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II 



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NATURALIST: 



w 



2r 

MONTHLY JOURNAL OF 



NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND 



EDITED BY 

THOMAS SHEPPARD, F.G.S., 

Curator of the Municipal Museums, Hull. 

Author of "Geological Rambles in East Yorkshire"; "The Making of East Yorkshire" 
Editor of Mortimer's "Forty Years' Researches"; and of the Publications of the 
East Riding Antiquarian Society, and Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' Club. 

President of the Hill Scientific and Field Naturalists' Club, of the Hull 
Geological Society, and of the Hull Shakespeare Society; Hon. Secretary of 
the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union ; Member of the Councils and Committees 
of the British Association, Museums' Association, Yorkshire Roman Anti- 
quities Committee, the Yorkshire Geological Society, the East 
Riding Nature Study Association, the East Riding Antiquarian 
Society, and Hull Literary Club; Hon. Life Member of 
the Spalding Gentlemen's Society ; of the Doncaster 
Scientific Society; etc. 



THOMAS WILLIAM WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F. L. S. 

Lecturer in Biology, Technical College, Huddersfiki.h ; 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S. GEORGE T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Prof. PERCY F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S. JOHN W. TAYLOR. 

T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U. WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. 



190T. 



LONDON : 
A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., 5, Farringdon Aveni/e, E.C, ////jfr/ 
And at Hull and York. 



PRINTED AT BROWNS' SAVILE PRESS, 
DOCK STREET, HULL. 



^0 






Wt^ 



LIST OF PLATES. 



11 

12 
1,1 
15 



PtATE I. On the edge of tlie Moor to face p. 1 

II. John Gilbert Baker, F.R.S., F.L.S., etc. ... „ fi 

III. Basking Shark at Redcar ... ... ... ,, 

IV. Frullania dilatata ... ... ... 1 

,, tamarisci ... ... ... j 

V. Of various species of Frullania ... ... ,, 

VI. Fig. 4.— Jubula hutchinsiae ... .. ] 

Fig. 5. — Polyotus niagellanicus .. i 

VII. Reproductive Organs of Frullania dilatata ,, 

VIII. Figs. 7 and 8. — Sporophyte of generation of 

Frullani dilatata .. ... ... ,. \c< 

IX. Verticicladiuni Cheesmanii Crossl. .. ... ,. OS 

X. Dauben ton's Bat and Young one ... ... ,, SI 

,, XL Young of Pipistrelle or Common Bat ... ,. 81 

,, Xlf. Parts of Chrysopa perla and C. tiava ... ,, 84 

XIII. British Eggs of Pallas' Sand Grouse ... ,, 6."> 

XIV. Shells from British Carboniferous Rocks ... ,, 9(5 
,, XV. British Tunicata ... ... ... ... ,, 7" 

XVI. British Pipe Fishes ,, 12.". 

XVII. Pipistrelle and Long-eared Bats ... ... , 11") 

„ XVIII. Transverse Section of Wood of Oak ... ,, 83 

XIX. Sir Michael Foster, KG. B., &c ,, 124 

,, XX. Flamingo Group in the American Museum 

of Natural History ... ... ... ,, 163 

„ XXI. Speeton Ammonites ... ... ... ... ., 165 

XXIT. The Bempton Cliffs ,, 225 

XXIII. The Linnet ,, 227 

., XXIV. Malformed Antler of Red Deer from Sutton- 

on-Sea, Lines. ... ... ... ... ,, 231 

XXV. Kitthvakes on Nests ,, 234 

,, XXVI. Guillemots on Pinnacle Rocks, Fame Islands ,, 235 

,, XXVII. Eider Duck and Nest ; Lesser Black Back 

Gull „ 23G 

., XXVIII. Kittiwakes and Guillemots on the Staple 

Island; A Group of Puffins ... ... ,, 237 

XXIX. Puffins; Cormorants and Sandwich Terns 

on their Nests ,, 23S 

,, XXX. Herring Gull and Nest at Hawsker ... ., 252 



11 



List of Plates. 



Plate XXXI. 

XXXII. 
XXXIII. 
XXXIV. 

XXXV. 

XXXVI. 

XXXVII. 

,, XXXVIII. 

XXXIX. 

XL. 
XLI. 



The zEgir, Gainsborough to face p. 261 

Rev. E. Maule Cole, M.A., F.G.S , 267 

Young Grey Wagtails in Nest ... ... ,, 292 

Sallow and Willow Catkins ,, 372 

' The Grey Wethers ' (Sarsen Stones), 

Marlborough ,, 330 

Oenothera Lamarkiana Ser. at St. Anns-on- 

the-Sea ,, 330 

\ Nests of Coot and Crested Grebe ,, 332 

Ritteria mantonensis, n. sp. ; Eatoniana 
plumifer 

Diseased Bones of Bear 

The Hairy-armed or Leisler's Bat (Vesperugo 
leisleri) 



XLII. John Farrah, F.L.S., F.R.Met.S. 



3.37 
3S1 

384 
412 



JANUARY 1907. 



No. 600 

(No. 378 of current aeries). 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., 

The Museum, Hull; 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield ; 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 



J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S. F.L.S., 
Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., 
T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., 



GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
JOHN W. TAYLOR, 
WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. 



Contents : — 

PAGES 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated) : — Liverpool Biologists, Liverpool Geologists, Leeds 

Geologists, Nature Photographs 1-4 

Prominent Yorkshire Workers— 

II.— John Gilbert Baker, F.R.S. , F.L.S., M.R.I. A., V.M.H. (Illustrated) 5-8 

Notes on a Curious Faculty in Spiders— Rev. O. Pickard-Cambridge, M. A., F.R.S 9-10 

Note on a Large Basking Shark at Redcar (Illustrated)— T. Sheppard, F.G.S 10 

Notes on Yorkshire Bryophites (Illustrated)— F. Cavers, D.Sc, F.L.S 11-16 

Life Zone in British Carboniferous Rocks— Wheelton Hind, M.D., B.S., F.R.C.S., F.G.S. 17-23 

The Chemistry of Some Common Plants— P. Q. Keegan, LL.D 24-25 

Yorkshire Naturalists at York 26-28 

On the Small Quantity of Air Necessary to Sustain Life in a Bat— H. B. Booth, M.B.O.U. 28 

Field Notes 25, 29-32 

Reviews and Book Notices 32 

Northern News 8,16,23 

Illustrations 1,2 

Plates I., II., III., IV., V., VI., VII., VIII. 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon AvE}$fE,^E.C. 

And at Hull and York. 



Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



PRICE 6d. NET. BY POST 7d. NET. 



JAM4 im 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 

' NATURALIST' REPRINTS, Etc., FOR SALE. 

POST FREE. 

{Of a few of these there are several copies.) 

1. Inaugural Address, Delivered by the President, Rev.W. Fowler, M.A.j 

in 1877. 6d. 

2. On the Present State of our knowledge of the Geography of British 

Plants (Presidential Address). J. Gilbert Baker, F.R.S. 6d. 

3. The Fathers of Yorkshire Botany (Presidential Address). J.Gilbert 

Baker, F.R.S. 9d. 

4. Botany of the Cumberland Borderland Marshes. J. G. Baker, F.R.S. 6d. 

5. The Study of Mosses (Presidential Address). Dr. R. Brathwaite, 

F.L.S. 6d. 

6. Mosses of the Mersey Province. J. A. Wheldon. 6d. 

7. Strasburger's Investigation on the Process of Fertilisation in Phanero- 

gams. Thomas Hick, B.A., B.Sc. 6d. 

8. Additions to the Algse of West Yorkshire. W. West, F.L.S. 6d. 

9. Fossil Climates. A. C. Seward, M.A., F.R.S. 6d. 

10. Henry Thomas Soppitt (Obituary Notice). C. Crossland, F.L.S. 6d. 

11. The Late Lord Bishop of Wakefield (Obituary Notice). William 

Whitwell, F.L.S. 6d. 

12. The Flora of Wensley dale. John Percival, B.A. 6d. 

13. Report on Yorkshire Botany for 1880. F. Arnold Lees. 6d. 

14. Vertebrates of the Wertern Ainsty (Yorkshire). Edgar R. Waite, 

F.L.S. 9d. 

15. Lincolnshire. John Cordeaux, M.B.O.U. 6d. 

16. Heligoland. John Cordeaux, M.B.O.U. 6d. 

17. Bird-Notes from Heligoland for the Year 1886. Heinrich Gatke, 

C.M.Z.S. Is. 

18. Coleoptera of the Liverpool District. Part IV., Brachelytra. John 

W. Ellis, L.R.C.P. 6d. 

19. Coleoptera of the Liverpool District. Parts V. and VI., Clavicornia 

and Lamellicornia. John W. Ellis, L.R.C. P. 6d. 

20. The Hydradephaga of Lancashire and Cheshire. W. E. Sharp. 6d. 

21. The Lepidopterous Fauna of Lancashire and Cheshire. Part I., 

Rhophalocera. John W. Ellis, L.R.C.P. 6d. 

22. The Lepidopterous Fauna of Lancashire and Cheshire. Part II., 

Sphinges and Bombyces. John W. Ellis, L.R.C.P. 6d. 

23. Variation in European Lepidoptera. W. F. De Vismes Kane, M.A., 

M.R.I.A. 6d. 

24. Yorkshire Lepidoptera in 1891. A. E. Hall, F.E.S. 6d. 

25. Yorkshire Hymenoptera (Third List of Species). S. D. Bairstow, 

F.L.S., W. Denison Roebuck, and Thomas Wilson. 6d. 

26. List of Land and Freshwater Mollusca of Lancashire. Robert 

Standen. 9d. 

27. Yorkshire Naturalists at Gormire Lake and Thirkleby Park. 6d. 



WANTED. 



Quarterly Journal Geological Society, Vols. 1-22. 

Phillip's Life of William Smith. 

British Association Reports for 1839 and 1840. 

Proceedings of Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society, Vol. I. 

Barnsley Naturalist Society's Quarterly Reports, Set. 

good prices given. 

Apply — Hon. Sec, Y.N.U., Museum, Hull. 

Please mention 'The Naturalist' in replying to Advertisements. 



THE NATURALIST, 1907- 



Plate 1. 




On the Edge of the Moor. 

(See p. i). 



THE flflTURfllilST 



FOR 1907. 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



LIVERPOOL BIOLOGISTS. 
In a substantial report of 208 pages,* Prof. Herdman, with the 
assistance of Messrs. A. Scott and J. Johnstone, gives a valuable 
account of a year's work at Liverpool and Piel. An idea of the 




An Over=crowded Mussel Skear. 

nature of the contents of the volume may be gathered by 
the following list of reports, etc., which it contains: — Intro- 
duction and general account of the work ; ' Sea-fish Hatchery 
at Piel'; 'Classes, Visitors, etc., at Piel'; 'Report on the 
Tow-nettings ' ; ' Faunistic Notes ' ; ' Mussel Transplantation ' ; 
' Trawling Observations ' ; ' Marked Fish Experiments ' ; ' Para- 
sites of Fishes ' ; ' Ichthyological Notes ' ; ' Sewage Pollution 

* No. XIV. Report for 1905 of the Lancashire Sea-Fisheries Laboratory 
at the University of Liverpool, and the Sea-fish Hatchery at Piel. . Liverpool, 
1906. 



2 Notes and Comments. 

at Llanfairfechan ' ; 'Oligodynamic Action of Copper'; and 
' Sea Fish Hatchery at Port Erin.' 

We regret that the demands upon our space enable us to do 
little more than draw the attention of naturalists to this useful 
report. The effect on the growth of mussels by overcrowding 
on the skears is admirably shown, and good work was done by 
transplanting young mussels in over-crowded areas, to places 
where they had better opportunity of flourishing. Under 
favourable conditions, mussels grow fully half-an-inch a year, 
but when they are too thick upon the skears progress is not 
so rapid. 

In the same report a curious instance of arrested metamor- 
phosis in a flounder is referred to. As will be seen from the 



UN*. 




Flounder, showing arrested mstamorphosis. 



figure, the left eye does not occupy the normal position, but is 
very distinctly on the (secondary) dorsal margin of the head, 
and, indeed, is easily visible from the ' blind ' side of the 
specimen. The fish was also pigmented on both sides. For 
the illustrations we are indebted to Prof. Herdman. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 3 

LIVERPOOL GEOLOGISTS. 
That our geological friends in Liverpool are as enthusiastic as 
ever, is shown by the regular appearance of the ' Proceedings 
of the Liverpool Geological Society,' in a brilliantly coloured 
cover. Part 2 of Vol. X., containing particulars of the work 
accomplished in the Society's forty-seventh session, is recently 
to hand. The principal items are : — (1) The President's Address 
(presumably by Mr. H. C. Beasley), in which he concludes that 
' The secrets of the Trias are only to be discovered by the study 
of the desert regions of the world existing as they do in each 
of the continents' ; (2) 'The Colorado Canyon and its lessons,' 
by W. M. Davis, of Harvard ; (3) 'The Pleistocene Clays and 
Sands of the Isle of Man,' by T. Mellard Reade and Joseph 
Wright. What would the Liverpool geologists do without these 
two veterans, who must be congratulated on their enthusiasm, 
and on the persistency with which, by means of their lists of 
foraminifera, they endeavour to drive nails in the coffin of the 
glacialists. But this coffin is not yet made,* and if ever it is, 
we doubt whether the numerous lists published by Messrs. 
Reade and Wright will have had anything to do with it. On 
the other hand, the day may come (and may it be long post- 
poned), when the last of the ' submergers ' will be sent to sea, 
Viking-like, and be heard of no more ; as it is, they ' pass on 
and on, and go from less to less.' Mr. J. Lomas gives an ac- 
count of his examination of 'The Dwyka in South Africa,' 
which is illustrated by two blocks from photographs. Mr. 
W. D. Brown writes ' On Some Erratics of the Boulder Clay in 
the Neighbourhood of Burscough,' and gives the results of 
experiments upon boulders by artificial sand blast. In a lengthy 
and elaborate paper, Messrs. T. M. Reade and Philip Holland, 
conclude their useful researches among ' Sands and Sediments.' 
This is illustrated by two excellent plates. 



LEEDS GEOLOGISTS. 
Our Leeds Geological friends must be congratulated upon 
placing on record an account of their doings during the years 
1900-5.1 This record appears in a pamphlet of 52 pages, and 
contains particulars of the officers for each year, titles of papers 
read, etc., from the twenty-seventh to the thirty-first session. 
There are abstracts of papers on ' The Airedale Glacier,' by 

* Some think that a coffin will not be required — as the glacialists will be 
cremated / 

t 'Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association,' PartXIIL, 1900-1, 
1901-2, 1902-3, 1903-4, 1904-5. Price 1/6. Jowett & Sowry, Printers, Leeds. 

1907 January i. 



4 Notes and Comments. 

H. B. Muff; « The Geology of Ingleborough,' by J. H. Howarth ; 
' The Aims of a Local Geological Society ' and ' The Causes of 
Volcanic Action,' by D. Forsyth ; 'Geological Photography,' 
by Godfrey Bingley ; ' Glacier Lakes of the Cleveland Hills/ by 
P. F. Kendall ; ' The relation of the Geology to the Vegetation 
of the West Riding of Yorkshire,' by W. G. Smith ; ' Some 
Drift Deposits near Leeds, [Re-printed from the ' Proceedings 
of the Yorkshire Geological Society,'] by E. Hawkesworth ; 
'River Capture in Yorkshire,' by Rev. W. Lower Carter; 
'The Eastern Extension of the Yorkshire Coalfield,' by P. F. 
Kendall ; and ' Report of the Magnesian Limestone Com- 
mittee,' by A. R. Dwerryhouse. Lists of other papers to be 
consulted on the various subjects referred to are given, and 
add to the value of the abstracts. 

Presumably the 'lack of funds,' referred to in the Preface, 
which has accounted for the delay in the appearance of these 
Transactions, is also responsible for the brevity of some of the 
abstracts, and the omission of some papers altogether. The 
appearance of the publication would have been improved had the 
various lists of officers, etc., been put all together at one end of 
the pamphlet, instead of cutting up the reading matter. Mr. 
Hawkesworth's map would also have been much clearer if the 
'gravel patches 'had been shaded. We commend the Editors 
on the prominence given to local papers — that by Mr. J. H. 
Howarth being particularly valuable — and trust that in future 
the finances of the Society will enable them to produce details 
of their proceedings more promptly and more fully. 



NATURE PHOTOGRAPHS. 
We have frequently, recently, called attention to the excellence 
of the illustrations appearing in books on natural history. A 
little volume just issued by Mr. T. N. Foulis* is an example. 
It is a companion to that noticed in this Journal for December, 
1905, but, if anything, the illustrations are even more attractive 
than in that volume. There are seventy in all, after photo- 
graphs by Charles Reid, and to these letter-press has been 
provided by the Rev. C. A. Johns, compiled from ' British 
Birds and their Haunts' and other sources. By the courtesy 
of the publishers we are able to reproduce one of the most 
charming of the illustrations — entitled, 'The Edge of the 
Moor.' (Plate I.) 

* ' I g-o A- walking Through the Woods and O'er the Moor.' 23, Bedford 
Street, London. 79 pp. Price 2/6 net. 



THE NATURALIST, 1907 





ei 



Occ. f tq* 



£ 



5 
PROMINENT YORKSHIRE WORKERS. 



II. -JOHN GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., M.R.I.A., V.M.H. 



At the meeting - of the British Association, held at York a few 
months ago, an opportunity was afforded of welcoming back to 
Yorkshire many prominent workers in the field of natural 
science. To few, however, was a more sincere welcome 
accorded than that given to the veteran Yorkshire botanist, 
Mr. John Gilbert Baker, who, notwithstanding his years, took 
a prominent part in the work of Section K, and was as 
enthusiastic and active as many there who were about half-a-cen- 
tury his junior, and surely it must be admitted that few have done 
so much for the furtherance of the study of plants of their 
county as Mr. Baker has done for Yorkshire. Without the 
many years of untiring energy in studying the flora of the 
broad-acred shire which he has given, our knowledge of the 
plants of this beautiful county would be much more meagre. 
As it is, we can take pride in the fact that the plants of our 
county are as well known as are those of any similar area in the 
British Isles, and this has been made possible by the industry, 
example, and encouragement of John Gilbert Baker. 

Whilst listening to the paper and debates in Section K, in 
August last, Mr. Baker must have been forcibly impressed with 
the difference in the state of our knowledge of botany at the 
present time compared with the year 1847, when, as a 
scholar at the Friends' School, at Bootham, in the same city, 
the subject of our sketch had developed sufficient interest in 
botany to be appointed Curator of the herbarium of that school. 
And from that time until to-day he has had his hobby well 
before him, and has kept abreast with the study of plant life as 
it has progressed with the years. This, of course, so far as 
was humanly possible, as, particularly during the last decade, 
such rapid strides have been made in such a multitude ot 
directions that it is not now possible fcr any single individual to 
be familiar with the details of the various branches of even 
botanical science. 

Mr. Baker was born at Guisborough, in Cleveland, on 
January 13th, 1834, and naturally has always an affectionate 
regard for the plants of his native place. At the meeting of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union held at Guisborough last year, he 

1907 January i. 



6 Prominent Yorkshire Workers — John Gilbert Baker. 

kindly contributed an account of the botanical attractions of the 
area, which proved very useful to those taking- part in the 
excursion. 

Soon after he was born, his parents removed to Thirsk, and 
we find that in 1843 he was attending - the school belonging to 
the Society of Friends at Ackvvorth, a school which has trained 
so many first-rate naturalists. By 1846 he was carefully 
collecting and studying the plants found growing in the vicinity 
of his school. In 1850 he had made his first contribution to 
botanical literature, in a paper entitled ' On the Occurrence of 
Carex Persoonii in Yorkshire,' printed in the ' Phytologist.' 
Four years later he was so thoroughly familiar with the flora of 
his county that he issued a valuable Supplement to Bailies' 
'Flora of Yorkshire. ' In the following year he read a paper, 
at the Glasgow meeting of the British Association, on the 
classification of British plants according to their geological 
relations. This paper was one of the first, if not the first, on 
this important subject. 

For seven years, commencing 1859, he acted as distributor 
for the Botanical Exchange Club, and wrote its reports. It is 
interesting to remember that this Club is still in existence, and 
is carried on on almost the same lines as it was when Mr. 
Baker was its secretary. 

By 1863 he had published his ' North Yorkshire : Studies of 
its botany, geology, climate, and physical geography.' This 
volume, which was dedicated to Hewett Cottrell Watson, was 
printed at Thirsk. It contained 366 pages and four maps. 
Unfortunately, a fire at the author's residence, which occured in 
1864, soon after the publication of the work, consumed the 
entire stock, thus making this a scarce volume. In 188S the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union commenced to reprint this work in 
its Transactions, and early last year the final part of this second 
edition was completed, and issued to the public. This second 
edition, which has been brought down to date, was reviewed in 
these columns for June last. It contains 688 pages, and maps, 
and a carefully compiled list of the mosses, prepared by Mr. 
M. B. Slater of Malton, a life-long friend of Mr. Baker's. 

Not only did the fire referred to destroy the stock of the first 
edition of ' North Yorkshire,' but it also burnt Mr. Baker's 
extensive library and herbarium. By the efforts of the members 
of the Botanical Exchange Club, and other botanists, however, 
the loss was to some extent repaired. 

In the same year the ' Naturalist ' — then under the editorship 

Naturalist. 



Prominent Yorkshire Workers — -John Gilbert Baker. 7 

of the late C. P. Hobkirk — was favoured with its first con- 
tribution from Mr. Baker's pen in a ' Review of British Roses.' 
A ' Monograph of British Mints ' was published by him in 
' Seemann's Journal of Botany ' in 1865, and in the following- 
year Mr. Baker's worth was recognised in London, and he was 
appointed first Assistant in the Herbarium of the Royal Gardens 
at Kew. Prof. D. Oliver was at that time the Keeper, and Sir 
J. D. Hooker was the Director. 

Conjointly with Sir W. J. Hooker, who died in 1865, Mr. 
Baker published, between 1865 and 1867, ' Synopsis Filicum : 
a synopsis of all known Ferns, with figures of the Genera and 
Sub-Genera.' A second edition was called for in 1875, and in 
1892 Mr. Baker brought the list of species to date in the 'Annals 
of Botany.' 

With Dr. G. R. Tate, he, in 1866, published the 'New Flora 
of Northumberland and Durham.' In the following year the 
Linnean Society published his ' Geographical Distribution of 
Ferns.' Between 1868 and the present time he has frequently 
contributed to Oliver and Dyer's ' Flora of Tropical Africa,' and 
between 1867 and 1899 he wrote various popular monographs 
of Narcissus, Lilium, Iris, Crocus, Agave, Yucca, Aquilegia, 
Hellebore, etc., to the ' Gardeners' Chronicle.' Between 1868 
and 1872 he contributed descriptions of new and rare plants 
from the garden of Mr. W. Wilson Saunders, of Reigate, to 
Vols. I., III., IV., and V. of ' Refugium Botanicum.' During 
the years 1870-1880 Volumes XI. to XVIII. of the Journal of the 
Linnean Society contained Baker's Monograph of the Liliaceae. 
And so on, year after year, have appeared most valuable and 
extensive monographs and papers dealing with the plants of 
England and abroad.* His latest piece of work has been the 
preparation of an account of the Botany of the County for the 
Victoria History. At the present moment he has in preparation, 
in conjunction with Miss Ellen Wilmott, 'A Book of Roses,' 
the coloured plates for which have been drawn by Mr. Alfred 
Parsons, A.R.A. 

A large number of genera and species of plants has been 
named in honour of Mr. Baker. Amongst them are the 
following : — Genera : Bakeria, Seemann (Araliaceae), sunk by 
Bentham and Hooker ; Bakeria, Andre (Bromeliaceae) ; and 

* An idea of the number of these may be gathered from the fact that 
83 papers on Ferns are enumerated in Christensen's ' Index Filicum,' 
and 43 on various botanical subjects are listed in the Royal Society's 
Catalogue for 1864-1873. 

1907 January i. 



8 Northern News. 

Bakererella, Van Tieghem (Loranthaceae). Species : Rosa 
Bakeri Dereglise ; Rubus Bakeri, F. A. Lees ; Galium Bakeri 
Lyme ; Anthurium Bakeri, Hook, fil ; Allium Bakeri, Regel ; 
Eucharis Bakeri, N. E. Brown ; Crinum Bakeri, Schumann ; 
Iris Bakeri, Foster ; Dracecena Bakeri, Scott-Elliott ; Rhodo- 
Icena Bakeri, Baillor, etc. 

A valuable part of Mr. Baker's work has been his carefully 
prepared biographical notices of various botanists. In 1902 
the Tyneside Field Club printed his paper on the ' Early 
Botanists of Northumberland and Durham,' and to the Yorkshire 
Naturalists Union, in 1885, he gave an address on ' Fathers of 
Yorkshire Botany,' which was printed in the Union's Botanical 
Transactions. 

Notwithstanding the enormous amount of his writings, and 
his practical botanical work, Mr. Baker has done much by 
lecturing, etc., to train other botanists, not a few of whom, 
occupying prominent positions to-day, express their indebted- 
ness to him for his painstaking addresses. 

In 1869 he was appointed lecturer on botany to the London 
Hospital ; for thirty years (between 1874 and 1904) he was 
lecturer at Kew Gardens ; from 1882 to 1896 he was lecturer on 
Botany to the Society of Apothecaries at Chelsea Gardens. In 
1866 her 'was elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society. The 
Victoria Medal of the Royal Horticultural Society was awarded 
to him in 1897, and the Gold Medal of the Linnean Society 
in 1899. These are only some of the many well-deserved 
honours that have been bestowed upon him by the various 
learned societies in Britain and abroad. As might be expected, 
he was amongst the first of the Presidents of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, occupying the presidential chair in 1884-5, 
during which he gave addresses on ' Recent Progress in English 
Botany ' and ' Fathers of Yorkshire Botany.' — T. S. 



Arrangements are being made for a Course of University Extension 
Lectures which Professor L. C. Miall has consented to give in the last year 
of the tenure of his Professorship. The subject of the Course will be ' The 
Early Naturalists, their lives and works.' Final arrangements are not quite 
complete, but the course will probably begin on January 31st. The lectures 
will deal with Natural History before John Ray ; Early workers with the 
microscope ; The Growth of System from Linnaeus onwards ; Life Histories 
of Insects ; Theories of the Earth and the origin of Species ; Summary of 
progress from Ray to Cuvier, etc. Further particulars may be had on 
application to Dr. W. G. Smith, the University, Leeds. A proposal has 
been made by some of Professor Miall's friends inside and outside the 
University that, on the occasion of his retirement in June next from his 
Chair, his services should be commemorated by the painting of his portrait 
for the University, and a committee has been formed to carry this out. 

Naturalist, 



NOTE ON A CURIOUS FACULTY IN SPIDERS. 

Rev. O. PICKARD-CAMBRIDGE, M.A., F.R.S. 

Ware ham. 

In the 'Naturalist' for November, 1906, No. 598, p. 401, Mt\ 
W. W. Strickland (Singapore) gives an account of two spiders 
of the family Salticidce, in whose fore-central eyes he noticed a 
change from one colour to another, ' evidently under the control 
of the spider's will.' Being unable to account for this, and the 
Curator of the Singapore Museum being equally ignorant of 
such a faculty in spiders, Mr. Strickland tells us that he wrote 
to Mr. R. I. Pocock, giving an account of this wonderful faculty, 
and he (Mr. Pocock) replied, saying that the faculty ' was quite 
unknown to naturalists.' Will you allow me to point out that 
such a faculty is not quite unknown to naturalists. The late 
Mr. John Blackwall, whose researches on Araneology were 
extensive, and are well known, writes (Annals and Mag. Nat. 
Hist., Pt. 1, Vol. XVIII., No. 120, p. 299) where he is 
speaking of one of the Thomisidce (Thomisus — now Oxyptild), 
pallidas, ' this species, with T/wmisus cristatus, T/iomisus 
bifasciatus, and some others, has the power of changing the 
colour of the anterior intermediate pair of eyes from dark red- 
brown to pale golden-yellow by a very perceptible internal 
motion. No such motion appears to occur in the oth*er eyes, 
which are always black.' Mr. Blackwall has also, I believe, 
noticed this faculty in some other publication, to which I am 
unable at this moment to give the reference. I may add, how- 
ever, that I have on many occasions noticed similar changes, 
but always in my experience in some spider of the family 
Salticidce. The only doubt I had was about the 'faculty,' 
whether the phenomenon was produced at the will of the 
spider, or whether it was simply caused by a movement, very 
slight perhaps, and almost imperceptible at times, of the spiders 
caput, occasioning, of course, the light to fall upon the convex 
transparent cornea of the eye at a different angle, and so reflect- 
ing a different light within the eye. The internal variation in 
colour, however caused, is very noticeable in some at any rate, 
perhaps in all of the Salticidce ; I have observed it especially 
in one, a tolerably common species, Hasarius falcatas Clerck 
(Salcicus coronatus Blackw). In an adult male example ot 
this spider, examined not very long ago (which had been in 
spirit for over nine months), the large fore-central pair of eyes 
was as transparent and as brilliant as if the spider were still 
alive ; and certainly in this dead spider there was a change of 

1907 January i. 



io Sheppard : Note on a Large Basking Shark at Redcar. 

internal colour visible when the caput was slightly moved one 
way or another. 

In reference to the supposed internal movement of the eyes 
at the will of the spider, I may perhaps refer to a published 
observation of my own at p. 538 of ' Spiders of Dorset,' 1881. 
This is to the same effect as the remarks I have made above, 
but I had for the moment forgotten it. 

NOTE ON A LARGE BASKING SHARK AT REDCAR. 

(PLATE III.) 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S. 

Hull. 






EARLY in August last an enormous shark, measuring 23 ft. 10 ins. 
in length, and ' 1 1^ ft. across the tail,' became entangled in 
the salmon nets at Redcar, and for a time was a great attraction 
to the visitors. It was variously described as a grampus, a 
blue shark, a basking shark, etc. Mr. T. H. Nelson, of 
Redcar, to whom we are indebted for the accompanying 
photograph (Plate III.), was absent whilst the shark was on 
view, but afterwards, in order to settle the matter, kindly 
obtained a portion of a comb-like body from the gills, and a 
piece of the skin. These were submitted to Sir William 
Turner, F.R.S., of the Edinburgh University, who has been 
good enough to examine them, and reports that they belong- 
to the Basking Shark {Selache maxima). 

The comb-like bronchial appendages, which were so in- 
teresting a feature in the Redcar specimen, are exceedingly 
curious, and formed the subject of a paper* by Sir William 
Turner, which was printed in the Journal of Anatomy and 
Physiology \ Vol. 14, 1S80, pp. 273-286. 

This comb-like structure was at first thought to be a variety 
of whalebone, to which material it is to some extent similar, and 
indeed the fish was referred to as a whale by the early writers. 
Sir William, however, proved that the type of the structure 
resembles the dentine of a tooth, and is not of the same nature 
as whalebone. Its purpose was probably as a sort of a filter, 
and answered the same purpose as the baleen plates in the 
mouth of a whale, consequently " they provide us with an 
excellent example of objects which, though different in structure 
and mode of origin, yet fulfil corresponding physiological 
properties." 

* The Structure of the Comb-like Bronchial Appendages and of the Teeth 
of tin- Basking Shark [Selache maxima). 

Naturalist, 



THE V ITUR l/./.sT. 1907. 



Plate III. 




THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate IV 





NOTES ON YORKSHIRE BRYOPHYTES.* 

IV. Frullania and Jubula. 



F. CAVERS, D.Sc, F.L.S. 

Professor of Biology, Hartley University College, Southampton. 



The genus Frullania, one of the most sharply defined and easily 
recognised among- leafy liverworts, is represented by over 300 
species, the great majority of which are tropical. Only six 
species occur in Europe ; five of these are found in Britain, 
and four in Yorkshire (F. dilatata, F. tamarisci, F. microphylla, 
F. fragilifolia). The two first named are the commonest, 
and they are perhaps the most elegant of our native liver- 
worts (Plate V.). Most of the species of Frullania grow as 
epiphytes on bark of trees, but some grow on rocks ; for 
example, F. dilatata is nearly always found on trees, whereas 
F. tamarisci appears to grow most frequently on rocks, though 
also found sometimes on trees. Our native species often form 
fairly large matted layers, the overlapping branches being 
closely pressed to the substratum, but in some tropical species 
the plants hang from the branches of trees in ' huge masses, 
sometimes half a yard long, and too bulky to be grasped in 
the arms.' t 

The genus Jubula has a curious geographic range. The 
type-species, J. hutchinsice, was discovered in Ireland, and 
besides occurring in several scattered Irish localities, plants 
more or less varying from the type have since been found 
along the western side of England, Wales, and Scotland, and 
a few years ago in West Yorkshire. Jubula apparently occurs 
nowhere else in the temperate regions, but it has a wide dis- 
tribution in the tropics, especially in Central and South America. 
Further reference will be made to this genus, which is by some 
writers merged in Frullania, though it stands well apart from 
the latter in many respects. The greater part of this paper, 
however, deals with Frullania, especially F. dilatata and 
F. tamarisci, abundant living material of which was available 
for investigation. 

In Frullania, as in leafy liverworts in general, there is a 
main axis bearing lateral branches in two opposite rows, and 
both main axis and branches consist of a cylindrical stem from 
which arise two rows of sideleaves and a single row of under- 

* For previous articles see the ' Naturalist' for September and November, 
1903, and July and August, 1904. 

t Spruce, HepaticcB amazonicce et andince, p. 38. 

1907 January i. 



12 Cavers: Notes on Yorkshire Bryophytes. 

leaves. Here and there the plant is attached to the substratum 
by a tuft of rhizoids (' root-hairs ') springing from the base of an 
underleaf. The leaves are spirally arranged, so that one under- 
leaf corresponds to two sideleaves. Each sideleaf is attached 
to the stem by a narrow insertion, which is exactly transverse 
in the young leaf, but later becomes shifted so as to run slightly 
forwards above (the line of insertion changes from I to\, looking 
at the stem from the side, with the growing forward end on the 
left), and the leaf curves so that its fore edge covers the hinder 
edge of the next leaf in front (the ' incubous ' arrangement). The 
underleaves, however, keep their original transverse insertion. 

Each leaf is divided into two lobes. In the underleaves, 
this division is not very deep ; the middle of the free part of the 
leaf is more or less deeply notched, the two teeth being of about 
the same size and" shape. In the sideleaves, the two lobes are 
sharply separated to the base ; the relative size of the lobes 
varies in different species and individual plants, even on the 
same plant, but the upper lobe is always the larger. While 
the upper lobe is a flat or curved plate, the lower lobe has the 
form of a pitcher which serves for storing water. This pitcher 
(' lobule ' or ' auricle ') is open behind and is joined to the upper 
lobe by a narrow stalk inserted near the mouth of the pitcher, 
and on this stalk there is usually a short outgrowth ('stylus') 
consisting of a single row of cells or a triangular plate (Fig. i). 
The pitchers, which sometimes contain small organisms {e.g. 
Nostoc and other algae, rotifers, insect-larvae), differ considerably 
in shape in different species, besides varying to some extent in 
the same species or on the same plant. In F. dilatata they are 
usually helmet-shaped, with a wide oblique opening ; in the other 
British species they are more cylindrical with a narrow trans- 
verse opening. In many of the tropical species (Fig. i) the 
pitchers have curious shapes ; the mouth is often drawn out like 
a scoop and is sometimes toothed, the closed end may be covered 
with small outgrowths, and in one case (F. replicatii) the pitcher 
is reversed, having the opening facing forwards. 

In order to get a clear idea of the organisation of Frullania, 
it is necessary to study the early stages of development, bv 
means of sections through the tip of the main stem or of a 
branch. The growing point has an apical cell, shaped like a 
pyramid with a slightly curved base, projecting forwards, and 
three flat sides, two of which meet in the middle line above, 
while the third is parallel with the lower surface of the stem 
(Fig'. 2). From the three flat sides are cut off three sets of seg'- 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate V. 




Fig. i.— Various species of Frullania, seen from lower surface, magnified. 

A, F. tamarisci ; B, F. dilatata (the underleaves removed) ; C, F. repandistipula; 
D,F.ringens; E, F. arecae ; F, F. ecklonii. 




Fig. 2.— Diagram of the Apical Growing= 
point, seen from the front. 

X, is the apical cell of the main axis ; the 
last nine segments cut from it are numbered ; 
Xi, X2, are the apical cells of branches. 




F'g- 3- 

A. Diagram to show the early divisions in the segments 
(see Fig. 2); S, S, S, are the cells which contribute to the 
stem; Li, L.2, L3, form respectively the lobe, lobule, and 
stylus of a sideleaf; A, A the two lobes of an underleaf. 
B. Leaf of F. dilatata grown in moist surroundings ; the lobule 
has remained flat instead of forming a pitcher. C. Cross- 
section of F. dilatata, showing stem, lobe, pitcher, stylus 
and underleaf. 



Cavers: Notes on Yorkshire Bryopliytes. 13 

merits in spiral succession, the apical cell growing - in size after 
each segment is cut off by a wall parallel with one of the sides. 
In each lateral (more strictly dorso-lateral) segment there 
first appears a wall dividing the segment into an upper and 
a lower cell, the latter being the larger ; then the lower cell 
divides by a curved wall cutting off an inner cell which con- 
tributes to the formation of the stem, while the two outer cells 
of the segment give rise to a sideleaf. In each of the ventral 
segments, the first division separates an inner cell, which con- 
tributes to the stem, from an outer cell which produces an 
underleaf, and which divides by a vertical wall. In each case, 
therefore, the young leaf begins its growth with two cells placed 
side by side around the stem. At first these two cells grow 
out independently, their independent growth lasting for a short 
or long time in different cases, and it is to differences in this 
respect and in the mode of growth of the two primary leaf-lobes 
that the immense variety of leaf-forms in the foliose liverworts 
is due. The later growth of the leaf takes place at the base, 
near the stem, the oldest cells being- therefore at the apex and 
margin. In the underleaf the two lobes become triangular, and 
after a time grow together at the base, and grow at about an 
equal rate, but in the side leaf the upper lobe soon outstrips the 
lower and becomes much larger, bending over the growing 
point ; all the leaf-lobes bear a club-shaped gland-hair at the 
tip, and sometimes also at the margin and the base, secreting 
mucilage which keeps the growing point moist. The lower 
cell of the lateral leaf (two-celled stage) usually divides at first 
into two, and the cell nearest the stem forms the ' stylus ' which 
is also tipped by a mucilage hair but undergoes little develop- 
ment. The rest of this lower half-segment then grows out 
to form a rounded or oval plate, and after a time its growth 
becomes restricted to the middle, so that it gradually becomes 
hollow and eventually forms a pitcher. 

When Frullania plants are grown in air saturated by moisture, 
e.g., by keeping pieces of bark with F. dilatata, or rock with 
F. ttimarisei, in a covered glass dish and watering liberally, the 
new branches are found to bear, instead of pitchers, flat rounded 
or triangular lobules (Fig. 3). In this connexion it is interesting 
to compare with Frullania the closely allied genus Jabula, in 
which the plants are dark green in colour and more delicate 
in texture than in Frullania (Fig. 4). Lett* gives the habitat 

* ' Hepatics of the British Islands,' 1902, p. 54. 

1907 January i. 



14 Cavers: Notes on Yorkshire Bryophytes. 

J. hutchinsitue as ' rocks and stones over which water trickles, 
and very moist places in shaded situations near waterfalls,' and 
Spruce gives a similar habitat for the South American plants 
referred to this species. In the numerous British and South 
American specimens I have examined, the lobules though 
varying- considerably in form, even on the same branch, are 
flat or slightly concave, strongly recalling the young lobules 
of F. dilatata and F. tamarisci as well as the mature lobules 
of Frullanias cultivated in very damp surroundings. In the 
Hawaiian species, J. piligera, described and figured by Evans,* 
the lobules are mostly of the pitcher type, and this species 
grows ' on the ground and on trunks of trees in damp places,' 
resembling in habitat the pitcher-bearing Frullanias and not 
the thoroughly moisture-loving J. hutchinsince. 

Water-storing arrangements of various kinds exist in several 
genera outside of Fridlania and its allies, but well developed and 
stalked cylindrical pitchers of the Fridlania type are rarely met 
with in other genera. One of the few examples is the genus 
Polyotus (Lepidolaena) which is restricted to the temperate and 
cold regions of the Southern Hemisphere. In this genus (Fig. 5) 
the pitchers are developed more freely than in Fridlania ; each 
sideleaf usually has a pair of pitchers, and they are sometimes 
borne on the underleaves as well. 

In Frullania the stem consists of uniform cells, and is some- 
what flattened above and below ; the number of cells rarely 
exceeds ten in the median horizontal plane (Fig. 3). The leaves 
are only one cell in thickness, except at the base, where they 
are often two-layered close to the junction with the stem. The 
cells are about uniform in size and shape, but in F. tamarisci 
and F. microphylla there is usually a line of longer and wider 
cells along the middle of the upper lobe, which doubtless serves 
the function of a mid-rib, and in F. fragilifolia similar cells 
occur singly or in groups. Each cell contains several chloro- 
plasts lying in the layer of protoplasm lining the cell wall, and 
numerous oil-bodies occur in the central part of the cell. The 
originally thin and colourless cell walls usually become strongly 
thickened, especially at the angles, and deeply stained red, 
brown, or purple. The outer walls usually project somewhat, 
especially on the upper side of the leaf; these projections are 
usually well marked in F. tamarisci, and doubtless give this 
species its characteristic glossy appearance. The lateral 

* The Hawaiian Hepaticce of the tribe Jubuloidece. 'Trans. Connecticut 
Acad.', 1900, p. 407. 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate VI. 




* fl 



© c 




THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate VII. 




Fig. b.—Frullania dilatata. 

A, a perigonial leaf (male bract), from ventral surface, showing two antheridia ; B. C, 
antheridium in apical view and in longitudinal section ; D, longitudinal section of perianth 
with two archegonia; E, transverse section of same; F, longitudinal section of perianth 
showing embryo in fertilised archegonium, with unfertilised archegonium on the right ; 
G, a series of longitudinal, and H, a series of transverse, sections of embryos of different 
ages; I, J, K, L, longitudinal sections of older sporogonia, to show development of spores 
and elaters. 



Cavers; Notes on Yorkshire Bryophytes. 15 

walls of the cells bear very thin places, or pits, through which 
dissolved substances can pass more readily. The degree of 
wall-thickening and of coloration depends largely on the habitat 
of the plant, especially as regards light, the thickest and most 
deeply coloured cell walls being found in plants growing in the 
most exposed places. From the results of cultures, I have found 
that in Frallania and various other liverworts the thickness of 
the cell walls is largly influenced by the amount of moisture in 
the surroundings, while their coloration depends solely on the 
intensity of the light. Cutin is not developed on any part of 
the plant (except on the outer surface of the capsule and in the 
outer coat of the spores), hence water can be absorbed at all 
parts, and is stored during drought, not only in the pitchers and 
in the cavities of the leaf cells, but also in the thick cell walls. 
Plants kept constantly moist not only dispense with pitchers, 
but also with thickened cell walls. The coloration of the walls 
may act as a screen against too strong light, or may be a pro- 
tection against cold in addition. Experiments have shown * 
that in plants of F. tamarisci with deep coloration the gaseous 
exchanges concerned in assimilation and respiration are less 
active than in green plants of the same species. 

Each branch of the stem arises just behind one of the side 
leaves. According to Leitgeb, t the whole of the lower half of 
a segment is used up to form the growing point of the branch 
(Fig. 2), so that the leaf behind which the branch arises has no 
lobule. This is usually the case in F. dilatata and F. tamarisci, 
which Leitgeb investigated, but from sections and cleared 
apices of several other species of Frullania, I am inclined to 
believe that in some cases, at any rate, the branch represents only 
the posterior part of the half segment, and that what appears to be 
the first underleaf of the branch is really the lobule and stylus 
derived from the rest of the half segment; this would agree 
with the interpretation of the branching in Frullania suggested 
by Spruce and by Evans. 

All the British species of Frullania are dioecious, though 
F. dilatata is said to have the male and female branches some- 
times on the same plant. In this species, as was noted by 
Hofmeister, \ the male plants usually occur at a higher level on 
the substratum than the female plants, to which the anthe- 
rozoids are washed down by rain or dew, thus reaching the 

* Jonsson, Comptes rend us, 1894. 

t Untersuchungen iiber die Lebermoose, Heft 2, pp. 22, 25. 

\ Vergleichende Untersuchungen, p. 37. 

IQ07 January i. 



1 6 Northern News. 

archegonia. The same is the case with F. tamarisci, and in 
both species the plants are- always dioecious, so far as I have 
seen, and the males are produced very sparingly towards the 
upper edges of the patch, and are much thinner and smaller- 
leaved than the females. The antheridia are developed on 
special short branches, with the under leaves rudimentary or 
absent except at the base of the branch, and the side leaves 
('male bracts' or ' perigoriial leaves') consist of two nearly 
equal lobes, which are joined below and curve towards each 
other to form a pocket ; the lobule is not developed as a 
pitcher. In the axil of each of these leaves stand two anthe- 
ridia, as a rule, but the number varies from one to four 
(Fig - . 6 A). The antheridium is somewhat egg-shaped, and is 
carried on a slender stalk. The cells forming - the apical part of 
the antheridium wall are elongated (Fig. 6, B C), and when the 
ripe antheridium absorbs water these long cells swell up, sepa- 
rate from each other, and spring outwards (or perhaps are 
forced out by the swollen antherozoid mother cells) and leave a 
wide opening through which the antherozoids escape. 

The archegonia are borne in terminal groups on the main 
axis and on short branches ; each group contains, as a rule, 
only two archegonia, but three are often seen, and less 
frequently four. The first archegonium arises from the apical 
cell, the second from its youngest segment. The three seg- 
ments below grow out together and remain joined, forming a 
tube (perianth) which is at first narrow, but later widens at the 
base (where the growth takes place, as in ordinary leaves), 
and eventually forms a wide sac with a narrow tubular pro- 
longation (the earliest formed part) at the top. The perianth 
consists of a single layer of cells, except at the very base, which 
is two-layered ; in F. dilatata the outer surface bears numerous 
small projections (Fig. 6, D, E, F ; Fig. 8). The leaves just 
below the perianth begin to grow in the usual way, but the two 
lobes become equally developed, or nearly so, and are usually 
triangular and more or less sharply pointed ; these ' involucral 
leaves ' or ' female bracts ' bend over the developing archegonia 
and help in protecting and keeping them moist. 

(To be continued. ) 

■ 

Mr. W. Jerome Harrison favours us with a copy of his paper on ' The 
Desirability of Promoting County Photographic Surveys,' read at the York 
meeting of the British Association. (See ' Naturalist,' September, 1906, 
p. 290. ) With this is printed the remarks made in the discussion following 
the paper. 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate VIII. 




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"3 O f u id 



i7 

LIFE ZONES IN BRITISH CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS.* 



Part II. — The Fossils of the Millstone Grits and Pendleside Series. 

WHEELTON HIND, M.D., B.S, F.R.C.S, F.G.S. 



There is much to be done yet to work out the life-zones of the 
Millstone Grits and Pendleside series. A certain amount of 
detail has already accumulated, and I think it may be well to 
put on record what is known on the subject. 

It must be remembered that the Pendleside series and Mill- 
stone grits are a very local deposit, the maximum thickness of 
each coinciding - . I have pointed out on many occasions that 
the Pendleside series thins out north and south. I have not met 
with the deposit, in the Pennine area, north of Settle. It is 
absent in Coalbrook Dale and Cannock Chase, where the 
Carboniferous Limestone is succeeded by Coal Measures, with- 
out unconformity, but the series is represented at Chokier, 
Mons, and Clavier in Belgium, and in the homotaxical equiva- 
lent of the Culm of Magdeburg and other German localities. 

In the West I have estimated that it is represented by some 
60 feet of shales and concretionary limestones in Cos. Clare and 
Limerick. A comparison of the faunas demonstrates that the 
Lower Culm of North Devon is the homotaxical equivalent 
of the Pendleside series of the Midlands. 

So also with regard to the Millstone Grit series; the maximum 
thickness of this series occupies an area which may be roughly 
said to extend from North Derbyshire to Bolland and Craven. 
In North Staffordshire the Grits thin out very rapidly, so that they 
are not represented in the Carboniferous sequence further south. 
Northwards, beds of grits succeed the Yoredale phase of the 
Carboniferous Limestone as far as Northumberland, but, as 
grits, are absent in the Scotch sequence where they are repre- 
sented by about 687 feet of sandstones and shales, which inter- 
vene between the Castle Carey Limestone and the Slate band 
ironstone, the roof of which is characterised by the presence of 
Carbonicola robusta. 

In the coalfields of the Midlands we find the marine beds of 
the Ganister series, with Gastrioceras listeria G. carbonarium, 
Dimorphoceras gilbertsoni, Pterinopecten papyraceus, Posidoniella 
Icevis and Orthoceras, below the maximum of C. robusta, and at 
present only a fragment of P. papyraceus, and some two or 
three specimens of Posidoniella Icevis have been obtained in the 

* For previous paper see ' Naturalist ' for August, 1906. 
1907 January I. 



1 8 Hind: Life Zones in British Carboniferous Rocks. 

series assigned to the Millstone Grit in Scotland, though some 
of the beds contain a rich marine fauna, largely new to the 
Eastern Hemisphere. 

Mr. Kidston has shown that the change from a Lower Car- 
boniferous flora to the Upper occurs in the Millstone Grit series 
of Scotland, about the horizon of the Roslin sandstone. 

In the South, the sandstones of the Middle Culm most pro- 
bably represent the Millstone Grits, but it is doubtful if they are 
presented to any extent in the South Wales or Bristol coal re- 
fields. In Belgium, we know that the Millstone Grits are 
absent. In the West of Ireland, a fairly well developed series 
of flagstones, grits, and inter-bedded shales with marine bands 
evidently represent the Millstone Grit. 

Although in the localities mentioned above, the Carboniferous 
sequence differs enormously, as yet no apparent unconformity 
has been proved anywhere between the Carboniferous Limestone 
and the Coal Measures. Whatever beds overlie the Carboniferous 
Limestone appear to be conformable to it. 

Within the last two years an important fact has been made 
out for the Carboniferous areas of North Wales, the Pennine 
system, and the East of Ireland, that is, the upper beds contain 
everywhere a definite coral fauna, characterised by the presence 
of Cyathaxonia, Amplexizaphrentis, and Cladochonus ; thus a 
definite top is obtained for the Carboniferous Limestone series, 
and in other words a definite base for the succeeding Pendleside 
series. 

It is at the top of these Cyathaxonia beds that the great change 
takes place in the Molluscan fauna, and in the Midlands in the 
Fish fauna. The Corals, Echinodermata, and Polyzoa became 
almost entirely annihilated, and a new fauna of mud-loving 
animals took their place, but land conditions remained constant, 
for the great floral change only took place at a much later period, 
as I have previously stated. The great Carboniferous faunal 
break must therefore be placed at the top of the Cyathaxonia 
beds, and it is here that the line dividing Upper and Lower 
Carboniferous must be drawn. 

The Cyathaxonia beds at Warsoe-end House, near Pendle 
Hill ; Congleton Edge quarry, Cheshire ; Torrs' quarry near 
Bradbourne, Derbyshire, contain Prolecanites compressns, a 
fossil which characterises the junction of Upper and Lower 
Carboniferous rocks, and passes up into the lower part of the 
Pendleside series, but does not range far up. 

This fossil is plentiful in the Coddon Hill beds of the Culm, 

Naturalist, 



Hind: Life Zones in British Carboniferous Rocks. 19 

which I consider to be at the base of the Culm series. It is 
associated there with Trilobites, and rare casts of corals, and 
an important lamellibranch Choenocardiolafootii, that is found only 
in the base of Pendleside series in the Midlands and in Ireland. 

P. compressus occurs in the Carboniferous Limestones of 
Little Island, Co. Cork ; Scarlett, Isle of Man ; and Kendal, 
Westmorland; associated always with an upper Dibunophyllum 
fauna. 

In the Pendleside series I have obtained specimens from 
? Telia, N. Wales, the shales of the Hodder, at Hodder Place, 
Pendle Hill, Lancashire ; Morredge, N. Staffordshire, so that 
in Prolecanites compressus we have the index of the junction of 
upper and lower Carboniferous rocks and Stroboceras sulcatum 
seems to have the same range. 

There is not always a cessation of the deposit of limestone 
associated with the faunal change, but the limestones associa- 
ted with the incoming Pendleside fauna are different in texture, 
cleavage, colour, and ring. 

The new fauna is characterised by the immediate appearance 
of Pterinopecten papyraceus, Posidonomva membranacea, P. 
becheri, Posidoniella Icevis and Glyphiocerus reticuiaium, Nomis- 
moceras rotiforme, to mention certain members of a fauna which 
is given in full lower down. 

This faunal succession has been demonstrated at the follow- 
ing places : — In North Staffordshire ; at Pepper Mill, Wetton, 
limestones with Cyathaxonia and Amplexizaphrentis are suc- 
ceeded by Shales and Limestones with Pterinopecten papyraceus, 
Posidononiya becheri, Posidoniella Icevis and Nomismoceras roti- 
fornie. At Mixon Hey P. papyraceus, Posidononiya becheri 
Posidoniella Icevis. A station in the River Hamps, near Onecote, 
yields Posidonomva membranacea and Prolecanites compressus at 
Tissington Station, Derbyshire, Pterinopecten papyraceus and 
Posidononiya becheri succeed the uppermost beds of the Car- 
boniferous Limestone. 

In the river Hodder the same fossils are found as at Wetton, 
and in addition Prolecanites compressus, Phillipsia polleni. The 
series exposed in the Hodder is a most interesting one, and I 
hope to publish a paper on the subject at an early date. In 
Yorkshire the P. becheri beds have been found succeeding the 
Cyathaxonia beds at the Cracoe fells. 

The same fauna is found at the following localities : — in 
the River Wharfe a little west of Linton Church, Linton ; at 
Lothersdale; Mill Beck, near Hetton ; Dinckley Hall, R. Ribble; 

1907 January i. 



20 Hind : Lije Zones in British Carboniferous Rocks. 

Ramsclough, near Thornley Hall ; West Bradford, Bolland ; 
Holden ; Agden Clough ; and Stream near Browsholme Hall, 
Bolland ; Sulber Lathe, Flasby ; Newton Gill, i mile E. of Long- 
Preston. 

The Black Limestones of the Isle of Man contain, as had 
been known for a long - while, Posidonomya becheri in abundance, 
Pterinopecten papyraceus, Nomismoceras rotiforme , Glypliioceras 
reticulatum, Orthoceras morrisiannm, O. sulcatum, and many 
plants. 

In North Wales at Teilia, Prestatyn and Holloway, the 
junction of Cyathaxonia beds with thin black Limestones 
containing - Pterinopecten papyraceus, Posidonomya becheri and 
P. membranacea and other members of the fauna and flora are 
well seen. 

This Life Zone is traced West into Ireland, and is well seen 
on the Coast near Lough Shinney, Co. Dublin, and in Co. Clare, 
where I have demonstrated the presence of Posidonomya mem- 
branacea, Pterinopecten papyraceus, P. becheri, in beds which 
succeed the Carboniferous Limestone. 

Here, then, is a wide and extensive Zone which may well be 
called the Zone of Posidonomya becheri, which may be considered 
to include the first 200-300 feet of the Pendleside Limestones. 

I am purposely vague as to the extent, because the whole 
series, as I stated above, thins out rapidly N. and S., and at 
Pendlehill I believe this Zone to be thicker than elsewhere. 

In certain localities I fear that the other Zones in the series 
are not so perfectly demonstrable, nevertheless they exist, and if I 
say what I know about them, others may be able to fill in details. 
Above the P. becheri Zone we find a horizon in which 
Glypliioceras spirale occurs abundantly. The maximum of this 
fossil occurs in Cheshire, at Congleton Edge, about 500 below 
the 3rd grit and about the same distance above the top of the 
Cyathaxonia beds. This shell is very common in the Lower Culm 
of North and South Devon, and has occurred at Foynes' Island, 
Co. Limerick, Lough Shinney, Co. Dublin, and Pendle Hill. 

At Congleton Edge occurs a most interesting section, which 
has been described by me so frequently. The quarry is opened 
to work some strong Quartzose Sandstones containing plant 
remains and thin streaks of Coal, for the purpose of forming 
the floors of iron furnaces. 

The upper band of this rock is succeeded by two feet of 
greyish yellow marl, with calcareous nodules, rapidly thinning 
out towards South. This is succeeded by a foot of black 

Naturalist, 



Hind: Life Zones in British Carboniferous Rocks. 21 



stratified hardened shale, crammed full of G. spirale. In the 
same bed are a few specimens of G. diadema and Orthoceras 
steinhaueri. Above are 14-15 feet of Shales with calcareous 
nodules, which contain the following- fauna ; succeeded by 5 feet 
of a shell bed composed of closely-packed valves of Schizophoria 
resupinata, which shows a curious character in its radiating - ribs, 
which probably may be relied upon to distinguish the form at 
this horizon, viz., the lines every now and then thicken and come 
to an abrupt end, as if there had been an attempt to commence 
to form spines and this had failed. 1 have seen the same 
character in specimens from an Orthis bed in the Millstone 
Grit elsewhere. 

Position iella semisuicata. 

Pleronites angustatus. 

Palaeosolen parallel a. 

Protoschizodus orbicularis. 

Sanguinoliles, v. srriptus. 

Scaldia ben eden tan a. 

Sedgwickia ovata. 

Sch i sod ns ax in ifo rm is. 

Gasteropoda. 

Loxonenta sp . 
Macrocheilina sp. 

Raphistoma Junior and others not 

identified. 
Eitphenius urei. 

„ sp. 

Pteropoda. 

Con nla ria quadrisitlcata. 

Cephalopoda. 

Tcmnocheilus corona I us. 
Ephippioceras bilobalitiu. 
Slroboceras sulcatum. 
Coelonautilus, cf. cariniferus. 
Glyph ioceras diadema. 

,, spirale 

Orthoceras steinhaueri. 
,. teres. 

Crustacea. 

Ceratiocaris oretonensis. 
Dithyrocaris testudinea. 

Bryozoa. 

Millepora in terporosa. 

Plantse. 

Smooth stems. 
Stigmaria 
Trigon oca rpon. 



Corals. 

Amplexizaphe ntis (rare). 

Brachiopoda. 

Scminula ambigua. 
Chonetes cf. laguessiana. 
Dialasma hastata. 
Lingula mvtiloides. 

, , scotica. 
Productus aff. cora. 

,, longispinus. 

,, scabriculus. 

,, scmireiicula/i/s. 

Sch izophoria resupinata. 

,, (Rhipidomella) m ichelini. 

Spirif'< r glabcr. 

,. trigonal is. 

,, bis/ilcatus. 
Dcrbya sp. 

Lamellibranchiata. 

Aviculopecten gen til is. 
Actinopteria persulcata. 
Ctenodonta laevirostris. 
Allorisma sulcata. 
Edmondia sulcata. 

,, r ud is. 

,, maccoyi. 

Leiopteria squamosa 
Modiola transversa. 
Myalina peralata. 
Mvtilo in o rph a rhom bea . 
Nucula gibbosa. 
,, acq it al is. 
Nucula n a attenuata. 
Parallelodon obtusus. 

,, bistriata. 

Posidoniella la?vis. 



1907 January I. 



22 Hind : Life Zones in British Carboniferous Rocks. 

This is a large and curious fauna to find high up in the 
Pendleside series, but although elsewhere in the Midlands this 
bed has not been positively identified, other rich faunas occur 
in the grits at higher horizons at Pule Hill and in the neighbour- 
hood of Pateley Bridge. 

Owing to the fact that the Millstone Grits are thinning out 
along Congleton Edge, the exact horizon of the shell bed here 
is equivocal. 12 miles N.W. the grits are in full force, and 
consist of 5 beds : — Rough Rock, 2nd Grit, 3rd or Roches Grit, 
Kinderscout Grit, and Farey's or the Pendle Grit ; at Congleton 
Edge only two grits are present, and these are thin. They are 
presumed to represent the 1st and 3rd Grits. It may be that 
the Crow stones immediately below the fossil bed represent 
Farey's Grit, but the presence of G. spirale and G. diadema 
points to a Pendleside facies rather than Millstone Grit. 

Glvphioceras diadema has abroad horizontal distribution. It 
occurs in profusion in the North of County Clare, some 2-4 feet 
above the top of the Carboniferous Limestone. I have suggested 
that here the Posidonomya becheri beds are absent owing to an 
overlap of higher beds. (Proc. Roy.-Irish Acad., Vol. XXV., 
section B., pp. 93-116.) 

At Chokier, Belgium, the same fauna occurs, and it is in- 
teresting to note that in each of these localities, ordinary 
specimens of G. diadema are accompanied by a variety with 
very coarse ribs and a wide umbilicus. {Op. Supra, cil., pi. vi., 
figs. 10- 1 1.) 

The Zone of Glyphioceras reticnlatam (maximum) requires 
working out in more detail. In the Posidonomya becheri beds- 
it appears first as a large shell with coarse reticulate marking. 
Higher up, and probably below the maximum of G. spirale, it 
occurs in profusion in some localities, persists through the grits, 
appearing in force in the shale below the 3rd grit at Wadsworth 
Moor and Eccup, near Leeds. In the Pendleside series it is at 
its maximum in the black shales and nodular limestones of the 
Pendleside series, of Horsebridge Clough and High Green 
Wood, near Hebden Bridge. 

The fauna here contains the following: : — 



Brachiopoda. 

Prod net us (scabriculate form). 

Lamellibranchiata. 

Ptcrinopecten papyraceits. 
Posidoniella Iwvis. 

,, kirkmani. 



Posidoniella minor. 

,, variabilis. 

Schizodus antiquus. 
Sanguinolites cf. sulcatus. 
Nucula (Equalis. 
Leiopteria longirostris. 

Naturalist, 



Northern News. 

Gasteropoda. Gastrioceras listeri fide Spencer. 

Macrocheilina elegans. Nomismoceras spirorbis. 

gibsoni. Orthoceras morrisianum. 
reticulata. »'. steinhaueri. 



Cephalopoda 

Glvpli ioceras ph illipsi. 
,, vesica. 



,, konickianum. 

,, aciculare. 

, , brownii. 

Ccelonautilus quadratus. 
implicatum. Solenocheilus cyclostomus. 

rettculatum. Tenuiocheilus carbonarius. 



Glyphioceras davisi. 

,, diadema. 

, , calyx. 

,, platylvbum. 

Dimorphoceras discrepans 
,, gilbertsoni. 



Pleuronautilus pit /chef. 

Pisces. 

Cladodus mirabilis. 
Orodus elongatus. 
Acrolepis hopkinsi. 



,, loonyi. I Elonichthys aitkeni. 

I know no other locality so rich species as the Hebden Bridge 
localities, but bullions rich in G. reticulation occur in the Dane 
Valley and below Morredge, near Leek. In both localities I 
estimate the bed to be about 250 feet below the Kinderscout Grit. 

Glyphioceras bilingue is a much rarer shell. It appears in 
the Pendleside series, for the first time, only some little way 
above the Posidouomya becheri zone. 

In the North Staffordshire district I have obtained it from 
Shales in contact with the red rock fault, River Dane East of the 
Railway Viaduct, and in the River Dove at the foot of Park Hill, 
where it occurs with Chaenocardiola footii. I also obtained it 
in the banks of the stream at Wildmoor Bank Hollow, off the 
Macclesfield and Buxton Road. Here its position is apparently 
below the Kinderscout Grit. 

{To be continued.} 



There are apparently different ways of studying nature. Judging- from 
a report in the Hull Daily Mail, ' fifty of the senior scholars attending the 
National School,' at an East Riding village, ' had their final, and most 
enjoyable, ramble of the season.' After noting the flowers, birds and insects, 
'a move was made to St. Augustine's Stone . . . and each scholar possessed 
himself of a small specimen of the rock . . . prayers brought the ramble to 
a close ' — prayers for the preservation of objects of natural beauty, we 
presume ! 

At a recent meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomologica 1 
Society, Mr. W. Mansbridge read a paper entitled ' Notes on a Melanic Race 
of Agrotis ashworthii,' and exhibited a long series of moths bred in 1905 in 
illustration of his remarks. Mr. Mansbridge reviewed the evidence for and 
against the view that A. ashivorthii and A. candelarum are the same species, 
and suggested the name substriata to distinguish the new form. The 
opinion of the meeting was to the effect that more evidence of identity was 
required, especially as regards early stages and structural details of 
candelarum. 

1907 January i. 



2 4 

THE CHEMISTRY OF SOME COMMON PLANTS. 



P. Q. KEEGAN, LL.D., 

Patterdalc, Westmorland. 



Rock Lichen {Par??ielia saxatilis). — This organism is very 
commonly observed on roadside unmortared walls, and some- 
times on withered time-worn hawthorn barks, etc., and is a 
fairly good representative of the class to which it belongs. It 
is divided by systematists into two varieties : one, retiruga, 
containing-, according- to Hesse, atranorin, protocetraric acid, 
and saxatic acid ; the other, omphahdes, containing atranorin, 
saxatic acid, and an acid like protocetraric acid. It may be 
advisable to observe here that the chemistry of lichens is very 
difficult and greatly confused for two reasons, viz., the difficulty 
of purifying the constituents extracted by solvents, and the fact 
that these constituents are liable to vary in composition and in 
relative amount at any particular period. Therefore, I shall 
merely present the results of my own rough analysis of this 
species, prosecuted in the ordinary way. The dried substance 
treated with boiling benzene yielded 0.75 per cent, of a brownish- 
yellow extract, which with sulphuric acid gave green, red and 
brown colours, and has a white opaque matter insoluble in cold 
benzene like stearine. The treatment with boiling alcohol (after 
benzene) afforded a crystalline deposit on cooling, and also on 
adding water, and the liquid gave with perchloride of iron a 
violet colour, with solution of bleaching lime a transient violet, 
with ammonia water it dried up to a red-brown mass, with lime 
added and the filtrate acidified by HC1 a bright red precipitate 
was presently deposited ; the liquid contained no free phloroglucin 
or sugar. The hot water extract gave reactions similar to the 
foregoing, it had neither sugar nor albumenoid. Dilute caustic 
soda further withdrew a small quantity of mucilage coloured 
red-brown, but still no albumenoid. Dilute HC1 did not extract 
any starch or lichenin. The residue (crude ' fibre ') amounted 
to 63.7 per cent, of the original. The ash amounted to 5.4 per 
cent., and yielded 13.3 per cent, soluble salts, 55 silica, 2.2 lime, 
17.5 oxide of iron, 4.1 P' 2 O s and 1.1 SO 3 ; there was a little 
manganese, but no carbonates. It would appear that in the 
above analysis the benzene extracted atranorin, and the alcohol 
a mixture of protocetraric and saxatic acids. The well-known 
dyeing property of the lichen is mainly due to the former acid, 
which seems to be a derivative of betaorcin C 8 H 10 O- = dimethyl 
resorcine, and to result from the hydrolysis of the lichen proteids. 

Naturalist, 



Field Note. 25 

Like the indigo of certain plants, it is thrown out or excreted in 
the form of minute granules on the exterior of the hyphae in the 
cortical portion of the upper surface. It would appear that when 
a decrease of the albumenoids takes place the quantity of this 
lichen-acid increases, so that it may be regarded as a sort of 
waste-product of the living plant, and not a true product of 
deassimilation. 

Parsley Fern [Allosorus crispus). — This plant is distinctly 
local in habitat ; it nestles under huge boulders or largish stones 
on the mountain side, or under walls in shady lanes. Generally 
it affects rough and stony ground appurtenant to wild and well 
watered areas. The exterior aspect of its fillets differs from 
most of its class, resembling more those of certain dicotyledons ; 
but its chemistry is pretty similar to that of its ally and 
associate, the common bracken. The dried overground parts on 
19th July yielded 3.25 per cent, of wax with only a little carotin 
or glyceride ; there was much tannoid reacting like quercitrin, 
also a resin and a little tannin (insoluble in strong alcohol) 
which precipitated gelatine and bromine water, much sugar, 
proteid and starch, some mucilage non-coagulable by acids, but 
no oxalate of calcium ; the ash amounted to about 5 per cent., 
and contained 60.1 soluble salts, 14.2 silica, 5.2 lime, 5.9 
magnesia, 8 P 2 O s , 3.5 SO 3 , and 4.2 chlorine, with much 
manganese and very much soluble carbonates, thus attesting the 
eminent richness of the plant in organic acids. The remarkable 
feature, however, is the large quantity of soluble salts con- 
jointly with the considerable amount of silica. We conclude 
that the carbohydrates engaged in the fruiting process have 
undergone a very active though incomplete oxidation, while the 
silica depositing incidental to a failing life-energy has already 
become manifest. Later on in November, the proportion of 
soluble salts diminished to below one half, and the silica per- 
centage rises to about 31. There is thus a considerable 
similarity in the life-cycle and the physiological processes to 
those of the more splendidly developed bracken ; but this fern 
evidently possesses more vitality and enjoys a longer life. 

♦♦ 

ENTOMOLOGY. 

Chaerocampa celerio at Wakefield. — I have recently 
added to my collection a specimen of Chcerocumpa celerio, 
which was taken on the outside of a shop window in Wakefield 
on October 24th last by Mr. H. Lumb. — Geo. T. Porritt, 
Huddersfield. December 10th, 1906. 

J907 January i. 



26 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT YORK. 



The forty-fifth annual meeting- of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union was held at York on Saturday, December 15th. The 
meeting - was of peculiar interest, from the fact that it was the 
two hundredth meeting of the Union. 

In the morning those who arrived early were conducted 
round the premises of the British Botanical Association at 
Acomb, where Dr. Burtt, the director, kindly exhibited the 
various botanical preparations made under his supervision. 

The sections met in the Museum at 3 p.m., and at 3-30 an 
exceptionally well attended gathering of the general committee 
was held in the Lecture Theatre, under the presidency of Mr. 
W. Eagle Clarke. The report on the year's work was care- 
fully considered, and the opinion was generally expressed that 
the work of the Union during the year was quite equal to that 
of any previous year. In some sections work of exceptional 
importance had been accomplished, details of which had 
appeared in the Union's official organ, the ' Naturalist.' For 
the forthcoming year it was announced that some of the 
committees had arranged to undertake special investigations. 
It was decided to hold meetings for 1907 as under : — 

For York, N.E. — Robin Hood's Bay (Whit week-end, 
May 18th to 20th). 
,, S.E. — South Cave (Saturday, June 22nd). 

,, S.W. — Thorne Waste (Thursday, July nth). 

Mid.W. — Kettlewell for Arncliffe (August Bank 
Holiday week-end). 
,, N.W. — Horton-in-Ribblesdale (Sept. 7th). 

Fungus Foray — Grassington for Grass Woods and Bolton 
Woods (September 21st to 26th). 
An invitation from the Halifax Scientific Society for the 
Union to hold its next annual meeting at Halifax was accepted, 
the place being particularly appropriate, seeing that the Union's 
new president, Mr. C. Crossland, F.L. S., is a Halifax man. 

The hon. treasurer, Mr. J. H. Howarth, J. P., had pleasure 
in reporting that, probably for the first time for^many years, the 
expenses of the Union for the year had been slightly less than 
the receipts, and that when the arrears of subscriptions had 
been paid the financial position of the Union would be most 
satisfactory. This success was partly due to the new arrange- 
ment with the ' Naturalist,' which had worked so well for all 
concerned. 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at York. 27 

After tea the annual general meeting was held in the 
Museum. At this, reference was made by several members to 
the recent press reports in which it appeared that allegations 
had been made at a meeting of the Hull City Council against 
the suitable nature of the exhibits at the Hull Museum. On the 
proposition of Mr. G. T. Porritt, of Huddersfield, seconded by 
Mr. H. H. Corbett, of Doncaster, the following resolution, to 
be sent to the Hull City Council, was unanimously passed : — 
' That the members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 
assembled in annual meeting at York, desire to congratulate the 
Corporation of the City of Kingston upon Hull, upon the ex- 
cellent condition of their Municipal Museum, which now occupies 
a foremost position among English provincial museums, and 
upon the immense advance it has made since the appointment of 
the present curator, whose energy, tact and scientific judgment 
are fully manifested throughout the galleries of the institution. 
The members of the Union are well acquainted with the 
Museum, and an annual meeting of the Union has been held 
there. The Union, therefore, feels justified in expressing an 
opinion which it believes may not be unwelcome.' 

Mr. W. Eagle Clarke, F.R.S.E., of the Royal Scottish 
Museum, Edinburgh, who was warmly received, then delivered 
his presidential address, entitled ' Bird Life in the Antarctic' 
The president referred to the fact that the ornithological collec- 
tions acquired by the Scottish and National Antarctic Expeditions 
had been submitted to him for examination and description. 
Amongst the numerous specimens brought home by these two 
expeditions were several which, from the fact that they were 
previously unknown, rendered them of the utmost value to 
zoological science. In connection with the nesting habits and 
life history of several hitherto little-known birds, much interest- 
ing information was imparted by Mr. Clarke (see ' Naturalist ' 
for 'Naturalist' for July, 1906, p. 201). 

Of particular interest was a fine series of charming lantern 
slides from photographs taken in the Antarctic on the expeditions 
referred to. These showed many quaint phases of bird life, and 
were much appreciated. 

A vote of thanks was accorded to Mr. Eagle Clarke for his 
address, on the proposition of the Right Hon. the Lord Mayor 
of York, and a similar compliment was accorded to Dr. Gram- 
shaw, the president of the York and District Field Naturalists' 
Society, for taking the chair during the delivery of the presi- 
dential address. Votes of thanks were also accorded to the 

1907 January i. 



28 Small Quantity of Air Necessary to Sustain Life in a Bat. 

York Philosophical Society for the use of the Museum and 
Lecture Theatre, and to the York Naturalists' Society for their 
entertainment and efforts to make the meeting' the success 
it was. 

After the address a pleasant evening was spent in the 
Museum, where the York Society had arranged some special 
exhibits, a concert, and also provided refreshments. — T. S. 

ON THE SMALL QUANTITY OF AIR NECESSARY TO 
SUSTAIN LIFE IN A BAT. 

H. B. BOOTH, M.B.O.U. 

Shipley. 



On September 23rd I received a securely fastened brown 
paper parcel from a friend in Shropshire. Inside were two 
Pipistrelle Bats, each closely wrapped several times round 
with tissue paper, and just filled a 2-oz. tobacco tin. Around 
the tin was a short note saying that one of the bats was dead, 
and, although the other one was just alive when put in, it would 
not reach me so. The time occupied in the post was 18 hours. 
To my great surprise, on taking off the numerous wrappings, I 
found one of the bats was still warm, and showed signs of life. 
My first impulse was to immediately put it out of its misery, but 
as it gave some signs of moving, T put it aside in a larger box. 
Several hours after it was crawling slowly about, and squeaked, 
and snapped at my fingers when touched. I now spent fully 
half an hour catching house-flies, and it took about a score from 
the point of a pin, and became quite lively. It lived for a 
fortnight longer, and during most of that time it was on view to 
the public in the Museum Room of the Cartwright Hall, and 
may possibly have succumbed eventually to an excessive house- 
fly diet. Both bats had been in a cigar box parcel about 24 hours 
before being sent on to me. 

Although I much regret if any cruelty has been thoughtlessly 
imposed on the above individual, yet 1 think the facts of the case 
worth recording, as it appears wonderful to me what a small 
quantity of air is really necessary in order to keep a bat alive. 
No doubt this will be partly due to the out-of-the-way crannies 
in which many bats spend most of their lives, and where, in 
many cases, there is no circulation of air, and partly because 
they are hibernating animals. The bat which survived was 
mature, and the one received dead was an immature, although, 
a full-grown, specimen. 

Naturalist, 



2 9 

FIELD NOTES. 



MAMMALS. 
Otter near Barnsley. — An otter was shot a fortnight ago 
in the Dearne Valley about i^ miles north of Barnsley. Some 
years they are not uncommon south of Barnsley, in the neighbour- 
hood of Darfield, but I do not remember hearing of them so far 
up stream before. — E. G. Bayford. 

— : o : — 
BIRDS. 

Little Auk and Albino Swallows at Skipton. — A mature 
specimen of the Little Auk, in splendid plumage, was killed at 
Skipton on November 8th, 1906, immediately after a two days' 
north-west gale. Two Albino Swallows were bred at Embsay, 
near Skipton, this summer, and got away safely. It is hoped 
they may return next year. — W. Wilson, Skipton, December 
8th, 1906. 

Purple Sandpiper in Upper Airedale. — On December 
2nd I received a bird for identification from Malham, which 
proved to be a Purple Sandpiper, and new to the local list of 
the Bradford Natural History and Microscopical Society. For 
several days before there had been strong westerly winds, 
almost amounting to a gale at times, and no doubt this bird, 
which was rather battered, had been blown out of its course 
from the sea shore. — H. B. Booth, Shipley. 

Albino Blackbird in Lincolnshire. — In the summer of 
1904 I saw a male blackbird, with a perfectly white head, a little 
way out of Great Ponton. In 1905 I saw the same bird; and 
again this year, I notice not only the white-headed bird, but 
also one with much white about its neck and nearly a white 
tail ; and another with many white feathers in its wings, possibly 
descendants of the first-mentioned bird. I and others have seen 
them several times lately, always within a range of about four 
fields. — H. Preston, Grantham, December 2nd, 1906. 

FISHES. 
Short=finned Tunny landed at Grimsby. — During the 
third week in December there was quite a mild sensation in 
Bradford, caused by a large fish which was on view at the 
game shop of Mr. W. L. Blakeley, at the bottom of Horton 
Road. It was supposed to be a Salmon hybrid, and it was 
said that none of the fisherfolk at Grimsby had ever seen any- 



1907 January i. 



30 Field Notes. 

thing" like it before. Mr. F. King - , of Grimsby, who sent this 
fish to Bradford, states that it was caught five miles to the 
north-east of the Dogger Bank on December ioth, 1906. The 
local evening papers of the 17th December stated that it had 
the head of a Salmon, the body of a Porpoise, and the tail of a 
Shark ( ! ! ), so that it attracted considerable attention. I found 
it to be one of the larger species of the Scombridce (Mackerels), 
and with the aid of ' Our Country's Fishes,' was able to identify 
it with certainty as the Short-finned Tunny [Orcynus thynnus). 

Although the Tunnies are common further south, and are a 
source of much economic value as food in the south-west of 
Europe and on the shores of the Mediterranean, yet they are of 
sufficient rarity in the British seas as to merit the following- 
description of the present specimen : — ■ 

Colour and Scales. — Back, dark blue, shading to netted grey 
on the sides, and to silvery white below. The scales above the 
pectoral fins larger and forming a corslet, from which smaller 
scales extended towards the tail. Otherwise almost scaleless. 

Measurements, etc. — The total length from the snout to the 
centre, or root, of the tail (measured along the back) was 3 feet 
9f inches. The tail, which was keeled at the sides, was large 
and deeply forked ; the span from tip to tip of the lobes being 
13I- inches. The first dorsal fin contained 14 spines (the last 
one very small), and almost joined the second dorsal fin, which, 
although damaged, still showed its triangular shape. There 
were ten finlets behind, one being very small. The pectoral fins 
(which fitted into grooves), did not reach to within about 4 inches 
of the parallel of the second dorsal fin, and measured 9 and 
7 inches respectively along the upper and lower edges, and were 
edged with white on the inner lower margins. Ventral fins, 
almost joining - , not more than an eighth of an inch apart. 
Eight finlets underneath, between the anal fin and tail. The 
greatest girth would be about 30 inches ; it was very solid and 
fleshy and I was assured by the owner that this fish scaled 
nearly 100 lbs. Unfortunately its flesh was wasted, as it was 
exhibited and unidentified until it was too stale for food. — H. B. 
Booth, Bradford. 

ENTOMOLOGY. 

Sphinx convolvuli at Bradford. — Two specimens of S. 

convolvuli were taken at Saltaire during August, on the 8th and 

nth respectively. Both were taken to Mr. S. Hainsworth, one 

of which he exhibited at a meeting of the Bradford Natural 

Naturalist. 



Field Notes. 31 

History and Microscopical Society. — J. W. Carter, Bradford, 
November 21st, 1906. 

Acherontia atropos at Bradford. — The capture of two 
specimens of A. atropos, in August, has been reported to me. 
Both were taken at Shipley, one of which is recorded by Mr. 
Hainsworth, the other was brought to Mr. F. Rhodes at the 
Cartwright Hall by Mr. Pitts.— J. W. Carter, Bradford, 
November 21st, 1906. 

Leucophaea surinatnensis, Linn., etc., at Bradford. — A 

few months ago a specimen of a Cockroach, which had been 
taken in the Bradford market, was given to me, and was put on 
one side for further examination. 

A few days ago I determined it to be Leucophcea surinamensis, 
Linn., and sent the specimen to Mr. Porritt, who kindly confirms 
my determination, and states it is the first recorded example for 
Yorkshire. 

Since my list of Cockroaches for this district was published 
( k Nat. ' Jan., 1897, p. 26), four species have been added, viz., 
Periplaneta australasice, Fabr. ; Panchlora exolefa, Klug. , 
which is frequently taken in the market ; Rhyparobia maderce, 
Fab. ; and Leucophcea surinamensis, Linn., not a bad list of 
these generally detested insects. — J. W. Carter, Bradford, 
November 17th, 1906. 

— : o : — 

MOLLUSCA. 
Succinea oblonga Drap. in Westmorland. — In August 
last, whilst staying at Grange-over-Sands, I spent some time 
in collecting Mollusca in the surrounding district, and at 
Meathop, not far from Grange, I obtained a number of 
Succinece, which I have submitted to Mr. Charles Oldham 
and others, who pronounce them to be, what I had myself 
suspected, Succinea oblonga Drap. The shells approach the 
form now generally recognised as var. arenaria Bouchard, and 
agree closely with specimens from Brunton Burrows, Devon, 
and from Irish localities. This find constitutes an important 
record for the county. — H. Beeston, Havant. 

— : o : — 

GEOLOGY. 
Exposure of New Red Sandstone at Middlesbrough. — 

The extensive enlargement of the Middlesbrough docks, still in 
progress, has in the excavation in the north-west part of the 
workings, exposed upper New Red Sandstone to a depth of 

1907 January i. 



32 Reviews and Book Notices. 

35 feet (about 12 feet below made ground), containing - , irregu- 
larly stratified in the loose marl, a large quantity of gypsum, 
varying in tint from an almost pure white to a very deep red. 
In the marl, numerous large rhomboidal crystals of selenite 
were obtained, being found in separate pockets. Although 
there are disused gypsum pits in the neighbourhood, I have 
been unable to find any record of the presence of such crystals. 
I collected some specimens, which are preserved in the Dorman 
Memorial Museum, Middlesbrough. — W. Y. Veitch, Middles- 
brough. 

>♦♦ 

REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 



The Victoria History of the Counties of England. Sussex- 
Entomology. A. Constable & Co. 

The Entomological portion of another of the Counties of the Victoria 
History has been issued. Sussex, entomologically, is one of the best 
investigated of our Counties, and as the compilation of the lists of species 
in the various orders has been done by thoroughly competent specialists, 
we are not surprised to find this portion of Vol. I. as satisfactory as it is 
voluminous. The whole is edited by Mr. Herbert Goss, F.L.S., and he and 
Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, M.A., are chiefly responsible for the Lepidoptera, 
though it is easy to see that the veteran Sussex entomologist, the Rev. 
E. N. Bloomfield, M.A., has had a considerable share in the work on most 
of, if not all the orders. Besides these, the services of other equally well- 
known authorities, have been enlisted. The Rev. Canon Fowler, M.A., F.L.S., 
for the Coleoptera ; Messrs. Edward Saunders, F.L.S., and Mr. Claude 
Morley, for the Hymenoptera; Mr. W. J. Lucas, F.E.S., for the Neuroptera 
andTrichoptera; Mr. Malcolm Barr, F.L.S., for the Orthoptera ; Mr. J. H. 
A. Jenner, for the Diptera ; and Messrs. E. A. Butler and A. C. Vine for 
the Aphides, etc. Every order seems to have been carefully, and so far as the 
species are known, exhaustively done, and an improvement on some of the 
earlier County lists, is that in all the orders, precise localities for the species 
are given. It would be invidious to select any one list as better than another, 
though naturally, from the fact that one of our hardest working, and best 
authorities on the ' Micros,' has spent so large a portion of his life in the 
County, the Lepidoptera take up a far greater space than any other. The 
Coleoptera come next, then the Hymenoptera, Diptera. Hemiptera, Neu- 
roptera and Trichoptera, and Orthoptera, respectively. It may be worth 
while stating here, for future reference, that the only Sussex specimen of 
Hadena peregrina (of which there are probably only some half-dozen British 
caught examples known), recorded in this Sussex list, has, since the dispersal 
of the late Dr. P. B. Mason's collection, in which it stood, found a resting 
place in my own cabinet. 

The value of these county histories to entomological science cannot be 
estimated, for although there are a few most admirable county lists of 
Lepidoptera, and more would undoubtedly have been forthcoming ; this 
splendid undertaking has stimulated the publication of them at an infinitely 
more rapid rate than would otherwise have been the case. Besides 
this, we now get the advantage of lists of species in all the orders in 
one volume, and can ascertain at a glance what has been done entomo- 
logically in each county ; and every specialist knows where to refer to for 
the information he requires. Every naturalist should possess the volume 
relating to his own county, and every Municipal Library ought to contain 
the whole series. — G. T. P. 

Naturalise, 



FEBRUARY 1907. 



No. 601 

(No. 379 of currtnt Meriet). 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., 

The Museum, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield ; 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 



J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S. F.L.S., 
Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., 
T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., 



GEO. T. PORR1TT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
JOHN W. TAYLOR, 
WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. 



Drake 



Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated) :— The Lincoln Boring, Educational Museums 

Local Museums, The Selby Museum, Liassic Dentaliidae, Coast Erosion Again 
The American Grey Squirrel in Yorkshire— W. H. St. QuintinJ.P. ... 
Further Notes on a Solitary Wasp (Illustrated)— W. M. Egglestone 
Spondylus latus in the Chalk of North Lincolnshire (Illustrated)— H. C 

Lincolnshire Mites (Illustrated)— C. F. George, M.R.C.S 

Notes on Yorkshire Bryophytes— F. Cavers, D.Sc, F.L.S 

Fungus Foray at Farnley Tyas— C. Crossland, F.L.S 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union in 1907 

Note on a Variety of Limaaea stagnalis—J . W. Taylor 

Field Notes (Illustrated) 

Reviews and Book Notices (Illustrated) 

Northern News 

Illustrations 



35, 38, 40 



PAGES 

and 

33-30 
37 
38-39 
40 
41-45 
46-49 
50-57 
58-59 
60 
36,61 
, 45, 57, 62-64 
37, 40, 61, 64 
42, 44, 61, 62 



LONDON : 



A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 



And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



PRICE 6d. NET. BY POST 7d. NET. 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 
'NATURALIST' REPRINTS, Etc., FOR SALE. 

POST FREE. 
{Of a few of these there are several copies.) 

1. Inaugural Address, Delivered by the President, Rev.W. Fowler M A I 

in 1877. 6d. 

2. On the Present State of our knowledge of the Geography of British 

Plants (Presidential Address). J. Gilbert Baker, F.R.S. 6d. 

3. The Fathers of Yorkshire Botany (Presidential Address). I. Gilbert 

Baker, F.R.S. 9d. 

4. Botany of the Cumberland Borderland Marshes. J. G. Baker, F.R.S. 6d. 

5. The Study of Mosses (Presidential Address). Dr. R. Brathwaite'' 

F.L.S. 6d. 

6. Mosses of the Mersey Province. J. A. Wheldon. 6d. 

7. Strasburger's Investigation on the Process of Fertilisation in Phanero- 

gams. Thomas Hick, B.A., B.Sc. 6d. 

8. Additions to the Algse of West Yorkshire. W. West, F.L.S. 6d. 

9. Fossil Climates. A. C. Seward, M.A., F.R.S. 6d. 

10. Henry Thomas Soppitt (Obituary Notice). C. Crossland, F.L.S. 6d. 

11. The Late Lord Bishop of Wakefield (Obituary Notice) Wilii\m 

Whitwf.ll, F.L.S. 6d. 

12. The Flora of Wensleydale. John Percival, B.A. 6<L 

13. Report on Yorkshire Botany for 1880. F. Arnold Lees. 6d. 

14. Vertebrates of the Wertern Ainsty (Yorkshire). Edgar R. Waite 

F.L.S. 9d. 

15. Lincolnshire. John Cordeaux, M.B.O.U. 6d. 

16. Heligoland. John Cordeaux, M.B.O.U. 6d. 

17. Bird-Notes from Heligoland for the Year 1886. Heinrich Gatke 

C.M.Z.S. Is. ' 

18. Coleoptera of the Liverpool District. Part IV., Brachelvtra John 

W. Ellis, L.R.C.P. 6d. 

19. Coleoptera of the Liverpool District. Parts V. and VI., Clavicornia | 

and Lamellicornia. John W. Ellis, L.R.C.P. 6d. 

20. The Hydradephaga of Lancashire and Cheshire. W. E. Sharp. 6d. 

21. The Lepidopterous Fauna of Lancashire and Cheshire. Part I 

Rhophalocera. John W. Ellis, L.R.C.P. 6d. 

22. The Lepidopterous Fauna of Lancashire and Cheshire. Part II., 

Sphinges and Bombyces. John W. Ellis, L.R.C.P. 6d. 

23. Variation in European Lepidoptera. W. F. De Vismes Kane M A 

M.R.I. A. 6d. ' " "' 

24. Yorkshire Lepidoptera in 1891. A. E. Hall, F.E.S. 6d. 

25. Yorkshire Hymenoptera (Third List of Species). S. D. Bairstow, 

F.L.S., W. Denison Roebuck, and Thomas Wilson. 6d. 

26. List of Land and Freshwater Mollusca of Lancashire. Robert 

Standen. 9d. 

27. Yorkshire Naturalists at Gormire Lake and Thirkleby Park. 6d. 



WANTED. 

Quarterly Journal Geological Society, Vols. 1-22. 

Phillip's Life of William Smith. 

British Association Beportsfor 1839 and 1840. 

Proceedings of Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society, Vol. I. 

Barnsley Naturalist Society's Quarterly Reports, Set. 

GOOD PRICES GIVEN . 

Apply— "Ron. Sec, Y.N.U., Museum, Hull. 



Please mention 'The Naturalist' in replying to Advertisements. 



33 
NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

THE LINCOLN BORING. 
At a recent meeting" ot" the Geological Society of London, Prof. 
E. Hull read a paper on the boring for water at Lincoln, of 
which an account has already appeared in these columns.* In 
the discussion which followed, Mr. Percy Griffith described the 
boring as the deepest and longest extant, and the difficulties 
met with as of an altogether unusual character. The loss of 
the boring-tool, for instance, involved a delay of sixteen months 
for its recovery. The corporation of Lincoln then authorised 
the continuation of a 9-foot shaft to a depth of 1500 feet from 
the surface at their own expense. A pilot boring, 3 inches in 
diameter, was then driven from the bottom of the well, and at 
a depth of 1561 feet, water was met with which resisted all 
efforts to prevent it from rising into the well. The concrete 
well-bottom was, however, put in successfully, having a guide 
pipe fixed in it to allow of the boring being continued through 
it. The boring was then resumed of a diameter of 32 inches, 
and, on the depth of 1561 feet being reached, the water rushed 
into the well, and in thirty-six hours overflowed at the surface. 
As the boring was continued to a lower level, the surface-flow 
increased until it reached a maximum of 180,000 gallons per 
day (24 hours). An enormous quantity of fine sand was blown 
into the well by the first rush of water, and some time was lost 
in removing this before boring could be resumed. The 32-inch 
boring was carried to a depth of 2015 feet from the surface; 
and steel tubes, of 30 inches internal diameter, were lowered 
into the boring to a depth of 1600 feet from the surface, or 
about 40 feet into the sandstone. The work was commenced 
in August 1 90 1, and had therefore been five years and four 
months in progress. The cost to date was about ^"20,000. 
Pumping was now going on, and so far had proved the yield 
of the well as being about 750,000 gallons per 24 hours, at a 
depth of 200 feet. 

EDUCATIONAL MUSEUMS 

In No. 8 of the Museum Gazette, which is published at the 

Hazelmere Educational Museum, an editorial note appears, 

without warning and apparently without incentive, as under : — 

' We differ toto ccelo from those who hold that museums in 

* 'The Artesian Boring; for the Supply of the City of Lincoln from the 
New Red Sandstone,' by Prof. E. Hull. 'Nat.,' Sept. 1906, pp. 338-339. 

1907 February i. 



34 



Notes and Comments. 



villages or small towns ought to restrict themselves to local 
objects. By all means have in such museums the best collec- 
tion possible in illustration of what can be got in the district, 
but let it be a department, not the whole affair. What are 
called local museums are difficult to make anything like com- 
plete, and the endeavour to make them so may stimulate some 
of the worst vices of the mere collector. However successful, 
they remain meagre and unattractive. For educational purposes 
they cannot approach one of general scope. The curators of 
such museums are like a [sic. ] wing-maimed bird, or a [sic. ] 
pugilist in shackles. As a rule, we fear that merely local 
museums rarely attain the dignity of a curator, but languish 
for a few years under an honorary secretary, who once was 
zealous, and finally hand over to some more liberally constituted 
institution the remains of the Herbarium, and a few stuffed 
birds. It is better to do thiners well whilst we are about them.' 



AND LOCAL MUSEUMS. 
Just so ! The last sentence quoted is just the point. But is 
it possible ' to do things well ' in a village or small town, in 
any other way than by making the collection strictly local? 
Nothing is so conducive to making such museums ' receptacles 
for rubbish ' (respecting which we have heard so much of late), 
and of little value educationally, or in any other way ; and a 
curator of a small local museum had far better be like a ' pugilist 
in shackles ' than a pugilist let loose, in which latter case the 
harm he might do might be serious ! To some extent it depends 
on what the Museums Gazette calls 'a village or small town,' 
but in the north we should put Chesters (Northumberland) and 
Pickering and Driffield in Yorkshire under that head. In each 
of these places (and others might be cited) is a local museum 
of very great value — historically, educationally, and in other 
ways too. We might mention larger places, such as Perth, 
York, and Chester, where there are strictly local museums of 
the greatest value and importance, museums which are well 
known in the north at any rate, if not at Hazelmere, and each 
of these museums is particularly valuable because of the local 
character of its exhibits, and each also ' attains the dignity of a 
curator ' ! 



THE SELBY MUSEUM. 
We have in Yorkshire, at Selby, an ' educational museum ' 
well known to the editor of the Museum Gazette, seeing that 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 



35 



Selby is indebted to its son, Dr. Jonathan Hutchinson, for it. 
We presume therefore we may take this as a type of an 
educational museum. We were sorry to see from a report 
of an address, recently delivered at Selby by Dr. Hutchinson, 
that this museum is not appreciated as it ought to be. We are 
grateful to Dr. Hutchinson for what he has done for Selby, and 
should certainly be the last to in any way deprecate the good 
work, he has accomplished there. But might not the museum 
be more interesting and more educationally valuable, if it were 
strengthened in its local collections ? We are not quite sure 
whether the curator in this educational museum is like a pugilist 
who is not in shackles, or like a bird which is not wing-maimed, 
or whether the Selby institution ' attains the dignity of a curator ' 
at all. But we feel sure that the Selby Museum would be more 
valuable, educationally, if within its walls we could see a repre- 
sentative collection of the antiquities, plants, shells, birds, 
insects, etc., of the interesting district in which the museum is 
situated. It is all very well for a museum in a small town to be 
•'frankly fragmentary — here a little and there a little' as the 
Museum Gazette prides itself in being, but as to the best kind 
of a museum, educationally, in a small town, there are more 
opinions than one. We hold a brief for the local museum, 
and whilst no museum can or should ever be ' complete,' a local 
museum can surely be more so than a general museum. 



LIASSIC DENTALIID^. 
In a recent issue of the ' Quarterly Journal of the Geological 
Society,' Mr. Lindsall Richardson has an important paper on 





Dentalium giganteum, Phillips. (Natural Size). 

the above subject, in which the various Liassic species of Den- 
talium are figured and described. Particular reference is made 
to Dentalium giganteum, Phillips, myriads of which ' may be 
seen covering the upper surfaces of some of the sandstones 

1907 February 1. 



36 Notes and Comments. 

situated near to the base of the Zone of Ammonites margaritatus 
at Hawsker, Staithes, Rockcliff, Hummersea, Huntcliffe, and 
Coatham Scars, on the coast, and inland at Hutton, near Guis- 
borough, and in Danby Dale.' The specimens are often three 
inches long. The illustration herewith, reproduced by the per- 
mission of the Geological Society, is from the Moore collection 
at Bath, and is from the Middle Lias, Cleveland. 

COAST EROSION AGAIN. 
The interest which has been aroused in reference to coast 
erosion is resulting in some valuable information being placed 
on record. From a recent impression of the Hull News, we 
find a letter in which the writer ' Having carefully followed 
the evidence given by a number of witnesses before the Royal 
Commission on coast erosion, as to the cause or otherwise \\\ of 
the wasting away of the Holderness Boulder Clay Cliffs,' informs 
his readers that ' My opinion as to the wastage of these clay 
cliffs is based on close observation. I include boulder clay as 
a rock. It is by its mechanical effects that the sea accomplishes 
most of its erosion. The mere weight with which the ocean 
waves fall upon exposed [sic] coasts breaks off fragments of 
rock from the Cliffs.' This is just the sort of information the 
Royal Commission wanted ! 

MAMMALS. 

Otters near Barnsley. — Every season during this last few 
years, otters have bred in Bretton Park, near Barnsley. They 
have come up the river Dearne as far as Clayton West and 
Skehnanthorpe, and have been seen near Darton. — Fred 
Lawton, Skelmanthorpe. 

Otters near Barnsley. — The otter is not so uncommon in 
the upper waters of the Dearne, to the north of Barnsley, as 
Mr. Bayford's paragraph ('Naturalist,' January, p. 29) might 
lead us to suppose. Two otters were seen about two years ago 
by a friend of mine in Bretton Park, and one was seen last 
summer in Cannon Hall Park. In November, two old ones and 
two young ones were seen at very close quarters by several 
in the Mill Dam, to the West of Cannon Hall Park ; and the 
head keeper has told me, that, when the recent snow was on 
the ground, he could distinctly trace three otters into some 
shrubs near the Dam. An otter-hunting friend told me in the 
summer of 1905, that he saw the footprints of an otter in the 
Park. — C. T. Pratt, Cawthorne Vicarage. 

Naturalist, 



37 

THE AMERICAN GREY SQUIRREL IN YORKSHIRE. 



W. H. ST. QUINTIN, J. P., 
Scampston, E. Yorks. 



At the end of June 1906 I was given about three dozen of the 
American Grey Squirrel, bred at large in one of the home 
counties. I ought to have announced the fact at the time, 
but I did not realise how widely such small animals might 
stray from the place where they were enlarged. Now, how- 
ever, I find that they have established themselves at various 
places within a radius of four miles from Scampston, and I 
hear of one being killed near Pickering, which is over six miles 
away, 'as the crow flies,' with the River Derwent to cross! 
I therefore now think it time to appeal to readers of the 
' Naturalist ' to do what they can to protect these beautiful 
little animals, which, I am assured, have been found quite 
innocent of any damage to woods and plantations in other parts 
of England, where they have been at liberty for some years. 
In my own case I the more gladly accepted these little 'aliens,' 
as some disease closely resembling mange had reduced our 
native Red Squirrels almost to vanishing point. These Grey 
Squirrels seem to find a great deal of food on the ground, even 
in summer time. As far as I could tell, last June and July 
they were largely eating grass. But they readily avail them- 
selves of any hospitality offered, and mine regularly visit a 
food-box fixed to a prominent tree in sight of the windows, 
in which we place maize, hemp-seed, and nuts. Recent visitors 
to the London Zoological Gardens will have been charmed by 
the numbers and familiarity of the Grey Squirrels, which soon 
made their escape from the enclosure intended for them, but 
fortunately had the good sense to remain within the grounds, 
to the great entertainment of the children with their paper bags 
of nuts and buns. 

We regret to record the death of Mr. John Ward, of Longton, Staffs., 
a keen geologist, whose work we have more than once referred to in these 
columns. 

Mr. Clement Reid's notes on ' Coast Erosion,' read at the York Meeting 
of the British Association (See ' Naturalist,' Sept., 1906, pp. 327-9), as well as 
Mr. E. R. Matthew's remarks thereon, appear in the November Geographical 
Journal. 

The Rev. O. Pickard-Cambridge favours us with a copy of his paper 
' On some New and Rare British Arachnida,' which has recently appeared in 
the 'Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field 
Club.' It includes particulars of several northern country records. 

IJ07 February i. 



3« 

FURTHER NOTES ON A SOLITARY WASP 

(Odynerus parietum, Linn.). 

W. M. EGGLESTONE, 

Stanhope, Co. Durham. 

I read with some interest Dr. George's ' Notes on a Solitary 
Wasp ' in the January number of the Naturalist, 1906, as I had 
a little experience with one of these interesting creatures during 
the same year. 

On the 17th of August, 1905, I saw a Solitary Wasp on one 




of the gate posts at the entrance to the offices of the Weardale 
Rural District Council at Stanhope, but on my nearer approach 
it made off. 

This entrance consists of an iron gate and two cut freestone 
square pillars or posts, the columns of which, between the base 
plinth and the moulded capitals, are square, and have, on the 
front face, a panel formed by a sunk or incised line three- 
quarters of an inch wide and half an inch deep running up each 
side and across the top and bottom of the column. Thinking 
the black wasp I saw had some business on hand I examined 
the pillars and found on one of them two pairs of nests, built of 
mud and fixed in the angle of the incised line above mentioned. 
The cells are seen below the ' X ' in the illustration. 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 39 

These nests were nearly together, one of the double cells 
being- fixed in one angle and the other in the opposite angle. 

I dissected one pair of cells, and found in the upper one six 
green caterpillars rolled up very much like those illustrated on 
page 91 in Peckhams' book on Wasps.* Some of these cater- 
pillars were still alive. In the lower cell I found two larger 
caterpillars. The nests were about three quarters of an inch 
long and joined together one above the other. I left the other 
double cells intact for further observation. 

On the 22nd of August, on going to my office, I found the 
black wasp very busy at work on the top of the untouched 
double cell, so much so, that I got close to it and watched it for 
some time. Then the wasp dropped to the ground close to 
where I was standing and busied itself among some soft mud. 
Having evidently gathered up some of the mud, the wasp flew 
back to the cell, and set to work to strengthen the previously 
closed orifice. When it had accomplished its task, the little 
black worker flew overhead and I saw it no more. The top of 
the cell where it had been working was wet. I kept a watch on 
these mud cells, expecting some development in the spring, but 
one day in December I found that the cells were broken away, 
nothing being left but the ragged edges where the mud had 
stuck to the stone, resembling, but on a smaller scale, the 
remains of a broken swallow's nest. The cells were probably 
accidently destroyed by children. I saw no Solitary Wasps 
during the year 1906. 



Darwinism and the Problems of Life. A study of familiar animal 
life. By Conrad Guenther, translated by Joseph McCabe. London, 
1906, Owen & Co. 436 pages, 12/6. 

Both the translator and publisher of this work earn our gratitude for the 
facilities they have now given for enabling English readers to possess, in 
a convenient form, Prof. Guenther's most interesting volume. In it the 
author's aim is to vindicate the value and importance of Darwin's work, and 
the book is largely devoted to proving the truth of Darwin's doctrine. 
' Every care has been taken to distinguish between facts and probabilities, 
and it has been clearly pointed out what general deductions may or may not 
be drawn from Darwinism. The ease with which the theory of evolution 
is grasped too readily, disposes people to regard Darwinism as the one true, 
natural, and sound view of the world-process. . . . The manner of presenta- 
tion is simple, because the work is written for the general reader. No 
knowledge of science is pre-supposed, and the reader is briefly informed on 
all the questions that have a bearing on the theory of evolution.' From a 
perusal of the volume, it is obvious that the author has carefully consulted 
the now very extensive literature dealing with the subject discussed. The 
book, though massive, is very light, and the large size and clearness of the 
type makes its perusal particularly pleasant. 

* "Wasps, Social and Solitary," by Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Peckham, 1905. 

1907 February i. 



4 o 

SPONDYLUS LATUS IN THE CHALK OF 
NORTH LINCOLNSHIRE. 



H. C. DRAKE. 
Hull. 



I have to record a fine specimen of Spondylus latus recently 
obtained from the larger chalk quarry on the Humber side at 
Barton, North Lincolnshire. It is 35 mm. in height, and is of 
the same width, and occurred in the Holaster subglobosas zone. 




This species does not appear to have been previously recorded 
for the chalk of Lincolnshire. One specimen only is on record 
for Yorkshire, and was found by Mr. W. Hill in the railway 
cutting - near South Cave station. This specimen, which measured 
23 mm. each way, is now in the Woodvvardian Museum at Cam- 
bridge. The Lincolnshire specimen can be seen in the geological 
gallery in the Hull Museum. 

♦» 

A male Hoopoe was shot on the Moors near Whitby, and sent to Messrs. 
Rowland Ward & Co. for preservation, in November. 

The recently issued 'Transactions of the Perthshire Society of Natural 
Science contains two admirably illustrated geological articles by Mr. G. F. 
Bates. 

A puffin was caught alive in Springvale Road, Sheffield, in December. 
It was mistaken for a coot, and placed in a pond in one of the parks, where 
it died. It is being preserved. 

In an article dealing with the Water-Pipit {AittJius spipoletta) as a 
visitor to England, in the December Zoologist, Mr. M. J. Nichol refers to a 
record of the species at Tetney, Lincolnshire, in 1895. 

It has been found that the oak beams supporting the picture galleries in 
the Bowes Museum are perishing of dry rot. An outlay of at least ^15,000 
will be necessary to replace them by iron girders, and as a consequence the 
Museum will remain closed until April, 1908. 

Parts 4, 5, and 6, of ' The World's Commercial Products ' have been 
received, and deal with sugar, tea, coffee, and cocoa. (Sir Isaac Pitman & 
Sons, 7d. net. each). Each is admirably illustrated by process blocks from 
photographs, and the coloured illustration of the Tea Plant in part 6 is really 
excellent. 

Naturalist, 



4i 

LINCOLNSHIRE MITES. 

RH YNCHOLOPH1D/E. 



C. F. GEORGE, M.R.C.S. 
Kirton-in-L indsey. 

That these mites have been little recorded by English Acarolo- 
gists is evident from the fact that when Professor Sig Thor 
of Christiana wrote his pamphlet on Norwegian Rhyncholophidic 
in 1900, he records in his bibliography the names and works 
of no fewer than twenty-one writers, and only one of them is an 
Englishman ! viz. Mr. O. P. Cambridge, the learned writer on 
British Spiders. His paper on ' Calyptostoma Hardyi' may be 
found in 'The Annals and Magazine of Natural History,' vol. 
16 (4th series), London, page 384. Yet these mites are by no 
means rare, even in Lincolnshire ; they are curious, and form, 
when well mounted, good and beautiful objects for the micro- 
scope. They are most frequently found under stones, or chips 
of wood, near plantations, and also in damp moss from tree 
trunks, ditches, etc. The first genus of Rhyncholophidce, Smarts, 
was founded by Latreille in 1807. The Type species was 
figured and described by ' Hermann ' in 1804, under the name 
of Trombidiiim expalpe. It is perhaps not very common, as I 
have only one mount of this species, which I found many years 
ago. The mount is not a good one, but is sufficiently so to 
enable an arachnologist to name the species. When alive, the 
proboscis is so retracted that the animal appears to have no 
mouth organs; hence the name 'expalpe.' The pressure used 
in mounting, though not great in this instance, has been 
sufficient to show them partially ; as is well shown in Mr. 
Soar's drawing, fig. A, made from my slide. During life they 
can be protruded or retracted at the creature's will. The mite 
is darkish red in colour, long oval in shape, and rather thickly 
covered with scales, under which the skin is seen to be marked 
with circles, or pits, having a double contour (see fig. B), from 
the centre of which spring these bent scales. This skin structure 
requires to be carefully observed, as it distinguishes this mite 
from the next species ; the eyes are also very remarkable, being 
arranged in three pairs, as shown in fig. A. Mr. Soar gives 
the measurements as 2.34 mm. long, and 1.44 broad. Fig. C. 
represents the projecting mouth organs and palpi greatly 
enlarged ; the legs were too much doubled up and distorted, 
during mounting, for them to be figured ; the name of this 
mite is now Smarts cxpalpis Herman. The next mite of this 

1907 February I. 



42 



George : Lincolnshire Mites. 



Genus Smaris hardyi, Mr. Soar has been able to figure with the 
legs extended (Fig. D), and it will be seen that the tarsus of 
the first pair of legs is considerably enlarged in club shape, the 
second pair less so, the third pair only slightly, and the fourth 




Water Mites. 



scarcely at all thickened. They are all provided with powerful 
double claws, and the penultimute internodes are scarcely as 
long as the tarsi, except in the last leg, where it is a little 
longer than the tarsus. The le^s are covered with strong and 



Naturalist, 



George .• Lincolnshire Mites. 43 

pointed curved hairs, which are simple, i.e. not feathered. The 
body is rather lozenge-shaped, with rounded angles, and is 
broad at the shoulders. It is covered with rather short bent 
leaf-like scales, slightly pectinated on the surface, in at least 
some cases. The colour of the mite is dark orange red. The 
skin under the scales is marked out in a rather complex pattern, 
a small portion is shown much enlarged at fig. E, taking one 
of the button like bosses as a centre there radiates from it 
3, 4, or 5 broad bands, sometimes looking almost like the spokes 
of a wheel. Professor Berlese in his Acarus Nuovi, 1905, Table 
XV., fig. Vet, gives a similar fig-ure, the mite from which it is 
taken (see fig. V), appears to be very much like S. hardyi, but 
is called by him S. caelata. I found S. hardyi in 1879, and gave 
an outline figure and some notes in the November number of 
Science Gossip for that year ; it will also be found mentioned by 
Murray in his 'Aptera,' page 140. The palpi and mandibles 
are shown much enlarged in fig - . F, these last are seen to be 
lancet shaped, and carry a single barb almost at right angles to 
the blade. The mandibles of all the RhyncholophicUz are more 
or less lancet shaped, and formed for piercing, and are mostly, 
if not always, more or less barbed. This is very different from 
the mandibles of the Trombididce, which are sickle shaped, and 
fitted for tearing. The mandibles therefore are the great 
structural difference separating these two families. Fig. G 
represents what I take to be the larva of S. hardyi, it is re- 
markable in having three claws to each tarsus, the adult having 
two only. 

The next Genus I have to mention is Smaridia Duges and 
the species, S. ampnlligera Berlese. This is a very beautiful 
mite, of a rather brick red colour, and covered all over with 
dark cinnabar coloured scales, thickly planted all over the body, 
and also covering the legs, which are paler in colour than the 
body of the mite. The shape of the creature is well shown 
in Mr. Soar's drawing, fig. H. The eyes of the mite are not 
drawn ; even in life they are difficult to see, being covered with 
the scales ; but in a balsam mount made long ago, all colour 
has disappeared, and the eyes can not be made out. They are 
placed on the cephalothorax between the first and second pair 
of legs, there is also a line or furrow down the middle of the 
thorax, called the dorsal groove or furrow, not seen in the 
balsam mount, but well enough marked in the living creature ; 
and in this dorsal furrow there is a rod of chitin, enlarged 
almost like a battledore at either end, and having two very fine, 

1907 February i. 



44 



George : Lincolnshire Mites. 



rather long, tactile curved hairs, springing- each from the 
centre of a circular disc on the widened end of the rod. These 
can only be seen with great care under the microscope, in a 
balsam mount, but are much more evident in a freshly dissected 




Water Mites. 



mite. This dorsal groove and line are seen in many of the 
Rkyncholophidee, and varies somewhat in detail, and so forms a 
help to diagnose certain species of the family. The tarsi of all 
the legs are more or less enlarged, the front ones considerably 



Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 45 

more than the others, the penultimate internodes are longer 
than the tarsi, especially those of the last leg, which are about 
double the length of the tarsus. The length of the mite is 
1.60 mm., the length of the first leg 1.62 mm. Fig. I represents 
the mouth organs much enlarged. These when extended 
measure about 0.39 mm. The body is like a sac, and can be 
wrinkled at the will of the creature, which often causes the 
scales to appear irregularly placed. Fig. K shows the scales at 
the edge of the body, and L those on the legs ; the proboscis is 
retractile, but not to the same extent as in Smart's. To appreciate 
the mite properly it must be seen alive, as well as mounted and 
dissected. 



The Victoria History of the Counties of England. Devonshire- 
Entomology. A. Constable & Co. 

The Victoria Histories are apparently being issued rather more rapidly 
than thev were at first, and now we have before us the Entomological 
portion of one of the three of our largest English Counties, Devonshire. 
We confess to a little disappointment in going through it. perhaps because 
Devonshire has for some years been one of our own favourite collecting 
grounds, and we cannot help thinking that more might have been made of 
it. No doubt nearly all the recorded species in all orders are included in the 
lists, but some of them, as the Orthoptera, show a want of acquaintance 
with recent literature, which otherwise should have enabled the compiler 
not only to add considerably more localities, but to indicate a number of 
species as common or even abundant, which he evidently considers as 
scarce. Then in the lists of Neuroptera, Trichoptera, Hemiptera, and 
Aphididae, no localities whatever are given ; and even in such comparatively 
popular orders as the Coleoptera and Hymenoptera, most of the species are 
also without localities, or any indication as to their distribution. Personally, 
we regard such lists of species, in a large county like Devonshire, as little 
better than useless. Indeed, in the list of Neuroptera, old records are given 
of species which are not now regarded as British at all, and which probably 
never did form part of our fauna. The list of Lepidoptera is the most satis- 
factory, but even it leaves a good deal to be desired. We are specially 
surprised to find no mention made of the specimen of Ophiiixa siolida taken 
by Mr. J. Jager on the South Devon Coast, September 23rd, 1903. This very 
striking and beautiful noctua, though the first, and as yet the only one 
taken in Britain, was in such beautiful condition as to indicate that it had 
been bred on the spot where captured, its food plant being abundant there. 
There is no excuse whatever for its exclusion ; it is, in fact, far more entitled 
to be regarded as a native than is Cucullia abrotani, which the author in- 
cludes in the list. This portion too has been badly edited. Some of the 
records have been incorrectly copied, and in one case a species (Crambtts 
idiginosellus) is included, as recorded by ourselves, as having been captured 
by Mr. D'Orville. We know absolutely nothing of the circumstance ! 
Errors in speljing are plentiful, and evidently the proof sheets have been 
carelessly read. The part has been edited by Mr. Herbert Goss, F.L.S., 
and the following specialists are responsible for the compilation of the lists : 
Coleoptera, the Rev. Canon W. Fowler, M.A., F. L.S. ; Lepidoptera, the 
late Mr. C. G. Barrett, F.E.S. ; Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, and 
Aphididae, Mr. G. C. Bignell, F.E.S. ; Neuroptera and Trichoptera, Mr. 
C. A.' Briggs, F.E.S. ; and the Diptera, Mr. Ernest E. Austen. — G.T.P. 



1907 February i. 



4,6 
NOTES ON YORKSHIRE BRYOPHYTES. 

IV. Frullania and Jubula. 

(Continued from page r6.) 



F. CAVERS, D.Sc, F.L.S. 
Professor of Biology, Hartley University College, Southampton. 



The sequence of the cell-divisions in the development of the 
sporogonium is extremely regular in Frullania* and has been, 
on the whole, correctly described and figured by Hofmeister, 
Kienitz-Gerloff, Leitgeb, and Leclerc du Sablon. The first 
wall in the fertilised egg-cell is transverse to the long - axis of 
the archegonium, and the lower cell (hypobasal) then divides 
by a vertical wall, while the upper cell (epibasal) divides trans- 
versely (Fig". 6, G). Each of the two upper cells then divides 
by two sets of vertical walls that cut each other at right angles. 
In the meantime, the two hypobasal cells have divided again by 
vertical walls, so that the embryo now consists of three tiers, 
each having four nearly equal cells. In some cases I have 
found one or more (as many as three in a few cases) further 
transverse divisions in the epibasal half of the embryo before the 
appearance of the vertical walls ; this is normally the case in 
other JungermanniacecB. The hypobasal cells soon project 
from the surface and divide rather irregularly, forming the 
blunt foot which presses into the tissue forming the stalk of the 
fertilised archegonium. The cells of the uppermost tier divide 
by tangential walls into four inner cells, which have denser 
protoplasm than the outer ones, and which form the arche- 
sporium, while the four outer cells produce the wall of the 
capsule. The tier of cells between capsule and foot divides bv 
longitudinal walls, which separate eight outer cells from four 
inner ones ; this tier forms the seta or stalk of the capsule. 
The four primary archesporial cells divide repeatedly by 
longitudinal walls, resulting - in the formation of a lens-shaped 
layer of about two hundred cells, the central cells being longer 
than the marginal ones (Fig. 6, G — L). These cells then be- 
come differentiated into two sets. Some of them divide 
transversely so as to produce rows of cells ; the others grow in 
length, but remain undivided, forming - long cylindrical cells 
attached to the inner surface of the capsule wall above, and to 
the floor of the capsule below (Fig'. 6, K. L). The rows of 

* The details of development of antheridium and archegonium are 
omitted from this paper, since they do not differ from the normal process in 
other liverworts. See Scott, ' Structural Botany,' Part 2 ; Campbell, 
' Mosses and Ferns,' 2nd Ed. 

