ha\e all his e\idence 
at command and well-marshalled, so that he can say such and 
such are the facts, and this the order of them. Otherwise he 
may receive not the desired interpretation, but advice as to 
what he oug-ht to have found and instructions to g-o and fuid it. 
And that such instructions may be detrimental rather than 
helpful to our prog-ress is, I think, shown by the history of the 
Interg-lacial hypothesis. In this matter the g-lacial g-eolog-ists, 
having- some evidence for the alternate extension and recession 
of ancient glaciers, fell readily under the influence of the 
fascinating- theory broug-ht forward by James Croll to explain 
the Great Ice Age, whose interpretation, however, reached far 
beyond the facts that were placed before him. 

I need hardly remind you that, according- to Croll, a suflicient 
explanatioii of the Glacial Period could be found in certain 
astronomical conditions, which were shown by his calculations 
to ha\e recurred at definite intervals, and wore supposed to 
have produced repeated alternations of cold and warm climate 
at the opposite hemispheres during the course of the period. 
It is not my purpose to discuss this or any other theory 
regarding the cause of the Great Ice Age, but only to direct 
your attention to tlie influence of CroH's views upon the work 
of observation. If the theory could have been sustained, it 
would have given into the hands of the geologist a first instal- 
ment of that absolute nieasure of geological time which he so 


On British Drifts and the In tc /'glacial Problem. 307 

ardently desires ; and with this allurement it is no wonder that 
the theory was welcomed and hopefully put to the test. Fore- 
most among- its exponents was Professor James Geikie ; and we 
must all recognise that its main importance to the field-geologist 
arose from his powerful support and masterly arrangement of 
the evidence favourable to the hypothesis. 

It is not surprising that, amid the complicated mass of facts 
confronting us in the glacial deposits and among the voluminous 
literature wherein these facts are more or less skilfully en- 
wrapped, there should have been found some material to 
support the idea of a recurrent succession of glacial and inter- 
g^lacial stages. But the glamour of the astronomical hypothesis 
has waned, and it is recognised that there are flaws in the 
physical aspect of the theory and in its geological application 
that render it untrustworthy I think, therefore, that the time 
has come when we should reconsider the matter in critical 
mood, uninfluenced by the early g-low of the theory, after the 
wise example of that ancient people who debated all matters of 
import in two opposite frames of mind. 

On the present occasion it would be impossible adequately 
to discuss the whole subject, and I propose to deal principally 
with my own experience in attempting- to apply the Interglacial 
hypothesis to my field-work. I hope also to be able briefly to 
review the evidence from other parts of our islands in the light 
of this experience. 

And here I may remind you of the important part which this 
Section of the British Association has taken in the study of the 
subject by organising Committees of Research, provided with 
funds for carrying out excavation and other necessary work. 
During- the twenty-five years since we last met at York I find 
that, including the work in certain bone-caves, there have been 
fourteen such committees, and in many cases their operations 
have extended over several years, so that over thirty separate 
reports have been published in the Annual Reports of the 
Association. The precise information embodied in these reports 
is of hig-h scientific value, and I am sure that these results are 
very creditable to the Section. 

[After stating the 'Classification of the Drifts,' proposed by 
Prof. J. Geikie on the basis of the Interg^lacial hypothesis, Mr. 
Lamplugh dealt with the literature relating- to the Interglacial 
problem in other countries, from which it would appear that 
there is elsewhere the same diversity of opinion as to the unity 
or otherwise of the glacial epoch that obtains in this country]. 

1906 September i. 

30<S On Ih'ifisli Drifts (imi the Intcro/iicidl Problem. 

Tm-: I.\ I i;K(iLA( lAi. in the British Islands. 

Let us now consider the application of the Interi^^lacial 
li\ pothesis to our own land. 

The task of following- up the evolution of Prof. GeiUie's 
scheme throui^h its varied phases, thouj^h instructive, is very 
contusing- one might even say irritating — by reason of the 
continual changes of correlation which its author has sug-gested 
in sorting out the British drift deposits into this orderly 
sequence. Our East Coast boulder-clays, for exan-iple, were at 
one time held to cover four glacial epochs, and their associated 
gravels to mark three mild interglacial epochs ; and all except 
the first giaciation were supposed to be represented in the 
boulder-clays of Lancashire and Cheshire. Then, somewhat 
vagfuely, it was allowed that perhaps there were only three 
separate glaciations on the east coast, with a minor episode of 
recession of the ice-margin ; and the Lancashire and Cheshire 
boulder-clays were correlated with the two later of these glacial 
epochs. But subsequently we are reduced in the eastern district 
to two epochs of giaciation, with one mild interxal, of which 
the equivalents are all recognised also in the north-west of 

While these and other similar changes may show a laudable 
desire of their author to keep pace with the growth of definite 
information, I cannot help feeling that they also show the 
premature character of the whole scheme, and a flexibility in it 
that justifies suspicion. Moreover, in spite of these frequent 
changes in the correlation and this local lopping off of glacial 
and interglacial episodes, we find, with surprise, that the 
nuniber of separate epochs in the classification has not dimi- 
nished, but has actually increased, by regrowth in fresh places. 
This, again, may betoken the inherent vitality of the scheme, in 
which case it will g^ain strength froni every readjustment ; but 
it must certainl}- also denote the weakness of its original basis. 

[iMr. LaiTiplugh then proceeds to discuss the 'First Glacial' 
and 'First Interglacial' Epochs of the proposed classification, 
which are supposed to be represented in East Anglia, but not 
in Yorkshire. He next turns to the Yorkshire Drifts]. 

East \'okkshirk Dkikts. 

The Icjng ctifT-sections between tiic llvmiber and the Tees 

constitute one of the best exposiues of lowland drifts in Britain, 

or even in lun'ope. They fortunately include some deposits 

whicli rc'\eal the conditions pri-\ailing in the neighbouring 


0)i British Drifts and the Interghwial Problem. 309 

part of the North Sea basin just before the g-reat g-laciation ; 
and they therefore enable us without interruption to continue 
the history beg'un in East Anglia. 

The old chflf of chalk and the marine beach at its foot which 
lie buried at Sewerby, on the southern side of F"laniborouifh 
Head, under sheets of boulder-clay and g-ravel, prove to us that 
at the very beg-inning- of glacial times the North Sea still held 
possession of its basin, and with a surprisingly slig'ht difference 
from its present level. A few far-transported stones in the old 
beach denote that ice-floes sometimes drifted southward into 
Holderness Bay ; while the bones of animals in the shingle, 
and in the blown sand which overlies it, prove that amongf 
the denizens of the neighbouring land were the elephant 
{E. antiqniis), rhinoceros {R. leptorhinus), hippopotamus 
{H. ainphibius), and bison. This fauna is frequently considered 
to be proof of mild conditions of climate ; but from the mode of 
its occurrence in this and other places, I can find no reason 
to doubt that these animals inhabited the country, perhaps as 
seasonal migrants, until the time that it was actually covered 
by the encroaching ice-sheets. 

And here I may note my opinion, that throughout the 
discussion of our glacial deposits too much weight has been 
allowed to the deductions regarding- climate based upon scanty 
indications afforded by the ancient fauna and flora. We know 
little regarding the range of adaptability possessed by the forms 
in the past, and can judge only from their present habitat, 
which is generally g-overned by many other factors besides 
climate ; moreover, it is granted that species already estab- 
lished when subjected to gradual change, will persist for long- 
under circumstances that would have effectively barred their 
introduction. In the Upper Zambesi Valley last year I was 
more impressed with the cold of the nights than with the heat 
of the days ; and even at that latitude the sturdy hippopotamus 
in his noctural raids must experience a temperature occasionally 
descending below freezing-point. 

It took us long to break away from the established convic- 
tion that the fossil elephant and rhinoceros could not have 
existed in a cold climate ; and the same conviction still lingers 
with respect to their companion, the hippopotamus. But the 
far-travelled stones in the Sewerby beach and in the beaches of 
the same age in the south of Ireland are evidence that the 
British seas were already cold enough to carry ice-floes while 
these large mammals still tenanted the land. 

1906 September i. 

310 On British Drifts mid the Intcnrhicidl Problvin. 

The next event indicated by the Sewerby section is a slij^^ht 
elevation of the hmd. Then the traces of an increasingly 
rig-orous climate become conspicuous, for the sand-dunes which 
had been banked against the old cliff are covered by chalky 
rubble containing a few land shells ; and this material, like 
the corresponding 'head' which covers the ancient beaches of 
the south of Ireland and the south-west of England, appears to 
represent the frost-splintered rock washed down from the rock 
slopes during the season of thaw. 

According to my reading of the evidence, it was during 
this time that the bed of the North Sea was gradually filled 
by a great ice-lobe that spread southward and outward along 
the basin, slowly but irresistibly churning up and dragging 
forward the old sea-floor as part of its ground-moraine. When 
it impinged upon the rising ground of eastern Britain the 
progress of this sheet was arrested and part of its burden left in 
the form of the lowest boulder-clay — the 'Basement Clay' ot 
Yorkshire and the ' Cromer Till ' of Norfolk. In Yorkshire 
this boulder-clay frequently includes huge transported masses 
of Secondary strata, which still maintain their identity, in some 
cases even to their bedding planes ; and along with these we 
sometimes find patches of the material of the old sea-floor 
which have similarly escaped destruction. More frequently 
the pre-existing deposits from which the boulder-clay has 
been derived have been thoroughly kneaded together, and 
fragments of Pleistocene shells are then scattered through its 
mass, along with fossils derived from the Secondary and older 

In adopting the hypothesis that the Basement boulder-clay 
represents the ground-moraine of an ice-sheet we may consider 
briefly the probable conditions under which this ' East British 
ice-lobe' was accumulated. Whether the elevation subsequent 
to the stage represented by the infra-glacial beaches was 
sufficient to drain off the shallow seas around our islands is 
uncertain, but it must, at any rate, have restricted their area 
and rendered them still shallower ; and it is unlikely that there 
was then any southward connection of the North Sea with the 
English Channel. The climate b\' tliis time had become such 
that permanent snow-caps could accumulate in the northern 
parts of our country at elevations not much abo\ e present 
sea-level. Indeed, I am inclined to think that the climate may 
have been actually colder at this time than during any of the later 
phases of the (ilacial Period, and tliat the stage ot" maximum 


Oti British Drifts and the Intcrghicial Probhm. 311 

glaciation lagged considerably behind the stage of minimum 
temperature. Under these conditions, with the snowfall on the 
uplands always slowly drawing away in ice-streams to the 
basins, and there accumulating, it is inevitable that the enclosed 
basins would eventually become ice-covered, any open water 
within them being in time obliterated, either directly by the 
encroaching glaciers, or indirectly by the packing of bergs and 
floes, until the basins themselves possessed a surface upon 
which the snowfall could accumulate. Thus the basins became 
great reservoirs of ice, in which the supplies from the 
surrounding uplands received important augmentation by direct 
accretion of snowfall ; — reservoirs, moreover, containing a 
substance sufficiently rigid not to require retaining walls ; so 
that, in time, the surface of the ice within the basins rose higher 
than many parts of the rim. The general movement of the 
mass within its reservoir then became dependent mainly upon 
its own configuration, and only secondarily upon the shape of 
the solid ground. 

These conditions in the North Sea basin had their parallel in 
the basin of the Irish Sea, in which the ' West British ice-lobe ' 
was developed ; and on the low interior plain of Ireland, where 
the similar though smaller ' Ivernian ' sheet held possession. 

Now, the crux of the Interglacial problem, so far as the 
British Islands are concerned, lies in the question whether these 
hvige reservoirs, after their first filling, were completely emptied 
during the supposed interglacial epoch of warmth named by 
Professor Geikie the ' Helvetian,' and were afterwards refilled 
for the later ' Polandian ' glaciation, in which, on the evidence 
of the upper boulder-cla3's, it is generally agreed that ice-sheets 
from the basins again closed in upon the land. It is this one 
interg'lacial or ' middle glacial ' epoch only that most of the 
British supporters of the hypothesis have demanded, and have 
attempted to establish in the East Yorkshire sections. 

For my own part, although I have sought long and carefully 
for evidence of this great interglacial episode in the Yorkshire 
drifts, and at first with the belief that such evidence must 
surely be somewhere forthcoming, my search has not only 
failed to bring to light any adequate proof of its reality, but has 
yielded many facts which I cannot explain otherwise than by 
recog'nising that the ice-lobe continued to occup}' the basin of 
the North Sea during the deposition of the beds claimed as 
interglacial, though its margin had for a time shrunk con- 
siderably within its earlier limits. 

1906 September i. 

312 On lirilisJi Diifls ciiid Ihv Inlcnyhicinl Problem. 

The 'Purple' Boulder-Clays and Si rati tied Drifts. — The 
drifts overlyiiiif the Basement Clay in East Yorkshire consist of 
a complex and very variable series, in which bands of boulder- 
clay predominate in some places and lenticular sheets of 
well-stratified materials in others. In the cliff-sections of the 
Holderness plain certain bands of boulder-clay, known as the 
Upper and Lower Purple Clays, are persistent for many miles ; 
but when the series approaches the rising g-round of the Wolds 
the individuality of the beds is lost, and they are often replaced 
entirely by irregular mounds of sand and gravel. 

I began work on these sections with the then-prevalent idea 
that every separate band of boulder-clay above the Basement 
Clay might indicate a separate glacial epoch, and that warm 
interglacial epochs might be represented by the partings of 
sand and gravel between these boulder-clays ; and the object 
of one of my early papers was to show that more of these 
divisions were present than had found place in the scheme of 
classification then in vogue. But after struggling for a time 
under an ever-increasing load of epochs I was compelled, in 
tracing the separate bands northwards, to recognise, as my 
friend Mr. J. R. Dakyns had previously recognised, that the 
whole series underwent protean changes, the boulder-clays 
sometimes splitting into numerous shreds amid thick sheets of 
sand and gravel, at other times merging into a single mass to 
the exclusion of all stratified material, and not rarely presenting 
a passage from uncomprising ' till ' to stratified gravel, sand 
and clay. Hence I was driven to conclude that stratified and 
unstratified drift must often have been forming simultaneously 
at places very little distance apart ; and on finding, also, that 
the whole of the deposits between the Basement Clay and the 
Upper or ' Hessle ' Clay were not only knit together in this 
fashion, but were similarly interwoven with the top and bottom 
of these boulder-cla\s, I had finally to abandon the Interglacial 
hypothesis altogether so far as the coast-sections were con- 
cerned. 1 mention this experience in order to show that my 
present scepticism respecting the Helvetian Interglacial Epoch 
is based, not upon any preconceived objection to the idea, but 
upon the failure of the hypothesis when I have put it to the test 
in this and other districts; and I find also that my experience 
in this particular runs parallel with thai of many other investi- 
gators of the so-called ' middle glacial ' deposits of England. 

Marine Detritus in Glaeial Gnrvels.—V rom certain 
characters of the- mound)' graxi-ls on I'himhorough Head and in 


On British Drifts and the Intcrglacial Problem. 313 

Holderness, such as their rudely linear arrangement, their 
indifference to the contours, and their relation to the middle or 
Purple boulder-clays, it appears most probable that they 
represent the material deposited along- the margin of the 
ice-sheet by the surface-waters flowing from it and from 
the adjacent land. From the occurrence of more or less 
fragmentary marine shells in them, the gravels were, however, 
originally supposed to be of marine origin, and this view is still 
upheld by some geologists. It is the same question in which 
so many of the so-called ' middle glacial ' sands and gravels of 
the British Islands are involved, and upon which there has been 
so much discussion. If it be permissible for me to reiterate 
the well-known argument by which the presence of marine 
shells in gravels of glacial origin is explained, it may be out- 
lined as follows. 

Since the basins around our islands are known to have been 
occupied by the sea at the beginning of the Glacial Period, and 
since these basins were afterwards filled by ice-lobes, which, as 
we have seen, moved outward in many places upon the land, 
dragging with them much of the material of the old sea-floor, 
it is inevitable that a certain amount of marine detritus will 
occur in the deposits formed by the ice or derived from its 
melting. Just as we find shells, and sometimes even trans- 
ported masses of marine deposits, intact in the Basement Clay, 
so we find marine relics likewise, though unusually more 
scattered and less perfect, in the gravels derived from the same 
ice-sheet. This deduction is consistent with our knowledge of 
existing glaciers and ice-sheets ; thus, Sir Archibald Geikie has 
recorded the presence of sea-shells in the moraine of a 
Norwegian glacier ; * Professors E. J. Garwood and J. W. 
Gregory have found an excellent illustration of the same 
phenomenon in one of the Spitzbergen glaciers ; t and Professor 
R. D. Salisbury, in describing the characteristic upturning of 
the layers of ice at the end of one of the glacial lobes which 
descends into a shallow bay in North Greenland, gives the 
following instructive note on the conditions which he observed : 
' Here the upturning of the layers brought up shells from the 
bottom, of the bay^ and left them in marginal belts where the 
upturned layers outcropped. These shells were mingled with 

* Geological Sketches at Home and Abroad {X^oniSon, 18S2), pp. 145-6. 
I ' Contributions lo the Glacial Geology of Spitzbergen.' Quart. Joitrn. 
Geol. Sac, vol. liv. (1898), p. 210. 

1906 September i. 

314 On Britisli Drifts and tlw Infcn^/dcitil Prohlviu. 

other sorts of ddbris. In one case their quantity could have 
been measured by some such unit as the was^on-load. ' * 

In our islands, as Professor V. F. Kendall has clearly shown 
in discussing^ the drifts of Western Kng-land,t it is only where 
the ice-lobes have passed over portions of the pre-existing;" 
sea-floors that we find marine remains in the drift deposits ; 
while in other places, at the same or lower elevations, where 
there is proof that the ice-flow was from the land, such remains 
are invariably absent. 

The occurrence of these shells in a few places at high 
elevations, all explicable by consideration of the geographical 
circumstances, gave rise to the idea of a great mid-glacial 
submergence, and upon this idea the hypothesis of a mild 
interglacial epoch has mainly hinged. In Professor Geikie's 
latest scheme this supposed submergence is, indeed, reduced to 
moderate limits, but it is still the essential factor in the 

The same idea of a moderate degree of submergence, accom- 
panied by temperate conditions of climate has been applied by 
Mr. Clement Reid | to the shelly gravels of Holderness. Mr. 
Reid has also proposed to include the buried clitl-beds of 
Sewerby in the same interglacial stage ; but as the gravels rise 
to nearly 100 feet above the level of the old beach in northern 
Holderness, and are separated from it by the Basement boulder- 
clay, I am sure that this correlation cannot be sustained. 

These Holderness gravels are supposed to be absent fronr 
the coast sections, and it is suggested that they may lie below 
sea-level in this quarter ; but this is not very probable, as they 
are found at an elevation of 50 feet within a few miles of the 
coast in southern Holderness, and the Basement boulder-clay 
rises well above sea-level in the clifl's at Dimlington. It is true 
that the gravels of the coast sections afTord no support to the 
idea of a mild interglacial submergence, and are evidently of 
similar origin with the rest of the glacial deposits, but I can see 
no other reason against their correlation with the gravels of 
the neighbouring interior. Except in two or three limited 
tracts, the shells in the Holderness gravels are as fragmentary, 
and nearly as scanty, as in the moundy gravels of Flamborough 

* ' Glacial Gcolog-y of New JerM-y.' Rep. Ccol. Sitr-.rv ,>/ .\'r:c /rrsry, 
vol. V. (1902), p. 81. (The quoted italics are in the original.) 

I III the late Professor H. Carvill Lewis's Glacial C.cology of Great 
Britain and Ireland (London, 1894), Appendix A, pp. 425-431. 

:;: ' The Geology of Holderness. ■ Mem. 6V"/. .S"//n'<j' (1SS5). 


Oil BritisJi Di'ifls and the Interglacial Problem. 315 

Head, which from their character and position cannot be of 
marine origin. Even at the exceptional places referred to, 
where the fossils are more plentiful, there is a mixture of forms, 
including- an abundance of the freshwater shell Corhicida flu- 
viinalis, which seems to denote their derivation from pre-existing^ 
local deposits ; and in the new section at Burstwick, described 
by Mr. T. Sheppard,* these shelly gravels revealed the same 
close association with the boulder-clay that is so frequently 
displayed in the glacial gravels of the coast sections. 

The Kiniimgton Section. — There is, however, one case 
known to me in the east of England, and only one, in which an 
undoubtedly contemporaneous fauna occurs in beds intercalated 
with the boulder-clay series.! At Kirmington, in North Lincoln- 
shire, a brickyard is worked in a deposit of estuarine clay lying 
in the middle of a broad shallow valley which cuts across the 
Chalk Wolds about eight miles south of the Humber. Recent 
investigation b}- a Research Committee of the Association, in 
which I took an active share, has shown, somewhat unex- 
pectedly, that the surface of the chalk at this place descends to 
present sea-level, and that the estuarine warp is underlain by 
over 60 feet of drift, consisting of sand and chalky gravel, with 
two thick bands of tough clay containing far-travelled stones. | 
The boring in which these beds were proved was insufficient to 
show precisely whether the stony clays possessed the dis- 
tinguishing features of true till, but there can be no doubt as to 
their glacial character, since we know of no deposits of this 
kind in the east of England except those of glacial age. At the 
base of the estuarine warp, at 65 feet above Ordnance datum, 
we found a thin seam of silt and peat containing a few freshwater 
shells and plant remains, which, like the very scanty fauna of 
the overlying warp, give no precise indication of climatal 
conditions, though suggesting that the climate was cooler than 
at present. The estuarine bed is overlain by a coarse gravel of 
rolled flints, and in one part of the section this gravel is covered 
by 3 or 4 feet of red clay with far-travelled stones, resembling 

* ' On another Section in the so-called Interglacial Gravels of Holder- 
ness.' Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polytech. Soc, vol. xiii. (1895), pp. 1-14. 

t The freshwater deposit which I found some years ago at Bridlington, 
and at first thought to be probably intercalated with the boulder-clay, 
proved on fuller exposure to lie above the boulder-clay, with which it had 
become entangled by later disturbance. See Geo/. Mag., dec. ii., vol. vi. 
(1879), p. 393; and '/'rtir. Yorks. Geol. and Polytech. Soc, vol. vii. (1881), 
p. 389. 

