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THOMAS SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.). 

Curator 01 i he Municipal Museums, Hull. 

Past President of the Hill Scientific and Field Naturalists' Club, oi- the Hull 

Geological Societv ; Hon. Secretary of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 

Union; Hon. Life Member of the Spalding Gentlemen's Society; of 

the doncaster scientific society; etc. 



Lecturer in Biology, Technical College, Huddersfield ; 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 








A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hill and York. 


5oS. 4i^ 


plate To face page 

I. John Handley, J.P 7 

II. Neolithic Axe-heads from Holderness .. .. .. .. 18 

III. Bittern (Botaurus stellaris) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 

IV. Bee Eater (Merops apiaster ) . . . . . . . . . . 32 

V. Ginkgo biloba L., Leaves of . . 

VI. Map Showing Geographical Distribution of Jurassic Floras 
VII. Millstones 


IX. I'nio distortus Bean 
X. Margaritana margaritifera, Fig. 1 ) 

Alasmodon vetustus Brown, Fig. 2 and 3 J 

XI. Ball-beds of the Lower Calcareous Grit Cliff under Scarboro'i 

Castle (North Side). I 

I pper Estuarine Beds, Carnelian Bay, near Scarboro' J 

XII. Crush-Conglomerate, with segregation- veins of Quartz, in Manx-\ 

Gentle Fold in Carboniferous Limestone, North of Scarlet Point, 
Isle of Man J 

XIII. John Robert Mortimer . . 

XIV. Unio kendalli n. sp., Lower Estuarine Series, Saltwick, Yorks. 

XV. Types of Helix aspersa, J. W. Taylor 

XVI. Partridge and Young killed by Lightning | 

Pheasant and Young killed by Lightning ) 









No. 648 
JANUARY, 1011. 4 

(No. 426 of ourrtnt teries). 




f. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 


T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 




Contents : — 


The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire (Illustrated)— A. C. Seward, M.A., F.R.S. , etc 1-8- 

On the Equivalence of the Yoredale and Pendleside Series— Cosmo Johns, M.I.Mcch.E.. 

F.G.S 9-14 

Mutilation of Bees— /. A- Hanic-Brown, F.R.S. E 1& 

Mutilated Bees— Mary L. A rmitt 15,16 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Middlesborough— T.S 16 

In Memoriam— John Handley, J. P. (Illustrated)— T. S IT 

Two Neolithic Axe=heads from Holderness (Illustrated)— T. Sheppard, F.G.S. , F.S.A.{Scot.) 18 

The Pupation of a Water-Beetle— Llewellyn Lloyd 19-20 

Fungus Foray at Sandsend— C. Crossland, F.L.S 21-2S 

Abstract and Practical Mycology (Abstract)— G. Massce, F.L.S. , V.M.H., etc 26-27 

The Structure and Life History of an Agaric (Abstract)— Harold Wager, F. R. S 27-2S 

The Relative Frequency of the Species of Agarics (Abstract) — T.Gibbs 2ft 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union — Meetings of the Vertebrate Zoology Section — H.B.B. ... 29-32 

Guide to the Birds in the Hull Municipal Museum (Illustrated) R.F 3'2 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Report for 1910— 1\S 33-79 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 80 

Field Notes 20 

News from the Magazines 1L 1ft 

Illustrations 1, 6 

Plates I., II., III., IV. 


A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



XTbe |J)o tksbire IRattualist s' "anion. 


Svo, Cloth, 292 pp. (a few copies only left), price 51- net. 
Contains various reports, papers, and addresses on the Flowering Plants, Mosses, and Fungi of the cou 

Complete, Svo, Cloth, with Coloured Map, published at One Guinea. Only a few copies left, 10 6 net 

This, which forms the 2nd Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, is perhaps the m 
complete work of the kind ever issued for any district, including detailed and full records of 1044 Phan t 
gams and Vascular Cryptogams, 11 Characeas, 348 Mosses, 108 Hepatics, 258 Lichens, 1009 Fungi, and 
Freshwater Algae, making a total of 3160 species. 

READY SHORTLY: Supplement to The Flora of West Yorkshire, by F. Arnold Lees, M.R C.S 

680 pp.. Coloured Geological, Lithohgical, &c. Maps, suitably Hound in Cloth. Price 15.'- net. 
NORTH YORKSHIRE: Studies of its Botany, Geology, Climate, and Physical Geography. 

And a Chapter on the Mosses and Hepatics of the Riding, by Matthew B. Slater, F.L.S. This Vrluir 
forms the 3rd of the Botanical Series. 

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t Ti h . l u ', S the if ^ v ° lume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, and contains a complete annot -i li: 
ot all the known 1-ungi of the county, comprising 2626 species. 

Complete,' Svo, Cloth. Price 6 - post free. 
This work, which forms the 5th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, enumerates 104 
species, with iull details of localities and numerous critical remarks on their affinities and distribution. 

Complete, Svo, Cloth. Second Edition. Price 6/6 net. 
The First Edition of this work was published in 1883, and contained particulars of 1340 species 
Macro- and Micro-Lepidoptera known to inhabit the county of York. The Second Edition, with Supplem. 
contains much new information which has been accumulated by the author, including over 50 additic 
species, together with copious notes on variation (particularly melanism), &c. 

In progress, issued in Annual Parts, 8vo. 


The Transactions include papers in all departments of the Yorkshire Fauna and Flora, and are issued in 
separately-paged series, devoted each to a special subject The Parts already published are sold to the publi< 
of i i ,oon , " l? r ?o^ e e „ ntlt,ed to 25 P er ceIlt - discount) : Part 1 (1877), 2/3 ; 2 (1878). 1,9; 3(1878), 1/6: 4(1879' 

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actions^' TAYLOR, F.L.S., and others. in course of publication in the Trans- 

1», VJ, 21, eve, of Transactions. 


THE NATURALIST. A Monthly Illustrated Journal of Natural History for the North of England. Edit. 
U 7i S "P-^ AR P' 1--G.S., Museum, Hull; and T. W. WOODHEAD, F.L.S., Technical Colleg 
H udders held ; with the assistance as referees in Special Departments of J. GILBERT BAKER F R % 
■■" £ R ° F i PF ;£CYF KENDALL, M.Sc. F.G.S., T H. NELSON, M.B.O.U.. GEO. T PORRITT 
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Subscription, payable in advance, 6/6 post free). 

MEMBERSHIP in the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 10/6 per annum, includes subscription to The Xaturalist. 
and entitles the member lo receive the current Transactions, and all the other privileges of the Union! 
A donation t Seven Guineas constitutes a life-membership, and entitles the member to a set of the 
Transactions issued by the Union. Subscriptions to be sent to the Hon. Treasurer, H. Cllpin, 
/ St. .Mary s Koad, Doncaster. 
Members are entitled to buy all back numbers and other publications of the Union at a discount of 25 
per cent, off the prices quoted above. 

All communications should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary, 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., The Museums, Hull. 


FOR 1911. 


A. C. SEWARD, M.A., F.R.S.. eti 

From the point of view of their fossil contents, the estuarine 
beds of East Yorkshire are among the most famous and im- 
portant strata in the world. Since the publication in 1822 of 
A Geological Survey of the Yorkshire Coast,' by Young and 
Bird, much attention has been paid to the Jurassic plants of 
Yorkshire by British and Foreign students of ancient floras. 
During the first half of the nineteenth century a considerable 
amount of work was done by such pioneers as William Bean, 
his nephew John Williamson, his great-nephew William Craw- 
. ford Williamson, by John Phillips and others. The ' Illustra- 
tions of the Geology of Yorkshire,' is dedicated by ' an affec- 
tionate nephew and grateful pupil ' to William Smith, who was 
spoken of by Professor Adam Sedgwick (when Mr. Smith 
received from him as President of the Geological Society of 
London the hrst Wollaston medal) as ' the first in this country 
to discover and to teach the identification of strata, and to 
determine their succession by means of the imbedded fossils.' 
Professor \\ llliamson, in his fascinating Reminiscences of a 
Yorkshire naturalist, tells us how ' in 1826 Dr. Smith and his 
eccentric wife,' established themselves in his father's house at 
Scarborough, ' where they dwelt for a considerable time.' 
The association of William Smith with Scarborough connects 
the plant-beds of the Yorkshire coast with the dawn of strati- 
graphical geology. 

It is not my intention to deal with the history of our know- 
ledge of the plant records of British Jurassic rocks, but rather 
to give a general sketch of the flora which the labours of en- 
thusiastic Yorkshire naturalists have enabled us to investigate. 
Before attempting this, I should like to emphasise as strongly 
as I can the importance of doing our utmost to take advantage 
of the exceptional opportunities afforded by the geological 
structure of the Yorkshire cliffs for obtaining a fuller knowledge 
of the vegetation which flourished in western Europe during 
the Jurassic era. The notes by Messrs. G. F. Lane and T. 
Saunders f recently published in ' The Naturalist,' illustrate 
the importance of searching for records in exposures of Oolitic 
Strata in inland as well as in coastal localities. 

* The Presidential Address to the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 
delivered at Middlesborough, December 17th, 1910. 

1 ' The Naturalist,' March, 1909, and January, 1910. 

1911 Jan. 1 

2 Seward : The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. 

My friend Professor Nathorst has more than once invaded 
these shores, and recently a portion of our island has been 
transported to Sweden by his pupil Mr. Halle to enrich the 
famous palseobotanical museum of Stockholm. By establshing 
a department devoted to the floras of the past, the Swedish 
Academy has set an example which the Trustees of our National 
collections would do well to follow. Paleobotany is still 
without a representative in the British Museum. All of us, 
whose aim is to advance scientific research, welcome the 
foreigner who is attracted by our unrivalled natural museums 
accessible in the Yorkshire cliffs ; we feel that the important 
thing is to extract from the records of the rocks all the facts 
we can, either by our own efforts or by assisting those of others. 
I would appeal to that spirit of sportsman-like rivalry which 
we profess to foster as a race, and ask the members of the 
Naturalists' Union to do their best to demonstrate to our 
friends across the sea that we do not underrate the value of 
the means to our hands of making a more intimate acquaintance 
with the stores of fossil plants still available in local strata. 

I may mention that, with the assistance of a small grant 
from a fund administered by the University of Cambridge, one 
of my colleagues in the Botany School, Mr. Hamshaw Thomas, 
is devoting such time as he can spare to collecting material 
from the plant-bearing strata of the Yorkshire coast ; and it 
is my intention to do as much as I can to show that we do not 
intend to be backward in the investigation of the Jurassic 
flora. It is hardly necessary to point out that my words are 
not in any sense the expression of an insular or narrow view. 
Professor Nathorst is a generous and broad-minded student 
of Nature, ever ready to co-operate with others in dividing the 
labour of scientific enquiry and in furthering research by 
every means in his power. There is ample room for us all, 
and the more competition there is, the more likely we shall 
be to emulate the devotion of the earlier naturalists to whom 
allusion has already been made. 

Those who have had any experience of deciphering the 
imperfect remains of ancient floras fully appreciate the diffi- 
culties of the task, and realise how necessary it is to avoid 
dogmatic statements in regard to conclusions founded on meagre 
data. A complete list of the species recorded from the plant- 
beds of Yorkshire looks imposing, but those who have had a 
hand in its compilation are fully aware that we have still much 
to learn as to the precise systematic position of many of the 
types. What we want is more perfect material, and, if possible, 
petrified specimens, from which we may be able to confirm 
or to correct identifications based on the uncertain and often 
misleading evidence of external characters. 

In the brief account of a few of the Jurassic species which 


Seward : The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. 3 

follows, I have refrained from giving reference to the scattered 
literature on Mesozoic paleobotany. I may, however, refer 
to two volumes published by the Trustees of the British Museum, 
in which figures of British species will be found together with 
.a general survey of the literature up to the year H)04.* In 
1903 I read a paper before the Geological Society of London, f 
in which an interesting addition to the British flora was des- 
cribed from material discovered by the Rev. John Hawell in 
a bed of ironstone near Marske-by-the-sea. Further additions 
to our knowledge of the Jurassic flora have since been made 
by Mr. Lane and Mr. Saunders as the result of their careful ex- 
amination of the Marske strata. In reference to the Marske 
species, Dictyozamites Hawelli, founded on the net-veined 
leaflets of a Cycadean frond, I may add that the geographical 
distribution of the genus Dictoyzamites, which in 1903 was 
represented by Jurassic species recorded from Japan, India, 
Bornholm, and Yorkshire, has recently been extended, so Dr. 
Nathorst tells me, to the Falkland Islands. 

Alg.e and Fungi. The few examples of Jurassic fossils 
identified as algse are not of sufficient botanical interest 
to be considered in a general sketch of the Yorkshire flora. 
It has been customary to refer to this class specimens which 
simulate some of the many forms assumed by recent seaweeds, 
but in the great majority of cases the algal nature of the fossils 
has not been demonstrated. Trustworthy examples of fungi 
are not likely to be discovered except in the petrified tissues 
of higher plants. 

Bryophyta (Mosses and Liverworts). The single species 
referred to in this group is Marchantites erectus Leckenby, 
represented by sterile specimens only. Until better material 
is forthcoming it would be rash to speak with confidence as 
to the correctness of the determination, though the impressions 
described by Leckenby bear a striking resemblance to recent 
species of Marchantia and similar Liverworts. 

Equisetales. (Equisetities columnaris Brongn, etc.), The 
genus Equisetites is represented by casts of stems hardly 
distinguishable except in their larger diameter from those of 
existing Horsetails. More than one type is no doubt repre- 
sented, but this is a question of detail which need not be 
considered here. The interesting facts are that Equisetaceous 
plants grew in abundance in Jurassic soils, and that they ex- 
ceeded in size even the largest species which now exist in extra- 

* Seward, A. C, Catalogue of the Mesozoic Plants in the Depart- 
ment of Geology, British Museum. The Jurassic Flora : Ft. I. The 
Yorkshire Coast, 1900; Pt. IF, Fiassic and Oolitic floras ol England 
(excluding the Inferior Oolite plants of the Yorkshire Coast), 1904. 

j Seward, On the occurrence of Dictyozamites in England, etc 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, Vol. FIX., p. 217, 1903. 

1911 Jan. 1. 

4 Seward : The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. 

European regions. It is almost certain that the Jurassic 
species differed also in structure from their modern descen- 
dants, but this is one of the many questions which can be 
settled only with the help of petrified specimens. 

Lycopodiales. (Lycopodites falcatus Lind. and Hutt.). 
The species Lycopodites falcatus, though represented by sterile 
fragments only, may be regarded as closely related to the 
recent Lvcopods and Selaginellas, plants still met with in many 

Fig. i. — Cladophlebis denticulata Brongn. From a specimen in the) British 1 
Museum, from the Inferior Oolite of Yorkshire. Slightly reduced.* 

parts of Britain, but more abundant and much richer in species 
in warmer countries. 

Filicales. I. — Ferns of uncertain position. The three 
species, Cladophlebis denticulata Brongn, C. haiburnensis Lind. 
and Hutt, and C. lobifolia Phillips, are referred to Brongniart's 
genus because we have as yet no very satisfactory evidence as 
to the precise nature of the fertile specimens of any of them. 
The name Cladophlebis is essentially a provisional title which 
implies ignorance as to the family position of the species so- 

* Block lent by the Syndics of the Cambridge University Press. 


Seward : 'The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. 5 

named ; it denotes ferns characterised by entire or slightly 
-obed leaflets like those of many recent species, such as the Male 
fern and other British types. It is highly probable, however, 
that the very widely-spread species Cladophlebis denticulata 
(fig. 1) characterised by its falcate and often finely denticulate 
pinnules, is a member of the Osmundaceae, a family still 
represented in Britain by the royal fern Osmuda regalis. The 
evidence for the correctness of this opinion is perhaps not 
sufficiently strong to justify the employment of a generic title 
which would definitely denote inclusion in the Osmundaceae. 

The great need in regard to fossil ferns is the discovery of 
specimens of fertile fronds, which would enable us to dertermine 
the nature of the sporangia, or of petrified examples throwing 
light on the anatomical characters of stems and leaves. 

The common Jurassic species Taeniopteris vittata Brongn, 
closely resembles, in the form of the leaf, the familiar Hart's 
tongue fern, but hitherto no fertile specimens have been found, 
and we are in the dark as to the family position of this type. 
Recent work on the fern-like plants from Palaeozoic rocks has 
shewn that the fern-type of frond is in itself a very uncertain 
guide as to systematic position ; many of the supposed fern fronds 
from the Coal Measures are now known to have been borne 
by seed-producing plants distinguished by important features 
from true ferns. We are not justified in assuming that such 
leaves as those of Taeniopteris bore sori and sporangia identical 
with the spore-forming organs of recent genera ; they may be 
leaves of cycadean plants, or even of species belonging to the 
extinct group of Pteridosperms. Specimens of another plant, 
Nilssonia tenuinervis Nath., or, as it has recently been re- 
christened by Nathorst, Nilssoniopteris tenuinervis, are fre- 
quently found in the Yorkshire plant-beds ; the leaves of this 
Cycad are almost identical with those of Taeniopteris, from 
which they differ in the absence or rare occurrence of forking 
veins, and in the continuation of the leaf lamina over the mid- 
rib. Sphenopteris. — The employment of this name also implies 
lack of information in regard to the relationship of the fronds 
so named to recent ferns, and it should remind us that more 
material is needed before we can regard species charac- 
terised by the lobed Sphenopteris leaflets as plants possessing 
any real botanical value. 

II. — Ferns which it is possible to refer to a family- 
position. [Laccopteris polypodioides Brongn. and Matonidium 
Goepperti Ett.] . The two genera Laccopteris and Matonidium are 
generally recognised as closely related to the Matonineae, a recent 
family of ferns now represented by two species in the Malay 
Archipelago. The comparison of fertile pinnae of Matonidium 
'Goepperti (fig. 2), such as may be obtained from Hayburn 

1911 Jan. 1. 

6 Seward : The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. 

Wyke and elsewhere, with those of the recent fern Matonia 
pectinata leaves no doubt as to their close relationship. Simi- 
larly, the genus Laccopteris, the fronds of which, like those of 
Matonidium and Matonia, are characterised by a long stalk 
terminating in long and narrow pinnate branches, bearing linear 
falcate leaflets, is almost certainly another member of the 
Matonineae. This family affords one of several instances of 
plants which, in the Jurassic era, were widely distributed in 
the northern hemisphere and are now confined to a remote 
area in the southern tropics. 

Fig. 2. Matonidium Goepperti (Ett.). From specimens in the British 
Museum, from the Inferior Oolite of Yorkshire. A, B, ^natural size.* 

Coniopteris hymenophylloides Brongn., etc. The genus 
Coeniopteris stands for ferns which, in their sori and sporangia, 
closely resemble some members of the Cyatheaceae, a family 
which includes the tree ferns of tropical and sub-tropical regions. 
The Cyatheaceae are no longer represented in the floras of 

In Klukia exilis Phill. we have a representative of another 
family, the Schizaaceae, which has disappeared from Europe, 
but exists in North America, India, South Africa, the Malay 
region and elsewhere. 

* Block lent by the Syndics of the Cambridge University Press. 


Seward : The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. y 

Todites Williamsoni Brongn. (and Cladophlebis denticulata ?). 
Todites Williamsoni, which occurs fairly often in a fertile state, 
is undoubtedly a member of the Osmundaceae, the existing 
species which most nearly resembles the fossil being Todca bar- 
bar a of South Africa and Australia. Cladophlebis denticulata, 
though not hitherto found with well-preserved sporangia, 
is probably another member of the same family, an opinion 
which has recently received additional support from the associa- 
tion of sterile fronds of C. denticulata in New Zealand Jurassic 
rocks with well-preserved petrified stems described by Dr. 
Kidston and Professor Gwynne-Vaughan in their admirable 
monograph of fossil Osmundaceae as Osmundites Dunlopi. 

Gymnospermae. A Cycadophyta. The Jurassic flora of 
East Yorkshire is rich in the remains of Cycadean plants, 
a group which it is impossible to deal with adequately in the 
space at my disposal. The Cycads, or as they are sometimes 
called the Sago Palms — a misleading name, as it implies near 
relationship to the Palms — constitute a small sub-division 
of the great group of Gymnosperms, and are now repre- 
sented by a .comparatively small number of species 
characteristic of tropical regions. The genus Cycas which 
occurs in India and the Far East is the best known example 
of the class : a well-grown plant has a long columnar stem, not 
infrequently branched in an irregular candelabra-like style, 
bearing one or more crowns of leaves similar in form to those 
of some Palms. The reproductive shoots of recent Cycads 
are in the form of cones, with the exception of the fertile organs 
of Cycas, which are produced from time to time at the apex of 
the stem as a cluster of tawny yellow modified foliage leaves 
bearing laterally placed seeds often attaining the size of a large 
hen's egg. In all other Cycads the fertile shoots, including 
the male shoots of Cycas, are compact cones which may reach 
a length of more than a foot, and consist of a strong axis bear- 
ing crowded female or male appendages. A few genera of 
Cycads are peculiar to the Australian region ; others are 
confined to South Africa, while South America also has its 
peculiar tvpes. Like some recent tropical ferns, the Cycads 
may be regarded as links between the Mesozoic era and 
existing floras. The pinnate fronds of the Jurassic species 
known as Z a mites or Williamsonia gigas, bear a close resem- 
blance to those of recent species of the American Zamias and 
other existing genera, but, as the late Professor Williamson 
showed, the plants which bore the Zamia-like fronds possessed 
reproductive shoots differing in several important respects 
from those of any recent genera. Without attempting a 
description of the fossil cycadean fronds, brief reference may be 
made to a point of considerable botanical interest. 

It has been abundantly proved that during the Jurassic 

1911 Jan. 1. 

8 Seward : The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. 

period and in the earlier days of the Cretaceous epoch there 
existed in many parts of the world, more especially in North 
America, numerous species of Cycadeaiv plants which, in the 
form of the leaves and in anatomical characters, agreed closely 
with recent Cycads. But, despite the striking likeness between 
the vegetative organs of the fossil and recent plants, the great 
majority of the former possessed reproductive organs differing 
widely from those of existing Cycads. The stems bore lateral 
fertile branches ending in oval flowers characterised by a conical 
receptacle on which were borne numerous slender stalks, some 
terminating in single seeds, while others, known as interseminal 
scales, were sterile and extended beyond the seeds which they 
partially enclosed by their distally expanded ends. The 
researches of Mr. Wieland in America have demonstrated that 
at least in many instances, the flowers of these extinct plants 
were bisexual, the male organs having the form of pinnate 
leaves clustered round the base of the conical receptacle to 
which the female organs were attached. The male reproductive 
cells were contained in sacs comparable to the sporangia of 
certain recent tropical ferns, whereas the female organs have 
the structure of complex seed-bearing flowers. The important 
point is that in their reproductive organs the majority of the 
Mesozoic Cycads differed enormously from any recent species. 
As yet we have not obtained a single specimen of a petrified 
Cycad from the Yorkshire beds, but casts and impressions of 
portions of flowers are by no means uncommon. Specimens 
of such casts were figured by Young and Bird in 1822, and 
spoken of by them as specimens of the true Artichoke {Cynara 
integrifolia). A comprehensive account of these fossils was 
published by Williamson in 1870 in which he expressed the 
opinion, now generally accepted, that the specimens described by 
Young and Bird, and subsequently named by Carruthers 
Williamsonia, are the flowering shoots of a Cycadean plant, the 
leaves of which are represented by the pinnate fronds called by 
Lindley and Hutton Zamites gigas. Though Williamson believed 
that the Yorkshire examples of Williamsonia included both male 
and female flowers, the occurrence of undoubted male flowers was 
not proved until last year when Dr. Nathorst succeeded in finding 
in the Whitby beds portions of spore-bearing organs. My object 
is not, however, to discuss the structure of the fertile shoots of 
Williamsonia, but to draw attention to the need for further 
search, which may enable us to decide to what extent the 
Yorkshire specimens agree with those of the closely-allied 
genus Bennettites, instituted by Carruthers for a remarkable 
stem from Lower Cretaceous beds in the Isle of Wight, bearing 
flowers sufficiently well preserved to show the structure of the 
small embryos in the seeds. 

(To be continued ). 




The term ' Yoredale Series' was first used by Phillips,* and 
defined to include the series of shales, sandstones and lime- 
stones which intervene between the top of the limestone massif, 
or Great Scar, and the Millstone Grit ; the type section being 
described from Upper Wensleydale. The Main, Upper Scar, 
or Cam Limestone, formed the summit of the series as thus 
defined, for Phillips considered the grits, sandstones and 
shales with a few included thin limestones which come in above 
the Cam Limestone, to be more closely related to the Mill- 
stone Grit above than the Yoredale rocks below. When the 
Geological Survey mapped the Yoredale country, it was found 
expedient to draw the dividing line at the base of the Ingle- 
borough Grit, and thus to include in the Yoredale Series all 
the beds that intervene between the base of that massive grit 
and the top of the Great Scar Limestone. It is as thus defined 
by the Geological Survey that the term is used in this paper. 
It has generally been accepted that the Ingleborough Grit is 
the Kinderscout Grit of the country to the south, and it is at 
the base of this grit that Dr. Kidstonf has demonstrated that 
the plant-break, which divides the Upper from the Lower 
Carboniferous, occurs. 

This is in complete agreement with the stratigraphical 
evidence, for it can be shewn that the massive grit which can 
be traced from Wensleydale through Upper Wharfedale to 
Greenhow Hill, oversteps first the beds above the Cam Lime- 
stone, then the Cam and Underset Limestones, until it ulti- 
mately rests, with a few feet of shales intervening, on the 
Limestone massif of Greenhow Hill, thus cutting out the whole 
of the Upper Yoredale Limestones. As Phillips was careful 
to point out the massif of Greenhow Hill, when traced north- 
ward, divided up into the middle, Simonstone and Hardra 
Limestones of the Yoredale Series of Wensleydale. Nowhere 
can the Upper Yoredale Limestones be demonstrated to be 
split off from the massif of the south ; on the contrary, a dis- 
tinction between an Upper and a Lower Series of Yoredale 
Limestones can be made with an important series of flagstones 
and shales, which thicken considerably towards the north- 
west, dividing the two. Again, it is only towards the south- 
east that the Lower Yoredale Limestones can be seen to fuse 

* Illustrations of the Geology of Yorkshire. Part II. The .Mountain 
Limestone District. 

t For references see Mem. Geol. Surv. Derby and Notts. Coalfield, 
1908, p. 9. 

1911 Jan. 1, 

io Johns : The Yoredale and Pendleside Series. 

with the massif. As traced eastwards through Fountains- 
Fell, Penyghent and Ingleborough the distinction between 
the Upper and Lower Yoredale Limestones with the Flagstone 
Series that divide them can be made out easily. 

On Ingleborough the Cam or Main Limestone is a conspic- 
uous feature, the Flagstone Series below is of great thickness,, 
while the Lower Yoredale Limestones below, though somewhat 
thin, are to be distinguished, and the whole series is of con- 
siderable thickness, though less than that of Wensleydale. 
It is important to note that on Ingleborough there is no ten- 
dency for the Lower Yoredale Limestones to fuse with the 
massif ; they are, however, reduced in thickness and, having 
regard to the thickness of the intervening shales, they might 
with propriety, be termed " shales with Limestones." 

Mr. Tiddeman, whose intimate knowledge of the region 
gives considerable weight to the opinions he expressed, was- 
struck with the difference between the succession he observed 
north and south of the Craven Faults in the two areas which 
Phillips had previously indicated as northern and southern 
types. Phillips himself was by no means clear when comparing 
the two areas, and Mr. Tiddeman suggested that the Craven 
Faults, the great East and West Series. of fractures dividing 
the two, were moving in Carboniferous times, and suggested* 
the following correlation : — 

Southern or Bowland Type. Northern or Yoredale 


Millstone Grit Millstone Grit 

Bowland Shales | . 

Pendleside Grit (inconstant) . . I * oredale benes - 
Pendleside Limestone (with reefs) ] 

Shales with Limestones . . . . i- Carboniferous Limestone 
Clitheroe Limestone (with reefs) ) 

Against this view Dr. J. E. Marr in an important paper, f 
brought much evidence forward to prove that orogenic move- 
ments, acting subsequently to the deposition of the strata, 
were responsible for the differences in the apparent succession 
of the two areas, and put forward a correlation table, differing 
from that of Mr. Tiddeman, which is given here again : — 

South Side. North Side. 

Millstone Grit . . . . Millstone Grit. 

Bowland Shales . . . . Shales above Upper Scar (Main) 

Pendleside Limestone . . Upper Scar (Main) Limestone. 
Shales with Limestones . . Yoredale Shales with Limestones. 
Clitheroe Limestone . . Lower Scar Limestone. 

* Report, British Association, 1899, p. 600 et seq. 
t Q.J.G.S., 1899, p. 327 et seq. 


Johns : The Yoredale and Pendleside Scries. n 

Dr.Wheelton Hind :: attacked the problem from the palaeon- 
tological side. He proposed the name Pendleside Series for 
the shales with limestones that intervene between the limestone 
massif of the southern area and the Millstone Grit, and had 
previously t considered that the upper portion of the massif, 
split up as it was, traced towards the north, and was represented 
by the Yoredale Series of Wensleydale. This indefatigable 
worker has also demonstrated that the fauna of his Pendleside 
Series characterised the Lower Culm of Devonshire and the 
Continent, and that this fauna was essentially different from 
that of the massive limestone below. In several communica- 
tions he called attention to the absence of the fauna in the area 
north of Settle ; that is in the typical Yoredale country. 

There were, therefore, three very different opinions as to 
the equivalents of the Great Scar and Yoredale Series in the 
southern area. The differences might be expressed briefly by 
referring to the position of the Pendleside Limestone in the 
three correlations put forward, and so strenuously upheld. 
Mr. Tiddeman considered it to be equivalent to the top of the 
Great Scar Limestone ; Dr. Marr suggested that it corresponded 
with the Upper Scar (Cam or Main of the Yoredales) Limestone, 
while Dr. Hind considered it to be a mere local development 
occurring at a higher level than the true Yoredales, and in- 
cluded it in the Upper Carboniferous. It might now be men- 
tioned that at this time there had been already published £ 
a short but striking paper by De Koninck and Lohest, after a 
visit to Ingleborough under the guidance of Prof. McKenny 
Hughes, of Cambridge. Lohest recognised in the Great Scar 
Limestone the zones of P. giganteus and P. cora. In a later 
communication^ Lohest correlated the British sequence with 
that of Belgium, and refers again to the Ingleborough sections. 
The Upper Scar or Main Limestone w 7 as excluded (vide Prof. 
Hughes) by the authors from their correlation with the Yisean 
of Belgium. These two papers, having regard to their date, 
represent a considerable advance in our knowledge of the Car- 
boniferous Limestone of Yorkshire, and deserved more atten- 
tion than they received. 

The present writer has recently |] expressed his opinion that 
the Pendleside Limestone was the equivalent of the Main 
Limestone of Ingleborough. This opinion was based on the 
assumption that, as mapped, this limestone is separated from 

* Q.J.G.S., 1901, p. 347 et seq. 

t Geol. Mag-. 1S97, p. 159. 

+ Notice sur le parallelisme entre le calcaire carbonifere du \ord-Oest 
de 1'angleterre et celui de la Belgique. Bull de l'Academie Royale de 
Belgique 3me serie, tome XI. No. 6, 1886. 

S Sur le parallelisme entre le carbonifere des envirous de Bristol et celui 
de la Belg-ique. Annates de la Soc. Geol. Belg\, Tome XXII., 1894. 

II QJ-G .S., 1910, P . 584. 

911 Jan. 1. 

12 Johns : The Yoredale and Pendleside Series. 

the massif by several hundreds of feet of shales. An investiga- 
tion of the ground between Hooks Cliff of Pendle Hill and the 
knolls of White or Clitheroe Limestone gave an apparent 
succession from the knoll through platey limestones (probably 
faulted) with Prolecanites compressus through a considerable 
thickness of shales to the Pendleside Limestone, in which oc- 
curred a grey limestone with brachiopods and a coral. It was 
understood that the Posidonomya becheri beds were at the base 
of the shales, but the fossil was not seen. If this be the true 
succession, and the position of the becheri beds as stated, then 
the correlation first suggested by Dr. Marr and since by the 
writer would be correct, and the equivalence of Yoredales and 
Pendlesides would be demonstrated. Further consideration 
suggests that in such a disturbed area as that near Pendle Hill, 
the observed succession might only be apparent, and as the 
exact relation of the Pendleside fauna to the Pendleside Lime- 
stone is not clear, no insistence on the correlation of Ingle- 
borough and Pendle Hill will be made in this present paper, nor 
will Pendle Hill be accepted, for the same reasons, as a type 
section of the Pendleside Series. An appeal will be made 
instead to evidence within the Yoredale area, and to notices 
of such other evidence as throws any light upon the problem. 

In the important Yoredale section of Mill Gill it has been 
shewn by Dr. Hind and the author that Posidonomya becheri 
•occurs abundantly in the shales at the base. The top of the 
Great Scar Limestone here is a Cytha xonia phase as is common 
in most areas at the top of the Visean. The Cephalopod fauna 
generally associated with the Pendleside Series, has not been 
observed but the sequence of Cythaxonia beds and shales with 
P. becheri is the usual one. As a solitary occurrence, this 
sequence might lose its significance if the time value of P. becheri 
was questioned. Another Pendleside form, P. membranacea, 
has never been questioned, and in the shales above the massif 
at Moor Close Gill, south of Seagate House, about two miles 
east of Gordale, near Malham, it was found associated with 
other important Pendleside fossils as follows :— 

Posidonomya membranacea, Pterinopecten papvraccus, Gly- 
phioceras diadema, and Glyphioceras reticulatum. 

Here we have two characteristic Pendleside cephalopods, 
and the objection suggested above has been met. These shales 
rest on the massif at the top of which Campophyllum derbiensc, 
Koninckophyllum cf. intenusepta, and Amplexi zaphrentcs 
occur. The shales themselves are unquestionably of Yoredale 
age, and the section is north of the outer Craven Fault. Further 
in the shales of Black Hill, immediately south of Fountains 
Fell, and again north of the outer Craven Fault, P. membranacea 
•occurs. The shales are of Yoredale age, and rest upon the 
Great Scar limestone. Above them comes the pebbly grit of 


Johns : The Yoredale and Pendleside Series. 13 

Ingleborough. Here, therefore, are three sections in the 
Yoredale area where the Pendleside fauna occurs in beds of 
Yoredale age. To confine the discussion to areas that can or 
have been correlated with the succession in north-west York- 
shire, it might be mentioned that Prof. Lebour, and later Mr. 
Stanley Smith, has noted the occurrence of P. becheri in Nor- 
thumberland in beds again of Yoredale age below the level of 
the Great (Main of Ingleboro') Limestone, while in Scotland 
P. becheri has been found* in the Lower Limestone Series. The 
evidence is therefore always consistent, and it would appear 
that the establishment of P. becheri has a definite time value. 
There is, however, negative evidence which cannot be over- 
looked in this discussion. Despite persistent search, no in- 
dication of the occurrence of the Pendleside fauna from beds 
that can be demonstrated to lie above the Main or Cam Lime- 
stone has ever been found. Dr. Hind has himself more than 
once called attention to this, and the importance of the failure 
must be insisted upon. 

The fauna! evidence is therefore clear ; the Pendleside 
fauna has been found in rocks of Lower Yoredale age. It 
has never been found in beds above the Main Limestone. 
Therefore, even if Phillips' restricted definition of the Yoredale 
series be employed, the evidence points to the equivalence of 
Yoredales and Pendlesides. If the definition of the Geological 
Survey be accepted, as it is in this paper, then the Pendleside 
Series must of necessity be the time equivalent of some parts 
of the Yoredales, unless it is suggested that there is a non- 
sequence at this important level throughout an area covering 
hundreds of square miles, which would be unthinkable. The 
view that the Pendleside Series is younger than the Yoredales 
is full of difficulties. That it succeeds the Visean which 
commonly has a Cyaihaxonia phase at the summit, is the 
experience of most workers. There is throughout the Yoredale 
area a Cythaxonia phase at the top of the Great Scar Limestone. 
The Upper Yoredale Limestones contain a coral fauna which 
is higher in development than the D. 2 of Bristol ; yet this D._, 
represents the top of the Visean in that typical area. It will 
be remembered that the Belgian geologists who visited Ingle- 
borough declined to include the Main (Upper Yoredale) Lime- 
stone in their zone of P. giga ulcus, though their reasons were 
perhaps not very convincing at the time. 

It was on these grounds that the writer proposed 7 a new 
classification of the Lower Carboniferous Rocks which would 
give due weight to this evidence, and at the same time do justice 
to the many workers who have contributed to our knowledge. 

* The evidence has not yet been published. 
Geol. Mag., 1910, p. 562. 

in. 1. 


Johns : The Yoredale and Pendleside Series. 

This table is reproduced below, but reference should be made 
to the original paper for the reasons that suggestsd the nomen- 
clature employed. It is, perhaps, sufficient to point out that 


Level of the Plant break. 















Upper Yoredale Coral Fauna. 

Entrance of Lower Culm or Pendleside 
fauna (Posidonomya becheri). 


Entrance of C-S fauna [Caninia patula, Clisio- 
phyllu in ingleto nense). 


Dr. Wheelton Hind's correlation of the Lower Culm and the 
Pendleside Series is duly recognised, and that the claims of 
priority, to say nothing of the great work of Phillips in York- 
shire, leaves Yoredalian as the only acceptable name for the 
Upper Division of the Avonian. 


' The Lost Towns of Holderness ; a Glimpse of a fast vanishing; Land ' 
'is the title of an illustrated article in The Tramp by Mr. A. L. Armstrong-. 

The ' Museums Journal ' (Vol. X., No. 5) includes a paper by Mr. A. 
J. Caddie, on ' The Board of Education and Provincial Museums,' and 
Mr. E. E. Lowe writes on the Plymouth Museum and Art Gallery. 

The floods have been very bad in the Midlands lately, but thev seem to 
have been most severe at Barnsley, where, according to the Bamsley 
Chronicle, 'the rains have been so heavy that the roads have been covered 
with wi.ter to a depth of over fwo miles in places.' 

Writing in ' The Annals and Magazine of Scottish Natural History - ' 
(No. 76), Her Grace the Duchess of Bedford, in describing visits paid to 
the Island of N. Rona, says : — ' The horrible modern tombstone erected 
to the memory of the late two inhabitants who died there in 1887, and 
placed in the little chapel-yard amongst the old locally-carved stone crosses, 
had been re-whitewashed. If ever I commit sacrilege, it will be here ! ' 
In the same journal Mr. W. Eagle Clarke records that six Scottish Eggs of 
the Golden Eagle found in a shop in Inverness, were forfeited to the Crow n. 
and sent to the Edinburgh Museum. Three were retained in Edinburgh, 
the remainder being sent to the Inverness Museum. 





Referring to Mr. J. W. Carter's note on ' The Mutilation of 
Bees,' in ' The Naturalist ' for Dec. (pp. 426-427), some years 
ago I recorded a somewhat similar, if not identical phenomenon. 
Under a lime tree in full flower, which overhangs our avenue, 
my wood-forester found hundreds of bees mutilated in a similar 
manner to that which Mr. Carter describes, and brought me 
to the s ot to wi ness it Under that lime tree the ground was 
strewn so thickly with dead and dying bees, that one could not 
put down one's foot without crushing many at a time. The 
mutilation consisted in the complete removal of the abdomen, 
but I did not observe that the thorax had been attacked. 

Desirous to find out the cause, my man went up the tree. 
He did not report that any wasps were seen, but he found the 
whole branches and foliage covered with innumerable large 
red ants, known as ' Soldier Ants.' Rightly or wrongly, we 
put down the serious mutilation of the bees to the attacks of 
these big red ants, and it is worthy of notice at the same time, 
that other lime trees, both upon the line of the avenue, and 
close to the house, though also in full flower and ' humming ' 
with innumerable bees, appeared to be perfectly immune — 
or untouched at least — by those ants. It was only on the one 
tree where the phenomenon was observed. 

In Mr. Carter's communication the mystery was certainly 
cleared up, and the agents discovered in the wasps ; but in 
the case I reported at the time, and repeat now, the agent 
appeared to be the large red Soldier Ants. At first we thought 
it must have been some bird, but no birds were seen on the tree. 

The question now arises, are both Wasps and Soldier Ants 
inimical to bees under similar circumstances? 


Rydal, Westmorland. 

Mr. Carter's notes upon the death of Bumble Bees under lime 
trees is of very great interest, as establishing the fact conclu- 
sively that wasps are the cause of it in many instances, if not 
in all. Conviction of this came to me on slighter grounds 
(See ' Naturalist,' 1900, p. 270, following a previous note) 
from the sight, on July 19th, 1889, of numbers of bees that lay 

1911 Jan. 1. 

16 Yorkshire Naturalists at Middlesborough. 

beneath a flowering lime in the garden, most of them being 
neatly decapitated. The few whole ones were torpid, though 
living. Two wasps were hovering attentively about them, 
and one was detected in the very act of detaching itself from 
a bee, carrying off something (for it) of considerable size — 
no doubt part of its victim, though we did not see the very act 
of mutilation. The other, though it visited many bees, did 
not happen upon a live one while we watched. Later, a wasp 
settled on the window pane with a similar burden. 

As the weather had been remarkably cold, I came to the 
(perhaps erroneous) conclusion that the bees were benumbed 
by it, as one often sees them in late summer, and so fell an 
easy prey. 

On July 30th, 1891, I noticed the same thing, and again the 
weather was stormy, with a north wind. Out of thirteen dead 
bees, twelve were mutilated ; but this time I saw no wasps. 


The forty-ninth annual meeting- of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union was 
held at Middlesborough on Saturday, December 17th, 1910. Notwith- 
standing the many inconveniences as regards the train service, and the 
wretched weather, there was a good attendance of members and delegates 
from all parts of the county. 

The meeting was preceded by an excursion to the Marske quarry, where 
a quantity of the rock was specially blasted for the benefit of the visitors, 
and numerous interesting fossil plants were gathered, including Dicfyoza- 
mites haivelli. 

In the afternoon, the General Committee met in the Girls' High School, 
Albert Road, and the report, appearing on pages 33"79> "'as discussed. 
In it will be found the excursion, etc., arrangements for 1911. 

In the evening the Annual General Meeting was held, and Professor 
A. C. Seward, F.R.S. delivered his presidential address entitled 'The 
Jurassic Flora of the East of Yorkshire in Relation to the Jurassic Flora of 
the world' (see pages 1-8), which was illustrated by lantern slides, he 
was supported by Mr. J. E. Stead, F.R.S. , Mr. T. A. "Lofthouse, Mr. J. J. 
Burton and others. One pleasing result of the Middlesborough meeting 
was the formation of a Committee for the investigation of the Yorkshire 
Jurassic Flora, particulars of which will be found in the Annual Report. 

It was announced that, on the invitation of the Executive, Dr. Alfred 
Harker, F.R.S., had accepted the presidency of the Union for 191 1. 

After the address an enjoyable conversazione was held on the invitation 
of the Cleveland Naturalists' Field Club. At this were several exhibits of 
local interest, including a series of specimens from the Marske quarry ; 
rare local birds, mollusca, lepidoptera, coleoptera, and objects under 
microscopes, etc. Most of the members also took the opportunity of seeing 
the Middlesborough Museum where Mr. F. Elgee is getting an interesting 
natural history collection together. 

T. S. 



Pr.ATE I. 

John Handley, J.P. 


3\\ (IDcmoriain. 

JOHN HANDLEY (1836-1910) 

(plate I.). 

One of the great advantages of a visit to the charming district 
of Sedbergh, whether as an individual, or collectively as a 
Society, has been the presence of John Handley. Amongst 
many others, the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union and its member- 
are particularly indebted to him. He had a great fund of 
local anecdote, a keen sense of humour, and a remarkably 
thorough knowledge of the natural history features of his 
district. In future, our visits to Sedbergh will not have quite 
the same interest ; the evenings will seem much longer ; we 
shall miss a true guide, philosopher and friend. John Handley 
is dead. The fells and the fields will know him no more ; and 
we, in common with everybody in Sedbergh, and for miles 
around, shall find it difficult, if not impossible, to get anyone 
to take his place. 

On our excursions he has always taken a leading part ; 
the botanists particularly having greatly benefitted from his 
acquaintance with the flora of his neighbourhood. The pages 
of ' The Naturalist,' too, have been enriched by his pen. In 
i8q8 he published a ' Catalogue of Plants growing in the Sed- 
bergh District, including the Lune Basin, from Middleton to 
Tebay.' This contained 48 pages, and has been the companion 
of every botanist visiting the district. Mr. Handley did not 
shew everybody where the rare plants grew, as some ' col- 
lectors ' found out to their sorrow! In his list also we learn that 
the exact habitat of many flowers is not given from the fear 
of extermination.' 

John Handley was also a leading authority on sheep- 
farming, and organised and commenced the ' Flock-Book ' of 
the Wensleydale blue-faced sheep. He took a keen interest 
in public affairs. He was a Poor Law Guardian since 187 1 ; 
a Charity Trustee since the foundation of that body ; Chair- 
man of the District Council ; Chairman of the District Educa- 
tion Committee, and a Justice of the Peace. He was also a 
member of tiie Society of Friends, and ' a mainstay of Quakerism 
in the valleys of north-west Yorkshire.' Of him ' F. G. P.* 
in ' The Scdbergian,' writes : — 

' The flowers in summer hue had all nigh gone, 
The wind had stripped the leaves from hedge and tree, 
When he, who knew them all and loved each one, 
Put out to sea.' 

T. S. 



T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.S.A. (Scot.). 

(plate II.). 

The specimen figured in Plate II., figs, i and 2, has recently 
been found on the cliffs near Garton, on the Holderness coast, 
by Mr. A. S. Harvey. It is a Neolithic axe-head, and is remark- 
able for the excellency of its workmanship, and the delicate 
way in which it has been finished. The specimen is of green 
volcanic ash, such as occurs in Borrowdale, which was the 
favourite material for making these early axes. Quite a large 
percentage of the East Yorkshire specimens are made from 
it. The Garton axe, however, is of much finer workmanship 
than is exhibited on any celt of this type hitherto found in 
this district. It is exceedingly symmetrical, and the cutting 
edge is unusually sharp, and well made. The specimen is 6i 
inches in length, 2\ inches in its greatest width, and 1 inch in 
thickness. The cutting edge is about 2\ inches across, the 
opposite end being slightly blunted. 

The specimen shewn in Plate II., figs. 3 and 4, is a fine 
polished flint axe head. It was found on the shore at Y\ lthern- 
sea so long as 1864, and has the appearance of having been 
buried in peat, a bed of which material occurs near the remains 
of the pier at that place. 

Flint, being an exceedingly hard and tough material, is 
difficult to work, and consequently polished flint axes are 
not frequently met with. The Withernsea example is made 
from the dark foreign flint which occurs in the drift beds. There 
are a number of flakes which have been struck off since the 
axe was made. Judging from the patination, some of these 
were made before the axe was lost, whilst some of the smaller 
flakes are evidently comparatively recent. The specimen is 
4 inches long, z\ inches wide, and 1 inch in thickness. The 
two sides have been rubbed down leaving a square edge. 
Both specimens are now in the museum at Hull. 

In the ' Yorkshire Archaeological Journal' (Part 80), Mr. J. R. Mor- 
timer has a short article on the ' Opening of a Barrow near " Barrow Nook " 
l>n Hi eld.' 

In ' The Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London 
(Vol. XXIII., Xo. i), some curiously striated neolithic flint flakes are 
figured and described. It is suggested that the striations are due to ice 
action, and the various interglacial periods of James Geikie, as propounded 
in the primitive days of glacial geology, are quoted. We are glad to see 
that Mr. Clement Reid referred to the absurdity of assuming that the 
scratches on the surfaces of the neolithic flakes could be in any way con- 
nected with the Ice Age. 





Few insects are more frequently kept by the amateur naturalist 
in his aquarium than the Dytiscus larva. Its rapacious 
appetite and robust health in captivity make it a most interest- 
ing pet, and one species, Dytiscus marginalis, is easily procurable 
in various stages throughout the summer in most of the ponds 
of Yorkshire. As a rule, the insect dies in captivity, without 
undergoing its metamorphosis, but if it is properly treated, 
all its stages may be readily observed. 

It requires a plentiful supply of food, such as tadpoles or 
small fishes, but the writer has reared his specimens almost 
entirely on centipedes and earthworms. One instance of its 
rapacious habits may be cited : a specimen almost mature 
was placed in a small vessel with eighteen large frog tadpoles 
and two sticklebacks. In twenty-four hours it had destroyed 
them all. 

When the larva is about two and a half inches in length, 
and has commenced to refuse food actually placed within its 
jaws, it should be removed from the aquarium, and given an 
opportunity to burrow. The following method has been used, 
and has met with considerable success. A round shallow 
pot was filled with moss and water to the brim, and the larva 
was placed in it with a supply of food in case it required another 
meal. The vessel was then placed in a plant pot nearly full 
•of moist soil, and was pressed in until the earth was level with 
its edge. The plant pot should be covered to prevent the insect 
escaping, as it is now in a peripatetic mood. It soon leaves the 
water, and wanders about looking for a suitable place in which 
to burrow. The burrowing is done mainly with the legs, but 
the flat head is used as a shovel, throwing the earth backwards 
between the legs. The burrow is only about an inch in depth 
•and at the bottom a flat oval chamber is formed. 

By a simple device the formation of the chamber may be 
observed. The surface of the soil is made very firm by pressure, 
and a hole is made with the finger at the side of the vessel 
containing the grub. The hole should pass close to the vessel 
and to some extent underneath it. In the writer's experience, 
the larva has always taken advantage of such a hole. If the 
vessel is now carefully lifted out of the soil, a good view of the 
little workman may be obtained as often as desirable. The 
grub at its work is a most decrepit object, its back and head are 
caked with mud, its antennae and palpi are draggled, and its 
anal cerci are no longer turned upwards as in life, but down- 
wards, so as to keep the soil out of the stigmata. The white 
colour of the pupa is seen through the skin, and a couple of 

1911 Jan. 1. 

20 Lloyd : The Pupation of a Water Beetle. 

untidy grooves run along the lower side of the body. It places 
its head and tail firmly against the ends of the chamber, and 
with backwardly directed jerky blows of its body, causes the 
sides of the burrow to take on the smooth consistency of kneaded 
clay. The work of completing the chamber occupies about 
four days, and at the end of eight more days the larval skin is 
cast, and the insect remains as a milk-white pupa, in strange 
contrast to its former state. It gradually becomes darker in 
colour ; the eyes, as usual, developing the pigment first, and in 
about twelve more days it casts its pupal sheath and becomes 
a beetle. It was disappointing that at this stage the insects, 
unable to inflate their wings, used to die. The reason for this 
was that while one observed them, small particles of soil 
unavoidably used to fall into the burrows. These particles 
stick on to the moist new skin, and prevent the inflation of the 
wings and elytra. The difficulty may be surmounted by care- 
fully lifting the white pupa from its chamber and laying it 
on damp grass in a vessel from which there can be no evapora- 
tion. The insect then hardens its skin, and takes happily 
to the water, where it is as interesting as the larva. 

This method has been found to be successful with other 
water beetles, and, with modifications, would probably be so 
with most. 


Little Auks in Yorkshire. — In November 1910 one of 
the periodically great immigrations of Little Auks occurred. 
Mr. Nelson informs me that on the 19th hundreds were passing 
Redcar in flocks. There was a strong N.E. wind, with heavy' 
sleet and hail showers at the time. Mr. W. J. Clarke writes 
that a few were seen at Scarborough on the 19th, more on the 
20th, and on the 21st they were passing in hundreds ; some of 
the flocks would contain between two hundred and three hun- 
dred birds, There was a moderate N.E. wind on this date, 
with a rough sea, and a strange fact is that all the flocks were 
going north. On the 24th Mr. Booth tells me that one was 
obtained inland in the Aire drainage area at Mountain, Queens- 
bury. On the 27th one was picked up alive on the reservoir 
at Bullcroft Colliery, near Doncaster. This bird was taken 
to Major Anne of Burghwallis Hall, who sent it to the Zoo. 
It would be interesting to know if any other specimens have been 
observed inland in the county ; several have been recorded 
in the south of England. Two specimens were obtained 
inland, in the North Riding, one was shot at Kirby Wiske and 
another was captured alive near Osmotherley,. — R. Fortune. 



Plate II. 

Figf- 2. 

Fig. 3- 

Neolithic Axe-heads from Holderness. 

Fig. 4- 



The twenty-third Fungus Foray held under the auspices oi 
tlie Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, opened at Sandsend, on 
September 17th, and was continued to the 22nd. Permission to 
investigate the extensive M nigra ve woodlands was again kindly 
granted by the Marquis of Normanby. Eighteen members 
of the Union and a friend met at Normanby House, Sandsend, 
on the Saturday. One of the great advantages attending the 
investigation of these woods is that meeting and workrooms 
are close at hand, as well as a most suitable house for head- 
quarters. From Monday morning onward, the double-roomed 
well-lighted old schoolhouse was placed at our disposal by the 
Vicar of Lythe, the Rev. W. G. Harland. This afforded plenty 
of room to spread out the material collected on long tables, 
specially put up for our purpose, while a handy work-table 
was placed opposite each of the four windows. Part of each 
day was given to collecting, and part to identifying the finds. 

The woods are stocked with well-grown native timber trees 
and shrubs, while quantities of exotic shrubs grow luxuriantly 
in all parts. The paths are well kept, and easy to traverse 
throughout this wide woodland domain. It was a great 
pleasure and privilege to wander about in the woods for five 
days, picking up one fungus here, and another there, and to 
dip into path-side recesses or scan the banks for others as we 
went along. Often half an hour or more would be spent in a 
suitable spot within a couple of square yards, looking carefully 
for micro material, where ten or a dozen species, often more, 
might be found. 

Though collecting was general all round by each one, Mr. 
Cheesman paid special attention to the Mycetozoa, Mr. Philip 
to the Uredines, Mr. Needham and Mr. Malone to micro-species 
of all kinds, and so on. 

One of the finds of special interest was Mycea flavipes. It 
was here Mr. Massee found it for the first time in Britain about 
twenty-five years ago, and from which the figures of the pretty 
little group in Cooke's Illustrations, PI. 951 B, were made. 
It was recorded for Whitby at the time, and has not been seen 
elsewhere in Britain. In France it is not uncommon. The 
following six met with during the five days' search are new to 
the British Flora : — 

Clitopilus angustus (Pers.). Very different in appearance 
from any of our other species of Clitopilus. Closely resembling 
in size and build Entoloma prunidoides from which it is dis- 
tinguished by the decurrent gills. The gills remain pallid 
for a long time, and finally only become slightly tinged pink. 

1911 Jan. 1. 

22 Crossland : Fungus Foray at Sand send. 

Omphalia bibula Quel. Only previously recorded from- 

Inocybe Cookei Bresad. Superficially resembles /. fastigiata,. 
which differs in the whitish stem and olive gills. Previously 
only known from Austria. 

Hypholoma melantinum Fr. Previously only known from 

Lactariits tabidus Fr. A pretty little, light-built Lactarins y 
with submembranaceous, striate pileus. It is somewhat 
remarkable that this species has not previously been recorded 
for Britain, as it is not uncommon in most European countries. 
Marasmius xerotoides Post. Superficially resembling a small 
specimen of M. fatidus, differing in being entirely devoid 
of smell. Hitherto only known from Sweden. 

Massee's ' European Agaricineae ' was found extremely useful- 
It was the means of detecting the above six additions to our 

Another rarity was V erticillium M arquandii Massee (' Trans. 
Brit. Myc. Soc.', 1896-7, p. 24). A bright lilac-purple mould 
parasitic on the gills of Hygrophorus virginens. It was first 
known and described from Guernsey specimens, and has not 
been recorded from elsewhere until a fine example growing 
on the same host was found at Mulgrave. 

Choiromyces meandriformis, one of the Tuberaceae much 
resembling a '' demicked " potato, was brought in. On examina- 
tion it proved to be the above. This is its first discovery in 
our county. More of it was sought for, and found on the follow- 
ing day. 

A very beautiful specimen of Hypomyces aurantius shewing 
both conidial and ascigerous stages, was found on Soppittiella 
Crustacea, a somewhat unusual host ; it generally grows on 

About a dozen Clavarias were collected and sent on to 
Mr. A. D. Cotton, Kew. Mr. Cotton is making a critical 
study of this somewhat difficult, and not by any means clearly 
understood, little group. 

It is known crops of agarics vary much each year, but the- 
reason still remains unfathomed. In some seasons, certain 
families will come up in abundance, while in others they come 
only sparingly. In 1908 no fewer than thirty-four species of 
Mycena were noticed at Mulgrave ; this year (1910) only 
eighteen were seen, and four of these were not met with in 
1908. No fewer than ten Entolomas were collected. Varying 
quantity from year to year, in the case of all but the commonest 
agarics, appears to be one of their peculiarities. 

There was an abundance of Lactarius deliciosus in one part 
of the woods ; later, this was seen under a more savoury aspect 
on the dinner table. Hygrophorus and Russula were much in 


Crossland : Fungus Foray at Sandsend. 23 

evidence ; twenty species of the former and thirty of the latter 
were seen. Arniillaria mellea was absent, but perhaps only 
' biding its time.' Boletus flavus was the commonest of the 
Bold i. 

It was on the programme to visit Arncliffe Woods on the 
Tuesday but rain fell so heavily during the previous night 
and early morning, that it was thought advisable to cancel 
these arrangements. 

Curiosity led a few residents at this little seaside retreat to 
ask permission to come into the workroom to look at the speci- 
mens laid on the tables. This, of course, was granted. Bright 
colours and pretty forms naturally attracted most attention. 
The never-failing question — ' which is edible ? ' was put. 
After explaining that it was not our mission to study that side 
of the subject particularly, a few of the commoner and more 
easily recognised edible species were pointed out. 

Consignments of fungi were sent from Mean wood Woods, 
and from Arncliffe Woods near Littondale, by Mr. W. Denison 
Roebuck. They were attended to immediately on arrival. 

The evenings were pleasantly and profitably occupied, lis- 
tening to addresses on mycological topics, viz., : — ■ 

Mr. Massee : ' Abstract and Practical Mycology.' 

Mr. Clarke : ' Mycological Puzzles.' 

Mr. Gibbs : ' Relative Frequency of the Species of 

Mr. H. Wager : ' The Life History of an Agaric' 

Abstracts of three of these are appended. 

Sir H. C. Hawley was unable to be present, but consented 
to examine any Pyrenomycete material that might be sent him 
from Mulgrave, after his return home in October. This he 
has done, and added about a dozen species. Mr. Gibbs has 
developed ten or a dozen coprophiles from pieces of matrix 
taken back with him. 

When all the material had been worked through as far as 
could be, the results of which will be seen below. It was found 
that 563 species had been identified, of which 145 and 5 varieties 
are additions to the known flora of Mulgrave district. 

Messrs. Cheesman, Clarke, Peck, and the writer visited 
the woods May 28th-30th last. Some fungi are only to be 
seen in the spring months. Of the fifty-three species collected, 
ten or twelve were of this class, including Tricholoma gambosum 
— St. George's mushroom, Morchella esculenta, Peziza reti- 
culata, and others. Geopyxis coccinea was reported to us by 
the head woodman, who collects this most beautiful fungus 
in early spring for the Hall, for ornamental purposes. The 
results of the May visit are added to those obtained at the 
ordinary foray. 

On the Wednesday evening Mr. Cheesman exhibited a 

1911 Jan. 1. 


Crossland : Fungus Foray at Sandsend. 

number of Myxomycetes, many of which he collected in the 
Canadian Rockies, during his visit in connection with the 
British Association, 1909. He also gave an interesting sketch 
of the life history of this group of animal-plant borderland 

By permission of the noble owner, another season's investi- 
gations is to be given to these woods and pastures, then to 
analyse and tabulate the results of previous visits. This will 
bring the work more into line with present-day ideas of field 
investigation — to work one clearly defined area well, and find 
out approximately what it can produce. 

At the business meeting the thanks of the Committee were 
unanimously accorded to the Marquis of Normanby for allow- 
ing us the run of the estate ; to A. B. Foster, Esq., J. P., for 
his kind permission to visit Arncliff Woods although we could 
not avail ourselves of it : and to the Rev. W. G. Harland, for 
granting the use of the schoolrooms, which very much 
facilitated the work. 

The following list are the additions to the flora of Mulgrave 
Woods, parks, and pastures, made during this foray. Those 
marked * are new to the British flora, 6; f new to Yorkshire, 14 ; 
and I new to V. County, N.E., 29. The different groups are 
separated by a short line. 

Amanitopsis fulva. 

Lepiota excoriata. 

Tricholoma resplendens. 

T. scalptuvatum. 

T. imbricatum. 

T. argyraceum. 

T. sulphureum. 

T. terreum var. atrosquamosum. 

T. saevum. 

/'. melaleucum. 
Jvar. pophyroleucum. 
f Clitocybe splendens. 

Collybia tylicolor. 

C. tenacella. 
fvar. stolon//, id. 

Mycena pelianthina. 

M. flavipes. Though first found 
here, it was recorded under 
*Omphalia bibula. 

0. bullula. 

/'/enrol us applicatus. 
I Entoloma griseocyanea. 

* Clitopilus angustus. 
Nolanea nigripes. 

%Pholiota a urea. 


t /'. sphaleromorpha. 
f P. pumila. 

* Inocybe Cookei. 

X Naucoria cucumis. 
f Crepidotus calolepis. 
%C. Rubi. 
Cort. (Phleg.) russus. 
C. ( ,, glaucopus. 
%C. ( ,, ) scaurus. 

C. ( ,, ) porphyropus. 
t C. (Tela.) quadricolor. 
%C. ( ,, ) injucundiis. 
C. (Hygr.) Reedii. 
Agaric us xanthodermus. 
% A . compestris var. rufescens. 

Psathyra bifrons. 
XP- gossipina. 
* Hypholoma melantinum. 
Panaeolus ftmicola. 
Gomphidius glutinosus var. roseus. 
XPaxillus lividus. 
XP- panuoides. 

Hygrophorus hypothejus. 
f H. clivalis. 
fW. irrigatus. 
t Lactarius zoiiarius. 
*L. tabid us. 
X Rassula olivascens. 

R. sardonia. 
X R- serotiua. 
R. vesca var. lilacea. 
R. azurea. 
XR. Queletii and var. purpurea. 

CrosslcMd : Fungus Foray at Sandsend. 


R. fragilis \ ar. violacea, 
R. alutat ea. 

t Marasmills Si 01 tells. 

M. foetidus. 
*M. xerotoides. 
\M. s< lerotipes. 

Fistulina hepatica. 
I Polyporus lent its. 

P. melanopus. 

P. mollis. 

P. fwnosus. 

Fomes applanatus. 

F. igniarius. 
\F. fraxineus. 

Poria terrestris. 

Dcedalea confragosa. 
* Merulius tremell >sus. 

M. molluscus. 

* Hydiiui ochraceum. 

H. aureum. 
I H. argutum. 
\H. stipatum. 

Phlebia merismoides. 

Cyphella Pimii. 
t C. fulva. 

Corticiuiu lacteum. 

C. arachnoideum. 

C. sanguineum. 

C. roseolum. 

Peniophora hydnoides. 

P. phyllophila. 
I Thelephora palmata. 

T. caryophyllea, 

T. cristata. 

Clavaria fastigiata. 

C. persimilis. 
C. strict a. 
f C. fistulosa. 

Exidia glandulosa. 

Melampsora helioscopice. 
M. farinosa. 
M. pinitorqua. 
M. belulina. 

Coleosporiutn euphrasies. 
\Puccima, epilobii. 
P. eivccBce. 
Urocystis anemones. 

Hypomyces later it i us. 
H. rosellus. 

.jgii Jan. 1. 

Dialonei tria sangumea. 

Hypoxylon coccineunt. 
f //. ( rustai emu. 
t Hypospila pustula. 
I Nitschkia cupularis. 
f Byssosphesria phesostroma. 

L. hispida. 

Psilosphceria spermoides 

P. moriformis. 
%Sordaria decipiens. 

Pleospora herbarum. 

Sphaerlla punctiformis. 

Duluena querciua. 

Ch nromyces meandriformis. 

Morchella esculeuta. 
Vibrissia truncorwm. 
Geopyxis coccinea. 

\Peziza reticulata. 
I P. lividula. 

Humaria violacea. 

Lachnea setosa. 

L. umbroriim. 

Dasyscypha acutipila. 
I Erinella Nylanderi. 

Helotium lutescens. 
% H. sublenticular e. 
\Pseudopeziza albella. 

Ascophanus microsporus. 

Saccobolus depauperatus. 

Ombropkila clavus. 

Orhilia viuosa. 

Peronospora parasitica. 

%Phoma longissima. 
Ceutkospora lauvi. 

Manilla aitrea. 
Penicillium glaucum. 
Botrytis vulgaris. 
Yerticilliuw. Marquandii. 
I Trichothecium roseuiu. 

Arcyria fenugiuosa. 
A. clavata. 
Trichia abrupta. 
T. scabra. 

Chondrioderma di (for me. 
Didymium farinaceum. 
D. effusion. 
Physarum sinousum. 
Tilmadoche mutabilis. 
Leocarpus fragilis. 
Ceratiomyxa mucida. 

Crossland : Fungus Foray at Sand-send. 

Abstract and Practical Mycology. 


G. MASSEE, F.L.S., V.M.H., etc. 

The primary object the members of the Mycological Section' 
of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union had in view, when the 
annual fungus forays were established, was to compile as com- 
plete a fungus-flora of the county as possible, under the cir- 
cumstances. Such a flora can, perhaps, never be all embracing,, 
but the results embodied in the ' Fungus Flora of Yorkshire,' 
represent practically as much work as would be justified on 
the part of the members, in considering it as the primary 
object of the forays. Additions will still continue to be made 
as opportunity offers, but other branches of mycology also 
claim attention. Several members who have now attended the 
forays for many years, and have also worked at the subject 
more or less throughout the year, possess a good general 
knowledge of the fungi as a group. But the time has gone by 
when a person can know all that is known respecting any one 
group of organisms. Therefore, backed up by a broad general 
knowledge, a point that is absolutely essential, it becomes 
desirable to specialise, and my advice is, confine yourself 
to one special group of the fungi, nay, confine yourself to one 
genus, and by degrees you will not only learn all that is known,. 
but will learn many^things that were previously unknown. From 
such a method of procedure you would certainly derive a 
greater amount of pleasure and interest than by simply 
expending energy on solely endeavouring, often in vain, to- 
interpret other people's ideas respecting species promiscuously 
culled from any of the many families included in the fungi. 
The first-hand knowledge gained by the specialisation method 
will likewise be of the greatest value to every other mycologist. 

In addition to the systematic side of the subject, the dis- 
tribution of fungi, or what should perhaps be styled the eco- 
logical study, is practically unbroken ground. Why have we 
during a certain season, such a wave of certain genera or 
species, and an almost entire absence of others, usually equally 
common ? or why are certain species or genera absent from 
one part of the country, and present in other parts ? Neither 
climatic differences nor absence of the host-plant can account 
for such conditions, yet they exist ; and we are very desirous 
of knowing exactly why. 

Economic mycology also claims our attention. The 
hundreds of millions of pounds sterling that are annually lost 
owing to the injury caused to cultivated plants throughout the 
world, could, to a great extent, be prevented, if we knew more 
about the fife histories of parasitic fungi. 

Grassland: Fungus Foray at Sandsend. 2; 

This is a subject that could well be taken in hand by the 
field mycologist to whom the work appealed ; and every item 
of information gained, although perhaps not leading to im- 
mediate results, would eventually dovetail in, and result in 
a complete knowledge not only as to how particular parasites 
attack their host-plants, how they survive during the period 
when their host-plant is not present (as in the case of many 
annuals, cereals, etc.,) and also indicate the most vulnerable 
point in their development. 

Finally, now that the county flora is published, the necessity 
for selecting a new site for each foray no longer exists. On 
the other hand, it is considered highly desirable that the fungus 
flora of some particular district should be exhaustively worked, 
and as the Mulgrave Woods have proved to be so eminently 
suitable for the carrying out of this idea, it has been decided 
to devote at least one more foray to the investigation of the 
Mulgrave area, which is so extensive and varied that, from our 
special point of view, it is practically independent of seasonal 
vicissitudes, which, to a greater or less extent, determine the 
presence or absence of fungi in less favoured districts. 

The Structure and Life History of an Agaric. 



The fruit body arises from the mycelium as an oval or spherical 
mass of filaments matted together, in which the differentiation 
of the hymenium begins at an early stage, and usually before 
any external differentiation into pileus and stipe can be seen. 
In Pholiota squarrosa, however, the difference between pileus 
and stipe can be seen before the hymenium is developed, 
in the direction in which the scales of the universal veil begin 
to peel off. 

The cells of the hymenium regularly, so far as can be seen, 
contain two nuclei, but, whether these divide by conjugate 
division, as has been suggested, is doubtful. The basidium at 
an early stage in its development is found to contain two 
nuclei. The presence of more than two appears to be an 
abnormal occurrence. These two nuclei fuse, and the single 
nucleus thus formed gives rise by two successive divisions to 
four nuclei which then pass through the narrow sterigmata 
into the spores. The origin of the binucleate condition of 
the cells of the hymenium has not been definitely traced, but 
it is found in all parts of the fungus body, and it does not 
appear probable that it arises by cell fusion, or by the passage of 
the nucleus from one cell into another. It is an interesting. 

1911 Jan. 1. 

28 Crossland : Fungus Foray at Sandsend. 

fact in this connection that the spores in some species become 
binucleate before they are removed from the basidium. 

The absence of a true morphological sexual fusion or any- 
thing corresponding to cross-fertilization may possibly have 
some connection with the variation of the Fungus body. 

The Relative Frequency of the Species of Agarics. 



The author gave the results of a comparison of the lists pub- 
lished for twenty-one forays, sixteen being held in Yorkshire 
by members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, and five in 
the South of England by the British Mycological Society. 

The study of the distribution of Fungi is difficult, owing 
to the uncertain appearance of species from one year to another, 
thus we may work a district for many years, and yet constantly 
meet with additional species each year. A comparison of the 
foray lists illustrates this fact even in regard to the commonest 
species, thus only two species Paxilhts involutus and Marasmius 
peronatus appear in the whole of the twenty-one lists, while 
at almost every foray, certain universally common species are 
' conspicuous by their absence.' Some species are particu- 
larly liable to be under-represented in foray lists, owing to 
their periods of maximum abundance not coinciding with the 
•dates of the forays ; the most striking example of this is 
Tricholoma gambosum, a fairly frequent species, but which 
on account of its usually appearing in spring has only been 
recorded at two of the Yorkshire forays. This cause also 
accounts for the sparse appearance at forays of such late 
autumn species as Clitocybe cyathiformis, Collybia vclutipcs, 
Tubaria purpuracea, and Pleurotus ostreatus. 

Certain species appear to be commoner in the South than 
in Yorkshire. Among these may be mentioned Amanita 
muscaria, and mappa, Armillaria mucida, Clitopilus prunulus, 
Cantharellus cibarius and tub ce for mis, Marasmius erythropus 
.and epiphyllus, and many species of Cortinarius. On the other 
hand, Lepiota acutesquamosa, Mycena acicitla, Omphalia 
umhdlijera, Bolbitius titubans, Hygrophorus ebitrneus and 
Lactarius volemus, all well marked, and frequent Yorkshire 
species, do not appear in any of the Southern lists. 

It must, however, be admitted that the data are at present 
insufficient for any certain conclusions. 

-Mr. \Y. Bagshaw has offered to furnish a room in the park mansion at 
Batley as a Museum. 



Plate III 



Two meetings were held at the Leeds Institute on November 19th, Pro 
less,,,- C. J. Patten, M.A.. M.D., Sc.J)., the President oi the Section, hem- 
in the chair. About forty members and associates were present in the 
afternoon, and sixty at the evening meeting. 

Mr. Arthur Whitaker exhibited and described specimens of all the 
species of Yorkshire Bats, together with the Barbastelle from Cambridge, 
and the Greater Horse-shoe and Serotinc Bats from the south of England 
I tiese represenl all the known British species, excepting the extremeh 
rare Bechstein's Bat. 

Comparing an extremely large female Long-eared Bat from Christ 
church, Hants., with the much smaller and darker Yorkshire specimens, 
Mr. Whitaker suggested there might be almost sub-specific differences 
as all the Hampshire Long-eared Bats that he had seen were considerably 
larger and much greyer in colour than their Yorkshire representatives. 
Mr. Oxley Grabham described and shewed by the lantern, a charming 
series of photographic pictures, which he had taken during 1910, chiefly 
in the North Riding. These included Nightjars in all stages of breeding — 
an instance being recorded where a most reliable gamekeeper had marked 
a pair of Nightjars' eggs which were removed half-a-mile away by the 
birds, and incubation continued. Mr. Grabham also pointed out how the 
Nightjar always shuffled backwards on to its eggs. A series of the Stone 
Curlew shewed the way the bird gradually lined its nest with small pebbles, 
etc., after the eggs were laid, and during incubation. A Corncrake was 
shewn feigning death when wounded ; and, as the result of floods on their 
nesting grounds, deserted Lapwing's eggs were firmly embedded in the 
mud, and young Lapwings killed by the quantity of mud adhering to their 
legs. A Yiper which was endeavouring to swallow a Curlew chick, was 
illustrated, as well as a beautiful series of Great Crested Grebes (birds, 
nests and eggs) taken on the lake at Castle Howard, where three pairs 
nested last season. There were numerous slides of Woodcock and Golden 
Plover, at and upon their nests. Pisces were represented by freshly 
caught Garfish and Tope taken by the lecturer. On behalf of Mr. W. J. 
Clarke, fine slides were exhibited of the two large Common Rorquals, 
which had been stranded near Scarborough in 1910. Mr. Grabham also 
Shewed some amusing pictures of the futile attempts of a liberated Barbary 
Dove to incubate a Peafowl's egg on the top of the wall of St. Mary's 
Abbey, in the grounds of the Museum at York. 

Mr. Riley Fortune dealt in detail with ' The Life History of the Gannet.' 
He pointed out most of the chief phases in its nesting economy and lit< 
history, and illustrated his remarks with excellent limelight pictures of 
the ditterent stages of the bird's life, chiefly on the Bass Rock, which i-. 
probably the oldest known breeding place of this species, and from which 
its specific name was derived. Besides his own notes and personal obser- 
vations, Mr. Fortune acknowledged indebtedness to Mr. Campbell, the 
head keeper of the Bass Light, and also to Mr. J. H. Gurney, who is at 
present preparing a monograph of this species. The Gannet, or Sol, in 
Goose, has closed nostrils, practically no tongue, and its body is covered 
with sub-cutaneous air-cells which communicate directly with the lungs. 
These air-cells can be rilled or emptied at pleasure, and are supposed to 
act as an air-cushion to break the bird's impact with the water when diving 
from a great height for food. The bird weighs about &h lbs., and has an 
expanse of wings of about 6 feet. The breeding colonies were all enu 
mcrated. They are not numerous, but at most of them vast numbers oi 
the birds congregate to nest. The situation and the composition of the 
nests were explained, and the birds were described as even greater thie\ 1 
than Rooks in stealing building material from each others nests. A 
single egg is laid, but should this be taken, the birds will lay a second 

1911 Jan I. 

jo Y.N.U. Meetings of the Vertebrate Zoology Section. 

and even a third in a season. The composition of the shell of the egg was 
explained, and it was stated that Mr. Drane, of the Cardiff Naturalists' 
Society, had demonstrated that it only required the lime derived from 
1 lb. of fish to form a Gannet's egg. The earliest eggs were laid by the 
•end of March, but April was the usual month for general laying. Incuba- 
tion lasted forty-two to forty-four days. Mr. Campbell had marked an 
egg laid on April 22nd, which hatched on June 5th, or in forty-four days. 
Gannets were said to cover the egg with their foot when incubating ; 
•and the absence of a ' hatching-spot ' on their breast tended to confirm 
this ; but against this theory is the fact that Cormorants and Shags 
of the same family, and which lay four to six eggs, have no ' hatching- 
spot ' either. The young when first hatched are blind, naked and helpless, 
and are slaty-black in colour. May 10th was the earliest date for hatching, 
the normal period being the end of June. Both sexes assist in incubating. 
The eyes of the nestling open on the eighth day, and by the tenth day 
they are clothed in a dense white down. The wing feathers begin to appear 
on the twentieth day, and the birds commence to grow very fat about the 
thirtieth day. About a month later they are considered to be in the right 
condition for killing — that is where they are still used for human food, 
as on the island of St. Kilda. Two months after hatching, the old birds 
cease to feed the young. This is necessary, as otherwise they would be 
so heavy and unweildy as to be unable to leave the rock. About ten days 
after this the young birds leave the nesting ledges and fly on to the sea 
below, where they remain drifting about for between two and three weeks, 
still unable to feed themselves, and still existing upon their accummulated 
store of fat. Towards the end of this period, their wings having grown 
strong enough, they commence fishing for themselves. Their plumage is 
now greyish, or blackish-brown, spotted with white triangular spots at 
the end of each feather. Nearly three months elapse from hatching before 
the young birds leave the nesting ledges, and about four months before 
they are fully able to fish for themselves. 

The operation of the old birds feeding the young has been witnessed by 
very few persons, and it evidently takes place very early in the morning. 
Mr. Campbell has, however, recently been able to obtain a photograph of a 
■Gannet feeding a young one. Full plumage is not attained until after the 
fifth moult, and the birds never breed until they have assumed the adult 
attire ; although birds in the last garb of immaturity may frequently 
be seen carrying nesting materials about in their beaks. Variation from 
type is rare amongst Gannets, but an adult bird was photographed on 
the Bass Rock this summer which varied considerably in colour. It was 
nesting, and was paired to one of the normal type. Mr. Fortune stated 
that in damp weather it is necessary to exercise great care in photographing 
Gannets at their breeding haunts, owing to the precipitous and foul 
.•surroundings. On a wet day the young birds were in a miserable and 
bedraggled state, yet if the following day should be fine, they would be 
just as clean and white as ever. He remarked that the Gannets had not 
yet acquired the habit of dropping on to the skull of the photographer 
with their powerful beaks, as individual Terns and Gulls occasionally do ; 
•or photographs of Gannets nesting would be very scarce ! 

Mr. George Parkin exhibited a finely mounted and excellent specimen 
of an immature partially albino Starling, and of a Green Sandpiper, both 
from the neighbourhood of Wakefield. 

A keen discussion arose after a paper by Mr. Thos. M. Fowler, on 
■* Recent Notes on a Young Cuckoo,' and was partly the outcome of a paper 
read at the previous meeting of the Section (vide ' The Naturalist,' 1910, 
pp. 133-134). Last summer Mr. Fowler carefully watched, day by day, 
a Hedge Sparrow's nest in which a Cuckoo's egg had been deposited, and 
had taken photographs from time to time, which were shewn. 

It seems that on June 10th, the nest contained one egg ; on June nth 
two eggs ; June 13th, three eggs of the Hedge-Sparrow and an egg of the 
•Cuckoo ; on June 14th four Hedge-Sparrows' eggs and that of the Cuckoo. 


Y.N.U. Meetings of the Vertebrate Zoology Section. 31 

At twelve noon on June 24th, the five eggs were still intact in the nest, 
hut at 5-10 p.m., one young Hedge-Sparrow was out of the shell, and at 
1 1 p.m. on the same day another Hedge-Sparrow and the young Cuckoo 
had hatched, and were quite dry. Another Hedge-Sparrow hatched out 
in the afternoon of the following day, and there were no further developmen t 
that day, the remaining egg not being fertile. The next morning (June 
26th), the egg had disappeared, and a very careful search in the vicinity 
of the nest failed to discover any trace of it. The same evening the young 
Cuckoo became very restless, and made several unsuccessful attempts to 
eject the young Hedge Sparrows ; but it only succeeded in working its 
victim to the level of the top of the nest, when both fell forward. Arriving 
at 7 a.m. on June 27th, Mr. Fowler was greatly disappointed to rind the 
three young Hedge Sparrows hanging on the outside of the nest. Two, 
however, not being dead, were revived by the warmth of his hands, and 
were put back into the nest, when the mother-bird returned, fed them and 
brooded them, and actually walked over the dead young one on her way. 
One of the youngsters that had been returned to the nest, died, and through- 
out that day, during the intervals when the mother-bird was away from 
the nest, the Cuckoo was constantly endeavouring to throw out the living 
voung Hedge Sparrow. On several occasions the Cuckoo got its foster- 
brother to the top of the nest, when the strugglings of the latter caused 
it to fall back again. 

On arriving at 6-45 a.m. the following day, the young Hedge Sparrow 
was out of the nest, but still alive, and was returned once more to its 
rightful home. The young Cuckoo (whose body was now of a blue-black 
■colour, having changed from the pale flesh colour when first hatched). 
was very businesslike in its methods, and wriggled its head about from 
side to side in a remarkable manner for a young bird. It worked its young 
foster-brother on to its back (which Mr. Fowler considered to be flat and 
broad, and without any preceptible hollow), walked up the nest side 
backwards with its immature wings outstretched, ' and threw the youngster 
right clear of the nest into my hands, which were waiting to receive it.' 
After this operation the young Cuckoo remained for a minute or so at the 
top of the nest, its embryo pinions outstretched, jerking its body back- 
wards and forwards in a most energetic way. Mr. Fowler saw the young 
Hedge Sparrow ejected quite a dozen times during that day, but the 
following morning (June 29th), at half-past six it was lying cold and dead 
below the nest. Neither the young Cuckoo nor the old birds attempted 
to remove the nestling that had died within the nest, and after three 
days, when it had got somewhat flattened, and was smelling, Mr. Fowler 
threw it out. 

During the whole of these protracted' observations Mr. Fowler never 
saw any adult Cuckoo near to the nesting site. 

Mr. Fowler also shewed a charming series of lantern slide views of the 
nesting of the Ringed Plover. One very fine picture shewed that the 
mother-bird, rather than face the camera too closely, had called away, 
and was contentedly brooding a newly-hatched young one a yard from the 
three eggs, some of which were already ' chipped,' and a young chick could 
be distinctly heard by Mr. Fowler calling within the shell. 

Professor Patten exhibited about a dozen glass-phials, each containing 
sections of a large Earthworm in spirits. These had all been obtained from 
Song-Thrushes whilst in the act of dividing them. Prof. Patten shewed 
that even in this simple and everyday action the Thrushes had method. 
Each worm was divided into four almost equal sections, or was bitten 
nearly through into four almost equal portions. In one or two of the 
examples shown where the bird had not fully completed the operation 
before the worm was taken away, there were only three sections, consisting 
of two quarters and one half. Prof. Patten also threw upon the screen 
a series of lantern views of shore birds and cliff birds, taken by instan- 
taneous telephotography on the Irish coast. Although lacking the beauty 
and clear outline of the ordinary photograph, they had the merit of sliow- 

igii Jan. 1. 

32 Guide to the Birds in the Hull Museum. 

ing the birds' natural attitudes and habits, which the ordinary camera 
often loses because of its too near approach to the birds. 

Mr. Walter Wilson exhibited a fine series of lantern slides of a pair of 
Grey Wagtails feeding their young at the nest. Both birds brought food, 
and one photograph shewed both the parents at the nest at the same time. 

Air. Walter Greaves passed round for exhibition a specimen of the 
Spotted Sandpiper (Tetanus macularius) supposed to have been obtained 
in the neighbourhood of Hebden Bridge a few years ago. 

The next meeting of this Section will be held in the same room at the 
Leeds Institute, on Saturday afternoon and evenin?, February 18th, ign. 



(plates hi. and iv.). 

The Committee who have the management of the Hull Municipal Museum 
are to be congratulated upon getting together a very fine collection of Birds, 
and thus filling a very noticeable gap which has existed in the Museums' 
exhibits, and which has hitherto been a standing reproach to them. 

Mr. Sheppard has, in his usual thorough manner, compiled a most 
excellent and interesting catalogue of about 122 pages, giving a short 
description of every species. 

Altogether there are 420 cases, containing something like 900 specimens 
of 274 British and 45 Foreign species, and as the photograph of the Bird 
Room (frontispiece) shows, they are exhibited under the best conditions. 

Under each species is a short and interesting account of its distribution, 
and the information given is very trustworthy and accurate. It is in no 
spirits of fault finding that we should suggest that when a second edition 
becomes necessary, it would be advisable to give more consideration, after 
the account of its general distribution, to its status as a Yorkshire species, as 
in a few instances the particulars given are not sufficient. 

The only reference to the Pied Flycatcher as a Yorkshire bird is that 
it has been recorded breeding near Beverley ; to the Grasshopper Warbler 
that it is the rarest warbler in E. Yorks. 

We are told that the Eagle Owl is ' a rare visitor to the northern 
portion of Britain. Examples have occurred in Orkney and Shetland.' 
It would have been as well to mention that it had been obtained on several 
occasions in Yorkshire. 

The Kite is said to be ' now practically exterminated in Britain.' 
It is, however, gratifying to know that it is increasing in numbers in Wales 
The Common Buzzard is not so rare as we are given to understand. 

The White-winged Crossbill and the Spotted Sandpiper are stated to 
have no claim to a place in the British list ; both species, however, have 
well established claims. The first mentioned has several times been shot 
in the County, and a specimen of the latter was obtained quite recently 
in the Hebden Bridge district. 

Under Brunnich's Guillemot the fact of Mr. Oxley Grabham recently 
recognising a specimen in the cliffs at Bempton during the breeding season 
is well worthy of mention, and it might also be recorded that the Levantine 
Shearwater in the collection, was the first recognised specimen of what has 
since proved to be a not altogether uncommon visitor to the Yorkshire 
coast. It is also worthy of note that the Pectoral Sandpiper in the Museum 
has been made historical by the fact that it is the bird figured in Lord 
Lilford's magnificent work on British Birds. 

These are interesting notes which might be incorporated in a future 
edition. The Catalogue is a model for any Museum to follow, not only for 
its interesting information, but also for its general ' get up.' The printing 
is in bold and clear type, and the illustrations are both numerous and good. 
Those of the Golden and White-tailed Eagles, Bee-Eaters, Hoopoes, 
Pallas's Sand Grouse, Bittern, and that of the Bird Room are particularly 
wood (see Plate III. and IV.). At the price at which it is issued (3d.) it 
is exceedingly cheap. R. F. 




Bee Eater (Merops apiaster). 






Presented at Middlesborough, Dec. lytli, 1910. 

The Forty-eighth Annual Meeting was held at Scarborough 
on December nth, 1909, and there was a very satisfactory atten- 
dance. The Scarborough Field Naturalists' Society had made 
excellent local arrangements, and, in the early part of the day, 
its members led excursions. The General Committee met at the 
Museum, and in the evening a General Meeting and Conversazione 
was held at the Grand Hotel, at which the President, Mr. \Y. H. 
St. Ouintin, delivered his presidential address, entitled " Some 
Avicultural Notes," which has since appeared in " The Natura- 
list." In connection with the conversazione the Scarborough 
Society had arranged a very fine exhibition of local natural 
history, geological and archaeological specimens. The line show 
of living marine specimens also was particularly appreciated. 

Seven Field Meetings have been held during the year, five 
being the usual divisional excursions ; one the fungus foray ; 
the additional Field Meeting being at Redcar, in connection 
with the Yorkshire Marine Biology Committee. At one of the 
meetings an opportunity was taken of joining forces with the 
Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union, at Scunthorpe, with very success- 
ful results. All the outings, however, have demonstrated that 
there is much still to be done in connection with the flora and 
fauna of our county, notwithstanding the half century of the 
Union's work. 

The Excursions were held as follows : — 
Yorks., N.W. — Middleton in Teesdale (Whit week-end, May 
15th to 17th). 
Mid.YV.— Malham (Saturday. June 4th). 
,, S.E. — Easington for Spurn (Saturday, July 9th). 
,, N.E. — Kirby Moorside, (Bank Holiday week-end, July 
30th to August 2nd). 
Lines., N. — Scunthorpe (with Lines. Naturalists' Union ; Thurs- 
day, August 25th). 
Fungus Foray, Mulgrave Woods and Arncliffe (September 17th 

to 22nd). 
Coast Excursion, Redcar, September 2nd to 6th. 

Middleton in Teesdale. — On the borders of the county, with 
an occasional trespass into Durham, the Union held its first 
excursion of the year during Whit week-end. Everything was 
favourable for a pleasant and profitable excursion, and quite a 

1911 Jan. 1 . 

34 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 

number of friends assisted with local arrangements, etc. The 
General Meeting was held at the Cleveland Arms, under the presi- 
dency of Mr. J. J. Burton. Thirteen new members were elected. 
A full report appeared in " The Naturalist " for July. 

Mai ham June 4th to 6th. — On this occasion one section of 
the members devoted the week-end to investigating the fauna of 
Malham Tarn ; the owner, Mr. Walter Morrison, J. P., giving 
exceptional facilities. The geologists and botanists were particu- 
larly interested in the surrounding district ; the famous Malham 
Cove and the surrounding valleys being well worthy of examina 
tion. A General Meeting was held at which Mr. G. T. Porrit 
presided. A full report appeared in " The Naturalist " for 

Easington and Spurn, July 9th to nth. — A pleasant week-end 
was spent at the south-eastern extremity of the county, the recent 
ravages of the sea and their effect upon the district, giving the 
excursion a peculiar interest. The geologists also had a definite 
piece of work in hand, which they successfully accomplished. 
Mr. J. W. Stather presided at the Society's head quarters, at 
the Marquis of Granby Hotel, Easington. A report of the excur- 
sion appeared in " The Naturalist " for September. 

Kirby Moorside. — August Bank Holiday week-end was held 
at Kirby Moorside, Kirkdale, Rievaulx, etc. The famous cave 
at Kirkdale was of particular interest on account of Buck- 
land's researches, and at one of the Evening Meetings Mr. T. 
Sheppard read a paper on the subject, and exhibited a recently 
prepared plan, which has since been published in the Union's 
journal. Mr. W. N. Cheesman gave an interesting address on 
Canadian Myxomycetes. Mr. H. E. YVroot described the fine 
ruins at Rievaulx. Mr. J. J. Burton presided at the General 
Meeting. An illustrated report appears in " The Naturalist " 
for November. 

Scunthorpe. Thursday, August 25th. — On this occasion the 
members of the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union joined our party 
in an investigation of the ironstone mines and moors around 
Scunthorpe. The Rev. Canon Fowler presided at an exceptionally 
representative gathering of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Naturalists. 
Several important finds were made, as will be seen from the illus- 
trated report in " The Naturalist " for November. 

Redcar. — The Marine Biological Committee held its first 
official excursion on the coast between September 2nd and 6th. 
Unfortunately the meeting clashed with the British Association 
Meeting at Sheffield ; but, nevertheless, an excellent amount of 
work was accomplished, as will be seen from the Rev. F. H. Wood's 
report in " The Naturalist " for November. The Committee 
intends to carry on its work on the coast next year. 

Mulgrave Woods and Arncliffe. — In this interesting neighbour- 
hood the members of the Yorkshire Mycological Committee held 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 35 

their Annual Fungus Foray, between September 17th and 22nd. 
The week's work was fruitful of good result, some new species 
to science being found. The Secretary, Mr. C. Crossland, has 
prepared a detailed report of the work accomplished, which will 
shortly appear in " The Naturalist." 

Speaking generally, a pleasing feature at the excursions 
during the past year has been the number of the older members of 
the Union who have taken part, and given their guidance. In 
this way they have greatly encouraged the younger workers, of 
whom, we are glad to say, we have a constantly increasing number. 

In connection with the Field work and meetings of the Union, 
the following articles have appeared in " The Naturalist " 

" Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Report for 1909." 

" Yorkshire Naturalists at Scarborough." 

' The Diatoms of the Sedbergh District, A Study in Evolu- 
tion " illustrated; R. H. Philip. 

" Nemertine within test of Sea-urchin," J. Irving. 

" Some Avicultural Notes," W. H. St. Quintin. 

"Yorkshire Naturalists' Union; Report of Vertebrate 
section," H. B. B. 

" Geological Notes on the District North of Malham," map, 
Cosmo Johns. 

" Yorkshire Naturalists at Malham," T. S. 

" The Natural History of Spurn," T. S. 

" Natural History of Middleton-in-Teesdale," T. S. 

" Geological Notes on the Middleton-in-Teesdale District," 
illustrated, J. J. Burton. 

" The Origin and Tendencies of Parasitism in Fungi," G. 

" Botanical Survey of Teesdale," W. G. Smith and T. W. 

" Naturalists at Scunthorpe," illustrated, T. S. 

" The Natural History of Kirby Moorside," illustrated, T.S. 

"Marine Biology at Redcar," Rev. F. H. Woods. 

" Contribution towards the Life History of Dasypolia templi," 
B. Morley. 

Also the following short notes : — 

" Mammals at Os.notherley," H. B. Booth. 

" Worm Parasite in Sea-Urchin, " J. Ritchie. 

Excursion Programmes, with full particulars of the natural 
history, geology, etc., of the respective districts visited, have been 
regularly printed and sent to the members and associates. Extra 
copies have been struck off for binding in the Transactions. 

Permission to Visit Estates has been given, as usual, by the 
landowners in various parts of the county, and in many instances 
these gentlemen have also given great assistance to our members 
in their investigations. 

191 1 Jan. 1. 

36 Yorkshire Naturalists Union : Annual Report, 1910. 

Railway Facilities. — As in past years the various railway 
companies have given every help, as regards reduced fares, etc., 
in this way enabling many to attend our rambles who would other- 
wise not have been able to take part. 

The Excursions for 1911 are recommended as under: — 
Vorks., Mid. W. — Harewood, May 13th. 

N.E. — Castleton, Whit week-end (June 3rd-5th). 
Lines., N. — Barton-on-Humber, (with the Lines. Nat. Union), 

July 1st. 
Yorks., N.W. — Ingleton for Kingsdale or Grayreth, August 
Bank-holiday week-end (August 5th~7th). 
SAW — Country between Huddersfield and Penistone, 
September gth. 
Fungus Foray — Mulgrave Woods, September 23rd-28th. 

The Annual Meeting for 1911. — The Executive recommend- 
that this be held at Dewsbury, on December 16th. 

Objects Of the Union. — Circulars setting forth the objects and 
aims of the Union will be gladly sent on application to the 

Winter Lecture Scheme. — The list of lectures being out of 
date, owing to various causes, is being revised, and will be sent to 
the Associated Societies very shortly. The Affiliated Societies 
are glad to avail themselves of the facilities offered by this scheme. 
The Affiliated Societies. — There are now forty-three affiliated 
Societies, the South Yorkshire Entomological Society having 
joined at the Annual Meeting. 

The Statistics furnished by the Secretaries of Societies shew 
that there are now 42 societies, with a total membership of 
3449 or an average of 82. This, added to the membership of 
the Union, makes our total numerical strength 3868. 

The Membership of the Union now stands at 419. This 
number does not include the Affiliated Societies, each of which 
is practically a member. 

New Members. — The following new members and societies 
have joined during the year.* 

Miss Constance Atkinson, 3 Woodland Terrace, Chapeltown 

Road, Leeds. 
Colonel Bland, 35 Avenue Victoria, Scarborough. 
Dr. Drake Brockman, F.R.P.S., Cleveland Asylum, Middles- 
Mr. J. H. Brierley, 39 Main Street, Sutton Mill, near Keighley. 
Mr. A. Burnley, York House, Gladstone Road, Scarborough. 
Mr. H. Squier Cheavin, F.R.M.S., Clematis House, Somerset 

Road, Huddersfield. 
Mr. John Oyer, 182 Cliffe Wood Mount, Shipley. 

* This list includes those elected at the Annual Meeting at Middlesbrough, y 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 37 

Mr. H. V. Corbett, 9 Priory Place, Doncaster. 

Mr, E. H. Chapman, M.A., 3 Harecourt Temple, London, E.C. 

Miss Annie Drake, Thwing, near Hunmanby. 

Sir Charles Eliot, K.C.M.G., Brockwell, Triangle, Halifax. 

Mr. F. H. Edmondson, 72 Devonshire Street, Keighley. 

Mr. Andrew Fox, Lindum Terrace, Bradford. 

Mr. J. W. Glendinning, Ash Villa, Huddersfield. 

Mr. C. J. Hardy, 31 Hampton Road, Sheffield. 

Mr. Bernard Hobson, M.Sc, F.G.S., Thornton, Hallam Gate 
Road, Sheffield. 

Mr. Digby Legard, Headon Lodge, Brompton, S.O. 

Mr. Miles Ling, F.Z.S., 559 Spring Bank West, Hull. 

Mr. E. B. Lotherington, 39 Grange Avenue, Scarborough. 

Mr. A. J. Moore, 9 Brook Street, Hull. 

Mr. E. A. Parsons, 45 Lansdowne Street, Hull. 

Miss Mary Nina Peel, Knowlesmere Manor, Clitheroe. 

Mr. A. C. Seward, M.A., F.R.S., Botany School, Cambridge. 

Rev. Thos. Stephens, Horsley Vicarage, Otterburn S.O., Nor- 

Mr. Theodore C. Taylor, M.P., Sunny Bank, Batley. 

Mr. W. Thornber, 205 Hyde Park Road, Leeds. 

Mr. G. B. Walsh, B.Sc, o Lancaster Road, Linthorpe, Middles- 

Mr. H. Wade, 10 Pitt Street, Barnsley. 

Miss Alice Hibbert Ware, 5 Granville Road, Scarborough. 

Mr. H. Witty, 35 Nansen Street, Scarborough. 

The South West Yorkshire Entomological Society, c/o J. Hooper, 
Grosvenor Terrace, Middleton, near Wakefield. 

Obituary. — We regret to record the deaths of — 
John Handley, Sedbergh. 
C. Fox-Strangways, Hampstead. 

An obituary notice of Mr. Fox-Strangways appeared in 
" The Naturalist " for May . A notice of the late John Handley 
is in preparation. 

Divisional Secretaries. — As in previous years these gentlemen 
have been of the greatest assistance in arranging the excursions 
etc. The following are elected for 191 1 : — 

York, S.W. — A. Whitaker, Worsborough Dale, Barnsley. 
York, Mid.-W. — Riley Fortune, 5 Grosvenor Terrace, East 

Parade, Harrogate. 
York, N.W. — W. Robinson, Greenbank, Sedbergh. 
York, N.E.— J. J. Burton, Nunthorpe, R.S.O., Yorks 
York, S.E.— J. W. Stather, Brookside, Newland Park, Hull. 

Local Treasurers. — These gentlemen have also been of service 
in collecting subscriptions, and in looking after the Union's in- 
terests generally. The following are elected for 191 1 : — 

1911 Jan. 1. 

38 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 

Bradford — H. E. Wroot, 45 Pollard Lane, Bradford. 

Halifax — C. Crossland, 4 Coleridge Street, Halifax. 

Huddersfield — W. E. L. Wattam, 54 Towngate, Newsome, 

Leeds — H. Ostheide, 91 Harehills Avenue, Leeds. 

Malton — M. B. Slater, Newbiggin, Malton. 

Middlesborugh — M. L. Thompson, 40 Gosford Street, Middles- 

Redcar — T. H. Nelson, Redcar. 

Scarborough — J. H. Rowntree, Folkton Manor, Ganton, York. 

Sheffield — A. T. Watson, 11 Leopold Street, Sheffield. 

Skipton — W. Wilson, Ryedale House, Colne. 

Whitby — Thomas Newbitt, 17 Royal Crescent, Whitby. 

General Committee. — The following names have been added 
to the list of members of the Permanent General Committee : — 
J. B. Brown, Hebden Bridge. 
H. C. Drake, F.G.S., Scarborough. 
J. Irving, M.D., Scarborough. 
J. W. H. Johnston, Thornhill. 
A. Haigh Lumby, Bradford. 
A. R. Sanderson, Bradford. 
T. W. Saunders, Brotton. 
T. Stainforth, Hull. 
E. W. Wade, Hull. 
G. B. Walsh, Middlesborough. 

Transactions. — The Union's funds have not enabled us to 
print a volume of Transactions during the year, and the Annual 
Report for 1909 was published in " The Naturalist " for January 
last ; in this way, however, the valuable reports of the 
Committees and Sections were at once placed on record, they 
are also indexed, and in addition, greater publicity was given 
to the Union's work. Towards the next volume we have 
in hand the Geological Bibliographies for 1909-10 ; a list of 
Yorkshire Arachnida, by Mr. W. Falconer ; Mr. P. Fox Lee's 
Supplement to the Flora of Dewsbury ; and Mr. F. A. Lees' 
Supplement to his Flora of West Yorkshire ; Yorkshire Hemiptera, 
etc., by Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, and Economic Fungi, Part IV., 
by Mr. J. H. Holland. There are also the reprints of the various 
excursion programmes of 1909 and 1910 (already printed off). 


The President and Secretary of the Union are ex-officio 
members of all Sections and Committees. 


West Riding. — Mr. R. Fortune writes : — The spring and most 
of the nesting season was cold and inclement. The migrants, 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 39 

however, arrived about their usual time, with the special excep- 
tion of the Swift, which, for some unexplained cause, was 
unusually late. At Harrogate they did not put in an appearance 
until May 17th, unprecedentedly late, the 6th of May being their 
average time of arrival. 

In many districts the cold weather affected the nesting 
of Partridges very considerably, many unfertile eggs being found, 
and a number of young birds dying off after hatching. Yet, 
strange to say, wild Pheasants have done very well, and almost 
a record season has been experienced as far as Grouse are con- 
cerned ; on the Bolton Abbey shooting, 5170 brace were brought 
to the bag, the largest total for over ten years. 

Red-legged Partridges continue to increase in the district 
stretching from about two miles south of Harrogate to beyond 
Church Fenton. 

Goldfinches are reported as nesting in one or two fresh locali- 
ties ; as also are Hawfinches, showing a steady increase in both 
species. The Great Crested Grebe and Tufted Ducks continue to 
increase as resident breeding species. 

Many Fieldfares lingered until a late date in May. A very 
large flock numbering some hundreds of birds was seen in the 
Hawes district on May 7th, and large numbers passed through 
the district on May 1st. 

The autumn migration, although setting in rather late, 
appears to have been a strong movement. Hundreds of Red- 
wings and Waders were passing over every night from the middle 
to the end of October. 

In the Harrogate district and other parts of the West Riding, 
unusual numbers of Kestrels have been observed during October 
and November, several being seen on the wing at one time. 
Magpies, too, are unusually numerous. Both these, as far as the 
numbers are concerned, may be regarded as migrants in the 
district. Hooded Crows are more numerous than they have 
been for many years. 

An immature Gannet was obtained near Wetherby on October 
20th, and another one seen at the same time. The first bird has 
been added to the collection at the Cartwright Hall Museum, 
Bradford. The stormy, weather prevailing about this date had, 
no doubt, driven these birds inland. 

With reference to the great immigration of Crossbills into 
this county in 1909, careful search has been made, especially in 
Airdale and W T harfedale, to see if any remained to nest in the 
West Riding, but no authentic case has been noted nor birds seen. 

Several Crossbills were seen in the Nidd Valley near Harro- 
gate, on November 22nd, evidently newly arrived birds. On the 
same date twenty Wild Swans were seen on Fewston Reservoir. 
A flock of twenty-five Wild Geese passed over Harrogate on 
November 13th. Mr. Booth reports that a Little Auk was 

1911 Jan. 1. 

40 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, 1910. 

obtained at Mountain, Queensbury, in the Aire drainage area, 
on November 24th. This date coincides with the great movement 
of these birds noted on the coast. 

Mr. W. H. Parkin's report, for Airedale and Wharfedale, states 
that Tree Creepers are increasing in Bolton Woods. Herons at Esh- 
ton were sitting as early as March 19th ; there does not appear to 
be any decrease in the numbers of this colony. A Missle Thrush's 
nest was found in April, only three feet from the ground. Dippers 
have been plentiful in Upper Airedale ; three nests were found 
within a mile. Dunlins appeared in their usual numbers, but few 
pairs nested. Whinchats were found to be increasing in numbers 
on the bracken-clad Baildon Moor. On July 14th, a nest was 
seen with fresh eggs, all hatched on the 24th, a late date. Cuc- 
koos have been exceptionally scarce. 

A list of the Vertebrate Fauna of the Hebden Bridge District, 
compiled by Mr. Walter Greaves, has been published during the 
year, and a review of the work appeared in " The Naturalist." 

North Riding. — Mr. T. H. Nelson writes : — The autumn 
migration in the North Riding was delayed long beyond the usual 
time, probably owing to the fine weather which prevailed ; I did 
not notice any pronounced southward movement until the end 
of October, when there was a great " rush," consisting chiefly of 
Fieldfares, Redwings, Hooded Crows, Short-eared Owls, Wood- 
cock, Goldcrests, and the usual species which are to be looked for 
at this period. The only remarkable feature was the immense 
quantity of Mealy Redpolls, that were reported along the whole 
of the coast line. I do not remember ever before having observed 
such immense flights of these little northern visitors. They were 
very tame and easily taken by the bird-catchers. A few Wheat- 
ears and Whitethroats accompanied the stream of migrants. 

We had a great migration of Little Auks on November 19th, 
with a strong N.E. wind, and heavy sleet and hail showers. There 
were hundreds passing ; also great flights of Wigeon and other 
Ducks ; and also five Wild Swans. 

Mr. Riley Fortune adds : An Osprey (immature) was un- 
fortunately shot at Pickering at the end of October. 

On July 10th a Great Skua was picked up on the beach at 
Marsk-by-the-Sea. It was in very poor condition. On July 17th 
two Fulmar Petrels were picked up between Marsk and Redcar, 
and another one in an advanced stage of decomposition was seen. 
The weather had been very cold and stormy for about a fortnight- 
with wind from N. and N.E. 

A pair of Rooks again nested on the spire of Brunswick 
Church at Whitby. 

A Hoopoe was shot on the Ganton Golf Links on November 
3rd, by a youth with a catapult. It was an adult female, and upon 
dissection was found to have been feeding on the larvae of the 
"■ daddy-long-legs." 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, 1910. 41 

It may be interesting to note the composition of a Sparrow's 
nest found at Helmsley. The nest was in an outhouse, and 
amongst the usual materials were found six pieces of string, a 
hat pin, half a telegraph form, two pieces of leather, fourteen 
pieces of paper, three match sticks, and one piece of orange peel. 

Mr. W. J. Clarke reports that a Little Gull was shot from a 
boat at Scarborough, on September 28th ; a Sooty Shearwater on 
September 10th, and a second bird of the same species on October 
5th. Four Sandwich Terns were fishing in the South Bay on 
August 30th, and three more at Filey Brig on the following day. 
A Great Skua was flying about the piers on October 21st, during 
a strong easterly wind. It was chasing Herring Gulls. An 
adult Long-tailed Duck, $, was sheltering inside the piers on 
October 22nd; it was quite tame, and is the first adult Mr. Clarke 
has any note of locally. An immature bird of the same species 
was shot on October 2nd, and another one on October nth. 

Mr. Clarke also reports that the Peregrines again endeavoured 
to nest in the cliffs south of Scarborough, but the eggs were taken 
and both birds shot in the latter part of April. 

About 150 pairs of Black-headed Gulls were nesting on a small 
bog on the moors, between Whitby and Scarborough. On May 
25th Herring Gulls were there in numbers, stealing the eggs of 
the smaller species, the result being very few young were hatched. 

The great migration of Little Auks was noticed at Scar- 
borough by Mr. Clarke, on November 20th, and on the 21st they 
were passing in hundreds, all going north. Some of the flocks 
would number two hundred to three hundred birds. On this date 
there was a moderate N.E. wind, and rough sea. 

East Riding. — Mr. E. W. Wade writes : — The winter of 1909- 

1910 was a hard one, with much snow, wind, and rain till mid- 
March, when about a month of fine sunny weather set in. The 
March gales were so violent that at Bempton chalk stones were 
carried inland as much as 250 yards from the cliff edge, though 
in comparison with the worst gales within memory of the oldest 
inhabitant, this appears to have been mild, as Ned Hodgson 
remembers finding a piece of flint when in the company of the 
late Mr. Nesfield, which had been blown fifty yards inland, and 
which they weighed together ; it turned the scale at yh lbs. 
Spring generally was cold and showery till June brought a spell 
of fine dry weather. After that the season was cold and wet. 

The Spring migrants observed in this district were : a solitary 
Tree Pipit in March, seen by Messrs. Jackson and Griffiths ; 
Yellow Wagtail, Cottingham, nth April ; Swallows, 15th and 
16th April ; Chiffchaff, 22nd April ; House Martin, and Garden 
Warbler, 24th-25th April ; Tree Pipit, 26th April ; Cuckoo, 27th 
April ; Common Whitethroat, 24th April ; Swift and Sedge 
Warbler, 8th May ; Spotted Flycatcher, 14th May ; the last 

1911 Jan. 1. 

42 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, igio. 

flock of Fieldfares, Bempton, 22nd May, which appears late r 
considering that the winter in Scandinavia was unusually mild. 

Some early birds nested sooner than usual, viz., Thrush, 
young, 21st March, with contour feathers sprouting, and many 
others laying and building. Blackbird, four eggs on 1st April. 

The Long-eared Owl nested much later than in 1909. Scarcely 
any had commenced in March, and first eggs were generally 
plentiful during the first week of April ; some as late as the 10th 
April. The clutches were generally three eggs, sometimes only 
one or two, though in two instances five eggs were observed. 

The Tawny Owl was scarce and late. 

Barn Owl scarce and clutches small. 

The scarcity of voles as compared with 1909 seems to have 
been the controlling factor, but though reproduction was retarded, 
some birds laid full clutches. 

The March sunshine seems to have stimulated the Rooks,, 
which, in one instance at least, only commenced building on 4th 
to 5th March, and a month later had generally hard-sat eggs, and 
young. Clutches generally were full, with a preponderance of five 
and four eggs. On the 1st May I observed Rooks feeding in flocks 
at Broomfleet. 

The Peewits commenced laying in March, and had no set- 

Mistle Thrushes were well on the way with nesting operations 
early in April. 

Magpies and Carrion Crows were well up to date, and pro- 
duced full clutches. Two clutches of six each were observed in 

The Waders generally were earlier than usual. On the 6th 
of April a large flock of Golden Plover was seen in Holderness, 
when the North Yorkshire birds had been on their breeding ground 
about eleven days. 

The cold and wet spring retarded the nesting operations of 
the Warblers, which generally were below the average in numbers^ 
and late in laying. 

The Spotted Flycatcher was scarce as compared with 1909. 

House Martins were unusually numerous, which suggests 
the query as to whether these birds stay further south to breed 
in the case of an abnormally cold spring. 

On the 16th July, a Corncrake sitting on nine eggs was 
mown out at Bempton. The bird sat on under the swathe after 
the machine had passed over it, and added to the nest from the 
cut grass. This species shows no increase in numbers in Hull and 

The Turtle Dove maintains its advance over the eastern 
part of the county, and is extending nearer to Hull. 

Wild Pheasants had a good year. 

Partridges have been simply wiped out in most parts of 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 43 

Holderness, and in some districts even the old birds have almost 
disappeared. On the Wolds the coveys, though not so numerous 
as in 1909, were good, and the birds recovering lost ground. 
During the first week in September eggs and cheepers unable to 
fly were seen in one part of East Yorkshire. 

The Red-Legged Partridge has been found breeding nearer 
Hull than previously. The first birds were observed on the Wolds 
in 1898, when five were shot from a covey on Market Weighton 
Wold. Previous to that Capt. Langdale had shot odd ones at 
Houghton. On 24th October, 1899, three were shot at North 
Dalton. Now they are spread all over the Wolds, and are ex- 
tending into Holderness. 

Spurn. — Ringed Plover show a satisfactory increase, having 
nested from April to July. 

Lesser Tern about the same as last year, breeding at the 
Point and near Kilnsea Beacon. This latter place requires more 

Two pairs of Oystercatchers nested this year, but hatched 
only one egg each. One pair was still sitting on the 1st July, 
an exceptionally late date. Five nests of Shelduck are said to have 
hatched off. A few Common or Arctic Terns hung about all the 
season, but did not breed. 

The violent gale of the 6th June destroyed many eggs. 

Hornsea Mere. — Herons, Pochards, and Shovellers were 
breeding in the usual numbers. The Teal have not bred here 
this year. The Tufted Duck was seen all the season, but no 
young were reared. Three pairs of Grebes bred, and two broods 
of two each were reared. A pair of Red-backed Shrikes was 
seen in June, apparently breeding near the mere. 

J. Taylor reports that the Pochards leave the mere for two 
or three weeks as soon as the young can fly, and then come back in 
increased numbers. Is this habit connected in any way with the 
moult ? 

Bempton. — An unusually forward season, a Razorbill's 
egg being observed on 1st May by John Hodgson, and both 
Guillemots and Razorbill's eggs were correspondingly forward. 
Jno. Hodgson commenced climbing on the 8th May, and by the 
end of the month had got through the first scale or fling. George 
Hodgson with Chandler and Robson as climbers in place of 
W. Wilkinson, commenced on the 15th May. 

The prevalence of wet mists and high gales spoilt the climb- 
ing, and climbers one and all are unanimous in declaring that they 
never remember so interrupted and unprofitable a season. The 
eggs were plentiful, but when the climbers got to them a great 
proportion were slightly incubated and unsaleable, the next laying 
being also disorganised in consequence. 

