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Curator of the Municii'al Museums, Hull. 

Past President of the Hlll Scientific and Field Naturalists' Club, of the Hull 

Geological Societv ; Hon. Secretary of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 

Union; Hon. Life Member of the Spalding Gentlemen's Society; of 

the Doncaster Scientific Society; etc. 



Lecturer in Biology, Technical College, Huddersiield ; 










A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., 5, Farringdon Avenup:, E.C 

And AT Hull and York. 




Plate* I. Poisonous Fungi (Amanita phalloides Fr.) . . to face 

II. Greater Horse-shoe Bat (R. ferrum-equinum) 

III. British Bats 

I\'. Ottonia ramosa ■! 
Ottonia bullata I 

V. Phytoplankton of tlie English Lake District 

— Enncrdale Water 

VI. Ditto — Crummack Water \ 
Derwent Water / 

\'II. Ditto — Windermere 

\'III. Portrait of W. H. Hudlcston, 

IX. Collecting : Geology v. Zoology 

X. Ottonia conifera ) 
Ottonia evansii J 

XI. Allium lu'sinum (Wood Garlic) 

XII. Rev. W. C. Hey 

XIII. Am. serpentinus (Reinecke's original figure of 
Hildoceras serpentinum (Rein, sp.) 

XIV. I. Am. falcifer, Sow. sp. . . \ 

2. Am. strangwaysi, Sow. sp. ,- 

3. Am.mulgravius (of collectors) j 

XV. Harpoceras mulgraviunl 

XVI. Stone Hammer-Heads found in East Yorks 

XVII. Cornicularia kochii, Camb. 

XVIII. Ottonia valga and Ottonia clavata 

page 65 







JANUARY 1909. 

No. 624 

(No. 402 of currtnt ttrlti} 




T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museum, Hull; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D, .F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 





Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated) :— Lincolnshire Naturalists; Dr. W. E. Hoyle ; Norwich 
Museum Association ; Museum Conference at Rochdale ; Liverpool Biologists ; 
'Cancer'; 'Granny' Crabs; Cumberland Intrusive Rocks; Eskdale and Wasdate 
Granite; Geology of Harrogate; Yorkshire Zoologists; Our Dumb Friends 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Doncaster 

On a Specimen of Eryon antiquus Broderip, from the Yorkshire 

—T. ShcppaTd,F.G.S., F.S.A.Scot 

On the Status of the Stone Curlew in Yorkshire— E. W. Wade.M.B 
Notes on the Lepidoptera of South Yorkshire in 1908 — B. Mortey 
The Fung:us Flora of Mul^rave Woods— C. Crossland, F.L.S. 

Economic mycology— G. Massce, F.L.S 

Field Notes 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Northern News 


Lias (Illustrated) 


10, 20, 27, 

~ 1-5 



LONDON : __ 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, <;, Farringdon Aveniip, %Qi] 
And at Hull and York. / ^ 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. I. f JAN 
' \a. 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 

Only a limited Edition available. 


Studies of its Botany, Geologfy, Climate, and Physical 




F.R.S., F.L.S., M.R.I.A., V.M.H. 

Late Keeper of the Herbarium and Library of the Royal Gardens, Kew 

Late President and Perpetual Vice-President of the Yorkshire 

Naturalists' Union. 

And a Chapter on the Mosses and Hepatics of the Riding, 


Matthew B. Slater, F.L.S. 

680 pages, coloured geological, llthologlcal, etc. maps, 
suitably bound In Cloth, 

Price 15/- net. 

This volume is a companion to Lee's " Flora of West Yorkshire,** 
and, together with Robinson's " Flora of East Riding," completes the 
Flora of the County. 


A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., Savile Street & King Edward Street, Hull. 


Set of 'The NATURAUIST' 

From Vol. IV. (1878) to Vol. XXXIII. (1908) inclusive; 13 Vols, 
"bound, the remainder in parts ; each Volume complete ; also the 
Vol. for 1864. Offers to Mr. H. B. BBOWNE, Hymers College, HULL. 


FOR 1909. 



The annual nieeting of the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union 
was held at Lincoln on December 3rd. There are 112 members 
in the Union. The Rev. E. A. Woodruff e Peacock presented 
60,000 notes on the Flora of Lincolnshire, and it was decided 
to have them published. The Rev. A. Hunt read a paper on 
' Pre-historic Man in Lincolnshire.' In this he said it was 
' possible to reconcile the teachings of scientific results with 
the scriptural narratives. There was a Bronze Age in the 
Bible . . . Bronze (translated brass in the Pentateuch) was 
mentioned forly-hve times. Iron was only mentioned four 
times.' Mr. W.. Denison Roebuck, of Leeds, was elected 
president for. iqoq. 


We should like to sincerely congratulate Dr. W. E. Hoyle, 
of the Manchester Museum, on his appointment as Director of 
the new Welsh National Museum at "Cardiff. Dr. Hoyle's 
excellent work at the Owen's College Museum is well known, 
and the collections under his charge have long been looked upon 
by his confreres with envy. Dr. Hoyle has also taken a keen 
and practical interest in the work of the many Manchester 
scientific societies, and, consequently his departure will be 
much regretted. At the Leicester meeting of the British 
Association he was the President of the Section for Zoology, 
and gave an admirable address on the classification of the 
Cephalopoda, a subject he has made a special study. 


We have received the First Annual Report of Proceedings 
of the Norwicli Museum Association, founded in 1907 for the 
object of extending the sphere of usefulness of the Norwich 
Museum. A series of lectures has been given on such subjects 
as ' The food of birds,' ; ' The House-fly, etc., and other insects 
as carriers of disease ' ; ' Some Fungoid Diseases of Plants ' ; 
' The Nature and Properties of Soils,' etc., etc. These are given 
by specialists, and have been well attended, and much appre- 

1909 jckiiuaj:)""?! 

2 Notes and Comtnents. 


A Conference of Museum Curators was held at Rochdale 
recently, representatives being present from Accrington, 
Blackburn, Bolton, Bootle, Bury, Hull, Keighley, Liverpool, 
Manchester, Sheffield, Stockport and Warrington. The Museum 
and Art Gallery are of recent erection — the former being small. 
It contains, however, representative collections of local geolo- 
gical and archaeological objects. Papers and exhibitions of 
interest to Curators were brought forward by Dr. W. E. Hoyle, 
Messrs. W. S. Laverock, S. L. Mosley, R. Bateman and F. 
Williamson. Lieutenant-Colonel Fishwick, the Chairman of 
the Rochdale Museum Committee, entertained the visitors. 


The Liverpool Biological Society has again earned the grati- 
tude of all naturalists by publishing so excellent a volume of 
Proceedings and Transactions as that just issued for 1907-8.* 
JBesides a review of the work of the Society during the year, 
it contains the Presidential Address of Mr. W. T. Haydon, on 
' The Seed Production of Pinus sylvestris ' ; ' The Twenty-first 
Annual Report of the Liverpool Biological Committee and their 
Biological Station at Port Erin ' ; a marvellous record of 
detailed and systematic work, by Prof. Herdman ; a ' Report 
on the Investigations carried on during 1907, in connection 
with the Lancashire Sea-fisheries' laboratory, at the University 
of Liverpool, and the Sea-Fish Hatchery at Piel, near Barrow,' 
by Prof. Herdman and Messrs. A. Scott and J. Johnstone 
— a report of two hundred pages ; and Mr. W. J. Dakin 
writes on ' Methods of Plankton Research.' 


An unusually valuable feature in this volume is the Mono- 
graph on Cancer — the Edible Crab, by Mr. Joseph Pearson, 
which forms No. 16 of the Liverpool Marine Biological Com- 
mittee's Memoirs — a series indispensable to the working 
zoologist. In this monograph, which contains over two hundred 
pages, and numerous beautifully prepared })lates, is presented 
an account of the Edible Crab, which may be safely said to 
contain all that is at jiresent known of the physiology and 
anatomy of the species. We heartily congratulate the Liver- 
l^ool Society and Mr. Pearson on its production. 

* Vol. XXIL, 1908. 554 + xviii. pp., and plates. 


Notes and Comments. 3 


An interesting item of information is given with regard to 
■certain worn and dilapidated crabs, known as 'grannies,' 
which are caught in abundance during July and August. 
These are not necessarily old nor female, but they are 
promptly killed, and thrown into the sea again by the 
fishermen. These crabs are unsaleable, and are said to have 
a strong bitter taste. It is considered, however, that these 
particular crabs are merely individuals which are approaching 
the time when in every second year, a crab this size will 
cast its skin. The probability is therefore that instead of 
being harmful, and likely to ' infect ' their neighbours, they 
would, if left alone, cast their shells, and, after passing 
through a period as ' soft ' crabs, again be normal, clean-looking 
healthy individuals, suitable for the market. Unless stopped, 
it is probable that much harm will be done to the local crab 
fisheries by the wholesale slaughter of the ' grannies.' 


At a recent meeting of the Geological Society of London, 
Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse read a paper ' On some Intrusive Rocks 
in the Neighbourhood of Eskdale, Cumberland,' In this he 
pointed out that there appear to be five well-marked groups of 
intrusions in this district : — {a) The andesitic dykes in the 
neighbourhood of Allen Crags and Angle Tarn ; ip) The dykes 
of the spherulitic and felsitic group on Yewbarrow and High 
Fell ; (c) The dioritic (' bastard granite ') bosses of Peers 
Gill, Lingmell Crag, and Bursting Knotts, with their associated 
dykes ; {d) The Eskdale Granite, with the granite-porphyry 
dyke running from Great Bank to Wasdale Head, and thence 
to Kirkfell Crags ; and [e) The dolerite dykes, having a general 
north-west to south-east trend. 

The dykes of series {a) bear a very strong petrological 
resemblance to the Borrowdale volcanic rocks, into which they 
were intruded. Furthermore, they are weathered to much the 
same extent and have developed the same secondary minerals, 
among which epidote is conspicuous. They appear to be of 
Borrowdale age, and roughly contemporaneous with the lavas 
and ashes into which they are intruded. The spherulitic and 
more acid series [h] are considered to be also of Borrowdale 
age, though probably somewhat later than the andesitic series. 
The rocks of the dioritic group (c) are considered to be the 

igoy January i. 

4,. Notes and Copivients.. ,. 

holocrystalline and hypabyssal equivalents of the Borrowdale 
Lavas, and the author is of opinion that they also are of 
Ordovician age. . . ,. 


■ The Eskdale and Wasdale Granites (^) are much more acidi,-' 
and show little sign of alteration, except that .due to weathering . 
and ■dislocation. They are undoubtedly - intrusive into the: 
Borrowdale Series, but seems to be pre-Tniassic. Thus th^ . 
intrusion is probably Devonian, like the neighbouring granite 
of Shap, which, with the exception of its 'large phenocrysts 
of orthoclase, is not dissimilar to some of the varieties of the 
Eskdale Granite. The basic intrusions (e),. have, been examined' 
only where they come into proximity to the granite. They, 
may well be connected with the great Tertiary basic flows of ; 
Antrim, as has been suggested by Mr. Harker. The granite 
becomes progressively more, and more acid as its margin is ■ 
approached, until, in some places, the percentage of silica 
amounts to g6.i6. This is explained by the assumption that 
the magma, as a whole, was more acid than the eutectic mixture 
of quartz and orthoclase, and that consequently the excess of 
silica separated in the marginal portions, which were the first 
to solidify. ' 


A second edition of the " Geology of the Country north 
and east of Harrogate,' prepared by Mr. C. Fox-Strangways, 
has just been published by the Survey, and we should like to' 
corigratulate both the Survey and Mr. Fox-Strangways upon 
thfe general excellence of the work. It is also illustrated in a" 
way which is quite refreshing for a government publication^' 
the reproductions of photographs by Mr. Godfrey Bingley ' 
being Very fine indeed. There is also a coloured geological 
map of the district. 

After dealing in detail with the various' beds in the area, 
there are chapters on the physical structure, economic geology, ■ 
the Harrogate springs, etc., the last being of particular value. 
There are appendices devoted to well-sections and bibliography, 
both of which are carefully compiled, and unusually complete. ' 


The Vertebrate Section of the Yorkshire NaturaHsts' Union^ 
recently held a most successful meeting- at Leeds, which extended.. 
Irom early in the afternoon until late in the evening. Mr. Rileyv 


Notes and Comments. a'i 

Fortune presided. The papers and lantern exhibitionsj enumer- 
ated on the cover of the * Naturalist ' for December, were given, 
and much of the valuable information' brought forward will be 
permanently recorded in the pages of this journal. Reports of 
the year's work of the Vertebrate Section and of the Wild Birds' 
and Eggs' Protection Committee were also presented ; Mr. Ww 
H. St. Quintin, the Chairman of the latter, being' present. 
These reports are being printed in the ' Transactions of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union.' The' next meeting of the Section 
will be held at Leeds on February 13th. ■ ^ 


Having regard to the care now being taken of our dumb 
friends, we notice our contemporary, 'Punch,' in the 
accompanying sketch, draws attention to the possible extremes 
which may be reached. 

'^^—---7^-'^— " 

[Reproduced by the ^fecial permission oj the Proprietors of ' Punch 'J. 

Hygiene for our Dumb Friends. 

Harassed Landowner. " I can't understmd why you complain. I've put in all the air-shafts, 
fire-escapes, emergency exits, etc., that you require." 

Urban Sanitary Inspector. " But, my dear Sir, where is the^ provision tor the Great Auk, should 
that bird elect to settle on your land." 

igog January i. 



The forty-seventh Annual Meeting of the Yorkshire NaturaUsts' 
Union was held at Doncaster, on December loth. Partly on 
account of the wretched weather which prevailed, and no doubt 
partly on account of the meeting being held on a Thursday, 
the attendance was not what has been experienced in recent 
years ; nevertheless, there was a goodly number present, and 
the Doncaster Scientific Society did its best to look after the 
interests of the visitors. The meetings were held in an excellent 
suite of rooms in the Mansion House, kindly lent by the Don- 
caster Corporation. 

In the morning an excursion was held to Cusworth ; where, 
nothing daunted by the elements, an enthusiastic if small 
party had a very profitable outing, and many interesting fungi 
and other specimens were shewn at the Conversazione as a result. 
The various sections of the Union had representative meet- 
ings in the afternoon, at which the reports were adopted and 
officers for 1909 were elected. At the meeting of the General 
Committee, the Executive's Report on the year's working was 
presented, and, together with the financial statement, proved 
very satisfactory. It was shewn that in each of the Union's 
Sections and Committees, work of a valuable character had been 
carried out, thus making the Report a useful record of natural 
history observations in the county during the year. The Report 
was, perhaps, the most complete and most satisfactory that 
has ever been issued in the nearly half a century of the Union's 

The Excursions for 1909 were arranged as under : — 
York, S.E., Market Weighton, Saturday, May Sth. 

Mid-W., Bowland, Whit week-end. May 31st to 

June 2nd. 
N.E., Runswick, Saturday. July 3rd. 
N.W., Sedbergh, August Bank Holiday week-end, 

2nd to 4th. 
S.W., Cawthorne, Saturday, August 21st. 
The Annual Fungus Foray will be held at Castle Howard,^ 
September i8th to 23rd. 

The Annual Meeting for 1909 will be held at Scarborough, 
in December, and the members of the Scarborough Field Natur- 
alists' Society have kindly invited the Union to be their guests. 
The officers elected for 1909 were : — President, Mr. W. H. 
St. Quintin, J. P., M.B.O.U., Rillington ; Treasurer. Mr. H. 


Yorkshire Naturalists' at Doncaster. 7 

Culpin, Doncaster ; Hon. Secretary, Mr. T. Sheppard, Museum 

The evening meeting was largely attended, and Mr. H. H. 
Corbett, the President of the Doncaster Scientific Society, 
was in the chair. Dr. Wheelton Hind delivered his Presidential 
Address, entitled ' On the Present Position of the Geology of 
the Carboniferous Rocks of Great Britain,'* — a most appro- 
priate subject in view of the interest now being taken in the 
Carboniferous Series by many members of the Union, and also 
having regard to the part probably shortly to be played by 
Doncaster in reference to the output of coal. 

In his introductory remarks, Dr. Hind stated : — ' The 
honour done me in electing me as President of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union is one which I can assure you I have appre- 
ciated most highly, my only feeling is one of regret that I have 
not been able to attend the meetings and excursions of the 
Society. When I accepted the position, I fully intended to do 
my duty, and to take a part in the excursions, but many causes 
have prevented my good intentions being fulfilled. I must 
thank most cordially those who proposed and elected me to 
the proud and important position of your President, and I 
am proud to feel that this honour is an appreciation of what- 
ever little work I have been able to accomplish in the geology 
of the Carboniferous rorks and their fossils. 

' I cannot pass to the subject matter of my address without 
alluding to the great loss which the world of science, and this 
Society in particular, has suffered in the death of Henry Clifton 
Sorby. It is not given to every one to establish a new depart- 
ment in science, or to attain the age of eighty-two with a brain 
capable of the highest scientific work ; and fate was kind in 
sparing his to science for so long. The science of Petrology 
will be his lasting monument.' 

A Conversazione was subsequently held in the large room 
at the Mansion House, at which was an excellent series of 
microscopes, and geological, botanical, and other specimens, 
many of extreme interest. Refreshments were also provided 
by the Doncaster Society. 

Votes of thanks were passed to the Doncaster Society and 
the Corporation for their entertainment, and for the use of 
the rooms. T. S. 

* This will be published shortly in these pag^es. 

1909 January i 


T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.S.A.Scot. 

Mr. A. M. Murley has handed to me a glacially striated nodule 
from the Boulder Clay at Waxholme, East Yorkshire, measuring 
4 J inches by 3 J inches. This has been split, and reveals an 
excellent impression of a Crustacean, which Dr. Bather kindly 
identifies as ' Eryon {Coleia) cf. antiqiius Broderip, or a closely 
allied form.' The nodule is presumably derived from the 
Lower Lias of the Yorkshire Coast, from which horizon in other 


parts of Britain this species has been recorded, though this 
appears to be the first example from Yorkshire. The half of 
the nodule containing the specimen shows the carapace, 
abdomen, and one large chelate thoracic leg. The lower part 
of the abdomen is bent under the body ; the tail-fan, if 
present, being hidden in the nodule. '• 

The total length of the specimen is 10.5 centimetres. The 
carapace is about six centimetres wide, though the state of 
the specimen prevents a definite measurement. The hinder 
border of the cephalothorax is fairly concave forwards. At 
a dis;tance of four centimetres from the posterior border, there 
is a triangular indentation, though the small tooth-like spine, 
described by Dr. Woodward as occurring on a specimen from 


Sheppard : Eryon aniiqnus Broderip, /rcwi the Lias. 9 

Lyme Regis,* is not well indicated on the Yorkshire example. 
At a distance of 4.5 centimetres occurs a second indentation 
called the cervical notch by Dr. Woodward, extending into the 
carapace to the extent of 1.25 centimetres. The carapace in 
front of this is coarsely tubercnlated, and its edge is serrated. 

In front of the carapace are the impressions of two anten- 
nules ; the antennules themselves, to the length of nearly a 
centimetre, (together with the greater portion of the right 
claw, etc.), occur in the upper portion of the nodule, and clearly 
indicate their segmented character. 

Unfortunately in the Yorkshire specimen, the smaller 
thoracic legs are not shown. As in the Lyme Regis example, 
described by Dr. Woodward, however, it possesses only one of 
the first pair of chelate thoracic legs, the comparative length of 
which is such a distinctive feature of E. antiquus. The total 
length of the example preserved in the nodule now being 
described, is 8.25 centimetres. The abdomen, so far as it is 
exposed, measures 4.25 centimetres. Its widest part appears 
to be at the first segment, which is slightly over 4 centimetres 
across. The extremities of this are curved, are better exposed 
than the other segments, and clearly shew the points of 
attachment of the legs. Each segment, which is coarsel}^ 
granular, bears a well-defined keel on the centre of its tergal 
arch. In the nodule, to the left of the first segment, is a small 
claw, evidently belonging to one of the smaller legs. 

As already explained, the tail-lobes or swimmerets are not 

The surface of the carapace is strongly granulated. The 
central or dorsal line is marked by a ridge or keel, in addition 
to which two rounded ridges further sub-divide the carapace 

Various species of Eyvon are recorded from the well-known 
Solenhofen Limestone, and have been described by Spence- 
Bate. f That writer draws attention to the rarity with which 
the eyes are found in these fossil forms, and Dr. Woodward 
also emphasises the point, though he refers to one or two 
instances in which the eye occurs. In the specimen now being 
described, however, the left eye is exceptionally well shown,. 

* On Eryon antiquus Broderip sp. from the Lower Lias, Lyme Regis, 
Dorset. Geol. Mag., Oct. 1888, pp. 433-441. See also Q J.G.S., 1866, 
pp. 494-502. 

t Geol. Mag., 1884, p. 307. 

1909 January i. 

lo Reviews and Book Notices. 

and is a prominent globular mass, 4 millimetres in diameter. 
The opposite side of the front of the carapace clearly shows the 
position formerly occupied by the right eye. 

Dr. Woodward's paper is illustrated by examples of modern 
representatives of this ancient family of Jurassic Crustaceans, 
which were secured during the ' Challenger ' Expedition, and to 
which reference should be made. 

The lower part of the nodule containing the crustacean, is 
in the collection of Mr. A. M. Murley, of Hull. The upper part 
of the nodule which contains the antennules, the complete 
claw, or first chelate thoracic leg, and portions of the segments 
of the abdomen, as well as an excellent impression of the fossil 
in his possession, he has kindly given to the Hull Museum. 

Hazell's Annual for 1909. London : Hazell, Watson & Viney, Ltd., 

3/6 net. This volume appears at a most opportune time, coming at the close 
of a year which has been fruitful of change, new legislation, and the rapid 
development of science and invention. It will prove of very great service 
to everyone who desires to keep in touch with current events. The busy 
man to-day has not the time to turn up the many books of reference tc> 
get the latest information on given subjects. ' Hazell's Annual ' for 1909, 
furnished as it is with a complete reference index, enables the reader to 
turn up in a moment the latest information on almost ever}- topic of current 
interest. In this volume he will find such articles as ' Housing and Town 
Planning,' ' Parliamentary Session,' ' Slump in Trade," ' Religious Review 
of the Year," ' The Unemployed Problem,' ' The Conquest of the Air,' 
and many other important topics. The review of scientific progress in 
1908 is particularly welcome. The Editor is Mr. William Palmer, who is 
to be congratulated upon his new volume. 

The Changeling:. A Nature Storv for Bovs and Girls, by Sir Digby 
PigOtt, C.B. London : Witherby & Co. 183'pp., 2/6 net. 

The sub-title of this little book — ' What a boy whose eyes had been 
opened, saw of the real life of the wild creatures round his home,' explains 
its scope. There are a dozen chatty chapters dealing with ' The Bees,' ' The 
Rooks,' ' The Cliff Climbers,' ' Tlie Wild Geese,' ' The Mammoth,' etc., 
and numerous illustrations (some coloured), by the author and C. Tresidder, 
add further interest to the book. The story has reference to a boy whom 
the fairies changed, and enabled him to get an insight into the ways of the 
birds, and mice, and foxes. On one of his travels he took part in the cliff- 
climbing on Flamborough Head, of which operation a sketch is given, 
which looks suspiciously like a well-known picture-postcard view of 
these ' gallant men ' of Bempton. And ' Tommy ' was particularly lucky 
when he went to Flamborough, as in the first haul of ' many as good made 
that day there were a few cormorant's eggs, a clutch of three greenish 
blotched kittiwake's eggs, and a couple of razor-bill's . . . But nine out of 
ten were pear-shaped guillemot's eggs.' A good haul indeed, so good, 
that we wonder if Tommy really was there after all ! 

Guide to the Town of Brandon, and the oldest Industry in Britain, 
by W. G. Clarke. W. Broug-htou & Sons, Thetford, 46 pp., 6d. 

This is so well written, printed and illustrated, that it is a pleasure to 
possess it. The author is well known for his work amongst the prc-historic 
weapons of Norfolk, and his description of the well-known flint-knapping 
industry is full of interesting detail. Tiie guide is well illustrated, and 
very cheap at sixpence. 



E. W. WADE, M.B.O.l'. 

If scarcity be the touchstone of our interest in any bird, then 
surely the Stone Curlew is the most interesting resident species 
in Yorkshire, the northern limit of its breeding range in Britain. 
Some 150 years ago, prior to the introduction of the present 
system of agriculture on the high wolds and waste lands of the 
county, when huge stretches of sandy warren and sheep-walk 
existed, the bird must have been as common as it still is in some 
parts of Norfolk and Suffolk, but at the present day it is almost 
extinct in our county. This change of conditions may be traced 
to the introduction of the turnip, by which alone the present 
rotation of crops became possible. 

About the middle of the seventeenth century, the turnip 
began to be used in agriculture, but it was not till after 1760, 
when the growing demand for farm produce, owing to the 
increase of population and wealth from manufactures, began 
to have its effect upon prices, that the poorer soils were taken 
into cultivation. This movement reached its culminating 
point in the years 1795-1814, at the period of famine prices 
produced by the wars following the French Re\'olution, during 
which the enclosure of the wolds was carried on in earnest ; 
and soils, which previously were thought too poor to pay for 
cultivation, were brought under the plough. The present 
order of rotation of crops on the wolds is : — 

I. — Turnips. 

2. — Barley. 

3. — Seeds, e.g.. Clover, Ryegrass, Sanfoin. 

4. — Oats. 
Sir Mark Sykes, the father of the present Baronet, played 
a great part in this movement. There are old men still living 
on the wolds who can remember the ploughing up of some of 
the warrens, which they date sixty-three years back, and garnish 
their tale with stories of poaching escapades of the old days, 
and the last of such lands devoted to the cultivation of the 
rabbit was broken up within the last ten years only. The 
father of Ned Hodgson, of Bempton, lived at a time when open 

* Read at a recent meetiTiy of the Vertebrate Section of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union. 

igoy January i. 

i2i IVade : Sfdfus of the Stone Ciirleiv in Yorkshire. 

wtoen existed between that place and BejTtpton , land covered 
with the whins, coarse grass and short heather, typical of the 
old sheep-walks. 

Whereas then, 150 years ago, cultivation was carried on 
in the valleys only, and the high wolds and poorer soils were 
devoted to warren and sheep-walk, now, every acre of land 
thit can be made to produce anything under the plough is 
cultivated. To a bird like the Stone Curlew, a lover of waste 
places and open country, this enclosure has meant gradual 
extinction. The records of the status of the bird in Yorkshire 
are but scanty ; for, unlike the Great Bustard^ which it closely 
resembles in habits, it is not a sporting bird, and therefore 
no one thought it worth while keeping a record of the species. 
I think we may safely take it, however, that it ran on all fours 
with its large relative, and that Mr. Nelson's excellent account 
of the Great Bustard in " Birds of Yorkshire," will also give 
us the best picture of the history of the Stone Curlew in our 
county. Doubtless it bred extensively on the plains of York, 
where patches of scanty heather and uncultivated land here 
and there are the only remaining traces of the sandy wastes 
formerl}^ existing, but we have no record of any of these, 
except Tollingham Moor and Cliffe Warren, situated on either 
side of the Market Weighton Canal, some four or five miles 
south-east of Market Weighton, and between Cliffe and Holme- 
on-Spalding Moor, on the borders of what was once the great 

Tollingham Moor, named by Dresser as a breeding place of 
the species, was ploughed up previous to the sixties, but upon 
€liffe Warren, up to 1873, the species was well known to 
residents ; one of whom, Mr. J no. Reynolds, now living at South 
Cliffe, can remember seven or eight pairs breeding near there, 
and still describes the wary nature of the bird, which would run 
from the eggs with head depressed, skulking behind each tuft 
of herbage, for one hundred yards, before taking to flight. 
Eggs taken from here were in the collection of the late Mr. 
N. F. Dobree, of Beverley, and are still in that of Mr. F. Boyes, 
taken in the period 1868 to 1873. Mr. Boyes yet speaks with 
pleasure of listening to the wild musical cry of the bird, when it 
flew from the warren to its feeding ground in the evening. 
Oh the warrens of Lincolnshire — -Brumby, Risby, Manton, etc., 
the bird bred in precisely similar localities till i^cent years, 
and an odd pair may perhaps linger there still, unless the march 


Wade: , Status of the Stone Curlew in Yorkshire. 13. 

of civilization has wiped it out. Here my first study of its 
habits commenced. 

These, however, are memories of the past. Turning to. 
the, present, there are but two locahties where the Stone Curlew, 
persists in Yorkshire as a breeding species, viz., one in the North 
Riding and the other on the Yorkshire Wolds. 

Of the former, Mr. Oxley Grabham wrote in the ' Naturalist ,' 
for September 1897, with a photograph of ' the eggs of one of 
the last two or three remaining pairs of the bird which breed 
in Yorkshire.' The locality is an open secret in the North 
Riding, and to my certain knowledge, eggs have been ' lifted ' 
there more than once in recent years, but happily the birds 
have increased, as Mr. Riley Fortune reported at the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union Protection Meeting on November 21st, 
iqo8, that five pairs bred there this year, and another pair 
in a locality close at hand. 

The second breeding place and last stronghold of the York-, 
shire Stone Curlew is the Yorkshire Wolds, an entirely different, 
ground from the flat, sandy warrens named previously. Rising 
in a series of gentle undulations from the plain of Holderness, 
on their Eastern bordei", the Wolds attain their greatest eleva- 
tion on the west, north-west, and north edges, where they 
drop suddenly into the Plain of York, the Vale of Pickering, 
and the sea at Bempton Clift's. Traces of their former wildness; 
remain, in the valleys carved out by ice, and showing sometimes 
sides almost as cleanly cvit as when the glaciers left them ; 
in the patches of thin soil here and there, too barren even for 
modern agriculture to tackle, occasionally in land given over 
to scanty heather, coarse grass, and whin bushes, the covering, 
of the old sheep-walks. But for our present purpose, their^ 
most salient feature is the broad sweeps of open country,_, 
fields of one hundred acres or more, covered with a soil largely, 
composed of chalk and flints, out of sight of the villages, which,, 
as a rule, nestle in secluded hollows. Here the Stone Curlewi- 
finds skulking ground enough, harmonising w,ith his own, 
inconspicuous plumage, and space where his quick eye detects;, 
the approach of an enemy afar off. and gives him opportunity, 
to escape destruction. Here, in out-of-the-way corners,; 
scattered in odd pairs wherever it can escape persecution, the. 
bird leads a precarious existence. , , 

In the ' Birds of Yorkshire,' mention is made of forty birds, 
being seen in a flock at Ganton in October 1874. The greatest, 

1909 January^ i.- 

14 IVade : Shiiiis of the Stone Curlew in Yorkshire. 

number seen together of which I can obtain any record in 
present times is eight, on 4th April, 1907, in a locaUty which 
shall be nameless, an earlier date than I can find any mention 
of either in Stevenson's ' Birds of Norfolk ' or the ' Birds of 
Yorkshire.' Probably when flocking for the autumn migration, 
more might be observed if any record could be obtained. 
The birds soon separate, and each pair scatters to its own 
breeding ground, which is generally pretty near the same 
locality each year. The persistence of the Stone Curlew in 
returning to its old haunts was well illustrated on Brumby 
Warren in Lincolnshire, a favourite breeding place before the 
extension of the blast furnaces. Here, although footpaths 
were made through its favourite haunts, and its eggs were 
persistently robbed, it continued to struggle on for some years, 
in full sight of the glare of the furnaces, whilst the town ex- 
tended over the warren till the bird finally became extinct. 
No doubt, to this persistence alone, we owe the fact of the birds 
still breeding in our county. We will suppose that it has 
selected the fallows as its nesting-place. If the eggs are hatched 
before the ground is broken up for turnips, well and good, for 
it is a position where their colour makes them all but visible. 
Next year the same field is sown with barley, and the bird lays 
there again. If the eggs escape the roller, they will be destroyed 
by the hoe or the sprinkler, and until the next year, when the 
field rests quiet in seeds, they have no chance of hatching safely, 
i.e., for two out of four years rotation they are certain to be 
destroyed. Londesboro' may be taken as a typical instance of 
the bird's chance of reproducing its species on cultivatep 
ground. In forty years it has tried three times to establish 
itself there, on each occasion the eggs have been taken, the last 
date being May 1906, when the birds were destroyed or driven 
away, and have not returned. This part of the Wolds is too 
much cultivated, and the fields too small for safety. For- 
tunately the Stone Curlew has shewn some adaptability to 
circumstances. Thrice I have seen the nest in plantations, 
whether because the bird had kept to the old breeding-ground 
after it was planted, or had gone there for safety, I cannot say, 
but in the photo shewn in ' Birds of Yorkshire,' the nest was 
in a spinney thickly planted, among young trees ten feet high. 
In such a pl&ce of course, opportunities for escape before the 
searcher can observe the bird are obvious. No doubt the habit 
is exceptional, as only two other instances are mentioned, 


Wade : Status of the Stone Curlew in Yorkshire. i 5 

viz., one by Newton, and one by Stevenson. The favourite 
breeding-site appears to be a low spur of wold, not too much 
exposed to the wind, where a good look-out can be kept ; but 
I have seen the nest on bare chalk pebbles, and on grass, and 
even on the side of one of those steep valleys so peculiar to the 
Wolds, where the out-look is very much restricted. 

On the Wolds, the nest is usually lined with chalk pebbles ; 
on the Suffolk W^arrens, with rabbits' dung. I have even seen 
grass in it here. No doubt the object of the lining is to isolate 
the eggs from the damp ground. The eggs are always two, of 
which one is sometimes addled. The earliest eggs I have seen 
were on 5th May, very ' hard sat,' and the latest on nth May, 
fresh, the former in a plantation, the latter on the open wold. 
The period of incubation, as stated by Mr. E. G. Meade Waldo, 
in ' British Birds,' August 1907, is twenty-six to twenty-seven 
days, which I have verified from my own experience, so that 
we have our wold birds laying at the unusually early date of 
15th April or thereabouts, and almost a month's interval between 
the earliest and latest eggs. If the eggs are taken, a second or 
even a third clutch is laid. I have heard of fresh eggs being 
taken on Brumby Warren as late as nth July. One &^^ is 
generally more incubated than the other, shewing that the bird 
has to guard them against natural enemies. The young, when 
hatched, are covered with a beautiful light buff down, with two 
fine black streaks down the back. Their first instinct seems to 
be to crouch with head along the ground, and closed eyes, and 
their colouring makes them almost invisible on the flinty soil. 

At the nest the parent bird is incredibly shy, being absolutely 
invisible. Apparently it runs from the eggs, and does not fly 
up, for it i? in my experience, impossible to see it at all, and an 
hour or two's watching is of no use to detect it. Only if the 
eggs are well incubated, and the intruder remains too long near 
the nest, the bird's cries of distress maj^ be heard, and it may be 
seen standing sentinel on the ridge of a distant hillside, with 
head drawn back into its shoulders. Once I detected it watching 
me from behind a molehill, its eye just projecting above the soil. 

The natives, as a rule, know the bird only by its habit of 
flying over the valleys before stormy weather comes. 

How many pairs there may be on the Wolds it is impossible 
to say. They are so scattered, so shy and invisible, that one 
might go over the ground where they were a dozen times and 
never see them. Mr. Hewett, at the meeting of the Yorkshk^ 

1909 January i. 

1 6 Northern Ne7vs. 

Naturalists' Union, on Nov^ember 21st, 1908, said he knew of 
four or five nests, and the writer could beat that number of 
pairs of birds. 

The important question for us is ' What chance has the bird 
of surviving ? ' It must be constantly disturbed, now and then 
it is shot, especially on migration, when odd birds have been- 
obtained near our coasts even in winter ; and in so small a 
stock, the danger of inbreeding is a serious one, unless the num- 
bers ai"e recruited by immigrants from other districts. Its 
rate of reproduction is also a very slow one. The eggs are 
sometimes taken by dealers, as I have heard of their being 
offered in Beverley in exchange during recent years, and th^ir 
protection in so wide an area appears hopeless. Game pre- 
servers, however, might forbid their keepers to shoot the old- 

On the other hand, the cultivation of the Wolds appears tO' 
have reached its highest point. The natives take no interest 
in the bird. Its extreme shyness, and the protective colouring 
of bird and eggs in such an environment are encouraging. 
That it can be driven away seems improbable, for its nature is 
to return to the haunts where it was bred, until it becomes 
extinct, and we may gather some hope from the history of 
the bird on the chalk downs of Hampshire. 

Gilbert White, in his ' History of Selborne,' 1768-1788, 
speaks of the plentifulness of the Stone Curlew, and the ease 
with which it could be detected. His successor, Thos. Bell, 
who re-edited his letters in 1877, says : — ' In thirty years I 
have never seen one, alive or dead.' But Messrs. Kelsall and 
Munn, in ' Birds of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight,' 1905, 
say : — ' Some recent observers, living at Selborne, have fancied 
that the . species has disappeared from the neighbourhood, 
but we have good reason to believe that it still nests within a 
very short distance of the historic village. For some reason or 
other, the Stone Curlew has developed very suspicious and 
wary habits, and though many eggs are destroyed when the 
young wheat is rolled, they usually manage to rear a brood.' 
If, then, this is true of the chalk downs of Hampshire, why not 
of our own Yorkshire Chalk Wolds ? i: 

In an article appropriately headed ' Namesakes in Science,' in a con-i 
temporary, we notice a ' son of his father," makes his debut as an artist-' 
naturalist,' He is evidently following in his father's footsteps. Oddly 
enough, his first published sketch is of the Lyre Bird. 





The past season has been a most interesting one in the Skelman- 
thorpe district, and, from the collector's stand-point, a great 
improvement on the season of 1907. With certain exceptions, 
insects have been vastly more plentiful, especially during the 
summer months. The severe wintry weather did not seem to 
have been very disastrous to hibernating larvae, and many had 
commenced feeding when the arctic conditions became so very 
pronounced in mid-April. That adversity, however, did not 
seem to diminish their numbers much, for when spring-like 
conditions did obtain the herbaceous feeders were very abun- 
dant. The tree feeders did not fare so well, for seldom in our 
experience have the larvae of Xanthia citrago, X. silago, etc. 
been so scarce. Another exception was the larvae of Agrotis 
agathina. This was exposed to the full blast on the high grounds 
of its haunts, at a time when it should have been feeding, and 
no doubt caused its numbers to be thinned considerably. 
When ' sugaring ' was commenced in mid- June, there was 
further proof of the herbaceous feeders having been in abun- 
dance, as on to the middle of September ' sugar ' was seldom 
a failure ; on favourable nights insects absolutely swarmed. 
During 1907, on what were apparently good nights, nothing 
much came to the patches. During this season on the other 
hand, insects were always about on what apparently seemed to 
be unpropitious nights, a fact that was once or twice especially 
noteworthy. For example, the night of July i8th was miser- 
ably cold and damp, with a north wind and an occasional 
drizzle — a night most collectors would have voted hopeless ; and 
yet it justified the undertaking of a fairly long journey, for in- 
sects came to the patches freely, and useful collecting resulted. 
During their respective times of occurrence, the following 
were in extraordinary abundance, and though most are regarded 
as common species, it will be of interest perhaps, to give a 
detailed list : — Xylophasia rurea, X. polyodon, Triphcsna 
pronuba, T. comes, Noctua augur, N. haja, N. /estiva, N. hrunnea, 
N. c-nigrum, N. xanthographa, N. plecta, Agrotis exclamationis , 
Mamestra brassiccs, Apamea basilinea, A. oculea, A. gemina, 
Leucania pallens, L. impura, L. lithargyria, Miana strigilis, 
M. fasciuncula, M. arcuosa, Euplexia lucipara. 

1909 January i. 

1 8 Morley : Lepidoptera of South Yorkshh'e. 

The following were very common : — Hadena dentina, 
H. thalassina , H. adusta, H. pisi, H. oleracea, Aplecta nebulosa, 
Mania typica, Xylophasia scolopacina (at Haw Park, Wakefield), 
X. lithoxylea, Mamestra fnrva, Cymatophora duplaris, Cosmia 
paleacea, Orthosia suspecta, and many others were frequent 
visitors to the ' sugar ' patches. Flowers also proved to be 
well worth attention. Sallows, of course, produced nothing 
worthy of special mention, owing to the wintry weather when 
they had come into bloom. The flowers of campion and 
wound-wort had many visitors, including Plusia chrysitis, P. 
iota, P. pnlchrina, with many of the species mentioned above. 
Ragwort also was much patronized. Heather had much 
attraction for Noctua glareosa, N. dahlii, Hydroecia nictitans, 
and many others. 

After mid-September, ' sugar ' lost its attraction for the 
noctuse, and nothing of much interest occurred as a result of 
its use during autumn. Other noctuae, for which neither 
' sugar ' nor flowers have little attraction, now claim notice. 
An effort made to turn up Hydrcecia petasitis resulted in the 
species being found common at Huddersfield and Normanton. 
It no doubt occurs in most places in the West Riding, where 
butter-bur is plentiful. 

Polia chi was exceedingly common, and was perhaps the 
most interesting species of the year in the Skelmanthorpe 
district. Its habit of sitting on the walls in the day time, 
gives the collector fine chances of taking his choice without 
much trouble. Careful search this season was rewarded wdth 
good results, its variety olivacea was common, as was also a 
very heavily marked form, not referable to olivacea. Another 
form frequently found has the wings a drab colour, with all 
the markings obliterated, except the black chi mark, which is 
very small and well defined. It is a very fine and beautiful 
form, probably of recent development, and the most decided 
variation from the type we have noticed in the Skelmanthorpe 
neighbourhood. Dasypolia templi has been common on the 
street lamps in this district, and two specimens are reported to 
have been taken at Lartington, near York. 

On the moors near Penistone, larvae of Bombyx var. callnnce 
were common, and the imagines of Cloantha solidaginis, Laventia 
multistrigaria , L. ccesiata, Oporahia filigrammaria and A)ias'ta 
myrtilli were very plentiful. 

The season seems to have ])een a good one for Aclicroutui 


Morley : Lepidoplera of South Yorkshire. 19 

■atropos ; numerous reports of its capture from various parts 
of the county are to hand. In the neighbouring village of 
Shepley a dead one was found in a spider's web. It was tethered 
fast in the web, and had probably been killed by the spider, 
surely a record of spider pugnacity, for besides having its 
clumsy captive to contend with, its efforts in securing the 
monster would be accompanied by a squeak sufficiently un- 
nerving to till with fear much higher organisms than spiders. 
The insect was a male, and, considering its ignominious death, 
was in fair condition. The Geometry have always been below 
the average, which is rather surprising, considering the fine 
summer we have had, but probably the cause may be traced 
to the miserably bad weather of last year. Many usually 
<:ommon species have scarcely put in an appearance, and others 
have not been noticed at all. However, Selenia lunaria, a 
scarce species in the West Riding, has been taken both at 
Barnsley and Skelmanthorpe. A visit to Thorne Waste on 
July nth, although a wet day, resulted in the following being 
taken commonly : — Macaria liturata, Timandra amataria, 
Euholia limitata, and other common geometrae. I no statices 
and Zygcena filipendida; were also both common there. Of 
butterflies there is little to report, the Skelmanthorpe district is 
a very poor region for the Rhopalocera. Melanism seems to 
be on the increase, and is especially noticeable in Apleda 
nebulosa, the var. robsoni being common (at Haw Park) ; and 
the local races of C. viminalis, A. agathina, M. strigilis and 
C. diiplavis seem to be entirely black. .Y. polyodon, L. multis- 
trigaria, Z... casiafa, A. ociUea, B. repandata, P. pilosaria are 
all species very much subject to melanism ; indeed, extreme 
black ones of each species are of common occurrence. 

Another species in which m.elanism was not suspected has 
been brought to our notice in Himera penyiaria. Mr. H. 
Dyson, of Skelmanthorpe, reared a brood from eggs obtained 
from an apparently quite ordinary female, and nothing more 
than an ordinary bred series of insects was expected as the 
result. All the brood, however, are of a dark reddish brown 
colour, darker than any we have previously seen, and many 
of the males have the basal half of the fore-wings heavily 
suffused with lead colour, giving them a very dingy appearance. 

From other districts friends have supplied me with the 
following valuable records. Mr. Porritt has taken in a wood 
near Sheffield, Macaria liturata var. nigroftdvata, a variety sup- 

igcij January i. 

20 Rev7e7vs and Book Notices. 

posed to be a] most confined to Delamere Forest, in Cheshire. 
Mr. Fletcher, of Wakefield, reports Acronycta leporina and 
Cymatophora fluctiiosa from his district. From Hull, Mr. Porter 
reports larv?e of Cirrcedia xerampelina and Agrotis obscura 
common at Spurn. The Rev. T. B. Fddrup reports Sphinx 
convolvuli from Horbury. 

Much attention has been paid to the breeding of Abraxas 
grossulariata in a number of districts, and fine series of varieties 
resulted. The varieties varleyata, hazeleighensis, and nigro- 
sparsata are a few of the named forms that have been reared, 
along with many other equally curious and striking varieties. 

Traite de Geologic : I. Les Pheiwmenes gih>hgiqiies, par Emile Haug, 

professeiir a la faculte des Sciences de I'Universite de Paris. L'li vol 
in-8o raisin (26c x i6c ), de 540 pag-es, avec 195 figures et cartes et 71 
plaucties de reproductions photograpiiiques (Librairie Armand Colin, rue de 
Mezi^res, 5, Paris), broche. 12 fr. 5o[io-6d.]. 

For some time there has been an opening for a Frencli treatise deahng 
with geological phenomena, which shall be intermediate between the 
elementary text-book and the more technical memoirs which are scattered 
in the proceedings of scientific societies, and are consequently not generally 
accessible. In the present work M. Emile Haug has supplied the want, 
and places upon permanent record an admirable series of essays suitable 
for the educated public. 

M. Haug first describes the continental and ocean centres, which are 
the seats of phenomena of sedimentation. He assists us in the working 
out of the material which constitutes the crust of the earth, ending, by the 
continuous erosion (de-gradation) of terrestrial features (relief), in the 
formation of a level surface (peneplaine), the last phase of the cycle of 
' geological phenomena.' 

Leaving these quite elementary ideas, the author places the reader 
in the presence of the most important problems of modern geology. The 
' Traite de Geologic ' offers on that account equal interest for the amateur 
and the professional geologist. Both will appreciate the copious bib- 
liographical notes placed at the end of each chapter, which will guide the 
reader in making further researches. 

The work is illustrated by 195 figures and plans, and 71 excellent plates 
of photographic reproductions ; but the paper wrappers to the volume 
hardly survive the post. We cannot understand why our friends across 
the channel should so frequently place such valuable work in such flimsy 

British Mosses (2nd edition), by Sir Edward Fry (Witherby & Co., 
price 1/6), is an interesting little book in its way, and will be read with 
profit by beginners in the study of this charming group of plants. It 
draws attention to the position held by mosses in the classification of 
Cryptogams, and traces in detail the life-history of an ordinary moss, 
through its half-dozen stages — when the complete cycle is run. Instances 
are quoted of many that take a short cut across the circle, and dispense 
with one or more stages in their reproduction. A table is given of nine 
different methods of reproduction adopted by these plants. Attention 
is drawn to the remarkable variety of form and structure in the leaves 
and capsules. The booklet concludes with an outline of the important 
part these little plants at present play, and have played in the past, on 
tl e earth's surface. 'C- C 




Tne eighteenth Annual Fungus Foray in connection with the 
Yorkshire NaturaHsts' Union was held September i9th-24th, 
at the picturesque sea-side village of Sandsend, for the investi- 
gation of Mulgrave Woods and adjoining pastures. All the 
members of the Mycological Committee attended, with two 
exceptions. Besides several other members of the Union 
interested in the subject, there were mycologists present from 
Cumberland, Derbyshire, Lincolnshire and Lancashire — twenty- 
two in all, including two ladies — Miss Decima Graham, Carlisle, 
and Miss Peniston, Leeds. 

The Marquis of Normandy granted special permission to 
visit the parks and extensive woodlands on the Mulgrave 
estates. This kindness was supplemented by the Vicar of 
Lythe allowing the members the use of two commodius school- 
rooms at Sandsend, from Monday to Thursday. The use of 
these as general meeting-room and work-room very much facili- 
tated the proceedings, and tended largely to bring about the 
successful results obtained. Excellent accommodation was 
secured at three boarding-houses, the school-rooms being used 
as headquarters. 

The Committee made the most of these privileges and 
opportunities by having all the necessary books and appliances 
at hand for working out the finds. 

The grand old Mulgrave Woods have long been favourite 
hunting grounds for Yorkshire mycologists. They are rich in 
vegetation, with the ground almost constantly moist ; these 
conditions, accompanied by shade, encourage the growth of a 
great variety of fungi on decaying woody and herbaceous 
remains. Here fungi are not dependant on rainfall for the 
necessary amount of moisture ; hence these woodlands at any- 
time supply material for a mycological student. One could not 
help feeling what a vast field there is the year round for a local 
student, did one exist. 

A preliminary run out was made on the Saturday afternoon, 
when it soon became evident that an abundant supply of these 
interesting organisms could be relied upon. Two or three 
species of Leptonia were plentiful in the pastures ; this caused 
the most experienced member present to remark that when 

1909 January i. 

22 Crossland : Fungus Flora of Mnlgravc Woods. 

this happens, it is an almost certain sign that fungi generally 
are abundant in the woods, and so it proved. 

The collecting was done in small piarties so that more ground 
could be covered. The entrances to the woods being close at 
hand, no time was wasted in long drives or railway journeys, 
either at the beginning or ending of each day's investigations. 
In addition to the woods, there was plenty of pasture and 
meadowland to look over. 

Each season, in all districts, there is a varying preponder- 
ance of a few families of agarics over others ; some are plentiful, 
others scarce. This season at Mulgrave, many genera abounded 
notably Tricholoma, with twenty-tour species found ; Mycena, 
thirty-two ; Riissula, twenty-eight ; Cortinarius , twenty- 
nine ; Lactarms, twenty ; Philiota, ten ; Inocyhe, thirteen ; 
Hygrophorifs, eighteen ; and so on. Other genera were com- 
paratively equally prevalent ; even Jew's ear was abundant 
at Sandsend in a fence formed of aged elderberry trees. During 
the five days very much more material was met with than on 
any previous occasion. Among it were many common species 
that occur everywhere. Attention was given to all branches of 
the subject, more particularly, perhaps, to micro species. 

At the rooms all the spacious table accommodation was 
occupied by named specimens left there for the benefit of the 
less-experienced students. One part of the interest lies in 
seeing the immense variety in size, shape, and colour displayed 
by the Agarics alone, when laid side by side. 

On Monday evening Mr Massee gave an address on 
' Economic Mycology,' dealing more especially with fungi that 
attack potato tubers, causing them to rot. One of these — a 
Thielavia, has been proved to have four distinct stages, each 
one of which, prior to the life-history of the fungus becoming 
fully known, was considered a distinct species. Mr. Massee's 
preliminary remarks appear on page 28. A special paper on 
the Thielavia, with figure, will appear later. 

The same evening Mr. Wager discoursed on ' The Develop- 
ment of Spores in the Basidiomycates,' tracing the fusion of a 
couple of nuclei into one, and its subsequent division into two 
or four, mostly four, in the young basidium. Later, or con- 
currently with the formation of the resultant nuclei, two or 
four projections (according to the species) spring from the 
upper part of the basidium. These develop into narrow cones 
(sterigmata), through each of which a nucleus passes upwards 


Crossland : Fungus Flora of Mulgrave JVooas. 23 

from the body of the basidium into a bulb-Hke formation at 
the tip of the sterigma, which eventually ripens into a spore. 

On the Tuesday evening Mr. H. C. Hawley read a paper 
on ' New Fungi found in Lincolnshire,' and also referred to a 
number of interesting species found on a single decaying thistle 
at the Brafferton excursion last May. 

Mr. J. W. H. Johnson read a paper on ' Fungi which have 
developed on material taken from polluted West Riding 

Much interest was taken in the proceedings by the villagers, 
many of whom asked permission to come in to the exhibits 
room to see the collection of fungi on the tables. Several 
brought in specimens they themselves had collected to ask 
what they were. One or other of the members were always at 
hand to give them attention. Sensible utilitarian questions, 
such as ' Which are edible ?' * Is that good to eat ? ' etc. were 
put. To them, the edible aspect appealed the most ; they could 
see no other recompense in the study of fungi. Their attitude 
reminded the writer of a friend of his, who, on seeing him over- 
hauling a toadstool, asked if it was fit to eat ; on the reply 
' No, this one isn't ' being given, the queriest says : ' What are 
you bothering with it for then ? ' This neatly sums up the 
common notion in respect to the study of toadstools. There 
were eighteen or twenty edible species on the tables, pointed 
out to the visitors. This side of the study was encouraged, 
but at the same time, the enquirers were advised to gather none 
to cook only well-marked species, about which there could be 
no possibility of mistake, such as the parasol mushroom, 
shaggy caps, ivory caps, blewits, etc. In June, it was noticed 
by the writer that St. George's mushroom — Tricholma gam- 
hosum — one of the best of edible toadstools, was very abundant 
in the fields. 

At the close of the Foray, and after a few boxes of micro- 
material had been gone through by several members at home, 
the total determined reached 612 ' species ' and 12 vars. The 
analysis of the list shows that three — Tricholoma carneolum. 
Pholiota sororia and Inocybe commixta — are additions to the 
British Fungus Flora, twenty-seven new to the county, and 
seventy-six to vice county N.E. 256 are additions to the 
previously known fungus flora of Mulgrave Woods and adjoin- 
ing pastures, which now amounts to 816 'species.' 

It must be understood that many are but stages in the life- 

190 J January i. 

24 Crossland : Fungus Flora of Mulgrave Woods. 

history of fungi that may have two or even three conditions. 
As these become better known throughout the county, a 
reduction in the numbers of previously supposed species will 
be necessary to get at a more accurate census of the fungi of 
the county. 

The weather was all that could be desired for collecting 
purposes ; rain began to fall on Tuesday morning, but soon 
cleared off. Several species of special interest were met with, 
one being Bolbitius Boltoni Fr., about which some uncertainty 
has been expressed as to whether it was a native of Britain 
(Mass. ' Brit. Fung. Flo.,' II., p. 205). It is quite distinct from 
B. flavidus in the depressed, darker disc and subadnate gills. 

Sandsend proved a most suitable place for headquarters, 
being close to the ground to be investigated. The school-rooms 
were ideal places for general work and exhibit-rooms. An 
easily obtainable sea-side saunter afforded a charming break 
in the work for those who had the time and the inclination 
to indulge in this delightful and invigorating pastime. With us 
these were few ; the woods and the work-room having the 
preference. A few, including Messrs. Massee and Clarke, were 
so absorbed in working out material brought in, that they did 
not get even into the woods. 

At the business meeting on the Wednesday evening, a vote 
of thanks was heartily passed to Lord Normandy for leave to 
explore the estates, and to Vicar Harland, for allowing us the 
use of the school-rooms. 

The Committee for the current year was re-elected. Castle 
Howard is recommended to the Union as the place for the 
next foray — September i8th-23rd, 1909. 

In the following bald list, those new to Britain are marked 
*, to Yorkshire, f. The remainder are all additions to the 
Mulgrave district, previous records having been strictly ex- 

Crucibulum vulgar e. 
Lycoperdon echinatiim. 
L. caelatum. 
Bovista pusilla. 

Lepiota rachodes. 

L. carcharia. 

L. giioderma. 

A rmillaria ramentacea. 

Tricholoma sejunctum. 

T. ustale. 

T. luvidum. 
j T. squarrulosum. 

T. saponaceiim. 

T. sulphiireum. 
f T. cerinum. 

T. ionides. 
* T. carneohim. 

T. gambosum (In June) 

T. nudimi. 

T. saevum. 

T. panceolum. 


Crossland : Fungus Flora of Mulgrave Woods. 


Tricholoyna melolenciim. 

and Var. pov phyyolenciim. 
T. humile. 
T. sordidum. 
T. paedidimi. 
j- Cliticybe comitalis. 
C. phyUophila. 
C. pithyophila. 
C. dealbata. 
f C. ampla . 
C. gigantea. 
C. geotvopa. 
C. cyathiformis. 
\ C. expallens. 

CoUybia nummidayia. 
C. esculenta. 
■f C. exsculpta. 
Mycena lineata. 
M. ftavo-alba. 
M. gypsea. 
M. piillata. 
M. met at a. 
M. aetites. 
M. amicta. 
M. tenella. 
M. rovida. 
M. stylobates. 
M. hienialis. 
M. setosa. 
M. capillaris. 
Omphalia hydrogvamma. 
Pleiivotus ostveatiis. 
P. chioneus. 
Entoloma prunuloides. 
Leptonia solstitialis. 
L. euchroa. 
Nolanea pisciodora. 
Eccilia rhodocylix. 
Claudopiis depluens. 
■f Pholiota teyrigena. 
P. ombrophila. 
P. squarvosa var. Miillevi. 
P. flammans. 
P. tuberculosa. 
* P. sororia. \ 
t Inocybe hirsiita. 
f /. hcemacta. 
I. scaber. 
I. Bongardit. 
I. carpta. 

1909 January i. 

I . scabella. 
I . violacea-fusca. 
* I. commixta. 

Hebeloma glutinosiim. 

H. cvustiiliniforme var. minor Cke. 

= hiemale Bres. 
H. iiudipes. 
H. nauseosum. 
Flammula gymnopodia. 
F. gummosa. 
F. alnicola. 
F. sapinea. 
F. ochrochlora. 
Naucoria melinoides. 
N. seniiorbicularis. 
N. tabacina. 
N. temulenta. 
N. erinacea. 
Galera ovalis. 
Tubaria furfuracea. 

Var. trigonophylla , 
Bolbitius Boltoni. 
B. fvagilis. 

B. titubaus. 

Cortinarius (Phleg.) sebaceus. 
t C. (Phleg.) variicolour. 

C. (Myxa.) livido-ochvaceus. 
C. (Ino.) violaceus. 

C. (Derm.) anomalus. 
t C. (Tela.) macropiis. 
t C. (Tela.) bovinus. 

C. (Tela.) rigidus. 

C. (Hygr.) saturnimis. 

C. (Hygr.) castaneus. 

C. (Hygr.) rigens. 

Agaricus sylvaticus. 

A. campestris var. horiensis. 

A. comptulus. 

Stropharia inuncta. 

S. coronilla. 

S. merdaria. 

PaniBolus phalcBuayum. 

Psathyra elata. 

P. conopilea. 

P. spadiceo grisea. 

Coprinus sobolifevus. 

C. Gibbsii. 

C. cordisporus. 

Paxillus lepista. 
I P. extenuatus. 


Crossland : Ftoigiis Flora of Muls;ravc Woods. 

Hygrophorus yusso-coriaceus. 

H. sciophanus. 
t H. mucronellus. 

H. nitratus. 

Lactarius insulsus. 

L. trivialis. 

L. piperatus. 

L. rufus. 

L. fuliginosus. 

L. mitissimns. 

L. camphoratus. 

L. cimicarius. 

L. obliquus. 

Russula drimeia. 
t R. atro-purpurea. 

R. Linncei. 

R. veternosa. 

R. decolorans. 

R. ochracea. 

Marasmius prasiosmits . 

M. fuscopurpureus. 
t M. Wynnei. 

M. candidus. 

Panus conchatus. 

Boletus crassus. 
Polyporus dryadeus. 
f P. lacteus. 

Polystictus radiatus. 
Fames connatus. 
Porta medulla-panis. 
MeviiUus corium. 

t Hydnum sordiduni. 
Radulum orbiculare. 
Phlebia contorta. 
Odontia fimhriata. 

Solenia anomala. Var. ochracea. 

Corticiuni calceum. 

HymenochcBta fiiliginosa. 

H. coYfugata. 

Peniophora rosea. 

Coniophova stilphnrea. 

C. puteana. 

Clavaria formosa. 
C. abietina. 
C. incarnata. 
C. dissipabilis. 
C. ligula. 

Typhula erythvopus. 
t T. gracilis. 

Pistilaria quisqiiilavsi. 
P. pnherula. 

Exidia recisa. 
E. albida. 

Nceyylatelia encephala. 
Calocera stricta. 

Melampsova epitea. On Salix 

viminalis . 
M. civccBoe. On Circcea lutetiana 
Coleosporium senecionis. On 

Senecio vulgaris. 
Puccinia saniculcs. On Sanicula 

P. obscura. TEcid. On Bellis 

perennis, abundant. 
P. centauvecB. On Centaurea 

II igra . 
P. lychnideavum. On Lychnis 

P. glomerata. On Senecio Jacobesa 
P. veronicarum. On Veronica 

Phragmidium violaceum. On 

Rubus fruticosus. 
Tviphragmiutn ulmaYice. Un 

Spircea ulmaria. 
Ustilago violacea. 

Epichloe typhi na. 
Nectr ia c uc urb it iila . 
N. aquifolii. 
Hypomyces aurantius. 
Xylaria polymorpha. 
Ustulina vulgaris. 
Hypoxylon muUifome. 
H. rubiginosum. 
Phyllachora graminis. 
Diatrype aspera. 

Valsa ceratophora. < 

V. leiphcsmia. 
Eutypa Acharii. 
t E. scabrosa. 

Rosellinia pulveracea. 
Sordaria niinuta. 
S. curvula. 
Sporormia intermedia. 
Raphidospova rubella. 
R. acuminata. 


Reviews and Book Notices. 


Heptameria doliolum. ' ' 

and Var. conoidea. 
Pleospora meliloti. 
Hypoderma virgnUovum. 
Gloniopsis ciirvata. 
Hysterium pulicare. 

Geoglossum glutinosum. 
Mitrula oUvacea. 
Geopyxis cupularis. 
Humaria carbonigena. 
Lachnea coprinaria. 
Dasyscypha ciliaris. 
D. puberula. 
Ciboria ochroleiica. 
C. luteovirescens. 
HeloHum virgultoriun. 
H. herbariim. 
H. epiphyllum. 
H. immufabile. 
H. alniellum. 
Mollisia lignicola. 
Ryparobius sexdecemsporus. 
Ascophanus carneus. 
A. argenteus. 
A. ochraceus. 
A. equiniis. 
Ascoholus immevsiis. ' 
Saccobolus neglectiis. 
S. Kerverni. 
Coryne urnalis. 
The members and friends 

SlicHs radiata. 
Phacidium midtivalve. 

Pilobolus Kleiyiii. 
Pilaira anomala. 
Spinellus jusiger. 
ChcBtocladium Jonesii. 
Piptocephalis [repens ?]. 
Peronospora grisea. 

Sphtzronemella fimicola. 
f Gloeosporium podograria. 

Cylindrium flavovirens. 

Botrytis Tilletii. 
f Ovularia inter stitialis. 

Ramularia calcea. 

Periconia pycnospora. 1 

Dsndryphium comosum. 

Siilbum fasciculatum. 

Stysanus stemontes. 
f Tubercularia brassica. 

Bactridium fiavum. 

Fusarium rosetim. 

Epicoccum heybariim . 

I Clathrotychiiim rugulosuni. 
I PerichcBiia depress a. 
' Arcyria cinerea. 
' Trichia fragilis. 

T. chrysosperma. 

Spumaria alba. 
present at the Foray have been 

suppHed with a Uthographed MS. copy of the complete list of 
the 612 'species ' found on this occasion. 

Guide to the Specimens Illustrating the Races of Mankind 

(Anthropology) exhibited in the Department of Zoolog-y, British Museum 
(Natural History). Illustrated bv 16 figures. 2^2 pp., 1908. Price 4d. 

This cheap handbook is the work of Mr. R. Lydekker, to whom has been 
entrusted the formation and arrangement of the series in its present form. 
The specimens illustrate Man solely from the zoological point of view, 
i.e., his bodily structure and his geographical distribution. This subject 
has been much neglected in our national museum, and it is to be hoped 
that one result of this excellent little handbook will be that more help 
will be given to the authorities at South Kensington in the way of 
photographs and specimens. 

Wild Life in a Southern Country, by Richard Jefferies. London : 
Thos. Nelson & Sons. 384 pp., i/- 

By an arrangement with Messrs. Smith, Elder & Co., Messrs. Nelson 
have produced this charming book as one of their shilling series. We feel 
that it is only necessary to draw our readers' attention to the low price 
at which the book can now be bought. . It is well and artistically bound, 
the paper is good, the type clear, and there is a portrait of Jefferies. How 
it is possible to publish the \'olume at the price is a mystery. 

1909 January i. 




The importance of the correct determination of species cannot 
be over-estimated. Whatever branch of botany is followed, 
its real value depends upon being quite certain as to the par- 
ticular species dealt with. It has been clearly demonstrated 
that many of the apparent contradictions, so general in mor- 
phological and cytological dissertations, have originated in 
mistaking one species for another. A describes some pecu- 
liarities of structure or otherwise, present in a given species. 
B promptly follows in line to corroborate or refute the dis- 
covery, mistakes his species, and much argument follows. 
Notwithstanding the value of being able to correctly dis- 
criminate species, the fact that being able to do so fails to ad- 
vance our knowledge in any way as bearing on the why and 
wherefore of such species, in other words, it does not touch the 
great problem concerning origin, affinities, etc. 

As a body we are justly proud of our ' Fungus Flora of 
Yorkshire,' nevertheless, we must endeavour to maintain a 
correct sense of proportion, and not become slaves to list-making 
alone. We have now a thoroughly representative Fungus 
Flora of our county, and the addition of a few more or less, 
can make no difference from the standpoint of pure knowledge. 
The area of our county is too insignificant, as is also that of 
Great Britain, to be admitted as a factor in the distribution 
of Fungi over the globe. 

Many Fungi are unique amongst plants in appearing under 
very different forms, during different periods of their develop- 
ment, the different forms often growing on different host- 
plants. These various forms were at one time considered as 
independent species, and received special names. Such names 
must remain until proof is forthcoming, that two or more such 
forms are in reality but stages in the life-cycle of one species. 
This is the kind of work that Yorkshire mycologists might 

Between sixty and seventy thousand species of Fungi are 
known ; out of these it is certain that at least twenty five thou- 
sand so-called species are nothing more than phases of other 
higher forms. There are some hundreds of such in the list of 
jiames of Yorkshire Fungi, and it becomes the duty of Yorkshire 


Revif7i}s and Book Noticts. 29 

mycologists to remove such from the Hst, by connecting them 
with the higher forms to which they belong. If such work 
cannot be carried out to hnality, yet much can be done in the 
field and at home to suggest such affinities. All the Hypho- 
mycetes, popularly known as moulds, are only forms, not 
entities, the same is true of the species of Phoma, Cladosporium, 
etc. If the substance on which these are growing is kept under 
observation, it may be for weeks, or even months, a second 
stage will follow the first. If this sequence of development 
is constantly repeated, it is highly probable — but not definite 
proof — that the two forms are related to each other. The 
definite proof consists in producing one stage from the spores 
produced by the alternate condition, a work of no insuperable 

During the summer our plane trees are often defoliated 
early in the season, owing to a minute fungus called Glceos- 
porium nervisequum. In the spring a second form of the fungus 
appears on the wounds made by the first on the dead fallen 
leaves. This second form was known as Psendopeziza platani. 
In consequence, the name Gloeosporium is dropped, as it is known 
to be only a stage of the ascigerous Pseudopeziza. 

Our object up to the present has been to obtain the greatest 
possible number of names of Fungi inhabiting Yorkshire. 
Our future ambition should be to reduce the list of names as 
much as possible, along the lines indicated abov^e. 

It may be thought that the Agarics are not included in the 
category of duplicate forms. This is not so, many so-called 
moulds are only the conidial forms of Agarics.* 

• ♦♦ 

National Museum. The Danish Collection : Pre=historic Period. 

Uuide for Visitors, Copenhagen, Prepared under the direction of Dr. 
ti. A. Auden. 1908. [58 pp., not numbered]. 

The great majority of English visitors to the well-known Museum at 
Copenhagen are imfamiliar with the Danish language, and consequently 
do not reap the full benefit from a perusal of the unrivalled collections there 
exhibited. Recently a German edition of the guide-book appeared, dealing 
with the pre-historic section, and thanks to Dr. Auden, there is now an 
English edition. This is a concise account of the chief objects of interest 
in this rich institution, and the more important specimens are figured. Per- 
sonally we should like to thank Dr. Auden for this further evidence of 
his practical interest in the study of Archa'-ology ; and, at the same time, 
we must record our regret that he has left the north, where his help was 

* In addition to these useful and suggestive preliminary remarks,. 
we hope shortly to print an account of the life-history of the Thielavia,. 
with figure, by Mr. Massee. 

iQoy January i. 




A Leach's Fork=tailed Petrel in very fair condition 
was shot at Barugh, near Barnsley, on October 17th, and is 
now in my possession. I intend to present it to the Barnsley 
Naturahsts' Museum. The local occurrence of this species 
are all recorded in ' The Birds of Yorkshire,' by T. H. Nelson, 
the nearest being as follows : — One on the Don at Sprotborough, 
1837 ; one on Sutton Common (near Askern) ; occasionally 
near Leeds ; one in Halifax street, i6th December, 1831. 
In T. Lister's notes, besides the above, he gives one shot near 
Halifax (Varley's notes, 1874), but, if I understand Mr. Nelson 
rightly, this specimen was wrongly identified. — W. Barra- 
CLOUGH, Barnsley, October 28th, 1908. 

Honey Buzzard near Carlisle. — A Honey Buzzard 
was shot near Carlisle on the 23rd October. It has not been 
recorded during the last thirty years for Cumberland. It 
lias been lent to the Carlisle Museum. — L. E. Hope, Carlisle. 

Fork = tailed Petrel at Carlisle. — On November 17th, a 
Fork-tailed Petrel was picked up at Stanwix, Carlisle. It was 
in an exhausted state and died a few hours after capture. The 
bird has been given to the Carlisle Museum and proved on 
dissection to be an immature female. It was in fairly good 
condition and not emaciated as might have been expected of a 
storm driven bird. — L. E. Hope, Carlisle. 

Eared Grebe on the Solway. — An example of the Eared 
Grebe was shot at Bowness on the Solway on December 3rd ; 
a female in winter dress, but showing traces of nuptial dress 
on the neck and cheeks. This southern species rarely occurs 
on the Solway. — L. E. Hope, Carlisle. 

— : o : — 

The Death's Head Moth near Carlisle.~The Death's 
Head Moth .4. atropos has been taken commonly here during 
■October. I have had four sent to the Museum as follows : — • 
October 12th, 0, Carlisle ; October 13th, 0, Abbey Town, 
Carlisle ; October 15th, 5, Shap (Westmorland) ; Newbiggin, 
Carlisle, October 14th, ^. A female was also caught at New- 
biggin, October 5th, and another female on October loth, at 
■Carlisle ; also a female, October loth, at Bowness-on-Solway. — 
L. E. Hope, Carlisle. 


Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, 
Durham and Newcastle=upon=Tyne. (N.S.) Vol. III., Pt. i, igo8 ; 
pp. 1-222 + i-xxvii, Newcastle. 5/6. 

We have received the volume for 1908 of the Transactions of this 
energetic Society, and it includes many valuable papers, several dealing 
with the more neglected branches of natural history. There are also 
several excellent illustrations. An appeal for funds for the publication 
of the Society's work resulted in over £24^ being received. In addition 
±0 the Report for 1906-7, is a full report of Field Meetings, 1906, by Mr. 
R. Adamson ; some miscellaneous notes by the Curator, Mr. E. Leonard 
•Gill, from whose pen also appears an excellent appendix on ' The Hancock 
Museum and its History.' Miss M. V. Lebour gives a second instalment of 
her Memoirs on the Trematodes of the Northumberland Coast, and Mr. 
G. W. Temperley writes on ' The Northumberland Coast in September — 
an Ornithological Ramble.' There are two papers dealing with arachnida ; 
Mr. A. Randell Jackson writes ' On some rare Arachnida captured during 
1907,' and ' Allendale spiders ' is by the Rev. J. E. Hull. Lt.-Col. C. H. E. 
Adamson gives part II. of his Catalogue of Butterflies collected in Burmah. 
A useful paper is by R. S. Bagnall, ',On some New Genera and Species of 
Thysanoptera.' There are also two valuable geological papers, viz., 
a ' Preliminary Note on a case of Thrust and Crush-Brecciation in the 
Magnesian Limestone, Co. Durham,' by Dr. D. Woolacott, and a lengthy 
and well-illustrated memoir on ' The Glacial Phenomena of the country 
between the Tyne and the Wansbeck.' Altogether, the volume is an ideal 
one for a provincial Society, and we should like to congratulate our New- 
castle friends upon the way in which they are investigating the so-called 
' unattractive ' branches of natural history. 

Report ol the Immigrations of Summer Residents in the Spring 
of 1907: also Notes on the Migratory Movements during- the Autumn of 
1906. By the Migration Committee of the British Ornithologists' Club, and 
edited by Mr. \V. R. OgiIvie=Qrant. Being: Vol. XXII., Bull. B.O.C., 
202 pp. and 31 maps. Whitherby & Co., 6s. net (paper cover). 

This, the Third Annual Report, is to hand, and is on similar lines to 
its two predecessors, excepting that, in addition, it gives some sliort notes 
on the autumn migrants of 1906. This work should be read by all 
British students of bird migration, although, as we have previously 
pointed out, it is not quite satisfactory. In places, it certainly gives 
one the impression in the series of immigrations through England, as is 
illustrated by the maps, that chosen data of a species have been 
inserted so as to fit in with the first, second, or third immigrations 
as the case may be. We must again protest that the bare term 
' Yorkshire ' is insufficient for the purpose, and only confuses the 
Yorkshire student of bird migration, by irretrievably mixing many im- 
portant and distinct bird movements ; although we are pleased to observe 
that the few notes from the lighthouse at Spurn are given under ' York- 
shire Lights.' We would suggest that in future Reports, the terms 
' West Yorkshire,' ' East Yorksiiire,' and ' Yorkshire Coast ' should be 
used : and the same rule would, most probably, apply to most sea-boai"d 
counties. At the same time, the thanks of all students of bird migration 
should be accorded to this Committee, and more particularly to Mr. Bon- 
hote, for his work in endeavouring to classify the data of so many important 
observers stationed all over England and Wales — Lincolnshire, (an im- 
portant county in this respect), being very poorly represented. It may 
be of interest to non-believers in ' March Cuckoos,' that the Committee 
acknowledge the authenticity of no fewer than six reports of Cuckoos 
from the soutli-western counties from March 26th to March 31st. 


1901) January i. 


Dr. S. F. Harmer, F.R.S., of Cambridge, has been appointed keeper of 
Zoology at the British Museum, South Kensington. 

We are glad to see that the Manchester Microscopical Society con- 
tinues its excellent work in the way of lecturing, etc., in the surrounding 

' Eliimn piirpjinisceiis, a Woodlouse new to the British Isles ' is 
figured and described by Denis R. Pack-Beresford in the ' Irish Naturalist ' 
for December. 

The Hon. W. Rothschild describes ' A new species of Bat Flea froin 
Great Britain ' in ' The Entomologist ' for December ; under the name 
Nycteridopsylla longiceps. 

Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse favours us with a copy of his Presidential 
Address to the Liverpool Geological Society, in which he deals with the 
modern hypotheses relating to the solar system. 

Dr. Francis Galton has delivered an address to the Royal Society of 
Literature on ' Suggestions for improving the literary style of Scientific 
Memoirs. Tiiis has been largely circulated, and it is hoped will prove 

We are glad to see that the Millport Marine Station is issuing a ' Reprint 
Series,' No. I. of which has recently reached us. It is a paper ' on Tri- 
chofhiza, a new Hydroid Genus,' by E. S. Russell, and is reprinted from 
the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 

The Sixth Annual Report of the Advisory Committee of the Bradford 
Botanic Garden bears further evidence of the success of the gardens in 
Lister Park. Our Bradford friends are to be congratulated upon the 
earnestness with which they have carried out this work. 

An interesting slab of Triassic sandstone from the Storeton Quarries 
has recently been placed on exhibition in the Liverpool Museum. It 
shews sun-cracks, ripple-marks, impressions of foot-prints, and illustrates 
almost all the varied traces of life of the Trias found in the district. 

A yellow-browed Warbler was found dead in a hedge at North Cotes, 
Lincolnshire, on October 19th. This is the second record of the bird for 
the county (' British Birds,' December 1908). In the same journal, Mr. 
G. H. Caton Haigh records that he shot a Sabine's gull off Gramthorpe 
Haven, Lincolnshire, on September 28th. 

The Annual Report of the Ipswich Museum, recently to hand, indicates . 
that an extraordinary amount of good work has been accomplished during 
the past twelve months in connection with the re-arrangement and re- 
labelling of the specimens. The Ipswich Museum is also fortunate in 
securing much substantial help voluntarily. 

We have received the Annual Report of the Huddersfield Naturalist 
and Photographic Society for 1907-8. This contains brief reports of the 
various recorders, which are worthy of preservation. The report is a 
twelve-page pamphlet, measuring 4IX5I inches — a very inconvenient 
size. It would have been much better if the ordinary 8vo size of previous 
reports had been followed. 

Lieut-Col. Eschalaz has presented an admirable museum to the 
inhabitants of Waterloo, near Liverpool. It is largely devoted to British 
Birds. The donor points out that ' To shew one or two birds of each 
species in a case, would by no means convey the proper idea of tiiese birds 
as they congregate on the edges of the cliffs ; consequently, as many as 
are required to give a true representation of what they look like in their 
natural state are introduced.' 



No. 625 

(No. 403 of eurrtnt i*rl§$} 




T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museum, Hull ; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D. .F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 




Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated) :— The Palaeontographical Society; The South Eastern 
Naturalist; Hornets; Ray Society's Publications; British Marine Annelids, And their 
Colours; A Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalists' Union ; Liverpool Geologists; Labels 
showing Geographical Distribution 

The Gargeny breeding in East Yorkshire— IF. H. St. Quintin, F.Z.S 

The Rock-Soil Method and Ballota nigra Linn, in Lincolnshire— ^rr. E. Adrian 
Woodruffc-Peacock, F.L.S. , F.G.S., etc. 

A Yorkshire Botanist— 7. S 

The Migratory Movements of certain Shore-Birds as observed on the Dublin Coast 
—Prof. C.J. Patten, M.A., M.D., Sc.D. 

Wasps at West Ayton, Yorks.— i?cu. W. C. Hey 

The Changing Distribution of the Long>tailed Titmouse in the West Riding— Hni 
B. Booth, M.B.O.U 

In Memoriam (Illustrated)— Joseph Lomas— /I 

Field Notes 

Some New Books— Geology 

Reviews and Book Notices (Illustrated) ... 

Northern News ... 

Illustrations 34,37, 


R. D'dferyyhouse, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

38, 44, 54 






, 60-01 


A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdoi| AVj 
And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. '^ '■ 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 


(President — Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z.S.). 

Two Meetings of the above Section will be held at the Leeds 
Institute, Leeds, at 3 p.m. and at 6-30 p.m. respectively, on Saturday, 
February 13th, 1909. 

Short lectures will be given as follows: — Dr. C. J. Patten, M.A., 
on ' Four Hours' Continuous Observations of the Feeding Habits of 
Richardson's Skua,' Mr. E. E. Gregory on ' The Pleistocene Vertebrate 
Remains of the West Riding,' Mr. A. Whitaker on 'Our British Bats' 
(illustrated by lantern-slides), and Dr. E. S. Stewart, M.B.O.U., 'A 
Recent Ornithological Expedition into Spain.' 

The following gentlemen will exhibit lantern-slides : — Mr. Jasper 
Atkinson, Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z.S., Mr. Oxley Grabham, M.A., 
M.B.O.U., Prof. C. J. Patten, M.D., Sc.D., Mr. Walter Wilson, and 
Mr. W. Hewett. 

Ag'enda : — 

At 3 p.m. there will be a meeting of the Wild Birds' and Eggs' Protection 
Committee. Members will then be at liberty to exhibit specimens, contribute notes, 
or ask questions. Dr. Stewart and Mr. Gregory will then give their papers. 

The evening meeting (6-30 p.m.) will commence with Prof. Patten's lecture, 
and will be followed by Mr. Whitaker and Mr. Hewett, and concluded by the 
exhibition of lantern-slides. 

All members and associates of the Yorkshire Naturalists' L^nion 
interested in Vertebrate Zoology are invited to attend, and to bring any 
notes, specimens, photographs, lantern-slides, etc. ; and are requested 
to bring forward any matters of interest connected with the work of the 
Section, and to take part in any discussion. 

Any member or associate is at liberty to introduce a friend. 

Please Note. — As it is desired to make these meetings as representative as 
possible of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union and of the County of Yorkshire — 
it is particularly requested that officials of the .Affiliated Societies will draw the 
attention of their members to this notice. 

Any further particulars can be obtained from the Honorary Secretary of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, at the Museum, Hull ; from Mr. H. B. Booth, ' Ryhill," 
Ben Rhydding ; or from any of the officials of the \'ertebrate Section. 




On the last day of the old year we received the volume of 
the Palaeontographical Society for 1908, which contains many 
valuable monographs. Dr. A. Smith Woodward contributes 
part IV. of the ' Fossil Fishes of the English Chalk,' and in- 
cludes Elopopsis crassus from Barton-on-Humber, described 
by Dr. Woodward in these pages in 1907. There is a further 
instalment of the reproductions of Sowerby's figures of Inferior 
Oolite Ammonites. Drs. Gertrude Files and Ethel M. R. 
Wood contribute part VII. of the Monograph of British 
Graptolites. Mr. Philip Lake gives part III. of ' British Cam- 
brian Trilobites.' Mr. Henry Woods contributes a further 
instalment of his ' Cretaceous Lamellibranchiata,' in which 
some Speeton Clay fossils are figured and described. These 
monographs are indispensable to workers, are wonderfully 
cheap, and we should like to support the appeal that is made 
for further subscribers. The subscription is one guinea per 
annum, and should be sent to Dr. Smith Woodward, at the 
British Museum (Natural History). 



With the above title has been issued the ' Transactions 
of the South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies for 1908,'* 
under the editorship of Mr. J. W. Tutt. Besides detailed 
reports on the various sections of the Union's work, it contains 
the Presidential Address of Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., on 
' The Weald ; ' ' Gilbert WhHe and Sussex,' by W. H. Mullens ; 
' Spiders of the Hastings District,' by W. R. Butterfield and 
W. H. Bennett ; ' Mediaeval Timber Houses of Kent and Sussex,' 
by J. E. Ray; 'Hastings Castle,' by H. Sands; 'Notes on 
Dewponds,' by E. A. Martin ; ' Some Local Marine Sponges.' 
by E. Counold ; ' Birds exhibited at the Congress Museum,' 
by N. F. Ticehurst, and ' The Pleistocene Vertebrates of South- 
East England,' by W. J. Lewis Abbott. The volume is illus- 
trated by a number of plates, and reflects the greatest credit 
upon our friends in south-east England. 

* London: Elliot Stock. Ixxi + 121 pp. 2/6 net. 
1909 February i. 


Notes and Conivienis. 


With reference to the query raised in these columns (page 
53), as to whether the Hornet has been recorded for York- 
shire or not, we are glad to take the opportunity kindly afforded 
by Messrs. Cassell & Co., of reproducing an excellent illustration 
of male, queen and worker Hornets, which has appeared in their 

Fhotohy] Hornets. [John J. Waul. 

(1. Male; 2. Queen; 3. Worker). 

interesting ' Nature Book,' already referred to in these columns. 
The illustration will serve to show the quality and kind of those 
appearing in Messrs. Cassell's publication. It will also, we hope, 
enable our readers to keep a look out for the species, and thus 
add to the few localities for which it is known in the north. 



Notes and Coninie^its. 35 


The working zoologist has every reason to be thankful that 
such societies as the Ray Society are in a position to publish 
monographs on such a lavish scale as that before us. Other- 
wise the book could not be produced at a cost less than several 
times the price of the present volume, if produced at all. 
The Carnegie Trust has also given assistance for three years 
in regard to the artist, and section making, consequently the 
volume has been produced at a minimum of cost to the pur- 
chaser. The Society and author have also had the advantage 
of the knowledge and experience of Mr. John Hopkinson, the 
Secretary of the Ray Society, who has had much to do with the 
production of the work, and to whom the author duly acknow- 
ledges his great indebtedness. 


In dealing with the British Marine Annelids, the author 
has had an extremely difficult task, partly on account of the 
paucity of really reliable literature on the subject ; partly 
because of the difficulty in securing [fresh material, and partly 
'On account of the various classifications adopted by various 
authors. Prof. Mcintosh does not feel warranted in adopting 
any of the recent classifications of the Polychgeta, e.g., that of 
Prof. Benham in the Cambridge Natural History : ' because 
none relieves the difficulties encountered in the older and more 
simple classification into errant and sedentary forms by 
Audouin and Edwards.' Some idea of the difficulties exper- 
ienced in dealing with the literature upon the subject is shewn 
in the case of Nephthys ccBca, where two of these large 
pages are devoted to a list of synonyms, varying in date from 
1758 to 1906. 


The annelids dealt with in the present volume are surely 
amongst the most beautifully ornamented of the invertebrates, 
and, as the author points out, they vie with the gaudy tints 
•of butterflies and birds, or the burnished splendour of beetles. 
This is strikingly borne out by the numerous coloured plates, 
upon which are shewn some of the most charming representa- 
tions of these gaily coloured annelids that could possibly be 

* 'The British Annelids,' Vol. II., Part I. Poivchseta, Nephthvdidas 
'to Syllidae, by Prof. W. C. Mcintosh, M.D., F.R.S. 232 pp., plates. 
Issued to the members of the Ray Society. London : Dulau & Co. , 25/- net. 

jgog February i. 

36 Notes and Cotnments. 

imagined. We can safely say that we do not remember in 
recent years having seen anything like these for delicacy of 
colouring and minuteness of detail. We have recently had 
an opportunity of testing the plates by comparison with living 
examples of some of the species represented ; and the accuracy 
of the colouring and of the drawing was demonstrated. 


An effort is being- made to form a Lancashire and Cheshire 
Union of Natural History Societies, on the Hnes of the Yorkshire 
NaturaUsts' Union, and towards this end Mr. E. Ranson, of 
174 Willows Lane, Accrington, has issued a circular to various 
societies in the two counties, convening^ a meeting to be held in 
Manchester shortly. It is quite possible, however, that there 
are some societies with which he is not acquainted, and the 
secretaries of these, as well as anyone interested in the move- 
ment, are requested to communicate with Mr. Ranson on the 
matter. We also learn that it is proposed to revive the 
' Lancashire Naturalist ' in April, at 4d. per month. If the 
suggested Union becomes an accomplished fact, and the 
' Lancashire Naturalist ' becomes its official organ, it should 
have a longer lease of life than its predecessor. 


The Liverpool Geological Society has issued its volume 
of Proceedings for 1907-8, and it contains a useful record of 
local work, and two papers, the work of members, have 
reference to field work afar off. Dr. Dwerryhouse also con- 
tributes his Presidential Address to the Society. There are 
two important papers on the Trias, one on ' The Mineralogical 
Constitution of the Storeton Sandstone,' by J. Lomas ; and 
the other on ' Some Markings, other than Footprints, in the 
Keuper Sandstones and Marls,' by Mr. H. C. Beasley. Mr. 
Mellard Reade has watched the construction of a new Sewer 
Outfall, and as a result is able to give some useful notes on the 
Post-Glacial beds at Great Crosby ; with lists of foraminifera 
by Joseph Wright. Together with Mr. P. Holland, Mr. Reade 
gives some Analyses of Longmyndian Rocks. Mr. T. H. Cope 
writes some notes on some remarkable ' Comparisons in the 
Weathering of Basalt,' and Mr. Lomas writes on Marine Peat 
at Liverpool. A melancholy interest attaches to this volume. 
It is the last one in which the name of Mr. Joseph Lomas, '^-who 


Northern Neim. 


has done so much for the Society, and for geological science, 
will appear in the list of members. His recent lamentable 
death in a railway accident in Algeria, where he was carrying 
out some geological work, will be deplored by many besides his 
Liverpool colleagues. 


With the kind help of Mr. H. B. Browne, M.A., the collection 
of exotic Swallow-tail Butterflies in the Hull Museum is being 
arranged, and with each species is being shewn a small map 

of the world, on 
Mercator's projection, 
upon which the dis- 
tribution of the species 
is indicated in red. 
In this way the local- 
ities in which the 
various forms occur 
can be seen at a 
glance. The maps are 
of the size here given, 
and have a place left 
in which the name of the specimen, or other information, 
can be inserted. It can, of course, be used for various other 
natural history objects. The map is really similar to the 
well-known distribution labels which are such a feature at 
the Manchester Museum, but are on a reduced scale. The 
publishers of this magazine are prepared to supply the maps 
to 'our readers, on a good white card. For particulars see our 
advertisement columns. 

Friends of the late Mr. Joseph Lomas will doubtless welcome the 
opportunity of subscribing to a memorial fund which is being raised for 
the benefit of his wife and children. As will be seen from another page 
in this issue, Mr. Lomas was killed in a railway accident in Algeria while 
on his way to study the rocks in the desert region of North Africa, this 
investigation being undertaken for a committee of the British Association. 
The devotion to scientific work which characterised Mr. Lomas meant 
the sacrifice of time and means that might otherwise have been more 
selfishly used. It is not surprising, therefore, to know that he was unable 
to make adequate provision for his wife and children. We hope there 
will be a generous response to the appeal which has just been issued by 
a committee which includes the names of many distinguished men of 
science. Subscriptions should be sent to the hon. treasurers, * Lomas 
Memorial Fund.' Education Committee, 14 Sir Thomas Street, Liverpool. 

1909 February i. 



Scampston, E. Yorks. 

It is, I think, worth recording that in May last, an entirely wild 
pair of Gargeny Teal bred in this parish. The nest was under 
a wild rose bush, at the edge of a small willow garth, which is 
bordered by an open drain communicating with the river Der- 
went less than half a mile away. One of our farmers reported 
that a small duck was sitting there, and as it was in rather a 
dangerous place, my keeper lifted the eggs, thinking they were 
those of a Teal. The duck was flushed, but was not identified 
at the time. I am unfortunately unable to state the number 
of eggs, but I believe that there were eight. From these 
six young were reared, which turned out to be four drakes, and 
two ducks, and are now on the water here. I have had a single 
female Gargeny for several seasons, and this spring I provided 
her with a mate. On May 19th the latter was driven off by 
a wild drake of the same species, which suddenly appeared. 
He paired with the pinioned bird, and the alliance resulted in 
a nest, from which four young were hand reared. On May 27th 
the wild drake was beginning to go out of colour. By June 
I2th the pinioned duck was sitting, and her mate had dis- 
appeared. The wild bred ducklings were considerably older 
than the tame ones, and no doubt the full-winged drake was 
the father of the two broods, and when his first mate began to 
sit, he took to roving, and came across my tame bird, and 
paired with her. 


The Death' sjHead Moth at Rydal. — Mr. Hope's notes on 
the appearance of A. atropos around Carlisle coincide with 
mine for Rydal. Last year (1908) one was brought to me on 
October loth, and the year before one on about October 15th. 
Both had come into houses. — Mary L. Armitt, Rydal. 

— : o : — 
Zoophytes in the H umber. — With further reference to 
my note in ' The Naturalist ' for December, I am now able to 
add Gonothyrcea hyalina, a species which has been identified 
for me by Mr. J. Ritchie, of the Edinborough Museum. — 
J. Thompson, Hull. 





The single sheet, 3 by 3.75 inches, mode of collecting notes on 
every circumstance of plant growth, I named the Rock-Soil 
Method, in honour of Mr. Clement Reid for his book on " The 
Origin of the British Flora.' He practically deals with quater- 
nary rock-soils of various ages in the same way that I work them 
when they have been exposed by elevation and modified again 
by denudation and plant growth. 

As a typical instance of a rather difficult species to analyse, 
let us take Ballota nigra. It is pre-glacial at Pakefield * 
but rare. It was recorded for Lincolnshire by Rev. J. Dods- 
worth in 1836, Sir Charles Anderson in 1847, and H. C. Watson 
in 1 85 1 ; and many times since. It is found in all our eighteen 
natural history divisions. 

The following is its Rock-soil range, as far as it has yet been 
worked out on some 150 sheets : — 




Blown Sand 


Chalky Boulder Clay 


Estuarine Alluvium . . 
Fen Gravel 
Freshwater Alluvium 
Hessle Boulder Clay 
Hibaldstow Limestone 
Kimeridge Clay 
Kirton Limestone 
Lincolnshire Limestone 
Lower Chalk 



14. Lower Lias Clay . . . . 3 

15. Marine Sand 3 

16. Marlstone i 

17. Old River Gravel . . . . 3 

18. Oxford Clay 4 

19. Peat (Cultivated) . . . . 2 

20. Purple Boulder Clay . . 4 

21. River Gravel 5 

22. Sandy Glacial Gravel . . 39 

23. Spilsby Sandstone . . . . 7 

24. Tealby Clay i 

25. Upper Chalk 2 

26. Very Chalky Boulder Clay i 

It has been found flore alho on Fen Gravel, Peat, River 
Gravel, Sandy Glacial Gravel, Lincolnshire Limestone, and 
Spilsby Sandstone. In the form foliis variegatis on Hibaldstow 
and Kirton Limestone. Its flowering f range extends from 
May 30th to November 25th. 

It is plain at once that Ballota is a lover of warm, open, 
and limy soils. When the sheets of notes are analysed, the 
following points come out. It is a hedge and ditch side species, 
but it seems to prefer a bank to the flat in the proportion of 

Journal Linnean Society, 1908, p. 218. 
By ' flowering ' I mean when the stamens are shedding active pollen. 

1909 February i. 

40 Woodniffe- Peacock : The Rock-Soil Method. 

10 to T. The sunny bank to the shady side of a road running 
east and west in nearly the same proportion. On sandy soils 
it seems to get away from the villages to a greater distance 
than on clays, but, to a certain extent, the rabbit may explain 
this. It extends from Cadney village along hedge and ditch 
banks on road sides as far as the Sandy Glacial Gravel extends 
in any direction. It is found in bushy ground in old quarries and 
gravel pits, and on the decaying mud capping of limestone walls. 
It is exterminated by stock in pasture, unless it is protected 
by Urtica dioica or by the fouling of the ground by rabbits. It 
is apparently never found in meadow. It is even sometimes 
eaten by cows when the much-loved Lamium album growing 
beside it remains untouched. It would seem all the same to 
be taken as a corrective or relish rather than as food. It may 
be rarely found far away from villages in the hedges of tilth. 
It is, however, found so rarely growing in open, that it would 
almost appear to be a shade species of bushy ground 

Apply the following common Botanical Categories to it. 
Followers of : — 

1. Man. 

2. Cultivation. 

3. Commerce (the unusual flora of railways, canals and 

mills, etc., being so classed). 

Frequenters of : — 

4. Pasture. 

5. Meadow. 

6. Woodlands (open, close, old or new). 

7. Hedges (distinguishing between roadside, grassland, 

and tilth hedges). 

8. Roadsides (distinguishing those over grass or tilth). 

9. Stream-banks (distinguishing between slow or rapid). 

10. Moorlands (i.e., where Calluna, Erica, Pteris, etc., are 

the predominant species). 

11. Broken ground (whether natural, as on escarpments, 

stream-sides, or caused by man — but not for 

12. Lakes or ponds (noting inflows and outflows). 

13. Streams (rapid or slow). 

14. Sand-dunes (inland or marine). 

15. Salt-marsh (natural or artificial). 

16. Elevation (above Ordnance datum). 


Woodruff e- Peacock : The Rock-Soil Method. 4 1 

We find it may be classed as follows : — 
I. For protection only. 
4. Where protected only. 

7. By roadside very common ; by grassland rare ; by 

tilth very rare. 

8. Fairly common. 

II. Quarries and gravel pits. 

14. Marine, where there are comminuted shells, or the 

sea sand is slightly mixed with silt. 
16. In Lincolnshire our greatest elevation is 550 feet 
only, and the soil pure chalk. Ballota under the 
circumstances, does not clearly find its altitude limit. 
In West Yorkshire, Mr. F. A. Lees now gives it a 
range of o to quite 600 feet, he writes to me. 
To sum up, Ballota would appear to be areal* in Lincoln- 
shire, but it can only survive when unconsciously protected 
by man, for its natural requirements, a bushy, open, limy, 
lightly stocked soil is practically not to be found in this country. 
That it is also local-areal in its soil requirements I cannot deny. 
That it is extra-areal I cannot believe from my present informa- 
tion, for what advantage does it obtain from the neighbourhood 
of villages, but protection from the feeding of stock ? It 
certainly bears no relation to true (i) followers of man, .like 
Cheledonium, Hyoscyamus, Parietaria, etc., or of (2) Cultivation, 
or of (3) Commerce. I must, however, own the exact position 
of Ballota is most difficult to determine. We are not helped 
in the least by what Mr. S. T. Dunn says of itf : — ' A native 
of the Mediterranean region and Western Asia. In England 
and most of Europe it is a weed of hedges and waste places, 
showing preference for the neighbourhood of human habitation.' 
What does such writing tell us of the conditions of soil, stocking, 
etc., of everything we require to form an accurate estimate of 
the environmental conditions of Ballota abroad. 

The true fact about it is, that it seems to be influenced as 
to its present place of growth by a cause I have never met with 
referred to in floras. England was an open country, practically 

* Areal means adapted to the environmental conditions of any given 
limit, field, village, county, or kingdom, without any suggestion of the 
original place or conditions of evolution, or method of reaching the locality 
referred to. Local areal means the same, limited by some condition or 
requirement of soil, moisture, stocking, etc. Extra ar^a/ means the species 
cannot, without conscious help on the part of man, survive in a limited local 

I • Alien Flora,' p. 151. 

igog February i. 

42 Woodriiffe-Peacock : The Rock- Soil Method. 

wholly unenclosed till 1800, but as heavily stocked as the 
circumstances would then permit of ; or in other words, till the 
turnip and swede were introduced as field crops, and took their 
place in a recognised four years or longer rotation. As soon as 
huge flocks and herds were fed on roots during the winter, 
the whole ground could be systematically and regularly manured 
— then enclosure followed as a matter of course. 

Now Ballota is not truly confined to village hedges and banks 
but to those suitable spots of the old enclosures, which immediately 
surrounded villages, into which the stock from the open commons 
was driven for security at night. Even where these originally 
small paddocks, of two or three acres, have been thrown together 
into large fields, there is no difficulty to the trained eye in 
recognising them from the new enclosures by the traces of old 
fences or ditches on the green sward, or from their peculiar 
fertility. It was on them our forefathers expended their lime 
dressings to counteract the heavy fall of manure they received 
nightly from flocks and herds. Had they not used lime con- 
tinually, these paddocks would, sooner or later, have been 
poisoned for grass growth. There is a well-known law in such 
cases. First a pasture grows quantity at the expense of quality, 
then the herbage grows acid, and as the insoluble manure 
accumulates in excess the herbage becomes like that surround- 
ing rotting dung-hills. It is then a poison to stock. Stead}'- 
liming corrects this decline in quality. 

Now Ballota is a lime lover we know. The ' Flora of West 

Yorkshire ' settled that point, for Mr. F. A. Lees says : — 

' Common on the Permian limestone, rare off it.' We know 

also that one part of lime has a powerful action on 10,000 parts 

by weight of an ordinary agricultural soil. Cannot the presence 

of Ballota be explained to a certain extent by the agricultural 

necessities of past conditions ? My notes suggest perfectly 

clearly that some such influence has been at work. It explains 

the presence of lime where Ballota is now found, whatever the 

rock-soil may consist of. It explains why it is never found in 

pasture unless protected, and how it would be soon exterminated 

in an unenclosed country outside the old village area, where 

stock we know from the manor records was never allowed to 

graze the hedge banks, road sides or ditches.* 

* After I had gone to press with the typed copy of my Ballota nigra 
paper, I sent the original manuscript on to my friend Mr. F. A. Lees, who 
in turn sent it on to our mutual friend Canon W. Fowler. 

[ Mr. F. A. Lees writes, commenting on my flore albo records :— ' There 


Woodriiffe- Peacock : The Rock-Soil Method. 43 

is a sub-species, Ballota alba Linn., most certainly introduced at some time.' 
I have no fault to find with this note, which had slipped me, but the 
nomenclature that underlies it is Linnean and not twentieth century. 
The flove albo forms of Ballota are no more ' off type ' than the white 
Viola odorata L., which is commoner in Cadney than the usual type colour, 
yet is otherwise just the same. A return to such a system of nomen- 
clature ' spoils ' our chance of discovering the cause of these colour changes 
in plants. For instance, I have only once found the white-flowered form 
of Cnicits lanceolatus Willd., in my life. It was in an old pasture where 
C. arvoisis Hoffm., and C. palustris Willd. were both found flora albo, 
in the same limited area too. There is a specimen in the county Her- 
barium at Lincoln of Ononis spinosa Linn., which was of the most lovely 
deep blue, sent in by the Rev. W. H. Daubney, while it was still quite 
fresh and brilliant in colour. It was the only plant growing in a large 
area of the type colour. Surely after the evidence of any ordinary plant 
collector's experience, or the production of the Shirley poppy, no one 
wants evidence that colour forms arise suddenly and continue indefinitely. 

Vincent Bacon, F.R.S., Surgeon and Apothecary of Grantham, on 
October ist, 1726, recorded in Martyn's Botanical Society of London, 
Ononis spinosa flove albo by the roadside from Ropsley to Boothby. It 
is found there to-day.* Patrick Blair, M.D., recorded Epilobium hir- 
sittuni flove albo for Bolingbroke in 1723 ; it is also there to-day f 
I have, however, direct proof of the ' spontaneity ' of colour change 
in Ballota nigva under my own eyes. In 1906 a clump which had 
till then been typical in colour became white, and has remained so till now. 
Since I went to press Miss S. C. Stow has sent me a record which looks 
uncommonly like another case — ' Ballota nigra flore albo, one specimen, 
wall bank, Ropsley village, on Lincolnshire Limestone.' There can be no 
doubt, as Canon Fowler suggests, that variegated leafage, such as is found 
in Ballota, arises in part from ' irregular nutrition, too soon wet and dry 
again.' White flowered or unusual colour forms, I believe, arise from a 
similar but not like cause. 

Canon Fowler also suggests that plants, like Ballota, veritable ' children 
of the sun,' with an unusually long flowering range, may be ' triple brooded 
like some insects.' I have tried to think of everything in making notes, 
but have never thought of that point before, so cannot say for certain. 
I will keep some clumps under special observation next summer, to find 
out whether this is so. If this species is fertilised only by bees, its later 
flowers must be barren, which is not my experience. I regret to say I 
have no insect notes on Ballota. No doubt the Canon is right in suggesting 
that Ballota ' loves shelter from wind, and this is the reason it is a bushy 
ground or hedgeside species in our area.' Its exact position as a local- 
areal or extra-areal species can only be finally settled when its position in 
other counties has been as fully worked out as with us in Lincolnshire. 

In giving illustrations of ' followers of man ' in my last paper, I was 
only referring to Lincolnshire. Pavietaria, for instance, I have proof is 
' wind sown,' and ' water carried ' here, but only very locally. I have 
plenty of proof it is purposely ' carried by man.' The following extract 
from ' Between Trent and Ancholme ' J is a fair case in point : ' The 
original Pellitory and wild Wall-flowers, upon the walls and everywhere, 
were bvought as tiny seedlings from Thornton College ruins, and were asso- 
ciated at the time with Sir Walter's ' Edie Ochiltree, in the ruins of St. 
Ruth. ' Thae smell sweetest by night-time, thae flowers, and they're maist 
aye seen about ruined buildings . . . I'm thinking they'll be like mony 
folk's guid gifts, that often seem maist gracious in adversity.' Parietaria. 

* 'Naturalist,' 1898, p. 178. 

t ' Naturalist,' 1894, p. 338, and 1897, p. 140. 

X No author's name. Messrs. Jackson & Sons, Brigg, 1908, p. 35. 

1909 February i. 

44 Field Note. 

is clearly extra-areal in Lincolnshire, though no doubt areal in England 
among rocks, such as we do not possess in this county. 

Mr. Clement Reid, F.R.S., also most kindly writes : — ' This plant — 
Ballota nigra Linn, has always interested me, and I was a good deal sur- 
prised when it turned up in the Cromer Forest Bed. However, at that 
period the British climate was probably drier than now, though up till 
now very few of the prairie plants have been found. 

' You may be interested to know that Ballota occurs not uncommonly 
in Roman Silchester ; and I think also in Roman Caerwent, though the 
specimen is too badly preserved for certainty. Silchester is on a gravel 
soil over Bagshot Sands ; but there is a great deal of lime-rubbish about 
the Roman town — cement, stucco, etc. 

' I cannot say that I feel very sure that Ballota may not be one of the 
plants introduced in Roman times, for the only places where I found it 
away from habitations and cultivated land are on old shelly beaches, and 
by the shores of harbours, on steep banks. Still if the plant could live 
under other conditions than those you give I think that 1800 years is 
plenty of time for it to spread — the Linaria^ and Veronicas have no diffi- 
culty in spreading. 

' In 1907 I found Ballota growing under exceptional conditions in Corn- 
wall. There is a large field close to Wadebridge, attached to an old manor 
house, and out of cultivation for many years. The whole of this field is 
dotted with tufts of Cenfaurea scabiosa and Ballota mixed. This is so 
iinusual that I tried to make out whether there was anything special 
in the geology to account for it ; but it seemed to be merely rough 
pasture on a thin soil overlying the ordinary non-calcareous slate of the 

' However, there was formerly an enormous trade in shell sand for 
manure between Padstow and Wadebridge, and possibly this field may 
have been either heavily dressed, or have been one of the dumping places 
for heaps of sand. The field, however, if I remember rightly, must be at 
least two acres. It has sufficient slope to drain it well.' 

I do not suppose for one moment that Ballota, or any species of like 
requirements, can have existed in Lincolnshire through glacial times. 
I doubt whether such plants could even exist in Cornwall, but am in no 
position to give an opinion. Mr. Clement Reid, in a letter says, ' It does 
not seem probable that Ballota can have lived through the glacial period 
in any part of the British Isles.' I believe the pre-glacial flora in Lincoln- 
shire was wholly destroyed. The point is that what had once been could 
exist again, if the climate were approximately the same. 


Pisidium supinum Schmidt. (= P. conicum Bandon), 
etc., in Lincolnshire. — Whilst searching for Pisidia at the 
confluence of the river Brant with the Witham (div. 13 W.), on 
July 24th, 1908, I took the above shell, making a new record 
to the county list. Also on the 15th of the same month, at 
Skirbeck, Boston (div. 12), Mr. Birchnall and myself obtained 
some very characteristic forms of Planorbis spirorbis Miill. var. 
leucostoma. Mr. J. W. Taylor has been kind enough to verify 
the above specimens. — John F. Musham, Lincoln, December 
23rd, 1908. 

Natu .'>list, 



RICHARD SPRUCE (1817-1893). 

Had Spruce been consulted, he could not have desked a more 
fitting monum?nt to his memory, than the two handsome 
volumes* now before us. And 'tis a great compliment to this 
Yorkshire bo.anist, and to Yorkshire, that a record of his life 
and work should be given to the world by Dr. Alfred Russel 

This memorial, though late in its appearance, is not the 
less welcome. It has a charm about it which recalls the sub- 
stantial volumes of natural history travel of thirty or forty 
years ago. 

Besides being a keen botanist. Spruce was a good ' all round ' 
man, and recorded many interesting observations in other 
branches of knowledge. He also had a fine literary style, 
which makes a perusal of his notes a pleasure. 

In his preface. Dr. Wallace writes : ' Shortly after Spruce's 
death, I offered to do what I could to put together a narrative 
of his travels from his journals and letters, if, on examination 
of the materials, it seemed possible to do so. His executor, 
Mr. M. B. Slater, was anxious that I should undertake the 
duties of a literary executor ; but, partly owing to both of us 
being fully occupied by our own affairs, it was only after a delay 
of eleven years that I was able to begin the preparation of the 
present volumes.' Since then. Dr. Wallace has spent three 
years in preparing the work for the press. 

It is thus pleasing to find that another well-known and 
respected Yorkshire botanist, Mr. M. B. Slater (happily still 
with us), has had a hand in the preparation of this work. 
Spruce was Mr. Slater's first master, and Mr. Slater wrote : 
' From him I got to know how to use a microscope, and thus got 
my first knowledge of the beauties of the mosses, and I can truly 
say their examination and study has been a source of great 
pleasure to me through life.' f Mr. Slater was fortunate in 
being a pupil of Spruce, and for some years previous to 1846. 
paid him weekly visits. Mr. Slater has favoured the writer 

* Notes of a Botanist on the Amazon and Andes, by Richard Spruce, 
edited by Alfred Russel Wallace, O.M., F.R.S., with a Biographical 
Introduction, Portrait, seventy-one illustrations, and seven maps. ^ 2 
Vols., 518 and 542 pages. London : MacMillan & Co. 21/- net. 

t In the ' Introduction ' to ' The Mosses and Hepatica; of North 
Yorkshire,' in J. G. Baker's ' North Yorkshire,' 2nd ed., 1906, pp.*424-5. 

1^09 February i. 