J Pe/>. Britisli Assoc, for 1904, pp. 272-4. 

1906 September i. 

3i6 On Ihi/ish Drifls and the fn/cro/acid/ Problem. 

the I'pper boulder-chi}- or Hessle Clay of Holderness. The 
character and fauna of the warp show that it must have been 
hiid down between tide-marks, and we therefore g^ain an exact 
measure of the sea-level at the time of its accumulation, and 
also, I think, of the hijj^hest limit of marine submerg-ence in this 
part of Eng-land during- any stage of the Glacial Period. 

The position of the deposit, at the fringe of the great sheet 
of drift which covers the lowland east of the Wolds and on the 
edge of an area west of the Wolds which appears to have 
escaped glaciation, sustains me in the opinion that it was 
accumulated during that temporary recession of the East British 
ice-lobe of which we have other evidence. Its proposed correla- 
tion with the Holderness gravels seems hardly tenable in the 
light of the fuller information which we now possess regarding 
the section. That the East-British ice-lobe, during one of its 
phases, had the sea at its margin, has always appeared to me 
to be probable,* and, I think, supplies an adequate explanation 
of the facts. 

Under this interpretation the complex drifts between the 
Basement Clay and the Hessle Clay are regarded as the marginal 
products of the ice-lobe which filled the North Sea Basin during 
a stage when its western border began to lose ground by rapid 
wasting. By this recession a broad hollow was left between 
the hills and the ice-sheet, and into this hollow were swept the 
abundant washings from the glacier on the one side and from 
the bare land on the other, thus forming the irregular mounds 
and broad fans of stratified material which run parallel with the 
receding ice-border. The sea at this time encircled the southern 
end of the ice-lobe, but its waters were restricted, in the area 
under consideration, to narrow estuarine inlets between the ice 
luid the land. 

The Upper Bouhh'r day. —Concurrently with this shrinkage 
of the East British ice-lobe there appears to have been a steady 
increase in the ice-caps which covered the broader upland tracks 
of the northern Eng-lish counties. But all the evidence tends to 
show that the tongues descending eastward from these caps, 
from the time of the Basement Clay onward to the close of the 
glaciation, were persistently prevented from passing freely 
outward by the presence of the main lobe in the North Sea 
Basin. Upon the shrinkage of the main lobe thev were deflected 

* ' Drifts of Fl;unbori)u^-li Head.' Ouiirt. Juurn. iUol. Soc, vol. .\l\ii. 
(1891), p. 421. 


Norfheni News. 317 

southward along' the hollow between it and the hilly land, 
which, in time, they filled ag'ain to a somewhat higher level 
than before, the inosculation of the upper and lower Purple 
boulder-clays with the stratified drifts marking- the gradual 
stages in this process. The magnificent cliff-sections of the 
Yorkshire coast north of Flamborough reveal the continuous 
character of this glaciation, and there is no room anywhere 
to wedge an interglacial period into these sections. South of 
Flamborough, the interval between the withdrawal of the one 
mass and the advance of the other was longer, because the 
passage of the new invader to the eastward of the Oolitic hills 
was only gradually effected ; and consequently it is in the 
interior of the Holderness recess that we find the greatest 
development of the stratified drifts. To imagine, with the inter- 
glacialists, that the North Sea Basin was emptied of its ice-sheet, 
and was then filled again just far enough to influence the flow 
of the local ice, without extraneous re-invasion of our coast, 
seems to me an unwarranted sacrifice of the evidence to the 

(To be continued.) 

It is gTatif3'ino- to find that a recent issue of ' Progressing- Advertising- 
and Outdoor Pubiicity ' cordially ag-rees with the recent action of Yorkshire 
Naturalists in reg-ard to the advertisements on Flamborough Head. The 
paper quotes in full the letter written to the press by the Hon. Secretary 
of the Yorkshire Union, and adds : ' The members of the Yorkshire Natu- 
ralists' Union are naturally indignant at the action of certain firms in turning 
the rugged cliffs of Flamborough Head into advertising stations. It will be 
remembered that when an American firm " collared " the White Cliffs of Old 
England at Dover to advertise a breakfast food, such an outer}' was raised 
that the bold, bad advertiser was compelled to remove the ad. We hope 
that the result will be the same at Flamborough. The legitimate bill-poster 
is as averse to despoiling scenery as anyone.' 

According to the Yorkshire Post of August 7th, the scientific resurrec- 
tionists had a field-day in Section H, where the anthropologists gathered in 
great force to hear Miss Nina Layard and Mr. T. Sheppard describe the 
contents of pre-historic graves that have been opened in Ipswich and in 
South Cave. The family vaults of these Anglo-Saxons have been ruthlessly 
rifled of brooches, bracelets, buckles, and pins of great interest and, in some 
cases, of singular beauty. Happily, the period is too far distant to provoke 
the retaliation of outraged descendants. The Hull curator was mightily 
proud of having discovered a number of vases which the ubiquitous Canon 
Greenwell and Mr. J. R. Mortimer had missed. An exhibition of Roman 
and other remains found in North Lincolnshire whetted the curiosity of 
several well-known archaeologists. Such a find is extraordinary at this 
time of day, and Mr. Sheppard quietly informed his audience that he did 
not think it ' necessary ' to state the precise locality. He was commended 
by Professor W. Ridgevvay for his wholesale reticence, 'especially,' he slily 
added, ' with Sir John Evans on the platform.' As the revelation was not 
made, a stampede of enthusiastic archaeologists was avoided. 

1906 September i. 




The g^eneral subject of lead mininj^ in tlie North of Kni;huid has 
been somewhat exhaustively dealt with, both niineralogically 
and ideologically, by various writers, but hitherto the historical 
side of the question for any given county has not been syste- 
matically treated. 

In 1863 the late Mr. Thomas Sopwith, F. R. S., read an 
admirable paper before the British Association on the local 
manufacture of lead, copper, zinc, antimony, etc. Tracing, as 
he did, the general history of the mining of those metals in the 
various districts, especially of the North of Eng-land, it was 
obviously impossible to particularise on any one metal, but as a 
general epitome the article was absolutely reliable. 

In 1848 a paper was read before the Yorkshire Philosophical 
Society, and published in their Transactions, entitled ' Thoughts 
on Ancient Metallurgy and Mining in Brigantia and other parts 
of Britain,' which gives an excellent summary of our knowledge 
of early minings in the country, but does not attempt to define any 
special area or set of mines. More recently Mr. Stephen Eddy 
has written upon the ' Lead Mining Districts of Yorkshire,' 
mostly from a geological standpoint, but where statistics are 
given they are of much value. 

For many years Yorkshire held a most important place as a 
lead-producing district, and it is probable that during the palmy 
days of the industry at least 3000 persons were employed, 
directly or indirectly, in lead mining in the county. To-day 
there are probably not more than 25 all told ! 

It is clearly proved that lead has been mined for many 
centuries in Yorkshire, not only in Roman, but in l^rigantean 
times. Pigs of lead can be shown, found in Yorkshire, bearing 
the Roman impress. In the ' baile,' or 'bole-hills,' and 
in one or two drifts and shafts, we probably have evidence of 
Brigantean working ; some of it possibly dating back earlier 
than the Roman invasion. 

In many districts tradition points to Roman mining, but 
evidence is not forthcoming" to show whether these conquerors 

* ICpitoiiu- of ;i paper read lo Section 1' of tlie .Meeting' of tlic Hi-itish 
Association, 'N'oi'k. 


Backhouse : Lead Mining in Yorkshire. 319 

actually mined it themselves or whether they beg-ged, borrowed, 
or stole it from the subjugated tribes. 

From those times, however, throug-h what we may call the 
early documentary period, lead was mined more or less 
systematically in Yorkshire, often in larg-e quantities, and 
there can be no doubt also to larg'e profit. 

But we ha\ e to deal especially with the lead mining- of the 
nineteenth century, and to consider briefly to what extent the 
industry has been carried on in recent times. 

The actual area in which lead has been mined in Yorkshire 
may be taken as about one-sixth of the entire county, and is 
situated in the North and West Ridings, in the mountainous 
regions towards the head waters of rivers — the Tees (where it 
divides Yorks. from Durham and Westmorland), the Yorks. 
Lune, the Swale and its great tributary Arkle Beck, the Ure, 
the Nidd, the Wharfe, the Aire, and the Ribble. Taking these 
districts seriatim^ commencing in the north, we find that the 
Tees area contained some thirteen or fourteen distinct mines, 
none worked since about 1870, Lunedale had about half a 
dozen, one of which, that known as Lunehead, was extensive, 
and has been reopened recently. For the next two areas — 
those of Arkengarthdale and Swaledale — it is impossible at the 
moment to register any definite number, but they may be said 
to have run into the hundreds at one time or another. 

Two especially, Hurst Mine in x'\rkengarthdale, and that at 
Old Gang, in Swaledale, were notorious for centuries, and the 
output from them was enormous. 

From the latter mine it is said that at one time, about the 
middle of the nineteenth century, some 3000 tons per annum 
were produced. At Hurst the Romans are said to have had a 
penal settlement, and lead was probably mined there, not only by 
them, but who shall say how long before ? Now Hurst is grim 
and desolate like the ' Deserted Village,' though the hills still 
cover thousands of tons of rich ore, which twentieth-century 
enterprise may yet acquire. Old Gang, in Swaledale, is still 
kept going, but is gradually becoming worked out, though 
there can be little doubt that many other veins in its proximity 
may be worked to profit at to-day's selling price if facilities 
for carriage were provided. 

In Wensleydale, over the ridge southward, we find at least 
forty distinct mines, and some of these were very remunerative, 
notably that of Keld Heads, near Wensley. Flooding of the 

]()o6 September i. 

320 Backhouse : Lead Mining- in ) 'orks/iiiw 

mine at a time wlu'ii the market price was very low was the 
cause of closure. 

This mine, along" with several others, was closed down 
during^ the last decade of the century. Continuing- southward, 
in Nidderdale about thirty separate mines have been wrought, 
those on Greenhow Hill beings once among- the oldest and most 
productive in the North of Eng^land ; Cockhill Level (Greenhow) 
branched into maiiy miles of levels, from which a g-reat weig-ht 
of lead was taken ; yet the supply is by no means exhausted, 
for the Bradford Corporation, when recenll}- making their pipe 
track across Greenhow Moor, cut a very larg^e vein of ore. Mr. 
Joseph Craddock, J. P., of Stockton-on-Tees, still works at 
Lolly Scar and Blayshaw Gill Mines in this area. 

Wharfedale contributed enormously in the middle of last 
century from some twelve or fifteen mines, of which Grassing-ton 
Moor Mine was by far the most important. They were closed 
some thirty years ag-o. 

Of Airedale but little need be written, for, with the exception 
of the g-reat Cononley Mine, there were only a few lesser trials. 

In the last area, that of Ribblesdale, three mines were 
worked, namely, at Rimmington (Skelhorn), and three in the 
Bolland district near Slaidburn. 

Skelhorn Mine was worked centuries ago, and was rich in 
silver, like many of the Yorkshire Mines. 

So far as can be ascertained, there are possibilities for 
future enterprise in nearly all the areas mentioned, but Pros- 
pectors will do well to observe the causes which led to the 
close of the various workingfs before. Briefly they are as 
follows : — 

(rt) The continued low price of lead, largvly inHuenced by 
Spanish importation. 

{b) The system of the remuneration of the miners (lu-nisehes 
having been changed from the ' bing system' to the 'fathom 

(c) The spirit of mine speculation in the worst sense of the 
term, whereby the mines were bought up and floated for the 
sake of immediate gains from their flotation. 

{(I) The fact that landlords in many districts purposely put 
difficulties in the way of miners on account of the value of their 
lands for grouse-rearing, and because of llu' pt)l!utioM of tiiuir 
rivers owing to the lead-washing. 




Professor T. G. BONNEY, ScD., LL.D,, F.R.S. 

The three sub-divisions of the Bunter, whether east or west of 
the Pennine Rang-e, apparently unite to the south of it, and thin 
out as they approach the southern parts of Warwickshire, 
Staffordshire, and Leicestershire. Their equivalents are fairl}^ 
well developed in Devonshire, but apparently thin out in a 
similar wedg-e-like manner towards the north and north-east, 
not reaching" the Bristol Channel. The upper and lower mem- 
bers in the northern area are sandstones, g^enerally red, often 
conspicuousl}' current-bedded, but without pebbles, the grains 
being- frequently wind- worn. The pebble-bed between them 
reaches a thickness of looo feet near Liverpool — where, how- 
ever, sand dominates over pebbles — is about 300 feet thick in 
Central Staffordshire, and rather overlaps the Lower Bunter 
sand. The writer describes the lithological characters of the 
pebbles, and discusses the reasons for and against deriving 
them either from a southern or south-western soiu'ce, like those 
in the Devon area, or from any region, either exposed or buried, 
in their more immediate neighbourhood, maintaining a northern 
origin to be more probable. The Keuper group, both sand- 
stones and marls, extends without interruption (except for the 
sea) from Devonshire to Yorkshire on the one hand, and to 
Antrim on the other. 

The author considers the Bunter to be fluviatile rather than 
lacustrine deposits, chiefly formed b}' large rivers. Two of 
these flowed from a mountain region, of which Scotland and the 
extreme north of Ireland are fragments, and a third from a 
similar region to the south-west of Britain. Deposits com- 
parable with the Bunter, and especially the pebble-bed, may be 
found on the border of the Alps, and those rivers probably 
traversed (at any rate early and late in the Bunter epoch) arid 
lowlands, from which, if not absorbed, they ma}' have escaped 
by some channel now buried under south-eastern England. 
The Keuper sandstones, as he shows, indicate the setting in of 
inland sea-conditions, the Red Marls being generally regarded 
as deposited in a great salt lake. These, like the clays of the 
Jurassic system were probably derived from the mountain 
ranges which had previously supplied sand and pebbles. 
In fact, the physical and climatal conditions of the Trias — 

* Abstract of a paper read to Section C of the Meeting- of the British 
Association, York. 

1906 September i. 

^22 A A\t('/i//v Discovered Skc/r/oii i)i Scoskd CavCy LillDudalc. 

and llie sanu; perhaps may also be said of the Permian — were 
probably to some extent comparable with those existing ni 
certain of the more central parts of Asia, such as Persia or 



ScosKA Cavk is situated about a mile beyond the villai;-e of 
Arncliflfe and at a height of 230 feet above the river Skirfare. 
The opening of the cave is about 7 feet high and 15 feet wide. 
At a distance of 250 feet from the entrance the cave branches, 
the right branch being more than 400 yards in length. The 
left branch (which contains a small stream) is entered by 
creeping under a ledge 18 inches high ; the roof soon rises to a 
height of 4 feet, and continues at this level for 400 feet ; at this 
point the roof lowers, and a few yards beyond many bones in a 
good state of preservation have been found. All the bones 
belong to one person, and were for the most part almost entirely 
buried in stalagmite ; they were scattered along the floor of the 
cave over a distance of about 20 feet. The skull is that of 
a female Celt, being of the brachycephalic type. All the teeth 
are present, with the exception of the two back molars, which 
evidently fell out subsequently to death. The teeth show signs 
of considerable attrition, being worn flat with the loss of the 
enamel in the molars ; this has evidently been caused by eating 
corn ground between gritstones, the grit being left in the flour. 
Just above the right mastoid process is a small, irregularly 
shaped hole, which has penetrated the inner table of the skull 
and has e\ idently been the cause of death. The blow would 
not prove instantly fatal, so that the woman had probably 
crawled up the cave to die, the position in which the bones 
were found precluding the idea of burial. Detailed measure- 
ments of the skull, &c., were given. t 

* A ijupcr i-rad to .Si-clioii W (if the Mccliiii; of the Mritisli Assoriatioil, 

t Witli ic.ufard to lliis ' tind,' il slioiihl he poiiitctl out that whilst it is 
within thi- bounds of ]K)ssibility tlial this skrloton is that of a fi-niak' Celt, 
there is no proof of its aj^-e, and it seems even ])roI)able that the skeleton is 
of imieh more recent date than the authors consider. The measurements of 
the skull, t^^iveii when the paper was read, are no criterion, and in the 
absence of any associated relics, our best archajolog-ists would hesitate to 
date tile remains.- l^li. 





Ingleborough Hill consists of a large plateau of Carboniferous 
limestone about 500 feet in thickness and capped by a cone of 
Yoredale rocks with a summit of Millstone Grit. On this 
plateau there are a large number of pot-holes or vertical shafts 
in the limestone : there are upwards of thirty of these at present 
known to exist, and it is probable that there are many more 
still covered with the deposit of glacial drift. Within the last 
few years many facts have come to light which prove that 
many, if not all, of the deeper pot-holes owe their existence to 
faults. Rift Pot, a pot-hole on the south-east side of the hill, 
was recently explored and found to extend to a depth of over 
300 feet : the first portion consists of a vertical shaft 114 feet 
deep, the lower portion of which consists of a chamber 130 feet 
long- and 25 feet broad ; from the south end of this the pot 
descends for a distance of about 200 feet with a series of 
platforms of jambed stones wedged between the walls of a 
vertical fissure, finally ending in a short passage which, at the 
end, is waterlogged. The pot-hole at the surface takes the 
form of a fissure 60 feet long and from one to seven feet wide. 
At the northern end of this fissure, within a few feet of the moor 
level, the east wall is slickensided, and in the main chamber at 
the foot of the first shaft, the east wall is also slickensided over 
an area 50 feet in length and at least 20 feet in height. At the 
surface the slickensides occur along successive master joints, 
while those in the main chamber occur along another master 
joint at a horizontal distance of about 15 feet. These slicken- 
sides are horizontal, showing that the fault was one of 
horizontal displacement, and as a careful examination shows 
that the beds of limestone on either side of the upper part 
of the pot correspond, it is clear that no vertical movement 
accompanied the faulting. The slickensides near the surface 
are coated with clear crystals of calcite which, when removed, 
leave the slickensides clearly marked. 

Only one fault is marked on the maps of the Geological 
Survey : this is a fault which runs from near Horton to God's 

* A paper read to Section C of the Meeting- of the British Association, 

igo5 September i. 

324 Norlhc)-)! Xcivs. 

Bridge, in Ch;ipcl-lc-DaIc. Aloiii,*" the line of this faull are 
several pot-holes, all of which ha\e their longer axes in the 
direction of the fanlt. Sulber Pot, which is about 59 feet deep, 
and Nick Pot, which receives an inflowini^- stream, and has 
recently been explored to a depth of about 80 feet, exhibit no 
direct evidences of faulting- ; but Mere Gill, on the other hand, 
does. Mere Gill consists of a fissure about 80 yards long^, 
which is bridged in three places by rock. As a rule this fissure 
is filled with water to within 30 feet of the surface ; in times of 
normal rainfall the water escapes through a tunnel below the 
water level which leads in a southerly direction (away from the 
valley) ; it then makes two vertical descents of 80 feet each 
and turns northwards to emerge in the valley near God's 
Bridge in the direct line of the fault. On the limestone, which 
is usually covered by the stream falling into the pot, are crystals 
of calcite. These are very much water-worn, but clearl\- 
indicate the existence of a fault. 

Gaping Gill consists of a vertical shaft, 365 feet deep, into 
which the waters of Fell Beck fall. At a depth of about 190 
feet is a ledge some 12 feet wide : at this point a fault is very 
clearly to be seen ; the fault has a downthrow of six feet to the 
south. The shape of practicalh' all the pot-holes is a further 
indication that they have been formed as a result of faults : they 
are all much longer than they are wide and thin out at each end 
into a narrow- crack. It is also a noticeable fact that they 
occur in groups and in such positions that it would have been 
impossible for a stream to form more than one out of several. 

It is a matter of coiigraliilation to the \'oikshiii' Naturalists lo tiuci tiial 
the only 'natural iiistory' pajier recommLMulctl b\- the British Association to 
be printed in exttniso in its report, is tiiat by Mr. (i. T. I'orritt, F.L.S., F.E.S., 
entitled ' Melanism in Lepidoiitera," of which we t;ive a leng-thy notice in 
another column. 

Eleven ' jcra%el catchers' were recently find at the Hull Police Court for 
removing j^'ravel and sand from the beach at Hornsea. In the evidence it 
was stated that the g^ravel 'produced 2d. ])er ton, and it had been oslimated 
that some landowners fiad made as much as ;£^iooo a year out of it.' 
Stranj^ely enough, if the men had jifone a little Anther north, to Atwick, 
they could have taken as much ij^iavel as they liked without let or hindrance. 

There has been deposited at Barnard Castle a draft Scheme for enlarg-inef 
the powers of the trustees of the Bowes Museum, by enabliniif them to pur- 
chase objects of artistic, scientific, antiquarian, or local interest. Tiie 
scheme has been formulated by the Charity Commissioners, and has been 
formallv approvi-d b\- the L'rban District C'onncil. No objection has been 
entered aj^ainst the proposals contained in the draft, and it is announced 
that one of tiie first purchases under the extended powers, will be the 
valuable collection of preserved birds and animals left by tlie late Mr. 
Kobert Carter, taxidermist, of liarnard Castle. 





The Doncaster district has long- been noted for a remarkable 
deposit of stiff boulder-clay which covers about 125 acres south 
of the river Don, one-and-a-half miles south-west of Doncaster. 
Two miles to the north-west, near Cusworth Park, on the north 
side of the Don, numerous Lake District and Carboniferous 







I Equals Permian rocks. 

S Equals Boulder clay. 

erratics are scattered on the surface of the fields, but there is no 
exposure of clay. The distribution of the Balby clay and the 
Cusworth erratics is roughly fan-shaped, the Don gorge forming 
the handle of the fan. 

In the sinking- of the Bentley pit, two miles north of Don- 
caster, boulder-clay has recently been passed through at a 
depth of 55 to 75 feet below O.D. This clay lies on Bunter 

* Paper read to Section C at a Meeting- of" the British Association, York. 