The Peregrines had three young on the 9th May, 1910, when 
the eyrie was reached, and as they were never disturbed again, 

1911 Jan 1. 

44 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 

and young birds were seen on the wing, it is fair to presume that 
all were reared successfully. 

W. Wilkinson says he thinks that a great proportion of the 
guillemots on what was his ground are too old to lay. He has taken 
an egg from the same bird for eighteen years, and possibly it 
had been laying some years before that, as it was there when he 
first climbed the ground. He puts forth the theory that Ringed 
Guillemots acquire the white eye-stripe through age. 

Mr. T. Audas obtained a new type of egg this season — creamy 
white in ground-colour, with bold vermilion streaks. 

Just a good word for the Jackdaws, the first I have heard. 
Chandler says that when egg-raiding, before rolling the eggs off 
the ledges, he has seen them eat all the ticks that are visible, 
and as these ticks, judging by the effect of their bite upon a human 
being, must cause the birds much pain and annoyance, the Jack- 
daw may be credited with this small amount of good, as against 
the undoubted evil of which he is guilty. 

The Pink-footed Geese arrived on the 24th September, and 
were more numerous than usual. 

The first migration of Woodcocks arrived on our coasts 
on the 14th October, accompanied by Hooded Crows and Gold- 
crested Wrens. The birds were seen at Hornsea, Withernsea and 

A Glossy Ibis, sex unknown, was shot by Mr. Norman near 
Atwick last autumn. It was feeding with two others in a marshy 
corner of one of his meadows. It is probably a mature bird, as 
there is a considerable amount of chestnut on the breast and thighs, 
though the head and neck show the grey streaks, as in immature 

On 12th November, 15 Whoopers are reported by Mr. F. 
Boyes as having arrived at Hornsea Mere. 

The following were elected for 191 1 : — 
President — Oxley Grabham, M.A., York. 
Secretaries — General — H. B. Booth, Ben Rhydding ; 
N. Riding — T. H. Nelson, Redcar ; 
E. Riding — E. W. Wade, North Ferriby ; 
W. Riding — Riley Fortune, Harrogate. 
Representative on Executive — W. H. Parkin, Shipley. 
Representative on Committee of Suggestions — S. H. Smith, 

Wild Birds' and Eggs' Protection Committee's Report. — Mr. 

R. Fortune writes : — The amount received in subscriptions for 
1910 is £54 gs. od. This, together with the balance left over 
from 1909, made the total of £75 gs. yd. The expenditure has 
been £32 is. gd.; and we have a balance in hand of £43 7s. iod. 
In 1909 our expenditure considerably exceeded our income. It 
is very satisfactory to realise that the contrary is the case this 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union" Annual Report, 1910. 45 

year, and to know that we have now a reserve fund, which can 
be applied to any sudden and unexpected call that may be 
made upon us. This happy result has been brought about entirely 
by the exertions of our President, Mr. W. H. St. Quintin. 

Both at Spurn and Hornsea watchers were employed during 
the whole of the breeding season, and in both localities a successful 
nesting season has been experienced. 

At Bempton the Peregrines have again nested successfully, 
and for the first time have reared three young ones. 

The Stone Curlews have been well looked after in one locality; 
and five pairs are reported to have nested. 

Your Secretary has had some correspondence with the Town 
Clerk of Halifax, respecting the destruction of wild birds in their 
boundaries, and at Fly Flatts Reservoir. It was discovered 
that they had no order in force. The Corporation therefore 
decided to apply at once for an order. This was done, and the 
order is now in force. 

The shooting of an Osprey near Pickering, once again draws 
attention to the unsatisfactory state of protection in the North 
Riding. Your Secretary communicated with the police upon this 
matter, and although they were very willing to prosecute, it 
was unfortunately found that whereas Hie Osprey is protected 
all the year in the West and East Ridings, it is not protected at 
all in the North. A Sub-Committee, consisting of Messrs. St. 
Quintin, Grabham, Nelson, Booth, and Fortune, has been ap- 
pointed to go thoroughly into this matter with the North Riding 
Council, to see if an end cannot be put to this deplorable state 
of things. 

Another unfortunate occurrence, again in the North Riding, 
was the robbing of a Peregrine's eyrie, and the shooting of both 
old birds. Your Secretary did not hear of the case until quite 
recently, so, even had the birds been protected, too long a time 
had elapsed to deal with the matter successfully. M mbers are 
urged to report these cases at once to the Secretary. 

The periods for the special protection of the Spurn and 
Hornsea areas expire this year. Your Committee, through the 
President, has applied for an extension of a further five years, 
which the County Council are willing to grant. The Committee 
is also asking the Council to extend and amend their general 
order somewhat. The slaughter of a Hoopoe at Ganton on 
November 3rd, a bird which is not protected, renders this 
necessary, in order to include this and any other likely rare 

The Committee are about to venture into an experiment to 
try and establish the Bearded Tit at Hornsea Mere, a very likely 
habitat. Our President has undertaken to obtain ten pair> <>l 
continental specimens at his own expense, and to keep them in 
his out-door aviary during the winter in order that they may be 

1911 Jan. 1. 

46 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 

turned down in the spring months. Special protection will be 
asked for these birds. If the experiment is successful, it will add 
a delightful species to our county avifauna, and our special 
thanks are due to Mr. St. Quintin for his exertions in this and 
other directions. 

Communication was made to the police at Barnsley respect- 
ing the setting of Pole Traps in that district. They took the 
matter up, and will see that the practice is discontinued on the 
particular estate specified. 

Information having been received that at the Fish Hatchery 
near Malton, Kingfishers were being destroyed by the agency 
of pole traps, a letter was sent to the manager, drawing attention 
to the fact that this was illegal, and asking that the practice 
should cease. A reply was received expressing regret, and 
promising that the traps should be immediately removed, and 
care exercised that they should not be set again. 

Mr. Nelson, during a visit to Bempton, found that the pleasure 
steamers from Scarborough and Bridlington were reverting to 
their old practice of blowing their syrens underneath the cliff, 
thus disturbing the birds, and causing much destruction amongst 
their eggs. He wrote to the owners at Hull and the Harbour 
Masters at the two places named ; the result being that in- 
structions were issued for the practice to cease. 

On November 19th we successfully instituted a prosecution 
for attempting to catch Goldfinches near Malton. The offender, 
in consideration of it being a first offence, was fined 5/-, with 8/- 
costs, or 14 days imprisonment. It is hoped this will put a check 
upon a practice which is altogether too prevalent in the county. 


C. Milnes Gaskell, Esq. 
Lord Bolton . . 
W. H. St. Quintin, Esq. 
W. Bethell,~Esq. . . 
B. Haworth-Booth, Esq. 
Capt. A. Brooksbank 
E. Turton, Esq. 
Jasper Atkinson, Esq. 
W. J. Beaumont, Esq. 
H. B. Booth, Esq. . . 
H. E. Dresser, Esq. 
L. Gaunt, Esq. 
Oxley Grabham, Esq. 
H. H. Illingsworth, Esq. 
Digby Legard, Esq. 
E. Tindall, Esq. .. 
Viscount Mountgarret 






































Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 47 

Capt. the Hon. J. Dawnay 


Capt. F. S. Constable 


<L T. Porritt, Esq 


R. Fortune, Esq. 

10 6 

E. W. Wade, Esq 

10 6 

Johnson Wilkinson, Esq. 

10 6 

York and District Field Naturalists' Society . 

10 6 

W. H. Parkin, Esq 


S. H. Smith, Esq. 


Balance from 1909, 

£54 9 o 
. 21 o 7 

£75 9 7 


Watcher at Spurn 

Watcher at Hornsea 

Donation at Spurn 

Donation at Bempton 

Donation re Stone Curlews 

Postages and Sundry Expenses . . 

Special Posters for Spurn and Hornsea 

Posting, Etc. 

Other Expenses — Legal, etc. 

Balance in hand 

















■ 43 

1 9 
7 10 

£75 9 7 

The Committee for 191 1 is recommended as follows : — 

Chairman— W. H. St. Quintin, D.L., J. P., Rillington, York. 

Conveners — R. Fortune, 5 Grosvenor Terrace, Harrogate ; 
T. H. Nelson, Seafield, Redcar. 

Representative on Executive — H. B. Booth, Ben Rhydding. 

Representative on Committee of Suggestions — W. Wilson, 
Keighley Road, Colne. 

Other Members — T, Bunker, Goole ; H. E. Dresser, London ; 
Oxley Grabham, York ; L. Gaunt, Leeds ; Claude 
Leatham, Wakefield ; A. Haigh Lumby, Bradford ; 
W. H. Parkin, Shipley ; Prof. Patten, Sheffield ; 
G. T. Porritt, Huddersfield ; W. Denison Roebuck, 
Leeds ; T. Roose, Bolton Abbey ; S. H. Smith, 
York ; E. W. Wade, Hull ; A. Whitaker, Barnsley. 

Hon. Solicitor — Norman Lee, Bradford. 

J911 Jan. 1. 

48 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, igio. 

Yorkshire Mammals, Reptiles and Fishes Investigation 
Committee. — Numerous observations of interest and importance 
have been reported, and mention should be made of the appear- 
ance of the first part of Major Barrett-Hamilton's long-expected 
and much-needed work on the British Quadrupeds, which is of 
high scientific standard as regards the text, though very disap- 
pointing as regards the plates. It is satisfactory to find that the 
work of our Yorkshire observers obtains prominent mention. 

Land Mammals. — Mr. Arthur Whitaker reports the capture 
of two Hairy-armed Bats ( Nyctalns leisleri) at Worsborough Dale 
on 2 1st July, and Mr. H. B. Booth that although he has never been 
able to find any trace of Daubenton's Bat (Vespertilio daubentonii) 
in Upper Airedale, it is not uncommon along the river Wharfe, 
between Bolton Abbey and Burley, and that he has frequently 
observed it flying just over the wate'r in the late evenings, and 
has examined one taken just above Ilkley, nearly at Nessfield. 

The Lesser Shrew (Sorex pygmceus) has occurred to Mr. 
Greaves at Hebden Bridge this summer, and Mr. H. B. Booth 
took or examined during May and July no fewer than four of this 
species, along a seven-mile stretch of the river Wharfe, between 
Denton and Bolton Abbey. Previously, we have only known 
of two records in twenty years or more. All these four were 
taken on the north side of the river Wharfe. 

The reported occurrence of the Marten (Maries sylvestris) in 
Littondale is open to doubt, and needs investigation. 

A case of albinism in the Stoat is reported by Mr. Riley 
Fortune, a white one having been obtained at Bedale at the 
beginning of September. 

Although in small numbers, the Dormouse holds its ground, 
and the colony in the wood near Goathland of which Mr. Oxley 
Grabham took photographs last year, is steadily increasing in 

Marine Mammals. — Mr. W. J. Clarke reports that a Common 
Rorqual (Balcenoptera musculus), fifty-one feet in length, was 
washed ashore, dead, at Cloughton Wyke, on the 27th March ; 
and another one was washed ashore within half a mile of the first 
specimen at a later date. The second example, which had been 
dead some time, measured sixty-nine feet in length, and fourteen 
feet across the caudal fin. 

Reptiles. — Mr. Oxley Grabham notes that a twenty-two inch 
Viper was killed on the Goathland Moors in the act of swallowing 
a young Curlew, three or four days old ; and in the " Zoologist," 
the Rev. W. Warde Fowler notes the occurrence of an unusual 
variety of the same species at Danby Dale, in which the usual 
zig-zag markings were replaced by a broad black band down 
the back. 

Amphibians. — Mr. H. B. Booth notes that although the 
Palmated Newt had been looked upon as the scarcest of the 


Yorkshire NaMtralists' Ufiion: Annua! Report, 1910. 49 

three local newts in Mid- Wharf edale, it is the commonest in the 
Ilkley neighbourhood, where it abounds in the Upper Tarn, and 
can be found in many pools on the hill-sides. 

Freshwater Fish. — Mr. Grabham notes that the Flamborough 

net men have had a poor season with Salmon, but in August 
there was a fair run of Sea Trout ; also that inland, on the Ouse 
at Acaster Malbis, near York, the Salmon-netters have had a 
very fair season, but that the Smelts were a complete failure, 
very few being taken. 

Mr. Riley Fortune reports that the long spell of wee weather 
at the end of 1909 and beginning of 1910 caused a big run of 
Salmon, Sea Trout and Bull Trout into the River Esk and its 
tributaries, and fish were to be seen spawning in many parts of 
the river. On the 5th of April, during a slight flood, large numbers 
of fish descended the river, three hundred being counted in one 
place in about an hour, of weights varying from i| to yh lbs. 
On the 26th of July a fair number of Salmon and Sea Trout 
passed up the river. On the 12th of October hundreds of Salmon 
and Sea Trout passed the weirs at Ruswarp, many heavy fish 
being seen ; and at the end of the same month there was again a 
heavy run of fish. The Esk Conservators reported that in 1909 
the fish caught weighed 15 tons 12 cwt. 3 qrs. 19 lbs., the heaviest 
being one of 25 1 lbs. 

At Filey, Salmon were scarce up to the 23rd of July, but more 
plentiful after. 

In the Lune, part of the tributaries of which are in Yorkshire, 
disease was very bad in the spring months, but there was later a 
good run of clean fish. 

More fish than usual have been seen in the Ure and the 
Wharfe, several being as far up the latter as the mouth of the 
Washburn, one of which was estimated to weigh over 20 lbs. 

A very good year was experienced on the Tees, and the 
number of Salmon taken exceeded that of the previous season 
by 3130, and of Sea Trout by 237 ; the total number taken in 
the nets being, of Salmon, 9732, weighing 95,942 lbs., of Sea 
Trout, 3394, weighing 13,763 lbs. ; the heaviest fish weighed 
38! lbs. By rod and line, 467 Salmon were taken, averaging 
i>-b2 lbs. in weight, an increase on the previous season, both as 
regards number and weight. 

Mr. Fortune also notes that Char (Sal mo salvelinus) have 
been introduced into the Hewenden Reservoir by Mr. G. Wadding- 
ton. The area of this reservoir is 14 acres, with a maximum 
depth of 37 feet, and as it is situated at an altitude of 687 feet 
above sea-level, it should prove quite a suitable habitat for the 
species. Hewenden Reservoir is six miles west of Bradford, and has 
a holding capacity of seventy million gallons. A couple of 
hundred of the Char, 2\ inches long, were placed in the reservoir 
in February 1910, by Mr. Waddington, and in the latter half of 

[911 Jan. 1. 

50 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, igio. 

September, several were taken by legitimate angling. They 
measured j\ and 8 inches in length, shewing an increase in size 
for seven months' growth, of five inches 

Mr. Riley Fortune also furnishes the following details, 
remarking that it is, of course, practically impossible to make 
records of this kind except by the aid of anglers. 

The year 1910 will be remembered for a long time by the 
capture of two record River Trout in the county. The largest, 
weighing 10 lbs. 9 oz., was found in a dying state in April on the 
side of the Wharfe, above Ilkley. It was 2 feet 7 inches in 
length, and 16 inches in girth. 

Mr. H. B. Booth adds that this find caused a great sensation, 
the size being most extraordinary for so quick-running a river as 
the Wharfe, and that its presence had not been suspected by the 
local anglers, although they had previously spoken about two large 
trout being about ; meaning, of course, fish of 3 or 4 lbs. weight - 
Mr. Fortune states that the other exceptionally large Trout 
was one captured on the 19th of December, 1909, when netting 
for Pike in the Driffield Beck ; its weight was 10 lbs. 8 oz., its 
length 2 feet 3 inches, and its girth 19 inches. 

A large example was also obtained on the Nidd, weighing 

5| lbs., with a length of 2 feet 4 inches, and a girth of 12 inches. 

Another one in the Ure, taken at the end of Aug., weighed 4! lbs. 

Other extraordinary weights of freshwater fish may be 

summarised as follows — 

Perch, 1 lb. 10 | oz. Ryhill, August. 

Flounder. One weighing 1 lb. 1 oz. Captured at 

Tadcaster, end of October. 
Barbel, 8 lbs. 9 oz. The Ure, 26th August. 
Roach, 1 lb. 11 oz. River Derwent, 13th March. 
Chub, 5 lbs. 5f oz. Yedingham, 15th October, and 5 lbs. 

4 oz., Nidd at Scottar, 5th November. 
Dace, I2| oz. In the Nidd, end of October. 
Bream, 5 lbs. River Derwent, 17th September. 
Grayling, 2 lbs. 6 oz. Yedingham, 9th September; 2 lbs., 
Malton, 12th November. 
Of Pike, several extraordinary catches are recorded from 
Hornsea Mere. At the close of the 1909-10 coarse fishing season, 
a Hull man made a record catch. Six of his fish scaled 120 lbs., 
the two best fish weighing 24 and 22| lbs. respectively, and 
the smallest 17' lbs. Others caught on the 9th March, 8 Pike, 
weighing 97! lbs., of which the largest was 18-J- lbs. ; on the 
nth March 9, of which the largest was 15! lbs. ; on the 13th 
March n, weighing 84 lbs., of which the largest was 18 lbs. ; 
on the 14th March n, weighing 169 lbs., of which the largest was 
24.I lbs. ; and on the same date, 3, weighing 33 lbs. A Pike was 
caught on the 12th March in the Derwent, below Kirkham Abtey, 
which weighed 23 lbs. 


Yorkshire NaMralists' Union: Annual Report, 1910. 51 

Marine Fishes. A few occurrences of rarities have been noted 
by Mr. W. J. Clarke. 

On the 4th January a Cod-fish, caught by rod and line off 
the North Sands at Scarborough, contained in its stomach a 
freshly-killed Atherine (Atherina presbyter), which was perfect 
in every way, and had evidently only just been swallowed. This 
specimen is now preserved in the Scarborough .Museum, together 
with another taken on Filey Brig, on 6th October, 1907, these 
being the only two specimens obtained in the district. 

On the 3rd November one full-grown and another about 
half-grown specimen of Montagu's Sucker (Liparis montagui) were 
found by Mr. Clarke in front of Holbeck Gardens, Scarborough, at 
about halt tide. Mr. Clarke got the spawn of this species last spring, 
trawled in deep water off Scarborough. On the 17th November 
another specimen of this fish, a quite perfect full-grown example, 
freshly swallowed, was found in the stomach of a Cod weighing 
5| lbs., which was caught off the Marine Drive at Scarborough. 
This last specimen is being placed in the Scarborough Museum, 
and the species is quite new to the Yorkshire list. 

A Porbeagle {Lamna comubica) about 5 feet in length, was 
taken in the herring-nets off Scarborough, on the 15th September ; 
and the following day a very large Shark was entangled in the 
nets, but being too big to get on board the boat, was cut adrift. 

A Tope {(rtilciis canis) measuring 4 feet 7 inches long, and 
weighing 22 lbs., was taken on rod and line in the South Bay at 
Scarborough on the 3rd of August. In Clarke and Roebuck's 
Handbook of Yorkshire Vertebrata (1881), the species is stated 
to be common at Scarborough and in Bridlington Bay, but this 
is the first specimen that Mr. YV. J. Clarke has been able to examine. 

Mr. Oxley Grabham records that he caught a Tope, 56 inches 
long, on a long line off Flamborough Head in September, also 
a Garfish, whilst railing for Mackerel, which were very numerous 
•off the Head. 

The Committee has been re-elected as follows : — 
Chairman, Representative on Executive, and on Committee 
of Suggestions — Arthur Whitaker, Barnsley. 
Convener — W. Denison Roebuck, Leeds. 

Other Members— H. B. Booth, Ben Rhydding ; W. J. Clarke, 
Scarborough ; Riley Fortune, Harrogate ; Oxley 
Grabham, M. A., York ; F. Lawson, Skelmanthorpe. 


Lepidoptera. — Mr. A. Whitaker writes : — Once again it 
falls to our lot to have to attribute a poor year's work by Yorkshire 
lepidopterists to unfavourable climatic conditions. Although 
over sixty lepidopterists throughout the county have been asked to 
contribute notes on the season's collecting, only nine have thought 
it worth their while to do so, and this fact speaks volumes. 

J91 1 Jan. 1. 

52 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Animal Report, 19 10. 

Butterflies appear to have been more than usually scarce, 
and that is saying a good deal for a county, where they are, at 
best, so poorly represented and sparingly distributed. In spite 
of this one or two interesting species have occurred, notably, 
Thecla quercns recorded for Rossington by Mr. Corbett ; and 
V. polychlorus from Keighley district, where it was found by 
Mr. R. Butterfield. The white butterflies have again been plenti- 
ful, though we have not had anything like such a swarm as last 
year, either in the perfect or larval states. The Vanessas have 
once again attracted attention and comment by their absence ; 
it is now some four or five years since we have had a season which 
has been suitable for them, and during this time they appear to 
have been steadily decreasing in numbers. Probably many of 
them will now remain scarce, not only until more favourable 
climatic conditions return, but also until their numbers have been 
augmented by another " immigration " season. 

In contrast to the two last years, when " sugaring " has com- 
menced unprofitably but has shown increasingly better results 
until late autumn, this season the early " sugaring " was the best, 
though nowhere in the county, and at no time, could it have been 
called good. As the season advanced, it became more and more 
useless, until by the time autumn came, in spite of a prolonged 
spell of fine open weather, this method of collecting was so un- 
productive as to prove positively depressing to the would-be 
" collector." One correspondent writes that even polyodon and 
pronuba have gladdened his heart. Personally very little has 
fallen to my lot, for I have " sugared " eight times during the 
year, and only seen one solitary pronuba the whole time ! Mr. 
Smith, of York, appears to have been most successful with the 
early autumn " sugaring," and informs me that he took E. fulvago 
in some numbers by this means of collecting. Probably the most 
interesting species taken in this way were four .4. alni (one 
showing decided traces of melanism), in Haw Park, near 
Wakefield, by Mr. Bunce ; and one specimen of A. occulta taken 
near Skelmanthorpe, by Mr. T. Fisher. 

A. ulmata was observed in unusual abundance at Sledmere, by 
Mr. Smith, and near Scarborough, by Mr. Rowntree. 

Mr. Morley and Mr. Dyson, working the Skelmanthorpe 
district, have noticed larvae of B. repandata, in unusual abundance, 
and these have resulted in very dark imagines. D. templi were 
exceedingly common, both in larval and perfect states. Larvae 
of T. variata from Dunford Bridge, when reared, proved to belong 
to a fine black race. A strikingly melanic specimen of A. b'asiliiica 
was taken in Haw Park by Mr. Morley. 

A specimen of C. munitata was taken by Mr. H. Dyson on the 
moors, near Skelmanthorpe, whilst others were found on the moors 
near to Huddersfield by Mr. Mosley, who saw them in some 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, igio. 53 

Amongst other interesting forms of A. grossulariata bred 
from wild larvae taken at Worsbrough Bridge, near Barnsley, 
var. varleyata again occurred. 

No matter how poor a season may be on the whole, it 
always seems to be especially favourable to certain species ; 
thus A. unanimis was found to be more than usually plentiful 
this year at Haw Park, and Mr. Morley noticed black B. pilosaria in 
exceptional numbers at Skelmanthorpe, and 0. filigrammaria, in 
great abundance at Penistone. 

Mr. G. T. Porritt writes: — Two species of Macro-lepidoptera 
have been added to the Huddersfield District List during 
the past season. The first, Eupithecia lariciata occurred to 
myself in Farnley Mill Wood, in June ; the other, Coremia 
uiuuitata, a much more interesting addition, was found in some 
numbers on high moorland banks, in the Holme Valley, by 
Mr. S. L. Mosley. Mr. B. Morley also reports the same species 
from the Skelmanthorpe district, thus making a second locality, 
and marking at present the most southerly distribution of the 
species in England, though it has been recorded from a locality 
still further south in Wales. In Yorkshire it had previously been 
taken at Malham and Buckden. Mr. Mosley also reported a great 
abundance of Oporabia filigrammaria in the Holme Valley. Of 
Abraxas grossulariata in which so much interest is now taken all 
over the country, the varieties varleyata, nigrosparsata, lacticolor, 
subviolacea, semiviolacea, hazet leighensis, and 'some unnamed other 
extreme forms have been bred at Huddersfield, by Messrs. James 
Lee, Alfred Kaye, and myself. Away from Huddersfield, Mr. 
Samuel Walker has reared a magnificent series of various forms 
of A. grossulariata from larvae collected at York ; and a few 
days ago, Mr. W. G. Clutten brought me representatives of very 
dark Boarmia rhomboidaria and B. repandata from Middlesbrough 
larvae ; the former is darker than anything in the species I had 
previously seen in Yorkshire, including the variety perjumaria, 
but yet not so dark as the very black form which has now for 
several years been sent out from Dartford in Kent. The B. re- 
pandata approached the now well-known black form of South West 
Yorkshire. Mr. Clutten had also taken Miana captiuncula 
commonly at Grassington in August ; and Gnophos obscurata in 
the same locality. 

Neuroptera and Trichoptera. — Mr. G. T. Porritt writes : — 
Not much has been done among these orders during the year, and 
no species new to the county has been reported. The most 
interesting record was the abundance of Tinodes dives on the 
river at Malham, on the occasion of the Union's Excursion there 
in June. The still more local Stenophylax alpestris, as well as 
Hemerobius qtiadrifasciatus occurred again to me, in their locality 
near Sheffield. Mr. J. W. Carter took Tceniopteryx risi at* Buck- 
den; and Messrs. George Bunce and B. Morley each gave me a 

1911 Jan. 1 

54 Yorkshire Naturalists Union : Annual Report, 1910. 

series of Limnophilus politus from the reservoir and canal close to 
Haw Park, Wakefield, where also they found the much commoner 
Limnophilus rhombicus and Halesus radiatus in abundance. At 
the same place I took Molanna angnstata and a fine melanic form 
of Glyphoicelius pellucidus, a little earlier in the season. 

The following are the officers for 191 1 : — 

President — A. Whitaker, Barnsley. 

Secretaries — (For Lepidoptera) : A Whitaker, Barnsley, and 
B. Morley, Skelmanthorpe ; (Hymenoptera, Hemip- 
tera and Diptera) : W. Denison Roebuck, Leeds ; 
(Neuroptera, Orthoptera, and Trichoptera) : G. T. 
Porritt, Huddersfield ; (Coleoptera) : H. H. Corbett, 

Representative on Executive — T. A. Lofthouse, Middles- 

Representative on Committee of Suggestions — W. Hewett, York. 

Coleoptera Committee. — Mr. H. H. Corbett writes : — In 
1910 another " Summer " was denied us, and consequently beetles 
have been scarce. 

Mr. Carter reports : — 

Carabus uitens L., a melanic variety, taken at Oakworth Moor 

in May, by T. Fieldhouse. 
Amara consularis Duft. Baildon Moor in March, by T. Stringer. 
Hydroporus davisi Curt. Embsay, in July, C. T. Cribb. 
Hydroporus vittula Er. Skipton, in August, C. T. C. 
Mycetoporus lepidus Gr. Ogden Reservoir, in March, T. S. 
Myceta hirta, Marsh, Keighley, in June, R. Butterfield. 
Lathridius bergrothi, Reit. Manningham, F. Bamford. 
*Ptinus tectus, Manningham, F. Bamford. 
Helodes marginata F. Malham, in June, J. W. Carter. 

Mr. Thompson reports : — 
Bradycellus collaris Pk. Kildale Moor, in September. 
Amara lunicollis Schiodt. A melanic variety, Lunedale, in May. 

* Amara carta Dej. Eston, in Cleveland, in April. 
Hydroporus celatus Clark. Lunedale, in June. 

* Homalota nigricornis Pk. Eston, in Cleveland, in September. 
*Quedius obliteratus Er. Knaresborough, in March. 

Olophrum fuscum Grav. Kildale, in August. 

Omias mollinus Boh. Kirkdale, on the occasion of the Union's 

Orthochcetes setiger Beck. Eston, in Cleveland. 

My own experience of the season is that it began with fairly 
good promise in the Spring, but failed to keep up to sample during 
the Summer, and only partially redeemed itself in the Autumn. 
The only species worthy of note that I have met with are : — 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, 1910. 55, 

Lesteva heeri Fane. Askern, in October. 

Scaphisoma boleti Panz. Cusworth, in October. 

Abrceus globosus Hot!. Cusworth, in October. 

Litargus bifasciatus I'. Cusworth, in October. 

Soronia grisea L. Cusworth, in October. 
* Cryptopkagus populi Payk. Thorne, in June. 

Donacia setnicuprea Panz. Thorne, in June. 
*Dorytomus salicinus Gyll. Thorne, in May. 
*Orchestes saliceti Payk. Thorne in May. 

Those species marked with an asterisk (*) are additions to the 
County list. 

The Committee for 191 1 is as under : — 

Chairman — E. G. Bayford, Barnsley. 
Convener — H. H. Corbett, Doncaster. 
Representative on Executive and Committee of Suggestions — 

J. W. Carter, Bradford. 
Other Members — M. L. Thompson, Middlesbrough ; H. Ostheide, 

Leeds ; \Y. Foggitt, J. P., Thirsk ; John Gardner, 

Hartlepool ; W. Denison Roebuck, Leeds ; E. W. 

Morse, Leeds ; T. Stainforth, Hull ; G. B. Walsh, 


Yorkshire Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera Com- 
mittee. — The Committee have to deplore the loss of Mr. Edward 
Saunders, F.R.S., who for some years most willingly acted as 
Referee for Hymenoptera-Aculeata and Hemiptera-Heterop- 
tera ; and they have to thank the Rev. F. D. Morice, Mr. Claude 
Morley, and Mr. Percy H. Grimshaw, for their assistance in the 
determination of specimens. 

Not very much has been done this year ; the cold, sunless 
season having been very unfavourable to all but the commonest 
species of Andrena and Bombus. In August and September 
there were some sunny days on which a few species were abundant, 
and about Doncaster Mr. H. H. Corbett found Mimesa bicolor in 
quantity on flowers of Tovilis a nth rise us, along with many 
Crabro cribrarius. On the same flower he took in the same 
neighbourhood Oxybelus uniglumis, which is new for the 
Yorkshire list. Mr. E. G. Bayford reports two other additions. 
Crabro (Crossocerus) palmipes £ and Cecidonomus inimicus $, 
which occured along with Crabro (Rhopalitiu) clavipes <$ on a 
willow stump in his garden at Barnsley. Mr. John F. Musham 
has collected a few species of bees at Selby, including the 
black form of the $ of Psithyrus campestris, and Colletes davies- 
ana (a pair), a species quite new to the Yorkshire fauna. 

An interesting occurrence during the year has been that of very 
much dwarfed examples of Sirex gigas $, scarcely half the usual 
size. One of these was brought to Mr. W. Denison Roebuck 

1911 Jan. 1. 

56 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 

from a joiner's shop at Wrangthorn, Leeds, and the other sent 
to Mr. C. H. B. Turner from Scarborough. Mr. Corbett on the 
contrary, reports several fine examples of 5. noctilio, but total 
absence of S. gigas at Doncaster. 

Mr. Geo. T. Porritt submitted an ichneumon fly, Cratichneumon 
nigritars-us, from Glaisdale. 

Of Hemiptera a goodly number were shown from East Riding 
localities by Mr. H. C. Drake, but, in the absence of a published 
list, it is not possible to specify any as new records for the county. 
Mr. M. Lawson Thompson reports Zicrona ccerulea from Little- 
beck, near Whitby, and Mr. Porritt an example of Nabis 
flavomarginatus from Scalby Beck, Scarborough. 

In Diptera several species were collected by Mr. W. Harrison 
Hutton in the much built-up district of East Leeds, and Mr. 
J. H. Ashworth of Ilkley has continued his systematic work 
in that district, the results of which he has published in the Brad- 
ford Scientific Journal. 

The Committee has been re-appointed as follows : — 
Chairman — G. T. Porritt, Huddersfield. 
Convener — W. Denison Roebuck, Leeds. 
Representative on Executive and Committee of Suggestions — 

Rosse Butterfield, Keighley. 
Referees — Percy H. Grimshaw, for Diptera ; C. Morley, and 

Rev. F. D. Morice, M.A., for Hymenoptera. 
Other Members — E. G. Bayford, Barnsley ; M. L. Thompson, 

Middlesbrough; J. W. Carter, Bradford; H. H. 

Corbett, Doncaster ; T. Stainforth, Hull ; H. C. 

Drake, Scarborough ; and Prof. W. Garstang, D.Sc, 



With the increased knowledge of molluscan distribution, 
and in a well-worked county like this, one may hardly expect 

— big though the area is — to announce every season the occurrence 
of new species ; but the blank, thus unavoidable, need not denote 
any lack of enthusiasm amongst the workers in the Section. 

In the East Riding Mr. A. J. Moore has been able to add several 
varietal forms new to the Hull district, of well-known species, 
whilst at the opposite side of the same riding, Mr. John F. Musham 
secured a small, though interesting series of Helix ncmoralis and 

H. arbustorum, including an example of the latter shewing the 
unusual aberration of var. bifasciata. 

For the West Riding the most important event was the meet- 
ing at Malham, for further investigation of the molluscan in- 
habitants of the Tarn and surrounding plateau, where many 
interesting forms, considering the altitude and environment, were 
observed, and a pleasant week-end was spent through the kind 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, iqio. 57 

hospitality of the owner, Mr. W. Morrison, who right royally 
entertained some of the members of the Section during their 
four days' stay. 

Three or four new records were directly or indirectly the result 
of the visit to Scunthorpe of the Y.N.U. and L.N.U., in August, 
when a disappointing day, conchologically, was saved by Dr. 
Wallace of Grimsby, who when scooping for water beetles, secured 
a specimen of two of the long-lost Lincolnshire shell Limnea 
glabra, and of its usual companion Planorbis spirorbis var. rotun- 

This discovery caused Messrs. Roebuck, Cobbam and Musham 
a month later to visit the spot to confirm the record, when these 
two shells were found fairly numerous, though 'small, and we 
were enabled to delight the hearts of the botanists by submitting 
to them fifteen semi-aquatic plants, out of which three were 
new to the division, and one new to the entire county of Lincoln. 
These, together with four mosses and two characeae (one 
possibly new to the county list) , form sufficient material, though 
not all molluscan, for the conchologists of the two shires to claim 
the day as a red letter one. 

The officers of the Section for 191 1 have been elected as 
follows : — 

President and Representative on Executive — William Cash, 

Secretaries — John F. Musham, Selby ; T. W. Saunders, Brotton; 

and A. J. Moore, Hull. 
Representative on Committee of Suggestions — W. Harrison 
Hutton, Leeds. 

Marine Biology Committee. — Mr. F. H. Woods writes : — The 
most notable event of the year was the meeting of members of 
the Committee at Reclcar, on September 2nd to 5th. Besides many 
zoophytes, crustaceans, etc., about 77 species of molluscs were 
collected, either in the form of shells washed up by the tide or 
living creatures. These included Tonicella rubra, Venus fasciata, 
Dentalium entails, Odostomia unidentata, Odostomia turrita, Pyrga- 
lina inter stincta, Turritella communis, Beta rufa, Mangilia costata, 
Mangilia nebula, Clathurella linearis, Philine catena. These 
objects were arranged so as to form a temporary museum, and 
several residents, especially school teachers, inspected them. 

Considerable progress has been made during the year with a 
collection in the Hull Museum. This now includes 121 species 
of shells. Among those which are rare, at any rate, on the York- 
shire coast, and have mostly been added during the year, are 
Tonicella rubra (Runswick Bay), Nuculana minuta (Scarborough), 
Syndosmya prismatica (Filey, etc), Cochlodesma prcetenue (Filey), 
Emarginula fissura (Redcar), Capulus hungaricus (Redcar, etc.), 
Venus fasciata (Redcar, etc.), Lamellaria perspicua (Bridlington), 

1911 Jan. 1. 

58 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 

Pyrgulina indistincta (Scarborough), Pyrgulina inter stincta (Scar- 
borough), Turbonilla lactea (young, Scarborough), Ccecum gla- 
hritui (F.), Trichotropis borealis (in stomach of plaice, at Hull), Nassa 
reticulata (Scarborough), Mangilia nebula (Redcar), Volvulella 
acuminata (Scarborough), Philine scabra (Scarborough, etc), Lima- 
ana retroversa (Scarborough). 

During the year Mr. T. W. Saunders, of Brotton, has done 
yeoman service by publishing in the Cleveland Naturalists' 
Journal, a list of molluscs found on the northern part of the coast 
from Runswick Bay to Teesmouth, with the localities. The list 
comprises about 106 different species. 

Mr. J. A. Hargreaves has published in the Journal of Con- 
chology, a list compiled from different sources, of the " Marine 
Mollusca of the Yorkshire Coast and the Dogger Bank." 

The Committee has been re-appoint sd as follows : — 

Chairman — Prof. W. Garstang, M.A., Leeds. 

Convener — Rev. F. H. Woods, B.D., Bainton, Driffield . 

Representative on Executive — Prof. W. Garstang, Leeds. 

Representative on Committee of Suggestions — J. A. Hargreaves, 

Other Members — D. W. Bevan, Scarborough ; A. J. Burnley, 
Scarborough ; J. Darker Butterell, Wansford ; 
Sir Charles Eliot, K.C.M.G., Sheffield ; E. Howarth, 
Sheffield; W. Harrison Hutton, Leeds; J. Irving, 
Scarborough ; Geo. Massee, Kew ; A. J. Moore, 
Hull ; S. Lister Petty, Ulvertson ; A. S. Robinson, 
Redcar ; J. Fraser Robinson, Hull ; W. Denison 
Roebuck, Leeds ; W. H. St. Quintin, J. P., Scamps- 
ton Hall ; T. W. Saunders, Brotton ; A. R. Sander- 
son, Bradford ; and Arnold T. Watson, Sheffield. 


Mr. H. H. Corbett writes : — The Botanical Section of the 
Union has been well represented at the field excursions held during 
the past year, and as the reports in " The Naturalist " indicate, 
much good ecological work has been done. 

There yet remains much to be done among the more critical 
species. If our botanical workers would take up the distribution 
oi the segregates in Ranunculus, Rosa, Rubus, Hieracium, Salix, 
etc., much useful information would be forthcoming. 

Among the more interesting " finds " of the season in my 
district may be mentioned Lathyrus palustris L. This very rare 
remnant of the old fenland flora was found just over the county 
boundary in Notts., near Bawtry. Orchis latifolia E. B. ; this 
is the marsh orchis of the bog at Askern. It has a different habit 
and facies from the much commoner 0. incarnata, flowering later 
and being a more robust plant with a longer and denser panicle. 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, 1910. 59 

The species has been confirmed by Mr. F. A. Lees. Neottia 
nidus-avis Rich, was found in Edlington Wood. 

A change in the local florula is now taking place on 
Thome Waste. A part of the old peat bog is being " warped," 
and when 1 two years ago were to be found Andromeda polyfolia, 
Droscra rotundi folia, Carex curta and other peat lovers, are 
now Aster Trifiolium, Rumex maritimus, Atriplex hastata, Scirpus 
maritimus, and other maritime plants. These will doubtless have 
only a short period allowed them, and will soon be succeeded by 
cultivated crops and their associated casuals. 
The following were elected for 1911 : — 
President — Dr. T. W. Woodhead, Huddersfield. 
Secretaries — H. H. Corbett, 9 Priory Place, Doncaster ; J. 

Fraser Robinson, 22 Harley Street, Hull ; 
Representative on Executive — E. Snelgrove, Sheffield. 
Representative on Committee of Suggestions — S. Margerison, 

Botanical Survey Committee. — Dr. T. W. Woodhead writes :— 
The ecologists have been particularly active, and the result of 
their work is reflected in nearly every number of " The Naturalist " 
for the current year. Mr. Frank Elgee's interesting observations 
on Heather Moors of North East Yorkshire were published in 
the January and February numbers, under the title of " The 
Vegetation of Swiddens," and show how areas which have been 
burnt become colonised, often by species which only temporarily 
occupy the ground, these being in turn driven out by one or other 
of the characteristic species of the Heath vegetation. This 
paper called forth some observations by Dr. H. F. Parsons on 
"The Effects of Heath Fires on Vegetation " (" Nat.," March). 

Mr. W. M. Rankin's contribution on the " Peat Moors of 
Lonsdale" ("Nat.," March and April), gives a very suggestive 
account of these moors, in which he distinguishes two Formations ■ 
(1) The Swamp Moor Formation, and (2) The Heath Moor Forma- 
tion, each with associations of (a) Lacustrine, and (b) Estuarine 
and Littoral origin. The paper is illustrated by six photographs. 

Dr. C. E. Moss's paper on the species and varieties of Quercus, 
is valuable in that it shows the importance and significance of the 
distinctive characters of these forms when considered in connection 
with their distribution (see " Nat.," April). 

Dr. Wm. G. Smith's excellent notice of Adamovic's work 
on the vegetation of the Balkan lands, calls attention to the in- 
fluence of tectonic factors, which are of great importance in the 
study of vegetation (see " Nat.," July). 

An admirable account of the Woodlands of England has been 
published by Messrs. Moss, Rankin & Tansley, which will be of 
great service to all interested in these constituents of our vegeta- 
tion. (For a notice of this see " Nat." for Sept.). 

1911 Jan. 1. 

oo Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, igio. 

Excellent use was made of the Yorkshire Naturalist's Union 
excursions to further the study of vegetation in Yorkshire, and 
much interesting work was done on the Sphagnum bogs in North- 
West Yorkshire, an account of which was given by Drs. Smith 
and Woodhead in " The Naturalist " for August. The excursion 
to Kirby Moorside provided a good opportunity for studying some 
of the calcareous dales in that district, as well as the curious 
vegetation of Spaunton Moor. The local knowledge of Mr. Slater 
proved of great service in the study of the vegetation of the dales 
in the neighbourhood of Helmsley. It is hoped that an account 
of this interesting area will soon be forthcoming. 

The joint excursion to Scunthorpe with the Lincolnshire 
Naturalists' Union enabled the Rev. E. A. Woodruffe-Peacock 
to bring out admirably the changes in the flora of the neighbouring 
moors within recent years, and the Rev. W. Fowler furnished a 
list of characteristic species found in 1854 for comparison with 
those still existing. 

The meeting of the British Association this year at Sheffield 
provided an opportunity for Messrs. Bentley and Snelgrove 
to write a capital account of the more interesting features of the 
flora of the neighbourhood. This was published in the " Hand- 
book," and illustrated with excellent photographs of the more 
important types of vegetation. 

The following were elected for 191 1 : — 

Chairman — W. B. Crump, Halifax. 

Convener and Representative on Executive and on Committee 
of Suggestions — T. W. Woodhead, Ph.D., Hudders- 

Other Members — S. Margerison, Calverley, Leeds ; C. Water- 
fall, Cheshire ; H. H. Corbett, Doncaster ; J. Hart- 
shorn, Leyburn ; J. W. H. Johnson, Thornhill ; 
W. E. L. Wattam, Huddersfield ; P. F. Lee, 
Dewsbury ; F. Elgee, Middlesbrough ; H. J. 
Wilkinson, York ; W. Jackson, Goole ; Wm. G. 
Smith, Edinburgh ; W. Robinson, Hull ; and A. L. 
Armstrong, Harrogate. 

Yorkshire Bryoiogical Committee.~AIr. Wm. Ingham, B.A., 
reports : — Several members have been busy again this year in the 
field, and some interesting mosses and hepatics have been found. 

Mr. C. A. Cheetham reports Dicranodontium longirostre var. 
alpinum from Malham, in the Aire drainage, also Diphyscium 
foliosum var. acutifolium from Ingleboro'. 

Mr. E. Snelgrove has contributed some interesting records 
of mosses and hepatics to the British Association Handbook for the 
Sheffield meeting, the principal being Sphagnum molle, S. teres, 
Ceratodon conicus, Philonotis caespitosa var. laxa (the correct 
name now for the P. fontana var. ampliretis of the Handbook), 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, 1910. 61 

Schistostega osmundacea, Aneura sinuata, Lcpidozia Pearsoni, and 
Calypogeia fissa {Kcintia Sprengelii), all from the Rivelin Valley. 
Mr. J. J. Marshall has sent Weisia mucronata mixed with 
Weisia microstoma v. brachxearpa, both new to the East Riding, 
the former also occurring at Ravenscar (leg. W. Ingham), and 
the latter at Ackworth (leg. W. Ingham). He also records Ortho- 
trichum stramineum, new to the E. Riding. Mr. Marshall's two 
Weisias grow by a Cottingham footpath. 

Mr. W. Ingham records Plagiothecium silesiacum in fruit, 
from Fimber, in the E. Riding. Its last record seems to be that 
by Dr. Spruce, in Arncliffe Wood, Goathland ; see " The Natura- 
list," page 34, August, 1910. 

Other interesting records are Hypnum unci/iatum var. plumu- 
losum from Shear's Gill, Middleton-in-Teesdale ; Lcjeunea cavifolia 
var. planiuscula from limestone cliffs, Lunedale, Middleton-in- 
Teesdale ; Hypnum Wilsoni at Heworth, half a mile from York, 
on the bed of the old Subscription Skating Pond ; Haplozia 
crenulata var. inundata in a small sandstone quarry, five miles 
from York, the first record of this large variety in the British 
Isles, and Calypogeia fissa, a beautiful neat form, on ridge of 
Woodhouse Moor, Leeds (leg. Mrs. Ingham). 

Mr. W. Ingham spent two weeks in August with Mr. Symers 
M. Macvicar, at Invermoidart, in S.W. Inverness, and he gathered 
in that district almost all the rare hepatics for which the Killar- 
ney district of Ireland is noted. 

Mr. J. C. Wilson, of Manchester, has sent a fine robust form 
of Hypnum fluitans Gr. falcatum, var. ovale, gathered on the 
slopes of Wissenden Clough, Marsden. 

The following were elected for 191 1 : — 
Chairman and Convener — W. Ingham, York. 
Representative on Executive — C. A. Cheetham. Armley. 
Representative on Committee of Suggestions — W. Ingham 

Other Members — R. Barnes, Harrogate ; R. Braithwaite, 
London ; L. J. Cocks, London ; \V. West, Bradford ; 
J. W. H. Johnson, Dewsbury ; M. B. Slater, Malton ; 
H. Foster, Leeds ; A. R. Sanderson, Bradford ; 
F. Haxby, Bradford ; and E. Snelgrove, Sheffield. 

MycOlOgical Committee.- Mr. C. Crossland writes .-—Interest 
in Mycology continues to spread, and enquiries are often made 
as to text-books, etc. The Committee have, as far as possible, 
been represented at each of the Union meetings. 

An unofficial foray was held at Mulgrave. May 28th to 30th. 
Mc ;ssrs. Clarke, Cheesman, Peck, and the writer attended. About 
70 species were noticed, several of which are only to be seen in 
the spring. 

Four members of the Committee : — Messrs. Gibbs, Cheesman, 

1911 Jan. 1. 

62 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 

Philip and J. W. H. Johnson, attended the Kirby Moorside 
meeting ; 140 species were collected, 57 belonging to the family 
Agaricaceae, several being additions to the York. Fung. Flo. (see 
" The Naturalist," November of the current year). 

Mr. Johnson collected a mould near Halifax, new to the 
British Flora, and one at Ilkley, new to Yorkshire ; both will be 
noticed in "The Naturalist" in due course. 

Canon W. Fowler, Mr. \Y N. Cheesman, and the writer attended 
the Scunthorpe meeting, and worked out a goodly number of species, 
a list of which was supplied to the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union. 
This year's foray was held at Sandsend for Mulgrave, and 
was remarkably successful in respect to additions to the Fungus 
Flora of the British Isles, six additional Agarics being discovered. 
Notes on each will be given in the Mulgrave report. Upwards of 
550 species were collected and identified. It was proposed and 
unanimously agreed that the results of all previous visits to 
Mulgrave be analysed and tabulated, and that we recommend the 
Union to sanction another year's investigations, to make the 
work done in this district more complete. The analysis is 
already in hand. 

Mr. A. E. Peck has collected numerous species in the neigh- 
bourhood of Scarborough, many of which he has carefully photo- 
graphed. Most of them have been certified by Mr. A. Clarke, and 
include several uncommon species. 

Mr. H. Slater, the Helmsley schoolmaster, sent fine specimens 
of Pcziza reticulata in May ; Mr. H. H. Corbett, Lepiota rachodes 
from a greenhouse at Doncaster : n July, and Mr. W. D. Roebuck 
a consignment of 22 species, which he collected in Lythe Bank 
Plantation, Grassington, on the 24th September. Mr. Roebuck 
sent three consignments to Sandsend. 

Canon Fowler and the writer visited Hunsworth Wood, near 
Cleckheaton, in October, and found Poria radula, not previously 
recorded for Yorkshire, and Flam inula flavida, which confirms a 
hitherto solitary county record. 

As stated above, the Committee recommend another foray 
in Mulgrave Woods from September 23rd to September 28th. 
The following members form the Committee for 191 1 : — 
Chairman — G. Massee, Kew. 

Convener — C. Crossland, 4 Coleridge Street, Halifax. 
Representative on Executive — Harold Wager. 
Other Members— Rev. Canon W. Fowler, Liversedge ; Sir H. C. 
Hawley, Bart., London ; Harold Wager, Leeds ; 
A. Clarke, Huddersfield ; W. N. Cheesman, Selby ; 
Thos. Gibbs, Wirksworth ; J as. Needham, Hebden 
Bridge; R. H. Philip, Hull; J. W. H. Johnson. 
Dewsbury ; C. H. Broadhead, Thongsbridge ; M. 
Malone, Bradford ; W. Robinson, Hull ; and A. E. 
Peck, Scarborough. 


Yorkshire Nfturalists' Union: Annual Report, 1910. 63 


Report for Geological Section.— Mr. Cosmo Johns writes:— 
The excursions have been well attended by members of the Section, 
except on one occasion, and one or more of the sectional officers 
have been present. The excursion to Middleton-in-Teesdale 
afforded a welcome opportunity for renewing acquaintance with 
a classic region. A carefully worked out programme, for which 
Messrs. Burton and Robinson were responsible, was carried out. 
The igneous rocks, Carboniferous Limestone, Drift, and the 
interesting but puzzling sections of pre-Carboniferous rocks at 
the Pencil mills were visited. 

Malham once more attracted a good number. The 
Craven Faults, with the evidence for a reading of the structure 
different to that given by the published Survey Map of the dis- 
trict ; the little known Black Hill, an outlier of Yoredales with 
a capping of Millstone Grit, and the exposure of the ancient floor 
on which Carboniferous Rocks were laid down, received attention. 

Easington afforded an opportunity for visiting drift deposits 
of Holderness, and thus of renewing acquaintance with the ever- 
changing sections of boulder clay. Under the guidance of 
Messrs. Stather and Sheppard, much of the new evidence was 

Kirby Moorside did not provide many geological opportunities, 
but at Scunthorpe the wonderfully interesting Liassic Sections 
afforded by the excavations for Ironstone, the re-distributed drift 
and the overlying blown sand received careful attention, and the 
thanks of the section is due to Mr. A. C. Dalton, whose local 
knowledge was placed unreservedly at their service. 

The chief obstacle to the prosecution of work by the section is 
the shortness of time available during the excursions. A week-end 
with two clear days for field work represents the minimum time 
in which any useful programme can be carried out, and it is really 
only when four clear days are available, such as occurs during the 
Whit week and August Bank Holiday meetings, that a reasonably 
complete examination of a particular district can be made. 

It cannot be too strongly urged that the feature of such 
visits can only be to review work that has been or is being done, 
and to suggest the lines for future work. The real additions to 
knowledge follow such visits, and are not necessarily made 
during them. 

There are still many directions towards which the section 
might profitably direct its energies. In the Coal Measure districts 
a rich harvest awaits conscientious workers in the many clay 
pits or natural sections ; in Yorkshire this representing an almost 
unworked field. Careful work along the escarpment of the 
Permian Rocks from Conisborough northward, so as to establish 
a definite correlation with the typical sub-divisions of Durham, 

1911 Jan. 1 

64 Yorkshire Naturalists Union : Annual Report, igio. 

is bound to be rewarded. A new attack on the problem of the 
flora of the Secondary Rocks of Yorkshire — not necessarily the 
already known Plant Beds — has been suggested, and the sugges- 
tion should receive the careful attention of the Section. Our 
President, Professor Seward, has been instrumental in obtaining 
a grant from a Cambridge University fund to enable Mr. Thomas, 
of Cambridge, to collect and investigate the fossil flora of East 
Yorkshire, and in this connection he has already done much work. 

The following were elected for 191 1 : — 
President — J. J. Burton, Nunthorpe. 

Secretaries — Cosmo Johns, Sheffield ; S. Nettleton, Ossett. 
Representative on Executive — Godfrey Bingley, Leeds. 
Representative on Committee of Suggestions — Prof. Kendall, 

Geological Photographs Committee.— Mr. A. J. Stather reports : 

During the year 1910 the following photographs have been added 

to the collection of geological photographs possessed by the 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Geological Photographs Comiiittee : 

By Mr. John W. Patterson — 

Two photographs of rock sections through the micro- 
1st — Whin Sill. Middleton-in-Teesdale. 
2nd — Altered Sandstone. Middleton-in-Teesdale. 
By Mr. J. W. Stather — 

1st — Section, Boulder Clay on Chalk. Kirk Ella. 
2nd — Detail Section of Boulder Clay. Kirk Ella. 
3rd — Conglomerate Boulder. Gristhorpe Bay. 
4th — Section in Peat Bed. Joint Dock, Hull. 
By Mr. A. R. Armstrong, Harrogate— 

1st — Glacial evidence near Harrogate. Field looking \Y. 
2nd — ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, S. 

3rd— „ „ „ „ „ „ N.W. 

By Mr. C. Bradshaw, Sheffield — 
"1st — Ripple-marked Sandstone at Grimesthorpe (See 

" Naturalist," Oct. 1896). 
2nd — Boulder Shap Granite from Adwick-on-Dearne. 

(Now at Weston Park Museum). 
3rd — Erect tree trunk in situ, from Midland Railway, 
Brightsides. (Now at Weston Park Museum). 
4th — Erect tree in situ, Midland Railway cutting, Bright- 
5th— Erect and prone trees in situ, Midland Railway 
cutting, Brightside. 
By Mr. J. J. Burton— 

1st — Silurian upthrow at Burtreeford Dyke, Teesdale. 
2nd — Tarns on the undercliffe. Cronkley Scars, Teesdale. 
(See July " Naturalist "). 


Yorkshire Naturalists Union : Annual Report, iqio. 65 

3rd — Saccharoid Limestone at White Force. Teesdale. 
By Mr. H. Thelwell, Sledmere — 

1st — Result of flood at Sledmere. (See Julv " Natura- 
list "). 

2nd — Nearer view. (See July " Naturalist "). 
By Mr. J. T. Dyson— 

1st — Section shewing shell bed. New Joint Dock, Hull. 

2nd — Nearer view, shewing varieties of shells. 

3rd — Detail section. 

4th — Tree trunk from peat bed. New Joint Dock, Hull. 
(Practically in situ). 

The following were elected for 1911 : — 

Chairman — Prof. Percy F. Kendall, M.Sc, Leeds. 

Convener — A. J. Stather, 224a Spring Bank, Hull. 

Representative on Executive — J. H. Howarth, J. P., Halifax. 

Representative on Committee of Suggestions — Godfrey Bingley, 

Other Members — J. J. Burton, Nunthorpe ; J. H. S. Dickenson, 
Sheffield ; E. E. Gregory, Darlington ; H. E. Wroot, 
Bradford ; and C. Bradshaw, Sheffield. 

Yorkshire Glacial Committee.— Mr. Thomas Sheppard reports 
the occurrence of a boulder of Augite syenite (Laurvikite) at Hessle, 
measuring 3 ft. by 2 ft. by i| ft. It is the largest of its kind 
yet recorded, and was found resting on solid chalk, covered with 
glacial gravel and boulder clay. It has been removed to the 
Hull museum. 

Mr. Sheppard also records the occurrence of a striated 
pavement " on the Lincolnshire shore of the Humber at South 
Ferriby. The tides have recently removed an accumulation of 
silt, near South Ferriby Hall, and exposed a bed of Neocomian 
Clay. In this is embedded a number of cake-like nodules, up 
to ih feet in diameter. These nodules are all striated in a direc- 
tion parallel with the Humber, viz., from east to west. 

Mr. J. W. Stather reports that during the past year the in- 
terest in East Riding boulders has been renewed by the publica- 
tion of a work by Dr. V. Milthers, of the Danish Geological 
Survey, entitled " Scandinavian Indicator-Boulders in the Ouar- 
ternery Deposits." In the memoir many well-marked Scandi- 
navian rocks are described, which occur as boulders in the glacial 
beds of Denmark, and maps are given shewing their distribution. 

The important bearing of this publication on the work of 
this Committee in the East Riding was at once recognised, and 
Dr. Milthers was communicated with. In response, he very 
kindly sent the Secretary a copy of his book, and a collection of 
the Indicator-boulders described therein. In looking over the 
Danish specimens, it was quite clear that many of them bore a 
strong family likeness to familiar Holderness types. Several 

1911 Jan. 1, 

66 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 

members of the Hull Geological Society have subsequently visited 
the Holderness coast, and made collections with a view to match- 
ing the Danish specimens. Much of this material has yet to be 
examined, but there seems little reason to doubt that three new 
records of Scandinavian rocks in Yorkshire have been made, 
viz. — (i) The Bredvad porphyry ; (2) The Gronklitt porphyrite ; 
and (3) The Red Sarna porphyry. 

The following were elected for 191 1 : — 

Chairman — P. F. Kendall, M.Sc, Weetwood, Leeds. 
Conveners — J. H. Howarth, J. P., Somerley, Halifax, and J. W. 

Stather, Hull. 
Representative on Executive — E. Hawkesworth, Leeds. 
Representative on Committee of Suggestions — E. Hawkesworth, 

Other Members— Rev. E. M. Cole, M.A., Wetwang ; H. H. 

Corbett, Doncaster ; W. Simpson, Settle ; F. F. 

Walton, Hull; J. E. Wilson, Ilkley : H. Culpin, 

Doncaster ; A. R. Dwerryhouse, D.Sc, Dublin ; 

Godfrey Bingley, Leeds ; A. J. Stather, Hull ; 

E. E. Gregory, Darlington ; J. J. Burton, Nunthorpe. 

Yorkshire Coast Erosion Committee.— Mr. J. J. Burton 
writes that during the past year the coast between the Tees and 
the Esk has been very stable. The shore line between the Tees 
and Saltburn has been variously affected by wind and tides, but 
on the whole it has maintained an equilibrium, and the sand cliffs 
and boulder clays margining the shore are giving no evidence of 
wastage. The Lias cliffs between Saltburn and Whitby have 
not perceptibly receded and there have been no falls of cliff of any 
magnitude between those places. In some of the bays where the 
boulder clay has filled up ancient valleys, through which streams 
now find their way to the sea, there has been some slipping of the 
clay which has here and there encroached upon the shore line, 
but it will in the course of time be entirely washed away, and. is 
only one stage in the process by which the bays will ultimately 
be extended inland. 

Mr. J. W. Stather writes : — Coast erosion in Holderness is 
still proceeding at a very rapid rate, and when the members of 
the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union were at Kilnsea in July, it 
was the topic of conversation. In the wall of the Blue Bell Inn 
there is a tablet stating that the house was built in 1847, anc ^ was 
then 534 yards from the sea. The distance is now reduced to 
272 yards. A similar tablet in an adjacent barn confirms the 
above. The distance of the old ruin at Out Newton (Dimlington) 
from the cliff edge was also measured, and found to be 29 feet 
3 inches. In 1882 the distance was 120 yards. This shews an 
average loss of four yards per annum. 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, 1910. 67 

The Committee for 1911 is as under :— 
Chairman — F. F. Walton, Hull. 
Convener — J. W. Stather, Hull. 
Representative on Executive — F. F. Walton, Hull. 
Representative on Committee of Suggestions — H. Culpin, Don- 
Other Members— J. T. Sewell, Whitby ; W. Y. Veiteh, Middles- 
brough ; J. J. Burton, Nunthorpe ; Rev. E. M. 
Cole, Wetwang ; and J. A. Hargreaves, Scar- 

Fossil Flora and Fauna of the Carboniferous Rocks Committee. 
— The Fossil Fauna. — Mr Cosmo Johns writes: — Since the publi- 
cation of the last Report work has been continued both in the 
Upper and Lower Carboniferous Rocks. The researches of 
Mr. Culpin and others on the fauna of the coal measures are 
extending our knowledge of the vertical and horizontal distribu- 
tion of the marine fauna. The persistence of the various " marine 
bands " over wide areas has now been established, and the data 
accumulated will enable such exploratory borings as may 
be put down towards the east boundary of the Yorkshire Coalfield 
to yield definite information as to the level reached. It is not 
•often that scientific research is so quickly followed by its economic 
application. So far there have only been opportunities for 
investigating the faunal succession down to the Barnsley seam. 
There is, however, no reason to doubt the probability of determin- 
ing faunal horizons below the Barnsley seam when these lower 
measures are explored. 

Several workers are giving their attention to the fauna of 
the Millstone Grit, though there has been no recent contri- 
bution to our knowledge of this highly important division of 
the Carboniferous Rocks. Mr. Holmes has collected a suite of 
fossils from the shales above the Kinderscout Grit, but their 
specific determination has not been completed. 

As a result of continued work on the Carboniferous Limestone 
the important conclusion has been reached that the Pendleside 
series with its important Cephalopod fauna, is equivalent, in 
part at least, to the Yoredale Series of Phillips. 

A definite correlation of the Posidonomya becheri beds of the 
Lower Culm of Germany and Devonshire, and of the Pendleside 
Series of Pendle Hill with the base of the Yoredale Series, as 
typically exposed in Wensleydale, has been made. It would 
appear that the Yoredale and Pendleside Series are, despite their 
distinct lithological and palgeontological characters, representa 
tives of the same time interval. The occurrence of two such 
distinct facies points to great differences in the conditions which 
determined the character of the sediments in the Yoredale and 
Pendleside areas. For the opinions expressed in the above report 
.the writer only is responsible. 

.1911 Jan. 1. 

68 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, igio. 

The following were elected for 1911 : — 

Chairman— R. Kidston, LL.D., F.R.S., Stirling, N.B. 

Convener — Cosmo Johns, Sheffield. 

Representative on Executive Committee — Miss Johnstone, 

Representative on Committee of Suggestions — Cosmo Johns- 

Other Members — W. West, Bradford ; C. Bradshaw, Sheffield ; 
P. F. Kendall. Leeds ; S. Nettleton, Ossett ; E. E. 
Gregory, Bingley ; Wheelton Hind, Stoke-on-Trent ; 
Walcot Gibson, London ; E. Hawkesworth, Leeds ; 
H. Culpin, Doncaster ; and John Holmes, Crosshills. 

Jurassic Flora Of Yorkshire. — On the recommendation 
of the Geological Section, the General Committee at Middles- 
borough agreed to the formation of a Committee for the Investiga- 
tion of the Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire, with the following as its 
first officers : — 

Chairma — Prof. A. C. Seward, M.A., F.R.S., Cambridge. 
Convener — J. J. Burton, Nunthorpe. 
Representative on Executive Committee — Prof. Kendall. 
Representative on Committee of Suggestions — Cosmo Johns. 
Other Members — Rev. A. C. Lane, Brighouse ; T. W. Saunders, 
Brotton ; F. Elgee, Middlesborough ; T. Newbritt, 
Whitby ; J. T. Sewell, Whitby; Miss M. A. John- 
stone, B.Sc, Bradford. 


Yorkshire Arachnida Committee. — Mr. Wm. Falconer writes : 
—This, the first year in the career of the most recently con- 
stituted section of the Union — the Arachnidal — has been a 
successful one, and one or more of its members have been 
present at most of the meetings held during the year, with the 
result that much valuable and enduring work has been accom- 
plished. A gratifying feature also on these occasions has been 
the interest in spiders evinced by non-arachnological members, 
who have, notwithstanding the superior claims of their own 
special branches of study, found time to secure and hand over the 
casual specimens which came under their notice. Full reports 
and lists of the species obtained have appeared during the year 
in " The Naturalist," Upper Teesdale, July, pp. 261-4, ; Malham, 
September, pp 334-6 ; Spurn, September pp. 344-5 ; Scunthorpe, 
pp. 394-5 ; Kirby Moorside, November, p. 403. 

Individual enterprise has been even more successful. At 
the close of 1909, 290 species of true spiders had been reported 
for the county, and during the present year this total has been 
increased by the discovery of 5 other species, new to our area, 
viz. : — 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 69 

1. Prosthesima subterranea C. L. Koch., a few females, adult 
and immature. Beast Undercliffe, Stainton Dale, X. Riding, 
T. Stainforth. 

2. Clubiona facilis Camb., one female, Gargrave, W. Riding. 
F. Rhodes. New to science ; described and figured by the Rev. 
O. Pickard Cambridge, in the current Proceedings of the Dorset 
Field Club. 

3. Agroeca celans BL, near Huddersfield. One female. 

4. Leptyphantcs angidatus Camb., Malham Tarn. Two 

5. Entelecara trifrons Camb., Malham Tarn. One male, two 

Additions to the recognised stations of the rarer or more 
imperfectly known members of our Araneidal fauna have been 
numerous, but considerations of space permit mention only of 
such of these as have not already been recorded in the January, 
February, March, July, September, November and December 
numbers of " The Naturalist," or have not received notice in 
Mr. W. P. Winter's " The Spiders of the Airedale and Wharfedale 
Area," for 1909 and 1910, given in extenso below : — 
Scotophceus blackwallii Thor., one female, Marske. New to N. 

Prosthesima latreillei C. L. Koch. Spurn. T.S. 
Clubiona corticalis Walck. Kirby Moorside. T.S. New to N. 

Clubiona terrestris Westr. Riftswood, Saltburn and Kilton Woods. 

Both sexes. New to N. Riding. 
Clubiona grisea L. Koch. Coatham Marshes and Tees Mouth. 

Both sexes. New to N. Riding. 
Clubiona neglecta Camb. Marske and near Tees Mouth. Females. 

New to N. Riding. 
Protadia subnigra Camb. One male. Humber Shore, Patrington. 

Amaurobius ferox Walck. One female. Askern. T. S. 
Robertus arundineti Camb. One male. Coatham Marshes. New 

to N. Riding. 
Linyphia pusilla Sund. One male. Patrington. T. S. 
Sintida comigeraBl. One female. Kilton Woods. New to N.Riding. 
Coryphceus distinctus F. Cb. One female. Barmby-on-the-Marsh. 

T. S. 
(Edothorax apicatus BL One male. Coatham Marshes. New to 

N. Riding. 
Gongylidiellumvivum Camb. One female. Near Bingley. W. P. W. 
Maro minidus Camb. and A/", falconerii Jacks. New stations, 

Dicymbium tibiale Bl. One male. Eston.Moor, via Lazenby. 
Erigone arctica White var. maritima Kulcz. Spurn. T. S. New to 

E. Riding. 

1911 Jan. 1. 

70 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 

Lophocarennm nemorale Bl. One female. Beast Undercliffe, Stain- 
ton Dale. T. S. New to N. Riding. 

Troxochrus scabriculus Westr. Bridlington. T. S. New to E. 

Cnephalocotes elegans Camb. . Slaithwaite. Both sexes. 

C. obscnrus Bl. Eston, J. W. H. Harrison. New to N. Riding. 

Tapinocyba praecox Camb. One male. Bridlington. T. S. 

Baryphyma pratensis Bl. Pulfin Bog, near Beverley. E. A. Parsons, 

Meta menardi Latr. One male. Lonsdale. J. W. H. New to 
N. Riding. 

Xysticus err aliens Bl. One female. Bridlington. T. S. 

Evarcha falcata Bl. One male. Kilton Woods. New to N. Riding. 

No new harvestman or pseudoscorpion has been discovered 
in the county, but the distributional range of a few of the former, 
notably Oligolophus alpinus Herbst., has been greatly enlarged. 

Very little new ground seems to have been searched, and 
many most promising localities — to name a few, the higher 
mountains, Askham Bog and Strensall Common near York, 
Skipwith Common, and that part of Yorkshire adjoining Lincoln- 
shire — still remain to be systematically investigated at all 
seasons. Anyone to whom these and similar places are readily 
accessible, would no doubt very soon add new and rare spiders 
to the county list. 

In connection with the paper on " Abnormality in Spiders " — 
" Naturalist," May and June, Professor W. Kulczynski, Krakau, 
has sent the writer a copy of his description of a gynandrous 
spider, " Erigone (now (Edothorax) fusca Bl.", published as long- 
ago as 1885, and a reference to another example, a Lycosa, given 
by Bertkau, 1892, Archiv fiir N atnrgeschichte. 

During the year, " Keys to the Families and Genera of 
British Spiders, and to the Families, Genera and Species of 
British Harvestmen and Pseudoscorpions," have been published 
in " The Naturalist," June, September and December, and it is 
hoped that, with such an aid which has not previously been avail- 
able to workers, other naturalists will turn their attention to the 
Arachnida, and be able to make progress in a difficult study. 

The Spiders of the Airedale and Wharfedale Area.* 
W. P. Winter. 

Mr. W. P. Winter writes :— I have to thank the Rev. O. 
Pickard-Cambridge and Messrs. Falconer, Jackson and Frank 
P. Smith for their help in naming our specimens. 

The " Victoria County History of Yorkshire " (Vol. I.) 
referred to 72 spiders and 10 harvestmen as having been found 

* For First List, see Bradford Scientific Journal, April, 1909. 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, 1910. 71 

in our area. During 1908 we added to these 31 spiders, 4 harvest- 
men, and 1 false scorpion, and in 1909 this list was further in- 
creased by 40 spiders and 3 harvestmen, making a grand total 
of 143 spiders, 17 harvestmen, and 1 false scorpion, or 161 arach- 
nids altogether. The additions of 1910 are 29 spiders, making 
190 arachnids. 

One spider (Cluhiona facilis Cb.) is new to science, another 
(Walckenaera obtusa) is new to the county, as well as others 
mentioned in Mr. Falconer's list, and one harvestman (Liobunum 
blackwallii) new to the West Riding. 

The southern species Micrommata virescens has again been 
found in Grass Woods, and, with the exception of 9 spiders and 
1 harvestman, all the records of the Victoria County History for 
our area have now been confirmed. 

Micaria pulicaria Sund. $. Under dead leaves, near Cottingley 

Village, Sept. W. P. W. In Bingley Woods, Oct. R. B. 

and W. P. W. 
Cluhiona diversa Cambr. Bingley Woods, Oct. R. B. and 

W. P. W. 
C. trivialis L. Koch. Wilsden, Sept. R. B. Harden, Oct. 

W. P. W. 
C. comta C. L. Koch. Wilsden, Sept. R. B. 
Coelotes terrestris Wid. Imm. Arncliffe, July. T. S. 
Hahnia helveola Sim. $. Calverley Woods, Feb. S. M. 
Halniia niontana Bl. Malham, May. T. S. 
Thcridion pallens Bl. $. Malham, May. T.S. $. Moorhead, 

July. W. P. W. 
Pholcomma gibbum Westr. Bingley Woods, Oct. R. B. 
Linyphia pcltata Wid. $. Malham, May. T. S. 
Lcptyphantes cristatus Menge. $. Cottingley Wood, Oct. W.P.W. 
L. pallidus Cambr. $. Calverley, Feb. S. M. 
L. mengii Kulcz. £. Sept., Ilkley. W. R. B. Harden, W. P. W. 

Oct., Bingley Woods. R. B. and W. P. W. Baildon Green. 

W. P. W. 
Bathyphantes approximatus Cambr. Beckfoot, Oct. R. B. and 

W. P. W. 
Porrhomma microphthalmum Cambr. $. Feb., Calverley. S. M. 
P. oblongum Cambr. $. Calverley Woods, Feb., S. M. 
Tmeticus concinmis Thor. $. Calverley Woods, Feb, S. M. 

?. Harden, Sept. W. P. W. <? and $. Bingley Woods, 

R. B. and W. P. W., and Baildon Green, W.P.W. Both Oct. 
T. prudens Cambr. Cottingley Woods, under Nardus, W. P. W. 
Microneta rurestris C. L. Koch. $. Calverley, Jan., S. M. 

Ilkley, W. R. B., Aug. Bingley Woods, R. B. 
Sintula cornigera Bl. Bingley Woods, R. B. and W. P. W. 
CEdothorax fuscus Bl. ^. Harden and Baildon Green. Oct., 

W. P. W. S- Bingley Woods, Oct. R. B. 

1911 Jan. 1. 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 

(E. agrestis Bl. $. Harden, Sept. W. P. W . Bingley Woods, 

Oct. R. B. 
Erigone promiscua Cambr. $. Harden, May. W. P. W. 
E. atra Bl. $. Haystack debris, Moorhead, May. W. P. W. 

Ilkley, Aug. W. R. B. Harden, Oct. W. P. W. 
Dicymbium nigrum Bl. <$ and $. In grass and on flypaper, 

Moorhead, Shipley, Jan. W. P. W. $. Calverley, Feb; 

S. M. 

D. tibiale Bl. $. Cottingley Woods, Sept. W. P. W. 

Enidia bituberculata Wid. $. Malham, June. T. S. Harden, 

R. B. and W. P. W. 
Pocadicnemis pumilus Bl. $. Calverley Woods, Feb. S. M. 

Harden, Sept. and Oct. W. P. W. 
Metopobactrus prominulus Cambr. Ilkley, Sept. W. R. B. 
Styloctetor penicillatus Westr. $ and $. Harden, Oct. W. P. W. 
Cnephalocotes inter jectus Cambr. Bingley Woods. Oct. R. B. 
Caledonia evansii Camb. Ilkley, Sept. W. R. B. 
* W alckenaera obtusa Bl. $. Calverley, Mar. S. M. 
Tetragnatha solandrii Scop. Ilkley, Sept. W. R. B. 
Epeira pyramidata Clerck. Beaten from hazel bushes, Grass 

Woods (Mr. Carter). 

E. cucitrbitina Clerck. Shipley Glen, June. W. P. W. 

Pirata piraticus Clerck. $. Ben Rhydding, May, Bradford 

Salticus scenicus Clerck. In straw from packing case in labora- 
tory at Sewage Works, Bradford, Jan. (Mr. Reddy). 
Ilkley, June, Mr. Ashworth. W. R. B. 

Euophrys erraticus Walck. Earby to Gargrave. June. F. B. 


f Liobunum blackwallii Meade. Harden Beckfoot, Oct. R. B. and 

W. P. W. 
Phalangium saxatile C. L. Koch. Bingley Woods, Oct. R. B. and 

W. P. W. 
Platybunus triangularis Herbst. Calverley, Mar. S. M. Earby 

to Gargrave, June, F. R. 
Megabunus insignis Meade. V. C. H. Malham, June. T. S. 

Rawthey Valley, June. F. B. 
Oligolophiis morio, var. uvnigerum [V.C.H.] R. H. M. 
O. ephippiatus C. L. K. [V.C.H.] R. H. M. 


Dysdera crocota C. L. K. $. June, Bolton Abbey. Mr. Roose. 
New to W. Riding. 

Harpactes hombergii Scop. Imm., July. Collyer's Wood, Moor- 
head, Shipley. W. P. W. 

* New to County- 
f New to West Riding. 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 73 

Clubiona lutescens Westr. Imm. $ July. Harden Beckf<>< >t Lane, 

Bingley. W. P. W. $ Sept. 28th. Under dead leaves in 

Cottingley Wood. W. P. \Y. 
C. pallid ula Clerk. 9 June, under Erica cornea in Salt aire Park. 

W. P. W. 9, July nth, Keighley Moor. R. B. 
Agroeca proxima Cambr. 9 Sept., at Guisburn. F. R. 
Cicurina cinerea Panz. 9 with cocoon, Aug. Hirst Wood, 

Shipley. Collected by Norman Airey. New to W. Riding. 
Theridion pictum Hahn. $, April, Bradley Gill, near Skipton. 

W. P. W. New to W. Riding. 
Robertas neglectus Cambr. $. August, Black Hills, near Bingley, 

under dead leaves at the roots of grass. W. P. W. 
Linyphia hortensis Sund. <$ and imm. 9> April, Bradley Gill, 

near Skipton. W. P. W. June, Janet Force, Malham, 

4 <£ and 5 $. W. F. and XV. P. XV. July, $, Grass Woods. 

W. P. W. 
L. obscurus Bl. July, 9 Grass Woods. XV. P. W. 
* Leptyphantes angulatus Cambr. June, 2 9 Malham Tarn. W. F. 
Porrhomma pygmaeum Bl. Aug., 9 Rivock, near Keighley. R.B. 
Mengia scopigera Grube. Valley of Desolation, Bolton Woods. 

1 o , 2 Qs New to W. Riding. 
Hilaira excisa Cb. June, £, Malham Tarn. W. F. 
Microneta conigera Cambr. June, several <§ and 9 Janet Force. 

W. F. and W. P. W. July, 9, Hirst Wood Shipley. W. P. W. 
(Edothorax gibbosus Bl. June, $, Collyer Wood, Moorhead, 

Shipley. W. P. W. 
Enidia cornuta Bl. July, <$, Malham. W P. W. 
Dismodicus bifrons (BL). June, $, Janet's Cove. W. F. and 

XX. P. W. £, Moorhead to Cottingley. W. P. W. July, 

Grass Woods. $, common, XV. P. W. 
Diplocephalus permixtits Cambr. June, $, Malham Tarn. W. F. 
*Entelecara trifrons Cambr. June, 1 $ and 2 $, Malham Tarn. 

W. F. 
Minyriolus pusillus Wid. June, 9, Malham Cove. W. P. W. 
Cnephalocotes obscurus Bl. Aug., $, Black Hills (Bingley), W.P.W. 
Tapinocyba subitanea Cambr. Aug, $, under bracken at 

Howden (near Keighley). XV. P. W. 
T. pattens Cambr. Sept. 28th, 9. Cottingley Wood, under dead 

leaves. W. P. W. 
Wideria cucullata C. L. K. Sept. 28th, 9, Cottingley Wood, under 

dead leaves. XV. P. W. 
Ceratinella brevipes Westr. Sept., 9- Black Hills, near Bingley, 

under dead leaves. W. P. W. 
Epeira umbratica Clerck. Aug., 9, Denton. Mr. J. T. Ashworth. 
E. cornuta Clerck. 9» J une > Morton Moor. XV. P. W. 9, J u b' 

nth, Keighley Moor. R. B. 
Lycosa palustris Linn. June, Malham, 9, Mr. Jowett. ^ anc ^ ? 

Goredale Scar and Beck. XV. F. and W. P. W. 

1911 Jan. 1. 

74 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 

Total additions for the year, 29 to date, November 9th, 1910. 

The initials of the recorders : — 

R. B.— Mr. Rosse Butterfield. F. B.— Mr. Fred Booth. 

S. M.— Mr. S. Margerison, F. R.— Mr. Fred Rhodes. 

T. S.— Mr. T. Stringer. R. H. M.— Dr. Meade. 

W. R. B.— Mr. Ruskin Butterfield. W. F.— Mr. W. Falconer. 

The following Committee was elected for 191 1 : — 

Chairman — W. Falconer, Slaithwaite. 

Convener — T. Stainforth, B.A., Hull. 

Representative on Executive — T. Stainforth, B.A., Hull. 

Representative on Committee of Suggestions — T. Stainforth, 

Other Members — W. P. Winter, B.Sc, Shipley ; E. A. Parsons, 

Hull ; W. J. Fordham, M.B., Selby ; H. C. Drake, 

Scarborough ; W. D. Roebuck, Leeds ; C. B. Walsh, 

B.Sc, Middlesbrough. 

Committee of Suggestions for Research.— A meeting of this 
Committee will be held in the new year. 

The following are elected for 1911 : — 

Chairman — P. F. Kendall, M.Sc, Rosedene, Weetwood, Leeds, 

Convener — T. W. Woodhead, Ph.D., Huddersfield. 

Representative on Executive — Professor P. F. Kendall. 

Representatives of Committees and Sections — J. W. Carter, 
Bradford; S. H. Smith, York; W. Hewett,. 
York; Cosmo Johns, Sheffield ; W. West, Bradford ;. 
W. Ingham, York ; E. Hawkesworth, Leeds ; God- 
frey Bingley, Leeds ; A. Whitaker, Barnsley ; S. 
Margerison, Leeds ; J. A. Hargreaves, Scarborough; 
Rosse Butterfield, Keighley ; W. Harrison Hutton, 
Leeds ; H. Culpin, Doncaster ; W. Wilson, Colne ; 
with Dr. W. G. Smith, Edinburgh. 

The Yorkshire Micro-Zoology and Micro-Botany Committee. 

During the year one of the members of the Committee, Mr. M. H. 
Stiles, made an important contribution to the British Association 
Sheffield Handbook ; and Mr. R. H. Philip and others have made 
a few interesting records. It is hoped during the coming year 
to reorganise the Committee, and with the help of new members, 
to carry on the excellent work which has been done in the past. 

The Committee for 1911 is as follows : — 

Chairman — M. H. Stiles, 2 Frenchgate, Doncaster. 

Convener— R. H. Philip, Hull. 

Representative on Executive — H. Moore, Rotherham. 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, 1910. 75 

Representative on Committee of Suggestions — W. West, Brad- 

Other Members — J. N. Coombe, Sheffield, Prof. A. Denny, 
Sheffield, F. W. Mills, Huddersfield ; G. Howard, 
Rotherham ; T. Howard, Bradford ; Mark L. Sykes, 
Leeds ; and J. W. H. Johnston, Thornhill. 

Soppitt Memorial Library. — Dr. T. W. Woodhead writes :— 
We are indebted to the kindness of Mr. C. Crossland, F.L.S., for 
a number of interesting additions to the library during the present 
year, especially papers dealing with Yorkshire fungi. Twenty- 
eight papers are included in the gift, and consist of reports of 
the Fungus Forays from 1896 to 1907, held at Grassington, 
Selby, Barnsley, Harewood, Mulgrave, Cadeby, Arncliffe, Helm- 
sley, Rokeby, Maltby, Farnley, Tyas, Bolton, and Masham. Others 
deal with New Fungi at Halifax ; West Yorkshire and new 
British Fungi, also Coprophilous Fungi, Mollisia cinerea and its 
varieties ; the. Study of Fungi in Yorkshire, and Plants of Pecket 
Wood, by Jas. Bolton. 

British Association. — Mr. Sheppard attended both Conferences 
of Delegates from the corresponding Societies, at the British 
Association Meetings, at Sheffield, in September. The first of these 
was presided over by Dr. Tempest Anderson, and Mr, F. Balfour 
Browne opened a discussion on the best method of making natural 
history records. Your secretary advocated the Watsonian vice- 
county method, as adopted by the Union, and it was admitted 
by the reader of the paper that with regard to the work of the 
Union, and its records in its journal, " The Naturalist," he had 
nothing but praise. It was suggested that a Committee of 
biologists be formed to recommend a definite system on which 
collectors should record their captures. 

The second meeting was presided over by Prof. Kendall, and 
a paper was read on the damage to roads by motor cars. 

This subject seemed hardly suitable for the Conference, 
which probably accounted for the poor attendance. The Chair- 
man introduced the question of the penny-wise and pound- 
foolish policy which had been adopted by the Treasury, of in- 
creasing the cost of the hand-coloured Geological Survey Maps : 
a subject dealt with in the Editorial Column of " The Naturalist " 
last March. The meeting expressed very strong views on the 
matter, and steps are being taken to endeavour to re-instate the 
former prices of the maps. 

"The Naturalist" has regularly appeared at the beginning of 
each month, and has again devoted space to comments and notes 
of general interest, to reviews of books, and provincial scientific 
societies' publications ; there have also been the usual references 

1911 Ja 11, I. 

76 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 

to and criticisms of papers of interest to northern naturalists. 
A further instalment of the " Prominent Yorkshire Workers " 
series, which was started some years ago, has been contributed ; 
this year the subject of the memoir being our past-president, Mr. 
•Charles Crossland. 

In the 89 pages devoted to geological subjects, we find the 
names of Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S., Mr. G. C. Crich, of the 
British Museum ; Prof. Kendall, Dr. Wheelton Hind, and Messrs. 
•Cosmo Johns, Stather, Burton, Culpin, Sheppard, and others. 
The botanical notes, containing 78 pages, include papers by Drs. 
Woodhead, Smith, Rankin, Parsons, Keegan, and Messrs. J. F. 
Robinson, Crossland, Elgee, Cheetham, Cryer, Druce, F. A. Lees, 
Ingham, and others. 

The arachnologists come next, and the fact that they occupy 
no fewer than 58 pages, is some indication of the growing interest 
in this usually neglected order, thanks to the work of Mr. W. 
Falconer and his followers. 

The ornithologists fill nearly 44 pages, with notes from Messrs. 
Wade, St. Quintin, Fortune, H. E. Forrest, Booth, Butterfield, and 

Messrs. G. T. Porritt, Parkin, Thompson, Winter, Silverlock, 
Morley and other entomologists occupy 35 pages; there are 22 pages 
devoted to general Zoology, by Messrs. Irving, Clarke, Friend, 
Stainforth, Woods, and others ; there are 18 oages of general 
articles, by Messrs. Lamplugh, Auden, and Armstrong ; 10 pages on 
Pre-historic Archaeology, principally by Mr. Sheppard ; 6 on 
Micro-botany, by Mr. Philip and others ; n on Mammals, by 
Messrs. Fortune, Booth, Shuffrey, Whitaker, Cocks, etc. ; and a 
similar number on Conchology, by Messrs. Roebuck, Sanderson, 
and others. 

Hand-Coloured Geological Maps. — The following resolution, 
passed unanimously at a meeting of the Executive of the Union 
held at Leeds in November, was confirmed by the General 
Committee held at Middlesbrough: — "That the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union earnestly deplores the decision of the Director 
of H.M. Stationery Office to raise the price of the hand-coloured 
edition of the maps of the Geological Department to a figure that 
is practically prohibitive of their purchase, except by persons or 
institutions upon whom their acquisition is imperative. The 
Union believes that this action is most detrimental to the interest 
of every branch of science concerned with the investigation of the 
geological structure of the country, and of such subjects as Agri- 
culture and Ecological Botany; and that in thus withholding from 
the public cheap and easy access to the results of the Geological 
Survey, the objects of the Survey are, in a large measure, de- 
feated, and the cost of this Department of the public service 
deprived of much of its justification." 


Yorkshire Naturalists Union : Annual Report, 19 10. 77 

The Presidency for 1911 has been accepted by Dr. Alfred 
Harker, M.A., F.R.S., of St. John's College, Cambridge. 

The Union wishes to record its indebtedness to its retiring 
President. Prof. A. C. Seward, M.A., F.R.S., of Cambridge, for 
his services during the year. 

Other Officers— In addition to the President, Divisional 
Secretaries, Local Treasurers, etc., already referred to, the follow- 
ing officers of the Union were elected for 1911 : — 

Delegate to the British Association — Mr. T. Sheppard. 

Auditors — Messrs J. W. Stather and J. F. Robinson. 

Hon. Treasurer — Mr. H. Culpin, Doncaster. 

Hon. Secretary — Mr. T. Sheppard, Hull. 


Affiliated with the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, with the 
addresses of the Secretaries. 

Barnsley Naturalists' Society. — H. Wade, 10 Pitt Street, Barn ;ley. 
Bootham School Natural History Society. — T. H. Knight, Boothanv. 

School, York. 
Bradford Scientific Association. — A. Smith, Springfield, Guisley, near 

Bradford Natural History and Microscopical Society. — F. Jowett, 

2 Vincent Street, Bradford. 
Barnoldswick and Earby Scientific Society. — F. J. Garratt, 20 Mosley 

Street, Barnoldswick. 
Cleveland Naturalists' Field Club. — F. Elgee, 23 Kensington Road, 

Craven Naturalists' Association. — T. H. Holmes, 20 Castle View Terrace, 

Crosshills Naturalists' Society. — J. Holmes, 9 Campbell Street, Crosshills. 
Darlington and Teesdale Naturalists' Field Club. — Prof. A. C. Dixon, 

12 Kendrew Street, Darlington. 
Doncaster Grammar School Natural History Society. — H. V. Corbett, 

9 Priory Place, Doncaster. 
Doncaster Scientific Society. — G. H. Greenslade, Eastrield, Doncaster. 
East Riding Nature Study Association. — W. J. Algar, School House, 

Lockington, near Beverley. 
Elland Naturalists' Society. — G. H. Barrett, 111 Park Road, Elland. 
Goole Scientific Society. — T. W. Hiley, 28 North Street, Goole. 
Greetland and West Vale Naturalists' Society. — W. Moore, 15 Crossbill, 

Halifax Scientific Society. — F. Barker, 1 1 Hall Street, Halifax. 
Hebden Bridge Literary and Scientific Society. — E. B. Gibson, Croft 

Terrace, Hebden Bridge. 
Heckmondwike Naturalists' Society. — G. W. Parker, 13 Vernon Rd., 

Huddersfield Naturalists' and Photographic Society. — C. Mosley, 213 

Lockwood Road, Lockwood, Huddersfield. 
Hull Co-Operative Field Naturalists' Club. — E. Pittaway, 4 Henley 

Villas, Adderburv Grove, Beverley Road, Hull. 
Hull Junior Field Naturalists' Club. — A. J. Moore,. 9 Brook Street, Hull. 
Hull Geological Society. — J. W. Stather, Brookside,. Newland Park. Hull. 

1911 Jan. 1. 

j8 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1910. 

Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' Club. — T. Stainforth, The 

Museum, Hull. 
Honley Naturalists' Society. — A. Booth, 19 Oldfield Buildings, Honley, 

near Huddersfield. 
Leeds Conchological Club. — F, Booth, 18 Queen's Road, Shipley. 
Leeds Co-Operative Naturalists' Field Club. — J. B. Drake, 54 North- 
brook Street, Chapeltown, Leeds. 
Leeds Geological Association. — E. Hawkesworth, Sunnyside, Crossgates, 

Leeds Naturalists' Club and Scientific Association. — C H. B. Turner, 

37 Sholbroke Place, Leeds. 
Lindley Naturalists' and Photographic Society. — G. Kaye, 66 Rock 

Terrace, Lindley, Huddersfield. 
Malton Naturalists' Society. — R. H. Smithson, 17 Yorkersgate, Malton. 
North Eastern Railway Natural History and Scientific Society. — 

W. Hewett, 12 Howard Street, York. 
■Ovenden Naturalists' Society. — E. Roberts, 16 Melbourne Street, Lee 

Mount, Halifax. 
Ravensthorpe Naturalists' Society. — W. Wood, 2 Union Street, Ravens- 

thorpe, Dewsbury. 
Rotherham Naturalists' Society. — G. Howard, Sitwell Vale, Moorgate, 

Scarborough Field Naturalists' Society. — Miss M. Miers, 31 New 

Queen Street, Scarborough. 
Scarborough Philosophical and Archaeological Society. — E. A. Wallis, 

Springfield, Scarborough. 
Sheffield Junior Naturalists' Society. — H. H. Proctor, 17 Wadsborough 

Road, Sheffield. 
South-West Yorkshire Entomological Society. — J. Hooper, Grosvenor 

Terrace, Middleton, near Wakefield. 
Sheffield Naturalists' Club. — C. Bradshaw, Public Museum, Sheffield. 
Spen Valley Literary and Scientific Society. — A. Moore, Booth Road, 

Thirsk and District Naturalists' Field Club. — J. E. Hall, Market Place, 

Wakefield Naturalists' Society. — A. Price, 20 Northfield Terrace 

York and District Field Naturalists' Society. — V. G. F. Zimmerman, 

7 Portland Street, York. 

Total number of members belonging to the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 419 

Total number of Subscribing Societies . . . . . . . . . . 43 

Total number of members belonging to Societies affiliated with the 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union . . ' . . . . . . . . 3449 

Financial Statement. — The^following is the Hon. Treasurer's 
statement of the accoonts : — 

Yorkshire Naturalists Union: Annual Report, igio. 79 

12 months to November 30, 1910. 


Members' Annual Subscriptions 
Levies from Associated Societies . . 

Special Appeal 

Sales of Publications — Transactions 

Naturalist " — 
Recognition fee 

£ s. d. 

90 U' t; 

1 1 4 


£ s. 


no n 


12 18 


St s 

ii 12 


i) 16 


Balance, being expenditure of year 
in excess of income 

10 6i 


L s. 

■ Expenses of Meetings 17 lti 

Printing and Stationery (General A/c) 28 1 
Postages, Telegrams, etc. (Hon. Sec- 
retary's Account) 23 9 

Postages of Annual Report, 1909 .. 13 
Clerkage (Hon. Secretary's Account) 20 
Rent, etc., of Room, Hull . . . . 6 17 

Printing and Stationery (Hon. 

Treasurer's Account. 1 16 

Postages (Hon. Treasurer's Account) 1 8 
Cost of Publications : — 
Annual Report, 1909 — 
£12/13/0 less provision 
of £12/-/- in previous 

statement £0 13 6 

Annual Report, 1910 (es- 
timate) 13 

13 13 

" Naturalist " 

Subscribers .. ..£100 15 
Life Members' Copies 7 5 

Exchanges 3 

Extra cost and post- 
age of special numbers 4 19 

Binding 19 

Odd numbers and sun- 
dries 117 6 

119 5 

£233 11 :>A 

£233 11 3* 

BALANCE SHEET, November 30, 1910. 


£ s. d. 
Accounts due from Union — 

" Naturalist" . . 121 13 8 
Annual Report 1909 

and Postage . . 13 It; 6 

Sundries .. .. 18 18 10 

Annual Report, 1910 (estimate) 
Life Members' Account 
" Hey " Legacy Account 
Subscriptions received in advance 









£210 10 6 

Cash at Bank 

Cash with Hon. Sec- 



Subscriptions in Arrears : — 
Prior to 1910 .. 8 

For 1910 £39 13 

Less : Unrealis- 

able amounts 15 15 

23 18 

Balance, being excess 

of Liabilities over 

Assets, Dec. 1st, 

1909 102 18 04 

Add : Expenditure in 

excess of income,19 10 2 10 64 

£ s. d. 

12 18 3 

Note :— The Union has a stock of Publications, and there is also a liability on Life 
Members' A/c, not included above. 
30/11/10. H . CULPIN, Hon. Treasurer. 

T. S. 



The Transactions of the Eastbourne Natural History, Scientific and 
Literary Society (N.S., Vol. IV., Pt. III., 1909-10, 87 pp.), besides several 
short papers of general interest, contain a number dealing with the East- 
bourne area. Amongst these are ' The Older Pre-historic Races of Sussex,' 
by W. J. Lewis Abbott ; ' the South Downs,' by J. H. A. Jenner ; ' Some 
Notes on the Eastbourne Flora," by E. J. Bunnett ; 'Ground-nesting 
Birds,' by E. J. Bedford ; and ' Old Sussex Ironwork,' by W. Ruskin 

The Transactions and Journal of Proceedings of the Dumfriesshire 
and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society (N.S. Vol. XXI., 
1908-9) have recently been issued. The volume contains 346 closely- 
printed pages, which contain reports of the Society's meetings and excur- 
sions, as well as abstracts of the various papers read at the Society's 
meetings. These deal with natural historv, historical, botanical, meteoro- 
logical and general subjects, by various well-known writers. The volume 
is a substantial record of a year's work. 

The Proceedings of the Liverpool Geological Society (Vol. XL, Pt. I., 
1909-ro) are edited by Air. J. H. Milton, and contain five important papers. 
The first is the Presidential Address of Mr. H. C. Beasley, in which he refers 
to the geological wotk accomplished by amateurs. There is an excellent 
address by Dr. J. W. Judd, on ' The Triumph of Evolution : a Retrospect 
of Fifty Years ' ; Mr. T. H. Cope has a paper ' On the Recognition of 
an Agglomerate (Bala Volcanic Series) ' ; Mr. W. Hewitt describes an 
excavation in the Keuper Marl in Liverpool, and Mr. C. B. Travis describes 
some Borings and a Buried Pre-glacial Valley near Burscough. There is 
also the usual record of meetings, balance-sheet, etc. 

The South-Eastern Naturalist for 1910, being the Transactions of the 
South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies (lxxvii. -f 94 pp., 3/6 net. 
London : Elliott Stock) is an unusually interesting volume, and includes 
a record of the Guildford Congress. The ' Museum Notes ' are illustrated 
by several blocks of pre-historic implements. The Presidential Address 
of Prof. E. A. Gardner deals with ' The Criteria of Artistic Progress.' 
Mr. H. Bury describes ' The Relations of the River Wey to the Blackwater 
and the Aran ' ; Mr. E. A. Martin gives the ' Results of Dew-Pond In- 
vestigation ' ; Mr. J. G. N. Clift describes ' The Pilgrim's Way between 
Farnham and Alburv ' ; Mr. V. Martin has a useful paper on ' The Inter- 
pretation of the Maps of the XVIth and XVIIth centuries ' ; Mr. O. H. 
Latter describes the Charterhouses at Godalming, and Mr. A. R. Horwood 
has a lengthy paper on ' The Extinction of Cryptogamic Plants.' 

The Proceedings and Transactions of the Liverpool Biological Society, 
Vol. XXIV. (1909-10). Liverpool, 360 pp. 21/-. 

This report contains the usual excellent record of a good year's bio- 
logical work. There is an abstract of Mr. R. Newstead's Presidential 
Address, ' Some Notes on the Natural History of Jamaica ; ' Prof. W. A. 
Herdman contributes the Twenty-third Annual Report of the Liverpool 
Marine Biological Committee and their Biological Station at Port Erin, 
and Prof. Herdman, with Messrs. A. Scott and J. Johnstone, give their 
Report on the Investigations carried on during 1909, in connection with 
the Lancashire Sea-fisheries Laboratory at the University of Liverpool, 
and the Sea-Fish Hatchery at Piel, near Barrow. Under these headings 
is a review of an enormous amount of original work, of a quality far ex- 
ceeding what might be judged from the somewhat official nature of the 
titles. ~" The reports also are illustrated by numerous sketches, etc., 
in the text, plates; diagrams, and maps. There is a series of illustrations 
of plankton, the development of the Plaice, etc. Amongst the papers 
mention might be made of ' Fish Hatching at Piel,' by Mr. A. Scott ; 
• Internal Parasites of Fishes from the Irish Sea,' by Mr. J. Johnston, 
who also gives a Report on Measurements of Irish Sea Plaice ; ' The Flow 
of YYaterthrough the Irish Seas,' by Dr. H. Bassett ' and ' Report on 
Temperature Observations,' etc., by Mr. J. Johnstone. 


FEBRUARY, 1911. 

No. 649 

(No. 427 of eurrtnt Mtrits). 




T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 




Contents : — 


Notes and Comments:— Birds of the British Islands; Ingleborough ; The Arrival of Man in 
Britain; Gravity and Micro-organisms; Origin of the Trias ; 'Sea Mills'; A'New Force 

in Nature'; Sir Francis Galton 81-84 

The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire (Illustrated)— A. C. Seward, M.A., F.R.S. , etc 85-94 

The Evolution of the Millstone (Illustrated)— J. R. Mortimer 95-99 

The Spotted Sandpiper in Yorkshire (Illustrated)— Walter Greaves 100-101 

The Accident on the Bempton Cliffs— E. W. Wade, M.B.O.U • 102-103 

On Uaio distortus Bean, and Aiasmodoa vetustus Brown, from the Upper 

Estuarine Beds of Gristhorpe, Yorkshire (Illustrated)— J. Wilfrid Jackson, F.G.S. 104-107 

Field Notes 84,103,108 

Museum News 94,99 

Reviews and Book Notices 109-110 

Northern News Ill 

News from the Magazines 112 

Illustrations 85,96,100 

Plates V., VI., VII., VIII., IX., X. 


A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, 
And at Hull and York. 

^Jgiwan Ni*?; 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 


PRICE 6d. NET. BV POST 7d. NET.-, 


Yorkshire JVfaturalists Union. 

President-OXLEY GRABHAM, Esq., M.A., M.B.O.U. 

Two Meetings will be held in Room C 8, at the Leeds Institute, Leeds, at 3-15 p.m., 
and 6-30 p.m. respectively, on Saturday, February 18th, 1911. 

Business : — 
The appointment of Bird-Watchers for ion, and the discussion of other matters 
in connectSi witTi the Yorkshire Wild Birds' and Eggs' Protection Acts Comrmttee. 

' pr short papers (illustrated by lantern-slides or specimens) will be read I by the following 
Gentlemen --Mr Oxley Grabham, M.A., "Yorkshire Freshwater Fishe s Mr. E^ W 
Wade S.O U., " The Chough » ; Mr. Walter Wilson " The Lesser Black-backed Gulls 
at Foulshaw Moss"; Prof. C. J. Patten, MA, M.D Sc.D . F .R.A J. The Plumag 
Changes in Calidris armaria, and their correlation ivrith Sexual Maturity. Messrs^ J sper 
Atkinson Riley Fortune, F.Z.S., H. B. Booth, and others will also contribute short items. 

Any Member or Associate of the Y.N.U. is invited to attend, and to bring notes speci- 
mens intern-slides, etc. ; and is requested to bring forward matters of interest connected 
with the work of the Section, and to take part in any discussion. 

Will Officials of Affiliated Societies kindly notify their Members. 

Any further particulars from H. B. Booth, Ryhill, Ben Rhydding. 

Yorkshire maturalists' TUnion. 

Edited by the Hon. Secretary. 

46 PAGES. 1/- NET. 

Besides containing an account of the Union's field work, etc., during the 
year includes reports on the various aspects of the Fauna and Flora of the 
County by Messrs. R. Fortune, T. H. Nelson, E. W. Wade, W. J. Clarke 
O Grabham, H. B. Booth, A. Whitaker, G. T. Porritt, H. H. Corbett W, 
Denison Roebuck, F. H. Woods, T. W. Woodhead, W. Ingham, C. Crossland 
Cosmo Johns, A. J. Stather, T. Sheppard, J. W. Stather, J. J. Burton, W 
Falconer, W. P. Winter, etc. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS to the Yorkshire Naturalist's Union for 191 
NOW DUE, and should be sent to the Hon. Treasurer, Mr. H. Culpi 
7, St. Mary's Road, Doncaster. 


8 1 



This extraordinary work, as we have already mentioned 
in these columns, is being issued in twenty parts at 7/6 net, by 
Grant Richards, Ltd. Fart XVI. is before us, and, as in the 
previous sections, the letterpress is by Charles Stonham, C.M.G., 
F.Z.S., etc., the illustrations being by Lilian N. Medland, 
F.Z.S. Part XVI. contains descriptions of the Curlew Sand- 
piper, Purple Sandpiper, Knot, Sanderling, the Ruff and 
Reeve, Common Sandpiper, Wood Sandpiper, Green Sand- 
piper, Redshank, Spotted Redshank, Bar-tailed Godwit, 
Black-tailed Godwit, Common Curlew, and Whimbrel. The 
illustrations, etc., are quite up to the standard of previous 


At the astonishingly low price of fourpence, the Geological 
Survey Office has recently published an admirable ' Guide to 
the Geological Model of Ingleborough and District,' which is now 
in the Jermyn Street Museum. The pamphlet is written by Dr. 
Aubrey Strachan, under whose guidance the model, mack- by 
Mr. J. F. Stackhouse, has been geologically coloured. Upon 
it are shewn the geological formations, faults, caves, swallow 
holes, underground water-courses, contour lines, glacial stria-, 
etc. With the guide is a reproduction of a photograph of the 
model, and also a coloured plate shewing the various geological 
features. This handbook is the cheapest publication we have 
yet seen from the Geological Survey Office, and it should have 
a large sale. Every visitor to Ingleborough will certainly find 
it useful. 


Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins favours us with a copy of the Huxley 
Memorial Lecture which he delivered before the Royal An- 
thropological Institute recently, the subject being ' The Arrival 
of Man in Britain in the Pleistocene Age. A valuable part of 
the address is the classification of the various remains of 
extinct mammalia which occur in different parts of Britain. 
He sees ' no evidence of Man in Eocene, Miocene, or Pliocene 
Periods. ' He will not admit that Eoliths are the work of 
human hands. The range of the river drift men in England has 
been considerably extended northward on the strength of a 
single specimen found at Huntow, near Bridlington, an illus- 
tration of which is given. Personally, we should like a little 
more evidence than this single specimen affords. As regards 
the antiquity of man in Britain, Prof. Dawkins concludes, 
' the more minutely I examine the events that have taken 
place since man appeared on the earth, the more profoundly am 
I impressed with the vastness of his antiquity, and with the 
futility of any attempt to compute it in terms of years.' 

1911 Feb. 1. 

S2 Notes and Comments. 


At a recent meeting of the Royal Society, Mr. Harold 
Wager read a paper on ' The effect of gravity upon the move- 
ments and aggregation of Euglena viridis Ehrb., and other 
micro-organisms.' This species, and others, when placed in 
shallow vessels or narrow tubes in the dark, become aggre- 
gated into peculiar network-like patterns, or more or less 
well-defined groups. In a narrow tube, placed horizontally 
in the dark, the aggregation takes the form of a series of 
groups which look like green bands crossing the tube from one 
side to the other. Each group shews a constant cyclic up-and- 
down movement, the denser central region moving downwards 
under the influence of gravity, and a lighter peripheral area 
•consisting of organisms moving upwards, mainly by their 
own activity. The aggregation depends upon the number of 
organisms present, their activity, and the depth of the vessel 
in which they are contained, and may persist with its regular 
cyclic movements for several days. The downward movement ap- 
pears to be purely a mechanical one, dependent upon the specific 
gravity of the organism, and is not due to a stimulus which 
-evokes a physiological response, as in geotropism or geotaxis. 
The upward movement is, on the other hand, due partly to the 
activity of the organisms themselves, partly, no doubt, to the 
upward currents set up in the liquid by the friction of the down- 
ward moving stream. The upward movement of the Euglena 
is more or less vertical, and appears to be controlled, so far 
as the orientation of its elongate bodv is concerned, by the 
action of gravity. The aggregation resembles the cohesion 
figures produced when fine sediments are allowed, under certain 
conditions, to settle down slowly in a liquid, and are probably 
brought about much in the same way. The movements of certain 
micro-organisms are apparently controlled, therefore, in a 
purely mechanical fashion by gravity, combined with cohesive 
forces, and this is of advantage to species which, like Euglena, 
are often found in large numbers in a confined space, in that it 
prevents their accumulation in such dense masses as would 
be likely to interfere with their assimilatory and respiratory 


At a recent meeting of the Geological Society, Mr. A. R. 
Horwood read a paper on ' The Origin of the British Trias.' 
He pointed out that during the Triassic period in Britain, 
-deposition, in his opinion, was brought about solely by the 
action of water, and the British Trias is a Delta-system, for 
•during Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic times, deposition 
was mainly in the same area. There is a gradation from the 
J3unter to the Rhretic. The Bunter is known to be of fluviatile 

Notes and Comments. .83 

origin, and there is a continuity from Lower to Upper Trias, 
with an unconformity due to the new mode of formation and 
change in sedimentation. Oscillation and overlapping are 
admittedly due to aqueous agency. The Triassic-outcrop and 
the delta-area of the river Mississippi are closely similar. 
Colouration is original, from below upwards, and not co- 
incident with bedding. The thickness of the Bunter is an 
argument for a subsiding area. The ferruginous types in the 
Carboniferous, Permian, and Trias are alike due to delta con- 
ditions. The Trias is horizontal now, as originally, away from 
any ancient hills which it covers. It is only the skerries that 
are rippled. Screes occur mainly to the south-west of sub- 
merged hills. Sandstones thin out eastward, marls westward, 
and the skerries are on the hills. Rock-salt and gypsum are 
also horizontal and continuous in a linear direction. The 
Keuper gradually merges into the Rhaetic phase, and the latter 
into the Lias. Since the Bunter sediments came from the 
north-west into the Midlands, so probably did the upper 
Trias. Local metamorphic and volcanic rocks may have pro- 
vided some of the heavier mineral?, but, as a whole, their 
source was more distant. The flora and fauna can be grouped 
in provinces around the delta-head of the Trias. These 
considerations point to an aqueous mode of sedimentation in 
a moist and equable climate. 


Museum curators are proverbially peculiar people, and now 
and then startle the world by some great deed. Some, we 
know, are like volcanoes, and break forth into fiery activity 
without any warning, and as quickly subside. Some, however 
seem to plod away and do their work without the aid of fire- 
works. The latest surprise comes from a modest and unassuming 
contributor, whose researches resulted in an article appearing 
in the London Daily News of January 7th, under the head- 
lines ' Sea Mills ; ' ' Remarkable Discovery by Leeds Curator ' ; 
' New Force in Nature ; ' ' Marine Boring Machines at Work.' 
From this we learn that the curator ' has just discovered what 
may prove to be in effect a new force in Nature. Full details 
of the discovery, which is bound to create great interest in 
scientific circles, are to be given at a special lecture, but its 
importance merits more immediate attention. 


It seems that whilst wandering among the rocks in North 
Devon, ' he discovered some borings of an unprecedented char- 
acter, in that they were horizontal in direction, and conical in 
form. Resting in the borings were boulders . . . which the 
tide turned over and over . . . the whole contributed a pheno- 
menon of nature to which ' the discoverer proposes to give 

1911 Feb. 1. 

S4 Field Note. 

the name of sea-mill.' His friends ' regard the discovery, in 
that it throws light upon the problem of cliff formation, of 
i^reat importance to geologists, but the curator, with the 
modesty of the true man of science a curator modest!] is 
inclined to await the judgment of his confederates before 
formulating any definite claims.' He stated, however, that 
' certainlv so far as my experience goes, my discovery does 
relate to a phenomenon of nature hitherto unknown. The 
word " sea-mills," by which I propose to describe it, will, of 
course, also constitute a new term in science, and will, I suppose, 
find mention in the scientific text works of the future.' 


The death of Sir Francis Galton, D.C.L., F.R.S., etc., which 
occurred on the 17th January, severs an interesting link between 
the present and past generations of scientists. Sir Francis 
Gabon's interesting ' Memoirs ' were reviewed in this journal 
some little time ago, and threw much light upon the many- 
sidedness of the author's life. He was grandson of Dr. Erasmus 
Darwin, and cousin to Charles Darwin. It is consequently 
not surprising that Galton turned his attention to the sub- 
jects of heredity and eugenics — his researches in connection 
with which gave him a world-wide reputation. His system 
of identification by means of finger-prints, is also now almost 
universally adopted. He was born at Duddeston, near Bir- 
mingham, in 1822. 

: o : 

Siskins at Hebden Bridge. — On the morning of December 
26th, 1910, whilst walking alongside the stream in Crimsworth 
Dene, Hebden Bridge, I put up from out of the decayed bracken, 
a small party of Siskins. My first impression was that there 
might be half a dozen birds, but on a close investigation, 
after they had settled, I could only find three, one £ and two 
<£s. Thev gave every opportunity lor observation, moving 
to the opposite side of the stream, but only a few paces away, 
and one female came down to the water's edge and drank 
within a few feet of me. The lower part of the stream is 
fringed with alders, but the birds were quite away from them, 
and when 1 disturbed them, they were evidently sheltering 
from a rather blustering wind. For many years I have watched 
these alders for Siskins in winter, with negative results. Thomas 
Allis, in 1844, wrote that this spei it's was common in some 
seasons near Hebden Bridge. The late H. Kerr, Bacup, 
in the Manchester Guardian recorded a party in the Hebden 
Valley, in November, 1893, which is the immediately preceding- 
local occurrence of which there is a record. He added that 
he had observed the species here nearly every winter. — Walter 
Greaves, Hebden Bridge. 




A. C. SEWARD, M.A, F.R.S, etc. 

(Continued from page 8). 

(plates v. and vi). 

The fossil reproduced in figure 3 is one of the specimens 
from the late Professor Williamson's Collection, presented to 
the Cambridge Botany School by Mrs. Crawford Williamson. 
As seen in the photograph, the actual base of the specimen is 
not preserved, but the surface is covered by numerous linear 
bracts bent oxer towards the apex, and forming a protective 

k \- 


Fig. 3. Williamsonia (Lind. & Hutt). From a specimen in the 
Williamson Collection, Botany School, Cambridge. Natural size. 

covering to the oval flower or inflorescence which was originally 
borne at the apex of a fertile branch. The centre, now repre- 
sented by a cavity, was no doubt occupied by a conical mass of 
tissue from which were given off slender seed-bearing appen- 
dages and interseminal scales. Between the broken ends of 
the bracts and the central space the fossil shows an obliquely 
inclined zone, characterised bv numerous radiating lines, which 
may be regarded as the impressions of some of the appendages 
attached to the basal part of the conical axis of the flowering 
branch. Our knowledge of the structure of this type of Cyca- 
dean flower is still very incomplete, and additional specimens 
are urgently needed. 

191 1 Feb 1. 

86 Seward : The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. 

Though our knowledge of the Jurassic Cycads from the 
Yorkshire coast is still far from satisfactory, we are justified 
in asserting that plants of this class played a prominent part 
in the Jurassic vegetation; they were represented by species 
of Otozamites, Ctenis, Nilssonia, and other genera. 