Naturalist, 



Cavers: Notes on Yorkshire Bryophytes. 47 

cubical cells alternate regularly with the long undivided cells ; 
the former gave rise to the spores, the latter to g g g g 
the elaters. The arrangement as seen in a cross e e e 

section of the capsule is shown in the accompany- S S S S 
ing diagram; S = spore-forming and e = elater- e e e 
forming cells. According to Leclerc du Sablon,* S S S S 
the spore mother cells and elaters lose their cell walls at one 
stage, and afterwards acquire fresh walls, but this seems to be 
an error, due, probably, to imperfect methods of preparation. 
The walls are mucilaginous, and stain deeply in microtome 
sections, but there appears to be a definite wall at all stages, as 
in other liverworts. 

The spores of Frullania are roughly spherical (but rather 
irregular owing to their becoming flattened by contact in the 
longitudinal rows), and about 1.06 mm. in diameter; the outer 
coat (exospore) is thick, brown in colour, and shows a number of 
shallow circular pits, the surface of which bears small tubercles. 

Each elater becomes somewhat flattened at the lower end ; 
it contains a broad brown spiral band, passing into a ring at 
the trumpet-like lower end (Fig. 7, A D). In the developing 
elater the protoplasm becomes differentiated into an axial strand 
and a peripheral layer, which becomes spirally wound on the 
inner surface of the wall (Fig. 7, A). The elaters show this 
stage, and are still colourless after the spores have acquired 
their final form, and have the outer coat fairly thick and golden- 
brown, so that the elaters keep for a long time their primarv 
function of conveying food materials to the developing spores. 
The cells in the lower part of the fertilised archegonium (calyptrd) 
contain dense protoplasm with oil-drops, as do the cells in 
the tissue of the thickened archegonium stalk. The elaters 
alternate regularly with the longitudinal rows of spores, con- 
sequently, those nearest the central line of the capsule are the 
largest. There are from 80 to 100 in each capsule in F. dilatata 
and F. tamarisci. 

The wall of the capsule at an early stage becomes two- 
layered. The cells of the outer layer have thick rod-like fibres 
on their lateral walls, especially at the angles between adjacent 
cells; these rods appear as dots in a surface view of the capsule 
(Fig. 7, C), and are especially marked, and deeply coloured brown 
at the two opposite points at the bases of the valves into which the 
capsule wall splits (Fig. 7, E). On the walls of the inner layer 
of cells the thickenings form an irregular network (Fig. 7, D). 

* Ann ales des Sri., Nat., 1885. 
1907 February 1. 



48 Cavers : A T otes on Yorkshire Bryophyies. 

The divisions in the seta are very regular, and in cross 
sections there is seen a central group of four cells covered by 
three concentric layers of cells (Fig-. 7, B). The seta is not so 
sharply marked off from the capsule as is usually the case in 
liverworts, for at the base of the capsule there is a mass of thin- 
walled tissue which may, as suggested by Spruce, be regarded 
as corresponding to the hypophysis or expanded upper part of the 
seta found in many mosses. Hence, when dehiscence occurs, 
the four valves of the capsule wall do not become free right 
down to the point of junction with the cylindrical seta, and 
Frullania capsules are usually described as opening for only 
about two-thirds of their length. 

The calyptra, formed by the active growth of the fertilised 
archegonium, becomes five or six cells thick, and is raised on a 
massive stalk, leaving the unfertilised archegonium at the base 
(Fig. 6, E). The old archegonium neck at the top of the 
calyptr 1 can be seen inside the perianth (Fig. 8). 

The opening of the capsule has been accurately described by 
Goebel.* The capsule wall splits from above, downwards, into 
four valves, which spring backwards so as to lie almost 
horizontally at first, each valve carrying with it a share of the 
elaters and the rows of spores lying between them. Just before 
this, while the whole capsule is drying, the elaters contract, and 
their lower ends become free from the floor of the capsule, while 
the more firmly fixed upper ends remain attached to the inner 
surface of the capsule wall. The whole process is due to the 
shrinking of the membranes in the capsule wall and in the 
elaters ; when elaters from a dehisced capsule are placed in 
water they elongate again, and the spiral band becomes more 
loosely coiled. The spores are discharged with great force, and 
may be thrown out to a distance of three or four inches, so that 
the act of dehiscence might well be termed an explosion, quite 
different in degree, though not in kind, from the process 
observed in other liverworts, and in a few seconds from the 
rolling back of the valves the exploded capsule shows only a 
few spores that have remained entangled between the elaters. 
It is difficult to analyse this sudden action, but it is possible 
that the elaters themselves bend or twist on being set free at 
their lower ends, in addition to being passively moved outwards 
with the valves, and causing the spores to be jerked out. 

The earliest divisions in the germinating spore take place 

♦ ' Flora," 1895, Heft 1. 

Naturalist, 



Cavers: Notes on Yorkshire Bryophytes. 49 

before the rupture of the exospore or outer coat. The young- 
plant at first grows in all directions, so that instead of forming 
a filament (germ-tube), as in most liverworts, it consists of a 
small oval mass of cells. At one end of this mass the super- 
ficial cells grow out to form rhizoids, while one of the cells at 
the other end becomes larger than the others, and divides by 
intersecting walls, forming a three-sided apical cell. The first 
few leaves are simple rows of cells, then come small bilobed 
cell-plates, the lower lobe of the side leaves only becoming 
pitcher-like after about a dozen of these simple leaves have been 
formed. The under leaves are at first represented only by small 
tufts of rhizoids, and when rhizoids occur on the mature plant 
they always grow out from the basal part of an under-leaf. 

Isolated leaves of F. dilatcita and F. tamarisei, or even 
small pieces including only a few cells, are capable of giving 
rise to new plants when cultivated. By growing leaves and 
leaf-fragments in culture solutions, the writer has several times 
obtained well grown plants, and can verify for both these species 
the account given for F. dilatata by Schostakowitsch,* who 
showed that the growth proceeds from a single leaf-cell ; this 
cell divides so as to form two tiers with four cells in each, and 
the four upper cells then give rise to a small ovoid mass of cells, 
one of which forms the apical cell of the young plant. 

Small disc-like cell masses (gemmce) are sometimes formed 
on the leaves of F. dilatata and F. tamarisei by the growth and 
division of a single leaf-cell. These gemmae give rise to new 
plants, as also do the outgrowths on the perianth of F. dilatata 
when cultivated.! 

For kind assistance in the supply of specimens of Hepaticce, 
I am indebted to Messrs. W. Ingham, S. M. Macvicar, M. B. 
Slater, G. Stabler, and G. Webster, to whom I take this oppor- 
tunity of expressing my thanks. 

The majority of the illustrations in this paper have been re- 
produced from photomicrographs kindly taken for me by Prof. 
E. L. Watkin, M.A. , Hartley University College, Southampton. 

In the investigation of the Hepalica?, I have been materially 
assisted by a grant allotted by the Government Grant Committee 
of the Royal Society. 

* ' Flora,' 1894. 

t Berggren ( Jak/fagelser iifver niossomas kb'nlosa fortplanting, etc., 
Lund, 1895) says that the pitchers of F. fragili folia, which readily become 
detached from the plant, give rise to leafy shoots on being 1 set free. See the 
writer's paper ' On a sexual reproduction and regeneration in Hepaticce,' 
'New Phytologist,' vol. 2, 1903. 

1907 February i. 



5° 

FUNGUS FORAY AT FARNLEY TYAS. 



C. CROSSLAND, F.L.S. 
Halifax. 

The sixteenth annual foray of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union was held at Farnley Tyas, September 22nd to 27th, 
the object being the investigation of the neighbouring fields 
and woods. Permissions were granted by Lord Dartmouth 
and the West Riding County Council. The head-quarters 
were at the " Golden Cock." There were present Messrs. 
A. Clarke, Huddersfield ; W. N. Cheesman, Selby ; Harold 
Wager, Leeds; Thos. Gibbs, Derby; R. H. Philip, Hull 
C. H. Broadhead, Wooldale ; J. Needham, Hebden Bridge 
H. C. Hawley, Boston, Lines. ; Thos. Smith, Alderley Edge 
H. Humphrey, Stockport; J. W. H. Johnson, Thornhill ; Rev. 
F. H. W T oods, Bainton ; and a Wakefield representative. 

There were also representatives from the following Societies: 
Huddersfield, Milnsbridge, Slaithwaite, Berry Brow, Honley, 
Moldgreen, Primrose Hill, and Lindley. Each brought 
parcels of Fungi gathered in their own and other localities, such 
as Golcar, Kirkheaton, etc., too far away to be worked from this 
centre, though within the Huddersfield area. 

This village has long been one of the occasional joint meeting- 
places for the many Field Naturalist Societies in the Hudders- 
field district. These Societies, especially the Huddersfield 
Botanical Society, have for nearly a quarter of a century included 
fungi in their investigatoins. It was partly on this account that 
the Committee decided to hold the foray here. There being a 
very suitable room at the Inn, with plenty of light and table 
space, it was thought an exhibition of the specimens collected 
might be made that would be of interest and value to all present. 

Mr. A. Clarke provided a series of diagrams showing the 
order of classification, together with generic labels printed in 
large type, which were distributed on the walls and tables. 
These greatly facilitated the arrangement in proper order of the 
various species collected. Small wooden stands and pins were 
also made use of to show species in an erect and more natural 
position than if laid in a heap on the table. 

A few uncommon species were brought from Hebden Bridge 
by J. Needham ; others from near Wakefield by J. W. H. John- 
son ; and a consignment was sent from Luddenden Dean, near 
Halifax, by H. Waterworth, for exhibition purposes only, and 
are not included in the list of local species. 

Naturalist, 



Crossland: Fungus Foray at Famley Tyas. 51 

The foray opened by a short run out to Storthes Hall Wood 
on the Saturday afternoon. Evidence was not lacking that there 
must be no expectations of overflowing baskets at the end of 
each day's excursion. The gamekeepers had noticed the dearth 
of fungi in the woods. The delightful weather of the previous 
six or eight weeks had not been conducive to prolific fungus 
growths. However, observation having taught us that weather 
which retards the majority of species may be favourable to a 
few, there was no despondency. The elements were favour- 
able for collecting such as could be found, and it has often been 
noticed that when prospects are not specially good things 
altogether out of the ordinary line, worth perhaps a wagon load 
of old acquaintances, have been almost certain to crop up. It 
was so this time. There were one or two other compensations : 
the woods were near and easy to work. 

In a delightful place in Mollicar Wood one party enjoyed 
themselves for a short while sitting on a log, as they could find 
no fungi by walking about. This proved to be the best way of 
searching at that particular place. Presently, after a little fun 
had partially subsided, one said, " I see something over there; " 
another, " And I see something over there." This caused a spurt in 
various directions, which led to the finding of one of the rarest 
hings collected during the foray — Boletus parasiticus in fine 
form attacking Scleroderma vulgare. This Boletus has only two 
previous Yorkshire records — Scarborough and Hebden Bridge— 
the latter too late to be included in the Yorks. Fungus Flora. 
The Hebden Bridge specimens were also on 5. vulgare. 

Varying fortune was experienced during the week's investiga- 
tions both in woods and pastures. While some pastures were 
rather barren, others yielded fairly abundantly. One in particular 
was remarkably good. This was an old pasture on the bank 
of the stream, about an acre and a half in extent, and partly 
surrounded by woodland. Here a party of five or six in a 
twenty minutes' search gathered thirty-eight species on the cattle 
dung and among the grass. Certainly, they were mostly species 
of common occurrence, yet there were three or four which have 
only a couple of previous Yorkshire records. 

The pastures were all in good " heart," and showed no 
signs of suffering from lack of moisture : they were almost 
spring green. Pasture species, comparatively speaking, were 
more in evidence than denizens of the woodlands. At no pre- 
vious foray have thirteen species of Clavavia been found, which 
number is nearly half those hitherto recorded for the whole of 

1907 February i. 



52 Crossland : Fungus Foray at Farnley Tyas. 

Yorkshire, while one — C. incarnata — is a new county record. 
One field, within a few hundred yards of head-quarters, pro- 
duced no fewer than six species, including incarnata. This latter 
is not a very conspicuous Clavaria among grass, being only h-ih 
inches high, and was found partly by accident. Several of the 
company, desirous of having the exhibits as perfect as possible, 
cut out circular sods along with the fungus, and placed them on 
the tables in a growing condition. It was on one of these, under 
the pileus of a tall Hygropliorus pvatensis, that C. incarnata was 
spotted. We were unable to find more in the field where the 
sod came from. In another field were some remarkably fine 
tufts of C. fusiformis and C. coralloides, tufts of the latter being 
6-7 inches across. " Fairy rings " were scarce both in meadow 
and pasture, hence ring-dwellers, such as Marasmius oreades and 
one or two others, were conspicuous by their absence, which is 
quite unusual. The not common, Hygrophorns ovinns, was 
plentiful. Six of the twelve British Panaeoli were collected, 
while only one of the forty-three species of Lepiota was seen. 
At Maltby last year nine species were noted. There was almost 
a total absence of Annillaria inellea, although the district is fairly 
well wooded, and this species is usually one of the most common 
as a tree parasite. 

In the woods there was a good variety of the genus Russula- 
Over one-third of the British species were seen, but only in small 
quantities, except the very commonest, as ochrolenca emetica and 
cyanoxantha. R. rosacea was one of the prettiest funguses at the 
foray. 

A fine range of Amanitopsis vaginatus both in size and shades of 
colour was brought in, a specimen of the var. fulva being remark- 
ably bright. Collybia macnlata was the commonest woodland agaric. 
An extra effort made by a member of one of the local societies 
discovered the uncommon polypore, Stiobilomyces strobilaccns, in 
Storthes Hall Wood. Mr. A. Denison, of the Milnsbridge 
Society, brought some remarkable dried specimens of a woody 
agaric, which he had collected about two years ago growing on 
the pine-board floor of a joiner's shop at Milnsbridge. They 
proved to be Lentinits sujfrutescens Fr., and are the first recorded 
British specimens. 

The spores of Mucor mucedo and the conidia of Botrytis 
vulgaris and Cladosporium hcrbarum had found a decaying banana 
skin by the road side in Storthes Hall lane, and were increasing 
a millionfold. 

A specimen of Hypholoma fasciculate was seen growing from 

Naturalist, 



Cross/and : Fungus Foray at Farnley Tyas. 53 

inside a bracken stem, a peculiar habitat : its usual home is a 
dead stump. 

Several of the members devoted Wednesday to the examina- 
tion of material gathered for microscopic species. 

At no previous foray has so much local interest been taken 
in the work both in collecting and in the classification of the 
exhibits. The number of people who visited the exhibition 
during the week cannot be less than a couple of hundred. 
There were numerous drawings and photographs of fungi on 
exhibit, and all necessary books and appliances were provided 
for working out the unfamiliar specimens. 

It was scarcely possible under the circumstances to record the 
wood in which each species was gathered, but this matters little, 
as the woodlands in the neighbourhood are very similar in 
character. They consist principally of oak, with a slightly varying 
admixture of sycamore, wych elm, beech, ash, and birch ; in 
some parts cf Storthes Hall Wood the latter is prevalent, along 
with its undergrowth companions, bracken and the flexuous 
hair-grass. Had the foray been held three or four weeks later 
the number of specimens collected would have been much 
greater. 

With a view to keeping the list within as narrow limits as 
possible, all species previously recorded from the Huddersfield 
area are here omitted. This plan will also serve to show at a 
glance the additions made to the Huddersfield fungus flora 
during this meeting. One species is new to Britain, and seven 
species and varieties new to Yorkshire. Besides these there are 
numerous confirmations of hitherto single records which are 
quite as valuable as new ones, if not more so. The peculiar 
Ptychogastev alius was met with on a decaying stump. Some 
authorities think this may be the conidial condition of some 
Polypore. 

On the Monday evening Mr. Massee was to have given an 
address on " Modern Mycologists," but being unable to be 
present, Mr. Wager kindly consented to give his lecture on 
" Recent Researches on Reproduction in Fungi " on that even- 
ing instead of Tuesday. There was a large and appreciative 
audience. On Tuesday evening Mr. Gibbs detailed some 
interesting observations, illustrated by drawings, on a series of 
South African micro fungi he had been investigating. These 
were collected by Mr. Cheesman in 1905 during the British 
Association Meetings. 

The business meeting was held on the Wednesday evening. 

1907 February i. 



54 



Crossland : Fungus Foray at Farnley Tyas. 



Four new members were elected, and the Halifax Scientific. 
Society affiliated with the Union. 

Votes of thanks were unanimously passed to Lord Dart- 
mouth and the West Riding County Council for the permissions 
to investigate their respective estates. 

The following constitute the Mycological Committee for 
1907 : — G. Massee, President ; C. Crossland, Sec. ; Rev. W., 
Fowler, Harold Wager, Alfred Clarke, W. N. Cheesman, 
Thos. Gibbs, C. H. Broadhead, J. W. H. Johnson, and R. H. 
Philip. 

The place of meeting for 1907 is Grassington for Grass 
Woods, Bolton Woods, etc., September 21st to 26th. 

All the species not otherwise located are from the woods and 
fields in the neighbourhood of Farnley Tyas, and are marked 
in the following list F.T. The other local initials used are: — 
M. = Milnesbridge; Sl. = Slaithwaite; H. = Honley; B.B. = Berry 
Brow; Sk. = Skelmanthorpe ; W. = Wooldale; K. = Kirkburton. 
:;: = First Yorkshire record. 

**== First British record. 



BASIDIOMYCETES. 

(GAS TROM YCE TES. ) 

Crucibulum Tul. 

C. vulgare Tul. F.T. 

On fallen twig's. 
Lycoperdon Tournf. 
L. echinatum Pers. F.T. 

In woods among 1 dead leaves. 
L. depressum Bon. F.T. 

On the ground in a wood. 
L. spadiceum Pers. 
Bovista Dill. 

B. nigrescens Pers. F.T. 
In pasture. 

Mutinus Fr. 

M. caninus (Huds.). F.T., Ravens- 
thorpe. H. Parkinson. 

(H YMENOM YCE TES) 

AGARIC ACE/E. 

Agaricex. 

Leucosporce, 
Tricholoma Fr. 

T» sejunctum (Sow. ). F.T. 

On the ground in woods. 
T. inamoenum Fr. F.T. 

In pasture. 
Clitocybe Fr. 

C. dealbata (Sow.). F.T. 

C. tumulosa (Kalchbr. ). F.T. 



C. infundibuliformis (Schaeff). F.T., 

M.B. In woods. 
Collybia Fr. 
C. confluens (Pers. ). F.T. 

Among dead leaves. 
Mycena Pers. 
M. pullata (B.&Cke.). SI. 
M. alcalina Fr. F.T. 
M. epipterygea (Scop.). F.T., SI. 1 

In pastures. 
M. stylobates Pers. F.T. 

On dead herbaceous stems. 
M. hiemalis (Osbk.). F.T. 

On decaying bark. 
Omphalia Fr. 
O. integrella(Pers.). F.T. 
Pleurotus Fr. 
P. tremulus (Schajff.). F.T., SI. 

On bare ground. 

Rhodosporce. 
PI ut ens Fr. 
P. phlebophorus (Ditm.). SI. 

Among rotting logwood chips. 
Entoloma Fr. 
E. prunuloides Fr. F.T. 
E. nidorosum Fr. F.T. 

Both in pastures. 
Clitopilus Fr. 
C. carneo-albus Wither. SI. 

Ochrosporce. 
Pholiota Fr. 
P. togularis (Bull.). F.T. 

On the ground in a wood. 

Naturalist, 



Crossland : Fungus Foray at Far n ley Tyas. 



55 



P. mutabilis (Schaeff.). B.B. 

On dead stump. 
Hebeloma Fr. 
H. sinapizans Fr. F.T. 

* H. nudipes Fr. F.T. 
Naucoria Fr. 

N. semiorbicularis (Bull.). F.T. 

In pastures. 
Galera Fr. 
G. tenera (Schaeff.). F.T., SI. 

* Var. pilosella Pers. F.T. 
Tubaria Sm. 

* T. cupularis (Bull.). F.T. 
Bolbitius Fr. 

B. titubans (Bull.). F.T., B.B., Sk. 

M.B. In pastures. 
Cortinarius Pers. 

C. (Ino. ) violaceus (L. ). F.T. 
C. (Ino.) hircinus Fr. F.T. 
C, (Tela.) paleaceus Fr. F.T. 
C, (Hygr. ) acutus (Pers. ). F.T. 

All on the ground in woods. 

Meianosporce. 
Stropharia Fr. 
S. merdaria Fr. F.T. 

On cow dung. 
Hypholoma Fr. 
H. pyrotrichum (Holnisk. ). F.T. 

Among grass. 
Panaeolus Fr. 
P. retirugis Fr. F.T. , M.B. 
P. sphinctrinus. F.T. 
P. fimicola Fr. F.T. 
Psilocybe Fr. 
P. ericaea (Pers.). F.T. 
P. coprophila(Bull.). F.T. 

On dry cow dung. 

* P. canobrunnea Fr. F.T. 

On manure heap. 
Psathyra Fr. 
P. corrugis (Pers.). Golcar. 

In cornfield. 
Coprinus Pers. 
C. deliquescens (Bull.) F.T. 

Among grass. 
C. Gibbsii, Mass. & Crossl. F.T. 
C. stercorarius (Bull.). F.T. 

The preceding two on dung. 
C. hemerobius Fr. F.T. 

Paxillese. 

Hygrophorus Fr. 

H. Clarkii (B.&Br.) F.T. 
H. ovinus (Bull.). F.T. 
H. laetus Fr. F.T., SI. 
H. miniatus Fr. F.T. 
H. calyptraeformis Berk. SI. 
All in pastures. 

Lactariese. 
Lactarius Fr. 

L. minimus W. G. Sm. SI. 



Russula Pers. 
R. adusta Pers. F.T.. SI. 
R. densifolia Seer. F.T. 
R. semicrema Fr. SI. 
R. furcata Pers. 

* Var. ochroviridis Cke. SI. 
R. sanguinea Fr. F.T. 
R. rosacea Fr. M.B., F.T. 
R. purpurea Gillet. (— J?. Oueletii 

Fr., var. purpurea). F.T. 
R. lactea Fr. F.T. 
R. cutefracta Cke. M.B. 
R. rubra DC. F.T., SI. 
R. granulosa Cke. F.T., H., W. 
R. integra Fr. SI. 
R. puellaris Fr. SI. 
R. ochracea A.&S. F.T. 

All the Russulae were found on 

the ground in or near woods. 

Cantharellese. 
Cantharellus Adams. 

*C. Friesii Q. 

On woodwork of coal-frame, 

in garden, Spa Baths, Slaith- 

waite. 
C. infundibuliformis Fr. F.T. 

Marasmieae. 

Marasmius Fr. 

M. sclerotipes Bres. (Collybiu 
tuberosa). F.T. 
Growing from sclerotia on dead 
stump. 
Lentinus Fr. 
** L. suffrutescens Fr. M.B. 

Growing from the floor of 
joiner's shop. 

POLYPORACE/E. 

Bole teas 

Boletus Dill. 

B. parasiticus Bull. Mollicar Wood, 
on Scleroderma vulgare. 

Polyporex. 
Polyporus Mich. 
P. rufescens Fr. F.T. 

On dead stump. 
P. adustus F. Huddersfield. 

On tree stump. 
P. chioneus Fr. F.T. 
Poria Pers. 
P. mollusca Fr. F.T. 
P. sanguinolenta (A.&S.). F.T. 

Last two on rotting branches. 

HYDNACE/E. 
Hydnum L. 

H. argutum Fr. F.T. 
On dead wood. 



1907 February 1. 



56 



Crossland: Fungus Foray at Farnley Tyas. 



THELEPMORA CE/E. 

Stereum Pers. 

S. sanguinolentum Fr. F.T. 

Corticium Fr. 

C. calceum Fr. F.T. 

Peniophora Cke. 

P. velutina (Berk.). F.T. 

On decaying' ash wood. 
Cyphella Fr. 
C. capula Fr. F.T. 

On dead herbaceous stems. 
Thelephora Ehrh. 
T. laciniata Pers. F.T., SI. 

On the ground in woods. 

CLAVARIACE/E. 
Clavaria "\ ahl. 
C. muscoides L. F.T., B.B. 
C. coralloides L. F.T., B.B. 
C. umbrinella Sacc. F.T. 

All three in pastures. 
C. cinerea Bull. F.T. 
C. cristata Holmsk. F.T., M.B. 
C. rugosa Bull. F.T. 

All three in woods. 
C. fusiformis Sow. F.T., M.B. 
* C. incarnata Weissm. F.T. 
C. tenerrima Mass & Crossl. F.T. 

All in pastures. 
Typhula Pers. 
T. erythropus Fr. F.T. 

On dead herbaceous stems. 
Pistil laria Fr. 
P. tenuipes Mass. F.T. 

In pastures. 
P. puberula Berk. F.T. 

On dead leaves in a wood. 

TREMELLACEjE. 

Calocera Fr. 

C. cornea Fr. F.T. 
On rotting branch. 

VREDINACEJE. 
Coleosporium LeV. 
C. sonchi (Pers.). H., F.T. 

On Tussilago farfara. 
Uromyces Link. 
U. polygoni (Pers.). F.T. 

On Polygonum avicidare. 
Puccinia Pers. 
P. menthae Newsome. 

On Mentha viridis in garden. 
P. rubigo-vera (DC). F.T. 

Uredospores on grass. 
P. poarum Niels. F.T. 

^Ecidiospores on Tussilago far- 
fara. 
P. glomerata Grev. F.T. 

On Senecio aqnatica. 



ASCOMYCETES. 

(PYRENOMYCETES). 

Cordyceps Vv. 

C. militaris (L.). F.T. 

On dead beetle among grass. 
Hypocrea Fr. 
H. rufa (Pers.). F.T. 

On dead wood. 
Xylaria Hill. 
X. polymorpha (Pers.). M.B. 

On dead stumps. 
Poronia Willd. 
P. punctata Fr. F.T. 

On dry horse dung in pasture. 
Hypoxyion Bull. 
H. rubiginosum (Pers.). F.T. 
Eutypa Tul. 
E. lata Tul. F.T. 

On dead branches. 
Sordaria C.&DeN. 
S. coprophila (Fr.). F.T. 

On horse dung. 
S. decipiens Wint. F.T. 
S. curvula DeBy. F.T. 
Sporormia DeN. 
S. intermedia Awd. F.T. 

The last three sp. on rabbit dung. 
Sphaerella C.&DeN. 
S. fragariae (Tul.). F.T. 

On the leaves of garden straw- 
berry. 
Sphaerotheca LeV. 
S. pannosa (Wallr.). F.T. 

On cultivated rose bushes. 
S. castagnei Lt^v. F.T. 

On garden peas. 
Erysiphe Hedw. 
E. communis (Wallr.). F.T. 

On Polygonum avicidare. 

{DISCOMYCETES.) 
Peziza Dill. 
P. badia Pers. F.T. 

On the ground in a wood. 
Dasyscypha Fr. 
D. virginea Fckl. F.T. 

On dead herbaceous stems. 
D. Soppittii Mass. F.T. 
D. ciliaris Sacc. F.T. 

Both on dead oak-leaves. 
Ciboria Fckl. 
C. luteovirescens Sacc. F.T. 

On dead leaf-stalk. 
Helotium Fr. 
H. claroflavum Berk. F.T. 

On rotting branch. 
H. citrinum Fr. 

Var. pallescens Mass. F.T. 

On decaying wood. 
H. aciculare Pers. F.T., SI. 

On moss-covered stumps. 

Naturalist, 



Reviews luul Book Nohces. 



57 



H. cyathoideum Karst. F.T. 

On dead plant stems. 
Mollisia Fr. 
M. lignicola Phil. F.T. 

On decaying wood. 
Ryparobius Boud. 
R. argenteus. F.T. 

On rabbit dung. 
Ascophanus Boud. 
A. minutissimus Boud. F.T. 

On rabbit dung. 
A. equinus F.T. 

On horse and rabbit dung. 
Saccobolus Boud. 
S. neglectus Boud. F.T 
S. Kerverni Boud. F.T. 

On cow and rabbit dung. 

PHYCOMYCETES. 
Pilobolus Tode 
P. crystallinus Tode. F.T. 
P. Kleinii Van Teigh. F.T. 

Both on cow dung. 
Mucor Mich. 
M. mucedo L. F.T. 

On decaying banana skin la 
on the road side. 
Spinellus Van Teigh. 
S. fusiger Van Teigh. 

On Boletus. 
Cystopus Le^v. 
C. candidus Lev. F.T. 

On shepherd's purse in garden. 
Phytophthora DeBy. 
P. infestans DeBy. F.T. 

On potatoes. 

DEUTEROM YCETES. 
Sphaeronemella Karst. 
S. fimicola Marchal. F.T. 

On rabbit dung. 

HYPHOMYCETES. 
Cylindrium Bon. 
C. flavovirens Bon. F.T. 
On dead oak-leaves. 



Penicillium Link. 

P. glaucum Link F.T. 

On dead plant stems. 
P. candidum Link. F.T. 

On Polvponts sguamosus, 
Botrytis Mich. 
B. vulgaris Fr. F.T. 

On decaying banana skin laid 
on the road side. 

B. fascicularis Sacc. F.T. 

On dead stems of cow parsnip. 
Sepedonium Link. 
S. chrysospermum Fr. F.T. 

On dead Boletus. 
Arthrobotrys Corda. 
A. superba Corda. F.T. 

On rabbit dung. 
Torula Pers. 
T. herbarum Link. F.T. 
Cladosporium Link. 

C. herbarum Link. F.T. 
Stilbum Tode. 

S. erythrocephalum Ditm. F.T. 

On rabbit dung. 
/Egerita Pers. 
. : E. candida Pers. F.T. 
Fusarium Link. 
F. roseum Link. F.T. 

On decaying plant stems. 

MYXOMYCETES. 

Stemonitis Gled. 

S. fusca Roth. F.T. 

Trichia Haller. 

T. varia Pers. F.T. 

Chondrioderma. 

C. difforme Rost. F.T. 

The last three on rotting wood. 
Craterium Trent. 
C. confusum Mass. F.T. 

On dead leaves. 
Fuligo Hall. 
F. varians Somm. F.T. 

On decaying wood. 



Where the Forest Murmurs. Nature Essays. By Fiona Macleod. 

London, 1906. 389 pages. Price 6/- net. 

In this little volume are gathered together several articles by this well- 
known writer, which have appeared in Country Life, and which her admirers 
will be glad to get in a more permanent form. Undoubtedly the authoress 
has every sympathy with Nature, and with all that is beautiful. She is also 
able to express her thoughts in beautiful language. Here and there, how- 
ever, the desire for ' fine ' writing, with exceeding short sentences following 
one another in rapid succession, and the constant repetition of the same 
words over and over again, grows just a little wearisome. On a single 
page we learn ' The last enchantment of mid-winter is not yet come. . . 
The forest-soul is no longer an incommunicable mystery. It is abroad. 
It is a communicable dream. In that magnificent nakedness it knows its 
safety. . . It is not asleep as the poets feign.' It is ' chronic ' ! 



1907 February 1. 



5$ 

THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION IN 1907. 



At the Annual Meeting - of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 
held at York on December 15th, the following- officers were 
elected : — 

President — C. Crossland, Halifax. 

Secretary — T. Sheppard, The Museum, Hull. 

Divisional Secretaries — York, S. W. — H. H. Corbett,9, Priory 
Place, Doncaster ; A. Whitaker, Savile House, Wors- 
borough Bridge, Barnsley. York, Mid. W. — Riley 
Fortune, Lindisfarne, Dragon Road, Harrogate. 
York, N.W. — W. Robinson, Greenbank, Sedbergh. 
York, N.E. — J. J. Burton, Rosecroft, Nunthorpe, 
R.S.O., York's. York, S.E.— J. \V. Stather, Brook- 
side, Newland Park, Hull. 

Sectional Officers. 

J 'ertebrate Zoology : — 

President — Riley Fortune, Harrogate. 

Secretaries — T. H. Nelson, Redcar. A. White, Leeds. 
E. W. Wade, Hull. H. B. Booth, Shipley. 

Entomology : — 

President — Wm. Hewett, 12, Howard Street, York. 
Secretaries (for Lepidoptera) — A. Whitaker, Barnsley ; and 

T. A. Lofthouse, Middlesborough. (Hymenoptera, 

Diptera, and Hemiptera) W. D. Roebuck, Leeds. 

(Neuroptera, Orthoptera, and Trichoptera) G. T. 

Porritt, Huddersfield. (Coleoptera) E. G. Bayford, 

Barnsley. 

( oncl/ology : — 

President — J. E. Crowther, Elland. 
Secretary — W. Denison Roebuck, Leeds. 

Botany : — 

President— W. G. Smith, Ph.D., Headingley. 

Secretaries — H. H. Corbett, Doncaster ; J. Fraser Robinson, 
Hull. 
Geology : 

President — Cosmo Johns, Sheffield. 

Secretaries — A. J. Stather, Hull ; E. Hawkesworth, Leeds. 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union in igoj. 59 

Committees of Research. 

Yorkshire Micro-Zoology and Micro-Botany Committee: — 

Chairman — M. H. Stiles, Doncaster. 

Convener — R. H. Philip, Hull. 
Yorkshire Coleoptera Committee: — 

President — M. L. Thompson, Saltburn-by-Sea. 

Convener — E. G. Bayford, Barnsley. 
Glacial Committee : — 

Chairman — Prof. P. F. Kendall, M.Sc, Leeds. 

Conveners — J. H. Howarth, J. P., Halifax; J. W. Stather, 
Hull. 
Yorkshire Bryological Committee : — 

Chairman — M. B. Slater, Malton. 

Convener — J. J. Marshall, Beverley. 
Mycological Committee : — 

President — G. Massee, Kew. 

Convener — C. Crossland, Halifax. 
Yorkshire Fossil Flora and Fauna Committee : — 

Chairman and Convener — R. Kidston, F.R. S., Stirling". 
Geological Photographs Committee : — 

Chairman — Prof. P. F. Kendall, Leeds. 

Convener — A. J. Stather, Hull. 
Yorkshire Coast Erosion Committee: — 

Chairman — F. F. Walton, Hull. 

Convener — E. R. Matthews, Bridlington. 
Yorkshire Marine Biology Committee : — 

Chairman — Dr. H. C. Sorby, F.R. S., Sheffield. 

Convener — Rev. E. H. Woods, B. D., Bainton Rectory, nr. 
Driffield. 
Wild Birds' and Fggs' Protection Committee : — 

Chairman — W. H. St. Quintin, J. P., Rillington. 

Conveners — R. Fortune, Harrogate ; T. H. Nelson, Redcar. 
Yorkshire Botanical Survey Committee : — 

Chairman — Dr. T. W. Woodhead, Huddersfield. 

Convener — Dr. W. G. Smith, Leeds. 
Committee of Suggestions for Research : — 

Chairman — Prof. P. F. Kendall, M.Sc, Leeds. 

Convener — Dr. W. G. Smith, Leeds. 
Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera Committee : — 

Chairman — G. T. Porritt, Huddersfield. 

Convener — W. Denison Roebuck, Leeds 

1907 February i. 



6o 



NOTE ON A VARIETY OF LIMN/EA 
STAGNALIS. 



J. W. TAYLOR. 
Leeds. 



The interesting" specimen of Limncea stagnalis, found by Mr. 
Hutton (see p. 61), exhibits clearly and distinctly a character 
which is liable to occur in almost any of our Mollusca. Analogous 
specimens are occasionally found amongst the terrestrial species, 
but the peculiarity is much more frequently met with amongst 
the freshwater shells ; Limncea peregra and Physa fontinalis 
being especially subject to this mode of ornamentation. White 
spiral banding of this kind is always adventitous, never com- 
mencing ab ovo, but in every case originating - during the free 
life of the animal. It is probably an effect arising from injury 
to, or laceration of the outer margin of the mantle by fish or 
some other predatory creature, by which the secretory glandules 
are injured or destroyed, and as the particular glands secreting 
the outer or epidermal layer are the most externally placed, they 
are the most liable to injury and destruction. 

Injury to the secretory cellules results in a deficient secretion 
of the protective outer epidermis, which in the Limnasidae gives 
the colour to the shell, so that its absence or unusual delicacy 
and thinness exposes the white calcareous stratum beneath, and 
enables it to become strikingly perceptible and in strong con- 
trast to the horny-brown colour of the adjacent uninjured shell 
surface, each injured gland or group of glands giving rise to a 
slender or broader white or whitish line, which revolves spirally 
around the whorls in strict correlation with the direction of the 
coiling, while the rate of increase in its breadth is in correspon- 
dence with the general enlargement of the shell itself. 

If the laceration of the marginal glands is not so severe as 
to totally destroy, but merely tears the glandular fringe, the 
injury may in process of time become healed, and the white 
revolving - lines on the shell, due to the injury, will be gradually 
obliterated by the overgrowth of epidermis of normal density 
and appearance. 

If, however, the injury to the pallial margin be more serious, 
then the more deeply seated lime cells may also be destroyed, 
in such case, not merely is the outer epidermal layer involved ; 
but the substance of the shell itself may show its effects by the 
shell wall being distinctly cleft. 

Naturalist, 



6i 

FIELD NOTES. 

BIRDS. 

The Hoopoe in Lincolnshire. — On my way from the Black 
Hut, which stands on the bank of Kelsey Beck, in the parish of 
Cadney, on December 17th, I saw a pair of Hoopoes. Though it 
was mid-winter, I was surprised to see that they had what I took 
to be fnlly developed crests. I found, on getting home and 
looking into Saunder's Manual, that it is generally after stormy 
weather that these birds are observed on the east coast. We 
had certainly experienced enough rough weather just before I 
saw them. — D. Woodruffe-Peacock, Cadney Vicarage, Brigg. 

— : o : — 

SHELLS. 
Variety of Limnaea stagnalis found near Leeds. — The 

specimen figured herewith I took in a pond south-east of Leeds, 




on November 23rd last. It will be seen that it has a single 
white narrow band in the centre of the whorl. The shell is 
iy 5 ^ inches in length. — W. Harrison Hitton, Leeds. 



DIPTERA. 

Note on Volucella pellucens at Worksop. — On July 27th, 
1906, whilst working amongst my insects between 9 and 10 p.m., 
I was surprised to see a fine specimen of this Dipteron fly into 
the room attracted by the gas which was burning-. The night 
was a very hot and still one, and the windows were wide open. 

Oddly enough, exactly the same thing happened just a year 
previously on July 28th, 1905, under exactly similar circum- 
stances. 

It seems strange that such a sun-loving - species as Volucella 
pellucens should be on the wing at night. — E. Maude Alderson, 
Worksop, October, 1906. 

At the recent annual meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomo- 
logical Society, Mr. S. J. Capper was elected President, and Dr. J. H. Bailev, 
Mr. E. J. B. Sopp, Prof. E. B. Poulton, Messrs. J. R. Charnlev, H. H. Co'r- 
bett and W. Mansbridge, Vice-Presidents. 

1907 February i. 



62 

REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

Upper Nidderdale, with the Forest of Knaresboroiigh.* 

Certainly no county has such a wealth of valuable books dealing 
with its history, topography, etc., as has Yorkshire. This is 
largely due to the charms of the county, but is to some extent 
attributable to the number of able writers which the county 
has been able to boast. Amongst the living authors who have 
done so much in praise of Yorkshire, Mr. Harry Speight holds 
a prominent place. His most recent book, ' Upper Nidderdale,' 




Old Lead Mines, Merryfield Qlen. 

is before us, and should do much to make this part of the 
county more appreciated even than it is at present. A little 
over a year ago his ' Nidderdale, from New Monkton to 
Whernside,' was issued, and had a read)' sale. The present 
work is practically a reprint of that book, with the exception of 
that part relating to the district below Knaresboroiigh, which 
is now omitted. Whilst it appeals particularly to the antiquary, 

* Being a record of the History, Antiquities, Scenery, Old Homes, 
Families, etc., of that Romantic District. By Harry Speight. Elliot 
Stock, 1906. Pages 368 + lxxii. Price 5/- net. 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 63 

there is much in the volume of general interest, and no one 
visiting- the neighbourhood, and anxious to learn what is to 
be known about it, can afford to be without ' Upper Nidder- 
dale.' The volume is very full in so far as it relates to the 
history of the various old families living- in the area. There 
are numerous illustrations, mostly of an excellent character. 
One of these we are kindly permitted to reproduce. 

Transactions of the Hull Scientific and Field Natu = 
ralists' Club for the year 1906. Vol. III., Part IV., with 
Title page and Index. Edited by Thomas Sheppard, F.G.S. 
Price 2/6 net. A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., 1907. 8vo. 

We have once more to congratulate our Hull friends on the 
production of the account of another year's excellent work, and 
on the part now before us, with its wealth of illustrations, which 
this time runs to an admirable coloured plate of the only known 
British Eggs of Pallas' Sand Grouse, four eggs, of which Mr. 
T. Audas is the proud possessor. 

The part opens with a detailed account, by Mr. Sheppard, 
of a collection of Roman Antiquities from South Eerriby, in 
North Lincolnshire. The place is outside the East Riding, but 
only just on the other side of the Humber, and being his birth- 
place, the Editor is fully justified in preserving so complete an 
account of the interesting Roman remains, so fully described 
and illustrated in this paper, six plates being devoted to it. 

The next paper, by John Nicholson, deals with ' Some 
Holderness Fighting Words,' which would convey the idea 
that the East Yorkshireman is a particularly quarrelsome 
person, so great is his wealth of fighting words. The author 
might have added another word, ' Snappers,' the by-name of 
the 15th or East Yorkshire Regiment of the Line. Pure natural 
history follows, Mr. Boult's pessimistic account of East York- 
shire Lepidoptera (hardly Entomology as he phrases it) in 1906, 
and Mr. T. Dobbs' report on East Yorkshire Conchology in 
1906, are succeeded by a Bibliography and List of East Riding 
Hymenoptera, in which the sparse total of 23 species is recorded 
as against nearly 600 in the Yorkshire County List. 

An excellent memoir, with portrait, of the great Hull Ento- 
mologist, William Spence, joint author of the famous Introduc- 
tion to Entomology, is full of interesting detail. 

Mr. R. H. Philip —a speaking likeness of whom, in conjunc- 
tion with other four ex-presidents of the society, forms the 
frontispiece — describes the work done in Diatoms in 1906 ; 

1907 February i. 



64 Northern News. 

Mr. Arthur R. Warnes does the same for Fungi, and Mr. T. 
Stainforth for Coleoptera. In connection with the latter it is 
satisfactory to note that it is proposed to devote a cabinet in 
the Hull Museum to a type collection of British Coleoptera. 

Mr. Sheppard's very appropriately written Presidential 
Address is worthy of one who combines with that office the 
Curatorship of the splendid museum Hull can now boast of, 
and who is this year honoured with one of the awards of the 
Geological Society of London. 

Mr. J. Fraser Robinson treats of Botanical Notes of 1906, 
rounding off the series of local reports of investigation, and the 
Report of the Committee gives a record of unabated enthusiasm 
and well-deserved success. 

We look forward for more and similarly satisfactory records 
of future work. — R. 



NORTHERN NEWS. 



In the journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club (Vol. 9, No. 57), Mr. 
C. D. Soar has an interesting 1 paper entitled ' Notes and Observations on 
the Life-History of Fresh-water Mites." 

A ' Knowledge ' Book Club, in connection with ' Knowledge and Scientific 
News,' formed in December, was discontinued owing to lack of support in 
January, and the books are to be offered for sale in February. 

' Ornithological Notes from Derbyshire,' for the year 1905, is one of the 
many interesting papers in the 'Journal of the Derbyshire Archaeological 
and Natural History Society ' for 1906, recently published. 

Under the heading ' Myrmacophilous Notes for 1906,' in the December 
' Entomologist's Record,' Mr, H. St. J. K. Donisthorpe enumerates several 
captures in Northumberland, Durham, and Cumberland. The same journal 
also contains particulars of ' Additions to the Coleoptera of the Northumber- 
land and Durham district,' 1906, by Mr. R. S. Bagnall. 

The recently issued ' Proceedings of the Geologists' Association' (Vol. 19, 
Pt. 10) contains a record of the Association's 'long excursion' to the York- 
shire Coast in 1906, illustrated by some excellent photographs by Mr. 
Godfrey Binglev. The same Proceedings also contain a paper on 'The 
Geology of the Yorkshire Coast between Redcar and Robin Hood's Bay," 
by Mr. R. S. Herries. 

The Geological Society of London will this year award its medals and 
funds as follows :— The Wollaston medal to Prof. W. J. Sollas, M.A., F.R.S. ; 
the Murchison medal to Mr. Alfred Harker, M.A., F.R.S; the Lyell 
medal to Dr. J. F. Whiteaves of Ottawa ; the Wollaston fund to Dr. 
Arthur Vaughan, B.A. ; the Murchison fund to Dr. Felix Oswald, B.A. ; 
and the Lyell Fund to Mr. T. C. Cantrill and Mr. Thomas Sheppard. 

It is gratifying, to find that the study of nature is spreading! At a 
meeting of Suffolk guardians recently, it was reported that in consequence 
of workhouse fare an inmate known as the 'human hairpin' had become as 
'fat as a mole." Possibly the above paragraph will help us to understand 
what was meant by the item, a ' human flea,' on the list of exhibits at 
the recent excellent conversazione of the Doncaster Scientific Society. 

Naturalist, 



SPECIAL SPRING NUMBER. 

ONE SHILLING NET. 



MARCH 1907. 



No. 602 

(No. 380 of currtnt ierie§). 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., 

The Museum, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 



Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated) :— Roseberry Topping, British Eggs of Pallas' Sand- 
grouse, Distorted strata in the Little Don Valley, Nottingham Naturalists, Bradford 
Naturalists, Recorders' Reports, ' Fossil Mushrooms,' British Tunicata, The Illustrations, 
The Slaughter of Kingfishers 

A Yorkshire Variety of a Rare British Tardigrade (Illustrated)— G. S. West, M.A., F.L.S. 

Notes on the Breeding Habits of Bats (Illustrated)— Arthur Whitaker 

Notes on Chrysopa perla and C. flava (Illustrated)— E. Maude Alderson, F.E.S 

Life Zones in British Carboniferous Rocks {Illustrated)— Wheelton Hind, M.D., B.S., 
F.R.C.S., F.G.S 

Recently discovered Fungi in Yorkshire (Illustrated)— C. Crossland, F.L.S. 

Bird Notes, York District— Sydney H. Smith 

The Protection of Birds in the West Riding—/?. Fortune, F.Z.S 

Notes on the Common Swift in the Bradford District— Harry B. Booth, M.B.O.U. 

The Protection of the Birds at Spurn, etc 

Ecology of Woodland Plants near Huddersfield (Illustrated) 

Old Halifax (Illustrated) „ ... 

Ancient Barton 

In Memoriam, Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., F.R.S., D.C.L., D.Sc, etc. (Illustrated) 

,, Dr. W. M. Burman of Wath-on-Dearne (Illustrated) 

,, Wilson Hemingway 

Field Notes 

Reviews and Book Notices (Illustrated) 83, 115, 119, 123 

Northern News 89, 96, 105, 110, 128 

Illustrations 65, 66, 67, 69, 72, 116, 120, 121,123, 126 

Plates IX., X., XI., XII., XIII., XIV., XV., XVI., XVII., XVIII., XIX. 



65-71 
72-73 
74-83 
84-89 

90-96 
97-105 
106 
107-110 
111-114 
114-115 
116-119 
120-122 
122-123 
124-125 
125-127 
127-128 
73 



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THE NATURALIST, 1907. 






British Eggs of Pallas' Sand Grouse. 

(Actual Size). 



6 s 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



ROSEBERRY TOPPING. 
When the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union visited Guisborough 
last year (see 'Naturalist,' Nov. 1906, pages '393-394), Mr. J. J. 
Burton pointed out that the levels and thicknesses of several of 
the zones appearing" on Roseberry Topping" are incorrectly given 
by the Geological Survey. He therefore kindly prepared the 

Lower Oo7iZe. 

Oogger adsen? 

/I. corn>r,vr.ii 30;ie 



/?. aer/icni-inus. 

/I. spinal- us ,.__"_ 
Offer //■ncnfantjlij, 

Lower JJ. . c&- 







je3S.m o[irvr\sl-one. 




Section through Roseberry Topping, N.N.W. to S.S.E. 
Horizontal scale, 880 feet to 1 inch. Vertical scale, 200 feet to 1 inch. 

section, reproduced herewith, which may be taken as approxi- 
mately correct. Mr. Burton is engaged in investigating this 
curious hill, respecting which there are a number of interesting 
problems, and we hope to give our readers the results ot these 
investigations later. 

BRITISH EGGS OF PALLAS' SAND-GROUSE. 
By the permission of the Editor of the ' Transactions of the 
Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' Club,' we are able to present 
our readers with a coloured plate, representing, in actual size, 
the only four British eggs (two clutches) of the Pallas' Sand- 
grouse known to exist. From a note in the Transactions just 
referred to, we gather that both clutches were obtained on the 
high wolds west of Beverley, one on June 15th, and the other 
on July 5th, 1888. They are by no means the only eggs laid 
during that extraordinary immigration of 1888, as some of the 
broken egg-shells were found on the fields. The eggs herewith 
figured (Plate XIII.) came into the possession of the late Johnson 
Swailes of Beverley, whose fine collection (minus these four, 
which are owned by Mr. T. Audas) is now in the Hull Museum. 

1907 March i. 



66 



Notes and Comments. 



It is gratifying to find that the sand-grouse eggs are in Hull, 
and are likely to remain there, though at present they are several 
hundred yards away from the museum ! 

DISTORTED STRATA IN THE LITTLE DON VALLEY. 

In the recently issued 'Transactions of the Manchester 
Geological and Mining Society' (vol. 29, part 9), Mr. Wm. 
Watts gives some useful geological notes on ' Sinking 
Lansett and Underbank Concrete-Trenches in the Little Don 
Valley.' During this work many interesting geological sections 




were exposed, which are reproduced in the paper by means of 
photographic blocks. One of these, by permission of the Insti- 
tution of Mining Engineers, we are enabled to reproduce. This 
shows the distorted strata in the discharge-tunnel, the beds in 
the foreground evidently forming the arch of an anticline. An 
account of the author, and his work, with portrait, appears in 
' Yorkshire Notes and Queries ' for February. 



NOTTINGHAM NATURALISTS. 
The ' Fifty-fourth Annual Report and Transactions of the 
Nottingham Naturalists' Society ' is to hand, and contains a 
useful account of the year's work, together with one or two 



Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 



67 



notes of distinct local value. The report contains obituary 
notices of Prof. J. F. Blake and Prof. H. Marshall Ward, both 
of whom were at one time prominent members of the Nottingham 
Society. We are permitted to reproduce the portrait ot Prof. 
Blake, which will be interesting to readers of this journal, 




The late Professor Blake. 



having regard to his contributions to the geology of various 
parts of the north of England. Amongst the other items in 
the report are — ■' Weather Charts and Weather Forecasts ' (the 
Presidential Address of Mr. H. Mellish), and ' The Stickleback : 
its Personal and Family History ' (with plate), by Dr. H. H. 
Swinerton. The Hon. Secretary of the Society, Prof. J. W. 

1907 March 1. 



68 Notes and Comments. 

Carr, gives a list of new Nottinghamshire spiders and false- 
scorpions, together with some notes on new and rare Notting- 
hamshire plants. Our contributor, Mr. H. Wallis Kew, 
describes a recent addition to the British false-scorpions. 



BRADFORD NATURALISTS. 
No. 1 1 of the Bradford Scientific Journal has appeared, and 
we are pleased to notice that with the twelfth issue there will 
be an index to the parts already published. In the present 
part is an account of the Ice Age in Wharfdale, by Mr. F. Hall, 
in which some sections in the drift, etc., are described ; and 
there are notes on Local Cockroaches by Mr. J. W. Carter ; 
Local Flies, by Mr. J. H. Ashworth ; and some interesting 
notes concerning the Nightjar by Mr. A. Badland, in which 
he describes the sound of the bird as ' a weird, long-drawn 
KrrrrrrrrrrrrOrrrrrrrrrrrr. ' This paper is illustrated by a plate 
containing photographs by Mr. J. W. Forrest, showing the 
eggs, young, and the adult bird on the nest. A useful feature 
is the summary of natural history observations during the year 
1906, which includes the various reports of the recorders ot 
another Bradford society, the Bradford Natural History and 
Microscopical Society. The Bradford Scientific Journal gives 
evidences of continued enthusiasm on the part of the Bradford 
naturalists. There is one little point, however, that we do not 
quite like with regard to the journal, and that is the nature of 
the advertisements. That on the cover, in which we are told 
to drink Blank's tea, which may be blended 'scientifically,' 
being particularly ugly. 

RECORDERS' REPORTS. 
Another Bradford Society, the Bradford Natural History and 
Microscopical Society, has favoured us with a copy of its 
recorders' reports for 1906, which occupy a pamphlet of sixteen 
pages, and are principally reprinted from the Bradford Scientific 
Journal. Mr. J. Beanland contributes Phanerogamic Botany ; 
Mr. Malone, Cryptogamic Botany ; Mr. H. B. Booth, Verte- 
brate Zoology; Mr. F. Rhodes, Conchology ; Mr. J. W. 
Carter, Lepidoptera, and a note on Local Cockroaches ; Mr. 
J. Ashworth, Diptera ; Microscopy by Mr. F. C. Sewell ; and 
Geology by Mr. J. H. Ashworth. We notice that the Society 
has resolved to print the whole of the records made since its 
formation, and that the Society's financial position warrants it. 
Mr. Badland, who is largely responsible for the Bradford 
Scientific Journal, is the President of the Natural History and 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 



69 



Microscopical Society, and this possibly accounts for the apparent 
co-operation of the two societies as regards printing - . We do 
not know the local circumstances, but we should have thought 
that it would have been advisable for the two societies, covering 
a somewhat similar ground, to have amalgamated. It is quite 
possible that many of the members are paying subscriptions to 
the two societies. 

'FOSSIL MUSHROOMS.' 
Visitors to the well-known chalk quarries on the south 
Humber shore, near South Ferriby and Barton, will be familiar 
with the small circular ' sea-urchins ' which occur in some 




'Fossil Mushrooms.' 

numbers in the lower part of the pits. They are best seen 
protruding, mushroom-like, from the bed of chalk immediately 
below the 'Black-band,' or zone of Belemnitella plena. This 
' Black-band ' is cleared away for convenience in blasting opera- 
tions, leaving a shelf of exposed chalk, below which is an 
excellent collecting ground. The quarrymen, who secure these 
specimens, are evidently not believers in the deep-sea origin 
of the chalk ; the pointed teeth occurring there, are, by 
them, known as 'fossil birds' tongues,' the Ammonites were 
once snakes, and the echinoderms were mushrooms. As 
' proof ' of the last, specimens are produced with the ' stalk ' 
still adhering, this having been cut from the solid by the work- 
men. Two such specimens are shown on the bottom row in 
the above illustration, the centre specimen being Echinoconus 
castanea from another part of the pit ; all the remainder are 
Discoidea cylindrica. 

1907 March r. 



70 Notes and Comments. 

BRITISH TUNICATA.* 

The Ray Society is well known for the excellence of the 
work it accomplishes in connection with its memoirs relating' 
to the more neglected branches of natural History. In recent 
years these have been produced with remarkable regularity, 
largely as a result of the energy of the society's honorary 
secretary, Mr. John Hopkinson, who, it need hardly be said, 
is a Yorkshireman. Its latest publication is vol. 2 of ' British 
Tunicata,' an unfinished monograph, by the late Joshua Alder 
and the late Albany Hancock, which should be of particular 
interest to northern naturalists. Mr. Hopkinson has edited 
the memoir, and, with the addition of a wealth of beautiful 
plates, has produced a handsome and useful volume, the first 
part of the work having been issued two years ago. Of 
additional interest is an account of the life of Alder, by the 
Rev. Canon Norman, and the life of Hancock, by Dr. D. 
Embleton, with an addendum by Canon Norman. A portrait 
of Hancock appears as frontispiece to the volume. 

THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

To the plates, too much praise cannot be given ; they are 
such as will be of the very greatest service to students of this 
neglected order. In addition there are numerous illustrations 
in the text. Both sets of illustrations are photographically 
reproduced from the drawings of Alder and Hancock, under 
the supervision of Mr. Hopkinson. By the courtesy of the 
society and its editor, we are able to present our readers with 
one of the plates (plate XV.), which will speak more for their 
excellence than will any words of ours. Some of the speci- 
mens will probably be familiar to those who are in the habit 
of collecting amongst the flotsam and jetsam of our coasts. 
On the plate — Figs. \-^ = Styelopsis grossularia (Van Ben.) 
Traust. : 1, a group, natural size; 2, a single individual from 
this group, twice natural size ; 3, an individual, probably a 
variety of this species, with a young one attached, three times 
natural size; 4, the same, natural size. Fig. 5 = Styelopsis 
glomerata (Alder): a cluster, natural size. Figs. 6-8= Thyla- 
cium aggregation (Rathke) V. Cams: 6, a group, one half natural 
size ; 7, a single individual, natural size ; 8, a group, probably 
a variety of this species, of the size and form of var. muculatum, 

* xxviii. + 164 pp. and 50 plates, 1907. Issued to the members of the 
Ray Society for 1906. 25/- net. 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907- 






M 









*\*5& _■--••' - ' * 




■ 










British Tunicata 



Notes and Comments. 71 

but apparently not spotted, natural size. Figs. g-11 = T/iy/a- 
cium SylvaniV . Cams : 9, a group of small ones ; 10, a group 
of rather larger ones ; 1 1, a single individual, much larger ; all 
with young ones attached, and natural size. Figs. 12-14 = 
Thylacium variolosum (Gaertn. ) : 12, a mass, twice natural size; 
13, showing mode of growth on an Ascidian, natural size ; 14, 
a larva, magnified. Figs. 15 and i6=Pelonaia corrugata Forb. 
and Goods. : 15, Test, natural size ; 16, part of branchial sac, 
magnified. 



THE SLAUGHTER OF KINGFISHERS. 
We heartily agree with the following note which appears 
in a local magazine in Hull, and can only regret that Hull is not 
the only place where this senseless slaughter is allowed. When 
will the police authorities understand that their duties do not 
end in seeing that the placards are duly posted in more or less 
prominent places in their districts? The attention of the police 
has been called to this case. We have also been advised of 
similar slaughter of kingfishers near Huddersfield. As we 
have previously pointed out, however, in Yorkshire at any rate, 
the 'Wild Birds' Protection Act,' so far as the police are con- 
cerned, is very largely a farce. ' Hull is not a lovely city. The 
objects of beauty are not very many, and the praiseworthy 
endeavours of some of its citizens to multiply them, only make 
slow progress. But sometimes, even within the boundaries of 
its smoky fields, nature is kind. Flowers still open in summer, 
and sometimes from brighter scenes come birds which bring us 
a message of grace. So it has been this winter in the parish 
of Newiand. Wanderers in our fields might see the glorious 
vision of the little kingfisher, with its tropical luxuriance of 
colour, winging his way along the waterside, for just now he 
finds more food here than inland. Such a thing should be the 
pride of a great city, better than an art gallery in himself. 
Alas for our civilisation ! This is the barbarian's chance. 
Parliament has passed the Wild Birds' Protection Act, the 
Hull Corporation and the East Riding County Council have 
scheduled the kingfisher for protection all the year round, what 
does it matter? Men go out with their guns and slaughter 
every one they can find. We have reason to believe that no 
fewer than ten of these birds have been killed in this way during 
the last few weeks. Such a thing is a disgrace to the com- 
munity, and anyone who could give evidence for the conviction 
of the perpetrator of it would be a public benefactor.' 

J907 March i. 



7 2 



A YORKSHIRE VARIETY OF A RARE 
BRITISH TARDIGRADE. 



G. S. WEST, M.A., F.L.S. 
Birmingham Univei sity. 



During the recent examination of some old algal material from 
Penyg"hent, W. Yorkshire, I came across a dilapidated specimen 
of a Tardigrade, the like of which I had no recollection of having - 
seen before. Further search through the material fortunately 
resulted in the finding' of several individuals in a much better 
state of preservation. 

The animal appears to be a variety of Macrobiotus papillifer 




rvJACP.OOIOTUS PAPiUUIFEH VTiWuuj ( VAR. 

A. — Animal seen from the side, x 500. 

B. — Single dorsal process showing the two minute apical spines, x 1000. 

C— Pair of claws, x 1000. 

James Murray ('The Tardigrada of the Scottish Lochs,' Trans. 
Royal Society, Edinburgh, vol. xli., part hi., No. 27, 1905, 
p. 692, t. iii., f. 15 a-c). The specific name ' papillifer ■' is in 
reference to the conical papillae or processes along the dorsal 
surface and sides of the body. These projections are disposed 
in transverse and longitudinal rows, each one having an acu- 
minate apex. 

The Yorkshire animals were collected in April, 1896, and 
occurred among mosses, and the submerged portions of sedges 
and rushes in a small rivulet on the western slope of Penyghent 



Field Notes. 73 

at an altitude of about 1400 feet. They were of rather small 
dimensions, having a maximum length of 3-^ -inch (= 190 jj). 
They do not agree very strictly with the Scottish specimens, 
differing chiefly in the fewer processes along the sides of the 
body and in the presence of numerous small rounded warts or 
tubercles between the processes. These small tubercles are 
much scattered, but cover the whole dorsal surface and upper 
parts of the sides of the body not occupied by the processes, 
diminishing in size, and ultimately disappearing towards the 
ventral region (fig. A). The five median pairs of processes, 
which form part of the double series which extends down the 
back of the animal, were not acuminate, but slightly truncate 
at the apex, and furnished with two minute spines {vide figs. A 
and B). The cuticle of the processes was also noticed to be 
much thinner than the rest of the body-cuticle (fig. B). 

Each leg was furnished with two equal pairs of strongly- 
hooked claws, one claw of each pair being somewhat larger 
than the other (fig. C). 

The pharynx and teeth differed in no respects from the 
Scottish specimens described by Mr. James Murray. No eggs 
were seen. 

Macrobiotus papil I ifc r \vas only previously been observed from 
Loch Ness and Loch Morar in Scotland. It is closely related 

to M. hiberculatus Plate. 

<♦♦ 

FLOWERING PLANTS. 

The montane form of Myosotis sylvatica. — Referring 
to Mr. Pickard's Botanical and other Notes at Arncliffe in the 
December number of the 'Naturalist' (pp. 425-8), the small 
montane form of Myosotis sylvatica therein mentioned was, I 
believe, first placed on record by myself as Phanerogamic 
Secretary to the Botanical Sect, of the Yorks. Nat. Union in 
the 1883 Report (see 'Trans. Miscellaneous Botanical Papers,' 
Vol. I., p. 204). 

This form is given in ' Speight's Craven Highlands' as one 
of the noticeable plants of the Malham district, doubtless on 
the authority of the above report. I was climbing Gordale 
Scar one sunny day in June, 1883, and about half way up my 
attention was arrested by a patch of blue colour on a shelving 
bank. This I found to be a much dwarfed mass of Myosotis in 
full bloom, and I at once thought of M. alpestris, the true alpine of 
Mickle Fell. On examination, however, the plants proved to be 
but the montane form of M sylvatica. — P. Fox Lee, Dewsbury. 

1907 March i. 



74 



NOTES ON THE BREEDING HABITS OF BATS. 



ARTHUR WHITAKER, 
Worsbrough Bridge, Barnsley. 



In the ' Naturalist' for November, 1905 (pp. 325-330), I gave a 
few notes on this subject relating; principally to the Noctule Bat 
[Pterygister noctula), and expressed a hope that I might be able 
to supplement them in the future. This I am now in a position 
to do. 

I entered upon 1906 with the firm intention of rearing some 
of our British Bats in captivity. I find, however, that the 
difficulties of doing this are very great, and once again have 
to record partial failure, though I have succeeded in carrying 
my observations a degree further than was the case last year. 
As this article deals with a number of incomplete observations, 
it will facilitate matters to enumerate these at once, and there- 
fore I here give a table of the instances which have come under 
my personal observation, during the past few years, of the 
breeding- of bats. 



(1). Pipistrelle. 

(P/pistrelhis pipistrellus). 



(2). 

(3)- 
(4)- 

(s). 



ditto 



ditto 
ditto 



ditto 



(6). Noctule. 

{Pterygister noctitla). 



(7)- 



(8). 



Lesser Horseshoe. 

( Rh inoloph us h ipposiderus ) 



(9). Daubenton's. 

[Myotis daubentoni). 



Specimen accidently killed during- last 
week of July, 1901, contained a fully 
developed embryo, which would probably 
have been extruded within forty-eight 
hours. 

Specimen netted Ma}' 28th, 1905 (con- 
fined along with two males and two 
other females). Died on July 14th, 1905, 
and was then found to contain a very 
small embryo, probably not more than 
half developed. 

Specimen caught June 30th, 1906, gave 
birth to a single young one, July 2nd, 1906. 

Specimen caught June 7th, 1906, in the 
New Forest (confined along with one 
other female) gave birth to a young male 
on July 1 8th, 1906. 

Specimen caught at Barnsley June 16th, 
1906 (confined along' with last mentioned 
female) gave birth to a male on July 19th, 
1906. 

Naked young male about a week old, 
taken from hole in a tree occupied by a 
colony of adults, Barnsley, June 29th, 
1905. 

Adult female taken from above-men- 
tioned colony gave birth to a young male, 
June 30th, 1905. 

Specimen taken Wells (Somerset), July 
20th, 1906. Died July 24th, 1906. Found 
to contain a fully developed embryo ready 
for extrusion. 

Specimen taken Barnsley, June 19th, 
1906. Gave birth to a young female 
same night. 

Naturalist, 



Whitaker: Notes on the Breeding Habits of Bats. 75 

In every one of the nine instances above mentioned, it will 
be noticed that a single young - one only was (or would have 
been) produced. This substantially confirms the statement 
often made that in this country it is a rare occurrence for a bat 
to give birth to ' twins,' as they are affirmed to do on the 
continent. 

The dates given above indicate that July is the month when 
the majority of bats are born, though it will be noticed in 
the cases of Daubenton's and the two Noctules, the latter 
part of June was the time. In most cases, I should think, the 
young will not be able to fly by themselves until the latter part 
of August, but this is more or less conjecture. 

One of the most interesting conclusions to be drawn from 
the above table (see No. 4) is that in the case of the Pipistrelle 
the period of gestation is not less than forty-one days. Although 
the exact period is not ascertained, it is probably about six 
weeks, and this agrees with the only other information we seem 
to have on this point, that given by Mr. G. Daniell (Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1834), who ascertained that in the case of the Noctule the 
period of gestation exceeded thirty-eight days. Further and 
more definite information on this point is wanted, however. 

Of Nos. (1), (2), (6), and (7) on the above list a full account 
was given in my previous article, and nothing further need be 
said about them. 

The Pipistrelle referred to in No. (3) was never in my own 
possession, but was caught by a lad in Barnsley, who managed to 
knock it down with his cap on the evening of June 30th, whilst 
it was flying. He told me that the bat gave birth to a young 
one sometime during the second night after he obtained it. He 
also stated that on the day following the birth of the young one 
the mother escaped from him whilst he was playing with it in 
the daytime, and crawled up the house wall out of his reach, 
creeping behind the spout, where it remained hidden during the 
day, the newly-born young one being beneath its wing at the 
time. At dusk it came out and commenced to fly about the 
yard, but it flew so heavily and slowly that he re-captured it 
again without difficulty. The following day it again made good 
its escape from a rabbit hutch in which he had placed it, but he 
could see it squeezed in its former position behind the spout, 
and he promised me he would re-capture it at dusk and let me 
have it. Unfortunately, it rained heavily, and the bat did not 
move at all in the evening, but the following morning it was 
missing, and no further traces of it were seen. 

iqo7 March i. 



76 }V hi taker : Notes on the Breeding Habits of Bats. 

The Daubenton's Bat referred to (No. 9 on the list) was one 
of a party of four, which were feeding- at dusk, on June 18th, 
1906, over the surface of the Serpentine in Stainbroug-h Park. 
I succeeded in netting it as it approached near to the side. 
This was at about ten o'clock at night. 

The following morning, at about eight o'clock, I found it 
hanging- in the corner of the cage in which I had placed it the 
previous evening, and under its right wing was a 'baby,' to 
which it had given birth during the night. The young one was 
of a dark purplish flesh colour, the wing membrane being only 
very slightly darker in colour than the skin of the rest of the 
body. It was blind, and naked save for a few fine, straggling 
hairs on the muzzle. It clung tenaciously to its mother during- 
the whole time it lived (except when I separated them to photo- 
graph), and was calling- continually with a very soft, ' sucking ' 
kind of chirrup, scarcely audible at a distance of a few feet, and 
very difnerent indeed from the loud, deliberately repeated call 
of a baby Noctule. 

The mother quite failed to give her young one any attention, 
and when, at dusk of the night following her capture, I 
endeavoured to feed her, she obstinately refused to take the 
least particle of food or drink. Upon examination, I found the 
reason for this was that her tongue was inflamed and much 
swollen, from what cause I do not know. The bat was evidently 
in a ' bad way,' and I found I could do nothing for it, and con- 
sequently was not surprised, though much disappointed, to find 
next day that both the young bat and its mother were dead. 

The relative sizes of the young female and its mother (given 
in inches and decimals of inches), measured carefully im- 
mediately after death, were as follows : — 

Length of head and body ... Adult 1.70 Immature 1. 15 

Length of tail Adult 1.3 Immature .6 

Expanse of wings Adult 9.5 Immature 3.3 

On Plate X. are reproduced four photographs of the bat 
with its one-day-old youngster by its side, taken by my friend 
Mr. Wakefield.' 

The most interesting observations which I have been able to 
make during the past season were made in connection with two 
Pipistrelles referred to on the foregoing list as Nos. 4 and 5. 

During the early part of June I took a short holiday in the 
New Forest, Hampshire, and on the day previous to my return 
I met a gamekeeper, who, in answer to inquiries of mine, 

Naturalist, 



Whitaker : Notes on ihe Breeding Habits of Bats. 77 

informed me of a colony of bats that occupied the roof of his 
cottage, which was situated in the middle of the forest, and to 
which I arranged to pay a visit that evening-. 

Arriving - there about half-an-hour before dusk, I was some- 
what disappointed to find that, although the roof was evidently 
inhabited by a very large colony of bats, as their squeakings 
plainly testified, the fact that it was an old tiled roof, affording 
numberless openings for the egress of its occupants, would 
inevitably prevent me from securing many specimens with the 
single small butterfly net, which was all I had to capture 
them with. On the keeper's advice, I decided to try the back 
slope of the roof, from which he said most of the bats emerged, 
but I was again disappointed to find that the only available 
ladder was so short that I had to stand on its topmost rung 
(which necessitated my holding on to the spout with one hand) 
in order to reach to the roof ; in addition to this, I had to 
splice my net to a broom handle before it would reach to the 
exit holes, which were all in the vicinity of the ridge. On the 
whole, under these adverse eircumstances, 1 was not at all 
surprised at only securing three specimens, which were all that 
emerged from the hole I had elected to guard. From other 
holes in the roof the bats, which were all small in size, came 
pouring in little streams, from about fifteen minutes after sun- 
set to some three quarters of an hour later, but for long after 
that time the noisy squeaking proceeding from the inside of the 
roof proclaimed the fact that some individuals had not come 
out. Apparently they had no intention of doing so, for I heard 
them squeaking inside fully an hour and a half after the bats had 
quite ceased to issue from the roof. If I were to make a guess 
at the strength of the colony, I should put it down at between 
three and four hundred, and I think the bats were probably all 
Pipistrelles ; certainly most of them were. The three specimens 
I obtained were all females of this species. 

The following day I returned to Yorkshire, and, owing to an 
unfortunate accident, the label got scrubbed off the trunk in 
which these bats were packed, and the box was consequently 
missing when I reached Sheffield. That was on the Friday 
afternoon. In spite of the fact that every effort was made to 
recover the box, I did not receive it until the following Wednes- 
day evening, and I was consequently not at all surprised to find 
the bats in the last stage of exhaustion. One or two Whiskered 
Bats, which I had also obtained in the Forest, were, in fact, 
dead on arrival, and although the three Pipistrelles lived for a 

1907 March i. 



78 Whitaker : Notes on the Breeding Habits of Bats. 

short time, I only managed to nurse one of them round into 
proper health again. 

On June 16th I netted a female Pipistrelle as it was flying 
at dusk by Worsbrough Reservoir, and this I placed in the same 
cage as the female still living, of whose capture I have just 
given an account. 

These two bats were both fed exclusively on mealworms, 
which they would pick up for themselves from the floor of their 
cage after the first week of captivity. The New Forest femele 
was, for the first two months, in much better health than her 
companion, and would consume nearly twice the quantity of 
food, managing to dispose on the average of about forty meal- 
worms per day, a greater quantity than I have known any other 
individual of this species to consume. 

Sometime between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. on July iSth, forty-one 
days after its capture, the New Forest Pipistrelle gave birth to 
a young male. On looking into her cage at the latter hour, I 
saw her crawling about on the bottom with the youngster under 
her right wing. 

The following day, sometime in the afternoon, the other 
female gave birth to a young one, also a male. 

Both the young Pipistrelles at birth were of a dull flesh 
colour, blind, and naked save for a few slight hairs on the 
muzzle. The wing membranes and ears were decidedly darker 
than the rest of the skin in colour. They were very small at 
first, so small, that when tucked under the maternal wing their 
presence would not be detected unless one were either looking 
for them or happened to notice an occasional suspicious undul- 
ation of the membrane of the mother's wing near her shoulder, 
as the little one squirmed about underneath. 

The difference in the rate of growth between these two young 
bats was really remarkable, and undoubtedly due to the fact 
that at birth, and for some time afterwards, the New Forest 
parent was in much better health than the Worsbrough one. 
The baby first born began to grow darker in colour day by day, 
especially the wings, ears, interfemoral membrane, muzzle, etc. 
I first saw its eyes open on the eighth day after birth, but it did 
not seem to use them much, for it would only open them when 
handled, and often crawled about with them closed as long as it 
lived. 

The fur began to show at the end of the first week, and as it 
became more noticable, imparted a silky, golden apperance to 
the back, and a more silvery one to the chin and breast, and 

Naturalist, 



Whitaker : Notes on the Breeding Habits of Bats. 79 

was especially noticeable if the bat was viewed sideways. The 
skin of the bat, as well as the wings, etc., grew steadily darker 
and darker in colour, and at the end of three weeks it was 
almost black, except on the belly, which was very dark purplish 
flesh colour (see Plate XI). The hair first commenced to grow 
on the shoulders and back, then on the head and chin, and 
lastly on the breast. The belly was still almost naked at the 
time of its death, which occurred when it was thirty-three 
days old. 

The other baby bat which, it will be remembered, was only 
born one day later, lived until it was forty-three days old, but it 
hardly grew at all, and at the time of its death was blind, naked, 
and almost unchanged from the day it was born. That it should 
survive so long when evidently deriving insufficient nutriment 
from its mother, who was in bad health during the whole of the 
time, is a wonderful indication of the extraordinary amount of 
vitality possessed by these creatures. Both mothers were fed 
almost exclusively on mealworms during the whole of the time, 
so that it was evidently not in any way a question of diet. 

This great difference in the rate of growth between the two 
young ones in captivity indicates that much depends upon the 
state of the parent's health, and it is quite possible that, in a 
state of nature, growth may be even more rapid than it was 
in the case of the more healthy of these two young ones. 

I found the association between the young bats and their 
parents not nearly so close as I had anticipated. When they 
were but a few days old, I not infrequently found them hanging 
quite alone several inches away from their respective mothers, 
and this applies to the youngster which was quite well and 
growing fast at the time, as well as to the one which was 
certainly from the first somewhat neglected by its mother. 
After they were a couple of weeks old I often found them at the 
opposite side of the cage to their mothers. This separation 
did not seem to cause the young ones any trouble or uneasiness, 
for they would sleep thus contententedy for many hours without 
showing any signs of anxiety. Often I should find the two 
young ones asleep touching one another. 

When touched or disturbed, or when wanting their mothers, 
they would lift themselves well up on the wrists, and raising 
the head very high, turn it anxiously about from side to side, 
uttering a deliberate chirrup resembling- the soft smacking of 
one's lips, which was very faint when the creatures were young, 
but steadily grew in power as the days went by. This noise 

1907 March i. 



80 Whitaker : Notes on the Breeding Habits of Bats. 

was made by the bat with widely open mouth ; and after calling 
for a time, it would set off on a searching - expedition for the 
mother, crawling slowly, but with a firm grip of anything to 
which it could cling, and keeping up the search with great 
perseverance until it was successfully ended. The youngsters 
seemed to recog'nise their own mothers easily, and would take 
little or no notice of the wrong parent. When one was looking 
for its mother, and got near to her, it would grab hold with its 
mouth of any part of her it could catch. If the mother happened 
to be busy feeding at the time, she would often take no notice 
of it, but drag it carelessly about with her, whilst it clung with 
a kind of dogged perseverance to the fur of her back, her 
interfemoral membrane, or any part of her which it happened to 
have got hold. Whenever the adult bat paused, the youngster 
would try to improve its grip, and work into a safer and more 
comfortable position, and eventually it would manage to squirm 
either over the mother's shoulder or under her interfemoral 
membrane, and so get under her wing ; when this was the case, 
the mother would nearly always bend her head under her wing, 
and apparently tuck the young one into a mutually comfortable 
position, and at such times the young one could be heard 
making a very soft, but rather musical, twittering. 

After the mothers had fed, they always used to suckle their 
respective young ones immediately. If 'baby' were under the 
wing of one of them when she came out to feed, it did not seem 
to hamper her movements seriously until it came to ' pouching ' 
a mealworm, but this operation — always difficult for a bat to 
perform on terra firma — the presence of the young one seemed 
to render ten times more difficult. 

In case some readers of this article are unaware of what is 
meant by the term 'pouching,' a short digression may be 
pardoned, in order to make the term clear. 

Bats secure the insects they feed upon in a natural state 
whilst they are on the wing - , and as the ' gape ' of a bat is 
comparatively small, and many of the insects fairly large and 
strong, it is not the easiest matter for a bat to secure a firm 
grip of its prey until its struggles are overcome. To avoid the 
risk of losing their captures owing to this difficulty, these 
creatures have acquired a curious habit. When they have 
seized an insect, and whilst they are still flying, they bend the 
hind legs and tail forward under the body, and then bend their 
heads down into the bag of skin thus formed by the membrane 
connecting the legs, tail, and wings. The insect is then in a 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate X. 




Daubenton's Bat and Young one. 



THE XATURALIST, 1907. 





Fig. i. — One clay old. 



Fir,. 2. — Seven days old. 





Fig. 3. — Fourteen days old. 



Fig. 4. — Fourteen days old. 





Fig. 5.— Twenty-one days old. Fig. 6.— Twenty-one days old. 

Young of Pipistrelle or Common Bat. 



Whitaker : Notes on the Breeding Habits of Bats. 8 1 

kind of trap, and is pressed against the interfemoral membrane, 
as this portion of the skin is termed, until the bat has overcome 
its struggles and secured a good grip of it. Excellently though 
this little manoeuvre works whilst the creatures are flying (as is 
probably always the case in a natural state), it will at once be 
seen that there are difficulties in the way when the bat is on the 
ground ; and in captivity, its food is, of course, always given to 
it as it crawls about on the floor of its cage. Under these 
altered circumstances it is standing upon its feet, and when it 
endeavours to pouch an insect, it curves its tail under the body, 
raises itself upon its wrists, brings the feet as far forward as it 
dare, tucks down the head, and then generally discovers too 
late, as it goes topping over on its back, that it is unable to go 
through the performance without losing its balance. Bats are 
soon 'rigwelted,' and its prey is almost always dropped in its 
struggle to regain a normal position. After a bat freshly intro- 
duced to captivity has done this a few times, it seems to fully 
realise the difficulties of its new life, and its excitement and 
annoyance become greater every time the performance is re- 
peated. So that usually, after a short time, every mealworm 
given to a bat results in the little creature losing its centre of 
gravity, and the observer losing his gravity altogether. After 
a few weeks of captivity they become a little more expert ; but 
feeding from the ground is always a difficult matter to some 
species, especially the Pipistrelle. 

Now, my two female Pipistrelles, which had young ones, 
had been feeding themselves from mealworms, which I simply 
threw into the cage for them, so long that I never anticipated 
they would require assistance ; but after a time I noticed that 
they seemed not to consume much of the food that I put in for 
them, and both bats were getting into a rather weak condition. 
This was about a month after the birth of the young ones, and 
from that time I paid a great deal more attention to them, and 
found that the reason of their illness was difficulty in feeding, 
owing to the young ones often clinging to them and hampering 
their movements, and so preventing them from getting sufficient 
food. I was careful after finding this out to feed them again 
by hand, and also to make them take at least thirty minutes 
exercise every day, flying round the room without their young 
ones. By these means I managed to bring them both back 
again into good health. But their illness resulted in their 
giving insufficient nutriment and attention to their offspring, so 
that I was bitterly disappointed, just when I was beginning to 

1907 March i. 



82 Whitaker : Notes on the Breeding Habits of Bats. 

congratulate myself that I should safely rear the young" ones, to 
lose them both. The one which was most advanced died first, 
on the 2 1 st of August, at the age of thirty-three days, and the 
other lingered on without developing until Sept. 2nd, when it 
also died. 

At the time of death the former of these immature bats was 
carefully examined and measured, and its size, compared with 
that of an average adult, was as follows : — 

Adult. Young. 

Head and body 1.55 Aged 4 weeks, 1.28 

Tail 1. 1 1 ,, .62 

Wing expanse 8.50 ,, 3-°4 

Ear (length) 42 ,, .28 

Tragus (length) ... '19 ,, 

Tibia 50 ,, .35 

Forearm 1.21 ,, .65 

The above comparative measurements should convey a good 
idea of the relative sizes of the two ; but it will be noticed that 
I give the age of young, at four weeks. The specimen my 
measurements were taken from was, it is true, nearly five weeks 
old ; but seeing that during the last week of its life it had not 
developed, much allowance should be made, and probably a 
young one in good health would easily attain the development 
indicated in four week's time. 

Many of the most interesting points still remain unsolved, 
and require careful observations in the future. .During the 
thirty-three days through which the most interesting of these 
two young Pipistrelles was in my keeping it subsisted entirely 
on its mother's milk, and took no solid food. It became strong 
enough to crawl quite briskly about, but showed no sign of 
any inclination towards flight, save that during the last week 
or ten days I observed it frequently open and stretch its wings, 
and once or twice beat them in the air in a ' flipperlike ' manner, 
but only one at a time. When young birds begin to do this, 
it is a sure indication that they will soon make more serious 
attempts at flight, and doubtless the analogy holds goods with 
regard to bats. 

I several times allowed my adult Pipistrelles to fly in the 
same room, with the young ones attached, when the proceeding 
was always the same. The mother would crawl up my jacket 
sleeve with the young one under her wing, and then, even when 
realising that she was at liberty to go, would hesitate for some 
time, turning her head about from side to side. After this she 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate XVIII. 




Transverse Section of Wood of Oak (x 30 diameter). (See p. 83/ 



Reviews mid Book Notices. 83 

would extend both wings fully and flatly, and lift them gently 
up and down six or eight times, evidently to feel that ' baby ' 
was not clinging in a position which would incur risk to either 
of them ; often she would not be quite satisfied, but would tuck 
her head down, and move it slightly. After these preliminaries 
had been gone through, she would launch off, but seldom flew 
more than five or six lengths of the room, and that with a slow, 
straight, and heavy flight. It was so obviously hard work for 
her that I did not often encourage the proceedings, especially 
as she often had difficulty in turning after flying the length of 
the room, several times being unable to do so, and colliding 
with the wall and falling to the ground, which I feared might 
result in injury to the young one. Sometimes, also, she would 
fly round the room four or five times, gradually falling - towards 
the floor, like a bat only half awake. 

When the young ones were very small, however, I once or 
twice got their mothers to fly pretty briskly with them, and as 
this was in the daytime, I had a good view of the procedure, 
and found that the ' baby ' clung to the mother's nipple with 
its mouth, and allowing its body to hang quite down, merely 
brought up its feet and clung to her fur with them also. In 
this position the youngster was quite conspicuous, as its mother 
flew about, at close quarters, in the daylight, hanging down 
like a little ball attached to her breast. 

Mr. Wakefield very kindly took photographs of one of my 
young Pipistrelles week by week, and a series of these are 
reproduced on Plate XI., showing it at one, seven, fourteen, 
and twenty-one days old. The gradual increase in size and 
darkening in colour is well shown in these photographs ; but 
the hairiness which should be slightly apparent even in fig. 2 
does not become noticeable until fig. 5. 



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3907 March I. 



84 

NOTES ON CHRYSOPA PERL A AND 
C. FLAY A. 



By E. MAUDE ALDERSON, F.E.S., 
Worksop. 

In the following- notes I have endeavoured to compile a 
summary of the observations which I jotted down in my 
entomological diary during- the breeding of the above two 
species of Chrysopidce. 

The most interesting points seem to me to be the existence 
of what I have regarded, perhaps incorrectly, as a sub-imaginal 
stage in the life history of the genus, and also the presence 
in each species of some very characteristic markings on the 
head. These are so striking and so diverse (in the species 
which I have seen and in the few drawings I have been able 
to find in books) that I should think they must form a very easy, 
if superficial, means of identification of species in the larval 
stage. 

The presence of the sub-imaginal stage, if correct, seems 
to form a strong link between this group and the Ephemeridce. 

C. perla. — On June 29th of last year (1905) I obtained a 
^ of Chrysopa perla, and found, on opening the chip box in 
which I had placed her, that she had deposited several ova. 
She remained alive until July 1st, and at the end of that time had 
laid about a dozen ova. Each ovum was deposited separately. 
They were placed at random all over the box ; and of a bright, 
shining bluish-green colour, almost exactly the shade of the 
green parts of the body of the parent. The ova were on long 
foot-stalks, 5-6 mm. in length, and were very beautiful objects. 

As I was leaving home within the next few days, I took the 
ova with me in order to observe them closely. By July 3rd 
they had lost their brilliance, and assumed a greyish tinge. 
This gradually deepened until the period of hatching, when they 
appeared wholly grey, the change in colour being evidently due to 
the young larvae showing through the transparent shells. The 
young larvae all emerged after just a week — July yth-Sth. They 
were grey in colour, and soon became very active. I fed them 
with 'green fly,' and they grew surprisingly quickly. I could 
not observe any change of skin, but at the rate at which they 
increased, I should think they must have moulted two or three 
times at least. 

The young larvae were most active at night ; and as I kept 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate XII. 









I. Ova of C. flava. 2. Sub-imago C. flava. 3. a. Thoracic i Segments— showing warts 

b. Abdominal ) C. perla— larva. 

4. Abdomen— underside— C. perla. 5. Head of C. perla. 6. Head of C. flava. 



Alderson; Notes on Chrysopa perla and C. flava. 85 

them in a small tin box with a glass lid, it was most interesting' 
to watch them hunt their prey. They seemed most voracious 
little creatures, and would move restlessly about at a great 
pace until they met with an aphis. They did not appear to be 
g-uided by sight in finding food, but rather by sense of feeling. 
When they came across an aphis they would strike with great 
rapidity, fixing their sucking spears into the body of the un- 
fortunate victim, which never, so far as I could see, would offer 
the slightest resistance. It was a wonderful sight to see the 
subsequent proceedings. Both insects would remain perfectly 
still, and by the aid of an ordinary lens it was quite possible to 
see the vital juices of the aphis pass through the sucking spears 
into the body of the Chrysopa, until in a very short time the one 
became an empty sack of skin and the other a full-fed gour- 
mand. After a short rest the same process would be repeated, 
many times a day, and also during the night, for I frequently 
found the larvae still feeding when I looked at them after dark. 
I think it probable, too, that they sometimes mistook one 
another for aphides, as their numbers certainly decreased, and 
they seemed to have little powers of discrimination. In the 
case of C. flava, one larva was actually seen devouring a 
larva of Dictyopteryx bergnianniana, which had been introduced 
with the rose leaves. The larvae became much more sluggish 
as the)' grew older, probably owing to their increased bulk, as 
they grew with great rapidity. 

The following is a rough description at seven days old : — 

Head. — Pale greenish, with three characteristic jet-black 
marks. 

Antennce. — Madder brown. 

Sucking Spears. — Pale madder brown ; darker at the tips. 

Eves. — Jet-black. 

Thorax. — Whitish green at sides and beneath, brown 
madder above ; two rather crescent-shaped marks at sides, jet 
black. 

A black dividing line runs all down the centre of the back, 
and on each segment are placed four warts (two larger and two 
smaller), two on each side of the dividing line. 

The thoracic warts are black, and the larger ones are placed 
nearer to the central line. 

The abdominal warts are whitish green, and the positions are 
reversed, the smaller one being placed next to the dividing line. 

The underneath parts of the larvae are whitish green, with 
two madder lines running down the abdomen. 

1907 March i. 



86 Alderson : Notes on Chrysopa perla and C. flava. 

The larva? pupated July 1 8th- 19th, the larval stage lasting 
just ten days. The cocoons were of white silk, like small 
pellets of cotton wool, about 4 mm. X 3 mm. One spun up on 
the muslin of the cover, the others amongst the debris at the 
bottom of the jar. I kept the jar in the house during the 
whole of the winter months, and on May 24th, 1906, I found 
that one imago had emerged. Unfortunately I missed seeing the 
actual emergence, and with the exception of one crippled speci- 
men, which I found afterwards, no further emergences took 
place. 

C. flava. — On July 14th of the same year I obtained ova 
from a wild C. flava. The eggs were laid in a group on 
the lid of the box, the foot-stalks being united by their middles 
into a bundle. The ovum was elliptical and of a bright green 
— the exact colour of the body of the parent. They began to 
hatch on July 20th, emergence apparently taking place from the 
apex of the ovum. There were thirty-nine ova in the group, 
but only a small proportion of these, some eight or nine, 
emerged. The day before hatching two conspicuous brown spots 
appeared, one on each side of the ovum, which were evidently 
the eyes of the embryo. The eggs did not change colour nearly 
so much as in the case of the C. perla. The apex of each egg 
became a yellowish green shortly before the brown spots 
appeared, and both ends and sides became transparent as the 
embryo became more fully formed. After hatching, the larvae 
remained perfectly inactive on the ova, and continued so for 
some time. I could not discover what they did during this 
period, but I do not think that they devoured their egg shells. 
On touching them with a camel's hair brush they at once became 
very active, and once removed from the empty eggs they did 
not return to them, but ran about very quickly. 

The larva is about 2 mm. in length, of a shining transparent 
white, of a pearly lustre ; the eyes large and black ; the suck- 
ing spears and legs white. The most striking feature in the 
appearance of this larva, in all stages of growth, is that it 
appears divided into three portions : (1) the thoracic segments ; 
(2) first four abdominal segments ; (3) last five abdominal 
segments. When very young (1) appears blood-red ; (2) much 
darker red, owing, I suppose, to the intestines showing 
through the transparent skin ; (3) wholly transparent and of a 
yellowish tinge. After a few days the distinguishing marks on 
the head began to appear. They are black, the same as the 
eves, and are rather like two crescents, placed back to back. 

Naturalist, 



A/derson : Notes on Clirysopa perla and C. flava. 87 

There are also two similar lines, one on each side of the head, 
running- to the eyes. The tibia? appear to be fuscous in shade, 
and give the legs the appearance of having dark bands round 
them. I am unable to say how many changes of skin are 
effected, but I should think, judging from the rate of growth, 
about four or five at the least. At five days old some of them 
appeared to be in their third skin. They are extremely active 
larvae, and use the last segment of the body as claspers to 
walk with. 

Rough description at ten or eleven days old : — 

Head. — Yellowish. (The characteristic marks had disap- 
peared). 

Eyes. — Black. 

Antennce and Sucking Spears. — Madder brown. 

Body. — Yellowish white ; central line and markings crim- 
son ; warts on thorax black ; side lines crimson. 

The claspers at the extreme end of the abdomen seemed 
very prehensile. Not only did the larvae walk by means of 
them, but they also used them as a means of attachment to 
some substance on a change of skin. During this process the 
larva hangs head downwards, attached by the tail, and by 
repeated efforts gradually frees itself from its old skin, the feet 
being disengaged last. Jn one instance, through my inter- 
ference, the larva became detached, and for a whole day rolled 
about helplessly at the bottom of the box, unable to extricate 
its legs. It fed, whilst in this condition, whenever an aphis 
came sufficiently near to be seized ; but after some time, as it 
seemed unable to free itself, I came to its assistance, and with 
a fine pair of forceps liberated each leg separately, when it was 
at once able to stand. 

On Aug'ust 5th I left home, so on the 3rd I confided the 
larvae to the care of Mr. J. T. Houghton, of this town, who 
made the following notes for me during my absence : — • 

Aug. 3rd — Received larvae. 
,, 5th — One seen devouring a larva of Dictyopteryx 

bergmanniana. 
,, 6th — First one pupated in a rose leaf. 
,, 8th — Two more pupated amongst debris at bottom of 

the jar. 
,, 9th — Last one spun up without cover of any kind. 

I kept the jars containing the pupae indoors all the winter, 
and on May 24th, 1906, I discovered at 1-15 p-m. that two perfect 
imagines had emerged, and that a third was half out of its 

1907 March i. 



88 Alderson: No/es on Chrysopa perla and C. flava. 

cocoon. This last remained in the same position until about 

2 p.m., when it freed itself, and to my surprise, instead of 
gradually developing- into a perfect insect, remained enveloped 
in a thin, transparent pellicle. Soon after this it apparently 
lost its hold of the cocoon, and began rolling about at the 
bottom of the jar in its efforts to find some object to which to 
attach itself. I placed it on a piece of twig, but it seemed 
quite unable to cast off its sub-imaginal skin, and after two or 
three days, as it gradually got weaker, I dropped it into a tube 
of formalin for preservation. 

One other imago emerged after this, but the time elapsing 
between the emergence from the pupa case and the casting of 
the sub-imaginal skin is evidently very short in a healthy speci- 
men, and I was not fortunate enough to see it. The pupa case 
appears to open by means of a small lid at one end. The cast 
skins are perfectly transparent, and consist of the covering of 
the body, legs, and head. The thorax splits, in order to allow 
the insect to emerge. In the sub-imago the wings are only 

3 mm. in length, the fore wing' appearing slightly shorter than 
the hind wing, and resting above it. The antennae are quite 
short, and are folded round the eyes like a ram's horns. They 
appear to lengthen rapidly, and when fully extended remain 
curled underneath the body. I could not help wondering if 
this lengthening of the antennae might not throw some light on 
the subject with regard to the genus Adda in the Micro- 
Lepidoptera. It has always puzzled me, and perhaps others, 
how the long antennae in this genus can be folded in the pupa 
case. Might not this lengthening out be a possible solution of 
the mystery ? 

The eyes of the sub-imago are of the same bright green as 
in the perfect insect, the body also of the same shade, and the 
bright yellow line on the thorax as distinct as in the full 
emergence. The wings also show their iridescence through the 
thin membrane that covers them. 

I feel uncertain if this stage ought to be regarded as a part 
of the pupal existence or as a true sub-imaginal one. I can find 
no information about it in the books I have, so I have preferred 
to call it the latter, especially as it seems to me to represent a 
distinct stage in the life history. It is evidently of very short 
duration in a healthy subject, as except in the case of the insect 
which I preserved, I never saw any of the others except as 
imagines. 

Emergence seemed to always take place in the morning. 

Naturalist, 



Northern News. 89 

Unfortunately only four of the pupa? produced insects. One or 
two of the cocoons showed signs of a coming" emergence, the 
lids turning yellowish, but nothing further resulted. 

I am afraid these few notes are very imperfect, but I found 
the study of these Chrysopidce so interesting that I hope at 
some future time to be fortunate enough to again have the 
chance of investigating their life history. 

Should any readers of these pages obtain ova which they do 
not require, I should be very glad if they would send them 
to me, particularly those of other species than the above. 

The editor of the Museum Gazette does not mind confessing- that thus 
far the journal threatens to involve a larger loss than is pleasant. 

A marine laboratory is to be erected at Cullercoats, at a cost of /3000, 
by Mr. Hudleston, who has agreed to let it to the Armstrong College at a 
yearly rental of 3 per cent, on his outlay. 

Prof. E. B. Poulton has a lengthy and valuable paper on ' Predaceous 
Insects and their Prey,' in the ' Transactions of the Entomological Society 
of London,' recently published. It occupies over 80 pages. 

We are pleased to note that Dr. W. E. Hoyle, of the Manchester Museum, 
is to be the President of Section D (Zoology) at the next meeting of the 
British Associations at Leicester. Prof. J. W. Gregory will preside over 
Section C (Geology). 

In a recent East Yorkshire paper it is recorded that two ducks were shot 
lately with one barrel. One of the ducks was found to have a trout in its 
bill which weighed one and a half pounds ! It is not stated what was in 
the bill of the other bird. Probably a fib ! 

Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S., favours us with a reprint of his ' Notes on 
the Occurrence of Stone Implements in the Valley of the Zambesi around 
Victoria Falls,' which have recently appeared in the Journal of the Anthropo- 
logical Institute. The specimens in question were collected in the Zambesi 
district by the author in 1905. 

The Board of Agriculture and Fisheries has received information that 
the American Gooseberry mildew (Sphcerotheca mors-uvce)ha.s been discovered 
in more than one place in England, and as there is reason to believe that the 
disease, in at least one case, is of some years' standing, they think it desirable 
to warn all fruit-growers of the dangers involved. Particulars of methods to 
be adopted to eradicate the pest can be obtained free on application to the 
Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, 4, Whitehall Place, London, S.W. • 

The Rev. J. Conway Walter of Langthorpe sends us a pamphlet con- 
taining two poems, (1) ' The Destruction of St. Peter's Church, Mablethorpe, 
by the Sea, in 1287,' and (2) 'The Old Black Oak, or a Fenland Record.' 
As regard the first, it is an attempt to represent in rhyme a catastrophe in 
local history, of which no full and connected account has yet been published. 
We learn that on January 1st, 1287: — 

' The night, it was dark ; and the wind, it howled, 
On Malbertoft's desolate shore. 
Above the storm-ridden heaven's scowled ; 
Below was the breaker's roar.' etc. 
Mr. W. J. P. Burton has an interesting paper on 'The Ancient Volcanoes 
of Derbyshire ' in the 'Transactions of the Burton-on-Trent Natural History 
and Archaeological Society,' recently issued. The same publication contains 
a paper dealing with the 'Nests and Eggs of Local Birds' (Burton-on- 
Trent), by Mr. C. Hanson. 

1907 March i. 



9 o 

LIFE ZONES IN BRITISH CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS. 



Part II. — The Fossils of the Millstone Grits and Pendleside Series. 

{Continued from page 23.) 
(plate xiv.) 



WHEELTON HIND, M.D., B.S., F.R.C.S., F.G.S. 



Salter's original specimen came from the Grits of Pule Hill; 
unfortunately the zone was not stated. The place where 
G. biiingue is most common is on spoil heaps on Pule Hill and 
at Marsden Station. It occurred in small nodules in a band of 
shale passed through when driving - the L. & N. W. Railway 
tunnel. The exact position of the band in the series is therefore 
uncertain, but in the Valley of the Noe, Derbyshire, it occurs 
well down in the Pendleside series. Messrs. Barnes and Holroyd 
collected the following fauna at Pule Hill : — 



Ccelonautilus quadratics. 
Glyph ioceras diadema . 

,, biiingue. 

,, reticulatutn. 

Gastrioceras listeri. 

,, carbonarium, 

Euphemus mci. 
Macrocheilina gibson i. 

,. reticulata. 



Nuculana stilla. 
Sckizodus antiquus. 
Sa ngu in olitos trirosta tits. 
Posidoniella Icevis. 
Pterinopecten papyraceus. 
A viculopecten fibrillosus. 
Rhizodopsis sp. 
Strepsodus saurordes. 
Elonichthvs aitkeni. 



So much, then, for the Pendleside series, which passes above 
insensibly into the Millstone Grit, and with this passage 
Gastrioceras Listeri gathers strength, both in numbers and size. 
Of this species Spencer remarked : (Proc. York. Geol. and Poly., 
1898, Vol. XIII, p. 390) ' In the Yoredales (Pendleside series) 
this shell is of small form, and good specimens are somewhat 
rare In the Yoredale Shales of Todmorden small lime- 
stone nodules occur, in which small specimens of this species are 
found in a good state of preservation ; all the specimens I have 
seen are of small size, but as we have their crushed forms 
through the shales of the Millstone Grit, they seem to gradually 
increase both in numbers and size.' I have never found this 
species myself below the Grits, but I was fortunate enough to 
acquire Mr. Spencer's fine collection, in which undoubted 
specimens of G. listeri, small in size, are labelled Horsebridge 
dough. 

G. carbonarium, which is associated so abundantly with 

Naturalist, 



Hind : Life Zones in Briiish Carboniferous Rocks. 91 



G. listeri'm the lower portion of the Coal Measures, does not 
seem to come in till late on in Millstone Grit times. 

Some years ago a collection was made from the Shales of 
Eccup, presumably underlying- the 3rd Grit, on behalf of the 
Carboniferous Zone Committee of the British Association, before 
I became Secretary to the Committee. I, however, worked over 
a good deal of the material, and the list fairly represents the 
fauna : — 



Lameliibranchiata. 

Aviculopecten gent His. 
Pterinopecten papyraceus. 
Posidoniella Icevis. 

,, kirkmani. 

Nucula cequalis. 
Nuculana stilla. 
Ctenodonta la'virostris. 
Sch i sod us a ntiq 11 us. 
A large sulcate Edmondia. 
Myalina perahtta. 



Cephalopoda. 

Coelonautilus subsulcatus. 
Glyphioceras reticulatum. 
Orlhoccras morris ia n it 111 . 

Brachiopoda. 

Productus, a scabriculate form. 
Lingula mytiloides. 
Orbiculoidea nitida. 



The late James Spencer, of Halifax, watched the excavations 
and shafts sunk for the Halifax waterworks under Wadsworth 
Moor. 

He describes (Trans. Manchester Geol. Soc. , Vol. XIII., 
pp. 209-212) the sections, and I make out the following- species 
in his collection from that horizon, which he determines as the 
shales between the 3rd and Kinderscout Grits. 



Glyphioceras reticulatit m. 

,, phillipsii. 

, , bilinguc. 

Dimorplioccras gilbertson i. 

,, loony i. 

Tcmiuicheilus sp. 
Solenocheilus cyclostom us. 



Ccelonaulilus quadrat us. 
Orthoceras aciculare. 
Pos ido n iella Icei > is. 
,, minor. 

Pterinopecten papyraceus. 
Ptychoinphalus ip. 
Productus sp. 



Spencer states that Gastrioceras listeri and Nomismoceras 
spirorb is occur here, but I cannot find specimens in his collection. 

Barnes and Holroyd have described a fossiliferous grit on the 
flanks of Pule Hill, near Marsden, which occurs in Netherley 
Quarry on Pule side. I visited the quarry on one occasion with 
them. They consider the bed to be either high up in the 
Kinderscout Grit or low down in the 3rd grit. The list of fossils 
contains no species typical of the horzion. Cephalopoda and 
Brachiopoda are conspicuously absent. Gasteropoda in the form 
of casts are referred by them to eleven species, of which the 

1907 March I. 



92 Hind: Life Zones in British Carboniferous Rocks. 

most common are two forms of Euphenius. The following 
lamellibranchs also occur : — 

Myalina verneuillii, Schizodus antiquus. 

, , flemingi. Posidoniella ? sp. 

Sedgwickia alien uata. 

Such a fauna has been met with nowhere else in the grits, 
and should be looked for in other localities. 

I found a large angular boulder, some years ago, in a small 
stream at the head of the Elkstone Brook, near the Mermaid 
Inn at Morredge, N. Staffordshire. This was a grit containing 
casts of Schizophoria, Productus, Orthotetes, etc. Judging from 
its condition, and from the fact that there is little or no drift on 
Morredge, which is more than 1000 feet above sea level, I don't 
think this rock was far from its parent bed, which I hope to find 
one day in the neighbourhood of the Roches. 

A most important shell bed occurs in the neighbourhood of 
Pateley Bridge and Harrogate. It is well seen at Cayton Gill, 
Clint Quarries, at several places near Pateley Bridge, and Hazel 
Hill near Sawley. The Grit series here is estimated at 1900 feet 
thick, and the shell bed is 1000 feet up in this series. 

The fauna is large and peculiar, totally different from that 
which is generally regarded as characteristic of the Millstone 
Grits. Brachiopoda and Cephalopoda are rare. 

At Clint Quarries I obtained the following species : — 

Brachiopoda. Lamallibranchiata. 

Aviculopecten dissimilis. 
Chonetes, cf. laguessiana. Leiopteria laminosa. 

Derbya sp. Parallelodon [cast.], sp. (P. obtusus). 

Productus cora of late mutation. Sanguinolites sp. 



tongispinus. 

scabriculus. 
Spirifer bisulcata. 
Spiriferina cristata. 
Se in inula ambigua. 
Schizophoria resupinata. 



Cephalopoda. 
Stroboceras sulcatum. 
Orthoceras sp. 

Pisces. 
Petalodus acumenatus (tooth). 
Phizodopsis sauroides (scale). 

In a small quarry, one mile from Pateley Bridge, on the 
Ripon Road 1 obtained : — 

Derbya sp. Amusium concentricum. 

Productus cora, a late mutation. Leiopteria squamosa. 

,, tongispinus. Cypricardella sp. 

Schizophoria resupinata. Parallelodon obtusus? 

(Rhephidomella) michi- Edmondia sp. 

lint. Loxonema rugifera. 

Seminula ambigua. Euphenius sp. 

Spiriferina cristata. Stroboceras sulcatum. 

Aviculopecten sp. Fenestella. 

Naturalist, 



Hind : Life Zones in British Carboniferous Rocks. 93 



The Derbya is very large and very common in the lower 
beds of the quarry. Casts show very beautifully the internal 
structure of the shell and the centre plates which distinguishes 
this genus from Orthotetes. 

At Hazel Hill, in the parish of Sawley, near Ripon I 
obtained 



Productus com, a late mutation. 

,, longispinus. 

Chonetes, sp. laguessiana. 
Derbya sp. 
Schizophoria resit pinata. 

Lamellibranchiata. 

Aviculopecten dissimilis. 

,, stellar is. 

,, semicostatus. 

Pterinopecten whitei. 
Edmondia maccoyi. 

, , r nd is 

Leiopteria sp. 
Lithodom us jenkinson i. 



Mytilimorpha sp. 

Parallelodon sp. 
Pala?olima sp. 
Protoschizodus curt us. 
Sa ngu in olites sp. 
Tellinomorpha cuneiform is. 

Gasteropoda. 

Macrocheilina sp. 
Xatiropsis sp. 
Euphenius sp. 

Cephalopoda. 

Stroboceras sulcatum. 
Ep ipph iuccras bilobatu m . 
Ortlioceras sp. 



This fauna is a remarkable one to find so high up in the 
Carboniferous series. Possibly the shell bed on Pule Hill may 
represent it. A very large number of species are of Lower 
Carboniferous forms which do not appear in British strata, as 
far as we know, in the 2000 feet of rocks immediately below. 
It would be interesting to know where they were living in the 
meanwhile. The fauna indicates much clearer waters during 
the period in which the shell bed was laid down than the 
characteristic fauna of the Millstone Grit. 

In North Staffordshire a marine band with Gastrioceras 
listeri, Pterinopecten papyracens, and Posidoniella laevis always 
underlies the rough rock or Roches Grit. Workings to reach 
the coal on the Grit below turn out a shale rich in com- 
pressed specimens and fragments of these fossils in the 
neighbourhood of Ipstones and Oakamoor. The fauna is found 
in shales below the first Grit at Knypersley. 

Mr. Spencer's experience in Yorkshire is very similar, and 
we may consider it a fact that the abundance of Gastrioceras 
listeri increases at higher horizons in the Millstone Grit until a 
maximum is reached in the Bullion, Mountain-mine, or Hard 
Bed Coal of the Halifax district. 

At Caton Green, a few miles from Lancaster, in the Lime 
Valley, a series of shales below some grits have been worked 

1907 March i. 



94 Hind : Life Zones in British Carboniferous Rocks. 

for brick making - . Several pits are opened showing sections of 
sandstones and shales, cut in the most westerley a dark grey 
shale worked containing many round bullions or concretions. 
Most of the bullions yield no fossils, but I obtained there 
Pleiironantihis nodosocarinatus, Solenocheilus, Sp. nov. a body 
chamber of which I think I have from Congleton Edge Quarry, 
500 feet below the third Grit. Posidoniella laevis and ElonichtJivs 
aitkeni. 

Dr. A. H. Foord, (Geol. Mag., Dec. 3, Vol. VIII, 1890, 
p. 481), has recognised in addition Solenoclieilus latiseptatus, 
Pleuronautilus armatus, and Actinoccras sulcatulum from these 
beds. This fossiliferous horizon occurs somewhat nearer the 
top than the base of the Millstone Grit series. 

P. nodosocarinatus has been found high up in the Voredales 
of Swaledale, and in the Arden Limestone series of the West of 
Scotland. From this locality it was described by Armstrong 
under the .V. nodifcrus, but Roemer has previously described 
the shell and the name JV. nodosocarinatus. A sharp look out 
should be kept for traces of this very fine and characteristic 
species in the Millstone Grits of the Midlands. A fine specimen 
lately found during excavations by the Corporation at Harrogate 
is now in the Natural History Museum, South Kensington. 

At Holt Head, near Slaithwaite, near Saddleworth, Mr. 
Barnes found a bed of shale crowded with the valves of a shell 
which I figured and described as Sanguinolites ova/is. (Pal. Soc. 
Brit. Carb. Lamell, Pt. V., p. 411, PI. 46, figs. 14-17.) The 
horizon is probably below the 3rd Grit, and the fauna which 
accompanies it consists of: — 



Xitculana stilla. 
Nucula gibbosa. 
Schizodus antiquus. 



Posidoniella lav is. 
IAngula mytiloid.es. 

Ostracoda. 



This, then, is the extent of our knowledge of the molluscan 
fauna of the Pendleside series and its distribution, and I can 
only hope it may be useful in stimulating local geologists to 
take up the subject of life zones in the Millstone Grit rocks. 
Taking it as a whole, the fauna is a fairly extensive one, and in 
certain localities is most prolific. 

Before terminating this paper, I propose to give lists of the 
fish and flora which are found in the Pendleside series. These 
lists are comparatively meagre, but I have no doubt that they 
can be considerably increased by research. 

Dr. Wellburn compiled the following table showing the 

Naturalist, 



Hind: Life Zones in British Carboniferous Roeks. 



95 



distribution of fish remains in the Pendleside series for the 
Report of the British Association Committee for Life Zones in 
British Carboniferous rocks : to this I have added a column for 
the Pendleside series of North Wales. 





X-o 




s 

■a 


"is 






is "aJ 
=3 ta 


3 -C 


6 
•_ 

IS 

05 
>-> 


Is 


Pisces. 




u 




•3 



H 


> 


15 


X rt 

> 

2 


<S jj 

£ a. 
1 ° 




J2 
k. 
1) 

Q 




Cladodus mirabilis 






















SP- 














* 


* 






Orodtis elongatus 


* 














* 






Acanthodes sp 


* 


* 


* 










* 






Marsdenius summiti 


* 




















,, acuta 






















sp- _ 






* 
















Strepsodus sauroides 






















Rhizodopsis sauroides 


* 




















Coelocanthus liindei 












* 










• S P 


















* 




Radin ich thys ci renins 


















* 




,, ' sp. 


* 




















Elonichthys ait hint 


* 


* 


* 


* 












* 


,, sp. nov 


* 




















,, obliqnus 


* 




* 


* 














Acrolepis hopktnsi 


* 


* 
















* 


,, wilsoni. 


















* 


* 


Platysomus sp 










* 













The following- table shows the distribution of the flora of the 
Pendleside series, all of which have been determined by Mr. 
Kidson. There is abundant room here for local collectors to 
extend the list and localities. 



Plantae. 




Polvash, 
I. of Man. 


N. Staffs. 


u 

■r. 
>. 
•— 

Q 


CS 

.5 
'33 

h 


Pendle Hill. 


be£ 

T3 

« be 

& 

O 


Adiantitcs antiquus 




* 


* 




* 






, , ten u ifolius . . 






* 










., machaneki .. 




* 












Archa'opteris tsehe? maki 






* 










sp. 
Asteroealanntes scrobicu 


latus 








* 


* 




Dactylotheca aspersa 

Lepidodcndron branchlets 

, , i 'el th eiviianuni ... 




* 






* 




Lepidophyllum n. L. lanceolatum 




* 











1907 March 1. 



96 



Northern News 



^____^, — 












^ 


Plants. 


■sj 
IS 




4 

55 


4J 
U 

■■n 

■_ 
u 


c/i 

2 


u 

=5 


eton Edge 
eet below 
d Grit. 




cu . 


fc 




of 

'53 
H 


c 
0-, 


O co 

U 


Lepidostrobus sp 




* 










Neuropteris antecedent 




* 


* 








Rhabdocarpus, n. sp. 




* 










Rhodea, n. sp. 




* 










Phacopteris glabellata 














,, inequilatera 














Sphenopteris quercifotia 




» 










,, partly rachis 


* 






* 






,, ,, van stenophylla 


* 






* 






,, ,, ,, affinis 








* 






,, ,, ,, svbgeniculata 








* 






„ ,, ,, schtebani 








# 






Stigmaria ficoides 












* 



8« 
9- 

TO. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV. 

Posidonomya becheri, a left valve, from shales in the Mixon Hey Brook, 

Staffordshire, one mile below Mixon Hey Farm. 
Posidonomya membranacea, a right valve, from shales in the same 

stream, about half a mile above Onecote Grange. 
Chaenocardiola footii, i left valves, from shales in the River Dove, near 

Glutton Bridge. 
Aviculopecten fibrillosus, the convex valve, from the Quarry N.W. of 

Holly Wood, Congleton Edge. 
Aviculopecten fibrillosus, the smooth flattened valve, same locality. 
Glyphioceras bilingue, an enlarged view, showing the mouth of the 

specimen, from shales in Wild Moor Bank Hollow, about two 

miles N.W. of the Cat and Fiddle Inn. 
Glyphioceras bilingue, a partially decorticated specimen, but uncrushed. 
Glyphioceras reticulatum, a young specimen, from shales in the River 

Dane. 
Glyphioceras reticulatum, a section showing the chambers of the shell, 

same locality. 
Glyphioceras spirale, a crushed specimen, from the Quarry on Congle- 
ton Edge. 
Lingula scotica, a very rare Brachiopod, hitherto only found in Scotland 

and Northumberland ; with {a) Orbiculoidea nitida, same 

locality. 
Prolecanites compressus, showing the characteristic suture lines, from 

the old Limestone Quarry, Astbury. 

All the specimens are in my own collection. 



Mr. G. T. Porritt has a note on Hereditary and Sexual dimorphism in 
Abraxas grossulariata, var. varleyata, in the January ' Entomologist' : 
Monthly Magazine.' 

The Belfast Municipal Art Gallery and Museum is following the example 
of another institution in publishing quarterly notes. Nos. 3 and 4are before 
us, and have been reprinted from the local press. 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, J 907. 



Plate XIV. 




-*® 



k 



\ 



V 






97 

RECENTLY DISCOVERED FUNGI IN YORKSHIRE. 



C. CROSSLAND, F.L.S. 

Halifax. 



The present is considered a suitable time to bring together, 
under one heading, the Fungi discovered in Yorkshire since the 
publication of the Yorkshire Fungus Flora in 1905. This will 
enable mycologists to post their copies up to date without 
much trouble. Many species have been recorded in the pages of 
the ' Naturalist ' in the interval ; in all such cases references to 
pages and date are given. To facilitate the placing of these 
records in their proper sequence, the number in the flora which 
each must follow is added. Two are included which were 
accidentally omitted when the work was compiled. 

It will be seen that two are new to science, 7 new to Britain, 
and 46, and 3 vars. new to Yorkshire. This brings the present 
total of known Yorkshire species to 2681. 

The number of new vice-county records has also been con- 
siderably added to: — S.W., 46; Mm W., 8; N.W., 69; 
N. E., 32; S.E., 57. These, however, can easily be inserted 
in the Flora by aid of the ' Naturalist,' 'Transactions,' and the 
Trans, of the Hull Sci. and F. N. Club.,' '05-6, by any one suffi- 
ciently interested in the subject. 

NEW SPECIES. 
Clavaria gigaspora Cotton n. sp. 