46 A Yorkshire Botanist. 

with a sight of some of Spruce's letters,* each of which at once 
betrays his keen powers of observation. The first of them was 
written so long ago as 1847, when Spruce was preparing to issue 
his collections of Pyrenean Mosses and Hepaticae. It is written 
in a small but fine hand, and, as with all his writing, most easy 
to read — not always a characteristic of a naturalist's hand- 
writing ! We quote the letter, as it not only gives information 
as to Spruce's methods, but probably also gives some indication 
of the way in which Mr. Slater first took up the study of mosses, 
with such good result : — 

' As you were kind enough to say that you could fasten down for me the 
specimens of a set of my Musci Pyrenaici I herewith send one for that 

I have gummed down a few of the topmost specimens, in order that 
you may judge how to do the rest. It is the best way to fasten down 
iirst the labels (by gumming them on the left side only), and afterwards 
the specimens. There are usually four specimens in each sheet of coarse 
paper, and when you have gummed these it will be advisable to apply 
a little pressure to them by means of sheets of drying-paper laid on them, 
or otherwise. Wherever you find loose calyptrcs laid, they will require 
to be attached to the paper over the tops of any of the capsules. 

If you apply your lens to any of the species which are new to you, as 
you go along, you may thereby attain a very fair idea of their outside 
appearance (at least). 

To fasten down a set like this occupies me from two to three days, 
working at it all day. If I ask you to let me have it in a fortnight, you will, 
I suppose, easily finish it by taking an hour whenever you think you could 
not better employ it.' 

Born at Ganthorpe, near Castle Howard, the son of a school- 
master, Richard Spruce also began his career as a schoolmaster 
at Haxby, and v/as later at the Collegiate School at York, until 
it closed in 1844. From his earliest years, however, he 
developed a love for botany, and in 1837 he drew up a list of 
the flowering plants of the Malton district, comprising 485 
species, f In 1841 he wrote his first paper on ' Three Days on 
the Yorkshire Moors,' which was printed in ' The Phytologist.' 
Subsequently numerous papers appeared from his pen, a com- 
plete list of which is given' by Dr. Wallace. 

Spruce's first long journey was to the Pyrenees, the pub- 
hshed results of which brought him into contact with most of 
the leading botanists of his day. His greatest achievement 
in the way of publications, however, was his ' Hepaticae of tlie 
Amazon and the Andes of Peru and Ecuador,' in .1885. This 
consisted of 600 closely-printed pages, and contained descrip- 
tions of over 700 species and varieties, mostly collected by him- 
self, of which over 400 were new to the science. 

* One of these, dated 1879, the present writer is permitted to retam. 
It has a reference to ' The Naturalist.' t This is in Mr. Slater's possession. 

' Naturalist, 

A Yorkshire Botanist. 47 

At home, Spruce accomplished much, not the least interest- 
ing being the discovery and identification of a new plant to the 
British Flora, Carex paradoxa. Amongst his many other works 
we notice one ' On Cephalozia : its sub-genera and its allied 
genera' (1882), this being the fore-runner of the large work 
just referred to. It contained 100 pages, and was printed in 
Malton. This is really a key to his arrangement of the 
Hepaticae which is now generally followed. 

The following extract, given by Dr. Wallace from one of 
Spruce's letters, is, like many others, worth quoting in these 
columns : — 

' On our own moors I have far oftener seen Odontoschism a Sphagni 
growing on Leucobrynim glaiicum than on Sphagna. Now that the steam- 
plough is fast obUterating the small remnant of moors in the Vale of 
York, it is worth while recording something about the Leucobryum, 
as seen on Strensall Moor, five to six miles north of York. There it forins 
immense rounded hassocks, some of which in my youth were as much as 
three feet high ; and although the ground whereon tliey grew is now drained 
and ploughed out, I am told that on another part of the moor there are 
still left a few hassocks about two feet high. When the late Mr. Wilson 
iii"st saw them, thirty years ago, he took them at a distance for sheep ; 
as he approached them he changed his mind for haycocks ; but when he 
actually came up and saw what they were he was astonished, and declared 
he had never seen such gigantic moss-tufts elsewhere. During seven con- 
secutive years that I saw them frequently, I could observe no sensible 
increase in height. The very slight annual outgrowth of the marginal 
branches is comparable to the outermost twigs of an old tree, and is almost 
or quite counterbalanced by the soft, imperfectly elastic mass incessantly 
decaying and settling down at the base ; so that these tufts of Leucobryum 
may well be almost as secular as our Oaks or Elms ; and some of them 
might even be coming into existence, if not so far back as when the warders 
of Bootham Bar and Monk Bar (the northern entrances to York) used to 
hear the wolves howling beneath their feet on the bleak winter nights, at 
least while the ' last wolf ' was still prowling in the Forest of Galtres.' 

In 1869 he wrote a letter in which he stated ' One day last 
week a dentist relieved me of four teeth, and I now belong to the 
genus Gymnostomum ; but by the time you come over I hope 
to have developed a complete double peristome.' 

As we know more of the life Spruce led, the more do we 
appreciate his worth. He was never wealthy, often very poor ; 
and for a great part of his life was a martyr to an internal 
disease, which necessitated his reclining on a couch. During 
the last thirty years of his life, he lived some time at Welburn, 
and later in a small cottage at Coneysthorpe, near Malton ; his 
' world ' being a sitting room, twelve feet square, and a bed- 
room of equally limited proportions. In this small room he was 
visited by many of the leading scientific men of his day, and from 
it he corresponded with the botanists of all parts of the globe. 

1909 February i. 

48 A Yorkshire Botanist, 

Amongst the material left by Spruce when he died, was a 
large account book, in which had been carefully written 
eight chapters of ' Notes of a Botanist on the Amazon and 
Andes, being records of travel on the Amazon and its tribu- 
taries, the Trombetas, Rio Negro, Uaupes, Cosiquiari, Pacimoni, 
Huallaga, and Pastasa ; as also to the Cataracts of the Orinoco, 
along the eastern side of the Andes of Peru and Ecuador, 
and the shores of the Pacific, during the years 1849-1864.' 
Dr. Wallace informs us that with considerable condensation, 
this constitutes the first six chapters of the present work. The 
' condensing,' however, has been achieved by omitting geo- 
graphical and historical items of little general interest. Other- 
wise the narrative is exactly as Spruce left it, his north country 
or archaic words and expressions being preserved, though these 
were often ' queried ' by the printer's reader. The value of 
the narrative has been increased by the insertion, in square 
brackets, of explanatory notes by Dr. A. Russel Wallace. This 
editor has also, for the convenience of non-botanical readers, 
placed lengthy passages of purely botanical, etc. nature, in 
smaller type, so that the general reader will readily know 
which portions to ' skip.' The illustrations are mostly from 
Spruce's own drawings. There is an excellent portrait of 
Spruce as a frontispiece, and a complete list of his works is 
also given, together with a biography. 

Perhaps the greatest recommendation we can give to these 
two volumes is the following expression of its value by Dr. A. 
Russel Wallace, than whom we could have no better authority : 
' I have myself so high an opinion of my friend's work, both 
literary and scientific, that I venture to think the present volumes 
will take their place among the most interesting and instructive 
books of the nineteenth century.' 

And what could be more appropriate for these volumes, 
than the following well-known lines by Byron : — 

To sit on rocks, to roam o'er flood and fell, 

To slowly pace the forest's shade and sheen ; 
Where things that own no man's dominion dwell, 

And mortal foot hath ne'er or rarely been ; 
To climb the trackless mountain all unseen, 

With the wild flocks that never need a fold ; 

Alone o'er crags and foaming falls to lean ; 

This is not solitude ; 'tis but to hold 
Converse with Nature's charms, and view her stores unroh'd. 

Sir Joseph Hooker stated, ' Spruce's monumental work 
" Hepaticse Amazonicae et Andinae," is his crowning one that 
will ever live.' T. S. 





C. J. PATTEN, M.A., M.D., Sc.D. 

Having for several years made observations on the migratory 
movements of shore-birds on the Dublin coast, and having 
selected that coast this season as a holiday resort for the pur- 
pose of carrying out further research, it occurred to me that a 
paper dealing with the above subject might prove of interest 
to some members of the British Association, seeing that it 
assembles in the Irish Metropolis this summer. 

After visiting many parts of the Irish sea-board, I may say 
that I think it would be hard to find a better observatory for 
the purpose of recording the arrivals and departures of numerous 
species of shore-birds than the coast of Dublin. By this, I 
mean not only Dublin coast proper, which bounds the 
estuary of the River Liffey, but also those extensive flat beaches 
north of the city which form a feature of the coast-line of the 
rest of the county. 

While the greater part of this coast is prolific in bird-life 
during the Spring and Autumn migrations, nowhere have I 
been able to make better observations, or obtain a larger list 
of birds than along the flats of the north side of the estuary of 
the River Liffey, the further end of which is intersected longi- 
tudinally by a series of sand-dunes which, uncovered even at 
high water, form an island now connected with the road by a 
bridge. Hence, these sand-hills are accessible in all conditions 
of the tide, and with the surrounding beach, they constitute 
what is known as the ' North Bull.' The richness of the avi- 
fauna about here depends largely on the great extent and 
diversified nature of the soil, which yields an abundant and 
varied mass of food-stuffs, and also on the shelter secured 
by the Hill of Howth, which acts as a gigantic break-water 
against the fury of wind and wave. The sand-dunes, as they 
face Dollymount, are fringed with pasture-land, which, as it 
meets the sand, becomes damp and broken up into small 
grassy knolls, and intersected with gullies into which the tide 
flows. On these clumps many wading-birds congregate during 

* Read at Section D., British Association, Dublin Meeting, September 
2nd to 9th, 1908. An abstract of this paper will appear in the Official 
Report of the British Association, 1908. 

1909 February i. 

50 Patten : Migratory Movements of certain Shore-Birds. 

high water. The beach inside the sand-dunes, i.e., between the 
sand-hills and the road at Dollymount is composed of soft 
estuarine mud, thickly top-dressed with slimy green seaweed, 
and forms a feeding-ground for numbers of ' waders ' On the 
far side of the sand-hills, a charming beach presents itself, 
where the sands, covered at full tide by the open sea, are ribbed 
and firm. Some shore-birds, notably the Sanderling, prefer 
this ground. Here, then, it is seen that within the confines of 
one area, which, when the tide is out, measures roughly three- 
miles in length by one in breadth, an excellent natural habitat 
is afforded. 

Having already incorporated a considerable amount of 
information in my work on ' The Aquatic Birds of Great Britain 
and Ireland,' published at the end of the year 1906, it seems 
unnecessary to overload this paper with statistics ; indeed, 
to avoid going over old ground, I purpose dealing only with a 
small number of species, which may be regarded of special 
interest, because of the increased information which I have been 
able to secure regarding their movements. 

To give one an idea of the number of different kinds of 
Limicoline birds alone which are included in the avi-fauna of 
the North Bull, I here append a complete list, all of which I 
have observed : — 

Great Plover (Oedicnemus scolopax) 
Ringed Plover [Aegialitis hiaticola) 
Golden Plover [Charadrius 

Grey Plover {Squatarola helvetica) 

Purple Sandpiper {Trtnga striata) 
Knot {Triiiga canutus) 
Sanderling [Calidris'jirenaria) * 
Ruff {Machetes pugnax) 

Lapwing IVanellus vulgaris) I Common Sandpiper [Totanus 

Common Redshank {Totanus 


Turnstone {StrepsHas interpres)* 
Oyster-catcher {Hcematopus 

Avocet {Recurvirostra avocetta) 
Grey Phalarope {Phalaropus 

Jack Snipe {Gallinago gallinula) 
Common Snipe {Gallinago coelestis) 
Dunlin {Tringa alpina) 
Little Stint {Tringa minuta)* 
Curlew-Sandpiper {Tringa subar- 

Only those species to which an asterisk is suffixed will be 

dealt with here. 
— I do not intend to touch upon Web-footed birds in this 
■gg^per, but may say in passing, that of the orders Anseres and 

GavicB, large numbers of species are to be found in this vicinity. 


Spotted Redshank {Totanu'i fuscus) 
Greenshank {Tetanus canescens) 
Bar-tailed Godwit {Limosa lap- 

Black-tailed Godwit {Limosa 

Curlew {Numenius arquata) 
Whimbrel {Numenius phoeopus) 

Patten : Migratory Movements of certain Shore-Birds. 5 1 

■Grey Plover [Squaterola helvetica). 

Rather too much emphasis is laid on the fact that the Grey 
Plover is a noisy shore-bird, so much so, indeed, that frequently 
its presence is not sought in early autumn because its whistle 
is not heard. I believe that the adult birds, which arrive about 
the middle of October and later, are much more noisy than the 
immature birds. I have often watched, and crept quite close 
to immature Grey Plovers, which, on becoming aware of 
my near presence, flew away without a sound. The very 
tame immature birds which are occasionally met with are, as a 
rule, silent. From repeated observations I am of the opinion 
that flocks continue to arrive and move southward during 
September and early October, and that the numbers, chiefly 
late comers, which remain during the winter, are proportionately 
small. With regard to the apparent scarcity of the bird as a 
vernal migrant, I am not satisfied. Considering that it is on the 
whole more abundant during autumn on the east side of Ireland 
than on the west, one would expect to meet it on its return 
journey in greater numbers on the Dubin coast than have 
hitherto been recorded. That it does visit the Irish coast in 
■considerable numbers in Spring is evident from Mr. Robert 
Warren's data (Ussher and Warren's ' Birds of Ireland,' pp. 
256-257). The few birds which may be seen in late summer 
(August) in apparent nuptial or transitional plumage, are 
probably those which, not breeding, remained on our shores 
after their companions had travelled northward. 

Turnstone [Strepsilas interpres). 

I am now satisfied that the Turnstone, apparently in adult 
plumage is to be found regularly throughout the year along the 
Dublin coast. Nevertheless, though I have examined an 
adult female (procured on July i8th, 1900, by the late Mr. E. 
Williams) containing ripe ova, the inference can hardly be 
made that the bird was breeding in the locality. For it was 
without a mate, nor indeed have I as yet discovered this species 
in distinct pairs, and showing the signs of anxiety which one 
might expect if the nesting-site was being approached. How- 
ever, from recent data afforded regarding its appearance in adult- 
like plumage at the height of the breeding season, it is not 
altogether improbable that we may yet claim this species as 
indigenous rather than merely migratory. From July to 
October this bird is plentiful on the North Bull, gathering in 
flocks of twenty to forty, which somewhat diminish in number 

1909 February i. 

52 Patieii : Migratory Movements of certain Shore- Birds. 

in winter, due partly to scattering, and partly to the migration 
of some of the birds southward. It still continues plentiful 
as a vernal migrant during May and June. 

Little Stint [Tringa minuta). 

Though I have regarded the Little Stint as an irregular 
autumnal visitor to the flats of Dublin Bay, not appearing 
during certain years (' Irish Naturalist,' 1898, p. 234, and 
ihid. i8gg, p. 254), I have more recently felt inclined to modify 
somewhat this statement, and look upon the species as probably 
occurring every year in the locality in question. This is the 
view which I have ventured to give in my ' Aquatic Birds,' 
p. 295, regarding its appearance on the coast of Ireland gener- 
ally, ' but in varying and limited numbers.' I must admit that 
I have not seen it for some seasons past, but then my recent 
visits have been of very brief duration, and I have not had 
opportunities as in former years of making almost daily visits 
during September, the month in which this species usually 
appears on the Dublin coast. 

Granting, however, that one had these opportunities, it is 
an easy matter to overlook this bird, for its visits are only 
passing ; indeed, I believe it is a matter of its being here to-day 
and gone to-morrow in most instances, so that it is obvious how 
many birds are altogether missed. Further, while it may con- 
sort with large flocks of Dunlins and other shore-birds on the 
open strand, yet, in my experience, it is also very partial to 
little grass patches and the edges of pools, where it occurs 
singly or in pairs. This, coupled with its great tameness when 
away from the company of more wary birds, gives the Merlin 
a greater chance of picking it up ; indeed, the frequency with 
which this Falcon surprises and captures small shore-birds 
on the grass patches of the North Bull is remarkable ; a greater 
proportion of birds losing their lives in this way, than when 
they are pursued in flocks over the open slob-land. Indeed,, 
the presence of a flock seems to thwart the falcon, as may be 
seen by the time taken to single out the victim and capture it. 
And thirdly, numbers of shore-shooters frequent the North Bull 
during September, when the migrants are tame, and it is quite 
likely that Little Stints are shot occasionally which, with a bag 
full of Dunlins, are included as Sand-larks for to-morrow's pie. 

Regarding the occurrences of this bird during the past two 
seasons, I have been informed that it has been seen, but no 
specimens were secured. 

[To be continued). 




Rev. W. C. HEY, M.A. 

Of the seven British species of Vespa, six occur in Yorkshire. 
It has often been stated that the Hornet {V. crahro) is a York- 
shire insect, but this mistake is probably due to the fact that 
the country people generally call the Tree-wasps, Hornets.* 
Of the six Yorkshire species of Vespa, five are more or less 
common at West Ayton, but I have failed so far to detect 
V. austriaca, an inquiline species, parasitic on V. rufa. 

Vespa vulgaris L. 

The commonest wasp, which so often enters our houses in 
search of sweets. The queens were singularly abundant in 
April 1908, and often came to an old summer-house in my 
garden to gnaw wood for their nests. 

Vespa germanica Fab. 

This wasp also often enters houses, and is very common. 
The queens, of which I observed an extraordinary quantity at 
West Ayton during the spring of igo8, are very large and 
handsome insects, and it is a beautiful and interesting sight to 
watch them performing their toilet in April sunshine. The most 
trustworthy distinction between V. vulgaris and V. germanica 
is in the shape of the yellow lines upon the thorax. In vul- 
garis, these lines are parallel-sided, in germanica, they have a 
decided tendency to flow outwards. The black markings on 
the clypeus and abdomen have been made too much of as 
specific distinctions. 

Vespa rufa L., sometimes called the ' Anchor-faced ' wasp. 

This wasp is fond of flowers, and was especially attached to 
species of Centaurea in my garden. It also affected Coioneaster, 
Symphoriocarpus , and Pyvus japonica. 

Vespa sylvestris Scop. 

This species and V. norvegica are structurally very distinct 
from the three former species, as they possess a long cheek 
between the eye and the mandible. V. sylvestris seldom comes 
near houses. Its favourite plant is the Figwort. In the 
' carrs ' below Ayton is a ditch, thickly bordered with Figwort, 
and here this wasp abounded. In September, the male 

* Vespa crabro, Mr. W. D. Roebuck says (Victoria History of Yorkshire, 
vol. i., p. 217), has undoubtedly occurred in Yorkshire at York, near Wake- 
field, and at Beverley. — G.T.P. 

igog February i. 

54 Field Notes. 

occurred on the same plant in Forge Valley. The clear yellow 
face of this species easily distinguishes it from V . norvegica, 
which is strongly and peculiarly marked with black on the 

Vespa norvegica Fab. 

This wasp appears to be earlier than the other species. 
I have several times seen the queens abroad in my garden on 
sunny days in January. Last July the males were already 
abroad in the flowers of Cow-parsnips near Hutton Buscel 
Moor. I have not met with the males of any other species 
before September. This wasp is particularly fond of the 
flowers of the snowberry, and occurred on them in great num-* 
bers in the garden of a farmhouse on Seamer Moor. The 
globular nests of this species have several times been formed in my 
garden, in a gooseberry bush, in a pear tree, and under a seat. 

My quest after the smaller wasps has not been very suc- 
cessful, as I can only record two species of Odynerus. 

Odynerus parietum L. 

On flowers of Centaur ea and Epilohiiim in my garden^ 


Also in my garden about pear trees and snowberry, less 

White Starling at Ripiey. — ^An interesting- variety of the 
Starlings was obtained at Ripley in April last. The plumag-e 
is quite white, the leg's and bill light stone colour, and the eyes 
black. — R. Fortune. 

Red Throated Diver at Grassington.— In December last 
a fine specimen of this species was obtained at Grassington, 
near Skipton, on the River Wharfe. It measured 2 ft. 2 in. in 
length, beak 2^ in., width (expanse of wing) 3 ft. 3 in., tarsus 
3 In., weight 3 lbs. 9 oz. — Walter Wilson, Skipton-in-Craven,, 
January 4th, 1909. 

Fork Tailed Petrel near Doncaster. — I learn from Mr. W- 
E. Cox, of Sandall Grange, Doncaster, that a Fork Tailed Petrel 
was picked up on the high road by one of his men on Oct. 9th. 
It was kept alive for several days, being fed on fish and bread, 
the latter a very unsuitable food. It is interesting to have this 
record coming so close to the Barnsley one.— R. Fortune. 





Messrs. Clarke and Roebuck, in their ' Vertebrate Fauna of 
Yorkshire,' say that prior to 1881, the Long-tailed Titmouse 
was a resident, generally distributed and fairly common, most 
frequently seen in autumn and winter.' Mr. T. H. Nelson, in 
' The Birds of Yorkshire,' 1907, says exactly the same thing, 
but adds — ' during the breeding season it is rather locally 
distributed.' Mr. Nelson also gives the first reference to the 
bird in the county from North Bierley, Bradford ; when, in 
the year 1713, Dr. Richardson described as that of the Gold- 
c^cst, a nest which was referable to the species under discussion. 
This is interesting because it refers to part of the district to 
which these notes chiefly apply, viz., the drainage area of the 
river Aire above Leeds, and the drainage area of the river 
Wharfe above Otley. Twenty years ago the Long-tailed 
Titmouse bred regularly in small numbers in both these areas. 
In 1889 I found nests both in upper Airedale and in upper 
Wharfedale, and it probably nested there until a few years 
later. It was during the year 1895 that it first occurred to 
me that this species appeared to be absent from the district 
during the breeding season ; but reflection and discussion 
revealed the fact that neither birds nor nests had been noticed 
during the previous two or three seasons. 

It is much easier to note the advent than the exit of a 
rather uncommon small bird ; because in the latter case, 
one's attention and curiosity is at once aroused, but continual 
observations have to be made over a considerable area before 
it is possible to state definitely that the species has ceased to 
occur in the district. However, from that time forward, a 
better look-out was kept, with the result that not a single nest 
is known to have been found since then. 

On May 17th, of 1907, however, two adult birds were seen 
in Bolton Woods, but they were not seen again, although the 
spot was carefully searched just after by Mr. Roose. In the 
same year, two birds with a young family were noticed in the 
Skipton Castle Woods, by Mr. W. Wilson, where they were 

* Read at a recent meeting- of the Vertebrate Section of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists" Union. 

1909 February i. 

56 Booth : Lovg-tailed Titmouse in the West Riding. 

presumed to have bred,, but no signs of a nest could be dis- 
covered. So far as I am able to ascertain, these two reports 
are the only occurrences in the breeding season during at least 
the last fifteen years, notwithstanding the fact that a few years 
before the bird had nested annually in these districts. Neither 
has it favoured us much more with its presence during the 
autumn and winter. From the time of its ceasing to breed 
with us, its visits in the colder seasons have gradually become 
less frequent ; until, at present, the Long-tailed Titmouse has 
almost ceased to visit us, and can be looked upon as a very 
uncommon bird in upper Airedale and in upper Wharfedale at 
any time of the year. It is difficult to assign any reason for 
this local change of habits and haunts, because in the neighbour- 
ing districts these birds are constant and not really uncommon. 
In the south of the Riding (south of Wakefield), they bref.d 
annually. In the north of the Riding they occur, and in April 
1906, I was extremely surprised to see them so common near 
Sedbergh, where we found three of their nests in less than two 
hundred yards of one hedgerow. Mr. Fortune tells me that 
they still nest yearly in the Harrogate district, but he thinks 
in slightly decreasing numbers. I am informed that they are 
not uncommon to the east of Leeds. 

The reasons for such important, though local changes in 
the habits and distribution of a species during recent years, 
is worthy of investigation. My object in recording these facts 
is that this species may be kept under more careful observation 
all over the West Riding, or better still, all over the county ; 
the notes compared, and the results analysed. It is only 
by such general and systematic observations that the true 
local status of any species can be obtained. I am confident that 
if Yorkshire ornithologists will make special notes of their 
observations of the different species, and compare them ; 
that the distribution of the vertebrate fauna of our county will 
be worked out much more thoroughly than that of any other 

P.S. — Since the above paper was read, Mr. Thomas Roose, 
of Bolton Abbey, informs me that the last nest to be found 
' was in May 1895, in a hazel bush, nine feet from the ground, 
and not far from the old wooden bridge .in Bolton Woods.' 
Thus a single nest has occurred a little more recently than is 
stated in the above notes. Mr. Roose also puts the following 
significant question, which can scarcely be taken as the sole 


Reviews and Book Notices. 57 

cause, seeing that the same fact apphes to the neighbouring 
districts, where the Long-tailed Titmouse still nests : — ' Can 
these Long-tailed Tits have been driven from upper Wharfedale 
by the overwhelming numbers of the other members of the Tit 
family ? This is the only apparent reason for their disappearance 
that occurs to my mind, seeing that the others have increased 
so much.' .^^ 

The New Book of Animals. New and Revised Edition, by Horace 
Q. Qroser. London : Andrew Melrose. 326 pp., 6/- net. 

This is a large book, and printed in good, bold type, and is very cheap 
at 6/-. It deals chiefly with the Kangaroo, Buffalo, Lion, Tiger, Elephant, 
Rhinoceros, Gorilla, and other animals of particular interest to boys and 
girls, for whom it would make an excellent gift-book. The text is not too 
technical, and the illustrations are both numerous and good. 

The Country Home. Vol. L, 1908. Constable &Co., 380 pp., 5/- net. 

This attractive volume contains the first six monthly parts of ' The 
Country Home,' already referred to in these pages, and in its present form, 
is exceedingly useful as a present. It contains numerous well-illustrated 
articles, those having natural history inclinations, being ' The Wild Cat,' 
' The Flowers of Spring,' ' Galls and Gall Flies,' ' Nesting Boxes and Bird 
Tables,' ' The Stoat,' ' Snails,' etc. 

The Moths of the British Isles. Second Series, by Richard 
South, F.E.S. (Wayside and Woodland Series). F. Warne & Co., 1908. 
Price 7/6. 

We hail with pleasure the appearance of this volume, which, called 
' Second Series,' is, in reality, the second and concluding volume of the 
' Moths of the British Isles, or the third volume on the British Macro- 
Lepidoptera, the first one dealing with the Butterflies alone. As it is 
got up in the same way, and in precisely the same form as was the previous 
volume on the ' Moths,' little need be said in addition to what we wrote 
in the notice on it, which appeared in the ' Naturalist ' of March 1908, 
p. 112; but the eiilogium we passed on that volume can also be given to this. 
The volume before us treats of the remaining portion of the Noctuse, 
followed by all the Geometra;, and finishing with the smaller groups of 
the ' Burnets,' ' Clearwings,' ' Swifts,' etc. Its ninety-six coloured plates 
contain natural size figures of 873 moths, and in addition there are 
sixty-three plates in black-and-white, containing 335 figures, chiefly of 
the eggs, larvae, and pupae. The plates in the two volumes on the ' Moths ' 
contain the extraordinary number of 1208 figures, besides illustrations in 
the text pages. The black-and-white figures seem to be excellent through- 
out, and with a few exceptions, the coloured ones are equally good, 
though the ' greens ' in the ' Emerald ' moths are mostly too pale, and not 
sufficiently bright. The author, too, has evidently figured a specimen of a 
pale, but still brown-marked form of Cidaria sufumata as the ab. porrittii, 
whereas the types from which Robson described and named the variety 
were practically black and white only, and quite unlike this figure, though, 
no doubt, the extreme limit of the form illustrated. There are also one 
or two ' slips ' in the letterpress, as on page 114, where Skipton Common 
is given as a locality for Acidalia strammata, instead of Skipwith Common. 
This is unfortunate, as we scarcely expect to see straminata at Skipton. 
Elsewhere in the volume, too, Skipwith is printed as Skipworth ; and 
there is clearly something wrong in the second paragraph on Catocala 
fraxini at page 79. But altogether, errors are remarkably few, and the 
three daintily elegant volumes together now form a cheap but reliable 
work, by means of which any young beginner ought to make progress in 
the study of the macro-lepidoptera far more rapidly than could have been 
done, even but a few years ago. G. T. P. 

1909 February i 


3u fIDemoriam. 


By the death of Mr. Joseph Lomas in a railway accident at 
El Uchain, in Algeria, on December 17th, igo8, geology has 

j^/^^l/UVV ^^-^-^-^-^^^^/T^f:^ 

lost one of its most energetic workers, and one of the most 
brilliant amongst the younger of its votaries. 


In Memoriam — Joseph Lomas. 59 

Mr. Lomas commenced his scientific career as a student at 
the Normal School of Science, and on his attainment to the 
Associateship of that Institution, removed to Liverpool, 
where he was appointed to the post of Lecturer in Science by 
the Liverpool School Board. 

Though primarily a geologist, Lomas by no means confined 
his attention to the study of the rocks. His early training 
under Huxley had given him a love for zoology, and in Liver- 
pool, under the stimulating influence of Professor Herdman, 
to which Liverpool owes so much, he did good work on the 
Marine Polyzoa of the district. 

It was during one of the dredging excursions, organised by 
Professor Herdman, for the investigation of the Fauna and 
Flora of Liverpool Bay, that the writer first became intimately 
acquainted with Mr. Lomas, and it was Lomas 's influence that 
induced him to take up science as a profession. 

About the time that he was engaged on the study of 
the polyzoa, he was also doing valuable work on the glacial 
deposits of the Liverpool district, at a time when the phenomena 
of the Pleistocene period were the subject of much discussion, 
and on the deposits forming on the floor of the Irish Sea, the 
investigation of the latter being the special duty allotted to 
him during the expeditions of the Liverpool Marine Biology 

Soon after his arrival in Liverpool, Lomas joined the ranks 
of the Liverpool Geological Society. He rapidly gained the 
confidence of the older members, and in 1887 was elected a 
member of the Council, and filled the presidential chair from 
1896 to 1898. 

At the end of the present year the Society will celebrate 
the fiftieth year of its existence, and Lomas had been unani- 
mously chosen as the member best fitted to act as President on 
that occasion. 

For many years the investigation of the Triassic rocks, on 
which the City of Liverpool stands, has occupied the members 
of the Society, and in this work Lomas has of late taken an 
active part. It was largely due to him that the Committee 
of the British Association for the ' Investigation of the Fauna 
and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles " was formed, and 
at the time of his death he was on his way to investigate the 
desert phenomena in the neighbourhood of the Biskra Oasis, 
under a grant from the Association. 

1909 February i. 

6o Field Notes. 

For a number of years he acted as one of the Secretaries 
of the Geological Section of the Association, and as Recorder 
since the year 1907. 

Mr. Lomas was a Fellow of the Geological Society, and in 
1897 was awarded the Lyell Fund ; a member of the Geologists' 
Association, and of the Yorkshire Geological Society. 

By his untimely death, not only has Geology lost an ener- 
getic and brilhant worker, but many will feel with the writer, 
that they have lost a friend whose cheerful good nature and 
unfailing courtesy rendered him dear to all who had the privilege 
of his acquaintance. 

Arthur R. Dwerryhouse. 



Shells in British Barrows. — Referring to my notes in 
' The Naturalist ' for December, Mr. A. S. Kennard, F.G.S., has 
written to me expressing surprise that Helicella cantiana is 
found among the other shells from Birdsall Brow. He says : — 
' We have always looked upon it as a modern [i.e., Roman or 
post Roman) introduction. I fancy that it must be an acci- 
dental occurrence. It is certainly always absent from pre- 
Roman beds.' The presence of this later species in a neigh- 
bouring barrow (67 Birdsall Brow) to that (65 Birdsall Brow), 
in which Caecilianella acicula is found, further confirms the 
view that these shells may have got into the barrows in other 
ways, at a later date than the interment, and that they may 
not be contemporaneous with the human remains. I do not 
wish to press this unduly, but think due weight should be 
given to their presence in coming to a definite conclusion on 
the point of the age of the shells in the barrows. — E. P. 
Blackburn, Gloucester. 

Mollusca at Clapham.— The Conchological Section of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Clapham in September, was 
represented by the undersigned, Attention was paid to a 
portion of the district not hitherto investigated, that lying 
eastwards of Clapham and about Austwick. Twenty-one 
species were noted, as follows : — 

Natural st. 

Reviews and Book Notices. 6i 

Avion ater 

A. subfuscHs 

A. circumscriptus 

A. hortensis 

A. intermedius 

A griolimax agrestis 

Hyaiinia cellaria 

H. alliaria 

H. helvslica 

H. cryst.iUina 

H. pura 

Pyramidula rupestris 

P. rotund at a 
Hygromia graniilata 
H. hispida 
H. rufescens 
Vallonia pulchella 
Helicigona arbiistorum 
Cochlicopa lubvica 
Pupa cylindracea 
Clausilia bidentata 
C. cravenensis. 

making altogether six species of slugs, and sixteen of land- 
shells ; no fluviatile species were noted. The Clausilia cra- 
venensis were brought by the geologists from the higher land, 
and Mr. R. Fowler Jones was the finder of Arion ater and A, 
subfuscus. Of Agriolimax agrestis, in addition to the type 
and var. reticulata, which abounded, one example was found of 
var. lilacina. — W. Denison Roebuck, Leeds. 


Stanford's Geological Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland (with 

plates of characteristic fossils) by Horace B. Woodward, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Second edition. 190 pp. and 50 coloured geolog-ical maps and plates of 
fossils. 12/6 net. 

In this compact little volume Mr. H. B. Woodward has succeeded in 
compressing an excellent summay of the geology of the British Isles. There 
is an admirable introduction referring to the general geological structure 
of the Islands, an account of the igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic 
rocks, a chapter on the mineral products, detailed descriptions of the 
geology of the various counties, descriptions of the features observable 
along the principal lines of railway, and an account of the geological 
structure of Ireland. There are also the clearly-coloured maps (with 
key), and tables of characteristic fossils. 

In the present edition Mr. Woodward has included much relating to 
Ireland ; the maps have been brought up to date ; and in other ways the 
work has been made as useful as possible for its size. Mr. Woodward's 
name on the cover is quite a sufficient guarantee for the general accuracy 
and excellence of the publication. The amateur geologist will be par- 
ticularly pleased with the clearness of the maps, and also with the fact that 
the principal collecting grounds are indicated. 

Genesis of Metallic Ores and of the Rocks which enclose them, 
by Brenton Symons. London ; ' The Mining: Journal.' 1908. xxxiii. + 

494 PP- 

In this work the author has been instigated by the desire to afford to 
young students a popularly written book, as devoid of technical expressions 
as the nature of the subject will permit. The author by no means confines 
himself to his favourite Cornwall, nor to the British Isles, but draws, 
illustrations and examples from every district of the globe. The use of 
the word " geologic ' amongst others, indicates the influence of America 
and American authors upon him. He also has his portrait as frontispiece,, 
which is also usually a bad sign, no matter how good looking the author may 
be. The volume is divided into three ' books ' : — ( i ) Sedimentation of Rocks 
and Ores ; (2) Metamorphism of Strata ; and (3) Segregation of Metallic 

1909 February i. 


Reviews and Book Notices. 

Ores in Veins. These are further sub-divided into chapters, and each 
subject seems to be very exhaustively and thoroughly dealt with. There 
are also 154 illustrations (without the portrait), which help to make his 
points clearer. A perusal of the book leaves one with the impression 
that what Mr. Symons does not know about ores and veins and lodes 
and vadose solutions, and the ' oneness ' of rocks is not worth knowing. 
The book would have been much improved in appearance if some less 
funereal type had been used for numbering of the pages, and if a much 
greater margin had been allowed. But then perhaps the author would 
not have been able to say : — 

' Go little book, from this my solitude ! 

I cast thee on the waters — go thy ways ; 
And if, as I believe, thy vein is good. 

The world will find thee after many days.' 

The Geology of Coal and CoaUMining, by Walcot Gibson, D.Sc, 

F.G.S. London : Edward Arnold. 341 pp., 7/6 net. 

This volume is the first of a series of works on economic geology by 
experienced geologists ; and if the rest in any way approaches the present 
one in the excellence of its matter, the clearness of its style, and the wealth 
of its illustrations, it will indeed be a magnificent series. Dr. Gibson's 
extensive experience in the British and South African Coalfields enables 
him to speak first-hand on the various questions discussed ; consequently 
the volume has a much greater proportion of original matter than would 
•otherwise have been the case. After an introductory chapter, the author 
deals in detail with the varieties of coal, the chemical and physical char- 
acters ; coal as a rock, its formation and origin, distribution ; fossils as 
zonal indices, studie-^ of ixjio^cd and concealed coalfields, etc. He then 

Olossopteris browniana Brongt. (Reduced). 

deals with the principal coalfields of Britain, and next refers at some length 
to the coalfields of various parts of the world. Perhaps one of the most 
important, as well as the most interesting parts of the book is that deahng 
with the value of fossils as zonal indices. Too much stress cannot possibly 
be attached to this side of the subject. Dr. Gibson's field-work enables 
him to speak with more than usual emphasis as to the value of zonal 
fossils and his remarks on this subject should be read, marked, learned, 
and inwardly digested by every geologist, mining engineer, as well as by 
the increasingly large number of monied gentry who have an interest 
in coal which is other than scientific. This chapter is profusely illustrated 
by photographs, etc., of typical fossils. There is also a very good index. 
The publishers kindly enable us to reproduce one of the illustrations 


Reviews and Book Notices. 63 

An Introduction to Geology, by W. B. Scott, Ph.D., LL.D. New 

York : The MacMillan Company. 816 pp., 2nd edition, 22/- net. 

This excellent volume is intended to serve the same purpose in America 
that Sir Archibald Geikie's well-known ' Class-book ' does in this country, 
and there can be little doubt that Dr. Scott has rendered a great service 
to American geology in producing the book. That it is appreciated is 
shewn from the comparatively short time that has elapsed between the 
publication of the first and second editions. In the interval, the author 
has had the advantage of many suggestions, of a good proportion of which 
he has availed himself. A perusal of the pages, and of the beautiful 
series of illustrations, almost makes an English geologist envious of his 
American brothers in their wealth of geological phenomena on a grand 
scale. The chapters on ' The Atmosphere,' ' Running Water,' ' Snow and 
Ice,' ' Lakes,' etc., are particularly striking from the admirable illustra- 
tions which are given, many of which are such as could only have been 
taken from America. The chapters devoted to the later geological deposits 
and their extraordinary contents are illustrated in a style that would 
make an English writer hesitate. The volume has been prepared in an 
unusually substantial and careful manner, and will doubtless long be the 
book of its kind across the water. To English geologists it will prove of 
great worth for purposes of comparison. 

Scientific Confirmations of Old Testament History, by G. 
Frederick Wright, D.D., LL.D., etc. Bibliotheca Sacra Co., Oberlin. 
Ohio, U.S.A. 422 pp., $2 net. 

Prof. Wright's reputation as the leader of the school of glacialists in 
America ; his brilliant books on ' The Ice Age in North America,' ' Man 
and the Glacial Period,' ' Greenland Ice Fields,' etc. ; and his gift as a 
lecturer — a gift appreciated by many English geologists who have heard 
him — demand that any production from his pen should receive the careful 
consideration of the scientific world. In the present book, which has 
now been published some little time. Prof. Wright hopes to do ' something 
to re-establish confidence in the historical statements of the Old Testament, 
and, at the same time, of so unfolding the marvellous geological events of the 
post-Tertiary period, as to incite the general reader to a closer study of its 
significant andoverwhelmingfacts, which invite investigation on every hand.' 

Prof. Wright has visited the districts he describes, and whilst much 
of the matter dealt with in the volume does not come within the scope of 
this journal, we cannot but admire the ingenious way in which many of 
the extraordinary occurrences recorded in the Bible are here explained. 
The geologist will find much in the volume to interest him — particularly 
that part relating to the author' s investigation of the loess of Northern 
China, a deposit which he carefully examined and here describes in detail. 
With regard to the ' Evidences of a Deluge in Europe,' we notice that 
Prof. Wright is a disciple of the late Prof. Prestwich. He accepts Prest- 
wich's view of the origin of the rubble drift, and shelters himself behind 
Prestwich 's great reputation ; though at the same time he has been over 
much of the ground described by that author. There can, of course, be 
no question of the great floods covering the northern hemisphere at the 
close of the glacial period, and there is also evidence of a great destruction 
of animal species, whose remains are found with palaeolithic man. Con- 
sequently the arguments brought forward by Prof. Wright should receive 
every consideration in dealing with this matter. In perusing this book, 
we naturally were anxious to see how far the well-known works of Sir 
Henry H. Howorth had influenced our author. Oddly enough, we can 
only find one reference to that writer, as follows : — ' No doubt the greater 
part of the arguments for the Flood, drawn from the loess by Sir Henry 
Howorth and others, are explained by fuller knowledge of the irregularities 
produced by the slowly-melting ice-sheet.' We don't quite know whether 
Sir Henry would be altogether pleased with this interpretation of his 
three big books ! 

1909 February i. 



A ' fossilised mushroom ' has been presented to the Beverley Museum. 

We notice the Editor of a paper complains that for several days he 
could not put his hat on without pain ! 

We notice a recent writer on Yorkshire ornithology states that the 
Stone Curlew ' ran on all fours,' with its large relative, the Great Bustard. 

The Yorkshire Wild Birds' and Eggs' Protection Committee begs to 
acknowledge the receipt of two guineas from the Royal Society for the 
Protection of Birds. 

A list of Lincolnshire heronries appears in ' The Zoologist ' for December. 
In the same journal is figured a nest of the Short-eared Owl, with eight eggs ; 
'the first ever recorded for Notts.' 

Mr. W. E. Clarke contributes some notes on the Occurrence of Evers- 
mann's Warbler at Fair Isle ; an addition to the British Fauna, to the 
' Annals of Scottish Natural History ' for January. 

The fine collection of Anglo-Saxon jewellery formed by the late Sir 
John Evans, and bequeathed to his son, has been presented by 
Dr. A. J. Evans to the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. 

A second edition of the well-known ' Borough ' Guide to Hull has been 
called for (A. Brown & Sons, 2d.). It is prepared by Mr. T. Sheppard, 
and contains many improvements upon the previous edition of two years 

In describing the furs exposed for sale in a well-known emporium, the 
' Western Mail ' says ; — ' a really interesting study in natural history is 
afforded by the tigers, leopards, zebras, and monkeys, not to mention 
smaller animals, such as the minx.' 

We regret to announce the decease of William Salkeld, on the 29th 
October, at Christchurch, N.Z., at the ripe age of seventy-six. He was a 
native of Cumberland, as his name would seem to indicate ; taxidermist 
by trade, and a skilled and experienced ornithologist. 

Nature Study is evidently making headway, judging from the following 
answers selected from some boys' recent examination papers : — ' Africa 
is a very dark place, nearly covered with trees and animals ' ; ' To kill 
a butterfly you pinch its borax ' ; ' The bloodvessels are the veins, arteries, 
and artilleries ' ; ' A ruminating animal is one that chews its cubs ' ; ' The 
masculine of vixen is vicar.' 

The December ' Entomologists' Record ' has one note that can be 
appreciated by a non-entomologist. An old gentleman, observing a boy's 
very crude attempts at catching moths, advised him to go to the library 
and take out an elementary book on entomology, which would enable him 
to be more successful. A little while after, on seeing the same boy still 
persuing his old methods, he enquired why he had not read a book on the 
subject. ' I did,' was the unexpected reply ; ' but it did not help me at 
all.'(j!i^The book he had read proved to be ' Advice to young moth-ers ! ' 

Mr. W. E. L. Wattam sends the following Errata in the Index of ' The 
Naturalist ' for 1908. The Fungi records Coprinus cordisporus Gibbs., 
n. sp., and Humana globosa-pulvinata, n. sp., C. Crossland, indexed under 
' Species and Varieties New to Britain,' should have appeared under 
' Species and Varieties New to Science.' All the records of Arachnida, 
Flowering Plants, Fungi, and Mosses and Hepatics indexed under '|Species 
and Varieties New to Science,' should have appeared under ' Species and 
Varieties New to Britain.' All these records are, however, properly indexed 
under their respective County sub-headings. ' The record Enicmus 
fungicola near the end of " Fungi, Yorks," should come under " Coleoptera, 




MARCH 1909. 

No. 626 

(Na. 404 of eurrtnt fritt} 




T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museum, Hull; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D, .F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

Contents : — 


Notes and Comments (Illustrated) :— Large Larch Saw-fly in the Lake District ; A 
Poisonous Fungus; The Food of Birds, A Thousand Chester Records ; New Botanical 
Finds ; New Spiders ; Derbyshire Glaciers, A Geographical Observation, Glaciers and 
Place-Nanies ; The National Trust ; How to tell the Birds from the Flowers — The Crow, 
The Crocus ; Animal Analogues — The Bee, the Beet, The Beetle, Ants and Pheasants ... G5-70 

Notes on Bats (Illustrated^— .4 rZ/jur Whitaker 71-77 

Paucity of Redwings in the West RiA\ng—H arry B. Booth, M.B.O.U 78-79 

Euplirasias of North=east Yorkshire—/. G. Baker, F.R.S 19 

The Hornet in Yorkshire— AVt. IK. C. ifo, 1/^ 80 

Fossil Plants from the Marske and Upleatham Quarries, Yorkshire— i^ut'. George J. 

Lane, F.G.S., and T. W. Saunders 81-82 

The Migratory Movements of certain Shore^Birds as observed on the Dublin Coast 

— C.J. Patten, M. A., M.D.,Sc.D 83-86 

Some British Earthmites (Illustrated)— C. F. George ... 87-88 

Two Ancient Burial Cairns on Brimham Moor, Yorkshire— A . Leslie Armstto7ig I'.. A. S.l. 89-92 

Some Lincolnshire Boulders— F. A/. Bi/i/on, F.G.S., 7'^L.S 93-9(> 

The Oxford British Plant List— G.C/fl/irffre £>)-«<:«, A/.^.,F./,.S 97-99 

Mditional Note— I'. Arnold Lees, M.R.C.S 99-100 

The Sycamore— P.O. Kcegan, LL.D 101-105 

Freshwater Rhizopods from the Sheffield District— James B. Brown, P>.Sc 105-108 

Beetles of Lancashire and Cheshire— F. G- Bnv/or^f, F.F.S. 108110 

Field Notes (Illustrated) lU-lU 

The Phytoplankton of the English Lake District (Illustrated;— II'i;!. West, F.L.S., and 

G. .S. West, M.A.,D.Sc.,F.L.S 115-152 

In Memoriam (illustrated)— Wilfred H. Hudleston, F.R.S, F.Q.S., etc.— 7 . S 123-12< 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Meetings ' ■.,. • 125-1'2(» 

Reviews and Book Notices 77, 80, 86, 9?,'0O, 100, 110, 11^, 124, 12G-127 

Northern News 79 88,124 

illustrations ^^^.^Mr^, lli 

Plates i., II., III., IV,, v., VI., VII., VIM. v'<Ci\9^^-''^ 

LONDON : [ p '\ 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue,^. C. 

And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. L. 


Zbc l^oii^sbire IRatuvalists' innion. 


Svo, Cloth. 292 pp. (a few copies only left), price 5/- 7tel. 
Contains, various reports, papers, and addresses on the Flowering Plants, Mosses, and Fungi of the county. 

Compute, 8vo, Cloth, with Coloured Map, published at One Guinea. Only a few copies left, 10/6 net. 

This, wliich forms the 2nd Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, is perhaps the most 
complete work of the kind ever issued for any district, including detailed and full records of 1044 Phanero- 
gams and Vascular Cryptogams, 11 Characeae, 348 Mosses, 108 Hepatics, 258 Lichens, 1009 Fungi, and 383 
Freshwater Algae, making a total of 3160 species. 

680 pp.. Coloured Geological, Lithotogical, &c. Maps, suitably Bound in Cloth. Price 15/- nei. 
NORTH YORKSHIRE: Studies of its Botany, Geolojrv, Climate, and Piiysical Geography. 

And a Chapter on the Mosses and Hepatics of the Riding, by Matthew B. Slater, F.L.S. This Volume 
forms the 3rd of the Botanical Series. 

396 pp.. Complete, 8vo., Cloth. Price 10/6 net. 


This is the 4th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, and contains a complete annotated list 
■of all the known F'ungi of the county, comprising 2026 species. 

Complete, Svo, Cloth. Price 6- post free. 

This work, which forms the 5th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, enumerates 1044 » 
species, with full details of localities and numerous critical remarks on their afiiuities and distribution. i 

Complete, Svo, Cloth. Second Edition. Price 6.6 net. 


The First Edition of this work was published in 1883, and contained particulars of 1340 species of 

^lacro- and Micro-Lepidoptera known to inhabit the county of York. The Second Edition, with Supplement, 

contains much new information which has been accumulated by the author, including over 50 additionjil 

species, together with copious notes on variation (particularly melauisnij, \c. 

In pi ogress, issued in .-innual Parts, S;o. , 


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THE NATURALIST. A Monthly Illustrated Journal of Natural History for the North of England. Edited4 
by T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., Museum, Hull; and T. W. WOODHEAD, F.L.S., Technical College, 
Huddersfield ; with the assistance as referees in Special Departments of J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., 5 
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Poisonous Fungus {Amanita phalloides Fr.). 



larc;e larch saw-fly in the lake district. 
In the December ' Journal of the Board of Agriculture,' 
Mr. C. Gordon Hewitt, of the University of Manchester, con- 
tributes a paper on the ravages of the large Larch Saw-Fly 
{Nemaius crichsonii) in the Lake District. The life-history 
of the insect is dealt with, and the way in which it damages and 
eventually kills the larches is pointed out, and methods of 
prevention are given. A map of the Lake District accompanies 
the report, which indicates where the Saw-Fly is present, 
where the trees are rather badly attacked, and where the trees 
are very badly attacked, the last being in the vicinity of 
Bassenthwaite Lake, Buttermere and Thirlmere. 

a poisonous fungus. 
xH the November issue of the same Journal is an admirable 
illustration of Amanita phaUoides Fr., one of the most dangerous 
of our ]U)isonous fungi. This, by the kindness of the Controller 
of His Majesty's Stationery Department, and of the Secretary 
of the Board of Agriculture, we are kindly permitted to repro- 
duce for the benefit of our readers (Plate L). Many cases of 
poisoning by this fungus are on record, and in not a few instances, 
the results have proved fatal. The species usually occurs iu 
woods, and for this reason is not likely to be confounded with 
the common mushroom. The colour of the pileus varies from, 
greenish to nearly white, according to the shade. ' The presence 
of a ring and a volva, together with the persistently white gills 
and pale yellow or greenish pileus are the more striking features 
of this fungus, and are sufficient to brand any specimen possess- 
ing them with the strongest suspicion.' With this form, at any 
rate, we do not recommend a certain Yorkshire mycologist's 
method of ' first trying 'em on the missus ! ' 


The Board of Agriculture has recently issued an important 
Supplement to its Journal, which we should recommend our 
readers to obtain. It is entitled ' The Food of some British 
Birds,' and is a record of the twenty years' observations on the 
contents of the crops of various birds, by Mr. Robert Newstead, 
of Liverpool. The work consists of nearly one hundred pages, 
and can be obtained for 4cl., post free, from the Board of Agri- 
culture, 4 Whitehall Place, S.W. In view of the allegations 

1909 March i 

66 Notes and Cojnmenis. 

made against the birds by horticultural] sts and others, this 
record of jacts should be carefully perused. As the report 
points out, there are, on this subject, two points requiring 
special investigation. ' It is necessary to examine and tabulate 
the contents of the crops of certain birds in each month of the 
year, so that an opinion may be formed of the benelits or 
injuries caused by birds at all seasons. Secondly, it is necessary 
that some estimate should be made of the available food in 
the district where the birds were feeding when killed, in order 
that it may be decided whether the food discovered in the 
crops were selected from choice or from necessity.' 


In his introductory remarks, Mr. Newstead points out that 
the records of the materials upon which the memoir has been 
largely built are based upon 871 post-mortem examinations 
of the stomach contents, and the ' pellets ' or ' castings ' of 
128 species of British birds. In the case of the Starling and a 
few other birds, these have been supplemented by a number of 
definite observations made in the field, bringing the total to 
considerably over iioo records. From an entomological 
standpoint these are probably the most extensive yet com- 
piled in this country, and as such, form a valuable contribution 
to our knowledge of the food of British birds, especially in 
relation to agriculture and horticulture. The majority of the 
material examined was collected in Cheshire, and as the con- 
ditions there are probably similar to those obtaining in other 
areas, it can be safely said that the records demonstrate the 
important part played by the majority of our British birds in 
checking the increase and lessening the ravages of garden and 
field pests. 


Probably as an indirect result of the trio of new British 
plant lists, which were noticed at some length in our last volume, 
botanists in the north and centre of England appear to have had 
,a ' fillip.' Not only has Selinum carvifolia been turned up in 
Nottinghamshire, but a new British Broomrape {Orobanche 
procera Koch,) in West Yorks., and the larger chestnut-brown 
seeded Water-Blinks (with free flowers) in Merionethshire and 
elsewhere ; and Mr. Clement Reid led to this by detecting both 
sorts of seeds, shining and dull black, in the lacustrine leaf-bed 
deposits ! 


Nflfcs and Comments. 67 


The Rev. O. Pickard-Cambridge, M.A., F.R.S., has favoured 
us with a copy of his paper on ' New and Rare British Arach- 
nida, noted and observed in 1907,' reprinted from ' The Pro- 
ceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field 
■Club/ p. 161, 1908. This forms a valuable summary of the 
work accomplished among the Arachnida in Great Britain 
dm-ing 1907, and is illustrated by one plate. The species noted 
for the North of England are as follows : — Ischnothyreus velox 
Jackson (new to science), found in hot-houses at Alnwick, 
Northumberland, and at Chester ; Prosthesima lutetiana L. 
Koch, from Port Erin, Isle of Man ; Hahnia pusilla L. Koch. 
and Theridion impressum, L. Koch, from Delamere Forest, 
Cheshire ; Euryopis flavomaculata C. L. Koch, from Newton 
Moss, Penrith ; Robertus neglecttis Camb., from the Hull Dis- 
trict ; Leptyphantes angulata Camb., from Northumberland ; 
H Hair a pervicax J. E. Hull, from Whitfield, Northumberland ; 
Centyomenis concinnus Thorell, from Hull ; C. probabilis sp. 
n. and C. flrmus Camb., from Northumberland ; Maro minutus 
•Camb., from near Huddersfield ; Maro falconerii from Dela- 
mere Forest, Cheshire ; Erigone spinosa Camb., a species 
new to Britain, found on Saltend Common, near Hull (for a 
-description of this species see the ' Naturalist,' 1908, p. 378-9) ; 
E. longipalpis Sund., from Kirkby, Lancashire, and the Humber 
Shore, near Hull ; E. arctica from Cheshire ; Entelecara 
jacksonii Camb., from Delamere ; Araeonus crassiceps Westr., 
from Newton Moss, Penrith ; Panamomops biciispis from Hull. 
This report also contains some interesting information con- 
■cerning species introduced into greenhouses, etc., with foreign 


Under the suggestive title ' Observations of the Effects of 
■Glaciers in Derwent Valley, Derbyshire,' by E. M. Wrench, 
M.V.O., F.R.C.S., we were recently tempted to peruse a paper 
in the Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society. In it 
we found much about the relationship between geology and 
.geography, Classics in Education, Roman Roads, Fog, Kelts 
and Norsemen, but very little about ancient Derbyshire glaciers. 
Mr. Wrench, however, has found ' scoriated rocks,' which had 
been ' overlooked by Sir Archibald Geikie because his experi- 
-ence was confined to the effects of glacial action upon hard 

1909 March i. 

68 IVoies und Coniinenfs. 

rocks, the granites of Scotland, and the slates of Wales.' It is 
apparent that Sir Archibald should take a few lessons in field 
geology, under the guidance of Mr. E. M. Wrench, M.V.O.., 


Mr. Wrench has made yet another observation. He has 
traced the size and extent of the ' Derwent Glacier ' ; and 
located its marks. ' The flow of such a glacier in a valley of 
such easy gradient, would not be more than a few inches per 
day, or two hundred yards in a year, and if so, its progress would 
occupy several centuries, and confirm Lord Avebury's calculation 
of the duration of the Glacial Period lasting one hundred and 
fifty thousand years ! ' Doubtless Lord Avebury will be duly- 
grateful for this striking confirmation of his theory. 


Mr. Wrench writes ' Lastly [thank heaven !] many place 
names are derived from the glacial features of the soil, such as 
ro2'ewA//7'57 = Ragged wood, mentioned in Geological Survey as 
possibly glacial moraine; W^orws^^?' =Wormst all = Dragon's den.. 
The River Denvent, clear water, from the clean sweep of the 
shale from the valley.' Quite so ; and just in the same way 
the name Wrench must be of glacial origin, as it belongs to an 
•M.V.O., F.R.C.S.' 


We have recently received the thirteenth Annual Report 
of the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural' 
Beauty, and it is very pleasant reading. The land upon which 
the ' Gre}' Wethers ' occvir, near Marlborough, already referred 
to in these columns, has been secured to the nation for all 
time ; Ludshott Common (542 acres) and the adjoining wood- 
land (17^ acres) can be secured for £1800, and of this all but 
£150 has been subscribed. Other tracts of land are announced 
as gifts to the Trust, and are now preserved to the public for 
ever. In many instances these ' breathing-spaces ' have been 
snatched from the hands of the speculative builder. The 
Report also contains a length}^ list of lands, historic buildings 
and monuments under its charge, from which it is apparent 
that its excellent work will be much more appreciated in the 
future by the public than it is to-day. The Secretary, Mr.. 
Nigel Bond, of 25 Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W., will 


IVok^s (iiid (\)})i)ne7its. 


be glad to send copies of the Report to anyone interested, 
and to few better purposes can spare cash be placed than 
in supporting the Trust's efforts to keep our country' as we 
now know and love it. 


We have received two extraordinary publications, written 
by R. Williams Wood, one of which bears the above title. 
They shew to what an extent Nature Study has progressed in 
America ! At the top of each page is an illustration, and below 
this the description in verse. In order that our readers may 
see the nature of these, we reproduce one or two of them. 



Some are unable, as you know. 
To tell the Crocus from the Crow ; 
The reason why is just because 
They are not versed in Nature's law: 
The noisy cawing Crows all come, 
Obedient to the Cro'custom, 
A large Crow caw-cus to convoke. 
You never hear the Crc'cus croak ! 

1909 March i. 


Notes and Comments. 


is the title of the second httle vohime, and this'starts off with- 




Good Mr. Darwin once contended 
That Beetles were from Bees descended ; 
And as my pictures show, I think, 
The Beet must be the missing link. 
The Sugar-Beet and Honey Bee 
Supply the Beetle's pedigree : 
The family is now complete — 
The Bee, the Beetle, and the Beet. 



The x\nt is known by his ant-ennae. 
Whereas the Phea-sant hasn't any, 
And that is whj^ he wears instead 
A small red cap upon his head ; 
Without his Fez, indeed the Pheasant 
Would be quite bald, and quite unpleasant. 

Paul Elder & Co., San Francisco. 28 pp., 50 c. net. 



(plates II. and in.). 

Worsborotigh Bridge. 

The phenomenally cold weather during April and early May 
of last year caused bats to remain in the torpid condition usual 
during hibernation for a longer period than they generally do, 
and May 27th was the first date on which I noticed these 
creatures flying in any numbers. The evening of that day 
was particularly warm and still, and in taking a walk round 
Rockley Dam, a sheet of water about a quarter-of-a-mile long, 
surrounded by woods, I found that many bats were on the 
wing. I netted several, all proving to be the common Pipi- 
strelle {P. pipistrellus). One of these, a female, I kept alive, 
putting it in a small cage by itself. On the loth of July it 
gave birth to a single young one, at 3-30 to 4 p.m., clinging 
head downwards to the cage side at the time, and receiving the 
young one in its right wing, which was held partially extended 
for the purpose. Unfortunately, the young bat did not live 
many days. All my observations in connection with it agree 
with those previously published,* but the period of gestation is 
now shown to be not less than 44 days. 

On the 15th of July 1908, a box of bats from Wells was 
forwarded to me by rail. They had been caught two days 
previously, and I found the box contained one Leaser Horse- 
shoe {R. hipposiderus) and four Greater Horseshoes {R. ferrum- 
equinum). One of the larger species was a female, and had 
given birth to a young male in transit. The latter was lying 
on the bottom of the box in a dying condition, but though this 
was evidently the case, it showed great tenacity to life, clinging 
to its mother very firmly when I put them together in a small 
cage. When she became restless and detached and left it, the 
young bat, though but a day old, hung by one foot from the 
top of the cage for over fifteen minutes, a favourite resting 
position for adult bats of this species (See Plate IL, fig. i), but 
surely an extremely exhausting one for a newly-born individual. 
The Lesser Horseshoe Bat died a few hours after it came into 
my possession. It was a female, and contained a fully 
developed embryo ready for extrusion, 

* ' Naturalist,' 1907, pp. 75, 76, etc. 
lyoy March i. 

72 Whitaker : Notes on Bats. 

One interesting fact relating to the young Horseshoe Bats 
is, that at birth, instead of being practically naked as are the 
young of the Vespertilionidae, they are clothed with a very 
short, and soft, silky down, especially noticeable on the back, 
shoulders, and top of the head. Not only was this most 
conspicuous in the case of the newly-born Greater Horseshoe, 
but it was even plainly apparent in the embryo of the lesser 

The call of the yoimg Greater Horseshoe Bat was fairly loud, 
and consisted of several chirrups, repeated in quick succession, 
at intervals. 

I kept two or three of the adult Greater Horseshoe Bats 
alive for some time, and most interesting pets I found them. 
Hanging head downwards, often by one leg only, they slept 
most of the time, suspended from a bar fixed across the top of 
their cage (a large meat safe). Sometimes they hung separately, 
but more often they slept all hanging together in a cluster. 
When this was done, a perfectly regular and almost exactly 
geometrical group was frequently formed. 

Each of the trio held the perch with one leg only and hung 
facing inwards, so that the three faces were almost touching. 
Each had the left wing folded over its own breast, and beneath 
this tucked its disengaged leg, whilst with the right wing 
almost fully extended for the purpose, it did its share towards 
enclosing the whole group, which was by this means effectually 
screened and shielded from draughts, by the covering of three 
overlapping and encircling wings. 

When living moths were put.into their cage, the bats would 
catch them, but only seemed able to do so when the insects 
we e in motion. An insect which kept quite still seemed 
perfectly safe ; whilst on the other hand, the more rapid its 
movement, the more infallibly did one or other of the bats 
secure it by a sudden dart from its perch, seizing the insect 
in its mouth, and returning to the perch to eat it. Moths 
which were actually flying were caught much more easily than 
those which fluttered on the cage floor or sides. 

These bats took to feeding on meal-worms readily, and like 
all other bats I have kept, no sooner tasted them than they 
developed so great a liking for them that I could only get them 
to take any more natural food with difficulty. They ate on 
an average five dozen meal-worms each per day. and would 
take these from my fingers, or forceps, as they hung from their 



Plate 11. 

Qreater Horse-shoe Bat (/?. ferruni-equiaum). 


Plate III. 

British Bats. 

I. Greater Horseshoe ; 2. Lesser Horseshoe ; 3. Long'-eared ; 4. Noctule ; 
5. Hairv-.Armed Bat ; 6. Pipistrell ; 7. Daubenton's ; 8. Natterer's ; 9. Wliiskered 
Bat. (1 life size). 

WJiitakcr : Notes oji Bats. 73 

perch, consuming them so rapidly that I had the greatest 
difficulty in keeping all three bats supplied when all were 
dining at the same time. 

During the first few days of their captivity they always 
pressed any insect given them against the skin of the wing, 
{i.e., the inter-brachial membrane) until they had secured 
a good grip of it. Later, when they had become more 
accustomed to meal-worms, they almost abandoned the 
practice, no doubt realising that it was unnecessary. Moths 
given to them were invariably so treated. This habit is 
excellently described in an interesting article on " The 
Greater Horseshoe Bat in Captivity," * written by that most 
accurate observer of bats, Mr. T. A. Coward. It is well 
illustrated on Plate IL, Figs. 6, 7 and g. 

On July 27th the two Greater Horseshoe Bats then in my 
keeping had a most terrific fight sometime during the night, 
for in the morning I found one dead, the wings being torn and 
lacerated in several places, and the face and nostrils covered 
with blood The other bat had only bled slightly at the 
nostrils and was little the worse. I had not previously seen 
the slightest sign of ill-feeling between them. 

The surviving bat escaped from its cage at dusk on July 
28th, and although I saw it flying about the garden for some 
little time, I did not manage to re-capture it. 

One evening, about a week later, my friend Mr. Armitage 
felt confident he saw a bat of this species flying at dusk at a 
considerable altitude over the field adjoining our garden. This 
supposition was confirmed in a rather remarkable manner, for 
on the 4th of September, more than five weeks after my pet 
had escaped, Mr. Armitage and I again saw it, when together. 
We were retvu'ning from a ramble, and at 9-15 p.m., more than 
an hour after dusk, we were surprised to see it busily engaged 
in catching moths, as they flew about some thistle flowers 
growing on the railway bank at Worsborough Bridge, and 
directly in the path of light which fell from the back window 
of the signal box at the level crossing. 

We saw the bat several times between g-15 and 10 o'clock, 
as it flew by, or hovered about in the light from the window. 
Its large size, pale colour, and delicate, fluttering flight, 
rendered it quite unmistakable, and though I again failed to 

* Vol. 52, Part II., Manchester Lit. and Phil. Society Memoirs, 
igog March i. 

74 Whitaker : Notes on Bats. 

re-capture it, it allowed us to approach within a couple of 
yards several times. Once or twice it appeared to almost 
settle on the ground. I was very much interested, and pleased 
to again see my lost pet, more than five weeks after its escape, 
yet within fifty yards of the place where I had kept it. 

Records of the occurrence of the Hairy-armed Bat 
(P. Icidevi) in Yorkshire are few,* and any new ones are 
consequently of interest. T have recently had the pleasure of 
examining six preserved specimens, three of which were 
in the possession of Mr. G. Parkin of Wakefield, and the 
others in that of Mr. W. G. Chambers of Stanley. All were 
taken at the same time, i.e. towards the end of September 
1902, at Oulton near Rothwell, where they were found in the 
roof of a cottage along with 'about forty others,' all 
'apparently of the same species.' I was interested to find 
that of the six preserved specimens I examined, three were 
apparently males and three females. Probably all the bats in 
this large colony were Hairy-armed Bats ; the six I examined 
were all undoubted examples of this species. 

Every note I have been able to make with regard to this 
species and the nearly allied but far more abundant Noctule 
(P. uoctula) confirms the opinion that the following 
peculiarity is habitual to them. Both species seem to gather 
in large colonies for hibernation, and these colonies are most 
often found occupjdng the roofs of buildings. They seem to 
comprise individuals of each sex in about equal numbers. In 
spring they split up into much smaller colonies, and usually take 
u}) arboreal quarters. These summer colonies will almost in- 
variably be found to consist chiefly, if not entirely, of bats of 
one sex. Referring to my diary for confirmation of this, I 
find that every note I have made on these species, without a 
single excejition. goes to support the statement. Take, for 
instance, the following : — 

i 14/7/08. — Hole in beech tree, Rockley, Colony Noctules 10 M., i F. 
5/9/06. — Hole in beech tree, Stainbrough, Colony Noctules, 7 F., i M. 
22/8/06. — Hole in oak tree, near Barnsley, Colony Hairy-armed, 7 F. 
20/7/06. — Hole in beech tree, Rockley, Colony Noctules, 8 M. 
29/6/07. — Hole in beech, Rockley, Colony Noctules, 22 M., 2 F. 
13/5/04. — Hole in beech, Stainbrough, Hairy-armed Bats, 2 M. 

These are only some of many notes, all indicative of the 

same habits. To multiply instances is unnecessary and. would 

only occupy too much space. 

* See my notes on this species in ' Naturalist,' 1907, pp. 384, 385, etc. 


Whitakei- : N'otes on Bats. 75 

In support of my opinion that the winter colonies are usuallj^ 
larger in buildings, and of both sexes, I may say that all the 
usual arboreal quarters I know, which are made use of 
in summer, are deserted during the winter months, and that a 
colony apparently always occupies a certain church tower at 
Worsborough Dale in winter, for great numbers of Noctules 
may*be seen flying in its immediate vicinity in early spring and 
late autumn, but not in summer. 

The colony of Hairy-armed Bats found at Oulton in a 
cottage roof in late autumn of 1902, and the large colony 
of Noctules occupying a house roof at King's I.ynn, Norfolk, for 
many successive winters and springs, as recorded in a note by 
Mr. H, B. Booth,* consisted of individuals of both sexes ' in 
about equal proportions.' 

There is scope for much interesting speculation as to the 
peculiarly erratic manner in which gregarious instincts are 
displayed in our British bats. One cannot see that it is at all 
necessary for their mutual protection, for they seem to have 
hardly any enemies. Apparently it is not for warmth. On 
cold, damp days, I have several times found Noctules occupy- 
ing lonely quarters, whilst on September ist, 1906, one of the 
hottest days I ever remember, Mr. Armitage and I examined a 
colony of eleven Noctules in the hole of a tree in Stainbrough 
Park, and found them packed in a solid cluster in one corner of 
their den, actually wet with perspiration. The thermometer at 
the time stood at 94° in the shade and 110° in the sun. 

I have found the Long-eared Bat {Plecotus auritus) scores of 
times,' both in summer and winter, resting singly in cold, damp 
chinks of tunnels and stonework, yet if the same species be 
searched lor in August, usually the hottest month of the year, 
small colonies of six to ten, or more, will be almost invariably 
found squeezed together in one hole. August and early 
September seem to be the only time when bats of this species 
are gregarious. 

Of Natterer's Bat (M. nattereri).-, Daubenton's Bat {M. 
dauhentoni). and the Whiskered Bat (M. mystacinns), I have 
always found odd specimens, even in mid-winter, though large 
colonies of each of these species hav^e been recorded. The 
same thing applies to the Pipistrelle. I have found odd ones 
even in winter, and on the other hand, I have found colonies 
consisting of not merely scores, but hundreds of individuals. 
* 'Zoologist' 1905, p. 427. 

1909 March i. 

76 Whitaker : Notes on Bats. 

The explanation of these spasmodic and periodic instincts 
towards gregariousness may be arrived at by the collection of 
a large nnmber of exact observations ; even then it may have 
to remain a mystery. 

One difficulty in solving such problems seems to me to be 
so often overlooked, that I cannot refrain from mentioning it. 
Any characteristic, whether of structure or habit, in any 
creature, acquired for a particular purpose by means of 
natural selection, is not likely to be a benefit to the species 
as a whole. Take, ' for instance, any example of protective 
colouration : to whatever degree of perfection it may be 
developed, such development would cease the instant that it 
became perfectly protective. This implies that up to the very 
last and most minute phase of the acquirement, the enemy 
developes equally in cunning and perception. Reversion 
always has a tendency to take place in a plastic organism, and 
a moment's reflection only is necessary to show that no 
creature can exhibit protective colouration, except to the exact 
degree which its enemies are capable of seeing through. The 
degree in which it possesses protective colouration is the 
measure of the enemies' keenness of observation, and can only 
be in proportion thereto. The two things are two forces 
acting upon one another, and must be in equilibrium. A 
realisation of this fact is necessary to properly appreciate the 
difficulty of solving many problems in natural history, because 
it shows how a habit or characteristic may be acquired for 
a specific purpose, and yet we may not be able to see that it is 
fulfilling that purpose in any way. What we do see is only the 
present position of two or more creatures, each striving to gain 
an advantage over the other in the struggle for life. The 
temporary advantage gained by either will not be beneficial 
to the species as a species, but only to those individuals who 
possess it more than the average of their contemporaries. 

On Plate III. are reproduced photographs of nine species of 
bats found in this country, taken from some of my preserved 
specimens, by Mr. Walter Wilson, for reproduction here. Nos. 
I and 2 are from bats taken in Somersetshire ; all the others 
are from Yorkshire specimens. 

The Greater Horseshoe Bat shown in different positions on 
Plate IL, was one of my pets which I lent for a time to Mr. 
Riley Fortune, who kindly took these photographs of it. Figs. 
I and 2 are ventral and dorsal views of the bat, sleeping. 


Book Notice. Ti 

Fig. 5 shows the bat waking up. Figs. 6, 7, and 9 show the 
bat after seizing a meal-worm, in the act of pressing it against 
the inter-brachial membrane, in order to secure a firm grip of 
it. Fig. 3 shows the bat eating a meal-worm. Fig. 4 lifting 
up the body (by bending the legs) and rubbing the lips and 
mouth against its perch after eating. Fig. 8 shows how the 
Horseshoe Bats hold the tail curved upwards over the back, 
instead of downwards under the body as do the Vespertilionidie. 

A History of Horncastle, by James Conway Walter, Horncastle : 
W. K. Morton & Sons. 218 pp., price 5/-. 

Our contributor, the Rev. J. Conway Walter, may fairly claim to be 
the historian of the Horncastle district. From time to time he has placed 
on record notes dealing with the history of his neighbourhood. His latest 
book, now before us, may be taken as his best. In eleven chapters he 
deals with the early history of the place, the records from the Norman 
Conquest ; the various churches, chapels, educational institutions, etc., 
railways, canals, institutes, worthies, oddities, and public houses. As 
an appendix there are descriptions of fourteen adjoining villages. There- 
is no doubt that most, if not all in this volume, was well worth recording, 
and will be perhaps more appreciated in the future than now ; but per- 
sonally, we should have preferred to have seen much more relating to Roman 
Horncastle, and Horncastle of its earlier days — a subject which we feel sure- 
the author could have enlarged upon. For instance, we should have liked 
to have seen a fuller account of the Roman urns referred to in the footnote- 
on page 7 — objects which would have been well worth figuring. The Rev. 
Conway Walter, however, has quite pardonably enlarged upon the sub- 
jects that he can speak about from experience. He is not by any means 
a young man ; his memory is good, and his descriptive power the same as it 
always has been. It is astonishing what a lot of ' worthies ' Horncastle 
has produced, of some of whom we had never previously heard. Lord 
Allerton is second on the list, and a quaint sketch of his career is given. 

Throughout the work the author quotes full references. There are 
one or two points in this volume, however, to which it is as well to call 
attention in view of a second edition being issued. We doubt very much 
whether the author has given us sufficient (or any) evidence of the site 
being once a British Settlement (p. i). The ' Mammoth ' tooth, so well 
figured on page 5, is the tooth of a modern African elephant, doubtless 
a relic from an old bone-mill. The Hammer-head, which ' the writer has 
in his possession,' is by no means ' probably Roman.' The word ' has ' 
is apparently a misprint for ' had,' as the identical specimen is figured in 
this journal for April 1908,* and is there described as British. Obviously, 
therefore, Mr. W^alter has either over-looked the notes in ' The Naturalist.' 
or he does not agree with (and ignores) the opinion there expressed. In 
either case, 'tis a grievous fault ! The small pipes found in Horncastle 
(p. 8), are not Roman, but are certainly XVII. century. To ' picture 
to ourselves the Roman sentinel . . . solacing himself with his pipe," 
is allright ; but we might just as well picture the Roman sentinel careering 
round the walls of Horncastle on a 40 h.p. landaulette. The volume is 
printed upon glazed paper, which makes it unnecessarily heavy. 
We are now sending our copy to the binders to be lettered on the back. 
Otherwise, when on the book-shelf, we should not know whether it was a- 
History of Horncastle, a scrap-book, or a psalter. 

* ' Pre-historic Remains from Lincolnshire,' p. 137. 
1908 March i. 




A YEAR ago* I reported on the unusual numbers of Redwings 
that had passed through this district, particularly overhead, 
and especially during the night of November 4th, 1907. This 
season it was the very opposite, and I never remember having 
heard or seen so few Redwings ; and my friends report similarly. 
The ' birds of passage,' which we usually expect to hear in 
numbers during the last week in October and in early Novem- 
ber, were only heard in stray and desultory parties, notwith- 
standing that the weather at the time appeared to be most 
favourable for hearing them. Neither have we been more 
favoured with the Redwings which remain here during the 
greater part of the winter, nor the additional ones that arrive 
in this district on the approach of a severe frost ; they have 
been in much smaller quantities all round. 

It is rather puzzling to learn that the same species passed 
in larger numbers than ever in several places in Scotland last 
autumn, f Mr. W. Eagle Clarke tells me that he has never 
previously seen so many on the Fair Isle (intermediate between 
the Orkney and Shetland groups). In the ' Annals of Scottish 
Natural History (1909, p. 7), Miss E. V. Baxter, in ' Bird Notes 
from the Isle of May ' (Firth of Forth), writes of the Redwing : — 
' After I left, Mr. Maccuish (the light-keeper), reports a great 
" rush " on October i6th, and on the 23rd, from 2 a.m. till 
daylight (W. wind, light, hazy) " an enormous rush " followed, 
and another from 7 p.m. on the 23rd till daybreak on the 24th. 
On the 27th, 28th, and 29th of October, there were large flocks 
at the lantern ; from 6 p.m. on the 3rd of November till day- 
light on the 4th, there were many at the light ; and next night 
the " rush " was repeated. Mr. Maccuish says that this was 
the largest " rush " of one species that he has every seen.' 
There are also several other places in Scotland where Redwings 
have been noted as more numerous than usual. 

I don't wish to infer that birds passing over parts of Scot- 
land should pass over our immediate neighbourhood ; but it 
certainly appears strange that whilst Redwings should be pas- 
sing south in Scotland in such great numbers, w€ should 

* 'The Naturalist," 1908, p. 17. 

t A large number passed Spurn in the month of October. — Eds. 


Norfhern Neim. 79 

be wondering why they are so scarce this season, both as ' birds 
of passage ' and as winter visitors. These birds (even jf vm- 
■observed), must have passed somewhere in the north of Eng- 
land or Ireland, and to these must be added many that usually 
make use of this neighbourhood during the greater part of the 
colder season. I have not heard of any great numbers having 
been reported, not even on the coasts. I would like to suggest 
that each reader of ' The Naturalist,' who has taken notes of 
the movements of Redwings during the present season, should 
send in a short report to the Editors. These could be tabulated, 
and we might obtain some sidelight on the complicated question 
■of bird migration, and more particularly respecting a bird whose 
movements are perhaps more easily traced in our island, than 
are those of any other species. 

Fieldfares are also in smaller numbers here than usual, 
but the difference is not so marked as in the case of the Red- 



J. G. BAKER, F.R.S., 

During my visit to North-East Yorkshire last summer, I 
■collected several Euphrasias, which have been kindly examined 
for me by Messrs. Bruce, Jackson and Pugsley, and determined 
as follows : — 

E. borealis Towns. Side of the road between Whitby and 
Scarborough, near Hayburn Wyke. 

E. stricta Host. East Row woods, near Sandsend and an 
allied form, by the side of the Whitby and Scarborough road, 
near Hayburn W^^ke. 

Form between ciirta Fries and gracilis Fries. Side of the 
lower road between Castleton and Westerdale. 

Mr. F. H. Day records Ara:ocerus fasciciilatiis De Geer, as a British 
insect, in ' The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine ' for December. The 
insect occurred in some numbers in a confectioner's shop window in 

No. 69 of ' The Mineralogical Magazine ' has recently appeared, 
and contains an obituary notice of Dr. H. C. Sorb}-, by Prof. J. \V. 
J add. Sorby's researches and methods undoubtedly made mineral- 
ogical science what it is to-day. Mr. A. B. Dick contributes some notes 
on Kaolinite, and records examples of this mineral from Anglesey, from 
the Hambleton Quarry, near Bolton Abbey ; in the sandstone of a coal- 
mine near Newcastle-on-Tyne ; and ' in the millstone grit of a quarry at 
Congleton, Cheshire.' 

1909 March i. 



Rev. W. C. HEY, M.A. 

In reference to the note appearing at the foot of my paper in the 
February ' NaturaUst,' I quite admit that the Hornet has been 
taken in Yorkshire. I was aware of this as I had Mr. Roebuck's 
' List of Yorkshire Hymenoptera ' before me. Still I should not 
term the Hornet a Yorkshire Insect. In the case of creatures 
such as Birds and Wasps, which have a rapid and easy method 
of locomotion, the occurrence of a few stragglers within the 
county borders does not, to my thinking, give them the right 
to be called Yorkshire species. If I crossed the channel, and 
spent a few hours on the sand-dunes at Calais, I should not 
become a Frenchman. ' In spite of all temptations to belong 
to other nations,' I should remain an Englishman. Of course, 
the occinrence of these ' vagrom ' creatures should be recorded, 
for they may possibly be the pioneers in an extended distribu- 
tion of the Vespae. When such a species breeds within the 
county, or becomes a regular visitor, then I should call it a 
Yorkshire species. 

The easiest method to distinguish the Hornet from the 
other species, is by the colouration. They are all coloured 
yellow, with black markings, but the Hornet wears brown and 
orange. If people knew and remembered this, no other insect 
could be mistaken for the Hornet. 

I find the term Hornet is also sometimes applied to another 
large Hymenopteron, viz.. Sir ex gigas. This mistake is natural 
enough when a person simply conceives of a Hornet as an 
aggravated form of \\'asp — ' just like a Wasp only more so ' — 
as has been said. 

Popular Natural History of the Lower Animals (Invertebrates), 
by Henry Scherren, F.Z.S. Second Impression. 288 pp., 2/0. 

In tins the author rightly points out that whilst most popular natural 
history books deal with the larger animals, lew deal with the backboneless 
animals. ' Field and hedgerow, park and garden, pond and strand will 
yield the y6ung naturalist hosts of subjects for investigation,' and in order 
that the volume may be of practical service, directions are given for keeping 
these under observation. Mr. Scherren then deals with arthoporls, insects, 
crustaceans, starfish, worms, sponges, etc., etc., in a very entertaining 
way, and the book is rendered more interesting by nearly two hundred 
illustrations, some of which are coloured. The volume is very cheap, and 
should do good by creating an interest in the more neglected branches of 
natural history. It is quite refreshing to find a natural history book 
now-a-days in which birds are not described. 







A PARTY of Yorkshire geologists, as intimated in a previous 
issue of the ' NaturaHst,' visited the Marske quarries in Septem- 
ber 1908. On that occasion many specimens of Lower 
Estuarine plants were obtained, and by this time, no doubt, their 
genera and species will have been determined. The two quarries 
are rich in plant remains, and the writers were urged by the 
geological party above mentioned, to make further investiga- 
tions. This delightful task has been prosecuted with vigour. 
To readers unacquainted with these quarries, a few elucida- 
tory notes will be helpful. Mr. Fox-Strangways, in his memoir 
of Jurassic strata of Yorkshire, gives the following table of 
Bajocian strata : — 

1. Upper Estuarine beds. | 4. Millepore beds. 

2. Grey or Scarborough Limestone. | 5. Lower Estuarines. 

3. Middle Estuarines. | 6. Dogger. 

Plants have been collected from each of these Estuarine 
beds. The Millepore bed is absent in North-East Yorkshire, 
making the line of demarcation between the Middle and Lower 
Estuarines difficult to determine. The Marske and Upleatham 
quarries are situated on the northern and southern faces of the 
Upleatham outlier of the Inferior Oolite. They are within easy 
access from Marske or Saltburn, and are equidistant from either 
station. The sandstones in the quarries are massive, lenticular, 
and current-bedding is conspicuous in both quarries. Super- 
posed upon these sandstones are deposits of sandy shales, and 
above these there is a thin capping of glacial drift. Between 
the sandstones and shales there occurs a band of ironstone which, 
in some places, reveals a confused mass of fossil plants. This 
stratum of .ironstone is continuous throughout the two quarries, 
in some parts attaining a thickness of eighteen inches, while 
in others, it thins out so as to be almost unrecognisable. This 
ironstone band is not fossiliferous throughout, large sections 
shewing not a vestige of a plant. The shales above the iron- 
stone also contain plants, but these are sometimes very difficult 
to decipher, the venation being not so well preserved as in the 

11)09 March i. 


Lane cfV Saunders: Fossil Plants from Marske, etc. 

Several years ago, the late Rev. J. Hawell did some excellent 
pioneer work in the Marske quarry, which resulted in the 
identification of seventeen species. He also found a Dictyo- 
zamites for the first time in England, which proved to be a new 
species, and was named Didyozaniites haivelli. 

The following is a list of plants found by us since September 
1908, duplicates having been given to the Hull and Middles- 
borough Museums. Many of these specimens have been sub- 
mitted to Prof. Seward for diagnosis. We also wish to acknow- 
ledge the valuable assistance of Mr. Elgee of the Middles- 
brough Museum, who has given us access to plants previously 
determined, and helped us in our determinations. 

' Olozamites beani L. & H. 


Equisctites coluinnaris (Brongn.). 
,, At'rt;;/ (Brongii.). 


Lycopodi/es sp. 


Teniopferis major L. & H. 

,, V if tat a Brong-n. 

Sagenopteris pJi illipsi B ron gn . 
Cladophlehis dentinilata Brongn. 

,, haibercnsis ? 

Laccopteris polypodioides ? 

W. Cycadophvta. 
Base of flowerof ff7///«w5o«m L.&H. 
Fructification of ,, L.&H. 

W illiamsonia gigas L. & H. 
,, pecteii L. & H. 

,, graphic us Leek. 

,, parallehis Phill. 

,, feistiiiantelli Zig. 

Nihonia compta Phill. 
,, median a Leek. 
,, tenuiiiervis Nath. 
Dictyozamites haivelli Sew. 


Ginkgj digit a ta Brongn. 
Baiera gracilis Bun. 

,, phill ipsi Naih. 

,, lindleyana Schemp. 
Czekanoivskia murrayana L. & H. 
Beania gracilis ? Can. 


Araucarites sp. 

Pagiophyllum ivilliamsoni Brongn. 
Brachyphyllum mammilare Brongn. 
Cheirolepis setosns ? Phill. 

We have other specimens in our possession pending deter- 
mination. Further finds will be reported from time to time in 
^ The Naturalist.' We note that Olozamites beani occurs in 
Upleatham quarry, but is very scarce in Marske ; Teniopteris 
vittata is found in larger specimens in Upleatham ; Nihonia 
■compta is plentiful in the central part of Marske quarry ; Dic- 
tyozamites is extremely rare. On much the same geological 
horizon near Carlton, Mr. Lane found recently two new species 
which Prof. Seward determined as follows : 

Zamites sp., resembles Z. buchianus (Wealden Flora). 

Zamites sp., probably new. 
^^'e feel convinced that further effort will be successful. 



C. J. PATTEN, M.A., M.D., Sc.D. 

{Continued from page 52). 

Sanderling {Calidris arenaria) 

I have recently obtained some information which tends to 
modify one's views concerning certain migratory movements 
of this species. Until the year 1906, I believed that it was 
absent from the Dublin coast from about four to six weeks, 
which, speaking generally, extended from the end of June to the 
beginning of August. In the ' Aquatic Birds,' I mention that 
the migratory move begins in August, or even towards the 
latter end of July, but though I was under the impression that 
the supposed adult birds, seen early in August, could hardly as 
yet be returning from their breeding-quarters in the far north, I 
had an idea, shared by the late Mr. E. Williams, that such birds 
only partially migrated, and had iiown down from Scotland, 
or perhaps from the Orkneys or Shetlands, having reached this 
latitude, but going no further north when on the vernal migra- 
tion. However, the recent observations made by Mr. A. Wil- 
liams go to show that this bird, like the Turnstone, frequents 
the Dublin coast throughout the year. In accordance with my 
own observations, Mr. Williams has noticed the Sanderling 
remaining until well on in June, when on its vernal migration, 
and returning at the end of July during the Autumn move. 
He informs me that prior to 1906, he made no records in early 
or mid- July. However, in that year, much to his surprise and 
delight, he discovered this species on the Dublin coast on dif- 
ferent occasions in July, and not only a few stragglers, but 
flocks consisting of fifty birds, all, apparently, in nuptial 

To Mr. Williams, then, is due the credit of discovering this 
bird frequenting the Dublin coast, at a period of the year when 
it was supposed to be away north, and I hope this investigation 
will receive the publicity of ornithologists. I am much indebted 
to him for his interesting information, and in a recent letter, 
he further informs me that he has seen the birds on several 
occasions during July 1907 and July 1908. But interesting 
though this discovery may be, it hardly seems to point to the 
fact that the birds might remain to breed within the confines of 
the British Isles. Indeed, there is every reason to think that 

J 909 March i. 

84 Patten: Migratory Movements of Certain Shore -Birds. 

the Sandei'lings here recorded were non-breeding birds, for 
they were seen in flocks rather than pairs. As yet I have not 
had the opportunity of examining the genitals of the specimens 
which Mr. WilUams obtained in July, but may remark that in 
several which I collected on the i6th August 1899, and again 
on the 7th August, 1900, all in apparent nuptial plumage, both 
ovaries and testes were minute and undeveloped. Here, then, 
the more positive evidence in the form of ripe ova which I 
found present in a Turnstone, shot in July, is wanting. 

Turning again for a moment to the latter species, I would 
point out that in as much as it occurs in two distinct phases 
of plumage during the height of the breeding season, indeed 
throughout the summer, the question of the possibility of its 
breeding in Ireland should not be lost sight of. The phases of 
plumage assumed are : — [a] a plumage apparently similar to the 
dress worn during the first winter ; such, I believe is assumed by 
birds one year old ; (6), a highly variegated plumage, apparently 
similiar to the nuptial plumage, which one would expect would 
not be assumed imtil the birds were two years old.* A priori, 
one would expect the latter birds to breed somewhere or other ; 
if not in our latitudes, why have they passed northwards ? 
To return to the Sanderling, here the case is different. We 
have not external evidence to show that the so-called ' nuptial- 
plumed ' birds, seen in summer are really other than immature, 
that is to say birds one year old. For after the first autumn 
moult the bird of the year* follows closely the plumage of the 
adult. Indeed, it is almost impossible to distinguish the two 
forms of plumage when the birds are on the strand, as only the 
wing coverts and tertials of the former show signs of immaturity. 
During the ensuing spring, the freckled and variegated mark- 
ings of chestnut, brown, and black come out on the head, neck, 
and upper parts, and the birds to all intents and purposes have 
assumed the nuptial plumage. In the absence of a thorough 
histological examination of the reproductive organs which I 
hope to have the opportunity of carrying out, I venture to say 

* But I would say guardedly^ that, in the absence of positive informa- 
tion, it is conceivable that the so-called ' nuptial-plumed ' l)irds are in 
reality immature, and only one year old. That is to say some immature 
Turnstones may assume a nuptial-like plumage, others not, in their iirst 
year, just as the ' hood ' of the Black-headed Gull appears in some, and not 
in others of this species in the iirst Spring. 

* Bred in northern latitudes, and not arriving in Autumn till early 


Patten : Migratory Movements of Certain Shore-Birds. 85 

that it is more than likely that the Sanderling, while assuming 
what is practically similar to the nuptial plumage when only 
one year old, at that age it does not breed. In this way its 
migratory movements are brought into line with those of other 
LiMicoLiXE birds, which, in a great body, push northward in 
spring. The really mature birds pass us en route for more 
northern climes ; those that are immature, whether they have 
assumed a nuptial-like dress or not, tarry behind, and may be 
seen collected into small wisps or flocks on various parts of our 
coasts throughout the entire summer. 

For example we find, on the one hand, hundreds of Dun- 
lins in apparent nuptial plumage, with their conspicuous 
black breasts ; on the other hand, numbers of Bar-tailed 
Godwits, in plumage apparently similar to that worn during 
the winter, remaining throughout the summer along our 
coasts. Such I believe are instances of species which do 
not breed when one year old, and this appears to me to be the 
general rule. 

In conclusion I may add a few words regarding what we 
somewhat loosely term the ' tameness ' of shore-birds on certain 
occasions when on migration. With few exceptions, notably 
the Phalaropes, and in a much less degree the Dunlin, and per- 
haps the Ringed Plover, shore-birds, as a race are wary, and do 
not allow of near approach. It is true that the immature birds 
are, on the whole, not so shy as the adults, but some, for instance, 
the Redshank; Greenshank, and Curlew are always wary, except 
on their breeding-grounds. 

Whether immature or adult, shore-birds on migration 
usually arrive on our slob-lands very tired-out, and that this 
fatigue is due almost entirely to the prolonged exertions of the 
wing-muscles during vast flights over sea, is evident from the 
way in which these birds will try every method of escape before 
taking wing. Sometimes they will race along the strand for 
a hundred yards or more when pursued, and will even take 
to the water and swim a short distance, especially if a sand- 
bank be close by. At other times they will remain crouched 
until almost walked over, and on a breezy day will suffer them- 
selves to be carried with the wind, the wings being hardly 
brought into requisition. Any one who has made a special 
point of watching shore-birds just after their arrival, cannot 
fail to be struck with their tired, apathetic appearance, their 
silence, and the dislike they evince to taking wing. 

iQog March i 

86 Book Notice. 

Nothing could be more conspicuous than this to the trained 
eye, accustomed as it is to the remarkable activity on foot 
and on wing of Limicoline shore-birds. 

Well do I remember the extraordinary ' tameness ' of a 
Bar-tailed Godwit, the first that I had met. When a lad of 
nineteen, I was walking along the damp grass-grown edge of 
the slob-lands of the North Bull, early in the month of Septem- 
ber, when, suddenly, a rather big-looking bird, with long legs 
and beak, popped up from a drain, and ran in front of me. 
From its demeanour it looked more like a domestic fowl running 
from the farmer, than a wild shore-bird. Suspecting it to be 
wounded, I gave chase, and only to avoid actual capture did 
it take wing, again alighting a few yards further off. 

Being at that time anxious to collect as many species as 
possible from Dublin Bay, and unacquainted with the fact that 
the bird was plentiful in autumn and winter and obtainable 
at another time without difficulty, I entreated a passing gunner 
to procure it for me. 

Looking back, this act seems unsportsmanlike ; however, 
I preserved my specimen, which, as far as plumage is concerned, 
could not have been more perfect, displaying an unusually 
rich buff shading on the under parts. 

On skinning the bird, I found how emaciated it had become 
from its journey, further evidence that its ' tameness ' was due 
to fatigue. Since then I have frequently come across ' tame- 
ness ' in many species, notably in the Curlew-Sandpiper, the 
Knot, the Wimbrel, the Golden and the Grey Plover, in every 
instance due to the circumstance above described. 

My Life : A Record of Events and Opinions, by Alfred Russel 
Wallace. New edition. London : Chapman & Hall. 408 pp., price 6/-. 
Not since ' Huxley's Life and Letters' appeared have we been so interested 
in reading the life-story of a naturalist, as we have been in the present 
volume. It has the further advantage of being an autobiography, and 
consequently we get first-hand, Dr. Russel Wallace's own narrative of 
his glorious career. In the present edition, some of the items not directly 
relating to the author have been omitted, and consequently it is a much 
more handy form than the first edition. In many respects Hulxey's 
life was similar to that of Wallace. Both have had their hardships and 
trials ; and Dr. Wallace's account of his early days, and of his financial 
speculations, are full of useful lessons. To the naturalist, however, his 
descriptions of his four years in the Amazon Valley, his visit to the Malay 
Archipelego, etc. will perhaps appeal the most ; though to some, his 
racy descriptions of Lyell, Darwin, Huxley, Spencer and others will be 
of extreme interest. But there is not a page in the volume which has not 
some useful or interesting piece of information. It is plentifully 

illustrated by photographs, sketches, etc., and is well produced. 


a. Ottonia ramosa. 

b. Palpus. 

c. Part of ventral surface. 

d. Last segment of first leg 

e., /. Hairs of body. 

g. One highly magnified. 

('. Ottonia bullata, 

b. Palpus. 

C, Last joint of hind leg 

(/. Hair of leg. 

e. Hair or papilla of back, highly 



Tro m bidiidae . * 

(plate IV.) 


Kirton-in-Lindsev . 

Ix 1877, Professor Kramer initiated a genus, or sub-genus of 
Trombidium, which he named Ottonia, the distinction being 
based on the fact that the eyes had not the long petiole as in 
Trombidium, but were rather embedded in the skin of the 
cephalothorax. I take it that the mite I am about to describe 
belongs to the sub-genus, I call it therefore Ottonia ramosa. 
So far as I know, it has not previously been figured or recorded. 
It is a rather small mite for a Trombidium. Mr. Soar gives the 
length of the body as 1.28 mm., and the breadth .38 mm. It 
is of a rose madder colour with a dash of pink, very beautiful ; 
in shape, it is something like fiiliginosum, but not quite so elon- 
gate, the distal end of the fourth joint of the palpus is furnished 
with two distinct claws, (see Plate IV., figure b). In holoser- 
iceum and fiiliginosum, it is single (see in ' The Naturalist ' for 
1908, figures on page 333 and Plate XLIL). 

This peculiarity seems to be the rule in the smaller species 
of Trombidium. The eyes are each provided with two ocelli 
and are embedded in the skin of the cephalothorax, the distal 
joint of the fore legs is larger than the others, club-shaped, and 
flattened sideways (see figure d). The other legs are formed on 
the same plan as the mites already described ; they have not 
the peculiar footpad found in fuliginosum. The female genital 
aperture has the usual copulatory discs, three on each side 
(figure c). The papillae on the body are most remarkable ; 
they are all rather coarsely barbed, but many on the back, and 
especially those at the sides and posterior part of the body, in 
addition to the barbs, have the ends divided into two, three, or 
more branches (hence the name ramosa). These branches are 
almost as thick as the main stem, and look more or less like 
tassels (see figure e., f. and o). The papillae are not placed so 
close together as in some mites, and seem to be arranged in 
irregular longitudinal rows. When the mite is mounted in 
Canada balsam, without too long preparation, the colour is 
retained to a considerable extent in the papillae, which then 

* For pre\ious papers see the 1907 volume of ' The Naturalist.' 
1909 March i. 

88 Northern News, 

look veiy handsome. Hermann, in 1804, pointed out the vakie 
of the papillae as characteristic marks of species, and gave figures 
of several of them in his great work. Mr. Soar, in May 1894, 
and Mr. Wm. Evans, of Edinburgh, kindly sent me a most 
beautiful specimen of it last year. Evidenth' it is widely dis- 

Oltonia hullata. — This pretty little mite was sent to me 
alive, by Mr. W. Evans, of Edinburgh, It was of a fme scarlet 
lake colour, and under a low power of the microscope it looked 
very rugged. This appearance is produced by the structure and 
arrangement of the hairs or papillae, which are very remarkable, 
and characteristic. When highly magnified they seem to be 
little hollow globes, with a circular opening at the top, and a 
stalk at the bottom, which fits into a socket like a candle in 
its stick ; the flange of the candlestick being cut into several 
teeth or leaflets, something like the calyx of a flower (see 
figure e). The globular part is covered with minute hairs, 
which project beyond the circular opening ; and are generally 
arranged in rows from above downwards, forming lines similar 
to the meridian lines on a globe. The papihae vary in size, and 
are not arranged in lines, but in irregular rosettes or circles. 
The mite also has other remarkable hairs, such as those on the 
under side of the palpi (figure B.), which are finely pectinated ; 
and again others flattened rather feather-like towards their 
■distal ends, as in figure c. , on the upper side of the legs and 
palpi. The eyes are very prominent, and situated on each side 
•of the cephalothorax. The palpi have two claws at the distal 
■ends of the fourth joint. The legs are as usual, rather short, the 
foi-e ones being slightly the longest, and have the last joint 
■clubbed, and slightly longer than the others. They are without 
the peculiar foot-pad between the claws possessed by T. fuli- 
ginosiim. The sternite is also peculiar, but is not shewn in the 
figure. When mounted in Canada balsam, a good deal of 
colour is retained, and the papillae seem to alter slightly, 
becoming less globular, and more cup-shaped, like Mr. Soar's 
■drawing (figure e.). 

We have received from Mr. R. W. Goulding, of Louth, a copy of a 
most interesting paper, read to the Louth Antiquarian and Naturalists 
Society. It is entitled ' The Building of Louth Spire, 1501-1515,' and is 
based upon information obtained from the earliest volume of the Louth 
■Churchwardens' accounts. The Spire is built of Ancaster Oolite, quarried 
at Willeffurth ( = Wilsford) , Keylby ( = Kelby) , and Hessilbrugh. The total 
cost of the work appears to have been ^305 7s. ^d. 





By permission of the Right Hon. Lord Grantley, I was enabled 
to make a careful examination of two of the ancient burial 
mounds of ' Graff a Plain,' Brimham Moor, on Tuesday, August 
4th, 1908. 

Mound No. i, of circular form, and about 12' o" in 
diameter, is situated about 150 yards north-west of the first 
large group of rocks, upon the south-eastern boundary of 
the moor, and about 50 yards south-east of the trackway lead- 
ing to ' Riva Hill Farm,' and it occupies the summit of a slight 
hillock, upon a comparatively level portion of the heath, which 
rises rapidly to the south of it in a bold sweep, terminating in 
the outstanding rocks of Graffa Crags and Brimham Beacon. 

The entire absence of any heather upon the mound, and the 
profusion of bright green bilberry plants which covered it and 
at the same time rendered its outline more noticeable, told 
plainly of a different character of subsoil from that of the sur- 
rounding moor ; but prominent as the mound appeared, its 
actual elevation was deceptive, being barely two feet above the 
natural level, and the uneven character of the upper surface 
suggested previous disturbance to be more than probable. A 
few attempts to pierce the crown, however, proved it to be a 
cairn, constructed of large stones, and accounted for the 
prolific growth of the rock-loving bilberry which overspread it, 
as well as for the uneven character of the surface. 

The thick green covering was carefully stripped off in lengths 
and placed on one side, and the few inches of vegetable earth 
removed, revealing the cairn in an almost perfect state, formed 
of a series of large stones placed methodically in concentric 
rings, each stone slightly inclined towards the centre, and the 
whole mass interlocked together by their own weight. Large 
stones were placed around the outside forming the enclosing 
circle, which is almost invariably found in the case of earth- 
built tumuli, and a few of these had been visible before the 
covering was stripped. 

The construction of the cairn rendered it necessary to re- 
move the stones from the outer ring first, and to work grad- 
ually towards the centre where the burial, if such existed, 

1909 March i. 

go Armstrong : Tivo Ancieul Burial Cairns. 

might be expected to lie. This proved no easy task, as the 
stones were so tightly wedged, and had each apparently been 
specially selected for the purpose. Almost without exception, 
they were about a foot in diameter, oblong or oval in form, 
and three to five inches in thickness, with flat surfaces and 
rounded edges. No marks of tools were visible on any, but 
all alike were either water- worn, or had been especially rubbed 
to their present form. The stone itself was the Millstone Grit 
of the surrounding moor, but fragments of stone of the form 
composing the cairn are not now to be found thereon readily, 
although a careful search might reveal such. Personally I am 
inclined to think that they have been transported from a con- 
siderable distance ; that great care has been exercised in their 
selection is indisputable. 

When nearing the inner radius of the cairn, small fragments 
of charcoal were noticeable, but they were by no means in large 
quantities. There was also a layer of fine grey sand an inch 
or two in depth, which had apparently been spread over the 
natural surface of the ground, and the stones bedded therein. 
Sand of this kind is abundant in the vicinity of the rocks 
upon the moor. 

In the centre, large pieces of stone were piled around a 
rough circle of about 3' 6" extreme diameter, and within these, 
large and small stones, all of the form previously noticed, 
were laid more or less upon their flat surfaces, and amongst 
them the grey sand and charcoal were very evident ; pieces of 
the latter up to an inch square, being found. 

Upon the gradual removal of this central mass of stones, 
the presence of the unmistakable black ' barrow earth ' 
became evident in a slight layer, perhaps an inch or an inch and 
a half in thickness, and spread over the whole area within the 
inner ring, the bottom of which had been paved with large 
flat stones. Amongst this earth very slight traces of a greyish 
white paste-like substance were"] visible, probably the decom- 
posed remains of the bones after calcination. The deposit was 
carefully gathered together. Its removal bared the large stones 
forming the bottom of the grave, and these proved to be two 
in number, the largest being about 2' o" across, and of a some- 
what angular form ; strikingly different to those composing 
the cairn itself, for the edges were rough fractures, not roimded 
in any way. Apparently the surface soil had been removed 
from the ground upon which the cairn was built, for the upper 


Armstrong : T-ivo Ancient Burial Cairns. 91 

face of the two stones forming the bottom was level with the 
natural ground surface adjoining, so far as could be ascertained, 
and these had apparently been laid down for the reception of 
the deposited remains. 

As there was every reason to believe that some portion of 
the ashes might have been placed in an urn, efforts were made 
to raise the stones above mentioned in hopes of a discovery. 
This was by no means easy, but by care and perseverence, it 
was at last accomplished, but only to meet with disappoint- 
ment. Immediately beneath was a slight layer of ashes upon 
the natural ground surface, which latter showed very evident 
signs of fire, the bright yellow sand composing the substratum 
being calcined to a dark red colour for quite 2" in depth. This 
sand was very stiff and compact. The most diligent search 
failed to reveal any trace of a hole or other disturbance at any 
point, or of any implements which might have accompanied 
the body, either upon the surface or amidst the cairn. 

One stone found amidst those immediately covering the 
deposit, was remarkable because entirely different from all 
the remainder composing the cairn, and appeared to have been 
shaped with some definite object in view. It was a fragment 
of hard sandstone, in the form of a truncated pyramid, the sides 
and top being roughly fractured to shape, but the base was 
quite smooth, and bore marks of friction. The base measured 
6"X5", and the height about 4J". This might have been used 
as a crushing and grinding stone for grain, or for rubbing pur- 
poses, but careful search failed to reveal its companion slab. 
With this exception, nothing was found that could be considered 
as having been fashioned for use, and there was nothing to 
throw any light upon the probable period of the cairn's erection. 

The second tumulus examined is situated about 100 yards 
south-west of the first. It was of rather irregular shape, and 
appeared to have been somewhat disturbed, but the original 
diameter had probably been about 9' o". Upon examination, 
it also proved to be of the cairn type, and apparently similar 
to that previously opened, but it had been disturbed throughout 
at some distant period, and no trace of the deposit could be 
found, although the yellow sand forming the subtratum was 
noticeable, calcined over the whole area as before. There were 
also traces of charcoal. It is remarkable that amidst the smaller 
stones of this cairn another ' rubbing stone ' was found, almost 
identical with that in the former one, and similarly, this proved 

1909 March i. 

9- Reviews and Book Notices. 

to be the only ' find ' of any description bearing certain traces 
of man's handiwork. 

Although somewhat disappointing not to be able to assign 
the erection of these cairns to any definite period, yet their 
examination proves valuable for two reasons. First it places 
beyond any question the nature of the mounds scattered over 
this portion of Brimham Moor, which is known by the name of 
' Graffa Plain,' a name which the late Mr. William Grange 
translates as ' the place of graves ' — significant in itself, though 
he at the same time casts a doubt upon the formation of the 
mounds in question being anything other than natural. The 
identity of the grave mounds being established, they prove that 
a settlement of primitive man of no small magnitude must have 
been located somewhere in the vicinity. 

' Saint ' Gilbert : The Story of Gilbert White and Selborne, by 
J. C. Wright. London : Elliot Stock. 90 pp., 2/6. 

In this little book the author adds one more to the many dealing wit'i 
that prince of naturalists, Gilbert White. We cannot say that the volume 
contains much that is new, but it is obviously written by one who appre- 
ciates White's worth to the full. He describes Selborne and its objects 
of interest, and then gives some account of White himself, and of his 
methods. There are eight illustrations. We don't like the word * Saint.' 

British Birds and their Eggs, by J. Maclair Boraston. London : 
W. <*t R. Chambers, 1909. 301 pp., price 6/- net. 

It Wlrilst the author of this book has certainly not chosen anything new 
in the way of either subject or title, he claims to bring forward ' a new 
method of classification.' He points out that other books are arranged 
according to genera or species, or merely in alphabetical order ; but how 
can a beginner ' be expected to turn to identify a bird in a book wherein 
birds are grouped according to generic distinction, about which, as yet, 
he knows nothing ? ' The birds are consequently grouped under such 
headings as ' Black-and-White Birds,' ' Ruddy-breasted Birds,' ' Trunk- 
climbing Birds.' Whether this method of classification is the best, or 
whether it is entirely new, we are not prepared to say ; but we imagine 
we know of one writer who will claim that he has adopted this method for 
some time ! Under ' black birds ' there are Rook, Raven, Carrion Crow, 
Chough, Jackdaw, etc. ; but we find that the Scoter must be looked for 
under ' Diving Ducks,' and the ' Swift ' is under ' Swallow and Swallow- 
like birds.' In some of the other divisions, cross references are more com- 
plicated. Each species appears to be described in a way suitable for a 
beginner ; and, following the account of the bird itself, there are notes 
under 'Eggs,' 'Nest,' 'Distribution,' etc. There are no fewer than 13Q 
coloured plates, which will do for a beginner, and probably answer his 
purpose. These must have been very expensive to prepare, and conse- 
uently it seems a pity they are so poor. Most of the birds are sur- 
rounded with a halo, and they are usually perched in mid-air, in a cotton- 
woolly atmosphere. Wliilst many are passable, some are really vile — 
the Bullfinch and Wheatear being coloured like the patches on Joseph's 
coat. We don't quite know what to say of the House Martin and its nest 
(plate 58). There are sixteen coloured plates at the end, upon which 
illustrations are given of the eggs of all British breeding birds. In each 
case, we are informed, they have been drawn and coloured from the shell. 
The volume is a substantial one, and cheap at 6/-. 




F, M. BrRTON, F.G.S., F.L.S. 