Ginkgoales (Ginkgo and Baiera). The Maiden-hair tree 
of China. Ginkgo biloba, so named by Kaempfer in 1712, and 
needlessly renamed by Smith in 1707 Salisburia adiantifolia, 
though well known in cultivation in Asia, Europe, and America, 
is probably extinct in a wild state. It was formerly included 
with t he Yew as a member of the Taxeae, but since the Japanese 
botanist Hirase, in 1N07. revealed the important fact that the 
male tells of Ginkgo are spirally coiled motile bodies, like those 
of the Cycads and comparable with the male cells of ferns, 
it has been customary to exclude Ginkgo from the Coniferae, 
and to consider it as the sole representative of the group 
Ginkgoales. Before Hirase's discovery it was recognised that 
in several respect- Ginkgo differed from the Taxeae and other 
Conifers, but it was his researches that furnished the strongest 
reason for the institution of a special group. The Maiden-hair 
tree, now regarded in the Hast as a sacred plant and cultivated 
in the groves of temples, is a solitary survivor of a group of 
Gymnosperms which had an almost world-wide distribution 
during the Jurassic era. ' An old Oak,' wrote Robert Louis 
Stevenson in his ' Inland Voyage,' ' that has been growing 
where it stands since before the Reformation, taller than many 
spires, more stately than the greater part of mountains, and 
yel a living thing, liable to sickness and death, like you and me, 
is not that in itself a speaking lesson in history ? But acres and 
acres full of such patriarchs contiguously rooted, their green tops 
billowing in the wind, their stalwart younglings pushing up 
about their knees a whole forest, healthy and beautiful, 
giving colour to the light, giving perfume to the air ; what is 
this but the most imposing piece in Nature's repertorv ? 

The contemplation of a living tree of Ginkgo biloba makes 
our minds reel in their fruitless attempts to grasp the full 
meaning of the antiquity of which it is the embodiment. The 
Maiden-hair tree, which, so far as we know, has persisted with 
but slight modil cation though successive aeons, bridges across 
the enormous gulf between the present and a past inconceivably 
remote. In 1828 Brongniart described some fossil leaves from 
the Yorkshire coast as Cyclopteris digitata, and in the following 
year Phillip- spoke of the same type as Sphenopteris latifolia, 
both authors regarding the impressions as those of a fern. 
Subsequently the true nature of the fossils was recognised, 
and they were referred to the genus Ginkgo. It is futile to 
attempt a specific separation of the numerous forms of Ginkgo 
leaves met with in a fossil state, which can confidently be re- 


Seward : The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. 87 

garded as final. J 11 all probability several species of the genus 
existed in the English Jurassic flora, but in view of the very con- 
siderable range in the degree of dissection of the lamina and in 
the size of the leaves of the surviving species (fig. 4), we cannot 
hope to define with accuracy the boundaries of the several 
species. The importanl fact is that Ginkgo leaves, resembling 
more or less closely those of the recent tree, as well as flowers and 
seeds, are represented in (he Yorkshire Jurassic flora. Leaves 
with the Ginkgo habit, but with a more divided lamina are 
usually placed in the genus Baiera represented by the British 
Jurassic species described by the late Sir Charles Bunbury as 
Baiera gracilis. Other species of the genus have been des- 
cribed, and by many palaeobotanists the common Jurassic 
genus Czekanowskia is considered to be another member of 
the group Ginkgoales, though the evidence for its close relation- 
ship with Ginkgo and Baiera is far from convincing. 

Coniferales. The interpretation of the fragmentary 
records of coniferous twigs is often a well-nigh impossible task. 
Tempted by a resemblance in the form of the leaves, one is 
often inclined to assume a relationship with existing conifers 
which rests on wholly insufficient evidence. I would, however, 
refer more especially to a type of Jurassic Conifer from the 
Yorkshire rocks which can with confidence be assigned to a 
family position. Several years ago Mr. Carruthers described 
some seed-bearing scales in the Leckenby collection, which 
is one of the precious possessions of the Sedgwick Museum at 
Cambridge, as Araucarites Phillipsi : these broadly triangular 
scales with a single median seed are practically identical with 
the cone-scales of some recent species of Araucaria. From 
the Jurassic beds of Stones field, from the Great Oolite of 
Northamptonshire, and from the Coralline Oolite of Malton 
portions of cones have been discovered which afford additional 
evidence of the existence of Araucarites in the Jurassic vegeta- 
tion. In all probability the common Jurassic conifer known 
as Pagiophyttum, or Elatides, Williamsoni represents the leafy 
shoots of an Araucarian plant, the form of the leaves being 
identical with that of the thick crowded leaves of the Norfolk 
Island Pine ( Araucaria excelsa), and other species in the Aus- 
tralian region. Moreover from Upper Liassic beds at Whitby, 
petri ed wood was described as long ago as 1833 by Witham, 
shewing very clearly certain anatomical characters which enable 
us to identify the specimens as belonging to an Araucarian tree. 
It is clear that the genus Araucaria, now confined to a few- 
regions in South America and to Australia, New Caledonia, 
and other islands was in the Jurassic era a common northern 

As yet no examples have been found in the Jurassic rocks 
of Yorkshire of any undoubted species of the Abietineae, the 

1911 Feb. 1. 

88 Seward : The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. 

family of conifers which now plays so prominent a part in the 
floras of northern latitudes. Several species of Conifers are 
recorded from British Jurassic beds, but in most cases they are 
represented only by vegetative twigs, and their systematic 
position cannot be determined with any degree of confidence. 

In the foregoing account I have referred only to a selected 
number of types, my object being to emphasise the need for 
more thorough investigation of the rich and important York- 
shire flora, and to give prominence to the fact that the fossil 
plants already obtained from the English strata have afforded 
uncontrovertible evidence as to the remarkable changes in 
the distribution of groups and genera of plants which have 
taken place since the days of the Jurassic period. 

There remains a word to be said on the flora as a whole, 
both as regards the classes which seem to have been most 
abundantly represented as also in regard to conclusions 
deduced from negative evidence. In dealing with an assem- 
blage of plants collected from different strata in a geological 
series, we are usually hampered by insufficient information 
as to the nature of the sediments from which the individual 
specimens were obtained. Our material consists for the most 
part of waifs and strays of a vegetation which happen to have 
been buried in sand or mud, and to have successfully withstood 
the destructive agencies inseparable from geological change. 
We are able to identify with reasonable precision a proportion 
of the specimens, and to form some idea of the relative abun- 
dance of different genera, but we are not, as a rule, in a position 
to say whether all the plants grew together in a similar situation, 
or whether certain specimens had travelled further than others 
before they came to rest on the floor of the estuary or sea. 
Evidence is seldom available which helps us to distinguish 
between the plants of a vegetation which clothed the higher 
ground, and those which lived at a lower level. The point is, 
that we are not justified in assuming an identical habitat for 
all the plants represented in the sedimentary strata exposed 
in the Yorkshire cliffs. It might be possible, by more intensive 
study of the beds in which the specimens occur, to gain some 
knowledge of the grouping of the plant-associations in the 
ancient flora. 

In a region consisting of high ground abutting on a low- 
lying swampy area, we find associations of plants differing from 
one another both in the species characteristic of each, and, it 
may be, also in the structural features which reflect the strongly 
contrasted conditions in the two environments. So in the 
case of fossil plants, we should like to know whether some forms 
may have journeyed far in hill-fed streams, while others may 
have drifted but a short distance from some lower habitat. 



Fig. 4. Ginkgo biloba L. Leaves of the recent species illustrating 
differences in size and form. (Rather less than half natural size). 

THE .V.I / URAL 1ST, Hill. 

Seward : The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. 89 

It is in regard to such considerations as these that the botanist 
who concerns himself with the floras of the past ought to look 
for assistance from geologists. The palaeobotanist should not 
be content with identifying the specimens submitted to him, 
but he should endeavour to extend his researches beyond the 
limits of mere systematic enquiry. It is important to do one's 
best to compile a list of species which may be cited with con- 
fidence by those who wish to make use of palaeobotanical 
data ; but in favourable circumstances it is possible to advance 
our work a stage further. If we are able to obtain petrified 
specimens in good preservation, we are not only in a much 
better position to ascertain the systematic position of the 
plants, but we have important information placed in our 
hands from which to reconstruct, though it may be in faint 
outline, the conditions under which the plants grew. In the 
case of the rich store of petriP.ed samples of the Palaozoic 
vegetation preserved in the coal seams of Lancashire, York- 
shire, and other parts of England, it has been possible partially 
to revivify the Coal forests, and to form opinions as to the nature 
of the conditions under which the plants carried on their life. 
Having pointed out the need of additional data, and the 
uncertainty of some of our determinations, I pass on to con- 
sider in a few words the general nature of the Jurassic vegetation 
so far as this is possible with the data available. The Yorkshire 
coast flora is characterised by the abundance of Ferns and 
Cycads and certain types of Conifers, but we are not as yet in 
a position to make any definite statement as to the relative 
abundance of these different groups. It is also probable that 
the Ginkgoales played a fairly prominent part in the composi- 
tion of the vegetation. The most interesting fact in regard 
to the Jurassic ferns is that they afford strong presumptive 
evidence in support of the view that their nearest living allies 
are to be sought in the southern hemisphere. As regards the 
Cycads, comparison with recent genera is rendered more 
difficult because of the greater gulf between recent members 
of the group and those which flourished in the Jurassic era. 
There can, however, be no reasonable doubt that the Cycads 
of to-day are derived from an ancient stock which produced 
also Williamsonia and other Jurassic genera. Here, again, the 
recent plants most nearly akin to those of the Mesozoic floras 
are chiefly characteristic of southern and warmer regions. 
The same general statement is applicable to the relation of 
some of the Jurassic conifers to recent types. Finally, in the 
genus Ginkgo of the Jurassic flora, we have a member of a group 
which would probably have ceased to be represented among 
living plants were it not for the fact that the recent species 
has been long held in veneration in the far East as a sacred 
tree. With these southern forms there grew in profusion 

1911 Feb. 1. 

(jo Seward : The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. 

stalwart Equisetums, which afford one of the few instances' 
of a genus still represented by several species in the British 
flora, which can claim a Jurassic ancestry. 

At first sight one might be tempted to infer from this hasty 
sketch that there is clear evidence of a tropical, or at least 
sub-tropical climate in Jurassic Europe. This would, perhaps, 
be a correct conclusion, but it is one which cannot be confi- 
dently made, so far at least, as the botanical evidence is 
concerned. We must bear in mind the fact that among 
living plants very closely allied types, or even one and the same 
species, may flourish under widely different climatic conditions 
as in the case of our familiar Bracken fern, which appears to 
be equally at home on the Yorkshire moors, in Tasmania, in 
tropical Africa, Abyssinia, and elsewhere. The comparison 
of a past with a recent flora is bound up with numerous con- 
siderations in addition to those connected with the comparison 
of existing and extinct species. During the Rhaetic and 
Jurassic eras, and in the succeeding Cretaceous and Tertiary 
epochs, the genus Ginkgo was very widely distributed in Europe. 
As recently as the Lower Tertiary period it existed in what is 
now the west of Scotland, in a form hardly distinguishable 
from the Maiden-hair tree. Are we justified in assuming that 
the living species is a safe criterion as regards power of resistance 
or capabilities of life with which the family was endowed at 
the zenith of its vigour ? Were it possible to learn from the 
Maiden-hair tree what vicissitudes its ancestors passed through 
since the days of the Jurassic period, we might hear of unequal 
competition and gradual migration from northern to southern 
latitudes, and of a retreat which brought the genus within a 
measurable distance of extinction. 

This brings me to an important point : admitting the in- 
sidious dangers of basing conclusions on negative evidence, 
we may, I think, assert with confidence that the Flowering 
plants, that is the Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons which are 
now the dominant class in the vegetable kingdom, were not 
represented in the Jurassic flora. It is true that a single speci- 
men of what looks like a Dicotyledonous leaf is known from 
the Stonesfield Slate, but this does not justify the statement 
that the flowering plants were then in existence. Even if this 
Stonesfield impression is that of a true Dicotyledon, there is 
not a particle of evidence pointing to the occurrence of the 
highest class of plants in the Jurassic flora as represented in 
the Yorkshire strata. This fact alone — that the Angiosperms 
had not made their appearance, or to be on the safe side, if 
they had appeared they occupied a very subordinate position or 
were confined to habitats beyond the range of those agencies to- 
which we owe the preservation of the Jurassic plants entombed 
in the Yorkshire beds — has an important bearing on the question 


Seward : The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. 91 

of our ability to draw conclusions as to climate from a com- 
parison of Jurassic and recent floras. Darwin wrote in a letter to 
Bentham in 1869, ' I regret whenever a chance is omitted of 
pointing out that the struggle with other plants (and hostile ani- 
mals) is far more important ' than are soil and climate in deter- 
mining the distribution of plants. We are totally unable to 
estimate the significance and the far-reaching consequence of the 
advent of the highly elaborated type of plant represented by 
the flowering plants. It is such considerations as these which 
help us to realise the complexity of the factors concerned in the 
sequence of events which have happened since the fragmentary 
fossils of the Yorkshire cliffs played their part in the machinery 
of living forest trees, or contributed to the needs of lower- 
growing Cycads or still humbler plants. 

I now pass to the concluding section of my Address, namely 
a brief review of the relation of the Jurassic flora of the north- 
east of England to floras which flourished in other parts of the 
world during different phases of the Jurassic period. It is 
hardly necessary to point out that in treating of the geographical 
distribution of Jurassic floras, the application of the term 
Jurassic or even Inferior Oolite to floras from different regions 
does not carry with it the assumption of contemporaneity. 
All that we can do is to compare floras obtained from homo- 
taxial rocks (to use Huxley's term) in order to ascertain 
whether or not there is any evidence for supposing that in 
the Jurassic era, as at the present day, there was a regional 
differentiation of the world into botanical provinces. It would 
involve us in a mass of detail were I to enter fully into this 
question, but by selecting a few genera of plants characteristic 
of the Jurassic flora of Yorkshire, and noting the records of 
their occurrence elsewhere, enough evidence may be put 
forward to furnish some justification for the belief that the 
Jurassic vegetation was remarkably uniform. In this incom- 
plete survey are included a few floras assigned to the Rhaetic 
or Liassic series which, though not referable with precision to 
a particular horizon, are clearly older than the Jurassic flora 
of Yorkshire. It is important to notice that in their general 
fades, Rhaetic floras do not differ very materially from those 
of the Liassic and Oolitic periods. Similarly, the floras obtained 
from rocks at the base of the Cretaceous system conform in 
general features to those of Jurassic age. The floras selected 
for brief consideration are the following : — 1 — Yorkshire ; 
2 — Bornholm ; 3 — Poland ; 4 — Turkestan ; 5 — Siberia ; 6 — 
Korea ; 7 — Japan ; 8 — Franz Josef Land and Spitsbergen ; 
9 — Greenland ; 10 — Oregon and Oroville ; 11 — Louis Phillipe 
Land ; 12 — India ; 13 — Australia. 

I can best illustrate the geographical range of some of the 

1911 Feb. 1. 

<)2 Seward : The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. 

Yorkshire types by means of a table of geographical distribu- 
tion, and a map shewing some of the many localities from 
which Jurassic plants are recorded, selected from the 
point of view of emphasising the world-wide occurrence of 
remains of Jurassic floras. The floras chosen represent a 
comparatively small number of those which have been des- 
cribed by different authors. It must also be clearly stated 
that the records given in the table must not be regarded as 
implying that the Yorkshire plants are represented in the 
various localities by specifically identical forms ; while there can 
be no doubt as to specific identity in certain cases, the dis- 
tribution records as a whole are intended to draw attention 
to the occurrence in the selected regions of similar types, and 
not in all cases identical species. The plants chosen are not 
by anv means peculiar in their wide distribution, other British 
types might be cited in further illustration of the general 
uniformity of the Jurassic vegetation. The numbers printed 
on the map are repeated in the table of distribution. 

The distribution records given in the accompanying table 
are based on the figures and descriptions contained in the fol- 
lowing publications: — 

Bornholm. Moller, H. ' Bidrag till Bornholms Fos^ila 
Flora,' Part I., Lunch 1902 ; Pt. II., Stockholm, 1903. 

Poland. Raciborski, M. ' Flora Kopalna, Cracow,' 1894. 
Turkestan. Seward, A. C. Jurassic plants of Caucasia 
and Turkestan. ' Mem. Com. Geol. St. Petersburg, vol. 
XXXVIII., 1907. 

Siberia. Heer, 0. ' Flora Fossilis Arctica,' vols. IV.-VL, 

Korea. Yabe, H. Mesozoic plants from Korea. ' Journ. 
Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Japan,' vol. XX., 1905. 

Japan. Yokoyama, M. Jurassic plants from Kaga, 
Hida, and Echizen. ' Journ. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Japan,' 
vol. III., 1889 

Japan. Yokoyama, M. Mesozoic plants from Kozuke, 
Kii, Awa, and Toza, Ibid., vol. VII., 1894. 

Spitsbergen and Franz Josef Land. Kathorst, A. G. 
' Zur fossilen Flora der Polarlander Kongl. Svensk. Vet.- 
Akad. Hand, Yol. XXX., 1897.. 

Newton, E. T '., and J. J. H. Tcall. Xotes on a collection 
of Rocks and Fossils from Franz Josef Land, made by the 
Jackson-Harmsworth Expedition during 1895-96. ' Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc.', Vol. LIIL, 1897. 

Nathorst, A. G. The Xorwegian Xorth Polar Expedition, 
1893-96, Pt. III. Fossil plants from Franz Joseph Land. 
Christiania and London, 1899. 

Greenland. Hartz, 0. Planteforsteninger fra Cap 
Stewart i Ostgronland, 1896. 


Seward : The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. 


Oregon and California. Ward, L. F. Status of the 

Mesozoic floras of the United States. I. and II. (U.S.A. 
Geol. Surv.), 1900 and 1905. 

Louis Phillipe Land. Nathorst, A. G. Sur la flore 
fossile antarctique ; Compt. Rend. Paris, June 6th, 1904. 

India. Feistmantel, (). Jurassic Flora of Kach, etc. 
' Mem. Geol. Surv. India,' 1876, 1877. 

Australia. Seward, A. C. On a collection of Jurassic 
Plants from Victoria. ' Rec. Geol. Surv. Victoria/ Vol. I., 
Pt. III., 1904. 

Another important point is that the age of the floras from 
which the examples are drawn is not in all cases the same. 

















1 1 



— ■_ - 
£ en 



(U — 

- a 

: _ 


PL, C 




Eqirisetites , cf. /:. columnaris . . 








Sagenopteris, cf. 5. Phillipsi 













( ladophlebis , cf. C. denticulata 






Coniopteris, cf. C. hyvnenophyl- 










Dictyophyllum, cf. I), rugosum 




Laccopteris, cf. L. polypodioides 








Indites, cf. T. Williamsoni 






Arancarites, cf. A. Phillipsi .. 







Br achy phy Hum, cf. H. mamillare 












Podozamites, cf. /'. lanceolatus . . 





Ginkgo, cf. G. digitata . . 



Baiera, cf. J!, graeilis . . 



Czekanowskia, cf. C. Murrayana 


Otozamites, cf. 0. obtusus 



Dictyozamites, cf. />. Hawelli . . 





Nilssonia, cf. .V. compta 

lyii Feb. 1. 

•94 Seward : The Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. 

The Bornholm flora is considered by Moller, who has mono- 
graphed the plants, to be Liassic or Rhaetic ; the .Spitsbergen 
and Franz Josef Land plants are from Upper Jurassic beds. 
But, as already stated, there are comparatively few striking 
differences observable in the floras obtained from strata 
ranging from the Rhaetic to the Lower Cretaceous. 

Making due allowance for local differences exhibited by 
the different floras, and for the fact that at the present day, 
despite the well-marked botanical provinces characteristic 
of different latitudes, there are some species which are almost 
cosmopolitan in their range, it is impossible seriously to doubt 
that the vegetation of the Jurassic period was more uniform 
in general facies than is the case with widely separated floras 
at the present day. I hope in the near future to analyse more 
fully the data on which some conclusions may be arrived at in 
regard to the geographical distribution of Rhaetic and Jurassic 
floras. My object now is, primarily, to show that beyond the 
•determination of material collected from a particular locality, 
there are other questions of wider interest which are worthy 
•of more attention than they have hitherto received. In en- 
deavouring to interpret our local records of the rocks, we shall 
do our work more thoroughly and exercise more self-control 
when we are tempted to jump to conclusions without substan- 
tial reasons, if we remember that lists we compile may be utilised 
by students as data on which to base deductions of far-reaching 

Since my election as President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union I have frequently felt myself in a false position ; every 
time I have seen my name printed in a prominent place in 
the notices sent to me from time to time, my conscience has 
reminded me that I serve no useful purpose. If, however, 
I have succeeded by means of this hasty sketch of the Jurassic 
flora in stimulating further research into the ancient herbaria 
of East Yorkshire, I shall feel that I have in some degree 
justified my Presidential existence. 


The Report of the Worcester Museum shews that the museum lectures 
to scholars are still popular. The collection of British Coleoptera has now 
been arranged, and consists of 11,460 specimens (1772 species). Mr. A. 
Strickland iias presented a collection of geological specimens formed by 
the late Hugh E. Strickland. 

The Report of the Sheffield Public Museums is a modest pamphlet of 
12 pp., but includes particulars of some important accpiisitions, notably 
the collections of medals, china and natural history specimens bequeathed 
"by the late Dr. H. C. Sorby. Mr. E. Howarth, the Curator, also favours 
us with copies of his papers on ' Meteorology,' and ' Museums and Art 
Oallery,' reprinted from the British Association Sheffield Handbook. 





The study of anthropology and allied sciences suggests that 
primitive man did not possess the luxury of prepared food of 
any kind. For a long period he would simply feed on raw- 
fruits in their crude condition, in the same way as the lower 
animals, his companions ; and, possibly, man was then very 
little more intellectual than the higher mammals. However, 
even at this early period, he must have possessed some mental 
power superior to that of any of his brute contemporaries ; 
and this, during a slow and lengthy evolution, has produced 
the mighty human achievements of the present day. 

The stone shewn in No. i (Plate VII.) is the embryo, as it 
were, of the matured millstone, shown in No. 14 (Plate VIII.). 

Man's earliest mode of pounding his food was by using a 
natural stone, about the size of his fist, such as the rounded 
-cobble (fig. 1). The sides of this stone are battered and rubbed, 
through having been used in breaking the shells and pounding 
the kernels of wild fruits and other substances, on a stone 
anvil. Moreover, this form of pounder seems to have served, 
at times, as a hammer, etc., as well as a weapon in time of 
need, and it was probably for a long time his only implement. 

While many of these pounders are natural cobbles with 
faces abraded from use, others are entirely artificially shaped, 
such as fig. 2, which seemed to have been newly made, when 
placed where it was found, near the hand of a body, in barrow 
No. 37.* Fig. 3 also seemed to have been new when placed with 
a body in barrow No. 18. As time progressed this globular 
pounder developed into two other forms, viz., the pear-shaped 
(fig. 3) and that with a flat grinding surface (fig. 4) due to rubbing 
and not to pounding. Of the former type, I found three in 
barrow No. 18, each accompanying a body. This form, by 
frequent pounding on the same anvil, developed into the 
pestle and mortar mill (fig. 5) . 

On the other hand the frequent rubbing with the flattened 
stone (fig. 4) , to and fro, as a painter grinds his colours, resulted 
in an elongated hollow being formed on the surface of the 
lower stone, resembling the seat of a saddle ; hence named 
the Saddle Mill (fig. 6). 

The globular and the pear-shaped crushers seem to have 
obtained in East Yorkshire during the Neolithic, and well 

* For particulars of the localities of these barrows see my ' Forty 
Tears' Researches.' — J. R. M. 

19 1 1 Feb. 1. 

qG /. R. Mortimer : The Evolution of the Millstone. 

into the Bronze Age, as no other type, to our knowledge, has 
been found with interments of those periods. 

The flat-faced grinding stone, such as fig. 4, seems to have 
come into use during the latter part of the Bronze Age, as a 
very fine specimen of this type was found associated with a 
bronze spearhead, in the lake dwelling at Ulrome, excavated 
by Mr. Thos. Boynton. This form of mill stands pre-eminent 
among the milling appliances, as it was the first contrivance 
by which grinding, as distinguished from pounding, was 
actually effected, and it was a great advance on the globular 
and pear-shaped crushers. 

Not until we reach the beginning of the early Iron Age do 
we find the revolving quern- (fig. 7)* ; this consisted of two cir- 

cular stones, 10 to 15 inches in diameter ; the upper one being 
pierced in the centre with a funnel-shaped holt , to receive the 
corn to be ground. When in use this stone revolved round 
a wooden or metal pin, fixed in the centre of thejlower stone, 
which was stationary. The motion was supplied by means of 
one or two wooden handles, inserted in holes drilled into oppo- 
site sides of the top stone, and twirled round by hand, as 
shown in fig. 7. The corn to be ground was at the same time 
dropped by hand into the funnel-shaped apperture in the 
upper stone, and the meal fell on to a cloth, or an animal's 
skin, placed to receive it, as shewn in fig. 8. 

The adoption of the circular millstone revolutionized 

* For permission to reproduce this illustration we are indebted to Mr. 
R. Welch, and the Belfast Museum. 



Plate VII. 





Plate VIII. 

v ", -" ' i - v i M 


'-,^i^^<'^;. ,,V 

*&&; * 

; v,. 



/. R. Mortimer : The Evolution of the Millstone. 97 

primitive milling, and remained the essential principle of 
every later form, down to the steel roller mill of our day- In 
most examples the grinding faces are flat ; but occasionally 
the surface of the under stone is convex, and the upper one is 
concave. This form of grinding surface would greatly facilitate 
the delivery of the meal from the mill. 

Next, we have a less simple form of this mill, viz., the pot- 
quern (fig. 8), which consists of a shallow circular stone basin, 
with vertical sides internally, in which the top stone, which 
also has a hole in the centre to receive the corn, was made to 
revolve, as in the preceding example. 

In the rim of this basin-shaped lower stone is a hole through 
which the meal escapes, and falls on to whatever has been 
placed to receive it. These querns are made of almost every 
kind of stone, but in most cases the texture is well adapted 
for grinding purposes, being often of a rough, hard, and porous 

In the earliest stages the grinding surface seems to have 
been practically effected by the porous nature of the stone, 
as no trace of tooling is observable (fig. 9). 

When the natural texture of the stone was not sufficiently 
rough for a purpose of the mealing stone, the first attempt at 
tooling the grinding surface was, as far as I can gather from 
examples discovered in East Yorkshire, to roughen the surface 
by pricking it all over with a pointed tool,* sometimes con- 
centric grooves were scratched on the grinding surface, at little 
distances apart, beginning with a small circle near the centre, 
and increasing the diameter of each succeeding circle until the 
circumference was reached. I possess the top stone of one of 
these querns (fig. 10), with its grinding face so dressed. f This 
stone has been made from a natural boulder of igneous rock, 
very little artificially shaped, except the circular grooves on 
the flat grinding surface. The two holes for handles have 
been chiselled, not drilled, and are oval in section, which is 
rather a rare feature. In most other instances these holes 
have been drilled by a tool having a rotary motion, and, conse- 
quently are circular in section. 

This particular millstone was found near Danes' graves, 
and, very probably, belonged to the people of the early iron 
age, who lived near and interred their dead in these wrongly- 
named Danes' graves. 

The shallow, circular grooving of the grinding surface, 
however, seems soon to have led to a more satisfactory method, 
in which we first find two circular furrows only, confined 

* A fragment of a stone so dressed is in Mr. Morfitt's garden at Atwick. 
f A similarly dressed millstone is in the garden at Thorpe Hall, Robin 
Hood's Bay. 

191 1 Feb. 1. 

98 /. R. Mortimer : The Evolution of the Millstone. 

near the centre of the stone, and supplemented by four furrows,, 
radiating from the centre to the circumference, cutting across 
the two circular ones, as shown in fig. 11. 

In the next example I possess, all the circular furrows are 
discarded, and the dressing is confined to six radiating grooves 
only (fig. 12). From this specimen the radiating furrows in- 
crease in number, as shown in fig. 13, and continue to vary con- 
siderably in number and arrangement, until the most advanced 
form, fig. 14, was reached. 

Before and during Roman times all the millstones were of 
small size, being from 10 to 20 inches in diameter only, and 
were mostly driven by hand power, or occasionally by an ox 
or ass. Water power was probably first applied not long 
before the Romans abandoned this island. Still later, most 
likely about the thirteenth or fourteenth century, the wind- 
mill was introduced, and lastly, steam power was applied in 
about 1700, and now almost entirely supersedes all other motive 
power for driving the millstone. 

Since the introduction of water, wind and steam, the mill- 
stone has been increased in size from 1 foot to 4J feet or more, 
in diameter. But, alack, the water-mills that enliven the 
secluded glens, and the wind-mills that ornament the breezy 
uplands, are fast disappearing, and before long both will be 
things of the past. The long-used millstone is also fast being 
superseded. It was only about the year 1875 that the steel 
roller mill was first introduced, and now it has almost entirely 
replaced the latest form of mealing stone, which, like the 
quern, seems to be doomed as a producer of flour. 

It may be asked what was there to grind in those early 
times, and had our remote ancestors wheat and other grains, 
such as we have now ? 

In the very early days of human existence in East York- 
shire, there would be a somewhat liberal supply of wild fruits, 
such as nuts, kernels, and seeds of the indigenous plants of the 
island, and other substances, the crushing and pounding of 
which would be man's first attempt at preparing his food. 

It is not known when grain was first introduced and eaten 
by man in East Yorkshire, but it was in use during the neolithic 
age, as I possess carbonized grains of wheat taken from an 
interment in a barrow of that age, which, in all probability, 
dates back three to five thousand years. 

How long before that period grain was used as food in East 
Yorkshire it is impossible to say. 

Most likely wheat, which seems to be an exotic, was intro- 
duced into this island from the south or east of Europe, 
through Gaul, at a very early period. Moreover, it is almost 
certain that barley and oats would also be used as food in 
very early times. Yet I have not discovered any trace of either 


/. R. Mortimer : The Evolution of the 'Millstone. 99 

in the barrows I have examined. Nevertheless;-, both may- 
have been comparatively abundant at that early time, in spite 
of there being little trace of them remaining now. 

The early use of these cereals is highly probable, as it is most 
likely that wild barley and wild oats are indegenous to this 
island, and may have been cultivated and used for human food 
long before the introduction of wheat ; thus necessitating the 
use of millstones to make them more agreeable to the tastes 
of our ancestors, of whom we know so little, and are striving 
to know more. 


The Scunthorpe Town Council, at its recent meeting, decided to take 
the necessary steps to adopt the Museums and Gymnasiums Act so far as 
it relates to Museums. 

The Report of the Warrington Museum for 1910 includes a record of 
2436 specimens of zoological, ethnological, botanical, and archaelolgical 
specimens. Amongst them is Mr. L. Greening's collection of prepared 
skins of British birds. The wild flower table has also been kept up. 

The Hastings Corporation Museum report for 1909 records many addi- 
tions, including a fine collection of Wealden and Purbeck fossils presented 
by Mr. E. J. Bailey. Mr. W. Ruskin Butterfield, the Curator, has also 
issued ' Notes on Sussex Pottery ' (12 pp., 2d.), with a catalogue of the 
specimens exhibited at the museum during the summer. 

The Report of the Manchester Museum for 1909-10 (40 pp., 6d.), refers 
to some changes in the staff. Mr. Hardy has re-arranged the collection of 
British Coleoptera (1 1,200 specimens and 2374 species). Valuable additions 
to the list of exotic mollusca are recorded. The Herbarium has also had 
many additions. The same museum has likewise issued, as publication 67, 
a Catalogue of Hepaticx (Anacrogynag) in the Manchester Museum (31 
pp., 6d.), by Mr. W. H. Pearson. 

The Report of the Council of the Natural History Society of Northum- 
berland, Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne is largely devoted to the 
progress at the Newcastle museum. This has been possible by the 
additional income of about /200 per annum bequeathed by the late G. E. 
Crawhall. A cabinet has been obtained for the collection of coleoptera, 
which, as in some other museums, has received special attention recently. 
A local specimen of the beluga or white whale, has been added, and a 
specimen of the White-beaked Dolphin has also been secured. 

The Bristol Museum and Art Gallery report includes a pleasing item 
of information. Lady Smyth has given ^1500 in order that a companion 
room may be made to that for which she previously gave /2000. This has 
enabled the natural history department to be considerably inproved. 
In this museum a cabinet of British coleoptera has been commenced, and 
ten drawers have been completed. Much attention is being devoted to 
economic biology. In the antiquities' section, several additions to the 
collection of local historical specimens are recorded. 

The Third Annual Report of the National Museum of Wales shews that 
progress is being made with what will, someday, be a truly palatial build- 
ing. Plans have now been accepted, and a lengthy report on the plans 
is given by the architects. There are also reports of the Directors' visits 
to the Museums Association, and the International Zoological Congress 
at Graz, Austria. There are also particulars of some additions to the 
collection, two of which are of exceptional importance. 

1911 Feb. 1. 


Hebdcn Bridge. 

In a list of the ' Vertebrate Fauna of the Hebden Bridge 
District/ which the Hebden Bridge Literary and Scien- 
tific Society recently published, I recorded two occur- 
rences of the Spotted Sandpiper (Totanus maculariits), 
one within the count}', and one slightly over the boundary, in 
Lancashire. Repeating the latter record in a ' List of the 

Birds of Todmorden,' in the ' Lancashire Naturalist,' it came 
to the notice of Mr. F. J. Stubbs, Stepney Museum, who 
added that further particulars would be acceptable. I 
thereupon procured the skin of the example obtained in 
Yorkshire, and paid a visit to the gamekeeper, who I was assured 
possessed the Lancashire specimen, obtained by himself on 
the moors about Cliviger. The latter, on inspection, proved 
to be a good example of the much commoner Green Sandpiper 
(T. ochropus), but the skin of the Yorkshire bird I submitted 
to Mr. Stubbs, the result being that my record was confirmed. 
Of the five alleged occurrences of this species in Yorkshire 
(' Birds of Yorkshire ', p. 628), one record on the Tees in 1845 


Greaves : The Spotted Sandpiper in Yorkshire. roi 

proved on investigation to be a Green Sandpiper, and one at 
Bridlington in 1848, and another at Rolston, in Holderness, 
in 1892, are considered doubtful, and the claim of this North 
American Sandpiper to be admitted to the Yorkshire list, rests 
on the authority of Sir \Ym. Milner, who refers to the specimen 
shot to the north of the pier at Whitby, on March 29th, 1849, 
which it is stated was set up for Sir William's collection. The 
remaining record of the five specimens referred to concerns one 
which E. J. Higgins, of York, is said to have seen in the flesh 
in the company of a flock of Dunlins. 

Rejecting the three ' doubtfuls', then, the example under 
notice is only the third known occurrence of this species in 
Yorkshire. In recording it I am wholly in the hands of a 
taxidermist, who owned the skin, and the data are rather scanty, 
but he is emphatic in declaring that this bird passed through 
his hands about the year 1899, and that it was obtained at 
Hebden Bridge. He adds that he has always understood that 
the locality was Hardcastle Crags. His impression is that two 
representatives of the species were received by his employer 
both from Hebden Bridge, and about the same time, that one 
was stuffed and returned to the owner, and he gives me the 
reason this example remained in his possession. The month of 
the occurrence is also in doubt, but it was in autumn ; whether 
July, August, or September he does not remember. 

Mr. Stubbs, who has made a critical examination of the 
skin, comparing it closely with many dated American skins, 
expressed a doubt about the example being an autumn bird ; 
and rather inclined to the opinion that it was a spring migrant. 
That belief is based on the fact that the autumn birds which 
he has examined have their primaries and secondaries very 
much abraded, whilst the one under notice does not show the 
slightest tendency to this. He suggests as an explanation that 
the bird may have been a spring migrant which had remained 
in Britain throughout the summer, and in that way escaped 
the wear and tear of the nesting season. On measuring the 
specimen I found it to be nearly 8i inches long, nearly an 
inch longer than is given by some authorities, the tail extend- 
ing half an inch beyond the tips of the wings, which reach 
4} inches; culmen, barely an inch ; tarsus finch. The plumage 
of the under parts is whitish, with dark spots, these com- 
mencing at the base of the bill, and being continued to the 
end of the tail. 

Having personally and specially interviewed the taxider- 
mist referred to with the object of obtaining the history of the 
specimen, I am of opinion that there need be no hesitation in 
accepting it as the third representative of the species which 
has occurred in Yorkshire. The specimen has now been added 
to the fine collection of Yorkshire birds in the Hull Museum. 

1911 Feb. 1. 


E. W. WADE, M.I3 O.U., 

On the 6th June, a most untoward accident cast a gloom over 
the whole climbing fraternity, Joseph or Joss Major, the Flam- 
bro' climber, being killed by a falling stone when on the rope. 
A heavy gale was blowing from the N.W., sweeping along the 
cliff face, and all the climbers, after two or three descents, came 
up for the day. Jos. Major, with his brothers, was climbing be- 
tween Staple Neuk and Dikes End, and at his second descent, about 
half-way between these two points, above a jumbled mass of 
fallen rock lying at the cliff foot, and known as Stean-i-Mooth 
Nab, the accident occurred. 

The climb, save for a small ledge or two, fifteen to twenty 
yards from the top, is perfectly smooth till this mass of fallen 
rock, some sixty feet high, is reached, and the height of the whole 
cliff is not three hundred feet. The usual procedure is to collect 
a few eggs from the top ledges, and then drop without a check 
to the Nab, where a number of birds' nest. 

On the 6th June, Jos. Major was lowered by his brothers. as 
usual, at 9-30 a.m., and the full weight being apparently put on 
the body rope without a check, he went down to the Nab. As 
no signals were received at the top, his brothers became uneasy, 
and sent word to the next gang, led by Moore, senr., for assistance. 
Soon after 10, young Moore, who had run all the way carrying a 
heavy rope, arrived, and, without hesitation, went down in the 
terrible gale to see what was the matter. He reached J. Major 
at 10-15 a.m., and found him lying head downward on the Nab, 
bleeding from a wound in the top of the head, the body rope 
swaying violently with each furious gust of wind, and jerking the 
unfortunate man about, the blood gushing forth at each jerk. 
Moore at once unloosed the body rope, placed him head upwards, 
bound up the wound with cotton wool from his own climbing hat, 
and a handkerchief, and stanched the bleeding. Major, however, 
only regained consciousness once, namely, when he asked for 
water and refused brandy, saying, " That's not water." Moore 
then sent up the rope for E. Major, a skilful climber in his day, 
who joined him, and both unfortunately fastened their body ropes 
below, so that no further assistance could reach them till J. 
Hodgson's ropes had been brought from a distance of nearly 
two miles. Meanwhile a visitor had cycled to Bridlington for 
Dr. Wetwan, who arrived in his motor car at 3 p.m., and very 
pluckily descended the cliff, for the first time in his life. After he 
had re-bandaged the wound, all carried J. Major to the foot of 
the cliff, with the idea of getting him to a grassy slope nearer to 

* Read at the meeting of the Vertebrate Section of the Yorkshire Natural- 
ists' Union, held at Leeds, November 19th. 1910. 


Wade: The Accident on the Bern pi 'on Cliffs. \ 403 

Staple Neuk, where he could be raised to the top with the help of 
ropes, but the tide was now too high, and after getting drenched 
with spray, the party waited until the rocket apparatus from 
Flambro' arrived, and raised them all to the top about 6 p.m. 
Dr. Wetwan then motored Major to the hospital at Bridlington, 
where he remained unconscious until his death, two days later. 

It is doubtful whether any more could have been done, but 
the idea occurs to one that he might have been raised to the top 
at the first, on the back of a strong man sitting in the climbing 
breeches, and so have reached the hospital sooner. 

Such an event has never happened before in the annals of 
climbing, and coming on the top of W. Wilkinson's accident in 
1909, and a severe blow from a falling stone which disabled 
Chandler during the same month, made the climbers very nervous, 
and disheartened them for the rest of the season. 

Joseph Major, the youngest of a climbing family, was the 
most intrepid and agile climber the present generation has seen, 
and, with a little more experience of the ins and outs of the cliff, 
would undoubtedly have eclipsed all previous records for skill 
and daring. The accident was probably caused by his hand rope, 
which was a very light one, being blown out of the perpendicular 
by the furious gale, and when he pulled at it to get it plumb, a 
piece of rock seems to have been dislodged, and fallen upon the 
top of his skull. This must have happened close to the top of 
the cliff, for four eggs about fifteen yards down had not been 
gathered. His intrepidity was probably the cause of his death, 
as he never would wear a padded hat, in spite of the advice of the 
other climbers. 

A word of praise is due to young Moore for his promptitude 
and presence of mind in coming to the rescue under most trying 
conditions, as he has only mastered the art of climbing this 

With the death of Harry Marr and Jos. Major, and the retire- 
ment of W. Wilkinson, a great and sudden change has taken place 
in the personel of the climbing gangs, for the Majors never climbed 
again, Chandler and Robson joined George and W. Hodgson, and 
only three gangs were working from Flambro' Head to Speeton, 
and a corresponding stretch of cliff has lain fallow. 

: o : 


Xylophasla zollikoferi at Methley — On the 12th 
August, 1910, I took at Methley a male specimen of this insect, 
in fine condition ; it was shaken out of a bunch of withered 
leaves. Mr. G T. Porritt identified the insect, and said it 
is, he thinks, the best in condition of the four (out of the five 
known) British specimens he has seen.— John T. Wigin, 
Methley, Leeds, 10th December, 1910. 

1911 Feb. 1. 



Manchester Museum. 

(plates ix. and x.j. 

In 1843, Captain Thomas Brown described a number of fossil 
fresh-water mussels* under the generic name of Pachyodon, 
amongst them being two species found by Dr. Fleming in 
oolitic strata at Gristhorpe, Yorkshire. These were described 
as P. hamatus and P. vetustus, the latter being regarded by 
Brown as possibly belonging to the genus Alasmodon. 

Since Brown's time these two species, presumed to be in 
the Manchester Museum, appear to have been entirely lost 
sight of, like many others he described. Nor do they appear 
to have ever been quoted except by Morris, in the second 
edition of his ' Catalogue of British Fossils.' It will be of 
interest, therefore, to know that whilst overhauling a number of 
miscellaneous fossils in the Manchester museum some time ago, 
I had the good fortune to discover a specimen labelled ' Alas- 
modon vetnstus, Gristhorpe,' and later on I found another 
Unio-like shell possessing a label, ' Gristhorpe Bay. 

These specimens, I fcund on reference, comparedtolerably 
well, both as to size and markings, with the figures and des- 
criptions given by Brown in the above-mentioned magazine, 
and in his ' Fossil Conchology.'f 

His figures certainly represent shells in much better con- 
dition than those under discussion, but there appears to be no 
doubt as to the shells in question being those selected by Brown 
as his types, his figures being restorations based upon characters 
exhibited by the specimens. Further confirmatory evidence in 
the case of vetustus, is also afforded by the fact of the specimen 
possessing the irregular break at its posterior extremity, 
depicted by Brown in his illustration of the species. 

In Brown's later work this species is referred to as ' Alas- 
modon vestustas — the Ancient Alasmodon,' which is obviously 
a mistake, as the latin word for ' ancient ' is ' vetustus,' as 
given in the original description. On the other hand, ' hama- 
tus ' is corrected to ' Unio humatus — the Buried Unio,' and 
the geological horizon altered to ' Coal Shale at Gristhorpe 
Bay,' instead of ' Oxford Clay,' as originally stated. 

Brown's description of vetustus is, in its main details, fairly 
accurate. The only exception to be made is with regard to 

* ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.', vol. XII., pp. 395, etc. 

t ' London,' 1849, pp. 179 and 181, pi. 72.x., figs. 18 and 19. 



Fie. i. 


Fig". 3- 

1HE NATURAfflST. 1911. 

Plate X. 

Fie. i. 

Fie. 2. 

F 'ST- 3- 

Unio distortus {Bean) and Alasmodon vetustus (Brown). 105 

the anterior end of the shell, which is given as sub-acute. An 
examination of the fossil, however, revealed the fact that a 
large portion is broken away from the antero-ventral margin, 
thus giving to the shell its sub-acute appearance. A con- 
tinuation of the growth-lines visible near the ventral border, 
proves the shell to have been rounded anteriorly, and a restora- 
tion of this end with plasticine makes this point quite clear. 

Having this specimen with me when on a visit to the British 
Museum recently, I took the opportunity of comparing it 
with the type specimen of Unio distortus Bean,* and was at 
once struck by the remarkable similarity of the two specimens. 
Brown's species ' vetustus ' is rather more convex than Unio 
distortus, and is preserved in a somewhat different matrix, but 
the difference between the two forms — probably only one of 
condition — appeared to me to be so slight that I had no hesita- 
tion in concluding that they were one and the same species. 
This being so, Brown's name ' vetustus,' although perhaps a 
much better name than ' distortus,' must now fall, and become 
a synonym, as Bean's name antedates it by some seven years. 

The distorted and crushed condition of Bean's type of 
Unio distortus, and the somewhat imperfect state of Brown's 
shell, does not permit of a proper diagnosis being made of 
their chief characters, but both superficially present a most 
remarkable resemblance to the recent Pearl-mussel (Mar- 
garitana margaritijera) . 

From the condition of the umbonal region in both specimens, 
it is quite evident that this part of the shell suffered considerable 
erosion, as is the case with recent shells of Margaritana. We 
may reasonably infer that this condition was brought about by 
similar means to those obtaining at present, viz. — the presence 
of humic and carbonic acids in water containing a low percen- 
tage of calcium carbonate, or none at all. In the fossil cases, 
the humic acid would, in all probability, be derived from the 
numerous forms of vegetation met with in the Estuarine Beds 
in which the shells occur, while the absence of any large amount 
of calcium carbonate might be accounted for by the fact of 
the catchment basin of the river being situated on rocks con- 
taining no soluble salts of lime. 

Both the fossil examples present the same features as a well- 
eroded specimen of Margaritana margaritijera from the R. 
Lune, above Lancaster [pi. X., fig. 1], with which they were 
compared. In each case the back of the anterior adductor 
scar is clearly visible owing to excessive decortication at 
this end of the shell. The umbones, too, are widely separate, 
exposing what now remains of the umbonal ligament between 

* Described and figured from a much-crushed specimen in ' Mag' 
Kat. Hist.', vol. IX., (1836), p. 376, text lig. 53. 

911 Feb. 1. 

106 Unio distortus [Bean) and Alasmodon vetustus {Brown). 

them. In the fossils there is also the same deep pit-like cavity 
immediately in front of the umbo, as is observable in the 
eroded example of Margaritana just mentioned, which seems 
to point to the presence of a definite pseudocardinal tooth here 
as in Margaritana. Whether the fossils possess posterior 
lateral lamellae or not, I am unable to say at present, as I have 
been unable, so far, to procure casts of these fossils in order to 
observe this feature. In the Manchester Museum, however, 
there is an example of a Unio from the Estuarine Beds of York- 
shire, which is undoubtedly a juvenile form of Unio distortus, 
and shews the resemblance to a recent Margaritana in a remark- 
able manner. It forms part of the Williamson collection, and, 
as will be seen by the photograph on pi. X. (fig. 2), is remark- 
ably well-preserved, exhibiting only slight traces of decortica- 
tion in the umbonal region. It is, fortunately, quite uncom- 
pressed and distinctly shows a tendency towards alation at the 
posterior dorsal margin — a feature met with in recent forms 
which do not possess posterior lateral lamellae, such as Anodon, 
Margaritana, etc. In Margaritana, however, rudimentary 
posterior lateral lamellae are often present in young examples. 

Casts of Unioniform shells have been noticed in the Estuarine 
Bed of Yorkshire, by T. Wright* and John Leckenby,* but 
no reference to dentition is contained in their papers. Hudles- 
ton, however, in his paper on the Yorkshire Oolites*, states 
in a footnote on p. 318, that Leckenby obtained casts of the 
interior of a Unio-like shell, which shewed the hinge to be 
edentulous, the shells being, therefore, referred to Anodon.- 
This fact is of some interest, but it appears to me possible that 
indications of pseudocardinals, which are usually rather in- 
conspicuous in casts of recent Margaritanas, might easily have 
been overlooked in these casts, and deductions made mainly 
on the absence of posterior lateral lamellae. That Bean's 
type is not an Anodon, is conclusively demonstrated to my 
mind by the deeply impressed character of the anterior ad- 
ductor scar, as well as, to a lesser extent, by the presence of 
so robust a ligament. Moreover, Anodons seem never to be 
so deeply eroded as Unios ; the beaks, or umbones, too, are 
much flatter. 

That distortus possessed some sort of pseudocardinal teeth 
is suggested by the presence of a well-defined lunule, a feature 
which is met with in all recent members of the genus Unio,. 
but which is almost, or entirely absent in edentulous forms, 
such as Anodouta. It might be argued that no lunule is 
present in Margaritana niargaritifera, but such is not the case,. 

* ' O.J.G.S.', vol. XVI. (1860), pp. 30, etc. 

t ' O.J.G.S. ', vol. XX. (1864), p. 75' 

\ ' Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. III., (1872-73) p. 318. 


Unio distortus (Bean) and Alasmodon vetustus (Drown). 107 

as just above the pseudocardinal teeth, especially in young 
and middle-aged shells, there is an obvious subretusion of the 
dorsal margin, which seems to represent a formerly much 
larger and wider lunule, now reduced in size owing to the 
retrogression of the pseudocardinals and consequent approxi- 
mation of the dorsal margins of the two valves. 

Should it be ultimately proved, by the study of further 
casts, and more perfect examples of the shell, that Unio 
distortus is to be referred -to Margaritana, it will be of consider- 
able interest, as this species would be the oldest known, so far, 
of this genus, one species of which being at the present time 
circumboreal, inhabiting, according to the best authorities, 
all Europe, except the southernmost portion, northern Asia, 
Japan, northern North America, and Iceland. The amended 
description, based on the specimens in the British and Manches- 
ter Museums, is given below, with synonym : — 

Margaritana ? distorta (Bean, 1836). [Plate IX., figs. 
1 and 2 ; pi. X., rig. 2]. 
1836. Unio distortus Bean. ' Mag. Nat. Hist.', ix., p. 376, 

fig. 53- 
1843. Unio distortus Morris. ' Cat. Brit. Foss.', p. 105. 
1843. Pachyodon vetustus, Brown. ' Ann. Mag. N. H.', xii., 

p. 395, pi. 16.x, fig. 7 
1849. Alasmodon vestusias Brown. ' Foss. Conch.', p. 181, 

pi. 72X, fig. 19. 
1854. Cardinia vetusta Morris. ' Cat. Brit. Foss.', Ed. 2, p. 190 
1856. Unio distortus King. ' Ann. Mag. N. H.' (Ser. 2), 

xvii., p. 55, pi. 4, fig. 7. 

Shell* transversely elongated, compressed ; beaks in- 
curved and situated near the anterior extremity ; umbonal 
region not prominent ; lunule distinct, narrow and about 
one-fifth the length of the shell ; ligament nearly half the 
length of the shell ; anterior side short, rounded ; posterior 
side long, broad, and rounded at the extremity, pinched up 
above into a somewhat blunt keel or ridge ; hinge and basal 
lines slightly curved ; external surface with well-defined con- 
centric lines of growth. 

Dimensions : Length, 5 inches ; height, z\ inches, thick- 
ness, uncertain (Brown's shell is 1 inch). 

Geol. Horizon : Upper Estuarine Series (Upper Sandstone 
and Shale of Phillips). Plentiful at the top of a rich bed of 
oolitic plants. 

Locality: Gristhorpe Bay, Yorkshire. 

(To be continued). 

* Owing to its uncompressed condition, Brown's specimen shews the 
true form of the species better than Bean's type. 

191 1 Feb. 1. 




Mealy Redpolls at Whitby. — Large numbers of Mealy 
Redpolls have recently visited the Whitby district, and the 
bird-catchers have taken heavy toll. The greater proportion 
are said to be old males. So far as can be ascertained, the 
earliest captures were made about October 21st.— Thos. 
Stephenson, Whitby, December 3rd, 1910. 

Waxwings and Winter Corncrake near Preston, 
Lanes. — Two Waxwings were shot at Higher Walton, near 
Preston, on December 8th. Odd birds have been seen at the 
same place for quite a number of years during migration time. 
On December 19th a Corncrake was shot about two miles from 
Preston. It had been seen in the same field some weeks pre- 
viously. — G. A. Booth, Preston. 

Hen Harrier in Yorkshire. — Mr. C. F. Proctor flushed 
a Hen Harrier at Raskelf on November 24th last. The bird 
was sitting on the ground, but had no prey, and on being ap- 
proached it rose about three feet and skimmed easily away, 
taking along a hedgerow in its course. It was within easy 
gunshot for two or three minutes, but as its life was spared 
it may be recorded elsewhere in the county before long. — 
Sydney H. Smith, York, December 4th, 1910. 

W hooper Swan in Yorkshire. — At East Cottingwith on 
November 30th, I obtained a young, but full-grown specimen 
of Cygmts mitsicits, measuring five feet two inches across the 
extended wings. The bird had not yet assumed the distinctive 
yellow patch on the upper mandible, but from the appearance 
of the part it would have done so in another month. The legs 
were almost black in colour, and curiously mottled with yellow 
on the under side of the webs. — Sydney H. Smith, York, 
December 4th, 1910. 

— : o t — 

Acicula lineata (Drap.) at Beast Cliff, near Hayburn 
Wyke, Scarborough. — Last August Bank Holiday Mr. F. W. 
Fierkie and I found a number of Acicula lineata at Beast Cliff, 
near Hayburn Wyke, in a similar habitat to the one we were 
shown by Mr. J. A. Hargreaves the day previously in Forge 
Valley. It occurred in the moss rather sparingly at first, 
but upon a more careful search being made, about a couple of 
dozen specimens were procured. I have seen no published 
records of this rare shell occurring at Beast Cliff. Associated 
with it were Agriolimax lavis, Vitrea crystallina, Eiiconulits 
fnlvus, Acanthinitla aculeata, A. lamcllata, Cochlicopa lubrica 
and Vertigo edentula. — Albert J. Moore, Hull. 




Anatomy of British Carices, by F. C. Crawford, pp. XIII. and 124, with 
20 plates and portrait. Privately printed. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh. 
7/6 net. 

This book possesses many curious and interesting features. The author 
was born in North Berwick, in 1851, and in time developed a keen love 
lor natural history. Eventually he went to London, where he made a 
fortune on the Stock Exchange, and at the age of forty-five retired, and 
decided to devote the rest of his life to natural history pursuits. At the 
Edinburgh Botanic Garden he became a voluntary demonstrator in botany. 
taking a keen interest in the students, and doing everything in his power to 
rear a race of naturalists. The present work is an instalment of a mono 
graph on the Carices he was prevailed upon to undertake, and upon it 
he has devoted both time, energy, and money to no small degree. In 
the beginning of February 1008, the MS. was sent to the printer, and a 
week later he died, the proof sheets being delivered on the day of lii> 

Naturally enough, the work opens with a biographical sketch, by Mr. 
A. I. Pressland ; and Prof. I. B. Balfour has written an introductory preface 
and been responsible for seeing the work through the press. After a 
brief account of the general anatomy of the Carices, their special anatomy 
is described, dealing with the structure of stem, leaf, rhizome and root 
of each species in turn. The language used is often quaint, not to say 
unorthodox, and we can well believe that ' frequent discussion took place 
.... of his use of descriptive terms.' and his retort that ' if people can't 
understand plain language, so much the worse for them,' would not always 
carry conviction. Secting cutting is referred to as ' operating ' on the 
plant, and he evidently preferred to study the living plant than ' fashing 
with its inwards.' He had little respect for custom in the use of technical 
terms, but the more important deviations arc explained by the editor in 

Fifteen of the plates give forty-seven figures of sections from photo- 
micrographs, and are most interesting and valuable, the rest are figures of 
epidermal tissues and stomata, said to be from camera lucida drawings. 
but we should imagine that there was something wrong either with the 
instrument or the observer, as some of them are impossible structures. 
Anatomy, however, was not his forte, and we cannot but regret that the 
author was not spared to publish his extensive notes and observations on 
the habitats, external forms and adaptations of these interesting plants. 


Experience during the past few years has led us to expect anything 
from the press of Messrs. Witberby & Co., to be not only sound as regards 
its scientific value, but all that can be desired from an artistic and typo- 
graphical point of view. The Home-life of the Spoonbill, the Stork, and some 
Herons (47 pp., 32 plates, 5 -) just published, is quite up to this firm's usual 
standard. The volume is written and illustrated by Bentley Beetham, F.Z.S. 
and describes the haunts and habits of the Spoonbill, White Stork, Com- 
mon Heron and Purple Heron. Localities are by no means definite, for 
reasons which arc perhaps obvious. The narrative of the photographing 
expedition is fascinating to read, but the great attraction of the volume lies 
in the thirty-two plates, mounted on tinted paper. These are reproduced 
by the half-tone process, but the rulings are so fine, and the tint of the 
ink has been so carefully chosen, that it is difficult to tell that the plates arc- 
not actual photographs. They illustrate various stages in the life history 
of the species now referred to, though the Spoonbill series is perhaps the 
best. From the same firm comes The Birds of Dumfriesshire, by Hugh S. 
Gladstone (xc. + 472 pp., 25/- net), to which ornithologists have been 
looking forward for some little time. It is splendid ; and in manywavs is 
an improvement even upon the excellent county avifaunas which Messrs. 
YVitherby have previously produced. YVe are also surprised to notice 

191 1 Feb. 1. 

ii-g Reviews and Book Notices. 

' ■ ',■-■■ ■ .-,-. r j 

that the edition is limited to 350 numbered copies, by far the greater 
proportion of 'which' are already subscribed for. Notwithstanding the 
extraordinary thorough manner in which the author has done his work, 
we observe that he modestly calls it a ' contribution to the fauna of the 
Solway area, which may be of assistance when the larger work comes to 
be written, a task which it is hoped will be undertaken by Mr. Robert 
Service, who has done so much towards the present volume.' 

From the geographical position of Dumfriesshire, a work such as Mr. 
Gladstone's is of peculiar value, especially when we come to compare the 
avifaunas of the various parts of the British Isles. After a very careful 
and critical review of the numerous occurrences, and a perusal of the rather 
unexpectedly extensive literature (as shewn by the fine bibliography), 
the author considers that there are 218 birds safely recorded for the county, 
viz., 70 residents, 31 summer visitants, 31 winter visitants, 30 occasional 
visitors, and 56 very rare or accidental visitors, besides 10 introduced 
species, and 29 of doubtful occurrence. This compares very favourably 
with the Yorkshire list of 325, having regard to the exceptional physio- 
graphical advantages of that county. 

A particularly valuable section of Mr. Gladstone's volume is that de- 
voted to an account of the various naturalists who have contributed to 
the ornitholological literature of his county. It is a sound piece of 
work, and includes many well-known names. There are also chapters 
on the physical features and climate, migration, flight-nets, protection, 
local misnomers and names, etc., and then follows a history of the occur- 
rences, distribution, etc., of each of the species represented in the fauna of 
the county. There is a plentiful supply of suitable illustrations of birds, 
nests, nesting haunts, etc., and a good map. 

There can be no question that Messrs. Witherby are doing a great 
service to British ornithology by the publication of these valuable county 

A History of Birds, by W. P. Pycraft. Methueri & Co. 458 pp., 10/6 
net. From the days when ' Natural Science ' (of blessed memory) was 
published, and contained contributions from Mr. Pycraft, we have eagerly 
read anvthing from that gifted and thoroughly scientific writer. The 
present book, we can safely say, appeals to us more than any of his others, 
which is saying a good deal. In it Mr. Pycraft seems to be at his best, 
without resource to technicalities, and yet without losing any of his 
scientific methods. The author gives a thoughtful and suggestive history 
of birds; 'Evolution' is his keynote, and whether dealing with distribu- 
tion, migration, relations to environment, phases of social life, repro- 
duction, eggs, offspring, variation, acquired characters, natural selection, 
structural adaptations, or convergent evolution and parallel development, 
or the many other subjects referred to in the volume, he seems quite at 
home, and has no difficulty in making his meaning clear. The chapters 
-dealing with the structures of the parts of the birds will appeal to a far 
wider circle than the ornithological world. The illustrations, too, are 
numerous, and well supplement the author's remarks. 

Ornithological Notes from a South London Suburb, 1874-1909. F. D. 
Power. London : H.J. Glaisher, 60 pp., 3/6 net. 

In this little book Mr. Power gives a summary of thirty-five years' 
observations, with some facts and fancies concerning migration. Of 
course, it goes without saying that the district has changed considerably 
between the time he started making his observations, and now. But it 
is remarkable to find that the author has been able to make records of no 
fewer than 125 species. These are enumerated, and interesting facts 
given concerning each. There is also, at the end of the volume, an elaborate 
-chart of twenty-five consecutive Octobers (1885-1909), shewing on each 
day 'the prevailing wind, with its force ; and the dependence of the ' migra- 
tory movement ' on the direction of the wind.' As a frontispiece is an 
illustration of the author's garden at Brixton, from which the migration 
notes were taken. 



Mr. J. W. Taylor has been elected an Honorary Member of the Con- 
•chological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Dr. Tempest Anderson favours us with a reprint of his paper on ' The 
Volcanoes of Matavanu in Savaii (' Quarterly Journal Geological Society. ' 
No. 264). It is illustrated by a line series of photographs. 

Mr. Percy H. Grimshaw is preparing a work on British Diptera, upon 
the lines of Canon Fowler's ' Coleoptera of the British Isles.' It will 
probably occupy five volumes, and will be published by Messrs. Lovcll 
Reeve & Co. 

It is satisfactory to learn from the Chairman's introductory remarks 
to the report of the Brighton Library, Museum, and Art Gallery, that ' Mr 
H. D. Roberts, the Director, Mr. Toms, the Curator, and the Staff generally, 
have all done their work during the year to the satisfaction of the Com- 

Messrs. A. Beck and S. Hainsworth, of the Bradford Natural History 
and Microscopal Society, have recently been the recipients of a presentation 
at the hands of their fellow members at Bradford. In future, they arc- 
to live in Queensland, and doubtless the love of natural history which has 
been fostered in Yorkshire, will stand then in good stead in Australia. 

We should like to draw the attention of our readers to the fact that the 
widow of the late Rev. W. R. Linton has a few copies of the excellent 
''Flora of Derbyshire' (cloth, 457 pp. and maps), on hand. These are 
being sold at the reduced price of 6/-. Application for copies at this 
price should be made promptly to Mrs. W. R. Linton, Bowbridge, Mack- 
worth, Derby. 

The ' Hastings and East Sussex Naturalist ' (Vol. I., No. 5, 2 '-) con- 
tains an obituary notice of the late E. T. Connold ; ' Notes on East Sussex 
Ravens,' by Mr. T. Parkin ; ' Notes on the local Fauna and Flora,' by Rev. 
E. N. Bloomrield; ' Hastings Coleoptera,' by Mr. W. H. Bennett ; ' Neolithic 
Man in the Forest of Anderida,' by Col. H. W. Feilden ; and ' The Marine 
Mollusca,' by the Editor, Mr. W. R. Butterheld. 

The Geological Society of London this year awards its medals and 
funds as follows : — The Wollaston Medal to Professor Waldemar C. Brogger, 
Sc.D. ; The Murchison Medal to Mr. Richard H. Tiddeman, M.A. ; The 
Lyell Medals to Dr. Francis A. Bather, M.A., and Dr. Arthur W. Rowe ; 
The Bigsby Medal to Dr. O. Abel ; The Wollaston Fund to Professor 
O. T. Jones, M.A. ; The Murchison Fund to Mr. Edgar S. Cobbold ; The 
Lyell Fund to Professor Charles G. Cullis, D.Sc, and Mr. John F. X 

The Annual Report of the Brighton Library, Museum and Art Galleries 
for iqio, contains particulars of several interesting additions to the col- 
lections during the year. There are plates shewing a Hawk Owl which has 
been added to the Booth collection ; and a collection of old Sussex candle- 
lanterns. The lady assistants in the library now wear dark green alpaca 
overalls. We are glad to notice that ' their provision appears to have 
^given general satisfaction.' 

A third museum is to be built at Hull, through the generosity of Mr. 
C. Pickering. It is to be erected in west Hull, and is to be devoted to 
specimens illustrating the growth and evolution of the shipping and fishing 
industries. It will also contain specimens illustrating the natural history 
and economical aspect of various species of fish, and room will also be 
found for the models of Japanese fishing appliances, which were presented 
to the Corporation of. Hull by the Japanese Government, at the close of 
the Japan-British Exhibition in London. 

191 1 Feb. 1. 


The Museums Journal (Vol. X., No. 6), contains a paper by Mr. L. E. 
Hope on ' The Natural History Record Bureau at the Carlisle Museum.' 

The Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing has a paper on the ' Opinions rendered bv 
the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature ' in Knowledge 
(No. 509). 

Mr. J. Davy Dean records Clausilia cravenensis var. albina now, and 
C. bidentata var. albina, both from Westmorland, in The Journal of Con- 
chology for January. 

A Squacco Heron was shot on the Humber Bank at Great Cotes on 
September 29th. It is said to be the second record for Lincolnshire. — 
British Birds for January. 

Messrs. W. and G. S. West contribute an admirable paper on ' The 
Ecology of the Upper Driva Valley in the Dovrefjeld,' with illustrations, 
to The New Phytologist (Vol. IX., No. 10). 

Mr. G. W. Lamplugh contributes an admirable account of the excursion 
to Spitsbergen, in connection with the Geological Congress in Stockholm, 
to Nature (No. 2144). We hope Prof. Bonney has read it. 

The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (No. 264) contains 
a paper on ' The Evolution of Zaphrentis delanouei in Lower Carboni- 
ferous times.' by Mr. R. G. Carruthers ; and ' The Carboniferous Lime- 
stone South of the Craven Fault,' by Dr. A. Wilmore. 

Mr. A. H. Patterson records a whelk with two opercula, ' the most 
extraordinary mollusc he ever saw.' {Zoologist, No. 834). In the same 
journal Mr. H. B. Booth describes a local race of light-coloured mice, in 
the Washburn Valley, evidently the descendants of ' tame ' white-mice. 

With part 20 of the Harmsworth Natural History is a coloured plate 
of the eggs of the best known British birds. It is not a success, however, 
either as regards the colouring or the shapes or sizes of the eggs. With- 
out the aid of the key, it would be difficult for even an expert to identify 
half of them. 

The Yorkshire Weekly Post for January 21st, contains a sketch of the 
new lecture theatre to be added to the Museum Building at York. The 
lecture theatre is being built by Dr. Tempest Anderson, who had a sum of 
money left by his sister, the late Mrs. Percy Sladen, to be devoted to 
scientific purposes. 

In the Lancashire Naturalist (Vol. III., No. 30), Mr. J. W. Jackson 
describes and figures a fish spine [Ctenacanthus brevis), from the Carboni- 
ferous Limestone of Clithcroe. In No. 31 of the same journal ' Non- 
descript ' writes notes entitled ' With the Conchologists at Gisburn.' In 
No. 32, Mr. J. R. Charnlcy has ' An attempt to enumerate the British 
Chrysophanus dispar.' He concludes ' The total number of specimens 
recorded is 936, of which 574 are males and 362 females. Of these 937 [sic] 
examples, only 165 have data.' Mr. J. W. Jackson illustrates a ' Double- 
mouthed Clausilia bidentata ' in the same number. 

The Bradford Antiquary, Part 15, contains many papers of interest 
to Bradfordians. Mr. H. Speight speaks of the ancient streets and lanes ; 
Mr. P. Ross, of the old roads ; and Mr. J. Sowden of the old ' characters ' of 
Bradford. Dr. F. \ 'illcy describes some excavations made in earthworks 
near Keighley, when a number of ' finds ' were made, all of which appear- 
to have been ' planted ' for the benefit of the antiquary ! Prof. Skeat 
writes on the origin of ' Keighley,' pronounced Keethley, Domesday 
Chichelai, original Anglo-Saxon Cylihanleah =' Cyhha's lea,' and Cyhha 
was probably ' a cougher.' We shouldn't wonder ; it's enough to make 
him so ! There are also other items of interest, including some quaint 
tales about Dick Delaney and his donkey. 


MARCH, igii 

No. 650 

IMo. 428 tf torittj. 




T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F. S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Hudderspield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 


T. H. NELSON. M.B.O.U., 



Contents : — 

Notes and Comments:— The Irish Coal Tit; Nature Study; 'The Aims and Methods of 
Nature Study ' ; ' How to Teach Nature Study ' ; ' The Nature Study Idea ' ; ' The Book 
of Nature Study ' 

Another occurrence of the Olossy Ibis in Yorkshire(Illustrated)— E. W. Wade, M.B.O.U. 

Glacial Evidences near Harrogate (Illustrated)— A . Leslie A rmstrong, F.S. A .(Scot.) 

On Valo distortus Bean, and Akasmodoa vetustus Brown, from the Upper 
Estuarine Beds of Oristhorpe, Yorkshire (Illustrated)—/. Wilfrid Jackson, F.G.S. 

A Revised Check List of British Earthmltes— Rev. Hilderic Friend 

Asteraeaathus In the Coralline Oolite— Henry Charles Drake, F.G.S 

The Aquatic Coieoptera of the Isle of Man, with some Remarks on the Origin of 
the Fauna— Frank Balfour Browne, M.A.(Oxon.), F.R.S. E., F.Z.S. ... 

Field Notes 

In Memoriam— James William Tutt— G.T.P 

New Botanical Books 

Reviews and Book Notices 115, 'ISO, 138, 

Northern News 

News from the Magazines 







110, 117 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, EC. 

And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 

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Zhc Yorkshire IRaturaltsts' TUnion. 


ivo, Cloth, 292 pp. (a few copies only left), price 5/- net. 
Contains various reports, papers, and addresses on the Flowering Plants, Mosses, and Fungi of the coui 

Complete, 8vo, Cloth, with Coloured Map, published at One Guinea. Only a Uiv copies left, lO/B net. 

This, which forms the 2nd Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, is perhaps the n 
complete work of the kind ever issued for any district, including detailed and full records of 1044 Pham 

fams and Vascular Cryptogams, 11 Characea?, 348 Mosses, 108 Hepatics, 258 Lichens, 1009 Fungi, and 
reshwater Algae, making a total of 3160 species. 

READY SHORTLY: .Supplement to The Flora of West Yorkshire, by F. Arnold Lees, M.RC. 

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NORTH YORKSHIRE: Studies of its Botany, Geology, Climate, and Physical Geography. 

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396 pp., Complete, 8vo., Cloth. Price 10/6 net. 


This is the 4th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, and contains a complete annotated 
of all the known Fungi of the county, comprising 2626 species. 

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The First Edition of this work was published in 1883, and contained particulars of 1340 species 
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species, together with copious notes on variation (particularly melanism), Ax. 

In pi ogress, issued in Annual Parts, 8vo. 


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With regard to the Irish Coal Tit, a new species described 
under the name of Pants hibernicus, in Vol. XXVII. of the 
'Bulletin of the British Ornithlolgists' Club,' we learn from 
British Birds for February, that ' it is most regrettable that 
before the publication of the Bulletin, a note appeared ... in 
the Daily Mail (Dec. 28th, 1910) . . . which, although inaccurate 
in many particulars, contains a sufficient description and the 
Latin name ' Par us hibernicus ' to allow it to stand as the 
first description of the bird, according to the present rules 
of zoological nomenclature.' Whether the Irish Coal Tit is a 
distinct species or not (and there is a growing tendency amongst 
ornithologists to describe ' new species ') , future investigators 
will certainly not admire the way in which English zoologists 
publish particulars of their researches. 


It must be gratifying to readers of The Naturalist, and to 
all interested in the study of Nature, to find that Nature Study 
is now the rule at our schools, whilst ten years ago it was 
the exception. One effect has naturally been the publication 
of an enormous amount of literature ; good, bad, and indifferent. 
Many of the books and magazines have not stood the test of 
time, and in a process of ' natural selection,' have been elimi- 
nated. Some should never have appeared at all. We have 
before us a few volumes, all of which are of the right kind, and 
by well-qualified authors. 


Under this title, Dr. John Rennie has issued a valuable 
volume, which is essentially a ' Guide to Teachers.' Dr. 
Rennie is lecturer at the University of Aberdeen, and knows 
the teachers' requirements. His book is refreshing, also, as it 
is by no means principally occupied by botanical subjects — 
a fault too frequent in works of this kind. In an admirable 
Introduction, Prof. J. A. Thomson explains what Nature 
Study is, or should be, as well as we have ever seen it stated. 
The book itself covers almost every branch of the subject, 
a fair proportion being allocated to each. It has the further 
advantage of not being too elementary, and suggests lessons 
suitable for the upper classes. There are nearly two hundred 
illustrations, including a coloured ' Nature Calendar,' as 
frontispiece. For teachers we know of no better book on 
this subject. 

* London : W. B. Clive. 352 pp. 3/6. 

1911 Mar. i. 


114 Notes and Comment . 


This work, by Mr. T. W. Hoare, a lecturer and instructor 
in Nature Study, and author of the well-known ' Look About 
You ' Nature books, is, as it professes to be, ' a practical 
working guide for teachers.' It is certainly a teachers' 
guide, and contains various schemes for the different divisions 
of different types of schools. There are chapters on butterflies 
and moths, ice and snow, soil, spiders, aquaria and vivaria ; 
but the major portion of the volume is devoted to botany — 
a subject with which the author seems to be particularly 
familiar. Mr. Hoare has a pleasant way of indicating the 
lines upon which teachers should work in order to get the 
most out of their scholars. There are numerous diagrams and 
illustrations from photographs. 


This is ' An interpretation of the new school movement to 
put the young into relation and sympathy with Nature,' by 
Mr. L. H. Bailey ; and the fact that a third edition has been 
called for is an indication of its popularity. The book deals 
with the historical side of the movement. After giving infor- 
mation on what to teach and what not to teach ; what Nature 
Study is, and what it is not, the author gives a series of questions 
and replies thereto for the benefit of the reader. For example : 
' Now that there are so many Nature Study books, how shall 
I choose the most useful one ? ' ' Only by finding out what 
you want, etc' Quite so. And again : ' How shall I acquire 
sufficient knowledge to enable me to teach nature study ? 
' In the same way that you acquire other knowledge — by means 
of work and study. There is no way by which you can dream 
it or absorb it,' etc. ' Will not the nature study work interfere 
with school discipline ? ' ' That all depends on what you mean 
by " discipline." If you mean perfect " order," the child 
sitting erect with clasped hands, then nature study work may 
annoy you,' etc. It is most entertaining. 


This magnificent work, published under the editorship 
of Dr. J. B. Farmer, is now completed, the sixth volume being 
before us. It deals entirely with ' The Physical Environment ' ; 
the first eight chapters being by Dr. Marion I. Newbegin, and 
the remaining thirteen by Prof. YY. W. Watts, F.R.S. Dr. 
Newbegin deals with ' Weather and Climate ' ; ' Precipitation '; 
' Precipitation and Vegetation ' ; ' Snow and Ice ' ; ' The 
Sky ' ; ' The Sun ' ; ' The Seasons, etc. ' ; ' The Moon.' Prof. 
Watts refers to 'Denudation'; 'Deposition'; 'Rocks'; 'Models'; 

* London : Sidgwick & Jackson, Ltd. 316 pp. 3 <■> net. 

* New York : The Macmillan Company. 246 pp. 

* London : The Caxton Publishing Co. 244 pp., 7 (>. 


Notes and Comments. i i ^ 

Maps ' ; ' Landscape ' ; The Geological Record ' ; 'The Growth of 
Britain, etc.'. Both writers are well known for their lucidity, 
and Prof. Watts' section of the work will particularly appeal 
to our readers on account of the numerous reproductions from 
photographs taken in the northern counties, and especially 
Yorkshire. There is a carefully compiled general index to 
the six volumes. We should like to congratulate the pub- 
lisher, editor and contributors, on the completion of this mag- 
nificent work. 

Reminiscences of a Strenuous Life, by Edward Hull, M.A., LL.D., 
F.R.S., London: Hugh Rees, 150 pp. 

Lives of great men all remind ns, we can make our lives sublime. ' 
^ e are no1 quite < erl iin of the appropriateness of this quotation, as we are 
not sure that Prof. Hull would be classed amongst the ' great ' men, not- 
withstanding what is stated in the " Reminiscences." On page 18, 
Prof. Hull status that it will be allowed ' Murchison has been happy in 
his biographer.' We can hardly say so much of Prof. Hull, as these 
Reminiscences ' really form an autobiography, and we fear the ' author' 
has been prejudiced. The lirst chapter deals with the author's pedigree, 
and we learn that it was his father's wish that he should become a clergy- 
man in the Church of Ireland ; how different things might have been if 
Prof. Hull had carried out his father's wishes. He learnt Hebrew, Greek 
and Latin ; and wasted a good deal of time and brain power in attempting 
shorthand, and ' would not advise anyone to go in for this art who did 
not intend to make it his profession.' But the present reviewer (as 
Prof. Hull will doubtless concede) is not particularly ' brainy",' yet had 
no difficulty in mastering shorthand! The second chapter is headed 
Elizabeth, Duchess of Gordon,' and from it we learn that Prof. Hull's 
father was chaplain to the Duchess, and the son fished in the waters on 
her estate, and landed his first fish, ' a grilse of about ten pounds weight, 
there. \Ye hope this was not his first fish story. He then deals with the 
Geological Survey and the great men he met there ; his ' expedition ' down 
the Danube (for a fee of £'600, £500 of which is still ow : ing!) ; his visit to 
Mount Sinai and Palestine, when Major Kitchener R.E. (now Field- 
Marshal Viscount Kitchener of Khartoum, G.C.B., O.M.) was a companion ; 
' Sir Howard Grubb, F.R.S.', is the heading of a further chapter, Sir 
Howard having allowed the Professor to look through his telescope ; 
' How I came to know the " Book of Kells " ' (he had been some time in 
the Survey Office in Dublin ; was brought up in Ireland at a school for 
the sons of Irish clergy ; yet had never heard of it!) : ' The late Earl of 
Enniskillen (whom he met at Belfast) ; ' Sir Robert Ball ' ; ' Sir Thomas 
Wardle and the Earl of Ducie ' (the Professor met both) ; ' The Roval 
Commission on Coal-reserves' (when the Professor received a match- 
box) ; ' The Darwin Celebration at Cambridge' (Prof. Hull attended) ; 
' My Marriage and Wedding Tour ' (Prof. Hull took part) ; etc., etc. Brief 
references are made to ' Inter-Glacial Submergence,' and the ' highly 
imaginative theory ' that the shells on Moel Tryfaen were placed there by 
ice ; an ' absurd ' theory which has found numerous supporters, ' amongst 
whom may be specially named Professor Percy F. Kendall.' Personallv, 
we should have preferred an account of Prof. Hull's contribution to 
science ; of the discussions in which he had taken part, and of the very warm 
debates ; but perhaps he has reason for silence on these points. This 
would surely have been more useful than the information that when he 
was married, the girls of his ' wife's Sunday School formed a line on both 
sides to the door of the church.' Why haven't we been told in which pocket 
he placed the ring ? 

njii M jr. 1. 



E. W. WADE, M.B O.U., 

Ox December 26th last, I went to Ulrome with Mr. T. Audas, 
to investigate a reported occurrence of the Glossy Ibis there. 
Mr. G. Gibson, of Skipsea Brough, who had stuffed the bird, told 
us that he had two specimens sent in within a week of each 
other, one from Atwick (reported in ' The Naturalist ' for 
January), and another from Ulrome, in the autumn of 1909, 
but was unable to give either the date or sex of either. At 
Ulrome, we found the bird in the possession of Mr. G. Smith, 
of Eastgate Farm. It was a fine specimen, taller and larger, 

and more brilliantly coloured than either of the birds shot on 
the Lambwath during October and November, 1909. It 
shows a considerable amount of chesnut-brown colouring on 
the breast, but has the grey streaks on head and neck, charac- 
teristic of the winter plumage. Mr. Smith fixed the date of 
its occurrence as the second week in October,- because thatching 
had begun. Fortunately, the bird has been acquired by the 
Hull Museums Committee, who now possess a local specimen 
of their own, and to whose order the accompanying photograph 
was taken. The bird is familiar to Mr. J. Taylor, the Hornsea 
keeper, who has seen it more than once, and who reported that 
a solitary specimen haunted the Mere during the winter 1902- 




The development of Harrogate on its western outskirts has, 
during recent months, revealed various interesting glacial 
phenomena, particularly during the extension of Kent Road 
to a junction with the old Irongate Bridge Road. The latter 
enterprise has necessitated not only a cutting along the face 
of the Harrogate anticline, east of Birk Crag, thereby revealing 
many interesting sections of the upheaved Kinderscout Grit 
and its mantle of drift, but has also involved the widening 

Erratic of Plumpton Grit, Harrogate. 
16 ft. in. in length. 

of Irongate Bridge Road, where it abruptly descends the anti- 
cline to the Oak Beck, by what is locally termed Birk Crag 

Here, and apparently for some distance westwards, tho 
drift lies in a thicker cloak, and is of more varied character 
than that encountered in making the new portion of Kent 
Road ; also it entirely envelopes the underlying grit. 

Eastwards, along the new road, the sections show a bed 
of sandy yellow clay from four to six feet in depth, beneath 

1911 Mar. 1. 

n8 Armstrong : Glacial Evidences near Harrogate. 

which is the true glacial blue clay covering the face of the 
anticline. Very few erratics were encountered here, and those 
met with were of small size and chiefly locally derived. Where 
the old road has been widened, however, the drift is of a more 
sandy composition, and encloses an unusual number of erratics. 
Although the cutting at one point is ten feet in depth, the bed 
of blue clay has not been reached, so that all the boulders 
referred to were contained in the sandy yellow clay forming 
the upper bed of the drift. Oyer seventy of exceptional 
size have been removed, as well as cart-loads of smaller angular 
and sub-angular fragments. These boulders were jumbled 
together in characteristic confusion, the exposed sections 
presenting remarkable object lessons in the transporting power 
of land ice. 

The most interesting of the erratics is a giant slab of 
Plumpton Grit, i6' o" in length, which is the largest glacial- 
borne boulder recorded for the district. This, as the illustra- 
tion indicates, is still embedded in the face of the cutting, 
although a parallel width of four feet was split off and removed 
when the excavation was made. Probably the slab extends 
for at least a similar distance into the hillside, in which case 
the original dimensions would be 16' o" x 8' o". The thick- 
ness is 18" extreme, with 15" as a minimum, and the weight 
would be upwards of 12 tons. An outcrop of this grit, having 
beds of almost identical stratification, occurs about nine miles 
to the north-west, on the moor between Blubberhouses and 
Thornthwaite, from which place this slab was probably derived. 

Another large stone of the same description of grit was 
uncovered and measured 11' 4" x 0/ o" x 2' 10", others measured 
8' o"x4' o"xi' 6", 8' 6"x3' 3"x^' 10", 7' o"x4' o"x3' o", 
and several more were 6' o" and over in length, and of either 
Follifoot or Plumpton Grits, all being rectangular masses, and, 
like the largest ones, bearing evidence of transit in their 
rounded and battered edges and smoothed surfaces. None of 
the larger stones were striated, but three smaller ones, derived 
from the neighbourhood of Pateley Bridge, were well marked 
in this respect. Large numbers of boulders were of the class 
met with in the Pennypot Lane field, described and illustrated 
in ' The Naturalist,' 1909, page 243. Numerous angular 
fragments, 3' 6" x 3' o" x i' o" on the average, had been obvious- 
ly derived from the beds of Follifoot Grit, which form such a 
prominent feature on the north side of this valley, at Long 
Crag, half a mile distant ; whilst others had been torn from 
the beds of Kinderscout Grit, forming the face of the anticline 
against which this accumulation of boulders has been piled. 
At one point quite two loads'. of typical Pateley Bridge flag- 
stones were discovered, ranging from an inch in thickness, up 
to large stones l\" thick, and 4 to 5 superficial feet in area. 


1 19 


Manchester Museum. 

{Continued from page iof). 

With regard to Unio humatus Brown, this is very simi- 
lar to distortus Bean, at its anterior end, and has evidently 
suffered a good deal of erosion here as the back of the anterior 
adductor muscular scar is visible as in distortus. ft differs, 
however, from that species in being much more inflated in the 
umbonal region, as well as in being much shorter posteriorly. 
Some allowance, however, must be made for a portion which has 
been broken off this end. This fact was evidently not noticed 
by Brown when he described and figured the species, as he 
gives the posterior side as sub-acute. 

Like distoytus, the shell possesses a narrow, but epiite 
distinct lunule. The ligament, too, is fairly well preserved, 
and extends from the umbones to a point a little short of the 
postero-dorsal corner. The shell, which is somewhat crushed, 
is quite adult ; in fact, judging from the frequent interrupted 
growth-lines along the anterior and ventral margins,* it appears 
to have entered a gerontic stage. In its short antero-posterior 
diameter, coupled with the great inflation of the umbonal 
region, the species presents the features usually met with in 
sluggish water forms of the present day living well out of the 
reach of any strong currents. 

With the exception of distoytus, there appears to be no other 
species described from the Yorkshire Estuarine Beds, with 
which it can be compared ; it seems, therefore, advisable to 
retain Brown's name Unio humatus for this form until more 
specimens are met with. 

The amended description and synonymy of the species is. 
as follows : — 

Unio humatus Brown, i Q 4\ [Plate IX., fig. 3]. 
1843. Pachyodon humatus Brown. ' Ann. Mag Nat. Hist.', 

xii., p. 395, pi. i6x., fig. 6. 
1849. Unio humatus Brown. ' Foss. Conch.', p. 179, pi. jix.. 

fig. 18. 
1854. Cardinia hamata Morris. 'Cat. Brit. Foss.', Ed. 2. 
p. 190. 

Shell oblong ovate, considerably inflated, beaks large, 
slightly incurved, and situated centrally ; umbonal region 

* For the reason already stated, the posterior margin is not available 
for examination. 

1911 Mar. 1. 

£20 Unio distortus {Bean) and Alasmodon vetustus (Brown). 

prominent ; lunule and ligament distinct ; anterior and pos- 
terior sides rounded ; hinge line fairly straight ; ventral 
margin curved ; external surface with well-defined growth- 
lines, which are somewhat puckered at the posterior end. 

Dimensions : — Length, 3j§f inches ; height, 2 inches ; 
thickness, uncertain. 

Geological Horizon : Estuarine Series (' Coal Shale '). 
Locality : Gristhorpe Bay, Yorkshire. 

These notes afford a good opportunity to call attention 
to an article by Dr. M. C. Stopes, on ' The Flora of the Inferior 
Oolite of Brora (Sutherland)', * in which, on page 381, the 
authoress remarks : ' There were no animal remains among 
the plants, except a single example of a Unio, which was pre- 
sumably a freshwater form : it could not be specifically identi- 
fied.' This specimen has since been presented to the Manchester 
Museum ; I have thus had an opportunity of examining it. 
It consists of an imperfect right valve, measuring 2 inches in 
length, and 1 inch in height, and is preserved. in a block of 
ironstone. Unfortunately, the specimen is not perfect enough 
to determine its true specific characters, but in general shape 
and appearance it closely resembles the Unio distortus from 
the Yorkshire Estuarine Beds, and taking into consideration 
the fact of the fossil flora being so strikingly like that of the 
Inferior Oolite of Yorkshire, it does not seem at all unreason- 
able to suppose that the Brora Unio is to be referred to Unio 
distortus Bean. 

In 1909, the Manchester Museum also came into possession 
of another fossil Unio, through the kindness of Mr. D. M. S. 
Watson, who collected it from the Great Estuarine Series in 
the north of the island of Eigg. This specimen consists of an 
impression in hard dark-coloured sandstone of a left valve, 
and shews the pseudocardinal teeth very clearly, but the 
presence of posterior lamellae is uncertain owing to the im- 
perfect condition of this portion of the fossil. The shell, which 
appears to be immature, measures if inches in length, and is 
1 inch in height. Like the Brora example, it approximates 
very closely to Unio distortus. 

Prof. Ed. Forbes, in his paper ' On the Estuary Beds and the 
Oxford Clay at Lock Staffin, in Skye,'| mentions the occurrence 
of a Unio in these beds as follows : — [p. 111], ' Unio? staffin- 
ensis, pi. V., fig. 5a and 5b. I have given this name pro- 
visionally to impressions of a bivalve having the form and 
aspect of a small Unio. It is transversely oblong, inequila- 
teral, depressed, truncated anteally, rounded and narrowed 

* ' Q.J.G.S.', vol. LXIII. (1907), pp. 375-382, and pi. XXVII. 
f 'Q.J.G.S.', vol. VII. (1851), pp. 104-113. 


Unio distortits [Bean) and Alasmodon vetustus [Brown). 121 

posteally, and transversely sulcated. Its breadth is y\ths of 
an inch. Adult specimens will probably be found hereafter.' 

The Great Estuarine Series are Infra-Oxfordian in age, and 
occupy, according to Prof. Judd,* a somewhat analogous 
position in the Jurassic series of the western coast of Scotland 
to that of the series of estuarine strata which contain the famous 
coal seam of Brora in the Eastern Highlands. 

The specimen on which Prof. Forbes founded his species 
' staffinensis ' is, unfortunately, too immature to be of much 
value. Mr. Watson's example also, being a cast, is too im- 
perfect for accurate specific determination, but the fact of 
it coming from the same beds as the Loch Staffin example, 
leads one to reasonably infer that both are forms of the same 
species. The fact of these beds being looked upon as equiva- 
lent in age to those in Sutherlandshire, and no doubt also to 
those of Yorkshire, makes one inclined to refer these Unios to 
the Gristhorpe form, to which they present so great a likeness. 

Since the above notes were penned, my attention has been 
called to an interesting article by Mr. Bryant Walker, on 
' The Distribution of Margaritana margaritifera (Linn.) in 
North America,'! in which the author brings forward good 
arguments in favour of an Asiatic origin for M. margaritifera. 
On page 128, he states : ' Margaritifera itself is a very ancient 
species, which, through an enormous extent of time, during 
which it has wandered nearly, if not quite around the globe, 
has preserved its peculiar characters and specific identity to 
a remarkable degree. The essential similarity of the species 
as it exists at the present time on the different continents is 
very remarkable, and indicates that its specific characters were 
well established before its long migration was begun. As 
North America has been permanently separated from Asia and 
Europe since the close of the Tertiary period, and the progress 
of the species in its long journey must have necessarily been 
slow, there would seem to be no doubt but that the evolution 
of the species must have long antedated that period, and quite 
possibly may go back even to Cretaceous times.' 

' Where the species did originate is by no means clear. 
It must have been either in Europe, Asia, or North America. 
That it is an immigrant into Europe is generally conceded. 
Dr. Scharff, in his recent work on European animals (1907, p. 34) 
expresses the opinion that it reached Europe via Greenland and 
Iceland. If so, the inference would be that it originated in 
North America, and from there spread east into Europe, and 
west into Asia. But there are several objections to that theory.' 

Unfortunately, palaeontological evidence is lacking regard- 

* ' Q.J.G.S.', vol. XXXIV. (1878), p. 722. 

f ' Proc. Malac. Soc.', vol. IX., pt. ii., June 1910, pp. 126-145, and map. 

911 Mar. 1. 

122 Unio distortus (Bean) and Alasmodon vetustus (Brown). 

ing the former distribution of this species in the above-men- 
tioned continents. It is, therefore, difficult to trace out 
conclusively its exact range in former times. Until further 
fossil evidence is forthcoming, it seems impossible at present 
to satisfactorily determine the place of origin, or the original 
stock from which the Margaritanas were evolved. The resem- 
blance of Unto' distortus, however, to recent species of the 
genus Margaritana, is not without interest, and one feels dis- 
posed to consider this form as a possible prototype, or fore- 
runner, of the later Margaritanas, if not an actual Margaritana 

Plate IX. 

Fig. i. Cast of Bean's Type Specimen of Unio distortus, shewing 
anterior adductor scar, lunule. etc. Original in British Museum . 

Fig. 2. — Brown's Type Specimen of Pachyodon [Alasmodon] vetustus. 
Manchester Museum, L. 9773 . Note. — Anterior end restored. 

Fig. 3. — Brown's Type Specimen of Unio humatus. [Manchester 
Museum, L. 9774]. 

Note. -Figures 1 and 2 are two-thirds of the natural size ; figure 
3 is three quarters natural size. 

Plate X. 

Fig. i. — Specimen of Margaritana margaritifera (L.) from R. Lune, 
Lancashire, shewing excessive decortication of the umbonal region, which 
has exposed the back of the anterior adductor scar, etc. Mr. R. Standen's 
collection! . 

Fig. 2. — Neanic specimen of Unio distortus Bean. Estuarine Series, 
Yorkshire Coast. [Williamson Collection, Manchester Museum, L. 9775 • 

Fig. 3. — Neanic specimen of Margaritana margaritifera (L.), from 
R. Conway, l.lanrwst. X. Wales, for comparison with fig. 2. [R. D. 
Darbishire Collection. Manchester Museum, EE. 230 1 . 

Note. — Figure 1 is two-thirds natural size ; figures 2 and 3 are slightly 
less than the natural size. 


Mrs. Grindon has presented the herbarium formed by the late Leo 
11. Grindon, to the Manchester Museum. 

We should like to congratulate our contributor, Miss M. A. Johnstone, 
B.Sc, F.L.S., on having received an important appointment in Man- 

We notice that the Attendant at a Yorkshire Museum has applied for 
an increase of salary, and this has been granted. He now enjoys an 
income <>i si\ shillings a week. 

Mr. K. W. Colliding favours us with a small pamphlet on the ' Louth 
Antiquarian, Naturalists' and Literary Society. Twenty-six Years — a 
Retrospect.' He points out that the society was founded by our contribu- 
tor. Mr. Harry Wallis Kew, in 1SS4, when he was fifteen years of age. 

From Mr. C. Bailey we have received his ' 'third List of the Adven- 
titious Vegetation of the Sandhills of St. Anne's on-the-Sea ' (' Mem. and 
Proc. Manch. Lit. and Phil. Soc). The alien plants appear in poultry 
runs on the sandhills, and as building Operations proceed, the poultry, 
with their alien flora, are pushed further afield. Mr. Bailey has now left 
the district, but we hope someone will be able to carry on the work. 





So much progress has been made in the study of this subject 
since my (neck List appeared in this Journal in January, 1893, 
that a revision and extension is eagerly demanded. The true 
Lumbrici remain the same, but in the old genus Allolobophora 
so many additions have been made, and so much more know- 
ledge of internal anatomy has been acquired that several new 
genera have been established. We have also to record the 
discovery of the genus Helodrilus. I shall retain the old 
fractional system of marking the girdle segments and tubercula 
pubertatis. Thus in the common earthworm the formula !~ '.',{. 
means that the girdle extends from the 32nd to the 37th seg- 
ment, inclusive ; while the tubercula cover segments ^^ to 36. 
When, instead of a band, there are individual pores for the 
tubercula. the fact is indicated by a colon (thus 31 : j ) j ) ), 
instead of by a hyphen. The head is called the prostomium. 
The peristomium, to which the head is attached in various 
ways, is counted as the first segment. It is without setae, and 
some writers therefore begin to count from the first setigerous 
segment. This will account for the difference which is some- 
times found to exist between the descriptions of different 

I. Genus Lumbricus Eisen. 

Prostomium inserted into peristomium like a perfect mor- 
tise and tenon ; the processus dividing the first segment in two. 
Girdle of five or six segments, the innermost four carrying a 
band, known as the tubercula pubertatis, on each side. Setae 
eight on each segment in four couples, of which the individuals 
are near each other. Male pores on segment XV., with, or 
without papillae. Colour dark-red with iridescence. Cylin- 
drical in shape, with flattened tail. Slimy, but with no turbid 
or coloured fluid. Internally the presence of a median seminal 
capsule, in segments X., XL, with three pairs of seminal ver- 
sicles in IX., XL, XII., and two pairs of spermathecae in IX., 
X., opening in the line of the dorsal setae between segment- 
IX/X. and X /XL, are the generic characteristics. Five species 
found in Great Britain, one of which has not yet been discovered 
in England. 

1. L. terrestris L. — Male pores on papillae. Girdle for inula 
' ;"• First dorsal pore between VII/VIII. Easily distin- 
guished from the other species by observing the girdle ami shape 
of head. 

2. L. rubellus Hoffmeister. — Xo papillae with male pores 
on XV. Girdle g^J?. Smaller than the first. 

191 1 Mar [ 

124 Friend : A Revised Lis/ of British Earthworms. 

3. L. castaneus Savigny. The smallest member of the 
genus in Gt. Britain. Girdle |^-|. 

4. L. festivus Savigny (L. rubescens Friend). — Very similar 
to No. 2, but possessing papilke on XV., and having the formula 

.% - 38' 

5. L. papillosus Friend (L. Friendi Cognetti). — Found only 
in Ireland, among the British Isles. Recognised by its five 
girdle segments J™. 

II. Genus Allolobophora eisen. 

Prostomium partially dovetailed into peristomium. Girdle 
segments variable in number, mostly possessed of tubercula 
pubertatis. Setae eight on each segment, either in couples or 
variously distributed. Colour ranging from pink through 
brown, clay colour, steel blue and green ; seldom purple or 
iridescent. Usually cylindrical throughout. Exude slime or 
turbid fluid, often pungent, foetid, or earthy. 

The external characters of this genus are so vague and varied, 
that resort has been had to the internal structure, and as a 
result several sub-genera have been formed. These are not yet 
clearly defined ; partly owing to the difficulty of working out 
the minuter characters, and partly because new species have 
had to be described with insufficient material for full internal 
diagnosis. I do not follow Michaelsen and some others in all 
their conclusions, because my independent researches on 
British species will not allow me. The following arrangement, 
however, is subject to further revision and extension when I 
have the leisure to complete my investigations. 

(1) Genus Allolobophora. 

Prostomium dovetailed into peristomium. Male pores 
on papilla; ; setae in pairs ; body cylindrical, brown, clay 
coloured or pink. Earthy smell, slimy, no turbid fluid. Four 
pairs of seminal vesicles ; gonads free. The type is that form 
of worm which has so often been confused with the true earth- 
worm, but which is readily distinguished by the shape of the 
head, the colour, the position of the girdle, and the internal 

5. A. longa Ude. — Girdle 3 y-^- Usually dark brown or 
umber ; tail often flattened as in Lumbricus. Very earthy smell. 

6. .4. trapezoides Duges. This and the next often with 
difficulty distinguished, and may perhaps still be regarded as 
different forms of one species. But there is great interest in 
this fact, for while the form here referred to has the continuous 
band of the true Allolobophora, No. 7 links us on to Aporrecto- 

dea by the discontinuous form of tubercula. Girdle 31 " 33 . 


Friend : A Revised List of British Earthworms. 125 

7. A.turgida Eisen (= A. caliginosa Saw). — Girdle " * 

(2) Genus Aporrectodea Girley. 

The chief character is the tubercula on alternate segments. 
The green worm has long been recognized as an abnormal 
member of the genus Allolobophova, and (Erley, with his keen 
discrimiation shewed that it belonged to another genus. I 
have recently added a further species, and have no hesitation 
in using OErley's nomenclature. 

8. A. chlorotica Savigny. — A very variable worm, often 
grass green ; sluggish and grub-like. Formula , n '\^ Hr> \ having 
three pairs of tubercula instead of a continuous band. 

9. .4. cambrica Friend has the same formula, but is marked 
by internal as well as external differences. 

10. A. Georgii Michaelsen. Bl " ^ . Here we again touch 
No. 7. 

11. A. similis Friend. — Grey or indefinite in colour, little 
or no fluid. Length 7 centimetres, number of segments 180, 
tail somewhat flattened. Male pore hardly visible. Formula 
3o- 32' 34' K evv ' 1910 (See Gardeners' Chronicle, August 6th, 

(3) Genus Eisenia (= Notogama Rosa). 
Spermathecae opening near the median dorsal line. 

12. E. fcetida Savigny. — The well-known Brandling, ^-S! ; 
subject to considerable variation, as are all the species of this 

13. E. Veneta Rosa { = A. Hibernica Friend). — This polymor- 
phic species is of supreme interest. It was described by Dr. 
Rosa and myself many years ago, but during the past few 
years about half a dozen varieties or sub-species have been 
found. I may name : — 

(1) Hibernica Friend ; Dublin, Louth, etc. 

(2) Zebra Michaelsen ; Limerick. 

(3) tcpidaria Friend ; Oxford. 

(4) robusta Friend ; Malvern. 

(5) dendroidea Friend ; Malvern. 

A further variety has been received by me from Cornwall 
but at present it remains unnamed. Formula for type ^ ] 81 . 

14. E. rosea Savigny (= A. mucosa Eisen). — Formula 

(25)26 - 3-2 
29-31 ' 

I have named one or two of the many forms and varieties ; and 
may refer especially to var. glandulosa found at Chelsea. 

(4) Genus Dendrobcsna Eisen. 
This genus was first formed to receive certain worms found 

1911 Mar. 1. 

126 Friend : A Revised List of British Earthworms. 

in decaying timber and dead trees. It is an. interesting group, 
but recent discoveries show the need of fuller and clearer 
definition, and the order is only tentative. In the type there 
are three pairs of seminal vesicles. The setae are more or less 
distant, and the colour is usually dark red or purple on the 
dorsal surface. 

15. D. mammalis Savigny {=D. Celtica Rosa). — Formula 

3 - 36 ^ 
33 - 34* 

16. D. submontana Vejdovsky. — Formula 28 " 30 . Found 
at Kew, September, 1909 (See Gardeners' Chronicle, January 
29th 1910). 

17. D. subrubicunda Eisen. — Formula 28 \ 30 . Abundant 
in leaf-mould. 

18. D. arborea Eisen. — Formula J " jj* . A smaller form 
than the last, and more frequently found in dead trees. 

19. D. octoedra Savigny {=D. boeckii Eisen). — Formula 

•29 - 33 

31 - 33" 

(5) Genus Bimastus Moore. 
Wanting in tubercula pubertatis. Along with this negative 
character we find also the absence of spermathecae. Three 
species are at present arranged under this genus. 

20. B. Eiseni Levinsen. — Formerly regarded as a member 
of the genus Lumbricus because it has the type of head which is 
characteristic of that genus. Girdle extends from the 25th 
to the 32nd segment. 

21. B. constricta Rosa ; girdle from 26 to 31. 

22. B. Beddardi Michaelsen. — At present found only in 
Ireland. This and Southern's species relictus are unknown 
to me. I have not confirmed (Erley 's record for A. plalxura. 

(6) Genus Octolasium (Erley. 
Rather large worms with the setae wide apart. Four pairs 
of seminal vesicles, with four seminal capsules. 

23. 0. cyaneum Savigny (= A. studiosa Rosa). — Formula 

29 - 34 

30 - as" 

24. 0. laeteum (Erley ( = A. profuga Rosa). — Formula 

30 - 35 

31 - 34* 

25. 0. rubidum GSrley. — Formula m " ^ said to have been 
found by OErley at Woolwich. 

26. O intermedium Friend. — Formula 31 " _. . Found in 
Oxford Botanic Garden (see Gardeners' Chronicle, November 
27th, 1909). 

O. gracile Girley. — Formula as number 2^. I have found 
this form during the past year, and have given an account of 
the two in Gardeners' Chronicle. June, nth, 1910. 


Friend : .1 Revised List of British Earthworms. 127 

(7) Genus Euphila Rosa. 
Two pairs of spermathecae which are either invisible or 
open between IX X., X XI., in the direction of th< dorsal 
setae. Setae scattered or paired. 

27. E. icterica Savigny. — Cambridge and Chelsea. Formula 

33 - 42 
35 - 41" 

I have not yet been able to assign a place to 

28. Allolobofihora Hermanni Michaelsen, which I found at 
Cambridge, July Oth, 1907. My specimens were mislaid, and 
have only just come to light again. Formula ^ ~ g . I also 
place here for the present 

29. Allolobophora alpina Rosa, which Mr. W. Evans has 
discovered in Perthshire. The formula is .^ j^. 

III. Genus Helodr/lus Hoffmeister. 

Here we have the most welcome addition to our Lumbricid 
fauna, and here I am obliged to part with Michaelsen and 
others, who have employed Hoffmeister's term in a sense which 
does not seem to me to be warranted. In 1845 Hoffmeister 
introduced the term for a worm which he had found in marsh}' 
places. The peculiarities included the presence of eye-spots 
in certain stages of development. The worm was lost to sight 
for many years, but was found some time ago in Scotland by 
Mr. Evans, and by myself in several localities around the Mal- 
vern Hills. I have now a second species from Cornwall which 
has not been described, and is, I believe, new to science. It 
adds much to our knowledge of this genus. 

30. H.oculatus Hoffm. — Body elongate and pink in colour. 
Length at most 135 mm. 

It occurs on the sea-shore in pools more or less dried up ; 
also inland in the beds of streams, and mud of ponds. Up till 
the present no specimen has been found with a girdle. 

31. LI. elongatus Friend. — Found in Cornwall in April, 1910, 
by Mr. Bartlett, of Pencarrow. Girdle present from 15th to 
24th segment. Related to Criodrilus and Pontodrilus. 

IV. Genus Allurus Eisen. 

I see no reason at present for changing this term, though 
some adopt Eiseniella. An interesting addition has been made 
during the year by the discovery in Scotland of A. hercynius, 
which I regard as a good species if not the type of a new genus. 

^2. A. tetraedrus Savigny. — Male pores on 1 jth segment. 
Formula ™ — 57.. 

18 2"2 

33. A. tetragonurus Friend. — jg^i- Found at Bangor in 
North Wales. 

191 1 Mar. 1. 

128 Friend : A Revised List of British Earthworms. 

A. macrurus Friend. - 

15 - 22 

From Dublin. 

34. .*. „m~. ... t ,o ^ .^v*. 19 21 . 

35. ^4. hercynius Michaelsen. — Male pores on segment XV. 
as in Lumbricus and Allolobophora, and not in XIII., as in 
typical Allurus. Girdle w '_ . 

My Check List of 1893 contained 25 species. Of these two 
are now ranked as varieties, leaving twenty-three. So that no 
fewer than twelve new species have since been discovered, 
besides several very distinct varieties of Eisenia veneta. It is 
possible that further additions may be made when our islands, 
mountains, lakes, rivers, and gardens have been thoroughly 
explored, and I shall be glad of the co-operation of collectors, 
in order that the Monograph of British Annelids which I am 
preparing for the Ray Society may be as complete as possible. 

List of British Earthworms shewing the Segments 
which carry the glrdle and tubercula. 

i. Lumbricus. 





3i 3 2 








L. terrestris 





2. Allurus and Helodrilus. 














2 5 



H. elongatiis ; . . . 

A. macrurus 


X.B. — Between L. castaneus and L. terrestris is a gap which has been 
partially filled by Continental species, but which still needs completing. 

3 Allolobophora (aggregate). 



2 4 


















4 1 









chlorotica and ~\ 

■ — 

cambrica / 



qracile and ) 

rub id a J 







4 2 




2 5 






3 1 


X.B. — This scheme indicates that Hermau?ii and icterica may be importations. The 
rest form a pretty uniform series. It should be observed that this tabulation supplies the 
numbers of the normal or average segments only, and not the variations. 




No remains of this extinct shark have hitherto been recorded in 
the Coralline Oolite of the Scarborough district, and vertebrate 
remains are scarce in this deposit in Yorkshire. 

There are some specimens in the Scarborough Museum, 
with no localities mentioned, but amongst these there are no 
remains of this species. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward* mentions an Asteracanthus 
spine being found in the Malton district, but no specimen of the 
Strophodus teeth have yet been recorded from there. It was, 
therefore, a great pleasure to me to find a spine of Asteracanthus 
in the Coralline Oolite of Seamer in lower beds than occur in the 
Malton district. The spine is not perfect, and although I 
searched diligently, I was unable to find the remaining portion. 

It bears the usual tubercles, and the double row of sharp 
tubercles on the hinder surface, but they are much worn, as if 
the spine had been washed about before becoming finally 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward kindly examined it, and refers it 
to A. ornatissimus. The specimen is nearly 200 mm. in length, 
and, when perfect, would probably have measured another 
60 mm. 

A perfect specimen from the Oxford Clay of Fletton, 
Huntingdonshire, of nearly the same circumference at the 
base, measures 32a mm. 

How to attract and Protect Wild Birds, by M. Hiesemann, Second Edition 
100 pp., 1/6. London : Witherby & Co. 

This work, the first edition of which was reveiwed in these columns a 
little time ago, has proved so popular that a second edition has been 
called for. This has been revised and brought up-to-date, and many new 
features are included. In Germany the Minister of Agriculture has adopted 
the scheme with the greatest success, and it seems agreed that were it 
adopted by the Public, Government, and Municipal Bodies generally, the 
difficulty of enforcing Bird Protection Acts would become largely un- 

' A hundred blue books boiled down into one red one ' is a description 
which might be fittingly applied to ' Hazell's Annual for 1911.' But the 
new number of this old and valued companion is much more than a mere 
digest of hard, if valuable facts. Indispensable as it is to the writer, or 
the politician, it appeals to a much wider public. The scientist, the small 
holder, the sportsman, 1 the atrist, the photographer — even the idler with 
no special tastes, if such an individual there be — will find matter of interest 
in this encyclopaedic guide book to the times in which he lives. Readers 
of ' The Naturalist ' will find the volume particularly useful as it contains 
many facts bearing on their work. There is also an exceptionally good 

* Geol. Mag., 1889, p. 362. 

n ■ , , (;; , f ., ;i .Naturali,st, 




In his vice-presidential address before the Lancashire and 
Cheshire Entomological Society*, the late Dr. J. Harold 
Bailey discussed the coleoptera of the Isle of Man, and gave his 
opinion as to the origin of that part of the Manx fauna. He 
said: 'The Manx coleoptera fauna is derived, as regards 
the majority of its species, from migrations across former 
land-connections both from England and Ireland ; the Irish 
element passing along the Irish-Welsh bridge which was. the 
first 'to disappear, the great mass of the species reaching the 
island from land to the east and south, the last bridge to exist 
being to the coasts of Lancashire and Cumberland.' 

This statement as to the origin of the Manx coleoptera has 
become the more interesting to me the farther my researches 
into the .present distribution of the Britannic water-beetles 
has led me, and I have been able, during the past season to 
spend some ten days in the Isle of Man investigating the water- 
beetle fauna which has, .as Dr. Bailey mentions, been almost 
neglected so far. I wasmot only able to collect a large number 
of species myself, but I learnt that Dr. Bailey's collection of 
beetles was in the possession of the Isle of Man Antiquarian 
and Natural History Society, and, owing to the kindness of 
Dr. Cassal, the cus-todian of the collection, I was allowed to 
examine the water-beetles, and so add to my knowledge of the 
species found in the island. I learn from Dr. Bailey's address 
that the Dale collection at Oxford contains some Manx beetles, 
but' I have not so far been able to look through the water 
beetles of that collection. 

I propose in the present paper to describe the results of my 
researches, and also to discuss shortly the origin of the fauna, 
so far as the water beetles throw any light upon it. I have as 
usual, only included the Hydradephaga and Hydrophilidae, 
omitting the genera Sphceridium, Cereyon, Megasternum and 

With regard[.to published records the Isle of Man apparently 
only boasts a fauna of nineteen species of water beetles, but, 
through the kindness of Dr. Bailey, Mr. W. E. Sharp and 
others, in sending me specimens or their lists of captures, I 
had accumulated a list of forty-two species. In Dr. Bailey's 
collection I found fifty-two species, a few of which had been 

* ' 31st Ann. Rep. and Proc. Lane, and Cheshire Ent. Soc.,' 1908 pp. 
39, 40- 
1911 Mar 1. 

132 Browne : The Aquatic Coleoptera of the Isle of Man, 

mixed up in other series, and I was able during my stay to 
collect eighty-two species. I did not find eight of the species 
of which I had records, and all are represented in Dr. Bailey's 
collection, and there were two other species in that collection 
which I did riot find during my stay in the island, so that the 
total list of water beetles is now ninety-two species. 

My visit was during the last week of June and the first week 
of July, by no means the best time of year, and there are pro- 
bably other species which will be added to the list. Such 
species as Hyphvdrus ovatus, Rhantus exoletus, and Acilhis 
sulcatus have not yet been found in the island. 

The island seemed to me a very good collecting ground for 
water beetles. Dr. Bailey (I.e., p. 29) says, ' Ponds are scarce,, 
except for a series of old marl pits on the edge of the old cliff 
line to the south of the Ayre." I did not find the ponds to 
which he refers, but in the northern plain, especially in the 
neighbourhood of Andreas, small ponds occur in most of the 
fields. There are streams of all sizes in all parts of the island, 
and the only groups of water beetles in which the Isle of Man 
is really deficient are the lake fauna and the halophil fauna. 
Except for one or two reservoirs, which I did not visit, there 
are no lakes, and I could not find any salt marsh areas. 

With eleven exceptions (Snaefell, four, Point of Ayre, three, 
and Curragh, four), Dr. Bailey's specimens were all taken in 
the south of the island, i.e., south of the railway from Douglas 
to Peel, and the great majority of his records are for the Port 
Erin district. My records are chiefly lor the north of the 
island ; I did not visit the Port Erin district, and only made 
one excursion to Castletown and Douglas. 