Caespitose but distinct at the base, or solitary, greyish with 
tinge of yellow, whitish at base of stem, small, up to 3 cm. 
high, branched, flesh tough, smell and taste absent ; branching 
irregular, sometimes almost palmate, branches erect, occasion- 
ally forked, often wrinkled, solid, terete or compressed, much 
compressed at the acute axils, ultimate branches attenuated, 
apices blunt; stem 1 cm. long, or shorter, slender, not very 
distinct; internal structure of densely packed hyphee 4-4.5 /* 
diam. forming a firm, tough tissue, rather horny when dry ; 
basidia large, 60-70 x 15 /<,, contents finely granular, sterigmata 
four, rather stout, 8-10 fi long, spores broadly elliptical, slightly 
oblique, ends somewhat narrowed, average 12-16 X 7.5-8 //., 
very variable (10-20 x 7-9 fJ-), guttulate, then granular, hyaline, 
smooth. 

S.W. — Habitat. Amongst moss on rocky, heathy slope, 
road side between Flappit and Crossroads near Cullingworth. 
— C. Crossland and Thomas Hebden, Nov. 1906. 

To follow No. 1 2 18. 

1907 March i. 



98 Crossland : Recently discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 

A small dingy yellowish-white plant, scarcely over-topping' 
the moss in which it grows. It appears to resemble certain 
forms of C. cinerea and C. cristata, but is readily distinguished 
from either by the large spores. The structure is also some- 
what exceptional, being composed of very fine, densely matted 
hyphae, which run out into unusually large basidia. 
Clavaria gigaspora Cotton sp. nov. 

Planta tenax, irregulariter ramosa, alba v. pallido-alutacea, 
ad 3 cm. alta. Caulis tenuis, circiter i cm. longus. Rami 
breves, erecti, teretis, saepe rugosi, infra ramulos compressi ; 
ramuli ultimi sensim attenuati, apicibus sub-obtusis. Basidia 
majuscula 60-70 x 15 jn, intus granulosa. Sporae late ellip- 
soideae, grandis, 14x7/1 (10-20 x 7-9 /*) hyalinae, laeves. 

Ad terrum muscosam, prope. Cullingworth, Yorks. 
Brittanniae. 

Verticicladium Preuss. 

Sterile hyphae creeping, fertile erect, septate, verticillately 
branched, branchlets subulate ; conidia continuous, solitary at 
the tips of the branchlets, soon falling away. 

Verticicladium Cheesmanii Crossl. n. sp. Plate IX. 
Effused in pale red-brown patches, sterile hyphae creeping, 
septate, contents granular, deep red-brown, 4-5 /x thick, fertile 
hyphae erect, pale red-brown, 2-3 times branched, 4 y thick, 
slightly wider at base of branches, branches spreading, ultimate 
branchlets mostly in pairs, opposite, occasionally solitary, 
subulate, slightly inflated at base, erect, 13-15 X 3.5 /a ; conidia 
broadly elliptical, ends obtuse, pale red-brown, 6-8 X 3-5-5 /*• 

Mid W. — Hab. On decorticated wood. Stainor Wood 
near Selby. — W. N. Cheesman, Nov. 1906. 
To precede Stachylidium. 
Verticicladium Preuss. 

Hyphae steriles repentes, hyphae feraces erectae, septatae, 
verticillatim ramosae, ramuli subulati, conidia continua, solitaria 
ad apices ramulorum. 

Verticicladium Cheesmanii Crossl. sp. nov. 
Effusum, stratis pallido-spadiceis, hyphis sterilibus re- 
pentibus, septatis, cytoplasma granulari, rufo-spadiceis, 4-5 y. 
crassitudine, hyphis feracibus erectis, ramosis bis vel ter, 
4 /a crassitudine, leviter latioribus, ad basin ramorum, pallido- 
spadiceis, ramis patentibus, ramulis ultimatis generaliter binis 
et oppositis, subinde solitariis, subulatis, leviter inflatis ad 
basin, erectis, 13-15 fix 3.5 /*, conidiis late ellipticis, polis 
obtusis, pallido-spadiceis, 6-8 fx x 3.5-5 /*, cito disjunctis. 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST. 1907. 



Plate IX. 




Verticicladium Cheesmaaii Crossl. 

Fig. i. — Portion of patch on decorticated wood, natural size. 
Fig. 2. — Enlarged about 640 diams. 



Del ed nat. 



C. Cscr Mt . 



Grassland : Recently discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 99 

NEW TO BRITAIN. 
Geaster triplex Jungh. 

S.W. — Hebden Bridge, on the ground in Pecket Wood, 
June 1905 (J. Needham). 

' Unexpanded plant acute, exoperidium recurved (or when 
not fully expanded, somewhat saccate at base), cut to the 
middle, or usually two-thirds, to five or eight segments. 
Mycelial layer adnate. Fleshy layer generally peeling off 
from the segments of the fibrillose layer, but usually remaining 
partially free as a cup at base of inner peridium. Inner 
peridium sub-globose, closely sessile. Mouth definite, fibrillose, 
broadly conical. Columella prominent, persistent, elongated 
(see fig. 49). Threads thicker than spores. Spores globose, 
roughened, 3-6 m.c. ('The Geastrae,' C. G. Lloyd, June 1902, 
pages 25-27, figs. 47-49). 

To follow No. 12. 
Hebeloma subsaponaceum Karst. 

S.E. — Allerthorpe Common, near Pocklington, on the 
ground, under beeches (* 'Nat.' Sept. '05, p. 267; I.e. Jan. 6, 
'06, p. 7). 

To follow No. 460. 
Cantharellus hypnorum Brond., Rev. Myc, 1892, p. 65 ; 
Sacc, Syll. ii. p. 32, 1895. 

S.W. — Ferrymoor near Cudworth (* 'Nat.' Oct. 1905, 
p. 295). For description and note see 1. c, Jan. '06, pp. 7-8. 

To follow No. 905. 
Lentinus suffrutescens Fr. 

S.W. — Milnsbridge near Huddersfield, growing from the 
wood flooring of a joiner's shop (F. F. '06, 'Nat.' Feb. '07, 
pp. 52 and 54). Spores probably on the timber when imported. 
Certe A. Clarke. 

To precede No. 948. 
Lachnea gilva (Boud.). Sacc. Syll., n. 747. Pesisa gilva 
Boudier, Icon. 37. 

S.W. — Hebden Bridge, on sandy ground, among moss, by 
the river side. For description and note see 'Nat. 'Jan. '06, 
pp. 8-9. 

To follow No. 1840. 
Zyvodesmus fulvus Sacc, Michelia ii., p. 147. 
Var. olivascens Sacc, Mich, ii., p. 585. 

Mid. W. — Stainor Wood, Selby, on decaying wood, '06 

,(W. N. C). 

To follow No. 2386. 

1907 March i. 



ioo Crossland : Recently discovered Fung! in Yorkshire. 

Graphium xanthocephalum Sacc. Certe. G. Massee. 
N.W. — Masham, on bamboo canes used as plant supports 
in greenhouse. Jan. '06 (W. A. Thwaites). 
To follow No. -2455. 

NEW TO YORKSHIRE. 
Lycoperdon cruciatum Rostk. 
S.W. — Maltby and Stubbins Woods, among- moss and dead 
leaves. (F.F. '05, 'Nat.', Nov. '05, p. 338, where L. vchitum 
Vitt. is suggested, and I.e. Jan. '06, pp. 6-7, with photo, and 
diagnosis. Some authorities consider this to be L. velatum Yitt. 
To follow No. 23. 

Lycoperdon Cookei Mass., Mon. Lvcop. n. 52, pi. xiii., 
figs. 24-26. 

S.W. — Farnley Tvas, on the ground in woods (F.F. '06, 
' Nat.', Feb. '07, p. 54, as L. spadiccum Pers., which is supposed 
to be a synonym). 

To follow No. 24. 

Lycoperdon depressum Bon. 
S.W. — Farnley Tvas, on the ground in woods (F.F. '06- 
'Nat. 1 , Feb. '07, p. 54). 
To follow No. 25. 

Amanita cariosa Fries. Hym. Eur. p. 24. 
S.W.— Huddersfield, Sept. 1895 (Dr. Cooke, Tr. Brit. Myc. 
Soc, ^903, p. 13)- 
To follow No. 48. 

Lepiota granulosa var. rufescens B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., 
n. 1834; Cke., Illustr., pi. 213A. 

S.W. — Firbeck (F.F., '05, Tr. 33, 1907). 

Clitocybe subinvoluta (Batsch.). 
S.W.- — Firbeck, on the ground among grass (F.F., '05, 
'Nat.', Dec. 05, p. 369; Tr. 33, 07). 
To follow No. 159. 

Mycena I in eat a (Bull.). 
S.W.— Roche Abbey Yalley (F.F. '05, Tr. 33, 07), 
To follow No. 217. 

Volvaria Taylori Berk., Outl., p. 140. 

S.W. — Slaithwaite, near Huddersfield. Typical specimens 
found on grass plot in front of his house by E. J. Walker, Nov. 
1906, Certe. A. Clarke. 

Naturalist, 



Crossland : Recently discovered Fungi in l^orks/iire. 101 

Differs from V. violacea, which it somewhat resembles, by 
the gills being" remarkably attenuated behind, and by the small, 
brown volva. 

To follow No. 317. 

Pholiota heteroclita Fr. 

S. W. — Hewenden Bridge near Cullingworth, Sept., '05, on 
dead poplar. 

To follow No. 403. 

Pholiota tuberculosa (Schasff.). 
S.W. — Heaton Wood near Bradford (Bradford Sci. Jour., 
Jan. 1907, p. 341). 
To follow No. 409. 

Hebeloma longicaudum (Pers.). Var. radicatum Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 164. 

S.W. — Firbeck (F.F. '05, Tr. 33, '°7)- 

Hebeloma nudipes Fr. 
S.W. — Farnley Tyas, on the ground in a wood (F.F. '06, 
* Nat.', Feb. '07, p. 55). 
To follow No. 463. 

Tubaria cupularis (Bull.). 
S.W. — Farnley Tyas, among grass in pasture (F.F. '06, 
'Nat.', Feb. '07, p. 55). 
To follow No. 515. 

Cortinarius (Phleg.) triumphans Fr. 
S.W. — Cullingworth, on the ground under birch trees. 
(Thos. Hebden). 

To precede No. 537. 

Cortinarius (Phleg.) scaurus Fr. 
S.W. — Maltby Wood, on the ground among moss, decaying 
twigs, etc. (F.F. '05, 'Nat.', Nov. '05, p. 340; Tr. 33, 07). 
To follow No. 551. 

Cortinarius (Ino.) arenatus (Pers.). 
S.W. — Firbeck, on the ground in a wood (F.F. '05, 'Nat.*, 
Nov. '05, p. 340 ; Tr. 33, '07). 
To follow No. 570. 

Cortinarius (Tela.) helvelloides Fr. 
S.W. — Maltby, on the ground in a wood (F.F. '05, 'Nat.', 
Nov. '05, p. 340 ; Tr. 33, '°7)- 
To follow No. 597. 

1907 March i. 



102 Crossland : Recently discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 

Cortlnarius (Hygr.) uraceus Fr. 
S.W. — Firbeck, on the ground in a mixed wood (F.F. '05, 
1 Nat.', Nov. '05, p. 340 ; Tr. 33, '07). 
To follow No. 615. 

Hypholoma leucotephrum (B. & Br.). 
S.E. — Holmpton, Withernsea, near base of tree trunk, 
among- grass on road side, Oct. 1905 (Hull S. & F. N. C. Tr., 
'06, p. 292). 

To follow No. 666. 

Psilocybe canobrunnea Fr. 
S.W. — Farnley Tyas, on dry manure heap (F.F. '06, 'Nat.',. 
Feb. '07, p. 55). 

To follow No. 692. 

Hygrophorus (Hygr.) spadiceus Fr. 
S.W. — Firbeck, in pasture (F.F. '05, 'Nat.', Nov. '05, p. 

339)- _ 

Differs from H. conicus in virgate pileus, and thicker gills 
not narrowed behind. 

To follow No. 801. 

Russula furcata Pers. Var. ochroviridis Cke. 

S.W.— Slaithwaite (F.F. '06, 'Nat.', Feb. '07, p. 55). 
To follow No. 860. 

Cantharellus Friesii Quel. 
S.W. — Slaithwaite, in cold frame in garden (F.F. '06, 
'Nat.' Feb. '07, p. 56). 
To follow No. 904. 

Corticium populmi Fr. 
S.E. — Hull, on pine pit-props, probably in this case imported 
(T. Stainforth, Jan. 1907). 
To follow No. 1 156. 

Clavaria incarnata Weissm. 
S.W. — Farnley Tyas, in pasture ('Nat.', Feb. '07, pp. 52 
and 55). 

To follow No. 1242. 

Uromyces junci (Desm.). 

S.W. — Askern Bog, /Fcidium stage on Pnlicariu dysenterica 
(* 'Nat.', Oct. '06, p. 374). 
To follow No. 1307. 

Naturalist, 



Crossland : Recently discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 103 

Sporormia pascua Niessl. 
S.W. — Sheffield, on rabbit dung, April, 1903 (T. Gibbs), 
Distinguished from S. octotnera Phil, and Plow, by the short 
foot and broad subtruncate apex of the ascus. 
To follow No. 1617. 

Humaria Phillipsii Cke. 
N,W. — Masham. For description, synonyms, and notes, 
see 'Nat.', Jan. '06, pp. 9-10. 
To follow No. 181 1. 

Lachnea cinnabarina (Schw.). 
S.W. — Hebden Bridge. For description and notes see 
'Nat.', Jan. '06, p. 8. 
To follow No. 1824. 

tielotium Hedwigii Phil. 

S.W. — Hardcastle near Hebden Bridge, on fallen elm-twigs, 
June, 1897 (J. Needham). Accidentally omitted from the Flora. 
Distinguished from allied species by the lower half of stem being 
white, and by the remarkably swollen, woolly base. 

To follow No. 1952. 

Myxotrichum deflexum Berk. 
S.W. — Copley near Halifax ('Nat.', Aug. '05, p. 254). 
To follow No. 2150. 

Penicillium hypomycetis Sacc. 
S.W. — Maltby Wood, spreading over a group of sporangia 
of Trichia fragilis (F.F. '05, 'Nat.', Dec. '05, p. 371). 
To follow No. 2320. 

Rhinotrichum Bloxamii B. & Br. 

Mid W. — Stainor Wood near Selby, Nov. 1906 (W. N. 
Cheesman). 

To follow No. 2328. 

Stemonitis laxa Mass. \Comcttricha laxa Rost.]. 
S.E. — Hull, very small sporangia on a pine log, West Dock 
Reservation, Sept., 1903 (Trans. Hull S. & F. N. C, 1905, 
p. 202, T. Petch). 

To follow No. 2500. 

Stemonitis flavogenita Jahn. 
S.E. — Hedon; Thearne ; Hornsea; Snake Hill, South Cave, 
(I.e. 1905, p. 202, T. Petch). 

' This species was, till recently, designated S. ferrnginen 

1907 March 1. 



104 Grassland : Recently discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 

Ehr. , and East Riding - specimens have been distributed under 
this name. The discovery of Ehrenberg's type specimen proves 
that his S. ferruginea is the modern S. Smithii and necessitates 
a change of nomenclature ' (Jour, of Botany, vol. 42, p. 194). 
To precede No. 2502. 

Amaurochaete atra Rost. 
S.E. — On pit props just landed ex steamer from Norway, 
Fish Dock Extension, Hull, Sept., 1903 (Tr. Hull S. & F.N.C., 
1905, p. 203, T. Petch). 
To precede No. 2503. 

Lamproderma irideum Mass. 

S.E. — Thorp Garth, Aldborough, on twigs in a stick heap, 
Aug. 1903 ; Hornsea, plantations north of the Mere, May, '04, 
(I.e. 1905, p. 203, T. P.). 

To follow No. 2505. 

Margarita metallica Lister. 

S.E. — -Abundant on hawthorn branches in the winter in the 
neighbourhood of Hedon, Dec. 1902 and 1903; Rose Hill; 
Newton Garth; Aldborough; Thearne; Tansterne; and Hamble- 
ton (I.e. p. 208, T. P.). 

To follow No. 2512. 

Dianema depression Lister. 
S.E. — Hambleton ; Tansterne ; Bale Wood, Aldborough, 
Jan. '04 (I.e. p. 208, T. P.). 
To follow No. 2513. 

Trichia lutescens Lister. 
S.E. — Dryham, North Cave, Aug. 1903, on sticks, probably 
hawthorn, forming a fence whose base rested in swampy 
ground by the roadside (I.e. p. 295, T. P.). 
To follow No. 2530. 

Didymium clay us Rost. 
S.E. — Thearne ; Aldborough, in dead grass and leaves (I.e. 
p. 201, T. P.). 

To follow No. 2543. 

Physarum calidris Lister. 
S.E. — Thorp Garth, Alborough, Aug. '06 (I.e., p. 200, T. P.). 
To follow No. 2562. 

Naturalist, 



Northern News. 105 

Physarum Phillipsii Balf. fil. 
S.W. — Halifax, on rotting- rope in warehouse, July 1895, 
collected by the late H. T. Soppitt. 
To follow No. 2563. 

Badhamia decipiens Berk. 
S.E. — Tansterne fox cover, on wood, moss, etc., in dry 
ditch, Aug. '03 (Tr. Hull S. & F. N. C, '05, p. 199, T. P.). 
To precede No. 2567. 

Badhamia verna Rost. [Physarum vermim Sommf.). 
S.E. — Hedon, abundant on dead hawthorn branches, Dec. 
'03 (I.e., p. 200, T. P.). 
To follow No. 2568. 

Badhamia foliicola Lister. 
S.E. — Tansterne fox cover, in abundance on dead hawthorn 
twigs in a dry ditch, Aug. '03 (Jour, of Botany, vol. 42, p. 129). 
To precede No. 2569. 

The discovery in Yorkshire of twelve of the last thirteen 
species is due to the excellent field investigations in quest of 
Mycetozoa, or Myxomycetes, carried on by Mr. T. Petch, 
B.A., B.Sc, during 1903-4. A few were new to Britain. 
Altogether Mr. Petch found in the East Riding upwards of 
sixty species of this group, Vide. Trans, of the Hull S. and 
F. N. Club, '05, pp. 196-208. Here we have another example of 
what may be accomplished in field research by persistent work 
as opportunity affords. 



In a paper upon ' Local Birds,' by Mr. C. F. Innocent, read recently 
before the Sheffield Naturalists' Club, the following classification was 
suggested as more detailed than the usual meagre division into residents 
and migrants. 

( A ) Res ide n ts : — 

1. Eu-residents: resident all the year through, e.g. house sparrow. 

2. Pen-residents: resident all the year through, except for a few 

weeks, e.g. starling. 

(B) Migrants:— 

3. Pseudo-residents : resident as species, but migratory as indi- 

viduals, e.g. , robin. 

4. Winter residents : e.g. fieldfare. 

5. Summer residents : e.g. swallow. 

6. Eu-migrants : which only visit on autumn or spring passage to 

winter or summer residence, e.g. ringed plover. 

( C ) Err a tics ; — 

7. True waifs and strays: e.g. puffin. 

8. Archaso-residents: which formerly lived in the district and of 

which individuals occasionally return to former haunts of the 
species, e.g. eagle. 

1907 March i. 



io6 

BIRD NOTES.— YORK DISTRICT. 



SYDNEY H. SMITH. 
York. 



I cannot but comment on the large numbers of Redwing's that 
have visited us this winter. They literally swarmed all over 
the country during" December, but I am afraid their flocks were 
sadly decimated by the severe weather in January. Fieldfares 
do not appear as plentiful as in previous years, and for some 
weeks I have only remarked these handsome immigrants in 
small batches of four to twelve birds. Hooded Crows, locally 
termed Grey Backs, appeared about the middle of October, and 
were in full force by November, many thousands roosting 
nightly in Crompton Wood, their usual winter quarters, sharing 
the branches with parties of immigrant and local Carrion Crows 
and a tremendous body of Rooks and Jackdaws. At dusk the 
immense circling flock of dusky birds made all the din they 
possibly could, and was apt to leave a lasting impression on 
the mind of a student of nature. A small party of Grey and 
Pied Wagtails frequents the shallows along the River Foss. 
Thanks to the Birds' Protection Order, the brilliantly plumaged 
Kingfisher is more often seen on both Ouse and Foss, some- 
times I notice one right in the heart of the city. A few Siskins 
have been caught on the Malton Road, and several Bramblings 
seen in private gardens during the recent hard weather, when 
they fed along with Sparrows and Chaffinches. On the flooded 
meadows at East Cottingwith duck appeared in their usual 
number (about 400 birds), chiefly Mallard and Wigeon, with 
a few Teal, Scaup (occasional), Pochards, Tufted, and Golden- 
eye. A gaggle of geese pitched one night, but it was too dark 
to distinguish the species (probably brent or grey), and half- 
a-dozen handsome Whooper Swans spent two days on the fresh 
water, departing in the night to other parts. Mr. Snowden 
Sleights, the local fowler, sent me two female Goosanders early 
in January ; every year a few females turn up at Cottingwith, 
but no males. According to Messrs. Booth and Riley Fortune, 
a small party of males appears in the Washburn Valley every 
year. The question to be settled is, are these birds all of one 
immigrant party, the sexes mutually agreeing to separate during 
their stay in Yorkshire? 

Naturalist, 



THE PROTECTION OF BIRDS IN THE WEST RIDING. 



R. FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



For some time the Wild Birds' and Eggs' Protection Com- 
mittee of the Y. N.U. has been endeavouring to get the 
existing Wild Birds' Protection Act of Yorkshire into line, 
so that the same order should apply to the three Ridings. 
It has not been found practicable to do this. The East Riding 
has met us in a fair spirit, the North Riding has quite ignored 
our suggestions, up to date. The West Riding authorities 
have dealt with our suggestions in a very broad manner, and it 
is very pleasing to record that this authority seems particularly 
alive to the requirements of wild birds. 

A new Schedule or Order has just been issued, and it may 
be interesting to note the additions to this. Practically we 
have got all the birds we wished to have scheduled, and it is 
particularly gratifying to note that both the Raven and Peregrine 
Falcon are now absolutely protected during the whole of the 
year. 

All birds, with the exception of our familiar friend the 
House Sparrow, are protected from the last day of February 
to the 1 2th day of August; but with the exception of those 
specially mentioned in Schedules A and B, owners or occupiers 
of land, or persons authorised by them, are at liberty to destroy 
them should they so desire. The birds named in Schedules 
A and B are protected absolutely, not only against the general 
public, but also against owners or occupiers, who must not lift 
their hands against them. 

Schedule A gives protection to the species included from 
the last day in February to the 12th day of August. There are 
four additions to this list, viz., the Great Northern' and Red 
Throated Divers, Gadwall and Quail. There is absolutely no 
necessity for the inclusion of the first two species, as they 
are not likely to be seen in the West Riding between the dates 
named, if at all. The same remark might also apply to the 
Gadwall ; but as it is a species which is increasing as a resident 
in Norfolk, there is no reason why it should not extend its 
range to Yorkshire. At any rate no harm can be done by 
anticipating this event somewhat. The Quail nests in some 
part of the county every summer, and every inducement should 
be given it to continue to do so. 

There are about sixteen omissions from the previous list, 

1907 March i. 



io8 Fortune: The Protection of Birds in the West Riding. 

but as they have been moved up and placed amongst the birds 
protected all the year round we cannot complain. 

Schedule B is the most interesting - . The birds in this list 
are absolutely protected against everyone all the year round. 
To this Schedule no fewer than twenty-six species have been 
added. The Peregrine Falcon and the Raven, both practically 
extinct as breeding species, have now a chance to regain their 
lost ground. Other nesting species included for the first time 
are the Corn Crake, which, without doubt, has decreased in 
numbers very considerably of late years. The Dotterel, of 
which only about a single pair attempts to nest in the Riding. 
These birds are shot on migration in spring for the purpose 
of obtaining feathers for dressing flies for fishing, but as 
feathers may be obtained from the Starling answering quite as 
well, if not better than those of the Dotterel, it is scandalous 
that the rare bird should be brought under contribution when 
the slaughter of a few Starlings can do no harm. The Black 
Headed Gull, a much maligned species, which observation has 
certainly proved that, in the West Riding at any rate, they 
do no harm, but a great deal of good. I have investigated 
several cases of alleged interference with grouse eggs by this 
bird, but in no case was the bird guilty. The Kittiwake Gull 
is also included. This bird does not nest or frequent the West 
Riding, but occasionally an individual may be blown inland 
from the coast. He may now visit us safely, at least according 
to law. The Hedge Sparrow and Tree Sparrow are bracketted 
together under the head of Sparrows ; the first is of course not 
a Sparrow but a Warbler. It is pleasing to know that our 
unassuming little friend has been placed upon the list. The 
gentlemanly Tree Sparrow is such a very local bird, nowhere 
very abundant, that he deserves to receive sanctuary. He may 
be readily distinguished from his vulgar relation by his chestnut 
head, two white bars on the wing, and his more musical note. 
The Spotted Crake and Water Rail, two very rare nesting 
species, may now attend to their household affairs in security. 
Many have been shot every autumn, but this is now prohibited. 
The Stone Curlew, nearly extinct as a nesting bird, may now 
possibly increase in numbers. The Turtle Dove, which is ex- 
tending its range in the county, may now do so in security. 
The Twite, an interesting and very local species, is placed on 
the list for the first time. I know of one place in the fell district 
where the manager of a local bank, for several mornings in 
succession, sallied out to shoot Twites, killing from twenty 

Naturalist, 



Fortune : The Protection of Birds in the West Riding, iog 

to forty each time ; it is pleasant to know that such ' sportsmen ' 
are now answerable to the law for their dastardly conduct. 
Of non-breeding - species the Bee Eater is included, and if we 
bear in mind the Bentham episode, we cannot but feel that it is 
only just that it should be so. The slaughter of Rough Legged 
Buzzards, which sometimes visit us in numbers, will for the 
future be prevented, and in like manner the young Sea Eagles 
which visit us are to have every protection. The Golden Eagle 
was on the list before. The wanton destruction of Pallas' Sand 
Grouse, should they again visit us, will probably be prevented, 
and the inclusion of all the British breeding Terns may save 
some senseless destruction, should any of them by chance pay 
a visit to the West Riding. 

Professional bird catchers are to be prevented from following 
their nefarious calling, for those favourite cage birds, Bullfinch, 
Goldfinch, Linnet, and Chaffinch, must not now be caught at 
any time of the year. They have all suffered considerably in 
the West Riding, the first three especially, and while not being 
against the keeping of cage birds, the cruelties I have seen 
practised in the wholesale capture of wild birds, makes one 
extremely glad that they are now thoroughly protected. The 
Heron too is safe against the selfish angler who cannot bear 
anyone but himself to catch a fish, probably the antipathy to 
the Heron arises in many cases because he can catch fish ; the 
fact that he feeds considerably upon other fare seems to be 
entirely overlooked. The bold little Merlin, the Lady's Falcon, 
must not now be molested at any time, nor must our useful 
friend the Kestrel. 

In addition, the eggs of all the birds mentioned in Schedules 
A and B, ninety-three of which at any rate nest in the county, 
are also protected, formerly there was a separate schedule for 
the eggs of certain species, but it certainly simplifies matters 
when it is understood that the eggs of all the birds scheduled 
are not to be taken. Probably no naturalist is opposed to egg 
collecting when conducted reasonably, but the senseless manner 
in which rare local species are harried merits the condemnation 
of every true ornithologist. 

There are many species scheduled in A for protection 
during the nesting season — as, for instance, the Fulmar, 
Avocet, Smew, etc. — which it seems absurd to place upon the 
list. This I pointed out to the West Riding authorities, but 
they were determined not to omit any species which had been 
scheduled before. Hence the unnecessary inclusion of certain 

1907 March 1. 



1 10 Northern News. 

names. The same applies in Schedule B, where birds are 
protected all the year round which are not with us in the 
winter months, as, for instance, migratory species like the 
Corncrake, Dotterel, Nightingale, Sandpiper, Terns, &c. But 
this we need not cavil at, so long- as the species really necessary 
are included. On the whole, the Union and its Committee 
dealing- with these matters are to be congratulated in ac- 
complishing what has been done. 

The eg-g-s of the Lapwing-, which, in the previous order, 
were not allowed to be taken after the end of March, may 
now be taken up to and including- the 15th day of April. 
The first date was absurd, as there are no eg-g-s, or at least 
very few, in the West Riding until the first few days in April, 
and as in some parts of the Fell districts a considerable trade is 
done in Lapwings' eggs, it was felt that some hardship was 
entailed by not allowing the farmers a little opportunity for 
reaping a profit. The birds will not suffer from this extension, 
for, as a rule, there is a great percentage of loss amongst 
the early eggs from early frosts, want of cover, and the 
harrowing, etc., of the fields. 

Special attention is drawn to the fact that the setting of 
Pole Traps is illegal, and also to the fact that the police have 
instructions to take proceedings against all persons offending 
against the Order. This is pleasant news, as last year the 
police had to be nearly goaded into taking action against 
some persons who endeavoured to destroy the Peregines at 
Ingleborough. 

There is, I think, some idea that in the near future the 
whole of the Bird Protection Orders throughout the kingdom 
will be overhauled and brought into line, so that the present 
existing confusion may be avoided. The simplest plan in my 
mind would be to protect all birds ; but allow the various 
authorities to withdraw the protection from certain species 
(with the sanction of the Home Office) which have become a 
nuisance, as we know many species are likely to be if they 
become too numerous. 



A paper on "The Boultham Well at Lincoln,' by Win. McKay, with 
details of the strata passed through, to a depth of 1561 feet, appears in 
part 1. of vol. 30 of the 'Transactions of the Manchester Geological and 
Mining Society.' 

We learn from 'The Museum News' that ' The success of Dr. Hyatt's 
lecture on " Jumbo's Teeth and other Teeth" needs no further proof than 
the fact that 102 children in the lecture room [which scats only bo persons 
comfortably), listened with close attention and interest, for forty minutes.' 

Naturalist, 



NOTES ON THE COMMON SWIFT IN THE 
BRADFORD DISTRICT. 



HARRY B. BOOTH, M.B.O.U. 



I have had many opportunities of watching the habits and 
peculiarities of this rushing, dashing bird, that makes light of 
distance and space, and disdains to set foot on earth. I have 
been rather well situated, having been able to easily watch one 
particular colony which annually visits Heaton Grove, at 
Frizinghall, a suburb of Bradford. During my residence of 
nearly thirteen years at Frizinghall, they were all the summer 
constantly before my eyes (even from my bedroom window), and 
oftimes when I could not see them they were heard, and I loved 
to hear their harsh screaming notes in concert. Since leaving 
Frizinghall six years ago, I have, on the top of the tramcar, 
usually passed the same colony several times each day. 

Up to last season (1906), the colony has generally consisted of 
thirty to forty pairs, but last summer there would not be more 
than twenty pairs present. This decrease is rather singular, 
because Swifts are steadily increasing in this district. Their 
arrival and departure at this breeding place during the last 
nineteen years has been extremely regular ; with the single 
exception of the cold wet spring and summer of 1903, they have 
always arrived at the breeding quarters on the 10th, 11th, or 
12th ot May, and as a colony they have departed on the 18th, 
19th, or 20th of August. Taking the arrivals and departures of 
this colony which I have chronicled, I find that they have spent 
exactly an average of 101 days each year around this nesting 
site. In 1903 they did not put in an appearance until May 18th, 
and they stayed until September 1st, thus not only coming 
a week later, but increasing their stay with us to 107 days. 
Possibly this extra week's delay at their nesting quarters was 
occasioned by the difficulty of obtaining sufficient food in order 
to bring the nestlings forward. 

The above dates refer to the arrivals at and departures from 
this nesting place. A single bird, or a pair, will usually arrive 
in the surrounding district between the 1st and the 7th of May, 
and on two occasions they have been noted on the 30th of April. 
After the arrival of the first harbingers they gradually increase 
almost daily. If the weather should be fine and clear then, 
many of the new arrivals spend a good deal of time over the 
surrounding hills and moorlands, but if very cold, wet, or 

1907 March "i. 



1 1 2 Notes on the Common Swift in the Bradford district. 

' muggy,' or with a strong- north-east wind blowing, they repair 
to the valley near to the river. During the early part of their 
arrival I have never seen any near to the nesting colony at 
Frizinghall, if, indeed, they are the actual birds which frequent 
it later. It may be, these early Swifts pass on to other districts 
to breed. Anyhow, about the nth of May, the birds (about 
half the number that will eventually occupy it) will be seen 
circling round and flying about the nesting site. After their 
departure about the 19th of August, it is usual for several birds 
to return to the vicinity of their breeding quarters a few days 
after, and sometimes they will remain for several days, but they 
rarely stay later than the 26th or 27th of August. By their 
appearance I usually take these latter to be birds of the year. 

It is rather a curious fact that immediately the Swifts have 
finally left their feeding area at Frizinghall, several House 
Martins take their place. These latter do not breed, so far as I 
know, within about a mile away, and I have never seen them 
there when the Swifts were about. I mention that as a curious 
fact in connection with this colony, and not because I wish to 
impute any antagonism between the Swifts and House Martins, 
which are usually good friends, and will be seen flying and 
feeding together in many places. For the last two or three 
weeks before their departure, if the weather be fine, many of 
the Swifts again visit the higher moorlands, as the first-comers 
did in the spring. 

Last season I was greatly surprised to see a Swift hawking 
for food by the river, and evidently quite at home, on Oct. 7th. 
The weather was mild, with plenty of insect food about, and I 
watched it for half-an-hour in the morning, but it had apparently 
disappeared in the afternoon. This is more than a month later 
than I had previously seen the species in this district. Last 
year the remaining moiety of the Frizinghall colony departed on 
August 19th, but a few birds returned on the 24th and 25th, 
from which dates I had not seen any until the one on Oct. 7th. 
Almost every year very late occurrences of the Swift are reported 
from some part of the country — generally near to the coast — and 
they are most often erroneously chronicled as ' Late Stay of the 
Swift.' The observer usually states that none have been seen 
for some time previously, and no doubt this habit of the Swift 
in occasionally returning misled Gilbert White into believing 
that they were temporally coaxed out of their hibernating quarters 
by the mild weather. 

My observations seem to show that with this species the date 

Naturalist. 



Notes on the Common Simft in the Bradford district. 1 1 3 

of their departure is fixed more by the forwardness of the young 
brood, and by their ability to undertake the long journey, than 
by the state of the weather, or of their food supply at the time 
of leaving. I find that in the finest summers, and consequently 
when there is the largest supply of winged insect food, this 
colony usually breaks up a day or two earlier than in the colder 
and wetter seasons, and they will leave sometimes when there 
is apparently an unlimited supply of food about. Nesting 
appears to be their sole object here, and as soon as this is com- 
pleted their restless and active spirits fall an easy prey to the 
migration ' fever. ' 

Several writers have stated that during fine, warm, clear, 
and still nights in June, the male Swifts remain the whole night 
on the wing, while the females are sitting. Certain it is that 
often on such evenings and just before dark, several birds will 
gradually soar and circle higher and higher until they are no 
longer visible. Several years ago I spent some time in watching 
this curious vesper flight with a good field-glass, but each time 
I lost the birds in the darkness before any apparent descent had 
been commenced. However, about a quarter of an hour later, 
by standing beneath the eaves where a part of the colony nested, 
I frequently, quite distinctly, heard the fluttering in the darkness 
of one or more birds against the wall up above me, which con- 
vinced me that it was the return of the birds that I had been 
watching, to their nesting holes for the night. 

Gilbert White states definitely that he has seen Swifts pairing 
in the air. This statement has been greatly ignored by most later 
writers, and some have even doubted it. I have never witnessed 
this myself, but Mr. Fred Jowett, a careful observer, reports the 
following occurrence : At Saltaire, on May 26th last year, at 
8-20 a.m., he was noticing a pair of Swifts which were flying 
and sailing at a good elevation. Suddenly they appeared to- 
gether as if one bird, slowly descending in a vertical line during 
this time, and shortly after they separated and flew about as 
when first noticed. Mr. Jowett afterwards heard from a gentle- 
man who lives near that he had witnessed exactly the same 
action two mornings before, at the same place, and at about the 
same hour. It may be that this habit is better known than 
I suspect, but that it is not often recorded. 

At this season of the year it is interesting to note with what 
eagerness Swifts will pick up, and take away, any small feather, 
straw, or light substance that is carried into the air by the wind. 

It is easy to discover where they are nesting. During the 

1907 March i. 



i 14 T/ic Protection of the Birds at Spurn, etc. 

screaming', tearing*, rushing flights of the males in large circles 
on fine mornings and evening's, it will be noticed that each bird 
will pass quite close to the entrance of the hole wherein its mate 
is sitting, sometimes even going out of its way to do so. 



THE PROTECTION OF THE BIRDS AT SPURN, ETC. 
An Appeal. 

At a meeting oi the Wild Birds and Eggs Protection Committee, 
held at York on Saturday, Feb. 16th, the president, Mr. YV. H. 
St. Quintin, J.P., M.B.O.U., etc., in the Chair, it was resolved to 
appeal to the naturalists o\ Yorkshire for subscriptions towards 
a fund, to be employed in effectually protecting the birds ot 
Spurn Point, etc., by keeping watchers there during the nesting- 
season. 

Spurn Point is the only nesting place in Yorkshire of the 
Lesser Tern, and one of the only two places where the Ring- 
Dotterel nests. The Oyster Catcher and Sheld Duck are also 
to be found nesting there, and it is feared that unless adequate 
protection is afforded, these birds may soon be wiped out as 
nesting species. 

If funds will allow, the committee would also like to place 
a watcher at Hornsea Mere, where many interesting species 
nest, and also give rewards for the protection of isolated 
nesting birds, to ensure their safety, as was done with the 
Bempton Peregrines last year. 

The following sums have already been promised — 

£ s. J. 

W. H. St. Quintin 3 

T. H. Nelson 1 

Oxley Grabham ... ... 1 

C. E. Elmhurst ... ... 1 

H. B. Booth 1 

R. Fortune ... ... ... 1 

T. Sheppard ... ... ... 1 1 o 

Left from last year ... ... 1 o o 

Further subscriptions, which will be duly announced in 
this journal, are urgently needed, and may be sent to Mr. T. 
Sheppard, the Secretary of the Union, or to Mr. T. H. Nelson, 
Redcar, or Mr. R. Fortune, Harrogate, Secretary of the com- 
mittee. 

Naturalist, 








































THE NATURALIST, 1907 



Plate XVII. 




"i. Pipistrelle Bat about to take flight. 
2. Long=eared Bat asleep on Bracken. (Sue p. 115. 



Reviews and Book Notices. 1 1 5 

It will be necessary to start the watchers about the middle 
of April, therefore the committee trust to have a speedy and 
generous answer to their appeal. Naturalists' Clubs in the 
County are specially asked to assist. 

In view of the difficulties the police have to contend with in 
administering" the Wild Birds' Protection Acts, from the fact 
that very few of them are able to recognise either the birds 
themselves or their eggs, the committee propose to appoint 
referees in various districts in the county, whose duties will be 
to assist the authorities by identifying any birds or eggs which 
may be submitted to them. 

- — -♦♦ 

Every Boy's Book of British Natural History. By W. Percival 
Westell. London : The Religious Tract Society, 1906. 279 pages, numer- 
ous plates. Price 3/6. 

Mr. Westell knows how to produce a book. A short time ago we noticed 
his 'Country Rambles,' which had an introduction by Mr F. G. Aflalo. 
Then followed ' British Bird Life,' with an introduction by the Rt. Hon. Sir 
Herbert Maxwell, Bart., M.P. The present volume has an introduction by 
Lord Avebury. We are wondering who will write the introduction to 
Mr. Westell's next ! On the cover of ' Every Boy's Book of British Natural 
History ' we find the name of Lord Avebury in larger type than that of the 
author, and we hasten to peruse his Lordship's contribution. We find nearly 
two pages from his Lordship's pen! and nearly two pages of very general 
information too. We look for an opinion of the book — one paragraph after 
another — and at last, in the last line but one, we find it : — ' The photographs 
are charming' ! and on the very next page Mr. Westell informs us that 
1 Mr. Sedgivick is responsible for the whole of the photographs, and also 
for chapters 2 and 3 dealing with the camera and the uses to which it can 
be put.' The book is largely devoted to the birds ; and, whilst we have 
not checked every entry, the items in the present work are apparently 
entirely copied — perhaps just a little 'boiled down' — from 'British Bird 
Life.' The chapter on Mammals and Fish are admittedly largely drawn 
from Aflalo's ' Natural History of the British Isles'; Messrs. Arnold have 
given great assistance by their Life Histories of Fish, Insects, and other 
forms of British Wild Life ; Mr. Lucas' books on Butterflies and Moths have 
provided information on these subjects, and Mr. A. E. Burgess has given 
valuable assistance in connection with the botanical section. In this way, 
and with the help of the photographs and chapters by the Rev. S. N. 
Sedgwick, and the Introduction by Lord Avebury, has been produced 
WestelTs 'Every Boy's Book of British Natural History.' It is, never- 
theless, very attractive in appearance, most of the illustrations are really 
very fine (two of which we are kindly permitted to reproduce, see Plate XVII.), 
and there is no doubt it will appeal largely to the young naturalists for 
whom it has been prepared. There is an index occupying nearly three 
pages, and the price is very reasonable. 

Messrs. Watts & Co. are to be congratulated on being able to produce 
Haeckel's ' Evolution of Man,' in two volumes at the phenomenally low price 
of 6d. each. The volumes form Nos. 26 and 27 of the Rationalist Press 
Association's cheap reprints. The first, dealing with Human Embryology, 
or Ontogeny, contains pages 1-178, and 209 illustrations; the second is 
devoted to Human stem-history, or phylogeny, and contains pages 179-364, 
and 199 illustrations. We are not surprised to find on the cover the words 
' Second impression, completing 50,000 copies.' At the price, no one ought 
to be without ' Haeckel's greatest work.' 

1907 March i. 



n6 



ECOLOGY OF WOODLAND PLANTS NEAR 
HUDDER5FIELD. 



"The Ecology of Woodland Plants in the Neighbourhood of 
Huddersfield," which recently appeared in the Journal of the 
Linnean Society* has won for its author the degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy of the University of Zurich. This is a guarantee 
of the quality of the work, but it must not be thought that the 
paper is of ' Swiss manufacture.' Even a casual perusal will 
reveal much careful investigation which could only be done on 
the spot, and the facts which form the basis of this paper were 
already recorded before Dr. Woodhead went to Zurich early in 
1905. There, we have good reason for saying it, his work 






received the hearty approval of Professor C. Schroter, one of 
the leaders in Plant Ecology, and one can see the impress of 
this great master on the finished publication. 

Readers of 'The Naturalist' have already had a sample 
of the kind of investigations in ' Notes on the Bluebell ' 
(' Naturalist,' 1904, February and March). The present paper 
opens almost where the ' Bluebell ' paper left off, the first study 
being Birks Wood, the one which was figured in 1904. Reduced 
figures are given of maps originally prepared on the Ordnance 
Survey ' 25 inches to one mile ' sheets. One of the maps is a 
soil-map of the wood ; another shows the distribution of oak, 
beech, Scots elm, sycamore, and conifers in the same wood. 
The other three maps show common plants of the under- 
growth. A comparison of these excellent maps shows at a 
glance that the Bracken (Pteris) occurs mainly under the trees 



Vol. XXXVII., 1906, pp. 333-406. 



Naturalist, 



Ecology of Woodland Plants near Huddersfield. 117 

with open canopy (oak and birch), and is almost absent under 
shade-trees (beech, elm, and sycamore). The Bluebell (Scilla), 
as already described in 'The Naturalist,' is more influenced by 
soil, being- most abundant where there is a few inches of humus 
over loam, and almost absent on light sandy soil and clay. 
Two Grasses {Holcas mollis and Deschampsia or Aira Jlexuosa) 
are also abundant, Holcus mainly on the moist humus soils, 
and Aira on the lighter sandy parts. The author has already 
shown the common occurrence of Scilla, Pieris, and Holcus as 
the chief constituents of the undergrowth of the Yorkshire 
valley wood, and that they occupy three distinct zones in the 
soil (see fig. 1 1 in ' Bluebell,' ' Naturalist,' March, 1904). These 
three plants are thus non-competitive in the soil, and also to 
some extent non-competitive in their aerial parts, since Scilla is 
almost finished before Pteris comes. To describe this kind of plant 
association Dr. Woodhead suggests the term ' complementary 
association.' Birks Wood is taken as an example of a typical 
mixed deciduous wood of the Coal Measure area of this part of 
Yorkshire. The second study is a typical mixed deciduous wood 
ot the plateau and slopes of the Millstone-Grit area. The woods 
actually investigated were those near Armitage Bridge, which 
lie on the slopes of the Netherton Plateau The two maps 
showing the dominant trees and the principal plants of the 
undergrowth respectively are somewhat disappointing. The 
difficulty of making charts of woods on steep slopes is here 
exemplified, and it is one which occurs in all steep-sided valleys. 
It seems to us that here the cartographer will be forced to 
abandon the horizontal representation of these woods on the 
Ordnance Maps, and in the case of studies of particular woods, 
must resort to some convention by which the wood will be 
represented as flat. The ecological results obtained in the 
Millstone Grit woods again show the influence of light and soil. 
The higher slopes have a shallow, sandy soil covered with thin 
peaty humus ; the lower slopes have a deeper and moister soil, 
resulting from weathered shales. The Bracken favours the 
ground under open canopy and shuns the shade : on the lower 
slopes the conditions resemble a Coal Measure wood, and the 
undergrowth is somewhat similar ; on the dry, sandy upper 
slopes the Bracken is less favoured and occurs in patches, while 
its rhizomes, being unable to penetrate deeply, are found inter- 
laced with and competing with those of the more abundant 
Ling and Bilberry. The Bracken thus occurs as one of the 
dominant plants of two plant associations, the distinction of 

1907 March i. 



n8 Ecology of Woodland Plants near Hnddersfield. 



which is emphasised in this paper, 
distinctive features : — 



We summarise here the 



Name of Association... 
Character of plants ... 

Soil 

Distribution in time and 
space 

Characteristic species- 



Meso-pteridetum 
Mesophytic (little ad- 
apted to drought) 
Deep, moist, with humus 



Complementary 
Scilla festal is 
Holcus mollis 
Lamium Galeobdolon 



Xero-pteridetum 

Xerophytic (adapted to 
drought) 

Shallow ; liable to dry- 
ness ; peaty humus. 

Competitive. 
Call una Erica 
Vaccinium Myrtillus. 
Deschampsia flexnosa. 



This exact definition of these two plant associations is a 
distinct step in the right direction. 

The next study is a comparison, by means of two maps, of 
the dominant woodland trees with the plants of the under- 
growth. The two maps are a disgrace to the Journal of the 
Linnean Society. They include sixty-six square miles to the 
south of Huddersfield, and we know that the author prepared 
them with great care on large-scale maps. In the publication 
they have been reduced to a single-page demy octavo, and are 
also badly printed. The symbols are almost illegible, and 
the features intended to be shown can only be made out 
with great difficulty. The wood map indicates where trees 
have been found buried in the peat, and one sees how much 
higher the old woodland area has been. The Huddersfield 
district is shown from these maps to consist of three zones : 
(i) Moss-moor on peat, with Cotton Grass dominant and Bil- 
berry, etc., on the more elevated and better-drained ridges ; 
(2) Millstone-Grit Plateau, an ericaceous zone, with Ling, Bil- 
berry, etc., on shallow peat; (3) Lower Coal Measure area, 
with deeper and moister soils, and a meso-pteridetum as the 
undergrowth of the woods. The names used are not quite 
aptly chosen. Geologically, the Millstone-Grit Plateau includes 
the Moss Moor, and in a vegetation study one would rather see 
terms used which indicate the nature of the vegetation. 

The influence of geological formations is shown by two 
maps (p. 364), from which it is evident that the xerophytes 
are present on the drier soils of the Millstone Grit, while the 
mesophytes frequent the moister soils of the Coal Measures. 

The second part .deals with the anatomical structure of 
-woodland plants which grow sometimes under the shade of 
trees, sometimes on dry or moist soils in the open. The nature 
.of the changes can, be seen from the figures which the Linnean 



Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 119 

Society has permitted us to reproduce. Other plants examined and 
figured are Bluebell (Scilla), Hair Grass [Deschampsia flexuosa), 
Yorkshire Fog" {Holcus mollis), Hogweed (Herac/eum), Dog's 
Mercury (Mercurialis perennis), and Yellow Dead Nettle 
(Lamium Galeobdolon). These figures indicate that while most 
species of plants occur in definite plant associations, and are 
limited to certain conditions of aerial and soil conditions, 
they have considerable powers of adaptation to change of en- 
vironment. This fact cannot be lost sight of in ecological 
botany, and the details shown by Dr. Woodhead emphasise 
the importance of careful examination. 

The bibliography appended to this paper is a long one, and 
is well worth careful perusal, if only to gather some idea of the 
complex nature of these ecological studies. 

The paper as a whole is an excellent example of the results 
which may be expected from careful ecological survey, although 
the author himself states that much still remains to be investi- 
gated regarding the relation of plants to their environment. 
Under the guidance of the painstaking and careful author of 
this paper, these more exact studies are in progress, and the 
results will be looked for with keen interest. — W. G. S. 



The Science Year Book: Diary, Directory, and Scientific Summary. 
King, Sell, and Olding. Price 5/- net. 

This indespensable volume increases in usefulness each year. No 
working- scientific man can afford to be without it. The present issue 
has many improvements. To astronomers particularly is it invaluable, 
and contains much information. There is a review of ' Science in 
1906,' in which the more important discoveries, etc., are enumerated; a 
useful but apalling glossary of scientific terms that have been recently 
introduced ; a directory of Periodicals, Public Institutions, Societies, 
Universities, etc. ; a Biographical Directory, and a daily diary. As a 
frontispiece is a portrait of Lord Rayleigh. An abridged edition, without 
the diary, but containing all the articles, is on sale at 3/-. 

The Romance of Animal Arts and Crafts. By H. Coupin and 
John Lea. London : Seeley & Co., Ltd., 1907. 356 pages and 27 plates. 
Price =;/- 

This is a companion to ' The Romance of Plant Life,' noticed in these 
columns for December last. It is a substantial book, and has a gaily coloured 
cover. This volume, too, is for the young naturalist, and contains much 
interesting information. The fact that it is a ' Romance ' prevents criticism 
so far as scientific accuracy is concerned. The sub-title perhaps explains 
its scope ' being an interesting [ ! ] account of the spinning, weaving, 
sewing, manufacture of paper and pottery, aeronautics, raft-building, road-: 
making, and various other industries of wild life. ' The animals are classified 
according to whether the}' are 'excavators and miners,' ' makers of mounds,' 
'masons,' 'carpenters,' ' trappers,' 'harvesters,' etc., etc. ; and the authors 
have been able to gather together quite a wonderful series of stories which 
should not fail to instruct the individual who is so handsomely catered for 
now-a-days — ' the young naturalist.' The book is cheap, and is indexed. 

1907 March i. 



120 

OLD HALIFAX.* 

In this handsome volume the Hon. Curator of the Bankfield 
Museum, Halifax, has published an admirable piece of work. 
He has permanently placed on record much information relating 
to old Halifax, and particularly to the part played by the 
Halifax coiners. This information could only have been 
obtained by years of patient research, and is of such a nature 
that, had Mr. Roth not secured it whilst opportunity offered, 
it would have been exceedingiy difficult, if not impossible, for 
a future worker to have gathered the facts together. There 
is much in the book which we must pass by, as it hardly 
comes within the scope of this journal. There are illustrations 
and descriptions of what some Hull — and Halifax town councillors 
might call 'rubbish,' but which we are delighted to see Mr. 
Roth has secured for the Bankfield Museum. Many of the 





Fig. i.— Object found in Shibden Park. 

objects he figures and describes were likewise once familiar 
objects in other districts, and are preserved in various museums; 
a few, however, we make acquaintance with for the first 
time. All interested in bygone times, and all collectors of 
relics of the past, should see the numerous illustrations in the 
book under notice. At least one of the 17th century tobacco 
pipes figured on p. 281 appears to have been made in Hull.f 
and some years ago a large hoard of Portuguese and other 
counterfeit silver coin was found in Hull whilst excavating 
for one of the docks. These are very similar to and of about 
the same date as the Portuguese counterfeit coin made in 
Halifax, so fully described by Mr. Roth. From these and 



* 'The Yorkshire Coiners, 1767-1783, and notes on Old and Prehistoric 
Halifax.' By H. Ling Roth. F. King- & Sons, Halifax, 1906. Pages 
xxvii. +322, with numerous illustrations. Price 21/- net. 

t See illustrations in 'Early Hull Tobacco Pipes and their Makers.' 
(Hull Museum Publication No. 6). 

Naturalist, 



Old Halifax. I2t 

many other pieces of information in the book, there would 
appear in the past to have been more connection between Hull 
and Halifax even than might be assumed from the well-known 
beggar's litany. 

It is the third part of the volume, dealing with ' Prehistoric 
Halifax,' that will appeal more to the readers of this journal. 
In this the author justifiably deplores the careless way in which 
the tumuli in the district have, in early times, been ruthlessly 
rifled, resulting in more harm than good being done, particularly 
as in most cases the objects obtained have been for ever lost 
or destroyed. More recently, however, the Blackheath Barrow, 
near Todmorden, has been carefully opened, the valuable results 
of which are described in detail by Dr. J. L. Russell in the 
final chapter. The scientific results achieved by these more 




Fig. 2.— Bronze axe found at Mixenden. 

systematic excavations contrast with the few facts left to us as 
the result of the ' prospecting ' of earlier workers. Mr. Roth 
describes in detail the various vases ; flint, polished stone and 
bronze implements, etc., of British date which have been found 
in the Halifax neighbourhood. How much more interesting 
and valuable his story would have been if the Bankfield Museum 
had been in existence, say, during the last hundred years, and all 
the local objects found had been placed therein ! Of a few of the 
implements figured, however, we are by no means sure of the 
authenticity, an opinion apparently shared by the author himself. 
The objects figured herewith (fig. i), 'found in the outcrop of 
Hard Bed Clay in Shibden Park,' //'an implement, is unique. In 
the other illustration which we are kindly permitted to repro- 
duce, is a bronze axe head of the Palstave type, found at Mixen- 

rgo7 March i. 



122 Ancient Barton. 

den. There are over 200 figures in the book, which greatly 
add to its value, the reproductions of Mr. Oddy's drawings 
being of exceptional worth. It may seem a little ungrateful 
to find fault with such a useful work ; but how much more 
valuable it would have been had there been a good index. The 
' index of names ' which has been given is only likely to prove 
of use very locally. The index is missed all the more when 
the somewhat peculiar arrangement of the articles in the book 
is taken into consideration. 



ANCIENT BARTON. 

It is half a century since Mr. H. W. Ball published his ' History 
of Barton-on-H umber,' a work which is now out of print. 
Since then much more valuable information has come to light 
as the result of the continued researches of various workers. 
Prominent amongst them is Mr. Robert Brown, junr., whose 
recent work is before us.* This is a solid and scholarly con- 
tribution to the literature dealing with the early history of 
North Lincolnshire. It is divided into three sections, viz., 
4 Romano-British Times,' ' Ang-lo-Saxon Times,' and 'Norman 
Times.' Further sections are promised, dealing with later 
periods. The picturesque old town of Barton, with its 
glorious Saxon Church of St. Peter, its haven, and its old-world 
associations, lends itself peculiarly to a detailed description 
such as is sustained in Mr. Brown's volume. The British 
remains found and occurring in the neighbourhood unquestion- 
ably point to the occupation of the area in pre-Roman times. 
Of relics of the Roman rule there are scores — in fact, in 
evidences of all the more important historical periods the 
district abounds. These have been carefully gathered together 
by Mr. Brown, and we trust soon to see the completion of his 
work. On the vexed question of the site of the Battle of 
Brunanburh the author has an interesting chapter. For many 
years this theme has been a favourite one with antiquaries 
living in South-East Yorkshire and North Lincolnshire, and it 
is perhaps not remarkable that in each case the author of a 
paper on the subject has thought the site of this famous fight 
to have been in the district in which he lived. Mr. Brown 
writes, ' I think we shall have reason to conclude that the great 

* 'Notes on the Earlier History of Barton-on-Humber.' By Robert 
Brown, junr., F.S.A. Vol. I., to the end of the Norman Period, A.D. 1154. 
London : Elliot Stock. 733 pages and plates. 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 




Reviews and Book Notices. 



123 



fight was partly in the parishes of Wooton, Barton, and 
Barrow, but chiefly at Burnham, in the parish of Thornton 
Curtis.' We must at once admit, however, that Mr. Brown 
has brought forward much more evidence in favour of the 
opinion he holds than has been usually the case. The volume 
has several illustrations, not the least interesting being the 
restoration of the Church of St. Peter as it appeared in the 
time of Edward the Confessor. We presume and hope an 
index to the whole work will appear with the final part 
published. 



An Outline of the Natural History of our Shores. By Joseph 

Si ne I. London : Swan Sonnenschein & Co., Ltd., 1906. 347 passes. 

This is the best book on this subject that we have seen for some time, 
having regard to the reasonableness of the cost. Mr. Sinel's position at the 



<*.'>'?>*"'■•';' ' >' ft- .' ' 


r .-*£' f. 




"'' S".\l ' 


■'■'.■ 
■ 





Plaice on Shell gravel, masking- its outline, and modifying its colouration. 

Zoological station, Jersey, has given him exceptional opportunities of col- 
lecting and observing the fauna of the shore, and of these he has taken full 
advantage. In a thoroughly scientific and up-to-date manner, and in plain 
language, the author describes almost all the forms of life likely to be met 
with by an ordinary worker on the coast, and the numerous illustrations, of 
which over 120 are from photographs, enable even a beginner to identify his 
specimens with ease. In addition to a concise review of the various divisions 
of the animal kingdom, (here are chapters on collecting and preserving 
marine specimens, methods of microscopic mounting, etc., and on the 
Marine Aquarium. Two of the illustrations we are kindly permitted to 
reproduce (see plate XVI.). 

1907 March 1. 



124 

3n fIDemoriam. 



SIR MICHAEL FOSTER, 

K.C.B., F.R.S., D.C.L., D.Sc, LL.D., etc. 

1836-1907. 



(plate XIX.) 

It is with every sincere regret that we have to place on record 
the death of Sir Michael Foster, which took place as we were 
going to press with our last issue. In Sir Michael, Britain loses 
one of her leaders in scientific thought. He occupied a position 
in the nation's scientific welfare to which it will be exceedingly 
difficult to find a successor. As a physiologist he was the best 
known, but he was one of those who had so many interests, and 
took a leading part in such a variety of different channels, that 
he will be missed by very many indeed. Such was the 
esteem in which he was held by his fellow naturalists, that in 
1899 he occupied the Presidential chair of the British Association. 
Another position of importance was that of the Secretary of the 
Royal Society, which he occupied for twenty-two years. 

In both London and Cambridge, Sir Michael accomplished 
much as a teacher of Physiology, and in this way his influence 
has been far greater than can possibly be estimated. 

In 1898 he was president of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, and many of our readers will remember the cheering 
Address he delivered at the Union's Annual Meeting at Scar- 
borough, which was printed in this journal for July, 1899. He 
then took for his subject ' Integration in Science,' and after 
describing in detail the various ways in which science was 
specialised, so that even the Fellows of the Royal Society were 
' no longer able to understand one another's speech,' he urged 
the Union to see that the old type of naturalist did not die out. 
'It is for you,' he said, 'to gather and preserve the bits of 
knowledge which help to bind together diverging inquiries 
carried on in other places; it is for you to keep free from the 
rust of disuse the simpler way of asking questions from Nature 
without the complicated machinery which others use ; the simpler 
way, which often brings answers of no little moment in their 
right places ; the simpler way, which others may be apt to 
overlook.' 

His contributions to literature are mostly relating to his 
favourite subject — physiology. He also helped in the editing of 
the well-known 'Scientific Memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley.' 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate XIX. 




yk. 




In Memoriam — Dr. IV. M. Burman. 125 

In his later years, he served his country as a Member of 
Parliament, and on such occasions as he spoke his utterances 
had always the greatest respect of the House. When his 
multifarious duties permitted him to spend a little time at his 
home in Great Shelford, Cambridgeshire, he devoted his attention 
to his fascinating hobby — that of gardening — and even here he 
was able to make most useful contributions to scientific botany. 

Quite apart from his scientific attainments, however, will his 
death be deplored by a large circle of friends. To know him 
was to love him, and few had the greater respect of his fellow 
men than had the subject of these notes. — T.S. 



Dr. W. M. BURMAN of Wath-on-Dearne. 



On the last day of the old year, there passed away at Grange 
over-Sands, a veteran naturalist of the Gilbert White school. 
Dr. W. M. Burman was born at Wisbech, on the 23rd June, 
1825. His father, two years later, removed to Wath, and 
there successfully built up an extensive practice in which, in 
later years, the deceased joined him, and continued after his 
death. It is interesting to note that this practice is now in the 
hands of the third generation ; the eldest and only surviving son 
of the subject of this notice, after assisting his father for some 
years, having succeeded to it on the Doctor's retirement to 
Grange some ten years ago. 

Naturalists, like poets, are said to be born, not made ; be 
that as it may, we are sure the doctor was a born naturalist. 
There is little doubt that when very young he came under 
the influence of the clergyman, who, veiling his identity under 
the initial ' W,' contributed a list of the indigenous butterflies 
and moths of the district to the 'Wath Village Magazine,' in 
1832. Later still, he enjoyed the friendship of another resident 
entomologist, the Rev. C. H. Middleton. In these congenial 
surroundings, notwithstanding the uncertain calls of a practice 
as extensive in area as in clientele, he gained a knowledge of the 
local fauna of an almost all-embracing character. He could 
remember when the glow-worm was a common insect in the 
lanes of 'The Queen of Villages,' where also the marbled 
white butterfly was not uncommonly met with. Botany, 
Entomology, and Astronomy were the chief branches of science 
in which he was at home, and he was ever ready to assist 
young beginners with advice; no question, however elementary, 
but would be answered in the most kindly manner, without a 

3907 March i. 



126 



In Memoriam — Dr. IV. M. Burman. 



trace of impatience. As an entomologist he had studied most 
of the orders in a general way, while giving- preference to the 
Lepidoptera. For this order he contributed many local records 
to Mr. W. E. Brady's ' List of the Macro-Lepidoptera of 
Barnsley,' which was published in the 'Transactions of the 




Dr. W. M. Burman. 

Barnsley Naturalists' Society,' 1883-1885. He devoted some 
considerable time to sericulture, and had reared most of the 
silk-producing Bombyces. For the last twenty years he had 
paid a good deal of attention to the Coleoptera, and at various 
times had spent a holiday at many of the famous collecting 
grounds, such as the New Forest (where he was successful in 
taking Anthaxia nitidula), Braunton Burrows, etc., etc. 

Of the two orders mentioned, he had made fairly good 
collections, while Hymenoptera, Diptera, Arachnida, and 

Naturalist, 



In Memoriam — Wilson Hemingway. 127 

Acaridae contributed to its variety. The writer has pleasant 
memories of many happy hours spent with his old friend in the 
field and in his library surrounded by the many interesting- 
natural objects with which it abounded. Though old when 
years are counted, his heart was ever young, his enthusiasm 
for nature study never waned. Although seventy-one when he 
retired from practice, and removed from Wath to Grange, 
he soon discovered kindred spirits there, with the result that 
the Grange Natural History Society was founded. Of this 
society he was the Secretary and prime mover. His delight 
on discovering Anchomenus marginatns in abundance at Grange 
was intense, his letters describing his captures abounding with 
careful details of first-hand observations. On December 3rd 
he lectured before the Grange Society on ' Incidents in an event- 
ful life,' and a few hours later took a chill, which developed into 
pneumonia, and terminated fatally on the evening of the 31st. 
Thus at the ripe old age of eighty-one, came to an end a life 
of usefulness and many-sidedness. Here we are mainly con- 
cerned with the natural history side of his career, but it would 
be misleading to infer that this was the extent of his usefulness. 
He was all that we have said and more, indeed it is difficult 
to write with becoming restraint of the gap which the loss of 
our old friend has made in the lives of those who were privileged 
to enjoy his intimate friendship. Ever ready to take an intelli- 
gent and active part in any public or private work which com- 
mended itself to him, his place will be difficult to fill. 

He was interred in the cemetery at Wath on January 4th. 

E. G. B. 



WILSON HEMINGWAY 



It is with deep regret we have to announce the death of Mr. 
Wilson Hemingway of Devvsbury. Mr. Hemingway had been 
a member of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union since 1893, and 
for long before that date as an Associate through his member- 
ship of the now defunct Dewsbury Naturalists' Society. Besides 
taking a great interest in the work of the Union at its meetings 
and excursions, which he often attended, he occupied a foremost 
place in connection with other Literary and Educational Institu- 
tions. He was one of the first members of the Bronte Society 
as well as the Dewsbury Naturalists' Society, and a good sup- 
porter of the present Technical School and of its forerunner the 
old Mechanics' Institution. 

1907 March i. 



128 Northern News. 

My last conversation with him was about three months ago, 
when he detailed to me some of his experiences at the Flam- 
borough excursion and the Farnley Tyas Fungus Foray of the 
past year. Mr. Hemingway was a genial companion in the 
field, as the writer can testify on many an occasion. 

In the Flamborough group ('The Naturalist,' 1906, p. 248), 
his life-like portrait * occupies a prominent place to the left of 
the picture. — P. F. L. 



NORTHERN NEWS. 



' Le Bambou, son etude, Sa Culture, son Emploi ' is the title of a periodical 
published at Mons, Belgium, which is devoted exclusively to the culture and 
uses of Bamboo. The first volume has just been completed. 

Mr. A. G. Tansley, of the University College, London, has been appointed 
Lecturer in Botany at Cambridge in succession to Mr. A. C. Seward, who 
has succeeded the late Prof. Marshall Ward in the Chair of Botany. 

A White Blackbird and a Pied Sparrow are reported as living in the 
grounds of the Hancock Natural History Museum. When last we heard of 
them they were on the right side of the walls of the Museum. 

At a recent meeting of the Doncaster Scientific Society the following 
gentlemen were elected honorary members of the Society : — Messrs. E. G. 
Bayford, C. Crossland, P. F. Kendall, G. T. Porritt, T. Sheppard, and 
J. W. Taylor. 

Still further evidence of the spread of nature knowledge. The posters 
recently issued by the ' authorities ' in reference to the new regulations 
relating to dogs, officially informs us that ' dogs shall be animals for the 
purposes of the following sections,' etc. 

In the February Geological Magazine, Prof. E. J. Garwood has some 
' Notes on the Faunal Succession in the Carboniferous Limestone of West- 
moreland and neighbouring portions of Lancashire and Yorkshire.' The 
same magazine has an excellent portrait (with memoir) of Mr. W. Whitaker, 
B.A., F.R.S., etc. 

In an article on 'Marble and Marble Working' in ' The Quarry' for 
February, we learn that ' Crinoidal . . . applies to marbles made up of 
fossilised shell fragments. In some cases the shell formation is retained 
entire, in others it has been replaced by calcite crystals.' Before making 
any criticisms, geologists should read the article immediately following on 
' The value of detonating caps in blasting!" A little further in the same 
journal a blasting accident is recorded at Penrhivvceiber, we hope an 
attempt to pronounce the name had nothing to do with it. 

Another writer on crinoids, in ' The Country Side,' informs us that a 
pentacrinus consists of a cup-shaped body with a crown or arms 'attached 
by a stalk belonging to the Pentacrinida;.' The stalk consists of 'ring- 
like or pentagonal joints,' and 'The whole group is Palceozoic, . . . these 
particular ones are Jurassic, ranging from the Trias to the present day,' 
' In vic~.i.< of this scientific statement,' the author adds ' it will be wiser to add 
nothing upon the "star-stone's" magical properties.' It will. 

* With his hat upon his knee. 

Naturalist, 



APRIL 1907. 



No. 603 

(No. 381 of currtnt teriet)- 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., 

The Museum, Hull ; 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 



J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S. F.L.S., 
Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., 
T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., 



GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
JOHN W. TAYLOR, 
WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. 



Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated) : — A new False Scorpion, The Malton Museum and 
its History, Mammal ;•. Animal, Naturalist Associations and Naturalist Magazines, 
A Deformed Belemnite, Griffithides Barkei 

A Large Trout near Harrogate (Illustrated)— R. Fortune, F.Z.S. 

Cornus Suecica on the York Moors— Harold J. Burkill, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

The Driftless Area of North = East Yorkshire and its Relation to the Geographical 
Distribution of certain Plants and Insects— Frank Elgee 

Notes on Yorkshire Lepidoptera in 1906 — W.Hnaett 

On Peculiarities in Attis Spiders— IF. W. Strickland, B.A. ... 

Note on a Liassic Concretion— F. M. Burton, F.L.S. , F.G.S. 

Two New Yorkshire Hepatics— Win, Ingham, B.A 

The Chemistry of Some Common Plants— P. Q. Keegan, LL.D. 

In Memoriam— The Rt. Hon. Lord Liverpool, F.S.A. 

Field Notes 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Northern News 

Illustrations 



129-13:} 

134 

135-136 



137-143 

144-14G 

147-148 

149-150 

151-152 

153-155 

156 

133, 152, 156-158 

143, 148, 150, 158-159 

... 136, 155, 160 

129, 132, 133, 134 



...oni&niiii;; 

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129 

NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



A NEW FALSE SCORPION. 
In the Report of the Notting-ham Naturalists' Society, which is 
reviewed elsewhere, Mr. Wallis Kew has a note on ' Chernese 
cyrnens : a recent addition to the known False-scorpions of 
Britain.' An illustration, which we are kindly allowed to 
reproduce herewith, and a very detailed description, accompany 




>V^f 



Mr. Wallis Kew's note. The specimen in question was ob- 
tained in Sherwood Forest, and of course is much magnified 
in the illustration. The specimen now added to the British list 
had previously been found in Corsica and other places abroad, 
and is of interest, as it is the largest of our false-scorpions. 



THE MALTON MUSEUM 
At the Annual Meeting of the Malton Naturalists' Society, 
recently held, it was announced that as the room in the Institute 
Buildings, in which the society's collections were housed, was 
required as a smoke and games room [!], the museum would 
have to be transferred elsewhere. It is sincerely to be hoped 
that a suitable suite of rooms will be secured for the exceedingly 
valuable specimens which the society possesses. Largely as the 
result of the labours of the late Samuel Chadwick, the Malton 
Museum contains a series of archaeological and palaaontological 
specimens of the greatest value, and most of the objects are 
of peculiar interest to Maltonians, as they have been obtained 
in, or close to, the town. British, Roman, and later relics of 

1907 April 1. 



130 Notes and Comments. 

exceptional interest are included, whilst the fossils from the 
Corallian and other local deposits are known throughout the 
country for their excellence. It is sincerely to be hoped that 
Malton will be able to provide a suitable set of rooms — worthy 
of the collection — and thus enable the town to possess a local 
museum of great educational value. 

AND ITS HISTORY. 
At this meeting - , Mr. M. B. Slater, who has done so much 
amongst the Yorkshire Mosses, gave an account of the history 
of the society. 'The commencement of the society,' said Mr. 
Slater, ' was immediately after a meeting of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, which was held at Malton in 1883. The 
late Prof. W. C. Williamson, then the President of the Union, 
was in the chair, and there was a good attendance of Malton 
people present.' Many of these were induced to take an interest 
in natural history, the local society was formed, and grew, and 
even at the present time has a balance in hand, although last 
year's subscriptions have not been collected ! 



MAMMAL v. ANIMAL. 
Mr. E. Kay Robinson, having referred to ' Birds and Animals ' 
when he should have said ' Birds and Mammals,' and having 
been corrected by a number of readers of The Country Side, 
seeks to justify his action in a recent issue of that journal. His 
substitution of the word ' animal ' for mammal was the result 
of what he hopes will be his ' final decision ' of a ' very trouble- 
some question.' ' In ordinary conversation,' Mr. Robinson adds, 
' we think of an animal as a hairy, hot-blooded creature with 
four limbs.' And in 'ordinary conversation,' too, a whale 
would be looked upon as a fish, we suppose. But this ' ordi- 
nary conversation ' is incorrect, and just as inaccurate as it 
would be in ordinary conversation to refer to, say Mr. Robinson, 
as a raving maniac ; nothing could be further from the truth. 
Why, therefore, in a professedly popular journal, endeavour to 
perpetuate an error? Mr. Robinson admits that, etymologically 
speaking, ' mammals ' is the correct word. Reference is made 
to the ' scientists ' who strive to force upon us their strict dis- 
tinction between mammal and animal, and we learn that ' there 
is no sufficient excuse for the invention of such a word as 
' mammal ' to replace the popular word animal. He has 
watched, with sympathy, the attempts of scientific writers to 
popularise the word mammal, but in his opinion they have 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 131 

completely failed. ' So I propose to drop the word mammal . . . 
and to use the word "animal" instead.' But, though Mr. 
Robinson may consider he has thus decided the future use 
of the word in scientific and popular literature, he condescends 
to ask to receive the opinions of ' naturalist friends ' on the 
' proposed innovation ; ' hence these words. But we can assure 
Mr. Robinson that his 'proposed innovation' is merely a 
childish and unpardonable error, which, until recently, was 
made by most very small boys and girls, and also by illiterate 
1 grown-ups.' But we are thankful to say that in many of our 
schools to-day, the average intelligent child would be able to 
say that a whale was not a fish, and that animals were not 
necessarily all ' four- limbed, hot-blooded, and with hair.' 
Possibly, however, we are taking too seriously the nature 
of Country Side, but at present we have certainly the impres- 
sion that it is intended to appeal to nature lovers, who, of all 
people, ought to be able to express themselves correctly. 



NATURALIST ASSOCIATIONS. 
In connection with the journal just referred to, is a ' British 
Empire Naturalist Association,' the aim of which would hardly 
seem to be to encourage an interest in nature study, so much 
as to encourage the sale of the journal. An application for 
particulars of the 'B.E.N. A.' means that one becomes a 
member of this association, willy-nilly, and a ' card of member- 
ship ' is sent, which allows the holder 'and all members of the 
same household ' to have ' all the benefits ' of the association. 
One of these is that one may write ' B.E.N. A.' after his name, 
but not M. B.E.N. A., as the ' use of " M." to signify " Member," 
is only necessary in the case of societies which have separate 
grades, as " Fellows," " Members," and "Associates." In the 
B.E.N. A. 7ve are all equal.'' Lest the owner of this pennyworth 
of title should not be recognised, he can wear a badge, presum- 
ably to be obtained in due course, on receipt of stamp. One 
of these B.E.N. A. 'nature lovers' has just distributed 400 
butterflies, and 430 birds' eggs, and wants further specimens. 
Strangely enough, one of the objects of the association is to 
secure protection for wild life ['animal,' bird, and insect pre- 
sumably], wild plants, and interesting antiquities, consistently 
with the legitimate interests of the sportsman and collector! 
After perusing the ' objects ' on the slip of paper sent, one 
gets an idea of another ' object ' of the association, when 
turning the leaflet over, one is greeted with a recommendation 

1907 April 1. 



132 Notes and Comments. 

in large type, to a certain firms ' dog-biscuits, dry.' (Similarly 
the prize for an ' Eyes and No Eyes ' competition in the Country 
Side is divided amongst a number of successful competitors, 
who guessed the right tablet of Coal Tar Soap!). There is a 
list of the members of the B.E.N. A., but as we are informed that 
'It must -be understood that this list is not accurate,' we need 
not seriously consider it. In one Yorkshire town at any rate, 
' all the members ' of one household are enjoying the benefits 
of the 'B.E.A.N.S.,' or whatever it is, and they represent six out 
of the seven for that town ! 



AND NATURALIST MAGAZINES. 

Another advertising concern, which has already been referred 
to in these columns, the Naturalists' Quarterly Review, has 
reached its fifth number, notwithstanding the fact that the 
nature of its contents is as Davis-Westellian as ever. Under 
'A Few Notes on Nature's Year,' Mr. Westell gives some 
chai acteristic notes. We are told 'to note the network of the 
bare trees, the robin sings again, rabbits become frolicsome, 
the song-thrush sings, February fill-dyke, earth-worms begin 
to move, beetles move, the mad March hare to be seen, and the 
woodpecker laughs.' And no wonder ! The same issue con- 
tains a lengthy notice of ' Every Boy's Book of Natural History,' 
the writer of which apparently has a very different opinion of 
the merits of that work from that held by the writer of the 
review in our columns recentlv- 



A DEFORMED BELEMNITE. 

From time to time we have drawn attention to belemnite 
deformities, and have figured specimens from the chalk and 
from the Speeton Clay. Mr. C. G. Danford has favoured us 




Deformed Belemnites jaculum. 

with a further example, which is figured herewith. As will be 
seen from the tapering - of the alveolar end, the species is Belem- 
nites jaculum, which is characteristic of bed C of the Neocomian 
clays at Speeton. It is nearly four inches long, and at the 
point of the guard is indented and twisted, obviously by damage 
or disease, during the life of the animal. 

Naturalist, 



Field Note. 



l 33 



GRIFFITHIDES BARKEI. 
In the 'Yorkshire Geological Society's Proceedings,' Dr. 
Henry Woodward describes a specimen of Griffithides barkei 
from Angram, in Nidderdale. This trilobite was found by Mr. 
E. Hawkesworth in the black carbonaceous shales occurring 
below the Millstone Grit, and a figure of the species, four times 




Griffithides barkei. 

natural size, we are able, by the society's permission, to repro- 
duce. Dr. Woodward is not justified in describing the trilobite 
as a new species, though he points out certain differences 
between Mr. Havvkesworth's specimen and that found by Mr. 
Barke on the same horizon in Glamorganshire. 



MAMMALS. 
Remains of Bos primigenius near Doncaster. — Mr. Lloyd 
Roberts, the engineer for the South Yorkshire Joint Stock 
Railway, lately showed me a horn-core of Bos that had been 
found during excavations for the new line near Loversal. The 
core, of which the distal end is missing, measures 20 ins. along 
the outer side of the curve. Circumference at proximal end 
14.5 ins., and at the broken distal end 6.25 ins. — H. H. 
Corbett, Doncaster. 

1907 April 1. 



134 

A LARGE TROUT NEAR HARROGATE. 



R. FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



A large Trout was captured on September 28, 1906, at Beaver 
Dyke near Harrogate. Some little time after it was caught it 
weighed 8 lbs. Its length is 26 inches, and depth 6^ inches. 
It was obtained when the reservoir, belonging to the Corpora- 
tion, was being cleaned out. Beaver Dyke has, for some time, 
been renowned for its large trout, but never before has this 
weight and size been approached. 

It was a matter of surprise to find that the water contained 
very few trout, only about fifty being observed, and yet it is 




hardly surprising - , for the amount of damage done by a fish 
of this size would be considerable, for, as a rule, these large fish 
are rabid cannibals, and worse than pike in their powers of 
destructiveness. The water is well rid of the monster. 

A few Chub and Dace, and a quantity of Gudgeon were 
seen, probably it may be a puzzle how they got there, seeing 
that they are not found in the Oak Beck, or at any rate only a 
short distance from its joining the Nidd. There can be no 
doubt but that they have been introduced by anglers, who have 
had small specimens when spinning for trout, and at the end 
of the day have emptied their bait cans in the reservoir. 

Cray fish are found here abundantly, many of them growing 
to a large size. 

Naturalist, 



r 35 

CORN US SUECICA ON THE YORK MOORS. 



HAROLD J. BURKILL, M.A., F.R.G.S. 



This plant is recorded in Mr. J. G. Baker's ' North Yorkshire ' 
as occurring- in three localities, vis. Hole of Horcum, Cross Cliff 
Banks, and near Hackness. Mr. Gordon Home's ' Yorkshire 
Coast and Moorland Scenes,' published some two or three years 
ago, gave (erroneously) the Hole of Horcum as the only locality 
for the plant south of the Cheviots. 

In may therefore be of interest to Yorkshire botanists to 
place on record the notes on this plant I have been able to 
make during the past fifteen years, partly from information 
supplied by others, and partly from my own observations. 

(i) From information given me by the two authors mentioned 
above, I should say that the records for the Hole of Horcum 
possibly refer to the same patch of Cornus which is inside the 
Hole. In neither case, however, has the recorder seen the plant 
growing there. 

(2) Cross Cliff Banks. This locality, mentioned by Mr. Baker, 
is probably identical with the one well-known to some members 
of the Scarborough Field Naturalists' Society, where there is a 
small bed of the plant, the precise position of which is carefully 
kept secret, and observations made every year by the society. 
In spite of these precautions, this patch may be in danger of 
extermination from ruthless collectors, as when I visited it in 
August 1904, a considerable amount of damage had been done 
to the plants by someone a few days previously. It was, how- 
ever, fairly plentiful in 1905. 

I have not heard the term ' Banks ' applied to this part of 
Cross Cliff, but as this is by far the best known habitat of the 
plant, I have no doubt it is the one reported some years ago to 
Mr. Baker. 

(3) Near the Derwent towards Hackness. This locality 
given by Mr. Baker is not one that I can identify. There are 
some likely places near Langdale End Village, and again lower 
down the valley on the hillside to the west of the stream, but I 
have not heard of the plant from this neighbourhood. Mr. 
Baker himself cannot give further information about this spot 
than he has in his book, and Mr. Wilson, the Hackness school- 
master, who has succeeded in instilling a love of botany among 
his pupils, told me in 1905 he did not know of it in the district. 

(4) The largest patch of the plant I know of is between the 

1907 April 1. 



136 Northern News. 

Hole of Horcum and Goathland, and was pointed out to me by 
Miss Barker, of Scarborough, in 1904. Here it is strongly 
established, and extends for a distance of about one hundred 
yards in the heather. When re-visited in 1905 the plant seemed 
to have spread further down the hillside. 

(5) Mr. R. H. Barker pointed out to me a small patch of the 
plant nearer Scarborough than the Cross Cliff locality known to 
the Scarborough Field Naturalists. As the plant here is nearly 
extinct, being apparently smothered by other plants, I prefer 
not to give the precise position, but it is not the place mentioned 
by Mr. Baker as being near Hackness. 

(6) The plant was gathered some years ago near the head of 
Staindale, but I have not been on the hillside where it was found, 
and cannot say if it is still there. 

(7) Last October I was told it had been gathered on one of 
the slopes of Troutsdale by a Scarborough botanist. This 
locality seems in every way a suitable one for the plant, and I 
should not be surprised to hear it occurs in more than one spot. 

Thus the plant is well established on the moors between the 
coast and Newton Dale, and 1 should think there are probably 
several other localities besides the seven I have mentioned 
above. It may be grubbed up by collectors in some of the 
smaller patches, and so exterminated ; but it seems to me that 
it does not get killed off when the heather is burnt, as it occurs in 
places where this is done at intervals, and near the largest patch 
1 have mentioned the heather has evidently been burnt more 
than once during the last twenty or thirty years. I have not, 
however, come across the Cornus on a recently-burnt patch of 
moor, so my opinion is open to contradiction by observers who 
have more chances of studying the plant than I have in occa- 
sional holiday trips to the Scarborough district. 

I was at Hawnby for three weeks this last summer, but did 
not meet with the plant on that part of the moors, though I 
was out on the hills nearly every day. 

1 understand Mr. Gordon Home has a second edition of his 
book in the press at the present time, and that the statement 
referred to above has been corrected. 



The first annual meeting of the Lancashire Amalgamation of Nature 
History Societies was held at the Accrington Mechanics Institute, on 
March 9th. Seventeen delegates attended. It was deckled to commence 
an organ of the Union, to bo called the ' Lancashire Naturalist.' This is to 

contain 16 pages a month, and is to be sold at one penny. If successful, 
greater things will be attempted. 

Naturalist, 



i37 



THE DRIFTLESS AREA OF NORTH=EAST YORKSHIRE 
AND ITS RELATION TO THE GEOGRAPHICAL 
DISTRIBUTION OF CERTAIN PLANTS AND 
INSECTS. 



FRANK ELGEE, 

Middlesbrough. 



One of the most remarkable features of the glacial geology of 
Yorkshire is the driftless area occupied by the moorlands of 
Cleveland, which also form one of the great botanical aspects 
of the county. In the words of Sir Archibald Geikie, ' these 
uplands appear to have formed an insular space round which 
the ice sheets swept, but which remained unsubmerged. ' There 
is no question of any marine submergence whatever in this area, 
for Professor Kendall has conclusively proved to all who have 
examined the evidence fairly that a complicated system of extra- 
morainic lakes was held up in the valleys open to the ice sheets.* 
But the region occupied either by the ice or the lakes does not 
seem to have received the attention, from a natural history point 
of view, which it ought to have had. It has frequently been 
supposed that the driftless region was a barren desert, and only 
supporting a few Arctic plants, during the Ice Age, but no 
evidence can be adduced to substantiate this opinion. I hope 
to show that far from such being the case, the area in question 
probably maintained a fairly numerous fauna and flora during 
the Glacial Period. The object of this paper is, therefore, to 
briefly indicate what, in my opinion, was the botanical and 
zoological condition of the area at the climax of that period. 

The driftless region measures, roughly, about thirty by 
eighteen miles, and embraces nearly the whole of the moorlands 
of north east Yorkshire. The dales on the north side of the 
watershed were, during the maximum extension of the ice, 
occupied by extra-morainic lakes, but the great valleys of Bils- 
dale, Bransdale, Farndale, and Rosedale were free of either 
ice or water. To the south the area was bounded by Lake 
Pickering. 

With the oncoming of the glaciers, the animals and plants 
inhabiting the lowlands of England would either be driven 
southwards or exterminated. The views of Dr. Scharff and 
others are that parts of the British fauna and flora survived 

* See ' Naturalist,' 1903, pp. 14-15. 
1907 April 1. 



138 Elgee: The Driftless Area of North-East Yorkshire 

in the south of England, and in sheltered places, throughout 
the Ice Age. With the retreat of the ice, the fauna and flora 
again spread into their former haunts, probably with the addition 
of further species from the Continent. But the south of the 
country need not have been the only place where the pre-glacial 
fauna and flora survived. It seems quite possible that many of 
its members escaped destruction on the extensive driftless area 
of north-east Yorkshire. The great dales south of the moor- 
land anticlinal would afford ample shelter for numbers of 
animals and plants, whilst even the higher moors may not have 
been devoid of vegetation. Let us glance at some of the likely 
inhabitants of the region during the Ice Age. 

The Flora. — When we consider the Arctic range of many 
of the moorland plants and the rigorous climates to which they 
are exposed, I think we need have little hesitation in concluding 
that they probably lived on the driftless area throughout the 
Glacial Period. Among them we may mention the Cotton 
Grass, Bilberry, Crowberry, Heather, Bracken, Birch, Sallow, 
the Lesser Twayblade, Potentilla, Trientalis europaea, and the 
famous northern species the May Lily, the Dwarf Cornel, Carex 
pauciJJora, etc. In other words, the moors during the Ice Age 
must have been much the same as they are to-day so far as 
vegetation is concerned. It, however, necessarily follows that 
the moors must be of pre-glacial origin, though some of them 
are certainly of post-glacial age. Among these latter may be 
mentioned Eston Moor, the most northerly of all the Yorkshire 
heather-clad areas. As pointed out in my paper in this journal 
for August, 1906, p. 269, the whole of the Eston outlier was 
overridden by the Cheviot Glacier ; consequently, its moors are 
of post-glacial age. The drift here is very thin, and the hard 
sandstone crops out at the surface, forming the usual poor 
moorland soil. Some of the moors of the North Cleveland 
watershed are also of post-glacial origin, viz., Girrick, Wapley, 
and Easington Moors, which were heavily glaciated. It would 
seem as though the plants of the driftless area spread on to the 
lands deserted by the ice, and possibly in some cases across the 
lowlands of Cleveland. Round about Seamer, near Stokesley, 
Marton, etc., there are many place-names indicating that moors 
existed on the Cleveland plain since the period of the Scandi- 
navian invasion of the district. This view receives confirmation 
when we learn that the superficial deposits at the above-named 
localities are chiefly of glacial sand and gravel, and Graebner 
has pointed out how heather moors develop on bare sand, per se 

Naturalist, 



Elgee : The Driftless Area of North-East Yorkshire. 139 

(Graebner, Die Heide Norddeutschlands). Cultivation has now 
reclaimed all these waste spaces, though whether they were 
always free from trees is doubtful. 

The Fauna. — In considering- the present moorland fauna 
we have to bear in mind that some of the species are of pre- 
glacial origin, and survived on this region, and that some have 
emigrated into the area after the Ice Age. It is not always 
easy to distinguish between the two, but a fairly safe guide is 
to be found in the present geographical distribution of the 
species. Those of northern origin, or that range into cold 
climates, are the most likely to have escaped destruction by 
taking refuge in the uplands ; whilst those species of southern 
origin probably left the district, to reappear with the ameliora- 
tion of the climate. The former class is well represented by 
many species of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera among the insects, 
some of which are exclusively confined to the typical moorland 
plants enumerated above. Taking the Lepidoptera first, the 
following is a list of the species known to occur on the driftless 
region, with their geographical distribution and their food plants 
in the larval state. None of them, as a rule, are found else- 
where except on moors. 

Agrotis strigula, North Europe (Calluna and Erica). 
Agrotis agathina, West Central Europe (Calluna and Erica). 
Celcena Junvorthii, North and North Central Europe (Cotton 

Grass). 
Anuria myrtilli. North, Central, and South West Europe 

(Erica). 
Hepialus veiieda, North and Central Europe (Roots of 

Bracken). 
Plusia interrogationis, North Europe and North Asia, in the 

British Islands becoming commoner northwards (Calluna 

and Erica). 
Eupitlieeia nanata, Central Europe (Calluna and Erica). 
Enpithecia minutata, Holland and Germany, probably a heath- 
frequenting form of E. absinthiata which is found in 

North Europe (Calluna and Erica). 
Acidalia fumata, North, and the mountains of Central 

Europe, North Asia (Calluna, Erica, and Vaccinium). 
Lareiitia caesia/a, North, and the mountains of Central 

Europe, North West Asia, and America (Erica and 

Vaccinium). 
Scodiona belgiaria Central Europe (Erica and Calluna). 

1907 April 1. 



140 Elgee : The Driftless Area oj North-East Yorkshire. 

Aspilates strigillaria, Central Europe (Erica and Calluna). 
Cidaria populata, North Europe, Asia, and America 

(Vaccinium). 
Cidaria testata, North Europe, Asia, and America (Calluna). 
Ematurga atomaria, Europe, West-Central, and North Asia 

(Erica, Lotus, Trifolium). 
Panagra petraria, Central Europe, West-Central, and North 

Asia, and Japan (Bracken). 
Phycis fusca, North Europe and North America (Erica). 
Polia so/idagifiis, North and Central Europe, North-West 

Asia (Vaccinium). 
Venusia cambricaria, North and Central Europe, North Asia, 

Japan, North America (Mountain Ash). 

In looking over this list we find that fifteen species are found 
in North Europe and North Asia, and therefore habituated 
to colder climates than that of Britain, and joining this with the 
further fact that species of the genera Colias, Pachnobia, Plusia, 
Anuria, Cidaria and Eupithecia are inhabitants of the Arctic 
parts of Europe and America, there seems little reason to doubt 
that many of the above species were enabled to live on the 
driftless region throughout the Ice Age. On the other hand 
there are some moor Lepidoptera which may have re-occupied 
the region in post-glacial times. Among them are Saturnia 
carpini, an insect of Asiatic origin ; Bombyx rubi, Lasiocampa 
que reus, and Spilosoma fuliginosa, which, besides feeding on 
heather, live on many other kinds of plants. 

The survival of insects on the driftless area receives remark- 
able verification in the following quotation from Heilprin's 
' Geographical Distribution of Animals ' (p. 280) : — ' The 
officers of the British North Pole Expedition, under the command 
of Sir George Nares, brought home a surprisingly rich fauna 
from the region [Grinnell Land] lying between the seventy- 
eighth and eighty-third parallels of latitude, comprising no less 
than forty-five species of true insects and sixteen arachnids, the 
former distributed as follows : Hymenoptera, five species (two 
humble-bees); Coleoptera, one; Lepidoptera, thirteen; Diptera, 
fifteen ; Hemiptera, one ; Mallophaga, seven ; and Collembola, 
three. Among the Lepidoptera are a number of forms belong- 
ing to genera common in the temperate zones, such as Colias, 
Argynnis, Lycaena, etc., which appear the more remarkable, 
seeing that the species of this order are more limited in Green- 
land (with an insect fauna numbering eighty species), and that 

Naturalist, 



Elgee: The Driftl ess Area of North- East Yorkshire. 14 1 

no forms are met with either in Iceland or Spitzbergen, although 
upwards of three hundred species of insects are represented in 
the former.' 

Among the Coleoptera several distinctly northern and Alpine 
species now existing in North Yorkshire in all probability lived 
within the ice free region, e.g., Ptcrostiehus aethiops and P. 
vitreus, both Alpine species ; and Miscodera aretica, recorded by 
Mr Lawson Thompson, from Stanghow Moor. Doubtless 
others have survived, especially those which live on the moor- 
land plants, such as Haliica ericeti, Ceutlwrhynchus ericce, etc. 
If these northern and Alpine species lived in sheltered places 
on the uplands during the Ice Age, it does not follow that no 
southern forms managed to struggle through thereon. If, as 
the Ice Age progressed, any species of southern origin con- 
trived to escape on the driftless area, we ought still to find 
them either on the region itself or, allowing for dispersal since 
the close of the Glacial Period, just outside its bounds. The 
evidence, too, would be complete if the species also occurred in 
the south of England, but not in the intermediate area. 
Although such a case seems highly improbable, yet we actually 
have one in the Solitary Ant (Mutilla europaea), of which two 
specimens have been discovered in East Yorkshire, the first by 
Mr. Hey in 1903 ; and the second by myself in 1904.* 

As this insect is a rare and interesting species, it will be 
worth our while to dwell a little longer on its geographical 
distribution, and see by what means it has arrived in East 
Yorkshire. Before the above records were made, the most 
northern locality for Mutilla europaea, accoiding to Mr. 
Saunders, was Colchestsr in Essex ; nor since his great work 
on the Hymenoptera Aculeata of Britain appeared, have any 
except the Yorkshire examples been found north of that town 
(as he informs me in answer to a letter I wrote asking if such 
were the case). 

We have here a very remarkable example of discontinuous 
distribution within our island, but before attempting an explana- 
tion of it we must glance at the further distribution of the 
species in England and Europe. In England it occurs 
principally in the sandy regions of Surrey, Dorset, Hampshire, 
and Berkshire, whilst on the Continent it is found in Sweden,' 
Finland, Russia, Austria, Germany, and Italy. 

If now we examine the distribution of the genus Mutilla in 



_ * 'Naturalist,' 1903, p. 455; and 1905, p. 4 o. 

ic,o,- April 1. 



142 Elgee: The Driftless Area of North-East Yorkshire. 

Europe we find that its head-quarters are in France, and that 
the further north we go the rarer it becomes. Thus, in France 
there are thirty species, in Germany eleven, in Sweden two, and 
in Finland two. Russia has ten species (it is not stated whether 
all these are found in South Russia or not ; some occur in the 
neighbourhood of Elizabethgrad), Italy seven, and Greece three. 
Two species occur in Britain, M. europcea and M. ephippium, 
both practically limited to the south-east of England. From 
these facts it seems clear that the Mutillae have spread over 
Europe from the south, and this inference is further confirmed 
by the fact that in North Africa twenty-one species live in Algeria, 
two in Tunis, two in Tangiers, twenty in Egypt, etc. Moreover, 
six species are common to Europe and Africa. 

It is known from geological data that North Africa and the 
south of Spain were at one time connected by a land bridge, 
and across this 'and must have come the European Mutillae. 
The genus is certainly not of European origin, as over 1000 
species are known from all parts of the world, chiefly the tropical 
parts of Africa, Australia, and South America. In the New 
World, the further north we go the rarer the genus becomes, as 
the following figures show : — 

South America 133 species. 
Central America 25 species. 
North America 15 species. 

The same decrease towards the north is shown here as in Europe. 
It must, therefore, be concluded that ages ago the Mutillae 
originated in tropical regions, whence they have spread over a 
greater part of the earth. Mutilla europcea and its congener 
entered England when our island was part of the Continent, and 
probably formed part of the oldest fauna of Britain, and belonged 
to the Lusitanian invasion of Dr. Scharff. It would then 
graduallv spread over the country in pre-glacial times; with the 
oncoming of the Ice Age it would be exterminated in the 
glaciated area, but would manage to survive in the south and 
on the driftless area. This region is quite suited to its habits, 
possessing a sandy surface soil such as the insect loves. Of 
course, the bees on which it is parasitic must have survived as 
well. Moreover, the very fact that the ant lives at the present 
day in Sweden and Finland proves that it can withstand a cold 
climate. In this way would the curious distribution of this 
insect in England appear to be accounted for, and if we 
accept the opinion of Dr. Scharff ' that the climate of Europe 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 143 

during the Glacial Period was by no means so severe as we are 
often led to believe,'* the conclusions in this paper are 
strengthened. Many facts of geographical distribution can only 
be explained on the assumption of pre-glacial survivals. 

Since the close of the Ice Age many of the upland survivors 
have no doubt spread on to the land formerly occupied by the 
glaciers, and in this respect it is worthy of note that the spot 
where I found M. europcea was the summit of the Brown Rigg 
oxbow, that grand memorial of the Ice Age in the neighbourhood 
of Robin Hood's Bay, described by Professor Kendall. The 
species has, therefore, apparently spread from the driftless 
region. 

Further investigations are needed to firmly establish the 
views above set forth. More cases of the same nature as 
Mutilla europcea are required, and I hope will be forthcoming. 
The great valleys of Bilsdale, Rosedale, Farndale, etc., would 
well repay working, as they exhibit no traces of ice action ; 
besides, their natural history has not received that thorough 
investigation which it certainly deserves. 

For the facts concerning the distribution of the Lepidoptera, 
I am indebted to Meyrick's ' Handbook ' ; for those concerning 
the Mutillae to the catalogues of the British Museum, and to the 
'Hymenoptera Aculeata of the British Islands' by Mr. Saunders. 



•One and All ' Gardening, 1907.— London : The Agricultural and 
Horticultural Association. Price twopence. 

The Editor opens the work with an article on Country in Town, 
giving- details of the movement for beautifying our towns and cities with 
garden features. The Hon. H. A. Stanhope writes on Some Useful Native 
Plants ; James Scott on Secrets of Garden Flowers and The Formation of 
Soil; Horace J. Wright, F.R.H.S., on Onions; Co-operative Gardens and 
Houses, by the late G. J. Holyoake ; Ivy Gardens ; Rhododendrons as 
Winter Flowers ; Shakespeare's Gardens ; The Colour of Flowers, etc. 
There is a Poet's Calendar of all the Months in the Year, by the late 
Nora Chesson. 

Blackie's Nature Knowledge Diary, compiled by W. P. Westell 

(6d. net), is a pamphlet of ruled pages, resembling a school register, with an 
'introduction.' It contains a ' Monthly Weather Chart,' with ruled squares, 
and marked ' bar ' and ' inches ' on the'left. Then follows several pages ruled 
with headings, ' Date,' ' Barometer,' ' Thermometer,' ' Seaweed,' ' Rainfall,' 
etc. The book, however, is probably likely more to repel an interest in 
nature by the scholar than to encourage it. After justly urging the observer 
to make a ' note on the spot,' ' which is worth a cart-loud of " recollections," 
it is pointed out that ' no record can be too trifling.' For a note book it may 
not, but we hope that when the scholar has filled his 'Diary' he will not 
print it under the head of 'County Rambles,' or some such title ! 



* ' European Fauna,' p. 
1907 April 1. 



144 

NOTES ON YORKSHIRE LEPIDOPTERA IN 1906.* 

W. HEWETT. 



The past season has not been a good one for Lepidoptera, and 
Yorkshire Entomologists agree that 'sugar' has, with odd 
exceptions, been a failure all the season, and very few of even 
the commonest species have been reported as abundant. 

The most noteworthy records are the following : — 

Mr. Fieldhouse reports the capture of a hermaphrodite 
Fidonia atomaria, with one male, and one female antenna, 
one hind and two fore wings light like the female, and the other 
dark like the male. 

Mrs. Lee, Huddersfield, took a specimen of the variety 
Varleyata of Abraxas grossulariata at large at Huddersfield, 
and Mr. Lee took one Hydraccia petasitis. 

Mr. G. T. Porritt bred a brood of variety Varleyata of Abraxas 
grossulariata, the form breeding absolutely true. He also took 
a black form of Fidonia atomaria on Harden Clough Moors, 
Huddersfield, and Tephrosia binndularia at Huddersfield this 
year ; this last had not been seen in the district for probably 
forty years. Selenia lunaria, a species which is always a great 
rarity at Huddersfield, was taken by Mr. W. E. L. Wattam. 

Mr. B. Morley, Skelmanthorpe, reports one long succession 
of failures from beginning to end of season, and says it has 
been very difficult to find anything to capture. 

Cloantha solidaginis swarmed at Dunford Bridge at the end 
of August. 

Mr. George Parkin, Wakefield, reports the capture of a 
specimen of Chcerocampa celcrio, the sharp-winged Hawk Moth 
at Wakefield, taken on the outside of a shop window on 
October 24th last, by Mr. H. Lumb. This specimen is now 
in the collection of Mr. Porritt. He also states that the dark 
variety of Odontopera bidentata is rapidly replacing the type 
form in the Wakefield district, just as the dark variety of 
Amphydasis betularia replaced the type of that species. Mr. 
Parkin also notes the sparrow as feeding on imagines of Arctia 
hibricipeda in his garden, and says sparrows are also par- 
ticularly fond of ' Yellow Underwings ' {Triphama pronuba). 

Mr. Beck, Bradford, records Vanessa cardui on Rombalds 
Moor, September 15th. 

* Being- the Report of the Entomological Section of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union. 

Naturalist, 



Hetoett : Notes on Yorkshire Lepidoptera in igo6. 145 

Mr. Stanger, Leeds, reports Cilixspinula plentiful at Beeston, 
June 6th. Folia chi, very dark, but not common, August 8th, 
and states that he bred a black variety of Odontopera bidentata 
at Leeds, and found Vanessa io, the Peacock Butterfly, flying in 
profusion at Bardsey, August 15th. 

Mr. E. B. Tomkinson, Doncaster, reports Argynnis paphia 
and Argynnis euphrosy?ie, both at Edlington in August, Vanessa 
cardai at Edlington and Askern, and Thccla W-album at 
Edlington, Sphinx lignstri larva and imago from Hatfield, 
Calligenia miniata from Sandal Beat, Acronycta alni at 
Edlington, and three Cerigo cytherea at Edenthorpe. He 
obtained, last winter, twenty-six pupae of A mphydasis betularia 
at Edlington, seventeen of these emerged black, and the others 
the ordinary form. He also captured a male Orgyia go/iostigma 
flying in Greenhouse Park early in September. 

Mr. L. S. Brady of Sheffield thinks melanism increasing in 
his district. The number of melanic specimens of Venusia 
cambricaria was certainly in greater proportion this year than 
formerly. 

Mr. Hooper, Emby, near Wakefield, reports the capture of 
four male Dasypolia templi. 

Mr. W. Hewett records the capture of a beautiful lilac 
coloured female variety of Sphinx populi at York, from which 
he obtained a large batch of eggs ; and also records Hadena 
glauca from Rombalds Moor ; Ccenonympha davus and Hyria 
anroraria from Thorne Moor, July. 

Mr. J. Harrison, Barnsley, says the season seems to have 
been very bad ; he has come across Prays cnrtisellus and 
Catopteryx cana very freely (previously only odd specimens 
seen). He also bred and captured seven or eight varieties 
of Pcedisca solandriana, including the northern variety. 

Mr. Porter, Hull, says Cirrhoedia xerampelina has been 
scarce this year, and Agrotis ravida gets scarcer year by year. 

Mr. J. W. Boult, Hull, says he captured a few Ccenonympha 
davus on Thorne Moor, in June, and saw a swift fly after a 
male Bombyx callunce, but it went down among the heather and 
the swift lost it. He has seen sparrows capture Chelonia caj'a, 
Liparis dispar, and other moths, as he released them, when 
rearing large numbers for varieties. He also saw a sparrow 
catch a cockchafer and fly away with it. 

Mr. T. A. Lofthouse, Middlesbrough, says the season has 
been fairly good there. Took a single specimen of Celcena 

1907 April i. 



146 Heine tt; Notes on Yorkshire Lepidoptera in 1906. 

haworthii at sugar in his garden, also two or three Anchocelis 
lunosa and a few Epunda lutulcnta, also the variety capucina 
of Miselia oxyacanfhce, in the Ayton district : although the type 
is generally common in his garden, has never seen the variety 
there, the place one would expect to find it if smoke has any- 
thing to do with melanism. Noctua depnncta, one or two 
specimens occurred ; a kw Vanessa cardui also noticed. Autumn 
larvae scarce. 

Mr. Arthur Whitaker of Barnsley says 'sugar' a complete 
failure until October set in, when a few of the late species were 
attracted by it. A few Cymatophora fluctuosa were taken in its 
usual habitat in June. A specimen of Sphinx convolvuli was 
found at Hoyland, near Barnsley, early in September. He 
bred a black specimen of Odoiitopera bidentata from larvae 
taken last autumn in Barnsley. The sudden appearance of 
a perfect swarm of Callimorpha jacobece on a waste unculti- 
vated piece of land which he has known well for many years, 
afforded interesting ground for speculation as to how the 
insects reached, or were imported to the place, where he 
had never seen a specimen before. The nearest locality, he 
believes, where it previously occurred is distant somefive miles 
from the field in question ; some fourteen years since the field 
was used for growing grain and other crops, and jacobece 
certainly occurred nowhere near it. Owing to subsidence 
resulting from some shallow colliery workings, the surface 
of the field became too rough to cultivate, and was abandoned ; 
after this it gradually became over-run with ragwort, and 
for many years he had looked upon it as an ideal spot for 
jacobece, and wondered if the species would ever become 
established there. He was over the ground often last year, and 
saw no sign of it, and it came as a great surprise to him to find 
the perfect insects there in abundance, early in June this year. 

Mr. Staniland, Doncaster, reports Lobophora hexapterata, 
and Cidaria silaceata at Wadworth in June, Anaitis plagiata, 
Edlington, August, Chesias spartiata, Edenthorpe, October, 
Cncullia umbra/ica, Edenthorpe, July, Ino statices, Wheatley 
Wood, Asthena sylvata, Edlington. 

Mr. Thomson, Barnsley, took a dark form of Agriopis 
aprilina at sugar at Deffer Wood, Barnsley, in October ; base 
and centre of top wings almost black, sub-marginal band 
greenish bronze edged with white, outer band black, and hind 
wings perfectly black. 

Naturalist, 



H7 

ON PECULIARITIES IN ATTIS SPIDERS. 



W. W. STRICKLAND, B.A., 



The Attis spiders are so extremely variable, that I doubt whether 
any sort of approximately exhaustive list has been made of their 
species. I have been several times to the Buitenzorg Gardens, 
and seated myself at the spot where I saw the first Attis spider 
that changed the colour of its eyes,* and many varieties have 
continually appeared. One of them was a small spider of a 
livid green colour, the same size as the green spider with 
yellowish markings previously described. To my great satisfac- 
tion I found that it too had the faculty of changing the colour 
of its eyes from black to green ; what was better still, I succeeded 
in catching it in a pocket-handkerchief, and taking it alive to 
the museum. Here Major Owens put it into a large glass 
bottle, and it speedily showed off its remarkable faculty, both 
to him and to the Curator, Mynheer Koningsbuyer. Finally, on 
my return to Batavia, I caught two specimens of a smalier 
kind of Attis, which possesed the same faculty. They were 
the colour of light whitey brown paper with a few darker 
markings. The change of colour of their eyes was from nearly 
black to nearly white (a very light whitey brown). Both the 
specimens were bottled and sent to our authority in spiders, 
Mr. R. I. Pocock, but whether they reached him alive I cannot 
say, as he has not yet acknowledged their receipt. At Garoot, 
a mountain station on the Preanger (Battlefield), where the 
climate is relatively cool, a good many Attis spiders were caught ; 
two species of large brown ones, with nearly black eyes, and 
a medium vivid whitey brown kind with nearly black stripings 
and mottlings. There was also a fourth kind, intermediate in 
colour between the brown and the whitey brown ones. All 
1 caught I bottled alive, and they lived together in tolerable 
harmony so long as they had nothing to eat; one day, however, 
in a bottle containing three of the large dark brown kind and 
one smallish whitey brown one I put a fly, thinking it would 
help to keep them alive and vigorous. The way one of the 
large brown Attides leapt upon the fly and killed it would have 
delighted those members of the sporting world to whom bull 
baiting and cock-fighting appeal irresistibly. Next morning, 
however, I found that the introduction of the fly had had tragic 
results. One of the large spiders was dead and another dying. 
Whether the fly had caused a surfeit, or been of a poisonous 

* See 'Naturalist,' November, 1906, pages 401-402. 
1907 April 1. 



148 Reviews and Book Notices. 

kind, or, what is most likely, the spiders had fought over the 
remains with fatal consequences, is uncertain. I now put a 
smaller specimen of the whitey brown spider into the bottle, 
also with fatal results. The larger specimen already there, flew 
upon the intruder with merciless ferocity and bit it. I with- 
drew the victim as quickly as possible, but it was already 
almost dead, and very soon breathed its last. 

When left in the bottle without flies, these Attis spiders 
make the best of things, spin a small hammock and sit there, 
apparently perfectly happy, for an indefinite time. They 
seemed to keep awake, but may ultimately hybern- or astivate. 

There are, then, at present known, four kinds of Attis 
spiders that have the faculty of changing the colour of their 
eyes : — - 

(1) A relatively large kind with exceptionally large pair of 
eyes, abdomen green : eyes change from black to green. 

(2) A smaller kind : green with yellow stripes and markings : 
eyes change from black to green. 

(3) Another, livid green : same size as (2), eyes change from 
black to green. 

(4) A still smaller kind : very light whitey brown with 
darker markings : eyes change from nearly black to very light 
whitey brown. 

Three of these kinds are insignificant in size, and it was 
only the mere chance of the observing of this faculty in the large 
and apparently very rare Attis spider that caused me to observe 
it in the smaller ones. It is not surprising, therefore, that the 
faculty has apparently never been observed before by naturalists, 
whose chief object is often to secure as great a variety as 
possible of species in spirits. 



Birds Shown to the Children. By M. K. C. Scott. Described by 
J. A. Henderson. 1 12 pages, 48 coloured plates. Price 2/6. T. C. & E. C. 
Jack, Edinburgh. 

Flowers Shown to the Children. By Janet Harvey Kelman. 

Described by C. E. Smith. 154 pages and 48 plates. Price 2/6. T. C. & 
E. C. Jack, Edinburgh. 

"^ These two volumes are of the 'Shown to the Children' Series, edited by 
Louey Chisholm, and Messrs. Jack are to be congratulated on producing 
two very tasteful little volumes, which will undoubtedly appeal to the young 
children for whom the books have been specially written. The coloured plates 
are usually very fine indeed, and are not misleading by being over-coloured. 
In the second book the plates are arranged according to the colours of the 
flowers, so that the child can readily find the picture and description of a 
specimen he may meet with whilst on a walk. In each case the commoner 
species are dealt with, and there is just sufficient letterpress — of the right 
kind — to interest and instruct the youthful reader. 

Naturalist, 



149 

NOTE ON A LIASSIC CONCRETION. 



F. M. BURTON, F.L.S., F.G.S., 
Gainsborough. 



A rather remarkable concretion has been met with in a well 
which has recently been dug near a cottage at Blyton, a village 
about four miles from Gainsborough, situated on the Lower 
Lias. It consists of indurated clay, of a round disc-like shape 
as big as a small cart wheel, thinning off at the outer rim. 
When broken — and it had to be broken in pieces before it could 
be got out — the interior showed, in places near the circumference, 
vertical, fusiform cavities, z\ inches in height and about an inch 
apart, crowded on their surfaces with small, almost pulverulent, 
dog-tooth crystals of calcite, much stained with impurities, 
giving the mass somewhat the appearance of a huge ammonite 
with its septa.* In the middle portion the nodule is \\ inches 
thick, and judging from the curve of the outer rim, when entire 
it must have measured quite 3 feet in diameter, and probably 
more. Besides these vertical openings near the outer rim, there 
were many slits and cavities in the middle portion of the nodule, 
all lined with similar crystals, but on the outside of it there was 
no appearance of anything, the surface was homogeneous and 
smooth throughout. There is, of course, nothing unusual in 
this inner shrinkage and crystallisation, the cause of it is well 
known. Some organic remains which had collected (perhaps 
in a slight hollow of the matrix assuming its shape) had become 
enveloped in a crust of clay, and the organisms, shrinking first 
before the outer integument, secreted the crystals and caused 
the fissures which are found in it. 

Blyton lies on the fringe of the Am. angulalus zone ot the 
Lower Lias, and on examining the heap thrown out in digging 
the well I found an ordinary septarian nodule, so frequent in 
these deposits, with some thin pieces of hardened limestone 
containing worn fragments of Gryphcea and other fossils. The 
well is 14 feet deep, and as the lowest zone of the Lower Lias, 
Am. planorbis, occurs in this neighbourhood at about the same 
horizon — being found near Corringham, Springthorpe, Lea, 
Gate Burton, and Marton — this concretion may belong to that 
zone which, in some places, shows signs of having been deposited 



* The specimen sent to us is certainly remarkable for the regularity of 
shape, and distance apart, of the lenticular cracks, which are, of course, 
fusiform in section. — Eds. 

igo7 April i. 



150 Reviews and Book Notices. 

in estuarine beds near the mouths of rivers, where organic 
accummulations of this nature might, one would think, be more 
likely to occur than in the angulatus zone above it. 

I am sending" characteristic specimens of this concretion to 
the Museums at Hull and Lincoln, which latter, to my great 
content, is now an accepted fact. May it, in course of time, 
imitate the former in its usefulness ! 

Messrs. Charles Griffin and Co. have issued the twenty-third annual 
Year Book of Scientific and Learned Societies of Great Britain 
and Ireland : a record of the work done in Science, Literature, and Art 
during the Session 1905-6 by numerous Societies and Government Institu- 
tions. Not only does it contain useful information in reference to the 
various scientific societies — large and small — throughout the kingdom, but 
what is of more value to working naturalists — lists of the papers read at the 
meetings and published in the transactions of these societies. 

Quarterly Record of Additions, No. XIX.— Notes on a collection 
of Roman Antiquities from South Ferriby in North Lincolnshire 

(two parts). Guide to the Municipal Museum (second edition). (Hull 
Museum Publications 37-40). 

These latest issues sufficiently prove that the high standard of excellence 
set at the initiation of the series is being maintained. A cursory examination 
of them will show the value of making a museum a municipal institution. 
Most people would imagine that after nearly five years of such strenuous 
work as the Curator has done at this museum, the number of additions as 
well as their comparative interest would decline. The latest quarterly 
record would quickly disabuse any such notion. It opens with a highly 
interesting account of Leather Jacks, illustrated b)' figures of specimens now 
in the museum ; and is followed by a comprehensive sketch of relics of our 
grandfathers' days. As we look at the figures of moulds for ginger bread, 
we are carried back to our school-boy days when birds and beasts, such as 
could only exist in the Never-Never Land, ornamented with gold leaf, were 
not uncommon objects in old dames' windows. Whether this is a proof of 
a greater conservatism in the West Riding than in the East, or merely 
indicates that the writer is contemporanecus with the grandfather of the 
author of this pamphlet, we need not stay to consider. It is enough to know 
that in Hull, at anyrate, these vanishing land-marks of our progressive 
civilisation are being zealously collected and preserved. Our grandchildren 
will have cause to put a much higher value upon them than perhaps it is 
possible for us to do, for they will never have that familiarity which the 
proverb tells us breeds contempt. 

The two pamphlets relating to Roman Antiquities from South Ferriby 
are very valuable indeed, and deserve careful perusal. Beyond stating that 
these antiquities are mainly brooches and the like, there is no need to say 
more. Without the pamphlets themselves, any notice would be inadequate. 
The second addition of the guide is a distinct improvement on the first, 
except in one particular, viz. , the absence of the index. The descriptive 
matter has increased from 35 to 40 pages, and a comparison of the plans in 
the different editions will show more eloquently than words how much the 
contents of the Museum have been added to. With this in hand, a visitor 
to the Museum will make a more intelligent survey of its contents. One 
interesting fact deserves special mention. We refer to the varied 
nationalities of the visitors. In a very limited period Denmark, The United 
States, Canada, Norway, and Australia were each represented, in addition 
to other visitors from widely different portions of our own country. In this 
way the excellent institution which Mr. Sheppard directs has a sphere of 
influence co-extensive with the globe. — E. G. B. 

Naturalist, 



I 5 I 

TWO NEW YORKSHIRE HEPATICS. 



WM. INGHAM, B.A. 



Lophozia atlantlca (Kaal.) Schffn. 

In the Journal of Botany, April 1902, Mr. Symers M. 
Macvicar published a short account of this plant as a new 
British Hepatic. It was gathered at Dirlot, Caithness, August 
8th, 1901, by the Rev. David Lillie of Watten. 

The plant is of about the size of Lophosia gracilis, but it may 
be separated from that by the absence of small-leaved attenuated 
stems, and by the leaves being- very concave, also by the pre- 
sence of Amphigastria or Stipules. The leaves are either two- 
lobed or three-lobed. 