My attention has recently been called by the Rev. C. E. Laing, 
the Vicar of Bardney, to some boulders on the side of a drain, 
about three miles from that village. On going there to see 
them, I found two of considerable size — No. i, 5 ft. 2 in. by 4ft. 
4in., and about 2ft. 6 in. deep ; and No. 2, 5 ft. ^in. by 3 ft. 2 in., 
and about 2 ft. 6 in. deep. Both boulders were fast embedded 
in the ground, and the depth measurements were taken by 
probing with an iron rod at their sides. 

The soil in the locality consists of Kimeridge Clay, with a 
thick covering of chalky Boulder Clay on the top. 

The drain, on the north side of which the boulders lie, is in 
the parish of Bucknall, not far from Bucknall Bridge. It was 
excavated about sixty-three years ago, as old inhabitants who 
helped in its construction affirm, to connect an old dra,in — coming 
from Minting and Gautby — on the west with the Stixwould 
drain on the east, and thence into the Witham river. Before 
this time, this old drain joined the river at Southrey, and traces 
of its former course are still visible. 

No I boulder, which is not unlike a block of Lias limestone 
in appearance, is highly fossiliferous ; the fossils lying in heaps, 
broken up and cemented together, with few entire ones, chiefly 
Cerithiums, amongst them. 

No. 2 is a hard sandstone, and has scarcely a trace of a 
fossil in it. 

On a second visit to the spot, I met with several more 
boulders, (Nos. 3, 4 and 5), embedded, like the first two, on the 
north side of the drain. No. 3 measures 2 ft. 5 in. by 2 ft., but 
the ground, for want of rain, was so hard, that the depth of 
the boulder could not, with any certainty, be ascertained. 
No. 4 measured 3 ft. by i ft. 11 in., and about 2 ft. deep ; and 
No. 5, 3 ft. by 2 ft., and about 2 ft. in depth. All three were 
of similar substance to the sandstone boulder No. 2. From the 
uniform depth of all these boulders, it may be inferred that the 
matrix they have come from will turn out to be a narrow band 
of rock about 3 ft. in thickness. 

On referring to Mr. Wheeler's ' History of the Fens of South 
Fincolnshire,' 1 lind that the area north of the Witham in this 
district, including Bardney, Southrey, Tupholme, Bucknall and 
Stixwould, was drained imder the x\ct of 1843, which confirms 

igog Marcli i . 

94 Burton : Some Lincolnshire Bmilders. 

the testimony of the old inhabitants as to the time when this 
Bucknall connecting drain was made. Mr. Wheeler, writing to 
me on the subject, says, ' the boulders you mention are no doubt 
kinsmen of those found when the New Cut for the Witham was 
made.' This is referred to in his book as follows : — ' In the 
excavation for deepening the Upper Witham, some boulders of 
Lias limestone and sandstone were found, the largest of which 
was about 6 ft. by 4 ft., and 2 ft. 6 in. deep.' 

No I boulder, from its appearance, seemed to me to differ 
from the remaining four, but, from the interesting account of 
them given by Prof. P. F, Kendall, they are all, doubtless, from 
nearly the same source ; and, in all probability, those Mr. 
Wheeler mentions had the same origin also. 

The fossils contained in the boulders, with a few loose ones 
lying about on the ground all in fragments, have been identified 
by palaeontologists in the Jermyn Street Museum, and, through 
the kind aid of Mr. G. Barrow, I have received the following 
particulars : — 

No. I boulder — Fragments of Ammonites, Gasteropods and 
Lamellibranchs. Pecten lens Sow ? Ostrea sp. Ceri- 
thium sp. 
The four remaining boulders are of sandstone, with frag- 
ments of Lamellibranchs. Loose fossils — Am. {Peri- 
sphinctes) raricostatus Buckl. Nodule shewing septarian 
structure and Am. [Cardioceras) cordatus, with Serpula 
sp. attached. 
This last, Mr. Barrow allocates to a bed he knows well, 
a Limey clay band with V ermiculites ,' a type of thing from the 
base of the Ampthill Clay, just over the top of the Oxford Clay 
(thus proving its near local origin). The large ammonite and 
the clay band nodule (he adds) probably came from the same 

As to the matrix from which the boulders were derived. 
Prof. Kendall has identified them as all coming from the same 
source, the Spilsby Sandstone. ' Your boulders,' he writes, 
' are more interesting than you think. There is no such variety 
(referring to No. i) known in situ in Lincolnshire, but I have 
found very large boulders, greatly resembling yours, though 
far more fossiliferous, and having the fossils most beautifully 
preserved. They occur in a train extending from near Doning- 
ton-on-Bain away southward and westward into Cambridgeshire, 
Norfolk and Northamptonshire, though not in the fossiliferous 


Biirtoi : Some Lincolnshire Boulders. 95 

aspect ; there is, however, another test by which I can recognise 
them, namely, by the presence of lustre-mottHng. ' 

Referring to a large boulder he met with, like No. i, he 
writes further : ' My boulder was found near South Willingham 
Station, and I recorded it in " Proc. Geologists' Association," 
Vol. XIX., Part 3, p. 126. It agrees precisely with yours in 
general aspect, mineral condition and fossils, as you will see 
from the specimen I send you for comparison. It is a calcareous 
sandstone, with local developments of calcite, enclosing the 
sandy grains in such a manner, that, when broken across, 
lustrous fractures showing the cleavage of calcite, but crowded 
with sand-grains, may be seen ; this is what is termed " lustre- 
mottling." The patches seem to be in the form of rather 
acute rhombs, as though the calcite were in the form of dog- 
tooth spar — this character of lustre-motthng appears in the 
typical Spilsby Sandstone of Spilsby. 

' As to the fossils (No. i boulder), taken as a whole, they 
have a remarkably Kimeridgian look, reminding me of the beau- 
tiful Kim. fossils, obtained from the pits at Market Rasen, but 
there are significant differences. Ammonites of the biplex 
group are very abundant ; your specimens show crushed 
examples, but my own include exquisitely-preserved specimens. 
I have, too, the cast of a very large ammonite, with smooth 
outer whorls. Pectens resembling P. lens, are not uncommon ; 
there are also forms like Modiola, and beautiful Astartes, very 
like the species common at Market Rasen. Cerithium is the 
only common gasteropod. 

' The Sandstone you sent ' (alluding to chippings from 
boulders Nos. 2, 3, 4 and 5), ' is clearly another aspect of the 
same rock, and it is not unlike some of the Spilsby Sandstone of 
the country about Six Hills.' 

The five boulders here described have not, from what I can 
learn, been previously recorded, nor is this, for various reasons, 
to be wondered at. When they were first laid bare in the 
' forties ' of last century, the results of ice-action were com- 
paratively unknown and uncared for, and everything since then 
has been against their discovery. Though of considerable size 
and not far from a public road, they cannot be seen from it, 
nor from Bucknall bridge, which passes over the drain. The 
locality is little frequented except by field-labourers and vil- 
lagers. The bank on which the boulders lie is now, and has 
been for years past, overgrown with briars and thorns, long grass 

igog March i. 

96 Reviews and Book Notices. 

and other coarse herbage ; and had it not been for the giving- 
way of the soil, thrown up on the south of the drain when it was 
iirst made, the repairs to which attracted Mr. Laing's attention, 
they might have remained undiscovered for an indefinite period. 
So quiet indeed is the spot, that Mr. Laing and some members 
of his family had the pleasure of watching a litter of foxes play- 
ing under the roots' of one of the old thorn trees on the side of 
the bank, near where the boulders lie — proof sufficient of the 
solitude of the place. 

My best thanks are due to Mr. Barrow and Prof. Kendall for 
their valuable aid in unravelling the nature and origin of the 
boulders ; to Mr. Wheeler and others for the information they 
have supplied ; and to the Rev. C. E. Laing, for bringing the 
boulders to light. If Incumbents in the country would note 
any disturbances of the land-surface in their respective parishes, 
and call attention to them, as Mr. Laing has done in this case, 
much of interest that would otherwise be lost might sometimes 
be the result. 

The Romance of Modern Geology, by E. C. Grew. London : 

Seeley & Co., iqog. 308 pp., 5/- 

In this \v(!ll-\vritten volume the editor of ' Knowledge ' gives an enter- 
taining account of the study of the earth from the earliest times to the 
advent of man. By comparing our sphere with a golf ball, he makes 
simple what is usually difficult to explain in a popular way, regarding the 
early history of our planet. A strong feature of the book is the description 
of the various extinct animals. This is done in a very careful and pleasant 
manner, and is illustrated by reproductions of the remarkable drawings 
wiiich appeared in Knipe's ' Nebula to Man.' The book is prepared for 
young readers, for whom it will prove exceedingly attractive ; and there 
is much in it that will appeal to older people. 

Nature near London, by Richard Jefferies. London : Chatto & 
Windus. 212 pp., 5'- net. 

In wading tiirough the wealth of ' nature study ' literature that is now- 
at our command, one frequently feels like tramping through a desert, and 
gets weary of the monotonous stuff whicli the would-be Gilbert Whites have 
thought fit to have printed. But now and then, like a gem in the sand, a 
real treasure is our reward ; we find a writer with a soul, whose pen can 
express his thoughts. Sucli a writer was Richard Jefferies. To read his 
books is to know what Nature really is, and to learn what one of her 
devoted sons has seen and heard. In ' Nature near London ' we have 
one of these refreshing volumes; in it are described what only Jefferies 
could describe so well ; and to read it leaves one wondering that even he 
could find so much that is beautiful near that most un-Nature-like place. 
Would that for our great crowd of book compilers we could exchange but 
a few like Richard Jefferies, and our literature would be the richer, we 
should be the wiser. In the present work we have a companion to ' The 
Open Air,' recently reviewed in these columns. It is as tastefully pro- 
duced, and is illustrated with a dozen coloured plates by Ruth Dollman, 
who has well interpreted the scenes described by the author — the plates 
' When the June Roses open on the Briars,' and ' A great Hawthorn Bush 
grows on the Bank ' being superb. 





In the very masterly review of the above work, from the pen 
of my old friend Dr. Arnold Lees, in which he has been so very 
appreciative a critic (a marked contrast from that adopted in 
certain other quarters, where the vantage ground of knowledge 
of field botany was not so evident a standpoint), the writer 
singles out points on which I may be able to add some informa- 

First, Rhinanthus grcenlandicus Chabert ; this was only 
made known to me after my list had been printed off. It is in 
the new ' Addenda ' with many others. Doubtless the micro- 
species of this genus and Euphrasia, etc., are out of proportion 
when compared with the species of Melampyrum. In fact, I 
think with Dr. Lees, that too great prominence is given to them. 
The difficulty is in grouping them. I at first, thought of choos- 
ing another type for the subordinate species, and in a second 
edition, I may do so, but eternal vigilance is required in avoiding 
mistakes when several types are used. The ' micro-species ' 
of Rhinanthus appear fairly constant : borealis is a high northern 
plant, with broader leaves than the other small alpine Drum- 
mond-Hayi. My name simply appears connected with them 
from the fact that Dr. Sterneck described them as species of the 
genus Alectorolophus, while I use the generic name Rhinanthus, 
although borealis and monticola were first found by me. It is 
quite possible that the latter will be found on the Yorkshire 
moors, and the former possibly on the higher hills. It is 
distinctly alpine. 

Dr. Ostenfeld has recently suggested that Euphrasia 
foulaensis and scotica are really forms of the widely-spread con- 
tinental E. minima, of which indeed, a form has recently been 
found in Somersetshire. The mountain forms of Rhinanthus 
already alluded to, are absolutely native, and occupy areas 
untouched by man. The name R. Perrieri Chab. as given in one 
of the other lists, cannot stand. Chabert established it on a 
character which is common to many of the forms not necessarily 
restricted to rusticulus. For that reason, Dr. Sterneck adopted 
the latter, and as the species name, which also is due to Chabert. 

Orobanche arenaria is omitted from my ' list ' because there 
is no satisfactor}- e\'idence of its ever having been found, as 

igoy March i. 

g8 Druce : The Oxford British Plant List. 

Mr. Lester-Garland long ago pointed out in ' Rep. of Exch. 
Club,' the character [which Babington] relied on to separate it 
from 0. purpurea was valueless. I think Babington 's plant may 
be the Spitzelii of my list, but as yet, I have not been able to 
see Babington's type. The ' arenaria ' of a good British botanist 
from Guernsey is 0. amethystea. In this genus we have plenty 
which appear to be in a state of flux, and really definite char- 
acters are difficult to find, which are constant. In some in- 
stances, it may be the host has a modifying influence on its 
unwelcome guest, or it may, as in the Hieracia, Kceleria, 
Taraxacum, etc., species are in ' the making,' and not yet lirmly 
fixed. My var. alpicola Reichb was so large a flowered form of 
Pinguicula vulgaris that Boswell Syme at first was inclined to 
refer it to grandiflora. It occurred in Western Ross. 

Poa cenisia All. b. flexuosa (Wahl.) given in ' Lond. Cat.', 
should be deleted. Hackel at first referred the plant I gathered 
on Ben Lawer to cenisia, but on my obtaining more examples 
he, and I have no doubt correctly, said No. I published the 
correction in the ' Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist.' It is true Mr. Fisher 
said he thought the specimens were a new form of P. arctica, 
and he promised to go into the matter, but beyond losing my 
type specimen, I have heard nothing more from him about it, 
and his opinion cannot override that of the great systematist. 
There is little doubt that the plants were an extreme alpine form 
of Poa pratensis, with large flowers. Hackel himself named 
my specimen of Festuca dumetonim L., closely allied, as Dr. 
Lees says, to F. rubra L. 

The fern Botrychium lanceolaUim, rests on \'ery slender 
evidence. It was supposed to have been found on the sands of 
Barrie, in 1839, by a Mr. Cruickshank, who sent a dran'ing of 
it to Newman (see ' Brit. Ferns,' Ed. III., p. 32), who referred 
it to B. rutaceum. No one has refound it, nor do the specimens 
of Cruickshank appear to be in existence (' E. B.', XII., p. 29). 
Perhaps I ought to have put it in my list in brackets, but the 
same might be said of Rammculus gramineus, R. alpestris, 
Carex brizoides, etc., but space had to be considered. 

I hope, at no distant date, to deal with the reported plants 
of Britain, which have not been verified, so that a list of them 
with the evidence on which they have been reported, may be 
available for consultation. I should much like to see the York- 
shire Inula britannica L. I have the species from Groby 
Pool, Leicester, and have gathered it in Austria, etc. It is 


Dnicc : The Oxford British Plant List. 99 

not like Helenium at all, and essentially differs in the achenes 
being hairy, not glabrous. The lower leaves are from | to | of 
an inch, broad, not 6 to 8 inches, as in Helenium. Loudon, excel- 
lent as he is, has not space to give an adequate description of the 
plants, and he omitted the special, and indeed also the group 
•characters, the latter being Folia involucri, apice dilatata, = 
spathulata, in Helenium, whereas in /. hritannica, which is 
in the section Enula Duby — ' Folia, involucri interiori apice 

The ' permanence ' of the trivial name, which is a botanical 
rule, led me to choose the badly descriptive name paniculatum 
for the broad-leaved Cotton Grass. It was called Linagrostis 
paniculata before it was named Eriophoriim latifolium Hoppe. 
But a good many battles will have to be fought before we get 
-even our British plant names correctly. 



By way of rider to the foregoing, I would add certain facts, 
privately communicated by G. C. Druce, which should prove 
stimulating to those North of England Field Botanists, who are 
inclined not to hide their light under a bushel. We have at 
least three ' new,' undescribed British Plants, and two of them 
Yorkshire species ! to which attention should be called, and 
herbaria examined for with as little delay as possible, so the 
results may appear in my Supplement. These are : — 

1. Montia lamprosperma Chamisso, the shining chestnut- 
brown faintly reticulate seeds of which have been detected in 
Leaf-bed deposits by Clement Reid, as well as the dull black 
ones of the M. fontana, and the shining black reticulate ones of 
M. rivularis. Mr. Druce says M. lamprosperma seems a quite 
distinct species, as in it the ' Flowers are free ' whereas they are 
joined, not free in the hitherto accepted British forms. The 
semina are very imperishable so that dried specimens on her- 
barium sheets can be easily needled over for ripe non-cast seeds. 

2. Orobanche procera Koch (a form of reticulata, Wallroth), 
which grows tall upon Thistle, Carduus eriophorus in West 
Yorks., and ' Centaurea ' (?) in Lincoln at Summer Castle. It is 
to the obstinate acuteness of Mr. H. E. Craven, of Roundhay, 
who forced its non-agreement in character with 0. elatior Sutt., 

1909 March i. 

loo Reviews and Book Notices. 

upon my and Mr. Druce's attention, that we owe what Druce 
calls this ' splendid ' addition to the British and York flora. It 
grows tall, the regularly curving trumpet-mouthed corollas are 
very glandulous-hairy, and massed on the upper third of the 
spike ; and has occurred several times of late years in the 
Thorner district. 

3. The other species is Arenaria stellarioides Willd. — a colon- 
ising-alien from the Caucasus and the Euxine, probably brought 
first to the Halifax, and later Elland and Mirfield riparian area 
(1895-1908 ! ), along with foreign barley, but since noticed 
thirteen years back it has spread down the waterway of Calder. 
It seeds freely, branches dichotomously, has Stitchwort-like 
leaves, and starry, white-petalled flowers of some degree of 
showiness. According to Nyman, its synonym is Arenaria 
cerastoides Poiret non D.C. The Stellaria arenaria L. , for which 
I took it is the A. spathulaia Desf. teste Index Kewensis, a species 
of Spain and North Africa. 

I may add that our Yorkshire Stations for the Elecampane 
want verifying.* The Wilstrop siding one had lanceolate lower 
leaves, the Thorp-Arch broad ones, but I write from memory — 
it is a quarter of a century since I saw either in situ. But in 
these matters alone, surely there is good work, and enough for 
our men of York to do in the coming summer — which may we 
all see ! 

Scandinavian Britain, by W. Q. Collingwood, M.A., F.S.A. 

London : S.P.C.K. 272 pp., 3/6. 

This is a further volume of the ' Early Britain ' Series published by 
this well-known house. So far the books issued comprise one of the most 
concise and valuable accounts of the early history of our country that we 
have ever read. They are all written by the leaders of the subjects dealt 
with. The present one is quite up to the high standard attained by its 
predecessors, and Mr. Collingwood's name on the title page is a guarantee 
of its excellence. We regret space does not enable to deal with it to the 
length that we should like, but we can heartily recommend it as the best 
account of the influence of the Scandinavian invasion that we have read. 

A Hill Country, by Russell F. Qwinnell. 26 pp., with Geological 
Map. George Philip & Son, Ltd. i/- net. 

This is a charming lesson in geography and geology ; written in a way 
which will appeal to the numerous visitors to the northern Clyde Ba.sin. 
The area in question, from its diversity of geological structure and scenery, 
is particularly suitable to being handled in the way the author's familiarity 
of the area enables him to do. It can be safely said that Mr. Gwinnell has 
taken full advantage of the very important les.sons in the physical features 
of the district with which he deals ; even the place-names adding their 
share to his narrative. 

* My son saw it in abundance last autumn in tiie recorded station near 
the S3a on the north side of the stream at Hayburn Wyke. — J. G. B. 




( \cer platanophyllum, St. L ). 


Patterdale, Westmorland. 

This massy and stately tree is not a native of Lake-land, 
although Westmorland is far-famed for its production. In 
fact, as Wordsworth states, ' it has long been the favourite 
■of the cottagers, and with the Fir, has been chosen to screen 
their dwellings.' It is frequently observed as an apparently 
spontaneous outgrowth in sundry wild and sequestered places, 
as well as in copses, so that we may infer that the rich gravelly 
soil, the hilly conditions, the open woodland, and the general 
climatic conditions of the northern districts are well suited to 
its organic temperament, and respond to the special exigences 
of its root growth and stem development. Its grand and massive 
form, the deep tones of its dense foliage, and its easy acces- 
sibility render it specially interesting to the student of the 
chemistry of plants, and as an introduction to that study, no 
better subject can be found. 

Ste^ni. — The wood is moderately hard, and of varying 
weight (specific gravity 0.57 to 0.74), uniformly white, and 
with no distinction between alburnum and duramen. The 
medullary rays on tangential section are pointed spindles up 
to about 0.7 mm. high, and 5 or 6 cells thick in the middle, 
the number of rays in i mm. of arc is about 12 ; the vessels 
are numerous and uniformly distributed, of 60 /x width, have 
spiral thickening, parts of their lateral walls are entirely inlaid 
with bordered pits, while their slanting transverse walls are 
pierced by simple pores ; the fibres have very stout walls, 
beset with a few simple pits ; some parenchyma occurs along- 
side the vessels. 

In the bark the parenchyma forms tangential bands inter- 
mixed with sieve-tubes which have a watery ' latex ' ; the fibres 
are disposed in the inner bast in a few narrow concentric layers 
extending between the rays, and almost all the parenchyma 
cells adjacent to these layers contain a single crystal of oxalate 
of calcium, while the outer bast and inner cortex are thickly 
sprinkled with groups of stone-cells richly provided with similar 
crystals ; the pericycle forms a somewhat interrupted ring of 
fibres separated^at intervals by sclerenchyma ; the periderm 

11,09 March i 

I02 Keegan : The Sycamore. 

of rather wide cells is formed in the first year in the sub- 
epidermal layer, and remains thin and living for a long time, 
till finally plates of secondary periderm develop below it, and 
ultimately produce a nearly smooth, hard, dry, chocolate- 
coloured rhytidome, which eventually splits and peels off in 
scales. The Sycamore is a starch-tree, i.e., while the starch 
completely disappears from the bark in winter (mid-November 
till 3rd March), that of the wood remains only slightly reduced 
in quantity all the time. A piece of branch 2| inch in diameter, 
felled in February, was examined : the dried bark had a small 
quantity of white wax with traces of carotin and chlorophyll, 
there was no resin apparently, the amount of tannin was under 
I per cent., there was a little free phloroglucin, a little pectosic 
mucilage, and free phlobaphene, a saponin-like glucoside, 
some cane-sugar, about 10 per cent, oxalate of calcium, and 9.4 
ash which had 6.6 per cent, soluble salts, 4.4 silica, 45.2 lime,, 
with traces of magnesia, etc. ; the wood showed mere traces 
of tannin and phloroglucin, and (air-dried) yielded about 0.5 
per cent, of ash, which had 32.3 per cent, soluble salts, 4.4 
silica, 21.5 lime, ^."j magnesia and manganese, 3.9 P^O^, and 
3.9 SO^. It would seem that none of our ordinary well-known 
timber or coppice trees yields a chemical analysis quite sO' 
meagre as the foregoing. Even none of our sap-wood trees is 
apparently so poverty-stricken as respects wax, resin, tannin, 
etc. It is clear that the starch reserve of the Sycamore is 
for a very long period in life utilized by the cambium for growth 
in size, and for the evolution of new-shoots, but that it is easily 
exhausted and spent in the prosecution of this work. Herewith 
is connected the remarkable production of cane-sugar in the 
bleeding sap of springtide — the increased tension (osmotic 
pressure) thereof arising concurrently with the regeneration 
of the starch in spring, but the outflow effect would be 
comparatively insignificant if it were not for the remarkable 
porosity of the vessels and their freedom from obstructive 
accumulations of gum (xylan), resin, and tylose growths. 

Leaves. — The mesophyll is composed of one long layer of 
palisades, narrow, and occupying about half its thickness, and 
a lacunar tissue of irregular cells with large air-spaces ; the cells 
of the upper epidermis contain starch granules, and their inner 
wall is slimed, the lower epidermis has on the surface a papillose 
structure, and is coated with wax, the stomatic cells only bear- 
ing starch, while simple one-celled hairs appear along the 


Keegan : The Sycamore. 103 

course of the nerves ; the stomata are of medium size, and have 
no accessory cells, but are very numerous, their number per 
square mm. being about 400 ; the leaf is about 165 /a thick ; 
at the base of the petiole the separated vascular bundles form 
a closed ring, from which nearer the blade other bundles are 
emitted, making 7 in all. On 8th August the blades held 67 
per cent of water, and the dried substance contained 3.5 per 
cent, wax, with very much carotin, but very little resin or fat 
oil, 19.8 albumenoids, 3.4 quercitrin and tannin, some free 
phloroglucin, and glucose, a moderate quantity of pectosic 
mucilage stained with phlobaphene, no reserve starch (very 
much in the fresh leaf), much oxalate of calcium, and 11. 2 ash 
which had 26.2 per cent, soluble salts, 14.9 silica, 26.4 lime, 
5.8 magnesia, 5.3 P'-^O . and 4.4 SO^, there were some man- 
ganese and soluble carbonates. The ash of the brown autumn 
leaves (with petioles) amounted to 12. i per cent, with 20.7 per 
cent, silica, 41.9 lime, and i.i P-0^. The leaves contain 
inosite, according to Pick. The special feature, however, is the 
lavish plaster of wax on the lower epidermis, which rapidly 
separates from boiling alcohol in gelatinous masses ; its formula 
would be near C^^'H^'^O*. The early cessation of the foUar 
vegetation in this species of Maple forbids any exhibition of the 
magnificent crimson autumnal colouration so admirably 
beautiful in soyie of its congeners. 

Flower and Fruit. — The inflorescence assumes the form 
of a pendulous cluster (raceme) which exhibits every gradation 
from hermaphrodite flowers with large ovaries to those in which 
the ovaries are reduced or entirely absent. The pistil consists 
of two carpels joined to form a flattened two-chambered ovary, 
with two ovules in each chamber, "fhe floral parts contain 
no carotin, but have much quercitrin and glucose (the disc 
glistens with drops of nectar) , while the ash of the whole thryse 
yields 48.5 per cent, soluble salts, 14. i lime, 3.8 magnesia, 
12.4 P'^O^, 6 SO^, with traces of chlorine, magnanese, etc. In 
the fruit, which is a double samara (winged achenes), one 
ovule in each chamber enlarges to a rounded seed, which is 
wholly occupied by the embryo, and fills up the globular 
chamber ; the ripe seed is made up of an external tegument 
(testa) composed of a cuticle, two layers of thin cells, a com- 
pressed membrane, and a layer of cells with crystals of oxalate 
of calcium, also of an internal tegument (tegmen) of five rows 
of cells ; a refractive plate, which is the relic of the absorbed 

, 1909 March i . 

104 Keegaji : The Sycauiorc. 

nucellus, immediately borders the foliaceous wrinkled coty- 
ledons ; there is no endosperm ; it ripens in September, and 
about half of the seeds produced are fit to germinate up till two 
years. The whole fruit contains about 8 per cent, of water, 
26 albumenoid, 8 to 10 fat-oil, 2 sugar, 9.5 fibre, considerable 
resin and oxalate of calcium, 5.5 ash, which has 37 per cent, 
soluble salts, 2.6 silica, 25.7 lime, 4 magnesia, 8 P^0■^ and 
3.6 SO-'^. The reserve materials are aleurone and oil, no starch. 
When the fruit covers are transparent, so that light can easily 
enter into the deepest parts of the seed, then a dense homoge- 
neous protoplasm, coloured uniformly green, fills the cells of the 
embryo. This green pigment was formerly thought to be chloro- 
phyll, but it is doubtful if this seed-green is really identical 
M'ith or related to leaf-green. 

Summary. — There is some similarity between the physiology 
of the Beech and that of the Sycamore, but in the latter we have 
to deal with a case of palmate nervation of the leaves. With 
regard to these organs, we have all the chemical evidence of 
rapid growth and early decline. The production of starch 
declines towards the autumn, that of cellulose does not increase, 
and complete lignification is not consummated till the fall ; 
the albumenoids and the sugars remain uniform till very late, 
and there is a heavy fixation of ash with much silica and lime 
in the old leaf. K special feature is the large quantity of wax 
coating on the lower epidermis, the cause of which is difficult 
to assign, but is doubtless connected with a decline of the 
vitality on that side of the organ. The transpiratory activity 
is only moderate, and the assimilatory energy is not as great 
as the sombre green of the foliage would seem to indicate. As 
regards the stem, the thickness of the liber relatively to that 
of the wood in older trees is comparatively feeble, which is a 
sign of defective differentiation ; and notwithstanding that the 
wood is very fibrous, the lignification of that particular element 
is very slow, and not completed up till about 80 or 100 years. 
Moreover, the felled timber is liable to rot when exposed to 
atmospheric variations— a circumstance which is attributable 
to a serious deficiency of tannin and resin. However, notwith- 
standing all these grave drawbacks, the Sycamore manages to 
endure well and hearty for over two hundred years. That it 
somehow maintains a remarkable soundness of main body and 
limb is clear from the fact that it is not subject to maladies like 
gummosis, or to a partial demise of any of its twigs and young 


BroiVH : Freshwater Rhisopods. 105 

branches like the Poplars, etc. Year after year with unfailing 
energy, its magnificent crown rears a majestic arch, and pro- 
jects a solemn shade ; its flowering and fruiting are annually 
abundant, and fully sustained ; and the gaping wounds left 
by the lopping of its larger limbs are healed up and overgrown 
with marvellous celerity and completion. 



The Freshwater Rhizopods, though an extremely interesting 
group of microscopic animals, do not appear to receive the atten- 
tion which they deserve. They are to be found very commonly, 
and in almost all kinds of fresh water ; in the sediment of ponds 
and streams and water-troughs ; amongst the floating conferva 
and weeds ; and amongst wet moss. One needs but to collect 
samples of sediment, weeds and moss in the field, and on arriv- 
ing home rinse these in clear water and strain the washings 
through fine gauze. The sediment so obtained will be found to 
yield numerous species. Sphagnum washings are especially 
productive, and I have found many forms amongst the green 
growth on the overflow from water-troughs. The material 
can be preserved in a healthy state for a considerable time in 
shallow vessels exposed to dull light, and loosely covered to 
prevent too much evaporation. 

The following species I have found recently in this district, 
and they will serve as a preliminary list of the most commonly 
■occiuTing forms. 

Order i. — Amoebina — naked forms. 

Family Lobosa. 

Amoeba proteus (Pallus) Leidy. The 'common' amoeba 
occurs frequently in sediment of pools and streams, and amongst 
aquatic vegation. Burbage, Stanage, Ringinglow, etc. A large 
form — probably Cash's var. granulosa — in a stream in Eccles- 
all Woods. 

Amoeba villosa Wallich. Common, and generally in similar 
situations to the previous species. 

Amoeba striata Penard. A form with a distinct external 

1909 March i. 

io6 Brown : Freshivafer Rhizopods . 

pellicle. Amongst the moss\^ growth on the over-flow of water- 
troughs. Ecclesall, etc. 

Amoeba Umax Dujardin. A small form. Occurs in sedi- 
ment of pools. Ringinglow and Ecclesall Woods. 

Amoeba limicola Rhumbler. Occasionally found in sedi- 
ment of pools. Ringinglow. 

Amoeba verrucosa Ehrenb. A form with external pellicle. 
According to Penard, a collective term for several distinct 
species. Amongst mossy vegetation. Ecclesall and Bamford. 

Amoeba adinophora Auerbach. A very small species, but 
highly interesting. Occasionally in sediment. Whiteley Woods 
and Ecclesall. 

Dactylosphaerium radiosum (Ehrenb) Biitschli. A small form 
occurs in sediment (Ringinglow) and amongst floating conferva 
(Wye at Haddon), etc. 

Family Vampyrellida. 

Vampyrella lateritia (Fresen.) Leidy. A peculiar form 
parasitic on AlgcB. Burbage. 

Vampyrella vorax Cienkowski. A non-parasitic and active 
species, feeding on Diatoms, etc. Amongst mossy growth on 
w^ater-troughs. Ecclesall. 

Order 2. — Conchulina. Forms provided with tests. 
Family Arcellida. 

Arcella vulgaris Ehrenb. A very common species amongst 
aquatic vegetation. 

Var. compressa Cash is rare. Occurs in Sphagnum pools, 

Arcella discoides Ehrenb. Amongst Sphagnum. Ringing- 
low and Stanage. 

Pseudochlamys patella Clap, et Lachm. A curious form 
with very delicate flexible test. Occurs on dripping rocks 
amongst moss at Slippery Stones (Derwent). Mid-winter. 

C entropy xis aculeata (Ehrenb.) Stein. Common amongst 
sphagnum and in pools. 

Var. ecornis (Ehrenb.) Leidy, generally with the above. 

Difflugia pyriformis Perty. Common in pools, troughs, and 
amongst aquatic vegetation. Very variable. 

Var. compressa (Carter) Leidy. Fairly common in similar 
situations. Stanage, Froggatt, etc. 

Naturalist > 

Brown : FrcsJiivater Rhisopods. 107 

Difflugia acuminata Ehrenb. Common in sediment. Test 
often consists entirely of diatom frustules (=-D. bacillarhim 
Perty. Ecclesall Woods. Froggatt, etc. 

Difflugia glohulosa Dujardin. Common. Ecclesall Woods, 
Ringinglow, etc. 

Difflugia urceolata Carter. Not common. Sediment of 
water-trough, Froggatt. 

Difflugia constncta (Ehrenb) Leidy- Common in pools. 

Lecquereusia spiralis (Ehrenb) Schlumb. A form with an 
apparently coiled shell. Generally common. Stanage, Frog- 
gatt, Ringinglow, Occasionally the test consists of angular 
sand grains. (Ecclesall Woods). 

Nebela collaris (Ehrenb) Leidy. A common form in Sphag- 
num. Froggatt, Ringinglow, etc. 

Nebela flabellulum Leidy. Less common, but in similar 
situations. Froggatt. 

Quadrula symmetrica Schultz. Common in pools. Frog- 
gatt, Stanage, etc. 

Quadrula irregtdaris Archer. Amongst mossy growth on 
water trough. Ecclesall. 

Cochliopodium bilimbosum (Auerb) Leidy. Occurs associated 
with the last form at Ecclesall. 

Family Euglyphina. 

Euglypha alveolata Dujardin. A common form and widely 
distributed. Both spined and unspined forms occur ift most 

Euglypha ciliata (Ehrenb) Leidy. Also common in sediment 
and amongst aquatic plants. Ringinglow, Froggatt, Stanage. 

Assulina seminulum (Ehrenb). A few empty tests amongst 
Sphagnum. Ringinglow and Burbage. 

Cyphoderia ampulla (Ehrenb) Leidy. Common and widely 
distributed in sediment and amongst vegetation in pools. 
Ringinglow, Burbage, Ecclesall Woods, etc. 

Sphenoderia lenta Schlumb. A few empty tests amongst 
Sphagnum. Stanage. 

Trinema enchelys (Ehrenb) Leidy. One of the most widely 
dispersed forms, very variable in size. 

Pamphagus mutabilis Bailey. Many associated together 
jimongst floating Alga. Burbage. A form with very delicate 
flexible test. 

1909 March i. 

io8 Bavfoni: Beetles of Lancashire and C/ieshire. 

? Pamphagus curviis Leidy. Several individuals associated 
with the above appear to correspond to this species. 

Family Amphistomixa. 
Diplophrys archevi Barker. A few individuals amongst the 
mossy growth on the outside of a water-trough. Ecclesall. 



It is safe to say that no Coleopterist in the North of England 
can afford to be without this list for purposes of comparison and 
reference, or to guide him in his studies, whether or not it be 
his fortune to visit any of the localities named in it. The 
total number of species recorded for the two counties is i486. 
That this is very much below the actual number of species 
which go to make up their beetle fauna is obvious, and Mr. 
Sharp himself apparently recognises this, for he admits in his 
introductory remarks that ' nearly the whole of Lancashire, 
north of the Ribble, the mountainous districts in the east of 
that county, and the whole of South and East Cheshire are still 
virtually unexplored, and probably, especially in the upland 
districts, maintain a fauna only very partially represented in 
the median and western plain.' Elsewhere, however, he appar- 
ently overlooks this very obvious explanation, and attributes 
this paucity to be due to the geographical position of Lancashire 
and Cheshire. We cannot avoid thinking that the absence from 
both counties of regular systematic work, such as has been 
organised and directed in Yorkshire by the Yorkshire Natural- 
ists' Union, is more likely to be the true explanation. 

The division of each county into suitable areas, and making 
an excursion into some part of each every year, with the express 
purpose of recording its entomological fauna, may well be taken 
up by the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. So 
far as the beetle fauna is concerned, we should anticipate an 
addition of from 250 to 300 species. When some such plan 
as this has been tried and has failed, it may then be politic to 
explain poor results by a reference to geographical position. 

* ' The Coleoptera of Lancashire and Cheshire;' by W. E. Sharp, F.E.S* 
St. Albans, 1908, 76pp. 


Bavfoni : Beetles of Lancashire and Clieshire, 109- 

Mr. Sharp pays a well-deserved tribute to the self-denying 
zeal of the working-men naturalists, who did such splendid 
work in the first half of last century. Unfortunately, these 
early naturalists had not realised how important the study of 
distribution would become. Consequently for the purposes 
of a list, their collections, if still in existence, furnish little or 
no assistance. Coleopterists are rarely numerous in any county,. 
but Lancashire and Cheshire appear to have had less than the 
average number. We demur to the inclusion of Samuel 
Gibson, of Hebden Bridge, who by residence and by the collect- 
ing he did around Huddersfield, Halifax and Hebden Bridge, 
may, in fairness be claimed by Yorkshire Coleopterists as one 
of themselves. On the other hand, we miss the name of Rev. 
H. Higgins, who first discovered Cymindis vaporariorum L in 
Lancashire ; and of T. Blackburn of Bowdon. We find that 
Mr. Sharp has omitted a number of records of species which 
appeared in the older lists, e.g., Mr. Gregson recorded Bletkisa 
muUipunctata L., from Crosby, Pelophila borealis Payk. from 
Bromborough, and Pelohius tardus Herbst. from Rufford ; and 
Dr. Ellis recorded Platynaspis luteorubra Goeze. from Hightown. 

An important omission is that of Mordella fasciata F., a 
specimen of which taken by Rev. H. H. Higgins at Rainhill 
was stated by Dr. Ellis in 1886 to be then in the Derby 
Museum, Liverpool. This discounts considerably Mr. Sharp's 
remarks on the genera Mordellistena and MordelUr. 

On the contrary, we are pleased to see that Mr. Sharp has 
re-instated Lampyris noctiluca L. on the authority of three 
Coleopterists and his own. It was first recorded by Mr. 
Gregson ' in plenty on the clay banks beyond New Ferry,' but 
despite this definite record, Dr. Ellis omitted it from his list, 
for the insufficient reason that he himself had not met with 
it. Notwithstanding the fourfold confirmation, Mr. Sharp 
makes no mention of this early record. 

Another point which we should have liked Mr. Sharp to 
have settled once for all is the occurrence of Helophorus mul- 
sanli Rye. He merely says ' Fowler records this species as 
taken commonly at Liverpool by Crotch, but it is otherwise 
unrecorded from the district.' This, however, is not the case. 
Dr. Ellis records ' one specimen from the Hightown shore. 
May 1882.' F. Archer says of it : ' abundant in the ditches 
Altcar rifle ground. This is also new, being distinct from 
H. dorsalis Marsh.' The latter species he does not record, and 

1 909 March i. 

1 1 o Book Notice 

^■et in the face of his definite statement as to the distinction 
between H. dorsalis Muls. [= H. mulsanti Rye.] and H. dor- 
salts Marsh, Dr. ElHs, without the sHghtest justification, 
transferred Archer's record of the former species to the 
latter. Now, there may be good reasons for disregarding 
Archer's definite statement and the records of Crotch and 
Dr. Ellis, with which must go the authority of E. C. Rye, 
who presumably satisfied himself that Archer and Crotch 
had rightly diagnosed the species. If such there be, we 
submit that Mr. Sharp should have given them, so that we 
might have considered them for ourselves, and accepted 
■or rejected the conclusion to which he appears to have come. 
It may be added that Mr. Sharp omits H. dorsalis Marsh for 
which the only record is the improper one of Dr. Ellis, re- 
ferred to above. 

Despite what we have said, this list marks a great advance 
on the restricted list of Dr. Ellis, which only enumerated some 
850 species, and Mr. Sharp deserves our thanks for its com- 
pilation. If our suggestion as to organised excursions, etc., be 
adopted, and an accession of species be the result, we shall look 
to him to furnish us with a fuller and more complete list which 
will be exhaustive in its inclusion of previously recorded species 
and at the same time scientifically critical as to their right 

to a place in the list. 


Waterloo Museum, Liverpool. Complete History of the Echalaz 
■Collection. By Lieut. Col. Echalaz. Croydon. 325 pp. 

This excellent and well-printed volume is a detailed description of the 
collection of British Birds, etc., recently presented to the Waterloo Museum 
by Lieut-Col. Echalaz. Printed in large type, and on thick paper, the first 
impression one gets is that it puts the publications of our national museum 
at South Kensington in the shade ! There are seventy cases in the collec- 
tion, and these are described to some length. In each instance, particulars 
of the capture of the bird are given, with other general information, ad- 
mittedly extracted from Saunders' ' Manual of British Birds.' Most of 
the .specimens are the victims of the gallant colonel's gun, but with regard 
to the Great Northern Diver, there is an exception to this rule. With this 
wary bird the Colonel had not his characteristic luck — one shot fell about 
an incii too short of the bird, and he believes he wounded another. The 
colonel appears to have always been a sportsman. At the age of twelve 
he was allowed a single-barelled gun, and at fourteen, he shot his first hare, 
and first pheasant. There is a portrait of the Colonel as frontispiece, and 
his life-history is given in the first chapter. In this he deplores the fact 
that he was never in active service, but he trusts that, as he had faced a 
wounded tiger, he would have acquitted himself both as a soldier and an 
Englishman, had he been called upon to face the bullets of any enemy. 
Personally, we feel rather glad, for his sake, that he was not called upon 
to ' face bullets ' ; we should not imagine it at all a pleasant proceeding. 
There are several plates from photographs of the cases, many of which are 
good ; but some, we hope, hardly do justice to the specimens. 



Otter and Kingfisher at Horncastle. — In the Canal 
which runs through the town of Horncastle, an Otter has 
recently been seen disporting itself at the end of a stone- 
mason's yard, and within a few feet of his work-shop. At 
the writer's oft-repeated request, it was not disturbed, and 
■occasionally lay on the bank in full view. At the same place 
a Kingfisher (now also undisturbed), has been frequently seen 
during the last two years, diving for food. Can there be any 
connection between these two incidents ? The mason says 
that there are shoals of small roach or dace about this part of 
the canal.* On one occasion an unfortunate Kingfisher rose from 
his dive with such impetus, that he struck against the brick 
wall bordering the water, and was killed. — Rev. J. Conway 
Walter, Langton Rectory, Horncastle, December i6th, 1908. 

A Birdland Tragedy. — Early in December last, a painter 
brought me the mummified body of a Swift, which he had found 
in a hole under a spout. Apparently the bird had somehow 
or other managed to become entangled in a piece of cord, 
and hang itself. I sent the bird over to a meeting of the 
Bradford Naturalists' Club, and they, with their usual 
thoroughness, held a post-mortem examination, and what 
appeared to be a lot of string, turned out to be a portion of 
a lady's veil. This had been tightly twisted round and round, 
and had gathered an external coating of dirt and soot, which 
gave it the exact appearance of thick string. Attached to the 
veil there were three or four inches of ordinary garden wire 

By a method of deduction we get a probability something 
like the following : — A veil blew from a lady's hat, and caught 
in some wire netting, and waving in the breeze, took a Swift's 
fancy for nesting material. All might have gone well if the 
piece of wire had not become fixed near to the entrance of the 
nesting hole. A few struggles with it caused the veil to twist 
round the bird's neck and foot. Then a series of struggles 
to get free must have resulted in the bird putting such an 
amount of twist into the veil, that it became tightly drawn, 

* The abundance of food has no doubt attracted both the Otter and 
Kingfisher. — Eds. 

iigoy March i. 

112 Field Notes. 

and the bird died of exhaustion in the hole. It is noteworthy 
that the bird in its struggles to get free must always have 

turned one way. thus giving the veil such a " hard twist," that 
it resembled string. 

After the post-mortem, the body was decently interred in 
the Cart Wright Museum. Bradford. — R. Fortune, Harrogate. 

Honey Buzzard in Northumberland. — Whilst rambling in 
Whittle Dene, Ovingham-on-Tyne, with a friend on Sept. 25th, 
1908, we found a large bird, still alive, but in a feeble condition. 
It died after being removed to our house. After skinning 
and setting it up, it was identified by the Hancock Museum 
authorities at Newcastle, as a Honey Buzzard. The bird 
had evidently been fasting, for it was very thin, and hardly 
weighed much more than a pound. — Douc;las Clague, 


Field Notes. 113 

A Cockroach new to Yorkshire.— Last x\ugust, Mr. 
Malone kindly gave me a large Cockroach from the Bradford 
market, which was altogether new to me. I sent it on to Mr. 
R. Shelford, of the Oxford Museum, who kindly named it 
Nyctihora hynnnea Thunb. It is a South American species. 
Of course it is ' only an introduction,' but we must bear in 
mind that all our big cockroaches have been introduced with 
commerce. Some of them, however, have come to stay ; 
have found congenial habitations, and have multiplied enor- 
mously. It is therefore of interest and importance to know 
the time of their coming. — J. W. Carter, Bradford. 

Leucophaea surinawensis Linn, at Bradford. — In 1906 
I had a specimen of this Cockroach brought in from the Brad- 
ford market. During 1907-8 Mr. F. Rhodes gave me several 
from a hot-house in Lister Park, Manningham, where it has 
become hrmly established. — J. W. Carter, Bradford. 

Vertigo alpestris at Ingleton. — The members of the 
Leeds Branch of the Conchological Society held a joint ramble 
with the members of the Manchester Branch, at Ingleton, on 
the 12th September, 1908. Thirty-six species of landshells, 
and nine slugs were recorded during the day. Mr. J. W. Taylor 
was fortunate in adding a second authentic locality for Vertigo 
alpestris. This species, and Vertigo minutissima are the most 
uncommon of the genus that are known to occur in York- 
shire. It is interesting to add another locality to the very 
few already known for these rare species. It is perhaps as 
well to state that it occurred under stones on the top of a wall 
in Beesley Glen. This appears to be the general habitat for 
this species, as it is found under similar conditions in other 
localities. It was first recorded from a garden wall at Bingley, 
by Mr. J. A. Hargreaves in 1887. — F. Booth. 

The Hybrid Oak in Yorkshire and other parts of 
Britain. — There appears to be no definite record of the occur- 
rence of the Hybrid Oak {Qiterciis Robur x sessiliflora) in Britain. 
During the summer of 1908, I found it in the following 

n)oy March I. 


114 Revienvs and Book Notices. 

Watsonian vice-counties :— west Kent, Cambridge, Chester, 
west Lancaster, south-west Yorkshire, and Westmorland with 
North Lancashire. Dr. W. G. Smith and Mr. A. G. Tansley 
gathered some specimens of Oaks in North-East Yorkshire 
last June, and these were examined by Mr. Tansley and myself : 
among the specimens were one or two of the Hybrid Oak. 
Mr. W. M. Rankin has forwarded me specimens, a few of which 
belong to the Hybrid, from a locality in mid-west Yorkshire. 
Mr. Tansley also reports to me the finding, in June 1908, of the 
Hybrid Oak in Hereford and Worcester. Herbarium specimens 
which I have examined, prove its occurrence also in Sussex, 
Bedford, Derby, Dumbarton, and Perth. I am very shortly 
publishing elsewhere an account of the characters, status, and 
distribution of all the British Oaks. — C. E. Moss, Cambridge. 

Transactions of the Rochdale Literary and Scientific Society. 

Vol. IX., 1905-IQ08. 114 + xxxiv. pp. 

This record of this Society's work lor the last four years is a good one, 
and contains many useful papers. Perhaps that which will appeal to 
our readers the most is on ' Fossil Arthopoda and Pisces from Middle Coal 
Measures of Sparth, Rochdale,' by William A. Parker. In this the author 
enumerates the various finds made from time to time in the now well- 
known ironstone nodules in the shales at Sparth Bottoms. The paper 
is illustrated by representations of the more interesting fossils found. 
There is a paper on ' Manchester's contribution to the Chemistry of the 
Nineteenth Century,' by J. H. Brittain ; ' Marine Shells : their Variety 
and Beauty,' by Rev. A. Hann, and ' The Underground Waters of Roch- 
dale and Neighbourhood ' (with analyses), by T. Stenhouse. There are 
also exceedingly useful papers on such subjects as Rochdale Newspapers, 
the Meteorological Elements of Rochdale, Two Reputed Manor Houses of 
Rochdale, Inscriptions on Rochdale Gravestones, etc., as well as others 
of a purely literary character. This Society is obviously doing excellent 
work in its district, and, in its Transactions are preserved many important 

Animal Romances, by Graham Renshaw, M.B., F.Z.S. London : 
Sherratt & Hughes. 206 pp., 7/6 net. 

Some little time ago in noticing this writer s ' Final Natural History 
Essays,' we expressed the hope that they might not be linai.' This hope 
has been realized, and we can safely say that ' Anima' Romances ' is even 
more interesting than its predecessors. It cons sts of a series of essay,, 
written first-hand from actual studies in the field, in this way shewmg a 
marked contrast between many, very many ' natural history ' books that 
are now being placed upon the market. The present volume deals not 
so much with the zoology and history of the mammals, asowith Dr. Ren- 
shaw's previous books, but in the present case the author has attempted 
to present the animals as actually li\'ing and moving before the reader. 
Dr. Renshaw now deals with elephants, giraffes, hippopotamus, eland, 
jackals, penguins, etc., etc., and the essays are written in a style and with 
a literary ' finish ' that is quite refreshing. The only fault we have to find 
with the volume is the increase in the size of its pages, the actual letterpress 
being the same as in previous volumes, though this may have been done to 
better accommodate the many excellent ptatcs. 



(plates v., VI. and vii.). 

Wm. west, F.L.S., 


G. S. WEST, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., 


During an investigation of the British freshwater phyto- 
plankton, material^has been collected on several occasions from 
the various lakes of the English Lake District. These collec- 
tions were made as part of a general comprehensive scheme for 
the investigation of the plankton of the British lakes. We have 
been enabled to carry out this research during the last few years, 
chiefly by means of several grants from the Government Grant 
Committee of the Royal Society.* 

The general Alga-flora of the English Lake District is fairly 
well worked out. The earliest paper of importance was a list 
of Desmids found in the neighbourhood of Windermere by 
Bissett,f and this was followed by two papers by A. W. Ben- 
nett. J Wej^have ourselves explored the greater part of this 
area very thoroughly for Algae of all kinds, and have at different 
times contributed papers dealing either exclusively or partially 
with the Algae of the English Lake District. || 

The first collections of plankton were made in June 1903, 
and we had the advantage of beginning this plankton investi- 
gation after having previously acquired a very complete know- 
ledge of the general Alga-flora of the bogs, streams, pools, and 
lake-margins. This has enabled us to thoroughly appreciate 
the differences between the phytoplankton and the general 
Alga-flora, and to endeavour to find out something concerning 
thejexisting relationships between them. 

Considering the size of some of the English lakes, they are 
situated in a very compact area, the whole of which is incor- 

* A general summary of this work, treated largely from a comparative 
standpoint, has quite recently been presented to the Royal Society. 

t J. P. Bissett, ' List of Desmidiea; found in gatherings made in the 
neighbourhood of Lake Windermere during 1883,' Journ. Roy. Micr. Soc' 

+ A. W. Bennett, ' Freshwater Algae of the English Lake District, etc.', 
' Journ. Roy Micr. Soc.', 1886 ; ' Freshwater Algae of the English Lake 
District, IL', ibid. 1888. 

II W. West, ' Alga; of the English Lake District,' ' Journ. Roy. Micr. 
Soc," 1892 ; W. and G. S. West, ' New British Freshwater Algae,' ibid. 
1894 ; W. and G. S. West, ' Notes on Freshwater Alga>, II.', ' Journ. Bot.', 
XXXVIIL, 1900 ; III., ibid, XLL, 1903, etc. 

1909 March i. 

Ii6 TVesi;: Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 

ated within a radius of about 15 miles from a centre, taken at 
Dunmail Raise (about half-way between Grasmere and Thirl- 
mere). Within this area many high mountains are embraced, 
four summits being over 3000 feet, and four others exceeding 
2900 feet. In all, there are more^than forty mountains over 
2000 feet in height in this small area. 

The lakes are numerous, and ten or twelve of them are 
moderately large, although rather narrow,|Windermere having 
a length of over ten miles, Ullswater a length of over seven, and 
Coniston Water a length of over five miles. There are at least 
a dozen more smaller lakes, no less important than the larger 
ones from an algological standpoint, and in addition, a con- 
siderable number of mountain tarns. 

As might be expected in a western mountainous region, the 
rainfall is very heavy, varying from about 50 inches in the 
outer zone, to about 150 inches in the more central region of 
the highest mountains. The rainfall at Seathwaite at the 
upper end of Borrowdale, is the heaviest in the British Islands, 
and is only approached by that registered in the Cullin Hills in 
Skye. This heavy rainfall, and the frequent torrential character 
of it, is no doubt responsible for washing many of the bog 
species of Algse into the plankton, and affords an explanation 
of the presence of certain species in the limnetic region of the 

We hav^e already pointed out the important relationship 
between the geological character of a district and the con- 
stituents of its Alga-flora, more especially of its Desmid-flora.* 
The entire Lake District is an Older Palaeozoic area, in which 
a northern outcrop of Ordovician strata is separated from a 
southern Silurian outcrop by an extensive mass of pre-Devonian 
igneous material. The really rich Alga-floras are all on the 
Older Palaeozoic or Precambrian areas, and the English Lake 
District possesses a richer Alga-flora than any other part of 
England, although not quite equal to that of the north-west of 
Scotland or the west of Ireland. The phytoplankton of the 
lakes is similarly rich in species, although not so prolific as the 
limnetic flora of the lakes of north-west Scotland. 

* W. and G. S. West, ' Alga-flora of Yorkshire,' ' Trans. Yorks. Nat. 
Union,' V., 1900-1901, p. 5 ; G. S. West, ' Treatise on British Freshwater 
Algae,' Cambridge, 1904, p. 6 ; W. and G. S. West, ' A further Contribution 
to the Freshwater Plankton of the Scottish Locks,' ' Trans. Roy. Soc, 
Edin.', XLI., Part III., 1905, p. 511. 



Plate V. 





6 5 



7 'x 

Ennerdale Water 


i 10 




^. ! 

S^ vT"^M^V^- "r^'iR ■-''''1^ 


^^..:- :#■ 

»•* '' 



/>*:. ^ 

• ♦ 




•*^ '^#S 

^j •• 

12 15 

Ennerdale Water (x 100). 



Plate VI. 

Crummack Water ^x 100\ 



Derwent Water (\ 200). 

^Vesi : Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 117 

In all, eighteen lakes were examined for their phytoplankton, 
the tow-netting being done by boats wherever they were avail- 
able. Where boats could not be obtained, the plankton- 
collections were made either by the tedious process of baling a 
large volume of water through the nets, or by allowing the water 
of the outlet to flow through the nets for some time. The nets 
used were such as we have described before, and consisted of 
the strongest silk bolting-cloth, with a very close and imiform 
mesh (170 meshes in a linear inch). 

We have quite recently been receiving regular monthly 
•collections from Windermere, Wastwater, and Ennerdale 
Water, in order to obtain an adequate idea of the periodicity 
•of the various constitutents of the phytoplankton of three 
representative lakes. As yet, only the Windermere collections 
are complete for twelve months, and a separate section of this 
paper is devoted to their consideration. 


General Notice of the Lakes Investigated. The dates 
are those on which the plankton-collections were made. 

1. Buttermere, Cumberland. May 1903. Altit. 331 feet. 
About one and a quarter miles long, by three-eighths of a mile 
broad. Average depth about 55 feet ; maximum depth, 94 
feet. The lake is in the midst of mountains, and lies quite away 
from any village. The plankton contained a few good Desmids 
and a quantity of Peridiniiim Willei. Tabellaria fenestrata was 
the most conspicuous of the Diatoms, and of the Rotifers, 
Notholca longispina was abundant. 

2. Crummock Water, Cumberland, May 1903. Altit. 321 
feet. About two and a half miles long, by five-eighths of a mile 
broad. Average depth, 88 feet ; maximum depth, 144 feet. 
The lake is in the vicinity of high mountains, one summit having 
an altitude of 2791 feet, being distant less than one mile. There 
are no villages in the vicinity, and therefore little contamination 
of the water. The plankton collected could be described as a 
DiNOBRYON-PLANKTON. The dominating species was Dino- 
bryon cylindricum, and with it was a quantity of Coelosphcsrium 
Kiitzingianum. Theoonly conspicuous Diatom was Melosira 
granulata. Of the Chlorophyceae, Ankistrodesmns Pfitzeri was 
quite common, a sterile species of Mougeotia with very long 
cells was frequent, and a number of Desmids were of general 

1909 March i 

ii8 West: Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 

occurrence. The most noticeable of the latter were Cosmarmm 
ahbreviatum var. planctonicum , Xanthidium antilopceum var. 
depauperaium, Staurastrum furcigeruni forma eustephana, a 
form of St. anatinum, St. Arctiscon, and Spondylosium pulchrum 
var. planum. A few of the larger Entomostraca were present, 
and also a few Rotifers, of which Notholca longispina and 
Polyarthra platyptera were the most frequent, the latter occur- 
ring in considerable quantity. 

3. Ennerdale Water, Cumberland. May 1903. Altit. 369 
feet. Two and a half miles in length by three-quarters of a mile 
broad. Average depth about 62 feet ; maximum depth 148 
feet. The lake has a somewhat desolate situation, and only 
two or three houses are near it. It is the most western of the 
lakes, and lies between mountains which rise on each side to 
2000 feet. It has a separate drainage basin, not being connected 
with any of the other lakes of this area, and the valley above it 
is strewn with numerous moraines. The plankton was domin- 
ated by Peridinmm Willei, and numerous Desmids. Ceratium 
hirundinella was also common. The smaller species of Desmids 
were very abundant, the most conspicuous being Gonatozygon 
monotcBnium , Staurastrum lunatum var. planctonicum, St. 
defectum, St. curvatum,St. jaculiferum, Arthrodesmus triangularis, 
Cosmarium suharctoum, and C. bioculatum. The most interest- 
ing of the larger Desmids were Cylindrocystis diplospora var. 
major, Micrasterias Sol, M. pinnatifida, Cosmarium connatum, 
Staurastrum furcigerum, St. Arctiscon, St. longispimim, and 
St. sexangulare. The Entomostraca were very numerous, and 
included various Copepods, Bosmina longirostris, and an abun- 
dance of Nauplii. Many of the dead individuals had been 
attacked by species of Saprolegnia. Only a few Rotifers were 
present, the two most conspicuous being Anurcea cochlearis and 
Notholca longispina. 

A few specimens were observed of a solitary species of the 
genus Dinobryon which we have described as new under the 
name of D. crenulatum. 

4. Derwent Water, Cumberland. June 1903. Altit. 238 
feet. About three miles in length by a little over a mile in 
breadth. Average depth about 18 feet ; maximum depth 72 
feet. This lake receives the drainage of the Borrowdale moun- 
tains, and although the small town of Keswick is not far from 
its northern shore, there is probably little contamination from 




Plate VII. 

3 ---. 

../ f ^•■' 

■ V H* 

Windermere (June). (x 100). 




t a 6 

Windermere (Sept.). (x 100). 


West: Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 119 

that quarter. The June plankton is a Dinobryon-plankton, 
consisting for the most part of immense quantities of Dino- 
hryon cylindricufn var. divergens. Peridinium Willei was not 
vmcommon. Desmids were very scarce, and few species were 
represented. Rotifers were few. Quantities of the pollen- 
grains of Pines were present in the plankton. 

5. Bassenthii'aite Water, Cumberland. May 1903. Altit. 
223 feet. About four miles long by three-quarters of a mile 
wide. Average depth about 18 feet ; maximum depth about 
70 feet. This lake is in the extreme north-west of the English 
lake-area, and lies about two miles west from the summit of 
Skiddaw (3054 feet). There is doubtless a slight contamination 
of the water from farms and residences in the vicinity of the 
lake. Diatoms were the dominant feature of the plankton, 
the most conspicuous species being Tabellaria flocculosa, T. 
fenestrata, Synedra pulchella, and Nitzschia palea. Very few 
Desmids occurred, Spondylosium pulchrum var. planum being 
the most frequent. Dinohryon cylindricum var. divergens was 
scarce, as was also Peridinium Willei. There were few Rotifers. 

6. Thirlmere, Cumberland. June 1903. Altit. 553 feet. 
About three and a quarter miles long by about half a mile 
broad. In 1894 this lake was first used as the water supply for 
the City of Manchester, and its level raised 20 feet. It has a 
maximum depth of about 128 feet, and there is scarcely any 
possibility of contamination of the water. The June plankton 
consisted mostly of Crustacea (with an abundance of Nauplii) 
and Rotifers. Tabellaria flocculosa and T. fenestrata were both 
common, and were both in the form of chains. The most 
interesting member of the phytoplankton was Rhizosolenia 
morsa, some individuals of which had formed resting-spores. 

7. Wast Water, Cumberland. June 1903. Altit. 204 feet. 
About three miles long by about half a mile broad. It is the 
deepest of the English lakes, having an average depth of 135 
feet, and a maximum depth of 258 feet. It contains a very 
large volume of water, which is practically free from all con- 
tamination, and rising from its south-eastern shore are the 
world-famous screes. It receives the drainage from the western 
side of Scafell (3162 feet) and Scafell Pike (3210 feet), and from 
the southern slopes of the Steeple, the Pillar, and Kirk Fell. 
The June plankton contained large numbers of Crustacea and 
Rotifers. Of the latter, Polyarthra platyptera and Notholca 
longispina were most conspicuous. The Desmids were few in 

1909 March i. 

1 20 TVes/ : Phyioplcmkton of English Lake District. 

number, but included some particularly line specimens of 
Staurastvum jaculiferum. Coccojiema gracilc and a few other 
Diatoms were observed. The most interesting member of the 
phytoplankton was Elakatothrix gelatinosa Wille, this plankton- 
alga not having been observed from any other lake in the 
British Islands. 

We are receiving periodic collections from this lake, and 
the August and September collections, 1908, contained quan- 
tities of Elakatothrix. 

8. Brothers' Water, Westmorland. September 1906. Altit. 
520 feet. A small lake about three-quarters of a mile long by a 
quarter of a mile broad. Its greatest depth is about 70 feet. 
The dominating constituents of the September plankton were 
Desmids and the spiny Flagellate Mallomonas longiseta. In 
fact, the latter was so numerous that the plankton could be 
correctly termed a Mallomonas-plankton. The principal Des- 
mids were Staurastrum Arctiscon (very common), a large stout 
variety of St. hrevispinum, X. antilopcEum var. triquetrum, and 
Cosmaritmi depressiim. Ceratiiim hirundinella was common, 
and a few specimens of C. corniitum were observed. Large 
colonies of Dinohryon cylihdricum \'ar. divergens occurred rather 
sparingly. Many Crustacea and Nauplii were present, and the 
three Rotifers Amircea cochlearis, Notholca longispina, and 
Polyarathra platyptera were equally abundant. Fine specimens 
of Acanthocystis chcEtophora were frequent in the plankton. 

9. Hayes Water, Westmorland. September 1906. Altit. 
1383 feet. A small mountain lake with, rocky shores, about a 
quarter of a mile long, lying under the western slopes of the 
High Street Range. It contained a mixed plankton of which 
Gymnodinium paradoxum was the most conspicuous constituent. 
Oscillatoria tenuis and Tahellaria flocculosa were both common. 
There were few Desmids, but Ankistrodesmus Pfitzeri was plen- 
tiful, mostly in process of formation of autospores. As would 
be expected, much dark-coloured organic matter was in sus- 
pension in the water. 

10. Red Tarn, Westmorland. May 1903. Altit. 2356 feet. 
This is a small mountain lake, about a quarter of a mile square, 
on the eastern side of Helvellyn, and immediately below the 
summit (3118 feet). The surroundings are rocky, and there is 
no possible source of contamination. The plankton was mixed 
in character. Dinohryon cylindricum and Tahellaria flocculosa 
were equally common. Of the other Diatoms, Synedra radians' 


IVes^ : Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 121 

and Cocconema ventricosum were the most noticeable. Large 
numbers of small Desmids were present, of which Cosmarium 
ahhreviatum var. planctonicum was the most abundant, although 
Staurastrum denticulatum and bi- and tri-radiate forms of St. 
jacuUferum were exceedingly common. Peridinium Willei was 
frequent, and a few specimens of Anurcea cochleans were ob- 
served . 

11. Ullswater, Westmorland. May 1903 and September 
1906. Altit. 476 feet. /\bout jh miles long by three-quarters 
of a mile broad. Average depth S^, feet ; maximum depth 205 
feet. This is one of the larger lakes, mostly with rocky shores, 
and its upper end is situated among high mountains. The 
water is somewhat contaminated by the hamlets of Patterdale 
and Glenridding, and also by the water running from the Green- 
side Lead Mines. As a result of this slight contamination, the 
plankton is great in bulk, but poor in quality for the size and 
situation of the lake. It is an Asterionella-plankton both in 
May and September. In May little else exists besides the enor- 
mous quantity of Asterionella formosa, only a few specimens of 
Tabellaria floccnlosa and Dinobryon cylindricum var. divergens 
being observed. In September the great mass of Asterionella 
has amongst it a sprinkling of other Diatoms, a few Desmids, and 
a considerable quantity of Dinobryon cylindricum var. divergens. 
Tabellaria floccnlosa occurs in long chains and Tabellaria 
fenestrata var. asterionelloides is frequent. The Desmids are 
chiefly Spondylosium pulchrum var. planum, Staurastrum 
brevispinum (large variety), and St. cuspidatum var. maximum. 
Oocystis lacustris and Sphcsrocystis Schroeteri, both of which are 
typical plankton-species of the Protococcoidese, were not un- 
common. Anurcea cochlearis was also present. 

12. Hawes Water, Westmorland. September 1906. Altit. 
694 feet. About two and a half miles long by about three- 
eighths of a mile broad. It is rather an isolated lake, with a 
maximum depth of 103 feet, and an average depth of about 
40 feet. The September plankton was somewhat mixed, but 
was mostly a Diatom-plankton , icith a large admixture of Ccelos- 
phcerium Kutzingianum. The Diatoms were chiefly zig-zag 
chains of Tabellaria fenestrata, Cocconema gracile, C. cymbiforme, 
and Synedra Acus. Ceratium hirundinella was common, and 
sterile filaments of Mougeotia elegantula were frequent. A few 
Desmids were observed, amongst which Staurastrum jactiliferum 
was the most abundant. Others were St. denticulatum, Arthro- 

iqog March i. 

122 IVes/ : PhytoplauMon of English Lake District, 

desmus crassus, Spondyloshim pulchrum var. planum, and 
Gonatozygon monotcBnium var. pilosellum. Anurcea cochlearis 
was frequent. 

13. Grasmere, Westmorland. June and September 1903. 
Altit. 208 feet. About a mile long by half a mile broad. It has 
a somewhat rocky margin, and its greatest depth is 180 feet. 
The water may be slightly contaminated by the village of Gras- 
mere. The September plankton was largely a combined Dia- 
tom and Dinohryon-plankton. The Diatoms consisted almost 
exclusively of Asterionella formosa and Tahellaria jenestrata var. 
asterionelloides. The Dinohryon was D. cylindricum var. 
diver gens. Ceratiiim hirundinella was fairly common, and 
C. cornutnm and Peridinitim Willei occurred in small quantity. 
A few Desmids were fairly general, among which Xanthidium 
suhhastiferum var. Murrayi and Staurastrum cuspidatum var. 
maximum were the most conspicuous. The most noteworthy 
Desmids were Cosmarium controversum and Micrasterias 
M ahabiileshwarensis var. Wallichii, the former being known 
from North Wales and N.W. Scotland, and the latter only from 
the plankton of lakes in Sutherland and the Shetland Islands. 
A sterile species of Mougeotia was frequent, and the filaments 
exhibited a coiling comparable to that observed in several of 
the Scottish lakes.* (Fig. i c. and d.). Species of Mougeotia 
occur in a living condition in the plankton of very many of 
the British lakes, throughout the greater part of the year, and 
the coiling of the filaments undoubtedly shows the development 
of a limnetic character, due to adaptation of the plants to an 
existence in the plankton. The coiling of the filament very con- 
siderably increases its floating capacity. 

Several of the Myxophyceae were not uncommon, more par- 
ticularly Oscillatoria Agardhii, Anahcena Lemmermannii , and 
Microcystis stagnalis. Two Rhizopods were observed — Arcella 
vulgaris and a long-spined species of Acanthocystis. 

The June plankton consisted of a mixture of large quan- 
tities of Dinohryon cylindricum var. divergens and Peridiniitm 
Willei. Amongst these flagellated organisms were a number of 
Rotifers, more especially Hydatina and AnnrcBa cochlearis. 

* W. and G. S. West in ' Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot.', XXXV., 1903, p. 
524 ; also in ' Trans. Roy. Soc. of Edin.', XLI., Part III., 1905, pp. 497 
and 510. 

[To be continued). 



Plate VIII. 

r^c^ju^ 4^uM^ y 




3u riDemoriam. 


(plate VIII.). 

Another gap in the group of prominent Yorkshire Geologists 
occurred on Friday evening, January 29th, when Mr. W. H. 
Hudleston passed away, after a very brief illness. The day 
previous, though he was in his eight-first year, he was in his 
usual health, being remarkably active and energetic for his age. 

Mr. Hudleston was born at York, and his early years were 
devoted to the study of ornithology. Between 1853 and i860 
he travelled extensively in Europe and northern x^frica ; and 
at the celebration of the jubilee of the British Ornithologists' 
Union, held in London a month before his death, he was one of 
four original members who received a gold medal. 

In his boyhood days he was a play-fellow of the late Henry 
Clifton Sorby, whose death we only recently had to deplore. 
He was then known as Simpson, his father being Dr. Simpson, 
of Harrogate. He joined the Geological Society of London in 
1867 in the name of Simpson, but a fortnight later changed his 
name to that more familiar to us. 

In the 'seventies he devoted much time to the study of the 
Yorkshire Secondary Rocks, and his well-known monographs on 
the Palaeontology of Yorkshire Oolites, which appeared in the 
'Geological Magazine,' and in the Reports of the Palaeonto- 
graphical Society, are amongst the earliest and best known of 
his published papers. These at once stamped his reputation as 
a careful student of fossil forms, and though written so long ago, 
they are in constant use by workers in these fields to-day. 

In the 'seventies also he was for three years the secretary of 
the London Geologists' Association, and became its President 
in 1881. From 1886-1890 he was one of the Secretaries of 
the Geological Society , and was its President for the years 
1892-4. The Wollaston Medal, the highest award of the 
Geological Society, was bestowed upon him in 1897, and in the 
following year he was President of Section ' C ' of the British 
Association, at the Bristol Meeting. 

Yorkshire geologists particularly regret the departure of a 
most amiable and able leader of excursions, and on the many 
occasions upon which he conducted parties around the quarries 
in the Scarborough district, his value was realized. 

1909 March i. 

124 Reviews and Book Notices. 

In 1888 Mr. Hudleston was the President of the Yorkshire 
NaturaHsts' Union, and conducted an excursion to Robin Hood's 
Bay. At the annual meeting held at Sheffield, he gave his 
presidential address ' On the Geological History of Iron Ores,' 
which, oddly enough, was printed in the ' Proceedings of the 
Geologists' Association ' for May 1889. 

Mr. Hudleston was the subject of one of the well-known 
' Eminent Living Geologists ' series, which appeared in the 
' Geological Magazine ' for 1904. This is accompanied by an 
excellent portrait and list of his papers up to that date. 

On Plate VIII. is a reproduction of the portrait, which 
appears to be the only one of Hudleston extant. 

T. S. 

Vol. II. of The Book of Nature Study, edited by Prof. J. B. Farmer 
(London, Caxton Publishing Co., price 7/6 net), is to hand. It is quite 
equal to its predecessor, already noticed in these columns. It is well 
illustrated by reproductions from photographs, diagrams, etc., in the text, 
and coloured plates. Mr. O. H. Latter has several chapters on Insects, 
Spiders, Worms, etc. ; Dr. Marion J. Newbigin describes the animals and 
plants of fresh-water and marine aquaria; and Prof. J. Arthur Thompson 
describes the chief haunts of animals, in a very instructive and entertaining 
manner. The volume is tastefully bound in green cloth. 

Bird=Hunting through Wild Europe, by R. B. Lodge. London: 
Robert Culley. 333 pp., 7/6 net. 

The author of this book has been fortunate in visiting several of the 
most inaccessible parts of Europe, in search of birds and eggs and photo- 
grapiis, all of which he has ' taken,' and his exploits are unblushingly 
detailed in this volume. And they are very entertaining, though not 
many writers now-a-days so openly refer to their many achievements 
amongst rare birds and eggs. Probably, however, Mr. Lodge contributes 
to various funds for the protection of rare birds and their eggs ! Some of his 
help-mates on his expeditions he forbears to name, at their own request, 
which we can qu'te understand. Judging from the ' List of Species met 
with,' the author has had ' bags ' such as many might envy, and his book 
contains particulars of the travels and hardships and trials in securing 
these. As with most authors of his kind, there is just a little bit too much 
of the ditT'culties he has experienced, which renders a perusal of the book 
rather irritating at times. That he is an exceptionally well-equipped 
person for the purpose is apparent from his own concluding paragraph : — • 
' Thus ended our expedition full of interest, in spite of some occasional 
hardship and discomfort and constant and continual hard work. For bird 
and egg collecting, combined with photography, in wild countries, is no 
child's play, and requires absolute fitness in condition and general health, 
and plenty of enthusiasm for the work, without which it is impossible to 
stand the strain and bodily and mental fatigue.' The book is illustrated 
by a large number of fine photographs of birds, nests and eggs, scenery, 
and occasionally samples of the female population, with which latter we 
cannot congratulate him on the choice of his subjects, though possibly it 
was policy to select these for reproduction ! In speaking of the nest of the 
Bittern, we notice he suggests that a photograph has not yet been taken. 
We would point out, however, that such a photograph, by a well-known 
Hull ornithologist, was published in a contemporary some little time ago. 




A largely-attended meeting of the Vertebrate Section of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union was held in the Leeds Institute, on Saturday, February 
13th. When it is considered that the meetings (with a short one of the 
Wild Birds' Protection Committee) lasted from 2 p.m. to 9-30 p.m., it 
will be understood that it was necessary to be interesting in order to keep 
the audience for so long a time. 

The President of the Union, Mr. St. Quintin, occupied the chair during 
the afternoon meeting, and Mr. R. Fortune, President of the Vertebrate 
Section, for the remainder of the time. 

For the Wild Birds' Protection Committee, it Was reported that watchers 
had been arranged for at Spurn and Hornsea Mere, and several interesting 
letters were read from last season's watchers, etc. 

Dr. E. S. Steward, of Harrogate, read an extremely interesting paper 
upon his experiences during a bird-nesting expedition into sout'n Spain, 
making many of his hearers long to have the same opportunities of studying 
numbers of oiu* rarer British birds, where they are found nesting in abun- 

Mr. E. E. Gregory- followed with a paper upon ' The Pleistocene Verte- 
brate Remains of the West Riding.' This, too, was full of interest, especi- 
ally to the members of the new Mammalia, etc., Committee, affording a 
splendid guide to their future investigations in this direction. It was 
illustrated by specimens found in several Yorkshire caves. After an 
interval for tea. Prof. Patten gave a short account of ' Four hours' contin- 
uous observations of the feeding habits of Richardson's Skua.' The obser- 
vations were made in Dublin Bay, and the account of how the Skua 
procures his food, by preying upon the gulls and terns, was made especially 
interesting through being illustrated by lantern slides from Prof. Paten's 
sketches, made on the spot. 

Mr. Whitaker's notes on ' British Bats ' were profusely illustrated by 
lantern slides. Members were particularly pleased to hear Mr. Whitaker, 
who is our recognised Yorkshire authority upon these mammals. The 
lecture was enlivened by some very amusing anecdotes. 

Mr. Oxley Grabham then gave a short and very lacy lecturette upon 
some of the birds of the Yorkshire Coast, etc., illustrated by a fine series 
of lantern slides. The account of Spurn and its bird life, beautifully 
illustrated as it was, gave a splendid idea of the locality, and of the work 
done there by the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Birds' Protection Com- 
mittee. Mr. Grabham showed some charming slides of White Hedgehogs, 
which he obtained from the neighbourhood of Pickering, stating that there 
appears to be a strain of albinos in the district. 

Messrs. Jasper Atkinson and Wm. Hewett showed a fine series of slides, 
chiefly bird studies, but as the time was getting late, they were put throug'n 
the lantern, accompanied by very few remarks. 

Several other lots of slides were not exhibited, owing to want of time. 

At the beginning of the meeting, Mr. W. Wilson exhibited a White 
Carrion Crow, particulars of which will duly appear in ' The Naturalist.' 
The bird presented a very weather-worn appearance, the long tail and 
flight feathers being much worn and frayed. 

Votes of thanks to the Chairman, and to all contributing lectures and 
slides, brought a most interesting meeting to a close. 

On the same date, the Yorkshire Marine Biology Committee, in 
conjunction with the Leeds Conchological Club, had a meeting. Prof. 
Walter Garstang, M.A., D.Sc, of the Leeds University, as Chairman of 
the Section, gave an interesting address. After referring to the able work 
of his predecessor, the late Dr. H. C. Sorby he described the methods of 
work of such a Committee by which he thought good results migiit be 
achieved. He also dwelt upon the importance of recording every obser- 

1909 March i. 

126 Reviews and Book Notices. 

vation, no matter how unimportant or minute it may appear. He gave 
instances where valuable observations, made by ardent field naturalists of 
the working-man type, were lost to science, through not being recorded. He 
thought by careful attention to every little detail in recording matter or 
observation, much might be added and saved for reference in the future. 
Preceding Dr. Garstang, Mr. J. W. Taylor addressed the members 
of the Leeds Conchological Club on the physiology, morphology and dis- 
tribution of Hygvomia fusca and H. gramdata. Further suggestons and 
remarks from Mr. Arnold T. Watson, F.L.S., of Sheffield, Rev. F. H. Woods, 
B.D., Driffield, Mr. S. Lister Petty, Ulverstone, Mr. T. Sheppard, F.G.S., 
Hull, and Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S., Leeds, with a vote of thanks 
to the two lecturers, brought a very profitable and enjoyable meeting to 
an end. — F. B. 


Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union Transactions, 1907.* 

It is said that all things come to those who wait. The members of the 
Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union have waited patiently for the Transactions, 
1907, and have, at last, received them. One feels afraid to write 
what one thinks about the present part. As in the previous issues, 
a, very mportant feature is the excellent lists of County Flora and Fauna. 
Miss S C. Stow contributes a list of ' lincolnshire Galled-plants ' ; Mr. 
G. W. Mason a list of Lincolnshire Moths (Spinges and Bombyces) under 
the title ' The Lepidoptera of Lincolnshire, Part i.' It is somewhat diffi- 
cult to understand this title when we remember that in the Transactions 
for 1906, Mr. Mason contributed a list of ' Lincolnshire Butterflies.' Have 
butterflies ceased to be considered Lepidoptera in Lincolnshire, or is it 
intended to publish a new list as a subsequent part ? Some of the records 
in Mr. Mason's list are of great interest, particularly the Oleander Hawk 
Moth, taken at South Somercoates, and the Reed Tussock Moth, taken by 
Mr. F. Arnold Lees, near Market Rasen in 1878. The Rev. Thornley and 
Dr. W. Wallace contribute a remarkably good list of ' Lincolnshire Coleop- 
tera ' (Geodephaga), and there are other papers (including the President's 
address on ' "The Pygmy Flint Age in Lines.') and notes. 

It is a very great pity that such valuable contributions as some of them 
are, should not have been published with much greater care. To be as 
mild as possible I do not hesitate to say that this issue of the Transactions 
is not creditable to anyone ; errors and misprints are by no means 
uncommon, in fact, the latter are very abundant ; no rule seems to have 
been recognised in the use of italics, and capital letters are used where 
small letters should be, and small letters where capitals should be. In one 
paragraph of 13^ lines on page 208, some eighteen corrections are required ; 
page 207 is not much better. I certainly did not know before that a 
Rhynchonella was a Lamellibranch, which is the only inference to be drawn 
from the sentence — ' Rhynchonella and other Lamellibranchs are 
abundant.' On page 209 is a plant name certainly new to me, and, I 
believe, new to science, to wit — ' Alchemillavl ugaris ' ; several other 
misprints appear on this page. On page 212 ' Cochleraria ' stands for 
Cochlearia, and ' Lyeopus ' for Lycopus, and on the next page Lychnis 
flos-cuculi set out as ' Lychnis Floscuciili ' ; but what is most conspicuous 
on this page is the use of more than one and the same fount of type for the 
grand array of initials. By the way, is not the adopted system of recording 
very superficial ? I believe that frequently the recorder sits in the brake 
with surface-soil map on the knee, and notes down the various ]:)lants grow- 
ing on the roadside, the conveyance often travelling seven mites an hour. 
The jiointing in many cases is very unsatisfactorj^ and makes some of 
the passages look sheer nonsense. "Three examples may be given (two 
over pointed, and the other without points) : — 

* Louth, pp. 219-271, 


Reviews and Book Notices. i 27 

' A series of variegated clays, with layers of sand, shale, and limestone, 
partly marine and partly fluviatile ; the former, with ostreas, at the top, 
and the latter at the base with paludinas and other fresh-water shells.' 

' The Cornbrash, a coarse rubbly limestone, with sandy layers, which 
was deposited in a shallow sea.' 

' Mr. T. S. Bavin has presented a series of specimens from a bore made to 
locate coal in which the Keuper is found to be at the West of the County 
850 feet in thickness.' 

In a professedly scientific publication, it is somewhat surprising to find 
the following passage (which must surely have been misplaced, being 
intended for one of those famed penny twaddlers) — ' Well may we sing with 
Robert Louis Stevenson in his Garland of Verse — 

" The world is so full of a number of things 
I am sure we should all be as happy as kings." 
We had a right royal welcome at Grantham. The day however [!] was 
much enjoyed.' 

• The object of the Union is presumably expressed, though badly, in 
the following sentence appearing in the report of the ' Field ]\ "etings ' : — 
' The meetings are of such value as to o^' in a, great amount of information 
for the County lists for public^ -^^ 

'• In the copy before "' illustrating ' the junction of the Foss 

Dyke and the T^'~ "" ^plicated, one plate facing page 163, 

the other "" ts have been made, imsuccessfuUy, 

to "-' \ ..e result being that ^en opened, it 

)i , , there is nothing to '^' nresent part 

^i. -xudle of 1908, though a 1^" ^c-sheet indicates 

■-.y rate, it was published i'' .. The address of John 

^^aeaux which is reprinted, .ve think, from the Union's 

Transactions for 1895, h?' ' that its author has been dead 

for some years. 

The above d- .._ the list of errors, misprints, and other faults, 

but they ar^- ^new the necessity of someone taking a few lessons 

ro-- ' ^vj., before the next issue of Transactions, and thereby 

-c scientific work being more creditably published. 


Part VII. of T. C. and E. C. Jack's ' Wild Beasts of the World ' 

(i/- net), deals with •the Bears, Sea-Lions, Walrus, Seals, Hedgehogs, 
Voles, etc., and is illustrated with the usual finely-coloured plates. Speak- 
ing of Walrus tusks, we notice the author (Mr. F. Finn), states that they 
are largely used for making artificial teeth. That was certainly the case 
when the natural history books of j'ears ago were written, but artificial 
teeth of this material are difficult to get now-a-days. We have been trying 
to get such a set for a long time, but so far without success ! 

The Vertebrate Section of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union has re- 
printed its Report for 1908, in advance. It contains excellent summaries 
of work carried on in the three Ridings, written by Messrs. R. Fortune, 
E. W. Wade, and T. H. Nelson, as well as particulars of the work of the 
Wild Birds' and Eggs' Protection Committee. 

The Writers' and Artists' Year Book, 1909 (A. and C. Black, i/-), 
is indispensable to those who add to their income by writing. It gives a 
classified list of the various publications, their rates of payment for MSS., 
etc. There is a complete list of such journals ; lists of publishers, agents, 
etc. Some useful advice is given as to the preparation of MSS. ; correcton 
of proofs, etc. We notice that ' The Naturalist ' does not appear under 
' Science and Natural History ' in the Classified Index on page 117, though 
it appears in its place amongst ' Journals and Magazines,' on page 42. 

1909 March i. 



According to the ' Pall Mall Gazette ' a roach of 3 lb. has been caught 
in the Dove and Dearne Canal, at Elsecar, Yorks. 

We have heard of about ' making a noise like a turnip,' but a contem- 
porary, in the heading to a paragraph, records that a ' Privet hedge 
barked ! ' 

An excellent portrait of a past President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, Sir Ralph Payne Gallwey, Bart., appears in ' The Shooting Times ' 
for January i6th, 1909. 

It is not often the ' Yorkshire Weekly Post ' is hoaxed, but the following 
extracts from a report of a meeting of a Jimior Field Naturalists' Club are 
interesting : — ' Mr. W. J. W. Slowe, B.E.N. A., gave a lucid description of 
the finding of Balaena mysticetus in the Hornsea Mere, a specimen of which 
he passed round for examination. Mr. H. Donaldson reported an excursion 
to Broomfleet, and exhibited a fossil sponge which he had procured from 
the Laurentian deposit there. Mr. A. J. Moore, M.C.S., read an interesting 
paper on " Some Local Freshwater Mollusca." The best collecting ground 
in the Hull district is Sutton Drain. In this drain Ostrea edulis, Aguila 
chrysaetus, can be procured, also the interesting species, mephitis mephitica.' 

The Leeds Naturalists' Club and Scientific Association celebrated the 
Darwin Centenary at its meeting on the 15th February. Mr. Harold 
Wager, F.R.S., gave an address on ' Charles Darwin.' Mr. Wager exhibited 
the Darwin- Wallace medal, while the President of the Club, Mr. W. Denison 
Roebuck, F.L.S., exhibited a lithograph facsimile of the illuminated address 
which the Yorkshire Naturalists presented (by deputation visiting Down) 
to Mr. Darwin in 1880, in celebration of the ' Coming of Age ' of the ' Origin 
of Species,' also the original letter from Mr. Darwin, acknowledging the 
compliment. Afterwards a resolution was aujpted, congratulating Dr. 
Alfred Russel Wallace on his living to see the fiftieth anniversary of the 
reading of his and ]Mr. Darwin's papers to the Linnean Societ}'. 

The following will be the presidents at the meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation at Winnipeg from August 25th to September ist : — President — ■ 
Professor Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S. ; Sectional Presidents — A (Mathe- 
matical and Physical Science) — Professor E. Rutherford, F.R.S. ; B 
(Chemistry). — Professor H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. ; C (Geology) — Dr. A. 
Smith Woodward, F.R.S. ; D (Zoology)— Dr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S. ; 
E (Geography) — Colonel Sir Duncan A. Johnston, K.C.M.G. ; F (Economic 
Science and Statistics) — Professor S. J. Chapman ; G (Engineering) — Sir 
William H. White, K.C.B., F.R.S. ; H (Anthropology)— Professor J. L. 
Myres ; I (Physiology) — Professor E. H. Starling, F.R.S. ; K (Botany) — 
Lieu. -Colonel D. Prain, F.R.S. ; L (Educational Science) — Rev. Dr. H. B. 
Gray ; and Sub-Section (Agriculture) — Major P. G. Craigie (chairman). 

Mr. Hans Schlesch, who has frequently favoured the Hull Museum with 
mollusca, has now presented to that institution the whole of his extensive 
collection of Land, Fresii-water, and Marine Shells. This collection is well 
known for its completeness, and for the many type specimens it contains. 
Mr. Schlesch has been a most enthusiastic collector, having' visited many 
different coimtries to obtain specimens, and on g'iving' up his hobby he has 
decided to favour the Hull Museum with the result of his life's work. The 
collection contains specimens from France, Germany, Russia, Denmark, 
and other parts of Europe ; China. Japan, India, the Piiilippines, New 
Guinea, Australia, the United States, etc. Large cases containing many 
thousand specimens have already been received, and the remaitider is on 
the way. He has also presented his library of works bearing' upon the 
specimens in tiie collection. 



APRIL 1909. 

No. 627 

(No. 405 of currtnt series). 





The Museum, Hull ; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D, .F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 




Contents : — 

Notes and Comments : — Important Work on Diatoms, Evolution of Diatoms, Plankton, 
Degraded Diatoms; The Doncaster Museum 

Albino Carrion Crow in Yorkshire (Illustrated) — Walter Wilson 

Peloria in Plants [\\\ustrditeA)—F.. Snclgrove, D.A 

The Phytoplankton of the English Lake District (IllustratedJ — H;;;. West, F.L.S.,and 
G.S. West. M.A.,D.Sc., F.L.S 

' A' mr. Darw\n-Rcv. W.C.Hey,M.A •- 

Hawkweeds— Jo/in Ciyer 

Yorkshire Mosses — C. A. Cheetham 

Notes on ^ooVis—F. M. Burton, F.L.S., F.G.S '.. 

The Present State of Our Knowledge of Carboniferous Geology— /J'. Whcclton Hind, 
F.R.C.S.. F.G.S 

Reviews and Book Notices (Illustrated) 145, 

Northern News 142,148, 

Illustrations 131, 132, 






153, 160 
134, 157 


A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenge 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. L. 



Zhc l^ovksbire IRatuvalists' TUnioit. 


Svo, Cloth. 292 pp. (a ftw copies only left), price 6/» net. 
Contains various reports, papers, and addresses on the Flowering Plants, Mosses, and Fungi of the county. 

Complete, Svo, Cloth, with Coloured Map, publisJied at One Guinea. Only a fejv copies left, 10/6 net, 


This, which forms the 2nd Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, is perhaps the most 
complete work of the kind ever issued for any district, including detailed and full records of 1044 Phanero- 
gams and Vascular Cryptogams, 11 Characeas, 348 Mosses, 108 Hepatics, 258 Lichens, 1009 Fungi, and 383 
Freshwater Algae, making a total of 3160 species. 

6S0 pp.. Coloured Geological, Lithological, &c. Maps, suitably Bound in Cloth. Price 16/- net. 
NORTH YORKSHIRE: Studies of its Botany, Qeologry, Climate, and Physical QeoKraphy. 

And a Chapter on the Mosses and Hepatics of the Riding, by Matthew B. Slater, F.L.S. This Volume 
forms the 3rd of the Botanical Series. 

396 pp.. Complete, Svo., Cloth. Price 10/6 net. 
This is the 4th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, and contains a complete annotated list 
.•f all the known Fungi of the county, comprising 2626 species. 

Complete, Svo, Cloth. Price 6,'- post free. 
This work, which forms the 5th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, enumerates 1044 
species, with full details of localities and numerous critical remarks on their affinities and distribution. 

Complete, Svo, Cloth. Second Edition. Price 6/6 net. 


The First Edition of this work was published in 1883, and. co!itained particulars of 1340 species of 
■Macro- and Micro-Lepidoptera known to inhabit the county of York. The Second Edition, with Supplement, 
rcontains much new information which has been accumulated by the author, including over 50 additional 
species, together with copious notes on variation (particularly melanism), &c. 

In progress, issued in Annual Parts, Svo. 

The Transactions include papers in all departments of the Yorkshire Fauna and Flora, and are issued in 
separately-paged series, devoted each to a special subject. The Parts alieady published are sold to the public 
as follows (Members are entitled to '25 per cent, discount): Part 1 (1877), 2/3 ; 2(1»78). 19; 3(1878i, 1/6; 4(18791, 

M.B.O.U., and F. UOYES. Also being published (by Subscription, One Guinea). 

SHIRE. By JOHN W. TAYLOR, F.L.S., and others. Also in course ot publication in thelraiiS- 

18, 19, 21, &c., of Transactions. 


THE NATURALIST. A Monthly Illustrated Tournal of Natural Historv for the North of England. Edited 
by T. SHEPPARD. F.G.S., Museum, Hull; and T. \V. WOODHKAD, F.L.S., Technical College, 
Huddersheld; with the assistance as referees in Special Departments of I. GILBERT BAKKR, F.R.S., 
F.L.S., F.E.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, and WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. (.\uimal Subscription, payable 
in advance, 6/6 post free). 

<nt;MBERSHIP in the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 10;6 per annum, includes subscripiion to The Naturalist, 

and entitles the member to receive the current Transactions, and all the other privileges of the Union. 

A donation of Seven Guineas constitutes a lifeinemljeiship, and entitles the member to a set of the 

completed vohuues issued by the Ihiion. _ j. .c- /.ir 

Members are entitled to buy all back numbers and other publications of the Uinon at a discount OT 2S 

per cent, off the prices quoted above. 
All communications should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary, 

T. SHEPPARD, I-.G.S., The Museum, Hull. 

I 29 



The completion of this great work, which has been appearing 
in parts throughout the past eleven years, will be hailed with 
pleasure by all students of the Diatomacea. Though ex- 
pressly intended to deal with those forms that are found on all 
the coasts of France, it will be found to contain most, if not all 
of the species of the North Sea and English Channel, and is 
hence equally valuable to English students. The plates are 
certainly among the finest drawings of these beautiful micro- 
scopic Algae that have ever been published. Specially worthy 
of notice are the discoid forms of Actinocychis, Coscinodisciis 
and Eupodisciis, and the wealth of detail in such species as the 
Naviculas of the Diploneis section. 


M. Peragallo's views on the evolution of the Diatoms are 
set forth in a sort of postscript to the preface accompanying 
the issue of the final part, and are in some respects both novel 
and interesting. He holds that the earliest forms of diatoms 
were of the kind he denominates ' Centriques ' (corresponding to 
Van Heurck's ' Crypto-Raphidece ' ), and comprising all forms 
of circular or angular outline, and those having spines or other 
processes, and that these descend directly from animal forms, 
either from the Radiolariae, or in part from the Peridineae. 


The ' Centriques ' are those species that we find to-day float- 
ing on the ocean in what is known as the ' Plankton ' and are 
distinguished from the ' Pennees ' (Peragallo's other division) not 
only by their form arranged at about equal distances around a 
centre, and by the absence of a raphe, but also by their repro- 
ductive method, which is by the generation of spores, whereas 
the ' Pennees ' reproduce their kind by conjugation. The author 
describes how the free-floating, but individually motionless 
' Centriques ' developed in the ' Pennees ' to a naviculoid or 
boat-shaped form with a raphe or longitudinal slit which is now 
generally acknowledged to be in some way the organ of the 
mysterious power of motion of diatoms. This division con- 
stitutes Van Heurck's ' Raphideae.' 

* 'Diatoniees Marines de France,' by M.RI. H. et M. Peragallo. 
J. Tempere, Grez-zur-Loing (S-et-M) France. 560 pp., 139 plates, 
2187 fig., 150 francs. 

iqog April i. 

1.30 Notes and CommentL 


Finally he looks on the ' Pseudo-Raphidege ' as a sort of 
degraded forms that have adopted a mode of life limited by 
their growing attached to Algse, and consequently have lost 
their raphe by disuse, and with it their power of movement, 
the median blank space indicating the position formerly occu- 
pied by the raphe. Of course this theory involves the trans- 
ference of the Nitzschias (whose motions are among the liveliest) 
along with the Surirellas and Epithemias from the Pseudo- 
Raphides to the Raphideae. There is very much to be said 
for this view. It is certain that the most ancient fossil deposits, 
such as Richmond, Virginia, and Oamaru, New Zealand, consist 
almost entirely of the discoid forms, while in our modern seas 
and rivers, the Naviculoid forms constitute the great majority.. 


It is questionable whether M. Peragallo will find many who 
agree with him as to the animal origin of diatoms, while ad- 
mitting that now they belong to the vegetable kingdom ; but 
this is a difficulty which may probably disappear with further 
knowledge of these lowly forms of life, which may be said to- 
belong in one sense or another to either kingdom. We regret 
to be unable to extend the great praise due to the artist for 
the plates to the printer or proof-reader. The list of corrigenda 
is a long one, and does not comprise all that there should be.. 

R. H. P. 


.\t the request of the Doncaster Corporation, the Curate r 
ot the Hull Museums recently prepared a ' Report on the Pro- 
posed Museum at Doncaster,' which has been printed and 
discussed by the Doncaster Town Council. In it Mr. Sheppard 
draws attention to the smallness of the space available in the 
few rooms at Beechfield, which it was proposed to set apart 
for museum purposes, and urged that the whole of the ground 
floor should be available. Suggestions were also made as to 
the scope of the proposed Musevmi, dealing principally with the 
desirability of keeping it local in character. It is pleasing to 
lind that practically the whole of the recommendations have 
been adopted by the Doncaster Corporation, and consequently 
th'it lown w'll shortly have its pe manent public Museum. 




This was reported in ' The Naturalist ' for October 1906, and 
May 1907, and in ' Birds of Yorkshire,' Vol. I., page 242. 

The last report recorded in ' The Naturalist ' was from 
Barden, April 3rd, 1907, since then it appears to have frequented 
the Hetton Moors, between Rylstone and Malham, during the 
summer of 1907, where I saw it in company with another crow, 
probably its mate. 

In August of that year it was shot at several times by grouse 
shooters on the moors, but always escaped, a fate which did not 
favour its mate, which was shot towards the end of that month. 

Albino Carrion Crow. 

During the winter of 1907-8 it appears to have retired to 
the Fountain Fell district, along with a number of other crows. 

This last summer (1908), it again made its appearance in 
the Winterburn district, but this time it was not as bold, and 
escaped from many attempts to secure it, until finally it was 
shot in May, near Eshton Tarn, by a keeper of Sir M. Wilson, 
Bart, who had been baiting for it with dead rabbits for some 
weeks. Sir M. W.Wilson of Eshton Hall, has had the bird set up for 
his private collection. The measurements are : length, 17I inches; 
bill, 2^ inches; wing (expanse), 12J inches; tarsus, 2| inches. 

1909 April I. 




The accompanying figures (from photographs), show a Foxglove 
grown in a Sheffield garden during the past summer. The re- 
semblance of the top flower to a Campanula is very striking, so 
much so that people who saw it growing, described it as such. 

Peloria in Foxglove. 

Two facts are plainly brought out in the photographs : — - 
(i) that the top flower, unlike the o hers, is regular ; (2) that 
it is opening as early as the lowest flowers of the raceme. 

The occurrence of this kind of thing, viz., a regular flower 
p oduced on a plant that normally bears irregular, is 
known as peloria. The name explains nothing, for it only 


Snelgrove : Peloria in Plants. 133 

means a monstrosity or sport. Perhaps that is all that can be 
said with certainty. Darwin notes that those flowers nearest 
the axis are most subject to peloria, and thinks such occur- 
rence ' may be connected with a different flow of nutriment 
towards the central and external flowers.' He seems to have in 
mind chiefly the disk flowers of a composite like the Daisy. In 
such a case the growth of irregular ray flowers seems to be pre- 
cisely the opposite to what has occurred in our present example. 

In the ' Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Club,' 
igo2, p. 49, there is a note (with plates), on a similar instance 
of peloria, but it occurred on every branch of the plant, the 
number of carolla lobes was in each case doubled, and the number 
of stamens was also double, distinctly leading to the suggestion 
made that two flowers had become one. 

Examples are often met with (in fact in some years are 
quite common) of Daisies, Buttercups, Wallflowers and Dame's 
Violet producing broad, flat, flowering axes, on which flowers 
are crowded, and often run into one another. 

The Toadflax, again, is said (I have not seen it) to produce 
sometimes a five-spurred flower. 

Two conclusions are fairly clear : — 

(i) The examples of peloria in Compositae and Umbel- 
liferae, as quoted by Darwin, are quite different from all the 
other examples here adduced, unless (as certainly does not 
appear to be the case), he suggests that flowers like those 
of the Dandelion, are normal, and the disk flowers of the 
Daisy ' abnormally symmetrical." 

What is the meaning of the statement that ' flowers nearest 
the axis a:e most subject to peloria ? ' The ray flowers of a 
composite are not nearest the axis. 

(2) The obvious explanation of the malformations of 
Buttercups, etc., known as fasciaiion, is that two (or more) 
flowers have grown together. 

This explanation may stand for the Foxglove peloria, but 
what of the five-spurred Toadflax ? It might be suggested that 
the cas3 of the former was one of reversion to regular form, 
but the number of corolla lobes is against such a conclusion. 

Perhaps all we can say is — 
(a) Buttercups, etc., exhibit fasciation. 
{h) Toadflax correlated variation, and the Foxglove some- 
thing of both. 

iqog April 1 



Wm. west, F.L.S., 


G. S. WEST, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S. 

{Continiied from page 122). 

14. Codale Tarn, Westmorland. June 1903. Altit. 1528 feet. 
A small mountain tarn receiving the drainage from parts of 
Tarn Crag (1801 feet) and High White Stones (2374 feet). The 
plankton contained various filamentous Chlorophyceae, such as 
Microspora ahbreviata and species of Moitgeotia. Washed in 
from the shores of the tarn were filaments of Binucleara tatrana, 
fragments of Stigonema minutum, and a few filaments of Ham- 
matoidea Normanii. Numerous Desmids were present, among 
which should be mentioned Cosmarium ornatum, C. hioculatum 
Arthrodesmus Incus, Staurastrum anatinum, and Gymnozyga 
moniliformis. The most abundant Diatom was Tahellaria 
flocailosa, and long ribbons of Ennotia pcctinalis were frequent. 
Peridimum Willei was again much in evidence. 

15. Easedale Tarn, Westmorland. May 1903. Altit. 915 feet. 
A small lake, about a third of a mile in length, with rocky 
shores. The dominant features of the plankton were numerous 

Fig. I. A. and B. — Filaments of Moitgeotia sp. from the plankton of 
Easedale Tarn (X2oo), showing a curious anastomosis which may be due 
to aborted conjugation. C. and D., Coiled filaments of Moitgeotia sp., 
from the plankton of Grasmere ( x 200). D. consists of one cell only. 


West: Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 135 

Desmids, and a large quantity of Peridiniiim Willei. The 
Desmids included Penium truncatum, Micrasterias radiata, 
Arthrodesmus triangularis var. subtriangularis , Hyalotheca 
mucosa, H. neglecta, Stanrastrum Arctiscon, St. gracile var. 
nanum, St. anatinum var. Lagerheimii, St. Ophinva. and St. 
Brasiliense var. Liindellii. The two latter have not prexiously 
been found in England. The principal Diatoms were Tabel- 
laria fiocculosa, Eunotia pectinalis, and V anlieiirckia rhomhoide ■ 
var. saxonica. A sterile species of Mongeotia was common, 
and a curious anastomosis of two filaments was observed. The 
connections between the filaments may have been the 
result of aborted conjugation, and were cut off either completely 
-or partially from the cells of the filaments (Fig, i a. and b.). 

The Rotifers Polyarthra platyptera, Amircea cochlearis, and 
others, were frequent, and a number of specimens of JSIehela 
flabellulum were observed. 

Fragments of Binudeara tatrana were fairly common in the 

16. Stickle Tarn, Westmorland. May 1903. Altit. 1540 feet. 
This is a mountain tarn about a quarter of a mile in length and 
breadth, lying just under and to the eastward of Langdale Pikes 
{2401 feet). The dominant feature of the plankton was 
Peridinium Willei. Very few Desmids occurred, although 
Staurastrum psendopelagicum deserves special mention, as it 
was observed only from this lake, and from Windermere. 
Diatoms (even Tabellarias) were few, and Dinobryon cylin- 
dricum var. divergens existed in small quantity. Entomostraca 
were in fair abundance, and much dark-brown organic matter 
was present. Binudeara tatrana was again observed in the 

17. Windermere. Altit. 130 feet. This is the largest of the 
English lakes, ha\'ing a length of about loj miles, and a maxi- 
mum breadth of about a mile. Average depth 78 feet ; maxi- 
mum depth 219 feet. The lake is on the boundary between 
Westmorland and the northern extremity of Lancashire. Its 
margins are largely rock)-, with a good deal of woodland, but 
the hills immediately around it are not very high. Its waters 
are no doubt contaminated by the proximity of the villages of 
Bowness and Ambleside. Material was collected from this lake 
in June and September 1903, and periodical monthly collections 
were made from September 1907 to August 1908. These are 
considered in detail in a special part of this paper. 

1939 April I 

1 36 IVes^ : Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 

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1909 April I. 



Rev. W. C. HEY, M.A. 

It is well known that Darwin was first attracted to the stvidy of 
Natural History by the Coleoptera. My grandfather, the Rev. 
Samviel Hey (of Ockbrook), was a beetle-collector, and it thus 
happens that in some old letters I recently looked over, I found 
two interesting references to the father of modern science. 
My grandfather, writing to my father (the late Archdeacon 
Hey), on September i6th, 1829, says : — ' Mr. Fox brought over 
a relative of his, Mr. Darwin, to see my collection. They both 
pronounced it a very fine collection for so small a one, and 
discovered in it several very rare ins.ects, and such as they had 
never before seen. Mr. Darwin, indeed both of them, were 
captivated with the Snowdon beaiities. Mr. Darwin wants to 
know on what part of Snowdon you took the Chrysomela 
cerealis, and on what plant, as he means to go there on purpose 
to search for it. This he can readily do, as he lives at Shrews- 
bury. He named a great many insects for me. I gave them 
one of my three specimens of Epaphius, and he and Mr. Fox 
were to toss up for it ! ' 

The other reference occurs in a letter to my father from an 
aunt. She writes : — ' A Mr. Darwin has been to see your 
father's insects.' And with rare discrimination, she adds this 
mild praise — ' He seemed a very intelligent man.' The old 
lady was a Calvinist after the straitest sort. Could she have 
dipped into the future, she would not have thought it was an 
angel she had been entertaining unawares, but — well, some- 
thing quite different. 


Evidently our contributor, Mr. T. Fetch, B.Sc, Government ^lycologist 
in Ceylon, is in his old form for work, .\mongst the pamphlets recently 
received from him may be mentioned ' Insects and Fungi ' ; from ' Science 
Progress ' ; ' The Genus Endocalyx, Berkeley and Broome (with plate and 
description of E. ductus n. sp.), from the Annals of Botany; and 'Die 
Pilze von Hevea brasiliesins (Para Kautschuk) ' ; from ' Zeitschrift fiir 
Pfianzenkrankheiten. ' 

The following method of collecting aquatic coleoptera, in vogue in 
.\merica, may be worth crying by our readers interested : — ' To collect in 
flowing streams, a loosely-woven cloth should be stretched across and 
through the stream, and the stones, gravel and sand overturned and 
stirred up a short distance above it. The dislodged beetles will be swept 
into the cloth to which they will cling for support, and it is only necessarv 
to draw up the cloth, and reap the harvest.' The writer adds that on one 
occasion he secured 700 beetles in this manner, after stirring up about 
two feet of sand and gravel. 





Ix an interesting article in the ' Journal of Botany ' for January 
and February, the Rev. A. Ley, M.A., dealt with the groups 
and species of A^e West Yorkshire hawkweeds and their dis 
tribution as far as they have been ascertained. Much work,, 
however, remains to be done before the list of West Yorkshire 
hawkweeds and the distribution, are at all adequately known. 
Grassington and the immediate neighbourhood are fairly rich 
in hawkweeds, as the following list of species gathered by the 
writer will testify : — 

(i) Hieraciiim hypochaeroides Gibs. , var. saxorum F. J. Hanb. 

(21 ., hritannicum F. J. Hanb., var. ovale Ley. 

(3) ,, silvaticum Gouan., var. asymmetricum Ley. 

(4) var. suhcyaneum W. R. Linton. 

(5) ,, cymbi folium Purchas 

(6) ,, duriceps F. J. Hanb. (Type) 

(7) ,, scanicum Dahlst. 

(8) ,, sciaphiliim, Uechtr., var. transiens nov. var. 

(9) ,, stnimosmn sp. nov. 

(10) ,, sparsifolium Lindeb., var placerophyllum 


fii) ,, tridentatnm Fr. , var. acrifoliiun Dahlst. 

^12) ,, rigidum Hartm., var. calcavicolum F. J. Hanb. 

On comparing the above with Mr. Ley's list it will be noticed 
that numbers g, 11, and 12, are not recorded for the West 
Riding of Yorkshire, and numbers i, 2, 6, 7 and 8 are not 
recorded for Wharfedale, and the rest are not recorded for 
Grassington and the immediate district. 

H. savcophyllmn Stenstr. is recorded by Mr. Ley for Lang- 
cliff, Ribblesdale. The writer gathered a fine specimen at 
Malham, August 2nd, 1906, also a specimen of H. britannicum 
F. J. Hanb., var ovale, Ley, and one of H. cerebridens Dahlst., 
in the neighbourhood of Malham. Fine specimens of H^ 
scaniaim Dahlst. were found growing near Leeds in September 
of last year, along with H. cacuniinaium Dahlst. Mr. Ley 
says of this latter, ' rare in Britain.' 

H. Gothiciim Fr., described by Mr. Ley as ' not common/ 
was found by the writer in fair abundance near Shipley, August 

1909 April :. 

144 Cheethain : Yorkshire Mosses, 

H. prenanthoides Vill., grows in abundance near Buckden , 
and typical H. angliciiw. Fr. is to be found near Buckden and 

Mr. Ley has seen all the above specimens, and I have to 

acknowledge my indebtedness to him for his generous help in 

naming them. 