Amongst the species taken on the island one of the most 
interesting is Bidessus niinutissimus, which I found in the Snlby 
river, the only place I searched for it. I only took two speci- 
mens, one on each occasion that I looked for it, but these are 
sufficient to establish the record. Now that this species has 
occurred in Devonshire, Isle of Man, and Sol way districts, I 
have little doubt but that it will be found in suitable rivers along 
the west of England. 

Of other river and stream species Deronectes latus was com- 
mon in the Sulby river, accompan'ed by Hydroporus septen- 
trionalis, Deronectes depressus and D. 12-pitstitlatus and 
Hvdrcena testacea. In my previous experience this last species 
has always occurred in stagnant ditches or ponds, but it was not 
uncommon in one part of the river in moss on stones. Agabus 
guttatus was common in the mountain streams, and I took a few 
specimens of Orectochilus villosus in the north of the island. 
Dr. Bailey took a number of specimens of this last species in 
th3 south. 

Although I searched carefully for it, I failed to find Hydro- 


Browne : The Aquatic Coleoftera of the Isle of Man. 133 

fiorits rivalis, nor is there a Manx record for it. It is difficult to 
account for its absence as it is recorded from England, Scotland, 
and Ireland. With regard to its British distribution there 
seem to be a fair number of counties in the south and south- 
east of England in which it has not occurred, and from its 
present known British distribution, I think it may be regarded 
as belonging to Watson's ' Scottish ' type* which includes species 
showing a concentration in the north of England and south oi 
Scot] nd. Of the ten species which, from their present known 
British distribution may be referred to this type, five others arc 
apparently absent from the island, viz., Calambus q-l incut us. 
Deronectes assimilis, Agabus affinis and unguicularis and 
Acilius fasciatus, so that the type is poorly represented. Oi 
these, the first two are lake species, while the third and fifth 
may be described as ' lowland oxylophils.' Lowland peat 
moss is not common on the island, and I only visited three 
localities — (1) ' The Curragh,' which at one time was perhaps 
a good ground, but is now rather barren. Here I took the 
only specimen of Hydroporus obscurus ; (2) a small area near 
Ballaugh, detached from the Curragh, where Sphagnum 
flourishes. Here Helochares punctatus and Copclatus agilis 
were abundant. The former only occurred on this ground, but 
I took one specimen of the latter in another place ; (3) at 
Foxdale, where a pond, covered with Equisetum and surrounded 
with thick Sphagnum yielded Gyrinus minutus, Ilybius cenescens 
and Rhantus bistriatus among the species. This was the only 
place I found the first two species, and they were very common. 

A single specimen of Ilybius subceneus turned up in a pond 
near Andreas. The only other British records for this species 
are Lines. N., Norfolk E. and W., Cambs., Suffolk E., Surrey 
and Kent \\ ., but it has a wide range elsewhere from N. America 
to Siberia. In England, as in the Isle of Man, I have always 
taken it in drains or ponds with the group of ' helophils ' or 
fresh-water marsh species, but in Norway at 3000 feet eleva- 
tion, it was common as an ' oxylophil ' or peat moss species 
in company with Dytiscus lapponicus, Agabus arcticus, Ilybius 
angustior and cenescens, etc. 

Of the ' helophils,' the most interesting species was Berosus 
affinis which was common in a farm pond near Andreas. The 
northern plain is the chief centre of this group in the island, 
owing to the scarcity of stagnant water elsewhere. I found 
a single specimen of Gyrinus urinator in a slow flowing drain 
near Sandygate, and there is another specimen in Dr. Bailey's 
collection. It was amongst a series of G. uatator, and is 

* It must be remembered that H. C. Watson, in the Cybele Britannica, 
founded his types on the British distribution of the species without any 
reference to the sources from which the plants reached the country. 

]gn Mar. I, 

134 Browne: The Aquatic Ooleoptera of the Isle of Man. 

labelled K, 2, vii., 1908,' the ' K ' I believe, standing for 

With regard to systematic arrangement, there are two 
points upon which I have been unable to follow recent writers. 
After examining large numbers of Haliplus ruficollis, I have 
beeii unable to satisfy myself as to the specific distinction 
between it and H. immaculatiis, a specimen of which I received 
from Mr. E. A. Newbery. Shape alone is, at the best, a poor 
criterion upon which to seperate species, and the shape of the 
group at present included under the name ruficollis varies so 
much that I can find no break which should justify the separa- 
tion from it of H. immaculatiis. Perhaps an investigation of 
the whole ' ruficollis ' group would clear up the difficulty by 
discovering some distinct specific characters, and perhaps 
several species! 

Edwards* recently re-separated Anaccena ovata and limbata 
as distinct species, and I have not followed him in this. Edwards 
admits that these two forms and A. bipustulata are ' evidently 
very closely allied.' I will not enter into the question of the 
specific distinction of the latter, as it does not occur in the Isle 
of Man, and I have not worked at it, but so far as my experience 
goes, it is easily separated, and has a distribution limited to 
the south-east of England (Lines. N., to Hants S.), except for 
a single record for Lanes. S. 

The other two forms are not easily separated, as I find all 
intermediate grades of colour between the black (limbata) and 
the brown (ovata) and both forms seem to be widely distributed 
in the country, the black one apparently being the rarer. 
Out of seventy collections made during the past season (1910), 
the black one occurred twenty times, and the various browns 
fifty-eight times, so that in only eight collections did black 
and brown occur together. I think the colour is affected by 
the environment, the black specimens occurring chiefly in a 
kind of peaty water, which is not too acid for certain snails, 
such as Planorbis spirorbis, and where the water beetle fauna 
includes helophil and oxylophil species, e.g., H. gyllenhalii, 
vittula and nigrita, I.obscurus, Ph. melanocephalus, etc. There 
are several other species of water beetles with colour varia- 
tions as for instance, Deronectes depressus and 12-pustulatus, 
P/atambus maculatus, etc., and I think the differences between 
their extreme forms, the strongly yellow marked and the black, 
are quite as great as in the case of the Anacaenas. In the case 
of these species, the dark form of P. maculatus is commoner 
in the north than in the south, and on high than on low grounds, 
while I think that the dark forms of the two Deronectes, 

* ' On the British Species of Anaecena,' E.M.M., Ser. 2, xx., 1909, pp. 

Browne: The Aquatic Coleoptera of the Isle of Man. 135 

although not absent from rapidly flowing, gravelly streams are 
c immoner in the more sluggish and muddy ones. 

In the following list 1 have mentioned the parish in the case 
of every record, as Dr. Cassal told me that he recorded all his 
captures of lepidoptera on that basis. Dr. Bailey's name is 
mentioned in connection with all the records I have taken from 
his collection, and a bibliography at the end of the paper 
includes all the referem rs to Manx water beetles that I have 
been able to find : — 

Brychius elevalus Panz. Andreas (common in one small 


Haliplus confinis Steph. Andreas; Ballaugh [only three 

H. flavicollis Sturm. Rushen (Colby R., Kentraugh) 
(Bailey) : Ballaugh, only in the Killane River. 

H. fulvus F. Andreas ; Ballaugh ; Lezayre. 

H. ntficollis De G. Rushen (Bradda and Kentraugh) 
(Bailey) ; Andreas ; Ballaugh ; Jurby ; Lezayre ; Michae . 

H. lineatocollis Marsh. Rushen (Bradda, Cronk Mooar 
Flesh wick and Colby River) (Bailey) ; Andreas ; German : 
Jurby ; Lezayre. 

Noterus sparsus Marsh. Ballaugh ; Jurby. 

Laccophilus obscurus Panz. Andreas ; Ballaueh ■ Turbv ■ 
Lezayre ; Michael. 5 ' J 

Bidessus minutissimus Germ. Lezayre (Sulby River two 

Ccelambus incequalis F. Andreas ; Ballaugh ; Turbv" 
Deronectes lotus Steph. Lezayre (Sulby River), (common) 
D. depressus F. Rushen (Cronk Mooar and' Kentraugh) 
(Bailey).; Andreas; Ballaugh; Jurby; Lezayre (Sulby River 
etc.). J 

D. 12-pustulatus 01. Rushen (Kentraugh, Colby R ) 
(Bailey) ; Jurby ; Lezayre (Sulby R., etc.). 

Hydroporus pictus F. Andreas ; Ballaugh ; Turbv ■ 
Lezayre. J ' 

H. lepidus 01. Rushen (Cronk Mooar), (Bailey) ; Andreas ■ 
Ballaugh ; Jurby. 

/c if' " e P tent l ionalis Gyll. German (R. Neb.) ; Lezayre 
(Sulby R., etc). J 

H. lineatus F. Andreas ; Ballaugh ; Jurby ; Lezayre. 
H. tristis Payk. Ballaugh (900 feet) several.' 
H. umbrosus Gyll. Andreas ; Ballaugh ; Jurby ; Lezayre 
H. gyttenhaln Schiod. Rushen, etc. (Bailey) ; Andreas ■ 

Ballaugh ; German ; Jurby ; Lezayre. 

H. morio Dej. Lezayre (Snaefdl and Mallew (S. Barrule) 

(Bailey) ; Ballaugh (950 ft.). '' 

1911 Mar. 1. 

I36 Browne : The Aquatic Coleoptcra of the Isle of Man. 

H. vittula Er. Andreas ; Ballaugh ; Jurby ; Lezayre ; 

H. palnstris L. Andreas ; Ballaugh ; German ; Jurby ; 
Lezayre ; Michael ; Patrick. 

H . incognitas Sharp. A number in Dr. Bailey's collection 
mixed with H. palnstris, but I overlooked the localities ; 
Ballaugh ; Jurby ; Lezayre. 

H. erythrocephalus L. Andreas ; Ballaugh ; Jurby ; 
Lezayre ; Patrick. 

H. celatus Clark. Mallew (S. Barrule) ; Rushen (Mull Hill), 
and ' Sound ' (?) (Bailey). 

H. melanarius Sturm. Ballaugh and Lezayre (fairly com- 
mon, 800-950 ft.). 

H. memnonius Nic. Andreas ; Ballaugh ; German ; Jurby 

H. obscurus Sturm. Ballaugh (a single specimen in the 

H. nigrita F. Rushen (Bradda, Mull Hill, etc.) (Bailey) ; 
German ; Lezayre. 

H. discretus Fairm. Rushen (Surby and Bradda) (Bailey) ; 
German ; Lezayre. 

H. pubescens Gyll. Rushen (Bradda and Mull Hill) (Bailey); 
Andreas ; Ballaugh ; German ; Jurby ; Lezayre. 

H. planus F. Rushen (Cronk Mooar and Kentraugh), 
(Bailey) ; Andreas ; Ballaugh ; Jurby ; Lezayre. 

H. lituratus F. Bride (Point of Ayre) ; Rushen (Cronk 
Mooar, Flesh wick, Mull Hill and Scholaby), (Bailey) ; Andreas ; 
Ballaugh ; German ; Jurby ; Lezayre. 

H. obsoletus Aube. Lezayre (Snaefell, 2 specimens ' 1906 ') 

Agabus guttatus Payk. ' Common in Rushen, 1902 ' 
(Bailey) ; Ballaugh ; Lezayre ; Patrick. 

A. biguttatus 01. Rushen ( Surby, 1902, one specimen) 

A. paludosus F. Mallew (Ballakilley) ; Rushen (Cronk 
Mooar) (Bailey) ; Andreas ; Mallew. 

A. nebulosiis Forst. Andreas; Ballaugh; Jurby; Michael. 

A. femoralis Payk. Andreas, one specimen). 

A. sturmii Gyll. Rushen (Colby R., Kentraugh) (Bailey) ; 
Jurby ; Lezayre ; Patrick. 

A. chalconotus Panz. Rushen (Bradda, Cronk Mooar, 
Fleshwick and Mull Hill) (Bailey) ; Andreas ; Ballaugh ; 
German ; Jurby ; Lezayre. 

A. bipustulatus L. Arbory (Balladoole) ; Lezayre (Snae- 
fell) ; Rushen (Cronk Mooar and Mull Hill, and two red spec- 
mens, Bradda) (Bailey) ; Andreas ; Ballaugh ; German ; 
Jurby ; Lezayre ; Michael ; Patrick. 

(To be continued ). 





Bottle = nosed Whale at Spurn. — On December 14th, 
Mr Consett Hopper of Spurn Head, sent me word that on the 
previous day a whale had come ashore, just under what is 
known as the station, Spurn Head, the like of which no one 
in the neighbourhood had ever seen before. Unfortunately, 
I was unable at the time to go down and see it and take 
a photograph of it, as I should much have liked to have done, 
but I wrote again to Mr. Hopper, and he kindly supplied me 
with a sketch of its head, from which I had no difficulty in 
recognizing it as a Beaked or Bottle-nosed Whale ( Hyperoodon 
rostra/ us). Mr. Hopper further informed me that it was twenty- 
five feet in length, slatey blue in colour, and estimated to 
weigh between nine and ten tons. It was very shortly after- 
wards cut up and buried by the coastguards. Curiously 
■enough in the ' Zoologist ' for January, Mr. A. H. Patterson, of 
Great Yarmouth, records the stranding of a whale of this 
species at Holme-next-the-Sea, near Hunstanton, on the 
Norfolk coast, on the very same date as the Yorkshire 
specimen came ashore, viz., December 13th. — Oxley Grabham, 


Wax wings in the Whitby District. — A small flock of 
Waxwings was seen near Whitby on December 20th, and the 
two following days. The birds were not at all wild, and 
permitted near approach. They were feeding greedily on the 
' hips ' of the wild rose, which they swallowed whole. — Thos. 
Stephenson, Whitby, 13th January, 191 1. 

Whooper Swans in Wharfedale, etc. — Upon a lake in 
Lower Wharfedale, eight miles from Harrogate, there are at 
present (Jan.) eleven wild Whooper Swans. They are consorting 
with eight pinioned birds, which at different periods visited 
the lake in a wild state, but which were captured, and after 
they had been pinioned, were allowed their liberty in the 
lake, where they appear to thrive. Although now familiarised 
with the human form, they do not loose their shyness, and when 
strangers are about they either keep to the centre of the lake 
or on the far side. Mr. Nelson reports seeing Whoopers at the 
Tees mouth on November 19th. — R. Fortune. 

Another Pugnacious Grouse. — Since my note upon the 
Pugnacious Grouse appeared in ' The Naturalist ' for December, 
I have received a communication from Mr. T. Turnbull, of 
Conisbro', to the following effect : — ' In August 1909, I was 

1911 Mar. 1. 

138 Field Notes 

visiting a daughter at Curbar, near the Duke of Devonshire's 
moors, and hearing of two ladies being attacked and driven 
back by a Grouse, my son-in-law and I took a stroll on the moor, 
to verify the statement, and as soon as we reached the bird's 
beat, we heard a w-r-r-r of wings, and a fine cock grouse alighted 
on the path in front of us, and disputed our passage with the 
cry of " Go-back " or " get-out," but which I think is" Gar- 
ouse," probably the origin of the bird's name. It fought with 
my stick, which I tried to hook round its neck, and jumped at 
my friend's straw hat, which he held in his hand, like a bantam 
cock, and kept up the game until we had passed over his 
ground, when he flew back to cover in the heather. Confirma- 
tion of this may be had from Mr. Peet, the head keeper, who 
lives close to the place, and who, I understand, had reared it 
with his chickens.' — R. Fortune. 

The Earth and its Story, by A. R. Dwerryhouse, D.Sc, F„G.S. London : 
C. H. Kelly, 364 pp., 5/- net. 

Dr. Dwerryhouse, who is a frequent contributor to the pages of The 
Naturalist, has written this volume in order ' to lay before the general 
reader, in a simple and interesting manner, some of the facts which are 
known about the earth upon which we live, and the processes of change 
to which it is constantly being subjected.' It contains in Part I.* a series 
of artides on Wind and Rain, Brooks and Rivers, A Glacier, The Sea, 
The Floor of the Ocean, Volcanoes and Earthquakes, Fossils, etc ; and 
in Part II., descriptions of the rocks and their contents, beginning with 
the Archaean. Each chapter is a separate essay on the subject given, 
and for the most part is written in simple language. In ' The Interior 
of the Earth,' however, it is much too ' deep ' for us — though we may not 
be a properly qualified ' general reader.' For example : ' Now, from the 
equation on p. 148, we have 

B x I B E x I E 

/ = G —r~ = G (i2 , also w = G Ra = G R2 

and from these two equations we get a third, from which we can calculate 
the value of E, because we know the value of all the other letters which 
the equation contains. 

w R 2 

E=By X — 

Thus the mass of the earth can be determined.' 

Personally, we don't believe it, though the general reader can do as he 
(or she) likes. Similarly, we are not quite sure that (speaking of the 
formation of columnar basalt) ' all the forces meeting along ab can be 
resolved into forces parallel to 1/ and 2/, and others acting along bf and af. 
The latter, being equal and opposite, would balance,' etc. 

The volume is well illustrated, many of the photographs (by Mr- 
Godfrey Bingley and others) will be familiar to our readers. The coloured 
maps shewing the probable position of glaciers in the British Isles before 
the advent of the Scandinavian Ice-Sheet, and the condition of the British 
Isles at the period of Maximum Glaciation, are particularly interesting. 
A coloured geological map of the British Isles form the frontispiece. 

* This is entitled ' The Historians and their Language.' 



3n flDcmoriam. 

1858 — igi 1. 

It is with the greatest regret that we record the death of Mr. 
J. W. Tutt, which took place on January 19th last, in the 
fifty-third year of his age. In close connection with the various 
London Entomological Societies, and in contact, either as 
correspondent or by personal acquaintance with almost every 
lepidopterist in the kingdom, probably no entomologist, 
living or dead, was ever so widely known as was Mr. Tutt. 

The work he did, too, in his favourite science, was prodigious ; 
and it was a marvel to everyone as to how he found time to 
get through it. The titles alone of his various papers and 
notes would take a long time to read through, and his numerous 
books are in all our Entomological libraries. Of these latter 
the first were of popular character, and one will not soon forget 
the fascination which the reading of his ' Rambles in Alpine 
Valleys,' ' Woodside, Burnside, Hillside, and Marsh,' ' Random 
Recollections,' etc., produced. Later his books became more 
scientific, and his ' British Noctuae and their Varieties,' followed 
by his work ' British Lepidoptera ' are known to all of us. 
Of this last great work, eight very bulky volumes had already 
been published, and the author was busily engaged on the 
ninth up to the time of his death. 

Twenty-two years ago, too, he started the ' Entomologist's 
Record ' as a monthly journal, and acted as its editor until 
his fatal illness overtook him. In its early years the journal 
shewed strongly the independent and forcible character of 
its editor, and the drastic way in which he characterized the 
writings of some of his fellow students, no doubt caused him 
to be bitterly disliked by several of the older entomologists 
who could not understand that his scorn was vented on their 
theories only, and not on themselves. Indeed, probably no 
one has more severely criticised some of his methods and 
work, both in conversation, and in correspondence with him, 
than the writer of this notice, but Tutt always took it in good 
part, and we remained throughout close and intimate friends. 
That by his sterling value, and high scientific work he had 
lived down all opposition among those who knew him, is shewn 
by the fact that at the time of his death, he was President- 
elect of the Entomological Society of London, and had he 
lived eight days longer would have had that — the highest 
honour to which a British entomologist can attain, conferred 
upon him. 

iqu Mar. 1. 

140 /// Memo ria m — James IVilliiim Tuft. 

Besides being so keen a student, Mr. Tutt was a most 
energetic and enthusiastic collector in the field. The writer 
firs': met him in Chattenden Woods, Kent, near the place 
(Strood) where Tutt was born, well on to forty years ago, and 
when he was a mere boy ; since which time we have often worked 
together in various well-known entomological localities — 
Wicken Fen, Deal, etc., including Yorkshire, where some years 
ago, as my guest for a few days, I introduced him, to his great 
enjoyment, to some of our well-known collecting districts. 

Of late years he was greatly interested in European Butter- 
flies, and spent his holidays abroad in their pursuit. He 
amassed large collections, all of which, we understand, are 
to be disposed of at Stevens' Salerooms, in five sales, during 
the next two years. 

Mr. Tutt was buried at the cemetery at Lewisham, on 
January 14th, a large number of his entomological friends 
attending to show their token of regard for a man whose loss 
as an entomologist, both to Britain and the Continent, will 
be great indeed. 

G. T. P. 


Perhaps next to birds, plants are, now-a-days, the most favourite 
subjects dealt with in popular natural history, and the number of books 
referring to various aspects of botany is continually increasing. As in 
the case of the birds, also, these vary a good deal in quality. From Messrs. 
F. Warne & Co., we have received ' Wayside and Woodland Trees,' 
a pocket guide to British Sylva, by Edward Step, F.L.S. (182 pp., 6/- net). 
This contains no fewer than 175 plates from water colour drawings and 
photographs. Readers of The Naturalist are familiar with the excellent 
way in which Mr. Step does any work he undertakes. The present 
volume is no exception to this. Each species is dealt with, and illustrations 
are given of the trees in winter and summer ; the boles, leaves, flowers 
and fruits. The present edition contains forty-eight extra plates. It is 
a most useful volume, and is a handy size for the pocket. 

British Ferns and their Varieties, by C. T. Druery, F.L.S., V.M.H. 

{George Routledge & Sons, Ltd., 460 pp., 7/6 net) is a volume for which 
we have nothing but praise. It is magnificent. It will appeal alike to 
the expert botanist and to the amateur just beginning to dabble in ' nature 
study.' There is an excellent Introduction, followed by chapters on 
British Ferns as a Hobby ; the Life History of Ferns ; Fern Propagation 
and Culture ; Selection ; Crossing and Hybridizing ; Multiple Parentage ; 
Rockeries, Frames and Wooden Cases ; Wild ' Sports,' and how found ;' 
Types of Variation ; Fern Foes and Remedies ; and the details of the 
various and numerous species found in Britain. Each is illustrated by an 
uncommonly large number of fine prints and drawings, there being forty 
coloured plates, ninety-six nature prints, and over three hundred ' wood- 
cuts,' etc. A remarkable feature is the Appendix, containing ' ninety- 
six nature prints of fine varieties of British Ferns, selected from some three 
hundred printed from the fronds by the late Colonel A. M. Jones of Clifton.' 
The book is rather heavy to handle, but this is unavoidable in view of the 
number of plates. 


I 4 I 


A Garden in Bogland, by ' H. E. S.' (Siegell Hill & Co., 60 pp. 2 6 net). 

In this little volume ' H. E. S.' describes how a dreary peaty waste 
in the north of Ireland has been transformed into a veritable botanists' 
paradise ; and how the difficulties of having beautiful plants where rabbits 
are so plentiful, was overcome by making islands in the bogland. Judging 
from the tine coloured plates, the effect has been wonderful, and we can 
appreciate the writer's enthusiasm. There is a long list of plants which 
now are thriving in the garden. 

Mosses and Liverworts, by T. H. Russell (Sampson, Low, Marston iV Co., 
Ltd., 211 pp. and plates. 4/6 net). 

We reviewed the first edition of this excellent work to some length, and 
reproduced one of the plates, in The Naturalist for July, 1908. That a 
second edition has been called for so soon, supports the remarks we then 
made. The author has also thoroughly revised the present impression ; 
and we are glad to notice he has adpoted the suggestions we made, par- 
ticular^ in reference to his use of the word ' flowers.' For this, the author 
has ' somewhat reluctantly, substituted the less euphonious expression, 
" reproductive organs." ' Four entirely new plates have also been added 
to the edition. It is a remarkably cheap book. 

Plant Life in Alpine Switzerland, by E. A. Newell-Arber, M.A , F.L.S., 
etc. (John Murray, 355 pp., 7 6 net) is a volume that will cpiickly sell. 
It is just the work which has been wanted for a long time. As might be 
expected from the name of the author, it is thoroughly scientific, yet not 
technical ; and he has constantly in his mind the relationship of the various 
species with which he deals, to their surroundings. There is also much 
original research recorded in the pages, and, in addition, the ecological work 
of Kerner, Christ and Schroeter has been largely drawn upon. In recent 
vears the author has paid many visits to Switzerland, and the numerous 
beautiful photographs of the flowers in their natural sorroundings are 
largely his own work. ' Plant Life in Alpine Switzerland ' should un- 
questionably be a part of the equipment of every visitor to Switzerland. 

The Oak : its Natural History, Antiquity and Folk Lore, by Charles 
Mosley (Elliot Stock, 126 pp., 5/- net) is by a contributor to this journal. 
In this volume Mr. Mosley seems to have gathered together all the informa- 
tion he can get dealing with the oak, from whatever source, and upon 
whatever aspect, one chapter being on ' The Oak in Holy Writ.' The 
illustrations, though taken by the author, remind one very much of those 
in Mr. Step's book, just referred to. Amongst the ' Historic Veteran 
Oaks,' mention is naturally made of the Cowthorpe Oak, and reference is 
made to the fact that ' some years ago the Vicar of St. James's, Wetherby, 
together with a number of churchwardens and school-children, ninety -five 
in all, got inside the hollow tree.' Mr. Mosley gives a list of the various 
species of oak, and a real ' oak-board,' if a thin one, is pasted on the 
cover. The price seems rather high for a small volume. 

The Wild Flowers, by J. H. Crawford, F.L.S. (T. N. Foulis, 232 pp, 
5/- net) is an artistic production, and its charm lies in the sixteen coloured 
plates by E. Alexander, A.R.W.S., with which the volume is embellished. 
These plates must not be looked upon as prepared for the purpose of 
identifying the species of plants, as for the most part they represent the 
commonest species ; but they exhibit the flowers as seen by an artist. 
For example, that entitled ' Bluebells,' i.e., Harebells (a really beautiful 
sketch), has the hind part of a bee as its most conspicuous feature. The 
book does not contain a survey of the leading features of the principal 
plants in our flora, but a series of well-written chapters containing the 
author's various impressions of wild plant life. The book is printed on 
good paper, and is excellently bound. The fact that this is the second 
edition speaks for its popularity. 

191 1 Mar. 1. 



In view of the fact that, until a few years ago, scientific books were 
generally exceptionally expensive, it is gratifying to find _ that we 
are now able to purchase neatly-printed and well-bound volumes, by our 
best scientific writers, for the small price of a shilling. We have five 
such works before us. The first is issued for the Rationalist Press 
Association, by Messrs. Watts & Co., London, and is entitled 'History of 
Anthropology ' by Dr, A. C. Haddon (158 pp.). This may be said to be 
the first attempt towards a History of the Science of Anthropology, and 
in the capable hands of Dr. Haddon, the work is all that can be desired. 
He deals with the Pioneers and Systematisers of the Science ; Controver- 
sies ; the Antiquity of Man ; Psychology ; Distribution of Man ; Ethno- 
logy ; Archaeological Discovery ; Technology ; Sociology and Religion ; 
Linguistics; Cultural Classification, etc. There are several illustrations, 
the frontispiece being a portrait of E. B. Tylor. The Cambridge Univer- 
sity Press is issuing a series of Manuals of Science and Literature, under 
the editorship of Dr. P. Giles and Prof. A. C. Seward. These are sold at 
1/- each, and the volumes referred to below are already published, each 
being perfect as regards typography, etc. The Coming of Evolution : 
The Story of a Great Revolution in Science (171 pp.) will be perhaps the 
most popular, and is by Dr. J. W. Judd. In this Dr. Judd refers to the 
origin of the idea of evolution, and step by step gives a valuable historical 
review of the subject. The parts played by Scrope, Lyell, Darwin and 
Wallace are carefully dealt with, and there is a portrait of each of the 
authorities named. Needless to say the volume is most fascinating to 
read. Heredity in the light of recent research, is a companion volume, 
by Mr. L. Doncaster (140 pp.) Amongst the subjects discussed are Varia- 
tion, and its Causes ; the Statistical Study of Heredity ; Mendelian 
Heredity ; Some Disputed Questions ; Heredity in Man, etc., etc. The 
book contains a most admirable summary of the subject. Plant 
Animals: a Study in Symbiosis, by F. Keeble (163 pp.) is i n the same 
series. Prof. Keeble spent ten years in a small marine laboratory 
in Brittany, during which he paid considerable attention to the habits 
etc., of the minute worm-like animals found among seaweeds, and known 
as Convoluta. Two species particularly are dealt with — C. roscoffensis 
and C. paradoaa, a coloured plate and diagrams, etc., of which are given. 
The Natural History of Coal, by E. A. N. Arber (163 pp.), In this volume the 
author shews that the discussion on the origin of coal would be simplified 
if it were borne in mind that all coal was not formed in the same way. 
Mr. Arber deals with the chemical and physical properties of coal, associated 
rocks, origin, terrestrial coals, estuarine and Lacustrine coals, etc. There 
is a useful bibliography, and several fine illustrations. 

Proceedings Yorkshire Geological Society, Vol. XVII. , Pt. 2, 1910, 
publ. 1911, 71 pp. 

This excellent Yorkshire Society has issued a volume containing three 
-admirable papers, dealing with the geology of the Isle of Man, Lancashire, 
Derbyshire, and Nottinghamshire. In the past it has made Yorkshire 
the field of its operations, and there is still much to be done in that county. 
Dr. Wheelton Hind, describes four new Carboniferous Nautiloids, and a 
Goniatite new to Britain ,; Mr. E. A. Newell Arber describes the Fossil 
Flora of the Coalfields , in Nottinghamshire and North Derbyshire, and 
Mr. F. W. White .describes the Complex of Igneous Rocks at Oatland, 
Isle of Man. 1 All three are valuable, and well illustrated. There are also 
obituary notices of the late C. Fox-Strangways and J. R. Dakyns ; the 
latter we have seen before, and a footnote might perhaps have been added, 
if merely to say that a list of Dakyns' works was given in The Naturalist 
for November last. There are some unnecessary misprints, etc. 


Review's and Book Notices. 143 

How Sealskins are Obtained, by J. Collinson (Animals' Friend S01 ietj 
York House, Portugal Street, W.C., s pp., 2d.), draws attention to the 
cruelties practised in securing seal skins for the adornment of our ladies. 
It is anything but pleasant reading. 

Darwinism and Human Life, by Prof. J. Arthur Thomson. London: 
Andrew Melrose, J45 pp., 5 - net. 

In 1909 Prof. Thomson gave the 'South African Lectures' to the 
South African Association for the Advancement of Science ; and, appro- 
priately, the subject chosen was Darwinism. The subject was dealt with 
under the heads, ' What We Owe to Darwin ' ; ' The Web of Life' ; 
4 The Struggle for Existence ' ; ' The Raw Materials of Progress ' ; ' Facts 
of Inheritance ' ; and ' Selection : Organic and Social." All naturalists 
will be familiar with Prof. Thomson's charming style, hence the present 
work is one that can be heartily recommended, and it will unquestionably 
take a. permanent place amongst the extraordinary amount of literature 
on this subject that has appeared during the past two years. 

Report on the Immigrations of Summer Residents in the Spring of 1909, 
edited by Mr. W. R. Ogilvie-Grant, being Vol. XXVI., Bull. B.O.C., 347 
pp. and 25 maps. London, Witherby & Co., 6/- net. 

This Annual Report of the B.O.C. Migration Committee continues to 
grow very considerably each year. The Chronological Summary of the 
arrival and dispersal of the various species of the Spring immigratory 
birds is continued on the original lines, any alteration or improvement 
in the system at first adopted being strenuously avoided by the Committee, 
•evidently in order ' to afford facilities in comparing the results of one 
year with another.' This we consider to be a mistake (vide ' The Natura- 
list,' 1906, pp. 164-166, and 1909, p. 31). 

Fortunately in other directions the Committee has been much more 
enterprising. There are Weather Reports from the weekly returns of 
the Meteorological Office ; Daily Details of the Weather Conditions with 
the Corresponding Arrivals of the Summer-Residents ; Details of the 
chief Movements observed at the Lighthouses and Light-vessels in the 
Spring ; and full notes on the Autumn migratory movements, both at 
"the Light-stations and inland. A useful map, giving the positions 
of the ninety light-stations included in the Report, is added for the first 
lime. We are glad to see that in these additional reports and records the 
precise locality is usually given, instead of such vague terms as ' York- 
shire,' ' Lincolnshire,' etc., as in the systemised ' Chronological Summary ' 
of Spring arrivals. 

Comparative notes are added from Scotland, and also from the Isle 
of Texel (Holland), where one member of the Committee went in order to 
report observations of passing migrants. Such a huge mass of reports 
is being accumulated that we confess we are beginning to look forward 
to the promised ' Digest ' of the whole. 

Owing to the yearly increasing work of tabulation three additional 
members have been added to the Committee, and Dr. N. F. Ticehurst 
has undertaken the secretaryship, hitherto held by Mr. J. L. Bonhote. 

The records from the Light-stations are amazingly numerous, and it 
makes one wonder at the number of embryo ornithologists there must 
be amongst the Light-keepers, more especially when critical species are 
' seen ' in ' cloudy weather.' But where wings of the birds killed 
at the lights are forwarded to the Committee (as is frequently the case), 
identification is more satisfactory. Amongst this multitude of ' facts ' 
there are some which are open to question : for instance, the first arrivals 
in the autumn of both the Fieldfare and the Redwing are from the extreme 
south of England ! But taken altogether this Committee is doing splendid 
work, and no student of Bird migration can possibly be without these 
publications. — H. B. B. 

1911 Mar. 1. 



The name of Mr. R. Welch has been added to the list of Editors of the 
Irish Naturalist, in place of that of Mr. Robert Patterson, who has resigned. 

The Scientific Noll and Magazine of Systematised notes, conducted by 
Alexander Ramsay, continues to make its appearance. Vol. II., No. 26 
(pp. 291-322, if-) is still in ' Bacteria,' and deals with Vital Chemistry : 
Butyric, Caproic, Caprylic, Carbolic, Citric, and Formic Acids. 

Dr. David Starr Jordan's Presidential Address to the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, is printed in Nature, No. 2150. 
He deals with ' The Making of a Darwin," and refers to the question 
as to whether a Darwin could be produced at a University to-day. It 
is an excellent comparison of present with past educational methods. 

We should like to congratulate a Mr. ' S. F. Cook, B.E.N. A., Middles- 
brough,' upon the way in which he has ' lifted ' Mr. Riley Fortune's 
note on ' A Pugnacious Grouse ' from the pages of The Naturalist, and 
placed it under his own name in another journal, without any acknowledg- 
ment whatever. Or is it that ' S. F. Cook ' is a species of ' Mrs. Harris ? r 

The ' Lancashire Naturalist ' , which started as a journal devoted to 
Lancashire, subsequently included Cheshire, Derbyshire, Westmorland, 
the Lake District, and the Isle of Man. It now takes in the ' Lake Dis- 
trict,' which ' will explain the alteration on the part of the cover.' This 
we presume, refers to the fact that part of the title is printed upside downt 
But why not drop the word ' Lancashire ' ? 

Mr. W. Eagle Clarke (Ann. of Scottish Nat. Hist., January, 191 1)„ 
records that he visited St. Kilda from September 1st to October 8th, and 
met with quite unlooked-for success. Fifty-four species of birds were 
noticed on passage, of which thirty-five were new to the avi-fauna of the 
island, and included some not previously recorded for the west of Scot- 
land ; whilst the American Pipit is new to the British fauna, and the 
Marsh Warbler to that of Scotland. 

Parts II. and III. of Major Barrett-Hamilton's History of British 
Mammals (2/6 each, Gurney & Jackson), are to hand, and are well up 
to the standard of the first part, already noticed in these columns. In 
addition to the General Introduction to the Bats, the author deals with 
Leisler's bat, the Pipistrelle, the Serotine, the Parti-coloured bat ; Dau- 
benton's, the Rough-legged Water Bat, and the Whiskered Bat. His 
grasp of the scattered literature on the subject is astonishing. 

Remarks on some Paleeoxyris from the Middle Coal Measures of 
Lancashire, by Mr. J. W. Jackson, of the Manchester Museum, appear 
in The Lancashire Naturalist for January. These curious organisms 
are now generally accepted as being the egg-capsules of some species of 
Carboniferous fish, though at one time opinion was strongly in favour 
of their being the fruits of some plant. It will be remembered that one 
of the first British examples was figured in The Naturalist by Prof. A. C. 
Seward, some years ago. 

The Animal World gives the following specimen of police court natural 
history, in connection with a R.S.P.C.A. prosecution for cruelty to a seal." 
' The bench declared that the seal was an animal, but the solicitor for the 
defence disputed this, arguing that from the definition given in a dic- 
tionary, it was a mammal. The Chairman said a mammal was an animal, 
and the clerk, consulting a dictionary, said a mammal was defined as a 
mammalian animal. The Chairman said a whale was an animal, but the 
solicitor said it was a mammal. One of the justices observed that it 
certainly was not a vegetable, and the bench ultimately held the seal to 
be an animal ! 


APRIL, 191.. N °- 65 ' 

(No. 429 #/ currtnt terltt). 




T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.ScoL^^JJteenian , 

The Museums, Hull ; 


T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

APR 15 1! 

Technical College. Huddersfield. ^w **//_ 

N - ynal Muse 






Contents : — 


Notes and Comments:— The Scamridge Dykes (Illustrated) ; Supplement to the West York- 
shire Flora; A new British Flora ; References to Publications. Mr. Win. Cash, F.G.S. ; 

Scandinavian Boulders in Denmark ; and other places 145-148 

The Hibernation and Pairing of Scotosla duhitata L. (Illustrated)—/. W. Carter, FJZ.S. 149-150 

Strophodus Teeth in the Corallian Beds of Malton— /. Wil/t id Jackson, F.G.S 151 

Actlnocamax quadratus in the Chalk of Yorkshire—/. W. Stather, F.G.S 15 l 2 

The Earthworms of Holland— Rev. Hi'.deric Friend 15;} 

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1 -t-3 



We were recently informed that the Scamridge Dvxes — 
one of the few fine prehistoric earthworks left to us, were in 
danger of being mutilated in connection with a reservoir 
that the Scarborough Urban District Council propose! to 
construct, in order to supply the village of Snaintou with 
water. From a plan which was sent to us, it was ".ear 
that, were the scheme carried out, the earthworks won! ' be 

^M^' x "' 

m^MMHaMML A'l 



Trenches overlooking Trouisdale Valley connecting Scamridge. 

ruined. It was evident that a good and suitable site could 
be found a little further away, though it would necessitate a 
small additional expenditure as regards excavation. As there 
was little time to lose, the daily press was communicated with, 
as were also the various societies and influential gentle nen 
interested in the preservation of our ancient monuments. 
We hear that it has now been decided to alter the proposed 
site of the reservoir, which is satisfactory. 


For some years Mr. F. A. Lees has been at work on a Supple- 
ment to his well-known Flora of West Yorkshire, which was 
published by the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union so long ago as 

■ \pril i. 

146 Notes and Comments 

1888. The supplement is now practically ready, and includes 
particulars of several additional records. Mr. Arnold E. 
Bradley has taken the responsibility for the difficult group, 
the brambles, and Mr. W. Ingham is responsible for the mosses. 
In the Supplement Mr. Lees groups, as far as data permit, 
the present and extinct Yorkshire species, in order of their 
sequence in time, and the source from which they came to us. 


About a hundred years have elapsed since the appearance 
of the last volume of Sir J. E. Smith's ' English Botany,' with 
illustrations by James Sowerby, and about fifty years since the 
appearance of the first volume of Boswell-Syme's edition of that 
epoch-making work. The time appears to be ripe, therefore, 
for the issue of another illustrated Flora of this country. The 
Cambridge University Press have made arrangements for the 
appearance of such a Flora, by Dr. C. E. Moss. The author 
will receive assistance from specialists in several critical genera. 
Engler's system of classification will, generally speaking, be 
followed ; and the first volume to appear will deal with the 
earlier Dicotyledonous families from the Salicaceae to the 
Chenopodiaceae. The work will be illustrated by pen and ink 
drawings by Mr. E. W. Hunnybun, about 1750 of which have 
already been completed. Each of Mr. Hunnybun's drawings 
has been made from living specimens ; each plant has been 
drawn natural size ; and, in the case of critical species and 
varieties, the name of each specimen has been vouched for by 
some competent authority, whose letter of identification has 
been preserved. In addition to these drawings, each volume 
will contain numerous photographs of plants in their natural 
habitats ; and maps, showing .the distribution of the more 
interesting genera and species, will also be a special feature. 
It is expected that the work will be completed in ten volumes. 


We have before us quite a number of publications with 
double-barrelled references, the utility of which is difficult to con- 
ceive. For instance, a 35-page pamphlet, entitled ' Transactions 
of the Manchester Geological and Mining Society,' is issued 
as ' Vol. XXXII., parts 1 and 2.' Why would not ' Vol. 32, 
part I.' do, and leave ' part 2 ' for the next issue ? Similarly, 
' The New Phytologist ' just to hand is ' Vol. X. Nos. 1 and 2, 
Jan. to Feb., 191 1, published March 13th.' Would not ' Vol.X., 
No. 1, March 13th ' convey all that is necessary ? Two parts 
of the ' Exsex Naturalist ' have been received, one is referenced 
as ' Parts III. and IV., Vol. XVI., Oct. '09 to Jan. 1910,' and 
is ' published Dec. 1910 ' ; the other is labelled ' Parts V. and 
VI., Vol. XVI., Feb. to July, 1910,' and ' published Feb. '11.' 


Notes and Comments. 147 

Why would not ' Vol. XVI. part 3, Dec. 1910 ' and ' Vol. XVI., 
part 4, Feb. 191 1 ' respectively, answer the purpose ? These 
•complicated references do not simplify matters, are confusing 
to bibliographers, are lengthy and inconvenient to quote, and 
are likely to cause error in copying. 


We are delighted to learn that Mr. Wm. Cash of Halifax, 
a contributor to this journal, and one of the original members 
and prominent workers of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 
has received two grants of annuities, one from the Treasury, 
and one from the Scottish Murdoch Fund. We hope he may 
long be spared to enjoy them. 


A memoir of particular interest to glacial geologists has 
recently been published by the Geological Survey of Denmark, 
•entitled ' Scandinavian Indicator-Boulders in the Quaternary 
Deposits, Extension and Distribution,' by Mr. V. Milthers. 
By ' Indicator-boulders ' are meant the stones in the Quater- 
nary layers, the characteristics of which are so peculiar and 
distinct that it can be determined exactly from what spot or 
rather limited area of the region once covered by the ice they 
came. Knowledge of the fact that loose stones were to be 
found outside Scandinavia, which bore a resemblance to the 
permanent rocks of Scandinavia, had already been obtained 
long before any clear conception could be formed of the signifi- 
cence of the resemblance. It was only gradually, as the theory 
of the Scandinavian inland ice advanced, that a clear under- 
standing on the matter was arrived at. The origin and 
nature of the boulders are dealt with in the following order : — 
(1) Boulders from the Christiania district ; (2) Boulders from 
Dalarne ; (3) Boulders from Scania ; (4) Boulders from Eastern 
Smaland ; (5) Boulders from the North Baltic district. 


The author then proceeds to describe the very wide area 
•over which the ' Indicator-boulders ' are distributed, including 
Denmark, North-west Germany, North-east Germany, and 
Poland, parts of Russia, the Netherlands and the East coast 
of England ; and by means of four coloured maps he shows 
how certain lines of distribution can be traced and a chrono- 
logical order established, which throws much light on the 
position and direction of movement of the ice streams respon- 
sible for the presence of the boulders in the area. 

Though Dr. Milthers has not visited the glacial deposits 
on this side of the water, the short chapter devoted to the East 
coast of England is full of interest, and it is very satisfactory 
to note that he has, in this connection, made full use of the 

191 1 April 1. 

148 Review's and Book Notices. 

data supplied in the Boulder Reports published by the British 
Association and the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. He regards, 
of course, the presence of Christiania rocks in the Holderness 
Drifts, as a fact established beyond dispute, but he appeals for 
more evidence with regard to the Baltic rocks. 

Dr. Milthers' work, which by the way is written in English. 
will be heartily welcomed by all students of the many interesting 
problems connected with boulder distribution ; and the working 
geologists of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union should be 
specially grateful for the new field that has been opened for 
their investigation — J.W.S. 



Porpoise at Tadcaster. — A strange creature was seen 
disporting itself in the Wharfe at Tadcaster on March nth. 
The usual fate of strangers overtook it. The man with the 
gun appeared on the scene, and shot it. It proved to be a 
Porpoise, 3 feet 8\ inches in length, and weighing 46! lbs. 
It was exhibited for some time at one of the local hotels. — 
R. Fortune. 

— : o : — 

Cormorants at Harroyate. — Late on Saturday night 
February nth, I had a telephone message to say that there 
were two large birds perched on some chimneys not very far 
from my house. It was a very clear moonlight night, and, 
upon going to the place, I was surprised to find two Cormorants, 
which had evidently taken up their quarters there for the 
night. — R. Fortune. 

Harly Flocks of Pied Wagtails in Yorkshire. On 
February 10th there was a very large flock of Pied Wagtails 
in Manningham Park, Bradford, Mr. M. Malone counting over 
fifty birds at one time. Mr. Oxley Grabham informs me that 
there were flocks near Pickering about the same date, which 
would probably be part of the same northern migratory move- 
ment. This is quite six weeks earlier than we expect to see 
large flocks in the West Riding. What became of these 
early arrivals is difficult to say, as since that time I have 
neither seen nor heard of any flocks, only occasional stray 
birds, as is usual at this time of the year. — H. B. Booth. 
Ben Rhydding, March 21st, 1911. 

A Portrait of Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins. F.R.S., was recently presented 
to the Whitworth Hall, of the University of Manchester, by a number of 
friends who wished to show their appreciation of Prof. Dawkin's long and 
distinguished services to the University. 



J. \Y. CARTER, F.l S.. 

In Mid-Airedale S. dubitata cannot be considered a common 
insect. Mr. Porritt states it is ' moderately common in 
Yorkshire,' and it appears to be rarer and more thinly dis- 
tributed northwards. Dr. Ellis in his ' Lepidopterous Fauna of 
Lancashire and Cheshire,' says ' generally distributed though 
scarcely common ' ; and the late J. E. Robson, in his ' Catalogue 

Cuilibt it Hastings]. 

Scotosia dubitata on roof of cave. 


of the Lepidoptera of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne,' regarded it as a very rare species in these northern 
counties. So far as Airedale is concerned, during a period of 
more than thirty years, the species has been taken very rarely 
in autumn and spring, and all that I have myself obtained 
either in autumn or spring have proved to be females. 

The late Edward Newman, in his ' Natural History of 
British Moths,' says : ' the impregnated females hibernate 
and deposit their eggs in the spring, the males being destroyed 
by the early frosts at the approach of winter.' That this is 
not the case has been clearly proved by some interesting ob- 
servations recently made by Mr. Cuthbert Hastings. That the 

njii April i. 

150 Carter: Hibernation, etc., of Scotosia dubitata L. 

species, like many others, hibernates during the winter months,, 
is well known, but of how many species can we say that we 
know the exact kind of situation — hibernaculum — selected ? 
So far as Scotosia dubitata is concerned, Mr. Hastings, during 
his cave explorations in various parts of the West Yorkshire 
dales, has met with this species on several occasions ; and on 
January 22nd last, in company with Messrs. J. Beanland, R. 
Butterfield and J. H. Holmes, it was met with in a cave in 
Wharfedale in extraordinary numbers, indeed, not fewer than 

Cuthbert Ha \ting 

Scotosia dubitata on roof of cave. 

I Photo. 

150 to 200 specimens were observed. About a dozen specimens 
were secured, and these I have had under examination, and find 
that about a third of them are males, and the remainder females, 
mostly in excellent condition, the females being especially so, so 
that it would almost be safe to assume, without actual proof, 
that pairing takes place in very early spring. At the same time 
it would add to our knowledge of the habits of the species if this 
could be proved during the coming season. The accompanying 
photographs were taken by flash-light, by Mr. Hastings. 

If Mr. Carter will keep these specimens alive in separate boxes, 
he will probably be able easily to ascertain whether the females 
deposit fertile eggs without pairing in the spring ; and as he has 
both sexes he can also endeavour to pair some of them. — G.T.P.. 




Mam heater Museum. 

With reference to the note on Aster acanthus in the Coralline 
Oolite, in ' The Naturalist,' (p. 130), the Manchester Museum 
possesses specimens of Strophodus teeth from the Coralline 
Oolite of Yorkshire. Four examples in all are included in the 
c< Election. Two of these are attached to the matrix, and possess 
a label as follows : ' Strophodus sp. Malton, Yorkshire. Coralline 
Oolite.' They have been in our collection for some consider- 
able time, but are without particulars as to the donor. The 
other examples are loose teeth minus the roots ; they are 
labelled, ' Strophodus tenuis Agassiz, Coralline Oolite, E. Coll. 
Williamson.' Though no locality is given on the label, it is 
nor unreasonable to suppose that they came from the neigh- 
bourhood of Malton, as nearly all Williamson's researches were 
made in Yorkshire. Some evidence is afforded by the fact 
that most other Corallian fossils in the Williamson collection 
are labelled ' Malton.' 

The four teeth are in an abraded and rolled condition. 
All four, however, approximate nearer, both in shape and 
details of ornamentation (where this is visible), to the type 
of dentition named by Agassiz ' Strophodus reticulatus' than 
to any other. 

'<- Other vertebrate remains from the Malton beds contained 
in the Manchester Museum collections are : — A fine series of 
the teeth of Hybodus obtusus Agassiz ; two much abraded 
teeth of a Pycnodont Ganoid, either Mesodon bucklandi (Ag.) 
or .1/. rugulosus (Ag.) ; and two or three loose Crocodilian 
teeth belonging to Steneosaurus and Teleosaurus. 

We have also a dorsal fin-spine, doubtless referable to 
Hybodus obtusus, which was obtained from the Corallian at 
Headington, Oxfordshire, by Mr. P. Manning. 

Spines of this species appear to be of very rare occurrence, 
in fact, the only example that I am acquainted with is one 
figured and described by Mr. H. M. Platnauer* from the Coralline 
Oolite at Malton. 

The Headington specimen measures some 264 mm. in 
length, but is not perfect, as a small portion is broken away 
from each end. It is moderately well-preserved, but, owing 
to its having been much rolled about, the flat characteristic 
ridges are only discernable in certain places. 

From the same beds Mr. Manning also obtained several 
teeth of Hybodus obtusus, which he has presented to the museum. 

* Ann. Kept. Yorks. Phil. Soc. (1887), 1888, p. 36, pi. i., f. 16. 
191 1 April 1. 



After many years' search for this belemnite, it is possible 
to record that an undoubted specimen of Actinocaniax quadratus 
has at last been found in the Yorkshire Chalk. Although Dr. 
Rowe and Mr. Sherborne when collecting in Yorkshire, con- 
sidered the uppermost beds of the chalk of Flamborough Head 
to be in this zone, they were unable to find the actual name fossil, 
and on page 261 of their notes*, remark : — ' We have yet to see 
an example of the true Actinocamax quadratus collected in this 
area, either by ourselves or by Yorkshire geologists.' 

The specimen which now enables us to record this species 
for Yorkshire, was found by the writer in September 1909, in 
the White Hill Quarry, on the Scarborough Road, a mile north 
of Bridlington old town. It is a typical Actinocamax quadratus, 
with the short stout guard, the strong pustulation, and the 
deep and square alveolar cavity. Mr. Crick and Mr. Sherborne, 
who have both seen the specimen, fully confirm this opinion. 

During the summer of 1910, the White Hill Quarry was 
again visited by the members of the Hull Geological Society, 
when Mr. G. W. B. Macturk secured a specimen of exactly the 
same type, which he kindly handed over to the writer of this note. 

The West Riding of Yorkshire. These ' Little Guides ' are much more 
than any compilation, for they are the digested, reliable, and judicious 
work of Mr. Joseph E. Morris, B.A. ( ' West Riding ', 569 pp., Methuen & Co., 
191 1, 3/6). Such a flair or instinct has their author for the essential, 
the core in whatever he may be describing, that I have found his account 
of many places, Bolton demesne, Meaux, Rougemont, the Mayden Bowar, 
near Topcliffe, etc., to throw a distinct light upon the flora of the areas 
concerned ; and this without a dropped word on the natural, or even local 
earth-history! The Guide itself is not only little in format and cost, 
easily slipped into a breast-pocket, but leaves little to be desired in other 
ways. Of course the topic where towns and not church architecture is 
involved (since tastes differ, and standpoints are not singular), may give 
occasion for contentious criticism ; but, upon the whole, these ' Guides ' 
take a place easily First in their literary genre, with the dry-as-dust or 
ponderous rest, Nowhere! Only one non-content strikes me : lack of any 
reference under Bolton Priory or Barden to 'the Riddings,' a ridge farmstead 
with adjoining cottage on the scarp of the Wharfe, a half mile above the 
\l>l>ey, the cottage having a curious ' bow ' window, some of it built 
around an old ' peel ' or round tower, which was the hawks'-eyry in the 
days of Clifford's and the dame Cicely, wife of Wm. de Meschines, and 
who gave her name to the anise-aromatic ' Sweet Cicely,' grown by, and 
introduced to this reach of Wharfe, by her. The cottage buttresses and 
conceals a mural curio unique in Yorkshire. The cot garden on a slope, 
of toy dimensions, still retains the little terrace-shelf from which the 
gosses and peregrines were ' flown.' Perhaps, in a second edition, Mr. 
Morris might add an inset leaf. The West Riding Guide is dedicated 
' to the Memory of my Uncle, Richard Metcalfe, M.D., of Leyburn.' Every 
peregrinating naturalist should make friends with this aid to a ' liberal 
education.' — F. Arnold Lees. 

* Proc. Geol. Assn., Vol. XVIII. , Part 4. 





While we have a pretty acurate knowledge of the Annelid 
fauna of France, Germany, Switzerland, and many other parts 
of Europe ; and are able thereby to compare the distribution 
of European species with those found in Great Britain we seem 
to have no available records in English of the worms found in 
Holland. To supply this defect, I have recently studied the 
species to be found at the Hague, and hope, in time, to extend 
my researches to other parts of the Netherlands. The follow- 
ing list is intended merely as a first contribution to a very 
important subject, and it may be pointed out that, with one 
exception, the species here enumerated are those which we 
find most commonly in our own country. So far, no fewer than 
twelve species, embraced under seven genera, have been 
discovered. No attempt has yet been made to tabulate the 
Enchytraeids or White-worms, and the Water-worms. 

Three species of Lumbricus occur pretty generally, viz., 
L. terrestris Linn, L.rubellus Hoffm., and L. castancus Savigny. 
We find also certain forms of Allolobophora, using the term in 
the newer and more restricted sense ; as A. longa Ude, a worm 
which has always been confused with the true Earthworm ; 
and both forms of A. caliginosa Savigny, viz., turgida Eisen and 
trapezoides Duges. It is at present difficult to decide whether 
these are to be regarded as varieties, forms, sub-species, or 
species. Aporrectodea is represented by one species, A. 
chlorotica Sav. both type and varieties ; the latter of which 
still need careful study. Two forms of Eisenia are found. 
The one is the well-known brandling, E. foetida Sav., while the 
other, E. rosea Sav., was long known as Allolobophora mucosa 
Eisen. Octolasion cyaneum Sav. completes the list of Allolo- 
bophoras, so far identified. There remain two other species 
to mention. The first is Allurus tctraedrus Sav., which is 
represented not only by the type, but also by a well-marked 
and beautiful variety (luteus Friend), exactly corresponding 
with forms found by me in the Eden near Carlisle. The worm 
of greatest interest, however, is Helodrilus oculatus Hoffm. 
This perplexing annelid was first described by Hoffmeister 
in 1845. It was then lost to sight for many years. Later 
Michaelsen placed his Allolobophora hermanni under the same 
heading. I have found the latter at Cambridge, and the true 
Helodrilus oculatus at Malvern, while Mr. Evans has found it 
in Scotland. At present I regard the two species as distinct, 
but the Hague form seems to countenance Michaelsen's view. 
I hope shortly to obtain further material from different locali- 
ties with a view of the solution of the problem. I am greatly 
indebted to Dr. de Visser Smits of the Hague, for much valuable 
assistance in my pursuit, which is undertaken by the aid of a 
Government Grant for special research. 

1911 April 1. 




[Continued from page 168). 

Ilybius fuliginosus F. Rushen (' Kentraugh Wood ') (Bailey); 
Andreas ; Ballaugh ; Jurby ; Lezayre ; Patrick. 

/. subczneus Er. Jurby (one specimen). 

/. ater De G. Andreas ; Ballaugh ; Jurby ; Lezayre ; 

I. obscurus Marsh. Andreas ; Ballaugh ; Jurby ; Lezayre. 

/. cenescens Thorns. Patrick (Foxdale, common in one 

Copelatus agilis F. Andreas (one) ; Ballaugh (common in 
one locality). 

Rhantus bistriatus Bergstr. Ballaugh ; Lezayre ; Patrick 

Colymbetes fuscus L. Bride (Point of Ayre) (Bailey) ; 
Andreas ; Ballaugh ; Jurby. 

Dytiscus punctulatits F. Arbory ; Rushen (Bradda and 
Kentraugh) (Bailey) ; Andreas ; Ballaugh ; German ; Jurby ; 

D. marginalis L. Rushen (Bradda two §) (Bailey) ; 
Patrick (Foxdale g and $). My visit was at a bad time for 
the imago of this species ; I saw a fair number of well-grown 

Gyrinus minutus F. Patrick (Foxdale, common in one 

G. urinator 111. ' K. 2, vii., 1908 ' (Kentraugh ?), one 
specimen (Bailey) ; Jurby (one specimen). 

G. clongatus Aube. Andreas ; Ballaugh ; Jurby ; Patrick. 

G. natator Scop. Arbor} 7 , Mallew and Rushen (Bailey) ; 
Andreas ; German ; Jurby ; Lezayre ; Patrick. 

G. marinus Gyll. Ballaugh (The Curragh) (Bailey) ; 
Andreas ; Ballaugh ; Lezayre. 

Orectochilus villosus Mull. Mallew (Silverdale) ; Rushen 
(Colby Glen and Kentraugh) (Bailey) ; Ballaugh (stream in 
glen) ; Lezayre (Sulby River, etc.). 

Hydrobius fuscipes L. Andreas ; Ballaugh, not common! 

H. fuscipes var. picicrits Thorns. Mallew (S. Barrule) ; 
Rushen (Bradda and Kentraugh) (Bailey) ; Ballaugh ; Ger- 
man ; Lezayre. 

Philhydrus melanocephalus 01. Mallew (S. Barrule) ;. 
Rushen (Bradda and Mull Hill) (Bailey) ; Andreas ; Jurby. 

P. coarctatus Gredl. Ballaugh (The Curragh) (Bailey) ;. 
Andreas ; Ballaugh ; Jurby ; Lezayre. 


Brou ne : The Aquatic Coleoptera of the Isle of Man. 155 

Cymbiodyta ovalis Thorns. Ballaugh (two specimens). 

Paracymus nigroeeneus Sahib. Rushen (Bradda, one speci- 
men) (Bailey). 

Anacana globulus Payk. Rushen (Mull Hill, Surby and 
Bradda); Santon and Spaldrich (?) (Bailey).; Ballaugh; 
German ; Jurby ; Lezayre ; Mallew ; Patrick. 

A. limbata F. Ballaugh (Curfagh) (Bailey); Ballaugh; 
jurby ; Lezayre. 

A. limbata var. ovata (brown specimens of limbata)) Andreas; 
Ballaugh ; Jurby ; Lezayre. 

Helocharcs punctatus Sharp. Ballaugh, only locality, but 
very common. 

Laecobius nigriceps Thorns. Rushen (' K ' Kentraugh ?) 
(Bailey). Two other specimens in the collection without 

L. ytenensis Sharp [sinMatus, Brit. Auct.]. Rushen (Mull 
Hill) (Bailey), one other specimen in the collection without 
locality. German (one <$). 

L. alutaceus Thorn. Ballaugh (Curragh) (Bailey); Andreas 
Ballaugh ; Jurby ; Lezayre. 

L. minutus L. Jurby (one or two specimens only). 

L. bipunctatus F. Andreas ; Jurby. 

Berosus affinis Brulle. Andreas (in one pond only, but 

Limnebius truncatellus Thunb. Arbory ; Mallew; Rushen; 
Santon (Bailey) ; Andreas ; Ballaugh ; German ; Jurby ; 
Lezayre ; Patrick. 

Chcetarthria seminitluni Herbst. Ballaugh (Curragh) ; 
Rushen (Mull Hill) ; (Bailey) ; Jurby ; Lezayre. 

Helophorus por cuius Bedel. Rushen (Croitecaley, Port 
Erin and Surby) (Bailey). 

H. nubilus F. Rushen (Ballygawne, Bradda and Port 
Erin) (Bailey). 

H. aquaticus L. Arbory ; Bride ; Mallew ; Rushen 
(Bailey) ; Andreas ; Ballaugh ; German ; Jurby ; Lezayre. 
Almost all the specimens were of the small form (cequahs) 
between which and the type 1 can find no distinction except 
in size. 

H. viridicollis Steph. {ceneipe inn's Thorns). Mallew ; Rus- 
hen (Bailey) ; Andreas ; Ballaugh ; German ; Jurby ; Lezayre 

H. affinis Marsh (griseits Herbst.) Andreas ; Jurby. 

H. brevipalpis Bedel. Mallew ; Rushen (Bailey) ; Andreas ; 
Ballaugh ; German ; Jurby ; Lezayre ; Michael ; Patrick. 

Hydrochus angustatus Germ. Ballaugh ; Lezayre. 

Octhebius pygmceus F. Andreas ; Jurby ; Lezayre. 

0. bicolon Germ. Rushen (Ballakeigan, Colby Glen, 
Perwick) (Bailey) ; Lezayre (Sulby R., one specimen). 

icji 1 April 1. 

156 Browne : The Aquatic Coleoptera of the Isle of Man. 

0. lejolisii Key and Muls. German (Peel) ; Mallew (Castle- 

Hydrana testacea Curt. Lezayre (Sulby R.). 

H. riparia Kug. Andreas ; Lezayre. 

H. nigrita. Germ. Arbory (Balladoole) (Bailey) ; Lezayre 
'(Sulby R., two or three specimens). 

H. gracilis Germ. Mallew (Silverburn) ; Rushen (Colby 
Glen and Kentraugh) (Bailey) ; Ballaugh (in the glen) ; Ger- 
man (R. Neb) ; Lezayre (Sulby R., etc.) ; Santon. 

H. atricapilla Wat. Rushen or Arbory ? (Colby Glen), one 
specimen (Bailey). 

H. britteni Joy Arbory (Balladoole) (Bailey). 

Cyclonotum orbicidarc F. Rushen (Gramma, Port Erin) 

The great majority of the Manx Water Beetles belong to 
the group which Watson termed ' British,' consisting of species 
which are spread more or less generally over the whole of Great 
Britain, and also Ireland! But there are a certain number of 
the Manx species which are decidedly localised in the British 
Islands. Some belong to a group which has its headquarters 
in the south and west of Britain, a group which, for the most 
part, turns up again in the south and west of Ireland. To 
this group which, by some, is regarded as probably the oldest 
part of the British fauna and Flora* belong such species as : — 

Bidessus miuutissimus. 
Gyrinus urinator. 
O thebius lejolisii. 

B. minittissimus is so far only recorded from Devon S., 
Wigtown and Kirkcudbright, Kerry S., Cork Mid (of Praeger) 
and Dublin, but, as I have already remarked, it almost certainly 
occurs in suitable rivers in the west of England, and perhaps, 
also all round Ireland. 

G. urinato occurs in Devon N. and S., Hereford, Somerset 
N., Dorset, and Sussex E. In Ireland it has occurred in Kerry 
S., and Cork W. (of Praeger) and I have a single specimen 
from Toome bridge (Co. Antrim), taken by Mr. R. Welch 
two years ago. There are English records for Yorks. N.E., 
and Durham, but the centre for the species in Britain is dis- 
tinctly south-western. 

0. lejolisii is now known from various places, ranging from 
the Isle of Wight round the western coast to the North Ebudes.j 
and almost certainly occurs all round Ireland, though the 

* Vide Forbes, E., The Geological Relations of the Fauna and Flora 
of the British Islands, etc. ' Mem. Geol. Survey,' Vol. I., 1S46 ; also 
Scharff, Carpenter, etc. 

f The Aquatic Coleoptera of the North Ebudes, ' Ann. Scott. Xat. 
Hist.', 191 1. 


Browne : The Aquatic Coleoptera of the Isle of Man. 157 

present records are only for the northern half, i.e., for most 
of the coast comities from Dublin to Mayo W. 

Paracymas nigro-ceneus which is represented in Dr. Bailey's 
collection by a s le specimen, probably also belongs to this 
group. Its English distribution is southern and western, 
although it extends along the south coast eastward as far as 
Kent.* In Ireland it is decidedly western, the only records 
being for Kerry S., Galway W., and Mayo W., and in Scotland, 
also, it is at present only known from Argyll Main, Mid. Ebudes, 
and North Ebudes. 

Several other Manx species have a distribution which in 
Britain is chiefly southern and eastern, but in Ireland is southern 
and western : — Copelatus agilis, for instance, has its ' centre ' 
in the south-eastern counties of England, spreading northward 
as far as Yorks. N.E. and Mid W. and westward to Lanes. S., 
Chester, Salop, Glamorgan, Devon S., and Cornwall (E. or YV. ?) 
The only Scottish record is for Dumfries. In Ireland it has 
been taken in Wexford, Cork Mid (of Praeger), and Galway W. 

Similarly Helochares punctatus is chiefly eastern and south 
eastern in England, though there are records for Devon N., 
and Cornwall W., Chester and Derby, Yorks. Mid. W., and 
Cumberland. In Scotland Dr. Sharp records it from Moncrieff 
Hill (Perth Mid),f and it is not uncommon in the Solway dis- 
trict. One specimen has also been taken in Midlothian. In 
Ireland the records are for Cork W. (of Praeger), Galway W., 
and Mayo W. 

Cymbiodyta ovalis, on the other hand, with an English dis- 
tribution somewhat similar to that of C. agilis, is recorded in 
Ireland, from Meath and Cork Mid. (of Praeger), having there- 
fore what might perhaps be called a south eastern range there. 

A few of the Manx species belong to Watson's ' Scottish ' 
and ' Highland ' types, e.g., Hydropovus morio, H. melanarius, 
H. obsoletits, etc., but with the possible exception of Ilybius 
subceneus there are, apparently, none of his ' Germanic ' type 
species in the Manx fauna. This is an interesting fact as it is 
in agreement with what has been observed in other groups of 
the fauna and in the flora. 

Some interesting points are brought to light by comparing 
the water-beetle fauna with that of the surrounding districts 
of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The nearest point of Eng- 
land to the island is St. Bee's Head, Cumberland, which is 
about thirty miles distant. Burrow Head, Wigtownshire, is 
only sixteen miles, the Mull of Galloway being rather more 
distant, while the county Down coast is about thirty miles 

* The record for Essex N., refers to P. ceneus, vide ' K. M. M.', xxxv., 
72. 1899, and ' Ent. Rec.', xix., 254, 1907. 

f Col. of Scotland, ' Scottish Naturalist', 1871-8. 

1911 April 1 . 

158 Browne : The Aquatic Coleoptera of the Isle of Man. 

The Manx list contains eleven species not found in the 
Lancashire list, and fourteen species absent from the Cum- 
berland list. If, however, we combine the Lancashire and 
Cumberland lists, giving a total of about one hundred and 
forty-four species, only seven species remain peculiar to the 
Isle of Man :— 

Bidessus minutissimus. 
Ilybius subceneus, 
Gyrinus urinator. 
Paracymus nigra cene us. 

Compared with the ' Solway ' list which has about one 
hundred and twenty species there are nine species which are 
peculiar to the Isle of Man : — 

Helophorus porculus. 
Hydrcena testacea. 
Octhebius lejolisii. 

Noterus sparsus. 
Deronectes latus. 
Ilybius sub&iieus. 
Gyrinus urinator. 

Cymbiodyta ovalis. 
Paracymus nigroceneus. 
Berosus affinis. 
Helophorus affinis. 

As against the combined lists of Antrim and Down, containing 

about one hundred and seven species, the Manx list has thirteen 
peculiar species : — 

Bidessus minutissimus. Helochares punctatin. 

Deronectes latus. Laccobius ytenensis. 

Agabus biguttatus. Berosus affinis. 
Ilybius subceneus. 

Hydrochus angustatus. 
Hvdrcena testacea. 


Copelatus agilis. 
Cymbiodyta ovalis. 
Paracymus nigroceneus. 

From these three lists there is a slight indication that the 
Manx water beetles are more like those of North- West England 
than those of either South-West Scotland or North-East Ireland 
but an analysis of the lists will bring out this fact much more 

First of all with regard to Ilybius subceneus, which appears 
in all three lists, we might probably regard the specimen as a 
stray one, and the record as belonging to the ' ectopic ' ones 
to which I referred in a previous paper,* and we can therefore 
neglect it in discussing the lists. With regard to the list of 
species peculiar to the Isle of Man as compared with the north- 
west of England, five of the species are found both north and 
south of that district, so that their absence from that list is 
probably only a temporary one. One species only, therefore, 
is of importance as indicating a difference between the faunas 
of these two districts, i.e., G. urinator, a southern species, 
present in the Isle of Man, and not found in the north-west of 
England. I have already pointed out that there are records 
for Yorks. N.E., and Durham, but that these are beyond the 
normal British range of the species. 

* Aquatic Coleoptera of the Mid-Ebudes, ' Ann. Scott. Nat. Hist.', 
April, 1910. 

Browne : The Aquatic Coleoptera of the Isle of Man. 159 

The Manx list of species which are not found in the Solvvay 
list includes four species whose distribution does not reach 
Scotland, viz., N. sparsus, G. urinator, C. ooalis, and B. affinis. 
The other four species have all been found farther north, so 
that we may regard their absence from the Sol way list as 
perhaps temporary. 

The difference between the Manx fauna and that of N. E. 
Ireland is even greater than that between it and the Solway list, 
as four of the species in the third list have not occurred anywhere 
in Ireland and eight others have only been taken in the south or 
west. Of the remaining two, A biguttatus has occurred only 
once., i.e., in Armagh, while H. atricapilla is a great rarity, 
having only been recorded from Derry, Armagh, and Cork, E. 

The relationship of the Manx water beetle fauna is therefore 
much closer with N.W. England, than with either S. W. Scot- 
land, or N.E. Ireland, and if present distribution is any indica- 
tion of origin this fact is of considerable importance. 

Unfortunately I have no list of species for Anglesey, and 
my lists for North Wales are much too scanty to be of any 
use, but, as I shall endeavour to show later, there are good 
reasons for doubting whether the Manx fauna came from this 

I have already quoted Dr. Bailey's opinion that the Manx 
fauna has in part originated from Ireland. Professor Carpenter 
also adopts this attitude. He says* : ' The fauna of the Isle 
•of Man resembles on the whole that of Ireland, western Eng- 
land and Wales. Its cliffs form the most northern station for 
certain species of moths, e.g., Dianthecia luteago, var. barrettii, 
D. cczsia and D. capsophila , some of which are scattered along 
the western British and eastern and southern Irish coasts as 
far as Land's End and Dingle Bay. If the Isle of Man could 
not have supported any fauna during the height of the glacial 
period, we are forced to the conclusion that its shores must, 
since then, have formed part of the northern coasts of a gulf 
opening to the south, down to St. George's channel.' 

Both these authors, therefore, hypothecate a land-bridge 
connecting the Isle of Man with Ireland, as well as one connec- 
necting it with N.W. England, and both believe that these 
bridges supplied the fauna and flora to the island after the 
glacial period. 

Now the chief resemblance between the Manx and Irish 
faunas seems to be that both lack a number of species found in 
Britain, species belonging to what has been called the ' Siberian ' 
•or ' Germanic ' type, and such a resemblance does not require 
the assumption of a land-bridge. Indeed Dr. Scharfff makes 

* The Problems of the British Fauna, ' Xat. Science', xi., 1897, pp. 

f History of the European Fauna, 1899, p. 123. 

.191 1 April 1. 

160 Browne : The Aquatic Coleoptera of the Isle of. Man. 

no suggestion of such a post glacial land-connection, but says : 
' The case of the Isle of Man . . . can be met, I think, by the 
supposition that it was connected with Cumberland until quite 
recently, and quite independently of any connection between 
England and Ireland ; that the Isle of Man, in fact, was always 
a cape or peninsula of the mainland, and only recently became 
separated by local subsidences or by the action of the sea.' 

Now there seems to be no doubt that the Isle of Man was 
completely ice-bound during the glacial period. Ice-scratchings 
are found at the tops of the highest mountains, and a great 
glacier drove down upon the high ground from the north, 
depositing quantities of boulder clay at the north end of the 
island, and forming what is now the low northern plain. The 
problem of how the island obtained its fauna and flora, there- 
fore, commences with the disappearance of the ice. 

Geologists differ widely as to whether there has been any 
post glacial land-connection between the island and England, 
and their conclusions are reviewed by Dr. Scharff in the work 
already referred to. Dr. Dwerryhouse, who has specially 
studied the glacial period, tells me that there is no geological 
evidence of such land-connection, though it is possible that a 
boulder-clay bridge may have existed. Judging, however, by 
the rate of denudation on land since the glacial period, it seems 
doubtful whether sufficient time has elapsed to allow of the 
removal of all traces of such a bridge. 

Dr. Scharff argues very strongly as to the necessity for 
land-connections to account for insular faunas and floras, and 
.allows almost no value to the endless means of dispersal pos- 
sessed by both animals and plants. Although there is in many 
cases undoubted evidence that the so-called ' continental ' 
islands have, in past ages, been joined to the neighbouring main 
lands, I venture to think that the evidence which Dr. Scharff 
adduces in support of his line of argument is beside the mark. 
He makes such points as the following : ' The animals die 
shortly after their arrival on foreign soil ' [I.e., p. 24]. ' At- 
tempts to acclimatise the English species [of hare] have been 
made in a number of places in Ireland, but many of them have 
been failures, and not one has been a signal success ' [1. c, p. 29]. 
' The two species of snails, Helix pomatia and Cyclostoma elegans 
both of which occur in England . . . were turned out in several 
suitable localities in Ireland by Thompson, but failed to estab- 
lish themselves ' [I.e., 4. 32]. He quotes many similar cases 
and his attitude towards the question is seen in the following 
sentence : ' When we once more carefully review the evidence 
as to the undoubted difficulty attendant on intentional intro- 
duction of animals by human agency, placed as they often are 
in most suitable localities, we must feel that accidental intro- 
duction cannot play an important role in the making of the 
fauna of any country' [I.e., p. 32]. 


Bro'a'iic : The Aquatic Coleoptcra of the Isle .of Man. 161; 

I have quoted only from one work but similar examples of 
Dr. Scharff's evidence occur again and again in his books and 
papers, and in every case they refer to the attempted acclimati- 
sation of new species in a country already fully stocked, and it 
seems to me that not only is this, the important fact which 
keeps out invaders, but that it is upon the competition between 
species, the biological factor, that we rely when we recognise 
in the northern, southern, and eastern groups of the Britannic 
fauna and flora elements which reached the country at different 
times ; it is largely owing to this factor that we find a localisa- 
tion of species within a country. For example, various groups 
of plants are recognised according to the habitat they occupy ; 
there are some which occur on peaty soil, others in salt marshes, 
others again on mountains, and so on, yet most of the species 
from these very different habitats can be grown side by side in 
ordinary garden soil. Competition drives them, under natural 
conditions, each to that kind of environment where alone it 
can hold its own against invaders, to that kind of environment 
where climatic and edaphic factors may not be the most suitable 
to it, but are more suitable to it than to its competitors. 

Numerous examples can be brought forward to show that 
the relationship of a species to its physical environment is 
controlled by its biological environment. For instance, we 
describe certain plants as calcicolous, and others as non-calci- 
colous. according as they naturally live upon soil rich or poor 
in lime, yet only those plants to which lime is a poison are 
permanently excluded from it.* Praeger f notes several cases 
in which non-calcicolous plants occur on limestone, and calci- 
colous species on other rocks. WarmingJ mentions that 
' Alders attain their most luxuriant development on well 
drained soil. But they are usually expelled from this by 'other 
competing trees. Only in swamps where they do not thrive so 
well, are they dominant. In like manner Calluna vulgaris 
flourishes upon rich soil better than on poor soil, but it is ex- 
cluded from the former by competing species,' etc., etc. (pp. 


Mr. A. W. Stelfox tells me that certain land mollusca may 
be calcicoles in one place, and calciphobes, or indifferent in 
another. He mentions that Helix arbustorum, which is practi- 
cally confined to limestone in the north of Ireland is quite in- 
different in Britain, being common from the south of England 
to the north of Scotland, while ' Helix lapicida is generally 
looked upon in England as calciole, but it occurs in Norway in 
purely precambrian areas.' Mr. Davy Dean in a paper on the 

* Schimper, ' Plant Geography. ' Eng. Transl., p. 100, 1903. 

f ' A Tourist's Flora of the west of Ireland,' pp. 12 and 108, Dublin, 

J • (Ecology of Plants,' Eng. Transl.. Oxford, 1900. 
1911 April 1. 

162 Browne : The Aquatic Coleoptera of the Isle of Man. 

' (Ecology of the Mollusca of Lonsdale,' mentions Unio mar- 
gar itifer and Neritina fluviatilis as associated species, while in 
Ireland, Mr. Stelfox tells me, the former is entirely calcifuge 
and the latter purely calciole. 

Among the water beetles there are similar examples — He- 
lochares punctatus is chiefly a fresh-water marsh species in East 
Norfolk, while in the Isle of Man, south west of Scotland, and 
the west of Ireland, it is purely oxylophile. The same is true of 
Hydroporus granulans and Philhydrus nigricans, which are 
helophiles in E. Norfolk, and oxylophiles in the Solway district, 
and I have already referred to the case of Ilybius subceneus. 

These facts all illustrate the control exercised by the biolo- 
gical factor, and Dr. Scharff's cases of the failures of invading 
or introduced species to establish themselves, are only further 
examples of the same thing. 

In these remarks I have criticised Dr. Scharff's evidence, and 
not his contention as to the necessity for land-connections to 
account for insular faunas and floras. Whether there is a case 
for proving a general principle I am not at present in a position 
to judge, but it seems to me that some other kind of evidence 
than that which he has brought forward is necessary. In the 
case of the Isle of Man, geologists can give us no definite as- 
sistance, but the fact that the flora, as I learn from Mr. 
Praeger, the land and fresh-water mollusca — I am told, 
and the water beetles, as I have endeavoured to show, are more 
closely related to those groups in the north west of England 
than to those in S. W. Scotland or N.E. Ireland, seems to provide 
us with evidence of another kind. 

If on the disappearance of the ice-age, the Isle of Man was 
an island, then, being virgin soil, it was open to attack from all 
directions. Now under such circumstances the prevalence of 
westerly winds would undoubtedly have favoured species 
coming from Ireland. The ocean currents also would have 
brought Irish species, and would have kept out English ones. Dr. 
Dakin has kindly supplied me with details of tides and currents 
in the Irish Sea, and there is, apart from the tides, a general 
drift from south to north, so that bottles thrown from steamers 
leaving Liverpool always appear on the coasts of Lancashire 
or Cumberland, and shingle also tends to move northward. 
The best proof of this northerly drift is afforded by detailed 
observations on salinities and temperatures, which show that 
a current of warm and more saline water passes northward as 
far as the Isle of Man, and then the bulk of this current turns 
eastward so that there is no great drift between the Isle of Man 
and Ireland. The south tidal current runs up St. George's 
Channel, and bends round Anglesey, turning east into Liver- 
pool Bay. The north tidal current sweeps down the north 
channel, divides at the point of Ayre into two, a larger part 


Browne : The Aquatic Coleoptera of the Isle of Man. 163 

running between the Isle of Man and Cumberland, and meeting 
the south tide in a line between Morecambe Bay and Maughold 

Thus the main bulk of the flora of the land and fresh-water 
mollusea, and of the water beetles, and probably of the other 
groups, has reached the Isle of Man in spite of adverse winds 
and currents, and this fact is at least suggestive that they 
covered the intervening region by spreading along a land- 
bridge which has since completely disappeared. 

With regard to the southern element in the fauna and flora 
Dr. Scharff apparantly thinks that it was present in the north 
of England even during the ice-age, in which case of "course it 
would have travelled with the main fauna and flora to the Isle 
of Man. On the other hand there seem to be strong objections 
to Dr. Scharff' s views on the distribution of the fauna and 
flora in England and Scotland during the glacial period, and 
it is, perhaps, reasonable to entertain the possibility of the 
species of this group having taken advantage of wind and 
tide, and having reached the island from the south and west. 

Considering the extraordinary multiplicity of contrivances 
for dispersal possessed by so many animals and plants it seems 
to me unsafe to assume land-bridges to account for insular 
faunas and floras unless definite geological evidence is forth- 
coming, or unless the biological facts point to this method as 
the only possible explanation. 


1855. Clark. Rev. Hamlet. ' Synonymic List of the 
British Carnivorous Water Beetles, together with 
Critical Remarks and Notices of Foreign Allied 
Species.' ' Zoologist,' pp. 4859-60. (A black 
var. of Deronectes 12-pustulatus ' in a small stream in 
Isle of Man '). 

1862. Stowell, Rev. Hugh A. ' Notes on the Entomology 
of the Isle of Man.' ' Entomologist,' xx, pp. 7895- 

1887. Fowler, Rev. W. W. ' Coleoptera of the British 
Island,' Vol. I., p. 191. (Mentions Agabus biguttatns 
from Isle of Man). 

1904. Tomlin, B. ' Some Notes on Manx Coleoptera.' 

' E.M.M.,' Ser. 2, xv, pp. 177-179. 

1905. Tomlin, B. ' Further Notes on Manx Coleoptera.' 

Ibid., xvi, pp. 252-4. 
1908. Bailey, Dr. J. H. ' The Coleoptera of the Isle of Man.' 
Vice-Presid. Address : 31st Ann. Rep. and Proc. 
Lanes, and Cheshire Ent. Soc. for Session 1907, pp. 

1911 April 1. 




The following is the fourth summary of additions made to known 
Yorkshire Fungi since 1905. With two or three exceptions, 
these have been discovered during 1909-10. Nearly all have 
been temporarily recorded in ' The Naturalist,' under the 
reports of the two annual forays, and the general excursions ; 
it is, however, thought advisable to bring them together in one 
article. .Under each one the date of its first mention in ' The 
Naturalist,' and the number it should follow, or precede in 
the ' Yorkshire Fungus Flora,' is given. They consist of 
two new to science, ten and one var. new to Britain, and fifty- 
six and three vars. new to the county. These bring the 
total number of known Yorkshire species to 2831, or an addi- 
tion of 205 during the last five years. 

Confirmations of a doubtful and a solitary record are added. 


Clavaria persimilis Cotton. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods F.F., 1908 and 1910. 

' Plants small, unbrauched, isolated or fasciculate, orange 
yellow to orange, becoming darker on drying. Clubs slender } 
3-5 cm. high, 2-3 mm. thick, cylindrical or somewhat compressed^ 
apex usually acute. Stem not sharply defined. Flesh pale. 
Internal structure composed of loosely-packed, longitudinally- 
running filaments, 3-6 ft diam., not pseudo-par enchymatous 
in transverse section. Basidia small, 30-35 X 7-8 p, contents 
granular, sterigmata 4, erect. Spores hyaline, smooth, guttulate. 
subglobose-oblong, 5-6 X 4/', with a conspicuous oblique apiculus.' 
(A. D. Cotton, ' Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc.', Vol. III., Part 3, pp. 

Hab. In short grass, not uncommon. 

Has been found in several places in Britain by various 
mycologists during the last five years, including Mulgrave 
Woods, at the 1908 and 1910 forays. Specimens from the 
several localities were submitted to Mr. Cotton, who considered 
it an undescribed species. [To follow No. 1232]. 

Clavaria straminea Cotton. 

S.W. — On the ground among ling, Erringden, near Halifax, 
•October 1905. 

' Plants small, unbranched, isolated or ccespitose, straw colour 
becoming brownish with age ; smell and taste not marked ; clubs 
slender, brittle, 3-5 cm. high, 3-4 mm, thick, cylindrical or some- 
what compressed, smooth, apex usually acute ; stem usually 
very distinct, cinnamon-yellow ; flesh somewhat darker than 


Crossland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. i&J 

hymenium ; internal structure pseudo-parenchymatous in trans- 
■verse section ; basidia rather large, 40-60 x 7-9 ^., contents granular 
sterigmata 4; spores hyaline, smooth, granular, globose 5-7 fi. 
diam.' (A. D. Cotton, ' Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc.', Vol. III., 
part 4). 

Since being found near Halifax, it has been met with at 
-Carlisle, 1908-9 ; Chats worth, 1909 ; Broseley, Salop, 1909 ; 
and Clare Island, 1910. [To follow 1233]. 


The descriprions given under the following six agarics are 
from Massee's ' Eur. Agaricaceae.' 

Omphalia bibula Quel. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 22). 

' Pileus umbilicate when moist, silky, olive yelloxv, then grey ; 
gills arcuate, broad, citron, stem tinged citron.' [To follow No. 

Pluteus cervinus Var. rigens Pers. 

N.E. — Castle Howard. (F.F., 1909, ' Nat.', 1909, p. 419). 

Clitopilus angustus (Pers.). 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 21). 

' Pileus convexo-plane, subumbonate, grey, silky-shining 
when dry ; gills tinged flesh colour ; stem glabrous, white, base 
incurved, downy ; spores 7-8x5/'.' [To follow 263]. 

Inocybe cookei Bresad. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 22). 

' Pileus conico-campanulate , expanded, umbonate, edge becom- 
ing upturned and split, fibrillose and silky rimose, centre glabrous, 
straw-colour, then hirid yellowish ; gills crowded, attenuato- 
adnexed, greyish white, then yellowish cinnamon ; stem colour 
of pileus, silky fibrillose, base marginately subbulbous, apex 
naked ; spores 8-10 x 5 [>■ ' ; smooth, cystidia absent. [To follow 

Hypholoma melantinum Fr. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 22). 

' Pileus companulate, then expanded, umber then pale, 
variegated with black innate pilose squamules ; gills adnexed, 
ventricose, pale umber ; stem fistulose, pallid, fibrillosely hispid ; 
spores 6-7x3-4^.' [To follow 662.] 

Lactarius tabidus Fr. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 22). 

' Pileus submembranaceus , acutely umbonate, reddish then 
pale, edge striate when moist ; stem subfistulose, pallid ; gills 
flaccid, pallid ; spores 8x4-5^.' [To precede 850]. 

1911 April 1. 

i66 Crossland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 

Marasmius xerotoides. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 22). 

' Pileus umbilicate, umber, striate ; gills broadly adnate t 
becoming 'greyish ; stem velvety, base thickened, strigose.' [To 
follow 930]. 


Mid. W. — Developed at Wakefield (S.W.) on sub-cultures of 
material obtained from Ilkley, April 1910, by J. W. H. John- 
son, and submitted to Miss A. Lorrain Smith, who describes it 
in the ' Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc.', Vol. III., part 4, as follows : — 

' Hyphae creeping, sparingly septate, conidia borne on short 
lateral branches arising singly from the hyphae or grouped near 
the apex of a filament, globose, often with a distinct outer wall, 
colourless, 10-12/* diameter.' [To follow 2325]. 

Sporotrichum lanatum Wallr. ' Fl. Kr. Germ.', II., p. 276 
S.W. — On sill of settling tank, dye-purification works, 
Greetland, near Halifax. Coll., J. W. H. Johnson, B.Sc, 

' Tufts cushion-shape, soft, elastic, of loosely interwoven 
branched hyphae ; conidia globose, whitish, at length falling 
off . . . No measurements are given in any description of the 
species, but in the specimen from Yorkshire the woolly look 
is very characteristic, the spores are very abundant, and are 
borne on short sterigma, often in groups, near the tips of the 
branches. They measure up to 5/* diameter. The original 
substratum was decaying goose-feathers in Germany ; it has 
also been found on paper in Holland.' (A. Lorrain Smith, 
' Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc.', 1910, p. 223). [To follow 2330]. 

Acremoniella atra Sacc. 

N.E. — On moss and dead leaves, Castle Howard. (F.F., 
1909, ' Nat.', 1909, p. 419). [To precede 2387]. 

Cercospora calendula Sacc. 

N.E. — On cultivated marigolds in the Inn garden, Welburn, 
Castle Howard. (F.F., 1909, ' Nat.', 1909, p. 419). [To follow 



Scleroderma vulgare Var. laevigatum Fckl. 

N.E. — Castle Howard. (F.F., 1909, ' Nat.', 1909, p. 419). 

Lepiota vittadinii Fr. 

S.W. — Battyford, Mirfield, August 1909, F. Buckley, 
Certe A. Clarke. [To follow 67]. 

Tricholoma argyraceum (Bull.) Fr. 

N.E. — Castle Howard. (F.F., 1909, ' Nat.', 1909, p. 419). 
This was also found at Mulgrave the year following. [To 
follow 107]. 


Crossland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 167 

T. Terreum Var. atrosquamosum Mass. 
• N.E.— Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 24). 

Clitocybe rivulosa (Pers.) Fr. 

N.E.— Among grass near the Carrmire-gate, Castle Howard. 
' Nat.', 1909, p. 419. [To follow 143]. 

C. splendens (Pers.). 

N.E.— Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 24). 
[To follow 158]. 

Collybia tenacella Var. stolonifera (Jungh.) Fr. 

N.E.— Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 24). 

Collybia tylicolor Fr. 

N.E.— Castle Howard. (F.F., 1909, ' Nat.', 1909, p. 419. 
Also at Mulgrave Woods in 1910). [To follow 207]. 

Pholiota sphaleromorpha (Bull.) Fr. 

N.E.— Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 24). 
[To follow 400]. 

Flammula nitens Cke. and Mass. 

N.E.— Seamer Carr, Scarbro', date ? Previously over- 
looked. [To follow 467]. 

Naucoria sobria Var. dispersa (Pers.) Fr. 

N.E.— On bare soil under hedge near Gillamoor, Kirby 
Moorside Exc. *' Nat.', 1910, pp. 405-6. 

Crepidotus calolepis Fr. 

N.E.— Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, * Nat.', 1911, p. 24). 
[To follow 524.] 


N.E.— Among dung and rotting leaves, Mulgrave Woods. 
(F.F., 1908, ' Nat.', 1909, p. 24). Some uncertainty has been 
expressed as to whether this was a native of Britain. It is 
quite distinct from B. flavidus (Bolton) Fr. in the depressed, 
darker disc, and subadnate gills. [To follow 529]. 

Cortinarius (Tela.) quadricolor (Scop.) Fr. 

N.E.— Mulgrave Woods. F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 24). 
[To follow 592). 

Cortinarius (Hygr.) reedii Berk. 

N.E.— Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, 'Nat.', 1911, p. 24). 
[To follow 620]. 

Agaricus xanthodermus Genev. 

N.E.— Castle Howard. (F.F., 1909 ' Nat.', 1909, p. 4*9- 
Also at Mulgrave F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 191 1, p. 24). [To follow 

Hypholoma cascum Quel. 

N.E.— Manor Dale, Kirby Moorside Exc. (' Nat.', 1910, 
p. 406). [To precede 663]. 

1911 April 1. 

r N 68 Crossland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 


N..E. — Castle Howard. (F.F., 1909, ' Nat.', 19OQ, p. 419). 
[To follow 696]. 

■ Coprinus macrocephalus Berk. 

N.E. — Castle Howard. (F.F., 1909, ' Nat.', 1909, p. 419 ;' 
Kirby Moorside Exc, ' Nat.', 1910, p. 406). [To follow 741]. 

' Paxillus LivrDUS Cke. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 191 1, p. 24). 
[To follow 758]. I 

Hygrophorus (Cam.) leporinus Fr. 

N.E. — Scarboro'. Brought to the Castle Howard F.F., 1909 
by Mr. A. Peck, ' Nat.', 1909, p. 419. [To precede 774]. 

H. (Cam.) clivalis Fr. 
, N.E.— Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 24). 
[To follow 778]. 

H. (Cam.) irrigatus (Pers.) Fr. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 24). 
[To follow 784]. 

Lactarius (Piper) zonarius (Bull.) Fr. 
N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 24). 
[To follow 811]. 

Marasmius scorteus Fr. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 25). 
[To follow 919]. 

M. impudicus Fr. 

N.E. — Castle Howard. (F.F., 1909, ' Nat.', 1909, p. 419). 
[To follow 924]. 

M. cohaerens (A. and S.) Fr. (=Mycena cohaerens Fr.). 
N.E. — Castle Howard. (F.F., 1909, ' Nat.', 190Q. p. 419). 
[To precede 935]. 

Boletus luridus Var. erythropus (Pers.) Fr. 

S.W. — Luddenden Dean, near Halifax, ' Nat.', Sep. 1892 ; 
' Flo. Halifax,' p. 265. Accidentally omitted when the ' Yorks. 
Fungus Flora ' was being compiled. In Dr. M. C. Cooke's 
recently published ' Catalogue and Field Book of British 
Basidiomycetes,' this is registered as a species. 

Polyporus cerebrinus B. and Br. 

N.E. — Castle Howard. (F.F., 1909, ' Nat.', 190c), p. 419). 
[To follow 1035]. 

Merulius rufus Pers. 

N.E. — Kirby Moorside Exc. (' Nat.', 1910, p. 406). [To 
follow 1 100]. 


Crossland : Recently Discovered Fungi in- Yorkshire. 169 

Hydnum molluscum Fr. 

N.E. — Kirby Moorside. (' Nat.', 1910, p. 406). [To follow 


Mid. W.-^-On fallen branch, Bishop's Wood, near Selby, 
(' Nat.', 1909, p. 320). [To follow 1 169]. 

Peniophora pubera (Fr.) Sacc. 

Mid. W. — On dead branches, Stainer Wood, near Selby. 
'(' Nat.', 1909, p. 320). [To follow 1184.] 

Cyphella fulva, B. and Br. 

N.E. — Mulgrave. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 25). [To 
precede 1190]. 

Thelephora crist at a Fr. 

N.E. —Mulgrave. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 25). [To 
follow 1200]. 

Aldrigea gelatinosa Mass. ' Brit. Fung. Flo.', Vol. I., 
p. 103 (=Coniophora gelatinosa W. G. Smith, Brit. Basidio- 

S.W. — On soil in pans of seedling Lobelias, in greenhouse, 
People's Park. Halifax, May 1910, H. Lawson, Head Gardener. 
[To follow 1205]. 

Clavaria stricta Pers. 

N.E. — Castle Howard. (F.F., 1909, ' Nat.', 1909, p. 421. 
Entered in error in the list as being new only to V. County). 
[To follow 1227]. 

C. luteoalba Rea. 

Mid. W — Mossy Bank, Grassington, 1907. (Tr. B. M. S., 

1908, for season 1907, p. 31. A. D. Cotton). [To follow 1230]. 
C. fistulosa Holmsk. 

N.E. — Mulgrave. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 25). [To 
follow 1240]. 

Mr. A. D. Cotton, who has for some years been making a 
critical study of British Clavarieae, regards C. fistulosa Holmsk 
and C. ardenia Sow as synonyms for one and the same species. 

Hypoxylon crustaceum Ntscke. 

N.E. — Mulgrave. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 25). [To 
follow 1493]. 

Hypospila pustula (Pers.). 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 191 1, p. 25). 
[To follow 1508]. 

Valsa salicis Fckl. (= Diaporthe salicella Sacc). 

S.E. — On dead willow-twigs, Osgodby, near Selby. (' Nat.', 

1909, p. 320). [To precede 1524]. 
Heptameria conoidea Not. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods, Aug. 1908 ; again at the 1908 F.F. 
■(' Nat.', 1909, p. 27). [To follow 1644]. 

191 1 April 1. 

170 Crossland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 

In some works this is ranked as a variety of H. doliolum ; in 
Cooke's ' Syn. Pyrenomycetum,' it is classed as a species. 

Thielavia basicola Zoph. 

S.W. — The Torula stage on young pea-plants, sent to Kew 
from Doncaster 1908. (' Nat.', 1909, p. 238). [To follow 1689]. 

Elaphomyces variegatus Vitt. 

N.E. — Whitby. (' Tr. Brit. Myc. Soc.', 1905). [To follow 

Choiromyces meandriformis Vitt. 

N.E. — Mulgrave. (F.F., 1910, ' Nat.', 1911, p. 2,2). [To 
follow 1700]. 

Helvella atra Konig. 

N.E. — On the ground in Ray Wood, Castle Howard. (F.F., 
1909, ' Nat.', 1909, p. 419). [To precede 1732]. 

Geoglossum peckianum Cooke, Mycog., p. 5, fig. 5. 

S.W. — Among short grass in field south of the Druid's 
Altar, near Bingley, Nov. 1910. Thos. Hebden. 

The only previous mention of this species having been found 
in Britain, is in ' Massee's Mon. of the Geoglosseae,' Anns. Bot., 
Vol. XL, pp. 250-1 (figs 42, 43, pi. XII.), where we read : 
' England (a specimen from Sowerby's herbarium at Kew, 
called Geoglossum difforme).' 

It has been found at two or three places in the United States, 
and is recorded from France. The following is an abridged 
description from Massee's Monograph : — 

Gregarious or tufted, black, viscid, 4-7 cm. high, glabrous, 
with the exception of the well-defined stem which is minutely 
squamulose, club narrowly lanceolate, slightly compressed. Asci 
narrowly elliptic-fusiform, 180-200 x i8-20ju, pore blue with 
iodine ; spores 8, fasciculate in the ascus, clear brownish-umber , 
linear-fusiod or subclavate, sometimes slightly curved, y-septate 
at first, 15-septate when mature, 115-125x6-7^; paraphyses 
slender, septate, tips brownish, slightly thickened, variously curved 
and twisted.' 

' Apart from being glabrous, this species is almost indis- 
tinguishable from some forms of Geoglossum hirsutum.' The 
Bingley specimens were only very slightly viscid. [To follow 

Sphaerospora confusa (Cke.) Sacc. (=Lachnea confusa, 
' Phil. Grev.', XVIII., p. 83 ; Peziza brunnea, ' Nyl. Obs.', p. 21) 

N.E. — Among moss and humus, Ray Wood, Castle Howard. 
(F.F., 1909, ' Nat.', 1909, p. 419). [To precede 1854]. 

Helotium phyllogenon (Rehm.) ( = Phialea Sacc). 
N.E. — On the veins of decaying poplar leaves, Castle 
Howard. (F.F., 1909, 'Nat.', 1909, p. 419). [To follow 1969]. 


Crossland: Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 171 

Septoria ulmi Kze. 

N.E. — On Ulmus leaves, Castle Howard. (F.F., 1909, 
' Nat.', 1909, p. 419). 
S. Heracli Fckl. 
N.E.— On Heracleum, Castle Howard. (F.F., 1909, ' Nat.', 

1909, p. 419). The above two come between Nos. 2258 and 

Verticillium marquandi Mass. (' Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc.', 
1896-7, p. 24). 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 1910, Nat. , 1911, p. 22). 
[To follow 2345]. 

A beautiful mould of a clear lilac colour, parasitic on the 
gills of Hygrophorus virgineus. First described by G. Massee 
from specimens received from Guernsey. 

Gonytrichum caesium Nees. 

S.E. — Escrick, ' Nat.', 1909, p. 320). [To precede 2392]. 

Chalara longipes Cke. 

N.E. — On decaying bark, Castle Howard. (F.F., 1909, 
' Nat.', 1909, p. 419). [To follow 2393]. 


N.E.— Castle Howard. (F.F., 1909, 'Nat.', 1909, p. 419). 
[To follow 2396]. 

Fumago vagans Pers. 

S.W. — Wakefield, on privet leaves, and on gelatine cultures, 

1910. J. W. H. Johnson [To come between 2427 and 2428]. 
Stemonites maxima (=S. splendens Rost.). 

N.E. — Scarboro'. [To follow 2499]. 
Physarum contextum Rost. 
N.E. — Scarboro'. 
P. diderma Rost. 

N.E. — Scarboro'. [Both to precede 2566]. 
The last three additions were recorded in ' Nat.', 1910, p. 
147, by Miss Hibbert-Ware. 


Amanita strobiliformis (Vitt.). 

N.E. — Castle Howard. (F.F., 1909, ' Nat.', 1909, p. 419). 
The two previous records are uncertain, see 'Y.F.Flo.', p. 19. 
Coprinus volvaceo-minimus Crossl. ('Nat.', Dec, 1892, 

P- 372). 

This species has again been found, but this time near Derby, 
October 8th, 1910. It was seen by Thos. Gibbs, growing on 
paper-works refuse during the Fungus Foray held by the Derby 
Midland Railway Naturalists' Society. (' Jour. Derbyshire 
Archeo. and Nat. Hist. Soc.', 1911, p. 200). 

1911 April 1. 



On February 18th two meetings were held at the Institute, Leeds ; 
Mr. W. H. St. Quintin, J. P., F.Z.S., presided at the afternoon meeting, and 
Professor. Patten, M.A., M.D., Sc.D., at the evening meeting. 

Bearded Tits Experiment at Hornsea Mere.— After disposing 
of the business in connection with the Yorkshire Wild Birds' and Eggs' 
Protection Acts Committee's arrangements for the coming season, Mr. 
W. H. St. Quintin outlined the scheme whereby he intended shortly 
to liberate several pairs of Dutch Bearded Tits, or Reedlings, at Hornsea 
Mere. These birds had been in his aviaries for some time, and will be 
under Mr. St. Quintin 's personal care and protection for the first few 
days. The birds (and their eggs, in case they should nest) will be under 
the close observation of the Yorkshire Naturalist's Union's bird-watcher, 
and of Mr. Constable's gamekeepers. As this is quite a harmless species, 
no injury can result from the experiment, which, if successful, will give 
additional interest to Hornsea Mere. 

The Chough. — Mr. E. W. Wade, M.B.O.U., read an exhaustive paper 
on the Chough, dealing with its structure, status, habits, nesting economy, 
and the probable reason of its steady and continual decrease in numbers ; 
illustrated by several good lantern-slides. Some of the slides showing 
the nests of these birds in cavities of rock cliffs, had been photographed 
by flash-light. Mr. Wade said the Chough was one of the oldest birds 
known to man ; but beyond doubt, several species, such as Jackdaws, 
Rooks, etc., were known in those early days by that name ; as by the 
quotations of their habits, and by the quantities of grain that they were 
stated at times to devour, it was quite plain that the species described 
could not be identical with our Pyrrhocovax graculus. Later this species 
became known as the ' Cornish Chough,' because of its abundance in 
Cornwall, where now it has unfortunately recently become extinct. Mr. 
Wade opined that the Chough was dying out simply as an antiquated 
form, and just as races of men die out. Although the decrease of the 
Choughs at their nesting haunts was invariably followed by an increase of 
Jackdaws, yet he did not believe that either the Jackdaw or the Peregrine 
Falcon had really anything to do with the declining numbers. In the 
discussion that followed it was stated that the final extermination of the 
Chough in Cornwall had been hastened by a pair of these birds having been 
presented to the late Queen Victoria. This occasioned a demand for the 
birds in Cornwall, £2 and more being freely offered for young birds. Mr. 
St. Quintin said they were charming pets, but difficult to keep in aviaries, 
and soon died off. He had found that they thrived best on ' Spratt's 
Food.' They would not eat any kind of grain, but w r ere especially fond 
of mealworms, which, however, soon caused them to have fits. 

A Yorkshire Hoopoe. — Mr. St. Quintin exhibited a Hoopoe that had 
been shot in mistake after a week's sojourn at Thirkleby in 1896, on 
January 10th, an unusual date for this species in England. The bird had 
every appearance of being a wild bird, and not an escape from confine- 
ment. At the time of its death it was well nourished, and had been 
recently feeding. 

The Scampston Aviaries. — The same gentleman exhibited eggs of 
many uncommon and interesting birds, including those of the Great Bustard, 
Little Bustard, Common and Japanese White-naped Cranes, Willow Grouse, 
Pink-footed and Bean Geese, Ferruginous Duck, Pine Grosbeak, and Snow 
Bunting, which had been laid in his aviaries at Scampston. 

American Grey Squirrel in Yorkshire. — Mr. St. Quintin reported 
that the turning down of about eighteen pairs of the North American 
Grey Squirrel at Scampston Hall, in June, 1906 (see The Naturalist, 1907, 
p. 37), had not been an unqualified success. For the first two years they 


Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Vertebrate Zoology Section. 173 

did not appear to breed at all. After that they increased enormously, 
greatly exceeding the fecundity of the English Squirrel, and they then 
commenced robbing neighbouring fowl-houses, and last July they com- 
menced stripping the bark off Sycamore trees by gnawing it. Much as he 
had liked them as charming and confiding little animals, In- had been com- 
pelled on this a-count to reduce their number to a few pairs. 

Curious Scotch Red Grouse. — Mr. G. Bolam showed an uncommon 
and beautiful grouse which had been shot in Argyleshire last December. 
It might be roughly described as ' golden-spangled ' all over its body 
feathers, similar to a Hamburg breed of domestic fowls. Its general build, 
skeleton, and shape, proclaimed it to be really an interesting sport of the 
Red Grouse. 

Lesser Black-backed Gulls at Foulshaw Moss. — Mr. Walter 
Wilson showed a series of charming lantern pictures illustrating his remarks 
on the. Lesser Black-backed Gulls at Foulshaw Moss, in Cumberland. With 
the aid of a small tent he had been able to secure good photographs of 
the actions and habits of these gulls at close quarters, during the nesting 
season, and instanced a rather curious incident whilst thus engaged, viz. : 
a mother Pheasant and her very young brood passed through the gullery 
quite unmolested by the gulls. Mr. Wilson passed over the screen a series 
of slides owned by The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, showing 
the sad and gloomy -aspect of an Australian Egret nesting colony, after 
it had been visited by plume-hunters in the demands of the millinery 

Bird> at the Farnes and Bass Rock. —Mr. Jasper Atkinson showed 
a series of lantern-slides dealing with the nesting birds on the Fame 
Islands, and at the Bass Rock. He also passed round a large series of 
mounted photographs belonging to the Zoological Photo. Club. These 
were much appreciated by the members present, for, besides being picked 
specimens in the art of photography, they illustrated many most interesting 
birds and mammals, and their habits. 

Plumage Changes in the Sanderling, Etc. — Professor Patten gave 
an exhaustive address on the ' Plumage Changes in CalidHs arenaria, 
and their Correlation with Sexual Maturity,' being illustrated throughout 
by lantern-slides of the birds, and by diagrams of the birds' testes, ex- 
amined from birds secured monthly for the first few years of their lives. 
His experiments tended to prove that although Sanderlings in their first 
Spring may assume the nuptial- or breeding-plumage externally, that 
internally they are juveniles, and that the testes of such males do not 
increase in size with the approcah of the breeding season, as they do in the 
older and breeding males. In the few experiments he had conducted with 
Turnstones and Dunlins the results had tended in the same direction ; but 
with the Black-headed Gull it was not until the Spring of the third year, 
and with the Herring Gull not before the fifth year, that the testes had 
developed to maturity. In the young Hedge-Sparrow, however, the 
young male of just under a year old had the testes fully developed as 
the pairing season advanced. 

West of Ireland Island Birds. — Professor Patten shewed skins 
of several common birds obtained from islands of the west coast of Ireland . 
A male House-Sparrow was contrasted with a similar bird from Sheffield, 
in which the former showed not only brighter, but apparently richer 
coloration. Two female Blackbirds, both obtained the same day and 
on the same island, offered a great contrast in size, one being but a pigmy 
compared with the other. 

A Ct'Rioi rs Kitten. — Prof. Patten also exhibited a newly-born kitten, 
which had an unusually sharp, rat-like muzzle and face, and had been 
born with its eves open. He considered that these abnormalities had been 
due to delay in its birth by at the least nine or ten days, and were probably 
owing to some obstruction. 

Bird-life in Holland. — Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z.S., dealt with Bird- 

191 1 Apri' 1 . 

174 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Vertebrate Zoology Section. 

life in Holland, where, during the past summer, he had made a sojourn for 
the purpose of studying and photographing birds. He pointed out that 
nearly all the interesting birds which were common on the meers and 
polders in Holland had formerly nested in similar situations in England, 
and, except for persecution, they would still be nesting here. He then 
exhibited a succession of descriptive lantern-slides, showing the nesting 
areas, and in most cases, the birds and nests, of the following species : — 
Spoonbill, Purple Heron, Bittern, Marsh Harrier, White Stork, Black Tern, 
Avocet, Black-tailed Godwit, Ruff, Kentish Plover, Great Reed Warbler, 
Blue-headed Wagtail, Shoveler, Garganey, etc. 

The Natterjack. — He remarked upon the abundance of the Natter- 
jack Toad, showed pictures of several ' in focus ' at one time ; stating that 
he considered they differed slightly from British Natterjacks, in having a 
broader yellow stripe down the back ; but he intended to make further 
observations in the future respecting this matter. 

Icelandic Meadow Pipit. — Mr. Leonard Gaunt exhibited a Meadow 
Pipit, which he had obtained in Iceland, some years ago. It was of the 
small lighter form, and appeared to be similar to some that pass through 
Yorkshire on migration. 

White Stoat at Ilkley. — Mr. Rosse Butterfield brought a very 
beautiful white female Stoat or Ermine, taken a month previously at 
Ilkley, and now in the Keighley Museum. It was entirely white, excepting 
a small spot behind each eye, and its black-tipped tail, the basal half of 
which was yellow. 

Crystal Palace Cage Bird Show. — Mr. H. B. Booth described a 
visit to the recent Crystal Palace Cage Bird Show, which was quite a 
lesson in ornithology to a field-naturalist. Besides such freaks as ' talking ' 
canaries and hybrids, there were hundreds of British birds exhibited. 
They all appeared to be in good plumage and health, and included such 
unusual cage-birds as the Dartford Warbler, Lesser Spotted Woodpeckers, 
Tree-Creepers, Goldcrests, and Bearded Reedling, besides several Nightin- 
gales, Blackcaps, and Hawfinches. 

Yellow-necked Mouse and Polecat. — Mr. Booth showed a Yellow- 
necked Mouse (Mus flavicollis) from Gloucestershire. This exceptionally 
large, long-tailed species of Wood Mouse was only described by Mr. De 
Win ton in 1894, and has not yet been recorded so far north as Yorkshire. 
He also exhibited a large male Polecat which had been recently trapped 
near Aberystwith. In the discussion it was stated that Polecats were still 
crossed with the domestic Ferret to increase the savageness of the off- 
spring, and that these latter adopted more of the Polecat's tactics in hunting 
and killing. It was reported that on an estate within thirty miles south- 
east of London, Polecats had recently become almost common again, 
owing to some escaping and the house afterwards being unoccupied for 
some length of time. — H.B.B. 

It will be remembered that at the Sheffield meeting of the British 
Association, much was heard of the so-called fossil horse of Bishop's S.tort- 
ford, which was ' trotted out ' by Dr. J. Irving before at least two of 
the sections. In the Essex Naturalist (Vol. X., parts 5 and 6) Mr. E. T. 
Newton, F.R.S., gives good reasons for believing that the remains are those 
of a modern horse, and, apparently, the only point in which Mr. Newton 
agrees with Dr. Irving is that the age of the skeleton is ' dubious.' 

The Essex Naturalist for October, 1909, to January, 1910, published 
December, 1910, and received by us on March 18th, 191 1, contains an 
interesting paper on some curiously carved bone objects found at Braintree, 
Essex, and elsewhere, by Mr. F. W. Reader. Some of the objects described 
are by no means so rare as Mr. Reader thinks, and were used in connection 
with the old windmills, up to half-a-century ago. In the Hull Museum 
are specimens from mill-sites in Hull, and from Elloughton, East Yorks. 



3n flDemoriam, 

Rev. E. MAULE COLE, M.A., F.G.S. 
l8 33— 19 11 - 

We much regret to learn, as we go to press, of the death of our 
old friend and contributor, the Vicar of Wetwang. The Rev. 
E. M. Cole has been in indifferent health for some little time, 
though he joined the East Riding Antiquarian Society on the 
occasion of one of its meetings but a few months ago. Those 
who then saw him could discern that his more than three score 
years and ten were soon to be brought to a close. 

The Rev. gentleman was never so happy as when conduct- 
ing a geological or archaeological party over his beloved district, 
the Yorkshire Wolds ; and none knew them so well nor could 
describe them so ably. He was a frequent contributor to these 
pages, and took a keen interest in geology and prehistoric 
archaeology. The Rev. gentlemen was present at most of the 
•excavations in the British barrows made by his friend Mr. J. R. 
Mortimer. As a popular lecturer, too, he had a great reputa- 
tion. One of the last occasions upon which he was away from 
home, if not the last, was on paying a visit to the present 
■writer, in company with his life-long friend, Sir Tatton Sykes. 

An account of the Rev. E. M. Cole, with a portrait and list 
•of his papers appeared in The Naturalist for August, 1907 
(pp. 267-269 and PI. XXXII.) . 

T. S. 


Vol. XXV. of the Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical Society 
of Edinburgh, (336 pp.), is entirely occupied by a memoir on ' Distribution 
•of Hepaticae in Scotland ', by Symers M. Macvicar. 

The Forty-ninth Annual Report of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 

for 1910, containing the reports, etc., of the various committees and sec- 
tions, is on sale by Messrs. A. Brown & Sons, Hull, at one shilling net. 