I found this plant at Hebden Bridge during the meeting of 
the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union thereon nth June, 1904. It 
grew in large patches on the blocks of Millstone Grit, and is no 
doubt a characteristic Hepatic of West Yorkshire on that rock. 
If any reader has gathered what is apparently Lophosia gracilis 
on this rock-formation, by re-examination he will probably 
find it is L. atlantica. The former seems confined to limestone ; 
at least that is my experience. 

The stipules (never found on L. gracilis) are well developed 
on the Hebden Bridge specimen. Kaalaas, who described the 
plant, allowed too little weight for this feature, but Dr. Arnell 
has pointed out their presence in Swedish specimens, as an 
important distinction from L. gracilis. During my examination 
a short time ago of the Hepatics collected by Mr. Waterfall 
of Bristol, Lophozia atlantica turned up, gathered by him on 
10th July, 1886, on Mellbreak Fell, Cumberland, and last year 
Mr. Macvicar found it in v.c. 100, Clyde Isles. 

In Norway it has been recorded near Stavanger, and on the 
Island of Stordo, and it has been found on the Faroe Isles by 
Herr C. Jensen. 

Its distribution as far as known, is entirely western, hence 
the name atlantica. 

Lophozia badensis (Qottsche) Schffn. (J. acuta a. 
Lindenb. ; J. luridula Wils.). 

This Hepatic, which has been much confused with L. tur- 
binata (Raddi) Steph., and also with small forms of L. Muelleri 
(Nees). Dum, was published as a new British species in the 
Journal of Botany for February 1907. 

The original description of this plant is given in ' Musci 

1907 April 1. 



152 Field Notes. 

Asiae borealisj by S. O. Lindberg and H. W. Arnell, October 
1888. 

Mr. Macvicar and myself find the following - points the most 
useful in distinguishing - L. badensis from L. turbinata (the latter 
such a characteristic Hepatic on the magnesian limestone of 
West Yorkshire). 

In L. badensis the leaves have a broad base (in L. turbinata, 
a narrow base, except generally in the male plant), the antical 
base is decurrent, and the cells smaller and slightly thickened 
at the angles (in L. turbinata the leaves are not decurrent at the 
antical base, and the leaf cells are larger without thickenings at 
the angles), and the stem has brownish copious rhizoids, with 
the postical side of stem brownish (in L. turbinata the stems 
are concolorous, with comparatively few rhizoids, and the leaves 
are generally more remote and lie flat). 

Habitats. — Finmarken, Dovrefjeld (Jerkin), Foldalen, Sweden, 
Findland. 

Scotland — Ayrshire, Jan. 17, 1883 (C. Scott) ; Edinburgh, 
Sept. 12, 1904 (J. McAndrew) ; Fife, Nov. 21, 1903 (W. Evans) ; 
E. Rosshire, Oct. 1903 (Miss K. B. Macvicar). 

England — Sussex, Feb. 1907 (W. E. Nicholson). Yorkshire, 
Castle Howard (Spruce) ; Knottingley, in Magnesian Limestone 
quarry, Oct. 14, 1898 (W. Ingham) ; Marr, near Doncaster, 
Sept. 16, 1902, this plant very flaccid and mixed with mosses 
on wet floor of quarry (W. Ingham) ; Bowes, by the R. Greta, 
during the Y. N. U. Excursion, Aug. 3, 1903 (W. Ingham). 



COLEOPTERA. 
Rare Beetles from the Doncaster District. — Among 
some Beetles lately sent by me to Mr. Donisthorpe for 
identification, the following rare species are worthy of note. 
Anistoma lucens Fair, taken in Wheatley Wood, August, 1904. 
Salpingus foveolatus Ljun. taken in Wheatley Wood, March 

1903. Philonthus addendus Shp. taken at Potteric Carr, March 

1904. Philonthus proximus Kr. taken at Finningley, August 
1903. Ischnoglossa prolixa Gr. taken in Sandal Beat, May 1905. 

On Thursday, February 28th of the present year, I visited 
Wheatley Wood along with Mr. Bayford and my son, when 
we had the good fortune to take eight specimens of the very 
rare Carpophilus sexpustulatus F. They were obtained from 
dead Hoodie-crows on a ' keeper's tree ! ' This is a most 
unexpected habitat for the species. — H H. Corbett, Don- 
caster, March 6th, 1907. 

Naturalist, 



153 

THE CHEMISTRY OF SOME COMMON PLANTS. 



P. Q. KEEGAN, LL.D., 
Patterdale, Westmorland. 



Common Orchis (Orchis musculo). — This plant varies consider- 
ably in stature, colouration and scent, but it is certainly a 
highly remarkable native or denizen of cold, elevated and moist 
localities. As might be anticipated, its chemistry presents 
some rather remarkable features. On 20th June the overground 
parts yielded only 1.7 per cent, in dry of wax, with some fat-oil 
and a mere trace of carotin ; the alcoholic extract contained a 
kind of tannin (or rather a resinous glucoside), which does not 
precipitate gelatine, and with iron salts gives a brownish-green 
colouration, it precipitates bromine water, and yields a decom- 
position product resembling a phlobophene when boiled with 
dilute HC1 ; there was no tanoid, but some resin which dissolved 
in sulphuric acid with a brown colour passing to a splendid 
violet ; there was much sugar, mucilage, and oxalate of calcium, 
but no soluble proteid or starch ; the ash amounted to 6.5 per 
cent., and yielded 47.3 per cent, soluble salts, 5.1 silica, 20.5 
lime, 3.8 magnesia, 7.8 P 2 O s , 3.8 SO 3 , and 7.8 chlorine. It is 
evident from the foregoing analysis that the special feature of 
the plant is the great richness in carbohydrates and the organic 
acids produced thereby, the oxidation proceeding much further 
than in the case of the Parsley Fern, while the large amount of 
water in the tissues favours and makes the persist the phenomena 
of the dissolving power of the ferments (diastases) on the starch 
or other carbohydrates originally produced. Volatile oils and 
resin are the chief products of deassimilation. The root-knobs, 
which in this species are undivided, contain, according to De 
Dombasle, a volatile oil and a pungent bitter principle, and 
according to Robiquet have no starch. Another author asserts 
that in the autumn the old bulbs contain no starch and the 
young bulbs have very much starch, whereas during the 
flowering time it is absent in both. In July I found that the old 
bulbs had much starch, but there was none in the new organs, 
and there was no tannin, but much gummy matter (mannan) not 
precipitated by peracetate of mercury and not coloured by 
iodine. 

Bog Asphodel (Narthecium ossifragum). — Boggy heaths and 
spongy bogs, the swampy and marshy areas of wild moorlands 
are the habitats of the elegant golden spires, stiffish stems, and 

1907 April 1. 



154 Keegan: The Chemistry of some Common Plants. 

spear-shaped leaves of this attractive plant. The chemistry is 
of special interest of itself, but as compared with that of the wild 
hyacinth, orchis, and other Monocotyledons it becomes of very 
eminent importance. About the year 1861 Waltz analysed the 
plant and found therein a white bitter principle of very rancid 
taste and a white non-volatile acid, both soluble in ether ; but it 
is difficult to make out exactly what either of these constituents 
is. On 3rd August the dried overground parts yielded 2 per 
cent, wax with a little carotin, and a yellow substance soluble 
in sulphuric acid with a deep brown colour ; the alcoholic 
extract was bitter and acid, and contained a tannoid which 
precipitated bromine water, and seemed to be like quercitrin, but 
on boiling with dilute HC1 it gave a granular crystalline deposit 
soluble in ether, and with sulphuric acid a brown solution ; it was, 
therefore, a resinous bitter principle (probably identical with the 
scillin of Squill) ; there was also a considerable amount of free 
resin, a little sugar, very little mucilage, a good deal of soluble 
proteid, much starch, but no oxalate of calcium ; the ash 
amounted to 4.3 per cent., and contained 66.3 per cent, soluble 
salts, 4.5 silica, 8.7 lime, 5.9 magnesia, 5 P 2 O s , 6.2 SO 3 , and 
17.5 chlorine. The special features of this analysis are 
extremely remarkable, viz., much starch in conjunction with 
much chlorine, and much organic acids along with very little 
mucilage or lime or its oxalate. In many of the allied monoco- 
tyledonous plants there is no starch, although there may be 
much mucilage and acids and much chlorine at the same time. 
The tissues of the Bog Asphodel are comparatively dry, it 
absorbs little water from the soil ; those of the other plants are 
very moist, and, as we have seen, a large percentage of water 
favours and prolongs the conversion of starch into sugar and 
the production of mucilage, and of soluble carbohydrates 
generally. On the other hand, the tendency in the Bog 
Asphodel is towards the production of insoluble carbohydrates, 
roughly the crude fibre amounts to 58 per cent, (that of the 
Orchis is only about 40 per cent.). The slender root fibres 
contain much starch internally. The aqueous extract of the 
whole plant yielded when fused with potass protocatechuic acid 
and phloroglucin. 

Bistort {Polygonum bisforta). — This is not a native plant in 
Lakeland, but it has strongly asserted and secured itself in 
certain special spots. It is what may be called a decisively 
chemical plant. On 5th June the dried leaf blades yielded 2 per 
cent, wax with a moderate quantity of carotin and a trace of 

Naturalist, 



Northern News. 155 

volatile oil ; the alcoholic extract contained quercetin and a 
phlobaphenic tannin which precipitates gelatine and bromine 
water, a trace of free phloroglucin, little or no sugar, and a 
resin which dissolves in sulphuric acid with brown to deep 
violet colour ; there is considerable pectosic mucilage extracted 
by dilute soda, some pararabin, no starch, and considerable 
oxalate of calcium ; the ash of leaves and petioles amounted to 
8.5 per cent., and contained 41.4 per cent, soluble salts, 3.4 
silica, 22.7 lime, 7.3 magnesia. 3.7 P 2 5 , 3 SO 3 , and 5.4 
chlorine. The analysis indicates the general features or condi- 
tion of a normal plant, i.e. a plant whose vegetation is flourishing 
and wherein the albumenoids and soluble carbohydrates are 
fulfilling, so to speak, their chemical activities, oxidation pro- 
ceeds far, and the products of deassimilation are well represented. 
The flowers contain a tannin same as in the leaves ; the pink 
pigment is not fully developed, but is shown off to best advan- 
tage by the configuration of the perianth ; the ash of the spike- 
like raceme amounts to 6.4 per cent, in dry, and contained 27.5 
per cent, soluble salts, 20.3 lime, 9 magnesia, 14.7 P 2 O s , 5.4 
SO 3 , with considerable manganese and little carbonates. 
The twisted, much branched rhizome contains much starch 
which is edible and nutritious, also oxalate of potass, and a large 
quantity (about 20 per cent.) of soluble and insoluble tannin 
which is not a glucoside, and does not yield gallic or ellagic acid 
when fused with caustic alkali or heated with dilute sulphuric 
in a closed tube. 

A 'young- man, aged 26,' advertising in a contemporary, 'desires a 
place as Assistant with Museum.' He is 'an excellent collector and setter 
of Lepidoptera,' and can also make Bird-skins. He ought to find a post 
readily. 

We regret to record the death of Councillor J. E. Robson, of Hartlepool, 
at the age of 74. He was a member of the Yorkshire Naturalist's Union. 
Also of Mr. B. Hirst, of Oldham, who has been connected with the same 
society since 1890. 

Sir Archibald Geikie has been elected President of the Geological Society 
of London for the third time. Though near seventy years of age, he is able 
to occupy many important offices, not the least of which is Secretary of the 
Royal Society, which post he has held since 1903. 

Nos. 1 and 2 of Vol. 16 of the 'Irish Naturalist' have been issued 
together, and form perhaps the finest part of that journal yet issued. It is 
entirely devoted to 'Contributions to the Natural History of Lambay, 
County Dublin,' and is admirably illustrated. 

At a recent meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological 
Society, Mr. C. H. Forsyth exhibited about 90 species of North Lancashire 
tortrices, collected near Lancaster. These included Sciaphila penziana 
from Arnside, Conchylis alternana, Aphelia ossiana, Grapolitha penkleriana, 
and Dicrorampha satnrnana. 

1907 April 1. 



156 

3n flDemoriam. 



The Rt. Hon. LORD LIVERPOOL, F.S.A. 



We much regret to learn, on going - to press, of the death of 
the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Liverpool, at his residence at Kirkham 
Abbey. Lord Liverpool, who was perhaps better known under 
his late title, Lord Hawkesbury, was much esteemed in the 
county. As president, for many years, of the East Riding 
Antiquarian Society, he has taken an active part in the further- 
ance of the study of the antiquities of East Yorkshire ; he 
regularly attended the society's meetings, and for several 
years its Annual Volume of Transactions has contained a 
lengthy review from his pen. The last volume issued, which 
contained 168 pages and 80 plates, was entirely devoted to 
his work. His lordship was a life member of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, having joined that association in 1890. 

One of the last occasions on which he made a public 
appearance, was on the occasion of the opening of the Wilber- 
force House Museum at Hull, in August last. It was then 
seen that he was suffering from a painful throat trouble, from 
which he does not appear to have ever recovered. 



FIELD NOTES. 



TRICtiOPTERA. 

Halesus digitatus at Huddersfield. — Among some 
Trichoptera, recently given to me by Mr. B. Morley, taken by 
himself during last year at Skelmanthorpe, was a fine specimen 
of Halesus digitatus. The species has not previously been 
recorded for south-west Yorkshire, although the closely allied 
H. radiatus seems to be abundant on all our larger ponds. 
Other recorded Yorkshire localities for H. digitatus are Bishop's 
Wood and Castle Howard, but then only as casual specimens. 
— Geo. T. Porritt, Huddersfield, February 6th, 1907. 

— :o : — 
MOLLUSC A. 

L. maxim us vars. aldrovandi and bicolor in Lincoln- 
shire. — In the spring of 1906 I had occasion to remove my 
collection into more convenient quarters ; when doing this I came 
across two bottles, labelled, and each containing a preserved 

Naturalist, 



Field Notes. 157 

slug, which had been laid aside and forgotten. Both slugs 
were found in my small garden, 8 Bridge Street, Louth, which 
is very cold and damp. Mr. Roebuck has identified one of them, 
found in 1903, as Limax maximus var. aldrovandi Moq-Tand. 
The other specimen will be noted in the forthcoming part of 
Mr. J. W. Taylor's Monograph. 

On July 10th, 1906, 11 p.m., I had the good fortune to find, 
in the same place as the above, a very fine example of var. bicolor. 
It might almost have been the model for Mr. Taylor's excellent 
figure of that variety in the Monograph. — C. S. Carter, Louth. 



The example especially alluded to above by Mr. Carter, was 
a beautiful but somewhat aberrant example of my variety bicolor 
of Limax maximus, in which, although the ground tint remained 
of a perfectly pure white, and the spotting upon the shield, as 
well as the interrupted longitudinal banding upon the body, 
were of the usual intense black, yet the space or area occupied 
by the markings was greatly increased, and noticeably en- 
croached upon, and in parts totally obscured the snow white 
ground colour. 

In this connection, it may be advisable to avail myself of this 
opportunity to point out that the Limax cinereus var. albus of 
Am Stein, which has hitherto been regarded as a synonym of 
Lessona's var. Candida of Limax maximus, is not referable to 
that form as has so long been thought, but really belongs to 
my variety bicolor, which is a variation of extremely rare occur- 
rence, and Mr. Carter has been indeed fortunate to find two 
such beautiful examples within so restricted an area. — J. W. 
Taylor, February 20th, 1907. 



BIRDS. 

Malham Tarn Birds in Winter.— The following birds 
were seen on the Tarn this winter : — Tufted Duck, Pochards, 
Teal, Mallards (I saw a batch of each of these from 10 to 20 in 
each). Wigeon (a few). Little Grebe (this bird is there all the 
year round). Waterhens (plentiful). Grey Wagtails (a few 
birds). Wild Geese (I heard these at night, but did not see any 
during the day, although they are to be heard and seen every 
winter around the Tarn) ; and a couple of Golden Eye Ducks. 

Pochard Duck. — I have a single record of this having nested 
there this last season (1906). A specimen of the Great Crested 

1907 April 1. 



158 Reviews and Book Notices. 

Grebe and one of the Goosander have both been secured there 
ill the past few years. 

The Tufted Duck breeds there every season. 

1 might add that Mr. Walter Morrison, the owner of Mal- 
ham Tarn, protects all Hawks on his land around the Tarn and 
the neighbouring moors. — W, Wilson, Skipton, Jan. 20th, 1907. 

Birds shot in liuddersfield District* during December 
1906 to January 1907. — Jan. 12th — Two Kingfishers shot 
near 'Old Black House,' Dalton. Jan. 15th — Pair Bull- 
finches shot at Dalton Bank. Jan. 24th — Common Snipe near 
'Old Black House,' Dalton. Dec— Mallard. 

These birds, of course, are simply stuffed for 'show cases.' 
— E. Fisher, Kirkheaton, Huddersfield. 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

YORKSHIRE GEOLOGY. 

The ' Proceedings ' of the Yorkshire Geological Society for 
1906! have been issued, though, judging from the very small 
proportion of papers it contains that have been read or discussed 
at the society's meetings, the word ' Proceedings ' hardly seems 
the most appropriate. The publication, however, contains 
many contributions of interest, and some of distinct value. 
It commences with the papers on the Origin of the Trias, by 
Prof. Bonney and Mr. J. Lomas, respectively, which were read 
at the York meeting of the British Association. A summary of 
the discussion which also took place is likewise printed. On the 
[ngleton district the number is, as in past years, particularly 
strong. In fact, recently, few areas have been so frequently 
described as has this part of West Yorkshire. Prof. T. 
McKenny Hughes contributes Part IY. of his Notes on lngle- 
borough ; the present dealing with the Stratigraphy and 
Palaeontology of the Silurian ; it is well illustrated. Mr. 
R. H. Rastall has a paper on 'The Ingleton Series of West 
Yorkshire'; Mr. A. Wilmore describes the structure of some 
Craven Limestones ; Dr. A. Vaughan contributes a ' Note on 
the Carboniferous Sequence in the Neighbourhood of Pateley 
Bridge"; and Dr. H. Woodward describes a Carboniferous 
Trilobite from Angram, in Nidderdale. These papers alone 

* There is a Wild Birds Protection Act in force !— Ens. 
I Vol. XVI., part I. 13b pp. and 14 plates. Price 5/-. 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 150 

are evidence of the increased interest now being taken in the 
Carboniferous Series. Mr. E. E. Gregory has a brief record 
of a striated rock surface near Bingley, and the Rev. E. M. 
Cole gives a summary of our knowledge of the Roman relics 
found at Filey. The author demonstrates that far too much 
importance has been attached to the discovery made on Carr 
Naze in 1857. 

A contribution of considerable interest is ' On the Speeton 
Ammonites,' by Mr. C. G. Danford. In this the Yorkshire 
Society is to be congratulated in obtaining a communication 
from this careful worker. It cannot, however, be commended 
on the way in which the blocks have been produced in illustra- 
tion of his notes. The Rembrandtesque effect of the illustrations 
may, or may not, be artistic, but it certainly does not enable 
the species to be readily identified ; in fact, some of the 
illustrations are quite worthless, and represent so much waste 
money. It is a pity the County Society did not exercise a little 
more tact in connection with these plates ; had they done so 
they would have been of some practical use to workers amongst 
the Speeton fossils. When another society published Mr. Dan- 
ford's paper on the Belemnites of the Speeton Series a year 
previously, it was illustrated in a way which was all that 
could be desired. The Ammonites Mr. Danford describes in 
the Yorkshire Geological Society's volume were exhibited and 
described at the Flamborough meeting of the Yorkshire Natural- 
ists' Union in June last. (See ' Naturalist,' July 1906, p. 241). 

— : o : — 

One of the most recent productions from Browns' Savile Press, Hull, is 
hssays upon the History of Meaux Abbey, and some Principles of 
Alediajval Land Tenure. Based upon a Consideration of the Latin 
j\ •«"£ Meaux (A - U - ' '50-1400). By the Rev. A. Earle of Wansford, 
Urimeld. 192 pages, price 3/6 net. It deals with the Abbey of Meaux, at one 
time so prominent in the East Riding, but of which now not a trace remains 
above ground. Mr. Earle tells his story in an interesting way, and enables 
the student of local history to get much valuable information without having 
to peruse the lengthy 'Chronicles,' which only the very enthusiastic would 
dare to undertake. 

A Picture Book of Evolution. By Dennis Hird. Part L, con- 
taining lessons from Astronomy, Geology, Zoology. Watts & Co., 1006 
202 pages, price 2/6 net. 

This little book is professedly for the beginner, and it can certainly be 
recommended to anyone wishing to obtain a concise statement of the doc- 
trine of evolution. The work is apparently based upon six lantern lectures 
which have been prepared by the author, the illustrations being very largely 
those used with some of the lectures. Throughout, the author tells his story 
in simple language, and the wealth of illustration makes the book par- 
ticularly suitable as a present. 

3907 April 1. 



i6o 

NORTHERN NEWS. 



We are pleased to note that our contributor, Mr. W. N. Cheesman, of 
Selby, has been elected a Justice of the Peace. 

The greater part of the collection of rock specimens obtained during' the 
voyage of the ' Beagle' in 1831-6, has recently been housed in the Sedgwick 
Museum at Cambridge, and Mr. A. Harker, M. A., F.R.S., gives a description 
of them in the March 'Geological Magazine.' 

We regret to record the death of Miss Caroline Birley, formerly of Man- 
chester. She was an exceptionally keen collector of fossils, and had a large 
collection. She regularly attended the meetings and excursions of the 
Geological Section of the British Association. 

In the Annals of Scottish Natural History, for January, Dr. J. W. H. 
Trail appeals for a 'Natural History Society of Scotland.' The same 
journal contains a note ' On the occurrence of the Siberian Chiff-Chaff in 
Scotland : a new bird to the British fauna,' by Mr. W. Eagle Clarke. 

Our contributor, Mr. T. Petch, who recently received an appointment in 
Cevlon favours us with a reprint of an elaborate paper on 'The Fungi of 
Certain Termite Nests,' which appeared in the ' Annals of the Royal Botanic 
Gardens ' Peradeniya. It is illustrated by several very excellent plates. 

The Grimsby Corporation is considering the question of the adoption of 
the Museums and Gymnasiums Act, under which a penny rate may be 
adopted for the purpose of maintaining a Museum, etc. In this way it is to 
be hoped that the useful collection belonging to the Grimsby Naturalists' 
Society, may become public property. 

On February 24th the members of the Yorkshire Geological Society 
entertained their late Hon. Secretary, the Rev. W. Lower Carter, at the 
Hotel Metropole, Leeds. Prof. P. F. Kendall presided, and there was a 
representative body of Yorkshire Geologists present. Mr. Carter was the 
recipient of an illuminated address, a petrological microscope, a set of slides 
of typical rock sections, a library table, and a geological hammer. To Mrs. 
Carter the members had presented a set of furs. 

On the ' Geological Section ' at the back of the elaborate Menu prepared 
in connection with the dinner given to the Rev. W. L. Carter recently, the 
following names occured as typical 'fossils' in the beds shewn -.—Sircartera 
cammeri, SemicosmopkyUum onlyjohnsii, Clevelandia nonsubmergis, Forni- 
cula odorata, Coisworthia cosmogonica, Muffin turritissinia, Howarthrus 
scribibundtcs, Pastoria perpredatoria, Neupotatorella statheri, Monaspee- 
tonia Bridlingtonensis {V. Zambesii), D-werryhousia potoilensis, Cashia 
minimis (V. ndbilissimus), and Bingleya camerophora. The ' fundamental 
rock ' was shewn as Latina ca/iina, and when this is borne in mind it may 
be possible to identify most of the ' fossils ' enumerated. 

Invitations have already been issued in connection with the meeting of 
the British Association to be held at Leicester from July 31 to August 7th 
next. The Association has not previously met at Leicester. Sir David 
Gill K.C.B., LL.D., is the President-elect, and the following presidents 
of section's have been appointed :— Section A. Mathematical and Physical 
Science Prof. A. E. H. Love, F.R.S. ; Section B. Chemistry, Prof. A. 
Smithells, F.R.S. ; Section C. Geology, Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S. ; 
Section D. Zoologv, W. E. Hoyle, D.Sc. ; Section E. Geography, G. G. 
Chisholm, M.A., B.Sc. ; Section F. Economic Science and Statistics, 
Prof W J. Ashley, M.A. ; Section G. Engineering, Prof. S. P.Thompson, 
FRS • Section H., Anthropology, D. G. Hogarth, M.A. ; Section I. 
Physiology, A. D. Waller, M.D., F.R.S., Section K. Botany, Prof. J. B. 
Farmer. ^F.R.S. ; Section L. Educational Science, Sir Philip Magnus, 

B.Sc, M.P. 

Naturalist, 



MAY 1907. 



No. 604 

(No. 382 of current terieg). 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



EDITED BY 



T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., 

The Museum, Hull ; 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 



J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S. F.L.S., 
Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., 
T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., 



GEO. T. PORRITr, F.L.S., F.E.S., 
JOHN W. TAYLOR, 
WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. 



Contents : — 

PAGES 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated) :— The York Report of the British Association, Local 
v. General Museums, The Selby Museum, The Fourth International Ornithological 
Congress, And its Report, Flamingoes, Yorkshire Wild Birds and Eggs Protection 
Committee, Derbyshire Naturalists, Speeton Ammonites, Another New Magazine, 

Marine Biology, Lancashire and Cheshire Entomologists 161-166 

Theories of Evolution— Agnes Robertson, D.Sc 167-171 

White Lesser Black. Backed Gull, and the reported Nesting of the Ivory Gull, on 

the Fame Islands in 1906— Harry B. Booth, M.B.O.U 172 

Notes on Succinea obloaga, Drap., and other species at Grange=over-Sands, Lanes. 

— J. Wilfrid Jackson 173-174 

Notes on Lepidoptera in the Wilsden District in 1906— Rosse Butterfield 175-176 

Geological Notes on the Robin Hood's Bay District— Prof. Percy F. Kendall, M.Sc, F.G.S. 177-179 

Lincolnshire Mites (Illustrated)— C. F. George, M.R.C.S 179-180 

The Victoria History of Yorkshire 181-186 

In Memoriam — John Emmerson Jackson 187 

Field Notes 188-190 

Reviews and Book Notices (Illustrated) 190-191 

Northern News 171, 180, 186, 192 

Illustrations * 180, 191 

Plates XX., XXL 



LONDON : 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farring 

And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the 




PRICE 6d. NET. BY POST 7d. lNEi. 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 

THE COMPLETE FLORA OF 
YORKSHIRE. 

IN 

3 Vols, for 30/- 

VIZ: 

THE FLORA OF WEST YORKSHIRE. 

Complete, 8vo, Cloth, with Coloured Maps, 847 pages. 

By F. ARNOLD LEES, M.R.C.S. 

Published at ONE GUINEA. 



THE FLORA OF THE EAST RIDING. 

Complete, 8vo, Cloth, ivith Map, etc. 253 pages. 

By J. FRASER ROBINSON. 

Published at 7/6- 



NORTH YORKSHIRE. 

Complete, 8vo, Cloth, ivith Maps, etc., 680 pages. 

By 
J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., M.R.I.A., V.M.H. 

Published at 15/- net. 



The Three Handsome Volumes, comprising a complete Flora of the County, 
will be Bent post free in exchange for Postal Order, or Cheque for 30/- on 
application to — 

A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Savile Street, Hull. 

WANTED. 

Vol. I. Proceedings Geological and Polytechnic 
Society, West Riding, Yorkshire. 

Q00D PRICES GIVEN . 

Apply— T. SHEPPARD, Museum, HULL. 

Please mention 'The Naturalist* in replying to Advertisements. 



i6i 
NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



THE YORK REPORT OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

Early in April we received the York Report of the British 
Association, which includes a summary of the work accomplished 
at the seventy-sixth meeting- of the Association. It contains not 
quite as many pages as usual, but is nevertheless a valuable 
record of the progress of science during the twelve months 
preceding the York Meeting. The volume contains the various 
presidential addresses, reports of committees, abstracts of 
papers read at York, etc., etc. Those of particular interest 
to northern readers were printed in this journal for September 
last.* A perusal of this report, it must be confessed, means 
that one meets with matter which was well published in various 
places seven months ago ! Seeing that all the presidential 
addresses, reports of the various committees' investigations, 
abstracts of papers, etc., etc., were in type and circulated in 
August last, and that such papers as were not ready had to be 
in the secretary's hands within a few days after being read, it 
is difficult to understand why it should take eight months to 
arrange the pages in order and put a cloth cover on them. 
Surely some means could be devised for the more prompt 
appearance of these volumes. 

LOCAL v. GENERAL MUSEUMS. 

From the February issue of the ' Museum Gazette' it is evident 
that the writer in that journal is more in accord with our own 
opinion of the value of local museums than was apparent by a 
perusal of his first note on that subject, which we noticed in the 
February ' Naturalist.' We do not confine the word ' local ' to 
those collections ' obtained within a radius of five miles from 
the Parish Church,' nor did we 'draw on our imagination' in 
citing certain local museums. And we hope we are able to 
distinguish between a local and a general museum. We should 
call the Driffield Museum a typical example of the former, as it 
is devoted exclusively to the geology, and antiquites, of a definite 
geographical area, the Yorkshire Wolds. The Hospitium at 
York — devoted to the antiquites of that ancient city — is another, 
though it is no fault of ours that the writer in the ' Museum 
Gazette ' has never heard of it. The Selby Museum may be 
taken as a typical general museum, on a small scale. 



Several at greater length than they appear in the report just to hand. 



1907 May 1. 

L 



1 62 Notes and Comments. 



THE SELBY MUSEUM. 



In the same number of the ' Museum Gazette,' after quoting 
our statement that ' We were sorry to see from a report of an 
address recently delivered at Selby by Dr. Hutchinson, that 
this museum is not appreciated as it ought to be ; ' a writer, 
presumably Dr. Hutchinson, says ' This statement is an error, 
for nothing of the kind was suggested/ On this point, however, 
we can have no misunderstanding ! Whether Dr. Hutchinson 
made this statement or not, it was certainly so reported in more 
than one of the dailies, and in another magazine, the ' Museums 
Journal' (Vol. VI., p. 144), an account of the same address 
appears, in which it states that Dr. Hutchinson ' very much 
regretted that more use was not made of Selby Museum by the 
inhabitants.' Our statement, therefore, was quite correct. 
However, as we now learn that the ' Museum Gazette ' does not 
disparage local museums, but encourages them, and considers 
that every educational museum should have its local department, 
we have little to complain of, and we feel glad that the criticisms 
previously offered have enabled us to get a better idea of the 
views of the ' Museum Gazette ' on the local museum question 
than was previously possible.* 

THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL ORNITHOLOGICAL 
CONGRESS, t 

This handsome book, which forms Volume XIV. of 'Ornis,' 
has been edited by the Secretaries of the Congress, Dr. E. G. O. 
Hartert and Mr. J. L. Bonhote, under the direction of the 
President, Dr. R. Bowdler Sharpe, Its 'get up' is perfect, 
and reflects every credit upon the printers, Messrs. Witherby 
•& Co. There were five sections to the Congress, dealing 
respectively with (1) Systematic Ornithology, Geological 
Distribution, Anatomy, and Palaeontology ; (2) Migration ; 
{3) Biology, Nidification, Oology ; (4) Economic Ornithology 
and Bird Protection ; and (5) Aviculture. To each of these 
sections various communications were made by different 

* Since writing the above we have seen the March issue of the ' Museum 
Gazette,' in which an article on 'Museums and Museums' appears. In this, 
much that appears in the February issue is repeated. We quite agree that 
it is a pity that misunderstandings should needlessly arise amongst those 
who are interested in the same pursuits, and we share with the ' Museum 
Gazette ' the desire to further the study of Natural History. To put the 
whole matter in a nutshell, however, the ' Gazette ' first expressed a pre- 
ference of ' Educational Museums' to ' Local Museums.' We prefer ' Local 
Museums ' (which should also be educational) to ' Educational Museums,' 
pure and simple. 

t London, 1907. Dulau & Co., 696pp. and plates. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 163 

authorities, and no fewer than forty of these were published 
in the volume. And when it is remembered that the work is 
printed with clear type on excellent paper, and is illustrated 
by numerous blocks in the text and several plates (some of the 
latter being coloured), it will be seen that not only is it a charm- 
ing - memento of this successful Congress, but it represents a 
sound and substantial contribution to ornithology. 



AND ITS REPORT. 
An idea of the variety of these papers may be obtained by the 
following titles, taken at hazard : — 'What constitutes a Museum 
Collection of Birds?' 'The Migration of Birds,' 'The First Bird 
List of Eber and Peucer,' 'On Extinct and Vanishing Birds,' 
'Monographic de la Sterne de Dougall,' ' Description of New 
Species of Neotropical Birds,' ' On the Origin of the Differences 
between Nestling Birds,' ' Sequence in Moults and Plumages,' 
'Bird Protection,' 'On the Colour Variation in the Eggs of 
Palasarctic Birds,' 'The Food of Birds,' 'The Sparrow,' etc. 
Needless to say, amongst the authors are many of the leading 
naturalists of the day. As his presidential address Dr. Bowdler 
Sharp took for the subject, as might have been anticipated, the 
history of the ornithological collections in the British Museums 
and in this he refers to the great benefit to ornithological science 
that would accrue were the officers of the various important 
museums throughout the world to give a history of the collec- 
tions under their charge. 



FLAMINGOES. 
Whilst many of the articles are of altogether exceptional 
worth, there is one which strikes the writer as of unusual 
interest and importance. This is by Mr. F. M. Chapman, and 
deals with the method of exhibiting birds in museums. The 
illustrations to these, indicating the way in which our American 
friends can show their specimens, are very fine indeed, and 
might be well taken as models to such other museums as 
have the space and funds necessary for such exhibits. The 
flamingo case, for instance, ' is twenty feet long and eight feet 
wide, and contains twenty-nine birds.' The background (birds) 
is painted by one artist, the landscape by another, and the birds 
are mounted by a third individual. The effect, however, is 
extraordinary, and the case appears to be nothing else than a 
huge flamingo colony (see Plate XX., which we are kindly per- 
mitted to reproduce). Methods of storing skins, etc., etc., are 

1907 May 1. 



164 Notes and Comments. 

also dealt with. The only regret one has on closing- this volume 
is that it will be four years before another such record is 
produced ! 

YORKSHIRE WILD BIRDS AND EGGS PROTECTION 
COMMITTEE. 

Mr. Riley Fortune reports that the response to the appeal 
by the above committee for funds to enable it to protect 
the nesting - places of rare birds in the county has not been 
so generous as might naturally be expected. The aid of the 
Coastguards and Climbers has been promised for the pro- 
tection of the Peregrines at Bempton ; arrangements have 
also been made for the protection of another pair of Pere- 
grines nesting in the county. The paid watcher has com- 
menced his duties at Spurn, and, as his whole time will 
be devoted to looking after the birds, we may hope for very 
good results. Other localities will be dealt with as funds allow, 
and we hope that members of the Union will do all they can to 
help us. 

Amount previously acknowledged ... 

Bradford Naturalists' Club ... 

W. D. Roebuck 

E. W. Wade ..- 

York and Dist. F. Nat. Society 

Scarborough Field Naturalists' Society 

W. Wilson ... 



£ 


s. 


d 


10 


I 





1 


I 





1 


I 








10 


6 





10 


6 





5 








5 






DERBYSHIRE NATURALISTS. 
The twenty-ninth volume of the Journal of the Derbyshire 
Archaeological and Natural History Society, 1907, issued under 
the able editorship of Mr. C. E. B. Bowles, is one of the finest 
publications of a provincial society that we have seen for some 
time. It contains over 300 pages, and has a wealth of plates and 
plans that would do credit to any of the leading London societies. 
There is also an ample variety in the nature of its contents. Of 
the very many articles, the following are perhaps of principal 
interest to our readers :— 'Some Notes on Arbor Low and other 
Lows,' by T. A. Matthews, ' Crich Ware,' by G. le Blanc Smith, 
' Recent Cave Diggings in Derbyshire,' by W. Storrs Fox, 
' Ornithological Notes for 1906,' by Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain, etc. 
Bound up with this Journal is the valuable and voluminous 
report upon the excavations on the Roman site at Melandra 
Castle, conducted by the Manchester and District branch of the 
Classical Association. This may be taken as a model which 
might be followed by others excavating sites of this character. 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST 1907 



Plate XX. 




Notes and Comments. 165 



SPEETON AMMONITES. 



By the kindness of the Yorkshire Geological Society we 
are able to give our readers a reproduction of one of the best 
of the plates (see Plate XXI) illustrating Mr. Danford's paper 
'On the Speeton Ammonites,' which recently appeared in that 
Society's Proceedings. The originals of the figures are now in 
the Geological Museum, Jermyn Street, London, and are about 
twice the size shown on the plate. The specimens figured, are 
(1 & la. ), Olcostephanus (Polyptychites) bidichotomus Leym., 
(2 & 2d.), O. polyptychus Keys, and (3 & 3a.), O. keyserlingi 
Neum. and Uhl. It should be added, however, that good 
examples of Ammonites are now-a-days exceedingly difficult 
to obtain at Speeton — at any rate, this is the experience of 
most collectors, Mr. Danford being a possible exception to 
this rule. 

ANOTHER NEW MAGAZINE. 
In April, the first part of a new monthly magazine, the 
1 Lancashire Naturalist,' made its appearance, under the editor- 
ship of Mr. W. H. Western, of Darwen, who is also the printer, 
a fact which probably accounts for this 16 pp. magazine being 
sold at the low price of one penny. The new venture is the 
official organ of the Lancashire Union of Natural History, 
Literary and Philosophical Societies, 'and it is to be hoped that 
the affiliated societies will liberally subscribe to this journal and 
thus ensure its success. We doubt, however, the advisability 
of printing the general reports of the various societies' 
general meetings ; particulars of important local exhibits or 
records might with advantage be extracted, but the space 
these full reports occupy might be put to better service by 
the insertion of original articles — it should surely be an easy 
matter to fill sixteen pages once a month in this way. The 
journal hopes to ' chronicle all interesting events, and to assist 
in recording the flora, fauna, etc., of our county.' If this local 
character is maintained, the new magazine may become an 
important and valuable addition to our monthly literature. 



MARINE BIOLOGY. 
The ' Twentieth Annual Report of the Liverpool Marine 
Biology Committee ' * is to hand, and contains a record of a 
year's useful work accomplished at Port Erin. It is pleasing 

* Liverpool University, 56 pp., and illustrations. 
1907 May 1. 



1 66 



A T otes and Comments. 



to find that there is a marked increase of visitors to the 
Aquarium ; and, as the Report points out, ' an institution 
where over fifteen thousand summer visitors are shown a 
number of the most interesting of our common sea-side animals 
and plants in a living- condition and among- natural surroundings, 
with labels, pictures, and other information, must surely be 
doing something to encourage nature study, and to foster an 
appreciation of biology.' Perhaps the most interesting exhibit 
was 'the Octopus of the Irish Sea, Eledone cirrosa' (which 







The Irish Sea Octopus. 

we are enabled to figure herewith). A good supply of this 
Cephalopod was obtained in the early spring, and the tank in 
which they lived was a great attraction to the visitors. As an 
appendix to this Report is printed an admirable address on 
' Some Problems of the Sea,' by Prof. Herdman. Mr. Andrew 
Scott has also some useful ' Notes on Special Plankton Investi- 
gations,' which, like the other articles in the Report, is well 
illustrated. 

LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE ENTOMOLOGISTS. 

The vigorous Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological 
Society has just issued its thirtieth annual report,* and gives 
evidence of a successful year's work. It contains a record of 
all the important exhibits at the meetings; the Vice-President's 
address, by Prof. T. Hudson Beare ; a portion of 'A Preliminary 
Catalogue of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of Lancashiie and 
Cheshire ' (a valuable contribution), by Oscar Whittaker ; and a 
'Note on the Remarkable Race of Agrotis ashivorthii,' by Mr. 
W. Mansbridge. A portrait of Mr. F. N. Pierce appears as 
frontispiece. 

* Fifty pages. Price 2/6. ' Visitor ' Printing Works, Southport. 

Naturalist, 



167 

THEORIES OF EVOLUTION. 



An Historical Outline. 



AGNES ROBERTSON, D.Sc. 



I.— INTRODUCTION. 

All the animals and plants to-day inhabiting" the world can be 
classified into small groups known as 'species.' This is recog- 
nised even by those who are not naturalists. We call an animal 
having a certain set of characters a horse, and a plant having a 
certain set of characters a dandelion, using these names without 
hesitation, although the individuals which we identify in this 
way differ considerably among themselves. We have in our 
minds a conception of a typical horse and of a typical dandelion, 
and an animal or a plant conforming to one of these types more 
closely than to any other, we regard as belonging to the horse 
or dandelion ' species.' The world, then, is peopled with a huge 
number of species which, on the whole, are sharply distinguish- 
able, and further, these species are not altogether isolated, but 
can be classified into groups by means of the characters which 
they possess in common. For instance the Field Buttercup, 
the Lesser Celandine, and the Water Crowfoot, though no one 
would ever confuse them, yet resemble one another closely enough 
to be placed in the same group of similar species, or, as we say, in 
the same 'genus.' Again, it is found that these genera can them- 
selves be arranged in larger groups called ' orders. ' The 
species belonging to a genus resemble one another more closely 
than they do those of any other genus, and in the same way the 
genera belonging to the same order show more resemblance to 
one another than to the genera belonging to any other order. 
Similar orders can be grouped into larger classificatory units, and 
so on. 

So far, we have been speaking of the organic world 
descriptively ; the fact that organised beings naturally fall 
into a classification of the kind just outlined would be allowed 
by everyone, and is not a matter of theory, but merely of 
observation. But when we turn to the question of how this 
state of things has arisen, we plunge at once into the region of 
hypothesis. There are two main contrasting views ; those of 
Special Creation and of Descent with Modification. According 
to the first view, the species of the animal and plant world were 

1907 May 1. 



1 68 Robertson : Theories of Evolution. 

created just as we know them now, and have persisted un- 
changed to the present day. The only way to test the value of 
a hypothesis is to ascertain how far it affords an explanation of 
observed facts, and it is on account of its failure to afford such 
an explanation that the doctrine of ' Special Creation ' has been 
rejected by biologists as a ' working hypothesis.' On the other 
hand, the theory of Descent with Modification gives a luminous 
conception of the general scheme of organised life. According 
to this theory species are not immutable, but all living beings 
had a common origin somewhere in the remote mists of 
antiquity. The descendants of the original form, or forms 
(which are supposed to have been exceedingly simple in structure) 
have developed with progressive modification along innumerable 
lines, attaining at last to the state of differentiation and com- 
plication which we witness to-day. The theory of Descent 
with Modification gives a real meaning to the existence of 
classificatory units, such as genera, orders, etc., for these are 
regarded as actual expressions of the degree of blood-relation- 
ship ; a genus, for instance, consists of a group of species which 
have a close affinity, being descended from a comparatively 
recent common ancestor. 

The doctrine of Special Creation seems to have been accepted 
almost unquestioningly in ancient and mediaeval times, though in 
certain classical writings a disbelief in it is vaguely foreshadowed. 
The idea that species are mutable was first definitely expressed 
by Sir Walter Raleigh in the seventeenth century. In his great 
work on 'The History of the World,' speaking of the days of 
Noah's flood, he says, ' But it is manifest, and undoubtedly 
true, that many of the Species, which now seem differing, and 
of severall kindes, were not then in rernm natnra.' 

Buffon (1707- 1 788) was one of the first scientists to clearly 
suggest that species might have been gradually evolved. It is 
not worth while to dwell at length upon his views. He was by 
no means a great naturalist, but he was an amazingly brilliant 
writer ; some of his epigrams, such as ' Le style c'est l'homme 
meme,' live to the present day. He had occasional vivid flashes 
of scientific insight, and was the first to realise that fossils give 
evidence of the existence of extinct animals. Buffon appears to 
have been much afraid of incurring the odium of his orthodox 
contemporaries, and though he sometimes dared to state the 
possibility of Descent with Modification quite clearly, at other 
times he definitely denied such views. According to Professor 
Packard, 'The impression left on the mind, after reading Buffon, 

Naturalist. 



Robertson : Theories of Evolution. 169 

is that even if he threw out these suggestions and then retracted 
them for fear of annoyance, or even persecution from the bigots 
of his time, he did not himself always take them seriously, but 
rather jotted them down as passing thoughts.' 

II.— ERASMUS DARWIN AND LAMARCK. 

The germs of the doctrine of Descent with Modification seem 
to have been in the atmosphere in the last decade of the eight- 
eenth century, for between 1790 and 1800 the conclusion that 
species were not immutable was reached independently in 
Germany by Goethe, in France by Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and in 
England by Erasmus Darwin. The last named, who was a 
physician, a poet, and grandfather of Charles Darwin, published 
in 1796 a remarkable book called ' Zoonomia,' which contained, 
amidst much speculation irrelevant to our purpose, a profession 
of faith in the doctrine of evolution. After discussing the 
metamorphoses which individual animals undergo, and the 
essential likeness of structure of all the higher animals, he 
goes on to say, ' would it be too bold to imagine, that in the 
great length of time, since the earth began to exist, perhaps 
millions of ages before the commencement of the history of 
mankind, would it be too bold to imagine, that all warm-blooded 
animals have arisen from one living filament, which the great 
first cause endued with animality.' 

Erasmus Darwin not only believed in evolution, but tendered 
one or two suggestions as to hozv the process had been brought 
about. His main idea was that useful modifications, such as 
the hard beaks of certain birds, the elephant's trunk, and the 
rough tongue and palate of cattle, ' seem to have been gradually 
acquired during many generations by the perpetual endeavour 
of the creatures to supply the want of food, and to have been 
delivered to their posterity with constant improvement of them 
for the purposes required.' He also foreshadowed the theory of 
Sexual Selection, which we shall have occasion to speak of later 
in dealing with the work of Charles Darwin. The fact that these 
suggestions of Erasmus Darwin met with little recognition at 
the time is scarcely surprising when we remember that they 
were put forward more or less casually, and that no effort was 
made to establish them by proof. 

The name of the French biologist Lamarck, who first 
published his views at the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
is better known in the history of evolutionary thought than that 

1907 May 1. 



170 Robertson: Theories of Evolution. 

of Erasmus Darwin. The opinions held by the two men were 
very similar, but Lamarck, who was primarily a scientist, worked 
out his theories much more completely and circumstantially, and 
they received more attention from naturalists than the compar- 
atively tentative ideas of a poet and dreamer such as Erasmus 
Darwin. Lamarck was born in 1744. His father destined him 
for the Church, but his own taste was for military things, and 
as soon as his father died he joined the French army, then 
campaigning against Germany. He distinguished himself so 
much in an action, which took place the day he enlisted, that he 
was made an officer on the spot. He was soon obliged to leave 
the army owing to ill-health, with a pension of only about ^20 a 
year. He was obliged to work at a bank to make this pittance 
up to aliving wage, and at the same time went through some medical 
studies. He worked at botany in his spare time, and produced 
his 'Flore Francaise,' which brought him under the notice of 
Buffon, who made him tutor to his son. For fifteen years he 
lived precariously by his pen, but during the Reign of Terror he 
obtained the appointment of Professor at the Musee d'Histoire 
Naturelle. His colleague, Geoffroy St. Hilaire (then twenty-one), 
was responsible for the Vertebrate Zoology, while Lamarck 
cheerfully undertook everything else ! In 1809 his great work, 
the ' Philosophie Zoologique,' saw the light. 

Lamarck had, in many ways, an unfortunate life. For many 
years he had a great struggle to make both ends meet, and for 
the last ten years of his life he was blind. His daughter Cornelie 
devoted herself to him absolutely, and became his scientific 
secretary. His poverty and his blindness do not complete the 
full tale of his sorrows, for, in the words of Professor Packard, 
his biographer, ' Lamarck's life was saddened and embittered 
by the loss of four wives.' 

To try and state Lamarck's philosophy in a few words is 
extremely difficult. He believed that, in the main, two great 
factors had cooperated in producing organic evolution. The 
first of these was a tendency inherent in all organisms to pro- 
gress from the simple and undifferentiated to the complex and 
highly differentiated. The second was the power of organisms 
to adapt themselves to their environment through habit and the 
use and disuse of organs, and to transmit to their offspring the 
adaptations so produced. For instance, Lamarck would suppose 
that the giraffe was descended from a short-necked ancestor, 
whose perpetual efforts to browse on higher and higher branches 
of trees produced a certain elongation of its neck. This 

Naturalist, 



Northern Netos. I 7 I 

elongation, he believed, it would transmit to its offspring, 
which would continue to make efforts to reach higher and 
higher, so that in each generation some progress would be 
made towards the immensely elongated neck of the modern 
^iraffe. We know, of course, of many instances in which habit 
and use profoundly modify an organ during the life of the 
individual : the size and strength of the blacksmith's arm would 
be a case in point. But Lamarck demands more than this, for 
such modifications as a giraffe's neck could never be produced 
if each generation had to start afresh from the beginning. 
Lamarck's theory stipulates that characters acquired during 
the lifetime of an organism shall be transmitted to the next 
generation, and it is here that the main difficulty comes in. 
For no one has at present been able to offer indisputable proof 
that su ch transmission takes place. 

{To be continued). 



At the recent annual meeting of the Craven Naturalists' Society Mr. 
J. T. Davison was elected President. 

At the annual meeting of the Hull Geological Society, held on April nth, 
Mr. T. Sheppard was elected President. 

We are pleased to notice that Miss Mary Johnstone, B.Sc, LL.A., the 
head mistress of the Grange Road Secondary School, Bradford, has recently 
been elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society. 

Mr. S. B. Steelman points out that on the Lincolnshire Wolds the var. 
doubledayaria of Amphidasys behdaria appears to be the dominent form 
there, as in the South-west Riding of Yorkshire (April 'Entomologist '). 

The 'Journal of Conchology' caters well for its Lancashire readers; the 
April issue contains two lenghty contributions, viz., 'The Land and Fresh- 
water Shells of Morecambe, Lancaster and district,' by J. Davy Dean ; 
and ' Bibliography of the Non-Marine Mollusca of Lancashire,' by J. W. 
Jackson. 

On a plate illustrating an article on ' A permanent record of British 
Moths in their natural attitudes of rest,' by Mr. A. H. Hamm (Trans. Ent. 
Soc, issued Jan. 23rd, 1907), are some of the best examples of 'protective 
colouration ' that we have seen for some time. 

Since our last impression was published, ' Hull Museum Publications," 
Nos. 41 and 42, have appeared. The first is an admirably illustrated guide 
to the new Wilberforce House Museum, and the second is the twentieth 
Quarterly Record of Additions. The latter has illustrated accounts of 
Querns, Mantraps, Coins, etc., etc. The same institution has recently 
acquired the fine collection of British and Roman Querns formed by the late 
Dr. H. B. Hevvetson, at Easington. 

Part IV. of 'The Birds of the British Islands,' by Charles Stonham 
(E. Grant Richards, 7/6), has appeared, and completes the first volume of 
this work, upon which no expense appears to have been spared to make it a 
really attractive publication. With the present instalment are two excellent 
coloured maps — the first being an orographical map of the British Islands, 
and the second ' The Zoological Regions of the World.' 

1907 May 1. 



1 7 2 



WHITE LESSER BLACK=BACKED GULL, AND THE 
REPORTED NESTING OF THE IV >RY GULL, ON 
THE FARNE ISLANDS IN 1906. 



HARRY B. BOOTH, M.B.O.U. 



Mr. H. A. Paynter (of Alnwick), the Honorary Secretary and 
Treasurer of the Fame Islands Association, in his interesting- 
report for 1906, states :—' I heard that a pair of Ivory Gulls 
nested on the Wamses, but I did not see them.' In a recent 
letter to me on this subject, Mr. Paynter says that when the 
occurrence was reported to him, it was too late for him to 
verify it. 

It is exceedingly unlikely that this species should breed at 
any spot in the British Isles, and in company with Mr. Fortune 
I visited the Fame Islands twice during the breeding season of 
1906. On the North Wamses there was a white gull, which I 
spent a considerable time in stalking and watching with my field 
glasses, whilst my friend was engaged photographing. Our 
boatmen said they had been informed that it was a rare Arctic 
species, and they considered it to be half as large again as 
the Lesser Black-backed Gulls. In this they were deceived by 
its conspicuousness — it was exactly the same size — and I made 
it out to my entire satisfaction to be a partial albino of the 
Lesser Black-backed Gull, and paired to a normal one of the 
same species. It was of a slightly dirty white shade, with the 
exception of a few faint streaks of grey, chiefly on the second- 
aries, which showed from above, but more particularly from 
below, when the bird was just overhead. Its beak and legs 
showed the faintest tinge of yellow, its eye appeared to be 
of the normal colour, and its note and cry were similar to those 
of the other Lesser Black-backs. In early August I attempted to 
single out its offspring, but could not do so as they ran away 
with the other young gulls of various sizes, and in a small herd 
like chickens. I was prompted to examine them out of 
curiosity, for even if they should develop into partial albinoes, 
they would not necessarily show any difference whilst in the 
downy stage. However, I could not detect the slightest 
variation in any of the young gulls in the vicinity. 

I should like to testify to the admiration and esteem in 
which I regard Mr. Paynter for the great share he has played 
in the protection of the breeding birds of the Fame Islands — 
an illustration probably unequalled in the history of Bird 
Protection. 

Naturalist, 



THE XATCRALIST, 1907 



Plate XXI. 




Speeton Ammonites. 



NOTES ON SUCCINEA OBLONGA, DRAP., 
AND OTHER SPECIES AT GRANGE= 
OVER= SANDS, LANCS. 



J. WILFRID JACKSON, 
Manchester. 



On Good Friday, March 29th, a small party spent the day in 
hunting- for shells in this favourite locality. The weather was 
magnificent, the temperature being more like July than March. 
Our main efforts were devoted to ascertaining the distribution 
of Succinea oblonga, taken for the first time, in August last year, 
by Mr. H. Beeston of Havant (' Naturalist,' Jan., 1907, p. 31). 
Our first efforts were, however, disappointing, and we decided 
to try fresh ground some little distance away from the ditch 
where Mr. Beeston discovered his specimens. In this we were 
more successful, and were soon rewarded by finding a dead adult 
specimen. This was shortly followed by others, among which 
were a few full-grown living ones. We then became aware 
that the sides and bottom of the damp ditches in which we were 
working contained numbers of juvenile examples, all on the 
crawl, along with a number of other species. 

We were surprised to keep coming across numbers of dead 
slugs, chiefly Agriolimax agrestis and A. Icevis, which had the 
appearance of having been drowned — no doubt during the 
recent floods, when many of the marshes in this district were 
covered by the heavy tide. The animals were mostly in an 
extended condition, and some were covered with a whitish mould. 

The other species of mollusca noticed living in the ditches and 
their vicinity were Hygromia hispida, fine specimens and very 
hispid; Succinea elegans, a few juvenile examples; Carychium, 
minimum, abundant; Punctum pygmceum ; Cochlicopa lubrica ; 
Agriolimax agreslis, A. Icevis ; Arion circumscriptus ; Limncea 
pereger var. maritima, L. truncatula ; Aplecta hypnorum ; 
Pisidium pusillum, and P. obtusale. 

Crossing over out of Westmorland to the Lancashire side of 
the river Winster, we made our way back to Grange, examining 
other likely habitats for S. oblonga on the way. Near to a 
triangular piece of brackish water and marshy bit of ground w r e 
were surprised to find the species again in evidence (all young 
specimens) at the roots of grass on the top of a low wall — a 
most unusual habitat for Succinece. Flood work was again 
noticeable, and numbers of dead land shells were strewn 

1907 May 1. 



174 Jackson: Succinea oblonga at Grange-over-Sands, Lanes. 

about among the debris, and it is quite possible that the 
Succinece had been driven out of their usual marshy habitat 
by the inroads of the sea. 

Among the dead shells nothing striking was noticed, the 
species being mostly of the commoner kinds, such as Hygromia 
rufescens, H. /n'spida, Vitrea cellaria, etc., though more time 
spent at this place might have resulted in the acquisition of 
some of the rarer kinds, as is often the case in the north 
of Ireland after floods. The finding of this species in the above 
two widely separated places, coupled with the fact that Mr. 
Beeston also obtained some immature specimens of Succinece, 
which he believes to be S. oblonga, in another situation on the 
same marsh last August, leads us to think that it will prove 
abundant all over the marsh. 

It is interesting to compare this habitat with that of Braun- 
ton Burrows, in Devonshire, both of which, whilst dissimilar in 
physical and general aspects — the one being among the sand 
dunes, the other (near Grange) being on ' salt-marsh ' — agree 
in the fact of the species inhabiting places near the sea and 
where the water is brackish. 

We proceeded to Eggerslack Wood, where we were soon 
amongst an abundance of Aeantliinula lamellata. This species 
was first found here in October, 1905, by the writer,* when only 
a single specimen was taken. In August last Messrs. Booth 
and Rhodes were more fortunate, obtaining thirty or more 
specimens in a short time, f 

On the occasion of our joint visit the shell was very much 
in evidence, almost every dead beech leaf having one or more 
examples adhering to it. The shells were mostly of a somewhat 
depressed form. 

Another object of our visit — Acicula lineata — we were not 
so fortunate with, only about eight examples being noticed, 
three of which were white. A number of the usually more 
prolific species was observed during our collecting. 

It would be interesting here, also, to note that Mr W. H. 
Heathcote, of Preston, found Avion ater var. alba sub-var. 
marginata in abundance at Woodhead, near Grange, when 
collecting on Easter Monday, as well as a fine example of 
Helix aspersa var. exalbida, the first record for Lancashire. 



* See ' Journ. Conch.,' Vol. 11, 1906, p. 361 
t Op. cit., Vol. 12, 1907, p. 19. 



Naturalist, 



J 75 



NOTES ON LEPIDOPTERA IN THE 
WILSDEN DISTRICT IN 1906. 



ROSSE BUTTERFIELD. 



From the end of June to the end of the season I worked with 
the object of ascertaining what changes had taken place in the 
local lepidopterous fauna during recent years. 

The latter part of June and the whole of July and August 
were very favourable months. September was characterised by 
a copious amount of sunshine, but a prevailing north-east wind 
militated against successful collecting. October, on the whole, 
was fairly good, while November was a very wet month. 

The predominating entomological features of the year were 
the abnormal abundance of Acronycta psi, Neuronia popularis, 
Amphipyra tragopogonis, and Dasypolia templi. N. papillaris 
swarmed around the gas lamps on suitable nights from August 
19th to the first week in September. Hitherto only one or two 
isolated examples of this species have been recorded for this 
district. D. templi appeared as early as the second week in 
September. On the night of the 18th October, the lamps in the 
immediate suburbs of Bradford attracted an unprecedented 
number of males of this species. This moth is, I believe, one 
of the commonest Nocture within the city boundary. It is, 
however, a very capricious insect, and although the night in 
question was dark, damp, and overcast, such conditions were 
accompanied by a cold northerly wind. 

In addition to the foregoing, Eugonia alniaria, Venusia 
cambrica, and Melanippe galiata deserve special mention as 
being unusually common, and in a lesser degree Noctua 
glareosa. 

Putting out of the question certain moths which formerly 
occurred, but which appear to have disappeared, Apamea 
basilinea and Hadena oleracea, which are usually common, were 
characterised rather by their absence, as also was the first 
brood of Melanippe fluctuata. 

In June, July, and September sugar failed as an attraction 
to insects. Xylophasia monoglypha on some nights appeared in 
numbers, the type greatly preponderating. A few Orthosia 
suspecta and a single Miana literosa were all worthy of mention 
which came to sugar in those months. The flowers of the Rag- 
wort and Ivy proved an absolute failure, although both flowered 
freely. Ragwort is the chief attraction to Noctua dahlii, yet in 

1907 May 1. 



176 Butte rfield : Lepidoptera in the Wilsden District. 

spite of this flower failing, I observed a few. In October insects 
came freely to sugar. Orlhosia macilenta was extremely 
abundant; other common ones were Miselia oxyacanthce (mostly 
var. capucind), Agriopis aprilina, Calocampa exoleta, Agrotis 
suffusa, a few Scopelosoma satellitia, also two C. vetusta. I 
believe only one example of the latter species has heretofore 
been recorded in the Bradford district. 

Melanic forms do not appear to have been particularly con- 
spicuous. It is noteworthy that dark specimens of Scoparia 
cembrae and S. ambigualis were observed, and I secured several 
nearly black specimens of the ubiquitous Noctua xanthographa. 
Mr. Porritt, in his interesting paper on ' Melanism in Yorkshire 
Lepidoptera,' read before Section D. at the British Association 
at York (1906), does not include in the list therein given the 
two latter species. It is singular that the only specimen of 
Atnphidasys betularia, captured by my father, Mr. E. P. Butter- 
field, was a normal type. I secured a few black Boarmia 
repandata from Blackhills. Among the black forms captured 
were a few Cidaria immanata and Miana strigilis. My father 
and I caught at sugar one night two striking dark forms of 
Agriopis aprilina. The most interesting capture of the year 
was a rather dark example of Agrotis agathina in perfect 
condition. It was caught whilst it was circling around a lamp 
at the base of Harden Moor. 

Among moths which are associated with the moor, or rather 
moor edges, Acidalia fumata, A. inornata, Eupithecia nanata, 
and E. minutata were fairly common, as were also the Tortrices 
Penthina sauciana, and Amphysa gerningana, and the pretty 
Tineae Exapate congelatella. On Harden Moor I caught three 
Cloantha solidaginis. Whilst searching with a lamp for this 
species, I noticed an abundance of the larvae of Hadena pisi. 
Scodiona belgiaria appears to have been rather scarce, for I only 
saw two males. 

Among the Geometers caught in September were several 
Oporabia autumnaria. This has not previously been recorded 
for the district. Mr. Porritt, in his 'Yorkshire Lepidoptera,' 
does not give it specific rank, though it is included as a species 
in 'The Entomologist Synonymic Reference List.' 

Butterflies, as usual, have been conspicuous by their absence 
— that is to say, in the immediate neighbourhood of Bradford — 
with the exception of Cabbage Whites ; a Small Tortoise Shell, 
caught on December 4th, is the only record I have ! 

Naturalist, 



i77 



GEOLOGICAL NOTES ON THE ROBIN 
HOOD'S BAY DISTRICT. 



Professor PERCY F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S. 



The Whitsuntide excursion of the Y.N.U. to Robin Hood's Bay 
will afford the members of the Geological Section an opportunity, 
of which they will probably not be slow to avail themselves, of 
studying a series of rocks unsurpassed in Britain for the com- 
pleteness of their development and the excellence of the 
exposures, both on the coast and inland. The physical features 
are of equal interest to the stratigraphy, and the palaeontology 
to both. But the geological fare is even more generous still, 
and students of geological tectonics and of glacial geology will 
find entrees as subtly compounded as the most fastidious palate 
could demand. The piece de resistance is, of course, the 
Jurassic series, and with Spring Tides (the moon is new on 
Whit Sunday) the magnificent exposures on the scars and in 
the cliffs will be easy of access. 

The whole Liassic succession can be made out in the Bay 
with the sole exception of the lowest Zone, that of Ammonites 
(Psiloceras) planorbis, and of that evidence is occasionally 
obtainable in blocks thrown up from submerged reefs. At 
Blea Wyke can be seen the only certain occurrence in Yorkshire 
of the Zone of Lytoceras jurense and of the overlying Blea Wyke 
Beds which form a complete passage from the Lias into the 
Inferior Oolite. These are succeeded by the most important 
development of the Dogger to be found in the country, and that 
is followed by the great Estuarine Series with its occasional 
marine beds, which have played an important part in the 
correlation of the Lower Oolites of Yorkshire with their south- 
country equivalents. 

All these Jurassic beds are well furnished with the fossils 
characteristic of their age and of the conditions under which 
they were deposited. The principal problem which these rocks 
present is connected with the movements of a large fault 
which is exposed in the upper part of the cliff at Peak, and 
bifurcating seaward produced Peak Steel, a triangular reef of 
Middle Lias let in between the Lower Lias of Robin Hood's 
Bay and the Upper Lias of the foreshore to the south of 
the point. 

1907 May 1. 

M 



178 Kendall: Notes on the Robin Hood's Bay District. 

Peak Fault seems to belong- to a system of dislocation 
completely surrounding- the folded, but not faulted, mass of the 
Cleveland Hills in much the same way that the Craven and 
related faults surround the unfaulted mass of Carboniferous 
rocks of the Yorkshire Dales. The analogy may be traced 
even further, and just as it has been argued that contempor- 
aneous movements of the Craven system of faults affected the 
deposition of the Carboniferous and Permian rocks, so, and 
with even greater clearness and certainly, it can be inferred 
that the Cleveland system of faults affected the deposition of 
Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments. It is not improbable that 
the Cleveland phenomena are the actual complement of those of 
Craven, and that if either the secondary rocks had been partially 
preserved in the western area, or the palaeozoic rocks exposed 
in the eastern one, we might see that repetition of movements 
of the dislocations had continued intermittently from Car- 
boniferous times, or earlier, down to Cretaceous times, or later. 
It can be readily demonstrated that some of the folds were lines 
of persistent movement. 

The Peak Fault, which belongs to the same series as the 
Speeton Fault and the dislocation that runs across the peninsular 
of Scarborough Castle, has long been a subject of speculation 
among geologists, and within the last two or three years Mr. 
Rastall and Mr. Herries have both written on the subject. The 
feature to which most attention has been directed is the effect 
of the fault upon the contrasted development of the Upper Lias 
and Lower Oolites upon opposite sides of the fault. 

On the downthrow (seaward) side the Dogger shows a very 
large development, and includes important fossiliferous marine 
beds, and the Blea Wyke beds and the Lytoceras jurense beds 
are of great magnitude. While on the upthrow (landward) side 
the succession, which is splendidly exposed in the great range 
of old Alum Works extending from Peak Tunnel to Stoupe 
Brow, shows a greatly attenuated Dogger, consisting of only a 
few feet of sandstone, with some inches of basal conglomerate 
resting on the Alum Shales of the Upper Lias, the jurense zone 
and the Blea Wyke beds being absent. Various explanations 
of the discrepancy have been offered, and they will form 
excellent provocation to those dialectic encounters for which 
the geologists have long been renowned. 

Glacial Geology will, no doubt, have its day, and if there 
should chance to be a geologist present whose jaded palate can 
still respond to the stimulus of glacier lakes and overflow 

Naturalist, 



George : Lincolnshire Mites. 179 

channels, he can indulge his taste with the original and 
authentic brand of those delicacies. The coast sections of the 
glacial deposits are, or at least were last autumn, in a very 
favourable condition for observation. One noteworthy feature 
then visible was a basement layer of coarse rubble consisting of 
local rocks, chiefly Jurassic Sandstone, with a few fragments of 
Lias. In this deposit no foreign boulders have as yet been 
detected. 



LINCOLNSHIRE MITES. 

RtiYNCHQLOPHlD/E— [continued). 



C. F. GEORGE, M.R.C.S. 

Kirton-in-Lindsey. 



Erythk.hus appears to be a fairly common Lincolnshire mite, 
as I have found several specimens at different times, Mr. Soar 
has succeeded in making a very characteristic likeness of the 
creatures (fig. 7), as well as a capital, and almost diagramatic 
sketch of the palpi and mandibles (fig. 8). This genus differs 
from the preceeding ones in having the mandibles only retractile, 
and their lancet-like shape and barbed extremities are well 
shown in the figure. The palpi are seen to be of five joints ; 
the last and smallest joint is bag-shaped, and attached rather 
near to the base of the fourth, altogether the organ is very 
similar to that found characteristic of the Trombididaa. The 
colour of the mite varies considerably ; sometimes it is rust 
coloured and at others a rather deep red, the hairs being con- 
siderably darker than the body of the mite. They are rather 
short, stout, and thickly pectinated. Those on the body are 
rather blunt at the free end and sometimes slightly curved, 
whilst those on the legs and palpi are sharply pointed. The 
eyes are simple, very convex, bright, like red sealing-wax, and 
give the mite a rather fierce appearance under the microscope; 
they are two in number, embedded in the skin, one on either 
side of the cephalothorax, and in the middle between them is a 
dorsal groove containing a chitinous rod, looped at either end, 
having two very fine, rather long curved hairs in each loop, 
best seen in a recently dissected mite. The legs are long, the 
tarsus of each leg compressed sideways, and that of the first 
pair larger than the others. The Epimera are in four groups, 

1907 May 1. 



i8o 



Northern News. 



rather small and far apart. There are, no doubt, a good 
number of species in this group requiring examination and 
description. I should be glad to receive specimens, living or 




Figs. 7 and 8. Erythrseus. 



dead, for examination and dissection ; they would come by 
post in a corked bottle or a closely fitting box containing a little 
slightly moist moss. 



The Board of Agriculture and Fisheries desire to announce that a new 
edition of their leaflet on the Black Currant Mite has been published, in 
which information on the treatment of this pest with lime and sulphur has 
been incorporated. Fruit growers whose bushes have been attacked with 
the mite are advised to experiment with this process. Copies of the leaflet 
may be obtained gratis and post free on application to the Secretary of the 
Board of Argriculture and Fisheries, 4, Whitehall Place, London, S.W. 
Letters so addressed need not be stamped. 

Naturalist, 



THE VICTORIA HISTORY OF YORKSHIRE.* 

The first Yorkshire volume of this magnificent work has at last 
appeared, and is certainly well up to the admirable standard 
already attained by this monumental series. Yorkshire is to 
have nine volumes devoted to it — three dealing with the county 
generally and two having reference to each of the three Ridings. 
The volume just issued is perhaps that which will interest 
readers of this journal more than will any of the subsequent 
volumes, as it contains an account of the geology, botany, zoology, 
and pre-historic remains of the county. Yorkshire, and the York- 
shire Naturalists' Union particularly, can be congratulated upon 
the prominent part which workers in the county have played in the 
production of the volume, though certainly in scanning its pages 
names of contributors which one might have expected to have 
seen are missing, whilst others, equally unexpected, appear. 
The valuable monographs issued by the County Society have 
probably had much to do with the selection of many of the 
authors of the chapters under notice. 

After the usual preliminary matter, we find the first article 
is on the Geology of Yorkshire, by Professor Kendall. For 
this we have nothing but praise, and it can be safely staled 
that it represents one of the finest productions from the pen of 
that author, and unquestionably he has given a summary of 
the geology of the county in a way which only a thorough 
master of every branch of the subject could have done. In this 
contribution, which extends to just upon one hundred pages, it is 
evident that the writer is thoroughly acquainted not only with 
the principal sections in the various strata referred to, but, what 
is of more importance, with the literature relating thereto. 
Professor Kendall has always been a keen worker at bibliography, 
and this contribution to Yorkshire geology is an admirable 
instance of the value of such work. In carefully perusing the 
pages it cannot be seen that he has omitted references to any- 
body's work ; in fact, he has, if at all, erred on the side of giving 
too much prominence to the work of certain individuals. One 
great, though pardonable omission is the adequate recognition 
of the valuable contributions to Yorkshire geology which have 
been made by Professor Kendall himself. As was truly stated 
at a recent gathering of geologists, the study of the features of 
our broad-acred shire and the causes to which they are due, 



* Vol. I., 524 pp., 12 plates and 4 maps. Constable & Co., price 
(tog-ether with Vols. II. and III.) 42 guineas. 

1907 May 1. 



1 82 The Victoria History of Yorkshire. 

received an impetus a few years ago when Professor Kendall 
first came to the county, and from that moment to the present 
time might aptly be termed the Kendallian era in our knowledge 
of the very early History of Yorkshire. Probably no one has 
contributed more in a variety of ways to the elucidation of 
the many intricate problems in our county as he has, and 
whilst anyone familiar with his work might" detect its influence 
upon the contribution under reveiw, it is more than possible 
that an outsider might study the article and have a very im- 
perfect idea of the proportion of it which is really the result of 
Professor Kendall's own researches. This contribution to 
Yorkshire geology forms a fitting and firm foundation to the 
series of monographs which are to follow. There is also a really 
beautiful geological map of the county, in four sections. 

The next article is on Palaeontology, by Mr. R. Lydekker, 
who is unquestionably well qualified to deal with the subject ; 
but in perusing his very brief contribution, one is struck with 
the obvious disadvantage under which he has laboured by not 
being familiar with the district upon which he writes, nor with 
the various collections of organic remains preserved in different 
parts of the county. We must congratulate this author, not- 
withstanding, upon the thoroughness with which he has examined 
the recent literature on the subject. The result of this, however, 
is that too much prominence appears to be given to the work of 
certain investigators of recent years, whilst that of the pioneers in 
palasontological research, to whom we owe so much, seems to 
almost be taking a secondary position. For example, we should 
be the last, in any way, to deprecate the excellent work now being 
done in the south eastern corner of the county ; and, largely 
as the result of the frequent contributions during- the last few 
years by the Curator of the Hull Museum, there is no doubt 
that the specimens under his charge have received a publicity 
which, though deserving, has not been followed in the case of per- 
haps even more interesting examples in other parts of the county. 
Mr. Lydekker has had very largely to depend upon published re- 
cords and as a consequence one finds that the Hull Museum, or the 
specimens it contains, or Mr. Sheppard, are referred to on almost 
every page of this contribution, and on some pages several times. 

Speaking, at any rate for the vertebrate remains found in 
recent deposits, it can be safely stated that the records given in 
this volume might be very largely increased. 

The botanical section occupies 160 pages, and has been 
prepared under the guidance of Mr. J. G. Baker, the veteran 

Naturalist, 



The Victoria History of Yorkshire. 183 

Yorkshire botanist. Not to have secured the services 
of Mr. Baker would, indeed, have been a calamity. His 
familiarity with the botanical features of the county and his 
various contributions on the subject (including his recently 
issued second edition of ' North Yorkshire ') are a sufficient 
guarantee of the excellence of the work, and in this section 
every acknowledgement is made to various Yorkshire workers 
and to the publications of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 
The botanical section is divided into ' Introduction'; 'Botanical 
Districts' (1. the North Riding: 2. the East Riding: 3. the 
West Riding) ; ' Mosses ' ; ' Liverworts ' ; ' Marine Algae ' ; 
'Lichens'; and 'Fungi.' Mr. Baker gives the following 
approximate estimate of the number of plants known in the 
county : — 

Flowering plants and ferns 

Mosses ... 

Hepaticae 

Lichens ... 

Algae 

Fungi 



1050. 

400. 

150. 

500. 
1200. 
2626. 



Total species ... 5926. 

Mr. Baker's contribution is accompanied by an admirable 
coloured map of the county, divided into twenty-two botanical 
districts, based on the river basins. 

We are agreeably surprised to find that a fairly comprehensive 
account of the marine zoology of the county appears, from the 
pen of Mr. John Oliver Borley. In this the author gives a 
description of the nature of the coast-line and its bearing upon 
the fauna. He supplies lists of the species according to their 
northern, southern, etc., types, and follows with apparently 
carefully compiled lists of the various forms of marine lite 
occurring on the coast, for which he is admittedly indebted 
very largely to the ' Naturalist ' and to the ' Transactions of the 
Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' Club.' At the present 
moment, when there seems to be a desire on the part of York- 
shire naturalists to renew the study of the marine zoology of the 
coast, the appearance of this list seems particularly appropriate, 
and forms a suitable basis for future work. It is quite possible 
that a few records already published may have been overlooked 
by Mr. Borley, but it is more than probable that his lists can be 
enlarged by even a few carefully planned collecting excursions 

1907 May 1. 



184 The Victoria History of Yorkshire. 

to Filey Brig, Flamborough Head, or other suitable points. 
Probably something- in this direction will be accomplished 
during the coming summer. 

The account of the non-marine mollusca of the county seems 
very brief indeed, occupying four-and-a-half pages only. This 
is probably due to the fact that it has been prepared by Mr. B. 
B. Woodward, of the British Museum, who naturally cannot be 
familiar with the district he is describing, as are at least half-a- 
dozen prominent conchologists in the county. Perhaps the 
omission from the list of contributors to the present volume of 
the names of undoubtedly the best qualified conchologists in 
Yorkshire, we had almost said Britain, is the greatest surprise 
we have had in perusing it. Mr. Woodward points out that of 
the 146 species of non-marine mollusca now known to inhabit 
the British Isles no fewer than 1 22 have been recorded from York- 
shire. He regrets that there is, as yet, no complete memoir 
dealing with the land and fresh-water shells of the county as a 
whole, and this regret we certainly share with him. He points 
out that such a list was begun by Taylor and Nelson, in 1877, in 
the 'Transactions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union,' but it 
remains a fragment. We believe the conchological section of 
the Union is now considering the question of the completion of 
this list, and the sooner this appears the better. Possibly, had 
it existed, Mr. Woodward's contribution to the Victoria History 
would have been more substantial. It is gratifying to notice 
that ' the compilation by Mr. T. Petch of a published record of 
the land and fresh-water mollusca of the East Riding, with 
additions (Trans. Hull Sci. and R Nat, Club, in., 121-181), is 
the best planned local list it has been his good fortune to meet 
with, especially in the matter of the maps, and it is a great pity 
it has not been extended to the whole county.' 

Dealing with the insects there is a very satisfactory con- 
tribution of eighty pages, under the general editorship of Mr. 
G. T. Porritt, who has supplied the lists of Orthoptera, 
Neuroptera, Trichoptera, and Lepidoptera.* Mr. Denison 
Roebuck is responsible for the Hymenoptera, Messrs. E. G. 
Bayford and M. L. Thompson for the Coleoptera, and Mr. P. 
H. Grimshaw for the Diptera. There does not appear to be a 

* The list of Lepidoptera contains the following records, which have 
been made since the second edition of Mr. Porritt's ' List of Yorkshire 
Lepidoptera' appeared: — Phisia moneta, Euchromia mygindana, Orthotcenia 
antiquana, Catoptria fulvana, Acidalia emntaria, Ephippiphora grandtevana, 
Gelechia atriplicella, Bedellia somnulentella. 

Naturalist, 



The Victoria History of Yorkshire. 185 

list of Hemiptera, though surely there must be some printed 
records, although possibly these are not numerous. It will be 
for the new Yorkshire Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera 
Committee to remedy this defect. As might be expected, as a 
result of the exceptionally complete and excellent monographs 
already issued in the county, much of the material occurring in 
the contribution under 'insects' has already appeared elsewhere, 
though, of course, it is necessary in a work such as the Victoria 
History that it should occur again. 

The Arachnida (Spiders, Harvest-men, and False-Scorpions) 
are dealt with by the Rev. O. Pickard-Cambridge, and include 
about 221 species for Yorkshire, out of about 540 known for 
Great Britain and Ireland. Mr. Pickard-Cambridge gives a 
useful bibliography. 

The Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing has written a contribution 
dealing with Crustaceans, and gives an exceedingly readable 
and useful account of them ; in fact, he seems to have taken 
every possible care to gather together the various scattered 
records and to have presented the information in an attractive 
form. We cannot find that he has omitted anything of im- 
portance, and he has certainly examined the literature on the 
subject in a way which merits praise. 

For the Fishes, Reptiles and Batrachians, Birds, and Mam- 
mals, Mr. Oxley Grabham is responsible, and his contribution to 
these subjects occupies, for fishes 8 pages ; reptiles and 
batrachians, i\ ; birds, 28 ; mammals, 6. With this limited 
allocation of space of course it is not possible for Mr. Grabham 
to have done every justice to these important departments. 
With regard to the fishes, the author has added his own notes, 
together with others supplied by Messrs. W. J. Clarke and T. 
Newbitt, to the list, 'now, however, considerably out of date,' in 
'The Vertebrate Fauna of Yorkshire.' This chapter, however, 
had to be written at very short notice. Of the birds, we observe 
Mr. Grabham includes 326 species in his list. Amongst these is 
a red-throated pipit which the late Mr. John Cordeaux reported 
as seen near Kilnsea, though it was not obtained. We also 
observe that reference is made to the fact that quite recently 
ten eggs and a stuffed specimen of the Great Auk located at Scar- 
borough have, with the exception of one egg, now been lost to 
the town, and that there are two stuffed specimens in the York 
Museum. These, of course, have no connection with the county, 
as Mr. Grabham recognises, as the information is given in 
square brackets. He refers also to the forthcoming ' Birds of 

1907 May 1. 



1 86 Northern News. 

Yorkshire,' and whilst, of course, the somewhat brief account in 
the Victoria History is necessarily of a different type altogether 
from that about to appear in the two thick volumes dealing- with 
the birds of the county, it is much to be regretted that the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union was not able to get its monograph 
before the public first. In examining Mr. Grabham's list we 
notice a preference for the records of specimens which have 
been shot near York or are in the York Museum, but this is 
quite pardonable. 'Mr. G. Hewett of York ' seems unfamiliar, 
and we take this opportunity of informing Mr. Grabham that 
Mr. Hewitt's christian name is William. In the account of the 
Cetacea it might have been worth while to have added that the 
specimen of Sibbald's Rorqual caught at Spurn some years ago 
is the type specimen of that species, as was described in this 
journal for August, 1901.* 

[To be continued). 



We have received the Annual Report for 1905 of the Public Museums 
and Meteorological Observatory of Bolton. It has been prepared by the 
Curator, Mr. T. Midgley, and contains a record of a useful year's work. 

Under the title ' Nature's Night-Watchman,' Mr. Frank Finn figures 
and describes several species of owls in the April 'Animal World.' His 
photographs of the different species are very useful. 

At a recent meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological 
Society Mr. Sopp exhibited the cockroach Phoraspis leucogramme, 
taken in the Liverpool docks, this being a Brazilian species not previously 
recorded as having occurred in Europe. 

An interesting illustrated pamphlet on 'Allotments,' by T. W. Sanders' 
F. L.S., has been issued by the Agricultural and Horticultural Association 
(one penny). It is the eighth issue of the ' One and All' practical gardening 
handbooks, edited by Edward Owen Greening. The author gives practical 
illustrations of the obtaining and working of allotments, and the editor adds 
some detailed advice ' how to proceed.' 

From the ' Keighley Museum Report, 1906' we learn that it has been 
decided that Airedale shall be the District represented by its Museum, and 
towards securing specimens from this area, the Curator, Mr. S. L. Mosley, 
proposes to devote a very large portion of his leisure time, and all ' holidays.' 
The labels etc., printed at the Keighley Museum are reprinted on 8vo. sheets 
of paper, and issued as 'Keighley Museum Notes.' Of these 58 have already 
appeared. They principally deal with botanical and entomological subjects. 

Miss M. V. Lebour fa\ ours us with a reprint of her paper on ' Larva 1 
Trematodes of the Northumberland Coast' (Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. of 
Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-on-Tyne, New Series, Vol I., 
pt. 3). The authoress deals with this very neglected order in detail, and 
gives particulars of the various species of mollusca which are infested with 
Trematodes. Illustrating the paper are plates showing Monostomum 
flavum, Cercaria ubiqiiita, C. piru/u, Monostomum {Cercaria \Iophocerca), 
C. oocysta, Dlstomum {Echinostonrim) leptosomum, and Bucephalus 
haimeanus. 

Naturalist, 



,8 7 

3n flDemoriam. 

JOHN EMMERSON ROBSON. 

Northern Lepidopterists have sustained a great loss in the 
death of John E. Robson of Hartlepool, which event took place 
on February 28th last, after an illness of some weeks' duration. 
Mr. Robson was seventy-four years of age. For a very long- 
period he was known in the north of England as an ardent and 
successful lepidopterist, and since his connection with the 
4 Young Naturalist' (afterwards the 'British Naturalist'), 
equally so throughout the country. Mr. Robson edited the 
journal just alluded to for the fourteen years from 1879 to 1893, 
the first several years in conjunction with Mr. S. L. Mosley. 
The journal was very popular and did much good, and will long 
be remembered on account of the lively but thoroughly good- 
natured discussions between prominent lepidopterists of the time 
on various entomological problems. Mr. Robson also issued 
' A List of British Lepidoptera, and their named Varieties,' 
but his greatest literary work was probably ' The Lepidoptera 
of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle-on-Tyne,' the 
concluding part of which he was engaged upon at the time of his 
death. He had been busy on this work for some years, and 
three parts had already been issued, bringing it to the end of 
the Tortrices, and leaving only the Tineae and Pterophori to be 
dealt with. We are glad to know that this part will not suffer 
through the author's death, as Mr. E. R. Bankes has kindly 
undertaken to see it through the press, and it would have been 
impossible to have placed it in better or more suitable hands. 
Mr. Robson was an enthusiastic and genial companion as we 
know from experience, and a charming correspondent. He 
had been a Fellow of the Entomological Society of London 
since 1890. 

Besides his business and entomological pursuits, Mr. Robson 
took great interest in public work, especially educational, and 
was formerly on the old School Board, and more recently on the 
Education Committee at Hartlepool. He was, too, until his 
death, a member of the Borough Council, of which body his 
father was Mayor so long ago as 1855. The funeral took place 
at Hartlepool Cemetery on March 4th, and was of a public 
character, being attended by the Mayor and Corporation and 
very many of the leading inhabitants of the town, whilst the 
streets en route to the cemetery were lined with people assembled 
to show their respect. — G. T. P. 

1907 May 1. 



FIELD NOTES. 



LEPIDOPTBRA. 

Crambas falsellus : An addition to the Yorkshire List 
of Lepidoptera.— When on a visit to the Rev. C. D. Ash, in 
early July, last year, I netted a fine specimen of this Crambus 
at dusk in his g-arden at Saxton, near Tadcaster. — T. Ashton 
Lofthouse, Middlesborough. 



Tortrices, etc., at Guisborough. — The following were 
taken on the occasion of the Y. N. U. meeting- held at Guisborough 
in August, 1906 : — 

Peronea sponsana. Aphelia osseana. 

Penthina variegana. Prays curtisellus. 

Hedya dealbana. Cerostoma radiatella. 

Grapholttha ramella. Plutella cruciferarum. 

Grapholitha penkleriana. Argyresthia nitidella. 

Pcedisca corticana. Argyresthia gcedartclla. 

Pcedisca solandriana. Argyresthia spiniella. 

T. Ashton Lofthouse, Linthorpe, Middlesborough, April 1907. 



Lepidoptera taken Jn the Cleveland district during 
1906. — In most cases the species named below are additions to 
the local list : — 



Eudorea cratcegella. At sugar. Kil- 

dale. 
Tortrix unifasciana. Redcar. 
Peronea caledoniana. Battersby. 
Argyrotoza conwayana. Great 

Ayton. 
Ptycholoma lecheana. Guisborough. 
Hedya lariciana. Kildale, only two 

previous Yorks. records for this 

species. 
Hedya neglectana. Middlesborough. 
Sciaphila subjectana. Bred from 

near Middlesborough and Red- 
car. 
Sciaphila hybridana. Redcar. 
Pcedisca sordidana. Among alders 

at Great Ayton in September. 
Pamplusia mercuriana. Battersby. 
Retinia pinivorana. Great Ayton. 
Stignwnotainternana. Eston in June. 
Stigmonota regiana. Bred from 

sycamore, Kildale. 



Trycheris aurana. Great Ayton. 
Xanthosetia zoegana. Marske and 

Redcar. 
Eupa'cilia atricapitana. Redcar. 
Epigraphia steinkellneriana. Salt- 
burn. 
Tinea semifulvella. Great Ayton. 
I/icurvaria masculella. Middles- 
borough in April. 
Depressaria costosella. Marske and 

Kildale. 
Depressaria angelicella. Kildale. 
Gelechia ericetelia. Swainby in 

Cleveland. 
Gelechia dodecella. Kildale. 
Gelechia ligulella. Kildale. 
Gelechia rufescens. Redcar. 
Ornix anglicella. Swainby in Cleve- 
land. 
Coleophora albicosta. Eston. 
Coleophora fabriciella. Great Ayton. 



T. Ashton Lofthouse, Linthorpe, Middlesborough. 



Naturalist, 



Field Note. 189 

BIRDS. 

A Spotted Crake (Porzana maruetta) £ was picked up 
dead at Corwen on Sunday, April 14th. It had evidently met its 
fate by colliding against the telegraph wires, under which it was 
found. Its lower mandible was completely broken. The body 
of the bird was in a very wasted condition and the stomach 
contained only a few grains of sand. As this species is most 
secretive and loth to fly unless positively obliged, there is very 
little doubt the bird was migrating. — A. Newstead, Grosvenor 
Museum, Chester. 

Rare Birds in Craven. — On 20th March, 1907, I saw a fine 
Pink Footed Goose feeding on the bank of the River Aire near 
Skipton ; it is not often we hear of this bird being so far inland. 

Last October a Great Crested Grebe, an adult bird in winter 
plumage, was shot at Malham. 

In February this year a fine specimen of an adult Oyster 
Catcher was shot near Skipton, probably one which had lagged 
behind from a batch of these birds which were seen here a few 
days earlier. — W. Wilson, Skipton-in-Craven, April 22nd, 1907. 



An Albino Carrion Crow was reported in the last October 
issue of this journal by Mr. H. B. Booth, as seen on Burnsall 
Fell, Skipton-in-Craven. 

One of the Duke of Devonshire's keepers has informed me 
that he saw the bird many times during July and August, and 
distinguished it as a Carrion Crow by its croak, which he heard 
on several occasions. The bird was also seen and identified by 
Mr. Alf. Downs, the Duke's agent, on August 3rd, 1906. It 
appears to have frequented that part of the moor around Crook- 
rise, near Skipton, and was always accompanied by three other 
Carrion Crows, probably its nest-mates. The crow was last 
noticed in this district on September 3rd, 1906, near Embsav 
Crag, Barden Moor. I have since had reported to me that a 
White Carrion Crow was seen above Penyghent Gill, during the 
month of November last, in company with three other crows. 
If these are the same birds, it is interesting to note that this 
supports the suggestion that broods in this species keep to- 
gether until they attain maturity. Many other persons saw the 
bird during July and August, 1906, and identified it as a 
Carrion Crow. The latest report I have is that it was seen 
on April 3rd, 1907, near Barden. — W. Wilsox, Skipton-in- 
Craven, April 20th, 1907. 

1907 May 1. 



1 90 Reviews and Book Notices. 

YORKSHIRE MOSSES. 

Leskea catenulata (Brid.) Mitt. — In some way this moss 
has been omitted from Mr. Slater's list in the new edition of 
North Yorkshire. It is given on page 130 under the name of 
Psendoleskea catenulata in the list of plants on the summit and 
higher slopes of Micklefell, and I gathered it there in 1906. 

Orthothecium rufescens (Dicks.) B. and S. — This 
distinct moss I got at Easter this year at the bottom of Park 
Gill, Buckden. It is not mentioned in the account of the 
Langstrothdale and Buckden Mosses by Mr. W. Ingham, B.A. , 
in the Sept., 1904, 'Naturalist,' and does not seem to have 
been reported in Wharfedale proper, though known from Mal- 
ham to Arncliffe. — Chris. A. Cheetham. 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 



The Rev. E. A. Woodruffe-Peacock, F.G.S., of Cadney, Brigg, continues 
to publish his useful 'Rural Studies Series,' the last issued, No. 9, dealing' 
with ' Pasture and Meadow Analysis' (J. W. Goulding & Son, Louth, 20pp., 
1/-). In this the author gives an account of his method of carefully analysing - 
the flora of a meadow by dividing an area into squares and carefully 
investigating the contents of each square. 

The Common Wild Birds of Great Britain, by David T. Price, 
M.D. Gurney & Jackson, 1907, 62 pp., 1/- net. We have tested this book, 
and it appears to be thoroughly reliable and to admirably answer its 
purpose as ' A ready aid to distinguish the Common Wild Birds of Britain.' 
The birds are arranged according to their habitats and sizes, and by a 
series of cross-references it is quite an easy matter to distinguish most of 
the birds likely to be met with in a ramble in any part of the country. It is 
just the book for a beginner who does not want to be troubled with details 
of the birds he is very unlikely to see. 

List of British Seed = PIants and Ferns, by James Britten and 
A. B. Rendie, Department of Botany, British Museum. 44 pp. 4d. 

British Botanists will feel indebted to the compilers of this List for 
placing at their disposal the results of the International Rules of Botanical 
Nomenclature, adopted by the Botanical Congress at Vienna, 1905, in so far 
as they affect British plants For the convenience of Botanists they have 
correlated the names adopted in the three principal handbooks, viz., 
Bentham's 'Handbook,' Hooker's 'Students' Flora,' and Babington's 
' Manual,' so that one sees at a glance the changes that have been made in 
cases where the name is not adopted in the List. The List has been 
shortened by the omission of Channel Island plants and critical forms of 
genera, such as J?ubi/s, Hieraciunt, etc. Much time and money was spent 
by the Congress in framing these rules, and it is hoped their general 
adoption will lead to something like stability in Botanical Nomenclature. 

Text Book of Fungi, including Morphology, Physiology, Pathology, 
Classification, etc. By George Massee. Duckworth & Co., London, 
1906. 427 pages. Price 6/- net. 

Mr. Massee is well known in the north. His attendance at the annual 
Fungus Forays of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union has enabled many 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 



191 



mycologists to benefit by his personal acquaintance in the field ; and as joint 
author of the Fungus Flora of Yorkshire, and as Chairman of the Yorkshire 
Mycological Committee, he has greatly helped forward the study of the 
lower forms of plant life with which he is so familiar. In the work under 
notice he has placed all students under a debt of gratitude for the careful 




Fusicladium pirinum, a destructive Parasite on Pears. 

1. Fungus forming minute, velvety, dark-coloured patches on a pear leaf. 2. Fungus 
forming scurfy patches, and causing cracking of the flesh of a pear. 3. Conidiophores 
bearing conidia. Figs. 1 and 2 reduced ; fig. 3 magnified. 



way in which he has put in a presentable form all the modern views on 
the subjects referred to in the sub-title, as well as by giving an introduc- 
tion to the comparatively new lines of research. A useful chapter on 
'Biologic Forms' is contributed by Mr. E. S. Salmon. Not the least 
valuable part of the book is to be found in the numerous illustrations and 
the descriptions thereof, which from an economic point of view are in- 
valuable. We believe they are all from Mr. Massee's own pencil, and 
prove him to be a most capable artist as well as a learned author. By 
the courtesy of the publishers, we are able to reproduce one of the 141 
figures. 

The March ' Naturalists' Quarterly Review' has secured one or two new 
contributors. Mr. Westell (W. Percival, F.R.H.S., M.B.O.U.) informs us 
that in April the ' Lambs become stronger,' in this way, presumably, differing 
from the young of other animals. In the usual praises for new books we 
once again learn ' that these are quite the finest photographs we have ever 
seen,' and that ' this is one of the very best volumes we have ever seen,' etc., 
etc. The same 'reviewer' apologises for describing 'The Evolution of Man' 
in a previous issue as 'The Evolution of Mars!' An advertiser (whose name 
we might perhaps guess), wants 'list of duplicates with lowest prices' of 
'finely marked recent clutches of British Birds' Eggs.' Is it possible that 
the same individual writes upon the advantages of the Acts for the Pro- 
tection of Birds and Eggs ? 

iqo7 May 1. 



NORTHERN NEWS. 

The recent leaflets issued by the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries deal 
with Crimson Clover, Dodder, Poultry Fattening-, The Dogs Act, igo5, 
Insurance of Farming- Stock against Fire, and Cleansing of Water Courses. 
A significant post-script appears to the last named : — ' This leaflet does Hot 
apply to Scotland/' Stands Scotland where it did ? 

Hints on self-advertisement. 'As a member of the School Nature-Study 
Union, and as a writer of books and lecturer on Natural History subjects 
designed to interest, elevate, and amuse young and growing children, etc., 
etc' ... ' Listen to what Sir Herbert Maxwell says in his Introduction to 
one of my books.' (Extracted from an article on 'Nature Teaching, through 
the senses to the mind,' by a F.R.H.S., M.B.O.U.). 

The Report of the Corresponding Societies' Committee of the British 
Association, and of the Conference of Delegates (York Meeting) has been 
issued, and may be obtained at the offices of the Association for one shilling. 
In addition to the papers read, and the discussions which took place at the 
Conference of Delegates at York, it contains particulars relating to the 
various societies affiliated with the Association, as well as a useful biblio- 
graphy of papers which have appeared in the various societies' proceedings. 

The B.E.N.A.'s have been having a 'beano.' Forty-nine of the readers 
of ' The Country Side ' have guessed correctly a ' What is it ' problem (a 
thimble) ; the prize has been divided, and each ' successful competitor' has 
received the sum oi five pence. May we suggest that these forty-nine show 
their gratitude by 'purchasing a B.E.N. A. badge with the proceeds, and be 
thus easily identified. In the same journal we learn that 'country people 
love to keep a jay in a wicker cage ! ' 

At a recent meeting of the York Naturalists' Society a discussion took 
place on 'the Young Naturalist.' From the press report we learn that ' Mr. 
William Hewett, a born entomologist of fame, drew timely attention to the 
fact that it would be a sad day if all the children, youths, and maidens in the 
land were made mere collectors of rare plants, insects, etc. The county of 
York could not afford to have a single species exterminated by too ardent 
collecting, of which there was always a lurking danger present.' To this 
we say Amen ! 

Perhaps the principal article in the April 'Reliquary' deals with 'Damme.' 
To this city of the Netherlands a good American once paid a visit. ' There 
was no hotel, the door of the one estaminet was too narrow to admit his 
trunks, and, sitting down upon them in the deserted Grand Place, he softly 
whispered the word which is at the head of this chapter.' In the same 
journal Mr. T. P. Cooper, of York, has a paper on 'The Story of the 
Tobacco Pipe.' In this he figures, as early York-made pipes, two or three 
examples which were most probably made in Hull. 

As an illustration of the way in which even common objects can be 
examined with fruitful results, Mr. C. Gordon Hewitt has recently issued 
'A Preliminary Account of the Life History of the Common House Fly' 
(Memoirs and Proceedings Manchester Lit. & Phil. Soc, Vol. 51, part 1). 
In the the same proceedings, Mr. R. L. Taylor draws attention to the 
remarkable luminosity produced by rubbing or knocking together various 
forms of silica. A correspondent in a local paper some time ago pointed 
this out as a property peculiar to the white pebbles found on the coast at 
Whitby. 

The taste for natural history is growing, and ' Punch ' is the latest 
journal to have a column devoted to ' Nature Studies.' The subject in the 
issue before us is ' The Motor Bus,' though the Latin name of the species is 
not given, which seems unfortunate. Judging from the description, however, 
we presume it is a variety of a Slitheranda damdftm (L). In another part 
of the same issue, under ' Zoological Sequels,' are given some advertisements 
for patent medicines for animals. Amongst these we find ' Leopards try 
Pumacea. It touches every spot.' Another is a cure for lobsters blushing, 
which reminds us of a story. [Thanks, but this is a natural history 
journal. — ED.]. 

Naturalist, 



JUNE 1907. 



No. 605 

(No. 383 of currant teriet). 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



EDITED BY 



T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., 

The Museum, Hull; 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 



J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S. F.L.S., 
Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., 
T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., 



GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
JOHN W. TAYLOR, 
WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. 



Contents : — 

PAGES 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated) :— The Bradford Scientific Journal, The Bradford 
Museum, The Inclosures Acts in Lincolnshire and East Yorks., Lakeland Ravens, 
Plant Associations and Golf, A Darlington 'Find,' The Scarborough Museum, 
Scarborough Naturalists, Recorders' Reports, Model of Ebbing and Flowing Well ... 193-197 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Robin Hood's Bay 198-202 

The False-Scorpions of Cumberland— G. A. and R. B. Whyte 203-204 

The Birch Tree— P. Q. Keegan, LL.D 205-208 

Theories of Evolution— A gnes Robertson, D.Sc 209-215 

The Peregrines at Bempton— E. W. Wade, M.B.O.U 216 

The Victoria History of Yorkshire 217-218 

History of the British Museum (Natural History) Collections 219-220 

In Memoriam— Edward Halliday 221 

„ John Francis Walker, M.A., F.Q.S., F.Z.S 221 

Field Notes 218, 222 

Reviews and Book Notices 197. 215, 221, 225 

Northern News 220, 224 

Illustration 197 



LONDON : 
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And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



PRICE 6d. NET. BY POST 7d. NET. 




PUBLICATIONS OF 

Zbe l^ovfesbire naturalists' "Union. 



BOTANICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION, Volume I. 

8vo, Cloth, 292 pp. (a few copies only left), price 5/- net. 

Contains various reports, papers, and addresses on the Flowering Plants, Mosses, and Fungi of the county 

Complete, 8vo, Cloth, with Coloured Map, published at One Guinea. Only a few copies left, 10/6 net. 

THE FLORA OF WEST YORKSHIRE. By FREDERIC ARNOLD LEES, M.R.C.S., &c. 
This, which forms the 2nd Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, is perhaps the most 
complete work of the kind ever issued for any district, including detailed and full records of 1044 Phanero- 
gams and Vascular Cryptogams, 11 Characese, 348 Mosses, 108 Hepatics, 258 Lichens, 1009 Fungi, and 382 
Freshwater Alga?, making a total of 3160 species. 

680 pp., Coloured Geological, Lithological, &c. Maps, suitably Bound in Cloth. Price 15/- net. 
NORTH YORKSHIRE: Studies of its Botany, Geology, Climate, and Physical Geography. 

By JOHN GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., M.R.I. A., V.M.H. 
And a Chapter on the Mosses and Hepatics of the Riding, by Matthew B. Slater, F.L.S. This Volume 
forms the 3rd of the Botanical Series. 

396 pp., Complete, 8vo., Cloth. Price 10/6 net. 

THE FUNGUS FLORA OF YORKSHIRE. By G. MASSEE, F.L.S., F.R.H.S., & C. CROSSLAND, F.L.S. 

This is the 4th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, and contains a complete annotated list 
of all the known Fungi of the county, comprising 2626 species. 

Complete, 8vo, Cloth. Price 6/- post free. 

THE ALGA-FLORA OF YORKSHIRE. By W. WEST, F.L.S., & GEO. S. WEST, B.A., A.R.C.S., F.L.S. 

This \york, which forms the 5th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, enumerates 1044 
species, with full details of localities and numerous critical remarks on their affinities and distribution. 

Complete, 8vo, Cloth. Second Edition. Price 6/6 net. 

LIST OF YORKSHIRE LEP1DOPTERA. By G. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., FES. 

The First Edition of this work was published in 1883, and contained particulars of 1340 species of 

Macro- and Micro-Lepidoptera known to inhabit the county of York. The Second Edition, with Supplement, 

contains much new information which has been accumulated by the author, including over 50 additional 

species, together with copious notes on variation (particularly melanism), &c. 

In progress, issued in Annual Parts, 8vo. 
TRANSACTIONS OF THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 

The Transactions include papers in all departments of the Yorkshire Fauna and Flora, and are issued in 
separately-paged series, devoted each to a special subject. The Parts already published are sold to the public 
as follows (Members are entitled to 25 per cent, discount) : Part 1 (1877), 2/3 ; 2 (1878), 1/9 ; 3 (1878), 1/6 ; 4 (1879) 
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THE BIRDS OF YORKSHIRE. By T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., WILLIAM EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S., 
M.B.O.U., and F. BOYES. Also being published (by Subscription, One Guinea). 

Annotated List of the LAND and FRESHWATER MOLLUSCA KNOWN TO INHABIT YORK- 
SHIRE. By JOHN W. TAYLOR, F.L.S., and others. Also in course of publication in the Trans- 
actions. 

THE YORKSHIRE CARBONIFEROUS FLORA. By ROBERT KIDSTON, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. Parts 14, 
18, 19, 21, &c, of Transactions. 

LIST OF YORKSHIRE COLEOPTERA. By Rev. W. C. HEY, MA. 



THE NATURALIST. A Monthly Illustrated Journal of Natural History for the North of England. Edited 
by T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., Museum, Hull; and T. W. WOODHEAD, F.L.S., Technical College, 
Huddersfield ; with the assistance as referees in Special Departments of J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., 
F.L.S., Prof. PERCY F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., GEO. T. PORRITT, 
F.L.S., F.E.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, and WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. (Annual Subscription, payable 
in advance, 6/6 post free). 

WANTED: Rennie's Field Naturalist (Set). Proc. Geol. and Polyt. Soc, West Riding Yorks., Vol. I. British 
Association Report, 1839-1840. Quarterly Journal Geol. Soc, Vols. I-XXII. Bamsley Nat. Socy's. 
Quarterly Reports (Set). Good prices given. 

Apply T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S. , 

The Museum, Hull. 

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and entitles the member to receive the current Transactions, and all the other privileges of the Union. 

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Members are entitled to buy all back numbers and other publications of the Union at a discount Of 25 

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All communications should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary, 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., The Museum, Hull. 



193 

NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



THE BRADFORD SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL. 

The Bradford Scientific Journal for April completes the first 
volume of twelve parts, and contains an index. The journal is 
to be congratulated on its success, and particularly from the 
fact that a very fair proportion of the articles have been of local 
interest. The present part has a useful and well illustrated 
paper on 'The Vegetation of some Disused Quarries,' by 
S. Margerison. Amongst the other items are ■ Our Birds in 
Winter,' by C. A. E. Rodgers, and ' The Diversion of a Wharfe- 
dale Stream into Airedale,' by E. E. Gregory. 



THE BRADFORD MUSEUM. 

In an editorial we notice that our Bradford friends have ' one 
regret. Our scheme for the furtherance of the Bradford Museum 
still languishes in abeyance. Not for want of enthusiasm 
amongst local Scientists, nor for want of appreciation by 
the public, who have evinced a lively interest in the little that 
has been done. The obstacle is official indifference, if not actual 
opposition on the part of our municipal authorities. North, south, 
east, and west of the borough we find museums. Leeds, 
Keighley, Halifax, Huddersfield, and now Spen Valley, all 
show us how it is done, and still Bradford occupies its position 
of 'splendid' isolation.' We share the hope of the Bradford 
naturalists that before long the Corporation will exhibit a 
larger public spirit and provide a museum worthy of the city. 
A good deal of the material which has been put on exhibition, 
we understand, is utter rubbish, valueless for any educational 
purpose, and in some cases actually the laughing-stock 
of the informed naturalist. It is surprising that Bradford 
having so excellent a building for the purpose of a small 
museum should be content to allow it to be wasted. We 
are ashamed of Bradford. 

THE INCLOSURES ACTS IN LINCOLNSHIRE AND 
EAST YORKS. 

The Footpaths Preservation Society has reprinted Dr. 
Gilbert Slater's most valuable paper on ' The Inclosure of 
Common Fields considered Geographically,' which appeared 
in the 'Geographical Journal.' This contains several plans 

1907 June 1. 



194 Notes and Comments. 

and diagrams, and the subject is dealt with in a way which is 
of great value to a naturalist. Some peculiar cases of the effect 
of the Inclosures Acts on the village communities of Lincolnshire 
and the East Riding of Yorkshire are referred to. ' In the Isle 
of Axholme every cottager possessed a right of common over 
the vast swampy pastures which separated the Isle from York- 
shire on one side and Lincolnshire on the other ; the owners 
of land, as such, had no rights of common. In consequence, 
the cottagers were able, when the marshes were divided, drained, 
and inclosed, to defeat the proposal to also inclose the arable 
fields, and these remain to the present day, to a very great 
extent, open and intermixed.' 



LAKELAND RAVENS. 

From a recent issue of the Yorkshire Post we regret to learn 
that the few ravens that continue to nest in Lakeland are 
exposed to continual persecution by well-to-do egg collectors. 
Recently a pair that had nested on a crag on Melbreak was 
robbed of five eggs. Two parties went to secure the nest. 
Both took 20ft. ladders for the purpose, but finding them too 
short agreed to join them together, and divide the spoil. A 
spin of a coin decided the fate of the odd egg. The eggs of the 
raven are protected in Cumberland, but it is a mere paper pro- 
tection. The nests are regularly harried by collectors, and 
probably in a short time the Lake District will know the noble 
bird no more. 

We suppose there are police in the Lake District? though 
possibly they are of the variety of some of those in south-east 
Yorkshire, where a police inspector was recently noticed to be 
one of a part)' enjoying 'sport' amongst protected birds, though 
as they were on a boat on a river they may possibly not have 
been in a place within the meaning of the Act ! 



PLANT ASSOCIATIONS AND GOLF. 

A recent writer in one of the dailies has found an original 
excuse for losing a golf match. He was so absorbed in the fact 
that the Fescue grasses occupied the hillocks and the higher 
and drier slopes, whilst others of softer texture and harder 
names flourished in the 'damp hollows.'* He continues : ' In 

* This kind of hollow is frequently referred to by golfers. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 195 

a particular little hollow, at which I had a good look because 
my ball came to rest in it, I could not detect a single stalk of 
Fescue grass. The verdant carpet seemed to me to be com- 
posed chiefly of the poa grasses. Thirty feet higher up, at the 
same hole, there were nothing but the Fescues.' Who says 
there is nothing in the study of plant associations after that? 



A DARLINGTON ' FIND.' 
Some little stir has been caused in local circles by the 
•discovery, at Darlington, of a bone two feet in diameter and 
:three feet long, found at a depth of six feet, ' immediately below 
a bed of glacial clay and above the gravel.' . . . 'Theories 
innumerable have been propounded by geologists, scientists, 
anatomists, and others who have inspected the find, but nothing 
at all probable has as yet been forthcoming. It will be produced 
at a meeting of the Darlington Naturalists' Field Club, when 
anyone interested may attend and take part in the inquest which 
is to be held. What the verdict may be it is impossible to say, 
but for the guidance of the jury we append the jaw-breaking 
designation of some of the largest known extinct animals, and 
they may choose any they wish : — Anthracotherium, anapol- 
therium, dinotherium giganterum, ichthyosaurus, lopiodon, 
mastodon giganteus, megatherium, mosasaurus, palaeosaurus, 
palaeotherium, plesiosburus, teleosaurus, and tetracaulodon.' 
We have printed the names as they appear in the local press ! 
Mr. Edward Wooler has kindly favoured us with a photograph 
of the 'discovery,' and as was suspected, it turns out to be a 
part of the lower jaw of a whale — probably part of a gate-post 
— as fifty years ago hundreds of these jaw-bones were sold for 
this purpose and distributed over the country. In East York- 
shire dozens such still exist. 



THE SCARBOROUGH MUSEUM. 
We have received the Annual Report of the Scarborough 
Philosophical Society for 1906, in which is included the report 
of the Scarborough Naturalists' Society. We are glad to 
.notice that, through the energy of its members, its debt has 
been wiped off, the much needed renovations of the property 
have been partly carried out, and there is a good balance in 
hand. The floor of the geological room, which had collapsed, 
has been concreted. Substantial alterations have also been 
•carried out in other parts of the Museum, and a generous gift of 
;£ioo enables the Society's library to have proper attention. 

11907 June 1. 



196 Notes and Comments. 

SCARBOROUGH NATURALISTS. 

It is also evident that the Field Naturalists' Society at 
Scarborough is doing useful work, judging from the Recorders' 
reports. We learn the membership ' is probably about equal 
to that of last year.' Amongst the more interesting items we 
notice that a small colony of Black-headed Gulls nested near 
Scarborough. ' On May 16th there were about forty nests, but 
all had been plundered, either by human or avian depredators, 
and not an egg was to be found.' Reference is made to the 
' self-denial ' of the climbers at Speeton in allowing the young 
peregrines last year to fly, and to the fact that this is the fourth 
occasion upon which peregrines have nested within the Scar- 
borough district since 1900. 

RECORDERS' REPORTS. 

Mr. W. J. Clarke is responsible for the report on the 
Vertebrata, Mr. W. Pearson for Coleoptera, Mr. A. S. Tetley 
for Lepidoptera, in which report it is recorded, somewhat un- 
expectedly, that 'the season of 1906 has been a good one for 
Lepidoptera,' Mr. E. R. Cross for Flowering Plants, Mr. W. 
Gyngell for Conchology, Mr. E. B. Lotherington for Micro- 
Botany and [Micro-] Zoology, and Mr. R. Gilchrist for Geology 
and Arachnida. All these gentlemen have carefully recorded 
the season's work, and in several departments additions to our 
knowledge have been made. If we might make a suggestion 
for the benefit of future reports, it is that the scientific names 
of the species referred to be printed in italics (this is done, 
partly, in the Botanical Report), and that greater care be taken 
in the matter of proof-reading. Amongst some of the more 
glaring misprints are 'Fuses,' ' Cornbrach,' and 'Slathwait.' 
The commas also appear to have been dropped in anyhow in 
parts of the report. Perhaps the most unexpected item was 
that Prof. Kendall had sent for inspection ' a special model of 
the Glaciatioro, in North Yorkshire.' Something Italian, surely! 



MODEL OF EBBING AND FLOWING WELL. 

In Evan's 'How to Study Geology,' which we are noticing 
elsewhere, an interesting illustration is given of the model of 
the ebbing and flowing well at Austwick Hall, the property of 
T. R. Clapham, Esq., which was constructed by the late Richard 
Clapham about the year 185 1. By the courtesy of the 
publishers we are able to reproduce this diagram for the benefit 

Naturalist,. 



Reviews and Book Notices. 



197 



of our readers. A. is the side of a large slate cistern, in which 
is a fountain. B. is a cylindrical cistern of lead, from the bottom 
of which, at E., projects a syphon C, the other extremity of 
which is carried down the garden for a distance of fifteen yards 
to a stone well D., the outlet of which is then at F. B. is 
supplied with water from the tap shown. This tap has to be 
regulated to give a certain supply. As the cistern B. gets filled 
with water to the level of the dotted line it is filling the right 




limb of the syphon also. When the water has risen to the 
dotted line, all air being- driven from the tube, the action of the 
syphon begins, and as the base of the syphon pipe is greater 
than that of the tap, the water in B. is drawn off until it falls 
down to E., when air gets into the syphon and stops its action 
until the cistern B. is again filled from the tap. When the 
syphon is drawing all the water from B. it is flowing into the 
well D., and is, of course, emptying - itself during the time that 
B. is again being filled. 



The Kingdom of Man, by E. Ray Lankester, D.Sc, F.R.S., etc. 
Constable & Co., 1907. 192 pp., plates, 3/6 net. This volume contains 
three essays by Professor Lankester, which, under other titles, have 
previously appeared elsewhere. The first, 'Nature's Insurgent Son,' was 
the Romanes lecture for 1905 ; the second was the presidential address of 
the British Association, delivered at the York meeting- last year, and contains 
an account ' of the progress made in the last quarter of a century towards 
the assumption of his kingship by slowly-moving man.' This address was 
dealt with in these columns at the time it was delivered. The third paper, 
reprinted from the 'Quarterly Review,' is an account of the recent attempt to 
deal with the Sleeping Sickness of South Africa, The volume takes its title 
from the first of the essays named. All three will be familiar to our readers, 
though many may desire to possess them in this convient form, particularly 
as numerous additional illustrations are inserted. We notice, in a description 
of £i photograph of six Eoliths of the ' shoulder-of-mutton ' type, ' the 
descriptive term " trinacrial" is suggested by me for these flints in allusion 
to the form of the island of Sicily which they resemble (Original).' Future 
writers please note. 

1907 June 1. 



ig8 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT ROBIN 
HOOD'S BAY. 

May 18th to 20th, 1907. 

During Whit week-end (May 18-20) over forty members of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union stayed at Robin Hood's Bay. 
This number was augmented on Bank Holiday, and a few 
remained longer. As has been the practice in recent years, 
the evenings were devoted to the reading of papers and 
discussions thereon, and in this way additional value and 
interest was added to the work accomplished during the 
field excursions. 

As might be expected from the nature of the district, and 
its geological traditions, the hammermen were predominent, 
and had an exceptional opportunity of examining the sections 
in the cliffs and in the quarries adjacent. These places have 
also long been known as haunts of interesting birds, which, on 
this excursion, were the means of attracting several camera 
and field-glass ornithologists ; the old-fashioned type — the egg 
collector pure and simple — is now almost as rare as are some 
of the birds he has all but exterminated. 

The numerous steep-sided, well-wooded ravines around 'Bay 
Town ' proved irresistible to many besides the botanists, and 
the shore yielded shells and sea-weeds to those interested in 
marine fauna and flora, the last being an attraction not always 
present on our rambles. 

The geologists had the advantage of the leadership of Prof. 
P. F. Kendall, who was as familiar with the problems of 'solid' 
geology as with those of the glacial series, in connection with 
which latter his work in north-east Yorkshire is now so well 
known. 

On Saturday morning an early start was made, and the 
beach, scars, and cliffs between ' Bay Town ' and Ravenscar 
were examined ; sections in the Lias, ' Dogger,' and Estuarine 
Series being available. Particular attention was paid to the 
fault in the strata at the Peak. This yielded evidence that a 
movement in the earth's crust was taking place during the 
deposition of the beds, the thickness of the layers of sandstone, 
etc., varying on each side of the fault. The continuance of the 
fault seawards and the way it bifurcates was easily seen on the 
scars. The area traversed was a favourite hunting-ground for 
geological specimens, and several were secured. A fitting 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Robin Hood's Bay. 199 

finish to the day's ramble was the ascent of the cliff at Raven- 
scar by means of a ' path,' which would be an excellent one for 
rabbits. 

On Saturday evening, under the chairmanship of the 
President of the Union, Mr. C. Crossland, F.L. S. , a well- 
attended meeting- was held at the Union's headquarters, the 
Grosvenor Hotel. Prof. Kendall gave an address on some of 
the geological problems of the district, paying particular 
attention to ' Persistent faulting,' which caused a good 
discussion. 