Whilst on a visit to Buckden last November, with Mr. A. R. 
Sanderson, we found this moss in plenty, high up the hillside 
where the woods and moors join. It is the Cainpylopns alpinus 
of ' Lees' Flora,' and this will be a second locality for it, th:' 
other being Tnglebro', where it occurs in sheets in the turf 
on the south shoulder. 

Mr. A. Wilson, F.L.S., who' has found it in West Lancashire 
on Greygarth and Thrushgill Fells, says that the additional 
locality is very interesting, and he suggests that it may be found 
on other high peat-covered fells. On the same occasion we 
found the var. calvescens Hobk. of Hylocomium sqitarrostim 
B. and S. 


• This is the type of which the above is now considered a 
variety. It occurs in shade in woods on humus, whilst the 
variety is found in the open on turf or peat. In January last 
I found this moss in Guy's Cliff Woods, Pateley Bridge, which 
is a new drainage area for it, the previous records being : — 
Wharfe, Bolton Woods, Dr. Wood (I gathered it here last Christ- 
mas) ;Calder, Heptonstall, J. Nowell. 

Phascum Flgerkeaxum Web. and Mohr. 

On the occasion of the annual meeting at Doncaster last 
D cember, I gathered this moss in Cusworth Park. It is an 
additional species to the West Riding list. 

Barbula gracilis Schwseg. 

A moss which I found at Knaresbro' in May 1908, and which 
I submitted to the Moss Club as B. Hornschtichiana Schultz, 
has been determined to be the above species by Mr. W. E. 
Nicholson and Mr. H. N. Dixon, F.L.S. This is also a new 
species to the West Riding. 


Reviews and Book Notices. 145 

Ancectangium compactum Schwasg. 

The only locality given in our flora for this is Whernside. 
On a visit to the upper part of Rawtheydale (Uldale) in Feb- 
ruary 1909, I saw it in quantity and in very fine ' fruit.' 

Bartramia pomiformis Hedw. var, crispa B. and S. 

In the last-named locality I found this moss, which is new 
to West Yorkshire. In growth and shape of leaf it is very 
near to B. Halleriana Hedw., which also grows in the district. 
The two can be better distinguished by habit and colour whilst 
fresh, than from dried specimens and single leaves. 

I am indebted to Mr. W. Ingham, B.A., and the above- 
mentioned gentlemen for assistance in the verification of these 

Behind the Veil in Birdland, by Oliver Q. Pike, F.Z.S. London : 
The Religious Tract Society. 106 pp., 10/6 net. 

In this large and handsome volume Mr. Pike has selected and repro- 
duced twenty-four froni his thousands of photographs, and of these, four 
are of mammals, as they are considered to be in ' Birdland.' The two 
dozen plates are evidently enlargements from photographs, and pre- 
sumably are all taken direct from life. Accompanying each plate is some 
descriptive letterpress ; but unfortunatelj'^; as with some other bird- 
photographers, the author dwells far too much upon the hardships and 
risks and trials of photographing birds : the number of hair-breadth 
escapes being really appalling. In fact, some of these almost get the flavour 
of the stories of another kind of naturalist, viz., the one who ' goes a 
angling ' — A gannet nearly knocked him into the sea ; it took him two 
days to get a photograph of a Great-crested Grebe ; another two days was 
occupied in photographing two sparrows, etc. All this is, of course, 
probably true ; but we have seen hundreds of quite as interesting photo- 
graphs of quite as difficult ' sitters,' which were taken in reasonable time 
and without any risk to life or limb. The volume is marvellously cheap 
at half-a-guinea, and we congratulate the author on finding a title that has 
not been used before — a daily increasing difficulty ! 

British Butterflies and other Insects. Edited by Edward 
Thomas. London ; Hodder & Stoughton. 127 pp., 6/- 

' There is a difference between a grub and a butterfly ; yet your butter- 
fly was a grub.' Such is the Shakespearian entomological observation 
quoted in this volume. And we might add — ' There is a difference between 
" British Country Life" and "British Butterflies and other Insects," yet 
the latter was once part of the former.' And whilst there is nothing to 
indicate that such is the case, the new book is simply the entomological 
articles reprinted from Messrs. Hodder and Stoughton's two charming 
volumes on ' British Country Life ' already noticed in these columns. In 
this present attractive and cheap form, however, our readers will doubtless 
be giad to have these ' Insect ' articles by themselves, and we think the 
publishers have acted wiselv in presenting them in their present form, 
particularly if it repays them for their enterprise in producing such really 
admirable books so clieaply. There are articles by A. Collett, G. A. B. 
Dewar, Richard South, A. W. Rees, and F. P. Smith, all being written in 
a style redolent of the fields and woods and heaths. The coloured plates 
from photographs are also v/ell in keeping with the book, and consiflerably 
add to its attractiveness. 

1909 April I. 




F. M. BURTON, F.L.S.,F.G.S. 

Rooks are unusually abundant in the Gainsborougn neigh- 
bourhood, and, in one way or another, are always in evidence 
from early morning until darkness sets in at night ; so that 
opportunities for observation are numerous. Within a radius 
of about a mile from my house, and, for the most part within 
half that distance, there are, at least, twenty separate rookeries, 
big and little ; most of them on the slope of the Keuper escarp- 
ment above Gainsborough facing west, and so protected from 
the cutting easterly winds so common in this district. 

When the nesting period is well over, and during the winter 
months, all the birds roost in woods on the east of the town, 
repairing there from the low lands of the Trent valley, their 
favourite feeding-place, in large or small flocks, with a solitary 
straggler here and there bringing up the rear as the day closes 
in ; and in the mornings, when daylight returns, they all fly 
back with loud cawings, to feed in the valley again or on the 
newly turned-up plough lands. In addition to the worms and 
grubs of the marshes and plough-lands, anything in the shape 
of a nut has a special attraction for them ; and they will strip 
a tree year after year, when once they find it out. I have 
several solitary walnut trees in the fields around my house, 
and long before the nuts are ripe and ready to be gathered, the 
rooks carry them off. I have seen a tree black with these 
marauders, and have watched the birds flying off with the nuts 
in their beaks. For a long time I could not make out what they 
did with them, until one day, on digging into a heap of- soil 
left ready for the garden, some of the nuts turned up. The 
rooks had learnt that the thick, green coating of walnuts, if 
buried in the ground, will come off ; and though the nuts by 
this process are not properly ripe, indeed far from it, I have 
been oblged to take a lesson from the rooks and follow their 
example, on the principle of ' half a loaf being better than 
no bread.' It is not only the walnuts that they steal, but any- 
thing suggestive of a nut as well. I have a Turkey Oak on my 
lawn, the fruit of which, with its rough bristly protection, is 
regularly attacked by the rooks. Some of the acorns may be 
carried off and eaten, but, at all events, the greater part is 
thrown down, and left lying under the tree ; and, whether good 


Burton: Notes on Rooks. 147 

ior food or not, it is clearly a point of honour with them to 
strip the tree every year. 

Rooks in general avoid the near presence of man. In the 
winter, however, when the ground is frozen hard or the land 
buried in snow, they will venture to approach the food put out 
for the starving birds, using, however, the greatest caution 
in doing so. I have seldom, even in the worst seasons, seen a 
rook near my windows, but they will sit on the branches of 
the trees near the food, and if a piece of bread or anything 
falls to the ground they will make a dash for it and carry it off. 
I have seen them sometimes fly close past the stage on which 
the food is placed, and either seize a piece or knock it off with 
their wings, and then pick it up. They will also fly after a bird 
carrying off food in its beak and force it to drop it. In the 
early mornings too, when no one is about, they will take away 
the small bones hung out for the Tits. In fact, they steal and 
bully whenever they can. 

The following is an account of the most extraordinary event 
in the social economy of these birds that I ever met with. The 
crest of the steep escarpment on the east of Gainsborough, 
already alluded to, was cut through in the old coaching days 
to lower the gradient and reduce the slope ; the spoil being 
banked up on the road below, thus raising it up considerably 
above the fields on its north side. Walking down this road 
one day, I saw through the hedgerow in one of the fields, a 
large circle of rooks assembled on the grass, several deep, all 
with their heads turned towards the centre where one solitary 
bird was standing. The circle, I should say, was about thirty 
feet in diameter. Presently, out stepped an old bird from the 
ring, and with that half-walk, half-flight motion, common to 
some of the larger birds, went up to the rook in the middle, 
and attacked it with its beak, stabbing it on the head for about 
a minute, after which, suddenly the whole body of the birds 
rose up and flew away leaving the victim alone in the centre. 
It was not dead, and it tried to stand, supporting itself with its 
wings ; in which way, falling and stumbling as it moved off, 
it managed to reach the opposite hedge, w^hich was not far 
off, and I saw no more of it. The gate leading into the field 
was some distance off, and I had no time to spare. The 
victim, judging from the size of the old rook which stepped 
out to kill it, appeared to be a young bird, one perhaps of the 
first year, inexperienced in rook law. 

igrg April i. 

148 Northern Neivs. 

It would most probably die. That they meant to kill it 
is certain, and had not my presence, or something else, disturbed 
them, they would have done it. What it had done I cannot say. 
It might persistently have stolen twigs from the nests of other 
birds — a dire offence with rooks — or, perhaps, got at their 
eggs. Some flagrant breach of rook-law had, doubtless, been 
committed, and, after trial by a jury of its fellows, it had been 
condemned to death. It was a remarkable scene, and from 
the conclave of birds assembled to witness the execution, 
and their complete and orderly silence, the proceeding had 
something distinctly impressive about it. Doubtless this 
tragedy has been witnessed by others, but I should imagine 
by very few. Mr. W. Warde Fowler in his ' Tales of the Birds/ 
recounts a similar incident, and, though it is told as a tale, 
no doubt he either witnessed it himself, or had it from some 
good and credible source. 

The fact of this tragedy having been seen by others, and 
not being an isolated case, renders it more interesting, as it 
points to a high state of established order, and even morality, 
in the lives of these interesting birds and their dealings one with 

Mr. Horace B. Woodward, F.R.S., assistant Director of the Geological 
Survey of England and Wales, retired from public service on December 
31st last. We trust that he may long be spared to enjoy his rest from 
official duties, though doubtless he will still find much to occupy his time. 

We learn from ' Nature ' that Mr. Silva White, the Assistant Secretary 
of the British Association, has resigned. At a recent meeting of the Council 
cordial thanks were expressed to Mr. White, ' but it was resolved that the 
Assistant Secretary should not be a member of the Council ; and as this 
was the chief condition under which he would continue in office, his resip'na- 
tion was accepted.' 

' The Yorkshire Herald ' for February ist, has three columns devoted 
to ' A Yorkshire Naturalist — Mr. William Hewett and his work, who has 
collected nearly 40,000 specimens.' It is illustrated by sketches of Mr. 
Hewett, Sabine's Gull, Puffin, and ' Hewett's swing.' The last is not 
prophetic, but is from a photograp'n of Mr. Hewett in mid-air at Buckton^ 
collecting eggs of Guillemot, Razorbill and Puffin. We learn that the 
British Museum ' take second place ' with regard to Guillemot eggs, Mr. 
Hewett's being the finest collection in the world. He also is said to 
possess a complete collection of British land, marine, and fresh-water 
shells. In an examination recently on ' Evolution,' Mr. Hewett wrote 
twenty-three sheets of foolscap in three hours. He has a certificate for 
shorthand, knows French, and has recently been asked for a summary of 
his life's work by an American publishing firm. We also learn that the 
Rev. T. B. B. Ferris, M.A., formerly vicar of St. Thomas's, York, said, in a 
letter to the ' Herald,' dated April 27th, 18S2, ' Mr. Hewett, a most 
enthusiastic naturalist.' Those who know Mr. Hewett will agree with 
this ; those who don't, won't recognise him again from the " protrait " 
given in the ' Herald.' 





The choice of an address to a Society consisting of so many 
sections is an anxious one. Either the address must be on 
very broad Hnes, dealing with general principles, or, if tech- 
nical, and addressed to one section only, the majority of those 
who are learned in other branches of natural science suffer in 
the interests of the few. I was told, however, that I was 
expected to specialise on this occasion, by those whom I dare 
not disobey, and it seems to me that it will not be amiss to 
examine the present state of our knowledge of Carboniferous 
Geology, and to draw attention to important questions which 
are urgently needing solution, though to compress this subject 
into a presidential address will be difficult. 

In the year 1888 was published a Volume of Reports of the 
British Sub-Committees on Classification and Nomenclature 
of the International Geological Congress, in which was amongst 
others, a ' report on the Carboniferous, Devonian and Old Red 
Sandstone.' In it are given tables of fhe general succession 
of the Carboniferous Rocks in various districts of Great Britain 
and Ireland, but in only one single instance (p. 143), is even the 
Generic name of a fossil mentioned. 

Since that date, fortunately, our knowledge of Carboniferous 
palaeontology and fossil distribution has advanced, and I think 
we may claim that to-day the broad lines of life zones of the 
Carboniferous Rocks have been laid down, and firmly estab- 
lished on a sound footing, and the work of the future will have 
a foundation on which to build. 

To-day it is a fairly easy task to read the sequence in any 
district, and on broad lines to correlate one district with another 
In the first place, it is important to recognise that the lower 
Carboniferous Rocks were deposited on a sinking land of very 
irregular surface, so that portions only sank beneath the waves 
in time to receive deposits characterised by a fauna younger 
than that which obtains in the older beds. This fact is well 
illustrated by the comparison of the Bristol and North Wales 
Carboniferous Limestone series. The basement conglomerate 

* Being the Presidential Address to the Yorkshire NaturaUsts' Union, 
deUvered at Doncaster, December loth, 1908. 

1909 April I. 

150 Hind : Carboniferous Geology. 

of North Wales is succeeded by Semimda beds, a sub-division 
of which is comparatively high up in the Bristol succession. 

Many of the present difficulties of British Carboniferous 
Stratigraphy are due to the fact that portions of the British 
Isles were dry land throughout the whole Carboniferous period. 
The whole of the North of Scotland, the Southern Uplands, 
the Lake District, parts of North-west and Mid Wales and 
Shropshire, the Mourne Mountains, and parts of Co. Wicklow, 
were not submerged even in lower Carboniferous times. 

Out to the East, over Belgium, the Carboniferous sea was 
laying down deposits of Limestone, which can now be correlated 
with the lowest part of the Bristol Series, but still further East, 
in Germany, practically none of the lower Carboniferous Rocks 
are found at all, and the Carboniferous Series there commences 
with the Culm, containing a fauna which identifies those beds 
with the Pendleside Series of the Midlands. 

In Russia, the lowest part of the Carboniferous Limestone 
is characterised by a fauna {Productus giganteus) which is asso- 
ciated in Belgium and Great Britain with the highest beds of 
the Series. 

Not only locally, therefore, in the British Isles, but also 
across Europe there 'is an extensive overlap of the higher 
members of the Carboniferous Series, and it is of the utmost 
importance to work out the causes and conditions of this over- 
lap, this question being one of world-wide inportance. It 
would seem, too, that the key to the riddle is in the County of 
Yorkshire, and that the solution of the problem of the relation- 
ship of the Yoredale Series and the Pendleside group will go 
far to settle the whole question of European Carboniferous 

The succession of Carboniferous Rocks in the Bristol area 
has been described in detail by Dr. Vaughan.* The Avon 
gorge shews, with one fault and one slight repetition, a complete 
sequence of the Carboniferous Limestone series. Since that 
publication, Dr. Vaughan, Dr. Sibly and others have shewn 
that a similar sequence exists in the Mendips and in South 
Wales. Dr. Vaughan was able to shew that the whole sequence 
could be divided into broad life zones by the study of the Corals 
and Brachiopods, and that these life zones could be traced 
through South Wales. And there is very little doubt that these 

* O. J. Geological Soc, Vol. LXI., pp. 181-307. 


Hind: Carboniferous Geology. 151 

life zones exist in Belgium, and that it will be a comparatively 
easy matter to correlate with some approach to exactness, 
the Carboniferous Limestone Series of the Meuse and Bristol, 
a view expressed by Lohest, many years ago, and previous 
to the publication of Dr. Vaughan's work. 

Dr. Vaughan shews the Bristol sequence to be about 2300 
feet thick, and thus he sub-divides it as follows :— 

About 100 feet 





D il 

400 : 


S 2\ 

S i( 




Z 2) 

Z i! 






Speaking generally, the fauna of the Bristol area is not 
rich in genera or species, except in Corals and Brachiopoda ; 
Lamellibranchs, Gasteropoda, and Cephalopoda are exceedingly 
rare. Fish remains occur abundantly at certain horizons, but 
are rare in the Dibunophyllum beds. There are no shellbeds, 
such as are not uncommon in the Upper Limestones of the 
Midlands, indeed there is a very great difference in the faunas 
of the Dibunopliyllum beds in these two areas, both in numbers 
of species, gene a, and individuals. 

In the Bristol district the Dihtmophyllitm beds pass up into 
a series attaining about 100 feet of limestone, which Dr. 
Vaughan has classed as (£.), which are characterised by 
brachiopods of a late Dibunophyllum type, which are common 
also in the Midland area. And on these limestones repose the 
so-called Millstone Grits of the British district, said to be about 
980 feet thick, on which lie the Coal Measures, which, from 
the flora, would seem to represent only the upper moiety of 
the Coal Measures of the Midlands. Mr. Bolton has pniblished 
the description of marine bands and their fauna passed through 
in an exploration heading at the Ashton Vale Colliery.* 

Unfortunately we know nothing more of the fauna or 
flora of this 900 feet of beds. The fauna of the marine band 
described by Mr. Bolton, has some resemblance to that asso- 
ciated with the Gin Mine of the North Staffordshire Coalfield, 

* Q. J. Geol. Soc, Vol. LXII., pp. 445-469. 

1909 .\pril I. 

152 Hind: Carboni'fcrous Geology. 

and the latter bed is fairly high up in the Coal Measures of that 
Coalfield. The fish fauna is decidedly of a Coal Measure 
facies, and Mr. Bolton remarks that Plant remains of a Coal 
Measure type occur in black shale, a few feet below the marine 
bands. When compared to the Carboniferous succession 
ill the Midlands where the Dibunophyllum zone is succe ded 
by more than 1000 feet of the Pendleside Series, and these beds 
in turn are overlaid by from 300-3000 feet of Millstone Grit, 
and that the Gin mine lies 5000 feet above the base of the Coal 
Measures in North Staffordshire, the question arises at once as 
to what do these 900 feet of Millstone Grit of Bristol really 
represent ? 

Dr. Kidston has shewn that the greater part of the Coal 
Measures of the Bristol area are represented by a Flora of high 
facies, and I am of opinion ,from the evidence of the Mollusca, 
that the Pennant Series of coals correspond to the Black Band 
Series, and that portion of the Coal Measures immediately 
below them. Therefore the 900 feet of Grits represent, in point 
of time, all the Series between the Dibunophyllum beds, and a 
horizon high up in the Coal Measures. 

A marine band has been discovered in the South Wales 
Coalfield, near its base at Glan, Rhymney, and Beaufort. This 
probably represents the marine band described by Mr. Bolton. 

We also now know that the genus Zaphrentis is not con- 
fined to the lower beds in other areas, but in the Midland 
province and Scotland the same species which characterises 
the Zaphrentis zone of the Bristol area, occur with other 
species of this genus in the Upper Dibunophyllum beds.* 


The Carboniferous Limestone of the Clee Hill Area rests 
conformably on a series of upper Devonian rocks. The lime- 
stones exposed at Oreton and Farlow would appear, from the 
fauna contained in them to belong to Zaj^hentis division of the 
Bristol sequence. These limestones are succeeded by some 
shaly beds which in turn are overlaid by a Millstone Grit and 
the Clee Hill Coal Measures. 

There is no question that the age of the Coalfield is other 
than Coal Measures, a fact demonstrated by the flora, so that 
in this area there must be an unconformity to account for the 

* Vide CaiTuthers, ' Geol. Mag.', Dec. v., Vol.V., pp. 63 and 158. 


Hind: Carhoniferous Geology. 153 

absence of the whole of the Visean group of the Carboniferous 


Mr. Stobbs and I have shewn that the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone Succession in North Wales approximates much more 
to the Midland type than to that of the Bristol area. The 
principal point of importance that we made out was the absence 
of the whole of the lower part of the Bristol sequence, the 
basement conglomerate being succeeded by Limestones of 
various horizons in the Visean ; and that in the most extreme 
cases, only about 500 feet of Seminula beds are represented. 
■We were able to shew that the lowest Limestones of North 
Wales are characterised when present, by the presence of 
Daviesiella Llangollensis. 

In certain localities Craignant, Llannt, Bron y Garth, 
Hafod near Corwen, Fron y Cysyllte, the Seminula he<ls are 
absent, and there is an overlap of Dibunophyllum beds, which 
rest unconformably on Silurian and Ordovician Tocks. 

Towards the top of the Dibunophyllum zone the beds be ome 
cherty in places, and a sub-zone distinguished by the presence 
of Cyathaxonia and Amplexi-zaphrentis is developed. 

The Limestones are succeeded at Teilia and Prestatyn by 
the Teilia beds, a series ef thin limestones and shales, con- 
taining a typical Pendleside fauna and flora, and probably in 
places, some of the regularly and thinly bedded Pendleside 
Limestone have been replaced by Cherts. 

The Cherts of North Wales, therefore, are in the upper part 
of the Dibunophyllum and Cyathaxonia zones, and in the 
lower part of the Pendleside Series. 

At Allinson's quarry, near Oswestry Racecourse, and near 
Bwlch Gwyn, north of Minera and at Halkin Mountain, the 
cherts contain corals, Cyathaxonia and Brachiopoda, and are 
certainly part of the Carboniferous Limestone. 

The succession in North Wales may be explained as follows : 

Coal Measures belonging to the Lower Coal Measures of Lanca- 
shire, about the Arley Seam, and with the marine beds of Gas- 
trioceras listen in any area. 

Sandy Shales. 

Pendleside Series of Teilia and Holywell. 

Cyathaxonia beds. 

Upper Dibunophyllum. 

Lower Dibunophyllum. 

Seminula beds. 

Basement Conglomerate. 

The Pendleside Series of Teilia and the Holywell and 

goig Apri' I. 


Hind : Carboniferous Geology. 

Bagillt road, Nant-figilt afford an exposure of about looo feet, 
and yield a typical Pendleside fauna. They are succeeded by 
sandy and micaceous shales of Talacre dingle, and these are 
overlaid by the Gwespyr sandstone, which is a very thick bed 
of sandstone full of plant remains in a detrital state. 

I consider it probable that the Gwespyr sandstone is the 
representative of the Millstone Grit, but we have no fossil 
evidence yet whether this is a Sandstone above or below that 
horizon, but there is little doubt that the Coal Measures of 
North Flint contain the representative of the Arley mine of 
the Lancashire Coalfield. 


. The Carboniferous sequence of the Midlands is important. 
The area over which this particular sequence obtains extends 
from Ashbourne in Derbyshire to Settle in Yorkshire, and is 
represented in the following diagrain : — 

Millstone Grits 

Pendleside Series 

Carboniferous Limestone 

Gastrioceras listrri. 
Glyphioceras bilingue beds 

Glyphioceras spirale beds. 
Glyphioceras reticulatum beds, 
Posidoiiomya becheri beds. 
Prolecanites conipressiis. 
Cyathaxonia beds. 

Upper Dibit iiophyllum. 

Lower DibuHophyUiiin. 

Base never seen. 

The base of the Limestone has never been seen, and owing 
to the Tectonic structure of the area, we are totally ignorant 
of the thickness of the Limestone, or on what rocks it is super- 
posed. Having collected Carboniferous Limestone fossiL f o • 
many years in this area, I was aware that I had never obtained 
a fauna from which Pyoductus gi^antens was absent, and that 
the upper part of the Series was very rich in those corals 
which Dr. Vaughan associated with the Dibimophylliim zone. 


Hind : Cafboiiijerous Geology. 155 

Dr. Silby * obtained very similar results in his study of the 
southern part of the district, and filled in several details. 
I have not been abh to satisfy myself that any beds of a lower 
facies than the Dibunophyllum zone exist in Derbyshire, but 
the exposure of Settle reveals some Seminula beds underlying 
beds with a typical Dihunophylhim fauna. 

The interesting point in Dr. Sibly's paper is the recognition 
of the wide vertical expansion of the Dibunophyllum zone in the 
North Staffordshire-Derbyshire district, which measures, accord- 
ing to him, at least 1700 feet ; whereas in the Bristol district, 
the whole zone is represented by only between 400 — 500 feet of 

The Limestone with cherts, characterised by the presence of 
Cyathaxonia and other small corals, is well developed on the 
Staffordshire side of the anticlinal, and reaches near Warslow 
and Wetton 100-150 feet in thickness. At Wetton (Pepper 
Inn), and Butterton, North Staffordshire, these beds are 
overlaid conformably by black shales and Limestones, with a 
typical Pendleside fauna, Pterinopecten papyraceus, Posidonomya 
becheri, Nomismoceras rotiforme, Glyphioceras striatum, indicating 
the lowest zone of that series. Here the succession in the 
Upper Dibunophyllum Series is very similar to North Wales. 
Cherty in places, it is succeeded by a Cyathaxonia zone also 
cherty, passing conformably into the lowest Pendleside zone. 

Beds with a similar faunal sequence are to be seen at 
many places further North. The Hodder Valley, Winterburn. 
Lothersdale, the Cracoe Hills and near Settle. 

This large Derbyshire-Staffordshire Carboniferous area is 
also remarkable because of the enormous development of the 
Series of rock to which Mr. Howe and I gave the name 
Pendleside Series. This Series, in the Midlands, consists of 
a group of dark limestones and shales at the base, passing up 
into their well bedded dark limestones, which are succeeded 
by a black shale group, Then the shales become sandy, and 
pass up into standstones, ganister-like grits, and are overlaid 
by the Millstone Grit series. I estimate the extreme thickness 
of these beds to be about 1200 feet, and the greatest thick- 
ness seems to be at Pendle Hill. 

The Series is of interest because it can be accurately zoned 
by a succession of cephalopod forms, which appear to indicate 
definite horizons which can be traced from the centre of Europe 
to the West coast of Ireland. 

igog .\pril i" 

156 Northern Ne^os. 

The Series appears to thin out rapidly south of Stoke-on- 
Trent, and North of Settle, the characteristic fauna has not yet 
been found in any beds between Settle and the Valley of the 
Clyde. The series also thins out to the West, being represented 
on the West coast of Ireland by about 80 feet of dark shales 
with calcareous nodules, and apparently representing the 
middle part of the Series, the characteristic Goniatites being 
Glyphioceras reticulatum and G. diadema. No trace of the 
fauna has been found in the Ingleboro' area, where Mr. Cosmo 
Johns has demonstrated the following succession : — Upper 
Dibunophylhim, Lower Dibunophyllum, Seminula beds, Base- 
ment Conglomerate. 

A change in the method and character of deposition has 
set in between Settle and Ingleboro', which is of great impor- 
tance. Within these few miles the lithological and faunal 
character of the sequence has largely altered, a fact well 
recognised by the older geologists with regard to the lithology, 
but the faunal change was not at all appreciated. 

About the latitude of Settle the rich cephalopod fauna 
and the characteristic limestones and shales of the Pendleside 
Series disappear, and no trace has been found of them in the 
Yoredale Series. Moreover, wherever the Pendleside Series 
occurs it succeeds a Visean fauna of the highest facies. 

The coral fauna which always underlies the Posidonomya 
hecheri beds, throughout the area in which it is developed, 
consists of Cladochonus hacillaris, Michilinia tenitiscpta, 
Zaphrentis Enniskilleni, and other species of the genera 
Amplexi-zaphrentis and Cyathaxonia, but in addition the 
Upper Visean beds of the Pendleside area are very rich in 
brachiopoda, Mollusca and Fish Remains. For example, a 
rich iish fauna is found in the Red beds or the highest limestones 
of the Yoredale Series in Wensleydale, and this fauna differs 
entirely from the fish fauna of the Pendleside Series, and 
agrees very markedly with the fish fauna found in the upper 
part of the limestone of Derbyshire and Staffordshire. 

(To be continued ). 

The Yorkshire Wild Birds' and Eggs' Protection Committee begs to 
acknowledge the receipt of two guineas from the Royal Society for the 
Protection of Birds. 

We are glad to see that Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S., has lieen elected 
a Vice-President of the Geological Society. Professor W. W. Watts has 
been similarly honoured, his place as Secretary having been taken by 
Dr. A. Smitli Woodward, 




Richmondshire : an account of its Historj' and Antiquities, Characters 
and Customs, Leg-endary Lore, and Natural History, b}- Edmund Bogg. 
Leeds : James Miles. 696 + xxiii. pp., price 7/6 net. 

This is not a dear book, and doubtless many of the readers of this journal 
who have joined the rambles of the County Naturalists' Union in recent 
years, will welcome it. Amongst the 240 illustrations from photographs 
and drawings are many familiar places. Most ol these are easily recognis- 
able, though that labelled ' William Home, F.G.S.' of Leyburn, sat in his 
' bleeding ' chair, would never have been identified were it not for the name 
given. The first chapter is ' A Geological Sketch of Richmondshire,' by 
the Rev. J. C. Fowler. With him, we agree that ' it is difficult in a few 

The Lady's Slipper Orchis. 

pages, to give an adequate outline of such a wide and broken district of 
hill and dale as Richmondshire,' and in his 6\ pages (including illustrations), 
he has not done justice to the subject. So ' sketchy ' is this ' brief sketch ' 
that it would have been better omitted. There is a ' Pterodactyl (chalk) ' 
figured, a ' Carboniferous ' ammonite, etc. We are not quite sure what is 
meant by the sentence — ' the causes of the Glacial phenomena are in theory 
and various, one of the latest ideas being that the sun is a variable star.' 

,1909 April I. 

158 Reviews and Book Notices. 

There are two ' Botanical Sketches ' (of ' Richmondshire ' and ' Wensley- 
dale ' respectively), by F. Arnold Lees. These are all that can be desired, 
are written in a pleasant style, and, of course, are most reliable. The 
description of the lady's slipper orchis is not accompanied by quite the 
number of adjectives that we should have expected from this enthusiast ! 
An excellent illustration is given of the specimen gathered in 1907, which 
we are kindly permitted to reproduce. These botanical notes, together 
with the geological chapter already referred to, seem to comprise the 
' natural history ' section of the volume. Mr. Bogg's own work is in his 
familiar style. He has obviously well traversed the ground he describes ; 
he has also consulted the literature dealing with the places he refers to, 
and thus gives a pretty full account of the attractions of Richmondshire 
and its borders. Now and then the ' yarns ' which are included in order 
to give the work an interest, seem almost to have been ' dragged in ' ; but 
they are pardonable. 

In their ' English Literature for Secondary Schools' Series, Messrs, 
MacMillan and Co. have recently published ' Selections from White's 
Natural History of Selborne,' under the Editorship of T. A. Brunton, 
M.A., of the Manchester Grammar School (136 pp., cloth, r/-). The 
book contains thirty of White's letters, which are illustrated by blocks from 
photographs by T. A. Metcalfe and others. Such volumes as this should 
do much to increase an interest in Nature amongst the scholars in our 
secondary schools. 

Richard Jefferies : His Life and Work, by Edward Thomas. 

Hutchinson & Co. 340 pp., 10/- net. 

Notwithstanding the fact that other writers have referred to Richard 
Jefferies and his work, we think the present volume, by Mr. Thomas, 
■occupies a place quite apart from the others. It is most welcome. The 
author is a sympathetic and appreciative follower of Jefferies, and seems 
to have quite grasped Jefferies' feelings and sentiments. He has lived, 
too, for over twenty years in that part of Wiltshire that Jefferies knew 
so well ; and from the country people there has gathered much interesting 
information relating to Jefferies and his family. From Mr. Thomas's 
previous publications, notably ' The Book of the Open Air,' already re- 
ferred to in these columns, he is evidently the right man as Jefferies' 
biographer. He deals at some length with the ancestry, childhood, youth 
and earlier life of his subject, and then in turn deals with his hrst novels, 
first country essays, first country books, etc. There is an excellent biblio- 
graphy, and the volume is illustrated by reproductions of portraits, a 
facsimile letter, etc. To read Mr. Thomas's volume is a pleasure, and 
results, if possible, in appreciating Jefferies' works even more. 

We have received No. 8 of Orkney and Shetland OId = Lore (The 

King's Weigh House, Thomas Street, Grosvenor Square, London), an 
admirable publication; which we recently referred to in these columns. 
It deals with several matters of interest to antiquaries and folk-lorists. 
To shew that the publication is by no means ' dry,' we give an extract 
from a paper on ' Orkney Dialect,' which we think our readers will be able 
to follow : — Twa feuly aid Orkna billies tullzied aboot a peerie uddie 
bit o' a plantacreu an' hed a laa plea ower 'id i' the Coort o' Session. The 
ane 'at waas soomoned gaed bae mistak till the tither's laaweer. Da 
scoondrel waas ower ceeval an' telt da man 'at he waas wirkan for da 
tither, bit wad gae 'im a letter intradeusan 'im tae anither honest (?) 
aaweer 'at wad be blide tae tak ap 'is case. Da man set awa wi' da letter, 
bit on 'is wey he tou't he wad hae a leuk at her jeust for a' the warl as 
gin he'd been a aid wife. The letter waasna lang bit sheu waas tae the 
point, for sheu jeust said : ' Twa Orkna fat geese ; pluck thu the ane an' 
I'se pluck the ither.' Bae me singan certy dat billy got siccan a gluff dat 
he gaed straight tae the tither ane an' dey settled da ploy atween themsels 
baith an' hed a foy ower id.' 


Reviews and Book Notices. 159 

A Monograph of the British Desmidiacese, by W. West, F.L.S., 
and G. S. West, iW.A., F.L.S,, A.R.C.S. \ol. III. Ray Society. 
274 pp., 31 plates, price 25/- net. 

The third vohime of this useful work has appeared, and is devoted 
•entirely to the genus Cosmarium, of which fifty species, and a number of 
varieties were figured and described in the second volume. To these the 
present volume adds 174 additional species, with a considerable number 
of varieties. From some remarks in the introduction (\'ol. I.), in which 
the authors suggested that the genus Cosmarinm might some day have to 
be split up into smaller genera, one may infer that they feel this number 
to be out of all proportion to its importance, and in this we are disposed 
to agree, though we think there may be some difference of opinion as to 
the suggested remedy. A careful examination of the descriptions and 
plates of this genus does not encourage the idea of finding sound grounds 
for generic differences, but rather suggests that even for specific and x^arietal 
discrimination, the most has been made of some minute points of difference. 

The author says (page 128) ' We arc gradually arriving at the con- 
viction that external form is the dominating factor in the determination 
of the species groups in Desmids.' Along side this extract, we quote 
from the description of Cosmaviuni regnesi (Plate 78) — ' the new semi- 
cells regain the more pronounced character of the species after having 
partially lost it by repeated divisions.' This appears to be an admission 
that the external form is liable to mutation at different periods of its life 

It is evident that every fresh form that is described as a new species 
does, as a matter of fact, something to bridge over the differences between 
certain other species, and as this process is continually going on, a time 
will inevitably come when it will be necessary to recognise that the number 
of real species is very limited, and that much simplification of the study 
of this genus may be obtained by a judicious process of ' lumping.' 

But before this can be undertaken successfully, there remains much 
work to be done in watching the growth and development of many of the 
forms. In many cases we notice Messrs. West add the significant remark — 
■' Zygospore unknown.' Perhaps some of our local students of tiie fresh 
w-ater AlgiP will take the hint, for in Yorkshire, notably in the moorland 
■districts of the West and North Ridings, we have a very considerable 
Desmid Flora. 

Of the plates accompanying the present volume, it is sufficient to say 
that they fully maintain the clearness and delicacy which are such marked 
characteristics of the previous volumes. We notice nothing is said as 
to any further issue, but, judging by the extent of ground already covered, 
and the genera that have not yet been described, one may presume that 
another volume (or perhaps two) will appear in due coui'se. R. H. P. 

We have received from Messrs. J. M. Dent & Co., the first part of 
' Trees and Shrubs of the British Isles, Native and Acclimatised,' by 
C. S. Cooper and W. P. Westell, and coloured and ' black and white ' 
plates from drawings by C. F. Newell. The work is to be completed in 
sixteen parts at i/- net each. The frontispiece is a coloured representation 
■of the Strawberry tree ; and there are a number of ' black and white ' 
plates, shewing the structures of leaves, etc. ; the drawing of some of which 
might be improved. With each species is given a description of its dis- 
tribution, flowers, leaves, etc. We cannot find any new features in the 
work, but when complete, it will form a large, attractive and cheap \olume. 

We have received the Records of Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Observatory, Edgbaston, 1908, by Alfred Cresswell. It is 
issued by the Birmingham and Midland Institute Scientific Society, is 
sold at two shillings ; and whilst it is not a pamphlet that will be read from 
■cover to cover, it certainly contains a very valuable record of systematic 
observations. The pity is that similar publications are not issued from 
many other districts. 

1909 April I. 



The price of ' The Country Side ' has been doubled. 

A contemporary sends an ' invitation to our blind readers.' 

A photograph of ' A Tame Wild Squirrel ' appears in a contemporary. 

We are glad to see from several West Riding newspapers that credit 
is due to the Crosshills Naturalists' Society ' for discovering the lesser 
shrew on the edge of Rombalds Moor, last records of such a bird going back 
about twenty years.' 

In Memoriam. ' Tlie Naturalists' Quarterly Review' (Dartford), 
referred to in these columns in anything but affectionate terms, closed its 
career with its eighth number. Its loss is mourned by the publisher and 
Mr. P. W. Westell. No flowers. R. I. P. 

We notice from ' The Museum News ' that Mr. F. A. Lucas is to give 
a lecture at the Brooklyn Institute on ' The Coming Extermination of the 
Elephant.' We hope the forthcoming big-game hunt of the ex-president 
of the United States is not to be quite so serious. 

We are glad to see from a report of a recent lecture in Leeds, that ' the 
lecture was followed by a large number of exhibits of foraminifera and 
polycystina of species of a genus or of examples of Geneva, so that the 
members might get an understanding of how, with inheritance, variation 
invariably follows.' 

In the Eastern Morning Ne7vs of March 8th, the ' Discovery of a 
New Elephant ' is announced as having been made in Japan. ' It occurs 
as small yellow or red crystals,' and ' has been appropriat'^ly named 
Nipporium. Its symbol will be Np., and its atomic weight has been ascer- 
tained to be probably loo. Evidently ' Nipporium ' is Latin for ' Little 

Lady Isabel Browne contributes an exceedingly valuable paper on 
' The Phylogeny and Inter-relationships of the Pteridophyta ' to the ' New 
Phytologist,' part VII. of whic'n appears in the February issue. That it 
is not meant for the ' man (or woman) in the street ' is obvious from the 
two following sentences taken at random in this lengthy paper : — ' A 
similar shifting in other directions might have brought about the adaxial 
position of the Spenophyllaceous sporangiophore, or having produced a 
marginal and abaxial position of the sorus from an adaxial position. If 
Mr. Tansley is right in regarding the branching of the frond of many 
Botryopteridea- in more than one plane as a vestige of a primitively radial 
construction the branching of the Sporophylls of some Sphenopyllales in 
the dorsiventral and lateral planes may be an indication of primitavely 
radial symmetry.' 

From the Lancashire newspapers we learn that ' a unique fossil ' has 
recently been found in South Lancashire. At the meeting of the Manchester 
Geological and Mming Society, recently, Mr. Alfred J. Tonge exhibited 
a portion of the impression of a fossil tree which has been found in the 
Chequerbent Arley Mine of the Hulton Collieries, at a depth of 250 yards, 
from the surface. ' It is remarkable,' Mr. Tonge said, ' from the fact that 
the tree has been traced for a length of 115 feet. It is a lepidodendron. 
It is lying in the bassy shales about three feet above the Arley seam, and 
is of flattened ovate form. The measurement, taken at a distance of 14 
feet from the root end, gives a width across at that point of 2 feet 10 inches 
or measured along the circumference of the bark a little over 3 feet. The 
Chairman said the specimen seemed to be unique on account of its length 
and slenderness. It was characteristic of this kind of fossil for the bark 
to be preserved when the woody portion of the tree had disappeared.. 
It was so with the first fossil remains of an animal found by Sir Charles 
Lyell ! ;' 

' Naturaliit, 

MAY 1909. 

No. 628 

(No. 406 0/ current series). 




T. SHEPPARD, F.a.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museum, Hull; 


T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D, .F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 




Contents : — 

Notes and Comments : — Speeton and South Africa; African Fungi ; Seeds from Peat 

The Present State of Our Knowledg^e of Carboniferous Geology— Dr. Wheelton Hind, 

F.R.C.S., F.G.S 

Thrush Stones and Helix aemoralls L.—E. Adrian Woodmffe-Peacock, F.L.S., F.G.S. ... 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies (Illustrated) 

Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire— C. Cross/an;/, F.L.S 

New Botanical Books 

Geological Papers 

The Phytoplankton of the English Lake District (Illustrated;— ll';;i. West, F.L.S. , and 

G. S. West, M. A., D.Sc., F.L.S 

Some British Earthmites (Illustrated)— C. F. George.. 

Remains of a Chim^eroid Fish from the Coral Rag of North Grimston—H.C. Drake, F.G.S. 

Museum News 

News from the Magazines 

The Broad-leaved Wood Garlic or Ramsons (Illustrated)— Jas. E. McDonald 

Field Notes 

Reviews and Book Notices (Illustrated) 162,195,196, 

Northern News 202, 

Illustrations 176,187,192,201, 

Plates IX,, X., XI. 













, 206-207 

205, 208 

202, 207 

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We have recently received Vol. VII., Part 2 of the Annals 
of the South African Museum, which is devoted to ' Descrip- 
tions of the Palaeontological Material collected by the Members 
of the Geological Survey of Cape Colony and others,' and con- 
tains an elaborate paper on ' The Invertebrate Fauna and 
Palaeontological Relations of the Uitenhage Series,' by Dr. F. 
L. Kitchin.* On glancing at the plates at the end of the volume, 
the striking resemblance with the fossils of the Speeton series is 
at once observed. Dr. Kitchin, in his remarkably full and 
critical review of the various memoirs dealing with the Uiten- 
hage series, rejects the theories of the Liassic and Jurassic 
age of the beds, and brings forward very good evidence to shew 
that they are of Lower Cretaceous age, justly advocating 
that the evidence of the Cephalopoda must carry the greatest 
weight in arriving at a decision. The author then discusses 
the evidence afforded by each individual species, and unques- 
tionably makes out a very good case. He is also very much 
up-to-date with regard to the literature of the subject, and has 
even drawn upon specimens from Yorkshire museums and pri- 
vate collections in working up his case. In this connection it is 
remarkable to find, for instance, that Holcostephaniis atherstoni 
of Sharpe, from South Africa, is practically identical with the 
Olcostephaniis [Astieria) asteria described by Mr. C. G. Danford 
in the Yorkshire Geological Society's Proceedings for 1906, 
(publ. 1907). To find this extraordinary similarity between 
specimens occurring in so widely divided districts as Yorkshire 
and South Africa is certainly surprising. In conclusion, we 
should like to take this opportunity of congratulating Dr. 
Kitchin upon the thoroughness with which he has prepared 
this important contribution to palaeontology. 


Mr. W. N. Cheesman, F.L.S., of Selby, who joined the 
British Association at South Africa in 1905, made an extensive 
collection of fungi. This included no fewer than twenty-fi\e 
new to the flora of Africa, one being new to science. In the 
Linnean Society's Journal for February 1909, Mr. Cheesman 
describes these finds, and in the same publication Mr. Thomas 
Gibbs gives a Note on the Coprophilous fungi, in which he 
describes the new species under the name of Coprinus chees.mant. 

* West, Newman & Co., London, pp. 12-250, plates, price 12/6. 

1909 May I. 


1 62 Reviews and Book Notices. 


From the same journal we have received a reprint of a 
useful paper ' On a Method of Disintegrating Peat and other 
Deposits containing Fossil Seeds,' by Mrs. E. M. Reid, B.Sc. 
The excellent work accomplished by Mr. Clement Reid, F.R.S., 
and Mrs. Reid is well known ; hence the present contribution 
is most welcome. It has been found that by boiling peat with 
about equal quantities of dehydrated soda, it becomes quite 
disintegrated, and the most fragile of seeds and other plant 
remains are uninjured. In this way specimens of peat from 
Hornsea, Bielsbeck, Kirmington and other places, which for- 
merly were quite intractable, have been made to yield a large 
series of plant seeds, etc. 

In ' Man ' for March, Mr. J. R. Mortimer contributes a note on ' The 
Stature and Cephalic Index of the Pre-historic Men, whose Remains are 
preserved in the Mortimer Museum, Driffield.' In this he shews that 
the early long-headed, or dolichocephalic individuals were an inch taller 
than the round-headed or brachycephalic individuals. 

Who were the Romans, by Prof. William Ridgeway, is the title of a 
clever essay published by the British Academy (Oxford University Press, 
44 pp., 2/6.) In it Prof. Ridgeway shews that the old idea that the Romans 
were an homogeneous people, there being no ethnical distinction between 
Patricians and Plebians has, at any rate, the advantage of simplicity ; 
but as in so many problems of natural science, so in history does it often 
occur that the more the matter is probed, the more complicated it becomes. 
In his characteristically masterly manner, the author gives an account of 
the early occupants of the Mediterranean region, and traces their growth 
and change as time went on. 

The Care of Natural Monuments, by H. Corwentz. Cambridge 
University Press. 185 pp. 2/6 net. This is a further contribution to 
the subject dealt with by Prof. Baldwin Brown, in his book on ' The Care 
of Ancient Monuments,' which was noticed in these columns when it 
was published. The present volume is the outcome of a paper read by Mr. 
Conwentz at the Leicester meeting of the British Association, and deals 
with the preservation of all manner of natural features, giving special 
reference to the methods in vogue in England and Germany. Evidently 
they look after these things well in Germany. A collector of a large number 
of specimens of the Lady's Slipper Orchis has there been sentenced to a 
fortnight's imprisonment, notwithstanding that he had not been previously 
convicted. The question of pviblishing ' distribution ' maps, etc. is also 
discussed, and it is pointed out that soon after the publication of a map 
shewing the nesting sites of rare birds, dealers flocked there in search of 
eggs. A graceful tribute is paid to the work of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, and the methods it adopts for preserving the fauna and flora, and 
of recording the physical features of the county. A word of praise is also 
meted out in favour of the authors of the maps and memoirs dealing with 
botanical survey ; in which work Yorkshire has taken an active part. 
Mr. Conwentz regards these as ' a standard of voluntary work, which has 
not been attained in any other country.' The book concludes with the 
"quotation from Shakespeare — ' who is here so vile that will not love his 
country.' Quite so, but there must be many such, or all the legislation 
would not be needed. 





[Continued fro7n page 156). 

The whole fauna of the Yoredale Series is a Carboniferous 
Limestone fauna, and not a Pendleside fauna. This question 
of the relation of the Yoredale Series to the Pendleside Series 
is one of the greatest importance, and one that I believe work 
in this county of Yorkshire alone will settle. 

To understand this matter, a correct conception of the 
Yoredale phase of Carboniferous Limestone deposit is essential. 
In the Midland province the Carboniferous Limestone is prac- 
tically one mass, but as the beds pass North, the limestones 
are in part replaced by intercalations of shales and sandstones, 
and this replacement at the expense of the limestone increases 
as the Series is traced North ; that is to say beds of detrital 
material are substituted for organic, and this change indicates 
the influence of land whence were derived the grits and muds 
which separate the limestones. 

How far the Seminula beds, which lie under Ingleboro, can 
be traced North is a question for future investigation, but 
Prof. Garwood has shewn that Seminula beds exist at the 
base of the Carboniferous Limestone Series at Arnside and 
Kendal, and Mr. Cosmo Johns that a small patch of probably 
Tournaisian beds is preserved in Pinskey Gill in Ravenstondale. 


I believe work is now being carried on in Northumberland 
which will settle the sequence there. At any rate, in Durham 
and Northumberland a fauna extends right 
up to the Millstone Grit of that area. 

Dibiinophyllum, Cyclophyllum, Lonsdaleia, and other Corals 
are found in abundance in the Main Limestone of that district, 
together with a rich Visean fauna, and there can be no doubt 
that the whole Yoredale phase of the area is typically Upper 

The Northumbrian sequence of Carboniferous rocks differs 
considerably from those which obtain further south. I quote 
Prof. Lebour's account given in the appendix of his handbook 
on ' The Geology and Natural History of Northumberland 

1909 May I. 

164 Hind: Carboniferous Geology. 

and Durham, and the Memoirs of the Geological Survey on 
Parts of Northumberland,' which, though not based on palaeon- 
tological lines, will serve to shew the lithological succession : — 

Calcareous Series. 

Fell Top or Upper Calcareous division (From Millstone Grit 
to horizon of Great Limestone) 350-1200 feet. 

Calcareous division from the Base of the Great Limestone 
to the bottom of the Dun or Redesdale Limestone inclusive, 1300- 
2500 feet. 


Carbonaceous Division. — From the Dun Limestone to the top 
of the Tuedian Grits, 800-2500 feet. 


Fell Sandstones. 

Cement Stone Beds and Rothbury Limestones. 

Lower Freestones. 
Basement Bed in all from 1000-5100 feet. 

One immense change has taken place with regard to the 
lower part of the Series, Calcareous deposits being almost 
entirely replaced by detrital sediments, in which marine fossils 
are rare. A second, not shewn in the scheme, is the number 
of seams of coal which are found through the series. 

The division into Calcareous and Carbonaceous is con- 
venient only, but it has no palaeontological basis. The whole 
of the Calcareous Series I consider belongs to the Upper Dibuno- 
phyllum zone, together with possibly all but certainly the greater 
portion of the Scremerston or Carbonaceous division. In the 
Memoir of the Geological Survey on Berwick-on-Tweed, Mr. 
Gunn stated (p. 17), that the total thickness of the Calcareous 
division down to the Dun or Redesdale Limestone is 1500 feet. 
There must therefore be a very great expansion of the Dibunop- 
hyllum zone in this area. Probably, however, owing to the 
detrital nature of the deposit and the relative paucity of lime- 
stone, deposition took place at a much quicker rate than in 
areas receiving mainly a pure calcareous or organic deposit. 

The various memoirs of the Geological Survey give lists of 
fossils from the various divisions of the Carboniferous rocks in 
Northumberland. The list in ' The Geology of Plashetts and 
Kielder,' p. 12-15 of the Carboniferous Series is without doubt 
characteristic of Dibunophyllmn fauna, and no other. 

The figures I have quoted as representing the thicknesses 
of each sub-division are those given by Prof. Lebour (Op. 
supra cit.), so that the Dibunophyllum zone, most of which is 
the upper sub-division, has an extent of from 1650-3700 feet 
throughout which Prodnctus giganteus ranges. 


Hind: Carboniferous Geology. 165 

The question of the homotaxial equivalent of the Tuedian 
group will be more diflficult to settle. They have a great 
affinity lithologically, and palasontologically, with the Carboni- 
ferous Sandstone Series of the East of Scotland, of which the 
plant remains give very valuable evidence, but those groups 
of fossils on which at the present time we rely as zonal indexes 
for the Limestone are practically absent, owing to the nature of 
the deposit. But having determined the horizon of the lowest 
coral and brachiopod bearing limestone, it will not be impos- 
sible to assume the relative age of sandstone which imme- 
diately underlies it. 

The Lower Carboniferous succession of the East of Scotland, 
consists of the following members : — 

Carboniferous Limestone Series. 
Upper Limestone group 
Coal-bearing group. 
Lower Limestone group. 

Calciferous Sandstone Series. 
Burdiehouse Limestone group. 
Cement Stone group. 

The succession and palaeontology of these beds have been 
well worked out, and the results published in the Memoirs of 
the Geological Survey of Scotland ; the Geology of East Fife ; 
and Central and Western Fife and Kinrossshire. 

The Hurlet Limestone is taken as the base of the Carboni- 
ferous Limestone Series, and its fauna is certainly that of the 
Upper Dibunophyllum zone. Consequently some portion of 
the Calciferous Sandstone Series must be of Lower Dihuno- 
phyllum age, and this bears out the contentions of the late J. G. 
Goodchild, that a good deal of this Calciferous Sandstone 
Series was the homotaxial equivalent of the Carboniferous 
Limestone further South. 

On consulting the memoirs mentioned above, it will be noted 
that the Calciferous Sandstone is much more fossiliferous 
in the East of Fife than in the West, and the marine character 
of the deposits more pronounced. 

The Liddlesdale and Eskdale beds are interesting, and yield 
a lamellibranch fauna which I consider low. But further than 
this I am not prepared to dogmatise at present. 

1909 May I. 

i66 Hind: Carhoniferotis Geology 

In the West of Scotland the succession is somewhat similar 
but the Calciferous Sandstone Series is much less obvious, 
its deposition having been interfered with by volcanic outbursts. 
No marine organisms have been found in them, the only finds 
that have been obtained are remains of plants, ostracods and 

The Lower Limestone Series is very rich in fossils, and 
especially so in Corals and Brachiopoda. 

The fauna has been diligently collected over the whole 
area, by several geologists, and most groups have been sub- 
mitted to specialists, and it may be said that the distribution 
of the Carboniferous fauna of the West of Scotland is well 
known. As in the East, there is a Lower Limestone Series 
separated from an Upper Limestone Series, by a coal and 
ironstone-bearing Group, and that the Lower Limestone Series 
is characterised by a fauna typical of the Upper Dibimophyllum 

The fauna, also, in a somewhat more limited extent, is 
found in the Upper Limestone Series. For example, the Lower 
Carboniferous fish fauna passes up into the Upper Limestone 
Series, and then comes the change, and the upper fish fauna 
is found in the Millstone Grits and Coal Measures. 

The Cephalopod fauna of the Upper Limestone Series calls 
for special remark. In the list compiled for the handbook 
of the British Association for the Glasgow Meeting, Mr. J. 
Neilson records the presence at Gare of several Goniatites, 
which in the Midlands are associated only with the Pendleside 
Series, such as Glyphioceras reticulatum, G. striatum, G. vesica 
and from both Upper and Lower Limestone Series of G. diadema 
and Dimorphoceiis gilbertsoni from shale over the Hosie Lime- 
stone at Thornton. 

Productus gigantetts and a large number of Brachiopoda 
pass up into the Upper Limestone Series, but corals are much 
less frequent. 

The interesting Cephalopod, Pleuronautilus nodosocarinatus 
occurs in the Upper Limestone Series. This is a rare fossil, 
and has a limited range in the Midlands, at the upper part of 
the Pendleside Series and Millstone Grit It has also been 
found in the Yoredale series of Swaledale. 

Some 680 hundred feet of Grits, Sandstones, Fireclays 
with their coals, ironstones, and limestones, intervene between 
the Castle Cary, on the uppermost limestone of the Upper 



Hind: Carboniferous Geolooy. 167 

Limestone Series, and the base of the Coal Measures, except in 
Ayrshire, where the Coal Measures rest on the Carboniferous 
Limestone. There is evidence elsewhere of volcanic activity 
at this horizon. It is in this Millstone Grit Series that the 
great change takes place from the Lower to the Upper Car- 
boniferous flora, and about this horizon has recently been 
found, by Mr. D. Tait, of the Geological Survey, an interesting 
lamellibranch fauna, which I have described in the ' Tran- 
sactions of the Royal Society, Edinburgh.' * The important 
fact revealed by this fauna is its relation to the fauna of the 
Coal Measures of Nebrasca, U.S.A., and till this discovery, most 
of the specimens had not been previously recognised in Western 
Europe. This fauna has been traced through several counties 
in Scotland. Since publication, one or two species have 
occurred in the millstone grits of the Midlands. 

I have shewn that the Carboniferous successsion in the Isle 
of Man \ is to be referred to a few hundred feet of the Upper 
Dibtinophyllum zone, and the base of the Pendleside Series. 
The sequence is very similar to that which obtains in the Mid- 
lands. The Poolvash Limestones and the black limestones 
of Scarlet, and the black marble quarry and their faunas can 
be well matched by examples from Derbyshire, Staffordshire 
and Yorkshire. 


Very excellent work has been done by Drs. Matley and 
Vaughan on the Carboniferous Series exposed from Rush to 
Loughshinny. Their latest views are that the whole Series 
represent DibunophyUum beds, Cyathaxonia, and the Pendle- 
side Series as high up as the horizon of Glyphioceras spirale.X 
The palaeontological reasons for this view are given at length ; 
but in addition, the thicknesses of the Series, mo feet, strongly 
favours the correctness of this interpretation. 

No work on definite zonal lines has been carried out in the 
south-west of Ireland, but certain facts are known. Prole- 
canites compressus, the fossil which characterises the uppermost 

* Vol. XLVL, Part II., 15. 

t 'Trans. Yorkshire Geo). Soc.', Vol. XXI., pt. 2, pp. 157-154- 

+ Q. J. Geol. Soc, Vol. XLIV., p. 434. 

1909 May I. 

1 68 Hind: Carboniferous Geology. 

beds of the Cyathaxonia beds and the lowest bed of the Pendle- 
side Series, is found high up in a pure hmestone, with a Visean 
fauna at Little Island, Co. Cork. In Calcareous shales at 
Old Head of Kinsale, Posidonomya hecheri occurs in abundance. 

Similarly all through the West of Ireland, limestones with 
a high Visean fauna are succeeded by beds with a typical 
Pendleside fauna. Good sequences are to be seen at Foynes 
Island, Lisdoonvarna, Cliffs of Moher, and in the neighbour- 
hood of Ennis.* 

In the district of the Burren, in the North of Co. Clare, the 
whole of the Carboniferous Limestone Series is exposed in 
unbroken succession, and here it will be no very difficult task 
to make out the zonal horizons, though quarries are few, and 
the weathered surfaces will largely have to be relied upon to 
furnish the fossils. I believe the district is already under 
examination at the hands of competent geologists. 

Probably in Tyrone and at Cultra, Co. Down, beds very 
low down in the Carboniferous Series occur, charactersed by 
Modiola Macadamii, but these areas require reinvestigating 
with our present knowledge of the distribution of Carboniferous 


In North Devonshire occur a Series of Carboniferous beds, 
known as the Culm. The district has been mapped and 
described by Mr. Ussher. Mr. Newell Arber has published 
papers dealing with portions of the Series from a standpoint 
of the flora and fauna respectively, and Messrs. J. G. Hamling 
and Inkerman Rogers have collected most carefully from the 
various horizons exposed. 

Apparently resting on Upper Devonian rocks from which 
specimens have lately been obtained by Mr. Hamling, doubt- 
fully referred to Clymenia, are a series of Cherty beds and 
Radiolarian Limestones, known locally as the Codden Hill beds. 
These contain the following fauna : — 


Phillipsia leei. 
„ minor. 
,, cliff or di. 
,, polleni. 

Griffithides acanthiceps. 
„ longispiiius. 

Proetus Sp. 

* Hind., ' Proc. Roy. Inst. Acad.', Vol. XXV., Sept. 13, No. 4. 


Hind: Carboniferous Geology. 169 

Palceacis humilis. I Pleiirodictyum decheanum. 

Zaphrentis cf. Z. enniskilleni. \ 

Prolecanites compressus. I Nomismoceras spirorhis. 

„ mixolobus. I Pericyclus sp. 

Chcenocardiola footii. 

Chonetes cf. lagnessiana. \ Productiis plicatus Sarres. 

and many Radiolarians. 

These beds are succeeded by black shales and limestones 
at Venn, which are crammed with Posidonomya hecheri. The 
fauna they contain is sparse in species, and is as follows : — 

Posidonomya becheri. I Glyphioceras striatum. 

Pseudamnsium fibrillosum. \ „ sphcericum. 

Glyphioceras spirale (upper part) I Orthoceras cylindraceum. 

„ crenistria. \ 

and plant remains. 

These limestones are succeeded by the Middle Culm Grits, 
which contain plant remains. Above them comes a most 
interesting series of beds, best seen on the shore at Instow and 
near Clovelly, which contain concretions which yield the 
following fauna : — 

Pterinopecten papyraceus. I Dimorphoceras gilbertsoni. 

Posidoniella IcBvis. \ Orthoceras sp. 

Gastrioceras listeri. I Ccslacayithus elegans. 

,, carbonarium. \ Elonichthys aitkeni. 

A fauna with the distinct facies of the Lower Coal Measures 
of Lancashire : and above this are the beds known as Upper 
Culm, which contain a typical Coal Measure Flora and Fauna 
Carbonicola acuta and C. aquilina. 

The fauna here demonstrates a succession beginning with the 
Coddon Hill beds, with zone fossils indicating these to be the 
homotaxial equivalent of the Pendleside Series of the Midlands, 
and passing up into Coal Measures, where, unfortunately, 
coals are conspicuously absent, and only represented by the . 
beds of Culm, which were once worked for painters material. 

In the South of Devonshire, and passing West from Exeter 
to Cornwall, that portion of the Culm Series characterised by 
Glyphioceras spirale is present. The Codden Hill or Prole- 
canites compressus beds appear to be present, and to be cherty in 
character, and are characterised by the presence of Glyphioceras 

1909 May I. 

170 Hind: Carboniferous Geology. 

sphoericum and Posidonomya becheyi.* I have seen the following 
species from Doddiscombleigh : — 

Glyphioceras reticulatum. \ Seminula ambigiia. 

Stroboceras sulcatum. \ A Rhynchonellid. 

Posidonomya becheri. 

Mr. Ussher states | : — ' As regards the relative position of 
the Codden Hill beds and Posidonomya Limestones and Shales, 
' wherever these two types are recognisable on the North or 
South Crop, the Limestone Series is invariably the uppermost.' 
Glyphioceras spirale is a common fossil in the upper beds of the 
Lower Culm {Posidonomya beds) at Bampton, Waddon-Barton 
and elsewhere, both in the Northern and Southern crops. 

At Bishopton in the Gower peninsula is a most typical 
sequence — the Dihunophyllum beds of the phases D2 and D3, 
the latter being represented by the dark limestones and shales 
of Oystermouth Castle. On these rest the Bir.hopton beds, con- 
sisting of a Series of cherty beds passing up into Black Shales 
with Posidoniella laevis and Glyphioceras bilingue. I think it 
probable that the cherts may represent in part the Codden Hill 
beds, but there seems to be a gap of the higher Series from the 
zones Posidonomya becheri to the incoming^of the Glyphioceras 
bilingue beds, probably not any very great thickness of beds, 
but the zones here afford evidence of a local unconformity. Mr. 
L Rogers has discovered Glyphioceras reticulatum in the Culm, 
near Barnstaple, so that the following life zones all occur in 
the Culm of Devonshire : — 

Gastrioceras listeri. 
Glyphioceras reticulatum. 
Glyphioceras spirale. 
Posidonomya cecheri. 
Prolecanites compressus. 

And there can be httle doubt that the Culm of the South-west, 
and the Pendleside Series of Co. Clare and the Midlands are 
homotaxial equivalents. This view is amply borne out on 
examining the Carboniferous succession in Belgium and Ger- 
many, where the Namurien and Culm are characterised by a 
fauna and flora identical with that of the Pendleside Series. 

* Mem. Geo]. Sur. England and Wales ; ' The Geology of Country 
round Exeter,' p. 9. 

t The Geology of the Quantock Hills, and of Taunton and Bridge- 
water, p. o:^, 

{To be continued). 





Thrush stones have interested me from my childhood onward, 
and I have collected tens of thousands of broken shells from 
them at various times. Sometimes thousands of shells may be 
found at a single anvil, on peat, fresh-water or estuarine 
alluvium, for stones or bricks are rare on such soils. They 
have always to be carried to the spots where the birds find them 
by man. When they are most pressed for animal food in 
severe winters or dry springs, the thrushes are not backward 
in finding fair substitutes for hard stones for anvils. The becks 
of the incline towards the great fenland, and of our smaller 
valleys, freeze, thaw partly, break up into floes, jam, and freeze 
again, presenting irregularities of surface, which the birds are 
quick enough to turn to good use. A stone standing slightly 
above the road or footpath level, the lowest bars of gates, the 
sharp points of low-set barbed-wire, or even ' the stubs ' in a 
laid fence are not forgotten when other means fail them. 

The whole subject is interesting, but does not give any 
approximate scientific results, until a fairly simple and ready 
field-method of recording the relationship of the banding to 
the interspacing on the shells is brought into use. When an 
elastic formula is found, the nexus between the shells of a given 
spot, their environment, and the thrushes is partly disclosed, 
and becomes explicable. Any method of recording to be of 
true use must be sufficiently simple to be applied, not only to 
specimens in collections, but at once in the field to the living 
molluscs. If it is too complicated, the relationship between the 
supply of shells on a given spot and those that are badly pro- 
tected for want of banding, or by limited banding, and so are 
easily discovered by the birds, cannot be worked out. 

When a long series of H. nemoralis is brought together from 
one place and is examined critically, it will be discovered that 
there is a common relationship and law of banding and inter- 
spacing prevalent among these local specimens. It has also a 
distinct relationship to their former environment. For in- 
stance, the form 12045 of the old notation, may be met with 
for 200 yards on one side of a stream and then be absent for 
miles, till it is picked up again, and is discovered to have a 

1909 May 

172 Woodruffe- Peacock : Thrush Stones, etc. 

similar range on the bank of another stream. Personally, I 
have never taken this form anywhere except by flowing water. 

Again, when the forms of banding of various soils and locali- 
ties are brought together and are compared, the general band- 
ing law of the species is clearly seen. For H. nemoralis, it is 
most usefully stated in a formula, as li2234425, which notes 
both the banding and inter-spacing widths. In these figures, 
reading from left to right, the first, third, fifth, seventh and 
ninth indicate the bands, and their general normal width ; 
while the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth figures indicate the 
inter-spaces and their general normal width. In other words, 
the space between the upper side of the first band, and the 
lower side of the fifth band is divided into 24 imaginary band- 
spaces of equal width. As 24 is a number that can be divided 
by many other numbers without leaving a fraction, no other 
number about its size could be found equally useful. Even 
when the shells are not typical, such as the varieties major 
(Fer.), minor (Mog.), compressa (Terver.), or conica (Pascal), 
the formula applies. 

In practical band and interspace recording in the field and 
study, I find it impossible to take off the banding formula of 
a shell in one long line as it is printed here. I used to write 
the typical formula down with the bands at wide distances, and 
below an imaginary line, the interspaces between them. Then 
I took the shell which I was about to record, and studied it 
to see which had the greater width, the fifth band or third 
interspace, and from this drew a criterion for the data of the 
shell ; writing its formula in the same way below that of the 
typical shell formula. I know it so well now, I have no occa- 
sion to write the type formula ; but that of the shell I still 
write in the same way, and strongly advise all analysts to do 
so. The eye is much helped by two lines of figures — one for 
the five bands, and one for the four interspaces, though they 
cannot be printed in that way conveniently. In reading off 
the printed formulae, too, much assistance is gained by noting 
the central figure specially, which is always the third band record 
for every shell. 

Specimens that are accurately represented by the type or 
any other simple formula are comparatively rare. So a prac- 
tical method has to be discovered to show at a glance that the 
recorded bands and interspaces are wider or narrower than the 
width of the one twenty-fourth of the whole banding area. 



Woodruffe- Peacock : Thrush Stones, etc. 173 

This is quickly done by adding a colon after the figures that 
want less than one type-band increase, and a point after those 
that require diminishing to a like extent. By doubling or 
quadrupling the figures, a perfectly exact formula for any shell 
may be obtained. Difficulties of several kinds are met with by 
doing this, both in the field, and in clearness of recording, so 
in practice such formulae are unworkable. 

Three shells from a high hedge bank on sandy glacial gravel 
will illustrate at once this method and its flexibility. Here are 
their formulae :— ii2225(425), li.2i..3:45i6, and l:i.2:2.1:6.5i.5:. 
There is nothing in anyway unusual about them. In the first 
shell the upper band was missing, and the lower ones confluent. 
Small figures always imply that the band and interspace, 
or the bands and interspaces, as the case may be, are absent 
but that the space covered by them may be thus approximately 
accounted for. In the second shell, as their formula records 
them, the two first interspaces are too large, and the third band 
too small. The third shell is a more difficult task to take off 
correctly ; the fourth band alone is typical, all the other bands 
and interspaces require diacritical marks of increase or decrease. 
Along with these specimens two other shells were brought home 
from the Oxford clay of a dyke side. \ libelhtla (Risso) + conica 
(Pascal) which read 1.21.22:52:4.5; and a rubella (Moq.) + 
compressa (Terver.) which read li2225425, i.e., with a simple 
band formula. 

With this fairly expeditious method — when it is fully mas- 
tered — the bands and interspaces of H. nemoralis from varying 
localities and soils can be formulated sufficiently accurately 
for practical scientific results. The law of their relationship 
to their environment, and of the frequency of the destruction 
of all forms can be worked out. Still more important, the 
evolutionary law ' of the correlation of parts or characters ' 
can be discovered so far as the bands and interspaces are in- 
fluenced by it. The sheets I use for recording purposes are 
three inches wide by three and three-quarters long. I make 
the most exact notes of locality, soil, water, etc., for every- 
thing seems to influence the banding and interspacing, i.e., the 
destruction of this species by thrushes. I keep the notes under 
soils, arranged in the order of their colour in the first place, then 
their varieties of form, and finally by the number of bands, 
ignoring the interspaces. 

The commonest shell found at thrush stones is lihellula 

iqo9 May i 

174 Woodruffe-Peacock : Thrush Stones, etc. 

(Risso) unbanded. This is followed closely by three others in 
order: — 112234425 to 112153425. Then come the specimens 
more ' lightly ' banded on the upper side. The confluent type 
{i 12234425) is a fairly common shell at anvils on fresh-water 
alluvium, but the other form of it, where the bands show as 
deep black on a dark brown ground is rare. It is apparently 
the best protected form we have, for where it abounds it is 
not frequently taken. Confluent mouthed shells are more fully 
protected than plain banded ones. Soils and localities vary 
greatly in banding and interspacing formulae ; and yet there 
is a strong family likeness in shells from one spot as we should 
naturally expect. So much is this the case that with sufficient 
notes on local shells, and a well-arranged register, I believe it 
would be quite possible to say from what soil, if the register were 
kept under localities, I could almost say from what spot, a given 
box, with a sufficient number of specimens, had been taken. 

The following notes may be found useful. One method of 
reading off and recording the banding and interspacing must be 
followed. Turn the shell bottom upwards, in the dextral 
type with the mouth to the left hand. Draw an imaginary 
line from the point where the lip joins the body whorl, through 
the umbilicus round the shell, and read the banding and inter- 
spacing off along this line. 

In every shell practically, unless some abnormality is found, 
the third band is always the longest, or approaches nearest to 
the lip. When the other four bands are absent, and the third 
band is abnormally developed, there is generally a point extend- 
ing beyond the average length of this wide band toward the 
lip, approximately three twenty-fourths of the entire band 
space wide, indicating the position of the original third type 
band. Here is an instance. A ' dead ' specimen of rubella 
(Moq.) 112162425, from road hedge side of pasture on sandy 
glacial gravel. Three interspace band widths beyond the nor- 
mal had been covered, one above and two below, as the longer 
extending original third band indicated. On average shells, 
on the soils I have worked, the bands come in order of length 
towards the lip as follows :• — 34215. Exceptionally we find 
32145 ; more rarely still some other order. The third band 
too, usually turns slightly down at the lip. When the two 
lower bands are confluent, there is generally a slight tendency 
to bend upwards, just before finishing, though the lip ending 
itself is generally in the normal line. 

[To be continued). Naturalist, 



In recent years there has unquestionably been a great improvement 
in the character and contents of the publications of the various volumes 
issued by the different scientific societies in the provinces. There is a 
general improvement in the editing, greater care is being taken with regard 
to dating, etc., and what is of more importance, each society is more and 
more realizing the advantage of confining the scope of its papers to its 
own area. So long as this is borne in mind by the local societies, the 
disadvantages of so many publications will disappear. It is also gratifying 
to find that members of many of the societies are taking up hitherto neg- 
lected branches of study, e.g., arachnida, fungi, etc., with good result. 

Journal of the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, 
Vol. XXXI., 1909. 243 pp.+xviii pp. 

Like its immediate predecessors, this volume reflects the greatest 
credit upon its editor, Mr. C. E. B. Bowles. It is a substantial production, 
devoid of padding, and whilst it contains many pages outside the scope of 
our journal, it also includes several valuable papers worthy of the attention 
of our readers. Mr. T. Gibbs continues his ' First List of Derbyshire 
Agarics ' — a work much more valuable than the word ' list ' would "infer. 
Messrs. W. Storrs Fox and R. A. Smith give an excellent illustrated 
account of the Excavations and the Finds in the Harborough Cave, near 
Brassington ; the Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain writes a ' Zoological Record for 
Derbyshire, 1908,' and the editor writes on ' Coal Raising in the Seven- 
teenth Century.' Amongst the authors of the numerous archaological 
papers are some of our leading antiquaries. 

Transactions of the Vale of Derwent Naturalists' Field Club. New 

Series. Vol. I., part i, 1908. Rowlands Gill. 71 pp., i/-. 

This little volume is an indication that our friends in the Vale of Der- 
went are working on the right lines. In his presidential address, Mr. 
H. F. Bulman refers to neglected branches of study ; there is a good record 
of Field Rambles by different members ; Mr. R. S. Bagnall writes on 
' Strangers Zoological ' [chiefly Coleoptera] ; ' The Bristle-tails {Thysaniira) 
of the Derwent Valley ' [with list] ; Mr. A. R. Jackson gives ' A note on 
some rare Spiders from the Derwent Valley ' ; Messrs. Carleton Rea and 
M. C. Potter write on the Fungi of Gibside, with list ; Mr. R. Adamson 
enumerates ' Our Local Orchids ' ; Mr. J. W. Fawcet gives a brief History 
of Chopwell ; the Editor, ]Mr. C. L. Bagnall, contributes ' A Brief History 
of Winlation ' ; and Mr. H. F. Bulman gives some Meteorological Notes. 

The Recorders' Report for 1908 of the Bradford Natural History and 
Microscopical Society (20 pp.) in an inexpensive manner provides a useful 
record of a year's work in the Bradford district. In addition to the 
usual interesting notes on Birds, etc., we are glad to see lists of Hymen- 
optera, Diptera, Isopods, Arachnida, etc. We notice the recorder for Verte- 
brate Zoology urges ' ye local ornithologists ' to ' wake up,' though there 
is not much evidence of their being dormant. The contributors to this 
interesting report are Messrs. F. Jowett, M. Malone, J. Beanland, F. Rhodes, 
J. W. Carter, R. Butterfield, J. H. Ashworth, W. P. Winter, H. B. Booth 
and J. W. Tindle. 

The Proceedings of the Liverpool Naturalists' Field Club for 1908 are 

principally occupied with an account of the Club's Field Meetings during' 

1908 (chiefly botanical), but also contain the annual report, list of members, 
prize-winners, etc. The club has 166 members. 

The Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, Part XIV. 

(1905-8, published 1909, 71 pp. Leeds, 2/6) clearly indicate that the Leeds 
Geological Society at the present time is in a very flourishing condition. 
The membership is 112, 'a net increase of 27 over the previous session,' 
and both indoor and out-door meetings have been well attended. The 
present part of Transactions contains a good account of the Association's 

1909 May I. 


Reviews and Book Notices. 

work during the past three sessions, with abstracts of papers read, etc. 
Several of these have been printed to greater length elsewhere ; some are 
now published for the first time, but all alike will be of interest to the mem- 
bers of the Leeds Society. Following these abstracts are usually suitable 
' references,' though one or two of these [e.g., ' A Strachan, Q.J.G.S.' ; 
' Nordenskiold. — ' Geol. Mag.', and 'Gregory — "Nature"') seem rather 
vague. We cannot enumerate all the interesting notes here, but we were 
particularly glad to find a good summary of Prof. Kendall's ' Geological 
History of the North Sea Basin,' ' The Clevelands and North-East York- 
shire — The Influence of Soils on Vegetation,' and ' A Description of Six 
Sections in the Lower Coal Measures of Leeds,' by B. Holgate. This last 
is illustrated by six excellent plates from photographs by the President, 
Mr. F. W. Branson, who has also paid for the plates. There is an excellent 
record of the work accomplished on the Association's Excursions, which 
is not (though should be) signed ; presumably it is the work of the Hon. 
Editor and Secretary, Mr. E. Hawkesworth. Another welcome feature 
is the ' Classified Index of the Transactions, Vols. I.— XIV.' This will 
be very useful, particularly to those who possess complete sets of the 

We don't know that anyone will be able to find much fault with the 
Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society for 1908. It is a more 
than usually substantial volume ; is exceptionally well illustrated ; the 
date of publication is printed on the wrapper ; and the dates the various 
papers were read and MSS. received, are given at the head of each. Prof. 
Kendal gives suitable obituary notices of the late H. Clifton Sorby and 
Joseph Lomas, the former of which is illustrated by photos and photo- 
micrographs of Sorby's first slides ; two of these we are kindly permitted 
to reproduce. Prof. McKenny Hughes contributes the sixth instalment 
of his paper on ' Ingleborough ' ; Mr. H. Culpin follows with a paper on ' The 

r .S^^ijUin 




: \ i 

1 _, 

:._. ,_ .. 

f/C-S,^6S-' j 

Fossils in the Yorkshire Coal Measures above the Barnsley Seam ' ; some 
of his new finds being described by Dr. Wheelton Hind. One is called 
Aviculopecten citlpini, in honour of its discoverer. Other papers bearing 
upon Carboniferous Geology are contributed by Messrs. H. St. John 
Durnford, A. Wilmore, A. R. Dwerryhouse, Cosmo Johns and Walter 
Rowley. Mr. F. Elgee writes on ' The Glaciation of North Cleveland,' 
and Mr. A. Gilligan on ' Some Effects of the Storm of June 3rd, 1908.' 
The only thing we cannot quite understand in the whole volume is how 


Reviews and Book Notices. : 177 

the very third-rate block on plate XLVI., with its extraorSinary descrip- 
tion, managed to squeeze its way in between the very fine illustration of 
Corals, bv Dr. Dwerryhouse, without being chipped by the Editor's 
geological hammer. 

The Fifty-sixth Annual Report and Transactions of the Notting- 
ham Naturalists' Society for 1907-8, was issued on February igth, 1909. 
It contains a well-illustrated presidential address on ' Adaptation,' by J. 
Golding. Prof. J. W. Carr records Selinium Carvifolia for the first time in 
Nottinghamshire, the plant being first discovered as British in 1880, at 
Broughton Wood, Lines. ; and there are two pages of short notes on 
Nottingham birds, mammals, flowering plants, hepaticae and fungi. Some 
of the botanical records are new to the county. 

No. 19 of the Bradford Scientific Journal, for January, 1909, has 
appeared, and besides containing the reports of the Bradford Natural 
History and Microscopical Society, referred to elsewhere, has a further 
instalment of Mr. S. Margerison's notes ' On the Vegetation of some Dis- 
used quarries,' an interesting 'Note on the Cockchafer,' by Mr. W. P. 
Winter, and an account of an ' Exploration ' of Mounds near Cullingworth. 
From the description given we are inclined to agree with the opinions of 
* several practical men ' who have seen them and pronounce them to be 
quarries. The only mound that yielded any ' relics ' contained pieces of a 
pipe stem, and we agree with Dr. Villey that from this evidence ' it is 
fairly clear that the work was not pre-historic' 

The Seventy-fifth Annual Report of Bootham School (York) Natural 
History Society (32 pp.), is an excellent record of an excellent year's work. 
In all branches (with the possible exception of geology), there seems to 
have been a steady desire for useful work, and the sectional reports are 
most encouraging. There are also accounts of the School's exhibit at 
the Franco-British Exhibition, and its Christmas Exhibition, both of which 
were highly successful. Instead of a list of rare eggs collected, we are 
glad to notice the more innocent ' oology has also prospered ! ' For some 
unrecorded crime we notice that one youth is advised to ' stick to insects ! ' 

The Eighty-sixth Annual Report of the Whitby Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society records a year of steady progress. More footprints have 
been secured by Mr. Brodrick, who read ' a most satisfactory paper on 
the whole subject before the British Association.' Mr. Buckman is examin- 
ing the Liassic fossils in the collection, and doubtless good will result. 
A long-tailed duck, ' the first of its species ever taken in Whitby,' was 
secured in November last, and is now in the Museum. The Report also 
contains the Meteorological Records for 1908, and a list of additions to 
the library, 1899-1909. 

The Scarborough Philosophical and Archaeological Society has issued 
its Annual Report for 1908, and it includes the report of the Scarborough 
Field Naturalists' Society. A report of a useful paper on ' Pre-historic Man 
in the Scarborough District,' by Mr. Rowntree, is included, and amongst 
the additions to the Museum we notice a timepiece mounted in carved jet, 
which has apparently been purchased for £^ 5s. od. The Society has a 
balance in hand of ^245. We are glad to see that Mr. M. C. Peck is now 
the President. The Recorders of the Naturalists' Society print useful 
accounts of their work dviring the year. Would not the list of local non- 
marine mollusca have been better printed locally, instead of being sent 
elsewhere, where ' it is hoped they will be able to publish it during the 
coming year ? ' We are glad to notice that a careful eye is kept upon the 
local rare plants. A Power Cod, jh inches in length (rather longer than the 
average), was caught from the East Pier, and is believed to be the first 
record for the county. 

iqog May i. 






The following is the third supplementary list of Fungi dis- 
covered in Yorkshire since the issue of the ' Yorkshire Fungus 
Flora.' It comprises one species new to science, six new to 
Britain, and nearly fifty species and two var. new to Yorkshire. 
These bring the total of known Yorkshire Fungi, as we under- 
stand them at present, to 2763. There are two confirmations 
of hitherto solitary records, and several newly-discovered 
(in Yorkshire) hosts attacked by parasitic fungi. Short des- 
criptions of each of the six new. British species are added. 
The numbers given under each, to follow or precede, are those 
of the species, as arranged in the ' Yorkshire Fungus Flora.' 
The reference (* ' Nat.' . . . )=The species was seen at a 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Excursion, and the record pub- 
lished in the ' Naturalist ' on the date given. ' F.F., '08 = 
Mulgrave Fungus Foray. 



For original description and remarks, see ' Nat.', Mar. '08, 
p. 100. 

S.W. — Sheffield, 1904 ; Farnley Tyas F.F., igo6. 

Mid. W. — Buckden F.F., 1907. N.E. Mulgrave Woods. 
(F.F. '08, 'Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 25). 

Also Wirksworth, Derbyshire. On dung of horse, sheep, 
and rabbit. [To precede No. 742*]. 



N.E. — Among Sphagnum on the moors nea Osmotherley. 
Y.N.U. Exc, August ist-3rd, '08. 

' Only one previous gathering of this species is known : 
that made by Leveille at Malesherbes, France, 1845 ; of this 
gathering, two specimens are in the Museum at Paris, and one 
at Kew.' (*' Nat.', Dec. '08, p. 457). 

' Peridium reddish brown, subglobose, contracted to a short 
stem-like base, thin, becoming smooth ivhen old. Cortex minute, 

* The number to follow or precede refers to the species in the ' Yorks. 
Fungus Flora," 


Crossland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire 179 

suh-furfuraceous. Sterile base scanty. Gleha dark olive. Capi- 
■llitium of separate branched threads, with the main stock thick, 
8-10 fi., and deeply coloured. Spores globose, smooth, 4-5/^-., 
with slender pedicels, 10-12 /a. long.' (C. G. Lloyd, ' Mycolo- 
gical Notes,' Cincinnati, Aug. 1906, p. 280. PL 87, fig. 8). 
[To follow No. 29]. 

Tricholoma carneolum Fr. 

N.E. — -Mulgrave Woods. Among short grass. (F.F., '08, 
■' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 24). 

' Small, pileus piano-depressed, obtuse, even, flesh-red, then 
pale ; gills closely crowded, very broad behind, shining white,' 
■(' Mass. Eur. Agaricaceae,' p. 24). [To follow No. 118]. 


N.E. — Arncliffe, near Osmotherley. On bank of peaty ditch. 
{*'Nat.', Nov. '08, p. 410). 

' Pileus convex, sometimes umbilicate, striate up to the um- 
bilicus, glabrous, pallid fuscous, paler when dry, and shining ; 
gills adnate, pallid ; stem pallid fuscous, glabrous ; spores rough, 
y-g [J'.' ('Mass. Eur. Agar.', p. 131). 

[To come last in the genus in ' Y.F.Flo.' p. 69]. 

Pholiota sororia Karst. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 25). 

' Pileus convex, expanded, slightly striate, squamulose, tawny- 
cinnamon ; gills sinuato- adnate, crowded ; stem equal, ivavy, 
colour of pileus then paler, variegated with white squamules, 
apex scurfy ; spores 6-7 x 3-4 i^^.' (' Mass. Eur. Agar.', p. 146). 
[To follow No. 412]. 

Inocybe commixta Bres. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 25). 

' Pileus conico-campanulate, expanded, umbilicate, shining 
white or tinged grey, fibrillosely silky, edge often split, dry ; gills 
■closely crowded, free, white then greyish cinnamon ; stem solid, 
white, equal, apex scurfy, base minutely turbinately bulbous ; 
spores angular, 10x7/^. Closely resembling /. geophylla, 
<liffering in base of stem and angular spores.' (' Mass. Eur. 
Agar.', p. 155). [To follow No. 447]. 

Tapesia retincola (Rabh.) Karst. \Trichobelonitim retin- 
■colum (Rabh. ' Krypt Flo.', Disc, p. 592); Peziza retincola 
•(Rabh., ' Fungi Eur.', 225) ; Belonium retincolum (' Sacc. Syl. 
Disc.', p. 495) ; Helotium retincolum (' Rabh., Kalchbr. Szep.', 

1909 May I. 

i8o Grassland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 

p. 238. p. 2, f. i) ; Mollisia retincola (' Karst Myc. Fenn. I.'^ 
p. 209). 

S.E. — Mere side, Hornsea. On dead stems of Phragmites 
communis (*' Nat.', Aug. '08, pp. 309-10). 

Description taken from the Hornsea specimens : — 

Ascophores gregarious or scattered, seated on a dark brown 
suhiculum, attached to the matrix hy a central point, closed and 
suhglohose at first, then expanded till plane or only slightly convex,, 
with raised margin, disc pale yellow or whitish, 1.5 — -3 mm. 
across, margin lohed in well-grown specimens, exterior dark 
grey -brown, margin pale ; excipulum of radially densely inter- 
mingled, hyaline, hyphcs 2 — 2.5 /* thick, cortical cells brown, 
globose, 11-14 /x diam, running out to elongated, hyaline, parallel 
cells at the margin ; Asci narrowly clavate, apex narrowed to 
an obtuse point, 100-120x7 ju. (broadest part) ; Spores 8, hyaline,, 
sub-biseriate , straight or curved {mostly curved), linear fusiform,, 
ends rounded, 20-23 X 3 Z^- irregularly guttulate, oftenest with 
3-4 globules at each end, centre indistinctly minutely granular, 
no trace of septa ; paraphyses sublinear, slightly ividening up- 
wards, 3-4 /x, thick, contents granular in some, homogeneous and 
glistening in others, difficult to separate from the asci. 

HyphcB of subiculum dark brown, flexuous, 4.5-5 /x thick. 


Geaster mammosus Chev. 

N.W. — A fine collection of this ' earth star ' was found under 
a hedge, pasture side, near the village of Witton, Wensleydale, 
March 1908, by W. A. Thwaites, Masham. [To follow No. 12].. 

Lepiota glioderma Gill. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. On the ground among grass. 
(F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 24). [To precede No. 80]. 

Tricholoma squarrulosum Bres. 

N.E.— Mulgrave Woods. On the ground. (F.F., '08, 'Nat.% 
Jan. '09, p. 24). [To follow No. 107]. 

T. cerinum Quel. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods, (F.F., '08,' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 24). 
[To follow No. 115]. 

Clitocybe comitalis Gill. 

N.E. — -Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p.. 
24). [To follow No. 139]. 



Crossland: Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. i8i 

C. AMPLA (Pers.). 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 25) 
[To follow No. 149]. 

C. EXPALLENS (Pers.) Quel. 

S.W. — Battyeford, near Mirfield, on the ground in a pasture, 
Oct. '08. F. Buckley. Com. A. Clarke. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 25). 
[To follow No. 164]. 


S.W. — Firthhouse, Stainland, nr. Halifax. Among grass on 
•embankment, Nov. 1908. A. Clarke. [To follow No. 189]. 


N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, 'Nat.', Jan. 09, p. 25). 
[To come between Nos. 199-200]. 


N.E. — Mount Grace Priory, on gravelly path, Aug. '08. 
((*' Nat.', Nov. '08, p. 410). [To precede No. 320]. 

Pholiota terrigena Fr. {Includ. P. Cookei Fr.). 
N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 25). 
[To precede No. 396]. 

Inocybe hirsuta Lasch. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan., '09, p. 25). 
[To follow No. 419]. 

L H^MACTA Berk & Cke. 

N.E.— Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 25), 
[To follow No. 423]. 

CoRT (Phleg.) variicolor Fr. 

N.E. —Mulgrave Woods (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 25). 
[To follow No. 540]. 

CoRT (Tela.) macropus Fr. 

N.E.— Mulgrave Woods, (F.F., '08. ' Nat.', Jan. '09. p. 25). 
[To precede 587]. 

CoRT (Tela.) bovinus Fr. 

N.E.— Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 25). 
[To precede No. 598]. 


S.E. — Firby Wood, Kirkham Abbey, on the ground near 

1909 May I. 

1 82 Cross land : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 

rotting stump. York and District F.N.C. (' Nat.', Oct, '08^ 
p. 386. [To follow No. 687]. 

Paxillus extenuatus Fr. 

N.E.— Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 25). 
[To follow No. 757]. 

Hygrophorus mucronellus Fr. 

N.E.— Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 26). 
[To follow No. 792]. 

RussuLA atropurpurea Kromb. 

N.E.— Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 26). 
[To follow No. 871]. 


S.E. — Firby Wood, Kirldiam Abbey. York and District 
F.N.S. (' Nat.', Oct. '08, p. 386). [To follow No. 875]. 
R. CONSOBRINA var. intermedia Cke. 
Mid. W. — Clapham. (Exc, Sept. 5-7, '08). 

Cantharellus glaucus Fr. 

S.W. — Slaithwaite, Among short grass on bowling green, 
Sep. 1908. D. Haigh and E. J. Walker. Com. A. Clark. [To 
follow No. 911]. 

Marasmius wynnei B. and Br. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 26). 
[To follow No. 922]. 

Boletus chrysenteron var. versicolor Rost. 
Mid. W.— Stainer Wood, near Selby, Aug. '08, W. N. Chees- 
man. Some authorities consider this to be a distinct species. 

POLYPORUS lacteus Fr. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 26). 
[To follow No. 1036]. 

Hydnum sordidum Weinm. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. 'og, p. 26)- 
[To precede No. 11 17]. 


Mid. W. — Near Selby, on rotting wood, Jan. 27th, '08. 
W. N. C. [To follow No. 1 122]. 

Hymenoch.ete fuliginosa Lev. 

Mid. W. — Stainer Wood, near Selby, on birch bark, Oct. 
1908. W. N. Cheesman. [To follow No. 1173]. 
{To be contimied). 




Stocks, by R. P. Brotherston, and Lawns, by W. J. Stevens, are 

two further well-illustrated penny pamphlets issued by the London 
Agricultural and Horticultural Association. 

Asters, by Walter Wright, F.R.H.S. London : Agricultural and 
Horticultural Association. Price One Penny. 

This is the eighteenth ' One and AH' garden book, and ought to be as 
popular as any of its predecessors. The writer is well known and is. 
esteemed not only for his practical knowledge, but for a fine literary style. 
The book is fully illustrated. A similarly illustrated pamphlet, dealing 
with Tomatoes, by W. Iggulden, has also recently been issued from 
the same house. 

Synopsis of the British Basidiomycetes. A descriptive Catalogue 
of the Drawings and Specimens in the Department of Botany, British 
Museum, by Worthington George Smith : British Museum, London. 
531 pp., 10/-. 

A few years ago the British Museum acquired the MS. descriptions 
drawn up by Mr. Worthington G. Smith, when preparing the fine series 
of coloured drawings of British Fungi, exhibited in the Department 
of Botany. These descriptions were accompanied by line drawings, 
illustrating the characters of each genus. It was rightly considered by 
the Trustees that these descriptions and drawings, if put in convenient 
form, would prove a useful introduction to the study in the field of the 
larger fungi. This volume is the result ; and from the care with which it 
has been prepared, its arrangement, the wealth of clear sketches, as well 
as its cheapness, there can be no doubt that it will at once take its place 
as a constant guide and companion to every mycologist. There is a useful 
glossary, and an exceptionally carefully compiled and complete Index. 
Amongst the ' recent additions ' we notice the following Yorkshire records : 
Tricholoma cavneolum, Pholiota sororia and Inocybe commixta. 
"^Life Histories of Common Plants, by F. Cavers, D.Sc, etc. pp. XVI. 
and 363, with 123 figures. W. B. Clive. 1908, price 3/-. 

In this book. Professor Cavers has brought together a large number 
of interesting and reliable lessons on our common flowering plants. The 
first chapter deals with the Bean plant in much detail. Chapters 2 to\6 
are concerned with seeds and seedlings, nutrition, growth of shoot and 
root, buds, flowers, fruits and seeds. Then follow ten chapters dealing 
with the life histories of some three dozen common flowering plants. In 
four chapters are described the more familiar trees, the concluding chapter 
treats briefly on the ecology of plants. The book is intended primarily 
for young teachers studying botany for the certificate examination, and 
we know of no better book for this purpose. All the important facts are 
clearly brought out, and no opportunity is lost of encouraging students to 
make observations at first hand. The chapters on trees are more com- 
plete than in any similar book we have seen, and it does not err like some 
recent books in leaving so large a share of the facts to be discovered by 
the student, as to become discouraging. The index is much better than 
some in this series, and errors are few. On page 335, art. 194 should be 
190, and coltsfoot rhizomes (p. 273) are misnamed ' runners.' In the 
chapter dealing with ecology, a paragraph might usefully have been added 
on the place of trees in vegetation. As it is, students will find here an 
excellent guide and introduction to their botanical studies. 

Life Histories of Familiar Plants, by John J. Ward. Cassell & Co. 
pp. XX. and 204, with 86 plates; Price 6/-. 

A mere glance at this book shews that the author has used his camera 
to good purpose, and furnished a series of very interesting and for the most 
part, useful photographs in illustration of his text. In all there are 121 
figures, some from photo-micrographs. The book is intended for ' non- 
professional nature investigators who seek the why and wherefore of details 

1909 May 1. 

i8j. Neiv Botanical Books. 

of plant structure.' The intention is excellent, but the performance very 
disappointing. One looks for life histories, and finds, for the most part, 
scraps of information interwoven with very crude ideas on evolution. 
Frequent errors occur in elementary details, and little care is exercised 
as to choice of terms. He speaks of the sycamore fruit constantly as the 
seed,' and explains how the ' seeds ' should have developed wings, 
etc. Of the root-cap he says, ' within this is the true growing tip of the 
root, but it is the sensitive root-cap which guides the root tip to suitable 
quarters.' According to the author, the thorns of the Gorse arise thus : 
' higher up the stem the leaflets get thinner and sharper, gradually changing 
into thorns.' Plate XLVII. contains excellent figures of Cacti, but, 
instead of pointing out the importance of the radiating spines in function- 
ing as a light screen, he says ' they obviously run no risk of getting their 
leaves scorched by the hot rays of the sun,' overlooking the advantage of 
protecting the green tissue of the stem. These are only a few of many 
similar statements the book contains, and we agree with the author when 
he says, on p. 95, ' It is true that the science of Botany may be pursued by 
different methods from those I have adopted in this chapter,' and we 
can only hope it will be. 

The Heridity of Acquired Characters in Plants, by the Rev. Prof. 
G. Henslow, M.A., F.L.S. John Murray, pp. XII. and 107, with 24 
illustrations. 1908, price 6/- net. 

The author declares that the object of this book ' is to prove that 
Evolution — so far as plants are concerned — depends upon the inheritance 
of acquired characters,' in opposition to Wiesmann's view that such char- 
acters are not transmitted unless the influence of the environment reaches 
the reproductive cells. In this matter Prof. Henslow has set himself a 
very difficult task, and in reading carefully over his pages, we are by no 
nieans certain that his attempt has been successful. He declares with 
great emphasis that present-day ecologists are all at one in accepting the 
view he advocates, but he adduces very little evidence of this, and we look 
in vain for definite experimental proofs brought forward by the ecologists 
he claims as supporters. He says, ' Germany, France, Denmark, the 
United States, South Africa abound with ecologists .... but, as Darwin 
himself was the first to profound [sic] this view, I called it " The True 
Darwinism." ' Many general observations have been made, and a certain 
amount of detailed work has been done on the effect of environment on 
plant form and structure, but examples are exceedingly rare where such 
modifications are shewn to give rise to new species. Such acquired 
variations usually persist only so long as the conditions of the environment 
which called them into being, persist ; that is, they are continuous varia- 
tions but that continuous variations are inherited has not been by any 
means generally proved, nor is it an easy task. 

Another difficulty in dealing with continuous variations is to distin- 
guish those which are genetic from those which are acquired, and in many 
of the illustrations given in this work, no attempt is made to deal with these 
distinctions. Cases like the water-buttercup furnish pretty good examples 
of the inheritance of acquired characters, but they are so rare that, in 
spite of the author's many assertions, we still await more such proofs be ©re 
we can declare with confidence either that ' all structures arise by direct 
adaptation by response,' or that such acquired characters play an impor- 
tant part in the evolution of species. However, Prof. Henslow brings 
forward many facts which of themselves, are valuable and interesting 
and if the book induces workers, even ecologists, to pay attention to the 
matter and furnish a quality of evidence at all comparable to that of the 
Mendelians, it will have served a very useful purpose. ^^_^ 

P Messrs. Cassell & Co. are unquestionably doing excellent service by 
placing before the public popular botanical works at so very low a price. 
They are just issuing three excellent publications, all of which will doubtless 
find a ready sale amongst the increasing number of nature students. 


Geological Papers. 1,85 

Having regard to the excellence of the illustrations, and the nature of the 
letterpress, we can safely recommend them to our readers. The late F. E. 
Hulme's well-known Familiar Wild Flowers is being published in forty-five 
fortnightly parts, at 6d. each, and several coloured plates accompany each. 
By the same author, the firm have issued Familiar Swiss Flowers, first 
series, with twenty-four coloured plates, at i/- net. It is uniform in size 
with Mr. Hulme's other work, and the illustrations are even better. On 
plate XVII. the Dark-winged Orchis is labelled ' Dusky Columbine,' and 
vice versa, but this will doubtless be corrected in a future edition. Trees and 
their Life Histories, by Dr. P. Groom, is also being issued in fortnightly 
parts, at i/- each, and will be completed with No. 13. Dr. Groom's excellent 
and trustworthy text is illustrated by photographs by Henry Irving. 


We have recently received a number of valuable geological pamphlets, 
which we have pleasure in bringing before the notice of our readers. The 
Fluorspar Deposits of Derbyshire, by Messrs. C. B. Wedd and G. C. 
Drabble ('Trans. Inst. Min. Engineers,' Vol. XXV.) deals exhaustively 
with the occurrence, composition, and commercial value of ' Blue John,' 
etc. It is accompanied by a sketch-map of the Carboniferous Limestone 
of Derbyshire, shewing Fluor-bearing Veins and Pipes. Mr. R. Bullen 
Newton sends two pamphlets. The first, Fossil Pearl Growths (' Proc. 
Malacological Soc.', Vol. VIII.) describes many occurrences of pearls in 
fossil shells from various strata, chiefly of Mesozoic age. They are recorded 
in Volcella, Inoceramus; Perna; and Gryphcea. Several excellent illustrations 
accompany the paper. The second paper. Relics of Colouration in Fossil 
Shells (loc. cit., Vol. VII.), deals with the traces of the original colouring 
to be found in fossil mollusca. The list given is a very extensive one, and 
includes examples from Cainozoic, Mesozoic and even Palaeozoic strata. 
The plate accompanying this paper might almost be an illustration of 
recent species, so clearly are the markings shewn. From the same journal, 
Mr. A. J. Jukes-Browne reprints a useful paper on the Genera of Veneridae 
in Cretaceous and Older Tertary Deposits. The author points out that 
the family doubtless originated during Jurassic times, and he makes 
the interesting suggestion that the VeneridcB possibly developed along two 
different lines of descent ; the possibility of the latter mode of origin being 
suggested by the great difference which is observable among the Cretaceous 
representatives. Mr. Jukes-Browne holds that the characters of the hinge 
in these shells afford the best and most conv^enient means of distinguishing 
the generic groups from one another. The paper is illustrated by a plate 
shewing excellent drawings of the hinges of twelve Cretaceous and Eocene 
Venerids. Dr. F. A. Bather kindly sends three useful papers. The first 
entitled * Visit to the Palaeontological Exhibit in the Science Hall, Franco- 
British Exhibition' (' Proc. Geol. Assn.,' Vol. XX., part 7), is a description 
of the various methods employed in the study of fossils ; and deals with 
the subject under the heads of collecting, preparation and preservation, 
study, and presentation of results. Those who are under the impression 
that a palaeontologist's outfit consists of a hammer, chisel and hatpin, will 
be severely ' disillusionised ' on reading this paper. His second paper The 
Preparation and Preservation of Fossils (' Museums Journal '), deals more 
particularly with the question of freeing specimens from the matrix ; whilst 
the third is on similar lines, and refers to Nathorst's Methods of Studying 
Cutinised Portions of Fossil Plants (' Geol. Mag.', Decade V., Vol. V.). 
The method of freeing fern spores from an apparently homogeneous mass 
■of palaeozoic rock, reads almost like a fairy-tale, and demonstrates that 
there are many more ways of unravelling the secrets locked up in the rocks 
than are dreamt of in most men's philosophy. From Mr. W. J. Lewis 
Abbot, F.G.S., we have received a reprint of his exceptionally complete 
and carefully considered account of * The Pleistocene Vertebrates of South- 
east England.* This contains particulars of no fewer than 127 species. 

1909 May I. 

1 86 


Wm. west, F.L.S., 


G. S. WEST, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S. 

{Continued from page 141). 
XXX XX xxxx 



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IVes^ : Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 



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Fig-. 2. AC.^ — Rhizosol ema- 
morsa W. & G. S.West, from the 
plankton of Thirlmere. X 430. 
C is a portion of a cell containing 
a resting spore {s). 

1909 May 1. 

1 88 West: Phytoplayikton of English Lake District, 


Ot the periodical collections of plankton we have 'been 
receiving from three lakes of the English Lake District, only 
those from Windermere have hitherto extended over a suffi- 
cient length of time to enable us to draw up a report on the 
periodicity of the plankton-constituents. These collections 
commenced in September 1907, and were made at fairly regular 
monthly intervals until August 1908. We are indebted to Mr. 
Frank Holmes, of Bowness, for continuing to make the collec- 
tions according to instructions, and also for recording the water- 
temperatures at the time of collection. 

Monthly Statement of Plankton from 
Sept. 1907 to Aug. 1908. 
September 1907. — Water-temperature I4.4°C. (=58° F.). 
Mixed Crustacea and Desmid plankton. The Crustacea con- 
sisted of Bosmina longirostris , Daphnia longispina, and others. 
The Desmids were very conspicuous, more particularly the 
following six species — Cosmarium suhtumidum var. Klehsii, 
Xanthidium subhastiferum var. Mtirrayi, Staurastrum curva- 
tum, St. jaculiferum, and St. paradoxum. The Diatoms were 
mostly Tabellaria fenestrata var. asterionelloides , which was 
present in quantity, and Asterionella gracillima. Dinobryon 
cylindricum var. divergens was in moderate quantity, and 
certainly more abundant than in any other month of the twelve 
during which collections were made. Ceratium hirundinella 
and Peridinium Willei are both general. Rotifers numerous. 
Ccelosphcerium Kutzingianum rather common. 

October 1907. — Water-temperature 9°C. (=48°F.). Largely 
a Desmid plankton, the four most conspicuous species being 
Xanthidium subhastiferum var. Murrayi, Staurastrum curvatum, 
St. cuspidatum var. maximum, and St. paradoxum. Cosmarium 
subtumidum var. Klebsii has practically disappeared. Small 
colonies of Sphcsrocystis Schroeteri are frequent. Ceratium 
hirundinella is fairly general, but there is less CoelosphcBium 
Kutzingianum. Rotifers numerous. Increase in quantity of 
Asterionella gracillima. 

November 1907. — Water-temperature y.2°C, (=45°F.). 
Gradually becoming a Diatom plankton. Great increase in 
the quantity of Asterionella gracillima. A number of littoral 
Diatoms washed into the plankton, mostly belonging to the 
N aviculacecB. The three following Desmids were still con- 

IVes^ : Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 1 89 

spicuously abundant : — Xanthidium suhhastiferum var. Murrayi, 
Staurastrum curvatum, and St. paradoxum. The amount of 
Ccelosphcerium Kiitzingianum has greatly diminished. Fewer 
specimens of Ceratium hirundinella, but an increasing amount 
of Mallomonas longiseta. Rotifers numerous. 

December 1907. — Water-temperature 3.2°C. (=38°F.). A 
mixed plankton much less in general bulk than in the preceding^ 
months. Asterionella gracillima in great abundance, but 
Tahellaria fenestrata var. asterionelloides has almost disappeared. 
Mallomonas longiseta reaches its maximum abundance. The 
rest of the phytoplankton has much diminished, although 
several Desmids are present in small quantity. Peridinium 
Willei is exceedingly rare, and Ceratium hirundinella has com- 
pletely vanished. Crustacea present in considerable numbers, 
but Rotifers are few. 

January 1908. — Water temperature i.i°C. (=34°F.). As- 
terionella gracillima still very abundant. Few specimens of 
Mallomonas longiseta. Several species of Desmids (of which 
Staurastr^im jacu'iferum is most noticeable), not uncommon. 
One specimen of Pediastrum glanduliferum was observed, doubt- 
less washed into the plankton from the shores. Crustacea 
fairly common, but Rotifers scarce. 

February 1908. — -Water-temperature o.2°C. (= 32.5°F.). 
Very little phytoplankton, but a fair number of Crustacea. 
Asterionella gracillima somewhat less abundant, but still 
numerous. Melosira granulata beginning to get conspicuous. 

March 1908. — Water temperature o.4°C. (=33°F.). Crus- 
tacea dominant, but the whole plankton of little bulk. Melo- 
sira granulata is more abundant, but the numbers of Asterionella 
gracillima have very greatly diminished. A few specimens of 
Tabellaria fenestrata var. asterionelloides, and also of Mallo- 
monas longiseta, were observed. 

April 1908. — Water-temperature i.7°C. ( = 35°F.). Melo- 
sira granulata abundant and Asterionella gracillima fairly 
common. A number of littoral species of Diatoms washed 
into the plankton. Several species of Staurastrum represented 
by few specimens. Two spring forms — Uloihrix zonata and 
Synura uvella — were not uncommon. 

May 1908. — ^Water-temperature 4.4°C. (=4o°F.). An 
Asterionella-^Xznkion with a fair quantity of Melosira granulata. 
Rhizosolenia morsa not uncommon, and a little Tabellaria 
fenestrata both in the typical chain disposition and in the star- 

igog May i. 

I go West: Phytoplankton of Etiglish Lake District. 

■disposition ( var. asterionelloides) . A few specimens of Ceratium 
hirundinella make their appearance. 

June 1908. — Water-temperature 8.3°C. (=47°F.). A 
marked Asterionella-^ldinkion, A . gracillima reaching a maximum 
greater than the Nov. -J an. maximum. Tabellaria fenestrata 
var. asterionelloides fairly numerous, but Melosira granulata 
quite disappeared. A few Desmids have appeared, and also 
the first bits of Anahcena Lemmermannii. Plenty of Crustacea, 
but all of one species — Bosmina longirostris. Rotifers becoming 

July 1908. — Water-temperature ii.6°C (=53°F.). A 
Crustacean plankton, with a large amount of Bosmina longiros- 
tris, Daphnia longispina, and Copepods. A few Desmids are 
fairly evident, and also a thin species of Spirogyra. Ceratium 
hirundinella quite common, and a few individuals of Ccelos- 
phcerium. Masses of floating spores of Anahcena Lemmermannii. 
Rotifers increasing in numbers. 

August 1908. — Water-temperature I2.7°C. (=55°F.). A 
Crustacean plankton, with a gradually improving phytoplank- 
ton. Desmids becoming numerous and Ceratium hirundinella 
plentiful. Peridinium Willei abundant. Microcystis ceruginosa 
occurred in the plankton-collections for this month, but 
only a few specimens were seen. 

General Remarks upon the Periodicity. 

The first publication dealing with the periodicity of British 
phytoplankton was by Fritsch, who recorded the results of a 
somewhat incomplete series of collections made in the river 
Thames.* The next publication was by Bachmann, who gave 
an account of periodical collections made by Father Cyrill in 
Loch Ness from July 1904 to May 1905.! 

In Windermere, the dominant constituents of the phyto- 
plankton are Chlorophyceae and Diatoms, the Myxophyceae 
never at any time being conspicuous. In all, 65 species have 
been observed, of which 30 (or 46.1 per cent.) are Chlorophyceae, 
23 (or 35.4 per cent.) Bacillarieae, 7 (or 10.7 per cent.) Myxo- 
phycae, 3 (or 4.7 per cent.) Flagellata, and 2 (or 3.1 per cent.) 