In addition to The Library Circular, a Quarterly Record of Additions ; 
the Sunderland Public Library has recently issued a ' Select List of Books 
on Nature Study, including Aquaria, Microscopy, and Taxidermy.' This 
will prove very useful to teachers and others. We were a little startled 
to find that The Naturalist was not in the list of periodicals taken by this 
otherwise up-to-date library ; but we learn that this state of things is to be 

The Transactions of the East Riding Antiquarian Society, Vol. XVII., 
1910, contain four papers, viz. : ' The Aslce Family,' by Col. Philip 
Saltmarshe ; ' The Stature of Early Man in East Yorkshire,' by J. R. 
Mortimer ; and ' The Pre-historic Boat from Brigg,' by Thomas Sheppard ; 
(illustrated by 29 blocks) ; and ' Hull and East Yorkshire Trademen's 
Tokens,' by W. Sykes (with 106 illustrations). There is also the Secretary's 
Report, List of Members, and Balance Sheet. 

1911 April 1. 



An immature male rough-legged Buzzard was shot at Seaton-Delaval, 
Northumberland, in November, 1910 — British Birds, March. 

The final part (24) of Kearton s Nature Pictures (Cassell & Co., if-) 
has been issued, and in addition to the usual plates, contains the title-page, 
list of plates, etc. 

Miss E. Maude Alderson has some useful ' Notes on Chrysopa dor salts ' 
illustrated with a beautiful coloured plate, in the Entomologist's Monthly 
Magazine for March. ■ !i 

Mr. L. E. Prout describes an interesting aberration of Eustroma 
reticulata (Schiff), bred by the Rev. E. J. Nurse of Windermere; in The 
luitomologist, No. 573. 

Parts 23. and 24 of the Harmsworth Natural History (yd. each) are 
devoted to the parrots, owls, falcons, eagles, buzzards, etc. One or two 
of the coloured plates are particularly good. 

There is an admirable account of the Geology of the Districts around 
Settle and Harrogate, by Prof. P. F. Kendall,: in the Proceedings of the 
Geologists' Association, Vol. XXII., part 1. 

Mr. K: J. Morton writes on ' Tceniopteryx putata, with Notes on the 
Species of the Genus,' and Mr. W. J. Lucas records ' Cheshire and South 
Lancashire Odonata ' in The Entomologist for March. 

In the Yorkshire Archaeological Journal (part 18), Mr. John Bilson 
gives a scholarly description of Newbald Church. This was built of the 
local Cave oolite, before the times when the Tadcaster magnesian limestone 
was brought down by water. 

We have received part I. of lusecta, an illustrated entomological 
review issued by the Entomological Section of the Faculty of Sciences at 
Rennes. It contains a number of entomological papers, including des- 
criptions of some new species of insects. 

The Museums Journal (Vol. X, No. 7) contains a protest against the 
appointment of Sir Thomas Carlaw Martin, as Director of the Royal 
Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. Apparently Sir Thomas's chief qualifica- 
tion for the appointment is that he has been the editor of a provincial 

Amongst many interesting items in the February Geological Magazine, 
are 'The Mineral Condition of Calcium Carbonate in Fossil Shells,' by 
Messrs. G. A. J. Cole and O. H. Little ; ' The Dragon Tree of the Kentish 
Rag,' by Dr. M. C. Stopes ; and ' Fossil Myriopods from the Middle Coal 
Measures, Sparth, Rochdale,' by Mr. W. Baldwin. 

We are delighted to find that Major Barrett-Hamilton's History of 
British Mammals (Gurney & Jackson) is appearing with commendable 
punctuality. Part 4 (2/6 net) is. to hand, and is partly occupied by a 
portion of the General Introduction to Bats ; and partly by detailed 
descriptions of The Whiskered, Bechstein's, Natterer's, The Notch- 
eared, the Mouse-eared, and the Long-eared Bats. There are coloured 
and black and white plates, and illustrations in the text. 

In British Birds for March, reference is made to the note in The Natura- 
list (page 100) respecting the occurrence of the Spotted Sandpiper in York- 
shire. It is stated that ' the history of the specimen is so confused and 
uncertain that it seems inadvisable to accept the record as fully authenti- 
cated.' We, of course, accept the opinion of British Birds, and at the 
same time can only regret that the specimen was not ' seen in the flesh ' 
somewhere on the south-east coast of England ; in which case we are 
confident that it would have been described in, and accepted by that 
journal as ' A New British Bird.' 

. Naturalist; 

MAY, ion. 

No. 653 

(Ha. 130 •/ turrtmt frit*). 




T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 


T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddkrsfiki.d. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments op 




Contents : — 


Notes and Comments:— York Antiquities; Thome Waste; The late Rev. E. Maule Cole 

(Illustrated); The Scainridge Dykes ; How many British Birds? 177-171* 

On Movements In Rocks (Illustrated)— G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S. , F.G.S 180-185 

Prominent Yorkshire Workers: V.— John Robert Mortimer (Illustrated) — T. S 186-191 

British Pseudoscorpions — Win. Falconer 192-193 

A new Boring in the Vale of Pickering (Illustrated)— IT. Millhouse, C.E 194-196 

Annelid Fauna of Cumberland— Rev. Hilda ic : Friend 197-199 

Notes on the Crista of some British Earthmites (Illustrated)— C. F. George, M.R.C.S. ... 200-201 

Some recent Works on Petrology and Mineralogy— A . H 202-203 

New Natural History Books 201-206 

Field Notes 179, 1!)1 

Northern News 185,199,201 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 193,207 

News from the Magazines 208 

Plates XL. XI 

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Contains various reports, papers, and addresses on the Flowering Plants, Mosses, and Fung, of the county 

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ThU^hrch^ormfth^ndVolirne of the Botanical Series of the ^Transactions is perhaps the ^most 

complete work of the kind ever issued for any district, including detailed and ull . ^f^"*" ^d 382 

gams and Vascular Cryptogams, 11 Characea;, 348 Mosses, 108 Hepatics, 258 Lichens, 1009 Fungi, and XA 

Freshwater Algae, making a total of 3160 species. 

READY SHORTLY: Supplement to The Flora ol West Yorkshire, by F. Arnold Lees, M.RC.S. 

680 pp., Coloured Geological, Lithological, &c. Maps, suitably Bound in Cloth. Price 15/- net. 
NORTH YORKSHIRE: Studies of its Botany, Geology, Climate, and Physical Geography. 

And a Chapter on the Mosses and Hepatics of the Riding, by Matthew B. Slater, F.L.S. This Volume 
forms the 3rd of the Botanical Series. 

396 pp., Complete, Svo., Cloth. Price 10/6 net. 
This is the 4th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, and contains a complete annotated list 
of all the known Fungi of the county, comprising 2626 species. 

Complete, Svo, Cloth. Price 6/- post free. 
This work, which forms the 5th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions ^ ™erates 104 
species, with full details of localities and numerous critical remarks on their affinities and distribution. 

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The First Fdition of this work was published in 1883, and contained particulars of 1340 specie . 

MacT -and Micro I epidoptera known to Xbit the county of York The Second. Ed, tion, with ^emen, 

contains much new information which has been accumulated by_ the author, including o\er50 additional 

species, together with copious notes on variation (particularly melanism), &c. 

In piogrcss, issued in Annual Parts, Svo. 


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All communications should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary, 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., The Museums, Hull. 


A well-attended Conference of Museum Curators from 
Yorkshire and Lancashire, was held at Halifax, on April 8th. 
Messrs. Crump, Crossland and Wellburn, the Hon. Curators, 
conducted the visitors round the natural history museum at 
Belle Vue, and Mr. Ling Roth shewed the party round the 
Bankfield Museum. It was evident that the people of Halifax 
were to be congratulated upon their excellent museums, and 
upon the fact that there is such an admirable staff of Honorary 
Curators. It was obvious, however, that it would be an 
advantage to have a permanent salaried curator. After tea, 
which was kindly provided by the Mayor of Halifax, papers were 
read by Mr. T. Sheppard, on ' Museum Guides ' ; by Mr. W. B. 
Crump, on ' A New Method of Illustrating British Vegetation 
in Museums ' ; by Mr. H. Ling Roth, on ' The Use and Place 
of Anthropological Collections in Museums ' ; and by Mr. H. P. 
Kendall, on ' The Value of Photographs of Local Antiquarian 
Interest in Museums.' 


Mr. C. F. Bell, of the Achmolean Museum, has been writing 
to the Yorkshire Herald, drawing the attention of the authori- 
ties to the admittedly inadequate housing of the priceless 
collection of antiquities at York ; and all those who have an 
interest in the subject, including the officials at the museum 
itself, will be grateful if good results from the public appeal. 
Mr. Bell, after pointing out the extraordinary interest of the 
York collection, says : — ' the whole effect is so sadly marred 
by crowding and lack of arrangement, that nobody but the 
special student can realize the extent and meaning of the 
collection. The manner in which the priceless Roman an- 
tiquities are displayed is mean and unworthy, the impossibility 
of controlling the temperature and humidity of the atmosphere 
in the old hostel — picturesque and appropriate as it is in many 
ways for the purpose — is becoming increasingly evident from 
the condition of the specimens and the mounts. Many of the 
bronze objects are beginning to decay in an alarming manner. 
•Not less precarious is the condition of the famous tapestry maps 
in the Lecture Hall, which are in a deplorable state of decay 
and dirt, and require immediate attention.' Mr. Bell makes 
suggestions for improving this state of things, but the whole 
thing probably rests on the old complaint — ' lack of funds.' 


The great fire which raged on Goole and Thorne Moor during 
the middle of April is much to be regretted from a natural 
history point of view ; and though it may be possible to gather 
some interesting information in reference to the way in which 
the barren burnt ground is re-clothed by vegetation, and re- 
populated by animal life, this will not atone for the enormous 
loss which the fire has caused. Some little time ago the York- 

191 1 May 1 . M 


Notes and Cumnien/s. 

shire Naturalists' Union proposed to thoroughly investigate 
the natural history of the area, but difficulties arose in regard 
to the necessary permission from the owners to make the 
investigations. In view of the recent conflagration, the records 
that might have been made would have been of altogether 
exceptional value. 


Our readers will doubtless be glad to have the accompanying 
characteristic photograph of the late Rev. E. Maule Cole, for 

the loan of which we are indebted to Mr. R. H. Barker, of 
Scarborough. The photograph was taken a little while ago in 
his garden, by Mr. Barker, whilst the Rev. gentleman was pay- 
ing a visit. 


Since our last issue, the Scarborough Rural District Council 
has met, and, in view of the outcry which was made in refer- 
ence to their proposal to place a reservoir on the Seamridge 
Dykes, definitely decided to chose another site for the reservoir. 
One member, Little by name, suggested that those who had 
taken such a great interest in the matter, should subscribe 
towards the expense of the alterations in the plans. 


Mr. Hugh Boyd Watt has summarised Mr. Ogilvie-Grant's 
list of British Birds, and gives the following interesting figures 
in ' Knowledge ' : — 


Notes and Comments. 179 

E33 species are resident and breed. ) = 185 

52 species are regular summer visitors,- breeding 
and breed. J species. 

55 species are regular autumn, winter or spring visitors ; 
not breeding. 
9 species are occasional visitors ; used to breed. 
192 species are occasional visitors ; never known to 
breed. To this number the American Pipit falls 
to be added. 
1 species is extinct (Great Auk). 

Total 442 species admitted unquestionably. 

3 varieties are named in the List, but not numbered. 
35 species, of which the history is doubtful, are named 
in the List within brackets, and are not numbered. 

480 birds in all are thus found named in this List. 

Nesting of the Common Gull on the Fame Islands. — 

During visits to the Fame Islands in the nesting season for 
several consecutive years, I have noted the presence of the 
Common Gull (Larus canus) there. Usually there would be two 
or three, or up to over half a dozen birds on the rocky portion 
of the Knoxes Island. They were chiefly adult birds, and it 
was evident from their behaviour that they were not nesting, 
but were simply resting there. On July nth, 1910, however, 
a gull of this species was flying round and round over the 
Inner Wideopens " in quite an anxious manner, and calling 
all the time. It was evident that it was a nesting bird — 
probably with young ones that had already left the nest. I 
tried to watch it down, but was unsuccessful, as I had to leave 
the island in half-an-hour, and any unaided attempt to find 
the chicks in the dense undergrowth of this island would not 
only have proved futile, but woukl have been disastrous to 
the many hundreds of other young birds that seek shelter there- 
in. Before leaving I pointed the bird out to Darling, the 
watcher. Mr. H. A. Paynter, the Honorary Secretary of the 
Fame Islands' Association, wrote me later that he and both 
of the bird-watchers there, had subsequently often seen the 
three young ones, together with the two old Common Gulls on 
the Inner Wideopens. — H. B. Booth, Ben Rhydding. 

About twenty-five years ago, I identified a pair of Common 
Gulls, nesting on the Outer Wideopens. The late John Hancock 
was much interested in this occurrence, as it was the first pair 
he had known to nest there. If my memory serves me cor- 
rectly, he took one or more eggs from the nest. — R. Fortune. 

191 1 May 1. 



By G. \V. LAMPLUGH F.R.S., F.G.S. 

(plates xi. and xn.). 

When man began to think of his surroundings he soon became 
impressed with the idea of the unchangeableness of rocks in 
this world of change. ' As firm as a rock ' has its equivalent 
in every language ; and from the very earliest times men have 
raised pillars of stone, unhewn or hewn, as memorials that 
should outlast all others. 

Until science undertook its critical scrutiny, the permanence 
of the ' everlasting hills ' went unquestioned ; and the geolo- 
gist had to do battle with many old prejudices when he first 
ventured to make known the truth that ' the hills are shadows, 
and they flow from form to form, and nothing stands.' But the 
evidence being so clear and the facts so irrefragable, it has 
now sunk into common knowledge that, in regard to their 
surface aspect, the rocks have no stability, but are passing 
perpetually through cycles of change, and that the giant 
crags, so far from being eternal, are giants only because of their 
youth or immaturity. 

There are changes of a more intimate kind, however, that 
are not so conspicuous as these surface-phenomena, though 
they are equally well-known to geologists. They are the 
changes which have affected every particle of the rock through- 
out its mass, and have often so greatly modified its internal 
constitution or its structure that, under the cloak of apparent 
immobility, the rock may carry a history of interstitial move- 
ments almost as complex as a life-history, and far more pro- 
longed. As for the igneous rocks — the parents of all — that 
were once molten and have slowly become solid, it is recognised 
by every student how profound and intricate have been the 
re-actions in the magma, as in some vast cauldron charged 
with a flux of unlike substances, and how vigorous has been 
the interplay of particles, before the rock took form. 

Considering the far simpler sedimentary rocks alone — 
solidification with the ever-mysterious cohesion in its train, 
concretionary action, mineral replacements, metamorphism, 
folding, jointing, shearing, cleavage — all imply subtle creepings 
of the particles within the mass into new places and new rela- 
tionships under the play of forces of which we have as yet an 
imperfect comprehension. 

Of course, there is no such state known to us in Nature as 
absolute quiescence ; and it may be granted that rocks are rela- 
tively quieter than most objects on this unquiet earth. But I 

* Presidential Address to the Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc., Feb. 28th, 191 1. 


Lampiugh : On Movements in Rocks. 181 

want to impress the idea that the deadness of the stone has 
been ' greatly exaggerated.' To illustrate this, I propose to 
touch upon just a few of the symptoms of unrest that force 
themselves upon our attention in examining the rocks. It 
goes without saying that to deal thoroughly with any one of the 
forms, even supposing that such a course were within our power, 
would require more time and patience than we have at command. 
Vet I think that it will be possible quickly to dispel any remnant 
of reputation for immutability that the rocks may still have, 
by simply fixing attention on some of the lively processes that 
are constantly in operation among them. The comparatively 
simple processes affecting the sedimentary strata will provide 
us with ample matter for this purpose. 

(i) Let us first consider the processes of solidification under- 
gone by a piece of banded slate which we know was once the 
muddy sediment of a sea-floor ; or by a piece of quartzite that 
was once a loose aggregation of sand-grains ; or by a fragment of 
compact limestone that was once a soft calcareous ooze. In 
our present seas all these deposits occur in their pristine state, 
and we can trace their equivalents of bygone times backward 
through all the ages and epochs to the very earliest, finding 
them as a rule, though not invariably, more and more changed 
as we go backward down the scale of geological formations. 
Mud becomes clay, then shale, then slate ; sand becomes 
sand-rock — sandstone — quartzite ; calcareous ooze becomes 
porous rock — firm stone — compact limestone, though not 
always by these stages. Through the gradual loss of water, the 
creeping of particles nearer each other, the filling of interstitial 
spaces by travelling matter, under the slowly but constantly 
varying conditions of pressure and temperature, these changes 
have been going on incessantly through all the ages ; and — the 
point I want particularly to emphasize — they are going on now 
under our feet. A million years ago many of the rocks were 
not as we find them to-day ; and a million years hence they 
will again be different. 

These processes have affected and are affecting every 
particle of the solid crust, bringing about re-adjustments 
throughout the mass. Personally, I believe that some of 
the phenomena of disturbance on a visible scale that we usually 
assign to earth-movements of the more violent kind may be 
the result solely of re-adjustments made necessary by con- 
solidation-shrinkage.* (Plate XL, fig. b). 

(2) Next let us turn to the curious processes of seggregation 
and concretion that are so frequently exemplified in the sedi- 
mentary rocks — the slow but irresistible gathering together 

* This and other points in the address were amplified and illustrated with 
the aid of specimens and lantern slides. 

1911 May 1. 

182 Lamp! ugh : On Movements in Rocks. 

of like to like from masses of mixed composition. The par- 
ticles of silica scattered by the decay of silica-secreting or- 
ganisms through the calcareous mud of our Carboniferous and 
Cretaceous seas could not stay where they were cast, but must 
creep from all directions to their rallying-points, around which 
they have combined into lumps of chert and flint. Similarly, 
the lime-particles scattered among clay have clustered them- 
selves into nodules which have often energetically pushed aside 
the layers of the clay in their gradual expansion. Thus, also, 
the particles of iron, of phosphate, of magnesia, and of other 
rarer ingredients among sediments have shown intolerance of 
isolation, and have responded to the mysterious bonds of 
kinship. (See Plate XL, fig. a). 

Into the nature of the subtle all-pervading forces implied by 
this kind of movement, I shall not attempt to enter. We know 
that they are akin to the wonderful forces of crystallization 
which are, as yet, indifferently understood at the best. Most 
of the movements, but probably not all, are performed through 
the agency of solution ; the restless particles, in obeying the 
call of kinship, take advantage of the water circulating through 
all the pores of the rock as a medium to carry them- from place 
to place. Be the agency what it may, the fact remains that 
there is ceaseless activity among the rocks, not only near the 
surface, but deep down in the earth — an activity that is concealed 
from our senses. Often it happens that, like the march of a 
relief-guard, as a particle of one kind is taken up into solution, 
a particle of another kind drops out exactly in its place ; and 
so we get the singular phenomenon of replacement, by which 
the shape of a body remains unchanged while its substance 
is completely altered. For example, we may have a shell 
originally of lime, which has been converted into flint, or 
into pyrites, with all its minute and delicate sculpturing 

Then there is the allied but more intense display of activity 
known as metamorphism to be reckoned with. In this case 
heat and pressure have so greatly facilitated the movement of 
particles in sedimentary rocks that the ingredients have partly 
or wholly re-arranged themselves according to their affinities 
into true crystals, and the original aspect of the rock is more 
or less completely lost. This kind of alteration has usually 
been effected when the strata were buried deeply in the earth's 
crust, and we cannot discover it until very long afterwards, 
when the elevated parts of the land have been worn down so 
far that the once deep-seated layers are revealed. But we 
are reminded by such rocks that the same processes are almost 
certainly in operation at the present time in the depths beneath 
our feet, and that the transformation of the strata in the crust 
of the earth by solution, pressure and heat is never in abeyance. 


Lamplugh : On Movements in Rocks. 183 

Not in the depths alone, but also close under the surface, 
are the subtle activities in progress. The alteration of rocks 
when exposed to the air, which we call weathering, equally 
implies re-adjustment among the particles ; with every change 
of condition, however slight, some of the ingredients shift 
their places and enter into new concatenations. Every quarry- 
man knows that his freshly-cut stone differs somewhat in 
hardness and other qualities from stone of the same kind that 
has been seasoned awhile. The precise cause of the difference 
is often not easy to discover, but it must mean some change 
in the relation of particle to particle. 

In the aggregate, these individually minute re-adjustments 
of the rock-particles are immensely potent in the construction 
of the earth, though their effect is not immediately impressive 
to our senses. There are other movements, however, which 
have produced results that everyone recognises. These are 
the movements that have affected the strata as a whole, 
pressing them into folds, stretching and breaking them asunder 
by faults, and crushing them into a mass of fragments by 

Take, for example, the case of folding. We know that the 
sediments were originally spread out in nearly horizontal 
sheets ; yet the rocks into which they have been converted 
are rarely horizontal. The strata have been tilted in one 
direction or another, and sometimes so steeply that they now 
stand nearly or quite on end. Frequently they have had to 
pack into a narrower space, and in order that this might be 
achieved the more rigid rocks have been bent into folds, more 
and more tightly, until at last they have been doubled sharply 
back upon themselves again and again. It is very remarkable 
that hard and brittle rocks should have maintained their 
integrity though squeezed into most complicated forms, as if 
they were plastic. The distortion, however, has been wrought 
by forces that were not only intense but also very gradual 
and very prolonged, so that the individual particles of every 
rock-band had time to re-arrange themselves, each seeking as 
much relief as possible from the growing pressure. We shall 
frequently find convincing evidence of this if we look care- 
fully at the arches of the folds, for it will be seen that the beds 
are generally thicker there than in the two limbs, because of 
this transference of particles ; indeed, it sometimes happens, 
when the pressure has been very intense, that the limbs are 
squeezed out entirely, and all the material has crept into the 
arches. Even in a very gentle fold, the creep is generally 
apparent : for example, on measuring a slight fold in the 
Carboniferous Limestones of the Isle of Man I found that the 
beds which were seven feet thick on the sides of the arch were 
swollen to eight feet on its crest. (See Plate XII., fig. d). 

1911 May 1. 

184 Lamplugh : On Movements in Rocks. 

In fact, whenever we study the condition ^of rocks in the 
earth's crust we learn that their rigidity is only relative, and 
that even the hardest have behaved like plastic bodies when sub- 
jected to intense pressure. It is believed that at great depths, 
under the combination of pressure and heat, all rocks become 
plastic, so that there is a ' zone of flowage,' as it is called, 
always beneath us. Certain it is that when strata which have 
once been very deeply buried are laid bare at the surface, they 
generally exhibit what is known as ' schistosity,' all the par- 
ticles having been dragged or squeezed into new positions. 
Sometimes among these schists there are what have originally 
been bands of rounded pebbles of very hard material such 
as quartz, and not infrequently all the little pebbles have been 
drawn out into pencil-like rods, or have been flattened into 
thin discs. 

The force required to make the rocks so lively as this is, 
of course, enormous. We may get some vague conception of 
it by calculation, and that is all. But even within the range 
of pressures at our command by mechanical means, it has been 
quite possible to illustrate on a small scale how some rocks 
may be deformed. Limestone has long been known to yield 
with comparative readiness under pressure, and this is strik- 
ingly demonstrated in some experiments recently made by 
Prof. F. C. Adams, of Montreal. To mention only one of these 
interesting experiments, Prof. Adams found that a short 
column of limestone, r$6 inch long, when submitted to a 
pressure of about 140 tons to the square inch in a hydraulic 
press, was converted into a disc only '682 inch thick, while 
the limestone remained nearly as hard as before. 

I have mentioned that time is an important factor in all 
the movements within the earth ; and we have reason to 
believe that most of the great contortions have been produced 
in the strata very slowly. But there are other effects which 
have probably been in most cases produced much more quickly. 
Among these are the well-known ' faults,' or dislocations 
of the strata along definite planes of fracture. The strain has 
been too sudden and too great for the rocks to sustain by bend- 
ing, so they have snapped and slid into new positions by relative 
displacement at the fault-planes. Generally the displacement 
has taken the form of a sliding down of the strata on one side 
of the fault relatively to the other, which implies that the 
tendency of the movement has been to pull apart or to stretch 
the rocks. Such are known as ' normal faults.' Sometimes, 
however, the rocks on one side of the fracture have been pushed 
forward over the other, it may be for a distance of many miles ; 
and this, of course, implies that relief has had to be obtained 
from violent compression. These are called overthrust faults, 
and they are nearly always accompanied by severe contortion, 
crushing and alteration of the strata. 


Plate XI ( 

\G. Bingley, 

(1) Ball-beds of the Lower Calcareous Grit (illustrating concretionary action). 
Cliff under Scarbro' Castle, north side. 

Photo 6j i 

(2) Upper Estuarine Beds, Carnelian Bay, near Scarbro' (showing minor disruption of 
bedding, probably due to consolidation-shrinkage). 


Plate XII. 

Photo by] 

(3) Crush-conglomerate, with segregation-veins of quartz, in Manx Slates. 
Cliff at Gob y Deigan, Isle of Man. 

[G. Bingley. 

Photo by 

(4 1 Gentle fold in Carboniferous Limestone, N. of Scarlet Point, 
Isle of Man (referred to in text). 

[G. Bingley 

LamSlugh : On Movements in Recks. 1N5 

There is one further illustration of the instability of rocks 
under forceful earth-movement to which I should like to draw 
your attention, because it impressed me greatly when I was 
at work in the Isle of Man. The rocks in which the phenomena 
occurred were clay-slates with bands of hard grit or quartzite. 
These rocks have been violently pressed, crumpled, and thrown 
into all kinds of twists and folds. But the slates were able 
to adapt themselves to the movements more readily than were 
the hard grit-bands interbedded among them ; consequently 
the beds did not hold together ; disruption set in ; the grit- 
bands were broken up into fragments, and squeezed among the 
slates, and a curious new rock was produced in which all trace 
of the original bedding was lost. From its superficial resem- 
blance to a clastic conglomerate, I named this rock ' crush- 
conglomerate.' Now, this crush-conglomerate is some hun- 
dreds of feet thick in places, and extends in a great sheet for 
several miles, so it may be judged what co nmotion there was in 
the rocks when it was produced. The intense squeezing not only 
broke up the beds into fragments, but also brought about a 
general re-arrangement among all the minuter particles in the 
mass, so that the slates were converted into sericitic schist. 
The crags of Sulby Glen and Gob y Deigan, in which the crush- 
conglomerate is displayed, are restful enough to look upon, but 
to me, after I had worked among them, they carried the im- 
pression of vehement turmoil. (See Plate XII., fig. c). 

It is easy to appreciate the visible effect of these great 
earth-movements, while their interstitial effect may be over- 
looked ; and it is this minute restlessness that I have sought 
to emphasize. Whether the strata as a whole are quiescent or 
whether they are undergoing disturbance, the interstitial play, 
in one form of another, is inceasing. I might have adduced 
many further illustrations of it, but perhaps those I have 
touched upon will suffice to bring to notice the activity that 
is masked by an impassive exterior in the stony framework of 
the earth. 

An invitation having been received from the Heckmondwike Natura- 
lists' Society for the Annual Meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
to he held at Heckmondwike in December next, the Executive Committee 
has decided to accept the invitation. The next Annual Meeting of the 
Union, therefore, will be held at Heckmondwike, and not at Dewsbury. 

' The capture of a couple of females by Mr. Dutton ' seemed somewhat 
startling to read in a pamphlet before us, until we noticed that it was the 
innocent entomological notes from the Warrington Field Club, ' gathered 
from fugitive sources.' We are invited to criticise, but beyond pointing 
•out that there are almost as many interesting records as there are mis- 
prints, we have but little to say ; bembeciformis seems particularly to have 
troubled our Warrington friends, and though they have tried spelling it in 
different ways, they have not guessed it right! We are pleased to see that 
entomology (not etvmology !) is a strong feature at Warrington. 

191 1 May 1. 

1 86 



(plate XIII.). 

DURING the past half-century there have been numerous 
workers who have contributed largely to our knowledge of 
English prehistoric archaeology. Amongst these are such well- 
known names as Bateman, Evans, Dawkins, Lubbock (now Lord 
Avebury), Pitt-Rivers, Greenwell and Mortimer. To these 
writers our literature is indebted for much. ' Ten Years' 
Diggings ' ; ' Ancient Stone Implements of Great Britain ' ; a 
similar volume on ' Ancient Bronze Implements ' ; ' Cave Hunt- 
ing ' ; ' Early Man in Britain ' ; ' Prehistoric Europe ' ; ' Ex- 
cavations in Cranbourne Chase,' etc. ; ' British Barrows,' and 
' Forty Years' Researches in British, etc., Burial Mounds.' 
Few countries can shew so extensive, and none can produce so 
sound, a series. 

The most recent, and perhaps the most lavishly illustrated 
volume, is by a Yorkshireman, who has spent his life in in- 
vestigating the geology, and, more particularly, the prehistoric 
archaeology, of his native county. We refer to Mr. J. R. Mor- 
timer, formerly of Fimber, now of Driffield. 

Mr. Mortimer, who in former years had the assistance of 
his brother, the late Robert Mortimer, is a strong advocate 
of local museums and local scientific societies. And he has 
confined the area of his own life's work to that section of the 
Yorkshire Wolds that lies within a few miles from Driffield, 
and his extensive private museum of geological and archaeo- 
logical specimens at Driffield deserves the title ' local ' probably 
more than does any other museum in the country. 

Eleven years ago the present writer had the privilege of 
preparing a catalogue of the specimens in the Driffield museum, 
a work which impressed him very forcibly with the magnitude 
of Mr. Mortimer's researches. It was then that he first saw a 
hugh trunk full of manuscripts containing the notes of his 
barrow-openings, etc. A few years later, and Mr. Mortimer's 
' Forty Years' Researches ' appeared, from the same press as 
this journal. 

It was the great Exhibition of 185 1 which did so much good 
in so many ways, that first gave Mr. Mortimer a taste for 
scientific enquiry. Later, he saw the collections of fossils and 
flint implements formed by the late Edward Tindall, of Brid- 
lington. His first ammonite was bought from Tindall. 

For ten or twelve years the brothers Mortimer had the field 
almost to themselves, George Pycock of Malton and Tindall 
being practically their only rivals. The farm hands were 
trained to collect flint arrow-heads, etc., and leaflets were 
distributed offering prizes for the greatest number of imple- 


Prominent Yorkshire Workers. 187 

ments brought in. In those days many farm servants spent 
their evenings and Sundays in walking up and down the fields, 
finding flints. Baskets-lull were often brought to the office 
at Fimber, where a case or two of typical implements were on 
view. One ' prize ' consisted of a free ticket to the Leeds 
Exhibition of 1866. 

Later, as might be expected, there were other competitors, 
amongst whom were S. Chadwick of Malton, Canon Greenwell of 
Durham. F. Porter of Vedingham, C. Monkman and C. Hartley, 
G. Edson and T. Allerston of Malton, the Rev. J. Robertson oi 
Barton-le-Street, T. Boynton and R. Gatenby (Bridlington), 
and the Rev. T. J. Monson of Kirby Underdale. Most ol 
those named have ' gone before,' though a younger race (o! 
whom the writer may count himself one) has entered the field, 
albeit there remains but the 'gleanings.' Yet, such a hold 
has Mr. Mortimer on the district, that flint implements are to- 
day known as ' Mortimers,' and ' Tak it ti Motimer ' is still the 
phrase heard when anything unusual is turned up. 

As regards the geological specimens, for half a century Mr. 
Mortimer had practically no serious rivals, Messrs. Chadwick 
and Tindall being the only others interested. In this way all 
the fine specimens, principally from the chalk, which occupy the 
cases on the ground floor in the Driffield Museum, are accounted 
for ; and the value of these is increased by the careful way in 
which they are all labelled as regards locality — even to the 
very field* in which they were obtained. 

Notwithstanding the archaeological and geological value of 
the tens of thousands of specimens picked up from the fields 
and quarries of the wold area, the greatest scientific work which 
Mr. Mortimer has accomplished lies in the explorations he has 
made in the prehistoric burial mounds of the Wold area. 
During the past fifty years he has opened over three hundred 
barrows, and methodically described and sketched their 
contents. Much of this work was dealt with in papers printed in 
the proceedings of various archaeological societies, and in ' The 
Naturalist,' and the whole was brought together, with plans, 
sections, and over a thousand beautiful drawings by his daugh- 
ter, Miss Agnes Mortimer, in the ' Forty Years' Researches 'f 
already referred to. A few barrows have been opened since 
that work appeared, particulars of which have been given in 
the papers referred to at the end of these notes. 

It is a great gain to archaeology that Mr. Mortimer, almost 
single-handed, undertook this work when he did ; as agricul- 

* The specimens bear numbers which correspond with the fields numbered 
on the ordnance plans of the district. 

I The full title is ' Forty Years' Researches in British and Saxon Burial 
-Mounds of East Yorkshire.' Hull : A. Brown & Sons, 1905, pp. lxxxvi. -f- 
452, and 125 plates. 

!<)U May r. 

[88 Prominent Yorkshire Workers. 

tural operations have Levelled most of the mounds, rendering 
it absolutely impossible for any later worker to have carried 
out the investigations. 

In another way, also, has Mr. Mortimer earned our grati- 
tude, viz., by carefully mapping the various intricate pre- 
historic earthworks which formerly crossed the wolds in all 
directions. These are carefully shewn on a map in his volume, 
a map which contains information of priceless value ; and one 
which could certainly not be produced at any future time, as 
year after year the earthworks are being destroyed ; almost all 
the smaller ones having already disappeared. 

Further, (and this is particularly gratifying to workers in the 
East Riding), Mr. Mortimer has retained every specimen in 
the district in which it was found. 

Geologically, Mr. Mortimer has accomplished much by 
keeping a record of the Driffield drainage sections, by obtaining 
particulars of the strata, etc., in the wold wells, and in other 
ways. Details of this work have been published in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society and elsewhere. 

He has amassed a fund of information relating to old 
manners and customs in East Yorkshire, much of which he 
has put together in a manuscript entitled ' Reminiscences of 
my Boyhood days,' which will doubtless be published ere long. 

It is nearly eighty-six years since Mr. Mortimer was born 
in a thatched farm-house at Fimber,* and the fact that he is 
amongst us to-day, ami so active, is doubtless largely due to the 
nature of his scientific recreations, which have taken him so 
much into the fields ami fresh air. 

The results of his work will be appreciated by future genera- 
tions of scientists. 


On a Bonk Spkar Head (?) from the Essex Copeolite 
Pits. — ' Geologist,' 1863, p. 298 (Illustrated). 

An Account of the Opening of a Celtic Tumulus near 
Fimbee, Yorkshire.— ' The Reliquary,' Oct., 1868. 

The Opening of a Barrow at Grimthorpe. — ' Reliquary,' 
1 8(u), vol. ix., p. 180. 

Notice of the Opening of a late British Grave at 
Grimthorpf, near Kirbyunderdale, Yorkshire. — ' Reli- 
quary,' January, 1869. 

Ox a Peculiar Striated Structure in the Chalk. — 
Abstract]. ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.', 1873. 

A Description of the Geology of the Eastburn Farm, 
near Driffield. — (Map). ' Journal Royal Agric. Soc.', 1873. 

* On June 15th, 1S25. 

I'roiiuni'iit Yorkshire Workers. t8g 

Markings in the Chalk oi the Yorkshire Wolds 
abstrad |, ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.', Vol. XXIX., 1873, p. 417. 

also sec ' Geol Mag.', 1869, pp. 570-571. 

An Account of a Well-section in the Chalk ai mh 
north-end of Driffield, East Yorkshire. ' Quart, Journ. 
Geol. Soc.', 1875, pp. 111-112. 

Tine Distribution oi- Im.ini in rm: Yorkshire Chalk 
I Abstract', '(hunt. Journ. (..col. Soc.', Vol. XXXII. [876, 
(Proc.) p. 131. 

On some Crania of the Round Barrows of a Section 
of the Yorkshire Wolds. ' [burn. Anthrop. Inst.', vol. iv 
Pari III., 1877. 

On the Formation of Im.ini in the Chalk of York- 
shire. ' Proc. Geol. Assn.', 1877. 

An Underground Structure near Driffield. Ro- 
mano-British hypocaust ?] ' Journ. Anthrop. Inst.', Feb., 1878 

3 PP- 

I hi-: Chalk Water Supply of Yorkshire. ' Proc. Inst. 
Civil Engineers, Vol. LV., 1879, PP- I_ 9 M reprint ; and 
' Trans. Hull Sci. and Field X it. Club,' 1899, pp. 31-36. 

' Kemp Howe/ Cowlam. ' fourn. Anthrop. Inst.', May 

On the Sections of the Drift obtained by the New 
Drainage Works at Driffield. — ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. and 
Polyt. so,.', 1881, pp. 373-3&0 ; also ' Rep. Brit. Assn.', 1881, 
p. 617. 

Account of the ' Discovery of Six Ancient Dwellings 
found under and near to british barrows on the york- 
SHIRE Wolds.' — ' Journ. Anthrop. Inst.', May, 1882 ; and 
' Rep. Brit. Assn.', 1881, p. 691. 

On the Origin of the Chalk Dales ok Yorkshire. — 
' Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc.', 1885, pp. 29-42. 

On the Habitation Terraces of the Fast Riding. — ■ 
' Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc.', Vol. IX., Part II., 1887, 
pp. 221-224. 

Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc, 1889, pp. 217-230; Part II., 
' Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc, 1890, pp. 445-457. 

A Probable Site of Delgovitia. — [Abstract , ' Rep. Brit. 
Assn., 1890, p. 980. 

A Supposed Roman Camp at Octon. — ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. 
and Polyt. Soc', pp. 457-459. ' Rep. Brit. Assn.', 1890, p. 
980. [Abstract]. 

A Description of the Origin and Distribution of the 
Un-waterworn Chalk-Gravel on the Yorkshire Chalk 
Hills. — ' Proc. Geol. Assn.', Vol. VIII., No. 5, 1890. 


Britons. — 'Yorks. Arch. Journ.', Vol. XIX., 1891. 

igil May 1. 

190 Prominent Yorkshire Workers. 

An Account of the Opening of the Tumulus, ' Howe 
Hill,' Duggleby.' ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc.', 1892, 
pp. 215-225. 

Further Observations on the Contents of the Howe 
Tumulus [Duggleby]. — ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc.', 
1893, pp. 242-244. 

The Opening of a Barrow near Sledmere. — ' Trans. 
East Riding Antiq. Soc.', Vol. II., 1894, 6 pp. 

The Opening of Six Mounds at Scorborough, near 
Beverley. — ' Trans. East Riding Antiq. Soc.', Vol. III., 1895, 
pp. 21-23. 

Killing Pits. — ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc.', Vol. 
XIII., Part II., 1897, PP- I 44 _I 49- 

The Origin of some Lines of Small Pits on Allerston 
and ebberston moors, near scamridge dykes in the neigh- 
BOURHOOD of Scarborough. — ' Archaeol. Journ., 'Sept., 1895. 
' Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc.', 1897, pp. 150-154. 

Ancient British Star-Worship indicated by the 
Grouping of Barrows. — ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc.', 
1897, pp. 201-209 (map) ; and ' Trans. East Riding Antiq. 
Soc.', Vol. III., 1895, p. 53. and ' Proc. Soc. Antiq.', Vol. XV., p. 

' Embankment Crosses.'--' Proc. Soc. Antiquaries,' Jan. 
28th, 1897, Vol. XVI. , p. 278. 

A Summary of what is known of the so-called ' Danes' 
Graves,' near Driffield. — ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. 
Soc.', Vol. XIII., 1897, pp. 286-298. 

' The Danes' Graves.' — ' Annual Report Yorks. Phil. 
Soc' for 1897 [pub. 1898], 10 pp. and 3 plates. Also in ' Proc. 
Soc. Antiquaries,' March 24th, 1894, 10 pp. 

The Danes' Graves. — No. II., ' Annual Rep. of the Yorks. 
Phil. Soc' for 1897. 

An Ancient British Settlement consisting of a Double 
Row of Pits on Danby North Moor, Yorkshire. — ' Archaeol. 
Journ. ',June, 1898. 

On some Barrows at Kilham, and a Chariot-burial of 
the early Iron Age. — ' Proc. Soc. Antiq.', Vol. XVII, 1898, 
p. 119. 

The So-called British Habitations on Danby North 
Moor. — ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc', Vol. XIII., 1899, PP- 406-418. 

Notes on the History of the Driffield Museum of 
Antiquities and Geological Specimens. — ' Proc. Yorks. 
Geol. Soc', Vol. XIV., 1900, pp. 88-96 ; ' Trans. Hull Sci. and 
F. N. Club,' 1900, pp. 135-141, and ' A Descriptive Cata- 
logue of the . . . Mortimer Museum . . . 1900, pp. 9-16. 

An Account of the Discovery of Roman Remains at 
Langton. — 'Trans, of the East Riding Antiq. Soc', Vol. X., 


Prominent Yorkshire Workers. igi 

Notes on some Pre-historic Jet Ornaments from Easi 
Yorkshire. — ' The Naturalist,' 1903. 

Forty Years' Researches in British and Saxon Burial 
Mounds of East Yorkshire. — 1905, pp. 86 -f- 452, and 125 

Notes on the British Remains found near the Caw- 
thorne Camps, Yorkshire. — ' The Naturalist,' September. 
1905, pp. 264-265. 

Note on a British Burial at Middleton-on-the-Wolds. 
— ' The Naturalist,' 1908, pp. 230-231. 

Opening of a Barrow near Borrow Nook. — ' Journ. of 
the Yorks. Arch. Soc.', Part LXXX., 1910. 

The Stature of Early Man in East Yorkshire.— 
4 Trans. of the East Ridg. Antiq. Soc.', Vol. XVI., 1910 ; and 
' Man,' 1910. 

The Evolution of the Millstone. — ' The Naturalist,' 
1911, pp. 95-99. 

Opening of Two Barrows at Borrow Nook. — ' 1 he 
Journ. of the Yorks. Arch. Soc.', Part LXXXIL, 1911. 

The following papers have also been prepared, but not 
published : — 

The First Manufactured Weapon used by Man. 

' Danes' Graves.' — No. 3. 

Our Ancestors in East Yorkshire. 

The Genesis of the Yorkshire Chalk. 

Supplementary Excavations at Danes' Graves, in 

Some Recollections of my Boyhood. 

On the Mental Development of Primitive Man. 

Dew-ponds of the Yorkshire Wolds. 

T. S. 

Mammoth Tusk at Withernsea. — On the 23rd March, 
Mr. C. G. France, of Withernsea, showed me a portion of a large 
Mammoth tusk, which he had found on the beach about i\ miles 
south of Withernsea. The specimen was noticed at a distance 
of about 20 yards from the cliff, and from its slightly water- 
worn appearance, it had evidently been out of the boulder-clay 
for some time. Probably the recent high spring tides had washed 
it out from the other material on the coast. The tusk was in an 
excellent state of preservation, and measured 24J inches along 
the outer curve of its length. Its greatest diameter was 6 inches 
and its weight 24 lbs. From its appearance the specimen had 
evidently been part of a fully developed individual ; and the 
successive rings of growth could be traced to the centre of the 
tusk. The tusk is now in the geological gallery of the usual 
Museum, having been presented by Mr. France. — George 
Sheppard, Withernsea. 

igu May i. 



Slaithwaite, near Huddersfteld. 

Mr. H. Wallis Kew in writing, and the Royal Irish Academy 
in publishing ' A Synopsis of the False Scorpions of Britain and 
Ireland '* (' Proc. R. I. A.', Vol. XXIX., Section B., No. 2, 
pp. 38-64, Feb. 1st, 191 1), with figures of all the species, and 
at a price which makes it accessible to all, have rendered a 
distinct and much-needed service to the cause of natural 
history in the British Isles. Mr. Kew has spent years in the 
close and systematic study of these creatures, and there is no 
one more competent to produce the standard work on the 
subject he has so successfully made his own. He has been able 
to clear away all obscurities with regard to the British 
species, to correct or remove those wrongly named, and 
to add others to the British list, with the result that our 
information on the number, distribution and occurrence of the 
British Pseudoscorpions is for the first time placed on a firm 
and sure foundation. His book, based on the most recent 
classification, and provided with tables for identificatory 
purposes, affords a ready and certain means of determining 
the various kinds, while its availability, reliability and full- 
ness should induce many naturalists to take up the study of 
these animals, which in this country forms a small, compact, 
highly interesting and little known group of twenty-two species. 
As it is now nineteen years since the Rev. O. Pickard- 
Cambridge issued his ' Monograph of the Chernetidea ' (' Proc. 
Dorset Field Club,' Vol. XIII., pp. 199-231), it may be of 
interest and value to mark some features of the progress made 
since its publication, and incidentally to note the necessary 
additions to, and corrections in my keys to the British Pseudo- 
scorpions which appeared in ' The Naturalist,' December 1910. 
The following have been dropped out of the British list : — 
Obisium sylvaticum C. L. Koch, the solitary British example 
so named was unskilfully prepared and mounted as a 
microscopic object, making its correct identification 
very difficult ; it is really Roncns lubricus. 
Chelifer meridianus L. Koch, a solitary example from 
Dorset, wrongly determined by Simon to be this 
species ; now referred by Mr. Ellingsen, in spite of 
some differences, to Chernes cimicoides Fabr. 
Chelifer hermannii Leach, the single type specimen in 
the British Museum collection is a young example 
of Chelifer cancroid es Linn. 

* London: Williams and Norgate, 14 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, 
W.C. Price is. 6d. 



Plate XIII. 


Falconer : British Pseudoscorfiions. 193 

Chernes insuetus Camb., two examples obtained in 1880 
in Dover oil mills ; probably introduced with sub- 
stances used in the mills, and not British at all. 
Chernes phaleratus Sim., so named in error, being really 
referable to C. scorpioides Menu., since recognised as 
a British species. 
Seven species have been added to the British list, of which 
Chernes godfreyi Kew and ('. wideri an' no! dealt with in my 
Keys. The former belongs to the same section I. as C. nodosus 
Schr. and chyzeri Tom., with the body polished and a tactile 
hair on tibia IV., and the latter to the same II. as C. scor- 
piodes Herm. and C. dubius Camb., with the body unpolished, 
and tibia IV. without a tactile hair. 

I. — The broad upper protuberance of the trochanter of 
the palp showing on the posterior margin well distinguishes 
chyzeri from godfreyi and nodosa*, in which the same part is 
narrower and does not show on the posterior margin. In 
godfreyi the tactile hair on tarsus IV. is near the middle of 
the joint, and in nodosa s one-third from the base. 

II.— C, wideri, scorpioides and dubius have an isolated acces- 
sory tooth on the anterior margins of the forceps, and the 
ventral face of the maxillae granulate. The tactile hairs of 
abdominal segment XI. are absent in wideri, and present in the 
other two; scorpioides has a tactile hair on tarsus IV., which 
dubius does not possess. 

III. — The rest of the genus Chernes belongs to the same 
section as II. supra, but the anterior margins of the forceps 
are provided with a series of accessory teeth, and the ventral 
face of the maxillae is smooth or nearly so. C . cimicoides alone 
has no tactile hair on tarsus IV., and the palp of C. evrueas 
unlike that of C. panzeri is brilliantly glossy. 

Chelifer subruber Sim. is made the type of a new subgenus 
Wit/iius Kew. 
A. — Legs I. with articulation between the trochantin 

and femur wide and oblique . . Chelifer 

B. — Legs I. with this articulation rather narrow and 

nearly perpendicular .. .. .. . .Withius 

All members of these two genera are without accessory 
teeth on the margins of the forceps, and may thus be distin- 
guished from Chernes. 

Rouen s cambridgii L. Koch, having falces furnished at 
extremity of movable fang with a transparent cylindrical 
apophysis known as a galea, enters the genus Ideoroncus Balzan. 

Eighteenth Report of the Leicester Museum and Art Gallery 
includes the gratifying statement that the long projected extension and 
miction of the buildings have at last been commenced. Illustra- 
tions of the proposed additions are given. 

1 ,t 1 May 1. 




Anything which adds to the History of the Geological forma- 
tion of Pickering Vale is of interest to Yorkshire Geologists, 
and an account of the most recent boring in the Vale may not 
be out of place. 

In the Autumn of 1910 an attempt was made to obtain 
water at the Derwentdale Farm, the property of the Earl of 
Londesborough. The site of the boring is about ij miles south 
of the boring at the Irton Water Works, and thus became of 
considerable interest both from a geological and a hydro- 
geological standpoint. 

The great East and West Fault, passing through Ebberston 
and Brompton, on the south side of which the Kimeridge Clay 
had been proved to upwards of 300 feet, is not known east 
of Brompton, and this Derwentdale Boring promised to throw 
some light on the matter. The debris from the boring was care- 
fully preserved by Mr. R. S. Blaylock, the Earl's agent, and 
Mr. Hy. Preston, F.G.S., very kindly assisted in identifying and 
describing the specimens, besides twice visiting the boring during 
its progress. The full details of the boring are as follows : — 
Derwentdale Farm. 

In the Parish of Seamer. 6" Ordnance Sheet, No. 93. 
90 - oo ft. above Ordnance Datum. 

Details of Strata, etc., passed through in sinking a 3" Bore- 
hole for water supply in the Vale of Pickering. 





Dark blue warp 

Gravel, the larger stones (3" 
to 4") being variously 
coloured sandstones, 
Igneous rocks, etc., and a 
fragment of fossil ( Ostrea) 

Dark reddish brown sandy 

Sand and gravel, sand being 
very sharp angular quartz 

Liver coloured marl with 
very few grains of sand . . 

Soft dark brown silty warp 

Soft reddish grey ditto 

Soft light brown silt 

Very fine grey silt 

Dark brown fine silt 

Fine clayey silt, dark red- 
dish brown 




Total Depth. 
Ft. ins. 







5 — 







85 - 




106 — 


Millhouse: A new Boring in the Vale of Pickering. 195 

Thickness. Total Depth. 
Ft. ins. Ft. ins. 

j Hard pan, composed of sand 
Ancient | and gravel, with many 
Alluvium. . oolitic grains and frag- 
ments of oolitic, limestone 17 123 — 
I Ditto, with less sand grains 2 125 — 
Kimeridge clay . . . . 26 151 — 
Rock (upper (ale. Grit.) .. 14 165 
Note.— Water rose to the surface from the ' hard-pan ' at 
106-125 feet, but was afterwards excluded by the Borehole 
tube which finished at 153 feet. 

At 160 feet the overflow was at the rate of 4680 gallons per 
day. Two small fissures were then passed through, and the 
flow at 165 feet increased to 7538 gallons per day. 

The Irton Boring is north of Derwentdale, and its Section 
is given in the Geological Memoir for the District (No. 54, 55, 
new series), but for easy comparison we reproduce the Section 
as far as the Calcareous Rocks, immediately below the Kime- 
ridge Clay. 

Irton Borehole, Scarborough Waterworks. 
o inch sheet, No. 93. 96-00 ft. above O.D. 

Thickness. Depth. 

Ft. ins. It. ins. 

C] ay 16 16 

Gravel 17 4 18 10 

9 a Y 2 10 21 8 

Sand and gravel . . . . 06 22 2 

Marl with stones . . . . 10 23 2 

Alluvium. Sand and gravel . . . . 29 25 11 

Marl and stones . . . . 65 32 4 

Quicksand and gravel .. 11 9 44 1 

Strong dark warp . . . . 5 3 49 4 

Yellow marl and stones . . 29 52 1 

Kimeridge I Blue marl 39 55 10 

Clay. ( Blue bind (fossils) . . . . 40 2 96 o 

Stone bind . . . . . . 3 ] 99 3 

Upper Calcareous grit, etc. 
It will be noticed that in each case the Kimeridge Clay has 
been passed through and the Upper Calcareous Grit encountered 
immediately below. 

As a water supply the new boring has been very successful, 
there being a good supply from the rocks underlying the Kimer- 
idge Clay, which is under an artesian head, sufficient to force the 
water to all parts of the farm premises. 

The following is a summary of the geological information 
obtained from the boring : — 

(a) If the line of fault as shewn on the geological maps be 

continued eastward it must now be drawn south 

( >f Derwentdale, thus giving a great increase to 

1911 May 1. 

196 Mitthouse : .4 new Boring in the Vale of Pickering. 

the known area, in which a good supply of artesian 
water can be obtained. 

(b) The depths at which the Kimeridge Clay was struck 

in the two borings were 52 feet (Irton), and 125 
feet (Derwentdale) respectively, from which it is 
found that the ancient floor of Pickering Vale 
has an incline to the south of about 63 feet per 
mile between these two borings. 

(c) The thickness of clay at Derwentdale is less than at 

Irton (see sketch), hence the dip of the upper 
surface of the oolites beneath the Kimeridge 
Clay is less than the incline of the ancient valley 

2>et ure ?i>t dLaZt 
on. 9o 

floor, and the Kimeridge Clay would thin out 
southwards unless the fault were encountered. 
From this it is possible that the stored water of 
the oolites may get into the alluvium beds above 
and give the artesian pressure sometimes found 
from borings which have not reached the Kimer- 
idge Clay. 
</) A very careful examination of the Alluvium Beds of 
this boring was made, from which it seems 
possible to arrange them in three sections, viz : — 

(1) Recent Alluvium . . . . 40 feet. 

(2) Lake Silts 66 ., 

(_;) Ancient Alluvium . . . . 19 



We notice thai amongst the recent additions to the Norwich Museum 
are 'two eggs of an Eagle Owl laid in confinement.' 

' The shorter form of Belemnites giganteus —13 ft.' we notice is referred 
to on .1 recent Geological Society's programme. We wonder what length 
the longer form attains. 

We are glad to sec that the President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union; Mr. Alfred Harkcr, M.A., F.R.S., is to preside at the Section of 
Geology at the British Association Meeting at Portsmouth. 



I COMMENCED my study of Annelids in the year 1890, in the 
city of Carlisle. In May of that year I wrote to ' Nature ' on 
the subject. My letter was handed by the editor to Prof. 
Lankester, who in turn passed it on to Dr. Benham. On May 
28th, I received a request from Benham to send him any 
interesting forms which might be observed, and this Led to 
the interchange of letters on the Annelids of Cumberland, 
which laid the foundations for my first List of Earthworms 
of the North of England (see 'The Naturalist,' Jan., 1891, p. 13). 

The species identified for me by Dr. Benham included 
Lumbricus terrestris, L. ; Allolobophora longa, Ude ; Apor- 
rectodca chlorotica, Savigny ; Alio, turgida, Eisen ; L. rubettus, 
Hoffmeister ; L. castaneus, Eisen ; All tints tetraedrus, Savigny, 
and three other worms of exceptional interest. One of these, 
found in the stump of a tree, Dr. Benham mistook for Lumb- 
ricus castaneus, Sav. Tree worms were then unknown in 
England, and this was probably the first time that Dendro- 
baena arborea, Eisen, was ever found in this country. The 
next was Dendrobaena mammalis, Savigny (= Alio, cclticu, Rosa, 
of former lists), and the third Bi 'mast 'its Eiseni, Levinsen, both 
then new to Britain. 

Since that period I have from time to time added to the 
Cumberland list during my residence at Cockermouth, or on 
the occasion of more recent visits. Thus in 1899 I recorded 
Dendrobaena siibriibicunda, Eisen. It occurred high up on 
Skiddaw and near the top of Catbells. Octolasion lacteum, 
(Erley (= Alio, profuga Rosa) was found near the Art School 
and Station, Keswick, and in gardens at Cockermouth. 

Aided by a Government Grant for these researches, I have 
recently paid two visits to Carlisle and the Lake District, and 
have been able to extend our knowledge of the larger forms, 
and undertake some new researches into the distribution of the 
enchytraeids and waterworms. It has long been held that no 
worms are to be found in bogs. There is a certain amount of 
truth in the statement, but it is apt to mislead. I think it would 
be useless to examine the peat itself for worms, in situ ; but 
when the peat has been dug and stored, worms will gather 
around the heaps, and if there are bushes or brushwood about, 
whose foliage falls and decays in the bog, one may expect to find 
a rich annelid fauna among the vegetable debris. I visited 
Newton Moss, near Penrith, specially to study the question, 
and found myself amply rewarded. 

I may also draw attention to the fact that wherever I 
examined old, decaying tree trunks, the true tree-worm, Dendro- 
baena arborea Eisen, was to be found, together with its small 

191 1 May 1. 

198 Friend : Annelid Fauna of Cumberland. 

bottle-green cocoons ; while the heaps of road scrapings nearly 
always yielded the interesting form now known as Dendrobacna 
mammalis Savigny. I first found this worm near Langholm, 
in 1890. As it was new to Britain I paid a special return visit 
to the locality some time later, missed the worm and my train, 
and found myself on a Saturday evening cut off from the busy 
world, and unable to get another train till Monday. Now I 
can find the creature by almost any road-side if I simply turn 
up a suitable stone, or dig into a heap of scrapings. 

On Monday, February 6th, 1911, Dr. Aitken, of Carlisle, 
kindly took me in his motor to Monkhill, Great Orton, and other 
places in the vicinity, and enabled me to do a good morning's 
work. In addition to the species already mentioned I was able 
to add Octolasion gracile (Erley, to the Cumberland list. So 
far this species has only been found in two or three localities, 
and previous to Easter, 1910, was unknown in England. 

I found at Monkhill and elsewhere several enchytraeids and 
water-worms, about which I hope to give details later. In 
March I went to Penrith, specially to visit Newton and Broug- 
ham. The weather was intensely cold, but as this is the season 
of the year when a number of the smaller worms are adult it 
was important to get the work done. The splendid condition 
of the roads, hedgerows, and fields in this district made it diffi- 
cult for me at first to find suitable hunting grounds. In time, 
however, I came. across stumps of trees, road scrapings, manure 
heaps, and other breeding places, and found that the usual 
earthworms were abundant. In addition to the three well- 
known forms of Lumbricus, viz. : L. terrestris, L. rubellus, and 
L. castaneus, I found some fine adults of L. festivus Savigny 
(=L. rubescens Friend), which is a new addition to our lists for 
this county. L. festivus is about the size of L. rubellus, but on 
the fifteenth segment there are prominent papillae, like those 
found on the common earthworm. I found the worm many 
years ago in Yorkshire and described it as new to science, under 
the name of rubescens, but it had doubtless already been des- 
cribed half-a-century earlier and lost to sight. 

Going one day to Brougham Castle, I found another worm 
new to the district. A fine specimen of Octolasion cyaneum 
Savigny (= Allolobophora studiosa Rosa), was leisurely pro- 
ceeding across the road in the mid-day sunshine when it fell 
into my trap. My work among the smaller annelids resulted 
in some valuable finds, but as it will need a special article to 
deal with this branch I will close the present paper with a list 
of those species of Lumbricidcc which are at present known to 
occur in Cumberland with such data as may be of interest. 
New records are denoted by an asterisk. 

I. Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus. First recorded in 1890 
from gardens in Carlisle. 


Friend : Annelid Fauna of Cumberland. 199 

2. Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister. Found first by the 
Calder, near Dalston, in 1890. Near the top of the Beacon, 
Penrith, 1911. 

3. Lumbricus castaneus Savigny. Under droppings in 
fields at Dalston, and from the top of Cross Fell, 1890. 

4*. Lumbricus festivus Savigny. Between Penrith and 
Newton Reigny, March 1911. 

5. Allolobophora longa Ude. Meadows by the Eden, Car- 
lisle, 1890. Keswick and Portinscale, 1899. Near Newton, 1911. 

6. Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny, (including the two 
forms turgida Eisen, and trapezoides Duges). By the Eden, 
Carlisle, 1890. By a stream on the north side of Catbells, 1899. 

7. Aporrectodea chlorotica Savigny. In 1890 found it at 
Monkhill, Carlisle, and elsewhere. Since found in almost every 
part of the county. A very variable worm ; one of the forms, 
found by the lake at Bassenthwaite, being specially interesting. 

8. Eisenia foetida Savigny. The Brandling, first recorded 
in 1890 for Carlisle. Found everywhere in rotting manure. 
Etterby, 1911. 

9*. Eisenia rosea Savigny (= Allolobophora mucosa Eisen). 
Sent to Dr. Benham in 1890 from Kendal, but apparently not 
reported previously for Cumberland. Between Penrith and 
Newton, March 1911. 

10*. Dendrobaena mammalis Savigny { = D. celtica Rosa). 
First discovered in Great Britain near Langholm, in 1890, but 
now found in road scrapings at Carlisle, Penrith, and elsewhere. 

11. Dendrobaena subrubicunda Eisen. Catbells and Skid- 
daw, April 1899. 

12*. Dendrobaena arborea Eisen. Old tree stump near 
Carlisle, 1890, but confused with Lumbricus castaneus. Tree 
stumps at Orton, February, and Newton Reigny, March 1911. 

13. Bimastus Eiseni Levinsen. First British record, 1890. 
Found by the Calder at Cummersdale, and identified b}^ Dr. 
Benham, who wrote on August 2nd, 1890, that among my 
gleanings was ' One quite small red worm, similar in colour to 
L. rubellus.' This is Lumbricus (now called Bimastus) Eiseni, 
' new to Britain.' (See ' The Naturalist,' January 1891, p. 14). 

14*. Octolasion cyaneum Savigny (= Allolobophora studio sa 
Rosa). On the road near Brougham Castle, March 191 1. 

15. Octolasion lacteum (Erley (= Allolobophora profuga, 
Rosa). Keswick and Cockermouth, April 1899. 

16* Octolasion gracile (Erley. First record Caldewlees, near 
Carlisle, 1911. 

17. Allurus tetraedrus Savigny. By the Calder, 1890. In 
the sandy bottom of the stream I found also a rich golden 
variety (var. luteus Friend), which is rarely found elsewhere in 
Great Britain. I obtained a specimen once in Yorkshire, and 
a further example reached me recently from the Hague. 

191 1 May 1. 


C. F. GEORGE, M.R.C.S., 

In some of my former papers on ' Some British Earthmites,' 
figures of the ' crista ' (sometimes erroneously called the 
' sternite ') were given, whilst in others, there is no figure, and 
in others it is not mentioned. I have, however, found that 
this organ is a most important one, and as it remarkably varies 
in figure, often to an extraordinary extent, it may prove of great 

use in determining species. I have good reasons for thinking 
that it is present in all cases, though in some it is difficult to 
see, except by careful dissection. I have, however, received 
from Mr. Soar, figures of such as I have been able to send to 
him. A very casual examination of Mr. Soar's figures will 
shew how very varied in structure this organ is. 

Fig. a is the crista of Trombidium fidiginosum. It was 
figured by Professor Sig Thor, in his ' Forste undersogelse af 
Norges Rhyncholophidae ' in 1900, also by Professor Ivan 
Tragardh, in his ' Results of the Swedish Zoological Expedition 
in Egypt and the White Nile in 1901.' I have examined 
several specimens of this mite, some from Putney, others from 


George: Notes on the Crista of some British Earth mites. 201 

Scotland, and one from Gloucestershire, and find that the 
variation in different specimens is very slight. 

Figs, b and c are dissections from Trombidium holoseri- 
cciim. This mite, though one of our largest species, has 
remarkably small crista, not mentioned or figured by me in 
the description of it on page 333 of ' The Naturalist ' 
for September 1908. It is difficult to see in the unmounted 
mite in consequence of the very thick coating of long-feathered 
hairs in the skin covering it, as well as the presence of other 
structures. Moreover, it is bent like a bow, and difficult to 
fix in a position like that which it has in the living mite, b is a 
front view, and c is a view partly on its side. It may be to 
some extent seen in mounted specimens which have been 
bleached and flattened. 

Fig. d is the crista of Ottonia bullata. This pretty little mite 
was figured and described in ' The Naturalist ' for March 1909, 
page 88, and Plate IV. 

Fig. c is the crista of Rhyncolophus communis. Here we 
find a distinct and rather large capitulum. The mite from 
which this was taken is figured on page 428 of ' The Naturalist ' 
for December 19 10. The crista can be seen in the unmounted 

Fig. /, the crista of Ottonia valga. This mite and its crista 
is figured in ' The Naturalist,' December 1909, plate XVIII. 

Fi3. g, crista of Ottonia evansii, figured loc. cit., plate X., 
May 1909. 

Fig. h, crista of Johnstoniana errans. The mite is figured 
loc. cit., August, 1909. 

Fig. /, crista of Ottonia bicolar. Loc. cit., plate II., Feb., 

Fig. k, crista of Ritteria hirsutus. Loc. cit., plate X., April, 

On plate XXXIX. of ' The Naturalist ' for October, 1907, 
is a figure of the crista of Eatoniana plumifer, fig. 12. Here the 
capitulum is not ball-shaped, but conical. I have also seen the 
crista in Ritteria nemorum, R. mantonensis, Ottonia clavata, 
0. conifera and 0. ramosa. I have also a few mounted speci- 
mens which I am not able to describe for want of recent examples. 
Besides these, there must be many species I have not met with. 
Possibly some younger acarologists will continue the work, and 
record their investigations in ' The Naturalist.' 

Fig. i is the palpus of a Trombidium, with the claw double ; 
the only time I have found this to be the case in holosericcum. 

Prof. T. Rupert Jones, whose death is announced at the age of 91, 
was well known as a geologist half a century ago, and at different times 
has occupied prominent positions in various scientific societies. He was 
an authority on the Entomostraca and Estheridae. 
191 1 May 1. 



Principles of Chemical Geology, by J. V. Elsden ; pp. viii. + 222 ; 
London : Whittaker & Co., 1910. 

Igneous Rocks, vol. i., by J. P. Iddings ; pp. xi. f 464 ; New York : 
Wiley & Sons, 1909. 

An Introduction to Petrology, by F. P. Mennell ; 2nd edition, pp. vii.-f 
204 ; London : Gerrards, Limited, 1910. 

The Recognition of Minerals, by C. G. Moor; pp. viL+231 ; Mining 
Journal, no date. 

It is very generally recognised that the comparatively new science of 
Physical Chemistry has many and important applications to the problems 
of Geology, and especially of Petrology. That no very great progress has 
yet been made on these lines is due to the inherent complexity of the 
operations of Nature as compared with those of the laboratory, but partly 
also to another cause. The chemist has not, as a rule, sufficient acquaint- 
ance with geological questions to apply his knowledge ; while the geolog- 
ist is seldom well versed in a special branch of chemistry which is of 
recent and rapid growth. We are the more indebted to Dr. Elsden, who, 
combining both qualifications, has given in the volume before us the 
desired connecting link. According to the sub-title of the book, it is 
' a review of the application of the Equilibrium Theory to Geological 
Problems.' In successive chapters he considers equilibrium in reference 
to fusion, viscosity, diffusion, surface-tension, vapour-pressure, poly- 
morphism, solution, eutectics, and solid solution. Each chapter is full 
of useful matter, and furnished with copious references. If we have any 
criticism to make, it is that, in the effort to compress so much into a small 
compass, the treatment becomes in some places rather fragmentary and 
tantalizing. Nevertheless, the book will be heartily welcomed by the 

Professor Iddings' volume, uniform with his ' Rock Minerals ' (1906), 
must rank as the best and fullest account of the characters of igneous 
rocks hitherto offered to the English reader. The earlier chapters deal 
with the chemistry of the subject. Chapter I. gives a very clear and useful 
view of the chemical composition of igneous rocks, with a comparison of 
various devices for the graphical presentation of rock-analyses. Chapter 
II., which treats of the chemical composition of the constituent minerals, 
might perhaps be abridged with advantage, and more space given to the 
important chapters which follow : viz., those devoted to the chemistry 
and physics of rock-magmas in the light of accepted principles. Of special 
value is Chapter VI., on the textures of igneous rocks, illustrated by numer- 
ous well-chosen figures. Next comes a discussion of magmatic differentia- 
tion, which will be read with interest. Then, after a rather brief account 
of the modes of occurrence of igneous rocks, we come to the second part 
of the book, dealing with classification and nomenclature. This consists 
of three chapters. The first is a historical review ; the second groups 
the more important igneous rocks in a ' qualitative ' mineralogical system ; 
and the third is an exposition of the ' Quantitative Classification,' of which 
the author is joint-creator. Concerning the value of this, we have our 
own opinion, which cannot be set forth in this place. Suffice it to say 
that we shall await with lively curiosity the appearance of volume II., 
in which the author must face the task of a systematic account of igneous 
rocks in terms of the new classification. 

The student of petrology has the choice of numerous text-books which 
have appeared in Germany, France, and England. Mr. Mennell's book 
is written from Bulawayo, and many of the illustrations are drawn from 
South African sources. Beginning with the collection of specimens and 
the preparation of thin slices, the author goes on to give a concise account 
of the characters of crystallized minerals. The crystallographic part is 
too brief to be of much service ; but the use of optical properties in dis- 
criminating the common rock-forming minerals is clearly set forth, and 


Some recent ivorks on Petrology and Mineralogy. 203 

the accounts of the specific minerals are sufficient for the purpose in view. 
Then follow chapters dealing with the constitution and structure of the 
leading types of igneous rocks, grouped under four heads : acid, inter- 
mediate, basic, and ultrabasic. Sedimentary rocks and metamorphism 
are in like manner discussed briefly but clearly. We think the author 
might wisely have limited the scope of the book to this practical side of the 
subject ; for his excursions into the more speculative region are much too 
brief to do justice to the large questions which are here touched. The 
attempt to prove that granites are made from the melting up of sediments 
is likely to puzzle the student, as it does the reviewer, and the statement 
that basic rocks are the most fusible should not be made without some 
attempts to reconcile it with obviously conflicting facts. 

.Mr. Moor tells us that the object of his book is ' merely to provide an 
elementary guide to the recognition of the minerals that possess commercial 
value ... In order that an unknown mineral or stone may be quickly 
identified, all those of similar appearance are classified into groups, without 
reference to their composition. Thus all black minerals appear in a group 
by themselves, all red ones form another group, all minerals having a 
metallic appearance are grouped together, and so on.' This seems to 
offer the prospector, not a guide to the knowledge of minerals, but a cheap 
substitute for such knowledge. It is true that the author warns him against 
forming any final judgment ' until confirmatory tests have been applied ' ; 
viz., blowpipe tests, specific gravity determinations, and the like. We 
stronglv incline to believe that, if the novice follows this very necessary 
counsel, his experience will in the end cost him at least as much labour 
as would a proper training on systematic lines. In addition to its main 
subject, the book includes a general account of mineral deposits by Mr. 
D. A. MacAlister and sundry appendices. It is printed only on one side 
of the paper, presumably to allow for manuscript notes. — A.H. 

: o : 

Bacon is Alive ! being a reply to Sir Edwin Durning-Lawrence's 
' Bacon is Shakespeare.' By Thomas Sheppard (Hull : A. Brown & Sons, 
46 pp., 1/-) is perhaps not of particular natural history interest, beyond 
the fact that the author ' proves ' (according to Sir Edwin's methods), that 
Bacon wrote ' Gent's History of Hull,' and Sheppard 's ' Geological Ram- 
bles in East Yorkshire.' Perhaps some idea of the nature of the pamphlet, 
(which was the presidential address to the Hull Shakespeare Society) 
can be gathered from Sir Edwin's criticism thereon, viz. : ' Sir Edwin 
Durning-Lawrence regrets that the Curator has so degraded the Hull 
Museum and disgraced himself ! 

Proceedings of the Sheffield Naturalists' Club, Volume I., 1910, 146 + 
XIV. pp., 1910, 2/- net. 

Although the Sheffield Society has been in existence forty years, it 
has not hitherto published anything of a tangible nature. The present 
Proceedings certainly appear substantial, and contain the various natural 
history, etc., contributions which were prepared for the Handbook for the 
British Association at Sheffield, the only difference being that they are 
now put together and re-paged. These contributions are by Messrs. 
Howarth, Hobson, Johns, Bradshaw, Snelgrove, Gibbs, Stiles, Denny, 
Patten, Allen, Roebuck, Brady, Hardy, Evans and Brown, and certainly 
most appropriately form a first volume for the Sheffield Society ; a good 
foundation, in fact, upon which to build further work. The excellent 
maps which appeared in the Handbook are also reproduced here. It seems 
a pit}' that whilst these valuable articles were being reprinted, a larger 
size of paper was not used; as it is the Proceedings are only 7 -J x 5 inches, 
instead of ordinary 8vo size, and presumably future volumes will have to 
correspond. The title, also, should have been printed along the back ; 
as it is, it is possible, when on the shelves, to be mistaken for an art gallery 
catalogue or a prayer-book. Bibliographers should note that the date 
lyio on the cover really ought to be 191 1. 

191 1 May 1. 



We are glad to find that after the glut of third or fourth-rate Natural 
History Books which occurred soon after the revival of nature study a 
few years ago, the publishers are at last exercising more care in the publi- 
cation of works on natural science. It is doubtless the result of the sur- 
vival of the fittest ; the weak ones long since having gone to the wall. 
But a few years ago anyone with a field glass and a fountain pen, so long as 
lie knew a hawk from a handsaw, felt qualified to write books, and strange 
to say, was able to find publishers to put them on the market. Now, as 
was inevitable, this has changed, and we have good books, by good men, pub- 
lished by good houses. Many such are on our tables. 

Probably most readers of ' The Naturalist ' who, like the writer, 
are in the autumn of their lives, will look back with pleasure upon the days 
when Wood's Popular Natural History was the book on the subject, when 
all that seemed knowable of beast, bird, reptile, fish, or insect, was to be 
found within its covers. Since then, notwithstanding the thousands of 
books that have been placed upon the market, none seem to have quite 
filled the place of Wood. Several have tried, certainly. At last we feel 
that a volume has appeared that will take its place, and will appeal with 
equal fascination to the new generation of young naturalists. This is a 
New Illustrated Natural History of the World, by E. Protheroe, F.Z.S. 
(564 pp., 7/6 : G. Routledge & Sons, Ltd.). It is on Wood's well-known 
successful plan, but has the advantage of better illustrations ; better 
descriptions of a greater number of species, and is much better produced. 
Mr. Protheroe handles the various natural orders with equal success, and 
in selecting representative mammals, birds, reptiles, fishes, insects, corals, 
sponges, etc., has given evidence of great care. In addition to the numer- 
ous illustrations from photographs, etc., there are many good coloured 
plates. In the future when we are asked to recommend a sound general 
natural history, we shall have no hesitation in saying ' Protheroe.' 

With Nature and a Camera, by R. and C. Kearton (368 pp., Cassell & Co., 
5/-) has been issued once more, and there is therefore good reason for calling 
the present the ' popular ' edition, and at this price it is deservedly so. 

Many of our readers will doubtless have already seen the volume in one 
or other of the many previous editions ; if not, the present is a good 
opportunity of getting the volume cheaply. There are three chapters on 
St. Kilda, one on gamekeepers, four on birds, one on duck decoying, one 
on ' people we have met,' and one on ' our methods of photography,' which 
we like the least, as we certainly think that many, if not most of the 
photographs could have been taken without the extraordinary trials and 
hardships which we doubt not were entailed. We cannot quite see the 
object of two pages being occupied by a ' fac simile of portion of a letter 
received by the author per St. Kilda Mailboat,' unless it is to let us see 
the reference to ' the big stone that nearly killed Cherry.' We have 
heard of that Cherry stone before. 

Convergence in Evolution, by A. Willey, F.R.S., etc. (177 pp., John 
Murray, 7/6 net). 

Dr. Willey has travelled much, and has made many suggestive 
observations whilst on his travels. Several of these are included in the 
present volume, though we take it this work is largely a reply to Dr. 
W. H. Gaskell's recent ' earthquake hypothesis,' regarding the origin 
of the Vertebrates, which has already been referred to in this journal. 
Dr. Willey's contribution is well worthy of careful perusal and study. 
An idea of the variety of the subjects dealt with can be gathered from the 
following heads to chapters : - -The Art of Morphology ; Physiological 
Classification ; Exposed and Concealed Animals ; Free and Fixed Animals; 
Mimicry and Homoplasy ; Divergence and Parallelism ; Special Con- 
vergence, Habitudes and Attitudes ; The Ways of Breathing ; and Con- 
vergence in minute structures. Dr. Willey's book, inter alia, contains 
many observations, some decided lv remarkable ; which we do not remem- 
ber having seen recorded previously. 

New Natural History Books. 205 

Lives of the Fur Folk, by M. D. Haviland (234 pp., Longmans, Green & 
Co., 15 ;'-) is a scries of stories of ' Redpad the Fox,' ' Fluff-button the 
Rabbit,' ' Grimalkin the Cat,' and ' Stubbs the Badger.' The stories are 
well told, and are evidently by one who is thoroughly familiar with the 
woods and fields where these animals are at home. There is a strong 
flavour of the game-keeper and poacher, and now and then the sporting 
instinct tells, as for example in the story of the fighl between a dog and 
a badger. The volume is brightened by numerous head pieces, tail pieces, 
and ' side ' pieces. 

Of Distinguished Animals, by H. P. Robinson (234 pp., W. I [einemann, 6 
net! is largely a reprint of a series of articles which appeared in The Times 
during [909, under the title of ' Studies in the Zoological Garden.' They 
are much more useful and get-at-able in their present form. The author 
deals with lions, tigers, bears, wolves, dogs, elephants, rhinoceroses, and 
hippopotami, buffaloes, gorillas, fnonkeys, crocodiles, snakes, eagles, owls, 
and ostriches. The various stories are pleasantly written and incidentally 
contain much useful information. The volume is greatly improved 1>\ 
the series of excellent reproductions of very line photographs. These are 
amongst the best *'e have seen recently. Some are very quaint; the 
Monkey-eating Eagle has a particularly dissipated appearance! 

The Open Baok of Nature, by the Rev. C. A. Hall (268 pp., A. & C. 
Black. 3 6 net). 

Tiie author of this comprehensive ' Introduction to Nature Study ' was 
at one time statione 1 in a prominent Yorkshire city, and whilst there, 
gave evidence of his broadmindedness. In the present work he ' gives 
the reader credit for ingelligence and earnestness. He does not think 
that youngsters like to be spoken to in namby-pamby terms, and treated as 
babies.' And he stands for thoroughness. The book is largclv devoted 
to geology and botany, that part relating to fossils being almost an elemen- 
tary text-book on the subject ; and in parts is certainly ' text-booky.' 
Pond life, photography, collectin«, and other items likely to be oi 
interest to young readers are also dealt with. There are (pate a num- 
ber of illustrations, including several coloured plate-; though they are 
not ' classified ' quite so well as the author insists that fossils, etc., should 
be. For instance, plate XVIII. and XIX. are both on the same piece of 
paper ; the first is a photograph of the Red Campion ; the second is a 
coloured plate of the Moorhen and young, and facing it are figures of 
Paradoxides Davidis sic and Conocoryphe Lyelli, trilobites of the Cam- 
brian age. Generally speaking, the volume is one which will appeal to 
young naturalists, and its author certainly does not lack enthusiasm. 
In the first portion of the first paragraph on page 1, there are no fewer 
than thirteen capital I's. 

Hunting in British East Africa, by P. C. Madeira 1304 pp., J. P. Lippin- 
cott Co., Philadelphia and London, 21 - net). This fine volume is ' dedi- 
cated to a girl and two boys who stayed at home, and for whom the 
story was written ' ; their parents, Mr. and Mrs. Madeira, having had a 
successful hunting expedition in British East Africa. The author nan. 
not only what he did whilst in the bush-country, but gives an entertaining 
account of the journey there and back. This is made much more enter- 
taining by the reproduction of the fine series of photographs, nearlv all 
of which are his own, and vary from ' An Aden water-cart ' to ' Mrs. 
Madeira sat on a dead rhino.' Of course the main part of the book deals 
with the big game, and judging from the extraordinary numbers of fine 
trophies figured, the author had a <jory time. Mr. F. C. Selous gives a 
' foreword ' in which he justly commends Mr. Madeira's ' plain unvar 
nished tale, modestly and interestingly tol 1.' .Mr. Selous also records his 
admiration for Mrs. Madeira, though lie has not met her. Unfortunately 
the photographs of the lady are not as successful as we could have wished. 
There are two useful maps in a pocket at the end of tiie volume. 

ign May 1 

206 New Natural History Books. 

The Age of Mammals in Europe, Asia, and North America, by H. F. 
Osbourn (635 pp., The MacMillan Co., 18/6 net). This volume contains ' The 
Harris Lectures, delivered at North-western University,' and is dedicated 
to Huxley and Balfour, the author's British teachers, the influence of 
whom is apparant throughout the work. In an admirable Introduction 
Prof. Osbourn refers to the Rise in Palaeontology, Darwin's Influence, the 
Influence of American Discovery, the Origin of Mammals, the geographic 
or space distribution of mammals, their geologic or time distribution, 
fossils, zones, etc. He then deals in detail with the various geological 
discoveries that have been made, in their order, and by the aid of numerous 
maps, diagrams, photographs, and restorations, makes one of the most 
comprehensive and scholarly contributions to palaeontology that we have 
seen. The work is the result of many years' study on the comparison of 
the new and old world life ; and many, besides geologists and zoologists, 
will find ' The Age of Mammals ' of value. The work certainly deals with 
the subject most thoroughly, and will be the text-book thereon for many 
years to come. 

The Book of Migratory Birds met with on Holy Island and the Northum- 
berland Coast, to which is added descriptive accounts of Wild Fowling 
on the Mud Flats, with notes on the General Natural History of this 
district, by W. Halliday (258 pp. London : John Ouseley, Ltd. 5/- net). 
We suppose there is some good purpose served in printing this book, 
but at present we have failed to see it. It is not a book of migratory 
birds ; it has but little, and certainly nothing new, on the question of 
migration ; and if it has a good sale, we opine it will be due to its somewhat 
misleading title. Its subtitle, too, is also wrong, unless we are very 
much mistaken, as surely there are no Cassowaries and Ostriches and 
Ostrich farms on Holy Island ? And what can the ghastly representation 
of ' St. Cuthbert on Holy Island being offered the Bishopric of Hexham 
have to do with the migration of birds, unless it is that his face (if repre- 
sented aright) was the cause of the birds' first migration from holy Holy 
Island ? The illustrations, too, are about on a par ; the photo of the 
' Glimmers ' at Flamborough (though Flamborough is not referred to) and of 
nests and eggs of birds from all over — anywhere almost but Holy Island, 
can have little bearing upon either migration or Holy Island. And any- 
one can tell that the angelic, not to say holy expression on the Great Crested 
Grebe (facing page 135), stamps it as a fraud. The author has been 
fortunate in getting the permission of different writers to reprint their 
papers on quails on Hatfield Chase, Yorkshire ; Marking of Woodcock, 
•etc., but what possible connection can these have with either migratory 
birds or Holy Island ? and the chapter on Seal Hunting in Greenland has 
surely been inserted as a joke. The ' arrangement ' of the book (if we 
can flatter it by using that word), is extraordinary. We certainly think 
that both author and publishers would have been well advised if they had 
allowed some capable ornithologist to go through the MSS. before publica- 
tion ; though possibly had this been done, the work would never have 
seen the light. A ' Book of Migratory Birds,' it is not, but a scrap-book 
of miscellaneous -notes, chiefly of the birdy, birdy, talky, talky type, 
it may be we can only wonder at the possible nature of the ' valuable help ' 
that has been given by the various gentlemen enumerated in the Preface, 
and we hope they are satisfied with the result. However, the author 
himself tells us that ' man is but mortal, and his best work is oft-times a 
sorry attempt.' Amen. 

How to Know the Trees, by Henry Irving (Cassell & Co., 180 pp., 3/6 
net) is of a very useful type, and the outstanding feature of this 
book is the series of excellent photographs of the trees and their various 
parts, by Mr. Irving, who has earned a good reputation for his botanical 
photographs. It will prove a useful guide to beginners anxious to identify 
the various trees in the field. 



The Huddersfield Naturalist and Photographic Society's Annual Report, 

1909-10, is to hand, and contains brief local natural history notes by 
Messrs. C. Mosley, E. Fisher, W. E. L. Wattam, and J. W. H. Johnson We 
observe that of one lecturer it is stated ' his slides were very good! ' 

The Proceedings of the Liverpool Naturalists' Field Club for the year 
1910 contains a detailed report of the field excursions ; the records, etc., 
being chiefly botanical. A photograph of the Botanical Referee, Mr. J. W. 
Ellis, appears as frontispiece. This Club has been in existence half a 

In Vol. XV., part 3, of the Thoresby Society's Miscellanea, Mr. E Kitson 

Clark has a paper on Leeds in Pre-historic Times. The author admits there 
is not much to be said on the subject, and his paper is illustrated by a 
photograph on which are figures of some ' pre-historic ' implements. Some 
of these are certainly not implements at all, others are forgeries, and some 
are from Bridlington. Mr. Kidston Clark refers to the writer of a Hull 
Museum Publication on Forgeries and Counterfeit Antiquities, perhaps 
pardonably, as /. Sheppard ! 

The Transactions of the Perthshire Society of Natural Science, Vol. V., 
Pt. 2, 1909-10, contain 'Some Lessons from the Darwin Centenary,' by 
Dr. J. H. Lyell ; ' Coleoptera of Kinnoull Hill,' by Mr. W. E. Sharp ; 
' Some Ectoparasites in the Museum, Perth ' [these are all dead !], by Br. 
J. Waterston ; ' Perthshire Diptera,' by Mr. A. E. J. Carter; ' David 
Douglas [of] Scone, botanist, etc.," by Mr. R. Dow ; 'Our Alpine Flora,' 
by the President (Mr. W. Barclay). There are also four valuable coloured 
maps of Perthshire, viz. : Orographical, Drift, Solid Geology, and Vegetation. 

The 34th and 35th Quarterly Records of the Hull Museum (Publications 
Xos. 74 and 76) are to hand. (A. Brown & Sons, one penny each). In 
addition to the ordinary list of additions, there are illustrated articles fin 
Xo. 74) on ' An Old Jewel Casket from a Holderness Village,' ' Early Hum- 
ber Steamships,' ' Staffordshire Pottery Figure of a Slave,' ' Hull Glass,' 
' Wild Flowers,' and ' Neolithic Workshops near Bridlington ' ; and (No. 
76) ' A Giant Crab,' ' Holderness Neolithic Axes,' ' Old Hull Waterpipes,' 
* The Kiwi,' ' Scunthorpe Cinerary Urns,' ' Early Hull and London Ships,' 1 
etc., and a report of the opening of the Natural History Extension of the 

The Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (Vol. XXIX., Section B, 
No. 2. London : Williams cY Norgate, 1 6) are devoted to ' A Synopsis of 
the False-Scorpions of Britain and Ireland,' by our contributor Air. H.Wallis 
Kew. This is a work that has long been required by the students of the 
Arachnid a'. There is a careful and critical description of the various 
species of the British False-Scorpions, which are represented on three 
plates. With these excellent figures it should not now be a difficult 
matter to identify the various species. Formerly it required reference 
to an extensive literature before identification" could be certain.^ We 
should like to congratulate Mr. Wallis Kew on this admirable piece of 

The Annual Report of the Manchester Microscopical Society for 1909 
has recently been issued (140 pp., 1 6), and is further proof of this energetic 
society's activity. The list of additions to the society's library and col- 
lection is particularly gratifying. The volume contains Prof. J.'Hickson's 
presidential address on ' The Origin of Sex ' ; and papers on ' The Red 
Seaweeds,' by Mr. L. W. Waechter ; ' The Frog,' by Mr. J. W. Dunkerley ■ 
' The Scab Diseases of Potatoes,' by Mr. T. G. B. Osbourn ; ' Evolution 
of Plants,' by Mr. C. Lambert ; ' The Ultra-Microscope and Dark Ground 
Illumination,' by Prof. W. W. IT. Gee ; ' Charles Darwin : his Life and 
Work,' by Mr. H. G. W'illis ; and ' A Few Notes on Glycerin,' by .Air. C 
Turner. Several of the papers are illustrated. There is also a report of 
the Society's rambles. 

191 1 May 1. 



Prof. Mcintosh has a valuable paper on ' The Toothed Whales,' in The 
Zoologist for March. 

Mr. V. H. Blackmail has a paper on ' Nucleus and Heredity ' in The 
New Phytologist for March. 

With La Feuille des jeunes Naturalistes (April-May, 191 1), are six 
plates with excellent representations of various species of Li mac idee and 

A report on ' The 1909 Irruption of the Crossbill as observed in the 
British Isles,' by Messrs H. F. Witherby and C. J. Alexander, appears in 
British Birds for April. 

The parts of the Harmswovth Natural History recently published 
are devoted to the birds, and are particularly well illustrated, both In- 
coloured plates and figures in the text. 

We regret to notice the record of the death, in South Africa, of Mr. 
O. C. Silverlock, formerly an assistant master at the Heath Grammar 
School, Halifax, and a member of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. Mr. 
Silverlock was on the Zambesi in a canoe, and was capsized by a hippopo- 
tamus and drowned. 

We are glad to see Part III. of S. S. Buckman's Yorkshire Type Am- 
monites ' (W. Wesley & Sons, 3/6). It includes admirable plates with 
illustrations of Ammonites birdi, depressus, figulinus, omissus, aureolus, 
>ytex, and turriculatus, with descriptive letterpress. Mr. Buckman is 
evidently doing this work conscientiously. 

In the April Entomologist'* Monthly Magazine, Mr. G. H. Verrall gives 
' Another Hundred New British Species of Diptera.' This is merely a 
list of names, adjoining some of which are ' n. sp.' In the same journal 
Messrs. C. Davies Sherborn and J. H. Durrant give a bibliographical 
' Note on John Curtis's British Entomology.' 

Even Punch is being influenced by the growth of the Nature Study 
movement, and occasionally has a natural history item. The following is 
from No. 3633 of that journal, under the heading, 'A Pretty Compliment ' : — 
' A correspondent informs us that at the last scientific meeting of the 
Zoological Society, Mr. Oldneld Thomas described a collection of mammals 
from Eastern Asia, and stated that, in recognition of the help given by 
the Duke of Bedford in forming this collection, he proposed to name a 
new species of Striped Shrew after the Duchess.' 

In Knowledge (Xo. 511), reference is made to Dr. Dammermann's 
recent investigation concerning the saccus vascidosus, a dependence of the 
brain peculiar to fishes. A remarkable downgrowth or infundibulum from 
the tweeh-brain or region of the optic thalami bears the very interesting 
pituitary body, but it also gives off a posterior diverticulum called the 
sact 11* vasculosus. In many fishes this lies, along with the pituitary body, 
in a pit of the skull called the sella tunica. We are not surprised to learn 
that Dr. Dammermann proposes to call this a ' Benthic ' or Depth Organ. 

The following rather tall story is given by a correspondent in a recent 
issue of Nature : — A fox in Cambridge was seen by a farmer to be collect- 
ing the sheep's wool caught in the thorns and branches. ' When he had 
gathered a Large bunch, he went down to a pool at the junction of two 
streams, and, turning round, backed slowly brush first into the water, 
until he was all submerged except his nose and the bunch of wool which 
he held in his mouth. He remained thus for a short time, and then let 

■il the wool, which floated away; then he came out, shook himself, 
and ran off.' The wool was secured, and found to be full of fleas, which 
had gradually crept up the fox's body and head to prevent themselves 
from drowning.' We think the farmer might have presented the fox with 
a small-tooth comb. 


JUNE, 1911. 

No. 653 

(No. 431 of ourrtnt aeries). 




T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot. 

The Museums, Hull ; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 




Contents : — 

Notes and Comments: — The Vandalism of Collectors ; The Value of Collections; Bradford 
Philosophical Society ; The Wonders of Filey 

A new species of Unio from the Yorkshire Estuarine Series ; with Notes on other 
forms (Illustrated)— J. Wilfrid Jackson, F.G.S 

A Century's Changes in the Sheffield District Flora— C. F. Innocent 

The Chemistry of some Common Plants — P. Q. Kcegan, LL.D 

Extinct Animals of East Yorkshire— T. Sheppavd, F.G.S. .F.R.G.S., F.S.. 4 .(Scot.) 

Some Mosses new to the West Riding, etc, — C. A . Chcetham 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Harewood Park— T. S. 

Field Notes 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 

Northern News 

Plate XIV. 





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This, which forms the 2nd Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, is perhaps the m> 
complete work of the kind ever issued for any district, including detailed and full records of 1044 Phane 

fams and Vascular Cryptogams, 11 Characeas, 348 Mosses, 108 Hepatics, 258 Lichens, 1009 Fungi, and : 
reshwater Algae, making a total of 3160 species. 

READY SHORTLY: Supplement to The Flora of West Yorkshire, by F. Arnold Lees, M.R C.S 

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THE NATURALIST. A Monthly Illustrated Journal of Natural History for the North of England. Editi 
by T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S. , Museum, Hull; and T. W. WOODHEAD, F.L.S., Technical Colle.q 
Huddersrield ; with the assistance as referees in Special Departments of J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S 
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Under this title .Air. S. L. Bensusan writes in Cassell's 
Magazine for May, and opines that ' it is not altogether for 
the good of the world at large that nature study has developed 
so rapidly of late.' Whilst there is much in the article with 
which all naturalists will agree, we are certainly of the opinion 
that the increased interest now being taken in natural history 
is beneficial in many ways. ' Collecting,' as such, is not now- 
encouraged, and never before have the mammals, birds, insects 
and plants been so well protected as they are to-day. In- 
fluential Societies, land-owners, the police, and last, but by 
no means least, the teachers in our schools are all doing much 
to preserve our native fauna and flora. The camera, too, 
is an excellent aid, and enables a naturalist to confirm his 
records without ' collecting ' the specimens themselves. 


Mr. Bensusan goes on to say that the position is ' the more 
serious because the area of uncultivated ground in these 
islands is very small, and the collector is ubiquitous.' We do 
not deny that there are collectors who are doing harm ; and 
there always were, and probably always will be. At the present 
time, however, his opportunities are not so great : his chances 
for ' exchanging,' or worse still, trading, are less and less ; 
and the value of his work is not now gauged by the number of 
eggs or insects or plants in his collection. The collector's 
craving can, now-a-days, be met, as suggested by Mr. Bensusan, 
by developing into ' the amiable harmless philatelist,' without 
' exterminating ' anything. Whilst on the question of the 
harm that is doubtless done by collectors pure and simple (if 
such terms can apply to collectors!) we are in agreement with 
Mr. Bensusan ; we certainly are of the opinion that the present 
increased interest in Nature is more beneficial than harmful, 
and, therefore, differ from him in considering that the great 
interest nowadays in nature study is, on the whole, to be 


The Bradford Philosophical Society has come to an end. 
Its history has been one of falling and rising again. The 
original society was founded in 1808, but its term of existence 
was not known exactly. A fresh start was made in 1823, but 
i that society was eventually nipped in the bud by the then vicar 
[ of the town, who was afraid that philosophical lectures were 
disturbing. Another start was made with renewed vigour 
in 1839, but the new society only lasted four or five years. 
In 1864 another effort was made, under the secretaryship of 

1911 June 1. 


Field Notes. 

Professor Miall, and that society lasted till 1876. Largely 
through the exertions of Dr. Willis, a new start was made in 
1884. That society has gone on flourishing until a few years 
ago, and it is only during recent times that it has fallen from 
its prosperity. 


From the daily press we learn that ' a fall of sandstone 
in the cliffs of Hebberstone Bay on the Yorkshire coastline near 
Filey has disclosed a rich collection of fossils. Delicate ferns, 
bellumites (sic), ammonites, with nautilus, oyster, mussel and 
cockle shells, perfectly petrified, are so thickly strewn on the 
faces of the fallen blocks, several of which are tons in weight, 
that a chisel can scarcely be placed between them. Many of the 
bellumites (sic) are nine inches and a foot (sic) in length, but the 
softness of the sandstone in the newness of its exposure permits 
of many of them being easily worked out by a knife. There 
are hundreds of separate fossils in each of the blocks. The 
district has long held a peculiar interest for geologists.' With 
this last sentence we fully agree, and it is likely to continue to 
hold ' a peculiar interest,' so long as this particular journalist 
remains there. 

York District Bird Notes. — The following is a list of 
dates of arrivals of most of the local summer visiting species, 
and in the majority of instances, the dates of appearance are 
even later than last year : — 

Redstart . 
Garden Warbler 
Wood Warbler . 
Sedge Warbler . 
House Martin 
Yellow Wagtail . 
Turtle Dove . 
Sandmartin . 

May 14th 

May 2 1st 

Ring Ouzel . . March 10th ; Redstart . . . May 13th 
Swallow . . . April 22nd 
Lesser Whitethroat 
Chiff Chaff . . April 28th 
Willow Warbler 
White Wagtail . 
Swallows (numbers) 
Cuckoo ,, 

Landrail (one) . 
Nightjar . . . May 6th 
Swift (several) . May nth 
(numbers) May 13th 

I heard the first Snipe ' drumming' on March nth, and 
on March 16th I noticed a flock of about sixty Wild Geese 
(species uncertain), flying over Huntington in a south-east 
direction, at the time there was half a gale blowing from 
the north-east. The Whimbrel occasionally visits this dis- 
trict during May, when passing north on its annual journey 
to its nesting haunts, a pair being seen feeding on some 
ploughed land at Wigginton, on May 15th. — Sydney H. Smith, 
York, May 23rd, 1911. 



Plate XIV. 

Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 
Unio Kendall i, n.sp., Lower Estuarine Series, Saltwick, Vorks. 


Manchester Museum. 


Whilst my paper on Unio distort us, etc., from the Upper 
Estuarine Beds of Gristhorpe, Yorks.,* was being published, 
I received from Prof. P. F. Kendall a number of interesting 
fossil Unios, obtained from a well-defined horizon in the Lower 
Estuarine Series of Saltwick, near Whitby. The first specimen 
was found by Mr. J. W. Stather, F.G.S., in a fallen block of 
stone, but on a subsequent visit Prof. Kendall discovered the 
actual bed in which the shells occur, and several examples 
were obtained. 

On the kind invitation of Prof. Kendall I joined his geo- 
logical expedition to the Yorkshire Coast at Easter, and spent 
some time with him in examining the various exposures of 
Estuarine strata along the coast. W T e collected a large series 
of Unios from the Saltwick exposure, as well as others from two 
other points, Brow Alum Quarry and Haiburn W r yke, further 

The Unio-bed at Saltwick lies about 2j feet above the 
Dogger, and the shells themselves appear to be confined to a 
band of shaly material, 6 or 7 inches in thickness, underlying 
a bed of sandstone. By far the greater number of examples 
were found on their sides, with both valves closed ; others had 
the valves wide apart, but still adherent along the hinge-line. 
Only one example was seen in a vertical position, and this 
was enclosed in an ironstone nodule. The majority of the 
specimens collected were in the form of casts. 

With the possible exception of an obscure form from the 
Lower Estuarine beds, near Peak, which will be referred to 
later, the Saltwick Unios appear to be the earliest authentic 
specimens of the genus in the British Isles. Another interesting 
and important feature is that some of the better preserved 
examples possess traces of umbonal sculpture. 

As the form appears to be quite new, I have much pleasure 
in associating with it the name of Prof. Kendall as a slight 
appreciation of the excellent work he has done in Yorkshire 
and elsewhere. 

With reference to the obscure form from near Peak, the 
material at my disposal is unfortunately not very satisfactory. 
The first example was found some years ago by the Rev. 
B. C. Constable, of Stockport, in the Brow Alum quarry, on 

* 'Naturalist,' Feb. -Mar., 1911, pp. 104-107, 119-122, pi. ix. and x. 
igu Tune i. 

212 Jackson : A New Species of Unio. 

the south side of Robin Hood's Bay. This specimen, however, 
has been mislaid, and is, therefore, not available for examina- 

During Easter week, Prof. Kendall and I visited this quarry 
and succeeded in finding three further examples. The Unio- 
bed here is only 18 inches above the top of the Dogger, and 
underlies a ' seat-earth ' with rootlets, on the top of which is a 
very impure coal-seam. The specimens obtained are, un- 
fortunately, too imperfect for accurate specific determination, 
but in general appearance they somewhat resemble a small 
variety of the Salt wick form. One specimen is interesting in 
possessing traces of two or three strong lira? on the posterior 
slope of one of the valves, radiating from the umbo to the 
posterior margin. Whether this can be regarded as sculpture 
or not is uncertain. It may, of course, be due to crushing, as 
the shell shows signs of having undergone some lateral pres- 
sure. Until further and more perfect examples are obtained 
it will, perhaps, be wiser to defer the description of this form. 

Some specimens of a Unio were also obtained from the 
Lower Estuarine beds at Haiburn Wyke. They were dis- 
covered on breaking up a large ironstone nodule containing 
plant remains, the most abundant of which was Coniopteris 
hymenophylloides (Brong). Unfortunately, all the examples 
obtained are young individuals, none exceeding three-quarters 
of an inch in length. The form is oblong oval, rounded an- 
teriorly, angulated above posteriorly, base and hinge-line 
curved. The test is covered by numerous fine concentric 
growth lines, and on the posterior area are, apparently, traces 
of sculpture in the form of very slight radiating nodules or 

Phillips, in his ' Geology of Yorkshire,'* quotes a Unio from 
Haiburn Wyke, as follows : — ' Unio insperatus Phil. M.S., a 
small oval species. Upper Shale, White Nab. Ironstone, in 
Lower Shale, Haiburn Wyke.' No description or figure is 
given, and I have been unable, so far, to discover the type on 
which Phillips founded the species. Dr. Kitchin has kindly 
submitted to me two specimens of an obscure Unio from the 
Lycett Collection in the Geological Survey Museum, Jermyn 
Street, London. These were catalogued as ' Unio insperatus 
Phil., from Sandstone Shale, at White Nab, Scarborough.' 
Thinking these might be Phillips' types, I again communicated 
with Dr. Kitchin, who replied that there is no proof that 
Phillips saw or named the specimens, or that the identification 
with his species either by Lycett or somebody else, had his 
(Phillips') approval, or was sufficiently soundly based. It is 
presumed that when the Lycett collection was purchased for 

* 3rd. Ed., 1875. 


Jackson : A New Species of Unio. 213 

the museum the name Unio insperatus accompanied the two 
specimens. It is just possible, however, that they were so 
named at a later date. 

These White Nab Unios partake somewhat of the shape 
of Unio kendalli ; but are much smaller. Both examples, 
being casts, it is difficult to give a decided opinion before seeing 
further specimens, as the salient characters are far too obscure. 
The same argument will apply equally to the immature forms 
from Haiburn Wyke. Both these forms, therefore, must be 
left in abeyance for the present. 


Unio kendalli n. sp. 
(Plate XIV., figs 1 to 3). 

External characters : — Shell elongately oblong, tumid ; 
anterior end moderately short, rounded ; posterior end much 
produced, gradually decreasing in tumidity towards the io- 
nium, above which the border is obliquely truncate ; hinge-line 
fairly straight, about two-thirds the maximum length of the 
shell ; basal-line curved. Gonial ridge rather indistinct. 
Umbones prominent, not contiguous, placed well forward ; 
umbonal region covered by a number of strong parallel and 
slightly wavy ridges, crossing the growth-lines obliquely. 
Lunule and ligament distinct. Growth-lines well-defined, in 
some specimens very pronounced. 

Internal characters : — Anterior adductor scar fairly deep and 
placed well forward ; anterior pedal protractor scar small, 
situated posteriorly and ventrally to the above ; anterior pedal 
retractor scar also small, occupying a position contiguous to the 
anterior adductor impression near its upper margin. Posterior 
adductor impression shallow and hardly noticeable on the cast. 
Pseudocardinal {i.e., antero-lateral) teeth and postero-lateral 
lamellae well-developed. 

Dimensions : — Length, 2§ inches ; height, i| inches ; thick- 
ness, 1 j inches. 

Geol. Horizon : — Lower Estuarine Series, 27 feet above the 

Locality : — Saltwick, near Whitby, Yorks. 

Remarks : — The characters on which the above description 
is based are spread over several specimens in various stages 
of preservation. One pair of valves (fig. 2), which are 
gaping, exhibit very clearly the peculiar sculpture adorning 
the umbonal region. The ridges appear to radiate from a 
point just anterior to the umbones and cross the growth-lines 
on the flank at an oblique angle. After passing over the gonial, 
or posterior, ridge they cross the upcurving growth-lines 
almost at right-angles. Here, on this specimen, they become 

1911 June 1. 

214 Jackson : A New Species of Unio 

disjointed with occasional short ridges intercalated between 
the longer ones. On another specimen (fig. 3) these shorter 
ridges are connected with the longer ones by means of an 
upward loop. Unlike modern European Unios the sculpture 
is not confined entirely to the nepeonic stage, but is continued 
well into the neanic stage, more especially on the posterior 
slope. This sculpture is quite unlike the ordinary concentric, 
doubly-looped variety met with on modern European Unio- 
nidse ; but appears to me to be more nearly, though not abso- 
lutely, related to the zigzag-radial type of Asiatic forms — 
Nodularia, Pseudodon, etc., whose areas are crossed by similarly 
disposed ridges. Unfortunately, no examples have been so far 
found which are sufficiently preserved at the anterior end to 
show the sculpture on that area. 

Several of the casts, after careful treatment, revealed the 
muscular impressions, especially the anterior ones, very 
clearly (fig. 1). Compared with modern forms, the positions 
occupied by the anterior pedal protractor and retractor scars, 
in their relation to the adductor scar, are not markedly different, 
excepting perhaps that the retractor appears to occupy a 
slightly lower position than in most modern examples. 

After careful development along the hinge-line of some of 
the casts I was successful in exposing some interesting evi- 
dences of well-marked pseudocardinal teeth and strongly- 
developed poster-lateral lamellae. The latter, two in the left 
valve, and one in the right, are long and fairly straight, ex- 
tending from behind the umbo almost to the postero-dorsal 
angle. The pseudocardinals consist of one large tooth in the 
right valve, which appears to be clasped by two processes in 
the left valve. The type of dentition is not unlike that of 
Unio batavus, Margaritana margaritifera, etc., etc., but not 
like that developed in Unio pictorum, U. tumidus, etc., where 
the pseudocardinals are distinctly lamellar in character. More- 
over all the specimens of these latter species which I have 
examined possess two distinct anterior lamellae in each valve. 

One of the casts (fig. 1) shows what appears to be an ab- 
normality in the anterior dentition of the right valve. Here a 
well-marked triangular shelf-like process is present, bounded 
on its two lower sides by deep grooves. Either one of the 
pseudocardinal teeth of the left valve was unusually large, or 
the anterior portion of the hinge-line has been crushed down 
and thus somewhat distorted the dentition. The latter seems 
the most probable, as none of the other casts I developed show 
this peculiarity. 

Judging from the impressions of the growth-lines and beak- 
sculpture present on some of the casts, the shell was evidently 


Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies. 215 


Unio ketidalli n.sp. 

(Lower Estuarine Series, Saltwick, Yorks.) 

FlG. i. — Specimen showing the general form of species; also the 
anterior muscular impressions. (Nat. Size). 

Fig. 2. — Fair of partly gaping valves (slightly inclined), showing the 
visible sculpture on the umbonal region picked out in white. The outer 
white line is a complete growth-line. (Slightly under Nat. Size). 

Fig. 3. — Dorsal view of a pair of closed valves, showing lunule, liga- 
ment, and umbonal markings. (1£ times Nat. Size). 

(Types in the Manchester Museum). 
: o : 

Some interesting ' Structural Notes on Taunton Castle ' have been 
written by Mr. J. H. Spencer, and issued in pamphlet form, (12 pp., ad.), 
by the Somersetshire Archaeological, etc., Society. 

The Report of the Colchester Museum of Local Antiquities for 1910-1 1, 
has again an encouraging list of acquisitions — Roman and mediaeval an- 
tiquities, ' By-gones,' etc. ; practically all of which are of local interest. 
At this museum photographs of all the more important exhibits are to be 
obtained at one penny each. 

The Report and Proceedings of the Manchester Field Naturalists and 
Archaeologists' Society for the year 1910 (95 pp.) shews that the society is 
in a flourishing condition, and the Report itself has greatly improved in 
appearance, and more care has also, apparently, been exercised in the 
selection of advertisements. The Report is principally a lengthy account 
of the Society's excursions and meetings, and has a strong botanical 

The Fifty-Eighth Report and Transactions of the Nottingham Naturalists' 
Society for 1909-10 (published 1911, 46 pp.) are almost entirely geological, 
and, with one exception, the papers refer to Nottinghamshire. Dr. H. H. 
Swinnerton has a paper on ' The Bunter Sandstone of Nottinghamshire 
and its Influence upon the Geography of the County ' ; Dr. L. Moysey 
describes ' Some Rare Fossils from the Coal Measures of Nottingham- 
shire ' ; Mr. A. T. Metcalfe writes on ' The Great Earth-Movements (Post 
Cambrian) of the Xorth-West Highlands of Scotland ' ; and there is a 
list of ' Fossil Plants from the Nottinghamshire Coal Measures,' extracted 
from Mr. E. A. Newell Arber's paper in the Yorkshire Geological Society's 

The Fourteenth Report of the Southport Society of Natural Science for 
1908-10 (published 1911, 99 pp., 1/6), contains a short but interesting 
address by Mr. W. H. Stansfield, on ' The Ice Age in [North] Britain,' 
which seems to be about the only paper bearing upon the area of the 
Society's work. There are notes on ancient Egypt, Flying Machines, 
Comets, Climbing Plants, ' Herbart ', Water, and the late Dr. G. W. Chaster 
(with portrait). We cannot congratulate the editors upon the way the 
' Report ' is arranged ; the abstracts of papers are mixed up with balance 
sheets, lists of members, lists of officers, etc., etc., giving the report a very 
unattractive appearance. Each of the various sections has a separate 
balance sheet (amounting to 8/- or 9/- each), which is printed on a separate 
page, whilst here and there a whole page is occupied by the mere title of a 
lecture. Much of this space might be saved if the titles of the lectures 
given were placed in one part of the report ; and the volume would be 
mproved in appearance and value if the lists of officers, etc., were put to- 
gether ; the same remark applies to the balance sheets, reports of sections, 
and abstracts of papers. 

1911 June 1. 



Rather more than a century ago Jonathan Salt formed a 
herbarium, and wrote a catalogue of ' Plants observed to grow 
wild in the neighbourhood of Sheffield,' of which town he was a 
native and a resident ; the herbarium is now in the Sheffield 
Public Museum, and the Catalogue is in the Library of the 
Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society. The habitats are 
given for nearly all the plants except those most common, and 
therefore, it seemed desirable to ascertain the changes which 
had occurred in the local flora during the nineteenth century 
as far as was possible from the records. After some years' 
work I find that of 729 species of local plants in the herbarium 
and the catalogue, 166 species may be looked upon as now 
entirely or almost extinct. 

It is evident that if the conditions of existence in any 
locality remain the same, so also will the local plants ; but 
the conditions can remain absolutely the same in theory only, 
so that the continuance of species in a locality is due to their 
ability to survive variation from the so-called ' optimal con- 
dition,' and the greater the range of endurance the greater the 
survival value of the plant. I have found that some uncommon 
plants are still growing in the habitats recorded by Salt, such 
as Cardamine impatiens at Matlock on the Derwent bank. 

It has been thought that the flora changes even if the 
conditions remain the same, but they do not so remain ; the 
conditions change with every floral new-comer. 

In a marsh, at Aldwark, Rotherham, Salt discovered Car ex 
elongata, for the first time in England, and from the same 
marsh he recorded Stellaria glauca, Oenanthe Phellandrium, 
Car ex carta . The marsh is still in existence, and at the present 
time grow there : — 

Nasturtium amphibiutu. Iris pseudacorus. 

Oenanthe Phellandrium. Carex vulpina. 

Hottonia palustris. • C. acuta. 

Lysimachia uummularia. C. vesicaria. 

Glyceria fluitaus. 

Nasturtium, Lysimachia, and Iris are apparently new- 
comers since Salt's time, for if not, he would probably have 
recorded them, and if they are new-comers their arrival changed 
the conditions of existence for the older inhabitants. 

But it appears that the decrease in species in the Flora 
of this district is on the whole due to man ; his influence is 
both direct and indirect. For the plants may be directly 
exterminated by man himself or they may be destroyed by the 
effects of his activities, such as the extended use of machinery, 
and the repeal of the Corn Laws. 


Innocent: A Century's Changes in the Sheffield Flora. 217 

If this is so, an increase or a decrease of population-density 

will be somewhat proportionate to the decrease or survival 
of plant species. The population-density in the Sheffield 
district is correlated to the geological systems, and the per- 
sistence of species is most marked upon the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone of Derbyshire where the density of population has been 
adversely affected by the decay of the lead-mining industry ; 
and probably the extension of coal-mining eastwards, into the 
Triassic and Permian tracts, will seriously affect their floras. 

The direct destruction of plants may, I think, be con- 
veniently divided into destruction by (1) children ; (2) herba- 
lists ; (3) garden and flower-lovers ; and (4) nature-students. 

Children, happily, prefer known and generally common 
species of which they can gather a great many individuals : to 
children, the decrease of Arum maculatum is perhaps due. 