On the following day the botanists investigated the woods 
and fields, the ornithologists hied to the cliffs, and the geologists 
were conducted over the old Alum Works at the Peak. The 
Liassic shales, which had been exposed during the working of 
this by-gone industry, yielded a large number of Ammonites 
and other fossils. The relative positions of the ' Dogger ' and 
Estuarines were also demonstrated, though on account of the 
varied applications of the word ' Dogger ' it was seen that 
misunderstandings might easily arise in regard to its precise 
place in the geological sequence in the area. 

After dinner there was even a larger attendance than on the 
preceding evening. Mr. F. Elgee read a paper on ' Glacial 
Survivors,' and introduced a subject of which, doubtless, more 
will be heard at future meetings of the Union. The secretary 
exhibited and described the bronze bridle-bit and other objects 
from a British Chariot burial which he had recently excavated. 

On Monday most were early astir, and, as on previous days> 
owing to the not unfavourable weather, many paid visits to the 
fields and shore before breakfast. None could say that the 
excursions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union are idle holidays! 
The geologists walked to Hawsker, where they descended the 
cliff by another ' path,' which fortunately was dry. From there 
they walked round on the beach to Robin Hood's Bay, and had 
some excellent collecting en route. In addition to the Liassic 
shales and the capping sandstone, the party had the opportunity 
of examining a six-inch bed, the diminutive representative of 
the Cleveland Ironstone, which further north is so well developed. 

At the general meeting, held later in the day, the repre- 
sentatives of the various sections made their reports, which are 
referred to below. The President congratuled the Society on 
its present position. At this meeting no fewer than fourteen 
new members were elected, and two societies became affiliated 
with the Union. Votes of thanks were passed to the land- 

1907 June 1 



2gq Yorkshire Naturalists at Robin Hood's Bay. 

owners for permission to visit their estates, and particularly to 
J. W. Barry, Esq., who personally looked after the party visiting 
Fylingdales and gave every assistance in his power. To Prof. 
Kendall for leading the geologists, to the readers of the papers, 
and to the Divisional Secretary (Mr. J. J. Burton), for the 
excellence of the local arrangements, similar compliments were 
paid. 

Later in the evening Mr. Burton read some valuable notes 
on the sylvan vegetation of Fylingdales, which had been kindly 
prepared by Mr. Barry for the benefit of the Union. 

In the matter of the weather the party were favoured — one 
short shower being all that was experienced — and top-coats 
were not needed on either of the three days. Judging from 
the reports in the press, elsewhere in the county the weather 
had been anything but pleasant ; verb. sap. 

Botany. — Mr. J. Hartshorn writes :— Most of the Botanists 
did not reach Robin Hood's Bay until Saturday at noon, or 
later, hence the principal ramble was the official one on the 
Monday through Ramsdale, returning by the moorland edge to 
Fyling Hall. This was in every way a success, and very largely 
due to the kindness of J. W. Barry, Esq., who personally con- 
ducted the party over his grounds, and acted as guide in 
the Dale. 

Near the Hall there was much of interest, and some fine 
Araucarias were especially admired. Throughout the valley 
such was the richness and profusion of bloom that the compiling 
of a complete list of the species present was impossible in the 
time available. The reluctance of the members to leave the 
stream was forgotten when, almost immediately, a mass of 
Chickweed Winter-green {Trientalis eiwopcea) was discovered. 
In characteristic situations were seen the Butterwort, Sundew 
{Drosera rotuudifolia), Sweet Gale, Needle Green Weed or 
Petty Whin, and Bog Bean. 

During the week-end over 130 species of flowering plants 
were noted, mostly in bloom. Especially beautiful was a hedge 
bordered uniformly by an unbroken band of Stitchwort {Stellaria 
holostea). In the adjoining meadow the Green-winged Meadow 
Orchis was growing in plenty. And on the cliffs there was 
found in fruit the Spurge Laurel. Other interesting plants seen 
were the Wood Vetch (Vicia sylvatica), Slender Vetch (V. 
gemelhi), Golden Saxifrage {Chrysospleniiim oppositifoliuni), 
and a white specimen of the Early Purple Orchis {Orchis tnascula). 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Robin Hood's Bay. 201 

Marine Mollusa. — -The Rev. F. H. Woods, B.D., writes : — 
The Mollusc Fauna of Robin Hood's Bay does not appear to be 
very extensive, but is not without interest, being determined by 
the rocky character of the coast. No examples were found of 
those genera which live in sand and mud, while those which feed 
on the algas and live in or upon the rocks were very fairly repre- 
sented. For this reason there was a large preponderance of 
univalves over bivalves. Of the two borers, Pholas crispata is very 
characteristic of the Yorkshire Coast, being exceedingly abundant 
at Redcar and frequent at Bridlington. The louse-like mail shell, 
Chiton ciuereus, was very abundant, and one was found very near 
high-water mark. One remarkably fine specimen, over an 
inch long, of the lesser hairy mussel, Modiola phaseolina, was 
found. The blue-striped limpet, Helcion pellucidus, was very 
abundant, and the beautiful little pink limpet, Tectum virginea, 
was fairly frequent. The most interesting were the smaller, 
and often minute shells. About two table-spoons of fine shingle, 
taken from the surface of the drift, were exhaustively examined 
under a lense. There were three distinct species of Rissoa. 
Curiously enough, while R. striata was very abundant, R. parva, 
which can be gathered by the thousand on a favourable day at 
Bridlington, was comparatively scarce. Of the third species, R. 
punctura, there were two specimens. This is found rather 
sparsely about the Yorkshire coast, and appears to be a northern 
species. All three are remarkably beautiful seen under a lense. 
Of the two Pleurolomas, P. turrilella I found at Bridlington occas- 
ionally, the other I have not found nor seen before. Except for the 
channelled mouth it is remarkably like a Rissoa parva. It is pro- 
bably, however, an immature specimen. There was also a very 
good example of Tornatinus truncatulus. A single valve of a shell 
of the Venus type appears to be an immature Circe minima. It is 
certainly not Venus Gallina, which in its young state is easily 
recognisable. Among the drift were also many examples of 
several common shells in a very young state Well worth 
mentioning is the Odostomia spiralis, a shell found fairly 
frequently along the Yorkshire coast, but I have not seen it 
elsewhere. The specimens here are always very small, about 
T X o of an inch or less, but I have carefully compared them with 
the smallest in the Barlee type collection at Oxford, and have 
no doubt about their identity. The other Odostomia, is very 
common about the coast, but is evidently immature ; it may be 
conoidea or possibly acuta, but it agrees with none in the Barlee 
collection. 

1907 June 1. 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Robin Hood's Bay 



The following- is a complete list of those found : 



Pholas crispata. 
Saxicava rugosa. 
Circe minima ? 
Cardium fasciatum ? 
Mytilus edulis. 

,, modiolus (young - ). 
Modiola (Mytilus) phaseolina 
Pecien opercularis (young-). 
Anomia ephippium. 

, , patelliform is. 
Chiton cinereus. 
Patella vulgata. 
Helcion pellucidus. 
Tectura (Acmcea) virginea. 
T melius cinereus. 
Littorina littorea. 

,, obtusata. 

COLEOPTERA. — Mr 



Littorina rudis. 
Lacuna divaricata. 

,, puteolus (fragment). 
Rissoa parva. 

,, ,, var. interrupta. 

,, striata. 

,, pnnctura. 
Odostomia spiralis. 

,, conoidea ? 

Natica catena (small fragment). 
Purpura apillus. 
Nana incrassata. 
Buccinium undatum. 
Pleurotoma turricula. 

, , ? species. 

Cyprcpa europa?a 
Tornatinus truncatulus. 

M. L. Thompson reports that the 
following- beetles were met with along the route through. 
Ramsdale : — 



iVotiopliilus biguftatus, F. 
Bembidium obtusion, Stm. 
Patrobus excavatus, Payk. 
Tac/ij'porus clirysomelinus, L. 

,, hypnorum, F. 

Conosoma pubescens, Gr. 
Philonthus de corns, Gr. 
Adalia bipunctata, L. 
Coccinella 10-punctata, L. 

., "j-punctata, L. 

Brachypterus urticce, F. 
ALicrambe vini, Panz. 



Adrastus limbatus, F. 
Rhagonvcha pallida, F. 
Gastroidea polygon!, L. 
Longitarsus suturellus, Duft. 
Polydrusus pterygomalis, Sch. 
Phyllobius pyri, L. 

,, argentatus, L. 

Sitones tibialis, Hbst. 
Liosoma ovatulum, Clair. 
Cceliodes quercus, F. 

,, quadrimaculatus, L. 

Ceuthorrhynchus pollinarius, Fcirst. 



Proceeding across the moor above the dale through the peat 
bogs to Robin Hood's Bay, additional species were found, with 
the help of Mr. J. T. Sewell. These were : — 



Cicindela campesfris, L. 
Carabus monilis, F. 
Brady cell us cognatus, Gyll. 
Harpalus ceneus, F. 

,, latus, L. 

Pterostichus madidus, T. 
,, -vulgaris, L. 

Calat/i us flavipes, Fruic. 

,, melanoccphalus, L. 
Anchomenus albipes, F. 
Bembidium nigricorne, Gyll. 

,, atrocceruleum, Steph. 

(To be continued). 



Agabus bipusfulatus, L. 
Hydroporus pubescens, Gyll. 
Gyrinus natator, Scop. 
Drusilla canaliculata, F. 
Homalota anal is, Gr. 
Xantholinus linearis, Ol. 
Geotrupes stercorarius, L. 
,, sylvaticus, Pz. 
Dolopius marginatus, L. 
Haltica ericeti, Al. 
Strophosomus lateralis, Pk. 
Ceuthorrhvnclius ericce, Gvll. 



Naturalist, 



203 

THE FALSE=SCORPIONS OF CUMBERLAND. 



G. A. and R. B. WHYTE. 

Edinburgh. 



The only species of Chernetidea recorded, to our knowledge, 
from Cumberland previous to our visit were Chernes nodosus 
Schrank, and Obisium muscorum, Leach. These were sent 
by the late Rev. F. O. Pickard-Cambridge to his uncle, Rev. 
O. Pickard-Cambridge, before the year 1892. The former 
(C. nodosus) was sent from Carlisle, and the latter (O. muscorum) 
was merely recorded as from Cumberland. 

We here record five species of false-scorpions, four of which 
are new to the county list— the fifth being- O. muscorum. 

Cheiridium museorum Leach. 

This very small species was obtained in five different barns 
near the head of Derwent Water. One hay-loft is worthy of 
special note, for in it we discovered a colony, the numbers 
of which exceeded our counting powers. We took over sixty 
specimens from one stone, on which there were innumerable 
nests. A few young, never more than three at a time, were 
found in them. The actual habitat of C. museorum was under 
loose stones, which lay on the top of the walls close under 
the roof. Some moults and one or two living specimens were 
obtained by sifting dust and hay-seed from the dark, un- 
disturbed corners of the loft. We watched with interest an 
adult Cheiridium museorum feeding on a mite. The mite 
was held firmly in the chelicerae, and the life-juices were 
sucked out. 

Chernes rufeolus Simon. 

We found a single specimen of Chernes rufeolus on April 
11th, and a week later obtained many more. This rare false- 
scorpion was found under the stones set fast in the earth 
floors of three old barns. The nests were also obtained, and 
proved to be of this species by the moults inside them. 

C. rufeolus has only been obtained in a few of the southern 
counties in England, and never in Scotland, so that this is the 
most northerly record for Britain. 

Chernes dubius Cambridge. 

This species, which is smaller than its congener, Chernes 
rufeolus, was discovered in some numbers under stones firmly 
embedded in the soil, both in the woods and in the open 
country, south of Derwent Water. It is a chernetid which 

1907 June 1. 



204 Whyte : The False-scorpions of Cumberland. 

closely resembles the stones on which it lives, and consequently 
a careful search is required to find it, especially as it is so 
small. 

We obtained about fifty specimens, many of which were 
immature. Empty nests were also found, and these probably 
belonged to Chernes dubius, as they were on the same stones, 
and no other species were present 

Obisium muscorum Leach. 

This, the commonest false-scorpion, was found in abundance 
wherever it was searched for, from the Styhead Pass to the 
slopes of Helvellyn. Most of these were in nests, and the 
majority had the egg-mass attached. Those free were always 
smaller and of a darker colour, probably all males. The 
difference in size is accounted for, as the females were swollen 
with eggs. 

Chthonius tetrachelatus Preyss. 
On April 14th, six of this species were found under flower- 
pots in the hot-houses of Mr. James Moorsom, on his grounds 
near Keswick. C. tetrachelatus is the commonest false-scorpion 
found in hot-houses ; but it is also found under stones in the 
open country. 

[By the courtesy of the Editor, the writer of this note has been permitted 
to read the above paper, and is able thus early to congratulate the authors 
on the substantial additions to the known fauna of Cumberland, and on the 
interesting- observations with which the records are accompanied. Through 
the kindness of a mutual friend, the Rev. Robert Godfrey, M.A., specimens 
of the five Pseudoscorpions referred to have, moreover, been seen and ex- 
amined. In 1903, when the writer published a preliminary paper on ' North 
of England Pseudoscorpions' (3), it was only possible to quote for Cumberland 
Mr. Cambridge's records of Chernes nodosus and Obisium muscorum (1), and 
the repetition of these records in ' The Victoria History of the County of 
Cumberland' (2), where the latter species is noted for Carlisle, Armathwaite, 
and Wreay : common in woods amongst dead leaves. More recently, through 
the kindness of Dr. A. R. Jackson, this species {Obisium muscorum) has been 
seen from Scafell ; and Cheiridium museorum from Penrith, three specimens 
found in a starling's nest, as already recorded by Dr. Jackson (5). Perhaps 
the most interesting of the new records is that of Chernes rufeolus, a species 
recently added to the British list by Mr. Cambridg-e (4). It appears to occur 
chiefly in stables and farm-buildings, the writer having collected or received 
it from such places in Kent. Essex, Wiltshire, Derbyshire, Lincolnshire — and 
now from Cumberland. (1) Cambridge, O. P. — 'On the British Species of 
False-Scorpions.' 'Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Anti- 
quarian Field Club,' XIII. (1892), pp. 199-231. (2) Cambridge, F. O. P. — 
'The Victoria History of the County of Cumberland,' I. (1901), p. 157. 
(3) Kew, H. W. — 'North of England Pseudoscorpions.' 'The Naturalist,' 
1903, pp. 293-300. (4) Cambridge, O. P. — ' On some New and Rare British 
Arachnida. ' ' Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian 
Field Club,' XXVII. (1906), pp. 72-92. (5) Jackson, A. R. — 'Rare Arachnida 
■captured during 1906.' ' Proceedings of the Chester Society of Natural 
Science,' Pt. VI. (1907), pp. 1-7. — H. Wallis Kew.] 

Naturalist, 



205 

THE BIRCH TREE. 

Betula alba, L. 

P. Q. KEEGAN, LL.D., 

Patterdale, Westmorland. 

The sylvan bank, the pastoral hollow, the steeply acclivitous 
ledge, and the fell rising- into mountain solitude are invested 
by the silvery bark and feathery evolution of foliage of this the 
'queen of the woods.' The tree belongs more to lowlands and 
uplands than to mountains, but it serves frequently to charmingly 
hide or relieve the savageness of the mountain wastes, whereto 
it imparts an aspect of picturesqueness and witchery. It shuns 
the dingle and the coomb, imperatively demands light, and is 
highly accommodating as regards power of resistance to great 
extremes of heat and cold. For all these and other reasons, 
this tree intrudes itself very forcibly on the attention of the 
naturalist and the nature-lover ; and a brief description of its 
chief anatomical, chemical, and physiological characteristics 
will therefore, it is hoped, prove acceptable. 

Stem. — The wood is of medium hardness and weight (specific 
gravity 0.5 to 0.76), entirely white, homogeneous, with no dis- 
tinct alburnum, i.e. it is a sap-wood tree, no heart-wood. The 
medullary rays are mostly in one row (three or four rows in old 
wood), are 6 to 8 per millimetre of arc, rather irregularly 
spaced, and about 1 mm. high ; the vessels are rather large, 
being about 85 /x average width, are isolated or disposed in 
radial rows of two to four through the whole width of the 
annual ring, their lateral walls are very thickly beset with 
minute pores, and their transverse wall is scalariform ; the 
fibres are about 12 fi broad, have thickish walls beset with a 
few simple pores ; the parenchyma is sparse and occurs in very 
straight transverse bands, or else isolated. In the bark, the 
liber parenchyma forms tangential bands of one to four rows 
of cells, which are narrow and high, and have large simple 
punctures on their radial walls ; the sieve-tubes are elongated, 
have wide lumen and thin walls provided with sieve plates ; the 
bast fibres appear as isolated bundles in the first year of growth, 
and later on sclerenchyma is formed between these groups so 
that ultimately a completely closed sclerous ring (peri-cycle) is 
developed ; there are no secondary bast-bundles, they being 
replaced by groups of scleroblasts (stone-cells) representing 
highly lignified parenchyma. After the fall of the epidermis 
in the three year old branches, a suberous envelope of flat 

1907 June 1. 



206 Keegan : The Birch Tree. 

brown cells is developed ; in about three or five years later, 
a cubical white thin-walled tissue is interposed in thin layers 
between the zones of the still forming- brown cells ; and so it 
proceeds up till the age of fifteen to twenty years, at which time 
the periderm presents the appearance of numerous alternate 
layers (each of about ten rows of cells), of which the two or 
three external ones have thin walls, and the internal ones have 
thick walls ; by the decortication of one of these layers situated 
on the outside, the cells of an internal layer are torn or broken, 
and the white resinous matter (betulin) which they contain, 
escapes and plasters the entire surface of the periderm with a 
chalky incrustation. The Birch is a fat tree, i.e. the starch 
completely disappears from bark and wood during the winter, 
and reappears a month or six weeks before the swelling of the 
buds in spring. The wood shows traces of tannin and phloro- 
glucin in the pith and medullary rays, much glucose in summer, 
much oily matter in winter, about 30 per cent pentosan, 0.7 
nitrogenous substance, and 0.3 ash, which has 26 per cent 
soluble salts, 35.4 lime, 8.8 magnesia, 10.5 P 2 O s , etc. The 
trunk bark contains 34 per cent, of a white resin or camphor 
(betulin), 4.8 soluble and insoluble tannin, about 4 gummy 
matter, 60 impure suberin, and 2.^ ash in fresh which has 6.4 
per cent soluble salts, 2.6 silica, 52 lime, with traces of magnesia, 
phosphoric acid, and considerable manganese. The spring 
bleeding period of the Birch, commences at the end of March, 
first from the root, and then step by step towards the crown, 
and lasts some six or seven weeks. The sap contains about 
1.8 per cent, dry matter, of which from 0.8 to 1.4 consists of 
glucose, and the remainder of nitrogenous matters, malic acid, 
and ash mostly of potass. The young spring shoots on dry 
ground are covered with a white resinous secretion in the form 
of vesicular papillae, a circumstance that seems referable to the 
vigorous rapidity of their early growth. 

Leaves. — The mesophyll is composed of one layer of palisade 
cells, narrow and close joined, and a lacunar tissue of equal 
thickness, made up of cells of varying size with air-spaces 
between each ; the cuticle is feeble ; the cells of the upper 
epidermis are much larger than those of the lower epidermis, 
their lower portion is blocked with mucilage, and there are 
scarcely any hairs on either surface of the adult organ ; the 
stomata are small, and have no accessory cells, their number 
per square mm. is about 237 ; the leaf is only 200 ^ thick ; at 
the base of the petiole are three vascular bundles united into a 
U, higher up, the ends of these branches emit two bundles, and 

N'itcralist. 



Keegan : The Birch Tree. 207 

at the blade form a V, the system is therefore ' open,' whereas 
in Alder and Hazel it is 'closed.' On 4th August, the leaves 
had 58 per cent, of water, and the dried substance contained 
3 per cent, wax and resin with a little carotin, some palmitic 
acid, and traces of volatile oil, 11 albumenoids, 4.3 tannin and 
quercitrin, considerable glucose and starch, a large quantity 
of pectosic mucilage with tartrate and oxalate of calcium (mostly 
in the lacunar tissue), and 3.5 ash which had 34 percent, soluble 
salts, 4 silica, 25.3 lime, 8.4 magnesia, 11.3 P 2 O s and 4.4 SO 3 . 
The ash of the yellow and red autumn leaves rose to 5.8 per 
cent., and contained 6.9 per cent, silica, 39.8 lime, and 1.4 P 2 O s . 
The chlorophyll of the leaf is disorganised about mid October ; 
but the nerves and parenchyma still retain considerable starch 
much later on. The resin glands of the young leaf become less 
active in September, and completely dry up in October. 

Flower and Fruit. — The inflorescence is in the form of catkins, 
the male flower being terminal, entirely naked, and born from a 
bud of the previous year, while the female flower is axillary, and 
springs from a bud of the current year, formed of five or six 
membranous scales, and borne on a lateral peduncle. At the 
time of fertilization in the female catkin there is visible only a 
single rounded scale, bearing at its base six pistils ; there is 
no sign of a placenta or of ovules. Later on these pistils unite, 
and at maturity of the organ there is seen three bilocular carpels 
monosperm by abortion. The fruit is a flattened samara with a 
membranous and transparent wing at each side. The seed is 
anatrope (the nucellus straight, and the chalaza distant from the 
hilum), without raphe, and pendulous ; the cotyledons are flat, 
and there is no endosperm ; it ripens in October, but the ger- 
minative capacity is lost in about six months. According to 
Jahne, the fruit (shell and seed) contains 10.5 per cent, water, 
18.2 fatty matter, 14.4 albumenoids, 11.4 sugar and dextrin, 
27.2 fibre, and 4.2 ash which (pure) has 27 per cent, potass, 
9 silica, 23.7 lime, 9.2 magnesia, 10.9 P 2 O s and 4.8 SO 3 . The 
reserve materials are aleurone and oil only, no starch. The 
Birch is a pretty prolific seed-producer, but few of our native 
trees generate more seed that is sterile, only about 20 per cent, 
thereof being fit to germinate. 

Physiological Summary. — A study of the chemical changes 
occurring in the Birch leaf during its life, teaches that the vege- 
tation of this tree so far approaches perfection. There is no 
serious decrease in the production of starch, cellulose, or lignin, 
the albumenoids and sugars diminish considerably in autumn, 
while there is no special or heavy fixation of insoluble matters 

1907 June 1. 



208 Keegan : The Birch Tree. 

(silica, lime, or magnesia salts) in the old organ. With respect 
to the wood there are indications of a rapid growth of all the 
tissues simultaneously with defective differentiation. For in- 
stance, in May and June, i.e. the period of great vegetative 
activity* the outer wood-rings of the stem and branches are 
almost devoid of starch, i.e. there is only a feeble reserve of 
starch in the wood, the vessels are still free and open for the 
circulation of sap, and the amount of tannin produced is very 
small, so that everything forbids the differentiation of the 
wood elements into alburnum and duramen. In the region 
of the bark, moreover, the rapid growth and so far perfect 
vegetation lead the way to a subsequent inanition, whereby 
a powerful periderm is constructed. The pressure of the 
actively growing internal tissues rends the epidermis, imparts a 
potent stimulus to the phellogen (cork-cambium), and the 
attractive phenomenon of the silver-barked Birch is the result. 
The production of tannin being, however, comparatively poor, 
the outer bark is white, and not brown, as in most other 
instances. 

But whereas the vegetation so far as the foliar organs are 
concerned, is comparatively perfect and unexhausted, the 
chemical development, so to speak, of the tree is decidedly 
backward. Thus the young leaves produce a not insignificant 
quantity of volatile oil, resin, and tannoid, while, nevertheless, 
in the old organs the amount of tannin and phloroglucin is 
distinctly insignificant. The mature bark contains only some 
5 per cent, of tannin and only a trifling indication of free phloro- 
glucin. Thus it appears that the process of deassimilation is 
very incomplete, and stands in this respect in marked contrast 
to that of the nearest ally, via. the Alder. In fact, this is the 
chief reason of the comparatively short life of the Birch tree, 
viz. some no years. The wood never becomes perfect, no true 
duramen is formed ; indeed, when cut and exposed to the air, 
it putrifies very rapidly and completely owing to a serious 
poverty in tannin and resin. The copious ' bleeding ' in spring 
is dependent on a portion of the crude sap, taken up by the 
roots, being pressed into the mature air-containing vessels, 
which (as aforesaid), although mature, are nevertheless so free 
from the thickening and incrusting substances ordinarily charac- 
teristic of 'perfect' wood, that the circulating sap (the spring 
maximum of starch production in the wood having been 
attained), readily finds a place of rest, so to speak, on its 
passage upwards, and from whence it may be readily withdrawn 
by the simple process of tapping. 

Naturalist, 



2og 

THEORIES OF EVOLUTION. 



An Historical Outline. 



AGNES ROBERTSON, D.Sc. 



{Continued from page iji . ) 

III.— NATURAL SELECTION. 

We must now turn to the most famous theory ever brought 
forward to account for the origin of species — that of Natural 
Selection or the Survival of the Fittest, which was propounded 
independently by Darwin and Wallace. Charles Darwin (1809- 
1882) was the son of a doctor, and the grandson of Erasmus 
Darwin, whose evolutionary views we have already mentioned. 
His intellectual development was not rapid ; at Cambridge he 
merely took the poll degree, and he says of himself at the age 
of twenty-two, ' I should have thought myself mad to give up 
the first days of partridge-shooting for geology or any other 
science.' Charles. Darwin is, in fact, a most striking instance 
of the truth of Keats' saying — ■' Nothing is finer for the purposes 
of great productions than a very gradual ripening of the intel- 
lectual powers.' He always had a taste for collecting, and at 
Cambridge he came under the influence of Professor Henslow, 
with whom he went for long walks and discussed natural 
history. Through Henslow, soon after he went down from 
Cambridge, he received the offer of the position of naturalist 
on H.M.S. Beagle, then just starting for Tierra del Fuego 
and the East Indies with a view to surveying the southern 
extremity of America. He closed with the offer, and these 
travel years had a most profound effect on his after-life. On 
the voyage he began to reflect on the problem of the origin of 
species, and after his return home, in the summer of 1837, he 
opened his first note-book on the subject, a subject at which he 
worked continuously for the next twenty years. Curiously 
enough, in 1858 Alfred Russel Wallace, who was studying the 
natural history of the Malay Archipelago, sent him an essay he 
had just written embodying the identical idea which he had him- 
self reached, namely, that of Natural Selection ! Darwin, by the 
advice of his friends, published some extracts from his existing 
manuscripts with Wallace's paper, and the next year saw the 
appearance of the first edition of the 'Origin of Species.' It 
is a lasting honour to English science that, instead of the 

3907 June 1. 



210 Robertson: Theories of Evolution . 

embittered struggle for priority which has sometimes occurred 
when the same discovery has been made independently and almost 
simultaneously by two workers, Darwin and Wallace each 
showed the greatest anxiety to give each other all possible 
credit. Wallace arrived at the idea of Natural Selection much 
more rapidly than Darwin. He tells us that after three years 
pondering on the subject it came to him in a sudden inspiration 
while he was suffering from a severe attack of ague in the 
Moluccas ; he sketched out the whole theory in a day and sent 
it straight to Darwin. 

The ' Origin of Species ' is a long book, which from cover to 
cover consists of one closely-wrought argument of which no 
shortened and condensed account can be anything but un- 
satisfactory ; however, I will try in the briefest possible way 
to summarise the main contentions. In the 'Origin of Species' 
Darwin attempted to answer two distinct questions : — 

i. Were the animals and plants of the present day created 
just as we now know them, or have they been gradually evolved ? 

In answer to this question Darwin brings forward much 
evidence to show that the Evolution hypothesis is the only 
tenable one. 

2. If it be granted that Evolution has occurred, how has it 
been brought about ? 

Darwin's answer to this was that it had been mainly brought 
about by the action of Natural Selection on small spontaneous 
variations, occurring in all directions, good, bad, and indifferent. 

In discussing the ' Origin of Species ' considerable confusion 
often arises because these two questions are not kept distinct. 
People talk as if Darwinism or Natural Selection were the same 
thing as Evolution, and as if the idea of Evolution would stand 
and fall with the idea of Natural Selection. But in reality, if 
Darwin's hypothesis of Natural Selection were disproved, this 
would leave the Evolution theory quite untouched, since the 
hypothesis of Natural Selection is simply put forward to explain 
how Evolution occurs. A concrete illustration may perhaps 
make this clearer. Suppose a passenger on a ship takes 
observations of the stars at intervals, and to explain 
his observations puts forward the theory that the vessel is 
moving, and that the movement is taking place in a certain 
direction. Then suppose that other evidence, such as the 
presence of sails, leads the passenger to form a second theory — 
namely, that the agency by which the ship is moved is wind. 
Now imagine that he presently discovers that the ship is really 

Naturalist, 



Robertson : TJieories of Evolution. 2 1 1 

worked by steam, and that the sails are comparatively useless 
— imagine, that is, that he proves to be wrong in his second 
theory, which he propounded to answer the question, ' how does 
the ship move?' This error does not in the least shake the 
truth of his first theory, namely, that the ship is moving in a 
certain direction. The question of how this is brought about is 
secondary, and has nothing whatever to do with the primary 
question as to whether movement in a certain direction is or is 
not occurring. 

We will now shortly consider Darwin's Natural Selection 
hypothesis. There is much evidence that since man first began 
to domesticate animals and plants these have changed enormously 
under his hands. For instance, there are now more than a score 
of distinct breeds of pigeons, which an ornithologist, if he met 
them in the wild state, would probably name as distinct species, 
but which, according to the common opinion of naturalists, are 
all descended from the common rock pigeon. According to 
Darwin, who made a special study of these birds, all the 
different races have been produced by ' artificial selection r 
carried on through many generations. The expression 'artifical 
selection ' almost explains itself, but it may perhaps be well to 
say a few words about it. No two individuals belonging to 
a species are exactly alike, and domesticated animals are 
particularly apt to vary. A man possessing domesticated 
animals or plants showing considerable variation among them- 
selves will naturally choose those to breed from in each 
generation which possess in the highest degree the characters 
which he particularly wants ; that is, he will pick out the most 
favourable variations. For instance, if he is breeding race- 
horses, he will select his fleetest animals in the expectation 
that their offspring will resemble them. Or if he has a fancy 
for pigeons with exaggerated tails, he will always by preference 
breed from the individuals with the longest tail feathers. The 
idea of improving - domesticated animals and plants by selection 
is by no means a modern one, though it has only been reduced 
to a definite method in comparatively recent times. The effect 
of artificial selection in producing differing races of domesticated 
animals and plants is quite extraordinary. This is brought 
home to us when we think of the difference between the race- 
horse and the dray-horse, the greyhound and the bloodhound, 
the crab-apple and Cox's orange pippin, and realise that it is 
more than probable that these differences have been produced 
by selecting and breeding from those individuals in each 

1907 June 1. 



2 1 2 Robertson : Theories of Evolution. 

generation which possessed in the highest degree some special 
quality at which the breeder was aiming. The material upon 
which the breeder has to work is the variations which 
spontaneously arise. He cannot compel a variation in the 
direction which he desires, but he can make use of it if it 
happens to arise. The variability of domesticated plants and 
animals is particularly marked, but species in the wild condition 
vary much more than is generally supposed. Misapprehension 
on this point arises from the fact that systematists are inclined 
to take no account of variations from the type form of a species 
unless the variation is sufficiently well marked to be named and 
classified as a sub-species or variety. Darwin held that between 
species and variety there is no hard and fast line. If this is 
true, and species are only strongly marked and well defined 
varieties, it follows that species belonging to a large genus 
will be more likely to present varieties than species belonging 
to a small genus. For a large genus is a group within which 
the manufactory of species in past times went on with special 
vigour, the numerous species of the genus existing at the 
present day being a legacy from this former activity. If this 
activity is not only a matter of the past, but continues into 
modern times, we shall find a number of species now actually 
in the making — that is, many of the species in the genus will 
show sub-species and varieties. Darwin tested this sup- 
position by tabulating the plants and beetles of twelve 
countries according to the size of the genera and the number of 
recorded varieties, and found that it was borne out by the facts. 
If we grant that variations exist, and that no sharp line 
can be drawn between species and varieties, the question next 
arises — how is it that varieties become so far differentiated from 
their parent species as to be converted into fixed and stable 
species, and how is it that these species show such wonderful 
adaptations to their surroundings? In other words — what 
factor in the natural evolution of species takes the place of that 
' artifical selection ' by which man produces his domestic races ? 
The answer is that this factor is the ' natural selection ' brought 
about by the struggle for existence between living things. 
Since many more animals and plants are brought into the world 
than can possibly survive, variations, however slight, which 
happen to be in any degree profitable to the individuals 
exhibiting them, will tend to the preservation of such individuals, 
and will very likely be inherited by their offspring. This pro- 
cess is conveniently known by Herbert Spencer's name of the 

Naturalist, 



Robertson : Theories of Evolution. 213 

Survival of the Fittest. Animals and plants are subject to 
immensely severe competition, on account of the high rate at 
which they all tend to increase if they are unchecked. The 
excess of individuals produced over the number which have any 
chance of surviving is quite startling. Linnaeus calculated that 
if an annual plant produced only two seeds, and its seedlings 
two each, and so on, in twenty years the descendants of the 
original plant would number one million ! So it is clear that 
stringent checks to increase must be perpetually operating to 
keep the numbers of plants and animals down to those which 
we meet at the present day. Darwin dug and cleared a piece 
of ground three feet by two feet so that there could be no 
choking from other plants, and marked all the seedlings of 
native weeds that came up. Of 357, 295 were destroyed, chiefly 
by slugs and other insects, and yet he had eliminated what is 
probably the chief cause of seedling mortality, namely, germin- 
ation in ground already stocked with other plants. We are too 
apt to think of the struggle for existence among plants and 
animals as being a struggle against the elements only. But 
since so many more animals and plants are produced than can 
possibly survive, the struggle is really in the first place a 
competition with other organisms, notably individuals of the 
same species, since they frequent the same districts, require the 
same food, and are exposed to the same dangers. In the 
struggle for existence Natural Selection may be compared to a 
sieve which is perpetually sifting out all but the more favourable 
varieties. 'It may metaphorically be said that natural selection 
is daily and hourly scrutinising, throughout the world, the 
slightest variations ; rejecting those that are bad, preserving 
and adding up all that are good ; silently and insensibly work- 
ing, whenever and wherever opportunity offers, at the improvement 
of each organic being in relation to its organic and inorganic 
conditions of life.' 

As a corollary to the theory of Natural Selection, Darwin 
brought forward a subsidiary hypothesis, that of SexuaJ 
Selection, which had been originally suggested by his grand 
father, Erasmus Darwin. According to this theory the 
secondary sexual characters in the male arise through 
the struggle between the individuals of the male sex for 
the possession of the female. In those animals in which the 
' law of battle ' prevails, weapons such as antlers are gradually 
evolved, because the individual possessing these in the most 
highly developed form will be most successful in the struggle 

1907 June 1. 



214 Robertson: Theories of Evolution. 

with his compeers, and so will be most likely to leave offspring-* 
Further, the brilliant plumage and beautiful song of some male 
birds is attributed to a more peaceful rivalry in which the birds 
compete for the favour of the female, displaying before 
her their plumage and their voice. The female is said in 
such cases to actually select the most attractive male. Wallace 
is in entire disagreement with Darwin as to the possibility of 
the plumage and song of the cock bird being evolved in response 
to the taste of the hen. He thinks that where the male has 
gayer plumage than the female this simply means that the need 
for protection represses in the female the bright colours which 
are normally produced in both sexes by general laws. He also 
believes that brightness of colour is correlated with vigour, 
and hence the male exceeds the female in brilliancy owing to his 
higher vigour and vitality. It further follows from this 
correlation that the more vigorous males which succeed best in 
the struggle for the female will be the most brilliant, and hence 
vividness of colour will be selected incidentally by the ' law of 
battle.' 

Numerous criticisms of the theory of Natural Selection have 
been brought forward from time to time. The most serious 
collection of difficulties in the way of theory is probably that 
brought together by Darwin himself in the ' Origin of Species,' 
for his intense intellectual honesty made him state all possible 
drawbacks to this theory in a more forcible and telling way 
than his opponents could ! Perhaps there is no more cogent 
difficulty than that of accounting for the incipient stages of useful 
modifications. Many adaptations, which are obviously useful 
when highly developed, do not seem likely to have been of any 
advantage to the creature in their rudimentary stages. A second 
difficulty of a slightly different type is that of the utility of 
specific differences. On Darwin's theory utility is the sole test 
by which a variation stands or falls, but in many cases the very 
constant differences distinguishing two allied species have, so 
far as we can judge, no utility whatever. In Mr. Bateson's 
words : — ' as to the particular benefit which one dull moth 
enjoys as the result of his own particular pattern of dulness as 
compared with the closely similar pattern of the next species, 
no suggestion is made.' 

These difficulties are very real, and they show us that the 
4 Origin of Species,' magnificent as it is, ought not to be accepted 
as the last word on the subject. Darwin himself (unlike some 
modern ' Darwinians ! ') never looked upon Natural Selection as 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 215 

the one and only key to evolution, but regarded it as 'the most 
important, but not the exclusive, means of modification.' 
Further, we must remember that Darwin never attempted to 
explain how the variations arise upon which Natural and Sexual 
Selection work. He simply assumed that organisms do vary, 
and that these variations take place in all directions. As has 
been tersely said, ' Natural Selection may explain the Survival 
of the Fittest, but it cannot explain the arrival of the fittest.' 

(To be continued). 



Animal Artizans and other studies of Birds and Beasts, by C. J. 
Cornish, M.A., F.Z.S. Longmans Green & Co., 1907, 274 pp., 7/6 net. 
This volume, on account of the thickness of the paper on which it is printed, 
is very massive. It contains a collection of the late C. J. Cornish's contri- 
butions to the ' Spectator,' ' Country Life,' etc., and in this form will be very 
welcome to the admirers of that writer. In her preface his widow has 
reason to believe 'that some account of his life and work might be welcome 
to those of his readers who never knew him personally and to others who 
admired his often unsigned writings without being aware of the identity of 
their author. And it seemed appropriate that such an account should be 
embodied in the preface to this book.' In her memoir Mrs. Cornish describes 
the life and doings of her late husband, with details of trivialities which are 
perhaps pardonable in the circumstances. There are thirty-five essays 
gathered together in the book, on a great variety of subjects, and some are 
very suggestive. The illustrations, however, are not quite as successful as 
one might wish. The artist has not grasped the full value of light and 
shade, and the pictures have consequently a 'thin' appearance; the flight 
of swans on the plate facing page 82 seems to represent their 'ghosts' 
rather than the birds themselves. 

The Stone Implements of South Africa, by J. P. Johnson. 
Longmans, Green & Co., 1907. 53 pp., price 7/6 net. In this volume, which 
is illustrated by 258 line drawings of implements, the author has given an 
account of his researches amongst the stone implements of South Africa. 
Some idea of the nature of the work may be gathered from the following 
extract from the preface : — ' The object of this little volume is to co- 
ordinate the various discoveries of stone implements I have made during 
the last four years — discoveries that I venture to think mark a new era in 
our knowledge of the Stone Age of South Africa. No attempt will be made 
to review the abundant, but unsatisfactory, literature already in existence.' 
Notwithstanding this, there is evidence that the author is fairly familiar 
with the recent contributions to our knowledge of man's early weapons, not 
only in Africa, but much nearer home. He uses typical Palaeolithic 
(Acheulian) implements as his datum line ; earlier types are 'primitive' and 
later are 'advanced.' He recognises Eolithic, Palaeolithic, and Neolithic 
types, but takes them as stages in the general progressive evolution from 
very primitive to advanced forms. He describes ' pigmy ' implements, and 
also the ostrich-egg shell beads for the manufacture of which these 
diminutive forms were used. We were relieved to find that he did not wish to 
invent a special pigmy race of men to account for their presence. His study 
of the stone implements of South Africa shows that ' the sequence is the same 
as in Britain and other parts of the Old World, though it is not so complete, 
having lagged behind somewhat.' There is no index, and the price is quite 
sufficient. 

1907 June 



2l6 

THE PEREGRINES AT BEMPTON. 



E. W. WADE, M.B.O.U. 



We may congratulate ourselves that the efforts of the Y.N.U. 
in protecting the Bempton Peregrines are once more rewarded. 
It had been rumoured that the birds were not at their old 
haunts, but, like most birds, they are very quiet when occupied 
in family cases, and as the situation of the eyrie, halfway 
between Old Dor and the Pig-Trough, is so chosen as to be 
invisible except from the bottom of the cliffs, where no one had 
been previous to the commencement of the climbing season, 
they had entirely escaped notice. At Whitsuntide, however, 
when egg-gathering began and their security was disturbed by 
the climbers, the birds at once showed their disapproval of the 
intruders. The cock bird did not remain long on the scene, but 
so long as any human beings appeared on the cliff-top the hen 
soared round in wide circles, uttering harsh cries more in anger 
than distress, for who had the right to dispute her hitherto un- 
challenged supremacy on the face of the cliff? Now and again 
she closed her wings, and, swift as lightning, descended 
vertically down the face of the cliff, scattering to right and left 
the swarms of sea-birds. Then, by simply extending her 
broad wings, she rose to the level of the cliff-top again. 
Apparently the wings were never flapped except to steady her 
flight, for, without visible motion of these, she repeated the 
manoeuvre a dozen times, sometimes twisting completely round 
in the air or turning over with the wings extended in order to 
alter the direction of her flight, but always with the same per- 
fect ease, which made Gulls, Guillemots, Razorbills, and Puffins 
appear clumsy and slow in comparison. Numerous feathers 
scattered about on the various grassy nabs along the cliffs attest 
the voracity of this prince of robbers, but sea-birds and cliff- 
pigeons, which apparently form the whole diet, are numerous, 
and one need not grudge the few required for his larder. A 
descent to last year's eyrie showed that the falcons had moved 
a little to the west, where they are better hidden from observation, 
and unfortunately in a position where a photograph cannot be 
secured. The climber entertains a prejudice against this bird, 
which they say frightens the Guillemots off their eggs, which 
thus become spilled and broken ; but as the same Guillemots sat 
on the ledges all round the eyrie all the while the birds were 
under observation, and apparently showing not the slightest 
trace of fear, we may dismiss this objection as prejudice only. 

Naturalist, 



217 

THE VICTORIA HISTORY OF YORKSHIRE. 

{Continued from page 186). 

PREHISTORIC MAN. 

The section of this volume dealing with pre-historic remains 
(other than earth-works, which are being described later) has 
been written by Mr. George Clinch, F.G.S., who must be 
congratulated upon the thoroughness with which he has 
accomplished his task. In perusing his notes, it is obvious 
that not only has the writer made himself conversant with 
the voluminous literature on the subject, but he has also visited 
the principal collections in the county. Mr. Clinch gives a 
useful summary of the relics (pottery, dwellings, etc.) of the 
Neolithic Age, the Bronze Age, the Iron Age, etc. His notes 
are illustrated by a large number of drawings and photographs 
of typical vases, implements, weapons, ornaments, carved 
stones, etc. He has obviously and admittedly been greatly 
assisted in his work by the fact that two such excellent 
memoirs as Canon Greenwell's 'British Barrows' and Mortimer's 
' Forty Years' Researches ' have appeared, dealing very largely 
with the county; and, in addition, the museums in this broad- 
acred shire are also exceptionally well furnished with relics of 
early man. As might be expected, the spelling of both personal 
and place names indicates a want of familiarity with the county, 
and this might have been prevented by allowing any of the 
numerous Yorkshire antiquaries to have read the proofs. In 
some instances the same individual has his name spelt in two 
or three different ways. 

With regard to the Rudston monolith, Mr. Clinch may be 
pleased to know that its depth underground has been demon- 
strated by excavation ; also, there were formerly four or more 
stones forming the Devil's Arrows near Borough-bridge (see 
' Naturalist,' Feb., 1903, pp. 34-5). To his list of pre-historic 
antiquities in Yorkshire many additions might be made. This 
list is ' an attempt to put on record all the more important 
discoveries of pre-historic relics in Yorkshire.' Curiously 
enough, Mr. Clinch omits from this list some of the specimens 
he describes in the text. There are several localities in which 
important finds have been made not referred to in the list, and 
South Ferriby should not have been included, as the place is in 
Lincolnshire. The mark at Ferriby on the Yorkshire map 
containing Mr. Clinch's notes, therefore, does not apply, though 

1907 June 1. 



218 Field Notes. 

it might be allowed to stand to indicate the locality in which 
probably the finest bronze spear head in the north of England 
was found (which is in the possession of Canon Greenwell), but is 
not referred to in the list. The stone and bronze axes referred to 
under 'Hull' were not found at that place, but near Hull, as 
recorded in Sir John Evans' books, and the only pre-historic 
implement ever found at Hull, curiously enough, is not mentioned 
in the list, as it is in the Wilberforce historical museum, which 
presumably was not examined by Mr. Clinch when he visited 
Hull. We also notice that some forgeries have been included 
as though they were genuine. Perhaps the most unexpected 
omission from the list of place names is ' Ulrome,' where so many 
important discoveries at various periods have been made, some 
of which Mr. Clinch describes elsewhere. 

These omissions, however, are of somewhat minor importance, 
and speaking generally, the account of Yorkshire's pre-historic 
remains as given by Mr. Clinch is very well done indeed. 

Mr. A. F. Leach writes an account of the schools of the 
county, which is a very useful compilation, and appears to 
have been very conscientiously done. This contribution occupies 
86 pages. 

The concluding chapter (24 pages) deals with Forestry, and 
is written by the Rev. J. C. Cox, whose volume on Forests we 
recently had the pleasure of noticing in these pages ('Naturalist,' 
1906, pp. 95-97). We then dealt at some length with Dr - Cox's 
researches amongst the old records relating to the Forests of 
Yorkshire ; and in the present chapter these are somewhat 
extended. The name of Dr. Cox at the head of this important 
contribution is a sufficient guarantee of the thoroughness of 
the work. 



BIRDS. 

Arrival of Migrants near York. — The following are the 
dates of the arrival of migrants near York. In most cases the 
dates are later than last year, the cold weather being no doubt 
responsible for the somewhat erratic arrival of the birds. 
March 24. — Wheatear. April 27. — Sand martin. 

April 19. — Willow Warbler. May 1. — Cuckoo. 

,, 19. — Sandpiper. ,, 8. — Whinchat. 

,, 22. — House Martin. ,, 8. — Swift. 

., 22. — Swallow. ,, 10. — Landrail. 

,, 23. — Whitethroat. ,, 13. — Nightjar. 

Sydney H. Smith, York. 

Naturalist, 



219 

HISTORY OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL 
HISTORY) COLLECTIONS.* 

The Trustees of the British Museum and the staff at Cromwell 
Road are to be congratulated upon the preparation of a valuable 
History of the Collections, two volumes of which have already 
appeared. The first deals with the libraries and the departments 
of Botany, Geology, and Minerals ; and the second is devoted to 
the special accounts of the several collections of Zoology, written 
respective assistant keepers and assistants. The general by the 
History of the Zoological Department will be issued as a 
third volume shortly. 

Too much stress cannot be laid upon the importance of 
placing upon record particulars of the origin and growth, not 
only of our national collections, but of all those in the museums 
throughout the country. As it is, a perusal of the volumes 
under notice proves that anything like a reliable record of even 
our national treasures is exceedingly difficult to obtain ; in 
many instances the history of an important specimen is lost, 
and thus much of its value is also gone. Difficult as it un- 
doubtedly has been to prepare the present history, there is no 
doubt that had it been longer delayed it would have been 
impossible to have got the information together. 

The history of the British Museum dates from 1753, in 
which year an Act of Parliament was passed for the purpose of 
purchasing the well-known collection of Sir Hans Sloane. We 
observe no mention is made in this official guide of the sub- 
sequent Act which was passed authorising the raising of the 
funds required by means of a lottery ! t As time went on the 
collections grew, and in i860 it was decided that the Natural 
History Series be removed from the British Museum, and three 
years later the site of the International Exhibition at South 
Kensington was purchased for these collections. The volumes 
■under notice chronicle the various changes that have taken 
place in the staff, arrangement, etc., of the Natural History 
Museum, as well as the yearly acquisitions. This last-named 
item is a very important one, and when it is remembered that in 
one department in one year no fewer than 1 16,000 additions were 
made, whilst most of the departments acquire thousands, or tens 
of thousands per annum, it will be seen that the question of 

* Vol. I., 442 pp., 1904, sold at the Natural History Museum, Cromwell 
Road, 15/-. Vol. II., 782 pp., 1906, 30/- 

t See 'Naturalist,' 1905, p. 120. 
.2907 June 1. 



220 Northern News. 

cataloguing- the specimens is a very serious matter. In addition 
to this chronological record is an alphabetical list of the donors 
of the specimens to each of the departments, together with 
particulars of the objects obtained from them. 

In the chapter devoted to a History of the Libraries is a 
' List of Current Serial Publications Presented to the British 
Museum (Natural History),' which appears to be incomplete, 
as we know of one or two items regularly presented which do 
not appear in this list. It is also unsatisfactory to find so many 
of the sets of Transactions, etc. , are incomplete. Surely the 
various societies referred to would complete their sets of 
Publications in the national museum were they approached — or, 
at any rate, if they could not do so, a small outlay on the part 
of the authorities would secure the desired publications and 
thus preserve them for all time. Strangely enough, we notice 
that the colonial and foreign publications presented are nearly 
all in sets commencing ' No. I.,' whereas from our own country 
complete sets are distinctly in the minority. 

We have pleasure in drawing attention to these valuable 
publications — they should be in every reference library, and 
every naturalist will find them of distinct value. The authorities 
at the Natural History Museum are to be commended on the 
production of the volumes. 



The Council of the University of Leeds has decided to establish separate 
chairs of zoology and botany. 

'This year rooks are said to be thicker than ever,' we read, 'and rook 
pie is therefore likely to be cheap.' A beautiful instance of 'caws' and 
effect. 

On account of the illness of the Curator of the Haslemere Museum the 
publication of the Museum Gazette is suspended for the present. We trust 
that Mr. S wanton may soon be well again. It is hoped to re-issue the 
journal in January next. 

As his presidential address to the Geologists' Association Mr. R. S. 
Herries took for his subject ' On the Constitution and Management of 
Scientific Societies.' It is printed in Vol. XX., pt. i., of the Society's 
Proceedings, just issued. This paper should be carefully read by all those 
concerned in the management of such societies. 

In the new ' Lancashire Naturalist ' we notice the Spring Vale Ramblers 
are to have two rambles 'from Clitheroe to Clitheroe,' which savours of a 
fishing trip. By the way, fishermen must be grateful to Mr. Alan R. Haig- 
Brown, who, in the same journal, makes the following contribution : — ' Do 
fishermen juggle with the truth ! I sometimes think they get the reputation 
thereof, because, being out often, and alone with Nature, they see sights 
which to the stay-at-home seem incredible.' The next time we hear our 
angling friends relating details of the incredibly big fish which they nearly 
caught, we must remember that, with the possible exception of a basket and 
flask, they were at the time 'alone with Nature.' 

Naturalist, 



221 



3n flDemoriam. 



EDWARD HALLIDAY. 



We were very sorry to receive the announcement of the death 
of Mr. Edward Halliday, of Halifax, which event took place on 
April 5th last. He was in his eightieth year, and was almost 
the last of the old band of working - men lepidopterists of a 
generation ago, being a contemporary of James Varley, William 
Talbot, George Liversedge, and many others. Halliday retained 
his interest in lepidoptera up to the last ; and at the 
excursion and meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
at Hebden Bridge — one of his favourite localities — on June nth, 
1904, was quite enthusiastic over the species which occurred 
there. 

G. T. P. 



JOHN FRANCIS WALKER, M.A., F.G.S., F.Z.S. 

We regret to hear of the death, on May 24th, of John Francis 
Walker, M.A., F.G.S., F.Z.S. , of Bootham, York, at the age 
of sixty-seven. He was a member of an old York family, and 
for many years took a keen interest in the York Philosophical 
Society, of which he was a vice-president. He was also a 
frequent donor to the York Museum. He was perhaps best 
known from the keen interest he took in geology — particularly 
in collecting. His series of fossil brachiopoda, over which he 
spent many years in getting together, is exceptionally complete, 
and has formed the subject of several papers in the Annual 
Reports of the York Philosophical Society, and elsewhere. At 
the recent York Meeting of the British Association he was 
elected Chairman of a Committee for the investigation of the 
Neocomian Beds at Knapton. Mr. Walker was a life-member 
of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 

T.S 



Birds I have known.— A. H. Beavan. T. Fisher Unwin, 256 pp. 
Second Edition, 2/- This appears to be a reprint, on thinner paper, of the 
work noticed in these columns for May, 1905 (pp. 158-9). The cover is 
certainly more attractive than that of the first edition, and at its present 
price it is a very cheap volume. 

1907 June 1. 



FIELD NOTES. 



MAMMALS. 

Note on Bats. — In the 'Naturalist' for January (p. 28) Mr. 
H. B. Booth has a note on ' the small quantity of air necessary 
to sustain life in a bat.' The following may be of interest to 
Mr. Booth and others who are studying- these physiologically 
puzzling- animals : — 

W. Derham, in his ' Physico-Theology ' (London, 1737), 
Book I., Chap, i, p. 28, gives the results of some experiments 
on many animals. 'Birds, dogs, cats, rats, mice, etc., when 
placed under the receiver of an air pump, died in less than half- 
a-minute, counting from the very first exsuction. A mole .... 
died in one minute .... A bat (although wounded) sustained 
the pump two minutes, and revived upon the re-admission 
of air. After that he remained four-minutes-and-a-half and 
revived. Lastly, after he had been five minutes, he continued 
gasping for a while, and after twenty minutes I readmitted air, 
but the bat never revived.' A frog lasted eleven hours, and 
certain invertebrates twenty-four hours. Besides suffering- from 
lack of oxygen, these subjects would probably be damaged by 
exploded or distended vessels and tissues. 

In a footnote on p. 71, in Vol. I. of the English translation 
of Cuvier's 'Animal Kingdom ' (1834) there is an account of the 
observations of Dr. Marshall Hall on the lethargic sleep of 
several hibernating mammals which ' can bear with impunity 
the abstraction of atmospheric air. ' This faculty ' enabled a 
bat to preserve life for eleven minutes when immersed in water.' 
— Fred Stubbs, Oldham, April 18th. 

BIRDS. 

Water = rail and Gannett at Mablethorpe. — About a week 
ago a water-rail entered, by the open window, the dining-room 
of Mr. J. H. Joyce, of Mablethorpe. On examination it was 
found to be almost foodless. About the same date a Solan 
Goose, or Gannet, was found dead from exhaustion about two 
miles from Mablethorpe. — J. Conway Walter, Langton, Lines., 
April 20th, 1907. 

Naturalist, 



223 

REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 



How to Study Geology: a Book for Beginners, by Ernest Evans. 
Swan Sonnenschein, 1907, 272 pp. In this little book the Natural 

Science Master at the Burnley Municipal Technical School has presented, in 
a form very suitable for a beginner, a series of essays on geological 
phenomena, illustrated by a profusion of blocks — some old — mostly new. 
Mr. Evans has for some time been lecturer to the Co-operative Holiday 
Association, and presumably the present work is the result of his notes 
which have been put together in connection therewith. By a series of simple 
experiments, also, many geological phenomena are explained. We hardly 
expected to find 'Signs of the Ice Age in Great Britain' dismissed in less 
than half a page. Fig. 8, showing two sets of inverted strata on the sides 
of an intruded mass, is surely an impossible section; on Fig. 12 'left' should 
be ' right ' and ' right ' should be ' left ' ; we have never seen a brick wall 
built across a glacier, as apparently shown on Fig. 31 ; and on Fig. 50 we 
are informed that ' the amount of reduction of the figures is denoted by X^ T 
which means reduced one half,' whereas the amount of reduction, except in. 
a very few cases, is 7iot denoted ; on page 53, line 8, ' size ' should be ' side.' 
These, however, are minor matters, which can be put right in the next 
edition. 

'In Starry Realms,' 372 pp.. 1907; 'In the High Heavens,' 384 pp., 
1907 ; and ' Great Astrononers,' 372 pp., 1907. 

Messrs. Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., are to be congratulated upon the 
way in which they are issuing some very useful and popular works on natural 
science at a reasonable rate. We have already referred to some of these 
publications in these columns recently. We have received the three 
well-known volumes named above, by Sir Robert Ball, F. R.S. , cheap 
editions (3/6), which the firm have just placed on the market, and there is no 
doubt they will meet with a ready sale. In this way much is being done to 
popularise the natural sciences. In the first volume named Sir Robert has 
necessarily had to revise the chapters on ' Shooting Stars ' and on ' Photo- 
graphing the Stars.' He also anticipates that the recent discoveries in 
Radio-Activity 'will shortly cause some modification to be made in our 
present views as to the sustentation of the sun's heat.' In the second volume 
the discoveries recently made in reference to the satellites of Jupiter are 
referred to, and in this he also deals at some length with the nebular 
theory. Further consideration of this subject only makes Sir Robert 
feel more confident that the nebular theory does really express the law of 
nature. The additional matters in the third volume, as might be expected 
rom the nature of the volume, are not of much moment. 

Thomas H. Huxley, by J. R. Ainsworth Davies, M.A. J. M. Dent & Co., 
1907. 288 pp. Naturally in the excellent 'English Men of Science 
Series,' now being issued by Messrs. Dent, a volume devoted to Huxley 
must be amongst the first, and Mr. Davies has written a very interesting 
narrative of the life and work and hardships and successes of one whose 
name is a household word, though it must be admitted that to some he is 
perhaps better known as an ' agnostic ' than as a man of science. But all 
who peruse the present small volume must marvel at the great work he did 
— too well known to all readers of this journal to require particularisation 
here. It is sufficient to state that it is a readable and concise account of the 
achievements of this great master, though there is much already familiar to 
those who have read the ' Life and Letters,' an admirable work which has 
admittedly been made good use of in the present volume. A useful feature 
are the appendices (a) Chief Biographical Sources (21 items): (Z>) List of 
Published Works (276 items) ; and (r) Classification of more Technical 
Works. There is a good index. 

1907 June 1. 



224 

NORTHERN NEWS. 



The April issue of ' Yorkshire Notes and Queries ' contains the first 
instalment of a useful ' Bibliography of Yorkshire.' 

At the request of the Executive Committee, Mr. H. Culpin, of 7, St. Mary's 
Road, Doncaster, has accepted the position of Treasurer to the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union. 

The ' leading 1 article ' of a recent issue of ' The Country Side ' is devoted 
to rabbit fleas, weasel fleas, dog fleas, cat fleas, fowl fleas (not lice), and 
other entertaining topics. 

The seventy-third Annual Report of the Bootham School (York) Natural 
History, Literary, and Polytechnic Society is to hand, and contains evidence 
of a continued interest being taken in Natural History in the school. 

Under the title ' Bibliotheca Pretiosa,' Messrs. Sotheran & Co. have 
issued a well illustrated catalogue of unusually choice books and manu- 
scripts of literary and historical interest. The price is half-a-crown. 

The opening address to the Geographical Section of the Birmingham 
Natural History and Philosophical Society, by Prof. W. W. Watts, F.R.S.' 
has just been published by the society (55, Newhall Street, Birmingham) at 
one shilling. 

In the May ' Entomologist's Monthly Magazine ' Mr. E. A. Newbery 
describes Enicmus fungicola, Thorns., a species of Coleoptera new to Britain. 
This was obtained in some numbers in dry fungi on a tree at Edenhall, 
Cumberland. 

Mr. Harper Gaythorpe favours us with a reprint of his paper on ' Pre- 
Historic Implements in Furness,' in which stone, flint, and bronze weapons 
are described. (Trans. Cumb. and West'd. Ant. and Arch. Soc. New 
Series, Vol. VI.). 

At a recent meeting of the Bradford Natural History and Microscopical 
Society, Mr. J. W. Carter, F.E.S., the newly-elected president, delivered a 
presidential address, in which he reviewed the work of the Society, which 
was formed in 18715. Mr. Carter was one of its earliest members. 

Our contributor, Mr. T. Petch, who is now the Government Mycologist 
of Ceylon, sends us his Report, as well as pamphlets dealing with ' Bud rot 
of the Cocoanut Palm,' ' Root disease of Hevea brasiliensis, ' and ' Descriptions 
of New Ceylon Fungi.' We understand Mr. Petch is to visit England in 
October. 

Drawn up by Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. , is an admirably illustrated 
' Guide to the Aquarium ' of the Liverpool Marine Biology Committee at 
Port Erin Biological Station, Isle of Man. The illustrations have been 
principally prepared by Mr. H. C. Chadwick, the Curator of the Station, 
and the Guide is sold at the small price of threepence. 

Newspaper Natural History. One of our dailies deplores the loss to 
shipping, due to the efforts of ' the worm, Testudo navalis ' ! A Welsh paper 
offers for sale a Shire Stallion, 'very muscular, good bone, silky feathers.' 
In drawing attention to the meteorological advantages of Scarborough, the 
Scarborough Post records that last year the total sunshine was 158,025 hours, 
an average of 430 hours of sunshine a day. No wonder Dr. H. R. Mill, at 
the British Association at York, gave us a warning as to the accuracy of 
meteorological records published at our holiday resorts ! In Huddersfield 
a 'Chip Potato Plant' is offered for sale, and Punch suggests that in the 
same department may be found a Navy Cut Tobacco Plant, and a Stewed 
Celery Bed. In the Huddersfield Chronicle we notice the following- displayed 

advertisement : — ' Mr. , the old botanist from the Society, 

will undertake to name any local wild plant every Sunday evening until 

further notice John Bray, proprietor, ■ Arms Hotel, Street 

Brewery Ales, Spirits, and Cigars of the choicest quality.' Hudders- 
field always has been a good botanical centre ! 

Naturalist, 



b 



JULY 1907. 



No. 606 

(No. 384 of current aeriet), 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



EDITED BY 



T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., 

The Museum, Hull ; 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S. F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, 



T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., 



WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. 



Contents : — 

Motes and Comments (Illustrated) :— Another New Magazine, And its Contributors, 
Booming Bempton, Wade's 'Birds of Bempton Cliffs,' 'The Birds of Yorkshire,' 
Stonham's 'Birds of the British Islands,' Dentalium giganteutn, Sir H. Howorth and 
Glacial Nightmares, Mr. Lamplugh's British Association Address, Bird Migration ... 

■Note on a Malformed Antler of a Red Deer (Illustrated)— T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 

The Birds of the Fame Islands (Illustrated)— R. Fortune, F.Z.S. 

The Marten in Lakeland — Edward T. Baldwin 

Theories of Evolution— Agnes Robertson, D.Sc 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Robin Hood's Bay (Illustrated) 

Field Notes 

Lincolnshire Mites (Illustrated)— C. F. George, M.R.C.S , 

Reviews and Book Notices (Illustrated) 

■Northern News 

Illustrations 

Plates XXIL, XXIII., XXIV., XXV., XXVI., XXVII. , XXVIII., 



230, 240 
233, 238, 
. 226, 228, 240, 254, 260, 
XXIX., XXX., XXXI. 



225-230 
231-233 
234-238 
239-240 
241-249 
250-255 
255-258 
259-260 
, 261-263 
258, 264 
262, 263- 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.C 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



PRICE I/- 



rr^nni*" M/^ 




ET. 

JUL13 




wj m 



1 NEJ 



W 



srt-w 



atfonal Mus^ 






PUBLICATIONS OF 

ZTbe Yorkshire Baturalfsts' Iftnion, 

BOTANICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION, Volume I. 

Svo, Cloth, 292 pp. (a few copies only left), price- 5[- net. 

Contains various reports, papers, and addresses on the Flowering Plants, Mosses, and Fungi of the county" 

Complete, 8vo, Cloth, with Coloured Map, published at One Guinea. Only a few copies left, 10/6 net. 

THE FLORA OF WEST YORKSHIRE. By FREDERIC ARNOLD LEES, M.R.C.S., &c. 
This, which forms the 2nd Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, is perhaps the most 
complete work of the kind ever issued for any district, including detailed and full records of 1044 Phanero- 
gams and Vascular Cryptogams, 11 Characea;, 348 Mosses, 108 Hepatics, 258 Lichens, 1009 Fungi, and 382". 
Freshwater Alga;, making a total of 3160 species. 

680 pp.. Coloured Geological, Lithological, &c. Maps, suitably Bound in Cloth. Price 15/- net. 
NORTH YORKSHIRE: Studies of its Botany, Geology, Climate, and Physical Geography. 

By JOHN GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., M.R.I. A., V.M.H. 
And a Chapter on the Mosses and Hepatics of the Riding, by Matthew B. Slater, F.L.S. This Volume- 
forms the 3rd of the Botanical Series. 

396 pp., Complete, Svo., Cloth. Price 10/6 net. 

THE FUNGUS FLORA OF YORKSHIRE. By G. MASSEE, F.L.S., F.R.H.S., & C. CROSSLAND, F.L.S, 

This is the 4th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, and contains a complete annotated list 
of all the known Fungi of the county, comprising 2626 species. 

Complete, 8vo, Cloth. Price 6/- post free. 
THE ALGA-FLORA OF YORKSHIRE. By W. WEST, F.L.S. , & GEO. S. WEST, B.A., A.R.C.S., F.L.S, 
This work, which forms the 5th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, enumerates 1044 
species, with full details of localities and numerous critical remarks on their affinities and distribution. 

Complete, 8vo, Cloth. Second Edition. Price 6/6 net. 

LIST OF YORKSHIRE LEPIDOPTERA. By G. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., FES. 

The First Edition of this work was published in 1883, and contained particulars of 1340 species of 
Macro- and Micro-Lepidoptera known to inhabit the county of York. The Second Edition, with Supplement,, 
contains much new information which has been accumulated by the author, including over 5.0 additional 
species, together with copious notes on variation (particularly melanism), &c. 

In progress, issued in Annual Parts, 8vo. 
TRANSACTIONS OF THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 

The Transactions include papers in all departments of the Yorkshire Fauna and Flora, and are issued ire 
?eparately-paged series, devoted each to a special subject The Parts already published are sold to the public? 
ns follows (Members are entitled to 25 per cent, discount) : Part 1 (1877), 2/3 ; 2 (1878), 1/9 ; 3 (1878), 1/6 ; 4 (1879), 
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THE BIRDS OF YORKSHIRE. By T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., WILLIAM EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S.,. 
M.B.O.U., and F. BOYES. Also being published (by Subscription, One Guinea). 

Annotated List of the LAND and FRESHWATER MOLLUSCA KNOWN TO INHABIT YORK- 
SHIRE. By JOHN W. TAYLOR, F.L.S., and others. Also in course of publication in the Trans- 
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THE YORKSHIRE CARBONIFEROUS FLORA. By ROBERT KIDSTON, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. Parts 14 r 

18, 19, 21, &c, of Transactions. 

LIST OF YORKSHIRE COLEOPTERA. By Rev. W. C. HEY, M.A. 



THE NATURALIST. A Monthly Illustrated Journal of Natural History for the North of England. Edited 
by T. SHEPPARD. F.G.S. , Museum, Hull; and T. W. WOODHEAD, F.L.S., Tl/'.hnic?l College,. 
Huddersfield ; with the assistance as referees in Special Departments of J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S. r 
F.L.S., Prof. PERCY F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., T H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., GEO. T. PORRITT, 
F.L.S., F.E.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, and WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. (Annual Subscription, payable 
in advance, 6/6 post free). 

MEMBERSHIP in the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 10/6 per annum, includes subscription to The Naturalist,. 

and entitles the member to receive the current Transactions, and all the other privileges of the Union. 

A donation of Seven Guineas constitutes a life-membership, and entitles the member to a set of the 

completed volumes issued by the Union. 

Members are entitled to buy all back numbers and other publications of the Union at a discount of 25- 

per cent, off the prices quoted above. 
All communications should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary, 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., The Museum, Hull. 

WANTED : Rennie's Field Naturalist (Setl. Proc. Geol. and Polyt. Soc, West Riding Yorks., Vol. I. British 
Association Report, 1839-1840. Quarterly Journal Geol. Soc, Vols. I -XXI I. Barnsley Nat. Socy's- 
Quarteily Reports (Set). Good prices given. 

Apply T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., 

The Museum, Hull. 



THE NATURALIST 1907 



Plate XXQ1 




. lasii. 



THE LINNET : SPECIMEN PLATE FROM MT CHARLES STONHAMS 
"THE BIRDS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS' (Margins much reduced) 



225 

NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



ANOTHER NEW MAGAZINE 
During the past few years we have chronciled the appearance 
of many new magazines. Most have had a meteoric existence 
— came into the world with a great glare, as quickly 'fizzed out,' 
and left not a wrack behind. Others had a more lingering- 
career ; but eventually sickened and died. One or two 
still linger, though apparently suffering from ' galloping con- 
sumption.' In most cases their fate was evident from the first. 
A few, a very few, seem still healthy. To these last had been 
added ' British Birds,' * which, judging from the first part just 
received, is most likely to be a success. The study of birds in 
recent years has been followed by an enormous number of 
serious students, as well as by a still greater number of 
drivelling dabblers, many of whom evidently consider that to 
buy (or borrow) a field-glass, to spend a week-end spying 
sparrows, and to have excess to a few monographs are the only 
qualifications for writing books and articles to periodicals. 
Page after page of the most blithering piffle are in this way printed. 
In 'British Birds,' however, there will be none of this. With 
such capable editors as Messrs. H. F. Witherby and W. P. 
Pycraft we can depend upon having nothing but the best, and 
' Part I.' of the new publication certainly is evidence of this. 

AND ITS CONTRIBUTORS. 

The articles it contains are : — ' Additions to the List of 
British Birds since 1899,' by ^ r - Howard Saunders, 'A Study 
of the Home Life of the Osprey ' (with three excellent plates), 
by P. H. Bahr, ' Remarks on the supposed New British Tits 
of the genus Parus,' by P. L. Sclater, 'Nesting Habits observed 
abroad of some Rare British Birds/ by F. C. Selous, as well as 
notes and correspondence by W. Eagle Clarke, J. H. Gurney, 
J. L. Bonhote. and Charles Whymper. 

It cannot be said that there is no room for such a periodical 
as ' British Birds.' It will unquestionably do good. And, with 
a possible exception, it will do no harm to its contemporaries. 



BOOMING BEMPTON. 
It is apparent that the attractions of the Cliffs of Bempton 
and Speeton are at last being recognised in the way they deserve. 

* Vol. I., Pt. 1, June 1st. 32 pp., 1/- net. (monthly). Witherby & Co. 
London. 

1907 July 1. 



226 



A T otes and Comments. 



The North Eastern Railway Company has issued an admirable 
coloured poster of the Bempton Cliffs, after a painting - by F. 
W. Booty. By the courtesy of the Company we are enabled to 
present our readers with a reproduction of the poster, in colours 
(Plate XXII.). From this it will be conceded that the North 
Eastern Company — which is so ready to grant every facility to 
the natural history and other societies using its lines, is also to 
the fore in issuing artistic posters. In addition, the Company 
has issued an attractive pamphlet, written by the Secretary of 




Guillemot Eggs on Black Shelf, Bempton. 

the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, setting forth geological, 
ornithological, and other features of the area. This pamphlet, 
which can be obtained on application to the Chief Passenger 
Superintendant, N.E.R., York, is illustrated by reproductions of 
photographs by Mr. E. W. Wade and others. 

WADE'S 'BIRDS OF BEMPTON CLIFFS.' 
Messrs. A. Brown & Sons, Hull, the publishers of the 
* Naturalist,' have issued a second edition of Mr. Wade's well- 
known pamphlet on the Birds of Bempton Cliffs. This contains 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



1'i.ate XXII. 




After painting by F. W. Booty. 
The Bempton Cliffs 



Notes (aid Comments. 227 

all that appeared in the first edition, with much additional 
matter, which extends the pamphlet to forty-one pages without 
the illustrations. The latter are now all printed on plate paper, 
which adds much to their value. Besides being- issued in more 
handy form, the price of the present impression is one shilling-, 
just half that of the first edition. It will doubtless have a 
ready sale. 

Our attention has also been called to a handbill issued by one 
of the 'climbers' of Bempton, who modestly describes himself as 
1 known as the old Cliff Climber throughout Great Britain ! ' 
But of this the least said the better. 



THE 'BIRDS OF YORKSHIRE." 

We are pleased to announce that by the time this is in our 
readers' hands the publication of the ' Birds of Yorkshire ' will 
be an accomplished fact, and within a few days the subscribers 
will have received their copies. There has been delay, but 
when the work is seen in its two excellently printed and well 
illustrated volumes, the delay will be pardoned. In the issue 
of this work the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union is to be con- 
gratulated on the completion of still another of its monographs, 
the material for the present one having been accumulated 
during the past twenty years. Quite recently have been 
completed the Fungus Flora, the Algae Flora, and the List of 
Lepidoptera of the County, as well as Baker's North Yorkshire. 
The present — the most formidable of all — adds to this excellent 
list, and the row of volumes is one of which any society might 
be justly proud. We hope to give an extended notice of the 
4 Birds of Yorkshire ' in our next issue. 



STONHAM'S -BIRDS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS.' 

We have previously drawn attention to this sumptuous work 
in these columns. The illustrations unquestionably will attract 
the attention of those who are interested in birds. By the 
kindness of the publishers we are able to let readers of the 
' Naturalist' see the nature of the plates by the reproduction of 
a drawing of one of the small birds (Plate XXIII.). This speaks 
for itself. The size of the plates, however, is about twice that 
of the specimen given. The publisher, Mr. E. Grant Richards, 
of 7, Carlton Street, Regent Street, S.W., will be glad to supply 
a detailed prospectus of the work on application. 

1907 July 1. 



228 



Notes and Comments. 



DENT A LIUM GIGA NTE UM. 

In our issue for Feb. (pp. 35-36), we gave a figure of some 
specimens of Dentalinm giganten::> on a piece of Lias. It was 
then stated that on a certain horizion in Yorkshire this species 
was extraordinary plentiful. This was demonstrated at the 
recent meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, when 
huge slabs of rock, entirely covered with the shell, were seen 
strewn on the beach immediately north of Robin Hood's Bay. 
Fortunately a fair sample, which is figured herewith, was 




Photo by 



Slab of Lias, with Dentalium glgaateum. 
Robin Hood's Bay. 



Godfrey Bingley. 



secured for a certain institution at Hull. It measures twelve 
by eight inches, and is about three inches thick. As will be 
seen from the photograph, the upper surface is thickly covered 
with the shell — which also occurs throughout the slab — several 
being visible on the underside. 



SIR H. H. HOWORTH AND GLACIAL NIGHTMARES. 

In the 'Geological Magazine' for June, Sir Henry H. 
Howorth is once again on the track of the glacialists. Of 
the general line of his argument we do not propose to deal, 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 229 

even were we capable of doing- so. On one point, however, 
Sir Henry has apparently a convenient memory — or lack of it ! 
It will be remembered that some time ago he put forward the 
theory that the Scandinavian erratics on our east coast were 
4 Viking anchors' ! or ballast lost or thrown over from Scandi- 
navian ships. A lengthy list of records of boulders of rhomb- 
porphyry, etc., at great depths below the surface, and at 
localities inland* caused Sir Henry to write to the 'Geological 
Magazine' (1897, pp. 154-5) as under: — 'I am bound to say 
that . . . the reports of the British Association, and especially 
Mr. Sheppard's recent researches, make it impossible for me 
to maintain any longer the extreme position I took up in my 
controversy. I am convinced now that the rocks are certainly 
Norwegian, and that these Norwegian boulders have actually 
been found in undisturbed Boulder-clay and in its associated 
beds, and that, therefore, if they are to be explained, some other 
explanation than the one I gave must be forthcoming.' That 
was ten years ago. The same writer, who then found it 
impossible to maintain his theory any longer, now says : — 
' I am more than ever convinced that a great proportion of the 
foreigners in the shingles, especially the so-called Scandinavian 
boulders, are derived from ballast, either from wrecks or dis- 
carded from ships, and are entirely misleading in their 
testimony.' Where are we now? Sir Henry has accomplished 
impossibilities ! 

MR. LAMPLUGHS BRITISH ASSOCIATION ADDRESS. 
Mr. Lamplugh's address to Section C of the British 
Association at York! is also referred to. 'That Mr. Lam- 
plugh is right in his views about inter-glacial beds I have no 
doubt. . . . The conclusions which he now publishes, as if 
he was the first to generalise in their sense have been pressed 
for nearly thirty years in many papers and two big works by 
one Howorth. None of these publications are noticed in his 
address.' We have previously found Sir Henry complaining of 
his two big books being ignored, so that in this respect Mr. 
Lamplugh is not alone. Possibly there is a reason for it. As 
regards the Interglacial beds, we must congratulate Mr. 
Lamplugh on being in the same boat as Sir Henry Howorth. 
If the)' don't pull together they will at any rate 'row,' — towards 
Norway and the Maelstrom, surely ! where ' the waters seamed 

* ' Glacialists' Magazine,' 1895, pp. 129-131. 

t See ' Naturalist,' 1906, pp. 304-317 and pp. 360-366. 

1907 July 1. 



230 Reviews and Book Notices. 

and scarred into a thousand conflicting" channels, burst suddenly 
into frenzied convulsion — heaving - , boiling, hissing — gyrating in 
gigantic and innumerable vortices, and all whirling and plung- 
ing on to the eastward.' We can just imagine it. 

BIRD MIGRATION.* 
The nature of this valuable report, issued by the British 
Ornithologists' Club, was described in detail in our issue for 
May last year. The present report is on the same lines, and 
is similarly lavishly illustrated by maps showing the distribution 
of the various species referred to. Messrs. C. B. Rickett and 
C. B. Ticehurst have been added to the Migration Committee. 
Mr. J. L. Bonhote is largely responsible for classifying the 
records, and Dr. N. F. Ticehurst has prepared the maps. 
These most useful reports of the ' B.O.C will unquestionably 
go a long way towards solving the complex problems of bird 
migration. 



A Text-book of Plant Diseases, by George Massee (Principal 
Assistant (Cryptogamic) Royal Herbarium, Kew). Duckworth & Co., 8vo. 
pp. xx., 472. Third edition, 6/- net. 

This is the third edition of Mr. Massee's book, which speaks well for its 
popularity. We have had the book in constant use for several years, and 
proved its value to gardeners, nurserymen, and others. While the most 
important diseases are described and illustrated and the means of prevention 
and cure given, we find that the criticism of the average English gardener 
is that while several diseases not known in this country are described, a 
number of parasites frequent on plants in general cultivation, and some of 
these very destructive, are omitted. In a future edition it would be well to 
extend the types in this direction. This edition agrees closely with the 
second, except that eight pages have been inserted in front of the introduction 
dealing with the black scab of potatoes, American gooseberry mildew, and 
a cluster-cup disease of conifers ; and the price has been slightly increased. 

The Gamekeeper's Manual, by Alexander Porter. David Douglas, 
Edinburgh. 140 pp., 3/- net. The fact that this is the third edition of this 
popular manual shows that the work of the Chief Constable of the counties 
of Roxburgh, Berwick, and Selkirk is appreciated, and serves a useful 
purpose. It deals with poaching, day trespass, preservation of game, poison, 
taking or destroying eggs, owners' and occupiers' rights, The Wild Birds 
Protection Acts, the powers and duties of a gamekeeper, etc., etc., and the 
author is naturally a well-qualified person to deal with the subject. It is 
interesting to note with regard to the Wild Birds Protection Act that ' there 
is no special power given to anyone to enforce the Act. Any person, on 
seeing an offence committed, may demand the offender's name and address, 
and if he refuses or gives a false name or address he renders himself liable 
for an additional penalty for so doing.' There is much in the book that 
might well be perused by others besides gamekeepers ! 

* Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. Edited by W. R. 
Ogilvie-Grant. Volume XX. ' Report on the Immigration of Summer 
Residents in the Spring of 1906.' London, Witherby & Co., 1907, pp. 189. 
Price 6/- 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate XXIV, 





NOTE ON A MALFORMED ANTLER OF A RED DEER 
(Cervus elaphus), 

FROM THE PEAT AT SUTTON-ON-SEA, LINCS. 



T. SHEPPARD. F.G.S., 
Curator of the Municipal Museums, Hull. 



We have recently received a curiously malformed antler of a red 
deer, which was found in 1906 by Mr. H. Bocock at Sutton-on- 
Sea, Lincolnshire. It occurred in the peat bed, generally known 
in these parts as the ' submerged forest,' immediately opposite 
Sutton. Mr. Bocock has previously found normal antlers of 
the red deer in the same deposit, but has never seen anything 
like the specimen now being described. I am indebted to a 
Lincolnshire friend for his interest on our behalf. 

As will be seen from the photographs (Plate XXIV.), the 
antler is by no means normal ; the tines branching out in a very 
irregular fashion. There are in all seven large tines remaining, 
and formerly there were nine, but two were cut away in order 
that the specimen might more readily fit against a passage wall 
to be used as hat pegs ! Of the two tines cut away I am 
informed that one measured jh ins. and the other 4 ins. in 
length. Of those remaining, what. is apparently the brow tine 
is 14 ins. in length, and yh ins. in circumference where it joins 
the main stem. The next tine to this in the ascending order is 
a little over a foot in length, and is 9 ins. in circumference at 
its base, and from this one of the branches referred to has 
been sawn. 

In addition to the large tines, there are numerous small 
excrescences which are apparently partially developed tines. 
The ' horn ' or shaft of the antler is, as will be seen from the 
photograph, unusually short and broad, and somewhat flattened. 
Its greatest measurement (round the corona) is 2 ft. 4 ins. Just 
above the base of the horn proper it is 12J ins. in circumference. 
Immediately above the brow tine, at a distance of 4^ ins. above 
the last measurement, it is 1 ft. in circumference ; 4 ins. higher 
still it is 1 ft. 2 ins. ; a further 4 ins. and it is i2| ins. ; and 
immediately above the last tine it is 7 ins. in circumference, 
from which place for about 8 ins. the antler gradually tapers 
to a point. 

The antler has evidently been cast, and appears to have two 
places of attachment to the skull ; the principal one being 

1907 July 1. 



232 Sheppard : Note on a Malformed Antler of a Red Deer. 

somewhat the shape of a shoe-sole, $\ ins. long-, 2^ ins. in 
width at the broad end and, \\ ins. wide at the narrow end. 
Adjoining - this, though apparently separated by a portion of the 
corona, is a smaller place of attachment, oval in shape, measur- 
ing 1^ ins. by \\ ins. 

The total weight of the specimen is 18 lbs. It is exceedingly 
hard, and dark coloured from its contact with the peat. 

From the unusual thickness of the horn, from its irregular 
shape, the number of tines branching at all angles, and lastly 
from the nature of the places of attachment to the skull, it 
seems evident that it really represents a pair of antlers, which, 
owing to some accident or disease, have grown together as one. 

Through the kind offices of Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., 
of the British Museum (South Kensington), the specimen was 
recently exhibited at a meeting of the Zoological Society of 
London, and the Fellows did not remember having seen anything 
quite like it previously. Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart., who was 
present, kindly informs me that he has known stags in Scotland 
which had only one antler each year. In each case the antler 
was exceptionally fine, in one instance having six points. In 
these instances there had never been an antler on the other side. 

In the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society ' * is printed a 
short note ' On some Abnormal Remains of the Red Deer 
(Cervus elaphus) from the Post-Pliocene Deposits of the South 
of England,' by Mr. Martin A. C. Hinton. In this the author 
places on record the discovery in various post-pliocene deposits 
in the south of England of certain remains of the red deer which 
present characters of abnormal nature. Three specimens are 
described : the first is a fragment of the frontal and antler of a 
very young individual, from the Pleistocene of Ilford ; the next 
is from a fissure deposit of the same age in the Isle of Portland ; 
and the third is from the Holocene alluvium of Moorfield, Slandon. 
The instances described show that whilst there is not the enlarge- 
ment and thickness shown in the Sutton-on-Sea example, the 
antlers have unquestionably grown in an abnormal way. In the 
opinion of the author (p. 212) ' it is probable that these specimens 
belonged to individuals which had suffered injury to the testes 
at an early period of life, which resulted in making the retention 
of youthful characters possible for a longer period than is usually 
the case.' In the same journal, in 1905 (pp. 191-197), Mr. R. I. 
Pocock has a paper on ■ The Effects of Castration on the 

* 1905, Vol. I., pp. 210-212. 

Naturalist, 



Northern News. 233 

Horns of a Prong-buck.' In this, illustrations are given of 
deformed antlers in modern species due to the same cause, and 
from this it would appear that in all probability the extraordinary 
formation of the Sutton-on-Sea antler is due to some such injury 
to the animal at an early period of its life. 



Among' the donations to a northern museum we notice 'a double shell-less 
hen's egg.' 

Dr. F. A. Bather, of the Geological Department, South Kensington, 
represented the British Museum at the celebration recently held in Sweden 
in commemoration of the Bi-centenary of the birth of Linnaeus. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Leeds Geological Association, held a few 
days ago, the treasurer announced a balance in hand of over £,€>. The present 
membership of the Association is 87. Mr. F. W. Branson was elected 
President for the ensuing year. 

We are pleased to acknowledge a further donation of two pounds from 
Mr. W. H. St. Quintin, J. P., a guinea from the Hon. Mrs. Carpenter, 5/- 
from Mr. W. J. Clarke, 5/- from the Leeds Co-operative Naturalists' Field 
Club, and half-a-guinea from Mr. D. Legard towards the Protection of Birds 
in Yorkshire. 

The Liverpool Botanical Society is about to prepare a Flora of South 
Lancashire (i.e., that portion of the county which lies south of the Ribble), and 
asks for the co-operation of botanists and others who are able to assist. 
Information is desired relating to any collections of South Lancashire plants, 
or old herbaria containing such, or private MS., notes or records dealing in 
any way with the botany of South Lancashire. Particulars of any plants 
will be of value, as the distribution of even the commonest species is 
imperfectly known tin some parts of the area. Communications should be 
addressed to the Hon. Sec, South Lancashire Flora Committee, Mr. W. G. 
Travis, 107, Delamare Street, Liverpool. 

In addition to the reports of the Society and its Museum for two years, 
the 'Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Dur- 
ham, and Newcastle-on-Tvne ' (Vol. I., pt. 3) contains the following papers 
of interest ; — ' On the Crustacean Fauna of a Salt-water Pond at Amble,' by 
Dr. G. S. Brady (with descriptions of new species) ; ' The Spiders of the Tyne 
Valley,' by Dr. A. R. Jackson (an excellent list) ; 'Notes on New and Rare 
Local Beetles,' by R. S. Bagnall and Prof. T. H. Beare (reprinted from 
another source) ; ' Derwenthaugh Land in Derwent Gut,' by Rev. A. Watts 
(with details of borings) ; ' The Landslip at Claxheugh, Co. Durham, 
September, 1905,' by Dr. D. Woolacott ; and ' Larval Trematodes of the 
Northumberland Coast,' by Miss M. A. Lebour. Most of the articles are 
illustrated by plates. 

On the 22nd May, the Lincoln City and Count}- Museum was informally 
opened to the public, and since then the attendance has been very fair. It 
will be remembered that the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union has all along 
had for one of its aims the formation of a County Museum. This aim has 
now been achieved, and the Natural History Collections in the Museum are 
principally presents from the Union or its members. It is a great pity that 
the Lincoln Corporation lost the opportunity of making the existence of the 
county museum well known by having a public opening. There must be 
scores of valuable objects in the possession of private individuals who would 
be pleased to send them to a permanent home in the county, but as it is, few 
of these can possibly know of the existence of the Museum under Mr. A. Smith's 
charge. 'Tis sad to admit, but even Museums must advertise. 

1907 July 1. 



2 34 

THE BIRDS OF THE FARNE ISLANDS. 



R. FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 
Harrogate. 



The Fame Islands are a group of rocky islets off the coast of 
Northumberland, having - altogether an area of about eighty 
acres. Here sea fowl in countless numbers resort to breed. 

I remember visiting these islands twenty years ago, when a 
sort of half protection was afforded the birds. This 'protection' 
really meant that those who were supposed to be looking after 
the birds did so chiefly for their own profit. The fishermen 
made ceaseless raids, taking large quantities of eggs, and 
collectors did likewise. 

However, all this is now changed, the birds are looked after 
during the nesting season by a party of gentlemen banded 
together under the name of the Fame Islands Association. 
Four or five keepers are kept upon the Islands during the 
whole of the nesting season, and their sole work is to look 
after the birds. This is, of course, not done without consider- 
able expense. There is no fixed subscription to the Association, 
each member gives what he likes or can afford. It is pleasing 
to find that there are several members of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union in the Association. 

To Mr. Paynter, of Alnwick, the Hon. Sec. of the Association, 
the thanks of all Naturalists are due for his untiring efforts on 
behalf of the birds. 

The best way to approach the islands is from the little 
fishing village of Seahouses, where, at the Bamborough Castle 
Hotel, passes may be obtained. Every visitor must sign a 
form promising not to take eggs. Visitors are not allowed to 
stay very long on any of the islands, and especially is their 
time restricted where the Terns nest. 

What with looking after the visitors and keeping their 
' weather eyes ' open for raids from the fishermen, the keepers 
in fine weather have their time fully occupied. In bad 
weather they have a fairly easy time, as landing upon the 
islands is practically impossible. 

Altogether about fourteen species of birds find a sanctuary 
here. The bird of the islands is, without a doubt, the Lesser 
Black Back Gull. He is everywhere, and although undoubtedly 
a fine and handsome species, I cannot help thinking he is 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate XXV. 





THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate XXVI. 




Fortune : The Birds of the Fame Islands. 235 

far too numerous, as he is a sad rascal, robbing the other 
birds regularly both of their eggs and young 1 . When the 
young Terns are hatching it is impossible for the keepers to 
drive the Gulls away until they have had their fill. Young of 
other species have to pay toll in a like manner. Although 
taking the eggs of other birds whenever an opportunity offers, 
they do not seem fo interfere with those of their own species. 

Herring Gulls are present in small numbers. It is quite 
impossible to identify their nests and eggs without seeing the 
birds upon them, so closely do they resemble those of the 
Lesser Black Backs. 

One of the sights is that of the renowned Pinnacle Rocks, a 
group of basaltic pillars rising to a considerable height. They 
have perfectly flat tops, and are tenanted with a huge crowd of 
Guillemots. It is a most interesting sight ; from the main 
island the spectator can look right on to the heaving mass of 
birds, and one cannot help wondering whether by any chance a 
bird leaving its egg for a short visit to the sea could ever 
regain it again. Our own Yorkshire coast furnishes a most 
interesting spectacle of Guillemots in the nesting season, but 
nothing to approach the Pinnacle Rocks for large numbers in a 
small space. A few Guillemots nest on some of the ledges on 
the main island, and we found one or two laying their eggs 
amongst the Cormorants' nests on the Wamses. 

One of the most pleasing results of protection is the great 
increase in the numbers of the charming Kittiwake, the most 
handsome and most gentle of all the Gull tribe. There can 
surely be no finer sight than a colony of Kittiwakes sitting upon 
their nests, their beautiful plumage affording a striking contrast 
to the dark rocks upon which their nests are placed, the smallest 
ledges being sufficient for a foundation for them. On the 
Fames these birds are delightfully tame and confiding, and 
the visitor is thoroughly repaid by being allowed to enter into 
the mysteries of their home life. The nests are placed on the 
sides of the Pinnacles and on the cliffs of the Staple Island. 

Razorbills are very few in number, only about half-a-dozen 
pairs nesting on the Fame Island. Very few birds nest on this 
island, so that it is not of great interest to the ornithologist. 
It has, however, an interest of its own. 

Another gratifying feature is the great increase in the 
number of Eider Ducks. They are found practically every- 
where nesting amongst the rocks, vegetation, or on the open 
beach. Some are wonderfully tame, even occasionally allowing 

1907 July 1. 



236 Fortune : The Birds of the Fame Islands. 

the visitor to stroke them upon the nest. Should a duck leave 
her nest in a hurry without covering- the egg's with down, as 
they sometimes do, it is a bad look out when she returns, as it 
is a certainty that they will have been carried off by the Lesser 
Black Back Gulls. What astonishes me is that the Gulls have 
never yet tumbled to the fact that beneath the heap of down 
reposes a tempting array of dainties which they know well 
how to appreciate. The male Eider, in his striking plumage, 
is a great contrast to the sober attire of the female ; he keeps 
well out to sea, and rarely comes on land, but should the female 
leave her nest for a little relaxation he is speedily in attendance. 

Puffins are also very numerous on one or two of the islands. 
Upon Staple Island the soil is riddled with their burrows, so 
much so that it is almost impossible to walk over the surface 
without ones foot sinking into a Puffin's burrow. The Lesser 
Black Back Gulls cannot get at the Puffin's eggs, as they are 
deposited some distance in the burrow, but when the young 
come forth they play havoc amongst them. The Puffin is a 
very quaint fellow, with a grotesque bill, the most gaudy 
portion of which he sheds during the winter months. 

Oystercatchers are fairly common, and may be seen on most 
of the islands. On the Staple Island there are the remains of 
an old lighthouse, on the top of the old wall of which a pair 
of Oystercatchers regularly place their nest. 

Ringed Plovers nest on the shingly beeches of some of the 
islands, but they are not abundant. 

Cormorants were nesting in two colonies on the Wamses 
and on the Harcar ; the Megstone, their former abode, being 
deserted by them owing to their nests being continually washed 
away by the sea. I learn, however, that a few pairs returned 
to the Megstone later in the season, and were able to rear 
their broods. Unfortunately, upon the Wamses and Harcar 
are large numbers of Gulls. When visitors approach the 
islands the Cormorants take flight. Immediately they go the 
Gulls fly to their nests and clear out every egg in the nests in no 
time. At the first visit paid by Mr. Booth and myself, in June 
1906, we thought it would be an impossibility for the Cormorants 
to rear any young ; we were therefore greatly delighted upon 
paying a second visit in early August to find young birds in 
almost every nest. A period of bad weather, during which 
visitors could not land upon these islands, had allowed the birds 
to stick close to their nests, thus protecting their eggs from the 
ravages of the Gulls. 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate XXVII. 




Eider Duck and Nest. 




Eider Duck on Nest. 




Lesser Black Back Gull. A'. Fortune 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate XXVIII. 




Kittiwakes and Guillemots 
on the Staple Island. 




A Group of Puffins. 



Fortune : The Birds of the Fame Islands. 237 

It was upon the Wamses we had a good view of a so-called 
Iceland Gull, which, however, as we anticipated, turned out to 
be a variety of the Lesser Black Back. 

A few Shags may be seen about, but they do not nest upon 
the islands. 

Next to the Kittiwakes the Terns appear to me to have the 
most interest, and special attention is paid to their protection. 
Four species nest here, viz., the Common, Arctic, Roseate, and 
Sandwich Tern. By far the most abundant is the Arctic Tern, 
the Fames being their southern breeding limit on the East 
Coast. Common Terns are not so numerous. It is practically 
impossible to distinguish them from their Arctic cousins when 
on the wing. An odd pair or two of Roseate Terns nest 
amongst the commoner species. They may be recognised when 
in the air by their cry, which differs from that of the other two. 
On the ground they are easy enough to detect, but unless the 
bird is seen upon the nest it is impossible to distinguish between 
the eggs of all three species. A few Arctic Terns nest on the 
Brownsman, but the headquarters of these birds are upon the 
Wide-opens and Knoxes. These two islands are quite different 
in character from the others. The Knoxes is a low island 
covered with sand and pebbles, with a somewhat higher rock 
formation at one end. This island is practically sacred to the 
Terns, which lay their eggs all over the place amongst the 
pebbles or on the sand in a most indiscriminate manner, 
usually without the slightest attempt at a nest. So close do 
they deposit their eggs to the edge of the water that quantities 
are destroyed every season when the wind brings the waves a 
little higher than usual. There is also a fine colony of Sand- 
wich Terns, which seem to prefer to nest on a higher ground 
than the others, and form a very conspicious object clustered 
together on the top of an elevated place. 

Numbers of Terns nest on the Wide-opens also. When a 
visitor lands it is a perfect babel of harsh cries, for though these 
birds are dainty and handsome creatures, their cry is harsh to 
a degree. They have a curious habit of suddenly ceasing their 
outcry and taking a sweeping flight out to sea, returning to 
re-commence their clamour. 

On the Wide-opens the Arctic Terns make a better attempt 
at nest building, but this may be on account of the materials 
being handier to obtain. Eider Ducks are very plentiful on the 
Wide-opens, nesting amongst some luxuriant vegetation ; on 
the Knoxes they nest on the bare sand. 

1907 July i.j 



238 Northern News. 

Of land birds the principal representative is the Rock Pipit, 
which nests commonly upon the suitable islands. 

Space will only allow of a very short account of the birds 
upon these most interesting Islands. To any naturalist who 
contemplates paying them a visit I can promise a thorough 
treat. The immense numbers of the birds, and the great 
variety of species to be seen cannot be surpassed in any portion 
of our country. 

In conclusion, one cannot help but be delighted with the 
efforts of the Fame Islands Association, who have provided a 
real sanctury for many interesting species. If the Lesser Black 
Back Gulls could be kept back somewhat, I am sure the rest of 
the birds would benefit considerably. One matter which no one 
can contemplate with any pleasure, and which tells considerably 
against our own county, is the fact that a lot of these dainty and 
charming Terns are, at a considerable expense, thoroughly pro- 
jected throughout the nesting season, laying their eggs and 
bringing up their young in comparative security simply for the 
purpose of finding Sport (?) for a lot of, well, I can only call 
them unthinking, individuals upon our coast, who slaughter 
them unmercifully on their passage south. 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 

Plate XXV.— Kittiwakes on Nests. 

Young Kittiwakes on Nests. 
Plate XXVI. — Near view of Pinnacles, with their crowd of Guillemots. 
Plate XXVI I. —Eider Duck and Nest. 
Eider Duck on Nest. 
Lesser Black Back Gull. 
Plate XXVIII. — Kittiwakes and Guillemots on Staple Island. 

A Group of Puffins. 
Plate XXIX.— Puffins. 

Cormorants on their Nests. 
Sandwich Terns on their Nests. 



At the recent meeting of the Yorkshire Geological Society in the Isle of 
Man, Dr. Wheelton Hind read a paper on ' Dendroid Graptolites in the 
Carboniferous Rocks of Britain.' One of the specimens exhibited was 
found on Pendle Hill, Yorkshire, the other in the Isle of Man. 

The police have at last got a conviction under the Wild Birds Protection 
Act ! At Horncastle recently a boy caught a crow in, a field, took it home, 
and wrung its neck. The bird had been tamed and taught to talk by a local 
doctor. The boy was ordered to pay the costs— half-a-crown. In Teesdale, 
on the other hand, Peregrines are allowed to be caught in Pole-traps without 
comment. 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1007. 



Platk XXIX. 




Puffins. 




Cormorants on their Nests. 




Sandwich Terns on their Nests. 



239 

THE MARTEN IN LAKELAND. 



EDWARD T. BALDWIN. 



When in Borrowdale again this spring I tried, somewhat 
unsuccessfully, to obtain records as to the ' Mart ' {Maries 
sylvestris), subsequent in date to those sent this time last year 
(Vide 'Naturalist' for 1906, pp. 221-222). 

However, I found that one (a very fine one, I believe) was 
got, in November or December, 1906, by a man called Gillbanks 
between the well-known Lodore Falls and the Bowder Stone. 
With this exception, I could not hear of any recent captures. 

I had an interesting chat with Thomas Jackson, of Rosthwaite, 
who, in his time, was a noted 'Mart' hunter, but who now no 
longer 'follows it,' as the local saying is. It appears that the 
two young ' Marts ' I mentioned as having been got last spring 
close to the Bowder stone were obtained by his nephew, and 
were not trapped (as I said), but worried by his terriers. 
Jackson says that the most he ever got in any one year was 
sixteen, but that he had twice got eight. He thinks that there 
is no doubt that they are plentiful still, and especially mentioned 
Eel Crags as a favourite locality. Eel Crags are a range 
of almost sheer precipice facing Dale Head (2473 feet) and 
Hindscarth (2285 feet). There, a good deal of foil is to be 
seen, and in winter the tracts are plainly visible in the snow. 
The track of the ' Mart,' by the way, is something like that of 
the hare. Another ' strong bield ' is close to Eagle Crag, and 
here lately, amongst a quantity of mart foil, were found two 
small metal bands with numbers, such as are usually attached 
to the legs of carrier pigeons. Eagle Crag is the huge hump 
of rock which guards the entrance to the beautiful but wild 
and desolate Langstrath Valley, at the head of which towers 
the massive Bowfell (2960 feet). Jackson told me of a pair of 
peregrine falcons, which were successful this year in nesting 
and bringing off their brood. The locality I think it as well 
not to disclose. He considers the foumart, or polecat (Mustela 
putorid) virtually extinct in that district. 

Wandering over these great grassy Cumberland fells, the 
absence of bird life strikes one very forcibly. Very little but a 
few meadow pipits and stone chats, with an occasional raven, 
carrion crow, or buzzard is, as a rule, to be seen. But at the 
time when the bracken clock hatches out (generally at this time 
of the year), numbers of the lesser black-headed gull (Larus 

1907 July 1 



240 



Reviews and Book Notices. 



ridibundus) make their appearance ; this year, however, owing 
to the cold and delayed spring - , scarcely one was to be seen. The 
contrast between the teeming" bird life in spring (ex. gr., curlew, 
peewit, golden plover) on many of the Scottish hills and the 
meagre stock on these Cumberland fells is remarkable, and I am 
not convinced that the absence of suitable food is the right 
explanation. 



Ornithological and Other Oddities, by Frank Finn, B.A.. F.Z.S. 
John Lane, 1907. 295 pp., plates, 10/- net. The cry is still 'they 
come !' Another bird book—' Ornithological Oddities.' In this volume the 
late Deputy-Superintendant of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, gathers to- 
gether his various contributions to numerous journals and dailies, and with 
the aid of fifty-six illustrations produces a volume, bound in a light green 
cover, with a bird upon the back. As might be expected, the essays 
principally deal with eastern species, though several of the chapters are of 




Australian Barn Ow 



general interest, e.g., 'The Study of Sexual Selection,' 'The Courting of 
Birds,' 'Hybrid Birds,' 'Love among the Birds,' etc. There is also a 
chapter on 'Blushing Birds.' Amongst the 'other' oddities are 'Monkeys I 
have met.' The book contains numerous ancedotes written in Mr. Finn's 
familiar style. The photographs (one of which we are permitted to 
reproduce herewith) are mostly very good— that of 'Japanese monkeys; 
father, mother, and child' (p. 246) is certainly funny— the parents are 
busy with a usual occupation, whilst the 'child' sits by watching the 
'hunt,' with an expression forcibly reminding one of that of little Oliver 
when he wanted 'more.' 

Naturalist, 



241 

THEORIES OF EVOLUTION. 



An Historical Outline. 



AGNES ROBERTSON, D.Sc. 



{Continued from page 215.) 

IV.— EMBRYOLOGY. 

Embryology is a source from which some help is derived in 
the study of evolution. Every animal and plant begins life as 
a unicellular organism, but whereas some continue unicellular to 
the end of their lives, others go through developmental processes 
of varying degrees of complication before they reach the mature 
form. Evolutionists believe that the whole organic world has 
been evolved from some very simple form of life, perhaps not 
differing greatly from certain unicellular organisms of the 
present day, so that in phylogeny (the ancestral history of the 
species), and ontogeny (the developmental history of the 
individual), the starting point and the goal are the same, 
which suggests the tempting view that the path between is the 
same also. An idea of this kind was put forward in 1810 by 
Oken, and later more definitely enunciated by Von Baer. The 
'recapitulation theory,' as it is called, states that in the 
developmental stages passed through by an embryo we can 
recognise the different stages passed through in previous ages 
in the evolution of the species, or in the words of the epigram- 
matist, ' Every animal in the course of its development climbs 
up its own genealogical tree.' But this conclusion can only be 
accepted with great reservations, since at the best embryology 
only gives us a much abbreviated and altered picture of the 
phylogenetic history, for the embryo attains its end by many 
short cuts, and ancestral traits are often obscured by adaptations 
which fit the immature organism for the special conditions of 
its life. 

V.— HEREDITY AND HYBRIDISATION. 

It has always been a matter of common observation that 
children resemble their parents, but it is only of late years that 
scientific methods have been brought to bear upon the subject 
of heredity. In early days the mechanism by which characters 

1907 July 1. 

Q 



242 Robertson : Theories of Evolution. 

were transmitted was unknown because the nature of fertilisation 
was completely misunderstood. For a long time after the dis- 
covery of the male fertilising - element in the seventeenth 
century it was believed that the spermatozoon itself developed 
into the offspring - , and that the only part played by the female 
was in nursing and protecting it. We now know that the 
essential thing in fertilisation is the union of two nuclei, the egg 
nucleus of the female and the sperm nucleus of the male. 

In investigating the laws of heredity experimentally it is 
obvious that results will be more easily obtained if we choose 
for the parents individuals which differ considerably ; that is to 
say, we shall get more information by observing the manner in 
which a character peculiar to one parent appears in the offspring 
than by investigating a character common to both. For 
instance, if we fertilise the ovules of a yellow-seeded pea with 
pollen from a green-seeded pea, and find that the next gener- 
ation bears only yellow seeds, we may infer that the seedlings 
have inherited their seed-colour from the female parent, whereas 
if we had used yellow-seeded peas for both parents we should 
not know whether the yellowness in the next generation was 
due to the influence of the male parent, or the female parent, or 
both. The way in which the presence of the greatest number 
of differentiating characters can be secured is by working with 
hybrids, that is to say, crossing individuals belonging to 
different races. 

The most remarkable work that has ever been done on plant 
hybrids is that of Mendel, and is of such extreme importance 
that I must treat of his classical paper at some length. 
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) was the son of a peasant in Austrian 
Silesia, and entered an Augustinian Monastery, of which he 
eventually became Abbot. All his experiments were made in 
the convent garden, and his great paper on pea hybrids was 
published in an obscure local journal in 1865. It was quite 
overlooked by biologists for more than thirty years, but since it 
has been unearthed we might almost say that it has revolutionised 
our ideas as to the nature of living things. Mendel began his 
work by looking about for some species which should be as 
convenient as possible to grow and to experiment with, and 
the different races of which should be quite fertile when crossed 
together, and should produce fertile hybrids. He finally hit 
upon Pisum sativum, the ordinary eating pea. This species 
has the great advantage of always fertilising itself when left 
alone, so that there is no risk of accidental crossing. Twenty- 
Naturalist, 



Robertson : Theories of Evolution. 243 

two different races of peas were chosen for the experiment. 
First of all the seeds of all these strains were grown separately 
for two years to make sure that they were genuine races and 
not mixtures. They were found to come quite true and con-, 
stant from seed. In crossing his peas, Mendel concentrated his 
attention on certain definite differences between the races. He 
decided to investigate the inheritance of sharply defined pairs of 
characters by the possession of one or other of which the 
different races could be distinguished. These were : — 



Difference in form of ripe seeds. Round or wrinkled. 

,, ,, colour of cotyledons. Yellow or green. 

,, ,, colour of seed-coats. Coloured or white. 

,, ,, form of ripe pods. Inflated or constricted. 

,, ,, colour of unripe pods. Green or yellow. 

,, ,, position of flowers. Axial or terminal. 

,, length of stems. Tall or dwarf. 



A set of experiments was made with each of these pairs of 
differentiating characters. For example, in the first set of 
experiments plants bearing round seeds were crossed with 
plants bearing wrinkled seeds, and in the second set plants 
with yellow cotyledons were crossed with plants with green 
cotyledons, and so on. Seven sets of hybrid plants were thus 
produced. It might have been supposed that these hybrids 
would turn out to be intermediate in their characters between 
the parents (for instance, that the peas resulting from a cross 
between a round pea and a wrinkled pea would be intermediate 
in form between the two), but it was found that this was not 
the case- All the hybrid peas were round — no wrinkled ones 
were found at all. The same results were got with the other 
six pairs of differentiating characters — in each case one of the 
two characters had got the upper hand, and the other did not 
appear at all ; the offspring of the tall peas and the dwarf peas 
were all tall — the offspring of the peas with inflated pods and 
the peas with constricted pods were all inflated, and so on. It 
is convenient to distinguish the two opposing characters of each 
pair respectively as dominant (D) and recessive (R), the dominant 
character being that which appears in the hybrid to the exclusion 
of the recessive character which remains latent. On the hybrids 
being self-fertilised and their offspring again examined, a most 
curious result came to light. I will only describe the case 
of the round and wrinkled peas, as the other cases fall exactly 
into line with this. The first generation of hybrid peas were 

1937 July 1. 



244 Robertson : Theories of Evolution. 

all round, but when these were sown and the flowers of the 
next generation self-fertilised, a mixture of smooth and wrinkled 
peas were obtained. There were no intermediates, and usually 
some of the peas in the same pod were round and some wrinkled. 
From 253 hybrid pea plants 7,324 seeds were obtained, of which 
5,474 were round and 1,850 were wrinkled, i.e., there were almost 
exactly three times as many round peas as wrinkled peas 
(2.96 : 1). This proportion was found to hold good for each 
of the seven pairs of characters worked with ; on an average 
the proportion in the seven trials was 2.98 : 1, which is 
practically 3:1. 

To understand what these numbers mean we must follow 
the hybrids to further generations. Take first the one quarter 
which show the recessive character, e.g., the wrinkled peas. 
These, when self-fertilised for a number of generations, continue 
to produce nothing but wrinkled peas, so that they may be 
regarded as a pure wrinkled race. But the remaining three- 
quarters which show the dominant character, roundness, when 
self-fertilised, do not all behave alike ; they break up into round 
and wrinkled peas in a constant numerical proportion. 

Mendel required some theory to account for these remarkable 
numerical relations, and he put forward one which is extremely 
simple and complete. He supposes that the germ cells are pure 
with respect to certain characters, that is to say, in the case of 
two opposing characters, such as roundness and wrinkledness 
of seeds, each egg and sperm can only transmit one or other 
attribute, and not both. He makes also the further postulate 
that on an average one half of the germ cells carry one 
character and one half the other character. The hybrid plants 
produced by crossing a round pea with a wrinkled pea would 
on this hypothesis bear eggs, half of which carry the character 
of roundness and half of wrinkledness, and in the same way 
sperm cells, half of which carry each character. When the 
hybrid is self-fertilised the eggs and sperms mate according to 
the laws of chance. Let us consider the case of four eggs and 
four sperms mating in this way : — 

Eggs. Sperms. 




As the result of this mating we get 

iDD, 2DR, iRR, 



Naturalist,. 



Robertson : Theories of Evolution. 245 

but as the recessive character will be masked by the dominant 
one, the DR plants will, to all appearance, resemble DD, so 
that we shall get three apparent dominants to one recessive, 
which is the observed proportion. The fact that these dominants 
.are not really all alike, but are made up of some pure dominants 
and some hybrids is shown in the next generation, in which, on 
Mendel's theory, the recessive (wrinkled) peas will produce only 
offspring- constant to the recessive character, while the dominant 
(round) peas will give rise to a mixture of round and wrinkled. 
The whole thing- may be represented diagrammatically : — 

Original parents : — D x R 

First hybrid generation : — D(R) 

1 

iDD : 2D(R) : iRR 



DD iDD : 2D(R) : iRR RR 

When the numerical proportions that would be expected on this 
scheme are worked out, it is found that they are closely in 
accordance with those obtained in Mendel's experimental work : 
from which we may infer that the theory of the purity of the 
germ cells has good claim to rank as a sound working hypothesis. 
4 In so far as Mendel's law applies, therefore, the conclusion is 
forced upon us that a living organism is a complex of characters, 
of which some, at least, are dissociable, and are capable of being 
replaced by others. We thus reach the conception of unit- 
characters, which may be re-arranged in the formation of the 
reproductive cells. It is hardly too much to say that the 
experiments which led to this advance in knowledge are worthy 
to rank with those which laid the foundation of Atomic laws of 
Chemistry.' * 

Mendel's experiments have been confirmed and extended by 
later workers, and results such as he got have been found to 
hold true very widely both for plants and animals. In plants, 
such pairs of opposed characters as hairiness and glabrousness, 
sugary and starchy endosperm (maize), pinnate and palmate 
leaf-form {Primula), etc., have been found to fulfil Mendelian 
predictions, as also a great many characters in animals. There 

* W. Bateson. Jr. Roy. Hort. Soc. , 1901. 

1907 July 



246 Robertson : Theories of- Evolution. 

are some very curious pairs of qualities which work out accord- 
ing - to Mendelian expectations. For instance, when a race of 
wheat known to be highly susceptible to rust disease is crossed 
with one which is immune to the disease, in the first generation 
all the plants are susceptible, in other words, susceptibility is 
dominant. In the next generation three-quarters are susceptible 
and one quarter immune ! 

The phenomenon of gametic purity is of far greater theoretical 
importance than that of dominance. There are many cases in 
which the first generation from the cross, instead of showing 
the complete dominance of one or other character, shows some- 
thing quite different, often an apparent reversion to a more 
primitive type. For instance, the cross between an albino 
mouse and a black and white waltzing mouse has been found to 
resemble a wild mouse. Among plants there is a white sweet- 
pea called ' Emily Henderson ' which has round pollen grains, 
while most sweet-peas have long pollen grains. ' Emily 
Henderson ' is not, however, a pure race, since some of the 
plants, which in every external character exactly resemble their 
fellows, have long pollen grains. If the long-pollened and 
short-pollened ' Emily Hendersons ' are crossed together the 
long pollen is dominant over the round, but, as regards flower- 
colour, instead of the whiteness which we should expect, we 
get a purple flower with a chocolate standard, which is supposed 
to be the ancestral form from which all sweet-peas have been 
derived ! It would seem that the present races of sweet-peas 
are a series of ' analytical dissociations ' of the characters of the 
original ancestor, and that when two of them are crossed we 
sometimes get the characters re-combining and giving an 
appearance recalling the ancestral form. 

It is impossible in this extremely brief outline to do more 
than touch upon the fringe of Mendelian work. I have left out 
of account everything but the simplest possible cases. For 
further information I should like to refer the reader to a little 
book on ' Mendelism,' by R. C. Punnett (Macmillan), in which 
the present aspects of the subject are clearly discussed. 

VI.— THE MUTATION THEORY. 

According to the Darwinian theory the Origin of Species 
has been an extremely slow and gradual affair, depending chiefly 
upon the preservation and accumulation by natural selection of 
minute individual variations of a favourable kind, while similar 

Naturalist, 



Robertson : Theories of Evolution. 247 

minute variations of an unfavourable kind tended to the ex- 
tinction of the creatures exhibiting- them. The type of 
variability expressed in these minute individual differences is 
called 'normal' or 'fluctuating' variability, and is characterised 
by the fact that it conforms to the law of chance. As an 
instance, we may take some statistics given by Galton of the 
strength of pull of 519 men between 23 and 26 years of age. 

Strength of pull. Number of cases. 

Under 50 lbs. 2 % 

60 ,, 8% 

70 ,, 27% 

80 „ 33% 

90 ,, 21% 

100 ,, 4% 

Over 100 ,, 5% 

We notice from this table that the largest class have a pull 
of 70-80 lbs ; that is to say the moderately strong individuals 
are more numerous than are the extremely strong or extremely 
weak, and we also notice that the numbers decrease gradually 
as we pass towards either extreme. In other words, ' normal • 
variability behaves just as we should expect if it conformed to 
the laws of probability. 

In speaking of Darwin's work I have mentioned the 
difficulty of the ' uselessness of minimal variations ; ' an 
adaptation in its fully devoloped form may be very useful to 
the creature possessing it, and yet it is often difficult to see how 
its rudimentary beginning could be useful enough to be pre- 
served if it were due to the gradual accumulation of the minute 
changes due to fluctuating variability. This difficulty, along 
with other considerations as to the nature and inheritance of 
normal variations which I cannot enter upon here, have led 
some biologists to the view that species have not arisen by 
fluctuating variations, but have progressed by jumps, separated 
by periods of stability ; such jumps have been named 'mutations.' 
In discussing the possibility of mutations the analogy has been 
suggested of a polygon which is in a position of stable equilibrium 
when it is standing on one face. When it is tipped up it is not 
in a position of equilibrium at all, and either falls back on to the 
original face or forward on to the next face. In the second case 
it has, as it were, gone through a mutation and reached a second 
position of stability. 

A number of cases have been reported in which a 'mutation' 
seems to have been completely stable. The Ancona sheep 

1907 July 1. 



248 Robertson : Theories of Evolution. 

appeared in Massachussetts in 1791 as a sudden variation ; it 
was kept and bred from because it had bent legs which pre- 
vented its jumping into neighbouring fields, and it has formed 
a distinct and permanent race ever since. In 1761 Duchesne 
found a strawberry plant in his garden with simple instead of 
ternate leaves ; this bred true and is still in cultivation. I 
mention these cases because they are so very well marked, but 
the advocates of the mutation theory do not demand such large 
jumps as these for the evolution of species. The question, 'What 
is a species ? ' is one for which no biologist has yet found a 
satisfactory answer, but still we have a working notion of what 
we mean when we speak of a species. We mostly use the term 
in the sense of classifactory binomial unit of Linnaeus [e.g., 
Veronica chamcedrys = the Germander Speedwell]. But later 
investigations have shown that many systematic species are not 
really units at all, but comprise a number of distinct races, 
which are found on cultivation to breed true indefinitely. In 
some extreme instances the number of races lumped together 
under one specific name is very large. Draba verna, the little 
Whitlow-grass, has over 200 local races, which are uniform 
and come true from seed ! These sub-divisions of a species 
have received the name 'elementary species,' and the 'mutation' 
of a species generally does not imply a greater jump than that 
from one elementary species to another. 