* F. E. Fritsch, ' Further Obs. on the Phytoplankton of the K. Thames,' 
Ann. Bot. XVII., Sept. 1903. 

f Bachmann, ' Vergleichende Studien iiber das Phytoplankton \ on 
Seen Schottlands und der Schweiz,' Archiv. fiir Hydrobiol. u. Plankton- 
kunde, III., 1907, pp. 85-88. 



Wes^ : Phytoplanktoii of English Lake District. 191 

The Entomostraca reach a maximum towards the end of 
August, about the period of highest water-temperature, in 
consequence of which during this period, the greatest actual 
bulk of plankton is collected in the nets. 

The plankton of Windermere has three fairly distinct 
phases, which can be stated as follows : — 

L — January- April (cold period). Melosira graniilata 
phase. During February and March the phyto- 
plankton is at its minimum. 
II. — May-July (vernal rise of temperature). First maxi- 
mum of Asterionella gracillima in May and June. 
The Crustacea are dominant in July. 
III. — August- Dec ember (autumnal fall of temperature). 
The Desmid phase extends from August to 
November, and is most noticeable in September 
and October. In November is a second maximum 
of Asterionella gracillima. The Crustacea are 
dominant in August. 

It will be noticed that the great increase of the Entomostraca 
follows immediately after the enormous maximum of Asterion- 
•ella gracillima in May and June. This affords confirmatory 
evidence of the conclusion arrived at by Kofoid * that Asterion- 
ella is one of the primary sources of food of the Entomostraca 
Bosmina, Daphnia, Cyclops, and Diaptomus. 

Chlorophyce^. The Green Algae attain their maximum 
abundance in September and October, i.e., at the end of the 
summer period and the beginning of the autumnal decline in 
temperature. This is in close agreement with the greatest 
abundance (July to the middle of October) of Chlorophycese 
in the Central European lakes, as recorded by Schroder, f 
Lemmermann,! and many others. 

In the April plankton numerous filaments of Ulothrix 
zonata occurred, doubtless carried into the lake by floeds 
in the feeding streams and becks. 

All the Desmids attained their greatest abundance during 
the autumnal fall of temperature. The same was also true of 

* C. A. Kofoid, ' The Plankton of the IlUnois River— 1894- 1899,' Bull. 
111. State Lab. of Nat. Hist., May 1908, vol. VIII., art. i, p. 

t B. Schroder, ' Das Pflanzenplankton preussischen Seen ' in Seligo's 
TJntersuch. in dem Stuhmer Seen, Danzig, 1900. 

I Lemmermann in ' Forschungsb. Biol. Stat. Plon,' X., 1903 ; in ' Zeit- 
schrift fiir Fischeri,' XL, 1903 ; etc. 

1909 May I. 

192 Wes/ : Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 

the Protococcoideae, but no species of this order ever became 
really common, although Sphcerocystis Schroeteri was the most 
frequent. Botryococcus Braunii was only observed from August 
to October, and then in very small quantity. 

The maximum abundance of plankton-Desmids occurs in 
late September, or early October, in almost all the British 
lakes,* and it is also the period of abundance of these Con- 
jugates in the littoral region and in the bogs. 

Bacillarie^. The Diatoms do not attain a universal 
maximum at one definite period of the year, but the various 
plankton-species reach their maxima at different periods. 

Melosira granulata has its maximum in April (temp. i.7°C.) 
at the end of the cold period and the beginning of the vernal 
rise of temperature. This is in general agreement with the 
















3- 2° 
















/' \ 

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^ -^ 







ASTFRinNn i_ A r.QArii 1 in 


Fig. 3. Chart showing the periodicity of six of the most abundant 
constituents of the Windermere plankton from September 1907 to August 
1908. The temperatures are in degrees Centigrade. 

* In the Schoenenbodensee Tanner- Fullcmann {vide ' Bull, de I'Herb. 
Boissier, 'VII., 1907) has recorded certain specir of Desmids as occurring 
in quantity in October. 


TVesi : Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 1 93 

occurrence of this species in the lakes of western Europe. In 
the plankton of an Australian lake, on the other hand, M. 
granulata was found to reach its maximum abundance in the 
middle of the warm period with a water-temperature of 2i°C.* 
There is no doubt, however, that the Melosira phase of the 
Windermere plankton is from January to April or May (con- 
sult text-fig. 3), and this agrees with a similar Mg^oszVa-plank- 
ton described by Lemmermann as occurring in the ' Zwis- 
chenabner Meeres' from January to April, f In the Ploner 
See the same author also J records a first Diatom period from 
January to July, and a second one, consisting principally of 
Melosira dis.tans (a closely related form to M. granulata) from 
December to January. 

Asterionella gracillim.a has a great maximum in May and 
June (temp. 4.4 — 8.3°C.) at which period it completely domi- 
nates the plankton (consult PI. VII. and text-fig. 3), and a 
second maximum, more prolonged but not so great, from 
November to January (temp. 7.2 — i.i°C.). This double 
maximum of Asterionella, first in spring and then in autumn, 
appears to be fairly general in deep lakes, and Wesenberg- 
Lund § also remarks upon a similar double maximum of 
Fragilaria crotonensis in the Danish lakes. 

In investigating the periodic appearance of Asterionella 
in the reservoirs which supply the city of Boston with water, 
Whipple II suggested that the maxima were due to disturbing 
influences having raised up quantities of individuals from the 
bottom to the limnetic region (either in the vegetative con- 
dition or in the form of spores), where they found suitable 
conditions for rapid multiplication. He regarded summer and 
winter as two periods of stagnation, whereas the spring and 
autumn were largely periods of storm, with the necessary 
conditions for disturbing the water and setting up convection 
currents such as would raise this bottom-flora to the surface. 

* G. S. West in ' Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot.', 1909, XXXIX., p. 21. It 
seems quite likely that under the general name ' Melosira granulata,' 
more than one form is included, these forms attaining their maxima under 
different conditions of temperature. 

f Lemmermann in ' Ber. Deutsch. Botan. Ges.', XVIII., 1900, p. 140 

I Lemmermann in ' Forschungsb. Biol. Stat. Plon.', X., 1903, p. 126. 

§ Wesenberg-Lund, ' Plankton Investigations of the Danish Lakes, 
Copenhagen,' 1908, p. 50. 

1; G. C. Whipple in ' Technol. Quarterly,' VII., 1894 ; Whipple and 
Jackson in ' Journ. of Ne\'^^ngland Waterworks Association,' XIV., 1899. 

To he continued). 

1909 May I. 




(plate X.) 


Ottonia conifer a. — This mite is somewhat heart shaped, being 
much wider in proportion to its length ; it is comparatively 
small, not more than half the size of hullata. Mr. Soar's 
measurement is — length, 1.76 mm. The colour is orange red, 
and the legs of the usual formation in these mites, the front leg 
being the longest ; the last joint being somewhat clubbed. The 
palpi have two claws at the end of the fourth joint, and the fifth 
is bag shaped and rather small (fig. c). The eyes are prominent 
at the side of the cephalothorax, and have two ocelli each. The 
most remarkable point is the structure of the hairs, or papillae 
of the back. I was fortunate enough to isolate and mount one 
of these, in good condition, attached to its socket. Mr. Soar 
has given a good drawing of this, highly magnified (fig. f.). 
It consists of a cone, apparently hollow, covered with very fine 
hairs, projecting to a point, and set in an ornamental socket, 
like a candle in its stick. Of course these papillae when com- 
pressed are liable to open out somewhat, and become more cup- 
shaped, and the fine terminal hairs break off at the curved line, 
near the distal end of the papilla (fig. F.). Mr. Soar found the 
mite in moss at Oban ; and Mr. Evans sent me one found by 
him in a mole's nest early in 1908. 

Ottonia evansii. — -I have named this little creature in honour 
of the finder, Mr. Wm. Evans, of Edinburgh, to whom I am in- 
debted for this and other specimens of this beautiful and interest- 
ing group of mites. In size it is rather small, and in general shape 
much like other members of this group ; the eyes are situated on 
the shoulders, one on each side, embedded in the skin, each hav- 
ing two ocelli. The fourth joint of the palpus has, besides the 
terminal claw, a smaller accessory one, not shown in the 
figure. The fifth joint is small, and differs considerably in 
shape from the others already figured, seeming to oppose the 
claw at the end of the fourth joint, and thus make a forceps 
(see Mr. Soar's figure h.). The legs are covered with very fine 
hairs ; the front ones are the longest, and have the terminal 
joint thicker and club-shaped (figure c), the last joint of the 
fourth pair is rather slender (fig. d.), the hairs are not barbed. 
The hairs or spines on the [body are simple, rather short, and 



Ottonia conifera. 

Oban 20-7-07. Found in Moss by C D Soar. 
Light orange Red. 
Length 1.76 mm. X31. 
Falpi 0.44 mm. x 100. 

li. Hairs on body. 

e. Eye. 

/. Body liair highly magnified. 

CI. Ottonia evansil. 

h. Palpus. 

C. End joint of hrst leg. 

1/. End joint of last leg. 
c. Hairs or spines of back. 
/. Crista. 

Reviews and Book Notices. 195 

not very close together. They are bent backwards, and appear 
to arise from small circular or oval plates of chitin (fig. e.). 
The Crista (fig. f.), is remarkable, inclosing at its anterior ex- 
tremity a small capitulum, carrying a few shortish hairs, 
On each side of the crista, abotit half way down, is a circular 
stigma. The Vulva (fig. g.) is also rather remarkable in having 
the copulatory discs placed low down, and differing a little in 
size, well shewn in the figure. I consider this mite a very 
characteristic Ottonia, having, however, the spines or papillae 
of the back differing completely from any of those previously 

Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth has recently issued a Descriptive Catalogue 
of specimens in the Museum of Human Anatomy, Cambridge, part 2 of 
which deals with * The Comparative Osteology of Man and the Higher 
Apes.' This contains an illustrated description of the contents" of six 
cases, in which are arranged casts and sections of critical bones. Though 
primarily prepared for the student, this catalogue has much in it of general 
interest, and is well illustrated. 

Two Memorial Volumes have recently been issued. The first is The 
Darwin Wallace Celebration held on Thursday, ist July, 1908, by 
the Linnean Society (London. 140 pp., cloth, 5/-). This contains a well- 
written record of the Celebrations held in London last year, together with 
illustrations of the Darwin-Wallace Medal, etc. There are also excellent 
portraits of Darwin, Wallace, Sir J. D. Hooker, Haeckel, Weismann, Stras- 
burger, Francis Galton and Sir E. Ray Lankester. The volume includes 
reprints of many early notes on the question of Evolution, and is in many 
ways a useful one to be in the library of any naturalist. 

The second volume is a record of the Centenary of the Geological 
Society of London, celebrated September 26th to October 3rd, 1907 ; 
and issued in February, 1909. Besides an account of the proceedings on 
that memorable occasion, it includes copies of the various Addresses 
presented ; the Presidential Address of Sir Archibald Geikie, etc. An 
admirable portrait of Sir Archibald appropriately forms the frontispiece. 

From an Easy Chair, by Sir E. Ray Lankester, K.C.B., F.R.S. Con- 
stable & Co. 144 pp. 

This book contains a number or articles contributed by Sir Ray Lan- 
kester to the Daily Telegraph. They deal with all manner of subjects, 
without any regard to method, and may be looked upon as a sort of aris- 
tocratic ' Tit-Bits.' Anyway, the articles are certainly reliable, and, of 
■course, well written ; in this respect being far more acceptable than the 
usual drivel which appears in the daily press under the head of ' science ' 
or ' natural history.' Possibly one object of the preparation of these notes 
was to counteract the flow of blithering nonsense which so often does duty 
as scientific news in the press, as we know Sir Ray Lankester has frequently 
protested against it. The book forms a pleasant and profitable com- 
parison for an otherwise idle evening or Sunday afternoon, though we should 
have preferred seeing anything by this authority in other than paper covers. 
We should like to state that, having read the book, we have disposed of 
it in such a way that it will not interfere with its sale. Evidently the pub- 
lishers feared that the review copy might be placed in some shop, and 
sold, as the words ' presentation copy ' are well stamped in two places, 
and ' i/- nett ' is written across the title-page, although ' one shilling net ' 
is printed in bold type (and correctly), on the cover. 

1909 May I 



H. C. DRAKE, F.G.S. 

A FEW years ago I spent some time in the Malton district, and 
amongst other Vertebrate remains from the Corallian rocks I 
found a piece of bone. I recently sent this, which is embedded 
in a block of Coral Rag, to Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., 
of the British Museum (Natural History). The specimen was 
obtained in the large quarry at North Grimston. 

Dr. Woodward kindly informed me that it was the right 
mandibular ramus of Ischyodus egertoni Ag., and that it was a 
new record for the Corallian rocks of England. 

The specimen measures 60 mm. from the beak to the 
hinder margin, and 35 mm. from the symphysial margin to the 
post -oral margin. 

Unfortunately all the teeth are missing, but the rough 
depressions show where the teeth have been. 

Prof. J. Phillips mentions the same species from the Oxford 
Clay of St. Clements ('Geology of Oxford,' p. 305). 

Mr. Buckland in 1835 described the first specimen of 
Ischyodus from the Portland Oolites of Oxfordshire. This 
measured 7 inches in length, and is the largest specimen of 
the genus. It was named /. townsendi. 

Mr. E. T. Newton ligures a specimen of mandible of /. 
townshendii from the Portland Oolite of Upway, Dorsetshire, 
in the ' Proceedings of the Geological Association ' July, 188 1, 
p. 117. This agrees very much with my specimen, but it is 
about twice as large. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward also mentions two species from the 
great oolite of Northamptonshire in his ' Synopsis of the Fossil 
Fishes of the English Lower Oolites' (' Proc. Geol. Asoc.,' 
Vol. II., No. 6). 

I have to thank Dr. Woodward for his kindness in de- 
termining this and numerous other specimens for me. 

Messrs. Witherby & Co. have launched a new monthly publication — 
' Travel and Exploration ' (i/- net), the first part of which has been sent 
to us. It contains numerous well-written and well-illustrated articles, 
dealing with various parts of the world, starting off with ' The Nasa- 
inonians — A Call to Exploration,' by Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. The magazine will doubtless be much appreciated by those in- 
terested in travel. 



From the Norwich Museum we have received its Report for 1908, with 
list of additions, including many valuable archaeological and natural 
history specimens ; and also the First Annual Report of the Norwich 
Museum Association, founded 1907, under the auspices of the Norwich 
Castle Museum Committee. This Association, with Mr. F. Leney as 
Secretary, illustrates in an excellent way the practical use that may 
be put to a museum and its contents, by popular lectures of interest to 
agriculturalists, etc. 

We have recently received three excellent handbooks from the Bank- 
field Museum, Halifax, written by the Hon. Curator, Mr. H. Ling Roth. 
The first (No. 5, 45 pp., i/-) is entitled ' Trading in Early Days,' and is the 
lecture delivered before the Halifax Scientific Society last September. 
No. 6 (10 pp., one penny), deals with ' Hand Wool combing,' and No. 7 
(20 pp., 2d.) is an account of ' Mocassins and their Quill Work,' and is 
reprinted from the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. All 
are well illustrated by drawings of specimens in the Bankfield Museum, 
Mr. Roth is to be congratulated upon these valuable publications. 

Mr. S. L. Mosley, the Curator of the Keighley Museum, periodically 
publishes pamphlets bearing upon objects in his collection. ' These Notes 
are printed (i) As labels for the Museum ; (2) As Lesson-Notes supplied 
to all the Borough Schools. Outsiders may have them sent post free by 
.subscribing 5/- a year to the Museum.' No. 4 was issued in January, and 
deals with ' The Rook.' It is illustrated by coloured plates of the Rook, 
Cockchafer, Daddy-long-legs, Wireworm, etc. No. 5 deals with the Colts 
foot, and also includes reviews of recent publications ; a note on the late 
Beaumont Park Museum, the collections from which were offered by Mr. 
Mosley to the Corporation, but were declined ; and some rare local birds. 
In the last we notice ' Nutcracker — an error. A statement in Nelson's 
" Birds of Yorkshire " that a bird of this kind was shot in Dungeon Wood, 
and that I had it in the flesh is a mistake, and was inserted without my 
knowledge. I never had such a bird, nor had my father.' Better paper 
should be used for these notes. 

From the Lincoln Museum we have received six penny publications. 
Nos. I and 2 deal with the Lincolnshire Keuper Escarpment and the 
Pygmy Flint Age in Lincolnshire respectively, and are reprinted from the 
Transactions of the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union. These papers were 
referred to in these columns when reviewing that publication some time 
ago, so we will not refer to them more than to say they do not appear to 
have much, if any, connection with the Lincoln Museum. On the other 
hand, the two illustrated pamphlets on Roman Antiquities (Nos. 3 and 5) 
by the Curator, Mr. A. Smith, are just of the type the visitor requires, 
especially seeing that Lincoln is so comparatively rich in Roman remains. 
From the illustrations given, we should hardly have expected the use of 
the word ' graceful ' so frequently. No. 4 is the Report and General 
Guide, which appears with one name on the cover, and two inside. In 
this there is evidence of the Museum having many friends, and it is pleasing 
to find that some specimens which had reached Lancashire have been 
returned. It is a pity the people of Lincoln were not alive as to the im- 
portance of these objects earlier ; the present collection would then have 
been much richer. No. 6 deals with ' The Owls and Hawks of Lincoln- 
shire,' by the Rev. F. L. Blathwayt, and makes special reference to the 
collections in the museum. We learn that Nos. 2 and 3 of these publica- 
tions are already out of print, which seems a pity. 

Whether there is any great monetary profit from the sales of these 
various museum publications or not, there can be no doubt that they benefit 
the respective museums, and the increasingly large number of institutions 
issuing them is a good sign. 

1909 May I. 



A portrait of Thomas Bewick, in a hat, appears as frontispiece to 
British Birds for April. 

' Lincolnshire Gulleries ' is the title of a paper by the Rev. F. L. Blath- 
wayt, in the April Zoologist. 

It is proposed to form a small Limited Liability Company to take over 
the Proprietorship of Knowledge. 

The number of species of Woodlice in Ireland is now twenty-three, six 
species having been added during the year. — Irish Naturalist, April. 

Prof. F. E. Weiss contributes a valuable paper on ' The Dispersal of 
the Seeds of the Gorse and the Broom by Ants ' to The New Phytologist 
for March. 

Mr. A. W. Clayden records footprints in the Lower Sandstones of the 
Exeter district for the first time in that area [Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 
November 1908). 

Yorkshire Notes' and Queries has just completed its fifth volume. The 
editor appeals for a much larger increase in the number of subscribers, or 
the magazine must cease to exist. 

A charmingly illustrated Report on ' The Eruption of Vesuvius in 
April 1906,' by Dr. H. J. Johnston-Lavis, has been issued as Vol. IX. 
(series 2) of the Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society. 

Mr. E. W. Morse has secured examples of Trachyphl(sus aristatus and 
T. olivieri, on the banks of the River Witham, below Boston, Lines., under 
cut herbage left in heaps to rot [Entom. Monthly Mag., February, p. 33). 

With the January number, the well-known Nature Notes changes its- 
title to The Selborne Magazine — practically its former name. The 
reason for the change appears to be that ' Nature Notes ' was ' too good,' 
being imitated in various newspapers, and credit was not given for para- 
graphs borrowed from its pages. 

Knowledge and Scientific News for January is a particularly good 
' Special Double Number,' and contains two articles of particular interest 
to our readers, viz., ' The Colour of some Wild Animals " and ' Studies in 
Marine Life, Hydroid Zoophtes ' [sic], the latter being particularly well 
illustrated. This magazine is to be one shilling each month in future. 

' Experiences with Eagles and Vultures in the Carpathians ' is the title 
of a paper by Mr. R. B. Lodge, in Vol. XV. of Aquila. It is illustrated by 
a number of photograph? taken by the author whilst hidden in a rocky 
shelter, outside which he shot a horse as ' bait.' He spent eight days in 
photograpliing the birds as they came to feed. The article is accompanied 
by a photograph of ' the observer, our good English friend.' 

The Lancashire Naturalist has been revived, and No. 13, Vol. II. 
(query No. i, of Vol. II.) for April has reached us. The price is 46.. The 
editor points out that it rests with Lancashire naturalists to decide as to 
whether it shall appear regularly or not. We notice, however, that (like 
another journal we might mention) it is ' for the adjacent districts of 
Cheshire, Derbyshire, Westmorland, North Wales and the Isle of Man.' 
Why not have taken in Yorkshire and the Lake District ? The first paper, 
on Sparth fossils, by Mr. W. A. Parker, though an excellent one, has already 
appeared elsewhere. The new Lancashire Naturalist is evidently a much 
more serious journal than its penny predecessor, and if the editor is able 
to restrict its contents to original papers bearing upon the county, it will 
serve a useful purpose ; and we shall wish it hon voyage. Natural history 
of the ' Tit-Bits ' type is not required in provincial journals. It can be 
obtained ad nauseam in the daily press. 






{Allium ursinum). 

(plate XI.). 

jAS. E. Mcdonald. 


Eat Leekes in Lide [March], and Ramsins in May, 
And all the year after physitians may play. 

— Old Proverb, 

Who has not formed some acquaintance with the repelHng 
garhc odour of this native of moist woods, when its bright, 
lily-of-the-valley-hke leaves have been trampled upon in order 
perhaps to pluck a few of its dainty-looking flowers ? 

Like the odours given off by some animals when in danger, 
this pungent garlic smell is protective, and tends to repel 
enemies who might otherwise browse upon the plant. In spite 
of this, cattle will eat the leaves, much to the annoyance of 
the dairyman, as the milk and butter is tainted thereby. 

If it were not for the unbearable odour when plucked, the 
flowers would be in great demand for bouquets ; though when 
undisturbed, there is only a faint odour of garlic. 

If the flower stalks be held gently whilst they are being cut, 
and the cut ends are wrapped with moist paper until they are 
carried home, there to be placed in water, the unpleasant 
odour passes away. One writer remarks that ' a flower in the 
midst of a bunch of forget-me-not, makes one of the sweetest 
mixtures of the season.' 

No doubt both the striking appearance and the odour of 
the unbruised flowers serve to attract insects to the honey for 
the purpose of pollination. The insects seen by the writer 
on the flowers have been chiefly small humble bees and flies. 
Hive bees are said to have a great objection to the garlic smell, 
nothing vexing them more than this plant being thrown 
amongst them*. Of course, in this case, the odour caused by 
bruising would be pungent. 

The umbels of from 12 to 20 or even 30 moderate sized 
flowers are raised above the foliage by the three angled peduncle 
(scape) during May and June. Previous to their opening, they 
are enclosed by a papery envelope (spathe) composed of two 
coherent bracts which are split apart as the flowers open. 

* Buxton's 'Botanical Guide' (1849). 
1909 May I. J 

200 McDonald : Broad-leaved Wood Garlic. 

The scabredity of the pedicels may possibly be of some 
mechanical assistance in the splitting of the spathe. The 
flowers are built on the same plan as the lilies, each having a 
perianth of six white petaloid segments, six stamens, and a 
three-lobed and three-celled ovary. Nectar is secreted between 
the rounded, bulging lobes of the ovary. Of the stamens, 
the three inner are somewhat longer than the three outer, 
and their anthers dehisce a little earlier. When the flower first 
opens, the style is short, and the stigma immature, but by the 
time the anthers of the outer and somewhat shorter stamens 
have dehisced, the style will have grown, and the now matured 
stigma brought well up to their level. 

If no insect be now forthcoming with pollen — as must often 
be the case during inclement weather — the stigma touches an 
anther in the same flower, and becomes self pollinated. 

Each compartment of the ovary contains two ovules, but 
only one of them usually ripens into a seed, so that the ripe 
capsule is usually but three-seeded. When ripe — towards the 
end of July, a little after the leaves have decayed — the carpels 
dehisce loculicidally to liberate the seeds. These are curved, 
albuminous, with a small embryo, and have a dark crustaceous 

Observation of the process of germination of these seeds 
might well serve as an introduction to the study of monocotyle- 
donous seedlings in general, as they are somewhat easier to 
understand than cereals such as oats, wheat, maize, etc., so 
often described in text-books. The embryo of wood garlic 
has only one cotyledon, this being somewhat cylindrical in 
form. During germination (which usually begins towards the 
end of October) this lengthens ; one end, that concealing the 
rudimentary plumule and ending with the rudimentary radicle, 
being pushed out of the seed. Growing downwards, it buries 
the plumule a little distance below the surface of the soil. At 
this stage nearer the seed a little slit will be noticed, it is through 
this slit that the first leaves from the plumule will emerge after 
growing up the short tube from the base. Even when pre- 
viously straight, as shewn in fig. i, the portions of the cotyledon 
above the slit, with the seed, becomes pushed to one side by 
the developing scale and foliage leaves, as shewn in figs. 2, 3, 
and 4. The other end of the cotyledon, the apex, is modified 
to act as a sucking organ, and remains in the seed, absorbing 
the albumen, and transferring it to the developing parts of the 


McDonald : Broad-leaved Wood Garlic. 

seedling. When the albumen has all been absorbed (this tak- 
ing some time), the whole cotyledon and the seed coat decay. 
Whilst the first leaf is developing, the radicle elongates, though 
not to the extent found in dicotyledons, and a little later this 
is supplemented by several adventitious roots from the base of 


Fig. I to 4. — Stages of germination, a, protruded portion of cotyledon 
of I enlarged ; s, slit ; x, seed coat ; r, radicle ; ar, adventitous rootlets ; 
Sc , sheathing scale leaf ; Fo , first foliage leaf twisting, i, October : 
2, November ; 3, January ; 4 , March 

the plumule, each attaining approximately the length of the 
radicle (see figs. 3 and 4). Only one foliage leaf* is formed 
the first season, and it is protected in its passage through the 
soil by a sheathing scale leaf (sc , figs. 3 and 4). 

A peculiar feature of the foliage leaves is that they 
are formed in the bud in exactly the reverse manner to those 
of other plants ; that is, the upper surface of the blade is formed 
like the under surface of other leaves. When the leaf appears 
above the soil, its petiole twists until the surfaces of the blade 
are reversed ; what was the lower or dorsal surface in the bud 
is then turned to the light, f 

In vernation the edges of the leaves are prettily rolled 
towards the mid-rib, practically it may be considered revolute, 

Fig. 6. — Transverse section (diagrammatic) of a mature bulb in January 
that will multiply, i.e. form two by end of season. 

Fig- 8. — Transverse section of mature bulb that will only form one 
new bulb at end of season. Letters as in figs. 7 and 9. 

* Rarely two. 

t Sydney H. Vines. 'A Students' Text book of Botany ' (1896), p. 164. 

1909 May 1. 

202 Northern Ne^vs. 

but the anomalous structure of the leaf must be remembered' 
(Figs. 6 and 8). 

Reverting to the seedling, the sheathing base of the small 
foliage leaf swells to form the first bulb, and has the plumule 
safely ensconced within it. Examination will shew that the 
apices of the bulbs of both seedhng and mature plants appear 
as if they had been cut with some sharp instrument. The 
explanation is that a transverse layer of corky tissue is formed 
there before the rest of the leaf has decayed to that point, and 
its position can be made out by a thin transparent band some 
time previous to actual decay. This layer of cork, in addition 
to healing the wound, so to speak, prevents the access of fungi 
and moisture whilst the bulb is at rest in the damp soil it usually 
inhabits. Towards the end of May the tiny bulb now formed, 
comes to rest. 

The next growing season (winter months chiefly), in addition 
to several fine absorptive roots, a thick root is given off from 
its base, which, when firmly fixed by root hairs near its tip, 
contracts and pulls the bulb deeper in the soil 
(fig. 5 cr). Each subsequent year the foliage 
leaf produced becomes larger until maturity 
is reached.* When there are two leaves, the 
base of the innermost one, which forms the 
bulb, becomes larger ; consequently longer, and 
stronger, and more numerous contractile roots 
are required. In adult plants the new bulbs 
are formed a little higher in the soil than those 
1^4 they replace ; so these peculiar roots are 
necessary to pull them down to the proper 
level which appears to be about four inches 
below the surface to tip of bulb. 

Fig. 5. — Two year old bulb (b) resuming growth after period of rest 
CR, contractile root ; fr, fine roots ; s, scar of last year's leaves ; Sc 
sheathing scale leaf. 

NoTE.^First formed bulb at this season differs only in being smaller. 

[To be continued). 

' Was Darwin Right ? ' is the title of a discussion being carried on 
in a contemporary. 

' The Claws of Insects ' was the subject of the Presidential Address to 
the Entomological Society. It was delivered by Mr. C. O. Waterhouse on 
January 20th, 1909, and is printed in the Society's Transactions for the 
year 1908, part V. 

* Four to five years, perhaps, under favourable conditions. 




Manx Shearwater near Rotherham.— Mr. H. Moore kindly 
sent me a bird for identification, which proved to be a Manx 
Shearwater. It was picked up aUve on August 24th, 1908, 
at Dalton Brook, on the Doncaster Road, about two miles 
north-east of Rotherham.— R. Fortune. 

A Broomrape new to Britain. — In August 1907 I found 
a Broomrape growing parasitically upon Cnicus eriophorus, 
within ten miles of Leeds. As it did not agree with the des- 
cription of any British species, I asked the opinion of Mr. G. 
Claridge Druce, of Oxford. He, in turn, submitted the speci- 
men to Dr. Beck, who has monographed the genus Orohanche 
and is the recognised European authority. Dr. Beck names it 
Orohanche reticulata Wallroth form procera (Koch), and states 
that the plant is new to Britain. Mr. Druce informs me that 
the hosts of the foreign plants are species of Thistle. — H. E. 
Craven, Leeds. 

Qeaster fornicatus in Yorkshire. — This comparatively 
rare fungus was found, April 4th, in a hedge bottom at 
Masham, by Mr. W. A. Thwaites. This is the first time 
it has been noticed in V.C. North West. Its only two other 
Yorkshire records are near Doncaster (Lee's ' Flo.') ; and 
Castle Howard (Massee's ' Mon. Brit. Gastromycetes,' p. 80). 
The Masham specimens were of last year's growth, but in 
splendid condition. — C. Crossland, Halifax, April 6th, 1909. 

Ephestia kuhniella Zell. at Skelmanthorpe. — In Jan- 
uary 1908 I found a number of larvae in an oatmeal box belong- 
ing to a local grocer. They were in silken cases, about half an 
inch in length, secured to the sides of the box, and very plentiful. 
I took a few, and fed them on oatmeal, and during the following 
summer the moths emerged. Not being able to ascertain the 
name of the species, I recently sent a few specimens to Mr. 

1909 May I. 

204 Field Notes. 

Porritt, and he informs me that the species is one of the Cram- 
bites, Ephestia knhniella. The species was first taken in our 
county by the Rev. C. D. Ash, at Skipwith in November 1898, 
and first recorded as British from Stoney Stratford in Bucking- 
hamshire, in 1887. In all propabihty it has been introduced 
here, but there is no doubt about it being plentiful now. — -B. 
MoRLEY, February i8th, 1909. 

Sterrha sacraria at Qrang-e-over- Sands. — Mr. W. 

Shackleton of Bradford, recently shewed me a beautiful male 
specimen of this rare geometrid, which he caught at Grange- 
over-Sands in early September 1906. According to Mr. South, 
six or seven specimens were obtained in Lancashire in 1867, 
and it is interesting to note its occurrence again in that county 
after the lapse of thirty-nine years. Very few records have 
been made of this North African species in Britain since 1874. — 
B. MoRLEY, Skelmanthorpe, Huddersfield, March 3rd, 1909. 
A small number of specimens have been taken in the extreme 
Southern Counties during the past few years, several of which 
are now in my collection. — G. T. P. 

— : o : — 
Paludestrina jenkinsi in Airedale. — In October last 
year, Mr. C. T. Cribb, of the Vicarage, Shipley, found, in the 
river Aire, above Shipton, a number of Paludestrina jenkinsi 
along with other species, on Elodea canadensis. The occurrence 
rence of this species is worth recording, as it is an inhabitant 
of the coast, or of the streams that occur near the coast. Yet, 
by some means or other, it is getting transported to various 
parts of our inland counties. It was recorded from the river 
Spen at Cleckheaton, about three years ago, and now from the 
Aire Valley, so high up as Skipton. It would be interesting 
to ascertain exactly the cause for this sporadic appearance up 
and down the country, it having been turned up in several 
other Midland Counties. — F. Booth. 


Note on Transported Lias near Filey. — Those who have 

followed the elucidation of the Yorkshire coast geology, will 

remember that certain patches of blue clay which occur in the 

Boulder-clay at Filey were described by Judd as " Middle 


Northern News. 205 

Kimmeridge." This was a pure guess, and (like most guesses), 
quite wrong. I had noticed years ago that these patches con- 
tained Liassic fossils, but as I have always been afraid of being 
fitted with a certain proverb (' Fools step in where angels fear 
to tread ' ) I held my peace. I was glad, therefore, when Mr. 
Lamplugh pointed out the true character of these beds. They 
are simply boulders on a gigantic scale — large masses of trans- 
ported Lias. 

I was at Filey on March 29th, and found the shore and cliffs 
more swept and scoured than I had ever seen them. The rain- 
fall had been exceptionally heavy, and the sea very rough. 
Consequently the blue clay beds in the cliff displayed their 
fossils very conspicuously. Ostrea cymhium was specially fine 
and abundant, and the characteristic Pholadomya decor ata was 
strongly in evidence. I concluded that these beds in the cliff 
belonged to the jamesoni zone. 

On the shore, towards low water-mark, the removal of the 
sand had laid bare a considerable surface of black liassic shale. 
These beds belong to the communis zone, for the characteristic 
ammonite abounded, with numbers of Leda ovum. Belemnites 
were plentiful, but much fractured, having doubtless been 
injured in transportation. 

The scouring of the beach had apparently destroyed the 
burrows of a delicate little recent shell, Solen pellucidus, live 
examples of which were lying about with Mactra shdtorum and 
Syndosmya alba. — Wm. C. Hey. 

At a special meeting of the Geological Society of London, a proposal 
to admit women to candidature for the Fellowship of the Society was re- 
jected by fifty votes to forty. 

The ' Greenwell ' collection of British Bronze Weapons, which has 
recently been acquired for the national collection, has been paid for by 
Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan, and presented to the nation. 

' The Geology of the County between Newark and Nottingham ' is 
the title of a Memoir by Messrs. G. W. Lamplugh, W. Gibson, R. L. Sher- 
lock and W. B. Wright, recently issued by H.M. Geological Survey. 

Having heard good reports from some of our readers who have stayed 
at the Hotel at Oswestry, referred to in our advertisement columns, we 
have every pleasure in drawing attention to the excellence of the Hotel, 
as well as to the geological and botanical attractions of that district. 

At the sale of the first portion of the late T. Maddison's (Durham) 
collection of Lepidoptera, sold at Steven's Rooms on February 24th last, 
a single variety of the Common Tiger Moth {A. Caja) fetched £1^. The 
specimen was catalogued as bred at Liverpool, in July 1905. Surely a 
record price for a variety of this or any other moth ! Two other varieties 
of the same moth, in the same sale brought £6 and ^5 los. respectively. 

1909 May I. 



Through Southern Mexico (being an account of the travels of a 
Naturalist), by Hans Qadow, F.R.S., etc. London : Witherby & Co. 
527 pp., 18/- net. 

We should like first to congratulate Messrs. Witherby on publishing so 
sound and substantial a volume as that before us. It is quite refreshing 
to peruse it, coming, as it does, at a time when so many publishers of 
natural history volumes seem to think that ' a book's a book, although 
there's nothing in it.' Dr. Hans Gadow is well known as a careful and 
accurrate observer, and he further has the ability of clearly setting forth 
his observations in black and white. His visit, therefore, to an inaccessible 
part of Mexico, where ' you do not need any arms whilst travelling, but 
when you do, you want them badly,' is bound to be of general interest. 
Together with his wife, Dr. Gadow has spent a considerable time in the 
remote parts of Mexico, and observed many interesting facts relating to the 
geology, botany, zoology, archaeology, =!tc., etc., of that interesting area. 
Some of the more technical results of nis travels have already appeared 
in the Proceedings of various learned societies, but we think the author 
was well advised in publishing the narrative of his rambles in the present 
form. He has been most successful in observing nature in her various 
phases, and has been able to record many mteresting and important new 
facts. The description he gives are most fascinating, whilst now and 
then the details of exciting adventures of another kind add an interest 
to the volume. By the aid of camera and sketch-book, the author has 
been able to present a very graphic idea of the country he passed through, 
its natural history and archasological features, and its people. There are 
over a hundred and sixty illustrations. One drawback (if such it can be 
called) to the book is that when once it is well started of it must be com- 
pleted, no matter how busy the reader may be. There is a very good Index, 
remarkable for the unusual number of X's and Z's used. 

In a bulky volume of 544 pages Mr. F. A. Bellamy gives 'A 
Historical Account of the Ashmolean Natural History Society of 
Oxfordshire, 1880=1905- 

There is much useful information in the volume, but, on the other hand, 
there is much that seems trivial ; for instance pp. 88-90 are occupied by 
extracts from the minutes in reference to the days on which the society 
should meet — each new secretary apparently requiring a change in the 
dates of the meetings ! 

Forest Entomology, by A. T. Qillanders, F.E.S. Edinburgh: 
W. Blackwood & Sons. 422 pp., 15/- net. 

The first impression this book gives is that it is a thoroughly practical 
and carefully-prepared volume, and that it will at once take its place as 
the principal treatise on the subjects with which it deals. It is beautifully 
printed, and illustrated by 351 blocks, many from photographs, and a 
cursory glance through its pages leaves a very favourable impression. 
The book is argely based upon observations made in Cheshire and North- 
umberland, and the author has been assisted by a little army of helpers ; 
while the way in which he has borrowed blocks from other sources puts 
into the shade the efforts of a certain magazine, which shall be nameless ' 
But when one comes to carefully read the book with only a very fair 
knowledge of the ' common or garden ' (as against ' forest ') entomology, 
its deficiences become at once apparent, and it reminds one of the gaily 
dressed duchess-looking damsel on the Manx steamer, who, on being 
asked if the motion of the boat did not make her ill, replied ' norrit.' The 
author, the woods manager to His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, is 
most probably a very capable forester, but his knowledge of entomology 
is not of the best. However, he admits that 'he has just about the necessar}' 
amount of knowledge to make a beginning.' We would therefore recom- 
mend him to make a beginning, and then, after devoting some time to the 


Reviews and Book Notices. zciy 

subject, give us a revised issue of ' Forest Entomology.' To enumerate 
the many errors would not answer any good purpose, but we would suggest 
to Mr. Gillanders that he hand the book to some qualified entomological 
friend, for he apparently has several — with the request that he corrects it. 
Had this been done at' an earlier stage, there would probably have been 
nothing to grumble at. As it is the book might be read with profit by 
those interested in forestry. The publishers have done their share well. 

' One and AH Gardening, 1909 ' (92 Long Acre, W.C, 2d.), contains 
articles on ' Electricity and Plant Growth,' ' The Magic Circle in Plant 
Life,' ' In the Track of the Fungus Hunter,' and others likely to interest 
our readers. 

Hull Museum Publications. Nos. 53, 54, 56, 57 and 58. Hull : A.. 
Brown & Sons, Ltd. One penny each. 

This quintette of pamphlets maintain the high standard of excellence 
set by their fifty odd predecessors. Their range is a very wide one, a bare 
enumeration of the subjects dealt with would occupy more space than we 
can afford ; and we can only briefly mention some of the more interesting. 
No. 53 contains an interesting account of a most valuable addition to the 
exhibits in the shape of a model of a tunnel shield, scale one inch to a foot, 
made and presented by a distinguished engineer, a native of Hull, where 
he received his early training. Apart from the monetary value of the 
donation, it is said to have cost about ^^700, its value as an educational 
exhibit in a city like Hull is inestimable. 

Geologists and Palaeontologists will welcome the catalogue of the 
Lether collection, and the descriptive account of Eyyon ? antiqmts Broderip 
from the Lias. Antiquaries will revel in the accounts of old agricultural 
implements, gibbet irons, man-traps, and spring-guns, old engravings. 

Flint Axe=Head from Flamborough. 

maps and deeds, and last, but not least, the pamphlet dealing with for- 
geries and counterfeit antiquities, in which, as a matter of course, the career 
of Flint Jack, facile pvinceps of his class is retold. Short notes on various 
branches of Natural History are also included. 

No. 57 is devoted to the Annual Report for 1908, which provides 
interesting reading. We are pleased to see that the safety of the building 
in Albion Street has been increased by the removal of the electric light 
meters from the inside to the outside of the building, and that by a resolu- 
tion of the Council, the Museums are now open to the public on Sunday 
afternoons from 2-30 to 5 p.m. We note that this is merely as an experi- 
ment for six months, but we should imagine that if the attendances during 
the first three months of this year are in keeping with those for the last 
quarter of 1908, as detailed in this report, Sunday opening will have passed 
the experimental stage, and that the hours will be extended from 2 to 
7, or it may be 8 o'clock. The figures given shew an average of 297 visitors 
per hour at Albion Street, and 34 at Wilberforce House, which seems fairly 
high, when one considers the limited time within which visits may be made. 

The accompanying illustration, from one of the pamphlets, is a re- 
duced drawing of a very fine polished flint axe-head recently obtained at 
Flamborough. E. G. B. 

1909 May I- 



Prof. T. G. Bonney will be president of the British Association meeting 
at Sheffield next year. 

Mr. Joseph Dickenson, F.G.S. has been elected an Honorary Member 
of the Manchester Geological and Mining Society. 

We regret to have to record the dea,th of Dr. J. H. Baily, Isle of Man, 
a Vice-President of the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. 

We learn from the Hull Daily Mail that ' It is a curious truth that a 
butterfly can be frozen hard, and left so for some hours, yet on being re- 
moved to warmth the insect will recover and fly away.' 

The plate presented with this number (plate IX.) is an effort on the 
part of a well-known artist to portray a member of the staff of this journal. 
It also shews that there are two sides to the question of collecting. 

The Sixteenth Report of the Borough of Leicester Museum and Art 
Gallery has recently been issued, and besides containing particulars of the 
changes in the institution, includes a list of the additions made from April 
1st, 1905 to March 31st, 1908. 

Part 6 of Messrs. T. C. and E. C. Jack's ' Wild Beasts of the World ' 
(i/-), contains excellent coloured illustrations of the Glutton, Badger, 
Skunk, Otter, Coati, and Polar Bear. There are also descriptions of these, 
and several other interesting mammals. 

We are glad to notice that one of the Lancashire Museums has un- 
limited exhibition space, and is making good use of it. Amongst the recent 
additions are ' 40 species British Trees, mounted, illustrating stages of 
growth.' Wouldn't they have looked better if kept alive, and ' tubbed ' ? 

The Perthshire Society of Natural Science continues to place on record 
the valuable work of its members. Its recently issued Transactions and 
Proceedings, published at the Natural History Museum, Perth, is full of 
useful papers, which are illustrated by a large number of plates from photo- 
graphs of scenery, rock-sections, stone circles, etc., etc. 

We regret to record the death of Professor H. G. Seeley, F.R.S., of 
King's College, London, whose writings on palaeontology and comparative 
anatomy are well known. Professor Seeley was present at the meetings 
of Section ' C ' at the Dublin meeting of the British Association, though 
he did not seem to be in his usual health. He was born in 1839. 

On April i6th, at the Otley Police Court, a German waiter, employed 
at the Ben Rhydding Hydro, was — at the instigation of the Y.N.U. Wild 
Birds Protection Committee — prosecuted for shooting a Tawny Owl in the 
grounds of the Hydro. A unique defence was set up. Defendant pleaded 
that in Germany they got 3d. each for shot owls, and he was unaware of 
the law of this country. He was cautioned and ordered to pay the costs. 

A Report of the Corresponding Societies' Committee and of the Con- 
ference of Delegates held at the Dublin Meeting of the British Association 
is issued in advance of the Association's Report. It is sold at the Office of 
the Association, Burlington House, at one shilling. A valuable feature is 
the ' Catalogue of the more important papers, especially those referring 
to Local Scientific Investigations, published by the corresponding Societies 
during the year ending May 31st, 1908. 

We are delighted to find that Prof. P. F. Kendall is the recipient of 
the Lyell Medal of the Geological Society this year, and that Mr. H. Brant- 
wood Muff, another of our contributors, shares the Lyell Fund with Mr. 
R. G. Carruthers. Mr. Horace B. Woodward receives the Wollaston 
Medal, Prof. G. A. J. Cole receives the Murchison Medal; the Murchison 
Fund going to Mr. J. V. Elsden. The Bigsby Medal is awarded to Dr. 
J. S. Flett, and Lady Evans receives the Prestwich Medal. 



Plate IX. 

Collecting: Geology v. Zoology. 

JUNE 1909. 

No. 629 

(No. 407 0/ eurrtnt series). 




T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museum, Hull ; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 




Contents : — 

Notes and Comments tlllustrated) :— The Flamborough Peregrines; Swings; Tlie Girls' 
Realm Extended; Eggs as Tops; The Descent of Darwin; The British Association 
Report; The Solitary Ant; A Primitive Dreadnought 

Osprey in Yorkshire— IF. H. Sf. Qttintin, F.Z.S. , etc 

in Memoriam (Illustrated)— William Croser Hey— r. S 

The Ammonites called A. serpentiaus (Illustrated)— C. Thompson, B.Sc. (Loud.) 

Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire— C. C>-os5/rt«rf, F.L.S 

News from the Magazines 

Sermons in Stones— T. S. 

Some New Books on Evolution 

The Present State of Our Knowledge of Carboniferous Geology— Dn Wheelion 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Market Weighton (Illustrated) 

Field Notes (Illustrated) 

Polymorphism in Fungi.dllustrated)- G. Massee, V.M.H., etc. 

Museum News 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Northern News 


Plates XII,, XIII., XIV., XV. 



209, 211, 21c, 232, 




225, 234 
234, 235 


A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, EC. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. L. 




^be l^orksbire IRatuvalists' lElnion. 


8vo, Cloth, 292 pp. (a few copies only left), price 5/- net. 
Contains various reports, papers, and addresses on the Flowering Plants, Mosses, and Fungi of the county 

Complete, 8vo, Cloth, with Coloured Map, published at One Guinea. Only a few copies left, 10/6 net. 

This, which forms the 2nd Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, is perhaps the most 
complete work of the kind ever issued for any district, including detailed and full records of 1044 Phanero- 

fams and Vascular Cryptogams, 11 Characeas, 348 Mosses, 108 Hepatics, 258 Lichens, 1009 Fungi, and 382 
reshwater Algae, making a total of 3160 species. 

680 pp., Coloured Geological, Lithological, &c. Maps, suitably Bound in Cloth. Price 15/- net. 

NORTH YORKSHIRE: Studies of its Botany, Geology, Climate, and Physical Geography. 

And a Chapter on the Mosses and Hepatics of the Riding, by Matthew B. Slater, F.L.S. This Volume 
forms the 3rd of the Botanical Series. 

396 pp., Complete, 8vo., Cloth. Price 10/6 net. 

This is the 4th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, and contains a complete annotated list 
of all the known Fungi of the county, comprising 2626 species. 

Complete, 8vo, Cloth. Price 6/- post free. 


This work, which forms the 5th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, enumerates 1044 
species, with full details of localities and numerous critical remarks on their affinities and distribution. 

Complete, 8vo, Cloth. Second Edition. Price 6/6 net. 


The First Edition of this work was published in 1883, and contained particulars of 1340 species of 
Macro- and Micro-Lepidoptera known to inhabit the county of York. The Second Edition, with Supplement, 
contains much new information which has been accumulated by the author, including over 50 additional 
species, together with copious notes on variation (particularly melanism), &c. 

In progress, issued in Annual Parts, Svo. 


The Transactions include papers in all departments of the Yorkshire Fauna and Flora, and are issued in 
separately-paged series, devoted each to a special subject. The Parts already published are sold to the public 
as follows (Members are entitled to 25 per cent, discount) : Part 1 (1877), 2/3 ; 2 (1878), 1/9 ; 3 (1878), 1/6 ; 4 (1879), 
2/-; 5 (1880), 2/-; 6 (1881), 2/-; 7 (1882), 2/6; 8 (1883), 2/6; 9(1884), 2/9; 10 (1885), 1/6; 11 (1885), 2/6 ; 12 (1886), 2/6 ; 
13 (1887), 2/6 ; 14 (1888), 1/9 ; 15 (1889), 2/6 ; 16 (1890), 2/6 ; 17 (1891), 2/6 ; 18 (1892), 1/9 ; 19 (1893), 9d. ; 20 (1894), 5/- ; 
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SHIRE. By JOHN W. TAYLOR, F.L.S., and others. Also in course of publication in the Trans- 

18, 19, 21, &c., of Transactions. 


THE NATURALIST. A Monthly Illustrated Journal of Natural History for the North of England. Edited 
by T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., Museum, Hull; and T. W. WOODHEAD, F.L.S., Technical College, 
Huddersfield ; with the assistance as referees in Special Departments of J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., 
Subscription, payable in advance, 6/6 post free). 

MEMBERSHIP in the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 10/6 per annum, includes subscription to The Naturalist, 
and entitles the member to receive the current Transactions, and all the other privileges of the Union. 
A donation of Seven Guineas constitutes a life-membership, and entitles the member to a set of the 
Transactions issued by the Union. Subscriptions to be sent to the Hon. Treasurer, H. Culpin, 
7 St. Mary's Road, Doncaster. 
Members are entitled to buy all back numbers and other publications of the Union at a discount cf 2B 

per cent, off the prices quoted above. 
All communications should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary, 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., The Museums, Hull. 



It is pleasing to note that the Peregrines at Buckton have 
again successfully reared their young. For some time it has 
been known that the birds had returned, but it was not until 
the ' chmming ' began that the exact locality of the nest was 
ascertained. They have bred on the same spot as last year, 
on the ground climbed by Hodgson, and there are two young 
birds in full feather. There is no doubt that the interest taken 
in these birds by the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union is largely 
responsible for their present safe sojourn on the cliffs. 


The accompanying photograph, which was exhibited for 
sale at a photographer's at Bridlington, is interesting as shewing 
a typical group of ' gallant lads ' at Bempton, with their 
' chmming ' apparatus. It is also of service as it possibly 

Photo by] [Waddington & Gibson. 

explains the term ' Hewett's Swing,' which has been heard once 
or twice recently. From the expressions on the faces there is 
evidently something unusually serious taking place, and in 
front of the Lord High Executioner is apparently the culprit, 
like King Charles at the scaffold, with the rope dangerously 
near his cervical vertebrae. 

THE girls' realm EXTENDED. 

In the ' Girls' Realm ' for March, Magdalen F. P. Tuck, 
who comes ' of a race whose love for the feathered fowls of the 

1909 June I. 


2IO Notes and Comments. 

air is inherited from generations back,' writes on ' A Girl Cliff- 
Climber Down Bempton Cliffs,' the girl referred to being 
Magdalen F. P. Tuck, and she is actually photographed whilst 
over the cliff. In one of the photographs, she is represented as 
looking upwards, with a slack rope in her hand, possibly 
Hewett's swing ! She is evidently an accomplished girl, as 
early in the article we find she writes ' I lie comfortably on my 
face,' which is more than many could do. We believe that is 
the only ' lie ' she relates, though one of the photographs was 
certainly not taken within miles and miles of Bempton. We are 
also glad to find that the printers of the ' Girls' Realm ' have 
a good stock of capital ' I's.' 


Another magazine, which, for obvious reasons has recently 
adopted the title ' Science Gossip ' (though why ' Science ' it 
is difficult to say !) also has an article on ' The Birds on Bempton 
Cliffs,' the illustrations for which were also certainly not taken 
at Bempton. In this we learn that ' the Guillemot's eggs vary 
in size and marking.' The author has omitted to state that they 
usually have shells. ' Often very small eggs are found, but 
these, I think, are laid by young birds.' We were not previously 
aware of the protective colouring of these eggs, but ' as the 
chalk cliffs are all splashed with black and tufts of grass are 
seen sticking out of the face of the cliff wherever it can find a 
place to grow, so it takes one well used to finding the eggs hetore 
they can he made out properly, unless the ledge happens to be 
near the top of the cliff, when the eggs can be seen plainly.' 
And all this from a source that quotes ' unnatural history ' 
from the press. But perhaps the most unexpected piece of 
gossip is ' the reason the Guillemot's egg is so pointed is that 
if the bird leaves the egg in a hurry, or if a strong wind is blowing 
the e^g, instead of rolling off the ledge as an ordinary shaped 
egg would do, simple [sic] spins round on the point ' f ! 


It is perhaps not generally known that Hull can claim an 
ancestor of Darwin as a former mayor. In 1707 and again in 
1720, Erasmus Darwin was mayor of Hull ; and he was buried 
at Hull in 1737. This Erasmus Darwin married Elizabeth 
Mason, aunt to Wm. Mason, Poet and Divine. His connection 
with Charles Darwin is set forth on a pedigree of the Darwin 
family, printed by Sir Albert K. Rolht, in Wildridge's ' Nor 
thumbria,' 1888, pp. 138-140. 



Notes and Coinvients. 2 1 1 


The Report of the British Association for the meeting held 
at Dubhn in September last was published as we were going to 
press with our May number. This is eight months after the 
meeting, notwithstanding the fact that practically all the 
volume was in type at Dublin. Surely the paging, indexing, 
and binding of the volume should not take so long. We are 
now thinking of the next meeting at Winnipeg, and at this 
late date the Dublin volume has lost much of its value. Now 
that the British Association has got a new Secretary, dare we 
express the hope that he will hurry forward the publication of 
these reports ? 


In his paper on ' Glacial Survivals,' which appeared in this 
journal for August and September 1907, Mr. F. Elgee made fre- 
quent reference to that interesting specimen, the Solitary Ant 

Solitary Ant. 

{Mutilla curopcea), which occurs in North-East Yorkshire, 
The illustration herewith is an enlarged photograph of a 
female Solitary Ant, the second Yorkshire example, from the 
moors near Robin Hood's Bay. This will enable our readers 
to recognise the species should they come across it. 


In this journal for June 1905 we gave an illustration of the 
pre-historic boat at Brigg, Lincolnshire, which had reposed 
buried in the clay for two thousand years or more, until un- 
earthed during the construction of a gasometer. It then 

1909 June I 

2 1 2 S/. Qiimtin : Osprcy in Yorkshire. 

became the subject of an expensive lawsuit, decided in favour 
of the Lord of the Manor. It was next, at considerable cost, 
removed to a special brick building near the railway station, 
where, with its prominent label ' pre-historic boat ; admission 
6d.', it has formed quite a feature in that little market town 
.for over twenty years. It has now made its last voyage, 
having been presented to the Hull Museum by Mr. V. Cary- 
Elwes, D.L., J. P., F.S.A., together with several relics that were 
found with it. It is carved from a single trunk of oak, over 
forty-eight feet long, and it is safe to say that no such tree 
lives in England to-day. 


W. H. ST. QUINTIN, F.Z.S,, etc. 

An Osprey spent the whole of Friday, April 30th, at Scampston. 
He was seen from early morning till dusk, but he was gone the 
next day when looked for. Though he was followed by a 
noisy crowd of rooks and jackdaws whenever he moved, he 
was constantly on the wing over our lake, fishing, and several 
times was seen to take a fish, probably roach, though there are 
a few trout, and perch. 

In view of the lamentable condition, as a breeding species, to 
which the Osprey has been reduced in these islands, it is interest- 
ing to note that individuals may still be found in spring time, 
winging their way north towards their old breeding grounds, 
and it is to be earnestly hoped that those who are in a position 
to do so, will do their best to ensure them security. 

On the 9th of last month I saw an Osprey at Hyeres [South 
France], close to the old chateau. It was about 3 miles from 
the sea, and he was circling with lazy flaps with the wind, not 
more than 200 yards high as I reckoned, towards the forest 
which I had just left. 

With the natural eye I could see something bulky in his 
feet, and with the glass could distinctly make out a good-sized 
silvery fish, probably a grey mullet, which abound in the neigh- 
bouring brackish lagoons. 

In 1891 an Osprey stayed at Scampston for fully six 
weeks. He first appeared in mid-July, and was in moult, 
being probably a bird that had failed to find a mate, and was 
not breeding. He became quite reconciled to persons in 
full view, if they did not behave suspiciously. I once saw 




hi Memoriam — William Croser Hey. 213 

' long-leg ' in a village cricket-match not more than 150 yards 
from the Osprey sitting on an old stag-headed birch tree. I 
repeatedly saw this bird catching his fish, and noticed how 
very much a slight rufile of breeze seemed to interfere with his 
success. On windy days he would have to work hard, flying 
for a long time without a chance, and then frequently missing 
his quarry. After a meal he would, from a low * pitch,' make 
frequent plunges, one after another, to cleanse his plumage, as 
I have seen a Kingfisher do for the same purpose. 


3n riDemoriam. 



(plate XII.). 

Our readers will learn, with deep regret, of the death of the 
Rev. W. C. Hey, which occurred quite suddenly and unex- 
pectedly at West Ayton on May 19th. Mr. Hey was taken ill 
on the preceding afternoon at Forge Valley Station, whilst on 
a botanising excursion. 

He was the son of the late Ven. Archdeacon Hey, Canon 
Residentiary of York. He received many honours at Oxford, 
and his first curacy was at Guisborough, where he remained till 
1879. He then went as curate to his father at St. Olave's, York, 
and succeeded him in the hving in 1883. In 1892 he retired 
into private life, since which date he has lived at West Ayton. 

He was a keen botanist and conchologist, and has con- 
tributed many papers thereon to this journal and elsewhere. 
His studies were not confined to these particular branches, 
however, and geology and the Hymenoptera also received 
his attention, papers on these subjects being printed by him. 

He was a frequent contributor to this journal, his last note 
appearing even so recently as m the April number. His writ- 
ings possessed an exceptionally charming literary style. 

Mr. Hey was of a retiring disposition, and usually went his 
rambles alone, or in the company of one friend. He now and 
then attended the excursions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, the last occasion being on the Filey meeting in Whit 
week-end in 1903. Only a few days before his death we received 
a letter from him respecting some Hymenoptera he was trying 
to get for us. 

By his will he leaves £20, free of duty, to the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, of which he has been a member since its 
foundation. T. S. 

igog June 



(plates XIII., XIV. and xv.). 

C. THOMPSON, B.Sc. (Lond.), 

When engaged in research in regard to certain ammonites, 
I asked Mr. Crick of the British Museum (Natural History) if 
there were any real differences between Reinecke's ' serpentinus '' 
and Sowerby's ' falcifer.' I was at once gratified by having 
the Hterature on the subject placed at my disposal by the officers 
of the museum. 

A glance at Reinecke's beautiful figure was sufficient to 
show that the usual identification of A. serpentinus was in- 
correct, so I reported to the Hull Geological Society the pub- 
lished results of Mr. Buckman's work of twenty years ago. 
Recently a question by Mr. Sheppard, regarding the Yorkshire 
specimens, set me at work again. 

I have been led to the conclusion that the Yorkshire fossil 
usually called A. serpentinus is certainly not that species. 
It might be correct to label it A. mulgravius, Y. and B., but the 
question is whether that species is really distinct from A. 
falcifer, Sowerby. 

Mr. Buckman informs me that the authorities of the Whitby 
Museum have kindly placed Young and Bird's type of A. 
mulgravius in his hands for study ; that it is a large shell about 
235 mm. in diameter, with inner whorls very like Sowerby's 
A. falcifer. 

I have sent him a photograph of Sowerby's species, and he 
reports to me as follows : — ' The comparison of Sowerby's 
small falcifer with Young and Bird's large mulgravius is difficult, 
because the inner whorls of the latter are so much hidden. 
Both species show in the inner whorls a stage of somewhat 
strong, broadly-flattened, primary furcating costae preceding 
the stage of regular, narrow, non-furcating costae. 

In falcifer, the primary costae of the first stage are more 
distinct than in mulgravius, and the regular costae of the second 
stage also appear to be coarser. In falcifer the umbilicus is 
larger than in mulgravius, and this distinction would increase 
with age, while the umbilicus of falcifer is certainly deeper, 
which means that its whorls are thicker than those of A^ 

On these data I am inclined to think that falcifer would grow 



Plate XIII. 

Copy of Reinecke's original figure of Am. serpeiitiuns, [Hildoceras 
serpentinum) ; from negative lent by Mr. S. S. Buckman. (Very slightly 
reduced; trans, diani, should be 71 ni.m.) 



Hildoceras sevpentinimi, (Rein. sp.). From photograph of specimen 
in the collection of Mr. S. S. Buckman. Photographed by Miss Buckman. 
(A little over 5 nat. size). 

Thompson : The Arnynonites called A. serpentimis. 215 

up to be a thicker whoiied, more strongly-costated and more 
widely umbilicated species than A. mulgravms ; wherefore 
though the two forms are evidently closely allied, I think it 
desirable to retain the two names.'* 

The above confirms my own work on the common Yorkshire 
fossil, the result of which is, that the type described and figured 
below is the adult of falcifer. 

The following extract from d'Orbignyf will give the history 
of the names, and is that author's opinion on the matter : — 
' Reinecke, en 1818, a decrit et figure cette esp^ce presque 
adulte, sous le nom d'Argonauia serpentinus, et jeune sous 
celui de CcBcilia, dont Schlotheim a fait, en 1820, les A. serpen- 
tinus et capellinus. La meme annee, Sowerby appelait I'adulte 
Strangewaysii, et le jeune Falcifer. Deux ans apres, de I'adulte 
encore, Young et Birds, en 1822, faisaient leur A. Mulgravius. 
II en resulte que I'espece a six noms distincts, dont le plus 
ancien est Serpentinus, qu' on doit conserver ; ainsi les noms 
de Cacilia, de capellinus, de Strangeivaysii, de Falcifer et de 
Mulgravius, employes quelquefois par les auteurs, doivent etre 
renvoyes a la synonymie.'J It appears from this extract that 
d'Orbigny, following Schlotheim's description of what seems 
to me to be an intermediate form, figured a specimen much 
resembling mulgravius as serpentinus, and suppressed the Eng- 
lish name. 

Bayle, Wright, Blake, and others, followed d'Orbigny. 
Confusion arose in consequence, since we had so many names 
attached at different times to one ammonite, which names 
had really been given by their authors to various species. 

This is exceedingly strange, for Reinecke's figure is so clear 
and he took the further trouble to give a section of his specimen ; 
Young and Bird, also followed by Simpson, described mul- 
gravius, one would think sufficiently well. 

The three ammonites under discussion are really unlike one 

* In Litt., ]\Iay 7th, 1909. 

t ' Terrain Jurassique,' t. I., p. 218. 

X [Translation — Reinecke in 1818 described and figured this species, 
almost adult, under the name of Argonaiita serpentinus, and young, under 
that of Ccecilia, from which Schlotheim in 1820 made A. sevpentiniis and 
capellinus. In the same year Sowerby named the adult strangwaysii, 
and the young form falcifer. Two years afterwards, from the adult again, 
Young and Bird, in 1822, made their A. mulgravius. As a result of this 
the species has six distinct names, the oldest of which is serpentinus, which 
ought to be kept ; so that the names, Ccecilia, capellinus, strangwaysii, 
falcifer and mulgravius, sometimes used by authors, ought to be relegated 
to synonomy]. 

1909 June I. 

2i6 Thompso7i : The Animoiiiles called A. serpentiniis. 

another, especially A. serpentiniis and A. mulgravius, as the 
accompanying plates alone will show. 

Mr. Buckman wrote in the ' Geological Magazine ' for 1887, 
that Oppel, in his ' Juraformation,' p. 243, noticed the blunder 
and kept both species [falcifer and serpentiniis) distinct ; that 
Dr. Haug, in his ' Beitrage Monog.', 1885, drew pointed atten- 
tion to the fact of falcifer having been generally figured for 
serpentiniis ; also that Dr. Haug separated Am. serpentinus 
totally from Am. falcifer, placing the former in the group of 
bifrons, and so in Hyatt's genus Hildoceras. Both Oppel and 
Haug give mulgravius as a synonym of falcifer. 

Below will be found Sowerby's own description of his 
falcifer, Buckman 's description of Strangwaysi for those 
who have never seen the type ; and finally, a contrast of the 
characters of Reinecke's serpentiniis and of the most common 
Yorkshire type, which former collectors called mulgravius 

It will, however, be seen from the plates and Mr. Buckman's 
comparison above, that it is not the typical mulgravius of Young 
and Bird, for that does not for one thing possess those coarse 
broad ribs on the outer whorl. 

The following is Sowerby's description of falcifer. (' Min. 
Con.', Vol. HI., p. 99) Spec. Char. : — ' Discoid ; radiated ; 

[a) Section of last whorl of Sowerby's ^falcifer.' (Natural size.) 
{b) Section of last whorl of the adult specimen figured on plate XIV. 
(i nat. size). 

(Both these drawings have been very slightly reduced in reproduction). 

radii curved and suddenly bent in the middle ; inner vohation 
half exposed ; margin convex, carinated ; whorls convex on 
their sides ; aperture elliptical. 

' The diameter is little more than twice the length of the 
aperture. The radii are numerous and close together ; as they 
diverge from the centre they turn a little forward, then bend 
suddenly back, and afterwards proceed in regular semi-circles 

Naturalis t , 


Plate XIV. 

(i) Am. falcifer, Sow. sp. (Harpoceras falciferiim). (Nearly natural size ; 
diameter should be 58 '5 m.m.) 

(2) Am. strangwaysi, Sow. sp. [Havpoceras straiigwaysi). (Reduced to 
about f nat. size). 

From photographs of Sowerby's original type specimens supplied by 
Dr. A. mith Woodward. 

"Am. mulgravius." I?) (Of collectors). Also wrongly named by 
many "Am. seypentinus." r 

The adult Haypoceras falcifeyum of the foregoing paper. From 
photograph of Yorkshire specimen in Hull Museum, supplied by Mr. 
Sheppard. (Reduced to about I nat. size). 


Plate XV. 

Harpoceras miilgvaviam. From photograph of Young and Bird's 
original type specimen of Am. niulgraviits. 

Block, the copyright of ISIr. S. S. Buckman. Photographed by Mr. 
J. W. Tutcher, Bristol. (Reduced to about h, nat. size). 

Thompson: The AiJimonites called A. serpentinus. 217 

to the margin, somewhat resembhng the curve of a reaping- 
hook. The inner edge of the turns is elevated and obtuse. 
This nearly resembles the last \_A. sirangwaysi], but is not so 
flat, and wants the fiat surface of the inner margin of the whorl. 
It is from the Inferior or Iron-shot oolite of Ilminster. 

The following is the description of Harpoceras Strangwaysi 
(Sowerby sp.), from Mr. Buckman's paper : — ' Discoidal, com- 
pressed, hollow carinate ; whorls flattened, with genuine sickle- 
shaped ribs, less conspicuous on body chamber, but there more 
distinctly bent. Ventral area marked by prolonged sweep of 
ribs and surmounted by a well-marked hollow carina. Inner 
margin, almost upright, neither convex nor concave. Um- 
bilicus shallow, open. Inclusion about one third ; aperture 
oblong. Sowerby's figure not correct. Inner margin wrong, 
sectional view wrong. Ribs do not bend enough since they 
should have a true sickle-shape. His suture lines are right.' 

' Harpoceras Strangwaysi differs from Harpoceras falciferum 
in having a more open umbilicus, about one-fourth larger ; 
ribs are not quite so curved, and inner margin is nearly upright 
instead of undercut. Fish bed, Upper Lias, Byfield, Trent ; 
Ilminster, Sowerby.' 

A contrast of the characters of the other two types : — 

A. mulgravius. (?) (Of collectors). 
Plate XIV. 

The shell has a very flat and 
discoidal appearance. The whorls 
are broad ; the outer one being in 
the earlier stages of life nearly half 
the diameter of the shell. In early 
life, too, each whorl is rather deeply 
indented by the preceding one, but 
one of the characteristics of the 
species is, that the amount of inner 
whorl covered by the outer one con- 
tinually decreases with age, until 
in the last stage the body whorl 
covers a little more than a quarter 
of the preceding one. 

Therefore the relative size of 
the umbilicus to the whole shell is 
continually increasing with age. 

In consequence of the flatness 
of the inner third of each whorl, the 
umbilicus descends to the centre 
by a number of broad flat steps. 

The inner margin of the whorl 
is also characteristic, being under- 
cut, or, if it be preferred, it slightly 
overhangs the preceding one. In 

Hildocerns serpentinum.* 
Plate XIII. 

This also has a flattened and 
discoidal appearance, but the whorls 
are not so broad as in mulgravius, 
nor Sowerby's jalcifer ; roughly 
three-quarters for the same sized 

The umbilicus is large and open, 
for the whorls enclose very little 
of each preceding one. The coiling 
is regular ; that is, the amount of 
involution does not vary with age 
as in the species compared with it. 

The inner margin is obliquely 
flattened, the slant being down 
towards the centre of thfe shell, not 
awav from it. 

Description mainly from Mr. Buckman's paper. 

igog June i. 

2i8 Thompson : The Ammonites called A. serpentinus. 

the very young, the whorls are 
elliptical in section, then for a very 
short distance the inner edge is 
vertical, but soon it becomes over- 
hanging, and the section can no 
longer be said to be elliptical. 

A little less than half-way across 
each whorl is a well-marked longi- 
tudinal furrow. On the ventral 
area (popularly ' the back ') is a 
well-defined septate keel without 
bordering furrows. A septate keel 
is one which is separated from the 
chamber by a ribbon of shell, so 
that when the keel is knocked off 
the ventral area appears rounded. 
This character is well shown by 
many specimens. 

The ornamentation is also 
characteristic. The ribs are dis- 
tinctly sickle-shaped. In the young 
there is a stage in which there are 
short primary ribs which bifurcate 
but soon they become single, broad 
and flat. Passing from the um- 
bilical edge, they curve gently 
forward, then at the groove, take 
a sudden bend backward, and at 
once sweep round in a prolonged 
curve towards the mouth of the 
shell, becoming more prominent, 
broader and rounder as they do so. 
They then die out at the base of the 

In the adult form when the shell 
is preserved, the ribs are seen to 
begin at the edge of the umbilicus, 
almost as narrow elevated lines, 
each alternate one developing the 
above character, while the others 
proceed only about half or two- 
thirds across the whorl as quite 
subsidiary, or intervening ribs. 
This character is not visible in the 

In well-preserved and carefully 
cleaned specimens, the ribs are seen 
to be present on the slanting wall 
of the umbilicus, and pass backward 
at an angle of about 30*^, but turn 
sharply forward on the very edge 
of the whorl, to take the direction 
given above. 

The suture lines are very much 
foliated, being deeply indented by 
narrow accessory lobes. They 
crowd one on the other, so that even 
in young shells no larger than 30 
mm. they actually overlap. 

The external or ventral saddle 
has the prominent deep accessory 
lobe charactejistic of the genus 

Has no longitudinal furrow on 
the sides of its whorls. 

The keel is non-septate, so that 
the mould is exactly the same 
shape as the shell ; the mud filling 
the keel which is entirely open to 
the chambers. Two slight furrows 
border the keel, but die away oil 
the body whorl. 

The ribs are sigmoidal, almost 
exactly like the letter ' S.' Not 
very plain on inner margin. 

The suture lines are much 
simpler, they are rather remote, 
or distant from one another, and 
resemble those of ' bifrons ' very 


Book Notice. 219 

To sum up, Am. serpentinus, (Rein, sp.), Am. falcifer (Sow. 
sp.), and Am. strangwaysi, (Sow. sp.) are distinct species. In 
Yorkshire, we appear to have two forms — one very common, 
which seems to be the adult of falcifer, and therefore would 
be named Harpoceras falciferum, the other, an allied form, 
which should be kept distinct under the name Harpoceras 
mulgr avium. 

It is my most pleasant duty to thank Mr. Buckman, who, 
with generous self-sacrifice, • has placed at my disposal the 
materials for the first plate, and especially for his advice ; 
Mr. J. W. Tutcher, for the use of his valuable photograph of 
Young and Bird's type, which was needed to complete the paper; 
Dr. A. Smith Woodward, for the very necessary photographs 
of Sowerby's types, and for the use of the British Museum 
(Natural History) Library ; Mr. Sheppard, for the photograph 
of the Yorkshire specimen in his charge at the Hull Museum ; 
and Mr. J. W. Stather and Dr. Walton, for procuring for me 
some of the requisite literature. 

It is obvious that without this generous help the present 
paper could not have been prepared. 

I wish also to thank the editors for so liberally illustrating 
the paper, and so enabling photographs of all the types under 
discussion to be seen together for the first time. 


181 8, Reinecke, I. C. M. — 'Maris protogaei Nautilos et Argonautas,' 

1820, Schlotheim, E. v. — ' Die Petrefactenkunde,' etc. 

1820, Sowerby, J. — ' Min. con.', Vol. III., p. 99, t. 254. 

1822, Young, G. and Bird, J. — 'A Geological Survey of the Yorkshire 

1842-49, Orbigny, A.d'. — Paleontologie Fran9aise. Terrain Jurassique, 
t. I. 

1876, Tate, R., and Blake, J. F. — ' The Yorkshire Lias.' 

1878-86, Wright, T. — ' Monograph on the Lias Ammonites. 

1884, Simpson, M. — ' The Fossils of the Yorkshire Lias," 2nd Edition. 

1887 and 1889, Buckman, S. S. — On Jurassic Ammonites, ' Geol. 
Mag.', dec. III., Vol. IV., p. 396 ; and Vol. VI., p. 200. 

We have received 'Book Auction Records' (Vol. VI., part i), pub- 
lished by Karslake & Co., London. This book is issued quarterly at 
a subscription of £1 is. per annum. The part before us contains 3383 
records of sales made during the quarter ending December 31st, and from 
the numerous details given relative to each lot, is a most useful guide to 
the librarian or private collector. The present number contains ' Notes 
on Hull Authors, Booksellers, Printers and Stationers, etc.', by Mr. W. G. B. 

igog June i 



{Continued from page 182). 

Peniophora hydnoides Cke. & Mass. 

N.E. — Osmotherley, on dead branches. (*' Nat.', Nov. '08, 
p. 410). [To follow No. 1 1 85]. 

Typhula gracilis Berk, and Desm. 

N.E.— Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 26). 
[To precede No. 1248]. 

Puccinia perplexans Plow. 
iEcidiospores on Ranunculus acris. 
S.E. — Hornsea. (*'Nat.', Aug. '08, p. 310) 
[To precede No. 1348]. 

Hypocrea strobilina Phil. & Plow. Grev. XIII., p. 79. 
N.E. — Osmotherley, on decaying pine wood. (*' Nat.', 
Nov. '08, p. 410). [To follow No. 1434] 

EuTYPA scabrosa (Bull.) Fckl. 

N.E. —Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 26). 
[To follow No. 1553]. 

LoPHiosTOMA ARUNDiNis (Fr.) Ces & De Not. 
S.E. — Hornsea, on dead stems of Phragmites communis. 
(*' Nat.', Aug. '08, p. 310). [To follow No. 1622]. 

Raphidospora ulnaspora. 

N.W. — Brafferton, on dead nettle-stems. (*' Nat.', July, 
'08, p. 284). [To follow No. 1642]. 

Heptameria graminis Fckl. 

N.E. — Terrington, on Phragmites communis (Grev. Mar. 
1890, XVIII., p. 59). This record was accidentally overlooked 
when the ' Y.F.Flo.' was compiled. 

S.E. — Hornsea, on Phrag. communis. (*' Nat.', Aug. '08, 
p. 309). [To follow No. 1469). 

Tapesia fusca var. prunicola. 

Mid. W. — Buckden, on Prunus communis. June 'o5, Thos. 

Glceosporium podograria Mont. & Desm. 
N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 27). 
[To precede No. 2281]. 

Naturalist < 

Crossland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 221 

OosPORA FULVA Sacc. and Vogel. 

S.W. — Among moist cotton on which date stones were being 
germinated, The laboratory, W. R. River's Board, Wakefield. 
April 1908. J. W. H. Johnson. [To follow No. 2298]. 

Aspergillus niger Van Teigh. 

S.W. — Thornhill, near Dewsbury. On dates ; probably 
introduced with the fruit. Was successfully cultivated on 
prune agar medium, by J. W. H. Johnson, Thornhill, April '08. 

Aspergillus griseus Link. 

S.W. — Wakefield, in the laboratory. W. R. Rivers' Board, 
on Petri dish culture of bacteria. Mar. '08, J. W.H.J. [To 
follow No. 2318]. 

Penicillium hypomycetis Sacc. 

S.W. — Firbeck, spreading over a group of Trichia fragilis. 
(F,F., 1905. Accidentally omitted). [To follow No. 2320]. 

Ovularia interstitialis (B. & Br.) Mass. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 27). 
[To follow No. 2342]. 

ToRULA expansa Pers. 

N.W. — Brafferton. On decaying nettles. (*' Nat.', July '08, 
p. 285). [To follow No. 2371]. 

Periconia pycnospora Fres. 

S.E. — Hornsea. On dead herbaceous stems. (*' Nat.', Aug. 
'08, p. 310). [To follow No. 2381]. 

Menispora ciliata Corda. 

N.E. — Osmotherley. On dead decorticated wood. (*'Nat.', 
Nov. '08, p. 411). [To follow No. 2391]. 

Cladotrichum Cookei Sacc. 

N.E.— Osmotherley. On dead wood. (*' Nat.', Nov. '08, 
p. 411). [To follow No. 2401). 

Macrosporium commune Rabh. 

S.E. — Hornsea. On grass. (*' Nat.', Aug. '08, p. 310). [To 
follow No. 2427]. 

Tubercularia brassic.e Lib. 

N.E. —Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., '08, ' Nat.', Jan. '09, p. 27). 
[To follow No. 2460]. 

Lamproderma echinulatum Rost. 

Mid. W. — Buckden. On rotten wood. A. R. Sanderson, 
Bradford, 1908. [To precede No. 2508] 

1909 June I. 

2 22 Crossland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 


iEciDiUM on Listera ovata. 

S.E. — Hornsea. (*' Nat.', Aug. '08, p. 310). [To follow 
No. 1399]. 


iEciDiUM on Lycopsis arvensis. 

S.E. — Hotham Cross, near South Cave. R. H. Philip. 
(' Trans. Hull Sci. and F.N.C, May '08, p. 22). 

' Mr. Hawley informs me that in 1907 he found this iEcidium 
on L. arvensis plentifully at Tumby, Lines., early in September, 
and that he had not seen it previously.' — (R. H. P.). 

Peronospora sparsa Berk. 

Mid. W. — Grassington, on living leaves of Poteritmi officinale. 
(F.F., 1907). 


Geaster rufescens. 

When the ' Y. F. Flo.' was compiled, the record of this 
species for Pond Wood, near Boynton (' Nat.', July 1889, p. 
192) was considered doubtful, and so bracketed. In October 
1907, a fine species of undoubted G. rufescens was found on 
bare soil under a sycamore tree, by the gardener in the grounds 
of Mr. Whitley Thompson, Skircoat, Halifax. V.C.S.W. 

Naucoria nucea (Bolton) Sacc. (' Nat.', '08, p. 385). 


On December loth, 1908, Mr. Wilfred Robinson, Hull, sent 
me a few ascophores of a discomycete, gathered on soil in the 
Hull Dock Reservation. They come near Humavia Cliateri 
in general appearance, but differ in the spores being much 
larger and more coarsely tuberculate than one would be given 
to understand by the English descriptions. ' Phillip's Brit. 
Disc.', p. 89, gives the spores of Chateri as ' higuttalate, asperate, 
12x5 /*,' and quotes ' Gard. Chron.', 1872, p. 9, with figure; 
' Jour. Bot.', 1872, p. 86 ; ' Grevillea I.', p. 120, p. 8, figs, i and 
2 (reproduced from ' Gard. Chron.). Massee Vol. IV., p. 405, 
says : — ' epispore minutely reticulated, 13-16 x 7-8 /'.. The spores 
of the Hull ascophores are 20-21 X 9 y« (no guttae were observed) ; 
Boudier, to whom specimens were submitted, considers them 
even larger still (22-25 X 11-13 /-i), '"^^1 remarks, 'very near 


News from the Magazines. 223 

Chateri, but differs in the spores being larger, and the hairs 
thicker. It may be a variety of this very variable species, 
or, the shape of the spores and hairs may indicate a different 
species.' Boudier places H. Chateri in his genus Melastiza. 
Dr. Rehm, in ' Rabh. Kryt. Flo. (Disc.) p. 1059, places it under 
Lachnea. According to our idea it comes between Lachnea 
and Humana. Rehm gives the spores of Chateri ' 1-2 gtittulate, 
■coarsely warted, 15-20x9-10 /a ' ; asci 200-250x12-14/^; ours 
are 280-320 X 12-14 /x. Saccardo refers to German and Italian 
forms with spores 16-17 X 7-8 /a. 

Although doubtful, all points considered, perhaps it will 
be best to leave it with Chateri at present. The Hull specimens 
have been carefully figured and described. 

Gorgoniceps Guernisaci (Crouan) Sacc. var. vibrisseoides 

Heloiium vibrisseoides Peck, ' 32nd Report,' 1879. 

Vibrissea turbinata Phil. ' Trans. Linn. Soc.', 1881. 

Gorgonceps vibrisseoides Sacc. ' Consp. Gen. Disc.', p. 7 ; 
'Syll.', VIII,p. 505. 

Apostemidium vibrisseoides Bond. ' Ann. Myc.', 4 ; 200, 
1906 ; ' Disc. Eur.', p 91 (1907) ; Durand, the Geogloss. 
' North America Ann. Myc' (Berlin, 1908) VI., pp. 457-8, pi. XL, 
figs. 1 19-120. On dead branches, near small waterfall, in hill- 
side rill. High Greenwood, near Hebden Bridge, August 1904, 
Dr. Durand, J. Needham and C. C. 

As will be seen above, this variety has been considered by 
several mycologists to be a distinct species. In my opinion, 
Massee (' Brit. Fung. Flo.', IV., pp. 488-9) is quite right in plac- 
ing it under G. guernisaci as a variety. Characters confined 
solely to the paraphyses, such as their more or less profuseness, 
presence or absence of a slight brown tinge at their apices, or 
their varying from simple or occasionally forked to repeatedly 
forked towards their tips, scarcely justify the raising of a 
variety to a species. 

Errata. — Delete ' var. sclerotiorum, on decaying herbaceous 
stems,' Topcliffe Excursion. (' Nat.', '08, p. 285). 

In Knowledge for May, Mr. W. G. Clarke writes on ' Striae on Neolitiiic 
Flint Implements.' In this he points out that humanly worked surfaces 
of the flints are scratched and ' our geological knowledge affords us no other 
possible course of these striae than glacial action.' This means that 
neolithic man must have existed during or before the Ice Age. We don't 
believe it ! 

ijcg June i. 



The Stone Ages in North Britain and Ireland, by the Rev. F. Smith. 

Blackie & Sons, 377 pp., 16/- net. 

There is no doubt that this is one of the most remarkable books that 
has appeared during the present century. At first we thought it must be 
a reprint of a work originally published about 1750. But it is not. The 
' Dedication ' is a novelty anyway. It begins, ' During the forty years 
many friends come and go,' and the author forthwith proceeds to ' dedicate ' 
to a whole army of naturalists, etc., past and present. And then Dr. 
A. H. Keane eulogises Mr. Smith, and refers to his extraordinary work. 
Apparently largely to Dr. Keane' s influence, the present book has made 
its appearance. In this we are not quite sure whether Dr. Keane has 
acted well for Mr. Smith. He concludes by designating Mr. Smith ' the 
Boucher de Perthes of Scotland,' though we think ' Boucher de Purrth ' 
would have been better. 

In his quest the author is, admittedly, very largely alone. The late 
Sir John Evans, referred to as ' doubting Thomas,' and several other 
authorities who have restricted their collections to ' orthodox forms,' 
do not see eye to eye with Mr. Smith. But that is evidently their misfor- 

Mr. Smith is obviously an enthusiast, and is not damped by any amount 
of cold water. His reception at the British Association, at University 
Museums, and other trivial places of a like character, have not proved 
encouraging ; yet he has gone on. He is one of those who sees weapons 
in the running brooks, flayers in stones, and implements in everything. 
He has spent forty years in picking up weapons and tools in places where 
the bigoted specialist would not look. Mr. Smith searches the boulder 
clay, the old river gravels, the beds of streams, and the sea shore. All 
these localities have yielded scores and scores of ' weapons ' to him. He 
has found three hundred paljeoliths in Scotland, also mullers, flayers, 
knives, choppers, clubs, etc. He is very strong on ' handles.' A .pebble 
or a boulder, narrower at one end than the other, is provided with a 
' handle.' Usually those found in streams or on the beach are ' mellow ' 
with age. What an ordinary mortal wovild look upon as cleavage planes 
or ordinary natural fractures, to Mr. Smith are ' boldly struck flakes.' A 
stone shaped like a scapula is proved to be a palaeolithic implement by 
the author providing illustrations of shoulder-blades in the Dublin 
Museum. Jaw-bones, etc., are used in the same way. And the 
implements Mr. Smith finds are not restricted to flint ; they can be 
made from basalt, granite, sandstone, limestone^in fact, from any rock 
that is subject to wear and tear in a stream or on the beach. ' Fig. 43 is a 
boldly struck-out specimen, which, so far as one can judge (for it is highly 
[sic] rolled), was fashioned from a yet more highly rolled stone — one 
so rounded that we should have called it a pebble. Fig. 40 is of the 
same type of work, but it was wholly sculptured out of a mass of basalt. 
This last is scarcely at all water-worn, but is mellowed and minutely honey- 
combed in the usual way by long submergence at the bottom of the sea, 
and has lost its point. This is an Ayrshire-coast specimen.' 

Quite a large proportion of his specimens have lost their points, or, 
sides, or both, and these are shewn in the very excellent drawings by 
' restorations.' From these it is pretty clear that had Mr. Smith's pahro- 
liths been perfect when found, they would have been tolerably good 
neoliths. Size is no object. One beach-specimen was so weighty that a 
cab had to be requisitioned. Then the question arose as to what use 
such an implement could be ? Only Mr. Smith could have solved it. 
T'ne weapon was a guillotine trap ! It was hung by a cord on a tree. 
The mammoth passed underneath, snapped the cord, down came the 
weapon, and the elephant died ! Here and there a fairly passable imple- 
ment is figured — one somewhat approaching the ' orthodox ' type, but, 

• - Naturalist 

Field Notes. 225 

with the author's extraordinary bad luck, such specimen has generally 
been lost or stolen. Two unexpected but not surprising illustrations 
occur in figs. 308 and 309. These represent the front and side views of 
the fractured lias nodule found in the b.oulder clay at Scarborough a year 
or two ago, which was to have formed the subject of a paper on ' Glacial 
Man in Yorkshire ' at the British Association Meeting at York, but didn't. 
In the present work it is recorded as from the ' Lower Trias,' and was 
found at Sewerby, but we recognise it all the same. Like Mr. Smith, the 
present writer examined it several times. Mr. Smith calls it ' a more 
than usually fine specimen,' and a ' magnificent specimen of pre-glacial 
man's handiwork.' In the opinion of the present writer, this unusually 
fine implement is a perfectly natural nodule, and was not touched by man 
till picked up ' with difficulty ' ! out of the boulder clay at Scarborough. 
And as Mr. Smith admits it is one of his best pieces of evidence, he confirms 
the impression already stated by an examination of his drawings, viz., 
that his specimens are practically all perfectly natural forms, which, 
in Mr. Smith's eyes, seem to shew some semblance to weapons. There is 
no doubt that a brief search upon any beach, or in any river bed would 
yield dozens of such specimens as Mr. Smith figures — in fact, he admits it 

There is one direction in which Mr. Smith has neglected his subject, 
and we would commend the matter to him in case a second edition of his 
book is called for. In streams, and gravel pits, and on the beach, are 
numerous egg-shaped stones, sometimes quite ' mellow.' May not palaeo 
lithic man have kept pigeons and chickens, and may not these be his pot 
eggs ? And how do we know he didn't play golf ? 

In his early remarks the author states ' May I hope that the substance 
of this volume will prove a revelation to the scientific world ? It has been 
such to myself.' And it has been to us. The volume weighs three and a 
half pounds, and there is no index. 


Geaster fornicatus In Lines. — Mr. F. Mills sends two 
fine specimens of this curious fungus from Torksey. They bear 
a strong resemblance to children's dolls, or models of the pigmies 
who chipped the small flints ! Mr. Peacock records some 
taken in Bottesford Parish in i86g, and one since, I think, 
from Torksey. Is it ' comparatively rare,' or easily overlooked 
on account of its protective colour ? — W. Fowler, May 
5th, 1909. 


Vertebra of Codfish in the Holderness Gravels. — 

A vertebra from the glacial gravels at Kelsey Hill, found by 
Mr. George Sheppard, has been kindly identified by Mr. E. T. 
Newton, F.R.S., as that of a cod-fish. This is an addition to 
the fauna from this deposit, though the species has been re- 
corded from the pre-glacial beach at Sewerby. — T. Sheppard, 

igog June i.] 



The recent commemoration of the Centenary of the birth of Charles 
Darwin, and of the fiftieth anniversary of the pubhcation of The Origin 
of Species has resulted in the appearance of a number of treatises on 
Evolution, some of which have already been noticed in these columns. 

To the Cambridge University Press, however, is due the credit of pro- 
ducing the most valuable, most complete, and we may say the most gener- 
ally interesting volume. It is entitled Darwin and Modern Science, and 
is edited by Prof. A. C. Seward. (595 pp., 18/- net), We should like first 
to record our thanks to Prof. Seward for being so instrumental in placing 
before the world this magnificent work ; not only has he edited the volume, 
but he has translated some of the articles which were written in German. 

Darwin and Modern Science is the outcome of a suggestion made by 
the Cambridge Philosophical Society to publish a series of essays as a 
record of the celebrations, and in the twenty-nine chapters contained in 
this volume is certainly the most authoratative and comprehensive survey 
of the influence of Darwin's work that has ever been made. Each essaj^ 
has been specially written, and in most cases, the services of the very best 
person has been secured. An idea of the variety and scope of the volume 
can be ascertained from the following essays selected aphazard. ' The 
Selection Theory,' Prof. Weismann ; ' Variation,' Prof. Hugo de Vries ; 
' Chas. Darwin as an Anthropologist,' Prof. Ernest Haeckel ; ' The Influence 
of Darwin on the Study of Animal Embryology,' Prof. Sedgwick ; ' The 
Value of Colour in the Struggle for Life,' Prof. Poulton ; ' Geographical 
Distribution of Plants,' Sir William Thisel ton-Dyer ; ' Geographical 
Distribution of Animals,' Prof. Hans. Gadow ; ' Darwin and Geology,' 
Prof. Judd ; ' Mental Factors in Evolution,' Prof. C. Lloyd Morgan, and 
' Evolution and the Science of Language,' by Mr. P. Giles. Amongst 
other contributors we find Sir Joseph D. Hooker, Prof. J. Arthur Thomson, 
Prof.W. Bateson, Prof. E. Strasburger, Prof. G. Schwalbe, Mr. J. G. Eraser, 
Prof. W. B. Scott, Prof. W\ H. Scott, Prof. G. Klebs, Prof. J. Lock, Mr. 
Francis Darwin, Prof. Goebel, Prof. H. HolTding, Prof. G. Bougie, the 
Rev. P. N. Waggett, Miss Jane Ellen Harrison, Prof. J. B. Bury, Sir George 
Darwin, and Mr. W. C. D. Whetham. 

What could be a more fitting monument to the memory of Darwin than 
the collected tributes of these well-known writers ? And what could be 
more welcome to the professor or to the layman than this summary of the 
present attitude of our leaders in scientific thought with regard to Darwin's 
teaching ? We are glad to learn that any profits from the sale of this 
volume are to be handed over to a University Fund for the Endowment of 
biological research ; the best wish we can express is that the volume may 
meet with the success it deserves. 

Life and Evolution, by F. W. Headley. Duckworth & Co., 272 pp., 
5/- net. The fact that this volume has reached a second edition speaks 
for itself. It is the outcome of a series of lectures delivered by the author ; 
the style is pleasant, and the illustrations are numerous, and for the most 
part good, though some are rather crude. The book is in nine sections, 
viz.. Plants and Animals ; The Sea and its Inhabitants ; Gills and Lungs ; 
Reptiles and their Kin ; from a Reptile to a Bird ; The Flight of Birds ; 
The Minds of Man and Animals ; The Struggle for Existence, and Natural 
Selection. The sections dealing with birds and their flight, etc., are 
especially complete, and seem to indicate that the author is pei'haps 
most ' at home ' with that part of the subject. Tlie book is Avell pro- 
duced, and is certainly very cheap. 

The Transformations of the Animal World, by Charles Dep^ret. Kegan 
Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co., 360 pp., 5/-. We are delighted to find that 
the well-known International Scientific Series is to have a new lease of life, 


Some Ne7V Books on Evolution. 227 

and that under the editorship of Mr. F. Legge, a further series is to be 
published, in uniformity with the well-known red-backed volumes which 
served so useful a purpose a quarter of a centurj^ ago. It is also appro- 
priate at the present time that one of the first new volumes should deal 
with the evolution of the theories on evolution ; and such is Mr. Deperet's 
book, being really the authorised translation of Les Transformation du 
monde Animal. It cannot be said that M. Deperet exaggerates or over- 
estimates the part Darwin played in the doctrine of evolution ; and in 
the present work there is an unusually complete account of earlier and 
later workers in the same field. In his preface the editor asks, ' Does the 
study of fossils offer us any example of a regular chain of animal forms 
shewing the gradual transformation of one type into another ? Or, is 
natural selection the only means that Nature employs to produce varia- 
tions ? To such questions the teaching of Darwin, as he left it, hardly 
suggested an answer.' The present work makes a special point of these 

Haeckel.- His Life and Work, by Prof. W. Biilsche. Watts & Co., 
128 pp., 6d. 

The Rational Press Association has issued a new and revised edition 
of ' Haeckel's Life and Work,' and, as it can be obtained for six coppers, 
it should be widely read. It is well written, and is an education in itself. 
The translator, Mr. Joseph McCabe, gives an introduction and a supple- 
mentary chapter. Haeckel is a worker who has been greatly misunderstood, 
and a perusal of this book will do much towards giving one a better and 
more accurate idea of the man and his teaching. 

Mendel's Principles of Heredity, by W. Bateson. Cambridge : The 
University Press, 396 pp., 12/- net. 

We learn from the Preface that ' the object of this book is to give a 
succinct account of the discoveries in regard to Heredity made by the appli- 
cation of Mendel's method of research. Following a clue which his long 
lost papers provided, we have reached a- point from which classes of 
phenomena hitherto proverbial for their seeming irregularity can be recog- 
nised as parts of a consistent whole. The study of Heredity thus becomes 
an organised branch of physiological science, already abundant in results, 
and in promise unsurpassed.' 

Most of our readers will be familiar with the thorough manner in which 
Prof. Bateson does any work he takes in hand, and in the present 
instance it can be safely said that he has carried out the object for which 
the volume was written. Not only has he given a careful and detailed 
account of the present position of the questions of heredity as a result of 
the influence of Mendel's work, but he has reprinted Mendel's two papers, 
and has supplied a biographical notice. There is also a bibliography 
of papers, etc., bearing upon the subject, which exceeds three hun- 
dred entries — evidence alone of the importance of this subject in recent 
years. A perusal of the book convinces us of the force and truth of the 
author's remark that ' Had Mendel's work come into the hands of Darwin, 
it is not too much to say that the history of the de\elopments of evolutionary 
philosophy would have been very different from that which we have 
witnessed.' Perhaps the most surprising feature in the volume is the 
e.xtraordinary number of objects, zoological and botanical, which are 
referred to in connection with the theory. We find peas, barley, primulas, 
canaries, moths, fowls, sheep, mice, etc. The coloured illustrations of 
some of these objects, shewing the results of experiments, etc., are surely 
as nearly perfect as it is possible to make them. Those of the sweet peas 
and moths particularly call for comment on account of their excellence. 
As is the rule with publications issued by the Cambridge University 
Press, misprints are almost absent ; but in the one item appearing under 
' corrigendum,' line 18 should read line 19. 

igo9 June 1. 




[^Cojitinued from page i/o). 


In Belgium the Visean Limestones have long been known 
to yield a characteristic fauna, now recognised as corresponding 
very perfectly with that of the Upper Dihunophyllum zone. 
In the Valley of the Meuse and Sambre, and at Clavier, these 
beds are succeeded by a Series of black shales, cherts, and thin 
limestones, which yield a characteristic Pendleside fauna. 
A fine section at Bioul, North-west of Dinant, shews the junction 
of the Dibuno phyllum zone and Pendleside Series. The passage 
is a gradual one from a lithological standpoint, limestones 
gradually becoming replaced by shales. 

The Pendleside fauna I obtained here in a short time is 

as follows : — 

Listracanthus beyrichi. 
Phillipsia sp. 

Chonetes aff. Laguessiana. 
Camarophoria papyracea. 
Prodiictus plicatus Sarres. 
Spirifer bisidcata. 
Athyris platiosulcata. 
Orbiculoidea nitida. 
Lingida mytiloides. 

Some few years ago I was invited by Mr. Dupont. then in 

char e of th i Musee de I'histoire Naturelle at Brussels, to examine 

and report on fossils collected by officers of the Service du carte 

from Clavier. Among others, the following typical species 

occurred : — 

Posidonomya membranacea. 
Posidoniella laevis. 
Pseiidamusuni fibrillosttm. 
Glyphioceras (too crushed to 

Orthoceras stviolatum. 

,, scalar e. 
Ostracoda in abundance. 

Posidoniella laevis. 
Pseudamusa fibrillosum. 
Posidonomya membranacea. 
Chcenocardiola footii. 
Prolecanites compressus. 

Glyphioceras bilingue 
,, spirale. 

Glyphioceras diadema. 
Stroboceras sulcatum. 
Phillipsii cf. polleni. 

nd from shales at Vise, I determined : — 

Posidonomya becheri. I Pterinopecten papyraceiis. 

Posidoniella laevis. \ 

As kng ago as 1881, D;. Purvcs in his paper ' Sur la deline- 

a ur la Constilulion de I'etage honillier superieur de la 

B Igique,* : hew d Ihat the Caibcnife ous Limestone of 

* Bull de I'acad. Royale de Belgique, 3rd Series, Fart II., No. 12. 


Hind: Carboniferous Geologv 22q 

Belgium was succeeded by a group of beds which he sub- 
divided : — 

Terrain Houillier, 
Gres grossier d'Andenne. 

Schistes et Psanimites avec mince couches de houille maigre. 
Schistes a Mytilus. 

Schistes et Phtanites avec Goniatites and Posidonomya passant 
vers le has au calcaire impur avec Brachiopodes. 
Calcaire Carbonifere. 

The upper group he correlated with the Millstone Grit 
Series, and the lower with the Yoredale beds of the Midlands, 
i.e., the Series now called Pendlesides. 

Dr. Purves calls attention to the universal occurrence of 
this Series in Belgium, now known by the name Namurien, 
and quite recently in the Mons Coalfield, owing to the driving 
of exploration galleries, M. Cornet has shewn that the Series is 
present there.* He has found there a very large fauna 
containing the majority of the zonal indices on which I rely for 
the identification of the various sub-divisions of the Pendleside 
Series in England. M. Cornet includes in his list : — 

Prolecanites compressus. 
Posidonomya becheri. 
P. membranacea. 
Glyphioceras reticulatum. 

,, beyrichianum = diadema. 

and he then says, discussing the fauna as a whole : ' Telle 
qu'elle est, la liste qui procede montre I'homotaxie, des conches 
de Bandour et, par extension, de notre assise des phtanites 
Hia, avec le Pendleside Series que notre confrere anglais M. 
Wheelton Hind, place a la base du terrain honiller du Lan- 
cashire, etc., entre le Carbonifere inferieur et le Millstone Grit.' 

In addition to the fauna. Mm. Cornet and Renevier have 
shewn that the flora which we knew to be associated with the 
Pendleside Series in the British Isles, is fully represented in 

Dr. Purves j considers the total thickness of the Namurien 
Series at Andenne to be i8o metres, of which Le Gres Grossier 
is 12 metres. 

It is of equal importance to note that notwithstanding the 
much diminished thickness of the Pendleside Series in Belgium, 
as compared to the Midlands, that the majority of the zone 

* In Terrain Honilles sans hondle et sa faune dans le Bassi der Cou- 
chant de Mons ann de la Soc. Geol. de Belgique t. XXXIII. memoirs, 

PP- 139-152. 

f Sop. Supra cit. p. 24. 

igog June i. 

230 Hind : Carboniferous Geology. 

forms are present, and we may conclude that s.dim nta y 
deposition was much more rapid in the Enghsh aea than in 
Belgium, where the thickness of the beds agrees more neaily 
with that which obtains in the West of Ireland. 


In Germany, probably because the Culm forms th:> base 
of the Carboniferous rocks, and that it rests on Upper Devonian 
with Clymenia, it has always been referred to as Lower Car- 
boniferous, and even considered as the tquivalent of part of 
the Tournaisian of Belgium. I have hinted in several publica- 
tions that as the fauna was identical with that of the Pendle- 
side Series, and also with the Namurien of Belgium, that the 
Culm of Westphalia and Nassau must be the representative 
of that Series. 

Last summer, in company with two well-known geologists of 
this Society, Messrs. Cosmo John3 and Culpin, we had the good 
fortune to be conducted over the ground by Prof. Kayser, of 
Marburg, and to make a detailed examination of his extensive 
collection of fossils from the Culm. 

Unfortunately, nowhere are there any extensive sections 
in the sequence, and there appear to have been several basins 
of deposit, in which the lowest bed, as indicated by its fauna, 
does not always appear to belong to the same zone. 

Often the Culm beds repose on a Diabase of Upper Devon- 
ian age, which naturally obscures the sequence. The Diabase 
is intrusive in the Clymenia beds of the Upper Devonian, so 
that the conditions and sequence are very similar to that 
which obtains in Devonshire. 

The beds of Culm at Breitscheid are considered to be the 
lowest of the Series, and they contain : — 

Pvolecanites compvessits. 
GlypMoceras ere ni stria. 
Glyphioceras miitabile. 
Pericycliis virgatas. 
Brancoceras ornatissimum. 

Triiicoceras hibernicum. 
Dimorphoceras gilbertsoni. 
Orthoceras scalare. 
Orthoceras cf. salvum de Kon 
and Corals. 

This is a fauna which indicates the highest Visean or Dibicno- 
phylhim horizon in Great Britain and Ireland with the type fossil 
of the passage beds between the Dibunopliylliim zone and 
Pendleside Series. 

The Breitscheid fossils were obtained from impersistent 
lenticles of limestone, and as far as I can understand, the 
fauna has been met ^^^th also at Erdbach and Liebstein. 

Hind: Carboniferous Geology. 231 

The Middle Culm is more fossiliferous, and is well exposed 
at Herborn. The Series consist of Calcareous shales, the 
Posidonien Scheifer, with small nodules, resting on 7-8 metres 
of black chert, which itself reposes on a Diabase of Upper 
Devonian age. The succession is as follows : — 

Grunwacke or Grit . . 

Posidonomya becheri shales 


Upper Devonian Diabase . . 

The flora and fauna of these beds is typically that of the 
Lower Pendleside Series, with the exception that Pterinopecten 
papyyaceus has not been found there. I just mention the 
most important : — 


200 metres 



8 „ 

Adiantites antiquus. 
Orthocevas striolatuni. 
Avic'ulopecten losseni. 
Cantavophorict papyracea. 

Posidonomya becheri. 
Orthoceras scalare (often called 

with us O. Konincki). 
A ctinoptevia persiilcata. 
Listvacanthiis bevrichi. 

and Trilobites. 

This fauna has been described by Prof. V. Koenen. 

I regret to say that I did not visit the Culm of Westphalia, 
but thanks to Professor Kayser, I was able to study his fine 
collection of fossils f rom ^that area, and with. his information 
as to the sequence, have arrived at the following results : — - 

Prof. Kayser's collections were from two localities — 
Hagen and Aprath, near Elberfeld. The general sequence is 
as follows : — 

Flotzeere Sandstein with plants .. .. ..2000 metres 

C\x\rn. tons,ch\eiei- \\'i\.\\ Glyphioceras reticidatum .. 200 ,, 

Dark thin-bedded Limestones, with Hagen fauna 

at base . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 ,, 

Silicious Limestone, with Goniatites . . . . 50 ., 

Cherts, with Aprath fauna 

Phtanites with Prolecanites coinpressits . . . . 5 ,, 

Devonian Rocks 

The Apath fauna contains a fauna typical of the very lowest 
of the Pendleside series. 

Noiiiisnioceras rotiforine Prolecanites compressus. 

Trincoceras hibernicum Productus plicatus Sarres 

Pteurodyctiiim dechianum. 

and, as might be expected, the oldest facies of any fauna in 
the sequence. 

i^To be continued). 

1909 June I. 



On Saturday, May 8th, the members of the Yorkshire 
NaturaHsts' Union commenced their 48th year's field work in 
the county by investigating the country around Market Weigh- 
ton, where the wolds, dales, commons, woods, quarries and 
canal give that variety which is the charm of the life of the 
naturalist. As is usual on this Society's excursions, the weather 
was ideal, and the sixty members present were in every way 
satisfied. A pleasing feature was the number of local teachers, 
members of the East Riding Nature Study Association. 

Photo by] 

The Market Weighton Canal. 

[S. H. Sinilli. 

The geologists, under the leadership of Mr. J. W. Stather, 
examined the Goodmanham Valley, which, besides many fine 
physiographical features, contained sections in the Lias, Red 
and White Chalk, and Gravel. In the Chalk some important 
zonal fossils were recorded, including large specimens of 
Terebratulina gracilis. This party also paid a visit to the 
church at Goodmanham, on the site of which, according to 
Bede, the great pagan temple was destroyed by its converted 


Yorkshire Naturalists at Market Wei^hton. 


The botanists were under the care of Messrs. W. Robinson, 
J.J. Marshall and W. Ingham. They were able to report that 
the moss Dicranum undulatum still grew in its only known 
station for the whole of the British Isles. Fungi were not very 
common, but the ordinary Morel was found, as well as Mitro- 
phera semilibera. In addition, Pluteus cervinus and Hypholoma 
fascicularis were obtained by Mr. A. E. Peck. 

The conchologists were in full force, and were under the 
leadership of Messrs. Taylor, Musham, Roebuck and Hutton, 
but they were not successful in finding Acanthinula aculeata. 

Mr. S. H. Smith favours us with a lengthy report of the birds 
observed. In this he records that the nest of a missel thrush 
with three eggs was found in a willow tree fork, only two feet 
above the ground. 

Arachnida. — Mr. T. Stainforth writes that the following 
spiders, which have been identified by Mr. W. Falconer, were 
obtained on the route taken by the botanists, entomologists, 
etc. : — 

Drassus lapidosits Walck. 
Clubiona reclusa Camb. 

,, trivialis L. Koch. 

,, comta C. L. Koch. 
Dictyna arundinacea Linn. 

,, uncinata Westr. 
Amanrohius fenestvalis Stroeni. 
Theridion sisyphiuni Clerck. 
Bathyphantes gracilis Bl. 
Gongylidium riifipes Sund. 

,, dentatum Wid. . 

Enidia bitiiberculata Wid. 
Diplocephalus perniixtus Camb. 
*Cnephalocotes obscurus Bl. 

*Wideria ciicidlata C. L. Koch. 
Cornicidaria unicornis Camb. 
Pachygnatha degeerii Sund. 

,, clerkii Sund. 

Aleta segmentata Clerck. 
Epeira ■diademata Clerck. 
Oxyplila irux Bl. 
Pirata piraticus Clerck. 
Tarentula pulveridenta Clerck. 
Lycosa amentata Clerck. 
,, pidlata Clerck. 
,, lugubris Walck. 
Epiblemnm scenicum Clerck 
*Hasarius falcatus Bl. 

and the Harvestmen, Platyhimus triangularis Herbst., and 
Nemasioma lugubre 0. F. Muller. Species marked with an 
asterisk are additions to the East Riding List published in the 
' Transactions of the Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' 
Club,' Vol. IV., Part 2, 1909, pp. 87-102. 

CoLEC)PTERA. — Mr. Stainforth writes that the following 
species have been identified among those taken on the 
excursion :— 

Notiophilus biguttatus Fab. 

,, palustris Duft. 

Nebria brevicollis F. 
Elaphrus ripavius L. 
Pterostichus madidus F. 

,, vulgaris L. 

A mar a ovata F. 
Anchomenus dor salts Miill. 

Bembidium lampvos Herbst. 
Dromius qiiadrinotcttiis Panz. 
Haliplus ruficollis De G. 
Laccophiliis obscurus Panz. 
Hyphydrus ovatus L. 
*Philhydrus coarctatus Gredl. 
Creophilus maxillosiis L. 
Philoiithus cBueus Rossi. 

igo9 June i 


Field Notes. 

Pliilontlnis margiiuUits. F Silpha rugosa L. 

^Stenits jiino F. Hister unicolor L. 

,, biiphthalmus Crav. Aphodius luridus F. 

Necvophorus humator Goez. Chrysomela staphylea L. 