Herbalists are probablv responsible for the disappearance 
of many more plants than is commonly supposed, for there is 
still a great use of native herbs in the West Riding. A leading 
Sheffield herbalist, recently deceased, lamented that his col- 
lectors, owing to ever-decreasing supplies had to go constantly 
farther and farther afield. A writer, in ' The Naturalist,' 
some years ago, recorded the gathering of large quantities of 
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, by a party of herbalists, in a North 
Derbyshire valley, and its disappearance from Salt's recorded 
habitat is probably due to this cause. To the herbalists are no 
doubt due the decrease locally of such usually common plants 
as : — 

Chelidonium majus. 
. Igrimonia Iutpat<>> in. 
Sanicula europtza. 

Erythraea centaurium. 
Stachys betonica. 
Euphrasia officinalis. 

Lovers of gardens are principally responsible for the dis- 
appearance of ferns, which form cheap and useful shade plants, 
and of many plants showy in character and sentimental in 
association, in this district, such are : — 

Aquilegia vulgaris. Primula vulgaris. 

Digitalis purpurea. Narcissus pseudo-narcissus. 

Nature-students are probably responsible for the decreases 
in Pinguicula vulgaris and Drosera rotundifolia, and in the 
orchids generally. 

To man directly in one or other of the above classes may be 
ascribed the disappearance of some seven species of orchids, 
and : — 

Viscum album. 
Put ic aria dysenterica. 
A rctostaphylos uva-ursi. 
Hyoscyamus niger. 
Mentha piperita. 

M. pulegium. 
Marrubium vulgare. 
Galanthus nivalis. 
Polypodium phegopteris. 
Asplenium viride. 

In manufactures the hand and water-power of former 

1911 June i. 

218 Innocent : A Century's Changes in the Sheffield Flora. 

times were largely replaced during the nineteenth century by 
steam-driven machinery, with its coal-smoke, and this is the 
most baneful influence with which the plants have had to con- 

Coal smoke is deleterious to the plant in various ways. 
It obscures the sun, and thus decreases the vital activity of the 
green plant ; observations in Bradford, Leeds, and Sheffield 
have shown that the sunshine and daylight are from 30 per cent, 
to 60 per cent, greater in the suburbs than in the centres of the 
cities. Smoke also deposits sticky matter on the leaves, thus 
choking them, and it impurities the rain water ; the remarkable 
results of this have been shown by experiments at the Uni- 
versity of Leeds in continuously watering cultures of grasses 
with rain from different parts of the city. 

It is possible that the impurities from coal-smoke enter the 
soil and attack the roots, and possibly, the deposit affects the 
pollen grains of flowers. 

Smoke is not a direct, but rather an insidious enemy, 
weakening the plant for its individual part in the struggle for 

The disappearance of Campanula heeler acea from the city 
is probably due to smoke, which, however, seems to have only 
a very small effect on Saponaria officinalis, Artemisia vulgaris, 
Tanacetum vulgare, Matricaria inodora, Linaria vulgaris. 

A century ago the old open-, or common-field system of 
agriculture was surely, if slowly, coming to an end, but the 
effects of its disappearance were not yet evident in those im- 
provements in farming, only possible under the new system ; 
and one of the results of which we see to-day in the disappear- 
ance of many plants of rough cultivation. Few people realize 
the extent to which land-drainage has been carried out under 
the separate ownerships and tenures of the last century ; this 
drainage has affected not only the bogs and marshes, but also 
the woods and fields, and the longest list of extinctions in the 
district is that of the hygrophilous and hydrophilous species; 

The unfortunate water plants have also had to contend with 
the pollution of rivers arising from the increase of population 
and manufactures. 

Water plants exterminated from the district by the two> 
above causes, or others unknown, are : — ■ 

Hypericum elodes. 
Oenanthe crocata. 
Gnaphalium uliginosum. 
Comarum palustre. 
Callitriclic autumnalis. 
Veronica scute! lata. 
Scutellaria minor. 
Hvdrocharis morsus ranee. 

Potamogetou I it ecus. 
P. densus. 
J uncus uliginosus. 
Blysmus compressus. 
Isolepis setacea. 
Scirpus pauciflorus. 
Schlerochloa distans. 
Triodia decumbens. 

and some half-dozen species of sedge. 


Innocent : A Century's Changes in the Sheffield liny a. 210, 

Salt's great hunting ground for the rarer hydrophiles was 
Potterick Carr to the South-East of Doncaster, the drainage 
of which has caused the following species to be added to the 
list of extinctions.: — 

Ranunculus lingua. 
Myriophyllum verticillatum. 
Helosciadium inundatum. 
I'ti icularia vulgaris. 
Myrica gale. 
Ceratophyllum demet sunt. 

. llisma ranunculoides. 
Lemna trisulca. 
Stratiotes aloides. 
Sparganium natans. 
Isolepis fluitans. 
Car ex dioica. 

C. ampullacea. 

These marsh plants may be considered as examples of a 
class of extinctions due to decreased distributional area, and 
this will be most harmful to seed-propagated plants, especially 
annuals ; the smaller the relative area the more difficult is 
effective seed dispersal and the continuance of the species, 
and in such a case the wider the seed dispersal of the plant, the 
worse it will be for it. 

The break-down of the old method of agriculture enabled 
the farmers to respond to the demand for corn caused by the 
Napoleonic wars and the increase of population, but the repeal 
of the Corn Laws later led to the decrease of the land under 
corn, and the cornfield weeds, necessarily annuals, suffered 
from this decrease of distribution area, but in addition to this, 
they were growing under cultivation conditions, which involved 
the selection of the seed most free from weeds. It is not sur- 
prising, therefore, that the cornfield weeds form a large group 
of extinctions and decreases as follows ; (1) extinctions :— 

Papaver argemone. 
Fumaria capreolata. 
Trigonella ornithopodioides. 
Bupleurum rotundi folium. 
Caucalis daucoides. 
Tprilis nodosa. 

and (2) decreases :— 

Ranunculus arvensis. 
Lychnis Githago. 
Scleranthus annuus. 
Scandix pecten-veneris. 
Centaurea cyan us. 

Linaria elatine. 
Mentha arvensis. 
Lamium ample xicaule. 

Galeopsis ochroleuca. 
Lithospermum arvense. 
L'lliuni temulentum. 

Chrysanthem urn segetum. 
Achillea P tar mica. 
Bartsia odontites. 
Galeopsis versicolor. 
Echium vulgare. 

The cornfield weeds which are now found in most abun- 
dance appear to be those which have a much wider range than 
cornfields, merely, such as Corn Spurrey, Scarlet Pimpernel, 
and Climbing Persicaria. 

[Note. — As the discovery of the functions of earth-worms is generally 
ascribed to Darwin, it is worth noting that Miller's ' History of Doncaster," 
published a.d. 1804, contains a letter from Gilbert White of Selborne, 
with reference to Potterick Carr, explaining the use of earthworms in 
rendering soil fertile]. 

1911 June 1. 

220 Innocent : A Century's Changes in the Sheffield Flora. 

Salt found every British species of thistle in this district, 
which is eloquent of the state of agriculture in his time. The 
thistles now missing are : — 

Carduus tenuiflorus. Cnicus pvatensis. 

C. urn ri an us. C. heterophyllus. 

Onopordum acanthi um. 

The old conditions of cultivation are imperfectly understood, 
but large tracts called ' commons " appear to have been un- 
allotted open pastures, etc., and to their so-called ' inclosures' 
the following extinctions are probably due : — 

Cerastium semi-decandrum. Gnaphalium sylvaticum. 

A utennaria dioica. Scirpus ccespitosus. 

Car ex oval is. 

On Lindrick Common the destruction of the upstanding 
plants, such as gorse, by a golf club, has benefitted the uncom- 
mon stemless thistle C. acanlis, which is now abundant there. 

Another group of some ten extinctions is that of the culti- 
vation escapes, which Salt included among the wild flowers, 
and which it is unnecessary to list. 

In the last century many woods have been destroyed, and 
the local newspapers of the time contain numerous advertise- 
ments of oak trees suitable for shipbuilding ; these were for 
those ' wooden walls,' necessitated by the ambitions of Napo- 
leon Bonaparte. With the woods have gone also the shade 
plants, their associates, and the survival value of those that 
remain is decreased. The following plants are extinct in this 
way : — - 

Stellaria nemorum. Orobanche major. 

Hypericum androscsmum. Hordeum sylvaticum. 

In the course of ages many kinds of flowering plants have 
been developed, varying in habitat, life period, fertilization, 
seed number, seed dispersal, and in many other ways. 

As to the life duration, known for every British plant, I 
guessed that it would be more useful for a plant to be a peren- 
nial, and a rather tedious ' count-up ' shows that there were in 
the district in Salt's time 543 Perennials, 36 Biennials, and 150 
Annuals, and there have disappeared 134 Perennials, 9 Bien- 
nials, and 25 Annuals. The greatest survival value then 
belongs not to the Perennials but to the Annuals, and indeed 
are not most of our intruding and prosperous aliens (which 
become denizens) annuals. 

Again, is it more advantageous to produce few or many 
seeds ? I was only able to work this out with the Crucifers. 
Only two species have disappeared from the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Sheffield, viz. : Lepidium campestre, with two, and 
Teesdalia nudicaulis, with four seeds, while many-seeded 
genera like Capsella and Brassica still abound. 

Among the Labiates Lycopus europceus is the only species, 


Innocent: A Century's Changes in the Sheffield Flora. 221 

common in Salt's time and uncommon in ours, for the decrease 
of which there is no apparent reason ; Salvia verbcnaca has also 
disappeared from the district ; both these plants have only two 
stamens, unlike the other British labiates, which all possess 

Temperature has probably increased, and rainfall decreased, 
and our few surviving species of Atlantic type are now only 
found in the valleys away to the West, some of which have a 
rainfall nearly double of that of the City. 

Another group of plants which has disappeared from 
Sheffield, and whose existence here a century ago, is as astonish- 
ing as their disappearance, is the psammophilous xerophiles ; 
they are found to-day on the Triassic sands to the East, such 
are : — 

Teesdalia nudicaulis. 
Moenchia erecta. 
Cerastiwm semi-decandrum. 

Malv a vot audi folia. 
Trigonella ornithopodioides. 

Ornithopus perpusillus. 
Vicia lathyroides. 

Potentilla argentea. 
Ale he in ilia a rvensis. 
Festuca bromoides. 

For the following disappearances I am unable to suggest 
reasons : — 

Malva moschata, 
Jut u »i tetraspermum. 
Lactuca virosa. 
Cichoriuin Intybus. 

Nepeta c atari a. 
Allium vineale. 
Gagea lutea. 

The subject of species introduced since Salt's time has not, 
of- course, been dealt with, but such introductions must have 
had some effect on the original inhabitants. 

Some time ago Mr. Sheppard kindly directed my attention 
to an article in the ' Bradford Scientific Journal,' by Mr. Rosse 
Butterfield, on the plant extinctions and decreases in the 
Bradford district. Mr. Butterfield gave a list of 7 plants which 
have been exterminated ; and of 23 which have decreased in 
the Bradford district. Some of them do not occur in the 
Sheffield district, and for others I have no evidence ; but as to 
the rest, 2 of Mr. Butterfield's extinct species are also extinct 
in this district, and 6 of his decreasing species are extinct with 
us, and 7 of them are also decreasing : there are, therefore, 
the same effects in Bradford as in Sheffield, and in one case 
(Erythraea Centanrium), at any rate, the cause is the same. 

In conclusion, it is unlikely in the case of many of the 
species, that the one cause which I have suggested is alone 
responsible for their disappearance, and probably several ad- 
verse influences have been at work ; it is hardly possible yet 
for us to know why certain species have been defeated in the 
battle of life, but some day it ought to be possible to draw up 
a table of the survival value of plant characters. 

1911 June 1. 


P . Q . KEEGAN L L . D . 
Patterdale, Westmorland. 

Daffodil (Narcissus pseudo-narcissus) — The host of golden 
daffodils that people the underwoods, and stretch in lines along 
the margin of a bay in the early springtime, serves to awaken 
a love of nature following upon the dead waste of winter. 
The plants are hardy, not particular as to soil, and will thrive 
in* damp places partially shaded by trees. The bulbs have 
well developed mycorhiza, even when grown in garden soil. 
It is a slow growing plant with relatively small assimilatory 
powers, starch being absent from the leaves, save occasionally 
only around the vascular bundles of their lower parts. The 
benzene extract of the dried overground parts amounted to 
31 per cent., and contained a moderate quantity of carotin 
and fat-oil with wax and cholesterin. The alcoholic extract 
contained a distinctive tannoid yielding vivid yellows with 
alkalies, chloride of tin, and aceto-Hcl ; also some cane sugar, and 
resin, but no phloroglucin or scillain. There was much pectosic 
mucilage, very little reserve starch, and a good deal of oxalate 
of calcium. The ash of the leaves contained 61-4 per cent, 
soluble salts, io-i lime, 3.6 magnesia, 5P 2 0\ 4SO 3 , and 9-8 
chlorine, with considerable manganese, and much soluble 
carbonate. The flowers are tinctured by carotin in homo- 
geneous plastids, and also by a dissolved pigment which is the 
tannoid afore-mentioned. The bulb and fruits contain scillain, 
and also an alkaloid. The flowering bulb contains a good deal 
of starch, and substances, giving the usual alkaloid re- 
actions. It may be gleaned from the above analysis that 
the daffodil resembles the non-siliceous grasses in many res- 
pects. There is the same sort of fatty matter, resin and tannoid, 
but there is much less starch, a more watery constitution, and 
a vigorous deassimilation of the albumenoids as evinced by 
the abundance of carbonates in the ash. But whereas in 
some of the grass tribe this process evolves a red pigment in 
the floral parts, in the daffodil it halts therein at the tannoid, 
i.e., the yellow-imparting stage. 

Goosefoot (Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus) — It is difficult 
not to sympathise with the distribution of this remarkable 
species. It cannot keep away apparently from humanity. 
Near hamlets and villages, by old churches and monasteries, 
on roadsides and waste places, and near dwellings it flourishes, 
and even some remote sheepfolds are occasionally favoured 
with its presence. It belongs to a salt and drought-loving 
order. The root stock is thick, fleshy, and many-headed, 
with an anomalous structure ; it contains starch and nitrates, 
but no tannin. The leaves are of a ' hard ' green colour, 


Keegan : The Chemistry of sonic Common Plants. 223 

and consist only of palisade and water tissue, which accounts 
for the ' soapy meal ' coating their lower sides. The whole 
leaves on 17th June yielded only 1-3 per cent of wax with much 
carotin. A great quantity of chlorophyll was extracted by 
hot alcohol, also traces of a tannoid like quercetin, some sugar, 
and much resin dissolving brown to red-brown in sulphuric 
acid. There was very much pectosic mucilage (epiderm is non- 
slimed), no reserve starch, but a great deal of oxalate of 
calcium which persistently precipitated as crystal-sand, and 
not in well-formed crystals. The ash of the overground parts 
of the plant contained 58-8 per cent, soluble salts, 4-3 silica, 
9-9 lime, 41 magnesia, 7-3 P r> 0-, 3-3SO :i , and 7-2 chlorine ; 
there was some manganese, and very much soluble carbonates. 
The above analysis represents that of a powerful nitrate plant 
nourished quite independently of mycorhiza or bacteria, hence 
its distribution may be explained by its keen and eager need 
and demand for nitrogenous refuse, such as animals supply. 
The starch produced is readily resorbed, and the fact that only 
the lower portions of the stem exhibit a red or pink colour 
(like rhubarb), indicates that it is there where the chief drain 
on the nitrogenous nuclei of the albumenoids takes place, 
which it need hardly be said, is the very reverse of what happens 
in numerous other plants. 

Sea Pink (Armeria maritima) — This delicate and beautiful 
seaside plant is brimful of personal associations. In lonely 
places by the sandy seashore it hangs out its lovely array of 
pure pink tassels from amidst cushions of sharp grass-like 
leaves. On lofty mountains, too, it fixes its seat in the crevices 
of hard rock. Its morphological characters are those of 
halophytes, viz., reduction of transpiration surface, profile 
position of the leaves, abundant hairs, mucilage-cells, water- 
tissues, etc. It is easily cultivated, and is near the Primroses, 
or the Ribworts according to some authors. On 5th June, the 
dried overground parts yielded 1.5 per cent, of wax with some 
carotin, but no fatty matter apparently. There was con- 
siderable tannin which was precipitated greenish-black by 
iron salts, also precipitated gelatine, bromine water, and tartar 
emetic, and yielded a phlobaphene by dilute acids ; also some 
cane-sugar and resin were found, but no phloroglucin or bitter 
principle. A large quantity of mucilage was extracted chiefly 
by dilute soda, but there was no reserve starch or oxalate of 
calcium. The ash of the plant (unwashed) contained 25 per 
cent, soluble salts, 33-3 silica and sand, ill lime, 53 oxide of 
iron, 6iP-0\ 54SO 3 and 53 chlorine ; there was some man- 
ganese, but little carbonate. Making the silica percentage here 
to be about 15, the other percentages must be raised about 
one-sixth. Here, then, we have a plant which produces true 
tannin and not tannoid merely, and which, moreover, seems un- 

1911 June 1. 

224 Keegan : The Chemistry of some Common Plants. 

usually free from the ordinary organic acids, and thus (though 
both plants are perennial) the contrast between it and the 
Goosefoot is very striking. The pigment of the petals is not 
well developed, and this, notwithstanding the fact that tannin 
abounds in all the vegetative organs. In October the roots 
contain a tannin which gives a beautiful blue-black pre- 
cipitate with peracetate of iron, also they have a little free 
phloroglucin and phlobaphene, but no starch or sugar. 

Cleavers {Galium aparine) — This is a well-known weed 
of the hedgerows, and of corn crops on lightish loams, and deep 
open soils, rarely seen on heavy land, but it nourishes on stony 
places in close company with clusters of nettles. Prickles 
(trichomes, i.e., outgrowths of the epidermis) are developed on 
the angles of the stem, margins of the leaves, and all over the 
fruit. It is a strong nitrate plant with great transpiration, and 
no mycorhiza. On 15th July the whole dried plant yielded 1.4 
per cent, carotin and wax without any fat-oil ; there were 
mere traces of tannin or tannoid, but a good deal of glucose 
and cane sugar, also a resin, but no phloroglucin ; there was 
much mucilage, quinic acid, and considerable proteid, reserve 
starch and oxalate of calcium. The tops extracted in June 
with cold water yielded much rubichloric acid, also tannin, 
quinic acid, and a little cane sugar. The ash contained 48-3 
per cent, soluble salts, 5-9 silica, 20-3 lime, 57 magnesia and 
manganese, 4P 2 5 , 2-3S0 3 and 3-9 chlorine ; there was very 
much soluble carbonate. Experiments as to the presence 
of vegetable rennet in the fresh tops gave negative results, 
though the milk-coagulating faculty of the sap seems un- 
doubtedly to exist in warm climates. The roots contain some 
glucoside, which dyes red like madder, and the seeds are used 
as a substitute for coffee. Clearly we have here an organism 
with energetic assimilatory power, and whose albumenoid on 
deassimilation produces abundant organic acid (citric and 
oxalic mainly), and also higher derivatives of benzene. 

Great Grey Shrike in East Yorks.— One of these birds has 
been, during the past fortnight, frequently noticed at Lowthorpe. 
My informant describes the bird well, and reminds me that 
one was picked up dead under the telegraph wires, between 
Bridlington and Burton Agnes, some ten winters ago, the 
skin of which I have. The bird in question has been frequenting 
a certain fence, and has been seen more than once to take a 
mouse from its stand on the topmost twig of a hedgerow ash 
tree, as my correspondent writes, ' more easily and quickly 
than a kestrel hawk could have done.' The bird is now doubt- 
less further on its way to its breeding grounds in the north. — 
W. H. St. Quintin, 15th May, 1911. 



T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.S.A. (Scot.). 

Partly as a result of the construction of railways, 
cuttings for drains, excavations for gravel for road re- 
pairing, for making railway embankments, for concrete 
for dock works or for building lighthouses, but principally 
from the inroads of the sea along the thirty miles of coast 
between Bridlington and Spurn, we have been able to 
ascertain the geological structure of East Yorkshire fairly 
well. Incidentally it has been possible to gather quite a 
large series of bones, teeth, antlers, horns, and other remains 
of animals which once existed in the district. These occur 
in various ways. Sometimes they can be found in the old 
sand-dunes where they have been left by the hyaenas or 
other carnivorous animals. In these cases the bones 
usually occur close together, though in a more or less frag- 
mentary condition, and several species may be found within 
a small radius. At other times they are found singly, in 
the Boulder Clay, where they have been left as erratics by 
the ice ; or they may exist in the gravel mounds, in a more 
or less water-worn condition ; or the whole skeleton of a 
red deer or other animal may be found just as it had died 
in the peat bog, centuries ago. 

As regards age ; the bone-bearing deposits of East York- 
shire may be placed under three heads, viz., (i) Pre-Glacial ; 
(2) Glacial, and (3) Post-Glacial, and it is noticeable that, 
as we might expect, the earliest deposit contains a great 
proportion of animals very different from those with which 
we are now familiar, whilst the most recent bed includes 
the remains of animals more approaching those living 
in the district to-day. 

With regard to the Pre-Glacial beds; we must carry 
our minds back to that far-off time before England was 
invaded by glaciers during the great Ice Age. At that 
period there was no Holderness. A line of chalk cliffs, not 
discoloured by any glacial material, extended from Brid- 
lington, through Driffield, Beverley and Cottingham to 
Hessle, and on into Lincolnshire. It was cut through by the 
Humber, which was then an important outlet. This cliff 
line averaged one hundred feet in height, and at its foot 
was a sandy beach which then at any rate, was above the 
reach of the water ; sand dunes were formed, and upon 
these the hyaenas had their meals. Whilst there are no 
sections inland, sections have been exposed at each ex- 
tremity of this cliff line, with interesting results. At 
Sewerby, near Bridlington, excavations were made over 

* Read before the Vertebrate Zoology Section of the Yorkshire 

Naturalists' Union. 

191 1 June 1. 

226 Sheppard: Extinct Animals of East Yorkshire. 

twenty years ago, by Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, with the aid 
of a grant from the British Association. The existence of 
the old cliff line had already been indicated by the action 
of the sea, but Mr. Lamplugh's object was to ascertain 
the proper sequence of the beds. First of all, at almost 
the level of the present beach, was the old pre-glacial shore, 
with its Pholas-bored boulders, oyster shells, etc. Upon 
this rested the dunes of blown sand, upon which most of 
the bones were found ; and above this, again, was a great de- 
posit of Boulder Clay, left by the glacier, which covered and 
preserved everything. The bones were usually very frag- 
mentary, and generally bore the marks of the teeth of the 
hyaenas. Remains were found of the Mammoth (Elephas 
primigenius) , the straight-tusked elephant (Elephas anti- 
quus), Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros leptorhinns) , Hippototamus 
(Hippopotamus amphibiiis), the Horse (Equus caballus), 
the Irish Elk (Cervus megaceros), Bison, and Water Vole. 
In addition, remains were found of birds, a snake, and cod- 
fish, as well as a number of shells. Since Mr. Lamplugh's 
investigations, portions of tusks, teeth, etc., have occasion- 
ally been washed out by the sea, but nothing appears to 
have been added to the list of species given. 

Same years later the late George Cook made some 
excavations at Hessle, near the Humber, for the purpose 
of obtaining, sand, and he excavated many thousands of 
tons of chalk, gravel and sand. 

The work extended over some years, and I paid fre- 
quent visits from first to last, and obtaines a fairly extensive 
collection of mammalian remains. A little later the North 
Eastern Railway Co. widened the railway at Hessle, close to 
the Humber Bank, but only one fossil bone (Horse) was 
obtained from this excavation. Many years previously, 
when the railway was first made, the late Professor Phillips 
obtained a number of bones of Horse, Elephant, etc., which 
he placed in the Museum at Hull, where my collection is 
also housed. These animal remains found at Hessle include 
those of the Mammoth, Rhinoceros, Horse, Red Deer and 
Reindeer. The bones also give evidence of the presence 
of the hyaena ; but, as in the case at Sewerby, no actual 
remains of that animal were found. 

The first impression one might get at a glance at this 
list of animals is that it represents a tropical fauna ; but this 
is not the case. The elephants in those days were clothed 
with long woolly hair, and the rhinoceros was similarly 
protected against the cold. The reindeer is certainly evidence 
of a northern climate. 

The next chapter in the geological history of the district 
relates to the Glacial period, when great sheets of ice from 


Sheppard: Extinct Animals of East Yorkshire. 227 

Scandinavia and the Lake District came along our coasts 
and deposited great heaps of morainic rubbish, which in 
places are two hundred feet or more in thickness. This 
filled up the old preglacial bay, it entirely covered up and 
■obliterated the old cliff line, choked up river channels, and 
plastered the slopes of the chalk wolds to the west. The 
ice brought with it bones, teeth and tusks of animals that 
may have died upon it, or the remains of which may have 
been gathered up in its course. Such specimens occasion- 
ally occur in the boulder clay, quite haphazard, and are 
frequently picked up on the beach, having been washed out 
of the cliffs by the sea. The boulder-clay specimens are 
■often glacially striated. 

Another good series of remains occurs in the line of 
gravel hills, which extends across Holderness, some of which 
have been and others are still being excavated. This 
series of mounds really represents a moraine of the great 
North Sea glacier, and in addition to containing glaciated 
rocks, and countless marine shells from the beds of the North 
Sea, includes a number of remains of the walrus, as well 
as of many land animals. 

It is interesting to note that a precisely similar assem- 
blage occurs at Spitsbergen, and has been described by Mr. 
E. J. Garwood in the " Geographical Journal " for April 
1897, page 367. Mr. Garwood there says : " An interesting 
point to notice is the mode of advance of these [Spitz- 
bergen] glaciers, the top layers, shearing over the lower 
-ones, advance more rapidly, until they overhang to such 
an extent that they break off, forming a " talus " of 
ice below ; over this the glacier advances, finally over- 
riding the moraine completely. Glaciers advancing in 
this manner do not, therefore, push forward loose material 
lying in their path, but flow 'over it. The lower layers of 
ice, embayed behind this obstacle, are, however, dragged 
over it by the upper advancing layers, and bring up with 
them fragments of the raised beach frozen into their under 
surfaces. Dr. Gregory and myself found no difficulty in 
collecting fragments of driftwood, shells, and bones of 
whales, mixed with pebbles, which had been raised several 
hundred feet above the level of the beach in this manner." 

At Spitzbergen, then, there is at the present day a process 
going on in all probability precisely similar in character 
to that which took place in Holderness long, long ago ; 
the results in each case being identical. This is all the more 
interesting when it is borne in mind how far both examples 
are separated, both in time and distance. 

The animal remains found in these Holderness gravel 
pits include the Mammoth, straight-tusked Elephant, Irish 

1911 June i. 

228 Sheppard : Extinct Animals of East Yorkshire. 

Elk, Reindeer, Red Deer, Bison (B. prisms) Bos primigenius, 
Ox, Rhinoceros (R. leptorhinns) and Walrus. Occasionally 
some of the bones show teeth marks, possibly of the. hyaena. 
Sometimes the bones are quite angular ; at others they are 
so much water-worn as to resemble pebbles, and identifica- 
tion is impossible. 

The -Boulder Clay proper has yielded tusks and teeth of 
the mammoth, some of which have been of very large size. 
The fact that they are frequently glacially striated indicates 
that they may have been brought a considerable distance. 
From the enormous number of mammoth teeth which have 
been found on the Holderness coast, it is pretty clear that 
this great woolly elephant must formerly have been a fairly 
frequent visitor to this district. 

The Boulder Clay fauna is not so varied as that of the 
glacial gravels, and, in addition to the mammoth, seems to be 
confined to Rhinoceros (R. tichorhinas) , and the straight- 
tusked elephant [ElcpJias antiquns). The former record is 
based upon a single tooth which I found at Dimlington a 
little while ago, and the latter species is represented by a 
molar found at Withernsea, recently identified in our 
collection at Hull by Professor W. Boyd Dawkins. Both 
have been recently described in " The Naturalist." 

Another mammaliferous deposit occurs at Elloughton, 
near Brough, on the top of a hill about one hundred feet in 
height, at a short distance from the Humber. This hill 
is capped by two beds of gravel, an upper one of local 
origin, and a lower one, containing many West Riding 
boulders. It is in the lower gravel that the animal remains 
occur. It was first described by Mr. Lamplugh in the 
Yorkshire Geological Society's Proceedings, and afterwards, 
as a result of further excavations and discoveries, in the 
same Society's publication by the present writer. 

Mr Lamplugh described an elephant's tusk in the gravel, 
which was ten feet in length, but it was not possible to move 
it. More recently a fairly large quantity of bones and 
teeth have been obtained, and many of these, through the 
kindness of the owners, I was able to dig out myself.* In 
addition to the teeth, horns and tusks, such unexpected 
items as an elephant's vertebra, and other bones not 
usually met with, have been obtained, probably owing their 
preservation to the bed of Oolitic mud in which they often 
occur. The Elloughton list includes Mammoth, straight- 
tusked Elephant, Red Deer, Bison, Ox and Horse. 

Another interesting deposit occurs at Bielbecks, near 
Market Weighton. This was first discovered nearly a 

* See Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc, 1896, pp. 221-231. 


Skeppard : Extinct Animals of East Yorkshire. 220, 

century ago by the late \Y. II. Dykes, of Hull, who sough! 
the aid of the late Professor Phillips, and it was described 
by Messrs. Harcourt, Salmond and Phillips in the " Philo- 
sophical Magazine " for 1829. Some hundreds of cart 
loads of marl had been removed with the object of improving 
the adjacent sandy soil, and amongst it were iuun^ a large 
number of bones of Lion, Rhinoceros, Bison, Mammoth, 
Irish Elk, Red Deer, Bos primigenius, Horse, Wolf and 
Duck. These bones were divided between the York and 
Hull museums. For nearly a century little was known 
of this deposit beyond the original very excellent descrip- 
tions. A short time ago the British Association gave a 
grant in order that more might be ascertained respecting its 
nature, and some extensive excavations were made under 
the supervision of some local geologists. The position 
and relative order, as well as the extent of the beds, were 
ascertained, and a large number of bones of Bison and 
Elephant were found. These the British Association 
handed over to the museum at Hull. 

Resting upon the glacial deposits of East Yorkshire are 
a number of Lacustrine or old lake beds, containing many 
fresh-water shells, and occasionally fish remains. These 
meres are now all dry, with the exception of Hornsea Mere, 
and are exposed on the coast, or in the sides of drains or 
artificial cuttings inland. There are many evidences that 
Holderness was once covered by meres and presented a 
similar appearance to that of the Norfolk Broads of to-day. 
In the peat beds the remains of the red deer are plentiful ; 
whole skeletons, and fine pairs of antlers being not at all 
uncommon. The list from these beds includes Bos primi- 
genius, Bos longifrons, Red Deer, Irish Elk, Reindeer, 
Horse, Beaver, Dog or Wolf, Birds (including Duck), Perch 
and Pike. Remains of the Lion and Mammoth have been 
recorded as from the Holderness peat, but it has been shown 
that these records were made in error.* 

In connection with these peat beds it should be recorded 
that Mr. Clement Reid has recently described the compact 
peaty material, known as " Moorlog," which is frequently 
brought up from the Dogger Bank by the trawlers. Mr. 
Reid has carefully examined this material by the aid of the 
microscope, and drawn up an extensive list of animal and 
plant remains found in it. The list indicates that at one 
time the North Sea was similar in appearance to that of the 
Norfolk Broads of to-day, and he suggests that there has 
probably been a land connection between England and the 
Continent long after the ice had melted away. This being 

* ' The Naturalist '. April, 1904, pp. 102-104. 
1911 June 1. 

230 Northern News. 

so, the presence of the reindeer in our peat beds might be 
accounted for. as that animal would be able to make its wax- 
across this swampy district. Mr. Reid's suggestive in- 
vestigations give food for thought as to the former physical 
conditions of the Eastern part of England. 

For lists of the various remains from East Yorkshire 
as well as for a Bibliography of the various papers in which 
they are described, reference may be made to the " Classified 
List of Organic Remains from the Rocks of the East Riding 
of Yorkshire," by Mr. H. C. Drake and the present writer, 
published in the " Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological 
Society." Vol. XML. part I. 1910. pages 4-71. 

' The Love of the Honey Bee is given in a contemporary as the title 
of Mr. Tickner Edward's well-known volume. 

We regret to record the death of James Dodgson, who was treasurer 
to the Craven Naturalists' and Scientific Society since its formation, and 

was its President during the last two years. 

In the discussion to Prof. Garwood's paper on ' The Lower Carboniferous 
Succession in the North-west cd England,' recently read to the Geological 
Society, we learn that one suggestion, which accorded with Dr. Vaughan's 
view, that the Thysanophyllum-pseudovermiculare Hand at the top of the 
Athyris-glabristria Zone should be placed well up in C 2 , would become a 
strong probability were it certain, as the Author adduced evidence for 
believing that the Spirifer-pinskeyensis Beds are separated fromtheover- 
lying Athyris-glabristria Zone by the conglomerate exposed in Pinskey Gill. 
We are prepared to believe it. 

We learn from The Yorkshire Post that in regard to the suggested museum 
for the Spen Valley, Mr. J. G. Cooke, of Ben Rhydding, and his brother. 
Mr W. Cooke, of London, owners of Healds Hall. Liversedge, have inti- 
mated that they are prepared to hand over the hall, together with about 
fifteen or twenty acres of land, for a public park, museum, and permanent 
home of the Spen valley Literary Society for ever. The otter is made on 
condition that the local authorities of Cleckheaton. Liversedge. and Heck- 
mondwike undertake its upkeep. The hall, which is a large building of 
considerable local interest, is located on a commanding site not far from 
the Heckmondwike boundary, and it has long been looked upon by the 
Literary Society as a suitable home for their museum, which, for lack of 
proper accommodation, has been in danger, of removal from the district. 
We would advise the editor of the Lancashire Naturalist to change his 
printers, as, from a typographical point of view, the journal is not credit- 
able. The April number, which arrived very late, is badly ' got up,' and 
includes a note to the effect that ' the top Hue page 401, vol. 3, should 
follow the bottom line, page 399.' The cover is as amateurish a piece of 
' setting ' as we have seen, and, amongst the misprints thereon, we notice 
' h/story,' ' p/cased.' ' Mt ' (for ' Mr.'), and ' comnumid'ations.' Mr. Haws 
also will deal with 'Microscopic matters.' Inside, some of the pages are 
headed with the name of the journal ; some have the title of the article ; 
some have nothing at all ; some agents are ' Mr.'s ' others are not ; figures 
are used for letters, italic letters for Roman, and vice versa ; there are 
types from wrong founts, and spaces in words where spaces should not 
be ; plural verbs arc given with singular nouns ; and points appear where 
they should not, and are omitted where they should appear. Some 
words appear in italics which should not (e.g., Bi yum Association on page 3, 
and var. on page 6, etc.), and vice versa ; and there is a quantity of 
broken type. 




Old Farnley. 

\ndrecea alpina Smith. 
Diphyscium foliosum var. acutifoli 

itiii Lindb. 
Campylopus atrovirens De Not. 
Fissidens osmundoides Hedvv. 

During the last few months, .Mr. F. Haxby and i have paid 
several visits to Inglebro', to examine the less frequented parts 
of the mountain, and have been amply repaid by the discovery 
of quite a distinct set of mosses, such as one associates with 
the Lake District mountains where the rocks are of an older 
type, with less sandstones, and more quartzite and volcanic 
rocks. No doubt the situation has a good deal to do with the 
question, for in this particular spot the rocks face north-west 
to north, and the spores will be more often deposited here from 
the hills above Cautley and from the Cumberland mountains. 
The following is a list showing the type of mosses : — ■ 

Grimmia torquata Ilornsch. 
Ancectangium compactum Schwaeg. 
Zygodon lapponicus B. &■ S. 
Tetruplndon mnioides B. cS- S. 
Webera elongata Schwaeg. 
And the Hepatic — Anthelia julacea. 

This list might be very considerably enlarged by the in- 
clusion of other species equally well-known on other parts of 
Inglebro' and the higher mountains. 

Andrecea alpina Smith was only doubtfully recorded for 
Inglebro' previously. It occurs in fair quantity and good 

The Diphyscium variety is new to Inglebro', its only other 
habitat in West Yorkshire is at Cautley Spout. 

Campylopus atrovirens grows on the older rocks in the 
Ingleton Gylls below, but we had not seen it previously on the 
sandstones up the hill. 

Fissidens osmundoides has only been reported from Cautley 

Grimmia torquata is not typical. I thought at first it 
was G. funalis, and I fancy that it is the G. funalis reported by 
B. Carrington from Inglebro'. Mr. A. Wilson and Mr. W. E. 
Nicholson both agree that it is G. torquata, and this is an addi- 
tional species to West Yorkshire. 

Ancectangium compactum. There are some fine patches 
of this moss. Other West Yorkshire records are Whernside 
and Rawtheydale. This is new to Inglebro'. 

Zygodon lapponicus. This is very scarce, and in small 
patches, it is quite new to Yorkshire, not having been seen 
even in Upper Teesdale, the happy hunting-ground for York- 
shire alpines. 

Tetraplodon mnioides I had only seen once before on 

1911 June 1. 

232 Field Notes. 

Webera elongata. Mentioned previously rather doubtfully, 
is to be found in fair quantity. 

On another occasion we visited the higher limestone rocks 
on Simon Fell, the easterly shoulder of the mountain. Here 
we got Thuidium philiberti Limpr. This moss has not been 
found in England before, its habitat being the highest Scotch 
mountains. Messrs. Wilson and Wheldon have kindly con- 
firmed this identification. Once we were driven by snow- 
storms to take refuge below in the Ingleton Gylls, and there 
found Rhabdoweisia denticulata B. and S., the other West 
Yorkshire locality for which is Cautley Spout. Mr. Haxby has 
since found it near Warfe on the lower slopes of Moughton 
Scar. We also found Pterogonium gracile Swartz here. 

To leave these rocks and cross the Craven faults for the 
rough grits south of Clapham Station is to get on a very different 
type of mosses, and up Keasden beck the change is well seen. 
Here Catherinea crispa James grows with Trichostonii/iii 
tenuirostre Lindb., both these being new to the Lune drainage. 


Abundance of the Nightingale in Shropshire. — The 

present season is remarkable for the extraordinary influx of 
Nightingales into Shropshire. The normal range of this 
species is confined to the Severn valley, south of Shrewsbury, 
though in certain years (e.g., 1902 and 1905), a few birds have 
occurred in scattered localities to the N. and N.W. of that 
area. This year the Nightingales are unusually numerous in 
their regular habitats — a friend of mine heard or saw twelve 
in a ramble of about three miles between Coalport and Broseley 
— whilst already I have heard of many in various places quite 
ontside their known range in the directions indicated above. 
It would be well for Yorkshire naturalists to keep a special 
look-out for the Nightingale to the N. and N.W. of Doncaster, 
in order to ascertain how far beyond its normal range the 
species extends this season. Even if the result is negative, 
it will be interesting as showing that the unusual immigration 
affects only the western side of the kindgom. — H. E. Forrest, 

Nightingale near Collingham. — A pair of Nightingales 
have taken up their abode in a small coppice on the banks of 
the Wharfe at Linton. The cold weather prevailing at the 
time of migration may have prevented more than an odd pair 
or so penetrating into Yorkshire, although letters from friends 
in the regular haunts of these birds confirms Mr. Forrest's 
statements above that they are unusually numerous. — R. 



The members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union assembled 
in good numbers on May 13th at Harewood Park, by permission 
of Lord Harewood. Brakes conveyed the party from Arthing- 
ton Station, and in the Park the various sections found much 
of interest. Most of the work was carried on in the vicinity 
of the lake, upon which numerous waterfowl breed, and around 
which plants thrive in profusion. Here, amid the fine trees, 
and sheltered by the hills, the fauna and flora have every 
chance to flourish, and have the further advantage of being 
practically unmolested. Perhaps the most interesting feature 
on this mere was the colony of whooper swans. The Great 
Crested Grebe, Shoveller, Mallard, and Canada Goose were also 
present in numbers. There is likewise a heronry at Harewood, 
and though small, it was gratifying to find that the herons 
were increasing in numbers. Around the margin of the mere 
the gorgeous blooms of the marsh marigold, anemone, and 
bluebell delighted the hearts of the botanists. After tea, 
at the YVharfedale Hotel, a meeting was held, under the presi- 
dency of Mr. G. T. Porritt, F.L.S., of Huddersfield. Reports 
on the day's investigations were given by Messrs. Cheetham, 
Winter, Croft, Sheppard, Hutton, Porritt, Fortune, Booth, 
and Gaunt. Twenty new members were elected, and the 
Brighouse Naturalists' Society was affiliated with the Union. 

Hymenoptera. — Mr. J. F. Musham records : — Vespa 
vulgaris, Psithyrus campestris Panzer, Andrcna cineraria 

Arachnida. — Mr. Falconer writes : — I had previously on 
two occasions spent a week (but a fortnight later in point of 
time) in the vicinity of Harewood, and a fair number of spiders 
is already on the list for the district. Some of them as York- 
shire species, are very rare ; one, Tmeticus adeptus Camb. 
(' Proc. Dorset FiekfClub,' Vol. XXVII. , 1906), the type 
specimen, being a unique female ; Oxyptila flexa Camb., an 
adult female, Episinus truncatus Walck, an immature male, 
and Theridion pidchellum Walck, both sexes, being the only 
records for the county. With the intention of securing, if 
possible, more examples of these, Mr. Winter and I, starting 
early, visited the localities at East Keswick and Woodhall, 
where they had previously occurred. We met with little 
success, only one female of the last-named being obtained in a 
new locality, but the extra journey was not altogether fruitless. 
Theridion bimaculatum Linn, a local spider, was found amongst 
grass, at the former place, and a fine male, Baryphyma pratensis 
Bl., elsewhere in the county known only, and that very rarely, 
in the East Riding, was taken from flood drift entangled 
amongst the trunk twigs of a tree on the left bank of the 

gir J une i. 


Yorkshire Naturalists at Harewood Park. 

Wharf e, at the latter place. Harewood Avenue, through 
which we passed on our way back, yields one or two good 
spiders. In the park itself, spiders abounded on the trees 
and bushes, and amongst the herbage on the banks of the 
mere, though, unfortunately, many kinds were as yet immature, 
and undeterminable specifically. Adults of Theridion pollens 
Bl., Linyphia peltata Wid., Bathyphantes dorsalis Wid., and 
immature examples of Tetragnatha solandrii Scop, were especially 
plentiful in such situations, and several specimens of Epeira 
triguttata Fabr. (provisionally so-named, no adults having yet 
been taken in Yorkshire), were beaten from the yew trees. 
Examples of Coelotos atropos Walck, Amaurobius fenestralis 
Stroem, PhyUonethis lineata Clerk, and Lycosa amentata Clerk, 
were handed in by Messrs. Margerison, Rhodes, Hastings and 

Having regard to their known distribution in the county, 
the best finds were undoubtedly Tmeticus affinis BL, a rare 
British spider, of which the type specimens came from Hornsea 
Mere, where it has since been taken by Mr. T. Stainforth, 
Clubiona brevipes BL, Enidia cornuta BL, (Edothorax dentatus 
Wid., Styloctetor penicillatus Westr, and the Baryphyma 
pratensis BL, already mentioned. Altogether, seventy-two 
species of true spiders, including three new to the West Riding, 
three harvestmen and one pseudoscorpion were met with. 

In the following complete list, the species new to the district 
are marked with an asterisk, and those new to the West Riding 
with a dagger ; those which occurred at all the places visited 
have no locality assigned to them : — 

T. bimaculatum Linn. E. Keswick, 
two immature ^?- 

T. pattens Bl. 

T. pulchellum Walck. One $, Hare- 
wood Park. 

PhyUonethis lineata Clerck. 

Robertus lividus Bl. 

Stemonyphantes lineata Linn. ^, 
E. Keswick. 

Linyphia montana Clerck. L. 
peltata Wid, and L. clathrata 

Leptyphantes blackwallii Kulcz, and 
L. tenuis Bl. Common. 

L. ericaeus Bl. One <$, and L. 
flavipes Bl. One £, Woodhall, 

Bathyphantes concolor Wid. £L 
nigrinus Westr. and B. dorsalis 

B. appro ximatus Camb. Hare- 
wood Park, five $, one $. 

B. parvulus Westr. One $, Hare- 
wood Park. 


Harpactes hombevgii Scop. E. Kes- 

Segestria senoculata Linn. Hare- 
wood Park. 

Oonops pulcher Temp. 

Clubiona reclusa Camb. E. Kes- 

C. comta C. L. Koch, one £, E. 
Keswick, and C. brevipes Bl. 
Harewood Park, one $. 

C. holosevicea DeGeer. Woodhall 
and Harewood Park. 9? 

Dictyna uncinata Westr. E. Kes- 
wick, imm. example. 
Amaurobius fenestralis Stroem. 

Cryphoeca silvicola C. L. Koch. 
One $. -Harewood Park. 

Coelotes atropos Walck. 

Theridion sisyphium Clerck. Hare- 
wood Park, immature examples. 

T. denticulatum Walck. Hare- 
wood Park, both sexes, adult 
and immature. 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Harewood Park. 


Poeciloneta variegata 151. Wood- 
^Tmeticus affiuis 131. Harewood 
Park, three of each sex. 

Macrargus ruftts Wid. Two $, 
Harewood Park. 

Porrhomma microphthalmum Camb 
One $, Harewood Avenue. 

Microneta viaria Bl. 

Maso sundevallii Westr. Woodhall 
and Harewood Park. 

Gongylidium rufipes Sund.- E. 
Keswick and Woodhall. 

CEdothorax fuscus Bl. E. Keswick. 

CE. retusus Westr. Harewood Park. 

CE. agrestis Bl. Harewood Park. 

CE. dentatus Wid. Harewood Park, 
live $, seven £. 

Erigone dentipalpis Wid. Hare- 
wood Park. 

Neriene > ubens Bl. E. Keswick. 

N. rubella PI. Woodhall, one $. 

Enid ni cornuta Bl. One J 1 , Hare- 
wood Park. 

£. bituberculata Wid. 

Dismodicus bifrons Bl. 

Diplocephalus latifrons Camb. 
Harewood Avenue and Park. 

ZJ. fuscipes Bl. One §, E. Keswick, 
and I). permixtus Camb. Hare- 
wood Park, $$. 

Z). picinus Bl. Woodhall, Hare- 
wood Park and Avenue. 

Entelecara erythropus Westr. One 
9, Harewood Park. 

Styloctetov penicillatus Westr. Two 
$$, Harewood Park. 

Topinocyba pollens Camb. One 
$, Harewood Park. Obisium muscorum Leach. 

Messrs. Hastings, Rhodes and Margerison assisted in collecting. 

Myriapoda. — Mr. Falconer writes : — The following Myria- 
pods were collected along the route followed by the arach- 
nologists : — Lithobius forficatus Linn, Geophilus flavus De Geer, 
and Julus terrestris Linn, common and generally distributed. 
Glomeris marginata Villers, E. Keswick and Woodhall ; Julus 
sabulosus Linn, E. Keswick. 

To these Mr. Margerison adds Lithobius variegatus, Geo- 
philus longicofnis, and Polydesmus complanatus. 

One specimen of the Geophilus was coiled over its eggs, under 
a stone. Newport says that she ' sits ' from the time of pro- 
ducing the eggs until the young emerge. 

Mollusca. — Mr. John F. Musham writes that the Park 
was fairly investigated, with the result that fifteen species were 
observed, the more noteworthy being : — Agriolimax agrestis 

ign June I. 

Bat yphyma pi atensis Bl. < >ne ',, 

Walckenaera acuminata Bl. Hare- 
wood I 'ark. 

Cornicularia cuspidata Bl. E. Kes 

C. unicornis Cambr. One ^. E. 

Tetragnatha solandrii Scop. Wood- 
halland 1 [arewood I 'ark. 

Pachygnatha degeerii Sund. E. 
Keswick and Harewood Park. 

P. clerckii Sund. Harewood Park 

Nesticus cellulanus Clerck. One $. 
Harewood Park. 

Epeira cucurbitina Clerck. E. Kes- 
wick, Woodhall and Harewood 
I 'ark. 

E. triguttata Fabr. Several imma- 
ture examples, Harewood Park. 

yptila trux Bl. E. Keswick. 

Philodromus aureolus Clerck. Hare- 
wood Park. 

Tarentula pulverulenta Clerck. One 
$, Harewood Park. 
Pirata piratic us Clerck. Harewood 

Lycoso pullata Clerck. E. Keswick. 
L. amentata Clerck. Woodhall and 

Harewood Park. 
Neon reticulatus PI. 2 immature 

examples. Harewood Park. 

Platybunus corniger. 

Nemastoma lugubre O.F.M. E. Kes- 
wick, Harewood Avenue. 

Oligolophus morio Fabr. Woodhall, 
Harewood Park. 

236 Yorkshire Naturalists at Harewood Park. 

var. reticulata, almost exclusive ; Arioncircumscriptus, A.sub- 
fuscus var. aurantiaca (Loc), Zonites nitidns ? Anodonta cygnea, 
and Unio pictorum occurred in the large lake. 

Spongia. — Mr. A. R. Sanderson noted the fresh-water 
sponge, Spongilla fluviatilis in profusion. 

Botany. — Mr. C. A. Cheetham writes : — A fairer sight 
would be hard to find than that provided by the Marsh Marigold 
and sedges in the swamps, and the Blue Bells and Anemones 
with the modest Woodsorrel and Yellow Weaselsnout in the 
woods. Some very deeply coloured masses of Anemones and 
Woodsorrel offered subjects for discussion. 

Around the shore of the lake the naturalized plants pro- 
vided an added interest ; Solomon's Seal growing in the turf, 
the mighty inflorescence of Gunnera on the shore edge, and the 
long semi-floating rhizomes of the Sweet Flag in the lake all 
looking quite happy in their new home. 

To a ' splitter ' delighting in varieties and forms the Marsh 
Marigold held out open arms, some clumps had the sepals 
all imbricate, others had them widely separate, and again in 
others the sepals were nipped up at the top, giving them a very 
narrow appearance. 

Amongst the few species of sedges noted, one singled out 
the great masses of C. paniculata so well known in the neigh- 
bouring valley at Adel. Growing in the moist spaces midst these 
sedge clumps, the little waterblinks were bravely flowering. 

The mosses were of a similar nature, nothing startling but 
quietly interesting ; some parts of the turf being carpeted 
with Mnium affine and in others Climacium dendroides in place 
of the usual Mnium homeum, and on the partly submerged 
tree trunks or more especially the dead ones around the lake, 
Aulacomnium androgynum held up its little stalks with knobs 
of gemmae at the apex, whilst on similar trees in the woods 
was Tetr aphis pellucida, with its nest of gemmae filling this 

With the waterblinks the pear-shaped capsules of Phys- 
comitrium pyrijorme were to be seen in quantity. A list of 
some forty species of mosses was handed to the Teeds Natural- 
ists' Society for inclusion in their records of this district. 

Mr. A. R. Sanderson writes that he gathered two specimens 
of Mycetozoa, viz., Trichia varia and Reticularia lycoperdon, 
and the polypore P. squamosus. 

Geology. — Mr. S. Margerison reports that he and Mr. 
Gaunt saw a large gritstone glacial boulder, which is known 
as the 'Greystone', in the south-east portion of the Park. 
He did not measure it, but it would be at least 10 ft. by 6 ft. 
by 6 ft., i.e., well over 20 tons in weight. 

T. S. 




White tailed Eagle on Hackness Moor, near Scarboro'. 

During the visit of the Yorkshire Geologists to Scarborough 
at Easter, a large bird was seen near the woods at Hackness 
being mobbed by Rooks and Jackdaws. .It was at an estimated 
altitude of five hundred feet. On Monday, May ist, a White- 
Tailed Eagle was seen feeding on a lamb at Birch Hall, near 
Bickley, on the other side of Langdale End. A keeper shot 
it, and found that it was a Haliaetus albicilla, about three 
years old. It has been sent to the taxidermist to be set up. 
This bird has been seen in the Hackness district during the 
past three years, and Capt. Johnstone gave orders to his 
keepers not to shoot it, as no evidence of any damage had been 
seen by them. It is probable that the bird which the 
Yorkshire geologists saw at Easter, is the same that was shot 
on May ist, as the large bird which the keeper had seen in the 
district during the past three years has not been seen since that 
date. — Harry Witty, Scarborough, 27th May, 1911. 

— : o i — 
Blethisa multipunctata L. in East Yorks. — I found a 
single specimen of this beetle under a stone on the banks of 
the river Derwent at Bubwith, on March 8th, of this year. 
It did not attempt to escape when uncovered, probably due 
to the cold weather. Further search under stones and among 
flood refuse and in the short grass has so far revealed no more 
specimens. Elaplims riparius L. and E. cupreus Duft. occur 
near by. The only previous record for the East Riding (as 
far as I am aware), is the existence of specimens in the Spence 
Collection (Hull Museum), which may have- been taken in the 
Hull district. The Rev. W. C. Hey (Trans. Y.N.U., 1885), 
says : ' Another of the Askham Bog rarities, but not taken for 
many years.' The Bubwith locality is not more than twelve 
miles, as the crow flies, from Askham Bog. For further par- 
ticulars of this interesting beetle see Mr. Bayford's article in 
' The Naturalist,' 1904, pp. 280-282. — W. J. Fordham, Bub- 


Cumberland Neuroptera and Trichoptera. — I have 
recently examined on behalf of Mr. G. B. Routledge, some 
Neuroptera and Trichoptera taken in Cumberland, and most 
of them in the immediate vicinity of Tarn Lodge, Headsnook, 
Carlisle. As so little is known of the distribution of these 
insects in that county, and as most of them are additions to 

1911 June 1. 

238 Field Notes. 

the short list published in this journal (' Nat.', January 1910, 
p. 29), I place them on record : — Chloroperla grammatica , 
Micromus paganus, Hemerobius nervosus, H. micans, H. mar- 
ginatus, H. stigma, H. subnebulosus, Nemoura meyeri, Phry- 
ganea striata, P. obsoleta, Limnophilus nigriceps, L. auricula, 
L. centralis, L. sparsus, Stenophylax permistus, Lepidostoma 
hirtum, Ecclisopteryx guttulata, Drusus annulatus, Wormaldia 
subnigra, Plectrocnemia conspersa, Hydropsyche instabilis, and 
Rhyacophila dorsalis. Of these, perhaps the most interesting 
are Phryganea obsoleta and Limnophilus nigriceps, neither of 
which has as yet been recorded for Yorkshire. — Geo. T. 



Tortula vahlii (Schultz) Wils. in North Lincolnshire. — 

I had the pleasure of gathering this rare English moss, the home 
of which is the Mediterranean region, at the beginning of this 
month, on the banks of the Waltham Beck, in the parish of 
Cleethorpes, a short distance before it emerges into the mouth 
of the Humber. It is confined to a narrow strip on the right 
bank, about a hundred yards long and six feet wide. It is 
growing on the mud dredged from the bottom of the. beck. The 
water is here tidal, and an examination of the bank some dis- 
tance above the lock, failed to detect the moss. The left 
bank was also examined without success. Mr. G. Allison, of 
Grimsby, also searched the beck bank, for a mile and a half 
from its source, at the foot of the Lincolnshire Wolds, without 
meeting with it. Its previous distribution in the British 
Isles, so far as recorded, is West Sussex and Surrey in the south, 
West Gloucester and Hereford in the West, and Cambridgeshire. 
This discovery extends its range much further north. Mr. 
W. Ingham, of York, has confirmed my determination of it. — 
J. J. Marshall, Grimsby. 


Life of William MacGillivray, by W. MacGillivray (222 pp., John 
Murray, 10/6 net). 

MacGillivray was a grand example of the old type of ' all round ' 
naturalist, and his name is still a household word amongst ornithologists. 
He was bom in 1796, and died fifty-six years later; consequently the 
present ' life ' is somewhat tardy, but it is none the less welcome on that 
account. The narrative is a good one, and many besides naturalists will 
benefit from a perusal of these pages. Prof. J. Arthur Thomson con- 
tributes a charming chapter — ' MacGillivray's Scientific Work — an 
Appreciation.' There are reproductions of several of MacGillivray's 
careful drawings of birds, including that of the Great Auk. On page x. 
the name of Mr. W. P. Pycraft is wrongly spelt. 


Reviews and Book Notices. 239 

A History of Barmby Moor from Prehistoric Times, by W. D. Wood 

Rees, Vicar. Pocklington, 1911. 109 pp., 3/-. 

In sending us this pamphlet, the author asks us to cast it aside if it 
is not worth favourable mention, as he would rather it were buried in 
oblivion than ' dam'd ' with faint praise. We feel flattered to hear that 
if the book is not noticed in this journal it may be ' buried in oblivion,' and 
as we can hardly give it even faint praise, it is a little difficult to know what 
to do. However, as only a small edition has been issued, and half of this 
has been sold, it is just within the bounds of possibility that a new edition 
may be called for at some future time. This being so, we beg to offer a 
few suggestions for the benefit of the author. In the first place, instead 
of consulting Taylor's 'Book of British Fossils,' William Andrews' works, 
Moule's ' English Counties,' and ' Placito De Quo Warranto,' he should 
read Cox's ' How to write the history of a Parish,' the Geological Survey 
Memoirs for the district, and, for the natural history, the publications 
of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. None of these appear to have been 
seen. The words ' A History ' in the title should read ' A Scrapbook,' in 
order to more accurately define the contents. The portrait and autograph 
of the author as frontispiece should be omitted, as it may give the impres- 
sion that the author is rather proud of this ' history ', whereas, as a matter 
of fact, he refers to it as ' puny.' Part of the book is addressed to his 
parishioners, and part to ' my readers.' It should be addressed to the 
one or the other throughout, or to neither. There is no evidence that the 
weight of the glaciers during the great Ice Age caused them to ' sink in,' 
and melting, leave their heterogeneous deposits deep in the clay.' The 
' red deer jaws,' figured on page 2, are jaws of a cart-horse, with some of 
the teeth in their wrong places. The description of the illustration should 
therefore be deleted, as well as the accompanying letterpress. The red 
deer was not ' very much larger than a horse,' and in examining the skeleton 
in the York Museum, the author did not trouble to read the label, or hi' 
would have found out it was ' Irish Elk ' ; a very different animal. ' The 
Scripture and Primaeval Lore,' quoting the piffle about ' bronze, translated 
brass, is mentioned forty-three times. Iron is mentioned only four times,' 
in the Bible, should be omitted, as it conveys nothing. There are no 
such things as ' live-flanged ' and ' docketed ' axes ; somebody's hand- 
writing has not been distinct. The Sancton urns are Saxon, not British, 
and they do not contain ' silver-grit.' Geologists do not call thunderbolts 
' dirivative oolitic belemnites,' and do not know ' coral mussels,' and would 
spell rhynchonellae and Hippopodium properly. We should want much 
more evidence before accepting the statement that the foundations of 
' two rooms, nearly square,' found on the site of the new vicarage, were an 
' Ancient British Cottage.' Under the heading 'The Roman Road,' we 
expected to find a little more than the statement that the author was 
' very proud and thankful ' he helped the surveyor to trace it. There 
should be more about the part played by the village inn in the old coaching 
days : the Barmby Moor Inn being a halting place for the horses. An 
old oil-painting of the inn exists in a Yorkshire Museum, and was described 
in one of its publications. ' Our dear old parish church ' appears to be 
a new one. The modern custom of throwing confetti at weddings may 
be ' meaningless, foolish and annoying', but if the present writer were 
ever able to have the opportunity of choosing, he would prefer confetti, 
even if the chickens did go without a feed. The vicar only ' fancies ' 
that kissing under the mistletoe is still in vogue at Barmby : he ought to 
make certain. Nuremburg tokens are found everywhere, and the one 
found at Barmby had nothing to do with Nuremburg pilgrims going to the 
shrine at Wilberfoss. There are five different newts recorded for Barmby 
in this ' History ' — two more than appears in the Yorkshire list ; and the 
author says he finds a reference to the hedgehog in ' Harl. MSS.' We 
wonder what that is, as it is not referred to in the ' list of Books and MSS. 
consulted.' The quotations from George Wales' ' Book of Charms ' is 

1911 June 1. 

240 Reviews and Book Notices. 

no proof that he was a ' staunch churchman.' From what we are told 
about him, he was more likely to have been a hypocrite. In case the 
volume might be wanted at any time for reference, it 'should be lettered 
on the back. 

The Evolution of Klngston-upon-Hull, as shewn by its Plans, with 
illustrations. By Thomas Sheppard, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.), 
Curator Municipal Museums, Hull. Printed and published for the Hull 
Corporation by A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., Savile Street and George Street, 
Hull, 191 1. Price 3/6 net. 

This small book of 204 pages furnishes one more proof that size is not 
necessarily an index of quality or value. Many a bulky volume on some 
topographical subject has been published, which has not contained as 
much vital and indispensable matter as is to be found here. We can 
readily understand that there will be those who, on first looking into its 
pages, will experience a feeling of disappointment, because the subject has 
not been treated in the manner which first suggests itself to their minds. 
Further reflection, and a more careful perusal of the work itself, will 
change that first flush of disappointment into a feeling of settled apprecia- 
tion. The title expresses exactly the contents of the book, and no more. 
Every kind of map, whether hypothetical sixth century, rude sketch, 
sectional or careful survey, is included, and there can be very few, if any, 
at least of importance, which have escaped Mr. Sheppard 's researches ; 
and it is a very gratifying feature to find that most of them have found 
their way to the Hull Museum. We can imagine few pleasanter ways 
in which to spend an afternoon, or a succession of afternoons, than to be 
surrounded with these plans, and, with this book at hand assisting us, to 
trace bit by bit the gradual growth of the Hull that was, into the Hull that 
is. Especially interesting it ought to be to the Hull man who loves his 
city, and wishes to know what is known of the various changes it has 
undergone. Very possibly Mr. Sheppard may not agree with our opinion 
that this is one of his best ; at any rate it is a work which it will be difficult 
to amend, and cannot be superseded. It is an indispensable work of 
reference well done ; and both author and publishers are to be congratulated 
for their respective shares in it. 

The amount of careful, methodical, and tedious work involved in the 
preparation of the volume can only be estimated by those who have 
engaged in similar work, and therefore know the difficulties that attend 
the accumulation of the material, and the very slow rate of progress. 
The author has achieved a notable success by resisting the many tempta- 
tions to discursiveness, and allowing the plans to tell their own tale. Here 
and there, when necessity demands it, we have a few well-chosen words, 
a concise ' sentence or two, which illuminate the whole, and renders it 
easily intelligible. 

The etymology of place names is a subject on which doctors differ 
widely, and that of the two places whose etymology are given is no excep- 
tion to' the rule. That of Drypool in particular seems open to objections 
both on botanical and rational grounds. A careful reading of the work 
has produced a very lean crop of errors — four in number — and of these 
it is possible that two are intentional. This, of itself, is eloquent testimony 
to the care with which the work has been seen through the press. On 
page 37, ' 2894 feet ' should read ' 2844 feet.' ; on page 92, ' Hargrave ' 
should be ' Hargreave,' and both in the Index and on page 139, ' Peniten- 
tiary ' is misspelled ' Penetentiary.' This latter may be the spelling on 
the map from which it is quoted, but as the word does not appear in quota- 
tion marks, it is included amongst the errors. Special praise should be 
bestowed on the index, which is a very full one, and, so far as we have 
tested it, is a model of what an index should be. The get-up of the book, 
its handy size, and clear clean type, are alike all that could be desired. 
The plates, although well reproduced, are sometimes so much reduced as 
to be tantalizing indications of the original, and, curiously enough, are 
not extra to the text, but paged continuously with it. Eminently a book 
to read and use, and should have a wide circulation. — E.G.B. 


JULY, 1911. 

No. 654 

(No. 432 of current aeries). 




T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 




Contents : — 

Notes and Comments: — ' The Naturalist ' ; Melanism in Am phidasys betulavia ; Why Botanists 
New Shilling Books; Travels on the Amazon; The Lore of the Honey Bee; The Anima 
World ; Evolution of Plants ; Evolution ; Plant Life on Land ; History of Geology 
Geology: Chapters on Earth History; 'Butterflies and how to Identify them'; The 
British Museum (Natural History) ; Destruction of Birds 

Anemones on the Yorkshire Coast— John Irving, M.D 

The Vertebrate Fauna of Harewood — R. Fortune, F.Z.S 

Mosses and Hepatics at Castleton, N. Yorks. — W. Ingham, B.A 

Yorkshire Naturalists on the Cleveland Hills— T. S. 

Twenty=nine Years' Rainfall at Wetwang— Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc, LL.D 

On the Occurrence of Pedlcularis patustris L. en masse (Illustrated) — W.J. Ford ham 

Bibliography: Papers and Records published with respect to the Geology and Palaeontology 
of the North of England, (Yorkshire excepted), during 1909—7'. Sheppard, F.G.S., 
F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.) ... 

Field Notes 

News from the Magazines 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Museum News 

Northern News 










256, 271 
246, 247 
250, 272 

as i 


A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, EC. 

And at Hull andjYoRK. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.A T ,U. 



Transactions of the 

Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' Club. 


Edited by THOMAS SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.). 



A List of the Seventeenth Century Tokens of Lincolnshire, with descriptions 
of hitherto unpublished tokens (with ioo illustrations), by T. Sheppard, 
F.G.S., etc. 

Roman Bronze Coins found at South Ferriby, Lines., (with 93 illustrations), 
by T. Pickersgill. 

Additions to the List of East Yorkshire Spiders, by E. A. Parsons and 
T. Stainforth, B.A. 

Notes on some Scarborough Coleopteraand Arachnida, by T. Stainforth, B.A. 

Additions to the List of the Diatomacea; of the Hull District (with 23 illustra- 
tions), by R. H. Philip. 

Reports on the Club's work for 1908-10. 

Sold by 
A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., King Edward St. and Savile St., Hull. 


Being a Reply to Sir Edwin Durning-Lawrence's 

The Presidential Address to the Hull Shakespeare Society by 


By adopting Sir Edwin Durning--La\vrence's methods, the author 
"proves" that Bacon wrote "Gent's History of Hull," and his own 
"Geological Rambles in East Yorkshire," etc. The Address is an 
amusing criticism of the methods adopted by the Baconians. 

Price One Shilling Net. By post, 1/2. 

Sold by A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Savile St. and King Edward St., Hull. 

FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE Several volumes of the 

Geological Magazine ; Parts of the Yorkshire Geological 
Society's Proceedings ; Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' 
Clubs' Transactions, etc. 




24 1 



The whirl of sea-birds' wings, old Flamboro's chalk, 

Grey sands of Easington, bird-haunted Spurn, 

Whence migrant birds of passage make return, 

When seasons change, glad summer wanes, and roke 

Of dim sea-mist invades the pleasant walk 

By cliff and sand, when turgid sunsets burn 

In regal glory, and the wild waves churn 

To whitened foam, as fragments of rent oak 

Are cast upon the shingly, weed-strewn strand, 

Proof of the sea's wild rage and restless might, 

Of tragedy that underlies all life! — ■ 

In thought, amid such scenes, I see you stand, 

Rejoicing in old Nature's morn and night ; 

The grandeur of her stormy moods, her frequent strife! 


In The Entomologist for June, Mr. S. H. Leigh writes on 
' A Biological Enquiry into the Nature of Melanism in Arnphi- 
dasys bctularia.' In this he considers that the theory of ' pro- 
tection ' should not be pressed too closely at present, for there 
are many well-known cases in which dark varieties of moths 
are found in localities far removed from the influence of smoke, 
and where they most probably rest upon light-coloured objects. 
For example, at Silverdale and Grange, in North Lancashire, 
the black (doubledayaria) form is prominent, where formerly 
it was very rare or absent, and where the atmosphere is as 
free from smoke and the natural objects (trees, stones, etc.), 
as clean now as at any previous time. 


If the average person be asked, ' what object have these 
botanists in view ? ' he will probably give one of the following 
answers : — i. To ' get something ' by it. 2. To cure this or 
that complaint ; 3. To amuse themselves. 4. To prove design 
in the works of nature. With regard to 1, it may be said that 
pecuniary loss is more likely than gain ; to 2, that the result 
may be disappointing ; to 3, that (in these days especially) 
other forms of amusement are more attractive ; and to 4, that 
design (in the ordinary sense) is not ' proved ' by the fact, that 
effects are the results of causes. We would rather agree with 
More, a philosopher of the 17th century, of whom we read in 

* A sonnet dedicated to a well-known Yorkshire naturalist, taken from 
a volume, 'Christmas Leaves,' recently issued to a few friends from the 
press of Mr. Edward Lamplough. 

1911 July t. ~ 

242 Notes and Comments. 

Dr. Peile's ' History of Christ's College,' as follows : — " As a 
student in Cambridge he was possessed of an almost immoderate 
thirst for knowledge. His tutor, Rob. Gell, doubtful whether 
he were moved by vain-glory, questioned him one day as to 
the motive which prompted his eagerness. His answer was 
prompt and short, ' That I may know.' ' But, young man,' 
said Gell, ' what is the reason that you so earnestly desire to 
know things ? ' To which he instantly returned, ' I desire, I 
say, so earnestly to know, that I may know. There was no 
other answer ; knowledge was an end in itself." We do not 
wish to know the difference between one flowering plant, moss, 
alga, fungus, or another, for any of the above reasons ; we 
' desire to know, that we may know.' And so it is with truly 
scientific men, in whatever branch of study. They desire to 
know, that they may know. — W. F. 


A very gratifying sign of the times is the way in which 
really important books on natural science are being published 
at the low price of one shilling each ; and almost invariably 
these are printed with good type, on good paper, and well and 
neatly bound in cloth ; and, in addition, they contain the work 
of our leading authorities. We have already referred to some 
of these books recently. On our table there are a number of 


A first place must be given to Dr. A. R. Wallace's well- 
known classic, with the above title. The work was originally 
published over half a century ago, and the present is practi- 
cally a reprint, revised. There is no need to inform our readers 
of the enthralling interest of this story of a naturalist's wander- 
ings, and its great bearing upon the theory of evolution. What 
we cannot understand is how Messrs. Ward, Lock & Co. can 
produce a volume of nearly 400 pages, with a strong and 
artistic cover, for a shilling. 


Some little time ago we were very favourably impressed 
with Mr. Tickner Edwardes' volume, with the above title, 
which contained such a wealth of information in reference to 
the honey bee, and we were permitted to reproduce one of 
the many remarkable illustrations which there appeared. 
Though the book only made its appearance in 1908, it quickly 
ran into three editions, and now Messrs. Methuen have reprinted 
it at a shilling. With the exception of the illustrations, it 
appears to contain all that is in the original edition. 


Notes and Comments. 243 


Messrs. Williams and Norgate are publishing a wonderful 
series of new books, in the ' Home University Library of 
Modern Knowledge ' series. They have 256 pages each, with 
illustrations. That with the above-mentioned title is by Prof. 
F. \Y. Gamble, F.R.S., to whose excellent work we have pre- 
viously had the pleasure of referring. After an Introduction by 
Sir Oliver Lodge, the book contains chapters on the structure 
and classification of animals, their movements., distribution, 
food, methods of breathing, colours, senses, associations, life 
history, heredity and variations, etc. 


In the same series Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., deals with the 
evolution of the various forms of plants, in a series of eight 
entertaining chapters. Here again the basis of the theme is 
the Darwinian theory, and the ' fossil record ; ' then in turn the 
flowering plants, seed plants, ferns, club-mosses, horse-tails, 
and sphenophylls are dealt with, the volume closing with a 
useful glossary and bibliography. There are several illustra- 
tions, though we are not quite sure whether Bennettitites mary- 
landicns (fig. 8) will not be mistaken for a map of part of the 
moon's surface ! 


Still in the same series we have a charming summary of 
this great subject, by Prof. Patrick Geddes and Prof. J. Arthur 
Thomson ; the former being responsible for the botanical, and 
the latter for the zoological. Here the evidences brought 
forward by the explorer, palaeontologist, anatomist, embryo- 
logist and physiologist are in turn reviewed. There are also 
chapters entitled ' Great Steps in Evolution,' ' Variation and 
Heredity,' ' Selection,' ' Organism, Function, and Environ- 
ment,' etc. For those desirous of pursuing the matter further, 
an excellent bibliography is given. 


Under this title the Cambridge University Press has pub- 
lished a further volume in its ' Cambridge Manuals of Science 
and Literature ' series. Its full title is ' Plant Life on Land 
considered in some of its biological aspects,' and is by Prof. 
F. O. Bower, F.R.S. Here again we find ' Evolution ' plays a 
prominent part. The author deals with ' Present Day Botany 
— a Contrast,' ' The Beach and Rocks,' ' The Bracken Fern,' 
' The Flower and Metamorphosis,' ' Pollination and Fertiliza- 
tion,' ' Plant Population,' ' Sand Dunes,' ' Golf Links,' etc. 
There are several fine illustrations, some, from photographs, 
being unusually interesting. 

1911 July 1. 

244 Notes and Comments. 


Mr. Horace B. Woodward's recent History of the Geolo- 
gical Society of London perhaps clearly indicates that he was 
the most likely person to write a concise ' History of Geology,' 
and an admirable volume with this title has been published for 
the Rationalist Press Association by Messrs. Watts & Co., 
London, for the low price of one shilling. A student, or would- 
be student of geology, will find this book most useful. It 
contains some quaint information in reference to the early 
theories regarding the history of the earth. There are also 
interesting biographical notices of some of the pioneers of the 
science. Amongst these we do not notice the name of Thomas 
Hawkins, who worked amongst the saurians in the thirties ; 
though Mary Anning is mentioned ; nor Frederick Dixon, 
who published good work on the ' Cretaceous and Tertiaries of 
Sussex ' in the 'fifties. 


Messrs. Milner & Co. (Halifax and London) have issued a 
further volume in their remarkable ' Twentieth Century 
Science Series.' It is by Mr. G. Hickling, of the Manchester 
University, and has eight chapters, dealing with ' The Origin 
of the Earth,' ' Volcanoes and Earthquakes,' ' The Solid 
Rocks,' ' Earth Sculpture,' ' The Sea Floor,' ' Mountain 
Building,' ' The Physical History of Britain,' and the ' History 
of Life on the Earth.' There are several excellent illustrations, 
and these, together with the 136 pages, and stout cloth cover, 
make an excellent shilling's worth. This, together with Mr. 
Woodward's volume just referred to, would give any intelligent 
person a very good start in geology. 


is the title of a neat little well illustrated volume published by 
C. H. Kelly, London (64 pp., 1/-), and written by the Rev. 
S. N. Sedgwick. It includes chapters containing useful general 
information in reference to the butterflies ; numerous illustra- 
tions (some coloured) of eggs, larvae, pupae, and the male and 
female butterflies. Lists of the species are given, with their 
food-plants, period visible, locality, etc., and then follows a 
list of all the British species, classified under the heads of ' No.,' 
' Name,' ' Imago,' ' Larva,' ' Pupa,' ' Food-plant,' and ' Lo- 
cality.' There are some blank leaves at the end for notes. 


At the recent meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
at Castleton, the following resolution was unanimously passed, 
on the proposition of Mr. G. T. Porritt, seconded by Mr. T. 
Sheppard : — ' That the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union strongly 


Notes and Comments. 245 

protests against the ground which has for so long been set apart 
for the extension of the Natural History Museum at South 
Kensington being used for any other purpose, and urges the 
Government to reconsider its proposal with reference to it.' 
The resolution was necessary on account of a recent attempt 
to appropriate the land for other purposes than those for which 
it was intended. There is no doubt that the whole of the 
unoccupied part of the site will be required in the near future, 
for the accommodation of the Natural History Department. 
Copies of the resolution have been sent to local Members of 
Parliament, who have kindly promised to give the matter 
attention, and also the the Trustees of the British Museum, 
and to the Prime Minister, who have acknowledged their 


Mr. W. H. St. Quintin, the Chairman of the Yorkshire Wild 
Birds' Protection Committee, has written to the press appealing 
on behalf of the rarer birds. In this he points out that it does 
not in the least follow that because a bird of prey is a large 
one, it is necessarily highly destructive to game. The honey 
buzzard lives entirely on insects and their larvae. The kite 
and the buzzards feed mainly on mice and rats, moles, lizards, 
and frogs, and an occasional young rabbit ; the golden and the 
sea eagle chiefly on the remains of dead animals. But, granted 
that occasional damage is done on a shooting, he would still 
appeal for the bird, who may next week be hundreds of miles 
away, if, as is so often the case, his unexpected visit is paid in 
spring or autumn. Our larger species are sadly reduced, and 
the sight of them gives pleasure to almost every one ; scarcely 
any one would admit that he would wish the splendid creatures 
to be utterly exterminated! But with some of them it is a 
very near thing indeed. The white tailed or sea eagle has not 
reared young in the British Isles for several years, though a 
few very old individuals survive in the extreme north. The 
kite is only prevented from being absolutely wiped out by the 
strenuous effort of certain landowners and others in their last 
district. The osprey, till last year, had not reared young in 
Great Britain for several seasons. He greatly fears that it was 
one of the young birds that met its death at the hands of a 
shooter near Pickering last autumn. 

Dr. A. Keith contributes an interesting note on the teeth of Palaeolithic 
Man, to Nature (No. 2169). 

In The Zoologist (No. 839), the Rev. Hilderic Friend describes a new 
earthworm {Dendrobcena mcrciensis) from Derbyshire. In the same 
journal (No. 838), Mr. J. M. Charlton describes the birds of the Northumber- 
land coast, and it is also recorded that the Corncrake is by no means 
decreasing in the Scarborough district, although it seems to be get ing 
much rarer in other parts of England. 

ign July 1. 





Of marine fauna to be found on the Yorkshire coast, between 
tides, down to extreme low water level, anemones occupy the 
first place as living objects of beauty. A selected dozen, or 
two, of each species placed in clean sea-water in a suitable 
vessel or vessels, soon fix themselves and make a rich display 
of colours and patterns scarcely conceivable by those who have 
only viewed solitary specimens. This is the surest method 
of comparing, and determining varieties which are often 
numerous and remarkable. Occasionally it may be of great 
service in discovering new species, which, in the ' button ' state, 
simulate commoner forms. By way of example, take cave 
anemones, Sagartia troglodytes, so common at Scarborough 
and Filey. A group of thirty or forty of these, in a fair-sized 
photographic dish, covered with clear sea-water, when opened 
out, exhibit marvellous diversity, and, under scrutiny, possibly 
a ' daisy,' Sagartia bellis, or an ' orange-mouth,' Sagartia 
venusta, may be seen among them, which would have been 
overlooked in ordinary circumstances. 

Yorkshire has not been credited with its full quota of 
species, probably through lack of persistent research and close 
observation. If I remember rightly, the snow anemone, 
Sagartia nivea, was recently found at Spurn, and recorded in 
' The Naturalist.' Sagartia pura though not very common, is 
found at Scarborough, and at Redcar. In August 19 10, I 
saw numerous specimens of the scarlet-fringed anemone, 
Sagartia miniata, attached to the Scarborough light-house pier, 
in association with Saxicavae. Their resemblance to the 
' buttons ' of small-sized Tealia crassicornis might have ended 
in their being left undisturbed, but for promptings of curiosity, 
I tried to dislodge one. The immediate and free discharge of 
acontia betrayed them. Again, in April last, at the end of 
Filey Brig, at spring tide low water, I came across the same 
species, practically in hundreds, fixed to huge limestone blocks, 
occupied by Saxicavae, the red noses of which harmonized 
well with these rather inconspicuous anemones. So far as I 
know, Sagartia miniata is new to our list, and has never been 
mentioned as occurring on the Yorkshire coast, despite the 
fact that it is so firmly established. Our coast may not be 
able to compete with more favourably situated south coast 
regions in regard to anemones, but there seems to me to be 
ample scope for improvement. 

The collection of lepidoptera formed by Mr. S. J. Capper, of Liverpool, 
has been purchased, and is in the hands of a dealer for disposal. — The 
Entomologist, No. 576. 





At the Harewood Meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 
the Vertebrates Section was well represented. Seventy-eight 
species of vertebrates were observed, viz. : — six Mammals, 
sixty-eight Birds, three Fishes, and one Amphibian. 

Much interest was taken in the fine specimens of Waterfowl 
on the lakes, especially in the magnificent herd of Whooper 
Swans. Several pairs of Great Crested Grebes were nesting 
quite in the open, there being a total absence of cover on the 
big lake where these birds are. The Chiffchaff, an exceedingly 
scarce and local bird in Wharfedale, was seen and heard. Many 
species of birds had nests containing either eggs or young. 
It was very satisfactory to find that the Herons were increasing 
in numbers, and about ten nests were occupied, all containing 
young birds. 

On the keepers' ' gibbet ' were three Crows, four Jack- 
daws, one Kestrel, one Jay, and three Sparrow Hawks. 

As there are practically no records for this district, a full 
list of the species seen is given. 

Mammals. Grey Wagtail. 

Mole. Meadow Pipit. 

Weasel. Tree Pipit. 

Field Vole. 

Missle Thrush. 
Song Thrush. 
Lesser Whitethroat. 
Garden Warbler. 
Gold Crest. 
Chiff Chaff. 
Willow Warbler. 
Wood Warbler. 
Sedge Warbler. 
Hedge Sparrow. 
Great Tit. 
Blue Tit. 
Pied Wagtail. 

Spotted Flycatcher. 



Sand Martin. 





Lesser Redpoll. 

Yellow Bunting. 

Reed Bunting. 








Green Woodpecker. 

Great Spotted 


Long-Eared Owl. 
Tawny Owl. 
Sparrow Hawk. 



Canada Goose. 

Mute Swan. 

Whooper Swan. 

Shell Duck. 




Tufted Duck. 


Ring Dove. 

Stock Dove. 







Great-Crested Grebe. 







The first portion of the entomological collection formed by the late 
J. W. Tutt, was sold in London recently, and fetched poor prices, not- 
withstanding the fact that there were many of the actual specimens upon 
which his varietal names were founded. 

191 1 July 1. 



W. INGHAM, 9. A., 

In the Saturday's route on the recent excursion of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union at Castleton, it may be of interest to note 
that in connection with the ' Vegetation of Swiddens in North- 
East Yorkshire,' published by Mr. Elgee in ' The Naturalist,' 
Jan. and Feb., 1910, the following Mosses and Hepatics first 
appear on the moor between the dead stems of bracken. 

The blackish, flat, and thin patches are a Liverwort, Lopho- 
zia inflata, which invariably assumes a blackish colour 
under dry conditions, such as are found on the Swiddens. 
Under wet conditions, and by the side of water, this plant 
becomes vivid green. 

The only Sphagnum seen in such dry places was S. papil- 
losum var. confertum, a Bog or Peat Moss that shortens and 
crowds its branches under the ' Swidden ' conditions. 

The only true moss seen was Webera nutans, which occurs 
everywhere on moorlands, whether they be wet or dry, and is 
the typical moss expected to appear first after the heather has 
been burnt. 

Those Members present will remember the beautiful appear- 
ance of another moorland moss, Polytrichum commune, which 
occurred in large crowded patches. The bright sunshine 
brought out the golden colour of the numerous hairy calyptras 
of the capsules to such an extent as to justify the popular names 
given to this moss, viz. : Moor Silk and Great Golden Hair Moss. 

The middle of Ewe Crag Slack is filled with a peat moss, 
Sphagnum recurvum, which under very wet conditions such as 
it delights in, is vivid green, but under the hot sun of this 
excursion, most of it was brown. 

By the side of this Slack an interesting moss, Tetraplodon 
mnioides, was found, growing on the bones of a sheep. One 
patch of moss taken off had still the skin of the sheep attached 
to it. This species depends for its growth entirely upon the 
remains of domestic animals. 

Another moss found in this valley was Breutelia arcuata. 

The Polytrichum commune mentioned above is the var. 
perigoniale, which is recorded in Yorkshire only from Strensall 
Common. During the Monday's ramble, a narrow Slack, 
along the top of Fryup Head, was visited. Of course it was 
dry as a result of the very hot weather. It was occupied by 
one of the Harpidioid Hypna, a moss with the name Hypnum 
fluitans, group Amphibium, var. Jeanbernati. This moss 
accommodates itself well to circumstances. When the water 
is plentiful it floats on the surface, and under dry conditions 
it lies on the bed of the Slack. By the side of this Harpidium 
was a large vivid green mass of the Liverwort, Lophozia inflata 
var. laxa. 



The Members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union spent Whit 
week-end in the Castleton district on the Cleveland Hills, made 
classical by the late Canon Atkinson's ' Forty Years in a Moor- 
land Parish.' 

The party made an early start on Saturday morning, under 
the guidance of Messrs. Elgee and Punch, and visited the ganister 
quarries on the slopes of the moor. Here the exceedingly pure 
siliceous rock is quarried, during which process Mesozoic plant 
remains are found, including WWiamsonia leaves and fruit — a 
species named after a well-known Yorkshire pioneer, the late 
Professor Williamson. From here the moors were Tossed, 
and a long day's tramp brought the party to the top of Free- 
borough Hill, via White Cross Swangs and Dimmingdale Quarry. 

From the top of the curious conical Freeborough Hill a 
glorious view of the surrounding country was obtained., and the 
many extraordinary physiographical features caused by the 
extra-morainic lakes during the great Ice Age, as demonstrated 
by Professor Kendall, were clearly indicated. The archaeolo- 
gists took an interest in the enormous tumuli, the burial places 
of British chiefs, which here surmount the hills in numbers. 

The botanists, under Dr. Woodhead, had much to occupy 
their attention, the numerous rare and beautiful flowers in the 
slacks and valleys being particularly attractive. The various 
types of vegetation were also well indicated, and not the least 
interesting feature was a pure sphagnum bog, though a small one. 

On arriving back at Castleton the party were entertained 
to tea by Mr. and Mrs. Punch, whose charming Alpine rock 
garden was greatly admired. In the evening a meeting was 
held, under the chairmanship of Mr. Punch ; and Mr. F. Elgee, 
of the Middlesbrough Museum, read a suggestive paper on 
' The Peat Beds and other Superficial Deposits of the Eastern 
Moorlands,' which was followed by a discussion. 

On the following days the excursion was continued, in a 
broiling sun. 

Long tramps over moor and fell occupied the daytime, whilst 
the evenings were spent in the discussion of local geological 
problems, or in the study of the heavens by means of the ex- 
cellent io-inch reflector in Mr. Punch's fine observatory, the 
sky being perfect for observation. 

Some of the more enthusiastic members of the party, 
forming the archaeological section, took a 16 miles' walk one 
evening after tea to examine the remains of a nunnery, the 
whole of which could have been carried away on a wheel- 
barrow. This section also paid considerable attention to the 
many curious grooves cut into the stonework in various parts 
of the village. These are in a perpendicular position, five or six 
inches in length, and about two inches wide and deep, tapering 
at each end. They greatly resemble the markings at the sides 

1911 July 1. 

250 Yorkshire Naturalists on the Cleveland Hills. 

of old church doors, which are said to have been made in very- 
early times by sharpening spears and arrow heads before battles. 
One of these grooves was in the stone at the sides of the Union's 
headquarters, the Robin Hotel, which is dated 1671. It was 
ascertained from an old inhabitant that half a century ago it 
was the practice of the schoolboys to ' make sand ' by rubbing 
a piece of stone against the soft sandstone blocks of which the 
houses and walls were built. Thus another antiquarian mystery 
was solved. 

On the Monday morning the party followed the course of 
the trout-laden stream in Danby Dale as far as the residence 
Mr. G. A. Macmillan, who kindly conducted the members around 
his well-arranged gardens. From here the party went over the 
moors via Great Fryup Head and George Gap Spa to Trough 
House, thence over broken ground to Fryup Head, through 
Little Fryup Dale, by Danby Castle, and back to Castleton. 
In this long and varied route all the sections found something to 
occupy their attention. A slight detour was made to visit Danby 
Church, where the late Canon Atkinson preached for many years. 

After tea a meeting was held, at which the representitives 
of the various sections gave reports on their investigations. 
Mr. J. J. Burton, F.G.S., presided. Votes of thanks were passed 
to Lord Downe, Lord Boyne, Mr. Macmillan, Mr. R. B. Turton 
and others, for kindly giving permission to visit the estates, 
and to Messrs. J. J. Burton, F. Elgee and J. W. R. Punch for 
acting as leaders. Mr. Elgee was especially thanked for the 
excellent local arrangements. An important resolutoin was 
unanimously passed, strongly protesting against the utilisation 
of the ground which has for so long been set apart for an exten- 
sion of the natural history museum at South Kensington, for 
any other purpose ; and urging the Government to reconsider 
its proposal with reference to it. — T.S. 

Photography for Bird Lovers, by Bentley Beetham, F.Z.S. Messrs. 
Witherby & Co., London. 5/- net. 

This book, in its nine chapters, deals in a thorough, efficient, and 
practical manner with all phases of bird photography. No space is wasted 
in dealing with the practice of photography itself, it being taken for 
granted that the reader is grounded in the rudiments of the science. Good 
advice, however, is given upon the choice of apparatus, though the remarks, 
upon lenses might, with advantage, have been carried further. Photo- 
graphing nests and young birds, the various methods adopted for con- 
cealing the camera and operator, are well explained ; and some good hints 
are offered with regard to cliff work ; and here the writer does not fall 
into the regrettable habit of some of his fellow-photographers, who delight 
to dwell upon the supposed dangers of this work. Interesting, if short, 
chapters are included upon colour-work and cinematography, though 
the latter is out of the reach of the ordinary amateur. Photographing 
birds in flight, and in captivity, are also dealt with in an efficient manner. 
The book is illustrated by some choice examples of the author's work, 
and can be thoroughly recommended to anyone interested. — R.F. 




Observations of rainfall made daily at 9 a.m., were commenced 
in 1882 by the late Rev. Maule Cole at Wetwang, which is 
situated on the Chalk Wolds at an altitude of 235 feet above 
sea-level. The rain gauge was five inches in diameter, and 
set with its receiving surface one foot above the ground. The 
observations cover the twenty-nine years, 1882 to 1910, and 
the falls for each month, with the annual totals, are given, 
together with the greatest daily fall in each year. At the foot 
of the table are quoted the average monthly falls — (1) for the 
first ten years ; (2) for the second ten years ; and (3) for the 
last nine years. An examination of these three results seems 
to indicate a diminution in the annual rainfall, for the first 
decade gives an average annual fall of 28.06 inches, the second 
decade, 26.42 inches, and the last nine years, 24.15 inches. 
There is, however, no reason to suppose that this apparent 
diminution in the rainfall will continue. The past two years 
have both had falls much in excess of the average, and it is 
possible that they are the forerunners of a series of wet years, 
which would have a parallel in the years 1875 to 1883. 

In a report on the rainfall of the East Riding of Yorkshire, 
which I prepared for one of the Water Supply Memoirs 
of the Geological Survey, it is stated that the rainfall of every 
one of those nine years was above the average, the excess 
amounting on the whole to 16 per cent., while in earlier years 
the rainfall had been much below the average. The average 
of the twenty-nine years' record is 26.28 inches, and there were 
fifteen years above, and fourteen below this average. Since 
the observations do not cover the long spell of wet years 
referred to above, it is probable that the true average rainfall 
would be somewhat greater. The computed average rainfall 
for thirty-five years at Wetwang is quoted in the Water Supply 
Memoir of 28.2 inches. The wettest year in the record was 
1882, with 39.52 inches of rain, or 150 per cent, of the average 
amount. The driest year was 1905, with 17*21 inches, or 
65 per cent, of the average. 

The following table gives the average rainfall during the 
twenty-nine years for each month, together with the percentage 
which each month's fall is of the year's total. 
















1 91 
























191 1 July 1. 


Mill : Twenty-nine Years' Rainfall at Wetwang. 


Mill : Twenty-nine Years' Rainfall at Wetwans. 


Perhaps the most striking feature of this table is that 
September, the driest month, is sandwiched between the two 
wettest months of the year ; the high value in August is 
probably due to the frequency of thunderstorms. 

In the main table, the amount of rain in those months 
during which 4 - oo inches or more fell, is given in heavy type, 
and there were twenty-seven such months of heavy rainfall 
during the twenty-nine years. Of this number, October claims 
ten, August coming next with four. During the whole period 
covered by the observations, no such record occurred in Feb- 
ruary, March or November, and only one each in January, 
April, May and September. The wettest month was October 
1885, when 6"75 inches was recorded. 

In eleven months the rainfall did not amount to "50 inch, 
there being three instances in June, two in February, and one 
each in March, May, August, September, October and December. 
The driest month in the record was June 1887, with only .08 
of rain. 

The last two columns of the main table give the greatest 
daily falls in each year, with the date of occurrence. This 
shows that the rainfall exceeded 2.00 inches, on only two days 
in the whole twenty-nine years' observations. The first 
instance was a fall of 2*10 inches on October 14th, 1892, and 
this single day's record represented y$ per cent of that year's 
total fall. This day was one of exceptionally heavy rain 
throughout the whole of Yorkshire, and formed the subject 
of a special discussion in ' British Rainfall,' 1892. The only 
heavier fall in the record was on August 3rd, 1900, when 3.19 
inches or io - 6 per cent, of the whole year's fall was measured. 
Correspondingly heavy falls occurred in the east and north 
of England on that day, falls greater than any previously 
reported occurring at several stations in Yorkshire. Of the 
twenty-nine maximum daily falls, August, October and Novem- 
ber each claim five, June had four, May three, July and Sep- 
tember two each, February, March and December one each. 
The heaviest daily fall of the year never occurred in either 
January or April. 

The importance of securing the establishment of new records 
of rainfall in the East and North Ridings is very great. While 
the West Riding is better supplied with rainfall stations than 
most parts of England, the other divisions of Yorkshire are 
worse off in this respect than almost any other county. Ob- 
servations such as those carried out by the late Mr. Maule 
Cole are very simple, and of great value both to science and 
in practical matters. Full information as to instruments and 
free instructions can always be obtained from the British 
Rainfall Organization, 62 Camden Square, London, N.W. 

1911 July 1. 

2 54 





When on the bank of the River Derwent, near Bubwith, East 
Yorks., on June 4th, Mr. E. Snelgrove of Sheffield and I were 
surprised to find large masses of Pedicularis palnstris L., 
growing in the carrs by the river side. The purple here caused 
by this plant en masse, showed up well in its setting of golden 
buttercups, and was clearly visible from the turnpike road 
at a distance of half a mile. I visited the locality a few days 
after, when I sketched the accompanying plan, which is 



The plan represents one mile in width. 

-f- (crosses) = isolated small colonies. 
Crosshatching^/ 3 . palustris practically only plant in area. 
Dots = other plants. 

modelled on the six-inch ordnance survey. Being drawn to 
scale, it will give a better idea of the luxuriance of the plant 
than any detailed description. The drains are indicated 
on the maps, and the distribution and extent of the Pedicularis 
can be seen at a glance. 

The outstanding colour of the surrounding vegetation was 
golden, owing to the presence of Ranunculus acris L. in the 
drier parts, and Ranunculus repens L., and R. flammula L. 
in the wetter parts. The drains were choked up with a luxu- 


Fordham : On the Occurrence of Pedicularis palustris L. 255 

riant growth of rushes, sedges and horsetails, with here and 
there a more open space carpeted by an aquatic Ranunculus 
in some places, and by Water Violet ( Hottonia palustris L.) 
in others. These drains are very dry this year, and are not 
cleaned out as well as they should be. However, it is the 
character of the vegetation of the meadow land that concerns 
us at present as the Lousewort did not occur in the drains 
at all. The areas shewn on the plan were practically solely 
•covered by the Pedicularis, though there was abundant evidence 
that previously Caltha palustris L. had here held sway. Other 
areas, as indicated, were occupied by Pedicularis palustris as 
a dominant species, but various components of the surround- 
ing vegetation were also to be found. The dominant plants 
at present (exclusive of grasses) in the carrs generally are 
Ranunculus acris L., R. repens L., and Trijolium pratense L. 
Previously, Caltha palustris L. and Cardamine pratensis L. 
had been dominant, and were fruiting. 

The sub-dominant plants appeared to be : — 

Ranunculus fiammula L. 
Lychnis ftos-cuculi L. 
Senecio aquaticus Hill. 
Rumex acetosa L. 
Eleocharis palustris Br. 
Carex paniculata L. 
Carex acuta L. 

Festuca pratensis Huds. 
Lolium perenne L. 
Anthoxanthum odoratum L. 
Poa pratensis L. 
Phleuni pratense L. 

Alopecurus geniculatus L. 

Other plants commonly occurring and very little less 
frequent than the preceeding thirteen species were :— 

Lotus corniculatus L. 
Sanguisorba officinalis L. 
Silaus flavescens Bernh. 
Rhinanthus crista-galli L. 
Myosotis palustris Hill and its var. 
strigulosa Rchb. 

Spircsa Ulmaria L. 
(Enanthe crocata L. 
Plantago lanceolata L. 
Prunella vulgaris L. 

Equisetum palustre L. 

The following grasses, etc., were also obtained — 

■Carex disticha Huds. 
Anthoxanthum odoratum' var. villo- 
sum Lois. 

Festuca rubra, L., and 
Festuca pratensis Huds. X Lolium 
perenne L. 

Several of the above have been verified either by Dr. 
Drabble, F.L.S., or by Mr. J. F. Robinson. 

I shewed the Lousewort to Mr. Wilfred Hutchinson, of 
Gunby, and he tells me that seventeen or eighteen years 
ago it appeared in abundance in the ings on their farm, which 
is about a mile and a half down stream on the other bank. 
It persisted for three or four years in diminishing numbers, 
and eventually died out, and he has not seen it since. He 
attributes this extinction to mowing the hay before the seed 

1911 July 1. 

25b Field Notes. 

was ripened. It also occurred at the same time in the Men- 
thorpe Ings, opposite Gunby. I have this season found a few 
isolated plants in Bubwith Ings, on the other side of the river, 
opposite the large masses in North Duffield Carrs. 

All the ' ings ' and ' carr ' land is annually flooded, generally 
in winter and early spring, but two years ago there were heavy 
floods after the hay had been cut, and a large part of the crop 
was ruined or floated away down stream. Mr. Hutchinson 
says that he thinks the plant was spread by these floods. He 
has. watched the spread of Tanacetum vulgare L. for years in 
a like manner, and says that after heavy floods, it occurs 
sporadically in Gunby Ings. It has a permanent foothold here 
and there along the river bank. The elevation of the meadow 
land in the ings on either side of the Derwent is only about 
fifteen to twenty feet above sea level. I have not previously 
botanically worked the North Duffleld Carrs, so I cannot state 
how long the plant has been there ; but the data I have acquired 
this year will form an interesting basis for observations in 
future years. 


Bird Notes from Marsden. — On the 22nd September 
last, a good specimen of the Gold Crested Wren was brought 
to me. It had been picked up on the highway between Marsden 
and Slaithwaite. The bird had evidently met its death by 
flying against the telegraph wires. In October last, an im- 
mature specimen of the Kittiwake was shot at Booth Hey,. 
Slaithwaite, and in November a Razorbill was shot in Wessen- 
den Valley, Marsden. Both these birds were brought to me. 
The movements of small flocks of Common and Black-headed 
Gulls from the latter end of March and throughout April 
have been interesting. The Common Gulls were always 
flying west, whilst the black-headed species, numbering twenty- 
one, were always flying east. On the 1st May I observed 
two black-headed Gulls feeding at the local Sewage Works, and 
these birds have remained ever since. They come daily to 
the Sewage works for food, and apparently spend the rest 
of their time in the vicinity of the reservoirs in the Wessenden 
Valley, and on the moorlands by the Great Western Inn. 
When going through Drop Clough, Marsden, on the 9th April,. 
I noted the arrival of a flock of Chiffchaffs, numbering fully 
a score. The birds remained for some little time before 
dispersing, and were constantly in song. Lapwings have been 
abundant on the Cupwith Moors, and I also flushed a Woodcock 
in the same locality on the 3rd June. — Alfred Dean, Marsden. 




Papers and Records published with respect to the Geology 
and Palaeontology of the North of England, (Yorkshire 
excepted), during 1909. 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.R.G.S.. F.S.A.(Scot .). 

Since 1884, particulars of the various geological mono- 
graphs, etc., bearing upon the northern counties of England 
(Notts., Cheshire, Derbyshire, Lincolnshire, and to the north 
thereof, including the Isle of Man) have been published. Up 
to 1901 they were issued in The Naturalist, and the list for 
1902-8 appeared in the Transactions of the Yorkshire Natura- 
lists' Union part 34, for 1908. 

The present instalment includes the entries for 1909, 
with the exception of the Yorkshire items. These are shortly 
appearing in a memorial volume to the late C. Fox-Strangways, 
which is being edited for the Yorkshire Geological Society by 
the present writer, and it seems unnecessary to duplicate the 

A few entries omitted from previous lists are given below. 


1). H. Scott. Yorks. 

On the Primary Structure of Certain Palaeozoic Stems with the Dadoxylon 

Type of Wood. ' Trans. Roy. Soc. of Edinburgh.' Vol. XL, Part 2, 

No. 17. 


F. W. Oliver and D. H. Scott. Lancashire and Yorkshire. 

On Lagenostoma Lomaxi, the Seed of Lyginodendron. ' Annals of Botany.' 
Vol. XVII. 


F. W. Oliver and D. H. Scott. Lancashire and Yorkshire. 

On the Structure of the Palaeozoic Seed Lagenostoma Lomaxi, with a 

Statement of the Evidence upon which it is referred to Lyginodendron. 

' Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, London.' Series B., Vol. CXCVIL, 
pp. i93- 2 47- 

D. H. Scott. Lancashire. 

On the Occurrence of Sigillariopsis in the Lower Coal-measures of Britain. 

Annals of Botany.' Vol. XVIII. , p. 520-521. 


D. H. Scott. Lancashire. 

On the Structure and Affinities of Fossil Plants from the Palaeozoic Rocks. 

V. On a new type of Sphenophyllaceous cone (Sphenophyttum' fertile), 

from the Lower Coal-measures. ' Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, London.' 

Series B., Vol. CXCVIIL, pp. 17-30. 

ign July 1. 


258 Bibliography : Geology and Paleontology, 1906-7-8. 


f'J D. H. Scott. Lancashire. 

The Structure of Lepidodendron obovatum Sternb. ' Annals of Botany.' 
Vol. XX., pp. 317-319. 

D. H. Scott. Northern Counties. 

The Present Position of Palaeozoic Botany. ' Progressus Rei Botanicae.' 
Vol. I., pp. 139-217. 

D. H. Scott. Northern Counties. 

On the Structure of some Carboniferous Ferns. ' Journal of Roy. Micr. 
Soc.' 1906, pp. 519-521. 

D. H. Scott. Lancashire. 
On Siitcliffia insignis, a new Type of Medulloseae from the Lower Coal- 
measures. ' Trans. Linnean Soc, London.' 2nd Series, Botanv ; 
Vol. VII., Part 4, pp. 45-68. 

D. H. Scott and A. J. Maslen. Lancashire and Yorkshire. 

On the Structure of the Palaeozoic Seeds, Trigonocarpus parkinsoni Brong- 
niart, and T. oliveri sp. no v. Part 1, ' Annals of Botany.' Vol. XXI., 
pp. 89-134. 

D. H. Scott. Northern Counties. 

Studies in Fossil Botany. 2nd Edition, Vol. I. Pteridophyta, pp. 1-353. 


A. R. Horwood. Derbyshire. 

Notes on the Palaeontology of the Leicestershire and S. Derbyshire Coal- 
field. 8 pp. Leicester [1907]. 

S. S. Stanley. Yorkshire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, etc. 

Origin of Gypsum Beds and Medicinal Springs in a line across England from 
N.E. to S.W. (Scarborough to Bath). ' Proc. Warwickshire Field 
Club,' 1907, pp. 13-20. 

David Woolacott. Durham. 

The Physical Geography of Sunderland and District. ' Trans. Sunderland 
Antiq. Soc.', Vol. VIII., 1907, pp. 75-78. 


Lionel C. Ball. Lake District, Cumberland. 

Iron Ore Mining in Great Britain. The Eston and Montreal Mines, Cumber- 
land. ' Queensland Government Mining Journal,' Vol. IX., December 
1908, pp. 608-610. 

William Bemrose. Derbyshire. 

Exploration of the Harborough Rocks Cave. Preliminary Report. ' Proc. 

Soc. Antiq. 2nd Ser., Vol. XXII., No. 1, 1907-8 [publ. 1908], pp. 9-12. 

F. M. Burton. Lines., N. 

The Lincolnshire Keuper Escarpment and its Bearing on, and Relation 
to the County (reprinted from ' Trans. Line. Nat. Union '], ' Lincoln 
City and County Museum Publications,' No. 1, 1908, 5 pp. 

W. Storrs Fox. Derbyshire. 

Notes on the Excavation of Harborough Cave, near Brassington, Derby- 
shire [with notes on the finds in the Harborough Cave, by Reginald 
A. Smith]. ' Proc. Soc. Antiq., ' 2nd Series, Vol. XXII., 1908, pp. 

Bibliography : Geology and P alee ontology, 1909. 259 

Arthur Smith. Lines., X. and S. 

Lincoln City and County Museum Publications, No. 4. Report and General 
Guide [brief geological notes], 1908, 15 pp. 

Reginald A. Smith. See W. Storrs Fox. 


Anon. Northern Counties. 

Eminent Living Geologists William Boyd Dawkins, M.A., D. Sc, F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. (with a portrait), [gives list of papers, etc., and references 

to his work in the northern counties]. ' Geol. Mag.', Dec. 1909, pp. 

5 2 9-534- 

Anon. Lines., N. and S. 

Yorkshire Geologists in Lindsey. The Trent Valley Problem. [Re- 
printed from the Yorkshire Observer ; includes report of Mr. F. M. 
Burton's paper on the Formation of the Trent]. 1909, 7 pp. 

Axon. Lines., N. and S. 

The Yorkshire Geological Society at Gainsborough. Includes report of 
Mr. F. M. Burton's paper on the Geology of the District]. Reprinted 
from the Retford [etc.] News, 1909, 7 pp. 

Axon. Lines., N. and S. 

Field Meetings [of the Lincolnshire Naturalists Union], 1908 [brief geological 
notes]. ' Lines. Nat. Union Trans.', 1908 [publ. 1909], pp. 312-320. 

Axon. Lanes., S., Cheshire, etc. 

List of Scientific Papers, by Mr. Joseph Lomas [seventy-four entries]. 

' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc.', 1908-9, Vol. X., pt. 5, 1909, pp. 336-339. 

Axon. Northern Counties. 

Anon compiled by the Assistant Librarian, and Edited by the Assistant 

Secretary]. Geological Literature added to the Geological Society's 

Library during the year ended December 31st, 1908. [1909]. 208 pp. 

Axox. Lines., N. 

The Palseontographical Society [refers to Elnpopsis crassits from North 
Lines.] ' Naturalist,' February 1909, p. ^3. 

Axox. Lanes., S. Cheshire. 

Liverpool Geologists [notice of Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc.]. ' Naturalist,' 
February 1909, pp. 36-37. 

Anon. Cumberland. 

Cumberland Intrusive Rocks, Eskdale and Wardale Granite. ' Naturalist,' 
January 1909, pp. 3-4. 

Axon. Derbyshire. 

Derbyshire Glaciers : A Geographical Observation ; Glaciers and Place- 
names. ' Naturalist,' March 1909, pp. 67-68. 

Axox. Lanes., S. 

Encroachment of Land at Southport [brief note]. 'Lanes. Naturalist,' 
August, 1909, p. 159. 

Axox. Derbyshire. 

Fluorspar [noticing Wedd and Drabble 's paper on ' The Fluorspar Deposits 

of Derbyshire ']. ' Geol. Mag.', March 1908, pp. 126-7. 
1911 July r. 

260 Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology, 1909. 

Anon. Notts. 

The Geology of the Country between Newark and Nottingham [review of]. 
' Geol. Mag.', March, 1909, pp. 131-2. 

Axon. Yorkshire, Lake District, etc. 

Classified Index of the Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 

Volumes I. to XIV., 1883 to 1908. ' Trans. Leeds Geol. Association,' 
Vol. XIV., 1905-8 [publ. 1909"!, pp. 59-67. 

Anon. Northern Counties. 

Catalogue of the more important Papers, especially those referring to Local 

Scientific Investigations, published by the Corresponding Societies 

[of the British Association during the year ending May 31st, 1908 

' Rep. Brit. Association ' (Dublin), 1908 [publ. 1909], pp. 557-576. 

Axox. Yorks., S.E., Lines., N. 

Seeds from Peat. ' Naturalist,' May 1909, p. 162. 

Axox. Northern Counties. 

Presentation of Minerals to Haslingden Museum [specimens from Cumber- 
land, Durham, Derbyshire, etc. enumerated]. ' Lanes. Naturalist,' 
September 1909, p. 192. 

Axox. Derbyshire, Notts. 

Summary of Progress of the Geological Survey ... for 1908 [with details 
of work in Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire.. 98 pp., 1909. 

Axox. Lanes., S. 

Ramble in Ashworth Valley [brief geological notes]. ' Rep. and Proc. 
Manchester Field Nat. and Arch. Soc. for 1908 '[publ. 1909]. pp. 

Axox. Lanes. 

The ' Great Stones Wilderness ' on Hampsfell [illustration of weathered 
limestone]. ' Lanes. Naturalist,' No. 14, May 1909, p. 44. 

Axox. [signed by J. H. G.]. Lanes. 

Humphrey Head and Rougholm Point : a Contrast in Rock. ' Lanes. 
Naturalist,' No. 14, May 1909, p. 64. 

Axox. Lanes., Cheshire. 

Obituary. Thomas Mellard Reade, F.G.S. . . . Born May 27th, 1832, died 
May 26th, 1909 [references to his work on the geology of Lancashire, 
etc.]. ' Geol. Mag.', July 1909, pp. 333-336. 

Axox. Northern Counties. 

A Short Guide to the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street, London, 
S.W. London, 1909, 48 pp. 

Johx Allex. Lanes., S. 

Official Guide to Townley Hall Tincludes description of ' the Higham 
Boulder or Erratic Block '], Burnley, 1909, 32 pp. 

E. A. Newell Arber. Northumberland, Durham. 

On the Fossil Plants of the Waldershare and Fredville Series of the Kent 

Coalfield [comparisons made with the plants of the Newcastle and 

Durham Coalfield:. ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.', Vol. LXV., part 1 

1909, pp. 21-40. 

E. A. Newell Arber. Lanes., S., Yorks., S.W. 

Fossil Plants [Coal-Measures ; reproductions from sixty photographs ; 
with descriptions], London, 1909, 75 pp. 


Bibliography : Geology and Paleontology. 1909. 261 

H. H. Arnold-Bemrose. See under Bemrose, II. H. Arnold. 

William Ash ton. Lanes., N. and S., Cheshire. 

The Battle of Land and Sea on the Lancashire, Cheshire, and North Wales 
!„- Coasts, with special reference to the origin of the Lancashire Sanshills. 
Second Edition, Southport, tgog, 217 pp. 

Walter Baldwin. Lanes., S. 

The Extra-Morainic Lakes of the Rochdale District. Lanes. Naturalist,' 
No. 14, May moo, pp. 47-40. 

F. A. Bather. Northumberland, Durham- 

Eocidaris and some species referred to it describing the Permian Cidaris 

verneuiliana from Tunstall Hill, in the Newcastle Museum, etc.). 

' Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist.', Series 8, Vol. III., January 1909, 

pp. 43-66. 

H. C. Beasley Secretary]. Derbyshire, Cheshire, Notts., etc. 

Investigation of the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles. 
Seventh Report of the Committee. Includes Report on Footprints 
from the Trias, part 6, by H. C. Beasley ; on a skull of Rhynchosawus 
in the Manchester Museum, by D. M. S. Watson ; Bibliographical 
Notes upon the Flora and Fauna of the British Keuper, by A. R. Hor- 
wood, and Preliminary Notice of the Occurrence of Footprints in the 
Lower Keuper Sandstone of Leicestershire, by A. R. Horwood]. Brit. 
Assn. leaflet, 1909, 14 pp. 

H. C. Beasley. Lanes., S., Cheshire. 

Report on Tracks of Invertebrates, Casts of Plants, etc., and Markings of 

uncertain origin from the Lower Keuper, Part 1 in Report of Fauna 

and Flora of Trias . ' Rep. Brit. Assn. (Dublin),' 1908 [publ. 1909], 

pp. 269-274. 

H. H. Arnold Bemrose. Derbyshire. 

Notes on the Microscopical Structure of the Derbyshire Limestones. ' Rep. 
Brit. Assn.' (Dublin), 1908 [publ. 1909 ], pp. 702-703. 

[L. L. Belinfante, Edited by] Northern Counties. 

Abstracts of the Proceedings of the Geological Society of London, Session 
1908-1909, Nos. 866-881. 1909, 132 pp. 

A. Bell. See A. R. Dwerryhouse. 

C. E. Benson. Lake District, etc. 

British Mountaineering [brief geological notes]. London, 1909, 224 pp. 

C. E. B. Bowles [signed ' The Editor ']. Derbyshire. 

Coal Raising in the Seventeenth Century [at Tibshelf]. ' Journ. Derby- 
shire Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc.', Vol. XXXI., 1909, pp. 221-223. 

Reinhard Brauns and L. J. Spencer. Northern Counties. 

The Mineral Kingdom. 440 pp. and plates. Tissued in parts, of which 8 
[to p. 168] and plate 30 appeared in 1909]. 