1906 September i. 

326 Exposmrs of Glacial Drift at Doiicastcr and Tickhill. 

sand, and is covered b)' 80 feet of alliuial clays, sands, and 
gravels. The boulders contained in it are principally of Permian 
Limestone. There are a few Carboniferous grits and ganisters, 
and some finely scratched Carboniferous close-grained, and also 
encrinital, limestones. Several specimens have been found of 
Coal Measure shale with Anthracomya Phillipsi. Shales with 
this characteristic Upper Coal Measure fossil are also found in 
the Balby clay. The beds from which these shales may have 
been derived are not known to occur in Yorkshire further north 
than the Don valley. The presence of this fossil in the Balby 
and Bentley clays lends support to Mr. W. Lower Carter's 
suggestion that ice passed west of the Permian escarpment, and 
then entered the lower levels by way of the Don gorge. 

In a distance of two miles between Wadworth and Tickhill, 
the South Yorkshire Joint Railway is making four cuttings 
through boulder clay. The most southern of these is at All 
Hallows Hill, which is near Tickhill, and a little over six miles 
south of Doncaster. Where the base of the clay is seen it rests 
on Upper Permian or Triassic sands and marls. In the inter- 
secting valleys the fossiliferous top beds of the Upper Permian 
Limestone reach the surface. In its deepest part the clay is 
more than 20 feet thick, the base not being exposed. In the 
first three cuttings it is not as tough as at Balby, but at All 
Hallows Hill it is so stiff that the railway contractor is using 
explosives for the purpose of excavating it. The boulders are 
mainly of Permian Limestone, and range up to 12 cubic feet in 
size. There are Carboniferous limestones up to two feet cube, 
some of them being highly fossiliferous. In addition to encrinital 
blocks there are large pieces containing Producfus Cora, P. 
scabricido-costatus, P. longispinus, and Aviculopccten. There are 
also Carboniferous grits and ganisters, and a few Lake District 
boulders. The stones are sub-angular, and are well scratched. 
No traces of the Coal Measure shell beds, such as are seen at 
Balby and Bentley, have been found in these deposits. 

Like the Balby clay the Wadworth and Tickhill deposits are 
closely packed on the low western rim of the southern extension 
of the Vale of York. The positions they occupy on the gentle 
slopes of the hills have shielded them from denudation, and it is 
more than probable that they are the relics of a widely extended 
moraine. The plain which lies below them to the east stretches 
beyond the Trent, and except where broken h\ the low escarp- 
ments of the Bunter and the Keuper, is for the most part below 
the 25 feet contour. It is bounded on the south by the range 


Rc'id : Coast-Erosion. 327 

of hills running- from Tickhill throug-h Bawtry to the Trent near 
Gahisboro' ; and on this rang^e a similar assemblag^e of Permian 
and Carboniferous boulders is found at Gring^ley-on-the-Hill, 
which is ten miles east of Tickhill, and, like Tickhill, about forty 
miles south of York. 



The erosion of our coast must be studied in conjunction with 
the deposition of the material eroded. When examined in this 
wa}' we find in England that it has not been a continuous 
process, varying when short periods are studied, but averaging- 
the same from century to century. Instead of this regular 
process, the rapid accumulation in certain places teaches us 
that coast-erosion, as we now see it, began at a definite date, 
before which conditions were entirely different. If this were 
not so, the area of the new lands, accumulations of shingle,, 
and of sand-dunes would be much greater. It does not seem 
practicable to obtain exact measures, but the rates of accumula- 
tion of various recent deposits, and of the silting-up of our 
harbours, suggest that the cliff-erosion only began 3000 or 
4000 years ago, or about the date when our harbours were 
already in use and Stonehenge was being raised. 

In order to understand the nature of the changes that are 
now going on, it is necessary to look back to the Neolithic 
period to see what the country was then like, otherwise the 
existing irregularities of our coast-line will be quite unintelligible. 
It is not needful to go back further, but we must picture the 
country as it looked when the sea stood 60 feet lower. 

A close study of the buried land surfaces, or ' submerged 
forests,' found in the alluvium of all our estuaries at various 
levels down to about 50 feet below the present sea level, shows 
that oak trees flourished on the lowest of these ancient soils. 
This proves that the sea then stood so far below its present 
level that the highest tides could not reach the roots of the 
trees. These old land-surfaces seem all to be of Neolithic date. 
During this period the seaward end of all our valleys was 
deepened till the channel reached about 60 feet below its present 

* Abstract of a paper read to Section E of the Meeting- of the British 
Association, York. 

1906 SepteiuLer i. 

3-X Rriil : Const-Krosion. 

level. The south and east coasts of I'^nj^laiid were utterly 
unlike what we now see. Instead of bold cliffs there was a 
wide coastal plain, like that which still extends for many miles 
west of Brii^hton, separatinj^ the risinj^ Downs from the coast. 
This plain extended out approximately to the existinj^ lo-fathom 

About 4000 years ago there set in a fairly rapid but 
intermittent subsidence of the land, or rise of the sea. This 
subsidence flooded a ijreat part of the coastal plain, brouj^-ht the 
waves within strikins;" distance of the rising" land behind, and 
submerged the lower part of all our valleys. 

The process seems to have been more rapid and jerky than 
any change which has been recorded of late years, for the 
deposits in all our big estuaries tell the same tale. We find 
rapidly deposited marine silt alternating with thin beds of peat 
or soils with trees. But the vegetation is usually nothing but 
brushwood or quick-growing trees, and the peat also is of rapid 
growth. Only at the very bottom of these deposits, far below 
the present sea-level, are oaks of more than 100 years to be 

The rise of the sea-level may have been completed about 
3500 years ago. Whatever may be its exact date, the com- 
pletion of the rise is the starting-point of our present inquiry. 
Only then commenced the coast-erosion which we now see ; 
only then did our existing shingle-beaches and sand-dunes 
begin to form. 

At first erosion was rapid, for the sea was merely eating 
into loose talus or into cliffs of little height ; and protective 
banks of shingle and sand take tim.e to accumulate. As the 
land is cut into, the cliff becomes higher and shingle-beaches 
and sand-dunes form, all tending to make the width of the strip 
destroyed annually less and less. 

Of the land thus destroyed, part is washed into deep water 
and lost, but much of the coarser material is rolled into shingle- 
beaches, or forms sand-banks and dunes. These form our best 
protection against fiuther inroads. If the coast-erosion is 
stopped, shingle-beach and sand-bank will themselves wear 
out and disappear, and valuable lowlands behind may be spoilt 
by the sea. 

.\nothcr compensation for the loss on the coast will be found 
in the great gain of alluxial land in the sheltered estuaries ; but 
igainsl this nuist be set the rapid silting-up of our harbours, 
<'ven ol those into which no stieams flow. 


Reviews and Book Notices. 329 

Before we take for g-ranted the desirability of attempting to 
stop the erosion of our coasts (except near towns) we must 
strike a balance between loss and gain. If the loss exceeds the 
gain there will still remain the question, Shall we obtain any 
sufficient compensation for the enormous cost of any works 
put up to protect agricultural land ? 

Some curious problems are suggested by this inquiry. Many 
may think them of no practical importance, but to the geo- 
grapher and geologist they are of great interest. If what is 
said above is correct, and since civilised man has lived in 
Britain there has been a rapid change of sea-level followed by a 
long rest — what are the prospects of a similar period of rapid 
change again setting in ? A new rise or fall to the extent of a 
few feet would have most disastrous effects on all our coasts 
and harbours, and would also seriously affect our inland 
drainage until things were adjusted to the new conditions. 

Quarterly Record of Additions, No.xvi.; Hull Whaling Relics, and 
Arctic or Historical Records of 250 years; Catalogue of Antique 
Silver on Exhibition. Being Hull Museum Publications, Nos. 30, 31, and 32. 

These publications worthily maintain the high standard set by their 
predecessors, and will prove of permanent value altogether apart from the 
objects of interest of which they treat. The catalogue of antique silver, lent 
for exhibition, appropriately printed on superior paper, contains very full 
particulars of a most interesting and very valuable collection. Although 
the information given of the several articles is far from meagre, there are 
some that do not altogether satisfy our curiosity. In particular, the 
vicissitudes of a fine sixteenth century chalice and paten would make 
interesting reading could they be traced in all their fulness. Although 
locally valuable, in that many of the articles are of Hull manufacture, the 
antiquary, the artist, and the collector alike will view these exhibits with 
delight. Almost the same may be said for the other two publications in 
which Messrs. .Sheppard and Suddaby have figured and described a large 
collection of relics and records connected with the Hull whaling industry. 
Although the museum already possessed many articles illustrating this 
industry, the recent gift by Lord Nuiiburnholme of a most extensive col- 
lection of these objects has increased the collection to such an extent, both 
in quantity and value, as to make the exhibit all but complete, and merit an 
entire room for its disposal. It is difficult to speak in terms sufficiently high 
to express one's gratitude for the manner in which the accumulated matter 
has been arranged and presented to the public. We could almost wish that 
an edition of these two numbers had been printed on the same superior 
paper as the catalogue first referred to. We feel sure there are many who 
will appreciate the permanent value and significance of the many records 
and statistics the}- contain, find would be only too pleased to pay the en- 
hanced ])rice which such an edition would involve. Work of this kind is 
rarely done twice, and we throw out the suggestion while its accomplish- 
ment is possible.* — E. G. B. 

* The information contained in the two pamphlets referred to is being 
incorporated in 'A History of the Hull Whaling Industry' by the same 
authors. This will be on 'superior paper," and, as the reviewer anticipates, 
will be more than a penny. — Ed. 

1906 September t. 



A RESIDENCE of Several j'ears in the neijj;"hbourhood of Speeton 
has enabled the author to collect many fossils from the clays and 
shales underlying" the Chalk. With regard to the Amnwtii/ichr, 
his results confirm the general succession given by Pavlow and 
Lamplug-h, and add some further information. 

The lowest portion of the Kimeridge clay w^hich the author 
has been able to examine in exposures on the shore contains 
numbers of ill-preserved ammonites of the square-backed 
Hoplites group ; while the higher part contains forms of a 
different type, belonging to the round-backed Perisphinctes and 
allied genera. 

In the lower part of the zone of Bclemnilcs lateralis 
ammonites are extremely rare, and the author has no fresh 
information to offer ; but in the upper part they become plentiful. 
The very globose forms of Olcostephaniis {Olc. gravcsiformis^ 
keserlingi^ etc.) occur mainly in the bed D 3 of Mr. Lamplugh's 
classification, but are usually in bad preservation. The over- 
lying bed, D 2, is perhaps the most interesting of the whole 
series ; at its base both the Olcostcphani and the Hoplites are 
very numerous, the former being often in the condition of 
imperfect phosphatic casts. Above this band the round-backed 
ammonites entirel}' disappear, though Belemnites lateralis con- 
tinue to be fairly abundant up to D i. 

It therefore appears that the southern Hoplites obtained full 
possession of the area earlier than their associated southern 
belemnites oi \\\q jactilian type, although rare examples of these 
belemnites occur in the clays below D 2. 

The lower part of the zone of Belemnites jacnlum, besides 
yielding many Hoplites, contains occasional ammonites per- 
taining to the genera Holcodiscns and Astieria (of the Olco- 
stephani), and also to other genera. The higher beds are 
occupied b)' Olcostephani of the genus Simbirskites, biit these 
beds have of late years been so poorly exposed that no further 
information can be given regarding the distribution of these 

In the zone of Belemnites bransvicensis ammonites only occur 
at the extreme base, where there are a few examples of one of 
the Simbirskites, and in its uppermost beds, where the g-enus 
//opliteSy represented by //. desltavesi, reappears associated with 

A paper read to Sfctioii C oCtlic Mct-tiiii;' ottlu- Hrilisli Associalioii, ^'l)|•k. 


]Vilmore : The Limestone Knolls of Craven. 331 

forms of the g'enus Oppelia, the whole of the intervening' deposits 
being" apparently devoid of these fossils. 

In the beds with Beleninites ewaldi, which may prove to be 
a distinct zone between the brnnsviceiisis and niininins zones, 
no ammonites have as yet been detected, but in the minimus 
zone H. interniptiis, Brug-., has been found. 

The Criocerata have been found to exist in most, if not all, 
the deposits from the uppermost part of the Belemnites lateralis 
zone to the top of the Belemnites brtinsvicensis zone, and are 
especially numerous about the middle of the Beleninites jaculum 
zone. They are, however, difficult to determine, being- both 
frag-mentary and ill-preserved. 

The following is a list of the specimens obtained : — 
*Crioceras d imal i d'Orh C mid. to Crioceras fissicostatum ? Room. B 

lower D 2 ? 


semicinctiim Roeni. 


* Hamites inteniiedius Phill. C mid. 

mid. to lower. 

to lower. 

puzosianum C mid. 

* Ancyloceras — sp. B top. 

rarocincfuvi v. Koen. 


* ,, — sp. B top. 

matheroni Pavl ? 


* Toxoceras roycri d'Orb B top. 


* ? Scaphites constrictus d'Orb B. 

stromhecki v. Koen. 






The Craven Lowlands district, between the g-reat faults on the 
north-east and the grit hills of the Pendle Range on the south, 
is characterised by a well-known series of limestone knolls 
which have been the subject of much discussion. Having 
worked in the district for some years, I venture to make the 
following suggestions : — • 

The words ' knoll ' and ' reef-knoll ' seem to be differently 
understood by different workers. It seems to me desirable to 
drop the term 'reef-knoll.' This term was applied by Mr. 
Tiddeman to certain extreme members of a series : there is 
every possible gradation between these and ordinary rounded 
knolls to which the term would never be applied. Further, the 
hills so named by Mr. Tiddeman have not all originated in the 
same way. 

* Determined b\' Dr. A. von. Koenen. 

t A paper read to Section C of the Meeting ol" the British Association, 

igo6 September i. 

332 Wilniorc : The Limcs/oiic Kno/is of C^ raven. 

The following types of knolls may be recog"nised : — 

(rt) Those in the g^iey or bhiish-while limestone. Sonic of these 
are well-beddcd and very fos.silifcrous ; some are obscurely 
bedded ; some are not apparently very fossiliferoiis. 

[b) Those in the dark limestones with niimeroiis shales ; these knolls 

are lower and more rounded. 

(c) Scar-knolls ; truncated folds weathered into semi-rounded and 

more or less detached masses. These vary from small crags 
through large peninsular masses to long' scar-like ridges. 
These ma)- be in the wliite or dark limestones. Sometimes a 
scar-knoll has been detached from llie main mass of limestone 
by weathering. 

There are gradations of ev-ery degree connecting these 

Examples of all these types of knolls occur on one well- 
defined horizon. They may all be seen striking- parallel with 
the Pendleside shales containing" Posidononivd becJicri, Posi- 
dotiiella Icevis^ Avicnlopecten papyraceiis, and immediately- 
succeeded by these shales. The succession may be seen at 
Cracoe and Thorpe, Stockdale, Newsholme, Broughton and 
Thornton, Downham, Slaidburn. 

The knolls are most conspicuous on the margins of the 
district. They are seen close to the faults at Threshfield, Mal- 
ham, Attermire, Stockdale, and Bell Busk. Against the grit 
ridges on the southern side they are well developed at Thorpe 
and Cracoe, Broughton and Thornton, and near Downham. 

It is noteworthy that knoll-like masses are seen north of the 
Grassington branch of the Craven faults, at Craven moor, and 
near Dibble's Bridge. Here the massive white limestones come 
up with a much greater dip than is usual north of the faults. 

The whole district is much folded. There are w'ell-defined 
folds with N. E.-S.W. axes intersected by less conspicuous folds 
parallel to the main Pennine axis. The interference of these 
fold-systems seems to have directly produced some of the knolls. 
Folding is seen everywhere, in both the dark and the white 
limestones ; though the well-bedded dark limestones naturally 
show it best. Minor faults are common, and some of the knolls 
appear to be due in part of faulting. 

The more massive knolls of while limestone appear to be 
due to irregular aggregations of submarine debris. Folding 
has ridged up these massive limestones, and weathering has 
intensified the difference between these and the commoner 
knolls of the district. The smaller knolls are due to folding 
and subsequent weathering. 





Mr. Cosmo Johns, at my sug^gestion, kindly examined the 
coral fauna of the Basement cong-lomerate in the neig'hbourhood 
of Ing-leboroug^h. The beds contain several corals and more 
rarely brachiopods. The fossils have been submitted to Dr. 
Vaughan, who sug^g^ests the horizon to be the base of the 
Seminula zone and upper part of the Syring'othyris zone that is 
somewhere about the horizon of the Michilinia megastoma beds 
of Rush. This correlation is of great interest, because it is 
estimated that the whole of the Limestone Series in the neigh- 
bourhood of Ingleboroug^h, including- the Yoredales, is only 1500 
feet, and the Dibunophyllum fauna as found in rocks is probably 
here considerably more than 1200 feet thick. An interesting 
problem presents itself as tc what happened in this area between 
Lower Seminula and Lower Dibunophyllum times. I hope that 
some work on which I am engaged in the Carboniferous 
succession of the Isle of Man may throw some light on this 
question. In Derby Haven Michilinia megastoma occurs in 
abundance in limestone which succeed the Basement con- 
glomerate, and this may give a clue. I should not be surprised 
if these beds eventually turn out to be in the Dibunophyllum 

Important work has to be done in the north to work out the 
exact zone of each Basement bed. For example, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Shap and Askham, bordering the Lake District, 
the lowest limestones contain a well marked Dibunophyllum 
fauna, pointing to the existence of land in the Lake District in 
Upper Carboniferous Limestone times. Nowhere that I know 
at present has a fauna below T)^ been obtained in the Pennine 
area south of Northumberland. The corals of the Lower Lime- 
stone Series of the West of Scotland are undoubtedly of Upper 
Dibunophyllum age, and the exact results of this fact have to be 
worked out. 

* Abstract from interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. E. 
Marr (Chairman), Dr. Wheelton Hind (Secretary), Dr. F. A. Bather, Mr. 
G. C. Crick, Dr. A. H. Foord, Mr. H. Fox, Professor E. J. Garwood, Dr. 
G. J. Hinde, Professor P. F. Kendall, Mr. R. Kidston, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, 
Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. B. N. Peach, Mr. A. Strahan, Dr. A. 
Vaiig-han, and Dr. H. Woodward, presented to Section C of the Meeting 
of the British Association, York. 

1906 September i. 

334 Hind : iJfc Zones in the BrilisJi Ciirbonijcrous Rocks. 

The result of Mr. Tail's collecling' last year in Northumber- 
laiid is expressed in a table which is printed in the report. 

The object of his research was to endeavour to ascertain the 
fauna which characterises the horizon of the Fell Top Limestone, 
which may be reg'arded as the top of the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone Series in that area. The thin limestone is succeeded by the 
Millstone grits of that district. 

The general results show that the fauna has a Dibunoph}llum 
facies, but that he did not get any of the corals which in the 
Midlands we now recognise as zone indices of the top beds — • 
Cyathaxonia and Amplexi-zaphrentis. 

The Great Limestone of Durham and Northumberland 
contains many specimens of Dibiiiiop/iy/Inin and Lonsdaleia 
fioriforniis, and we therefore correlate it with the Upper 
Dibunophyllum zone of Bristol. The beds collected from are 
some 400 feet higher in the series. Westgarth Foster esti- 
mates the Great Limestone to be 408 feet below the Fell Top 

It may serve a useful purpose to summarise the results 
arrived at since the Committee commenced work some years ago. 

At first, work was chiefly done on the series of black shales 
and limestone, to which Mr. J. A. Howe and I gave the name 
of Pendleside Series. Year by year collecting in various 
districts has demonstrated our thesis that these beds had a 
definite fauna which distinguished them from the Voredale 
Series of Wensleydale. We had obtained this fauna between 
two very different degrees of latitude in the Midlands ; that is, 
the fauna has never been obtained north of the latitude of Settle, 
or south of the latitude of Leicester. The fauna is found to 
characterise beds which succeed the upper Dibunophyllum 
zones of the Carboniferous Limestone as far west as Co. Clare 
and Co. Limerick, Loughshinny, Co. Dublin, the Isle of Man ; 
it also occurs E. at Vis6, Clavier near Dinant, and near Mons, 
in Belgium. 

Zones can be distinguished in the series according to the 

following table : — 

„ c /-^ , • 7- I • ( LowiM- Coal Measures. 

Zone ot Gastnoccras listen ■•• I m-h . ■. 

I^IVIi list one i^nt. 

Zone of Glyphioceras hilinirue ... 

Zone of Gh'phioccras shlrixlc ...\ i^\ i- j- 1 

,, c .-; ',, . J- 1 J Cilvphioceras diadema. 

Zone ot Glvp/iiorcras n'tirulatutii \ ■ ' 

Cylliaxonia f Zone of Posidononiyn beclivri ... Noinismoceras rotifornie. 

beds \7.onc oi Proh'canih's roniprcssiis... I).,. 

The whole of the Upper Carboniferous Series, comprising 
the Pendleton Series, Millstone Grit, and Coal Measmes, might 


Hind : Life Zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks. 335 

be termed the zone of Pferinopecten papyraceus. This fossil 
appears in the lowest beds, with Posidonomya beeheri, and 
marks the faunal change. 

I have also shown that the Pendleside Series is represented 
at Bishopton in Glamorg-anshire, and that the Lower Culm of 
Devon belongs to the Posidonomya beeheri beds and Prolecanites 
compressiis beds. 

More work is required to be done in the Millstone Grit 
Series, and I have in hand certain details which require working" 
out ; but further research must be done before they can be 
published. Attention is being" given to the Coal Measure 
lamellibranchs in the Yorkshire and Lancashire coalfields. At 
present details appear to demonstrate the value of the lines that 
have been laid down for the North Staffordshire coalfields by 
Mr. J. T. Stobbs and myself. 

With regard to the Lower Carboniferous Series, the whole 
of the south-western area of the Lower Carboniferous Series 
has been zoned by the corals, supported by certain mutations in 
the species of brachiopods, by Dr. A. Vaughan and Mr. 
J. F. Sibly. 