Silpha opaca L. Melasoma popiili L. 

* ,, thovacica L. Prasocuris jmici Brahm. 

The most interesting of these are Silpha thovacica, one 

specimen of which was taken by Mr. E. Sawyer, and Philhydrus 

coarctatus, both additional records for the East Riding. 

Melasoma populi was very abundant. T. S 


Cream = coloured Snipe at Horncastle. — In the middle 
of January last, Mr. A. Hill, of Horncastle, shot, in a grass field, 
within 200 yards of the Horncastle Market Place, a cream- 
coloured Snipe, which was afterwards stuffed for Neville Lucas 
Calcraft, Esq., J. P. , of Gautby. — J. Con way Walter, Horncastle. 
Tragic Death of a Linnet. — Birds frequently meet with 

an untimely end through be- 
coming entangled in their nesting 
materials. In the March number 
of ' The Naturalist,' I recorded 
the death of a Swift by strangu- 
lation ; early this month a 
friend of mine noticed a 
Linnet flying about a patch of 
gorse with a lump of wool 
attached to its leg. A week 
later he was searching the same 
gorse when he came across the 
same bird, but unfortunately 
the wool had become entangled 
with the twigs near the nest, 
and the bird was hung head 
downwards quite dead. As in 
the case of the Swift, the bird 
in its struggles had turned 
continually in one direction, 
and the wool, as will be noticed 
in the photograph, is very 
tight and hard at the beginning 

\K. Foiluiu, F.Z.S. 

of the twist.— R. Fortune. 




G. MASSEE, V.M.H., etc., 
New. ' ■ ■ 

Nowhere else in the Vegetable Kingdom do we meet with such 
sharply differentiated stages, collectively constituting an 
individual, as are to be met with in some groups of Fungi. 
Such stages of an individual are, in many instances, so markedly 
dissimilar in general appearance, structure, and mode of 
life, that in past times they were respectively looked upon as 
entities or species, containing an individuality of their own, 
and were considered as constituting distinct genera belonging 

Thirlavia basicola Zopf. — i, first conidial {MiloiLia) stage ; 2, second 
conidial (Tortili) stage ; 3, Perithccium or fruit of the highest or ascigerous 
stage ; 4, ascus containing eight spores, produced in the perithecium. 
Figs. 1, 2 and 4, mag. 400 times ; Fig. 3, mag. 50 times. 

to widely separated families. Numerous fungi consist of two 
or three such stages in their complete life-cycle, others have 
half-a-dozen or more. 

* Address deUvered at the Annual Fungus Foray, held at Sandsend. 
See 'Naturalist, Jan. 1909, pp. 21-29. 

1909 June I. 

236 Massee : Polynwrphistn in Fungi. 

In many instances these different stages all grow on the 
same substance and at the same spot, following each other in 
the proper sequence. In numerous other instances, as in the 
rusts and mildews of cereals and other plants, different stages 
of the fungi grow on totally different kinds of plants, the spores 
or reproductive bodies of one stage being usually conveyed by 
wind from one host-plant to another. In other instances, 
insects are the agents that convey the spores produced by one 
stage to the place where infection is necessary to produce the 
following stage. This occurs, for example, in a fungus called 
Sclerotinia heteroica, one stage of which grows on the young 
leaves of Vaccinium idiginosum. The spores produced by this 
form of the fungus are unconsciously conveyed by insects, and 
deposited on the stigmas of Ledum pahistre. It may be necessary 
to explain this transportation of spores on the part of insects, 
which is entirely due to the fact that insects, in common with 
other living organisms, must eat to live. The form of the fungus 
growing on V acciyiiiim leaves, which resembles a minute white 
mould, secretes a sweet, scented substance, approved of by 
certain small insects as food. While partaking of this food, the 
proboscis of the insect becomes dusted with the spores of 
the fungus. The flowers of Ledum pahistre also contain some- 
thing that can be utilised by the same insect, and is accordingly 
visited in turn. In the act of obtaining the nectar, the spores 
adhering to the proboscis of the insect are deposited on the 
stigma of the Ledwn flower. This appears to be entirely a 
matter of chance, but the chance obviously happens sufficiently 
often to secure the continuance in fair abundance of the fungus 
under consideration. The spores deposited on the stigma of' 
Ledum germinate quickly, grow down the style, and enter the 
ovary, where a dense mass of mycelium or spawn is formed. 
This spawn remains in a resting condition until the following 
spring, when it gives origin to spore-bearing bodies resembling 
miniature champagne glasses, supported on long stalks. The 
spores from these structures are dispersed by wind, and those 
that happen to alight on the young leaves of Vaccinium set up 
infection, which results in the production of the first mould- 
like condition of the fungus. What at first sight might be 
considered as a series of coincidences connected with the life- 
history of the fungus briefly detailed above, must be considered 
as part of the scheme of evolution and struggle for existence 
on the part of the fungus. Both its host-plants suffer from 

; _ - . . Naturalist, 

Massee : Polymorphism hi Fungi. 2.yj 

its attack. The Vaccinium has certain of its leaves more or 
less injured, and the Ledum that becomes infected loses many 
of its seeds without any obvious compensation. On the other 
hand, the fungus has so arranged the sequence and period of 
spore formation, that the spores borne on the Vaccinium host 
are just mature when the Ledum is in bloom, whereas the pro- 
duction of spores in the phase of the fungus parasitic on 
Ledum, are delayed until the following spring, when young 
Vaccinium leaves are present in abundance. When different 
stages in the life-cycle of a fungus grow on different host- 
plants, the term heteroecism is applied. 

Now heteroecism, the most brilliant botanical discovery of 
the nineteenth century, made by de Bary, had its origin in 
what was considered as a farmer's superstition. The well- 
known rust of wheat — Puccinia graminis, had from time im- 
memorial, been considered by farmers as in sorne way dependent 
on a fimgus occurring on barberry bushes. De Bary, a cele- 
brated German mycologist, determined to test this popular 
idea, and inoculated wheat plants with spores obtained from 
the fungus growing on the leaves of a barberry bush, and was 
surprised to find the well-known rust of wheat appear in due 
course at the points infected. Repeated experiments proved 
that the rust of wheat and the " cluster-cups " on barberry 
were stages of one and the same fungus. This discovery has 
led to the reduction of numerous forms, at one time considered 
as good species, to the condition of stages in the life-history of 
other species. 

Thielavia basicola. — A Yorkshire fungus, although not an 
example of heteroecism, includes three markedly different 
stages in its complete life-cycle. In fact, the three stages are 
structurally so distinct that they were originally placed in 
three different genera, which belonged respectively to three 
different families of the Fungi. More than half a century ago, 
Berkeley discovered a fungus forming black stains on the root 
and lower part of the stem of garden peas, and a cultivated 
species of Nemophila. To this fungus, which proved, from the 
standpoint of knowledge at the time, to be an undescribed 
species, Berkeley gave the name of Torula basicola (Fig. 2). 
Aboui twenty-five years ago I found a small, snow-white 
mould-like fungus on the base of the stem, and on the dead 
leaves (if Blysmus compressus in the neighbourhood of Scar- 
borougli. This was considered as a new genus, and was called 

igog June 

238 Museum Ne7vs. 

Milowia nivea. Milotvia was considered by Professor Sac- 
cardo as possessing such distinct characters, that he estabhshed 
a new tribe of the Hyphomycetes called Milowieae, with the 
genus Milowia as the type. At a still later date, Zopf , a German 
botanist, discovered a black ascigerous fungus parasitic on the 
roots of a species oilSenecio in Germany. This fungus proved 
to be new, and received the generic name of Thielavia (Figs. 
3 and 4). Zopf observed that the fungus called Torula hasicola 
was growing along with his new fungus Thielavia, and on 
cultivating the Torula, he found that it gave origin to the 
Thielavia, hence Zopf proved that the Torula was a conidial 
condition of his new genus Thielavia, which he accordingly 
named Thielavia hasicola. Zopf also observed the presence of 
a white fungus accompanying the Torula, which from his des- 
cription, tallied with my genus Milowia, but had no opportunity 
for growing this form. Subsequently I met with Milowia, 
and found that the spores of this form gave origin to the 
Tornula stage, the spores of which in turn, after a period of 
rest, produced the highest ascigerous condition of the fungus, 
Thielavia hasicola. 

All the three stages follow each other on the same host- 
plant. The two conidial forms, Milowia and Torula develop 
on the living plant, and are parasitic ; whereas the highest 
ascigerous form only appears when the host-plant is dead and 
decayed, hence its tardy discovery. 

Thielavia, in its Torula stage, was recently sent to Kew 
for determination from the neighbourhood of Doncaster, 
where it had destroyed a row of young peas. The fungus is 
recognised as a destructive parasite, on the roots of many 
different kinds of cultivated plants, both in Europe and in the 
United States. 

A pleasant afternoon was spent on May 15th, when a repre- 
sentative gathering of Curators and others interested in Museums 
assembled at Burnley, on the invitation of the Chairman and Secretary of 
tlie Burnley Art Gallery and Museum Committee. The collections are 
housed in the historic Towneley Hall, which, together with its excellent 
grounds, was purchased by the Burnley Corporation many years ago. 
The fine hall is a museum in itself. One room illustrates Old Burnley, 
and there are a few geological and archaeological exhibits. Amongst the 
latter is a fine flint dagger, found at Burnley. It is of the rare typv illus- 
trated in this journal for July, 1908, p. 231. After tea, which was kindly 
provided in the Hall, various museum appliances, etc., were shewn, and 
papers were read on ' The Use of Illustrations in Museums,' by Mr. P. 
Entwistle (Liverpool) and ' Museum Dist-;ict Sur\X'y Work,' by Mr. S. L. 
Mosley (Keighley). 




The Genitalia of the Noctuidae, by F. N. Pierce, F.E.S. Liverpool : 

A. W. Duncan. Price 7/6. 

It Is not surprising that the volume before us has been awaited for 
some time with considerable interest by entomologists ; for, although 
books for students of the Lepidoptera are legion, we have never before in 
Britain had one treating on the branch of the subject which Mr. Pierce has 
made practically his own. True, we had many years ago two papers in 
the ' Transactions of the Linnean Society ' dealing with the genitalia of 
the Butterflies, by Mr. P. ?I. Gosse and Dr. F. Buchanan White respec- 
tively, and still later in the United States of America some attention has 
also been paid to the genitalia of the Noctuida^. But Mr. Pierce can fairly 
claim that his book makes an innovation in the methods of study of this 
branch of entomology so far as the lepidoptera are concerned. In some 
other orders the great value of the genitalia in the determination and classi- 
lication of species has long been appreciated, as instance the magnificent 
work on the European Trichoptera by the late R. McLaclilan, F.R.S.. 
In that order, indeed, and in the more obscure groups of the Neuroptera, 
species are now determined almost entirely by the structure of the geni- 
talia, as experience has proved that they are the only characters which 
are different in practically every species, and at the same time constant in 

We do not suppose that the genitalia will ever become as useful in the 
determination or classification of the lepidoptera, because in the first place, 
the vast majority of the species are so obviously different from each other, 
even in marking, shape, wing and body characters, etc., that no possible 
doubt about their distinctness or place in the group can exist ; and in the 
second place, the genitalia do not appear to be by any means so infallible 
a guide as in the other orders we have alluded to. For instance, Mr, 
Pierce tells us (p. 27), that he can see no difference in the form of the 
genitalia of Leucania pallens and L. favicolov, except that the latter is 
larger. Then those of Xylophasia polyodon, X. sublustris, and A', lithoxylea 
he says (p. 41) ' are wonderfully alike.' More recently, Mr. Pierce's exami- 
nation of the genitalia of the tortrices Paedisca ncevarui and P. geminana 
showed practically no difference. Yet the differences in other respects 
in all these are so evident that probably every lepidopterist who knows 
them in the field will continue to regard them as distinct species. 

On the other hand, it is clear that we have for years been regarding 
as single species, some, which had the genitalia been examined, would long 
ago have been separated into two, and in one instance, into as many as 
four species ! This case occurs in the moth which, under the name of 
HydrcBcia nictitans, has been supposed to be abundant everywhere, and 
familiar to every collector. By the differences in the genitalia Mr. 
Pierce easily makes the four species, nictitans, paliidis, lucens and cvina- 
nensis out of it. It must in fairness be said here, however, that some 
twenty years ago, Mr. J. W. Tuft separated to his own satisfaction, from 
the habits, shape, and wing markings alone, paludis and lucens from 
nictitans, a verdict in which, at the time, but few lepidopterists were willing 
to follow him. Examination of the genitalia, too, has settled the specific 
differences between Coremia fevriigata and C. unidentaria, between Nona- 
gria arundineta and N. neurica, and between Retinia buolianii and R. 
pinicolana, but of which few lepidopterists had previously any doubt. 
On the other hand, Mr. Pierce's method seems to have settled the specific 
identity of Noctiia conflua with A'', festiva, of Agrotis aqitilina with A. 
tvitici, and Dianthcecici capsophila with D. carpophaga. 

The style of the book is attractive. In the Introduction, we have a 
concise but clear account of the manipulation required for an examination 
of the genitalia, followed by an explanation of the terms used in t'ne des- 
criptions — some of them entirely new to the lepidopterists' vocabularv — 

1909 June I. 

240 Northern News. 

and illustrated by a well-executed plate representing ' Typical Male Geni- 
talia.' Then come the descriptions, clear and intelligible, of the genitalia 
of the various species, under the heading of ' Classification of the Noc- 
tuidas based on the Structure of the Male Genitalia ' ; and followed lastly 
by 32 plates containing 350 figures of the genitalia of practically all the 
British species of Noctuids. These figures are really splendid, and have 
evidently been most carefully drawn from the specimens. Although 
highly magnified, every detail is so clear, that, together with the descrip- 
tions, it should be impossible to get wrong in the examination of specimens. 
We congratulate Mr. Pierce most heartily on his book, which must take 
a high place among entomological literature. G. T. P. 



Our contributor, Mr. J. J. Burton of Nunthorpe, has been elected a 
Fellow of the Geological Society of London. 

Amongst the recently-elected Fellows of the Royal Society we notice 
the names of Dr. F. A. Bather, Mr. A. J. Jukes-Browne and Prof. W. J. 

We regret to record the death of Frederick Edward Hulme, whose 
works on familiar wild flowers have proved such a boon to young nat- 

Sir Thomas Henry Holland, of the Indian Geological Survey, towards 
the end of the year will succeed Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, as Professor of 
Geology at the Manchester University. 

A grant of ;^io has been voted by the Caradoc and Severn Valley Field 
Club to Mr. H. E. Forest, the amount to go towards the publication of 
'The Vertebrate Fauna of North Wales. 

A series of twelve examples of Geotriipes typhosus from Tatton Park,, 
shewing the development of the horns in the male, has been given to the 
Warrington Museum by Mr. G. A. Dunlop. 

A contemporary asks ' every friendly reader ' to send notes. ' Do not 
think anything too trivial to send. If it interests you it will probably be 
of genera) interest, and in that case will be worthy of publication ! ' Prob- 
ably this explains the reason for the recently increased price of that journal. 

Evidently birds sing differently in different places. Under ' Birds 
of Note ' in a natural history contemporary, we were surprised to find the 
Gull, Eagle, Nightjar and Peregrine. The same journal is starting a 
column in which to record ' some of the errors in natural history, which 
are constantly disseminated by the press ' Et tu, Brut^ ! 

A Nature Study Exhibition organised by the Nature Study Society, 
will be held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Regent's Park, N.W., on 
Friday and Saturday, June 4th and 5th. It will be open each day from 
10 a.m. to sundown. It will include Aquaria, Vivaria, and other means of 
observing animals, with photographs and microscopic illustrations. From 
the report of the previous Exhibition organised by this Society, which has 
been sent to us, there is every probability of the forthcoming one being very 

At the recent Annual Meeting of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary 
Society it was announced that there had been a slight falling off in the 
attendances at the museum during the year. Nothwithstanding the fact 
that the fees paid for lectures was ;^68, as compared with ;!^i23 for the pre- 
vious session, there was stil! a loss on the year's work of ;^8. The question 
as to the future of the Society's museum was raised, and apparently it is 
not yet decided whether it shall be taken over by the Corporation, or go 
to the University. One of the most valuable acquisitions during the year 
was the skeleton of a woman found in the Scoska Cave, Littondale. 

L Naturalist 

JULY 1909. 

No. 630 

(No. 408 of current series). 




T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museum, Huli, ; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 




Contents : — 

Notes and Comments :— Memories : Francis Galton ; Croton Oil; A Boot Story; A Seal 
Story ; An Impression ; The Darwin Celebrations at Cambridge ; The Boulders of the 
Cambridge Drift ; Boulder Clays 

In Memoriam— Thomas Mellard Reade, F.Q.S.— T. S 

The Present State of Our Knowledge of Carboniferous Geology— !>'. Wheelton Hind, 

The Broad'leaved Wood Garlic or Ramsons {Illustrated]— Jas. E. McDonald 

Museum News 25G 

Thrush Stones and Helix aemoralls L.—E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock,F.L.S.,F.G.S. ... 257-259 

The Phytoplankton of the English Lake District (Illustrated)— IFj)i. West, F.L.S., and 
G. S. West, l\I..4.,D.Sc., F.L.S 

Field Notes 

News from the Magazines 
Reviews and Book Notices 






250, 252, 254, 255, 265 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. ^ '^^ 1~""^^^--. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. L. /^A\\^Onian lfiStlt/,j[. 

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PRICE e&. NET. BY POST 7d. N(eT. JUL ^ *' ' ^^9 


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Svo, Cloth, 292 pp. (a few copies only left), price 51- net. 
Contains various reports, papers, and addresses on the Flowering Plants, Mosses, and Fungi of the county 

Complete, Svo, Cloth, with Coloured Map, published at One Guinea. Only a few copies left, 10/6 net. 


This, which forms the 2nd Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, is perhaps the most 
complete work of the kind ever issued for any district, including detailed and full records of 1014 Phanero- 
gams and Vascular Cryptogams, 11 CharaceaE, 348 Mosses, 108 Hepatics, 2j8 Lichens, 1009 Fungi, and 382 
Freshwater Algae, making a total of 3160 species. 

680 pp., Coloured Geological, Liihological, &c. Maps, suitably Bound in Cloth. Price 15/- net. 

NORTH YORKSHIRE: Studies of its Botany, Geology, Climate, and Pliysical Geography. 

And a Chapter on the Mosses and Hepatics of the Riding, by Matthew B. Slater, F.L.S. This Volume 
forms the 3rd of the Botanical Series. 

396 pp., Complete, 8vo., Cloth. Price 10/6 net. 

This is the 4th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, and contains a complete annotated list 
of all the known Fungi of the county, comprising 2026 species. 

Complete, Svo, Cloth. Price 6/- post free. 


This work, which forms the 5th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, enumerates 1044 
species, with full details of localities and numerous critical remarks on their atSnities and distribution. 

Complete, Svo, Cloth. Second Edition. Price 6/6 net. 

The First Edition of this work was published in 1883, and contained particulars of 1340 species of 
Macro- and Micro-Lepidoptera known to inhabit the county of York. The Second Edition, with Supplement, 
contains much new information which has been accumulated by the author, including over 50 additional 
species, together with copious notes on variation (particularly melanism), &c. 

In progress, issued in Armual Parts, Svo. 


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THE NATURALIST. A Monthly Illustrated Journal of Natural History for the North of England. Edited 
by T. SHEP'PARD, F.G.S., Museum, Hull; and T. W. WOODHEAD, F.L.S., Technical College, 
Huddersfield ; with the assistance as referees in Special Departments of J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., 
Subscription, payable in advance, 6/6 post free). 

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All communications should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary, 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S. , The Museums, Hull. 


memories: FRANCIS GALTOX.* 

In his charmingly-written autobiography, Dr. Francis Galton 
gives many interesting ghmpses into an exceedingly interesting 
career ; and in addition, we have reminiscences of several 
leading men of science who have now passed away ; men who 
were fellow- workers with Galton, but who are known to the 
present generation by their works alone. In many respects 
the life of Dr. Francis Galton reminds us of the career of our late 
grand Yorkshireman, Dr. Sorby ; would that he, too, had left 
us a volume of ' Memories ' ! Neither Sorby nor Galton 
had that ' struggle for existence ' which is the fate of so many 
scientific men, and both were thus able to devote their lives 
in the pursuit of science, with such excellent result. 


It is impossible in a short notice to even refer to the 
numerous interesting chapters dealing with tra\'el, heredity, 
anthropometric research, etc., for which Dr. Galton is so well 
known. The book must be read to be appreciated. It is 
full of interesting anecdote ; so much so that the present writer 
simply had to read the volume through, although work on all 
hands was pressing. As a sample of Dr. Galton's methods, it 
is worth noting that when quite a young man, engaged in 
medical work, he endeavoured to get a practical acquaintance 
of medicines by taking small doses of all that were included in 
the pharmacopoeia, commencing at the letter 'A.' He nearly 
reached the end of ' C,' when he came to Croton Oil, and 
* foolishly believed that two drops of it could have no notable 
effects as a purgative and emetic ' ! Apparently he took the 
rest of the pharmocopoeia as read ! 


As illustrating the fact that different persons feel pain with 
different degrees of acuteness, reference is made to a native of 
New Zealand, where it was once the height of fashion for the 
Maories to wear boots ' on great occasions.' ' A youth had 
saved money, and went to a store a long way off, where he had 
purchased a pair of these precious articles. On returning home 
he tried to put them on, but one of his feet had a long pro- 
jecting toe, which prevented it from being thrust home. He 

* ' .Memories of My Life,' by Francis Galton, F".R.S., etc. Methuen & Co.» 
London. 339 pp. 10/6 net. 
igor) July I. 

242 Notes and Conimenis. 

went, quite as a matter of course, to fetch a bill-hook which 
was at hand, and, putting his foot on a log of wood, chopped 
off the end of his long toe, and drew on the boot ! ' 


In the Shetlands young seals are sometimes kept as pets. 
One of these came to the house of a fisherman for company, 
for warmth, and for food. Eventually it grew, was too big for 
a pet, and was troublesome to the children. ' The fisherman, 
sad at heart, took it with him in his boat, far away to the 
fishing-ground, and threw it overboard. Some days later, when 
the family were at supper, rather dismal at the loss of their 
old friend, they heard the familiar sound of scuffling and scratch- 
ing, and on opening the door, in flopped the seal ! ' 


Whilst photographing lunatics, one of them, who thought 
himself to be Alexander the Great, was annoyed at not being 
photographed the first. ' When the photographer had his 
head well under the velvet cloth, with his body bent in the 
familiar attitude of photographers, whilst focusing, Alexander 
the Great slid swiftly to his rear, and administered a really 
good bite to the unprotected hinder end of the poor photo- 
grapher, whose scared face emerging from under the velvet 
cloth rises vividly in my memory as I write this. The photo- 
grapher guarded his rear afterwards by posting himself in a 
corner of the room.' There are many other ' impressions ' in 
these ' Memories ' ! 


At the Darwin celebrations at Cambridge on June 22nd, 
each delegate from the Universities and learned societies was 
presented with a most useful and appropriate memento of 
the occasion. This took the form of ' The Foundations of the 
Origin of Species,' a sketch written in 1842 by Charles Darwin, 
dan edited by his son, Francis Darwin. This most valuable docu- 
ment accidentally came to light when the house at Down was 
vacated on Mrs. Darwin's death. Mr. Francis Darwin tells 
us that when he was at work upon ' Lije and, Letter s^,' he had 
not seen it. ' The MS. was hidden in a cupboard under the 
stairs, which was not used for papers of any value, but rather 
as an overflow for matter which he did not wish to destroy.' 
This historic document has been printed by the Syndics of 
the University Press, and, together with the Editor's intro- 


A^o/t's and Comments. 243 

duction, forms a valuable memento of a memorable event. 
In addition, the same publishing house has issued the 
' Order of Proceedings at the Darwin Celebrations,' Mith 
a sketch of Darwin's life. It is illustrated by a number 
of most interesting photographs, and can be obtained at half- 


Some interesting notes on the ice-borne erratics of the Cam- 
bridge drift were recently read to the Geological Society of 
London, by Messrs. R. H. Rastall and J. Romanes. For 
several years past large numbers of boulders have been collected 
from the glacial drifts of Cambridgeshire, and from the post- 
glacial gravels which have been derived from the drifts. These 
specimens have been classified geographically and then sub- 
jected to a careful petrological examination, with a view to the 
determination of their origin. Some special collections from 
Hitchin and Bedford have also been included for comparison. 
Rocks of Scandinavian origin, and especially those of the 
■Christiania province, are abundant throughout the whole 
area : such well-known types as rhomb-porphyry and nord- 
markite are common. Rocks from the Cheviots and Central 
Scotland are more abundant than was formerly believed, and 
specimens have also been identified from the old red sand- 
stone conglomerates of Forfarshire and from Buchan Ness 
(Aberdeenshire). Lake-District rocks probably also occur in 
small quantity. Much of the chalk and flints appears to be 
of northern origin. 


It is concluded that an older boulder-clay, containing 
foreign erratics, the equivalent of the Cromer Till, once 
extended over the whole district, but was subsequently in- 
corporated with the great chalky boulder-clay. The 
Scandinavian ice advanced from the direction of the Wash, 
bringing with it red chalk and bored Gryphoeas from the bed 
of the North Sea, and carrying them as far west as Bedford. 
Rocks from the north of the British Isles become progressively 
scarcer from west to east, and the distinctive types are absent 
to the east of Cambridge. They appear to have been brought 
by an ice-stream coming from a northerly direction, which 
probably to a certain extent, replaced the Scandinavian ice 
towards the east. 

igog July i. 


3u flDcmoriam. 


We regret to record the death of one of our oldest contribu- 
tors, Thomas Mellard Reade, which recently took place at his 
residence, Blundellsands, Liverpool, at the age of seventy- 
seven. Mr. Reade was a civil engineer, and in connection with 
his work in the Liverpool district, he had many opportunities 
of studying the more recent geological strata. He was a 
voluminous writer, there being about two hundred papers to 
his credit, mostly dealing with glacial and post-glacial deposits. 
He was one of the leading supporters of the old idea of the 
marine origin of Boulder clay ; probably he was one of the last 
to actively support that theory. 

His most important treatise appeared in 1886 on ' The Origin 
of Mountain Ranges considered Experimentally, Structurally, 
Dynamically, and in Relation to their Geological History.' 
This was followed in 1903 by ' The Evolution of Earth Structure 
with a Theory of Geomorphic Changes.' He became a Fellow 
of the Geological Society in 1872, and was awarded its Mur- 
chison medal in i8g6. He took an active interest in the Liver- 
pool Geological Society, occupying its Presidential chair on 
three occasions. 

T. S. 

A Survey and RecDtd of Woolwich and West Kent. Woolwich, 1909. 
526 pp. 

This volume recalls the excellent handbook compiled in con- 
nection with the British Association at Glasgow a few years ago. It 
contains an account of the geology, botany, zoology, archaeology, etc., of 
the Woolwich area ; the major portion being devoted to carefully-compiled 
lists of species of animals and plants. The original intention was that the 
handbook should be prepared for the twelfth annual Congress of the 
South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies, held at Woolwich in 1907. 
Some sample pages only were ready by that time, however; and now, 
nearly two years after the Congress, the handbook is ready. The delay, 
it seems, could not be helped, and undoubtedly the volume is much more 
comprehensive and complete than it would have been. The general 
editors are Messrs. C. H. Grinling, T. A. Ingham and the late B. C. Polking- 
horne, and amongst the many contributors we notice such well-known 
names as W. Whitaker, A. E. Salter and J. W. Tutt. The book does not 
profess to be complete, and the editors ask for particulars of omissions from 
this ' preliminary edition.' We would like to draw attention to the omission 
of the ' survey of surveys, and a sketch of work waiting to be done,' said 
to appear in a ' final chapter.' There is a long list of errata, but it is not 
complete. The second word ' Additions ' should be ' Remarks ' on the 
heads of pp. 457-9, and 461. The indexes are particularly complete and 
useful, and, on the whole, the book is a valuable record. 




{Continued from- page 2ji). 

The fauna obtained at Hagen contains a number of late 
Visean forms of Brachiopods, which are known to range through 
out the Pendleside Series in England (Congleton Edge), with 
Goniatitcs which are generally associated with Posidonomya 
bccheri in Devonshire. 

Glyphioceras styiatum. I Glyphioceras crenistria. 

,, sphcericum. ' Orthocevas morrisianum. 

The Culm of Magdeburg has been described by D. W. 
Wolterstorff.* The figures of his Goniatites and lamellibranchs 
shew that his fossils are identical with those of the Herborn 
l^eds. I also suspect that he may have remains of a higher 
zone. The fossils he figures as Dimorphoceras Tdrnquisti have 
a strong resemblance to Glyphioceras bilingue, and I take the 
large Gonta/ite (Fig. ii), to be either G. PhiUipsi or a large form 
of G. reticulatum. The greater part of the fauna, however, 
indicates the Herborn beds, probably just above the horizon of 
Posidonomya becheri, which always appears in England to have 
a very limited vertical distribution in the Pendleside Series. 

It would, therefore, seem that the presence and persistence 
of the Pendleside fauna over Western Europe, and the fact that 
its zone fossils always succeed each other in proper sequence 
affords most certain and definite evidence of the correlation of 
the Pendleside Series and the Culm of Devonshire with the 
Xamurien of Belgium and the Culm of Germany, but the 
view in Germany is that the Culm beds are of Tournaisian 
age, and therefore below the Visean. Certain stratigraphical 
facts, with which I will now deal, are advanced in support of 
this view. 

In 1904 Dr. Parkinson published a paper on ' The Zoning 
of the Culm in South Germany, 'f in which he definitely makes 
out the Culm to be below the horizon of the Visean. 

The facts which I was shewn in the field are as follows : — 
In the neighbourhood of Konigsberg, north of Giessen, are 

* ' Das unter Carbon von Magdeburg Neustadt und seine fauna.' 
t ' Geol. Mag.', Dec. 5, Vol. I., p. 272-276. 

1909 July I. 

246 Hind: Carboniferous Geology. 

outcrops of a slaty breccia with some limestone, which yield the 
following fauna : — 

Productiis giganteus. j Prndiictus punctatits. 

,, semireticulatus. Sf^irifer ci. bisulcatits. 

Orthotetes crenistria. \ Choiieles papyracea. 

Corals and Trilobites. 

Cyaihophylliini. I Cyclophylliini. 

Cyathaxonia. \ 

i.e., a fauna of a type high up in the Visean, totally 
different from any of the known Culm faunas of Germany, and 
in this I am in agreement with Dr. Parkinson. The strati- 
graphical relation of the Konigsberg fauna to any of the Culm 
faunas is utterly unknown, no section exists which shews any 
connection between them. The Konigsberg beds are under- 
laid by a Grit (grauwacke), and the Herborn beds are, on the 
other hand, immediately succeeded by a grauwacke, but 
there is not any evidence definite enough to shew that the grau- 
wacke is the same or on a different horizon. Other outcrops 
of similar slaty breccias have been found in the neighbourhood 
of Battenberg with organic remains in a fragmentary condition, 
which I see no reason to think are other than on the horizon of 
the Konigsberg beds. Now the whole district is much disturbed 
and overthrusts are many, and the Konigsberg beds themselves 
are much contorted and broken, so that little inference can be 
drawn from small isolated sections. Stratigraphical evidence 
being wanting, the key to this problem must be sought else- 
where where the faunal succession is well known. It is true 
that in the neighbourhood of Konigsberg, 400 yards east of 
village, we find a succession from above downwards of Posi- 
donomya beds. Chert, Diabase, Upper Devonian, and that when 
these beds are cut off by a fault, a section shews a grauwacke, 
on which lies a slaty breccia with limestone containing the 
Visean fauna. 

The Culm fauna has never yet been found to occur else- 
where below a true Visean fauna. It is a definite, distinctive, 
and characteristic fauna, unknown at any Carboniferous horizon 
except immediately succeeding the Visean or Upper Dibunc- 
phyllum zone. 

It is most interesting to know that there are traces of a 
Visean fauna in South Germany, which have been preserved 
amid the upheavals and shatterings that the rocks have under- 
gone since deposition, and that contemporary volcanic action. 


Hind : Carboniferous Geology. 247 

though interfering largely with the deposition of Visean rocks, 
did not wholly prevent the establishment of a Visean fauna 
in that area. 

It is argued that the latter series cannot be below the 
Posidonomya Cherts, because there is not room for them between 
the Devonian Diabase and the cherts, but it is forgotten that 
the lowest Culm fauna, i.e., the Erdbach Breitscheid or Prole- 
canites compressus fauna, which is admitted to be below the 
Posidonomya beds, is absent, and that consequently the lowest 
member of the sequence is absent at Konigsberg. 

Now the Visean fauna of Konigsberg is that which is always 
found to immediately precede the Prolecanites compresstts 
beds, and would only be a few feet below it, and I should expect 
to find indications of both faunas in the same locality. The 
question is one therefore that could only be settled by an 
appeal to palaeontology in such a disturbed area, especially 
when volcanic activity played a large part in conditioning the 
deposition of the series. 

Two points are of interest, i.e., first, the question of the 
relation of the Upper Devonian beds to the Culm is identical for 
Devonshire and Germany, and I think that the key to this 
question will be found in Belgium ; second, that the closing of 
Dihimophyllum times, and the ushering in of the Pendleside 
type was accomplished in Great Britain with much volcanic 
interference both in the Midlands and South Devonshire. 


The Millstone Grit requires very careful study at the present 
time. The series, when present in force, is very easily recog- 
nised, and offers fine features with its weathered crags, and its 
shale valleys and doughs. But the unfortunate character 
of the whole series is its extremely local development. It is 
known that in Belgium its representative, the Gres grossier 
of Andenne, is only 12 metres thick ; that in the West of 
Ireland the series is about 300 feet, and in Scotland 687 
feet, mostly shales ; while in Lancashire the whole series is 
very rapidly expanded into more than 3000 feet. The local 
variation in thickness of the series is well seen in North Stafford- 
shire, where the Grits on the Cheshire border at Mottram are 
2700 feet thick, but in the course of 20 miles south, the whole 
series is only represented by 300 feet of Grits and Shales. 

North of Settle, where no representatives of the Pendleside 

1909 July :. 

248 Hind: Carboniferous Geology. 

faunas have been found above the Dibunophyllum zone of the 
Limestone, the Grits succeed immediately the Yoredale Series 
with a Productus giganteus fauna, and this is the case in North- 
umberland also, but in Scotland, as I have mentioned above, 
a peculiar fauna with Prothyris elegans, hitherto known only 
from the Coal Measures of Nebraska, U.S.A., is typical of 
the beds which intervene between the Upper Dibunophyllum 
beds and the Coal Measures. The Grits are the detritus of a 
granite country, which local distribution seems to indicate as 
having occupied a position to the North-East. 

Many fossil horizons are known in the shales, which separate 
the different beds of Grit from each other. I published all the 
information I then had on the subject in ' The Naturalist,' 
1907, pp. 17-23 and 90-99, and unfortunately I have nothing 
fresh to add. The Grits themselves contain plant remains, 
and they, however, furnish the following very important piece 
of evidence. The flora of the Millstone Grit is allied to the 
Upper or Coal Measure flora in distinction to the flora of the 
Pendleside Series and Carboniferous Limestone Series, which 
is characterised by a lower Carboniferous flora. The flora is 
therefore the index to the Series, and no beds should be assigned 
to the Millstone Grit, which are characterised by the lower 
flora, nor can we be always certain in the absence of the flora, 
whether any Grit is the representative of Millstone Grit or 
earlier beds ; for example, the so-called Millstone Grit of 
Bristol probably represents in time a part of the Pendleside 

The Millstone Grit Series of England appears to have no 
fauna of its own. In the neighbourhood of Halifax we find 
the persistence of a late Pendleside fauna as high as the third 
Grit, and in the neighbourhood of Harrogate is a Calcareous 
Grit, the Cayton Gill beds, in which a late Dibunophyllum 
fauna seems to have reappeared. 

In the Carboniferous succession of Denbighshire, the Mill- 
stone Grit is probably only represented by 100 feet of beds, 
including the Aqueduct Grit. 

It is difficult to conceive the exact conditions under which 
a deposit, averaging from 500-100 feet over an extensive area, 
suddenly becomes enormously thick o\'er a limited district 
to between 2000 and 3000 feet. Whatever it was, the cause 
is intimately connected with the origin of the Pendleside Series, 
itself a very local deposit, for the greatest thickness of the Mill- 


Hind : Carboniferous Geology. 249 

stone Grit coincides with the greatest thickness of the Pendle- 
side Series. 


It would be a very lengthy task to enumerate all that is 
known of the Palaeontology and Palaeobotany of the various 
Coalfields in Great Britain and Ireland. I would claim that 
much more than a foundation has been laid for the accurate 
determination of the various life zones in the Coal Measures. 
In the first place the study of the distribution of plants demon- 
strates that it is perfectly easy to determine broadly certain 
main sub-divisions which are identical with the Coalfields of 
Western Europe, so that it may be affirmed that the flora indi- 
cates three or four phases in the 6000-7000 feet of Coal Measures. 

The North Staffordshire Coalfield has been studied by local 
observers for many years, from a palaeontological point of view, 
and I claim that the distribution of the fresh water Mollusca, 
and in a secondary way the relations of beds containing these 
zonal forms with intercalated marine bands, renders it possible 
to determine at least 16 distinct fossil horizons. The marine 
bands are useless by themselves, for the fauna of the various 
marine bands resemble each other very closely. But the 
series being sub-divided into the zones of Anthracornya calcifera, 
A. phillipsi, A. wardi, A. adamsi, A. williamsoni, Carhonicola 
robtista, a definite marine band occurring above or below one 
or other of them gives valuable information as to other horizons, 

I claim as far as the North Staffordshire Coalfield is 
concerned that the Coal Measures have been definitely zoned, 
and am glad to know that work on similar lines in other Coal- 
fields is revealing a practically identical palaeontological 
sequence to that which is found to obtain in North Stafiordshire. 

I think that it can now be claimed that we know fairly well 
the local variations of the Carboniferous succession, as expressed 
in Western Europe, and that in our own country each province 
of the Carboniferous Series has been zoned by its fossils. The 
main question now outstanding is the comparison of the different 
types of deposit in each area. The idea of broad and far- 
reaching unconformities no doubt will account for much, and 
these will doubtless be made out with greater ease once the life 
zones are well and accurately known. 

The science of Palaeontology is biological, and not mathe- 
matical, and we know that many factors came into play which 

1909 July 1. 


HiJid : Carboniferous Geolooy. 













::m U 


a; c/3 -^ 


H D 


m X 










u. \ 










o \ 






Yoredales Di 











cr _^ 











Book Notice. 251 

militate against the employment of biological phenomena as 
absolute indices of physical conditions. The question may 
always be raised, when it is found that a species or fauna 
becomes extinct about a certain horizon, did the species or 
fauna become extinct really or locally ? Did it migrate to 
some locality, and flourish long after it had ceased to exist at 
its original locality ? In conclusion, in working out life zones 
of a series of rocks, the following facts may be useful as 
aphorisms. In a succession of strata, where muddy con- 
ditions succeeded a pure limestone phase, it is natural to 
expect a change of fauna, but where two shales or limestone 
contain dissimilar faunas, they are probably not contemporan- 
eous. Faunas of different bathymetric zones may be con- 
temporaneous, though they are dissimilar. 

The period of time during which a species or fauna may 
survive at any locality depends entirely on the conditions of 
environment. Hence conditions will determine the vertical 
extent of rocks characterised by a zonal group or species. 

Dissimilar faunas may be contemporaneous. To take an 
example, the fresh water and marine fauna of the Coal 
Measures must have been in existence contemporaneously in 
different areas, though they never occur in the same bed. 

Hence it is rarely safe to rely on single species, and the 
larger the group used to denote a zone, the more accurate will 
be the result. It is the association of a number of species at a 
horizon which I consider to be the important thing in zoning 
the Carboniferous rocks. And the first appearance of such an 
association of forms is obviously the most important horizon, points to the establishment of a new set of conditions. 

A Naturalist in Tasmania, \;\ Geoffrey Smith. Oxford : Clarendon 
Press. 151 pp., 7/6 net. 

With the aid of a substantial grant from the British Association, 
Mr. Smith paid a six months' visit to Tasmania, principally to 
study the fresh-water life of the island, and particularly that strange 
creature, the Mountain Shrimp, which seems to be a survival from 
Carboniferous times. During his sojourn on the island, the author made 
many interesting notes in reference to the fauna, flora, history and an- 
thropology of Tasmania, which are now presented in the form of a very in- 
teresting narrative. To tiie student of geographical distribution the volume 
is essential. There are e\ idences of parts of the book having been hurriedly, 
if not carelessly written. On page 60 the word ' cushion ' appears half a 
dozen times quite close together, and other words are unnecessarily 
repeated. We made a hasty reference to the page said to contain a drawing 
of ' the Devil by Mr. Goodcliild,' only to find Sarcophilus ursiniis, with 
neither hoof, horn, nor forked tail. 

1909 July I. 


{Allium ursinum). 

J AS. 

E. Mcdonald. 


{Confiiiiied front page 202). 

Each plant is always capable of furnishing sufficient of these 
roots to gain the desired effect. Adult bulbs of wood garlic 
have from five to six of these roots, their length averaging five 
or six inches, but may be as long as nine or ten inches. In 
addition to root hairs, three to six rootlets are given off 
almost at right angles from the blunt tips of the contractile 
roots, and form an even more effective anchorage (see fig. 10). 

From each adult bulb 
two or three foliage leaves 
arise, and to be pro- 
tected from injury by 
abrasion in their passage 
through the soil, they 
are covered by a closely 
sheathing scale-leaf until 
they reach the surface. 
At whatever reasonable 
depth the bulb is buried, 
this sheathing scale-leaf 
is capable of reaching the 
surface, when, having 
performed its function, 
it ceases to grow and 
quickly decays. Each 
scale leaf has a stiff 
Fig. 10.— Double (twin) bulb, (partly pointed apex ; the whole 
diagrammatic), the result of development of , . , , , , 

a bulb similar to fig. 6 ; f, rigid fibres from scale. With the enclosed 
previous bulb ; inf, inflorescence scar ; bf^, leaves giving rigidity, 
and bf3, bases of leaves f2 and FMn tigs. 6. pffiHent 

and 7 ; cr, new contractile roots ; ar, anchor lOrms a veiy emcient 
rootlets ; ocr, old contractile roots ; fr, old boring organ. Even from 
^'^^™°^^- a seedling, that was 

buried deeper than usual, a scale leaf was found if inches in 

The best season to notice the peculiarities of these scale 
leaves is during winter and early spring — say from November 
to March. When the surface has been reached, the leaves 
emerge from the sheath, and their petioles twist to reverse the 


McDonald : Broad -leaved Wood Garlic. 253 

position of the blade, as already described. From this time 
till about the end of June, they manufacture food stuffs to 
store in their bases. The flowers open in May and June, and 
by then the old bulbs have decayed, and the new ones are 
rapidly forming. The leaves die in July, the peduncle remain- 
ing a little while longer to allow the seeds to ripen. When the 
seeds have ripened and been shed the peduncle decays, and 
nothing of the plant is then to be seen above ground for the 
period of rest — four to six months. 

A good mature bulb will measure from 2\ to 2\ inches in 
length, and be about | of an inch in its broadest diameter, 
though the average is rather below this. A section will shew 
that one side is somewhat concave, and the other convex, but 
often with a groove running down the convex side. If 
examined during the resting period, they will be found some- 
what as follows : — From their bases a ring of thick contractile 
roots grow obliquely downwards. Where these join the 
abbreviated stem several scars occur, one being that of the 
protective scale leaf of last season, the next below, that of the 
old bulb — from this scar a ring of rough fibres encircle the new 
bulb ; the uppermost circular scar is that of the outer foliage 
leaf of last season, and within this, on one side of the bulb, is 
the triangular scar of last season's peduncle ; and lastly, the 
new bulb itself. Near the tip of the bulb to one side is a U- 
shaped slit, which represents the summit of the sheathing por- 
tion of the innermost foliage leaf of last season. Every leaf 
is sheathing at its base, hence the circular leaf scars. The 
bud lies at the base inside. After growing up the tube, the new 
leaves and inflorescence emerge through the slit to continue 
their passage upwards through the soil. 

In addition to multiplying by seed, there is a steady annual 
vegetative increase. An adult bulb often gives rise to two new 
ones. When this^has been the case the scar of the previous 
inflorescence will be seen between them. These multiplying 
bulbs have three foliage leaves, as will be clear from the dia- 
grams (figs. 6, 7, 10, 11). The outer of these foliage leaves 
(f^) encloses the inflorescence, and another leaf (f-) — at least 
while young, the other leaf (f^) is not enclosed by (f^). The 
bases of leaves f- and F-' form the two new bulbs (twin bulb), 
against possible gnawing enemies. To my mind, they are 
encircling one of the new bulbs, and the inflorescence (scape) 
scar, but not the other bulb. 

A little consideration will make it clear that the inflores- 

loog July 1. 

254 McDonald: Broad-leaved Wood Garlic. 

cence is terminal, and that leaf F-, and therefore its bulbous 
base is really the first leaf of a bud in the axil of leaf f^. The 


Fig. 7. — Longitudinal diagram to illustrate development of similar 
bulb to 6. B, bulb ; sc, slieathing scale leaf ; f^, foliage leaf the base of 
whicii sheaths tiie inflorescence and foliage leaf F'-^, but does not thicken ; 
F-, inner foliage leaf ; f^, foliage leaf from axil of sc ; the bases of f^ and 
F^ become bulbs ; inf, inflorescence. 

Fig. II. — Transverse section (diagrammatic) of fig. 10; sc, and F^, 
show positions of leaves, (now scars), so lettered in figs. 6 and 7. 

Note. — Figs. 10 and 11 are reversed in position from fig. 6. 

leaf F-^ is the first of a bud from the axil of the sheathing scale 
that surrounds all the leaves just mentioned, as well as the 

As the short piece of axis which bears the scars and roots 
below the bulbs decays somewhat slowly, the two new bulbs 
are held by it for another year. When, as is sometimes the case, 
two pairs of bulbs are attached, this piece of axis has persisted 
two years, and above it there will be a similar piece to each 
pair of bulbs. The new bulbs being formed a little above the 
old ones, shows the necessity for an annual crop of contractile 
roots to pull them to the proper level, otherwise a few years 
would suffice to bring them to the surface. These roots are 
replaced chiefly whilst the new bulbs are forming — the old 
ones decay in June and July — and appear to perform their 
work during Summer and Autumn. 

When the leaves are performing their functions above ground 
some supplementary fine thread-like roots are given off to assist 
in the absorption of water, etc. 

Mention has been made of the ring of rigid fibres that sur- 
round the bulbs : these are the fibres of the previous bulb 
remaining after the fleshy part has disappeared. They may 
be looked upon as an additional protection to the new bulbs 
against possible gnawing enemies. To m}^ mind, they are 
very suggestive of the iron palisades placed around trees to 
prevent horses, etc., from gnawing the bark. 

In several bulbs which I procured, most of the fleshy portion 
had been scooped out. In one of them the ' Leather- Jacket ' 


McDonald : Bfoad-leaved Jl'ood Garlic. 


— the larva of the Crane Fly or Daddy-long-legs, was found. 
This greedy little monster, while in my possession, scooped out 
the contents of two other large bulbs — i.e , the flesh}^ part of 
the bulb itself. Thus it had certainly eaten three, and most 
probably others previous to its capture, before an accident put 
an end to further depredations. 

Frequently new bulbs may be found that appear to have 
been formed with great difficulty, probably due to such mis- 
chief as that caused by this grub to the old bulbs. In spite of 
so many precautions, therefore, it would seem that the wood 
garlic has still to light against subtle enemies. 

It frequently happens that when the bulbs have been buried 
below the average depth by miniature landslips — so common 
a feature in woodlands having a stream flowing through them — • 
or with river silt, provision is made to restore the next bulb 
to the normal level. In these cases the otherwise short piece 
of axis (just sufficient to hold the various leaves — no more) 
becomes elongated between the sheathing scale leaf and the 

Fig. 9. — Longitudinal diagram to illustrate development of similar 
bulb to 8 ; letters as in figs 6 and 7 ; base of f^ becomes new bulb. 

Fig. 12. — A remarkable bulb, st, solid elongated internode ; sc, 
scar of last year's scale leaf ; sc^, new scale leaf ; other letters as in pre- 
vious figures. 

Fig. 13. — Single liulb, the result of de\'elopment of one similar to fig. 
8. BF'^, base of leaf f- in figs. 8 and 9 ; other letters as in fig. 10 ; roots 
cut short. 

outer foliage leaf. Fig. 12 is an accurate sketch of a bulb 
having this piece of stem (an elongated solid internode) de- 
veloped, though in this particular example it was formed to 
carry the new bulb from under a stone by which it had been 
accidently cov^ercd. 

From this sketch it will be seen that its behaviour 

1909 July I. 

256 Museiini N'eivs. 

must have been remarkably like that of a root working round 
obstacles in stony ground. Several others somewhat like it 
occurred in the same patch — a number of stones from an ad- 
jacent wall having been pushed over them. These large stones- 
are frequently disturbed, and so many of these plants must 
thereby be placed in jeopardy. So long as the stones are there, 
examples more or less like that depicted are likely to occur. 
Typically, when formed expressly for the purpose of raising 
bulbs these elongated internodes are straight and vertical. 

Amongst a number of abnormal flowers I have gathered,, 
there have been examples with four, five, six and, in one instance 
e\"en seven, lobes (carpels) to the ovary. 


The Warrington Museum continues to issue its printed slips of ' Recent 
Additions,' in tlie April issue of which we notice that over a thousand 
dried plants, mostly local, have been mounted and added to the collection. 
There are also some iiseful antiquities. It would be an advantage if these 
lists of additions were numbered. 

Mr. F. Elgee has ' edited ' [query ' written '] an official guide to the 
Dorman Memorial Museum, Middlesborough (20 pp., price not stated). 
It begins with a brief ' History of the IMuseum Movement in Middles- 
borough,' and includes a description of the more important exhibits. 
Amongst the geological specimens we notice ' two new species — Pleuvomya 
navicula, and a new coral — Isis Liassica,' from which it would seem that 
the meaning of the words ' new species ' is not quite clear. An interesting" 
exhibit is Banks' Ribbon Fish, fifteen feet long, taken at Seaton Carew in 
1866. There are several illustrations from photographs, some of which 
would have been more useful if a scale had been shewn. 

The Report of the Colchester Museum for 1909 (40 pp., 2d.), contains 
an excellent list of additions, and is illustrated by several good plates 
from photographs of important objects of Roman, etc., date. 

A handbook to the weapons of war and the chase has been issued from 
the Horniman Museum, Forest Hill (73 pp., with plates) at the low price 
of 2d. The book has been written by Dr. H. S. Harrison, and edited by 
Prof. A. C. Haddon. 

In tlie Report of the Keighley Borough Museum we learn that the 
number of specimens and books received by donation is [blank] being the 
largest number yet received in any one year. Mr. Mosley adds, ' last year I 
told you that you might make the Keighley Museum an object lesson to 
the country ; the above [a letter from a lady in America] not only fore- 
casts the proof, but what it might be to the world.' 

The trustees of the late A. A. Pahud, J. P., of The Limes, Westgate,. 
Louth, have made a grant of ^250 towards the building of a new museum 
for the Louth Antiquarian and Naturalists' Society. 

The Bowes Museum at Barnard Castle was re-opened to the public on 
Whit Monday at 10 o'clock, and will in future be open, free, on ^every 

The Beverley Corporation has adopted the Museums and Gymnasiums 
Act, for tiie beneiit of its recently formed museum. 

Mr. L. Fletcher, F.R.S., keeper of the Department of Mineralogy, 
British Museum, has been appointed Director of the Natural History 
Departments at South Kensington. 

Naturalist .^ 




{Continued from page i'/4). 

The following signs require explaining. A single ' [ ' before 
a formula, implies entire confluent lip banding, as [Iil23s42 5. 
In this shell the fifth band v^s absent, excepting at the lip. The 
sign ' [U ' implies the confluence of the three upper bands at the 
lip, as [U(112)2344'25 ; a most unusual form. The sign ' [L ' 
the confluence of the two lower bands, as [Lii23245 24 ; this 
form is common enough. The sign ' [UL ' implies the confluence 
of the three upper bands together, and the confluence of the 
two lower together, with the third interspace clearly marked, 
as [UL(1 12) 3 24(425). 

Frequently the fifth band is not the normal width below, 
and there are many shells which can only be indicated thus : — 
li223442[.32]. There is also a very rare shell on which the 
bands are not in exactly the normal position. It can be in- 
dicated thus [ol]i 1234425. The absence of a band is indicated 
by the size of the figure, as lil 334326, where the third band was 
not present. There is also the production of an extra band or 
bands. Such forms may be recorded as — [li223[ili]525. 
Much more rarely we find it thus — [Ii223[il2]425, or [li223 
[ilili]325. Then there is the contrast, where the band has a 
white interspace, as li22[lil]4425. All these are typical 
specimens from this parish. 

There are two sources from which specimens may be 
obtained for comparing the supply furnished b}^ any locality 
with those that are destroyed by the thrushes at their anvils on 
the spot. 

The first supply is the ' dead shells ' — perfect specimens — 
which may be found at any place frequented by H. nemoralis L. 
In the case of these specimens, as soon as I have taken off the 
banding and interspacing, I crush them underfoot, so as not 
to record them again. The second source of supply is the living 
molluscs, which may be obtained on the ' crawl ' any clamp 
summer evening. As one grows older and more sympathetic, 
I suppose, one grows more and more chary of taking life need- 
lessly. At least I find, I personally hate more and more the 
act of destroying the molluscs to preserve their shells in the 
county collection. So I take a vasculum out with me when I 

1909 July I. 


258 Woodrnffc-Pcacock : T/inish S/ofies, etc. 

am working living shells, record the banding and interspacing 
on my note-sheets as I pick them up, and slip them into the tin 
when done with. As I return from collecting, I place them at 
some well-recognised spot, I never collect at — my dumping 
grounds, as I call them. 

The relationship of colouring and banding to soils and local 
environment I must leave to future papers on the local records 
I have collected, with the help c^ friends. I can speak with 
some little experience now, as I have burnt ten thousand sheets 
recording one specimen each. Willingly would I have kept 
them for use, but as they were on iive different methods of 
recording, I could do nothing with them. It is difficult to 
record shells properly on any method — to translate one method 
into another is beyond my wit, at least. Though the shells are 
destroyed, the facts they illustrated are substantiated by the 
notes I possess on the method suggested here. 

Why liheUida (Risso) should vary from seventy to eightj^ per 
cent, on fresh water alluvium, and be entirely absent at thrush 
stones in a Lincolnshire limestone quarry, I cannot say. Why 
there should be less casianea (Moq.) than either libelhila (Risso) 
or riihella (Moq.), under all the varying circumstances, I have 
met with, seems inexplicable. The more you know, the more 
profound seem the problems which confront you. Perhaps, 
with the assistance of other workers, some of them may finally 
be solved. 

It would seem, too, that there is a relationship between 
' indistinct,' ' intermittent,' or ' broken banding,' and certain 
soils. On arid parti- or multi-coloured sea-sand banks, with 
little grass growth, this type of banding is unusually frequent, 
and seems to act as a protection to the mulluscs against their 
enemies. Neo-Lamarckism, or the modern evolution, would 
account for the prevalency of such banding in suitable localities. 
I know this is not the explanation' generally given, but it seems 
to accord best with the facts which may be observed. Two 
quite independent matters seem to be confused by the common 
interpretation. First, the physical cause for broken banding 
first arising ; and secondly, the far more important question 
from the evolutionists' point of view : — What has maintained it, 
and made it hereditary ? Facts and fancy are widely distinct, 
but are yet alHed. True science loves facts, but is ever seeking 
to arrange them by methods suggested by imagination, i.e., 
co-ordinated fancy. It may only be a coincidence and nothing 

Reviews and Book Notices. 259 

more between the varying forms of environment and the band- 
ing, or other peculiarities of their associated land shells. The 
facts would not remain inexplicable were our knowledge full 
enough. I will give an illustration from another shell. In a 
Hibaldstow limestone quarry, where Gentiana Amarella L. 
abounds the season through on the arid rock of the quarry 
floor. Helix hovtensis Miiller + liliacina (Taylor), in its dark 
form, may always be found in small quantities at thrush stones. 
When the colour of the flowers of this plant is taken into con- 
sideration, the fact is remarkable. When we know that this 
quarry is the only locality for this dark variety of H. hortensis 
known in Lincolnshire, and the plant is found nowhere in the 
same quantity and variety in size, the fact is still more 

I have no large quantity of banded shells from soils suffi- 
ciently varied, to test whether a simple formula like that I have 
suggested for H. nemoralis can be worked out for them. There 
is, however, a law of destruction by thrushes in the case of 
H. aspevsa L., and H. hortensis, my notes are sufficient to prove. 
I must leave it to others who are interested to work out a 
formula and the law fully by its aid. Helix virgata Da Costa 
appears to me the most difficult banded shell we have to make 
a useful formula for. 

The Scientific Feeding of Animals, by Prof. 0. Kellner. Duckworth & 
Co., 1909. 404 pp., 6/- net. 

For some time there has been the need for a good treatise on the 
scientific feeding of animals, and we certainly consider that the publishers 
could not have supplied the want better than by a translation of Prof. 
Kellner's well-known work, which has already appeared in seven languages. 
Dr. W. Goodwin, of the South-Eastern Agricultural College, has made 
the translation, and has placed all English students and practical farmers 
and breeders of cattle under a deep debt of gratitude. The volume is not 
too technical, and is well produced. 

British Birds in their Haunts, by the late Rev. C. A. Johns. Edited and 
revised by J. A. Owen. London : George Routledge, 326 pp., 7/6 net. 

Notwithstanding the recent flood of ' bird " books, we carl say that the 
present volume is one that we are glad to see, and is one of the few that we 
can recommend to tiie serious student. It is sound and thorough, and net 
full of the silly twaddle which most people who have a field glass and 
library think they can produce for the benefit of the bii'd-loving world. 
Besides mucii useful and reliable information about the various species, 
tlie accounts abound with interesting narrative. But the feature of the 
volume which will appeal to most ornithologists is the excellent series of 
sixty-four coloured plates, upon which there are two hundred and fifty-six 
figures. These are particularly faithful representations of the birds, being 
neither too gaily coloured, nor too clumsily drawn. Having regard to the 
price of the book (7/6 only), the illustrations are certainly the best of their 
kind that we have seen for some time, and are likely to prove most useful 
to the field ornithologist. 

igog July i. 



Wm. west, F.L.S., 


G. S. WEST, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S. 

[Contimicd from page igj). 

After carefully considering the occurrence of Asterionella 
in the British lakes, we are compelled to agree with W^esenberg- 
Lund that Whipple's explanation is insufficient to explain the 
great maxima which occur with a considerable degree of regu- 
larity in so many of these lakes. Whipple's observations were 
carried out in reservoirs and in the laboratory, and not under 
conditions such as obtain in large lakes of considerable depth. 
In the first place, it is unlikely that any living individuals 
would exist at the bottom of a deep lake ; and assuming they 
did, it would be quite impossible for them to be raised up from 
the bottom, either by storms or convection currents, in suffi- 
cient quantities to cause an enormous maximum in the plankton. 
Moreover, although Asterionella attains its maxima in both 
spring and autumn, many other plankton-diatoms have only 
one maximum, and in some species this is attained in the winter 
and in others in the summer. 

In stormy times, large numbers of individuals are probably 
carried into the plankton from the littoral region, and this 
doubtless accounts for the sudden maxima of certain plankton 
Diatoms a few days after a storm, such as in those cases 
recorded both by Whipple and Wesenberg-Lund. 

We think, however, that the supply of plankton-recruits 
from the littoral region would be totally insufficient to cause 
the enormous maxima which occur regularly in certain plank- 
ton-species unless the other determining factors were of the 
most favourable nature. These determining factors would 
most probably be temperature, food-supply, and aeration of 
the water. 

It would appear that temperature is a factor of importance, 
as the vernal and autumnal maxima occur at approximately the 
same water-temperature. This temperature (about 7° — 8°C.), 
is probably the optimum for Asterionella gracillima. In the 
spring the food-supply would be at its greatest because of the 
large quantity of decomposed organic matter accumulated in 


ITis/ : PhytoplanktoH of English Lake District. 261 

the water. In the autumn, there would also be an increase in 
the available food-material due to the death and decomposition 
of short-lived summer forms, and also to the slight concentra- 
tion of dissolved material in the water poured into the lakes. 
The aeration would obviously be greatest in the times of 
greatest disturbance of the surface-water. 

It is also probable that the intense light of the summer 
is detrimental to any great increase of Asterionella. 

Cydotella compta has two maxima, one in June, and one in 
September, but these are not nearly so well marked as in 

On the whole, most of the Diatoms attain their greatest 
abundance in the autumn. A few species never completely 
disappear from the plankton, and can be found in the living 
state throughout the entire year. Such are Surirella robusia, 
AsterioneUa gvacillima, and Tahellaria fenestrata var. asterionel- 

The characteristic var. asterionelloides of T. fenestrata was 
most abundant in September, with the highest water-tempera- 
ture, and scarce during the cold winter months. The typical 
chain-form of this species with a zig-zag disposition of the 
frustules, which is also the normal littoral and pond form, was 
only observed in the plankton in the month of June. There is 
no evidence in this lake of any seasonal change from spring 
forms with a zig-zag disposition of the frustules to pelagic 
summer and autumn forms with star-dispositions, such as is 
mentioned by Wesenberg-Lund to occur in Denmark. The 
chain-form was not observed in the plankton until the star- 
dispositions were quite common, and it was only seen in that 
one month. It would thus appear that the var. asterionelloides 
is well established in Windermere, and that the small maximum 
is due solely to the multiplication of perennial colonies. Prac- 
tically no variation in the frustules of these colonies was ob- 
served, the somewhat elongated proportions being very con- 
sistently maintained through the entire year. 

Myxophyce.e. Of the few members of this group found 
in the plankton of Windermere, Ccrlosphcsrium Kiitzingianum 
is. the most conspicuous, attaining its greatest abundance in 
September (temp. I4.4°C.), in which month four out of the 
seven recorded species of blue-green Algae occur. 

Oscillatoria Agardhii occurs in gradually diminishing quan- 
tity from September to December (temp. 14.4^ — 3-2°C.). 

1909 July I. 

262 JVt's/ : Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 


























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U'c's/ : Phytophiiikion of English Lake District. 


Anabrena Lcmmermanni was observed during the warmest 
period from June to September, and the development of the 
spores took place from July to August. 

Peridin'IE.e. The ubiquitous Ceratium hirundinella makes 
its first appearance in May, increases considerably in June and 
July, and is most abundant in August (temp. i2.7°C.), after 
which it gradually diminishes until its complete disappearance 
in the middle of December (consult text fig. 3). We have never 
found it in any great quantity in any of the English lakes, and 
it is always a seasonal plankton constituent with a summer 
maximum. The same is true of the large pools of the Midlands 
of England."^ In the more southern continental lakes, it is a 

Fig. 4. Peridiiiiuin Willei Huitfeldt-Kaas. A.-C, epivalve of three 
individuals showing limits of variation in apical plates ; D., hypovalve ; 
E. and F., \-entral views of two individuals ; G., dorsal view. All x 500. 
The areolations of the plates are not indicated in the figures. 

perennial constituent of the plankton, t but in the more northern 
lakes of Germany, Denmark, Russia, and Scandinavia, it 
completely disappears in the colder months, as in the British 

* G. S. West, ' A Biological Investigation of the Peridiniea- of Sutton 
Park, Warwickshire,' New Phytologist, 1909. 

t Brahm & Zederbauer, ' Beitrage zur Planktonuntersuchung alpiner 
Seen, II.', Verhandl. k.k. Zool. — Botan. Ges. Wien, 1904: G. Entz, 
' Beitrage Kenntniss des Plankton der Balatonsees,' Result, der wiss. 
enforschung des Balatonsees, II. Bd. Budapest, 1904 ; Lemmermann 
in ' Archiv. fiir Hydrobiol. u. Planktonkunde,' III., 1908. 

1909 July I 

256 IVesf : Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 

lakes. Ca.reful measurements and drawings from September 
1907 to Augiist IQ08 showed that no seasonal form-variation 
of this organism occun-ed in Windermere for at an}^ rate the 
twelve months it was under observation, although Wesenberg- 
Lund* has recorded such variations in the lakes of Denmark. 

The only other species of this group was Peridinittm Willei, 
and the collections showed the same sudden rise in the summer 
months and gradual decline in the autumn as was exhibited b^^ 
Ceratitim hirundinella, the maximum being attained in August. 
In two Italian lakes (Lago ch Varano and Lago di Monate) this 
species has been found by Lemmermannf to be a perennial 
constituent of the plankton. 

Flagellata. Mallomonas longiseta appears first in October, 
and as the temperature diminishes, its activity increases. It 
reaches its greatest abundance in December (temp. 3.2° C.) 
and then rapidly dies down, completely disappearing in March. 
It thus appears to be a cold water type, thriving during the 
autumnal fall in temperature. 

Dinohryon cylindriciim var. divergens has a considerable 
maximum in September, in which month the temperature of 
the water is the highest (14.4° C). This same variety occurred 
in very large quantity in Derwent Water in the month of June 
1903. Lemmermann has also observed it more especially in 
the warm period, and quite recently it has been found to attain 
its maximum in the hot months in an Australian lake.ij: 


Among the various constituents of the phytoplankton of 
the English lakes, a number of species are of sufficient interest 
to merit special mention. Of the following 28 species, one is 
here described for the first time {Dinohryon crenulatum), one 
is new to Britain {Elakafothrix gelatinosa), and 13 are new to 

I. BiNUCLEARiA TATRANA Wittr. in Wittr. & Nordst. 
Alg. Exsic. 1886, No. 715 ; fasc. 21, 1889, p. 18 (c fig.) ; G. S. 
West, Treatise Brit. Freshw. Alg. 1904, p. 80, fig. 25. 

* Wfsenbcrg-Lund, I.e.. 1908, p. 69. 

t Lemmermann in ' Archiw fiir. Hydrobiol. u. Planktonkunck-,' III., 
1908, pp. 357, 361. 

X G. S. West in ' Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot.', XXXIX., 1909, pj). 17, 18. 


IVes^ : Phytcplankton of English Lake District. 267 

This Alga occurred in a more or less fragmentary condition, 
in the plankton of Codale, Easedale, and Stickle Tarns. It 
was obviously merely washed in from the shores, and has there- 
fore been excluded from the table of phytoplankton. It is 
not uncommon at the margins of subalpine tarns and lakes, 
especially if boggy, but is not always easy of recognition. 
The filaments are from 6-9 \i. in diameter. 

2. GoNATOZYGON MONOT.ENIUM De Bary var. pilosellum 
Nordst. in Wittr. & Nordst. Alg. Exsic. 1886, No. 750 ; fasc. 
21, 1889, p. 48. 

This rare variety has not previously been recorded for 
England. It is well characterized by the short spinate pro- 
jections which replace the minute granules of the type form. 
The cells were 9-1 1 ju. in diameter, and in this variet}^ they are 
generally somewhat narrower than in the type, with slightly 
less dilated extremities. We have recorded it from the plankton 
of Loch Fadaghoda in the Outer Hebrides, and we have found 
it in other localities in Wales and Ireland. 

3. Cylindrocystis diplospora Lund. var. major West in 
' Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot.', XXIX., 1892, p. 131, t. 20, f. 3 ; 
W. & G. |S. West in ' Journ. Roy. Micr. Soc.', 1894, p. 4, t. i, 
f . 9 ; ' Monogr. Brit. Desm.' I., 1904, p. 61, t. 4. f. 42, 43. 

This large variety was not uncommon in the plankton 
of Ennerdale Water. Long 125 ju. ; lat. 62 /x. It is known to 
occur in several British localities, and the first English record 
was from Riccall Common in East Yorkshire. 

4. MiCRASTERiAS PiNNATiFiDA (Kiitz.) Ralfs, ' Brit. Desm.', 
1848, p. 77, t. 10, f. 3 ; W. & G. S. West, ' Monogr, Brit. 
Desm.', II., 1905, p. 80, t. 41, f. 7-11, 13. 

This pretty little species is known to occur in the bogs of 
the Windermere drainage basin, and we have observed it 
sparingly in the plankton of Ennerdale Water. It appears to 
be confined to the old formations of the western mountainous 
areas of the British Islands ; and in parts of the west of Ireland 
and north-west Scotland it is frequent in the bogs and lakes. 

5. MiCRASTERiAS RADiATA Hass. ' Brit. Freshw. Alg.', 1845' 
p. 386, t. 90, f. 2 [figure bad] ; W. & G. S. West, 1. c, p. 113, 
t. 51, f. 1-9. M. furcata Ralfs and other authors. 

Like the preceding species M. radiata is one of the western 
types of the old formations. It occurred in the plankton of 
Easedale Tarn, this being the first English record. Long. 187 /x ; 
lat. lyo fi ; lat. isthm. 23/7,. 

1909 July I (To be continued). 



Porpoises in the River Hull. — Several porpoises have 
lately visited the River Hull. They ascended the river on 
Tuesday, May 17th, at 4 o'clock in the morning. As they 
passed under Sculcoates Bridge unsuccessful attempts were 
made to procure them with boat hooks. They were afterwards 
seen at Hull Bridge, near Beverley, still swimming up the 
stream. At least one got as high up the river as Hempholme 
Lock, and narrowly escaped being shut up in the lock-pit 
which it had entered, just making its exit in the nick of time. 
This lock is some twenty miles from the Humber, and to the 
knowledge of frequenters of this stream for many years, no 
porpoise has previously been known to ascend it. One of these 
enterprising animals being in a dazed condition, was caught 
and killed by a house-boater on the Friday, in the neighbour- 
hood of Mikla Dike. It proved to be 48 lbs. in weight, was 
forty-six inches long, with a girth of twenty-five and a half 
inches. Its skin bore evidence of having been peppered with 
small shot, which, no doubt, accoimted for its easy capture. — 
H. M. Foster, Hull. 


White Wagtail in Wharfedale. — Whilst strolling along 
the banks of the River Wharfe at Arthington on April 6th, I 
was rather surprised to see two White Wagtails amongst a 
number of Pied Wagtails. The Pied and White Wagtails were 
often very near each other, and I was able with little difficulty to 
see the characteristic differences in the plumage between the 
two. — S. Hole, Leeds. 

Curious Accident to a House Martin. — A House Mar- 
tin in difficulties was recently discovered in the middle 
of the road at Harrogate. The bird was unable to fly, as 
a long hair had become entangled in its foot, and had then 
twice encircled the left wing. After the hair was removed 
the bird flew away. This is a sample of the many curious 
accidents to which birds are hable. — R. Fortune, June nth, 

Golden Oriole at Gainsborough. — On the 12th instant, 
walking with my daughter b}- the side of the Bale, a narrow 
wood bounding Thonock Park, on the south, we had the good 
fortune to see a Golden Oriole feeding on the bank between this 
wood and the high road. We watched it several times as it 


Field Notes. 269 

kept flying on in front of us : and in one place we got to within 
about a dozen yards of it before it flew away. It was very busy 
picking up insects from off the bank, as is its wont before the 
fruit time arrives. — F. M. Burton, Hightiekl, Gainsborough, 
May 1909. 

Wood Pigeon Diphtheria. — There has been great interest 
taken in this enquiry, although, according to the reports, 
Yorkshire birds seem to have escaped the contagion. I have 
been on two estates this April, and there the keepers seem to 
think the birds shot have been in good condition. Strange to 
say, on April 3rd, I picked up a dead Stock Dove at Eshton 
that had undoubtedly died of this infectious disease, its gape 
being one mass of cheese-like matter. Its eyes were bright, 
so that it had probably been dead only a day or so ; the body- 
thin, breast-bone very prominent ; plumage exceptionally 
good. — \V. H. Parkin. 

Broken Eggs under Herons Nests. — Whilst on a visit 
to the heronry near Gargrave 011 April 3rd,, 1909, I again noted 
dropped eggs under the nests. On this occasion there were 
only three broken under sa}^ ten brooding birds' nests. In 
other years I have noted considerably more, in fact, one year 
it was possible to tell easily which nests were occupied by the 
broken egg or eggs underneath — these mostly fresh or only 
very slightly incubated eggs. I have always assumed that this 
loss was due to the indiflerent platform nests. Possibly the 
early eggs become affected by the frost, and, on being sat, 
break more easily and are thrown out. — W. H. Parkin. 

Rook Law. — Referring to Mr. F. M. Burton's article in 
' The Naturalist ' for April ; some years ago I witnessed the 
following occurrence, on what is known as a shard, i.e., a 
large island in the middle of the river Lune at Lancaster. 

Some two miles up the river is the village of Halton, where 
there is a large rookery, and from this I noticed a number of 
birds come flying and chattering. They settled on this shard, 
opposite the house I was then living in. The proceedings were 
almost identical with those described by Mr. Burton. The 
birds on alighting gathered in a circle several yards across, 
leaving one of their party in the centre. Silence at once 
ensued, and after a few seconds only, eight rooks deliberately' 
advanced towards the bird in the centre, and quickly killed it 
with their beaks. It never offered to escape or defend itself. 
Immediately the work was done, the whole assembly rose in 
the air, and with loud cawings, flew back to the rookery. 

jgoy July i. 

2/0 Field Notes. 

I went across to the island at once, and found the bird quite 
dead, but warm. I could find no trace of cuts or blood. — 
H. B. TuRNEY, Ulverston. 


Euphrasia Rostkoviana Hayne — a new Yorkshire Eye = 
bright. — On September loth, 1908, I found this rare Eyebright 
near Warthill Station in v.c. 62. It is an addition to the 
flowering plants of Yorkshire. Its census number for Great 
Britain is 35 out of 112, and therefore it is a decidedty rare 
plant. It is very tall compared with the other BritishEyebrights 
and grows scattered over waste ground. — Wm. Ingham, B.A., 
14th May, 1909. 

— : o : — 

Tortula cernua Lindb. — A Second Yorkshire and also 
British habitat. — On page i of ' The Naturalist ' for 1901 
is an account of the discovery of this new moss to the British 
Flora near Aberford. On May ist, 1909, Mr. T. C. Thrupp of 
Doncaster sent me a specimen which he found by the side of 
the River Don, between Doncaster and Conisborough, in v.c. 63, 
and it proved to be Tortida cernua, and in good condition. 
From Mr. Thrupp's account it seems to be better established 
near Doncaster than at Aberford, where I understand it is 
scarce. — Wm. Ingnam, B.A., 14th May, 1909. 

— :o : — 

Mammoth's Tusk at Robin Hood's Bay. — At a recent 
meeting of the Scarborough Field Naturalists' Society, there 
was exhibited a part of a Mammoth's tusk about eighteen 
inches in length, found in the boulder clay in the neighbourhood 
of Robin Hood's Bay. It had evidently had a good deal of 
hard wear as a ' boulder.' — D. W. Bevan, Scarborough, May 
23rd, 1909. 

— : o : — 
Libellula fulva Mull. Re = discovered in its Old 
Station near Askern. — On Whit Monday, May 31st, I took 
a freshly emerged Dragon-fly at Shirley Pool, near Askern. 
Not knowing the species, I sent it to Mr. Porritt, who identified 
it as L. fiilva. Mr. S. L. Mosley recorded the species from near 
Askern in 1888, but from that time to the present it has been 
lost as a Yorkshire insect. — H. H. Corbett, Doncaster, June 




The Young Beetle-Collector's Handbook, by Dr. E. Hofmann. With 
an Introduction by W. Egmont Kirby, M.D. 3rd Edition. London, 
Swan, Sonnenscliein & Co., Ltd. 178 pp. 

We can thoroughly recommend this book to the beginner in the study 
of the Coleoptera. For so cheap a work, the twenty coloured plates with 
which it is adorned are excellent, and will prove of great assistance to the 
young student in naming the larger species. For the smaller species, 
however, since these are only figured life-size, the illustrations are not 
quite so useful, although they will enable the tiro to identify genera. As 
is natural in a book of this character, little attempt is made to describe 
the smaller species, the greater part of the text and plates dealing with the 
larger beetles, which it is usually the young collector's first desire to obtain. 
A few of the beetles referred to are continental ; species found in Britain, 
although far outnumbering the continental-only forms, being distinguished 
by an asterisk. The letterpress, paper, arrangement and general ' get- 
up ' of the book are commendable, and the volume, is provided with an 

Part 13 of Wild Beasts of the World (T. C. and E. C. Jack) contains 
excellent coloured plates of several of the large rmammals, including the 
giraffe, and the okapi. 

Fossil Plants, by E. A. Newell Arber. Gowan and Gray, Ltd:, 1909. 
75 pp., 6d. net. 

This is issued as No. 21 of this firm's well-known sixpenny ' Nature 
Books," and contains reproductions from sixty clear photographs of typical 
Carboniferous plants, together with several pages of scientific matter by 
Mr. Newell Axber, whose incorrect initials — E.H. — twice on t'ne cover, seem 
unfamiliar. To the student of Coal Measure plants these photographs 
shew almost as well as do the actual hand specimens or microscope sections. 
They are all correctly named, and work out to more than ten a penny ! 

The Natural History of Igneous Rocks, by Alfred Harker, M.A., F.R.S., 
London. JMethuen & Co. 384 pp., 12/6 net. 

We are glad to have the opportunity of drawing attention to the excel- 
lent volume by a former member of the editorial staff of this journal, 
Mr. Alfred Harker. The subject has not previously been dealt with in 
the form INIr. Harker now presents it, viz., from a purely geological or 
' natural history ' standpoint. The substance of the volume was first 
prepared in connection with a course of lectures delivered by the author 
at Cambridge, and all students of petrology will welcome the information 
in the present readable and easil}'- accessible form. The first portion of 
the book deals with igneous rocks and igneous action ; it tlien deals with 
the crystallization of igneous rock-magmas, regarded as complex solutions. 
In this work Mr. Harker gives the results of his life's work amongst the 
igneous rocks, and his descriptions are much simplified by the numerous 
drawings and diagrams in the text. ' The Natural History of Igneous 
Rocks ' will certainly at once take its place in t'ne front rank of solid 
contributions to the more difficult branches of geological research. W^e 
believe we have described the publishers of the work correctly, but the 
title is so messed up with a quite unnecessary rubber stamp, that all we 
can trace is ' Me . . . Co. 36 . . . W.C. ondo.' 

Notes and Jottings from Animal Life by the late Frank Buckland. 
New Edition. Smith, Elder and Co. 414 pp., 3/6. 

Although the title-page of this volume is dated 1909, the preface is 
still dated 1882. But t'ne book is well known, and the many quaint stories 
of animal life are quite refreshing. The stories relate to almost every 
phase of life. We have had to put our copy down two or three times ; 
laut a friend at last assured us that the type really was like that ! Se\-eral 
pages have been printed twice. 

1909 July I. 



' Four Centuries of Legislation on Birds ' is tire title of a paper by 
Mr. W. G. Clarke in the June Antiquary. 

In ' Notes on Thysanoptera {Tttbull/ei'a) new to the British Fauna ' 
{Entom. Monthly Ma!^. for June), Mr. R. S. Bagnall describes Tricho- 
thrips semiccBCus from Greatham, near Hartlepool. 

The Country Side's year-old child, Country Queries and Notes, has been 
re-christened Science Gossip. The title may be the title of Science Gossip, 
but the voice is the voice of Country Queries and Notes. 

Mr. Bernard Hobson writes an interesting and well illustrated article 
' With the International Congress in Mexico,' in the number of The 
Journaj of the Manchester Geographical Society recently to hand. 

We learn from the Mitseitms Journal that Mr. Frederick Stubbs, of 
Oldham, has been appointed to the restricted post of Curator in the Stepney 
Borough Museum. He is to work under the direction of the Borough 
Librarian, and be subordinate to that official. 

A child in a Lancashire school was asked what was meant by ' the 
quick and the dead.' The answer was ' the quick is those who can get 
out of the way of a motor car, and the dead is those that doesn't ! ' — York- 
shire Ramblers' Club Journal. 

Mr. Percival Westell has turned spring poet, and in The Selborne Maga- 
zine for April writes a poem, the first line of which is quite original : — 
' Hark ! to the joyous lark ! ' Probably his next poem will be ' Hark to 
the Cuckoo ! ' 

The ' phrases ' of a Nightingale are given in a contemporary. One is 
' Scsososososososososo, czirhaying,' and another ' Sesesesesesesesesesesese, 
coar o sze-oi.' The last one we heard giving forth ' phrases ' like that 
ended up with ' rats ' ! 

In the New Phytologist for April, Mr. B. M. Griffiths describes two new 
members of the Volvocaeeae (Pyraniiinonas delicatulus sp. n. and C/ilamy- 
domonas sp. n (?) from near Kidderminster, and Mr. A. W. Bartlett writes 
on ' An Abnormal gynoeceum in Stachys sylvatica Linn.' 

In the Quekett Club Journal for April, Messrs. E. Heron- Allen and 
A. Earland have an important paper ' On a new species of TechniteUa 
[T. thompsoni] from the North Sea, witir some observations upon selective 
power as exercised by certain species of arenaceous foraminifera.' 

A writer in the February Zoologist records that a Great Bustard 
was shot at Cloughton, near Scarborough, last Christmas, by Mr. Bennett, 
who ' took it home, and had it cooked instead of Turkey for Christmas 
dinner.' In the ' Zoologist ' for March, Mr. W. H. St. Ouintin points out 
that the ' Great Bustard ' turns out to be a female Silver Pheasant. 

From the cover of The Country Side for May 8th we learn that ' It would 
be an insult to the intelligence of our readers ' to fill pages ' with disserta- 
tions upon such subjects as " How Plants Grow "' or " The Development 
of the Frog." ' On opening the paper the first article is found to be 
entitled ' How Birds Fly ' ! In the same issue of this journal, which 
professes to advocate the protection of birds, etc., is an advertisement : — 
' Will any reader who can procure a clutch of fresh Nightingale eggs 
communicate," etc. 

We notice the following modest statement in an article on Mendelism 
in a contemporary. ' I have not read any of the work of the scientists 
mentioned [Bateson, Punnet, Hurst] . . . but Mendelism seems to me 
to be only an elaborate and precise enunciation of principles which I 
have myself laid down in articles published at intervals during the last 
twenty years. ... I see nothing in Mendelism which I have not been 
saying for many years.' We need not say who the writer is ; only one man 
would write it. And oddly enough iiis work does not receive the credit 
he thinks it should by any of the " scientists ' quoted. In fact they do 
not mention his name. 

Natural -St 

AUGUST 1909. 

No. 631 

(No. 409 of aurnni series). 




T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museum, Hull; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments op 


T. H. 



Contents : — 

Notes and Comments: — Salmon Scales; A Pre-historic Man Hunt; A Case of Courtesy ; 
Stone Memorials and Jacob ; Prof. G. S. West 

Dimorphism in the Eggs of Tardus muslcus~{lUustr&ted)—C.J.Patlen,M.A.,M.D.,Sc.D. 

Plants on a Bradford Waste Heap— John Ciycr 

Permian Fossils in the Doncaster District—//. Culpin 

Some British Earthmites — Trombidiidae — (Illustrated)— C. F. Geo^-g-f, il/.i?.C.S 

Northumbrian Coast Spiders — (Illustrated)— iJ^y./. £. //«// 

The Phytoplankton of the English Lake District (Illustrated)— H^m. West, F.L.S.,ami 

G.S. West, M.A.,D.Sc.. F.L.S 287-292 

Some Neolithic Hammer=Heads from East Yorkshire — (Illustrated) — T. Sheppani, 

F.G.S., F.S.A.iScot.) 293-294 

Coraicularla kochli Camb.— A Spider New to Great Britain— With a Key to the British 
Corniciilariae — Wm. Falconer 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Bowland 

Field Notes 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Northern News 

News from the Magazines 


Plates XVI,, XVil. 


294, 303 

286, 304 


274, 302 

275, 282, 283, 288, 291 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Parking don Aven^, JK.^(ftn \r\%tltij7^ 
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In progress, issued in Annual Parts, Svo. 
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Under this title Mr. J. A. Hutton has published a most 
instructive lecture, which is illustrated by several plates. In 
this the author demonstrates that it is possible to write a fairly 
good account of the life history of a salmon from an examination 
of a single scale. Assuming that the date of the capture of 
the fish is known, Mr. Hutton shews that it is possible to say 
when the fish was hatched, when it migrated to the sea ; its 
subsequent travels in and out of the river ; when it spawned, 
etc. ; all this and more from a careful examination of the lines 
of growth on a scale. 


In the ' Transactions of the Lincolnshire Naturalists' 
Union,' which will be independently noticed elsewhere, is 
a paper with the tempting title, ' Pre-historic Man in Lincoln- 
shire,' by the Rev. A. Hunt, whose extraordinary contributions 
to Lincolnshire ethnology we have previously had occasion to 
refer to. He dilates upon Eolithic Man, Palaeolithic Man, and 
Cave Man, and then we find that none of these occur in Lincoln- 
shire ! The paper then professes to give an ' inventory of all 
the pre-historic remains found in the county, and we again 
hear, of course, of the mythical * Pygmy Race.' 


In connection with this paper, the Curator of a certain 
museum (not in Lincolnshire, but close by), was asked some 
time ago to supply a complete list of all the pre-historic remains 
in his collections. The list was a lengthy one, and took some 
trouble to prepare, but was duly forwarded. "Though appar- 
ently nearly all the information supplied is used in the 
lists appearing in the address, no reference whatever is made 
to the museum, nor to the fact that a list had been supplied. 
The omission is all the more pointed, seeing that the specimens 
in two other museums are specially indicated. As the 
museum in question contains, if not the finest, one of the finest 
collections of Lincolnshire antiquities extant, the omission can 
hardly be put down to ignorance. Speaking of the Brigg boat, 
we find Mr. Hunt writing (p. 293) that it ' is the finest specimen 

* 32 pp. and 14 plates. London : Sherratt & Hughes, i/- net. 

1909 Aug. I. 


2/4 News from the Magazines. 

of a Neolithic boat yet found and preserved to us in England. 
It is still to be seen in our county, in a special shed built to pre- 
serve it near Brigg station.' Does it not seem like Fate, that, 
before Mr. Hunt's paper was published, this grand relic should 
have left the county, and have gone to that very museum that 
Mr. Hunt has forgotten all about ? 


We learn in this paper that vast sheets of ice are known as 
glaciers ! In a photograph of ' Early British Pottery,' there 
are some pieces which are certainly not early British, nor late 
British. The custom of raising mounds over the dead is by no 
means confined to 'Egypt, India, America and Britain.' Sir 
J. Lubbock is now Lord Avebury ; and what can anybody make 
of ' Incompleteness of the circle in the Barrow, points to design. 
Yet neither care nor trouble seem to have been spared in their 
funeral rites.' The exploded idea of bodies in barrows being 
buried ' facing the sun ' is trotted out. Some objects are 
described which are certainly not pre-historic. We learn, with 
surprise, that neolithic people did not eat fish. Didn't the 
pygmies make fish-hooks ? We are correctly informed that 
there are over 370 barrows in England ; seeing that Yorkshire 
alone has yielded over double that number, and by we get to 
the piffle at the end, about Stone and Bronze Ages in the Bible, 
our patience is well-nigh exhausted. ' In the Beginning — no 
date given ' ! ! 'There are Stone Memorials, Jacob,' etc., etc. 
' Bronze translated brass is mentioned forty-five times ; Iron, 
four times,' and surely ' flint ' is mentioned too, though we 
fail to see how this will help us in our ' researches.' 


We are pleased to hear that our contributor, Dr. G. S. West, 
son of Mr. W. West, of Bradford, has been elected to the Chair 
of Botany and Vegetable Physiology at the Birmingham 
University. We trust that Prof. West may long live to carry 
out the excellent work he is doing at Birmingham. 

The April Bradford Scientific Journal has an ' Introduction to the 
Study of Grasses,' by Dr. W. G. Smith ; ' AnneUd Hunting Round Brad- 
ford,' by the Rev. H. Friend ; ' Vegetation of Some Disused Quarries,' 
by Mr. S. Margerison ; ' Bradford Spiders,' by Mr. \V. P. Winter ; and 
' The Stonechat in Yorkshire,' by Mr. E. P. Butterfield. In this last article 
the author contends that the species is not nearly so common as one might 
be led to believe from Nelson's ' Birds of Yorkshire.' 



C. J. PATTEN, M.A., M.D., Sc.D. 

Being recently engaged in research into some points in avian 
embryology I solicited from gardeners, fruit-growers, and others, 
donations of eggs of some of our common species. A liberal 
response brought to me a number of eggs of the House-Sparrow, 
Blackbird and Song-Thrush, and in more limited numbers eggs 
of several other species. Some interesting variations in the shells 
came under my notice, especially in the case of the House- 
Sparrow and Song-Thrush. In the present paper I will deal 
only with the latter. I need merely give a passing notice 

Dimorphism in the Eggs of Tardus musicus. 

No. 4 is entirely devoid of spots. In Nos. 1, 2 and 3 the spots, and more especially 
the large blotches, are reddish-brown. In No. 3 there is, however, a large blackish blotch 
in addition. The unspotted egg (No. 4) is the longest ; No. 2 comes next, both of these eggs being 
more pointed than the shorter ones Nos. 1 and 3. The measurements are as follows : — No. 1 — 2-8 cm. 
by 2-2 cm. ; No. 2—29 cm. by 22 cm. ; No. 3—2-8 cm. by 21 cm. ; No. 4—3 cm. by 22 cm. It may, 
therefore, be observed that in breadth the eggs are practically of the one measurement. 

regarding variation in size in which in three clutches each egg 
measured only i'8 cm. or 7 mm. below the average as given by 
Saunders (' Man. Brit. Birds,' Sec. Edit., p. 4), while regarding 
variation in the distribution and size of the spots, I may men- 
tion that in two clutches they were exceedingly small, and 
wholly confined to the pointed ends. 

I now wish to refer in some detail to a clutch in which one 
egg was entirely devoid of spots. I do not place so much im- 
portance in the discovery of a Thrush's egg without spots ; 
it is generally known among ornithologists that such cases are 
by no means rare, but when the contents were examined in 
conjunction with the shell, some interesting points cropped up. 

1909 Aug. I. 

^7" Patten : Dimorphis^n in Eggs, etc. 

These I will refer to in a moment. The clutch in question, of 
which I give a photograph, consisted of four eggs. They were 
found on May 30th, 1908, in a perfectly normally-built Thrush's 
nest, well hned with a wall of dung, bits of rotten wood, and 
caked moss. The nest was built in a laurel-bush, and, when 
first discovered, the bird was sitting, and her identity thus 
secured. The off chance of the unspotted egg being that of a 
Starhng is rendered all the more remote by the fact that Star- 
lings were not breeding in the immediate neighbourhood, nor 
indeed can I find an instance of a Starhng laying in a Thrush's 
nest. That Thrushes have laid in Blackbirds' nests is a known 
fact, and there is no reason to doubt that occasionally a Black- 
bird may take possession of a Thrush's nest. Moreover, the 
Blackbird has been known to lay blue unspotted eggs. In the 
present instance, I do not think for a moment that the egg was 
introduced by another bird into the nest, yet, from the observa- 
tions made upon it prior to its being blown, suggestions seem to 
arise regarding the possibility of its being other than a member 
of the clutch. In measurement it is slightly longer than any 
of the spotted eggs, but the difference is so trivial as to call 
for no significance. Indeed, as may be seen from the measure- 
ments given below, all the eggs of the clutch exceed the average 
measurement in length. Its broadest measurement corres- 
ponds with two others of the clutch, while the remaining one 
is only i mm. narrower than these. In breadth all the eggs 
of the clutch may be said to attain to the average measurement 
laid down. But in the colour and texture of the shell, the un- 
spotted egg, examined unblown, showed two marked- peculiar- 
ities. The gloss, which was present in the spotted shells, was 
absent, and the texture of the shell was rougher and more porous. 
The other feature attracted my attention still more, namely 
the difference in the ground-colour. This was much more 
apparent when the specimen was viewed in strong sunlight. 
The shell of the unspotted egg appeared lighter in shade, and 
of a truer blue colour than the shells of the three spotted eggs. 
But the latter, which shewed a slight greenish tinge, became, 
when blown, almost identical in shade with the unspotted shell. 
The reason soon became obvious, for, on blowing out the con- 
tents, I was surprised to find that the unspotted shell contained 
only a remarkably small and very pale yellowish-white yelk, 
which, amidst the mass of glary albumen was very inconspicuous. 
Hence the strong hght, more or less transmissible through the 
shell, did not mingle to any extent with a rich and large yellow 
yelk-ball, and thereby produce a greenish effect. 

Patten : Dimorphism in Eggs^ etc. 277 

I was much interested with the aborted condition of the 
yelk, and it further occurred to me to obtain, if possible, evi- 
dence regarding fertility. This I was enabled to do after much 
delicate manipulation. For the eggs were fresh, and, though 
the vitelline membrane gave way as the contents were being 
extruded, still, after a careful search which occupied several 
hours, I managed to secure the germinal disc, and to isolate 
it from the yelk in each egg. In the case of the three spotted 
shells, the germinal discs, which measured 4 mm. in diameter, 
showed evidence of fertility, for development had proceeded as 
far as the early indication of the embryonic shield, the primitive 
streak being barely visible. In the disc of the abnormal egg, there 
were no traces of developmental activity having taken place, and , 
to the best of my belief, fertilization had not ensued. Here, then, 
is an interesting association, viewed in its physiological aspect, 
between variation in shell structure, absence of the pigmental 
deposit from the villous membrane of the parent's uterus, an 
abnormally small sized yelk-ball, which was unusually light in 
colour, and non-fertility. That there should be any necessary 
association between arrested activity of the secretion of the pig- 
mental deposit, which is not laid down until the shell is formed, 
and non-fertilization of the ovum itself, is not at all evident, 
and further investigation into the matter would be interesting. 

I may conclude with a brief reference to the pigment spots 
on the three other eggs of the clutch. In addition to a general 
distribution of small circular spots, great irregularly-shaped 
blotches are to be seen. With the exception of the lower spot 
on the face of egg No. 3, they are reddish-brown in colour ; 
indeed, these eggs, especially Nos. i and 2, might almost pass 
for that type of Ring-Ouzel's egg, which one occasionally meets 
with, displaying a clear bluish ground-colour with discreet 
brownish blotches. The difference in the black pigment spots 
seen on some Thrushes' eggs and the rusty reddish-brown on 
others, depends upon the thickness with which they are 
deposited. The pigment is naturally dark reddish-brown, and 
when laid on thinly, appears as such ; a thick coating appears 
almost black.* In this clutch, therefore, the pigment was 
evidently sluggishly secreted and deposited, until after attempts 
were made to spot three eggs, the secretive power of the gland 
finally ceased, leaving one egg altogether free from spots. 

* Just as in the case of the super-posing of hundreds of coloured 
blood-corpuscles, straw-yellow in shade, gives one the idea of rich red 

igog Aug. i. 




Last year on a waste heap near Bradford a very interesting 
series of plants was found growing luxuriantly. Most were 
casuals ; a few were aliens. Amongst the former were Lepi- 
dium ruderale L., Coronopns didymus Sm., Medicago denticulata 
Willd., Medicago arahica Huds., Carum carvi L., Solanum 
nigrum L., Marrubium vulgar e, L. Of the last there were two 
very fine plants, the principal shoot of each being two feet in 
height, and the lower lateral branches sixteen inches in length. 

The Chenopods were well represented. In addition to 
Chenopodium album L. and its varieties, C. viride L. and C. 
pagamim Reichb., there were fine examples of C. opidifoliiim 
Schrad, C. serotinum L., C. Vulvaria L., and two large beds of 
C. murale L. The grasses were also well represented by 
Panicum crus-galli T.., Setaria viridis Beauv., Setaria glauca 
Beauv., Polypogon monspeliensis Desf. (in abundance), Gas- 
tridium lendigerum Beauv., Festuca myuros L. (in abundance), 
and Bromus madritensis L. 

Amongst the aliens were Carthamus tindorius L., with its 
large head of richly coloured orange-red flowers, and Trigonella 
caerulea Ser., with its rich, silky lilac flowers. Three ahen 
grasses were Bromus tectorum L., Bromus unioloides H. B. and 
K., and Deyeuxia forsthii Kunth. = Agrostis rctro-pacta 
Willd. Agrostis retro-pacta Willd. is not recorded in Dunn's 
' Ahen Flora of Britain,' nor in Druce's ' list of British Plants.' 

Mr. A. Baydon Jackson, Secretary of the Linnean Society, 
to whom I sent a specimen, writes : — ' An interesting find, as it 
has not been noted as an alien before in England, so far as I 
am aware.' 

It is, I understand, a common Australian grass, and must 
have been brought over with wool. 

Erratum. — On page 253 of the July issue omit the 4th line from the 
bottotn and read : — ' This explains the scar of leaf (F^) encircling,' etc. 

A ' fine specimen of the bony sunfish ' was caught at Filey on July 
2 1st. It measured ' about 2 ft. 6 in. in length, and was almost as much 

We are pleased to find that Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, F.G.S., the Presi- 
dent of the Geological Section of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, has 
been appointed lecturer in geology at the Queen's University, Belfast. 
At the same time we are sorry that this promoTion means that Dr. Dwerry- 
house leaves Yorkshire. 





The Permian rocks in the neighbourhood of Doncaster 
include two hmestones separated by a red marl, 30 to 100 feet 
thick, which contains lenticular deposits of gypsum. The 
Upper Limestone is about 50 feet thick, and is in beds or layers, 
with a fossiliferous band near the top. The Lower Limestone 
is usually about 230 feet thick, and is a massive rock with few 
signs of bedding. The fossils it contains occur in great abun- 
dance near its base. Between the top of the Upper Limestone 
and the base of the Lower Limestone, organic remains are very 

The following fossils have been collected recently from 
these limestones in colliery shafts and railway cuttings near 
Doncaster. They have been named through the kindness of 
Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., and are here recorded in the 
hope that investigation may be stimulated. The activity 
expected in the near future in the search for coal will provide 
facilities for the examination of the overlying Permian rocks 
which it will be a pity to let pass. 

From the top of the Upper Magnesian Limestone, the speci- 
mens obtained were — Liebea hausmanni (Goldfuss), Schizodus 
obscurus (J. Sowerby). These occurred at Bullcroft Colliery, 
Carcroft, and on the Doncaster avoiding line, near Newton. 
From the basement beds of the Lower Magnesian Limestone 
the collection included — Liebea hausmanni (Goldfuss) {d) {e) ; 
Schizodus obscurus (J. Sowerby) (a) {b) ; Bakewellia antiqua 
(Miinster) [a) [b) {d) ; Leda speluncai'ia (Geinitz) {b) ; Pleiiro- 
phovus costatus (Brown) {a) ; Straparollus permianus (King) 
[a) ; Dielasma elongata (Schlotheim) [e) ; Camarophoria 
schlotheimi (v. Buch) (b) ; Spirifer alatus (Schlotheim) {b) (c) ; 
Lingula credneri (Geinitz) {b) (c) ; Productus horridus (J. 
Sowerby) {a) {b) (c) ; Fenestella sp. {b) ; Penniretepora sp. (&).* 
Some interesting references were made both by Sedgwick 
and by King — by the former in his ' Magnesian Limestone ' 
(' Trans. Geol. Soc. London,' 2nd series, Vol. IIL, 1829) ; by 
the latter in his ' Permian Fossils ' (' Palseontographical Society,' 

* (rt) = Brodsworth Colliery ; (6) = Bentley Colliery ; (c) = Maltby 
Colliery ; {d) = Cadeby Cutting, Dearne Valley Railway ; [e) = Cutting, 
S.E. of Doncaster to Conisbrough Road, Dearne Valley Railway. 

1909 Aug. I. 

28o Field Note. 

1850) — to the organic remains in the Magnesian Limestone 
rocks near Doncaster. Sedgwick pointed out their abundance, 
generally among the lower and more coherent beds, in the 
escarpments on both sides of the Don, and at Stubbs Hill and 
Wentbridge Hill. He stated that many casts of Axinus 
{Schizodiis) obscurus occur at Wentbridge Hill in the lower 
beds of yellow limestone, and that it is found in a much more 
perfect form in the lower beds of Stubbs Hill. He mentioned 
more than once the beautiful small casts of a deeply striated 
shell, apparently Turbo, which occur in the pisolitic yellow 
limestone between Marr and Hickleton. Casts of a small 
smooth shell, apparently of the same genus, are rarely found, 
he said, in the lower beds of yellow limestone near Conisbrough. 

King refers to the striated turbos as probably Turbo man- 
cuniensis (p. 206), and to the smooth ones as probably Turbo 
permianus (p. 206). King also alludes to the abundance of 
Schizodus obscurus at Stubbs Hill, and states it has been col- 
lected near Elmsall (p. 190). 

King's other references to the district are in regard to 
Mytilus squamosus, a specimen of which he figures from Ham- 
pole (p. 160) ; Bakewellia antiqua from Hampole, Stubbs Hill, 
and between Marr and Hickleton (pp. 169 and 170) ; Pleuro- 
phorus costatus from Stubbs Hill (p. 182) ; and DentaUum 
sorbii, discovered by the late Henry Clifton Sorby, from ' Con- 
nigsborough, near Doncaster ' (p. 218). All these localities 
are on the Lower Magnesian Limestone. 

Crossbills at Louth. — Recently, flocks of Crossbills have 
been seen in the gardens on the east side of Louth. In the • 
early morning of July 14th,* a flock of about a dozen was seen 
by Mr. L Robinson, Mount Pleasant, in his garden. He ob- 
tained two of the birds — both females — one young, the other 
adult. The next morning he saw a flock of more than a score, 
and obtained another young female ; he again saw them in 
the afternoon of the same day. The taxidermist to whom they 
were taken saved one of the crops for me ; its contents con- 
sisted entirely of ' Greenfly.' Two of the birds had the lower 
mandible curved to its left, the other to its right.- — C. S. Carter, 
Louth, July 17th. 

* A few days later a fine female Crossbill was seen in a garden near 
Brough, E. Yorks. — Eds. 






Johnstoniana ernins. — This very remarkable mite was des- 
cribed by Dr. George Johnston in his ' x^carides of Berwick- 
shire '* His description, which is accompanied by figm"es of 
the hairs of this mite on their bulbous base, one palpus, and 
two parts of the hind leg, is so clear and minute, that there can 
be no mistaking the identity of the creature. He describes it 
as blood red, with scarlet thorax legs and palpi ; smooth to the 
naked eye. He points out that it is not a characteristic 
Rhyncholophus, but stands as it were between that genus and 
Tvombidium. Now, dissection shews that it is nearer to 
Trombidium than to Rhyncholophus ; for the great distinction 
between these two genera is, that in Rhyncholophus the man- 
dibles are straight and fitted for piercing, whilst in Trombidium 
they are sickle shaped, and adapted for tearing. Figure b. 
is a mandible of this mite, and may be compared with that of 
Trombidium holosericeum (see page 333 of ' The Naturalist ' 
for 1908, fig. i.). 

In ' The Naturalist ' for 1907, page 180, will also be found a 
figure of the mandibles of Erythro'us, which is one of the 
Rhyncholophidce, and shews distinctly the great difference 
between the mandibles of the two families. 

At present Trombidium is divided into two sub-divisions, 
viz., Trombidium and Ottonia, and as the specimen now being 
described differs so greatly from both of them, I have ventured 
to make it a third sub-division, which I call Johnstoniana. It 
differs from the two other sub-divisions as follows : — 

{a) The body is longer than broad, only very slightly wider 
at the shoulders, the sides are straight and almost parallel, 
and the posterior end is widelj' and regularly rounded. 

(6) There is a distinct mark of division between the body 
and the cephalothorax ; the latter is conical, and pointed in 

(c) The eyes, each of which has two ocelli, are raised on 
short pedicles, and situated on the upper side of the cephalo- 
thorax, but wide apart. 

{d) The palpi, one of which is drawn much enlarged (fig. c), 
besides the large claw at the end of the fourth joint, have two 
accessory small claws. Trombiditim has no accessory claw, 
and Ottonia only one. These accessory claws are made out 
with difficulty, but can best be seen by examining the palpi 
before the mite is mounted. 

* 'The Berwickshire NaturaUsts' Club Transactions,' Vols. II. and III. 

igog Aug. i. 

282 George: Some British Eafthmitcs [Trombidiidce). 

{e) The legs are altogether remarkably different from either 
of the other two sub-divisions. They are longer, and the hind 
legs are considerably longer than the others ; and, instead of 
being more or less flattened from side to side, they are round, 
except where the claws are situated. They are studded with 
mamillary elevations irregularly situated, and having a stiff 
colourless curved bristle arising from their centres. Some of 
these are bent at right angles (figs, d, e and f) ; others only 
curved, biit all point backwards. Perhaps they are best seen 
on the last joint of the hind leg (fig. e). 

The front pair of legs are the next in length, and have the 
distal joint somewhat swollen, club-like. The sternite (fig. h) 
which is situated between the eyes, is rather short, and some- 
thing hke an inverted ' T,' (_l). It has on each side, about the 
middle of the stem, a rather large stigma, and on the skin above 
are a few stiff dark-coloured spines. The upper end of the 

sternite is also en- 
larged, and has two 
stigmata within the 
enlargements. Con- 
siderable care is re- 
quired to get a good 
mount of thisorgan. 
Mr. Evans has sup- 
plied me with three 
examples of this 
mite of different de- 
grees of develop- 
ment. The last was 
an adult female, and 
contained several 
round and rather 
large red eggs. It 
was found in damp 
moss on a stone- 
faced fence on the 
road side near Edin- 
burgh, on October 
31st, 1908. There 
was a wood on one 
side, and open fields 
on the other. About 
29 years ago I found 
two mites with simi- 
lar legs, so that 
doubtless this mite 
is pretty widel}^ dis- 

(t. Johnstoniana erraas. 

l>. Mandible. 

c. Palpus. 

il. Portion of hind leg. 

e. Last joint of hind leg. (angles. 

f. Hair on niamilla bent at right 

g. Curved hairs on body. 
h, Sternite. 

Na turaiist. 



Rev. J. E. HULL. 

Unless otherwise noted, all the spiders enumerated below were 
collected by myself during a month's stay in the neighbourhood 
of North Sunderland, in September 1908. Since that time the 
kindness of two or three friends has enabled me to add a few 
names to the list, some of consideiable importance. Previously, 
next to nothing had been done on the coast of Northimiberland, 
for casual visits to the neighbourhood of Whitley Bay, by myself 
in 1896, and by Dr. Jackson a few years later, produced very 
meagre results. The most notable of the Whitley records was 
that of Tmeticus reprobus Cb. (then a little-known spider, and 
recorded by me as a new species under the name of TmeHcus 
deniiculatus) , and of Erigone arctica White, found there by Dr. 
Jackson in 1902, when it was new to the British list. 

Of the more recent captures by far the most interesting is 

Cnephalocotes inciirvattts Cb. $ — cephalothorax. 

,, ,, — caput, from above. 

5. Lophocareiiitin uemoyale Bl. § 

-tibia of left palpus, from within, 
-tarsus and metatarsus of first 

pair of legs, 

6. Lophocarenuni pavalleliim Bl. ^ — epigyne. 

Cnephalocotes inciirvatus Cb., of which two males were taken on 
the links opposite the Fame Islands. The type specimen 
(also a male) was sent to Mr. Pickard-Cambridge from Aberdeen 

1909 Aug: I. 

284 Hull : Northiunhrian Coast Spiders. 

nearly forty years ago, and remained unique until the discovery 
of these Northumbrian examples. It was described in the 
Linnaean Society's Transactions, vol. xxvii, 1873, under the 
name of Walckenaera incurvala, and appears in Mr. Pickard 
Cambridge's 1900 list as Tapinocyha incurvata. Since 1900, 
however, the limits of the genera Tapinocyha and Cnephalocotes 
have been better defined, and the figures now given are suffi- 
cient to show that the ])resent spider undoubtedly belongs to 
the latter. It appears to lie between Cnephalocotes curtus Sim. 
on the one hand, and C. elegans Cb. and C. interjecius Cb. on 
the other. The elevation of the hinder part of the caput is 
greater than in C. curtus, and less than in the other two, and the 
tibial process of the palpus is an exaggeration of that which is 
found in C. interjecius. In the structure of the palpal tarsus, 
it approaches very near to C. curtus. Viewed from above, the 
occipital elevation is pretty distinctly outlined by dusky lines 
which at first sight give the spider the appearance of a Tapino- 
cyha, the lateral lines looking very much like the furrows which 
are found in the males of that genus. The female is as yet un- 
known, but now that a definite locality is known for the species, 
it ought to be forthcoming shortly. 

Lophocarenum nemorale Bl. is now recorded for the second 
time for Northumberland. In 1871 it was taken by Dr. Hardy 
on Cheviot Hill, and quite recently I have found both sexes in 
Allendale on the moors at about 1400 feet. It was quite plenti- 
ful in tidal drift between Seahouses and Beadnell, and during the 
present year I have received it from similar situations in the 
neighbourhood of Cresswell. It would seem, therefore, to have 
a decided preference for maritime and sub-alpine localities, 
though by no means unknown elsewhere. So far as I know,, 
this is the best authenticated example among spiders of a 
peculiarity of distribution which is well known in other branches 
of natural history. 