The great worker on the subject of mutations has been Prof. 
Hugo de Vries. There is a kind of Evening Primrose, CEnothera 
Lamarckiana, which is unknown in the wild condition. Not 
very long ago De Vries discovered it growing in thousands, 
apparently as an escape, in a field near Amsterdam. He 
noticed that while the majority of the plants were of the true 
CE. Lamarckiana type, others differed widely from it in such 
characters as height, leaf-form, leaf-surface, pigmentation, and 
so on. For the sake of more satisfactory observation he dug 
up, in 1886, nine large rosettes of the type form, and transferred 
them to his own experimental garden. The seeds of these 
produced 15,000 young plants, all but 10 of which were of the 
true CE. Lamarckiana type, while the divergent ten belonged 
to two quite new types, to which De Vries gave new specific 
names. In the same way in later generations a great majority 
of normal and a small minority of divergent types were produced. 
Seven new forms were thus obtained, and were found to come 
true from seed. These new forms De Vries regards as elementary 
species, and considers that in Lamarck's Evening Primrose we 

Naturalist, 



Robertson : Theories of Evolution. 249 

have caught a species in the mutating- period, in other words, 
in the act of giving birth to a number of new species. De 
Vries imagines that all species have periods of stability during 
which they only vary according to the laws of fluctuating 
variability, and then pass through a mutating period, to which 
a period of stability again succeeds. 

De Vries supposes that the struggle for existence is not so 
much between individuals of a species as between different 
elementary species. When a group of elementary species 
arises by mutation, natural selection determines which of these 
elementary species shall survive. 

On general grounds the chief point in favour of the mutation 
theory is that it does not require so long a period for the 
evolution of the organic world as that demanded by the 
Darwinian theory, and is thus more in harmony with the 
calculations of physicists as to the age of the earth. 

De Vries' theory has been much criticised. A great deal 
depends on the previous history of CE. Lamarckiana. De Vries 
assumes that it is an ordinary pure species, but it has been 
suggested that it is possibly a hybrid. The fact that it is 
unknown in the wild state, and the sterility of some of the 
pollen and ovules, lend support to this suggestion. The 
' mutations ' isolated by De Vries strongly recall the ' analytical 
variations ' of Bateson, obtained by hybridising sweet-peas, etc. 
So it seems that the question of the real existence of mutations 
must remain an open one till further experimental evidence is 
brought forward. 

VII.— CONCLUSION. 

There are a number of important branches of evolutionary 
work which I have not even touched upon in this brief outline 
— amongst others the contributions of Weismann and the work 
of the modern biometrical school. I have confined myself to the 
briefest possible mention of those lines of research which seem 
to me most hopeful for the future. It is experimental work on 
heredity, such as that undertaken by those who have confirmed 
and extended the conclusions of Gregor Mendel, which gives 
the clearest promise of further light on these huge and com- 
plicated problems.* 

* I should like to refer any reader who wishes to follow up the subject 
to 'Recent Progress in the study of Variation, Heredity, and Evolution,' R. 
H. Lock (Murray, 1906). 

1907 July i. 



250 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT ROBIN 
HOOD'S BAY. 

May 18th to 20th, 1907. 

{Continued from page 202). 

Geological Section. — Mr. Cosmo Johns writes : — The 
policy of the section in concentrating" its attention on some 
special geological feature in each district visited was abundantly 
justified during this particular occasion. The variation in thick- 
ness of the Dogger on both sides of the Peak fault— the 
significant fact that on one side it rested on the Alum Shales 
and was itself reduced to six feet, or occasionally even less in 
thickness, while just across the fault it was much thicker, and 
succeeded Liassic rocks in normal sequence, with the upper 
zone well represented — all lent weight to the view that we were 
here dealing with a most notable example of inter-formational 
or persistent faulting. It is rarely, however, that such move- 
ments can be so clearly demonstrated. 

It is unfortunate that no fuller exposure of the Middle and 
Lower Lias is visible on the downthrow side of the fault, so 
it was not possible to determine whether the pre-Oolite move- 
ment had been preceeded by inter-Liassic dislocations. Quite as 
interesting as the normal movements were the evidences of the 
direction of movement having been reversed at some time, and 
the possible connection of this later adjustment with the 
bifurcating fault on the beach was discussed. What was clear, 
however, is that the earth movements of the Cleveland area 
present a series of problems as complex, and therefore as 
interesting, as any in Britain. That they are chiefly, if not 
entirely, due to gravitational stress makes it just possible that, 
when worked out, they might throw some light upon the 
structure of the Palaeozoic rocks that lie buried at some 
unknown depth below. 

It was this concentration of attention on the earth move- 
ments that caused the Dogger to loom so largely during the 
meeting. A ferruginous sandstone — which had probably been 
a calcareous sandstone— with a few badly preserved derived 
fossils, which would otherwise have been hardly noticeable, 
became of great importance. Forming as it does the base of 
the Oolites, and carrying in itself the proofs of the pre-Oolitic 
movement, it was traced along the length of coast visited. It 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Robin Hood 's Bay. 251 

had been hoped that some definite evidence of the extent of the 
pre-Oolitic denudation would be obtained, but the worn condition 
of the fossils found made it clear that the time available during 
the excursion was insufficient for the purpose. 

Vertebrate Section. — Messrs. H. B. Booth and R. 
Fortune write : — The members of the Vertebrate Section 
had a very enjoyable time. 

Saturday and Sunday were devoted to working- the coast- 
line. Herring- Gulls were found to be nesting on the whole 
range of cliffs between Robin Hood's Bay and Whitby, many 
of the nests being easily accessible from the top. Jackdaws 
and Starlings were also nesting freely on the cliffs. At Hawsker 
we found the Cormorants nesting, altogether about forty birds 
were seen, about half of which were intent on family matters ; 
apparently about one-third had not assumed adult breeding 
plumage. A small colony was also seen south of Robin Hood's 
Bay at the Peak. The return journey from Hawsker was 
devoted to working the various ravines, ideal places for warblers. 
The result was extremely disappointing, as they appeared to be 
almost devoid of bird life ; two nests of Carrion Crows were 
seen and one of a Magpie. The investigation of the large 
patches of gorse growing on the hill-sides was also disappoint- 
ing. Linnets, which we expected to find in great abundance, 
were not at all plentiful. Although ideal places for the Stone- 
chat, we did not see a single bird of this species, and the 
Winchat was comparatively scarce. The absence of the Corn 
Bunting and the Rock Pipit was also very noticeable. The 
Cuckoo was not seen until our return, when half-a-dozen were 
encountered together, apparently mating. 

Monday was devoted to the investigation of the Fyling 
Woods, Ramsdale, and the moors above. Wood Warblers, 
Chiff Chaffs, and Garden Warblers were found to be common 
and in full song. Green Woodpeckers and Tawny Owls were 
comparatively abundant, and it was pleasing to hear the 
peculiar note of the Grasshopper Warbler. Both the Kestrel 
and Sparrow Hawk were seen, and Carrion Crows and Magpies 
appeared to have a firm footing in the district. The absence of 
Pheasants was remarkable, as was also the absence of the 
Spotted Flycatcher. The district is eminently suitable for both 
birds, and their apparent scarcity or non-existence was much 
commented upon. The Blackcap Warbler was both seen and 
heard, but, in common with most parts of Yorkshire, was not 

1907 July 1. 



252 Yorkshire Naturalists at Robin HoocTs Bay. 

anything' like as abundant as the Garden Warbler. Three 
species of Tits were seen, but this family was not as abundant 
as might have been expected, and the apparent absence of the 
Creeper was remarkable. 

Dippers and Grey Wagtails were found frequenting the 
stream, and a few Curlews and Red Grouse on the moors. It 
was pleasing, also, to notice the Merlin, and disappointing not 
to see the Ring Ouzel. 

i As we were in the vicinity, the opportunity was taken of 
paying a hasty visit to Kettleness to see how the colony of 
Herring Gulls was faring there. The Marquis of Normanby 
has this year given his keepers instructions to prevent the raids 
upon the eggs of these birds. This kindly forethought has, 
however, not had the effect of putting a stop to the plundering 
altogether, as there was abundant evidence that the eggs have 
been taken in numbers. The Herring Gull nests in greater 
numbers here than upon any other portion of the coast, and it 
seems a pity that they should be so persecuted (see Plate XXX.). 

Altogether, 61 species of birds were seen, many of them 
nesting. 

Only seven species of Mammalia were recorded. A Badger's 
earth, with fresh footprints of the animals showing, was 
inspected in Ramsdale. Apparently the species had formerly 
been fairly abundant here. Circumstances caused their practical 
extermination, and now they appear to be re-establishing them- 
selves. From notes kindly supplied by Mr. Barry, and read 
at the meeting, we learnt that Polecats are still found in the 
neighbourhood, but we were not lucky enough to view one. 
Moles, by their hills, were apparently much more numerous 
on the moors above than on the lower ground. Long-tailed 
Field Mice, Common Shrew, and Field Voles were noted. 

The only specimens of Reptilea, etc., seen were Viper, and 
Frog, and one Fish, the common trout, which did not appear 
to be very plentiful. 

Mosses. — Mr. J. J. Marshall gives the following list: — 

Orthotrichum pidchellum, on Elder. I Gymnocybe pahistris. 



Bryum rapillare, Clougtiton. 
Pogonatum aloides, side of Peat Bog-. 
Grimmia pulvinata. 
Weber a nutans. 



Hyp u in pal ust re. 
Rhaconi itriuin acicula re. 
Hyp n 11 111 ex a nnulatu.pt, 



All are from Fylingdales woods or moor, except the one 
from Cloughton. 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate XXX. 









Yorkshire A T aturalists at Robin Hood's Bay. 253 

Fungi. — Mr. C. Crossland reports that the two Mycologists 
— C. H. Broadhead and himself — had a good time, which would 
have been still better could they have lingered longer in 
Ramsdale Wood, a typical place for their purpose, on the 
Monday. They were, however, repaid in other ways ; the 
route laid out by Mr. Barry, who personally guided the party 
on that day, proved to be full of interest from many points of 
view. Though we kept moving on from one point of interest 
to another, fungi were not altogether lost sight of. One desirable 
Discomycete — Pesiza sepiatra — was found growing on some 
petrified moss we went to look at under a great overhanging, 
dripping rock near the waterfall ; and a spring Entoloma — E. 
clypeatum — on the ground in the wood corner. The very pretty, 
but not uncommon Omphalia umbellifera was met with on heathy 
ground in one of the glacial slacks visited. 

On the two other days the search for fungi was conducted 
more leisurely. As predicted in the circular, man)' spring 
species, which do not appear at any other time of the year, 
were found. Mr. Fortune and Mr. Booth, while in quest of 
other game, came across a splendid group of St. George's 
mushrooms — Tricholoma gambosum — in a field near the head- 
quarters ; these were growing in half a ring four or five yards in 
diameter : the formation of a complete ring was prevented by 
the field wall. They were the largest specimens the writer has 
had the pleasure of seeing, many being over 5 in. across the 
pileus, with plenty of substance about them, as will be seen by 
the accompanying photo. Being one of the very best of edible 
species, they were not left to perish in the field, but gathered 
by two or three members who knew their real worth and parcel'd 
up for home consumption. Pastures are their home, but Mr. 
Fortune saw a few in one of the woods. The uncommon Agaric 
— Bolbitiiisflavidus (Bolton) — was found on cow dung in pastures 
on the cliffs in two places. There were about a score of other 
fungi belonging to various groups of the larger kinds, which are 
of fairly common occurrence. 

Nearly two-thirds of the 74 species found belong to what are 
understood as micro species, although some which grow in 
colonies are prominent enough to the naked eye. Ten or eleven 
days were spent in working these out. There is one species new 
to Yorkshire — Triposporium elegans, a beautiful little brown 
mould with a three-legged arrangement of its conidia, hence 
its generic name. There are five first records for this 
(N.E.) division of the county — B. Jfavidus, mentioned above; 

1907 July 1. 



254 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Robin Hood's Bay. 



Hvpoxylon airopurpureum, on dead alder-branches ; Leptosphceria 
fusce/la, on dead furze ; Mollisia carduorum, on dead thistle 
stems ; and Pseudopeziza rubi, on dead bramble stems ; all in or 
about Stoup Beck ravine. The last four, besides being new to 
N.E. Yorks., confirm hitherto solitary county records, and are 
perhaps as valuable as new ones ; so far as records are con- 
sidered to have any value. Collybia tenacella, on dead fir- 
needles in Fyling Hall shrubbery, and Pseudopesiza sphceroides, 




St. George's Mushroom. 
Robin Hood's Bay. 

on dead stems of rose campion, Stoup Beck, have also, up to 
the present, been met with but once before in Yorkshire. 

The beautiful white Dasyscypa virginea, which grows on 
various decaying twigs and herbaceous stems, was definitely 
seen on decaying branches of furze, rose, bramble, woodsage, 
and honeysuckle within the space of a couple of yards, in a furze 
cover. The tiny D. fugiens, which grows on damp, rotting 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Robin Hood's Bay. 255 

rushes, was seen in plenty ; unless great care be taken to keep 
the rush stems very moist, this delightful little Disco., ¥ ^q to 
2-|o inch across its disc, disappears before it can be examined. 
Likely places proved most prolific in micro species when care- 
fully investigated. 

The rose rust Phragmidium snbcorticatum — /Ecidospore 
stage — was common on wild rose bushes. 
{To be continued). 



FIELD NOTES. 



BIRDS. 

Dunlin in Wharfedale. — Whilst watching several common 
Sandpipers feeding on the shore of a tarn on the moors above 
Burley, in Wharfedale, I had the pleasure of seeing an adult 
male Dunlin, in full summer plumage, feeding in the shallow 
water round the edge of the tarn. The bird at intervals uttered 
its characteristic love call, which was uttered by the bird whilst 
standing in the water. Mr. W. H. Hudson speaks of this call 
as being ' uttered in the air, or as the bird descends to earth 
with set, motionless wings and expanded tail.' On visiting the 
tarn two days later I found that it was still there, and I am 
inclined to think that there may have been a nest somewhere 
near ; but not being able to spare the time, I could not make 
a thorough search. — S. Hole, Leeds, May 30th, 1907. 

Quail in East Yorks. — A Quail was picked up on the 4th of 
June under the telegraph wires at Buckton, East Yorks. — E. W. 
Wade, Hull. 

Note on the Cuckoo. — On May 24th, about 7 a.m., I saw a 
Cuckoo carrying an egg in her bill. I had her under observation 
for about an hour, during which time some Meadow Pipits were 
chasing her away from their nests. No doubt she was trying 
to deposit her egg in one of them, but the Pipits were successful 
in driving her away. — W. Wilson, Skipton-in-Craven. 

— : o : — 

LEPIDOPTERA. 
Eupithecia corona ta in Yorkshire.— On June 7th and 8th, 
in a large wood on the outskirts of Sheffield, I took three 
specimens of E. eoronata. This species has hitherto only 
been recorded for Yorkshire as having occured at Scarbro' 
on the authority of Stainton's Manual. Its usual food plant, 

1907 July 1. 



256 Field Notes. 

Clematis vitalba, does not grow anywhere in the wood, which 
disposes of any probability of the moth having been introduced 
by artificial means. — L. S. Brady, Sheffield, June nth, 1907. 

MOLLUSC A. 
Clausilla bidentata m. dextrorsum in Lines. — On April 
18th Mr. Vernon Howard, M.A., visited Haugham Pasture, an 
old wood on the lower chalk near Louth, and there collected 
mollusca ; amongst those he kindly submitted to me was a 
good example of Cluusilia bidentata m. dextrorsum. — C. S. 
Carter, Louth. 

FLOWERING PLANTS. 
The Butterfly Orchis in East Yorkshire. — Habenaria 
bi folia, a plant rarely found in the East Riding, at least on or 
east of the Wolds, has been discoverd in a fine patch near 
Tibthorpe, Driffield (see remarks in 'Flora E. R. Yorks.') — 
(Miss) L. F. Piercy, Tibthorpe, June 13th, 1907. 

MOSSES. 

Luminosity of Schistostega osmundacea. — A short time 
ago the luminosity of this plant was alluded to in the 'Naturalist.' 
As is well known, the spores of mosses produce a branched 
filamentous protonema on germination. The cells of this 
protonema (which contain chloroplasts) are of remarkable form, 
convex above and conical below. The light which enters these 
cells is first refracted and then reflected from the sides of the 
cone in such a way as to go across the conical parts of the 
cells, where it is again reflected from the sides, and on emerging 
into the air is again refracted. In this way some of the light 
which enters the cells leaves them again in the direction of the 
observer. As this moss always grows in cave-like places, it 
gets but a moderate amount of light for photosynthesis, and 
there is no doubt but that the peculiar morphological character 
of its protonemal cells is an ecological adaptation. I first saw 
this moss twenty-nine years ago in a cavernous place about 
three miles west of Buxton, and I shall never forget the strange 
sight. — Wm. West, Bradford. 

Inglebro' Mosses. — Hypnum giganteum Schp. This moss 
grows in considerable quantity in the rills joining the Fell Beck 
just above Gaping Gyll. This is a new locality for- H.\ 
giganteum, which is rare in West Yorks. 1 

Naturalist 1 



Field Notes. 257 

Some other mosses not previously recorded for Inglebro' 
are : — 

Oligotrichum incurvum Ldb. 1 Heterocladium heteropterum B. & S. 

Brachyodus trichodes Fiirnr. , Hypnum ochraceum Turn. 

Blindia acuta B. & S. ! Hypnum stratnineum Dicks. 

On the same excursion the Inglebro' records of the following- 
montane mosses were confirmed : — 
Dicranodontium longirostre B. & S., Bartramia ithyphylla Brid. 

var. alpinum Schp. Plagiobryum zierii Ldb. 

Gvgodon gracilis Wils. Bryum filiforme Dicks. 

Tetraplodon minoides B. & S. Pseudoleskca catenulata B. & S. 

Amblyodon dealbatus P. B. 

Chris. A. Cheetham, Armley. 
— :o : — 

FUNGI. 

Volvaria parvu/a. — Mr. C. H. Broadhead, of Wooldale 
Nurseries, near Thongsbridge, has sent me several specimens 
of this most interesting- little agaric. They were found 
growing on soil in one of his greenhouses this week. 

C. Crossland, Halifax, June 26th, 1907. 
— : o : — 
MISCELLANEOUS. 

Yorkshire Earthquakes. — In an article under the title 
'Yorkshire Earthquakes' in the 'Naturalist' for January, 1905, 
Dr. Charles Davidson intimates that any notices of the effects in 
Yorkshire of the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755, if any such 
were observed, would be of considerable interest to him. I 
have just noticed in a pamphlet entitled ' Notes on Old 
Peterborough,' by Andrew Percival (Published in 1905 by the 
Peterborough Archaeological Society, p. 40), a quotation from 
'an Ipswich paper' 'in 1755,' as follows: — 'By a letter from 
Thirsk, in Yorkshire, we learn that very lately a terrible shock 
of earthquake was felt, inasmuch that several large rocks were 
removed to considerable distances ; several large grown elms 
were swallowed up by the earth so that no part of them remained 
to be seen but the uppermost branches. A man driving a cart 
near the place, the horses were so much frightened by the 
shock that they broke loose from the carriage and ran away. 
The horses seem to have behaved very sensibly.' — H. E. 
Wroot, Bradford. 

The effects of the weather at Harrogate in 1907. — It is 
perhaps worth while to make a note of the disastrous results 
caused by the inclement and changeable weather this spring. 

1907 July 1. 



258 Northern News. 

In this district, at the time of writing (the middle of June), 
many ash trees are quite bare ; Chesnuts have leaved and 
flowered for a very short time. The leaves of many have, how- 
ever, quite shrivelled up, as if by the action of frost. Rose trees 
and many others are suffering' in the same way. The chesnuts 
are now putting" forth a lot of new leaves, and look most 
peculiar. The various flowering plants have had a very short 
show, the blossoms being ruined almost as soon as they 
opened. 

The reverse is the case with fungi, which appear to be 
unusually numerous. The St. George's mushroom is par- 
ticularly plentiful. 

Birds have suffered exceedingly, and one comes across 
many deserted nests with eggs or dead young ones. Several 
times I have seen a nest full of young birds, ground breeding, 
washed out of the nests and drowned. Warbler's nests are 
suffering very much, and the other day I even found a Tree 
Creeper washed out. 

There is a great scarcity of some species of migrants, 
notably in Spotted Flycatchers, Whinchats, Grasshopper 
Warblers, and Landrails, and also, I think, Cuckoos. The 
arrival of migrants this year was most erratic. 

Despite this depressing news, it is most gratifying to find 
the House Martin nesting in some of the haunts which have 
been without them for years. — R. Fortune. 



' Collecting Lepidoptera in the Lake District in 1902, 1903, and in 1905, 
1906' is the title of some notes by Mr. A. H. Foster in the June 'Ento- 
mologist.' 

The York and District Field Naturalists' Society is issuing elaborate 
excursion programmes, giving hints of species likely to be met with on the 
rambles. But aren't all secretaries ' organising' ? 

An important paper on ' The Geology of the Zambezi Basin around the 
Batoka Gorge (Rhodesia)' is contributed to the May ' Quarterly Journal of 
the Geological Society' by Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, F. R.S. 

We learn from the 'Quarry' that in recent Pompeiian explorations two 
beautiful ' Blue John' vases were found — evidence that the famous 'Blue 
John ' mines of Castleton were worked some two thousand years ago. 

We regret to hear of the death of Mr. C. Mossop, of Barrow-in-Furness, 
late goods manager of the Furness Railway. Rlr. Mossop took a keen 
interest in natural history. He was President of the Barrow Naturalists' 
Field Club in 1902, and his portrait appears in the Club's Report for that 
year. 

The Council of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 
has nominated Mr. Francis Darwin, Foreign Secretary to the Royal Society, 
and author of the 'Life and Letters of Charles Darwin,' to be President of 
the meeting next year, when, for the fourth time in its history, the Associa- 
tion will assemble in Dublin. 

Naturalist, 



259 



LINCOLNSHIRE MITES. 

RHYNCHOLOPHID/E.— (Continued). 



C. F. GEORGE, M.R.C.S. 
Kirton-in-Lindsey. 



Rhyxcholophus. The members of this genus, though resembling 
Erythrceus, will be seen to differ in many important particulars. 
They have longer legs, some of them very long ones, especially 
the hinder pair, and from this fact one of them has been called 
longipes ; possibly it may be the one figured ; of this, however, I am 
not sure. The internode above the tarsus of the hind leg is very 
long, much longer than any other. These mites are very active 
and good runners, and hence perhaps not easily caught. They 
are said to be common, but I have not found this to be the case. 
All the tarsal joints are flattened from side to side, those of the 
first pair are the largest (see figure 4), and are provided with a 
sort of hair pad on the under side, which gives them good foot- 
hold irrespective of the claws. I have one taken in this 
neighbourhood in 1877, which is mounted in Balsam for the 
microscope, and not very well displayed ; I had, however, been 
furnished with a few specimens from Guernsey by Mr. Luff, 
which appear to be identical, and it is from these specimens, 
preserved and mounted by me, that Mr. Soar has made the 
drawings which illustrate this article. The mite is of a red 
colour, the body rather densely covered with short bristles, 
thickly pectinated (see figure 6). The palpi are shown much 
enlarged at figure 3. The fifth joint is pear-shaped and larger in 
proportion to the fourth than in Erythrceus ; the proboscis is 
also furnished at the tip with a very curious circlet of hairs, 
best seen in the living or unmounted mite. The eyes are very 
different from those of Erythrceus ; instead of a single ocellus on 
each side, there are two ocelli joined together on a kidney- 
shaped process (see figure 2), embedded in the skin. Another 
remarkable organ is the chitinous rod, which lies in the dorsal 
groove in the centre between the two eyes, and is furnished at 
the anterior end with a rather large and globular capitulum 
(figure 2), seen greatly enlarged at figure 5 ; it is furnished with 
several longish hairs, or spikes, which are pectinated, and also 
two stigmatic openings, each having a very fine and rather long 
tactile simple hair. The posterior end of the rod is also slightly 
enlarged, and likewise bears two stigmatic openings, with their 

1907 July 1- 



26o 



George : Lincolnsliire Mites. 



accompanying - tactile hairs — well shown in the figure. The 
mite figured is a female. The position of the vulva is evident, a 
point of some importance. 







If 



Fig. i. Female Rhyncholophns, ventral surface. 

Fig. 2. ,, ,, dorsal surface. 

Fig-. 3. Palpi and rostrum, much magnified. 

Fig. 4. Anterior tarsal joint. 

Fig. 5. Chitinous rod with capitulum. 

Fig. 6. Single pectinated hair from the body. 



Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate XXXI. 







26 1 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 



•THE SHAPING OF LINDSEY BY THE TRENT.'* 

In the 'Naturalist' for 1895, Mr. F. M. Burton contributed a 
paper on 'The Story of Lincoln Gap.' A year previously his 
presidential address to the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union was 
entitled, ' How the land between Gainsborough and Lincoln 
was formed.' The fascinating- line of research then formulated 
by Mr. Burton has since been followed up, and in his present 
attractive volume is given an exceedingly readable and clear 
account of the origin of the Lindsey landscape. Proper stress 
is laid upon the important part played by rivers in the formation 
of the present surface features of the area, and by the aid of 
diagrams and several excellent plates Mr. Burton indicates 
the old courses of some of the rivers, explains how and why 
these were changed, and deals in an interesting manner with 
the work being done by the present streams. Mr. Burton's 
book should do much to popularise the study of geology in 
north Lincolnshire, and this we know, from personal experience, 
is what the author wishes. Being produced at Browns' Savile 
Press, the ' get up ' of the volume is all that can be desired. 
We are enabled to give our readers a specimen of the plates (see 
Plate XXXI.). 

The Report and Proceedings of the Manchester Field Natu- 
ralists' and Archaeologists' Society for the year 1906 is to hand. 
It contains a hundred pages, principally devoted to reports of excursions. 
The longest article is on the Society's excursion to the Winchester district. 
It is a pity the millinery, etc., advertisements are not kept on separate 
sheets of paper. They could then be torn out without the volume suffering. 

We have received Part I. of 'The Book of the Open Air' (1/- net, to be 
completed in 12 parts, Hodder and Stoughton), a book which promises well. 
It is edited by Mr. Edward Thomas, and is produced in a way which warrants 
every praise. The first instalment contains (1) An open-air diary for April, 
and 'Introduction,' by the Editor; 'In praise of rain,' by W. W. Fowler; 
' The Otter's Holt,' by A. W. Rees ; ' The Flowers of Early Spring,' by Rev. 
Canon Vaughan ; ' Some English Butterflies,' by A. Collett ; ' Birds as 
Architects,' by D'Esterre Bailey; 'The Venus Eve,' by G. A. B. Dewar ; 
'Ancient Ponds,' by W. Johnson ; and 'The Making of Scenery,' by E. Clodd. 
These articles are mostly charmingly written — the last named being a perfect 
poem. Adding much to the attractions of the publication are some drawings 
and photographs, well reproduced by the three-colour process. These are 
mounted on thick tinted paper, and there will be fifty of them in the complete 
volume. If the remainder keep to the standard of those already issued, they 
will alone be worth the cost of the book. It would be ungrateful to find the 
smallest fault with this beautiful publication. 

* By F. M. Burton, F.G.S., A. Brown & Sons, London and Hull. 60 pp. 
and plates. Price 2/6. 

1907 July 1. 



262 Reviews and Book Notices, 

Mr. J. Donkin, F.R.I. B. A., favours us with a copy of his 'Conservancy 
or Dry Sanitation versus Water Carriage' (E. & F. Spon, London. 
Price 1/-). This is clearly written and illustrated by diagrams. It should 
be read carefully by all interested in sanitation. 

Under the title of ' Douglas English Nature Books,' Messrs. 
Bousfield & Co. have issued two admirable shilling books. The first 
contains 100 illustrations from photographs from life of the Shrew Mouse, 
the Dormouse, the House Mouse, the Field Mouse, the Meadow Mouse, and 
the Harvest Mouse. A fair sample of these excellent photographs is repro- 
duced herewith bv permission of the publishers. But of even more interest 




!'he Dormouse. 

and value are the 'Notes on some smaller British Mammals.' by Mr. English 
— which occupy 30 pages. No. 2 of the series contains a similar number of 
beautiful illustrations of bird life, and thirty pages of letterpress by Mr. R. B- 
Lodge. Both books should do much to popularise natural history, as well 
as serve as handy guides to amateur photographers. 

Forty Years in a Moorland Parish. Reminiscences and Researches. 
in Danby in Cleveland, by Rev. J. C. Atkinson. Macmillan & Co., Ltd., 
1907, pp. xlv. + 472, price 5/- net. We feel sure that it will be unnecessary 
to call the attention of readers of the 'Naturalist' to the nature of this 
charming volume, one of the most popular of those written by the late 
Canon Atkinson, who has deservedly been styled the Yorkshire Gilbert 
White. We desire, however, to congratulate the publishers on the appearance 
for the first time of an excellent memoir of the author, written by Mr. G. A. 
Macmillan ; together with two portraits, which are beautifully repro- 
duced. To describe the contents of ' Forty Years in a Moorland Parish ' 
would be almost an insult to the readers of this journal. Should there 
be any, however, who have not read the volume, let us recommend them 
to do so at once. And those who have already seen it will be glad to 
have the present edition from the additional matter and illustrations which 
it contains. 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 26C 

Birds' Eggs of the British Isles. — Messrs. Brumby & Clarke, the 
well-known colour printers, Hull, have drawn our attention to the volume 
they issued some little time ago under the above title. This contains the 24 
beautiful plates of birds' eggs which appeared in the larger work, ' British 
Birds with their Nests and Eggs ; ' and in their present form will appeal to 
those who are more particularly interested in eggs than birds, or who do not 
care to pay the price of the larger work for the sake of the illustrations of 
the eggs. Mr. A. G. Butler has written a hundred quarto pages of 
descriptive letterpress, and the drawings are by Mr. F. W. Frohawk, 
whose work is so well known. The figures will particularly appeal to the 
collector from the wonderful varieties of eggs shown — some of these being 
most unusual ; the eggs of the black-bird, for instance, being represented by 
eight extraordinary varieties. There are in all 472 illustrations, and the 
price of a g-uinea is not out of the way. In his introduction Mr. Butler 
gives some useful hints on the preparation of specimens for the cabinet. 

Wild Life at Home: How to Study and Photograph it, by R. Kearton, 
F.Z.S. Cassell & Co., 204 pp. New and revised edition, 1907. Price 6/- 
A further edition of this well illustrated volume is evidence of its popularity. 





Gulls Feeding. ^A scramble for breakfast. 

(From 'Wild Life ;it Home.') 

The work of the brothers Kearton is well known to our readers. The 
present edition has been revised, and the illustrations, type, paper, and 
binding are uniformly excellent. We are permitted to reproduce one of the 
illustrations herewith. 

Birds and their Nests and Eggs, by G H. Vos. London, G. 
Routledge & Sons, Ltd., 14S pp. and numerous illustrations. Price i/. 

This well printed and cloth bound volume is the cheapest of its kind that 
we have seen for some time, and will be very suitable for a prize book for 
young naturalists. The photographs are mostly good, though the method 
of sticking badly stuffed birds in their more or less natural surroundings and 
photographing them is not very desirable, especially as in so many cases 
any schoolboy can ' spot ' the artificial twig upon which the bird is perched ; 
on p. 41 the starling, which ' is a well got up and groomed gentleman at all 
times of the year,' certainly belies this description, though possiblv the 
specimen figured has suffered through being carried in the photographer's 
pocket ! The photographs of eggs at the end of the volume are of little 
value except for showing the relative sizes of the eggs. 

1907 July 1. 



264 



NORTHERN NEWS. 



Amongst the birthday honours we notice that Prof. E. Ray Lankester is 
created K.C.B. 

Mr. E. E. Lowe, of the Plymouth Museum, has been appointed Curator 
of the Leicester Museum in place of Mr. Montague Browne, resigned. 

No. 4 of the Bankfield Museum Notes (Halifax), deals with the 'Egyptian 
Tablets ' in the collection, and has been written by Mr. Thomas Midgley, of 
the Bolton Museums. The pamphlet is sold for one penny. 

An admirable case of representations of British Butterflies has been 
prepared by the 'Young Citizen,' of 12, Salisbury Square, London, E.C. 
This contains beautifully coloured copies of twenty-four of the most striking 
of our British Butterflies, which are cut out in cardboard and fastened in the 
case by pins, each species having a printed label. At the low price of half- 
a-crown, it is most suitable for schools, etc. 

We much regret to record the death of Prof. A. Newton, F. R.S. , whose 
' Dictionary of Birds ' is so well known. For half-a-century Prof. Newton 
has taken a leading position in ornithological science, and to him the 
present generation is largely indebted for his herculean efforts in the matter 
of the protection of birds, upon which subject he read a paper to the British 
Association so long ago as 1868. He was born in 1829. 

Dr. C. F. George of Kirton Lindsey sends us a reprint of a useful paper, 
' Hints on Collecting and Preserving Fresh-water Mites.' This is from 
the ' Hastings and East Sussex Naturalist.' 

The following particulars of sales during 1906 of plumes, for the adorn- 
ment of the (un)fair sex, seem incredible, but are guaranteed accurate : — 

Osprey Feathers. Birds of 

Packages. Paradise. 

February 327 8,508 

April 260 7,188 

June 289 11,841 

August 242 3,948 

October 485 5>7°° 

December 265 3,600 

1868 40,785 

[The printer refuses to set up our comments, which were, perhaps, rather 
too forcible, though expressing our feelings at the time — Ed.]. 

Mr. E. K. Robinson, B.E.N. A., informs the readers of 'The Country Side' 
that he is 5 ft. 9 in. in height, weighs 13 stone, and is short and stout. He has 
not 'the same elegant sort of figure as the ex-Prime Minister, Mr. Balfour.' 
In view of this, possibly the readers of the ' Naturalist' may care to know 
that the beard of the writer of these notes is not at all like that of the King 
of the Belgians ! 

Speaking of Mr. E. K. Robinson reminds us that some little time ago 
he asked the opinion of the readers of ' The Country Side' on his ' proposed 
innovation' in substituting the word 'animals' for 'mammals.' We 
have watched the paper since, and apparently either Mr. Robinson's request 
has been ignored by his readers, or, what seems more likely, the opinions 
of his readers have been ignored by Mr. Robinson. We ventured to express 
our views on the matter, but presumably both the copies of this journal 
which were sent to him have miscarried. Or is it that in snatching this 
' chestnut ' from his well-stocked grate Mr. Robinson has burnt his fingers, 
and dropped it amongst the ashes, which must now be rather rapidly 
accumulating. 

Naturalist, 



AUGUST 1907. 



No. 607 

(No. 385 0/ current series). 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



EDITED BY 



T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., 

The Museum, Hull; 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 



J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S. F.L.S., 
Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., 
T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., 



GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
JOHN W. TAYLOR, 
WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. 



Contents : — 

PAGES 

Notes and Comments : — The York Philosophical Society, A Land-Shell new to the British 

Isles ... ..' 265-266 

Prominent Yorkshire Workers. 111.— Rev. E. Maule Cole 267-269 

The Birds, etc., of Walney Island— Harry B. Booth, M.B.O.U 270-273 

Glacial Survivals— Frank Elgee 274-276 

Recent Geological Discoveries at Speeton (Illustrated)— T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 277-279 

Vitrea cellarla in Shell Marl, near Hale, Westmorland (Illustrated)—/. IF. Jackson ... 280 
Notes on the Carboniferous Rocks of the Kettlewell District— Cosmo Johns, 

M.I.Mech.E., F.G.S 281-283 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Robin Hood's Bay 284-285 

Yorkshire Naturalists at South Cave ... 286-289 



In Memoriam— John Harrison, F.E.S. 

Field Notes 

The Birds of Yorkshire (Illustrated) 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Northern News 

Illustrations 

Plates XXXII., XXXIII. 



• 



290 

273, 291 

292-293 

266, 269, 283, 294-295 

279,295 

277, 280 



LONDON : 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited,- 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



PRICE 6d. NET. BY POST 7d. NET. 




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9 (1902), 1/- ; 30 (1903), 2/6 ; 31 (1904), 1/- ; 32 (1905), 7/6 ; 33 (1906), 5/-. 

THE BIRDS OF YORKSHIRE. By T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., WILLIAM EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S., 
M.B.O.U., andF. BOYES. 2 Vols., Demy 8vo 25/- net. ; Demy 4to 4-2/- net. 

Annotated List of the LAND and FRESHWATER MOLLUSCA KNOWN TO INHABIT YORK- 
SHIRE. By JOHN W. TAYLOR, F.L.S., and others. Also in course of publication in the Trans- 
actions. 

THE YORKSHIRE CARBONIFEROUS FLORA. By ROBERT KIDSTON, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. Parts 14, 
18, 19, 21, &c, of Transactions. 

LIST OF YORKSHIRE COLEOPTERA. By Rev. W. C. HEY, MA. 



THE NATURALIST. A Monthly Illustrated Journal of Natural History for the North of England. Edited 
by T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S. , Museum, Hull; and T. W. WOODHEAD, F.L.S., Technical College, 
Huddersfield ; with the assistance as referees in Special Departments of J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., 
F.L.S., Prof. PERCY F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., GEO. T. PORRITT, 
F.L.S., F.E.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, and WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. (Annual Subscription, payable 
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All communications should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary, 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., The Museum, Hull. 

WANTKD: Rennie's Field Naturalist (Set). Proc. Geol. and Polyt. Soc, West Riding Yorks., Vol. I. Britisl 
Association Report, 1839-1840. Quarterly Journal Geol. Soc, Vols. I-XXI. Barnsley Nat. Socy's. 
Quarterly Reports (Set). Go od prices given. 

Apply T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., 

The Museum, Hull 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate XXXII. 




<£/^W^/^ 



265 
NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



THE YORK PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

The Annual Report of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society for 
1906 is of particular interest. From it we learn that an attempt 
has been made to grow a classified series of British plants in 
the Garden, and though the scheme was not very successful, it 
is hoped to carry it through in the future. Mr. Oxley Grabham 
has again given some valuable objects to the museum, including 
some ' unique Guillemots ' eggs, respecting which we should 
have liked more details. The society is justly proud of the part 
it played in connection with the 75th meeting of the British 
Association, and prints ' probably the only permanant local 
record of this noteworthy event' in its report. Mr. H. J. 
Wilkinson gives a very useful Historical Account of the 
Society's Herbarium and the contributors thereto. This paper 
contains lengthy notices of James Dalton, Robert Teesdale, 
Christopher Machell, Samuel Goodenough, Wm. Jackson 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton Hooker, William Bingley, Samuel 
Hailstone, Richard Spruce, Henry Ibbotson, Henry Baines, 
and James Blackhouse — all honoured names in the botanical 
world. Mr. George Benson has an excellent illustrated paper 
on ' Some Relics of the Viking Period recently found in York,' 
Mr. J. E. Clarke deals with 'The Windrush at Biggin,' and 
there are some useful meteorological tables. The report 
certainly gives evidence of scientific activity at York. 



A LAND-SHELL NEW TO THE FAUNA OF THE 
BRITISH ISLES. 

Messrs. John W. Taylor and W. Denison Roebuck, of Leeds, 
have been spending a week with the Irish Conchologists, on the 
occasion of the Cork Conference of the Irish Field Club Union. 
The molluscan work was very considerable, for Messrs. Robert 
Welch, A. W. Stelfox, and J. N. Milne, of Belfast, Mr. R. A. 
Phillips, of Cork, and Mr. Robert Standen, of the Manchester 
Museum, were all in the field — and the districts round Cork, as 
at Youghal, Macroom, Kinsale, Aghada, Blarney, etc., were 
very closely and carefully investigated. At the Conference Mr. 
Taylor read a carefully worked-out paper, in which he, for the 
first time, made public the addition of a fine well-marked and 
conspicuously distinct species of land mollusc to the Irish and 
British list. This was Vitrina elongata, Dp., found in fair 

1907 August 1. 



266 Reviews and Book Notices. 

numbers in Co. Louth by Mr. P. H. Grierson, and detected by 
Mr. Taylor on examining" a large series of Irish shells sent tor 
authentication by that gentleman. The species is of interest as 
occurring at nearly sea-level in Ireland, the nearest European 
localities being at elevations of 8000 feet in the Alpine and 
mountainous regions of the Continent. This occurrence 
exemplifies well the soundness of Mr. Taylor's views in 
regard to the position and discontinuous distribution of what 
may, for want of a better word, be described as ' weak ' — ■ 
i.e., not dominant — forms of life. Mr. Taylor's paper is to 
appear in the next number of the ' Irish Naturalist,' with 
illustrations, and the problems involved are discussed full}-. 



The Microscope and how to use it. London, R. Sutton. 160 pp., 
3/- net. This is the third edition of Mr. T. Charters White's well known 
handbook for beginners. It has been revised and enlarged, contains a 
chapter on ' Marine Aquarium,' and another, by Dr. M. Amsler, dealing' 
with 'Staining - Bacteria.' The book is thoroughly practical, and can be 
recommended. It is illustrated. 

Beasts Shown to the Children, by P. J. Billinghurst, described by 
Lena Dalkeith, 103 pp. T. C. and E. C. Jack, Edinburgh, 2/6. This is 
one of the series already referred to in these columns, though the coloured 
plates in the present volume are not nearly so successful as those dealing 
with birds and plants. The drawing of the ' whale ' in cotton-wool water 
might be a design for a frieze, and the sea gull's nest facing p. 84 is the 
nicest thing in sea-weed frills that we have seen for some time. 

Introduction to Plant Ecology, by Prof. G. Henslow, M.A., F.L.S., 
■&c. , London. E. Stanford, pp. viii. and 130. 2/6. 

Prof. Henslow opens this well printed little book by some rather 
unfortunate remarks. He points out that he wrote two books, one in 
1888, and another in 1895, on Ecology without knowing it, 'for this term 
had not been invented and is still unknown to our teachers of botany in 
schools.' If we grant the first, it should be noted with reference to the 
second statement, that Haekel used the term in [866; again the numerous 
books and papers since written, mostly by teachers of botany, go to disprove 
the third assertion. That it might, with advantage, be more widelv known 
is admitted, and it is the object of this book to supply the deficiency. The 
first five chapters are devoted to a general consideration of ecological 
questions, in which Prof. Henslow criticises, unnecessarily we think, certain 
well-known books and teachers. These chapters also contain much that 
might well be left to the usual text books. If these features had been 
omitted, more space would have been available for fuller treatment of plant 
associations and their ecological characteristics, the chapters dealing with 
this part of the work being based on the well-known Scotch and Yorkshire 
papers. Too meagre are the accounts of a heather moor, water and marsh 
plants, the distinctive types of woodlands and their associations, the 
significance of zones of cultivation and the like. The chapter on plant 
surveying is too general, and reference should have been made to the more 
exact and detailed methods already published, and definite examples given. 
Too often exotic examples are quoted when equally good illustrations could 
be given from British species, while the chapter on floral ecology would 
have been improved by the inclusion of results obtained by Willis, Burkill, 
and others. The chapters on ' Natural Selection and Evolution ' are 
characteristic of the author who shows himself an eager exponent of ecology 
and much of what he has to say is interesting. 

Naturalist, 



36 7 

PROMINENT YORKSHIRE WORKERS. 



III.— REV. E. MAULE COLE, M.A., F.G.S. 

(plate XXXII.) 



Few people have done more to popularise the study of the 
geology and antiquities of Yorkshire than has the subject of 
this sketch. It can truly be stated that the good he has done 
in this direction by far exceeds the usefulness of his numerous 
published works, valuable though the latter undoubtedly are. By 
writing- to various journals, by lecturing- in about every town 
in the county, but more particularly by conducting excursions 
over his beloved Yorkshire Wolds, Mr. Cole has undoubtedly 
done much more in furtherance of the study of archaeology and 
natural history than can be estimated. One of the greatest treats 
that the writer knows is to be taken along the wolds and dales 
under the leadership of the Vicar of Wetwang, who, in spite of 
his more than three score years and ten, can still 'cover the 
ground ' as well as most. Every chalk quarry, field, hill, and 
dale — nay, even every mound and earthwork has a history, and 
for each Mr. Cole has a fascinating story. On the Yorkshire 
coast, too (particularly on Flamborough Head), and along 
the Roman wall, he has conducted scores of parties, each 
member of which has benefitted by his store of knowledge and 
by his fund of ready wit. The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
has been much indebted to him in this way, and several of its 
members owe to him their first lesson in natural science. 

The Rev. E. Maule Cole* was born at Dover in 1833, an< ^ 
was educated at Brighton, Tonbridge, and Rossall. At the 
last place he became captain of the school. In 1853 he went 
to Oxford, where he won the Goldsmith and Ludwell exhibitions, 
and took honours in classics. Whilst at Oxford he was in two 
college 'elevens' and 'eights.' In 1857 he was the first old 
boy to go back to Rossall as master. 

When he came to Wetwang in 1865 he had an excellent 
opportunity of following up his interest in geology. Coming 
into contact with the brothers Mortimer, he accompanied them 
in their barrow-opening expeditions, and frequently described 
the pre-historic remains which were secured in his presence. 

* For a portrait and account of his father, the Rev. Win. Sibthorpe 
Cole, see Speight's ' Lower Wharfedale,' 1902, pp. 86-88. 

1907 August 1. 



268 Prominent Yorkshire Workers — Rev. E. Maule Cole. 

Of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, the Yorkshire 
Geological Society, and the East Riding- Antiquarian Society, 
Mr. Cole has been a member of man)' years' standing - , and to 
their publications has contributed several papers. The first of 
sixteen papers printed by the Yorkshire Geological Society was 
on 'The Red Chalk of Yorkshire,' and was published so long 
ago as 1878. His first paper in the 'Naturalist' was on 'A 
peat deposit at Filey' (1891). 

In more recent years Mr. Cole has taken a keen interest in 
the British earthworks and Roman roads of the eastern part of 
our county, and from his intimate knowledge of every part of 
the area, few are better able to speak on these subjects than 
he is. 

That he may have health and strength to continue his work 
for many years to come is the sincere wish of every Yorkshire 
Naturalist. 

LIST OF PAPERS, ETC., BY THE REV E. MAULE COLE. 

Noah's Flood. 1865. 16 pp. 

Scandinavian Place Names in East Riding of Yorkshire. 1879. 

35 PP- 
Geological Rambles in Yorkshire. 1883. 112 pp. 
Geology of the Hull and Barnsley Railway. 1886. 55 pp. 
Modern Science and Revelation. 1889. 12 pp. 
Papers in the Proceedings Yorkshire Geo/, and Pot. Soe. — ■ 

The Red Chalk. 1878. 

The Origin and Formation of the Wold Dales. 1879. 

The White Chalk of Yorkshire. 1882. 

Sections at Cave and Drewton. 1885. 

The Physical Geography and Geology of the East 
Riding. 1886. 

The Parallel Roads of Glen Gloy. 1886. 

Dry Valleys in the Chalk. 1887. 

Geology of Driffield and Market Weighton Railway. 1890. 

Ancient Entrenchments near Wetwang. 1891. 

A Lake Dwelling at Preston, Lancashire. 1891. 

Duggleby Howe. 1890. 

The Boulder Clay Cliffs of Filey. 1894. 

The Roman Wall and Vallum. 1898. 

The Danes Graves, Driffield. 1898. 

Distribution of Moors near York. 1899. 

The Site of the Battle of Brunanburh. 189c. 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 269 

Papers in the ' A ntiquary. ' — 

The Entrenchments on the Wolds. 1890. 

Archaeology in Provincial Museums : Driffield. 1891. 

British and Roman Roads in East Riding-. 1892. 

Huggate Dikes. 1894. 

A Pictish Burgh near Lerwick. 1895. 

The opening of a Tumulus at Sledmere. 1897. 

Norman Features in Wold Churches. 1901. 

Tumuli on the Wolds. 1903. 
Paper in ' Old Yorkshire.' — 

Ancient Farm House at Fimber. 
Paper in the Transactions Hull Sci. and Field Nat. Club. — 

Waterspouts on the Wolds. 1901. 
Papers in the Transactions East Riding A ntiq. Soc. — 

Danes Dike, Flamborough. 1893. 

Huggate Dikes. 1894. 

Notices of Wetwang. 1894. 

Driffield Moot Hill. 1895. 

Ancient Crosses on the Wolds. 1896. 

Notes on Field Names. 1898. 

Roman Roads in the East Riding. 1899. 

Duggleby Howe. 1901. 

Ancient Fonts on the Wolds. 1903. 
Papers in the ' Naturalist. ' — 

A Peat Deposit at Filey. 1891. 

Report on the Erosion of the Yorkshire Coast. 1892. 

In Memoriam — Robert Mortimer. 1892. 
Papers in ' Flamborough Village and Headland. ' 1 894 — 

Antiquities of Flamborough. 7 pp. 

Geology of Flamborough. 6 pp. 
Geology of Scarborough and East Coast of Yorkshire. 4 pp. 

(in Marshall's Guide to Scarborough.) 
Saga Book of the Viking Club. Vol. IV., pt. 1. 

'On the Place Name Wetwang.' 1905. 

T. S. 



The Insect Hunter's Companion, by the Rev. J. Greene, being- 
instructions for Collecting- and Preserving Butterflies, Moths, Beetles, Bees, 
Flies, etc. West, Newman & Co. 120 pp. Fifth edition, 1907. Price 1/6. 
The fact that this little handbook has reached its fifth edition speaks for 
itself. Though out of date in many respects, it is a handy guide for the 
beginner, and also contains many hints of use to the experienced collector. 

1907 August 1. 



270 

THE BIRDS, ETC., OF WALNEY ISLAND. 



HARRY B. BOOTH, M.B.O.U. 



This season the members of the Bradford Natural History and 
Microscopical Society arranged an Excursion further afield than 
usual, and by taking advantage of a day trip to Barrow-in- 
Furness, visited Walney Island on June 8th. 

At Grange, we noticed the great increase of Shelducks, many 
of which could be seen on the shore and on the sea as we stood 
on the station platform. A pair of Blue Titmice was also 
seen industriously feeding a nestful of young ones down the 
centre of an iron gas-lamp in one of the streets of Grange. 

Arriving at Barrow, a short journey on a light railway 
brought us to Piel, where we briefly inspected the well-equipped 
Marine Laboratory of the Lancashire and Cheshire Fisheries 
Board, under the superintendence of Mr. A. Scott. From here 
a short journey of two or three miles in a fishing boat enabled 
us to land on the south end of Walney, near to the Salt Works, 
where we were soon amongst the hordes of nesting birds. The 
watcher (a new hand who knew very little about the different 
species) had estimated the number of breeding birds to be 
between forty and fifty thousand. 

The BIack=headed Gull was found to be by far the most 
numerous species, comprising quite two-thirds of the total 
numbers present. Many acres of grassy sand dunes were 
almost covered by their nests. There was an extraordinary 
diversity in the ground-colour and markings of their eggs, 
which were noted in all stages of incubation, several just being 
chipped by the young chicks inside. Young birds just hatched 
and still damp were seen, and through every stage up to about 
a fortnight old, the larger ones running away in small flocks 
from the intruders. Many dead young birds were noticed, and 
no doubt the long-continued cold and wet weather had greatly 
contributed towards this excessive mortality. Numerous egg- 
shells were strewn about, chiefly the work of a small flock of 
Jackdaws and a few Lesser Black-backed Gulls; these discreetly 
sat upon the sand near to the sea during our visit, and no 
doubt were almost as much annoyed by our presence as were the 
parent gulls, who gave indications of their anger by constant 
harsh cries. 

The Common Tern. — This appeared to be the most 
numerous of the Terns present, and were nesting in one large 

N'ai'iralist, 



Booth: The Birds, etc., oj Walney Island. 271 

and several smaller colonies amidst the Marram Grass and 
within the gaillery, but away from the shore and shingle. 
They had evidently only just commenced to lay, as most of 
the nests contained only one or two eggs — three being seen 
in only one nest. 

The Artie Tern. — Not so numerous as the preceding 
species, and for the most part breeding separately from them. 
The largest colony was on the shingle, and one or two smaller 
ones were on the outskirts of the gullery. As with the 
Common Terns they had mostly only laid one or two eggs. 
Several of the birds of this species were bringing in small 
fish for their mates. 

The Lesser Tern. — We were delighted to find so many 
pairs of this graceful little bird present. Quite twenty nests — 
or rather depressions in the shingle — were seen along a stretch 
of half a mile along the shore. Many of these contained three 
eggs, and some appeared to be incubated, so that this bird 
would seem to breed slightly earlier than the other terns — at 
least during this cold and wet season. 

The Sandwich Tern. — We had always understood that 
there was a numerous colony of Sandwich Terns on Walney, 
but we were disappointed. We sought carefully for them, and 
l t was not until our last quarter of an hour that we came across 
a single pair and discovered the nest (with a single beautiful 
egg) amongst the gulls, and not far from the shore. It is 
possible that others occurred in the vicinity, and had not 
commenced nesting, but we did not see them. It would be 
interesting to learn from some reader of the 'Naturalist' if the 
Sandwich Tern has really decreased to this alarming extent on 
Walney Island. 

The Roseate Tern (?) — I noticed two birds which from the 
first I felt sure belonged to this species, both by their shape and 
flight, but they persistently kept at a much higher altitude than 
the other terns. Although I hid myself as much as possible 
under the wet and scanty cover, they disdained to descend like 
the other species. I fancied that they were not yet nesting, 
although they had evidently chosen a site from their continually 
flying around one spot — not far from the shingle. When I 
passed the same place again just before leaving, there was this 
characteristic pair of birds over the same spot, considerably 
above the other terns, and of course the chance of hearing 
their distinctive 'crake' was quite out of the question at such a 

1907 August 1 



272 Booth: The Birds, etc., of Walney Island. 

distance, and amidst such a babel of noises. Possibly some future 
visitor will keep a look out for this species. 

The Shelduck. — This conspicuous and distinctive species 
was very numerous, and no doubt many females were sitting- in 
the rabbits' burrows in the sand dunes. Several stray birds were 
noted on our approach, which leisurely betook themselves to 
the edge of the water during our visit. 

The Ringed Plover. — Several pairs frequented the shingle, 
chiefly on that portion occupied by the Lesser Terns. Their 
characteristic vagaries of nesting were noticed. Birds quite a 
week old, and also incompleted clutches of fresh eggs, were 
seen. 

The Oystercatcher. — These birds were exceedingly 
numerous, more so than in any other locality I have visited 
during the breeding season. They had evidently only just 
commenced to nest, as most of their chosen nesting places only 
contained one or two eggs. At one place three lots of eggs 
were noted in the space of a few square yards. 

The Stock = Dove. — There were several stray Stock-Doves, 
and in one case four birds were seen flying together. They 
evidently were nesting in the disused rabbit burrows. 

During our short stay upon the island, our time was so much 
occupied with the maritime species that we had but little oppor- 
tunity of noticing the passerine birds. The great number of 
skylarks present, however, was very noticeable, and once when 
the sun broke through the damp atmosphere, the air was full of 
their song. In spite of the exceptionally wet season, a nest 
containing three eggs was seen in a hole quite six inches below 
the surface. Many pairs of Wheatears and Meadow Pipits 
were seen, and also, at least, one pair of Rock Pipits. 

Mr. J. Beanland writes: — "The visit to Walney being a 
purely ornithological one, no systematic effort was made to 
ascertain what plants were growing, and those noted were 
casually dotted down by the botanists as interesting from the 
point of contrast that one naturally makes from an inland 
district with the maritime flora. The following list was made 
as the plants were seen in walking to and from the gullery : — 



(Uaucium flavum. 
Plantago coronopus. 
Silene maritima. 
Cochlearia danica. 
Viola svlvatica. 



Draba verna. 
Erodium cicutarium. 
Crambe maritima. 
A re ?i aria peploides. 
Mertensia maritima. 



Naturalist, 



Field Notes. 273 

Erynghim niarifiiiiiiiii. Scripits paucifloms. 

Gentiana campestris. ^-Enanthe crocata ? 

Hyoscyamns niger. Trifolium dubium, and everywhere 

Botrychium lunaria. the Marram Grass. 

It is rather interesting- to find that in the Herbarium of Mr. 
F. A. Lees at the Cartwright Hall, Crambe mariiima and 
Mertensia martima are represented from the locality we found 
them still growing- in, the former being- gathered by Mr. Lees 
in Aug-ust 1870, and the latter in August 1875." 

Our special thanks are due to Messrs. W. L. Page, 
A. Hawridge, and W. Sargeant (of the Barrow Naturalists' 
Field Club) for the splendid arrangements which they had 
made for us ; and for their guidance on the island. Our thanks 
are also due to Ed. Wadham, Esq., J. P., the agent of the Duke 
of Buccleugh, for kindly granting a special permit to visit the 
gullery. As the Duke of Buccleugh employs a watcher to 
protect the birds, it is useless trying- to see them without 
having obtained permission first. 



FISHES. 



Fox= Shark at Whitby. — On Friday last, the 12th inst., a 
fine specimen of the Fox-Shark, or Thrasher, Alopecias vulpes, 
was captured (in the salmon nets of John Hall, Fisherman), on 
the Skate Heads within the Whitby Rock-buoy. After a heavy 
struggle, and with the assistance of other cobles, it was with 
considerable difficulty eventually got into the coble, which the 
crew quickly vacated in consequence of the shark's severe 
struggles, snapping with its jaws, trying to bite the men and 
also to strike them with its long and powerful tail. It was at 
last killed and brought into Whitby and exhibited. When first 
brought to shore it measured in length from the snout to the 
end of its tail 15 feet ; I measured it towards night, and found 
it to be but 14 feet 4 inches long, the pectoral fins measuring - 
about 24 inches each in length, and on the morning of Saturday, 
the 13th, it only measured 14 feet, the shrinkage in length in 
24 hours being exactly one foot. 

In August, 1898, a shark of the same species was wounded 
by the ironwork of the wrecked steamer, " Glentilt," and 
captured on the rocks at Kettleness near Whitby. It measured 
14 feet 6| inches. — Thos. Stephenson, Whitby, July 15th, 
1907. 

igoy August 1. 



274 

GLACIAL SURVIVALS. + 

FRANK ELGEE, 
Middlesbrough. 

The question of Glacial Survivals is one of interest to geologists, 
zoologists, and botanists alike, because of its relation to the Ice 
Age which their investigations have established, and on account 
of the light it throws on the distribution of animals and plants. 

It may at the outset, however, be advisable to define 
precisely what is meant by 'Glacial Survivals.' In pre-glacial 
times our country was inhabited by animals and plants similar 
to those of to-day, with the addition, however, of species now 
extinct or living in other lands. With the approach of the 
glaciers of the Ice Age these would either be driven out, 
exterminated, or contrive to exist on ice-free regions. In the 
following notes an attempt will be made to ascertain if survivals 
of the pre-glacial animals and plants may still be traced in our 
present fauna and flora. 

In a former paper t the possibility of some species of insects 
and plants having survived the Ice Age on the unglaciated region 
of North East Yorkshire was suggested. In the present 
communication it is proposed to consider in more detail the 
conditions under which organisms may have survived the Ice 
Age within the British Islands, as well as to bring forward 
further facts and inferences referring to our own county. The 
following notes simply endeavour to point out possibilities with 
regard to Glacial Survivals which may render the study of 
certain areas much more fascinating and interesting. 

Opinions respecting the fauna and flora of Britain during 
the Glacial Period must, of course, largely depend upon the 
views held regarding the temperature and condition of our 
islands during that geological episode. So far as the latter is 
concerned it seems necessary to accept the land ice theory. 
The evidence is all against the submergence hypothesis, and 
the great feature of Mr. Kendall's work in Cleveland lies in 
the fact that the land glaciation of Britain receives absolute 
proof in his wonderful extra-morainic lake phenomena. 

Admitting, therefore, the former existence of enormous 
glaciers and ice sheets within the British Islands, it seems 
necessary to admit an arctic temperature. There is, however, 
some disagreement on this point, but I think that for the 

* Read at the Robin Hood's Bay meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union. 

f ' Naturalist,' April, 1907, pp. 137-143. 

Naturalist, 



El gee : Glacial Survivals. 275 

purposes of this argument we shall be on the safe side if we 
regard the temperature of Britian during the Ice Age as being 
a low one, and resembling that of the Arctic Regions at 
the present day. 

The question of Glacial Survivals is not new. In this 
connection Dr. R. F. Scharff stands pre-eminent, and in 
his various works has laid much stress on this survival as 
explaining many curious facts of distribution. But it does 
not appear to have been very precisely specified where or how 
organisms battled through the Ice Age ; in many instances 
only sheltered nooks and corners are hinted at in a vague way. 

In the first place it is incontestable that terrestrial species 
could not survive the Ice Age on land covered either by ice 
hundreds or thousands of feet thick, or by the waters of extra- 
morainic lakes. The only possible places where they could 
survive were the regions which we know from geological 
evidence to have been unglaciated. 

At first these might not be thought very extensive, but 
when it is borne in mind, as Mr. Kendall reminds me, that 
' the whole country south of the Thames, much of the Pennine 
Range south of the Aire Valley, the large area of North East 
Yorkshire, and several patches elsewhere ' were unglaciated, 
it will be seen that the regions on which animals and plants 
may have existed are neither small nor unimportant. 

Only on these areas could any species survive the Glacial 
Period. Those that did manage to exist thereon must surely 
have been principally Arctic forms, and the possibility of 
temperate and southern species managing to live on them 
seems small. It must not be forgotten, however, that the 
approach of the Ice Age would be gradual, and that many 
temperate and even southern forms might, in the course of 
generations, become adapted to the slowly increasing rigours 
of an Arctic climate, at the same time competing against the 
on-coming northern fauna and flora. This consideration goes 
some way towards explaining the strange mixture of animals 
of southern and northern habitats so frequently observed in 
British Pleistocene deposits. 

However this may be, glacial survival can only be postulated 
where there were unglaciated areas on which species could exist. 

The exact location of animals and plants in relation to 
glacial deposits is therefore of vital importance as differences 
in the fauna and flora of two adjacent areas, one covered with 
drift and the other driftless, apart from differences of soil, etc., 

1907 August 1. 



276 El gee : Glacial Survivals. 

may be perceptible. There are possibly indications of such 
differences in North East Yorkshire. The driftless region is 
essentially Arctic in the character of its fauna and flora, 
whereas the drift covered lands chiefly support Germanic forms, 
though both have invaded the territory occupied by the other. 

The isolated occurrence of species on or near unglaciated 
areas which were surrounded by ice sheets is strongly suggestive 
of survival, be they Arctic, temperate, or southern forms, and 
in my former paper 1 quoted many examples. To these may 
be added the single Yorkshire record of the beetle Pteroslichus 
lepidus, a ground species, obtained by the Rev. W. C. Hey on 
Sawdon and Ebberston Moors on the driftless area. In 
addition all plants ranging into the Arctic Circle and Green- 
land which live on the unglaciated moors may be included. 
It might be objected that these species are the relicts of an 
Arctic fauna and flora which was once general in Britain, but 
has since largely disappeared owing to the amelioration of the 
climate and the advance of the Germanic section of our fauna 
and flora. But it seems probable that as the Arctic types 
came from the north at the commencement of the Ice Age, most 
of them lived on the ice free country throughout its duration, 
and have since stayed there, and not been driven to it by the 
Germanic section. This latter has doubtless, however, taken 
place in other districts. 

To the insects already mentioned must be added the Dung 
Beetles [Aphodius), which live in the excreta of cattle, horses, 
and sheep, and are very numerous everywhere. One of them, 
Aphodius ru/ipes, lives in Siberia, the Caucasus, the High Alps, 
and Arctic Europe. It is of special interest as it also lives in 
Tropical Africa, a fact tending to show that the same species 
can become adapted to extreme climates ; from which it may 
be inferred that many southern and temperate forms became 
adapted to and survived the climate of the Ice Age on ice-free 
oases. Dr. Scharff, who gives the above instance, also states 
that * ' no less than six other species of Aphodius frequent 
alpine heights above 7000 feet, and a few ascend the region 
of permanent snow.' This genus may therefore be added to 
our list of glacial survivals, as suitable habitats would occur in 
a land where the Musk Ox, Reindeer, and other Arctic animals 
thrived, the remains of which have been found in the district. 
{To be continued). 

* ' European Animals,' p. 137. 

Naturalist, 



^77 



RECENT GEOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES AT SPEETON. 



T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S. 



Perisphinctes lacertosus. — The specimen herewith figured 
is a large and unusually perfect example of Perisphinctes 
lacertosus Dum et Font, one of the characteristic Ammonites 
of the lower beds of the Upper Kimeridge in Filey Bay. These 
beds have very rarely been seen, but recent exposures of them 
above Reighton and Hunmanby Gaps showed that they contain 




Perisphinctes lacertosus from the Kimeridge Clay, Speeton. 

myriads of ammonites, so crushed, however, that only in the 
nodules can the collector hope to get even a fragment well 
preserved. The present specimen sent by Mr. C. G. Dantord 
to the Hull Museum may therefore be regarded as an ex- 
ceptionally fortunate find. It measures i2h in. across, is jn 
some places slightly crushed, and the last two whorls have 
been partially squeezed asunder ; otherwise the form is well 

1907 August 1. 



278 She p pa rd : Recent Geological Discoveries at Speeton _ 

preserved, with the sculpture remarkably sharp, and the 
trumpet-shaped mouth indicative of full growth. 

The nodules of this part of the Kimeridge, though much 
smaller, are far more pyritous than those of its higher horizons, 
and the difficulty of extracting a fossil from such a matrix must 
be experienced to be appreciated. In the working out, various 
small ammonites were found, evidently belonging to the genus 
//op/ites, and probably to the species pseudomutabilis Loriol. 

In ' Argiles de Speeton et Leurs Equivalentes,' A. Pavlow et 
G. W. Lamplugh, Moscow, 1892, p. 110, this species is referred 
to : (Translated) ' The specimen here figured belongs to the 
Geneva Museum, and is preserved in Pictet's Collection under 
the name Ammonites biplex loc. Speeton. Its characters 
perfectly correspond to the description of Ammonites lacertosus 
Fontannes, which description we do not reproduce. The 
horizon of the specimen in the Speeton Section is not indicated, 
but Mr. Lamplugh possesses a less well-preserved specimen ot 
the same species, which he found near the outcrop of the Upper 
' F.' Shales. In the shales themselves one often finds crushed 
ammonites suggestive of this species, but difficult to determine 
with precision.' 

In the above the work the synonymy of the species is given 
as Perisphinctes lacertosus Dum et Font, 1876. Ammonites 
(Perisphinctes) lacertosus Dumortier et Fontannes, Crussol, 
p. 100: and 1877; Ammonites (Perisphinctes) lacertosus Loriol, 
PI. XV., fig. 1, Baden, PI. VI., fig. 1, p. 50. 

The species now under consideration is apparently that 
known in this country under the name of Ammonites biplex, and 
as the specimen now obtained is probably the best that has 
come from the Filey Bay deposits, it is thought advisable to 
place its present location on record. 

Crocodilian remains. — Another interesting find was made 
by Mr. Danford in an exposure of the lower part of the Upper 
Kimeridge Clay, about 400 yards north of Reighton Gap. In this 
case several vertebrae, a femur, ribs, scutes, etc., were obtained, 
and on these being submitted to Dr. A. Smith Woodward he 
identified the remains as of Steneosaurus. On the completion of 
the examination of other similar remains in the British Museum, 
it will be possible to give the specific name. A typical dorsal 
vertebra from Speeton measures 2 \ inches in length, and 1 \ inches 
across, laterally. The bony scutes are particularly interesting, 
as nothing of the kind appears to have been obtained here 
previously. They are somewhat irregular in shape, about 

Naturalist, 



Northern News. 279 

2 inches in length, I inch in thickness, and the upper surface 
is covered by characteristic pittings varying from an eighth 
to a quarter of an inch across. 

Remains of Steneosaurus do not appear to have been re- 
corded previously from Filey Bay, and judging from the 
'Catalogue of British Fossil Vertebrata,' by Smith Woodward 
and C. D. Sherborn, it would seem that the genus principally 
occurs in the Lias and in the Great Oolite. One example is 
recorded from the Kimeridge Clay of Kimeridge Bay. This 
is a snout, now in the British Museum, and is identified as 
Steneosaurus [Teleosaurus) megarhinus, Hulke. The specimen 
in question was described J. W. Hulke in the 'Quarterly Journal 
of the Geological Society' in 187 1, and by Dr. Smith Wood- 
ward in 'The Geological Magazine,' in 1885. Since the 
1 Catalogue of the Fossil Vertebrata ' appeared, numerous 
remains of Steneosaurus have been obtained from the Oxford 
Clay at Peterborough. One of the scutes from the Oxford Clay 
has been kindly placed in the Hull Museum by Mr. H. C. Drake 
for the purpose of comparison with the Speeton specimens. 

Fish remains. — Another discovery of some importance, also 
made by Mr. Danford, is in a large nodule from the Kimeridge 
Clay. On the outside of this traces of bone were noticed, and 
after much labour these were carefully chiselled out, and revealed 
the bones of the head, a fin, a tooth, and other remains of a large 
fish, probably allied to Caturus, a genus well represented in the 
Liassic rocks further north at Whitby. On submitting this to 
Dr. Smith Woodward, he states that it resembles another 
species, undescribed, which is in the British Museum. That 
specimen, according to Mr. Lamplugh, is probably from the 
Neocomian zone Belemnites jaculum. If this is so, it would 
appear that the species is represented on the east coast in the 
Lias, Kimeridge, and Speeton Clays. 



There is an interesting paper ' On the Existence of the Alpine Vole 
{]\I icrotus nivalis) in Britain during - Pleistocene times,' by Mr. M. A. C. 
Hinton, in the Proceeding's of the Geologists' Association (Vol. XX., Pt. 2). 

In the same publication Mr. E. T. Newton has a ' Note on specimens of 
"Rhaxella Chert" or " Arngrove Stone" from Dartford Heath.' After 
very careful examination he concludes that specimens of Rhaxella Chert 
found in gravels at Cromer were derived from the Scarborough district. 

In Cornwall recently a large stone of great archaeological interest, the 
Giant's Quoit, which figures prominently in the legendary and historical 
records of the county, has been blasted and used for road metal ! Were the 
perpetrators of the crime of suitable material, we could wish them a 
similiar fate. But they would be unsuitable — even for mending roads. 

1907 August 1. 



280 

VITREA CELLARIA IN SHELL=MARL, NEAR 
HALE, WESTMORLAND. 



J. WILFRID JACKSON, 

Manchester Museum. 



During a recent visit to the neighbourhood of Hale and Burton- 
in-Kendal, Westmorland, I had the good fortune to discover 
Vitrea cellaria (Mull.) in the lacustrine deposits so extensively 
developed there. 

Its occurrence there is very interesting, as it adds another 
locality to the few already mentioned by Mr. J. W. Taylor in his 
Monograph (part 14, p. 36), some of which, for the sake of 
comparison, I give below : — 

"Isle of Wight. — Prof. Forbes: Lacustrine beds at Tot- 
land's Bay, near Yarmouth. Essex. — Mr. French : Alluvial 




Section in Shell Marl near Hale. 

shell-marl at Felstead ; Miller Christy : Rarely in shell-marl at 
Chignal, St. James. Yorks. — Mr. H. H. Corbett : In old lake 
deposit at Askern, near Doncaster. Ireland. — Marl deposits 
at Marlfield, near Clonmel, South Tipperary; at Drumcliff 
Crannoge, Co. Clare." 

Along with V. cellaria and other more common species, I 
found a number of slender elongate Liinncea truncatula, which I 
submitted to Mr. Taylor, who refers them to the var. lanceata, 
saying he has had similar specimens from the black earth 
deposits in Nottinghamshire. 

The accompanying photo shows a good section of the marl 
deposit near Hale. 

Naturalist, 



NOTES ON THE CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS OF THE 
KETTLEWELL DISTRICT. 



COSMO JOHNS, M.I.Mech.E., F.G.S. 



In these notes it is proposed to give a brief sketch of the geology 
of the area to be visited by the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union this 
month in order to indicate the general features of the district, 
and to suggest, for the consideration of geologists attending 
the meeting, particular points towards which their attention 
might be directed. The difficulty is not so much to find interest- 
ing features as to select from the many, just those to which the 
most profitable attention might be given. It is perhaps fortunate 
that, owing to the recent work that has been done in determining 
the faunal sequence of the Lower Carboniferous Rocks of Britain 
and in establishing life zones in them, it will be possible to 
suggest a line of work not only interesting, but also serving to 
make somewhat clearer the relation of the various sections 
visited to those in other parts of the Pennines. The stratigraphy 
of the area is clear, and though the Great Scar Limestone and 
Yoredale Series do not stand out with the diagrammatic vivid- 
ness of Ingleborough as seen from Chapel-le-Dale, yet their 
relation can be made out without much difficulty. 

It is unfortunate that nowhere in the area to be visited is 
the base of the Carboniferous rocks to be seen, and the mantle 
of drift which rests, for some considerable height, on the sides 
of both Littondale and Wharfedale, increases the difficulty of 
working out the sequence. The occurrence of the Silurian Grit 
boulders in the drift below Kilnsey has suggested that pre- 
Carboniferous rocks were exposed in Upper Wharfedale in 
pre-glacial times. This is very probable, and would be in 
harmony with such paleontological evidence as is available. 
Despite the absence of a visible base and the occurrence ot 
drift, it is possible to make out fairly clearly the faunal sequence 
of the Great Scar Limestone as far as it is exposed. This 
would seem to be the most promising work that could be 
undertaken during the few days of the meeting, and very 
possibly would also be the most interesting. 

Before mentioning the particular zones which can b ) made 
out in one area, it is desirable to call attention to some of the 
stratigraphical features. The Great Scar Limestone, which is 
so well exposed in Kingsdale, Ingletondale, Ribblesdale, 
Littondale, and Upper Wharfedale, is clearly a huge limestone 

1907 August 1. 



282 Johns: The Carboniferous Rocks of the Kettlewell District. 

plateau some hundreds of feet thick, out of which the dales 
mentioned have been carved, exposing, in the case of the three 
first mentioned, the pre-Carboniferous rocks on which the 
Carboniferous series rests. There are no stratigraphical 
difficulties here. There is a sameness, too, about the Yoredale 
rocks that rest on this great limestone plateau, and at first 
sight this series of limestones, sandstones, and shales appear 
very simple. But the simplicity is only apparent, and when 
a large area is investigated it becomes very evident that the 
Yoredales are a very changeable series, and that these changes 
possess great significance. John Phillips, whose classic de- 
scription of the Mountain Limestone district, in his ' Geology 
of Yorkshire,' is still the best account of our area, was fully 
aware of this, and devoted much attention to it. His most 
important conclusion was that the typical Yoredale series 
practically disappear on the western face of Great Whernside, 
and passes into the Shale Series which lies between the massive 
limestone and millstone grit of the region to the south east. 
The significance of this important change in the lithology of 
the Yoredale series cannot now be discussed, but interest lies in 
the fact that it takes place in the neighbourhood of Kettlewell. 

To return to the Great Scar limestone and its faunal sequence : 
so far as it can be made out in the area under discussion, two 
zones can be determined. Neither are complete, but are still 
clearly distinguishable. One is characterised by the presence 
of Productus giganteus and the other by its absence. The first is 
the Dibunophyllum zone — the highest in the Lower Carboniferous 
rocks. The second one is the Seminu/a zone, the base of which 
is represented by the Carboniferous basement conglomerate of 
Ingletondale. Taking the Seminu/a zone first it will be found 
that only the upper sub-zone, or S 2 is well exposed, but it will 
be possible to obtain the characteristic fossils, though the beds 
of this age are not very fossiliferous compared with the rich 
collecting grounds in the D 2 beds of Wensleydale and other 
districts. In a small quarry on the left-hand side of the road 
from Kilnsey to Kettlewell, and near the last named place is a 
very interesting exposure of these S 2 beds, and Se?ninula ficoides, 
Chonetes papilionacea, Productus corrugato-hemisphericus, and 
Syringopora sp. can be obtained. To those interested in the zonal 
classification the most interesting piece of work will be to 
investigate in detail, starting from a known faunal horizon, a 
.section affording a series of exposures to the top of the Great 
Scar limestone. They will thus be able to notice the change of 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 283 

fauna as the Dibiinophyllum zone is entered, and to estimate 
the value of field evidence on which the classification is based. 

This change of fauna occurs in a typical section at the first 
maximum of Product us giganteus, and the following' fossils can 
be expected. 

Dibunophyllum, sp. Product us giganteus. 

Carcinophyllum. P. hemisphericus. 

Syringopora cf ramulosa. P. corrugato-hemisphericus (Mut D). 

CvathophyUum murchisoni. Chonetes aff comoides. 

Campophyllum aff murchisoni. Cyrtina septosa. 

This is by no means an exhaustive list, but it includes forms 
which have been obtained at this horizon in the Yoredale 
Province, and it is interesting - to note that they can be compared 
with specimens from the same horizon in the Bristol and South 
Wales areas, similiar both in kind and stage of advance. The 
correspondence of the faunal sequence in the Carboniferous 
rocks of our area, so far as they are exposed, with that of 
similiar horizons in the Bristol area is very marked. 



We have received parts I. and II. of 'The Hastings and East Sussex 
Naturalist,' the journal of the Hastings and St. Leonard's Natural 
History Society. It is edited by Mr. W. Ruskin Butterfield. 

The Annual Report and Transactions of the North Staffordshire 
Field Club for I 906-7 contains a portrait and memoir of the late J. Ward, 
F.G.S. In the same publication Dr. Wheelton Hind has some interesting: 
' Speculations on the Evolution of the River Trent.' 

Mendelism. R. C. Punnett. Second edition. Cambridg-e, Macmillan 
& Bowes, 1907, 85 pp., price 2/- net. In view of the excellent summary of 
the theory of Gregor Mendel, which Dr. Agnes Robertson recently gave in 
these columns (July, pp. 242-246), our readers will be glad to know that in 
the present well printed volume is a very lucid and carefully written account 
of 'Mendelism.' At the low figure of two shillings the book deserves a 
large sale. 

Peat : Its use and manufacture, by P. R. Bjorling and F. T. Gissing. 
London, J. Griffin & Co., 1907. 173 pp. 6/- net. 

The volume under notice is the outcome of a suggestion of the late Sir 
Clement Le Neve Foster, who placed a number of valuable notes at the 
authors' disposal. Its main object is to indicate the most economical 
methods of digging and preparing peat for fuel. By the aid of sixty 
illustrations the various processes of its manfacture are clearly described — 
most of these, as might be expected, being from Swedish sources. The 
book deals with the formation, growth, and distribution of peat ; specific 
gravity and analyses; methods of digging, cutting, and dredging: drying; 
peat fuel manufacture ; nature and uses of peat as a fuel ; and uses of peat 
otherwise than as fuel. There is a very useful bibliography. In the 
chapter on the distribution of peat, we learn that ' At Holderness, near 
Hull, there is peat, with trees, two feet deep, and at Hornsea, near Hull, 
beds are seen at low tide which contain peat and black root beds six feet 
deep.' But, strangely enough, no mention whatever is made of the extensive 
deposits at Goole and Thorne, which are worked so largely ! 

1907 August 1. 



284 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT ROBIN 
HOOD'S BAY. 

{Continued from, page 255). 

In the following" list of fungi the initials R. H. B. = Robin 
Hood's Bay; M. B. = Mill Beck ravine; S. B. =Stoup Beck 
ravine; and R. = Ramsdale. 



AGARICACEiE. 

Armillaria niellea. Last year's my- 
celium on dead alder stump, 

M. B. 
Tricholoma terreum. On the ground 

in a wood, R. 
Tricholoma gambosum. Abundant in 

pastures ; also in one of the 

woods, R. H. B. ; R. 
Collybia velutipes. On decaying" 

stumps, S. B. 
Collybia tenacella. Among" decaying 

fir needles, R. H. B. 
Omphalia umbellifera. On peaty 

ground on the moors. 
Omphalia fibula. Among moss, R. 
Entoloma clypeatum. On the ground 

in a wood, R. 
Pholiota praecox. Among" grass, 

roadside, R. H. B. 
Galera tenera. In pastures on the 

cliffs, etc., R. H. B. 
Galera hypnoruin. Among moss in 

a wood, R. 
Bolbilius ftavidus. On cow dung in 

two places in pastures on the 

cliffs, R. H. B. 
Agaricus campestris. In meadows, 

R. H. B. 
Stropharia semiglobata. On dung' in 

in the fields. 
Psilocybe sarcocephala. On the 

ground, margin of wood, R. 
Psathyrella gracilis. Among grass 

in pastures, R. H. B. 
Psathyrella disseminata. On rotting 
stump among" moss, R. 



Marasmius oreades. In ring's in pas 
tures, R. H. B., etc. 

POLVPORACE.^E. 

Polystictus versicolor. On dead 

wood. 
Porta vaporaria. On rotting 

branches, R. 

Hvdnace.e. 
Hydniim niveum. On rotting braneh 
of Ulex, S. B. 

Thelephorace.-e. 
Stereiini hirsittit/u. On piled logs, 

Fyling" Hall grounds. 
Corlicium calceum. On decaying 

branches, R. 
Hymenocheete corrngata. On dead 

alder branches, S. B. 

Tremellace^. 
Dacryomyces stillafns. On old 

palings, R. H. B. 

Uredinace^. 
Coleosporium sonchi. Uredospores 

on Coltsfoot, R. 
Uromyces pine. AEcidiospores on 

Ra 11 it ncu I us reperis and R . ficaria, 

S. B. 
Uromyces ficarice. On Ran. ficaria, 

garden border, Thorp, R. H. B. 
Puccinia poarum. ^Scidiospores 

on Coltsfoot, R. 
Puce in in sitaveolens. On Carduus 

arrensis, on the cliffs, R. H. B. 
Ph ragm ill in in subcoriicatu in . JEcidio- 

spores. Common on wild rose 

stems* 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Robin Hood's Bay 



Triphragmium ulmarite. Primary 
uredospores on Spirea uhttaria, 
M. B. 

USTILAG INACE^. 

Ustilago violacea. In the anthers of 
Lychnis diurna, S. B. 

Pyrenomycetes. 

Hypocrea rttfa. On rotting - wood 
near S. B. farm. 

Hypoxylon atropiirpiireum. On de- 
caying- alder branches, S. B. 

Rhytisma acerinum. On last year's 
sycamore leaves, Fyling Hall. 

Diatrypella vemicceformis. Com- 
mon on dead alder branches, 
S. B. 

Diafrype stigma. On dead branches, 
S. B. 

Eutypa lata. On dead branches, 
S. B. 

Leptosphmria fuscella. On dead 
furze branches, S. B. 

Heptameria doliolum. On dead 
herbaceous stems, S. B. 

Pleospora herbarum. On dead her- 
baceous stems, S. B. 

Splice rella rumicis. On living leaves 
of Ritmex obtusifolius. 

Perisporiace^e. 

Podosphceria oxyacanthce. The 

Oidium stage on living haw- 
thorn leaves, S. B. 

Hysteriace>e. 

Hypoderma virgtiltorum. On dead 

bramble, S. B. 
Gloniopsis cttrvata. On dead stems 

of wild rose, S. B. 

DlSCOMYCETES. 

Peziza reticulata. On the ground 
in a moist copse, S. B. 

Peziza sepiatra. On pieces of petri- 
fied moss, R. 

Dasyscypha virginea. On decaying 
furze, rose, bramble, woodsage, 
and honeysuckle, S. B. 

D. hyalina. On dead wood, S. B. 



D. fugiens, On dead rushes, S. B. 
Helotium cyathoideum. On dead 

umbellifer stems, S. B. 
Mollisia cinerea. On dead wood in 

several places. 
M. fusca. On decaying furze, S. B- 
M. lividofusca. On decaying furze, 

S. B. 
M. atrocinerea. On dead herbaceous 

stems, M. B. ; S. B. 
M. atrata. On dead stems of 

Epilobiitm hirsutum, S. B. 
M. carduorum. On dead thistle, 

M. B. 
M. dihtteUa. On dead stems of 

Epilobiitm liirsutum, S. B. 
Pseudopeziza sphceroides. On dead 

stems of Lychnis diurna, S. B. 
P. rubi. On dead bramble, S. B. 
P. benesuedo. On dead alder twigs, 

S. B. 

Phycomycetes. 
Mucor mucedo. On sheep dung on 
the moors. 

Deuteromycetes. 
Phoma longissima. On dead stems 
of some Umbelliferous plant, 
S. B. 

Hyphomycetes. 

Penicillium glaucum. On rotting 
leaves, S. B. 

Botrytis cinerea. On decaying her- 
baceous stems, S. B. 

Periconia podospora. On dead furze, 
S. B. 

Stacliylidiu/u cyclosporum. On dead 
herbaceous stems, S, B. 

Cladosporium herbarum. On dead 
herbaceous stems, M. B. ; S. B. 

Triposporium elegans. On rotting 
wood, S. B. 

Myxomycetes. 
Stemonitis Friesiana, S. B. 
Reticularia lycoperdon, M. B. 
Trichia fragilis, S. B. 
Titmadoche n titans, R. 

The last four all on dead wood. 

T. S. 



1907 August 1. 



286 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT SOUTH CAVE. 

It cannot be said that the visitors to South Cave on June 22nd 
were in any way inconvenienced by the lengths of the routes 
chosen by the local leaders. Within the more immediate 
vicinity of the railway station and village are charming tracts of 
country, which were open to the investigation of the members. 

The well-wooded wold dales were equally agreeable to 
botanist and zoologist, whilst the geologists spent most of 
their time on the railway sections near the station, which, by 
the aid of sledge-hammers, proved even more productive of 
good things than usual. Millepore Limestone, the Kellavvays 
Rock, Kimeridge Clay, Red Chalk, and White Chalk were all 
examined, though most attention was devoted to the Kellavvays. 
From this several species of Ammonites were obtained, as well 
as some very fine gasteropods and lamellibranchs. The phragmo- 
cone of an ususually large belemnite, and some spines of an 
echinoderm were amongst the principal ' finds.' Messrs. J. W. 
Stather, Mr. G. W. B. Macturk, and the Hon. Secretary 
took charge of the formidable geological section, Councillor 
F. F. Walton and Mr. W. H. Crofts piloting the afternoon 
party ; and the botanists had the advantage of the President 
(Mr. C. Crossland), Dr. W. G. Smith, Mr. J. F. Robinson, 
and Dr. J. W. Wilson. Mr. W. Denison Roebuck represented 
the conchologists, and Messrs. H. Ostheide, J. W. Boult, and 
T. Stainforth were with the entomologists. Mr. E. W. Wade 
represented the vertebrate zoologists. 

After tea at South Cave a hurried meeting was held in the 
Guild Hall, at which representatives from fourteen societies 
were present. In the absence of the president, who had to 
leave early, Mr. Cosmo Johns occupied the chair. Votes of 
thanks were passed to Mrs. Barnard, Col. Harrison Broadley, 
M.P., and the Hull and Barnsley Railway Company for the 
facilities given, and two new members were elected. Reports 
on the work accomplished were also made by the officers 
present, particulars of which follow. 

In view of the February-cum-April weather which we had 
been experiencing for some time prior to the excursion, it was 
satisfactory to find that June 22nd proved to be one of the old- 
fashioned typical June days. 

Vertebrate Zoology.— Mr. E. W. Wade writes :— The 
South Cave district, comprising the Wold Valleys adjacent, many 
of them well wooded, the Houghton Woods, and the old Cliff 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at South Cave. 287 

Warren, is far too large for a visit of three hours to produce 
any results worthy of record. Being the only representative of 
the ornithological section, my observations were confined to the 
part least known to me, viz., Cave Castle grounds. Twenty- 
seven species only were observed, of which the Great Tit and 
Spotted Flycatcher were feeding young in the nest, whilst the 
Blackcap, Willow Wren, Coal Tit, Blue Tit, and Chaffinch had 
young on the wing. Of the rest, perhaps the Chiffchaff and Tree 
Creeper were the most interesting. When I mention that this 
district contains, among the Mammalia, the Badger, and among 
the birds, Redstart, Nightingale, Lesser Whitethroat, Gold- 
crested Wren, Wood Wren, Grasshopper Warbler, Goldfinch, 
Hawfinch, Lesser Redpoll, Jay, Common Nightjar, Great Spotted 
Green Wood- peckers, Barn, Long-eared, and Tawny Owls, and 
Turtle Dove as breeding species, all but the Nightingale and 
Grasshopper Warbler being of regular occurrence, it will be seen 
that for this part of Yorkshire it is one of exceptional interest. 
No doubt the sanctuary accorded to the birds at Houghton, 
where all but Carrion Crows are strictly protected, has a good 
deal to do with the number of rarer birds to be found there. 
A dead example of the Red Field Vole (Arvicola glareolus) was 
picked by the conchologists near the station, and identified by 
Mr. Roebuck. 

For the Conchological Section, its Secretary, Mr W. 
Denison Roebuck, F.L. S. P reported that he had devoted his 
whole afternoon to investigating the beech woods of Cave 
Castle, thus meeting - with a number of beech-loving shells, 
but he had not the opportunity of working the rest of the area. 
The beech leaves swarmed with Pupa cylindracea, and Bull- 
minus obscurus was also very common. Helix rotundata, H 
caperata, Hyalinia fulva, Arion minimus., Clausilia lam inula, and 
Agriolimax agrestis also occurred. Clausilia rugosa was found 
at Weedley Springs by Mr. Porter, and Helix hortensis by Mr. 
Wakefield, and Arion aler was brought in by another member; 
the total amounted to three slugs and eight land shells — 
eleven altogether. Ineffectual search was made for water 
shells in the lake at Cave Castle, in which water-lilies were 
abundant. 

Botanical Section. — Mr. J. F. Robinson writes : — The 
route taken by the phanerogamists and mycologists was via 
Drewton-, Weedley-, and East-dales, over South Cave Wold and 
down by ' Dicky Strakers ' lane into the ancient little town of 
South Cave. Near the Railway Station, on the sandy outcrop 

1907 August 1. 



288 Yorkshire Naturalists at South Cave. 

of the middle oolite, there were noticed some plants characteristic 
of the district. Very fine was Cerastium arvense, a pronounced 
xerophile, commoner in the East Riding of Yorkshire than we 
have seen anywhere else. A few yards down Drewton lane a 
sedge that we do not often gather hereabout — Carex muricata— 
made its appearance. Five or six old walnut trees still flourish 
and fruit near the Manor House. The marshy springs in 
Weedley dale yielded several more sedges, including C. paludosa 
and C. rostrata, together with the allied cotton grass Eriophorum 
latifolium. On the chalk banks near the springs some good 
finds were made, notably Bryonia dioica, Galium nwllugo, 
Atropa Belladonna (in flower), Verbascum Thapsus, and Hyoscya- 
mus niger (Henbane, also in flower). 

Ascending the Wold and going southward, a few of the first 
flowering plants of Campanula glomerata were noted. Epipactis 
latifolia grew in the beech wood traversed ; whilst ' Dicky 
Strakers ' Lane was festooned with the first flowering sprays 
of Rosa canina. Rosa arvensis was there in even greater 
quantity than the former species of wild rose, and was abun- 
dantly budded, although not a single flower was seen open. 
Amongst the briars and hawthorn of the hedges the shining 
green leaves and flowers of the black bryony [Tamns communis) 
were conspicuous. 

Amongst cultivated forms it was a treat to visit the well- 
ordered grounds and rose-embowered gardens at Cave Castle, 
the guidance of the genial head-gardener, Mr. Curtis, being 
much appreciated. In the pond, the yellow and white water- 
lilies were flowering profusely, but not yet the small water 
lily-like plant Limnanthenum peltatum. 

Fungi. — Mr. C. Crossland writes : — The route laid out by 
Mr. J. F. Robinson and Dr. Wilson proved a most excellent 
one. Evidently they had calculated the limited time at the 
disposal of the members. There was no need for rush ; it 
suited the mycologists admirably ; in fact, it might have been a 
mycological excursion, for each one took an interest in this 
branch, and picked up something or other. In the bottom, at 
the Springs near the railway, there was a typical collecting 
ground. A few very interesting species were met with, includ- 
ing Clasterosporium fungorum, a little black mould which lives 
on species of Corticium ; this had only one previous record for 
Yorkshire. There are six records new to the S.E. division 
marked : - : in the list below. Most of the species found are of 
fairly common occurrence ; still, it is well to know they were 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at South Cave. 



289 



seen here also. In all, forty-seven species were noted, There 
is no need to specialise localities, South Cave will answer for all. 

P. suaveolens. On Cardials arvensis. 
P. malvacearum. On Malva ro- 
tundifolia. 

Pyrenomycetes. 
Xvlaria hypoxylon. On dead stump. 

* Dialrype disciforme. On dead 
beech branches. 

Eutypa lata. On dead branches. 
Lasiospharia ovina. On rotting 

wood. 
Lophiostoma caitliuni. Ondeadstems 

of Epi lob in in hirsutum. 
Heptameria doUohun. On dead stems 

of Epilobiuni hirsutum. 

DlSCOMYCETES. 

Peziza vesiculosa. On soil in stack 
garth. 

Humaria granulata. On cow dung. 

Dasyscypha virginea. On dead 
stems of Epilobiuni hirsutum, 
and on decaying wood. 

D. hyalina. On decaying wood. 

D. calycina. On living larch. 

* Helot in m citrinum, var. pallcscens. 
on dead wood. 

//. cyathoideum. On dead nettle 
stems. 

Mollisia cinerea. On dead wood. 

Jlf. airata. On dead stems of Epilo- 
biuni hirsutum. 

discobolus furfuracens, On cow dung- 
Phycomycetes. 

Cystopus candidus. On living Shep" 
herd's Purse. 

HYPHOMYCETES. 

Cladosporium herbarum. On dead 
herbaceous stems. 

* Clasterosporium fungorum. On 
living Corticiuin calceum. 

Myxogastres. 

* Didymium farinaceitm. On dead 
wood. 

Badhamia panicea. On decaying 

elm bark. 
Tilmadoche nutans. On dead wood 



Gastromycetes. 
Sphceroblus stellatus. On rotting 
stems of Epilobiuni hirsutum. 
Hymenomycetes. 
Agaricacese. 
Mycena acicula. Among decaying 
leaves, twigs, etc. 

* M. hiemalis. On decaying bark 

in moist shaded place. 

M. tenerrima. On rotting chips. 

Hypholoma lacrymabundum. On 
the ground among grass. 

Psa thy rella gracilis. Road - side 
among grass. 

Copri nus comatus. On waste ground. 

C. ephemerus. Among dead vege- 
tation in hedge bottom. 

Hygrophorus in in iatus. 

H. conicus. 

H. nit rat us. 

All in pasture land. 

jlfarasmius oreades. In 'fairy' rings. 

POLYPORACE.^E. 

Polystictus versicolor. On dead 

wood. 
P. abietinus. On dead stump. 
Fomcs annosus. On stump. 
Poria vaporaria. On rotting sticks. 
Hydnace.^e. 

* Grandinia granulosa. On rotting 

sticks. 

Thelkphorace.*:. 
Stereum hirsutum. On dead log. 
Corticiuin calceum. On dead stump. 
Hymenochcete rubiginosa. On decay- 
ing log. 

Tremellace^:. 
Hirneola auricula -juda?. Last 

year's growth, on elder. 
Dacryomyces stillafus. On decaying 
wood. 

Uredinace^e. 
Puccinia poarum. ^Ecidiospores on 
coltsfoot. 



P. caricis. JEcidiospores on nettle. 

To this list may be added Mavasmius graminium, on dead 
grass : this was accidently omitted, August 1894. — T. S. 



1907 August 1. 



290 

3n flDcmoriam. 



JOHN HARRISON, F.E.S. 



By the death of John Harrison, a native of Barnsley, which 
occurred July nth, Yorkshire has lost one of its principal 
lepidopterists. At an early period he took up the study of 
Natural History, and along- with four other of his fellow 
townsmen, three of whom still survive, founded the Barnsley 
Naturalists' Society, Feb. 4th, 1867. As Secretary of the new 
society he worked hard to establish it on a sound footing, and 
lived to see it with a membership roll such as few had dared to 
hope for. Although he had ceased to be a member several 
years before his death, he had given evidences of a continued 
kindly interest in its prosperity. His inclinations led him to 
take up the study of Lepidoptera during the later years of his life, 
more particularly to the Micros. A reference to Mr. Porritt's 
' List of Yorkshire Lepidoptera ' will show how valuable were 
his contributions to that work. Always of a modest and self- 
depreciating cast of mind, it might almost be said that he 
rarely sought the society of his fellows ; at any rate he never 
pressed himself upon them. At the same time he was ever 
ready to assist his brother entomologists, not forgetting those 
who were studying other orders than Lepidoptera. Thus on 
one occasion he brought the writer several specimens of an 
insect which his experienced eye recognised as an uncommon 
species. It proved to be the rare Longicorn Beetle Gracilia 
minuta. He was elected a F.E.S., 3rd April, 1889, and 
became a frequent exhibitor at the meetings of the society. 
His illness was of short duration, less than a week in fact, and 
was due to pleurisy and pneumonia. He died in his 74th year, 
and was interred in the Barnsley Cemetery, July 15th, 1907. 

E. G. B. 



Note on a blackbird's nest. — On June 13th my gardener 
shot a hen blackbird as she flew from her nest, and on going 
to the place shortly afterwards found the nest tenanted by a 
male thrush, who sat out the blackbird's eggs until they were 
hatched, about two days later. Unfortunately the young birds 
died on the cold wet night of Sunday 23rd. The lining of the 
nest was partly that of the blackbird and part the mud lining 
of the thrush. — T. R. Clapham, Austwick Hall, Lancaster. 

Naturalist, 



291 

FIELD NOTES. 



BIRDS. 



Bramble Finch, &c, near Halifax. — The bramble-finch 
has been in Luddenden Dean near Halifax for some time. It 
was first observed about June 10th, and remained in the same 
neighbourhood in full song- until July 1st, after which date it 
was not seen or heard again. As some shooting was heard in 
the wood, it is feared that someone shot it. The female, 
according to one observer, was also seen. 

On June 8th I found a water-hen's nest, containing eggs, in 
a tree fully six feet above the level of the Aire near Bingley. — ■ 
H. Waterworth, Halifax. 



Red Breasted Flycatcher in East Yorks. — On June 4th, 
1907, I heard the note of a bird quite unknown to me. It was 
singing a low warbling note of very little power. I saw the 
bird close to me, very low down in a thick hawthorn hedge 
skirting a beech plantation. Presently it flew up higher into 
the branches of the hedge, and was joined by another, evidently 
of the same species, for when the second bird joined the first 
the singing ceased and the male bird commenced flirting with 
the hen. The movements of the male were those of the Robin 
as often seen at pairing time : he raised and lowered his head 
and tail as if making most elaborate bows, and I feel certain 
the birds were nesting somewhere near. 

They were about the size of a Willow Warbler, and when 
seen were in a bad light, being in the hedge under the shade 
of the branches of large beech trees, but the colour of both 
was a uniform light brown, the striking marking of the male 
being a bold red patch under the throat, extending partly down 
the breast. The birds were under observation for six or seven 
minutes, and my sisiter, who was with me, noticed the red 
throat referred to above, and also the peculiar warbling note. 

The birds were, in my opinion, Red Breasted Flycatchers, 
and were seen at Thearne Hall, near Beverley. Mr. Haworth 
Booth informs me that he saw a male this spring at Hull Bank 
House about a mile-and-a-half, as the crow flies, from where I 
saw the pair. He saw the bird on May 20th, and reported it 
in the Field on the 25th. — Harold R. Jackson, Grosvenor 
House, Hornsea. 

1907 August 1. 



292 

THE BIRDS OF YORKSHIRE.* 

At last ! For a quarter-of-a-century has the writer patiently 
awaited the appearance of a monograph dealing - with the birds 
of our greatest county. For the last five years he has been 
receiving prospectuses and reading notices and advertisements 
of the forthcoming 'Birds of Yorkshire,' and for the last five 
davs he has been revelling in an advance copy of the two 
substantial volumes in which all that is known of Yorkshire 
Birds is printed. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, of which Mr. T. H. 
Nelson and his colleagues are worthy members, has done more 
than any other private society towards recording particulars of 
the fauna and flora of its area. In the present work we have 
perhaps the most substantial account of the avifauna of any 
county extant. Not only have the authors, each of whom is 
well known in the ornithological world, given us of their best, 
but in addition to their own notes and knowledge, they have 
had unlimited access to the records of a whole corps of 
ornithologists and nature lovers, as well as the most useful 
records of Thomas Allis, John Cordeaux, and numerous 
others. The 'Naturalist,' 'Zoologist,' 'Field,' and similar 
publications have also been conscientiously searched, the 
particulars they contain have been most religiously examined 
and sifted ; the grain has been properly placed ill this store- 
house, and the chaff (and there was much of it) has gone to the 
winds. In addition, full use has been made of Howard 
Saunders 'Manual,' Sir Ralph Payne Gallwey's work on 
Decoys, etc. 

The method adopted with regard to each species is most 
commendable, and in future the comparative rarity of any 
species can be learned at a glance, and it is to be hoped that 
we have now heard the last of the ' only record for Yorkshire,' 
which we have seen so frequently in the public press in recent 
years. After the common and scientific names of a bird, its 
status in the county is given. Then follows the first record, 
and the record given by Thomas Allis in his report presented 
to the York Meeting of the British Association in 1844. Allis's 
records, now printed for the first time, are an exceedingly 
valuable feature of the book. Details of migration, nidification, 

* 'The Birds of Yorkshire,' by T. H. Nelson, M.B.O.U., W. Eagle 
Clarke, F.R.S.E., F.L.S., and F. Boyes. 2 vols. 899 pp., 164 plates. 
8vo., price 25/- net ; 4to., price 42/- net. 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate XXXIII. 




The Birds of Yorkshire. 293 

varieties, unusual habits, and distribution are given, as well 
as the ' local ' names, folklore, etc. In this direction, however, 
the records are not always consistent. 

That the ' Birds of Yorkshire ' will at once take its place in 
the front rank of British works on ornithology there is no doubt, 
and for many years to come it will be the constant companion 
of every naturalist having- an interest in Yorkshire or in British 
birds. The language used is such that its meaning can readily 
be grasped by the beginner, and certainly no one will complain 
of a super-abundance of 'fine writing.' 

To the numerous illustrations we cannot give too much 
praise. They alone are worth a good proportion of the price 
of the volumes. There are some coloured — there are represent- 
ations of early Yorkshire records, of unusually rare species, of 
famous nesting sites, of peculiaraties in the birds, and of nests 
and eggs and young of scores of interesting members of the 
avifauna of the county. The choice of the two hundred or 
more illustrations has been most happy, and no one can say 
that a single illustration is poor or that it is out of place. They 
form the most graphic account of the birds of any district that 
we have seen for some time. Very largely they are the work of 
that expert of bird photography, Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z. S., 
who has in this way contributed greatly to the success of the 
work. Among other well-known naturalist photographers who 
have helped with the illustrations, we observe the names of 
Mr. T. A. Metcalfe, Mr. H. Lazenby, Mr. T. H. Nelson, and 
James Backhouse. 

As appendices are given the Birds Protection Orders for the 
three Ridings, lists of 'Ancient Records,' etc., and the Indices 
(occupying 65 pages) are unusually complete and valuable. 

From the Editorial we gather that the Hon. Secretary of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union (Mr. T. Sheppard, F.G.S.) has 
had his finger in this (as in almost every other recent Yorkshire^ 
pie, and doubtless this has resulted in the present work being 
unusually free from misprints or other errors. 

In conclusion, we know not which to congratulate most — 
Mr. Nelson, the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, the publishers, 
or the ornithological world generally on the appearance of these 
two volumes. Messrs. A. Brown & Sons have done their work 
thoroughly, and their excellent taste and good workmanship is 
exhibited on every page. They have certainly not spoilt the 
work by hurrying it through the press ! 

M.B.O.U. 

1907 August 1. 



294 

REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 



Lotus Land : Beingf an account of the country and people of Southern 
Siam, by P. A. Thompson. London, T. Werner Laurie. 312 pp. 

In this well written and excellently illustrated volume Mr. Thompson gives 
the impressions he obtained during - his three years' residence in Siam, 
principally amongst the peasantry. By the aid of his pen, pencil, and 
camera he has given a graphic and valuable record of Siamese life and lore. 
The introductory chapter gives a historical sketch of the country, and others 
deal with the Buddhist Religion, Temples, Images and Symbols, the Pees 
and Charms, Siamese Art, Camp Life, etc. Ethnology receives special 
attention — several of the photographs being of particular value in this 
direction. 

* A History of the Parish of Penistone ] embodying not only 
interesting particulars relating to its fine old Church and the Parish 
generally from the earliest times as contained in Hunter's History and 
Topography of the Deanery of Doncaster and other records, but also 
separate histories | of | the ancient grammar school of Penistone founded 
a.d. 1392 ; I of I the old markets of Penisale and Penistone established 
respectively a.d. 1290 and 1699, and the old Agricultural Society for a wide 
district around Penistone established A.D. 1804; | and of | the oldest pack 
of hounds in the world, viz., the Penistone Harriers or ' Olde Englyshe ' 
Northern Hounds, probably in existence before the Conquest to prevent the 
ravages of wolves and other wild animals from the great forests of Hordern, 
Wharncliffe, and Sherwood, and the vast moors, wilds, and fastnesses of 
the district. | With illustrations and most interesting [sir.] local and general 
information, including educational, agricultural, and sporting gleanings, 
scraps, notes, etc., etc., made and collected from many sources during the 
last thirty years as well as my own recollections of Penistone and the 
districts around during the past fifty years | By | John N. Dransfield | 
Penistone | James H. Wood, the Don Press.' 

The preceding is a copy of the most extraordinary title page we have 
seen for some time. Mr. Dransfield evidently believes in showing all his 
goods in his shop window ! Immediately following, in the preface, he truth- 
fully remarks, ' The title page of this book without anything further I think 
fully explains its subject matters.' He then equally truthfully admits 'the 
book is somewhat of a medley or hotchpotch.' This is our opinion, and as 
the author shares it we have no hesitation in expressing it. In its 569 
closely printed large pages the author appears to have recorded and 
reprinted every possible scrap of information and tradition that he has seen 
or heard. If it were in MS it would be just what we should have expected 
the writer of a local history would have compiled as the basis of his book. 
Very little news of any sort appears to have been omitted. But we would 
suggest that were the whole contents of this heavy volume to be carefully 
digested, summarised, and re-written, de novo, with something like method, 
a really readable and useful work would result. From a prospectus we 
learn the volume ' will be taken up again and again and brighten many a 
spare or weary hour as a portion of its contents from their nature and from the 
unconventional way they are recorded, are not intended to be, and cannot well 
be grasped all at once.' The sentence is a bit awkward and difficult to under- 
stand, but we quite agree with the parts we have italicised ! There are also 
included ' addresses and statements by Prof. Huxley, Ernest Renan, J. A. 
Froude, Sir Frederick Treves, Lord Napier of Magdala, George Muller, D. 
L. Moody, and Buffalo Bill!' The volume is illustrated, and in view of the 
quantity of printed matter alone is very cheap at half-a-guinea net. But, as 
a frontispiece, it contains a photograph and autograph of the author, and 
whenever we see a book embellished in this way, it ' kind of goes against 
the grain.' Mr. Dransfield may be a very kind and affable gentleman, but 
in his portrait he wears a somewhat stern and savage expression ; in fact, 
he looks as though he had just read this re\ iew ! 

Naturalist. 



Reviews and Book Notices. 295 

Qlimpses of Ancient Leicester, in six periods, by Mrs. T. Fielding 
Johnson. Second edition. Clarke and Satchell, Leicester, 440 pp. 

In this well-written and scholarly volume a member of an old Leicester 
family gives a concise account of the main events in the history of the 
meeting' place of the British Association for the present year, an event which 
makes the appearance of this edition peculiarly appropriate. The authoress 
deals with (1) Roman Leicester, (2) Leicester under the Anglo-Saxons and 
Danes, (3) Leicester under its Norman and Plantagenet Earls, (4) Leicester 
in the Sixteenth Century, (5) the Siege of Leicester, and (6) Leicester at the 
end of the Eighteenth Century. Perhaps the first chapter is of more 
general interest, containing as it does an account of the Roman occupation, 
several important evidences of which are extant — notably the mosaic 
pavements, the Jewry Wall, and the Roman Milestone, said to be the 
oldest stone inscription in Britain. The inscription upon this reminds one 
of the well-known advertisement boards on the line-side towards London, 
where, on large hoardings setting forth particulars of soap or pills, one 
sees in small characters, 'London . . . miles.' The following is a free 
translation of the Roman milestone : — ' To the Emperor and Cassar the 
august Trajan Hadrian, son of the divine Trajan, surnamed Particus, 
grandson of the divine Nerva Pontifex Maximus, four times invested with 
Tribunitial power, thrice Council. From Ratas, Two Miles.' 

The Days of a Year, by M. D. Ashley Dodd. London : Elkin 
Matthews, 1907. 173 pp. Price 2/6 net. This well-printed little volume 
contains a beautiful thought of a poet-naturalist for each day of the year. 
Each has clearly been penned on the date it bears, in the surroundings it 
describes ; and it is evident that with the author ' To see things in their 
beauty is to see them in their truth.' To peruse a few of the pages is quite 
refreshing. The reviewer has just returned from a ramble on the Yorkshire 
Wolds at South Cave, and turns to the date, June 22nd : — ' Cool woods on 
the shady hillside, still and calm in the mid-day heat that quivers all around. 
The delicious earth-scent from dewy mosses and growing green things 
rises, penetrating and sweet, and in the thick trees an unseen wood-pigeon 
flutters, and flaps slowly away. The call of a late cuckoo comes faintly 
across from the outside far-off sunshine ; then again there is silence, till 
the woodland dreariness sinks deep into the soul, till the present slips away, 
and nothing is real but the memory of a few past happy hours.' In some 
such words might our ramble have been described. But it is not every one 
that can so well express one's thoughts ! 

European Animals: their Geological Historv and Geographical Dis- 
tribution, by R. F. Scharff, Ph.D. Constable &" Co. 258 pp. 7/6 net. 
This work is based upon the Swiney Lectures on Geology which Dr. Scharff* 
delivered at the Victoria and Albert Museum last year. In its pages the 
author has gathered together an enormous number of interesting facts 
bearing upon the past and present distribution of numerous animals and 
plants. An examination of the more recent geological deposits has enabled 
him to trace the probable direction of distribution of many interesting 
species. The present relative abundance of species of various genera is 
also shown to be indicative of the original source of these genera. By the 
aid of maps the distribution of many species can be seen at a glance. 
These are rendered of further value by the insertion of photographs or 
drawings of the species referred to. There are also ma ps showing the 
probable land connection at different periods between England, Ireland, 
and the Continent. Naturally, the many problems of distributionpresented 
by the fauna and flora of Ireland receives attention. As indicated on the 
maps, the distribution of several species is indeed remarkable. Dr. ScharfFs 
volume concludes with a very good bibliograpy and an excellent index. It 
is also an admirable illustration of the value of 'mere lists' of species 
occurring in given areas. Were it not for such material it would have 
been impossible for this book to have been written. After perusing 
' European Animals ' no one can reasonably say that lists have no value. 

1907 August 1. 



296 



NORTHERN NEWS. 



The Yorkshire Wild Birds Protection Committee begs to acknowledge the 
receipt of £2 2s. from the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. 

The July ' British Birds' contains an excellent portrait of the late Alfred 
Newton, F. R.S., together with an appreciative memoir by Dr. Bowdler 
Sharpe. 

A schoolboy, writing" an essay on wild beasts, wound up by saying that 
fortunately none were now at large in Britain, but they could be seen in 
safety in the Theological Gardens ! 

We notice that Mr. E. Kay Robinson vainly appeals for hints on ' How 
to make Garden Parties Entertaining for Elderly Guests.' Why not get 
someone to read extracts from ' The Country Side ' ? 

In addition to reliable natural history, ' Country Side ' occasionally gives 
its readers similarly reliable information of general interest. It recently 
referred to a famous motor run of 510 miles in 470 SECONDS. We hope a 
' B.E.N. A.' badge was awarded to the chauffer. 

A recent writer in The Yorkshire Post points out that ' the dangers of 
cliff-climbing' as carried on by the agricultural labourers under Bempton 
conditions are greatly exaggerated, and that young women have done what 
the ' Old Cliff Climber ' and ' his gallant men ' dare do. 

After the Annual Dinner of the Museums Association held at Dundee 
recently, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, of the Manchester Museum, and President of 
the Zoological Section of the British Association, gave some useful hints on 
the methods of capturing rare animals for museums. Dr. Hoyle explained 
that these ideas were not original, but were obtained at a Congress of 
Zoologists at Breslau. : — 

(1) To capture a Raccoon. The Raccoon, as is well known, is a very 
cleanly animal, and this characteristic is taken advantage of by the crafty 
huntsman. Near the haunts of the animal a bad sixpence is thrown on the 
ground. This the Raccoon sees and takes to a shop to buy soap. The 
shopkeeper detects the base sixpence, and the Raccoon is arrested for trying 
to pass counterfeit coin. 

(2) To capture an Ape. The Ape is a great imitator. This character- 
istic is taken advantage of by the crafty huntsman, who takes a printing 
press into the forest, which he sets up and begins to print. He then leaves 
the press, but no sooner is his back turned than the Ape begins to set type 
and print. Proceedings are then taken against it for infringement of 
copyright. 

(3) To capture a Lion in the forest. The Lion is the king of beasts. 
This fact is taken advantage of by the crafty hunstman, who takes a large 
cage with him into the forest. Various letjters of the alphabet, mounted on 
cardboard, are then strewn about the ground, until the Lion has learned to 
read. The words ' no admittance ' are then put over the cage door. The 
Lion, on seeing this, says ' No admittance ! am I not the king of the forest !' 
and straightway walks into the cage. He is then caught. 

(4) To capture a Lion in the desert. The desert, as is well known, con- 
sists principally of sand. This fact is taken advantage of by the crafty 
huntsman, who arms himself with a sieve and carefully passes the sand 
through it. What is left is the Lion ! 

(5) To capture a Camel. In order to capture a Camel it is necessary to 
be provided with an American millionaire, a balloon, and a needle. The 
balloon is filled, the millionaire placed in the car, which is released, and the 
needle is stuck into the sand. The Camel, seeing this, says to himself, 
before the millionaire gets to heaven I can walk through the eye of this 
needle, and proceeds to walk through. When half way through, the crafty 
hunstman ties a knot on his tail, and there he has him. 

Other information of a similar kind was given, but the above will 
demonstrate the practical advantages- of these Conferences ! 

Naturalist, 



SEPTEMBER 1907. 



No. 608 

(No. 386 of current series) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND 



EDITED BY 



T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., 

The Museum, Hull; 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 



J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S. F.L.S., 
Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., 
T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., 



GEO. T. PORR1TT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
JOHN W. TAYLOR, 
WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. 



Contents : — 

PAGES 

Notes and Comments :— The British Association at Leicester, The Attendance, Handbooks, 
The President's Address, The Value of a Standard, The Growth of Botanical Science, 
The History of the Earth, The Shape of the Earth, Cephalopods, Natural Monuments, 
Other Addresses, Plankton Investigations, Mimicry in Insects, Viking Relics at York, 

Holderness Gravels, Iron Ore Supplies, Marine Peat, Yorkshire Fossil Plants 297-305 

Fossil Fish from the Chalk of North Lincolnshire— Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S. ... 306 
Notes of Changes among Animals in Fylingdales, North-East Yorks., within the 

last Fifty Years—/. W. Barry 307-309 

Notes on the Lapwing — F. Sttibbs 310-311 

Note on the Distribution of Diatoma hiemale in East Yorkshire, etc. (Illustrated) 

—R. H. Philip 312-313 

Glacial Survivals— Frank Elgee 314-315 

Natural History of Thome Waste 316-324 

Field Notes (Illustrated) 325-327 

Reviews and Book Notices 306,327 

Northern News 309, 311, 313. 328 

Illustrations 312,325 



LONDON : 
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And at Hull and York. 

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Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 
' NATURALIST' REPRINTS, Etc., FOR SALE. 

POST FREE. 

[Of a few of these there are several copies.) 

1. Inaugural Address, Delivered by the President, Rev.W. Fowler, M.A., 

in 1877. 6d. ^ 

2. On the Present State of our knowledge of the Geography of British 

Plants (Presidential Address). J. Gilbert Baker, F.R.S. 6d. 

3. The Fathers of Yorkshire Botany (Presidential Address). J. Gilbert 

Baker, F.R.S. 9d. 

4. Botany of the Cumberland Borderland Marshes. J. G. Baker, F.R.S. 6d. 

5. The Study of Mosses (Presidential Address). Dr. R. Brathwaite, 

F.L.S. 6d. 

6. Mosses of the Mersey Province. J. A. Wheldon. 6d. 

7. Strasburger's Investigation on the Process of Fertilisation in Phanero- 

gams. Thomas Hick, B.A., B.Sc. 6d. 

8. Additions to the Algae of West Yorkshire. W. West, F.L.S. 6d. 

9. Fossil Climates. A. C. Seward, M.A., F.R.S. 6d. 

10. Henry Thomas Soppitt (Obituary Notice). C. Crossland, F.L.S. 6d. 

11. The Late Lord Bishop of Wakefield (Obituary Notice). William 

Whit well, F.L.S. 6d. 