The same zones are, to some extent, and with local 
differences as to detail, demonstrated {vide anted) to occvir in 
N. Wales, and most important is the fact that none of the 
series below the top of the Upper Seminula beds are present 

It is more than probable that in the Derbyshire-Staffordshire 
area the same condition of things prevails, at any rate in the 
west, but probably the Carboniferous Sea deepened somewhat 
to the east. At present, however, I have never obtained any 
fossils which point to a lower horizon than the lower Dibuno- 
phyllum beds in that area. 

The uppermost beds of the Lower Carboniferous Series in 
Staffordshire and Derbyshire are characterised by Cyathaxonia, 
Aniplexi-saphrentis, Beatiniontia, Michilinia tenuisepta, and 
Cladochoniis bacillaris. In the upper part of this zone Prole- 
canites compressus occurs. 

Below this horizon are the rich fossil deposits of Park Hill, 
Castleton, Narrowdale, and Wetton and Thorpe Cloud, which 
therefore belong to the Upper Dibunophyllum or Lonsdaleia 
sub-zone, but on the west side of the Pennine uplift Lonsdaleia 
is itself a very rare fossil. 

In the Craven and BoUand districts of Yorkshire the same 
sequence obtains. The lithological structure of the rocks and 

1906 September i. 

336 Stopes : Coal-balls found in Coal Seatns. 

the rich fossil beds of Cracoe, .Settle, and Clitheroe being" 
exactly like those of the Derbyshire area and on the same 
horizon. They are overlaid by Cyathaxonia beds, and these in 
turn are succeeded by Posidonoviya bcchcri beds. 

In Yorkshire, however, the base of the series is seen in the 
neighbourhood of Ingleborough. In the Basement conglomerate 
area Mr. Cosmo Johns has collected a series of corals, which 
Dr. \. \'aughan refers to a lower horizon than I should have 
expected to find there. 

Dr. \'aughan thinks the fossils denote the basement beds to 
be on a horizon at the base of the Lower Seminula beds or 
Upper Syringothyris zones. If this is so, some interesting 
details must be worked out. 

The whole Carboniferous Series under Ingleborough is 
estimated to be 1500 feet, and 1000 feet at least of this is 
characterised by Giganteid Product! and a fauna which I take 
to be of Dibunophyllum age. The question to be worked out is 
to account for the small thickness of the whole of the Seminula 
beds here, which are about 1000 feet at Bristol ; and in connec- 
tion with this point it is to be noted that the limestones which 
rest on the Basement beds west of the Lake District, the .A.skam 
and Knipe Scar Limestone, contain a definite Dibunophyllum 
fauna, and even farther north the Lower Limestone Series of 
Scotland apparently belong to the Lonsdaleia sub-zone. 


Miss M. C. STOPES, D.Sc, Ph.D. 

Owing to the variety of concretions and nodules found in 
the Coal Measures, and the many local names for them, 
it seems wise to describe those distinct concretions in the 
actual seam, containing plant structures and now well known 
to botanists, as 'coal-balls;' and the concretions in the roof 
above them containing goniatites and a few plants, as ' roof or 
' g-oniatite-nodules.' For long it has been generally accepted by 
those who work among the Lower Coal Measures that the true 
coal-balls are to be found only in one geological horizon — viz., 
the ' Bullion ' or ' Upper Foot ' Mine. In the course of our 
work, however, Mr. Watson and I have satisfied ourselves that 
(granted the correctness of H. M. Survey of the district, which 

* .Abstract of p.ipor read to Section K of the Meeiiiii^ ot" ttu- Hritish 
Association, York. 


Stopes : Coal-balls found in Coal Seams. 337 

in this case seems beyond doubt) a seam containing- typical coal- 
balls associated with goniatite nodules, which we have un- 
earthed, lies some distance below the well-known Canister 
bed, while the true Bullion seam lies above it. The pit at 
Hough Hill, which has supplied so much material, seems also 
to belong- to this lower horizon. Further, I have evidence of 
very similar, if not identical, structures in the Middle Coal 
Measures. This shows that the factors needed for the forma- 
tion of these structures have combined more than once during 
the deposition of the Coal Measures as a whole. The coal-balls 
are undoubtedly concretions, largely composed of CaCOg, though 
varying much locally, as detailed analysis shows. They are of 
various sizes, and often completely surrounded by coal. As a 
rule, the plants in two neighbouring balls are disconnected 
fragments, but in some cases the same plant continues in two 
nodules. This suggests that the concretions containing the 
plant tissues were formed in the place in which they are now 
found (except for slight subsequent shifting, due to earth 
movements). Though this is opposed to Mr. Lomax's view, it 
seems to be supported by the discovery at Shore of a single 
calcareous mass, in the form of a number of nodules cemented 
together by carbonates, all rich in preserved plant remains, 
the whole enormous mass weighing two tons, and locally 
replacing the coal in the seam. While further in support of 
the in si/ie theory, a coal-ball found in the floor of the seam 
contains practically nothing but stigmarian rootlets. The con- 
stant association with the roof nodules containing marine shells 
suggests that the infiltration of sea-water and carbonate was 
necessary for the formation of the true ' coal-balls,' a view 
suggested by Binney, against which we have as yet discovered 
nothing directly militating, though we cannot give conclusive 
facts in its favour. Experiments have been undertaken which 
have conclusively shewn that sea -water and peat form a 
splendidly preservative medium for plants^ though allowing 
animal tissues to decay. A careful survey of the mine at Shore 
reveals the extremely local occurrence of the coal-balls ; in 
twenty yards a ' pocket ' may be worked through. The evidence 
which could be collected under the difficult conditions of under- 
ground work w^nt against rather than in support of the view 
that they had been brought by streams at the time of the 
deposition of the coal. Most of this work was done in collabora- 
tion with Mr. James Lomax and Mr. D. M. S. Watson, though 
our views do not coincide in all cases. 

1906 September i. 


Professor Kdward Him., LL.D., F.R.S. 

D()\v\ to the present time since the year 1847 — when the water- 
works were commenced by a public company— Lincohi has 
depended for its supply of water upon surface streams, im- 
pounded into reservoirs and subjected to a filterinj^ process, 
the quantity dealt with amountin<j to about 331 millions of 
gallons a year, with a rainfall of about 25 inches. Needless 
to say, a supply from such sources was found to be unsatis- 
factory on the grounds both of quality and quantity. In 1885 
Dr. Harrison was requested to report on the former of these 
subjects, and he produced elaborate analyses, the general result 
being that, as some of the sources were liable to pollution, the 
water was unfit for domestic purposes. 

Owing to the rapid growth of the city the conditions became 
more unfavourable, and it was determined by the Corporation 
to ascertain whether some better source of supply might not 
be available. With this object the late Mr. De Ranee, F.G.S., 
was instructed by the Corporation to report ' on the probability 
of obtaining a pure and sufficient supply of water for the city. "^ 
Accordingly he presented a report, dated September 15, 1891, 
containing the results of a prolonged and careful study of the 
geological conditions, and stating his opinion that a boring 
of large diameter to a depth of from 1250 to 1500 feet at 
Torksey or Collingham, would yield at least a million of gallons 
per day of the purest water, also suggesting' supplies from the 
Oolite limestone formation. 

This report does not appear to have been immediately acted 
upon ; and nothing was done until the year 1898, when I 
received instructions to report on ' the probability of obtaining 
water by boring near the present pumping station, and if so, 
at what depth, and at what expense.' After a preliminary 
survey, I recommended a well and boring to be carried down 
into the New Red sandstone, which I estimated would be 
reached at a depth of about 1400 feet, from which I anticipated 
a supply of about a million gallons per day, and that the water 
would rise in the boring and well up to, or nearly to, the surface 
of the ground by h)clrostatic pressure. It will be observed that 

* A ])a|)i'i- ri-ad to Section C of the Mcctiiii;- of the British Association, \'ork. 


Hull : Artesian Boring in the New Red Sandstone. 339 

my conclusions went to verify those of Mr. De Ranee, both 
being" founded on well-recognised geological data, and they 
have now been abundantly borne out by actual experiment. 

Not until the year 1901, however, was a contract signed 
with Messrs. C. Chapman & Son, of Salford, for carrying out 
this, the deepest water boring in the United Kingdom. Nor 
was it till Sunday, June 10, 1906, that the success of the 
undertaking was demonstrated, when, on reaching the top 
beds of the New Red sandstone, at a depth of 1561 feet 6 inches, 
the water burst in with great force, and (to adopt the words 
of the newspaper reporter) 'the roaring" sound of rushing waters, 
far below was distinctly heard at the surface, and was likened 
by one of the workmen to the rush of the aegir on the Trent 
when the tides are at their highest.' From this time the water 
steadily rose in the bore and well 1502 feet in total depth, 
at the rate of 12 feet per hour, until it ultimately reached 
the surface and overflowed, which event took place on the 
Wednesday morning following the inburst of the water. 

The following are the formations passed through : — 

Lower Lias cla)' ... ... ... ... ... 641 

Rheetic beds ... ... ... ... ... ... 52 

Red marl and sandstone (Keuper)... ... ... 868 

Total 1561 

Below the above is the New Red sandstone and conglomerate, 
which reaches the surface in a broad tableland of an average 
of 300 to 400 feet above the sea-level to the north of Nottingham, 
and constitutes the source of supply for that town and a large 
district ranging into Yorkshire. At its nearest border it is 
about 20 miles from Lincoln, and spreads westward to its 
margin at Worksop — for a distance of 5 or 6 miles — receiving 
and absorbing (probably) two-thirds of the rainfall over its area. 
Owing to its extreme porosity, its absolute continuity in the 
direction of the dip of the beds (there being no faults between), 
and the constantly increasing hydrostatic pressure of the water 
in the direction of Lincoln, we have all the conditions for a 
successful artesian water supply. The success of this under- 
taking has produced amongst the inhabitants of that important 
city a feeling of the greatest relief and satisfaction, which finds 
expression in the local paper in the words: ' Sunda}', the 
loth June, 1906, will be a day to be recorded in the annals 
of Lincoln. ' 

1906 September i. 



Prof. V. !•. KKNDALL, F.G.S., and W. H. CKOl-TS. 

The Plain of Holderness is covered entirely with glacial 
deposits, no solid rock being- visible throughout the whole area. 
Numerous borings have shown that a floor of chalk extends 
under the area sloping in a general way towards the existing 
coast. Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, some years ago, discovered that 
the chalk cliffs between F'lamborough and Sewerby, near Brid- 
lington, ran in behind a drift-covered area, and that this line of 
cliffs consisted of two parts. The visible part was of modern 
date, while the ancient wave and wind-worn cliff was prolonged 
inland. At the base of this ancient cliff he discovered a shingle 
beach, resting upon a floor of chalk and covered in succession 
b}' WMnd-blown sands, chalk wash, and over all a glacial boulder 
cla}'. One of the authors of this paper (Mr. Crofts) subsequently 
discovered the counterpart of this succession in an extension at 
Hessle Station on the North Eastern Railway. An examination 
of the details obtained by well-boring in Holderness and its 
margin, disclosed the fact that these two points could be 
connected by a continuous line of cliffs passing nearly on the 
line taken by the North Eastern Railway, and passing through 
Beverley. Details of a large number of borings between this 
cliff line and the sea shewed that the slope was a very gradual 
one, a slope of only 90 feet being contained in a distance of 12 
miles up to Hornsea. Near Beverley and Hull the floor showed 
considerable irregularities and the pre-glacial course of the 
H umber was clearly indicated by a great trumpet -shaped 
depression extending from the present Humber gap out in a 
due easterly direction. The relations of the land level indicated 
by these data with those deducible from borings in the Vale ot 
York, were discussed and showed that a wide valley excavated 
in rock extended far below sea-level through a large area, at 
York being 50 feet below the level of the sea. The data are 
altogether inadequate in the determination of the relatixe age of 
these two land levels, but the higher level, indicated by the 
deep Vale of York, was probably antecedent to the lower land 
level, of which the chalk plain in Holderness and the cliffs 
which bound it were indications. 

' .Abstract of I^ajii-r vr:n\ to Scclioii C at a Mcotiiii;- oltlir Hiilish Asso- 
ciation, A'ork. 





The Specton Shell-bed. — -As mentioned in last year's report, 
this fossiliferoLis estuarine sand was first described by Professor 
Phillips in his ' Geology of Yorkshire,' and later by Mr. G. W. 
Lamplug-h in the Geological Magazine for 1881. As the bed is 
almost always obscured by slips, so that its relations to the 
drift are open to question, it was decided to examine its posi- 
tion by excavations. 

Since the presentation of the last report several excavations 
have been made in the neighbourhood of the exposures seen by 
Professor Phillips and Mr. Lamplugh, and your Committee 
reports that, though the results obtained are corroborative of 
the accounts given by the observers above named, they also 
include certain new points of interest. 

The largest excavation was made in the ridge between 
Middle Cliff and New Closes Cliff at Speeton, and at this place 
beds were exposed as follows — 

(rt) Boulder clay (lower part only excavated) 
((b) Fine chalky gravel 
Estuarine (r) Yellowish sandy silt with shells ... 

Shell- Ud) Black Silt 

bed. I {e) Black silt with sandy streaks and a little gravel 2 o 

\\^f) Fine gTavel, chiefly of chalk ... ... ... 4 o 

(5") Speeton clay (base of Bel. jacuhini zone iV and 
' Compound nodular band ' ^' forming- the upper 
portion of the sloping cliff of Secondary clays 84 
feet above beach level). 

It will be seen from the above section that the shell-bed is 
here 17 feet 8 inches thick and its base is about 86 feet above 
the present beach. 

The gravel (/) rests on the Bel. jaculnin clays, but contains 
some material washed from the lower beds of the Speeton clay, 
such as fragments of Bel. lateralis etc. 

* Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. W. Lamplugh (Chair- 
man), Mr. J. W. Stather (Secretary), Dr. Tempest Anderson, Professor 
J. W. Carr, Rev. W. Lower Carter, Mr. A. R. Dvverryhouse, Mr. F. W. 
Harmer, Mr. J. H. Howarth, Rev. W. Johnson, Professor P. F. Kendall, 
Mr. H. B. Muft", Mr. E. T. Newton, Mr. Clement Reid, and Mr. Thomas 
Sheppard. Presented to Section C of the Meeting of the British Association, 







1906 September i. 

342 Field Xote. 

The excavation showed that the beds do not rest on a flat 
surface of Speeton clay, but that tlieir surface dips into the cliff 
at an anj^-le of 25 deg'rees, and that the bedding- of the shelly 
deposit itself also dips into the clitT" at about the same ang^le. 

Shells occur throughout the silty beds, but are most plentiful 
in bed c. When excavating the shells seen were Cardiuni edule, 
Tellina balthica, Scrobicularia piperatu, and Hydrobia. A 
<juantity of the shelly material was collected for washing", on 
which the Committee will report later. 

Search was made for the shell-bed at the same level both 
north and south of the main excavation. Southward no trace 
was observable, but northwards the beds were traced 50 yards 
along the slopes of New Closes Cliff. 

At the foot of the cliff, about 500 yards northward of the 
site of the excavations, similar shelly silts were laid bare during 
favourable conditions of the foreshore early this year. In this 
exposure the beds attained a thickness of 4 to 5 feet, and were 
traceable for at least 100 yards. The silts rested on Kimeridge 
clay, and were overlain by glacial drifts which at this locality 
are extremely thick. 

At the north end of this section the following- particulars 

were noted : — 

Feet Inches 
Boulder clay with hitercalated stratified sand and 

gravel, not less than ... ... ... ... 120 o 

Fine chalky gravel ... ... ... ... ... 1 o 

.Silt with shells 3 o 

Kinieridg-e clay ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 o 

The thanks of the Committee are due to the Right Hon. the 
Earl of Londesboroug-h, for permission to investigate the shell- 
bed at Speeton, and to Mr. C. G. Danford, of Reighton, for 
help in many ways. 


Rare Lepidoptera in Wharfedale. — In June last I took a 
specimen of McUiiiippi' uiunii^uldla at rest on a tree trunk in 
Bolton Woods, and my son Rosse took Miaiui cxpolita in Grass 
Wood in July, and another specimen on Bank Holiday the 
6th insl. in Grass Wood. I took Stilbia anomala (one specimen). 
We also took Sroptin'ii cDiispiciitilis and Ifvpolcpiu xcquclla, the 
latter we found by no nicans uncommon on tree trunks. —K. P. 
lUrriCKiiKi.i), W'ilsdcn, .August ij?th, i()o6. 




Prof. F. E. WEISS. 

The petrified remains of coal-measure plants which, through 
the investig-ations of Binney and Williamson, of Scott, Seward, 
and Oliver, have so largely increased our knowledge of the past 
history of the vegetable kingdom, were chiefly contained in 
calcareous concretions (the so-called ' bullions ') found in certain 
seams of the Lancashire and Yorkshire coalfields. As first 
described by Binney, they were to be found in three seams in 
Lancashire : in the ' Upper Foot ' or ' Bullion ' Mine, in the 
Canister coal, and in a very narrow seam of a lower horizon. 
Some confusion, however, exists with regard to the two former 
seams, owing to their union to form the ' Mountain Four Foot ' 
seam, and there seems considerable doubt as to the occurrence 
of coal-balls in the Canister coal. Indeed, it would seem now 
generally accepted that true coal nodules occur only in one 
single horizon.! The nodules or bullions occurring in this 
Upper Foot seam (correlated by Bolton with the ' Hard Bed ' 
seam of Halifax) vary from an inch to a foot in diameter. They 
are concretions, consisting mainly of carbonates of lime (45 to 
70 per cent.) and of magnesia (10 to 20 per cent.), with small 
quantities of oxide and sulphides of iron. Sometimes they are 
so numerous as to render the coal utterly useless, and they may 
be found to occur over a space of several acres. They contain 
a tangled mass of plant remains, often in a state of excellent 
preservation. Shells are not found in these nodules, but are 
very common in similar nodules found in the roof of the seam. 
According to Binney, the occurrence of nodules in the coal is 
always associated with that of fossil shells in the roof, and the 
nodules may therefore probably be formed by calcareous salts in 
solution in water, which became ag^gregated round certain 
centres in the submerged peaty mass of vegetable matter. A 
similar mode of formation has been suggested for the calcareous 
nodules (Dolomitknollen) which occur in certain seams of the 
Westphalian coalfield, where marine shells are found in the shaly 
roof of the seam. Stur has also noticed the same in the case 

* Abstract of paper read to Section K of the Meeting- of the British 
A.s.sociation, York. 

t See Lomax, ' Annals of Botany,' 1902. 

igo6 September i. 

344 Norllicr)! Xcivs. 

of calcareous concretions (Sphaerosideriten) in certain Austrian 
coal seams. These are accompanied by roof nodules (Thon- 
Sphaerosideriten) containing the remains of marine shells. On 
the other hand, Mr. James Lomax has pointed out that when 
the calcareous nodules are very numerous, and often welded 
together into a single mass, neighbouring nodules do not show 
continuity of plant structure ; which fact he suggests points to 
the possibility of the nodules having been carried into their 
present position after petrifaction. To settle definitely which 
is the mode of formation, it would seem important: — (i) To 
obtain as much evidence as possible from a wide geographical 
area, and from different horizons, of the occurrence of these 
calcareous concretions in coal-seams, and to note whether they 
are in all cases associated with a shale roof containing remains 
of marine animals. (2) To examine carefully the tissues in 
closely-packed nodules, with a view to discovering any possible 
continuity of structure, so as to determine whether the nodules 
have been formed /// situ or not. 


Prof. F. E. WEISS. 

This has been found in one of the nodules from the Halifax 
hard bed of the lower coal measures. It differed from most 
specimens of Stigmaria in the considerable amount of primary 
wood which was centripetal in its development. This gave to the 
plant at first sight the appearance of a Lepidodendron stem. The 
stigmarian nature, however, could be recognised by the absence 
of any hard cortex, and by the characteristic periderm, to which 
were attached the remains of rootlet cushions. 

A new Natural History Museum has been acquired by Salford. 

Dr. VV. H. Perkin, F. R.S. , who half a century ajjfo discovered the first 
aniline d\e, has been knighted. 

At the York meeting no report was presented by the ' Erratic Blocks of 
the British Isles' Committee. This committee, which has presented most 
valuable reports for a great number of years, has surely not finished its 

The Geological .Association of London has issued ' The Geology of the 
Yorkshire Coast between Redcar and Robin Hood's Ba\,' by R. J. Herries, 
at one shilling. Some of the blocks used are beginning to look very 
' ancient.' 

For the loan of the block of Dr. .Anderson, on page 283, we are indebted 
to Messrs. (i. J. Smith it Co., Liverpool, the publishers of the 'Official 
Illuslrated Souvenir' of the W^\■\< Mcdiiig. and for tliat of the Multangular 
Toui-r, on Jiage jSi, to the N'oik Museum. 

* Abstract of jiajii r reail to Section K of the .Meeting of the British 
Association, York. 


OCTOBER 1906. 

No. 597 

(No. 375 of current aeries). 





The Museum, Hull ; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield ; 


Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., 
T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., 


Contents : — 


Notes and Comments (illustrated) : — The Formation of Filey, Another Opinion of Filey, 
The Lether Collection, A New Magazine, The Lomax Collection, A Triassic Reptile, 

The Ingleton Peregrines 345-348 

The Flight of Bats (Illustrated)— ^r//m»- IF/iiVn/ff I 349-353 

The Origin of the Cleveland Ironstone— D). H. Clifton Sorby, F.R.S. , F.G.S., etc 354-357 

Arctic Birds with Brown or Black Underparts— S. L. Mosley, F.E.S 358-359 

On British Drifts and the Interglacial Problem— G. VV. Lamphigh, F.R.S 360-366 

Hull's New Museum (Illustrated) 367-368 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Askern 369-374 

Field Notes 359 

Reviews and Book Notices 353,375 

Northern News 357, 366, 375-376 

Illustrations 367 


A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.C 

And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y.A^. U. 


OCT 13 1906 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 



3 Vols, for 30/- 



Co7nplete, Svo, Cloth, ivith Coloured Maps, 847 pages. 