Prosthesima nigrita Th., so far as Northumberland is con- 
cerned, has a similar distribution, as the only previous record 
was for Cheviot. 

Erigone arctica White, and E. longipalpis Sund. are now 
known to abound all along the north-east coast. They literally 
swarmed in the tidal drift, the former being the more abundant 
of the two. Both of them also occurred casually on the sand- 
hills. These two species seem to be essentially maritime. 

Lophocarenum parallclum Bl. was equally plentiful with 

Natural St, 


Hull: Northumbrian Coast Spiders. 


L. nemorale Bl. at the same time and place ; but, unlike that 
species, it does not appear to ascend into the hills. Its upward 
limit in Allendale seems to be about 700 feet. 

Two other rare spiders have since been sent to me from the 
tidal drift — Typhochraestiis cHs;itatus Cb., a fine pair from the 
same spot as the spiders noted above (October 1908), the second 
occurrence of the female in the county, and the first of the male ; 
Cnephalo cotes elegans, both sexes (Ma^^ 1909- -just through the 
last moult) from Cresswell, the second record of the male for 
Northumberland and the first of the female. 

The characteristic spiders of the sandhills (as distinguished 
from the comparatively level links on the landward side of them) 
are Clubiona phragmitis C.L.K., Tibellus oblongus Wlk.. and 
Trochosa picta Hahn. Along with these are swarms of Lepty- 
phantes tenuis BL, /.. blackxcallii Kulcz., and Meta scgmentata 
Clk., which, though they may be found almost anywhere, are 
particularly abundant among the marram grass. 

Very few of the spiders occurring on the links have any claim 
to be considered distinctiveh' littoral, but several species appear 
to flourish better there than elsewhere. Among these may 
be mentioned Oonops pulcher, Pholcomma gibhum, Bolyphantes 
hiteolus, Gongylidium apicatum, Neriene bituberciilata, Tiso 
vagans and Arceoncus humilis. 

The two species of Erigone and Tmeticus reprobus Cb. are 
the only spiders which are exclusively maritime. The former 
occasionally wander to some little distance inland, but T. 
reprobus seems to be confined to the immediate neighbourhood 
of high water mark, where it is to be found under loose stones. 
It is generally distributed around the British Isles, but not yet 
recorded for the mainland of Europe. 

The following is a list of all the species — sixty-one in num- 
ber : — 

Oonops pulcher Tempi. 
Drassus lapidosus Walck. 
D. troglodytes C.L.K. 
Prosthesima nigrita Sund. 
Micaria pulicaria Sund. 
Clubiona recliisa Cb. 
C. phragmitis C.L.K. 
C. diversa Cb. 
C. trivialis L. K. 
Agroeca proxima Cb. 
Amaurobius fenestralis Str. 
Textrix denticulata Oliv. 
Theridion bimaciilatum L. 

Pholcomma gibbum Westr. 
Phyllonethis lineata L. 
Robertiis lividus Bl. 
Tapiiiopa longidens Wid. 
Bolyphantes hiteolus Bl. 
Stemonyphantes lineatus L. 
Linyphia clathrata Sund. 
L. montana Clerck. 
L. hortensis Sund. 
Leptyphantes blackwallii Kulcz. 
L. tenuis Bl. 
L. ericceus Bl. 
Bathyphantes variegatits Bl. 

1909 Aug. I. 


Reviews and Book Notices. 

Pedina scopigera Griibe. 
Centromerus bicolov Bl. 
C. silvaticus Bl. 
Tmeticus veprobiis Cb. 
Microneta beata Cb. 
Gongylidium fuscuni Bl. 
G. apicatum Bl. 
G. retusum Westr. 
Erigone arctica White. 
E. longipalpix Sund. 
Tiso vagaus Bl. 
Typhochrcestits digitatiis Cb. 
Lophomma herbigradum Bl. 
Dicymbiiini nigrum Bl. 
Neriene bitnbevculata Wid. 
Gonatium riibens Bl. 
G. rubellum Bl. 
Savignia frontata Bl. 
Amoncus hitmilis Bl. 
Cnephalocotes incurvatiis Cb. 
C. elegans Cb. 

Lophocarennm nemorcile Bl. 
L. pavallelum Bl. 
lFi(:?erm antica Wid. 
Walckenaera acuminata Bl. 
Cornicularia unicornis Cb. 
Ceratinella brevis Wid. 
-Ero furcata Vill. 
Me/rt segmentata Clerck. 
-/If. meriancB Scop. 
Pachygnatha degeerii Sund. 
Xysticiis cristatus Clerck. 
Oxyptila triix B1-. 
Tibellus oblongus Walck. 
Trochosa terricola Thor. 
r. /5ic/fl Hahn. 

Tarantula pidverulenta Clerck 
Lycosa amentata Clerck. 
L. pullata Clerck. 
L. nigriceps Thor. 
Heliophaniis flavipes Clerck. 

My thanks are due to Mrs. Fletcher, North vSunderland 
Vicarage ; to Mr. Tait, North Sunderland ; and to Mr. W. 
Flowers, West Thirston, for spiders collected and kindly sent 
on to me. Also to the Rev. 0. Pickard-Cambridge, for kindly 
coniirming my identification of some of the rarer species. 

Figures of Cnephalocotes incurvatus are here given to supple- 
ment those of Mr. Pickard-Cambridge in the Linnaean Society's 
Transactions, volume xxviii., plate 46, fig. 20 ; also of Lopho- 
carenum nemorale $ and L. parallehim $, which are not figured 
in any British work, and only very imperfectly in Chyzer and 
Kulczynski's ' Aranese Hungarias.' 

A Short Guide to the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street, 
London, S.W. 48 pp. Price id. 

Some little time ago when visiting the Jermyn Street jNIuseum, we pur- 
chased an elaborate guide for 6d., and were much impressed with the 
detailed accounts of large collections, which had been removed to other 
museums, some miles away. This state of things has now been remedied, 
and we are delighted to find that the Jermyn Street Museum has brought 
out a carefully compiled guide at the popular price of one penny. A 
perusal of this is some slight indication of the wealth of the geological 
specimens in this institution. By the aid of this ' short guide ' the visitor 
can at once find his way to the objects he is particularly interested in. 
Further help in this direction is given by the insertion of five plans. 

An Oflicial Guide to Towneley Hall, Burnley, written by Mr. John Allen, 
has just been issued by the Burnley Museum Sub-Committee. It is a well- 
illustrated account of this ancient mansion, now an attractive Art Gallery 
and Museum. Quite apart from its associations, there is much in Towneley 
Hall of interest to the artist, antiquary, or naturalist. In view of the ex- 
treme value of the Foldy's Cross, and the fact that it is one of the 
few of this type that are dated (1520), we certainly think that it should be 
placed under cover. 

Natura ist. 



\Vm. west, F.L.S., 


G. S. WEST, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S. 

{Continued from page 26^). 


Wallichii (Gi-un.) W. & G. S. West, 1. c. p. 122, t. 54, f. 7, 8 ; 
t. 55, f. 1-3. M. Wallichii Grun. 

This interesting Desmid occurred in the plankton of Gras- 
mere. In the British Islands it was only previously known from 
the plankton of certain of the lochs of Scotland and the Shetland 
Islands, in which places it has recently been discovered. Long. 
197 \t. ; lat. 150-165 \>. ; lat. isthm. 32 [j.. 

7. Cosmarium controversum West in ' Journ. Roy. 
Micr. Soc.', 1890, p. 289, t. 6, f. 31 [both description and figure 
imperfect] . 

This rare species has previously been recorded from both 
Wales and Scotland. It occurred in the plankton of Grasmere, 
but was very rare. The following is an amended description of 
the species : — 

C. submagnum, li-i^-plo longius quam latum, profunde 
constrictum, sinu angusto-lineari extremo ampliato ; semi- 
cellulae pyramidato-trapeziformes, angulis basalibus rotundatis, 
lateribus leviter convexis, angulis superioribus rotundatis, 
a pice late truncato ; a latere visae ovato-ellipticae ; a vertice 
visae ellipticre, tumore parvo ad medium utrobique. Membrana 
granulata, granulis rotundatis et uniformibus, in series obliquis 
decussatis 14 et series verticalibus indistinctis 18-19 (nonnun- 
quam vix conspicuis), ad marginem semicellularum uniuscu- 
j usque granulis 30-35 visis, in centro semicellularum cum 
scrobiculis rotundatis conspicuis inter granulos. Pyrenoidibus 

Long. 90-96 [J. ; lat. 72-77 fJ- ', lat. isthm. 22-32 /x ; 
crass. 45 /x. 

8. Arthrodesmus triangularis Lagerh. var. subtrian- 
GUi.ARis (Borge) W. & G. S. West in ' Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin.', 
XXIII. , 1905, p. 24. A. Incus var. suhtriangidaris Borge in 
' Botaniska Notiser,' 1897, p. 212, t. 3, f. 4. A. triangularis 
var. hebridarum W. & G. S. West, ' Journ. Linn. Soc.', XXXV 
1903- P- 542. 

1909 Aug. I. 

288 IVesi : Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 

This characteristic plankton-variety of A. triangtdaris 
occurred in several of the lakes, but not in any great profusion. 
Long. 35-42 ji ; lat. sine spin. 25-32 jx, cum spin. 77-83//. 

A most interesting form with a triangular vertical view 
occurred in the plankton of Easedale Tarn. This constitutes 
one of the connecting forms between the genera Arthrodesmiis 
and Staurastrum. It was observed intermingled with the more 
usual elliptical variety, and might be called ' forma triqueira ' 
(Fig. 5D). 

Fig. 5. A., Xanthidium subhastiferum West var. Murrayi W. & G. S. 
West-, X 430; B., Arthrodesmus crassus W. & G. S. West, X 500; C, 
A. triangularis Lagerh. var. subtriangularis (Borge) W. & G. S. West, 
X 500; D., A. triangularis var. subtriangularis forma triquetra, X 500; 
E., Staurastrum jaciiliferum West, X 500. 

9. Arthrodesmus crassus W. & G. S. West in ' Journ. 
Linn. Soc.', XXXV., Nov. 1903, p. 541, t. 14, f. 8, 9. Stauras- 
trum Sarsii Huitfeldt-Kaas, Planktonundersogelser, L, Norske 
Vande, Christiania, 1906, pp. 55, 156, t. i, f. 11-17. 

This species occurred in great abundance in Ennerdale 
Water. Long. 19.5-23 /x ; lat. (sine spin.) 19-21 /x ; lat. 
isthm. 10 /A ; crass. 11.5-13 ju. (Fig. 5 b). It appears to be a 
true plankton form in the British lake-areas. Huitfeldt-Kaas, 
who found the same Desmid in the Norwegian lakes, made the 
mistake of regarding the fibrillar structure of the enveloping 
mucus as an armature of spines. 

10. Xanthidium subhastiferum West var. Murrayi 
W. & G. S. West, 1. c. 1903, p. 540, t. 16, f. 6. 


IVest : Phytoplatikton of English Lake District, 289 

This distinctive variety has only previously been observed 
from the Scottish lakes. It was abundant in Grasmere and 
Windermere, especially in the latter, in which it was quite a 
conspicuous feature of the plankton. It also occurred in 
Hawes Water. Long. 56-61 /x ; lat. sine spin. 56-62 /x, cum 
spin. 92-97 //.. (Fig. 5 A). 

11. Staurastrum anatinum Cooke & Wills var. Lager- 
HEiMii (Schmidle) nob. St. Lagerheimii Schmidle in Bih, till 
K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. Bd. 21, No. 8, 1898, t. 3, f. 10. 5/. 
Landmarki Huitfcldt-Kaas, 1. c. 1906, pp. 54, 155, t. 2, f. 32, 


This variety differs only from typical 5^. anatinum in the 
shorter processes, which are scarcely more than half the normal 
length. It occurred in Ennerdale Water and in Easedale Tarn. 
Long. 53-65 /t ; lat. cum proc. 72-88 /x. St. anatinum and 
several of its varieties occur abundantly in the British lake- 
plankton. The var. Lagerheimii is known from Norway and 
Northern Sweden (Finmark). 

12. Staurastrum Arctiscon (Ehrenb.) Lund, in Nov. Act. 
R. Soc. Scient. Upsala, ser. 3, VIII., 1871, p. 70, t. 4, f. 8. 

This handsome Desmid appears to be very general in the 
British plankton, although exceedingly rare in other situations. 
It was particularly abundant in Brothers' Water. 

13. Staurastrum cuspidatum Breb. var. maximum West 
in ' Naturalist,' Aug. 1891, p. 247 ; W. & G. S. West in ' Journ 
Linn. Soc. Bot.', XXXV., 1903, p. 545, t. 17, f. 13. St. cuspi- 
datum Breb. var. longispinum Lemm. in ' Botan. Centralbl. 
Bd.', LXXVL, 1898, p. 4 (sep.). St. Daaei Huitfelt-Kaas, 
1. c. 1906, pp. 55, 155, t. 2, f. 30, 31. 

In the plankton of all the British lake-areas this large variety 
of St. cuspidatum occurs in abundance. It exhibits consider- 
able variability in the length of the spines, although they are 
invariably stronger than in typical St. cuspidatum. Surround- 
ing the base of each large spine is a ring of about six large 
pores, through each of which a short projecting piece of denser 
mucilage can frequently be seen extending into the surrounding 
and less dense gelatinous envelope. These structures are 
sometimes very conspicuous, and have caused Huitfeldt-Kaas 
to describe them as spines. 

14. Staurastrum jaculiferum West in ' Journ. Linn. 

1909 Aug. I. 

290 Wes/ : Phytopla7ikton of English Lake District. 

Soc. Bot.', XXIX., 1892, p. 172, t. 22, f. 13 ; ibid. XXXV.. 
1903, p. 543, t. 17, f. 1-4. 

This species is fairly general in the plankton of the English 
lakes, and a particularly fine form is abundant in Wastwater 
(Fig. 5 e). This form attained a diameter of 80 /x with the 

15. Staurastrum brevispinum Breb. forma major. Cells 
very large, but otherwise typical. Long. 59-63 /x ; lat. 52-57 /j-. 
This form was abundant in the plankton of Brothers' 
Water (Fig. 6 e). In size it approaches var. altum W. & G. S. 
West, but has not the proportions characteristic of that variety. 

16. Staurastrum Ophiura Lund, in Nov. Act. R. Soc. 
Scient. Upsala, ser. 3, VIIL, 1871, No. 2, p. 69, t. 4, f. 7. 

This species was only observed in the plankton of Easedale 
Tarn. It has been seen in no other part of the Lake District, 
and this is its first record for England. This is the more 
remarkable since St. Ophiura is one of the most conspicuous 
constituents of the Scottish and Welsh plankton. The speci- 
mens observed were 9-rayed, and had a diameter (with processes) 
of 142 /-i. 

17. Sph^rozosma vertebratum Ralfs var. punctulatum 
W. & G. S. West in ' Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin.', XXIII. , 1905, 
p. 28. 5. punctulatum West in ' Journ. Bot. ', Dec. 1891, t. 315, 
f. I, 2. 

This variety occurred in both Brothers' Water and Enner- 
dale Water, but was much more abundant in the latter. The 
cells are more angular than those of the type-form, and the 
punctulation of the cell-wall is a marked feature of the variety. 

18. Eudorina elegans Ehrenb. 

We find this member of the Volvocacege fairly general in 
the plankton of British pools and lakes. It always attains its 
greatest maximum in the autumn, during the decline of tem- 

Huitfeldt-Kaas (1. c. 1906, p. 36) has placed Spharocystis 
Schroeteri in the Volvocaceae under the name of ' Glceococcus 
mucosus A. Br.', but we are inclined to think that he has con- 
fused this characteristic plankton-alga with Eudorina elegans. 
Wesenberg-Lund also believes thisconfusion tohavetaken place. 
We should not be surprised if Huitfeldt-Kaas had done this, 

IVes^ : Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 291 

as some of his other observations point to similar misconcep- 
tions. He describes the iibrillar structure of the mucous 
envelope of certain Desmids as ' spines.' 

We would point out that the cells of the Eudorina-z(Aony 
are arranged more closely, and much more regularly than those 
of Sphcerocystis, and that each cell frequently contains several 
pyrenoids. Moreover, the bases of the cilia, where they pass 
through the mucous envelope, can always be seen in Eudorina, 
even in badly preserved specimens. 

Fig. 6. A.-D., Elakatothrix gelatinosa Wille from the plankton of 
Wastwater. A. and B., Colonies, x 200 ; C, portion of colony, X 500 ; 
D., very small colony, X 500. E., Staurastrum brevispinum Breb. forma 
major from the plankton of Brothers' Water, X 500. 

19. Elakatothrix gelatinosa Wille in ' Biol. Centralbl.', 
XVIII., 1898. 

This interesting Alga has only previously been observed in 
the lakes of Norway. It is not uncommon in the plankton of 
Wastwater, more especially in August, September, and October, 
but the British specimens do not exactly agree with those 
described from Norway. The cells are slightly narrower, 
and their disposition within the enveloping mucus is often 
somewhat irregular, although their long axes are arranged 
more or less lengthwise in the colony. The exterior of the 
mucous investment is very firm and tough, and the colonies 
have the general form of a somewhat irregular spindle. Long. 

4909 Aug. I. 

292 IVes^ : Phytoplankfon of English Lake District. 

cell. 16-25 J".; lat. cell. 3-4 /j^-; long, colon. 130-340 /y.; lat. 
colon. 13-48 ju.. (Fig. 6 a-d.) 

Wille has also described an American species — Elakatothrix 
americnna — with shorter and broader cells [vide ' Wille in 
Rhodora/ Aug. 1899, p. 150). 


20. Rhizosolenia morsa W. & G. S. West in ' Trans. 
Roy. Irish Acad.', XXXIII., sect. B., part II., 1906, p. 109, 
t. II, f. 5 — 7. R. eriensis H. L. Smith var morsa W. & G. S. 
West in ' Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin.', XLL, part III., 1905, p. 509, 
t. 6, f. 23. 

This Diatom occurred in abundance in Thirlmere and 
W^indermere. It is now known to occur in all the British lake- 
areas, and also in the Australian plankton. In the June plank- 
ton of Thirlmere resting-spores were noticed. These were 
relatively small, and were formed towards the middle of the 
cell. They were broader than long, and furnished with strong 
walls. Long. spor. 9 jj. ; lat. 12 /a. (Fig. 2). 

21. Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kiitz. var. as- 


This plankton-variety is fairly general in the English lakes 
and the elongated form of the frustules is maintained much 
more constantly than in the Scottish lakes. In the plankton 
of Grasmere colonies with very long frustules were plentiful. 
Long, trust. 86 />i ; diam. colon. 170 /x. 

The first British record of this variety was in 1902, when we 
recorded it from Lough Neagh and Lough Beg, but since then 
it has been found abundantly in all the lake-areas. 


22. Lyngbya bipunctata Lemm. in * Forschungsb. Biol. 
Stat. Plon.', VL, 1900, p. 138, t. 2, f. 48 ; ibid. X., 1903, p. 152. 

This species was frequent in both Codale and Easedale 
Tarns. Diam. trich. 1.4 ju, ; long, cell, 4-5.5 /*. Close to each 
end of every cell is a strongly refractive granule, the rest of the 
cell-contents being homogeneous, and of a pale blue-green 
colour. The filaments were flexuose, but not twisted into any 
regular spirals, as is sometimes the case. It appears to be 
very closely allied if not identical with L. Lagerheimii (Mob.) 
Gomont. The narrow plankton-species of Lyngbya require 
further investigation and considerable revision. 

[To be cojitinned). Nstms 's;. 


Plate XVI. 

Fig. a. 

Fi-. ;i. 

Fig. 4. 

Stone Hammer=Heads found in East Yorkshire. 



T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.S.A.Scot. 
(plate XVI.) 

The archaeological section of the Hull Museum has recently 
been enriched by a number of interesting objects. Amongst 
these are some hammer-heads of more than usual value, from 
the careful way in which they have been constructed, and also 
from the fact that they are of somewhat uncommon types. 
In each case the entire surface of the stone has been carefully 
worked, in order to give the shape to the implement, though in 
one instance, namely the Bempton specimen (fig. 2), it is quite 
possible that a well-rounded beach pebble may have been 
selected, the implement being shaped from it with less trouble 
than would have been the case from a rough piece of stone. 

Perhaps the neatest weapon is that shown in fig. 3, which 
was found at Sproatley in Holderness. This is made from a 
highly crystalline fine-grained igneous rock, probably obtained 
from the local drift, and is very symmetrically shaped. In 
proportion to the weapon, the hole for the haft is large. 
It seems to be rather different in type from any figured by the 
late Sir John Evans in his ' Ancient Stone Implements of Great 
Britain.' The weapon is roughly egg-shaped, the sides and ends 
being convex, whilst the top and bottom are slightly concave. 
It is 3 inches in length, 2f inches in width, i^ inch in thickness, 
and the hole is an inch in diameter at the outsides, being shghtly 
less in the centre. It weighs 7I ounces. 

A somewhat similar type of weapon is that shown in fig. 4, 
though the top and bottom are convex, and the extremities 
are rather more pointed than in the Sproatley example. It 
was found in the Carrs at Burton Agnes in 1890 by a game- 
keeper, and was presented to our collection by the Rev. C. V. 
Collier, F.S.A. The stone is of a hard quartzite or altered 
sandstone, such as occurs in the local drift, but the chief 
interest in the weapon is the fact that it is in an unfinished 
state. The sides have not been rounded off as in the Sproatley 
example, and although an attempt has been made to bore a 
hole for the shaft from each side, the work has not been com- 
pleted, there being less than one-eighth of an inch still to cut 
through. It well illustrates the probable method of boring the 
hole, viz., by means of sand and a stick, the scratches round and 
round being distinctly visible. The length of the implement is 

1909 Aug. I. 


Field Note. 

it is 2 inches wide, and i^ inches deep. The hole 
for the handle is i^ inch across on each side. It weighs 9 oz. 

A hammer-head of somewhat unusual type is illustrated in 
fig. 2. This was recently found at Bempton, and the aperture 
for the haft is remarkably well drilled, being perfectly circular, 
and well polished inside. Its shape can best be ascertained from 
the photograph. The material is a very hard quartzite, 
probably a beach boulder. It is ■2\ inches long, \\ inch wide 
at the widest part, i^ inch in thickness, the hole for the handle 
being /oths of an inch across, slightly narrowing towards the 
centre. It weighs 7 oz. 

Perhaps the most remarkable of the series, however, is the 
specimen shewn in fig. i, which was found at Hotham. It is 
made of polished flint. The specimen is interesting, as it 
has not been perforated in the ordinary way by boring, the 
nature of the material of course making such a feat well-nigh 
impossible. What has happened is that the early hammer- 
maker has selected a large slab of flint, which has had a 
natural hole or flaw through it, and the hammer-head has been 
worked round the hole. It is 3 inches long, 2.\ inches wide, 2 
inches deep, and weighs gj ounces. The only other perforated 
hammer of this material of which I have any knowledge is 
also an East Yorkshire specimen, in the collection of Mr. 
Thomas Boynton, F.S.A. It is not of Yorkshire flint, but is 
made from one of the tougher travelled flints such as occur 
in the glacial clay of East Yorkshire. 

Quick Nest= Building by Blackbirds. — In preparation 
for the camp of the East Lancashire Royal Engineers at Ben 
Rhydding, a quantity of timber (for fuel, etc.) was carted from 
the railway station on to the camp-field, on Thursday, May 
27th. Short of two days later, on Saturday morning, May 
29th, this pile contained a Blackbird's nest, with one egg in it. 
This pair of birds would probably have to build another hurried 
nest, as the wood was quickly put into use with the arrival of 
the regiment on the latter date. — H. B. Booth, Ben Rhydding. 

As a supplement to Mr. Booth's note, I may mention the 
case of a Mistle Thrush, which came under my notice several 
years ago. A nest of this species was to be found regularly 
year after year in a forked branch of a certain tree. Visiting 
the tree one Sunday, there was not the slightest signs of a nest. 
On the fohowing Saturday the usual place contained a nest and 
four eggs. — R. Fortune. 



Plate XVII. 

Coraicularia kochii, Camb. 





Linthwaite, Huddersfield. 

(plate XVII.). 

In a paper entitled ' On some Rare Arachnids obtained in 1908/ 
and issued in the ' Transactions of the Natural History Society 
of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne,' New 
Series, Vol. III., part 2, 1909, Dr. A. Randell Jackson describes 
and figures a new spider under the name of Cornicularia valid a, 
founded on a solitary female, which he took from amongst 
fallen leaves under a thorn bush on the banks of the Dee, 
at Saltney Ferry in Cheshire. Through the kindness of its 
discoverer, I have been able to compare this female with others 
which lately came into my possession, and which were collected 
in April of the present year by Mr. T. Stainforth of the Hull 
Museum, on the North Lincolnshire coast, and sent to me for 
identification. Included also in the collection were a couple of 
males, which are undoubtedly of the same species. On exami- 
nation, the latter were determined to be examples of the C. 
kochii Camb., described and figured in the ' Proceedings of 
the Zoological Society,' 1872. Mr. F. P. Smith, of London, 
was of the same opinion, and the Rev. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 
on a male being submitted to him, confirmed the identification, 
though he doubts its identity with the spiders so named both by 
Kulczynski in his ' Araneae Hungariae,' and by Simon in his 
' Les Arachnides de France ' and ' Histoire Naturelle de 
Araignees.' C. valida Jackson is therefore the hitherto un- 
recognised female of C. kochii Camb., (the name becomes a 
synonym), while the male of the latter is here for the first time 
recorded as an inhabitant of these islands. 

The Cornicularige are small spiders, ranging in size between 
two and three mm., usually with black bodies and reddish or 
yellowish legs, and may be met with amongst the moss, fallen 
leaves and herbage of woods and marshes. They are members 
of the group Erigoneae, and belong to that section of it, which 
is characterised by an elongated oval cephalothorax, a sternum 
longer than wide ; and in the female sex by a palpus which has 
the tibia much longer than the patella, and more or less enlarged 
from base to summit, and the tarsus strongly acuminate. 
From the other genera comprised in the same section, they may 

igog Aug. i. 

296 Falconer: Cornicularia kochii, Camh. 

be thus distinguished. In Wideria Sim. the posterior row of 
eyes, instead of being straight or nearly so, is curved strongly 
backwards. In Walckenaera Bl. the front is wider and the eyes 
occupy only a portion. and not the whole of its width. In 
Prosopotheca Sim. the posterior eyes are much larger and closer 
In Tigellinus Sim. the tarsi of the first pair of legs, instead of 
being about the same length as, are much shorter than, the 
metatarsi ; while the tibial spines are also longer and stouter. 
Eight species of Corniculariae have now been recognised in 
the British Isles. Two only of these, C. cuspidata Bl. and 
C. unicornis Camb., can be considered at all common ; the 
rest are amongst our rarest spiders. Of C. pavitans and C. 
pudens Camb., the solitary type females from the Cheviots, 1871, 
and of C. lucida Camb., two males from Dorset, 1870 and 1900, 
alone exist, while C. karpinskii Camb. has been taken twice — 
in Lanarkshire and Cumberland, 1900. The males of four 
species — C. cuspidata BL, C. unicornis, C. karpinskii and C. 
kochii Camb., are provided with a very distinct tubercle spring- 
ing from the centre of the ocular area. In two species, C. 
vigilax Bl. and C. lucida Camb., there is no such process. 

Apart from minor differences, the presence or absence and 
the form and size of this tubercle, will, therefore, together with 
the structure of the palpus, especially of the tibial joint and of 
the palpal organs, most readily distinguish the males of the 
genus from each other ; while the formation of the vulva, and 
the position and size of the eyes will render the same service in 
the case of the females. 

Fam. — Argiopid.e. U 

Sub-fam. — -Linyphiin^. 

Group — Erigone^. 

Section— Walckenaerini. 


Length of male, 2-6 mm. 

The cephalothorax of this spider is a very dark brown, devoid 
of punctate impressions, but somewhat rugulose behind at the 
sides and back. The abdomen is black and clothed with short 
hairs. The falces and mouth parts are a lighter dark brown, 
and the joints of the palpus, except the digital joint, which is a 
little darkened, are pale yellow. None of the above parts pre- 
sent any exceptional feature. 

Ocular Tubercle. This process (figs, i, 2 and j) in this 


Falconer: Cornictilaria kochii, Camb. 297 

spider is most characteristic. It is not only of a different shape 
and much larger and stronger than in the other species, being 
quite discernible in spirit with the unaided sight, but is also 
deeply divided at its extremity into two distinct, divergent 
lobes, which are convex above, concave beneath, and curved 
slightly downwards, with their edges ciliate with short, stiff, 
straight, equal, pale-coloured hairs. The under surface of the 
column is furnished towards the base with a number of longish, 
stiff, irregular, spreading hairs. 

In C. cuspida Bl., the tubercle is simple and obtuse ; in 
C. unicornis (fig. 7) and C. karpinskii Camb. (fig. 9), besides 
being much smaller, it is only indistinctly bilobed at the apex. 

Palpus. The tibial joint is prolonged above in a very 
large, long, irregular, curved apophysis, which is divided almost 
to the base into two narrowly separated (latterly a little diver- 
gent) portions, slightly unequal in length and directed forward. 
The inner and longer limb, somewhat bent in the terminal part, 
hes close to the digital joint, and is narrowed and slightly 
sinuous towards the apex. Near the base on its outer margin, 
it bears a strong tooth. The outer hmb is further removed from 
the digital joint, is abruptly acuminate at the apex, and sup- 
plied a little below that point with a stout, obtuse, oblong branch 
directed downwards and outwards. The other males do not 
possess the last-named process. 

In C. unicornis Camb. (fig. 6) and C. karpinskii Camb. 
(fig. 8) the tibial apophysis is likewise divided almost to the 
base. In the former, however, the limbs diverge, and the inner 
one bears a tooth ; in the latter, the limbs converge, and the 
inner one is without a tooth. In C. cuspidaia Bl. the apophysis 
is undivided. 

The Palpal Organs are bulky, complex, and prominent, 
the most noticeable features being (i) on the outer side at the 
base, a stout dark brown C-curved process (fig. 5a) ; (2) at the 
extremity, obliquely inclined outwards, a long, black, circular, 
spine (fig. 5b) ; (3) on the inner side, springing directly from 
beneath the apical spine, a long, strong, curved, red-brown 
tooth directed backwards towards the base of the palpal organs. 

Eyes. Eight in number, rather small, the fore centrals 
being decidedly the smallest ; arranged in two rows, which are 
curved away from each other, enclosing an oval space. The 
curve of the posterior row is very slight, that of the anterior 
row is stronger. Both the hind and fore centrals are much closer 

1909 Aug. I. 

298 Falconer: Coriiicularia kochii, Camh. 

to each other than to the laterals of the same row. The latter 
pair are almost contiguous, being less than half their diameter 
apart. The former are more separated, being fully a diameter 
apart. The quadrilateral which they form is much longer than 
wide, and narrower in front than behind. 

The male from which the above description and the draw- 
ings were taken, together with most of the females, is now in 
the Hull Museum, and may be seen there by anyone interested 
in the matter. 

C. kochii Camb. has now occurred in close proximity to the 
sea in three English counties : — in Cheshire, one female, 1908 
(Dr. Jackson) ; in Yorkshire, at Saltend Common, near Hull, 
where other very rare and unexpected spiders have occurred, 
one female, May 1909 (T. Stainforth) ; and in Lincolnshire, 
first on the occasion of the Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' 
Club Excursion, 17th April, 1909, two males, four females on 
the coast between South Ferriby and Barton-upon-Humber 
(T. Stainforth) ; later, in May, two females (T. Stainforth), 
and three females (E. A. Parsons) in the same place, one female 
between Barrow Haven and Barton Haven (T. Stainforth), 
and one female between Barrow Haven and New Holland (T. 

I am informed by Mr. Stainforth that the localities on both 
sides of the Humber are similar in character — the fiat portion of 
land covered with the usual estuarine plants (sea aster, sea 
pink, maritime plantain, etc.), which lies between the barren 
mud flats of the river and the clay embankments, and is sub- 
merged only at the highest tides. The specimens were found on 
the dried mud beneath or amongst the coarse matted grasses and 
the estuarine plants. 


A. — Ocular area with a vertical tubercle. 

I. Tubercle obtuse and simple. Tibial apophysis 

undivided . . . . . . . . . .Cuspidata B1. 

II. Tubercle bilobed at apex. Tibial apophysis 

divided almost to base. 

1. Tubercle very large, deeply divided at 

apex into two distinct divergent lobes. 
Outer limb of tibial apophysis with 
an oblong branch near its extremity Kochii Camb. 

2. Tubercle small, indistinctly bilobed at 

apex. Outer limb of tibial apophysis 

without a branch. 

{a) Limbs of apophysis diverge. 
Inner limb with a tooth near 
its base. . . . . . . Unicornis Camb. 

(7b be continued). Naturalist » 



In their peregrinations the members of the Yorkshire Natural- 
ists' Union during the past half-century have visited many parts 
of the county, but rarely have they got so far from the madding 
crowd as during Whit week-end, when the district around 
Rowland, or Bolland, was investigated. Newton-in-Bowland 
was decided upon as the headquarters, and its great distance 
from the railway, whilst adding a charm to the outing from a 
naturahst's point of view, had its disadvantage as regards 
comfort and approach. 

Newton, a compact old-world village, with substantially 
built farmhouses, mostly erected in the latter part of the 
seventeenth century, is most pleasantly situated. In the heart 
of the village is a small quarry, which delighted the geologists 
by the great number of well-preserved Carboniferous Lime- 
stone fossils that it contained, notably a large quantity of 
crinoid ' heads ' — specimens not usually obtainable. Under 
the guidance of the President of the section, Dr. Dwerryhouse, 
this party had a profitable time, and on the side of one of the 
numerous streams were successful in finding several charac- 
teristic zonal fossils. 

The geologists were on classic ground. In Knoll Park are 
enormous rounded hills resembling huge pre-historic tumuli 
in being so symmetrical. Instead, however, of their containing 
the remains of British chiefs, they are entirely composed of the 
dead shells of various molluscs, and in amongst them are corals, 
zoophytes and trilobites. In fact, the hills are to all intents and 
purposes, reefs formed in a Carboniferous sea, the great mounds 
being formed by the accumulation of the shells, etc., of the one- 
time inhabitants of the water. These reefs were eventually 
solidified, surrounded by shales containing a different fauna, 
and the whole buried by thousands upon thousands of feet of 
strata. The geological history of the district from then to the 
present time is an exceedingly interesting one, but we can only 
briefly refer to the last chapter. In comparatively recent times 
the whole of the superincumbent strata have been denuded — 
even the shales surrounding the knolls have been largely swept 
away. But the result is wonderful. There, in the valley, are 
the heaps of shell remains — now high and dry ; otherwise but 
little changed from that long distant time when they were 
formed on the ocean floor. 

1909 Aug. I. 

300 Yorkshire Naturalists at Bowland. 

It is true that geologists have different ideas as to the way 
these hills were formed, but Mr. R. H. Tiddleman was the first 
to suggest their origin in the way already described, and cer- 
tainly the very critical examination, made on this occasion, 
resulted strongly in favour of Mr. Tiddleman 's theory — at 
any rate so far as these particular hills are concerned. 

One hill especially, which fortunately had many sections, 
was examined yard by yard, from base to summit, the investiga- 
tion extending until a very late hour. From this it was clear 
that the beds on the top were practically level, whilst the strata 
dipped outward at a high angle all round, after the manner 
of a colliery waste-heap. From the various exposures in the 
district — both in the limestone and in the shale, which in a 
few places had survived the sub-aerial and glacial erosion — 
several very fine and rare specimens were secured. 

The party included a few antiquaries, who were successful 
in securing an interesting, if gruesome, rehc of the ' good old 
days.' This consisted of a set of gallows irons, which were 
doing duty for a very modern purpose on a farm. 

The botanists, ornithologists, and, in fact, all the sections 
found the district a veritable paradise, the appearance of the 
countryside being much improved by the recent rains. 

The botanists were favoured with the leadership of the Rev. 
W. Crombie and Miss Peel, and were successful in finding the 
places where quite large series of interesting plants were 
growing. It rarely happens that there is such a variety of 
unusual forms as were seen by the botanists on this excursion. 

Mr. J. Turner writes : — ' Probably the most characteristic 
plants of the hedgerows were the primrose and the water avens. 
The common meadow-rue was also noted. A very striking 
feature of Dunnow Wood was the broad-leaved garlic, which 
appeared to be exterminating the wild hyacinth. The rock- 
rose was growing in profusion on the top of the scar, where 
also the hairy violet was found, and orpine or live-long was 
growing on the face of the rock. 

The Old Hodder is a veritable botanical paradise, and here 
the marsh cinque-foil was recorded, though not in flower. 
Indeed, the season was rather backward, and consequently 
some plants that were diligently sought were not found. This 
was the case with the Alpine cinque-foil and Solomon's Seal. 

The whole district is exceedingly rich in the variety of its 
plant forms, and might, with advantage, be visited at the end 


Yorkshire Naturalists at Botoland. 301 

of July, when the later species will be making their appear- 

A complete list of the plants noted on this excursion was 
prepared, and has been forwarded to the Secretaries of the 
Botanical Section for preservation. 

Mr. H. B. Booth, who had charge of the Vertebrate Section, 
writes : — ' A total of seventy-two species was noted, viz., twelve 
mammals, fifty-six birds, one reptile, one amphibian and two 
fishes. The district was chiefly interesting on account of the 
variable distribution of the ordinary common species, some 
being abundant, others comparatively scarce, and other species 
which might have been expected, could not be detected. For 
instance, it seemed hardly like being in Yorkshire, to be where 
the Rook, Jackdaw, Hedge-Sparrow, Yellow-Hammer, etc., 
were rarities, or almost unknown. 

The following mammals were noted : — Mole, Common Shrew 
Stoat, Fox, Rabbit (abundant), Hare, Water-Vole, Field Vole 
(common*). Long-tailed Field Mouse, Common Rat, Squirrel 
and Hedgehog — the last two apparently being uncommon. 

A feature of the district was the abundance of the common 
rat far away from human habitations and out-buildings. We 
found them almost everywhere — along the riverside, the moun- 
tain-side (Whitendale) , and in the keepers' traps in the woods 
and fields. 

Miss M. N. Peel had given a very good forecast of the 
avi-fauna of the district in the programme for the excursion. 
No great rarity was noted. As so little has been previously 
reported from this district, and as the chief interest lies in the 
somewhat unusual distribution, the species in the following 
list are given in their comparative abundance or scarcity, f 

* The rejected ' pellets ' of owls were numerous in the woods. All those 
examined contained the bones and fur of small mammals, and apparently 
of the same species — one ' pellet ' also containing the elytra of a Dor 
Beetle. All the nine skulls that I took home for examination were those 
of the Common Field Vole (Microtus agrestis). This destructive little 
animal must be very numerous in the district — we noticed its runs in several 
places. It is well that owls are protected, as I do not know any place in 
the West Riding where a plague of Voles would be more likely to occur. — 

I It will be understood that the quantative terms applied to the different 
species do not imply that they were present in equal numbers. For 
instance the Lapwing and Grey Wagtail both come under the term ' Com- 
mon.' That is as we should consider each of them ' common ' in the 
West Riding. 

1909 Aug. I. 

302 News from the Magazines. 

The following were abtindant : — Song Thrush, Blackbird, 
Starling, House Martin and Willow Warbler ; comparatively 
common — Robin, Dipper, Blue Tit, Grey and Yellow Wag- 
tails, Meadow Pipit, Spotted Flycatcher, Swallow, House- 
Sparrow, Chaffinch, Swift, Cuckoo, Red Grouse, Pheasant, 
Lapwing, Snipe, Common Sandpiper and Curlew ; fairly com- 
mon — Mistle-Thrush, Ring-Ouzel, Whitethroat, Great Tit, 
Wren, Goldcrest, Garden Warbler, Wood Warbler (rather 
local), Pied Wagtail, Sand Martin, Lesser Redpoll, Skylark, 
Kingfisher, Sparrow-Hawk, Heron, Ring-Dove, Partridge, 
Water-Hen, Golden Plover, Redshank, and Lesser Black- 
backed Gull (seen on several occasions). The Greenfinch and 
Tree-Pipit were not so common as might have been expected ; 
and the following species were only seen or heard on one occa- 
sion — Redstart, Hedge-Sparrow, Blackcap, Lesser Whitethroat 
(in Knowlmere Park), Twite (on Newton Fell), Rook,* Carrion 
Crow, Nightjar (in Whitendale), Woodcock and Corncrake. 

It was rather a surprise that the following species were not 
met with at all, as the district appeared to be very suitable for 
them — W^heatear, Whinchat, Jackdaw, Magpie, Yellow-hammer, 
not any of the Buntings, nor any species of duck. No Owls were 
seen nor heard, but there was ample proof of the presence of 
the Tawny and Long-eared Owls by their numerous rejected 
pellets. The Slow-worm (on top of crag, Dunnow \\'ood), 
was the only reptile ; and the Frog the only amphibian noted. 
Trout were plentiful in the Hodder, and we saw a large Salmon, 
quite thirty-six inches long. It was very sluggish, and only 
moved slowly away when touched.' 

Dr. Dwerryhouse presided at the general meeting at which 
the reports of the various sections were presented. 

T. S. 

Mr. W. Eagle Clarke writes on the ' Chicks of the Sanderling,' and Mr. 
A. D. Sapsworth on the ' Peregrine Falcon on the Yorkshire Cliffs,' in the 
July British Birds. 

In the JMineralogical Magazine for July is a paper ' On a New Method 
of Studying the Optical Properties of Crystals,' by the late Dr. H. Clifton 

In the July Bradford Scientific Journal are the following papers : — 
' Local Dart or Hover Flies,' by J. H. Ashworth ; ' Fertilisation of the 
Sweet Pea,' by P. Clapham ; ' Where the Honey comes from,' by ' Etain ' ; 
' Living Things and Things Inanimate,' by J. H. Rowe ; and ' Annelid 
Hunting Around Bradford,' by Rev. H. Friend. 

* The nearest rookeries appear to be at Dale Head (about 3! miles), 
Bromley Wood, (Clitheroe), and Chatburn. We were informed that 
formerly there was a rookery at Newton. 



A Hon ater L. as a Wart Curer. — I have just heard for 
the second time from the same man how he was cm'ed of a 
large wart by the apphcation of a black slug. In 1852 or 
thereabouts he had a very bad wart on the back of his hand. 
An old woman suggested to his mother that he should see a 
local tinsmith [Richardson, of Queen Street] about it. He 
was taken, and the tinsmith rubbed the hand gently, and told 
him to get up early next — or some other — morning before the 
sunrise, and look for a black slug. The wart had to be rubbed 
by the slug, and then the slug had to be impaled on a hawthorn 
spine, and as the slug melted away, so would the wart. ' So 
it was,' he declared to me, though he could not say how long 
it took to disappear. In Rhys' ' Celtic Folklore,' in the first 
volume, this treatment is mentioned, but the doctor's inform- 
ant forgot what became of the slug. The whitethorn here 
has no magic significance, I think. The rest is, of course, 
sympathy. — S. L. Petty, Ulverston. 

— : o : — 
Gracilia minuta F. at Selby. — I beg to record the occur- 
rence of this interesting little longicorn here as an importation, 
a local fruiterer calling my attention to hundreds which were 
in a hamper conveying French-grown carrots. I submitted 
specimens to the Rev. A. Thornley, who, quoting ' Fowler,' 
writes — ' In dead twigs in hedges, etc., and often in old hampers 
etc., local, common, having been recorded for London district, 
Devon, Hastings, Bristol, Cambridge, Burton-on-Trent, Sun- 
derland (two specimens) perhaps imported. (Not recorded 
from Scotland).' Mr .Thornley has recorded it himself from 
Notts, and Lincoln. Has it been recorded from Yorks. ' im- 
ports ' or otherwise ? * — John F. Musham, F.E.S., Selby. 

— : o : — 
Brown Rook in N. Lines. — A brown, almost chocolate- 
coloured rook has recently been observed at the rookery near 
Baysgarth Park. Mr. A. B. Hall informs me he has seen it 
several times, and that Mr. Frank Bygott, who resides near the 
rookery, has a similarly coloured bird, stuffed, which he shot 
many years ago. — G. W. Mason, Barton-on-Humber. 

* The species is recorded for Hull by Mr. T. Stainfortli in ' Trans. Hull 
Field Nat. Club,' Vol. 3, pt. i, 1903, p. 109 ; and has been taken at CIa]3- 
ham and Thackley by Mr. F. Booth ; recorded in the Y. N.U. Annual Report, 
1908, p. 21. — Eds. 

1909 Aug. 1. 



A Guide to the Whales, Porpoises and Dolphins in the British Museum 
(Natural History), has recently been issued at 4d. It can be looked upon 
not only as a reliable guide to the fine series of aquatic mammals in the 
National Collection, but as a general introduction to this fascinating branch 
of natural history. That it has been written by Mr. R. Lydekker is suffi- 
cient guarantee as to its reliability. There are thirty-three illustrations. 

The Bradford Public Libraries' Committee has issued a Catalogue of 
the Lees Botanical Collection in the Reference Library. 36 pp., price 3d. 

This contains a list of the botanical books and pamphlets purchased from 
Dr. Arnold Lees, as well as of a few geological items. To facilitate reference 
there is an Index of Subjects, and an Index of Authors. These special 
catalogues are useful, and this appears to have been carefully compiled. 

Birds and their Nests and Eggs by G. H. Vos. London ; George Rout- 
ledge, 148 + 223-H240 pp. 3/6. 

This volume contains, in one cover, the three series, under the same 
title, which had been previously issued at i/- each, already noted in these 
columns. The original pagination, titles, etc., are, however, maintained, 
giving the volume a patchy appearance. Naturally, the remarks already 
made in reference to the matter and illustrations also apply to this book. 
It has the advantage, however, of a brief index, and the volume will make 
a cheap and acceptable gift to a schoolboy. 



The following observation from a recent issue of a ' natural history ' 
journal shews with what ability a properly-trained naturalist can explain 
anything : — ' The reason for the rarity of snakes [in Ireland] is possibly the 
abundance of pigs, which are great devourers of snakes.' 

Mr. L. Glauert, F.G.S., has recently contributed a paper on ' A New 
Species of Sthenurus ' to the Geological Society of London. This species 
of Kangaroo had been recognised amongst bones found in the Mammoth 
Cave, Margaret River, Western Australia. 

The mantle of Gilbert White has evidently fallen upon the Vicar of 
Pontfaen, near Fishguard, who writes that ' House-martins who [sic] have 
built nests under the eaves of his house, have been regularly fed by hedge 
sparrows, which took rice from chickens, and carried it to the nests.' 

Mr. C. Waterfall has been lecturing before the Hull Junior Naturalists' 
Society on ' The Causes contributing to the Rarity of Plants.' 

' Butterflies Chasing Children at Selby ' is the title of a note in ' Wild 
Nature Week by Week,' specially contributed to the ' Yorkshire Evening 
Post.' We hear that the children have passed a good night at the hospital, 
but are still suffering from shock. 

We regret to learn that Scotter Common, Lincolnshire, has been fired, 
probably through carelessness, and that about 200 acres of this fine 
common have been cleared of vegetation, and considerable damage 
has been done to game, etc. 

From Mr. T. Petch, B.Sc, the Government Mycologist in Ceylon, we 
have received a number of reprints, the most interesting of which deals 
with ' The Phalloideac of Ceylon.' Judging from the many excellent plates, 
these curious fungi are provided with veils. The compositor has evidently 
not grasped the fact that the specimens belong to the vegetable kingdom, 
which perhaps accounts for the unfortunate misprint ' Nat. sire ' on the 



No. 632 

(No. 410 of eurrtnt aeries). 




T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museum, Hull ; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 




Contents : — 

Notes and Comments : — Charles Darwin as Geologist ; A Useful Hammer ; 
at Huddersfield ; A National Folk-Lore Museum 

Interesting Find 

Oystercatcher Nesting at Spurn— (Illustrated) — Oxley Grabham, M.A., M.B.O.V. 
Natural History of Runswick— r.S. 

On the Geological Distribution of Mollusca in South Lonsda\e—Rev . C. E. Y. Kendall 

B.A., J. Davy Dean, and W. Mxmn Rankin, M.Sc, B.Sc. 
Fungi in the Neighbourhood of Selby— C. Crosstand, F.L.S. 
Erratic Boulders at Bardney Abbey— F. M. Burton, F.L.S., F.G.S 

The Phytoplankton of the English Lake District (Illustrated)— IVw. West, F.L 

G.S. West, M.A.,D.Sc., F.L.S 

Cornlcularla kochii Camb.— A Spider New to Great Britain— With a Key to the British 

Comicularias — Wm. Falconer 

Field Notes 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Northern News 

News from the Magazines 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 313, 320, 

Illustrations 307,308,310,323, 

S., and 






321, 322 
833, 336 
324, 332 

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And at Hull and York. // t^ 

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8vo, Cloth, 292 pp. (a few copies only left), price 5/- net. 

Contains various reports, papers, and addresses on the Flowering Plants, Mosses, and Fungi of the county. 

Complete, Svo, Cloth, with Coloured Map, published at One Guinea. Only a few copies left, 10/6 net. 

This, which forms the 2nd Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, is perhaps the most 
complete work of the kind ever issued for any district, including detailed and full records of 1044 Phanero- 

fams and Vascular Cryptogams, 11 Characeae, 348 Mosses, 108 Hepatics, 258 Lichens, 1009 Fungi, and 382 
reshwater Algas, making a total of 3160 species. 

680 pp.. Coloured Geological, Lithological, &c. Maps, suitably Bound in Cloth. Price 15/- net. 
NORTH YORKSHIRE: Studies of Its Botany, Geologry, Climate, and Physical Geography. 

And a Chapter on the Mosses and Hepatics of the Riding, by Matthew B. Slater, F.L.S. This Volume 
forms the 3rd of the Botanical Series. 

396 pp.. Complete, 8vo., Cloth. Price 10/6 net. 


This is the 4th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, and contains a complete annotated list 
of all the known Fungi of the county, comprising 2626 species. , 

Complete, Svo, Cloth. Price 6/- post free. 


This work, which forms the 5th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, enumerates 1044 
species, with full details of localities and numerous critical remarks on their affinities and distribution. 

Complete, Svo, Cloth. Second Edition. Price 6/6 net. 


The First Edition of this work was published in 1883, and contained particulars of 1340 species of 

Macro- and Micro-Lepidoptera known to inhabit the county of York. The Second Edition, with Supplement, 

contains much new information which has been accumulated by the author, including over 50 additional 

species, together with copious notes on variation (particularly melanism), &c. 

In progress, issued in Annual Parts, Svo. 

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THE NATURALIST. A Monthly Illustrated Journal of Natural History for the North of England. Edited 
by T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S. , Museum, Hull; and T. W. WOODHEAD, F.L.S., Technical College, 
Hudderstield ; with the assistance as referees in Special Departments of J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., 
Subscription, payable in advance, 6/6 post free). 

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Members are entitled to buy all back numbers and other publications of the Union at a discount of 25 

per cent, off the prices quoted above. 
All communications should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary, 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., The Museums, Hull. 


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at very low rates. Apply at once, stating requirements, to 




Under the above title the Cambridge University Press has 
pubhshed the Rede Lecture, dehvered by Sir Archibald Geikie, 
at the recent Darwin Centenary Celebrations at Cambridge.* 
We can cordially recommend this little volume to our readers. 
In it Sir Archibald points out that hitherto sufficient importance 
does not appear to have been attached to Darwin's geological 
work. It was the science of geology that first commanded 
Darwin's attention, and doubtless its study had much to do 
with the line of research he followed , with such brilliant results. 
Sir Archibald, in his familiar masterly manner, deals with 
Darwin's geological work ; his South American, etc., researches 
whilst on the ' Beagle ' ; his brilliant discoveries with regard 
to coral islands ; his work on the formation of soils, etc. 


As illustrating the fact that Darwin was a true held 
geologist and always provided with a hammer, the story is 
told that whilst some officers were surveying in the island of 
San Pedro, a fox {Cams jnlvipes), a new species, was sitting on 
the rocks. He was so intensely absorbed in watching the work 
of the officers that Darwin was able, by quietly walking up 
behind, to knock him on the head with his geological hammer. 
"■ This fox, more curious or more scientific, but less wise than 
the generality of his brethren,' is now in the Natural History 
Museum, South Kensington. 


Forty years ago a description of a fossil cone from the Coal 
Measures was given by Carruthers, and he named it Volk- 
mannia hinneyana — now known as Colamostachys hinneyana. 
Although many specimens are known, in not a single instance 
has the cone been found in connection with vegetative organs 
of any kind. In the July ' Nei& Phytologist ' Mr. H. Hamshaw 
Thomas describes and figures a specimen shewing the cone 
with four whorls of Calamite leaves attached at the base. 
From the size, shape, and arrangement of these, it may be con- 
cluded that they are of the type known as Colamocladus 
[ = Astevophyllites) grandis Sternb, and thus an important 
advance has been made in this particular branch of paleo- 
botany. The specimen upon which Mr. Thomas's notes are 
based was found in a calcareous nodule from the Halifax Hard 
Bed of the Lower Coal Measures of Huddersfield. 

*9i pp., cloth, 2/. net. 
1909 Sep. I. U 

3o6 Book Notice. 


Mr. Henry Balfour's Presidential Address to the Museums'' 
Association, delivered at Maidstone on July 13th, is printed 
in the ' Museums' Journal ' for July. In this Mr. Balfour, 
whose excellent work at the Pitt Rivers Museum in Oxford is' 
well known, advocates the formation of a National Folk Lore 
Museum. He points out that in the Guildhall Museum, London \ 
the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries in Edinburgh, and in 
some other museums, more or less definite attention is paid to 
obsolete and even obsolescent industries, customs and appli- 
ances in the British Isles. The British Museum, however, is 
everything except British as far as ethnology is concerned. 
There is reticence in dealing with our own nation which is 
specially noteworthy in view of the name which is applied to 
this great institution. We trust that something tangible may 
be the result of Mr. Balfour's appeal 

My Life Among the Wild Birds in Spain, by Willoughby Verner. Bale, 

Sons i\: Danielsson. 468 pp., 21/- net. 

This book contains a chatty record of the creme de la creme of bird- 
nesting. Colonel Verner, as his writings elsewhere have shown, has been 
unusually fortunate in his frequent visits to Spain, and with pluck and 
perseverance, has visited and photographed the nesting sites of a whole 
host of vara aves ; he has certainly been in an ornithologist's paradise. 
He has the further ability of recording his reminiscences in a pleasant style, 
and with the aid of pencil and camera has produced a volume the 
only drawback to which we can find is that it is perhaps a little expensive 
for the ordinary lover of birds. In reading the narrative, it is pleasant to 
find that the Colonel is by no means a nest-robber, and lie is exceedingly 
bitter in his remarks against those systematic collectors of eggs who, 
largely for pecuniary gain, bring disrepute to the genuine ornithologist. 
Amongst the illustrations are scores that will appeal to the British naturalist,, 
those of the Great Bustard, Booted Eagle, Black Kite, Red Kite, Goshawk 
and Crane being unusually good. The photographs of eggs and nests that 
are reproduced include several that most English collectors will hardly ever 
hope to see in nature. There are many interesting experiences related in this 
volume, which we should like to relate, did space permit ; but we must 
refer our readers to the book itself. There is one, however, which we must 
mention. A nest of a Bonelli's Eagle, after a heavy climb, was found to 
contain but one egg. It was taken, and a tame goose's egg was substituted. 
Soon after, a naturalist, ' who never collected eggs, but only photographed 
them,' came to this identical old-world place, in search of ' copy.' Sorne 
little time after, Col. Verner received an issue of ' Country Life,' containing 
a most graphic account of the identical nest, and with the apparent purpose 
of ' for all time recording his ignorance of Eagles and their eggs, the un- 
fortunate writer went into the most minute details as to how the egg he 
had so gallantly obtained was " white and somewhat pointed at both ends," 
in fact, an unmistakable tame goose's egg.' As a contrast, Col. Verner 
gives a photograph of the egg that was in the nest before the goose's egg was 
substituted. So that even in the wilds of Spain, miles away from ' any- 
where,' one should really see the bird lay the egg before being certain it is 
genuine ! In Yorkshire this same trick has been served on more than one 
occasion, and in all probability at the present time coloured pigeon, etc., eggs 
arc reposing in collectors' cabinets with altogether different labels on them. 





Every member of the Yorkshire Wild Birds' Protection Com- 
mittee, and all those who are interested in our county's birds, 
will be pleased to hear that the Oystercatcher nested at Spurn 
this season, after an interval of twenty years. Mr. Digby 
Legard and I received a telegram from Robinson, our watcher, 
saying that he had at last, after much trouble, found the nest 
of the Oystercatcher, so we immediately set off for Spurn, and 
on the morning of June 21st, were fortunate enough to get 

Plwto by] Nest and Eggs of the Oystercatcher. \(>aI,-v (ijiihh mi. 

two or three successful photographs. We were very anxious not 
to frighten the bird, so we did not keep her off her eggs for long, 
but she was by no means wild, and was soon back on her nest 
after the camera was rigged up. 

The nest was on the Humber side, and, as can be seen from 
the photograph, was a mere scratching in the sand and shingle, 
partially surrounded by dead sea weed, which had drifted up 
on the shore. I was in great hopes that the eggs would hatch 
out safely, and Robinson kept me periodically informed that 
the hen bird was sitting all right. He could see her a long way 
off with his glass without going anywhere near the nest, but 

igog Sep. i. 

3o8 News from the Magazines. 

I am very sorry to say that although all went well until July 
nth, on which date the bird was still comfortably sitting, on 
July 15th, when Robinson went down, the eggs had been washed 
away. There had been a tremendous storm of wind and rain , and 
the water had come some six yards or so beyond the nest. This 
is a most unfortunate occurrence, and although the birds were 

photo by \ Oyster Catcher on Nest. \OxUy Grabham 

about, Robinson could not see that they had any intention of 
nesting again when he last wrote to me on August ist ; but we 
may hope now that they have started nesting once more in the 
district, that they will do so next year. 

Robinson states in his letter that there were more young 
Terns on the wing in the middle of July than he had ever seen 


n The Entomologist for May, IMr. Claude jMorley writes that two new 
species described in his ' Britisii Ichneumons ' turn out to be from New 
Zealand, and are not British. 

A list of the ' Land and Freshwater Mollusca in the Scarborough 
District ' is contributed to the July Journal of Conchology by Mr. J. A. 

British Birds for August contains a 'Photographic Supplement,' in 
which is reproduced a series of photograpiis taken by Miss E. L. Turner, 
showing the extraordinary behaviour of a Water Rail. 

Homaliiim brevicolle Thoms., a new British beetle, is described in the 
May Entomologists' Monthly Magazine. The specimen was captured in 
carrion at Great Salkeld. 

In the July Irish Naturalist Mr. R. F. Scharff figures and describes a 
speckled otter, trapped in Lough Sheelin. The only other record of a 
speckled otter the author has noticed is of one supposed to be in the 
Hancock Museum, Newcastle. As that specimen seems to ha\e disap- 
peared, the Irish example is unique. 



The two hundred and seventeenth meeting of the York- 
shire Naturahsts' Union was held at Runswick, on Saturday, 
July loth, and was well attended. The geologists, with Mr, 
J. J. Burton, F.G.S., as their guide, had a profitable day on the 
Liassic shale between Runswick and Kettleness. The botanists 
had the advantage of the leadership of Dr. W. G. Smith (Edin- 
burgh), Dr. T. W. Woodhead, Mr. P. Fox Lee, and Mr. C. A. 
Cheetham, and in addition to mapping the vegetation featiwes 
of the area, were successful in securing some interesting plants. 

The general meeting was held under the chairmanship of 
Mr. J. J. Burton, at which the reports of the sectional officers 
were presented. Three new members were elected. The mem- 
bers passed a vote of sympathy with the relatives of the late 
Lord Ripon. His lordship had been a member of the Union 
since its formation, and always took a keen interest in its work. 

The following reports have since been received : — 

Mr. J. J. Burton, F.G.S., writes : — ' The geologists had a 
good field day in a portion of the coast, which gives favourable 
opportunities for close inspection of the sections of Lias shewn 
in the cliffs between Runswick Bay and Kettleness point. 
The bay at Runswick is the mouth of an ancient pre-glacial 
valley through which a stream of considerable importance 
must have found its way to the sea. It is now completely 
blocked with boulder clay, and only a few streams of minor 
importance have cut into it. Boring operations in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood have shewn that this boulder clay 
deposit extends inland so as to connect up this choked valley 
with the drainage system of the large stream which has cut its 
way through the rocks, and formed the ravine at Staithes, 
where it enters the sea. It is one of the numerous cases in 
Cleveland where the blocking up of the old river valleys by ice 
has permanently changed the course of the rivers which once 
ran through them. The beds of some of the streams flowing 
through the boulder clay in the bay were examined, and shewed 
a surprising number of erratics. Many of these were from the 
Cheviots. Teesdale whinstone and large blocks of hmestone 
were very numerous ; so also were Shap Fell granites. One 
of the latter blocks measured roughly 4 feet by 3 feet by 2 feet 
9 inches. Many other far-travelled boulders were noticed, 
but the identity of some was not clearly established. 

igog Sep. i. 


Natural History of Ruiiswick. 

Travelling along the beach towards Kettleness, the suc- 
cession of strata shewn on the sketch section was passed over, 
and was, in most cases, easily identified by the discovery of the 
fossils characteristic of the zone, although the difference in 
ornamentation and structure of some of the species is so slight, 
that it may be accidental in development, and not permanent 
in character, and therefore of doubtful value in assigning variety 

I. — Lower Oolite. 
2. — A. communis. 

3. — A . serpentinus. "\ 

4. — A. anmilatiis. j 

5. — A. spinatus. \ 

6. — A. margaritatiis. j 

7. — A. capricornus. ) 

8. — A . jamesoni. j 

Upper Lias. 

Middle Lias. 

Lower Lias. 

a. Kettleness. 

b. Runswick Bay. 

c. Staithes. 

d. Boulby = Rocklifi'e. 

Two faults were located by the evident change in the strata, 
both having a downthrow to the west. Two physical features 
of interest to those who have given attention to coast erosion 
were also noted, and were very striking. First the loosening 
effect on the cliffs of even very small trickling streams of water, 
and secondly the undercutting of the hard rocks by the wasting 
away of the underlying soft shales. The result was shewn in 
the accumulated debris at the foot of the cliffs, where big blocks 
of sandstone, deprived of their support, had tumbled down, and 
lay in picturesque confusion. 

Ascending the cliffs at Kettleness the Old Alum Works were 
visited, and some idea was formed of the extent of this extinct 
Cleveland industry by observing what an enormous quantity 
of shale had been quarried. 

Returning to the beach, several caves were seen ; these 
might readily be attributed to wave action, but really are old 
jet workings. 

A few cement doggers were observed just round Kettleness 
point, but these do not seem to be in evidence at all on the 
Runswick side. Some members staying over the week-end 
saw how these were carted up to the old cement works at East 


Natural History of Runsimck. 

Row, for manufacturing " Mulgrave Cement," and evidence of 
mining them was seen in the chff in the top portion of the ahmi 
shale bed, which is the only place where these nodules appear 
to be found.' 

CoLEOPTERA. — Mr. M. L. Thompson reports that the follow- 
ing beetles were met with : — 

Dromius linearis, Ol. 
Tachyporus chrysomelinus, L. 
Tachyporus hypnorum, T. 
Cafius xantholoma, Grav. 
Oxytelus rugosus, F. 
Oxytelus tetvacarinatus, Bl. 
Anthobium torquatum, Marsh. 
Coccinella ii-piinctata, L. 
Rhizobius lititra, F. 
Bvachypterus piibescens, Er. 
Brachyptevus iirtices, F. 
Meligethes cBnens, F. 
Meligethes picipes, Stm. 
Enicmus minutus, L. 
Atoniaria fuscipes, Gyll. 
Aiomaria atricapilla, Steph. 
Corymbites quercus, Gyll. 
Helodes marginata, F. 
Cyphon variabilis, Thunb. 
Telephorus bicolor, F. 

Telephorus flavilabris, Fall. 
Rhagonycha limbata, Th. 
Malthodes minimus, L. 
Longitarsus suturellus, Duft. 
SphcBroderma testacea, F. 
Crepidodera transversa. Marsh. 
Crepidodera rufipes, L. 
Plectroscelis concinna. Marsh. 
Anaspis niaculata, Foure. 
Apion radiolus Kirb. 
Apion carduorum, Kirb. 
Apion cBthiops, Hbst. 
Phyllobius pomonce, Ol. 
Phyllobius viridiceris, Laich. 
Rhamphus flavicornis, Clair. 
Grypidius eqiiiseti, F. 
Dovytomus pectoralis, Gyll. 
Ceiithorhynchus erysimi, F. 
Ceuthorhynchus contractus. Marsh. 
Ceuthorhynchidius troglodytes, F. 

The Rev. F. H. Woods writes that the conditions of tide and 
weather were not favourable for investigations of marine con- 
chology. Nevertheless, the results were by no means without 
interest, and in most cases the specimens found were those of 
the living animals. In the roots of the larger seaweeds washed 
up were some good specimens of the so-called var. IcBvis of 
Helcion pellucida, which should rather be described as a state 
than a variety, the peculiar shape which the shell acquires 
being due to the hollow cavity which it makes for itself in feed- 
ing. The upper pools abounded in Chiton cinereus. One 
specimen of Chiton ruber, and one very large one of Acmcea 
virginea were found. At low tide there were a few specimens 
of Acmcea testudinalis, and great numbers of the tiny little 
bivalve Turtonia minuta among the roots of the smaller algae, 
on which a quantity of the fry of Lacuna pallidula were feed- 
ing. But the most interesting shells were two specimens of 
what for the present I am disposed to regard^as Rissoa proxima. 
The shell in question, which I have found occasionally at Scar- 
borough and elsewhere, is like Rissoa vitrea in its cylindrical 
shape and deep sutures, but has the striae of R. striata. It 
is possible that it may prove to be the var. arctica of the latter, 

1909 Sep. I. 

Trochus cinerarius. 
Lacuna divaricata. 
Lacuna pallidula. 
Littorina obtusata. 
Littorina rudis. 
Littorina littorea. 
Rissoa parva. 
Rissoa proxima. 
Cyprcea europcea. 
Purpura lapillus. 
Buccinum undatum. 
Fusus antiqims. 
Nassa- incrassata. 

312 Natural History of Runswick. 

between which and R. proxima there appears to be a good deal 

of confusion. Some specimens have finer and some coarser 

striae, but otherwise they are similar. Jeffrey doubted whether 

R. proxima was a good species. The subject wants thorough 

investigation, and at present the specimens, even in some of 

the best collections, are not always satisfactory. Curiously 

enough the typical Rissoa striata was not found in Runswick 

Bay ; but it is almost certain that it occurs, as it abounds along 

the Yorkshire coast. 

The following is a complete list of species found :— 

Chiton cinereus. 

Chiton ruber. 

Anomia ephippium. 

Mytilus edidis. 

Turtonia i/n'uiita. 

Lutraria elUptica. 

Tapes ptdlastra (var. perforans). 

Cardium edule. 

Saxicava riigosa. 

Zirphoea [Pholas] crispata. 

Patella vidgata. 

Helcion pellucida (with var. Icevis) 

AcnicBa testudinalis. 

Acmcea virginea. 

Dr. W. G. Smith writes : — ' The number of botanists present 

was not very large, but observations were extended over the 

week-end, and, although it is not possible in a short note to 

indicate the bearing of the observations on the history of the 

Cleveland vegetation, a considerable amount of work was 

accomplished. Special attention was paid to the woods of the 

coast region, including Mulgrave Woods and those in the steep, 

narrow valleys of Runswick Bay. One feature of interest is 

that Birch is not a conspicuous tree on the boulder clay, and in 

none of the woods was Birch so abundant as it is in the woods 

of the moorland edge ; the English Maple {Acer campestre) was 

noted as common in all the woods examined, and it must be 

regarded as typical of the Cleveland boulder claJ^ The scrub 

and grassy slopes of the boulder clay was also carefully 

examined for comparison with the soils over the natural rock. 

Amongst the typical clay plants, Fleabane, Wood Vetch, Hemp 

Agrimony, and the Large Horsetail were conspicuous, whereas 

these were absent over the drier soils over the Lias. The 

casuals of the unkempt gardens of Runswick also attracted 

much attention. The most noteworthy record from the floristic 

side was Vicia bithynica found by one of the members of the 

camping party who devoted their energies mainly to mosses.' 


Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies. 313 

Mr. P. Fox Lee adds that the following plants were observed 
by Mr. Elgee, of Middlesbrough, and himself. In the upper 
part of Hob Holes, a fine wooded gorge opening to the coast 
at Runswick, is a flat expanse of marshy ground covered with 
a vigorous growth of Carex acutiformis Ehrh. Here and in 
other parts of the Hob Holes were Valeriana dioica L., Veronica 
officinalis L., Pedicularis sylvatica L., and Ranunculus hederaceus 
L., besides an abundance of Equisehim maximum Lam. There 
were also mushrooms, puff-balls and fairy rings of other fungi 
in the adjacent grass lands. 

T. S. 

The Report and Proceedings of the Manchester Field Naturalists' 
and Archaeologists' Society for 1908 has just been received. It contains 
details of the various excursions of the Society, from January nth to 
December igth. These are chiefly botanical. There is also the Annual 
Report, List of Members, etc. More care than usual has been exercised 
in the selection of blocks to illustrate these reports ; and amongst them 
is a portrait of the President, Sir William H. Bailey. There are 100 pages 
of closely-printed matter. The report is largely spoilt with advertisements 
of pianos, fire-grates, etc. We hope that the pretty lady in the fearful 
hat, with its firework-like feathers, inserted in the advertisement on the 
cover, is in order to warn Manchester lady naturalists what not to wear ! 

The Proceedings of the Cleveland Naturalists' Field Club, 1907-8, 
Vol. II., part 3 (2/-) has just been issued. They are edited by the Rev. 
J. C. Fowler, and may be obtained from the Secretary, at the Dorman 
Museum, Middlesborough. There are illustrations of the more important 
objects described, one of which we are permitted to reproduce (see p. 211). 
Mr. F. Elgee writes at length on his favourite theme, ' The Fauna of Cleve- 
land, Past and Present,' giving an excellent summary of the zoological 
history of the area ; the Rev. G. Lane writes on the local Jurassic plants ; 
the editor describes a large boulder of snap granite, an Edward III. counter, 
and ' An interesting geological discovery ; ' and there are notes on local 
coleoptera and lepidoptera by Messrs. M. L. Thompson and T. A. Loft- 
house respectively. The ' geological discovery ' is unfortunately vague. 
It appears the stool of- a tree, in position, was found under six feet of 
' glacial ' drift, ' deposited under torrential conditions, and the tree was 
evidently overwhelmed.' The tree was found ' as it grew in one of the 
mild inter-glacial seasons,' etc. The tree ' appears to be oak.' Cannot 
some local botanist identify the wood, and some local geologist give a more 
definite date to the overlying drift ? And then, witli regard to the Edward 
III. counter found at Whorlton, which ' may have fallen out of the doublet 
of one of the royal retainers, who might have been sent to the castle on 
some royal errand,' etc. ; the editor has been to infinite pains to ascertain 
whetlier Edward III. was ever at Whorlton, and has even searched at 
the Public Record Office. At present he cannot find tliat that king was 
ever there. But surely many coins of Edward VII. are found in situations 
where that monarch never was ? Our Cleveland friends are to be con- 
gratulated on their publication. 

The Annual Report and Transactions of the North Staffordshire Field 
Club for 1908-9 (Vol. XLIII.) has just been issued. It contains many 
interesting papers, as well as an excellent account of a good year's work. 
Amongst the contributions we notice ' The Evolution of the Cetacean Tail 
Fin," by F. W. Ash ; ' Lilleshall Hill,' by Dr. Wheelton Hind, and ' The 
Life History of the River Trent,' by A. M. McAldowie. 

1909 Sep; I. 




Rev. C. E. Y. KENDALL, B.A., J. DAVY DEAN, and 

The distribution of mollusca over a given area, as of other more 
or less sedentary forms of life, is noticeably discontinuous ; 
the species constituting the fauna being hmited within their 
stations by life conditions favourable to the individuals. The 
occurrence of a species within a district is not simply a function 
of the organisation of the individuals, but to a large extent, 
is one also of the purely physical conditions of the habitat 
wherein they obtain. Thus regarding a particular area broadly 
from the view point of an ecologist to whom the life conditions 
of a species are of interest not second to the taxonomic rank 
of the form, there is a closed patchwork of wide habitats 
showing among themselves much diversity, but within an almost 
uniformity of conditions, upon which the presence of living 
forms depends. 

In addition to this concept of the grouping together or asso- 
ciation of physical factors of biological value, there is the 
further, of fne association of speciesj which in their individuals 
find the physical inanimate nature more or less advantageous 
to their manifold activities. The distinguishing of such natural 
groups, shewing a biological or ecological uniformity, as im- 
mediately concerning vegetation, has been the business during 
many years of several workers, chief among whom in England 
is Dr. W. G. Smith. Following the methods laid down in his 
early papers, and those of his brother, the late R. Smith, not 
only have the Pennine areas — ridge and flank, from the Peak 
to the Cheviots been marked out into their vegetation associa- 
tions — but also that district of South Lonsdale with which our 
theme is immediately connected. The distinguishing of plant 
associations, whether of the salt marsh, of the woodland, or 
of the moorland, is distinct from the effort to make as com- 
plete a floral list as may be — a worthy and profitable aim in 
itself — but in its analysis of the physical factors of climate and 
soil ruling in the station, and of those arising from the struggle 
of individual with individual and species with species, as well 
as of both with the station, there is the further effort to make 
cut the mechanism of the broad biological associations of which 


Geographical Distribution of Mollusca. 315 

the plant associations are single examples among several. 
The floral composition of a particular association of plants is 
to a large extent the register of the operation of a complex 
of factors working upon the plant individuals as material, 
which in the main is previous to and independent of the vegeta- 
tion. Forms of hfe, other than plants, which, hke them, are 
more or less ' spot-bound,' would seem to be scarcely less 
dependent upon the definite physical conditions of these asso- 
ciations. Thus, in taking the various plant associations and 
formations as the basis of a geographical study of mollusca, 
there is something more than a convenience. A further bond 
between the molluscan fauna and the florula holds in the 
holo- or semi-parasitism, for food and home, of snails upon the 
vegetation. The many plant associations of first importance 
which have been recognised in the district of South Lonsdale 
are here recognised as life-associations and made to serve for 
a preliminary molluscan survey. It appears to us that the 
loan of the results obtained in one field of natural science to 
problems in another is amply justified in the present treatment, 
as well as in the hope for future work on new lines. 

The area taken for consideration lies broadly, as a naturally 
defined tract of diversified country of hill and valley encircled 
between the sea in the west and the ranges of highlands in the 
other quarters — to the north the Cumbrian watershed, to the east 
the Pennine axis, and to the south the Wyresdale escarpment 
and slope. It comprises not only the lower basin of the Lune, 
but also of the several rivers which are properly its tributaries 
entering the shallow waters of Morecambe Bay. Using the 
usual bio-geographical terms, it covers much of the vice- 
counties 60 (West Lancashire), and 69 (South Lake District). 

The altitude ranges between sea-level and 3000 feet O.D., 
so that within the limits of the district there is a wide variation 
within the climatic factors of mean monthly and diurnal tem- 
perature of soil and air, of rainfall, of air humidity etc. There 
may be instanced the contrast in cHmate between Grange — 
suggesting the geniality of a Devon sea-village — and the summit 
of Ingleboro or High Street, little removed from the Arctic 

The soils have abundant variety. The Silurian and Ordovi- 
cian rocks of the northern buttress, ecologically, stand inter- 
mediate between the Carboniferous Limestone of the eastern 
scars and the Millstone Grits of the southern fells. On the coast 

1909 Sep. I. 

3i6 Geographical Distribution of MoUiisca. 

are extensive deposits of e.'^tuarine and maritime silts, and 
within land is an almost universal mantling of glacial drift. 
In low valley bottoms, remnants of peat moors still continue 
as relics of the ancient landscape of Lonsdale. Rivers, ditches, 
pools and the like afford variety of open water, between the 
soft peaty floods of the mountain becks and the hard clear 
issues of limestone springs. 

Few districts shew a greater variety of vegetation. Of the 
lull series of British marshlands and moorlands few formations 
are unrepresented. Dry grasslands show all possible variety 
between the natural pasture of the calcareous rocks and the 
Calluna heath and moor of the grit and shale fells. In the 
old times the forests of Quernmore and Lonsdale were doubtless 
wider spread with woodland, though to-day there is an abun- 
dance of naturally occurring woodland of Ash and Oak to which 
recent forestry has added woods of Beech and Pine. 

The classification of the formations or groups of associations 
into which the district may be divided for purposes of biological 
research , here made applicable to land and freshwater mollusca, 
is that derived from a consideration of the vegetation not only 
of the present district, but of many other parts of Britain. 
Within the limits of the present paper the responsibility for 
its employment rests upon Mr. Rankin, while the grouping of 
the mollusca into associations is that of Messrs. Kendall and 


Type of Coastlands. 

1. Salt Marshlands. 

Transition to Freshwater Marshlands. 

2. Sand-dunes. 

(Not typically developed). 
Type of Dry Grasslands 

Calcareous Pastures. 

Non-calcareous Pastures and Heaths. 
Type of Wet Grasslands. 

1. Formations of Hard- water Lakes and Ponds. 

2. ,, Hard-water Rivers and Streams. 
Soft-water Lakes and Ponds. 

Soft-water Rivers and Streams, 
Heath Moors. 



Geographical Distribution of Molliisca. 317 

Type of Woodlands. 

1. Ash Wood Formation. 

A — Damp Ash Wood. 

Aa — Substituted Beech Wood. 

B — Dry (Copse, Pavements, etc.) 

2. Oak-Birch Wood Formation. 

A — Damp. 

B — Dry and Heathy. 

Note. — In this paper we have adopted the nomenclature 
of the Conchological Society's List of the British Non-marine 
Mollusca (1904) with the exception of preferring Pupa for 
Jaminia as the generic name of this group. 


§ I. Salt Marshlands. Sub-halophile. 

(a) — Inner zones (or Reed-formation). 

Paliidestrina stagnalis Baster. Associated with Littorina 
rudis Maton. 

A species existing in countless numbers all round More- 
cambe Bay, in brackish pools at and above high-water mark. 
The L. rudis is the form known as var. tenehrosa Mont., as usual 
in brackish waters. 

[h) Transition to Fresh-water Marsh. Sub-halophile. 

Here the soil-water is at most times fresh, rising from land, 
though at the periods of very high tides it is brackish. 

Succinea oblonga Drap. Associated species :• — 


Agriolimax IcBvis MiiU. 
,, agrestis L. 
Avion circumscriptus Johnston 
Vitrea radiatiila Alder. 
Punctum pygmcBiirnDTap. 
Hygroniia hispida L. 
Cochlicopa lubrica Miill. 
Vertigo pygnicea Drap. 

Carychium mininum MiiU. 
Succinea elegans Risso (rare) 


Limncsa pereger Miill. 

,, truncatula Miill. 
Aplecta hypnorum L. 
Pisidium pusillum Gmel. 
,, obtusale Pfeiffer. 

This rare and local species occurs in great abundance near the 
estuary of the River Winster, at Meathop and toward? Grange- 
over-Sands. In the heat of summer it is to be found at the 
bottom of the damp drains which intersect the meadows. 
It is also to be found sparingly among the stones bounding the 
marshy land, where, in company with Limncea truncatula, it 
seems able to exist with a minimum of moisture. It occurs 
in N. Devon about the dune-marshes of Braunton Burrows, 

igog Sep. i. 

3i8 Geographical Distribution of Mollusca. 

Planorbis umbilicatus (Miiller). Associated with : — 

Limnsa pereger Miill. I Aplecta hypnorum L. 

Planorbis spirorbis L. | Pisidium piisilhim Gmelin. 

It is the var. rhombea Turton of this species which occurs 
near the Lune Estuary in the drains and ditches which are 
in all probability subject to an inrush of salt water in flood 
seasons. Var. rhombea also occurs in the salt-marshes of the 
Thames Estuary, in salt-marshes at Blytheburgh (Suffolk), 
and in the marshes between Lewes and Newhaven (Sussex). 

§ 2. Sand Dunes — Xerophile. None in the district. 


Calcareous Pastures. Sub-Xerophile and Calco-phile. 

I. Carboniferous Limestone. (Examples at Silverdale, 

Grange, etc.). 

Pyramidula rupestris Drap. Associated species : — 

Agriolimax agrestis L. I And locally 

Pupa cylindracea da Costa. | Pupa muscorum L. 

This is one of the most characteristic species of the Lime- 
stone region, and has an uninterrupted range. It is essentially 
a Helix of the rock surfaces which it much resembles. Even 
during the heat of the day it will remain exposed to the sun's 
rays while the Pupfe retreat into the crevices of the rock or the 
roots of the grasses. Ptipa muscorum is more abundant on the 
lower sea-ward pastures than on the higher ground. Pyramidula 
rupestris with Pupa cylindracea is a distinctive feature of 
Limestone pasture at high altitudes, though P. rupestris alone 
even extends to the summit of Skiddaw (3054 feet) on Ordovi- 
cian Grits. 

Helicella caperata Mont 

(a) In conjunction with Thymus serpyllum is associated 

with :— 

Agviolimax agrestis L. I Helicella. itala L. 

Avion intevmedius Norm&nd (rare), j Hygromia hispida L. 

In conjunction with Tanacetum vulgare is associated 
with : — • 

Agriolimax agrestis L. 
Avion ater L. 
Viivea cellavia Miill. 
,, nitidula Drap. 

Hygvomia vttfescens Penn. 

,, hispida L. 

Helix aspevsa jMiill. 


Geographical Distribution of Mollusca. 319 

Helix aspersa Miill. 

,, hortensis Miill. 
Ena obsciira Miill. 

On the Millstone Grit in conjunction with Tanacetum 

vulgar e we find H. caper ata associated with :— 

Agriolimax agresiis L. 
Arion ater L. 
Hvgromia hispida L. 

,, rufescens Pennant. 

As these associations occur near the sea, probably the 
characteristic species is H. itala — with H. caperata in Lonsdale 
as the dominant. For elsewhere one often finds on the dry 
pastures near the coast, H. itala in abundance, associated with 
H. virgata, H. caperata and H. cantiana 

H. caperata exist? in Lonsdale in colonies on the drier sea- 
ward pastures, and on the windward (here the western side) 
of calcareous pastures further inland. It is the only species 
of the Helir.^lla group which can be considered as well estab- 
lished in this district. H. virgata, so abundant elsewhere, is 
entirely absent. H. itala seems confined to just a few places, 
and can rarely be taken in any numbers. 

Vallonia excentrica Sterki. 

Vertigo pygmcea Drap. (Example — Far Arnside). 

These two species will be found in dry weather under loose 
stones lying in the open pastures at a low level — often in a dry 
exposed situation. While either species may also be found in 
the Wet-Grassland or Woodland sections, the above is a charac- 
teristic feature in their distribution. 

Pupa secale Drap. (Example — Witherslack). 

Separating the low-level seaward pastures from the higher 
wind-swept pavements or grazing lands, there are in some places 
vertical rock faces often of a considerable height. On several 
of these occurs Pupa secale associated with Pyramidula rupestris 
(as the dominant) and Pupa cylindracea da Costa. It is 
really a southern type, abounding on the calcareous formation 
and the most northerly station so far recorded is Scout Scar, 
Kendal. Like P. rupestris it seems to need very little moisture. 
Similarly the southern Pomatias clegans finds in the district 
its most northerly extension, which is paralleled by the dis- 
tribution of Asperula cynanchica and Clematis Vitalba. 

Sub-section — Subterranean.. 

Caecilioides acicula Miiller. (Example — Silverdale), 
An isolated species * — 
{To be continued). 

* Possible association is with Vitrea crystallina IMiiller, a species almost 
subterranean in its habits, and common in the district. 

igog Sep. i 




Gn the 22-24th May, Messrs. W. N. Cheesman, Thos. Gibbs, 
H. C. Hawley and the writer visited Eskrick, Osgodby, Stainer, 
and Bishop's Woods, in the neighbourhood of Selby. The two 
former are situate within the S.E., and the two latter within the 
Mid.-W. divisions of the county, which join near Selby. 

The principal object was to search for fungi which only make 
their appearance in the spring season ; such, for instance, as 
Acetahula, Verpa, Gyromitra, Metrophora, and other uncommon 
species, as well as Morchella and a few of the larger Pezizae. 

Though we did not meet with much success in our special 
object, we met with no fewer than ninety other species — an 
exceedingly good haul for the time of the year. When the 
material gathered was worked through, it was found that four 
were new to the county Fungus Flora. These are : — 

Valsa salicis Cke. { = Diaporthe 
salicella Sacc). On dead 

willow-twig, Osgodby Wood. 

Gonytrichum caesium Nees. On dead 
wood, Bishop's Wood. 

Besides these, the following were added to the S.E. and 

Mid.-W. divisions : — 

S.E. All Eskrick. 

Didymella tosta 
Heptamevia derasa 
Dasyscypha fugiens 

Coyticium violaceolividum, Fr. On 
dead branch, Bishop's Wood. 

Peniophora pubera. Fr. On deail 
branch. Stainer Wood. 

Fomes igniarius 
Polyporus chioneiis 
Lasiosphceria ovina 
Ombrophila clavus 

Mid. W. 

Peniophora cinerea, B.W. 

„ hydnoides, B.W. 

Ustilago longissima St. W. 
Valsa platanoides, St. W. 
Eutypa lata, St. W. 
Byssosphieria aquila, B.W. 
Heptameria acuta, St. W. 
Helotium ferrugineum B.W. 
Belonidium pruinosum, St. W. ; 

B.W.=Bishop's Wood 

Ryparobius ditbiiis St. W. 
Orbilia luteovubella, B.W. 
Melanconium bicolor, B.W. 
Cephalosporium acremoniitm 
Rhinotvichiim repens, B.W. 
Periconia pycnospora, B.\\\ 
P. podospora, B.W. 
Macrosporium commune, St. \\' 
Graphium flexuosum, B.^^'. 

St.W.== Stainer Wood. 


The Annual Report of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society for. 1908 
has just been received. It contains an admirable and well-illustrated 
paper on the Samian ware in the York Museum, by Mr. T. May, and also 
an illustrated paper by Mr. J. Blackhouse on ' A Vanishing Yorkshire 
Village ' [Kilnsea]. We notice [p. 13), that an addition has been made 
to Robinson's ' East Riding Flora ' by the discovery of the Marsh St. 
John's Wort, at Buttercrambe. This should read ' an additional locality ' 



A new Lines. locality for Paludestnna confusa. — 

On Bank Holiday (August 2nd) Mr. V. Howard, M.A., and the 
writer searched the marsh drains at Theddlethorpe St. Helen 
for freshwater mollusca. In a drain running at right angles to, 
and about a furlong distant from, the sandhills near the old 
brickyard, we found Paludestnna confusa in abundance. 
This locality, though in the same division (9) as Saltfleetby, 
where this species was previously found, is about two-and-a- 
half miles distant southward. — C. S. Carter, Louth, 


Cuckoo reared by a Wagtail. — In a coal-yard adjoining 
the Horncastle Railway Station, and a few yards from the 
canal, a porter observed a Cuckoo apparently incubating on 
the ground. He afterwards examined the spot, and found a 
Cuckoo's egg laid in the nest of a Wagtail among fragments of 
coal. He continued to keep the nest under observation, and 
the young Cuckoo was eventually hatched, and reared by the 
Wagtail, until it was strong enough to fly away. This was 
early in July.— J. Conway Walter. Langton Rectory, Horn- 

Occurrence of the Little Gull in Northumberland. — A 
Little Gull, in unusual immature plumage, was seen by 
Messrs. H. B. Booth, G. A. Booth, and myself, in the harbour 
at Seahouses on the evening of July i8th. When first seen it 
was swimming in company with a party of Black-headed Gulls, 
though keeping itself somewhat aloof from them. It flew round 
about, and quite close to us several times, then flew on to the 
rocks at the south of the harbour, and settled there. After a 
little time it again flew into the harbour, and after circling 
round once or twice, disappeared in the direction of Bam- 
borough. The plumage, with the exception of the head being 
darker, was like the figure in Dresser's ' Birds of Europe.' — 
R. Fortune. 

— : o : — - 

Ricciocarpus natans L. — I collected this plant near Don- 
caster last June in a pond among Scirpus lacustris. It grew 
best and almost pure when well shaded ; in some places 
Lemna trisulca was associated with it, but in the more open 
parts of the pond the Lemna was much more abundant, the 
Ricciocarpus being here absent. — W. West. 

1909 Sep. I. 


32 2 Erratic Boulders at Bardney Abbey. 


Gracilia minuta F. in Yorkshire, — As mentioned in an 
editorial footnote, in reply to a query by Mr. J. F. Musham 
(' Nat.', Aug. 1909, p. 303), G. minuta was taken and brought 
to me last year by Mr. F. Booth, both at Thackley, near Brad- 
ford, and at Clapham ; and in each case from umbelliferous 
flowers. In both instances I think, there can be no doubt about 
the species being indigenous. Mr. Booth diligently secures for 
me all the species of coleoptera which come in his way when 
collecting mollusca, and by this means has added many in- 
teresting species to our local list. 

Some time ago Mr. F. Bamford gave me a number of speci- 
mens of G. minuta which he had found emerging from some 
new wooden bobbins at the great silk factory — Lister & Co., 
Ltd. — at Manningham. In this case I think we must write 
them down as probably introduced with the timber from which 
the bobbins were made. — J. W. Carter, Bradford. 


F. M. BURTON, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

In the excavations at Bardney Abbey which, through the agency 
of the Rev. C. E. Laing are now being carried out, three boulders 
are exposed, which had been utilised by the old builders of 
the Abbey as corner stones in making its foundation. All three 
are from the Spilsby Sandstone, similar to the four unfossili- 
ferous boulders recently described by me in this year's volume 
of ' The Naturalist,' page 93. 

One of these boulders is a ' squared ' stone let into the N.W. 
buttress of the Abbey, 3 ft. 11 in. longxift. 4 in. broad and 
I ft. 4^ in. deep. 

Another, also ' squared,' forms part of the S.W. corner of 
the Abbey, and measr;res i ft. 9 in. in length x 5 in. in breadth, 
and is 10 in. deep. 

Close by it is a third small boulder, let in near this last one, 
which measures i ft. 3 in. X9 in. 

There is a fourth unworked boulder from the same source — 
the Spilsby Sandstone — lying imbedded in the open field near 
the Abbey. This measures 4 ft. 8 in. in length x 3 ft. 4 in. in 
breadth, and is, probably, about 2 or 3 ft. deep, like the boulders 
already described in the paper above referred to. 

Naturalist ' 



Wm. west, F.L.S., 


G. S. WEST, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., 

{Continued from page 2^2). 
23. Mallomonas longiseta Lemm. in Arkiv for Botanik 
utgifv. af K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Bd. 2, No. 2, 1904, p. 118. 

This Flagellate was observed in Brothers' Water, Easedale 
Tarn, and Windermere ; and in the first-mentioned lake it was 

Fig. 7. A., Dinobryon cylindyicum Imhof, from the plankton of Crum- 
mock Water, showing three resting spores ; B., D. cylindricum var. 
diver gens (Imhof) Lemm., from the plankton of Derwent Water ; C. and D., 
D. crenulatum sp. n., from the plankton of Ennerdale Water. All x 500. 

the dominant constituent of the September plankton. Long, 
cell, 29.5-37 /x; lat. cell, 17-21. 5 /x ; long, spin., 54-62 /.i. 
It is known in the plankton of the Scottish lakes, but this is 
the first English record. The spiny covering is particularly 
conspicuous in this species, and the cell possesses a single 
brown parietal chromatophore and one flagellum. 

1909 Sep. I 

324 West: Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 

24. DiNOBRYON CYLINDRICUM Imhof. This colonial Flagel- 
late is general in the plankton of all the British lake-areas. 
It was the dominant feature of the May plankton of Crummock 
Water, and a large proportion of the cells had formed resting- 
spores [vide fig. 7 a). These were first described and figured 
by Lemmermann (in ' Forschungsber. Biol. Stat. Plon,' XL, 
1904, p. 307, fig. 3, 4). Diam. of outer wall or membrane, 
g-11.5 /x ; length, 48-59 \i ; diam. resting spor., 13-14 /^. 

Var. DiVERGENS (Imhof) Lemm. in ' Ber. Deutsch. Botan. 
Ges.', XVIII., 1900, p. 517, t. 19, f. 15-20. D. divergens 
Imhof. D. SertiUaria var. undulatum Seligo. D. siihdivevgens 
Chodat. D. divergens var. levis Garbini. 

Fig. 8. A.-E., Ceratium hirundinella O. F. Miiller. All dorsal views. 
A., from Derwent Water; B., from Brothers' Water; C, from Winder- 
mere ; D., from Ennerdale Water ; and E., from Ulleswater. 

F.-H., C. cornutiim (Ehrenb.) Clap. & Lachm. ; F. and G., dorsal 
views ; H., \'entral view ; F., from Grasmere ; G. and H., from Brothers' 
Water. All X 200. 

This variety is the most abundant of all the Dinobryons 
in the British plankton, occurring both more commonly and 
in greater quantity than typical D. cylindricum. The mem- 
brane of the individual cell is very characteristic, and so is the 
general disposition of the colony. (Consult plate VI., and text- 
fig. 7b). The June plankton of Derwent Water consisted 
mostly of immense quantities of this form. In some of the 
specimens, more especially those from Stickle Tarn, the upper 
part of the outer wall was undulate almost as in var. Schauin- 
slandii Lemm. 


IVi'si : Phvtoplankton of English Lake District. 325 

25. DiNOBRYON CREXULATUM Sp. 11. (Fig. 7C and d). 
Membrana evacuata firma et hyalina, elongato-campanulata, 
parte basali leviter dilatata et in stipitem tenuem brevem 
producta, lateribus leviter concavis ; margine toto undnlato- 
crenulato, crenulis 9-12 utrobique. 

Long. cum. stip. 31-32 /><.; long. stip. 2 /x; lat. bas., 9.5-10 fi; 
lat. med., 7.5-8 /x ; lat. oscul., 8-8.5^1. 

Kah. In the plankton of Ennerdale Water (May 1903). 

Only solitary individuals of this species were seen, and we 
have no evidence to show that colonies are ever formed. It 
differs from all the known species in its completely crenulate 
wall from base to apex. 


26. Ceratium hirundinella O. F. Miiller. This species 
is the most generally distributed of all the Peridinieae in the 
British freshwater plankton. There is a strange absence from 
the English lakes of the common four-horned form which is so 
plentiful in the Scottish and Irish lakes (consult ' Trans. Roy. 
Soc. Edin.', XLL, 1905, part III., p. 494, fig. i c and d ; and 
' Trans. Roy. Irish Acad.', XXXIII. , sect. B. 1906, part II., 
p. 94, figs. 6-8). The only four-horned form observed occurred 
in Windermere, and all the horns were stunted, especially the 
apical horn (Fig. 8 C). A form similar to this has been observed 
by Bachmann in the Thunersee, and also in the Zugersee, in 
Switzerland. x\ll the other forms seen were three-horned, ex- 
cept those from Ulleswater and Hawes Water, which possessed 
a trace of the fourth horn (fig. 8 e). The commonest forms 
observed were three-horned, with the median antapical horn 
disposed parallel to the longitudinal axis. 

In no single instance was Ceratium hirundinella observed 
abundantly in the English lakes. It is general and frequent, 
but does not appear to form large maxima. 

27. Ceratium cornutum (Ehrenb.) Clap. & Lachm. This 
species is much less frequent than the preceding, and was only 
observed from Brothers' Water and Grasmere (fig. 8 F-H). 
There is much variability in the curvature of the horns, and 
we are inclined to believe that C. curvirostre Huitfeldt-Kaas is 
only a form of it. 

28. Peridinium Willei Huitfeldt-Kass in ' Vidensk. 
Skrifter,' 1900, No. 2, p. 5, fig. 6-9 ; Borg. & Ostenf. in 
' Botany of the Faeroes,' 1903, p. 622, fig. 150 ; Lemm. in 
' Archiv fur Hydrobiol. u. Planktonkunde/ III., 1908, p. 376, 

1409 Sep. I. 

326 JVes^ : Phytoplanktoji of English Lake District. 

figs. 13-16; P. alatum Garbini in ' Zool. Anzeig.', 1902, p. 122, 
fig. A, B. 

This is the only generally distributed species of the genus 
Peridinium in the English Lake District. It was found in 
almost all the lakes examined, and often occurred in large 
quantity, being much more abundant than in any of the other 
British lake-areas. Like Ceratium hinmdinella, it is a summer 
form, with its maximum in August. Long. 56 /a ; lat. 60- 
64 /x ; crass, max. 44-47 /x. (Text-fig. 4 a — g). 

P. Willei is a very distinct species, and maintains its 
characters very constantly. The group of five small apical 
plates, forming the extreme anterior margin of the epivalve, 
is one of its principal features. These plates vary within cer- 
tain limits, but are very constant in their position {vide fig. 4 
A-c). Another of its features is the possession of two small 
wing-like extensions of the ventral margins of the antapical 
plates. Each of these is furnished with a number of very short 
and delicate spines, and they are best seen when the cell is 
very slightly oblique. The plates are rather finely areolated, 
the areolations gradually becoming more pronounced as the 
age of the cell increases. 


The phytoplankton of the English Lakes contains a varied 
assortment of Algse, 64 per cent, of which belong to the Chloro- 
phycese, 21 per cent, to the Bacillarieae, and only 9.5 per cent, 
to the Myxophycese. Thus, the phytoplankton is essentially 
Chlorophyceous, with a plentiful admixture of Diatoms, and 
but a few Blue-green Algse. 

Species. Varieties. 

^1 1 , (Desmidiacege . . 06 13 

Chlorophyceee {^e^^inder (excl. 

Desm.) . . 24 2 

Bacillarieae . . . . ■ • 41 3 

Myxophycege . . . . . . 17 o 

Flagellata . . . . . . • • 4 .2 

Peridinieae . . . . . . 6 o 

Total 188 species 20 ^•ars. 

Of 120 species of Chlorophycese, 96 are Desmids, so that 51 
per cent, of all the species recorded for the plankton belong to 


Wes^ : Phytoplankion of English Lake District. 327 

the Desmidiaceae. In some of the lakes Desmids are abundant, 
but they rarely occur in such prodigious quantities as certain 
species of Diatoms and Flagellates, although the May plankton 
of Ennerdale Water, and also of Easedale Tarn, was for the 
most part a Desmid plankton. Notwithstanding the fact that 
the English Lakes contain a high percentage of species, taken 
generally, they are not so rich in actual numbers of Desmids as 
the Scottish or Welsh lakes. The most frequent Desmids are : 
Staurastrum anatinum, St. Arctiscon, St. curvafum, St. jaculi- 
ferum, St. lunatum var. planctonicum, C. suhtumidum var. 
Klebsii, Xanthidium antilopceum and vars., Arthrodesmus 
Incus, A. triangularis, and Spondylosium pidchrum var. planum. 
In the plankton of some of the lakes, and especially in that of 
Brothers' Water, St. Arctiscon is abundant. 

Staurastrum sexangulare was present in the plankton of 
Ennerdale Water, and St. Ophiura in Easedale Tarn. 

St. Ophiura is a feature of the plankton of many of the 
Scottish,* Welsh, and Scandinavian lakes ;f and its occurrence 
in the plankton of Easedale Tarn is very interesting. 

Until British plankton-investigations were started about 
eight years ago, both St. Arctison and St. Ophiura were regarded 
as amongst the rarest of British Desmids. It is now known 
that both occur in myriads in the plankton of certain lakes, 
whereas they are very rarely found in the surrounding bogs, 
or even at the boggy margins of the lakes in which they occur. 
The occurrence of Micrasterias pinnatifida, M. radiata, and 
M. mahahidcshwarensis var. Wallichii is also of great interest 
in comparison with the plankton of the other British lake-areas. 

The general abundance of Spondylosium pulchrum var. 
planum deserves special emphasis. It also occurs abundantly 
in the Scottish and Irish lakes. Bachmann has recorded the 
occurrence of ' Spondylosium pulchrum ' in several Scottish 
lochs, J but in this he is wrong. Typical Spondylosium pul- 
chrum does not occur in the British Islands, but Wolle's var. 
planum, which is much smaller, more regular, and without any 
twist in the filaments, is quite common in the British plankton. 

* W. & G. S. West in ' Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot.', XXXV., Nov. 1903, 
pp. 530 and 550 ; in ' Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin.', XLI., 1905, p. 487. 

f Lemmermann, ' Das Plankton Scliwedischer Gewasser,' Arkiv. for 
Botanik iitgifv. af K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Bd. 2, No. 2, 1904 ; Huitfeldt-Kaas, 
' Planktonundersogelser,' I., Norske Vande, Christiania, 1906. 

I Bachmann, loc cit., 1907, pp. 21, 26, 27, 30, 88. 

1909 Sep. 1. 

328 JVesl : Phytoplankton of Eriglish Lake District. 

The British lakes are remarkable beyond all other European 
lakes (with the possible exception of the Scandinavian) in the 
richness of their Desmid-flora. We have elsewhere discussed 
the possible connection between this abundance of Desmids 
and the Older Palaeozoic and Precambrian strata which form 
the great mass of the rocks constituting the drainage-basins 
of so many of these lakes. It also seems highly probable that 
the chief determining factor in this richness is a chemical one. 

Bachmann, in his remarks upon the Desmids of the Scottish 
plankton, makes the mistake of generalising from a few samples. 
He states that Desmids seldom form a dominant feature of the 
plankton, and that a Desmid-plankton is only characteristic 
of small lakes. Both these statements are quite erroneous con- 
cerning the plankton of any of the British lake-areas 

The following table will give some idea of the abundance of 
Desmids in the British lakes as compared with some of the lakes 
of Continental Europe. The numbers are percentages of the 
total species observed in the phytoplankton. The percentages 
of Bacillariese and Myxophycete are also given for comparison. 





Scottish . . 



° • 7 /o 





Welsh . . . . 




Enghsh . . 





12 % 

29 % 

13 /o 


27 % 

22 % 

12 /o 

In the English lakes there are relatively few Protococcoideae, 
and no species can be described as common. Glceocystis gigas 
and Sphcerocystis Schroeieri are the most generally distributed 
species, but even they are rarely abundant. There is an entire 
absence of Pediastrum simplex and P. duplex, and also of the 
genus Kirchneriella. f 

* The percentages given for the Swiss and Scandinavian lakes are only 
approximate. The percentages of the three groups in the German lakes 
have not been accurately ascertained, but the percentage of Desmidiaceae 
is low (under 10%) whereas the percentages of Bacillariese and Myxophycese 
are very high. 

t The absence of Kirchneriella from the plankton of the English lakes 
is rather remarkable, as the commonest British species — K. obesa W. & 
G. S. West (in ' Journ. Roy. Micr. Soc.', Feb. 1894, p. 16)— was first des- 
cribed from small ponds near Bowness under the name of ' Selenastruni 
obesnm ' [vide West, ibid., Feb. 1892, p. 22). 


U\'si : Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 329 

The Diatoms are very conspicuous in the plankton of some 
of the EngHsh lakes, and although they are represented by only 
one third as many species as the Chlorophyceae, they are often 
the dominating constituents. Especially noticeable are As- 
terionella gracillima, the two species of Tabellaria, and Melosira 

Gomphonema geminatum occurred in fair quantity in the 
plankton of Wastwater and of Hawes Water. We have also 
recorded it quite common freely floating in Loch Tay.* This 
species is normally attached and can be obtained in pure masses 
in many of the mountain cataracts. Numerous individuals 
evidently get washed down by heavy rains into the limnetic 
region of the lakes, where they live for some time before perish- 

The Myxophyceae are almost as poorly represented as in 
the Scottish lakes, the number of species being relatively few. 
Coelosphcenum Kiitzingianum attained considerable abundance 
in both Crummock Water and Hawes Water, but the genera 
Lynghya and Anahcsna were barely represented, and species 
of Oscillatoria were not frequent. 

Among the Flagellates the genus Dinobryon is conspicuous, 
and so far as the English lakes are concerned, D. cylindricum 
and its \'ar. divergens, are much the most abundant forms. 
At the end of May and beginning of June, the three lakes, 
Derwent Water, Crummock Water and Grasmere, possessed a 
Z)mo&rvo n-plankton [vide plate VL). In Windermere the 
maximum of Dinobryon cylindricum was in September 

Mallouionas longiseta occurred in great abundance in Sep- 
tember in Brothers' Water, whereas the same organism attained 
a decided maximum in December in Windermere. 

The most conspicuous member of the Peridiniese is Peri- 
diniiim Willei. This organism is abundant in nearly all the 
lakes, and occurs in much greater quantity than in either the 
Scottish or Irish lakes. It is one of the leading features of the 
plankton of the English Lake District. 

Among the numerous species recorded as constituents of 
the phytoplankton of the English lakes, some are true con- 
stituents, either not occurring elsewhere in the drainage-areas 
of the lakes, or occurring much more abimdantly in the plank- 
ton than in any other situations. The remainder are only 

* Vide ' Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin.', Vol. XLI., part III., 1905, p. 491. 
1909 Sep. I. 

330 TVes^ : Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 

casual or adventitious constituents, washed into the lakes by the 
rains, and there either perishing very rapidly, or existing for a 
more or less extended season. As stated before, it is our previous 
detailed acquaintance with the general Alga-flora of the drainage 
basins which has enabled us to clearly recognise the true 
plankton-constituents from those which are casually introduced 
by the drainage into the lakes. 

The following species and varieties are exclusively confined 
to the plankton :■ — Micrasterias mahahuleshivarensis var. Wal- 
lichii, M. radiata, Cosmarium abbreviatum var. planctonicum, 
C. capitulum var. groenlandicum, Xanthidium antilopceum vars. 
depauperatiim and triquetrum, X. stibhastiferum var. Murrayi, 
Arthrodesmus crassus, A. triangularis var. subtriangularis, 
Staurastrum curvatum, St. cuspidatum var. maximum, St. 
jaculiferum, St. longispinum, St. lunatum var. planctonicum, 
St. Ophiura, St. pseudopelagicum, Spondylosium pidchrum var. 
planum, Ankistrodesmus Pfitzeri, Elakatothrix gelatinosa, Oocystis 
lacitstris, SphcBrocystis Schrceteri, Tabellaria fenestrata var. 
asterionelloides , Asterionella gracillima, Rhizosolenia morsa, 
Anabcena Lemmermanni, Oscillatoria Agardhii, Gomphosphceria 
lacustris, Microcystis ceruginosa, M. incerta, Mallomonas 
longiseta, and Ceratium hirundinella. 

The following are much more abundant in the plankton 
than elsewhere : — Euastrum verrucosum var. reductum, Micras- 
terias Sol, Cosmarium depressum, C. subtumidum var. Klebsii, 
Staurastrum anatinum and vars., St. Arctiscon, St. Brasiliense 
var. Lundellii, St. denticidatum, St. furcigerum, St. paradoxum 
var. longipes, St. sexangidare, Botryococcus Braunii, Cyclotella 
compta, Melosira granulata, Fragilaria crotonensis, Asterionella 
formosa, Surirella robusta var. splendida, S. biseriata, Lyngbya 
bipunctata, Coelosphcerium Kiitzingianum, Microcystis pulverea, 
and Peridinium Willei. 

It is particularly noticeable in the English Lake District 
that a greater bulk of plankton occurs in those lakes which are 
slightly contaminated by the presence on their shores of small 
villages and farms than in those lakes free from contamination. 
The greater bulk of plankton-organisms is most probably due 
to the slight increase in the amount of food-constituents, 
especially nitrates, consequent upon the slight sewage con- 

We have no evidence in support of the view put forward 


Wes^ : Phytoplankton of English Lake District. 331 

by Huitfeldt-Kaas* that small depth is favourable and great 
depth unfavourable to the development of plankton. On the 
contrary, there is a very considerable phytoplankton and 
zooplankton in Loch Morar, Inverness, f which is not only the 
deepest lake (1017 feet) in the British Islands, but the eighth 
deepest lake in Europe. Likewise the great African lakes have 
an enormous phytoplankton, J with a depth exceeding 1300 
feet in Tanganyika, of 1200 feet in Lake Nyasa, and of 620 feet 
in Victoria Nyanza. Many facts tend to prove that the presence 
of available food-constituents in the form of dissolved salts is 
the principal determining factor in the quantitative develop- 
ment of plankton, and that this may result from several causes, 
not the least of which is the slight sewage contamination in 
so many of the European lakes. 


Photomicrographs of Plankton from Ennerdale Water (x 100). 

I and 2, Peridinium Willei ; 3 and 4, Ceratium hirundinella ; 5, Xan- 
thidium antilopeeum var. depanpevatum ; 6 and 7, Stanrastritm defectum ; 
8, St. jaculiferum (biradiate form undergoing division). 

9-11, Peridinium Willei; 12, Ceratium hirundiyiella ; 13 and 14* 
Staurastrum curvatum, (or St. dejectimi ? ) ; 15, St. loiisispiuum ; 16, 
St. jaculiferum. (biradiate form) ; 17, St. furcigerum. 