Harold Brodrick. Derbyshire. 

Note on the Occurrence of (so-called) Cave Pearls. ' Rep. Brit. Assn ' 
(Dublin), 1908 [publ. 1909], p. 704. 

A. Burnet. Lines., N. 

Notes on the Upper Chalk of Lincolnshire. ' Trans. Leeds Geol. Assn.', 
Vol. XIV., 1905-8 [publ. 190CJ], pp. 8-10. 

I 911 July 1. 

262 Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology, 1909. 

F. M. Burton. Lines., N. and S. 

Some Lincolnshire Boulders. ' Naturalist,' March 1909, pp. 93-96. 

F. M. Burton. Lincoln, N. and S. 

Further Proofs of the Flow of the Trent on the Keuper Escarpment at 
Gainsborough. ' Naturalist,' October 1909, pp. 340-341. 

F. M. Burton. Lines., N. 

Erratic Boulders at Bardney Abbey. ' Naturalist,' September 1909, p. 322. 

F. M. Burton. Lines., N. and S. 

Address to the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union, Grimsby, 1894 [on ' How 

the Land between Gainsborough and Lincoln was formed ; reprinted 
from the Union's Transactions, Vol. I., 1895]. ' Lines. Nat. Union 
Trans.', 1908 [publ. 1909], pp. 263-273. 

F. M. Burton. See under ' Anon.' 

Grenville A. J. Cole. Northern Counties. 

Aids in Practical Geology. 6th Edition. London, 1909, 431 pp. 

G. A. J. C[ole]. Yorks., Mid. W., Notts., Cheshire, etc. 
Regional and Stratigraphical Geology [reviewing recent Memoirs]. ' Nature,' 

February 8th, 1909, pp. 470-2. 

A. C. Dalton. See A. R. Dwerryhouse. 

A. Morley Davies. Northern Counties. 

A Geography of the British Isles [with geological notes]. London, 358 pp. 

E. H. Davies. Derbyshire. 

Derbyshire Grindstone Quarries. ' Quarry,' Vol. XIV., 1909, pp. 382-384. 

W. Boyd Dawkins. See John Gerrard. 

W. Boyd Dawkins. Northern Counties. 

The Derivation of Clay and Sand from Granite. ' Rep. Brit. Assn.' (Dublin), 
1908 [publ. 1909], p. 705. 

Frank H. Day. • Cumberland. 

The Fauna of Cumberland in Relation to its Physical Geography. ' Trans. 
Carlisle Nat. Hist. Soc.', Vol. I., 1909, pp. 63-74. 

J. Davy Dean. See C. E. Y. Kendall. 

James Archibald Douglas. Yorks., Lake District, etc. 

The Carboniferous Limestone of County Clare (Ireland) [compares with 
the successions in Yorkshire, etc.]. ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.', 
Vol. LXV., pt. 4, November 1909, pp. 538-586. 

H. C. Drake. Yorks., S.E., N.E., Lines., N. 

Palaeontology in East Yorkshire, etc., in 1908. ' Trans. Hull Scientific 
and Field Nat. Club.', Vol. IV., part 2, 1909, pp. 85-86. 

H. C. Drake, See T. Sheppard. 

G. Dunston. Lines., N., Yorks., S.W., S.E. 

The Rivers of Axholme, with a History of the Navigable Rivers and Canals 

of the District [giving details of the borehole at South Carr], 1909, 

xiii. + 1 55 pp. 


Bibliography : Geology and Paleontology, 1909. 263 

A. R. Dwerryhouse [Secretary]. Yorks,. Lanes., S. 

Erratic Blocks of the British Isles. Report of the Committee [including 

records by P. F. Kendall, T. Sheppard, J. W. Stather, H. Culpin, 

J. W. Jackson, etc.]. ' Rep. Brit. Assn.' (Dublin), 1908 [publ. 1909], 

pp. 242-245. 

A. R. Dwerryhouse. Northumberland, Durham, Lines., N., etc. 

Erratic Blocks of the British Isles. Report of the Committee [includes 

reports relating to the Northern Counties, from A. C. Dalton, E. Adrian 

Woodruffe-Peacock, Ernest Jones, W. J. Wingate, and A. Bell]. ' Brit. 

Assn. Reprint,' 1909, 8 pp. 

Arthur R. Dwerryhouse. Cumberland, etc. 

Presidential Address to the Liverpool Geological Society, October 1908. 

[Deals with Carbonic Acid, and the part it plays in the Universe]. 
' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc.', 1908-9, Vol. X., Part 5, 1909, pp. 289-308. 

Arthur Richard Dwerryhouse. Lake District. 

On Some Intrusive Rocks in the Neighbourhood of Eskdale (Cumberland). 

' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.', Vol. LXV., pt. 1, 1909, pp. 55-80 ; abstract 
in ' Geol. Mag.', January 1909, pp. 43-44. 

Arthur R. Dwerryhouse. Lanes., S., Cheshire. 

In Memoriam— Joseph Lomas [referring to his work in the Liverpool 
area]. ' Naturalist,' February 1909, pp. 58-60. 

Gertrude L. Elles. Lake District. 

The Relation of the Ordovician and Silurian Rocks of Conway (North Wales) 

[correlates with the rocks of the Lake District]. ' Quart. Journ. 

Geol. Soc.', Vol. LXV., pt. 2, 1909, pp. 169-194 ; Abstract in ' Geol. 

Mag.', March 1909, pp. 136-7. 

William George Fearnsides. See John Edward Mark. 

James Files. See John Gerrard. 

W. Storrs Fox. Derbyshire. 

Harborough Cave, near Brassington. I. Description of the Excavations, 
etc. [with plan and photographs]. ' Journ. Derbyshire Arch, and 
Nat. Hist. Soc.', Vol. XXXI., 1909, pp. 89-96. 

Harper Gaythorpe. Furness. 

Further Notes on the Geological Strata obtained while boring for Coal 

near Davy Street, Barrow-in-Furness, in the years 1901-1904 [to a 

depth of 3000 feet]. ' Ann. Rep. Barrow Nat. Field Club,' 1903-4, 
Vol. XVII., publ. 1907, pp. 266-267. 

[Harper Gaythorpe] Furness. 

The Walney Fords [geological note]. ' Ann. Rep. Barrow. Nat. Field 
Club,' 1903-4, Vol. XVII., publ. 1909, pp. 1 18-123. 

John Gerrard. Lanes., S. 

Plant Remains at Pilkington Colliery New Sinking, at Astley [Exhibition 

of; Annularia, Neuropteris, Calamites, etc.]. 'Trans. Manchester 

Geol. and Min. Soc.', Vol. XXXI., pts. V. and VI., 1909, pp. 108-109. 

John Gerrard. Lanes., S. 

Coal from Boulder Clay [at Astley ; exhibition of, with remarks by James 
Files, W. Boyd Dawkins, and Sydney A. Smith]. ' Trans. Manchester 
Geol. and Mining Soc.', Vol. XXXI., pts. 2 and 3, 1908-9, publ. 1909, 
PP- 3 *>33- 

1911 July 1. 

264 Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology, 1909. 

W. Gibson. See G. W. Lamplugh. 

Walcot Gibson. Yorks., Lake District, etc. 

' Physical and Life Zones in the Upper Carboniferous Rocks ' [abstract]. 

' Trans. Leeds Geol. Assn.', Vol. XIV., 1905-8 [publ. 1909], pp. 23-25. 

E. Leonard Gill. Northumberland, Durham. 

An Arachnid from the Coal Measures of the Tyne Valley [from Crawcrook 

on the South of the Tyne, and provisionally named Anthvacosiro 

latipes]. ' Trans, Nat. Hist. Soc. of Northumberland, Durham and 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne,' N.S., Vol. III., pt. 2, 1909, pp. 510-513. 

J. C. M. Given. Lanes., S., Cheshire. 

[Glacial Striae at Mossley Hill ; (by an apparent oversight, this paper is 
merely headed ' Read before the Liverpool Geological Society, Decem- 
ber 8th, 1908," but its title is given in the contents)]. ' Proc. Liver- 
pool Geol. Soc.', 1908-9, Vol. X., pt. 5, 1909, pp. 309-310. 

J. W. Gregory. Lake District, etc. 

Obituary Notice of John George Goodchild, born May 26th, 1844, died 

February 21st, 1906 [with list of Memoirs ; reference to his work in 

the Lake District, etc.]. ' Trans. Edinburgh Geol. Soc.', Vol. IX., 

pt. 4, 1909, pp. 331-350. 

J. W. Gregory. Northern Counties. 

Geology of the Inner Earth [Address to the Geological Section of the 
British Association]. ' Ann. Rep. of the Board of Regents of the 
\.il Smithsonian Institution,' 1907 (publ. 1909], pp. 311-330. 

W. S. Gresley. Derbyshire. 

Coal Pebble in a Coal-Seam [at a depth of 900 feet in the Donisthorpe 
Colliery, Derbyshire]. ' Geol. Mag.', April 1909, pp. 157-160. 

J. Gunwill. Yorks., Cheshire. 

Paper read by Mr. J. Gunwill before the Goole Scientific and Field Naturalist 
[sic] Society [on ' Peat ' ; no title, date, or pagination given 1 . [1908, 
8 pp.]. 

Alfred Harker. Cheviotland, Lake District, etc. 

The Natural History of Igneous Rocks. London, 384 pp. 

F. W. Harmer. Yorks., S.E., Lines. 

The Pleistocene Period in the Eastern Countries of England [brief reference 
to Yorks. and Lines.]. ' Geology in the Field,' Part 1, 1909, pp. 

Hastings, C. Yorks. 

Gaping Ghyll. ' Bradford Scientific Journal,' No. 22, Vol. II., October 
JQOQ, PP- 289-294. 

F. H. Hatch. Northern Counties. 

Text-book of Petrology, containing a summary of the modern theory of 

Petrogenesis, a description of the rock-forming minerals, and a 

synopsis of the chief types of the igneous rocks and their distribution, 

as illustrated by the British Isles. 1909. 404 pp. 

A. Hawkridge. See M. Stables. 

George Hickling. Notts., Lake District, Northumberland, Cheshire. 
British Permian Footprints [describes examples from Mansfield, Penrith, 
etc.]. ' Mem. and Proc. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc.', Vol. LIII., 
pt. 3, Memoir 22, pp. 1-30. 

Bibliography : Geology and Paleontology, 1909. 265 

George Hickling. Lake District, etc. 

The Microscopic Study of Rocks. ' Ann. Rep. and Trans. Manchester 
Micros. Soc. for 1908,' [publ. 1909], pp. 64-70. 

J.'B. Hill. See G. W. Lamplugh. 

W. Hind. Northern Counties. 

The Homotaxial Equivalents of the Culm of Western Germany [refers 

to Yorkshire, fsle of Man, etc.]. ' Geol. Mag.', October 1909,1pp. 

Wheelton Hind. Northern Counties. 

The Present State of our Knowledge of Carboniferous Geology [being the 
Presidential Address to the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union]. ' Nat.', 
pp. 149-156; pp. 163-170; pp. 228-231 ; and pp. 245-251. 

Wheelton Hind. Derbyshire. 

Lilleshall Hill [geology of ; compares with Derbyshire Rocks]. ' Ann. 
Rep. and Trans. North Staff. Field Club,' Vol. XLflf., 1908-9 [publ. 
I 9°9]. PP- 1 1 2- 1 15. 

A. R. Horwood. Lanes., S., Cheshire, etc. 

Bibliographical Notes on the Flora and Fauna of the Trias, 1826-76 [in 

Report Fauna and Flora British Trias]. ' Rep. Brit. Assn.' (Dublin), 
1908 [publ. 1909], pp. 277-282. 

A. R. Horwood. See H. C. Beasley. 

J. Wilfred Jackson. ' Lanes., S. 

On the Mollusca from the ' Cave Earth,' Dog Holes, Warton Crag. ' Lanes. 
Nat.', October 1909, pp. 217-222. 

J. Wilfred Jackson. Lanes., S. 

Silverdale [Shap Granite at ; in Report Erratic Blocks Committee]. ' Rep. 

Brit. Assn.' (Dublin), 1908 [publ. 1909], p. 244. 

J. Wilfred Jackson. Lanes., S. 

On the Discovery of the Remains of Lemmings in Dog Holes, Warton Crag 

[records remains of both the Norwegian and Arctic Lemmings]. 
' Lanes. Naturalist,' December 1909, pp. 227-229. 

J. Wilfred Jackson. Lanes., S. 

On the Mollusca from the ' Cave Earth, Dog Holes, Warton Crag. ' Lanes. 
Naturalist,' December 1909, pp. 261-265. 

J. Wilfred Jackson. Lanes. 

Notes on the Bone-Caves of Grange and District. ' Lanes. Naturalist,' 
No. 14, May 1909, pp. 45-46.; June, pp. 85-90. 

Cosmo Johns. See W. Lower Carter. 

Cosmo Johns. Lake District, Yorks., Northumberland, etc. 

' The Carboniferous Sea : a Chapter in the Ancient Geography of Britain ' 

[abstract]. ' Trans. Leeds Geol. Assn.', Vol. XIV., 1905-8 [publ. 
I 9°9]. PP- 19-20. 

Ernest Jones. See A. R. Dwerryhouse. 

Owen Thomas Jones. Lake District, etc. 

The Hartfell-Valentian Succession in the District around Plynlimon and 

Pont Erwyd (North Cardiganshire) [compares with the sequence in 

1911 July 1. 

266 Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology, igog. 

the Lake District, etc.]. ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' Vol. LXV., pt. 4, 
November 1909, pp. 463-537. 

Kelly's Directory of the North and East Riding of Yorkshire. Ninth Edition, 
1909. [Geology just touched upon]. 

C. E. Y. Kendall, J. Davy Deax, W. Munn Rankin. 

Lanes., \V., Lake District. 
On the Geological Distribution of Mollusca in South Lonsdale [geological 
notes]. ' Naturalist,' September pp. 314-319 ; October, 354-359 ; 
November, 378-381 ; December, 1909, 435-437. 

P. F. Kendall. YOrks., N.E., S.E., Lines., etc. 

' The Geological History of the North Sea Basin ' [abstract]. ' Trans 
Leeds Geol. Assn.', Vol. XIV., 1905-8 [publ. 1909I, pp. 30-32. 

Percy F. Kendall. Northern Counties. 

In Memoriam, Henry Clifton Sorby, 1826-1908 [with photos of microscope 
slides, etc.]. ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc.', Vol. XVI., pt. 3, 1908 [publ. 
1909], pp. 247-8. 

P. F. Kendall. Yorks., Cheshire, etc. 

In Memoriam, Joseph Lomas. ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc.', Vol. XVI., pt 3, 
1908, [publ. 1909], pp. 251-252. 

Sir Lees Knowles. Northern Counties. 

Presidential Address [to the Manchester Geological and Mining Society]. 
' Our Steam Coal and its Uses.' ' Trans. Manchester Geol. and Min. 
Soc.', Vol. XXXI. , pts. 2 and 3, pp. 36-47. 

G. W. Lamplugh, W. Gibson, C. B. Wedd, R. L. Sherlock, 

B. Smith and C. Fox Straxgways. Notts.. 
The Geology of the Melton Mowbray District and South East Nottingham- 
shire. 'Geological Survey Memoir,' 1909, pp. vi. + n8. 

G. W. Lamplugh, J. B. Hill, W. Gibsox, 

C. B. Wedd and B. Smith. Derbyshire, Notts. 
1. Midland District — Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire [review of year's 

work in]. ' Summary of Pregress of the Geological Survey . . . for 
1908,' pp. 12-24. 

Joseph Lomas [the late]. Lanes., S. Cheshire. 

' Desert Formations, with reference to the Origin of the Trias. ' Trans. 
Leicester Lit. and Phil. Soc.', Vol. XIII., pt. 1, 1909, pp. 105-110. 

J. Lomas [the late]. Cheshire, Lake District, etc. 

Lakes and their Formation. ' The Nature Book,' Part 20, February 1909, 

PP- 597-602. 

J. Lomas (Secretary). Lanes., S. Cheshire. 

Investigation of the Fauna and Flora of the Trjas of the British Isles — 

Sixth Report of the Committee. ' Rep. Brit. Assn.' (Dublin), 1908 

[publ. 1909], pp. 269-282. 

Joseph Lomas. See under ' Axon.' 

E. A. Martel. Northern Counties. 

Speleology: a Modern Sporting Science [brief references to caves, etc., 
in the Northern Counties]. ' YOrks. Ramblers' Club Journ.', Vol. II.,. 
No. 8, 1907-8, pp. 278-290. 


Bibliography : Geology and Paleontology, igog. 267 

Edward A. Martin. Northumberland. 

Northumberland Dykes [notice of paper by Miss Heslop and Dr. Smythe], 

• Knowledge,' December 1909, pp. 471-2. 

A. M. MoAldowie. Derbyshire, Lines., etc. 

The Life History of the River Trent. ' Ann. Rep. and Trans. North Staff. 
Field Club,', Vol. XLI11., [908-9 [publ. 1909], pp. 116-126. 

V. Milthers. Yorks., X.E., S.K., bines., X. and S. 

Scandinavian Indicator-Boulders in the Quaternary Deposits Extension and 
Distribution [refers to Scandinavian, etc., erratics in England]. ' Dan- 
marks gcologiske Undersaegelse, II. Ra?kka, Xo. 23, pp. 1 - 1 53 (maps). 

William A. Parker. Lanes., S. 

The Fossil Arthropoda and Pisces of Sparth, Rochdale L list of records]. 

'The Lancashire Xaturalist,' X.S., Vol. II., Xo. 13, April 1909, Pp. 


E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock. Lines., X. and S. 

The Rock-soil Method and Ballota nigra Linn, in Lincolnshire [brief geolo- 
gical notes]. ' Xaturalist,' February 1909, pp. 39-44. 

E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock. See A. K. Dwerryhouse. 

W. H. Pickering. Yorks., Lines. 

Reports of . . . Inspector of Mines for the Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Dis- 
trict (No. 5), to His Majesty s Secretary of State ... for the year 1908 
[publ. 1909J, 54 PP- 

Edward Potts. See Stanley Smith. 

W. Munn Rankin. See C. E. Y. Kendall. 

Robert Heron Rastall. Yorks., Lines., Lake District, etc. 

On the Boulders of the Cambridge Drift : their Distribution and Origin. 

' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.', Vol LXV., pt. 3, August 1909, pp. 246- 
264. See also ' The Xaturalist,' July 1909, p. 243. 

John Rawlinson. Furness. 

On the Manufacture of Iron at Leighton Furnace in Yealand Redman. 

• Trans. Cumb. and West. Antiq. and Arch. Soc.', X.S., Vol VIII,, 1908, 
pp. 31-40. 

Eleanor M. Reid. Yorks., S.E., Lines., X. 

On a Method of Disintegrating Peat and other Deposits containing Fossil 

Seeds [refers to samples from Hornsea, Bielsbeck, Kirmington, 

etc.]. ' Journ. Linnean Society,' Vol. XXVIII., February 1909, 

PP- 454-457- 

J. Alaric Richardson. York, N.E., Durhan, Xorthumberland. 

Report on the Field Meetings of the Natural History Society for 1907. 
[Brief geological notes]. ' Trans. Xat. Hist. Soc. of Xorthumberland, 
Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne,' X.S., Vol. III., pt. 2, 1909, PP- 

J. Rodgers. See M. Stables. 

James Romanes. See Robert Heron Rastall. 

W. Robinson. See Cosmo Johns. 

1911 July 1. 

268 Bibliography : Geology and Paleontology, 1909. 

Dukinfield Henry Scott. Northern Counties. 

Studies in Fossil Botany. Ed. 2. 1909. 683 pp. 

T. S r HEPPARD . Lanes., S., etc. 

In Memoriam. Thomas Mellard Reade, F.G.S. [Brief references to his 

work in the Liverpool district]. ' The Naturalist,' July 1909, p. 244. 

Thomas Sheppard. Northern Counties. 

Bibliography : Papers and Records published in respect to the Geology 
and Palaeontology of the North of England, 1902-1908. [1902, 183 
entries; 1903, 203 entries; 1904, 245 entries; 1905, 218 entries; 
1906, 275 entries ; 1907, 278 entries ; 1908, 208 entries ; total, 1609 
items]. ' Trans. Y.N.U.', part 34, for 1908 [publ. 1909], pp. 1-119. 

T. Sheppard. Yorks., S.E., Lines., N. 

Royal Geographical Society, Research Department. Changes on the 
East Coast Region of England during the Historical Period. I. 
Coast Changes in East Yorkshire. ' Preliminary Summary Report,' 
1909, pp. 1-14. Reprinted in ' Geog. Journ.', Vol. XXXIV., No. 5, 
November 1909, pp. 500-513. 

T. S[heppard]. Yorks., S.E., Lines., N. 

Plants from the Peat Iris pseudacorus and Lathyrus palustris]. ' Natura- 
list,' December 1909, p. 443. 

T. Sheppard. Yorks., S.E., Lines., N. 

Guide to the Municipal Museum, Royal Institution, Albion Street, Hull. 
Third Edition. [Includes geological notes]. 1909, pp. 

Thomas Sheppard. Yorks., N.E., S.E., Lines., N. 

Hull Museums ; Annual Report for 1908 [including geological notes on 
pp. 16-19]. January 1909, 32 pp. 

Frederick Smith. Northern Counties. 

The Stone Ages in North Britain and Ireland. 1909. 377 pp. 

Reginald A. Smith. Derbyshire. 

Harborough Cave, near Brassington. II. Description of the Finds [in- 
cluding geological notes]. ' Journ. Derbyshire Arch, and Nat. Hist. 
Soc.', Vol. XXXI., 1909, pp. 97-114. 

Stanley Smith. Northumberland. 

A Brief Survey of the Geology of the Coast from the Mouth of Howick 
Burn to Cullernose Point [in ' Report on the Field Meetings of the 
Natural History Society for 1908,' by Edward Potts]. ' Trans. 
Xat. Hist. Soc. of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne,' N.S., Vol. III., pt. 2, 1909, pp. 490-491. 

Sydney A. Smith. See John Gerrard. 

\\ 'illiam Johnson Sollar. Northern Counties. 

The Anniversary Address of the President [of the Geological Society. With 

obituary notice of H. C. Sorby, Sir John Evans, W. H. Hudleston and 

other workers in the Northern Counties]. ' Quart. Journ. Geol. 

Soc.', Vol. LXV., pt. 2, 1909, pp. l.-cxxii. 

L. J. Spenser. See Reinhard Brauns. 

Matthew Stables. Furness, Lake District. 

Notes on the Ice Age, with local illustrations. ' Ann. Rep. Barrow Nat. 
Field Club,' 1963-4, Vol. XVII. [publ. 1909], pp. 219-220. 


Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology, 1909. 269 

M, Stables and J. Rodgers. Furness, Lake District. 

Report of the Geological and Antiquarian Section of the Barrow Nat. Field 

Club . Session 1909-1903. [Geological notes on excursions, etc.]. 

' Ann. Rep. Barrow Nat. Field Club,' 1903-4 ; Vol. XVII. [publ. 1909], 

PP- 31-35- 
M. Stables and A. Hawcridge. Furness, Lake District. 

Report of the Geological and Antiquarian Section of the Barrow Nat. Field 

Club . Session [903-4. [Geological notes on excursions, etc.]. 

' Ann. Rep. Barrow Nat. Club,' 1903-4 ; Vol. XVII. [publ. 1909], pp. 


F. W. S. Stanton. Lines., N. and S. 

Erosion of the Coast and its Prevention. [Geological Notes]. The articles 
recently appeared in ' Public Works.' London, 1909, 68 pp. 

J. W. Stather (Secretary). Yorks., S.E., Lines., X. 

Investigation of the Fossilferous Drift Deposits at Kirmington [etc.]., Inter 

Report of the Committee . ' Rep. Brit. Assn.' (Dublin), 1908 [publ. 

1909", p. 296. . 

W. H. Sutcliffe. Lanes., S. 

Notes on Palaeoxyris Prendellii (Lesquereux), from Middle Coal Measures, 

Sparth, Rochdale. ' Lane. Nat.', X.S., No. 16, July 1909, pp. 114-117. 

Alfred J. Tongue. Lanes., S. 

Fossil Tree in the Arley Mine at Chequerbent Colliery. [Lepidodendron 

aculeatum, exhibition of]. ' Trans. Manchester Geol. and Min. Soc.', 
Vol. XXXI., parts 5 and 6, 1909, pp. 78-79. 

Ramsay H. Traquair. Yorks., Mid. W., Derbyshire. 

The Ganoid Fishes of the British Carboniferous Formations, Part 1, No. 4. 

Paheoniscida.', pp. 107-122, pis. XXIV. -XXX. [Describes Acrolepis 
wilsoni Traquair from Belper, Derbyshire ; A. hopkinsi from Hebden 
Bridge]. 'Pal. Soc. Monog.', Vol. LXIIL, 1909. 

W. G. Travis. Lanes., S. 

On Plant Remains in Peat in the Shirdley Hill Sand at Aintree, S. Lanes. 

' Trans. Liverpool Bot. Soc.', Vol. I., 1909, pp. 47-52. 
[Late] J. S. Tute. See B. M. Smith. 

A. Yaughan [Secretary]. Yorks., Xorthumberland, Westmorland. 

Faunal Succession in the Lower Carboniferous (Avonian) of the British 
Isles -Report of the Committee. Brit. Assn. Leaflet, 1909, 5 PP- an 

Robert Douglas Vernon. Derbyshire, Yorks., S.W., Notts. 

The Geology of the Lower Coal measures of the Derbyshire and Nottingham- 
shire portion of the Yorkshire Coalfields. ' Geol. Mag.', July, 1909, 
pp. 289-299. 

D. M. S. Watson. Notts. 

The ' Trias ' of Moray. [Briefly comparing with specimens from Mans- 
field;. ' Geol. Mag., March 1909, pp. 102-107. 

D. M. S. Watson. Derbyshire. 

The Loop of Dielasma in Derbyshire Specimens . ' Geol. Mag.', June 
1909, pp. 272-3. 

D. M. S. Watson. Cheshire. 

On Some Reptilian Tracks from the Trias of Runcorn (Cheshire). [Ab- 
stract]. ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.', Vol. LXV., part 3, August 1909, 
pp. 440-441". Abstract in ' Geol. Mag.', August 1909, p. 381. 

1911 July 1. 

270 Bibliography : Geology and P alee ontology, 1909. 

D. M. S. Watson. Lanes., S. 

On the Anatomy of Lepidophloios Iarieinus Sternb. [in a specimen from a 

Lancashire Coal-ball; Abstract]. 'Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.', Vol. 

LXV,, pt. 3, August 1909, p. 441 ; and ' Geol. Mag.', August 1909, 

pp. 381-382. 

D. M. S. Watson. See H. C. Beasley. 

Arthur Watts. Durham, Yorks., N.E. 

History of the Browney Valley. [Lecture delivered November 9th, 1904]. 
' Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle- 
upon Tyne,' N.S., Vol. III., pt. 2, 1909, PP- 452-461. 

W. W. W t atts [Secretary]. Northern Counties. 

Photographs of Geological Interest Sixteenth Report of the Committee. 

[Including details of numerous photographs from Northern Counties]. 
' Rep. Brit. Assn.' (Dublin), 1908 [publ. 1909], pp. 245-267. 

G. S. West. See W. West. 

C. B. Wedd. See G. W. Lamplugh. 

W. West and G. S. West. Lake District. 

The Phytoplankton of the English Lake District. [Brief geological notes]. 

'Naturalist,' March 1909, pp. 1 15-122; April, pp. 1 34-141 ; May, 

pp. 186-193 ; July, pp. 260-267 ; August, pp. 287-292 ; September, 

PP- 323-33 1 - 

W. J. Wixgate. See A. R. Dwerryhouse. 

Henry Woods. Yorks., S.E., Lines., X. 

A Monograph of the Cretaceous Lamellibranchia of England. Vol. II., 
part 6, pp. 217-260; plates XXXV.-XLIV. [Describes and figures 
Panopea spilsbiensis from Donnington, Lines. ; P. gurgitus from 
Speeton ; Martesia constricta from Speeton and Claxby (?) ; Thvacia 
phillipsi from Speeton ; Pholadomya speetonensis from Speeton, and 
Pleuromya orbigniana from Donnington]. ' Pal. Soc. Monog.', Vol. 
LXIII., 1909. 

Henry Woods. Northern Counties. 

Palaeontology. Invertebrate. Fourth Edition. 1909. 388 pp. 

Arthur Smith Woodward. Lines., X T . 

The Fossil Fishes of the English Chalk, Part 5, pp. 153-184, plates XXXIII.- 
XXXVIII. [Describes Neorhombolepis (?) punctatus A. S. Wood- 
ward, from Louth, Lines.]. ' Pal. Soc. Monog.', Vol. LXIII., 1909. 

David Woolacott. Xorthumberland. 

Note on a Recently Formed Conglomerate near St. Mary's Island, Northum- 
berland [as a result of a cargo of apatite being wrecked there in 1890]. 

' Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne,' N.S., Vol. III., pt. 2, 1909, pp. 250-251. 

David Woolacott. Durham, etc. 

Preliminary Note on the Classification of the Permian of the North-East 

of England. Brit. Assn. Leaflet, 2 pp. ; also ' Geol. Mag.', November 

1909, pp. 5 1 3-5 I 4- 

David Woolacott. Durham. 

On a Case of Thrust and Crush Brecciation in the Magnesian Limestone 

Co. Durham. ' Rep. Brit. Assn.' (Dublin), 1908 [publ. 1909], pp. 

711-712 ; also 'Trans, of Durham Phil. Soc. Memoir No. 1', 1909, 

r 16 pp. 





Sanderlings in the Calder Valley. — On May 20th, with 
two friends, I visited a small gullery (black-headed) at White 
Holme Reservoir, Blackstone Edge, a few miles from Hebden 
Bridge, and there saw a bird which I had no difficulty in 
recognising as a Sanderling. It was probably an example 
just about to attain its first real summer plumage. Shortly 
afterwards, the occurrence of Sanderlings in the district was 
reported at a meeting of the Ovenden Naturalists' Society, 
and through the courtesy of Mr. E. Roberts, who answered my 
enquiries, I am able to state that Sanderlings have been ob- 
served almost daily from the last week in April to June 8th, 
on a large sewage farm near Sowerby Bridge, by Messrs. 
Ralph Bates and H. Priestley. There were four birds until 
the first week in May, when two disappeared, but the other 
two remained until May 25th, and one was observed as recently 
as June 8th. This is the first record of the species in the half 
dozen years' existence of the Hebden Bridge Literary and 
Scientific Society.- — Walter Greaves. 

Increase in the Grasshopper Warbler and Corncrake 
in the West Riding.— Unfortunately, Mr. H. E. Forrest's 
interesting note (ante p. 232), on the abundance of the Nightin- 
gale in Shropshire, and to the north and north-west of its usual 
habitats, does not apply to this district, where I have never 
heard nor seen a Nightingale. The feature of this season, 
however, in the return of the smaller summer-migrants, is the 
increase of Grasshopper Warblers — the rarest of our local 
warblers. There is a pair at Ben Rhydding (where I have not 
known it to occur previously), and I hear of three more pairs, 
all the four being within an area that could be covered in twelve 
miles ' as the crow flies.' The comparative significance of 
these four pairs can better be judged when I state that I have 
never before known more than one pair in the same area in 
any one season, and that usually three or four years at the least 
elapses between the visits of even a single pair. The Corn- 
crake, which has been decreasing for several years now, until 
it has almost become a rare bird here, has, I am pleased to say, 
returned in rather greater numbers this season. — H. B. Booth, 
Ben Rhydding. 

Mr. E. C. Senior, assistant at the Leeds Art Gallery, has been appointed 
curator of the Art Gallery and Museum at Doncaster. 

The Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club held its ' long meeting ' 
this year in Yorkshire, from June 12th to 17th. Headquarters were at 
Harrogate ; and York, Bempton, Knaresborough, and Aldborough were 
also visited. Messrs. Benson, Grabham, Fortune, and Sheppard acted 
as guides. 

1911 July 1. 


A Text-Book of Zoology, by Prof. T. J. Parker, F.R.S., and Prof. W. A. 
Haswell, F.R.S. Vol. I., pp. XXXIX + 839. Vol II., pp. XX. + 728. 
(London : Macmillan & Co., Ltd., 1910). Price 36s. net. 

It is thirteen years ago since the first edition of ' Parker and Haswell * 
appeared, and although the book was at that time warmly welcomed, 
probably few conceived the great influence the book would exercise amongst 
students of zoology. To both teacher and student alike the work has 
become indispensable, and it would scarcely be an exaggeration to say that 
the training of most zoologists of recent years has begun with the solid 
foundation of ' Parker and Haswell.' 

A new edition of such a work is therefore of special interest and im- 
portance, as in a progressive science like zoology, new discoveries are being 
constantly made, and an opportunity is given of correcting the errors that 
persist in creeping into the most carefully edited of books. Bearing on this 
point a comparison of the second with the first edition shews an addition 
of two-hundred pages of letterpress, and 70 illustrations ; and the errors, 
to which attention had been drawn by capable reviewers of the first edition 
have almost invariably been corrected. 

From the point of view of the student the scheme of the volumes is 
exceptionally good. The Phyla of the Animal Kingdom, from the Pro- 
tozoa to the Chordata, are divided into classes, and a ' type,' or, as the 
book prefers it, ' example,' of each is described in detail. This is followed 
by an account of the distinctive characters and classification of the Class, 
the systematic position of the example, and the general organisation of 
the Class. 

The method of studying a group of organisms by a ' type,' so much in 
vogue in the teaching of biology, has its dangers, in that the student is 
apt to get too stereotyped an impression of the organisation of the members, 
of animal or plant groups, and so to consider every organism but the ' type ' 
as exceptional. These dangers, however, are largely obviated by the plan 
of the present volumes. 

Considering the size of the work, errors are exceedingly few. We 
notice that in the phylogenetic tree, on page 525 of Vol. I., the Gephyrea 
and Hirudinea are still shewn as springing from the common stem, which 
gives rise to the Polychseta and Oligochaeta, although there seems little 
doubt that the Hirudinea are modified Oligochaeta, and similar links 
exist between Gephyrea and the Polychaeta. To the specialist, the work 
may not seem sufficiently advanced, but recourse must be made by such 
to the 'Cambridge Natural History ' or some similar work. 

On the score of illustrations the book cannot be too highly recommended. 
These are clear and well-chosen ; are conveniently placed near the letter- 
press to which they relate ; and are numerous, amounting in all to 1241. 
It is a pity, however, that no indication is given of the size of the object 
drawn. As to the printing and general get up of the volumes it need only 
be said that Messrs. Macmillan & Co. are the publishers. The work should 
certainly be in the library of every local natural history society. 

The Birmingham and Midland Institute has issued its useful Records of 
Meteorological Observations taken at Edgbaston, 1910, by Mr. Alfred 
Cresswell (2/-). The observations are tabulated, and published in a very 
methodical manner. 

From the Horniman Museum we have received a handbook to the cases 
illustrating stages in the evolution of the domestic arts. It is in two parts, 
sold at 2d. each. The first deals with Agriculture, the Preparation of 
Food, and Fire-making ; the second refers to Basketry, Pottery, Spinning, 
Weaving, etc. 


AUGUST, 1911. 

No. 655 




T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND \ 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 




Contents : — 


Notes and Comments:— The Sportophyte ; Botanists at Play; Botanical Gleanings; An Inter- 
national Phytogeographical Excursion ; Distinguished Foreign Visitors ; Routes ; The 
Isle of Wight ; Banks' Oar Fish (Illustrated) ; Monograph of Mollusca 273-270 

Cock Partridges 'Mothering' Chicks hatched in an Incubator— R. Fortune, F.Z.S. ... 277 

Petricola pholadiformis Lam.-Hans Schlesch 278 

The Bearded=Tit in Holderness— W. H. St. Quint in, F.Z.S 279-280 

Game Birds and their Broods killed by Lightning near Harrogate— R. Fortune, F.Z.S. 280 

The Birds of Walney Island— A . Haigh Lumby 281-282 

New and Rare Yorkshire Spiders (Illustrated)— Win. Falconer 283-288 

Enchytraeids of the North of England— Rev. Hilderic Friend, F.L.S., F.R.M.S 289-293 

Naturalists at Barton=on-Humber— T.S 294-295 

Lincolnshire Chalk Foraminifera— C. S. Carter 302 

In Memoriam— John Morgan 303 

Field Notes: — Lincolnshire Boulders; The Chemistry of the Cuckoo-Flower iCardamine 
pratensis) ; Salpingus ceratus Muls. : an Addition to the County List ; Redshanks breeding 
at Spurn ; Strange Accident to a Song Thrush ; Decrease in Whinchats ; The Decrease 
in Landrails ; Bird Notes from the Scarborough District ; Large Trout and Carp ; Eels 
Travelling on Land ; Unio margaritijer in confinement ; A Method of Obtaining the 
Glochidia of Anodonta cygnea; Hydra vulgaris and the Tadpoles of Rana temporaria 

282, 295, 296, 297-301 

News from the Magazines 293, 304 

Reviews and Book Notices 278, 288, 296, 303 

Northern News 276, 277 

Illustrations 276, 285, 297 

Plates XV., XVI. 


A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E C. 

And at Hull andjYoRK. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 


Transactions of the 

Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' Club. 


Edited by THOMAS SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.). 



A List of the Seventeenth Century Tokens of Lincolnshire, with descriptions 
of hitherto unpublished tokens (with ioo illustrations), by T. Sheppard, 
F.G.S., etc. 

Roman Bronze Coins found at South Ferriby, Lines., (with 93 illustrations), 
by T. Pickersgill. 

Additions to the List of East Yorkshire Spiders, by E. A. Parsons and 
T. Stainforth, B.A. 

Notes on some Scarborough Coleopteraand Arachnida, by T. Stainforth, B.A. 

Additions to the List of the Diatomaceae of the Hull District (with 23 illustra- 
tions), by R. H. Philip. 

Reports on the Club's work for 1908-10. 

Sold by 
A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., King Edward St. and Savile St., Hull. 





THOMAS SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A. (Scot.), 

Curator, Municipal Museums, Hull. 

Containing 204 pages, det?iy 8vo, fully illustrated, and with 

copious Index. 

Bevelled cloth boards, 3/6 net, postage 4d. extra. 

Printed and Published for the Hull Corporation by 

A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Savile Street, King Edward Street, 

and George Street, Hull. 

Also obtainable at 5 Farringdon Avenue, London, E.C. 

FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE.— Several volumes of the 
Geological Magazine ; Parts of the Yorkshire Geological 
Society's Proceedings ; Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' 
Clubs' Transactions, etc. 






Plate XV 


Helix aspersa Muller. 
Stroud, Gloucestershire, E. J. Elliott. 

Helix aspersa, var. conoidea Picard. 
Constantine, Algeria. 

Helix aspersa sub-var. puncticulata Baudon. 
Llandaff, Glam., F. W. Wotton. 

Helix aspersa var. deprcssa Paulucci. 
Castletown, Isle of Man. 

Helix aspersa sub-var. uiulutata Moq. 
Bristol, Miss Hele. 

Helix aspersa sub-var. tenuis Jeffr. 

Moulin Huet, Guernsey, 

Rev. Dr. McMurtrie. 

Helix aspersa sub var. lutescens Cockerel!. 
Hutton Bushel, Yorkshire, 
W. Gyngell. 

J. It'. Taylor, del. ad nat. 

2 73 



There can be no question that the Editor of The Sportophyte 
is, to use a not uncommon expression, ' a sport.' She tells 
us she ' delights in hazards of many kinds,' and also, still to 
use her own words, ' incidentally she has just been married.' 
To commemorate this incident, presumably, she has ' halved ' 
the price of the ' Sportophyte,' though it has one page more 
than the previous ' volume,' which, oddly enough, was a 
' double number,' whereas ' volume ' II. is not. Yet when 
Volume I. was issued, the editor was a single number, whilst 
now she is but the ' better half ' of another. And we are told 
that the second part should have appeared on April ist! 


There are one or two amusing skits in ' volume '* II, and 
some severe criticisms. There is also some more ' rabbit-meat '. 
We learn (page 2) — 

" Why these things are called Botany 
Is more than I can tell ; 
Some German must have named them — ■ 
Perhaps to him they're hell." 
The Editor goes on to explain that ' hell ' is German : one 
wonders why the ' l's ' on the very next page are upside down! 


Amongst the items of botanical information gleaned from 
The Sportophyte we learn that a farmer expressed the wish 
that an experiment station would ' breed flat peas which 
won't fall off the knife as I eat 'em.' If there were no bacteria, 
a man might be nearly cut in two, and the wound would heal 
in an hour or two.' ' Food travels from cell to cell, to the 
Bachelor bundles.' [The Editor, having only been married 
a week or two when her 'volume II ' appeared, doubtless resisted 
the temptation of referring to marriage being ' a cell']. 'A 
runner is a useful method of profligration.' We learn as a 
' tail-piece,' that ' envelopes containing contributions should be 
stamped and addressed to the Editor, M. C. Stopes, Botanical 
Department, University College, England,' and we presume 
the same remark will apply to envelopes containing subscrip- 
tions (1/-). 


What is probably one of the most extensive as well as the 
most important botanical excursions ever arranged in the 
British Isles will take place during the present month. In 

* This is a botanical joke. The booklet has 24 pages — and the pric^ 
is .\d. a page. 

1911 Aug. 1. 

274 Notes and Comments. 

recent years considerable discussion on points of nomenclature 
has been in progress between British and Foreign plant geo- 
graphers. This culminated at the International Botanical 
Congress held in Brussels last year. The views of British 
ecologists were set forth in a pamphlet drawn up by the British 
Vegetation Committee, and also in a special pamphlet on the 
question of Plant Formations by Dr. Moss. These had great 
influence on the views of Continental ecologists, and it was 
thought desirable to bring together representative men to 
consider on the spot the various views regarding the chief 
plant associations. There can be no doubt that such an 
opportunity for exchange of ideas will be invaluable in helping 
to systematise ecological studies in general. 


Invitations were consequently sent to a number of leading 
botanists, and among those who propose to attend are Prof, 
and Mrs. Clements (Minneapolis), Prof, and Mrs. Cowles 
(Chicago), Prof. Drude (Dresden), Prof. Flahault (Montpellier), 
Dr. Graebner (Berlin), Dr. Lindman (Stockholm), Prof. Massart 
(Brussels), Prof. Warming and Dr. Ostenfeld (Copenhagen), 
Prof. Schroter and Dr. Rubel (Zurich) and Dr. Weber (Bremen). 
These will be joined by the members of the British Vegetation 
Committee and others who have made special ecological studies 
in this country, and Dr. G. C. Druce, of Oxford, will also be 
present. It is a long time since so many men eminent in 
Plant Geography met together in this country, and no pains 
have been spared to render their visit both interesting and 
profitable. A business programme of eight pages has been 
issued, giving detailed information most likely to be of value 
to the visitors, and also a skeleton programme of the excursion, 
which commences on August ist and ends August 30th. A 
map is included on which the route to be taken is clearly 
indicated, together with the dates on which the various places 
will be visited. 


The members assemble in Cambridge on August ist and 
2nd, where they will be entertained by members of the Univer- 
sity, while the four following days will be spent on the Yar- 
mouth Broads. On the 7th, the party will proceed to Derby- 
shire, visiting Monsal Dale and the Peak Moors, and then on to 
Manchester. On the 9th, the cotton grass moors of the Stan- 
c-dge, and the various types of woodland about Huddersneld 
will be examined. From thence to Southport for the sand 
dunes, and on to Lancaster for the lowland peat moors. August 
nth and 12th will be spent in the neighbourhood of Carnforth, 
Grange, Silverdale and Whitborrow, and on the 13th an ascent 
of Cross Fell will be made. Edinburgh will be reached on the 

Notes and Comments. 275 

14th or 15th, and a visit then made to the Highlands, including 
the ascent of Ben Lawers. Journeying to Glasgow, the Univer- 
sity and other places of interest will be visited, before crossing 
over to Dublin, which will be reached on August 20th. While 
in Ireland, visits will be made to Craigga More, Urrisbeg and 
Dog's Bay ; to the West of Ireland, including Galway, Bally- 
vaghan and Ardrahan, and then to Killarney, after which the 
party will proceed to Cork, and thence by steamer to Plymouth. 
Two days will be spent in Cornwall before going on to Po: ts- 
mouth, which will be reached on the afternoon of August 30th. 
Here the party will settle down for a week with the British 
Association. During this extended tour, opportunity will be 
given to visit the principal plant associations of the British 
Isles, which have so far been studied, and the experience 
gained during the month so spent and the exchange of ideas 
on the many problems which will present themselves, should 
prove both valuable and stimulating to all who are fortunate 
enough to take part. 


Of interest to the naturalists attending the meetings of the 
British Association at Portsmouth is the volume recently 
issued under the editorship of Mr. F. Morley, F.L.S.* It has 
nearly six hundred pages, and is illustrated by a map and 
numerous photographs. In some respects, it runs on un- 
conventional lines, especially the somewhat jocular intro- 
duction. Each section is by a specialist, and chapters deal 
with geology, meteorology, and the remains of early man ; while 
in others lists are given of all groups of plants, from Fungi and 
Algae to Flowering Plants, and of animals from Protozoa to 
Mammals. There are in all, records of 6982 species. Several 
northern naturalists, well known to our readers, have rendered 
assistance, e.g., Messrs. G. S. West, in Algae ; C. Crossland, in 
Fungi ; W. Ingham, in Mosses ; J. A. Wheldon in Lichens ; 
and W. J. Wingate, in Diptera. The introductory chapters 
to the groups, however, run chiefly on text-book lines and 
savour too much of the laboratory, and too little of the open 
air. One misses a first hand account of the physical features 
and Vegetation. In the latter respect, however, the gap will 
be filled by Mr. W. M. Rankin, who has completed a survey 
of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, and we understand has 
written a chapter on the vegetation and plant associations 
of the district for the Portsmouth ' Handbook.' 

* A Guide to the Natural History of the Isle of Wight. London : W 
Wesley & Son. 

1911 Aug. 1. 


Notes and Comment* 


The illustration below is from a quaint and well-preserved 
water-colour drawing of Banks' Oar Fish, a specimen of which 
is in Middlesbrough Museum. The drawing is dated 1738, 

Ceil, Coaiu. 

'The Fish which is represented in the above drawing came on shore alive at Newlyn, in 
Mountsbay, Cornwall, on Saturday, the 23rd February, 1738. Its length exclusive of the tail 
was 6J feet ; depth 10J inches ; thickness 2J inches ; and weight 40 pounds.' 

and contains the description in contemporary handwriting, 
a copy of which is given. It is interesting to find this old 
record of the occurrence of this curious fish. 


Part 18 of Mr. J. W. Taylor's well-known ' Monograph of 
the Land and Fresh-Water Mollusca of the British Isles ' has 
recently been published, and deals entirely with the distribution, 
etc., of Helix nemoralis and Helix hortensis. In addition there 
are plates showing the varieties and distribution of Helix 
aspersa. One of these plates we are kindly permitted to re- 
produce (Plate XV.), and it will well illustrate the excellent 
nature of Mr. Taylor's work. 

We regret to notice a growing tendency to use the word ' organising, ' 
in connection with Hon. Secretaryships. Are not all Hon. Secretaries 
' organising ' secretaries ? If not, they should not be secretaries. 

We have seen a circular prepared for a Nature Study Summer School 
in Yorkshire, on the front of which there is ajphotograph of a ' Nightingale's 
nest and eggs'. As a matter of fact there is no nest, and the eggs are cer- 
tainly not those of a Nightingale, but are evidently those of a Nightjar. 
This seems rather a bad start ! 

A meeting of the Marine Biological Committee of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union will be held at Scarborough, September 2226. Accom- 
modation may be obtained at a convenient boarding-house at 6/- a day, 
including the use of room for exhibits, etc. The Committee will be glad 
to welcome all members interested in the subject. There will be a tem- 
porary exhibition of marine life, shells, etc. Excursions have been arranged, 
and there will be discussions, papers, etc., in the evenings. It should 
prove extremely interesting. Scarborough is very rich in marine life ; 
microscopic shells are more abundant than on any other place on the 
Yorkshire coast. Those who wish to attend should send in their names to 
Rev. F. H. Woods, Bainton Rectory, Driffield. 


2 7 7 


Some interesting experiments have recently been successfully 
tried with Partridges upon an estate near Harrogate. The 
keeper had a number of cock birds which had been imported 
from Hungary, and were kept in pens. The keeper gathered 
a number of Partridge eggs from dangerous positions on the 
road sides, and hatched them in an incubator. The method 
adopted was to put the cock Partridge in a small coop, in a 
little clearing in a corn field, then from 15 to 20 chicks ware 
placed in the coop with him, and they were left over night. 
In the morning the keeper, operating from behind a hedge, 
withdrew the sliding front from the coop by the aid of a long 
cord. Very soon the chicks commenced to run out, and in a 
short time they were followed by the old cock. I have watched 
several lots released, and have photographed one successfully. 
The old birds vary in their conduct : one will dash straight 
out of the coop into the corn, another will peer out cautiously 
then make straight into the corn, and another will hang about 
a bit before making to cover. In every case, however, the 
old bird commenced almost immediately to call the chicks to 
him, and they responded to the call at once. The last bird I 
saw released stayed, in the coop quite ten minutes after the 
shutter had been withdrawn, the young ones running in and 
out all the time, then he came to the entrance, and, in a cautious 
manner, peered about him, and, without undue haste, made 
for cover, calling the chicks to him. This bird was seen the 
following day in the same place with the young ones following 
him, indeed, at the time he was brooding them, and upon 
corn being thrown into the clearing from behind the hedge, he 
immediately commenced picking it up. The experiment is 
most interesting, and, as far as I can see, is a complete success, 
and should solve a very difficult problem. It must be in- 
finitely better than hatching the eggs under an ordinary fowl, 
and may help to again bring up the numbers of the best sporting 
bird in the world, which has sadly decreased of late years. 

More piffle from the daily press. According to the Western Daily 
Mercury a cow was found to be suffering from an enormous swelling 
in the udder. The cause was at once attributed to the bite of a viper. 
' The milk was accordingly set aside, and on looking at it some three 
hours afterwards the form of a snake was distinctly seen in the cream 
which had collected on the surface. There was an exact model of the 
reptile ; the head, with the V mark, the eyes, and the tongue projecting 
from the mouth — perfect throughout to the tail. Moreover, by aid of a 
magnifying glass, the scales of the skin could be distinctly seen. All this 
was seen by Mrs. Heale, her two grown-up daughters, the servant girl, 
and the boy groom.' And so on. 
191 1 Aug. 1. 




A shell which has received the attention of malacologists 
in recent years is Petricola pholadiformis Lam., a species 
found along the east coast of North America (the northernmost 
locality known being Prince Edward's Island), and the West 
Indian Islands, and it is everywhere very common. 

In Europe it was first recorded from England (Cricksea, 
Essex) by William Crouch, 1890, and later was found by 
Cooper, at Burnham-on-Crouch in 1895, and at Shellness, Kent, 
in 1896, at Heme Bay in Kent, by Kennard, in 1896, and has 
been noted in many localities along the coasts of Essex, Kent, 
Suffolk, Norfolk and Lincolnshire (Mablethorpe, 1909, by 

On the Continent the species was first found at Nieuport, 
Belgium, by Loppens, in 1899, and later was observed at 
several places along the Belgian coast (Coq-sur-Mer, 1900 ; 
Wenduyne, 1901 ; between Blankenberghe and Clemskerke, 
1902 ; Ostend, 1903). From the French coast in the Channel 
it has only been noted from a few localities (Dunkirk, Calais, 
etc.), but north of this region it is certainly spread everywhere 
along the coast of Holland (Noordwijk, 1907), Germany (between 
Norderney and Juist, 1906, by Dr. E. Wolf, and from Romo, 
Sylt, Amrum, Fohr and the Hallingen by Caesar Boettger). 
In Denmark, Petricola pholadiformis has been noted from the 
islands Fano and Mano in 1907, by myself. Later I noticed it 
along the Danish North Sea coast (Blaavandshuk, 1908 ; Har- 
boore, 1909 ; Vigso-bay, 1910 ; and lastly, this year, 19 n, in 
large numbers at Svinklov). 

Petricola pholadiformis best likes still, shallow water, 
especially with a clayey bottom, and it seems remarkable, 
therefore, that it should have been able to cross the ocean. It 
is found in company with Pholas Candida and Zirphcea crispata. 

Transactions of the Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists Club, Vol. IV., 
Part 3, 191 1. 2/-. 

This part just issued covers the work of the Society in 1908-10, and, 
besides giving evidence of a vigorous vitality, contains much interesting 
information on the many branches of science which come within the scope 
of its operations. Two articles occupying the lion's share of the space, deal 
with numismatics, a subject which has deservedly come to the front within 
recent years. The remaining three papers are on natural history subjects, 
and deal with diatoms, spiders and beetles. The addition of twenty-six 
new species to the list of East Yorkshire Spiders is especially noteworthy. 
The splendid results which have attended Mr. Stainforth's researches 
amongst the Arachnida, should be most gratifying to him and to his 
fellow-workers in the Club. They should also act as a stimulus to others 
to take up orders generally neglected, and thus add materially to our 
knowledge of the local fauna. — E.G.B. 




Scampston, E. Yorks. 

Although I believe there is no record of the existence, as a 
resident, of the Bearded Tit, in the East Riding, even before 
the drainage of Holderness it has often occurred to me that, 
if once started, there is no reason why they should not do 
well at Hornsea Mere, where the natural conditions seem so 

Some members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union know 
that, with this object in view, I purchased last autumn a 
number of these birds from two London dealers, who have 
agents in Holland, and who often have Dutch marsh birds 
for sale. 

I kept the birds in roomy out-door aviaries from November 
last, and my intention was to enlarge them on the mere as soon 
as Spring weather really arrived. I have often kept Bearded 
Tits, and find that, as a staple food, maw seed* suits them 
exceedingly well. But it is obvious that this is an acquired 
taste, and that before they were set free, it would be necessary 
to get them accustomed to such food as they would find on 
the Mere before insect life appeared. I had previously never 
found them notice the seeds of the Common Reed, which are 
stated by various authorities to be their main winter food. 
However, by rubbing out the reed seeds, and mixing them 
with the aviary food, I found, after a time, that my captives 
were taking to their natural diet ; and for the first time, I 
began to feel confident that the experiment might succeed. 

It was not till the nth April that the weather seemed 
sufficiently mild for birds that had been kept in captivity so 
long, to have a good chance, so on that day I took six pairs 
over and two odd cocks, and set them free on the south side 
of the Mere, near the boathouse. I let them out of the travel- 
ling cage by degrees, but it was a little disconcerting to see 
the first little batch of five, after hopping about near the cage, 
which we had fixed up against an alder tree, take to the air, 
and, calling loudly, fly clean out of our sight, but luckily in 
the direction of the boggy wood at the Wassand end of the 
Mere, where there is a large extent of suitable ground, and we 
felt fairly confident that they would drop into this. 

I was more careful about the others, and let them out by 
twos and threes, so that they might find their way gradually 
into the reed beds. 

Since the middle of April I have heard from time to time, 
from our watcher, that he had seen some of the birds about, 

* The seed of the Poppy. 

ign Aug. i. 

z8p Game Birds and their Broods Killed by Lightning. 

and always in pairs, which, of course, was a good sign. But 
my satisfaction was great a few days ago, to hear from Ake 
that, on the 26th June, he had seen a pair of old ones followed 
by two or three young in the reed beds near the boathouse. 
I quite think that there may be other broods, but the cover 
is very dense, and until the leaf falls, we shall not know how far 
the experiment really has succeeded. 

I am sure I need not impress upon my fellow members 
who may visit Hornsea Mere, the desirability of assisting in 
every possible way in the protection of this interesting little 
colony. It is some comfort to think that, being ' Continen- 
tals,' no stranger will find it worth his while to interfere with 
these birds, as, of course, they possess no interest to a collector 
of British specimens. 

: o : 




(plate XVI.). 

During the night, between June 25th and 26th, this district, 
in common with many others, was visited by a heavy thunder- 
storm. In the morning a hen Pheasant and ten poults were 
found to have been struck by the lightning and killed. They 
were quite in the open, in the middle of a large seeds field, and 
had evidently ' jugged ' down for the night. 

Strange to relate, at a distance of 160 yards in a straight 
line, a Partridge was found to have been killed in the same way. 
This bird was sat upon her nest covering her chicks, which had 
only just been hatched — there were twenty of them. The 
keeper knew they were due to hatch off, and peering into the 
fence bottom, where the nest was situated, he at first thought 
the bird was still brooding, but a closer inspection showed she 
was dead, as were all the chicks. 

Curiously enough, both birds appear to have suffered during 
the previous shooting season. The Pheasant had had a shot 
through one of her legs, the one prominent in the photograph, 
and the Partridge had lost an eye. 

It must be almost a unique occurrence to find two game 
birds with their broods struck down in this way, and at such 
a short distance from each other. 

A post mortem examination did not reveal the slightest 
trace of disease of any kind. 

N.B. — Since the above was written, a Hare was found 
which had without doubt been killed in the same way. 



Plate XVI. 

Photo by] 

[R. Fortune, F.Z.S. 

Pheasant and 10 young ones killed by lightning, Plumpton near Harrogate, 
between 25th and 26th June. 

Photo by] 

[R. Fortune, F.Z.S. 

Partridge and 20 young ones killed by lightning, Plumpton near Harrogate, 
between 25th and 26th June. 

28 1 



In this journal for 1907 (p. 270), Mr. Booth gave some notes 
on this subject. The Bradford Natural History Society has 
since paid two visits to the Island. 

The 1908 visit was, in most respects, a replica of the pre- 
ceding year, except that no eggs of the Sandwich Tern were 
seen, and there was probably only one pair of birds. The 
Lesser Tern was rather later in nesting. There was a very 
large flock of Sanderling, which had collected on the Island on 
its way north, and the marvellous harmony these birds exhibited 
in their intricate aerial evolutions was astonishing. The three 
species of Pipits were seen, but no Stonechats. 

The Island w T as visited on June 10th this year, and the 
programme was practically identical with that of 1907 and 
1908 ; and, with few exceptions, very similar conditions in 
the status of the various species of birds prevailed. 

Black-headed Gull. — This still occupies a pre-eminent 
position as far as numbers are concerned, and this year there 
was apparently much less mortality amongst the young birds. 
This was no doubt due in some measure to the exceptional 
spell of fine weather during nesting time. 

Common Tern. — Several healthy colonies of this species 
were noted ; the largest of which was some distance from the 
• headquarters of 1907 and 1908. This seemingly frail and 
defenceless bird is very pugnacious towards the Black-headed 
Gulls which approach the vicinity of its nest, and soon drives 
them beyond its boundaries. 

Arctic Tern. — The shingle where this species builds its 
nest, or rather, lays its eggs, along with the Lesser Tern and 
Ringed Plover, was not worked very much, and only a nest 
or two of each were found. Owing to the difficulty in dis- 
tinguishing between the Common and Arctic species in flight, 
nothing can be definitely reported as to the status of the latter, 
but the Lesser Tern and Ringed Plover were seen in good 

Sandwich Tern.- — One of the most interesting surprises 
was to find this species established in two colonies, numbering 
together about eighteen nests. In 1907 only one nest with a 
single egg was seen, whilst in 1908 we failed to find a solitary 
example. As the date was only two days later than that of 
our visits in 1907, it is evident that the scarcity in that year 
was not due, as Mr. Booth suggested, to the bird not having 
commenced nesting, but rather to its tendency to shift its 
quarters from year to year. 

1911 Aug. 1. 

282 The Birds of Walney Island. 

The Sandwich Tern was once very common on Walney ; 
but, probably owing to the frequent disturbance, it had deserted 
its old home in favour of the Ravenglass preserve, until, twa 
years ago, when it re-appeared in its former haunts. 

Every nest seen was surrounded by a white-washed circle 
of excreta, ejected by the birds whilst on the nest, a character- 
istic noticed in the case of the single nest found by the writer 
in 1907, which, however, was merely a depression or scratching 
in the sand, differing widely from the substantial structures 
of marram grass in this year's colonies. 

Roseate Tern. — There still remains the possibility of the 
Roseate being on the Island, though no further definite evidence 
has been added to that given in 1907. 

Shelduck. — Very common ; in fact, more birds were 
seen than in former years, and there were plenty of burrows 
with down about them. 

Oyster Catcher. — Common, and very noisy. 

Stock Dove. — Several were seen about the burrows in 
the sand dunes. 

Stonechat. — After careful search the party was successful 
in discovering two pairs of this species — one feeding young in 

Altogether thirty-six species were noted on the Island or 
in the neighbourhood. 

Our thanks are again due to our friends of the Barrow 
Naturalists' Society, and to the Duke of Buccleuch and his 

Lincolnshire Boulders. — Through the kind aid of the 
Rev. A. C. H. Rice, Rector of Horsington, in the Lindsey 
division of Lincolnshire, I have been able to examine a boulder 
in his parish, which I took to be a block from the Spilsby 
sandstone, similar to the boulder No. 1, in my note on Lin- 
colnshire Boulders in ' The Naturalist ' for 1909, p. 93, the 
position of which in situ has not been found. This additional 
boulder, which is highly fossiliferous, and very hard in texture, 
is 4 ft. 6 in. in length, 2 ft. wide, and about 1 ft. 6 in. 
deep. On the surface it is a mass of fossils, principally ostrseas, 
with broken shell fragments and a fair number of belemnites. 
Prof. P. F. Kendall, to whom I sent the chippings, confirms my 
view of its origin, pointing out ' the usual lustre-mottling ' of 
its class, and remarking on its containing more belemnites than 
he had hitherto met with in blocks of the same kind. The 
village of Horsington is some four miles north of the Stixwould 
Station, on the Great Northern line from Lincoln to Boston 
by the side of the Witham river. — F. M. Burton, Highfield, 



Slaithwaite, near H udder sfield. 

Already during the present year, fourteen species of spiders 
have been added to the Yorkshire list, bringing the total for 
the county up to three hundred and ten, a number only 
exceeded in the case of Dorset, though very closely approached 
by both Northumberland and Cumberland. 

For five of these additions, Entelecara thorellii Westr, 
fig. 4, Hypselistes jacksonii Camb., Hypselistes no v. sp., 
Troxochrus ignobilis Camb., and Xysticits sabulosus Hahn, Mr. 
J. W. H. Harrison of Middlesborough is responsible, and he will, 
in due time, record particulars of them. They are all from 
Eston in the North Riding. 

Three others, with several species of some rarity, were 
obtained in the course of a day's collecting on June 3rd last, 
by Mr. W. P. Winter and myself, from Selby by way of the 
river bank and Riccall Common to Skip with Common, the 
well-known naturalists' resort in the East Riding. The 
journey was undertaken with the express intention of investi- 
gating its arachnidal fauna more fully than had been hitherto 
attempted. Circumstances favoured us ; the dry sunny 
weather which had prevailed so long, by drying up the moister 
portions of the Common, and contracting the waters of the 
Mere, gave us easy access to places which, in a wetter season, 
would be unworkable. It was only possible, however, to 
search a small area in the short time at our disposal, and many 
more visits at every season of the year will be necessary before 
its spider population can be satisfactorily ascertained. The 
remaining five species new to the list occurred in various parts 
of the West Riding. 

In the list, uninitialled entries indicate that the spider 
was of my own collecting. 
I. — New to Yorkshire. 

Theridion impressnm L. Koch. 
An adult male and several immature examples of 
both sexes on furze bushes, Riccall Common, June 
3rd. Recognised first as a British species by the 
Rev. O. Pickard-Cambridge, in 1903 (' Proc. Dorset 
Field Club,' Vol. XXIV., p. 162). it is now on 
record for Warwickshire, Dorset, Hereford and 
Buihyphantes se'iger F. O. P. Cb. Fig. 3. 
An adult female in damp ground between the road 
and the River Ouse, just above Selby on the E. 
Riding side, June 3rd. Previously this rare spider 
has occurred several times in Newtown Moss, Pen- 

1911 Aug. 1. 

284 Falconer : New and Rare Yorkshire Spiders. 

rith, and once at Watton in Norfolk. The example 
recorded above has been seen by Mr. Cambridge. 
Diplocephalns castaneipes Sim. 

Three adult females, June 9th, at the roots of herbage 
in a dried-up spot on the slope between Middle 
House and Malham Tarn, but nearer the former 

This spider was first met with as a British species on 
the summit of Snowdon, where both sexes were 
taken by Dr. Jackson in 1905 (' Proc. Dors. Field 
Club,' Vol. XXVII., 1906, p. 91). It has since 
been found in the other three countries of the 
British Isles. 
Diplocephalns protuberans Camb. Fig. 1. 

An adult pair at the roots of grass on the left bank 
of Ainley Place beck, in Clough House Wood, 
Slaithwaite, May 10th, and a few days later, a couple 
of females in the same place. Originally in the 
male sex, described and figured by the Rev. O. 
Pickard Cambridge, in ' Proc. Zool. Soc.', London, 
1875, p. 218, pi. XXIX., fig. 24, sub. Erigone 
protuberans. A single male of this spider, which 
had previously occurred in France, was, when 
found by Mr. R. S. Bagnall, in December 1906, 
among moss at Gibside, Durham, new to Britain. 
This example is recorded by Dr. Jackson, in ' Proc. 
Chester Soc.', 1907, Pt. 6, pt. 3, and the male 
palpus is there figured in various positions, Plate 
I., figs. 10-15. The above, therefore, is the second 
occurrence of the species, but the first record of the 
female in Britain. 

The females I took apparently agree with the des- 
cription given by Simon in his ' Arachnides de 
France,' Tome V., Partie 3 : — ' Epigyne : a semi- 
circular brownish plate, rugose and ciliate, con- 
vex in front, and a little depressed behind, en- 
tirely divided by a slender longitudinal strie and 
marked on each side with an oblique curved depres- 
sion not reaching the margin,' but certainly no one 
would recognise the species from his figure, which 
is the only one extant. I venture, therefore, to 
append a drawing of the epigyne, which is very 
distinct and characteristic, and not at all likely 
to be confounded with that of any other British 
Araeoncus crassiceps Westr. Fig. 2. 

An adult female from roots of grass in a dried-up 
place between Middle House and Malham Tarn, 


Falconer : New and Rare Yorkshire Spiders. 


July 9th, in company with Difilocephalus cas- 
taneipes Sim. Kindly identified for me by Dr. 
Jackson, who states that it agrees with the female 
he named from Penrith, and which was accom- 
panied by a male of the species. This little known 
spider has occurred in Dorset, Northumberland, 
Newtown Moss, Penrith, the Isle of Arran, and shore 
of Loch Leven, Scotland ; in Ulster and Connaught, 
Epeira sturmii Hahn. 
An adult male in dough House Wood, Slaithwaite, 
May, shaken out of grass surrounding an embedded 
stone. In this specimen, very little abdominal 
pattern is visible, and one palp is somewhat lighter 

Fig. 1. — Epigyne of Diplocephalus protuberans Camb. § 
,, 2. — ,, Araeoncus crassiceps Westr. § 

,, 3. — ,, Bathyphantes setigev F.O.P. cb. $ 

„ 4. — ,, Entelecara thorellii Westr. $ 

in colour than the other. No conifers grow in the 
above-named wood. Also an adult female, and 
many juveniles of both sexes on yew trees, Defter 
Park, Cawthorn, July, access to which was kindly 
granted me by J. M. Spencer Stanhope, Esq., 
Cannon Hall. I have on several occasions in 
various parts of the county met with immature 
examples of this spider, but the above recorded 
examples are the only adults so far obtained in 
Yorkshire, and confirm the identification of im- 
mature specimens taken in Defter Wood, during the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Excursion there, August 
1909 (Vide ' Naturalist,' November, p. 395). 

911 Aug. 1. 

286 Falconer : New and Rare Yorkshire Spiders. 

Previous to their discrimination by Dr. Jackson 
(' Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Northumberland, Durham 
and Newcastle-upon-Tyne,' New Series, Vol. III., pt. 
2, pp. 9-14), two species were in England confounded 
under the name E. triguttata Fabr. So far, only 
E. sturmii Halm, has been observed in the North 
of England. 

Ero cambridgii Kulcz. 

Three females, cliffs West of Marske, August 1910. 
Separated from British examples of E. thoracica 
Wid., by Kulczynski (' Fragmenta Arachnologica 
IX.', Jan. 1911, pp. 61-2, Plate B, figs. 79, 81, 82), 
this species has now been recognised in Dorset, New 
Forest, Cheshire, Yorkshire and Cumberland. 

Pisaura mirabilis Clerck. 

One female with egg sac near Keighley, Mr. Rosse 
Butterfield, June 1910, received for examination 
January 191 1. Up to the time of writing, July, 
the only Yorkshire example, though the spider is 
usually a plentiful one, with a wide distribution 
at home and abroad. Yorkshire, however, is not 
the only place in which it has a similar curiously 
restricted range. 

Virata latitans Bl. 

A few adults of both sexes in a damp spot on Skipwith 
Common, June 3rd, W.P.W., and W.F. Exactly 
a week later, Mr. Stainforth, Hull, collected a few 
females at Kelleythorpe, near Great Driffield. It 
is on record for many parts of England, and has 
recently been discovered in one locality in Ireland. 

II. — Rare in Yorkshire. 
Dictyna latens Fabr. 

Several examples of both sexes on furze bushes by the 
mere, Skipwith Common, W.P.W., W.F., New to 
the East Riding. 

Theridion ftictum Hahn. 
Immature examples, Riccall Common, and many 
adults of both sexes, with last-named, Skipwith 
Common, W.P.W., W.F. Two females on record 
for West Riding. 

Theridion bimaculatum Linn. 
Immature female, Selby ; one'male, several females, 
Riccall Common ; few females, $kipwith Common ; 
W.P.W., W.F. New to East Riding. On record 
also for West Riding, near Leeds. 

Falconer : New and Rare Yorkshire Spiders. 287 

Linyphia pusilla Suncl. 

Three females, Ricall Common, W.P.W. and W.F. ; 
one male, one female, Skipwith Common, W.F. On 
record for two localities in North Riding, and three 
other East Riding localities. 

Leptyphantes tenebricola Wid. 
Elam Wood, Keighley, one male, W.P.W. ; two of 
each sex, Grass Woods, Grassington, W.F. A 
rare Yorkshire spider, but found in all the 
Bathyphantes pullatus Camb. 
Selby, one female, and Riccall Common, one male, 
one female, W.P.W. ; several males and females, 
Skipwith Common, W. P.W., W.F. So far, it has 
only been found in one other locality in Yorkshire. 
CoryphcBus distinctus Sim. 

Selby, on Ouse Banks, four females, and Skipwith 
Common, one female. On record also for North 
Porrhomma misernm Camb. 

Three of each sex, Skipwith Common, W.P.W., W.F. 
A rare British spider, new to East Riding. On 
record also for the other ridings, but scarce. 
Syedra innotabilis Camb. 

One adult male amongst grass in Grass woods, Gras- 
sington, new to West Riding, the third Yorkshire 
example, the others having been taken near Skelton, 
North Riding. 
Sintula cornigera Bl. 

One male, Royal Clough, Pole Moor, Huddersfield. 
Nowhere a plentiful spider, and only five solitary 
specimens have, so far, been found in Yorkshire. 

Gongylidiellum paganum Sim. 

Rivock, near Keighley, one female, W.P.W. ; Ainley 
Place, Slaithwaite, one female, W.F. Two other 
specimens, a male and a female, the first British 
examples, have previously occurred, also in W T est 
Riding. It has been recently met with in Ireland. 

Enidia comuta"B\. 

Three males, eight females, Skipwith Common, 
W.P.W., W.F. On record for all the Ridings. 

Eboria caliginosa Falcr. 

In two bogs at roots of herbage, near Nont Sarah's, 
Scammonden — a new station. On April 14th, dis- 
covered in plenty, both sexes on summit of Scawfell 
Pike, in the Lake District, by Mr. Britten. 

1911 Aug. 1. 

288 Falconer : New and Rare Yorkshire Spiders. 

Cnephalocotes elegans Camb. 
Four males, nine females, Skipwith Common, at roots 
of grass in damp places, W.P.W., W.F. Yorkshire 
records few, except around Huddersfield. 

Cnephalocotes obscurus Bl. 
One male, two females, Skipwith Common, with last- 
named W.P.W., W.F. Yorkshire records few, 
except around Huddersfield. 

Walckenaera nudipalpis Westr. 

One female, Skipwith Common. New to East Riding. 
The same remark applies also to this spider. 

Ceratinella brevipes- Westr. 
Two females, Skipwith Common, W.P.W., W.F. New 
to East Riding. Another example has since been 
taken by Mr. Stainforth at Pulfin Bog, near Bever- 

Epeira patagiata C. L. Koch. 
Three adult females, but immature males and females 
in plenty on furze bushes, near the mere, Skipwith 
Common, W.P.W., W.F. It has occurred in three 
other East Riding localities. 

Lycosa nigriceps Thor. 

Both sexes, Skipwith Common, W.P.W., W.F. New 
to East Riding and other Yorkshire records few. 

The Liverworts, British and Foreign, by Sir Edward Fry, G.C.B., and 
Agnes Fry. London : Witherby & Co. Pp. VIII. and 74. 1/6. 

This little book is intended as a companion volume to ' British Mosses,' 
by the same author, and follows a similar plan, his object being to excite 
an interest in these lowly, but interesting plants. The forty-nine illus- 
trations are the work of his daughter, Miss Agnes Fry, and serve to show 
the more important structures met with in the different groups. After 
describing a thallose and foliose liverwort, chapters follow on the Ricciese, 
Monoclea?, Anthocerea*, Marchantieae and Jungermanniese, dealing with 
the more general characters of the groups. Other brief chapters deal 
with modes of reproduction ; Elaters ; Odour and Water Supply ; Alterna- 
tion of Generations ; Classification and Distribution. The work is not 
intended for the specialist, and is written in the main in non- technical 
language. In attempting this great difficulties are encountered, and we 
think it would be better to explain and illustrate clearly the more impor- 
tant technical terms, and use them than try to find substitutes which are 
often misleading. To give only one or two examples : On page 4, he 
refers to the ' Archegone, or fertilized female cell " though on page 7, he 
says the archegone ' consists of the ovum or female cell, and a flask-shaped 
vessel containing it.' Rhizoids are usually referred to as ' rootlets' and 
' root hairs,' terms which have a definite botanical meaning, and ought not 
to be applied in this loose way. It is by such usage that they lose their 
sio-nificance, and render necessary still more technical terms which it is 
desirable to avoid. 




Thanks to the grant for researches among the Annelids of 
Great Britain which I have received from the Government, 
I have been able, during the past few months, greatly to 
extend our knowledge of this vast and important subject, 
upon which I have been engaged at intervals for upwards of 
twenty years. I have paid visits to Cumberland, Lancashire, 
Derbyshire, and other counties in order personally to collect 
material, and study the conditions under which the animals 
flourish, while I have been able also to observe the life-history 
of some of the species, and study the early stages and methods 
of development. 

I propose in the present paper to place on record some of 
the results of my observations among one of the largest groups, 
known as Enchytraeids.. With the exception of two or three 
genera, and a few aberrant species, the whole of the creatures 
in this family have colourless blood. They are often of micro- 
scopic dimensions, ranging from about three or four mm. to an 
inch in length, the largest species yet discovered (Fridericia 
magna Friend) being 35 to 40 mm. long, and having red blood. 
The species are ubiquitous. In Cumberland I found them by 
the mouth of the Solway, on the banks of the Eden, in the 
bogs, in woods, manure, damp earth, and indeed, wherever I 
looked for them. In Lancashire, the estuarine forms with red 
blood abound at St. Anne's, Lytham, and wherever streamlets 
run into the sea, or the sea sends up a little arm inland. In 
Yorkshire and Derbyshire they are to be found in ditches-, woods, 
manure heaps, and elsewhere, the different species of Fridericia 
especially being very abundant. Except in those cases in 
which the blood is red, and the worms closely resemble the 
different Tubificids, the Enchytraeids are white, grey, yellowish, 
or clay-coloured. They all require the microscope for their 
determination, and, owing to the vast number of species now- 
known, the want of certainty in the diagnosis of several, the 
scattered material which has to be studied, and the difficulty 
in interpreting some of the characters, the work is slow and 
arduous. Something like order is, however, at last emerging 
from the former chaos, and we are gaining a tolerably accurate 
knowledge of the species and their distribution. 

The main external points are the shape of the head, the 
length of the body and number of segments, the position of the 
girdle and the number of the setae. Internally the shape of 
the brain, coelomic corpuscles, spermathecae, salivary glands 
or peptonephridia, the ordinary paired nephridia, the origin 

1911 Aug. 1. 

290 Friend : Enchytraeids of the North of England. 

of the dorsal vessel, and the position of the comrnissures are the 
main points to be observed. 

In addition to the various reports which I have myself 
sent at different times to this and other journals, the principal 
contribution to the subject is from the pen of Mr. Southern, 
B.Sc, of Dublin. His ' List of Oligochaeta of Lambay ' 
{Irish Naturalist, 1907, vol. XVI., 68-82, with two plates), and 
his ' Contributions towards a Monograph of the British and 
Irish Oligochaeta ' (Proc. Royal Irish Acad., 1909, Vol. 
XXVII., Section B, No. 8) are invaluable. Mr. Evans, 
F.R.S.E., of Edinburgh, has also done much for the Scottish 
species. It is not intended in this paper to attempt a system- 
atic enumeration or classification, but merely to contribute 
some results of recent study. And, as the genus Fridericia is 
by far the largest and most difficult, we may begin with it. 
When Beddard published his ' Monograph of the Order Oligo- 
chaeta ' in 1895, he gave the known species of Fridericia as 
twelve. ' Das Tierreich,' by Michaelsen, published in October 
1900, placed it at twenty-one. In 1909 the number of known 
species had risen to 65, and it is still growing. Southern's 
' List of British Species ' contains nineteen different kinds, and 
allusions to others, which he regards as synonymous or doubtful. 
Only five, however, of these are recorded as genuinely English. 
Reference will be made to some of these as we proceed. 

1. Fridericia striata Levinsen. Apperley Bridge, January 
3rd, 1898. Reported by me to Zoologist for that year (p. 121). 
Found by me in Clifton Park. Cumberland, February 13th, 
1896. This year I have worked the district around Penrith 
and Carlisle, and confirmed the record. Typical specimens 
were found at Newton Moss ; also in Derbyshire, at the foot 
of the Piston Hills, not far from Ticknall, June 191 1. Near 
Repton, May 13th, 191 1. Notes on the variations have been 
made for my forthcoming monograph. 

2. F. bulbosa Rosa. By the Eden, Carlisle, January 1898. 
Already found by me at Rugby, February 24th, 1896, and this 
year at Newton Moss, in March, Newark and Malvern in May ; 
Cauldwell, near Burton, in July. I have also taken it in 
Sussex, and it is known to occur in Italy, Germany and else- 

3. F. bisetosa Levinsen. I first found this species at the 
Wren's Nest, Dudley, April 24th, 1897, fairly abundant in 
moist earth impregnated with liquid excreta ; and among 
my further notes I find records for Sutton Park, Birmingham, 
Easter 1899, Newton Moss, Penrith, March 1911, and various 
Derbyshire localities during the present year. 

4. F. perrieri Vejdovsky. My earliest record is ' Under 
moss near Embleton Station,' i.e., near Cockermouth, April 
1896, and although I have reason now for questioning the 


Friend: Ejicliytnieids of the North of England. 291 

identity, I have this year found it in the same county at Newton 
Moss, and assured myself that the species is a native of the 
North of England. Newark, May 1911. 

5. F. galba Hoffmeister. Dunchurch Road, Rugby, Feb- 
ruary 14th, 1896. In the light of Mr. Southern's suspicions 
I am keeping a sharp look out on this species, but my drawings 
made at the time, are undoubtedly referable thereto. Found 
the true species May 12th, 1911, near Repton. 

6. F. michaelseni Bretscher, is, without doubt, one of the 
most prevalent British species. My newest records are :— 
Newark, May ; Repton, in Derbyshire, May ; and Cauldwell, 
July 1911. 

7. F. lobifera Vejdovsky. Cockermouth, January 1896 ; 
by the Eden at Carlisle, January 1898 ; Newton Moss, Penrith, 
March 191 1, and Woodville, Derbyshire, November 1910. 

8. F. ratzeli Eisen. Brigham in Cumberland, February 18th 
1896 ; Newton Moss, near Penrith, March ; and Cauldwell in 
Derbyshire, July 1911. My notes refer chiefly to the type, but 
Southern finds var. Beddardi Bret., which occurs in Newton 
Moss, Penrith. 

9. F. alba Moore. Cockermouth, Januaiy 1896. 

10. F. parva Moore. Carlisle, January 1898. In view 
of the fact that recent researches have greatly extended our 
knowledge of this genus, and made certain alterations neces 
sary, I give these records with reserve, since they might 
prove to belong to related species which had not, at that time, 
been differentiated. 

11. F. magna Friend. I have not found this worm recently, 
but am glad to note that Southern and Evans have turned it 
up in Scotland and Ireland. It occurs in Sutton Park, Bir- 
mingham, and in various localities northward to Cockermouth. 

12. F. agricola Moore. Cockermouth and elsewhere in 
the North of England. Naturalist, 1898. 

13. F. helvetica Bretscher. First record for Great Britain. 
Collected by me in soil by the bridge at Acresford between 
Ashby and Burton, Derbyshire, July 2nd, 1911. Previously 
recorded for Zurich. 

14. F. longa Moore. Smisby, near Ashby-de-la-Zouch. 

15. F. leydigi Vejdovsky. Newark, May 1911. 

16. F. humilis Friend. I have now to record a species 
which is new to England, and, so far as I can discover, new 
to science also. I have not yet been able to gain access to the 
descriptions of some of the newest additions to the genus, so 
that possibly one has escaped me, which agrees with the 
following : — 

External Characters. — A small, transparent worm, not 
more than 5 mm. in length, of 35 segments. Adul. in July. 
Head somewhat glandular. Setae invariably two in each bundle 

911 Aug. 1 

292 Friend : Enchytraeids of the North of England. 

behind, and four in front from segment two to sixteen. Middle 
pair rather more than half the length of outer pair. The hinder 
setae very strong, and standing out like thorns when the body 
is extended. 

Internal Characters. — Brain, with prominent convexity 
in front, but wanting the characteristic concave or convex 
posterior form, and varying greatly with tension, straight, 
rounded, or even hollowed by turns. Girdle transparent, 
destitute of the usual papillae, while the intestine of segments 
X. — XIII is wanting in the brown chloragogen cells. Two 
pairs of lateral setae present on segment XII (girdle), but 
none on the ventral surface. Ampullae of spermiducal gland 
about twice as long as broad. Three pairs of septal glands in 
segments 5 — 7. No copulatory glands near the girdle, but 
what may serve that purpose seems to exist on segment five 
(similar to that reported by me for F. peruviana Friend). 
Nerve much enlarged in first five segments. Nephridia seen 
with difficulty, owing to the large quantity of rounded, granular 
coelomic corpuscles. Nearly allied to F. bulbosa. 

The two main characteristics studied are the salivary 
glands (or peptonephridia, and the spermathecae.) The salivary 
glands are bushy immediately behind the gizzard, with a single 
long extension which reaches the end of segment V., and is 
recurved. The spermathecae have a large ampulla opening 
into the intestine. It is about half as long as the duct, and 
the organ has no glands at the opening between segment four 
and five. Between the duct and the ampulla are a number of 
sessile glands, not like the usual diverticula; In segment three 
the commissures are strong. I have usually found them most 
strongly developed in other species in the fourth segment ; but 
this point has been generally too much overlooked in diagnosis. 
Found in soil in a road gutter leading to a ditch at Cauldwell, 
Derbyshire, July 9th, 1911, and named humilis on account 
of its small size. F. hegemon Vejdovsky, and one or two others 
are found in England, but do not here concern us. 

I may now turn to the genus Enchytraeus, from which the 
family derives its name. Southern gives eight species as 
British, of which he records only three as English. I have not 
published the results of my own researches in the past in 
great detail for various reasons, and the following notes are 
not to be regarded as exhausting the English species, since the 
references are to northern localities only. 

17. Enchytraeus humicidtor Vejdovsky. Between Whit- 
rigg and Kirkbride, Cumberland, April 1896. In specimens 
found at Swadlincote, Derbyshire, November 1910, the 
head and first segment were glandular. Dorsal pores were 
undoubtedly present in specimens received from Croydon, 
March 3rd, 1911. 


Frioni : Enc/iytracids of the North of England. 293 

18. E. argenteus Michaelsen (=E. parvulus Friend). This 
was described by me as the Aster worm in 1897, from species 
taken at King's Hill, near Birmingham, on July 26th. 

19. E. pellucidus Friend. Described by me in Zoologist, 
Series 4, Vol. III.. 2O4. First found in Stockport ; since found 
at Birmingham, May 191 1, and elsewhere. Southern thinks 
it may be a variety of E. albidus Henle. At present, I do not 
accept the suggestion. 

20. E. albidus Henle, is reported by Southern for Adlington 
in Lancashire. 

21. E. minimus Bretscher. First described in 1899, it 
was entered by Southern as Irish in 1907, to be discarded by him 
in 1909, in favour of the next. I shall give reasons in due 
course for retaining both. First English record, Buxton, Ser- 
pentine Walk, May 27th, 1911. Foot of Piston Hills, Derby- 
shire, June 15th, 191 1. 

22. E. turicensis Bretscher. Already recorded for Ireland 
by Southern. Found near Woodville, Derbyshire, July nth, 
191 1. First English record. So far as I can gather, no refer- 
ence is made by authorities to the point of origin of dorsal vessel. 
In the case before us I traced it clearly from the setae of 
segment seventeen, whereas in minimus it rises in thirteen. 

It thus appears that the major portion of the species of 
Eiidcricia and Enchytraeus already known as British are to be 
found in the North of England. The other genera will be 
dealt with in another paper. Meanwhile, I should be greatly 
obliged if naturalists would send me gleanings from different 
localities. If placed in small tin boxes filled with the leaf- 
mould, earth, manure, moss or seaweed in which they abound, 
they would travel safely. 

— : o : — 

In a recent number of Nature the following note, in reference to one 
of our contributors, appears : — Mr. Robert Service, who has just died 
at Dumfries, was one of the best naturalists in Scotland. His profession 
of nurseryman and seedsman prevented his attending a University, 
and also involved close attention to business for every working day. 
Nevertheless, he knew intimately the haunts of every bird in the south of 
Scotland. Not only so, but he thoroughly understood mammals, fishes, 
amphibia, and reptiles. He was an excellent entomologist, and took an 
especial interest in bees and the larger Diptera. Most unfortunately, his 
published papers represent but a very small part of his wide acquaintance 
with birds and beasts of all kinds. He was never able to afford the heavy 
cost of publication which must, for some inscrutable reason, always be 
incurred in Great Britain if a book is of a scientific nature. Much of his 
work is included in the recent ' Birds of Dumfriesshire,' by Mr. S. H. Glad- 
stone, but by far the greater part of it is lost. It is by no means unusual 
for working men to be naturalists, at least in Scotland ; but Robert 
Service was far more scientific, and had a far wider knowledge than even 
Edwards and Dick, whose names are known to the general public. He 
managed somehow to keep abreast of modern authorities, in spite of the 
difficulties involved by residence in a small country town. His death is 
a serious loss to the natural sciences in the South of Scotland, and under 
present conditions it is a loss that cannot possibly be repaired. 

J911 Aug. 1. 



The members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, with the 
members of the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union, investigated 
that section of the North Lincolnshire shore between South 
Ferriby and Barton-on-Humber, on Saturday, July ist. 

On arriving at Barton the party divided into sections, 
according to the nature of their respective investigations, 
and joined again at the close of their day's work to record 
the results. The geologists had the guidance of Messrs. T. 
Sheppard and J. W. Stather. 

The}' were particularly fortunate in seeing a recent exposure 
of considerable importance. This occurred on the bank of the 
estuary near South Ferriby Hall, and showed a part of the 
original pre-glacial bed of the Humber, recently made visible 
by a change in the course of the river. Another interesting 
feature was an exposure in Neocomian or Kimeridge Clay, 
which had recently been discovered by the secretary of the 
Union. This occurred quite close to the previously-mentioned 
section, and the large cake-like nodules which occur in the 
clay were all similarly striated on their upper surfaces. A 
number of Belemnites and other fossils, almost identical with 
those found in the Speeton clay in Filey Bay, were secured. 
The party also secured, from the chalk, teeth of two species of 
shark (Ptychodus and Lamnd) ; vertebrae, and other bones of 
fishes, sea-urchins (Discoidea cylindrica) , and various Brachio- 
pods, etc. 

The botanists had for their leaders, the veteran, the Rev. 
Canon \V. Fowler (Winterton), and Mr. J. F. Robinson (Hull). 

The old chalk quarries, the woods, and the Humber mud- 
flats proved to be charming botanical gardens, and the party 
saw the Bee orchis flowering in one of its few favourite localities. 
The teasel was also quite common — doubtless a survival from 
the time when this plant was grown for use in the Bradford 
stuff works. For mycology, Messrs. W. N. Cheesman (Selby), 
and C. Crossland (Halifax), were responsible. This section 
continued its work over the week-end. 

The Fungi collected and brought to the meeting were few, 
but Mr. Crossland and Mr. Cheesman, who remained at Barton 
till Monday, had good success at the Blow- Wells and Ferriby 
Chalk Quarry. Crepidotus Raljsii, not before recorded for 
the county, was found on decaying wood in the quarry, and 
about thirty other species on the way to and from, or at, the 
Blow-Wells, including Omphalia gracillima, Pholiota prcecox, 
Soppittiella sebacea, Dasyschypha virginea, and D. fngiens, Peri- 
conia byssoides, Stemonitis fusca, and Lycogala epidendrum. 

For general entomology Mr. C. W. Mason (Barton) was 
responsible, but the weather was not favourable for his depart- 


Shepfardi Naturalists at Barton-on- Humber. 295 

ment, though the coleopterists. under the leadership of Mr. T. 
Stainforth (Hull) and Dr. Wallace (Grimsby) were more 
fortunate. Conchology had its leaders in Messrs. W. Denison 
Roebuck (Leeds), and J. F. Musham (Selby). 

Mr. J. F. Musham writes : — Attention was given to the 
dykes bordering the route, and to the Blow-Wells, ponds ; 
then to quarries, and woods at the eastern extremity of the 
district. A short visit was also paid to similar ground near 
South Ferriby, which is in a different district (3 S.W. Lines., 
whereas Barton is 3 N.E.). 

The following is a complete list of species taken in division 
3 X.E. (Barton) ; twenty-five in number ; those marked * 
being new records for the division. 

Agriolimax agrestis. (All of the pale 1 * Hygromia rufescens. Type and 

summer form). Numerous. 
Avion ater var. marginata. 
. I . hortensis. Several. 
A. circumscriptus. 
I. intermedins. 
Hyalinia cellaria. 

,, alliaria. 

,, nitidula. 

Pyramidula rotundata. Several. 
Helix nemoralis var. libellula, 

00300 and 12345. Both imma- 
Helicella virgata. A few dead. 

,, caperata. Common. 

,, cantiana. Common. 

After tea, at Barton, a meeting was held at the George 
Hotel, and was presided over by the Rev. Canon Fowler, who 
is a past president of both the Lincolnshire and the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Unions. Mr. G. E. Priestman (Ilkley) was elected 
a member of the Yorkshire Lmion. — T. S. 

The Chemistry of the Cuckoo = Flower (Cardamine 
pratensis). — One of the heralds of the gay and jocund spring- 
time this plant undoubtedly is, though it does not worm itself 
into the affections quite so readily as the primrose, and other 
flowers that paint the meadows in the opening of the year. It 
affects wet localities in fields, but, unlike'its near ally, the water- 
cress, is unable to hold its own as a water plant, it not being 
sufficiently plastic for the purpose. The root-stock is densely 
clothed with fibres without mycorhiza, and there are numerous 
water-conducting tubes in all the plant. On 5th June the dried 
overground parts yielded 17 per cent, wax, with a little carotin 
and no fat-oil ; the alcoholic extract was only feebly bitterish, 
and contained a tannoid similar to rutin or luteolin, but no 

1911 Aug. 1. 

white var. common. 
,, hispid a. 

*Vallonia pulchella. 
* Ena obscura. 
Pupa cylindracea. 
Cochlicopa lubrica. 
Succinia pu/ris. 
* Limncea palustris. 

,, pereger. Common. 

Physa fontinalis. Common. 
l'lanorbis contortus. A few at 

the Blow-Wells. 
Paludestrinajenkensi. In great 

abundance at one spot. 

296 Field Notes. 

sugar, and only a small resinous residue. There was a large 
quantity of soluble proteid or enzyme, not much mucilage, 
no oxalate of calcium, and some starch in the fibre (51-4 per 
cent.) non-extractable by boiling dilute acid. The ash amounted 
to 8-i per cent., and contained 41-9 per cent, soluble salts, 
47 silica, 22 lime, 5-2 magnesia, 7-5 P 2 5 , 13SO 3 , and 3-5 
chlorine ; there was no soluble carbonate, and only a little in- 
soluble carbonate. The latter facts, together with the distinctive 
proteid reactions, and the large amounts of phosphate and 
sulphate indicate an extraordinary fixity and stability of the 
albumenoids. Hence the want of plasticity aforesaid, the 
absence of hybridity, the feebleness of floral colouration — in 
short, the incomplete deassimilation. — P. 0. Keegan, Patterdale. 


Salpingus asratus Muls. : an Addition to the County 

List. — On the 29th June I found a specimen of this beetle, 
under the bark of a felled oak in Little Park, near Great Hough- 
ton, about five miles from Barnsley. Although three other 
species belonging to this genus have been recorded from York- 
shire localities, this is the only one as yet recorded from the 
Barnsley district.- — E. G. Bayford, Barnsley. 

The Prehistoric Boat from Brigg ; Lincolnshire Tokens ; Roman Coins 
from South Ferriby; Quarterly Record of Additions, Nos. XXXIV., XXXV. 
and XXXVI. : being Hull Museum Publications, Nos. 73, 74, 76, 77, 79 
and 80. 

The first mentioned of these instructive pamphlets refers to what 
Mr. Sheppard rightly calls ' one of the most interesting discoveries made 
in recent years.' This boat, made from a single oak trunk, is about 
sixteen yards in length, and in a fairly good state of preservation, although 
it has been on exhibit something like twenty-five years. The preservative 
treatment it has undergone since the Museum authorities had it presented 
to them by the original owner, should make it less liable to the havoc which 
time and continued drought must work, even on such a time-resisting 
wood as oak is considered to be. The description is exceedingly full and 
complete, and is accompanied by a series of excellent figures, which add 
immensely to the interest and value. Quite incidentally we are told that 
a careful examination of the original caulking of moss has been made 
•by Mr. M. B. Slater, F.L.S., who has been able to detect no fewer than 
twelve mosses and eleven hepatics after the immense period of time which 
has elapsed since this pre-historic boat was made. Not the least of the 
marvels connected with this pamphlet is its price, which, as with the rest 
of those now noticed, is one penny. 

The two pamphlets on tokens are full of interest to the numismatist, 
and also to the local historian. They are well-illustrated, and should have 
a wide sale. The remaining pamphlets are of a miscellaneous character, 
natural history, antiquarian, and local history being well represented. The 
connection with Wilberforce has attracted to the museum a number of 
articles bearing on the slave-trade. The value and importance of these 
additions will very soon make it imperative to issue a new catalogue, 
which might very appropriately refer the visitor to the special pamphlet 
which contains the necessary details of any exhibit of which he might 
wish to know more than its label may impart. This would be one way 
of giving them a deservedly wider publicity. — E.G.B. 





Strange Accident to a Song Thrush.— I had recently 
brought to me the body of a Song Thrush impaled upon a 
large thorn, which had penetrated through the bird's neck. It 

J — 







Song Thrush Impaled. 


Avas found nearly at the top of a high hedge. It is difficult to 
say how a large bird can have impaled itself in this manner.— 
R. Fortune, Harrogate. 

Redshanks breeding at Spurn. — It is gratifying to learn 
that the protection afforded to the birds at Spurn has been the 
means of adding another species to the number of birds nesting 
there. The keeper employed by the Yorkshire Birds' Pro- 
tection Committee, informs me that at least six pairs of Red- 
shanks have nested there this season. — R. Fortune, Harm- 

ign Aug. i. 

298 Field Notes. 

Decrease in Whinchats. — Mr. Boyes deplores the de- 
crease in the numbers of Whinchats frequenting his district.* 
This decrease appears to have been pretty general. In this 
district they have been annually getting scarcer, and during 
the last year or two they have become almost scarce birds. 
Localities where one could always be certain of coming across 
them in fair numbers, have not had a single pair, and I should 
be well within the mark if I said that for every twelve pairs 
we used to have, there is now only one. — R. Fortune, Harro- 

The Decrease in Landrails. — There can be no doubt that 
the Landrail is very much rarer than formerly, and, to my 
mind, as I pointed out very many years ago, the chief cause 
is the reaping machine. This supposition has received abun- 
dant confirmation during the last year or two, when I have 
seen various nests left bare by the mowing machine, and, in 
one or two cases, young birds cut to pieces. At the beginning 
of July, two nests (one containing ten eggs) were laid bare in 
one field, and two years ago in a little field belonging to the 
Corporation of Harrogate, at their Sewage Works at Ribston, 
three nests were laid bare. One had fortunately a tuft of 
grass left about it, and the sitting bird was very tame. I 
went over to photograph her, but she was absent, and did 
not again turn up. The reason transpired later in the day,, 
when we found her dead body in one of the tanks. She had 
evidently got into the tank in some way, and being unable- 
to rise again, was drowned. 

Against this general decrease, I was delighted to hear the 
bird again in Sheepshank's fields, situated practically in the 
centre of our town, and adjoining the Railway Station. These 
fields used to provide harbour for a pair of Corncrakes every 
year since I can remember until about ten years ago, when they 
ceased to come. — R. Fortune, Harrogate. 

Bird Notes from the Scarborough District. — I regret 
to say that the pole-trap is still in use in this district. A friend 
found one (the latter part of April) wired down to a post on the 
moors, about three or four miles beyond ' Bloody Beck ' (in 
Harwood Dale district). Needless to say he broke the wire, 
and, as he was unable to break the trap, he brought it back 
to Scarborough with him. 

The Wild Birds' Protection Act is a ' farce ' in this dis- 
trict. Gangs of lads may be seen any day, especially on Satur- 
days and Sundays, many of them ' armed ' with catapults r 
climbing the trees after nests, and doing a great deal of damage 
in Raincliffe Wood. 

* In a recent number of ' The Field.' 


' Field Notes. 299 

Corncrakes and Cuckoos have been unusually numerous 
this year. I found two Cuckoos' eggs, one in a Meadow Pipit's 
nest, the other in a Lark's, both nests being situated within 
one hundred yards of each other. 

The Red-Legged Partridge is also increasing in the 
district. I found in Raincliffe one nest with eleven eggs, 
another with nine eggs in the middle of a pasture field. This 
latter also contained one Pheasant's egg. 

When visiting ' The Gullery ' on the Whitby Moors, I was 
delighted to see a Teal with seven young. The gullery had 
evidently been recently visited, as we found about eighteen 
empty nests, very probably it was by one of two human 
' Herring Gulls ' who visited it last year, and took away over 
one hundred and fifty eggs. We counted seven dead Black- 
headed Gulls ; these, no doubt, being killed either by Herring 
Gulls or rats. — Stanley Crook, Scarborough, July 12th, 1911. 

If Mr. Crook, or any reader of ' The Naturalist ' who should 
come across a Pole Trap, would, instead of destroying it, or 
taking it away, write to me at once, giving precise instructions 
as to its whereabouts, I would, on behalf of the Bird Protection 
(Ommittee, take immediate action in the matter. The same 
remarks apply to any offence under the Wild Birds' Protection 
Acts. At present, there is very little protection in the North 
Riding, but our Committee is in communication with the North 
Riding Council, and we hope to get a comprehensive order 
adopted this autumn. With respect to the Gullery named by 
Mr. Crook, we communicated with the owner at the beginning 
of the season. He undertook to do all in his power to protect 
the birds, but, owing to its situation near the road, and the 
fact that the birds are not at present scheduled, it is a difficult 
matter to afford it adequate protection. — R. Fortune. 


Large Trout and Carp.— On July 6th, 7th and 8th res- 
pectively, three large Carp were captured in the lake at Round- 
hay Park, Leeds. The weights were 7 lbs. ioz., 6 lbs. 1 oz., and 
8 lb. 7 oz. The length of the first was 23! inches, and its 
girth ibi inches. Another notable fish recently captured in 
Yorkshire, is a fine Trout, weighing 5 lbs. 8 oz. It was obtained 
from the Costa, by Mr. W. 0. Hinchlifi— R. Fortune, Harro- 

Eels Travelling on Land. — That eels can and do leave 
their natural element, the water, and travel occasional} 7 on 
land through damp meadows, is well known, but that one 

ign Aug. 1. 

300 Field Notes. 

should be met with alive on a hard and dusty high road is 
certainly unusual. On the 28th of last month, when walking 
with two others on the road from Gainsborough to Corringham 
I found an eel stretched out at full length on the road side. 
It was quite a foot long, and covered with dust, as worms often 
are when they have tried to cross a road or path in the cool 
of the night and have failed. On taking it up by the tail, it 
showed signs of life, and gave a spasmodic jerk, apparently 
all it was capable o , and then became limp again. In a field 
near there is a pond, about one hundred yards from the place 
where the eel was when I found it, and from which it had 
doubtless come ; and, on my putting it in, placing it in 
shallow water to watch its movements, it gave another spas- 
modic twist, and lay still. The cause of its being where I 
found it is, I think, to be accounted for. On the 24th June 
came that deluge of rain, following a long drought, which seems 
to have been prevalent throughout the greater part of England. 
In this locality it poured for twenty-four hours without ceasing, 
and, owing to the hard state of the ground, the accumulated 
water lay on the surface in sheets and pools for several days 
before it was absorbed. This, in all probabil ty, had led the 
eel, on leaving the pond, to wander away from the meadow, 
across a hard asphalt footpath, on to the road which gradually 
became dusty again. — F. M. Burton, Highfield, Gainsborough. 


Unio margan titer in confinement. — This pelecypod 
which we notice in our well-aerated mountain rivers, subject 
to occasional torrential flows, can be kept in confinement for a 
long time. Having noticed its habits in Scotland and the 
north of England, I thought I would try to keep some of them 
alive for a while. I have some living at present (and none have 
died) which I got from Ennerdale, nearly three years ago. I 
placed them in an earthenware vessel, holding about two 
gallons, and put them on a sink in my private room in the 
College biological laboratory, allowing the water to continually 
drop into the full vessel. A luxurious growth of bacteria, 
diatoms and many other minute algae soon appeared, together 
with various rotifers, Anguillitla, infusoria, etc. I then placed 
on the surface, a little Ricciella flmtans and Lemna minor, 
which rapidly increased, and have continued to grow ever 
since. At present, there is an abundance of Nais and a 
Tardigrade among the rich mixture of plants and minute 
animals about the surface. I may add that I have kept 
Anodonta cygnea and Astacus fluviatilis alive in a similar 
way for about a year ; none of them died, but the experiment 
was stopped, as the necessity arose of using the animals for 


Field Notes. 30 1 

dissection. In the case of Astacus, they were fed at intervals 
with earthworms.— Wm. West, Bradford. 

A Method of Obtaining the Qlochidia of Anodonta 
cygnea. — Some years ago I had lent to me a specimen of a 
small fish which had been caught with some glochidia attached 
to it. As I wanted it to shew to some students, it occurred 
to me that it might be possible to obtain some without going 
fishing for them on the mere chance of obtaining this embryonic 
stage. In the early months of the year therefore, I collected 
a number of Anodonta, and placed them in two large bowls on 
sinks under taps, and allowed water to constantly drop into 
them. I then procured some dozens of minnows from the 
fishing-tackle shop, and put them with the molluscs. In a 
short time I found that all the minnows had plenty of glochidia 
on their fins and tails. I tried this experiment successfully 
several times.— Wm. West, Bradford. 

Hydra vulgaris and the Tadpoles of Rana temporaria. — 

In our biological laboratory it is a common thing to watch 
Hydra catch species of Daphnia, Cypris and Cyclops. I have 
even seen them gorged with the large red larva of Chironomus 
plitmosits, the Hydra, when distended, only having room for 
half of it! (I have a Scyllium canicula with the hinder part 
of a fish in its stomach and gullet, and the other half projecting 
from its mouth). This Spring I had a fine lot of Hydra vulgaris 
in several large aquaria, and as I had previously had some 
batches of frog's eggs developing, I placed some of them, 
when about a fortnight old, in the various aquaria, some 
being three or more weeks old in later experiments. On 
looking a few hours later, I was astonished to see several 
of the tadpoles held fast to the sides of the aquarium, they 
kept now and then struggling to escape, and if any succeeded 
in doing so, which was seldom the case, they invariably suc- 
cumbed eventually. These experiments were eagerly repeated 
by a number of students, who seemed more interested than 
when watching the larva of Dytiscus demolish tadpoles. The 
tadpoles were paralysed, they were too large to be engulphed, 
and they finally sank to the bottom, and did not reappear In 
all the other aquaria where Hydra was absent, the tadpoles lived. 
I may here mention that I have reared frogs from the eggs 
every year for a long time. I have also had some large tad- 
poles every year above twelve months old, so that I have been 
enabled to shew them to students at the same time as those 
but a few weeks old. In this case they were kept in aquaria 
without a landing stage.— Wm. West, Bradford. 

IQil Aug. I. 



C. S. CARTER, Louth. 

Mr. W. Hampton has recently presented to the Louth 
Museum, a 'type' slide containing a series of foraminifera 
from the chalk near Louth. As the particulars of these do 
not appear to have previously been published, I give the 
following details. 

The type slide is divided into one hundred numbered 
squares, and the list is made out on a printed form numbered 
to correspond. 

Foraminifera — Type slide No. 12. L.C. Locality :■ — Louth, 
Lincolnshire. Date : — January 15th, 1889. Nature of 
Material : — Chalk Powder from Flints, Boswell Ride and 
Crowson's Pit. Charles Elcock, Belfast. 

1. Orbulina universa. Rare. 

2. Globigerina cretacea. 

3. ,, marginata. 

Very rare. 

4. Textularia globulosa. 
Verneuilina triquetra. 
Nodosaria fragments. 
Cristellaria rotulata. 

9. Planorbulina ammonoides. 

10. Bnlimina [? preslii].' 

11. Textularia pupa. 

Not typical. 
Verneuilina triquetra . 
Ramuilina globulifera. 

Very rare. 

15. Dentalina. 

16. Lagena [marginata ?) 

17. Frondicularia (fragment 

of large species). 

18. Pleurostomella fusiformis. 

Very rare. 




(Section of some foram.). 

[1-20 from Boswell's Ride]. 
[41-56 from Crowson's Pit]. 
Globigerina cretacea. 
,, bulloides. 

,, marginata. 

Orbulina universa. 

46. Textularia globulosa. 

47. Dentalina. 
Vaginulina ? Sp. 
Textularia turris. 

? Sp. 
Bulimina ovulum. 
52.-53. Textularia ? sp. 

54. Verneuilina triquetra. 

55. Pleurostomella fusiformis. 

56. Cristellaria rotulata. 






64. Cythere ? sp. 

65. ? Diatoms. 

66. Cytherella iznlliamsoni. 

On the back of the slide, ' 61 to 80, Spicules, etc., etc.' 

These numbers, 61 to 80, includes, besides those given in 
the list, fragments of small specimens of Terebratulina lata, 
fragments of Bryozoa and two specimens, very small, of 
Porosphcera globulosa. ? 

In addition are some separate slides, two being labelled, 
Pulvinuli-na micheliniana. Middle Chalk, Boswell Ride, and 
Frondicularia elliptic a, Middle Chalk, Boswell Ride. 

I ought, perhaps, to mention that ' Boswell Ride ' is in 
the Holaster planus zone, and ' Crowson's Pit,' better known 
to us as Saturday Pits, is in T. gracilis zone. 



3n fIDemoriam. 


We are sorry to learn, as we go to press, of the death of Mr. 
John Morgan, of Worthing, who was in his eightieth year. 
Mr. Morgan was one of Nature's gentlemen. It was a privilege 
to know him. He regularly attended the meetings of the 
Museums Association, where he was much respected ; and only 
a fortnight ago the writer had the pleasure of accepting his 
invitation to see some of the gems of his collection. Mr. 
Morgan was principally interested in shells and corals, and 
many provincial museums are indebted to him for valuable 

Survival and Reproduction : A New Biological Outlook. By H. Rein- 
heimer. London : J. M. Watkins. Pp. X. and 410. 7/6 net. 1910. 

The object of this work is that in place of certain ' uncalled for generali- 
sations which form the unscientific legacy of Darwin's otherwise invaluable 
work,' to institute a ' scientific enquiry into the effects of surfeit and 
infeeding ' (a) as they directly affect the organism individually ; b) the 
species ; (c) the total biological community, and (d) as they indirectly 
produce reactions in the wider field of cosmic relation. In a former 
volume, the author gave a first instalment of a study of cumulative effects 
of nutrition and its teleological significance in general, and he now claims 
that modern biology provides ' interpretations of facts which are in the 
main inaccurate,' and that the ' important study of nutritional habits as 
they .... affect reproduction and survival has been almost entirely neg- 
lected. ' After careful perusal of the book, we fail to find any trace of a single 
original experiment or observation the author has made. He repeatedly 
falls foul of Darwinism, because ' natural selection ' does not offer a 
complete explanation of organic evolution. In the author's opinion, 
nutrition is the key to unlock the door of this chamber of mysteries. The 
evidence against natural selection, we are told, is steadily accumulating, 
and a full explanation of its fundamental errors was not to be expected 
so long as the cumulative and teleological significance of nutrition re- 
mained unelucidated. It would be infinitely to the advantage of science 
if the energies of these people were devoted to elucidating some knotty 
problems involved, and contribute their quota to the great subject of 
which Darwin admittedly laid only the foundation. The author of the 
work under consideration, while drawing attention to an obviously im- 
portant factor, does not appear to realise what an amount of work has 
been done on the subject of nutrition, nor in spite of it all how impossible 
it is to generalise and how unsafe to dogmatise from the facts known even 
to-day. His discussions are often couched in almost incomprehensible terms, 
some, like teleological status, and dysteleological behaviour, from their 
frequent occurrence, the author seems very proud of, and we are informed 
( ! ) that the ' precariousness of plant life is due to parasitic diathesis, and 
even the moss, shows reproductive nemesis resulting from ' the same 
complaint. Further, ' the appearance of " sports " is frequently a matter of 
dissociation (disintegration of the intra-atomic or intra-cellular energy)'. 
The further elucidation in brackets would hardly seem to be necessary, 
but it gives the author an opportunity of using a highly technical if 
practically meaningless phrase. 




The Lesser Shrew is thought to be much more common in Yorkshire 
than usually recorded. — Zoologist, No. 841. 

Records of the Pied Flycatcher in Warwickshire and Northampton- 
shire appear in The Zoologist (No. 840). 

The Journal of the Board of Agriculture for July contains an illustrated 
note on Blister Canker ( Nitmmularia discreta) of apple tree. 

Mr. E. G. Bayford writes on ' Electric Light as an attraction for beetles 
and other insects,' in The Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine for July. 

No. 1 of Vol. V. of British Birds is chiefly occupied by a report ' On 
the Distribution of the Nightingale during the Breeding Season in Great 

Mr. F. H. Butler has a paper on ' The Natural History of Kaolinite,' 
in The Mineralogical Magazine, No. 73. In this he describes a specimen 
of iine-grained Kinder Scout Grit from Bamford Edge, Derbyshire. 

We learn from ' Pegasus,' a Bradford High School Journal, that when 
a class of girls was asked 'What do the monsoons do with their moisture 
when they come to the Western Ghats ? ' one opined — ' drop it and run.' 

Mr. W. Hill's Presidential Address to the Geologists' Association ap- 
pears in the Society's Proceedings, Vol. NXIL, part 2. It is entitled ' Flint 
and Chert,' and appeals particularly to geologists in the north of England. 
It contains illustrations of Chert from Reeth, etc. 

Mr. T. A. Chapman, writing in The Entomologist's Record (Vol. XXIII. , 
No. 4), opines that the sooner we adopt the word ' Lepidopterology,' the 
better. Presumably we shall soon have ' Coleopterology,' ' Neuroptero- 
logy,' ' Dipterology,' ' Hymenoptera-Aculeataology,' etc. 

In British Birds for July, it is recorded that a female Wood Wren, 
caught by Mr. J. D. Pallerson at Goatnland in 1910, while sitting in her 
nest with six young ones, and ringed by him, was again caught upon her 
nest this year, within eighty yards of last year's site, and re-marked. 

After doubting the record of the Spotted Sandpiper in Yorkshire (see 
The Naturalist, Feb. 191 1, pp. 100-101, and Hull Museum Publication 
Xo. 77, pp. 3-4), the editor of British Birds now admits that ' there can 
be no reasonable doubt that the bird was in fact shot at or near Hebdeu 
Bridge about 1899.' 