Published at ONE GUINEA. 


Complete, 8vo, (loth, tvith Map, ete. jj^j pages. 


Published at 7/6* 


Coinplete, %vOy Cloth, with Maps, etc. , 680 pages. 



Published at 15/- net. 

The Three Handsome Volumes, comprising a complete Flora of the County, 
will be sent post free in exchange for Postal Order, or Cheque for 30/- <>" 
application to— 

A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Savile Street, Hull. 


Vol. I. Proceedings Geological and Polytechnic 

Society, West Riding, Yorkshire. 
Vol. I. Natural Science. good pr.ces given. 

Apf>iy-T. SHEPPARD, Museum, Hull. 

Please mention 'The Naturalist' in replying to Advertisements. 




A WRITER in a Yorkshire magazine recently favours his readers 
with a further example of his journaHstic abiUty. Under the 
head of ' Antiquities of File}',' he first quotes ' Mr. Geikie ' as 
under : ' There can be no dispute as reg'ards the abundance of 
upheavals, subsidences, and dislocations which the crust of the 
earth has underg-one ; but that all our valleys and ravines are 
not mere cracks would seem to be put beyond dispute by the 
fact that for one valley which happens to run along- the line of 
dislocation, there are fifty or a hundred, I dare say, which do 
not.' Having- read this extract from Geikie, we are told 'The 
conclusion, therefore, to which an attentive examination of the 
Yorkshire coast line points us is this, that although the rocks 
have suffered much from subterranean commotion, it is not to 
that cause that their present external forms are chiefly to be 
placed. Our frowning", our awe-inspiring- mountains and hills are 
there, not because of upheavals from the valle3's, but because 
their environment in part has been cut away by moving- water, 
frost, and ice.' The author then pities the man who can pass 
Filey on a ship during- the nig-ht ' without feeling- stirred in all 
the powers of a g-rateful heart by the majesty and subdued 
beauty of such a scene. ' We pity his readers ! 


We doubt also if the blower of Filey's trumpet will quite 
agree with the following description, which appears in No. 4 of 
the Museiini Gazette : ' The sands, as in most half-enclosed 
bays, are extensive and flat. They are firm, and have no mud. 
As they have no rocks, there is scarcely any seaweed, and very 
few pebbles. Shells also are very scarce. Excepting for 
bathers, riders, bicyclists, and children with spades, it is not 
possible to imagine sands more unattractive than those of Filey 
Bay. If you walk towards Flamborough Head you must, if 
you wish to sit down, take your campstool with you, for there is 
not a bit of rock or a sand hillock. High tides come up to the 
base of the cliff, and the latter is clay. It is glacial clay, but it 
contains scarcely any stones, and consequently yields nothing 
for the shore. This glacial clay cliflf extends in this direction 
much further than most would like to walk. Where it ends 
chalk and strata begin.' 

1906 October i. 

346 uVo/i's and Cotnmenis. 


The Hull Municipal Museum has recently purcliased (he 
extensive geological collection formed by the late George Lether, 
of Scarborough. Mr. Lether was well-known as an enthusiastic 
collector, and probably knew more of the good collecting 
localities of the Scarborough neighbourhood than any other 
geologist. On several occasions he acted as leader for societies 
visiting the district, and the Scarborough Museum is indebted 
to him for a number of valuable specimens. For many years, 
however, he had been making a collection of the smaller species 
to be found in the fossiliferous deposits which are so well 
represented around Scarborough. The Kelloways Rock, Cal- 
careous Grit, Coral Rag, Cornbrash, the Millepore Limestone 
and Scarborough Limestone were thoroughly known to him, 
and from these various strata he obtained the unrivalled 
collection now at Hull. It is particularly strong in the smaller 
gasteropods, but in addition contains a very fine series of sea- 
urchins, terebratulae, ammonites, corals, etc. 

The great value and charm of the Lether Collection, how- 
ever, lies in the extraordinarily successful manner in which its 
former owner was able to free the fossils from their matrix. In 
some instances several weeks were occupied in the preparation 
of a single specimen. It will thus be seen that the collection 
now acquired is one of exceptional value, and is a welcome 
addition to the geological collection in the Hull Museum. 
Several of Mr. Lether's specimens have been figured and 
described by Messrs. Hudleston, Tomes, and other specialists. 

Under the \.\t\e^o{ Haslemerc Muscuvt Gazette (monthly, 6d.), 
has been issued what is termed ' A Journal of Objective 
Education.' In the introductory note we learn that ' we shall 
be frankly fragmentary, here a little and there a little.' 
Certainly this object has been carried out in the part before us, 
even to the second-hand book catalogue at the end of the 
Journal. In an article on ' Schedule of Pre-historic Times in 
Britain,' we were somewhat surprised to learn that ' there is 
convincing evidence that as long as a quarter of a million years 
ago (250,000) there were men in I'^ngland who were accustomed 
to the use of tools.' The same article gives a table showing 
what has happened in Britain from -220,000 \ears ago (gradual 
cessation of the ice ages) to 10,000 years ago (present and future 
times) ! ! I-'oIlowing these is a note on the lish hunger of 


J HE \A URAL 1ST, 1906. 

Plate XW 

Notes and Comments. 347 

vegetarians, the human head, advantages of visualisation (' to 
visualise is to see the actual thing by the aid of the mind's eye ') ; 
there is a Gilbert White page, though why so called we fail to 
see, and a page of ' questions for answers. ' 

No. 2 of the same journal keeps up the reputation of its 
predecessor, and contains notes on famous women at the 
National Portrait Gallery ; the brain in relation to intellect (in 
which the names of persons with remarkably broad heads, 
heads both tall and broad, remarkably tall heads, and remark- 
ably long faces are given) ; notes on out-growths and 
appendages, snails and snakes, skulls, etc. From a note on 
the egg market in England, we learn that most of the new laid 
eggs consumed in Haslemere come from Italy, and this at all 
periods of the year ! A list of the second-hand books on sale 
at the Museum concludes this part. 

Since the above was perused. Parts 3 and 4 are to hand. 
The word ' Haslemere ' has been dropped, and the name of 
Jonathan Hutchinson, F.R.C.S., F.R.S., etc., appears on the 
cover. These two parts are a great improvement on their fore- 
runners, and are largely devoted to sea-side topics, being 
illustrated by several plates from ' Prof. Johnston's work.' 


We are able to give our readers on Plate XXV. an illustra- 
tion of the exhibit by Mr. J. Lomax of Bolton, at the British 
Association Meeting at York. It consisted of a really wonderful 
collection of fossil plant-remains from the Yorkshire and Lanca- 
shire coalfields. In addition to the nodules was a number of 
beautifull}' cut transparent sections which showed the details 
of the plant structures in a remarkable manner. The exhibit 
also proved an attractive item at the conversazione in the 

exhibition building. 


The Report of the Committee for the Investigation of the 
Fauna of the British Trias, presented at the York Meeting of 
the British Association, contains a valuable essay on a re- 
constructed skeleton of Rhynchosanrus, by Dr. A. Smith 
Woodward, F. R.S. This is illustrated by a plate, showing 
for the first time the probable appearance of a complete skeleton 
of this species. By the courtesy of the Committee we are able 
to reproduce this (Plate XXVI.). Remains of RhyncJiosaurus 
had previously been described by both Owen and Huxley. 
The bones described by Owen, in the Shrewsbury Museum, 

190^ October i. 

348 jYo^cs aud C^ommcnts. 

have been lent to the British Museum for examination and 
comparison with other specimens. Dr. Woodward confirms 
the observations of previous writers as to the resemblance and 
difference between this Triassic reptile and the existing- 
Sphcnodoii. It is more specialised in many respects than its 
surviving- representative. It is also fairly certain that Rhvncho- 
saunis was more amphibious than Sphenodon. 

Referring- to our Comment on pag-e 203 of the Jul\' 
'Naturalist,' the Secretary of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
communicated with the authorities, and eventually the case 
was tried. Perhaps the following- note, written by the natural 
history editor of the Yofkshhe Weekly Post, will explain 
the present position of the matter: — 'The Chairman of the 
Ing-leton Parish Council, who is also a farmer and " honorar}' 
assistant g-amekeeper " to the owner of the land at Ingleboroug-h, 
has been prosecuted before the Ing^leton Bench of Mag^istrates 
for "attempting- to shoot falcons on May 15," and, as the 
Scotch verdict has it, the charg-e was found "not proven." 
There are only three points in this case worth drawing attention 
to. The alleg-ed offence took place on May 15, the prosecution 
on Aug-ust 8, and it was frankly admitted that the authorities 
had been g-oaded into action by the press comments, more 
particularly the Lmicastey Observer, in which the gfross outrag^e 
of the law was first published. The usual defence was set up 
that the reporter had not g-iven an accurate report of what 
defendant told him, and this was supplemented by the very 
unusual explanation that the defendant did not fire at the birds, 
but at a rock in order to g-et rid of his last cartridge ! This is 
interesting- as revealing- the survival of a custom of the ancient 
muzzle-loading, pre-cartridge days. A careful gunner (who has 
to pay for his own cartridges) usually draws his last one and 
preserves it for some other occasion ; gamekeepers (" honorary " 
or otherwise) appear to "do things differently" in the Ingleton 
neighbourhood, otherwise their Worships might have acted 
differently. The opinion of a witness (in this case a paid 
gamekeeper) on the absurdity of the Wild Birds' Protection Act 
is also valuable, but not novel — among persons of his stamp. 
A hint from his employer might enlighten him on the humble 
duty of obeying- the law, at least until we have gamekeepers' 
law as our guide. The practical value of this case lies in the 
authorities being al last "goaded " into action by the Press.' 



Plate XXVI. 



Reconstruction of Rhynchosaurus articeps (Owen). A = Side View of Skull. 

Tin: \Airi<AiJsr. luoe. 

\ r.:. 


Fig. 2. 

l-iR. 4. 

Habitats of lial; 



(plate XXVII.) 


U'orsbroiigh Bridge. 

I AM frequently asked by some friend if I can say to what 
species a particular bat should be referred which has been 
observed flying- at dusk. Although it is a difficult matter 
to be perfectly certain about the identity of a bat under these 
circumstances, nevertheless, after a good many years spent in 
studying these creatures, I can now often feel pretty confident 
as to species of bats which I see on the wing. 

As the characteristics of flight and haunt which enable one 
to recognise some species even in the twilight, are not difficult 
to point out, it struck me that a short article on this subject 
might not be without interest to readers of the ' Naturalist,' 
and might enable them to get a better idea as to what species 
of bats occur in their own immediate neighbourhood. 

The Noctule {Pterygister nochila) is not difficult to recognise. 
In the first place it is the largest Yorkshire species, the wings 
having an expanse of from thirteen to fifteen inches. The 
wings are long, narrow, and pointed ; the flight strong, rapid, 
and sustained. This bat is undoubtodly the most powerful on 
the wing of any British species. 

It makes its appearance very early in the evening-, usually 
fifteen or twenty minutes earlier than any other species. It 
occasionally comes out even before sunset, but more often 
appears ten or fifteen minutes afterwards. In July and August 
it will often be noticed that the appearance of these bats on the 
wing almost exactly coincides with the disappearance of the 
swifts for the evening-. Our attention is almost invariably 
first attracted to it by its piercing-, sibilant, and somewhat 
ventriloquial note, high overhead. High though it flies, it is 
not difficult to see, for it commences its flight almost before it 
can be called dusk, and when there is still plenty of light by 
which to discern it. The Noctule is the highest flying of our 
bats, and it is nothing unusual for it to be seen wheeling about 
at an altitude of two or even three hundred feet. 

If it be carefully watched for a short time, two peculiarities 
of its flight cannot fail to strike the observer. 

Firstly, a habit it has when flying in a straight line, of doing- 

1906 October i. 

350 Whitakcr : The Fliiyhl of Bats. 

so by means of very powerful and deliberate strokes of the 
wint,'', lettini;;- each stroke carry it a considerable distance, as a 
swimmer does in the water. This imparts to the flig'ht a 
combined appearance of power and jerkiness. 

Even more noticeable than this, however, is its habit of 
taking" sudden headlong", oblique plunges downwards through 
the air, for a distance of anything from four or five to twenty or 
thirty feet. During these dives the wings are held almost 
fully extended, and flatly out from the body. The bat descends 
edgeways, so to speak, that is, in the position offering least 
resistance to the atmosphere. The dives are not vertical 
descents, but are made at an angle of about sixty degrees, and 
their object is to secure some insect which the bat has seen. 
Immediately after thus plunging at an insect and securing" it, 
the bat reascends to it previous altitude, seeming to prefer to 
swoop down at its prey, like a hawk. Should it miss the 
insect at its first attempt, it will sweep round in an ascending^ 
curve until it has again attained a g"reater height before making" 
a second attempt. 1 was once fortunate enough to see a 
Noctule thus attacking a Poplar Hawk Moth which, owing to 
its large size, was plainly visible to me during the whole of the 
encounter, and I watched the bat repeat this manoeuvre four 
times before it actually secured the moth. On another occasion 
I plainly saw one thus catch a dor beetle which had just risen 
from the g"rass near my feet. It is seldom that one can actually 
see the insect the bat is swooping at, however, though the snap 
of its teeth may often be heard. The Noctule is easily deceived, 
and a pebble about the size of an ordinary marble thrown in the 
air will usually be seen and dived at by a Noctule if there is one 
near. The bat generally finds out its mistake when it has got 
within a foot or so of the pebble, but will still often follow it 
nearly to the ground ; I have only once got one actually to 
catch a pebble. This was done within a few feet of my face, 
and the bat evidently ' pouched ' the pebble [i.e. thrust it 
into the skin which stretches between the hind legs, and 
which forms a kind of bag or pouch when the animal bends 
its legs forward), for it carried it some twenty feet before 
dropping it into the reservoir on the edge of which I was 

To watch a Noctule dive at a pebble in this manner gixes 
one a good idea of the tremendous speed it can attain when 
sweeping through the air. For one of these bats, when at a 
distance of thirty or perhaps forty feet, will often catch sig"ht of 


Whitaker: The Flight of Bats. 351 

a pebble which has commenced to fall, and will dash after it at 
such a speed as to overtake it, not merely before it reaches the 
ground, but actually before it has fallen many feet. 

I make use of an ordinary fisherman's landing"-net, made of 
macrama thread of about half-inch mesh, fitted to a handle of 
bamboo cane about eight feet long, to catch bats when they are 
flying- The Noctule flies at such a terrific speed when swooping, 
that one I recently netted not only broke and absolutely 
splintered the wing bone between the shoulder and elbow, but 
so stunned itself that it was unconscious for some time. The 
combined force of its own velocity and the speed of my stroke 
caused it to hit the meshes of the net with such violence as 
almost to knock it out of my hand. It really felt like catching 
a heavy stone in the net. 

The Noctule drinks when flying by dipping in the water. 
It will sometimes fly at quite a low altitude over water, 
especially late in the evening. It comes abroad occasionally on 
nights which are quite windy, and may then be seen at its 
usual elevation beating slowly up against the wind for a 
distance and then sweeping quickly back, and repeating the 
process. It appears to face the wind when looking out for food 
on such occasions. Gentle rain does not deter it from flying, 
nor smart showers of short duration, but it does not seem to 
come out on really Avet nights. It appears on the wing first 
about the middle of April, and flies on favourable nights from 
then until the latter part of September. In late autumn it 
occasionally flies in the daytime. 

Almost all writers are in error on one point ; they state that 
the Noctule flies during the evening twilight, and then retires 
to its hiding-place until the following evening. This is not the 
case. On the 20th of July, 1906, I stationed myself under 
a beech tree in Stainbrough Park, wherein was a hole some 
fourteen feet up inhabited by a small colony of these creatures 
(see Plate XXVII., fig. 3). 

After considerable squeaking and shuffling in the hole, they 
commenced to emerge at 8-45, and by 9-3 fifteen Noctules had 
taken their characteristic ' header ' from the hole, risen at once 
to a considerable height, and flown away. I ascended to the 
hole and found it untenanted, but still quite hot from the heat 
of the little creatures' bodies. 

The first Noctule returned to the vicinity of the tree about 
10 o'clock, but they did not seem to enter the hole at once upon 
their return, but wheeled around the tree, flying quite low and 

1906 October i. 

352 Whilakcr: The Fliirht of Bats. 

passiiii^ within u foot or two of my face, and repeatedly flyini^T 
up to the hole and away again without actually entering. By 
10-50, however, no bats were to be seen flying about, and about 
11-30, ascending to the hole, I put in my hand and could feel 
them inside. They seemed to drop off to sleep at once, as even 
my touching them did not call forth a squeak, and they were 
perfectly quiet through the night. Dawn commenced about 
2-30, and by 3 o'clock it was getting so light that 1 began to 
think there was going to be no morning flight of the Noctules, 
which were still perfectly quiet. In this I was mistaken. At 
3-15 I was surprised to see a Noctule drop quietly from the 
hole, followed at intervals by seven others. The thing that 
struck me as most peculiar about this morning exodus of the 
bats was that it took place in absolute silence, very unlike the 
noisy, squeaky exit in the evening. By 3-45 it was almost 
broad daylight, and a cold morning for July, with a ground 
haze. The swallows and swifts were flying about, and the sun 
just rising before the Noctules came home again to roost. I 
could not see them feeding anywhere previous to their return 
to the home tree, but they would suddenly appear with a rush 
of wings quite magnificent, swing round the tree ten or fifteen 
times in grand style, then pitch head first on the entrance or 
side of the hole, and run quickly in, not to be seen or heard 
again for the time. At 4 o'clock I ascended to the hole and 
removed the occupants, two of which escaped me ; the six I 
secured were all males. It should be remarked that of the 
fifteen bats which left their hole at dusk the previous evening, 
only eight returned after the vespertal flight, seven having for 
some reason gone elsewhere, instead of coming back to the 
same hole. This is strange, as the colony had only taken up its 
quarters in that particular hole two days previously. 

This crepuscular flight probably indicates that the Noctule 
feeds mainly by sight, though suggesting also that the beetles 
and other insects upon which it feeds also do not fly except in 
the morning and evening twilight. 

To sum up, the Noctule may be recognised when flying by 
its large size, narrow pointed wings, early appearance in the 
evening, high altitude, powerful dashing flight, sudden lerial 
dives, and loud piercing call, regularly and deliberately repeated. 

The only Yorkshire bat which can jjossibly be confounded 
with the Noctule when flying is Leisler's Bat {Ptcrysrisivr 
Icislcri). This species is rare however in our county, having 
only been recorded from the vicinity of Leeds, Mexbrough, and 


Reviews and Book A^otices. 353 

Barnsley. Mr. Armitag'e and I have handled four specimens 
only as yet, all taken in Stainbrough district.* 

I have seen this bat on the wing" a few times, but it 
could never be distinguished with absolute certainty from the 
Noctule when both were flyings tog"ether. It flies a little more 
slowly than the Noctule, and in a slig-htly more fluttering and 
less powerful style, is a trifle smaller, and frequents the vicinity 
of trees more, not flying- amongst them, but up and down some 
open place in their immediate vicinity, and usually at about the 
altitude of the tree tops. 

{To be continued.) 

III the Yearbook and Calendar of the Essex Field Club for 1906 and 1907, 
are some excellent Illustrations of the Essex Musuem of Natural History and 
the Epping F"orest Museum, and a portrait of Prof. L. Meldola, F. R.S., 
forms the frontispiece. 

Mr. John Murray has issued an Jidmirable quarterly review, * Science 
Progress' (5/-), which it is hoped may continue. Part I. is before us, and 
contains twelve articles on various subjects, amongst which the following 
are selected haphazard :—' Chloroform, a Poison,' by Dr. B. J. Colling-- 
wood ; ' Physical Geography as an Educational Subject,' by Dr. J. E. Marr ; 
' The Solvent Action of Roots upon the Soil Particles,' by A. E. Hall ; 
' Some Notable Instances of the Distribution of Injurious Insects by Artificial 
Means,' by F. V. Theobald. Some of the articles are illustrated. Being- 
printed on stout paper, the review has a substantial appearance. The 
editors are Dr. N. H. Alcock and Mr. W. G. Freeman. 

The Birds of the British Islands. By Charles Stonham, C.M.Q., 
F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., with illustrations by L. M. Medland. Part I. London, 
E. Grant Richards. 1906. 

The preliminary flourish of trumpets which heralded the appearance of 
the first part of this book doubtless induced many to expect great things ; 
something fresh and original in the treatment of the well-worn subject of 
British Birds ; new facts based on careful first-hand observation. And it is 
possible that those who have no knowledge of the subject may take this first 
instalment as representing all that has been claimed for it, ridiculous though 
these claims have been. Those, however, who have at least a working 
acquaintance with this theme, will not be surprised to find that the author, 
hitherto unknown as an ornithologist, has vastly overestimated the import- 
ance of his proposed undertaking, which is at most but a compilation, and 
bad at that. It is long since, indeed, that we have come across a book 
which affected so much and performed so little. In the paucity of its 
information it is pitiful ; as a work of reference it is useless ; while as to its 
illustrations, they are contemptible. Apparently drawn from very badly 
stuffed specimens, they offend the eye from an artistic point of view, while 
their shortcomings in the matter of accuracy as to the plumage have rarely 
been outnumbered. It causes us no astonishment to find that the author 
should feel able to eulogise these caricatures, when we turn to the text to 
discover him to be so little of a zoologist, that he is unable to detect the 
absurdity of such statements as that the food of the Wheatear, for example, 
' consists of insects, worms, gnats, and flies ! ' Throughout this part, 
indeed, he constantly speaks of 'flies and insects.' To be brief, we fail to 
find any sort of justification for the publication of this book, which has not 
even the merit of cheapness to recommend it. — W. P. Pycraft. 

* Since writing the above I have taken six more specimens of P. leisleri 
at Monk Bretton, a place distant some four miles from Stainbro'. 

1906 October i. 



\)r. U. CLITTOX SORUV, F.R.S., F.G.S., etc. 