Photomicrographs of Plankton from Crummock Water (xioo)- 
and from Derwent Water ( x 200) . 

I and 2, Dinobryon cylindricum (with immature resting spores) ; 3, 
Melosira granulata ; 3, Stout form of Staurastrum anatinum. 

5 and 6, Dinobryon cylindricum, var. divergens ; 7, Cyclotella compta. 


Photomicrographs of Plankton from Windermere (xioo), 
Upper Photograph of June Plankton, and Lower one of September 

I and 2, Asterionella gracillima ; 3, Tabellaria fenestrata var. Asterionel- 

4, Asterionella gracillima ; 5, Tabellaria fenestrata var. asterionelloides ; 
6 and 7, Xanthidium subhastiferum var. Murrayi ; 8, Spondylosium 
pulchrimt var. planum ; 9 and 10, Staurastrum paradoxum var. longipes ; 
II, St. ■jaculiferum. 

* Huitfeldt-Kaas, I.e., 1906, p. 185. 

t W. & G. S. West in ' Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin.', Vol. XLL, part III., 
1905, p. 481 et seq. 

I G. S. West in ' Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot.', XXXVIII. , 1907, pp. 81-192^ 
1909 Sep. 1. 





Linthit'aite, Huddersfield. 

{Continued from page 2g8). 

{b) Limbs of apophysis converge. 
Inner limb without a basal 
tooth . . . . . . . . Karpinskii Cambs. 

B. — Ocular area without a tubercle. Tibial apoph- 
ysis undivided. 

I. Legs reddish. Posterior eyes equidistant . .Vigilax Bl. 

II. Legs bright orange yellow. Posterior central 

eyes nearer to each other than to the laterals . . Lucida Came. 




[Figs. A to D viewed from above, fig. E from front]. 

A. — Sternum without punctate impressions. 

I. Profile of cephalothorax, with a slight hollow. 

Clypeus equals one-half the facial space, not 
projecting at lower margin. Falces not 
protuberant at base. Tibia of first pair of 
legs incrassate . . . . . . . . . .Pavitans Camb. 

II. Profile of cephalothorax with a deeper hollow. 

Clypeus higher and projecting at lower 
iiargin. Falces protuberant at base. Tibia 
of first pair of legs not incrassate . . . . Pudens Camb. 

B. — Sternum with punctate impressions. 

I. Impressions distinct and deep, cov-ering the 

whole surface of the sternum. Vulva fig. B. . .Unicornis Camb. 

II. Impressions much less distinct and shallow, 

the centre of sternum being nearly clear 
{a) Posterior eyes equidistant. 

(i) Eyes fairly large. Posterior cen- 
tral eyes not more than one dia- 
meter apart. Vulva, fig. A. . .Cuspid.\ta Bl. 
(ii.) Eyes smaller. Posterior central 
eyes i-A diameters apart. Vulva, 

fig. D. ' Vigilax Bl. 

(b) Posterior central eyes closer to each 
other than to laterals of same row. 
Eyes rather small 

(i.) Larger. Posterior central eyes 
fully I diameter apart. Vulva, 
fig. C. . . . . . . . . KocHii Camb. 

(ii.) Smaller and slenderer. Posterior 
central eyes less than i diameter 
apart. Vulva, fig. E. . . . . Karpinskii Camb. 

Figures of Cornicularia lucida Camb. ^, Plate XXXV., fig. 27, and of 
C. pavitans and C. pudens Camb. females, Plate XLVL, figs. 13 and 15, may 
be found m Vol. XXVIII. of ' The Transactions of the Linna?an Society.' 


Book Notice. 333 

Drawings by F. P. Smith. 

Fig. I. — C. Kochii Camb. Ocular tubercle and eyes viewed in profile. 

Fig. 2. — C. kochii Camb. The same viewed ivom above. 

Fig. 3. — C. kochii Camb. The same viewed from front. 

Fig. 4. — C. kochii Camb. Tibial joint and apophysis from above. 
a — tooth of inner limb. ; b — -branch of the outer limb. 

Fig. 5. — C. kochii Camb. Part of the left palp viewed from the out- 
side, a — C-shaped process at base, and b — the circvilar spine at the ex- 
tremity of the palpal organs ; c — another view of the tibial joint and 

Fig. 6. — C. unicornis Camb. Tibial joint and apophysis from above. 
a — tooth of inner limb. 

Fig. 7. — C. unicornis Camb. Ocular tubercle and eyes viewed from 

Fig. 8. — C. karpinskii Camb. Tibial joint and apophysis viewed from 

Fig. 9. — C. karpinskii Camb. Ocular tubercle and eyes viewed from 


W. Falconer. 

A. — C. cuspidata Bl. B. — C. unicornis Camb. C. — C. kochii Camb. 

D. — C. vigilax Bl. E. — C. karpinskii Camb. 

Memorials of Old Lancashire. Edited by Lt.-Col. Fishwick and Rev. 
P. H. Ditchfield. Bemrose & Sons, Derby. 2 volumes, 280 and 314 pp., 
25/- net. ; 

It would be difficult to find a greater contrast than between the Lanca- 
shire, so charmingly described in these beautiful volumes, and the Lanca- 
shire one sees from the railway carriage windows whilst travelling through 
that county to-day. But the difference is due to the fact that the books 
deal with old Lancashire ; and also to the circumstance that in walking 
through these old fields, we have as guides such well-known and well- 
informed antiquaries as Col. Fishwick and the Rev. Ditchfield. Both these 
gentlemen have made the past history of Lancashire their special study ; 
and are consequently the best qualified of editors. They have also written 
a good share of the chapters. Amongst many other contributors we notice 
the names of Dr. J. C. Cox, Prof. Collingwood, and Mr. Aymer Vallance. 

We can quite understand that in dealing with a county like Lancashire, 
it was impossible to confine the matter to a single volume, as is the case with 
most of this series. The marvel is that so much has been included in these 
two. Col. Fishwick leads off with ' Historic Lancashire ' ; this i'^ followed 
by a concise and carefully-written account of ' The Romans in Lar^cashire ', 
in which are figured the well-known bronze helmet and gold fibula found at 
Ribchester. Now that the Roman occupation of the county is to the fore, 
this summary is especially opportune. Cartmel Priory, the Old Cliurch of 
Manchester, Lancashire Legends, Castles and Fortified Houses, Old Wigan, 
Furness Abbey, The Crosses of Lancashire, Heysham, Roods, Screens and 
Lofts, Ancient Fonts, etc., etc., are some of the subjects dealt with in the 
thirty odd chapters. The value of the volumes is considerably increased 
by the wealth of carefully-chosen illustrations, and there is a good index. 
The books are well printed on good paper, and are nice to handle — a yearly 
rarer feature with books of this character. 

1909 Sep. I. 



The Transactions of the East Riding Antiquarian Society, Vol. XV., 
have just been published. It includes a lengthy and valuable paper by 
Dr. C. Cox on ' A Poll Tax of the East Riding ' ; Col. P. Saltmarshe writes 
on ' Some Howdenshire Villages ' ; the Rev. A. N. Cooper tells ' How- 
Rowley in Yorkshire lost its Population in the Seventeenth Century, and 
how Rowley in Massachusetts was Founded,' and Mr. Sheppard contributes 
Local ArchjEological Notes, with illustrations. The Bradford Antiquary, 
N.S., Part XII., contains ' The Forgotten Manor of Exley,' by Mr. W. A. 
Brigg ; ' The Laycocks of the Parish of Kildwick,' by Messrs. J. A. and 
J. B. Laycock, ' West Riding Cartulary.' by Mr. C. A. Federer, and several 
shorter items of local interest. 

In the Transactions of the Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society 
(Vol. XIII., part i) are two papers of special interest to our readers, viz., 
' The Cryptogamic Flora of Leicestershire,' by Mr. A. R. Horwood, a valu- 
able compilation ; and ' Desert Formations with Reference to the Origin 
of the Trias,' by the late Joseph Lomas. This paper is the last contribution 
by that gifted worker, and was delivered by him whilst on his way from 
Liverpool to Algeria, the news of his death being received only a week 
after he was at Leicester. 

The Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philoso- 
phical Society (Vol. LIIL, part 2) contains several papers of great interest. 
Prof. A. Schwartz and Sir Hugh R. Beevor write on ' The Dawn of Human 
Intention : an experimental and comparative study of Eoliths,' in which 
they make out a good case for the artificial origin of these objects ; Mr. 
J. W. Jackson describes the pre-historic implements found in Irish Dia- 
tomaceous Deposits ; Prof, \yeiss refers to the submerged vegetation of 
Lake Windermere as affecting "the feeding-ground of fish, and also writes 
on ' The Occurrence and Distribution of some alien Aquatic Plants in the 
Reddish Canal ' ; and Mr. F. Stubbs contributes some interesting notes on 
• The Use of Wind by Migrating Birds.' 

Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, Vol. I., 1909, 150 pp. 

We should like to congratulate the Carlisle Society upon its first publi- 
cation. It is ideal, and might well be held up as a model to other societies 
issuing Transactions. All the papers it contains are strikingly local in 
character ; all are useful ; there is no ' padding,' and there is evidence of 
careful and conscientious editing ; though the editors' names are not 
given. A brief ' Introduction ' gives a history of the Society. Mr. J. 
Murrav writes a Memoir of T. C. Heysham — ' A Bygone Cumberland 
Naturalist,' and on ' The Land and Freshwater Shells of Cumberland ; 
Mr. W. E. B. Dunlop contributes some interesting Westmorland Ornitholo- 
gical Notes ; ^Ir. H. Britten writes on ' The Mammals of the Eden Valley ' ; 
Mr. T. S. Johnstone contributes part 1. of ' Plant Life Around Carlisle ' ; 
Mr. T. L. Johnston gives an account of ' The Diving Birds of the Solway ' ; 
and Mr. L. E. Hope writes on the Gulls and Wading Birds of the same area. 
' The Butterflies of Cumberland ' is the title of a paper by Mr. G. B. Rout- 
ledge, and Mr. F. H. Day writes on ' The Fauna of Cumberland in Relation 
to its Physical Geography,' and also contributes part I. of ' The Coleoptera 
of Cumberland.' It is interesting to note (pp 3-4) that ' In 1842, Robert 
Dunn, of Hull, wrote to Heysham, offering him two skins of the Great Auk 
for £7 los. each, and in 1840, Mr. Proctor offered him the egg of the same 
bird for ;£3. Unfortunately none of these were secured.' We know nothing 
about :\Ir. Proctor, but Mr. Dunn has since died ! 

The Report of the Perthshire Natural History Museum for 1908-9 records 
the progress made at that institution during the year, and also includes 
a list of additions, and a valuable Meteorological Report by the Curator, 
Mr. Alex. M. Rodger. 



Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies. 335 

Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union Transactions, 1908 [publ. 1909]. Louth, 
pp. 219-322. 

Though there is no indication of this being part of any particular 
volume, it is evident from the paging that this is a continuation of 
the publication issued by the Lincolnshire Union, which we are glad 
to find has more money than it knows what to do with. Personally, 
however, we would rather have seen the spare funds handed over to the 
needy and deserving county museum than have seen them wasted 
in printing papers that were not worth the expense, or which had already 
previously been printed — in the same Society's Transactions, in fact. 
That the first volume was not, perhaps, quite up to the standard of the 
present series has nothing to do with it. The present part opens with a 
charming portrait of a past president of the Lincolnshire, as well as of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, the Rev. Canon W. Fowler ; and the photo- 
grapher seems to have caught him just as he was telling the story about 
' Are you drawin' t'cat or am I ? ' The Rev. F. L. Blathwayt writes some 
useful ' Notes on the Birds of a Ballast Pit,' and Mr. G. W. Mason con- 
tributes part IL of ' Lincolnshire Lepidoptera,' which, together with 
' Lincolnshire Colecptera,' by Rev. A. Thornley and Dr. W. Wallace, are 
exceedingly valuable contributions to the insect fauna of the county. 
Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, the President of the Union, gives a valuable 
' Census of Lincolnshire Land and Freshwater Mollusca to end of 1908.' 
Mr. F. M. Burton's paper, though interesting, was read to and published by 
this same society fifteen years ago. The Rev. A. Hunt's paper, being a 
Presidential address, presumably had to be printed ; though if the practice 
of prefacing papers by lists of pamphlets previously written by an author 
becomes universal, there will be some interesting developments. There are 
some shorter notes by other writers. The publication includes ' Field 
Meetings, 1908,' which (fortunately) are anonymous. A reviewer last year 
drew attention to the carelessness as regards proof-reading, but, apparently 
without avail. Not only are the misprints many, but the composition 
is really shocking. * In four lines we find ' theeolian sands,' hippo- 
taniHs and rhinocerns ; Cwicus, hederocews. Low for Sow, etc., etc. ' All 
these are confined to limited areas and rare.' The Wild Birds' Eggs' Act 
is apparently not in force in Lincolnshire, as ' Mr. Coward was highly 
complimented on the splendid work [collecting eggs] he had done, for he 
had only been collecting a jew seasons ' ! 'It formed an interesting exhibit 
until they developed into the perfect insect ' ; ' Mrs. and Alderman Jessop 
conducted his visitors ' ; ' an habitat,' etc. At Sleaford ' the Rev. W. W. 
Mason " took " the list of plants ' ; we hope he's returned it. We were not 
previously aware that a well-known Leeds conchologist was ' F.G.S.,' and 
there are some peculiar ' officers,' though they are ' sectional.' Amongst 
these are ' Boulders,' ' Fungi,' and ' Phoenogamic [s/c] Secretary.' — R. 

We have received the Thirty-second Annual Report and Proceedings 
of the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. St. Albans, 1909, 
price 2/-. 

Besides the usual rules, list of members, balance sheet and report 
of the Society's year's work, (which is a very good one), it contains ' A 
Preliminary Catalogue of the Hemiptera-Homoptera of Lancashire and 
Cheshire,' by Oscar Whittaker, in connection with which we are glad to 
see that B. Cooke's list of sixty-four species, printed in ' The Naturalist " 
for 1882, has proved exceedingly useful. There is also a list of ' Additions 
to a Preliminary Catalogue of the Hemipetera [sic] Heteroptera ' of the 
same area, published in 1907. This includes four species. There is a 
photograph of Mr. B. H. Crabtree as frontispiece, but we can find no refer- 
ence to it in the text. 

* In fairness to the Hon. Secretary, we should state that he informs us fresh arrange- 
ments are to be made next year. — Ed. 

1909 Sep. I 

^36 Northern News. 

A Tourist's Flora of the West of Ireland, by R. Lloyd Praeger. Dublin : 
Hodges, Figgis & Co. pp. XII. and 243. With 5 coloured maps, 27 plates 
and 17 figures in the text. 3/6 net. 1909. 

The author tells us that this book is intended to serve as a ' first aid ' 
to the tourist who desires information, in a condensed form, respecting 
the peculiar flora which to the botanical student renders the West of Ire- 
land one of the most interesting regions in Europe. We know of no one 
better qualified than Mr. Praeger for the task, and a glance at the three 
sections into which the book is divided shows how admirably adapted it 
is to the end in view. The introductory chapters deal with the physical 
features, vegetational sub-divisions, plant-formations and natural groups, 
character of the flora, and progress of botanical investigation. Though 
brief, the many fascinating points in plant distribution are well brought out. 
The topographical section describes the more interesting features in the 
flora of over one hundred areas, and are accompanied by many references 
to local floras, and more detailed works where more complete accounts may 
be found. This is followed by the systematic section, giving the distribu- 
tion of each species, the nomenclature followed being that of the ' Cybele 
Hibernica ' and ' Irish Topographical Botany.' The three sections are 
separately indexed, the indices being easily found by means of coloured 
title pages preceding sections 2 and 3. The book is beautifully illustrated 
by the well-known photographs of Mr. R. Welsh, also by five coloured maps, 
and many small but clear maps in black and white, showing the distribution 
of the more interesting species. All intelligent tourists, as well as botanists, 
will welcome this excellent work, and we should like to see the floras of 
England, Wales and Scotland treated in a similar way. 

Trees : A Hand-book of Forest-botany for the Woodlands and the 
Laboratory, by the late H. Marshall Ward, Sc.D., F.R.S. Vol. \'., Form and 
Habit, pp. X. and 308, with 209 illustrations. Cambridge University 
Press, 1909. 4/6 net. 

This volume, as in its predecessor, is edited by Dr. Percy Groom, 
and is a very welcome addition to the series. The first part of the book, 
including nine chapters, deals with the habit of trees, their stems and 
branches and branching, also the form, bark and non-typical shoots. 
The chapter dealing with the development of form will be found particu- 
larly interesting to students, and the excellent diagrams help materially 
to elucidate the text. The chapters on non-typical shoots and climbing 
plants are equally useful, though the author might possibly have revised 
a detail here and there had he been spared to see it through the press. 
The special part deals with the classification of trees according to their 
shapes, and also with shrubs and bushes. The volume concludes with a 
classification of trees and shrubs according to their seedlings, which, though 
not so complete as the author intended to make it, yet will be found most 
useful, while the drawings of the seedlings are all that could be desired. 


Last month we recorded that Scotter Common, Lines., has been fired. 
Since then we regret to find that another fine piece of Lincolnshire Common, 
Crowle Moor, has been destroyed in the same way. 

We have received from Dr. W. J. Fordham, of Bubwith, Selb}-, a photo- 
graph of an Ash branch (Fraxinns excelsior), showing an interesting 
example of fasciation. As he points out, fasciation has been of \-ery com- 
mon occurrence this year. Amongst others noted are flowering stems of 
Hypocha-ris radicata, Daisy, Dandelion and other Composites, Scabiosa 
columbaria, Plantago lanceolata and Ranunculus repens. 

Mr. H. H. Corbett has been appointed Curator of the recently formed 
-Municipal Museum at Doncaster, at a salary of £50 per annum. 


OCTOBER 1909. 

No. 633 

(No, 411 0/ ourrtnt series). 




T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museum, Hull ; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 




Contents : — 


Notes and Comments : — The Cambridge Natural History ; Crustacea and Arachnids ; The 
Volcanic Origin of Coal ; Marble as a Volcanic Rock ; Between Patrington and 
Easington : August ; Glacial and Post-Glacial Features ; Coast Changes in Yorkshire 337-339 

Further Proofs of the Flow of the Trent on the Keuper Escarpment at Gains- 
borough. — F. M. Burton, F.L.S. , F.G.S 

Anchomenus versutus Qyll, a Beetle new to the North of England—/. W. Carter .■.. 

Northern News 

Hybrid between Orchis maculata and Habeaaria coaopsea in Yorkshire— W. B. 



Wych-Elm Seedlings— IK. r. Winter 

The Crossbill Migration 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Sedbergh 

A New Variety of Sedge— P. Fox Lee 

Note on Carex sylvatica var. capiUariformis—F. Arnold Lees, M.R.C.S. ... 

Some new Yorkshire Beetles— T. Stainforth 

News from the Magazines 

On the Geographical Distribution of MoUusca in South Lonsdale— iJev. C. E. Y. Kendall, 
B. A., J. Davy Dean, and W. Mtinn Rankin, M.Sc, B.Sc 

In Memoriam— Thomas Southwell, F.Z.S,, M.B.O.U.— T. S 

Field Notes 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Museum News 

339, 343, 348, 360, 





, 365-368 
364 368 


A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



^be l^o rksbire maturalists ' TUnion. 


Svo, Cloth, 292 pp. (a few copies only left), price SI- net. 

Contains various reports, papers, and addresses on the Flowering Plants, Mosses, and Fungi of the county. 

Complete, Svo, Cloth, 7vith Coloured Map, published at One Guinea. Vnly a few copies left, 10/6 net. 

This, which forms the 2nd Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, is perhaps the most 
complete work of the kind ever issued for any district, including detailed and full records of 1044 Phanero- 

fams and Vascular Cryptogams, 11 Characeae, 348 Mosses, 108 Hepatics, 258 Lichens, 1009 Fungi, and 382 
reshwater Algje, making a total of 3160 species. 

680 pp., Coloured Geological, Lithological, &c. Maps, suitably Bound in Cloth. Price 15/- net. 
NORTH YORKSHIRE: Studies of Its Botany, Geology, Climate, and Physical Geography. 

And a Chapter on the Mosses and Hepatics of the Riding, by Matthew B. Slater, F.L.S. This Volume 
forms the 3rd of ihe Botanical Series. 

396 pp., Complete, Svo., Cloth. Price 10/6 net. 


This is the 4th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, and contains a complete annotated list 
of all the known Fungi of the county, comprising 2626 species. 

Complete, Svo, Cloth. Price 6/- post free. 


This work, which forms the 5th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, enumerates 1044 
species, with full details of localities and numerous critical remarks on their affinities and distribution. 

Complete, Svo, Cloth. Second Edition. Price 6/6 net. 


The First Edition of this work was published in 1883, and contained particulars of 1340 species of 

Macro- and Micro-Lepidoptera known to inhabit the county of York. The Second Edition, with Supplement, 

contains much new information which has been accumulated by the author, including over 50 additional 

species, together with copious notes on variation (particularly melanism), &c. 

In progress, issued in Annual Parts, Svo. 

The Transactions include papers in all departments of the Yorkshire Fauna and Flora, and are issued in 

separately-paged series, devoted each to a special subject. The Parts already published are sold to the publifi 

as follows (Members are entitled to 25 per cent, discount) : Part 1 (1877), 2/3 ; 2 (1878), 1/9 ; 3 (1878), 1/6 ; 4 (1879), 

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SHIRE. By JOHN W. TAYLOR, F.L.S., and others. Also in course of publication in the Trans- 

18, 19, 21, Sec, of Transactions. 


THE NATURALIST. A Monthly Illustrated Journal of Natural History for the North of England. Edited 
by T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., Museum, Hull; and T. W. WOODHEAD, F.L.S., Technical College, 
Huddersfield ; with the assistance as referees in Special Departments of J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., 
Subscription, payable in advance, 6/6 post free). 

MEMBERSHIP in the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 10/6 per annum, includes subscription to The Naturalist, 
and entitles the member to receive the current Transactions, and all the other privileges of the Union. 
A donation of Seven Guineas constitutes a life-membership, and entitles the member to a set of the 
Transactions issued by the Union. Subscriptions to be sent to the Hon. Treasurer, H. Culpin, 
7 St. Mary's Road, Doncaster. 
Members are entitled to buy all back numbers and other publications of the Union at a discount of 25 

per cent, off the prices quoted above. 
All communications should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary, 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S. , The Museums, Hull. 


A Small Number of Back Volumes of 

The Naturalist 

at very low rates. Apply at once, stating requirements, to 


33 7 


We should like to congratulate Dr. Harmer and Mr. A. E 
Shipley upon the completion of their monumental work, ' The 
Cambridge Natural History,' after sixteen years of labour. 
In all, ten volumes have appeared ; the last, though the fourth 
in proper order, having been delayed by the untimely death of 
Prof. Weldon. The work has been so carefully planned, and 
so excellently executed, that it will for many years hold its 
place as the leading scientific ' Natural History.' 


Under the above title Messrs. MacMillan have issued the 
last of the Cambridge \'olumes. It has been most carefully- 
compiled, and obviously each of the different sections with 
which it deals has been in the hands of an expert. The illustra- 
tions are also numerous and carefully selected. The section 
devoted to Crustacea has been wxitten by Geoffrey Smith and 
the late W. F. R. Weldon. Mr. Henry Woods is responsible 
for ' Trilobites,' and ' Eurypterida ' ; Mr. Cecil Warburton for 
' Scorpions, Spiders, Mites, Ticks, etc' ; Prof. D'Arcy W. 
Thompson for the Pycnogonida, and Mr. A. E. Shipley for the 
Pentastomida, the Tardigrada, and for the Introduction to 
Arachnida and King Crabs. 


With the above heading we are treated to a pamphlet almost 
mediaeval in its simplicity. It has been written by Col. A. T.. 
Eraser (late R.E.), who has been to Java and seen stratified 
volcanic material there. This has given him an idea. Why 
should not coal, marble, and goodness knows what else have 
been thrown up from a volcano ? He says ' that coal should 
be shewn to be an old volcanic product is of the utmost impor- 
tance, because it must lead, in spite of opposition only to be 
expected, to finding that many whole series of strata the world 
over are after all due to seismic forces, rather than slow aqueous 
deposition, thus simplifying the science of geology. When rocks 
are seen of which it is difficult to assign the age, having a nonde- 
script character, it would be safe to set them down, at least 
provisionally, as volcanic' 

* 566 pp. 17/- net. 
1909 Oct. 1. 

.33^ Notes and Comments. 


We then learn (p. 13), that ' One cannot visit the Itahan 
marble quarries of Carrara without receiving the impression 
that the marble beds were ejected, accompanied by high- 
pressure steam, from a fissure, and showered down ; and it is 
the same with the marble of Mount Parnassus in Greece. 
The geological peculiarities of Java will therefore well repay 
careful examination ; and identification of its volcanically- 
laid strata seems capable of becoming a turning point in geolo- 
gical theory,' etc., etc. This pamphlet has a moral : Keep 
away from Java ! 


A white road, stretching far, with margins green 
Of cool, soft grass, and hedges thin and low. 
But bright with undergrowth, and the soft glow 

Of sunfloods pure, enriching the fair scene. 

A wealth of Bramble-blossom, and the sheen 

Of frail and painted wings, where light winds blow 
From the wide Humber's tranquil summer-flow 

O'er harvest fields, where patient sowers glean. 

A grace of wild flowers peeping here and there, 
From the low grass and herbage of the way, 
Where Nature maketh seeming holiday 

With bloom and butterfly and leafage fair, 

But where sweet Purpose, from her dalliance gay 

Shall seeming loss with teeming wealth repair. 

Edward Lamplough. 

glacial and post-glacial features. 

In the ' Geographical Journal ' for July Mr. G.W. Lamplugh, 
F.R.S., writes ' Physiographical Notes No. i,' in which he con- 
trasts the fresh-looking features of the mounds of glaciated 
areas with the adjacent valleys where obvioush- considerable 
erosion has taken place since the Glacial Period. He cites 
' the morainic mounds of the Vale of York and of Flamborough 
Head, and the moundy sands and gravels of Holderness, in 
their anomalous relation to the huge post-glacial deposits of 
the Humber and of the Vale of York, and to the erosion-features 
generally observable where post-glacial streams have traversed 
drift-covered country. The phenomena of deeply incised 


Book Notice. 339 

post-glacial valleys associated with glacial features only slightly 
modified, are, indeed, so common in the north of England that 
it is needless further to particularise their occurrence.' The 
explanation given is that the mounds were protected by the 
snows, whilst the floods formed as the results of thaws quickly 
cut the valleys and spread fans of gravel on the low ground. 


The Research Department of the Royal Geographical 
Society is issuing a series of Memoirs on ' Changes on the East 
Coast Region of England during the Historical Period.' The 
first of these, dealing with coast changes in East Yorkshire and 
in the Humber Estuary, by Mr. T. Sheppard, has just been 
published by the Society in the form of a ' Prehminary Sum- 
mary Report.' This is divided into sections under the heads of 
Geological Notes, Lake Dwellings, Historical Evidence, Lost 
Towns of the Coast, Erosion of the Holderness Coast, Spurn, 
Hedon, Hull, Lost Towns of the Humber, Ravenser, Erosion 
in the Humber, New Land in the Estuary, and Thorne Moor 
and Hatfield Chase. 

Thoughts on Natural Philosophy and the Origin of Life, written and 
published by A. Biddlecombe. 5th edition. Xe\vcastle-on-Tyne. 39 pp., 


With this pamphlet the author has kindly sent us a circular, upon which 
two paragraphs are marked as ' interesting and conclusive.' We think 
it best to give them as far more likely to draw our readers' attention to 
the nature of the pamphlet than are any words of our own : — 

' One objection that might be made to the compulsory adjacency and 
collision of the portions of matter is that, if matter had been projected from 
points along a straight line at sufficient speed, it would have continued so 
to progress infinitely, without adjacency and collision ; and this no doubt 
is true. But it is only necessary to state the objection for it to be elimi- 
nated from the discussion. Matter has now adjacency and collision, 
therefore as it could not have had it under the supposed conditions of the 
objection, it is certain that matter has never taken (either originally or at 
any time) wholly that mode of progression. 

' The only other line is the curve, and around any imaginary tigure we 
can draw an imaginary curve, or circle ; and for our purpose the curve or 
■curves must permit, if necessary, of infinite extension from the centre to 
the circumference. It is therefore clear that the portions of matter must 
have moved (either originally or always) through points in an imaginary 
•circle or circles. The necessity does not exist to bore the reader with long 
mathematical calculations, the thing is so simple that the calculations and 
drawings can be made at will. But it is clear that as the portions of matter 
moved through points in the circle, they must eventually have had 
adjacency and collision ; and as a result spin, and vertical movement 
and force, followed by gravitation, electricity and magnetism, together 
with all the natural phenomena with which we are acquainted, including 
the sensations of heat and light, as the result of material motion.' 

1909 Oct. I. 



F. M. BURTON, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

That a river once flowed on the top of the Gainsborough 
escarpment, which could, to all appearance, have been none 
other than the Trent, I have shown in ' The Shaping of Lindsey 
by the Trent.'* Since the publication of this work I have met 
with further proofs bearing out and confirming this view. 

To make the matter clear it will be well to recall the position 
and status of the Trent at the time it ran in this old course. 

The mean level of the Trent near Gainsborough is about 
twenty feet above O.D. The Keuper escarpment on the east 
of the town is eighty feet higher than the river, or about one 
hundred feet above O.D. When the escarpment was consider- 
ably higher than it is at the present time, a subsequent stream 
of the Humber captured the Trent somewhere about, but 
considerably higher than the region of Newark, and turned 
that river from the ' Lincoln Gap,' through which it formerly 
flowed, into its present course. 

At the time of the capture the Trent valley had no existence, 
but it was carved out at a later period by the Trent, as that river 
gradually cut through the soft yielding marls of the Keuper 
on the west, thus leaving the hard Upper Keuper rocks standing 
out, and forming the present-day escarpment, which runs, 
with some few breaks in its continuity, from Hardwick Hill on 
the north, to Newton Cliff, and beyond, on the south. 

The land on the summit of the escarpment at Gainsborough 
rises a little as we proceed eastwards, and attains a height of 
one hundred and twelve feet above O.D., after which it slopes 
gradually away to the Lower Lias clays beyond ; and on this 
slope, in a field which has recently been drained, I met with 
distinct traces of a river bed, exactly like the one I ha^'e before 
described, agreeing with it in all respects, both as to its level 
and its contents — quartz, quartzites and sandstones — all of 
which are smoothed and rounded by river action, and imbedded 
in a matrix of yellowish clay. 

The river in this locality probably ran, at the time, in two 
channels, separated from each other by about seven hundred 
yards — one on the present brink of the escarpment, and the 

* See 'The Naturalisl,' 1907, p. 261. 


Northern News. 341 

other on the east side of the twelve feet elevation — and if so, 
they may very likely have met again, about a mile away on the 
south, near Warren Wood, where the land is of a sandy nature, 
and where I have, on occasions, seen the hedgerows nearl}' 
buried with blown sand. The higher land in the midst would 
thus stand out as an island, possibly drowned at times, when 
great floods prevailed. 

Another confirming proof of the existence of the old Trent 
bed, connected with the formation of its valley, has lately come 
to my knowledge. I had often thought it probable that some 
relics of river-action might be met with on the side of the escarp- 
ment at Gainsborough, in the shape of water-worn blocks 
and fragments of the hard sandstone layers, which occur in this 
region of the Keuper — though, from the steepness of the slope 
and the nature of the rock, such traces could only be few — and 
I have had, recently, the good fortune to meet with some of 
them. The town cemetery lies at the top of the escarpment, 
and, in digging a grave lately, some pieces of the sandstone, 
broken up and rounded, evidently by water action, have been 
thrown out. 



On July 8th, 1909, during a ramble about Ryehill reservoir, near 
Wakefield, in company with Mr. Bayford, of Barnsley, I had the 
pleasure of taking a single specimen of Anchometms versuUis 
Gyll — a species evidently new to the north of England. At 
first I regarded it as a very dark form of the common A. paruni- 
punctatus F., but on a critical examination, I came to the 
conclusion that it was A. versuttts, and in this Mr. W. Holland, 
of the University Museum, Oxford, who kindly examined the 
specimen, agrees; and writes, ' A. versiitus certainly, and a nice 
one at that.' 

We notice some Lancashire geologists have been ' working the Lias 

In a recent Lancashire angling match ' all fish may be weighed in bnt 
Jacksharps and Horse Mussels.' 

Mr. C. Crossland, F.L.S., has just issued, for private circulation, a second 
reprint of his ' Fungus Flora of the Parish of Halifax,' in which th.e addi- 
tional records since 1894 have been included. 

igog Oct. I. 





On July 22nd I was gathering some spikes of Habenaria conopsea 
when I noticed one which, in some respects, resembled Orchis 
macidata. Both species were growing in considerable numbers 
in a small piece of wet ground near the head of Thornton Dale, 
about six miles from Pickering, where the novelty was obtained. 
On closer examination I find that it is intermediate in almost 
every respect : — 

(i) The specimen has the scent of conopsea. 

(2) The spike is more compact than in that species, but less 
than is usual in macnlata. 

(3) The colour is rosy pink, brighter than that of conopsea, 
about the colour of the darkest type of macnlata. There are 
darker red markings on the lip, like those of niaciilata, but not 
so distinct as usual in that species. 

(4) The shape of the flower is decidedly intermediate bet- 
ween the two species, and it is slightly larger than conopsea 
in size. The lip is more divided than in conopsea ; the wings 
are broader, and turn more upwards than in that species, but 
less than in maculata. The spur is almost as broad as in 
macnlata, but is nearly as long as in conopsea, and has a similar 

(5) The rostellum is like that of conopsea, and does not pro- 
ject as in maculata. But the pollinia are like those of maculata, 
and hsixe not the strap-shaped discs of conopsea. The pollinia 
are small and yellow compared with those of either of the 
supposed parent species, this defect being what might be ex- 
pected in a hybrid. 

On the other hand, the lower ovaries have already increased 
considerably in size, looking as if they were going to seed pro- 

This liybrid is recorded as British in the last edition of the 
'London Catalogue.' It was found in 1898 by Mr. H. Pierson 
near Sevenoaks (see 'Journal of Botany,' 1899, p. 360), and 
on the Continent has been named by Camvis Orchis Legrandiana 
and Gymnadania Legrandiana. — J. G. Baker. 



W. p. WINTER, 

This season has been remarkable for the prevalence of the 
seedlings of the Wych-Elm {Ulmus montana With.). It may, 
perhaps, be well to place this on record with a note as to some 
characteristic features of the young plants. The two cotyle- 
dons are stalked, fleshy, obovate in outline, with distinct 
auricles at the base directed downwards. The two pairs of 
lea\'es above the cotyledons form with them three decussate 
pairs, and in this respect the seedlings differ from the descrip- 
tion by Tubeuf as translated in Lubbock's ' Seedlings,' where 
the first leaves are described as alternate. These first two 
pairs of leaves are shortly stalked, coarsely serrate, with only 
occasional signs of biserration. They are only slightly asym- 
metrical, have small stipules at their bases, and both surfaces 
are rough with hairs, many of which are glandular. Above 
these leaves the stem becomes more hairy and carries one or 
two or, more rarely, three small scale-like leaves above the gap 
between those previously described. Arranged alternately 
with these is again a similar small set (one, or rarely two). 
Succeeding to these are leaves in the ordinary leaf-spiral, but 
not quite so asymmetrical as usual, with stipules of the usual 

The scale-like leaves certainly suggest modified stipules, 
and the usual passage from the opposite arrangement of the 
cotyledons and the two first pairs to the alternate (^ diver- 
gence) and afterwards to spiral phyllotaxy is noteworthy. 

The Discovery and Settlement of Port Mackay, Queensland, by H. Ling 
Roth, Halifax: F. King l'v: Sons. 114 pp. 

Mr. Ling Roth is well known to the scientiiic world for his ethnological 
researches ; and consequently any work from his pen will receive serious 
attention. In the present case we think he has acted very wisely in placing 
upon record much valuable information relating to the early history of 
Port Mackay — information which will be of much greater value each year 
as time goes on. The author was in Queensland some thirty years ago, 
and took careful note of the district and its numerous attractions. Since 
then he has kept a keen watch, recording such items as he thought desir- 
able. The first part of the book contains narratives from the books of 
earlv visitors to Queensland, including those of Jukes, the geologist. There 
is a' full account^'of Capt. Mackay's expedition, and of the settlement of 
the town and district of Mackav- The closing chapters deal with the 
ethnology and natural history of the area ; the Hymenoptera Aculeata 
being exceptionallv well dealt with. There are nearly one hundred illus- 
trations, including maps and cliarts. 

igog Oct. I. 



On the morning of July iSth an adult female Crossbill was 
picked up dead under the telegraph wires in King's Road, 
Ilkley, by my neighbour, Mr. George Priestman, who gave it 
me to skin. The right wing was broken, and the neck .lightly 
bruised, presumably where it had struck the wire ; otherwise 
the bird was in excellent condition, the body being plump and 
the plumage very good. — Herbert Walker, Ilkley. 

Mr. E. C. Houltby, one of our local taxidermists, tells me 
that when crossing to Hamburg on the ' City of Leeds,' eighty- 
three miles off Spmm, at 6-5 a.m., August ist, he saw a young 
Crossbill come aboard. It seemed fairly tame, and began to 
eat crumbs. It remained on board until about eleven o'clock. — 
C. S. Carter, Louth. 

A number of Crossbills came on board a ship off Scarborough 
the end of June, and seven or eight were caught, and were 
brought into the Forth. They were seen by my son. — Rev. 
R. Steavenson, Wroxeter. 

Small parties of Crossbills were seen near Harrogate in the 
middle of July. There has evidently been two extensive and 
distinct immigrations of Crossbills to the British Isles, one at 
the end of June, and another about the middle of July. As an 
instance of the great extent of the immigration it is worthy of 
notice that records were sent from the Orkneys and the Lizard 
on the same date, and from almost every county on the East 
Coast, in addition to many visiting ships on the North Sea. 

The earlier immigration is noticeable, especially when the 
fact that Dr. Steward when in Finland in June last, saw parties 
of Crossbills making their way northward, is considered. In 
addition to the above records and those which appeared in the 
August ' NaturaHst,' Mr. Boyes in ' The Field,' records a party 
of a score or so at Beverley, and Mr. Wade, in ' British Birds,' 
records them at Dalton and Beverley. Mr. St. Ouintin told 
me that they had been seen at Scampston, where they had lit- 
tered the ground with the green cones of the larch. 

Messrs. Boyes and Wade remark upon a fact which is very 
noticeable, and which has been put on record by many other 
observers, viz., that the birds had been feeding extensively on 
Green Fly. There must be many other occurrences in York- 
shire, and observers would do well to forward a record of them 
to ' The Naturalist.' — R. Fortune. 




August Bank-holiday week-end was one of those rare occasions 
upon which the members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
were not favoured with fair weather. With hardly a break 
the rain fell continuously ; and even the hospitality of the 
White Hart Hotel hardly seemed to atone for the daily walks 
through the dripping vegetation, the wades through the swollen 
streams, and the tramps across the bleak fells. The illness of 
the local secretary, Mr. W. Robinson, was also a serious draw- 
back ; but with the guidance of Messrs. Cosmo Johns, E. 
Hawkesworth and W. Ingham, the counsel of Mr. John Handley, 
and the exceedingly valuable local help given b}^ Mr. J. M. 
Iveson, a profitable week-end was spent. 

And in the evenings, after dinner, the members got dried, 
and compared notes. Good discussions also arose as a result 
of papers by Mr. R. H. Philip on ' The Diatoms of Sedbergh,' 
and Mr. Cosmo Johns on ' the Nature of the Interior of the 
Earth.' Another took place in reference to botanical and 
geological nomenclature. 

On the excursions the geologists first proceeded to the 
Cautley Valley, where the rocks, though greatly faulted- and 
folded, are fairly well exposed, and are accompanied by much 
volcanic and igneous material. Exposures of lavas and beds 
of ashes, apparently contemporaneous with the deposition of 
the Bala limestone, were visited, as was also the splendid section 
about a mile away, described by Professor McKenny Hughes as 
the most complete section in the lower beds of the Silurian and 
the upper beds of the Bala series. Some time was devoted to 
an examination of the two dissimilar conglomerates at the base 
of the Carboniferous rocks, as they are rarely found, as here, 
in near juxtaposition. 

Another day was devoted to Douker Gill and Nor Gill. The 
former exhibits the results of the Dent Fault, and in one place 
the Coniston Flags abut against the Carboniferous limestone, 
and almost throughout the whole course of the stream the rocks 
show the crushing effects of the Faiilt. In Nor Gill a very 
interesting section is exposed, showing a great mass of red 
conglomerate, as to the exact age of which there is some dispute. 
It has generally been looked upon as the basement bed of the 
Carboniferous system in England, and in Scotland as of Upper 
Old Red Sandstone Age. There certainly is a conglomerate 

1909 Oct. I. 

34^ Yorkshire Naturalists at SedbergJi. 

at the base of the Carboniferous rocks in the Sedbergh district, 
but it varies in several respects from the red one mentioned, 
and in Nor Gill the relationship of the two is clearly seen. 
There is no gradual passage from the red deposits to the over- 
lying rocks, and they seem to terminate abruptly, and are 
succeeded by alternations of grey, or greenish, conglomerate, 
pebbly limestones, and calcareous shales, the derived material 
getting gradually less in quantity as a way is made up into 
the beds of Carboniferous hmestone, which here is tilted at a 
very high angle by the proximity of the Dent Fault. 

On the third day the party visited Spen Gill, which exhibits 
probably the most complete section known of the upper beds 
of the Bala series and the lower Silurians. Owing to the ex- 
tremely wet conditions prevailing it was difficult to trace out all 
the beds, but a good idea of the section was obtained, and 
numbers of characteristic fossils found. The volcanic rocks 
of Wandale and Odd Gill were also visited, as was Helm Gill 
in the Dent Valley, all with satisfactory results. 

A section worthy of mention was examined near the Golf 
Club House. It consisted of a large surface of limestone, 
grooved and striated, precisely as if by glacial action. Some 
of the grooves were quite deep. Immediately upon them, 
however, rested another bed of limestone, under which the 
strife extended. It was apparent that the polished and grooved 
surface was caused by land-shps, the direction of the grooves 
being down-hill. 

The botanists found a rich field, and were well pleased with 
the abundance of rare and beautiful forms. They investigated 
Cautley Spout, Howgill, Marthwaite and Killington. For 
this section Mr. Ingham writes : — 

In addition to the Flowering Plants seen owing to the 
information kindly given by Mr. John Handley, there are two 
worthy of notice that came under my own observation. 

Thalictrum montamim Wallr. is a small and distinct Meadow 
Rue growing on the rocks well up Cautley Spout. This species 
is given as growing on Dalton Crag in the ' Flora of West 

Euphrasia Rostkoi'iana Hayne was abundant on the banks 
of the River Lune. It was a striking Eye-bright with its large 
size and large flowers. I sent a specimen to Mr. Wheldon, of 
Liverpool, and he at once named it E. Rostkoviana. and gave the 
following characteristics (i) Corolla lengthens after flowering ; 


Yorkshire Naturalists at Sedbert^Ji. 347 

(2) very large flowers ; (3) tall stem, branched below (4) stem 
and leaves clothed with a mixture of white bristles and long 
glandular wavy hairs. In ' The Naturalist,' July 1909, I 
recorded this same Eyebright from near Warthill Station, five 
miles from York. 

Mosses. The programme for the excursion gave a good list 
of mosses found in the Sedbergh district, and in the following 
notes I propose, with one or two exceptions, to mention 
additions to those mentioned in the circular. 

The most interesting moss found was Campylopus atrovirens 
var. gracilis Dixon, growing almost buried in mud by the side 
of one of the waterfalls in the upper part of Cautley Spout. 
It was first described as a new variety by Mr. Dixon in the 
' Journal of Botany,' 1902, page 374. Its distribution is 
Merioneth, Carnarvon, Cumberland (Lake District), Forfar, 
and North Ebudes (Skye), etc. Its occurrence at Cautley Spout 
makes an addition to the Yorkshire Moss Flora. It is quite 
distinct from the type in being green above, and brown below ; 
the type being black below, and in its very long and very narrow 
leaves with its very narrow, long, toothed, hyaline leaf points. 
This moss is additional evidence of the Lake District character 
of the Flora of Cautley Spout. The moss Breutelia arciiata 
grows in the same site. 

Rhabdoiveisia denticiilata. specimens of which I have lately 
received from Mr. C. A. Cheetham and Mr. Albert Wilson from 
Cautley Spout, I was pleased to locate on the face of vertical 
rocks near one of the upper falls. The beautiful Plagiohryum 
Zierii was growing close by, and Grimmia apocarpa var. gracilis. 

The three Andreaeas mentioned by Mr. Cheetham in the 
circular were all found on the same rock, and A. alpina in fruit. 
The .4. petrophila is the var. flaccida (teste H. N. Dixon). 

Zygodon Moiigeotii was plentiful at the Spout. Rhacomi- 
tritim fasciculare, R. heterostichum (a broad-leaved form). 
Ptychomitriiim polyphylliim, and Plagiothecium dcnticulatum 
var. majiis were other mosses there. 

On the side of the Spout and near the three Lycopodiiims 
was Campylopus flexuosiis. Sphagnum papillosum var. con- 
fertum in huge bosses was the only Peat Moss seen there. A 
large form of Brachythecium plumosiim with very long leaf 
points grows on the rocks near the water. 

Hepatics of Cautley Spout. 

Preissia commutata in fruit was on the rock ledges. 

1909 Oct. 1. 

348 Book Notice. 

Radida complanata, Blepharostoma tnchophylla. Lejcnnea 
cavifolia, and Fnillania Tamavisci occurred only sparingl3% 
and mixed with mosses. Metzgeria conjugata was fovmd in a 
large pure patch. 

On the moor near Helm Gill were two forms of the Peat Moss, 
Sphagnum acutifolium. In the Gill itself, descended only at one 
spot for mosses, the most interesting species was Trichostomum 
cvispuluni, The other records at this spot were Dichodontmm 
pellucidum, Eurhynchium rusciforme, E. striatum, Hvpnttm fal- 
catum, and Plagiothecium denticidatmn. 

Barbiila rigidula is abundant on the walls by the roadside 
from Sedbergh to Dent. 

The Hepatic Metzgeria puhescens was in Flinter's Gill. 
There were many mosses in this Gill, but during the short visit 
only the common species were seen. 

At the foot of trees on the bank of the River Lune opposite 
Ingmire Hall, the rare moss Pterogonium gracile grows in large 

Sedbergh is a paradise for birds, but the time of year was 
unfavourable, most of the songsters being silent. Amongst the 
rare birds nesting in the vicinity are the peregrine falcon, spar- 
row and kestrel hawks, merlin, buzzard, long-eared, barn, and 
tawny owls, and occasionally also the short-eared owl. Curlews 
and golden plovers were found to be abundant on the moors. 

At the general meeting held on Monday evening, Mr. Robin- 
son was fortunately well enough to preside. Reports of the 
work accomplished were given by Messrs. Hartshorn, Ingham, 
Bairstow, Hawkesworth and Johns. Votes of thanks were 
passed to the landowners, and also to Messrs. Robinson, 
Handley and Iveson, for their great help in connection with the 

T. S. 

The Young Naturalist, by W. Percival Westell. Methuen & Co. 480 pp. 6/- 

Unclc Westell has shuffled his cards, added a pack or two, plenty of 
new ' pictures,' and gone 'nap.' Anyway, ' The Young Naturalist,' which 
seems to incorporate most of what he has previously written in other 
volumes, with the addition of numerous really good photographs, and 
some coloured plates, is the best thing he has done yet, and will doubtless 
have a large sale. It is certainly a remarkably cheap book, and will be 
useful to a beginner as it covers almost every branch of natural history. 
Though there is a slight improvement in this direction, there is still one 
person Mr. Westell cannot forget in his writings, and that person is Mr. 
Percival W. W^estell. 




p. FOX LEE, 

Additionally to my discovery this year of the Hairy Sedge in 
its remarkable prickle-glumed form, spinosa Mort., by the 
canal side at Mirfield ; in the early part of July this year I hap- 
pened to be in the sloping pastures on the eastern bank of the 
beck of the pretty little valley, couched — a boat-shaped 
depression — in the bleaker higher land to the south of Wood- 
kirk Church. This is known as the Heybeck.* 

It is within three miles of Dewsbury, and yet it is a beauty 
spot retaining some of its original ruralness ; and it was, indeed, 
one of the happy hunting-grounds of a former generation of 
working-men naturalists, who used to visit it for its gay tassels 
of Dyer's Greenweed, the golden peasebloom sprays of which 
give the prominent colour note — yellow, with rose-purple of 
Betony, — to the dryer turf-clothed spoil heaps of pit ' trials ' 
now long ago forgotten. 

These, however, make the pastures hereabouts vary vastly 
in character. In one place a spring of chalybeate water oozing 
through the soil on the brow will make a quag in which many 
water-loving plants congregate ; though where the seeds come 
from it is hard to say, and almost as miraculous is it to suppose 
they have been there in the soil, awaiting a birth-moment for 
thousands of years ; whilst in another, not a hundred yards 
awa\% xerophiles such as the pill-headed Carex will occur in 
plenty. As Dr. Lees says, ' the moral for the field-worker is 
that all require searching, missing none, if the full tale, and the 
secret of " Associations " is to be told.' 

Here, then, it was that comparing the constituents of field 
after field, I came across, in one quite open moss-swampy strip 
of sloping ground, grazed over, a few clumps of an unusual 
graceful-looking hair-pedicelled Carex, with recurving bright 
green leaves, and curving pensile spikelets, aggregated from 
the upper sheath, which was quite new to me, although, of 
course, its kinship to the wood-lover sylvatica was apparent. 
Clearly on the track of ' a good thing,' for the unknown has ever 

* Hey — a corruption of Anglo-Sax //i'^f" — meaning" an enclosure, just as 
beck means a little stream ; and no doubt the name was first given when 
the glebe was enclosed at some period of the kirk's history. 

1909 Oct. I. 

350 Lees : Note on Carex sylvatica var. capillanformis. 

an attraction for the botanist, I had hopes the plant might turn 
out to be C. strigosa — as Dr. Lees tells me, a little-known, much- 
misnamed species, which is not partial to limestone, and yet 
the only certain S.W. Yorkshire habitat of which is in shade by 
the stream at Heptonstall Eaves, where it runs over calcareous 
Yoredale shale. 

The individual catkined shoots were nothing like so roDust 
as C. sylvatica, and were moreover growing in the open, asso- 
ciated with Hypericum quadra ngulum, Equisetum pahistre, 
much Hypnum moss in matted growth through which grew 
Orchis maculata, Juncus acutiflorus, supinus, and the Sedges 
C. leporina, flacca (glauca), hirta and another. The hedge- 
wood about includes Alder, Hazel, Wild Cherry, Acer cam- 
pestre, Viburnum Opuhis, Salix cinerea and Sloe, with Dog-rose 
and Rosa arvensis. Some five yards higher up the open wet 
slope of the pasture, upon my third visit Dr. Lees detected 
Lysimachia nemorum — strong evidence that a wood or thicket, 
nothing so wet soiled as now (where the collieries and other 
agents have interfered with natural drainage) once existed, 
where now cattle are pastured — a district of varied woodland, 
the very name of which, too, connotes the silvan of some bygone 

In agreeing to this. Dr. Lees suggests that a fitting name 
for this extreme, debased (through long interference with normal 
stresses of growth) form or variety of Carex sylvatica Huds., 
would be capillariformis, as in its hair-like spike stalks, in 
twos or threes from the uppermost sheath it simulates Carex 



Mr. Lee's Hey-beck-dale Carex, which I have seen in situ, 
adds another spoke to my wheel or thesis of Change — not fixity, 
even yet — both in Plant Character as in Distribution. As 
' Ichabod ' — the glory hath departed ! — must be written of 
many a nook and corner of our land once replete with floral 
and arboreal Treasure valleys, so such constituents as have 
survived this denudation, or conversion, under long-acting 
newer conditions not wholly lethal, change too ; and in (at least) 


Museum Nei&s. 351 

their vegetative parts, leaf, flower, stem, etc., adapt their 
' characters ' — as we cah this or that ' feature ' — to what best 
helps their continuing to live. The Hey-beck open marsh 
Carex shews no trace of hybridisation, and in its individual 
perigynia and the nutlets within is exactly type C. sylvatica 
(Huds.), (elliptic, obscurely veined, with a long cloven smooth 
beak, and trigonous nut), so that, as with most ' varieties,' 
the differences which y^i make up a strikingly dissimilar facies 
are in vegetative developments, rather than ' specific ' essen- 
tials. In proposing for it the style of a Variety, its title may 
not unfitly suggest that Carex capillaris L. of Gordale, which the 
late Prof. Babington placed next to stvigosa Huds. in his 
diagnostic arrangement : — Carex sylvatica Huds. var. capil- 
lariformis mihi. ^ spike one, distinct or part of top catkin ; 
$ spike, curved, brief, 7 to 15-flowered, all {excey)t the upper- 
most) from short sheaths, on very longly exserted capillary 
pensile pedicels, three to live times the length of spike. 
Two or three stalks aggregate and spring from the topmost 
sheath but one (in some cases, not all). The uppermost 
female spikelet with only 5-7 perigynia and so looking ovate, 
springs from the same sheath as the male. spikelet. Spikelets 
and glumes of a bronzy green-brown. Habit, tufted from a 
brief rhizome, Height, 8-12 inches. Frondage of a full yellow- 
green, outcurving vase-like from tuft, 2 to 3 millimetres in 
breadth of rough leaf. 

The whole plant has a healthy appearance in its seat, virile, 
hardy, perfecting its fruits abundantly, evidently quite capable 
of holding its own in competition with pasture grass ; but that it 
is a specialised descendant from a dry woodland slope two 
hundred, or it may be only a hundred years back, I am con- 
vinced ; and supported in that by the panning-out presence of 
the Woodland Loosestrife (now creeping like L. nummularia 
through the wet matt grass). Its immediate associates now 
have come, I doubt not, with the perhaps recently broken-out 
spring in the pasture above, much later than the Carex silvatica 
and ovalis and Lysimachia nemorum. The grass swamp is a 
recent one ; I looked in vain for Triglochin, that surest sign 
of an old soil regime passing away. 

Amongst the additions to the Grosvenor Museum, Chester, during the 
last twelve months, we notice local specimens of the Common Crane, 
Ruff, Gadwal, skull of Bos primigenius and Lesser Shrew. 

1909 Oct. I. 




During the past two years I have paid particular attention to 
the Coleoptera of the East Riding shore of the Humber. Much 
of the material collected yet awaits examination, but the follow- 
ing notes on the occurrence of some species new to the Yorkshire 
list which appears in the Victoria County History, may not be 
without interest. 

Harpalus rotuxdicollis Fair. 

A single male specimen of this species was found on August 
2gth last year, under drift at the foot of the embankment on 
the Humber shore near Hull, between Marfieet Creek and 
Lord's Clough. Careful examination and comparison with 
specimens from the south of England proved it to be this species, 
and my identification has been confirmed by Mr. E. G. Bayford, 
of Barnsley, and Dr. W. Wallace, of Grimsby. As far as the 
lists at my disposal show, this is the most northerly record for 
the species, and Fowler states that he has never ' found it in 
the north, and that it does not appear in the Yorkshire, Durham 
and Northumberland, Scotch or Irish lists.' 

Blechri^s maurus Sturm. 

This species occurs commonly in the same locality as the 
preceding, but it makes its habitat under the lumps of chalk 
on the top of the embankment. They seem to affect the lumps 
which are embedded in the clay, and on turning such a piece 
over half-a-dozen specimens have been seen together. They 
are so active, however, as to be difficult to catch, and if they 
escape among the crevices between the lumps of rock, capture is 
well nigh impossible. The species occurs less commonly in a 
similar situation on Saltend, and I found a single specimen 
between the grass and the stone capping of a clough on the side 
of Hedon Haven. The dates of capture were July 28th, x\ugust 
2oth, and October 5th, 1908. 

CCELAMBUS parallelogrammus Ahr. 

On September 20th, igo8, this little water beetle swarmed 
in the brackish pools on the land side of the embankment 
on the Humber shore, near the new Joint Dock at Marfieet near 
Hull. The pools had become very low, and were swarming 
with beetles, chiefiy consisting of this species, Agahus con- 
spevsus, Dytiscus marginalis (some of which were dead or d3dng), 
and Philhydrus maritimus. 


Neivs from the Magazines. 353 

Phaleria cadaverina F. 

On May 30th of this year, whilst turning over some drift 
seaweed on the sand on the Humber side of Spurn at the 
Kilnsea end, a single specimen of Phaleria cadaverina was 
secured. In the same locality on June 13th, I discovered 
another specimen, which the wind carried away as I was about 
to put it into a tube. Further specimens, however, will prob- 
ably be found if the drift on the Humber side of the point is 
examined. This and the next species, Heliopathes gibbus, are 
two good additions to Yorkshire Tenebrionidae. 

Heliopathes gibbus F. 

On May 25th, 1908, I obtained two, and on June 13th, 1909, 
one specimen of Heliopathes gibbus at Spurn. The first two 
were found at the roots of grass tufts on the sandhills, and the 
last example under the seaweed drift on the Humber side of 


A strikingly illustrated article on 'The Evolution of the Flower,' by" 
S. L. Bastin, appears in Cassell's Nature Book, part 34, recently issued. 

A masterly paper on ' Glacial Erosion in North Wales,' by Prof. W. M. 
Davis, appears in the August Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. 

We are glad to find that the Lancashire Naturalist has flattered us by 
imitating many of the features of The Naturalist. 

'Afforestation as a National Duty' is the title of an instructive paper 
by Mr. S. Margerison, in the Lajid Agents' Record for March 20th. 

Mr. R. Standen describes some varieties of Dreissensia polymorph a, 
with an excellent plate, in the August Lancashire Naturalist. 

Prof. Patten has a paper on ' The Ornithology of Skerries, Co. Dublin,, 
in the September Irish Naturalist. 

In the September Entomologist's Monthly Magazine there is an excellent 
coloured plate upon which are figured Myrmscoris gracilis, Arena octavii,. 
Phytosus nigriventris, Orochares angustata, Stichoglossa semiritfa, Lomechusa 
strumosa, Lamophlcetis monilis, and Diastictus vulneratits. 

Mr. Robert Newstead has an interesting paper ' On a recently dis- 
covered Section of the Roman Wall at Chester ' in Vol. II., No. 2, of the 
Annals of Archcsology and Anthropology. 

Mr. Richard South writes a note on Peronea variegana and aberrations 
in Durham in the September Entomologist. 

In the ]\\\y Lancashire Naturalist Mr. W. H. Sutcliffe has an illustrated 
paper on ' Palceoxyris prendellii from the well-known Coal Measures at 
Sparth, Rochdale.' 

Mr. S. Duncan noted a Spoonbill on the North Humber shore on Aug. 
15th (British Birds for September). In the same journal it appears that 
Kent has again produced a ' new British bird ' — nay, new to Europe ! 
This is the Brown Flycatcher, which has ' never before been recorded as 
occurring west of Chamba, Kashmir.' Whilst it is stated that there are 
many reasons why this bird is not an ' escape,' we should hesitate to make 
these frequent additions to the British list on the strength of single 

1909 Oct. I. 



Kev. C. E. Y. KENDALL, B.A., J. DAVY DEAN, and 

{Continued from page jrg). 

At present it is impossible to determine the exact distribu- 
tion of this shell. Evidence that it is locally abundant may be 
seen from examination of various limestone ' pavements ' at 
Silverdale and Hampsfell (Grange). After heavy rains numbers 
of dead specimens are washed down from the loose sub-soil 
above, and may be found in the crevices and on the ledges of 
the rock below the ' pavements.' 

2. Coniston Limestone. 

Pupa cylindracea da Costa. Associated species : — 

Agriolimax agvestis L. I Cochlicopa lubrica Miiller. 

Pyramidula rotimdata Miiller. | 

The principal feature connecting this formation with those 

of the Carboniferous Limestone is the abundant presence of 

this species. It takes the dominant position on the Coniston 

Limestone, and is abundant in exposed situations within the 

1000 feet zone. The absence of Pyramidula ritpestns is 

noteworthy, and the habitual occurrence of P. rotiindata is 

important. The association is a non-calcareous one. It is 

noteworthy that in all its extension across the Lake District 

no distinctively calcareous plant species, with the possible 

exception of a few lichens and mosses, may be found on this 

rock. In Ribblesdale, however, it is somewhat more productive 

showing a much closer affinity to the Carboniferous Limestone. 

Non-Calcareous Pastures. 

Heaths {Calluna and Grass Heaths). Associations shewing 

conditions uncongenial to ordinary plant life. 

Limax arborimi Bouchard-Chanteraux. Associated species ; 

Agriolimax agvestis L. I Pyvnmidula rotmidata IMiiller. 

Vitrea alliaria Miller. | 

On the heaths this species would appear to be the dominant 
one, for though ' the Tree Slug,' it is by no means confined to 
trees. It occurs in the open at Ambleside, and on the higher 
parts of Coniston Old Man, reaching an altitude of 2600 feet. 


Geographical Distribution of Mollusca. 


As is usual, apparently, on the more open grounds, the typical 
form of L. arboriim is replaced by the darker deeply-banded 
variety. It is fairly common in the vicinity of moisture, and 
exhibits the gregarious habit, five or six examples often con- 
gregating under one stone. The above species were taken with 
it at an altitude of about looo feet, but occurred only spar- 
ingly. V. aUiaria, a species which seems able to adapt itself 
to almost any conditions, finds refuge in dry weather under 
stones in boggy places. 

S I. Calcareous Lakes and Ponds (Hard- water). 

Open Water. 

Limncsa pereger Miill. 
Planorbis albus L. 
Valvata piscinalis IMiill. 

Reed Belt. 

Physa fontinalis L. 
LimncBci palustris Miill. 
Planorbis contortus L. 

,, /oM/a;; i/sLightfoot. 
Bithynia tentacitlata I.. 
Valvata cristata Miill. 
Pisidiinn uitiditm Jen. 
mil i urn Held. 


L. triDicatula Miill. 
Aplecta hypiioniii! L. 
Pisid. piisilliiii! Gmcl. 

,, obtusale Pf. 
Carychiitm minimum M. 
Vertigo pygmcea Drap. 
Pinictiim pvomcpum 

C. liibrica IMiill. 
Vitrea radiatiilata Aid. 
crvstalliiia Miill. 
Euc. fidvus Miill. 

Schoenus Belt. {Schaomis 

ocJiracea Betta. Associated with 

Between Reed Belt and Marsh. 
nigricans L.). 

Siiccinea elegans, \'ai 
Limncea iruncatula Miill. 

The above are the molluscan fauna associations of a typical 
calcareous lake. Neritina flitviatilis and Ancylns ftiiviatilis 
are absent, being typical denizens of the non-calcareous rivers. 

The former existence of large expanses of water in the dis- 
trict is shewn by the extensive development of lacustrine marls 
at Burton and Silverdale. The contents of the marls strongly 
confirm the present associations of the calcareous lakes, and 
throw some interesting light on former conditions of aquatic 

Havves Water at Silverdale, with its beach of exposed 
chara-marl, is still the largest sheet of water in the calcareous 
region. The species of the open water are not numerous. 
The present LimncBa pereger are of the usual lacustrine type, 
but those in the marl fall into two groups, one lacustrine and 
the other a form similar to that common to calcareous streams 
at the present time. Physa fontinalis is absent in the marl, 

igoij Oct. I. 


Geographical Distribution of Mollusca. 

being a species of later date. Of those in the reed-belt L. 
palustris is recent and does not occur in the marl ; Bithynia 
tentaculata is abundant, living and in the fossil state ; Planorbis 
contortus sparingly fossil and recent. 

The following shows the probable grouping of the marl 

Reed Belt. 

Open Water 

L. pereger Miill. 
Planorbis albus L. 
,, crista L. 

Valvata piscinalis Miill. 


Pisidiitm pHsillium 

obtusale Pf. 

B. tentaculata L. [foot. 
Planorbis fontanuslAght- 

,, contortus L. 

Valvata cristata Miill. 
SphcBrium corneum I.. 
Pisidium nitidum Jen. 

,, milium Held. 

There are evidently no river deposits as Ancyliis fluviatilis 
and Nevitina fl^iviatilis are absent, and the conditions of life 
when the deposits were laid down would seem to be similar 
to those obtaining to-day, viz., a deep lake fed by springs, 
with a shelving shore fringed with reed beds. 

Hale Moss is a small patch of a few acres, mostly white with 
marl and litter, covered by shallow peat, occupying what was 
the deepest (30 feet) hollow of the ancient Burton Lake. The 
proportion of shells in the marl, here is very much less than in 
that at Hawes Water. The following species occur in the marl, 
and may be grouped thus : — 

Open Water. 

L. pereger Miill. 
Valvata piscinalis Miill 


L. truncatula Miill. 
Pisid. pitsillum Gmelin 

Reed Belt. 

Valvata cristata Miill. 
Pisidium nitidum Jen. 

,. cinereum Alder. ,, obtusale Pf. 

The noticeable fact here is the absence of the Planorbis 
group and shallow water species — pointing to the existence of 
a well-tilled lake of great dimensions, which has now entirely 

In the marl deposit, L. pereger far exceeds in number all 
the other species. The shells are not lacustrine in form, but 
are very similar to those of the Irish marls. In regard to this 
deposit, Mr. A. S. Kennard says : ' Judging from 3'-our list, the 
deposit is not a shallow water one, and was laid down in two 
to three fathoms '....' Planorbis is a shallow water form, 

and not likely to occur in a deep water deposit.' 

' Bithynia tentaculata is rather a shallow water form, whilst 
the hall-mark of shallow water is Linincca st agnails and Limncca 

As will be seen, Planorbis and Bithynia are absent, only 
deep water species being found. 


Geographical Distribution of Mollusca. 


On the present moss occurs — Succinea elegans var. ochracea 
Betta., associated sparingly with — 

Vitvea crystallina MiiU. | Limnaea truncatula Miill. 

The surface of Hale Moss, as that part of the old lake is 
called to-day, which is not under cultivation, is well sprinkled 
with tufts of the rare plant Schoenus nigricans L. Between 
the tufts the marl lies bare without any peat. In wet weather 
the Succinea crawl freely on the surface, and in drier weather 
burrow beneath the marl, or crawl into the roots of the Schoenus. 
In winter they are to be found in hibernation, securely fixed to 
the ' rushes ' some inches above the base of the stem. This 
Succinea is unlike any other British form. The peculiar extended 
spire, and the angularity of the last whorl would seem to place 
it as intermediate between the two species 5. elegans and 
S. oblonga. It may perhaps be due to xerophilic conditions, 
marking an advance from an amphibious to a land mollusc. 

§ 2. Calcareous Rivers and Streams. 
No good example in the district. 

§ 3. Non-Calcareous Lakes and Ponds (Soft-water). 
I. Ponds. 

Open Water. 

LiiiDicpa pevegev ^liilL 

Reed Belt. 


S jyhcerimn corneum L. Limncea truncatula Miill. 
Planorbis spirorhis Miill. 
\Aplecta hypnorum L. 
I Pisidiuni pusilliim 
1 Gmelin. 

\Siiccinea elegans Risso. 

This association is typical of a non-calcareous pond with 
very little reed belt, and a marshy tract at one end which 
becomes in summer a dense mass of high grass and sedges. 

2. Very shallow ponds :- 

Open Water. 
SphcBviimi lacitstre Miill. 

Reed Beet. 


Such ponds often become practically dry in summer, only 
moist clay remaining. Sph. lacusire, a species with very closely 
fitting valves, is w^ell adapted for retaining life even under 
these conditions, and may be found buried in the dry mud. 

1909 Oct. I. 


Geographical Distribution of Mollusca. 

3. Large Lakes. 

Open Water. 

Litiinesa pereger Miill. 
Plauorbis albiis L. 
A)ioylns fluviatilis Miill. 

Example — Lake Windermere. 

Reed Belt. 
Physa fontinalis L. 


Siiccinen elegans Kisso 

Avion siibfusciis Drap. 
Agriolimax IcBvis Miill. 
Zonitoides nitidus Miill. 
Euconuliis fulvus Miill. 

Ancylus fluviatilis occurs principally near the outflow, that 
is in practically fluviatile waters. Avion suhfuscus is the domi- 
nant species on the lake margin. Z. nitidus is typically a 
non-calcareous marsh species, corresponding to the allied 
species Z. excavatus on drier ground. 

In this section also comes : — 

Anodonta cygnea L., which is characteristic of a non-cal- 
careous lake or pond with a muddy bottom. It is abundant 
where it does occur, just as in the canal it takes entire possession 
of the deeper water. No definite association of the habitat 
can be given ; probably it is solitary. It is worthy of note that 
the largest known specimens (measuring nine inches in length) 
have been taken from a pond near Garstang. 

Sub-section 3a. — Soft Water Canals. (Example — Preston 
and Kendal Canal). 

Reed Belt. 

Open Water. 

LimncBa pereger Miill. 

,, auvicularia L. 
Planorbis alb us L. 
Valvata piscinalis Miill. 
Anodonta cygnea L. 
Pisidiiim amnicum Miill. 
SphcBvium lacustve Miill. 

On Rocks 
Neritina fluviatilis L. 
[Dreissensia polvniovpha 


L. tyuncatula Miill. 
Pis. pusillum Gmelin. 
Sticcinea piitris L. 

,, elegans Risso 
Agriolimax agrestis L. 
,, IcBvis Miill. 

Arion atcr L. 

,, horie)isis Fer. 
Vitrea crystallina Miill. 

,, radiatula Alder. 
Z. nitidus Miill. 
Eiic. fulvus Miill. 
Hygromia granulata Aid. 

,, hispida L. 
Cochlicopa lubrica Miill. 

As will be seen and as might be expected, the mollusc'an 

fauna places the canal intermediate between non-calcareous 

lakes and non-calcareous rivers. In the open water section 

there is a striking abundance of both Anodonta cygnea and 

Neritina fluviatilis, the former a species pre\-ailing in the deeper 

non-calcareous ponds, and the latter typical of slow-flowing 

* An introduced alien. 

Acroloxus lacustris 1^. 
Limncsa palustris Miill. 
Planorbis umbilicatus 

,, vortex L. 

,, fontanits 

Physa fontinalis Drap. 
Bithynia tentaculata L. 
Valvata cristata Miill. 
SphcBrium corneuni L. 
Pisidiurn fontinale Drap. 
milium Held. 


Book Notice. 


rivers. Physa fontinalis, which comes on the outer margin of 
the Reed-belt, is very abundant, especially in the late winter 
and early spring. Bithynia tentaculata is perhaps the dominant 
species following the Physa period, while Limncea pereger and 
Limncea aiivicularia encroach locally for a short period about 

There is an abundant molluscan fauna on the grassy margin 
of the canal, but there is, of course, little in the way of a true 
marsh. Siiccinea elegans is typical of this habitat, and very 
abundant, and there are thriving colonies of Hygromia granulat 
and H. Jiispida in the patches of Potentilla anserina. 

§ 4. Non-Calcareous Rivers and Streams. 

(All the Rivers, Streams and Becks in the district come 
under this heading). 

(a) The Smaller Streams (Becks). 

Reed Beit. 



Pisidiiini piisillitm 


Open Water. i 

Ancylus fliiviatilis JMiill. 
Limncea peveger Miill. 

The above is characteristic of a swiftly-running beck and 
the full association is dependent on the gradient. In some 
of the swiftest reaches of the becks Ancylus — the typical 
mollusc of running water, alone is present, while the Pisidia 
occupy the more muddy shallows of the lower beck. 

(6) Rivers (Example — R. Lune). 

Open Water. 

Reed Belt. 

Physa fontinalis Drap. 
Pisidimn amnicum MiiU. 


Ancylus ftuviatilis Miill. 
Limncea pereger Miill. 

,, auricularia L. 
Valvata piscinalis Miill. 
Neritina fliiviatilis I-. 
Unio margaritifer I,. 

The species common to both the lower and upper reaches 

are Limncea pereger, Ancylus flnviatilis and Neritina fliiviatilis, 

the latter gradually disappearing towards the source. 

[To be continued). 

The Hull Museum continues tp pour out its penny pamphlets. We 
have recently received No. 59, A ' List of East Yorkshire Spiders, etc' 
by T. Stainforth. This includes 177 spiders, 14 phalangidea, and 5 pseudo- 
scorpions. Nos. 60 and 61 are the usual Quarterly Records, the former 
containing notes on Hull plans, forgeries, skull of fossil Bison, etc., the 
other including notes on old Hull ships and shipping, the Brigg pre-historid 
boat, slavery relics, and media^\-al antiquities. A further (third) edition 
lias been issued of the Guide to tlie Albion Street Museum, Hull, and con- 
tains much new matter. 

1909 Oct. I. 


3n fIDcmoriam. 


All those interested in natural history, and museum work 
generally, and particularly those who knew him personally, 
will regret to learn of the death of Thomas Southwell. He 
had the kindliest of dispositions, and was a delightful companion 
either in the study or in the field. 

It is only a few weeks ago that he spent several days in 
Kent with the members of the Museums Association. He had 
just returned from Norway, where he had been recuperating 
his health after a severe illness. Though as lively and affable 
as ever, it was not difficult to tell that his age was beginning 
to shew itself ; though few then thought he would leave them 
so soon. 

Thomas Southwell was one of the old-fashioned type of 
naturalist, and was equally at home with the flowers or insects 
or birds ; though the vertebrates were perhaps his favourites. 
His writings were always of a useful character ; perhaps his 
best known work being ' Seals and Whales of the British Seas.' 
He also edited the third volume of Stevenson's ' Birds of Nor- 
folk,' and a new edition of Lubbock's ' Fauna of Norfolk.' The 
' Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society,' 
and the ' Zoologist,' contain a number of articles from his 
pen ; the annual reports on the northern seal and whale fishery 
appearing in the latter journal, being of particular value. 
He took a great interest in the Norwich Castle Museum, his 
Guide to which was exceedingly popular. 

He was born at Kings Lynn in 1831, and died at Norwich 
on the 5th September. 

T. S. 

Round the Lake Country, by Rev. H. D. Rawnsley. Glasgow : J. Mac- 

Lehosc. 1909. 227 pp., 5/-. 

Those who know aught of the Lake District, know of Canon Rawnsley. 
And those wlio know Canon Rawnsley well, know the Lake District better 
for it. He has lost no opportunity of drawing attention to the beauties 
of that charming area, and in the present work he still further advertises 
the natural history, archaeological and poetic attractions of the lakes. 
The book is in twelve chapters, and deals with the Coast, the Arnside 
Lily-woods, the Ravenglass Gullery, the Bewcastle and Gosforth Crosses, 
Gowbarrow Fell, etc. Each is sympathetically written ; the archaeological 
part of the work being perhaps predominant. There are excellent illustra- 
tions of famous old crosses, some of the originals of which are surely too 
valuable to be allowed to remain in the open in all weathers. 





Badgers near Harrogate. — Badgers are not uncommon 
in the district surrounding Harrogate, but it is not until recently 
that they have approached the confines of the town. One was 
caught early this year at Plumpton in a rabbit trap, he was very 
thin, and had apparently found difficulty in obtaining sufficient 
food. Early in July one was captured alive between Beckwith- 
shaw and Rigton, and another one near Plumpton. These 
occurrences seem to point to the fact that these interesting 
animals are penetrating into the Crumple Valley, where they 
have hitherto been unknown, coming probably out of the Tad- 
caster district. Some years ago ' earths ' in the neighbourhood 
of AUerton and Ribston were re-occupied after having been 
rmtenanted for many years. Lord Mowbraj^ informed me that 
they suddenly appeared in Allerton Park, occupying old ' earths' 
where they had been unknown for a great nmnber of year". — 
R. Fortune. 

Spotted Otters. — In connection with the note at the foot 
of page 308, recording the capture of a speckled otter at Lough 
Sheelin, Ireland, the following curious entry copied from the 
Hawkstone Catalogue, wTitten by Harry Shaw in 1848, may 
be of interest : — " In Scotland the vulgar have an opinion that 
there is a king among the Otters, spotted with white ; that its 
skin is endowed with great virtue as an antidote against in- 
fection, a preservative of the warrior from wounds, and ensures 
the mariner from all disasters upon the seas. The Viscount 
Hill possesses one of these curious skins : the Otter from 
which it was taken was killed in North Wales." The Hawk- 
stone collection was removed to Peplow Hall (Mr. Beville 
Stanier's) in 1904, since which date I have examined and 
catalogued the entire series. The skin is not there now, and 
seems to have perished years ago. Several specimens had to be 
destroyed, being in bad condition, but the skin was not amongst 
these. — H. E. Forrest. 

Black and Brown Rats. — At the beginning of the present 
summer, Mr. H. A. Auden kindly sent me several specimens of 
the old English Black Rat {Mus rattus) which had been caught 
at Widnes, in Lancashire. I kept two of them alive in a home- 
made cage, and have them yet. On looking into their nest in 
the middle of August, we found six young ones, about three 

1909 Oct. 1. 

362 Field Notes. 

weeks old, and of these six, four are of the ordinary black type, 
and two of the brown alexandriniis type. Mr. W. J. Clarke, 
of Scarborough, tells me that he has on several occasions bred 
these rats, but has only once succeeded in rearing a litter, and he 
further informs me that all his young ones were of the ordinary 
black type. I did not know myself until my rats bred that the 
two forms were produced in the same litter, and from black 
parents. I thought that each form, the black M. rattus, and 
the brown, M. alexandrinus bred true. Probably all these rats 
found in this country at the present day are imported specimens 
which have come off ships. Even when obtained inland, I 
have traced their presence as due to assistance from the coast, 
by barges, etc., and I very much doubt whether there be 
left in the kingdom a pair of the old indigenous English Black 
Rat, which has disappeared before its more powerful grey 
congener, save in one or two very isolated districts. — Oxley 

Ptilinus pectinicornis L. at Barnsley. — Early in July I 

discovered specimens of this curious beetle emerging from 
a willow post in my garden, and had the pleasure of observing 
the habits of the female as she excavated the tunnel in which 
to lay her eggs. Having enlarged the exit, she then commenced 
to make the tunnel by working in an upward direction perpen- 
dicular to the further extremity of the exit tunnel, which was 
at right angles to the face of the tree. As the wood fell down 
in fine frass, it accumulated immediately below where she was 
working. At intervals she descencied backwards, and in 
that position pushed the frass with her hindmost feet, towards, 
and ultimately out of the hole. The males emerged a few days 
before the females, as seems to be the rule amongst internal 
feeders. It does not appear to have been noted before that 
the female as compared with the male, apart from the re- 
markable differences in the antennae, is almost perfectly 
cylindrical, the male being depressed on the upper surface, 
and broader in proportion to the depth between the upper and 
under surfaces. — E. G. Bayford. 

Gracilia minuta F. in Yorkshire. — In addition to the 
records cited in recent communications to ' The Naturalist,' 
both Barnsley and Doncaster occur in the list of Yorkshire 


Field Notes. 363 

Beetles in the Victoria Count}- History of Yorkshire. Leptidea 
hvevipcnnis Muls., admitted to the British hst by Messrs. Beare 
and Donisthorpe, on insufficient grounds, I think, has also oc- 
curred at Barnsley. 

Although I have several times met with Gracilia minuta 
in a free state, on what one might call neutral ground, I have 
not yet found it in such circumstances that I should feel justified 
in claiming it as an indigenous species. It has excellent powers 
of flight, and in bright sunshine, is very lively, reminding one 
more of a large gnat than a beetle. The mere fact that it has 
been found some distance away from business premises, is not 
of itself sufficient to characterise it as indigenovis. The only 
real proof that it is such, is the finding it in one or other of its 
stages, preferably an immature specimen, still in the pupal 

Similarly, every year specimens of Sir ex gigas are brought 
to me, some of them having been taken in country lanes on the 
outskirts of the town, but there is not the faintest reason for 
supposing them indigenous to the district. Timber for pit 
props is in abundance all over the district, and so are fruiterers' 
hampers, in which Gracilia minuta and Leptidea brevipennis 
are imported into the country. — E. G. Bayford. 

Colonization of Helicella virgata at Hubbard's Hills, 
Louth. — In my notes on ' Mollusca of Hubbard's Valley ' in 
The Naturalist,' February 1904, I recorded that in the Autumn 
of 1900, I deposited about half-a-dozen living specimens of Heli- 
cella virgata on the grassy slope at the south end of the hills, 
in the hope that a colony might be established. This high bank 
is on the outcrop of the Lower Chalk, and the predominating 
plants on the area where the molluscs were deposited are rest- 
harrow, rock-rose and knapweed. Nothing was seen of the 
molluscs until the 12th of August, 1902, when one example 
was found. Four years again elapsed without any record of 
them. On October 3, 1906, I saw four living and two dead ; 
on February 18, 1907, I found three dead shells ; on October 
17, 1907, three living ones were seen by Mr. V. Howard. On 
September 3, 1908, I counted twenty-three living specimens, 
and on September 19, 1909, I counted fifty-three living on an 
area about twelve feet square. How many more there might 

igog Oct. I. 

364 Museum News. 

be, or how far they had extended their range along the bank, 
I had not time to ascertain, but was satisfied they had be- 
come well established. — C. S. Carter, Louth. 

A Hon ater L. as a Wart Curer. — The Avion or Black Slug 
has from time immemorial been believed to possess great and 
wonderful healing properties, and its use in various forms are 
said to have a beneficial effect upon many ailments. 

Until comparatively recent times the Slug held a notable 
place in 'Medicine, and formerly occupied a place in the Materia 
Medic a. 

The marvellous faith and belief in its efficacy as a specific 
for the removal of warts was formerly widely diffused in our 
own and other countries, and faith in the potency of the remedy 
probably still lingers in the more secluded rural districts, while 
the method of using the slug for this purpose being practically 
similar in widely distant parts, points to a very ancient and 
common origin of the belief in its efficacy. 

The rubbing of the wart with the body of the Slug, described 
by Mr. Petty,* has for its basis the belief that the wart and the 
Slug become thus mutually impregnated with each others 
nature, so that when the Slug is afterwards securely impaled on 
a thorn, and left to slowly die and waste away, the wart being 
now, by the mingling of their humours, akin to the dying Slug, 
is sympathetically affected, and disappears also. It may be 
added that if the wart does not disappear simultaneouslv with 
the desiccation of the body of the Slug, the patient has not 
placed implicit faith in the remedy, or has failed to observe the 
necessary secrecy ! — Jno. W. Taylor. 

The people of Maidstone are to be congratulated upon the excellent 
museum in their midst, a portion of which is kept in the Chillingham Manor 
House — a building which is a museum in itself. ]Mr. Allchin, the Curator, 
has recently issued an admirable handbook, in which the building and its 
contents are described and well illustrated (142 pp., i/-). The collection 
is particularly rich in geological and archaeological treasures, the British, 
Roman and mediaeval relics being unusually representative, as might be 
expected from so interesting an area as that round Maidstone. The 
natural history department is also very well described, and includes one 
of the finest collections of bees in the country ; largely as a result of the 
efforts of one of the staff. We are glad to see that an improved and en- 
larged edition of the Guide is promised, and in this the few misprints in 
the present edition will doubtless be corrected. Amongst these ' Concert,' 
(p. 119) should be ' Consort ; and ' Woodcrinus ' (plate XI.) should be 
' Woodocrinus.' Plate XL, by the way, contains an illustration of an 
excellent slab of crinoid ' heads ' from Richmond, Yorkshire. 

* ' Naturalist,' August, p. ^o^. 




From Messrs. Milner & Co., of Halifax, we have received three volumes 
of their ' XXth Century Science Series,' which are remarkable alike for 
their cheapness and the excellence of their contents. Each consists of 
about 130 pages, is illustrated, and well bound in an attractive red cloth 
cover. We onlv hope the volumes will have the circulation they deserve. 
Prof. A. C. Haddon writes on Races of Man and their Distribution, the name 
of the author alone being a guarantee of the excellence and reliability of 
the matter. This volume forms a summary of the subject such as has been 
wanted for some time. Mr. Josepli McCabe, who is well known for his 
translations of various foreign works on Evolution, writes on Evolution : 
a General Slietch from Nebula to Man, and deals with the subject in eight 
chapters, the last being ' .\ forecast of the end.' Physiology of the Human 
Body is suggested as a text-book for students, and is by that voluminous 
writer. Dr. Andrew Wilson. 

The Viking Club continues to issue its valuable publications. Its Saga 
Booli '\'oi. VL pt. I, 161 pp.) just to hand, is of more than usual interest 
to northern antiquaries. Prof. A. Bugge writes on ' Seafaring and Ship- 
ping during the Viking Ages ' ; some interesting comparisons are drawn 
between Brunanburh and Vinheig in ' Ingulfs Chronicle and Egil's Saga,' 
by the Rev. C. W. Whistler ; and there are also readable papers on ' The 
Vikings in Spain,' by J. Stefansson ; ' The First Christian Martyr in Russia,' 
by F. P. Marchant ; ' The Sites of three Danish Camps, etc., in East 
Anglia,' by B. Lowerison ;' ' A Ship Burial in Brittany,' by P. Du Chatellier 
and L. Le Pontois, etc., etc. Several of these are illustrated. Parts 11 
to 16 of the Club's Old Lore Series have also been published, and deal with 
Orkney, Shetland, Caithness and Sutherland records. Amongst the many 
items are several curious records of superstitions, witchcraft, fairies, etc., 
etc. These publications reflect the greatest credit upon the Editor, who 
has had a difficult task. 

A second edition of Observing and Forecasting the Weather : Meteorology 
without Instruments, by D. W. Horner, has been issued by Messrs. Witherby 
& Co. (48 pp., 6d. net)." It is an improvement on the first edition, already 
noticed in these columns ; and the illustrations are better. 

The West Riding County Council Vacation Courses is the title of an 
attractively prepared pamphlet, issued for the benefit of the teachers 
attending the County Council Course at Scarborough in August. It 
contains a number of" papers, including ' The Queen of Watering Places,' 
by Dr. J. Irving ; ' A Few Remarks on Botanical Excursions,' by Mr. O. Y. 
Darbishire ; ' The Teaching of Science and Domestic Subjects to Girls,' 
by Prof. A. Smithells, and ' Filey : its Brig and Cliffs,' by Mr. T. Sheppard. 
Few volumes have appeared in recent years which have shewn such a 
wide range of reading and research on the part of their writers, as does 
Folic Memory or the Continuity of British Archaeology, by W. Johnson. 
(Oxford : the Clarendon Press. 416 pp., 10/6 net). And few volumes 
can be said to possess such a mass of sound scientific deduction as does 
' Folk Memory.' Evolution is the author's key-note, and in a fascinating 
way Mr. Johnson shews how in many directions we have survivals of primi- 
tive forms. That he is thoroughly up-to-date with regard to his reading 
is proved by his numerous references to ' Forty Years' Researches,' by Mr. 
J. R. Mortimer, and to other works of even more recent date. To find 
fault with any part of the book is difficult ; to enumerate the various 
subjects dealt with is impossible in the space at our disposal, but we can 
give our readers an idea of the nature of the subjects dealt with by the 
following hap-hazard selection : — Evolution of stone and bronze imple- 
ments, of canoes from the old ' dug-outs,' of Tombstones, crosses, burial 
mounds, garden implements, roads, etc., etc. There are also chapters on 
dene-holes, dew-ponds, megaliths, flint-knapping, linchets, incised figures on 

igog Oct. I. 

366 Reviews and Book Notices. 

the chalk downs, fairies, etc., etc. There is a bibliography which is of the 
greatest service to students, and a very good index. If the book has a 
drawback at all, it is tliat once started, it must be read from cover to cover, 
and for this other work must be neglected ! But it's worth it. 

Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of the S.Y. ' Scotia ' 
during the years 1902-4, under the leadership of Dr. W. S. Bruce, Vol. 
IV., Zoology, Part I. ' Zoological Log,' by D. W. Wilton, J. H. H. I'lne and 
R. N. R. Brown. Edinburgh : The Scottish Oceanographical Laboratory. 
105 pp., plates and maps. 10/6. 

This is an elaborately prepared report of a carefully made zoological 
log kept during the voyage of the ' Scotia.' In the evenings when the party 
met together, the appointed recorder extracted from the various members 
the various observations they had made during the day. These were 
written down on the spot, and too much praise cannot be given to the 
assiduous way in which the records have been made. In this way 
mammal, bird, fish, reptile, mollusc and other forms of life are noted and 
described, and as by far the greater part of the voyage was made in a 
land little known, amongst animals even more unfamiliar, the scientific 
value of this log is enormous. This, however, is much increased by the 
reproduction of over a hundred photographs of antarctic life. The photo- 
graphs of the birds are perhaps the most striking, the extraordinary atti- 
tudes of the penguins being particularly ludicrous. Many of our readers 
who saw the photographs of the Emperor I^enguins, etc., on the occasion 
of Mr. W. Eagle Clarke's presidential address to the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, will be interested to know that many of them are reproduced in 
this report. These alone are worth more than the price asked for the vol- 
ume. As a frontispiece is an excellent coloured plate of Weddell Seals and 
Emperor Penguins, and there are also maps shewing the course taken by 
the ship. We must congratulate Dr. Bruce and his colleagues on the 
valuable nature of their zoological work, and upon the magnificent manner 
in which the results of their observations have been gi\'en to the world. 

The Vegetation of some Disused Quarries, by S. Margerison. Gaskarth, 
Bradford, 52 pp., with 33 illustrations, 1909. 3/-. 

The title of this paper, which is reprinted from the Bradford Scientific 
Journal, 1908 and 1909, suggests to the West Riding botanist a most 
familiar subject, but one which holds out little of interest ; the sub-title, 
however, is more promising — ' The Conquest of New Ground by Plants.' 
This aspect of plant life has excited considerable interest in recent years, 
both here and abroad, and has just received a fresh filip by the translation 
of Ernst's ' New Flora of Krakatau.' An opportunity like the latter 
rarely occurs, but we have in our limestone screes, cuttings, pit-hills and 
quarry tips, ample opportunities for studying the problems of invasion 
and succession, and though the areas mentioned are usually small, it is 
surprising how similar the processes are in the main. 

Commonplace as the subject of the paper at first seems, it is obvious 
that the author has found for himself a most interesting piece of work, 
one which has grown in importance as the study has progressed. 

The quarries investigated are in Calverley Wood, between Bradford 
and Leeds, and are along an escarpment in the Millstone Grit series, about 
a third of a mile long, and consist of rough rock, flagstones and ragstones, 
with bands of muddy and sandy shales resting on a bed of dark grey shale. 
The steep slope is planted with trees, probably on the site of primitive 
forest. It is of the dry oak type, with Quercns sessilifiora as the charac- 
teristic tree, one of the type very common in this part of the West Riding. 
The quarries range in age from one hundred years or more, down to some 
closed so recently as 1905. The method of enquiry was to examine the 
quarries in detail, and compare the vegetation on the tips and exposed 
surfaces, according to age. Starting with the youngest, he notes the 
' making of the soil ' and the organisms — bacteria, moulds, alga;, lichens, 
mosses and ferns, together with a few phanerogams, chiefly with good wind 


Review's and Book Notices. 367 

dispersal mechanisms — which form the ' pioneer vegetation,' and lead on 
to and prepare the way for a ' richer soil — humus,' in which the higher 
plants become more and more prominent. A suggestive chapter on ' Soil- 
gatherers and Soil-binders,' in which more examples might usefully have 
been given, paves the way for the consideration of ' Succession,' of which 
three transitional stages are recognised which result eventually in a closed 
association of hair-grass, bracken, blue-bell and soft grass, with a canopy 
of oak, birch and sycamore, found in the oldest quarries. ' So is the vege- 
tation gaining upon our own local raw stones ; multitudes of germs have 
perished, but the work goes on. The kindly green clothing, from stain of 
alga or moss protonema to deep- verdant shade of woodland gradually 
envelops all. Individuals live, struggle, and die, but Nature sees to it 
that the mass of life gains all the time,' and we can well believe the author 
found his work ' intensely interesting — as is all field work.' 

The photographs, which are very numerous, are excellent. The map is 
clear and of a suitable scale, and there are some interesting sketches of ling, 
showing variation in growth.among the quarries ; the sections of the leaves, 
however, are inaccurate. 

The reprint before us is consecutively paged, but the reference numbers 
in the text are to the pages in tlie journal in which the papers appeared. 
In such cases it would be better to retain the original page numbers, and 
if desired, separate numbers could be added at the bottom of each page. 
These, however, are minor points. Mr. Margerison is to be congratulated 
on having done an excellent piece of work. 

Before Adam, l)y Jack London. S. Werner Launc. 30S pp. 

The author of this book lias dreamed dreams. He is a freak of heredity ; 
at any rate, he saj'S so. And he tells us of all the wierd things he did 
when he was on the world once before. ' With the doing away of one wife 
Red-Eye proceeded to get another. He decided upon the Singing One. 
She was the granddaughter of old Marrow Bone, and tlie daughter of the 
Hairless One. She was a young thing, greatly given to singing at the mouth 
of her cave in the twilight, and she had but recently mated with Crooked 
Leg.' And so on. They fought. Red-Eye evidently got the Singing 
One, and the author doesn't know how many wives since ! Then there was 
Lop Ear, Long Lip, Swift One and Chatterer. But though they were all 
in the trees and scratched themselves, etc., their narratives do not seem 
to possess that interest that the author has been able to impart unto other 
of his writings. 

British Mountaineering, by C. E. Benson. London : George Rout- 
ledge. 1909, 224 pp., 5 - 

The author of this work is f\-idently an enthusiast, and appears to be 
at home in ' chimneying,' ' scrambling,' ' rambling,' ' bouldering,' etc. 
The results of his experiences are here given for the benefit of those who 
dare to follow in his footsteps — and t'ne number of such ' ramblers ' seems 
to be on the increase. He also gives advice as to the kind of corkscrew, 
boots and nails, compasses, maps, screws, etc., to be used, and even gives 
details of ladies' wearing apparel necessary on such occasions. Remedies 
are also given for frost-bite, cuts, haemorrhage, broken arms, legs, ribs, 
etc. ; for fracture of the skull, and internal injuries. There is a special 
chapter on the dangers of mountaineering, and in everv way the author is 
enthusiastic in the cause of this healthy exercise. There are several 
photographic illustrations of ' face climbs,' ' difficult cracks,' ' tough bits,' 
' chimneys,' etc., from which it would appear that the author has been 
successful in securing snap-shots of enthusiasts in absurd positions in 
exceedingly dangerous situations. Possibly it is to their credit. Anyway 
we strongly recommend the book to any who are thinking of spending a 
holiday in trying to break their necks in scaling difficult rock faces. 

The Greatest Life, In- Gerald Leighton, London : Duckworth & Co. 
-75 PP-> 5/- net. 

In this work we find Dr. Leighton away from his snakes and lizards, 

igtiy Oct. I. 

368 Museum News. 

and dealing with a problem which deals with the origin and development 
of character. ' The Greatest Life is that which most nearly approaches 
the highest ideal which has been conceived by human intellect, irrespective 
of the source of that ideal ; and the problem that such a life involves is — 
How may a man attain to it ? ' In dealing with the present religious prob- 
lems, Dr. Leighton points out that ' Man will not for ever be content with 
the child-treatment in his mental sphere, and indeed his discontent is 
becoming more and more apparent every day. In all religious systems 
which permit of individuality of thought, this sympton is prominent. 
From a thousand pulpits comes the cry that modern education is making 
men less religious. It is not true. Men were never more religiously in- 
clmed than they are to-day, but they are demanding a presentation of 
religious truth which shall be a living one, and not a fossil. The food sup- 
plied is indigestible and insufficiently nourishing. They ask for meat and, 
at the best, are offered milk. Our systems of religious teaching have not 
kept pace with the march of human intellect.' The author deals with 
the ]\laking of a Man ; the Development of the Soul ; Evolution of Phy- 
sical Immunity ; the Making of a Man's Mind ; Mental Immunity ; 
Moral Immunity, etc., etc. There is much in the book to think about. 

From the press of Mr. T. Werner Laurie has been issued Gilbert White 
and Selborne, by H. C. Shelley. It is by no means a novel subject, but 
one that is always refreshing. In it the author gives a well-thought-out 
account of the Man, the A'illage, and the ' Natural History,' and success- 
ful in making an entertaining narrative, which, though perhaps containing 
little that is new, is more compact than say Mr. R. Holt-White's ' Life and 
Letters.' The volume is printed in large type, is well illustrated,- and has 
an artistic cover. ^ 


W^e notice from the Sixtieth Annual Report of the Ipswich Museum 
that many important ' Bygones ' have recently been added to the coUec- 

The Shells, Minerals and Butterflies in the Stockport Museum have 
recently been re-arranged, and an Index Catalogue of the Minerals is in 

Mr. C. Davies Sherborn has presented to the Natural History Museum, 
South Kensington, a valuable collection of specimens of the hand-writings 
of naturalists, consisting of about eight thousand letters and other docu- 

We have received part 3 of Vol. I. (pp. 219-355, 10/- net), and \'ol. II., 
part I (139 pp., 7/6 net) of the Annals of the Natal Government Museum, 
edited by the Director, Dr. Ernest WaiTen, and published by Messrs. Adlard 
Sc Son, London. Both are well printed and illustrated by several excellent 
plates. In the former, Mr. G. A. Boulenger describes some Fresh-water 
fishes, batrachians and reptiles (including new species) from Natal and 
Zululand, and also writes 011 Clarias capensis. Mr. C. T. Regan describes 
some fishes from the coasts of Natal, Zululand and Cape Colony, and the 
Rev. Father Franz Mayer gives a short study on Zulu Music, the word 
' Music ' being applied to the noise made by the wierd primitive ' instru- 
ments ' which are illustrated. There is also a charming group of Zulu 
' musicians.' The Director has a lengthy and scholarly monograph on 
Natal coast Hydroids. In the second puljlication the Rev. A. T. Bryant 
has a remarkable paper on ' Zulu Medicine and Medicine-Men ' ; the 
Director wi'ites on ' La joe a dispolians n. sp., a Hydroid parasite,' and on 
' Natal Termites ' ; and Dr. Broom has some interesting observations on 
' the Dentition of Chrysochloris,' and on ' the Tritubercular theory,' a sub- 
ject recently referred to in these columns. 



No. 634 

(No, 412 of eurront teries). 




T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museum, Hull ; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 





Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated):— Non-glacial Striae; Mytilus cloacinus in the Rhsetics • 
A new Species; Professor P. F. Kendall ' 

Thymus ovatus in North Yorkshire—/. G. Baker, F.R.S. , etc 

Nordmann's Pratincole in Yorkshire (Illustrated)— An addition to the County Avifauna— 
R. Fortune, F.Z.S. 

A Veteran 'dimmer' (Illustrated)— £. IK H^ 

Interesting: Diatom near Hull (Illustrated)— /?. H. Philip 

On the Geographical Distribution of Mollusca in South Lonsdale— T^eu. C. £. Y. Kendall 

B.A., J. Davy Dean, and W. Mnnn Rankin, M.Sc, B.Sc 

The Study of a Fircone (Illustrated)— iW»s. E. Hughes Gibb 

Genera and Species in Fungi— M. C. Cooke, LL.D., M.A., A.L.S., V.M.H., etc 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Cawthorne— 7". S 

Reviews and Book Notices 375 332 

Northern News 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 371, 

Field Notes 

Museum News 

News from the Magazines 

Illustrations 369, 37-2, 373, 376, 







■383, 397 


381, 399 




386, 383 


A. Kkown & Sons, Limited, 5, F"arringdon Avenue, 
And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 




(President— Riley Fortune, Esq., F.Z.S.) 

Two Meetings will be held at the Leeds Institute, Leeds, at 3 p.m. and 6-30 p.m. re- 
spectively, on Saturday, November 20th, 1909. 

Business (at the Afternoon Meeting- : — 

To consider and pass the Sectional Reports for 1909, and to elect Officers for 1910. 

To consider and pass the General and the Financial Reports of the Yorkshire 
Wild Birds' and Eggs' Protection Acts Committee for 1909, and to elect the 
Officers and Committee for 1910. 

The Convener of the Yorkshire Mammals', Amphibians', Reptiles' and Fishes* 
Committee will read an Interim Report, and and will propose the re-election of 
this Committee. 

At the Evening Meeting (6-30 p.m.) the following Papers will be read : — 

" Bird-Life at the Zoo," by Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z.S. ; " The Extinct Vertebrates 
of the East Riding," by Mr. Thos. Sheppard, F.G.S. ; and «' The Relationship ot 
Food to Migration," by Mr. Rosse Butterfield. 

Lantern-slides will be exhibited and described by Mr. Oxley Grabham, M.A., 
M.B.O.U., Mr. Sydney H. Smith, and others. 

Any Member or Associate of the Y.N.U. is invited to attend, and to bring any notes, 
specimens, lantern-slides, etc., and is requested to bring forward any matters of interest 
connected with the work of the Section, and to take part in any discussion. 

Will Officials of the Affiliated Societies kindly notify their Members. 


^Transactions of the 
IbuU Scientific anb Jfielb Baturalists' 


Vol. IV. Part II. PRICE 2/- NET. 


Notes on a Collection of Roman, etc., Antiquities from South Ferriby in North Lin- 
colnshire. Part II. (Plates II., III., IV., V., VI., VII. and VIII). Thomas 
Sheppard, F.G.S., P\S.A. Scot. 

Additions to the Diatomacese of the Hull District. R.H.Philip. (Plate IX.). 

Catalogue of the Specimens in the ' Lether' Collection and of the Cornbrash Fossils 
in the Hull Museum. T. Sheppard, F.G.S. , and H. C. Drake, F.G.S. 

On a Specimen oi Eryon antiquns Broderip from the Yorkshire Lias. 

T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 

Fungi in East Yorkshire in 1908. Wilfrid Robinson, B.Sc. 

Palaeontology in East Yorkshire, etc., in 1908. H. C. Drake, F.G.S. 

List of East Yorkshire Spiders, Harvestmen and Pseudoscorpions, etc. 

T. Stainforth. 

East Yorkshire Botanical Notes. J. Eraser Robinson. 

Additional Localities for the Flora of the East Riding. J. J. Marshall. 

The Committee's Report on the Work of the Club during 1907-8. 

Short Notes :— Note on Mollusca, J. W. Boult ; Some North Lincolnshire 
Spiders, T. Stainforth ; A Tribute : W. R. Bromby, E. L. 

Sold by 
A. BROWN. & SONS, King Edward Street and Savile Street, Hill. 




The accompanying illustration is from a photograph of 
an interesting section on the Sedbergh golf-course, which was 
examined by the members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
on their recent visit to the district. It shows the Silurian grits, 
polished and striated, as if by glacial action. The striae, how- 
ever, continue beneath the bed of rock shown on the right of 
the photograph, and are evidently caused by a land-slide. 

Photo by] 

Grooved Rock, Sedbergh, looking west. 

[Dr. T. R. Burnett. 


In the recently issued ' Proceedings of the Bristol Naturalists' 
Field Club,' Mr. J. W. Tutcher gives an interesting account of 
' The Strata exposed in constructing the Filton to Avonmouth 
Railway ' ; with palseontological notes. In these he describes 
and figures Mytilus cloaciniis sp. nov. from the Rhaetic bone 
bed, Aust Cliff. In 1903 Mr. H. C. Drake, F.G.S., spent some 
time collecting in the bone bed at Aust Cliff, and some of the 
specimens he obtained are now in the Hull Museum. Amongst 
them is a Myiiliis, which we have submitted to Mr. Tucher, who 
informs us that it is the same as he describes as cloaciniis. 
1909 Nov. I. A 2 

370 Northern News. 


The following is the description given by Mr. Tutcher : — 
' Mytilus cloacinus sp. no v. Anterior outline slightly arcuate, 
ventral margin rounded, posterior margin gently convex, as 
far as the hinge line, which is straight, and equals one-third 
the length of the shell ; beak angle, 40 degrees ; valves ob- 
tusely carinated from the beaks to the antero-ventral border, 
sloping evenly from the carina to the posterior margin, and 
sharply on the anterior sides ; growth halts well marked. 
The specimens are generally casts ; some fragments of the 
shell which have been observed do not exhibit any ornament. 
Dimensions : — length, 42 mm., width, 21 mm., thickness, 12 
mm. ; geological position, lower Rhaetic. The specimen figured 
is a nearly complete cast from the bone bed at Aust Cliff. 
Examples have also been collected from the bone beds at 
Sedbury and at Charlton. This fossil appears' to be not un- 
common on the bone bed horizon, but, as far as I can discover, 
it has been found at no other level.' 


Our readers will be pleased to hear that a member of 
the Editorial staff of The Naturalist has been selected for the 
position of President of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 
which for the past half century had been held by the late 
Marquis of Ripon. Professor Kendall's excellent work in 
Yorkshire, as well as the great influence he has personally 
had in furthering geological study in the county, have been 
such that his selection as President of the County Society was 
an easy matter. We only hope that his connection with the 
Yorkshire Society may be as long as that of the late Marquis 
of Ripon. Professor Kendall was President of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union a few years ago. 

The Annual Meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union will be held 
at Scarborough on Saturday, December nth. 

In the index to ' Bookprices Current ' just issued, we find the first 
entry on page 688 is ' Entomology (continued) : Pearson, W. H., Hepa- 
tic3e of the British Isles.' One wonders what the position of these insects 
is from a Cataloguer's point of view. 

Sir Thomas H. Holland, K.C.I. E., F.R.S., has been appointed to the 
Chair of Geology at the University of Manchester, in the place of Prof. 
W. Boyd Dawkins, who has resigned. Prof. Dawkins served on the 
Geological Survey between 1861 and 1869, and was appointed curator of 
the Manchester Museum and lecturer in geology at Owen's College in 1870, 
and Professor of Geology and Palaeontology on the foundation of the 
Manchester University. 



J. G. BAKER, F.R.S., Etc., 


In a paper which appeared in the ' Journal of Botany ' for igo8, 
page 34, Messrs. Domin and Bruce Jackson distinguished four 
so-called species of Thyme in Britain, viz., T. ovatus Miller ; 
T. glaber Miller ; T. prcecox Opiz, and T. Serpyllum L. 

T. Serpyllum is distinguished by its narrow leaves, long 
trailing shoots, and capitate inflorescence, and is, I believe, the 
common Thyme of Yorkshire. From this, T. ovatus differs by 
its broader leaves, inflorescence consisting of distinct whorls 
of flowers, and by the absence of long trailing shoots. Two 
specimens from North Yorkshire are now before me as I write, 
one from banks between Sandhutton and Carlton Miniott, near 
Thirsk, collected by the late Mr. T. J. Foggitt, and a second 
collected by myself from Kitscrew Wood, near Hovingham. 
T. ovatus Miller is the plant figured as T. ChamcBdrys by Boswell- 
Syme in the third edition of ' English Botany,' but is not the 
true T. Chamcedrys of Fries, which is the same as T. glaber of 
Miller. This T. glaber of Miller is reported by Mr. G. C. Druce 
from Widdy Bank, on the Durham side of the Tees, but I have 
not seen either this species or T. prcecox from Yorkshire, though 
I note that Mr. Druce (Report of the Botanical Exchange 
Club ' for igo8) gives T. glaber as a Yorkshire plant. T. glaber 
differs from T. Serpyllum by its glabrous stem and broader 
bright green glabrous leaves and short shoot. 

The Annual Report of the Marine Biological Association of the West 
of Scotland for 1908 shews that good work is being done at the Millport 
Station, and that it is being encouraged in a practical way. 

Vol, I., No. I of the Journal of the Torquay Natural History Society 

(48 pp.), has recently been issued, and besides the Society's Sixty-fifth 
Annual Report, contains some original contributions, and some reports of 
lectures. Some of the latter, particularly those occupyng two or three 
lines, might well have been omitted. We hurriedly turned to the paper with 
the tempting title, ' Ancient Phoenician Settlements in Cornwall and 
Devon,' but only to find the subject dismissed in two and a half lines. 
Possibly there was a reason for this. Amongst the contributors we notice 
the names of Messrs. A. J. Jukes-Browne, H. J. Lowe, A. R. Hunt, etc. The 
longest, and perhaps the most useful contribution, is a list of the Diatoms 
of the "Torquay district, and in this we were pleased to notice that the author 
had to thank a Hull naturalist for help in determining difficult species. 
It would have been an advantage if the same person had also read the 
proofs, as misprints are far too frequent. If a little more margin had 
been allowed to the pages, their appearance would have been improved. 

igog Nov. i. 





Early in August I heard that a Collared Pratincole had been 
shot in the North Riding. This species is of sufficiently rare 
occurrence to make the event worth investigating. 

I found that it had been shot in mistake for a Golden 
Plover, by Mr. W. S. Charlton, of Northallerton, at Reedholme, 
near Danby Wiske, on August 17th. Mr. Charlton was after 
duck at the time, and was waiting beside some water in the 
shelter of a bank, when a flock of Green Plover flew over. The 
Pratincole was flying with them, and was the only one of its kind. 

Photo by\ [R. Fortun;, F.Z.S. 

Nordmann's Pratincole (Glareola melaaoptera). 

Shot near Danby Wiske. 

Mr. Charlton was kind enough to allow me to ha\'e the bird 
for photographing, and it was sent on by Mr. Lee, of Thirsk