12. The Flora of Wensleydale. John Percival, B.A. 6d. 

13. Report on Yorkshire Botany for 1880. F. Arnold Lees. 6d. 

14. Vertebrates of the Wertern Ainst„ (Yorkshire). Edgar R. Waite, 

F.L.S. 9d. 

15. Lincolnshire. John Cordeaux, M.B.O.U. 6d. 

16. Heligoland. John Cordeaux, M.B.O.U. 6d. 

17. Bird-Not'-- from Heligoland for the Year 1886. Heinrich G'atke, 

C.M.y is. 

18. Coleopte: ">f the Liverpool District. Part IV., Brachelytra. John 

W. El L.R.C.P. 6d. 

19. Coleoptert. f the Liverpool District. Parts V. and VI., Clavicornia 

and Lam licornia. John W. Ellis, L.R.C.P. 6d. 

20. The Hydradephaga of Lancashire and Cheshire. W. E. Sharp. 6d. 

21. The Lepidopterous Fauna of Lancashire and Cheshire. Part I., 

Rhophalocera. John W. Ellis, L.R.C.P. 6d. 

22. The Lepidopterous Fauna of Lancashire and Cheshire. Part II., 

Sphinges and Bombyces. John W. Ellis, L.R.C.P. 6d. 

23. Variation in European Lepidoptera. W. F. De Vismes Kane, M.A., 

M.R.I.A. 6d. 

24. Yorkshire Lepidoptera in 1891. A. E. Hall, F.E.S. 6d. 

25. Yorkshire Hymenoptera (Third List of Species). S. D. Bairstow, 

F.L.S., W. Denison Roebuck, and Thomas Wilson. 6d. 

26. List of Land and Freshwater Mollusca of Lancashire. Robert 

Standen. 9d. 

27. Yorkshire Naturalists at Gormire Lake and Thirkleby Park. 6d. 

WSNTED. 

Barnsley Naturalists' Society Qnarterley Reports, Set. 
Trans. South Eastern Union of Scientific Societies, Yol. I. 
Yorkshire Lias, Tate and Blake. 
Phillip's ' Life of William Smith.' 
British Association Reports, 1839 and 1840. 
Yorkshire Geol. and Polytechnic Society, Yol I. 
Quarterly Journal, Geological Society, Yols. 1-21. 
Reports Yorkshire Phil. Soc. for 1823, 1843, 1856, 1871, and 1882. 
Reports Scarborough Phil. Soc. for 1830-3, 1837, 1839, 1845, 1854-5, 1861, 1865, 
1868-9, 1881-2. 

Apply — Hon. Sec, Y.N.U., Museum, Hull. 

Please mention 'The Naturalist' in replying to Advertisements. 



297 
NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION AT LEICESTER. 
Another ' Parliament of Science ' has assembled, and 
dispersed. Leicester, which had never previously entertained 
the British Association, certainly did its best to make up for 
the past. On every side was the comfort of the members 
considered. An amount of over three thousand pounds was 
subscribed locally, and we hear that an even greater sum was 
personally spent by the Mayor, Sir Edward Wood, to whom, in 
no small way, the success of the gathering- was due. The 
visitors were agreeably surprised with Leicester, its cleanliness, 
its fine streets, open spaces, and absence of smoke. The 
beautiful Abbey Park, and the Museum and Grounds, were trans- 
formed into something like what 'once upon a time' we thought 
Fairyland to be. The weather was most favourable. Whilst 
no extraordinarily startling scientific' discovery was announced, 
each section studiously adhered to its work. There seemed to 
be fewer of the picnicking fraternity. 

THE ATTENDANCE. 
In connection with the York meeting a year ago, we pointed 
out that the disappointingly low figure on that occasion '"' 'is in all 
probability due to the unusually early date at which tnutTieeting 
had been fixed. At Leicester it was yet earlier, the proceedings 
starting on July 31st. As might well have been prophesied, 
the record at Leicester was even lower than at York. The 
attendance of course affects the amount of money available for 
scientific research, and few were the Committees that were not 
disappointed at the way in which their applications for financial 
aid were dealt with. But, perhaps, of more import than the 
question of grants, at any rate to several of the members, was 
the absence of many familiar faces, an absence entirely accounted 
for by the unfortunate date selected for the meeting. It may 
be that the British Association meets for the purpose of further- 
ing scientific research, and it may be that most of the members 
assemble year after year with that object, but we cannot get 
away from the fact that the great charm and value of the 
gathering lies in the opportunities afforded of meeting and 
conversing with workers in the same field, from all parts of the 
world. If there is a continued choosing of early dates for the 
meetings, the result will unquestionably be detrimental to the 
interests of the Association. We are glad to learn that next 
year, at Dublin, the meeting will be held in September. 

1907 September i. 

U 



298 Notes and Comments. 

HANDBOOKS. 
In the matter of handbooks the Members were well treated. 
Each was presented with a copy of Mrs. T. F. Johnson's 
' Glimpses of Ancient Leicester ' (noticed in our August issue), 
and a useful ' Handbook to Leicester and Neighbourhood,' 
prepared under the editorship of Mr. G. Clarke Nuttall. This, 
besides containing- a description of the Topography and Anti- 
quities of Leicester and its environs, has a paper on the 
' Geology of the District,' by Mr. C. Fox Strangways ; the 
' Pre-Cambrian Rocks,' by Prof. W. W. Watts ; ' Botany,' by 
Mr. W. Bell; 'Zoology,' and ' Cryptogamic Flora,' by Mr. A. 
R. Horwood ; ' Entomology,' by Mr. F. Bouskell ; ' The 
Charnwood Forest,' by Mr. J. B. Everard ; and 'The Stone 
Roads, Canals, and Railways of Leicestershire,' by Mr. 
C. E. Stretton. A valuable Bibliography (geology, natural 
history, archaeology, etc.) by Mr. A. R. Horwood is included. 
But, as at York, we missed the useful sets of excursion hand- 
books, which have, in recent years, been given to the members. 
By the aid of these it was an easy matter for a stranger to chose 
the excursion most likely to interest him. 



THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 
The Address of the President, Sir David Gill, K.C. B., was 
one of the most brilliant Presidential Addresses that we have 
listened to for some time. Though dealing with ' The Science 
of Measurement,' 'The Solar Parallax, 'The Stellar Universe,' 
etc., etc. — -technical astronomical subjects, he used simple and 
forcible language in such away that surely everybody was 
thoroughly interested throughout the Address. And this could 
not be said for every Presidential Address to the British 
Association ! 

THE VALUE OF A STANDARD. 
An interesting illustration of Sir David's method occurred in 
his reference to one of Clerk Maxwell's Lectures in the Natural 
Philosophy Class at Aberdeen, which the President attended 
in 1859. Clerk Maxwell stated that ' A standard, as it is at 
present understood in England, is not a real standard at all ; it 
is a rod of metal with lines ruled upon it to mark the yard, and 
it is kept somewhere in the House of Commons. If the House 
of Commons catches fire there may be an end of your standard. 
A copy of a standard can never be a real standard, because all 
the work of human hands is liable to error. Besides, will your 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 299 

so-called standard remain of a constant length ? It certainly 
will change by temperature, it probably will change by age (that 
is, by the rearrangement or settling down of its component 
molecules), and I am not sure if it does not change according to 
the azimuth in which it is used. At all events, you must see 
that it is a very impractical standard — impractical because, if, 
for example, any one of you went to Mars or Jupiter, and the 
people there asked you what was your standard of measure, you 
could not tell them, you could not reproduce it, and you would 
feel very foolish. Whereas, if you told any capable physicist in 
Mars or Jupiter that you used some natural invariable standard, 
such as the wave-length of the D line of sodium vapour, he 
would be able to reproduce your yard or your inch, provided 
that you could tell him how many of such wave-lengths there 
were in your yard or your inch, and your standard would be 
availabe anywhere in the universe where sodium is found.' In 
this way Clerk Maxwell impressed great principles upon his 
students. Sir David adds, ' We all laughed before we under- 
stood; then some of us understood and remembered.' The vote 
of thanks to the President was proposed by Lord Kelvin, whom 
to see and hear was alone worth the journey to the Midlands. 

THE GROWTH OF BOTANICAL SCIENCE. 
In the course of his Presidential Address to the Botanical Sec- 
tion, Professor J. B. Farmer mentioned that the problems that 
confronted them as botanists were far more numerous and far 
more complex than formerly. They were attached to a science 
that was rapidly growing, and this advance was carrying with it 
a process of corresponding differentiatio In rating highly the 
value of maintaining a physiological aUitude of mind towards 
the phenomena presented by the vegetable kingdom, one was 
mainly influenced by the logical necessity which such a position 
carried with it of constantly attempting to analyse their pro- 
blems, as far as might be possible, into their chemical and 
physical components. He believed it was only by the help of 
the elder branches of science — chemistry and physics — that the 
accurate formulation, to say nothing of the final solution, of the 
problems in which they were engaged would be analysed. 

THE HISTORY OF THE EARTH. 

To the Geological Section, Prof. J. W. Gregory delivered a 
scholarly Address in which many interesting topics were touched 
upon. After referring- to the geolog-y of the inner earth, he said 

1907 September I. 



300 JVotes and Comments. 

that the modern view of the structure of the earth added greatly 
to the interest of its study, for it recognised the world as an 
individual entity of which both the geological structure and the 
history had to be considered as a whole. Once the earth was 
regarded as a mere lifeless, inert mass, which had been spun by 
the force of gravity, that hurled it on its course into the shape 
of a simple oblate spheroid. Corresponding with this astro- 
nomical teaching- as to the shape of the world was the geological 
doctrine that all its topography was the work of local geo- 
graphical agents, whose control over the surface of the earth 
was as absolute as that of the sculptor's chisel over a block of 
marble. 

THE SHAPE OF THE EARTH. 
In his Presidential Address to the Mathematical Section, 
Prof. A. E. H. Love asked, if the ocean could be dried up, what 
would be the shape of the earth ? By means of interesting dia- 
grams he demonstrated his theory of ' gravitational instability,' 
accounting for the existence of the oceans, and the suggestion 
that without the oceans the sphere would be deformed into a 
sort of irregular pear-shaped surface, with the stalk of the pear 
in the southern part of Australia, and containing Australasia 
and the Antarctic continent. In attempting' to estimate the 
bearing of his theory on geological history he was guided by 
the consideration that the earth is not now gravitationally 
unstable. From observations of the propagation of earthquake 
shocks to great distances, they could determine the average 
resistance to compression, and they found that this resistance 
was now sufficiently great to keep in check any tendency to 
gravitational u instability. 

CEPHALOPODS. 
Dr. W. E. Hoyle, of the Manchester Museum, in his 
Presidential Address to the Zoological Section, dealt with ' The 
small and economically unimportant group of the Cephalopoda,' 
a subject of which he has made a special study, and in giving 
the results of his own researches Dr. Hoyle unquestionably 
acted wisely. The classification of the Cephalopoda was the 
President's theme, and whilst it is admittedly not a subject 
which can be made interesting to all, his contribution can be 
looked upon as a clear statement of the present position ot 
a far too neglected branch of Zoology. Dr. Hoyle spoke as a 
specialist, as a systematist, ' one whose main work has been the 
discrimination and definition of genera and species.' 

Naturalist. 



Notes and Comments. 301 

NATURAL MONUMENTS. 

Before a joint meeting of the Geological, Geographical, and 
Botanical Sections, Prof. Conwentz, the Prussian State Com- 
missioner for the Preservation of Natural Monuments, delivered 
an interesting Address on the subject which he has made his 
own. He explained that the phrase ' natural monuments ' was 
new in Germany as well as in England, but we should recognise 
that there could be monuments of nature as well as of art. The 
constant inroads of cultivation and industrial undertakings upon 
primitive nature have led, and are leading, to the disappearance 
of scientifically interesting and even unique natural objects and 
types of scenery. A widespread feeling has arisen that as 
much as possible should be done to prevent such destruction, 
and this has recently led not only to much local effort directed 
to this end, but in Prussia to the institution of a special State 
department, under the Minister of Education, for the purpose 
of directing and co-ordinating such efforts. In the opinion of 
Professor Conwentz, however, procedure by Government 
department is not the right method in this country ; we should 
rather depend upon voluntary effort. We would point out, 
however, that many of the valuable suggestions made by 
Professor Conwentz have been anticipated by Professor G. 
Baldwin Brown in his book on ' The Care of Ancient Monu- 
ments,' which was reviewed in these columns for November, 
1906 (p. 387). 

OTHER ADDRESSES. 

The Presidential Address to the Chemical Section was by 
Prof. A. Smithells, who took ' Flame ' for his subject. Mr. G. 
G. Chisholm addressed the Geographical Section on ' Geography 
and Commerce.' Mr. W. J. Ashley discoursed on the past 
history and present position of political economy to the Eco- 
nomic Science and Statistics Section ; Dr. Silvanus P.Thompson, 
as President of the Engineering Section, referred to the De- 
velopment of Engineering and its Foundations on Science ; 
Mr. D. G. Hogarth dealt with ' Religious Survivals ' in his 
Address to the Anthropological Section ; Dr. Augustus D. 
Waller addressed the Physiologists ' On the Action of 
Anaesthetics ; ' and Sir Philip Magnus addressed the Educa- 
tional Science Section on ' The Application of Scientific Method 
to Educational Problems.' 



PLANKTON INVESTIGATIONS. 
Professor W. A. Herdman, one of the Secretaries of the 
Association, gave a report of the Plankton Fishing Investigation 



1907 September i. 



302 Notes and Comments. 

carried out under his direction in the Irish Sea off the Isle of 
Man during- April, 1907, with the object of testing- different 
kinds of open and closing tow-nets and of gathering information 
as to the detailed distribution of the organisms according to the 
length, depth, and date. Examples were given of very different 
results both quantitative and qualitative to those from quite 
similar casts taken not far apart either in space or time. 
Sudden variations in horizontal distribution of the Plankton 
were discussed, and seasonal changes were also considered. 
The necessity of numerous gatherings in well-chosen restricted 
areas was emphasised. His conclusions were (1) That they 
must investigate their methods before they attempted to investi- 
gate on a large scale. (2) That they must find out much about 
their gathering of organisms before they could consider them 
as adequate samples ; and (3) that they must make an intensive 
study of small areas before they drew conclusions in regard to 
relatively large regions such as the North Sea or the Atlantic 
Ocean. 



MIMICRY IN INSECTS. 

At one of the evening meetings at the British Association, 
Dr. F. A. Dixey gave a discourse on " Recent Developments 
in the Theory of Mimicry." Dr. Dixey, at the outset, observed 
that the remarkable resemblances that existed between 
certain insects belonging to widely different orders, as, for 
instance, the likeness borne by some of the "clear-wing 
moths " to wasps and hornets, had long- been known to 
naturalists. They were interpreted by the older observers as 
cases of "repetition," and "analogy" in nature. Kirby and 
Spence. were the first to attempt a rational explanation. These 
authors got so far as to suggest that one species might gain an 
advantage by resembling another ; but the first really scientific 
account of the matter was given by Bates, who pointed out 
that certain kinds of butterflies in South America escaped 
attacks from birds by mimicking the appearance of other 
conspicuous species which were immune from persecution on 
account of the possession of distasteful qualities. This 
resemblance to a distasteful model he considered had been 
gained by a gradual increase of forms tending in the 
necessary direction. Bates' theory of mimicry, which was 
at once accepted by Darwin, and met with general approval, 
marked an important step in advance, but left certain facts 
unexplained. The lecturer then discussed the further contri- 

Naturalist, 



Notes (vid Comments. 303 

buttons of Fritz Muller, Meldola, Poulton, and others, and 
illustrated his remarks by a beautiful set of lantern slides. In 
proposing - a vote of thanks to the lecturer, the President, Sir 
David Gill, pointed out that Bates was a native of Leicester. 



VIKING RELICS AT YORK. 
On this subject, Dr. G. A. Auden read an interesting- paper 
to the Anthropological Section. During the autumn of 1906 
excavations for building purposes in the city of York, a few 
yards from the left bank of the Ouse, had revealed a number 
of objects which may with certainty be referred to the Viking 
period. The area in question is situate at the junction of Ness- 
gate and Coppergate, and contiguous to the site in which a 
large number of objects, dating from the Scandinavian occupa- 
tion, were found during excavations for the Public Library 
and Friends' Meeting House in 1884. Several objects are 
enumerated which have not been previously reported in England, 
and amongst these the chief interest centres in a bronze chape 
of a sword scabbard, exhibiting an open zoomorphic interlacing 
design terminating in a conventionalised animal head which 
attached the chape to the material of the scabbard. The 
zoomorphic motif is further illustrated by several portions of 
contemporaneous stonework which have been found from time 
to time in York, slides of which were shown. A consensus of 
opinion upon the objects described attributes them to the first 
half of the tenth century — a period which saw the Scandinavian 
power in York rise to its zenith. 



HOLDERNESS GRAVELS. 

To the Geological Section, Messrs. T. Sheppard and J. W. 
Stather gave some Notes on a New Section in the Glacial 
Gravels of Holderness. In these they pointed out that the 
North-Eastern Railway Company had recently been making 
some extensive excavations in a hill situated between the well- 
known Kelsey Hill and Burstwick Gravel Pits, in central 
Holderness. At the present time the section exposed is prob- 
ably the finest of its kind in the country. The cutting is made 
through the heart of the hill, and is 1300 ft. long, and 45 ft. 
high in the centre, from which the section gradually slopes. 
The sides of the hill are flanked by boulder clay, and irregular 
masses also occur at intervals in the gravel. There are two 
types of boulder clay visible, the upper or Hessle clay, contain- 
ing a preponderance of Cheviot rocks, and the purple or middle 

1907 September i. 



304 Notes and Comments. 

boulder clay with its Carboniferous Limestones and basalts. 
The gravels are somewhat similar to those described by Mr. 
Clement Reid at Kelsey Hill as interglacial, but the present 
authors consider them to be merely part of the terminial 
moraine of the North Sea ice-sheet. In addition to the far- 
travelled boulders, a lengthy list of marine shells, mostly of an 
Arctic type, has been compiled, and the species Cyrena [Corbiculd) 
fluminalis (a freshwater form), also abounds. An interesting 
collection of mammalian remains has been secured, and includes 
bones of Elephas primigenius, Rhinoceros, Walrus, Red Deer, 
Bison priscus, Horse, and Bos. Some of these bearevidence of 
having been gnawed by the Hyaena. It is thought that the shells 
and mammalian remains have been caught up by the moving ice 
mass, and in this way incorporated in the moraine. 



IRON ORE SUPPLIES. 
Mr. Bennett H. Brough pointed out to Section C. that in 
Great Britain the principal iron-ore producing districts are 
Cleveland, in North Yorkshire, which in 1905 yielded 41.0 per 
cent, of the total output of the kingdom ; Lincolnshire (14.8 per 
cent.), Northamptonshire (13.9 per cent.), and Leicestershire 
(4.7 per cent.), together yielding 33.4 per cent, of the total out- 
put ; Cumberland (8.6 per cent.) and North Lancashire (2.7 per 
cent.), Staffordshire (6.1 percent.) and Scotland (5.7 per cent.). 
The Cleveland iron ore occurs in a 10-foot bed in the Middle 
Lias, and contains about 30 per cent, of iron. It is worked by 
underground mining. In Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, and 
Leicestershire the brown iron-ore beds form part of the Inferior 
Oolite, and contain about 33 per cent, of iron, the workings 
being mostly opencast. In Cumberland and North Lancashire 
the red haematite occurs in irregular masses in Carboniferous 
limestone. It contains more than 50 per cent, of iron, and is 
worked by underground mining. The ironstone in Staffordshire 
and in Scotland is mostly obtained from mines that also produce 
coal. Such, in brief, are the home deposits from which the 
British supply of 14,590,703 tons of iron ore, valued at ^"3,382,184, 
was obtained in 1905. Even that enormous output did not 
meet the consumption, and 7,344,786 tons were imported. 



MARINE PEAT. 
Mr. J. Lomas reported that during excavations in the Union 
Dock on the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board Estate, in the 
South End of Liverpool, a very remarkable peat band was dis- 

Naturalist, 



6 inches. 
4 feet. 

2 feet to inches. 

3 feet 2 inches. 
8 feet +. 



Notes and Comments. 3°5 

covered. Reckoning" downwards from a datum line three teet 
above Old Dock Sill, a section showed : 

Sand with black carbonaceous bands . 4 feet. 

Peat 

Blue clay with rootlets 
Sand with thin bands of peat 
Boulder clay .... 

Bunter pebble beds 

The upper peat was entirely composed of marine plants, 
laminaria predominating-. On the fronds were numerous en- 
crusting organisms, such as polyzoa, hydrozoa, the fry of young 
molluscs, etc. The lower peat, while consisting mainly of 
marine plants, contained a few drifted pieces of oak and other 
land plants. The sands accompanying the peat resemble those 
of the Mersey Bar, and besides the quartz which makes up the 
bulk of the deposit, contain zircon, garnet, tourmaline, dolomite, 
kyanite, rutile, staurolite, orthoclase felspar, biotite and mus- 
covite, shell fragments, foraminifera, sponge spicules and 
polyzoa. The deposit was probably accumulated in a sheltered 
bay in the old estuary of the Mersey. The chief interest lies in 
the fact that peat may be formed from marine as well as from 
land plants. 

YORKSHIRE FOSSIL PLANTS. 
In the report on the Life-zones in the British Carboniferous 
Rocks Committee, Dr. Wheelton Hind stated that he was 
fortunate enough to secure a fine collection of plants obtained 
in an abortive attempt to find coal at Threshfield, near Grassing- 
ton, in the Valley of the Wharfe. The shales are stated to be 
those which occur below a bed of Millstone grit. Mr. Kidston 
has examined the specimens, and the following list is the 
result : — 

Sphenopteris elegans Bgt. Sphenophyllum tenerrimum Ett. sp. 

Calymmatotheca stangeri Stur. Lepidodendron sp. 

Rhodia moravica Ett. sp. Lepidost/obus sp. 

Sphenopteris sp. Small Lycopodiaceous bract. 

Cala ni ites ostraviensis Stur. Rhabdoca rp us ? sp. 

Catamites sp. 
Mr. Kidston states, with regard to the horizon : 'I have not 
the slightest doubt that the bed these specimens come from is 
on the horizon of the Upper Limestone group of the Carbon- 
iferous Limestone series of Scotland. At any rate we know 
the Lower Limestone group of Scotland has a fauna which 
indicates the Upper Dibunoptiyllum zone. 

1907 September 1. 



3°6> 

FOSSIL FISH FROM THE CHALK OF 
NORTH LINCOLNSHIRE. 



Dr. A. SMITH WOODWARD, F.R.S. 
(British Museum, Natural History). 



The fossil fish* obtained by Mr. H. C. Drake from the 
Rhynchonella cuvieri zone in the chalk pit at South Ferriby is 
in a fragmentary condition, and lacks the skull ; but the parts 
preserved agree so precisely with the corresponding parts of 
Ehpopsis crassus, that the specimen may almost certainly be 
referred to this Elopine species. It agrees with the known 
examples of Elopopsis crassus even in size. The bones of the 
opercular apparatus are remarkably thin, large and smooth, 
showing only a slight waviness parallel with the margins. The 
preoperculum is much expanded at the angle and in the lower 
limit, and bears marks of slime canals which radiate backwards 
from the main slime canal of its anterior border. The vertebral 
centra of the caudal region are about as long as deep, and they 
are strengthened by a few longitudinal ridges which extend 
between the stout anterior and posterior rims. The neural and 
haemal arches are much flattened from side to side, and sharply 
inclined backwards. The scales are very thin, large, and 
deeply overlapping. They exhibit numerous small rounded 
pittings on their exposed portion, but are otherwise smooth, 
and only display their fine concentric lines of growth when 
abraded. A few of the stout pectoral fin-rays are smooth and 
undivided for a long distance at their proximal end. 

The type skull of Ehpopsis crassus was found in a Turonian 
zone at Southeram, near Lewes, Sussex. More satisfactory 
specimens of the fish have been obtained by Mr. G. E. Dibley, 
F.G.S., from the zone of Rhynchonella cuvieri in Peter's Pit, 
Wouldham, Kent, and will shortly be described in the 
Palaaontographical Society's Monograph of the Fossil Fishes 
of the English Chalk. 

References. — Osmeroides crassus, F. Dixon, Geol. Sussex 
(1850), p. 376. Elopopsis crassus, A. S. Woodward, Proc. Zool. 
Soc, 1894 (1895), p. 759, pi. 43, fig. 1. 



' Bulbs,' by S. Arnott, and 'Weather,' by the Hon. H. A. Stanhope, 
forms Nos. 11 and 12 of the 'One and All,' garden books, issued at a penny 
each. They are exceedingly useful publications. 

* Hull Museum Specimen, No. 24.05. 

Naturalist, 



3°7 

NOTES OF CHANGES AMONG ANIMALS IN FYLING = 
DALES, NORTH=EAST YORKS., WITHIN THE 
LAST FIFTY YEARS. 



J. W. BARRY. 
Fylingdales. 



MAMMALIA. 

The Badger has much increased in numbers and also in 
rang'e of late years. This is doubtless from the protection it has 
received on this estate. It has bred in the woods about a 
quarter-of-a-mile from the house ever since I remember, though 
the fact was not generally known until recently. In 1903, the 
Badgers there had become so numerous and, in one part, had so 
mined the side of the ravine with their burrows that I feared 
landslips. At the same time they had spread widely in the 
neighbourhood and began to annoy the farmers, one of my 
cottagers losing the whole of the cabbages in his garden 
through them. Under these circumstances it was necessary to 
make a thinning. Five were trapped, and not long afterwards 
the landslip which I chiefly feared took place, apparently 
exterminating all that were left in that spot. The rest seem to 
have scattered ; but this year a pair or two have re-appeared in 
the same woods. 

About twenty-three years ago, the somewhat unusual circum- 
stance occurred of finding and catching a Badger asleep in 
broad daylight. This was by my then steward in an open part 
the woods. The Badger was a young one, of course. My 
gardener, who has seen a good deal of them (as for many years 
he did my gamekeeping), has only seen them two or three 
times when the sun was well up. He says, however, that, in a 
great number of instances, the Badgers lie not at the bottom of 
their holes but near the entrance, as he has heard them bolting 
on his approach. Elsewhere they have generally discovered 
him, he has found by scent rather than by hearing. 

Sir C. W. Strickland's keeper has found that Badgers make 
their raids on wasp's nests by alternate sallies and retreats. 
When in another situation he once heard a strange cry from 
some unknown animal as if in distress, and saw a Badger 
rolling itself on the ground and trying to free itself from wasps. 
He then saw it go back, evidently to the comb, for it returned 
after a while with a fresh supply of wasps, from which it freed 
itself in the same manner as before. This process was con- 
stantly repeated. 

1907 September i 



308 Barry : Changes among Animals in Fylingdales. 

The Polecat used to appear on the g*amekeeper's lists of 
this estate ; but I never succeeded in seeing one until 1903, 
when (at the end of January or the beginning- of February) my 
gardener caught a fine adult male in a trap set for rabbits, 
inside a burrow in the oak woods about three furlongs from 
the house. Its leg was broken, but it was kept for about 
three months in the ferret hutch of the garden. During this 
period it became slightly tamer, allowing itself to be touched 
when at rest, but it was uncertain. At last, owing to its un- 
bearable stench and the large amount of raw meat which it 
required, it was destroyed. After its capture, the tracks of 
another Polecat were seen round the gardener's cottage, so that 
it would seem that they had been hunting in couples. 

A few years ago, someone wrote to ' The Field ' to say that, 
when traversing Fylingdales Moor by the Whitby and Scar- 
borough Road, he had seen five Polecats together somewhere in 
the neighbourhood of Jugger Howes. There is no more likely 
place for their headquarters than the Jugger Howes gill. I 
think that the captured Polecat already mentioned must have 
come down from the moor under stress of weather, tracks in 
the snow having been seen some time before in High Moor 
plantation. 

The Squirrel was quite unknown on this estate and in this 
dale until about twelve years ago, when it suddenly appeared 
and multiplied so rapidly that, on seeing the damage which it 
was beginning to do to the young larch and spruce, and know- 
ing what it had done elsewhere, as in Scotland, I reluctantly 
declared war upon it. 

I do not doubt that it came from the Sneaton plantations 
across the moors. That is the nearest point at which it was 
found before, and then, as in the Newton House Woods below 
them, it had been abundant for a long time. One of the first 
that I saw was in the high part of the Ramsdale Woods, and the 
distance between that point and the nearest point of the Snea- 
ton plantations is only about one mile and a quarter. With so 
short an interspace it may seem strange that the Squirrels 
should never have come before, but then it must be remembered 
that all of this is open moor, and that, no doubt, was the natural 
barrier which proved so efficient for such a number of years. 
It may also be asked why the Squirrel should have come when 
they did. I can only conjecture that the heavy falls of timber 
which have been going on in the Newton House Woods for the 
last thirty years, and the destruction in the early eighties (I 

Naturalist, 



Northern News. 309 

think) of some hundreds of acres of Scots pine in the Sneaton 
plantations, in consequence of a sort of tornado, reduced the 
food supply and induced migration. 

On the credit side of the Squirrel account I ought to mention 
that since their advent seedling hazels have spread in the woods 
in a way that they never did before. 

The Black Rat was common in this house and the drains 
when I was a boy. I have seen three or four trapped together, 
and my earliest associations are as much with black rats as 
with brown. 

Since I have had possession of the property, what appear to 
be hybrids between the black and brown rat have from time to 
time been killed. The last were caught three or four years 
ago ; but my servants say that they are still in the house, 
and that those about the kitchen offices are exclusively of this 
sort. They are glossy black on back and hindquarters, dark 
grey on the sides and light brown underneath. 

This kind of rat has long been confined to the house itself 
and the outbuilding next adjoining. The stables, the best 
feeding ground, have, for a great number of years, been 
monopolised by the Norwegian invader. 

The man who has trapped them says (rather oddly), that he 
has found these rats much fiercer when caught than the brown 
rats. 

The Wolf must have survived in this neighbourhood down 
to the fifteenth century. There is an entry of 1395 in the 
Abbey Roll of Disbursements for ' tewing ' fourteen wolf-skins. 
[To be eon tinned). 



To the list of papers by the Rev. E. M. Cole, given in our August issue, 
should be added: 'Roman Remains at File}-' (' Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc.,' 
1906), and 'Presidential Address to the Malton Field Naturalists' and 
Scientific Society,' printed in the Society's Report for 1905. 

In the ' Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and 
Philosophical Society ' there is a note ' On a Confusion of Two Species 
{Lepidodendron Har'coitrtii. Witham, and L. Hickii, sp. nov.) under Lepido- 
dendron Harcourtii. Witham, in Williamson's XIX. Memoir ; with a de- 
scription of L. Hickii, sp. nov.,' by D. M. S. Watson. In this paper the 
author shows that under the one name Williamson really described two 
separate forms, and to the second the name Lepidodendrun Hickii is now 
given. 

We are glad to receive the Annual Report of the Louth Antiquarian and 
Naturalists' Society, and it augurs well for the Society's work to find that 
its rooms are inadequate, and that better accommodation is required. 
There have been several interesting exhibits at the indoor meetings, and 
field work has not been neglected. It also speaks well for the study of 
nature and archaeology to find that the President of the Society, Alderman 
S. Cresswell, has recently attained the age of 90 years, and was presented 
with an illuminated address. 



1907 September I. 



3 IQ 

NOTES ON THE LAPWING. 

F. STUBBS, 
Oldham. 

It is well known that for the first few days of its existence the 
young" lapwing- closely resembles a fragment of earth or a lump 
of horse dung. On a bare fallow the bird is quite in harmony 
with its environment, and is well protected. The colours do 
not agree, however, with those of green pasture ; but, as it 
cannot be inconspicuous, the young bird finds safety in 
mimicking an unpalatable and common substance. I do not 
think that this instance of interchangeable protective coloura- 
tion has been up to now appreciated by field naturalists, although 
very few observations will show the beautiful arrangement of 
colours necessary for this adaptability to different surroundings. 
As the bird grows bigger, the black and green feathers of the 
adult appear, and destroy the resemblance to horse dung. 
Then the young lapwing enters what may with propriety be 
called the " cow dung stage " of its existence, for everyone 
must have noticed the resemblance of the half-grown (or even 
full-grown, but flightless) young to a portion of a patch of 
vaccine droppings. On the fallows these colours still remain 
in harmony with the bare soil. Perhaps a brood of lapwings 
may be divided between two fields, the one a bare fallow, and 
the other a pasture. In one situation they provide an example 
of pure protective colouration, and in the other an excellent 
instance of mimicry. Early in life they mimic one substance, 
but when they grow out of this livery, they don a coat that 
enables them to mimic another substance dissimilar in appear- 
ance, but equally unattractive to birds or animals of prey. 

We have here a possible explanation of the growing abund- 
ance of the lapwing in all parts of the country. The mere word 
"adaptability" does not quite explain the matter. The bird 
is well protected on the pasture lands, and multiplies, so that 
the number of pairs may exceed the number of suitable nesting 
sites. The surplus attempt to breed somewhere, although the 
effort to rear their progeny may be a vain one ; but on the fallows 
the birds find that the colours of the eggs and young are well 
fitted to the new and quite dissimilar surroundings. 

The increase of agriculture, the bane of so many wading 
birds, has provided the lapwing with countless nurseries. 
Game-preservation, also, has left this curious bird with little 

Naturalist, 



Northern News. 3 1 1 

more than a single enemy, and even he is impotent during- the 
most important part of the year. On the grass-lands the 
species has multiplied with our cattle, while elsewhere the 
plough has ousted all rivals, only to provide a safe shelter for 
the lapwing's eggs and young. 

From these two great mutually-supporting reservoirs the 
birds overflow in all directions, and we find them nesting in the 
most incongruous situations. For extreme cases we need only 
think of salt marshes, rabbit warrens, chalk downs, peat bogs, 
maritime sandhills, and meadows. The lapwing's first require- 
ment at the nesting season seems to be open ground, preferably 
free from tall herbage. If the land is under the plough there will 
always be fields lying fallow, and providing excellent hiding- 
places ; if not, the presence in the locality of a few horses or 
cattle provides the bird with all the shelter it requires. Away 
from the influence of man it is just a rather aberrant wader 
struggling for existence with a host of other birds. It is not 
the fashion to seek for instances of Commensalism or Mutualism 
in the higher ranks of life, or one of these terms might be 
applied to this association of Homo sapiens and Vanellus 
vulgaris. 

Although the great majority of breeding female lapwings 
have white chins, some authors state that the sexes are alike. 
Others say that old hens develop black chins, but never have 
long crests. A specimen in the Oldham Museum has a black 
chin and a crest as long as any male's, although the wing 
formula (1st primary as long as 4th) proves the bird to be a 
female. Before the youngsters are able to fly the sexes may be 
readily separated by the shape of their wings. 



In a paper recently read to the Geological Society on the Flora of the 
Inferior Oolite of Brora (Sutherland), Miss M. C. Stopes pointed out that 
most of the species found are identical with those of the Inferior Oolite of 
Yorkshire. 

With the July number the ' Bradford Scientific Journal ' commences its 
second volume. Mr. A. Whitaker gives some interesting- notes on the 
' Scenes and Habits of Bats,' Mr. T. Sheppard writes on ' Museums and 
their Functions,' Mr. W. H. Whitaker gives an account of the ' Fishes of 
Upper Airedale,' and Mr. W. P. Winter refers to the ' Mediterranean Plants 
in the Bradford Botanical Gardens.' There are some useful extracts from 
the Note-book of the late W. Cudworth. These are chiefly geological. A 
new feature is ' Science and Nature Notes.' These add to the interest of the 
journal and are certainly preferable to the queries and answers which 
formerly appeared. These Science Notes, however, are rather scrappv 
and would be more useful if more local in character. We were surprised to 
find Mr. A. Whitaker referring to ' the thirty-five wild animals indigenous 
to this county, 'and throughout the article he appears to substitute ' animals ' 
for ' mammals." 



907 September i. 



NOTE ON TrtE DISTRIBUTION OF DIATOM A HI EM ALE 
IN EAST YORKSHIRE, ETC. 



R. H. PHILIP, 

Hull 



In a sequestered dell, hidden away among - the swelling- Wolds, 
the springs of Weedley come to daylight at the base of the 
chalk, picturesquely overshadowed by hawthorn bushes at the 
source, then winding serpentine fashion through dense masses 
of willow herb and lush grasses, till passing under the Hull and 
Barnsley Railway the little stream forms the valley of Drewton 
dale. The Wold Springs, of which there are so many in this 
district, are some of the most interesting habitats of our fresh 
water diatoms, and in them are found many of our finest and 
rarest species. But we were not destined to find anything 
either fine or rare on the occasion of the visit of the York- 



rr 




~> 




Fig. i. Diatoma hiemale Sertigthal, Switzerland. 
Fig. 2. ,, ,, Weedley Springs, near Hull. 

Fig. 3. 11 .» var. mesodon Chiavenna, Italy. 

shire Naturalists' Union on June 22nd. The margin of 
the brook was indeed fringed for all its length with flocculent 
brown streamers, indicating the copious presence of diatoms, 
but subsequent examination proved that this consisted almost 
exclusively of a single species — Diatoma hiemale (Lyng.), Heib. 
And yet there are some interesting facts connected with this 
form which it may be worth while to put on record. Fifty 
years ago, when the late George Norman was working this 

Naturalist, 



Northern News. 313 

district, this species was not known to exist here. It is not 
included in his list, and having - had the advantage of examining 
many hundreds of his slides, I am able to say that I have not 
found it in any of his East Riding gatherings. Notwithstanding, 
it is a common and widely distributed species. I have found it 
in Switzerland, Italy, Scotland, North of Ireland, Wales, and 
the English Lake District, as well as in many places in the 
north and west Ridings of Yorkshire (Y.N.U. excursions to 
Sedburgh, Bowes, Hebden Bridge, Buckden, Ilkley, Farnley 
Tyas, etc.). A gathering I took from Weedley Springs, in the 
spring of 1897, shows no trace of it, and its first appearance in 
the East Riding to my knowledge was in Sept., 1899, when I 
found it plentifully in Newbald Springs. Since then I have 
found it in Weedley Springs, in Stream Dyke, Hornsea 
Mere, and in flooded fields after heavy rains off Beverley Road 
and Sculcoates Lane. In the last year or two it seems to have 
increased enormously. At the Pocklington excursion it was 
plentiful in the Great Givendale Springs, and also last year at 
Weedley. This year it appears to have ousted almost every- 
thing else from Weedley Springs. It will be interesting to see 
if anything of the kind has occurred in other Wold Springs, 
and also to frame a theory to account for the rapid and success- 
ful invasion. The species is somewhat variable, and in addition 
to the drawing of the form found at Weedley, I have drawn two 
others, the longest, with 10 to 14 costas, being found in the 
Sertigthal, an Alpine Valley near Davos, and the shortest, with 
only 3 or 4 costae (variety mesodoii), coming from a mountain 
torrent at Chiavenna, North Italy. Our English forms are 
chiefly intermediate, but nearer to the latter. 



From July 8th to July 12th the Museums Association visited Dundee. The 
following Northern museums were represented : — Bootle, Sheffield, Bolton, 
Stoke-upon-Trent, Burnley, Newcastle, Stockport, Carlisle, Manchester, St. 
Helens, Warrington, Bolton, Huddersfield, York, Hull. Amongst the many 
papers read and discussed, the following were of particular interest and 
value : — ' Methods of Collecting and Exhibiting English Pottery and 
Porcelain ; ' ' Methods of Utilising Wall Spaces ; ' ' Notes on the Attitude of 
Birds;' 'Centralising Museum Work;' 'Museums of Industrial Art;' 
' Museums in Higher Grade and Secondary Schools;' 'Circulating School 
Museums ; ' ' Museums Illustrating Town History ; ' ' The Sunday Opening 
of Museums ; ' ' Civic Museums ; ' and ' An improved Method of Exhibiting 
Coins.' An exceedingly valuable feature of this Conference was the 
opportunity afforded of examining famous collections of furniture, china, &c. , 
which exist in the district. Amongst the places visited in this way were ; — 
Rossie Priory, the seat of Lord Kinnaird ; the University College, Dundee ; 
the Perth Museum ; Glamis Castle, the seat of the Earl of Strathmore ; and 
The University Museum, Castle, and Marine Laboratory at St. Andrews. 

1907 September i. 



3*4 

GLACIAL SURVIVALS. 



FRANK ELGEE, 
Middlesbrough. 



(Continued from page -?/6). 

As the unglaciated area of North East Yorkshire comprises 
the deep, large sheltered valleys lying- to the south of the 
anticline (Rosedale, Farndale, etc.,) their natural history must 
be particularly interesting - . Unfortunately, however, very few 
records therefrom are known. The evidence, however, that 
many kinds of widely distributed Land and Fresh-water 
Molluscs lived in them throughout the Ice Age is decidedly 
strong. There is direct evidence that many of the most 
abundant freshwater shells can withstand a very severe 
climate, and would therefore be capable of surviving the 
Ice Age. 

One of these is Physa hypnorum, the shell of which is so fragile 
as to need most careful handling. It has been noticed on the 
peninsula of Taimyr in North Siberia in 73° 30' N. lat., where 
the mean annual temperature is below io° F. with a range of 
from 40° F. in July to — 30° F. in January.* If a species so 
delicate can exist under a frost of 62° it ought to have been 
able to survive on our driftless area. 

Again, those common Pond Snails Limncea stagnalis, L. 
peregra, and L. truncatu/a, as well as Planorbis albus, live at 
the present day in Greenland, whilst Limncea auricularia has 
been known to survive after having been subjected to a frost of 
34°. Paludina vivipara and Anodonta anatina have resisted a 
temperature of 23 F., and the former produced young shortly 
after being thawed out of ice. t In fact, most of the British 
land mollusca, except the operculate species, are extremely 
hardy, and may therefore have existed in the large sheltered 
dales throughout the Ice Age. 

In confirmation of this glacial survival of Mollusca, the 
Arctic Freshwater Bed of the Norfolk coast contains, associated 
with typical Arctic plants such as the Dwarf Birch and Willow, 
Succinea pittris, S. oblonga, and Pupa muscorum, and the wing 
cases of beetles. J Altogether at the present time 40 species of 
terrestrial and freshwater molluscs inhabit circumpolar regions ; 

* Cam. Nat. Hist., Vol. 3, p. 24. 
t Op. r//., p. 14. 

* Geikie, 'Text Book of Geology,' Vol. II. 

Naturalist, 



Elgcc : Glacial Survivals. 315 

of these several live in Britain, and appear to have survived the 
Ice Age. 

If this existence of Mollusca during the Ice Age on the 
driftless region be accepted, we have a probable explanation of 
the distribution of two of our most characteristic northern 
shells, viz., Acanthinula lamellata and Margaritana margaritifer. 
Existing in Britain in pre-glacial times these two species might 
have lingered on within the driftless area during the Glacial 
Period. After its close they would spread out to the surround- 
ing districts. In the case of A. lamellata, this extended across 
the North Sea (then probably a land area) to Sweden, Denmark, 
and North Germany ; in the case of the Pearl Mussel, to 
Scandinavia and Northern Germany. 

During the Glacial Period, therefore, the Cleveland driftless 
region probably supported a fauna and flora, chiefly of an 
Arctic character, though several temperate forms may have 
also existed. After the ice sheets melted it formed a centre 
of distribution from which animals and plants radiated to the 
surrounding" bare lands. 

What has been here stated concerning' North East Yorkshire 
is applicable, with modifications according to conditions, to 
other driftless areas. In this respect the peculiar flora of 
Teesdale is worthy of attention in relation to the glaciation of 
that valley. Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, in his valuable essay 
on the Ice Age in Teesdale,* shows considerable non-glaciated 
regions. May not an Arctic fauna or flora have existed here 
during the Ice Age, including the rare northern plants for 
which the district is famous ? A careful study of the flora and 
fauna (especially Coleopterd) in relation to these areas might 
reveal some interesting features. 

It seems probable that the biological study of unglaciated 
areas will decide the problem of glacial survivals, temperate or 
Arctic. That the whole of our pre-glacial fauna and flora was 
destroyed during the Ice Age seems improbable, and in con- 
sidering that of any ice-free country, discrimination must be made 
between the purely pre-glacial species (e.g., Mutilla europcea, the 
Heaths, A. lamellata, M. margaritifer) ; the Arctic species (e.g., 
Miscodera arlica, Alpine Beetles, the Crowberry, Dwarf Cornel, 
etc.) ; and the species which have invaded the district since the 
Ice Age. At best, however, only probabilities and possibilities 
can be asserted, unless well-preserved fossils contemporaneous 
with glacial beds be found in any particular district. 

* ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. ,' 1902. 

1907 September i. 



316 

NATURAL HISTORY OF THORNE WASTE. 

The 204th meeting - of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union was 
held at Thorne on Thursday, July nth, 1907, for the 
investigation of Thorne Waste and the adjacent country. 

Mr. H. H. Corbett writes that the very cold and wet season 
had militated against the prospects of some of the sections of 
the Union, and no doubt had also an adverse effect upon the 
numerical strength of the meeting. Notwithstanding this, be- 
tween fifty and sixty members and associates risked a wetting 
and the after effects, and were rewarded by a really charming 
summer day. The whole of the district visited is low lying 
country, consisting either of re-claimed marsh or uncultivated 
peat bog, with small areas of slightly raised gravel and sand. 
The fields and lanes are for the most part bordered by broad 
ditches, and these, together with the canal, furnished both con- 
chologists and botanists with plenty of material for study. 
Entomologists, who were strongly represented, found the results 
of their labours but poor, having regard to the very good repute 
of the district and the lengthy list of ' good things ' tabulated 
on the official programme. 

The outlook for geologists did not appear to be very 
exciting, but nevertheless they found good work to do, 
especially in the matter of recent geology. 

Most of the naturalists arrived at Thorne N.E. Station at 
about n a.m., and immediately found interest in the large 
ponds that here occur on the sides of the line. These were 
bright with the flowers of both species of water lily, and many 
other less showy but interesting plants grew on the margins. 
The party walked through the town of Thorne to the Stanforth 
and Keadley Canal, where some followed one side of the 
water and some the other. Here were seen several plants 
of interest, a long stretch of bank being purple with the flowers 
of Malva sylvestrts ; while in the canal were Poiamogeton crispus, 
P. perfoliatus, P. lucens, P. pectinatus, and P. freisii, all except 
lucens being in flower and fruit. A somewhat remarkable con- 
chological feature was the great abundance of Helix cmifiana, 
a species that seems to be extending' its area of distribution. 

Leaving the canal side and taking the field path towards 
' the Waste,' Iris pseudacorus and Nasturtium amphibium 
became conspicuous in the ditches, while the bushy edges 
furnished only one species or variety of Rubus, namely, R. 
dumetorum v. ferox approaching diversifolius. This is 

Naturalist, 



Natural History of Thome Waste. 317 

eminently the bramble of the hedge rows and thickets of the 
cultivated fields near the waste, but almost disappears at the 
edge of the waste itself, where its place is taken by diversifolius. 
An oat field yielded some interesting weeds, e.g., Valerianella 
olitorea, Ranunculus arvensis, and Scandix pecten-veneris. A 
rough half re-claimed field showed the first real evidence of the 
true flora of the bog land, Lysimachia vulgaris, Myrica gale, 
and Potentilla palustre becoming plentiful, and just at the far 
side of this field, where the lane bordering the moor was 
crossed, was seen Peucedamim palustre, not yet in flower. 
Close by Spiraea salicifolia grows, and has grown for many 
years, though probably introduced. The peat itself proved 
disappointing to botanists. Turf cutting and felling of the 
birch trees has been going on so rapidly that the more interest- 
ing native plants had gone, and neither Drosera nor Andromeda 
were to be seen. In the lane leading to the moor Rubus fissus 
was in flower, and on again joining the canal several sedges 
were gathered, the most interesting being Carex pseudo-cyperus. 
Medge Hall Station was reached nearly an hour before the 
time for the train to Thorne, so the peat bog was again visited, 
and here the mycologists found some interesting things. In a 
patch of fodder oats just reclaimed from the bog was abund- 
ance of Erysium chceranthoides, and by the ditch sides another 
rare crucifer Barbarea stricta. 

At the station the entomological section joined the botanical, 
and reported poor results ! the only good local insects seen 
being Chortobius Davus and Chaerocampa elpenor among the 
lepidoptera. One of them had, however, found an abundance 
of Andromeda, with which he supplied his botanical friends. 

Returning to Thorne a very well served tea was taken at 
the Red Lion Hotel, and the sectional meetings were held, 
followed by the general meeting, under the Chairmanship of 
the President, Mr. C. Crossland. Votes of thanks were 
passed to the landowners for granting permission to visit their 
properties, and to the guides. 

The following reports of sections and lists of species have 
been furnished by different members. 

Geology. — Mr. Culpin writes : — The route taken was from 
Crowle by Godknow Bridge and Thorne Waste to Thorne, the 
sections examined on the way being : — 

Gravels of Keuper marlstones on the south side of Crowle 
Hill. 



1907 September i. 



3i8 



Natural History of Thome Waste. 



Keuper marls, topped by blown sand, at the Crowle Brick 
and Tile Works. 

Peat on Thorne Waste. 

Gravels, being - grits with some quartzites, on Tween Bridge 
Moors. 

Bunter Sand at Thorne. 

Gravels of Magnesian limestone at Thorne, mingled with 
which were some Carboniferous limestones and grits. 

The Vertebrate Section was not officially represented at 
the meeting, but the Rev. F. H. Woods and Messrs. Butterfield 
and Corbett noted the following amongst numerous commoner 
birds : — Reed Warbler, Marsh Tit, Cuckoo (still singing), Reed 
Bunting, Lesser Redpole, Mallard, Snipe, Redshank, and 
Blackheaded Gull. 

Entomology. Lepidoptera. — The following, among other 
commoner species, were found : — ■ 

Chortobius Davits. Chaerocanipa elpenor. 

Hesperia sylvan us. A rctia fiiliginosa. 

Coleoptera. — Mr. E. G. Bayford writes : — No doubt owing 
to long continued wet weather, beetles were not much in 
evidence, many of the species enumerated below having being 
seen in single specimens. Even the Coccinellidae, usually so 
ubiquitous at this time of the year, were by no means common, 
C. ^-punctata not being so frequent as on Good Friday, while 
the equally, if not more common, C. io-punctata was not 
observed at all. The fine hot week which commenced with the 
visit of the Union to Thorne will no doubt have greatly 
increased the number of species, as also their comparative 
abundance. The following is a list of those met with : — 



Carabus violaceus L. 
Notiophilus palustris Duft. 
Leistus ferrugineus L. 
Bradycellus placidus Gyll. 
Harpalus ruficornis F. 
Pterostichus niger Schall. 

,, stromas Panz. 

Amara a u lira Panz. 
,, plebeia Gyll. 
Auiphigynus piceus Marsh. 
Bembidium flammulatum Clairv. 
Trechus mi nut us F. 
Haliplus ruficollis De G. 
Laccophilus variegaius Germ. 
Hydroporus dorsalis F. 
,, palustris L. 



Hydroporus pubescens Gyll. 
Agabus bipustulatus L. 
Gyrinus natator Scop. 
Megasternum boletophagum Marsh. 
Oligota inflata Mann. 
Conoso/na pubescens Grav. 
Tachyporus chrysomelinus L. 

,, livpnorum F. 

Tachiivus niarginellus F. 
Quedius fulgidus F. 
Creophilus maxillosus L. 
Philonthus eeneus Rossi. 

,, politus F. 

,, fiinetarius Grav. 

Xantholinus linearis Oliv, 
Ot/iius heviusculus Steph. 

Naturalist, 



Natural History of Thome Waste. 



3 r 9 



Oxyporus rufus L. 
Oxytetus rugosus F. 
Oxytetus sculpturatus Grav. 

,, tetracarinatus Block. 
Homalium rividare Payk. 
Necrophorus mortuorum F. 
Trichopteryx lata Mots. 
Ptenidium nitidum Heer. 
Ad ali a bipunctata L. 
Coccinella ^-punctata L. 
Halyzia 16-guttata L. 
Rhizobius litura F. 
Coccidula rufa Herbst. 
Onthophilus striatus F. 
Bracyhpteras pubescens Er. 

,, urtica F. 

Lathridins lardarius De G. 



Enicmus minidus L. 
Corticaria pubescens Gyll. 
Elater balteatus L. 
Athotis hcemorrhoidalis F. 
Cyphon variabilis Thunb, 
Telephorus jlavilabris Fall. 
Strangalia a r mat a Herbst. 
Donacia simplex F. 
Chrysomela polita L. 
Anaspis frontalis L. 

j, maculata Fourc. 
Phyllobius urticce De G. 

,, argentatus L. 

j, viridi-aeris Laich. 

Sitones hispidulus F. 
Clonus blattarios F. 
Cajliodes quadrimaculatus L. 



Coninomus nodifer West. 

Of other orders of insects many species were taken, but 
these await examination and diagnosis. 

For the Conchological Section, Mr. J. E. Crowther 
reports : — Arriving at Thorne, somewhat earlier than the time 
stated on the circular, we made our way to a drain near the first 
turn-bridge, which had yielded very good results in the first week 
in May. On our way we found Helix nemoralis very sparingly 
on the road side, but fine in size and colour. The drain having 
been recently cleaned out, yielded nothing but Limncea pereger 
and L. stagnalis of small size. Helix cantiana was very abundant 
on the sloping banks, along with H. hispida and Succinea putris. 
S. elegans was very plentiful close to the edge of the water. In 
the big ditch alongside the canal Valvata piscinalis was plenti- 
ful, with Vivipa?a vivipara and Limncea truncatula, on the bricks 
of the bridge. Sphaerium pallidum occurred in the canal. In 
the road side ditch on the way to the moor Bythinia leachii and 
B. tentaculata were plentiful, while young Z. pereger occured in 
great numbers, together with several species of Planorbis. In 
a drain near by Physa hypnorum and Limncea glabra were found. 
The only species found on the moor itself was Vitria alliaria, 
obtained by Dr. Corbett a few days before the meeting. 

The total number of species seen was thirty, composed of 
four slugs, seven terrestrial, and nineteen aquatic species. The 
complete list is as follows : — ■ 



Agriolimax agrestis. 
Vitria alliaria. 
Arion ater. 

,, hortensis. 

, , m in im us. 



Helix cantiana. 

j, /lisp id a. 

,, aspersa. 
Helix nemoralis. 
Succinea putris. 



1907 September 1. 



3 2 ° 



Natural History of Thome Waste. 



Planorbis come us. 

,, albus. 

,, carinatus. 

,, vortex. 

,, contortus. 

Physa fontinalis. 
,, hypnorum. 
Bythinia tentaculata. 

,, lea chit. 

Vivipara vivipara. 



Valvata piscinalis. 
Sphaerium corneum. 

,, pallidum. 

Pisidium fontinale. 

,, elegaus. 
Limncea pereger. 

,, palustris. 

,., truncatula. 

,, stagnalis. 
Limncea glabra. 



Botany. Phanerogams. — Mr. Bellerby and Mr. Corbett took 
note of the more interesting flowering- plants. Altogether about 
one hundred and ninety species were seen either in flower or 
fruit. Of these the following' list contains the more local and 
rare : — 



TJi a lictru m fla v u m L . 
Ranunculus arvensis L. 
Nasturtium amphibium R. Br. 
Barbarea stricta Andrz. 
Erysimum cheiranthoides L. 
Coronopus ruellii All. 
Rubus fissus Lindb. 

„ plicatus W. & N. 

,, dumitorum W. & N. 
Poteniilla palustris Scop. 



Peucedanum palustre Moench. 
Andromeda Poll folia L. 
Hotton ia palustris L. 
Lvsimachia nummularia L. 
Rumex hydrolapathum Huds. 
Sagittaria sagittifolia L. 
Potamogeton lucens L. 

,, friesii Rupr. 

Carex pseudo-cyperus L. 
Calamagrostis lanceolata Roth. 



Ecological Botany. — The Rev. E. Adrian Woodruffe- 
Peacock writes : — The soils between Thorne and Crowle are 
most varied. Many of them are purely artificial or of true 
human origin. The rock bed consists of the water stones of 
the Keuper, but it is all buried by sand and gravel of river 
origin, blown sand and peat. Phletim pratense maximum was 
only met with once, on old canal dredgings. Myosotis collina 
only as a road-side casual. Hypochoeris radicata was con- 
spicuous on the peaty soils, but Cnicus arvensis was only found 
on dyke banks in shallow peat mixture. Chrysanthemum 
Leucanthemnm was patchy in the same situation. An oat field 
illustrated what a combination of natives and aliens might be 
found on a rich, peaty, sand, alluvial soil: — Viola arvensis, 
Spergula saliva, Anagallis arvensis, Lepidium campestre, 
Raphanus Raphanistrum, and Myosotis versicolor, Matricaria 
chamomilla were all found within a yard. A peaty sand 
pasture had the characteristic combination : — Agrostis vulgaris, 
Festuca rubra, Galium palustre, typica, though var. ivitheringii 
was the commonest form, Polygonum amphibium, Myosotis palus- 
tris, Potentilla sylvestris, Hieracium Pilosella, Myosotis versi- 

NaturaJist, 



Natural History of Thome Waste. 321 

color, Cnicus palustris, Veronica officinalis, etc., with Carex ovalis 
in one limited area of fairly short turf. The flora of the waste 
where I touched it first was characteristic of a desiccating 
quag-mire. The peat was much higher than the surrounding 
cultivated soils, with Pteris as the predominating species, and 
with Calluna and Eriophorum vaginatum as first and second sub- 
sidiaries. The Pteris clearly overpowered everything but the 
Betula verrucosa, which had all been cut down. Molinia varia 
held the fourth place frequently in the varietal form depauperata. 
On picking up the tramway, which carries the dried turves to 
the manufactury, one of the prettiest ecological studies imagin- 
able came under review. The line, without much attempt at 
levelling, had been laid east to west right over the original peat 
surface, and cinders from the engine-room fire had been used 
as a binder to compact the road for the horses' feet. These 
cinders provided sufficient mineral matter for the growth of 
common species on the rich, nitrogenous moor soil. I found 
no plant beyond six inches from the outside of the rails on 
either side, seldom as far, for not one of them can grow on pure 
peat, though almost all are more or less characteristic of peat 
mixed slightly with some introduced soil. Those I met with 
first are the most usual moor-side dwellers. The following is 
the order in which the species came into evidence : — Festuca 
sciuroides, Bromus mollis, Cnicus arveusis, Poa annua, Holcus 
lanatus, Poa pratensis, Cerastium triviale, Dactylis, Plantago 
lanceolata, P. major, Veronica serpy Hi folia, Veronica agrestis, 
Veronica arvensis, Polygonum Persicaria was very sickly, 
Tussilago very fine, Myosotis arvensis, Anlhriscus sylvestris, 
Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens poor, Agrostis vulgaris fine, 
Urtica dioica poor, Bromus mollis, var. glabra tits, Senicio 
sylvaiicus poor, Rumex crisptis, Geranium molle, Hypocha'ris 
radicata, Arrhenatherum, Urtica urens very poor, Poa trivialis, 
Bursa, Veronica chamcedrys, Senecio erucifolius, Polygonum 
aviculare, var. rurivagum, Bellis, Cnicus lanceolatus, Senecio 
vulgaris, Lychnis alba, and Festuca rubra. The last five species 
were out of place altogether. 

The road, as soon as the peat is left, up to Midge Hall 
railway station, is an estuarine alluvium or warp. All our best 
pasture grasses came into evidence at once, Festuca elatior, 
typica, being very characteristic. Sonchus asper and Cnicus 
lanceolatus were both five feet high. Papaver rhceas was mixed 
with the variety Prioris, Geranium dissectum, Matricaria inodora, 
Reseda luteola, Linaria vulgaris, and Sisymbrium officinale, illus- 

1907 September 1. 



322 Natural History of Thome Waste. 

trated the mixed nature of the road and ditch side vegetation. 
Bromus mollis glabratus was also just outside the station. 

The above does not attempt to be an exhaustive list of all 
the notes made. 

Fungi. — Mr. C. Crossland writes : — The mycologists had a 
pleasant and profitable time, especially in the birch, ling, and 
conifer portion of the strip of woodland bordering the Waste. 

There were a good scattering of agarics. Amanita rubeseens 
— ' the blusher ' — was very abundant. A nice little cluster of 
Inocybe scabella was found among short grass. Mycena san- 
guinolen/a was very common among dead ling, and on some 
rotting birch logs. A noticable feature was the quantity of 
Marasmius androsacens on damp decaying portions of prostrate 
ling. A bright, golden yellow Flammula was also common on 
the ground among ling, and on rotting birch stumps ; this form 
appears to have a preference for heathy ground : we find it on 
the moor edges about Halifax under similar conditions. Per- 
haps the best find was made by one of the entomologists while 
beating an Epilobium hirsutum bush, on the railway side near 
Medge Hall station ; this is a coral pink peziza which occurred 
in scores on the bare soil ; it studded the ground for some yards 
near the Epilobium ; it appears to be nearest to Pesisa Adce y 
but is not that species so far as one can judge at present. 
Echinella setulosa Mass. & Crossl. was especially looked for on 
decaying branches of ling, and found in abundance; this little 
discomycete was formerly confused with Mollisia cinerea, which, 
under a pocket lens, it much resembles ; the characters of the 
spores, however, are very different ; its appearance here and at 
other places, since it was properly diagnosed,* substantiates the 
remark made in the Yorks. Fung. Flo. that it would be ' certain 
to be found in additional localities if looked for.' There were 
few fungal leaf parasites. 

Two species are new to Yorkshire ; these are marked with 
an asterisk. 

All the following species were found on or near Thorne 
Waste :— 



Gastromycetes. 
Crucibulum vulgare. On decaying 

twigs. 
Lycoperdon pyriforme. On the 

ground among rotting twigs, 



Scleroderma verrucosum, On the 

ground in plantation. 

Hymenomycetes. 

Agaricaceae. 

Amanita rubeseens. On the ground, 



etc. ' margin of the wood. 



* Mass. Brit. Fung. Flo. iv. p. 305. 

Naturalist, 



Natural History of Thome Waste. 



3 2 3 



Laccaria laccata. Among - grass. 

Collybia dryophila. Among decay- 
ing leaves. 

Mycena vitilis. Among decaying 
twigs, etc. 

M. sanguinolenla. Common on 
dead ling, and on rotting birch 
logs. 

Omplialia umbellifera. On heathy 
ground. 

O. fibula. Among moss. 

* Clitopilus popinalis. Among grass, 

margin of the wood. 
Nolanea pascita. Among grass. 

* Inocybe scabella. Among grass in 

the wood. Quite a distinct 

species. 
Flam inula sapinea. Var. Among 

decaying ling, and on rotting 

birch stumps. 
Netucoria semiorbicidaris. Among 

grass in moist place. 
Galera tcncra. Among grass. 
Agaricus arvensis. In pasture. 
A. campestris. In pasture. 
Stropharia semiglobata. 
Paiueolus fimicola. 
Cop rin its radio tus. 
The last three on dung in pastures. 
C. ephemerus. On rich soil. 
Paxillus involutus. On woodland 

ground. 
Hygrophorus ceraceus. 
H. obrusseus. Both in pasture. 
Lctctarius turpis. On heavy soil, 

pathway near the wood. 
L. quietus. 
L. subdulcis. 
Russula fragilis. 

All three on soil in woodland. 
Marasmius oreades. Among grass, 

but not in rings as one generally 

finds it. 
M. androsaceus. Common among 

decaying ling. 



POLYPORACE^E. 

Polystictus versicolor. On birch 

stump. 
Porta vaporaria. On decaying 

trunk. 

HYDNACEi-E. 
Grandinia granulosa. On rotting 
wood. 

TREMELLACE/E.. 

Dacryomyces stillatus. On rotting 

wood rail. 
Calocera viscosa. On birch stump. 

Uredinace^:. 
Coleosporium sonchi. On coltsfoot. 
Puccinia poaruni {sEcidiospores) on 

coltsfoot. 
P. malvacearuni. On Malva ro- 

tundifolia. 

USTILAGINACE^. 

Ustilago longissima. On leaves of 

Glyceria aquatica. 
U. avencB. In the flowers oiArrhena- 

therum avenaceum. 
Pyrenomycetes. 
Hypocrea rufa (Conidial condition). 

On rotting birch log. 
Xylaria hypoxylon. On birch stumps. 
Daldinia concent rica. On birch logs. 

Perisporace.e. 
Podosp/ueria oxyacantha. On living 

leaves of thorn. 

DlSCOMYCETES. 

Peziza vesiculosa. On soil. 
Dascypha hyalina. On dead birch 

stump. 
Echinella setulosa. On prostrate 

ling branches. 
Mollisia cinerea. On dead branches. 

Hyphomycetes. 
Penicilliuiii glaucuin. On rotting 

ling. 
Isaria farinosa. On dead insect. 



Mosses and Hepatics. — Mr. C. A. Cheetham writes : — The 
mosses at Thorne were few in number, two, however, were 
plentiful on the Waste ; Campylopus pyriformis on the bare 
walls of peat in sheets, fruiting- abundantly, and Webera nutans 
amongst the ling and bracken ; one wet ditch at the edge of the 

1907 September 1. 



324 Natural History of Thorite Waste. 

moor was quite full of this latter, partly submerged in the water, 
no doubt due to the wet season. 

These two mosses are typical of a peaty moorland ; both 
have vegetative methods of reproduction which serve the plants 
if the more ordinary method of spore formation is in any way 
checked. That of Campylopus is well known, leaves break off 
and often cover the barren plants, and such leaves will, under 
favourable circumstances, grow and produce new plants. 

With Webera nutans, some plants are found with long in- 
novations with adpressed leaves, these elongated stems easily 
break off and may then grow on in a fresh place. 

The mosses seen on the roadsides and walls on the way 
were : — Dicranella heteromal/a, Ceratodon purpureas, Barbula 
muralis, B. reciirvifolia, and Bryum argenteum. Then on the 
clay banks of the canal Dicranella varia. Getting near to the 
Waste a good wet place was passed with Sphagnum acutifolium, 
Hypnum cuspidatum, H. cordifolium. This spot would prob- 
ably have repaid a more careful search, but we were anxious to 
get to the Waste. Arriving there, a feeling of disappointment 
came over us, as the place is now far too well drained to harbour 
many mosses. The first two mentioned, Campylopus pyriformis 
and Webera nutans, were the principal, with small patches of 
Polytrichum commune, Dicranella heteromalla, Dicranum sco- 
parium, Brachythecium rutabulum, Eurhynchium myosuroides. 
The only Sphagnum seen on the Waste was S. acutifolium in 
the wet bottom of the old duck decoy. 

Mr. W. Bellerby adds : — Under a shady bank of one of the 
numerous channels cut through the peat, a large patch of a 
common hepatic, Cephalozia bicuspidata (L.), and Odontoschisma 
Sphagni (Dicks,), were the only hepaticae seen. 

A fine mass of Sphagnum fmbriatum (type) of bright 
green colour, was growing in a shady trench and also a slender 
form of the same peat moss, which I sent to Dr. Warnstorf for 
identification, he writes, ' The sphagnum sent for determination 
is Sphagnum fimbriatum Wils., var. lenue (Grav).' It is a very 
tall, slender and graceful form, bright green above, and with 
lateral gracefully arching branches curving downwards and dis- 
tantly placed, a distinct plant much more slender than the type. 
An interesting lichen growing among Webera nutans I sent 
to Mr. Wheldon. It is of white colour with crimson spherical 
fruit, Cladonia Floerkeaua forma trachypoda (Nyl.). Mr. 
Wheldon writes, ' This Cladonia is one of the section of the 
Erythrocarpae and is distinguished from C. coccifera and C. 
digilata by its chemical reaction K-C-.' 

Naturalist, 



FIELD NOTES. 



BIRDS. 



Hawfinch Nesting near Sedbergh. — The Hawfinches have 
nested again this year in Ingmire Park, near Sedbergh. — Wm. 
Morris. 

Red=backed Shrike nesting in Yorkshire. — A pair of Red- 
backed Shrikes nested and brought off their young this summer 
in the Pickering district.— Oxlev Grabham, York. 

Nightjar's Nest with unusual number of Eggs. — This 
year I was shown by Messrs. H. B. Booth and R. Butterfield a 
nest of the Nightjar near Shipley, containing the unusual 
number of four eggs. Apparently the eggs had been laid by 
two birds, as there were two distinct types. One bird was, 
however, sitting upon the eggs, covering them quite con- 




Nightjar's nest with four eggs. 

tentedly. There seemed to be no doubt that the eggs had 
been deposited in situ, and not introduced by human agency. 
One cannot but wonder at the cause which had induced two 
birds to deposit their eggs upon the same spot, especially as 
the whole district abounded in suitable nesting sites ; indeed, 
I do not remember seeing so many Nightjar's nests in such a 
small district as I saw that day. — R. Fortune. 

The Spotted Flycatcher in Yorkshire. — A note of mine 
appeared in the July ' Naturalist,' commenting upon the scarcity 
of the Spotted Flycatcher at Harrogate this year. When the 
note was written this was correct, but since then these birds 
have turned up, if anything in increased numbers. They were 

1907 September 1. 



326 Field Notes. 

unusually late in arriving", and they are correspondingly late in 
nesting. To-day, August nth, a pair is feeding their young 
in a rather unusual place ; the nest is situated on a string course 
just under the spout of a house in Harrogate, quite 30 feet 
from the ground, and another has a nest with young on a lamp- 
post. During the visit of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union to 
Arncliffe a nest was found in the highest loop-hole window in 
the church belfrey. It contained newly hatched young. Many 
of the members were much interested in being able to obtain a 
very close view of the birds, which they were able to do from 
the steps inside the tower. — R. Fortune, Harrogate. 

Late arrival of Migrants in Craven. — The migrants 
have been unusually late this season, owing to the continued 
spell of cold weather during the time when they generally reach 
their breeding haunts. We noticed that most birds arrived 
during a S.W. wind, which usually preceded a slight improve- 
ment in the weather. Below are the dates of their arrival in 
this district : — 
March 21. — Ring-ousel. 

, , 31. — Wheatear. 
* April 8. — House Martin. 

,, 13.— Yellow Wag-tail. 

,, 19. — Redstart. 

,, 22. — Willow Warbler. 

,, 23. — Sand Martin. 

,, 23. — Common Sandpiper. 

,, 24. — Swallow. 

,, 24. — Cuckoo. 

,, 24.— Chiffchaff. 
House Martin. — The first arrival, April 8th, was a very early 
date, but scarcity of insect food drove them away. They re- 
appeared on April 15th, when they stayed a few hours, after 
which they were not seen again until April 22nd. Food then 
being more abundant they remained with us. 

Spotted Flycatcher. — There is a great increase in the number 
of these birds this season. 

Landrail. — The landrail has not been heard in many of its 
favourite haunts in this district ; no doubt the disastrous 
weather during migration time accounts for their scarcity. 

Common Whitethroat. — Quite an increase in their numbers 
to this district. 

Yelloiv Wagtail. — This bird is not as common as it was in 
this district in past years. — W. Wilson, Skipton-in-Craven, 
July 13th, 1907. 

Naturalist, 



May 4. — Treepipit. 

,, 5. — Spotted Flycatcher. 

,, 6. — Greater Whitethroat. 

6.— Swift. 

,, 6. — Landrail. 

,, io. — Blackcap. 

,, 8. — Lesser Whitethroat. 

,, 12. — Garden W T arbler. 

,, 16. — Pied Flycatcher. 

,, 18.— Whinchat. 



Reviews and Book Notices. 327 

MOLLUSC A. 
Arion ater var. castanea at Newsome. — On the 18th 
June last my sister drew my attention to a monstrous slug" in 
our garden, which I boxed and sent to Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, 
for identification. Mr. Roebuck informs me that this slue 
was one of the finest Arion ater he had seen. It would 
stretch out to six inches and then not be fully extended. The 
variety is castanea, for though very dark, it is not black, but 
brown. This variety of A. ater does not appear to have been 
previously recorded for the Huddersfield district. — W. E. L 
Wattam. 

— : o : — 

FLOWERING PLANTS. 

Potamogeton alpinus. Balb., near Doncaster. — This 
plant is abundant in a slow stream at Sandal Beat, near Don- 
caster, in Vice-County 63, at an altitude of about 35 ft. above 
O.D. As there is no record for this species in ' The Flora of 
the West Riding,' it is worth noting-. The plant has been 
identified by Mr. Arthur Bennett. — H. H. Corbett, Doncaster. 

— : o : — 
HEPA TICS. 

Ricciella fluitans ( Braun. ) at Mablethorpe. — While dredg- 
ing- for fresh water shells in the dykes on Poplar Farm, Mable- 
thorpe, on Aug. 3rd, I brought up Ricciella fluitans in plenty 
from the dyke on the north-east side of the farm, and about 
200 yards from the Theddlethorpe Road. I believe this in- 
teresting Hepatic is only recorded for one other locality in 
Lines., in "Transactions of the Lines. Nat. Union," 1906, 
in Miss S. C. Stows' List of Lines. Liverworts on Scotton 
Common, 29th July, 1905, J. Reeves.' — F. Rhodes, Bradford, 
13th August, 1907. 

<>♦ 

The Fungi of Ants Nests in Ceylon has been made the subject of a 
Memoir by the Government Mycologist, Mr. T. Petch. He considers, after 
careful examination, microscopic and otherwise, of fresh specimens, the 
typical species to be a Volvaria, so that its name will stand Vvlvaria eurhizd 
Berk. Originally described by Mr. Berkeley in 1847, from dried specimens, 
as an Armillaria, it has been by various authors regarded as a Lentinus, 
Collybia, Pluteus, Pholiota, and Flammula. The volva is very adnate to 
the base of the stem, resembling our V. gliocephalus. The fungus grows 
from the coomb, and comes up above the ground in rainy weather. Another 
species which grows on the nest is an edible one, Entoloma microcarpum. 
Xyliaria nigripes grows on deserted nests, while species of Mucor, Thamni- 
dium, Cephalosporium, and Peziza are developed upon the coomb after it is 
removed from the nests. The' paper is illustrated by 19 excellent plates 
from photographs, and is published in 'Annals of the Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Peradinyia,' November 1906, pp. 1S5-270. 

1907 September 1. 



328 

NORTHERN NEWS. 



' If a fly should get in your eye, keep your eye tightly closed for two or 
three minutes' : — the prize ' Country-side hint ' recently ! 

More damages ! Mr. E. E. Austen describes l A rare British Fungus- 
midge, re-discovered in London,' in the ' Entomologist's Monthly Magazine ' 
for August. 

In answer to an advertisement for a well-known geological memoir, a 
leading London bookseller sends us a quotation for 'The Yorkshire Liars, 
Tate & Blake.' 

At the Arncliffe meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union the geological 
members were invited to examine a fine 'fossil trout,' which was so well 
preserved that even the spots were clearly shown. It proved to be a cast 
of a Stigmaria ! 

We must congratulate our Bradford scientific friends on their method of 
popularising their journal by the insertion of short scientific notes of a 
humorous nature. In a recent issue we learn that ' Gold has been discovered 
on the shores of Loch Fyne {where the herrings come from) ' ! 

Mr. John Maclauchlan, the President of the Museums Association, thinks 
that had there been museums in Elizabeth's time, the greatest of all the 
poets would have written, ' All the world's a museum, and all the men and 
women merely specimens, who, in their time, play many parts.' 

We quite agree with a recent writer, in referring to the courtship of 
grasshoppers, that ' one's fancy must stretch a good deal from the human 
point of view to realise that the suitor whispers his soft nothings with the 
back of his wings, and his sweetheart listens with her front legs.' 

Early in August the local press recorded a ' pest of jelly fish ' on the 
Yorkshire coast. ' Some of the pink variety were of immense bulk, 
measuring over three feet across, and from six to nine inches in thickness. 
The blue-tinted fish were also very numerous.' Salmon nets were quickly 
filled with them, and incautious bathers were severely stung. 

We learn from a certain source, which can probably be guessed, that 
' Insects have no conscious feeling of pain. Their knots of nerves are 
distributed down their body, and there is no central brain to enable the 
insect to regard itself as an individual, and realise that it suffeis.' The 
information is so decisive that we presume the writer has had the informa- 
tion supplied direct by some 'insect.' Or was it the lyre-bird, which, by 
the way, is suggested as a badge for a certain natural history (sic) paper. 

In connection with the recent meeting of Yorkshire Naturalists in 
Littondale, Mr. W. Morrison supplied the members with some interesting 
local information. The devil, locally known as Old Pam, takes the Thresh- 
field Grammar School for one night in the year, and teaches the little 
Wharfedale devils, who are ' that clever that they need nobbut yan nicht's 
schuling i' the year.' The devil also gives a supper at Kirkby Malham on 
a tombstone in the churchyard at midnight. As the dates on which these 
events occurred were not known, the members were not able to take part. 
Mr. Morrison also could not help, nor could he make enquiries, as, he said, 
he did not know the devil's address ! 

The editor of a certain ' natural history' newspaper, thinking that 'many 
may be glad to know ' how he manages to be prepared for most eventualities, 
although, when starting for a walk, he may seem to be armed only with a 
walking stick [!], proceeds to the length of two columns to give his readers 
the necessary information. We have had the patience to peruse his article, 
and learn that he wears a coat with plenty of pockets, in which he puts his 
tobacco pouch, handkerchief, match-boxes, etc. He also carries a knife 
and a piece of string. We wonder if he wears a hat, and if so, what he 
puts in it. We wish the army of badge-wearers would see that their chief 
did not run short of matter. Have the 135 who have recently won sixpence 
each in a ' what is it ' competition no gratitude? 

Naturalist, 



OCTOBER 1907. 



No. 609 

(No. 387 0/ current teriei) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., 

The Museum, Hull; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 
J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S. F.L.S., GEO. T. PORR1TT, F.L.S., F.E.S., 

Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, 

T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. 



Contents : — 

■Notes and Comments (Illustrated): — The Pacific Eider again; Food of the Black-headed 

Gull; The ' Grey Wethers ' ; Lamarck's Evening Primrose; Footprints in the Sands of 

Time; Norfolk Naturalists; Nests of Coot and Crested Grebe; A New Crustacean ... 

Notes of Changes among Animals in Fylingdales, North-East Yorks., within the 

last Fifty Years—/. W. Barry 

The Ancestors of the Angiosperms — Mary A. Johnstone, B.Sc, F.L.S 

The Natural History of Littondale (Illustrated) — T. S 

The Botanical Features of Littondale— Rev. IV. A. Shuffrey, M.A. 

Lincolnshire Mites (Illustrated) — C. F. George, M.R.C.S 

Tortrix semlalbana at Doncaster — L. S. Brady 

'Geology at the British Association—/. Lomas, F.G.S 

Botany at the British Association — Dr. C. E. Moss 

Anthropology at the British Association— G. A. Auden, M.D. ... 

In Memoriam — John William Farrah 

.Manx Crosses 

Lincolnshire Naturalists (Illustrated) 

Field Notes 

Reviews and Book Notices (Illustrated) 

Northern News 

illustrations 

Plates XXXIV., XXXV., XXXVI., XXXVIL, XXXVIII. , XXXIX, 



329-333 

334-337 
338-341 
342-353 
354-356 
357-359 

360 
361-363 
364-36 5 
366-369 

370 
371-372 
373-375 



353, 356, 37 
337, 341, 360, 363, 

359, 

331, 333, 342, 343 



370, 372 
365, 376 
345, 376 



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THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate XXXIV. 



«* 




Sallow Catkins. 

(Male (or Staminate) Blossoms) 



Willow Catkins. 

(Female (or Pistillate) Blossoms). 



3 2 9 

NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



THE PACIFIC EIDER AGAIN. 
We have more than once referred to the reported occurrence 
of the Pacific Eider [Somateria v-nigriim) in Britain, a record 
based upon a specimen shot in the Orkneys in 1904, which was 
sent to a Scarborough dealer, who sold it to a gentleman in 
Oldham. Mr. F. Smalley, in the August ' British Birds,' gives 
what is perhaps the last word on the subject, having examined 
the Oldham specimen, and also several others. He concludes 
that the Pacific Eider is still to be recorded for Britain, the 
supposed occurrences being merely examples of the Common 
Eider, which had more or less distinct V-marks under the 
throat. Mr. Smalley gives illustrations of the chins and throats 
of the Pacific Eider, and also of a variety of the Common Eider, 
from which the differences between the markings on the two 
species is clearly shown. It is considered that the occasional 
indistinct V-mark on the examples of the Common Eider is an 
instance of ' reversion.' 

FOOD OF THE BLACK-HEADED GULL. 

There has recently been much discussion on the usefulness 
or otherwise of the Black-headed Gull, but after the excellent 
and exhaustive report by Messrs. D. Losh Thorpe and L. E. 
Hope, recently issued for the Cumberland County Council, this 
discussion will surely cease. The report is really a fine piece 
of work, and reflects every credit upon the authors. Circulars 
were forwarded to leading naturalists, as well as to well-known 
farmers, gamekeepers, and anglers. These contained the 
questions : — (1) 'Do you consider the Black-headed Gull harm- 
ful to the fishing or farming industries? State reasons'; 
(2) ' Have you ever examined the gullet and stomach of this 
Gull ? If so, what were the contents ? ' and (3) ' What in 
your opinion is the staple food of this Gull ? ' Sixty-two replies 
were given to these queries, and these are carefully tabulated 
and summarised. In addition, the authors have, during a period 
of thirteen months, examined the contents of the stomachs and 
gullets of 100 birds. The results of this examination are given 
in detail and tabulated — the material being preserved in spirits. 
The report is distinctly in favour of the birds, which are 
evidently not so black as they have been painted. We only 
regret our space prevents us from referring to this work in 
greater detail. 

5907 October i. 



33° Notes and Comments. 

THE 'GREY WETHERS. 

The ' Grey Wethers ' of the Marlborough Downs are well 
known. They consist of hardened and solidified boulders of a 
stratum of Eocene, which formerly covered the Chalk. These 
' Sarsen stones,' as they are locally called, are scattered about 
the surface of the ground, and vary in size from small boulders 
to vast masses weighing- sixty or seventy tons. For many years 
the sarsens have been broken up for building purposes, etc., 
and these interesting geological relics are threatened with 
destruction. A fine collection of them occurs in Pickle Dean, 
near Marlborough (see Plate XXXV.). For a sum of £300 
twenty acres can be secured and preserved for all time. An 
appeal for funds is being made by the Wiltshire Archaeological 
Society, the Marlborough College Natural History Society, and 
the National Trust (25 Victoria Street, S.W.), and this we 
commend to the notice of our readers. 

LAMARCK'S EVENING PRIMROSE. 
The most conspicuous of the man}- alien plants which occur 
on the sandhills and sandy wastes of St. Anns-on-the-Sea is 
Lamarck's Evening Primrose {CEnothera Laviarkiana, Ser. ). It 
is probably of North American origin and produces a daily 
succession of rich yellow flowers from July to November. This 
is the species which occurred at Hilversum near Amsterdam, 
and in 1886 attracted the attention of Hugo de Vries. He 
studied the variations long and minutely, and the result was his 
well-known ' Mutationstheorie.' Mr. Charles Bailey has 
examined the varieties at St. Anne's, and gave an account of 
his results in an address to the Manchester Field Club, which 
has been recently published/" This plant has been established at 
St. Anns upwards of thirty years, and occurs on both sides of 
the Ribble Estuary. Mr. Bailey gives a summary of De Vries' 
results, and reproduces in detail the characters of the principal 
mutations. He shewed that new elementary species attain their 
full constancy at once, no intermediates occurred amongst them, 
that they made their appearance suddenly, and there was no 
apparent evidence of a struggle for existence or anything 
that savoured of natural selection. The principal variations 
found at St. Anns consisted of slight modifications of the petals 
and styles. The striking modifications in height, branching - , 

* ' De Lamarck's Evening Primrose on the sandhills at St. Ann's-on-the 
Sea.' Chas. Bailey. Manchester: Hinchcliffc «.V Co., July, 1907. 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate XXXV. 




THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate XXXVI. 




A r otes and Comments. 



33' 



leaves, fruits, and seeds, noticed by De Vries, do not seem to 
have been noticed at St. Anns, though one form has some of the 
characters of rubrinervis, and another, with sessile stigmas, 
agrees more closely with brevistylis. The paper is illustrated 
by six excellent photographs, one of which (Plate XXXVI.) we 
are permitted to reproduce by the kind permission of the author. 
We hope that these observations will be continued, and that a 
sharp look-out will be kept for forms agreeing still more closely 
with those described by De Vries. In a second paper* Mr. 
Bailey gives an account of upwards of forty species of aliens 
occurring on the sandhills of St. Anns. Besides plates of Oeno- 
thera this is illustrated by two plates of Ambrosia artemisifolia. 

FOOTPRINTS IN THE SANDS OF TIME. 
Perhaps one of the most interesting contributions to the 
Geological Section at the British Association meeting at 




Leicester was the report of the Committee appointed for the 
investigation of the Fauna and Flora of the Trias. This 
included a paper by Dr. A. Smith Woodward 'On a mandible 

* ' Further Notes on the Adventitious Vegetation of the Sandhills of St. 
Anns-on-the-Sea.' 'Memoirs and Proceeding's of the Manchester Literary 
and Philosophical Society.' Vol. 51, Pt. III., 1907. 

1907 October 1. 



332 Notes and Comments. 

of Labyrinthodon leptognaihus from the Keuper sandstone near 
Leamington.' An area of about 40 feet by 50 feet of 
footprint-bearing sandstone has been exposed in the quarries 
at Storeton, and a careful examination of these has resulted 
in some important additions to our knowledge of these foot- 
prints being obtained. Large slabs from this recent exposure 
are now preserved in the British Museum and the Museums 
at Birkenhead, Bolton, Hull, Leeds, Liverpool, and Man- 
chester. The report also contains notes by Messrs. H. C. 
Beasley, J. Lomas, A. R. Horwood, and L. J. Wills. One 
of the illustrations accompanying the report we are kindly 
permitted to reproduce. 



NORFOLK NATURALISTS. 

' The Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' 
Society' for 1906-7* are to hand, and appear to contain a 
greater number and variety of valuable papers than usual, 
which is saying a good deal. To enumerate the titles of the 
papers even would be a lengthy matter, and their worth can be 
estimated from the following - list of authors : — C. A. Hamond, 
J. T. Hotblack, A. Bennett, J. H. Gurney, H. Laver, H. M. 
Evans, J. O. Borley, T. Southwell, W. G. Clarke, R. Gurney, 
A. W. Preston, E. L. Turner, T. J. Wigg, F. Leney, A. H. 
Patterson, F. Balfour Browne, and Claude Morley. The sub- 
jects dealt with relate to Archaeology, Botany, Birds, Conchology, 
Fishes, Biography, Crustacea, Meteorology, Entomology, 
etc., etc. 

NESTS OF COOT AND CRESTED GREBE. 

Perhaps one of the most interesting articles is by Miss E. L. 
Turner, who had the rare good fortune to watch and photograph 
at close quarters the nests of a Coot and Crested Grebe, which 
were built only eighteen inches apart, on Hickling Broad. 
Her description of the nesting habits of these two species, and 
of the tactics she made to get near to them and photograph 
them, are pleasant to peruse. Eight of her photographs 
accompany the notes, and by kind permission these are repro- 
duced for the benefit of our readers (Plates XXXVII. and 
XXXVIII. ). The photographs shew: — (No. 1) Coot on nest 
and Grebe uncovering her eggs ; (No. 2) the unusual height of 
the nests ; (No. 3) Coot on nest with two young ones, the 

* Vol. VIII. , Pt. 3. 1907, pp. 329-498, Plates. Fletcher & Son, 
Norwich, 5/- 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Pt.ATE XXXVII. 






THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate XXXVIII. 







Abates and Comments. 



female Grebe inspecting- her newly hatched young- one ; (No. 4) 
Female Grebe removing egg-shell from nest ; (No. 5) Coot 
visiting Grebe's nest during the latter's absence ; (No. 6) Both 
Coots bringing food to their young ones ; (No. 7) Coot carrying- 
young, and male Grebe swimming away with chicks under his 
wing ; and (No. 8) Female Grebe feeding chick under her wing. 



A NEW CRUSTACEAN. 
Dr. Henry Woodward, F.R.S. in the Geological Magazine, 
has an interesting paper ' On Pygocephalus, a primitive Schizopod 
Crustacean from the Coal Measures.' The specimen was 
obtained by Mr. W. A. Parker from the well-known section at 
Sparth, Rochdale. At the York Meeting of the British 
Association Dr. Woodward described the specimen under the 
manuscript name of Anthrapahemon parkeri, but now considers 

y 




Pygocephalus parkeri, 
From Sparth, Rochdale. 

it should be placed in the genus Pygocephalus, the specific 
name, parkeri, being retained in honour of the discoverer of the 
specimen. Dr. Woodward's paper also contains a detailed 
description (with plate), of P. cooperi, Huxley, from the coal 
measures near Dudley. By the courtesy of Dr. Woodward we 
are able to give our readers an illustration of the Lancashire 
specimen. 

1907 October i. 



334 

NOTES OF CHANGES AMONG ANIMALS IN FYLING- 
DALES, NORTH-EAST YORKS., WITHIN THE 
LAST FIFTY YEARS. 



J. W. BARRY. 

Fylingdales. 



{Continued from page jog). 
BIRDS. 

The Peregrine I have missed the last few years. I used to 
see it regularly, perhaps once a week, and, almost invariably, 
if the hour was advanced, making- its way in the direction of 
the Peak, so there, I presume, it had its habitat among- the high 
cliffs. It caused some little destruction among the grouse, and 
one of my workmen has seen it strike the wild duck close at 
hand to him. I believe that Sir C. Strickland's late keeper 
killed one or two Peregrines, but I observed that its disappear- 
ance was almost coincident with the conversion of the Peak 
Hall into the watering place of ' Ravenscar.' 

The Buzzard I see, and have seen, at all seasons of the 
year, but not for long at a time. The last seen by me was just 
a month ago, and on two successive days. On the second 
occasion if flew in front of the house and almost within gun- 
shot. 

The Raven was common a short time ago, but I have not 
seen it for the last four or five years. Increased use of the 
pole-trap, I think.* 

The Jay I never saw or heard here until about fifteen years 
ago when some forty or fifty Jays suddenly appeared together. 
For many years afterwards they quite took possession of the 
woods, and became quite a nuisance from their discordant cries 
alone. The last year or so only one or two odd ones have been 
heard, and that not continuously. This year none at all. I 
cannot attribute the decline to their being shot at. 

The nearest woods which they haunted before they appeared 
here were those of Harwood Dale about six or seven miles off in 
a straight line, but across the moor. 

Woodpeckers have greatly increased in numbers of late 
years and also in boldness. Formerly, Woodpeckers used never 

* The use of the Pole trap is now illegal, so that perhaps Ravens may 
fare rather better in the district for the future. — Ed- 

Naturalist, 



Barry: Changes among Animals in Fylingdales. 33 j 

to be seen away from the main woods. Now, however, they 
come regularly round the house and their weird laugh is for a 
considerable part of the year one of the constant sounds in the 
garden. The green Woodpecker is, of course, the more 
common one ; but the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker is, or was, 
here. The Greater Spotted Woodpecker I remember to have 
seen only once. I should attribute the change in the matter of 
Woodpeckers generally to the planting done round the house. 

Bullfinches. — To the same cause I should attribute the 
presence and increase of Bullfinches. Formerly, Bullfinches 
were quite unknown here. At least so I was told, and so I 
found, for I was always looking for them as a boy, and always 
being disappointed. Twenty years ago, however, when the 
plantations made in 1878 and 1879 on the north side of the 
house were beginning to get up, a pair made its appearance and 
nested there ; whilst in the course of a very few years they 
became so numerous that my gardener estimated that there 
could not be less than two hundred of them in that plantation 
and in the garden. At that time, the damage that they did in 
the way of picking out (for pure mishief) the young leaf-buds of 
the trees as they made their appearance began to be serious, 
the favourite objects of attack being the currants, thorns, and 
scyamores. Under the scyamores the ground was quite green 
every morniug with the buds that had been pulled out. This 
being so, there was a declaration of war. Sixty were shot one 
spring, and thirty-five the next. The Bullfinches then seemed 
to realise that they were being singled out for destruction, and, 
whilst no other birds left, or exhibited much shyness, the Bull- 
finches took their departure in a body, leaving not one of their 
number behind. A few seemed to take refuge in the main 
woods, particularly in the narrowest part, where there were 
young larch, and there they have remained ever since, but the 
quantity has remained small. This year, 1 understand, they 
have increased and have come to the plantation at the back of 
the house. The tradition, however, of their persecution seems 
to linger among - them, for they do not venture into the planta- 
tion where they were so shot down or into the garden. 

Since the above was submitted, I have seen one Bullfinch on 
the front lawn, but this was in the early morning, whilst I was 
dressing and I noticed that it was very different in its deport- 
ment from its ancestors twenty years ago, being suspicious as a 
corncrake and looking round every few seconds to see if anyone 
was about. 

1907 October i. 



336 Barry : Changes among Animals in Fylingdales. 

Hawfinches have, as elsewhere, made their appearance here 
within the last few years. As a choice has had to be made 
between letting' the peas or the Hawfinches go, it has been 
decided, of course, adversely to the Finches. They have not, 
however, been detained like the Bullfinches from coming, but 
have developed a considerable amount of cunning in making 
their raids. 

The Cuckoo is later in coming than it used to be. I used to 
hear it pretty punctually on April 27th. Now, however, it is 
generally May, and some way into May before I do so. 

The House Martin. — The same is the case with the House 
Martins. This year, for instance, I saw them for the first time, 
after a daily look out, on May 10th, whilst in other recent years 
they have been even later. They have ceased to build under the 
cornice of this house (which is a very projecting cornice), and 
under the eaves of the houses in the neighbouring village of 
Thorpe. As regards this particular house the increase of 
sparrows in the ivy at the back might account for the desertion, 
though it must be observed that the front is quite clear of them. 

The Swift which used to be common is now rare. 

The Nightingale, on the other hand, has visited us. The 
first time that it was heard was about Whitsuntide in 1902. It 
was heard both at this house and at Thorpe. In the former 
case, it was recognised by a servant who came from a part of 
the country where Nightingales were abundant. In the latter 
case, it was identified by a family who had recently come to 
settle there, and by others as well. Up here it sang only in the 
early morning. At Thorpe it sang almost always in the evening 
and until past eleven o'clock at night, keeping' the family already 
mentioned awake, since it always chose a certain tree opposite 
their house and bordening the public road. It invariably sang 
its loudest, they noticed, the moment the lamp was lig'hted, so 
that they thought it took it for the moon. The singing was 
continued every night for three weeks, then for some weeks 
there was a cessation, and then, for a short time, a resumption, 
suggesting' that in the interval the bird had been nesting. 

On March 22nd, of the present year, I was amazed to hear, 
when walking in the garden at dusk, what seemed to be exactly 
the same notes as those heard in 1902. I approached the tree 
where the bird was and stood for a long time listening to it, 
but could not attribute the strong" plaintive lament with its rich 
contralto of ' heu heu ' to any other bird but the Nightingale. I 

Naturalist. 



Book Notice. 337 

have not heard it again. On mentioning the matter to the lady 
at Thorpe who was favoured in 1902, I was told by her that she, 
too, had, about the same date, heard what certainly seemed 
to her, to be the Nightingale, but that she had not liked to say 
anything- about it on account of the time of the year and of her 
being- thought to be mistaken. The weather, however, it may 
be observed, was more summerlike than any we have had since. 
The Curlew, which used to be so shy, has became wonder- 
fully tame of late years. It has nested regularly at the moor 
edge on one of the farms of this estate (though owing to health 
I cannot speak as to last year), and became quite a companion 
in these parts, flying round and round close at hand uttering 
its cry. 

A Semi=feral Parakeet. — A female Parakeet belonging 
to my gardener has been living out in the woods and shrubberies 
for three years. It comes to his cottage regularly to be fed, 
except during the nesting time, when it is absent for many 
weeks together. In appears to make its nest somewhere in the 
heart of the oak woods, not less than half-a-mile away, but 
exactly where no one has been able to discover. To reach 
these woods it crosses about three-eighths of a mile of open 
ground. There was also a male bird with it, but this perished 
in the first winter that it was out. 



'Grouse Disease,' what it is and how it spreads, with suggestions for 
stamping out disease, and the gradual improvement of moors, by the Rev. 
E. A. Woodruffe-Peacock. Louth: Goulding & Son, 1907. in pp. Price 
5/. In this, No. 10 of his ' Rural Studies Series,' the Vicar of Cadnev 
brings together all that he knows of the Grouse Disease. In his ' Fore- 
word' the author states, 'So far as the)- go, these notes are my own, 
i.e., no other person is in an}- way responsible for them ... I have never 
done any field observation for the Grouse Commission, or had a specimen 
of theirs through my hands . . . who their advisers are I do not even know, 
as I have never been before them, or received any communication about 
their methods. ... I always understood I was appointed field observer 
to them as an honour for work done in the past ; but to show that this 
study has no connection whatever with the Commission's special line ot 
enquiry, I have resigned the honorary post they conferred upon me.' 
Having thus washed his hands of the Grouse Commission, and notwith- 
standing his opening remarks, Mr. Peacock declines to accept credit for 
any originality in his notes, and believes that if a file of 'The Field' 'were 
carefully sought through, the notes I have brought together here from the 
lips and letters of many men, and ephemeral literature, would be found to 
have been put on record over and over again during the past fifty years by 
practical sportsmen and field observers.' Having thus a clear statement ot 
the nature of the present contribution to this subject, and having noticed 
that from the quotation on the title page, ' The worst enemies of the human 
race — ignorance and superstition — can only be vanquished by truth and 
reason,' we can only hope that we have truth and reason from the soil, 
grass, and game specialist of Cadnev, Lines. 

1907 October i. 



33« 

THE ANCESTORS OF THE ANGIOSPERMS. 



MARY A. JOHNSTONE, B.Sc, F.L.S. 



At the present time, when the attention of every prominent 
worker in botanical research is turned to the last magnificent 
contribution towards the solution of the problem of the 
phylogeny of the angiosperms, it may not be inappropriate 
to set forth in a journal of special interest to Yorkshire a few 
brief statements concerning- the most important recent additions 
to our knowledge of the subject. Condensed within the space 
of a few pages, such a resume must necessarily be the merest 
outline, and can make no pretentions to attempting a critical 
survey of the various hypotheses which have been formulated, 
much less to add to their number. 

The question involves not one problem, but a whole plexus 
of problems, most important of which may be mentioned the 
following : — the line of evolution along which the typical flower 
and fruit of the angiosperm have progressed ; the sudden 
appearance in Lower Cretaceous times of the angiosperm type 
of foliage ; which of the modern angiosperms are the more 
primitive — the simple, unisexual, often apetalous forms, or the 
complete, bisporangiate ; is the group monophyletic, or have 
monocotyledons been derived from dicotyledons, or vice versa? 

All recent palaeontological evidence tends to confirm the 
view that modern flowering plants are descendants of a long 
line of fern-like, Cycado-filicean, and Cycadean ancestors. As 
this evidence has accumulated, the necessity for continual 
revision and rapid re-adjustment of our principles of classi- 
fication has become more and more apparent. For instance, 
secondary growth can no longer be regarded as a mark ot 
Phanerogamic affinity, since it has been shown to be the rule 
amongst the dominant Palaeozoic Cryptogams ; from amongst 
the Palaeozoic ' Ferns ' many types had to be transferred to a 
new group of Cycado-filices, combining the characters of both 
ferns and cycads, and from these again we get the Pterido- 
sperms. These last furnish a strong example of that law of 
evolution which states that the various organs of a plant need 
not necessarily have an ancestral history marked by contem- 
poraneous development. If we take Lyginodendron as atypical 
Pteridosperm we find that it has retained its fern-like foliage 
as well as certain fern-like anatomical characters ; that its 
microsporangia or pollen-bearing organs are so fern-like in 

Naturalist, 



Johnstone: The Ancestors of the Angiosperms. 339 

appearance that, until their connection with Lyginodendron was 
recently established by Mr. Kidston,* they were regarded as the 
sporangia of a true fern ; but that, in strong contrast to all 
these, it bore remarkably complex seeds, evolved apparently 
long before anything approximating to a. flower was in existence 
in this group. f 

It is, however, from Mesozoic times that we get types more 
closely allied to our existing forms. As a result of the study 
of these, a new family has been constituted — the Bennettitece — ■ 
which includes, besides the true Cycadales, those species which 
combine the habit of growth and the foliage of Cycads with a 
fructification differing absolutely from that of any known plant. 
The type genus was founded in 1868 by Mr. Carruthers \ to 
include species from the Middle Oolites to the Lower Greensand. 
In their general appearance, in the mode of attachment of the 
remarkable fruits to the plant axis, and in their detailed 
structure the English specimens agree so closely with American 
species (to be referred to below) that the same description may 
suffice for both. 

Another allied form was obtained from the Lower Oolite of 
Yorkshire ; this was the Zinnia gigas, of which an account was 
presented by Williamson in 1868, and which was placed by 
Mr. Carruthers in the new genus Willi amsonia. The fructifi- 
cations found with the Z<i/nia-\\ke foliage of this plant, were 
very puzzling, exhibiting externally a globular form clothed 
with bracts, and internally a disk-like structure bearing a 
pyramidal upgrowth. Dr. Wieland's recent work strengthens 
the view expressed by Mr. Seward that these plants were 
allied to the Bennettites. 

But by far the most important of recent discoveries are 
those of Dr. Wieland.§ These, the results of eight years' 
labour, are embodied in a magnificent volume published last 
year on 'American Fossil Cycads.' The wealth of material 
which has been at Dr. Wieland's disposal has been obtained 
from the Mesozoic beds of America, ranging from Upper Trias 
to Lower Cretaceous horizons : its classification has been the 
work of Professor Lester Ward. 

It is these Bennettitece [Cycadoidece of Wieland) which seem 
to furnish the key to the evolutionary problem of the angio- 

* Kidston, Trans. Royal Soc. (1905). 
t Oliver and Scott, Trans. Roy. Soc. (1904). 
% Carruthers, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxvi. (1868). 
S Wieland, American Fossil Cycads (1906). 

1907 October i. 



340 Johnstone: The Ancestors of the Angwsperms. 

sperm ic flower, and that being - so, a short summary of their 
structure may be of interest. 

The habit of growth and stem-form agree very closely with 
those of the typical modern cycads ; but the first great difference 
is apparent in the mode of attachment of the fructification, which 
consists of a strobiloid axis borne on the main stem and wedged 
in amongst the persistent leaf-bases. This short axis terminates 
in a convex receptacle bearing [a) at its lowest level a series of 
spirally arranged bracts, (b) above these a whorl of frond-like 
sporophylls, fused proximally, bipinnate, and having numerous 
pollen sacs of a synangial type, (c) a central conical region, 
arranged on which are numerous stalked ovules interspersed 
-with elongated scales partially united at their distal ends to 
form a kind of ovary wall, but still allowing the micropyles of 
the ovules to project a little beyond them. 

The marked general agreement in the arrang-ement of the 
various parts of the flower, the perianth-like lower members, 
the hypogynous stamens, and the central ovary are all most 
suggestive of the angiospermous flower. This very close 
approximation was at once recognised by Dr. Wieland, and 
has met with very general acceptance. Minute examination 
of the structure strengthens the case by showing that not only 
were the seeds almost exalbuminous, but the embryo was in 
all respects that of a highly organised dicotyledon. 

The Bennettites of Mr. Carruthers and the earliest specimens 
examined by Dr. Wieland showed only the female organs ; this 
probably simply meant that the stamens had withered, and was 
quite in accord with the fact that the seeds were in a fully ripe 
condition as shown by the stage of development of the embryo. 
The basal portion left after the stamens had dropped probably 
represented the 'disc' of Williamsonia gigas. 

Such a striking assemblage of widely contrasting characters 
as we have in these surprising fossils has of course given rise 
to much fresh speculation. The fern-like sporophylls with 
their synangia of a Marattiaceous type indicate a connection 
with the oldest types of ferns. Side by side with these we find 
the highly evolved seeds and the ovary wall suggestive of the 
angiosperms, though the plant is yet essentially a Gymnosperm, 
inasmuch as the pollen is collected not by a modified carpel, 
but by the ovule itself. The spiral of bracts, which possibly 
may foreshadow the modern perianth, and the dicotyledonous 
character of the seed complete a most astonishing combination 
of great type features. 

Naturalist 



Book Notice. 341 

From a consideration of such fossil evidence as the above, 
combined with a comparison of existing - forms of flowers, as 
well as evidence from other sources, which must be passed 
over at present, Messrs. Newell Arber and Parkin * have 
formulated a set of conclusions, which they present as a 
' Working - Hypothesis ' for future guidance. They maintain 
that the simple apetalous types of modern angiosperms are not 
primitive forms, but have been derived by reduction from 
hermaphrodite forms with a perianth ; that the unknown ancestor 
of the angiosperms was built, generally speaking, on the plan 
of the Mesozoic Bennettites ; that the angiosperms are a 
monophyletic group, the monocotyledons having been derived 
from the dicotyledons ; and that entomophily was a primitive 
feature of the race. 

It will be seen from the above outline of new evidence that 
no light has yet been shed on the dark period of the emergence 
of the typical foliage of the angiosperm, and it is in connection 
with this that the practical suggestion of this paper may be 
made. The estuarine beds of Yorkshire have unfortunately 
not yet provided us with any evidence of a microscopic 
character bearing on these problems ; but it is, of course, well 
known that they are extremely rich in well-preserved impres- 
sions of leaf form, and to a less extent of flower form. Might 
not the Research Committees of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
take this into consideration as a probably fruitful field on which 
to expend some of their energies? The exposures of fossiliferous 
beds along the coast have been well investigated, but there 
would seem to be many promising sections lying further 
inland which have been neglected, and which would repay 
investigation. Systematic collecting from these, with especial 
care expended on localising the exact horizon of all specimens, 
might possibly do something towards elucidating a sequence 
from the cycadean or filicinean type of leaf to the angiospermic 
— hereby contributing in some degree towards the solution of 
one of the greatest botanical problems of the day. 

♦♦ 

We have received the August number of the Nature Reader Monthly 
— a small magazine printed in large type — apparently for the use of school 
children. It deals with a variety of subjects — Poppies, Butterflies and 
Moths, Protective Colouration, the Sea Shore, Rocks and Scenery, etc. 
The language used is generally clear. The pamphlet is edited by Mr. 
F. H. Shoosmith, is illustrated, contains 32 pp., and is sold atone penny by 
Charles and Dibble, London. 

* Journal of Linn. Soc. London, xxxviii. (1907). 

j 907 October 1. 



342 

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF LITTONDALE, YORKS. 

The numerous members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
who reached Arncliffe for August Bank Holiday week-end were 
well rewarded for their pains. To some of them the recollection 
of the journey from Grassington, notwithstanding - the glorious 
view of the surroundings, whilst the daylight lasted, will be 
anything but pleasant, though these will doubtless remind 
them of methods of crossing the country in pre-railway days. 
Still, even the out-of-the-way headquarters of the meeting had 
many advantages, and although it was a holiday season, the 
visitors were quite comfortable, albeit that an influx of some 




Photo bv 



Arncliffe Village. 



forty Yorkshire Naturalists was a serious tax on the sleeping 
accommodation of this small and old-world village. 

But what a glorious district ! Could anything be more 
charming to the eye accustomed to crowded thoroughfares and 
smoky chimneys than those far-reaching dales and cloud- 
capped fells. To see them alone was well worth the longest 
journey — to investigate them, to unravel the riddles they held, 
was paradise. One can quite understand this district being the 
retreat of many busy men. Kingsley stayed at Arncliffe — it is 
the Vendale of his 'Water Babies.' Part of that well-known 
book was written here. Malham Cove, close by, is the Low- 
thwaite Crag of that same work, and still shows the black mark 
made by Little Tom, the sweep, when he slipped clown the Scar! 

Local tradition hath it that there are ghosts and barguests 
in the neighbourhood, and that Old Pam (the devil) pays 

Naturalist, 



The Natural History of Littondale, Yorks. 



1 A *> 



periodical visits, gives suppers, and on one night each year 
teaches the little Wharfedale devils in Threshfield Grammar 
School. But we don't believe it. No sane person would leave 
Upper Wharfedale for any place Old Pam could offer. And 
insane persons he doesn't cater for. 

With more or less poetic feelings, therefore, most of the 
members arrived at Arncliffe on Friday evening, but lost their 
sentiment in the scramble for beds. On the morrow, however, 
the high moorlands were ascended, and from their tops the 




River Skirfare below Arncliffe. 

valleys and nestling stone-built villages appeared typical ot 
peace and rest : 

A region of repose it seems. 
A place of slumber and of dreams. 
Remote among the wooded hills. 
For there no noisy railway speeds, 

and we hope one never will. 

But the Yorkshire Naturalists were bent on work. Man)' 
were astir long before breakfast, and most remained out as long 
as the light allowed ; a few stayed longer. The evenings were 
profitably spent. On Saturday the Vicar, the Rev. W. A. 
Shuffrey, read some valuable notes on the Botany of Littondale 
(see pp. 354-356), and Mr. W. Denison Roebuck gave an 
account of 'Yorkshire Hemiptera. ' He also noted some 
recent additions to the list of Hymenoptera of the county. 

At this excursion, Jt too, the sectional recorders were well in 
evidence, and each took charge of his department. Littondale 
had not previously been visited by the Union, and consequently 
the district was of more than usual interest, and in view of an 

1937 October 1. 



344 The Natural History of Littondale, Yorks. 

excursion to be presently held in an adjoining- dale, particular 
note of the fauna and; flora was taken, and on this account 
details of the records made in the various departments will be 
given more fully than usual. 

As might be expected from the geological features of the 
area, the hammermen were much in evidence, and their 
President, Mr. Cosmo Johns, by example and precept, caused 
his party to work hard. The result was a substantial addition 
to our knowledge of the fauna and stratigraphy of the 
Carboniferous Limestone of the area. 

Of perhaps more general interest was the visit paid by the 
more venturous of the party to Skotska cave. This runs 
underground, tunnel-like, for a great distance, and is remark- 
able for its regular course and perfectly flat roof. A good coat 
and a pair of trousers, far into the cavern, were ' finds ' of a 
somewhat unexpected nature ! 

On Monday evening the usual general meeting was held, 
under the presidency of Mr. C. Crossland. At this, votes of 
thanks were passed to the landowners, and to the Rev. W. A. 
Shuffrey for allowing the party to examine his fine botanical 
o-arden, and some new members were elected. Brief reports 
on the work of the sections were presented by the officers. 
These are given at greater length in these pages. 

Vertebrate Zoology. — This section was officially repre- 
sented by its President, Mr. Riley Fortune, and one of its 
Secretaries, Mr. H. B. Booth, who report : — Several working 
members being present, this Section accomplished good work 
during the limited time at its disposal. 

Mammals. — Eleven species of Mammals were indentified, 
v i Z- : — Mole, Common Shrew, Water Shrew, Stoat, Weasel, 
Squirrel, Brown Rat, Red-backed or Bank Vole, Long-tailed 
Field Mouse, Hare and Rabbit. Of these, the Hare was 
decidedly scarce, but the Rabbit was extremely abundant 
throughout the valley. Several black, and a few white, varieties 
were noticed, probably the descendants of tame rabbits turned 
down. ' Rabbits everywhere ' was a common remark, and yet 
their greatest enemy, the Stoat, was very numerous. Several of 
the latter were seen, and a local gamekeeper had the tails of 
fifty-six Stoats and ten Weasels strung up at his house, and all 
killed since February. Judging by the results of a dozen small 
traps continually set, the Common Shrew must be very 
numerous in the valley, and one specimen each of the Water 
Shrew, the Long-tailed Field Mouse, and the Red-backed or 

Naturalist, 



The Natural History of Littondale, Yorks. 



345 



Bank Vole, were captured. A few Bats, about the size of the 
Pipistrelle, were noted in the evenings, but no means of securing 
one for identification were available. 

j^-rcfo —Unfortunately this is one of the worst seasons of the 
year for observing the avifauna of an inland district. Most of 
the birds keep quiet, and well under cover with their young 




The work of Hawfinches. 

broods ; and more particularly this is the case with the wood- 
land species. The Common Buzzard was seen on both days, 
and on Monday the members of this Section were entertained by 
an exciting chase of a large Rabbit by a Buzzard, in which the 
Rabbit eventually made good his escape underground. Three 
Stockdoves were observed mobbing the Buzzard for some time. 
The Hawfinch was detected by his onslaught on some rows of 
peas in the vicarage garden, and the bird was afterwards seen. 
It would appear that the Hawfinch first made his advent into 
Littondale in. 1906, as the Rev. W. A. Shuffrey informed us 
that although he has grown peas for many years, yet they were 
attacked last year for the first time. 

The following fifty species of birds were identified* :— 
Missel Thrush (in flocks). Redstart (only one seen). 



Song - Thrush (common). 
Blackbird (common). 
Ring Ouzel (common). 
Wheatear (very common) 
Whinchat. 



Redbreast. 

Willow Warbler (very common). 

Dunnock (common). 

Dipper (very common). 



* To this list might be added the following four species, which were seen 
n Littondale this year, at Easter, but which were not observed during the 
Union's visit, viz. : — Peregrine Falcon, Merlin, Mallard, and Redshank. — 
H.B.B. 



1907 October i. 



346 



The Natural History of Littondale, Yorks. 



Great Titmouse (one or two pairs 
only seen). 

Blue Titmouse (one or two pairs 
were seen). 

Wren (very common). 

Pied Wagtail. 

Grey Wagtail. 

Yellow Wagtail (abundant). 

Meadow Pipit (abundant). 

Spotted Flycatcher (common around 
Arncliffe). 

Swallow (abundant). 

House Martin (common). 

Sand Martin (fairly common). 

Greenfinch (only heard once). 

Hawfinch. 

House Sparrow (common at Hawks- 
wick and Arncliffe, uncommon 
higher up the valley at Litton, 
Halton, etc. 

Chaffinch (common). 

Starling (fairly common). 

Magpie. 

Jackdaw (common). 



Carrion Crow. 

Rook. 

Swift (common). 

Tawny Owl (young heard calling in 

the woods). 
Common Buzzard. 
Sparrow Hawk. 
Kestrel (fairly common). 
Common Heron (fairly common). 
Wood Pigeon (fairly common). 
Stock Dove. 
Red Grouse. 

Pheasant (a few near Arncliffe). 
Partridge (very few seen). 
Waterhen. 
Golden Plover. 
Lapwing (in flocks now). 
Common Snipe (rather scarce). 
Common Sandpiper (apparently the 

bulk of this species had left 

the dale.) 
Curlew (common). 
Black-headed Gull (stray birds). 
Herring Gull (stray birds). 



In investigating the fauna of a district it is interesting to 
note what expected species do not occur, or are very rare, and 
Littondale gave plenty of scope for this class of investigation. 
Search as we would we could not discover a single Skylark ! 
Neither could we detect the Corncrake, nor any of the Warblers 
with the exception of the Willow Warbler, which was plentiful. 
Not a single Bunting of any kind was noted, and with the ex- 
ceptions of the Chaffinch, Hawfinch, Greenfinch, and Sparrow, 
none of the finch family was seen. Titmice were not by any 
means so common, neither in numbers nor in species, as one 
would have expected. It would be useful if future observers in 
this dale would take note of the apparent absence, or rarity, of 
these otherwise common birds. 

Pisces. — The Trout was plentiful, and the Loach, Minnow, 
and River Bullhead were also noted in the Skirfare. 

In Reptilia and Amphibia, the only species seen was the 
Common Frog, and it was not by any means numerous. 

Entomology. — Mr. G. T. Porritt writes : — But little wa 
attempted entomologically. Mr. J. Beanland found specimens 
of the local Coremia munitata on the high hills, and Nadaria 
mundana was plentiful on old walls. Prays curtisellus occurred 
among ash. As showing the extraordinary lateness of the 



Naturalist, 



The Natural History of Littondale, Yorks. 



?47 



season too, it may be mentioned that Acronycta ligustri and 
Abrostola urticce were taken as imagines. 

Among Neuroptera I was very pleased to find the prettv and 
rather scarce Heme robins marginatus, common in the wood 
opposite Arncliffe village, and near where also a very sparsely 
spotted form of Panorpa germanica occurred. Chloroperla 
grammatica, Rhyacophila dosalis, etc., were about the river. 

Mr. J. Beanland gives the following list of Macro-Lepidop- 
tera for Littondale : — 



Cliortobius pa mpli Hits. 
Lyccena alexis. 
Acronycta psi. 

, , in ega ceph a la. 

, , ligustri. 

Xudaria mitndana. 
Miopia fasciuncula. 
C 'a r ad riii a at b icit la ris. 



Noctud /estiva. 
Abraxas grossulariata. 
Larentia ccesiata. 

,, didy/nata. 

,, olivata. 

,, pectin itaria. 
Melan ippe montanata. 
Coremia n/iin itata. 



I took one C. munitata at Airton (Malham) on the 20th July, 
and two captured in Littondale were taken to Hull by Mr. 
Wilford. 

Mr. E. P. Butterfield adds :— 



Metroca in pa in aiga rita ta. 

Hvpsipetes eli/tata. 

Mel a nt hi a ocellata. 

C 'Ida ria corylata. 