I\ July 1856, I made a short communication to the Geolog'ical 
and Polytechnic Society of the West Ridini^^ of Yorkshire on 
this subject, which was printed in the Proceedings of that 
Society at the time. As, however, the publication in which it 
appeared has been loni^ out of print, and is now rarely met 
with, and as the opinions therein expressed have not in any 
way been modified, it may be an advantag^e to repeat what was 
then stated, at the same time adding a note giving results of 
subsequent observations. 

The investigfation of the circumstances that have g'iven rise 
to the various rocks that are met with, constitutes a branch of 
Geolog"y of considerable interest. It has too frequently been 
supposed that stratified rocks were accumulated in a form far 
more like what they are now, than is warranted by a more 
careful enquiry ; and this has, in many cases, led to the con- 
clusion that the conditions under which they were found, were 
unlike those occurring at the present period ; whereas they 
may, perhaps, have been exactly the same, and the difference in 
the aspect of the rocks brought about by a subsequent change 
of the same nature as must also now take place in many 
localities. The case before us is an example of this. The 
Cleveland Hill ironstone, now so extensively worked at Eston, 
near Middlesborough, is composed, to a very great extent, of 
carbonate of iron, and yet it can scarcely be supposed that such 
a deposit could be formed in any modern sea ; because, owing 
to the strong affinity of the protoxide for oxygen, it would be 
accumulated as the peroxide. Besides this, I am not aware 
that there is any sea in which any great amount, even of this, 
is now deposited, except with a very considerable quantity of 
other substances mixed with it ; its chief source being the 
decomposition of such silicates as the augite and hornblende of 
various traps and hornblendic schists, which, in some cases, 
would yield a clay containing one-third of its weight of this 

If the stone be carefully examined, it may be seen that it 
contains more or less entire portions of shells. In some cases 
these are still of their original composition, and consist of 

• Re.'itl at the Giii.sboioiiyfh Mi.etinif of the Yorkshire Naturalists" L'nioii. 


Sorbv : The Origin of the Cleveland Ironstone. 355 

carbonate of lime, but in others they are chang-ed to carbonate 
of iron ; the difference beings apparently due, in some instances 
at least, to the kind of shell. The microscopical investig-ation 
of a thin transparent section of the stone shows far more clearly 
that the minute frag"ments of shell have been similarly altered ; 
the replacing" carbonate of iron extending", as yellowish obtuse 
rhombic crystals, from the outside to a variable distance inwards, 
often leaving" the centre in its orig"inal condition, as clear colour- 
less carbonate of lime, thoug"h in many instances the whole is 
chang"ed. The oolitic grains likewise, have such peculiarities 
as indicate that they were altered after deposition. 

In order to illustrate this fact of the replacement of carbonate 
of lime by carbonate of iron, I subjoin an analysis of a shell 
from the inferior oolite of Robin Hood's Bay, the composition 
of which, as dried at the ordinary temperature, I found to be : — 

Carbonate of protoxide of iron ... ... ... ... 78.0 

,, lime ... ... ... ... ... ... 5.2 

,, magnesia ... ... .. ... ... 3.1 

Peroxide of iron ... ... ... ... ... ... 10.9 

Water 2.1 

Carbonaceous matter... ... ... ... ... ... 0.1 

Quartz substances ... .. ... ... .. ... 0.6 

Originally, such a shell would be composed almost entirely 
of carbonate of lime, with only a small quantity of other mineral 
substances, and no iron ; but, as will be seen, it is now almost 
entirely carbonate of iron, with some hydrous peroxide, no 
doubt due to the action of the atmosphere. The peculiarities 
in microscopical structure, already described, prove that the 
same change has occurred in the case of ai large proportion of 
the constituents of the Cleveland Hill ironstone ; and, according 
to the view I propose to explain its general constitution, all that 
is assumed is that it did also ii"i a sirnilar manner affect the more 
finely grained particles, which do not, and could not present 
such facts as actually prove it to have been so, and yet would 
be more perfectly exposed to such a process of alteration. The 
general appearance of the stone agrees remarkably well with 
this supposition ; for, when examined with the microscope, it is 
seen to be extremely like many lirnestones in all such particulars 
as are compatible with the subsequent alteration, being oolite, 
with sniall fragments of shells and patches of finer granular 
rnatter, as is the case in many oolitic limestones. 

1906 October i. 

356 Sorby : The Origin of the CleveUind Iroiislone. 

I will not enter into a detailed description of its chemical com- 
position, for that has been so ably treated of by others. I would 
especially refer to the excellent analysis published on the Iron Ores 
of Great Britain, part i of the Memoirs of the Geological Survey. 
On comparing- together the amounts of the various constituents 
there given, it may be seen that the rock consists chiefly of the 
carbonate and some of the silicate and phosphate of the protoxide 
of iron, along with a much smaller quantity of the carbonate of 
lime and magnesia, and some alumina and peroxide of iron. 
Independent, then, of the silica and alumina resulting from the 
clay so commonly found in limestones, and the phosphate of 
iron, the general composition is very similar to that of the 
altered shell already described ; so that, as far as the chemical 
composition is concerned, the same circumstances that must 
have altered the shell, may have changed an ordinary limestone 
into such a rock, in the manner indicated by the microscopical 
structure to have really been the case. 

The silicate and phosphate of iron, to which the rock owes 
its green colour, have been most probably formed by the same 
process, from the decomposition of the phosphate of lime, so 
often found in limestones, and the silicate of alumina of the clay 
for phosphate of iron is produced by the action of bicarbonate 
of iron on phosphate of lime, and many facts indicate that the 
silicate of iron could be thus derived, either by the direct re- 
placement of the alumina of the clay by the protoxide of iron, 
or by the decomposition of silicate of lime. This does occur in 
some limestones, and may have been formed from ordinary clay, 
by the action of the sulphate or hydrate of lime, which are met 
with in the recent limestones or coral reefs. 

The general conclusion that I therefore draw from these 
facts is, that, at fifst, the Cleveland Hill ironstone was a kind 
of oolitic limestone, interstratified wnth ordinary clays containing 
a large amount of the oxides of iron, and also organic matter, 
which, by their mutual re-action, gave rise to a solution of 
bicarbonate of iron — that this solution percolated through the 
limestone, and, removing a large part of the carbonate of lime 
by solution, left in its place carbonate of iron ; and not that the 
rock was formed as a simple deposit at the bottom of the sea. 

P.S., May, 1906. It may be well here to say that it seems 
to me that the amount of iron oxide in the associated non- 
calcarious beds would in all probability be quite adequate to 
supply that now found in the ironstone. 

Since writing my original papers I devoted much attention 


Northern Neivs. 357 

to the production of artificial pseudoinorphs, especially including^ 
those in which carbonate of lime is replaced by carbonate of 
iron. Crystals of calcite or portions of Iceland spar were sealed 
up in tubes with a neutral solution of iron protochloride and 
heated to various temperatures. Kept for a few weeks in the 
boiler of a high pressure steam eng-ine, at a temperature some- 
what under 300° F. replacement was somewhat rapid, and 
pseudomorphs were formed as hard as any similar natural pro- 
duct. Kept much longer in a boiler at a temperature varying 
up to 212'' F. the replacement was slower, and the pseudomorphs 
much more tender. I sealed up a piece of Iceland spar in a 
glass tube so full of the chloride that there was a mere trace of 
air left, and after keeping for a few years the replacement was 
so small that I came to the conclusion that it did not take place 
at the ordinary temperature, but on re-examining after thirty- 
six years, though the amount of replacement was small, there 
could be no doubt about its having occurred. This shows the 
importance of such long-continued experiments, and proves 
that the changes met with in the Cleveland ironstone may have 
taken place at the ordinary temperature of the rocks. 

On making a microscopical section of one of the pseu- 
domorphs, it was seen to have the same sort of structure as 
that seen in the partially changed shells in the ironstone. 

A paper on Yorkshire Lake Dwellings by Mr. T. Sheppard appears in 
' Yorkshire Notes and Queries ' (Vol. 3, No. 4). 

The Geologists' Association has received a grant of £^^0 from the Royal 
Society towards the cost of publishing Dr. Rowe's papers on the Chalk of 

' A Revised Key to Hepatics of the British Isles,' by Symers M. 
Macvicar, has been issued by V. T. Sumfield, Station Street, Eastbourne, 
for gd. This should be useful to students of the Liverworts. 

The report and proceedings of the Manchester Field Naturalists' and 
Archaeologists' Society for 1905, recently issued, is an improvement upon 
previous reports, but still leaves much to be desired. Advertisements for 
millinery, furniture, etc., should not adorn its pages. 

In The Entomologist (volume 39, No. 515) Mr. Richard South has some 
' Notes on some forms oi Aplecta nebulosa in Britain.' These are illustrated 
by a fine plate showing the extensive colour range of variation to which the 
species is subject in Britain. Most of the examples figured are from 
Delamere Forest, Cheshire. 

As his presidential address to the Museums" Association, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, 
of the Manchester Museum, took for his subject ' The Education of a 
Curator.' This address is printed in a recent issue of the Museums' 
Journal, from which we learn that amongst many accomplishments a 
curator ' should be an unscrupulous and shameless beggar ! ' Dr. Hoyle's 
address has been reprinted as ' Notes from the Manchester Museum" No. 
21 " (publication 60), price sixpence. 

1906 October i. 


S. L. MOSLKY, l-.E.S. 

Several Arctic shore birds undergo a remarkable chansre from 
white in winter to hazel-nut brown or black in summer. This 
change is mostly on the under-parts. I have been conducting 
some experiments with a view to ascertaining the reason for 
these remarkable changes. 

The following species have the under-parts pure white in 
winter and nut-shell or chestnut-brown in summer : — -Black- 
tailed GodwMt, Bar-tailed Godwit, Knot, Brown Snipe, Curlew 
.Sandpiper, Grey- and Red-necked Phalaropes. 

The following have the under-parts black in summer: — Grey 
Plover, Golden Plover, and Dunlin. All these, except the two 
last, are arctic birds; and they are alpine, which, climatically, is 
the same thing. 

The well known facts concerning the colours of clothing 
materials as regulating the loss of heat, suggested the idea 
that in these regions of excessive cold every advantage which 
secures an extra degree of heat during incubation will be taken 
advantage of by Nature and propagated, and that the coloured 
under-parts might conduct the heat from the sitting bird to the 
eggs better than white. 

The mercury bulb of a thermometer was surrounded with 
several thicknesses of cotton cloth and firmly grasped in the 
palm of the hand. Care was taken that each cloth was of a 
similar thickness and texture. 

White, I St minute mercury rose 8h\ 2nd niuuite i^ more. 
Red, ,, ,, ,, ,, 9^% - " ~\ " 

Black, ,, ,, ,, ,, 10^°, ,, ,, 2^ ,, 

The bulb was then wrapped in cloths, as before, and held 
against an 8-candle electric lamp, with the following results : — 

White, I St minute mercury rose 10^", 2nd minute 11 more. 

Red, ,, , 11^' 10 .. 

Black, ,, , 14 V 12 ,, 

ll will thus be seen that the red shows a dislincl achanlage 
o\er the white, and the black over the icd in the transmission 


Field Notes. 


of heat. The coloration is confined mainly to the under-parts ; 
if it extended to the upper-parts in the same degree it would 
render the bird too conspicuous. The males and females change 
alike, and in most cases both take part in incubation. 

[A point worthy of note in this connection is that these colour changes 
coincide with those internal physioloo;ical chang-es which precede the 
maturation of the sex cells, and these in turn with changes both in kind 
and quantity of food supply as between .winter, spring, and summer. It 
would be interesting to follow up the enquiry in order to determine to what 
extent these are coincident or determining factors. — Eds.] 


Botany. — While rambling the Cragg Valley on July 15th, 
with Mr. Carter, Schoolmaster, we discovered Thalictnim 
flavxun L., and as there is but one record of this plant in 
the Calder Valley, Flora of Halifax and Lee's Flora of West 
Yorkshire, it is one that is worthy of notice. — Arthur Binns, 
Sowerby, September i8th, 1906. 


Albino Carrion Crow (?) in Wliarfedale. — On August 
loth I saw a large white bird on the slope of Burnsall Fell, 
which I should have taken to have been an albino Rook. In 
conversation, however, with the local gamekeeper (a very 
intelligent man), he informed me that there was a perfectly 
white Carrion Crow about, and that it was a bird of the year, 
one of a nest of four, the other three young birds being- in 
normal plumage. He had endeavoured to shoot it, but on the 
only occasion that it had been within gunshot he did not happen 
to have his gun with him. 

1 am reporting this occurrence for two reasons. Firstly, 
because if it should be an albino Corvus corone, it is of extreme 
rarity, in fact I have never heard of one before, although single 
specimens of reddish-fawn, brindled-grey, aud brown and buff 
have been recorded. Secondly, because this conspicuous bird 
will probably sooner or later fall a victim to the gun, and it will 
be interesting to note whether it will remain in Wharfedale, or 
in what part of the country it will be shot. — H. B. Booth, 
Spring Royd, Shipley, August 20th, igo6. 

P.S. — This bird has not been seen in Burnsall for a month 
now. — H. B. B. , September i8th, igo6. 

1906 October i. 



(kxtracts from the aoi^kliss to the geological section, 
British Association, York.) 

President of the Section. 

((\)u tinned from page J/ 7.) 

Local Shrinkage in the Ice-sheets. — There are many indica- 
tions, especially in the Midland Counties and alons^ the southern 
margin of the gflaciated reg'ion, that the several lobes and 
tong^ues of ice of the Glacial Period in Britain did not all attain 
their maximum development at the same time, but that while 
some were creeping- forward, others were shrinking back. To 
a certain extent this result may have been brought about simply 
by changes in the currents as the ice-sheets overwhelmed their 
erstwhile confining rims of bare land and opened up fresh 
avenues of discharge. 

It appears to me, however, that the prime factor lay in the 
displacement of the areas of greatest precipitation during the 
course of the Glacial Period.* As the plateaus of ice rose 
higher in the path of the moisture-laden air-currents they must 
have gained increased effectiveness as condensers, thereby not 
only augmenting the snowfall in one quarter, but also diminish- 
ing the precipitation in the region to leeward. Hence I 
imagine that there would be a persistent tendency for the great 
ice-sheets of Western Europe to thicken and spread more rapidly 
tow^ard the west than toward the east, until finally the eastern 
portions were shrunken for want of sustenance, while the 
westerly lobes were still waxing thicker and stronger. The 
recent researches of Mr. F. W. Harmer into the probable 
meteorological conditions of the Glacial Period t are full of 
suggestion in their bearing iipon the changes which must have 
been brought about by the expansion of the ice-sheets. The 
subject is one of peculiar difficulty, but I believe that the 
solution of many of the problems connected with the Glacial 
Period are to be found along the lines of Mr. Harmer's investi- 

• Glcicialisis Miiif., vol. i. No. i i (iSi)4), p. -\^i ; aiul Mem. (if//. Simrv, 
' Isle of Man ' (1903), p. 395. 

I ' The Influence of Winds upon diin.ite diiring^ tin- Pleisloccne Epocli.' 
Oiiii/-/. Journ. Gcol. Soc, vol. ivii. (1901), pp. 405-476. 


On British Drifts and the Interglacial Problem. 361 

In considering this factor it is also especially interesting to 
find that Captain R. F. Scott is of opinion that the great 
shrinkage in the Antarctic land ice, of which he obtained such 
convincing evidence during the recent expedition, is due to the 
present excessive coldness, and consequent dryness, of the 
climate ; and he assigns the former extension of the southern 
ice-sheets to a period of warmer and moister conditions.* It 
would have been easy, had time permitted, to bring together 
numerous illustrations from Polar lands to show how strongly 
localised in many places are the conditions of existing glacia- 
tions ; and such conditions must have been still more eflfectiv e 
at lower latitudes. Hence we can readily imagine that, during 
the Glacial Period, differential growth and shrinkage might be 
brought about concurrently in areas not very wide apart, by 
local circumstances. 

Waning Ice-sheets. — So far as the eastern side of England is 
concerned, I think that the epoch of maximum glaciation was 
reached, not when the East British lobe pressed farther west- 
ward, but when the Pennine and North British ice advanced 
southward along its receding flank ; and this stage is, I presume, 
equivalent to the ' Polandian Glacial Epoch ' of Professor 
Geikie's classification. It was at this time that the ice lapped 
highest around the slopes of the Jurassic and Cretaceous 
uplands of Yorkshire, causing that radical diversion ot the 
surface-drainage which produced the remarkable eff"ects first 
made known to us by the brilliant researches of Professor P. F. 
Kendall in Cleveland, t and since traced by him and his fellow- 
workers at intervals wherever the margins of the ice-sheets 
have abutted against the slope of the land. 

Farther southward this ice, augmented by the snowfall on 
its own broad surface, appears to have spread over the lower 
ground far beyond the bounds of the former invasion, covering 
most of East Anglia and the East Midland counties with a 
moving ice-cap, beneath which the Chalky boulder-clay was 
accumulated. The Upper boulder-clay of Yorkshire I consider 
to be the product of the same ice-sheet at its waning. 

This final waning of the British ice-sheets, as I have else- 
where attempted to show, \ must have been accompanied bv 

* 'Results of the National Antarctic Expedition.' Geograpli. Jonni.y 
vol. XXV. (1905), p. 306. 

t 'A System of Glacier-Lakes in the Cleveland Hills.' Quart. Jotini. 
Geol. Soc, vol. Iviii (1902), pp. 471-571. 

X 'The Geolog-y of the Isle of Man.' Mem. Geol. Stt/-vey (1904), pp. 

1906 October i. 

2 A 

362 0)1 British Drifts and the Intvrgiacial Problem. 

conditions very different from the waxing stages. It appears 
from the evidence that the great ice-plateaus still lingered in 
their basins even after the amelioration of the climate had 
progressed so far that no permanent snow could remain on hills 
that rose considerably above their level. Deprived of reinforce- 
ment, and wasting ever more rapidly as their surfaces were 
brought lower, the lobes must in all their embavments have 
passed into that condition of ' dead ice ' with which the explorers 
of Polar regions have made us familiar. The ' englacial ' load 
of detritus which the ice was powerless farther to transport was 
gradually dropped to the ground, and often modified and spread 
by gravitational movement in the saturated mass. * The 
peculiar features of the upper part of the lowland drifts were 
thus explained many years ago by the late J. G. Goodchild in 
his luminous description of the glacial deposits in the \'ale 
of Eden,t and his conclusions have been supported by the 
researches of Dr. N. O. Hoist in Southern Greenland, where 
there was found to be the same difference between the un- 
oxidised grovmd-moraine and the overlying oxidised material of 
' englacial ' origin as between the lower and upper boulder-clays 
in areas of ancient glaciation. \ In adopting this explanation 
we must recognise that the uppermost boulder-clay of an 
extensive area was not formed at exactly the same time in 
every part, but was accumulated progressively as a marginal 
residue during the emergence of the land from its icy cloak. 

Liite Glacial and Post-Glacial Deposits. — Of the glacial and 
interglacial epochs of Professor Geikie's scheme later than the 
* Polandian ' it is admitted that no indication has been found in 
Yorkshire. There seems, on the contrary, to be evidence of 
steady amelioration in the climate, as the glacial deposits 
opposite the mouths of the Wold valleys are overlain, first by 
great deltas of chalky gravel, denoting torrential floods, 
probably from the seasonal melting of heavy snows ; and then, 
in the hollows of these gravels, or of the boulder-clay itself, we 

* Tlic flow of lot>sc' malcrial at tin- .surface wlicn satm-alccl b\- water has 
been recently studied by J- O. Anderson (Upsala), who cites inanv remark- 
able illustrations of the phenomenon, and proposes to apply to it the term 
' solifluction.' Jotirn. Geol., vol. xiv. (1906), pp. 91-112. 

t ' Ice Work In Edenside.' Trans. Cumberland .\ssoc.. No. 12 (1SS6-7), 
])p. 1 1 1-167. 

X 'Dr. N. O. Hoist's Stutlies in Glacial Geoloijy,' by Dr. j. Lindahl, 
American Xalunilist, .Auif. 1888, pp. 705-71J. It should be noted, iiowever, 
that Professor R. I). Salisbury did not find this ililVeri-nce apparent in the 
moraines of North Greenland Glaciers. Svv Jouni. (n'o/., vol. iv. (iSqt*), 
pp. 806-7. 


On British Drifts and the Interglacial Problem. 363 

find freshwater marl and peat that were deposited hi the many 
lakelets and marshes that dotted the Holderness plain ; and in 
the lower layers of certain of these freshwater deposits the 
leaves of the arctic birch {Betuhi nana) have been detected, t 
indicating- a climate colder than at present. 

In East Yorkshire, then, we appear to have a continuous 
record of the events from the beg-inning- to the end of the 
Glacial Period ; and yet, if I read the sections aright, we can 
find no place into which a single mild interglacial epoch can be 

Let us now more briefly consider certain glaciated areas 
within the influence of the ' West British ' ice-lobe which I have 
personally investigated. 

Drifts of the Isle of Man. — From its isolated position in 
the midst of the Irish Sea, the Isle of Man constitutes an 
excellent gauge or glaciometer, on which is recorded the course 
of events within the basin occupied by the West British ice- 
lobe. In carrying- out the geological survey of this island I 
made a close examination of its glacial deposits in every part, 
and have stated the results rather fully in a recently published 

We find here, as in Yorkshire, that prior to the glaciation 
there was a sea-margin at approximately its present level, and 
where the coast is composed of ' solid ' rocks, in approximately 
its present position. In this sea, marine deposits indicative of 
cold conditions were accumulated, and were afterwards dis- 
placed and mingled with the boulder-cla}^ of an ice-sheet that 
g-radually filled the basin and swept southward, or south-south- 
eastward, over the very summit of the island. At its maximum 
the surface of this ice-sheet stood more than 2000 feet higher 
than present sea-level. The difference between the altitude 
attained by this ice and that of the East British lobe in the same 
latitude is especially noteworthy. In Yorkshire the eastern ice 
did not reach much above 800 feet on the flanks of the Cleve- 
land Hills, declining to 500 feet or under off" Flamboroug-h 
Head. The higher land which surrounds the Irish Sea Basin 
may be in part responsible for this difference, but I think that it 
must have been mainly due to the heavier precipitation in the 

Then followed a declining stage in the glaciation, during 

* By Dr. A. G. Nathorst, at Bridlington ; and by C. Reid, at Holnipton. 
' Geolog-y of Holderness,' pp. 78 and 85. 