In The Annals of Scottish Natural History (No. 78), Mr. W. Eagle 
Clarke records Blyth's Reed-Warbler at Fair Isle, an addition to the 
British Avifauna ; and the occurrence of Temminck's Grasshopper- 
Warbler in Orkney. This species has only been recorded for Western 
Europe twice previously, viz., at North Cotes, Lincolnshire, in November 
it..,, and at Heligoland, in October of the same year. 

Mr. H. Ling. Roth's paper, read at Halifax recently, ' On the Use and 
Display of Anthropological collections in Museums,' appears in The 
Museums Journal (Vol. X., Xo. 10). Mr. W. B. Crump's paper on ' A 
New Method of Illustrating British Vegetation in Museums,' appears as 
the following issue of the same journal, as does also Mr. H. P. Kendall's 
paper on ' The Collection of Local Views for Museums.' 

Writing to The Entomologist (No. 577) in reference to the small prices 
realized for the named varieties of lepidoptera formerly owned by the 
late J. W. Tutt, Mr. G. T. Porritt points out the obvious reason. With 
the exception of perhaps half-a-dozen interested British lepidopterists, 
no one uses many of the varietal names, nor cares anything about them. 
In some cases a varietal name is necessary, ' but that a slight shade of 
colour, an extra spot, or the widening or contracting of a band, should 
entail the special naming of forms differing so slightly from the type is 
absurd. The craze for such name-making has caused a good deal of 


SEPTEMBER, 1911. N °* 6s6 

(N9, 434 of currant teriei,\ 




T. SMEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 


T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 

Prof. .P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, 



Contents : — 

A New Yorkshire Reptile (Illustrated)— W. J. Clarke, F.Z.S 39, 

Remarkable Nidification of a Kestrel (Illustrated)— C. J. Patten, M .A., M.D., Sc.D. ... 308-307 

Composition of the Upper Permian Limestone in South Yorkshire—/. W.H .Johnson, B.Sc. 308 

New Plant Localities in North-east Yorkshire—/. G. Baker, F.R.S 309 

The Seedling Structure of Dryas octopetala (Illustrated)— /I. Evelyn Mcllor, B.A. ... 310-312 
The Stature, etc., of our Ancestors in East Yorkshire— .Bv the late J. R. Mortimer ... 313-317 

Enchytraeids of the North of England— Rev. Hilderic Friend, F.L.S., F.R.M.S 318-321 

Botanists on the Pennines— G. Claridge Dniec, M.A ., F.L.S 322-323 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Ingleton— T.S 32-l-32<> 

Marine Biology at Scarborough (Illustrated)— John Irving, M.D 327-328 

In Memoriam— J. R. Mortimer— T. S 329-330 

Field Notes:— Curious Food for a Ferret ; The Golden Oriole in Yorkshire ; Instances of Late 
Nesting near Scarborough ; The Decrease in Whinchatsand Redstarts ; Vivipara contecta 
near Halifax 330-331 

New Books on Geology 332-334 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 323 

Museum News 3)°, 317. ::2 ". 

News from the Magazines 32$, 331, ^5 

Northern News 336 

Illustrations 305 i 3C6, 311, 327 


A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, £.( 
And at Hull andjYoRK. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 






The Annual Meeting of the Marine Biological Committee will be held 
at Scarborough, on September 22nd to 26th. Arrangements have been 
made with the manager of Matthew's Boarding House, who has agreed to 
lodge and board the party at the rate of 6/- a day, including the use of a 
room for exhibits. Applications should be made to Rev. F. H. Woods, 
Bainton Rectory, Driffield, stating for how long accommodation will be 
required. It will be convenient if these are made as soon as possible. 
A short account of the Marine Biology of Scarborough by Dr. Irving will 
be found in another part of this number of The Naturalist, It may be 
added that Scarborough is extremely rich in microscopic mollusca. Great 
numbers of the empty shells are washed up on the sands ; but it is very 
important to discover as far as possible the habitat of the living animals. 
Among the rarer and more interesting molluscs may be mentioned : — 

P. interstincta. 
Ondina obliqiia. 
Turbonilla lactea. 
Eulimella nitidissima. 
Beta rufa. 

Hcedropleura costata. 
Clathurella linearis. 
Actceon tornatilis. 
Tornatina obtusa. 
Philina scabra. 
P. punctata. 
P. catena. 

Limacina retroversa. 
Leuconia bidentata. 

Nuculana minuta. 
Modiolaria marmoraia. 

Pallidum tigevin tun. 
Lima subauriculata. 
Montacutd sub sty lata. 
Lusaka rubra. 
Tapes virgineus. 
Dentalium entale. 
Lacuna pawn. 
Rissoa incouspicua. 
Cingula trijasciata. 
; Capulus hungaricus. 
Act is ascaris. 
A. minor. 
Pyrgulina indistincta. 

Some of these are deep sea molluscs, which are only washed up in their 
young state. 

The committee would be glad to welcome all who are interested in any 
branch of Marine Biology. 





THOMAS SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A. (Scot.), 

Curator, Municipal Museums, Hull. 

Containing 204 pages, demy Svo, fully illustrated, and with 

copious Index. 

Bevelled cloth boards, 3/6 net, postage 4d. ex'ra. 

Printed and Published for the Hull Corporation by 

A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Savile Street, King Edward Street, 

and George Street, Hull. 

Also obtainable at 5 Farringdon Avenue, London, E.C. 



W. J. CI. ARK]'. F.Z.S. 

While recently going through the collection of reptiles in the 
Scarborough Museum, I came across a turtle labelled ' Hawks- 
billed Turtle, taken alive on the North Sands, Scarborough, 
May, 1854.' 

On examining the specimen I noticed that it possessed five 
costal shields which showed at once that it is not the Hawks- 
billed species. This circumstance, together with the heavy 
and massively built head led me to believe that I was examining 
a Logger-headed Turtle, Thalassochelys caretta, and I accordingly 

Logger-headed Turtle. 

took the accompanying photograph and sent it to G. A. 
Boulenger, Esq., of the British Museum, for confirmation. 

He very kindly replies that ' the turtle is certainty a half- 
grown Loggerhead, ' and gives records of other occurrences 
in the British Isles by Dyce in 1861, Harvie Brown and Buckley 
in 1896, and Peale in 1898. There appears to be no other 
• Yorkshire record for the species. 

I received unexpected confirmation of the authenticity of 
the record on mentioning the matter to my father, Mr. R. 
Clarke. He tells me that the turtle was found stranded on 
the North Sands by a labouring man who lived in Abbey's 
Yard in St. Nicholas Street. He brought it home alive, and 
my father, who at that time occupied business premises in 
Abbey's Yard, saw the turtle while still living. Unfortunately 
he does not remember the name of its captor, nor what became 
of the specimen at that time, but evidently it found its way 
into the local museum, where it may now be seen in a good state 
of preservation. 

1911 Sept. 1. ^ 

3 o6 


C. J. PATTEN, M.A., M.D , Sc.D. 

On Sunday, June nth last, a tame Kestrel, which I have had 
for eight years, appeared to be in a remarkably lively mood. 
When let out of her wire enclosure she indulged in her usual 
trick of pouncing on my shoe, and biting at the leather repeated- 
ly. When I shook her off, she followed me across the yard, and 
on presenting my gloved hand she dashed at it, at the same 
time dropping her wings like a curtain as though she were 
shielding her favourite mouse. Many other tricks which I 
have frequently found her indulging in were particularly well 
performed that morning. I was therefore exceedingly pleased 

Photos by] 

{C.J. Patten 

A. — Specimen from a clutch of wild Kestrel's eggs; the usual type. 

B. — Egg of Kestrel, laid after eight years of captivity, without pairing 
with a male bird. 

C. — Same egg as B, ■ but viewed from above to show the broken 
pigmented zonular band. (All natural size). 

that after my absence from home for the greater part of the 
preceding week I returned to find her so well and lively. 

However, in the afternoon, a remarkable change came over 
her. She retired to a corner, and assuming an almost horizontal 
position, so that her head, back, and tail were almost parallel 
with the ground ; she became so apathetic that I suspected 
poisoning from some of the food (a young rat caught in a trap) 
she had lately taken. Unable to rouse her, I carried her into 
my study, where she again crept into a corner and behaved 
similarly. She remained in this condition until 6-30 p.m., 
at which time I left her alone. 

On my return at 10-30 p.m. she still appeared to be in the 


Patten : Remarkable Xidifieation of a Kestrel. 307 

same condition. I tried to rouse her by pretending to attack 
her with my hand and by splashing her with cold water, but 
it was of no avail. A little later she began to utter a few 
faint squeaks at intervals. At n-45 p.m. she gave a rather 
painful cry, and on going over to see what was the matter, I 
found she had laid an egg. Almost immediately she began to 
get lively, and so I had to exercise care lest she might seize 
the egg. Fortunately I succeeded in getting possession of it 

Remarkable as this case of ovulation may be, the egg itself 
is none the less so. Although the usual brownish-red egg (so 
profusely pigmented that no trace of white is visible) may 
sometimes be represented by one richly mottled on a yellowish- 
white or pinkish ground-colour, I have never before seen a 
Kestrel's egg such as this. It is milky-white in colour, 
•almost unspotted, except at its larger end, where it is spotted 
and blotched with rich purplish-brown, intermixed with light 
greyish-purple, the whole pigmentation forming a broken 
zonular band. The egg might be compared to an enlarged 
model of a Greenfinch's egg, in which the ground-colour has 
lost its faint greenish hue. The texture of the shell is fine and 
thin, but sufficiently strong to allow of the contents being 
extruded by means of the blow-pipe. The egg is less 
rounded than usual at the smaller end, and resembles in 
shape an ordinary domestic fowl's egg. In size it is perfectly 
normal, viz. : length, 3-9 cm. ; breadth, 3 cm. ; the average 
measurements given for the Kestrel's egg by Saunders being : 
length, 4 cm. ; breadth, 3-1 cm. That is to say my Kestrel's 
egg is 1 mm. less than the normal in length and in breadth. 

It seems impossible to offer an explanation for this strange 
case of ovulation. But I may perhaps be allowed to refer to 
one point in connection with the . bird's diet just before she 
laid the egg. During my absence from home, which lasted 
four days, the bird was given sufficient food for that time, 
but it was all distributed on the first day. When I returned, 
the greater part was untouched, the reason being that the 
warm weather had affected the food sufficiently to render it 
adverse to the bird's palate. Hence the haw T k fasted for three 
days. On my return I gave her a plentiful supply of fresh ox 
spleen and liver which she gorged herself with, and this highly 
nutritious hearty meal, coming after a fast, and at the onset 
of a warm change in the weather, may have toned her to such 
a physiological state that her ovaries became sufficiently active 
to induce ovulation. Such an explanation is vague and theo- 
retical, and I give it only for what it is worth. The photograph 
was taken before the egg was blown, in order to secure the best 
results before slight fading of the pigment, subsequent to blow- 
ing, ensued. 

1911 Sept. 1. 

3° 8 


J. W. H. JOHNSON, B.Sc. 

Consequent upon a discussion at the meeting of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union at Askern, in July, 1906, respecting the 
composition of the Upper (bedded or laminated) Permian 
Limestone in the south of Yorkshire, the writer analysed some 
specimens kindly obtained for him by Mr. Geo. Grace, B.Sc. 
with the following; results : — 


Dearne Valley 

Dearne Valley 

Kra Ora Ouarrv, 

towards Stainton 




(Extreme top 

Loversal Road 

Loversal Road 

Bottom Bed). 


(Top bed). 

(Half way down). 

Organic and volatile 


o.O - 




Siliceous matter. 

2 . 89 


1 .32 


Oxides of Iron and 



2 .30 

1 .29 


(Fe 2 3 Al 2 3 ). 

Calcium Oxide 




3° ■ 36 


Magnesium Oxide 






Carbon dioxide 




46. 84 


09 ■ 94 

99 ■ 4' > 


99 ■ 98 

Molecular rat in, MgCO s 

1 .00 

1 .00 

1 .00 

i .00 



The quantities of calcium and magnesium oxides given 
above represent only the amounts present as carbonates, care 
having been taken to avoid as far as possible any decomposition 
of the silicates of these bases. 

The specimens were of firm texture, with the exception of 
the one from the top bed in the Dearne Valley Railway cutting, 
which was somewhat friable, and also much yellower in colour 
than the others. 

For the purpose of comparison, the analysis of the 
Lower (massive) Permian Limestone, as selected from Bolsover 
in Derbyshire for the Houses of Parliament, may be stated. 
It had the following percentage composition : — 

Moisture, 3-3 ; Silica, 3-6 ; Oxides of Iron and Aluminium, 
i-8 ; Calcium Oxide, 28-6 ; Magnesium Oxide, 19-1 ; Carbon- 

dioxide 43-6 ; Molecular ratio, 

Mg-CO., _ 1. 00 

CaC0 3 1.067 

The composition of the Permian Limestone varies very 
considerably in different localities, ranging from that of a 
normal dolomite containing equal molecular proportions of 
magnesium and calcium carbonates to that of a limestone 
containing but a few per cent, of magnesium carbonate. The 
molecular ratio of these two substances present in the above 
samples shows that the limestone in this area is dolomitic and 
resembles closely that of a normal dolomite. 




J. G. BAKER, F.R.S. 

Sinapis nigra. Batiks near the sea at Robin Hood's Bay. 

Hypericum dubium. Lane above the Old Hall at Fyling- 

Acer campestre. Same station as the last. 

Rosa mollis. Lane near the railway station in Common- 

Rosa lutetiana. Appears to be the only Canina form about 
Castleton and Robin Hood's Bay. 

Rubus corylifolius. Abundant at Robin Hood's Bay. 

Rubus dasyphyllus. Woods, Commondale and Fylingdale. 

Drosera rotundifolia. Amongst Sphagnum in damp spots 
on the Moor below Castleton. 

Epilobium angustifolium. Moor above Ravenscar and 
abundant on slag-heaps at Grosmont and Glazedale. 

Hieracium boreale. Moor above Ravenscar. 

Solidago Virgaurea. With the last. 

Anagallis tenella. Damp moors below Castleton. 

Mi mul its liiteus. Roadside near Huckaback Farm, Castle- 

Pedicularis sylvatica. With the last. 

Trientalis europcea. Woods in Baysdale. 

Salix pentandra. Lane near Commondale station. 

Bromus asper. Woods in Commondale and Fylingdale. 

The Report of the Perthshire Natural History Museum for 1910-11 con- 
tains a list of additions during the year, an account of the changes made in 
the arrangement, etc., of the specimens, and a summary of the meteoro- 
logical records made by the Curator. 

At the Twenty-second Annual Conference of The Museums Association 
held at Brighton, from July ioth-i4th, the following papers, etc., were 
read and discussed : — President's Address, by H. M. Platnauer (York) 
' Notes on recent Developments at the Brighton Museum,' by H. S. Toms 
' National Art Loans to Municipal Galleries,' by Mr. J. A. Charlton I>eas 
■ Pastimes for Curators,' by Mr. T. Sheppa'rd (Hull) ; ' Boxes for Herba- 
rium Specimens,' by Mr. A. M. Rodger (Perth) ; 'The Purpose and Ar- 
rangement of an Index Museum,' by Dr. Joseph A. Clubb (Liverpool) ; 
'Open-air Folk-Museums,' by Dr. F. A. Bather, F.R.S. ; 'Photographic 
Record,' by Mr. Arthur Smith (Lincoln); 'Evolution in Arclueology : 
Dating by Style,' by Mr. K. A. Smith ; ' Outlines of a scheme for a Folk 
Museum, with special reference to Fast Sussex,' by Mr. W. Ruskin Butter- 
field ; ' Proposed Extensions at the Norwich Museum,' by Mr. F. Leney ; 
'The Evolution of English Pottery: suggestions for a type collection,'' 
by Mr. 11. Stuart Page; 'The Functions and Scope of a .Municipal Art 
Museum,' by Mr. E. Rimbault Dibdin (Liverpool) ; ' The Organization of 
Art Exhibitions,' by Mr. Henry D. Roberts. Visits were also paid to the 
I Sooth Museum, the Aquarium, the Museums at Hastings, Worthing, etc. 

1911 Sept. 1. 




Dryas octopetala is one of the rarer Alpine plants of Britain,, 
and in its only station in West Yorkshire, Arncliffe Clouder, 
is well-known to northern botanists. There it occurs in great 
abundance, and its habitat is very characteristic of its occur- 
rence in other parts of Europe. It almost invariably establishes 
itself on overgrown limestone pavements, or on screes that 
have become fixed by the roots and rhizomes of other species, 
but Dryas itself does not act as a pioneer, nor as an early scree 
binder. In older pavements there is a tendency for it to give 
way before tussock-forming grasses. At Arncliffe it appears 
to be slowly spreading, owing, probably, to the long style, 
which becomes feathery after fertilization, persists in the fruit 
and acts as a means of wind dispersal. 

In the present paper it is intended to deal only with the 
structure of the seedling, which is preliminary to a detailed 
investigation of the life history of the genus, now being under- 
taken by Dr. T. W. Woodhead, to whom I am indebted for 
the materials on which these observations have been made, and 
for help in arranging them for publication. 

Recently much work has been done on seedling structures 
by Misses Sargant (i), and Thomas (2, 3 and 4), and Messrs. 
T. G. Hill (5), Tansley (2 and 3), and others, with the object 
of determining whether a study of seedling anatomy would 
throw any new light on the problem of phylogeny. 

Miss Thomas, in her paper on the ' Theory of the Double 
Leaf-Trace,' (4), shews that the special point of interest is 
the manner in which the veins, passing from the cotyledons, 
through the hypocotyl, to the root, form the structure charac- 
teristic of the root stele. In a primitive type, such as a typical 
Cycas, four vascular bundles pass from each cotyledon into' 
the root. On their way, the wood and bast of which they are 
composed, become re-arranged in such a way as to give rise to a 
tetrarch root, i.e., one with four groups of wood alternating 
with four groups of bast. That the Cycads are ancient and 
primitive is generally acknowledged, and the root of a typical 
Cycas is tetrarch. Recent investigations have been made on 
the seedlings of allied groups and their structures compared. 
Amongst Gymnosperms which have two cotyledons, as the 
Taxacece, Ciipressinece, and some of the Ta.xoidece, a bundle 
goes from each cotyledon and gives rise in the root to a cylinder 
composed of two groups of wood alternating with two groups 
of bast, i.e., a diarch root. It is concluded that the diarch type 
has been derived by reduction from the more primitive tetrarch 

It therefore seemed probable that if these investigations 


Mellor : The Seedling Structure of Dryas octopetala. 311 

were extended to the seedlings of Monocotyledons and Dicotyle- 
dons, some further light might be thrown on their origin and 
relationships, the elaborate researches of Miss Sargant (1) being 
directed especially to the origin of Monocotyledons. 

Attention was paid mainly to orders and genera which were 
believed to possess primitive characters. Among the Dico- 
tyledons, after examining a number of seedlings, Miss Thomas 
decided that the tetrarch type was characteristic of the Legu- 
minosece, Rosacea, Euphorbicece, Aceracece, Balsaminacece, 


1. — Young seedling of Dryas octopetala. 

2. — Older seedling with first foliage leaves. 

3. — Transverse section through bud of seedling. a cotyledons, b first 

foliage leaf, c, d and e younger leaves. 
4. — Section of hypocotyl. / vascular cylinder, c b bundles from cotyledons. 
5 and 6. — Sections of root with alternating groups of wood (x) and bast (p). 

Malvaceee, and occurred in Casuarina and some of the Poly- 
gonacece and Amentiferce. Among the Sympetalce, it was 
found in the Convolviilacece, Sapotacece, and Cucurbitacece. 

The diarch type was, with the exception of the orders just 
named, characteristic of the Sympetalce examined, and also of 
the Ranales, Rhceadales, Urticales, Piperales, Umbelliflorce, 
while it is found in some Polygonales and Centrospermce. 

From this we see that the Ranales, commonly regarded as 
primitive in many of their characters, have generally a diarch 
type of root, but an intermediate type has been met with, 
having four phloem groups and two xylem groups in the hypo- 
cotyl. On the other hand, the seedlings of Rosacea examined 
have a tetrarch root. It is to the latter order that Dryas 
octopetala belongs, and an examination of its seedling shewed 

191 1 Sept. 1. 

312 Mellor : The Seedling Structure of Dryas octopetala. 

that it did not seem to be tetrarch as the Rosales commonly 
are, and up to the present time I have seen no trace of more 
than two protoxylem groups in the root. The behaviour of 
the cotyledon traces on entering the hypocotyl seems to conform 
absolutely with the diarch type as described and figured by 
.Miss Thomas (4). 

Fig. 1 shews a young seedling similar to the one from which 
sections for examination were made. For these I have to 
thank Miss M. M. Brierley, who cut serial microtome sections 
of entire seedlings. 

Fig. 2 shews an older seedling ; the plumule has further 
developed and bears its first foliage leaves. 

The first section below the growing point of the plumule 
shews a ring of cells with crowded contents, some groups of 
which are more clearl}- defined and are doubtless the procambial 
strands. These continue downwards, and at a lower level 
(Fig. 3) the stem is clasped by three foliage leaves (e, d, c), 
each with one central and two lateral bundles. A fourth 
foliage leaf (b), the first above the cotyledons and so the oldest, 
has only one bundle in its leaf stalk, and that a central one. 
The ten bundles from these foliage leaves pass into the stem 
and join the cauline strands to form the vascular cylinder. 
This divides into two crescent shaped masses (fig. 4, /) just 
where the cotyledons (fig. 3, a) join the hypocotyl, and into 
the gaps thus formed the double bundles of the cotyledons 
pass (fig. 4, cb). From this point downwards the plumular 
traces become gradually reduced, and eventually die but 
altogether, while the cotyledons pass towards the centre. 
There the opposite groups of wood meet to form the xylem 
plate of the root, and the two phloem groups from each cotyle- 
don divide and re-unite in such a way as to form two lateral 
groups in the root. (Fig. 5). The four alternating strands 
of xylem and phloem can be clearly seen close to the tip of the 
root (fig. 6), the spiral thickenings of the two protoxylem groups 
standing out very distinctly in oblique sections. 

From this it appears that the root of Dryas is diarch and 
not tetrarch, as are the seedlings of the same order examined 
by Miss Thomas, and that while many members of the order 
conform to the primitive type, Dryas shews reduction such as 
we find in many Ranales. 


(1). .Miss E. Sargant. 'A Theory of the Origin of Monocotyledons 
founded on the Structure of their Seedlings.'- — Annals of Botany, 1903. 

U). Tahsley and Thomas. ' Root Structure in the Central Cylinder 
of the Hypocotyl.' — New Phylotogist, 1904. 

(3). Tansley and Thomas. ' The Phylogenetic Value of the Vascular 
Structure of Spermophytic Hypocotyls.' -Brit. Assoc. Report, [906. 

(4). Ethel A. Thomas. A ' Theory of the Double Leaf-Trace founded 
on Seedling Structure.' — New Phytologi'st, 1007. 

(5). T. G. Hill. 'On the Seedling Structure of certain Piperales.'— 
Annals of Botany, 1006. 



n, ink late J. K. MORTIMER. 

This subject should be of sufficient interest to induce those who 
now occupy the district to endeavour to ascertain the character- 
istic physique and customs of their remote ancestors. Were they 
giants, dwarfs, or a mixture of types very much like ourselves ? 
Some light may be cast upon this interesting question by 
referring to mv ' Forty Years Researches.' From 300 burial 
mounds of the" neolithic and bronze periods I have disinterred 
the remains of 893 bodies of which 322 had been cremated and 
571 inhumed. From the former little can be gathered as to 
the physical conditions of the individuals when alive ; but oi 
the latter interesting information can be obtained, such as their 
varying statures, their different types of head, the position in 
which the body had been placed in the grave, as well as the 
various articles which accompanied the interments. 

I possess the measurements of 106 skeletons of this period, 
of which 35 {i^ per cent.) possessed long skulls with a mean 
breadth index of 70.7 and an average computed stature of 
66 inches ; 29 (30.7 per cent.) had short skulls with an average 
breadth index of 84.2 and a mean computed stature of 64.3 
inches ; while 40 (38 per cent.) are intermediate and have an 
average breadth index of 77.7 and a computed stature of 04.4 
inches. The breadth index of the three types of skull ranges 
from 65.4 to 92 and even up to 98.5^ these measurements 
include males and females indiscriminately. The greatest 
computed stature in this series of skeletons is 72.8 inches, and 
the least stature is 56.4 inches, the average stature of the three 
types is 64.9 inches. Coming down to more recent times— 
tlie Early Iron Age— which probably began in England about 
500 B.C., 'we find in East Yorkshire a race of settlers physically 
much below their predecessors of the Stone and Bronze periods. 
These men were of a smaller stature and possessed more uni- 
formly long heads. I have the measurements of the bones of 
59 males and females of this later period. Of these 42 (71 per 
cent.) are long heads with a medium breadth index of 72.2 and 

omputed stature of 62.5 inches, while only 2 (3.4 per cent.) 
are short heads witli an average breadth of 81, and a com- 
puted stature of 61.9 inches ; while 14 {2^.7 per cent.) are 
intermediate, with a medium breadth of 77 and a computed 

* Read at the Portsmouth Meeting of the British Association. 

f But this remarkably short skull must not he regarded as belonging 
to the Bronze Age, as it was accompanied by a piece of corrode:! iron, the 
-i/i' of a large nail — probably an iron fibula See ' Forty Years' Researches,' 
p. 2^5, Barrow C. 46. 

1 j 1 1 Sept. I. 

3 14 Mortimer : Notes on our Ancestors in East Yorkshire. 

stature of 63.2 inches. The extreme breadth indices of the 
adult skulls of the Early Iron Age in this neighbourhood are 
68 and 81.5, and the stature ranged from 54.4 inches to 67.2 
inches. The average height of the three types of persons is 
61.5 inches only. 

Relating to Romano-British times the human remains I 
possess are fewer and less certain in racial character than those 
from the two preceding periods. Nevertheless, the few crania 
obtained from the graveyard at Blealand's Nook, near Fimber 
Station, at the crossing of the two Roman roads, are mainly 
long in form. They were associated with much broken pot- 
tery, and may be safely assigned to this period. These crania 
and the measurements of the long bones much resemble those 
of the Early Iron Age and probably are mainly descendants 
from that period. 

Still later, our Anglo-Saxon ancestors are in strong evidence. 
Their remains are unquestionable, and more numerous in the 
East Riding than are those of the Romano-British period. 
They usually occur at cemeteries, and at times a British 
barrow or entrenchment has been utilised for the purpose. 
The skeletons are often accompanied by easily distinguishable 
Anglo-Saxon relics. I have the measurements of the bones 
of 61 bodies, of which 31 (50.5 per cent.) had long heads with 
an average breadth index of 72.3, and a computed stature of 
65.7 inches, 7 (11. 4 per cent.) possess short heads with a medium 
breadth index of 81. 1 and a computed stature of 64 inches ; 
while 23 (37.7 per cent.) had intermediate heads with an average 
breadth index of 77 and possessed an average computed stature 
of 63.6 inches. In the whole 61 skulls the breadth index 
varies from 70 to 83.3, and the stature from 58 inches to 78 
inches, and both these extremes are associated with long heads. 

The average stature of the 61 males and females indis- 
criminately is 64.4 inches. This series of Anglo-Saxon skulls 
somewhat resembles that of the Early Iron Age (though possess- 
ing a greater cubic capacity), being more uniform in type than 
the skulls from the Neolithic and Bronze periods. The average 
stature, however, is greater than that of the Early Iron Age 
by the startling difference of 3.4 inches, and closely approxi- 
mates the stature of the men of the Stone and Bronze periods. 
It is very interesting to find from the measurements I have 
obtained from the barrows of the combined Stone and Bronze 
periods (we cannot in East Yorkshire safely separate the two), 
that the people are more mixed in cranial features than are 
those of the three later periods, and, judging from their bones, 
they were a little taller and physically stronger. This indicates 
that even at this early period the inhabitants of this part of 
Yorkshire were a mixed community, of fine physique, and as 
diverse in type of head and of stature as are the people of to-day. 


Mortimer : Notes on our Ancestors in East Yorkshire. 315 

There is no trace of a long or short headed race having hist 
occupied this district. 

During the Neolithic, Bronze, and the Early Iron periods, 
the raising of mounds to mark the resting-place of the dead 
person seems to have been generally practiced. No more 
enduring structure could have been devised than these huge 
earthen mounds of the Neolithic and Bronze ages. The mound 
at Skipsea Brough, the large one at the foot of Garrowby Hill, 
and Duggleby Howe, and others, will, if spared by the hand 
of man, long out-live the pyramids. These monuments are a 
lasting proof that Early man shared with his descendants the 
desire to do homage to the great and good by erecting a memo- 
rial to their memory. Proof is also afforded of his belief in a 
future life by the fact that he occasionally provided for it by 
having food, ornaments, tools, and even very rarely his chariot 
and whole animals buried with his body. Even his companions 
have occasionally been killed and placed in the grave. 

From these facts it is apparent that his future life was ex- 
pected to be similar to that from which he had just departed. 
It is probable that occasionally these early people indulged 
in cannibalism, and we have proof of this in the remains of 
food, consisting of portions of the human body as well as parts 
of animals, found deposited with the dead. This is perhaps 
not so very surprising as it is apparent that at one time or 
other, almost every race of man has practised cannibalism, 
and the practice would long survive in their revered funeral 

During the Early Iron Age the grave mounds were smaller, 
more uniform in size, and more closely grouped in larger 
numbers, than during the earlier periods. These later mounds 
generally contain one, or occasionally two inhumed bodies ; 
but in no instance has there been any trace of a cremated inter- 
ment, neither has there been any sign of cannibalism or human 
sacrifice in any of them. Here we have a great advance in 
civilisation. Yet the belief in a future state seems to have 
survived, as food vessels containing the bones of pig, goat, and 
occasionally entire animals, as well as chariots, dress fastenings, 
and ornaments, have been buried with the dead. 

Later, during the Romano-British times, judging from the 
few discoveries belonging to this period, the custom of placing 
the flexed body in an oval grave much resembles the method 
adopted during the Early Iron Age. There were notable 
differences, however, as in the association of two extended 
bodies and two cremated ones, the absence of pottery and of 
the remains of food in the graves ; neither were there any 
traces of mounds covering the closely grouped graves. 

To come to a still later period, the Anglo-Saxon remains are 
the latest in East Yorkshire that we are able to distinguish. 

iqn Sept. 1. 

316 Mortimer : Notes on our Ancestors in East Yorkshire. 

These people buried their dead frequently in cemeteries, often 
enclosing British barrows and other earthworks, but I have 
never found any indication of their having erected a grave 

Like the earlier races they were pagans when they settled 
in this part of Yorkshire, and buried their dead in narrow, 
shallow graves in various positions, from a much doubled-up 
to an extended attitude, and in some graveyards they are 
interspersed with cremated burials. They likewise seem to 
have had a belief in the hereafter. This is proved by the 
frequency with which the dead were supplied with articles of 
everyday use, such as weapons, tools, ornaments, pottery, and 
even food. 

These notes, together with the accompanying table, show 
that the inhabitants of East Yorkshire in the very earliest 
times were neither giants nor dwarfs, but men possessing stature 
very similar to those of the present day. Their heads were of 
the most diverging types, ranging from the extreme long to 
the extreme short skull. No trace has been observed of a race 
of a higher or a lower stature, nor of a race of long or short 
heads having first occupied this district. This is also the 
view of Dr. W. Wright, to whom I am much indebted for the 
measurements of the greater number of these skulls. 

As previously mentioned, several hundred years later, 
during the Early Iron Age, there was in East Yorkshire a very 
different race of settlers ; smaller men, of a stature and cranial 
type far more uniform than those previously existing. These 
were evidently settlers from over the sea, and were not des- 
cendants of a family of the tall long heads of the earlier settlers. 

Still later, in pagan Saxon times, the stature rises and 
closely approaches that of the inhabitants of the Stone and 
Bronze periods, but their cranial types are much more uniformly 

After these Saxons were converted to Christianity their 
pagan customs were slowly abandoned, and thev became of 
less interest to the antiquary. Had it not been for the heathen 
beliefs and customs of our ancestors we should have known 
much less than we do now of early man and his mode of life 
during these remote periods. 

In performing his pagan rites he was unconsciously recording 
the history of his time. 

In conclusion. Though we of this twentieth century are 
descendants of the various races that have lived before us, yet 
we do not show a greater diversity in stature and in type of 
skull than did our most distant fore-fathers of the Neolithic 
and Bronze periods. Thus, the conclusion to be drawn seems 
to be that the blending of the different types of mankind must 
have taken place in very early da}'s. 


Mortimer : Notes on our Ancestors in East Yorkshire. )ij 

The Mean 
Computed Stature 
Stature of three 
ranges from types. 




• = o-- 

— - X 


-l< — !M 

o fee 

Index of the 
three types 
ranges from 

05-4 to 92 


















Q £ 



No. of 

-f L— 

rt cb 

M fc- 
- « t- 


o — 











61-9 ins. 


(14 ins. 









No. of 















66 ins. 

.1 1 

tO 1 S3 

it. ^ - 



Ol 1 'v 

o ^i ' !L 

3 3 

CO CO -* r-t CO J - 

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No. of 

Skulls of 






From the Ruskin Museum, Sheffield, we have received the recently 

published Annual Report. It is apparent that this museum still lias many 
visitors, and in the winter the Curator delivered lectures bearing upon 
Ruskin s work. 

The Fortieth Annual Report of the Committee of the Public Libraries, 
Art Gallery, and Museums of the Corporation of Rochdale, includes statis- 
tics <>l attendences at the Museums, a list of the ' talks ' given, and nearly 
a page of additions to the Museum, a few of which are of local interest 

iqii Sept. i. 





By means of some new methods which I have been able to 
adopt with the aid of a Government Grant, I have recently 
worked out a number of small species of Enchytraeids which 
had hitherto largely escaped observation. It may be well in 
the present paper to take a somewhat careful survey of another 
genus belonging to this family, and I therefore select Henlea. 
This genus was created by Michaelsen in 1889, the name being 
derived from that of Henle, an early authority in Zoology. 
It includes certain species which had previously been entered 
under such generic titles as Enchytraeus, Archienchytraeus, and 
Neoenchytraeus, together with certain more recent discoveries. 
Beddard, in his valuable ' Monograph of the Order Oligochaeta,' 
1895, gives four species as well-known, and alludes to some 
others as doubtful, but, though they were all known to be 
European, there is not a hint that any species of Henlea was 
to be regarded as British. I was the first to draw attention to 
the fact that the genus was represented in these Islands, as a 
reference to this Journal and the Essex Naturalist for 1896 will 

In 1900, when ' Das Tierreich ' was published, Michaelsen 
enumerated five species, and gave four others as uncertain. 
The uncertainty was generic, not specific. It is true the four 
which he withholds from full recognition were not as carefully 
described as they would be to-day ; but Eisen, who published 
the descriptions in 1878, is a first-rate authority, and two of 
his species were admitted. I believe that in time it will be 
possible to fit all his species into their proper places. Since 
1900 new species have been added by Bretscher, Beddard, 
Southern, and myself, so that the genus is now assuming con- 
siderable proportions. The species, which are fully determined, 
will be set forth in the order in which they were discovered by 
myself in this country. 

It may be helpful to students, if, before cataloguing the 
species, I state the distinguishing marks of a Henlea. Beddard 
has drawn attention to the fact that we have, perhaps, a some- 
what heterogeneous assemblage of species here, but that can 
be corrected as our knowledge grows. First there are certain 
negative characters, such as the absence of dorsal pores — always 
present in Fridericia — the absence of diverticula from the 
spermathecae, and the absence of a dorsal vessel behind the 
girdle. Salivary glands or peptonephridia may or may not be 
present. The oesophagus is sharply marked off from the 
intestine about the eighth segment, in which, or in one of the 
adjoining segments, the dorsal vessel arises. The seta; differ in 


Friend : Enchytrcsids of the North of England. 319 

number, form, and arrangement, according to the species, 
resembling in turns those of Fridericia, Buchholzia, Pachydrilus, 
and Enchytraeus. In some species there are oesophageal 
glands at the commencement of the intestine, in others they 
are wanting. These must be clearly distinguished from the 
septal glands which are always present. 

1. Henlea nasuta Eisen. The synonomy is fully given in 
Das Tierreich,' x. 69. It appears as H. leptodera Yej. in 

Beddard and elsewhere. First British record, Friend in ' The 
Naturalist,' 1896, p. 298. I first made the acquaintance of 
this species in May, 1892, when I found it between Idle and 
Woodhouse Grove, Yorkshire. During the same year I received 
it from Mr. Allen, a Plaistow correspondent, who collected it 
in Essex. In 1896 it was again discovered by me near the 
Goods Station at Cockermouth, and more recently I have 
obtained it from other localities. In 1909, Southern recorded 
it for Ireland. It is about 20 mm. long and 1-2 mm. broad, 
the number of segments varying from about 50 to 65, while the 
setae may sink in number to 2 and rise to 7, the average number 
being 4-6. The dorsal vessel arises in the 8th segment, in front 
of which the oesophagus enters the intestine. There are two 
oesophageal glands, and the brain is a little longer than broad, 
with a concavity in front. This species has been found in 
Siberia, Denmark, Germany, France, and Italy, and is readily 
recognized by its two oesophageal glands. 

2. Henlea ventriculosa D'Udekem. Found in May, 1892 at 
Idle, near Bradford, Yorks. Received the same month from 
Essex, through Mr. Allen of Plaistow. In 1896 found at 
Cockermouth under moss by trickling water. (Friend in 
' Essex Naturalist,' 1896, Vol. IX., p. no). Found by Southern 
in various parts of Ireland. (' Irish Naturalist,' 1907, Vol. 
XVI., p. 70). It is 15 to 20 mm. in length, and averages 60 
segments. There are four oesophageal glands. The salivary 
glands are usually rudimentary or inconspicuous, whereas in 
the last named species they are well-developed. 

3. Henlea puteana Vejdovsky was first described in 1877 
as an Enchytraeus, but was transferred to this genus in 1889 by 
Michaelsen. It is at once distinguished, as Beddard remarks, 
by the presence of two pairs of spermathecae. This is a unique 
characteristic ; no other Enchytraeid having yet been found 
which possesses the peculiarity. They are in segments IV. and 
V. The dorsal vessel arises in segment IX. I found the species 
in Ledbury Churchyard, on Easter Monday, April 17th last. 
Unfortunately, owing to my absence from home, I was unable 
to examine the material in detail, and the putrid state of the 
decaying vegetable matter soon caused the worms to die. 

Henlea dicksoni Eisen, of which two specimens have been 
found by Southern in Lambay, and Henlea hibemica Southern 
are as yet unknown in England. 

KJIJ Sept. I. 

320 Friend : Enchytrceids of the North of England. 

4. Henlea rosai Bretscher. This worm was first described 
in 1899, in time to be included in ' Das Tierreich,' p. 70, where 
the description may be found. I discovered it for the first time 
on May 27th, 1911, at Buxton, in company with Enchytrceus 
mini m us Bretscher. My notes are as follows : — Rather larger 
than /:'. mini nuts, possessing 35 segments, pellucid, with brown 
intestine, which is sharply marked off from oesophagus in the 
seventh segment, where the chloragogen cells begin. Three 
pairs of septal glands, no oesophageal glands, pulsating vessel 
in the seventh and adjoining segments. Ampulla or funnel of 
sperm-duct, which is found with the girdle in segments XI. and 
XII., about twice as long as broad. First nephridia in 6/7, 
the duct passing out from the posterior portion. The sperm- 
athecae composed of a simple duct, without diverticula or glands. 
There mav be an enlargement or swelling of the duct about the 
middle, or not. The brain is rather broader than long (my 
camera lucida drawings give the ratio 18 : 15), concave in 
front and convex behind. 

Found among vegetable debris by a wall in the Serpentine 
Walks, Buxton. 

5. Henlea perpnsilla Friend. On July 9th, 1911, I collected 
some alluvium from a ditch near Cauldwell, some four or five 
miles from Ashby-de-la-Zouch and Burton-on-Trent. It proved 
to be rich in Enchytrseids of the minuter kinds, and yielded a 
species of Henlea which had not, so far as I can discover, been 
previously described. In a few points it is of peculiar interest. 
I examined several specimens with great care, and found certain 
variations which seem to be always occurring in this variable 
group. Thus, while there was always a pair of nephridia in 6/7, 
I found in one instance that the first pair occurred in 5/6. 
Again, these organs differ in shape and arrangement. In the 
anterior portion of the body the duct springs near the septum, 
while the hinder portions of the worm shew the duct of the 
nephridia passing out from the rounded posterior. This indi- 
cates the importance of noticing the structure of organs at 
different points. There is probably some bionomic as well as 
taxonomic value in the difference. I have carefully noted and 
drawn the setae of the head and tail, since these also vary as 
much as the nephridia do. They vary in number from three to 
six, very rarely seven or eight ; and in front the ventral bundles 
usually have one more seta than the lateral. Here are the 
numbers as found in a typical specimen : — 

Set.e from Head of H. perpnsilla Friend. 
Segment. Lateral. Ventral. 

II. .. 3-4 •• 4-5 

III. .. 4-4 •• 5-5 

IV. .. 3-4 -• 5-6 

V. . . 6.4 . . 4-C> 

\ ituralits, 

Friend : Enchytrceids of the North j>f England. 321 













The dorsal vessel arises in the ninth segment, and the vessel 
pulses forwards to the sixth. No salivary glands or oesophageal 
glands present. The brain is concave before and convex 
behind, hardly twice as long as broad. The sperm funnel or 
ampulla is about of the same relative proportions, and the duct 
is very small but long. The head is sometimes slightly glandu- 
lar, and the girdle extends from the beginning of the twelfth to 
the setae of the thirteenth segment. There are no setae on the 
twelfth segment in the adult worm. There are three pairs of 
septal glands in 4/5-6/7, and the coelomic corpuscles are large, 
oval, or discoid. The front commissures of the dorsal vessel 
join the bifurcated ventral vessel just behind the first set of 
setae. We need much more detailed observations on this point 
than have hitherto been made, as the vessels in the anterior 
regions shew widely different arrangements, and these will have 
to be included in future systematic descriptions. 

This species is closely related to Henlea tenella Eisen, in 
which, however, the brain is about as long as broad, the anterior 
and posterior being notched. 

6. Henlea lampas Eisen ? In 1878 Eisen described several 
new species of Archienchytrceus from Siberia and elsewhere. 
They are placed with diffidence by Michaelsen under the genus 
Henlea. So long ago as 1898 I found some specimens of an 
Enchytraeid at St. Anne's-on-Sea, Lancashire, which agree with 
Eisen's description of Archienchytrceus lampas very closely. 
In those days descriptions were not so perfect as now, but I 
record this species because I believe it belongs here ; and if 
further research should show that it is wrongly placed, we shall 
have an authentic early record for some other British species. 
When we remember how recently the study of this large group 
of worms has been taken up systematically in this country, 
and that the number of Henleas at present known to science 
does not exceed a dozen, the list here supplied is certainly not 
an unsatisfactory one. Will readers help to make it more 
complete by sending specimens to no Wilmot Road, Swadlin- 
cote, from various localities, at home or abroad. 

We have received Vol. II., No. 3 of The Journal of the East Africa and 
Uganda Natural History Society. Longmans Green & Co. 78 pp., 5/4. 
It contains a valuable series of papers on the Birds in Uganda Forests, 
Distribution of Game, Anthropometry, Geological notes, and other items 
of interest to naturalists. There are a number of illustrations of Uganda 
game, etc., one of a Cape Buffalo (the record head), being particularly 

191 1 Sept. 1. 





The International Phyto-geographical Excursion through the 
British Isles, which has been so skilfully organised by Mr. 
A. G. Tansley of Cambridge, after visiting the Norfolk Broads 
and the Derbyshire Dales, paid a- visit to Crowden on August 
8th, under the guidance of Dr. Moss. 

The party, which included Prof. Drude of Dresden, Prof. 
Graebner of Berlin, Prof. Massart of Brussels, Prof. Ostenfeld 
of Copenhagen, Prof. Schroeter of Zurich, Dr. Lindman of 
Stockholm, Prof. Cowles of Chicago, Prof. Clements of 
Minnesota, etc., walked up Crowden Great Clough where 
Orchis maculata L. var. prcecox Webster was found in flower, 
while the form of Juncus effusus with condensed inflorescences 
was common, a plant often recorded as /. conglomeratus ; 
the smooth stem of the former, however, easily distinguishes 
it from the latter which has ribbed stems. 

On the Black Chew Head Moors the abundance of Rubus 
chamcemorus was a special feature of the peat deposits. On 
the way down Chewbrook Clough the true Rumex Acetosella L. 
was noticed, the common British form being R. angiocarpus 
Murbech, and near Greenfield was Alchemilla vulgaris var. 
minor Huds. 

The company was entertained at dinner in the evening at 
the Midland Hotel, Manchester, by Prof. Weiss and Dr. Lang 
of Manchester. 

On Wednesday the 9th, the members drove from Greenfield 
Station in motor-cars, kindly lent by members of the ' Cave ' 
Club of Huddersfield, under the guidance of Dr. T. W. Wood- 
head, to Saddleworth Moors. At Wessenden Head a new 
variety to Britain of the heather Calluna vulgaris var. Erikai 
was pointed out by Dr. Graebner, a variety named after his 
wife by Prof. Ascherson of Berlin. On Honley Moor Ulex 
Gallii was noticed in fine flower. 

At Honley the members were entertained by Miss Siddon 
to a lunch, after which they motored to Honley Old 
Woods, where Melampyrum pratense var. hians Druce, and 
a hybrid Birch between alba and tomentosa, were observed. 
West Wood and Heywood were visited by kind permission 
of the Earl of Dartmouth. Near the latter place a new variety 
of Polygonum aviculare was pointed out by Dr. Lindman. 

Woodsome Woods and the interesting Hall were also 
inspected. In the woods the alien Geranium endressi was 
noticed, with a splendid display of the fern Dryopteris cristata 

The Party then motored to Huddersfield, where they were 
entertained at dinner by the ' Cave ' Club, at the George Hotel. 

Proceedingsjof Provincial Scientific Societies. 323 

A hearty vote of thanks was moved to the President and 
club members by Prof. Drude, Mrs. Cowles, and Mr. A. G. 
Tansley, to which the president (Mr. J. Sykes) eloquently 
replied, bearing his testimony to the excellence of Dr. Wood- 
head's scientific work in their midst. The health of Mr. 
Ramsden (the Secretary of the club) was proposed by Mr. 
Claridge Druce of Oxford, and the time being advanced 
the party left for Manchester on their northern journey. 


The Sixty-second Annual Report of the Museum and Library of Ipswich 
is further evidence of Mr. Woolnough's enthusiasm, there being several 
additions in all the departments. We notice the offer of a series of 
mammalian remains has been deferred on account of no cases being 

From The Hastings and St. Leonards Natural History Society we have 
received ' Occasional Publication No. 5,' which deals with Thomas Muffett, 
Naturalist, and a ' Docter in Physick,' in the seventeenth century. The 
pamphlet is by Mr. W. A. Mullens, and contains many quaint ornitho- 
logical items. 

The Annual Report of the Birmingham Natural History and Philosophical 
Society for 1910 contains particulars of the various exhibits at the Society's 
meetings ; lists of lectures, etc. The society evidently makes the ex- 
hibition and description of natural history specimens a strong feature at 
its meetings. We agree that is very desirable. 

In the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (No. 265), Mr. R. L. 
Sherlock has a paper on ' The Relationship of the Permian to the Trias 
in Nottinghamshire,' in which he makes comparison with the series in 
Yorkshire, Durham, etc. Mr. E. Bolton describes several new species of 
insects from the South Wales Coalfield. 

The Seventy-seventh Annual Report of the Bootham School (York) 
Natural History, etc., Society is to hand, and shews that there are'still many 
enthusiastic nature students in this school. One scholar opines that ' a 
bird in the bush is worth two in the hand.' We learn that ' A. W. Graveson 
is the botanist of the year, and his collection has now reached the marvellous 
total of 1012 species, as against 800 last year.' 

The Journal of the Torquay Natural History Society (Vol. I., No. 3, pp. 

87-146, 1/-) contains abstracts of the various lectures delivered before the 
society, and also some notes of local value. Amongst these are ' Devon- 
shire Tokens ' ; ' The Seaweeds of Torbay ' ; ' New Light on the Bovey 
Beds,' by Mr. A. J. Jukes-Browne ; and the ' Lepidoptera of the District,' 
by H. Lupton. There is an Obituary Notice (with photo) of the late 
Alexander Somervail. 

Part LXXXII. of the Yorkshire Archaeological Journal contains an 
illustrated report on ' The Roman Forts at Elslack,' by Mr. T. May ; and 
an account of ' Opening of Two Barrows in the East Riding,' by J. R. 
Mortimer. These barrows were close to Sledmere, and illustrations of 
the vases, etc. found, are given. There is a note on ' Roman Remains at 
Whorlton,' in which we learn that some broken pottery found in the 
churchyard proved to be Roman. ' This find,' says the vicar, ' proves 
occupation, so I have now the satisfaction of having proved Whorlton 
(whatever Roman name it had) to have been a Roman settlement.' Per- 
sonally we don't think the enthusiastic vicar has proved his case. 
1911 Sept. 1. 

3 2 4 


It is a long time since the enthusiasm of the members of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union was so thoroughly damped as it 
was on the occasion of their August Bank Holiday meeting at 
Ingleton. A very representative gathering assembled on Friday 
evening, and the previous spell of glorious summer weather 
gave every reason to believe that the Bank Holiday was to 
be a perfect one. However, as the best laid schemes of both 
the smaller and larger mammalia ' gang aft a-gley,' so, to a large 
extent, was the week-end at Ingleton marred by a continuous 
downpour of rain, as remarkable as it was severe. 

During Friday night the rains, fortunately, had swollen the 
rills and streams feeding the two rivers which flow through the 
village, and make its ' scenery/ which is duly labelled and par- 
titioned off, and charged for. With the help of the Saturday's 
rain, too, these rivers were well in flood, and the waterfalls 
were magnificent. We even forgot the rain and damp clothes 
and bad tempers as we gazed at the grand flow of waters, which 
must have somewhat resembled the Lodore of the poem. 

Clothed with mackintoshes, top-coats, patent waterproof 
trousers, umbrellas, and a variety of headgear, a motley party 
started on the Saturday morning, to carry out the day's 
programme ; and carried it out, though all the ' waterproof ' 
coverings were of no avail, and all arrived at headquarters — 
the Ingleborough Hotel- — in the evening, thoroughly soaked 
through. According to the programme, the party duly 
proceeded ' via Dale Beck to Keld Head, and thence to 
Yordas Cave at the head of Kingsdale, and along the Scars 
of Greygarth, past the Gingling and Rowting Pot Holes, and 
thence via Thornton Force to Ingleton.' 

There were two dry intervals, both delightful. The first 
was at Kingsdale Head Farm House, where, through the kind- 
ness of Mr. Robinson, the owner, a substantial tea was pro- 
vided for the party, who also had the advantage of a fine, hot 
fire. And this is August! The other was in Yordas Cave 
a grand hole in the Carboniferous Limestone, down which, at 
one end, the waters poured in a cataract. The view inside 
this cavern, made possible by the aid of magnesium wire, was 
glorious. The modern method of artificial lighting was very 
different from that formerly used, when a primitive rush-light 
contrivance was held up to the ceiling by means of a long pole. 
The remains of one of these appliances was observed in the 
cave, and proved very heavy to carry. 

On Saturday evening, Mr. J. J. Burton presided at a meet- 
ing, when Mr. Cosmo Johns gave an interesting account of 
some of the geological features of the district, in the light of 
recent research. 


Yorkshire Naturalists at Ingleton. 


On Sunday, the downpour was such that the members 
were saved the trouble of arranging any programme. Probably 
on no previous occasion has a party of Yorkshire naturalists 
been so completely hotel-bound. 

Monday morning the glass showed no change, and proved 
to be correct. By noon most of the party had had enough, 
shook the mud and sludge from off their feet, and departed. 
We believe the few who braved it out were able, later in the 
day, to see the sky. A few, a very few, new arrivals came upon 
the scene. The usual meeting was abandoned, as there were 
so few to meet. 

Mr. William Cash sends the following list of shells col- 
lected by him : — 

Vitrina pellucida. 
Vitrea crystallina. 
,, helvetica. 
,, alliaria. 
,, nitidula. 
,, pur a. 
Zonitoides nitidus. 
Euconulus fulvus. 
Punctum pygmceum. 
Sphy vadium edentulum. 
Hygromia fusca (with sweepnet on 
herbage near Pecca Waterfall). 
Hygromia granulata. 
Hygromia hispida. Swilla Glen, 

near entrance. 
Acanthinula aculeata. 
Arianta arbustorum. (young ; by 
sweepnet on marshy ground 
near the Pecca Falls). 
Helicogena aspevsa (finely marked). 
Cepcea nemoralis. 

Gonyodiscus rotundata. Near the 
steps in Swilla Glen (one very 

Phanerogamic Botany. — Mr. J. Beanland writes : — Not- 
withstanding the week-end meeting, August 5th to 7th, the 
investigation of Kingsdale by the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
still remains to be done. The cyclonic state of the weather 
for two days made it impossible to enter the woods, and any 
notes made from the paths is no criterion of their contents. 
The following, however, were noted in walking through : — 

fine specimen of a transulcent 
white colour, thus differing from 
the normal var. alba ; I should 
suggest the name var. cvys- 
tallina if it prove to be new). 

Cochlicopa lubrica. 

Azeca tridens. 

Jaminia secale (on limestone ledges 
Constitution Hill, rather plen- 

Marpessa laminata. 

Pirostoma cravenensis. 

,, bidentata (=rugosa). 

Succinea putris (on sloping, marshy 
ground near Pecca Falls). 

Carychium minimum and several 
Vertigos (all in or near the Swilla 

Balea perversa. 

Vertigo alpestris. 

Ena obscura. 

Pyramidula rupestris. 

Thalictrum minus. 
Circcsa lutetiana. 

Lythrum Salicaria. 
Rhamnus catharticus (fruit). 
Galium sylvestre. 
Eupatorium Cannabinum. 
Carlina vulgaris. 

A few clumps of white ling were seen, and the fruits of Moun- 
tain Ash and Guelder Rose were never more prominent. 

1911 Sept. 1. 

Crepis paludosa. 
Melampyrum pratense. 
Origanum vulgare. 
Calamintha clinopodium. 
Carex pallescens. 
Equisetum hyemale. 

326 Yorkshire Naturalists at Ingleton. 

On Monday the remnant of the members ascended Ingle- 
borough under fairly favourable conditions, and the following 
plants were noted among others : — 

Actaa spicata. 
Sagina nodosa. 
Sedum villosum. 
,, Rhodiola. 
Saxifraga oppositifolia. 
,, hypnoides. 

Arenaria verna. 

Thlaspi alpestre var. occidentale. 

Lycopodium selago. 

,, clavatum. 

,, alpiniim. 

Selaginella selaginoides. 

Saxifraga Geum was brought in from Hurtle Pot, and 
reported to be in flourishing condition. 

Mr. C. Crossland writes : — The mycological section was 
represented by Messrs. M. Malone and J. W. H. Johnson. 
They collected over sixty species of fungi ; thirty-nine of 
which were agarics. Considering the past dry scorching 
weather, this may be considered satisfactory. The drop of 
rain on Saturday and Sunday stirred up the Coprinii, five 
species being seen on the Monday. Nothing out of the ordinary 
was met with. 

The following are new records for the N.W. division : — ■ 

Mycena peliculosa. 
Omphalia pyxidata. 
Omphalia sphagnicola. 
Galera campanulata. 

,, hypnorum. 

,, var. sphagnorum. 

Galera mycenopsis. 
Bolbitius fragilis. 
Psathyra obtusata. 
Russula semicrema. 
Russula alutacea. 

Neuroptera and Trichoptera. — On Monday, Mr. G. T. 
Porritt spent several hours in the vicinity of the river at 
Ingleton, but, owing to the strong wind, and the swollen state 
of the waters, consequent on the heavy rains of the two previous 
days, little could be done. A very interesting trichopteron, 
however, turned up in Neureclipsis bimaculata, of which the 
only previously recorded Yorkshire specimens were taken by 
Mr. Porritt, on the river Ure at Masham, on the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union's Excursion there on August 5th, 190 1, just 
ten years ago. Mormonia hirta was common, and Silo pallipes 
and other species were about. The only neuropteron of note 
was Hemerobius orotypus, which occurred by beating the trees 
on the steep slope rising from the left bank of the river. Leuctra 
klapaleki abounded, of course ; and a large dragon-fly was on 
the wing, but it did not come near enough for its identity 
to be established. — T. S. 

The Scunthorpe Urban District Council has appointed Mr. T. Sheppard 
F.G.S., of Hull, expert adviser to the Scunthorpe Public Museum. 

Mr. R. Newstcad has been appointed to the newly-established Chair 
of Entomology at the University of Liverpool. 






In anticipation of the visit of the Marine Biological Committee 
of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union to Scarborough, September 
22-26, an outline of the rocks, with a few notes upon the dis- 
tribution of the fauna, may interest members unacquainted with 
the locality. The diagrammatic sketch of exposures, to be 
found at extreme low tides, roughly indicates centres of practical 
importance. Concentration upon the laminarian zone will 
probably yield good results to a diligent worker, but he must 
keep his eyes open to the vagaries of a swiftly inflowing tide. 
Obviously ' finds,' i.e., new records for the district, are more 
likely to be obtained in the neighbourhood of the laminaria 

Diagrammatic Sketch of Exposures. 

than at higher levels. On July 28th, at the point marked (3) 
on the map, I picked up a beautiful specimen of the Crested 
Eolis, Antiopa cristata, a deep-sea form not included in the 
Yorkshire list of nudibranchs. Subaqueous rock-ledges, whose 
undersides are often covered with living organisms and may 
harbour some rare species, should be detached by hammer and 
chisel for close, examination. Large, partially propped up, 
stones in pools frequently exhibit special forms of life attached 
to their under surfaces when turned over by a crowbar. 

Although the three bays have much in common, South 
Bay, with its wide expanse of sheltered rocks and pools, is 
the easiest to work. Sandstone and grey limestone rocks, 
much bored by Pholas crispata, are readily broken up horizon- 
tally into layers, by hammer and chisel, thus exposing many 
holes, empty, or tenanted by the original borer, tapes, cave 
anemones, or worms. Perhaps the best South Bay region is (3) 

ign Sept. 1. 


328 Irving: Marine Biology at Scarborough. 

opposite Holbeck Gardens, where tide-pools erode and under- 
mine the sandstone, and deep-sea forms seek refuge. Zoophytes 
— Sertularia, Plumularia, Bicellaria, Tubularia, Obelia — are 
abundant here, sometimes in association with sponges, of which 
Scarborough records ten or more species. Here, too, may be 
found numerous echinoderms, crustaceans, nudibranchs, and 
dahlia anemones. 

Particular attention is directed to another desirable site (2) 
— a group of rocks and reefs opposite the cliff tramway, seldom 
available for inspection except during September spring tides — ■ 
where the collector is sure to meet with living material in plenty 
and in variety. Colonies of Alcyonium digitatum are occasion- 
ally found here, also compound ascidians, in addition to polyzoa, 
sponges, nudibranchs, crustaceans, worms, and three or four 
species of anemones. 

The wall of the light-house pier (1) accessible by boat, 
lodges scarlet-fringed and plumose anemones. An outlying, 
laminarian clothed, reef (8) only get-at-able by boat, has 
never been investigated, at any rate in recent years, and should 
repay an hour's visit. 

Pools and runnels between tide levels supply the usual 
assortment of molluscs, crustaceans, echinoderms, sponges, 
worms, etc., with here and there specimens of Ascidia mentula, 
or clusters of Fragarium elegans, or patches of Botryllus. Scyll- 
<za pelagica has been found on three separate occasions, at 
(5), on stones in shallow water, though it is stated to be rare 
between tides. Then (4) both in South Bay and Cornelian 
Bay represents good places for hunting Crustacea. 

Claystone rocks predominate in North Bay. Near low 
water this light blue clay may be examined for Pholas Candida, 
its only habitat, save that of a similar patch of soft claystone 
sandwiched among the outer reefs of Carnelian Bay. In other 
respects North Bay is well-stocked with most of the species that 
abound in South Bay. 

Carnelian Bay is quite as prolific in marine fauna as South 
Bay, but the rocks — sandstone, limestone, and shale — are 
rough and somewhat difficult to negotiate. Work amongst the 
outer reefs must be rapidly done without any miscalculation 
in regard to a returning tide. Large sea-urchins, Echinus 
sphcera, and fifteen-rayed sun stars, Solaster papposa, abound 
between points marked (6) and (7), while at (7) living specimens 
of Trochus zizyphinus can be secured, and apparently nowhere 
else in any of the bays. 

Different sea-weeds will naturally provide certain organisms 
that feed on them, or harbour in them, and Scarborough bays 
are not lacking in red, brown, and green sea-weeds. 

In La Feuille des jennes Naturalistes (No. 490), M. L. Vignal has 
' Quelques observations sur les Limnesa stagnalis Linne,' with illustrations. 



3\\ fl&emoriam. 


It is appalling to think of the inroads recently made by the 
hand of death into the front rank of our scientific men. The 
pages of this journal alone have included records of many of 
our leaders of scientific thought ; many whose places will never 
be filled ; and the most recent of these is J. R. Mortimer of 
Driffield, p j 

So recently as^May last, The Naturalist contained an 
account of his life's work, which was accompanied by a 
portrait and a list of his memoirs and papers. 

Only a very short while ago, on seeing him at Driffield 
we spent a pleasant afternoon together, talked over many 
things, and arranged for the publication of yet another of his 
works. A few days ago I received a cheerful letter in 
reference to what has proved to be his last paper, which he 
had asked me to read for him at the Portsmouth meeting of 
the British Association ; though in his letter he referred to 
his growing weakness. This paper appears on another page 
and deals with a subject that particularly appealed to him. 

And then, though in his eighty-seventh year, the news of his 
death on August 19th, came unexpectedly. After one has seen 
a fine personality such as that of Mr. Mortimer, almost weekly 
for many, many years, and after one has regularly received letters 
from him for nearly a quarter of a century, it seems difficult 
to believe that he will never be seen again, never talk over the 
many matters in which he was so interested, and that one 
will hear from him no more. 

Perhaps more so than is the case with anyone else, the 
present writer owes much to Mr. Mortimer. When quite a 
schoolboy he was encouraged by Mr. Mortimer's help. Many 
an afternoon he has spent in the Driffield Museum, when the 
owner gave hour after hour in describing the objects and 
explaining how they were obtained. Twelve years ago we 
passed many Sundays together— the only time then mutually 
convenient— the result of which was the publication of the 
Illustrated Descriptive Catalogue of his museum. A few 
years later I succeeded in persuading him to publish his ' Forty 
Years Researches in British and Anglo-Saxon Burial Moulds,' 
which he did conditionally on my seeing it through the press. 
After two years' hard work the volume appeared, and was 
additionally valuable for the hundreds of illustrations from the 
charming drawings made by his daughter, Miss Agnes Mortimer. 
Ihis work will ever remain a monument to his memory But 
in addition there is the collection of pre-historic objects itself, 
which w ill, we have every reason to believe, be kept intact, and 

1911 Sept. 1. 

330 Field Notes. 

speak far more forcibly than can anything else of the great 
work which Mr. Mortimer accomplished. 

Probably no one in England has done so much for the 
elucidation of the pre-historic antiquities of his district as has 
Mr. Mortimer. No one has worked so well, so thoroughly, 
and so exhaustively ; and certainly no one has so carefully 
preserved the records that were obtained. 

Unquestionably Mr. Mortimer's worth will be much more 
appreciated in the future even than it is to-day. Few, very 
few, yet realize the extreme value and importance of his col- 

In Mr. Mortimer I have lost the oldest, kindest, and most 
unassuming of my scientific friends ; and, with very many 
others, I shall miss the fine tall figure which for over half a 
century has been so well known in all parts of East York- 
shire. — T. S. 


Curious Food for a Ferret. — We were recently ferreting 
in the garden here for rats, and had put a ferret into a hole 
under a fallen tree. The ferret got hold of something, and on 
being pulled out was found to be devouring a huge brown slug, 
which it was with difficulty made to drop. The moment it 
was released, it dashed at the remains again, with apparently 
the keenest relish, and speedily finished them. — C. Ash, Saxton 
Vicarage, Tadcaster. 

— : o : — 


The Golden Oriole in Yorkshire. — On Sunday, the 9th 
of July, a friend and I observed a male Golden Oriole, at a 
distance of ten yards, at Hackness near Scarborough. — S. 
Crook, Scarborough. 

Instances of Late Nesting near Scarborough. — On 
August 6th, on Mr. W. Gibson's land at Thorne Park, Hack- 
ness, I found a young Snipe, unfledged ; and on August 14th 
I found young Swifts still in the nest, also a Swallow's nest 
with one fresh egg, all at Hackness. — Stanley Crook. 

The Decrease in Whinchats and Redstarts. — Referring 
to Mr. R. Fortune's remarks (ante p. 298), the decrease of the 
Whinchat during the last few years has been general in this 
part of the country. The following records were made on two 
excursions of the Bradford Natural History Society to Winter- 
burn Reservoir, near Gargrave, in the years 1907 and 191 1. 
' 1907, May 25th — Whinchats extremely abundant, between 


Field Notes. 331 

thirty and forty birds noted on the banks of the reservoir.' 
' 1911, May 27th — In spite of the former abundance of the 
Whinchat around this reservoir, we only noted two pairs — one 
of which had a nest of six eggs in a tussock of coarse grass.' 

Mr. Boyes accuses the - mowing-machine and modern 
methods of cutting the grass early, as the chief causes of the 
dimunition of the numbers of the Whinchat in the neigh- 
bourhood of Beverley. But other causes must apply in this 
neighbourhood. Reservoir embankments and rough enclosures 
on the edges of the moor are the chief haunts of the Whinchat 
here. They are unchanged to-day, being just as they were a 
score of years ago, or more. Possibly the decrease in its numbers 
may be due to a succession of wet and cold summers, but it 
seems more likely to be attributable to incidents on its journeys 
during migration, or whilst in its winter quarters. Certainly no 
local change in its breeding quarters here has tended to alter 
its status in this neighbourhood. 

The Redstart is also decreasing locally. A dozen years ago 
I did not know any place in this district where the Redstart 
was so abundant as just above Denton. Now, however, I can 
only find one, or at the most two, pairs, where ten years ago 
I could have seen a dozen pairs at the least. As with the 
Whinchats, the local conditions do not appear to have altered 
at all.— H. B. Booth, Ben Rhydding. 


Vivipara contecta near Halifax.— While dredging for 
shells at Dam Head, Shibden, near Halifax, in July, 1910, I 
took three specimens of Vivipara contecta. As this was a new 
record for the Halifax parish, I was interested to find the 
species in some quantity this season 1911. The specimens 
were taken along with Limncea stagnalis and Planorbis albus. 

The dam is a small sheet of water, collected from a hillside 
spring, and used for domestic purposes by the cottagers near. 
Some anglers have introduced some trout, roach and gudgeon, 
but all the fish have been introduced from local streams, so that 
it is hardly likely the shells have been brought by that means. 
Vivipara vivipara is very plentiful in the canal some two miles 
away. Anacharis canadensis is very common in the dam, 
but still this has been put in from local sources. Some of the 
shells are very much eroded, which, I suppose is due to the 
action of the gases given off by the decaying animal and 
vegetable matter. Messrs. W. Cash and J. W. Taylor have 
verified the record.— J. H. Lumb, Halifax, Aug. 17th, 1911. 

In the Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine for August, Deilephila galii 
is recorded at Boston, Lines. ; Plusia moneta in Nottinghamshire ; and 
Libellula fulva, abundant, at Askern, in Yorkshire. 
1911 Sept. 1. 

33 2 


Complete Mineral Catalog, compiled by W. M. Foote. Twelfth Edition. 
320 pp. The Foote Mineral Co., Philadelphia. 

This catalogue is exceptionally well prepared, and is illustrated by 
300 figures and plates. Though ostensibly a trade catalogue, it will be 
found particularly useful to teachers and museum curators. 

Yorkshire Type Ammonites. Edited by S. S. Buckman, F.G.S. Part 4- 
Wesley & Sons, 191 1. 

We are glad to see that this useful work is progressing. The present 
part contains ten excellent plates and ' Descriptions Nos. 31-37.' The 
specimens described and figured are Ammonites semiselatus, cornntus, 
•quadricornutus, fabricatus, radiatus, arctus, and nautili formis. The plates 
are from photographs by Mr. J. W. Tutcher, and are all that can be desired. 

The Miner's Guide, by F. P. Mennell, F.G.S. London : Gerrard, Ltd. 
viii. -f- 196 pp. Price 4/- net. 

This is ' a practical handbook for prospectors, working miners, and 
mining men generally,' and is admittedly a compilation. It is ' practically 
a third edition of the author's " Rhodesian Miner's Handbook," ' and deals 
principally with mining as carried on in South Africa. There are a number 
of diagrammatic and photographic illustrations, and most of the points 
likely to be of service to prospectors are brought forward. 

Lessons on Soil, by E. J. Russell, D.Sc. Pp. 132-fxvi. Cambridge 
University Press, 191 1. Price 1/6. 

In this excellent little elementary treatise Dr. Russell has brought 
together nine well written and well illustrated chapters, dealing with 
' What is the Soil made of ? ' ' What Lime does to Clay,' ' The Dwellers in 
the Soil,' The Soil and the Countryside,' etc. The diagrams illustrating 
experiments, etc., are particularly well prepared, and will appeal to the 
beginner, as will also the fine photographs of typical landscapes, etc. 

Pebbles, by E. J. Dunn, F.G.S. Melbourne : G. Robertson & Co- 
122 pp. + 76 plates. 

The director of the Geological Survey of Victoria has produced a 
remarkable book on a simple subject, not the least interesting feature of 
which is the extraordinary series of pebbles figured by the half-tone 
process, on no fewer than 76 plates. Upon these are figured pebbles of 
every possible description — round, oval, egg-shaped, cylindrical, facetted, 
banded, perforated, striated, carved, decorated, and lichen-covered. He 
deals with the sizes, shapes, forms, materials, and variations of pebbles, 
their methods of transport, their uses to man, etc. The principal surprise 
to us is that of such a simple subject the author has been able to say so 
much. The 250 illustrations are very fine. 

Causal Geology, by E. H. L. Schwarz. London : Blackie & Sons, 
Ltd. viii. +248 pp. 7/6 net. 

The author of this book has spent some years on the geological survey 
of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope, and whilst there met with many 
curious geological phenomena, which are described in ' Causal Geology.' 
We learn that ' this work is an important contribution to the science of 
geology, and particularly to the discussion of the Planetismal Hypothesis of 
Prof. T. C. Chamberlain.' The author postulates that ' The rocks on the 
surface of the earth are in constant motion ; the force of cohesion in rocks 
is insufficient to keep them rigid when in large masses ; the area of the 
surface of the globe is not a diminishing one ; the surface of the earth is 
uniform in average texture throughout ; and the earth is growing by the 
addition of meteoric matter, and the composition of the earth as a whole 
is represented by the average composition of this matter.' The work is 
illustrated by a series of photographs and diagrams, all bearing upon the 
geology of South Africa. Whether, however, the author makes out a 
good case we must leave our readers to judge for themselves, after they* 
have read the book. 


New Books on Geology. 333 

The Palaeontographical Society's Volume LIV. contains a number of 
valuable monographs. Dr. R. H. Traquair gives a further instalment of 
his work on the ' Carboniferous Ganoid Fishes ' ; Dr. A. Smith Woodward 
describes the ' Fossil Fishes of the English Chalk (Part VI.) ; Mr. Henry 
Wood's work on the ' Cretaceous Lamellibranchiata of England ' is con- 
tinued in a monograph on Inoceramus ; Mr. R. I. Pocock describes the 
' Terrestrial Carboniferous Arachnida of Britain ' ; Drs. Gertrude Elles and 
E. M. R. Wood have Part VIII. of their ' British Graptolites.' Altogether 
many hundred specimens are figured and described. We notice there are 
a few vacancies on the list of members, and we would strongly advise any 
of our readers interested to subscribe to this excellent publication. Full 
particulars can be obtained from Dr. A. Smith Woodward, at the British 
Museum (Natural History). 

Field Note Book of Geological Illustrations, by Hilda D. Sharpe. Man- 
chester : Sherratt & Hughes. 52 pp. 

Beyond the title-page and a ' Preface ' (1 page), and ' Table of Con- 
tents ' (3 pages), this volume is practically entirely composed of repro- 
ductions of photographs of geological sections, with a few diagrams, and 
tables showing the classification of minerals, rocks, etc. There is also a 
physical map and a geological map of the British Isles, and several blank 
pages for notes. From the preface we gather that the object of the book 
is not to replace text books, but to supplement them, and the collection of 
photographs is got together to aid students on their excursions or holidays. 
They illustrate various geological phenomena, etc., but beyond being 
more handy in book form we do not see that they have any advantage over 
the sets of prints issued by the British Association Geological Photographs' 
Committee. Though the letterpress is reduced to a minimum there is a 
fair list of errata. 

The Student's Lyell. Edited by John W. Judd, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., 

second edition, 1911. London: John Murray. lvi.4-645 pp. 7/6 net. 
There are very many who can look back with pleasure upon the time 
when they perused ' Lyell,' and in doing so seemed to be infected with the 
same enthusiasm that was obviously that of the author ; and, notwith- 
standing the fact that as time goes on and more up-to-date text-books are 
published, it is still a pleasure to refer to Lyell, which somehow seems to 
stand aloof from them all. Unfortunately, and fortunately, science does 
not stand still, and each year a whole army of workers in the geological 
field brings home the fruits of their labours, and adds them to the general 
store of knowledge. In this way the classics fall behind. Were it only 
possible, without in any way injuring the charm of the original work, to 
bring it up-to-date, the volume might yet remain ideal. In the case of 
Lyell this has been done, and no one is better fitted for the work than 
Professor Judd, who knew Sir Charles so well. In the present edition the 
editor has given a history of the events which led up to the production of 
Lyell's epoch-making work, particularly in regard to its bearing upon the 
' Origin of Species,' which Huxley justly asserted to be the logical sequence 
to the ' Principles of Geology.' By a series of notes all the more important 
geological discoveries and conclusions are incorporated in this new 

The Coast Scenery of North Devon, by E. A. Newell Arber, M.A., F.G.S., 
etc. London : J. M. Dent & Sons. xxiv. + 261 pp. 10/6 net. 

We have frequently had occasion to refer to Mr. Xewell Arber's work 
in these pages. But in almost every instance the work has been more or 
less severely palaeo-botanical and technical. In connection with his 
work on his favourite subject Mr. Arber has paid frequent visits to glorious 
Devon, but, apparently, he has occasionally been able to take his eye from 
his microscope and pocket lens, and view the world from a broader point 

1911 Sept. 1. 

334 New Books on Geology. 

of view. He was necessarily forced to admire the glorious coast scenery 
with which his pala>o-botanical work brought him in contact, including the 
varied and picturesque cliffs between Portlock and Boscastle. Every feature 
in the diversified and picturesque bays and promontories was possible of 
explanation ; and in this volume, besides reproducing a wonderful series of 
photographs of cliff and cave, the author has carefully described the why 
and wherefore thereof. A perusal of the work shews that Devon produces 
a wonderful variety of features, some easily understood, others more 
difficult of explanation. But the author has studied the subject very 
carefully, and in plain English gives the results of his observations. The 
book is by no means technical, but it a really fascinating narrative of the 
geological history of the coast. In the first part Mr. Arber describes in 
detail the six principal districts into which this area is divided, and in the 
second he refers more fully to the special points of geological interest. 
In addition to the photographs, there are a number of diagrams, a biblio- 
graphy, and a good index. 

The Ice Age in North America and its Bearings upon the Antiquity of 
Man, by G. Frederick Wright, LL.D.. etc. Fifth Edition. Oberlin, Ohio ; 
xxii.+763 pp. 

There can be no question that the present enthusiastic school of 
glacialists has been largely influenced by American writers, in the fore 
rank of which is Prof. Wright. And of his many books, ' The Ice Age in 
North America ' is the best. It is twenty years since the first 
edition was published, and it at once ' took its place.' Certainly, all the 
views expressed therein were not generally accepted, but from that time 
there has been a continually increasing army of students of glaciation, 
which has contributed largely to our knowledge of the glacial conditions 
formerly obtaining in the New World. A perusal of the Bibliography 
at the end of the present edition is evidence of the enormous accumulation 
of facts and theories since the appearance of the first edition. Amongst 
the names noted are those of many of the leading scientific men of Europe 
and America. 

The great increase in the number of pages in the new edition is alone 
evidence of the additional matter brought forward by Dr. Wright, but 
when we come to examine the volume in detail it is apparent that every 
care has been exercised in taking new evidence and new facts into con- 
sideration. The excellent work of Prof. Williams and Mr. Frank Leverett 
especially has provided much new material ; but, perhaps, the greatest 
changes have taken place in those chapters dealing with the evidence of 
human remains connected with the glacial period. In this direction our 
American friends have worked in a way that causes astonishment amongst 
English geologists. Anyway the great mass of evidence brought forward 
seems to have been seriously and conscientiously summarised by Dr. 
Wright, who carefully puts the case both for and against the existence of 
man in America during the great Ice Age. This part of the work alone is 
of great value from the clear way in which the various evidences are 
reviewed ; but the volume will command a sale far beyond even the enor- 
mous area with which it deals, and certainly many of the chapters are of 
great general interest, We have particularly in mind those dealing 
with the Depth of Ice ; Glacial Erosion and Transportation ; Drumlins ; 
Glacial Dams, Lakes, etc. ; The Loess ; Flight of Plants and Animals 
during the Glacial Period ; Europe during the Glacial Period ; The 
Cause of the Glacial Period ; The Date of the Glacial Period, etc. 

It is certainly a matter for congratulation that a busy man such as 
we know Dr. Wright to be should be able to keep abreast with the enormous 
literature on the subject with which his book deals, and be able from time 
to time to give geologists so admirable a summary of the progress made 
with regard to the study of one of the most remarkable periods in the 
history of the earth, viz., the Ice Age. 




The Irish Naturalist (Vol. XX., No. 7) contains a paper on ' The 
British Utriculariae,' by Mr. G. C. Druce. 

British Birds (Vol. V., No. 2), contains a memoir on the late Robert 
Service, which is accompanied by a portrait. 

The Animal's Friend (G. Bell & Sons, 2d. monthly) has been sent 
to us. It contains many illustrations, stories relating to Pets, etc. 

Prof. W. \Y. Watts' Presidential Address to the Geological Society, on 
' Geology as Geographical Evolution ' is printed in the Society's Quarterly 
Journal (No. 266). 

Mr. W. N. Cheesman, F.L.S., favours us with a reprint of his ' Contribu- 
tion to the Mycologic Flora and the Mycetozoa of the Rockv Mountains,' 
from the Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 

Part 36 of Harmsworth's Natural History (yd.) deals with marine 
life in its various interesting forms, and contains the best illustrations we 
have yet seen in this publication. The sea-anemones, etc., are particularly 
well represented. 

In The Zoologist (No. 842), Capt. Stanley S. Flower gives an account 
of his visit to various European Zoological Gardens and Natural History 
Museums. There is a favourable notice of the Brighton Aquarium, and 
the Halifax ' Zoo,' of which latter two illustrations are given. 

In the Geological Magazine (No. 565) Dr. Henry Woodward figures a 
specimen of Eryon richardsoni from Dumbleton Hill, Gloucestershire. 
Mr. R. C. Burton has also a note on the ' Occurrence of Beds of the Yellow 
Sands and Marl in the Magnesian Limestone of Durham.' 

In Man (Vol. XI., No. 9), Dr. Duckworth and Mr. L. R. Shore give a 
' Report on Human Crania from Peat deposits in England.' These are 
from Lincolnshire, Lancashire, Norfolk, and Cambridgeshire. The col- 
lection shews a very great diversity of cranial form. 

Hull Museum Publications (No. 78), being the Thirty-seventh Quarterly 
Record of Additions (40 pp. A. Brown & Sons, one penny), has illustrated 
notes on a bronze dagger from Lincoln, Undescribed Yorkshire Tokens, 
a slavery jug, Chippendale chairs, a fifteenth century sword, old ironwork, 
old Hull whaling ships and steamships, etc. 

Mr. W. C. Simmons has an interesting note on ' The Granite Mass of 
Foxdale, Isle of Man ; with some notes of Dendritic Markings in Micro- 
granite Dykes,' in the Geological Magazine for August. Apparently one of 
the first references to this granite mass was in The Naturalist for 1894. 
In the same magazine Dr. H. Woodward describes a carapace of a crusta- 
cean from the ironstone nodules of Sparth Bottoms, Lancashire, under the 
name of Anthrapalcsmon grossarti = russellianus var. holti. 

In British Birds for August, an Alpine Ring Ouzel, ' seen in the flesh ' 
in Sussex, is described as a New British Bird. In view of past events, we 
are inclined to agree with the author that this occurrence, ' for the first 
time on record in Great Britain, is scarcely surprising.' In the same 
journal, another writer regrets that a peculiarity in the feathers of the 
Water Rail, which he recently described as a new observation, was pointed 
out by a Rev. Bird in the Norfolk Society's Transactions, so long ago as 

In Knowledge (No. 516), is a profusely illustrated article by Dr. Graden- 
witz dealing with the fine series of gigantic models which Carl Hagenbeck, 
of Hamburgh, has set up in his park. One immense lizard is shown preying 
upon another, while a group of Saurians, resembling caricatures of the 
rhinoceros, are shown disporting themselves in the water ; the whole 
effect in all cases being heightened by the natural surroundings in which 
the models are placed. In the same journal Prof. F. Cavers writes on the 
' Biology of Lichens.' 

191 1 Sept. 1. 



Mr. Bernard Smith has ' Some Notes on the Topography of North- 
East Nottinghamshire ' in Vol. XIV. of the Transactions of the Thoroton 
Society, recently issued. 

We have received some parts of a small journal 'Camping, the Official 
Organ of the Amateur Camping Club '. It contains notes, etc. of interest 
to those who enjoy a holiday under canvas. 

Dr. E. Thurlow Leeds, has an interesting paper on ' Examples of Late 
Anglo-Saxon Metal-Work,' in the Annals of Archeology and Anthropology, 
Vol. IV., part i, issued by the University of Liverpool. 

A monthly magazine has an article on its coloured plate entitled 
' Small Tortoiseshell Butterfly.' The plate itself, however, is described as 
' Blindworm, or Glowworm '. It certainly does not represent a butterfly. 

We have been favoured with a reprint from the Proceedings of the Royal 
Irish Academy dealing with the ' Pseudoscorpions of Clare Island.' It 
is by our contributor, Mr. H. Wallis Kew. Apparently pseudoscorpions 
are unusually scarce on the island, though it is what might be expected 
from the nature of its physical features. 

From Mr. J. E. Stead, F.R.S., we have received a remarkably complete 
monograph on ' Cleveland Ironstone and Iron,' a paper read before the 
Cleveland Institution of Engineers, February 7th, 19 10. This is illustrated 
by photographs shewing the microscopic structure of the beds, etc. 
There is also a valuable series of analyses of the rocks. 

Mr. H. M. Platnauer's Presidential Address to the Museums Association 
at Brighton is printed in the Museums Journal (Vol. II., No. 1). In the 
same magazine Mr. C. O. Waterhouse writes on ' The Insect Room in the 
British Museum (Natural History).' He not unnaturally complains of 
the present inadequate accommodation for the national collection of 

Amongst others who have recently passed away we regret to notice 
the name of Mr. G. W. Murdoch of Bentham. Mr. Murdoch was the 
editor of the Natural History Column of the Yorkshire Weekly Post. He 
was a member and a strong supporter of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 
and frequently gave the Union and this journal favourable mention in the 
various newspapers with which he was connected. He was a naturalist 
of the true sort, and a keen upholder of those who helped to protect the 
birds and mammals of our island. 

What is a ' Giccazd of house cricket ' ? One is figured in a ' natural 
history ' contemporary, but is not described. The same journal refers to 
a recently formed ' F. S. B. K.' (Faithful Society of Birthday Keepers), 
and suggests that ' branches might be formed all over the country,' with 
Crickhowell as a centre! We quite agree that ' the scheme seems entirely 
worthy of adoption as a branch of the B. E. N. A.', whatever that may 
mean. The idea seems worthy of extension, and as a further branch we 
might suggest a N. S. G. F. N. B. S. (No Sour Gooseberries [or ' grapes '] 
For Naughty Boys' Society) ! 

In connection with the recent correspondence in reference to the 
suggestion that part of the ground available for extension of the Natural 
History Museum at South Kensington should be utilized for another 
purpose, we were surprised ■ to see in Nature, under the signature of a 
leading scientific authority, a statement to the effect that ' The 
Natural History Museum, dealing with the works of nature, is already an 
old institution, and has largely completed its general collection.' This 
may apply to the meteorites, with which the writer in Nature may possibly 
be familiar, but it certainly does not apply to the collections generally, 
which are anything but ' complete.' 

• Naturalist, 

No. 657 
OCTOBER, ipn- 

(No, 435 0/ currant teriet). 




T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 


T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 




Contents : — 


Notes and Comments:— The British Association ; The Sectional Meetings; The Social Side ; 
Accommodation ; The Handbook ; The Study of Pure Science ; The Scientific Worke'r ; 
The Study of Zoology ; Our Lost Ethnological Opportunities ; The Need for Ethno- 
graphical Research ; Teacher and Education ; The Attractiveness of Paleobotany ; 
Aspects of Modern Petrology ; The Index Animalium ; Botanical Photographs ; The 
Wilting of Moorland Plants ; A Palaeozoic Fern and its Relationships ; Brown Seaweeds 
of Salt Marshes; Momentum of Evolution; Mean Sea-Level; The Bishop's Stortford 
Horse ; Fossil Plants from Yorkshire ; The Birds of the British Islands 337-317 

BeardecUTits at Hornsea— TS 348-350 

The Study of Fungi by Local Natural History Societies— Harold Wagei, F.R.S. ... 351 356 

Variations in Teeth of Whelk (Illustrated)— John Irving, M.D 357-358 

Xmohiprora paludosa W.Sm. as a West Riding Diatom (Illustrated) — 

p ^ y J. W. H. Johnson, F,Sc. 359-360 

The Water-Content of Acidic Peats— W. B. Crump, M.A. 301-362 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Huddersfield— T.S 363-366 

Field Notes:— Bryum W arneutn Bland in the Humber Estuary 367 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 350, 36k 

Museum News 360,366 

Reviews and Book Notices 347, 367 

News from the Magazines 856 

Illustrations 35T > :ra) 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, ^E.C. 

And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 




(President:— ARTHUR WHITAKER). 

Two meetings will be held at the Leeds Institute, Cookridge Street, Leeds, 
at 3"3° P-m- and 6-15 p.m., respectively, on Saturday, October 28th, 191 1. 

BUSINESS (at the afternoon meeting) : — 

To consider and pass the sectional reports for 191 1, and to elect officers 
for 1912. 

Exhibition of Specimens. (In addition to specimens of general interest 
lepidopterists are especially requested to bring good series of Polia chi and 
Amphydasis betularia. Exhibitions of specimens of other orders of insects are 
very earnestly invited). 

At the evening meeting several short addresses on entomological topics will 
be contributed by different members. 

All members and associates of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union are invited 
to attend and to bring any interesting notes or observations made during the 
past season. In order that a correct and complete account of all exhibits may 
be included in the report the Secretaries particularly request that each may be 
accompanied by a descriptive note. 

Will Officials of the Affiliated Societies kindly notify their Members. 

Secretaries : — Lepidoptera, A. AYhitaker and B. Morley ; Hemiptera and 
Diptera, W. Denison Roebuck ; Xeuroptcra, Orthoptera, and Trichoptera, 
G. T. Porritt ; Coleoptera, H. H. Corbett. 





Curator, Municipal Museums, Hull. 

Containing 204 pages, dewy 8vo, fully illustrated, and with 
copious Index. 

Bevelled cloth boards, 3/6 net, postage jd. extra. 


Printed and Published for the Hull Corporation by 

A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Savile Street, King Edward Street, 
and George Street, Hull. 

Also obtainable at 5 Farrixgdon- Avenue, London, E.C. 




As we were going to press with our last number, the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science met at Ports- 
mouth. From almost every point of view the gathering was 
distinctly disappointing. Perhaps the number of members 
attending is the best evidence of the success of a meeting. 
The attendance was very poor indeed. And, with a few 
brilliant exceptions, those present could hardly be said to be 
even fair representatives of British scientific workers. A few 
years ago it was possible to find practically everybody of 
importance, scientifically, at this annual congress. At Ports- 
mouth, scores of usually prominent members were conspicuous 
by their absence. 


Possibly partly as a result of the circumstances mentioned, 
the sectional meetings were, for the most part, dull and un- 
interesting. Many of the contributions brought forward were by 
no means new ; and in none of the sections was there any really 
remarkable paper or announcement. Even the address of the 
President, Sir William Ramsay, largely dealt with the question 
of the future of Britain's coal supply— a matter which was 
thoroughly discussed by the Association a few years ago. And 
Dr. H. R. Mill, in his public lecture on ' Rain,' added to the 
general cheerfulness by informing us that we must expect more 
rain than usual during the next few years ! 


Those who care for this sort of thing were fairly well catered 
for. There was a really brilliant reception at the South Parade 
Pier on the Thursday evening ; the mildness of the weather 
enabling the members to walk under the stars, and listen to 
the strains of the bands. This appealed to the ladies, and we 
believe the gentlemen enjoyed it. One did. There was a Garden 
Party at the Victoria Park, and also one at ' Brankesmere,' the 
mere ' being real, with two boats upon it. At this function 
all the ladies' dresses were described in the local press. There 
were visits to dockyards, pumping stations, gas works, des- 
tructor works, and sewerage pumping stations. There was also 
a fine display of submarine boats and torpedo boat destroyers. 
There was an excursion to the Isle of Wight, but red tape 
probably prevented many from taking part. 


The reception room, in the Connaught Drill Hall, answered 
its purpose, though rather resembling a banner-strewn barn. 
The sections were housed with varying success : the geologists 


IQII Oct. I. 

338 Notes and Comments. 

had the top room in the municipal buildings, where there was 
no lift, and the daily diminishing attendance at the section 
was a result of the survival of the fittest. Early in the morning 
of the first day the journals were ' off,' and in the almost entire 
absence of notices, etc., the Conference of Delegates and other 
meetings were held before those who ought to have been present 
were aware. As regards apartments, the experiences were 
very varied! 


The ' Handbook and Guide ' is perhaps the most disappoint- 
ing for many years. The York (384 pp.), Dublin (450 pp.), 
and Sheffield (506 pp.) handbooks were about uniform, 
and it was hoped that subsequent handbooks would match 
them in size, if not in thickness. The Portsmouth volume, 
however, is considerably smaller in each of its 250 pp., and it 
has none of the fine coloured geological and other maps which 
were such useful features in the volumes mentioned. The 
whole of the geology, botany and zoology of the district, in- 
cluding the Isle of Wight, occupies less than forty small pages. 


Sir William Ramsay concluded his presidential address 
by putting in a plea for the study of pure science, with- 
out regard to its application. He stated ' the discovery 
of radium and similar radioactive substances has widened the 
bounds of thought. While themselves, in all probability, 
incapable of industrial application, save in the domain of 
medicine, their study has shewn us to what enormous advances 
in the concentration of energy it is permissible to look forward, 
with the hope of applying the knowledge thereby gained to 
the betterment of the whole human race. As charity begins 
at home, however, and as I am speaking to the British Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, I would urge that our 
first duty is to strive for all which makes for the permanence 
of the British Commonweal, and which will enable us to trans- 
mit our posterity a heritage not unworthy to be added to 
that which we have received from those who have gone before.' 


Similarly, Mr. W. Bateson, in his address to the Agricultural 
Sub-section, pointed out that the man who devotes his life to 
applied science should be made to feel that he is in the main 
stream of scientific progress. If he is not, both his work and 
science at large will suffer. The opportunities of discovery are 
so few that we cannot afford to miss any, and it is to the man of 
trained mind who is in contact with the phenomena of a great 
applied science that such opportunities are most often given. 
Through his hands pass precious material, the outcome SOme- 

Notes and Comments. 339 

times of years of effort and design. ' To tell him that he must 
not pursue that inquiry further because he cannot foresee a 
direct and immediate application of the knowledge he would 
acquire, is, I believe, almost always a course detrimental to the 
real interests of the applied science. I could name specific 
instances where in other countries thoroughly competent and 
zealous investigations have by the short-sightedness of superior 
officials been thus debarred from following to their conclusion 
researches of great value and novelty.' 


fn his Presidential address to the Zoological Section, Prof. 
D'Arcy W. Thompson referred to the present position of the 
study of zoology. He pointed out that so far are biologists 
from being nowadays engrossed in practical questions, in 
applied and technical zoology, to the neglect of its more recon- 
dite problems, that ' there never was a time when men thought 
more deeply or laboured with greater zeal over the fundamental 
phenomena of living things ; never a time when they reflected 
in a. broader spirit over such questions as purposive adaptation, 
the harmless working of the fabric of the body in relation to 
•environment, and the interplay of all the creatures that people 
the earth ; over the problems of heredity and variation ; over 
the mysteries of sex, and the phenomena of generation and 
reproduction, by which phenomena, as the wise woman told, or 
reminded, Socrates, and as Harvey said again (and for that 
matter, as Coleridge said, and Weismann, but not quite so well) 
— by which, as the wise old woman said, we gain our glimpse 
•of insight into eternity and immortality. These then, together 
with the problem of the Origin of Species, are indeed magnolia 
naturce ; and I take it that enquiry into these, deep and wide 
research specially directed to the solution of these, is charac- 
teristic of the spirit of our time, and is the pass-word of the 
younger generation of biologists.' 


To the Anthropological Section, Dr. W. H. R. Rivers pointed 
-out how largely science had suffered as a result of our lost 
opportunities. ' It is cruel irony that just as the importance 
of the facts and conclusions of ethnological research is 
becoming recognised, and just as we are beginning to earn 
sound principles and methods for use both in the field and in 
the study, the material of our science is vanishing. Not only 
is the march of our own civilisation into the hitherto undisturbed 
places of the earth more rapid than it has ever been before, but 
this advance has made more easy the spread of other destroying 
agencies. In many parts of such a region as Melanesia, it 
is even now only from the old men that any trustworthy in- 

3911 Oct. 1. 

340 Notes and Comments. 

formation can be obtained, and it is no exaggeration to say that 
with the death of every old man there and in many other places 
there goes, and goes for ever, knowledge, the disappearance 
of which the scholars of the future will regret as the scholars 
of the past regretted such an event as the disappearance of the 
library of Alexandria. 


There is no other science which is in quite the same position. 
The nervous system of an animal, the metabolism of a plant, 
the condition of the South Pole, for instance, will a hundred, 
or even a thousand, years hence be essentially what they are 
to-day, but long before the shorter of those times has passed, 
most, if not all, of the lower cultures now found on different 
parts of the earth will have wholly disappeared, or have suffered 
such change that little will be learnt from them. Fortunately 
the need for ethnographical research is now forcing itself on 
the attention of those who have to deal with savage or bar- 
barous people. Statesmen have begun to recognise the 
practical importance of knowledge of the institutions of those 
they have to govern, and missionary societies are beginning 
to see, what every wise missionary has long known, that it is 
necessary to understand the ideas and customs of those whose 
lives they are trying to reform. Still, we must not be content 
with these more or less official movements. There is ample 
scope, indeed urgent need, for individual effort and for non- 
official enterprise. It is not all who can go into the field and 
do the needed work themselves, but there are none who cannot 
in some way help to promote ethnographical research. We 
have before us one of those critical occasions which must be 
seized at once if they are to be seized at all ; the occasion of a 
need which to future generations will seem to have been so 
obvious that its neglect will be held an enduring reproach to the 
science of our time.' 


In his address to the Educational Science Section, the Rt. 
Rev. J. E. C. Welldon, himself once a schoolmaster, stated :■ — 
It happened to me at one time to examine for a special purpose 
all the lives recorded in the " Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy " ; and the number of the persons who were there stated 
to have been more or less constantly engaged in tuition was 
not less surprising than pleasing to an old schoolmaster. Apart 
from such persons as were born, in the proverbial phrase, with 
a golden spoon in their mouths, it is safe, I think, to assert that 
one out of every three or four eminent Englishmen has at some 
time or other been a teacher. Nor is this the truth in England 
or in Great Britain alone ; it is true everywhere. Not to 


Notes and Comments. 341 

•speak of lifelong educators or of persons whose principal work 
was done in education, there occur to me the names of such 
men as Isocrates, Aristotle, Origen, St. Jerome, Cardinal 
Wolsey, Erasmus, Milton, Rousseau, Thomas Paine, Dr. 
Johnson, Diderot, Cardinal Mezzofanti, Mazzini, President 
•Garfield, Emerson, and Carlyle, who were all content at one 
time or other to make a scanty living by teaching. Perhaps 
the fact that so many persons have taken up education simply 
as a means of livelihood is the reason why there have been so 
many educational failures. In no profession have good men 
and good women done so much lasting harm, or have done it 
so often without being aware of it, as in education. For an 
educator like a poet is born ; he is seldom made ; if he is 
deficient in discipline or insight or sympathy, they are hard 
to win by practice, harder still is it to win the passion for young 
souls ; yet the educational profession demands enthusiasm 
above all other qualities, and I used sometimes to say to young 
candidates for office at Harrow that, unless a man honestly 
felt he would sooner be a teacher of boys than a Cabinet Minister 
he would not be a master altogether after my own heart.' 


In the Botanical Section Prof. Weiss pointed out that the 
great attractiveness of Paleobotany, and the very general 
interest which has been evinced in botanical circles in the 
progress of recent investigations into the structure of fossil 
plants, are due to the light they have thrown upon the relation- 
ship and the evolution of various groups of existing plants. It 
was the lasting achievement of Williamson to have shown, with 
the active co-operation of many working-men naturalists from 
the Lancashire and Yorkshire coalfields, that the structure 
•of the coal-measure plants from these districts can be studied 
in microscopic preparations as effectively as has been the case 
with recent plants since the days of Grew and Malpighi. Indeed, 
had Sachs lived to continue his marvellous historical account 
of the rise of botanical knowledge up to the years 1880 or 
1890, he would undoubtedly have drawn attention to the 
remarkable growth of our knowledge of extinct plants gained 
by Binney and Williamson from the plant remains in the 
calcareous nodules of English coal-seams, and by Renault 
from the siliceous pebbles of Autun. We are not likely to 
forget the pioneer work of these veterans, though since then 
investigations of similar concretions from the coal deposits 
•of this and other countries have been undertaken by numerous 
workers and have revealed further secrets from that vast 
store of information which lies buried at our feet. 

The possibilities of impression material had indeed been 
practically exhausted in 1870, and further advance could only 

1911 Oct. 1. 

342" Notes and Comments. 

come from new methods of attacking the problems that still 
remained to be solved. The most striking recent instance 
of the insufficiency of the evidence of external features alone 
was Professor Oliver's demonstration of the seed-bearing 
nature of certain fern-like plants, based on microscopical com- 
parison of the structure of the cupule of Lagenostoma, with 
the fronds of Lyginodendron, after which discovery confirma- 
tory evidence speedily came to hand from numerous plant im- 
pressions examined by Kidston, Zeiller, and other observers. 


Mr. Alfred Harker presided over the Geological Section, and 
reviewed the present position of petrology. In his intro- 
ductory remarks he pointed out that the application of micros- 
copical and special optical methods, initiated some fifty years 
ago by Dr. Sorby, gave a powerful impetus to the study of the 
mineral constitution and minute structure of rocks, and has 
largely determined the course of petrological research since 
that epoch. For Sorby himself observation was a means to an 
end. His interest was in the conclusions which he was thus, 
enabled to reach relative to the conditions under which the 
rocks were formed, and his contributions to this problem will 
always rank among the classics of geology. The great majority 
of his followers, however, have been content to record and 
compare the results of observation without pushing their 
inquiries farther ; and indeed the name ' petrography,' often 
supplied to this line of research, correctly denotes its purely 
descriptive nature. A very large body of facts has now been 
brought together, and may be found, collated and systematized 
by a master-hand, in the monumental work of Rosenbusch. 
Beyond their intrinsic interest, the results thus placed on 
record must be of the highest value as furnishing one of the 
bases upon which may eventually be erected a coherent science 
of igneous rocks and igneous activity. 


The Committee appointed in reference to the Index Generum 
et Specierum Animalium reported that since the igio Report, 
systematic search through literature has proceeded up to the 
letter E. Further, a group of especially troublesome and 
difficult books has been dealt with, e.g. : — Oken's ' Isis,' 41 
vols., 1817-48 ; Froriep's ' Notizen,' 102 vols., 1821-50 ; Ersch 
and Gruber, ' Allgem. Encyclopsedie,' 103 vols., 1818-50, and 
many other volumes have been indexed out of the general 
order as asked for or required — as, for instance, the works of 
Jacob Huebner, which are now in Mr. Sherborn's hands, in 
hope that he may obtain some further information as to the 
dates of their publication. The search for rare literature con- 

Naturalist, i 

Notes and Comments. 343 

tinues, and Mr. Sherborn desired to thank Dr. Kafpinski for 
obtaining for him the second volume of the Trudui of the St. 
Petersburg Mineralogical Society, 1831 ; Dr. Bashford Dean 
and Mr. O. F. Cook for a complete set of ' Brandtia,' 1896-97, 
both of which works will find a resting place in the British 
Museum (Nat. Hist.) when done with. He also desired to 
thank Mr. Tom Iredale for much valuable help in obscure bird 
genera. Zoologists cannot speak too highly of the valuable 
work Mr. Sherborn is doing for the Committee. 


The Committee reported that in accordance with the wish 
expressed by the Committee of the Botanical Section at the 
Sheffield Meeting of the Association, the second list of photo- 
graphs collected by the Committee had been printed and dis- 
tributed to the botanical members of the Association. This 
list includes mainly single plants or groups of plants either in 
their natural habitat or under cultivation. Owing to special 
circumstances it had been impossible this year to prepare and 
publish a list of the ecological photographs which have so far 
been collected. It is hoped that this may be done next year, 
and with this object in view, the Committee asked to be re- 


In a paper read to the Botanical Section, Mr. W. B. 
Crump stated that the purpose of investigations carried out 
in the summer of last year was to arrive at the physiological 
water-content of moorland soils. This was done by deter- 
mining the water still remaining in the soil when wilting 
definitely set in. A preliminary set of experiments made 
in 1906 had already given fairly satisfactory results, and a 
knowledge of the main difficulties and precautions ; but they 
were neither numerous enough nor started sufficiently early 
in the season to justify publication. The initial difficulty 
in the case of moorland plants is to decide when wilting occurs. 
The indications common in mesophytes, such as flaccidity, 
drooping or total collapse, are absent ; withering creeps on 
so gradually that one is at a loss to decide where to draw the 
line. Experience, gained by the sacrifice of some of the plants, 
fun -bed a clue in some cases ; and in several species, notably 
Molinia and Eriophorum angustifolhim, a more precise test 
was found in the rolling or folding of the leaves. About sixty 
specimens were obtained and established in pots, ranging 
from 4| to 7! inches, during March and April 1910, before the 
renewal of growth had set in. At the end of June about forty 
were growing satisfactorily and these were protected from rain 
by a light screen from July onwards. When it was apparent 
that wilting had set in, the peat or soil was sampled from among 

1911 Oct. [ . 

344 Notes and Comments. 

the roots and air-dried. A digest of the results obtained was 


In a paper by Dr. D. H. Scott it was pointed out that the 
simpler Palaeozoic Ferns (Primofilices of Mr. Arber, Ctenop- 
terideae of Professor Seward) have received much attention of 
late, especially in the fine memoirs of M. Paul Bertrand. 
Zygopteris Grayi, a species founded by Williamson in 1888, on 
somewhat imperfect material, occurs both in roof and seam 
nodules of Lancashire coalbeds, but is very rare. Besides 
the specimens described by Williamson, there is a much better 
one, the sections of which are partly in his collection ; this has 
been figured by the author in 1900, by M. Paul Bertrand in 
1909, and by Mr. 1910, but never adequately. 
Last year a fine series of sections of an entirely new specimen 
from Shore Littleborough was received from Mr. Lomax. The 
new specimen shews the general characters of the Z. Grayi type ; 
a five-rayed stellate stele, the corresponding § phyllotaxis, 
leaf-trace bundles with axillary shoots, scale-leaves or aphlebiae, 
and adventitious roots. The characteristic internal xylem, 
consisting of narrow tracheides embedded in parenchyma, 
is particularly well shown, both in the main stem and in the 
axillary stele. This specimen affords clear evidence that it 
belongs to the genus Ankyropteris, as defined by P. Bertrand. 
The leaf-trace and foliar bundle show perfectly the peripheral 
loops of small-celled xylem characteristic of Ankyropteris. The 
loops begin to be differentiated long before the leaf-trace 
separates from the stele. This confirms P. Bertrand's own 
view ; he found periphal loops in the best Williamson specimen, 
where, however, they are very obscure compared with those 
in the Shore plant. 


Miss Sarah M. Baker, in referring to this subject, stated that 
the capability of giving rise to marsh forms seems to be shared 
by all the brown seaweeds inhabiting the upper parts of rocky 
shores. Pelvetia canaliciilata, Fucks spiralis, Ascophyllum 
nodosum, and Fucus vesiculosus, all show marsh varieties or 
species. The reason that Fucus serratus and F. ceranoides 
have no representatives in the marsh habitat is probably their 
intolerance of desiccation. The physical and chemical en- 
vironment factors on the marsh being much more complex 
and varied than on a rocky shore, one would expect a corres- 
ponding variation in the structure of its plant. The most 
marked characteristics of the common marsh species are a 
great tendency to spiral twisting or curling of the thallus — 
and vegetative reproduction. That this latter feature is not 
directly caused by the marsh habitat is shewn by exceptional 


Notes and Comments. .)45 

species where reproduction is normal. The zoning between 
the brown seaweeds of a marsh is often very striking ; but 
the factors governing it must be far more complicated than 
those operating on the seashore. The extensive mattings of 
brown seaweeds often found on English marshes have a de- 
cidedly beneficial effect on the phanerogams. It seems possible 
that F. volubilis may act as a pioneer in the establishment of 
salt, marshes in certain cases. 


Professor Arthur Dendy stated that in 1909 ' Dr. Smith 
Woodward called the attention of the Geological Section to 
the fact that many groups of the animal kingdom in the course 
of their evolution have shewn a strongly marked tendency to 
enormous increase in size, often accompanied by the develop- 
ment of grotesque and apparently useless excrescences. Com- 
parative anatomists have long been familiar with analogous 
phenomena in such cases as the extraordinary development 
of the beak and helmet in the hornbills and of the tusks in the 
babirusa. In all the cases cited, and in many others which 
could be adduced, either the entire body or some particular 
organ appears to have acquired some sort of momentum, by 
virtue of which it has continued to grow far beyond the limit 
of utility, although perhaps in some cases a new use may be 
found which will assist the species in maintaining itself in 
the struggle for existence. An enormous increase in mere 
bodily size, however, seems in the long run to be always fatal 
to the race, whose place will be taken by smaller and more 
active forms. Is there any justification in recent developments 
of biological science for the belief that a race of animals may 
acquire a momentum of the kind referred to which may ul- 
timately lead it to destruction ? Is there some brake normally 
applied to the growth of organs and organisms, and if so, are 
there occasions on which the brake may be removed with 
results which ultimately prove fatal ? ' The author then gave 
reasons for answering both these questions in the affirmative. 


Captain E. O. Henrici pointed out that in the report of the 
Royal Commission on Coast Erosion it is stated that there is 
some evidence that the land on the coasts of Northumberland 
and Durham is sinking relatively to the sea. The only method 
of determining whether this is so or not is by means of accurate 
observations of mean sea-level with reference to marks on 
shore. The sea-level is, however, constantly altering, not 
only with the tides, but also with the winds, height of barometer, 
and rainfall. Accordingly, in order to determine what is 
mean sea-level it is necessary to take observations over a long 
period of years. Observations at some two dozen stations 

1911 Oct. 1. 

346 Notes and Comments. 

round the coasts of Great Britain were taken by the Ordnance 
Survey in 1859, but they were carried over much too short a 
period to enable any conclusions to be drawn as to earth 
movements. There exist some fifteen recording tide-gauges 
round the coast of Great Britain, but as they are installed to 
obtain tidal records for navigation purposes, no great degree 
of accuracy is required, and it is probable that the work of 
reducing their records to mean sea-level would not be justified 
by results. 

The determination of the relative value of the height of 
mean sea-level as determined by levelling between the different 
gauges was carried out in i860, but it is possible that there 
may be an error of a foot in the determination of the height 
of the zero of a tide-gauge as compared with Ordnance datum, 
and there may also be an error of a foot in the determination 
made by the Ordnance Survey of the height of mean sea-level 
as compared with the zero of the tide-gauge. The values of the 
height of mean sea-level above Ordnance datum varied from 
o to nearly 2 feet, with an average of -65 feet above. These 
variations are about what is to be expected from errors of 
observation, and do not afford anj r evidence that mean sea- 
level is not constant round our coasts. 


We have previously referred to the fact that the so-called pre- 
historic horse found by the Rev. Dr. Irving at Bishop's Stortford 
was probably quite a modern beast. Dr. Irving, however/has 
dug further, and tells us that ' a considerable addition was made 
to previous prehistoric " finds," and a Holocene molluscan fauna 
was discovered in the bog silt. The silt was in places strewn 
with shelly debris, and it was only with the greatest care that 
complete specimens could be secured for identification. Of 
these, the following have been identified by Mr. B. B. Wood- 
ward, F.G.S., of the British bidentata Museum* (Nat. Hist.) : 
Helix nemoralis, Hygromia {Helix) hispida, Vitraea nitidula, 
Succinea putris, Pyramidula rotundata, Helix arbustorum. 
Clansilia was, I think, also found, but unfortunately got crushed 
at the Museum before it was identified. A small bivalve was 
fairly frequently met with, which I have identified at the 
Jermyn Street Museum as Pisidium. Of the fossil [sic] shells 
mentioned above, it may be pointed out that six at least of 
them have been noted in the Holocene deposits at Staines ; 
six have been described from the Barnwell Gravels ; and 
three are described by Von Hauer as characteristic of the 
diluvial loess of the Rhine and the Danube.' Reasoning from 
the geological data, Dr. Irving ' was led at an early stage of 

* We have never heard of this particular institution, but it is so des- 
cribed by Dr. Irving. — Ed. 


Notes and Comments. 347 

the investigation to conclude that the formation of this bog" 
must have taken place in early post-glacial times ; that infer- 
ence seems to be confirmed bv the palaeontological [sic] evidence.' 
It seems to us that the so-called ' geological 'and ' palaeonto- 
logical ' evidence merely confirms the recent date of the horse's 


At a recent meeting of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 
Mr, H. H. Thomas read a preliminary note recording the 
Discovery in the Estuarine Shales of the Yorkshire Coast of 
the spores and sporangia of Coniopteris hymenophylloides and 
Todites williamsoni. In the case of the former species further 
evidence is afforded for the inclusion of this Jurassic type in the 
Cyatheacese, while the spores of Todites are shewn to be almost 
identical with those of the recent Todea barbara. 


We should like to congratulate both author and publisher 
upon the fact that this work is complete ; the final parts having 
recently been issued. Part 19 deals with the divers, petrels, 
grebes, etc., and contains seventeen plates from drawings by 
Lilian Medland. Part 20 includes particulars of rare and 
accidental visitors recorded since the earlier parts of the work 
were produced. There is also an admirable ' Scientific Index,' 
an ' English Index,' an extensive and exceedingly useful 
glossary, and a Bibliography relating to British Birds, brought 
down to the year 1900, by W. H. Mullens. This contains a few 
items we should not have expected, whilst a few works, such as 
Clarke & Roebuck's ' Vertebrate Fauna of Yorkshire,' are not 
included. A substantial list of subscribers concludes the work. 
There are five volumes in all, containing nearly 1000 pages, 
and over three hundred plates. The excellent paper, large 
type, and the size of the pages (12" X 9"), leave nothing to be 

The Elements of Mining and Quarrying by Sir C. le Neve Foster, D.Sc.,. 
F.R.S. Second Edition, revised by S. H. Cox. London : C. Griffin & Co. 
xviii. +323 pp. Price 7/6 net. 

In view of the extraordinary ability and facilities for the work possessed 
by the late Sir Charles le Neve Foster it is not surprising that the treatise 
which he published a few years ago snould have become out of print ; and 
certainly few could have been found more fitly to bring the book up to 
modern requirements than Prof. Cox. The book is practically in its- 
original form, though many of the diagrams and tables have been brought 
up-to-date, and a few errors in the first edition have been corrected. There 
is no doubt that every practical mine and quarry owner should have the 
book on his shelves. There are numerous illustrations, those referring to 
machinery and appliances being particularly numerous. 

191 1 Oct. 1.