En bolia in en s 11 ra ria . 

Hepialus hectus. 

Scoparia muralis, abundant 

,, niercuralis. 

,, triuicicolalis. 

,, ainbigita/is. 
Crambus at I melius. 



Crainbiis tristellus. 
Totrix ribeana. 

,, forstcrana. 
Pcnthina corticana. 
,, cynosbana. 
Sericoris lacunana. 
Sciaphila sitb/ectaiia. 
Grapholita penkleriana. 
Padisca corticana. 

,, solandriana. 
Pepilla curt isella. 



Mr. H. V. Corbett sends the following list of beetles, all 
common species : — Harpalus latus (L.), Pterostichiis strenuus 
(Panz.), Braciiypterus urticce (F.), Serica brunnea (L.), Agriotes 
obscurus (L.), Rhagouyclia fulva (Scop.), Crepidodera ferruginea 
(Scop.), Otiorrhynchus picipes (F.), Phyllobius oblongus (L.), 
PJiyllobius urticce (De. G.), Hypera nigrirostris (F.). 

Mr. J. Beanland adds that three Glow-worms were obtained 
at Hawkswick. 

Conchology. — The conchologists, under the leadership of 
Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, were particularly pleased with the 
excursion, as they were able to report the confirmation of every 
previous record of the molluscan fauna of Littondale. They 
were exceptionally gratified to find Pupa secale. 

1907 October I. 



348 The Natural History of Littondale^ Yorks. 

Botany. — Dr. T. W. Woodhead writes : — Botanists in 
every branch found here ample material to engage their close 
attention. Excursions were made to Foxup, Heselden Gill, 
and Penyghent : also over Old Cote Moor to Kettlewell and to 
Great Whernside. This area is included in the district surveyed 
by Smith and Rankin,* and an excellent opportunity was 
afforded to examine some of the chief plant associations there 
dealt with. 

In these notes, however, mention is only made of species 
observed in Littondale and the drainage area of the Skirfare. 
We were fortunate in having the assistance of the Rev. W. A. 
Shuffrey, who, on the Saturday evening, gave an interesting 
account of the ' Botany of Littondale.' This was illustrated by 
herbarium specimens (including the Lady's Slipper Orchid), 
and he afterwards invited the members to visit his delightful 
garden, which it was a pleasure to see. 

My own observations were directed mainly to plant associa- 
tions and their distribution in relation to soils, the results of 
which will be published in a future paper. Lists of species 
have also been kindly supplied by Mr. J. Beanland (85 species) 
and by Mr. C. Waterfall (74 species). 

In the neighbourhood of the village striking plants by the 
river side were Myrrhis odorata and Senecio saracenicus, the 
latter a garden outcast by Cowside Beck. The fields and lanes 
were purple with Geranium pralense, while other conspicuous 
plants were Cnicus heterophyllus and Campanula latifolia. 
Geranium lucidum decorated the walls, and in a rough pasture 
on the drift was an abundance of Colchicum autumnale. 

Among the rarer plants met with were Saxifraga mnbrosa, 
S. aizoides, and Polemonium c&ruleum. 

In the woods on the steep drift-covered slopes below the 
Scars, Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) was the dominant tree. Hazel is 
also abundant, and here were noted Mountain Ash, Hawthorn, 
Whitebeam, Larch, Euonymus europa'tis and Viburnum opulus. 
The mixed soils here, together with the shelter afforded by the 
trees, give support to a rich and varied undergrowth. The 
following are among the species noted : — 



Anemone neniorosct. 
Aquilegia vulgaris. 
Actcea spicata. 
Hypericum hirsutum, 



Ge ra n iu m sit ngu in e it m . 

,, sylvaticum. 

,, Robe rtian um. 

Spircea Ulmaria. 



* ' Geological Distribution of Vegetation in Yorkshire ; Harrogate and 
Skipton District, 1903. Smith and Rankin." 

Naturalist. 



The Natural History of Littondale, Yorks. 



349 



kubus saxattlts. 
Geum urban u iu. 

, , rivale. 
Agrimbn la Eupatoria. 
Pate riii m officinale. 
Fragaria vesca. 
Ctrceea lutetiana. 
Sa u leu la eu rupee a . 
Cn lens heterophyllus. 
Prim it la a eu lis. 
Galium sylvestre. 
Seraph u la rla n odosa. 
1 V run lea chanuedrys. 
Mela m pv ru m prate use. 



Origanum vulgare. 
Prunella vulgaris. 
Lamiuni Galeobdolon. 
Teueriu in Scorodon ia. 
Menu rial Is peren n Is. 
Convallarla rn.aj.alis. 
Allium it rs I nu in. 
Sellla festalis. 
Luzula maxima. 
Carex pallescens. 
,, sylvatlca. 
Pteris aquilina. 
Poly st I eh u in loba la m . 
Lastnea Flllx-mas. 



Above the woods are the Scars of the Great Scar Limestone 
and the Limestone Pavements. The following were among 
the species noted here : — 



Thalletrum minus. 

, , coll in u in . 

Arab-is hirsuta. 
Draba titeana. 

Helianthemum chamoecistus. 
Arena rla verna. 
Dryas oetopetala. 
Ribes alpinum. 
Saxlfraga trldae/vlltes. 



Oxalis aeetosella. 
Listera ovata. 
Sesleria ccerulea. 

A splen in in v i ride. 

,, I riehomanes. 

Ruta-muraria. 
Seolope ii drlu m vulgare. 
( 'rs/opleris fragills. 
Ph i gopte ris ea lea n 'a. 



Higher still, extensive tracts are occupied by ' Hill pasture' 
dominated by Festuca ovina. There are many local variations, 
however ; ericaceous plants have wandered down from the 
heather moors, and are growing alongside species characteristic 
of limestone soils. These included : — 



Troll tits europceus. 
Cochlea rla dan lea. 
Viola I it tea. 
Poly gal a vulgaris. 
Cerastium triviale. 
Sagina nodosa. 
Arena rla verna. 
Ltiiuiu cat hart ' icitin. 
Geran lit in sylvatlcttm. 
A n thy 11 is 1 'it In era i ia. 
Pole/i ttlta sylves/rts. 
Poteriu m Sa ngu Isorba. 
Saxlfraga liypnoides. 
Pa mass la pal it st ris. 
Galium verum. 
Scablosa Columbaria. 
Carlina vulgaris. 

1907 October 1. 



J 'accin u in My rt I II us. 
Call una Erica. 
Primula a caul is. 

,, farlnosa. 

Gen tta nu Amarella. 
PI ngu leu la vulga ris. 
Pedicularis palusti is. 
Thy 111 us Serpvllu Hi- 
Plant ago media. 
Habenaria eonopsea. 

,, viridis. 

C 'a rex dioica. 
Scrtpits cartels. 
Sesleria ccerulea. 
Koeleria cristata. 
Opli logloss it in 1 'ulga I it in. 
Set agin ell a set agin el to ides. 



350 The Natural History of Littondalc, Yorks. 

The upper slopes of the Yoredales are peat covered, and 
dominated by heather moors broken into considerably in places 
by grassy and rushy tracts. The chief* species noted here were : — 



Carex dioica. 

,, pilulifera. 

,, pulicaris. 

,, Julv.t. 
Agrostis vulgaris. 
Nardus strict a. 
Descha mpsia ccespitosa. 
Mali uia varia. 



Call una Erica. 
I T accinium Myrtillus. 
,, vit is-idcea. 

Erica tctratix. 
Rum ex acetosella. 
f uncus squarrosus. 

,, glaucus. 
Scirpus ccespitosus. 

The top of Old Cote Moor is a plateau capped with Mill- 
stone Grit and covered by peat i to 3 feet deep. The species met 
with here are in order of dominance : — 

Calluna Erica. Eriophorum angustifolium. 

Vaccinium Myrtillus. [uncus squarrosus. 

Rubus Chamcemorus. Nardus striata. 

Eiupe/riuni nigrum. Festuca ovina. 
Eriophoru ni vagin alum. 

Fungi. — Mr. C. Grassland writes : — The attention of the 
mycologists was given to the immediate neighbourhood of 
Arncliffe and up Littondale as far as Foxup. There were 
only two or three small woods, and these lacked the conditions 
— moisture and plenty of rotting- branches — favourable to the 
growth of larger fungi. Very little variety in the larger agarics 
was seen. Having gone with the express purpose of finding 
something, we turned our investigations in other directions. 
Nettle beds by the way-side, meadow-sweet beds in moist 
corners, and cattle dung in pastures and about farms found us 
plenty to do, in addition to odd places here and there looked 
into. Decaying stems of last year's nettles proved most 
prolific in micro-species, some of the stems having five or six 
different species, in as many inches, growing upon them. 
Among - the meadow-sweet was found Belonidium deparculum ; 
which had been sought for by the writer on decaying Spiraea for 
some years, and here it was in abundance ; it is an aberrant 
Discomycete having only four spores in each ascus, and was 
particularly wanted for the purpose of checking a previous 
examination of the same species found at Hornsea Mere in 
1900. No less than one fourth of the 107 species found were 
coprophilous fungi, mostly common habitues of cow, horse, 
sheep, and rabbit dung. Coprinus Glbbsii, a tiny but very 
distinct species first discovered by Mr. Gibbs near Sheffield in 
1903, being amongst them ; they sprung up in quantity on a 

Naturalist, 



The Natural History of Littondale, Yorks. 



piece of cow dung" kept a few weeks under a bell glass for 
observation. Several others, included in the following - list, 
came forward. One of the least expected to put in an appear- 
ance on this matrix was a Trichia or Hemitrichia — T. Karstenii 
Mass. Mon. p. 168 = //. Karstenii (Rost.) Lister. There was a 
small colony of four or five sporangia. There also came up a 
very small agaric, less than a line across the pileus, with pale 
brown spores ; this appears to be an undescribed species. 

There was an almost entire absence of the colt's foot and 
butterbur Uredines, though both plants were plentiful. 

The absence of decaying wood and shaded moist corners 
accounts for the comparative absence of Myxogastres : they 
were sought for. 

We have to thank several members of other sections for 
collecting specimens, two or three of the more important ones 
being brought in by them. 

The following is a summary of the work done : — 107 species 
found, 2 New to Yorkshire, marked * in the list; 21 New to 
Mid W. Div., marked t ; 8 Confirmations of hitherto single 
county records. 

The initals added to the records are: — A. = Arncliffe ; 
A. C.= Arncliffe Clouder ; L. = Litton; F. =Foxup. 

In plantation, 



Colly bit 1 dry op h Hi 1 

A. 
Mycenagalericulata, On old stump, 

A. 
M. acicirfa. On soil among' 

butter-bur, A. 
t Omphalia griseo-pallida, A. 

Gastromvcetes. 
Lycoperdon bovista. Remains of a 

last year's plant, A. C, at 

1700 ft. 

Hymenomycetes. 
Agaricaceae. 

Lacaria laccata. In plantation, L. 

I Pleitrotus applicatus. On rotting" 
wood on the Scar behind Hawks- 
wick. 

P. septicas. On decaying" meadow- 
sweet, F. 

Entoloma sericeum. In pasture, A. ; 
L. 

Nolanea pascna. In pastures, A. ; 
L. 

1907 October i. 



t Inocybe incarnata. On soil near 

the stream side, A. 
/. rimosa. On the ground in a 

small wood, L. 
Crepidotus mollis. On decaying 

gate post, L. 
Bolbitius later. Among grass in 

pasture, A. 
Agaricits campestris. In pasture, 

A. C. 
Stropharia stercoraria. On cow 

dung in pasture, A, 
5. semiglobata. Common on cow 

dung all the way up the dale. 
Panceolus cam pan ulatus. 
P. papilionaceus. 
P. fimicola. 
Anellaria separata. 

All on cow dung about Arncliffe 
and on the hill sides. 
Psilocybe semilaticeata. Among; 

grass in hill side pasture at 

1700 ft. 
Psathyrella atomata. Among" grass, 

road side, A. 



35 * 



The Natural History of Litton dale, Yorks. 



P. disseminata. On rotting, moss- 
covered trunk, A. 
Coprinus niveus. 
C . radiatus. 

Both on horse dung- in pastures 
A. 
t C. Gibbsii. On cow dung, A. 
C. plicatilis. Among grass in pas- 
tures, and on lawn, A. 
Hygrophorus chloropharius, A. 
Marasmius rotula. On dead twigs 
L. 

POLYPORACE^E. 

Boletus ftavus. Among- grass, A. 

B. laricinus. Among fallen larch 
leaves, A. 

Polyporus squamosus. On ash 
stump, A. L. 

Polyticstus versicolor. On gate 
posts, A. L. 

t Fomes connatus. On stump, A. 

F. ign iarius. A portion of last 
year's growth picked up from 
the g-round on hill side in planta- 
tion, A. 

F. atmosus. On pine stump, A. 

Hydnace.^. 
Grandinia granulosa. On rotten 
wood, L. 

Thelephorace.e. 
Corticium calceum. On dead 

branch, L. 
Cyphella cupula. On dead stems of 

butter-bur, A. 

TREMELLACE/E. 

Tremella mesenterica. On fallen 

trunk, A. 
Dacryomyces deliquescens. 
D. si Hiatus. 

Roth on dead wood, A. L. 

UREDINACE/E. 

Uromyces alcheni illce. On ladies' 

mantle, A. 
Puccinia pulvci-uleiita. On Epilob- 

iuni moil la n u in, L. 
P. pinipiiiella. Urec/ospores on 

sweet cicely, L. 
P. poaruiu. ^Et'idiospo/rs on colt's 

foot, F. 



P. caricis. ^Ecidiospores on the 

common nettle, F. 
P. centaurece. On Knapweed, A. 
Phragmidium sangu isorbce. .Ecidio- 

spores on Poteriuin sanguisorba , 

A. L. ; F. 
Triph rag in ium ulina rice. Uredo- 

spores on meadow sweet, A. 

USTILAGINACE.^. 

Ustilago violacea. On the anthers 
of rose campion, L. 

Pyrenomycetes. % 
Nectria cinnabarina. On dead ash 

branches, A. 
Hypomyces rosellus. On Polystictus 

versicolor, A. 
Diatrvpe disciform is. On dead 

beach branch, A. 
Melanomma pulvis-pyrius. On dead 

decorticated branch, A. 
t Sordaria curvula. On rabbit dung, 

A. 
t 5. in inula. On rabbit dung, A. 
t Spororm ia intermedia. On rabbit 

dung, A. 
Rhaphidospora rubella, F. 
R. urticce, A. 

Heptameria doliolum, A. F. 
t H. acuta. A. F. 
Pleospora Jierharuni , A. 

The last five all on dead nettle 
stems. 
Splice ret la rumicis. Common on 

Rumex obtusifolia, A. L. ; F. 
Splice rot heca pannosa. The Oidium 

stage on wild rose, A. L. ; F. 
5. castagnei (S. humuli). On living 

leaves of lady's mantle near the 

Hotel door, A. 

Discomycetes. 

Ace/abula vulgaris. On sandy 
ground near stream, A. 

H umar ia granulata. A. L. 

Lachnea slercorea, A. 

t L. ascoboloides, A. 

All three on cow dung. 

t L. /iuibriata. On soil in butter- 
bur bed, L. 

Dasyscypha virginea, F. On dead 
stems of meadow sweet, F. 



Naturalist. 



Field Note, 



353 



D. nivea. On dead wood, F. 

t Erinella Nylanderi. On dead 

nettle stems, A. 
Chlorosplenium ceruginosum. On 

dead ash branch in the wood on 

the hill side behind the church, A. 
Helotimn claro-flavum. On rotting, 

parti}' moss-covered branch, L. 
H. pallescens. On rotting twig, F. 
H. cyathoideum. Extremely com- 
mon on decaying herbaceous 

stems, especially nettle. 
H. scutitla, F. 
t Belonidium deparculum, A. 

Both on decaying stems and 

leafstalks of meadow sweet. 
Mollisia cinerea. On dead twigs, L. 
M. atrata. On decaying stems of 

meadow sweet, A. ; F. 
M. urticicola. On dead nettle stems, 

F. 
f Pseudopeziza trifulii. On living 

leaves of white clover in meadow, 

A. ; on road side, L. 
t Rvparoblus dubius. On rabbit 

dung, A. 
* AscopJianits cinereus. On rabbit 

dung, A. 
f A. minutissimus. On cow dung, F. 
A. carneus. On rabbit dung, A. 
A. equinus. On dung of cow and 

horse, A. ; L. 
Ascobolus fit rf it race its. On cow 

dung, A. ; L. ; F. 
t A. globe r. On rabbit dung, A. 
\ A. immersus. On dung of cow and 

rabbit, A. 



Calloria fusarioides. Conidial stage, 
on dead nettle stems, A. 

Phycomycetes. 

Pdobohts crystalliniis. Common on 

cow dung, A. ; L. 
Mucor mucedo. On rabbit dung, 

A. ; L. 

Deuteromycetes. 

t Phoma nebulosum. On dead 

nettle stems, A. 
P. longissima. On dead stems of 

some umbelliferous plant, A. 
t Vermicularia dematium. On dead 

nettle stems, A. 

Hyphomycetes. 

Botryosporiuni pulchrum. On de- 
caving nettle stems, A. 

f Periconia podospora. On dead 
herbaceous stems, F. 

St dbit in tomentosum. On Hemi- 
trichia Karstenii, A. 

Cladosporiitm herbarum, A. ; F. 

Arthrobotryum atrum, A. 

| Fitsitriitni rose it in, F. 

The last three on dead nettle 

stems. 

Myxogastres. 

Retictdaria lycoperdon. On old 
ornamental stump at the Hotel 
door, A. 

* Tricliia Karstenii (= Hemit 'richia 
Karstenii (Rost.) Lister). On 
cow dung, A. 

T. S. 



COLEOPTERA. 
Uncommon Beetles near Barnsley. — Late at night, on 
the 3rd of August, I took a specimen of Deleaster dichrous Grav. 
at rest on an electric lamp post in the town. The specimen is the 
var. leachii Curt. The species has not hitherto been recorded 
from the West Riding. On the afternoon of the 15th, under a 
small fungus at Darfield, I found several specimens of Cis 
bidentatus L. and one Mycetophagus quadripustulatus L. The 
only record for the West Riding hitherto for the former species 
is Studley, where it was taken many years ago by E. A. 
Waterhouse. — E. G. Bayford, Barnsley. 



1907 October i. 



354 

THE BOTANICAL FEATURES OF LITTONDALE.* 



Rev. W. A. SHUFFREY, M.A. 



If we would realise how different the flora in this valley is from 
that of the east side, for instance, of Yorkshire, we must bear 
in mind that we are here at an elevation of 750 feet above the 
sea, that the highest land in the Dale rises to 2270 feet, and 
that the flora exists in an average rainfall of sixty inches, or 
about three times that of the east side of England. This 
means that rain falls on two days out of three, taking the year 
through. We may wonder that there are any flowering plants 
at all. One would imagine that instead of phanerogams the 
whole country would be filled with mosses and lichens. But if 
we have a heavy rainfall we have a compensation in a very light 
soil, and one particularly favourable to plant life, viz., the 
limestone, and there is very little clay in the valley. It is the 
limestone that makes our flora so rich and extensive. As soon 
as the grit is reached, to the south — south east of Burnsall 
and Rylstone — many of our characteristic plants disappear, and 
the few that are peculiar to the grit and are not found on the 
limestone are unimportant and not rare. The first flower 
which blooms when Spring comes in after snows disappear, is 
not the "celandine" {Ranunculus ficarla) which Wordsworth 
noticed and sang' of, in the Lake Country. It is the Tussilago 
Farfara. I have made a note for the last twenty years or more 
of the date of its first appearance in each year, and I find that 
the dates range from February 21st, 1884, to April 7th, 1904. 
Our rarest plants are, first the lady's slipper orchid {Cypri- 
pedium Calceolus). I don't like to omit this, though I am sorry 
to say that the plants which I had in my garden for many 
years, and which were taken by my predecessor from the slope 
of the hill, have from some cause or other disappeared. But 
I understand that a single specimen was found in the Dale not 
many years ago, and I have a dried specimen of a flower of it 
which was found not far outside the parish, not long ag'o. And 
I think that it may yet be found in the Dale. Then there is the 
Polemoneum ccrruleum, which grows plentifully not more than 
half a mile from the village ; and Scduiu Telephium grows not 
far from it. We can also boast of Saxifraga oppositifolia and 
.S". aizoides on the slopes of Penyghent. Of course the Dryas 



* Read at Arncliffe, to the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, on August 3rd, 1907. 



Shuffrey : The Botanical Features of Littondale. 355 

octopetala is well known as growing - on the Clouders. This was 
recorded as far back as 1782 (Curtis). I am sorry to say that 
it is not as plentiful as it was, owing - , I am afraid, to the 
number of people who gather it and sometimes try, but of 
course unsuccessfully, to make it grow at a low elevation. It 
is said to be one of the few survivors of the Arctic flora in those 
regions and prefers a northern aspect. Rubus Cha/ncemorus 
grows on the moors. The berries of this are sometimes 
gathered by careful housewives and made into a preserve, 
which is not unpleasant to the taste. The Actcea spicala 
flourishes only in one area. I am glad to say that the Daphne 
mezereiim has been found in bloom this year by Mr. Booth. 
I saw one in Hesleden Gill years ago. I had twelve in my 
garden, but strange to say, during this year they have all, 
with the exception of a seedling, died out. The root seemed 
to dwindle away, and then the stems lost their vigour and 
became rotten. I have found Sedum anglicum near the river, 
it is probably an escape. Plantago maritima is plentiful on 
the road side between here and Kilnsey. Another feature is 
the wonderful growth and variety of the Geranium family, and 
the way in which several varieties seem to have their fixed 
abode, and will go no further. The prevailing type is Geranium 
sunguinium from Hawkswick to Arncliffe. One pasture near 
Hawkswick is full of it, and the crimson and russet colours of 
the decaying leaves and branches in the Autumn are quite a 
pretty picture. Past Arncliffe the G. sanguineum ceases, and 
makes way for G. prateuse, which, in its turn, finds its extreme 
limit near to Heather Gill ; and about a quarter of a mile south 
of this village G. sylvaticum is as luxuriant as G. sanguinum is 
at the bottom of the valley. All these specimens flourish in my 
garden. Geranium p/uvum is known to exist in a wild state in 
one locality in the Dale. 

Another feature in our plant life is that of the mrr nent 
and the disappearance of plants. Some plants seem to partake 
of the restlessness of the age, and desire a change of residence. 
I have noticed since I have been here that the Inula Pulicaria 
has shifted its quarters, travelling about a mile in twenty-five 
years. The Tragopogon pratensis has followed suit. It occurs 
only sparingly in one or two localities ; each year it seems to 
change its place. It is making up the valley now. This may 
be accounted for from the fact that the hairs of the pappus are 
long and very feathery, and like the Leontodon, are carried 
along easily by the wind. But then the prevailing wind is 

907 October i. 



356 



Field Note. 



Western, and yet the plant seems to be travelling East. I may 
also notice here that Epilobium hirsuitim, which is not known 
in this valley, though it occurs eleven miles away, has recently 
unexpectedly appeared in considerable quantities in my garden. 
With regard to the disappearance of plants, I may say that 
the Menyanthes trifoliata once grew in a wet pasture not more 
than half a mile from this village. It is now extinct, probably 
from the draining of the pasture. My predecessor, Archdeacon 
Boyd, who was here for fifty-eight years, took a great interest 
in the flora. He told me that when he came here the Holly 
Fern grew on the Clouders ; he remembered seeing forty or 
fifty plants. It is now not to be found there. This he ascribed 
to the depredation of the collectors of ferns. I am sorry to say 
that we lose a great many every year. Another scarce plant is 
Allium Scorodoprasum. It grows only in one place, and during 
the last twenty-five years I have watched it I have seen no 
tendency for it to diminish or increase, nor does it move its 
position, probably the bulbous nature of the plant prevents 
migration. I found three or four plants of the Fly orchis on a 
bank in a wood years ago, but I have not been able to find any 
plants in the same spot since. The Lamium album is scarce 
Parnassia palnstris is our last flower. 



FLOWERING PLANTS, Etc. 
Plants on Allerthorpe Common. — During a visit to 
Allerthorpe Common on August Bank Holiday a small party 
noted the following plants : — 



Teesdalia n udica 11/ is. 
Drosera rotundifolia. 
Gentiana Pneumonanthe. 
Gnaphalium sylvaticum. 
Filago minima. 
Carduus pratensis. 
Epilobium angustifolium var 
Orn itkopus perpusillus. 
Hvpericu in h u m ifusu m . 

, , pulchrum. 

,, perforatum. 

Radio la m Hit 'gra na. 
Teucrium Scorodon ia. 
Geranium pusillum. 
Silene noctiflora. 
( ' rtira urens. 
Erodium cicutarium. 



Galium pahtstre. 
Scnecio sylvaticus. 
Calluna vulgaris. 
Erica Tctralix. • 

,, cinerea. 
CEn a nth e fstulosa . 
ilb a. Polygonum amphibium. 

Co m arum pa lustre. 
I. ycopsis arvensis. 
Malva rotundifolia. 
Genista anglica. 
Spergula arz'ensis. 
Buda rubra. 
J uncus articulatus. 
Aulacomnium palustre, (Moss.) 
Marchantia polymorpha. (Hepatic) 
in splendid condition. 



Galium saxatile. 
—J. Marshall, Beverley, August 17th, 1907. 



Naturalist, 



THE X ATI' RA LIST, 1907. 



Plate XXXIX. 




■"01 






o\ ~ ~ ~ ~ 




^ I- V 

fe-o'g. 

■S § 



5 3 



■Si cu cu^ « 

> s n o c 



357 

LINCOLNSHIRE MITES. 

RH YNCHOLOPtilD/E. — ( Concluded) . 
(plate XXXIX.) 



C. F. GEORGE, M.R.C.S. 
Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

Ritteria. This genus, or as Professor Sig Thor calls it, sub- 
genus, was first differentiated from Rhyncholophus by Kramer 
in 1877. It will be seen to differ in many respects from Rhyn- 
cholophus. The legs are not nearly so long, nor is the penul- 
timate internode of the last pair of legs markedly longer than 
the others. The eyes, one on each side, consist of a single 
ocellus. The central part of the bod) - in front projects in a 
snout-like manner, on which are a few hairs and two stigmatic 
openings, each provided with a rather fine and long tactile hair, 
well shown in Mr. Soar's figures. There is no ball-like capi- 
tulum as in Rhyncholophus, the modification of the palpus is 
perhaps the most important difference here ; instead of a 
prominent pear-shaped fifth joint, there is only a slightly pro- 
jecting hair pad, close to the base of the claw which terminates 
the fourth joint. The hairs or spines which cover the bod} - are 
smooth, and appear to arise from the centre of a chitinous plate, 
they are also somewhat curved (see Plate XXXIX., fig. 4). 
This mite somewhat resembles Eiyihrceus nemorum, but is easily 
differentiated from that creature by the structure of the palpi and 
body hairs. It is of a fine red colour, and is not unlike Thor's 
Ritteria norvegica, yet I am inclined to consider it to be a different 
species, and will therefore give it the provisional name of 
mantonensis ', from its being found in the Parish of Manton, 
near to Kirton-in-Lindsey. I have also found several small 
specimens of a beautiful yellow colour belonging to this genus, 
whose specific names I am not able to give, each having the 
peculiar structure of the palpus. This structure was described 
and figured by Brady ' On Rhyncholophus hispidus, ' in the 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1877, P'- * v -i ar >d 
doubtless there are many more species of Rhyncholophus in 
England which require searching for, describing and recording. 
Many species, some of which, judging from the figures, appear 
to be very handsome creatures, have been described by foreign 
writers. One genus, which, so far as I know, has not yet 
been found in England, is remarkable for having a number of 
long hairs on the two last internodes of the hind legs, set in 
whorls and resembling very much a bottle-brush. The first 

1907 October i 



35^ George : Lincolnshire Mites. 

specimen I ever saw was sent to me in 1895 by Mr. Luff, of 
Guernsey. It was a carded specimen which I had to return. I 
recorded it in " Science Gossip" for November, 1896, under the 
name of Rhyncholophus plumipes. Six years afterwards, in 
August, 1902, I received from Mr. Luff a few living specimens, 
some of which I dissected and mounted for the microscope. 
Mr. Soar has kindly drawn a figure of this mite from a mounted 
specimen of his own, assisted by mounted dissections made by 
myself. Fig. 9 is a drawing of the dorsal aspect, showing 
the general appearance of the mite ; the curious formation of 
the hind leg is well shown. It must be very curious to see it 
running on the sand in bright sunlight, with these legs carried 
perpendicularly above its body. When alive, even when rather 
feeble, if stimulated by a touch, the legs are immediately 
elevated. Their utility to the creature, so far as I know, has 
not yet been made out. 

Fig. 10 shews the mouth parts much enlarged. The palpi 
are seen to be distinctly five-jointed, the fifth joint pear-shaped 
and arising near the middle of the fourth. The circlet of fine 
hairs round the end of the proboscis is also indicated. In the 
centre only one mandible is shewn, the other having been with- 
drawn during dissection. Fig. 11 shews the tarsus of the first 
leg, which is compressed sideways, with claws and hair pad. 
Fig. 12, the chitinous rod, which lies in the dorsal groove, with 
its capitulum, which, in this case, is an inverted cone and not 
ball-shaped as in Rhyncholophus. Fig. 13 shews the peculiar 
leaf-like hairs or scales which cover the body. 

In the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for 
December 14th, 1897, will be found another species of this 
genus figured and described by the Rev. O. Pickard Cambridge, 
under the name of Eatonia scopulifera (the name Eatonia being 
preoccupied was changed to Eatoniqna, loc. cit. May 3rd, 1898). 
The mite which was found in Algeria will be seen to differ in 
several important particulars from the one here illustrated. In 
the "Canadian Entomologist" for February, 1900, Vol. xxxii., 
No. 2, page 32, is a paper on these mites by Nathan Banks of 
Washington, who states that Cambridge's mite is the same as 
one described by Lucas in 1864 as R. plumipes; that Birula 
described one in 1893, from Russian Armenia, as R. plutnifer, 
and this appears to be the same as the one figured by me from 
Jersey. He also mentions another species from Switzerland, 
described by Haller, which he would therefore call halleri. I 
have not seen Haller's paper, and therefore do not know wherein 

Naturalist, 



Northern News. 359 

it differs from the othes two — at all events, it appears that three 
species are already known, viz : — 

1. Eaton ia net phtmipes — Lucas. 

2. ,, plumifer — Birula. 

3. ,, halleri — Banks. 

Possibly other species may eventually be discovered. It does 
not seem certain what the sex of the mite is. Cambridge con- 
siders his to be an adult female; the situation of the genital 
aperture, however, appears to me to be peculiar, certainly 
different from the female Rhyncholophus described in my 
previous notes. See 'The Naturalist' for July 1907, p. 260. 



We regret to record the death of Mr. J. Romilly Allen. F.S.A. , for main- 
years editor of the ' Reliquary.' 

A portrait of the late J. F. Walker of York, tog-ether with a lengthy 
memoir, appears in the August 'Geological Magazine.' 

Mr. Alexander Ramsay continues to publish his remarkable ' Scientific 
Roll and Magazine of Systematised Notes,' Bacteria, Vol. II., No. 19, deal- 
ing with Vital Chemistry : — General, Acetates, Acids, has recently been 
received. 

Mr. E. A. Martin, F.G.S., favours us with a reprint of his interesting 
article on ' Dewponds ' ; and from Mr. Joseph Kenworthy we have received 
a reprint of his notes on 'Antiquities of Bolderstone and Neighbourhood,' 
in which some British Cinerary urns, etc., are figured and described. 

The late Mark Stirrup has bequeathed to the Museum of the Manchester 
University specimens of volcanic rocks and fossils ; ,£"1000 for the main- 
tenance of a geological and palaaontological collection ; and £1500 for the 
foundation of a palaeontological scholarship, tenable for two years by any- 
one who has studied in the university. 

Referring to the note on the Bramble Finch near Halifax (' Naturalist, 
August, p. 291), Mr. Fred Stubbs of Oldham informs us that in May last he 
liberated a male brambling, which remained in the district two or three 
days, and was singing in an adjacent garden. He suggests that the 
Halifax bird may have been an escape. 

In the 'Reliquary' for July, Mr. E. Howarth describes and figures a 
pre-Norman cross-shaft at Sheffield. It appears to have been made from 
the local Carboniferous sandstone, and at one time did duty as a hardening 
trough in a cutler's shop. The representation of an archer on the Sheffield 
cross is 'not devoid of natural anatomy,' as are so many figures on crosses 
of the period, 

The Council of the Leeds University has appointed Dr. Walter Garstang 
to the Professorship of Zoology, and Mr. V. H. Blackmail to the Professor- 
ship of Botany, the two chairs which are to take the place of the Professor- 
ship of Biology hitherto held by Professor Miall. The Council has also 
appointed Miss Alice M. Cooke lecturer in history, in association with 
Professor Grant. 

Sir Joseph Hooker, G.C.S. I., C. B., F. R.S., who celebrated his ninetieth 
birthday on June 30th, has been appointed by the King to the Order ot 
Merit. Sir Joseph first gained fame by his work in the Antarctic, whither 
he accompanied Sir James Ross as botanist. Later he became the pioneer 
of Himalayan exploration, and was rewarded with a knighthood. He 
succeeded his father as director of Kew Gardens in 1865, and held that 
post for twenty years. He was an intimate friend of Darwin. 

1907 October i. 



3 6 ° 

TORTRIX SEMIALBANA AT DONCASTER: 

A Lepidopteron new to the County. 

L. S. BRADY, 
Sheffield. 



On Augnst 4th, whilst collecting- in one of the large woods in 
the Doncaster neighbourhood, I beat out of a hedge, along 
with other Tortricina, a fine specimen of Tortrix semialbana. 
Barrett writes as follows of this species : — 'It was to be found 
near Darenth, Greenhythe, and Dartford in Kent, and Mickleham 
in Surrey before i860, but then became scarce, the latest 
capture I know in these localities being in 1873. Twenty 
years later it was discovered at Folkestone, and still occurs 
there.' I believe there has been no additional locality recorded 
since, so that its occurrence so far north as Yorkshire is in- 
teresting and unexpected. 

[This is a very gratifying record, because, as Mr. Brady 
says, the species was totally unexpected to occur so far north. 
Mr. Brady sent me the moth for examination, and it is a very 
fine and well-marked specimen. — G. T. P.j. 



Proceedings of the Cleveland Naturalists' Field Club. 

Edited by the Rev. J. Cowley Fowler, F.G.S. 1905-6, Vol. II., 
Ft. 2. Middlesborough. pp. 85-142, 2/- 

In this volume our Cleveland friends have gathered together 
much useful information. Whilst by far the greater proportion of 
it had been previously printed elsewhere, it is none the less 
welcome in the present form, and as apparently the society has 
funds at its disposal for the purpose, we must not grumble. By 
far the largest article is devoted to a series of useful notes, on 
all manner of subjects, contributed by the late Rev. J. Hawell to 
his Parish Magazine. These, perhaps, were not generally 
accessible in their original form. From ' Country Life ' Mr. 
Nelson's paper on ' The Ruff in the North of England ' [Durham] 
is reprinted 'by the permission of the Editor' ; a lengthy paper on 
' The River Tees : its Marshes and their Fauna ' by the late R. 
Lofthouse is reprinted from this journal for 1887, without 
obtaining or asking for permission. Mr. T. A. Lofthouse gives 
an account of ' Cleveland Lepidoptera in 1905,' and Mr. M. L. 
Thompson writes a ' Report on the Coleoplera observed in 
Cleveland ' in 1905. The publication is cheap at two shillings. 
There is a fair sprinkling of misprints, the assistant secretary's 
name is spelt wrongly more than once, and we don't like the 
word ' Mammalogy.' 

Naturalist, 



36 1 

GEOLOGY AT THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



J. LOMAS, F.G.S., 
Birkenhead. 



The shadow of the forthcoming Centenary of the Geological 
Society was cast over the proceedings of Section C at Leicester. 
Many distinguished foreigners, and not a few British geologists, 
were prevented from attending the meeting, owing to their 
inability to spare time for both functions. Nevertheless, the 
proceedings were full and interesting. Local papers were both 
numerous and important, reflecting the vigour and enthusiasm 
of the local workers. 

Mr. Fox Strangways and Prof. Watts described the country 
about Leicester. Drs. Bennett and Stracey, who followed with 
papers on the Charnwood Rocks, did not see eye to eye with 
the Professor, and the conflicting views were discussed both in 
the meetings and in the field, during the admirable series of 
excursions which were held. Although the combatants remained 
unconvinced, a happy ending is promised by the appointment of 
a Committee to conduct analyses of the rocks and report at the 
next meeting. 

Such is the interest now shown in Triassic problems, that a 
whole day proved insufficient to discuss the papers offered on this 
formation. Mr. H. T. Ferrar opened most appropriately with 
an account of the features shown in existing deserts. Mr. T. O. 
Bosworth applied these with great force and insight to explain 
the puzzling characters of the local Trias. At Croft, during 
one of the excursions led by Mr. Fox Strangways, we were 
enabled to see for ourselves the igneous rocks denuded of 
Marl, with wind etching, desert screes, desert crusts, and many 
other characteristic desert features Dr. Cullis announced the 
discovery of dolomite crystals in the Keuper Marls of the South 
West of England, and he attributed their origin to precipitation 
from the waters of an inland sea. That similar crystals may be 
formed under other conditions was shown by their occurrence 
in marine sands. 

Messrs. Bolton and Waterfall gave a description of the great 
masses of Strontia found at Abbot's Leigh, near Bristol. 

In presenting the fifth report on the Fauna and Flora of the 
Trias, the Secretary communicated an important paper by Dr. 
A. Smith Woodward on ' A Mandible of Labyrinthodon leptog- 
nathns recently obtained from Cubbington Heath, near 

icjQ7 October i. 

2 A 



362 Loams : Geology at the British Association. 

Leamington,' which showed in its structure an approach 
towards the Palaeozoic Crossopterygian fishes. Mr. H. C. 
Beasley, after a careful study of the wonderful find of foot- 
prints at Storeton last year, was able to give further information 
regarding some of the forms he has described, and Mr. Lomas 
gave an account of a large slab containing fifteen impressions 
made by the same animal. So perfect were the prints that the 
full structure of the foot, including the skin, claws, and muscular 
pads could be ascertained, It was suggested that Cheirotherium 
walked erect on the pes and only used the manus for support 
when bending down. The Triassic fauna and flora of Leicester- 
shire were well described by Mr. A. R. Horwood. 

The set discussion of the Section on ' Iron Ore supplies'* 
was opened by Mr. Bennett Brough and Prof. Sjogren. The 
former took a pessimistic view of the future of the British Iron 
supply, but we were relieved to hear from Prof. Sjogren that 
vast stores of ore are available from Scandinavia. Prof. 
Lapworth pointed out the changes in the centre of gravity of 
the iron industry in Britain. When the native forests were 
used to smelt the ore, the Weald was the great centre. As 
coal came to be used, the centre moved to the coal-fields, and 
now the Lias and Oolite rocks supply the greater part of the 
iron supply of England. Mr. Lamplugh pointed out that when 
the richer ores were exhausted the leaner kinds would be used, 
and of these there is still a great supply. The President 
thought that Australia, with its vast coal supplies and good 
means of transport, would eventually be the great centre of 
iron supply. 

Palaeontology was not much in evidence, but two papers by 
Mr. F. Raw on the 'Trilobite fauna of the Shineton Shales' and 
'The development of Olenus salteri,' were most admirable. A 
marine remarkable peat was described by the present writer. 

The report of the Kirmington Committee dealt very fully 
with the mammaliferous gravels at Bielsbeck, in the Vale of 
York. The age of the deposit is still uncertain, as no evidence 
of ice action was observed in the material associated with 

* By some mischance Mr. Brough, in llie abstract of his valuable paper, 
is made to attribute the whole of the ' brown iron-ore beds ' of Lincolnshire, 
Leicestershire, and Northamptonshire to the Inferior Oolite. We are sure 
Mr. Brough would not desire so misleading a statement to remain long un- 
corrected. By far the greater part of the Lincolnshire ore is derived from 
the Lower and Middle Lias, the Northampton ironstone being worked only 
at two places, and in Leicestershire very large quantities of ore are obtained 
from the Middle Lias. — P. F. K. 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 363 

the fossils, and the accompanying flora does not suggest' any 
special degree of cold. One of the speakers who had seen the 
excavations made laid great stress on the smell of the bones, and 
this reminds us of an incident told by a geologist whose veracity 
has never been questioned. He was at Ludlow, and wishing 
to locate the well-known bed containing fish remains, went to 
the Market Place. He sniffed the air all round, and at last 
detecting a fishy odour, he followed the scent, and was led 
straight to the exposure ! 

Prof. J. Joly found the rocks of the Simplon Tunnel to con- 
tain radium in unsuspected quantities. He is led to enquire 
whether this may not account for the high temperatures ex- 
perienced in making the tunnel, and the thermal convection 
caused by the removal and deposition of radium bearing 
sediments may be a factor in mountain building. 

Prof. J. Milne delighted the' large audience which came to 
hear him with a racy account of his recent researches on 
Earthquakes. He finds that photographic plates exposed in 
dark caves and mines are affected by a mysterious light 
emanating from the rocks, and some of these coincide with the 
times of recorded earthquakes. His catalogue of important 
earthquakes shows that a maximum occurred between the 
years 1150 and 1250 a.d. , and another increase commenced 
about the year 1650, and is still in progress. 

The 1907 meeting, although not a large one, was most 
enjoyable, and Section C will never forget the warm welcome 
and the kindness extended to its members by the local 
geologists. 



Familiar Indian Birds, by Gordon Dalgleish. West Newman, London, 
1907. 70 pp. Price 2/6 net. Apparently this book is for the benefit of 
those people in India who are likely to take an interest in the more common 
birds met with in that Empire. Several of the notes have previously 
appeared in English and Indian journals. In twenty-nine short articles the 
author describes the more common representatives of the Indian avi-fauna. 
The names of some of them sound odd to English ears : — the Amethyst- 
rumped Sunbird would doubtless have a different name in England, and 
several are 'Crimson-breasted,' 'Rose-ringed,' 'Indian spotted,' Bengal 
green,' etc. The author describes how the ' Paddy-bird' threw itself into a 
fighting attitude, though this may have nothing to do with its name. But 
the illustrations, by two artists, are very poor. If the ' Blue-faced Barbet ' 
is anything like the drawing on p. 15, we are sorry for it, although its 
bright colours may be ' blended together with exquisite harmony ; ' and the 
'Purple Sunbird' on p. 13 is surely drawn from a model carved in wood. 
The frontispiece is called ' Bird-scaring in Bengal.' Apparently in India 
deformed, long-necked, hump-backed and macrocephalous humans are 
selected for the purpose of frightening the birds, or are the four bipeds 
perched in a tree rather out of drawing? In view of its size, etc., the price 
of the book is too high. 

1907 October i. 



364 

BOTANY AT THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Dr. C. E. MOSS. 



The address of the President of the Botanical Section was a 
clear, clever, and incisive statement of some of the more 
abstruse problems of physiological botany, and Professor Farmer 
holds that it is only by the help of the elder sciences of chemistry 
and physics that the accurate formulation, to say nothing of the 
final solution, of the problems will be achieved. The majority 
of the papers were of a very technical nature ; and close students 
of botany should make themselves acquainted with the details 
of the communications of Professor Bower on the embryology of 
the Pteridophytes ; of Dr. H. C. J. Fraser, on nuclear fusions 
and reductions in the Ascomycetes ; of Professor and Dr. 
Armstrong on enzymes; and of Mr. Gvvynne-Vaughan on the 
real nature of the so-called tracheids of ferns. We understand 
that Professor Bower's communication will be embodied in the 
final chapter of his forthcoming book. The real nature of 
anything is always of interest to students of any branch of 
science, and it has to be confessed that the results embodied 
in Mr. Gwynne-Vaughan's work on the real nature of the so-called 
tracheids of ferns justified his rather ambitious title. It was 
more than interesting to see a young man pointing out to the 
veterans of botany their shortcomings in this particular matter, 
and more than pleasing to note the favourable reception given 
by them to his observations and conclusions. Mr. W. Bell, the 
local secretary of the botanical section, gave a highly interesting 
account of Charnwood Forest, and his remarks were illuminating 
in connection with two excursions of the section to that inter- 
esting region. The forest is partly under cultivation now ; but 
extensive and primitive oak woods, and bracken-clothed hills 
still exist. The oak woods have a carpet of Holcus mollis and 
Pteris aquilina, varied in one case by extensive plant societies 
of Lueula maxima. Professor Weiss gave an excellent semi- 
popular lecture on " Some recent advances in our knowledge of 
pollination of flowers." Mendelism was very much to the fore, 
both in individual communications, and in the joint discussions 
with the zoological section on the physical basis of hereditary 
transmission. One of the most profitable excursions was to 
Burbage, to see Mr. C. C. Hurst's experiments in heredity 
on sweet peas, rabbits, and school children. Particulars of 
these experiments were supplied on a special circular. There 

Naturalist, 



Northern News. 365 

was also a joint discussion with the zoological and educational 
sections on the teaching- of biology in schools. Mr. Hugh 
Richardson, of York, was one of the official speakers in this 
discussion. Mr. D. M. S. Watson, a student of the University 
of Manchester, gave an account of the cone of Bothrodendron 
mundum, and Professor Oliver spoke on the structure and 
affinities of a fossil seed from the coal measures. Professor 
Bottomley brought up to date our knowledge of the root-tubercles 
in Leguminous and allied plants ; and his recent experiments in 
this regard on wheat are likely to revolutionise things. Mr. 
Bentley, of the University of Sheffield, essayed to speak on that 
thorny topic, the nuclear divisions of the Cyanophyceae. Mr. 
Wager was inclined to be sceptical, and pointed out the number 
of papers on this subject in recent years — almost every paper 
contradicting the rest. Mr. Bentley's results, however, are 
remarkable ; and thoroughly justify him in proceeding further 
with a very difficult investigation. One of the most interesting 
lectures was given by Professor Conwenz, of Danzig, State 
Commissioner in Prussia for the Preservation of Natural 
Monuments. His theme was the care of natural monuments, 
and his remarks were listened to with rapt attention by the 
members of the geological, geographical, and botanical sections. 
Professor Conwentz alluded to the ' Central Committee for the 
Study and Survey of British Vegetation ' (secretary, Dr. W. 
G. Smith, of the University of Leeds), and thought that, of all 
bodies in Britain, this was the most suitable for taking up and 
propagating the work which he (Professor Conwentz) had at 
heart. Only one ecological paper was read, and that was by 
Professor Yapp on the ' Hairiness of certain Marsh Plants.' 
In particular, Professor Yapp pointed out many interesting 
peculiarities of the comparative hairiness of the leaves of 
Spiraea Ulmaria, the common meadow-sweet. 

The following gentlemen attended the meetings of the 
botanical section : — Mr. W. N. Cheeseman, of Selby ; Dr. C. E. 
Moss, of Manchester ; Mr. M. B. Slater, of Malton ; Dr. W. G. 
Smith, of Leeds ; Mr. W. West, of Bradford ; and Dr. T. W. 
Woodhead, of Huddersfield. 



The attendance at the Leicester meeting of the British Association was 
over 300 less than at York the previous year. ^1288 was appropriated for 
scientific purposes during- the coming' year. 

A young seal was caught at the foot of Speeton Cliffs early in July, and 
for some time kept alive at Filey. The occurrence of seals on the Yorkshire 
coast is much more frequent than is usually supposed. 

1907 October i. 



366 

ANTHROPOLOGY AT THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



G. A. AL'DEN, M.D. 



The increasing - recognition of Archaeology as a subject worthy 
to hold a place by the side of the 'more exact Sciences,' was 
amply exemplified in the programme of Section ' H ' at Leicester ; 
for an actual majority of the papers contributed to the Anthro- 
pological Section dealt with Archaeology in one aspect or 
another. The strong classical tone which pervaded the meet- 
ing is a point of some importance ; and in these days when the 
comparative merits of classical and scientific education are so 
frequently discussed, it is worthy of remark that in Section H, 
representatives of both educational traditions can meet upon 
common ground. Here, for example, a criticism of Usener's 
Theories upon the ' Augenblick-gotter ' of the Greek religious 
cults may divide the day with ' Notes upon the Maories,' 
'The Tribes of Perek,' or on 'The Souterrains of Ulster.' 

The choice of a scholar so well-known as Mr. D. G. Hogarth 
(the author of ' A Wandering Scholar in the Levant '), to fill the 
Presidential Chair, gave promise of a memorable address, a 
promise which was more than amply fulfilled. Those who 
heard his ' Religious Survivals ' will not readily forget the 
masterly analysis and development of his thesis or his delightful 
grace of style and diction.* 

The discussion of greatest general interest was that initiated 
by Professor Ridgeway upon ' The Beginnings of the Iron Age,' 
wherein he showed by a process of exclusion that it was in the 
highest degree improbable that a knowledge of the properties 
and use of iron was brought from India, China, Egypt, South 
Africa, or Babylonia, and that, per contra, there was some 
presumptive evidence that this knowledge was diffused from 
the region of Noricum (within a few miles of Hallstatt), the 
iron mines of which have always been famous, and which is 
still the centre of the great Central European cattle routes. 
He believed that this knowledge was carried into the Aegean 
during the Dorian immigration period, together with the use of 
cremation — a custom adopted from the tribes of the great 
Germanic forest. 



* As the address has been published in full by the British Association 
('Presidential Addresses'), and in 'Nature' (Aug. 15th), no abstract has 
here been given ; any such attempt would fail to give an adequate summary 
of the argument. 



Naturalist, 



Auden ; Anthropology at the British Association. 367 

Professor Flinders Petrie referred to the marked distinction to 
be drawn between the sporadic and general use of iron, and 
pointed out that Egyptian History showed 4000 years of the 
sporadic use of iron, obtained, as a rule, from Haematite, the 
so-called ' Stone of Heaven ' ; statuettes of which material are 
not uncommon. The earliest dated tools of iron are a saw and 
centre bits referred to 680 B.C. He alluded to the analogous 
case of flint, which was used in Egypt right down to Roman 
times, although bronze had been known for 800 years. Prof. 
Edouard Naville, of Geneva, argued that iron was but little 
used even in the new Empire, and referred to the use of iron 
battle axes as a tribute. Prof. J. L. Myres (who has recently 
been appointed to the Chair of Greek and Ancient Geography 
at Liverpool) drew attention to the difference in the blast 
furnaces used north of the Alps and the open hearth furnaces 
which had existed around the shores of the Mediterranean and 
in Egypt as far back as the 18th Dynasty, and to the resulting 
difference in the quantity of metal produced by the two processes. 
Mr. Arthur Evans found his chief difficulty in accepting Prof. 
Ridgeway's views in the fact that an earlier phase of iron age 
culture is found further south than Hallstatt in the Cemeteries 
of Bosnia, and that iron was found in the Palace at Knossos in 
undisturbed earth even of the 12th century B.C. ; whereas the 
generally accepted date of the Hallstatt period was from 1000 
to 800 B.C. The discussion was in the highest degree valuable, 
and to some of those present recalled the discussion on the 
same subject at Liverpool eleven years ago, when a good deal 
of dialectic heat was evolved. 

At onother meeting Professor Flinders Petrie gave a de- 
scription of the pottery Soul-houses disclosed by the last winter's 
work of the British School of Archaeology at Rifeh. The object 
of these models was to provide shelter and provision for the 
soul, to keep it satisfied, and thus to prevent it from returning 
to the village. He proved that the increasing complexity of 
the models was a reflex of the evolution of the dwellings which 
they represented. In some of the more complex models not 
only was a stairway provided whereby the soul might mount 
to the upper storey, couches and chairs upon which it might 
rest, fire-places, water jugs, and a little model of a woman 
making bread under the stairway, but even a manger was 
added for the donkey, and a pond from which it might drink. 

Professor Naville contributed an important paper upon 'The 
Beginnings of Egyptian Civilisation,' and described the dis- 

1907 October i. 



368 Atiden : Anthropology at the Bri/ish Association. 

covery at Deir-el-bahari of the shrine of Hathor — the Goddess 
of the Mountain of the West — here, as usual, represented in 
the form of a heifer, the modelling" of which shows such exquisite 
workmanship and power. 

Professor Bosanquet described the continued excavations at 
Sparta, on the site of the Temple of Artemis Orthia, and the 
wonderful richness of the find of votive offering's in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Altar. In connection with this he gave an 
interesting explanation of the ' Scourging Festival ' at Sparta, 
the cruelty of which is described by Cicero and Plutarch. The 
Scourging- ordeal, the victor which was known as the 
' Bomonikos^ or 'Victor of the Altar,' and which not infre- 
quently resulted in death from the injuries inflicted, has 
hitherto been assumed to be a survival of an older Spartan 
test of endurance, comparable to the initiation rites of many 
primitive peoples into the privilege of manhood. Professor 
Bosanquet, however, traced the evolution of the Festival from 
a rough game in the 4th century B.C., in which the young 
Spartans had to snatch cheeses from the altar while others, 
armed with whips, tried to beat them off. Under the Roman 
rule there seems to have been an artificial revival under a 
mistaken idea as to the origin and meaning of the traditional 
usage, perverted, however, from being a mere game into being 
a regular competitive examination in the power of endurance, 
conducted before crowds of spectators, who flocked to the 
theatre built round the altar about a.d. 200 for that purpose. 
The game itself may have had its origin in a custom of the 
lads striking one another for luck with boughs from the Agnus 
Castns, which grew in the river bed, and was sacred to the 
goddess. 

Dr. Ashby, who has charge of the excavations on the Roman 
site at Caerwent ( ' Venta Silurum '), presented a report of the 
excavations of the newly discovered Basilica and Forum, and of 
the large building with two Hypocausts, known as ' Building 
No. 7,' which was excavated last year. Caerwent, some five 
miles from Chepstow, is well worth a visit by those interested 
in the subject, and it is to be hoped that ample funds will be 
forthcoming to explore the large area which the generosity of 
Lord Tredegar has secured for excavation. The south wall of 
the fortress is in part in a very good state of preservation, and 
in its course has two multangular towers, which have a close 
likeness to the well-known Multangular Tower at York. 

Turning to other themes the Section joined with thai of 

Naturalist, 



Anden : Anthropology at the British Association. 369 

Education to discuss the question of Anthropometrics in schools. 
The subject, the importance of which can hardly be over- 
estimated, was introduced by Sir Victor Horsley, who was 
supported by Mr. Ramsay Macdonald, MP., and others. The 
following - Resolution, communicated to persons interested in 
the matter, gives to the discussion a concrete form : — 

' Resolved that, in view of the national importance of 
obtaining data on the question of physical deterioration, 
this Association urges upon the Government the pressing 
necessity of instituting in connection with the Medical 
Inspection of school children, a system of periodic measure- 
ments which will provide definite information on their 
physical condition and development.' 
A novel method of illustrating a paper was that of Dr. 
Seligmann, who, by means of a cinematograph, gave a graphic 
description of some of the dances of New Guinea. Dr. Selig- 
mann also read a highly important paper upon pre-historic 
Stone Weapons, engraved Shells, and Potsherds from various 
sites on the Coast of New Guinea. The present inhabitants do 
not recognise the use or nature of these objects, while the depth 
at which many of them were found attests their great antiquity. 
Other papers of interest were Mr. G. L. Gomme's ' The 
Origin of Totemism ' ; that of Mr. Crowfoot upon the ' Anthro- 
pological Field in the Anglo-Egyptian Soudan'; and the Report 
of the University of Wales upon the ' Ethnological Survey of 
Wales.' But where all were excellent it is perhaps invidious to 
call attention to individual papers. 

Finally, allusion should be made to the valuable Reports of 
the Sectional Committees, the work of which goes on from year 
to year, e.g., that for exploring the lake village of Glastonbury, 
a work begun in 1892 now nearing its completion, and that for 
estimating the age of Stone Circles, which reported that a work 
of the utmost importance is about to be begun in the examination 
of the Avebury Stone Circle. The Committee for determining 
the best method of registration and cataloguing the Megalithic 
remains of Great Britain has not been idle, and presented a 
useful Interim Report. 

On the Saturday during the Meeting, a large number of 
those who attended the Section availed themselves of the Geo- 
logical excursion through Charnwood Forest, arranged by 
Professor Watts, whose experience of this area as a Member 
of the Geological Survey, gave exceptional interest and value 
to the expedition. 

1907 October i. 



37° 

3n flDemoriam. 

JOHN WILLIAM FARRAH, 1884-1907. 

Our readers will greatly regret to hear of the untimely death of 
Mr. John William Farrah, which took place on the 7th of Sep- 
tember. He was the son of Mr. John Farrah, of Harrogate, 
and frequently accompanied his father on the excursions of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. On these occasions his kindly 
disposition secured him many friends. He was very successful 
with his camera, and the pages of this journal have frequently 
been enriched by reproductions of his negatives. Like his 
father, he had a distinct taste for Natural History, and his 
death at so young an age as twenty-three is a distinct loss to 
our county society. In recent years father and son were rarely 
separated. We can all extend to Mr. John Farrah our real 
sympathy in a loss, the nature and magnitude of which very few 
of us can form any idea. 



We have received Charter's Bridlington and District Guide and 

Apartments' Directory (36 pp., with numerous illustrations and good maps). 
Hull : Harland & Sons. Price 6d. It has been carefully drawn up, and 
the principal attractions of the place are set forth in a clear manner. The 
maps are particularly useful. 

Hull Museum Publications Nos. 43 and 44 have been issued. The 
first named is the twenty-first quarterly record of additions, and contains 
notes on 'The Chariot-Burial recently found at Hunmanby,' 'The History 
and Evolution of Coins and Medals,' ' Old Hull Pottery,' etc. The second 
contains reprints of Mr. Sheppard's papers on ' A Deformed Antler of a 
Red-Deer' and ' Recent Geological Discoveries at Speeton,' which recently 
appeared in the ' Naturalist.' The pamphlets are on sale at Messrs. A" 
Brown & Sons, Hull, at one penny each. 

The recently issued Report and Transactions of the Manchester 

Microscopical Society bears unmistakable evidence of the enthusiasm 
of its members. In addition to the various reports on the year's working, 
the volume contains the President's address on 'The Differentiation of 
Species of Coelenterata in the Shallow Water Seas,' by Prof. S. J. Hickson ; 
' Snakes,' bv R. Howarth ; 'An Introduction to the British HepaticEe,' by 
W. H. Pearson ; ' Notes and Criticisms on Microscopical work,' by A. 
Flatters ; ' Practical Bacteriology,' [by Dr. A. Sellars] ; ' Spring Notes on 
Natural History,' by W. H. Pepworth ; ' Notes on Scolyticte or Bark 
Beetles,' by A. T. Gillanders ; ' British Forest Trees,' by Dr. F. E. Weiss ; 
and ' The Internal Structure of some Insect's Heads, as revealed by the 
Microscope,' by W. Hart. Altogether the Report is a very creditable 
production, and worthy of the city which does so much in furtherance of 
natural science. In our copv, however, the pages containing the papers 
dealing with ' Snakes' and ' Coelenterata ' are mixed up in such a way that 
we can only assume the binder was very busy, and working; late, very late, 
on a Saturday night ! 

Naturalist, 



37' 

MANX CROSSES.* 

We can imagine no greater pleasure to a conscientious worker 
than to find the results of his labour given to the world in a 
volume which does credit alike to himself, to the publishers, 
and to the subject with which he deals. For many years our 
contributor, Mr. P. M. C. Kermode, has devoted his energies 
to the geology, natural history, and antiquities of his island 
home. To him is in a large measure due our present extensive 
knowledge of the scientific history of Manxland. To him future 
generations will pay tribute for the care he has taken in rescuing 
and preserving the various evidences of human handiwork, which 
have a peculiar interest to the archaeological world, from the 
geographical portion of the well-defined area with which he 
deals. The present writer is fairly familiar with the literature 
dealing with the archaeological and natural history of Manx- 
land, and for some time has been impressed with the great 
good that has been done by Mr. Kermode. His present work, 
however, eclipses everything else he has accomplished. In it 
he describes a collection of undescribed and sculptured monu- 
ments, which are as extraordinary in their variety as they are 
quaint in their design. They cover the period from the end of 
the fifth to the beginning of the thirteenth century, and upon 
them is a series of records dating from the Introduction of 
Christianity in the Isle of Man, and ' form a connecting link 
between the early sepulchral stones of Wales, the inscribed 
slabs of Ireland, the cross-slabs of Scotland, and the Celtic, 
Anglian, and Scandinavian stones of the North of England.' 
There are no fewer than one hundred and seventeen monu- 
ments of this class in the island — of which number several 
have been found during the past few years, and about seventy 
are figured and fully described for the first time in the excellent 
volume before us. Some of the sculptures depict characters 
and illustrate stories in the Norse Mythology, in connection 
with which Mr. Kermode has made a careful study of the Saga 
literature. It is also remarkable that, so far as is known, every 
Manx Cross still remains on the island — one or two examples 
which had been taken away having been returned. 

In a scholarly Introduction Mr. Kermode discusses the 
period of the monuments ; the arrival of the Scandinavians as 
Heathens ; the dates, materials, nature, purpose, evolution, 
and distribution of the crosses ; their art and development, the 

* By P. M. C. Kermode. London: Bemrose & Son.s, Ltd., 1907. 222 pp., 
plates. Price ^3 3s. net. 

3907 October 1. 



372 Reviews and Book Notices. 

inscriptions, etc. The volume is then divided — the first portion 

dealing with the art of the crosses, and the second with detailed 

descriptions of them. 

For many years to come 'Manx Crosses' will be a text 

book, not only so far as it relates to the small island with which 

it deals, but also to students interested in the early history of 

north-western Europe. It is marvellous that so important a 

chapter in our history should have emanated from so small an 

area. But the Isle of Man has yielded glorious opportunities, 

and of these every possible advantage has been taken by Mr. 

Kermode.. Quite apart from its historical worth, all book-lovers 

will be thankful to Messrs. Bemrose for the excellent way in 

which the)' have done their share of the work. They have 

intended ' Manx Crosses to be a standard work for all time, 

and neither trouble nor expense has been spared towards this 

end. The paper and illustrations are such that they recall the 

old days when printing was a pleasure, and sixpence-halfpenny 

cloth bound volumes were unknown. We can only hope that 

the work has the large sale that it certainly deserves. 

♦♦ 

Fifty=two Nature Rambles, by W. Percival Westell. The 

Religious Tract Society, 1907. 237 pp., price 3/6. Uncle W. Percival 
Westell has written another book. His previous books have had intro- 
ductions by Mr. Aflalo, the Rt. Hon. Sir Herbert Maxwell, and Lord Avebury 
respectively. When noticing - his last book (see ' Nat.,' March, 1907, p. 115) 
we wondered who would write the introduction to Mr. (beg" pardon, Uncle) 
Westell's next. Uncle Westell has scored ; it is by W. Percival Westell ! 
Having now reached the top of the tree we cannot even hope to guess who 
will introduce the next work from Uncle Westell's pen — or is it a type-writing 
machine that makes multiplex copies ? We know the author is an Uncle, 
lie tells us so somethirg like a hundred and seven times, and he dedicates 
the book to his nephew. If we mistake not there is a photo of Uncle 
Percival (or Percy, or William, or is it plain Uncle Bill?). He is 'listening 
to the chiff-chaff.' And there is a photo of his nephew, who has also 
listened to the chiff-chaff for a year, and we hope he has picked up a few 
grains of knowledge from it. He is an appreciative young man, this 
nephew ; and says ' Oh, Uncle ' on nearly every page, and ' Uncle, please 
tell me. It is all so very interesting,' 'Oh, Uncle, how quickly you found 
one,' ' Uncle, I am so enjoying this dandelion talk,' and ' Uncle, a fond 
nephew offers you a thousand thanks.' In his opening remarks to his ' Dear 
boys and girls' Uncle W T estell truly says they may not all have Uncles willing 
or able to take them into the fields atid lanes, etc. Nephew Stanley is careful 
to ask suitable questions on each ramble, and unlike most boys, he does not 
ask any awkward ones. Me likes poetry, too, or at least his Uncle says he 
does, and this affords opportunity for giving quotations from the various 
poets, followed by ' Isn't that nice ' ? etc. Uncle Westell himself grows 
poetic, and wants to sow 'nature study seeds' in the gardens of his readers' 
minds. ' Fifty-two Nature Rambles' tells us much that we have been told 
before. It is largely ornithological, as usual, but on account of its st] le and 
particularlv by the reason of the many beautiful illustrations, will be suitable 
as a prize-book for young children. Some of the illustrations are unusually 
fine — that of the Iris (fig. 59) being perfect. There are a few coloured 
plates, one of which, shewing Sallow and Willow Catkin, the publishers 
kindly permit us to reproduce (Plate XXX I V. ). 

Naturalist, 



373 



LINCOLNSHIRE NATURALISTS-* 

We have here another number of the ' Transactions of the 
Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union,' which keeps up the interest, 
the varied nature, and the excellence done by the active 
workers in that county. 

The frontispiece, a good likeness of Mr. F. M. Burton, 
F.G. S. , F. L. S., who was the Union's second president, is 
accompanied by a sketch of the career of one who has done 
sterling work in various departments of natural history, more 
especially geology. 

Mr. G. W. Mason has a good list, with remarks on localities 
and a summary of the districts range of each, of the Lincoln- 
shire butterflies, of which there are no fewer than fifty-six, 
including such good things as Lyccena semiargiis, Polyommatus 
dispar, Aporia cratcegi, Papilio machaon, Apatura iris, Limenitis 
sibylla, etc. Mr. Mason has drawn upon the work and experience 
of numerous observers, to whom due credit is given. 

A similar excellent list of the Lincolnshire Liverworts, forty- 
three in number, by Miss S. C. Stow, follows. To this paper 
are prefixed some general remarks on the group, by Mr. J. 
Reeves, F.L. S. 

The presidential address, from which the President's name 
is conspicuous by its absence, no doubt merely an inadvertence, 
deals with ' Natural Habitats and Nativeness,' in which the 
Rev. E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock, F.L. S., F.G. S., discusses 
an interesting botanical subject in his own inimitable style, and 
we note that there is scarcely such a thing as 'a natural habitat' 
in the second largest English county, so great has been the 
influence of man in altering the surface. Mr. C. S. Carter 
follows with a list, with habitats, of ' Additions to Lincoln- 
shire Non-Marine Mollusca ' — the additions being varieties 
and fresh localities for thirty-eight species. ' Notes on 
Local Occurrence of Neritina fluvaitilis,' by Mr. John F. 
Musham, a new and welcome writer in these Transactions, 
discusses local distribution near the city of Lincoln. The Rev. 
E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock has a page on 'Rare Lincolnshire 
Plants,' really a plant, Cyclamen hedercefolium (Ait.) The 
County Museum is the subject of a page, and also a plate of 

* Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union Transactions, 1906. Edited bv Arthur 
Smith, F.L.S., F.E.S. Printed by Witjg-en Bros., Louth, Lines. (8vo., pp. 
73-128, and two plates). 

1907 October 1. 



374 



Lincolnshire Naturalists. 



its Lower Storey, which by permission we here reproduce. We 
have to congratulate the City of Lincoln on establishing- a 
genuinely county museum, and trust under the able curatorship 




of Mr. Arthur Smith it will flourish and develop. An interest- 
ing and valuable paper, ' Notes on the Birds which inhabit 
Scotton Common,' is from the pen of the Rev. F. L. Blathwayt, 
M.A., M.B.O.U. There are various short notes and records 
of field work, an illustrated paper, by Mr. C S. Carter, on the 
' Pairing of Limax maximus,' based on original observation, a 
good account of the field meetings for 1906 and the excellent 
work done at them — and there are also lists of officers, new 
members, and a balance sheet. 

Naturalist, 



Field Notes. 375 

We observe a note of a resolution to ' ignore ' the first part 
of the Transactions, the reason assigned being - the erratic 
pagination, and a suggestion to reprint two of the papers in it. 
Might we suggest that from a bibliographical point of view 
there can be no ignoring by a Society of a portion of its own 
publications, especially so excellent a part as the one referred 
to, and from a practical point of view, that with so great a 
wealth of material in a county like Lincolnshire, it would be 
wisest to utilise funds in printing fresh papers rather than 
reprinting former ones ? R. 

FIELD NOTES. 



SHELLS. 
Paludestrina confusa at Saltfleetby. We have recently 
found Paludestrina confusa in abundance in drains at Saltfleetbv. 
It has been identified by Mr. E. A. Smith. — C. S. Carter, 
Louth, September 9th, 1907. 

— : o : — 
LEPIDOPTERA. 
Acherontia atropos at Paddock, liuddersfield. — I had a 
perfect specimen of the Death's Head Hawk Moth (A. atropos) 
brought to me on the evening of the 3rd September. It had 
been captured very early the same morning in the bedroom of a 
house in Brow Row, Paddock. — W. E. L. Wattam, Newsome. 

— : o : — 
FLOWERING PLANTS. 
Potamogeton alpinus, a Correction. — Since recording the 
above species as new to V. C. 63 in last month's ' Naturalist,' 
I have received letters from six different botanists calling my 
attention to the fact that P. alpinus=P. ru/esceus, and has 
been found in several stations in 63. It is very pleasing to see 
how well the Yorkshire records are watched. — H. H. Corbett. 

— : o : — 
FISHES. 
Large Sunfish at Whitby. — Yesterday, 16th inst., a large 
Sunfish (Orthagoriscus mo/a), measuring from tip of dorsal (in 
to tip of ventral fin 5 feet 6h inches, and from snout to outer 
edge of caudal fin 4 feet 3 inches in length, was caught in the 
herring nets by the crew of the fishing boat ' Mary,' 35 B H, 
about five miles off Saltburn, and brought into Whitby, where 
it was sold and exhibited. — Thos. Stephenson, VVhitbv, 
September 17th, 1907. 

1907 October i. 



376 

NORTHERN NEWS. 



An interesting note on 'The Manx Slates' appears in ' The Quarry' for 
August. 

Mr. F. W. Sovverby records Paftilio machaon near the shore at Tetney, 
North Lines., in July, 1906 ('The Entomologist,' August, 1907). 

We take this opportunity of congratulating our contributor, Mr. G. 
Grace, B.Sc, of Doncaster, on his appointment as principal of the Technical 
School, Barrow. 

We are pleased to notice that the Ilkley Urban District Council has 
declined to allow an extension of the quarries on Ilkley Moors, on account 
of the spoliation of the beauties of the moorlands which would result. 

In a paper on ' Nestling Birds and some of the problems they present,' 
Mr. W. P. Pycraft describes ' the active, down-clad type, and the type 
which leaves the egg perfectly naked, and with sealed eyelids.' Fancy leaving 
an egg like that ! 

In ' British Birds' for August, reference is made to the breeding of Ruffs 
in Yorkshire recently. As this has been copied in more than one scientific 
journal it is perhaps as well to correct it. The record refers to Durham, as 
the nests, which were figured and described in three or four journals at the 
time, occurred on the Durham side of the Tees. 

There has been some correspondence recently in reference to the provision 
of a Municipal Museum for Leeds. A 'prominent member of the Corpora- 
tion,' however, who was interviewed, whilst admitting the idea as 'worthy 
of consideration,' said that it ' must not be talked of when the city was being 
committed to such vast expenditure as was involved in the sewage 
scheme, etc.' 

Mr. E. A. Martin, in ' Knowledge and Scientific News' says, ' In speak- 
ing of times intervening between one [geological] formation and another, 
we have no titles which in a single word would explain these possible 
breaks.' He considers such titles would be useful, and makes a number of 
suggestions, such as Marrian, Binneyan, Harmerian, Juddian, Whitakerian, 
Seeleyan, and Sillimanian. ' Sillimanian' is good ; we'll stop there ! 

The Manchester Microscopical Society has sent us a copy of their syllabus 
of lectures given by its 'Extension Section.' In this there are titles of no 
fewer than forty-four lectures by well-known students. These lectures are 
given gratuitously by the members of the society, but actual out-of-pocket 
expenses are to be paid. We feel sure that the societies in the district will 
avail themselves of this offer, and that good will result from the scheme. 

In a recent number we gave some examples of Newspaper Natural 
History. A correspondent sends us the following examples of legal botany 
and zoology culled from official papers : — 'Any bud, blossom, flower, or leaf 
of any tree, sapling, shrub, underwood, gorse, furze, fern, herb, or plant.' 
' "Animal" means any beast or other animal.' 'The carcase of any head 
of cattle. The expression "cattle" includes horses, mules, asses, sheep, 
goats, and swine.' ' It might be argued that rabbit skins are "animal 
matter," but we very much doubt it.' 

By a new rule Junior members have been admitted to the Chester Society 
of Natural Science, Literature, and Art. In this way fifty-two additions 
have been made to the membership, which now stands at the satisfactory 
figure of 1072. As well as a brief account of the year's work of the Society, 
the Thirty-Sixth Annual Report contains a list of additions to the Grosvenor 
Museum, and a meteorological report for the year. As Part 6, No 1 of its 
' Proceedings' the same Society has issued a paper 'On some rare Arachnids 
captured during 1906 by Dr. A. R. Jackson. These are from various 
localities, but are largely from Cheshire. 

Naturalist 



NOVEMBER 1907. 



No. 700 

(No. 388 of current aeries) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., 

The Museum, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 
J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S. F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, P.L.S., F.E.S., 

Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, 

T. H. NELSON, JH.B.O.U., WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. 



Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated) :— The Geological Society's Centenary; Distinguished 
Visitors ; The History of the Geological Society ; ' The Father of English Geology ' ; 
Toads Embedded in Rocks: The Leicestershire Coalfield; Sycamore Leaf Blotch; 
Walton Bone Cave near Clevedon ; The Lion and the Mouse ; Country Side 
'Natural History' 

Sagina reuteri Boiss. — II". Ingham. B.A 

The Hairy-Armed Bat (Illustrated!— A rthur Whilaker 

A Net*BuiIding Chironomus Larva (Illustrated)—.'!. T. Mundy 

Notes on the Variation of Abraxas ulmata at Skelmanthorpe— B. Morley 

Fungi at Horton=in=Ribblesdale— T. Gibbs 

Fungus Foray at Grassington, Bolton Woods, and Buckden— C. Crossland, F.L 

Field Notes 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Northern News 

Illustrations 

Plates XL., XLI. 



S. 



391, 394 



378, 



377-383 
383 
384-388 
389-391 
392-394 
395-396 
397-401 
402-404 
, 405-406 
407-408 
380, 390 



LONDON : 

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And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publii rs to the Y.N. U. 



PRICE 6d. NET. BY POST 7d. NET. 



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Contains various reports, papers, and addresses on the Flowering Plants, Mosses, and Fungi of the county 

Complete, 8vo, Cloth, with Coloured Map, published at One Guinea. Only a few copies left, 10/6 net. 

THE FLORA OF WEST YORKSHIRE. By FREDERIC ARNOLD LEES, M.R.C.S., &c. 

This, which forms the 2nd Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, is perhaps the most- 
complete work of the kind ever issued for any district, including detailed and full records of 1044 Phanero- 
fams and Vascular Cryptogams, 11 Characese, 348 Mosses, 108 Hepatics, 258 Lichens, 1009 Fungi, and 382: 
reshwater Algae, making a total of 3160 species. 

680 pp., Coloured Geological, Lithological, &c. Maps, suitably Bound in Cloth. Price 15/- net. 
NORTH YORKSHIRE: Studies of its Botany, Geology, Climate, and Physical Geography. 

By JOHN GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., M.R.I. A., V.M.H. 
And a Chapter on the Mosses and Hepatics of the Riding, by Matthew B. Slater, F.L.S. This Volume- 
forms the 3rd of the Botanical Series. 

396 pp.. Complete, 8vo., Cloth. Price 10/6 net. 

THE FUNGUS FLORA OF YORKSHIRE. By G. MASSEE, F.L.S., F.R.H.S., & C. CROSSLAND, F.L.S, 

This is the 4th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, and contains a complete annotated list 
of all the known Fungi of the county, comprising 2626 species. 

Complete, 8vo, Cloth. Price 6/- post free. 

THE ALGA-FLORA OF YORKSHIRE. By W. WEST, F.L.S., & GEO. S. WEST, B.A., A.R.C.S., F.L.S, 

This work, which forms the 5th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, enumerates 1044 
species, with full details of localities and numerous critical remarks on their affinities and distribution. 

Complete, 8vo, Cloth. Second Edition. Price 6/6 net. 

LIST OF YORKSHIRE LEPIDOPTERA. By G. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., FES. 

The First Edition of this work was published in 1883, and contained particulars of 1340 species of 

Macro- and Micro-Lepidoptera known to inhabit the county of York. The Second Edition, with Supplement, 

contains much new information which has been accumulated by the author, including over 50 additional 

species, together with copious notes on variation (particularly melanism), &c. 

In progress, issued in Annual Parts, 8vo. 
TRANSACTIONS OF THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 

The Transactions include papers in all departments of the Yorkshire Fauna and Flora, and are issued it* 
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THE YORKSHIRE CARBONIFEROUS FLORA. By ROBERT KIDSTON, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. Parts 14 r 
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LIST OF YORKSHIRE COLEOPTERA. By Rev. W. C. HEY, M.A. 



THE NATURALIST. A Monthly Illustrated Journal of Natural History for the North of England. Edited 
by T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., Museum, Hull; and T. W. WOODHEAD, F.L.S., Technical College,. 
Huddersfield ; with the assistance as referees in Special Departments of J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S. r 
F.L.S., Prof. PERCY F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S. , T H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., GEO. T. PORRITT r 
F.L.S., F.E.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, and WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. (Annual Subscription, payable- 
in advance, 6/6 post free). 

MEMBERSHIP in the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 10/6 per annum, includes subscription to The Naturalist? 

and entitles the member to receive the current Transactions, and all the other privileges of the Union. 

A donation of Seven Guineas constitutes a life-membership, and entitles the member to a set of the - 

completed volumes issued by the Union. 

Members are entitled to buy all back numbers and other publications of the Union at a discount of 25- 

per cent, off the prices quoted above. 
All communications should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary, 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., The Museum, Hull. 

Please mention 'The Naturalist' in replying to Advertisements. 



THE NATURALIST, 1907. 



Plate XL. 




Diseased Bones of Bear. 



m 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY'S CENTENARY. 
Probably at no previous period has there been gathered 
together in one place so many prominent geologists as assembled 
in London on the occasion of the recent Centenary Celebration 
of the Geological Society, and it is very unlikely that there will 
ever be such a gathering again. There were delegates and 
representatives from Austria-Hungary, the Argentine Con- 
federation, Belgium, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, 
Greece, Holland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Norway, Portugal, 
Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, the United States, Canada, India, 
South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Most of these 
countries were represented by several delegates. From Great 
Britain were representatives of all the Universities, Colleges, 
Museums, and important Societies, and from most, congratu- 
latory addresses were handed in to Sir Archibald Geikie, who 
presided. 

DISTINGUISHED VISITORS. 
Amongst those present were many whose names are world- 
wide. Perhaps one of the most remarkable features in 
connection with the gathering was the great number of 
geologists present who have been well known for their work 
during the last fifty years. And though many were bordering 
on four score years, their years seemed to sit lightly on 
them. Every facility was given for making new and renewing 
old acquaintances, and in this way the successful conversazione 
held in the Natural History Museum at South Kensington did 
much in the interests of geological science. One man, a York- 
shireman, was much missed — an accident whicn he had some 
little time ago depriving him of a pleasure which would only 
have been surpassed to the many savants who would gladly 
have seen him present ; but Dr. Sorby was not forgotten, and 
several sent him some token of their regard. 

THE HISTORY OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 
In connection with the Celebration, Mr. H. B. Woodward 
has prepared a charming History of the Society, which is a 
mine of useful information, pleasantly written. In this are 
some curious pieces of information relative to the beginnings of 
the Society. It was at first an offshoot from two older bodies of 
limited membership, the Askesian and British Mineralogical 

1907 November 1. 



378 



Notes and Comments. 



Societies. In the diary of William Allen, Quaker and analytical 
chemist, is the following - entry : — 'On the 13th of the eleventh 
month, 1807, dined at the Freemasons' Tavern, about five 
o'clock, with Davy, Dr. Babington, etc., etc., about eleven in 
all. Instituted a Geological Society.' On the same date, too, 
Humphry Davy had written to a friend, ' We are forming a 
little Geological Dining Club, of which I hope you will be a 
member. I shall propose you to-day. 

1 THE FATHER OF ENGLISH GEOLOGY.' 
Mr. Woodward's book contains portraits of the leaders of 
geological science. As a frontispiece is a coloured plate of 
William Buckland, with his quaint costume, top hat, gloves, 
umbrella, and green bag. That of John Phillips, at the age of 
sixty, represents him in a waistcoat and trousers of a pattern 
which even geologists would hardly dare to wear to-day. 
Perhaps the most interesting of all is that of William Smith, 




William Smith. 

who over a century ago had outlined the general stratigraphy 
of Britain, and was the first, in this country, to determine the 
succession of strata by means of the fossils they contained. 
Sedgwick, in 183 1, conferred upon William Smith the proud 
title of Father of English Geology. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 379 

TOADS EMBEDDED IN ROCKS. 

The question of toads being- found alive in cavities in rocks 
was formerly, as now, a frequent theme for discussion. The 
Geological Society Club, founded in 1824, conducted its 
researches somewhat after the following manner : — 

November 19th, 1824. — Mr. Lyell having stated that an experiment had 
been instituted of enclosing- toads in several cavities in rock in the month of 
September last, with the view of opening- the cavities in a succession of 
years, one in each succeeding year : 

The President (Buckland) bets Mr. Warburton two bottles of champagne 
to one that at the end of one year from the time of closing one toad will be 
found alive. 

..Mr. Warburton also bets the President a bottle of champagne that no 
toad will be found alive at the end of the second year. 

Mr. Taylor bets Mr. Stokes a bottle of champagne that at the end of one 
year one of the toads will be found alive ; also another bottle that one will 
be found alive at the end of two years ; and another bottle that one will be 
found alive at the end of three years. 

December 2nd, 1825. — Mr. Lyell stated that the cavities enclosing the 
toads had been opened on November 15, 1825, and that two toads in them 
had been found alive. 

Resolved that the bets between Dr. Buckland and Mr. Warburton and 
Mr. Taylor and Mr. Stokes, referring to the period of one year, are decided 
by this evidence to be lost by Mr. Warburton and Mr. Stokes respectively, 
one bottle of champagne each. 

THE LEICESTERSHIRE COALFIELD.* 
Mr. C. Fox-Strangways in 1893 commenced a re-survey of 
the ' Leicestershire Coalfield,' by which is usually meant the joint 
coalfields of Leicestershire and South Derbyshire. The survey 
was completed in 1898 ; maps and explanatory memoirs were 
issued in 1899 and 1905. A memoir dealing with the coalfield 
generally, prepared by Mr. Fox-Strangways, has now been 
published. Besides an interesting introductory chapter, this 
contains an account of the History of the Development of the 
Coalfield ; Pre-Cambrian Rocks ; Carboniferous Limestones and 
Shales ; Millstone Grit, Coal-Measures, etc. ; Physical History ; 
Extension of the Coalfield beyond Present Workings ; and 
Economic Geology. There is also a chapter on the Palaeontology 
of the Coalfied, by Mr. A. R. Horwood. There are three useful 
appendices, (1) Glossary of Technical Terms ; (2) Bibliography; 
and (3) Pit-sections, bore-holes, etc., the last of which occupies 
more than half the volume. Like all Mr. Fox-Strangways' 
work, this memoir is a thorough and conscientious production, 
and for a Government publication it is cheap, fairly well printed 
and bound, though the illustrations are poor, as usual in these 
Memoirs. And where else, but in a Government publication, 

* Memoirs of the Geological Survey : The Geology of the Leicestershire 
and South Derbyshire Coalfield, by C. Fox-Strangways, 1907. E. Stanford, 
373 pp., plates. Price 6/- 

J907 November i. 



3 8o 



A'o/rs and Comments. 



would one expect to find, at the foot of the Preface, anything 
like this : — '8556. 750. — Wt. 20003, 8/07, Wy. & S. 35771-. a.'? 

SYCAMORE LEAF BLOTCH. 
Perhaps one of the most disfiguring - and certainly one of 
the most common of the diseases of trees in different parts of the 
country is the Sycamore Leaf Blotch. This has recently formed 
the subject of one of the useful leaflets issued by the Board of 
Agriculture and Fisheries. From it we learn that the blotches 
are due to a fungus, Rhytisma accrinum Fries., and when once 
infected the trees get worse year by year, until eventually the 
tree dies, as the fungus prevents the leaf from doing its work, 
enfeebles the tree, and thus exposes it to even more deadly 




Sycamore Leaf Blotch, Rhytisma acerinum Fries. 

parasitic fungi, such as the Coral Spot fungus. ' The method 
for preventing a continuance of this disease is both simple and 
effective. . . The young leaves are infected in spring by 
floating spores which escape at that season from dead leaves 
which have been lying on the ground during the winter. If 
all such dead leaves are collected and burned directly they fall 
in the autumn, or at latest before the young leaves unfold in 
the spring, the disease will be arrested.' We are indebted to 
the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries for permission to 
reproduce the illustration. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Com/twn/s. 381 

WALTON' BONE CAVE, NEAR CLEVEDON. 

In the ' Proceeding's of the Bristol Naturalists Society ' 
(Vol. I., Pt. 3), recently to hand, Prof. S. H. Reynolds, F.G.S., 
has an interesting note on a Bone Cave at Walton, near 
Clevedon. In addition to the mammalian remains (horse, bear, 
wolf, vole, rabbit, etc.) were bones of an exceptionally large 
number of birds, viz., eagle, buzzard, wheatear, skylark, robin, 
redwing, thrush, blackbird, raven, greenfinch, swift, ringed 
plover, golden plover, turnstone, dunlin or sandpiper (?), 
god wit or greenshank (?), whimbrel(?), heron, common gull, 
cormorant, wild duck, wigeon (?), pintail (?), goose. With regard 
to the bones of the bear, many of them exhibited a markedly 
diseased character. The vertebra? and phalangeal bones par- 
ticularly showed a pronounced form of osteo-arthritis. An 
excellent illustration is given showing the nature of the bone 
disease. This we are kindly permitted to reproduce (Plate 
XL.). 



THE LION AND THE MOUSE. 

We are anxiously awaiting the reports from our agents in 
various parts of the world, in order to see to what an extent 
our sales have recently increased. For Mr. E. Kay Robinson 
has mentioned 'The Naturalist' in his paper. Truly, the refer- 
ence to our journal is not a long one, perhaps not a very 
flattering one — thank heaven ! but it is mentioned. Mr. Robin- 
son has not seen this journal, and does not know whether it is a 
monthly or quarterly, but from letters he has received from the 
members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union he learns there is 
such a paper. We are quite prepared to believe what Mr. 
Robinson says, but there's a lot wouldn't. It is a pity the 
various marked copies that have been sent to him have all gone 
astray. We presume also that the copy of our journal contain- 
ing remarks (which were made at Mr. E. K. Robinson's 
request) on ' Mammal v. Animal,' sent to him by registered 
post, has also gone astray. We understand from the Post 
Office that it was duly delivered. But we can't believe it. 
We have more faith in Mr. E. K. Robinson's word. We under- 
stand the members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union have 
complained to him about the remarks appearing in this journal. 
Might not these members have allowed us one more chance to 
live by warning us before writing to Mr. Robinson? Fortun- 
ately, however, generosity and greatness often go together, 

1907 November i. 



382 Notes and Comments. 

and that gifted naturalist has dealt leniently with us. How 
awkward it would have been for the publishers of ' The 
Naturalist ' if, with a few strokes of his pen, Mr. E. K. 
Robinson had 'proposed to drop "The Naturalist,"' just as 
he did the word mammals.* We notice, however, that we are 
warned as to our conduct, and if we ' really wish to serve the 
interests of the Union,' we must keep our pen under better 
control. We shall certainly pay due regard to that warning. 
We were in the Natural History Museum at South Kensington 
a few days ago, and were horrified to find the word ' Mammal ' 
still in general use. In fact, there was a 'Guide to the 
Mammals'- offered for sale — though in fairness to Mr. Robinson 
we ought to say that we did not see any of the visitors (pre- 
sumably mostly B.E.N.A.'s, though they didn't wear their 
badges) buy it. But, we hear on good authority that the 
Director, Sir E. Ray Lankester, is ' retiring ' at the end of 
the present year. Ah! 



COUNTRY SIDE 'NATURAL HISTORY.' 

According to the 'Country Side,' the recent Limerick, etc., 
competitions in the newspapers has ' sent up the social value of 
brains.' Mr. E. Kay Robinson's finger-nails (and presumably 
his toe-nails too, though his observations have apparently not 
extended thus far) clearly shew that he has ' narrowly escaped 
death.' For the second time 'E.K.R.' has ridden 'Home' in 
a Motor Car, and for the second time has given his readers an 
account of his achievement. By a curious coincidence the 
' species ' of the car is the same as that ' puffed up,' with fair 
regularity, in the ' Motor Notes,' and in the advertisement column 
of the same paper. With the view of furthering the study of 
Natural History, presumably, ' Country Side ' has started a 
' fine contest of skill and brains ' — a Limerick competition, and 
the B.E.N.A.'s can 'cudgel their brains' to produce the 'last 
lines.' From the following brilliant example it will be seen that 
there is a distinct ' natural history ' flavour about the com- 

* Notwithstanding Mr. George Washington Robinson's assurance that he 
would drop the word ' mammal ' and use the word ' animal ' instead, we 
notice that in his paper recently, in asking for information about ' Creatures 
and Plants,' he puts the Mole, Mouse, Rat, and Yole under the heading 
'Mammals.' Possibly this is a misprint, and the unfortunate ' comp ' is 
seeking a new situation. In the same list, under ' Weeds and Fungi," is 
included ' Finger and toe in turnips." Is this a weed or a fungus ? or should 
it cotne under ' animals.' 

Naturalist, 



Ingham : Sag in a reateri Bo'iss. 383 

petition ; it is also remarkable that the letters 'e. k. r-o-b-i-n-s-o-n' 
occur in the first four lines : — 

Said the humming-bird to the shrew 
' If I were as dowdy as you 
I'd keep to the house.' 
' Fiddle ' ! answered the mouse 



I'm a Country Side piffler, arn't you? 

We have filled in the last line, in case any of our readers care 
to compete for a badge — or whatever the prize may be. There 
need be no fear of the source being detected, as Mr. Alfred 
Austin Robinson never sees 'The Naturalist.'* 



SAGINA REUTERI BOISS. : 

A NATIVE OF THE BRITISH FLORA. 



W.-CINGHAM, B.A. 
York. 



On the nth August, 1906, I found this small flowering plant on 
the bed of a very old pool, almost dried up. This was on 
Skipwith Common, near Selby, in V.C. 61, in a truly wild 
habitat, with no sign of alien plants of any kind associated 
with it. 

It is known as an alien plant from Worcestershire, Cheshire, 
and Lancashire, but there is the strongest evidence that it is 
native on Skipwith Common. Its associates there were Mentha 
pulegium, Apiuni nodiflorum var. repens, Limosella aquatica, 
Veronica scutellata var. hirsuta, and the Hepatic Riccia 
crystallina. Additional evidence given by Dr. F. N. Williams, 
our authority on the Caryophyllaceous order of plants, who has 
examined the specimen sent to him by Mr. Wheldon from me, is 
as follows : — ' Although differing in appearance from the very 
glandular forms of this plant you (Mr. Wheldon) have previously 
sent me {Vide Ex. Club Rep., 1902), they belong to S. Reateri, 
and are indeed more like the original Portuguese specimens 
than the Lancashire plants.' The Skipwith Common plant is 
quite eglandular, and a few plants only were gathered, as it 
was first thought to be S. apetala. 

It is clear that Sagina Ren ten' is a native addition to the 
British Flowering Plants. 

* This ' fine contest of skill and brains ' is apparently not suitable for 
the readers of the ' Countrv Side,' and has been discontinued ! 



1907 November I. 



384 

THE HAIRY=ARMED BAT. 

(Vesperugo leisleri). 



(plate XLL). 



ARTHUR WHITAKER, 

Worsbrough Bridge. 



This bat appears to be the least common of the eight species 
which occur in Yorkshire, but it is more than probable that its 
apparent rarity is due to some extent to the species being - so 
easily mistaken for the common Noctule Bat {Pterygisier noctida), 
a species which abounds, and to which it bears so close a re- 
semblance as to render it impossible to differentiate between 
them, with certainty, without actually handling- them. 

In the British Isles the Hairy*-Armed, or Leisler's Bat has 
been found plentifully in the North East and Eastern Counties 
of Ireland, but is unknown in Scotland, and rare and local in 
England. 

Mr. H. Charbonnier recorded the capture of several bats of 
this species at Mexbrough in May and June, 1890 (Zoologist 
1892, page 329), and Messrs. Clarke and Roebuck mention 
three specimens taken from an old factory chimney at Hunslet, 
near Leeds, 'about forty years ago,'* and these appear to be 
the only records of the occurrence of this species in our county, 
except for the specimens taken in the neighbourhood ot 
Barnsley by Mr. Armitage and myself. 

On May 13th, 1904, Mr. W. Broadhead, Woodman, of 
Stainbrough, heard some bats squeaking in a slit in the trunk 
of a beech tree which had just been felled. He chopped open 
the hole, but in so doing accidently killed one of the occupants. 
Two others he removed without injury, and the following day 
gave them to me. 

Although from the first I had doubts as to the identity of these 
specimens, I regarded them for some time as being unusually 
small and darkly coloured Noctules ; eventually, however, I 
became convinced that they were Leisler's Bats, and upon one 
of the specimens being submitted to Mr. Oldfield Thomas, I 
was delighted to find that this was actually the case. Shortly 
afterwards Mr. Armitage discovered that he had another 
specimen of this bat, in spirits, which had also been taken at 
Stainbrough in March, 1905. 

* Vertebrate Fauna of Yorkshire, 1881, page 4. 

NaturaJitt, 



THE NATURALIST, 1007. 









The Hairy=armed or Leisler's Bat. 
i Vesperugo leislerl). 



Whitaker: The Hairy- Armed Bat. 3 8 5 

It was satisfactory to know that the species occurred in the 
district, but a serious obstacle to learning much of its habits 
lay in its very close resemblance to the Noctule. 

In August, 1906, Mr. Sykes, of Old Mill, near Barnsley, 
mentioned to me that he had frequently observed a number of 
large bats flying about the vicinity of his house at dusk, and, 
at his suggestion, Mr. Wakefield and I met him there on the 
evening of August 18th. 

We walked along a pasture which skirts the upper side of a 
long, narrow plantation covering a steep bank lying between this 
field and the river Dearne. The plantation is composed almost 
entirely of oak trees of fair growth; these we examined care- 
fully, and I climbed up to several likely holes without finding 
anything. 

By this time it was getting dusk, and several fairly large 
bats made their appearance and commenced to hawk up and 
down the top edge of the plantation, at about the elevation of 
the tree tops. They resembled the Noctule in flight so closely, 
that at the time I had no idea but that they were bats of this 
species. 

We failed to see any of them leave their den, and, as it 
quickly grew darker, we began to dispair of being able to 
locate their retreat that night. Just as we were about to leave, 
however, Mr. Wakefield noticed one of them disappear some- 
where in the dead top of one of the oak trees. Upon ascending 
the tree I soon found their hiding-place, which was at a greater 
elevation than any Noctules' den I have yet examined. The 
top portion of the tree was dead and without twigs, but a few 
of the larger branches remained, and it was through a hole in 
a short stump of one of these, which projected at about right 
angles from the trunk, that the bats found an entrance to a 
hollow in the trunk itself. 

The height from the ground to the hole was about forty 
feet. I could hear the bats squeaking and shuffling about 
inside, but the opening was only about two inches diameter, 
and the surrounding wood otherwise comparatively sound, so 
that it was impossible for me to get my hand in or break into 
the den without tools. Moreover, it would have been foolish to 
have made any attempt to examine the colony at the time, as 
some of the bats were still out feeding in the vicinity, and it 
was also getting quite dark. So we left them undisturbed for 
the time being. 

On the 22nd of August I revisited the tree, in company 

1907 November 1. 



386 Whitaker: The Hairy- Armed Bat. 

with Mr. Armitage, and this time we took care to arm our- 
selves with a good mallet and wood chisel, and with the aid 
of these I soon cut a hole straight into the den in the main 
trunk, having - previously blocked up the exit hole through the 
stump of the side branch. I found, on cutting the retreat open, 
that it commenced, as before stated, with an entrance hole 
some two inches in diameter, running from the end of the 
broken side stump straight to the centre of the main trunk, a 
distance of about a foot. The trunk itself, at this point, was 
about ten inches in diameter, and in the heartwood was a 
circular hole about four inches in diameter, extending upwards 
from the point where the other hole joined it, for about fourteen 
inches. It also went downwards for a short distance, but the 
bottom part was inclined to be damp. In the upper portion I 
found six bats, which all proved to be female Hairy-Armed 
Bats, a fact which seems to indicate that, as in the case of the 
Noctule, the sexes have a strong inclination to form separate 
colonies during the summer months. 

Another interesting feature about this little colony of 
Leisler's bats was that it quite lacked the strong and offensive 
odour so characteristic of a Noctules' den. In fact, the 
absence of this unpleasant smell struck us even before we 
commenced to cut into the hole, and was the first thing which 
led us to suspect that the occupants were Leisler's, and not 
Noctule bats. 

The average wing expanse of these six Leisler's bats was 
304 m.m., decidedly less than that of the Noctule, which 
averages about 340 m.m. The colour of the fur, however, 
appears to give by far the most ready method of distinguishing 
between these two species. The Noctule is glossy (almost 
oily-looking) golden brown on the back and only very slightly 
paler and less golden underneath. Leisler's bat is of a glossy 
clove brown above and paler, with quite a grey tinge, beneath. 
This, however, is a method of identification which can only 
be used when specimens of both species are available for 
comparison. 

It will be found upon a more careful examination, however, 
that the colouration does afford a ready method of distinguishing 
these two species ; and the distinction is one that can easily be 
borne in mind, and used to identify even a single specimen 
which may be obtained when one is in the country, with no 
other specimens or books to refer to, and when general 
impressions as to whether it looked small and darkly 

Naturalist, 



Whi taker : T/ie Hairy-Armed Bat. 387 

coloured or the reverse, might be most unreliable. Take a 
Noctule in the hand and blow back the fur anywhere, above or 
below, and the place thus disturbed will show lighter in colour 
than the surrounding fur, the base of every hair being paler 
than the tip. Do the same with a Leisler's bat, and exactly 
the opposite will be the case, especially on the under surface of 
the creature, where the pelage becomes almost black towards 
the roots. Of course there are several other differences between 
the two species, as in the relative size of the feet, which are 
smaller and weaker in Leisler's bat, and in the dentition ; but 
as these points would be unintelligible to some readers and un- 
interesting to most, it is not necessary to go into them here, 
especially as the above method of recognition is the easiest to 
remember and to apply. 

Of the six Hairy-Armed bats we obtained, I decided to try 
to keep a pair, in captivity, in order to learn a little more ot 
their habits. I got them to take food from my hand the evening 
following their capture without any difficulty. Like most bats, 
they seemed to show no particular fear of human beings, only 
a certain amount of anger and irritation at being handled, and 
this quickly disappeared when they began to associate the 
event with 'feeding time.' During the first week I got a few 
pretty severe nips from them, though they never succeeded in 
drawing blood, as a Noctule often does. Their method of 
feeding was identical with that of the Noctule ; they would 
snatch the meal-worm or other insect from my forceps or 
fingers if it were held within three-quarters-of-an-inch from their 
nose, but if it were more than an inch away they did not seem 
to realise its vicinity at all. They made no attempt to ' pouch ' 
their food, but ate it quite openly, with the head slightly 
raised, moving the jaws very rapidly, and making a decided 
4 champing ' noise. Sometimes the whole of the insect would 
be consumed, and at other times the head and legs would be 
rejected. If one of the bats got hold of a mealworm crosswise, 
it would usually jerk it along until it got the end. It would 
then masticate the part in its mouth rapidly, and, with a 
slight jerk of its head, secure a further portion, repeating this 
process until the whole had disappeared ; occasionally it would 
commence to eat in the centre, but this generally resulted in one 
or both ends being lost. I always noted that the more nearly its 
appetite was satiated the more careless it became in consuming 
its food, larger and larger portions of the insects given to it 
being dropped. It would keep on snatching fresh ones, how- 

1907 November i 



388 Field Notes. 

ever, even though it only took a bite or two out of them. It 
would often refuse obstinately to take back a piece it had 
dropped ; in fact, it was seldom that I could induce it to do so. 
I used to take this extravance as an indication that it had had 
sufficient, and when it began to drop portions of its food I 
stopped the supply. I found that an average of about five 
dozen mealworms each per day seemed to meet the require- 
ments of these bats fairly well ; at any rate they had to subsist 
on that allowance, for mealworms cost money.* 
(To be continued). 



ARACHNIDA. 
A Phalangid new to Yorkshire. — Oligolophus alpinus 

Herbst. , now recorded for our county for the first time, is an 
addition to the list of Yorkshire Harvest Spiders which appeared 
in the 'Naturalist,' November, 1906. The total list is thus 
increased to sixteen species. I secured specimens in Butternab 
Wood, Huddersfield, in July and near the summit of Ingle- 
borough in September, 1907. — Wm. Falconer, Slaithwaite, 
28th September, 1907. 

A Ps2udo = scorpion new to Northumberland. — Pseudo- 
scorpions are apparently, with one exception, very scarce in the 
North of England, only eight of the twenty-three British species 
having occurred in the six northern counties (vide ' Naturalist/ 
August, 1903 aud June 1907). Only the commonest one, 
Obisium muscorum Leach., has up to the present been met 
with in Northumberland, but on August 16th, while sifting the 
accumulated refuse in an obscure and neglected corner of a barn 
at Manor Mill, Haltwhistle, on the South Tyne, I came across 
one example of the eyeless Chernes rufeolus Sim. This false- 
scorpion has only recently been added to the British list ('Trans, 
of Dorset Field Club,' 1905). It was first discovered in a 
London granary, but has since been taken in Kent, Essex, 
Wilts., Derby, Cumberland, and Cheshire. — Wm. Falconer, 
Slaithwaite, 28th September, 1907. 

* This a certain gamekeeper discovered, to whom I was talking' 011 the 
subject. He was enquiring- after the welfare of a couple of Noctules he had 
given me some little time previously, and asking me upon what I fed them. 
I told him that the joint efforts of the bats accounted for some hundred and 
fifty mealworms per da} - . Upon this he enquired what I paid for my meal- 
worms, and after I had told him, relapsed into profound silence, broken by 
fitful mutterings, which warned me that he was engaged in the mental 
solution of some problem in advanced practical mathematics. Just when I 
was beginning to think that he had either forgotten the matter or become 
hopelessly muddled, he burst out triumphantly — ' I'll tell you what, Mister, 
I'm feeding a couple of pigs for three ha'pence a week less than them thare 
bats is costing you ' ! I could quite believe him, too. 

Naturalist, 



3«9 

A NET=BUILDING CHIRONOMUS LARVA. 



A. T. MUNDV. 



In the summer of 1904, Prof. Miall and Mr. Taylor discovered 
a tube-building - larva of special interest on account of its strange 
habits. The fly was hatched out, and has been identified as 
Chironomus pusio. The larvae were found in great abundance 
at Touthech, Windermere. In 1905 I found that the same 
insect was quite common in some of the South Devon streams 
on the borders of Dartmoor. In the Yealm, which is only a few 
minutes' walk from my home, they are very plentiful, and so I 
have had exceptional facilities for studying their anatomy and 
life history. At first I had the greatest difficulty in keeping them 
alive and active, for they delight in the swiftest running water, 
while I had to keep them in dishes of still water. However, 
this difficulty was finally overcome by using a clock-work 
arrangement, which set in motion a revolving paddle, thus 
stirring the water round and round. And so by this means I 
have been able during the last two years to study their habits 
and metamorphoses very closely. 

Some of the Chiroiiomids make free cases just as do the 
caddisvvorms (Trichoptcra). Reaumur (1743) was the first 
naturalist to describe one of these ; Lyonet described another 
in 1832, which built a gelatinous case. This larva has been 
quite recently found in England. Dr. Lauterborn has now 
added three more to the number of case-builders. One larva 
makes a brown opaque case, rather flat with rounded ends 
opening by a slit, thus resembling in a remarkable decree 
those old-fashioned spectacle cases which open at either end by 
gentle squeezing. The second makes a straight reed-like case 
covered with scales ; the posterior end is closed by a tough 
membrane with a central pore. And the third makes a case 
somewhat the shape of a cigar. None of these cases are more 
than a few millimetres in length, and I am not aware that any 
of them have been as yet found in England, but that is probably 
only on account of their smallness. On the other hand the 
tube-building larvae, among which we place our Chironomus, 
are found in great variety in all parts of England. Some make 
simple mud tubes buried in slime ; others build tubes three or 
four inches long rising perpendicularly from the bottom of 
stagnant pools ; while still another group constructs elaborate 
nets, supported by a strong framework of arms, to be used for 
catching" food. 



1907 November i. 



39° 



Mundy : A Net-building Chironomus Larva. 



To this last group belongs C. pusio, to which I must now 
return. The case (Fig. i) is found in swift running moorland 
streams, anywhere except in a waterfall, attached to moss or 
rock. It consists of a very compact tube one centimetre long ; 
the free end is surrounded by from four to seven long thin 
arms sticking out like spokes. The whole case is strangely 
suggestive of the common brown Hydra of our ponds. With 



Fig. I. 



Fir,. II. 




Fig. I. — C. pusio, larval case of a full-grown specimen, with two immature 
cases attached at the base. Mag. f, and natural size. 

Fig. II. — The case of another larva, a closely related species. Mag. J, 
and natural size. 

head projecting from the tube, lies the larva ; and if watched 
closely, it will be seen to dart up one of the arms, carry silken 
threads between this and the next until there is a strong net- 
work formed. This is done between each pair of arms. The 
larva will then retire into its tube once more, and wait while 
the net gets loaded with particles of mud containing desmids, 
diatoms, and other organic matter. Then out it comes again, 
pulls in the web and all it contains, and either devours it, or, 
binding it into a firm mass, adds it to the wall of its house. 
When full grown the larva enlarges the end of its case, and 
after removing the arms, covers it in with a circular disc con- 
taining a small central hole. Then after a rest of twenty hours or 
so the larva changes into a pupa, and out through the central pore 

Naturalist, 



Review and Book Notice. 391 

of the disc are pushed the ends of the respiratory organs. 
What a wise provision it seems, to have left that central hole, 
and yet after all, if I mistake not, the breathing - organs have 
lost their function ! Three days' rest, and the pupa pushes off 
the disc, swims to the surface, where in a moment out bursts 
the perfect fly to join his fellows in the air. The female fly lays 
about ninety eggs in a jelly mass, 1 m.m. in diameter, attached 
to moss just below the water. The development of the larva 
can be watched through the transparent egg shell, and in six 
days the larva hatches out. 

The newly hatched larvae are but specks, and quite trans- 
parent. They differ from the older ones in not having five pairs 
of plumed bifurcating hairs arising from the sides of the body. 
Yet these minute creatures, which I have myself hatched out 
from egg masses placed in moving water, as described above, 
build little mud tubes with arms and nets just as their elders do. 
They are, however, so small as to be scarcely visible without a 
magnifying glass. 

Another species, very closely related to C. pusio, makes a 
still more graceful dwelling. The tube of this larva is shown 
in Fig. II., and has lately been described and figured by Dr. 
Lauterborn, who found it very plentiful in the Speirbach and 
Helmbach, above Lambrecht (Palatinate). The two larvae 
resemble one another so closely, that when taken from their 
cases, it is almost impossible to distinguish the species. I 
mention this larva because I have found it moderately plentiful 
in the same streams where Chironomus pusio is so abundant. 
And as the two larvae live together in Devon, there seems no 
reason why this latter should not also be found in the same 
locality where C. pusio was originally discovered, or in other 
places in the north where moorland streams exist. 



Handbook to the Roman Wall, by the late J. C. Bruce, edited by 
R. Blair. Andrew Reid & Co., Newcastle, 1907. 284 pp., 2/6 net. In view 
of the extraordinary interest attached to the Roman wall, the glorious 
country it traverses, and the unique character of the discoveries that have 
been made at different points along - its course, it is surprising that it is not 
visited by a far greater number of people. Bruce's Handbook has done 
much to popularise this magnificent relic of our early rulers, and the fact 
that it has recently reached a fifth edition alone speaks for its value. Seeing 
that the original author is no longer with us, perhaps no better qualified 
person could be found to revise and bring the handbook up to date than the 
energetic editor of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, Mr. R. Blair. 
Since the fourth edition was issued in 1895 many important excavations and 
discoveries have been made along the wall — notably the great camp at 
Housesteads and the discovery in Cumberland of a fragment of a wall of 
turves ; of these Mr. Blair gives good account. The guide is well illustrated, 
and has an excellent folding map. 

1907 November i. 



39 2 

NOTES ON THE VARIATION OF ABRAXAS 
ULMATA AT SKEL1HANTHORPE. 



B- MORLEV, 

Skelmanthorpe. 



Last June, when so many familiar and common species of 
lepidoptera were failing - to appear, and others only in few 
numbers, it was an agreeable surprise to find Abraxas ulmata 
in a countless swarm in its haunt in this neighbourhood: 
Such a host I had never seen before. To walk about in the 
wood meant killing them at every step. The herbage and 
bushes were simply alive with them, everything was spangled 
all over with their white wings. But evidences of tragedy 
abounded everywhere, bodiless wings littered the ground ; 
thousands were drowned in the stream ; hopelessly deformed 
examples were crawling about on every hand, crippled in 
every conceivable way. Their wretched plight was almost 
depressing. The satisfaction was the perfect ones, of course ; 
how pretty they looked sitting with their wings streched out 
and laid flat on every leaf, and yet how very much alike they 
seemed. Having recently had the pleasure of seeing some of 
the remarkable forms found at Sledmere some years ago, it 
occurred to me that probably something out of the ordinary might 
be found amongst this multitude. Previously I had not found 
any great variation, or even found a good aberration, This 
time, however, I was more fortunate, for what I obtained 
surpassed anything I had ever dreamed of. Strange forms 
were really not uncommon. 

Roughly, the variation can be separated into two classes, 
one lighter than the figure given by Newman and the other 
darker. Newman's figure seems to exactly represent what I 
found to be the predominant type, so that it will be convenient 
as a base to work from. 

Dealing first with the varieties that are lighter than New- 
man's type, it was very easy to find all the grades of variation 
to an almost white form. The brown spots at the bases of the 
wings and those on the inner margins gradually fading into a 
light ochreous shade, the cloudy blotches becoming smaller and 
fainter. In a few examples of the extreme light form the brown 
in the spots is replaced by an almost bright yellow colour, and 
all that remains of the transverse series of cloudy blotches 
beyond the middle of the wings is a short faint streak on each 

Naturalist, 



Morley : Notes on the Variation of Abraxas ulmata. 393 

wing - ray, the ground colour being pure white. On some of 
the very lightest specimens another very curious feature of 
variation begins to appear, and leads on to a very distinct 
variety. Some specimens have the yellow spots slightly 
blurred, the colour being faintly suffused on*the wings outside 
the ordinary limits of the spots. The suffusion becomes more 
pronounced in other specimens until the ground colour becomes 
rust coloured, this colour being most pronounced in the region 
of the spots. But I regard these as only approaches to what I 
found of the extreme yellow suffused forms, which have the 
yellow spots very blurred and undefined, and the ground colour 
very dirty and greasy-looking. Perhaps the strangest feature 
about these yellow suffused forms is the fact that not one of them 
has all the wings equally affected. In one or two specimens 
an almost complete suffusion obtains, but generally the fore- 
wings are the most affected, and both sexes are subject to it. 

Another very plentiful form, darker than Newman's figure, 
seems to make another distinct variation. The brown spots 
are very much darkened ; indeed, in some cases they are 
almost obliterated by a thick lead colour. The transverse sets 
of blotches are united and form broad deep leaden bands 
across the wings. The central blotches become enlarged also, 
and are usually confluent. It is worthy of note, however, that 
this form has the spots well defined, and even in the most heavily 
marked examples what remains of the ground colour is white 
and not suffused. 

A few of the deep leaden varieties were obtained, with pretty 
examples intermediate between them and the type. The first 
has only the outer half of the left forewing affected, the narrow 
smoky line on the outer margin and the leaden blotches being 
almost washed out, the area between them lead colour. It is 
worthy of note that although the brown spot on the inner 
margin is enveloped in the smoky cloud it is well defined and 
full coloured. The next specimen has all the wings equally 
affected ; all the spots and blotches show out plainly, the 
ground colour being pale leaden grey more or less shadowy, 
but with no white showing. The remaining specimens of the 
leaden type seem to vary only in intensity of colour, with the 
cloudy blotches less apparent as the colour becomes deeper. 

Judging from this series it would seem that two quite 
distinct forms of variation are developing in this locality, and 
although it may be premature to come to that conclusion, the 
fact remains that where a yellow suffusion obtains it is at the 

1907 November i 

2 C 



394 Reviews and Book Notices. 

expense of the brown spots ; and in the leaden forms the 
cloudy blotches disappear, while the brown spots remain com- 
plete and well defined. Probably the banded forms may be 
only heavily marked examples of the ordinary type, and without 
direct relation to either of the suffused varieties, but an opinion 
in this case is scarcely warranted when the real causes of these 
extreme variations are so little understood. 

There are three specimens in the series which deserve 
special mention and a separate description. The first has the 
right forewing a dirty brown colour, all over the wing, the 
markings and the white ground being all obliterated ; all the 
other wings, however, are of the usual typical colour in every 
respect, a strange looking specimen indeed. 

The second is a really pretty aberration, the basal two-thirds 
of the wings being of a deep bronze colour flushed with blue, 
and divided in the centre by a narrow white band reaching from 
the inner margin almost to the costal margin, the outer portion 
of the wings being a broad belt of pure white. The extra- 
ordinary appearance of this specimen was noticed when I was 
ten yards away from it, although it was surrounded by scores 
of others of its species. 

The third has all the wings a pale lead colour, but instead 
of the six brown spots being complete and well defined, as in 
the other leaden forms, they are replaced by round leaden spots 
similar to the ground colour, surrounded with brown lines, the 
wings being simply ornated with brown rings. It is worthy of 
note that the head, thorax, and body are all normally coloured 
in all the varieties except the lead coloured forms, in all of 

which they are invariably black. 

♦♦ 

Wild Life on a Norfolk Estuary, by A. H. Patterson. London : 
Methuen & Co. 352 pp., 10/6 net. We have previously noticed Mr. 
Patterson's work in these columns. The present substantial book teems 
with equally interesting - matter, and can be recommended for its racy style 
and for the valuable natural history observations it records. It deals largely 
with Breydon — so well known to East Coast naturalists. The second part 
of the present volume is really a continuation of the author's ' Nature in East 
Norfolk.' There is also added a series of interesting - local notes, which owe 
their existence to the author's system of ' when found make a note of.' 
Some of these are exceptionally good — the ' rabbit yarn ' we should have 
reprinted for the benefit of our readers had it not been quite so long ! 
Throughout the work there are numerous ancedotes of mammal, bird, and 
fish. To one of them, however, we observe the footnote, ' This is a fact ' ! 
The book is illustrated by several of the author's own sketches, some of 
which are rather crude, and a reason for their insertion is given in the 
Preface. Altogether it is a most entertaining volume, and we only wish 
that the dozens of recent writers on birds had as much first-hand inform- 
ation to give as Mr. A. H. Patterson, and could put it in such a pleasant 
form. 

Naturalist, 



395 



FUNGI AT HORTON=IN=RIBBLESDALE. 



T. GIBBS. 



The district of Horton-in-Ribblesdale is rather wanting in those 
rich moist woodlands, with deeply bedded leaf mould, which 
mycologists find such prolific hunting grounds. On the 
occasion of the September excursion of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, therefore, fungi were hardly so abundant 
as we expected to see them on the last excursion of the year. 
In addition to this, although it is a curious complaint to make 
after the summer of 1907, a pleasant little spell of delayed 
summer had somewhat checked the development of the 
moisture-loving pasture species. Notwithstanding these draw- 
backs, the writer, who was spending some days in the district, 
and consequently was able to extend the area of his operations 
beyond the strict bounds of the excursion programme, with the 
assistance, on the Saturday, of Messrs J W. Tindle and 
M. Malone, of Bradford, noted the occurrence of about eighty 
species. Some of these were of considerable interest, and one 
had not been previously certainly recorded for the county. 

The most prolific locality visited was Douk Gill, a narrow 
wooded ravine where the beck, which sinks underground at 
Hell Pot, on the side of Penyghent, resumes its above ground 
course ; here large Agarics were fairly plentiful, the plantation 
yielding six of the nine Russulce seen, also the beautiful edible 
Clitopilus orcel/a, and a fine large Discomycete Otidea cochleata. 
The bare moorlands yielded few species, but a pretty white 
or primrose yellow form of Omphalia umbellifera was frequent 
on peaty banks high up Penyghent and Ingleborough, and 
Naucoria semiorbicularis abounded in the Sphagnum swamps. 
The Limestone Scar area proved the most barren, as was to 
be expected, nevertheless it provided the find of the excursion, 
a solitary