1906 October i. 

364 Oil British Drifts ami the Iiifcrffldcuif Problem. 

which the ice-sheet shrank away from the hills, which were 
never ag"ain covered. Owing- to local circumstances that are 
readily recog^nisable, the recession of its marg-in was relatively 
accelerated in the northern part of the island, so that a broad 
hollow was formed there between the hills and the ice-border ; 
and in this hollow a mass of stratified drift was deposited. 
From its terraced aspect and the occurrence of scattered shells, 
I thoug-ht at first that this deposit mig^ht be of marine orig-in ; 
but examination in detail convinced me, as it had previously 
convinced Professor P. F. Kendall," that the phenomena could 
only be explained by regarding the stratified material as marginal 
'overwash ' from the ice-front. As in Yorkshire, the association 
of the boulder-clays with the stratified drift is in most places so 
intimate that again the evidence for the continuous presence of 
the ice-sheet in the surrounding basin seems irrefragable. 

Following closely upon this local deposition of stratified 
drift, there appears to have been a limited re-advance of the ice, 
which brought about the accumulation of an upper boulder-clay 
on parts of the low ground. But, unlike the Upper Clay of 
Yorkshire, this bed lies well within the limits of the lower clays, 
both in extent and elevation ; and it seems to denote only a 
slight augmentation of the persisting ice-sheet, which was thus 
enabled to close in again upon the lower flanks of the hills. 

The end of the glacial invasion was marked by similar 
conditions to those found in Holderness. Great fans of flood- 
gravel were spread out around the mouths of the upland glens ; 
and the hollows in the drift-plain were occupied by lakelets, 
now mostly obliterated by an infilling of marly and peaty 
sediments. Among the plants found in a bed near the base of 
one of these hollows is a northern willow {Salix herbacca), 
along with the remains of a minute arctic freshwater crustacean 
[Lepiiiiinis glacialis) ; and similar remains were also found in a 
peaty layer interbedded with the flood-gravels. 

Here, then, is another area in which the drifts arc fully 
developed and magnificently exposed in clifl' sections, but still 
yield no proof of the supposed interglacial epochs or of the 
marine submergence. 

I Mr. Lamplugh next shows that analogous results were 
obtained from four separate areas in Ireland which he had 
personally in\estigated ; and he then proceeds to discuss the 

' On the Glacial Gi-ului^y oflhi- Isli' (if Man.' ) '// I.icti'- Miuiiiinui^h, 
vol. i. |)t. ij. pp. 397-438. 


0)i British Drifts and the Interglacial Problem. 365 

drifts of other areas in England and Scotland, where beds 
of supposed Interg-lacial ag'e have been described. His con- 
cluding- summary is as follows] — 

My subject has proved unwieldy ; and in merely sketching 
its outlines I am uneasily aware that I have overstepped the 
usual bounds of an Address. My conclusions — if the term be 
applicable to results mainly negative — are as follows : — 

1. In the present state of opinion regarding the glacial 
sequence and its interpretation in North Europe, it is premature 
to attempt the arrangement of the British drifts on this basis. 

2. No proof of mild interglacial epochs, or even of one such 
epoch, was discovered during the examination of certain typically 
glaciated districts in England, Ireland, and the Isle of Man ; 
and the drifts in these areas yielded evidence that from the 
onset of the land ice to its final disappearance there was a 
period of continuous glaciation, during which the former sea- 
basins were never emptied of their ice-sheets. 

3. The ' middle glacial ' sands and gravels of our islands 
afford no proof of mild interglacial conditions or of submergence. 
In most cases, if not in all, they represent the fluvio-glacial 
material derived from the ice-sheets. 

4. The British evidence for the Interglacial hypothesis, 
though requiring further consideration in some districts, is 
nowhere satisfactory. Most of the fossiliferous beds regarded 
as interglacial contain a fauna and flora compatible with cold 
conditions of climate ; and in the exceptional cases where a 
warmer climate is indicated, the relation of the deposits to the 
boulder-clays is open to question. 

5. The British Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits appear to 
indicate a progressive change from temperate to sub-arctic 
conditions, which culminated in the production of great ice- 
sheets, and then slowly recovered. 

6. During the long period of glaciation the margins of the 
ice-lobes underwent extensive oscillations, but there is evidence 
that the different lobes reached their culmination at different 
times, and not simultaneously. The alternate waxing and 
waning of the individual ice-sheets may have been due to 
meteorological causes of local, and not of general influence. 

Let me add, in closing, that it would have been a more 
gratifying task if, instead of probing into these outstanding 
uncertainties, I had chosen to deal only with the many and 

1906 October i. 

366 Northern News. 

^Teat advances that have been made during the last twenty-five 
years in the domain af British g-lacial g"eolog"y. With these 
advances we have, indeed, reason to be well satisfied. But the 
necessity for further knowledjje is insistent ; and it is useless to 
set about the solution of our intricate problem until we have all 
the factors at command. Even then — 'Grant we have mastered 
learning's crabbed text, Still there's the comment' — and, as 
I have tried to show, the comment may raise more difficulties 
than the text itself. 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S., has just written a clever work, ' Majjfic and 
Fetishism.' It is a useful introduction to the subject, and is published by 
Messrs. Constable & Co., at one shilling-. 

Referring to our note on p. 200 in reference to the status of Thyamis 
curta as a British insect, Mr. E. G. EUiman writes to the Entomologist's 
Monthly Magazine still claiming the insect as British. 

Under the heading ' My Country Diary," in a recent issue of Tlic Animal 
World, a F'.R.H.S., M.B.O.U., etc., and author of many volumes, tells the 
old story of the ' graminivorous ' student who threatened to eat Cuvier. 
The story is prefaced by the words : ' What I reallj^ wanted to tell was a 
good story in connection with Cuvier, who, I believe, was a French 
N^aturalist.' ! ! 

In a paper on the F"auna of the Trimmingham Chalk, by R. M. Brydone 
{Geological Magazine for July), several new species of Polyzoa are 
described. In connection with these the author perpetuates the memory of 
his various friends and fellow workers. Amongst the specific names added 
to scientific literature in this paper are Griffithi, Trimminghamensis, 
Britannica, Mundeslcicnsis, Canui, Rowei, Sherborni, Diblcyi, Jukes- 
Brownei. Batheri, Woodsi, Pergensi, and Gregoryi. ! 

The recent number of the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine contains 
the following items of interest to northern naturalists : ' A new British 
Arctiid ' from Carnforth ; 'A new species of Phora (P. papillata) and four 
others new to the British list,' from Durham ; an Ant [Formicoxenus 
nitidultis, Nyl) new to Northumberland and Durham ; in a paper on 
' Additions and Corrections to the British list of Hymenoptera,' Pompiliis 
approximatus is recorded for E. Cumberland ; Epiinra angiistula, Er. , is 
recorded for the Northumberland and Durham district ; Carpophiliis 
sexpi/sti/latits P., restored to the British list (on the evidence of specimens 
near Doncaster). 

A writer on ' East Coast Holiday Notes ' in the Yorkshire Post says that 
' Nature study is another form of recreation — and a very wholesome one — 
which is becoming common on the coast. Botany is a favourite study, and 
nearly as jjopular as geology. Any day you will find parties of fossil hunters 
searching the cliffs about Flamborough, Hornsea, or \\'hitby. The knowing 
ones return to their favourite kitchen middens annually for specimens of 
Roman pottery ; tiie philosophers of the GeologicU Societies tramp many a 
mile to find fresh exposures of the eailli's crust ; and experts are continually 
investigating the Scandinavian Boulders that are strewn about our beach. 
Philistines often ask what manner of men those are in their private work-a- 
da\- lives, and they generally set them down as amiable enthusiasts. .At a 
British Association conversazione at York, a young lady was heard to say 
thai " Pa was an excellent geologist — for a gentleman," and now comes the 
horrible tiiought geology and gentUinen may ;ifter all have little in 
common ' ! 




On August 24th, the anniversary of the birth of William 
Wilberforce, the Earl of Liverpool opened Wilberforce House at 
Hull as a public museum and memorial, 

Wilberforce House is an Elizabethan building in red brick, 
and is situated in High Street, at one time Hull's principal 
thoroughfare. Built by Sir John Lister at the close of the 
1 6th century, it has played an important part in the history 
of the town. Charles L was entertained there, and in 1759 
William Wilberforce, who became Member of Parliament for 

Wilberforce House. 

Hull, and later for the county of York, and did so much in 
connection with the abolition of slavery, was born there. In 
Georgian times the building was considerably altered and 
enlarged ; consequently, from an architectural point of view, it 
represents two distinct periods. In recent years it was let off 
as offices, and considerably mutilated. Some time ago Councillor 
J. Brown, the Chairman of the Museums Committee, took an 
interest in the house, and eventually was the means of its being 
secured for the city and transformed into a museum devoted 

1906 October i. 

368 Hull's Nciv Museum. 

to the exhibition of relics of Wilberforce, and of objects illus- 
trating' the history of Hull from earliest times. Only part of 
the building' has as yet been opened to the public. Every 
possible care has been taken to have it restored in the proper 
sense of that much abu.sed word. Several coats of paint have 
been removed from the oak panelling, modern partitions and 
other additions have been taken away, the result being that in 
its present condition the house as nearly represents what it was 
in Wilberforce's time as possible. 

The Curator, Mr. Sheppard, has been exceedingly fortunate 
in gathering together so goodly a number of suitable objects 
for exhibition. The small room in which Wilberforce was born 
contains nearly fifty portrait engravings, as well as a beautiful 
oil painting by Richmond. Another room is devoted to auto- 
g"raph letters of various Hull worthies ; letters, bills, election 
cards, etc., of Wilberforce, and views of old Hull. Another 
contains a collection of Hull seals, coins, tokens, medals, keys, 
and various other antiquities relating to the city. A number of 
valuable documents, including a volume of letters of Hull's 
' incorruptible patriot,' Andrew Marvel, have been removed 
from the Town Hall. Perhaps the most interesting room is 
that containing a collection of implements, paintings, en- 
gravings, etc., relating to the old Hull whaling industry. 
This series is an exceptionally complete one, principally through 
the generosity of Lord Nunburnholme, who recently presented 
a number of harpoons, harpoon-guns, flensers, blubber-knives, 
spades, etc. (see Plate XXVHI.). 

At the opening ceremony was a very representative gathering, 
and an admirable address was given by the Earl of Liverpool. 
Other speakers were the Earl of Carrington, Sir Alfred Gelder, 
Sir James Reckitt, Mrs. Arnold Reckitt {nee Wilberforce), Mr. 
W. B. Wilberforce, Alderman Hall, Alderman Cohen, and 
Councillor J. Brown. Several members of the Wilberforce 
family were also present. 

Admission is Free on Week-days and Bank Holidays. The 
Committee will welcome any gifts of articles and literature 
relating to the slave trade and the Great Emancipator, such 
at all times can be reported to the Curator or Chairman of the 

The Eastern Moniino Xews devoted two pages to an account 
of the opening ceremony, with illustrations, together with special 
articles bearing on the subject, and these have been reprinted in 
pamphlet form as Hull Museum Publication No. 34. 



Plate XXVIII. 

A Corner of the 'Whaling' Room. 

View in one of the Oak Panelled Rooms. 

Wilberforce Museum, Hull. 


Jl'LV 12, 1906. 

The hundred and ninety- sixth meeting- of the Yorkshire 
NaturaHsts' Union was held at Askern on Thursday, July 12th, 
and certainly the suitability of choosing: a Thursday for an 
excursion in this district was proved by the fact that over eig^hty 
members and associates, including representatives from sixteen 
societies, were present. As usual, the weather was most 
favourable, the routes traversed by the various sections were 
through a charming country, the arrangements made by the 
divisional secretary were all that could be desired, and in every 
way the excursion was pleasant and profitable. The geologists, 
as is nowadays their wont, found that the geology of the 
district was by no means 'worked out,' many important 
problems still require solution, and the sections visited near 
Askern are not at all so easy of explanation as they apparently 
were, say twenty years ago. The botanists, entomologists, 
and others, after numerous visits, still find a charm in following 
their pursuits, and are able to add new facts to our knowledge 
of the fauna and flora of the area. Details of these were given 
at the well attended meeting in the garden in front of the Spa 
Hydro at Askern. Mr. W. Denison Roebuck presided at this, 
and details of the reports presented are given hereafter. At 
this meeting the Union was further strengthened by the affilia- 
tion of the Doncaster Grammar School Natural History Society, 
this making a total of forty-one societies now affiliated. 

Geological Section. — Mr. H. Culpin writes : — The princi- 
pal object of interest to the Geological Section was the large 
gravel and sand pit on the south-west slope of Askern Mount. 
A great thickness of coarse magnesian limestone gravel, 
ranging from large sub-angular blocks to well-rounded small 
pebbles, with lenticular patches of sand, rests on beds of sand. 
The gravels are probably of Glacial age, but they have not 
travelled far. The sand is Triassic in appearance, and suggests 
a pre-Triassic valley similar to the one south-west of Doncaster. 
The gravels overlook a valley to the south. 

At Burgh wallis, i^ miles south-west by west of the Askern 
pit, is a deposit of well-rounded magnesian limestone pebbles 
plentifully intersprinkled with sand. This deposit lies on the 
upper magnesian limestone, and also overlooks a valley to the 

At Campsall, ij miles north-west by west of the Askern pit, 
and in Campsmount Park, a quarter mile further to the north- 

1906 October i. 

370 ]'i>rks/iirc Xd/nnilists ut Askcni. 

west, are two j^ravel and sand pits. The Campsall pit shows a 
bed of yellow sand, above which is a red sand strong^ly 
suy-gestive of Trias. The whole is topped with matfnesian 
limestone s^ravel containing- sub-angular blocks. In Camps- 
mount Park there are 8 feet of well-rounded magnesian lime- 
stone pebbles resting on 2 feet of a greyish white sand, below 
which is a foot of ' head,' and then the solid upper magnesian 
rock. Here the sand is evidently of the same age as the pebbles. 

About a mile further to the north-west, or 2\ miles from 
the Askern pit, is the Sheep Cote Upper Limestone Quarry, on 
the south side of the Went Valley. On the slope immediately 
west of this quarry is a magnesian limestone gravel pit, with 
some sand intermingled with the pebbles. The gravel forms 
a tongue, and is bordered on its western edge by a deserted 
over-flow channel of the crescentic or ' in-and-out ' type. Haif- 
a-mile to the west, at Westfield Farm, is another gravel pit 
of well-rounded limestone with sand. It lies on the lower 
magnesian limestone just below the 100 feet contour, or at 
about the same level as the Sheep Cote gravel. 

On the north bank of the Went, near Kirk Smeaton Station, 
2f miles north-west of the Askern pit, is a larg^e gravel pit, 
consisting- almost entirely of magnesian limestone similar to 
that at Askern. This gravel also lies to the west of solid 
upper magnesian limestone rock, and is on a slope overlooking 
the Went Valley to the south. A few Carboniferous grit 
pebbles were noted in this pit. 

In the course of the afternoon a careful, but fruitless, search 
for fossils was made in the upper limestone at Town s Quarry, 
Lane Ends, Norton. Many fossiliferous blocks were noticed 
in the gravels. 

A considerable amount of attention was paid to the Askern 
Mount. This is a ridge of upper magnesian limestone with 
easterly dips of 12° to 15. It is evidently an anticline, the 
western side of which has been denuded, leaving- an escarpment 
below which the sand and gravels have been subsequently 

OKxrrnt^LOdV. — Mr. A. Wiutakhk writes : -A full list of 
species of birds seen was not made. The most interesting of 
those which were noted were the Hawfinch and Grasshopper 
Warbler. Mention may also be made of the Common Snipe, 
Reed Bunting, Waterhen with young. Ring Dove and nest 
containing two eggs, and Sedge Warbler. The latter bird was 
particularly abundant. 


Yorkshire Nahiraiists at Askern. 371 

For the Conchological Section the report was g-iven by 
Mr. John W. Taylor. The work of the day had been done 
by himself, Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, F.L. S. (president of 
the section), and Mr. VV. H. Hutton, all of the Leeds Concho- 
logical Club, and Mr. J. W. Hart of Doncaster, and some 
specimens were brought by Mr, E. G. Bayford and Mr, H. H. 
Corbett, The district is to some extent classic land, for many 
of the Yorkshire Conchologists have at one time or another 
visited Askern. Most of the day's collecting was done in 
Campsall Park, the ditches intersectingf it and the large pool 
yielding Limncea peregra^ L. auricularia in its characteristic 
young stag"e, Physa fontmalis, Planorbis albus, PL vortex, 
PL complanatus, PL carinatus, Bythinia tentaculata, B. leachii, 
Valvata piscinalis var. acuminata (the best find of the day), 
Succinea putris, Anodonta cygnea var. aretiaria, Unio tiimidus, 
Spho'rium corneion, Pisidium fontinale, and P. ohtiisale. Of 
land shells the only ones seen in Campsall Park were Patiila 
rotundata and Vallonia pidche/la, and of slugs — it being- so 
very dry — only Agriolimax agrestis, an Arion ater, and tracks 
on beech trunks referable to Limax arboriun. Round the pool 
at Askern Helix aspersa and H. cantiana were abundant, and 
Mr. Bayford brought H. caperata var. hizonalis (fine), and 
Cochlicopa lubrica from Kirk Smeaton. 

Later in the day the mole hills in the low-lying fields were 
searched, and the following species collected of sub-fossil 
shells : Limncea palustris (fine and large), L. peregra, L. trunca- 
ttcla, Planorbis corneiis, PL complanatiis, PL spirorbis. PL vortex, 
Bythinia tentaculata, Valvata cristata, Sphcerium corneum, 
Succinea pntris. Helix nemoralis, H. hispida, Vallonia pnlchella, 
Hyalinia crystallina, and Cochlicopa liibrica. 

The total enumeration sums up to thirty-three species in all, 
of which eight were found in the sub-fossil state only, seventeen 
in the living state only, and eight in both. The best .find of the 
day was the fine example of the var. acuminata of Valvata 

For the Entomological Section (Lepidoptera) Mr. A. 
Whitaker reports : — A number of common Butterflies and 
Moths was noted, E. ianira being- greatly in evidence, and 
specimens of Hyperanthns being also noticed. The most 
interesting ' find ' was a specimen of D. furcula, which was 
beaten from an alder tree in the bog (raising for an instant 
wild hopes that it might prove to be bicuspis I). The specimen 
was a female, and has laid some thirty ovae since its capture. 

1906 October i. , 


Yorkshire Naturalists at Askcrn. 

A few H}meiioptera were collected by Mr. Corbett, and 
have been submitted to Mr. Claude Morley, who identifies the 
Ichneumons Rs^ /c/mciimojicofi/usorius Gr. and ^ Glvphicnemis 
siiffolcicnsis Mori., the last-named not having hitherto been put 
on record for the British Isles. 

Mr. E. G. Bavfokd writes : — The Coleopterists were well 
represented. Kirk Smeaton, Campsall Park, and Askern were 
visited. The following' is a list of the species met with : — 

Letstiis fctniifiiwus L. 
Elaplirus ri partus L. 
Siomis pumicatus Panz. 
Ptcroslichiis iiiadidus F. 

,, vcrnalis Panz. 

A warn apricaria Payk. 
Calaf/nis cisfeloides Panz. 

,, iiielanocephalus L. 

Tapliria nivalis Panz. 
Trechus miiiutus F. 
Patrobiis excavatus Payk. 
Ilalipliis ruficollis De G. 

,, linea/orollis Marsh. 

Cwlaiiibits versicolor Schalt. 

,, incequalis F". 

Deronectes i2-ptistiilatus V . 
Hydroporns pictus F. 

,, paluslris L. 

,, pubesceiis Gyll. 

Agabtis nebulosits Ft3rst. 
Ily bins fit liginosus F. 
Gyrinus natator Scop. 
AnaccEna globulus Payk. 
■\Laccobius bipunctatus F. 
Limnebius trunca/ellus Thunb. 
Helophoriis ceneipennis Thorns. 
* ,, ajfinis Marsh. 

,, brevipalpis Bedel. 

Cercyon inelanoceplialiis L. 
An /alia iinpressa Ol. 
*Gyrophcena manca Er. 
Hygronoma diniidiala Grav. 
Hypocyptus lotigicornis Pa\k. 
Tachyporus obtusus L. 

,, chrysonicliiius L. 

Tachitius niargincllus F. 
Orypus ulcus Miill. 
S/iltcus rufipes Gcrni. 

Stciius nitidinsculiis Steph. 
\Platystetlius areuarius Fourc. 
Oxytelus rugosus F. 

,, tetracarinaius Block. 

Honialiuin excavaluiii Stepli. 
\Proti'inus ovalis Slejih. 
\By1hinus puncticollis Dcnnj'. 
Adalia bipiinctata L. 
Coccinella lo-putictafa L. 

,, j-punctata L. 

Halyzia 23-punctata L. 
Coccidida rufa Herbst. 
* Dacne humeralis F. 

Bracliypferus urtica F. 
iCercus rufilabris Lat. 
Epurcpa del eta Er. 
Meligeihes aneus F. 

,, picipes Sturm. 

Lathridius lardariits De G. 
Coninomus nodi/er West. 
Enicmus transversus Ol. 
By turns sambuci Scop. 
AntJieroptiagus nigricortiis F. 
Epliisteinus gyrinoides Marsh. 
Myceloptiagus ^-pustulatus L. 
Adraslus liiiibafus F. 
Agriofes obscurus L. 
Microcara livida F. 
Cyplion roarciatus Payk. 
,, variabilis Thunb. 
,, pallidulus Boh. 
fScirtes lieiiiisp/icerirus L. 
Tclephorus lividus L. 
,, bicolor F. 

,, tueiuorrfioidalis F. 

,, Jiavilabris, Fall. 

Rliagonycha f'ulva Scop. 

,, limbata Thonis. 

I' Indicates s]jecies not jjievioiisly recorded (roni tiie West Riding. 
* Indicates species not previously recorded from Vorksliiro. 


Yorkshire Naturalists at Askern. 


Malthimis punctatns Fourc. 

Malthodes minimus L. 
\Dasytes cerosus Kies. 

Chrysomela polita L. 

Phcedon cochlea rice F. 

Batophila rubi Payk. 

Sphceroderma cardui Gyll. 

Crepidodera ferruginea Scop. 
\Lagria hirta L. 
■fA/iasfi/s geoffroyi Miill. 
,, ruficoUis F. 

Atiaspis maculata Fourc. 
Trachyphiceus aristatus Gyll. 
Polydriisiis cervinus L. 
Phyllohins ohlongus L. 

,, pyi L. 

,, viridiceris Laich. 

Mecin us py raster H erbst. 
Cioniis scrophitlarice L. 
Cceliodes ^-macidatits L. 
Hvlesin us f rax in i Panz. 

Flowering Plants. — Mr. C, Waterfall writes : — The 
excursion to Askern was very enjoyable from a botanical point 
of view. The botanists visited Askern Bog, and secured : — 

Cladiuni jamaicense syn. mariscus. 
CEnanUie Lachenalii 

,, Jistiihsa. 
Lasfrea Thelypteris. 
Carex pulicaris. 
,, distans. 
, , stricta. 
,, acuta. 
,, riparia. 
,, ampuUacea. 
,, rostrata. 
,, disticha. 
Festtica pratensis. 
Rumex hydrolapathum. 
Orchis latifolia. 
,, maculata. 

,, incarnata. 
Junciis ohtitsifolius. 
Anagallis ten ell a. 
Thalictrum jlavum. 
Samolus Valerandi. 
Hipp ur is vulgaris. 
Potamogeton obtusifoliits. 
Scirpus TaberncBmontani. 
Galium pal it st re. 

,, idiginosum. 
Triglochin palnstre. 
Epilobium parviflorum. 
Slum erectitm. 
Senecio aqiiaticiis. 
Pediciilaris palustris. 
Equisetum pahistre. 

Leaving the bog we skirted a field and followed the side of a 
stream, where we got Potamogeton polygonifoliiis. On the banks 
of a drain at the other side of this field Festiica pratensis, Glyceria 
plicata, and Carex viilpina were collected. On the roadside 
Rumex neinorostis and Bryonia alba, then into a magnesian 
limestone quarry, where Calamintha arvensis, Myosotis arvensis, 
a.nd Arabis hirsnta were gathered. Outside the quarry we came 
upon a dry hilly field, where Helianthemuin ChanicBcistus, Pim- 
pinella Saxifraga var. dissecta, Ballota nigra, and Campanula 
glomerata were collected, and further on where we joined the road 
Bromus erectus was secured. In a craggy thicket a little to the 
east of Askern, past the Church, we got Reseda luteola and Carex 
tniiricata. In a damp quarry just opposite the entrance to the 

i Indicates species not previousl}' recorded from the West Riding-. 

1906 October i. 


Yorkshire Naturcilists at Askcrn. 

Askern Bog, Ligustrutn vulgare was got. Out of Askern pool 
Chara hispida and and Hippuris vulgaris. Other members of the 
section secured Ranunculus circinalus, Geranium pyrcnaictini^ 
Geranium mollc, and Daucus Carota. 

Mosses. — Mr. C. Crossland writes : — Not expecting Fungi 
to be much in evidence, Mr. J. W. H. Johnson and myself turned 
our attention to mosses. A few we were uncertain about have 
been submitted to Mr. Ingham. They are arranged according 
to habitat. 

C. =Campsal!. A. B.= Askern Bog, known locally as 
Rushy Moor. 

Orfhofrichum affine. 
Tortilla iini rails. 
Pleuropus sericeus. 

All on walls. C. 
Bryuiii pallens. 
Alniuni ho run in. 
Plag. Borrerianum. 
Flag, denticulatitm. 

On moist banks in a wood. 
Hyp. cupressiforme. 
Ambly. serpens. 

On tree stump. C. 
Hylo. squnrrosiiin. 

Among' grass, lake side. 
Physcomitrtum pyriforme. 



Fu n a ria hys^ro ni ctrica . 

On muddy peat, drain side, in 
company. A. B. 
Fontinalis antipyretica. 

Floating in drain. A. R. 
Eurh. pralongum. 
Mninui undtilatiiiii. 
Hyp. ripnriiaii. 
Hyp. steUatiini. 
Hyp. aduncum var. intermedium 

forma penna. 
Hyp. intermedium I.iiull. 
Hyp. cuspidatum. 

All in wettish places. A. B. 

Fungi. — Mr. Crossland reports : — Though Fungi were 
rather scarce, the results may be considered fairly satisfactory. 
Mr. Waterfall found the ^i£cidium stage of the plant parasite 
Uromyces junci on Pulicaria dyseiiierica in Askern Bog, which 
constitutes the first Yorkshire record for the ^cidium condition ; 
its Tflcuto stage, which occurs on Juncus, has been recorded 
but once (Church Fenton, ' Lees' Flora,' p. 718). The smut 
Ustilago olivacea on Carcx riparia was also fotuid in the bog by 
the same diligent investigator ; there is only one previous 
Yorkshire record for this (Humber Bank on satiie host, 'York- 
shire Fungus Flora,' p. 206, R. H. Philip). The rust Puccinia 
suaveolens was common on Carduus an'ensis. Fine specimens 
of the very common Polyporus squamosus were seen on old 
beech trunks in Campsall Park. Panus torulosus and Fames 
igniarius on stumps in plantation. liolbifius titubaus and 
Psalhyrclla gracilis were gathered in the bog, the former among 
decaying rushes. 




British Non=Marine MoUusca. By E. W. Swanton. 134 pages. 
Charles Mosley, Lockwood. Price 2/6. 

In this compilation Mr. Swanton gives a detailed and somewhat technical 
description of the various species of non-marine moUusca to be found in the 
British Islands, ' including fossil forms which occur in the Post-Pliocene 
deposits, excepting the Forest-Bed series.' It is unfortunate that two or 
three qualities of paper have been used for printing this small volume, as its 
appearance is not thereby improved. 

A Pocket Book of British Birds. By E. F. M. Elms, 150 pages. 
West, Newman, & Co. 2/6. 

This book is ' intended solely for the purpose of reference in the field, 
and has been very carefully compiled by the combined aid of well-known 
ornithological works, coupled with practical observarions and notes made 
by the author from time to time in various parts of the British Isles. The 
book is of small size, and should be carried in the pocket, where it would 
always be handy.' The compiler appears to have done his work carefully, 
and gives his information concisely, under heads of plumage, language, 
habits, food, nest, site, materials, eggs, etc. 

The Natural History of Selborne. By the Rev. Gilbert White. 

266 pages. Re-arranged and classified under subjects by Charles Mosley. 
Elliot Stock. Price 6/- net. 

The number of editions through which Gilbert White's Selborne has 
passed speaks well for the popularity of that work, as well as for the interest 
taken in natural history generally. By the various editors who have 
supervised the issuing of the work it has generally been thought desirable 
to copy White's letters as nearly in their original form as possible. Mr. 
Mosley, however, strikes out a new line, and in the present volume he has 
endeavoured, for the benefit of the student, to make extracts from White's 
letters and arrange them under headings according to species. In this way 
all the particulars respecting owls, doves, newts, etc., are brought together ; 
and if it is likely that the student should wish to read all the references to 
any species included in W'hite's Selbourne, then Mr. Mosley's volume is 
useful. One cannot, however, but feel that whilst the volume may be useful 
as an index, it has lost much of the charm of the hundred or so earlier 
editions where the letters remain intact. Mr. Mosley appears to have done 
his work conscientiously, and in whatever the form all naturalists must 
welcome this further monument to Gilbert White. 


The University of Durham has conferred the honorary degree of D.Sc. 
upon Prof. G. A. Labour. 

Mr. T. Midgley has been appointed Curator of the Museum, and borough 
Meteorologist for Bolton, in place of his father, Mr. W. W. Midgley, who 
has resigned. 

Mr. M. B. Slater has reprinted ' An account of the Mosses and Hepatics 
of the North Riding of Yorkshire,' from Baker's ' North Yorkshire,' recently 
issued by the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 

An obituary notice of the late Prof. J. F. Blake, well known for his work 
on the Yorkshire Lias and on Yorkshire Geology generally, appears in the 
September Geological Magazine. A list of his papers, etc., is also given. 

igo6 October i. 

376 Northern News. 

Mr. T. Sheijp.'ird, who lias been the Hon. Secretary of the Hull Scientific 
and F"iekl Naturalists' Club for thirteen years, has been elected to the office 
of President of the Club. 

The trustees of the late A. A. Palnia have agreed to i)urchase the 
picturesque estate known as Hubbard's Hills, near Louth, Lines., with the 
object of offering' it to the town. 

Mr. G. Henrickson, Inspector of Mines, Christiania, favours us with a 
paniplilet entitled ' Sundry Geological Problems ' {18 pp.), in which he deals 
with the origin of certain iron ore deposits. 

The Chester Society of Natural Science is ' strong ' on Meteorology, 
judging from the thirty-fourth annual report just to hand. An exceptionally 
large list of additions to the librar}- is also printed. 

We have received Parts i and 2 of Xorthcni N^ufcs and Onirics, a 
quarterly journal devoted to the antiquities of Northumberland, Cumberland, 
Westmorland, and Durham, edited by H. R. Leighton, price 1/6. 

The Official Information Department of the Manx Government has 
issued an attractive Hand-book to the Island, beautifully illustrated, which 
should be in the hands of all those thinking of visiting the Isle of Man. 

A paper of practical interest to northern archaeologists on ' The Chron- 
ology of Prc-historic Glass Beads and Associated Ceramic Types in Britain,' 
b}' the Hon. J. Abercromby appears in the Journal of the Antiiropological 
Association, Vol. 35. 

We have received a recent report of the Louth Antiquarian and Naturalists' 
Society, which contains a brief summar}' of the work of the society during 
the year. The more important finds are also recorded. The statement of 
accounts shows a small balance in hand. 

A list of papers, maps, etc., relating to the erosion of the Holderness 
coast and the changes in the Humber estuary, by Mr. T. Sheppard, F.G.S., 
compiled at the request of the Ro\-al Geographical Society, has been reprinted 
from the Transactions of the Hull Geological Society. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward's presidential address to the Geological 
Association on ' The Study of Fossil Fishes ' has been printed in exfenso in 
the Society's Proceedings. It contains some of the most striking illustrations 
of the evolution of fishes that we have seen for some time. 

On the title page of \'ol. XIV. of ' Nature Stud)' and the Naturalists' 
Journal' (formerly the 'Naturalists' Journal') which was issued with the 
number for December last, was a quotation from a paper by Mr. T. 
Sheppard on the advantages of the studv of Natural Histor\'. The magazine 
has not appeared since ! ! 

From the report of the Manchester Museum, Owen's College, for the year 
1905-6, it is gratifying to learn that financially the museum has had a much 
better j'ear. Amongst many interesting acklilions is a valuable collection of 
over 5000 stone implements, formed by Mr. R. D. Darbishire during the last 
forty years, and presented by him to the institution. 

Part 3 of the ' Manchester Field Club ' has been received, and contains 
an account of the work of the society from 1902 to December 1903. The 
])arl is excellently printed on good ])aper ; and, whilst many of the articles 
do not bear uijon the Manchester district in any way, there are several which 
have a distinct local value. The society has a very substantial balance in 
the bank. 

Tiii'presidential address of Mr. John Gerrard to the Manchester 
and Mining .Socielv ap|)cars in the Transactions of that Socii'ty, \'<)I. 2<.), 
Pari II. In the same Journal I'rof. W. Boyd Dawkins describis 'a section 
of glacial de])osits met with in the construction of the new dock at Salforil. 
In this he mentions a boulder of coal-measure sandstone weighing about 45 
tons, which is saiti to be l)y far the largest boukler yet fountl in Lancashire 
in the glacial drift. 



No. 598 

(No. 376 of current series). 





The Museum, Hull ; 


T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield ; 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 

Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., 
T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., 


Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated) :— The Ladies' Slipper Orchid, Nature 
York Philosophical Society, 'Scarboroagh : A Guide and Souvenir' ... 

The Flight of Bats— Arthur Whitaker 

Geology at the British Association—/. Lomas, F.G.S. 

Notes on Harvest=Spiders— IFi/i. Falconer 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Guisborough 

The Chemistry of Some Common Plants — P. Q. Keegan, LL.D. 
Note on a Curious Faculty in Spiders — W. W. Strickland, B.A. 

Museum Conference at Chester 

Field Notes 

Reviews and Book Notices (illustrated) 

Museum News 

Northern News 


A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenu 

And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



s, The 

... 377-378 

.. 379-384 

.. 385-387 

.. 388-390 

.. 391-396 

.. 397-400 

.. 401-402 

.. 403-404 

.. 396-405 

. 387, 402, 406 


384, 390, 407-408 

377, 406 





Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 


[Of a few of these there are several copies.) 

1. Inaugural Address, Delivered by the President, Rev.W. Fowler, M.A.' 

in 1877. 6d. 

2. On the Present State of our knowledge of the Geography of British 

Plants (Prtsitlontial Adtlress). J. ('.ilkkkt Bakkr, K.R.S. 6d. 

3. The Fathers of Yorkshire Botany (Presidential Address). J. Gilbert 

Kakkk, I'.R.S. 9d. 

4. Botany of the Cumberland Borderland Marshes. J. G. Baker, F".R.S. 6d. 

5. The Study of Mosses (Presidential Address). Dr. R. Brathwaite, 

F.L.S. 6d. 

6. Mosses of the Mersey Province. J. A. Wheldon. 6d. 

7. Strasburger's Investigation on the Process of Fertilisation in Phanero- 

gams. Thomas Hick, B.A., B.Sc. 6d. 

8. Additions to the Algae of West Yorkshire. W. West, F.L.S. 6d. 

9. Fossil Climates. A. C. Seward, M.A., F. R.S. 6d. 

10. Henry Thomas Soppitt (Obituary Notice). C Crossland, F.L.S. 6d. 

11. The Late Lord Bishop of Wakefield (Obituary Notice). Willl\m 

Whitwkll, F.L.S. 6d. 

12. The Flora of Wensleydale. John Percival, B.A. 6d. 

13. Report on Yorkshire Botany for 1880. F. Arnold Lees. 6d. 

14. Vertebrates of the Wertern Ainsty (Yorkshire). Edgar R. Waite, 

F.L.S. 9d. 

15. Lincolnshire. John Cordeaux, M.B.O.U. 6d. 

16. Heligoland. John Cordeaux, M.B.O.U. 6d. 

17. Bird-Notes from Heligoland for the Year 1886. Heinrich G'atke, 

C.INLZ.S. Is. 

18. Coleoptera of the Liverpool District. Part IV., Brachelytra. John 

\V. FIi.Lis. L.R.C.P. 6d. 

19. Coleoptera of the Liverpool District. Parts V. and VL, Clavicornia 

and LanifHicornia. John \V. Ki.Lis, L. R.C.F. 6d. 

20. The Hydradephaga of Lancashire and Cheshire. W. E. Sharp. 6d. 

21. The Lepidopterous Fauna of Lancashire and Cheshire. Part L, 

Khophaloccra. JOHN \V. Ellis, L.R.C.P. 6d. 

22. The Lepidopterous Fauna of Lancashire and Cheshire. Part II., 

Spliiiii^-os and Romhyces. John W. Ei.lis, L.R.C.P. 6d. 

23. Variation in European Lepidoptera. W. F. De Vismes Kane, M.A., 

ALR.LA. 6d. 

24. Yorkshire Lepidoptera in 1891. A. E. Hall, F.E.S. 6d. 

25. Yorkshire Hymenoptera (Third List of Species). S. D. Bairstow, 

F.L.S., W. Dknison Rokiu ck, and Thomas Wilson. 6d. 

26. List of Land and Freshwater Mollusca of Lancashire. Robert 

Standkn. 9d. 

27. Yorkshire Naturalists at Gormire Lake and Thirkleby Park. 6d. 

Halifax Naturalist, Parts 9, 15. 

British Association Reports for 1835, 1837, 1839, and 1840. 
Proceedings of Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society, Vol. I. 
Barnsley Naturalist Society's Quarterly Reports, Set. 


J/)/)/)' Hon. Sec, Y.N.U , Museum, HuU. 
Please mention 'The Naturalist' in reDlvinsr to Advertisements. 




Readers will be interested in seeing a photograph of an 

exceptionally fine flower of one of the g^reat rarieties of the 

Yorkshire Flora. It is of an example of the Ladies' Slipper 

Orchid [Cypripediuin calccolus) taken in a remote station in 

Cyprtpedium calceolus. 

Upper Wharfedale. The plant has been observed in three 
localities in Yorkshire during the past summer, one being" in 
Wensleydale, north-west Yorkshire. Happily in this station 
the plant is watched over with loving" care, and the bloom 
gathered every year to ensure the complete safety of the plant 
in one of its very few remaining habitats in the north of England. 

1906 November i. 

2 B 

378 jVo/cs and C\)))iniciifs. 

It seems a pity that such extraordinary precautions should have 
to be taken to protect our floral treasures aj^ainst the rapacity 
of plant collectors, for we can hardly call them botanists, with 
the result of makings it impossible for real nature lovers to have 
the opportunity of seeing" them in all their g'lory in their natural 
surrounding's. We have also received a photograph of a further 
specimen from Mr. J. F. Pickard. The photograph reproduced 
herewith, for which we are indebted to the proprietors of the 
Strand Magazine, professes to be the first photograph ever 
taken of the Ladies' Slipper in its native haunts. 

Messrs. Gowan & Grey have issued a series of small nature 
books, which contain some of the finest reproductions of photo- 
graphs that we have seen for some time. Five of these have 
been received, namely, ' Wild Birds at Home ' (two), ' Wild 
Flowers at Home ' (two), and ' Butterflies and Moths at Home.' 
Whilst those dealing with birds contain by far the most striking 
photographs, all the series contain many of exceptional interest. 

The annual report of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society for 
' M.C.M.V.' is much smaller than usual. Beyond the Meteoro- 
logical Tables, it contains nothing except the purely official 
reports on the society's work. Mr. Oxley Grabham, the 
Curator, has presented his valuable collection of British 
Mammals (200 specimens) to the museum, and Dr. Tempest 
Anderson has provided the cabinets in which the collection is 
housed. Amongst the honorary members elected during the 
year we notice the names of Sir Benjamin Baker, Mr. J. J. H. 
Teall, Dr. Vaughan Cornish, Mr. G. W. Laniplugh, Mr. 
Romilly Allen, and the Marquis of Ripon. 

In connection with a recent conference of the National Union 
of Teachers at Scarborough, an admirable souvenir was pre- 
pared under the editorship of Mr. D. W. Bevan, of the 
Scarborough Naturalists' Society. It contains chapters on 
'Scarborough for the Geologist,' 'Scarborough for the Botanist,' 
'The Birds of Scarborough,' etc., and there are numerous 
illustrations from photographs, maps, etc. 

* i8b pag'cs. T. Ni'lsoi) & Sons, Ediiibuii;!). 





Worsbrough Bridge. 

{Continued froiii page JS3-) 

The Pipistrelle Bat {Pipistrellus pipistrellus) usually appears 
about thirty to forty minutes after sunset. It is probably our 
commonest Yorkshire bat. Its flig'ht is unsteady, erratic, and 
fluttering^, its size small, the wing" expanse being- usually under 
eig^ht inches. It flies g^enerally at a low altitude, seven to twelve 
or fifteen feet, and usually selects a short beat up and down, 
which it keeps, fluttering with great persistency. This beat 
varies in length from a dozen yards, merely the length of a barn 
side or the hedge of a small garden, to several hundred yards, 
the round of a large plantation or small wood. One thing can 
almost always be relied on however, and is remarked on by 
J. G. Millais (' Mammals of Great Britain and Ireland '), ' If the 
bat is observed to pass a particular spot, it may be expected 
there again in a few seconds' or a few minutes' time ' (according 
to the length of its round or beat). If struck at when flying, 
with stick, umbrella, or other implement, as its low flight often 
tempts people to do, it surprises its assailant by wheeling round 
several times, often within a few feet of him. I find this species 
the easiest to net of any, and I have obtained very many scores 
of individuals at different times, either in my ordinary gauze 
butterfly net, or still more effective fisherman's landing-net. In 
early spring and late autumn this bat not infrequently flies 
during the daytime, especially when a succession of cold nights 
prevent any insects from stirring, while at the same time the 
days are so warm as to arouse the bats from their proper winter 
torpor and thus make them feel the need of food, and at leng-th 
drive them forth in the sunshine to prey upon the few insects 
which the noonday warmth has also induced to fly. When flying 
in the daytime, I have most commonly seen it flitting high up 
about the tree tops. 

The Pipistrelle flies regularly on favourable nights from 
March to the end of November, and even during the remaining^ 
months an exceptionally mild evening will not infrequently 
tempt it out, so that it may occasionally be seen on the wing 
even during December, January, or February. 

It is almost ubiquitous, and most catholic in its choice of a 
hunting-ground. I have seen it in the most secluded glades of 

iyo6 November i. 

380 Whihikcr : The FliirJit of Bats. 

the New Forest, flyinj^ in the shelter of the cliffs on the sea- 
coast, fluttering' up and down the outbuildings of some isolated 
farm high on our Yorkshire hills, skimming between the high 
hedges of a coutry lane, or hunting for its living over the open 
fields. Over the smallest pond it may be seen flying, or skirting- 
the edge of large reservoirs or lakes, flying busily backwards 
and forwards up and down the village street, or making a home 
near some dirty little reservoir or garden even in the middle of 
a town or city. 

Sometimes Pipistrelles will fly so close to an observer, 
especially when they happen to be passing under some tree 
beneath which he is stationed, that he can easily hear the